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THE BOOK WAS 
DRENCHED 



S]<OU_1 68365 |S 



THE 

STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK 

1950 

EIGHTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL PUBLICATION 



THE 

STATESMAN'S YEAK-BOOK 

STATISTICAL AND HISTORICAL ANNUAL OF 

THE STATES OF THE WORLD 

FOR THE YEAR 



'95 



O 



EDITED BY 

S. H. STEINBERG, PH.D. 

FELLOW OF THE BOYAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



EIOHTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL PUBLICATION. 
REVISED AFTER OFFICIAL RETURNS 



MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED 
ST. MARTINA STREET, LONDON 

1950 



Man sagt oft : Zahlen regieren die Welt. 
Das aber 1st gewiss, Zahleu zeigen wie sie regiert wird. 

GOETHE, 



This look is copyright in all countries which 
are signatories to the Berne Convention 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 



COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL TABLES 



xxm 



RAW COTTON (Commercial Crop) 
(American in running bales ; others in equivalent 478 Ib. net bales). 





Average 
1935-39 


Year 
1947-48 


Year 
1948-49 


Year 
1949-50 i 


nerica 










United States 


13,150,000 


11,658,000 


14,649,000 


15,900,000 


Mexico . 


334,000 


484,000 


570,000 


990,000 


Brazil 


1,956,000 


1,215,000 


1,525,000 


1,700,000 


Pern . 


384,000 


307,000 


280,000 


300,000 


Argentina 


289,000 


412,000 


420,000 


500,000 


Other countries 


126,000 


119,000 


136,000 


181,000 


ria 










China . 


2,100,000 


700,000 


750,000 


800,000 


India . 
Pakistan 


} 4,850,000 { 


2,425,000 
890,000 


1,940,000 
900,000 


2,300,000 
950,000 


U.S.S.R. 


3,430,000 


2,600,000 


2,600,000 


2,700,000 


Turkey 


249,000 


218,000 


309,000 


445,000 


Persia . 


171,000 


81,000 


92,000 


85,000 


Korea . 


180,000 


58,000 


73,000 


100,000 


Other countries 


220,000 


113,000 


121,000 


145,000 


trope 










Greece . 


}f 


53,000 


54,000 


70,000 


Italy . 
Spain . 


147,0(M)J 

I 


15,000 
14,000 


12,000 

28,000 


14,000 
23,000 


Other countries 




53,000 


71,000 


92,000 


Vice 










Egypt . 


1,900,000 


1,320,000 


1,845,000 


1,700,000 


Anglo -Egyptian 










Sudan 


248,000 


215,000 


257,000 


235,000 


Belgian Congo 


172,000 


181,000 


218,000 


220,000 


Uganda 


281,000 


134,000 


310,000 


260,000 


Tanganyika . 


50,000 


33,000 


45,000 


57,000 


Nigeria 


36,000 


40,000 


55,000 


55,000 


Nyasaland 


12,000 


12,000 


2,000 


5,000 


Other countries 


142,000 


239,000 


306,000 


342,000 


',eania 










Australia . 


10,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


Total 


30,437,000 


23,600,000 


27,569,000 


30,170,000 



1 Preliminary figures. 

Institut National de la Stafcistique : Le March6 Mondial du Coton. Paris, 1948. 

British Ootton Q-rowmg Association : Annual Report. Manchester, 1905 ff. 

New York Cotton Exchange Year Book. 

Egyptian Cotton Gazette. 

Bombay Ootton Annual. 



xxiv 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAH -BOOK, 1050 



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PART I 

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Metric measures most commonly found in statistical returns, with 
equivalents : 



LENGTH. 

Centimetre . . 0-39 inch 
Metre . . .39-37 inches 
Kilometre . . 0-621 mile 


DRY 
Litre 
Hectolitre . 

WEIGIIT- 


MEASURE. 

0-91 quart 
2-75 bushels 

AVOIRDUPOIS. 


LIQUID 

Litre . 
Hectolitre 


MEASURE. 

. 1-76 pints 
. 22 gallons 


Gramme . 
Kilogramme 
Quintal 
Short ton . 
Ton . 


15-42 grains 
2-205 pounds 
. 220-46 pounds 
. 2000 pounds 
. 2204-6 pounds 


SURFACE 


MEASURE. 


WEIGHT TROY. 


Square metre 
Hectare 
Square kilometre 


. 10-26 sq. feet 
. 2-47 acres 
. 0-386 sq. mile 


Gramme . 
Kilogramme 


15-42 grains 
32*15 ounces, 
2-68 pounds 



BRITISH WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



LENGTH. 




WEIGHT. 


1 foot 


0-3048 metre 


1 ounce 


. 28-350 grammes 


1 yard 
1 mile 


0-91439 metre 
1-6093 kilometres 


1 Ib. . 
1 cwt. 


. 0-4535 kilogramme " 
. 50-8022 kilogrammes 






1 ton . 


1,016 kilogrammes 






SURFACE MEASURE. 


LIQUID 


MEASURE. 


1 sq. foot 


. 9-2903 sq. decimetres 


1 pint 


0-568 litre 


1 sq. yard 


. 0-836 sq. metre 


1 gallon . 


4-5459 litres 


1 acre 


. 0-40468 hectare 


1 quarter 


2-909 hectolitres 


1 sq. mile 


. 2-589 sq. kilometres 



CONTENTS 



COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL TABLES 

PAGE 

WHEAT ... xv 

RYE . . . xvi 

BARLEY . . . xvii 

OATS .... xviii 

MAIZE . . . xix 



RICE 
POTATOES 
SUGAR . 
COTTON . 
LIFE INSURANCE 



PAGE 

XX 

xxi 
xxii 
xxiii 
xxiv 



PART I 
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

THE UNITED NATIONS- 
MEMBERSHIP .......... 

ORGANS ....... ... 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY ........ 

SECURITY COUNCIL ........ 

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL ...... 

TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 

INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE ..... 

SECRETARIAT 

BUDGET ........... 

SPECIALIZED AGENCIES 

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (I.L.O.) 

FOOD ANJ> AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (F.A.O.) . 

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL 
ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) ...... 

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION ...... 

INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND 

INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT 

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION 

UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION ....... 

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS UNION 
INTERNATIONAL REFUGEE ORGANIZATION . , . 



UNITED NATIONS RELIEF 
TION (U.N.R.R.A.) 

SCHEDULE OF PAR VALUES 



AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRA- 



OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS- 
WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES 

O.E.E.C 

BRUSSELS TREATY ORGANIZATION 
COUNCIL OF EUROPE 
NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY 
ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES 
ARAB LEAGUE .... 



3 
3 

4 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

11 
12 

13 
13 
14 
16 
17 
17 
17 
18 

19 
20 



22 
25 
29- 
32 
34 
37 
40 



viil CONTENTS 

PART II 
THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 





PAGE 




PAQS 


H.M. THE KING 


45 


ASIA (cont.) 








PAKISTAN 


. 198 


THE BRITISH COMMON- 




Provinces 




WEALTH OF NATIONS 


47 


Baluchistan 


. 201 






East Bengal 


. 204 


THE UNITED KINGDOM 


49 


North- West Frontier 


. 205 






Sind . 


. 206 


ENGLAND, WALES AND 




West Punjab 


. 208 


SCOTLAND 


49 






NORTHERN IRELAND . 


114 


CEYLON 


. 209 


ISLE OF MAN . 


122 






CHANNEL ISLANDS 


124 


MALDIVE ISLANDS . 


. 215 


GIBRALTAR .... 


127 


ADEN 


. 216 


MALTA .... 


129 










BORNEO . 


. 219 


ASIA 




NORTH BORNEO 


. 219 


INDIA .... 


132 


BRUNEI 


. 221 


States and Territories 


166 


SARAWAK 


. 222 


Assam 


166 






Bihar 


168 


CYPRUS . 


. 223 


Bombay 


169 






Central 'Provinces and 
Berar 


171 


HONG KONG 


. 228 


Madras 


174 






Laccadive Islands 


175 


FEDERATION OP MALAYA 


. 232 


Orissa 


176 






East Punjab 
United Provinces 


178 
180 


SINGAPORE 


. 237 


West Bengal 


182 




i 


Hyderabad 


184 


AFRICA 




Jammu and Kashmir 


185 


UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 


. 241 


Mysore 
Punjab States . 
Rajputana 


186 
187 

188 


CAPE OF GOOD HOPE 
NATAL . 
TRANSVAAL . 


. 257 
. 260 

. 262 


Ajmer-Merwara . 
Coorg 


188 
189 


ORANGE FREE STATE 
SOUTH-WEST AFRICA 


. 265 
. 267 


Delhi 


190 






Manipur 


190 


BRITISH EAST AFRICA 


. 271 


Andaman and Nicobar 


190 


KENYA . 


. 273 


former States and Agencies 


192 


UGANDA 
ZANZIBAR 


. 277 
. 280 


Baroda 


195 






Central India 


195 






Gwalior 


196 


Trusteeship Territory 




Sikkim 


197 


TANGANYIKA 


. 283 





CONTENTS 


IX 




PAGE 


PAGE 


AFRICA (cont.) 




AMERICA (cont.) 




BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 




BERMUDA 


398 


SOUTHERN RHODESIA 


288 






NORTHERN RHODESIA 


293 


FALKLAND ISLANDS . 


401 


NYASALAND . 


296 






BASUTOLAND . 
BECHUANALAND 


299 
301 


BRITISH GUIANA 


402 


SWAZILAND . 


303 










BRITISH HONDURAS . 


406 


BRITISH WEST AFRICA 








NIGERIA 


306 


WEST INDIES 




GAMBIA 


312 


BAHAMAS 


408 


GOLD COAST . 


313 


BARBADOS . . 


410 


SIERRA LEONE 


318 


JAMAICA 


411 






LEEWARD ISLANDS 


415 


Trusteeship Territories 




TRINIDAD 


417 


CAMEROONS 


322 


WINDWARD ISLANDS 


420 


TOGOLAND . 


323 






Condominium 




AUSTRALASIA AND OCEANIA- 




ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN 


323 


AUSTRALIA 


424 






AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL 




SOMALILAND 


330 


TERRITORY 


448 






NEW SOUTH WALES 


449 


MAURITIUS 


332 


VICTORIA 
QUEENSLAND 


460 
468 






SOUTH AUSTRALIA . 


475 


SEYCHELLES 


335 


WESTERN AUSTRALIA 


480 






TASMANIA 


486 


ST. HELENA 


337 


NORTHERN TERRITORY 


490 






PAPUA AND NEW GUINEA 


493 


AMERICA 




NEW ZEALAND . 


498 






Trusteeship Territories 




CANADA .... 


338 


WESTERN SAMOA 


518 


Provinces . 


364 


NAURU . . 


520 


ALBERTA 


365 






BRITISH COLUMBIA 


368 


FIJI .... 


522 


MANITOBA 


371 






NEW BRUNSWICK . 
NEWFOUNDLAND . 


374 
376 


PACIFIC ISLANDS 


526 


NOVA SCOTIA 


381 


GILBERT AND ELLICE 




ONTARIO 


385 


ISLANDS 


527 


PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 


388 


SOLOMON ISLANDS . 


529 


QUEBEC 


390 


NEW HEBRIDES CONDO- 




SASKATCHEWAN 


393 


MINIUM 


530 


YUKON .... 


395 


TONGA ISLANDS 


531 


NORTHWEST TERRITORIES 


397 


PITCAIRN ISLAND . 


533 



CONTENTS 



PART III 
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 





PAGE 






UNITED STATES 


. 635 


UNITED STATES (con*. 


States 




States 




ALABAMA 


. 600 


NEW MEXICO 




ARIZONA 


. 602 


NEW YORK . 


. 


ARKANSAS 


. 605 


NORTH CAROLINA 




CALIFORNIA . 


. 607 


NORTH DAKOTA 




COLORADO 


. 611 


OHIO 




CONNECTICUT 


. 614 


OKLAHOMA 


t 


DELAWARE 


. 616 


OREGON 




DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA . 618 


PENNSYLVANIA 




FLORIDA 


. 620 


RHODE ISLAND 




GEORGIA 


. 623 


SOUTH CAROLINA 




IDAHO . 


. 625 


SOUTH DAKOTA 


. 


ILLINOIS 


. 627 


TENNESSEE . 


. 


INDIANA 


. 630 


TEXAS . 


. 


IOWA . 


. 633 


UTAH . 




KANSAS 


. 635 


VERMONT 




KENTUCKY . 


. 638 


VIRGINIA 




LOUISIANA . 


. 640 


WASHINGTON 


. 


MAINE . 


. 643 


WEST VIRGINIA 




MARYLAND . 


. 645 


WISCONSIN . 




MASSACHUSETTS 


. 647 


WYOMING 




MICHIGAN 


. 651 






MINNESOTA . 
MISSISSIPPI . 


. 654 
. 656 


Outlying Territories 




MISSOURI 


. 658 


ALASKA 


. 


MONTANA 


. 661 


HAWAII 


. 


NEBRASKA 


. 663 


PUERTO Rico 


. 


NEVADA 


. 666 


VIRGIN ISLANDS 




NEW HAMPSHIRE 


. 668 


GUAM . 




NEW JERSEY 


. 671 


SAMOA . 






PART IV 






OTHER COUNTRIES 






PAGE 




AFGHANISTAN . 


. 749 


ARABIA . 




ALBANIA . 


. 763 


SAUDI ARABIA . 




ANDORRA 


. 757 


YEMEN . 





PAGE 



674 
676 
681 
684 
687 
690 
692 
696 
699 
701 
703 
705 
708 
712 
715 
717 
719 
722 
725 
728 



731 
735 
738 
741 
743 
744 



PAGE 

758 

759 
763 



ARABIA (cont.) 
MUSCAT AND OMAN . 
KUWAIT .... 
THE TRUCIAL SHEIKHS 
QATAR .... 
BAHRAIN .... 

ARGENTINA . 
AUSTRIA .... 

BELGIUM .... 
CONGO .... 
RUANDA-URUNDI 

BHUTAN .... 

BOLIVIA .... 

BRAZIL .... 

BULGARIA 

BURMA .... 

CHILE .... 

CHINA .... 
TAIWAN .... 

COLOMBIA 

COSTA RICA . 

CUBA .... 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA . 

DENMARK 
GREENLAND 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC . 

ECUADOR . 

EGYPT 

EL SALVADOR . 

ETHIOPIA 

FINLAND .... 

FRENCH UNION 

FRANCE . 

OVERSEAS DEPARTMENTS 

AND TERRITORIES 
ALGERIA 



CONTENTS 


XI 


PAGE 


PAGE 




FRENCH UNION (cont}. 




764 


OVERSEAS DEPARTMENTS 




765 


AND TERRITORIES 




766 


Overseas Departments 




767 


Martinique 


9S8 


767 


Guadeloupe 


989 




Reunion 


991 


769 


Guiana 


992 


783 


Overseas Territories 




789 


French West Africa 


993 


800 


Senegal . 


996 


804 


Mauritania 


997 




Guinea . 


998 


806 


Sudan 


999 




Niger 


1000 


807 


Ivory Coast 


1000 




Dahomey 


1001 


815 


Upper Volta . 


1002 


828 


French Equatorial 




835 


Africa . 


1004 




Madagascar 


1006 


842 


Comoro Archipelago 


1011 




Soraaliland 


1012 


852 


French India 


1013 


86(5 


New Caledonia . 


1014 




Oceania 


1016 


870 


St. Pierre and Miquelon 


1017 


879 


Trusteeship Territories 




886 


Togo. 


1018 


893 


Cameroon . 


1019 


902 


Condominium 




911 


New Hebrides 


1020 


912 


Associated States 




918 


Morocco 


1021 


925 


Tunisia 


1031 




Indo-China 


1034 


941 


Viet-Nam 


1037 


Q1A 


Cambodia 


1040 


y 


Laos 


1041 


952 








GERMANY 


1043 


960 


THE GERMAN LANDER 


1059 


960 


GREECE . 


1073 


982 


GUATEMALA . 


1085 


983 


HAITI . 


1091 



Xll 



CONTENTS 





PAGE 




PAGE 


HONDURAS 


. 1096 


PARAGUAY 


. 1275 


HUNGARY 


. 1100 


PERSIA . 


. 1282 


ICELAND . 


. 1109 


PERU 


. 1292 


IRAQ. 


. 1115 


PHILIPPINES . 


. 1302 


IRISH REPUBLIC . 


. 1123 


POLAND . 


. 1310 


ISRAEL . 


. 1137 


PORTUGAL 


. 1318 


ITALY 


. 1146 


CAPE VERDE ISLANDS 


. 1329 






GUINEA . 


. 1329 


LIBYA 


. 1161 


S. TOME AND PRINCIPE 


. 1329 


ERITREA . 


. 1164 


ANGOLA . 


. 1330 


SOMALIA . 


. 1165 


MogAMBIQUE 


. 1331 


JAPAN 


. 1165 


PORTUGESE INDIA 
MACAO 


. 1333 
. 1333 


JORDAN . 


. 1182 


TIMOR 


. 1334 


KOREA 


. 1184 










RUMANIA . 


. 1336 


LEBANON . 


. 1189 


SAN MARINO . 


. 1343 


LIBERIA . 


. 1192 


SPAIN 


. 1344 


LIECHTENSTEIN 


. 1197 










COLONIES . 


. 1357 


LUXEMBURG . 


. 1198 






MEXICO . 


. 1202 


SWEDEN . 


. 1360 


MONACO . 


. 1212 


SWITZERLAND 


. 1377 






SYRIA 


. 1389 


MONGOLIA 


. 1214 


THAILAND 


. 1394 


NEPAL . 


. 1215 


TIBET 


. 1402 


NETHERLANDS 


. 1218 


TRIESTE . 


. 1404 


INDONESIA 


. 1232 


TURKEY . 


. 1406 


SURINAM . 
ANTILLES 


. 1241 
. 1243 


U.S.S.R. 


. 1419 


NICARAGUA . 


. 1245 


RUSSIA 


. 1443 






YAKUTSK 


. 1446 


NORWAY . 


. 1250 


BURIAT-MONGOLIA 


. 1446 


SPITSBERGEN . 


. 1264 


SIBERIA . 


. 1446 


JAN MAYEN ISLAND . 


. 1265 


UKRAINE . 


. 1448 


BOUVET ISLAND 


. 1265 


WHITE RUSSIA 


. 1451 


PETER I ISLAND 


. 1265 


AZERBAIJAN 


. 1453 


ANTARCTIC DEPENDENCY 


. 1265 


GEORGIA * 
ARMENIA . 


. 1454 
. 1456 


PANAMA . 


. 1267 


KARELO -FiNL AND 


. 1458 


PANAMA CANAL ZONE 


. 1272 


MOLDAVIA 


. 1460 





CONTENTS 


U.S.S.R. (cont.) 
ESTONIA 
LATVIA . 
LITHUANIA 
CENTRAL ASIA . 


PAGE 

. 1461 
. 1462 
. 1464 
. 1465 


U.S.S.B. (cont.) 
CENTRAL ASIA 
Kirghizia 
URUGUAY 


Kazakhstan . 
Turkmenistan 
Uzbekistan 
Tadzhikistan . 


. 1466 
. 1468 
. 1469 
. 1471 


VATICAN CITY 
VENEZUELA . 
YUGOSLAVIA . 


ADDENDA . . . 1504 




INDEX .... 1505 



Xlll 

PAGE 

1473 
1475 
1482 
1487 
1495 



MAP 

THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY, THE BRUSSELS TREATY, 

AND THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE. 



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COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL TABLES 



XV11 



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(NOO^rHO^COCOTt*rHC<|pHCO^<pHCOI>OCOlO'-tpHlOC 



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XV111 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1950 



i 

o 



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COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL TABLES 



XIX 



O *O <N Oi O O CO X O 

X CO rH PH ^ . CO X PH <M C 

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" 



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p-T co" p-T r-T co riT 



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1934- 



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XX 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1950 



II 



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53 



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COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL TABLES 



XXI 



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^^WOOcSlSoWhSAw^liZIP-iPHP^OQOQPDPKH 



XX11 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1950 



RAW SUGAR 

(in thousands of metric tons). 





Average 
1034-38 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


Argentina 


410 


635 


606 


565 


Australia 


756 


561 


603 


930 


Brazil 1 .... 


1,031 


1,460 


1,570 


1,750 


British West Indies 


436 


475 


448 


600 


Canada .... 


63 


100 


79 


98 


Cuba .... 


2,838 


5,850 


6,055 


5,263 


Czechoslovakia 


633 


605 


360 


651 


Dominican Republic 


436 


465 


422 


470 


France .... 


971 


765 


664 


960 


Fiji .... 


130 


111 


145 


130 


Germany 


1,286 


994 


783 


1,327 


Hawaii .... 


885 


617 


791 


757 


India 2 , 


4520 


4,992 


5,896 


5,064 


Italy .... 


335 


273 


233 


397 


Java , 


1,153 


25 3 


50 3 





Mauritius 


310 


291 


349 


392 


Mexico .... 


319 


526 


612 


635 


Pakistan 2 


650 


865 


902 


1,035 


Peru .... 


382 


420 


479 


522 


Philippines 


952 


167 


452 


749 


Poland .... 


954 


426 


550 


692 


Puerto Rico . 


888 


987 


1,005 


1,012 


Spain .... 


308 


141 


144 


265 


Sweden .... 


308 


291 


243 


292 


Taiwan .... 


J ,200 


31 


260 


570 


Union of South Africa 


453 


44J 


464 


551 


United Kingdom 


435 


607 


468 


612 


U.S.A. 


1,673 


1,768 


2,006 


1,675 


U.S.S.R. 


2,305 


1,650 


2,500 


1,710 



1 Telquel. 



* In terms of gur. 



Estates only. 



PART II 

THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH 
AND EMPIRE 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH 
AND EMPIRE. 

THE British Commonwealth of Nations consists of the United Kingdom, 
the Dominions (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, 
Pakistan, Ceylon), the Colonies and Protectorates, and the Territories under 
Trusteeship. 

Reigning King. 

George VI, born 14 December, 1895, son of King George V and Queen 
Mary, daughter of the late Duke of Teck ; succeeded to the crown on the 
abdication of his brother, King Edward VIII, 10 December, 1936, and 
proclaimed King on 12 December, 1936; married Lady Elizabeth Angela 
Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (born 4 Aug., 1900), 26 April, 1923. 

Living Children of the King. 

I. Princess Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, born 21 April, 1926 (Heir 
Presumptive); married on 20 November, 1947, Lieut. Philip Mountbatten 
(formerly Prince Philip of Greece), created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of 
Merioneth and Baron Greenwich on the same day. Offspring: Prince 
Charles Philip Arthur George, born 14 Nov., 1948. 

II. Princess Margaret Rose, born 21 Aug., 1930. 

The Queen Mother. 

H.M. Queen Mary, born 26 May, 1867; married on 6 July, 1893, the 
Duke of York, afterwards King George V (died 20 Jan., 1936). 

Living Brothers of the King. 

I. Prince Edward Albert, created Duke of Windsor 12 December, 1936, 
born 23 June, 1894 ; married Mrs. Wallis Warfield on 3 June, 1937. Reigned 

as Edward VIII from 20 Jan., 1936, to 10 Dec., 1936 (324 days). 

II. Prince Henry William, born 31 March, 19QO ; created Baron Culloden, 
Earl of Ulster and Duke of Gloucester, on 31 March, 1928; married Lady 
Alice Montagu-Douglas-Scott (born 25 December, 1901), 6 November, 1935. 

Offspring : William Henry Andrew Frederick, born 18 December, 1941 ; 
Richard Alexander Walter George, born 26 Aug., 1944. 

Widow and Children of the late Duke of Kent. 

Duchess of Kent, Princess Marina of Greece (born 30 November, 1906); married on 
29 November, 1934, to the late Duke of Kent, third brother of the King (born 20 December, 
1902; died 25 August, 1942). Offspring :{l) Edward George Nicholas Patrick, Duke 
of Kent, born 9 October, 1936; (2) Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Ohristabel, born 25 
December, 1936; (3) Michael George Charles Franklin, born 4 July, 1942. 

Living Sister of the King. 

Princess Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary, Princess Royal, born 25 April. 1897 ; married 
on 28 February, 1922, Viscount Lasoclles (afterwards 6th Earl of Harewood), K.G., D.8.O., 
who died 24 May, 1947. Offspring : George Henry Hubert, 7th Earl of Harewood, born 7 
February, 1923; Gerald David, born 22 August, 1924. 

The King's legal title rests on the statute of 12 and 13 Will. Ill, c. 3, 
by which the succession to the Crown of Great Britain and Ireland was 

45 



46 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



settled on the Princess Sophia of Hanover and the * heirs of her body being 
Protestants.' By Act of Parliament, 1927, the title of the late King George 
V was declared to be ' George V, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, 
Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the 
Faith, Emperor of India,* but the Indian Independence Act. 1947. provided 
for the omission of 'the words 'Emperor of India.* By proclamation of 
17 July, 1917, the royal family^ became known as the House and Family of 
Windsor. Under the Abdication Act of 1936, the issue, if any, of King 
Edward VIII, or the descendants of that issue, ho-ve no right, title or interest 
in or to the succession to the Throne, and the Royal Marriages Act, 1772, 
ceased to apply to King Edward VIII after his abdication. 

By letters patent of 30 Nov., 1917, the titles of Royal Highness and 
Prince or Princess are (except for existing titles) to be restricted to the 
Sovereign's children, the children of the Sovereign's sons, and the eldest 
living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. An exception was made 
in favour of the son of Princess Elizabeth, on whom the King bestowed the 
titles of Royal Highness and Prince. 

Provision is made for the support of the royal household by the settle- 
ment of the Civil List soon after the commencement of each reign. (For 
historical details, see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1908, p. 5, and 
1935, p. 4.) According to the Civil List Act of 10 June, 1937, the Civil 
List of the King, after the usual surrender of hereditary revenues, was fixed 
at 410,000, of which 110,000 is appropriated to the privy purse of the 
King, 134,000 for salaries of the royal household and retired allow- 
ances, 152,800 for household expenses, and 13,200 for alms and 
bounty. 

The Civil List Act of 1910 provided for an annuity of 70,000 to Queen 
Mary in the event of her surviving the King. The Civil List of 1937 
continues this sum. The provision for other members of the royal family 
are as follows : The Princess Elizabeth, 40,000; the Duke of Edinburgh, 
10,000 (Civil List Acts, 1910 and 1937, and Princess Elizabeth's and Duke of 
Edinburgh's Annuities Act, 1948); the Duke of Gloucester, 35,000; the 
Princess Royal, 6,000. 

Sovereigns and sovereign rulers of Great Britain, from the union of the 
crowns of England and Scotland : 



Bate of 
Accession. 
House of Stewart. 

James I .24 March, 1603 

Charles I . .27 March, 1625 

Com monwealth . 

Council of State . 14 Feb., 1649 
Protectorate . 16 Dec., 1653 

House of Stewart. 

Charles II . . 29 May, 1660 
James II .. 6 Feb., 1685 

House of Stewart-Orange. 

William and Mary 13 f Feb., 1689 
William III . 28 Dec., 1694 



Anne 



Bate of 
Accession. 

House of Stewart. 

19 March, 1702 



House of Hanover. 

George I . . 1 Aug., 1714 

George II . . 11 June, 1727 

George III. . 25 Oct., 1760 

George IV . . 29 Jan., 1820 

William IV . 26 June, 1830 

Victoria . . 20 June, 1837 

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. 
Edward VII . 22 Jan., 1901 

House of Windsor. 

George V . 6 May, 1910 

Edward VIII . 20 Jan., 1936 
George VI . . 11 Dec., 1936 



GREAT BRITAIN 47 

THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS. 

The various countries of the Commonwealth are arranged under the 
divisions of the world to which they belong: 1, Europe; 2, Asia; 3, 
Africa; 4, America; 5, Australasia and Oceania. In each geographical 
division, the fully self-governing members of the Commonwealth head the 
list, followed by the Colonies and Protectorates in alphabetical order. 

Up to July, 1925, all sections of the British Empire outside of the 
United Kingdom and India were dealt with by the Colonial Office. In that 
month a new secretaryship of state, for Dominion Affairs, took over from 
the Colonial Office business connected with the self-governing Dominions, 
the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia, and the South African 
territories (Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland), and 
business relating to the Imperial Conference. 

The Imperial Conference of 1926 defined Great Britain and the 
Dominions, as they were then called, as * autonomous communities within 
the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another 
in any aspect of their domestic or foreign affairs, though united by a common 
allegjance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British 
Commonwealth of Nations.' 

On 11 Dec., 1931, the Statute of Westminster, which by legal en- 
actment recognized the status of the Dominions, defined at the Imperial 
Conference of 1926, became law. Each of the Dominions also approved 
the passage of the Statute of Westminster. 

In July, 1947, the designations of Secretary of State for Dominion 
Affairs and the Dominions Office were altered to ' Secretary of State for 
Commonwealth Relations ' 'and * Commonwealth Relations Office.' As 
from 15 Aug., 1947, the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations 
assumed responsibility for relations between the United Kingdom and the 
two new members of the Commonwealth, India and Pakistan, and, as from 
4 Feb., 1948, between the United Kingdom and Ceylon. 

On 31 March, 1949, Newfoundland became a Canadian Province and the 
conduct of business with Newfoundland which had previously been dealt 
with by the Commonwealth Relations Office became, as in the case of other 
Canadian Provinces, a matter for the Canadian government. 

On 18 April, 1949, when the Republic of Ireland Act, 1948, passed by 
the Oireachtas, came into force, Eire ceased to be a member of the 
"Commonwealth. Nothwithstanding the Irish Republic's departure from 
the Commonwealth, the United Kingdom and the Republic do not regard 
one another as foreign countries. The conduct of relations with the Irish 
Republic continues to be a responsibility of the Secretary of State for 
Commonwealth Relations. 

On 26 Jan., 1950, India became a republic. India remains, however, a 
member of the Commonwealth and accepts the King as the symbol of the 
free association of its independent member nations and as such the Head of 
the Commonwealth. 

Colonies. The term ' colony ' is an abbreviation of the official designa- 
tion ' Colony not possessing responsible Government, 1 and includes all such 
colonies whether or not they possess an elective legislature. In addition 
to the colonies proper, the British Empire includes a number of protectorates, 
protected states and mandated territories. 

The Colonial Office deals with the administrative work of the colonies, 
protectorates and mandated territories other than those for which Dominion 
Governments are responsible and those which are dealt with by the Common* 



48 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

wealth Relations Office. Its departmental organization is as follows: 
I. General Division, (a) General Department : General questions relating 
to the colonies other than those dealt with in departments at (6) to (h) follow- 
ing, and those classed as personnel or economic. The list of subjects dealt 
with includes international and inter -imperial relations (other than com- 
mercial relations), trusteeships, United Nations matters, nationality and 
naturalization, refugees, surveys, liquor traffic, legal and judicial matters. 
(6) Communications Department : Aviation (other than military), motor 
transport, merchant shipping, postal matters, telecommunications, broad- 
casting, meteorology, (c) Defence Department : Questions of defence, in- 
cluding Colonial Naval, Military and Air Forces, A.R.P. and Civil Defence, 
censorship, aliens, passports and visas, immigration and emigration, Prize 
Court work, (d) Prisoners of War, Civilian Internees and Casualties Depart- 
ment : Prisoners of war and civilian internees ; casualties to civilians, 
officials and members of local forces, (e) Research Department : Colonial 
research fellowships ; colonial research committee ; colonial products research ; 
social science research; medicine research committee. (/) Social Service 
Department : Education, medical and public health, traffic in women and 
children, films, penal and prison matters, labour, slavery, drugs, census, 
social security, social hygiene, nutrition, (g) Welfare Department : 
Welfare of colonial persons in the United Kingdom ; colonial students and 
scholarships, (h) Public Relations Department : Public relations and 
publicity. II. Economic Division, (a) Commercial Relations and Supplies 
Department : Food and other supplies, commercial relations and treaties, 
trading with the enemy, customs and excise, tariffs and regulations, (b) 
Production Department : Food and other products, soil erosion, locusts, 
enemy property, (c) Finance and Development Department: Questions 
relating to finance in the Colonial Empire, including income and excess 
profits taxes, savings banks, currency, loans, etc.; questions relating to 
schemes prepared under the Colonial Development and Welfare Act. (d) 
Far Eastern Economic Department : Rehabilitation of industries and 
public utilities in Far Eastern colonies ; oversight of all papers bearing on 
Eastern supplies and economic matters. III. Personnel Division, (a) 
Appointments Department : Questions of recruitment and training, in- 
cluding courses of instruction for officers before and after entering the 
Colonial Service. (6) Colonial Service Department: Questions affecting 
the Colonial Service, e.g. general conditions of service, schemes for unifica- 
tion, promotions and transfers, pensions, discipline, honours and ceremonies. 
(c) Establishment Department : Questions relating to the Colonial Office 
and Commonwealth Relations Office establishments. IV. Geographical De- 
partments, (a) Pacific Department, (6) East and Central African Department, 
(c) Eastern Department, (d) Mediterranean Department, (e) Middle East 
Department, (/) West African Department, (g) West Indian Department. 

Books on the British Commonwealth. 

The Cambridge History of the British Empire. 8 vols. Cambridge, 1929-40. 

Statistical Abstract for the 'British Commonwealth, 1936-45: Trade and Commerce 
Section. (Omd. 7224.) H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Barker (Ernest), The Ideaa and Ideals of the British Empire. Cambridge, 1941. 

Brady (A.), Democracy in the Dominions. Toronto, 1947. 

Elton (Lord), Imperial Commonwealth. London, 1945. 

Evatt (H. V.), The King and His Dominion Governors. Oxford, 1936. 

Origg (Sir Edward), The British Commonwealth. London, 1943. 

Bailey (Lord), The Position of Colonies in a British Commonwealth of Nations. Oxford, 
1041. The Future of Colonial Peoples. London, 1943. An African Surrey. 2nd ed. 
Oxford, 1946. 



GREAT BRITAIN 49 

Hancock (W. K.), Survey of British Commonwealth Affairs. 2 vote. London, 1942. 
Ajgument of Empire. London, 1943. 

Keith (A. B.), The King and the Imperial Crown. London, 1936. 

Kuczynski (R. R.), Demographic Survey of the British Colonial Empire. 2 vols. London, 
Now York, Toronto 1948-49. 

Leacock (Stephen), The British Empire : Its Structure, its Unity, its Strength. New 

York, 1940. 

Lewin f E.), Best Books on the British Empire. 2nd ed. London, 1944. 

Meek (C. K.), Land Law and Custom in the Colonies. 2nd ed. London, 1950. 

Morrell (W. P.), A Select List of Books relating to the History of the British Common- 
wealth and Empire Overseas. (Historical Association Pamphlet, No. 130.) London, 1944. 

Mowat (K. B.) and Slosson (P.), History of the English-speaking Peoples. New York, 
1943. 

Muir (B.), The British Empire : How it Grew and How it Works. London, 1940. 

tfeuend&rff (Gwen), Studies in the Evolution of Dominion Status. London, 1943. 

Plumptre (A. P. W.), Central Banking in the British Dominions. Toronto, 1940. 

Simnett (W. E.), The British Colonial Empire. London, 1942. 

Stewart (B. B.), Treaty Relations of the British Commonwealth. New York, 1939. 

Tangye (D.), One King : A Survey of the Dominions and Colonies. London, 1944. 

Walker (E. A.), The British Empire : Its Structure and Spirit. Oxford and London, 
1943. 

Wheare (K. 0.), The Statute of Westminster and Dominion Status. 4th ed. Oxford, 
1949. 

Wight (M.), The Development of the Legislative Council, 1606-1945. London, 1946. 

Williamson (J. A.), A Notebook of Empire History. London, 1942. A Short History 
of British Expansion. 2 vols. 3rd ed. London, 1943. Great Britain and the Empire. 
London, 1945.*^ 



GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND. 

Constitution and Government. 

I. IMPERIAL AND CENTRAL. 

The supreme legislative power of the British Empire is vested in Parlia- 
ment. Parliament is summoned by the writ of the sovereign issued out of 
Chancery, by advice of the Privy Council, at least 20 days previous to its 
assembling. 

Since 1914 the sittings of Parliament have been interrupted only by 
comparatively short intervals. Every session must end with a prorogation 
and all Bills which have not been passed during the session then lapse. A 
dissolution may occur by the will of the sovereign, or, as is most usual, during 
the recess, by proclamation, or finally by lapse of time, the statutory limit 
of the duration of any Parliament being 6 years. 

Under the Parliament Acts, 1911 (1 and 2 Geo. V, ch. 13) and 1949 
(12, 13 and 14 Geo. VI, ch. 103), all Money Bills (so certified by the Speaker 
of the House of Commons), if not passed by the House of Lords without 
amendment may become law without their concurrence on the royal 
assent being "signified. Public Bills, other than Money Bills or a Bill 
extending the maximum duration of Parliament, if passed by the House 
of Commons in 2 successive sessions, whether of the same Parliament or 
not, and rejected each time, or not passed, by the House of Lords, may 
become law without their concurrence on the royal assent being signified, 
provided that 1 year has elapsed between the second reading in the first 
session of the House of Commons and the third reading in the second 
session. All Bills coming under this Act must reach the House of Lords 
at least 1 month before the end of the session. 



50 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

The present form of Parliament, as divided into two Houses of Legis- 
lature, tne Lords and the Commons, dates from the middle of the 14th 
century. 

The House of Lords consists of peers who hold their seats (i) by 
hereditary right ; (ii) by creation of the sovereign ; (iii) by virtue of office 
(Law Lorols, and English archbishops (2) and bishops (24)); (iv) by election 
for life (Irish peers) (28 ; 20 vacancies in 1950) ; (v) by election for duration 
of Parliament (Scottish peers) (16). The full house would consist of about 
840 members, but the voting strength is about 120. 

The House of Commons consists of members representing county and 
borough constituencies. No one under 21 years of age can be a member of 
Parliament. Clergymen of the Church of England, ministers of the Church 
of Scotland and Roman Catholic clergymen are disqualified from sitting as 
members; government contractors and sheriffs are also among those 
disqualified. No English or Scottish peer can be elected to the House 
of Commons, but non -representative Irish peers are eligible. Under 
the Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act, 1918, women are also 
eligible. 

In Aug., 1911, by resolution of the House of Commons, provision was 
first made for the payment of a salary of 400 per annum to members, other 
than those already in receipt of salaries as officers of the House,* s Ministers, 
or as officers of His Majesty's household. As from 1 July, 1937, the salaries 
of members were increased to 600 per annum. This provision does not 
extend to the House of Lords. The increase of members' salaries to 1,000 
per annum was announced on 30 April, 1946. 

The law relating to the registration of electors has been consolidated in 
the Representation of the People Act, 1949, which incorporated the changes 
in the law effected by the Representation of the People Act, 1948. Under 
the present law all persons who are of full age and not subject to any legal 
incapacity to vote and who are either British subjects or citizens of the 
Irish Republic are entitled to be included in the register of electors for the 
constituency containing the address at which they were residing on the 
qualifying date for the register and arc entitled to vote at elections held 
during the period for which the register remains in force. The Act of 1948 
provided for two registers per year, but under the Electoral Registers Act, 
1949, the number was reduced to one, to be published on 15 March each 
year. 

Members of the Armed Forces, Crown servants employed abroad, and 
the wives of members of the Armed Forces or of such Crown servants if 
residing abroad to be with their husbands, are entitled, if otherwise qualified 
to be registered as * service voters ' provided they make a ' service 
declaration.* To be effective for a particular register, the declaration 
must be made on or before the qualifying date for that register. 

The Act of 1948 abolished the business premises and University franchises 
and the only persons entitled to vote at Parliamentary elections are those 
registered as residents or as service voters. No person may vote for more 
than one constituency at a general election. 

For local government elections there is also an occupier's qualification, 
but the names of persons having this quaUfi cation are marked in the register 
to show that the entry does not entitle them to vote at Parliamentary 
elections. 

The second schedule to the Act of 1949 sets out a time-table for the 
holding of a Parliamentary general election or bye-election and contains 
the consolidated rules for the proceedings at the election. The act provides 
that persons on certain grounds may apply to vote by post or by proxy. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



51 



Absent voters wishing to vote by post must give an address in the United 
Kingdom to which their ballot paper is to be sent. 

The act of 1948 effected a redistribution of the constituencies in the 
United Kingdom, and a complete list is contained in the first schedule to 
the Act. Under the act the number of constituencies in Great Britain 
must be not substantially greater or less than 613, in Scotland not less 
than 71, in Wales not less than 35, and in Northern Ireland 12. Every 
constituency returns a single member. 

The House of Commons (Redistribution of Seats) Act, 1944, now con- 
solidated in the House of Commons (Redistribution of Seats) Act, 1949, 
provided for the setting up of Boundary Commissions for England, Wales, 
Scotland and Northern Ireland, having a duty to keep under review the 
representation in the House of Commons of the part of the United Kingdom 
with which they are concerned. The Commissions are required to make 
general reports at intervals of not less than 3 and not more than 7 
years and to submit reports from time to time with respect to the area 
comprised in any particular constituency or constituencies where some 
change appears necessary. Any changes giving effect to reports of the 
Commissions are to be made by Orders in Council laid before Parliament 
for approval by resolution of each House. The electorate of the con- 
stituencies of the United Kingdom in the register published on 15 Oct., 
1949, according to provisional figures in Command Papers 7840 and 7841 
of 1949, numbered 34,410,306, of whom 30,175,193 were in England and 
Wales, 3,370,028 in Scotland, and 865,085 in Northern Ireland. The 
number of registered service voters included in the three totals was 
139,501. 

The following is a table of the duration of Parliaments called since the 
accession of King Edward VII (for heads of the administrations, see 
p. 54). 



Beign 


When met 


When dissolved 


Existed 








Y. M. D. 


Edward VII . 




13 Feb. 1906 


10 Jan. 1910 


3 11 24 


Edward VII and George V 
George V 




15 Feb. 1910 
31 Jan. 1911 


28 Nov. 1910 
25 Nov. 1918 


9 13 
7 26 






* 








4 Feb. 1919 


26 Oct. 1922 


3 8 22 














20 Nov. 1922 


16 Nov. 1923 


11 27 














8 Jan. 1924 


9 Oct. 1924 


091 














2 Dec. 1924 


10 May 1929 


457 














25 June 1929 


24 Aug. 1931 


2 1 29 














3 Nov. 1931 


25 Oct. 1935 


3 11 22 


George V, E 
George VI 


dwan 


VII 


I am 


1 


26 Nov. 1935 


15 June 1946 


9 6 20 


George VI 










26 July 1945 


3 Feb. 1950 


469 



The executive government is vested nominally in the Crown, but 
practically in a committee of Ministers, called the Cabinet, whose existence 
is dependent on the support of a majority in the House of Commons. 

The head of the Ministry is the Prime Minister, a position first constitu- 
tionally recognized, and special precedence accorded to the holder, in 1905. 
His colleagues in the Ministry are appointed on his recommendation, and he 
dispenses the greater portion of the patronage of the Crown. 

The present government (first met 6 March, 1960) consists of the follow- 
ing members : 



52 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

(a) MEMBERS OF THE CABINET. 

1. Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury. Right Hon. Clement 
R. Attlee, C.H., born 1883. (Salary 10,000 per annum.) 

2. Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons. 
Right Hon. Herbert Morrison, born 1888. (5,000.) 

3. Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Right Hon. Ernest Bevin, 
bom 1881. (5,000.) 

4. Chancellor of the Exchequer. Right Hon. Sir Stafford Cripps, K.C., 
born 1889. (5,000.) 

5. Minister of Town and Country Planning. Right Hon. Hugh Dalton, 
born 1887. (5,000.) 

6. Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords. Right Hon. 
Viscount Addison, K.G., bom 1869. (5,000.) 

7. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Right Hon. Viscount Alexander 
of Hillsborough, C.H., born' 1885. (5,000.) 

8. Lord Chancellor. Right Hon. Viscount Jowitt, K.C., born 1885. 
(10,000.) 

9. Secretary of State for the Home Department. Right Hon. J. Chutei 
Ede, born 1882. (5,000.) 

10. Minister of Defence. Right Hon. Emanuel Shinwell, born 1884. 
(5,000.) 

11. Minister of Labour and National Service. Right Hon. George A, 
Isaacs, born 1883. (5,000.) 

12. Minister of Health. Right Hon. Aneurin Bevan, born 1897. 
(5,000.) 

13. Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries. Right Hon. Thomas Williams, 
born 1888. (5,000.) 

14. Minister of Education. Right Hon. George Tomlinson, born 1890, 
(5,000.) 

15. President of the Board of Trade. Right Hon. J. Harold Wilson; 
O.B.E., born 1916. (5,000.) 

16. Secretary of State for the Colonies. Right Hon. James Griffiths, 
born 1890. (5,000.) 

17. Secretary of State for Scotland. Right Hon. Hector McNeill, born. 
1910. (5,000.) 

18. Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations. Right Hon. P. C. 
Gordon-Walker, born 1907. (5,000.) 



(6) MINISTERS NOT IN THE CABINET. 

19. First Lord of the Admiralty. Right Hon. Viscount Hall, born 1891* 
(6,000.) 

20. Secretary of State for War. Right Hon. John Strachey, born 190L 
(5,000.) 



GREAT BRITAIN 53 

21. Secretary of State for Air. Right Hon. Arthur Henderson, K.C., 
born 1893. (5,000.) 

22. Minister of Fuel and Power. Right Hon. Philip J. Noel-Baker, born 

1889. (5,000.) 

23. Minister of Transport. Right Hon. Alfred Barnes, born 1887. 
(5,000.) 

24. Minister of Supply. Right Hon. George R. Strauss, born 1901. 
(5,000.) 

25. Minister of State for Economic Affairs. Right Hon. Hugh Gaitskell, 
born 1906. (5,000.) 

26. Minister of National Insurance. Right Hon. Edith Summerskill, 
born 1901. (5,000.) 

27. Minister of Food. Right Hon. Maurice Webb, born 1904. (5,000.) 

28. Minister of Civil Aviation. Right Hon. Lord Pakenham, born 
1905. (5,000.) 

29. Minister of Pensions. Right Hon. H. A. Marquand, born 1901. 

(3,000.) 

30. Postmaster-General. Right Hon. Ness Edwards, born 1897. 
(5,000.) 

31. Minister of Works. Right Hon. Richard Stokes, born 1897. 
(5,000.) 

32. Minister of State for Colonial Affairs. Right Hon. John Dugdale, 
born 1905. (3,000.) 

33. Minister of State. The Hon. K. G. Younger, bom 1908. (3,000.) 

34. Paymaster-General. Lord Macdonald of Gwaenysgor, K.C.M.G., 
born 1888. (2,000.) 

(c) LAW OFFICERS. 

- 35. Attorney-General. Right Hon. Sir Hartley W. Shawcross, K.C 
born 1902. (10,000.) 

36. Lord Advocate. Right Hon. John Wheatley, K.C., born 1908. 
(5,000.) 

37. Solicitor-General. Right Hon. Sir Frank Soskice, K.C., born 1902. 

(7,000.) 

38. Solicitor-General for Scotland. Douglas Harold Johnston, K.C., 
bora 1907. (2,000.) 



Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons. Right Hon. Winston 
S. Churchill, O.M., C.H., born 1874. (2,000.) 

Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords. The Most Hon. The 
Marquess of Salisbury, K.G., P.O., born 1893. 



54 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Heads of the Administrations since 1902 (C. = Conservative, L. = 
Liberal, Lab. = Labour, Nat. = National). 



A. J. Balfour (C.) . 14 July, 1902 
Sir H. Campbell- 

Bannerman (L.) . 5 Dec., 1905 
H. H. Asquith (L.). 8 April, 1908 
H. H. Asquith (Coal.) 25 May, 1915 
D. Lloyd George (Coal.) 

7 Dec., 1916 

A. Bonar Law (C.) . 23 Oct., 1922 
S. Baldwin (C.) . 22 May, 1923 
J. R. MacDonald (Lab.) 22 Jan., 1924 



S. Baldwin (C.) . 4 Nov., 1924 
J. R. MacDonald (Lab.) 5 June, 1929 
J.R. MacDonald (Nat.) 25 Aug., 1931 
S. Baldwin (Nat.) . 7 June, 1935 
S. Baldwin (Nat.) . 26 Nov., 1935 
N. Chamberlain (Nat.) 28 May, 1937 
W. S. Churchill (Nat.) 10 May, 1940 
W. S. Churchill (Nat.) 23 May, 1945 
C. R. Attlee (Lab.) 26 July, 1945 
C. R. Attlee (Lab.) 6 March, 1950 



The state of the Parties in the House of Commons at the dissolution of 
Parliament on 3 Feb., 1950, was as follows : Labour, 390; Liberal, 10; 
Independent, 14 ; Communist, 2 ; Independent Labour Party, 1 ; Indepen- 
dent Labour, 5; Irish Nationalist, 2; Conservative (including Ulster 
Unionists), 201 ; Liberal National, 13 ; National, 2. Total 640. 

The constitution of the House of Commons on 1 April, 1950, was as 
follows : Labour, 314 ; Liberal, 9 ; Independent Liberal National, 1 ; 
Irish National Abstentionist, 2 ; Conservative (including Ulster Unionists), 
286; Liberal National, 9; Speaker (Conservative), 1; Chairmen (1 
Labour, 1 Conservative), 2. Labour majority over all other parties, 7. 
Total, 625. 

Aggregate votes cast: Labour, 13,323,383; Conservative, 11,530,198; 
Liberal, 2,639,696. 

Books of Reference : 

Campion (Sir GK), An Introduction to the Procedure of the House of Commons. 2nd ed. 
London, 1947. 

Ilbert (Sir 0.), Parliament, its history, constitution and practice. 3rd ed. London, 
1948. 

Jennings (Sir I.), Cabinet Government. Cambridge, 1936. Parliament. London, 
1939. The British Constitution. London, 1941. 

Keir (D. L.), Constitutional History of Modern Britain, 1485-1937. 3rd ed. London, 
1946. 

May (T. E.), Treatise on the Law, Privileges, Proceedings and Usage of Parliament. 14tji 
ed. 3 vote. London, 1946. 

M uir (R.), How Britain is Governed. 4th ed. London, 1939. 

Thornton (M. A. , Constitutional History of England. 5 vote. London, 1938. 



II. LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 

England and Wales. In each county the Crown is represented by the 
Lord Lieutenant. There is also a sheriff, who represents the ancient 
executive of the Crown, an under-sheriff , a clerk of the peace, who is normally 
also clerk of the county council, coroners, who are appointed and paid 
by the county councils, and other officers. The licensing of persons 
to sell intoxicating liquors, and the administratiqn of the criminal law 
except that which deals with graver offenpes are in the hands of the 
magistrates. 

For the purposes of local government, England and Wales are divided 
primarily into 62 administrative counties, including the County of London 
and 83 county boroughs. The counties are administered by a popularly 
elected council, called a county council, which co-opts a prescribed number 



GREAT BRITAIN 55 

of aldermen, either from their own body or from outside it. Aldermen are 
elected for 6 years, half of them retiring every third year. A councillor 10 
elected for 3 years. The jurisdiction of the county councils covers the 
administration of higher and elementary education, maintenance of main 
roads and bridges, work in relation to agriculture (diseases of animals, 
destructive insects and pests, fertilisers and feeding stuffs, small-holdings 
and allotments), the prevention of pollution of rivers, and supervision of 
milk and other food supplies. The control of the county police is vested in 
a Standing Joint Committee comprised of equal numbers of magistrates and 
of members of the county council. The Metropolitan Police, however, are 
under the control of the Home Secretary. 

Secondly, the administrative counties, except the County of London, are 
sub-divided into county districts, which are * non-county boroughs,' * urban 
districts ' or * rural districts.' Generally speaking, an urban district 
comprises a town or small area more or less densely populated, and a rural 
district takes in several country parishes. County district councils 
administer the Public Health and Highway Acts, and exercise powers 
under the Housing Acts. Urban authorities may also take over the 
maintenance and repair of main roads from county councils, provide water 
supplies, allotments, baths and wash houses, libraries and museums, and 
parks and open spaces. Rural district councils may also make arrangements 
for an adequate water supply, and exercise any ' urban powers ' conferred 
on them by the Minister of Health. 

In London, the main central authority is the County Council, created by 
the Local Government Act of 1888. It has powers in regard to public 
health, housing, bridges and ferries, street improvements, parks, main 
drainage, fire brigades, sanitary control, education and numerous other 
matters. The City Corporation has powers respecting sanitation, police, 
bridges, justice, etc., in the City of London. London comprises the ancient 
city with an area of 1 square mile, and an area of 117 square miles beyond the 
city, which is divided into 28 metropolitan boroughs, each with a mayor, 
aldermen and councillors. The councils have powers in regard to public 
health, highways, rating, housing, etc., but they are not municipal boroughs 
in the strict sense. The County Council has certain powers of control over 
them. 

In all incorporated towns, local business is administered by a municipal 
corporation. There are two kinds of municipal boroughs, county boroughs 
and non-county boroughs. Most of the county boroughs and a number 
of the non-county boroughs have a separate court of quarter sessions. The 
county boroughs are outside the jurisdiction of the county councils. A 
municipal corporation consists of the mayor, alderman and burgesses, and 
acts through a popularly-elected .council. As in the county councils, the 
councillors serve for 3 years, one-third retiring annually ; the aldermen are 
elected by the council and serve for 6 years, half of them retiring every third 
year. The mayor, who serves for 1 year, is also elected by the council. A 
town council as an urban authority is invested with all the normal powers of 
an urban district council. 

Recent legislation has considerably altered the powers and duties of 
local authorities. The duty of providing a comprehensive health service was 
placed on the Minister of Health by the National Health Service Act, 1946. 
From 5 July, 1948, all hospitals in England and Wales are vested in the 
Minister, and he has delegated the running of hospital services to regional 
hospital boards and their committees of management. County councils and 
county borough councils have become under the Act the local health authori- 
ties and will administer the local health services f maternity and child welfare, 



56 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

health centres, midwifery, health visiting, home nursing, vaccination and 
immunisation, ambulances, prevention of illness, and provision of after-care 
and domestic help). 

The National Assistance Act, 1948, repealed the Poor Law legislation 
and the Blind Persons Act. In this sphere the functions of county and 
county borough councils now include the provision of residential accom- 
modation for aged and infirm persons in need of care and attention, of 
temporary accommodation for those in need of it, the registration and 
supervision of homes for the aged or the physically handicapped. The 
councils must make arrangements for promoting the welfare of persons who 
are blind, deaf or dumb, and of persons who are otherwise permanently 
physically handicapped, and must protect the moveable property belonging 
to persons who are admitted to hospitals and residential accommodation. 
The Act also enables local authorities to obtain a court order for the removal 
to suitable premises of persons in need of care and attention which they 
cannot otherwise obtain. The responsibility for meeting financial need 
by way of monetary payments is placed upon the National Assistance 
Board. 

The changes in local authorities' expenditure as a result of the transfer 
to the State of responsibility for hospital and poor law services, together 
with other factors, necessitated a readjustment of the financial relationship 
between the Exchequer and local authorities. This was effected by the 
Local Government Act, 1948, by which the * block grants ' previously 
payable under the Local Government Acts, 1929-1946, were replaced from 
1 April, 1948, by Exchequer equalization grants designed to produce a 
measure of equalization of rate burdens by giving a greater measure of 
Exchequer assistance to the authorities who are financially less well placed. 
Under the same Act, the function of making valuations for rating purposes 
is transferred from the local authorities to the Commissioners of Inland 
Revenue, and appeals against valuations will be made to local valuation 
courts and from them to county courts. Railway, canal and electricity 
undertakings make payments which are distributed for the benefit of local 
authorities in accordance with rateable value. 

The Local Government Act, 1948, also makes provision for the payment 
of allowances to members of local authorities towards travelling and 
subsistence expenses, and towards loss of earnings, or similar expenses, 
incurred in their duties as members. There is a wide extension of local 
authorities' powers to provide entertainments, and expenditure on such 
entertainments is allowed up to the product of a Qd. rate. Local authorities 
may also arrange for the publication within their areas of information on 
questions relating to local government; this power includes the giving of 
lectures, holding of discussions and the preparation and displaying of 
pictures, cinematograph films and exhibitions. 

The total number of local government electors in England and Wales 
(1945) was 29,223,828 (county boroughs 9,194,107, administrative counties 
20,029,721). Women are eligible for all local government offices. Local 
government electors now include all persons who are qualified to vote at 
parliamentary elections. 

Scotland. A Local Government Act was passed for Scotland in 1889 
and followed in its mam outlines the English Act of the previous year. The 
powers of local administration in counties formerly exercised by the Conl- 
missioners of Supply, the Justices and Road Trustees were either wholly or in 
part transferred to county councils, which took over their duties and respon- 
sibilities in 1890. By the Local Government (Scotland) Act, 1894, a local 



GREAT BRITAIN 57 

government board for Scotland was constituted, consisting of the Secretary 
for Scotland as President, the Solicitor-General for Scotland, the Under- 
secretary for Scotland, and three other members nominated by the Crown. 
The latter Act provided that a parish council should be established in every 
parish to take the place of the parochial boards. Their principal function 
was the administration of the poor laws, and in addition they exercised powers 
similar to those of the parish councils in England. There were 869 civil 
parishes in 1921. The powers and duties of the Local Government Board 
were by the Scottish Board of Health Act, 1919, transferred to the Scottish 
Board of Health, constituted as in that Act provided. The Reorganization 
of Offices (Scotland) Act, 1928, established the Department of the Secretary 
of Scotland, including the Department of Health for Scotland, which took 
the place of the Scottish Board of Health. Municipal bodies exist in the 
towns of Scotland, as in those of England. Each burgh has a town council 
consisting of a provost or lord provost, bailies and councillors. The provost 
is the head of the Scottish municipality and holds office for 3 years. Bailies 
are selected by the councillors from among their own number; they act 
as magistrates and sit as such in police courts. There are in Scotland 
three principal kinds of burghs, numbering altogether 196: (1) royal 
burghs, i.e., burghs created by a charter of the Crown; (2) parliamentary 
burghs, which possess statutory constitutions almost identical with 
those of the royal burghs; (3) police burghs, constituted under a 
general Police Act. Burghs are classified according to functions as counties 
or cities (4), other large burghs (20) and small burghs (172). All 
burghs of whatever class have town councils and their administration is 
regulated by the Burgh Police (Scotland), Town Councils (Scotland) and 
Local Government (Scotland) Acts or corresponding local Acts. The Local 
Government (Scotland) Act, 1929, abolished parish councils and trans- 
ferred poor law and certain other functions to county councils and large 
burghs (those with a population of 20,000 or more). The Act established 
elected district councils for the landward parts of counties. These councils 
haye certain local powers, such as the acquisition of ground for public 
recreation, and can requisition for expenditure to a limited extent. The 
National Assistance Act, 1948, repealed the Poor Law. Financial aid to 
those in need, now a national charge, is provided by the National Assistance 
Board. County Councils and large burghs have now a duty to provide 
.residential accommodation for the aged and others in need of care and atten- 
tion, temporary accommodation for persons whose need arises in unforesee- 
able circumstances and welfare services for the blind and other substantially 
handicapped persons. 

The Local Government (Scotland) Act, 1947, consolidated with amend- 
ments the enactments relating to authorities for the purpose of local govern- 
ment in Scotland. 

The total number of local government electors in Scotland was 3,516,049 
in 1947. 

Books of Reference : 

Clarke (J. J.) The Local Government of the United Kingdom. 12th ed. London, 1939. 

Gibbon (Sir J.) and Sell (B. W.), History of the London County Council, 1889-1939. 

Hculvdc (E. L.), Local Government in England. 2nd ed. London, 1948. 

Laski (H. J.), Jennings (Sir I.), Robson (W. A.), (ed.), A Century of Municipal progress. 
London. 1935. 

Lipman (V. A.), Local Government Areas, 1834-1946. Oxford, 1949. 

Robson (w. A.), The Development of Local Government. Bev. ed. London, 1948. 

W*tb (8. and B.), English Local Government from the Revolution to the Municipal 
Corporations Act. London, 1908. 



58 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Area and Population. 

I. PBOGBBSS AND PRESENT CONDITION. 
The population WEB thus distributed at the census taken 27 April, 1931 : 



Divisions 


Area in 
square 
miles 


Males 


Females 


Total 
population on 
27 April, 1931 


England (including Monmouth- 
shire) 
Wales . 
Scotland 
Isle of Man . 
Channel Islands 


50,874 
7,466 
30,405 
221 
75 


18,061,643 
1,071,367 
2,325,523 
22,443 
44,099 


19,732,360 
1,087,007 
2,517,457 
26,865 
49,106 


37,794,003 
2,158,374 
4,842,980 
49,308 
93,205 


Total 


89,041 


21,525,419 


23,412,025 


44,937,444 



Population at each of the four previous decennial censuses : 



Divisions 


1891 


1901 


1911 


1921 






27,489,228 


30,813,043 
1,714,800 
4,472,103 
54,762 
95,618 

867,736 


34,046,290 
2,025,202 
4,760,904 
52,016 
96,899 

145,729 


35,681,019 
2,206,680 
4,882,497 
60,284 
90,230 

256,811 


Wales 




1,513,297 


Scotland . 




4,025,647 


Isle of Man .... 
Channel Islands 
Army, Navy and Merchant Seamen 
abroad 

Total .... 


55,608 
92,234 

224,211 


33,400,225 


37,518,052 


41,126,040 


43,176,521 



In 1931, in Wales and Monmouthshire 197,932 persons 3 years of age and 
upwards were able to speak Welsh only, and 811,329 able to speak Welsh 
and English. In Scotland in'1931, 6,716 persons 3 years of age and upwards 
could speak Gaelic only, and 129,419 could speak Gaelic and English. 

At the census of 1931, in England and Wales, there were 10,233,139 
private families (population, 38,042,464), occupying 9,123,279 dwellings, 
including 7,137,342 dwellings in urban areas and 1,985,937 dwellings in 
rural areas. The total number of families per occupied dwelling was 
1-12 (urban 1-15, rural 1-02). 

The age distribution in 1931 of the population of England and Wales 
and Scotland was as follows : 





Numbers in thousands 


Age-group 


England 
and Wales 


Scotland 


Great Britain 


Under 5 








2,990 


423 


3,413 


5 and under 10 








3,323 


456 


3,779 


10 15 








3,207 


426 


3,633 


15 20 








3,435 


439 


3,874 


20 25 








3,494 


422 


3,916 


25 35 








6,412 


738 


7,150 


35 45 








5,467 


608 


6,075 


45 ,, 55 








4,936 


547 


5,488 


55 65 








3,725 


430 


4,155 


65 70 








1,271 


149 


1,420 


70 75 








871 


106 


977 


75 85 








726 


87 


813 


85 and upwards 








96 


12 


108 


Total .... 


39,953 


4,843 


44,796 



GREAT BRITAIN 



59 



Estimated civilian population of Great Britain and its divisions at the 
end of June : 



Year (SO June) 


England and Wales 


Scotland 


Total of Great Britain 


1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 l 
1949 


37,916,000 
40,759,000 
41,786,000 
42,750,000 
43,595,000 


4,640,000 
4,933,000 
6,139,000 
5,169,000 
5,172,000 


42,556,000 
45,692,000 
46,925,000 
47,919,000 
48,767,000 



1 Including merchant seamen at home and overseas. 

* Including members of the armed forces stationed in Great Britain. 

1. England and Wales. 
The census population of England and Wales 1801 to 1931 : 



Date of 
enumeration 


Population 


Pop. per 
square mile 


Date of 
enumeration 


Population 


Pop. per 
square mile 


1801 


8,892,636 


152 


1871 


22,712,266 


389 


1811 


10,164,256 


174 


1881 


25,974,439 


445 


1891 


12,000,236 


206 


1891 


29,002,525 


497 


1831 


13,896,797 


238 


1901 


32,527,843 


558 


1841 


15,914,148 


273 


1911 


36,070,492 


618 


1851 


17,927,609 


307 


1921 


37,886,699 


649 


1861 


20,066,224 


344 


1931 


39,952,377 


685 



Population of England and Wales and of the administrative counties 
and county boroughs in 1911, 1921 and 1931 (for areas of administrative 
counties, etc., 1921, see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931, p. 12) : 





Area in 
statute 


Census population 












acres, 1001 




Admlnistra* 




(land and 


Counties, including county 


tive 




water). 


boroughs 


counties 




Counties, 




only 




including 












county 
boroughs 


1911 


1921 


1931 


1931 


ENGLAND 












Bedfordshire . 
Berkshire 
Buckinghamshire 

Cambridgeshire 
Isle of Ely 
Cheshire l 
Cornwall 


302,942 
463,840 
479,360 

315,168 
238,073 
652,383 
868,167 


194,588 
280,794 
219,551 
128,322 
69,752 
966,967 
328,098 


206,462 
294,821 
286,171 
129,602 
73,817 
1,020,257 
320,705 


220,525 
311,453 
271,586 
140,004 
77,698 
1,087,656 
317,968 


220,525 
214,304 
271,586 
140,004 
77,698 
675,296 
317,968 


Cumberland . 


973,086 


265,746 


273,173 


263,151 


205,847 


Derbyshire * . 
Devonshire . 
Dorsetshire * . 
Durham . 
Essex . 
Gloucestershire l 
Hampshire * * 
Isle of Wight 
Herefordshire 
Hertfordshire 


647,824 
1,671,864 
622,843 
649,420 
979,532 
804,638 
961,665 
94,146 
538,924 
404,520 
233,985 


683,423 
699,703 
223,266 
1,369,860 
1,350,881 
736,113 
862,393 
88,186 
114,269 
311,284 
55,577 


714,634 
709,614 
224,731 
1,479,033 
1,470,257 
766,574 
913,681 
94,666 
113,189 
333,195 
54,741 


757,374 
732,968 
239,362 
1,486,176 
1,755,459 
786,000 
1,014,316 
88,454 
111,767 
401,206 
56,206 


614,971 
458,757 
239,353 
924,228 
1,198,601 
336,061 
469,085 
88,464 
111,767 
401,195 
56,206 



* Administrative county of Southampton. 

i The boundaries of the administrative county have changed since the date of the 1921 
census. ID every case the acreage and the 1921 population shown in the table relate to the 
area as constituted at the date of the 1931 r 



60 



THK BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 





Area in 

statute 


Census population 




acres, 1931 
(land and 




Administra- 




inland 
water). 


Counties, including county 
boroughs 


tive 
counties 




Counties, 




only 




including 
county 
boroughs 


1911 


1921 


1931 


1931 


ENGLAND continued 












Kent .... 


975,966 


1,045,591 


1,141,666 


1,219,273 


1,194,116 


Lancashire * . 


1,200,122 


4,756,644 


4,932,951 


6,039,465 


1,794,857 


Leicestershire 


632,779 


476,553 


494,469 


541,861 


302,692 


Lincolnshire 












The parts of Holland . 


268,992 


82,849 


85,870 


92,330 


92,330 


The parts of Kesteyen l 


463,505 


107,263 


107,634 


110,060 


110,060 


The parts of Lindsey . 


972,796 


373,848 


408,698 


422,199 


263,498 


London 


74,860 


4,621,685 


4,484.523 


4,397,003 


4,396,821 


Middlesex . 


148,691 


1,126,465 


1,253,002 


1,638,728 


1,638,521 


Monmoutlishire 


349,569 


395,719 


450,794 


434,958 


345,756 


Norfolk 


1,315,064 


499,116 


504,293 


504,940 


321,933 


Northamptonshire . 


585,148 


303,797 


302,404 


309,474 


217,133 


Soke of Peterborough . 


63,464 


44,718 


46,959 


61,839 


51,846 


Northumberland . 


1,291,978 


696,893 


746,096 


756,782 


408,704 


Nottinghamshire . 


540,015 


604,098 


641,149 


712,731 


443,930 


Oxfordshire . 


479,224 


189,484 


189,615 


209,621 


129,082 


Rutlandshire . 


97,273 


20,346 


18,376 


17,401 


17,401 


Shropshire 


861,800 


246,307 


243,062 


244,150 


244,156 


Somersetshire l 


1,030,818 


458,009 


465,691 


475,142 


406,327 


Staffordshire l 


737,886 


1,279,649 


1,353,511 


1,431,369 


703,254 


Suffolk, East . 


567,363 


277,155 


291,073 


294,977 


207,475 


Suffolk, West 


390,916 


116,905 


108,985 


106,137 


106,137 


Surrey .... 


461,833 


846,578 


930,086 


1,180,878 


947,696 


Sussex, East . 


530,556 


487,070 


632,187 


646,864 


276,796 


Sussex, West . 


401,916 


176,308 


196,810 


222,995 


222,995 


Warwickshire > 


624,676 


1,247,418 


1,394,741 


1,535,007 


365,323 


Westmorland 


604,917 


63,575 


65,746 


66,408 


65,408 


Wiltshire 1 . 


860,829 


286,822 


291,838 


303,373 


303,373 


Worcestershire l 


447,678 


387,688 


397,910 


420,056 


309,927 


Yorkshire, East Biding . 


750,116 


432,769 


460,880 


482,936 


169,393 


Yorkshire, North Riding . 


1,362,058 


419,546 


456,436 


469,375 


331,101 


Yorkshire, West Biding *. 


1,776,064 


3,045,377 


3,181,202 


3,362,555 


1,630,405 


York, City of . 


3,730 


82,282 


84,039 


84,813 


84,813 


Totals . 


32,559,868 


34,045,290 


35,681,019 


37,794,003 





WALES 












Anglesey 


176,630 


60,928 


61,744 


49,029 


49,029 


Brecknockshire 


469,281 


69,287 


61,222 


67,775 


57,775 


Cardiuganshire . 


443,189 


59,879 


60,881 


65,184 


55,184 


Carmarthenshire 


688,472 


160,406 


176,073 


179,100 


179,100 


Caernarvonshire 


364,108 


125,034 


128,183 


120,829 


120,829 


Denbighshire 1 


427,977 


144,783 


167,634 


157,648 


167,648 


Flintehire 


163,707 


92,705 


106,617 


112,889 


112,889 


Glamorganshire 


520,456 


1,120,910 


1,262,481 


1,225,177 


766,141 


Merionethshire 
Montgomeryshire . 


422,372 
510,110 


46,565 
63,146 


46,087 
61,263 


43,201 
48,473 


43,201 

. 48,473 


Pembrokeshire 


393,003 


89,960 


91,1*78 


87,206 


87,206 


Radnorshire . 


301,165 


22,590 


23,517 


21,323 


21,328 


Total Wales (12 counties) 


4,780,470 


2,025,202 


2,206,680 


2,158,374 





Totals England and 












Wales . 


37,339,216 


36,070,492 


37,886,699 


39,952,377 






1 The boundaries of the administrative county have changed since the date of the 1921 
census. In every case the acreage and the 1921 population shown in the table relate to the 
area constituted at the date of the 1931 census. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



61 



The area and population of the county boroughs, and more important 
other boroughs, are given in the following table. The county boroughs are 
designated by the letters C.B. 





Area in 
statute 
acres, 1931 


Census population 


Estimated 
population 1 
Dec., 1949 


1921 


1931 


ENGLAND 

Accrington 
Barnsley (C.B.) '. 
Barrow-in-Furness (O.B.) . 
Bath, City of (C.B.) . 
Bedford ... 


4,418 
6,036 
11,002 
6,152 
2,223 
5,995 
61,147 
7,653 
5,189 
15,280 
1,947 
11,213 
24,343 
12,503 
19,674 
4,203 
4,203 
6,925 
5,467 
3,975 
4488 
4,356 
4,726 
2,863 
8,472 
11,333 
12,827 
2,184 
12,617 
6,469 
7,123 
6,720 
4,831 
4,063 
9,133 
6,487 
3,324 
2,057 
4,705 
2,482 
3,128 
2,318 
3,598 
5,468 
14,080 
4,496 
3,953 
11,875 
8,493 
8,112 
3,902 

13,060 
3,482 
38,105 
16,979 
6,359 
2.594 


44,976 
67,906 
74,244 
68,669 
40,242 
147,819 
922,167 
126,922 
99,639 
178,683 
76,487 
95,755 
291,004 
147,373 
377,018 
103,186 
48,909 
56,403 
59,264 
23,737 
62,710 
42,013 
48,430 
40,802 
61,232 
43,393 
146,108 
46,497 
191,375 
66,847 
131,351 
64,160 
64,064 
65,098 
90,433 
62,028 
143,246 
44,242 
69,582 
37,636 
125,142 
61,330 
60,700 
85,827 
99,183 
66,495 
47,607 
110,102 
85,194 
79,371 
41,921 

290,681 
40,212 
463,122 
234,143 
45,532 
128.430 


42,991 
71,523 
66,202 
68,816 
40,554 
147,803 
1,002,603 
122,697 
101,553 
177,250 
76,770 
116,803 
298,041 
147,427 
397,012 
98,258 
49,486 
56,182 
66,789 
24,446 
67,304 
42,999 
49,418 
41,440 
64,160 
48,701 
167,083 
46,069 
233,032 
72,086 
142,403 
64,302 
63,316 
59,583 
117,707 
57,436 
142,394 
44,416 
66,029 
35,889 
122,447 
52,937 
66,771 
92,458 
98,116 
65,207 
54,993 
113,475 
131,061 
87,502 
40,441 

313,644 
43,383 
482,809 
239,169 
46,817 
128.313 


40,310 
75,600 
67,800 
77,940 
63,180 
141,600 
1,113,300 
111,300 
148,200 
168,900 
70,140 
139,400 
292,500 
156,200 
442,100 
84,750 
48,920 
59,050 
90,670 
26,220 
66,030 
42,100 
64,480 
47,850 
67,960 
52,670 
255,900 
63,070 
252,000 
34,930 
143,200 
63,100 
80,010 
63,310 
188,690 
67,030 
121,900 
44,OoO 
76,860 
42,400 
115,100 
65,150 
52,660 
91,310 
98,440 
65,150 
69,200 
128,500 
185,890 
104,100 
66,690 

297,800 
51,400 
607,700 
285,800 
48,650 
106.740 


Birkenhead (C.B.) 
Birmingham, City of (O.B.) 
Blackburn (C.B.) . . '. 
Blackpool (C.B.) 
Bolton (C.B.) . 
Bootle(O.B.) . 


Bournemouth (O.B.) . 
Bradford, City of (O.B.) 
Brighton (C.B.) . 
Bristol, City of (C.B.) 
Burnley (C.B.) .... 
Burton-upon-Trent (O.B.) . \ 
Bury (C.B.) 


Cambridge .... 
Canterbury, City of (O.B.) 
Carlisle, City of (O.B.) 
Chatham . 


Cheltenham 
Chester, City of (C.B.) 
Chesterfield 
Colchester .... 
Coventry, City of (O.B.) 
Orewe 


Croydon (C.B.) . 
Darlington (C.B.) 
Derby (O.B.) .... 


Dewsbury (C.B.) 
Doncaster 
Dudley (C.B.) [ 
Baling 


Eastbourne (O.B.) 
East Ham (C.B.) 
Eccles 


Exeter, City of (O.B.) 
Folkestone .... 
Gateshead (O.B.) 
Gloucester, City of (O.B.) . 
Great Yarmouth (O.B.) 
Grimsby (O.B.) 
Halifax (C.B.) .... 
Hastings (C.B.) .... 
Hove 


Huddersficld (C.B.) . 
Ilford 
Ipswich (C.B.) .... 
Keighley . 


Kingston-upon-Hull, City of 
(O.B.) . . . . 


Lancaster . 


Leeds, City of (O.B.) . 
Leicester, City of (O.B.) . 
Leigh 



1 Civilian population. 



62 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 





Areas in 


Census population 


Estimated 




statute 
acres, 1931 


1921 


1931 


population 
Dec., 1949 


ENGLAND continued 










Lincoln, City of (O.B.) 


6,128 


66,042 


66,243 


68,790 


Liverpool, City of (O.B.) . 


24,795 


805,046 


855,688 


804,000 


Lowestoft 


3,327 


44,323 


41,769 


44,160 


Luton .... 


6,562 


60,266 


68,523 


110,100 


Maidstone 


4,008 


37,216 


42,280 


53,220 


Manchester, City of (O.B.) . 


27,257 


736,774 


766,378 


703,500 


Mansfield .... 


7,069 


44,416 


46,077 


51,110 


Middlesbrough (O.B.) . 


4,187 


131,070 


138,274 


145,800 


Newcaatle-upon-Tyne, City o 










(O.B.) .... 


8,458 


275,009 


283,156 


294,400 


Newport (Monmouth) (O.B.) 


4,568 


92,358 


89,203 


106,100 


Northampton (C.B.) . 


3,469 


90,895 


92,341 


104,700 


Norwich, City of (O.B.) 


7,898 


120,661 


126,236 


119,800 


Nottingham, City of (O.B.). 


10,936 


262,624 


268,801 


303,300 


Oldham (C.B.) . 


4,735 


144,983 


140,314 


120,100 


Oxford, City of (O.B.) 


8,416 


67,290 


80,539 


108,200 


Plymouth, City of (C.B.) . 


6,711 


210,036 


208,182 


192,100 


Portsmouth, City of (O.B.) . 


7,964 


248,057 


252,421 


218,200 


Preston (O.B.) . . 


3,964 


117,406 


119,001 


120,100 


Reading (O.B.) . 


9,105 


92,278 


97,149 


115,400 


Rochdale (C.B.) 


6,446 


90,816 


90,263 


89,110 


Rotherham (O.B.) 


6,895 


68,022 


69,691 


82,360 


St. Helens (O.B.) 


7,284 


102,640 


106,789 


112,000 


Salford (O.B.) . 


5,202 


234,045 


223,438 


179,100 


Scarborough 


2,727 


46,179 


41,788 


43,220 


Sheffield, City of (O.B.) 


34,151 


611,696 


611,757 


514,300 


Smethwick (O.B.) 


2,496 


82,123 


84,364 


77,650 


Southampton (O.B.) . 


9,192 


160,994 


176,007 


180,800 


Southend-on-Sea (O.B.) 


7,055 


106,010 


120,115 


149,900 


Southport (O.B.) 


9,728 


76,621 


78,926 


85,540 


South Shields (O.B.) . 


3,187 


118,599 


113,455 


109,000 


Stockporb (O.B.) 


7,063 


123,309 


126,490 


141,500 


Stockton-on-Tees 


6,466 


64,126 


67,722 


73,420 


8toke-on-Trent, City of (O.B.) 


21,209 


267,647 


276,639 


275,100 


Sunderland (O.B.) 


6,305 


182,179 


185,824 


181,000 


Swindon .... 


6,019 


66,841 


62,401 


68,640 


Tottenham 


3,014 


146,711 


157,772 


129,630 


Tynemouth (C.B.) 


4,367 


63,770 


64,922 


66,790 


Wakefleld, City of (O.B.) . 


4,970 


63,052 


59,122 


60,300 


WaUasey (O.B.) 


6,282 


94,848 


97,626 


101,300 


Wateall (C.B.) . 


8,782 


97,567 


103,059 


114,000 


Walthamstow . 


4,342 


129,395 


132,972 


123,320 


Warrington (C.B.) . 


3,057 


76,811 


79,317 


79,370 


West Bromwich (C.B.) 


7,180 


75,097 


81,303 


87,180 


West Ham (O.B.) 


4,089 


300,860 


294,278 


173,600 


West Hartlepool (C.B,) 


2,690 


68,641 


68,135 


72,560 


Wigan(O.B.) . 


5,083 


89,421 


85,357 


84,230 


Willesden .... 


4,385 


166,674 


184,434 


182,460 


Wolverhampton (O.B.) 
Worcester, City of (O.B.) . 


7,11ft 
3,662 


121,316 
48,833 


133,212 
50,546 


161,100 
61,960 


York, City of (O.B.) . 


3,730 


84,039 


84,813 


106,000 


WALES 










Cardiff, City of (O.B.) 


11,984 


219,580 


223,589 


244,700 


Mertbyr Tydfil (O.B.) 


17,760 


80,116 


71,108 


61,070 


Rhondda .... 


23,886 


162,717 


141,346 


112,550 


Swansea (O.B.) . 


21,600 


157,654 


164,797 


160,800 



1 Civilian population. 

At 30 June, 1949, the estimated age distribution of the population of 
England and Wales was : between and 14-f, 4,850,000 males, 4,747,000 
females; 15 and over, 16,200,000 males, 17,798,000 females. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



63 



The following table shows the distribution of the urban and rural 
population of England and Wales in 1901, 1911, 1921 and 1931 : 





Population 


Percentage of 
population 


England and Wales 


Urban districts x 


Rural districts 1 


Urban 1 


Rural 1 


1911 
1921 
1931 


36,070,492 
37,886,699 
39,952,377 


28,162,936 
30,035,417 
31,951,918 


7,907,556 
7,851,282 
8,000,459 


78-1 
79-8 
80-0 


21-9 
20-7 
20-0 



1 As existing at each census. 

The municipal and parliamentary City of London, coinciding with the 
registration City of London, has an area of 675 acres. The registration 
County of London (the London for purposes of the census, the registration 
of births, deaths and marriages, and for poor law purposes), coinciding 
with the administrative county, has an area of 74,850 acres, and nearly 
coincides with the collective area of the London parliamentary boroughs. 
The population of registration London, of the * Outer Ring,' and of 
' Greater London ' (the area covered by the City and Metropolitan police), 





1911 


1921 


1931 


1949 


Registration London . 
' Outer Ring ' . ... 

1 Greater London * 1 . 


4,521,685 
2,729,673 


4,484,523 
2,995,678 


4,397,003 
3,806,939 


3,389,850 
5,001,091 


7,251,358 


7,480,201 


8,203,942 


8,390,941 



1 Area 443,455 acres. Estimated civilian. 

Census of England and Wales, 1931. H.M.S.O., 1950. 



2. Scotland. 

Area 29,796 square miles, including its islands, 186 in number, but 
excluding inland water 609 square miles. 

Population (including military in the barracks and seamen on board 
vessels in the harbours) at the dates of the several censuses : 



Date of 
enumeration 


Population 


Pop. per 
square mile 


Date of 
enumeration 


Population 


Pop. per 
square mile 


1801 


1,608,420 


54 


1871 


3,360,018 


113 


1811 


1,805,864 


60 


1881 


3,735,573 


125 


1821 


2,091,521 


70 


1891 


4,025,647 


135 


1831 


2,364,386 


79 


1901 


4,472.103 


150 


1841 


2,620,184 


88 


1911 


4,760,904 


160 


1861 


2,888,742 


97 


1921 


4,882,497 


164 


1861 


3,062,294 


100 


1931 


4,842,980 


163 



The number of married persons in 1931 was 1,762,673 (874,194 males 
and 888,479 females), and widowed, 297,137 (93,668 males and 203,469 
females). 

There are 33 -civil counties, as follows : 



64 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 







Census population 


S3 

-25^3 o> 




Area in 
statute 


1911 


1921 


1931 






acres 


total 


total 


total 


III 


1. Aberdeen (includ. Aberdeen) 


1,261,521 


312,177 


301,016 


300,430 


334,400 


2. Angus (Forfar) . 


559,037 


281,417 


271,052 


270,190 


278,800 


3. Argyll .... 


1 999,472 


70,902 


76,862 


63,014 


66,600 


4. Ayr 


724,523 


268,337 


299,273 


285,182 


324,500 


6. Banff 


403,053 


61,402 


67,298 


54,835 


51,500 


6. Berwick . 


292,535 


29,643 


28,246 


26,601 


26,200 


7. Bute 


139,658 


18,186 


33,771! 


18,822 


18,900 


8. Caithness 


438,833 


32,010 


28,285 


25,656 


23,100 


9. Clackmannan . 


34,927 


31,121 


32,642 


31,947 


36,800 


10. Dumbarton 


157,433 


139,831 


160,861 


147,761 


162,600 


11. Dumfries . 


680,302 


72,825 


76,370 


81,060 


87,600 


12. East Lothian (Haddington 


170,971 


43,254 


47,487 


47,369 


51,600 


13. Fife. 


322,844 


267,739 


292,925 


276,261 


306,200 


14. Inverness 


2,695,094 


87,272 


82,455 


82,082 


86,200 


15. Kincardine 


244,482 


41,008 


41,779 


39,864 


28,900 


16. Kinross . 


52,410 


7,527 


7,963 


7,454 


7,800 


17. Kirkcudbright . 


576,832 


38,367 


37,155 


30,341 


30,700 


18. Lanark (including Glasgow) 
19. Midlothian (Edinburgh) 


562,821 
234,325 


1,447,034 
507,666 


1,639,442 
606,377 


1,585,968 
626,277 


1,631,300 
688,200 


20. Moray (Elgin) . 


304,931 


43,427 


41,558 


40,805 


46,500 


21. Nairn 


104,252 


9,319 


8,790 


8,294 


8,900 


22. Orkney 


240,847 


25,897 


24,111 


22,075 


22,000 


23. Peebles 


222,240 


15,258 


15,332 


15,050 


16,100 


24. Perth 


1,595,802 


124,342 


125,503 


120,772 


130,800 


25. Renfrew 


153,332 


314,562 


298,904 


288,675 


332,200 


26. Boss and Cromarty 


1,977,248 


77,364 


70,818 


62,802 


63,200 


27. Roxburgh 


426,028 


47,192 


44,989 


45,787 


47,100 


28. Selkirk . 


170,793 


24,601 


22,607 


22,608 


22,000 


29. Shetland (Zetland) 


352,319 


27,911 


25,520 


21,410 


20,100 


30. Stirling . 


288,842 


160,991 


161,719 


166,447 


188,800 


31. Sutherland 


1,297,914 


20,179 


17,802 


16,100 


14,300 


32. West Lothian (Linlithgow) 


76,861 


80,155 


83,962 


81,426 


87,600 


33. Wigtown . 


311,984 


31,998 


30,783 


29,299 


31,900 


TOTAL SCOTLAND 


19,070,466 


4,760,904 


4,882,497 


4,842,554 


5,172,200 



1 Including summer visitors. 



1 Civilian population. 



The birthplaces of the 1931 population were: Scotland, 4,496,028; 
England, 164,249; Wales, 4,341 ; Ireland, 124,296; British colonies, etc., 
24,581; foreign countries, 28,116 (including 16,009 aliens). 

The ' urban ' population of Scotland in 1931 is defined as the popu- 
lation of localities containing over 1,000 persons, and are burghs, special 
scavenging districts, or special lighting districts. On this basis the * urban ' 
population was 3,879,970 or 80-1% of the total, and the * rural ' population 
963,010 or 19-9%. Population of the principal burghs : 



Burghg 


Census population 


18 


Burghs 


Census population 


!f 
i|S 

1 S e~ 

ill 


1921 


1931 


1921 


1931 


Glasgow 
Edinburgh 
Aberdeen 
Dundee 
Paisley 
Greenock 
Motherwell 
Kirkcaldy . 


1,034,174 
420,264 
158,963 
168,315 
84,837 
81,123 
68,869 
39,591 


1,088,417 
438,998 
167,259 
175,583 
86,441 
78,948 
64,708 
43,874 


1,099,700 
489,000 
189,300 
180,800 
96,800 
79,100 
70,600 
49,000 


Coatbridge . 
Dunfermline 
Ayr . 
Kilmarnock 
Olydebank . 
Hamilton . 
Perth 
Palkirk . 


43,909 
39,899 
36,747 
36,763 
46,506 
39,420 
33,208 
33,308 


43,056 
34,954 
36,784 
38,099 
46,963 
37,863 
34,807 
36,565 


47,900 
45,100 
43,800 
42,800 
41,700 
40,700 
40,700 
38,400 



GREAT BRITAIN 



65 



In 1948, the estimated age distribution of the population in Scotland 
was: between and 14 +, 643,000 males, 625,000 females; 15 and over, 
1,891,100 males, 2,042,100 females. 

For main occupations, according to the census of 1931, see THE STATES- 
MAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1943, p. 19. 

3. Isle of Man and Channel Islands. 

The population of these islands was found to be as follows at the 
successive censuses : 



Islands 


Census population 


Area 
in statute 
acres, 1931 


1911 


1921 


1931 


Isle of Man 
Jersey .... 
Guernsey, Herm and Jethou 
Alderney 
Sark, Brechon and Lihou . 

Total .... 


52,016 
51,898 
41,858 
2,561 
582 


60,284 
49,701 
38,315 
1,598 
616 


49,308 
50,462 
40.643 
1,521 
579 


141,263 
28,717 
16,018 
1,962 
1,386 


148,915 


150,514 


142,513 


189,346 



II. MOVEMENT OF THE POPULATION. 

1. Births, Deaths and Marriages. 

England and Wales. 



Year 


Estimated total 
population 
at 30 June 


Total live 
births 


Illegitimate 
births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1945 . 
1946 . 
1947 . 
1948 . 
1949 . 


42,636,000 
42,737,000 
43,050,000 
43,502,000 
43.785,000 


679,937 
820,719 
881,026 
776,971 
731, 56S * 


63,420 
53,919 
46,603 
41,041 
36,357 l 


488,108 
492,090 
517,615 
469,898 
510,819 * 


397,626 
385,606 
401,210 
396,891 
373,132! 



1 Provisional. 

In 1949 the proportion of male to female births was 1,060 male to 1,000 
female, and the live birth rate was 16-7 and the death rate 11-7 per thousand 



of the population. 



Scotland. 



Year 


Estimated total 
population 
at 30 June 


Total births 


Illegitimate 
births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 


6,155,300 
5,135,100 
5,138,700 
5,169,200 
5,175,000 


86,932 
104,413 
113,147 
100,343 
95,673 


7,454 
6,904 
6,311 
5,773 
6,225 


62,665 
64,605 
66,200 
60,979 
63,488 


48,642 
45,851 
44,406 
43,741 
41,714 



Proportion of male to female births in 1949 was 1,058 to 1,000. 
In 1949 the birth rate was 18-5 and the total death rate 12-3 per 
thousand. 

2. Divorces and Annulments. 





Ye 


ar 






England and Wales 


Scotland 


Total 


1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 










15.634 
30,298 
60,190 


2,227 

2,934 
2,533 
2.057 
2,447 


17,861 
33,232 
62,723 



66 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



3. Emigration and Immigration. 

In the thirty -eight years, 1815-52, the total number of emigrants from 
the United Kingdom was 3,463,592. Up to 1852 the emigration returns 
made no distinction between British subjects and foreigners. From 1853 to 
1938 inclusive, the number of emigrant passengers of British origin, to 
places out of Europe, was 16,710,072. Figures of the passenger traffic 
by sea to and from non-European countries in recent years are given as 
follows : 



Year 


Outward 


Inward 


British 
subjects 


Aliens 


Total 


British 
subjects 


Aliens 


Total 


1938 
1948 
1949 


162,074 
244.694 
255,618 


78,976 
62,610 
60,660 


241,049 
307,304 
310,278 


159,913 
171,791 
195,733 


61,786 
57,780 
55,960 


221,699 
229,571 
251,693 



The number of immigrants of British nationality into the United King- 
dom was 59,397 in 1949 (including 20,765 males, 26,618 females over 12 
years, and 12,014 children under 12). The number of British immigrants in 
1938 was 40,611. The number of emigrants of British nationality from the 
United Kingdom in 1949 was 144,503 (including 55,254 males, 60,546 females 
over 12 years and 28,703 children under 12 years). The number of British 
emigrants in 1938 Avas 34,144. 

The destinations of British subjects leaving the United Kingdom to take 
up permanent residence in non-European countries in 1949 were mainly 
Canada and Newfoundland, 20,762(3,367 in 1938); Australia, 53,059 (5,472 
in 1938); New Zealand, 9,261 (2,425 in 1938); Union of South Africa and 
Southern Rhodesia, 15,283 (6,003 in 1938); United States, 16,237 (1,992 in 
1938). 

Of a total of 646,000 aliens who arrived in the United Kingdom in 1949, 
434,000 were visitors for periods of less than 6 months, 70,000 in transit to 
other countries, 24,000 returning residents, 11,000 diplomats, 36,000 
holding Ministry of Labour permits, 12,000 seamen, and 59,000 intending 
to stay for over 6 months. 

The number of alien visitors for pleasure was 249,000 in 1938, 335,000 in 
1948 and 340,000 in 1949. 

Passenger movement (including pleasure cruises) totalled: 1949, 
outward, 2,968,000 (601,000 by air) ; inward, 2,946,000 (583,000 by air). 

Religion. 

The Church of England is the centre of the world-wide Anglican Com- 
munion, which is one of the great divisions of Christendom, and the ex- 
pansion of which parallels the expansion of Great Britain into the world- 
wide British Commonwealth. The autonomy of the Dominions within a kind 
of family fellowship corresponds to the autonomy of the great Churches in 
Australia ; Canada ; China ; India, Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon ; Ireland ; 
Japan; New Zealand; Scotland; South Africa; the United States ; Wales; 
and the West Indies. The present evolution of the Colonies towards 
Dominion status in groups parallels somewhat similar tendencies in the 
dioceses (e.g. in Bast and West Africa) holding mission from the See of 
Canterbury. There is, however, no earthly head of the Anglican Com- 



GREAT BRITAIN 67 

munion corresponding to the King in the Commonwealth. The Archbishop 
of Canterbury presides over the decennial Lambeth Conference only as 
primus inter pares. 

1. England and Wales. 

The Established Church of England is Protestant Episcopal. Civil 
disabilities on account of religion do not attach to any class of British 
subjects. Under the Welsh Church Acts, 1914 and 1919, the Church in 
Wales and Monmouthshire was disestablished as from 31 March, 1920, and 
Wales was formed into a separate archbishopric. Property belonging to 
the Church in Wales, and a sum of 1,000,000 provided by Parliament, 
were assigned to a temporary body not exceeding 3 persons, called the 
Welsh Commissioners, for distribution to a body representing the Church 
(called the Representative Body), and to certain other authorities including 
the University of Wales. 

The King is, under God, the supreme governor of the Church of England, 
with the right, regulated by statute, to nominate to the vacant arch- 
bishoprics and bishoprics. The King, and the First Lord of the Treasury in 
his name, also appoint to such deaneries, prebendaries and canonries as are 
in the gift of the Crown, while a largo number of livings and also some 
canonries are in the gift of the Lord Chancellor. 

There are 2 archbishops (at the head of the 2 * provinces ' of Canter- 
bury and York) and 41 bishops and about 40 suffragan bishops in England. 
Each archbishop has also his own particular diocese, wherein he exercises 
episcopal, as in his province he exercises metropolitical, jurisdiction. In the 
Church are 29 deans (including Westminster, Windsor, St. Albans and 
Truro), 103 archdeacons and 15 provosts of parish church cathedrals. 
Under the Church of England Assembly (Powers) Act, 1919, there is an 
Assembly called 4 the Church Assembly,' in England, consisting of a House of 
Bishops, a House of Clergy and a House of Laity, which has power to frame 
legislation regarding Church matters. The first two Houses consist of the 
members of the Convocations of Canterbury and York, each of which consists 
of the diocesan bishops (forming an Upper House), and the archdeacons, 
deans and provosts, and a certain number of proctors, as the representatives 
of the inferior clergy, together with, in the case of Canterbury Convocation, 
representatives of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and London (forming 
the Lower House). The House of Laity is elected by the lay members of 
the Diocesan Conferences. Parochial affairs are managed by parochial 
church meetings and parochial church councils. Every measure passed by 
the Church Assembly must be submitted to the Ecclesiastical Committee, 
consisting of 15 members of the House of Lords nominated by the Lord 
Chancellor and 15 members of the House of Commons nominated by the 
Speaker. This committee reports on each measure to Parliament, and the 
measure receives the Royal Assent and becomes law if each House of Parlia- 
ment passes a resolution to the effect that the measure be presented to the 
King. 

The number of civil parishes (districts for which a separate poor rate is 
or can be made) at the census of 1931 was 14,209. These, however, in many 
cases, do not coincide with ecclesiastical parishes, which have, from the civil 
point of view, lost their old importance. Of such parishes there were (1947) 
about 13,000, inclusive of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, but ex- 
cluding Wales. Each parish has its church, presided over by an incumbent 
or minister, who must be in priest's orders, and who is known as rector, vicar 
or perpetual curate, according to his relation to the temporalities of his 
parish. Private persons possess the right of presentation to about 3,000 



68 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



benefices; the patronage of the others belongs mainly to the King, the 
bishops and cathedrals, the Lord Chancellor, and the universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge. In 1947 there were about 12,165 beneficed clergy, and 
2,440 assistant curacies. Voluntary offerings raised parochially amounted 
in 1947 to 5,944,534, exclusive of very large sums contributed to central 
and diocesan societies and institutions and administered by such organiza- 
tions. 

Of 37,452 churches and chapels registered for the solemnization of 
marriage at the end of 1934, 16,515 belonged to the Established Church and 
the Church in Wales and 20,937 to other religious denominations. Of the 
marriages celebrated in 1934, * 53-5% were in the Established Church and 
the Church in Wales, 6-5% in the Roman Catholic Church, 10-9% were 
Nonconformist marriages, 0-04% were Quaker marriages, 0-7% Jewish and 
28-4% civil marriages in a Registrar's Office. 

The Unitarians have about 340 places of worship, the Catholic Apostolic 
Church over 80, the New Jerusalem Church about 75. The Salvation Army, 
a religious body with a semi-military organization, carries on both spiritual 
and social work at home and abroad, and had (December, 1948) 40,633 
officers and employees, 17,329 corps and outposts and 254,687 local officers 
and corps cadets. There were in 1948, about 1,680 social centres and 
agencies, 418 shelters, 308 industrial homes, 387 homes for women and 
children, 1,078 day and industrial schools, and their places of worship in the 
United Kingdom have about 560,000 sittings. There are about 400,000 
Jews in the United Kingdom, with about 240 synagogues. 

Roman Catholics in England and Wales were estimated at 2,754,249 in 
1950. There were 4 archbishops and 14 bishops, about 6,000 priests (not 
all officiating) and 2,196 churches, chapels and stations. 

The following is a summary of recent statistics of certain churches in 
England and Wales. Channel Islands and Isle of Man : 















Sunday 




Sitting 




Ministers 


Local 


Sunday 


school 


Denomination 


accommo- 
dation 


Bull 
members 


in 
charge 


and lay 
preachers 


school 
teachers 


scholars 
and bible 














class 


Methodist . 





1,147,380 


5,220 


49,034 


130,092 


1,068,720 


Independent Methodist 


48,000 


8,939 


336 


_. 


3,000 


13,486 


Wesleyan Reform Union 


56,000 


6,373 


22 


354 


2,400 


11,903 


Congregational Union 


1,727,000 


371,130 


2,600 


3,299 


34,904 


262,041 


Baptist 


1,382,000 


343,798 


1,962 


4,316 


41,279 


310,687 


Presbyterian 


184,000 


81,715 


360 





7,400 


64,000 


Oalvinistic Methodist 


560,000 


227,321 


932 


208 


14,003 


84,494 


Moravian . 


11,000 


6,700 


40 


2 


600 


4,000 


Lady Huntingdon's Con- 














nexion 


13,000 


1,700 


27 


46 


300 


2,700 


Churches of Christ 




14,000 




2,000 


1,700 


17,000 


Society of Friends 





20,730 








2,000 


15,000 


Anglican (in England) 


5,400,000 


2,294,000 








171,000 


1,956,000 



2. Scotland. 

The Church of Scotland (established in 1560 at the Reformation and 
re-established in 1688 as part of the Revolution Settlement) is Presbyterian, 
the ministers all being of equal rank. There is in each parish a kirk session, 
consisting of the minister and of several laymen called elders. There are 
presbyteries (formed by groups of parishes), meeting frequently throughout 
the year, and these are* again group'ed in synods, which meet half-yearly and 

1 No later figures available. 



GREAT BRITAIN 69 

can be appealed to against the decisions of the presbyteries. The supreme 
court is the General Assembly, which now consists of 1,620 members, half 
clerical and half lay, chosen by the different presbyteries. It meets annually 
in May (under the presidency of a Moderator appointed by the Assembly, 
the Sovereign being represented by a Lord High Commissioner, appointed 
by the King on the nomination of the Government of the day), and sits 
usually for 8 days. Any matters not decided during this period may be 
left to a commission which sits at stated intervals until the meeting of the 
next General Assembly. 

On 2 October, 1929, the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church 
of Scotland were reunited under the name of The Church of Scotland, and 
the two bodies met in General Assembly in Edinburgh as one. The united 
Church had, in Scotland, on 31 December, 1948, 2,377 congregations, 
1,263,423 members, besides adherents; 2,922 Sunday schools, with 36,132 
teachers and 269,800 scholars in attendance. The Church courts are the 
General Assembly, 12 synods, 66 presbyteries in Scotland, 1 in England 
and 3 on the Continent, in addition to foreign mission presbyteries. Income 
in 1948 was 1 ,658,793. The Church has divinity faculties in the 4 Scottish 
universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and St. Andrews, with 28 
professors and lecturers. Tho united Church's foreign mission agents 
(including natives) number approximately 8,500, income 1,060,062. There 
are in Scotland some small outstanding Presbyterian bodies and also Baptists, 
Congregationa lists, Methodists and Unitarians. The Episcopal Church in 
Scotland had in 1948, 7 bishoprics, 400 churches and missions, 337 clergy 
and 56,070 communicants. 

The Roman Catholic Church had in Scotland (1949) 2 archbishops and 
6 bishops; 947 clergy, about 450 churches, chapels and stations, and, in 
1942, 621,400 adherents. 

The proportion of marriages in Scotland according to the rites of the 
various Churches in 1946 was : Church of Scotland, 60-3% ; Roman 
Catholic, 12-6; Episcopal, 3-0; United Free, 0-9; others, 6-7; Civil, 16-5. 

Books of Reference : 

Ady (C. M.), The English Church and How it Works. London, 1940. 
Hell (G. K. A.), The English Church. London, 1942. 
Wand (J. W. 0.), The Anglican Communion : a Survey. Oxford, 1948. 
Phillips (W. A.), History of the Church of Ireland. London, 1934. 

Education. 
University Education. 

In England the highest education is given at the ancient Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, the former having 22 colleges and 3 private 
halls and the latter 17 colleges and 1 hall; the University of Durham, 
with a college of medicine and of science at Newcastle; the University 
of London, with 7 ' departments,' 36 * schools' and 22 institutions giving 
instruction in 8 faculties ; the Victoria University (Manchester), the Birming- 
ham University, the Liverpool University, the Leeds University, the 
Sheffield University, the Bristol University, the University of Reading, 
which started in 1860 as a college for art classes, and the University of 
Nottingham, founded as a University College in 1881. There are also Uni- 
versity Colleges at Exeter (founded 1893), 115 lecturers, etc., 1,091 students, 
1949-50; Southampton (founded 1850), 139 lecturers, 915 (full-time) and 
681 (part-time, technical) students, 1949-50; Leicester (opened in 1923), 65 
lecturers, etc., and 707 full-time students, 1949-50; Hull (founded in 1928) 
with 144 professors and lecturers and 928 students in 1949-50. There are 



70 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH 4ND EMPIRE 



special agricultural colleges at Carlisle, Cirencester, Glasgow, Newport 
(Shropshire), Kingston-on-Soar (Derby), Wye (Kent), Uckfield (Sussex) and 
Ripley (Surrey). The University of Wales has 4 colleges, Cardiff, Aberyst- 
wyth, Bangor and Swansea. In Scotland there are 4 universities, viz., at 
St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Edinburgh. The Carnegie Trust, founded 
in 1901 with a capital of 2,000,000, has an annual income of 100,000, of 
which half is devoted to the equipment and expansion of the Scottish 
universities and half to assisting students. The following table gives 
the approximate number of professors, lecturers, etc., and students of 
the universities for 1948-49 (the dates of foundation are given in 
brackets) : 



Universities 


Number 
of profes- 
sors, etc. 


Number 
of 
students 


Universities 


Number 
of profes- 
sors, etc. 


Number 

Of 

students 


England 
Oxford 
Cambridge . 
Durham (1831) 
London (1836) 
Manchester (1880) 
Birmingham (1900) 
Liverpool (1903) 
Leeds (1904) 
Sheffield (1908) 
Bristol (1909) 
Beading (1926) 
Nottingham (1948) 

Total for England 


800 
6(>2 
608 
1,572 
490 
562 
505 
527 
327 
445 
208 
230 


7,775 
7,775 l 
4,785 
21,985" 
4,880 
3,378 
3,597 
3,309 
4,206 
2.753 
1,249 
2,107 


Scotland 
St. Andrews (1411) 
Glasgow (1450) . 
Aberdeen (1494) . 
Edinburgh (1582) 

Total for Scotland 

Wales (1 903) 
Cardiff 
Aberyslwyth 
Bangor 
Swansea 

Total for Wales 


290 
546 
206 
603 


2,200 
7,265 
2,216 

6,388 


1,704 


18,068 


140 
130 
107 
97 


1,815 
1,326 
923 
1,075 


6,736 


67,799 


474 


5,139 



1 Including 642 women. 

Not including 353 part-time students. 



* Internal students, 1949-50, 27,429. 
Including 1,935 evening studente. 



At most of the universities and university colleges women students are 
admitted on equal terms with men. There are, however, several colleges 
exclusively for female students (figures for 1949-50) : 



Colleges 


Number 
of pro- 
fessors, 
etc. 


Number 
of 
students 


Colleges 


Number 
of pro- 
feasors, 
etc. 


Number 
of 
students 


London 






Oxford 






Bedford 


93 


849 


Lady Margaret Hall 


15 


214 


Royal Holloway . 


49 


347 


Somerville 


18 


215 


Westfield . 


28 


252 


St. Hugh's . 


10 


165 








St. Hilda's . 


8 


182 


Cambridge 






Societv of Oxford 






Newnham . 


17 


316 


Home Studente (St. 






Girton 


18 


318 


Anne's Society) . 


12 


359 



Women were first admitted to membership of Oxford University, and 
to take degrees in Oct., 1920, and were admitted to full membership of 
Cambridge University in Oct., 1948. 

NATIONAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION. 

Mngfand and Wales. 

Considerable changes in the organization of education in England and 
Wales *re taking place as a result of the Education Act of 1944, which came 
into force on 1 April, 1 945. These changes, falling as they do immediately 



GREAT BRITAIN 



71 



after the war when the collection of many educational statistics was sus- 
pended, make itr impossible to give a full statistical picture of English and 
Welsh education at the present time. The following notes, however, show 
some of the salient facts. 

Primary and Secondary Education. The Education Act, 1944, classifies 
publicly provided education into three distinct and successive stages 
primary, secondary and further education. Full-time schooling is being 
made available free for all children in publicly maintained primary and 
secondary schools, the secondary stage beginning at about the age of 11. 

Fees in all types of secondary schools maintained by local education 
authorities (including voluntary schools) were abolished on 1 April, 1945. 
The school leaving age was raised from 14 to 15 on 1 April, 1947, and will be 
raised to 16 later. 

In Jan., 1949, there were 5,870,108 children on the registers between 
the ages of 2 and 19, made up as follows: Schools partially or wholly 
financed by L.E.As., 5,586,298; schools receiving grant direct from the 
Ministry of Education, 93,945; schools inspected and recognized by the 
Ministry as efficient, but receiving no grant from public funds, 189,865. 

Tn schools partially or wholly financed by Local Education Authorities 
(primary and secondary) there were, between the ages of 2 and 19, 2,833,615 
boys and 2,695,161 girls in 23,201 primary and 4,680 secondary schools. 

Nursery Schools. In Jan., 1949, there were 21,810 pupils between 
the ages of 2 and 8 in separate nursery schools. In addition, there were 
2,261 nursery classes attached to other schools in England arid Wales with 
64,021 pupils. 

Special Schools. In Jan., 1949, there were 576 special schools for 
mentally or physically handicapped children, with 45,073 pupils (25,337 boys 
and 19,736 girls). 

Teachers. On 31 March, 1949, there were 216,757 teachers (83,766 men 
and 132,991 women) in contributory service in schools and other educational 
establishments maintained from public funds, other than direct grant schools 
and establishments. 

Training of Teachers. The very large output of trained teachers re- 
quired over the next few years is being attained in two ways : (a) By the 
emergency training scheme under which men and women who have served 
in the Forces or undertaken other forms of war service are given an intensive 
course lasting 1 year, This scheme is now closed ; (b) by an expansion of 
the existing training facilities in 2- or 3-year colleges and university train- 
ing departments. 

Details of university training departments and permanent training 






Educational year, 
1948-49 


Educational year, 
1949-50 


Admitted to training .... 


3,664 men 
7,840 women 


4,121 men 
8.988 women 


Total 


11,504 


13,109 


Number in training 


5,824 men 
13,954 women 


6,359 men 
15,928 women 


Total 


19,778 


22,287 


Number who successfully completed training 


8,343 men, 
6,392 women 





Total 


9,735 











72 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Emergency Training ScJieme (providing intensive courses of 1 year's 
duration for candidates who have served with the Forces or undertaken 
other approved forms of national service). Applications received (1949), 
4,838 women; recommended, 2,592 (18 men, 2,574 women). There were, 
on 23 Dec., 1949, 30 candidates (2 men and 28 women) awaiting interview 
or under consideration. This scheme is now closed. 

Emergency Training Colleges. The number in training at the end of 
1949 was 7,341 (4,124 men, 3,217 women), and the number successfully 
completing training during 1949 was 9,128 (6,040 men, 3,088 women). 

Farther Education. For the year 1948-49 there were 9,856 further 
education establishments or courses consisting of: major establishments 
(Other than art), 523; art establishments, 205; evening institutes, 9,128. 
The number of students attending during 1948-49 was, full-time, 51,670; 
part-time, 2,063,539. 

The number of students released by their employers during working 
hours in 1948-49 was 224,094, including manufacturing industries, 124,639; 
building and contracting 34,207; mining, 17,751. 

Awards to Students. State scholarships awarded in 1949, 900, and the 
total number of awards current in 1949-50 was 1,799. Supplemental 
awards to holders of scholarships awarded by universities or colleges in 1949, 
1,315; number current in 1949-50, 2,303. In addition 100 technical state 
scholarships were granted. Candidates must be below the age of 20 on 
31 July in the year of award. State scholarships to the number of not more 
than 20 will be offered to students over 25 years of age who have shown 
ability to follow a full-time university degree course with credit. There will 
be no upper age limit. Supplemental awards were introduced for the first 
time in 1946. 

Farther Education and Training Scheme. The table shows the number 
of awards made to ex-service men and women, classified according to the 
intended occupation of the recipient. 



i 








8 




8 









3 




sj 


U 


9 


fr 


3 




fc 


' 


2 

d 




O> 






f 


3 


| 


2 


'"I 




08 


$ 


fi 




^ 




+ *t 




1 


1 


1 


5 


6 


1 




1 


I 


1 


1947 


5,133 


1,783 


357 


1,460 


1,725 


687 


3,812 


1,207 


731 


8,612 


25,606 


1948 


5,362 


1,023 


258 


1,376 


1,227 


576 


3,632 


862 


558 


6,326 


21,200 


1949 


2,776 


679 


178 


377 


503 


241 


1,553 


783 


285 


7,375 


10,133 



1 Including university teaching. 

* Including art teaching. 

School Meals and Milk. In primary and secondary schools (excluding 
nursery, special and direct-grant schools) the percentage of pupils taking 

dinners in Oct., 1949, amounted to 52-7%, and pupils taking milk, 
87-1%. Milk became free of payment in all schools on 1 Aug., 1946. 

Finance. Total expenditure on education in England and Wales from 
public funds (excluding university education) is estimated at 272,928,000 
for 1949, as compared with 245,693,000 for 1948, or an increase of 11%. 
Of the total, 182,693,000 will be met from the Exchequer and 90,235,000 
from the rates. 



GREAT BRITAIN 73 

Scotland. 

Secondary Education. Tn 1948 there were 1,050 schools with secondary 
divisions (847 3-year, 203 5-year), the average number of scholars on the 
registers being 399,382 (240,410 3-year, 152,922 5-year). The number of 
students attending central institutions in 1947-48 was 14,368 day students 
and 19,591 evening students. The number of teachers in schools with 
secondary divisions at 31 March, 1948, was 16,215. In 1948-49 there were 
3,065 students training for the Teacher's General Certificate, including 657 
graduates, in 4 training centres and 2 training colleges. 

Elementary Education. In 1947-48 there were 1,981 schools with primary 
divisions, and the average number on the registers was 362,078. 

As at 31 March, 1948, there were 11,113 recognized certificated teachers 
in schools with primary divisions. 

In 1948-49 there were 22 residential special schools, 63 day special 
schools, and special classes attached to 28 ordinary schools. The total 
number of handicapped children under instruction was 10,791, of which 
0,439 were mentally handicapped, 3,383 were physically handicapped, 155 
wore blind and 814 were deaf. There were 78 nursery schools, and nursery 
classes attached to 35 ordinary schools, the total enrolment being 4,569. 
At 30 June, 1949, there were 25 approved schools with a total enrolment 
of 1,712 (1,488 boys, 224 girl). 

Further Education. Centres for continuation classes numbered 911 in 
1947-48 with a total attendance of 183,392 students. In addition short 
informal courses of instruction in cookery and ' make do and mend ' were 
given at GI centres with a total attendance of 12,585. Adult education 
classes were conducted at 61 centres and were attended by 12,671 students. 

The total ordinary expenditure of education authorities during 1948-49 
was 29,438,239 (subject to correction on audit), and the expenditure for 
1949-50 was estimated at 31,632,876. 



The British Council. 

The British Council was established by His Majesty's Government in 
November, 1934, and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1940. Its prin- 
cipal purposes are the promotion of a wider knowledge of the United 
Kingdom and the English language abroad and the development of closer 
cultural relations between the United Kingdom and other countries. 

The council derives its funds from votes of the Foreign Office, Common- 
wealth Relations Office, Colonial Office and Colonial Development and 
Welfare Fund. For the year ending 31 March, 1950, grants-in-aid totalled 
3,232,000, and for the year ending 31 March, 1951, 3,233,700. The net 
expenditure for the year"onding 31 March, 1949, was 2,853,757. 

The principal officers of the council are as follows : 

President. &\T Henry Dale, O.M., C.B.E., F.R.S. 

Chairman and Director -General. General Sir Ronald Adam, Bt., G.C.B., 
D.S.O., O.B.E. 

Vice-Chairman. Sir Philip Morris, C.B.E. 
Secretary. Richard Seymour, C.B.E. 

Under the charter the powers of the council are vested in the Executive 
Committee of 30 members, of whom 9 are nominated by the following : 
The Lord President of the Council, the Secretaries of State for Foreign 
Affairs, the Home Department, Commonwealth Relations, Scotland and the 



74 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Colonies, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the President of the Board of 
Trade and the Minister of Education. There are the following expert 
advisory committees and panels (the names of chairmen holding office as at 
May, 1950, in brackets) : Books and Publishing (Sir Stanley Unwin), 
Drama (Lord Esher), Fine Arts (Sir Eric Maclagan), Law (Lord Porter), 
Music (Sir Adrian Boult), Science (Sir Alfred Egerton) (with panels on Agri- 
culture, General Science, Medicine and a group of advisers on Engineering), 
Universities (Sir Raymond Priestley), Presentation Media (Rt. Hon. H. 
Graham White). There are also advisory panels for Scotland (Dr. James 
Welsh) and Wales (Lady Megan Lloyd George, M.P.). 

The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs is responsible to Parliament 
for the council's work in or relating to foreign countries and the Secretaries 
of State for the Colonies and Commonwealth Relations are responsible to 
Parliament for its work in the Commonwealth. 

In May, 1950, there were representatives of the council in the following 
Commonwealth countries : Australia, Ceylon, India, New Zealand, 
Pakistan, Aden, British East Africa, British Guiana, Gambia, Gold Coast, 
Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad, Cyprus, Fiji, Gibraltar, 
Hong Kong, Malaya, Malta, Mauritius, Singapore; and in the following 
foreign countries : Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, 
Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, 
Greece, Indonesia, Iraq, Italv, Jordan, Lebanon, Mexico, Netherlands, 
Norway, Persia, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzer- 
land, Syria, Turkey. Uruguay, Venezuela and Yugoslavia. There is a 
liaison officer in Germany, 

In most of these countries, except in Latin America, the British Council 
maintains British Institutes or similar centres in the capital cities, arid in 
some countries also in other cities. 

In Latin America the council co-operates with and assists cultural asso- 
ciations in the following countries : Argentina (Buenos Aires, Cordoba, La 
Plata, Mendoza, Rosario, Santa Fe, Tucuman); Brazil (Belo, Horizonte, 
Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Paulo) ; Chile (Santiago, Valparaiso) ; 
Colombia (Bogota, Mcdellin); Mexico (Mexico City); Peru (Lima); Uru- 
guay (Montevideo) ; Venezuela (Caracas). t 

In the United Kingdom, the council has staff stationed in many of the 
principal towns of Englanol, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The 
council provides cultural and welfare facilities for overseas students studying 
in the U.K. On 1 Jan., 1950, it became responsible for the non-academic 
welfare of all the 4,000 colonial students in the U.K., funds for this being 
provided mainly from the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund. It 
sponsors and arranges visits from overseas of individuals and groups. It 
also organizes short courses and summer schools in the United Kingdom on 
technical and social subjects. There are centres, for which the council is 
wholly or largely responsible, in Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liverpool, Cardiff, 
Manchester, Birmingham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Bristol, Stratford- on- 
Avon, Oxford and Cambridge. 

The council carries on a great variety of educational activities. Instruc- 
tion in the English language and literature and in other subjects is given in 
British Institutes, centres and cultural societies. A number of British schools 
abroad are supported, notably in Egypt and Latin America, and the council 
has helped them in the recruitment of British teachers for these schools. 
The council is frequently asked to advise foreign governments and educa- 
tional authorities on the selection and appointment of British subjects to 
the staff of foreign universities and sometimes affords financial aid. It 
awards a considerable number of scholarships to post-graduate students 



GKEAT BRITAIN 75 

and of bursaries to technicians and others wishing to study in Britain. The 
council acts as overseas agent for many British examining bodies and 
collaborates with the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate in the 
organization of examinations in English for foreign students. 

The council publishes the following periodicals : Britain To-day, British Medical Bulletin, 
British Agricultural Bulletin, British Book News and English Language Teaching. Brochures 
in English and 17 other languages are published for the council in the following series: Arts 
in Britain, Aspects of Britain, British Contributions, British Life and Thought, The British 
People, Science in Britain. 

Headquarters : 65 Davies Street, London, W.I. 



The Administration of Justice. 

England and Wales. 

The legal system of England and Wales has at the head of the superior 
courts, as the ultimate court of appeal, the House of Lords, which hears each 
year a number of appeals in civil matters, including a certain number from 
Scotland and very occasionally an appeal in a criminal case. In order that 
civil cases may go from the Court of Appeal to the House of Lords, it is 
necessary to obtain the leave of either the Court of Appeal or the House 
itself, and before an appeal can be brought from a decision of the Court of 
Criminal Appeal a certificate of the Attorney-General is indispensable, cer- 
tifying that the decision involves a point of law of * exceptional public 
importance * and that it is desirable in the public interest that a further 
appeal should be brought. Since the institution of the Court of Criminal 
Appeal in 1907, three murder appeals have reached the Lords, the last in 
1941. As a judicial body the House of Lords consists of the Lord Chan- 
cellor, the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, commonly called Law Lords, and 
such other members of the House as have held high judicial office. The 
final court of appeal for India and certain of tho Dominions is the Judicial 
Committee of the Privy Council, constituted on nearly parallel lines with 
the House of Lords. 

On the civil side there is in England and Wales below the House of 
Lords the Supreme Court of Judicature, divided into two parts, the Court 
of Appeal (with the Lord Chancellor as nominal head and the Lords Justices 
of Appeal), and the High Court of Justice. The High Court has 3 divisions : 
(1) the Chancery Division, concerned with the construction of wills and 
settlements, trusts, mortgages, etc. ; (2) the Bang's Bench Division, whose 
primary function is the administration of the common law, and (3) the 
Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division, comprising courts deriving from 
the old civil law. The King's Bench Division, in addition to original 
jurisdiction, has certain appellate powers. Thus two or more judges, 
forming a divisional court, deal with cases stated for their opinion by lay 
justices or stipendiary or metropolitan magistrates and the Revenue Judge, 
nominally a divisional court, with cases stated by the Inland Revenue 
Commissioners. King's Bench judges, in addition to their main work in 
London, deal on circuit with a large amount of civil business, including 
the trial of certain categories of divorce causes, at tho larger assize 
towns. 

Below the House of Lords on the criminal side is the Court of Criminal 
Appeal, corresponding to the Court of Appeal on the civil side, and hearing 
appeals from King's Bench judges exercising criminal jurisdiction at Assizes 
and from the Central Criminal Court. It is drawn from the Lord Chief 
Justice and eight King's Bench judges appointed by him for the purpose. 



76 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

with the consent of the Lord Chancellor, the court consisting of an uneven 
number of such judges, normally three. In greater London, the Central 
Criminal Court, more commonly known as the Old Bailey, is, in effect, a 
substitute for both Assizes and Quarter Sessions. In it sit, in addition to 
King's Bench judges (for whom are reserved the more serious cases, and, in 
particular, those crimes involving capital punishment), the Recorder of 
London and the Common Serjeant. Nominally all the judges are appointed 
by the King, but in practice the Lord Chancellor (who is a Minister, a 
member of the Cabinet, ex-officio president of the House of Lords and goes 
out with the Ministry), the Lord Chief Justice, the Lords of Appeal in 
Ordinary and the Lords Justices of Appeal are appointed on the recom- 
mendation of the Prime Minister, and the other judges on the recommendation 
of the Lord Chancellor. The Recorder of London and the Common Serjeant 
are appointed by the City of London, subject to approval by the 
Crown. 

The superior courts referred to above form only a relatively small part of 
the legal system so far as number of proceedings is concerned. On the civil 
side more than half a million cases yearly are in normal times brought before 
courts less than 100 years old, divided into some 60 circuits covering the 
whole country and somewhat misleadingly called county courts. These are 
presided over by legally qualified judges, charged with duties in such 
responsible and difficult matters as bankruptcy, rent restriction and work- 
men's compensation, etc. They have a general jurisdiction, subject to 
certain rights of transfer to the High Court given to defendants, to deter- 
mine all actions founded on contract or tort involving sums of not more 
than 200, but certain matters, such as, e.g., libel and slander, are entirely 
reserved for the High Court. Each court has one or more registrars, who 
may hear any proceedings other than actions and, given certain conditions, 
actions involving not more than 10. From county courts an appeal lies 
to the Court of Appeal. Finally, there survive a few ancient local courts 
with civil jurisdiction, and, although the primary function of the justice of 
the peace is criminal, a not inconsiderable volume of civil work now falls 
on justices. Part of this work is done in separate courts for domestic pro- 
ceedings, which determine matrimonial disputes, those relating to bastardy 
and guardianship of infants, etc. One of the presiding justices in such 
cases must be a woman. 

On the criminal side the position as to the inferior courts is more 
complicated. At the base are the lay justices, who, outside the large towns, 
try the great bulk of minor offenders, or, according to fairly recent 
statistics, 98-9% of persons found guilty of offences of all kinds. Exercising 
summary jurisdiction in petty sessions, justices have power to pass sentences 
of imprisonment up to, in general, six months, and to impose fines up to, in 
general, 50. A number of the so-called crimes with which they deal at the 
present time are relatively venial, such as traffic offences and breaches of 
such statutes as those dealing with food and drugs, hours of work, etc. 
One of their most important functions is to examine prisoners charged with 
graver categories of offences and to commit them for trial at a higher court, 
viz. Assizes or Quarter Sessions. Certain persons are, ex-officio, justices, 
but the vast majority are placed upon the Commission of the Peace by the 
Lord Chancellor on the recommendation of the Lords Lieutenants of the 
counties, who, in turn, are assisted by advisory committees. Women are 
now eligible to act as justices, and the numbers holding the Commission are 
estimated to be at the present time in the neighbourhood of 2,500. In 
certain larger provincial towns and in London the corresponding work is 
done by legally qualified and remunerated persons, called respectively 



GREAT BRITAIN 77 

stipendiary and metropolitan police magistrates, who sit alone. Above the 
petty sessional courts are courts of Quarter Sessions, having a more extensive 
original jurisdiction and power also to hear appeals from Detty sessions. 
These consist in general of lay justices; some boroughs, nowever. have 
separate Quarter Sessions with a legally qualified and remunerated chairman 
called a Recorder. Further, since 1938, legally qualified and remunerated 
chairmen and deputy -chairmen may be appointed with official approval, 
in which case the court has more extensive jurisdiction than it would other- 
wise have. From Quarter Sessions appeals lie to the Assize courts presided 
over by King's Bench judges and thence to the Court of Criminal Appeal and 
the House of Lords (see above). There remains as a last resort an invocation 
of the Royal Prerogative exercised on the advice of the Home Secretary after 
consultation with the judges concerned. By this means a very small number 
of death sentences are each year commuted for terms of imprisonment or 
detention. 

All criminal trials, except those which come before courts of summary 
jurisdiction or the House of Lords, are tried by a judge and a jury consisting 
normally of twelve members, reduced by the Administration of Justice 
(Emergency Provisions) Act of 1939 to not more than seven, save in murder 
or treason or in any case where tbo court, by reason of the gravity of the 
issues, directs that the full number bo empanelled. The same Act prohibits 
juries in all civil cases, whether in the High Court or inferior courts, unless 
the court is of opinion that the question ought to be tried with a jury and so 
orders ; in such case the general limitation to seven applies. 

Important features of the English legal system are the Poor Persons 
Procedure, supplemented in the case of the Forces by a special legal aid 
scheme, and Poor Prisoners' Defence. In the case of the Poor Persons 
Procedure, under which in 1942 2,791 cases were entered, 96% of them 
matrimonial, would-be litigants with incomes under certain limits are 
provided with the services of counsel and solicitor on the payment of the 
solicitor's out-of-pocket expenses. Under the Poor Prisoners' Defence, any 
person committed for trial for an indictable offence whose means appear 
insufficient to enable him to obtain legal assistance in tho ordinary way, may, 
on being granted a * defence certificate,' have free legal aid and have counsel 
and solicitor assigned to him for his defence. In charges of murder a defence 
certificate must in such circumstances be granted. Persons charged before 
the justices may similarly be granted a ' legal aid certificate,' entitling them 
to the services of a solicitor. 

The authorized strength of the police force in England and Wales in 
December, 1948, was 69,577 men and 1,476 women. The strength was 57,614 
men and 1,036 women. In addition there were 967 whole-time auxiliaries 
(including 270 First Police Reserve, 686 Police War Reserve, 11 women) 
and 18,535 special constables. The Police War Reserve and Women 
Auxiliaries were disbanded on 31 Dec., 1948. Total police expenditure 
(estimated) in England and Wales for 1947-48 was 23,503,000. 

Scotland. 

The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. 
It consists of all the judges of the Court of Session, and sits more or less fre- 
quently, as the number of cases before it may require, in Edinburgh or in the 
circuit towns. One judge can, and usually does, try cases, but two or more 
preside in cases of difficulty or importance. It is tho only competent court in 
cases of treason, murder, robbery, rape, fire-raising, deforcement of mes- 
sengers, and generally in all cases in which a higher punishment than 



78 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



imprisonment is by statute directed to be inflicted ; and it has moreover an 
inherent jurisdiction to punish all criminal acts, both those already estab- 
lished by common law or statute, and such as have never previcmsly come 
before the cotirts and aro not within any statute. 

The sheriff of each county is the proper criminal judge in all crimes 
occurring within the counby which infer only an arbitrary punishment, and if 
the case is tried with a jury the High Court has no power of review on the 
merits. Even in cases indicted to the High Court the accused is, under the 
Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act of 1887, regularly asked to plead in the 
sheriff court, and minor objections to the indictment can be wholly or in part 
disposed of there. Borough magistrates and justices of the peace have juris- 
diction in petty cases occurring within the burgh or county, and in a number 
of minor offences under various statutes. 

The Court of Session, presided over by the Lord President, and divided 
into an Inner and an Outer House, exercises the highest civil jurisdiction 
in Scotland, with the House of Lords as a Court of Appeal. 

The police forces in Scotland at the end of 1949 had an authorized strength 
of 7,505 (including 162 women) ; the strength was 6,869 men and 134 women. 
Whole-time * additional ' policemen numbered 122, and there were about 
9,600 part-time special constables. The estimated expenditure on police, 
borne by the Government, was 2,100,626 for 1947-48 (general administra- 
tion 2,070,413; Road Fund grant, 30,213). 



CIVIL JUDICIAL STATISTICS ENGLAND AND WALES. 





1946 


1947 


1948 


Appellate Courts 








Judicial Committee of the Privy Council . 


104 


97 


55 


House of Lords 


45 


63 


36 




568 


655 


691 


High Court of Justice (appeals and special casea 
from inferior courts) ..... 


572 


700 


535 


Total 


1,289 


1,505 


1,317 


Courts of First Instance 








High Court of Justice : 








Chancery Division ..... 


5,140 


6,188 


8,068 


King's Bench Division .... 
Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division 
County courts 
Other courts 


40,046 
43,871 
285,683 
10,932 


63,635 
49,376 
337,130 
14,148 


84,034 
38,674 
409,222 
14,549 


Total 


385,671 


470,377 


554,547 


Grand total .... 


386,960 


471,882 


655,864 



SCOTLAND. 



/V..-J. 


Actions 




1946 


1947 


1948 


House of Lords (Appeals from Court of Session) 


31 


33 


38 


Court of Session General Department 
Sheriff's Ordinary Court .... 


4,927 
6,885 


4,635 

8,583 


4,348 
11,121 


Sheriffs Small Debt Court .... 


12,507 


14,672 


20,762 


Justice of Peace Small Debt Court . 


2,491 


2,261 


3,212 



GREAT BRITAIN 



,79 



CRIMINAL STATISTICS. 
ENGLAND AND WALES. 





1946 


1947 


1948 


IndictaMe offences 
Proceedings taken .... 


119,759 


128,546 


141,631 


Found guilty at Magistrates Courts 
Found guilty at Assizes or Quarter Sessions 


91,961 
15,848 


97,690 
17,982 


108,715 
20,669 


Non-indictable offences 
Proceedings taken .... 


445,323 


533,202 


566,865 


Found guilty at Magistrates Courts 


414,202 


498,654 


527,566 


Juveniles l 








Infix-table offences .... 


37,088 


35,694 


44,484 


Non-indictable offences 


25,052 


22.367 


27,435 


Dealt with at MaKtet rates Courts : total 


01,023 


57,662 


71.27Q 


Dealt with at Assizes or Quarter Sessions : 








total 


732 


681 


728 



SCOTLAND. 





1946 


1917 


1948 


Crimes 








Proceedings taken ..... 


24,065 


23,267 


25,722 


Disposed of summarily .... 


22,401 


21,641 


24,107 


Miscellanfont offences 








Proceedings taken ..... 


72,314 


80,461 


82,502 


Jwenilei l 








Crimes charges proved without finding of guilt 


3,076 


3,169 


4,089 


Pound guilty 


6,394 


5,067 


6,219 



1 Young persons under 17 years of age. 

Daily average population in prisons in England and Wales in 1947 was 
17,067 (convicted 15,427; unconvicted, persons on remand or awaiting 
trial, 1,640). In Scotland, the daily average population was 1,889 in 1947 
and 1,902 in 1948. 

Book of Reference : 

Jackson (11. M.), The Machinery of Justice in England. London, 1940. 

National Insurance. Old Age Pensions. National Assistance. 

The National Insurance Act, 1946, came into operation on 5 July, 1948, 
and the existing schemes of health, pensions and unemployment insurance 
were repealed from that date. 

This Act applies in general to all persons in Great Britain who are over 
school leaving age and divides contributors into three classes, e.g. : (a) 
Employed; (b) Self-employed ; (c) Non-employed. 

The weekly contributions for employed persons are : 





Employee 


Employer 




Employee 


Employer 


Men . 
Women 


4*. lid. 
3*. IQd. 


4j. 2cf. 
3s. 3d. 


Boys (under age 18) 
Girls (under age 18) 


25. 10|d. 
2s. 4d. 


2s. 5*4. 
1*. lid. 



The above are the normal rates, but in the case of adult workers, where 
the wages are. at the rate of 30s. a week or less, the employer must pay 1*. 1 Id. 
of the employee's contribution (man) in addition to his own, making the 
employer's total 65. Id. or, in the case of a woman, Is. 5d., making the total 
4a. &d. This does not apply where the employee gets board and lodging in 
addition to wages. 



80 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

The above rates include the contributions for Industrial Injuries 
Insurance. These are 4d. from men, 3d. from women, 2\d. from boys, 2d. 
from girls and equal amounts from the employer. 

The weekly contributions for self-employed persons are : Men, 6-?. 2d. ; 
women, 65. Id. ; boys (under age 18), 3s. Id. ; girls (under age 18), 3s. Id. 

The weekly contributions for non-employed persons are : Men, 4,9. 8d. ; 
women, 3s. Sd. ; boys (under age 18), 2s. 9d.; girls (under age 18), 2s. 3d. 

In every case the above contributions include the contribution for the 
new National Health Service (medical, hospital, dental, nursing, etc., 
treatment). The amount of these contributions is : Men, lOd. ; women, Sd. ; 
boys or girls, Qd. 

Contributions for a man will be payable up to the age of 65. If, at that 
age, he retires from work, he pays no more contributions. If he continues 
working, contributions are payable to the age of 70. Comparable ages for 
women are 60 and 65. 

Special transitional arrangements have been made for persons who have 
entered the insurance scheme late in life to pay contributions after reaching 
pension age even though they are no longer employed, to enable them to 
qualify for pension. 

Benefits. The benefits are: (1) Unemployment benefit; (2) Sickness 
benefit; (3) Maternity benefit; (4) Widow's benefit; (5) Guardian's 
allowance; (6) Retirement pensions; (7) Death grant. 

Employed persons qualify for all the benefits ; self-employed qualify for 
all except unemployment; non-employed qualify for all except unemploy- 
ment, sickness and maternity allowance. 

Qualification for any benefit depends upon the fulfilment of the 
appropriate contribution conditions laid down in the Act. 

Sickness and Unemployment Benefit. The normal rate is 26*. a week, 
plus 16s. a week for an adult dependant, plus 7s. 6d. for the first dependent 
child. There is no allowance for children except the first child, as the 
others are covered by the Family Allowance Act. 

Maternity Benefit. For a confinement a woman receives a maternity 
grant of 4 for each child, and, if she has been gainfully employed, she 
receives a maternity allowance of 36*. a week normally for 13 weeks 
commencing approximately 6 weeks before her confinement, provided she 
does no work during this period. For other women there is, instead of the 
maternity allowance of 36,s., an attendance allowance of 1 a week for 4 
weeks in addition to the maternity grant. 

Widow's Benefits. On her husband's death a widow will qualify for 
13 weeks for an allowance of 36. a week for herself plus Is. Qd. a week if 
she has a child of school age. At the end of the 13 weeks she will receive 
a widowed mother's allowance of 33s. Qd. for herself and child so long as the 
child is of school age, and, if she is over 40 when this allowance ceases and 
she has been married for 10 years or more, she will qualify for a widow's 
pension of 26*. a week. A widow left without any children of school age will 
receive a widow's pension of 26s. a week after her widow's allowance ceases 
if she is 60 or over and has been married not less than 10 years when she 
loses her husband. 

Guardian's Allowance. Anyone who has in his family an orphan, one of 
whose parents was insured under the new scheme, will receive a guardian's 
allowance of 12s. a week. 

Retirement Pensions. In order to receive a retirement pension, 26s. 
for a man or woman on his or her own insurance and 16s. for a woman 



GREAT BRITAIN 81 



through her husband's insurance, men between 65 and 70 and women 
between 60 and 65 must, as the name suggests, have retired from work. If, 
after retirement, they have any earnings, then, for every shilling that they 
earn over 20<v., Is. will be deducted from their pension. 

If retirement is postponed there is an addition of 2s. to the retirement 
pension for every year a worker continues at work and pays contributions 
between the ages of 65 to 70 in the case of a man and 60 to 65 in the case 
of a woman. 

Death Grant. The amount of the payment will normally be : For an 
adult, 20 ; for a child aged 6-18, 15 ; for a child aged 3-6, 10 ; for a child 
under 3, 6. 

Unemployment benefits continue to be paid through the Employment 
Exchanges. Retirement pensions are paid, as before, through the Post 
Offices by order books as are maternity and attendance allowances. Other 
payments are made through local National Insurance Offices either in cash 
or by means of a postal draft. 

, National Insurance (Industrial Injuries) Act, 1946. 

The Industrial Injuries Act, which also came into operation on 5 July, 
1948, provides a system of insurance against ' personal injury by accident 
arising out of an in the course of employment ' and against certain prescribed 
diseases and injuries due to the nature of the employment. It takes the 
place of the Workmen's Compensation Acts and covers broadly the persons 
who are insured as employed persons under the National Insurance Act. 
The cost of the contribution is included in the employed person's National 
Insurance stamp but there are no contribution conditions for the payment 
of benefit. Three types of benefit are provided : 

(1) Injury benefit, payable during incapacity for work for a maximum 
of twenty-six weeks. The rate of this benefit is 455. a week with increases 
of 16<s. for one adult dependant and 7.s. Qd. for a child. If the insured person 
is under 18 years of age and is not entitled to a dependant's increase, benefit 
will be payable at a reduced rate 33s. 9d. for a person between 17 and 18 
and 22s. Qd. for a person under 17. 

(2) Disablement benefit. This is payable where, when injury benefit 
ceases, there remains some loss of faculty. This loss of faculty will be 
assessed at a percentage by comparison with a person of the same age and 
sex whose condition is normal. If the assessment is 20%, or more, benefit 
will be a pension varying according to the assessment, from 45,9. a week to 
9s. a week. If the assessment is under 20%, benefit will be a gratuity of an 
amount not exceeding 150. Increases of benefit may be payable where a 
disablement causes special hardship or unemployability, where the pensioner 
is in need of constant attendance, or where the pensioner is in hospital 
receiving treatment for his injury. In the case of an unemployable pensioner, 
or a pensioner receiving hospital treatment, an increase of 16s. for an adult 
dependant and 7s. Qd. for a child will be payable. Pensions for persons 
under 18 are reduced similarly to injury benefit. 

(3) Death benefit. The Act provides for payment of a pension to the 
widow of a man killed in an industrial accident, or to the widower of a 
woman so killed if he is incapable of self-support. It also makes provision 
for payment of an allowance of 7s. 6d. a week to a person who has the care 
of a child of the family of the deceased ; and for other death benefits in the 
form either of a pension, gratuity or allowance, to parents, certain relatives 



82 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

or (in addition to the 7$. 6d. mentioned above) a woman caring for the child 
of the deceased's family, if they were maintained by the deceased and 
fulfilled certain other conditions. 

Contributory Pensions. Under the contributory pensions scheme then 
in operation the total amount paid in the United Kingdom in respect of 
widows* and orphans' pensions for the year 1 April, 1947, to 4 July, 1948, 
was approximately 52,452,000, and the beneficiaries at the latter date 
were 891,000 widows and 163,000 children. The total number and cost of 
pensions paid under the contributory old age pensions scheme (persons 
between ages 60 and 70) for the year ending 31 March, 1948, was 1,524,000 
(71,988,000). 

Unemployment Insurance : Great Britain. Under the Unemployment 
Insurance scheme then operating, approximate particulars of receipts and 
payments on the General and Agricultural Accounts combined for the 
period 1 April, 1947, to 4 July, 1948, wore as follows : Contributions, 
employers and employees, 70,4(57,000 ; contributions, ex-service personnel, 
2,374,000; Exchequer * equal thirds,' 36,357,000; total income from 
investments and other receipts, 123,075,000. Payments for the period 
were: Unemployment benefit, 24,608,000; administration, 8,733,000; 
other payments, 461,000. The balance standing to the credit of the 
Unemployment Fund at 4 July, 1948, was 543,525,000. 

Non-contributory Pensions. The Old Age Pensions Act, 1936, provides 
for the payment of non- contributory old ago pensions, at the expense of the 
Exchequer, to persons aged 70 or over (40 or over if they are blind) who 
satisfy certain conditions of nationality, residence and means and who are 
not receiving retirement pensions under the National Insurance Act, 1946. 
The rates of pension range from 26,9. to 25. a week according to means, with 
a maximum of 16s. for married women. Claims are decided by the National 
Assistance Board, subject to a right of appeal to the local Appeal Tribunal 
established under the National Assistance Act, 1948. 

National Assistance. Under the National Assistance Act, 1948, the 
National Assistance Board is responsible for the grant of financial assistance, 
at the expense of the Exchequer, to all persons in Great Britain from 16 
years of age who are without resources, or whose resources (including 
national insurance benefits) need to be supplemented in order to meet their 
requirements. The general standards by reference to which assistance is 
granted are determined by statutory regulations approved by Parliament. 
Persons who are dissatisfied with the amount of assistance granted to them 
may appeal to the local Appeal Tribunal established under the Act. 

During 1949, expenditure on non- contributory old age pensions was 
26,465,000, and, on national assistance, payments amounted to 47,822,000. 

War Pensions. The number of war (1914-18) pensions or allowances in 
payment as at 31 March, 1949, was 850,350 approximately (888,800 in 
1947-48). The number of war (1939-45) pensions or allowances in payment 
as at 31 March, 1949, was 1,334,400 approximately (1,334,760 in 1947-48). 
The expenditure (exclusive of administration expenses) of the Ministry of 
Pensions for 1948-49 was 85,789,675), and the estimated expenditure for 
1949-50 is 85,312,000, and for 1950-51 is 84,613,000. 
Newman (T. 8.), Digest of British Social Insurance. London, 1947. 

Labour and Employment. 

The distribution of total man -power in Great Britain was at December, 
1949 (in thousands) : total working population, 23,318 (16,074 males, 



GREAT BRITAIN 



83 



7,244 females). Total employed in armed forces and women's services, 
725. Total engaged in civil employment, 22,222 (15,109 males, 7,113 
females), including agriculture and fishing, 1,225; mining and quarrying, 
853; national and local government service, 1,453; transport, 1,803; 
building and civil engineering, 1,462; distributive trades, 2,814; com- 
merce, finance, professional and personal service, entertainments, etc., 3,879. 

Number of registered and unregistered trade unions at the end of 1948 
was 706, with a total membership of 9,301,490 (7,632,450 males, 1,669,040 
females) ; including metal manufacturing and engineering trades, 1,666,860 ; 
general labour organizations, 2,140,560; coal-mining, 784,730; railways, 
627,340 ; building and contracting, 504,210 ; other transport, 435,480. The 
number of registered unions was 416 in 1948 with a membership of 7,885,019. 

At Dec., 1948, there were 187 unions affiliated to the Trades Union 
Congress with 890 delegates and a total membership of 7,937,091. 

The following table is a statistical summary relating to trade disputes for 
1948 and 1949: 





Number of 


No. of workers 


Aggregate duration 




disputes 


involved 


in working days 




1948 


1949 


1948 


1949 


1948 


1949 


Mining and quarrying 


1,124 


877 


1,000's 
187 


1,000's 
248 


1,000's 
473 


1,000's 
755 


Brick, pottery, glass, chem- 














ical, etc. 


28 


13 


3 


1 


12 


3 


Engineering and ship- 














building 


166 


166 


68 


33 


368 


226 


Iron, steel and other metal 


100 


94 


39 


17 


681 


59 


Textile 


40 


27 


15 


7 


56 


68 


Clothing 


26 


20 


7 


2 


26 


10 


Woodworking and furnish- 














ing .... 


19 


12 


2 


1 


7 


21 


Building, contracting, etc. 


36 


59 


7 


18 


27 


32 


Transport 


111 


84 


73 


95 


347 


533 


Total (including those 














not specified) . 


1,769 


1,423 


426 


434 


1,944 


1,808 



Ministry of Labour and National Service Eeporb for the years 1939-46. Omd. 7225. 
Webb (S. and B.), History of Trade Unionism. New ed. London, 1920. 



Belief of the Poor. 

The average numbers of persons in receipt of institutional and domi- 
ciliary poor relief were as follows : 

England and Wales. 



Tear 


Indoor l 


Outdoor * 


Patients in 
mental 
hospitals 


Casuals 


Total of 
persons 
relieved 


1944-45 
1945-46 
1946-47 
1947-48 
1948* 


129,517 
127,979 
128,514 
128,889 
137,633 


282,971 
304,826 
318,351 
314,833 
323,980 


119,332 
119,244 
120,102 
120,623 
120,623 


250 
454 
991 
1,397 
1,520 


532,070 
552,503 
568,018 
565,582 
577,756 



1 Excluding casuals and rate-aided patients in mental hospitals. 
Period ended 4 July, 1948. 



* Rate-aided. 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Scotland. 

The number of persons in residential and temporary accommodation 
provided by local authorities under Part III of the National Assistance Act, 
1945, were as follows : 



30 
June 


Residential 
accommodation 


Temporary 
accommodation 


Total 


Adults 


Children 


Adults 


Children 


Adults 


Children 


1949 


8,568 


34 


107 


87 


3,675 


121 



Statistics giving the amount expended in poor-relief for year, ended in 
March for England and Wales, and 15 May for Scotland, are as 
follows (in sterling) : 



Year 


England and Wales 


Scotland 


Total Great Britain 


1943-44 
1944-45 
1945^6 
1946-47 
1947-48 


37,944,660 
39,873,708 
42,895.354 
48,899,711 
55,191,022 


6,265,816 
6,555,102 
6,868,309 
8,334,169 


44,210.476 
46,428,810 
49,763,663 
57,233,880 



The expenditure on institutional relief in England and Wales in 1946-47 
was 30,731,992, and in 1947-48, 36,179,199. Expenditure on domi- 
ciliary relief in 1947-48 was 14,102,261, and in 1947-48 14,722,141. In 
Scotland, 1947-48, indoor relief amounted to 1,122,295; outdoor relief, 
3,825,281; administration, etc., 689,264; lunatic poor, 3,464,749. 

Towards the total expenditure of 55,191,022 on poor relief in 1947-48 
in England and Wales the Poor Law authorities received specific income 
amounting to 8,273,770. The balance of the expenditure, amounting to 
46,917,252, was defrayed mainly out of moneys derived from rates and the 
block grants under the Local Government Act, 1929; and for Scotland the 
total expenditure was 9,101,569 in 1947-48 and 8,334,169 in 1946-47; 
the amount received by Poor Law* authorities was 1,288,695 in 1947-48. 
The balance of the expenditure amounting to 7,812,894 (1947-48) was 
defrayed mainly out of moneys derived from rates and the block grants 
under the Local Government (Scotland) Act, 1929. 

The total cost in money and kind of out-relief in England and Wales 
was 12,044,172 for 1947-48 and 3,049,832 for the period ended 4 July, 
1948, when Poor Relief ended. 

Webb (S. and B.), English Poor Law History. 3 vols. London, 1927-29. 

Finance. 

I. REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 



Revenue (in sterling) 



31 March 


Estimated in the 
Budgets x 


Actual receipts into 
the Exchequer 


More (-f-)orleas(-) 
than estimates 


1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 


3,265,000,000 
3,161,300,000 
3,499,000,000 
3,765,300,000 
3,943,080,000 


3,284,450,000 
3,341,223,358 
3,844,869,041 
4,006,591,000 
4,098,024,000 


+ 19,450,000 
+ 179,923,368 
-f 345,859,041 
+ 241,291,000 
+ 154,944 



The Budget estimate of ordinary revenue for 1950-51 is 3,898,000,000. 
1 On basis of existing taxation. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



85 



Year ended 
31 March 


Expenditure (in sterling) 


Budget and 
supplementary 
estimates 


Actual payments 
out of the 
Exchequer 


More (+) or leas ( ) 
than 
estimates 


1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 


5,855,104,000 
4,102,043,000 
3,443,978,000 
3,283,038,000 
3,643,440,000 


6,484,333,000 
3,910,345,955 
3,187,104,000 
3,175,006,000 
3,549,235,000 


- 370,771,000 
- 191,697,045 
- 56,874,000 
- 109,432,000 
94,205,000 



The Budget estimate of ordinary expenditure for 1950-51 la 3,311,398,000. 

The total ordinary revenue for 1949-50 was 3,924,031,000; ordinary 
expenditure, 3,375,292,000; the self -balancing revenue for Post Office and 
broadcasting was 162,100,000 and for post-war refunds of income tax 
deducted from E.P.T. was 11,893,000. 

The imperial revenue in detail for 1948-49 (inclusive of 1,933,990 duties 
collected for and due to the Isle of Man, and of the proceeds of duties the 
value of which is assigned under various Acts to local purposes), and the 
expenditure, are given below, as are also the Exchequer receipts for 1949-50 
and the Budget estimate for 1950-51 : 



Sources of revenue 


Net receipts 
1948-49 


Exchequer 
receipts * 
1949-50 


Budget 
estimate 
1950-51 


i. Customs. Imports : 








000 '8 


000's 


Beer . 


12,639,746 








Cocoa, chocolate, etc. 


1,124,(;36 








Coffee . 


400,800 








Dried Fruit 


421,688 








Rura 


29,512,082 








Brandy 


6,078,122 








Other spirits 


8,708,455 








Sugar . 


23,893,791 








Tobacco and snuff . 


602,400,412 








Wine , 


15.715,827 








Tea 


10,521,307 








Beef and veal 


2,085,117 








Oil 


57,308,495 








Matches 


1,883,472 








Silk and artificial silk 


3,264,988 








Key industry goods 


882,690 








Imports Duty Act, 1932 


41,967,066 








Ottawa duties 


5,141,883 












823,773,732 


813,334 


807,300 




ii. Excise : 










Spirits . 


46,721,378 








Beer 


294,678,035 








British wine 


3,836,526 








Saccharin 


2,561,716 








Sugar . 


7,813,053 








Purchase tax . 


291,432,589 








Liquor Licences 


4,219,356 








Monopoly values 


810,284 








Matches 


5,229,848 








Entertainments 


47,164,995 








Betting 


23,361,177 












732 744 066 * 


7AA A.(\f\ 


7(~jo fjf\/\ 


iii. Motor vehicle duties 





53',232,420 


f UO,4UU 

55,772 


/U/t/UU 

56,000 



That is, revenue actually paid into the Exchequer during the financial year. 
* Total of all custom duties and all excise duties respectively including those not 
euuourated. 



86 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Sources of revenue 


Net receipts 
1948-49 


Exchequer 
receipts x 
1949-50 


Budget 
estimate 
1950-51 


iv. Estate, etc., duties 
Estate duty 
Legacy duty . 
Succession duty 
Corporation duty 

v* Stamps (excluding stocks 
and shares) : 
Land and property 
Stocks, shares, etc. 
Companies capital duty . 
Cheques, bills of exchange, 
etc 
Receipts 
Shipping 
Insurances and miscel- 
laneous 

vi. Income tar . 
vii. Sur-tax 
viii. Profits tax . 
ix. ^Excess profit tax . . 

x. Other Inland revenue 
xi. Special contribution 

Total produce of taxes . 

xli. Sale of surplus war stores, 
etc 
xiil. Postal service, 
xiv. Telegraph service . 
xv. Telephone service . 
xvi. Wireless licences . 
rvii. Crown lands . 
xviii. Receipts from loans, etc. 
xix. Surplus receipts trading 
services 
xx. Miscellaneous 

Total non-tax revenue . 
Total revenue . . 




165,217,974 
20,216,763 
2,911,100 
99,996 




178,447,296 

66,631,537 
1,369,165,640 
99,592,662 
199,865,253 
79,499,856 
712.290 
79,879,834 


000's 
189,600 

51,470 
1,438,386 
114,700 
260,700 
36,200 
638 
19,600 


000's 
195,000 

50,000 
1,460,000 
120,000 
| 270,000 
600 
4,600 


21,146,686 
19,722,034 
1,774,692 

6,090,674 
4,311,446 
1,895,747 

1,690,367 








3,675,544,688 


3,686,8GO 


3,666,000 





99,597,480 
81,853,192 
6,419,399 
66,505,232 
11,820,365 
874,108 
17,682,616 

28,563,971 
180,623,524 


79,138 
> 12,600 

050 
20,244 

47,54 1 
76,998 


35,000 
13,000 a 

27,000 

85,000 
70,000 8 





490,939,891 


237,171 


230,000 





4,166,484,479 


3,924,031 


3,896,000 



1 That is, revenue actually paid into the Exchequer during the financial year. 
1 Wireless licences. ' Including Crown Lands. 

The national expenditure chargeable against Revenue falls under two 
categories : I, the Consolidated Fund Charges, mainly bestowed on the 
National Debt; and II, the Supply Services, including the Defence and 
Civil Services. The following are the branches of expenditure and the 
issues out of the Exchequer : 



Branches of expenditure 


Year ended 
31 March, 1949 


Year ended 
31 March, 1950 


Budget estimate 
1950-51 


I. Consolidated Fund : 
National debt services : 
Interest 
Management and expenses . 
Total sinking funds . 




475,465,293 \ 
1,710,689 / 
22,824,017 


EOOO'B 

472,206 
18,723 


000*8 
490,000 


.500,000,000 


490,729 


490,000 



GBEAT BRITAIN 



87 



Branches of expenditure 


Year ended 
31 March, 1949 


Tear ended 
31 March, 1950 


Budget estimate 
1950-61 


Payments to Northern Irish 
Exchequer 
Civil list . . 
Annuities and pensions 
Salaries and allowances 
Courts of justice . 
Miscellaneous 
Excess profits tax refunds 



32,291,037 
350.715 ^ 
697,177 
32,317 V 
617,203 
7.803,280j 
8,761,000 


000's 
36,963 

10,607 


000*8 
36,000 

11,000 




41,794,731 


47,570 


47,000 


Total consolidated fund services . 


541,794,731 


538,499 


537.000 


II. Supply : 
Army ... . 
Navy ... . 
Air Force . . . 
Ministry of Supply (T)ef nee) . 
Ministry of Defence 
Civil votes . . 
Customs and excise 
Inland revenue 
Post Office services 


346,700,000 
162,700,000 
186,900,000 
123,951,0^8 
550,000 
1,777,160,911 
8,313,000^1 
20,784,000 
159,449,000 ) 


201,800 
186,800 
201,600 
59,750 
700 
2,059,034 

37,109 


299,000 
193,000 
223,000 
65,000 
820 
2,102,238 

35,011 


Total supply services .... 


2,795,262,000 


2,836,793 


2,918,069 










Total expenditure chargeable against 
revenue ..... 


3,337,066,732 


3,376,292 


3,455,069 



The Exchequer issues shown above were supplied to all departments to 
meet all their requirements, whether original or supplementary. 

In addition to the ordinary expenditure ahove given, there were in 
1948-49 issues under the Cotton (Centralized Buying) Act, 1947, amounting 
to 99,000,000; under the Coal Industry Nationalisation Act, 1946, 
amounting to 33,000,000 ; under War Damage (War Damage Commission) 
amounting to 122,000,000, and under the Local Authorities Loans Act, 
1945, amounting to 233,850,000. The money raised by National Savings 
Certificates in 1948-49 was 119,000,000; by 3% Terminable Annuities, 
140,000,000; by 2J% Defence Bonds, 39,900,000 ; by Tax Reserve Certifi- 
cates, 69,580,000 ; while Treasury Bills paid off amounted to 478,076,000, 
and principal of National Savings Certificates paid off amounted to 
126,550,000. Receipts under the Economic Co-operation Agreement 
amounted to 107,450,000. The balance in the Exchequer on 1 April, 1949, 
was 2,829,743. Floating debt outstanding 31 March, 1949, 6,541,980. 

The following were the principal items of the original estimates for grant 
and other services for the years 1949-50 and 1950-51 : 





1949-50 


1960-61 


Local Services : 


000's 


000's 


Exchequer contributions to local revenues 








66,717 


1*4.810 


Education (including teachers' pensions) 








198,139 


242,994 


Housing 












68,730 


60,763 


Roads 












23,602 


27,069 


Peace . 












23,010 


28,417 


National Insurance, Pensions 
National Insurance Fund 


etc. 










97,500 


146,626 


National Assistance, etc. 












30,133 


64,766 


National Health Service 












146,592 


374,364 


Other Services : 








% 




Pood services (other than production) 








320,191 


401,944 


Agriculture and Fisheries 








69,893 


61,138 


Works, stationery and information 








76,904 


72,032 



88 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



The total national income in 1948 (in million) was 9,675 (including 40 
net income from abroad). 

The gross national expenditure in 1948 (in million) was 10,500 (in- 
cluding personal consumption, 8,004; gross domestic capital formation, 
2,352; public authorities' current expenditure, 1,914). 

II. TAXATION. 

The net receipts from the principal branches of taxation, Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland (reserved taxes), were as follows in the years 
shown : 



Year ended 
31 March 


Customs * 


Excise * 


Estate, 
etc., 
duties l 


Stamps * 


Income 

tax 


Sur-tax 




000's 


000's 


fiOOO's 


000*8 


000's 


EOOO's 


1943-44 


560,832 


482,200 


99.466 


17,740 


1,183,583 


76,042 


1944-45 


579,352 


496,900 


110,888 


17,010 


1,310,839 


73,535 


15)45-46 


569,842 


640,800 


120,301 


25,099 


1,361,346 


69.069 


1946-47 


620,741 


612,956 


148,044 


38,338 


1,156,233 


75,742 


1947-48 


798,113 


678,243 


171,059 


54,571 


1,217,668 


91,1 5 i 


1948-49 


823,268 


733,500 


177,141 


56,433 


1,367,570 


97,900 



1 The principal items included in these branches of revenue are shown on pages 42-43 
above. The excise receipts include receipts from motor vehicle duties. 



Income Tax. The gross amount of income brought under the review 
of the Inland Revenue Department in the year ended 5 April, 1939, in 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was 4,158,111,482 ; in 1947-48 it was 
estimated to be approximately 9,392,000,000. The income on which tax 
was actually received in 1938-39, after allowing for exemptions and 
reliefs, was 1,482,564,496, and the estimated amount for 1947-48 was 
3,454,000,000. The estimated number of incomes in Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland above the exemption limit in 1938-39 was 9,800,000 
and was 21,000,000 in 1947-^8. The estimated number chargeable was 
14,500,000 for 1947-48. 

The tax is mainly on the income of individuals, but it extends also to 
income accruing to and retained by corporate bodies, e.g., the undistributed 
profits of companies. It is imposed, for each year of assessment ending 
5 April, at a ' standard ' rate supplemented in the case of individuals by the 
sur-tax (see p. 89). By the War Budget of Sept., 1939, the standard rate of 
tax was raised by Is. 6c/. to Is in the . The supplementary Budget of 1940- 
41 raised the standard rate to 8.9. 67., and for 1941-42 to 1945-46 the standard 
rate was further increased to 10$. For 1946-50, the standard rate of 
tax was reduced to 9s. Allowances for children, dependent relatives, 
etc., together with certain other reliefs, are granted to all tax-payers 
irrespective of the amount of their total income. In 1940-41 incomes not 
exceeding 120 were exempt from tax and from 1941-42 to 1945-46 the 
exemption limit was reduced to 1 10. For the years 1946-48 the exemption 
limit was 120 and for 1948-50 the limit was raised to 135. The relief for 
earned income in 1940-41 was one-sixth of such income (with a maximum 
allowance of 250) ; for 1941-42 to 1945-46 it was one-tenth of such income 
(with a maximum allowance of 150). For 1946-47 the amount of earned 
income freed from tax was raised to one-eighth, with a maximum allowance 
of 150, for 1947-48 was one-sixth of s,uch income with a maximum allowance 



GREAT BRITAIN 89 

of 250 and for 1948-50 is one-fifth of such income with a maximum allowance 
of 400. For 1940-41 the personal allowance for married persons was 170, 
and for other persons, 100; from 1941-42 to 1944-45 the allowances were 
reduced to 140 and 80 respectively. For 1948-50 a married woman in 
employment receives reduced rate relief on her own earnings as well as on the 
joint income of husband and wife. For the years 1946-50 the personal 
allowances were increased to 180 for married couples and 110 for single 
persons. For the years 1947-50 children's allowances were increased to 
60 for each child. For 1946-48 the first 50 of taxable income was taxed 
at 3s., next 75 at 65. and the remainder at the full rate of 9s., and for 
1 948-50 the first 50 of taxable income was taxed at 3s., the amount charged 
at 6s. was raised to 200, and the remainder at the full rate of 9*. The 
Exchequer receipt of income tax was 335,901,000 in 1938-39 and 
1,438,380,000 in 1949-50. 

Sur-tax. Sur-tax is payable by persons with incomes exceeding 2,000 
per year (prior to 1914-15, 5,000 per year; from 1914-15 to 1917-18, 
3,000 per year, and in 1918-19 and 1919-20, 2,500 per year). 

As part of a general scheme for the simplification of the Income Tax, 
the Finance Act, 1927, merged the super- tax into one tax with the income 
tax having the same basis of assessment and payable, under the name of 
sur-tax, as a deferred instalment of income tax on 1 Jan. in the year 
following the year of assessment. The sur-tax was payable for the first 
time in respect of the year 1928-29 on 1 Jan., 1930. The number of 
persons assessed for sur-tax for 1937-38 was 102,022, with a total assessed 
income of 521,471,169, and for 194647 the number of persons assessed 
was 147,641, with a total assessed income of 690,300,000. Exchequer 
receipt from sur-tax in 1949-50 was 114,700,000. 

Profits Tax. This tax applies, with certain exceptions, to trades or 
businesses carried on by bodies corporate or by unincorporated societies or 
other bodies. The profits chargeable are computed on income tax principles, 
subject to certain modifications. The rates are as follows : Nationalized 
undertakings, industrial and provident societies, businesses carried on by 
persons not resident in the United Kingdom, 10% ; other bodies and 
societies: profits distributed, 25% ; profits not distributed, 10%. 

No tax is payable where the profits do not exceed 2,000. Where 
the profits exceed 2,000 but do not exceed 12,000, an abatement is 
allowed. 

The number of assessments, made in the year 1947-48 for Great Britain 
and Northern Ireland was 36,270 (30,856 for 1938-39) and the tax assessed 
amounted to 53,700,000 (24,838,838 for 1938-39). 

The Exchequer receipts were 199,090,000 in 1948-49 and 260,760,000 
in 1949-50. 

Excess Profits Tax. This tax was imposed from 1 April, 1939, by the 
Finance (No. 2) Act, 1939, and is charged on the amount by which the 
profits arising in the chargeable period exceed the standard profits. It 
applies generally to trades and businesses carried on in the United Kingdom 
or carried on abroad by persons ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom. 
The tax was levied at the rate of 60% on excess profits arising from 
1 April, 1939, and later increased to 100% in respect of excess profits 
arising from 1 April, 1940. This was. reduced to 60% as from 1 Jan., 



90 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



1946. The tax has been removed entirely as from 31 Dec., 194ft. 
The excess profits tax is not additional to the National Defence Con- 
tribution, but alternative to it, only the higher of the two taxes being 
payable. 

The standard profits are normally based on the profits of the years 1935, 
1936 and 1937, with various options as to the years which the business could 
select. There was also provision for a minimum standard in certain cases. 
Profits of the standard period were also adjustable by reference to the 
variation in the capital employed in the business as between the standard 
period and the chargeable period. 

The Exchequer receipts were 79,805,000 in 1948-49, and 36,200,000 
in 1949-50. 

The net national income of the United Kingdom was estimated to be 
8,770,000,000 in 1947. Private income (before tax) amounted to 
8,991,000,000, and income from public property, trading, etc., received 
by public authorities amounted to 87,000,000. 



III. NATIONAL DEBT. 

Borrowing by the state on the security of taxes was practised in Norman 
times, but the National Debt really dates from the time of William III. 
The acknowledged debt in 1689 was about 664,000, on which the annual 
charge for interest and management was only 40,000. At various 
subsequent dates the amounts were as follows (including the Irish debt 
throughout) : 

Annual Annuities only 

charge, includ- (included in pre- 

Year Debt l ing annuities vious column) 

Million Million Million fi 

1727 Accession of George II . . 52 2-4 0-2 

1766 Beginning of Seven Years' War 75 2-8 0-2 

1763 End 133 5-0 0-5 

1775 Beginning of American War . 127 4-7 0-6 

1784 End ,. 243 9-5 1-4 



Year 

1793 
1815 
1817 

1854 
1857 
1899 
1903 
1914 
1939 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
194* 



Gross debt 
including 

terminable 
annuities 
Million 



Beginning of French Wars 
End 

Consolidation of English and Irish 
Exchequers .... 
Beginning of Crimean War 
End 

Beginning of Boer War . 
End . 

Beginning of First World War 
Beginning of Second World War 



802 

837 

635 

798 

708 

8,301 

21,509 

23,774 

25,771 

25,722 

25,267 



Annual 
charge 

Million 

9-7 
32-6 

31-6 

27-4 

28-6 

23-2 

27-0 

24-5 
230-0 
465-0 
465-0 
515-9 
525-0 
500-0 



Interest on 
Annuities 
(included in pre- 
vious column) 
Million 

1-3 
1-9 

2-0 
3-9 
4-0 
7-3 
6-5 
3-2 
0-4 
0-4 
0-5 
0-4 
0-4 
0-4 



1 These amounts do not include the capital value of terminable annuities. 
1 Including interest, management and new sinking fond. 



GREAT BRITAIN 91 

The following statement shows the total amount of the gross liabilities 
and the assets of the state on 31 March, 1949: 

Liabilities: Million 

Funded debt 3,900-8 

Estimated capital liability of terminable annuities 12-8 

Unfunded debt 21,353-6 



26,267-2 
Deduct bonds tendered for death duties 99'6 



25,167-6 
Other capital liabilities 164'2 

Total gross liabilities 25,331-8 

Assets: 

Suez Canal shares, market value, and other assets 2,375-9 

Exchequer balances at the Banks of England and Ireland ... 3-6 

Included among the assets are Exchange Equalization Account, 575 
million; Issues to Local Loans Fund, 505 million; under Bietton Woods 
Agreement Act, 387 million; under Coal Industry Nationalization Act, 
155 million. 

Advances to Allied Governments (1939-1945 war), outstanding at 31 
March, 1949, amounted to : France, 100,180,637; Poland, 57,500,000; 
Russia, 33,185,000; Turkey, 30,126,050; Czechoslovakia, 20,483,184; 
Netherlands, 42,855,000; China, 12,523,182; total, 296,853,065. 

TV. LOCAL TAXATION. 

The amount of rates collected by local authorities in 1949-50 in England 
and Wales is estimated to have been 279,000,000 (267,000,000 in 1948-49) ; 
in Scotland, 29,783,000 in 1948-49 (32,073,000 in 1947-48). In addition 
to the Exchequer grants and moneys receivable under the Local Govern- 
ment Act, 1948, local authorites receive other large government grants, e.g., 
from the Ministry of Education for purposes of education, from the Home 
Office for police expenses, from the Ministry of Health for housing, from the 
Ministry of Transport for highways. They also receive large sums from 
government departments as reimbursements in respect of expenditure on 
emergency services. In 1948-49 the Exchequer grants under the Local 
Government Act, 1948, amounted to 55,169,202 and the moneys receivable 
by local authorities as recoupment for the loss of rates resulting from the 
de-rating provisions of Part V of the Act amounted to 13,690,000. In 
Scotland, payments under Section 100 of the Local Government Act, 1948, 
amounted in 1948-49 to 1,143,000, and Equalization and Transitional 
Grants under the Local Government (Scotland) Acts, 1929-49, amounted to 
7,237,000 (provisional). 

The rateable value on which rates were leviable in England and Wales was in 1949-50, 
325,324,538; and in 1948-49, 318,492,000, and in Scotland, 43,514,000 in 1948-49. 

In England and Wales the average amount of the rates collected per of rateable 
value was 6*. 8$<f. in 1913-14 ; and was estimated to be 16*. Qd. in 1948-49 and 175. If d. in 
1949-50. In Scotland the estimated average amount per of rateable value of the rates, 
inclusive of water rates, in 1948-49 was 13*. Sd. 

The rateable value of the County of London is 54,352,000 in 1948-49. The net debt 
of the County of London on 31 March, 1947, amounted to 79,261,000. The estimated 
expenditure for 1947-48 is 55,389,000. Of this 13,222,000 will be met from Exchequer 
grants and 23,019,000 from rates. Education services of the L.O.O. for 1947-48 are 
estimated at 18,558,000. The estimated expenditure for 1947-48 also includes 7,689,000 
for housing. 

Hicks (T7. K.), The Finance of British Government, 1920-36 London, 1988. 



92 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Defence. 

All problems of defence are considered by the Defence Committee 
presided over by the Prime Minister and consisting of Ministers of the 
Government, amongst whom are the Ministers of Defence, of Supply and of 
Labour, the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Secretaries of State for 
the navy, the army and the air force. This committee is advised by the 
chiefs- of -staff of the three services sitting in committee. The Minister of 
Defence is responsible to Parliament for carrying out the decisions of the 
Defence Committee. 

I. ARMY. 

Army estimates, 1947-48, were 388,000,000; 1948-49, 311,966,130; 
1949-50', 304,700,00; 1950-51, 299,000,000. 

The control of the British Army is vested in the Army Council. The 
Secretary of State for War is the President of the Army Council, and is 
responsible to His Majesty the King and to Parliament for all the business 
of the Army Council. 

The Military Members of the Army Council are the Chief of the Imperial 
General Staff, the Adjutant-General to the Forces, the Quartermaster- 
General to the Forces, the Vice-Chief of the Imperial General Staff and the 
Deputy-Chief of the Imperial General Staff. The Chief of the Imperial 
General Staff deals, through the Vice- Chief, with military operations, train- 
ing and intelligence, and, through the Deputy-Chief, with war organization, 
equipment and weapon policy. The Adjutant-General is responsible for the 
raising and organization of the Army (including the Auxiliary Territorial 
Service, now called the Women's Royal Army Corps), for personnel questions, 
discipline, welfare, military and martial law, education, leave, medical 
services and the planning of demobilization. The Quartermaster-General 
is responsible for the feeding and quartering of the Army; all military 
movement, including the R.A.F. ; the holding, issue and repair of equipment 
and vehicles; the supply and delivery of ammunition; the provision, 
holding and issue of stores ; rehabilitation, upkeep and operation of military 
ports, railways and inland water transport; supply and delivery of 
petroleum products ; provision and operation of transport ; works services 
(including building, repair and upkeep of buildings, making and repair of 
roads); barrack services; canteen services; mail; military labour and 
civil labour in overseas theatres ; salvage ; fire service ; army agricultural 
scheme; veterinary and remount service ; certain services for the R.A.F. in 
an overseas theatre. The corps under the Quartermaster-General include : 
Royal Engineers (transportation, movement control and works services), 
R.A.S.C., R.A.O.C., Army Catering Corps, R.E.M.E., Pioneer Corps, Veteri- 
nary Corps. 

In 1939 the responsibility for the production of ordnance stores, e.g. 
arms, ammunition, vehicles, clothing and general stores, was transferred 
from the Master General of the Ordnance to the Ministry of Supply. The 
responsibility for deciding on types and numbers of stores is, however, 
still retained by the War Office. 

The Army is organized into commands and districts as follows : Scottish 
Command (H.Q. Edinburgh), Northern (York), Southern (Salisbury), 
Eastern (Hounslow) and Western Command (Chester); London District 
(London) and N. Ireland District (Lisburn). There are three chief com- 
mands overseas : Middle East Land Forces, Far East Land Forces and the 
British Army of the Rhine. 

The National Army of Britain consists of a regular or field army and a 



GREAT BRITAIN 93 

Territorial Army. The field army comprises (a) regular soldiers who have 
engaged voluntarily for 12 years (which may be extended) ; and (6) national 
servicemen who are called up at 18 years of age for 18 months compulsory 
training. 

The Territorial Army is made up of (a) experienced men who have 
engaged for 4 years (and sometimes re-engage for one or more further terms 
of 4 years) to be leaders and instructors of the force ; and, after June, 1950, 
(6) national servicemen who have completed their 18 months service in the 
field army and have passed on to do 4 years compulsory Territorial service 
during which they can bo required to undergo training for periods of 20 
days in each of the first 3 years, with no training in the fourth year. 

The Supplementary Reserve, consisting mainly of technical or specialized 
units, comes into being again in 1950. It will be maintained by the volun- 
tary enlistment of civilians for periods of 4 years and by National Service 
men directed to it instead of to the T.A. for their part-time service. About 
1 in 5 men will be so directed. This reserve will be composed of two 
categories; S.R. I with liability for service at home and overseas in a 
peace-time emergency short of war; arid S.R. II with liability to be called 
up on threat of war. The S.R. will generally do 15 days camp training with 
Regulars annually ; they will receive bounties of varying amounts together 
with army pay and allowances during training. Broadly speaking the S.R. 
is designed to complete units and formations to strength in technical and 
trade personnel on mobilization. 

The Women's Royal Army Corps (late Auxiliary Territorial Service) 
consists of (a) regulars who engage for 4 years (which can be extended by 
successive re-engagements until pensionable age is reached after 22 years 
service), (b) Territorials, (e) a Supplementary Reserve. The W.R.A.C. 
employments include artillery, searchlight and radar work in anti-aircraft 
mixed batteries, and signals, motor transport, clerical, catering and other 
duties. 

The Regulars are the hard core of the field army, the main strength of 
distant overseas garrisons, instructors and trainers of National Servicemen 
and Territorials, and highly trained troops who master new weapons, trans- 
late novel training and tactical doctrines into military fact, and maintain 
and raise standards of army performance. They also provide the Royal Army 
Reserve of experienced men who will return to the colours immediately on 
mobilisation. The National Servicemen are the greater part of the field 
army and the nearer overseas garrisons and the trained soldiers who will fill 
the ranks of the Territorial Army after June, 1950. 

The Territorial Army on mobilisation will provide most of the anti- 
aircraft defence of the United Kingdom and specialist and ancillary services 
for the field army. It is composed of 5 A. A. groups, 1 airborne, 2 armoured, 
and 6 infantry divisions, certain independent brigades (of which one is in 
Northern Ireland) and other formations. On 31 Jan., 19/50, the total 
strength of the T.A. (all volunteers) was 83,146 (including 10,381 W.R.A.C.). 

On 1 April, 1950, the maximum numbers to be maintained for army 
service (field army, excluding T.A.) are : Garrisons in Europe (including the 
U.K.) 24,800 officers and 268,900 other ranks; garrisons outside Europe 
10,100 officers and 144,800 other ranks. With 8,400 on release leave on 
1 April, and 1,000 officers and 9,000 other ranks for possible excesses, these 
figures give a grand total of 467,000. Of that total 12,800 are members 
of the W.R.A.C., 9,900 are Polish and Colonial troops in the U.K. and 
elsewhere in Europe, and 92,500 are Gurkha (i.e., the historic 2nd, 6th, 
7th and 10th Gurkha Rifles, each of 2 battalions) and Colonial troops out- 
side Europe. 



94 THE BRITISH OOMMOJNTWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

II. NAVY, 

The Royal Navy is a permanent establishment, governed by the Board 
of Admiralty. The First Lord of the Admiralty is the Cabinet Minister 
responsible for the Navy, the other 10 members of the Board comprising 
the First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff ; the Second Sea Lord and Chief 
of Naval Personnel ; the Third Sea Lord and Controller ; the Fourth Sea 
Lord and Chief of Siipplies and Transport ; the Fifth Sea Lord and Deputy 
Chief of Naval Staff (Air); the Vice-Chief of Naval Staff; the Assistant 
Chief of Naval Staff ; the Parliamentary and Financial Secretary ; the Civil 
Lord ; the Permanent Secretary. All these are known as ' Commissioners 
for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom.' The 
office was first put into commission by Charles I when the Lord High 
Admiral, tho Duke of Buckingham, was assassinated at Portsmouth in 
Aug., 1628. James, Duke of York, afterwards James II, was the last Lord 
High Admiral to command at sea in 1672. The last holder of tho office was 
William, Duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV, since whose time it has 
been in abeyance, but Letters Patent are still vested in the Crown. 

Ships under construction at the end of the financial year 1949-50 in- 
cluded the fleet aircraft carriers Eagle, nearing completion, and Ark Royal, 
launched 3 May, 1950, both of 36,800 tons; the Albion, Bulwark, Centaur 
and Hermes, all of 18,300 tons, the light carrier Majestic, of 14,000 tons 
(for sale to the Royal Australian Navy) and 8 destroyers of the ' D ' class, 
2,610 tons. Constructional work is still suspended on 3 other light 
carriers of 14,000 tons, the Hercules, Leviathan and Powerful, and 3 
cruisers of 8,000 tons, the Blake, Defence and Tiger, nominally under construc- 
tion but all laid up. 

The Navy estimates for 1947-48 totalled 196,700,000, for 1948-49, 
153,000,000, for 1949-50, 189,250,000 and for 1950-51, 193,000,000. 

For 1947-48 the total naval personnel provided for was 192,665, for 1948- 
49, 167,300 (including 8,000 W.R.N.S.), for 1949-50, 153,000, and for 
1950-51, 143,000 officers and ratings. 

The 1950-51 Navy Estimates provided for the laying down of 2 fast 
frigates of a new design and 2 minesweepers of a new design. 

SUMMARY OF THE KOYAL NAVY. 
The following is a summary of the more important units : 





Completed by the end of 


Class 






1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Battleships . 


15 


10 


5 


5 


Aircraft carriers 


1C 


14 


12 


12 


Cruisers 


41 


36 


28 


25 


Destroyers . 


186 


177 


111 


106 


Submarines 


99 


81 


67 


62 



There are also 164 frigates, 2 monitors, 3 fast minelayers, 3 aircraft 
maintenance ships, 23 sea-going depot and repair ships, 66 fleet minesweepers, 
4 midget submarines and a large number of landing craft, motor torpedo 
boats, surveying vessels, motor minesweepers, trawlers and auxiliaries. 

Two destroyers, the Relentless and Rocket are being converted into fast 
frigates, and 3 ' V * class destroyers are to be similarly converted. 

The ferry carrier Campania is to be lent to the Festival of Britain for 
about 2 years as a travelling exhibition ship. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



95 



In the following table the ships are grouped in classes, and as far as this 
permits, in descending order of modernity. 







^ 


Armour 




8 


t4 









d 8 






a 





t3 


1 


Name 


fl 




a 


Principal armament 


o 


if 


d Q) 
be $ 
w A 
35 eo 


3 






a 


I 




I 


S 


P 



Tons Inches Inches 

Battleships. 



21-in. 



Vanguard 


42,500 


16? 


12? 


8 15m.; 16 5-25in. 


Howe 




















Duke of York .' 


35,000 


16? 


12? 


1014in.; 16 5-25in. 


King George V . 










Fleet Aircraft Carriers. 


Implacable 
Indefatigable 


\ 23,000 


? 





16 4-5in. 


Indomitable 


23,000 


? 





16 4-5in. 


Victorious 










Formidable 


1 23,000 


? 





16 4-5in. 


Illustrious 


J 








Light Aircraft Carriers. 


Triumph 


1 








Warrior 


J- 13,350 








Light A.A. 


Theseus 


J 








Ocean 










Glory 
Vengeance 


13,190 








Light A.A. 



130,000 
110,000 

148,000 
110,000 

110,000 

40,000 
40,000 



Knots 

28 
27 

32 
31 
31 

25 
25 



(There is also the ferry carrier Campania.') 
Cruisers. 



45 
44 


Superb 
Swiftsure 


| 8,000 


4 


2 


9 Cin. ; 10 4in. 


6 


72,500 


81-5 


44 
43 


Diadem 
Royalist 


} 5,900 


2 


2 


8 5-25in. 


6 


62,000 


32 


43 
42 


Ceylon 
Newfoundland 


8,000 


4 


2 


9 Gin. ; 10 4in. 


6 


72,500 


31-5 


42 


Bermuda 
















42 


Jamaica 
















42 
40 


Gambia 
Mauritius 


8,000 


4* 


2 


96in.; 8 4in. 


6 


72,500 


31-5 


40 


Kenya 
















HO 


Nigeria 








126in.; 84in. 








42 


Argonaut 








^ 








141 
141 
140 


Cleopatra 
Euryalus 
Pho?be 


5,800 


2 


2 


U 6-26in. 


-6 


62,000 


32 


42 
140 


Sirius 
Dido 








|lO 5-25in. 








139 


Belfast 


11.550 


5 


2* 


126in.; 8 4in. 


6 


80,000 


32 


138 


Liverpool 


9,400 


1 








82,500 


32-3 


137 


Birmingham 


\ 














137 


Glasgow 
Sheffield 


I 9,100 


4 


2 


9 6in.; 8 4in. 


6 


75,000 


92 


>37 


Newcastle 


J 


) 













(There are also the trials cruiser Cumberland and the ex-cruiser Devonshire, now cadets' 
alning ship.) 



96 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

The destroyers of the Royal Navy are of the following classes : Weapon 
class, 4; Battle class, 24, 4 C' class, 26; *Z' class, 8; 'W class, 7; 
' V ' class, 2; ' U ' class, 8; ' T ' class, 8; ' S ' class, 1 ; ' R ' class, 2; - O ' 
and * P ' classes, 6 ; * M ' class, 5 ; * N ' class, 5. Displacements range 
from 1,540 to 2,400 tons. 

Submarines are of three classes: 'A' class, 16; 'T' class, 24; 'S' 
class, 22; displacements range from 715 to 1,120 tons. 

107 warships of the Royal Navy have been transferred to other navies 
since 1945. These comprise 2 aircraft carriers, 1 cruiser, 21 destroyers, 
30 frigates and 20 submarines to foreign governments, and 2 aircraft carriers, 
3 cruisers, 12 destroyers and 16 frigates to Commonwealth Governments. 
One destroyer is being transferred to the South African Naval Force and one 
to the Royal Pakistan Navy. 

III. Am FORCE. 
In May, 1912, the Royal Flying Corps first came into existence. On 

2 Jan., 1918, an Air Ministry was formed, and the control of the air 
force was vested in an Air Council analogous to the Army Council. The 
Air Minister was given the status of a Secretary of State and became Presi- 
dent of the Council. In April, 1918, the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal 
Naval Air Service were amalgamated, under the Air Ministry, as the Royal 
Air Force. 

The Royal Air Force is administered by the Air Council, of which the 
Secretary of State for Air is president. It consists of 7 permanent and 

3 additional members. The Air Members include the Chief of Air Staff, 
the Air Member for Personnel, the Air Member for Supply and Organization 
and the Air Member for Technical Services. The Chief of the Air Staff is 
the principal adviser of the Secretary of State in the direction of the Royal 
Air Force, and is responsible for policy and planning, and the fighting 
efficiency. The Air Member for Personnel is responsible for manpower, 
conditions of service and welfare. The Air Member for Supply and 
Organization is responsible for the provision of all technical supplies, barrack 
stores, food supplies and works services. The organization side includes 
movements, planning of aircraft requirements, aircraft and mechanical 
transport establishments. The Air Member for Technical Services is 
responsible for technical training and for the control, co-ordination and 
direction of the technical services, viz., engineering, armament and the 
technical aspects of signals. 

The major departments of the Air Ministry are each under a member of 
the Air Council. 

The Royal Air Force is organized into commands under the Air Council 
as follows : 

Home Commands. Bomber, Fighter, Coastal, Transport, Flying Train- 
ing, Technical Training, Maintenance, and Reserve Commands. 

Overseas Commands. British Air Forces of Occupation (Germany); 
the Middle East Air Force (H.Q. Ismailia), and the Far East Air Force 
(H.Q. Changi). 

Reserve Command includes the Royal Auxiliary Air Force (although the 
operational control of flying squadrons was transferred to Fighter Command 
in Nov., 1942, and transfer of other units of the R.Aux.A.F. may be similarly 
effected during 1950), the R.A.F. Reserve (which incorporates the Volunteer 
Reserve and the University Air Squadrons) and the Air Training Corps with 
more than 700 squadrons. It is also responsible for training in R.A.F, 
Sections of the Combined Cadet Corps. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



97 



Commands are subdivided into groups and wings, a certain number of 
squadrons being allotted to each group or wing. Squadrons are subdivided 
into flights. 

In addition to the flying training organization at home, an Air Training 
Group was established in Southern Rhodesia in Jan., 1947. Au R.A.F. 
Flying College was established in Jan., 1950, to take over certain functions 
of the Empire Flying School, the Empire Air Navigation School and the 
Empire Air Armament School, and a R.A.F. Technical College was estab- 
lished in Oct., 1949, to take over certain functions of the Empire Radio 
School, the Empire Air Armament School and former Engineering School. 

At the end of June, 1945, the strength of the Royal Air Force was 963,000 
men and 153,000 women. On 1 Jan., 1950, the strength was 191,000 men 
(of whom 76,500 were National Servicemen) and 11,500 women. 

Under the Army and Air Force (Women's Service) Act 1948 the com- 
missioning and enlistment of women in the R.A.F. for non-combatant 
service, under substantially the same conditions as for men, and with the 
collective title of Women's Royal Air Force, commenced on 1 Feb., 1949. 
The entry of women into the Women's Auxiliary Air Force ceased from the 
same date. 

Many measures have been introduced to make the Service an attractice 
career. There are 5 main branches: General Duties (Flying), Technical, 
Secretarial (including Accounts), Equipment and the R.A.F. Regiment. 
Other branches are : Provost, Catering, Marine, Physical Fitness, Airfield Con- 
struction, Fighter Control, Education, Legal, Chaplains, Medical and Dental. 

Normally, commissions are granted after service in the ranks, but 
cadets graduating from the R.A.F. College and University graduates may be 
appointed directly to permament commissions, and professionally qualified 
candidates to short service commissions. National Servicemen may elect to 
be considered for pilot training or training for a commission in a ground branch. 

Under a scheme introduced early in 1950, National Service airmen may 
extend their current service to a total of 3 years on a regular engagement 
and National Servicemen may enlist at any time after registration for 3 
years regular service. The minimum regular engagement for airmen in 
ground branches (other than National Service airmen) is 5 years. 

Air estimates for 1950-51 provided for an expenditure of 223,000,000. 

Books of Reference : 

Fortesciie (J. W.), History of the British Army. 14 vols. London, 1899-1930. 

Lewis (M.), The Nary of Britain. London, 1948. 

Manwaring (G. B.), Bibliography of British Naval History. London, 1930. 

Nautical Almanac for 1949. H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Talbot-Booth (E. C.), The Royal Navy. London, 1942. 

Sargent (B.), The Koyal Air Force. London, 1942. 

Production and Industry. 

I. AGRICULTURE. 
General distribution of the surface (1949) : 



Divisions 


Total land 
surface 


Bough 
grazing land 


Permanent 
pasture 


Arable land 


England > . 
Wales l 


Acres 
32,033,000 
6,099,000 
19,069,000 


Acres 
2,613,000 
1,417,000 
10,949,000 


Acres 
8,972,000 
1,481,000 
1,188,000 


Acres 
12,861,000 
1,063,000 
3,228,000 


Isle of Man .... 


141,000 


46,000 


14,000 


62,000 



1 England excludes and Wales includes Monmouth. 



98 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Distribution of the cultivated area in Great Britain : 





England and Wales 


Scotland 




1948 


1949 


1948 


1949 


Cultivated area : 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


Corn crops * 


6,721,108 


6,460,217 


1,226,994 


1,171,400 


Green crops ' 


2,546,214 


2,362,111 


598,648 


561,173 


Hops 


22,621 


22,240 








Small fruit 


39,921 


48,418 


7,838 


9,022 


Orchards * 


267,004 


268,523 


1,285 


1,253 


Bare fallow 


237,561 


300,840 


7,155 


7,938 


Clover and rotation grasses 4 
Permanent pasture . 


3,456,903 
10,263,184 


3,696,298 
10,456,464 


1,431,583 
1,133,500 


1,452,605 
1,188,232 


Total 


23,554,616 


23,615,111 


4.407,003 


4,391,623 



1 Includes wheat, barley, oats, mixed corn and rye, for threshing. 

Green crops in England and Wales include beans, peas, potatoes, turnips and swedes, 
mangolds, sugar beet, cabbage (for fodder, etc.), vetches or tares, and other crops. For 
Scotland, beans, peas, potatoes, turnips and swedes, mangolds, sugar beet, cabbage (for fodder 
etc.), rape, vetches, etc., carrots, onions, flax and other crops. 

* The figures for small fruit in all cases include small fruit in orchards. 
4 Including lucerne. 

The number of workers employed in agriculture in Great Britain was, in 
June, 1949, 855,000 (720,000 males, 136,000 females), and in 1948, 850,000 
(702,000 males, 147,000 females). 

In 1949, in the United Kingdom, land under the plough amounted to 
18-4 million acres (crops and fallow, 12-C million acres ; temporary grass-land, 
5-7 million acres). Permanent grassland amounted to 127 million acres. 

Livestock in the United Kingdom as at June in each year shown (in 
thousands) : 





1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Cattle . 
Sheep . 

PiRS . 
Horses . 
Poultry 


9,616 
20,150 
2,152 
881 
62,136 


9,629 
20,368 
1,955 

834 
67,117 


9,587 
16,713 
1,628 
778 
70,006 


9,806 
18,164 
2,151 
703 
85,372 


10,244 
19,493 
2,823 
618 
95,499 



Details of the principal crops are given in the following table for the 
United Kingdom as at June in each year : 



Tear 


Wheat 


Barley 


Gate 


Beans 1 


Peas 1 


H Turnips 
and 
swedes 


Man- 
gold 1 


Sugar 
beet 



Acreage (thousands of acres) 



1945 


2,274 


2,215 


3,763 


207 


46 


1,397 


814 


308 


417 


1946 


2,062 


2,211 


3,567 


183 


36 


1,423 


757 


304 


436 


1947 


2,163 


2,060 


3,308 


87 


36 


1,330 


725 


272 


395 


1948 


2,279 


2,083 


3,335 


88 


45 


1,548 


666 


281 


413 


1949 


1,963 


2,060 


3,251 


110 


36 


1,308 


644 


275 


421 


Total produce (thousands of tons) 


1945 


2,176 


2,108 


3,245 


162 


31 


9,791 


12,274 


6,524 


3,886 


1946 


1,967 


1.963 


2,903 


124 


21 


10,166 


10,935 


6,282 


4,522 


1947 


1,667 


1,619 


2,609 


46 


19 


7,766 


9,250 


4,342 


3,060 


1948 


2,361 


2,027 


2,963 


70 


27 


11,798 


9,778 


6,918 


4,319 


1949 


2,139 


2,059 


2,933 


83 


25 


9,049 


9,222 


5,065 


3,788 



1 Fodder crops. 

For the quantities of cereals and livestock imported see under COMMEBCE. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



II. FlSHEBIES. 

Quantity and value of wet fish of British taking landed in Great Britain 
during 1945-49 (excluding salmon and sea-trout) : 





1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 l 


England and Wales . 
Scotland 

G.B. (excluding shell-fish) 

England and Wales . 
Scotland 

G.B. (excluding shell-fish) 
Value of shell-fish . 


Tons 
299,973 
191,480 


Tons 
632,888 
267,462 


Tons 
694,687 
299,078 


Tons 
722,000 
320,331 


Tons 
708,742 
.292,947 


491,453 


900,350 


993,765 


1,042,331 


1,001,689 



17,490,315 
7,337,G08 




28,639,292 
9,565,728 




31,005,924 
10,507,635 




33,809,691 
11,608,384 




29,481,857 
10,308,398 


24,827,923 
1,065,592 


38,205,020 
1,350,568 


41,513,559 
1,251,323 


45,418,075 
1,409,000 


39,790,255 
1,053,053 



1 Preliminary figures. 

III. MINING AND METALS. 

The total number of persons (including clerks and salaried persons) 
ordinarily employed at all mines in Great Britain under the Coal and 
Metalliferous Mines Regulation Acts in 1938 was 814,000. The number 
of mines at work was 2.409; 630,591 persons (males) worked underground, 
and 181,069 males and 3,240 females (including clerks and salaried persons) 
above ground. The average number employed at quarries under the 
Quarries Act in 1938 was 76,128, of whom 49,543 worked inside the quarries 
and 26,685 outside. The number of quarries at work was 5,099. 





1947 


1948 


19-49 


Saleable output of coal : 








Total deep-mined . . Thoua. tons 


186,501 


196,721 


202,686 


Opencast . . . . . 


10,245 


11,748 


12,440 


Average weekly number of wage-earners on 








colliery books: 








All workers 


711,380 


724,(V30 


719,527 


Pace workers 


287,936 


292,759 


296,197 


All underground workers .... 


549,596 


662,104 


558,377 


Coal exports : 








Total .... Thous. tons 


1,057 


10,505 


13,916 


Foreign bunkers . . , 


4,394 


6,430 


5,054 



In the year 1949, inland consumption of coal at home is estimated to 
have been 195,156,000 tons, some of the principal uses being : Railways, 
14,716,000 tons; gas works, 25,272,000 tons; coke ovens (coal carbonized), 
22,516,000 tons; iron works, manufacture of pig-iron and steel, 8,372,000 
tons: collieries (engine fuel), 10,244,000 tons; electricity generating stations, 
30,004,000 tons; domestic (house coal), 28,600,000 tons; general manu- 
facturing, 34,576,000 tons. 

The chief coal tar products obtained in 1948 were road tar, 742,000 
tons (732,000 tons in 1947); creosote, 310,000 tons (306,000 tons in 1947); 
creosote oil, 479,000 tons (442,000 tons in 1947); pitch, 624,000 tons 
(529,000 tons in 1947). 

Production of coal gas (thousand million cu. ft.) in 1949 was 462-8 (446-2 
in 1948); water gas, 77-48 in 1949 and 74-48 in 1948. 

For the general summary of the mineral production of Great Britain in 
1938, see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1948, p. 67, 

Iron ore produced in 1947 amounted to 11,091,000 tons, in 1948 to 
13,104,000 tons and in 1949 to 13,416,000 tons. Iron ore imported 



100 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



amounted to 6,779,713 tons in 1947, 8,676,726 tons in 1948 and 8,695,682 
tons in 1949. The exports of British iron ore are insignificant. 

The total number of steel furnaces in existence in 1948 was 731 (including 
open-hearth, 428; electric, 192, and tropenas. 83); average number of 
furnaces on blast, 1948, was 102 (94 in 1947). 

For statistics of blast furnaces (pre-war), see STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 
1946, p. 59. 

Pig-iron produced in 1948 amounted to 9,256,000 tons, and in 1949 to 
9,516,000 tons. 

The total output of steel ingots and castings in 1938 amounted to 
10,393,800 tons, in 1948 to 14,872,000 tons and in 1949 to 15,548,000 tons. 

The total output of finished steel products in 1938 was 7,491,400 
tons. Net deliveries of finished steel in 1948, 10,920,000 tons and in 1949, 
11,596,000 tons. Total iron and steel and manufactures thereof exported 
in 1938, was 1,915,875 tons, valued at 41,692,019; in 1949, 2,385,256 tons, 
valued at 126,631,346. 

For statistics of metal production (pre-war) see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR- 
BOOK, 1948, p. 56. 

Production of non-ferrous metals in 1949 amounted to : Refined copper, 
105,120 tons (124,920 tons in 1948) ; refined lead, 35,880 tons (36,240 tons in 
1948) ; virgin tin, 31,800 tons (1948) ; virgin aluminium, 30,000 tons (1948) ; 
refined nickel, 17,100 tons (1948). 

Statistics of the shale oil industry are as follows : Output of shale in 
1938 was 1,551,000 tons, valued at 564,000. About 33,000,000 gallons of 
crude oil and crude naphtha and 25,200 tons of sulphate of ammonia were 
produced. Output of crude shale-oil in 1948 was 109,600 tons. Production 
of indigenous crude petroleum in 1948 was 43,500 tons (47,300 tons in 
1947). 

IV. INDUSTRIES. 

The following table summarizes, for Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 
the statistics relating to the Census of Production, 1935 (no later general 
census has been taken), for the principal industries : 



Industry 


Gross 
output 
'000 


Cost of 
materials 
'000 


No. of 
persons 
employed 
(average) 


Mechanical 
power 
available l 
1,000 h.p. 


Iron and steel .... 
Engineering, shipbuilding & vehicles 

Non-ferrous metals . 
Textiles 
Leather ..... 
Clothing 
Food, drink and tobacco 
Chemicals, etc. .... 
Paper, printing, etc. . 
Timber ... 


420,574 
473,639 
104,767 
516,769 
33,288 
171,997 
652,563 
191,792 
181,066 
68,722 


257,058 
239,646 
74,842 
340,181 * 
22,668 
91,698 
396,529 
101,517 
69,007 
36,176 


635,651 
1,061,671 
119,257 
1,076,553 
48,294 
515,700 
605,621 
191,080 
400,736 
167,350 


3,151-2 
2,025-1 
326-0 
2,772-4 
78-2 
123-7 
745-3 
852-3 
778-6 
279-8 


Clay and building materials 
Building and contracting . 
Mines and quarries . . . 
Public utility services & govt. debt 
Miscellaneous .... 


83,522 
187,561 
165,624 
338,222 
89,814 


29,796 
101,078 
29,423 
135,848 
47,016 


245,792 
434,374 
840,635 
783,432 
178,893 


675-7 
223-3 
3,913-3 
11,263-4 
408-9 


Total, all trades 


3,464,300 


1,801,017 


7,076,593 


27,517-2 


England and Wales 


3,113,829 





6,290,878 


24,078-5 


Scotland 


290,912 





646,449 


3,099-3 



1 1930 census. 



* 1937 census. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



101 



V. POWER (WATER, GAS AND ELECTRICITY). 

The available water-power resources of Great Britain are estimated to be 
860,000 B.H.P., of which 250,000 B.H.P. are developed (1927). 

Gas manufactured (provisional figures) (millions of cubic feet) : 1949, 
coal gas, 446,200; water gas, 74,480. Gas bought from coke ovens, 
60,320. Total gas available, 522,600. In 1949, coal used for gas production 
was 25,272,000 tons. The number of authorized gas undertakings in Great 
Britain (1947) was 677; non-authorized .undertakings, 387. 

The electricity industry was vested in the British Electricity Authority 
on 1 April, 1948. At Dec., 1948, authorized undertakings, including the 
Central Electricity Board, owned or leased 348 generating stations contain- 
ing an aggregate of 12,951,000 kw. of generating plant. Total number of 
consumers 1947-48, 11,917,000. 

Electricity generated amounted to 47,736 million kwh. in 1949 and 
46,536 million kwh. in 1948. Coal used for electricity generation in 1949 
amounted to 30,004,000 tons; 27,648,000 tons in 1948. 

Clapham (Sir J. n.), An Economic History of Modern Britain. 3 vols. Cambridge, 
1938. 

Fogarty (M. P.), Prospects of the Industrial Areas of Great Britain. London, 1945. 
Smith (Wilfred), An Economic Geography of Great Britain. London, 1949. 
Stamp (L. D.), The Land of Britain : Ite Use and Misuse. London, 1948. 
Industry and Employment in Scotland, 1947. (Omd. 7459.) 

Commerce. 

Value of the imports and exports of merchandise (excluding bullion and 
specie and foreign merchandise transhipped under bond) of the United 
Kingdom for 5 recent years and 1938 (in sterling) : 



Year 


Total 
imports 


Exports of 
British produce 


Exports of 
foreign and 

colonial produce 


Total export* 


1938 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 


919,508,933 
1,103,693,217 
1,301,029,676 
1,794,540,460 
2,078,040,435 
2,272,481,188 


470,755,320 
399,275,982 
914,698,966 
1,138,276,478 
1,581,797,383 
1,784,383,343 


61,524,646 
50,988,697 
50,268,650 
59,839,223 
64,697,713 
68,612,778 


532,279,966 
450,264,679 
964,967,616 
1,198.075,045 
1,646,495,096 
1,842,996,121 



1 Provisional. 

The value of goods imported is generally taken to be that at the port 
and time of entry, including all incidental expenses (cost, insurance and 
freight) up to the landing on the quay. For goods consigned for sale, the 
market value in this country is required and recorded in the returns. This is 
ascertained from the declaration made by the importers, and is checked by 
the expert knowledge available in the Customs Department, with the help 
of current price-lists and market reports. For exports, the value at the 
port of shipment (including the charges ' of delivering the goods on board) is 
taken. Imports are entered as from the country whence the goods were 
consigned to the United Kingdom, which may, or may not, be the country 
whence the goods were last shipped. Exports are credited to the country 
of ultimate destination as declared by the exporters. 

Included in the exports for 1949 were : Iron and steel manufactures, 
2,385,256 tons, value 126,631,346 (2,006,973 tons in 1948); cotton piece- 
goods, 904 million square yards, value 105,687,822 (762 million square 
yards in 1948); artificial silk and manufactures, 161 million square yards, 



102 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



value 27,555,178 (137 million square yards in 1948) ; cotton yam, 7,686,000 
lb., value 2,795,274 (5,864,000 Ib. in 1948). 

Trade according to countries for 1948 and 1949 (in '000) : 



Countries 


Value of 
merchandise 
consigned from 
countries in first 
column 


Exports of merchandise consigned 
to countries in first column 


British produce 


Foreign and 
colonial produce 


1948 


1949 * 


1948 


1949 l 


1948 


1949 l 


Foreign Countries : 

Europe and Colonies 
Soviet Union 
Finland .... 


27,126 
34.854 
55,536 


16,014 
33,945 
61,471 
21,678 
2,97G 
78,176 
15,064 
37,499 
65,637 
4,382 
785 

1,746 
42,795 
57 
37,515 
6,698 
4,680 
75,551 
10,952 
5,961 
2,514 
60 
240 
103 
1 

11,716 
8,860 
28 
23 
343 
45 
451 

1 

19,389 
15,026 
1,473 

39,006 
471 
146 
3,535 
6,803 
2,270 
12,074 
6,310 
160 
1,961 
8,890 


5,337 
19,726 
55,011 
31,571 
3,995 
32,122 
7,118 
26,173 
45,267 
2,001 
3,398 

848 
2,533 
176 
37,099 
4,267 
352 
34,136 
1,537 
635 
1,960 
148 
302 
961 
11 
114 
20,606 
23,901 
112 
620 
540 
1,092 
2,696 

356 
10,444 
2,727 
580 
64 
12,683 
1,266 
586 
3,383 
2,189 
5,650 
2,739 
13,318 
265 
932 
16,039 


8,614 
18,899 
46,983 
43,40 1 
3,494 
49.965 
8,734 
26,721 
52,557 
2,039 
7,550 

987 
2,470 
234 
36,933 
5,463 
460 
33,386 
1,876 
510 
1,781 
99 
190 
738 
23 
56 
19,344 
18,696 
121 
528 
455 
1,747 
3,029 

670 
9,696 
1,758 
835 
71 
18,000 
2,645 
778 
6,066 
4,243 
5,320 
3,460 
13,647 
693 
1,669 
10,111 


1,742 
550 
3,584 
942 
69 
798 
4,475 
5,975 
3,130 
2 
11 

1 
14 
2 
5,382 
16 
11 
10,480 
22 
4 
5 


3 




1,170 
124 

6 
1 

4 

4 
427 

47 

2,711 
74 
8 
290 
327 
1,674 
262 
304 
125 
21 
549 


1,720 
399 
1,520 
723 
42 
1,268 
2,072 
6,932 
3,004 
25 
43 

4 

27 
4 
4,319 
32 
14 
8,689 
12 
15 
20 





1,170 
139 
6 
7 
14 

11 

2 

480 
31 

2,900 
56 
2 
1,041 

441 
787 
870 
478 
80 
697 
190 


Norway .... 


18,448 




3,2dl 


Denmark and Faroe Islands . 
Poland .... 
Germany .... 


42,441 

8.987 
29,577 


Netherlands 
Sumatra .... 


44,319 
2.'13 
1,174 


Possessions in the Indian 
Seas .... 
Antilles .... 


99 
59,527 


Guiana .... 
Belgium .... 
Belgian Congo . 
Luxemburg 


28 
38,170 

10,393 
878 
45,908 


Algeria .... 


9,101 


Tunis .... 


4,996 


French West Africa . 
French Somaliland . 
Madagascar 
Indo-China 
French Pacific Poss. 
French West India Islands 
Switzerland 


1,502 
3 
263 
7 
2 

9,648 
8,318 


Azores .... 
Madeira .... 
Portuguese West Africa 
Angola .... 
Portuguese East Africa 
Portuguese Possessions in 
in India 
Spain .... 


14 
44 
713 
71 
348 

39 
17,468 


Canary Islands 
Spanish North Africa 
Spanish West Africa 
Italy 
Libya .... 
Italian East Africa . 
Austria .... 


12,228 
1,270 

31,171 
526 
146 
2,764 




6,093 


Czechoslovakia . 
Yugoslavia 


6,429 
4,578 
5,870 


Bulgaria .... 
BumanJa .... 


340 
3,277 


Turkey .... 


6,573 



1 Provisional figures. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



103 





Value of 


Exports of merchandise consigned 




merchandise 


to countries in first column 


Countries 


consigned from 
countries in first 
column 


British produce 


Foreign and 
colonial produce 




1948 


1949 


1948 


1949 


1948 


1949 


Africa 














Egypt .... 


47 560 


29,042 


34,101 


35,992 


543 


486 




4 731 


9,218 


2,216 


1,774 


341 


158 


Liberia .... 


6 


2 


340 


1,116 


5 


6 


Asia 














Ethiopia 


142 


585 


901 


678 


3 


15 


Arabia .... 


5,297 


6,839 


1,624 


3,438 


2 


22 


Iraq . .... 


7,239 


0,643 


17,551 


14,294 


69 


77 


Persia .... 


36,107 


34,458 


24,567 


30,990 


59 


68 


Afghanistan 


6 





433 


210 








Burma .... 


6,093 


3,213 


14,030 


7,103 


27 


9 


Thailand .... 


1,237 


2,996 


2,758 


4,690 


5 


14 


Ohiua (exclusive of Hong 














Kong and Macao) 


3,201 


3,620 


8,649 


2,252 


67 


149 


Japan .... 


6,273 


10,800 


346 


1,169 


34 


27 


Korea .... 





43 





5 








America 














United States of America 


183,239 


221,745 


66,107 


57,091 


4,623 


5,458 


Puerto Eico . 





123 


72 


85 








Hawaii .... 





4 


65 


54 








Cuba 


29,226 


23,155 


1,982 


1,570 


31 


82 


Haiti .... 


768 


667 


387 


306 








Dominican Bepublic . 


6,407 


9,285 


671 


550 





1 


Mexico .... 


4,871 


3.798 


3,696 


2,427 


19 


13 


Guatemala .... 


361 


93 


373 


392 


2 


3 


Honduras .... 


13 


21 


116 


179 








El Salvador 


6 


4 


317 


318 





2 


Nicaragua .... 


45 


162 


112 


104 


2 





Oosta Rica .... 


53 


12 


400 


440 


3 


2 


Colombia .... 


561 


149 


4,362 


3,370 


16 


12 


Panama .... 


8 


4 


1,069 


1,805 


5 


6 


Venezuela .... 


2,979 


6,307 


13,810 


14,578 


40 


95 


Ecuador .... 


158 


73 


997 


998 


6 


3 


Peru 


7,691 


8,480 


1,898 


4.320 


4 


29 


Chile 


7,807 


7,388 


4,129 


5,425 


55 


148 


Brazil .... 


23,736 


22.913 


25,845 


33,977 


241 


396 


Uruguay .... 


5,834 


13,384 


5,738 


10,464 


21 


62 


Bolivia .... 


9,417 


8,386 


931 


948 


3 


3 


Argentina .... 


121,817 


71,795 


52,529 


51,142 


306 


457 


Paraguay .... 


1,742 


3,281 


968 


890 


3 


2 


Deep sea fisheries 


5,614 


4,323 














Whale fisheries (foreign) 


867 


1,342 











_ 


Total (including those not 














specified above) . 


1,090,676 


1,186,130 


747,809 


796,505 


61,900 


48,436 


British Countries : 














In Europe : 














Channel Islands . 


13,233 


10,577 


15,193 


14,727 


1,404 


1,662 


Gibraltar .... 


93 


77 


3,486 


3,810 


98 


122 


Malta and Gozo . 


336 


362 


6,995 


6,407 


109 


118 


Cyprus .... 


1,911 


1,780 


4,675 


4,158 


73 


97 


In Africa : 














West Africa : 














Gambia .... 


2,468 


2,540 


979 


1,147 


2 


6 


Sierra Leone . 


6,181 


6,844 


3,417 


3,448 


26 


48 


Gold Coast and Togoland . 
Nigeria and Cameroons , 


15,796 
63,548 


17,322 
66,228 


17,015 
24,515 


24,805 
34,928 


87 
80 


140 
185 



1 Provisional figures. 



104 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 





Value of 


Exports of merchandise consigned 




merchandise 


to countries in first column 


Countries 


consigned from 
countries in first 
column 


British produce 


Foreign and 

colonial produce 




1948 


1949 * 


1948 


1949 1 


1948 


1949 1 


St. Helena and Ascension 


80 


84 


83 


86 


22 


24 


South Africa : 














Protect, of S.W. Africa . 


1,028 


894 


325 


309 


1 





Union of South Africa 


31,680 


33.200 


120.291 


124,864 


476 


453 


Rhodesia (North) . 


20172 


19,469 


3,460 


5,389 


2 


7 


Rhodesia (South) . 


11,407 


12,447 


15,622 


23,493 


26 


41 


Bechuan aland Prot. . 
Swaziland and Basutoland 


| r>4i 


638 


61 


53 








Bast Africa : 














Tanganyika Territory 


7,820 


8,107 


9,003 


11,127 


42 


39 


Zanzibar and Pemba 


104 


1,026 


509 


670 





1 


Kenya Colony . 


4,070 


5,501 


17,408 


20,135 


64 


89 


Uganda Protectorate 


3,961 


6,045 


2,551 


3,581 


6 


4 


Nyasaland Protectorate . 


3,290 


4,487 


1,754 


2,612 


8 


8 


Somaliland Protectorate 


3 


4 


39 


120 








Anglo- Egyptian Sudan. 


15,735 


22,205 


5,413 


7,813 


22 


30 


Mauritius and Dependencies . 


6,247 


8,860 


3,411 


3,606 


8 


13 


Seychelles .... 


295 


486 


124 


171 


1 





In Asia : 














Aden and Dependencies 


876 


808 


2,521 


2,816 


33 


54 


Palestine .... 


12,855 


5,31 


7,359 


6,297* 


2,797 


300* 


India. .... 


96,266 


98,215 


96,621 


117,132 


385 


313 


Pakistan .... 


11,359 


16,178 


18,055 


33,012 


41 


100 


Singapore .... 


14,919 


11,8K3 


20,41] 


23,177 


126 


144 


Federation of Malaya . 


17,353 


13.890 


16,372 


18,867 


108 


106 


Ceylon and Dependencies 


25,763 


26,638 


12,649 


14,753 


43 


53 


North Borneo 


1,107 


847 


1,785 


2,367 


10 


18 


Sarawak .... 


216 


268 


458 


546 


2 


2 


Hong Kong 


6,510 


10,270 


20,575 


27,291 


130 


126 


In Australasia ; 














Australia .... 


168,912 


212,377 


144,717 


188,550 


539 


685 


Papua and New Guinea 


507 


926 


126 


196 


2 


1 


New Zealand 


108,704 


116,960 


52,598 


64,474 


121 


179 


Nauru and Western Samoa . 


661 


651 


135 


120 








Fiji Islands, 


2,981 


1,884 


1,674 


1,672 


7 


2 


Other Pacific Islands (British) 


1,218 


1,199 


218 


255 








In America : 














Canada .... 


216,959 


224,630 


70,462 


79,313 


1,646 


1,643 


Newfoundland and Labrador 


6,446 


722 


2,327 


474 


74 


108 


Bermuda .... 


43 


33 


1,638 


1,854 


43 


38 


Bahamas .... 


47 


183 


1,012 


1,385 


11 


22 


Jamaica .... 


10,317 


9,473 


6,960 


7,868 


38 


65 


Leeward Islands . 


1,611 


1,874 


416 


695 


1 


3 


Windward Islands 


845 


861 


790 


1,137 


4 


8 


Barbados .... 


3,107 


2.730 


2,001 


2,489 


15 


23 


Trinidad .... 


13,060 


11,054 


8,383 


10,462 


168 


110 


British Honduras 


325 


475 


272 


489 


3 


13 


British Guiana . 


4,317 


4,568 


3,505 


4,510 


22 


34 


Falkland Islands 


2,499 


2,414 


498 


670 


19 


28 


Whale fisheries (British) 


11,917 


11,706 


10 










Total, British Countries 














(including those not 














specified above) 


944,030 


1,030,963 


758,030 


912,897 


9,012 


7,024 


Irish Republic 


43,334 


66,387 


76,416 


76,481 


3,786 


3,163 


Grand total 


2.078.040 


2,272.481 


1,581,797 


1,784.383 


64.098 


68,613 



1 Provisional figures. 



1 Included in foreign countries. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



105 



Imports and exports for 1948 and 1949 (Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland) : 



Import values O.I.F. 
Export values F.O.B. 


Total imports 


Domestic exports 


1948 


1919 


1948 


1949 


I. Food, drink and tobacco 
Grain and flour .... 
Feeding-stuffs for animals 
Ajiimals, living, for food 
Meat 
Dairy produce .... 
Fresh fruit and vegetables 
Beverages and cocoa preparations . 
Other food 
Tobacco ..... 

Total, Class I . 

II. Raw materials, etc. 
Ooal 
Other non-metalliferous mining and 
quarry products 
Iron ore and scrap 
Non-ferrous ores and scrap . 
Wood and timber 
Raw cotton and cotton waste 
Wool and woollen rags . 
Silk, raw, and artificial silk and waste 
Other textile materials 
Seeds and nuts for oils, fats, gums . 
Hides and skins, undressed . 
Paper-making materials 
Rubber 
Miscellaneous raw materials, etc. . 

Total, Class II 

III. Manufactured articles 
Ooke and manufactured fuel . 
Pottery, glass, etc. 
Iron and steel manufactures . 
Non-ferrous metals and mauufactrs. 
Oatlery, hardware, etc. 
Electrical goods and apparatus 
Machinery . 



201,153,743 
23,050,793 
11,773,934 
125,942,850 
131,153,823 
94,499,758 
113,391,875 
138,961,849 
42,641,698 



182,835,292 
12,252,781 
18,171,301 
146,091,807 
176,054,043 
94,847,338 
123,114,743 
163,349,970 
52,490,703 



4,039,137 
300,587 
2,170 
738,232 
1,446,513 
1,588,265 
28,563,088 
40,576,797 
16,757,782 



2,193,635 
310,923 
227 

1,044,401 
1,490,623 
1,157,765 
33,846,590 
39,237,015 
18,319,025 


883,170,323 


969,207,978 


94,012,571 


97,600,204 


407,757 

16,782,566 
27,536,702 
34,416,158 
93,900,802 
106,740,405 
88,492,544 
2,472,594 
25,320,202 
143,86-1,200 
34,645,733 
52,317,224 
29,967,788 
27,412,080 


1,711 

14,525,376 
35,467,917 
37,558,228 
100,115,074 
121,496,498 
129,603,465 
1,979,774 
24,504,179 
171,585,152 
38,014,390 
48,358,748 
22,422,308 
28,481,476 


38,904,187 

3,027,878 
118,821 
3,721,432 
234,933 
462,986 
8,704,315 
1,935,433 
215,936 
2,344,710 
1,185,884 
301,464 
532,077 
5,820,882 


50,769,669 

2,887,850 
74,216 
1,475,232 
146,853 
874,803 
12,885,142 
1,830,479 
305,379 
2,469,773 
1,297.808 
478,151 
664,036 
5,505,874 


648,276,815 


774,114,296 


67,519,938 


81,665,265 


135,023 
6,134,142 
19,714,672 
88,804,541 
6,607,344 
2,698,492 
41,455,294 
12,380,447 
23,099,741 

16,525,651 
7,920,356 
22,669,488 
3,136,506 
2,095,214 
30,735,484 
129,312,611 
9,416,958 
24,359,810 

15,941,659 
199,910 
22,617,372 


253,786 
5,426,717 
37,571,070 
93,495,423 
7,597,955 
3,136,313 
47,756,789 
14,149,245 
26,430,190 

19,835,330 
10,631,315 
16,697,466 
4,393,483 
1,970,009 
25,331,077 
111,670,550 
12,559,625 
20,402,047 

26,670,773 
197,560 
22,691,343 


4,710,650 
45,154,239 
105,319,993 
54,592,845 
42,696,621 
72,629,232 
232,917,995 
1,941,890 
131,145,024 

95,320,664 
39,305,236 
27,448,973 
31,425,920 
7,667,296 
83,581,147 
10,157,166 
8,491,624 
21,606,300 

265,207,789 
6,354,808 
88,873,107 


8,960,594 
48,528,095 
126,631,346 
63,642,496 
45,337,436 
79,106,660 
278,740,864 
1,953,307 
159,140,002 

104,198,169 
41,934,877 
24,825,905 
29,421,700 
5,939,063 
86,093,728 
13,691,253 
10,100,998 
22,025,893 

313,540,461 
6,055,604 
88,681,979 


Manufactures of wood and timber . 
Cotton yarns and manufactures 
Woollen and worsted yarns and 
manufactures .... 
Silk and art. silk yarnn and mnfrs. . 
Other textile material 
Apparel . . . 
Footwear 
Chemicals, drugs, dyes and colours 
Oils, fata and resins 
Leather ..... 


Paper, cardboard, etc. . 
Vehicles (incl. locomotives, ships 
and aircraft) .... 
Rubber manufactures . 
Miscellaneous articles . 

Total, Class III 

IV. Animals, not for food . 
V. Parcel post. 

Total, all classes 


485,966,715 


508,868,066 


1,376,614,519 


1,668,560,330 


8,309,821 
16,316,761 


7,447,645 
12,843,203 


4,304,840 
39,354,515 


4,837,260 
41,730,284 


2,078,040,435 2,272,481,188 


1,581,797,383 


1,784,383,343 



106 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Communications. 

I. SHIPPING. 

The total gross tonnage of merchant vessels (500 gross tons and over) on 
the United Kingdom register (excluding foreign owned vessels on bareboat 
charter or requisition) was, on 31 Jan., 1950, 19,440,000 gross tons (non- 
tankers, 15,510,000 gross tons) ; tankers, 3,930,000 gross tons). 

Output in merchant shipbuilding in 1948 (all vessels of 100 tons and 
over): total number 332 of 1,221,000 gross tons, including 24 tankers 
(203,000 gross tons) and 183 passenger and cargo boats (947,000 gross tons). 
In 1949 the total tonnage (1,000 gross tons) of merchant shipbuilding 
laid down was, 1,214; under construction, 1,860, and completed, 1,361. 

The total net tonnage of entrances at ports of the United Kingdom with 
cargoes during 1949 was 54,888,880 (including 36,106,508 tons, British); 
total clearances were 41,518,361 net tons (including 29,045,556 tons, British). 
Of the foreign tonnage, 18,782,372 tons, entered : U.S. America had 
2,397,842; Norway, 3,270,061 ; Sweden, 2,687,790; Holland, 2,992,588 ; 
Denmark, 1,534,085; Belgium, 1,017,216; France, 1,326,020. 

In 1938, total entrances were 63,372,392 tons; clearances, 58,881,246 
tons. 

The total net tonnage of British and foreign vessels employed in the 
coasting trade that arrived at ports in the United Kingdom with cargo in 1949 
was 31,153,168 tons (28,659,997 tons in 1948); departures amounted to 
30,791,283 tons (28,529,939 tons in 1948). 

II. CANALS. 

The total length of canals in the United Kingdom in 1905 was 4,673 miles, 
of which 3,641 miles were in England and Wales, 184 in Scotland and 848 in 
Ireland. It is estimated that in 1949 there are approximately 2,400 miles 
of navigable canals and locked river navigations in the United Kingdom 
(2,700 miles in 1939), of which 1,950 miles belonged to the British Transport 
Commission. 

Statistics of canal traffic on waterways coming under the British Trans- 
port Commission, covering about 90% of total traffic, for the year ending 
1 Jan., 1950: 



Division. 


Tonnage originating. 


Net ton miles. 


North Eastern 
North Western 
South Eastern 
South Western 
Scottish . 












Thous. 
4-649 
1-506 
3-018 
1-997 
102 


Thous. 
9(5-767 
24-006 
30-237 
32-858 
1101 


Total 


11-272 


191-029 



Manchester, one of the leading ports in the United Kingdom, was opened 
to maritime traffic in 1894 by the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, 
which is 35i miles in length. Between Eastham and Stanlow Oil Docks the 
waterway has been excavated to a depth of 30 ft. ; from Stanlow Oil Bocks 
to Manchester to 28 ft. The general excavated bottom width of the canal 
at the depth of 28 ft. is 120 ft., except for mile near Latchford, where it is 
90 ft. The maximum width of the locks is 65 ft., with the exception of the 
entrance lock, which is 80 ft. wide. The canal is in direct communication 
with all the principal railway systems and barge canals of the kingdom. 



GREAT BRITAIN 



107 



The total issued capital of the company at 31 December, 1948, wag 
18,848,230. The net receipts of the canal in 1948, including the Bridg- 
water department and the railways, amounted to 943,101 (872,138 in 
1947). 

Owen (Sir D. J.), The Ports of the United Kingdom. Rev. ed. London, 1949. 

III. RAILWAYS, TRAMWAYS, AVIATION AND HIGHWAYS. 

The following table shows railway statistics for Great Britain, excluding 
the railways of the London Transport Executive : 



Calendar year 


Road open for traffic 
at end of year 


Passenger journeys 
originating 


Freight train traffic 
originating 


1947 
1948 


Milea 
19,639 
19,631 


Millions 
1,077 
996 


Million tons 
268 
276 



Nationalization. Under the provisions of the Transport Act, 1947, 
the four main line railways, together with their associated lines, docks, 
steamships and hotels, the London Passenger Transport Board, and the 
major canal undertakings, passed on 1 January, 1948, into the ownership 
of the British Transport Commission, as the instrument of the State. 

Day to day operation and management is in the hands of five executives 
known as (a) Railway, (6) Docks and Inland Waterways, (c) London Trans- 
port, (d) Road Transport and (e) Hotels Executives. The Road Passenger 
Executive came into operation on 8 Aug., 1949. 

Railways. The system, under the name of British Railways, is organized 
in six regions. There are : The London Midland Region, corresponding to the 
system of the former L.M.S.R. company in England and Wales, with head- 
quarters at Euston station. The Western Region, corresponding to the 
system of the former G.W.R. company, with headquarters at Paddington 
station. The Southern Region, corresponding to the system of the former 
S.R. company, with headquarters at Waterloo station. The Eastern Region, 
corresponding to the southern area of the former L.N.E.R. company 
(roughly from Doncaster to Leeds and London), with headquarters at Liver- 
pool Street station. The North Eastern Region, corresponding to the north 
eastern area of the former L.N.E.R. company (from Doncaster to Berwick), 
with headquarters in York. The Scottish Region, corresponding to the 
Scottish systems of the former L.M.S.R. and L.N.E.R. companies, with 
headquarters in Glasgow. 

While responsibility for the general administration of the regions and 
for co-ordination, standardization, and other matters of principle rests with 
the Executive, undue centralization is avoided by the delegation to regional 
officers of responsibility for matters of local importance. 

In 1948 the total goods traffic amounted to 276-1 million tons, including 
merchandise -and livestock, 55-7 million tons; minerals, 59-3 million tons; 
coal, coke, etc., 161-1 million tons. Available operating stock, 1948, in- 
cluded 16,372 locomotives available for traffic ; passenger carrying vehicles, 
36,425 available; trucks and wagons, 1,064,167 available. 

The Commission's gross receipts for the year 1948 from its principal 
carrying activities amounted to 461,570,222, made up 03 follows : British 
Railways, 337,314,996; road collection and delivery etc. services of 



108 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

British Railways, 8,666,993; British road services, 14,342,620; Road 
Passenger Transport (Provincial and Scottish), 32,484,957; London 
Transport, 57,9 12,528; ships and vessels, 10,328,613; and inland water- 
ways carrying operations, 519,515. The gross receipts from other principal 
activities was 30,164,137. The deficit at 31 Dec., 1948, on the net revenue 
account after allowing for capital redemption and special items was 
4,732,824. 

The London Passenger Executive, in Dec., 1948, owned 213 route miles 
of railway open for traffic. Number of vehicles operated (1948) : 
Railway, 3,948 (including 2,228 electric motor vehicles, trailer cars, and 
1,720 carriages); buses and coaches, 7,527; trams, 862; trolley-buses, 
1,763. Total number of miles run (1948) was 655 million miles. The 
number of passenger journeys originating, in 1948, was : Railway, 650 
million; bus and coach, 2,745 million; trolleybus and tram, 1,210 million. 
Average receipt per originating passenger was 2-88c?. in 1947. 

Road Transport. Motor vehicles for which licences were current under 
the Vehicles (Excise) Act, 1949, numbered, in Nov., 1949, 4,051,000, includ- 
ing 2,104,000 cars; 625,000 cycles and pedestrian controlled vehicles; 
128,000 hackneys (excluding tramcars); 834,000 goods vehicles. The 
number of new vehicle registrations in 1949 amounted to 415,217 (366,827 
in 1948). 

Civil Aviation. On 1 Aug., 1946, the royal assent was given to the 
Civil Aviation Bill which authorized the setting up of three publicly owned 
corporations to operate, under the direction of the Minister of Civil 
Aviation, all British scheduled air services throughout the world. The 
corporations are the British Overseas Airways Corporation, British European 
Airways and British South American Airways. 

Operating statistics for 1949 of regular services operated by United 
Kingdom airlines are as follows : Aircraft miles flown, 44,124,000 
(44,208,000 in 1948); revenue passengers carried, 916,800 (714,000 in 1948); 
freight carried, 14,160 tons (8,112 tons in 1948). 

Air traffic between the United Kingdom and abroad in 1949 included a 
total of 39,184 aircraft miles, carrying 466,800 passengers and 12,408 tons of 
freight. 

Estimate of expenditure (including certain grants and subsidies) for 
civil aviation for year ending 31 March, 1950, amounted to 22,554,084 
(26,314,783 in 1948-49). 

The total number of civil aircraft registered in the United Kingdom at 
Dec., 1948, was 2,286 (including, regular airlines, 213; charter companies, 
694; private and business, 628; club flying, 238). The total number of 
civil aircraft with certificates of airworthiness was 1,430 (regular airlines, 
193 ; charter companies, 421 ; private and business, 426 ; club, 144). 

Highways. The public highways in Great Britain in December, 1948-49, 
had a total length of 183,658 miles (England and Wales, 157,168 miles; 
Scotland 26,490 miles), of which 8,689 were trunk roads, 19,583 miles were 
Class I and 17,694 miles were Class II. 

IV. POST, TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES. 
(Great Britain and Northern Ireland.) 

Number of post offices at 31 March, 1949, approximately 24,000 ; number 
of road and pillar letter boxes other than at post offices, about 69,000; staff 
employed on 1 Feb., 1950, 354,049 persons (253,992 males, 100,057 females). 



GREAT BRITAIN 



109 



Deliveries (millions) 


1938-39 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


Correspondence (incl. registered items) 
posted 
Parcels handled .... 
Telegrams dealt with 


8,240 
184-8 
68-3 


7,300 
238-7 
63-3 


7,600 
243-6 
58-0 


8,050 
239-6 
53-6 



Weight of air mail traffic dispatched abroad : 





1947 


1948 


1949 


Letters, printed papers, etc. : 

Extra-European, Eastern Hemisphere (mainly 
B.O.A.O.) services. Surcharged 
European ( Surcharged .... 
services \ Unaurcharged * ... 
All ( Surcharged 2 .... 


Ib. 

2,135,907 ' 
1,975,849 

4,801,238 ' 


Ib. 

1,741,400 
922,500 
1,696,600 8 
3,465 800 ' 


Ib. 

1,871,100 
161,300* 
3,790,600 
2,911,200' 


services \Unsurcharged . 




1,696,600 s 


3,790,600 * 


Parcels : 
Total weight * . 








122,000 



This service serves European destinations only and was re-introduced on 1 April, 1949. 
Including surcharged services to countries outside Europe and the Eastern Hemisphere. 
Including Forces mails prepaid at concessional rates. 
This service was re-mtroducod on the 1 July, 19-18. 
Including certain Forces mails up to 31 May, 1949. 

Number and value of money orders, including C.O.D. trade charge 
orders : 





1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 




Number 


Amount 


Number 


Amount 


Number 


Amount 




OOO's 


000's 


OOO's 


000's 


OOO's 


000's 


Inland f^ 08 * 


17,355 


116,594 


18,984 


134,729 


20,862 


141,890 


orders i Telegraph . 


2,015 


13,474 


2,136 


14,204 


1,991 


15,118 


Commonwealth fPost' 
and foreign < Telegraph 
orders * (_ Total 


19,370 
938 
809 
1,747 


130,068 
4,997 
4,224 
9,221 


21,120 
949 
700 
1,649 


148,933 
5,027 
3,954 
8,981 


22,853 
1,024 
637 
1,661 


157,008 
5,369 
3,542 
8,911 


Total fPost 


18,293 


121,591 


19,933 


139,756 


21,886 


147,259 


orders * i Telegraph 


2,824 


17,698 


2,836 


18,158 


2,628 


18,660 


LTotal . 


21,117 


139,289 


22,769 


157,914 


24,514 


165,919 



1 Includes Irish Republic and those issued abroad for payment in Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland. 

Postal orders issued in the United Kingdom : 



Year ended 
31 March 


Number 


Amount 


Year ended 
31 March 


Number 


Amount 
















1939 
1945 
1946 


418,620,000 
198,075,000 
212,937,000 


101,957,000 
70,644,000 
76,162,000 


1947 
1948 
1949 


335,198,000 
412,951,000 
418,278,000 


106,669,000 
132,207,000 
134,320,000 



110 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



The telegraphs were transferred to the State on 5 Feb., 1870. 

The total number of telegraph offices open on 31 March, 1949 (including 
railway and cable companies' offices, etc., which transact public telegraph 
business) was approximately 14,000. 

On 31 March, 1949, the London local exchange system had 264 exchanges, 
10,971 call offices and 1,600,832 telephones. The provincial local exchange 
system had 5,584 exchanges, 43,313 call offices and 3,318,371 telephones. 
The approximate number of originated effective calls in 1948-49 was 
3,138 millions. For private wires the accrued revenue in 1948-49 amounted 
to 7 ,49 1,252. 

The number of licensed radio receivers in the United Kingdom on 30 
April, 1949, was 11,674,033, and the number of licensed television receivers 
was 127,259. 

The approximate surpluses of income over expenditure (after charging 
interest on capital) and the estimated amount derived from the increases in 
charges are as follows (in sterling) : 



Year ended 
31 March 


Surplus 


Yield of increases 
in charges 
all sources 


Year ended 
31 March 

3947 
1U48 
1949 


Surplus 


Yield of increases 
in charges 
all sources 


1944 
1945 
1946 


37,00,000 
39,850,000 
36,140,000 


83,400,000 
34,600,000 
34,700,000 


24,110,000 
19,556,000 
15,222,000 


38,300,000 
40,K<>6,000 
43,812,000 



Banking and Credit. 

Value of money (in sterling) issued from the Royal Mint for 6 years : 



Year 


Gold 
money 
issued 


Silver 
money 
issued 


Bronze 
money 
issued 


Year 


Gold 
money 
issued 


Silver 
money 
issued 


Bronze l 
money 
issued 


1944 
J945 
1946 


nil 
nil 
nil 


6,840,486 
7,618,365 
7,971,765 


375,750 
881,170 
409,950 


1947 
1948 
1949 


nil 
nil 
nil 


6,086,721 
22,177,571" 
9,733,032 s 


292,406 
340,626 
106,525 



1 Including nickel-brass threepenny pieces. 



Cupro -nickel. 



The returns for imports and exports of coins are not now available. 

During the year ended 31 December, 1949, the Mint produced 453,778,650 
coins, of which 186,914,545 were imperial coins to the value of 9,721,889. 
The imperial coins included 28,272,512 half-crowns, 28,614,939 two-shilling 
pieces, 40,571,479 shillings, 41,355,515 sixpences, 464,000 nickel-brass 
threepenny pieces, 14,324,400 pennies, 24,744,000 half-pennies and 
8,424,000 farthings. Estimated number of coins in circulation in the 
United Kingdom (in millions) : 466 half-crowns, 480 two-shilling pieces, 
559 shillings, 687 sixpences, 107 silver threepenny pieces, 450 nickel-brass 
threepenny pieces, 2,211 pennies, 1,252 half- pennies, 566 farthings. 

The Bank of England, Threadneedle Street, London, is the Government's 
banker and the * banker's bank.' On behalf of the Government it manages 
the National Debt, administers the Exchange Control Regulations and 
manages the note issue ; it does not accept new commercial business. The 
bank operates under royal charters of 1694 and 1946. The capital stock 
has, since 1 March, 1946, been held by the Treasury. The former 



GBEAT BRITAIN 



111 



holders of Bank stock were given 58,212,000 3% Government stock in 
exchange. 

The statutory return is published weekly. End- December figures for 
the past 5 years are as follows (in '0()0) : 





Issue department 


Banking department 


Year 


Vnfoc 




ttold 


Capital 






Notes in 


Coin in 






Securities 


coin and 


and 


Deposits 


Securities 


the ' re- 


the ' re- 








bullion 


' rest ' 






serve ' 


serve ' 


1945 


1,400,248 


1,400,000 


248 


17,848 


338,261 


335,437 


20,306 


366 


1946 


1,450,248 


1,450,000 


248 


18,090 


346,458 


341,197 


22,065 


1,285 


1947 


1,450,248 


1,450,000 


248 


18,130 


429,086 


346.438 


100,516 


262 


1948 


1,325,248 


1,325,000 


248 


18.131 


438,668 


419,731 


32.159 


3,909 


1949 


1,321,928 


1,350,000 


357 


18,132 


519,952 


604,371 


28,429 


5,284 



The proportion of reserves to deposit liabilities at the end of December, 
1949, was 6jj%. 

Between 31 Dec., 1939, and 10 Dec., 1946, the fiduciary note issue rose 
from 580 million pounds to 1,450 million pounds, but was reduced to 1,300 
million pounds between Jan. and March 1948. All the profits of the note 
issue are passed on to the Exchequer. 

The average circulation of Scottish bank-notes during the 4 weeks 
ending 17 Dec., 1949, was 69,340,045 (including Bank of Scotland, 
10,267,306, Commercial Bank of Scotland, 12,330,426). The authorised 
circulation for this period was 2,676,350. 

Gold and dollar reserves (Exchange Equalization Account holdings of 
gold, U.S. and Canadian dollars) at 31 Dec., 1949, amounted to 603,000,000. 

Bank clearings (excluding provincial clearings), for 1948, total 
80,209,666,000; for 1949, 86,059,918,000. 

The following statistics relate to the eleven London clearing banks 
for the year ending 31 December, 1949 (monthly averages in millions) : 
Deposits, etc., 5,974 (5,913 in 1948); cash ii/hand and at the Bank of 
England, 496 (486 in 1948); money at call and notice, 510 (473 in 1948); 
investments, 1,505 (1,479 in 1948); advances, 1,440 (1,319 in 1948); bills 
discounted, 914 (744 in 1948); Treasury deposit receipts, 983 (1,284 in 
1948). 

In 1949 the * Big Seven ' clearing banks had a total of net profits of 
9,687,146; dividends amounted to 5,733,266; there were allocations to 
published reserves of 700,000 and declared allocation to contingencies of 
3,045,000. 

Trustee Savings Banks. Trustee Savings Banks originated in 1810. 
They are still conducted by voluntary Trustees who may receive no pay- 
ment for their services. There are no shareholders or proprietors. The 
banks are supervised by the National Debt Commissioners and regularly 
inspected on behalf of a statutory committee. There are 85 Trustee Savings 
Banks in the United Kingdom and the Channel Islands with. 1,065 offices. 
The number of depositors and stockholders in these banks on 20 Nov., 1949, 
was 6,787,726, and the amounts due to them were : in the General or 
Ordinary Departments, 744,353,918 cash, and 85,340,240 (face value) 
stock; in the Special Investment Departments, 112,462,986; due to 
depositors and stockholders, 942,157,144; combined surplus funds, 
18,468,139; total funds, 960,626,283. 



112 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Post Office Savings JBanfc. Statistics for 1947 and 1948 : 







1948 




Total 






1947 


England 
aud Wales 


Scotland 


Northern 
Ireland 


Total 


Accounts open at 31 Dec. * 


23,813,528 


21,915,399 


1,067,361 


328,001 


23,310,761 


Amount 

















Received . 


424,873,852 


366,392,785 


13,621,074 


6,080,688 


385,094,547 


Interest credited 


47,422,000 








_ 


47,686,000 


Paid 


011,016,421 


408,499,798 


14,667,011 


4,736,731 


427,903,640 


Due to depositors at 












31 Dec. 


1,943,174,425 








a 


1,948,051,432 


Average amount due to each 












depositor in active acc'nte 


81 7*. 4d. 


* 


* 


* 


83 7*. 3d. 



1 Excluding accounts with balances of less than 1, which have been inactive for 5 
years or more. The average balance in these accounts is Is. lid. 

Including accounts opened prior to 1923 in territory which is now the Irish Republic. 
' The amount due to depositors on 1 Jan., 1950, waa approximately 1,948,675,000. 

' Figures not available. 

N.B. The amount due to depositors is exclusive of government stock held on the 
Post Office Register. The latter amounted to 1,185,016,454 at the end of 1947 and 
1,086,037,418 at the end of 1948. 

The receipts and payments include purchases and sales of government 
stock for investors on the Post Office Register, but the amount shown as due 
to depositors is exclusive of the stock held. 

Books of Reference : 

Acres (W. M.), The Bank of England from Within, 1694-1900. Oxford, 1944. 
Clapham (Sir J. H.), The Bank of England : a History. 2 vols. Cambridge, 1944. 
Truptil (B. J.), British Banks and the London Money Market. London, 1936. 



Money, Weights and Measures. 

The sovereign weighs 123-274 grains, or 7-98805 grammes, 916 (or eleven- 
twelfths) fine, and consequently it contains 113-001 grains or 7-32238 
grammes of fine gold. The shilling weighs 87-27 grains or 5-6552 grammes, 
and down to 1920 was -925 (orthirty-seven-fortieths) fine, thus containing 
80-727 grains or 5-231 grammes of fine silver, but under the Coinage Act, 
1902, the fineness was reduced to -500 (one-half). The Coinage Act, 1946, 
however, provides for the replacement of silver coinage by coins of cupro- 
nickel of tne same weight. Bronze coins consist of a mixture of copper, tin 
and zinc. The penny weighs 145*83 grains or 9-45 grammes. Threepenny 
pieces of nickel-brass were issued for the first time in 1937 ; they are legal 
tender up to 2s. The standard of value is gold. According to the Coinage Act, 
1870, silver is legal tender up to 40 shillings (and according to the Coinage Act, 
1946, cupro-nickel to the same amount) ; bronze (pennies, half- pennies and 
farthings) up to I2d. Bank of England notes of 5 dated on or after 2 Sep- 
tember, 1944, are legal tender in England and Wales, but not by the Bank 
itself (3 & 4 Will. 4, cap. 98, and 8 and 9 Viet., cap. 37 and 38). Bank of 
England notes of 1 and 10s., issued under the Currency and Bank Notes 
Act, 1928, are legal tender in Scotland and Northern Ireland also, and for 
the payment of any amount, including payments by the Bank itself. The 



GEE AT BRITAIN 113 

Gold Standard Act, 1925, decreed that bank notes were not redeemable in 
legal coin, but the Bank of England were obliged to sell gold at a fixed price 
in the form of bars. This latter provision was suspended by the Gold 
Standard (Amendment) Act, J931. The total amount of notes issued at 
2 March, 1949, was 1,300,247,833, of which 1,233,368,717 were in the 
hands of other banks and the public and 66,879,116 in the Banking Depart- 
ment of the Bank of England. 

Standard units are : of length, the standard yard ; of weight, the standard 
pound of 7,000 grains (the pound troy having 5,760 grains) ; of capacity, the 
standard gallon, containing 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water at 62 F. t 
the barometer at 30 inches. On these units all other legal weights and 
measures are based. 

Books of Reference concerning Great Britain. 

The annual and other publications of the various Public Departments, and the Reportfl, 
etc., of Royal Oommipsions and Parliamentary Committees. [These may be obtained from 
IT.M. Stationery Office.] 

See also publications of the British Council, p. 75. 

Report of the Royal Commission on Population. (Cmd. 7695.) H.M.S.O., 3949. 

Annual Abstract of Statistics for the United Kingdom, 1938-4S. 1I.M.S O., 1949. 

Annual Register. A Review of Public Events London. (First issue 1769.) 

The Victoria History of the Counties of England. Edited by W. Page and L. P. 
Salzman. London, 1900: new edition, 1920. 

Barker (Sir Ernest) (editor), The Character of England. London, 1047. 

Besterman (T.) (editor), British Sources of Reference and Information. A Guide to 
Societies, Works of Reference and Libraries. London, 1948. 

Detnanqeon (A.), The British Isles. London, 1940. 

Hodson (H. V.), Twentieth-Century Empire. London, 1948. 

Pilgrim Trust : Recording Britain. 4 vols. London, 194G-49. 

Trevelyan (G. M.), English Social History. New York and Toronto, 1942. London, 1944. 

Woodward (E. L.) and Butler (R.), Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919-39. 
(Three series.) London, 1947 ff. 

SCOTLAND. 

Mackay (JEnean) (editor), County Histories of Scotland. Edinburgh. 
Mackenzie (Agnes Mure), History of Scotland. 6 vols, London, 1938-41. 
Mackie (.T. D.) and Fintoy (T. M.), The Complete Scotland. London, 1933. 
Meilfle CH. W.) (editor), Scotland. London, 1947. 
Halt (R. S.), Scotland. (Modern World Series.) London, 1930. 

WALES. 

Bowen (E. G.), Wales : A Study in Geography and History. Cardiff, 1941. 
Evans (T.), The Background of Modern Welsh Politics. Cardiff, 1936. 
Lewis (EiJuned and Peter), The Land of Wales. London, 1937. 



114 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

NORTHERN IRELAND. 

Constitution. 

UNDER the Government of Ireland Act, 1920, as amended by the Irish 
Free State (Consequential Provisions) Act, 1922 (13 Geo. V, Ch. 2, Session 
2), a separate parliament and executive government were established for 
Northern Ireland, which comprises the parliamentary counties of Antrim, 
Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone, and the parliament- 
ary boroughs of Belfast and Londonderry. The Parliament consists of a 
Senate of 2 ex-officio and 24 elected persons and a House of Commons of 
52 elected members. The Parliament has power to legislate for its own 
area, except in regard to (1) matters of Imperial concern (the Crown, 
making of peace or war, military, naval and air forces, treaties, titles of 
honour, treason, naturalization, domicile, external trade, submarine cables, 
wireless telegraphy, aerial navigation, lighthouses, etc., coinage, etc., trade 
marks, etc.), and (2) certain matters * reserved * to the Imperial Parliament 
(postal service, Post Office and trustee savings banks, designs for stamps). 
The executive power is vested in the Governor on behalf of His Majesty the 
King : he holds office for six years and is advised by ministers responsible to 
Parliament. Senators, who are elected by members of the House of Com- 
mons on a proportional representation basis, hold office for a fixed term of 
years : the House of Commons continues for five years, unless sooner 
dissolved. The qualifications for membership of the Parliament are similar 
to those for membership of the Imperial House of Commons. By the 
Representation of the People Act (Northern Ireland), 1928, the franchise 
was conferred upon women upon the same terms as it had hitherto been 
enjoyed by men ; and by the House of Commons (Method of Voting and 
Redistribution of Seats) Act (Northern Ireland), 1929, the system of Pro- 
portional Representation (under which the Parliaments which met in 
1921 and in 1925 had been elected) was abolished, and Parliamentary 
Representation, except for the constituency of Queen's University of 
Belfast (which ceased to exist in 1950), was based upon single -mem her 
constituencies. 

Northern Ireland returns 12 members to the Imperial House of Com- 
mons. 

Two Acts of the Imperial Parliament, passed in 1928 and 1932, modified, 
in certain details, restrictions placed on the powers of the Northern Irish 
Parliament by the Act of 1920. The legislative and administrative powers 
relating to Railways, Fisheries and the Contagious Diseases of Animals 
(originally intended for a Council of Ireland), were, under the Ireland (Con- 
firmation of Agreement) Act, 1925. transferred to, and became, as from 
1 April, 1926, powers of the Parliament and Government of Northern 
Ireland. The general subject matter of the Land Purchase Acts was 
* reserved ' by the Act of 1920, but the Imperial Government's land purchase 
scheme has been practically completed, the Land Purchase Commission 
for Northern Ireland being closed on 1 April, 1937. Further Acts passed by 
the Imperial Parliament in 1945 and 1947 extended the jurisdiction of the 
Parliament of Northern Ireland in matters relating to criminal law and pro- 
cedure, schemes extending athwart the country's land frontier and in 
matters affecting transport services, health services and the transfer of 
publicly-owned property. Under the Act of 1947, provision was also made 
for the future transfer to local jurisdiction of the Northern Ireland Land 
Registry of Deeds and for the removal of some minor constitutional diffi- 



NORTHERN IRELAND 115 

oulties which had tended to hinder the full and free exercise by the Parlia- 
ment of Northern Ireland of its general legislative powers. 

The Northern Irish Parliament met for the first time in June, 1921. At 
the election on 10 Feb., 1949, there were returned 37 official Unionists, 9 
Nationalists, 3 Independent and non-party Unionists, 1 Independent 
Labour, 1 Socialist Republican and 1 Independent. 

Members of the Senate (except those in receipt of salaries as members of 
the Government or as officers of the Senate) receive payment at the rate of 
2 5. per diem in respect of expenses for attendance at meetings of the 
Senate, Select Committees of the Senate, and Joint Committees of the 
Senate and House of Commons. Members of the House of Commons 
(including members of the Government) receive 300 per annum in respect of 
expenses. Members (except those in receipt of salaries as members of the 
Government or as officers of the House) also receive a salary of 200 per 
annum. 

Governor. Vice-Admiral the Earl of Granville, K.C.V.O., C.B., D.S.O. 
Appointed 2 July, 1945; assumed office 7 Sept., 1945. Salary, 8,000 per 
year, payable from Imperial revenues (2,000 being recoverable from 
Northern Ireland revenues). 

The Ministry was, on 1 March, 1950, composed as follows : 

Prime Minister. Rt. Hon. Sir Basil S. Brooke, Bart., C.B.E., M.C. 

Minister of Finance. Major the Rt. Hon. J. M. Sinclair. 

Minister of Home Affairs. Rt. Hon. W. B. Maginess, K.C. 

Minister of Labour and National Insurance. Rt. Hon. Ivan Neill. 

Minister of Education. Rt. Hon. H. C. Midgley. 

Minister of Agriculture. Rev. the Rt. Hon. Robert Moore. 

Minister of Commerce. Rt. Hon. W. V. MeCleery. 

Minister of Health and Local Government. Rt. Hon. Dame Dehra Parker, 
D.B.E. 

Minister in the Senate. Senator Major the Rt. Hon. Sir Roland 
Nugent. 

Attorney -General. Rt. Hon. John Edinond Warnock, K.C. 

All the members of the Cabinet belong to the Unionist Party. 

The Prime Minister receives a salary of 2,850 per annum, the other 
ministers 1,700 each; in addition, they receive the members' expenses 
allowance of 300 per annum. 

The usual channel of communication between the Government of 
Northern Ireland and the Imperial Government is the Home Office. 

Local Government and Health Services. 

The establishment of the Ministry of Health and Local Government in 
1944, under the Ministries Act (Northern Ireland), 1944, resulted in the trans- 
fer to that Ministry from the Ministry of Home Affairs of functions in 
connexion with public health, housing and local government services. The 
Ministry also supervises the housing and planning activities of local authori- 
ties. 

The 2 county borough councils and 6 county councils are responsible for 
the construction and maintenance of roads and other public works, and the 

collection of rates, and are the education, health and welfare authorities 
within their respective areas. 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

The 6 counties include 32 rural districts, in each of which is a rural 
district council, which is the sanitary authority for the district, and is 
also responsible for such matters as labourers' cottages, burial grounds, etc. 
There are also under municipal government 9 boroughs and 24 urban dis- 
tricts as well as 3 towns which are not urban districts. 

Under the terms of the Health Services Act (Northern Ireland) 1948, the 
main object of which is to provide a comprehensive health service for all, free 
of direct charge to the individual, two new bodies have been set up the 
Northern Ireland Hospitals Authority and the Northern Ireland General 
Health Services Board. The expenditure of these two bodies is recouped by 
the Ministry. The main function of the Hospitals Authority is to provide an 
adequate hospital and specialist service for the community, and it now 
controls the former local authority hospitals such as district hospitals, 
county and union infirmaries and the great majority of voluntary hospitals. 
The last named, under the terms of the act, were at liberty to remain inde- 
pendent as before if they so desired. The General Health Services Board is 
responsible for the general medical, dental and pharmaceutical services, 
and since the establishment of the Board the great majority of doctors, 
dentists and pharmaceutical chemists have agreed to participate in the 
scheme made by the Board for the provision of these services. 

The County and County Borough Health Authorities established under 
the Public Health and Local Government (Administrative Provisions) 
Act (Northern Ireland), 1946, are responsible for personal health services 
as distinct from environmental health or sanitary services and their 
functions include maternity and child welfare, domiciliary midwifery, home 
nursing, vaccination, health education and school health services. These 
services were formerly administered by the councils of county borough, 
borough, urban and rural districts and by boards of guardians. A grant of 
50% of the approved net expenditure of Health Committees is payable by 
the Ministry, while a grant amounting to 65% is payable in respect of ex- 
penditure on the school health service. The latter grant is payable under 
the terms of the Education Act (Northern Ireland), 1947. 

Functions in regard to environmental health or sanitary services remain 
to a large extent with the councils of borough, urban and rural districts, 
though the sanitary officers concerned are employed directly by the Health 
Committees to whom the councils, in recognition of the services rendered 
on their behalf, recoup the greater part of the sanitary officers' salaries. 
Expenditure on these services is not grant-aided by the government. 

The Mental Health Act (Northern Ireland), 1948, provides the legislative 
framework for a comprehensive mental health service to be administered by 
the Northern Ireland Hospitals Authority in close co-operation with the 
general scheme of health services. It repeals and re-enacts with amend- 
ments the Mental Treatment Act (Northern Ireland), 1932 and introduces a 
complete departure from the mental treatment principles existing in most 
countries, in that it specifies that no patient being admitted to a mental 
hospital will in future require to be certified by a magistrate's order, although 
where prolonged detention is subsequently found to be necessary such an 
order must eventually be obtained. The existing provisions of the 1932 
act, whereby a person can be admitted to a mental hospital on a voluntary 
basis, are continued and extended. The act provides a scheme for the care 
and supervision of persons usually referred to as * mental defectives.' This 
term has been avoided in the act, which refers to such people as l persons 
requiring special care,' and the part of the act dealing with these persons 
embodies the most modern ideas on their treatment and care and provides 
for the expenditure of a sum of 500,000 from the Exchequer to be made 



NORTHERN IRELAND 117 

available to the Hospitals Authority to provide institutional accommodation 
for such persons. 

The prevention and treatment of tuberculosis under the Public Health 
(Tuberculosis) Act (Northern Ireland), 1946, have been taken over by the 
Northern Ireland Tuberculosis Authority. Its expenditure is met by direct 
grant in full from the Exchequer for the majority of the services provided, 
supplemented by a partial grant from local rates for certain specified services 
which are mainly domiciliary in character. In addition, a sum of 1,000,000 
has been set aside by parliament for the Authority's use in providing new 
chest hospitals, clinics, X-ray equipment and other items of a capital nature. 
The Authority had, on 31 Dec., 1948, 6 institutions under its direct control 
and had made arrangements with other bodies for the admission of certain 
types of cases to general hospitals, all of which gave a total of some 1,300 
beds available for tuberculosis patients. 

Boards of Guardians, who used to be in charge of the administration of 
the Poor Law code, have been abolished and their place taken by County and 
County Borough Welfare Authorities, who are now responsible for the well- 
being of children, blind persons, unmarried mothers and old people. 

Workhouses are being closed and in place of the former system of indoor 
relief, whereby poor persons were accommodated in these institutions, cash 
allowances will in future be paid by the National Assistance Board. 
Accommodation in new homes or hostels has to be paid for by every resident. 

Housing. While under the code of the Housing Acts the main burden 
of providing housing accommodation for workers must be borne by the 
Local Authorities, the government to meet the post-war position, created a 
new public authority the Northern Ireland Housing Trust which was 
set up early in 1945. The Housing Trust has been given full powers to 
provide workers' housing, anywhere in Northern Ireland, acting in con- 
junction with the various local Housing Authorities. The Housing Act 
(Northern Ireland), 1945, under which the Housing Trust was constituted, 
provided that all such new housing was to be subsidized. 

Legislation was passed during 1946 enabling subsidies to be paid to 
private builders erecting houses for letting, and to private persons wishing 
to build for their own occupation. This legislation was rounded off in 1948 
by a further measure designed to encourage the improvement of housing 
conditions in the agricultural districts, subsidies being made available to 
farmers, not only for the erection of new houses but also for the improve- 
ment and modernization of existing farmhouses, and those of their farm 
workers who must live on the lands where they are employed. 

In addition facilities are available in Northern Ireland under the 
provisions of the Industries Development Act (Northern Ireland), 1945 
whereby industrialists can provide housing accommodation for their workers 
with the aid of Government grants. 

Water Supply and Seivtrage. Many local authorities have extensive 
schemes at an advanced stage. Parliament provided in the Water Supplies 
and Sewerage Act (Northern Ireland), 1945, for government grants to be 
given to assist local authorities in this work and up to 30 June, 1949, grants 
amounting to 3,557,528 have been offered towards schemes estimated to 
cost 8,376,482. Encouragement has been given to local authorities to 
co-operate in the formation of Joint Boards, so that the sources of water 
supply can be utilized on a regional basis. Up to 30 June, 1949, 9 
Waterworks Joint Boards comprising 20 rural and 13 urban authorities 
have been formed. 



118 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Area and Population. 

A census of Northern Ireland was taken on 28 February, 1937. The 
area and population of the country at that date were as follows : 



Counties and county 
boroughs 


Area in 
statute acres 
(exclusive of 
water) 


Males 


Females 


Total 


Antrim . , 
Armagh . 
Belfast O.B. 
Down 
Fermanagh 
Londonderry Co. 
Londonderry O.B. 
Tyrone . 


702,900 
312,767 
15,289 
609,057 
417,912 
612,580 
2,198 
779,548 


96,003 
54,271 
205,538 
102,535 
28,856 
47,929 
22,344 
66,678 


101,263 
54,544 
232,548 
108,152 
25,713 
46,994 
25,469 
61,908 


197,266 
108,815 
438,086 
210,687 
54,569 
94,923 
47,813 
127,586 


Northern Ireland 


3,352,251 


623,154 


656,591 


1,279,746 



Estimated civilian population at 30 June, 1949, 1,359,798. 
Vital statistics for 4 years : 



Year 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Year 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


1945 
1946 


10.452 
9,801 


29,007 
30,134 


16,264 
16,666 


1947 
1948 


9,517 
9,360 


31,254 
29,532 


16,913 
15,126 



Numbers of divorces, separation and nullity of marriages in 1945, 183; 
1946,224; 1947,204; 1948,185. 

Religion. 

The religious professions in Northern Ireland, as recorded at the census 
of 1937, were : Roman Catholics, 428,290 ; Presbyterians, 390,931 ; Church 
of Ireland, 345,474; Methodists, 55,135; other professions, 59,915; total, 
1,279,745. There were 1,090 members of the Society of Friends in 1949. 

Education. 

The following are the statistics for 1948-49 : 

University : The Queen's University of Belfast (founded in 1849 as a 
College of the Queen's University of Ireland, and reconstituted a separate 
university in 1909) had 36 professors, 96 readers and lecturers, 127 assistants 
and demonstrators, and 2,762 students. 

Secondary Education : 77 grammar schools with 24,418 pupils; 9 inter- 
mediate schools with 4,793 pupils. Technical Instruction : 122 centres 
with 30,259 students. 

Primary Education : 1,635 primary schools with 133,445 pupils on rolls. 

Justice. 

Under the Government of Ireland Act, 1920, a Supreme Court of Judi- 
cature of Northern Ireland was established, consisting of the Court of Appeal 
in Northern Ireland and the High Court of Justice in Northern Ireland. 
An appeal lies direct, in certain conditions, from the former to the House 
of Lords. A Court of Criminal Appeal was established in 1930. 

A system of County or Civil Bill Courts deals with civil disputes 
generally where the sum at issue does not exceed 100, but possesses wider 



NOETHERN IRELAND 



119 



jurisdiction in certain cases. These County Courts have also a criminal 
jurisdiction, and act as appellate courts from the decisions of Resident 
Magistrates. 

By the Summary Jurisdiction and Criminal Justice Act (Northern 
Ireland), 1935, Justices of the Peace were relieved of their judicial functions 
which are now vested in permanent judicial officers known as Resident 
Magistrates. The administrative functions of the Justices of the Peace are 
preserved to them and they are permitted to hear and determine cases of 
drunkenness and vagrancy, but only when sitting out of Petty Sessions. 

The Police Force consists of (a) the Royal Ulster Constabulary, with 
a statutory maximum strength of 3,000 and (b) the Ulster Special Con- 
stabulary, a part-time force. 

Finance. 

The bulk of the taxation of Northern Ireland is imposed and collected 
by the Imperial authorities, who make certain deductions and remit the 
balance to the Northern Ireland Exchequer. The exact share of the latter 
in the proceeds of such taxation is determined by the Joint Exchequer Board, 
a special body consisting of one representative of the Imperial Treasury, one 
of the Northern Ireland Treasury, and a chairman appointed by the King. 
The deductions made by the Imperial Treasury represent a contribution to- 
wards Imperial liabilities and expenditure, and the net cost to the Imperial 
Exchequer of Northern Ireland services Reserved' to the Imperial 
Parliament. 

The Northern Ireland Parliament has limited powers of taxation, the 
powers excluded relating to customs duties, excise duties on articles manu- 
factured and produced, excess profits tax, income tax, including surtax, or 
any tax on profits or a general tax on capital, or any tax substantially the 
same in character as any of these duties or taxes. The Government of 
Northern Ireland also raises money from time to time for capital purposes 
by means of Stock, Savings Certificates and Treasury Bills. 

The revenue and expenditure of the Northern Ireland Exchequer for the 
past 4 years were as follows (in sterling) : 





1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


1949-50* 


Revenue l . 
Expenditure 
Contribution 


26,616,447 
26,446,870 
22,500,000 


29,274,497 
28,662,482 
22,500,000 


38,806,286 
38,712,828 
21,500,000 


45,057,000 
44,995,000 
20,000,000 



1 Net, after deduction of estimated cost of ' Reserved ' Services and contribution to 
Imperial Services. An adjustment is made when the true Residuary Share has been finally 
ascertained. 

1 Estimates. 

The public debt at 31 March, 1949, consisted of 2,614,500 Northern 
Ireland 3|% Stock, 1950-54, and 26,052,225 Ulster Savings Certificates. 
The proceeds of Savings Certificates were re-lent to the United Kingdom 
Goverment during the war, the amount so invested at 31 March, 1949, being 
14,830,900. 

Loans to local authorities and others for public utility services are made 
from the Government Loans Fund, the amount of principal outstanding at 
31 March, 1949, being 17,484,623. Loans are financed by issues of Loans 
Stock supplemented as necessary by other borrowings. Loans Stocks out- 
standing at 31 March, 1949, were 1,860,795, Ulster Loans 5% Stock, 
1950-60, and 5,000,000 Northern Ireland 3% Loans Stock, 1956-61. 



120 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Production. 

Agriculture. Agriculture is the largest single industry in Northern 
Ireland. Farms are small, there being about 90,000 holdings. Most of the 
farmers are in process of completing the purchase of their farms under the 
Land Purchase Acts. 

The acreage under crops in Northern Ireland hi 1949 was as follows : 
Wheat, 1,990; oats, 374,110; barley, 5,730; mixed corn, 5,990; potatoes, 
187,510; flax, 29,820; turnips, 13,820; hay, 406,810. 

Estimated yields in 1949 were (in tons): Oats, 354,000; potatoes, 
1,430,000; turnips, 226,000; flax (scutched fibre), 5,000; hay, 690,000; 
barley, 6,400; wheat, 2,100; mixed corn, 5,800. 

Livestock numbers at 1 June, 1949, were : Cattle 980,218; sheep, 
645,440; pigs, 458,470; poultry, 24,233,796. 

Mining. The output of minerals in tons during 1948 was : Basalt and 
igneous rock, 708,000; chalk, 250,000; clay, 226,000; diatomite, 7,000; 
fireclay, 11,000; granite, 61,000; limestone, 219,000; sand and gravel, 
400,000; grit and conglomerate, 321,000. 

Tho number of persons employed in the mines and quarries was : 1944, 
2,905; 1945,2,558; 1946,2,679; 1947,2,680; 1948,2,755. 

Industrial Development. The basis of the industrial structure of Northern 
Ireland is being broadened and the development of established industries 
encouraged by the assistance which the government is enabled to extend 
under the provisions of its Industries Development Acts. 

Manufactures. The two principal industries are linen and shipbuilding. 
The value of linen goods and yarn exported from the United Kingdom during 
the year ended 31 Aug., 1949, was 17,131,000. A very large proportion of 
United Kingdom exports of linen goods originated in Northern Ireland and 
in addition the Northern Ireland linen industry exported nearly 2,500,000 
worth of rayon goods. The textile and clothing industry gives employment 
to about 90,000 people. 

About 40,000 people are employed in engineering and shipbuilding. 
The Belfast shipyards possess an output capacity exceeding 200.000 tons 
per year. Textile machinery is a very important product of the engineering 
industry. 

Electricity Development. The distribution of electricity in Northern 
Ireland is carried out by three main undertakings, which cover between 
them virtually the whole of the province. These are the Belfast Corporation, 
the Londonderry Corporation and the Electricity Board for Northern Ireland. 
Sales during 1948 amounted to 467 million units. Units sold by the Elec- 
tricity Board during 1948 amounted to 174,242,000. At 31 Dec., 1948, the 
Board had in commission 1,529 miles of high tension transmission lines and 
was distributing supplies in 220 towns and villages. 

The generating capacity in Northern Ireland was increased during 1943 
with the construction, by the Ministry of Commerce, of a new generating 
station at Ballylumford, Co. Antrim. This station, which began production 
with 30,000 kw. of plant, has since been extended to a capacity of 93,000 
kw. and further extensions are in progress, which will bring the capacity 
up to 124,500 kw. The station was transferred to the Electricity 
Board on 1 Jan., 1949. The Harbour Power Station of the Belfast 
Corporation was in 1949 extended so as to bring its capacity up to 
144,750 kw. 



NORTHERN IRELAND 



121 



Trade Statistics 


194.6 


1947 


1948 


Imports .... 
Exports .... 



123,188,000 
127,667,000 


157,561,000 
147,017,000 


177,382,000 
169,158,000 



National Insurance. 

The National Insurance Act (Northern Ireland), 1946, came into operation 
on 5 July, 1948. Its provisions are substantially the same as those of the 
corresponding act in force in Great Britain. It replaces and extends the 
earlier schemes of insurance under the National Health Insurance, Con- 
tributory Pensions and Unemployment Insurance Acts, and in addition 
it provides grants towards the cost of funeral expenses, and brings into 
insurance for appropriate benefits the self-employed and adult non- 
employed members of the community. The total number of insured persons 
is estimated at about 600,000. 

Reciprocal arrangements have been made with Great Britain and the 
Isle of Man with the object of making the three schemes operate so far as 
possible as a single system. The National Insurance Joint Authority, 
consisting of the Minister of National Insurance in Great Britain and the 
Minister of Labour and National Insurance in Northern Ireland, is charged 
with the duty of co-ordinating the schemes in Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland. 

About 87,000 persons in Northern Ireland are in receipt of widows' 
pensions or retirement pensions. 

Industrial Injuries Insurance. The National Insurance (Industrial 
Injuries) Act (Northern Ireland), 1946, came into force on 5 July, 1948. It 
provides insurance cover for persons incapacitated by industrial accident 
or disease. Reciprocity with Great Britain and the Isle of Man has been 
established. 

Family Alloicances. A scheme has been in force since Aug., 1946, under 
which an allowance of 5/- a week is payable for each child, other than the 
first, in a family. Reciprocal arrangements have been made with Great 
Britain, the Isle of Man and New Zealand. The number of families in 
receipt of allowances is over 96,000. 

National Assistance. The National Assistance Scheme provides for the 
grant of assistance to persons who are without resources, or sufficient 
resources, to meet their requirements. Subject to need, benefit under the 
National Insurance Scheme may be supplemented under the National 
Assistance Scheme. 

Non-contributory Pensions. Old Age Pensions (non-contributory) are 
granted to individuals who are not eligible for retirement pensions provided 
they have reached the age of 70 (40 in the case of blind persons), and comply 
with certain conditions as regards means, British nationality and residence 
in the U.K. The number of persons in receipt of non-contributory pensions 
is approximately 30,000. 

Communications. 

Rail. Railways are operated by two main undertakings the Ulster 
Transport Authority (which has taken over the former undertakings of the 
Northern Counties Committee and the Belfast and County Down Railway) 
and the Great Northern Railway Company (Ireland) with 644 miles of 



122 THE BBITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

standard gauge (5' 3") first track lines. There are also a number of lesser 
railways with standard and narrow gauge track. In 1948, 1,946,847 tons 
of merchandise and minerals, 708,418 head of livestock and 15,244,735 
passengers were carried by rail, including railways operating partly in Eire. 
The gross receipts (1948) were 5,632,688 and net receipts Dr. 93,165. 

Road. At 30 Sept., 1948, the Northern Ireland Road Transport Board 
was operating 945 omnibuses and 1,285 freight vehicles. Merchandise 
carried by the Board during the year ended 30 Sept., 1948, was 1,413,024 
tons; livestock, 590,253 head, and passengers, 93,303,223. The gross 
receipts for that year were 3,820,633, with net receipts 194,821. 

During the year ended 31 March, 1949, the Belfast Corporation Transport 
Undertaking carried 251,369,695 passengers by tramcar, omnibus and trolley 
bus. Gross receipts for the year were 1 ,925,302. 

Co-ordination of Road and Rail Transport. On 1 Oct., 1948, the Northern 
Ireland Road Transport Board which, outside the Belfast (Municipal) 
Transport Area, provided road services for passengers and freight throughout 
the Province, and the Belfast and County Down Railway which provided 
rail services in County Down were unified under the Ulster Transport 
Authority, a new body set up by the Transport Act (Northern Ireland), 1948, 
and as from 1 April, 1949, the Authority took over the Northern Counties 
Committees Railway. Under the provisions of this Act the Authority may 
acquire the whole or any part of any railway or other transport undertaking 
in Northern Ireland. 

Sea. Regular passenger and freight services are provided between Bel- 
fast and Heysham and between Larne and Stranraer by Railway Executive 
(British Transport Commission) steamers and between Belfast and Liver- 
pool and Belfast and Glasgow by the Belfast Steamship Company, Ltd. 
Regular freight services also ply between Belfast and Bristol and other 
ports in Great Britain. A vehicle ferry service plies between Larne and 
Preston, operated by Continental Lines, Ltd. 

Air. British European Air Corporation maintain regular passenger 
services between Belfast (Nutt's Corner) and London, Liverpool, Manchester, 
Glasgow (Renfrew) and seasonally to other cities in Great Britain and also 
to the Isle of Man. Charter air services are available by Ulster Aviation, 
Ltd., at Newtownards Airport, and by Messrs. Short and Harland, Ltd., at 
Sydenham Airport. 

Books oi Reference on Northern Ireland. 

Uteter Year Book. Belfast, H.M. Stationery Office. 
Chart (D. A.), A History of Northprn Ireland. Belfast, 1928. 
Ervine (St. J.), Craigavon : Ulster-man. London, 1949. 
Falls (Oyril), The Birth of Ulster. London, 1U3G. 
Gohlft (Y. M".\ Les Nonas dc LIPUX Irelandais. Paris. 1930. 

Hill (D. A.), The Land of Ulster. Report of the Land Utilisation Survey. Vol. I. 
Belfast, 1948. 

Mansergh (Nicholas), The Government of Northern Ireland. London, 1936. 

Mogey (J. M.), Rural life in Northern Ireland. London, 1947. 

Quekett (Sir A. S.), The Constitution of Northern Ireland. 3 pte. Belfast, 1928-47. 



ISLE OF MAN. 1 

The Isle of Man is administered in accordance with its own laws by the 
Court of Tynwald, consisting of the Governor, appointed by the Crown; the 
Legislative Council, composed of the Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man, 2 
1 Area and population, see p. 65. 



ISLE OF MAN 123 

Deemsters, the Attorney- General, 2 members appointed by the Governor, 
and 4 members elected by the House of Keys, total 11 members, includ- 
ing the Governor ; and the House of Keys, a representative assembly of 24 
members chosen on adult suffrage with 6-months residence for 5 years by 
the 6 ' sheadings ' or local sub-divisions, and the 4 municipalities. Women 
have the franchise as well as men. Number of voters 1948-49, 41,642. The 
island is not bound by Acts of the Imperial Parliament unless specially 
mentioned in them. 

On 25 April, 1944, at a special session of the Manx Legislature both 
branches of the Legislature reached general agreement on a proposal to 
establish an Executive Committee to act with the Governor on all matters 
of government, and, by resolution of Tynwald on 15 October, 1946, an 
executive council was appointed. The present constitution of the council is 
the chairmen of the 4 principal Boards of Tynwald together with the 
Speaker and 2 other members of the House of Keys. 

Lieut.- Governor. Air Vice-Marshal Sir Geoffrey Rhodes Bromet, K.B.E., 
C.B., D.S.O. (term of office began 7 September, 1945). 

The population (national registration, 1939) numbered 50,829 (22,475 
males, 28,354 females); 529 (1-1%) were bilingual (Manx and English). 

The principal towns are Douglas (population, 20,012), Ramsey (4,240), 
Peel (2,523), Castletown (1,742). Births (1948), 821; deaths, 801. On 
1 Jan., 1948, there were 31 primary schools (36 departments), 28 being pro- 
vided schools. The enrolled pupils numbered 4,133. The gross expenditure 
of the Education Authority for tho year 1948-49 amounted to 175,819. 
There are 5 secondary schools, 4 provided by tho Education Authority 
(2,414 registered pupils), 1 diiect grant school (133 registered pupils), 1 
independent public school for boys (329 registered pupils), 1 school of 
technology art and crafts (225 registered pupils), 1 domestic science college 
(208 registered pupils) and 1 evening institute (306 registered pupils). The 
police force numbers 92; in the year 1948 there were 1,247 persons con- 
victed. 

Revenue is derived from customs duties and partly from income 
tax. In 1948-49 the revenue from customs duties, etc., amounted to 
2,700,674. Expenditure totalled 2,768,095. 

The principal agricultural produce of the island consists of oats, wheat, 
barley, turnips and potatoes, and grasses. The total area of the island, 
excluding water, is 145,325 acres; the total area under crops in 1948 was 
75,262 acres and of rough grazings, 44,257 acres. The total acreage under 
corn crops in 1948 was 17,237 acres, including 13,359 under oats, 777 
under wheat and 361 under barley or here. There were also 3,976 acres 
under turnips and swedes, 2,669 under potatoes, 8,187 under hay and 
27,225 under grass, following rotational cropping. The livestock in 1948 
consisted of 2,186 horses, 23,716 cattle, 69,344 sheep and 2,831 pigs. 

The registered shipping (1948) comprised 56 vessels of 12,223 net tons; 
also 127 fishing vessels. The tonnage of vessels arrived at ports of the 
island in 1948 was 975,339 tons (969,904 tons coastwise), and departed 
978,443 net tons (974,680 tons coastwise). The railways have a length of 
46 J miles, and there are 25 miles of electric railway. 

Books of Reference. 

Memorandum on the Constitutional Position of the Isle of Man. Douglas, 1944. 
Kinvig (K. H.), History of the Isle of Man. Oxford, 1943. 



124 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIBE 



CHANNEL ISLANDS. 

THE Channel Islands are situated off the north-west coast of France and 
are the only portion of the * Duchy of Normandy ' now belonging to the 
Crown of England, to which they have been attached since the Conquest. 
They consist of Jersey (28,717 acres), Guernsey (15,654 acres) and the 
following dependencies of Guernsey Alderney (1,962), Brechou (74), 
Great Sark (1,035), Little Sark (239), Herm (320), Jethou (44) and Lihou 
(38), a total of 48,083 acres, or 75 square miles. 

The climate is mild. Total rainfall (1948), Jersey, 25-83 in. ; Guernsey, 
27*86 in. Temperature registered : highest, Jersey, 90 ; Guernsey, 86 ; 
lowest, Jersey, 17; Guernsey, 19. 

Communications. Passenger and cargo steamer services between (a) 
Jersey and Guernsey and (b) between Jersey and Guernsey and England, 
and (c) between Jersey and St. Malo and Granville are maintained by British 
Railways. Cargo steamer services between Jersey and Guernsey and 
between Jersey and Guernsey and London are maintained by the British 
Channel Islands Steamship Co., Ltd. 

Scheduled air services are maintained by British European Airways 
(B.E.A.C.) between (a) Jersey and Guernsey, Southampton and London, 
(b) between Alderney and Southampton, (c) between Guernsey and Alderney, 
Southampton and London, and (d) between Jersey and Dinard and Rennes. 
There are, in addition, numerous charter services in operation between the 
islands and between the islands and England and France. 

Omnibus services, maintained by insular organizations, operate in all 
parts of Jersey and Guernsey. 

Postal services in the islands, and between the islands and the United 
Kingdom and the Continent, are maintained by branches of the General 
Post Office. The telegraph and trunk telephone services to the United 
Kingdom are maintained by the General Post Office. The local telephone 
services in the islands are maintained by the insular authorities. 

There are no broadcasting stations in the islands. 

Trade. Total trade (in sterling) of the Channel Islands with the 
United Kingdom (Board of Trade returns) : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports into U.K . 
Exports from U.K. . 
Ee-exporta from U.K. 


4,670,688 
6,093,144 
1,002,742 


7,127.066 
8,912,477 
876,264 


10,094,462 
12,144,760 
1,337,928 


13.233 219 
16,193,226 
1,404,310 


10,577,279 
14,727,374 
1,662,330 



JERSEY. 

Constitution. The Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-Chief of 
Jersey is the Personal Representative of the Sovereign, the Commander of 
the Armed Forces of the Crown, and the channel of communication between 
His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Insular Govern- 
ment. He is appointed by the Crown. He is entitled to sit and to speak in 
the Assembly of the states (the insular legislature) but not to vote. He has 
a power of veto on certain forms of legislation. 

The Bailiff is appointed by the Crown and is President both of the 
Assembly of the states and of the Royal Court of Jersey. He has in the 
states a right of dissent and a casting vote. 

The government of the island is conducted by committees appointed by 



CHANNEL ISLANDS 125 

the states. The states consist of 12 senators (elected for 9 years, 4 retiring 
every third year), 12 constables (triennial) and 28 deputies (triennial) all 
elected on universal suffrage, by the people. 

The Dean of Jersey, the Attorney-General and the Solicitor-General 
are appointed by the Crown and are entitled to sit and to speak in the states, 
but not to vote. Permanent laws, but not triennial regulations, passed by 
the states require the sanction of the King in Council. 

The official language is French, but English is the language in daily use. 

The principal industries are agriculture (potatoes, tomatoes and cattle) 
and tourism. 

Thfc principal town is St. Helier on the south coast. 

Justice. Justice is administered by the Royal Court, which consists of 
the bailiff and 12 jurats. There is a final appeal in certain cases to His 
Majesty in Council. A stipendiary magistrate deals with minor civil and 
criminal cases. 

Church. Jersey constitutes a deanery within the Diocese of Winchester. 
The 12 rectories are in the gift of the Crown. The Church of Borne and 
various Nonconformist Churches are represented in the island. 

Education. There are two public schools in the island, namely, Victoria 
College (for boys) and the Jersey College (for girls). The total number of 
scholars is 6,656; 4,500 attend the states primary schools and some 1,500 
attend private schools. The States Public Instruction Committee provide 
facilities for technical instruction, domestic science and evening classes. 

Population, 1948, 57,133; births, 964; deaths, 678. 

Finance (year ending 31 January, 1949). Revenue, 2,358,977 ; expendi- 
ture, 2,169,685; public debt, 3,055,382. 

The standard rate of income tax is 4<*. in the pound. No super-tax or 
death duties are levied. Parochial rates of moderate amount are payable 
by owners and occupiers. 

Commerce, Principal imports, 1948: building material, 35,288 tons; 
builders' timber, 282,480 cu. ft.; fuel, 62,491 tons; foodstuffs, 8,851 tons. 
Principal exports, 1948: potatoes, 30,489 tons; tomatoes, 34,908 tons; 
cattle, 1,912 head. 

Shipping. Number of ships entering Jersey (1948), 1,782; leaving 
Jersey, 1,784. All vessels arriving in Jersey from outside Jersey waters 
report at St. Helier harbour on first arrival. There are harbours of minor 
importance at St. Aubin and Gorey. Ships registered in Jersey (excluding 
fishing boats), 1948: steam, 11; sail, 5; motor, 3; yachts, 33. 

Aviation. The Jersey airport is situated at St. Peter. It is an all-grass 
landing area of approximately 119 acres. No. of aircraft in (1948), 10,631 ; 
out, 10,634 ; passengers, 69,096 arrivals, 72,945 departures. 

Lieutenant-Governor and Commander -in-Chief of Jersey. Lieut.-General 
Sir Arthur Edward Grasett, K.B.E., C.B., D.S.O., M.C. (appointed 21 Aug., 
1945). 

Bailiff of Jersey. Sir Alexander M. Coutanche, Kt. 

GUERNSEY. 

Constitution. The Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the 
Bailiwick of Guernsey is the Personal Representative of the Sovereign, the 
Commander of the Armed Forces of the Crown and the channel of com- 
munication between His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and 



126 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

the Insular Government. He is appointed by the Crown. He is entitled 
to sit and speak in the Assembly of the States, but not to vote. The Bailiff 
is appointed by the Crown and is President both of the Assembly of the 
States (the Insular Legislature) and of the Royal Court of Guernsey. He 
has a casting vote in the States. 

The government of the island is conducted by committees appointed 
by the states. 

Under the Reform (Guernsey) Law, 1948, the States of Deliberation 
was re-constituted and from 1 Jan., 1949, is composed of the following 
members : the Bailiff, who is President ex officio; 12 Conseillers elected by 
the States of Election; H.M. Procureur and H.M, Comptroller (Law Officers 
of the Crown), who have a voice but no vote; 33 People's Deputies elected 
by popular franchise; 10 Douzaine Representatives elected by their 
Parochial Douzaines. 

The function of the States of Election is to elect persons to the offices 
of Jurat, Conseiller and H.M. Sheriff. It also was re -constituted as from 
1 Jan., 1949, and is composed of the following members : the Bailiff 
(President ex ojjicio] ; the 12 Jurats or * Jures-Justiciers ' ; the 12 Conseillers ; 
the 10 Rectors; H.M. Procureur and H.M. Comptroller; the 33 People's 
Deputies; 34 Douzaine Representatives. 

Until Jan., 1949, the Royal Court possessed, inter alia, the power to 
make ordinances dealing with various local matters. Thenceforth, all 
powers and functions of a legislative nature (with minor exceptions) formerly 
exercised by that Court have been vested in the States of Deliberation. 
Projets de Loi (Bills) require the sanction of His Majesty in Council. 

Language. Meetings of the States and of the Royal Court, formerly 
conducted in French, are now conducted in English, which is the language 
in common use. The Norman patois is, however, often heard in the country 
parishes. 

Justice. Justice is administered in Guernsey by the Royal Court, which 
consists of the bailiff and the 12 jurats and certain court officials. The Royal 
Court also deals with a wide variety of non- contentious matters. A 
stipendiary magistrate deals with minor civil and criminal cases. Tho 
question of judicial reform is under consideration. 

Church. Guernsey constitutes a deanery within the Diocese of Win- 
chester. The ten rectories are in the gift of the Crown. In addition to the 
rectories, there are various other livings of the Church of England. The 
Church of Rome and various Nonconformist Churches are represented. 

Education. There are two public schools in the island : Elizabeth 
College, founded by Queen Elizabeth in 1503, for boys, and the Ladies' 
College, for girls. The States intermediate schools provide for education up 
to school certificate standard, and there are numerous modern and elementary 
schools. The total number of school children is 6,554, of whom some 600 
attend private schools. Facilities are also available for the study of art, 
domestic science, and many other subjects of a technical nature. 

Population. The population at 1 Oct., 1949, was 44,592. Births during 
1948 were 868 ; deaths, 466. 

Finance. Revenue for the financial year ending 31 Dec., 1948, was 
1,666,058; expenditure, 1,532,314; States' funded debt, 3,653,953; 
note issue, 415,059. The standard rate of income tax is 5s. in the pound. 
Sur-tax is levied on such part of incomes as exceeds 1,000, commencing 
at 6i/. (1,000-1,500) and rising to 5s. (10,000 and over). States and 
parochial rates are very moderate. 



GIBRALTAR 127 

Commerce. Principal imports for 1948 were: Fuel, 129,649 tons; 
foodstuffs, 16,476 tons ; building materials, 22,643 tons. Principal exports 
were : Tomatoes, 40,143 tons; grapes, 700 tens; flowers, 725 tons; cattle, 
571 head. 

Shipping. The principal harbour is that of St. Peter Port, and there is 
a harbour at St. Sampson's (used mainly for commercial shipping). In 1948, 
the number of ship tons net entering and leaving Guernsey was 825,416. Sea 
passengers : arrivals, 99,111 ; departures, 98,486. The number of ships 
registered in Guernsey at 31 Dec., 1948, was 33 (steam, 8; motor, 5; yachts, 
20). 

Aviation.- The airport in Guernsey, situated at La Villiaze, is an all- 
grass landing area of approximately 91 acres. In 1948, 7,204 aircraft 
arrived (passengers, 29,935) and 7,221 departed (passengers, 31,449). 

Lieutenant-Governor and Commander -in-Chief of Guernsey and its Depen- 
dencies. Lieut.-General Sir Philip Neame, V.C., K.B.E., C.B., D.S.O. 
(appointed 25 Aug., 1945). 

Government Secretary. Major- General R. F. Colwill, C.B.E. 

Bailiff of Guernsey and President of the States. Sir Ambrose J. Sherwill, 
C.B.E., M.C. 

Books of Reference concerning the Channel Islands. 

Nos lies. (The Channel Islands Study Group.) Teddington, 1944. 
JSalleine (G. R.), Biographical Dictionary of Jersey. London, 1948. 
Campbell (A 8.), Golden Guernsey. New York, 1938. 
Durand (R.), Guenisey, Present and Past. Guernsey, 1933. 
Foord (E.), The Channel Islands. London, 1928. 
Guerin (B. 0. de), The Norman Isles. Oxfoid, 1949. 
Maughn (R. C. P.), The Island of Jersey To-day. London 1938. 
Platt (E.), Sark, An I Found It. London, 1936. 

GIBRALTAR. 

THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR was settled by Moors in 711 ; they named it after 
their chief Djebel Tarik, * the Mountain of Tarik.' In 14G2 it was taken 
by the Spaniards, from Granada. It was captured by Admiral Sir George 

Rooke on 3 Aug., 1704, and ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht, 
1713. It is a Crown colony, situated in 30 7' N. latitude and 5 21' W. 
longitude, in the Province of Andalusia, in Spain, commanding the entrance 
to the Mediterranean. The average rainfall at Gibraltar is 35 ins. The 
rainy season is from September to May. 

Governor and Commander -in-Chief. General Sir Kenneth A. N. Ander- 
son, K.C.B., M.C. (salary 5,000, with 500 allowances; assumed office 
21 March, 1947). 

Colonial Secretary. B. J. O'Brien. 

The Governor, who is also Commander-in-Chief, is assisted by an 
Executive Council, established by letters patent in September. 1922. It 
is composed of the Combatant Military Officer next in seniority after the 
Governor, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Financial 
Secretary, and three unofficial members selected by the Governor. Area, 1 J 
square miles. Population, including port and harbour (census, 1931), civil, 
17,613 (7,986 males and 9,627 females); military, 3,218 (2,544 males and 
674 females); naval, 541 (397 males and 144 females); total, 21,372 (10,927 
males and 10,445 females). Estimated fixed civil population, 1 Jan., 1949, 
23,700. The population are mostly descendants of Italian and Spanish 



128 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



settlers. Civil population births (1948), 387; marriages, 208 ; deaths, 203. 
Religion of civil population mostly Roman Catholic; 1 Anglican and 1 
Catholic cathedral and 4 Catholic churches; annual subsidy to each com- 
munion, 500. 

Education is provided for children between ages 5 and 14 years. 
There were, in 1949, 13 primary, 4 secondary, 1 commercial and 1 technical 
government schools. Total number of schoolchildren in government schools 
(31 Dec., 1949), 2,650; average annual attendance, 90-5%. The judicial 
system is based on the English system. There is a Supreme Court, presided 
over by the Chief Justice, and a Magistrates' Court. In 1948, 1,006 cases 
were dealt with in the latter court, and there were 826 summary convictions. 

Revenue and expenditure for 6 years (in sterling) : 





1943 


1944 


1941, 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Revenue 
Expenditure 


605,603 
213,316 


632,067 
433,348 


610,009 
469,191 


646,326 
761,630 


1,389,376 
912,866 


681,580 
652,755 



Industries unimportant. The trade of the port is chiefly transit trade 
and the supply of coal to ships. There are import duties on malt liquors, 
wine, spirits, tobacco, motor spirits, perfumery and coffee, and on exporta- 
tion of oil fuels. 

Legislation providing for the registration and regulation of trade unions 
was enacted in 1947. A considerable proportion of the Gibraltarian workers 
are organised in one or other of the two most important trade unions which 
are the Transport and General Workers Union and the Gibraltar Con- 
federation of Labour. The male labour force on 1 January, 1948, consisted 
of 5,271 resident Gibraltarians and 7,261 men and 4,700 women (Spaniards) 
who enter and leave the colony daily. The majority of these workers are 
employed by the service departments, the colonial government or the city 
council, and the Permanent Housing Scheme. 

Government savings bank, with 10,625 depositors, had 957,669 deposits 
at the end of 1948. 

Gibraltar is a naval base and position of great strategic importance. 
There is a deep Admiralty harbour of 440 acres. Vessels entered and 
cleared in 1948, 5,651 ; net tonnage, 8,520,834. An automatic telephone 
system exists in the town, and Cable and Wireless, Ltd., have a station. 
There is world-wide cable or wireless communication via the cable and/or 
wireless circuits of Cable and Wireless, Ltd. Air mails arrive by B.E.A. 
twice weekly. A direct air-mail service between Gibraltar and Tangier was 
inaugurated on 1 July, 1948, and is operated by Gibraltar Airways, Ltd. 
Surface mails arrive direct and through France and Spain. 

The legal currency is that of Great Britain. Since the outbreak of the 
Great War in 1914 there are also currency notes issued by the local govern- 
ment. The amount in circulation at end of 1948 was 786,515. There 
are 3 private banks, including a branch of Barclays Bank (D., C. & O.). 

Books of Reference. 

Annual Report on Gibraltar, 1948. London. 1949. 

Gibraltar Directory and Guide Book. Gibraltar. 1948. 

Abbott (W. 0.\ An Introduction to the Documents Relating to the International Status 
of Gibraltar, 1704-1934. New York, 1934. 

Oarratt CG. T.), Gibraltar and the Mediterranean. London, 1939. 

Howei (H. W.), The Story of Gibraltar. London, 1946. 

Ktnyon (Maj.-Gen. B. R.), revised by Samom (Lt.-Col. H. A.), Gibraltar under Moor 
Spaniard and Briton. London, 1939. 



MALTA 129 

MALTA. 

MALTA was held in turn by Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians and 
Romans, and was conquered by Arabs in 870. From 1090 it was joined to 
Sicily until 1530, when it was handed over to the Knights of St. John, 
who ruled until dispersed by Napoleon in 1798. The Maltese rose in 
rebellion against the French and the island was subsequently blockaded by 
the British Fleet, aided by the Maltese, from 1798 to 1800, and with the 
free will of the Maltese was finally annexed to the British Crown by the 
Treaty of Paris in 1814. It is one of the most important ports of call 
in the world, and is the base and resort for repair and refitment of the 
British Fleet in the Mediterranean. 

On 17 April, 1942, in recognition of the steadfastness and fortitude of 
the people of Malta during the Second World War, King George VI awarded 
the George Cross to the island. 

Governor and Commander -in-Chief. Sir Gerald H. Creasy, K.C.M.G., 
O.B.E. (sworn in 16 Sept., 1949). 

Lieut.-Oovernor. Sir David Campbell, C.M.G. (12 February, 1943). 

Constitution. On 7 July, 1943, it was announced in the House of 
Commons that after the war responsible government would be restored in 
Malta. On 20 January, 1945, the National Assembly met to consider the 
form of a new constitution. A report on the two proposals of the Maltese 
Assembly (Colonial Office paper No. 207) and a statement of policy by the 
British Government (Cmd. 7014) were published on 20 January, 1947. 

Letters patent, dated 5 Sept., 1 947, came into force on 22 Sept. They pro- 
\ ide for a Legislative Assembly of 40 members, elected by universal suffrage 
by proportional representation. The Ministry consists of the Prime Minister 
and not more than 7 other Ministers; the Ministry forms the Executive 
Council. Legislative and administrative powers in regard to defence and 
various matters related or incidental to defence and external relations are 
reserved to the Governor advised by the Nominated Council which consists of 
the Lieutenant-Governor, the Legal Secretary and three officers (one from each 
of the Royal Navy, the Army and the Royal Air Force). The Privy Council 
consists of the Executive Council and the Nominated Council sitting together. 

The Privy Council affords an opportunity for joint consultation in matters 
in which action proposed to be taken by one side of the dyarchy may affect 
the other side. 

The English language and the Maltese language are the official languages 
of Malta. 

The elections held on 25 October, 1947, resulted in 24 Labour, 7 National- 
ists, 4 Democratic Action Party, 3 Gozo Party and 2 Jones Party. 

The Labour cabinet, formed on 4 November, 1947, consists of the 
following ministers : 

Prime Minister, Minister of Works and Reconstruction. Dr. P. Boffa. 

Finance. Dr. A. Colombo. 

Education. Dr. G. Ganado. 

Health and Social Services. Dr. A. Schembri Ada mi. 

Industry. B. Camilleri. 

Emigration and Labour. J. Cole. 

Justice. Dr. J. Cassar. 

Area and Population. Malta is 17-4 miles long; area, 95 square 
miles; and the neighbouring island, Gozo, 26 square miles; total area (with 
Comino), 122 square miles. Population, census 14 June, 1948, 306,996. 



130 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Births (1948), 10,835; deaths, 3,402; marriages, 1,798. Chief town and 
port, Valletta. 

Education. In 1949, there were 109 primary schools with approx- 
imately 39,400 pupils. The adult education scheme for illiterates, introduced 
in 1946, is attended by more than 3,200 students. There are also 4 secondary 
schools for girls with 919 students, a lyceum with 959 boys, a preparatory 
secondary school for boys and girls with 617 children, a technical school 
with 304 pupils, and the Royal University with an average of 300 students. 
There are 72 private schools, of which 9 are subsidized by the government, 
with about 8,000 pupils. 

There were, in 1949, 26 cinemas with a seating capacity of 13,335. 

Justice. In 1948-49, 383 persons were committed to prison; 117 
persons were convicted of serious crime and 266 for minor offences. Police 
numbered 38 officers and 690 other ranks on 31 March, 1949, Temporary 
constables numbered 260. 

Finance. The revenue and expenditure (in sterling) for 5 years 
were : 





1944-45 


1946-46 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


Revenue * . 
Expenditure 


3,379,903 

3,693,034 


4,007,474 

3,362,381 


4,890,748 
4,540,263 


5,233,878 

4,739,082 


6,309,097 
4,969,037 



1 Includes an Imperial grant in aid of 154,000 (1944-45), and an Imperial grant for 
commodity subsidies of 900,000 (1U4.6-47), 450,000 m 1947-48, and 300,000 in 1U48-49. 

Savings bank, 31 March, 1949, had 52,570 depositors, and deposits, 
15,211,964. 

Production. Chief products : Wheat, barley, potatoes, onions, beans, 
cumin, vegetables, tomatoes, forages, grapes and other fruits, cotton. Total 
value of agricultural produce during the agricultural year 1947-48, 
3,657,635. Area cultivated, 42,899 acres, in 13,281 holdings, on leases of 
4 to 8 years. Cotton is grown, but the cultivation in 1947 was negligible 
and no figures were recorded. Manufactures : Lace, filigree, beer, 
cigarettes, wine, tomato-paste, buttons, pipes, footwear, gloves, mortadella 
and salami. Chief industry, farming; in Dec., 1948, horses, mules and 
asses numbered 9,21 8; horned cattle, 2,732 ; sheep, 26,913; goats, 59,370 ; 
pigs, 18,591. The fishing industry occupied 860 motor fishing boats of 
various sizes and rowing boats, engaging about 1,020 persons in 1948. The 
catch was approximately 1,504 tons, valued at 185,040 wholesale. 

Labour and Welfare. An employment exchange system is in 
operation. The male working population as at 31 December, 1948, was 
distributed as follows: Agriculture, 18,300; service depts., 18,810; civil 
industry, 2 8, 120; civil government, 10,040; H.M. Forces, 3,330. Approxi- 
mately 11,600 women are in wage-earning employment, mainly on 
agriculture on a family basis. The number of men registered as 
unemployed as at 31 Aug., 1949, was 1,749. 

Welfare. A workmen's compensation scheme on a contributory basis 
covers all manual workers other than those employed by Service Depart- 
ments. On 1 Sept., 1949, 1,361 households were in receipt of social service 
allowance, and 12,436 persons were drawing old-age pensions. 

Trade Unions. There were 32 trade unions registered as at 1 Aug., 1949, 
with a total membership of approximately 24,080. 



MALTA 131 

Commerce* Import^ and exports (in sterling) for 5 years : 





1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Imports l , 
Exports 1 . . . 


5,270,318 
308,807 


9,108,258 
600,574 


12,963,413 
707,458 


14,390,732 
1,006,730 


16,177,614 
1,256,818 



1 Including bullion and specie. 
Principal items (1948) of imports : Textiles (2,105,738), cattle food- 

stuffa (1,486,777), metals and manufactures thereof (1,146,772), grains 
(1,058,197 cwt., 1,078,082); of exports : Smoking requisites (39,438), 
gloves (20,870 dozen pairs, 34,099). 

In 1948, 4f>-9% of the imports came from the United Kingdom, 11-9% 
from other Empire countries, 12% from Italy; of the exports, 40-2% went 
to ships' stores, 20-9% to the United Kingdom, 7*1% to other Empire 
countries, 12-3% to Italy. 

Vessels entered, 1948, 2,501 of 1,578,006 tons, including 446 British of 
683,496 tons. 

Communications, etc. Every town and village is served by motor 
omnibuses, of which there are 546 running on all the principal roads. There 
is a ferry service running between Malta and Gozo on which cars can be 
transported. 

There is a Government system of telephones with exchanges at Malta 
and Gozo. In 1949, there wore 4,158 exchange lines with 6,207 stations. 

Electricity Supply. All the towns and a number of villages in Malta 
and Gozo are provided with electric current. The generating plant in 
Malta is of a capacity of 10,200 kw, and 25,387,500 kwh were 
generated during the year ending 31 March, 1949. In Gozo, 226,141 
kwh were generated during the same period. 

Money. British coins, Bank of England notes and, since 1940, Govern- 
ment of Malta currency notes are in circulation. The amount of local 
notes in circulation on 31 March, 1949, was 11,752,250; that of Bank 
of England notes was estimated at 1,250,000 on the same date. Bank of 
England notes ceased to be legal tender as from 20 Sept., 1949. Barclays 
Bank (D., C. & O.) maintains 3 branches in Malta. 

Commissioner -General in London. Alfred Salomone, Malta House, 
39 St. James's Street, S.W.L 

Books of Reference. 

Blue Book. Annual. Government Printing Office. Malta. 

Malta: Recent Bequests for Financial and Economic Assistance, (Colonial 253.) 
H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Borg (J.), Descriptive Flora of the Maltese Islands. Malta, 1927. 

Despott (G.), The Ornithology of Malta. London, 1917, The Ichthyology of Malta, 
Malta, 1919. 

Gerard (F.), Malta Magnificent. New York, 1943. 

Hay (Ian), The Unconquered Isle: The Story of Malta, G.O. London, 1943. 

Laferla (Dr. A. V.), The Story of Man in Malta. Malta, 1938. 

Luke (Sir Harry), Malta. London, 1949. 

Muscat (G.), General Guide to Malta and Goto. Malta, 1937. 



132 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

ASIA. 



INDIA. 

(BHARAT.) 

Constitution. 

On 26 Jan., 1950, India became a sovereign democratic republic. 
India's relations with the British Commonwealth of Nations were defined 
at the London conference of Prime Ministers on 27 April, 1949. Unanimous 
agreement was reached to the effect that the Republic of India remains a 
full member of the Commonwealth and accepts the King as ' the symbol of 
the free association of its independent member nations and, as such, the 
head of the Commonwealth.' 

Constituent Assembly. In consequence of the enactment of the Indian 
Independence Act, 1947, the Dominion of India was set up from the 15th 
Aug., 1947, and the old Indian Legislature consisting of the Council of State 
and the Legislative Assembly ceased to function with effect from that date. 
The powers of the Dominion Legislature under the Government of India 
Act, 1935, as adapted, are exercisable by the Constituent Assembly of India 
until other provision is made by or in accordance with a law made by that 
Assembly under sub-section (1) of section 8 of the Indian Independence Act, 
1947. Under article 379 of the new Constitution of India the Constituent 
Assembly has become the provisional Parliament of the Union of India 
until both Houses of the new Parliament are constituted and summoned to 
meet for the first session. The total strength of the Constituent Assembly 
is 324. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA. 

The constitution which was formally introduced in the constituent 
assembly on 4 Nov., 1948, was passed by the assembly on 26 Nov., 1949. 
The constitution comprises 395 articles and 8 schedules. The preamble 
recites that tho people of India have solemnly resolved to constitute the 
country into a Sovereign Democratic Republic and to secure to all its 
citizens justice, liberty, equality and fraternity. India is to be a Union of 
States, and the Union is to comprise 28 states, 9 of which correspond to 
what are now governors' provinces, another 9 to what are now Indian states 
or unions of states and the remaining 10 to the present chief commissioners' 
provinces. Besides these states, the Union will consist also of the territory 
of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. There is provision for the establish- 
ment, formation and admission of new states. 

Any person who was domiciled in India when the constitution came into 
force is a citizen of India if he or either of his parents was born in India or 
he has been ordinarily resident in India for not less than 5 years immedi- 
ately preceding the commencement of the constitution. There are special 
provisions for excluding those who migrated to Pakistan and for including 
those who have migrated to India as well as for Indians overseas. 

Two chapters deal with fundamental rights and the allied subject of 
* Directive Principles of State Policy.' * Untouchability ' is abolished and 
its practice in any form is made punishable. The fundamental rights can 
be enforced through the ordinary courts of law and through the Supreme 
Court of the Union. The directive principles cannot be enforced through 
the courts of law ; they are in the nature of moral precepts. 



INDIA 133 

The head of the Union is an elected President in whom all executive 
power is vested, to be exercised by him on the advice of ministers responsible 
to Parliament. He is elected by an electoral college consisting of all the 
elected members of Parliament and of the various state legislative assemblies. 
He holds office for 5 years and is eligible for re-election. He can be removed 
from office by impeachment for violation of the constitution. There is also 
a Vice-President who is the ex-officio chairman of the upper house of 
Parliament. 

The Parliament for the Union consists of the President and of two houses 
known as the Council of States and the House of the People. The Council 
of States, or the upper house, consists of not more than 250 members. 
The election to this house is indirect ; the representatives ofeacn state are 
elected by the elected members of the state legislature if it is unicameral 
and of the lower house of the state legislature if bicameral. The Council 
of States is a permanent body not liable to dissolution, but one-third of the 
members retire every second year. The House of the People, or the lower 
house, consists of not more than 500 members, directly elected by the voters 
of the states on the basis of adult suffrage. The normal life of this House is 
5 years. 

The superintendence, direction and control of all elections (whether for 
Parliament or the state legislatures) including the appointment of election 
tribunals is vested in an Election Commission. 

Each state corresponding to the present governors' provinces has a 
governor at its head appointed by the President for a term of 5 years. 
Each state corresponding to the present Indian states and states unions has 
a Rajpramukh at its head to be recognized as such by the President. The 
states' legislatures consist of the governor or the Rajpramukh, as the case 
may be, and either one house (legislative assembly) or, in some states two 
houses (legislative assembly and legislative council). The term of the 
assembly is 5 years, but the council, like the upper house of Parliament, is 
not subject to dissolution. 

The various subjects of legislation are enumerated in the three legislative 
lists in the seventh schedule to the constitution. List I, the Union List, 
consists of subjects with respect to which the Union Parliament has ex- 
clusive power to make laws ; the state legislature has exclusive power to 
make laws with respect to the subjects in list II, the State List ; the power 
to make laws with respect to the subjects in list III (Concurrent List) are 
concurrent. But Parliament may legislate with respect to any subject in 
the State List under certain circumstances when the subject assumes 
national importance or during emergences. 

Other provisions deal with the administrative relations between the 
Union and the states, inter-state trade and commerce, distribution of 
revenues between the states and the Union, official language, etc. 

The new constitution came into force on 26 Jan., 1950. 

National flag: saffron, white, dark green (horizontal); with Asoka's 
wheel in navy blue in the centre of the white band. 

National anthem : Jana Gana Mana (words by R. Tagore). 
Books of Reference. 

Report of the Indian Statutory Commission (Simon Commission). 2 vols. London, 1930. 
Government of India Act, 1935, as amended 1942. London, 1943. 
India (Lord Privy Seal's Mission). (Omd. 6,850.) London, 1942. 
Statement by the cabinet mission and his excellency the Viceroy. (Omd. 6,821.) London. 
1946. 

Correspondence and documents connected with the conference between the cabinet mis- 



134 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

eion and his excellency the Viceroy and representatives of the Congress and the Muslim 
League, May, 1946. (Cmd. 6,829.) London, 1946. 

Statement by the mission dated 25 May in reply to pronouncements by the Indian Partial 
and memorandum by the mission on states' treaties and paramountcy. (Cmd. 6,835. 
London, 1946. 

Cabinet Mission. Correspondence with the Congress Party and the Muslim League. 
20 May-29 June, 1946. (Cmd. 6,861.) London, 1946. 

Cabinet Mission. Papers relating to (a) the Sikhs, (6) the Indian states and (c) the 
European Community. May-June, 1946. (Cmd. 6,862.) London, 1946. 

Indian Policy. Statement of 20 February, 1947. (Cmd. 7047.) Statement of 3 June, 
1947. (Cmd. 7136.) London, 1947. 

Indian Independence Act, 1947. (OH. 30.) London, 1947. 

The Constitution of India. Delhi, 1949. 

Bose (8, M..), The Working Constitution in India : A Commentary on the Government of 
India Act, 1935. Oxford, 1940. 

Coupland (K.), Report on the Constitutional Problem in India. Part I, The Indian 
Problem, 1833-1936. Oxford, 1942. Part II, Indian Politics, 1936-42. Oxford, 1943. 
Part III, The Future of India. Oxford, 1943. India : A Restatement. Oxford, 1946. 

Government. 

President of the Republic. Dr. Rajendra Prasad (elected 23 Jan., 1950; 
sworn in 26 Jan., 1950). 

There is a Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President of the 
Republic in the exercise of his functions. A Minister who for any period of 
6 consecutive months is not a member of the Legislature ceases to be a 
Minister at the expiration of that period. 

Following is the present composition of the Cabinet and the portfolios 
held by the Ministers (1 April, 1950) : 

Prime Minister, Minister of External Affairs and Scientific Research. 
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. 

States, Home Affairs and Information and Broadcasting. Sardar 
Vallabhbhai Patel. 

Food and Agriculture. Jairamadas Daulatram. 

Railways and Transport. Shri N. Gopalaswami Ayyengar. 

Commerce. K. C. Neogy. 

Labour. Shri Jagjivan Ram. 

Industries and Supplies. Dr. Shyama Praead Mukerjee. 

Works, Mines and Power.- N. V. Gadgil. 

Education. Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad. 

Defence. Sardar Baldev Singh. 

Finance. Dr. John _Mattbai. f 

Communications. Rafi Ahmad Kidwai. 

Health. Rajkumari Amrit Kaur. 

Law. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. 

Rehabilitation. Mohanlal Saxena (Minister of State). 

Information and Broadcasting. R. R. Diwakar (Minister of State). 

Parliamentary Affairs. Satya Narain Sinha (Minister of State). 

Railways. K. Santhanam (Minister of State). 

The salary of each Minister is Rs. 36,000 per annum, and, except for 
Ministers of State, sumptuary allowance (Re. 6,000) and furnished residences 
in Delhi and Simla. At the head of eaob Ministry is one of the secretaries 
of the Government of India. The Ministers of State are not members of the 
Cabinet. 



INDIA 



135 



Diplomatic Representatives. 



Country 


Indian representatives 


Foreign representatives 


Afghanistan . 
Argentina 
Australia l 


RupChand f*J|W6 fltTlfel* 

Jamshed Burjorji Vesugar Jg* 
Lt.-Col. D. S. Bedi 


^ardar Najibulla Khan 
iDr. Oscar Tascheret 
f H. R. Gollan, D.S.O., M.C. 


Austria . 


D. B. Desai a 


Dr. C. Pereira 4 


Belgium 


B. F. II. B. Tyabji 3 


Prince Eugene de Ligne 


Brazil . 


AftabRai 3 


Caio de Mello Franco 


Burma . 


Dr. M. A. Rauf 


Sir Maung Gyee 


Canada L 


S. K. Kirpalani 


W. F. Chipman, K.C. 


Ceylon l 


V. V. Gin 


C. Coomaraswamy, C.B.E. 


Chile . 


see Argentina 


Dr. Juan Marin 


China . 


K. M. Panikkar 


Dr. Lo Chia-Luen 


Czechoslovakia 


N. Raghavan 


Dr. B. Kratochvil 


Denmark 2 


R. K. Nehru 





Egypt . 


Asaf AH Asghar Fyzee 


Ismail Kamel Bey 


Ethiopia 


Sardar Sant Singh 


Ato Emmanuel Abraham 


Finland 2 


R. K. Nehru 


Hugo Valvanne 


France . 


H. S. Malik 


Deniel Levi 


Germany 


Maj.-Gen. Khub Chand 4 





Indonesia . 


S, 0. Alagappan 


Dr. Sudarsono 


Iraq a . 


Syed Ali Zaheer 


Mhd. Salim al-Rhadi 


Irish Republic 


V. K. Krishna Menon 





Italy . 


Binay Ran j an Sen 


Count Renzo di Carrobio 


Japan 


K. K. Chettur * 





Jordan 2 


A. A. A. Fyzee 





Lebanon 


see Jordan 





Luxemburg . 


B. F. H. B. Tyabji 8 





Malaya . 


J. A. Thivy 2 





Nepal . 


C. P. Narain Singh 


Comdg.-General Sir 






Shingha Shamsher Jang 






Bahadur Ran a 


Netherlands . 


Dr. Mohan Singh Mehta 


Arnold Theodor Lamping 


Norway a 





Jens Schive 


Pakistan 1 


Dr. Sitaram 


Mohd. Ismail 


Persia . 


Syed Ali Zaheer 


Mussa Noury Esfandiari 


Portugal 


Parakat Achutha Menon 


Dr. Vasco Viera Garin * 


Saudi Arabia . 


Abdul Majid Khan 





Sweden a 


R. K. Nehru 


Dr. G. Jarring 


Switzerland . 


Dhirajlal Bhulabhai Desai 


Dr. Armin Daeniker a 


Syria . 





Dr. Najib Al-Armanazi 


Thailand 


Bhagwat Dayal a 


Dr. Thanat Khoman 4 


Turkey . 


Diwan Chaman Lall 


Aali Turkgeldi 


U.S.S.R. 


Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan 


Kiril Vasilevitch Novikov 


U.K. 1 . 


V. K. Krishna Menon 


Lieut. -Gen. Sir Archibald 






Nye, G.C.I.E., K.B.E., 






K.C.B., M.C. 


U.S.A. . 


Mrs. Vijayalakshmi Pandit 


Loy W. Henderson 


Vatican 


Dhirajlal Bhulabhai Desai 


Most Revd. Leo Peter 






Kierkels, C.P. 8 


Yugoslavia 





Josip Djerdja 



1 Hi?h Commissioner. 
* Head of Mission. 



1 Minister-Envoy. Charge d'affaires. 

1 Internuncio. No figure Ambassador. 



136 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



States. 1947-48 witnessed revolutionary changes in the constitutional 
set up of the States. The bigger States, including viable units, like Gwalior, 
Patiala and Indore agreed to integrate themselves to form Unions with a 
common executive, legislative and judiciary. The covenants relating to 
the formation of these UnfQflf jjffaflp $M(JK|currence and guarantee of the 
Government of India. fv^ 



Namo of Union. 










Area in 
sq. miles. 


Population 
in lakhs. 


United State of Saurashtra . 
United State of Vindhya Pradesh . 
Greater Rajasthan Union 
United State of Madhva Bharat . 
Patiala and Bast Punjab States Union 
United State of Travaricore and Cochin 










31,885 
24,610 
138,424 
46,273 

10,119 
9,155 


29-00 
85 69 
130-85 
71-60 
34-24 
74-92 



The smaller States which were not viable units, executed agreements for 
the administrative merger of the States with the neighbouring Provinces, 
e.g., Orissa, Central Provinces and Berar, Madras, Bombay, etc. 

Local. There were at the end of 1940-41, 764 municipalities, with a popu- 
lation of 23 million. The total number of members of the municipal bodies 
was 12,491, of whom 12,138 were non-official. The municipal boolies have the 
care and lighting of the roads, water supply, drainage, sanitation, medical 
relief, vaccination and education, particularly primary education; they 
impose taxes, enact bye-laws, make improvements and spend money, with 
the sanction of the Provincial Government. Their aggregate income in 
1940-41 was Rs. 14,34,23,994, exclusive of loans, sales of securities, and 
other extraordinary receipts amounting to Rs. 30,24,58,694. The aggregate 
expenditure was Rs. 19,79,28,223, excluding extraordinary and debt ex- 
penditure of Rs. 24,74,76,560. By the Local Self -Government Acts of 
1883-84, the elective principle was introduced, in a large or small measure, 
all over India, and has since been further extended by recent legislation. 
In all larger towns, and in many of the smaller towns, the majority of 
members of committees are elected by the ratepayers; everywhere the 
majority of town committees consists of Indians, and in many committees 
all the members are Indians. In many municipalities women have the right 
to vote, and in a few they are eligible for election. For rural tracts there 
were, in 1940-41, 382 district and sub-district boards or councils, and 358 
union panchayats in Madras, with 14,567 members in 1939-40, 12,551 being 
elected. These boards are in charge of roads, district schools, markets, 
public health institutions, etc. Their aggregate income in 1940-41 was 
Rs. 16,61,99,111 and expenditure Rs. 16,60,17,435. 



Books of Reference. 

Andrews (0. F.), The Rise and Growth of the Congress in India. London, 1938. 
Blunt (Sir Edward) (editor), The Indian Civil Service. London, 1937. 
Rudra (A. B.), The Viceroy and Governor-General of India. Oxford, 1940. 
Ruthnaswamy (M.), Some Influences that Made the British Administrative System in 
India. London, 1939. 

Schuster (Sir Geo.) and Wint (G.), India and Democracy. London, 1941. 

Singh Roy (The Hon. Sir B. P.), Parliamentary Government in India. Calcutta, 

Sitaramoffva (Dr. P,), History of the Indian National Congress. 2 vols. Bombay 
1946-47. 



INDIA 



137 



Area and Population. 

I. PROGRESS OF THE POPULATION. 
British India. 



Year 


Area in 
square miles 


Population 
(millions) 


Year 


Area In 
square miles 


Population 
(millions) 


1891 

1901 

1911 


731,280 
864,194 
859,367 


212-97 

220 60 
231-60 


1921 
1931 
1941 


860,593 

859,456 
865,446 


233-56 
256-76 
295-81 



The area of the Indian Union, including States, is 1,220,011 square miles, 
and its population 318,898,000 according to tho 1941 census. The estimated 
population for 1949-50 is 360,185,000. 

Vital statistics, 1948 (and 1947) : Birth rate, 25-4 (2G-6) per 1,000 
population; death rate 17-1 (19-7) per 1,000 population; infant mortality, 
131 (146) per 1,000 live births; marriages and divorces are not registered in 
India. 

Following are the leading details of the census of 1 March, 1941, and 
that of 24 Feh., 1931 : 





Area in 


Population, 
1931 


Population, 1941 




square 








miles 


Total 


Total 


Males 


Females 


Provinces 












Madras 


126,166 


44,205,243 


49,341,810 


24,557,143 


24,784,667 


Bombay 


76,443 


17,992,053 


20,849,840 


10,817,333 


10,032,507 


Bengal' 1 


77,442 


50,115,548 


60,306,525 


31,747,395 


28,559,130 


United Provinces . 


106,247 


48.408,482 


55,020,617 


28,860,214 


26,160,403 


Punjab l 


99,089 


23,580,864 


28,418,819 


15,383,656 


13,035.163 


Bihar , 


69,745 


32,367,909 


36.340,151 


18,224,428 


18,115,723 


Central Provinces and 












Berar 


98,575 


15,323,058 


16,813,684 


8,430,282 


8,383,302 


Assam l 


51,951 


8,622,791 


10,204,733 


6,382,795 


4,821,938 


North-West Frontier 












Province a . 


14,263 


2,425,076 


3,038,067 


1,651,214 


1,386,863 


Orissa .... 


32,198 


8,025,671 


8,728,544 


4,218,121 


4,510,423 


Sind 1 .... 


48,136 


3,887,070 


4,536,008 


2,494,190 


2,040,818 


Ajmer-Merwara 


2,400 


506,964 


583,693 


307,172 


276,521 


Andamans and Nicobars 


3,143 


29,463 


33,768 


21,458 


12,310 


Baluchistan * 


54,450 


463,508 


601,631 


294,516 


207,115 


Ooorg .... 


1,693 


163,327 


168,726 


92,347 


76,379 


Delhi .... 


574 


636,246 


917,939 


535,236 


382,703 


Panth-Piploda 


25 


4,545 


5,267 


2,666 


2,601 


Total . 


865,446 


256,757,818 


295,808,722 


153,020,166 


142,788,656 


States and former Agencies 












Assam 


12,408 


625,606 


725,656 


367,951 


367,704 


Baluchistan . 


79,fe46 


405,109 


366,204 


192,026 


164,178 


Baroda 


8,236 


2,448,283 


2,856,010 


1,472,909 


1,382,101 


Bengal. 


9,408 


1,862,939 


2,144,829 


1,107,216 


1,037,613 


Central India 


52,047 


6,643,761 


7,506,427 


3,864,781 


3,661,646 


Ohattisgarh . 


37,687 


3,548,338 


4,050,000 


2,013,870 


2,036,130 


Cochin. 


1,493 


1,205,016 


1,422,878 


696,889 


725,986 


Deccan and Kolhapur . 


10,870 


2,457,971 


2,785,428 


1,406,571 


1,379,867 


Gujarat 


7,352 


1,266,078 


1,458,702 


765,338 


703.314 



1 Includes East Bengal, West Punjab and the Sylhet District of Assam, now in the 
Dominion of Pakistan. * 

1 Now parts of the Dominion of Pakistan. 



138 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 





Area in 


Population, 
1931 


Population, 1941 




square 








miles 


Total 


Total 


Males 


Females 


States and former Agencies 












Owalior 


26,008 


3,523,070 


4,006,159 


2,116,568 


1,889,591 


Hyderabad . 


823L3 


14JliU4J 


2ggJB4L 


8,346,775 


7,991,769 


Kashmir and Feudatories 


82,258 


^3,64 6,243 


"2,551, el 


2,129,872 


1,891,744 


Kashmir . 


69,903 


3,581,699 


3,945,090 


2,089,045 


1,866,046 


Frontier Illaqas In 












Gilgit . 


12,355 


64,644 


76,526 


40,827 


35,699 


Madras 


1,602 


453,495 


498,754 


243,166 


255,588 


Mysore 


29,458 


6,557,302 


7,329,140 


3,763,318 


3,666,822 


North-West Frontier 












Province . 


24,986 


2,259,288 


2,377,599 


1,256,706 


1,120,893 


Orissa .... 


18,151 


2,683,472 


3,023,731 


1,488,724 


1,535,007 


Punjab 


38,146 


4,496,928 


5,603,554 


2,996,809 


2,506,746 


Punjab Hill . 


11,376 


989,833 


1,090,644 


669,998 


520,646 


Rajputana . 


132,559 


11,570,683 


13,670,208 


7,169,627 


6,500,681 


Sikkim. 


2,745 


109,808 


121,620 


63,289 


68,231 


Travancore . 


7,662 


5,095,973 


6,070,018 


3,045,102 


3,024,916 


United Provinces . 


1,760 


856,497 


928,470 


481,177 


447,293 


Western India 


37,894 


4,220,595 


4,904,166 


2,477,928 


2,426,228 


Total . 


715,964 


81,361,336 


93,189,233 


48,005,560 


45,183,673 


Total India . 


1,681,410 


338,119,154 


388,997,956 


201,025,726 


187,972,229 



The following table shows the figures of previous decades : 



Census 
of 


Population 


Variation 
since previous 
census 


Census 
of 


Population 


Variation 
since previous 
census 


1891 
1901 
1911 


279,446,248 
283,872,359 
303,012,698 


+ 13-2% 

+ 1*6% 
+ 6-7% 


1921 
1931 
1941 


306,693,063 
338,119,154 
388,997,955 


+ 0-9% 
+ 10 6% 
+ 16-0% 



Indians settled in various parts of the British Commonwealth : In 
Ceylon, according to the 1940 census, there were about 800,000 Indians; in 
British Malaya, 748,829; in Mauritius, 269,885; in Kenya, 44,635; in 
Uganda, 13,026; in Zanzibar, 14,242; in Tanganyika, 23,422 ; in Jamaica, 
19,039; in Trinidad, 161,106; in British Guiana, 142,736; in Fiji, 94,966; 
in Canada, 1,599 Indians settled in Vancouver; in Australia, 2,404, and in 
New Zealand, 1,146. 



II. POPULATION ACCORDING TO LANGUAGE, ETC. 

The official language of the Union is Hindf in Devanagari script. For 
a period of 15 years from the commencement of the Constitution English 
shall continue to be used for all official purposes, The following 14 
languages are recognized : Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, 
Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, 
Urdu. 

The following are the languages spoken in India in 1931 (the 
latest figures), with the numbers (in thousands) of people who speak 
them : 



INDIA 



139 





No. of 




No. of 




No. of 




speakers 




speakers 




speakers 


Language 


(OOO's 


Language 


(OOO's 


Language 


(OOO's 




omitted) 




omitted) 




omitted) 




1931 




1931 




1931 


Indian languages 


349,888^ 


(b) Malayalam . 


9,138 


(e) Hindustani . 


121,254 


1. Mon-Khmer & 




(c) Kanarese 


11,206 


(/) Pahari. 


2,762 


Malay . 


733 


(d) Telugu 


26,374 


(<7) Oriya . 


11,194 


2. Munda . 


4,609 


0) Others. 


4,513 


(h) Bengali 


53,469 


3. Tibeto-Burmese 


12,983 


6. Indo-European 


257,493 


8) Assamese 


1,999 


(a) Burmese (and 




(a) Branian and 




) Others. 


13,278 


nearly allied) 


9,874 


Dardic 


3,788 


7. Unclassed 




(6) Others. 


3,115 


(ft) Sindhi. 


3,729 


languages . 


54 


4. Tai-Chinese, 




(c) Punjabi and 




8. Foreign langua- 




Karen and 




Lahnda 


24,660 


ges 


642 


Man . 


2,369 


(d) Marathi and 




(a) English 


319 


6. Dravidian 


71,646 


Koukani . 


21,361 


(6) Others. 


323 


(a) Tamil . 


20,412 











1 Excludes 2,308,221 persons for whom details by language are not available, aa the 
figures were not obtained by individual enumeration. 



III. OCCUPATIONS or THE POPULATION. 

Distribution of the total population of India according to the occupations 
by -which they were supported in 1931 (no later figures) : 





1,000 




1,000 


Pasture and agriculture 






102,454 


Trade 


7,914 


Landlords l 






3,257 


Hotels, cafe's, etc., and other 




Cultivating owners 






27,006 


trade in foodstuffs 






4,327 


Cultivating tenants 

Agricultural labourers 






34,173 
31,480 


Trade in textiles 
Banks, exchange, iiisi 


iranc< 


, 


459 


Others 






6,536 


etc. 






329 


Fishing and hunting 
Mines, quarries, salt, etc. 






840 
346 


Other trades . 
Army and Navy . 






2,799 
318 


Industry 








16,352 


Air Force . 






2 


Textiles 








4,102 


Police 






623 


Dress and toilet 








3,381 


Public administration 






995 


Wood 








1,632 


Professions and liberal 


arts 




2,310 


Food industries 








1,477 


Religion . 






1,027 


Ceramics 








1,025 


Instruction 






502 


Building Industrie 


s 






619 


Medicine 






318 


Metals 








713 


Law 






133 


Chemicals, etc. 








603 


Others . 






330 


Hides, skins, etc. . 


312 


Domestic service 






10,898 


Other industries . 


1,488 


All others . 






9,620 










telegraph and telephone 








services) .... 


2,341 


Total . 


153,444 



1 Includes all non-cultivators taking rent in any form, many of whom are intermediate 
tenure holders. 



IV. BIRTHS AND DEATHS. 

The registered deaths in 1947 numbered 4,737,730 or 19-7 / 00 of the 
population of Indian provinces (excluding states), and births 6,403,398 or 
26-6 / 00 of the population. 



140 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



V. PRINCIPAL TOWNS, 
The urban population of India in 1931 was as follows : 



Towns with 


No. 


Population 


Over 100,000 


38 


9,674,032 


60,000-100,000 
20,000-50,000 


65 
268 


4,572,113 
8,091,288 


10,000-20,000 


543 


7,449,402 


5,000-10,000 


987 


6,992,832 


Under 5,000 


674 


2,205,760 


Total 


2,576 


38,985,427 



Population (1941) of cities (towns with a population of 100,000 and 


over) in India was as follows : 


Calcutta 




2,108,891 


Sholapur . 


212,620 


Jullundur . . 136,283 


Bombay 




1,489,883 


Srinagar 


207,787 


Kolar Gold Fields 133,869 


Madras. 




777,481 


Indore 


203,695 


Peshawar . 


130,967 


Hyderabad 




739,159 


Bareilly 


192,688 


Ooimbatore. 


130,348 


Lahore 




671,669 


Lashkar 


182,492 


Salem 


129,702 


Ahmedabad 




691,267 


^Rawalpindi. 


181,169 


Trivandrum 


128,365 


Delhi . 




621,849 


Jubbulpore. 


178,339 


Hyderabad 


127,521 


Oawnpore 




487,324 


Jaipur 


175,810 


Bikaner 


127,226 


Amritsar 




391,010 


Patna 


175,706 


Jodhpur 


126,842 


Lucknow 




387,177 


Surat 


171,443 


Calicut 


126,352 


Howrah 




379,292 


Meerut 


169,290 


Bhatpara . 


117,044 


Karachi 




369,492 


Trichinopoly 


159,566 


Aligarh 


112,655 


Nagpur. 




301,957 


Bangalore (statioi 


) 158,426 


Ludhiana . 


111,639 


Agra . 




284,149 


Baroda 


163,301 


Shah jahan pur 


110,163 


Benares 




263,100 


Mysore 


150,540 


Saharanpur 


108,268 


Allahabad 




260,630 


Jamshedpur 


148,711 


Gay& 


106,223 


Poona . 




258,197 


Ajraer 


147,258 


Jhansi 


103,254 


Bangalore (ci 


by) 


248,334 


Multan 


142,768 


Bhavnagar 


102,851 


Madura 




239,144 


Moradabad . 


142,414 




Dacca . 




213,218 


Sialkot 


138,348 





1 With suburbs and Howrah. Delhi includes Shahdara, New Delhi and cantonment. 
Of the Christians, the following are the chief subdivisions (1921 census) : 



Denomination 


Persons 


Denomination 


Persons 


Boman Catholics l 
Anglicans 
Presbyterians 
Baptists 
Lutheran 








2,113,659 
533,180 
254,838 
444,479 
240,816 


Methodists 
Congregationalistfl 
Salvationists . 
Syrian (Homo-Syrian) 
Syrian (others) l 




208,135 
123,016 
88,922 
654,939 
526,607 



1 1931 census figure. 

On 27 September, 1947, the Anglican, Methodist, Congregationalist, 
Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed Churches of South India joined in one 
4 Church of South India,' with the metropolitan see of Madras. 

Books of Reference. 

Indian Census, 1941 : Abstract of Tables. Cmd. 6435. London, 1943. 

Public Health. Keport of the Public Health Commission with the Government of India. 
Annual. 

Chand (Gyan), India's Teeming Millions. London, 1939. 

Chandrauekhar (S.), India's Population : Fact and Policy. New York, 1946. 

Dalai (M. N.), Whither Minorities [Minorities in India]. Bombay, 1940. 

Davis (K.), The Population of India. Princeton, 1949. 

Hutton (J. H.), Caste in India : Its Nature, Function and Origins. Cambridge, 1947. 

Krishna (K. B.), The Problem of Minorities or Communal Representation in India. 
London, 1939. 

Mohinder Singh, The Depressed Classes: Their Economic and Social Condition. 
Bombay, 1947. 

Senart (B.), Caste In India. Translated by Sir B. Denison Boss. London, 1930. 

Singh (M.), The Depressed Classes. Bombay, 1947. 



INDIA 



141 



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142 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Education. 

Literacy. The following statistics are those of the census of 1931 : 





Able to read and 
write 


Unable to read and 
Write 


Total 


Miles . 
Females . 

Total . 


23,969,751 
4,169,105 


129,808,571 
138,354,143 


153,778,322 
142,523,248 


28,138,866 


268,162,714 


296,301,570 * 



1 Excluding a part of the population aged 0-5 years and 3,078,460 persona not 
enumerated for literacy. 

The following table gives the literacy percentages for 4 census years : 





1911 


1921 


1931 


1941 


Males 


11-0 


12-3 


13-8 


22-2 


Femaloa 


0-98 


1-7 


2-3 


6-0 


All Persons .... 


6-1 


7-2 


8-3 


14-6 



Educational Institutions. Educational institutions in the Indian Union 
are of two classes : (a) Recognized, i.e., those in which the course of study 
conforms to the standards prescribed by the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion or by the universities or boards of secondary and intermediate education 
and which either undergo inspection by the Department, or regularly present 
pupils at the public examinations held by the Department, universities or 
the boards, and may be under public or private management; (b) Un- 
recognized, i.e., those that do not fulfil these conditions. 

As regards Recognized institutions, the system of education operates, in 
general, through (i) the primary schools, which aim at teaching, reading, 
writing and imparting other elementary knowledge through the mother- 
tongue or modern Indian languages, (ii) the secondary school, in which the 
instruction does not go beyond the matriculation or school-leaving standard 
and which are divided into high and middle schools, (iii) the intermediate 
colleges, and (iv) other arts, science and professional colleges. 

Information about universities in India is given in the following table : 



Name 


Character 


Name 


Character 


Calcutta (1867) 


Teaching and affiliating 


Agra (1927) 


Affiliating 


Bombay (1867, 


Teaching and affiliating 


Annarnalai (1929) 


Teaching 


rec. 1928) 




Travancore (1937) 


Teaching and affiliating 


Madras (1857, 


Federative, teaching and 


Utkal (1943) 


Affiliating 


rec. 1923) 


affiliating 


Saugor (1946) 


Teaching and affiliating 


Allahabad (1887, 


Teaching 


Rajputana (1947) 


Affiliating 


reo. 1922) 
Banaras (1916) 
Mysore (1916) 


Teaching 
Teaching and affiliating 


East Punjab (1947) 
Gauhati (1947) 
Poona (1948) 


Teaching and affiliating 
Teaching and affiliating 
Teaching and ainliating 


Patna (1917) 


Teaching and affiliating 


Eoorkee (1948) 


Teaching 


Oamania (1918) 


Teaching 


Kashmir (1948) 


Affiliating 


Aligarh (1920)" 


Teaching 


Baroda (1949) 


Teaching and affiliating 


Lucknow (1920) 


Teaching 


Madhya Bharat 


Affiliating 


Delhi (1922) 


Teaching and federative 


(1948) 




Nagpur (1923) 


Teaching and affiliating 


Women's University 


Affiliating 


Andbra (1926) 


Teaching and affiliating 


Bombay (1949) 





INDIA 



143 



At all the universities the medium of instruction is English except at 
the Osmania University, Hyderabad, where it is Urdu. Attempts are 
however being made to introduce Hindi or the regional language as the 
medium of instruction in some universities. In some provinces secondary 
or both secondary and intermediate education is controlled by boards, of 
which 6 were operating in the country, including Indian States, in 1947-48. 

There are in addition, various institutions of a special character, such as 
technical schools and colleges, teaching art and industries, agriculture, 
engineering, etc. ; law colleges ; medical schools and colleges ; training 
colleges and normal schools for the training of teachers ; schools for adults, 
defectives, criminal and hill tribes, labourers and factory children, and 
reformatory schools for juvenile offenders. 

Educational Statistics. The following tables give the number of institu- 
tions and scholars in 1947-48 in the provinces and centrally administered 
areas of India (excluding states) : 



Recognized institutions 


Number of institutions 


For men 


For women 


Total 


Universities .... 








16 





16 


Degree colleges (Arts and Science) 








211 


34 


245 


Intermediate colleges 








183 


32 


215 


Professional colleges : 














(a) Teachers' training 
(6) Engineering and Technology 








26 
17 


11 


37 
17 


(c) Agriculture . 










12 





12 


(a) Forestry 










3 


_ 


3 


(e) Medicine 










21 


3 


24 


(/) Veterinary science . 
(<7) Law . 










5 
15 


z 


5 

15 


(/) Commerce 










18 





18 


High schools . 










3,436 


640 


4,076 


Middle schools 










7,645 


1,181 


8,826 


Primary schools 










126,932 


13,812 


140,794 


Vocational and other schools : 
















(a) Teachers' training 










342 


187 


529 


(6) Engineering . 

(c) Technical and Industrial 
00 Medicine 










5 
355 

19 


1 


6 

504 
20 


(*) Commerce 
(/; For the handicapped 
(0) For adults 










300 
46 
6,706 


2 
2 
830 


802 
48 
6,536 


(A) Other schools 










2,236 


69 


2,305 


Total 


147,599 


16,953 


164,552 


Unrecognized institutions : Total 


6,003 


505 


6,608 


Grand Total 


153,602 


17,458 


171,060 



Becognized institutions 


Number of scholars 


Men 


Women 


Total 


Research 
M.A. and M.Sc. 
B.A. and B.Sc. (Pass and Hons.) . 
Intermediate (Aria and Science) . 


458 
7,011 
45,761 
109,212 


51 
992 
6,157 
12,298 


509 
8,003 
61,918 
121,610 



144 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Recognized institutions 


Number of scholars 


Men 


Women 


Total 


Professional colleges/classes : 








(a) Teachers' training 






2,216 


871 


3,087 


(6) Engineering and Technology 






6,427 


10 


6,437 


(c) Agriculture 
(a) Forestry 








3,750 
256 


9 


3,759 
256 


(<?) Medicine 








7,155 


1,695 


8,850 


(/) Veterinary science 








806 





806 


(0) Law . 








7,621 


55 


7,676 


(h) Commerce 








14,853 


75 


14,928 


Oriental studies 








964 


12 


976 


Secondary stage 
Primary /pre-Primary stage . 








2,188,782 
8,417,849 


379,067 
3,103,448 


2,567,849 
11,521,297 


Professional and other schools/clas 


ses : 












(a) Teachers' training 








27,929 


10,966 


38,895 


(6) Engineering 








1,642 


1 


1,643 


(c) Technical and Industrial 








19,723 


10,168 


29,891 


(a) Medicine . 








3,992 


395 


4,387 


t Commerce 








14,075 


1,010 


15,085 


For the handicapped 








1,553 


346 


1,899 


For adults 








166,461 


17,674 


184,035 


Other schools 








81,783 


9,776 


91,559 


Total 


11,130,279 


3,554,976 


14,685,255 


Unrecognized institutions : Total 


232,381 


51,754 


284,135 


Grand Total .... 


11,362,660 


3,606,730 


14,969,390 



The expenditure on recognized educational institutions met from fees, 
provincial and central government funds, local bodies' funds, endowments, 
etc., is given below : 



Year 


Rs. 


Year 


Rs. 


1942-43 
1943-44 
1944-45 


31,61,42,080 

34,4fi,97,558 
39,06,50,417 


1945-46 
1946-47 
1947-48 


45,95,23,934 
45,12,98,886 
64,81,47,651 



A plan for the post-war development of education in India was prepared 
by the Central Advisory Board of Education early in 1944. it aimed at 
giving the country a modern system of education within 40 years. The 
period was, however, considered too long by the All-India Educational 
Conference which met in Jan., 1948, and was reduced to 16 years. The 
Central and Provincial Governments prepared their first 5-year (1947-52) 
programme of educational expansion, involving a total expenditure of about 
Rs. 125 crores. The Government of India gave Rs. 40 crores in 1947-48, 
Rs. 41 1 crores in 1948-49 and Rs. 53| crores in 1949-50 to the Provinces 
for their entire poet-war development programme (including that of educa- 
tional development). 

The Government of India, in co-operation with the provincial govern- 
ments and states, have sent abroad 1,511 scholars from the year 1945-46 up 
to 194849 for higher technical training and scientific research. With 
effect from the year 1949-50 the Overseas Scholarships Scheme has been 
revised, so as to include within its scope the requirements of educational 
institutions, government sponsored industry and public utility concerns. 



INDIA 145 

An All-India Council for technical education has been set up to make a 
survey of the needs in the matter of technical and scientific education of 
the country as a whole and recommend ways and means to meet her imme- 
diate requirements. The Council has recommended that grants to the 
extent of Rs. 1-0 crores capital and Rs. 30 lakhs ultimate recurring be given 
to 14 engineering and technological institutions for their improvement and 
expansion. Government have accepted this recommendation in principle 
and have already made advance grants. In the provincial development 
5-year plans, provision has been made for the establishment of 160 new 
technical institutions and expansion and organization of 54 existing ones. 
For the training of high-grade engineers and technologists (designers, 
planners, research workers, production experts) to take up positions of 
trust and responsibility in government and industry, the Government of 
India have proposed the establishment of 2 central higher technological 
institutions out of the 4 recommended by the Sarkar Committee near 
Calcutta and Bombay, each with facilities to train about 2,000 under- 
graduates and 1,000 postgraduates in the first quinquennium 1947-52. The 
Institute at Hijli (District Kharagpur) will start functioning during 1950. 

A Scientific Manpower Committee was appointed by the Government in 
April, 1947, to assess the country's requirements for different grades of scien- 
tific and technical manpower. The Government have accepted the Com- 
mittee's interim recommendations that for an immediate improvement in 
the outturn of scientific manpower, the existing sources, e.g., universities, 
special institutions, etc., should be utilized to the full and helped by means 
of grants. Plans entailing an expenditure of Rs. 40 lakhs during 1949-50 
are in the course of execution. The Committee submitted its final report iu 
July, 1949, 

Newspapers. During 1948 the following provinces published more than 
100 separate newspapers and periodicals: Bombay, 1,143; United 
Provinces, 934; Madras, 821 ; West Bengal, 667 ; Delhi, 262; East Punjab, 
253; Bihar, 198; Travancore, 165; Central Provinces and Berar, 153, and 
Mysore, 116. 

Books o! Reference. 

Education in India. Annual and Quinquennial. Calcutta. 

Post-war Educational Development in India. Report by Central Advisory Board of 
Education. Delhi, 1944. 

Barns (Margarita), The Indian Press : A History of the Growth of Public Opinion in India. 
London, 1940. 

Grierson (Sir G. A.), Linguistic Survey of India. 11 vols (in 19 parts). Delhi, 1003-28. 

llartog (Sir Philip), Some Aspects of Indian Education, Past and Present. London, 1939. 

Justice and Crime. 

All the courts in the country form a single hierarchy, with the Supreme 
Court at the head. Immediately below the Supreme Court are the various 
State High Courts and below them are the subordinate courts of each state. 
Every court in this chain, subject to the usual pecuniary and local limits, 
administers the whole law of the country whether made by Parliament or 
by the state legislatures. 

With the passing of the Federal Court (Enlargement of Jurisdiction) 
Act, 1947, all civil appeals, and with the passing of the Abolition of Privy 
Council Jurisdiction Act, 1949, all criminal appeals, which used to be filed 
with the Privy Council, lie to the Federal Court. 

The Federal Court of India is the highest supreme court in respect of 
constitutional matters. The Provinces of Madras, Bombay, West Bengal, 
U.P., Bihar, the East Punjab and the Central Provinces and Berar have each 



146 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



a High Court, with a maximum of 15, 13, 15, 12, 11, 7 and 7 judges, res- 
pectively. There is an appeal to the Privy Council in England but in all 
cases other than criminal cases, the leave of the Federal Court is to be 
obtained. Oudh has a Chief Court. For Orissa the High Court of Patna, 
and for Assam the High Court of Calcutta, has been the highest judicial 
authority but High Courts have been proposed for both these provinces. The 
administrations of Coorg and Ajmer-Merwara have Judicial Commissioners. 
For Delhi, the High Court of East Punjab is the highest judicial authority. 
Below the High Courts, for criminal cases, there are Courts of Session, and 
below these, courts of magistrates (first, second and third class). The 
inferior civil courts are determined by special acts or regulations in each 
province. The most extensive system consists of the sessions judge acting 
as a 4 district judge/ subordinate judges and, below them, * munsifs.' 
There are also numerous special courts to try small causes. Side by side 
with the civil courts there are revenue courts, presided over by officers 
charged with the duty of settling and collecting the land revenue. 

Statement showing the strength of police in the various provinces of 
India (post-partition figures), with the sanctioned strength for 1949 in 
brackets : 



CoorR 
United Provinces 
Central Provinces 
Madras . 




155 (215) 
65,976 (58,876) 
18,299 (21,W)8) 
44,H87 (55,104) 


Delhi .... 
Orif^a .... 
East Punjab . 
Andaman and Nicobar 


4,364 (5,635) 
5,900 (12,276) 
20,708 (21,986) 


Bombay 
Assam . 
Hihar 




43,696 (59,628) 
3,600 (7,977| 


Islands 
Himachal Pradesh 


(535) 
- (1,830) 


West Beupal '. 
Ajmer-M erwara 




21,668 (29,929) 
29,567 (S5,9:i) 
1,350 (2,120) 


Total . 


260,170 (312,771) 



Books of Reference. 

Radeinowicz (L.) (editor), The Modern Prison System of India. London, 1944. 
liankin (Sir G.), Background to Indian Law. London, 1946. 



Finance. 1 

(Rs. 13i = 1.) 
Revenue and expenditure of the Central Government for 6 years : 



Years ending 
31 March 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Years ending 
31 March 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1946 
1947 
1948 


1,000 
306,142 
297,806 
264,166 


1,000 
398,713 
331,769 
286.265 


1919* 
1950 
1951 


1,000 
242,235 
242,227 
254,925 


1,000 
241,898 
241,897 
263,410 



1 Definite sources of revenue are allocated to provincial governments. Hence the 
accounts and estimates of the Government of India embrace only the transactions of the 
Central Government. With the introduction of provincial autonomy from 1 April, 1937, 
the balances of the provincial governments have been separated from those of the Central 
Government. Prom 1 April, 1936, Orissa and Sind have been constituted into governor's 
provinces. From 1 April, 1937, grants of varying magnitude are paid to certain provincial 
governments from the resources of the Central Government. A share of net receipts from 
taxes on income other than central emoluments and supertax on companies is paid to 
provincial governments. A share of the net duty on jute export is also paid to the provincial 
governments in whose territory jute is produced. 

Estimates. 

The following table shows the items of revenue and expenditure charged 
to revenue of the Central Government for 1949-50 (Budget estimates) : 



INDIA 



147 



REVENUE 




EXPENDITURE 






Rs. 1,000 




Rs. 1,000 


Customs .... 


1,11,47,00 


Customs . 


1,46,74 


Central excise duties 


69,27,00 


Central excise duties . 


8,4B,78 


Corporation tax 
Taxes on income other than 


41,81,00 


Corporation tax. 
Taxes on income other than 


55,21 


corporation tax . 


66,04,00 


corporation tax 


1,31,86 


Opium 


], 17,84 


Opium 


1,04,77 


Land revenue 


13,40 


Land revenue . 


4,39 


Provincial excise . 


93,19 


Provincial excise 


7,79 


Stamps. 


1,67,52 


Stamps 


1,09,60 


Forests 


81,14 


Forests 


92,94 


[Registration . 


1,39 


Registration 


23 


Receipts under the Motor 




Charges on account of Motor 




Vehicles Taxation Act. 


9,60 


Vehicles Taxation Act 


6,82 


Other taxes and duties . 


14,46 


Other taxes and duties 


16 


Railways (net receipts) . 


41,04,42 


Railways . 


86,32,47 


Irrigation 


47 


Irrigation . 


12,21 


Posts and telegraphs (net 




Posts and telegraphs . 


95,56 


receipts) . 


5,42,99 


Debt services 


39,29,34 


Interest receipts 


3,18,62 


Civil administration . 


40,50,22 


Civil administration 


6,78,04 


Currency and mint . 


2,22,89 


Currency arid mint 


9,69,51 


Civil woiks 


7,31,46 


Civil works . 


1,02,06 


Miscellaneous 


60,62,17 


Miscellaneous 


1,66,43 


Defence services 


1,68,39,29 


Defence services . 


11,02,67 


Adjustment between central 








and provincial governments 


2,96,62 






Extraordinary items . 


12,06,07 


Total 


3,71,32,81 


Total 


3,70,83,47 



The following table shows the revenue and expenditure of the Provincial 
Governments (in lakhs of rupees). 



Province 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1948-49 
(revised) 


1949-50 
(budget) 


1948-49 
(revised) 


1949-60 
(budget) 


Madras 
Bombay . 
"West Bengal 
United Provinces 
East Punjab 
Bihar 
Central Provinces and Berar 
Assam 
Orissa 

Total .... 


57,04 
60,94 
30,59 
49,04 
14,46 
22,79 
17,27 
7,95 
7,90 


55,75 
52,86 
32,83 
55,73 
15,93 
25,23 
19,00 
9,10 
8,90 


57,04 
61,91 
30,82 
48,47 
26,05 
22,80 
17,27 
8,22 
9,13 


56,66 
62,41 
32,94 
65,58 
22,92 
19,17 
18,80 
9,52 
8,76 


257,98 


276,33 


271,71 


276,78 



The budget for 1947-48 was estimated at revenue totalling Rs. 333 
crores and expenditure totalling Rs. 381 crores, leaving a deficit of Rs. 48 
crores. This deficit will be increased by Rs. 8 crores involved in the pro- 
posed abolition of the salt tax. Fresh taxation is to raise another Rs. 27 
crores, leaving a final deficit of Rs. 29 crores. New measures of taxation 
include the levy of a special income tax of 16 1 on business profits exceeding 
Rs. 1 lakh a year, estimated to yield Rs. 12 crores; a tax on capital 
gains, estimated to yield Rs. 3 crores; the doubling of the corporation 
tax from 1 anna to 2 annas in rupees, estimated to yield Rs. 4 
crores; the lowering of the taxable limit for incomes subject to super- 



148 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



tax, estimated to yield Us. 2J crores, and the doubling of the export duty 
on tea from 2 annas to 4 annas per lb., estimated to yield Rs. 4 crores. 

The estimated capital expenditure of the Central Government on state 
railways in 1947-48 is Rs. 29,06,16,000. The project estimate for the new 
capital at Delhi was closed with effect from 1 April, 1932, but was reopened 
in 1933. A provision of Rs. 4,69,00,000 has been made for this purpose in 
the estimates for 1947-48. 

The following table shows the receipts of both the central and provincial 
Governments from the most important sources of revenue in recent 
years (in '000 ): 



Tear ended 
31 March 


Land 1 


Opium 


Salt 8 


Stamps 


Excise 


Cus- 
toms* 


Taxes 
on in- 
come 


Hallways 
(net 
receipts) 


Irrigation 


1941-42 


20,947 


485 


6,900 


8,067 


20,785 


29,883 


24,616 


41,683 


8,976 


1942-43 


22,105 


564 


8,184 


8,610 


23,425 


19,890 


41,190 


53,373 


9,253 


1943-44 


22,898 


601 


6,255 


11,510 


39,970 


20,963 


58,971 


57,427 


10,691 


1944-45 


23,707 


778 


6,974 


12,319 


62,822 


30,943 


81,422 


55,562 


10,423 


1945-46 


23,000 


742 


7,661 


13,388 


76,502 


56,390 


72,144 


45,928 


10,160 



1 Exclusive of portion of land revenue due to irrigation. 

* The salt duty was raised in 1923, and reduced to previous level in 1924. A temporary 
surcharge of 25% was imposed in 1931. An additional duty was also levied in 1931 on 
imported foreign salt. About f of this additional duty is paid to provincial governments. 
This additional duty lapsed on 30 April, 1938. 

The excise revenue is derived from intoxicating liquors, hemp drugs, and opium con- 
sumed in the country. The bulk of the revenue comes from indigenous spirits. The excise 
systems and rates of duty vary from province to province. 

4 Liquors, oils, motor cars and cycles, machinery, sugar, tobacco, cotton and silk yarns 
fabrics and manufactures, metals (including silver bullion, coin, etc.), manufactured 
articles and articles of food and drink are the chief items from which the customs revenue 
is derived. Under this head are also included the proceeds of export duties on rice and 
on jute (imposed in 1916), and of excise duties on motor spirit (imposed in 1917), on 
silver (imposed in March, 1930), on kerosene (imposed in 1922), on steel ingots (imposed in 
1934), on sugar and matches (imposed in March, 1934) and on tyres (April, 1941). The 

import of silver bullion and coin except under licence has been prohibited since October, 
1939. The various import, export and excise duties levied by Government will be found 
in the Indian Tariff Act, 1934, and the Indian Finance Acte. 

Land Revenue. This is levied according to an assessment on estates or 
holdings. In the greater part of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and in some 
districts of Madras, and the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the assess- 
ment was fixed permanently at the end of the 18th century; while it is fixed 
periodically at intervals of from 12 to 40 years over the rest of India. For 
details as to the nature of the different tenures of land that prevail in 
India see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1886, p. 799. See also under 
AGRICULTURE. 

Opium. In the Dominion of India the cultivation of the poppy for the 
production of opium is confined to the United Provinces, and the area under 
poppy cultivation in that province has been drastically reduced. The area 
settled for cultivation during the season 1947-48 was 30,300 bighas. 
Opium is also grown in many of the Indian states of Central and Northern 
India. The question of suppressing poppy cultivation in these states 
was investigated by a committee, which started work in November, 1927. 
After giving careful consideration to the report submitted by the committee, 
the Government of India entered into fresh contracts with the states for 
the supply of crude opium to Government on a quota system, with an 
assurance that these quotas would not be reduced except pari passu with the 
diminution of production in British India. These agreements remained in 
force for a period of 4 years ending on 30 June, 1936, during which period 



INDIA 



149 



the states submitted to effective restriction or prohibition of cultivation 
otherwise than for the Government of India. These agreements have been 
renewed periodically with successive increases in the quota in view of Allied 
war requirements, but it waa reduced from the season 1945-46. In order to 
secure greater control over production of opium in Indian states, the Govern- 
ment of India have made certain amendments in the terms of agreements 
between the Government of India and the producing states ; it has been 
stipulated that the states (with two or three exceptions) will permit no poppy 
cultivation except for supply to the Government and that they will purchase 
from the Government stock the hard opium required for internal 
consumption. The question of introducing an effective control over poppy 
cultivation in the Simla hill states and of the suppression of illicit export of 
opium from these states was carefully considered by the Government, but 
as it was not found possible to suppress cultivation, certain neighbouring 
provinces and Indian states have agreed to take steps to improve the 
effectiveness of their preventive establishment. Export to China was 
prohibited in 1913, and exports of opium from India, except for strictly 
medical and scientific purposes, have ceased from the beginning of 1936, 
barring small exports to the French and Portuguese Settlements in India 
and to Nepal, Zanzibar and Pemba, which are made in accordance with long 
standing practice and are subject, of course, to arrangements which confine 
the amounts of such exports to the quantities approved by the governments 
of those territories. Export of opium is also allowed to Aden and Burma for 
purposes other than medical and scientific, because those territories formed an 
integral part of India before 1937. In order to meet the demands arising as 
the result of the war, exports of opium for medicinal and scientific purposes 
were allowed to Eastern Group countries, the United Kingdom, U.S.A. and 
Australia, but these exports, except to the United Kingdom, have been 
discontinued since the end of the war. 

In fulfilment of their international obligations, the Government of India 
have, in consultation with the provincial Governments, decided to prohibit 
altogether the smoking of opium in British India, exception being made 
only in favour of existing addicts so long as they survive and subject to their 
producing medical certificates. The Indian states have also adopted a 
similar policy irr their territories. 

Debt. On 31 March, 1948, the estimated interest bearing obligations of 
the Government of India was estimated to amount to Rs. 24-95 crores. 

Finance of Separate Governments and Local Finance.--- The revenue and 
expenditure of each Government, central and provincial, in 1945-46 
were as follows : 



Government 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


India, general 
Madras . 
Bombay. 
Bengal . 
Uulted Provinces 
Punjab . 














Rs. 1,000 
4,08,18,94 
47,98,89 
34,99,60 
45,55,41 
29,95,42 
27,96,14 
15,24,40 
10,69,16 
6,50,75 
2,99,98 
3,60,70 
8,64,37 
32,04 


Rs. 1,000 
5,31,61,74 
47,98,74 
33,41.80 
40,58,98 
29,92,92 
21,32,91 
12,12,74 
10,48,14 
6,76,37 
2,84,21 
3,44,11 
8,63,82 
18,59 


Bihar . 
Central Provinces 
Assam . 
N.W. Frontier Prov 
Orissa . 

Sind 


nee 













Ooorg 



160 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Local Funds. The above excludes the revenue and expenditure of 
municipalities and of district and local boards. The income of the former 
is derived mainly from rates, octroi taxes on houses, lands, vehicles and 
animals, tolls, and assessed taxes, and of the latter from cesses on lands. 
The gross income for 1940-41 of all municipalities was Rs. 44,58,82,688. 
The gross expenditure was Rs. 44,54,04,783. The income of district and 
local boards was Rs. 16,61,99,111 and the expenditure Rs. 16,60,17,435. 

Books of Reference. 

Budget of the Governor-General of India. Annual. 

Combined Finance and Revenue Accounts of the Central and Provincial G-ovemments in 
India. Annual. 

Defence Services. 

The partition of the country into the two Dominions of India and 
Pakistan in 1947 meant a division of the armed forces. The Royal Indian 
Navy, the Indian Army and the Royal Indian Air Force were divided between 
the two Dominions on a territorial-cum-optional basis and the result was a 
division in the approximate proportion of one-third to Pakistan and two- 
thirds to the Union of India. 

The net expenditure on defence services is given as follows : 



Tear ended 31 March 


Expenditure 


Year ended 31 March 


Expenditure 




Bs. orores 




Rs. or ores 


1939 


46-18 


1946 


360-23 


1942 


103-93 


1947 


238-11 


1048 


214-62 


1948 


188-77 


1944 


358-40 


1949 * 


165-43 


1945 


395-49 


I960 1 


167-36 



1 Revised estimate. 



Estimate. 



ARMY. 



As a result of partition, regiments and formations of the armed forces of 
India, which had for long years been composed of sub-units comprising men 
of various castes and creeds, had to be reorganized into regiments containing 
only representatives of their own Dominion. Such a division and re- 
organization of tho armed forces needed a co-ordinating authority, which 
was provided by the Supreme Commander's Headquarters. Field-Marshal 
Sir Claude Auchinleok, former Commander-in-Chief,was appointed as Supreme 
Commander with the specific purpose of reconstituting the armed forces for 
the two Dominions under the directional control of the Joint Defence Council, 
which consisted of representatives from both Dominions, the Governor- 
General of India, Earl Mountbatten being the independent chairman. 

The armed forces of India used to contain a very large British element 
but the government of new India decided to completely nationalize her armed 
forces. Only a small number of British officers, mostly in technical branches, 
have been retained on contractual basis for a short period to fill the gap. 

From V-J Day to the end of August, 1947, the net reduction in the 
strength of the Indian and Pakistan armies amounted to 1,648,772 men and 
women. Of these, 32,677 were British and Indian /Pakistan officers, 12,177 
were officers and auxiliaries of the WAC(I), 49,024 were British other ranks 
serving with Indian and Pakistan armies and 1,533,570 were Indian and 
Pakistan ranks, including 64,321 civilians attached to Indian /Pakistan 
armies. In August, 1947, there was a net reduction of 492 officers, 1,566 
Indian and Pakistan ranks, 2,639 non-combatants enrolled and 2,348 British 
other ranks attached to Indian and Pakistan armies. 

During that month 144 army units were disbanded. A total of 8,668 



INDIA 151 

army units have been disbanded, 61 Indian State Forces units have returned 
to the states and 11 Nepalese contingent units have returned to Nepal. Up 
to the end of August, 1947, a total of 37,458 I.S.F. personnel have returned to 
their states and 9,178 Nepalese contingent personnel have returned to Nepal. 

The old Indian Army prior to 15 August, 1947, was divided into three 
Commands Northern, Southern and Eastern. A fourth, Central Command, 
was raised during the war and disbanded in September, 1946. Of the Indian 
divisions which took part in the World War II, the 6th, 8th, 10th, 14th, 17th, 
19th, 20th, 23rd, 25th, 26th and 39th have been disbanded, those remaining 
being the 4th, 5th, 7th Infantry Divisions, 1st Armoured Division and the 2nd 
Airborne Division. 

On 15 August, 1947, the army was divided into Indian Army and 
Pakistan Army. Northern Command was allotted to Pakistan and the 
Southern and Eastern Commands were allotted to the Indian Army. A 
new Command, Delhi and East Punjab Command, was raised on 15 
September, 1947. There has also been a considerable amount of expansion 
in B.I.A.S.C. transport services. From 36 A.T. Coys, and 29 M.T. Units 
of various types, they were increased to 80 A.T. Coys, and 304 M.T. Units. 
The elephant for the first time was taken in the service and was found to be 
very useful in Burma. Bullocks were also utilized to provide transport in 
static areas. Other additions to the service were tank transporters, 
amphibians and water transport companies. There has also been a very 
great expansion in air supplies, which at one time was the main source of 
supply in Burma. 

NAVY. 

The Indian Navy traces its history in an unbroken line from the forma- 
tion in 1612 of the Hon. East India Company's Marine. Known in the 
early years of this century as the Royal Indian Marino, the service was 
reorganized in the late 1920's on a combatant basis. In 1928 it hoisted the 
White Ensign for the first time, and from 1934, after the passage of the 
Indian Naval Discipline Act, to 19oO was designated the Royal Indian Navy. 

The fleet now includes the 7,030-ton cruiser Delhi (ex- Achilles), 3 
destroyers (Rajput [ex-Rolherham], Rana [ex-Raider], Ranjit [ex-Redoubt]), 
4 frigates, formerly sloops (Jumna, Sutlej, Kistna, Cauvery); the boys' 
training frigate Tir (ex-Bann) ; the surveying vessels Kukri (ex-Trend) con- 
verted from a frigate, and Investigate!- ; 6 fleet minesweepers ; 4 motor mine- 
sweepers; 4 motor launches; the tank landing ship Avenger ; and 6 tank 
landing craft. The Government is to launch a comprehensive programme of 
expansion of the Navy within the next 10 years and to build up a balanced 
naval force. The establishment of the Indian Navy is 1,000 officers and 
10,000 ratings. 

The partition also resulted in the loss of the R.I.N.'s three best 
training establishments, which were situated in Karachi, i.e., the boys' 
training establishments, H.M.I.S. Dilawar and H.M.I.S. Jjattadur, and the 
gunnery and radar school, H.M.I.S. Himalaya. 

The Government of India intend to build modern training establishments 
for the Navy. A new boys' training establishment (I.N.S. Gircars) has been 
established at Vizagapatam. 

The Indian l^avy has the following training establishments for ratings 
in Indian territory: (a) Communication school; (6) torpedo and electrical 
school; (c) mechanical training establishment ; (d) physical training school; 
(e) seamanship, damage control and disciplinary school; (/) anti-submarine 
school ; (g) supply and secretariat and cookery school. Gunnery, navigation 
and radar schools are planned. 



152 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Since 1939, the R.I.N. dockyard, Bombay, has been expanded. New 
machinery was installed and much work in repairing R.I.N., R.N. and 
Allied naval vessels carried out during the war. With the acquisition of the 
cruiser, further developments in the dockyard are expected. 

AIR FORCE. 

The Royal Indian Air Force had its origins in the recommendation of the 
Skeene Committee in 1926. Six years later the Indian Legislature passed 
the Indian Air Force Act and the first flight was formed in 1933. On 12 
March, 1945, the King approved the designation of * Royal ' in recognition 
of the services rendered by the Indian Air Force during the war. In 1 946 it 
consisted of 8 fighter and 2 transport squadrons with modern aircraft. 

On the division of the country into the two Dominions of India and 
Pakistan, the Dominion of India ieceived 7 fighter squadrons and 1 transport 
squadron as its share. 

Books of Reference. 

Jackson (D.), India's Army. London, 1942. 

Vaidya (K. B.), The Naval Defence of India. Bombay, 1949. 

Yeats-Browi (F.), Martial India. London, 1945. 

Agriculture and Industry. 

Agriculture, Land Tenure, etc. The chief industry of India has always 
been agriculture. The total number of the population supported by agricul- 
ture, including forestry and raising of livestock, and excluding non-working 
dependants, was, according to the census of 1931, about 110 millions out 
of a total population of 353 millions. In most of the provinces there is a 
department of land records, and in every province a department of 
agriculture. There are staffs of experts in the provinces; a central staff 
of experts with a fully equipped central station, research institute and 
college for post-graduate training of private students and of those who 
have completed the agricultural course in provincial colleges; a civil 
veterinary department for the prevention and cure of cattle diseases ; an 
Indian veterinary research institute for the preparation of sera and anti- 
toxins and an Indian dairy research institute. Following the recom- 
mendations made by the Royal Commission on Agriculture, an Indian 
council of agricultural research has been established by the Government of 
India with the object of promoting, guiding and co-ordinating agriculture 
and veterinary research throughout India. The production and introduction 
into general cultivation of improved strains of crops still forms the most 
prominent feature of the work of agricultural departments, although progress 
in other directions is now substantial. The last census in 1941 did not 
specify the agricultural population. 

In provinces where the zaminddri tenure prevails (i.e., where single 
proprietors or proprietary brotherhoods possess large estates of several 
hundreds or thousands of acres), the state land revenue is assessed at an 
aliquot part (considerably less than one half) of the ascertained or assumed 
rental, this aliquot part being itself the land tax. The revenue is payable 
on each estate as a whole, the assessment remaining unchanged for the period 
of settlement. In the greater part of West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and 
in parts of the United Provinces and Madras, the settlement is a permanent 
one and not liable to revision. In provinces where the raiyatwdri (or 
ryotwari) tenure prevails (i.e., where each petty proprietor holds directly 
from the state and has no landlord between himself and the Government), 
the revenue is separately assessed on each holding and land revenue becomes 
payable at once (or after a short term of grace in the case of uncleared lands) 



INDIA 



153 



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154 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



on all extensions of cultivation. The raiyatwdri proprietor may throw up his 
holding, or any portion of it, at the beginning of any year after reasonable 
notice, whereas the zaminddr or large proprietor engages to pay the revenue 
assessed upon him throughout the term of the settlement. 

The following table shows in 194546 the returns of the land surveyed 
under the two types of tenure, and the land revenue assessed in Indian 
Provinces (except West Bengal) : 





Zamindari and village 
communities 


Raiyatwari, etc. 


Province 


Area 
surveyed. 


Population 
of surveyed 


Revenue 
in Rs. 


Area 
surveyed. 


Population 
of surveyed 


Revenue 
in Rs. 




Acres 


area 




Acres 


area 




Madras (1943-44) 


20,946,466 


13,018,001 


97,83,167 


58,904,798 


36,323,809 


7,26,65,330 


Bombay (1940-41) 


3,967,339 


(a) 


(a) 


44,684,363 


19,351,017 


3,76,26,166 


United Provinces 














(1941-42) 


68,043,677 


52,969,347 


6,75,32,386 











East Punjab 














(1944-45) 


23,056,252 


12,701,430 


1,94,98,173 











Bihar (194 1-42) . 


44,327,205 


33,943,028 


1,32,34,877 











Central Prove, and 














Berar (1 945-4 G) 


51,872,915 1 


16,813,684 


2,41,79,708 


11,209,410 


(b) 


(b) 


Assam (1945-40) 


3,354,678 


(a) 


16,71,416 


29,262,306 


7,556,621 


1,37,57,848 


Ajmer-Merwara 














(1945-46) 


1,561,330 


389,443 


2,83,752 











Orissa (1941-42). 


16,212,070 


8,205,837 


39,29,243 


3,929,845 


(b) 


11,41,250 


Coorg (1942-33). 











1,012,264 


168,726 


4,51,887 


Delhi (1945^16) . 


367,375 


917,939 


3,76,218 










(a) Included under Raiyatwari, etc. (b) Included under Zamindart. 

1 Includes 12,429,616 acres of Government forest. 

The following table shows the total acreage in the reporting areas of 
Indian Union (including Hyderabad) under the chief crops and the produc- 
tion in 3 years (in thousands) : 



Name of crops 


1943-44 


1944-45 


1945-46 


Area sown 


Yield 


Area sown 


Yield 


Area sown 


Yield 




Acres 


Tons 


Acres 


Tons 


Acres 


Tons 


Bice . 


68,807 


20,793 


60,203 


19,678 


58,112 


18,463 


Wheat 


23,758 


6,337 


25,461 


6,863 


24,546 


5,912 


Sugar-cane . 


3,617 


5,090 


3,647 


4,729 


3,204 


4,548 


Tea > . 


730 


497,003 


730 


447,904 


730 


501,661 


Cotton . 


17,427 


3,626 


11,413 


2,173 


11,349 


2,119 


Jute* 


701 


1,641 


681 


1,236 


580 


1,556 


Linseed . 


3,446 


366 


3,383 


380 


3,260 


35? 


Bape and 














Mustard . 


4,020 


690 


4,264 


825 


4,323 


714 


Sesamum . 


4,248 


409 


3,732 


353 


3,746 


354 


Ground-nut 


9,808 


3,823 


10,574 


3,856 


10,273 


3,466 


Castor seed 


1,541 


140 


1,466 


131 


1,426 


123 


Coffee 


198 


17 


201 


17 


211 


25 


Rubber l . 


145 


36,685 














1 Yield of tea and rubber in Ib. ; of cotton and jute in bales of 400 Ib. 

Yields in 1948-49 : Rice, 18,863,000 tons; tobacco, 470,000,000 Ib. 
(from 745,000 acres); cotton, 1,960,000 bales (from 10-6 million acres). In 
1947-48 : -Wheat, 5,346,000 tons ; cotton, 2,116,000 bales ; grain, 4,310,000 
tons; tobacco, 526,000,000 Ib. (from 762,000 acres). Cashew nuts, 1938-47 
average, 48,700 short tons ; 1948, 51,000 short tons ; 1949, 38,900 short tons. 



INDIA 



155 



Jute crop, 1947-48 .-Acreage, 661,785; production, 1,695,970 bales; 
] 948-49 : Acreage, 765,605; production, 2,026,575; estimate, 1949-50, 
2,100,000 bales (from 791,000 acres). 

Livestock Census, in Indian Union, 1945 : Cattle, 88,876,000; buffaloes, 
26,747,000; sheep, 17,337,000; goats, 25,520,000; horses and ponies, 
799,000; mules, 30,000; donkeys, 614,000; camels, 152,000; pigs, 
3,091,000; poultry, 40,005,000. 

Forests. The lands under the control of the provincial forest depart- 
ments are classified as * reserved forests ' (forests intended to be permanently 
maintained for the supply of timber, etc., or for the protection of water 
supply, etc.), * protected forests ' and * unclassed ' forest land. The 
following table shows the extent of these areas in 194546 in the Indian 
Union, excluding East Punjab : 



Province 


Reserved 
forests 
(sq. miles) 


Protected 
forests 
(sq. miles) 


Unclassed 
(sq. miles) 


Total 
(sq. miles) 


Madras 


15,746 


37 





15,782 


Bombay 


10,520 


160 





10,680 


West Bengal 


2,648 


1 





2,649 


United Provinces 


6,245 


884 


69 


6,198 


Bast Punjab * 














Bihar . 


1,403 


807 


2 


2,212 


Orissa 


1,396 


1,228 


1 


2,625 


Central Provinces and Berar 


19,417 








19,417 


Assam 


6,690 


93 


14,507 


21,290 


Ajmer-Merwara 


73 








73 


Ooorg 


517 


26 


294 


834 


Andainans . 


1,498 


554 


137 


2,189 


Total, 1945-46 . 


65,152 


3,790 


15,007 


83,949 



1 Not available. 

The net revenue for the state forests in 194546, excluding East Punjab, 
was Rs. 4,53,22,065. 

Irrigation. The area of over 50 million acres under irrigation exceeds 
that of any other country. The length of canals is about 60,000 miles and 
the total capital outlay on irrigation works is Rs. 120 crores. Details of the 
benefits extended to the various areas are shown under the separate Provinces. 

Industries. The most important indigenous industry, after agriculture, 
is the weaving of cotton cloths. Other important indigenous industries are 
silk rearing and weaving, shawl and carpet weaving, wood-carving and 
metal-working. One of the most important industries connected with 
agriculture is the tea industry, the average number of persons employed 
daily being 790,323 (1946). The area under tea in 1946 was about 689,838 
acres, distributed as follows : Assam, 362,404 ; West Bengal, 130,735 ; Bihar, 
3,255; United Provinces, 5,910; East Punjab, 9, 825; Madras, 81,740; Coorg, 
415; Tripura(West Bengal), 11,180; Travancore, 77,173; Mysore, 4,624; 
the Cochin State, 1,674, and the Mandi State (East Punjab), 1,073. The 
production was, in 1946, 509 million Ib. The exports of tea were 348,962,000 
Ib. in 1938-39; 327,365,000 Ib. in 1946-47. 

Tea crop (including Eastern Pakistan) was estimated at 586,400,000 Ib. 
in 1947 and 590,000,000 Ib. in 1948. 

Production, 1948-49, of factory sugar and gur, 5,000,000 long tons ; of 
refined sugar, 1,000,000 long tons. 

Annual production of wool in India in 1949 is estimated at 54,500,000 Ib. 
including 4,700,000 Ib. of pulled wool and 4,900,000 Ib. from lambs under on 



156 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



year old. From April, 1947, to March, 1948, India exported 26,000,000 Ib. 
of raw wool, of which the United States received 11,700,000 Ib. and the 
United Kingdom 12,600,000 Ib. 

By a Government of India resolution of 2 Sept., 1948, a Central Advisory 
Council of Industries was constituted, consisting of representatives of the 
Central, Provincial and States Governments and of unofficial commercial, 
labour and industrial bodies. 

Some statistics for 1945 of mills, factories, etc., subject to the Indian 
Factories Act, are given as follows for British India (excluding Indian 
states and Government factories) : 



Glass of industry 


No. of 
establish- 
ments 


No. of 
workers 


Class of industry 


No. of 
establish- 
ments 


No. of 
workers 


Cotton spinning and 






Tea factories 


1,063 


71,896 


weaving mills 


875 


655,731 


Foundries 


180 


12,536 


Jute mills 


87 


303,319 


Iron and steel smelting 






Cotton - ginning and 






and steel rolling mills 


34 


90,331 


pressing factories . 


1,638 


105,366 


Saw mills . 


270 


14,819 


Railway and tramway 






Petroleum refineries . 


4 


3,360 


workshops . 


46 


33,264 


Woollen mills . 


31 


14,613 


Rice mills 


1,900 


57,501 


Sugar factories . 


478 


92,686 


General engineering . 


1,011 


110,714 


Stone dressing . 


11 


615 


Electrical works 


175 


21,081 


Oil mills . 


434 


29,934 


Printing, bookbinding, 






Kerosene tinning and 






etc. 


831 


34,826 


packing works 


44 


12,482 


Tanneries and leather 






Motor works and coach 






works . 


282 


35,051 


building 


210 


20,629 


Jute presses 


59 


7,960 


Tobacco factories 


249 


34,213 


Tile and brick fac- 






Paper mills 


24 


18,276 


tories . 


209 


20,913 


Lac factor les 


18 


2,237 


Shipbuilding and en- 






Silk mills . 


152 


7,580 


gineering 


25 


32,854 









With regard to cotton spinning and weaving, the number of spindles in all 
India on 31 Aug., 1947 was 10,353,973, and of looms, 202,662. The production 
of yarn in 1947-48 was 1,330 million Ib. and of woven goods, 899 million Ib. 

The estimated output of steel during 1947 was 900,000 long tons. 

Electricity and Power. Statistics for 1947 of the installed capacity of 
generating -plant and energy generated in the Dominion of India (including 
Kashmir and Hyderabad) : 



Type of power 
plant 


Number of authorised 
undertakings owning 
generating stations 


Installed capacity of 
generators as at 
31 Dec., 1947 
(kh) 


Kwh generated in 
1947 
(millions) 


Steam . 
Oil ... 
Hydro . 

Total 


56 

265 
19 


755,957 
97,679 
508,129 


1,733,980 
144,802 
2,194,536 


340 l 


1,361,765 


4,073,318 



1 In addition to these there are 125 authorised undertakings which purchase energy in 
balk for distribution to ultimate consumers. 

Cinemas. The number of cinemas operating in India in 1949 was 1,948 
with a seating capacity of 1,266,200. 

Companies. On 31 March, 1948, there were 22,674 joint stock com- 
panies incorporated in India, including the Indian states of Mysore, Baroda, 
Gwalior, Indore, Hyderabad, Travancore and Cochin, and in operation, 
with paid-up capital of Rs. 5,69,53 lakhs. 



INDIA 



157 



Co-operative Societies. In 1942-43, there were in British India and the 
Indian states 146,160 agricultural co-operative societies with a membership 
of 6,912,004. For later statistics see separate details under some of the 
Indian provinces. 

Mineral Production. The quantity and value (in rupees) of certain 
minerals produced in India in 1947 were as follows (1 = Rs. 13-3) : 



Items 


Quantity 


Value 


Items 


Quantity 


Value 


Coal . . tons 
Manganese ore* do. 
Gold . oss. 
Petroleum gals. 
Salt . tons 
Iron ore do. 
Mica * cwts. 
Copper ore tons 


30,144,505 
451,034 
171,705 
65.192,235 
1,540,353 
2,498,459 
192,671 
323,035 


43,77,20,245 
96,40,66s 1 
4,89,54,639 
1,08,30,000 
2,46,89,794 
80,67,805 
4,65,89,163 
60,35,118 


Ilmenite . do. 
Saltpetre cwt. 
Ohromite tons 
Magnesite do. 
Diamonds carats 
Silver ozs. 
Graphite tons 


260,955 
4,114 
34,717 
51,536 
576 
12,422 
1,235 


31,69,271 


9.97,639 
6,86,966 
72,033 
54,725 
1,55,317 



1 f.o.b. value at Indian ports. 

* Export figures. 

* Excluding the production of Bharatpur State in Bajasthan for which the figures are not 
yet available. 

* Not available. 

In 1948, 1,456,778 metric tons of pig-iron and 3,367 metric tons of 
aluminum were produced; 318,220 metric tons of manganese and 5,002 
long tons of chromite were exported. Coal output in 1948 was 29,823,872 
long tons. 

The average number of persons employed daily in the coal-mining 
industry in 1947 was 363,994. The output per head employed was 82 tons. 

A 5-year plan for the re-organization of the Geological Survey of India 
with a view to expanding the development of the Dominion's mineral 
resources was accepted by the Government of India in 1947. As a result of 
part implementation of this plan the strength of Geological and Geo- 
physical officers in this Department was 145 in 1949, as compared with the 
pre-war strength of 27. 

Books of Reference. 

Indian Goal Statistics. Annual. Delhi. 

Indian Labour Gazette. Monthly. Delhi. 

The Indian Labour Year Book 1946. Delhi, 1948. 

Agricultural Statistics of India. Annual. Delhi. 

Co-operative Movement in India, Statistical Statements relating to. Annual. Delhi. 

Social Service in India. An introduction to some social and economic problems of the 
Indian people. Written by six contributors. Edited by Sir Edward Blunt. London, 1938. 

Wartime labour conditions and reconstruction planning in India. International Labour 
Office, Montreal, 1946. 

India: Overseas Economic Survey. H.M.S.O., 3949. 

Banerjee (P.), A Study of Indian Economics. 5th ed. London, 1940. 

Best (J. W.), Forest Life in India. London, 1936. 

Brown (J. 0.), India's Mineral Wealth. Oxford, 1936. 

Das (Nabaffopal), Unemployment, Full Employment and India. 2nd ed. Bombay, 1948, 

Oangulee (N.), The Indian Peasant and his Environment. London, 1935. Health and 
Nutrition in India. London, 1939. Trends of Agriculture and Population in the Ganges 
Valley. London, 1938. 

Ghosh (D.), Pressure of Population and Economic Efficiency in India. New York, 1948. 

Hough (E. M.), Co-operative Movement in India. London, 1932. 

Jathar (G. B.) and Beri (S. Q.), Indian Economics. 8th ed. London, 1948. 

Matheson (Cecile), Indian Industry. London, 1930. 

Mukerjee (B.), Kural Economy of India. London, 1926. (Editor), Economic Problems 
of Modern India. 2 vols. London, 1939-41. The Indian Working Gloss. Bombay, 1946. 

Ramasteamy (T. N.), Full Employment for India. Benares, 1948. 

Rao (B. Shiva), The Industrial Worker in India. London, 1939. 

Sastry (Dr. N. S. E.), Statistical Study of India's Industrial Development. Madras, 1947. 



JLOb 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Sharma (T. K.), Location of Industries in India. 2nd ed. Bombay, 1948. 
Stebbing (B. P.), The Forests of India. 3 vols. London, 1932-26. 
Thomas (p. J.), India's Basic Industries. Calcutta, 1948. 

Touch* (T. H. de la), Bibliography of Indian Geology and Physical Geography. Calcutta, 
1917-18. 

Yenkatasubbiah (H.), The Structure Basis of Indian Economy. London, 1942. 

Wadia (D. N.), Geology of India. 2nd ed. London, 1939. 

Wadia (P. A.) and Merchant (K. T.), Our Economic Problem. Bombay, 1943. 

Commerce. 

The following table applies to the sea-borne external trade of India 

(relating to trade on both private and government accounts) : 



VcorO 


Imports 


Exports and re-exporta 




Merchandise 


Treasure 


Merchandise 


Treasure 




Us. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Ra. 


1944-45 


231,93,85,769 


24,46,42,070 


2,28,98,2-1, 574 


5,18,55,199 


1946-46 


292,33,26,080 


8,40,78,516 


2,00,42,88,649 


7,11,70,826 


1946-47 


335,57,91,889 


36,25,09,596 


3,20,78,18,910 


3,09,80,756 


1947-4S 


446,8,02,2i?5 


22,33,78,417 


4, OS, 23,72,834 


4,40,21,665 


1948-49 


517,99,60,270 


2,88,57,648 


4,22,81,92,897 


1,21,95,484 



The figures for 1947-48 exclude the direct foreign seaborne trade of the Pakistan provinces 
of Sind and East Bengal with effect from 1 and 15 Aug., 194 7, respectively. They also do not 
include India's seaborne trade with Pakistan up to Feb., 1918. Figures for 1948-49 include 
the seaborne trade of Kutch with effect from 1 June, 1948. 

The distribution of commerce by countries was as follows (private 
merchandise alone) in years ending 31 March : 



Countries 


Imports into India from 


Exports of Indian produce to 




1947-48 


1948-49 


1947-48 


1948-49 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


United Kingdom . 


1,20,23,72,000 


1,52,08,89,081 


1,05,74,18,953 


97,07,13,990 


France 


3,47,88,942 


2,96,18,329 


10,60,25,183 


7,29,50,524 


Germany 


4,33,991 


2,25,24,276 


90,46,012 


2,69,73,023 


Austria. 


6,42,949 


79,08,086 


25,96,169 


34,30,230 


Hungary 


3,34,363 


11,66,886 


32,49,916 


24,88,021 


Italy .... 


7,39,83,783 


18,24,19,409 


5,03,18,838 


6,46,58,939 


Belgium 


5,35,84,921 


7,14,94,164 


10,62,75,966 


5,84,87,334 


Netherlands . 


2,97,65,823 


5,43,03,264 


5,82,81,639 


7,24,54,606 


Spain .... 


47,09,635 


42,59,886 


5,43,48,646 


1,32,95,440 


Union of Soviet Socialist 










Republics . 


38,08,659 


2,61,90,775 


2,86,91,835 


5,36,47,358 


China (including Hong 










Kong) 


4,46,45,330 


3,69,16,461 


15,05,68,983 


8,70,07,870 


Japan .... 


6,11,789 


6,36,13,394 


7,71,157 


4,58,61,886 


Burma 


11,18,36,294 


18,76,92,294 


11,93,11,249 


9,96,69,145 


Ceylon 


2,80,24,018 


2,72,00,811 


11,55,27,854 


11,93,70,392 


Straits Settlements 


6,36,72,089 


8,28,13,926 


4,09,46,375 


3,75,40,102 


Java, Borneo and 










Sumatra . 


46,42,628 


41,28,161 


82,66,393 


1,40,98,904 


Arabia .... 


49,96,985 


1,78,93,467 


4,05,45,278 


3,83,22,692 


Iran .... 


22,46,98,654 


20,08,88,468 


3,47,75,064 


3,06,87,064 


Egypt. 


20,40,79,079 


31,89,56,839 


6,47,98,963 


6,69,78,556 


Kenya, Zanzibar and 










Peinba 


9,79,05,021 


12,17,48,129 


3,68,66,179 


3,77,81,283 


Other E. African ports . 


3,17,73,857 


4,65,94,834 


3,61,77,630 


3,65,68,518 


Mauritius (including 










Seychelles) 


1,25,178 


20,276 


1,00,44,227 


1,18,44,870 


United States 
South America 


1,20,80,17,563 
2,59,05,112 


1,04,27,79,994 
12,08,28,781 


79,13,13,122 
16,60,92,940 


70,03,11,728 
24,94,95,356 


Australia 


8,68,06,861 


20,92,78,324 


24,29,15,267 


20,57,96,550 



See note below the following Table. 



INDIA 



159 



The value of the leading articles of private merchandise (Indian produce 
)ii\y in the case of exports) was as follows in 1948-49 : 



Imports 


Value (Rs.) 


Exports 


Value (Es.) 


3ottou (raw) 


64,23,14,204 


Jute (raw) 


23,89,32,976 


3otton manufactures (in- 




Jute (manufactured) 


1,46 31,45,376 


cluding twist and yarn) . 


17,06,46,860 


Cotton (raw) . 


14,00,12,344 


Sugar (retinei! and unrelined, 




Cotton (manufactured) in- 




molasses included) . 


65,89,806 


cluding twist and yarn. 


39,84,74,696 


tfetul* and ores . 


33,29,94,580 


Rice .... 


63 


Machinery and mill work 


70,66,52,268 


Other grain and pulse . 


6,43,949 


311k Craw and manufactured) 


2,26,35,439 


Tea .... 


63,68,71,247 


artificial silk . 


13,92,00,542 


Hides and skins and 




Dils 


37,65,70,297 


leather goods 


18,28,21,998 


Chemicals .... 


20,54,87,502 


Seeds (oil seeds mainly) . 


7,05,08,877 


Hardware .... 


5,94,26,202 




8,67,81,417 


Liquors .... 


2,10,86,756 


Wool (raw; 


1,08,82,979 


Matches .... 


15,525 


Wool (manufactured) 


3,04,06,614 


Paper and pasteboard 


13,97,03,090 


Oils .... 


11,34,31,810 


5alt .... 


2,03,26,080 


Rubber (raw) 


10,547 


Woollen goods . 


7,17,76,013 


Dyess und tans 


81,15,812 


Spiers .... 


4,40,10,000 


Paraflin wax . 


1,13.24,159 


Provisions 


7,05,03,776 


Spices .... 


6,46,08,424 


tnstrumcnta, apparatus and 




Saltpetre 


69,338 


appliances and parts thereof 


18,86,98,648 


liernp (raw) . 


3,33,98,296 


Tobacco .... 


3,62,30,845 


Manganese ore 


1,81,00,132 


[Jlass .... 


1,65,04,386 


Other kinds of metals and 




Dyeing and tanning substances 


13,41,23,033 


ores .... 


2,61,47,918 


Drugs and medicines . 


7,92,79,302 


Oilcakes 


5,19,111 


Wood and timber 


5,15,84,575 


Provisions 


86,46,142 


Apparel (excluding hosiery 




Fruits and vegetables 


6,09,55,235 


and boots and shoes) 


33,44,265 


Tobacco 


8,26,43,142 


Soap .... 


2,33,239 


Silk (raw and cocoons) . 


2,09,613 


Building and engineering 




Silfc (manufactured) 


1,04,47,210 


materials 


2,80,11,324 


Coir goods 


4,46,66,264 


Fruits and vegetables . 


6,80,67,345 


Manures 


32,47,666 


Pamts and painters' materials 


2,24,82,763 


Wood .... 


58,47,643 


Tea-chests 


1,88,63,537 


Coal and coke 


3,83,66,049 


laberdashcry and millinery 


7,53,120 


SuK'ar (reflucd and unre- 




Belting for machinery 


2,11,64,664 


fined) 


1,31,80,496 


Mechanically propelled 




Coftee .... 


1,06,970 


vehicles .... 


28,48,20,055 






Stationery 


1,10,50,486 






Animals, living . 


6,71,792 






Books, printed and printed 








matter .... 


79,63,661 






Earthenware and porcelain. 


26,91,793 






Boots and shoes 


1,63,608 






Umbrellas and fittings 


51,77,304 






jbrain and pulse . 


66,51,46,538 






3oal and coke . 


6,479 







The figures for 1947-48 exclude the direct foreign seaborne trade of the Pakistan provinces 
>f Sind and East Bengal with effect from 1 and 15 Aug , 1947, respectively. They also do not 
nclude India's seaborne trade with Pakistan up to Feb., 1948. Figures for 1948-49 relate to 
jombined figures of trade on private account and government stores. They also include the 
leaborne trade of Kutch with effect from 1 June, 1948. 

The trade between British India (until 1947), the Dominion of India (from 
L948) and the United Kingdom (British Board of Trade returns) is as follows 
;in sterling) : 





1938 


1947 


1948 


1949 


fmports' into U.K. from India 
Exports to India from U.K. 
Re-exports to India from U.K. . 


49,939,297 
33,764,754 
534,256 


94,737,449 
91,543,668 
555,340 


96,348,286 
96,028,016 
385,206 


98,214,694 
117,131,642 
313,053 



160 



THE BKITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Books ol Reference. 

Review of the Trade of India. Annual. Delhi. 
Indian Trade Journal. Weekly. Calcutta. 

Agarwala (A. N.) (editor), Position and Prospects of India's Foreign Trade. London, 
1947. 

Venkalasubbiah (H.), The Foreign Trade of India, 1900-40. Bombay, 1946. 

Shipping and Navigation. 

The tonnage of vessels which entered with cargoes in the interportal 
trade was 7,530,946 tons in 1947-48 and cleared 7,349,273 tons. 

These figures exclude the tonnage of interportal trade registered at the ports of the 
Pakistan provinces of Sind and East Bengal with effect from 1 and 16 Aug., 1947, respectively. 
With effect from 1 March, 1948, the Pakistan ports are outside the scope of the interportal 
trade of India. 

The number and tonnage of vessels built or first registered at Indian 
ports for 5 years : 





1942-43 


1943-44 


1944-45 


1946-46 


1946-47 


No. 


Ton- 
nage 


No. 


Ton- 
nage 


No. 


Ton- 
nage 


No. 


Ton- 
nage 


No. 


Ton- 
nage 


Built 
Registered. 


45 
74 


2,944 
4,236 


39 
55 


2,298 
3,162 


24 
61 


1,033 
2,163 


64 
49 


1,564 
2,113 


81 
186 


1,266 
10,514 



Communications. 
I. RAILWAYS. 

Miles open Milos open Miles open Miles open 

1940-41 . 41,052 I 1942-43 . 40,525 I 1944-45 . 40,509 I 1946-47 . 40,524 
1941-42 . 40,477 | 1943-44 . 40,512 | 1945-4G . 40,518 | 1947-48 . 33,885 

The railways open on 31 March, 1947, included 31,533 miles of India 
Government owned lines and 8,991 miles of other lines. 

The gauges of the Indian railways in 1914 45 were : (1) the standard, 
or 5 ft. 6 in. (15,639 miles); (2) the metre, or 3 ft. 3| in. (15,008 miles), 
and (3) the special gauges of 2 ft. 6 in. and 2 ft. (3,338 miles). 

The total capital at charge on railways to end of 1946-47, including 
lines under construction and survey, etc., was Rs. 6,39,27,01,000, and 
Rs. 7,41,39,58,000 in 1947-48. From 1924-25 railway finance has been 
separated from the general finances of the Government of India. The 
Delhi Umballa-Kalka railway was purchased by the Government in April, 
1926, the Southern Punjab Railway on 1 January, 1930, the Amritsar- 
Patti railway on 1 January, 1936, and the BezwadaMasulipatum railway on 
4 February, 1938. With effect from 1 April, 1937, the Jorhat railway 
became the property of the Central Government under the Government of 
India Act, 1935. The Government also took over the following railways on 
the dates shown: Larkana Jacobabad (3 May, 1939), Hardwar Dehra 
(1 Jan., 1940), Bengal Dooars (1 Jan., 1941), Bombay, Baroda and Central 
India, Bengal and Assam (1 Jan., 1942), Tapti Valley (1 April, 1942) and 
Mirpur Khas Khadro (1 Jan., 1943). On 1 Jan., 1943, the Government also 
took over the Bengal-North-Westem and the Rohilkund-Kumaon railways ; 
the combined system is now known as the Oudh Tirhut railway. On 31 
March, 1944, the contract of the Guzerat railways was terminated. The 
Madras and Southern Mahratta railway and the South Indian railway were 
taken over on 1 April, 1944, and the Bengal Nagpur railway on 1 Oct., 1944. 



INDIA 



161 



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162 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



The following railways were purchased by the Government of India on the 
dates shown: Dhond Baramati (1 Oct., 1944), Dibru Sodiya (1 April, 1945), 
Jacobabad Koshmor (1 April, 1945), Podanur Pollochi (15 Oct., 1945), 
Hoshiarpur Dooh branch (1 April, 1946), Sialkot Narowal (1 April, 1946), 
Sara Sirajganj (1 Oct., 1946), Ahmedabad Prantej (1 Jan., 1947), Mandia 
Bhan (1 April, 1947), Matheran Light (1 April, 1948), Darjieling Himalayan 
Railway and extensions (20 Oct., 1948) and Pachora Jamner (1 April, 1949). 
Passengers carried in 1947-48 were 1,044,118,400; aggregate tonnage of 
goods, 73,464,000. The followjpg table shows the gross earnings, working 
expenses and net earnings on railways during 1946-47 and 1947-48 : 





Grogs 


Working 


Net 


earnings 


expenses 


earnings 






Us. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Grand total, excluding Bengal] 
and Assam, North-Western, > 
As^ain and East Punjab . J 


1946-47 
1947-48 


1,67,07,29,000 
1,74,87,87,000 


1,28,42,08,000 
1,55,06,09,000 


38,65,21,000 
19,81,78,000 


Total, Assam and East Punjab . 


1947-48 


8,80,95,000 


8,87,95,000 


7,00,000 


Grand total, including Assam 










and East Punjab . 


1947-48 


1,83,68,82,000 


1,63,94,04,000 


19,74,78,000 



Average return on the capital at charge, 4-88% in 1946-47 and 2-66% 
in 1947-48. The net gain to the state, after meeting all charges for interest, 
etc., was Rs. 8-57 crores. The railway staff at the close of 1947-48 numbered 
753 Europeans and 899,730 Indians ; total, 900,483. 

India and Ceylon are connected by rail and steamer ferry combined, 
the steamers plying between Dhanushkodi Point on Rameswaram Island and 
Talaimannar in Ceylon. 

II. POSTS, TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES. 

On 31 March, 1949, there were 20,617 permanent post offices, 48,089 
letter-boxes and 7,781 telegraph offices open for paid traffic. The depart- 
ment at the end of the year was maintaining 97,583 miles of line, including 
cables, and 1,235,066 miles of wire, including conductors. 

The telephone system is in the hands of the Indian Posts and Telegraphs 
Department; the telephone exchanges which had been established in 
Calcutta, Madras, Bombay and Ahmedabad by private companies, under 
licences from the Government, were acquired by Government from 1 April, 
1943. On 31 March, 1949, there were 2,747 exchanges (including sub- 
exchanges) and 113,466 telephones, of which 2,182 were non-exchange 
telephones. Private companies owned 8 exchanges and 1,662 telephones; 
140 licensed systems operated 2,466 telephones. 

Wireless receiver licences on 31 March, 1949, numbered 299,000. 

III. CIVIL AVIATION. 

India is well served by air transport. In addition to the direct B.O.A.C. 
services between the United Kingdom and Delhi, Calcutta and Bombay, 
she is on the flying-boat route to Sydney and Singapore. As regards 
internal air services, there were in Nov., 1949, 36 services covering 20,661 
miles. Most of the large cities and towns of India are linked by air routes. 
There are 10 air transport undertakings operating these routes, the longest 
of which are operated by Air India, Ltd., Indian National Airways, Ltd., 
and Air Services of India, Ltd. Some 170 aircraft are employed on the 
internal services. An Indian air service to Europe (Air India International, 



INDIA 



163 



Ltd.) was established on 8 June, 1948, as a joint state and private enterprise. 
In Dec., 1948, it operated 3 services a week from Bombay to London. 
An all-up air-mail scheme for carrying all first-class mails and parcels by air 
was introduced from 1 April, 1949, and, in addition, a night air- mail service 
has been carrying passengers as well as mails between Bombay, Madras, 
Calcutta and Delhi via Nagpur. 

Bharat Airways, Ltd., is operating an air service on the Calcutta- 
Bangkok route. The Air India International began in 1950 operating an 
air service from Bombay to Aden and Nairobi. 

Statistics for the calendar year 1949 show 93,000 hours flown, 14,900,000 
miles flown, 358,000 passengers carried, 13^300,000 Ib. freight carried, 
4,900,000 Ib. mail carried. 

Bilateral air transport agreements have been concluded with Australia, 
Ceylon, France, Netherlands, Pakistan, Philippines, Sweden, Switzerland 
and U.S.A. Temporary arrangements have been entered into with Denmark, 
Egypt, Ethiopia, Norway, Persia, Thailand and the United Kingdom. 

Books of Reference. 
Report on Indian Railways. Annual. 

Sanyal (K.), Development of Indian Railways. Calcutta, 1930. 

Money and Credit. 

Value of money coined at the Calcutta, Bombay and Lahore Mints : 



Year ended 
31 March 


Silver 


Nickel 


Bronze 


Total 




Eg. 


Hs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


1943 


28,32,18,682 


4,82,89,167 


6,68,100 


33,20,75,839 


1944 


19,32,36,529 


8,20,42,500 


34,28,988 


27,87,08,017 


1945 


39,11,25,000 


9,56,31,500 


42,94,863 


49,10,51,363 


1046 


24,69,75,000 


4,32,63,800 


51,43,031 


29,43,81,531 


1947 


3,17,49,000 


8,01,71,300 


38,01,600 


11,57,21,900 



An Act to constitute a reserve bank to operate the currency and credit 
system of the country was passed on 16 February, 1934. The bank started 
functioning on 1 April, 1935, bringing India into line with other important 
countries where the currency and credit system is controlled by central 
banks of issue. It was a shareholders' bank with a majority of elected 
members on the directorate. The Government account is kept with it, 
and its functions include the management of the note issue and of the 
public debt. In view of its altered position, an Act amending the original 
Imperial Bank of India Act was also passed during 1934, removing some 
of the limitations imposed on it, such as the prohibition of dealings in foreign 
exchange. An agreement was concluded between the Reserve Bank and 
the Imperial Bank under which the latter would be the sole agent of the 
Reserve Bank in places in India where there were branches of the Imperial 
Bank on 6 March, 1934, and there was no branch of the banking 
department of the Reserve Bank. The net profits of the Reserve Bank of 
India for the year ended 30 June, 1947, amounted to Rs. 8,02,27,306. 

Under the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India (Transfer to Public 
Ownership) Act, 1948, the Reserve Bank be9ame a State-owned institution 
with effect from 1 Jan., 1949. 

Since 1835, rupees have been coined as required to meet public demands. 
There has been no coinage from purchased silver since 1921-22, Reserve 
bank notes and Government of India currency notes are legal tender at 



164 



THE BKITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIBE 



any place in India. According to the published accounts of the Reserve 
Bank of India, the total value of notes in circulation on 3 Feb., 1950, was 
Rs. 1,133,24 lakhs, and that of foreign securities held in the issue department 
Rs. 6,40,34 lakhs. 

Currency. The monetary unit is the Indian rupee, the sterling equivalent 
of which is Is. 6d. 

The coins in circulation are : Silver, 1 rupee, which equals 16 annas and 
weighs one tola or 180 grains troy; nickel 1 rupee; rupee or 8 anna piece; 
J rupee or 4 anna piece; nickel, , 1, 2, 4 and 8 anna pieces; bronze, 1 
pice = J anna ; \ pice = J ajina ; 1 pie = -^ anna or J pice. The fineness 
of the silver coin has, since February, 1940, been reduced from eleven- 
twelfths to one-half. 

The paper currency consists of reserve bank notes in denominations of 
Rs. 2, 5, 10, 50 and 100. Bank notes of Rs. 500, 1000 and 10,000 were 
demonetized and ceased to be legal tender after 12 January, 1946. Govern- 
ment of India currency notes are also in circulation, but, with the exception 
of the Re. 1 note, are being withdrawn. 

A special issue of Government of India Re. 1 notes was introduced in 
July, 1940, to supplement the circulation of silver rupees. They are, for all 
purposes, equivalent to silver rupees. 

A hundred thousand rupees are called 1 lakh and are written thus : Rs. 
1,00,000; one hundred lakhs are called 1 crore and are written thus : Rs. 
1,00,00,000. A lakh of rupees when the rupee is Is. Qd. is equivalent to 
7,500. 

Banks. The following table shows the ' capital,' ' reserve,' * public and 
other deposits,' at the Imperial Bank of India on 31 Dec. : 





1944 


1945 


1946 


Paid-up capital 
Reserve .... 
Deposits .... 


Rs. 
5,62,60,000 
5,92,50,000 
237,50,62,000 


Ra. 
5,62,50,000 
6,07,50,000 
259,37,45,000 


Rs. 
6,62,50,000 
6,17,60,000 
271,67,36,000 



On 25 July, 1949, there were 101 scheduled banks in India and 3,00& 
offices and branches of banks. The number of non-scheduled banks on 
31 December, 1949, was 360. 

Statistics of the post office savings banks for 5 years : 





Depositors 


Balance at end of 
year, in rupees 


1941-42 
1942-43 
1943-44 
1944-45 
1945-46 


2,755,968 
2,563,578 
2,773,648 
3,094,926 
3,607,007 


52,07,36,000 
52,22,14,000 
64,17,92,000 
80,22,47,000 
1,15,04,7-7,000 



Books of Reference. 

Reserve Bank of India : Report on Currency and Finance. Annual. Bombay. 
Adarkar (B. P.), Indian Fiscal Policy. Allahabad, 1941. 

Buchanan (D. M.), The Development of Capitalist Enterprise in India. London, 1934. 
Dadachanji (B. B.), The Monetary System of India. Bombay, 1947. 
Qho* (B. 0.), A Study of the Indian Money Market. Calcutta, 1943. 
Jain (L. 0.), Indigenous Banking in India. London, 1929. The Monetary Problem* of 
India. London, 1933. 



INDIA 165 

Malhotra (D. K.), History and Problems of Indian Currency, 1935-43. 2nd edition. 
Lahore, 1944. 

Misha (B. R.), Indian Provincial Finance, 1919-39. London, 1942. 
Panandikar (S. G.), Banking in India. London, 1935. 

Pinto (P. J. J.), System of Financial Administration in India. Bombay, 1943. 
Thomas (P. J.), The Growth of Federal Finance in India, 1933-39. Oxford, 1940. 

Weights and Measures. 

According to the Standards of Weight Act, 1939, weights and measures 
are as follows : 

The standard maund of 40 seers = 82 Ib. 4 ozs. 9 drs. avoirdupois. 
The standard tola . . = 1 80 gr. troy. 

The standard seer of 80 tolas . = 2-057 Ib. 

The standard pound (7,000 standard grains), ounce, cwt. and ton are also 
standard weights^side by side with the above. 

Books of Reference concerning India. 

Special works relating to Provinces and States are shown under their 
separate headings. 

Guide to Current Official Statistics. 3 vols. Delhi, 1943, 1945, 1949. 

Administration : Reports on the various provinces. Annual. 

Gazetteers : The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 2nd ed. 26 vols. completed in 1909. 
London. Provincial and District Gazetteers. 

Statistical Abstract for British India. Annual. Delhi and London. 

Famine Inquiry Commission, Beport. 2 vols. Delhi, 1945. 

All-India Health Survey and Development Committee, Report. Delhi, 1946. 

The Indian Year Book. Annual. Bombay. 

Cambridge History of India. 6 vols. Cambridge, 1922-47. 

Cambridge Shorter History of India. New ed. Cambridge, 1943. 

Oxford Pamphlets on Indian Affairs. 33 nos. Oxford, 1943-45. 

Abbott (J.), The Keys of Power : A Study of Indian Ritual and Belief. London, 1932. 

Amery (L. S.), India and Freedom. London, 1942. 

Aronson (A.), Europe Looks at India: A Study of Cultural Relations. Bombay, 1946. 

Birdwood (C. B.), A Continent Experiments : The Future of India. London, 1946. 

Casey (R. G.), Australian in India. London, 1947. 

Gumming (Sir John) (editor^, Revealing India's Past : A Co-operative Record of Archaeo- 
logical Conservation and Exploration in India and Beyond. London, 1939. 

Das Gupta (Tarapada) (editor), Nalanda Year-Book and Who's Who in India. Calcutta, 
1948. 

Dunbar (Sir G.), A History of India. 3rd ed. 2 vols. London, 1948. 

Dutt (R. P.), India Today. Bombay, 1947. 

Qarratt (G. T.) and Thompson (Edward). The Rise and Fulfilment of British Rule in 
India. London, 1934. (Ed.), The Legacy of India. Oxford, 1937. 

Griffith* (P- J-), The British in India. London, 1946. 

Hartog (Lady), Living India. 2nd ed. London, 1936. India in Outline. Cambridge, 
1945. 

Hearn (Sir Gordon) (editor), Handbook for Travellers in India, Burma and Ceylon. 
2nd ed. London, 1950. 

Keith (A. B.), Speeches and Documents on Indian Policy (1750-1921). Two vote. 
London, 1922. A Constitutional History of India, 1600-1935. London, 1938. 

Kincaid (Dennis), British Social Life in India, 1608-1937. London, 1938. 

Majumdar (D. N.), The Matrix of Indian Culture. Lucknow, 1947. 

Majumdar (R. C.), Raychandhuri (H. 0.) and Datta (K.), An Advanced History of India. 
2nd ed. London, 1950. 

Masani (M. R.), Our India. London, 1946. 

Mitra (H. N.), The Indian Annual Register. Calcutta. 

Moreland (W. H.) and Chatter jee (Sir Atul), A Short History of India. 2nd ed. London, 
1944. 

Natoraih (E. A.), The Glories of Hindustan. London, 1935. 

Nehru (J.), An Autobiography. London, 1938. The Unity of India : Collected Writings. 
1937-40. London, 1941.- The Discovery of India. London, 1946. 

O'M alley (L. S. S.), Popular Hinduism. Cambridge, 1935. (Editor), Modern India 
and the West. London, 1941. 

Pallis (M.), Peaks and Lamas. London, 1989 



166 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Parkin (R.), India Today. 2nd ed. New Toric, 1940. 

Philips (0. H.), India. London, 1949. 

Prasad (R..), India Divided. Bombay, 1948. 

Raman (T. A.), India. London, 1944. 

Rawlinsan (H. 0-.), India : A Short Cultural History. London, 1937. A Concise, History 
Of the Indian People. 2nd ed. Oxford, 1946. 

Roberts (P. B.), Historical Geography of India. 2 vols. Oxford, 1916-20. 

Sarma (D. S.), Studies in the Eenaissance of Hinduism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth 
Centuries. Benares, 1945. 

Scott (G. B.), Religion and Short History of the Sikhs, 1469-1930. London, 1930. 

Vairanaptllai (M. S.), Are We Two Nations? Lahore, 1946. 

Whyte (Sir Frederick), India : A Bird's-eye View. London, 1944. 

Zada (N. A.), Indian India. London, 1940. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 

The First Schedule to the Constitution of India arranges * the States and 
the territories of India ' in 4 groups ; the number of seats in the Council of 
States, allotted to each State or group of States, is added in square brackets. 

A. 1. Assam [6] 8. Travancore-Cochin [6] 

2. Bihar [21] 9. Vindhya Pradesh [4] 

3. Bombay [17] 

4. Madhya Pradesh (Central C. 1. Ajmer [and Coorg, 1] 

Provinces and Berar) [12] 2. Bhopal [1] 

5. Madras [27] 3. Bilaspur [and Himachal 

6. Orissa [9] Pradash, 1] 

7. Punjab (East Punjab) [8] 4. Cooch-Behar [1] 

8. United Provinces [31] 5. Coorg [see Ajmer] 

9. West Bengal [14] 6. Delhi [1] 

7. Himachal Pradesh [see 

B. 1. Hyderabad [11] Bilaspur] 

2. Jammu and Kashmir [4] 8. Kutch [1] 

3. Madhya Bharat [6] 9. Manipur\ m 

4. Mysore [6] 10. Tripura / 11J 

5. Patiala and East Punjab 

States Union [3] D. Andaman and Nicobar Islands 

6. Rajasthan [9] [ ] 

7. Saurashtra [4] 

A. STATES ADMINISTEBED BY A GOVEBNOR. 
ASSAM. 

Government. Assam first became a British Protectorate at the close 
of the first Burmese War in 1826. In 1832 Cachar was annexed : in 1835 
the Jaintia Hills were included in the East India Company's dominions, and 
in 1839 Upper Assam was annexed to Bengal. In 1874 Assam was detached 
from the administration of the Lieut. -Govern or of Bengal, and made a 
separate chief commissionership. On the partition of Bengal in 1905, it 
was united to the Eastern Districts of Bengal under a lieut. -governor. From 
1912 the chief commissionership of Assam was revived and from 1921 a 
governorship was created. 

Constitution* Assam was constituted an autonomous province on 1 
April, 1937, with a legislature of 2 chambers (the Legislative Council and 
the Legislative Assembly). The Legislative Council consists of not more 



INDIA ASSAM 167 

than 22 members, of whom not more than 4 are to be nominated by the 
Governor. The Legislative Assembly consists of 108 elected members. 
Election results, Dec., 1945: Congress Party, 63 seats; Moslem League, 
31 seats. There are 19 local boards, 18 municipalities and 10 town com- 
mittees. The areas comprising the North-East Frontier (Sadiya, Balipara 
and Lakhimpur) tracts, the Naga Hills, Lushai Hills and the North Cachar 
Hills subdivision of the Cachar district are excluded areas. The Garo Hills 
district, the Mikir Hills in the Nowgong and Sibsagar districts and the 
British portion of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills district, other than the Shillong 
municipality and cantonment, comprise the partially excluded areas. 

Under the terms of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, almost the whole 
of the district of Sylhet, which is predominately Moslem, was detached 
from Assam and amalgamated with East Bengal in the Dominion of Pakistan. 

Governor. H.E. Sri Prakasa (appointed 16 Feb., 1949; salary Us. 66,000 
per annum). 

Premier. Gopinath Bardoloi. 

Area, Population and Religion. The plains districts, the hill districts 
and the administered portions of the frontier tracts, exclusive of the state of 
Manipur and the Khasi states, which are not British territory, cover an area 
of 54,951 square miles, with a population of 10,204,733 in British territory 
in 1941. The capital is Shillong. Manipur state, with an area of ,638 
square miles and a population of 512,069, formerly under the political control 
of the Governor of Assam, ceased to be a feudatory state from 15 August, 
1947, and has acceded to the Indian Union. 

Instruction. The new university at Gauhati was constituted on 1 
Jan., 1948. There were 16 arts colleges, including 3 colleges for women, with 
an enrolment of 5,439 students on 31 March, 1948. In the B.T. classes 
attached to the St. Edmund's Arts College for men and the St. Mary's 
College for women, Shillong, there were 30 and 10 students respectively 
under training. The number of secondary schools for boys was 808 with 
138,405 pupils, and that of primary schools for boys was 6,739 with 357,733 
pupils on 31 March, 1948. The number of girls at all kinds of institutions 
was 154,142. There were 20,628 pupils in 407 tea garden schools of A, B 
and C classes. 

Justice and Crime. The province was formerly under the jurisdiction 
of the High Court of Calcutta; a separate High Court was set up with 
effect from 5 April, 1948. There were 2 sessions judges up to the time of the 
separation of the district of Sylhet from Assam in Aug., 1947, and thereafter 
2 judges have been created with effect from 15 Nov., 1948. In 1946, 
61,548 criminal cases were reported combined with the number pending 
from the previous year (56,719 in 1946); 24,036 civil suits were instituted 
(24,302 in 1945). 

Finance. The gross revenue for 1946-47 was 719 lakhs of rupees, to 
which land revenue contributed 179 lakhs, excise 82 lakhs, forests 68 lakhs 
and stamps 25 lakhs. The total expenditure in 1946-47 was 569 lakhs. 
General administration cost 51 lakhs, education 73 lakhs, police 69 lakhs, 
land revenue administration 25 lakhs, public works 112 lakhs and forests 
1 lakh. 

Production and Industry. The cultivation and manufacture of tea 
is the principal industry in Assam. Agriculture employs nearly 89% of the 
population. Sericulture and hand-loom weaving, both silk and cotton. 



168 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

are the most important home industries. The coal and cement industries 
are also important. In 1944 there were 1,132 tea gardens with 441,792 
acres under tea. The area of tea plucked in 1944 was 405,709 acres; the 
total out-turn was 266,947,184 Ib. of black and 3,886,119 Ib. of green tea, 
and the daily average number of persons employed was 425,845 All-India 
statistics regarding the tea industry are given on p. 125. In 1944-45 there 
were 6,680 square miles of reserved forests. Assam contains important 
oilfields. In 1947, 65,192,235 gallons of crude oil were extracted from the 
oilfields of the province to the value of Rs. 1,16,69,410. Co-operative 
Societies numbered 3,693 in 1948. 

Communications. In 1948 there were 720-45 miles of metalled, 
1,456-11 of gravelled, 675-6 of earthed and 2,298-3 miles of bridle roads. 
The open mileage of railways was 1,302 miles. 

Administration Beport. Annual. Shillong. 

Ftirer-llaimendorf (0, von), The Naked Nagas (Assam-Burma Frontier). London, 1939. 
Gait (Sir E.), History of Assam. 2nd ed. Calcutta, 1926. 
Kingdon Ward (P.), Assam Adventure. London, 1941. 

Reid (Sir Robert), History of the Frontier Areas bordering on Assam from 1883 to 1941. 
Shillong, 1942. 

BIHAR. 

Government. The province contains the two ethnic areas of Bihar and 
Chota Nagpur. For the purposes of administration it is divided into 4 
divisions covering 16 districts. The sole executive authority in the province 
is the Governor. 

Constitution. Bihar has a bicameral legislature, the Upper House 
being known as the Bihar Legislative Council and the Lower House as the 
Bihar Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Council consists of 29 mem- 
bers, of whom 4 are nominated by the Governor in his discretion. Twelve 
members of the Legislative Council are elected by the members of the Legis- 
lative Assembly and the rest by direct election. The Legislative Assembly 
consists of 150 elected members, including 4 women. 

Governor. H.E. Shri M. S. Aney (assumed office, January, 1948; 
salary, Rs. 100,000 per annum). 
Premier. Sri Krishna Sin ha. 

Area, Population and Religion. The province covers 69,745 square 
miles, with a population of 36,340,151. The four principal towns are 
Patna, the capital, Gaya, Bhagalpur and Jamshedpur. The hot weather 
seat of the Government is at Ranchi. Hindus form the great majority of 
the population. 

Education. At the census of 1941 the proportion of literates was only 
9-1% as compared with 18-0 for the rest of India. The percentage of Indian 
boys attending school reached 5-47 in 1943-44. The university of Patna 
constituted in 1917 is an affiliating university. All university teaching is 
carried on in 17 arts and science colleges, 1 law college, 1 engineering college, 
1 medical college and 1 training college. There is also a veterinary college 
not affiliated to the university. There are 55 technical institutions including 
those at Jamshedpur, Ranchi and Muzaffarpur, and a medical school at 
Darbhanga. A board of secondary education was constituted in 1922. In 
1943-44 there were 6,912 students in arts and science colleges. There were 
246,747 pupils in 1,710 secondary schools and 834,983 pupils in 21,565 
primary schools. 



INDIA BOMBAY 169 

Justice and Crime. There is a high court (constituted in 1916) at 
Patna with a chief justice, 8 judges and 2 additional judges. On the 
criminal side there are sessions judges, stipendiary and honorary magistrates. 
For the administration of civil justice there are district judges, subordinate 
judges and munsiffs (courts of first instance). The police force is under 
an inspector -general ; there is 1 policeman to 1,746 of the population and 
to 3-35 square miles of the area of the province. 

Finance. The revenue in 1947-48 was Rs. 1,848 lakhs, including 
Rs. 463f lakhs from Excise, Rs. 138J lakhs from land revenue, Rs. 206 
lakhs from stamps, and Rs. 32J lakhs from the forest department. The 
expenditure charged to revenue was Rs. 1,678J lakhs. The chief items 
were : Police, Rs. 261 J lakhs; education, Rs. 124 lakhs, and general ad- 
ministration, Rs. 144 lakhs. Budget, 1948-49: Revenue, 2,156J lakhs; 
expenditure, 2,008J lakhs. 

Production and Industry. In Bihar the total area cropped during 
1942-43 was 23,033,800 acres, which included 5,440,900 acres cropped more 
than once. Of this the principal crop, rice, covered 9,291,200 acres ; maize, 
1,651,900 acres; oilseeds, 1,505,700 acres; gram, 1,446,500 acres; barley, 
1,269, 100 acres; wheat, 1,280,100 acres; marua, 543,300 acres ; sugar-cane, 
402,600 acres; fibres (cotton, jute, etc.), 284,200 acres; indigo, 2,100 acres; 
tea, 4,100 acres; tobacco, 114,100 acres; fruits and vegetables, including 
root crops, 324,400 acres. The remaining area was distributed under 
miscellaneous food and non-food crops of minor importance. The principal 
coal area of Bihar lies in the Manbhum and Hazaribagh districts. The total 
output was over 15 million tons in 1940. The districts of Hazaribagh, 
Monghyr and Gay a form the most important source of mica in the world. 
Iron ore is mainly raised in the district of Singhbhum, the total output 
of which in 1940 was over 1 J million tons. The total number of persons 
employed in coal, mica and iron ore mines was about 153,965. Of this, the 
Tata iron and steel works, situated at Jamshedpur in Singhbhum district, 
employed daily about 19,961 persons, excluding contractors' labour, during 
1938-39. In 1943 there were 8,829 Co-operative Societies, with 254,782 
members and a working capital of Rs. 1,43,48,953. The reserved forests 
covered an area of 1,356 square miles on 31 March, 1942. 

Communications. The total mileage of metalled roads is 7,012 and 
of unmetalled roads 26,373. The length of canals open for navigation is 200 
miles. The East Indian, Oudh and Tirhut, and Bengal Nagpur railways 
continue to traverse the province. There has not been any increase in 
the open mileage of light railways. 

Administration Keport. Annual. Tatna. 

Handbook of the Mining and Mineral Resources fn Bihar and Orissa. Patna, 1924. 
, O'Malley (L. S. S.), Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, Sikkim. Cambridge, 1917. 



BOMBAY. 

Government.- The English obtained a factory at Surat in 1616. 
Bombay was acquired by the Portuguese in 1530, and given in 1661 to 
Charles II as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza. In 1668 the 
king granted the Island of Bombay to the East India Company for the 
small annual rent of 10 ; it was placed under the control of the President of 
the factory at Surat. The headquarters of the Bombay Governor were 
transferred from Surat to Bombay in 1708. The early summer seat of 



170 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Government is at Poona; for the hottest months the Governor resides at 
Mahableshwar. The province of Sind was separated from the Presidency in 
1936 and constituted a separate province. For the former States now 
merged in Bombay Province, see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1949, 
pp. 177-81. 

Constitution. Ministerial Government was restored on 3 April, 1946. 
Important changes were made in the Constitution with effect from 15 Aug., 
1947, as a result of the passing of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, and 
the issue of the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. The Bombay 
Legislature consists of 2 Chambers, the Bombay Legislative Assembly and 
the Bombay Legislative Council, The 3 seats in the Bombay Legislative 
Assembly and 1 seat in the Bombay Legislative Council allotted to the 
European constituency have been abolished. Subsequently, the States 
which have been merged into the Bombay Province have also been given 
representation in the Assembly and the Council. The Assembly now con- 
sists of 172 elected members and 61 nominated members from the merged 
States i.e., in all 233 members. The Council consists of 25 elected, 4 
nominated by the Governor and 10 other members nominated from the 
merged States, i.e., in all 39 members. The members of the Legislature can 
speak in any recognized regional language of the Province. 

The powers of the Governor to act in his, discretion or exercise his in- 
dividual judgment in the discharge of his special responsibilities were 
removed in Aug., 1947, and his power of making rules under section 84 of 
the Government of India Act, 1935 was confined to the procedure in respect 
of joint sittings of and communications between the 2 Chambers, which 
is retained under article 174 of the Constitution of India. 

Governor. Raja Sir Maharaj Singh (assumed office Jan., 1948; salary, 
Rs. 56,100 per annum). 

Premier. B. G. Kher. 

Area, Population and Religion. Bombay province stretches along 
the west coast of India, from Gujarat in the north to Kanara in the south. 
After the merger of states it has an area of 108,142 square miles with a 
population of about 31 million, mainly Hindus. There are, in addition 
to Bombay City, 28 districts, 309 talukaa and mahals, and 36,425 villages. 
The chief languages are Gujarati, Marathi and Kannada in the south. The 
principal towns are Bombay (the capital) (1,489,883), Ahmedabad (591,267), 
Poona (258,197) and Sholapur (212,620), 1941 census. The birth rate of 
the pre-merger Province was 33-35 in 1948 (33-36 in 1943-47); death rate, 
21-57 (24-64). 

Education. The Bombay University founded in 1857 is an affiliating 
university. Under the university, in addition to the university school of 
economics and sociology and departments of chemical technology and 
statistics, are 22 arts and science colleges and 24 professional colleges, for 
engineering, medicine, agriculture, commerce, law, education and veterinary 
science. In 1948-49 the number of students in the arts colleges was 21,351 
(Union districts), and in the professional colleges 7,716. The Poona Uni- 
versity, founded in 1948, is both teaching (Poona area) and affiliating 
(Maharashtra area); in 1948-49, it had 15 arts and science colleges with 
8,912 students, and 7 professional colleges with 2,481 students affiliated 
to it. 

Recognized and unrecognised educational institutions numbered, in 
1948-49, 34,902, with 3,297,273 scholars. Secondary schools numbered 
1,233, with 317,866 pupils, and primary schools 26,496, with 2,679,668 



INDIA CENTRAL PROVINCES AND BERAB 171 

pupils. To the total expenditure on education Government contributed 
54-2%, local authorities 13-1%, fees 22-3% and other sources 10-4%. 

Justice and Crime. The High Court of Bombay has 8 permanent 
judges, including the chief justice, 2 acting judges and 1 temporary 
additional judge. Criminal justice was, as at 31 Dec., 1948, administered 
by the high court, 39 sessions judges, 814 magistrates, 4 sanitary 
committees and sanitary boards and 472 village panchayats. In addition 
there were 18,332 police patels. States merged with the Province had 26 
sessions judges and 111 stipendiary magistrates. 

Finance. The estimated revenue of the Government of Bombay for 
1949-50 is Rs. 5,286 lakhs, the chief contributions being Rs. 397 lakhs from 
land revenue, Rs. 495 lakhs from excise, Rs. 361 lakhs from stamps and 
Rs. 212 lakhs from forests. The estimated expenditure for 1949-50 is 
Rs. 5,241 lakhs. General administration was estimated to cost Rs. 254 
lakhs, education Rs. 944 lakhs and police Rs. 702 lakhs. 

Production and Industry. Sixty -four per cent, of the population are 
dependent on agriculture. The textile trade is dominant in production. 
The number of looms in 1948 in Bombay Island was 61,452, and in the 
rest of the Bombay province, 55,421. The number of factories of all kinds 
was 5,254 in 1948, and the number of workers in all industries was 737,460, 
including 85,323 women, 7,465 adolescents and 1,804 children. There were 
in 1949, 13,519 square miles of reserved forests. On 30 June, 1947, the 
number of Co-operative Societies was 7,999. 

Irrigation. In the province 624,360 acres were irrigable in 1948. 

Communications and Commerce. In 1946-47 Bombay had 11,572 

miles of metalled roads and 8,903 miles of unmetalled roads. The total 
length of railway open in the province was 2,527 miles (excluding Indian 
states). 

Administration Report. Annual. Bombay. 
Bombay Labour Gazette. Monthly. 

Burnett-Uurst (A. K.), Labour and Housing in Bombay. London, 1925. 
Enthoven (11. E.), Tribes and Castes of Bombay. 3 vols. Bombay, 1920. 
Fernandez (Q-. P.), Report on Art Crafts of the Bombay Presidency. Bombay, 1932. 
KecUinge (GK), Agricultural Progress in Western India. London, 1921. 
Mann (H. H.), Land and Labour in a Deccan Village. Bombay (Studies 1 and 2, 1917- 
21) (with N. V. Kanitkar), 1921. 



CENTRAL PROVINCES AND BERAR. 

Government. In 1853 tho Maratha Raja of Nagpur died and the 
territories of the kingdom of Nagpur were declared by Lord Dalhousie to 
have lapsed to the paramount power. This area was at first administered 
as the Nagpur province by a commissioner under the Government of India, 
but in 1861, in the administrative readjustments which followed the Mutiny, 
it was united to the Saugor and Nerbudda territories and the whole area 
was named ' the Central Provinces ' and placed under a chief commissioner* 
In 1863 the inability of the Hyderabad state to maintain the Hyderabad 
contingent led to a treaty by which, in return for their upkeep of the 
contingent, the districts called * the Hyderabad Assigned Districts,' which 
comprised the area now known as Berar, were assigned to the British* 
These districts constituted a separate administrative unit until 1902, 
when the Treaty of Assignment was superseded by a perpetual lease of 



172 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Berar to the Government of India on an annual rent of 25 lakhs of rupees. 
The administration of Berar was thereupon transferred to the chief com- 
missioner of the Central Provinces. In accordance with an agreement 
concluded with the Nizam on 24 October, 1936, which recognized and re- 
affirmed hia sovereignty over Berar, the Central Provinces and Berar are now 
administered as one governor's province. The Nizam and his successors 
will henceforth hold the dynastic title of * His Exalted Highness the Nizam 
of Hyderabad and Berar,' and the Heir Apparent of the Nizam and his 
successors, the title of * His Highness the Prince of Berar/ 

In 1920 the chief commissioner was replaced by a governor, and the 
province was included in the scheme adumbrated in the Government of 
India Act, 1935, being constituted an autonomous province on 1 April, 1937. 

Constitution* The province has a unicameral legislature the Legis- 
lative Assembly consisting of 111 elected members, including 3 women. 
Of these, 94 belong to the Congress party, 10 to the Moslem League party, 1 
to Hindu Mahasabha, 1 to Scheduled Caste Federation and 5 are unattached 
members. There are 4 main administrative divisions, in charge of com- 
missioners, and 19 districts, each under a deputy commissioner. There 
are 51 municipalities, 18 district councils and 2 independent local boards 
in the Central Provinces and 31 municipalities, 4 district councils and 
1 independent local board in Berar. As from 1 January, 1948, the 14 
Chhatisgarh States have been absorbed in and are administered by the 
province. 

The seat of government is at Nagpur, but in April it is transferred to 
Pachmarhi for a period of 3 months. 

Governor. Shri Mangaldas Mancharam Pakwasa (assumed office, 15 Aug., 
1947 ; salary, Us. 60,000 per annum). 
Premier. Pandit Ravishankar Shukla. 

Area, Population and Religion. The total area and population of 
the Central Provinces and Berar (excluding states) are 98,574 square miles and 
(1941) 16,813,584 respectively. The area and population (1941 ) of the Central 
Provinces only were 80,766 square miles and 13,208,718, and of Berar 17,808 
square miles and 3,604,866. The urban population is 124-46 per mille. The 
chief towns and their population are Nagpur, the capital, 301,957 ; Jubbul- 
pore, 178,339; Amraoti, 74,309 ; Saugor, 63,933 ; Raipur, 63,465, and Akola, 
62,664. The Hindus in 1941 numbered 12,931,996 (including 3,051,413 of 
the scheduled castes); aboriginals professing tribal religions, 2,937,364; 
Moslems, 783,697; Jains, 84,593; Christians, 58,569; Sikhs, 14,996, and 
others, 2,369. 

Education. The Nagpur and Saugor Universities were established in 
1923 and 1946 respectively and are examining and affiliating bodies, the 
colleges at Nagpur, Wardha, Amraoti, Akola, Basim and Khamgaon being 
affiliated to the former and those at Jubbulpore, Raipur, Bilaspur and 
Saugor being affiliated to the latter. There were 6,900 collegiate students in 
1945-46. There is a High School Education Board for regulating and super- 
vising high school education. There were 138,091 and 13,811 pupils in 
secondary schools for males and females respectively in 1 945-46. Under the 
head of primary education there were 4,526 recognized institutions for boys, 
with 347,681 pupils, and 503 similar institutions for girls, with 47,271 pupils. 
For technical education there is an engineering school at Nagpur managed by 
Government with 140 students. The agricultural college at Nagpur had 199 
students in 1945-46. There is also at Amraoti the Victoria Technical Insti- 
tute, managed by the Berar Victoria Memorial Society, with 78 students in 



INDIA CENTRAL PROVINCES AND BERAR 



173 



1945-46. The Laxmi Narayan Institute of Technology started in August, 
1942, by the Nagpur University had 35 students on its rolls. There are also 
technical and industrial schools at Nagpur, Jubbulpore, Saugor, Khandwa, 
Sunpuri (Mandlo District), Amraoti, Darwha (Yeotmal District), Akola, 
Khamgaon, Buldana, Dhamtari and Raipur (Raipur District), Kohmara 
(Bhandara District), Tamia and Chandametta (Chhindwara District). The 
University Training College established from July, 1945, had 85 students on 
its rolls. 

Justice and Crime. The High Court of Judicature at Nagpur having 
a chief justice and 7 puisne judges continues to be the highest criminal and 
civil court of the province. There were in 1947, 9 district and sessions 
judges, with 449 magistrates for trial of criminal cases, and 183 civil judges 
for trial of civil cases. There were 29,455 criminal cases disposed of and 
49,599 civil suits were instituted. 

Finance. The revenue for 1947-48 was Rs. 1224 lakhs. Towards 
this total, land revenue contributed Rs. 235 lakhs; excise, Rs. 199 lakhs; 
stamp duties, Rs. 71 lakhs; forests, Rs. 152 lakhs, and income-tax, Rs. 178 
lakhs. On the expenditure side the total was Rs. 1 143 lakhs. Direct demands 
on revenue were Rs. 139 lakhs; general administration, Rs. 143 lakhs; 
police, Rs. 179 lakhs; education, Rs. 184 lakhs; civil works, Rs. 147 lakhs, 
including Rs. 4 lakhs from the road development account ; superannuation 
allowances and pensions, Rs. 62 lakhs, and forests, Rs. 77 lakhs. 

Production and Industry. The principal crops are cotton, rice, 
wheat and juar. During the year ended 31 March, 1944, the exports were : 
Rice, 3,984,449 maunds; wheat, 61,264 maunds, and juar and bajra, 
261,514 maunds. 1,572,708 maunds of rice were exported in the previous 
year. Cotton is grown chiefly in Berar and the west, rice in the east and 
wheat in the north. The area irrigated from state works in 1945-46 was 
765,817 acres. The total area of the reserved forests is 19,425 sq. miles and 
the revenue for 1947-48 was Rs. 1,51,81,041. With the integration of the 
Chhattisgarh States to this province an area of 7,455 sq. miles of reserved 
forests and 10,464 sq. miles of unclassed forests have been added with 
effect from 1 Jan., 1948, making a total of 37,344 sq. miles. 

Nagpur is the centre of the cotton-spinning and weaving industry. There 
were 1,217 factories of all kinds in the Central Provinces and Berar during 
the year 1945, with a daily average of 110,263 employees. There is one 
large factory producing cement in the Jubbulpore district. In 1943 the 
number of mines working was 165, namely, 40 coal mines, 73 manganese 
mines and 62 mines for other minerals. The coal output in 1943 was 
1,657,019 tons, and the manganese output, 461,676 tons. The Central 
Provinces produced 89% of India's output of manganese in 1943. There is 
a biri making industry in the province, which gives employment to over 
50,000 workers. 

Communications. In 1945-46 the mileage of professionally aligned 
roads was 5,752, metalled and 3,106 unmetalled. The mileage of forest 
roads during the year ending 31 March, 1946, was 9,745. The railway 
mileage was 2,594, of which 1,741 miles are broad gauge and 853 narrow 
and metre gauge. 

Administration Report. Annual. Nagpur. 

Low (Sir B.)i The Possibilities of Industrial Development in the Central Provinces and 
Berar. Journal of Industries and Labour, February, 1921. Calcutta, 1921. 

Russell (R. V.) and Lai (R. B. H.), The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of 
India. London, 1916. 



174 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

MADRAS. 

Government, The first trading establishment made by the British in 
the Madras Presidency was at Peddapali (now Nizampatam) in 1611 and 
then at Masulipatam. In 1639 the English were permitted to make a 
settlement at the place which is now Madras, and Fort St. George was 
founded. By 1801 the whole of the country from the Northern Circars to 
Cape Comorin (with the exception of certain French and Danish settle- 
ments) had been brought under British rule. 

Constitution* The Presidency was constituted an autonomous 
province on 1 April, 1937. The Governor is aided by a Council of 11 
ministers. The legislature consists of an Upper House (Legislative Council) 
and a Lower House (Legislative Assembly). The former consists of not 
less than 53 and not more than 55 members, of whom not less than 8 and not 
more than 10 are chosen by the Governor, the rest being elected. The 
Legislative Assembly consists of 212 elected members, including 8 women. 
There are 25 districts, each under a district collector, who is also the district 
magistrate except in the district of Madras. Under the head of local 
administration there are 24 district boards, 1 agency district board (under an 
official president), 91 municipal councils and the corporation of Madras. 

Governor. R. E. Col. Sir Rao Shri Krishna Kumarsinhji Bhavsinhji, the 
Maharaja of Bhavnagar, K.C.S.I. ; salary, Rs. 66,000 per annum. 
Premier. Ramaswami Reddiar. 

Area, Population and Religion. Area, 142,277 square miles. There 
are also 3 Indian states (p. 187). Population (1941), 49-3 millions. Principal 
languages, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada. The first two account 
for 78% of the population. The principal towns are : Madras (the capital) 
with 777,481 inhabitants, Madura with 239,144, Trichinopoly with 159,566 
and Salem with 129,702. Hindus formed 80%, Moslems 14% and Christians 
5% of the population in 1941. 

Education. There are 3 universities, the Madras University, the 
Andhra University and the Annamalai University. The first of these, 
founded in 1857, is an affiliating university and since 1923 has been dis- 
charging teaching functions to a limited extent. The Andhra University, 
founded in 1926, was only an affiliating university in the earlier stages, but 
has since undertaken teaching work in certain subjects. The Annamalai 
University, founded in 1929, is the first attempt in South India at organizing 
a unitary residential type of university. The number of colleges affiliated to 
or recognized by the two affiliating universities in 1947 was as follows : 
Madras 34, of which 10 were maintained by the Government of Madras; 
Andhra 15, of which 2 were maintained by government. On 31 March, 1947, 
male arts students numbered 25,723 and women arts students numbered 
1,558, excluding Annamalai University. Recognized public educational 
institutions numbered 37,811, with 3,989,686 scholars. There were 31,975 
public elementary and 720 secondary schools for Indian boys and 4,173 
elementary and 181 secondary schools for Indian girls. Public funds 
contributed 65% of the total expenditure on education in 1946-47. 

Justice and Crime. There is a high court with a chief justice and 11 
judges. There were in 1947 in all 1,044 criminal courts, and 709,462 
criminal cases were instituted. The police force in 1947 numbered 47,156, 
under an Inspector-General, while there was a force of 3,098 for Madras 



INDIA LAOCADIVE ISLANDS 175 

city. The total number of civil suits instituted in the courts, including 
village and panchayat courts, was 252,448 in 1947. 

Finance. The revenue of the Government of Madras was Rs. 5,700 
lakhs in 1946-47, the chief contributions being Rs. 853 lakhs from land 
revenue (including the portion due to irrigation), Rs. 1,468 lakhs from excise, 
Rs. 448 from taxes on income, Rs. 438 lakhs from stamps, Rs. 161 lakhs 
Irom forests, Rs. 845 lakhs from other taxes and duties, Rs. 236 lakhs from 
extraordinary receipts and Rs. 501 lakhs by transfer from revenue fund. 
The expenditure in 1946-^47 was Rs. 5,699 lakhs. General administration 
accounted for Rs. 614 lakhs, administration of justice for Rs. 142 lakhs, 
police for Rs. 406 lakhs, forests for Rs. 80 lakhs, education for Rs. 590 
lakhs, medical for Rs. 216 lakhs, civil works for Rs. 391 lakhs, pensions 
for Rs. 143 lakhs, net outlay on state trading schemes for Rs. 1,220 lakhs 
{ultimately met from current revenues by debit to Extraordinary Charges), 
and civil defence for Rs. 39 lakhs. 

Production and Industry. Agriculture engages 71% of the popula- 
tion. There were in 1947, 58 cotton mills with about 4,125 looms. The 
total number of factories working in 1947 was 3,761 with 276,586 
operatives. The Madras Government in 1947-48 treated at the Government 
quinine factory about 639,777 Ib. of cinchona bark. The area irrigated in 
194647 was 9,736,974 acres : productive irrigation works showed a return of 
6-94% on the capital outlay. The output of timber by the forest depart- 
ment was 65,820 tons in 1946-47. The total generating plant of all 
electricity supply undertakings in the Presidency amounted to 208,675 
k.v.a. by the end of 1948, of which capacity 98% is under government 
ownership. The total electric energy generated by all public utilities in the 
presidency in 1947-48 was about 467 million units. 

Communications and Commerce. In 1946-47, Madras Presidency 
had 26,201 miles of metalled roads and 14,406 miles of unmetalled roads, 
as well as 1,403 miles of navigable canals. There were 4.961 miles of 
railway, in addition to 136 miles of district board lines. The imports of 
private merchandise under the head of seaborne foreign trade were valued 
in 1947-48 at Rs. 71-32 crores and the exports at Rs. 64-51 crores. Trade 
to the United Kingdom represented 31*58% of the total trade of the Presi- 
dency in 1947-48. In 1947-48 the Madras Port accounted for 49% of the 
total trade; its imports and exports amounted to Rs. 62-58 crores and 
34-3 crores respectively. Cochin is the chief of the other ports. It has been 
declared a major port and its administration taken over by the Government 
of India from 1 August, 1936. The administration of the Port of Madras has 
also been taken over by the Government of India with effect from 1 April, 
1937. 

LACCADIVE ISLANDS. 

(ATTACHED TO MADRAS PBOVINCB.) 

A group of 14 islands (9 inhabited), about 200 miles off the west of Malabar 
coast of the Madras province. The northern portion is called the Ammdivis 
and is attached to the collectorate of South Kanara. The remaining 
islands, called the Laccadive (including Minicoy Islands), are attached to 
the administrative district of Malabar. Population (1941) 15,230, nearly all 
Moslems. The language ia Malayalam, but the language in Minicoy, which 
is considerably to the south of the other islands, is Mahl. The staple 
products are coconut husk fibre (ooir) and coconuts. 



176 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Administration Report. Annual. Madras. 

Barlow (G.), The Story of Madras. Bombay, 1921. 

Ellis (R. H.), Short Account of the Laccadive Islands. Madras, 1924. 

Molony (J. 0.), Book of South India. London, 1926. 

Thurston (B.), The Madras Presidency, with Mysore, Coorg and Associated States. Oam- 



ORISSA. 

Government. Orissa, ceded to the Mahrattas by Alivardi Khan in 
1751, was conquered by the British in 1803. In 1804, a board of 2 com- 
missioners was appointed to administer the province, but in the following 
year it was designated the district of Cuttack and was placed in charge of a 
collector, judge and magistrate. In 1823 it was split up into 3 regulation 
districts of Cuttack, Balasore and Puri, and the non-regulation tributary 
states which were administered by their own chiefs under the segis of the 
British Government. Angul, one of these tributary states, was annexed 
in 1847, and with the Khondmals, ceded in 1835 by the tributary chief of the 
Baudh state, constituted a separate non-regulation district. Sambalpur 
was transferred from the Central Provinces to Orissa in 1 905. These districts 
formed an outlying tract of the Bengal Presidency till 1912, when they were 
transferred to Bihar, constituting one of its divisions under a commissioner. 
Natural Orissa, considered as a linguistic and cultural whole, had long been 
divided between Bihar, the Central Provinces and Madras. It was con- 
stituted a separate province on 1 April, 1936, some portions of the Central 
Provinces and Madras being transferred to the old Orissa division. 

Consequent on the lapse of Paramountcy the Eastern States Residency 
ceased to function on 19 Aug., 1947. In pursuance of an agreement entered 
into with the Dominion Government on 19 Dec., 1947, the rulers of 25 Orissa 
states surrendered all jurisdiction and authority to the Government of 
India on 1 Jan., 1948, on which date the Provincial Government took over 
the administration of these areas on behalf of the Government of India. 
The administration of 2 states, viz., Saraikella and Kharswan, was trans- 
ferred to the Government of Bihar in May, 1948. By an agreement with 
the Dominion Government, Mayurbhanj State was finally merged with the 
province on 1 Jan., 1949. By the States Merger (Governors' Provinces) 
Order, 1949, the states were completely merged with the Province of Orissa 
on 19 Aug., 1949. 

The rulers have been granted an annual privy purse on a graduated scale 
based on the revenues of the respective states for 1945-46. The continu- 
ance of their privileges, honours and dignities has been guaranteed by the 
Dominion Government. 

The province consists of 13 districts, Cuttack, Balasore, Puri, Sambalpur, 
Ganjam, Khondmals, Koraput, Mayurbhanj, Dhenkanal, Sundergarh, 
Keonjhar, Bolangir-patna and Kalahandi. 

Constitution. Orissa has the status of an autonomous province, admin- 
istered by the Governor with a council of ministers and a uni-cameral 
legislature consisting of 91 members, designated as Orissa Legislative 
Assembly. 

Governor. Asaf Ali (salary, Us. 66,000 per annum). 
Premier. Sri Harikrishna Mahtab. 

Area, Population and Religion. The area of the province (after the 
final merger of states) according to the census figures of 1941 is 69,839 square 
miles, with a total population of 13, 169,988. The figures of the classification 



INDIA ORISSA 177 

of the population by community are : Hindus (excluding scheduled castes), 
8,199,328; scheduled castes; 1,857,016 Moslems, 161,228; Christians 
(including Anglo-Indians and Europeans), 37,469 ; Buddhists, 1,889 ; Sikhs, 
461 ; Jains, 765 ; Parsees, 24 ; Jews, 5, and tribes, 3,509,468. Cuttack is 
the capital (population, 74,291 in 1941) ; a new capital at Bhubaneswar, 16 
miles from Cuttack, is under construction. 

Education. The province has a university of its own. The schools 
and colleges, which were hitherto affiliated to the Patna and the Andhra 
Universities, are now affiliated to the Utkal University, which came into 
being on 27 Nov., 1943. There are 14 arts colleges (10 teaching up to 
degree standard and 4 up to intermediate standard), 1 medical college, 
1 law college, 1 training college and 3 Oriental colleges in the province 
including the integrated states. Of these, 9 arts colleges, the medical and 
training colleges and 2 Oriental colleges are managed by Government. 
The remaining colleges are privately managed. The number of students in 
the colleges on 31 March, 1949, was 5,216 (including 301 women). The total 
number of recognized schools in the province, 31 March, 1949, was 10,357 
(which included 552 special schools). The schools for general education 
included 139 high schools (including 7 for girls), 448 middle schools (in- 
cluding 35 for girls) and 9,218 primary schools (including 244 for girls). 
The special schools included 1 engineering school, 30 training schools, 30 
technical and industrial schools, 3 commercial schools, 1 reformatory school, 
1 deaf-and-dumb school, 328 schools for adults, and 158 other schools. The 
total number of pupils in all the schools for general education on 31 March, 
1949, was 493,280 (including 101,461 girls), and in special schools 14,911 
(including 970 girls). Besides, there were 1,452 unrecognized schools (in- 
cluding 4 for females) with a total strength of 35,803 scholars (including 
2,364 females). 

Justice and Crime. The province of Orissa was under the jurisdiction 
of the high court of Patna till July, 1948, when the high court of Orissa 
was inaugurated. The number of civil suits instituted during 1946 was 
12,309, but added to the number pending from the previous year (6,903) and 
to the number revived or otherwise received during the year (255), gives a 
total of 19,467 suits before the courts. The number of criminal cases 
brought to trial during 1946 was 25,460. 

Finance. The figures in this paragraph relate to the revised budget 
for 1948-49. The total gross revenue is estimated to be 7,90,35 lakhs of 
rupees, including a subvention of 1,20,00 lakhs and post-war grant of 1,20,00 
lakhs from the Government of India. The estimates under the principal 
heads of revenue are: Excise, 1,35,00 lakhs; land revenue, 55-22 lakhs; 
forest, 23*35 lakhs ; stamps, 33-69 lakhs. The principal heads of expendi- 
ture are: General administration, 70-79 lakhs; education, 96,53 lakhs; 
police, 89-98 lakhs; civil works, 1,89,01 lakhs; medical, 30-65 lakhs; agri- 
culture, 43-66 lakhs. Total expenditure is estimated at 9,12,99 lakhs. 

Production and Industry* The cultivation of rice is the principal 
occupation of nearly 80% of the population. A small quantity of jute is 
produced, and cereals and sugar-cane are grown for local consumption. 
Turmeric is extensively cultivated in the uplands of the district of Ganjam, 
and practically the whole of it is exported. In the coastal areas fish abound 
and there is a large fish export trade to Calcutta, particularly from the 
Chilka lake. There are a number of rice mills, a few oil and flour mills, a 
goap factory and 3 sugar mills. There are cottage and small-scale industries 
in the province, e.g. handloom weaving and the manufacture of baskets, 



178 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

wooden articles, hats and nets ; silver filigree works of Orissa are specially 
well known. On 30 June, 1948, the number of Co-operative Societies was 
3,412 with a membership of 192,685. 

Communications. The total mileage of the roads in the province 
maintained by the public works department is 3,384, metalled 2,200 and 
unmetalled 1,1 83 miles respectively. The open mileage of railway in the 
province is 818-24 miles, broad gauge (5 ft. 5 ins.) 714-25 miles, and narrow 
gauge (2 ft. 6 ins.) 104 miles. 

Mazumdar (B. 0.), Orissa in the Making. Calcutta, 1925. 



EAST PUNJAB. 

Government Punjab denotes the land of the 5 rivers, viz., Jlielum, 
Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. British power in the Punjab began with 
the dissipation by the successors of Ranjit Singh of the power consolidated by 
him. In 1849 the country was annexed, and placed under a board of 
administration. In 1853 it was placed under a chief commissioner, and by 
1859 the Punjab and the Delhi territory constituted the charge of lieut.- 
govemor. The North-West Frontier area was separated in 1901, and the 
Delhi province in 1911. 

Constitution. The Punjab was constituted an autonomous province 
on 1 April, 1937. The Governor had a council of ministers to aid and advise 
him in the exercise of his functions. 

Under the terms of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the province 
was partitioned and districts of the Lahore, Rawalpindi and Multan divisions 
became a new Province of West Punjab in the Dominion of Pakistan. 
There are 124 municipalities. The capital of the province is Simla. 

(?ownior.--ILE. Sir Chandulal Madhavial Trivedi, K.C.S.I., C.E.I., 
O.B.E. (assumed office, 15 August, 1947 ; salary Rs. 66,000 per annum). 
Premier. Dr. Gopichand Bhargava. 

Area, Population and Religion. The Punjab proper had an area of 
99,089 square miles and a population of 2842 millions in 1941. Its Indian 
states, 34 in number, had an area of 39,016 square miles and a population 
of 5-89 million. Of the population, 57-06% were Moslem, 26-56% Hindu 
and 12% Sikh. 

Education. The Punjab University was instituted in 1882 as an 
examining body. Since 1919, however, several teaching departments have 
been established under direct control of the university. There were, in 
1946, eleven departments run by the university, in addition to which the 
university administers the Law College, Hailey College of Commerce and 
Oriental College (all in Lahore). 

In 1944-45 there were 21,413 male students in arts colleges, 700,749 
in secondary schools and 409,645 in primary schools. The total expenditure 
on education in 1944-45 was Rs. 481 lakhs, of which sum Rs. 223 lakhs were 
provided by government, Rs. 138 lakhs by fees and the balance from other 
private sources. 

Justice and Crime. The chief court of 2 judges created in 1866 was 
oonrerted in 1919 into a high court at Lahore, which at present consists 
of a chief justice, 10 puisne judges and 4 additional judges. There are 
27 district and sessions judges, including 2 for the North- West Frontier 



INDIA ^EAST PUNJAB 179 

province and 1 for Delhi. In 1945 the number of criminal cases brought 
to trial in the Punjab was 247,768, and the number of civil suits instituted 
was 70,082. The provincial police force consists of 35,855 officers and men 
and is under the command of an inspector-general. 

Finance. The revenue in 1945-46 was Rs. 23,26 lakhs, to which the 
receipts from irrigation works contributed Rs. 9,06 lakhs, land revenue 
Rs. 333 lakhs, stamps Rs. 133 lakhs and excise Rs. 303 lakhs. The ex- 
penditure was about Rs. 21,20 lakhs. The chief items of expenditure were : 
Education Rs. 261 lakhs, police Rs. 309 lakhs and general administration 
Rs. 208 lakhs. The net profit earned by the irrigation department ha* 
been : 





Lakhs 




Lakha 


1938-89 .... 


Rs. 301 


1942-43 . 


Bs. 435 


1939-40 .... 


Us. 351 


1943-44 . 


Rs. 473 


1940-41 . 


Rs. 872 


1944-45 . 


Rs. 446 


1941-42 .... 


Rs. 383 


1945-40 . 


Rs. 407 



Production and Industry. Agriculture affords subsistence to 65-5% 
of the population of the Punjab (including Punjab states). On 31 March, 
1946, there were 3,900,765 acres of forests under the Forest Department. 
The total receipts of the department from 1869 to 1945-46 amount to Rs. 
1,691 lakhs, and the expenditure to Rs. 1,370 lakhs. The total surplus 
during this period was thus 321 lakhs. Agricultural prosperity is mainly 
due to irrigation : the canal -irrigated area rose from 3 million acres in 
1893 to 18-7 million acres in 1945-46, out of which 14-9 million acres are 
in British territory and 3-8 million acres in the Indian states. 

Industry has been growing steadily since the Factories Act, 1934, was 
passed. The number of factories registered under this Act stood at 1,265 
in 1945 and shows a further upward tendency in 1946. On 31 July, 1948, 
the number of Co-operative Societies was 15,095 with an approximate 
membership of 757,000 and a working capital of Rs. 15,44,40,000. 

Communications. The Punjab possesses an extensive system of rail- 
way communications, and is served entirely by the North -Western Railway 
system, approximately 4,318 miles of which lie within the Punjab. The 
total length of metalled and umnetalled roads maintained by the Punjab 
Public Works Department on 31 March, 1946, was 4,643 and 1,699 miles 
respectively. The Punjab has also 163 miles of navigable canals. 

Administration Reports, Punjab, to 1934-35; Annual Departmental Reports and 
Eighteen Months of Provincial Autonomy in the Punjab, April, 1837, to September, 1988. 
Lahore. 

Board of Economic Inquiry, Punjab publications and pamphlets. 

Ata Ulld%t The Co-operative Movement in the Punjab. London, 1937. 

Badenock (A. 0.), Punjab Industries. Lahore, 1917, 

Brayne (F. L.), The Remaking of Village India. Bombay, 1929. Socrates in on Indian 
Village. Bombay, 1920. Village Uplift in India. Bombay, 1927. Better Villages. 
Bombay, 1037. 

Calrert CH.), Wealth and Welfare of the Punjab. 2nd ed. Lahore, 1936. 

Darling (M. L,), The Punjab Peasant in Prosperity and Debt. 4th ed. London, 1949. 

Griffin (L. H.) and Mossy (0. F.), Chiefs and .Families of Note in the Punjab. Lahore 
1940. 

Hutchison (J.) and Vogel (J. Ph.), History of the Punjab Hill States. Lahore, 1932. 

Pauntian (T. W.), Oanal Irrigation in the 'Punjab. New York, 19SO. 

Singha (N. K.), Rise of the Sikh Power. Calcutta, 1936. 

?tya Singh, Sikhism ! its Ideals and Institutions. Calcutta, 1938. 

Treva*tci9 (H. K.), The Land of the Five Rivers. London, 1928. The Punjab of To-day 
London, 1931. Vol. II. Lahore, 193S. 



180 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

UNITED PROVINCES OF AGRA AND OUDH. 

Government. This territory grew out of various cessions and acquisi- 
tions. In 1833 the then Bengal Presidency was divided into two parts, one 
of which became the Presidency of Agra. In 1835 the Agra area was styled 
the North-West Province and placed under a Lieut.-Governor. Oudh was 
annexed in 1866. The two provinces of Agra and Oudh were placed, in 
1877, under one administrator, styled Lieut.-Governor of the North-West 
Province and Chief Commissioner of Oudh. In 1902 the name was changed 
to ' United Provinces of Agra and Oudh,' under a Lieut.-Governor, and the 
Lieut. -Governorship was altered to a Governorship in 1921. 

Constitution. The United Provinces have, since 1 April, 1937, an 
autonomous system of government. The Legislative Council consists of 
not less than 57 and not more than 59 members, of whom not less 
than 6 and not more than 8 are chosen by the Governor, the rest being 
elected. The Legislative Assembly consists of 226 members, including the 
6 seats exclusively set apart for women, but when the Congress Ministry 
resigned in Nov., 1939, the Governor, by proclamation under Section 93 of 
the Government of India Act, 1935, vested in himself all powers of the 
legislature. Ministerial government has since been resumed. There are 10 
administrative divisions. Three of them are under 1 commissioner and 6 under 
3 commissioners with 2 divisions each under them. Kumaun Division is under 
the Deputy Commissioner, Naini Tal, who is also Deputy Commissioner-in- 
charge Kumaun Division. There are 49 districts, the average size of which is 
2,213 square miles and the average population just over a million. The 
number of municipalities is 86, and that of district boards 49. There are 3 
Indian states, one of which, Benares (Banaras), came into existence in 1911. 

Governor. Vacant (salary, Rs. 66,000 per annum). 
Premier. Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant. 

Area, Population and Religion. The area of the districts other than 
States is 106,247 square miles. Population (1941) 55,020,617 ; 1,325,839 are 
in the 6,276 square miles of 3 Indian states. The population is rural to the 
extent of 87-4%. Cawnpore (Kanpur; 487,324 in 1941) is now the largest 
city ; the second largest is Lucknow (387,177), the capital of Oudh (Avadh). 
The other big cities in order of their population are: Agra (284,149), 
Banaras (263,100), Allahabad (260,630) (the capital of Agra), Bareilly 
(192,688), Meerut (169,290), Moradabad (142,414), Aligarh (112,655), 
Shahjahanpur (110,163), Saharanpur (108,263) and Jhansi (103,254). 

Hindus form 84% of the population, while the Moslems form 14-8%. 

Education. The University of Allahabad, first constituted as an 
affiliating university in 1887, was reorganized in 1921 as a unitary teaching 
and residential university ; at the same time it exercised control over the 
affiliated colleges. Since July, 1927, these colleges have been transferred 
to the new Agra University, which is a purely affiliating and examining 
university. The Banaras Hindu University was constituted in 1916; 
Lucknow University in 1920; the Aligarh Moslem University in 1920, and 
the Boorkee University in Oct., 1948, all being unitary teaching and residential 
universities. The 6 universities had together 22,796 students in 1946-47, 
including students of intermediate classes in the Banaras Hindu and Aligarh 
Moslem Universities. Government maintains medical colleges at Lucknow 
and Agra; an agricultural college, a technological institute, a sugar institute 
and a textile institute at Kanpur; besides 7 training colleges for teachers at 
Allahabad, Lucknow, Agra and Banaras; a college of physical education at 



INDIA UNITED PROVINCES OF AGRA AND OUDH 181 

Allahabad, and training colleges for women at Allahabad and Lucknow, i.e. 
3 at Allahabad, 2 at Lucknow and 1 at Agra. Government also maintain 
agricultural schools at Bulandshahr, Gorakhpur and Ghazipur. Educational 
institutions of all kinds numbered 26,275 in 1946-47. For secondary 
education there were 2,356 institutions, with 468,876 scholars, and for 
primary education 20,048 schools, with 1,575,508 scholars. On 31 March, 
1947, technical and industrial schools of all kinds numbered 82 and had 
2,818 students on their rolls. There were 2,446 institutions for Indian 
girls, with 205,955 scholars, and compulsory primary education for boys in 
36 municipalities, and in 357 rural areas of 25 districts (1,224 villages), 
Government supplying two-thirds of the extra cost involved. The percent- 
age of scholars to the population is 6-58 for males and 118 for females. 
Government contributed 46-1% of the total cost of education in 1946-47. 

Justice and Crime. There is a high court of the Agra province with 
a chief justice and 10 permanent judges, sitting at Allahabad ; also a chief 
court of Oudh, with a chief judge and 3 judges, at Lucknow. There are 
20 sessions divisions in Agra and 8 in Oudh. The total number of persons 
under trial was 332,651 in the Agra province and 103,465 in Oudh in the 
year 1945. The police force, consisting of 40,702 officers and men and 
48,609 village chaukidars together with 127 daffadars, is administered by an 
inspector-general with 5 deputy inspectors-general, including 2 temporary 
officers, and 1 deputy inspector-general now known as D.I.G. headquarters 
and railways, and 2 assistants, 47 district superintendents, 7 additional 
superintendents, 41 assistant superintendents and 73 deputy superintendents. 
There is a police training college at Moradabad under a superintendent of 
police as principal. There is a C.I.D. forming a separate department, a 
government railway police, and an anti-corruption department, under the 
charge of a deputy inspector general of police, assisted by 3 superintendents 
and 6 deputy superintendents. A military police section, with a total 
Strength of 1,812 officers and men, under the command of a superintendent 
of ponce, assisted by an assistant commandant, 1 adjutant and 1 quarter- 
master, has been added to the provincial police force. 

Finance. The revenue of the United Provinces in 1946-47 was 3,265 
akhs of rupees. To this total the main contributions were : 682 lakhs 
from land revenue, 213 lakhs from stamps, 674 lakhs from provincial excise, 
182 lakhs from forests, 190 lakhs from irrigation and 398 lakhs from the 
Government of India on account of the provincial share in the income tax 
receipts. On the expenditure side the total for 1946-47 was 3,263 lakhs; 
on education were spent 324 lakhs; on police 467 lakhs, and on general 
administration 253 lakhs. No less than 125 lakhs were spent on the interest 
on debt on irrigation works for which capital accounts are kept, and 194 
lakhs were transferred to the revenue reserve fund, which was created to 
meet expenditure on civil defence and post-war reconstruction. Provision 
of 86 lakhs was also made for reduction and avoidance of debt. On the 
construction of new irrigation and hydro-electric works, 129 lakhs in capital 
expenditure was incurred in 1946-47. 

Production and Industry. Agriculture absorbs 76% of the popula- 
tion; 36-66 million acres were under cultivation in 1947-48, 6-01 million 
acres were irrigated from wells and 5-86 million acres from canals and other 
sources. The productive canals and tube wells gave a net revenue of 8*63% 
on the total capital outlay. In 1945 there were 1,047 registered factories 
in the United Provinces. On 31 March, 1947, there were 121 trade unions, 
with a membership of 139.115. 



182 THE BBJTISH COMMONWBATH AND BMPIBB 

The Ganga Canal kydro-eleotric grid had, in 1948, an effective capacity 
of 36,900 kw. The total mileage of transmission lines was 4,756. The 
number of transformers was 2,539. 

The total area irrigated in United Provinces, in 1948, was 5,971,639 
acres, The total mileage of irrigation channels was 26,082 miles. The 
number of tube-wells was 2,009. 

Communications. There were, up to 31 Dec., 1947, 6,515 miles of 
Detailed roads, 2,500 miles of unmetalled roads and 113 miles of cement 
concrete roads and tracks maintained by the Public Works Department of the 
United Provinces. 

Administration Report. Annual. Allahabad. 

Crooke (W.), Keligion and Folklore of Northern India. Ed. B. B. Enthoven. London, 
1926. 

Martin Leake (H.), The Bases of Agricultural Practice and Economics in the United 
RroYinces. 



WEST BENGAL. 

I. THE FOBMER PROVINCE OF BENGAL. 

Government. The British first carae to the shores of Bengal in 
1633, when the first factories were established. A new centre of 
trade was fixed by Job Charnock at Calcutta in 1690. In 1699 Bengal 
was constituted a separate Presidency, and there were Presidents and 
Governors of Fort William from 1700 to 1774, the last being Warren Hastings. 
There were Governors-General of Fort William from 1774 to 1834, who 
were given powers of superintendence and control over the Presidencies 
of Fort St. George (Madras) and Bombay. In 1834 the Bengal Presidency 
was divided into two, * Agra * and ' Fort William in Bengal,' and the title 
of Governor was changed to that of Governor of the Presidency of Fort 
William iu Bengal and Governor-General of India. In 1854 the Governor- 
General was relieved of his responsibilities as Governor of Bengal, a Lieut.- 
Governor of Bengal being appointed. In 1874 the Bengal Province waa 
reduced to Bengal proper, Bihar and Orissa. In 1905 a portion of Bengal 
proper together with Assam went to form a now province, Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. In 1910 the Government of the remainder of Bengal with 
Bihar and Orissa was constituted into a Lieut. -Governorship with an- 
Executive Council consisting of 3 members. A new Presidency of Bengal, 
reuniting all the Bengali-speaking districts, was established in 1912 under 
a Governor in Council (3 members). From 1921 till 1 April, 1937, in ac- 
cordance with the Government of India Act of 1919, the administration 
consisted of the Governor with 4 executive councillors (two being Indians) 
for the * reserved * subjects and of the Governor with 3 Indian ministers 
for the * transferred ' subjects. On that date it was constituted an autono- 
mous province, with a legislature of 2 chambers : viz. the Legislative 
Council and the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Council; consisted 
of not less than 63 and not more than 65 members, 30 elected by con- 
stituencies, 27 elected by members of the Legislative Assembly, and not les 
than 6 nor more than 8 chosen by the Governor. The Legislative Assembly 
consisted of 250 elected members. 

II. THE PRESENT PROVINCE OF WEST BENGAL. 

.Under the terms of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the Province of 
Bengal ceased to exist. The Moslem majority districts of East Bengal, 
consisting of the Chittagong and Dacca Divisions and portions of the 



INDIA WEST BENGAL 183 

Presidency and Rajshahi Divisions, became part of the Dominion of Pakistan, 
under the name of East Bengal (see p. 204). 

Constitution. Pending the framing of the new constitution of India, 
the legislature of the new Indian province of West Bengal was made uni- 
cameral by an order of the Governor General issued under the provisions of 
the Indian Independence Act, 1947. The West Bengal Legislative Assembly 
now consists of 90 members from 72 constituencies. The Cabinet in 1949 
consisted of the Premier and 1 1 other ministers. 

For administrative purposes there are 2 divisions, under which there are 
13 districts, exclusive of Calcutta. For the purposes of local self-govern- 
ment there are 13 district boards, 3 local boards, and about 1,800 smaller 
units called union boards. The Darjeeling and (temporarily) Birbhum district 
boards have official, the other district boards have non-official chairmen. 
There are 76 municipalities, 4 of which are under supersession. The Calcutta 
Corporation was reconstituted by an act of 1923 with a mayor, chief execu- 
tive officer and other officials : from March, 1948, the Corporation has been 
superseded and placed in charge of an administrative officer appointed by 
the provincial government. 

Governor. Dr. Kailas Nath Katju (assumed office 21 June, 1948; salary, 
Rs. 66,000 per annum). 

Premier. Dr. B. C. Roy. 

Area, Population and Religion. Bengal, as reconstituted in 1912, 
covered 82,876 square miles, of which 77,442 square miles were British terri- 
tory. The population (1941 ) was 60-3 million in British territory and 1,153,852 
in the two Indian states of Cooch Behar and Tripura. Calcutta (the 
capital) with its suburbs account for 2,108,891 ; greater Calcutta in 1947 
was estimated to have a population of 4,500,000. The urban population 
of the remainder of the province was, in 1941, only 6-3% of the whole. 
Howrah had a population of 379,292. Moslems constituted 64% and 
Hindus 42% of the total population. Of the 167,026 Christians, 111,426 
were Indian Christians and 31,620 Anglo-Indians. Bengali is the mother 
tongue of 92% of the total population, though altogether 90 different 
languages are found spoken in Bengal. 

In 1947, a commission under the chairmanship of Sir Cyril Radcliffe 
determined the boundary between the East and West Bengal. As con- 
stituted under the award of this commission. West Bengal has an area of 
28,215 square miles. The population is estimated to be 21,196,453, of 
whom 25-01% are Moslems, the rest being non-Moslem, including Anglo- 
Indian, Indian Christian, etc. 

Education. Recognized educational institutions in West Bengal in 
1949 numbered 19,892 and unrecognized 269. The number of pupils in all 
classes of institutions was 1,810,741. The Calcutta University is both an 
affiliating and a teaching university, dating from 1867. Art colleges for 
males numbered 68 with 43,317 students ( 1949) ; of these 7 were maintained 
by Government. There were 1,793 secondary schools and 60 institutions 
for the training of teachers. There wore 1,886 students in 2 engineering 
colleges. There were 1,518 institutions of all kinds for girls. For children 
of Europeans and Anglo-Indians there were 59 institutions. 

Justice and Crime. The High Court, Calcutta, from 15 Aug., 1947, 
consisted of a chief justice and 14 judges. For criminal and civil justice 
there were from that date 14 district and sessions judges (including additional 
judges). For criminal justice there were 207 stipendiary and 200 honorary 



184 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

magistrates and for civil justice 21 subordinate judges and 75 munsifs (civil 
judges of the first instance), 1 provincial small cause court judge exercising 
also the powers of a subordinate judge, and 6 judges in the court of small 
causes at Calcutta, There were 123,160 criminal cases brought to trial in 
1947, and outside Calcutta 393,510 civil suits were instituted. The strength 
of the West Bengal police was 26,263 under an Inspector-General. The 
Calcutta police is a separate force under a commissioner of police who is 
directly under Government. 

Finance. The revenue collected in 1948-49, was 3,130 lakhs of rupees, 
including a grant of 170 lakhs from the central government for post-war 
development schemes. Taxes and duties furnished the largest contribution, 
nearly 790| lakhs; next comes excise, 621f lakhs; taxes on income (share 
of income tax and taxes on agricultural income), 586$ lakhs ; stamps, 239 
lakhs ; land revenue, 94| lakhs ; customs, 104$ lakhs ; West Bengal forests, 
6 If lakhs ; receipts under motor vehicles acts, 44 J lakhs, and the registration 
fees, 30i lakhs. On the expenditure side the total was 2,862f lakhs. Police 
cost 41 5i lakhs ; post-war development schemes, 341 J lakhs ; extraordinary 
charges, 333 lakhs; education, 205 J lakhs; general administration, 186 
lakhs ; civil works, 144 lakhs ; medical, 129f lakhs ; agriculture, 121 f lakhs ; 
justice, 87 lakhs; jails, 67J lakhs; irrigation, 62 lakhs; industries, 60J 
lakhs; famine relief, 50 lakhs; public health, 39$ lakhs; forests gave a 
surplus of income over expenditure of 21 lakhs. 

Production and Industry. At the close of 1948 there were 2,230 
registered factories of all kinds. There were 89 jute mills with a daily 
average of 307,350 operatives. Cotton mills numbered 30 with 31,278 
operatives. The coal-mining industry in Bengal had, in 1947, 232 mines, 
employing 89,024 operatives, with an output of 7,646,357 tons. 

At the end of June, 1948, co-operative societies numbered 12,946, 
with a membership of 635,940. 

Commerce and CommunicationS.The foreign trade of Bengal in 
1946-47 amounted to 105-30 crores of rupees of imports and 131-63 crores 
of exports (excluding treasure, re-exports and Government stores). Cotton 
goods accounted for 44% of the imports. Of the exports, jute manu- 
factures and raw jute accounted for 61-45%. The United Kingdom sent 
21-41% of the imports and received 24-80% of the exports of private 
merchandise. 

In March, 1949, the length of metalled roads was 3,760 miles, and of 
unmetalled roads 11,100 miles, exclusive of municipal and village roads. 
West Bengal possesses 484 miles of navigable canals. The length of railways 
within the province is 1,728 miles. 

Administration Report. Annual. Calcutta. 

Calcutta Port Trust. A Brief History of Fifty Tears' Work, 1870-1920. Calcutta. 1920. 
Cotton (Sir E.), Calcutta, Old and New. Calcutta. 
Niyosi (J. P.), The Co-operative Movement in Bengal. London, 1940. 
O'Afalley (L. 8. S.), Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, Sikkim. Cambridge, 1917. History of 
Bengal, Bihar and Orissa under British Bule. Calcutta, 1926. 



B. STATES ADMINISTERED BY A RAJ*RAMUKH. 

Hyderabad. The territory of this state, the largest (next to Kashmir, 
which, however, contains vast areas of almost uninhabited land), and most 
populous of Indian states, had become a province of the Mogul Empire 
in 1687. In 1713 the emperor appointed Mir Kamruddin Ali Khan, other- 



INDIA JAMMU AND KASHMIR 185 

wise known as Chin Killij Khan, of Turkoman descent, as suhadar or 
viceroy of the Deccan with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk (administrator of 
the state). Nizam-ul-Mulk founded the present dynasty of the Nizam in 
1724, and Hyderabad, founded in 1589 by a descendant of the Kutb Shahis 
of Golconda, who gave way to the Moguls, became the capital. 

After the entry of Indian troops into Hyderabad territory in Sept., 1948, 
a military government, under Major-General Chaudhuri, was set up as a 
temporary measure. The military administration terminated on 1 Dec., 
1949, following the accession of the state to the Indian Union. 

The area is 82,698 square miles, and the population, 16,338,534 (1941). 
There is a legislative council of 22 members, 8 being elected. Besides the 
Hyderabad municipality, there are 17 district and 108 sub-district boards. 
The jurisdiction over Secunderabad was handed over to the Nizam's Govern- 
ment on 1 Dec., 1945. 

There are 1 chief justice and 12 puisne judges. In 1941 there were 
296 officers administering criminal and civil justice, including 4 sessions 
judges and 4 honorary magistrates. In 1941, 79,626 criminal cases were 
instituted and 56,225 civil suits. The district and city police numbered 15,466. 

The number of public educational institutions in 1942 was 5,796, with 
422,962 pupils. There were 7 arts colleges, including 1 for women, and 3 
professional colleges. The Osmania University, in which teaching is in 
Urdu, was founded in 1918. The total expenditure on public instruction 
for 1944-45 amounted to Rs. 145-87 lakhs. 

The estimated revenue for 1945-46 was Rs. 1,58243 lakhs, and the 
estimated expenditure Rs. 1,720-40 laks. 171*30 lakhs of the estimated 
expenditure was to be met from the various reserves under Government, 
leaving a net surplus of 33-33 lakhs. 

The number of co-operative credit societies was 19,045 in 1947-48, 
with a membership of 1,507,536. The number of factories working in 1944 
was 659, employing 51,741 workers. 

A state bank was established in 1942, with an authorized capital of 
Rs. 1,500,000. The state has its own currency. 

The ruler is General H.E.H. Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan, G.C.S.I., 
G.B.E., Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar ; born 1886 ; succeeded 1911 ; salute 
of 21 guns. Heir-apparent is Prince Azam Jah Bahadur, Prince of Berar. 

Prime Minister. M. K. Vellodi. 

F&rfr-Haimendorf (C. v.), The Aboriginal Tribes of Hyderabad. 8 vote. London, 
1943-48. 

Jammu and Kashmir. The state of Kashmir, which had been 
under Hindu rulers and Moslem sultans, became part of the Mogul 
Empire under Akbar from 1586. After a period of Afghan rule from 1756, 
it was annexed to the Sikh Kingdom of the Punjab in 1819. In 1820 
Ranjit Singh made over the territory of Jammu to Gulab Singh. After 
the decisive battle of Sobraon in 1846 Kashmir also was made over to 
Gulab Singh under, the Treaty of Amritsar. British supremacy was 
recognized. The bulk of the population are Moslems, though the 
ruling family is Hindu. The area is 84,471 square miles ; the population 
according to the 1941 census is 4,021,616. Geographically the state may 
be divided into (1) the Tibetan and semi-Tibetan tracts which contain the 
districts of Ladakh and Gilgit; (2) the Jhelum valley, within which is 
situated the lovely and world-famous * Happy Valley * of Kashmir, and 
(3) the submontane and semi-mountainous tract which includes Jammu, 
the winter capital of the state. 



186 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

In 1944-45 there were a high court and 158 criminal courts, and 
offences involving 81,000 persons were tried. There were also 69 civil 
courts in which over 21,000 civil suits were dealt with (including 8,000 
suits under the Agriculturists 1 Relief Act). The trade in 1944-45 was : 
Imports, Rs. 638-09 lakhs; exports, Rs. 153-94 lakhs. The revenue of the 
state in 1944-45 was Rs. 463-95 lakhs. In April, 1945, there were 2,078 
educational institutions, including 4 arts colleges, an oriental college and 
1,492 primary schools, with over 100,000 pupils. Primary education for 
boys is compulsory in the cities and important towns. 

In addition to agriculture the chief industry is sericulture, which dates 
back to the 15th century. Forests cover about one-eighth of the total area 
of the state and provided a revenue of Us. 105-87 lakhs during 1945. 

The Jammu and Kashmir state forces (including auxiliary services) 
number 10,574, comprising Dogras, Gurkhas, Kangra Kajputs and Punjabi 
Jat Sikhs. The expenditure on the Army during 1944-45 was about Rs. 
90 lakhs. 

Kashmir is linked with the railway system of India by the newly con- 
structed motorable Jammu-Pathankot road. The Banihal cart road, which 
is over 200 miles long, connects Srinagar, the winter capital, with Jammu, the 
summer capital. 

The present ruler is Lieut.-Gen. H.H. Maharaja Sir Harisingh, G.C.S.L, 
G.C.I.E., G.C.V.O., A.D.C., LL.D.; born 1895; succeeded 1925; salute 
of 21 guns; heir apparent, Lieut. Yuvraj Karansinghji Bahadur; born 
1931. 

The Praja Sabha, or state assembly, with 40 elected and 35 nominated 
members, holds 2 sessions every year. 

The Maharaja acceded to the Dominion of India on 27 Oct., 1947 ; and, in 
view of large scale attacks by tribesmen from outside the state, the Indian 
Army took over its defence. The dispute between India and Pakistan about 
the state was brought before the United Nations in 1948. Negotiations for 
a peaceful settlement were still going on in April 1950. 

The government of the state is now carried on by a Ministry representing 
the majority party in the state. 

Administration Report of the Jammu and Kashmir State. Annual. 
A Handbook of Jammu and Kashmir State. Jammu, 1946. 

Sinha (S.), Kashmir : The Playground of Asia. A Handbook for Visitors. 3rd ed. 
Allahabad, 1947. 

Mysore. According to tradition the ancestors of the present dynasty 
came to Mysore in 1399, and established themselves in Hadinad, a few miles 
from the present capital of the state. By successive conquests, the family 
extended the kingdom till it reached a position of eminence during the 17th 
century. In the latter part of the 18th century the real power passed 
into the hands of Hyder Ali. Under him and his son, Tippu Sultan, the 
territories of Mysore were largely extended. On the defeat of Tippu in 1799, 
the territories were partitioned and the Mysore state, in its present shape, 
was handed back to the old Hindu dynasty. As a result of an inquiry 
made by a committee into the administration, Lord William Bentinck 
assumed direct administration of the state in 1831, and for 50 years 
Mysore was administered by commissioners. In 1865, the present ruler's 
grandfather was adopted as heir by the Maharaja, and in 1881 he was 
placed on the throne of Mysore, and invested with powers under an instru- 
ment of transfer. In 1931 this was replaced by a treaty. 

The Bangalore Civil and Military Station was retroceded to the Maharaja 
in 1947. Mysore has now acceded to the Dominion of India under certain 



INDIA PUNJAB STATES 



187 



specified conditions and has sent its own representatives to the constituent 
assembly at New Delhi. By $ proclamation the Maharaja has announced 
the establishment of responsible government in the state. A popular 
interim ministry consisting of the Dewan, the chief minister and eight other 
ministers has been formed, charged with the task of evolving a permanent 
constitution for the state through a constituent assembly. The new con- 
stitution will come into effect on or before 1 July, 1948. 

There is a Representative Assembly of 320 members and a Legislative 
Council of 68 members. In 1945-46 there were, besides the high court, 75 
criminal and 45 civil courts, excluding 8 courts of justices of the peace. There 
were 2,526 co-operative societies, with 226,595 members. The University of 
Mysore had 12 constituent colleges, an engineering school and a medical 
school, with a total strength of 7,042 students. The number of recognized 
educational institutions on 1 March, 1947, was 9,871, with 618,438 scholars. 
The total revenue in 1946-47 was Rs. 1,095-67 lakhs and the expenditure 
chargeable to revenue was Rs. 1,093-26 lakhs. The state forests cover 
4,432 square miles. The mines in the Kolar Gold Field area produced 
168,325-202 oz. of fine gold during 1945-46. 

The area of the state is 29,458 square miles, and the population 7,328,896 
(1941). Mysore is famous for its picturesque and diversified scenery and for 
its temperate and healthy climate. 

The ruler is H.H. Maharaja Sri Jaya Chamaraja Wadiyar Bahadur, 
G.C.B., G.C.S.I., born 1919 ; succeeded 8 September, 1940 ; salute of 21 guns. 

Punjab States. There wore 45 states and estates in the Punjab 
which were formerly in political relations with the Crown representative, 
through the resident for the Punjab states, with headquarters at Lahore. 
11 of the Hill states, including Chamba and Suket, merged into the Indian 
Union, agreements ceding full and exclusive powers to the Dominion 

fovernment being signed by the rulers and chiefs of these states on 
March, 1948. 
The following are details of the leading states : 



Name 


Salutes in 
guns 


Area 


Population 


Approximate 
revenue, 
lakhs of rupees 


Patlala* 


19* 


6,942 


1,936,269 


302-6 


Jind* . 


16 l 


1,299 


361,812 


37-4 


Nabha*. 


13 


947 


340,044 


38-7 


Kapurthala* . 


16 


.645 


378,380 


40-5 


Tehri-Garhwal 


11 


4,500 


397,369' 


26-9 


Mandi . 


11 


1,139 


232,693 


14-3 


Sirmur (Nahan) 


11 


1,046 


156,064 


11-3 


Bilaspur (Kahlur) 


11 


453 


110,396 


6-5 


Bashahr 


9 


3,439 


111,469 


5-8 


Malerkotla* . 


11 


165 


88,109 


11-9 


Nalagarh (Hiiidur) * 





276 


52,737 


2-6 


Keontbal ( Junga) 





186 


27,711 


3-0 


Faridkot* 


11 


63S 


199,283 


22-7 


Ohamba 


11 


8,127 


168,908 


13-8 


Suket . 


11 


392 


71,092 


3-6 



1 Inclusive of 2 personal. And 2 local. Personal. 

* Theae 7 states combined on 16 July, 1948, in the Patlala and East Punjab States Union. 

The present ruler of Patiala is H.H. Lieut.-Gen. Maharaja Sir Yadavindra 
Singh Mohinder Bahadur, G.C.I.E., G.B.E., A.D.C.; born 7 January, 1913; 
succeeded 23 March, 1938. The present ruler of Kapurthala is Brigadier 



188 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

H.H. Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, G.C.S.L, G.C.I.E., G.B.E.; 
born 24 November, 1872; succeeded 5 September, 1877. The present ruler 
of Jind is Brigadier H.H. Maharaja Sir Kanbir Singh Rajendra, Bahadur, 
G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E.; born 11 October, 1879; succeeded 7 March, 1887. The 
present ruler of Nabha is Col. H.H. Maharaja Pratap Singh Malvendra 
Bahadur, K.C.S.I. ; born 21 September, 1919; succeeded 19 February, 1928. 
The present ruler of Tehri-Garhwal is H.H. Maharaja Tika Manabendra 
Shah; born 1921; succeeded 27 May, 1946. 

Raj put an a. It formerly had an area of 132,559 square miles, a popu- 
lation of 13,670,208, and included 23 states, 1 chiefship and 1 estate. The 
bulk of the population is Hindu. The states of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur 
and Karauli were merged into the new Matsya Union on 17 March, 1948. 
Kotah, Bundi, Dungharpur, Jhalawar, Basawar, Partapgarh, Tonk, Kishen- 
garh, Shahpura, and Udaipur formed the Rajasthan Union on 25 March, 
1948. After the accession (30 March, 1949), of Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner 
and Jaisalmer, Rajasthan has become the largest single unit of India. 

The largest state is Jodhpur (Marwar), with an area of 36,120 square 
miles, a population of 2,555,904 and a revenue of 208-65 lakhs. The ruler 
is head of the Rathor Rajputs, and is at present Air Vice-Marshal H.H. 
Raj Rajeshwar Maharajadhiraja Hanut Singh Bahadur; born 1923; suc- 
ceeded 1947, permanent salute of 17 guns. 

The state of Bikaner has an area of 23,181 square miles, with a population 
of 1,292,938, and a revenue of Rs. 185-50 lakhs. The ruler is Maj.-Gen. 
H.H. Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar Shiromani Maharaja Sri Sir Sadui 
Singhi Bahadur, G.C.I.E., C.V.O. ; born 7 September, 1902; succeeded his 
father on 2 February, 1943; permanent salute of 17 guns. 

The state of Jaipur has an area of 15,610 square miles, a population 
of 3,040,876 and a revenue of Rs. 188-60 lakhs. The ruler is the head of 
the Kachhwaha clan of Rajputs, and is at present Maj.-Gen. H.H. Sarmad 
i Raj a ha i Hindustan Raj Rajendra Sri Maharajadhiraja Sawai Sir Man 
Singh ji Bahadur, G.C.I.E. ; born 1911; succeeded 1922; permanent salute 
of 17 guns. On 1 January, 1944, a proclamation announced the establish- 
ment of a bicameral legislature in Jaipur. 

The state of Udaipur (Mewar) has an area of 13,170 square miles, a 
population of 1,926,698 and a revenue of 107 lakhs. The ruler (head of 
the Sisodia Rajputs) is Lieut. -Col. H.H. Maharajadhiraja Maharana Sir 
Bhupal Singhji Bahadur, G.C.S.L, K.C.I.E., born 1884; succeeded 1930; 
permanent salute of 19 guns. The Udaipur family is the highest in rank 
and dignity among the Rajput Princes of India. 



C. STATES ADMINISTERED BY A CHIEF COMMISSIONER. 
AJMER-MERWARA. 

An agency subordinate to the factory at Surat was established at Ajmer 
early in the 17th century. The British received the tract by cession from 
the Maharaja of Gwalior after the Pindari War in 1818. This small province 
of Ajmer- Merwara consists of 1 district with 3 sub-divisions, Ajmer, Kekri 
and Beawar, with an area of 2,400 square miles and a population of about 
700,000. The province is administered by the Governor-General acting 
through a Chief Commissioner, who resides at Ajmer. The city of Ajmer 
has a population of about 200,000. The income of the province was Rs. 
37-11 lakhs, in 1948-49, and the expenditure Rs. 76-03 lakhs. In 1948-49 
there were 32,602 scholars in 308 recognized educational institutions for 



INDIA COORG 189 

males, and 7,632 in 92 similar institutions for females. The Government 
College at Ajmer had 849 students in the 1949-50 session. 

Ajmer-Merwara has different types of soils, viz., sandy, sandy -loam, clay 
loam and clayey. Nearly 60% of the population live on agriculture. The 
total area of the province is a little over 1,536,000 acres, out of which about 
1,148,059 acres are under cultivation, depending on the vagaries of rainfall. 
The annual produce of foodgrains in normal years varies between 50,000 
and 60,000 tons, as against the requirement of about 88,000 tons. 

Births numbered 10,241 and deaths 7,536 in 1948-49. 

Chief Commissioner. C. B. Nagarker, I.C.S. (salary, Rs. 36,000 per 
annum). 

Administration Report. Annual. Delhi. 



COORG. 

This province came under British control in 1834, when, at the wish of 
the inhabitants, the reigning raja, a cruel tyrant, was deposed. At first 
there was a superintendent of Coorg, acting under the commissioner of 
Mysore and Coorg. In 1881 the resident in Mysore became the chief com- 
missioner of Coorg, but with effect from 1 July, 1940, a separate chief 
commissioner of Coorg has been appointed with headquarters at Mercara 
(the capital of the province). A legislative council of 20 was created in 
1924. This number was reduced by 2 consequent on the abolition of the 
European Constituency in 1949. Coorg has one seat in the Constituent 
Assembly. The area is 1,593 square miles and the population (1941) is 
168,726. Kannada is the chief language: Kodagu (Coorg language) is a 
dialect of old Kannada. In 1949-50 the estimated revenue was Rs. 62-98 
lakhs and the expenditure Rs. 87-69 lakhs. 

There were, in 1947-48, 2,047 boys in high schools, 5,225 in middle 
schools and 4,368 in primary schools, and 1,085 girls in high schools, 2,985 
in middle schools and 1,920 in primary schools. A first-grade college was 
started in Coorg affiliated to the Madras University, with effect from 
1 July, 1949, and the number of students was 144 in 1949. 

There were 3,063 births and 2,545 deaths in Coorg during the year 1947. 

Coorg is a surplus province in respect of rice, which is the main staple 
food of the people of the province, but other foodstuffs have to be imported. 
In 1945-46 11,480 tons of rice, in 1946-47 13,048 tons of rice, in 1947-4S 
7,600 tons of rice, and in 1948-49, 11,800 tons of rice, being the surplus 
quantity, were exported to Mysore State and Malabar District. Wheat is 
not grown in Coorg, but the small requirement of about 240 tons per annum 
is imported from Mysore out of the allotment made to that state under the 
annual basic plan of the Central Government. Major cultivations are paddy, 
coffee, orange, cardamom and pepper. Most of the lands are rain-fed and 
only 6,000 acres are cultivated by irrigation. There are 41,182 acres under 
coffee, 88,105 acres under paddy, 17,924 acres under orange, 4,370 acres 
under cardamom, 3,180 acres under rubber, 258 acres under pepper and 415 
acres under tea cultivation. 

Coorg has contributed the first Indian Commander-in-Chief, General 
K. M. Cariappa, Ma j.- Gen. K. S. Thimmayza, 2 brigadiers, over a 100 
senior commissioned officers in the Indian Army and the 37 (Coorg) Anti- 
Tank Regiment, R.I.A. 

Chief Commissioner. Diwan Bahadur C. T. Mudaliar. 
Administration Report. Annual. Mercara. 



190 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

DELHI. 

The Dellii province, with an area of 574 square miles, was part of the 
Punjab province before October, 1912, when the enclave was created into a 
separate province under a chief commissioner. In 1915 a tract of land in 
the United Provinces comprising 65 villages was added to the Delhi province, 
and is included in the above-mentioned area. The population is 917,939 
(census of 1941). 

The new capital project, which was closed in 1932, was reopened and a 
total expenditure of Rs. 28-48 lakhs incurred up to 31 March, 1945. 
Accommodation is required for a population of about 73,653. 

The university of Delhi, intended to be a unitary, teaching and residential 
institution, was founded in 1922. There are 4 arts colleges affiliated. 
There is also the All-India Lady Hardinge Medical College for the medical 
education of Indian women (opened 1916). A board of secondary education, 
established in 1926, was converted into a board of higher secondary 
education in 1942. 

The revenue of the province in 1948-40 (estimate) was Rs. 134-94 lakhs 
and the expenditure (estimate) Rs. 555-17 lakhs. 

Chief Commissioner. Shri Shankar Prasad (appointed 24 July, 1948; 
salary, Rs. 36,000 per annum). 

Administration Report. Annual. 

Hearn (Sir G.), The Seven Cities of Delhi. 2nd ed. Calcutta, 1929. 

Sharp (Sir H.), Delhi : Its Story and Buildings. 2nd ed. London, 1929 



ManipUT Stat6. Formerly a feudatory state with which the Assam 
government had political relations, it ceased to be a feudatory state from 
15 August, 1947, when paramountcy lapsed and the state acceded to the 
Indian Union. The political agency was abolished with effect from the 
same date and the administration of the state was taken over by the 
Government of India on 15 Oct., 1949. 

Manipur has an area of 8,638 square miles and a population (1941) of 
612,069. About one-third are animistic tribes. For the last 5 years the 
average annual revenue has been rather over Rs. 19 lakhs. The ruler is 
H.H. Maharaja Bodh Chandra Singh, born 1908; succeeded 1941; salute of 
11 guns. Capital, Imphal. The state is at present governed by H.H. in 
Council. The chief minister of the council is Maharaj Kumar Captain Priya 
Brata Singh, B.A. The council includes representatives of popular parties 
invited to serve, and representatives of the hill tribes. 

There ia one small hydro- electric plant, which is owned by the state. 
Its output is one 70 kva, one 127 kva and Deisel plant 77-5 kva. 



D. TERRITORY ADMINISTERED BY A CHIEF COMMISSIONER. 
ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS. 

The Andaman Islands lie in the Bay of Bengal, 120 miles from Cape 
Negrais in Burma, 780 from Calcutta, and 740 from Madras. Five large islands 
closely grouped together are called the Great Andamane, and to the south is 
the island of Little Andaman. There are some 204 islets, the two principal 
groups being the Ritchie Archipelago and the Labyrinth Islands. The total 
area is 2,508 square miles. The Great Andaman group is about 219 miles 
long and, at the widest, 32 miles broad. The group, densely wooded, 



INDIA THE NICOBAR ISLANDS 191 

contains many valuable trees, both hard wood and soft wood. The best 
known of the hard woods is the padavk or Andaman redwood ; gurjan is in 
great demand for the manufacture of plywood. Large quantities of soft 
wood are supplied to match factories. 

The islands possess a number of harbours and safe anchorages, notably 
Port Blair in the south, Port Cornwallis in the north, and Elphinstone and 
Bonington in the middle. 

The original inhabitants live in the forests by hunting and fishing ; they 
are of a small Negrito type and their civilization is about that of the Stone 
Age. Their numbers are not known as they avoid all contact with civiliza- 
tion. The total population of the Andaman Islands (excluding the 
aborigines) was in 1949 about 16,500 (11,800 males and 4,700 females). In 
1948-49, 31,000 tons of timber and timber- products were shipped to India; 
revenues from the sale amounted to about Rs. 50,00,000. Coconut, coffee 
and rubber are cultivated. The islands are slowly being made self-sufficient 
in paddy and rice, and now grow approximately half their annual require- 
ments. No proper survey of the mineral resources has yet been undertaken. 
On 31 Oct., 1947, there were 4,379 head of cattle and 1,000 goats. 

From 1858 to March, 1942, the islands were used by the Government of 
India as a penal settlement for life and long-term convicts, but the penal 
settlement was abolished on re-occupation in Oct., 1945. 

Japanese forces occupied the Andaman Islands on 23 March, 1942. 
Civil administration of the islands was resumed 8 Oct., 1945. 

The Andaman Islands are administered by the Governor-General acting 
through a Chief Commissioner and an Advisory Council of 5 members. 
The seat of administration is at Port Blair, which is connected with Calcutta 
and Madras by a mail steamer which calls approximately once every 3 of 4 
weeks. The islands are connected to India by wireless telegraphy. 

The Nicobar Islands are situated to the south of the Andamans, 75 
miles from Little Andaman. The British formally took possession in 1869. 
There are 19 islands, 7 uninhabited; total area, 635 square miles. The 
islands are usually divided into 3 groups (southern, central and northern), 
the chief islands in each being respectively, Great Nicobar, Camotra with 
Naneowrie and Car Nicobar. There is a fine land-locked harbour between 
the islands of Camotra and Naneowrie, known as Naneowrie Harbour. 

The population numbered about 13,000 in 1949. The coconut is the 
main item of trade, and a major item in their diet ; and they have been 
cultivating the coconut for as long as anyone can remember. 

The Nicobar Islands were occupied by the Japanese in July, 1942 ; and 
Car Nicobar was developed as a big supply base. The Allies reoccupied the 
islands on 9 Oct., 1945. The Japanese built some roads in Car Nicobar and 
small jetties at Malacca in Car Nicobar, and in the harbour at Nancowrie. 

The islands are part of the Chief Commissionerehip of the Andaman and 
Nicobar Islands ; and the Government is represented by an Assistant Com- 
missioner at Car Nicobar. 

Chief Commissioner, Port Blair. A. K. Ghosh, I.C.S. (salary, Rs. 36,000 
per annum). 

Administration Report by the Chief Commissioner. Annual. Calcutta. Selections 
from the Records of the Government of India (Home Department), Nos. XXV and LXXVII. 

Brown (A. R.), The Andaman Islanders : A Study in Social Anthropology. Cambridge, 
1922. 

Man (E. H.) and Ellis (A. J.), On the Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands. 
Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 1932.) 

Whitehead (G.), In the Nicobar Islands. London, 1924. 



192 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



FORMER STATES AND AGENCIES. 

Prior to Aug., 1947, subject to British paramountcy, states were governed 
by their rulers. Constitutional reforms had been introduced in an in- 
creasing number of states. 

In 1921, under the auspices of His Majesty's Government, a Chamber of 
Princes was formed as a permanent consultative body. The Government of 
India Act of 1935 aimed at the establishment of a Federation of India as 
soon as a sufficiently representative number of princes had signified their 
willingness to adhere by means of Instruments of Accession. But agree- 
ment was never reached between the Viceroy and the rulers as to the nature 
of the requisite Instruments of Accession, and Federation was not brought 
into being. The Indian Independence Act, 1947, released the states from 
their obligations to the Crown and, following the constitution of India into a 
Dominion, the majority of the states have either combined to form new 
Unions or merged with the Provinces or the centre. Many of the larger 
states have individual representation on the Constituent Assembly of India 
and are treated as viable units. 

The Indian States. Annual. Calcutta. 

White Paper on Indian States. Delhi, July, 1948. 

Barton (Sir William), The Princes of India. London, 1934. 

Beotra (B. R.), The Two Indias : Being an Historical Sketch of the Treaty Relations 
between the Indian States and the Paramount Power. Calcutta and London, 1932. 

Diver (Maud), Royal India : A Descriptive and Historical Study of India's Fifteen Principal 
States and their Rulers. London, 1942. 

Forbes (Roslta), India of the Princes. London, 1939. 

Montmorency (Sir G. F. de), The Indian States and Indian Federation. London, 1942. 

Panikkar (K. M.), Relations of Indian States with the Government of India. London, 
1927. The Indian Princes in Council : The Record of the Chancellorship of the Maharaja of 
Patiala, 1926-31 and 1933-36. Oxford, 1936. 

Saxtry (K. R. R.), Indian States and Responsible Government. Allahabad, 1941. 

Thompson (E.), The Making of the Indian Princes. Oxford, 1943. 

The majority of the Slates and former Agencies, after acceding to the 
Union of India, have either merged with the Provinces or the Centre or have 
combined to form a new Union of States. For information prior to merging 
see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1949, p. 175 ft, and earlier volumes. 
Full details of the position of the States as at July, 1948, are contained in the 
Government ' White Paper on Indian States ' (New Delhi, July, 1948), 
Appendix XIX of which is reproduced below : 

STATEMENT SHOWING AREA, POPULATION AND REVENUE OP STATES THAT HAVE MERGED 
WITH THE PROVINCES OR THE CENTRE OR HAVE COMBINED TO FORM NEW STATES. 



Date of 
merger 
or inte- 
gration 


Names of states 


Num- 
ber of 
states 


Province with 
which merged 


Area 
insq. 
miles 
(appro.) 


Popu- 
lation 
(in 
lakhs) 


Rev- 
enue 
(in 
lakhs) 


1948 














IJan. 


Athgarh, Athmalik, Bamra, 


23 


Orissa. 


23,637 


40-46 


98-74 




Baramba, Baudh ,Bonai, 














Daspalla, Dhenkanal, 














Gangpur, Hindol, Kala- 














handi, Keonjhar, Khand- 














para, Narsingpur, Naya- 














garh, Nilgiri, Pal Lahara, 
Patna, Rairakhol, Ranpur, 
Sonepur, Talchar, Tigiria. 












1 Jan. 


Bastar, Changbhakar, 


14 


O.P. and Berar. 


31,698 


28-20 


88-06 




Chhuikhadan, Jaahpur, 














Ranker, Kawardha, Khai- 














ragarh, Korea, Nandgaon, 














Raigarh, Sakit, Sarangarh. 














Surguja, Udaipur. 













INDIA FORMER STATES AND AGENCIES 



193 



Date of 
merger 
or inte- 
gration 


Names of states 


Num- 
ber of 
states 


Province with 
which merged 


Area 
insq. 
miles 
(appro.) 


Popu- 
lation 
(in 
lakhs) 


Rev- 
enue 
(in 
lakhs) 


1948 














IPeb. 


Makrai. 


1 


O.P. and Berar. 


151 


-14 


25 


23 Feb. 


Loharu. 


1 


East Punjab. 


220 


28 


1-96 


22 Feb. 


Banganapalle. 


1 


Madras. 


259 


45 


3-25 


3 Mar. 


Pudukkottai. 


1 


Madras. 


1,185 


4-38 


27-56 


3 Mar. 


Dujaaa. 


1 


East Punjab. 


91 


31 


4-16 


8 Mar. 


Akalkot, Aundh, Bhor, 


17 


Bombay. 


7,651 


16-93 


142-15 




Jamkhandi, Jath, Kuru- 














ndwad (Junior), Kurun- 














dwad (Senior), Miraj (Ju- 














nior), Miraj (Senior), Mud- 














hoi, Ramdurg, Sangli, 














Savanur, Sawantwadi, 














Wadi Jaghir, Janjira and 














Phaltan. 












7 Apr. 


Pataudi. 


1 


East Punjab. 


63 


22 


4-26 


15 Apr. 


The Punjab Hill States of 


21 


These areas will 


10,600 


9-36 


84-56 




Baghal, Baghat, Balsan, 




be centrally ad- 










Bashahr, Bhajji, Bija, 




ministered as a 










Darkoti, Dhami, Jubbal, 




unit to be known 










Kconthal, Kumarsam, 




as the Himachal 










Kunihar, Kuthar, Mahlog, 




Pradesh. 










Sangri, Mangal, Sirmur, 














Tbaroch, Charnba, Mandi, 














and Suket. 












18 May 


Serai kela and Kharsawan.* 


2 


Bihar. 


623 


2-08 


6-45 


1 June 


Kutch. 


1 


This will be a 


8,461 


5-01 


80-00 








centrally ad- 














ministered area. 








10 June 


The 18 full jurisdictional 


157 


Bombay. 


19,300 


27-09 


165-00 




Gujarat States of Bala- 














sinor, Bansda, Baria, 














Cambay, Chhota-Udepur, 














Dharampur, Jawhar, Lu- 














nawada, Rajpipla, Sacbin, 














Sant, Idar. Vijaynagar, 














Danta, Palanpur, Jum- 














bughoda and Sirohi; and 














the setni-jurisdictional and 














non- jurisdictional thanas, 














Estates and talukas of 














Gujarat. 














Total 


241 




103,835 


134-91 1 706-40 



15 Feb. 



17 Mar. 



449 Units including the 30 
jurisdictional States of 
Nawanagar, Bhavnagar, 
Porbandar, Dhrangadhra, 
Morvi, Gondal, Jafrabad, 
Eajkot, Wankaner, Pali- 
tana, Dhrol, Ohuda, Limb- 
di, Wadhwan, Lakhtar, 
Sayla, Vala, Jasdan, A- 
marnagar (Thandevli), 
Vadia, Lathi, Muli, Ba- 
jana, Virpur, Maliya, 
Kotda-Sangani, Jetpur, 
Bilkha, Patdi and Khir- 
asra. 

Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, 
and Karauli. 



UNIONS. 


217 


Saurashtra. 


4 


The United State 
of Matsya. 



31,885 



7,636 



35-22 



18-88 



800-00 



183-06 



1 These 2 states were in the first instance merged with the Orlssa Province. 



194 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Date of 
merger 
or inte- 
gration 


Namea of states 


Num- 
ber of 
states 


Province with 
which merged 


Area 
in sq. 
miles 
(appro.) 


Popu- 
lation 
(in 
lakhs) 


Rev- J 
enue ] 
(in [ 

lakhs)] 


1948 














2 Apr. 


Ajaigarh, Baoni, Barau- 


35 


The United State 


24,610 


35-69 


243-30 




ndha, Bijawar, Chhatar- 




of Vindhya Pra- 










Sir, Charkhari, Datia, 




desh. 










aihar, Nagod, Orcha, 














Panna, Bewa, Samthar, 














Alipur, Banka, Pahan, 














Beri, Bhaisaundha, Bihat, 














Bijna, Dhurwai, Gauri- 














har, Garrauli, Jaso, Jigni, 














Karnta-Rajaula, Khania- 














dhana, Koth, Lugasi, 














Naigawan-Robai, Pahra, 














Paldeo (Nayagaon), Sarila, 














Sohawai, Taraon and 














Tori-Patehpur. 












18 Apr. 


Banswara, Buudi, Dungar- 


10 


The United State 


29,977 


42-G1 


316-67 




pur, Jhalawar, Kishen- 




of Rajasthan. 










gath, Kotah, Partabgarh, 














Shahpura, Tonk and Udai- 














pur. 












15 May 


Alirajpur, Barwani, Dewas 


20 


Gwalior-Indore- 


46,273 


71-50 


776-42 




(Senior), Dewas (Junior), 




Malwa Union. 










Dhar, Gwalior, Indore, 














Jaora, Jhabua, Khilchi- 














pur, Narsingarh, Rajgarh, 














Ratlam, Sailana, Sitamau, 














Jobat, Kathiwara, Kur- 
wai, Mathwar, and Pip- 














loda. 












15 July 


Patiala, Kapurthala, Nabha, 


8 


Patiala and East 


10,119 


34-24 


600-00 




Jind, Faridkot, Maler- 




Punjab States 










kotla, Nalagarh and 




Union. 










Kalsia. 














Total 


294 




150,400 


237-64 


2819-45 




Grand total 


535 




254,235 


372-55 


3525-85 



LIST OP STATES HAVING INDIVIDUAL REPRESENTATION ON THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY 
OP INDIA AND TREATED AS VIABLE UNITS. 



s. 

no. 


Name of state 


Area in 

square 
miles 


Popula- 
tion 


S. 
no. 


Name of state 


Area in 
square 
miles 


Popula- 
tion 


1 


Baroda . 


8,235 


2,855,010 


11 


Bikaner . 


23,181 


1,292,938 


2 


Gwalior * 


26,008 


4,006,159 


12 


Cochin . 


1,492 


1,422,875 


3 


Hyderabad . 


82,313 


16,338,634 


13 


Jaipur . 


15,610 


3,040,876 


4 


Jammu and 






14 


Jodhpur 


36,120 


2,555,904 




Kashmir 


84,471 


4,021,616 


15 


Kotah 1 . 


5,714 


777,398 


5 


Mysore . 


29,458 


7,329,140 


16 


Patiala l 


5,942 


1,936,259 


6 


Bhopal . 


6,921 


786,322 


17 


Rewa 1 . 


12,830 


1,820,445 


7 


Indore l 


9,934 


1,513,966 


18 


Alwar l . 


3,158 


823,055 


8 


Kolhapur 


3,219 


1,092,046 


19 


Mayurbhanj 


4,034 


990,977 


9 


Travancore . 


7,662 


6,070,018 










10 


Upaipur 
















(Mewar) . 


13,170 


1,926,698 











1 These states have joined one or other of the Unions formed. 



INDIA FORMER STATES AND AGENCIES 



195 



LIST OP NON-VIABLE STATES NOT AFFECTED SO FAB BY ANY MERGER OR INTEGRATION 

SCHEME. 



s. 

no. 


Name of state 


Area in 
square 
miles 


Popula- 
tion 


S. 
no. 


Name of state 


Area in 
square 
miles 


Popula- 
tion 


1 


Benares 


866 


451,428 


6 


Rampur 


894 


477,042 


2 


Cooch Behar 


1,318 


640,842 


7 


Sandur . 


158 


15,814 


3 


Jaisaliner 


15,980 


93,246 


8 


Tehri-Grarhwal 


4,516 


397,369 


4 


Khasi States 


3,788 


213,586 


9 


Tripura 


4,116 


513,010 


5 


Manipur 


8,620 


512,069 











Baroda. The state is one of the most important, if not the 
leading state in India, north of Bombay. It includes all the territories of 
His Highness the Gaekwar. The province of Gujarat was at one time in- 
cluded in the Mogul Empire, but, in the early part of the 18th century, 
the Mahrattas, under the leadership of Damaji Gaekwar, and afterwards 
of his nephew, Pilaji, succeeded in wresting all power from the hands of 
the Mogul officers. From that time Baroda has remained continuously 
under the sway of t>he Gaekwar family, who held it in the first instance 
under the Peshwa, subject to a tributary payment, but afterwards threw 
off their allegiance and became feudatory to the British Government under 
the guarantee of a treaty executed in the year 1817. The Gaekwar Malhar 
Rao, installed in 1870, was deposed in 1875, and on 27 May, 1875, the widow 
of Khande Rao, his brother, adopted as heir the late Ruler, His Highness 
Sir Sayaji Rao Gaekwar III, a descendant of the founder of the family, who 
was invested with full ruling powers in 1881, and who died on 6 Feb., 1939. 

Formerly merged with the Western India and Gujarat States, Baroda 
acceded to the Indian Dominion and became part of Bombay Province with 
effect from 1 May, 1949. The present ruler is Major-General His Highness, 
Farzand-i-khas-i-Daulat-Inglishia Maharaja Sir Pratap Sinh Gaekwar, 
Sena Khas Khel Samsher Bahadur, G.C.I.E., LL.D., born 29 June, 1906, suc- 
ceeded 7 Feb., 1939. He is entitled to a salute of 21 guns. The area 
of the state is 8,235 square miles and the population is 2,855,010 (1941), 
the great majority of whom are Hindus. Baroda City, the capital, has a 
population of over 200,000. The revenue receipts in 1947-48 was Rs. 
563-11 lakhs. There were 2,542 educational institutions with 323,869 
pupils, including those in the Baroda College and the Pratapsinh College of 
Commerce and Economics. Primary education is compulsory. There is a 
high court of justice and a well-organized subordinate service. There are 
1,509 co-operative societies of all kinds, with 132,000 members and a 
working balance of Rs. 160-09 lakhs. There is an executive council of 7 
members and a legislative council made up as follows : 37 elected members, 
14 members nominated from the public and 8 nominated officials. The 
Dewan is President. Full responsible government has been granted by the 
Maharaja. The new Ministry took office on 4 Sept., 1948. The Ministry 
is headed by Dr. Jinra Mehta, the well-known Congress worker. The new 
reforms go much ahead of the constitutional reforms in any other state and 
the executive council wields all administrative power, the Maharaja remain- 
ing more or less as a constitutional head. 

Central India. This agency, covering 52,072 square miles, with a 
population of 7,511,694, included 28 salute states and 60 minor states and 
guaranteed estates. With the lapse of British paramountcy, the agency 
ceased to function politically, also the offices of the political agents. 



196 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

4 Officers on special duty ' were appointed to carry on the residuary 
functions of the agents and to wind up the agency offices. The bulk of the 
population is Hindu. The headquarters of the former resident were at 
Indore. He was assisted by political agents in Bhopal, Bundelkhand 
(Nowgong) and in MaJwa (Indore). 

Indore has an area of 9,984 square miles, a population of 1,513,966 and 
an approximate revenue of Rs. 3,04,90,000. The ruler is Maj.-Gen. H.H. 
Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Yeshwant Rao Holkar Bahadur, 
G.C.I.E. ; born 6 September, 1908; succeeded 26 February, 1926, and was 
granted ruling powers on 9 May, 1930 ; permanent salute of 19 guns. 

Bhopal has an area of 6,924 square miles, a population of 785,322 and an 
approximate revenue of Rs. 1,19,82,000. The ruler is Maj.-Geri. Air Vice 
Marshal H.H. Iftikharul Mulk Sikandar Saulat Nawab Haji Sir Muhammad 
Hamidullah Khan Bahadur, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., C.V.O., permanent salute 
of 19 guns. In 1929 the King Emperor recognized the right of a daughter 
of a ruler to succeed in the absence of a son. A legislative council was 
established. Gwalior, Indore and the states of Malwa, other than Bhopal, 
formed the biggest union of Indian states on 15 May, 1948, under the 
Rajpramukhship of the Maharaja of Gwalior. 

Rewa has an area of 13,000 square miles, a population of 1,820,445 and 
an approximate revenue of Rs. 65 lakhs. The ruler is H.H. Maharajadhiraja 
Martand Singh Bahadur; born 15 March, 1923; succeeded January, 1946; 
salute of 17 guns. 

The union of the 35 states of Vindhya Pradesh, comprising Bundelkhand 
and Baghelkand, was inaugurated on 4 April, 1948. The Rajpramukh of 
the new Union is the Maharaja of Rewa. 

Gwalior. The state is the premier Mahratta state in Central India. 
The founder of the dynasty, Ranoji Scindia, held military rank under 
Shri Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj (1720), the paramount ruler of the Maratha 
Empire, and established his headquarters at Ujjain. In 1782, Maharaja 
Mahadji Scindia was recognized by Warren Hastings as an independent 
ruler. In 1886, Gwalior Fort was restored to Maharaja Scindia by Lord 
Dufferin. 

The area of the state is 26,008 square miles, the population 4,006,159 
(1941). Hindus form the bulk of the population, and Hindi is the principal 
language of the state. The estimated revenue for 1945-46 was Rs. 356-75 
lakhs. 

In 1944 45 there were 2,173 educational institutions with 102,162 pupils. 
There are 3 degree colleges, viz. Victoria College, Gwalior; Madhay College, 
Ujjain, and Kamla Raja Girls' College, Gwalior; 2 intermediate colleges and 
10 high schools, 9 for boys and 1 for girls. The Gajra Raja medical college 
has recently been opened for medical students. The Scindia school on the 
Gwalior Fort is a large institution preparing students for the matriculation 
and Cambridge examinations. There is also a technical institute at Gwalior,. 
with branches at Mandsaur and Narwar providing facilities for technical 
education. 

There were in 1944-45 45 municipalities and 3,882 co-operative banks 
with a membership of 82,301 and a working capital of Rs. 1,69,63,486. 
Up to the end of 1911 45 the capital outlay on Gwalior state railways was 
Rs. 123-96 lakhs. The length of the metalled roads maintained by the 
atate is about 2,431 miles. A seaplane base named Madhav Maridrome 
has been established at the Tigra Reservoir for the empire air route, and 
a colony with buildings for accommodation of the staff has been constructed 
there by the state Government at a cost of about 4 lakhs of rupees. A 



INDIA FORMER STATES AND AGENCIES 197 

civil airport has also been constructed at Maharajpur, 6 miles east of Gwalior. 
Important archaeological monuments in the state are at Badoh, Bagh, Bhilsa, 
Chanderi, Gwalior, Gyaraspur, Kadwaha, Mandsaur, Udaipur and Ujjalin. 

The total number of medical institutions in the state was 171 and the 
expenditure on these was Rs. 9,94,047 in 1945-46. The irrigation works 
within the state number 871. The total cultivated area in 1944-45 was 
10,202,959 bighas. There is a well-equipped engineering workshop in 
Gwalior, the capital of the state, also an electric power station, a leather 
factory and tannery and pottery works. There are several cotton mills in 
Gwalior and Ujjain. Glass, paint and chemical and pharmaceutical manu- 
facturing factories have recently been established. The state has its own 
light railway, called the Scindia state railway, 295 miles long. The portion 
of the G.I.P. railway which passes through a major portion of the state 
territories is owned by the Gwalior Durbar. 

The total number of Jagir grants in Gwalior is 504, covering a little 
more than 5,469 square miles, with a population of 661,862, and total income 
of Rs. 44,12,316. There is a separate government department that helps 
and advises the Jagirdars in administering their holdings. Of these there 
are 142 estates that have been placed under the management of court 
of wards owing to minority, maladministration or indebtedness of the 
holders. 

The ruler is Lt.-Col. His Highness Maharaja Sir Jiwaji Rao Scindia, 
Alijah Bahadur, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E.; born on 26 June, 1916; succeeded on 
27 September, 1925; married Princess Lekha Divyeshwari Devi, of Nepal, 
on 21 February, 1941 ; salute of 21 guns. A responsible interim govern- 
ment has been set up, and the new ministry was sworn in on 24 January, 
1948. On 15 May, 1948, the state combined with the Indore and Malwa 
states to form the biggest of the unions of Indian states. 

The state has a legislature consisting of the Praja Sabha (lower house) 
of 90 members, of whom 55 are elected, and the Raj Sabha (upper house) 
of 40 members, of whom 20 are elected. This is the constitution as 
amended by the proclamation of 30 September, 1941. The judiciary, 
exercising both civil and criminal powers, is independent of the executive. 
Administration Eeport. Lashkar. Annual. 

Gwalior Residency. Two states, Benares and Rampur, were in 
political relation with the Crown representative through the resident at 
Gwalior and for the states of Rampur and Benares. The ruler of Rampur 
is Maj.-Gen. H.H. Nawab Sir Saiyid Muhammad Raza Ali Khan Bahadur, 
Mustaid Jung, G.C.I.E., K.C.S.L; born 17 November, 1906; succeeded 
20 June, 1 930 ; salute of 15 guns. The Rampur state covers 893 square miles, 
with a population of 464,919 (1931) ; the approximate revenue is 51 lakhs. 

The family domains of the Maharaja of Benares were constituted in 1911 
as an Indian state. The ruler is H.H. Maharaja Vibhuti Naraiu Singh 
Bahadur; born 1927; succeeded 1939; salute of 13 guns permanent, and 
15 local. The Benares state has an area of 866 square miles, a population 
of 451,428 (1941); the approximate revenue is 19 lakhs. The present 
Maharaja being a minor, the state is administered by a council of administra- 
tion until he attains his majority. 

Sikkim. The ruler of the state is His Highness Maharaja Sir Tashi 
Namgyal, K.C.S.L, K.C.I.E., born 1893; succeeded 1914. He is assisted 
by an advisory council, which has recently been enlarged. Until the 
transfer of power in India in August, 1947, Sikkim was an Indian State 
under British paramountoy. Early in 1947, the Indian Constituent 



198 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Assembly empowered its negotiating committee to enter into negotiations 
with Sikkiin and Bhutan. Pending those negotiations Sikkim entered into 
an interim stand-still agreement with the Indian Dominion. In accordance 
with that agreement the Indian Government continues to maintain those 
sections of the two main Tibetan trade routes which pass through Sikkim, 
and a representative of the Government of India, responsible for relations 
with Tibet and Bhutan, as well as Sikkim, resides at Gangtok. 

Area, 2,818 square miles. Population in 1941, 121,520. The inhabi- 
tants are Bhutias, Lepchas and Nepalese, the laat-named being now the 
most numerous. The capital is Gangtok. The state religion is Buddhism, 
but the majority of the people are Hindus. 

The revenue is about 5 lakhs per year. Sikkim produces rice, Indian corn 
and millets, cardamoms, oranges, apples and woollen cloth. Fruit gardens 
are maintained by the state. There are extensive forests in the state. The 
principal trade routes from Bengal to Tibet pass through Sikkim. 

Political Officer. B.. Dayal, I.C.S. (officiating). 
Deivan, Sikkim State. J. S. Lall, I.C.S. 

A collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads relating to India and neighbouring 
countries. By 0. U. Aitchison. Vol. XII. 5th ed. Calcutta. 

Boston (J.), An Unfrequented Highway (through Sikkim and Tibet to Chumolacri). 
London, 1928. 

(Jover ((jteoffrey), Himalayan Village : an account of the Lepchas of SikJdm. London, 
1938. 

Ronaldshay (Lord), Lands of the Thunderbolt. London, 1923. 

White (J. C.), Sikkim and Bhutan. London, 1909. 



PAKISTAN. 
Government and Constitution. 

The Dominion of Pakistan was constituted on 15 August, 1947, under the 
provisions of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, which received the royal 
assent on 18 July, 1947. The Dominion consists of the following former 
territories of British India : Baluchistan, East Bengal (including prac- 
tically the whole of Sylhet, a former district of Assam), North West Frontier, 
West Punjab and Sind. The seat of government is Karachi. The national 
language is Urdu. 

National flag : dark green with a white vertical bar at the mast, the 
green portion bearing a white crescent in the centre and a five-pointed 
white heraldic star. The white portion is one-quarter of the size of the 
rectangular flag. 

The first Governor- General of the new Dominion was Quaid-I-Azam 
Mohammed AH Jinnah (appointed 15 Aug., 1947). He died on 11 Sept., 
1948, and was succeeded by the present Governor-General. 

Governor-General of Pakistan. Khawaja Nazimuddin (14 Sept., 1948). 

Following is the present composition of the government and the port- 
folios held by the Ministers (1 April, 1950) : 

Prime Minister and Minister for Defence and for States and Frontier 
Regions. Liaquat Ali Khan. 

Foreign Affairs and Commonwealth Relations. Chandri Muhammad 
Zafrulla Khan. 

Commerce and Education. Fazlur Rahman. 

Communications. Sardar Bahadur Khan. 



PAKISTAN 



199 



Food and Agriculture. Pirzada Abdus Sattar. 
Industries. Chandri Nazir Ahmed Khan. 
Law and Labour. Jogendra Nath Mandal. 
Finance and Economic Affairs. Ghulam Mohammad. 
Interior, Information and Broadcasting, Refugees and Rehabilitation. - 
Khwaja Shahabuddin. 

Health and W orks. Dr. A. M. Malik. 

Diplomatic Representatives. 



Country 


Pakistan representative 


Foreign representative 


Afghanistan . 





H.R.H. Sardar Shah Wali 






Khan 


Australia 1 





John Egerton Oldham 


Belgium 





Marcel Goosse 8 


Burma. 


Sardar Aurangzeb Khan 


U Pe Kin 


Canada * 


Mohammed Ali 


David Mofifat Johnson 


Ceylon 1 





T. B. Jayah 


Egypt . 


Kaji Abdus Sattar Saith 


El Hussain El-Khatib 2 


Franco . 





Leon Marchal 


India 1 . 


Mohammad Ismail 


Dr. Sri Sitaram 


Indonesia 


Dr. Omar Hayat Malik 


Raderi Sjamsruddin 


Iraq 


Ghazanfar Ali Khan 2 


Sycd Abdul Kadir Gilani 3 


Italy 3 . 





Dr. Augusto Assettati 






D' Amelia 


Jordan 2 


Dr. B. A. Qureshi 


Mohammed Kl-Shuraiki 


Lebanon 2 


Dr. B. A. Qureshi 





Netherlands . 





Jhr. van Karnebcek 3 


Norway 





Ernest Krogh-Hansen 2 


Persia . 


Ghazanfar Ah Khan 


Ali Nasr 


Saudi Arabia 


Haji Abdus Sattar Saith 


Sheik Abdul Hamid El- 






Khatib 2 


Sweden 





Harry Eriksson a 


Switzerland . 


. 


Dr. C. Rezzonico 3 


Syria 2 


Jalal Abd al-Rahim 


Omar Baha Al-Amiri 


Turkey 





Nebil Bati 


U.S.S.R. 


Shuaib B. Qureshi 


A. G. Stesenko 


U.K. 1 . 


Habib Ibrahim Rahimtoola 


Sir Lawrence Grafrty-Smith, 






K.B.E., C.M.G. 


U.S.A. 


M. A. H. Ispahani 


Paul H. Ailing 



1 High Commissioner. Envoy. OhargS d' Affaires. No figure Ambassador. 

Area, Population, Religion.The total area of Pakistanis 361,007 
square miles; its population, 70,103,000, of which 72-7% are Moslems. 
The population of the principal cities (census of 1941) is : 

130,967 
181,169 
138,348 



Dacca . 
Karachi 
Lahore . 
Multan . 



213,218 
359,492 
671,659 
142,768 



Peshawar 

Rawalpindi 

Sialkot 



Defence. 

Navy. The Royal Pakistan Navy comprises 2 destroyers (Offa and 
Onslow, transferred from the Royal Navy), 4 frigates (Sind, Jhelum, 



200 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Zulfiquar and Shamsher), 4 fleet minesweepers, the training ship Karsaz, 
2 trawlers, 2 motor minesweepers and 4 motor launches. Principal base is 
at Karachi. 

Army, The Pakistan military academy was opened at Kakul on 25 
Nov., 1948. 

Finance* A state bank came into operation on 1 July, 1948, with an 
authorized capital of Rs. 600 lakhs. Deposits at 29 Sept., 1949, amounted 
to Rs. 22,21,00,000, and foreign exchange resources to Rs. 2,41,36,00,000. 

The budget for 1950-51 was estimated at revenue totalling Rs. 115-54 
crores and expenditure Rs. 115-44 crores; of this, expenditure on defence 
took Rs. 75 crores. 

Currency. The monetary unit is the Pakistani rupee, the sterling 
equivalent of which is 2s. l$d. The first notes and coins of the new 
Dominion were put into circulation on 1 April, 1948. The notes are of Re. 1 
denomination and the coins nickel of Rs. 1, $, J ; copper-nickel of annas 
2, 1, , and bronze of 1 pice ( anna). The coins are minted at the Pakistan 
Government mint at Lahore. 

Agriculture and Industry. Out of a total area of 114-3 million acres 
(excluding Baluchistan), the net area under cultivation is about 41-8 
million acres. 





1938-39 


1944-45 




1938-39 


1944^5 


Bice . 
Wheat 
Cotton 


18,966,000 
8,691,000 
2,443,000 


25,610,000 
9,950,000 
2,950,000 


Jute. 
Tea . 


2,225,000 
97,000 


1,700,000 
80,000 



Acreage figures for other agricultural products are barley, 510,000; 
bajua, 2,450,000; jowan, 109,000; maize, 1,030,000; tobacco, 38,070,000, 
and oil seeds, 245,000. 

Output of cotton, 1948-49, was estimated at 989,000 bales (400 Ib. 
each) from 2,704,000 acres (1947-48, 1,090,000 bales from 3,091,000 acres). 

The production of jute in 1948-49 was estimated at 5,479,095 bales from 
1,876,565 acres ; estimates for 1949-50, 6 million bales from 1,880,000 acres. 

Tea production in 1948 was estimated at 41,900,000 Ib., grown on 80,000 
acres, of which 95% were situated in Sylhet. 

Forests. There are 9,861 square miles of reserved and protected forests, 
of which 4,447 square miles are located in East Bengal, 1,872 in West 
Punjab, 1,805 in Baluchistan, 1,161 in Sind and 592 in the North-West 
Frontier Province. East Bengal forest products consist of timber, bamboos, 
resin, gum, fibre and honey. 

Cinemas. The number of cinemas in 1949 was 362 with a seating 
capacity of 88,000. 

Mineral Production. The quantity (in tons) and value (in rupees) of the 
chief minerals produced in Pakistan in 1944 were as follows : 



Items 


Quantity 


Value 


Items 


Quantity 


Value 


Ohromite . 
Coal . 
Fuller's earth . 
Qypsum 


20,869 
264,443 
7,714 
25,521 


3,16,312 
46,50,310 
1,78,520 
82,203 


Petroleum (galls.) 
Salt . 
Steatite . 


75,157,052 
794,137 
618 


37,89,263 
68,69,072 
41,200 



PAKISTAN BALUCHISTAN 



Commerce. 

The value (in lakhs of rupees) for the chief articles imported and exported 
at Karachi for the 10-month period April, 1947-Jan., 1948, was as follows: 



Imports 




Exports 




Cotton goods . 


1,61 


Skins 


1,46 


Metals and ores 
Hardware and mill tores 
Liquor . 


1,87 
3,04 
72 
2 67 


Raw cotton .... 
Raw wool .... 
Raw hides .... 


20,35 
2,57 
62 


Oils 

Woollen goods 


4,71 
66 


Total .... 


25,00 


Total .... 


15,28 







The total value of imports by sea during the year ended 30 June, 1949, 
was Rs. 5,81,40,177. 

Exports to United Kingdom, 1948, 11,279,780; 1949, 16,178,506; 
imports from United Kingdom, 1948, 17,942,335; 1949, 33,012,403 (Board 
of Trade returns). 

Communications. Railways. The equipment of Pakistan's 2 rail- 
way systems includes 829 locomotives, 1,680 coaches and 21,943 freight 
cars owned by the Northwestern Railway, and 434 locomotives, 1,023 
coaches and 13,983 freight cars on the Eastern Bengal Railway. Both 
systems use 1-677 metre (5 ft. 6 in.) broad-gauge; metre gauge (39| in.) 
and 0-762 metre (30 in.) narrow-gauge. The Northwestern Railway has 
4,561-58 miles of broad-gauge, 318-74 miles of metre and 181-77 miles narrow- 
gauge, and the Eastern Bengal Railway has 498*50 miles broad, 1,101-72 
miles metre, and 19-50 miles of narrow gauge. 

Posts. Telephones, on 1 Jan., 1949, numbered 16,454, all owned by the 
government; 55-5% were automatic; 4,968 were in Karachi. 

Civil Aviation. Karachi is on the main B.O.A.C. airplane and flying- 
boat services between the United Kingdom and India, Singapore and Sydney. 
India and Pakistan signed an air-transport agreement in Karachi on 23 
June, 1948, which provides for 17 routes, 5 of which will extend beyond 
India and Pakistan. The Pakistan routes will be operated by two lines, the 
Orient Airways and Pak Air. The Government of Pakistan has approved the 
formation of a company, the Pakistan Aviation Limited, to provide common 
technical repair facilities for the two afore-mentioned air lines and for the 
Royal Pakistan Air Force. 

Books of Reference concerning Pakistan. (See also under INDIA.) 

Ambedkar (B. B), Pakistan or the Partition of India. 3rd ed. Bombay, 1946. 
PMhawalla (M. B.), An Introduction to Pakistan : Tta Resources and Potentialities. 
Karachi 1948.<ed.), Bulletin of the Karachi Geographical Society. 1949 fl. 



PROVINCES. 

BALUCHISTAN. 

Government. After the Afghan War, 1878-81, the districts of Pishin, 
Shorarud, Duki, Sibi and Shdhrig were assigned to the British and in 
November, 1887, were formally constituted as British Baluchistan. In 
1883, the districts of Quetta and Bolan were made over by the Khan to the 
British on an annual quit-rent of Rs. 25,000 and Rs. 30,000 respectively. 
In 1886, the Bori valley, in what is now the cantonment of Loralai, waa 



202 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

occupied. In 1887, the Khetran country, now known as the Barkhdn 
tahsil, was brought under British control; in 1889 British authority was 
established in the Zhob valley and Kdkar Khurasan; in 1896 Chagai and 
Western Sinjrdni were included in administered territory; in 1899, the 
Nuskhi Niabat was made over by the Khan of Kalat on an annual quit-rent 
of Rs. 9,000, and in 1903 the Nasirabad tahsil was acquired from the Khan 
on an annual quit-rent of Rs. 1 17,500. The area of British and administered 
territory, including tribal areas, was recorded in 1941 as 54,456 and the 
population 501,631. The chief town is Quetta with a population (1941) of 
64,476 (town proper 36,460, and cantonment 28,016). It is the only munici- 
pality. The head of the civil administration is the agent to the Governor- 
General, and Chief Commissioner in Baluchistan. The area under his 
direct administration is divided as follows : Quetta-Pishin, Sibi, Zhob, 
Loralai, Chagai districts and Bolan subdivision. The revenue adminis- 
tration of the province is entrusted to an officer who is styled the Revenue 
and Judicial Commissioner. 

Regular troops are cantoned at Quetta, and militia and scouts at 
Chaman, Fort Sandeman and Loralai, detachments are also stationed at 
different places, principally in the Zhob and Loralai Districts, for the 
preservation of law and order. There is also a police force, supplemented 
by levies. The Indian staff college was opened in Quetta in 1907. 

Agent to the Governor -General and Chief Commissioner in Baluchistan. 
Mian Aminulla (salary, Rs. 48,000 per annum). 

Area and Population. Area 134,002 square miles; population (1941 
census) 857,835. The main divisions are : (1) The former British 
Baluchistcin proper, with an area of about 9,084 square miles, consisting of 
tracts assigned to the British Government by treaty in 1879 ; (2) Baluchistan 
leased areas and Baluchistan tribal areas, with an area of about 45,372 
square miles, composed of tracts which have from time to time been acquired 
by lease, or otherwise brought under control, and placed directly under 
British officers; and (3) the states of Kalat, Las Bela, Kharan and Mekran, 
with an area of about 79,546 square miles, Kalat state consisting of a con- 
federation of tribes under the Khan of Kalat, and stretching westwards to 
Mekran, while Las Bela occupies the alluvial valley between the Pab and 
Hala ranges from the sea to Bela. The Kharan state occupies the part of the 
hilly tract to the S.E. of the Chagai District, and touches the borders of 
Iran and Mekran, and Mekran state, which was formerly the south-western 
and maritime division of the Kalat state, has a fairly long line of sea-board, 
the general character of the inland being mountainous. 

Religion and Education. The religion of the population is either 
Moslem, in general of the Sunni sect, or Hindu. The Moslems num- 
bered (1941 census) 785,181; Hindus, 54,394; Christians, 6,056; Sikhs, 
12,044; others, 160. On 1 Oct., 1949, there were 186 primary schools, 23 
secondary schools, 1 degree college and 4 private schools, of which 12 and 1 
respectively were girls' schools. There were also 2 European schools for 
boys and girls. Of the 18,500 pupils, 2,000 were girls. Expenditure on 
education about Rs. 14 lakhs. 

Justice. With certain exceptions, the law of Baluchistan is customary 
law, administered through jirgas (councils of elders) and the Frontier 
Crimes Regulation. 

Finance. In the directly administered territory the chief items of 
revenue are : Customs, land revenue, grazing tax, excise, stamps and 



PAKISTAN BALtJCHIST^N 203 

forest. In some places the land revenue is levied in money in accordance 
with a fixed assessment, but generally it is levied in kind. The revenue from 
all sources in 1946-47 was Es. 46-71 lakhs and the expenditure Rs. 204-03 
lakhs. 

Production and Industry. The country consists largely of barren 
mountains, deserts and stony plains ; its climate is subject to the extremes 
of heat and cold, and the rainfall is uncertain and scanty. The agricultural 
products are wheat, barley, millet, lucerne, rice, maize and potatoes, while 
grapes, apricots, peaches, apples, pears and melons are grown in abundance. 
Mekran is famous for its dates. 

Coal is mined at Shrigh and Harnai on the Sind-Pishin railway and in the 
Bolan pass, also hi Sur Range in Quetta-Pishin district. Chromite is ex- 
tracted in the Zhob district near Hindubagh. Limestone is quarried in 
small quantities. Gypsum is mined in the Silei district near Spintangi 
railway station. 

Commerce and Communications. Registration of trade was dis- 
continued from April, 1925. There are approximately 3,145 miles of motor- 
able roads, of which 2,485 miles are continuously maintained and 660 miles 
are passable in fair weather only. 

The north-western railway, gauge 5 ft. 6 in., enters Baluchistan near 
Jhatpat and crosses the Kachhi plain to Sibi, where it bifurcates, one branch 
going via Hamai to Khost (83 miles) and the other via Quetta to Chaman 
(271 miles). In addition, a 5 ft. 6 in. gauge line, 440 miles long, runs from 
Spezand junction, 16 miles south of Quetta, via Nushki, Dalbandin and 
Nok-Kundi to Zahidan in Iran. A narrow gauge line also runs from Bostan 
junction, 21 miles north of Quetta on the Charaan line, to Fort Sandeman, 
a distance of 184 miles. 

There is a complete and frequent postal service, extending to Kalat and 
through Nok Kundi to Zahedan, Seistan and Meshed. 

A network of telegraph wires covers the north-eastern portion of the 
province and extends to Kalat, and westwards via Nushki to Nok-Kundi, 
while a land line, formerly part of the Indo-European system but now 
worked by the Pakistan department of posts and telegraphs, connects Karachi 
with Las Bela Panjguiv-Gwadur. Wireless telegraph stations have been 
installed at Ormara, Pasni and Panjgur. 

The Administration Report of the Baluchistan Agency. Annual. Calcutta. 

Baluchistan States. There are 4 states Kalat, Lasbela, Kharan and 
Mekran. Their relations with the Agent to the Governor-General in 
Baluchistan, who resides at Quetta, are conducted through the political agent 
Baluch States. The present Khan, Major His Highness Belgar Begi Mir Sir 
Ahmed Yar Khan, G.C.I.E., was born in 1904 and succeeded in 1933. He 
has a permanent salute of 19 guns. The area of the state is 46,678 square 
miles, and the population 110,211 (1941). The revenue, including the 
subsidies and rents paid by the Pakistan Government for the leased areas, 
amounts to nearly Rs. 16-44 lakhs annually. 

The present ruling chief of Lasbela is Jam Mir Ghulam Qadir Khan, who 
was born in 1920 and succeeded in 1937. He was formally installed on 
21 March, 1939, and was given full ruling powers. The area of the state 
is 7,132 square miles; population, 68,972 (1941), and revenue about Rs, 6'1 
lakhs. The state is under the formal suzerainty of Kalat. 

The ruling chief of Kharan is Nawab Habibullah Khan Nausherwani, 
who was born in 1897 and succeeded in 1911. The area of the state is 
14,210 square miles ; population 33,763 (1941), and revenue about 2 lakhs. 



204 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Since 1940 Kharan is considered to be a separate state under the formal 
suzerainty of Kalat. 

The ruling chief of Mekran, Nawab Bai Khan Gichki, was born in 1890 
and became independent of Kalut state by accession to Pakistan. The area 
is 26,600 square miles ; the population 140,000 and the revenue 4-85 lakhs 
annually. 

All four states acceded to Pakistan. 



EAST BENGAL. 

East Bengal is the biggest province of Pakistan, comprising the eastern 
territories of the partitioned province of Bengal and the former Assam 
district of Sylhet, with the exception of certain thanas of the Karimganj 
sub-division. East Bengal is administratively divided into 3 divisions and 
17 districts: (1) Dacca Division; the districts of Dacca, Mymensingh, 
Faridpur and Bakergaivj ; (2) Chittagong Division; the districts of Chitta- 
gong, Tippera, Noakhali, Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet; (3) Rajshahi 
Division; the districts of Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Bogra, Pabna, 
Kushtia, Jessore and Khuhia. 

The capital of the province is Dacca and its port is Chittagong. The 
area of the province is 54,100 square miles; population (1941 census) 
41-9 million, of which 29*5 million were Moslems and 11*7 million Hindus. 
The principal language is Bengali. 

Vital statistics .-1947, births, 828,859; deaths, 580,092. 1948, 
births, 718,737; deaths, 500,338. 

Agriculture. East Bengal is primarily an agricultural area and accounts 
for about 96% of her population. The total area under cultivation is 
26' 2 million acres of which 5 '7 million acres are double or triple cropped, 
the net cropped area being 20*5 million acres. The area which can be 
classified as cultivable waste is about 3 million acres. Amongst food crops, 
rice is the most important; the total area under rice is 19 million acres, 
which is 72% of the total cropped area. East Bengal yearly produces 
195,000 tons of pulses, over 50,000 tons of grams, 20,000 tons of wheat, 
15,000 tons of barley, 118,000 tons of oilseeds, 77,000 tons of chillies and 
over 3 million tons of sugar cane. Amongst non-food items East Bengal 
produces about 75% of the world production of raw jute ; the area under 
jute is 1*9 million acres and the annual production is 5*5 million bales. 
East Bengal also produces yearly 41'5 million lb. of tea, 45,000 tons of 
tobacco, 22,000 tons of sun-hemp and 14,000 bales of cotton. 

Forests. The total area under forests is 3 million acres which is 86% of 
the total land area of the province. The major products are timber and 
fuel, the annual output of which is about 14 million cubic foot. Among 
minor forest products. East Bengal produces 41 million bamboos, 144,000 
canes, over 400,000 lb. of honey and about 80,000 lb. of wax a year. The 
total value of the minor forest products only is about Rs. 650,000. 

Fishery. Being bounded on the south by the Bay of Bengal and having 
numerous rivers, streams, khals and bils, East Bengal is pre-eminently a 
fish-producing area and possesses great possibilities for the manufacture of 
various oils and fish products. The estimated annual production of fresh 
fish is over 1 million tons and that of sea fish is about 70,000 tons. About 
20,000 tons of fish are exported annually to the Indian "Union. 

Industry. The industries of the province are yet to be developed. 
Out of the existing industries, its 13 textile mills, 4 sugar factories, 4 match 



PAKISTAN NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE 205 

factories, 3 glass works, 15 hosiery factories and 1 cement factory are the 
most prominent. East Bengal, the home of famous Dacca muslins, is 
essentially a land of cottage industries, such as the hand loom, conch shell, 
brass and bell metal industries, mat making and bamboo and cane works. 

Commerce. The principal imports in 194849 were : Cotton yarn 
(49-8% of the total), oils (10'8%) and cotton piece-goods (5%) ; total value, 
Rs. 21,31,33,000. Principal exports : Jute (80-8%) and tea (12-2%); 
total value, Rs. 30,86,85,000. In 1948-49, imports came chiefly from the 
United Kingdom (22-7%), China (17-2%), Persia (4-7%) and Italy (4-6%); 
exports went to the United Kingdom (26-9%), U.S.A. (18-4%), Belgium 
(11-1%), France (11-1%) and Germany (9-1%). 

Governor. Sir Firoz Khan Noon, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E. (appointed 31 March, 
1950; salary, Rs. 72,000 per annum). 

Premier. Nurul Amin. 

For further details concerning former territories of Bengal, now in East 
Bengal, see under the Indian province of WEST BENGAL (p. 182). 



NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE. 

The area of the entire province is 39,270 square miles, of which 14,290 
square miles represent the settled districts as opposed to agencies and tribal 
areas. The former comprises the province proper under a governor. The 
frontier districts of Hazara, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail 
Khan were separated in 1901 from the Punjab under the name of the 
North-West Frontier Province. Mardan has since been divided from 
Peshawar as a separate district. The province was constituted an 
autonomous province on 1 April, 1937. It has a unicameral legislature 
(Legislative Assembly), consisting of 50 members. During the negotiations 
for the division of India, the province had a Congress Ministry, which stood 
for the Indian Union, but in the Referendum of July, 1947, the electorate 
voted for Pakistan, and the Congress Ministry was dismissed on 22 Aug., 
1947, by an order of the Governor-General of Pakistan. The present 
Moslem League Ministry was installed in office the following day. 

The province had a population of 3,038,067 in 1941. About 91% were 
Moslems. This percentage has further increased, owing to the migration 
of nearly all the Hindus and Sikhs to the Indian Union since the establish- 
ment of Pakistan. Peshawar, the capital, had in 1941 a population of 
173,420. The chief language is Pushtu. The chief court is that of the 
judicial commissioner, which consists of 2 judges. There are 5 sessions 
judges. In 1946 the total number of offences reported was 56,489. The 
total number of civil suits instituted was 11,996. The gross revenue in 
1947-48 was Rs. 335-75 lakhs (including a subvention of Rs. 100 lakhs from 
the central government). Of this Rs. 22-46 lakhs was land revenue, 11-77 
lakhs from excise, 8-35 lakhs from stamps. The gross expenditure in 1947- 
48 was Rs. 365-66 lakhs, 96-68 lakhs being expenditure on police, 47-97 lakhs 
on civil works and 38-13 lakhs on education. In 1947-48 there were 1,059 
recognized educational institutions for males, with 101,377 scholars, and 156 
similar institutions for females, with 11,035 scholars. The percentage of 
scholars to the total population is 6'1 for males and 0-7 for females. The 
direct expenditure on education was Rs. 38,13,000. Co-operative societies 
numbered 1,331 in 194849, with a membership of 46,707 and working 
capital of Rs. 2,45,78,000. Wheat covered 1,013,015 acres in 1947-48, of 
which the irrigated area was 376,582 acres. A hydro-electric power-station 



206 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

at Malakand supplies the districts of Mardan, Peshawar, Kohat and Hazara. 
The railway line through the Khyber, 27 miles long, with 34 tunnels, from 
Jamrud to the frontier of Afghanistan, was opened in Nov., 1925. 

Governor. Lieut. -Col. Sahibzadah Mohammed Khurshid (salary, Rs. 
66,000 per annum). 

Premier. Khan Abdul Qaiyum Khan. 

Administration Report. Annual. Peshawar. 

Davies (0. C.), The Problem of the North- West Frontier. Cambridge, 1939. 

North (B,.), The Literature on the North-West Frontier. Peshawar, 1947. 

North-West Frontier Agencies and Tribal Areas. Between the 

settled districts of the North-West Frontier Province and the Afghan 
frontier ia tribal territory, which is administered by the central government 
of Pakistan through the N.W.F.P. Governor. This region is divided into 
5 political agencies : Malakand (Dir, Swat and Chitral), Khyber, Kurram, 
North Waziristan and South Waziristan. There are further areas known as 
tribal areas under the political control of the deputy commissioners of the 6 
districts of the North-West Frontier Province. There are 5 states in the 
agencies and tribal areas 3 in the Malakand agency (Dir, Swat and Chitral 
states) and 2 in the tribal areas adjoining Hazara district (Amb and Phulera 
states). Chitral is ruled over by H.H. Mehtar Saif-ur-Rahman, Mehtar ; Dir 
by Nawab Sir Shah Jehan Khan, K.B.E.; Swat by Sir Abdul Wadud, 
K.B.E.; Amb and Phulera by a nawab and khan respectively. The 
estimated gross revenue from all agencies and tribal areas in 1947-48 was 
Rs. 8,82,659. The total estimated expenditure in 1947-48 was Rs. 
3,50,54,641, Rs. 44,37,437 being on political expenditure and Rs. 3,06, 17,204 
on frontier watch and ward. 

The area of this tribal territory is 24,986 square miles, with an estimated 
population of 2,500,000. 

Administration Report of the Border of the North-West Frontier Province. Peshawar. 
Annual. 

Barton (Sir W.), India's North-West Frontier. London, 1939. 
Thomas (L.), Beyond Khyber Pass. London, 1927. 



SIND. 

The division of Sind, annexed in 1843, was transferred from the 
Presidency of Bombay on 1 April, 1936, and constituted an autonomous 
province on 1 April, 1937. The Legislative Assembly consists of 60 mem- 
bers, including 2 women. The Governor has a council of ministers to aid 
and advise him in the exercise of his functions. 

Governor. H.E. Din Mohammad (assumed office, Oct., 1948; salary, 
Rs. 66,000 per annum). 

Premier. Yusuf Haroon. 

Area, Population and Religion. Sind (excluding Khairpur state) 
has an area of 48,136 square miles and a population (census, 1941) of 
4,535,008. Moslems numbered 3,208,325; Hindus (including scheduled 
castes), 1,229,926; Sikhs, 31,011; Christians, 20,209 ; Parsees, 3,838 ; Jains, 
3,687, and Jews, 1,082. Only 10% are literate. The chief language is 
Sindbi. The principal town is Karachi. 

Education. On 31 March, 1946, educational institutions of all kinds 
numbered 3,679 of which 505 were for girls. There are 9 colleges in the 
province with 3,700 students. The number of secondary schools for boy 
was 206 with 34,810 pupils and 37 for girls with 9,262 pupils. There were 



PAKISTAN SIND 



207 



2,327 primary schools for boys with 165,653 pupils and 398 for girls with 
40,257 pupils. 

Justice and Crime. There is a chief court of Sind with a chief judga 
and 4 judges. In 1945 there were 26,043 civil and 56,042 criminal cases 
decided. The strength of the police force, under an inspector-general, was 
13,999 (including 1,491 men of Sind Police Rangers) at the end of 1945. 

Production and Industry. According to the census report for 1941, 
62% of the population is engaged in the production of raw materials from 
land (excluding fisheries), industry employing about 8%. Woollen and 
other cottage industries, especially cotton weaving, have made great strides. 
Among the new industries recently started are sodium silicate, chocolate, 
tanning and paint and varnish factories. Salt is one of the most important 
industries of Karachi and considerable quantities are normally exported 
from that port. Large quantities of raw hides and skins, wheat and wheat 
flour are also exported. The principal imports are machinery and miliwork, 
cotton manufactures, chemicals and drugs. The population engaged in the 
fishing industry is about 39,000, which works out at 0-8% of the total 
population. 

Irrigation. In British territory in India, the province of Sind is 
situated beyond the influence of the south-west and north-east monsoons, 
and in consequence its rainfall is very scanty. In normal years, nine- 
tenths of the area cultivated depends on irrigation by canals. From the 
point of view of irrigation, Sind may bo divided into two distinct spheres : 

(a) Area which falls under the command of the Lloyd Barrage Canals, 

(b) area served by the inundation canals. 

The Lloyd Barrage and Canal Construction Scheme, which consists of a 
barrage across the river Indus at Sukkur and 7 canals 4 on the left and 3 
on the right bank is the largest irrigation scheme undertaken in any part 
of India. The project is designed to provide an assured supply of water to 
an area of about 1-83 million acres in British territory which has hitherto 
received an indifferent supply from inundation canals. It also brings under 
irrigation a further area of 3-62 million acres in Sind, the Khairpur state 
and the Nasirabad Tahsil in Baluchistan, which was previously without 
facilities for irrigation. The project thus provides for an annual cultivation 
of 5-45 million acres on final development, which is expected to be reached 
in 1962-63. Irrigation from the new canals commenced from 1932. 

As a result of the construction of the Lloyd barrage and canals systems 
in Sind, the cultivation under cotton has increased from 253,232 acres in 
the pre-barrage period to 878,627 acres in 1 943-44. The area under wheat 
increased from 480,000 in pre-barrage period to 1,259,212 acres in 1943-44. 
It is now proposed to construct another barrage across the Indus, 4J miles 
north of Kotri, for the protection of the area which is to the south of the 
Lloyd barrage area and part of which is at present settled on the various 
inundation canals in the southern part of Sind. The work on this barrage, 
which is called the Kotri barrage, has been started and it is estimated to 
cost Rs. 21,05 crores. This barrage will have three feeders, one on the right 
bank and two on the left bank. The total discharge of all the canals taking 
off from above the Kotri barrage will be 45,775 cusecs. The irrigable area 
to be served by this scheme will be about 2,792,000 acres. The cultivation 
in this area will be mostly rice. The Kotri barrage is expected to function 
from the year 1952. 

The area irrigated in Sind by the Lloyd barrage canals and other 
capital works during the year 1943-44 was 5,211,462 acres. 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Communications. The Hyderabad-Jodhpur metre-gauge line con- 
nects the frontier with the Jodhpur railway, thus linking Sind at Hyderabad 
with Rajputana, Northern and Central India and Gujarat. 

Abbott (J.\ Sind. Bombay, 1024. 

Bilttmoria (N. M.), Bibliography of Publications on Sind and Baluchistan. Bprnbay, 1930. 
Pithawalla (M. J3.), A/i Introduction to Karachi. Karachi, 1949. Historical Geography 
of Sind. 2 vols. 1936-37. 



WEST PUNJAB. 

The old province of the Punjab was divided between Pakistan and India 
tinder the Indian Independence Act, 1947. The portion included in Pakistan is 
known as West Punjab. It covers about 58,000 square miles and comprises : 
Lahore Division (the districts of Gujranwala, Lahore, Sheikhupura and 
Sialkot); Rawalpindi Division (the districts of Attock, Gujrat, Jhelum, 
Mian wall, Rawalpindi and Shahpur) ; Multan Division (the districts of Dera 
Ghazi Khan, Jhang, Lyallpur, Montgomery, Multan and Muzaff argarh ) . The 
chief city of the province is Lahore. The population is estimated at nearly 
19 milh'on. The main industry is agriculture and the total area under 
cultivation is about 11 million acres. Of the crops grown, wheat, rice, cotton 
and gram are the most important and cover about 60% of the total area 
sown. The table below shows the 1948 production of various crops in the 
province. 



Produce 


Acreage 


Production 
(maunds) 


Produce 


Acreage 


Production 
(maunds) 


Wheat 
Rice 
Jowar 

Gram 

Bajra 
Maize 


7,058.000 
652,000 
383,000 
1,835,000 
1,270,900 
619,100 


81,809.950 
10,047,075 
1,814,850 
14,998,400 
7,065,926 
4,409,050 


Barley 
Cotton 
Sugar cane 
Tobacco . 
Oil-seeds . 


274,100 
1,900,207 
316,000 
22,000 
351,000 


2,632,350 
22 695,700 
13,298,000 
218,000 
1,692,225 



The number of registered factories was 835 in 1948 ; they can be divided 
into two categories, viz., seasonal and perennial. Cotton ginning and 
pressing factories form more than 90% of the seasonal factories. 

An Industrial Planning Committee was set up in 1948. The resettlement 
and rehabilitation of refugees is making good progress. Trade and commerce, 
which were completely dislocated in 1947, are reviving. 

Governor. Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (appointed 2 Aug., 1949 ; salary, 
Rs. 1,00,000 per annum). 

Premier. Khan Iftikhar Husain Khan of Mamdot. 

Punjab States. The following states, with a Moslem population of 
more than 80% and with Moslem rulers, have opted for Pakistan on the 
formation of the two Dominions : 

Bahawalpur, 16,434 square miles; population, 1,341,209; yearly 
revenue, approximately 335 lakhs. The present ruler of Bahawalpur is 
Ma j.- Gen. H.H. Nawab Al-Haj Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan, Abbasi, 
Bahadur, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., K.C.V.O., LL.D., born 30 September, 1904; 
ucceeded 4 March, 1907. 

Khairpur, 6,050 square miles; population, 305,787; yearly revenue, 
37-8 lakhs. The Mir of Khairpur is H.H. Mir Faiz Muhammad Khan, 
Talpur; born 4 January, 1913; succeeded 26 December, 1935. 



CEYLON 209 

CEYLON. 

Constitution and Government. 

Ceylon, the ancient Taprobane (Tamraparni, the island of * dusky 
leaves '), is an island in the Indian Ocean, by the south of India, lying 
between 6 55' and 9 50' N. lat., and 79 42' and 81 53' E. long. Its area 
is 25,332 square miles. The average annual rainfall varies from 40 ins. in 
the north-west to over 200 ins. south-east and some parts of the interior. 
Annual average for Colombo is 91 ma. and for Kandy 87 ins. 

According to the Mahawamsa chronicle, an Indian prince from the valley 
of the Ganges, named Vijaya, arrived in the 6th century B.C. and became 
the first king of the Sinhalese. The monarchical form of government 
continued until the beginning of the 19th century when the British sub- 
jugated the Kandy an Kingdom in the central highlands. 

In 1505 the Portuguese formed settlements on the west and south, 
which were taken from them about the middle of the next century by the 
Dutch. In 1796 the British Government annexed the foreign settlements 
to the presidency of Madras; in 1802 the maritime provinces of Ceylon 
were separated from India and formed into a Crown colony. Passing through 
various stages of increasing self-government, Ceylon reached fully responsible 
status within the British Commonwealth when the Ceylon Independence 
Act, 1947, came into force on 4 Feb., 1948. 

The * Proposals for conferring on Ceylon fully responsible Status within 
the British Commonwealth of Nations ' (Crad. 7257), which form the basis 
of the Independence Act, include agreements on defence, external affairs and 
public officers. The defence agreement provides that the United Kingdom 
and Ceylon will give to each other such military assistance for the security 
of their territories, for defence against external aggression and for the pro- 
tection of essential communications as it may be in their mutual interest to 
provide. The United Kingdom may base such naval and air forces and 
maintain such land forces in Ceylon as may be required for these purposes, 
and as may be mutually agreed. Ceylon will grant to the United Kingdom 
all the necessary facilities. These facilities will include the use of naval 
and air bases and ports and military establishments and the use of tele- 
communication facilities. The United Kingdom will furnish Ceylon with 
such military assistance as may from time to time be required towards the 
training and development of Ceylonese armed forces. The two governments 
will establish such administrative machinery as they may agree to be 
desirable for the purpose of co-operation in regard to defence matters 
and to co-ordinate and determine the defence requirements of both 
governments. 

The agreement on external affairs declares the readiness of Ceylon to 
adopt and follow the resolutions of past imperial conferences; provides 
for the representation of the two governments in London and Colombo; 
provides that in external aft'airs generally the two governments will conform 
to the principles and practice observed by other members of the Common- 
wealth ; provides for the exchange of diplomatic representatives between 
Ceylon and foreign countries, and' pledges United Kingdom support for any 
application by Ceylon for membership of the United Nations or any 
specialised international agency; provides that the Ceylon government will 
enjoy reciprocal rights and benefits enjoyed by the United Kingdom, and 
bear the obligations and responsibilities carried by the United Kingdom, 
which arise out of any valid international instrument which applies to 
Ceylon. 



210 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



The public officers agreement protects the positions of specified classes 
of persons holding offices in the public service of Ceylon. 

Governor-General The Right Hon. The Lord Soulbury, P.O., 
G.C.M.G., O.B.E., M.C. (appointed 6 July, 1949). 

For purposes of general administration, the island is divided into 9 
provinces, each presided over by a Government agent, with assistants and 
subordinate headmen. There are 6 municipalities, with 37 urban councils 
and 26 town councils. 

The elections held in September, 1947, had the following results : 42 
United National Party ; 21 Independents ; 10 Sama Samaj Party (Trotskyist 
Communists); 7 Ceylon Tamil Congress; 6 Indian Tamil Congress; 5 
Bolshevik Sama Samaj Party ; 3 Communists ; 1 Labour. 

The Cabinet, which has a majority from members of the United National 
Party, consists of : 

Prime Minister, Defence and External Affairs. D. S. Senanayake, P.CL 
Justice. Dr. L. A. Rajapakse. Home Affairs. E. A. P. Wijeycratne. 
Commerce. H. W. Amarasuriya. Health and Local Government. 
S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike. Finance. J. R. Jayawardene. Labour. 
T. B. Jayah. Education. Major Edward Nugawela. Agriculture. Dudley 
Senanayake. Industries. G. G. Ponnambalam. Food. A. llatnayake. 
Posts. C. Sittampalam. Transport and Works. Sir John Kotalawela, 
K.B.E. Minister without Portfolio. A. E. Goonesinghe. 

High Commissioner for the U.K. Sir Walter Crossfield Hankinson, 
K.C.M.G., O.B.E., M.C. 

High Commissioner in London (25 Grosvenor Square, W.I). Sir Oliver 
Goonetilleke, K.B.E., K.C.M.G. 

High Commissioner in India. C. Coomaraswamy. 

High Commissioner in Australia. Aubrey Maartensz. 

Ambassador in U.S.A. G. C. S. Corea. 

Minister in Burma. D. Susanta de Fonseca. 

Area and Population. 

The population of Ceylon (inclusive of local residents enumerated with 
the services, but exclusive of non-residents in H.M. Forces and on ships in 
Ceylon ports) at the census held on 19 March, 1946, showed an increase of 
25-4% since 1931. The distribution by provinces, and the average number 
of persons per square mile in each province, are shown in the following 
table :- 



Provinces 


Area: 
English 
sq. miles 


Population, 1946 


Provinces 


Area : 
English 
sq. miles 


Population, 1946 


Total 


Per sq. 
mile 


Total 


Persq. 

mile 


Western 
Central 
Southern 
Northern 
Eastern 
North- 
Western . 
North- 
Central . 


1,432 
2,290 
2,146 
3,429 
3,840 

3,016 
4,009 


1,876,904 
1,135,290 
961,418 
479,572 
279,112 

667,889 
139,534 


1,310 
495 
448 
139 
72 

221 
34 


Uva 
Sab aragamu w a 

Total 
Non-resident 
Military f 
Non-resident k 
Shipping 

Grand Total 


3,277 
1,893 


372,238 
745,382 


113 
393 


25,332 


6,657,339 
33,772 
2,834 


262 





6,693,945 






CEYLON 211 

The Sinhalese numbered about 4,621,000. The population on the 
principal estates, mainly consisting of immigrant Tamils from Southern 
India, numbered, at the census of 1946, about 851,000, and formed 12-8% of 
the total population. The Indian Tamils on estates numbered about 
764,900. There were also about 409,600 Moors (Ceylon and Indian); 
41,500 Burghers (Dutch and Portuguese strains as well as Euro-Ceylonese) 
and 5,400 Europeans. 

Marriages registered, 1947, 37,995; births registered, 271,191; deaths 
registered, 98,544. 

The urban population is 15-4% of the total population. The principal 
towns and their population (exclusive of the non-resident military and 
shipping), according to the census of 1946, are : Colombo, 362,000; Jaffna, 
63,000; Dehiwala-Mt. Lavinia, 56,900; Kandy, 51,200; Moratuwa, 50,700; 
Galle, 49,000. 

Religion and Education. 

Buddhism was introduced from India in the third century B.C., and is 
still the religion of the majority of the inhabitants, especially in the southern 
part of the island. There are about 4,288,000 Buddhists, 1,326,000 
Hindus, 606,000 Christians, 433,000 Moslems and 5,000 others. 

Education in the island has undergone a radical change with the intro- 
duction of the scheme of free education from the kindergarten to the 
university stage. The scheme came into operation on 1 Oct., 1945, but 
modifications are being considered owing to the mounting cost. 

All schools are now graded as primary up to standard 5, junior up to 
standard 8, senior secondary or senior practical above standard 8, and 
central (post primary). The number of Sinhalese and Tamil schools in 
1948 was Government schools 3,091, with an attendance of 335,499 boys and 
250,952 girls; assisted schools 3,140 (including estate schools and night 
schools), with an attendance of 330,038 boys and 264,941 girls. There 
were also 523 central and bilingual English schools attended by 146,633 boys 
and 82,431 girls. Total expenditure on education in 1947-48, Rs. 82,993,012 
(nett). The University of Ceylon was established on 1 July, 1942, by the 
incorporation of the Ceylon Medical College (founded 1870) and the Ceylon 
University College (founded 1921). In 1949, the university had faculties 
of oriental studies, arts, science, medicine, law, agriculture and veterinary 
science. In 1949-50 it had 1,850 students. The Ceylon Technical College 
provides a series of full time and part time courses in science, engineering, 
commerce, arts, and arts and crafts. The laboratories are equipped for 
instruction up to the university degree standard. 

The College prepares students for the college diploma and the B.Sc.Eng. 
(London) diploma. Courses in commerce and accountancy, and a course 
for training vocational teachers have recently been added to the curriculum. 
Number of students in 1949-50 was 1,969. 

There were, in 1949, 82 cinemas with a seating capacity of 46,000. 

Justice and Crime. 

Roman-Dutch law modified by local enactments is administered in the 
Maritime Provinces, while Kandyan laws and customs, now partly codified, 
are administered in the Kandyan Provinces. The Tamils of the Jaffna 
district are governed by the Thesavalamai, a special code of laws relating to 
persons and property. The Moslem inhabitants are governed by their 
religious law, modified by local enactments, in matters such as inheritance, 
marriage and divorce. 



212 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



District courts and Courts of Requests administer justice on the civil 
side. The Supreme Court exercises only an appellate jurisdiction in civil 
matters, excepting in divorce cases instituted under the Indian and Colonial 
Divorce Jurisdiction Act, 1926. On the criminal side magistrates' courts, 
district courts and the Supreme Court exercise an original jurisdiction. 
The Supreme Court also exercises an appellate jurisdiction in cases decided 
by magistrates' courts and district courts. A Court of Criminal Appeal 
exercises an appellate jurisdiction in cases tried by the Supreme Court in 

its original criminal jurisdiction. Rural courts exercise a criminal and civil 
jurisdiction in rural areas in respect of petty crimes and civil disputes. In 
1946 the number of cases instituted in the magistrates' courts and municipal 
courts was 150,840. 11,809 convicted persons were sent to prison. 

The sanctioned strength of the police force on 31 December, 1946, was 
6,380, but the force was under strength by 760. 

Social Welfare. 

The ordinance relating to the relief of the poor was brought into 
operation on 1 January, 1 940. Its provisions have been applied in the first 
instance to the municipal towns of Colombo, Kandy and Galle, where the 
local authority is responsible for financing and administering poor relief, 
and Public Assistance Committees have been appointed in this connection. 
In other areas the administration of poor relief is a commitment of the 
central Government and is undertaken by revenue officers with the assis- 
tance of advisory committees. Where recognized charitable agencies 
function in urban areas, grants are given to such agencies for the administra- 
tion of relief. The maximum monthly rate of assistance has been increased 
from Rs. 5 to Rs. 10, with effect from 1 February, 1944. The relief of wide- 
spread distress due to floods, epidemics, failure of crops, etc., is undertaken 
by Government whenever circumstances demand it, such relief being 
generally given in employment on works of public utility in the case of 
failure of crops, and in cash or kind during floods or epidemics. Money 
grants up to a maximum of Rs. 150 are also paid for rebuilding houses 
destroyed by floods, fire and other exceptional causes. 

Finance. 



Financial 
years 1 


Revenue 


Expen- 
diture 


Financial 
years l 


Ee venue 


Expen- 
diture 


1945-46 
1946-47 
1947-48 


Rs. 
882,263,327 
461,373,263 
540,606,161 


Rs. 
312,855,337 
406,387,434 
621,952,721 


Rs. 
1948-49 (est.) 
1949-50 (est.) 


Rs. 
563,070,000 
561,780,000 


Rs. 
532,664,257 
563,511,323 



1 1 October- 30 September. 

The principal sources of revenue in 1947-48 were : Customs, 
Rs. 314,055,863; port, harbour, wharf, warehouse and other dues, 
Rs. 10,085,770; excise (salt), Rs. 46,771,049; income tax, stamps, etc., 
Rs. 104,189,475; postal, Rs. 16,340,588. 

The principal items of expenditure in 1947-48 : Ministry of Education, 
Rs. 84,732,362 ; Ministry of Health and Local Government, Rs. 71,765,192; 
Ministry of Food and Co-operative Undertakings, Rs. 179,935,232 ; Ministry 
of Agriculture and Lands, Rs. 47,681,423; Ministry of Finance, 
Rs. 74,674,182; Ministry of Defence and External Affairs, Rs. 17,516,351; 
Ministry of Justice, Rs. 7,648,249; Ministry of Home Affairs and Rural 



CEYLON 213 

Development, Rs. 22,006,703; Ministry of Labour and Social Services, 
Us. 12,692,165; Ministry of Commerce and Trade, Rs. 1,418,149; Ministry 
of Industries and Fisheries, Rs. 7,740,499 ; Ministry of Transport and Works, 
Rs. 66,604,821 ; Ministry of Posts, Rs. 23,134,650. 

The public debt on 30 Sept., 1948, was 9,408,775 and Rs. 367,532,900. 
The accumulated sinking funds for their redemption were valued at 
4,116,911 and Rs. 35,555,659 respectively, 

Defence. 

Army. The Ceylon Army Act came into operation on 10 Oct., 1949. 
Simultaneously the Governor-General appointed Brigadier the Earl of 
Caithness, D.S.O., as the Commander of the Ceylon Army. The Ceylon 
army will have units of infantry, artillery, signal corps, electrical and 
mechancial engineers, medical corps, engineer corps and engineer works 
services. The immediate object is to mobilize a force of 70 officers and 610 
other ranks with a view specially to taking over defence commitments in 
the Colombo Area. The final strength is to be 3,000 all ranks. 

Navy. Steps have been taken to train personnel and the Ceylon Royal 
Naval Volunteer Reserve has received as a gift from His Majesty's Govern- 
ment the minesweeper Flying Fish which has been renamed His Majesty's 
Ceylon Ship Vijaya. Sanction has been obtained to name the future 
Ceylon Navy the Royal Ceylon Navy (R.Cy.N.). 

Air Force. The Air Force Act (No. 41) of 1949 has been passed by the 
Ceylon Parliament. It is intended initially to have only a volunteer com- 
ponent of the Air Force and later to expand to a regular Force. 

Production and Industry. 

The area of the island is approximately 16,212,400 acres, of which about 
3,208,000 acres (excluding small holdings below 1 acre) are under cultiva- 
tion, and about 456,000 acres pasture land. The approximate areas under 
the principal products, according to the census of February March, 1946, 
were: Paddy, 912,500 acres; chena, 46,322 acres; cacao, 19,700 acres; 
cinnamon, 33,779 acres; tea, 533,830 acres; coconuts, 920,093 acres; 
citronella, 30,107 acres; rubber, 573,243 acres. In 1945, 243 acres of 
crown land were granted and sold by the revenue officers. 

The production of tea averaged 281 ,509,1 85 Ib. in 1 940-48, was 298,791,368 
Ib. in 1948, and was estimated at 298,000,000 Ib. in 1949. 

Livestock as recorded at the census of 1946 : 319 horses, 1,577,327 
horned cattle, 63,301 swine and 296,151 goats. 

Agricultural production suffered a severe setback due to the abnormal 
drought during the year 1945 as well as during the first half of 1946. 

There is a Government dairy at Narahenpita, Colombo, possessing 297 
heads of cattle. There were 31 plumbago mines working at the end of 1946. 
Phlogopite mica of high dielectric strength exists in economically workable 
deposits and 2 small mines were working at the end of 1945. The minerals 
ilemnite, monazite and zircon are found in quantities of commercial import- 
ance in beach sands. There are several hundred gem pits, from which 
sapphires, rubies, aquamarine, moonstone, topaz, chrysoberyl (cat's-eye), 
zircons, spinels, tourmalines and other gems are obtained. Among the 
other resources of the island are deposits of kaolin, iron-ore and glass sands. 
There has been considerable activity in industrial development in recent 
years furthered by the Department (now the Ministries) of Commerce and 
Industries, which was set up in 1938. Government has been responsible for 



214: 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



the establishment of factories for the production of plywood, leather and 
leather goods, paper, glass, coir goods, rolled steel, acetic acid, phenols, 
creosotes, pitch, wood spirit, charcoal, ceramicware, drugs (including 
quinine, strychnine, shark liver oil and pyrethrum extract). Post-war plans 
aim at factories for the manufacture of textiles, extraction of refined coconut 
oil (from poonac), hydrogenation of oils, steel, caustic soda, writing paper, 
D.D.T., sulphuric acid, creamed latex, sole crepe, titanium white, and a large 
industrial workshop. 

The first stage (25,000 kw.) of the government hydro-electric scheme (with 
a target of 100,000 kw.) is expected to come to fruition by 1949. Manu- 
facture of salt and the railways are government monopolies. 

Trade Unions. The registration and control of trade unions is regulated 
by the Trade Unions Ordinance (Ch. 116 of the Legislative Enactments), 
and the Trade Unions (Amendment) Act, No. 15 of 1948. At the end of 
1948, there were 101 trade unions; 60 employees' unions had a member- 
ship of 158,178; and 11 employers' unions had 841 members. 

Commerce. 

The values of the imports and exports for 6 years are given in the 
following table : 



Years 


Imports l 


Exports l 


Years 


Imports l 


Exports l 


1943 
1944 
1945 


Us. 
446,796,000 
617,654,000 
621,264,000 


Ks. 
569,661,000 
679,936,000 
665,800,000 


1946 
1947 
1948 


Us. 
695,568,000 
970,127,000 
994,407,000 


Rs. 
764,584,000 
835,398,000 
1,001,176,000 



1 Including bullion and specie. 

Principal exports (domestic), in 1948 : Cacao, Rs. 7,030,876 ; cinnamon 
(quills and chips), Rs. 3,865,460; coir (bristle, mattress, yam and manufac- 
tures), Rs. 1,992,402; copra, Rs. 42,140,888 (54,460 long tons); coconut 
oil, Rs. 84,060,587 (75,730 long tons); tea, Rs. 590,271,396; plumbago, 
Rs. 6,734,451; coconuts, fresh, Rs. 1,947,977; coconuts, desiccated, Rs. 
25,245,243; areca nuts, Rs. 4,404,856 ; rubber, Rs. 143,417,485; citronella 
oil, Rs. 3,338,117. 

Principal imports in 1948 : Cotton manufactures, viz. : cotton piece- 
goods, Rs. 116,446,190; rice and paddy, Rs. 236,115,461; coal and coke, 
Rs. 20,551,794; spirits (brandy, gin and whisky), Rs. 736,865; sugar 
(refined, unrefined and jaggery), Rs. 47,361,579; manures, Rs. 28,280,950. 

Of the 296,000,174 Ib. of black tea exported in 1948, the following 
countries received the greatest amounts : United Kingdom, 97,872,011 Ib.; 
United States, 41,910,510 Ib. ; Australia, 36,001,286 Ib. ; Egypt, 26,389,243 
Ib.; Union of South Africa, 18,221,266 Ib.; Canada, 16,059,421 Ib.; New 
Zealand, 10,686,157 Ib., and Iraq, 8,458,556 Ib. 

Total imports into United Kingdom, 1938, 12,398,930; 1947, 
22,620,901; 1948, 26,762,763; 1949, 26,638,469. United Kingdom 
exports to Ceylon, 1938, 3,494,513; 1947, 11,548,318; 1948, 12,649,200; 
1949, 14,752,899. Re-exports, 1938, 67,750; 1947, 39,305; 1948, 
42,963; 1949, 53,132. 

Shipping and Communications. 

In 1948, 3,540 vessels of 9,783,848 tons entered and 3,508 vessels of 
9,873,363 tons cleared the ports in Ceylon. 



CEYLON 215 

913 miles of railway wore open at the end of 1946. 

On 30 September, 1948, there were 1,180 offices of various classes open 
for postal business; money-order offices, 700; telegraph offices, 357; 
11,110 miles of telegraph wire. There were, 1 Jan., 1949, 14,255 telephones. 

Cable and Wireless, Ltd., operate cables, a wireless station and a photo- 
telegraph service between Colombo and London. 

Air Services. Air-India operates a daily service Colombo-Karachi; 
B.O.A.C. operates weekly services Colombo-London and Colombo-Singapore. 
The Ceylon government have initiated services Colombo Kankesanturai- 
Madras (four times a week) and Colombo-Trichinopoly (three times a week) 
and by chartered plane to any part of the world. 

Money and Credit. 

The leading banks in Ceylon are : The Bank of Ceylon (state-aided), 
The Mercantile Bank of India, Ltd., the Imperial Bank of India, the National 
Bank of India, Ltd., the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, 
the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Eastern Bank, Ltd., 
Grindlay & Co., Ltd., the Bank of Uva, Ltd., the Hatton Bank, Ltd. and 
the Indian Overseas Bank, Ltd. 

The Ceylon Savings Bank had 115,776 depositors, and deposits amount- 
ing to Rs. 57,185,121 in 1948. The Post Office Savings Bank on 31 Dec., 
1948, had 1,242,211 depositors, and the balance to their credit was Rs. 
129.316,881; amount deposited during 1948, Rs. 58,009,820. The loans 
granted by the Ceylon State Mortgage Bank as at 30 September, 1945, 
amounted to Rs. 13,140,851. 

A Central Bank was established in 1950 to regulate and administer the 
monetary system of the Dominion. 

The Imperial weights and measures of the United Kingdom are estab- 
lished as the standard weights and measures of the island. Local and 
customary weights and measures are still in force in various parts of the 
country. The Currency Ordinance No. 21 of 1941 provides for a Ceylon 
rupee as the unit of currency, without a coin of corresponding value, but 
dependent for its international value on the obligation placed on the 
Currency Board administering the ordinance to exchange Ceylon currency 
for Indian currency and vice versa. Currency notes are issued in the 
denominations of Re. 1, Rs. 2, 5, 10, 50 and 100, and subsidiary currency 
notes in the following denominations : 50 and 25 cents. The following 
subsidiary coins were legal tender on 31 December, 1948, (1) nickel brass, 
50, 25, 10 and 2 cents; (2) cupro-nickel and nickel brass, 5 cents; 
/3) copper and bronze, 1 cent, and copper, J cent. The note circulation 
stood at Rs. 419,477,194 on 30 Sept., 1949, and the estimated liability 
of the Currency Board in respect of the circulation of subsidiary notes and 
coin at Rs. 15,692,033 on the same day. The exchange rate between 
Ceylon and the United Kingdom is subject to fluctuation, within narrow 
limits; it has remained close to 1$. 6d. per rupee throughout 1949. The 
Ceylon rupee was devalued with the sterling in Sept., 1949. 



The Mftldive Islands, 400 miles south-west of Ceylon, are a group 
of 12 coral atolls, richly clothed with coconut palms, and yielding millet, 
fruit and edible nuts. The old form of government was abolished in 1932, 
and a new constitution was introduced. The Sultan-Designate is His 
Highness Amir Abdul Majid Didi, the former Prime Minister, appointed on 



216 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

3 October, 1945. According to the modified constitution there is a People's 
Assembly consisting of 33 members and a Cabinet of 4 ministers. The 
Prime Minister is selected by the Sultan from the members of the People's 
Assembly and he selects his colleagues who form the Cabinet. 

Population over 93,000. The people are Moslems; they are great 
navigators and traders. 

Books of Reference concerning Ceylon. 

Annual General Reports on the Economic, Social and General Conditions of the Island. 

The Ceylon Year Book. 

Census Publications from 1871. Decennial. 

Correspondence relating to tho Revision of the Constitution of Ceylon. Cmd. 1906 of 
1923 and Cmd. 2062 of 1921. London. Report of the Special Commission on the Con- 
stitution. London, 1928. Ceylon : Report of the Commission on Constitutional Reform. 
Omd. 6677. London, 1945. Ceylon : Statement of Policy on Constitutional Befonn. Cmd. 
6690. London, 1945. 

Orde Brovme (G. St. J.), Report on Labour Conditions in Ceylon, Mauritius and Malaya 
Cmd. 6423). 

Bassetl (R. II.), Romantic Ceylon. 2nd ed. London, 1934. 

Codrington (H. W.), A Short History of Ceylon. Colombo, 1939. 

Cook (E. K.), A Geography of Ceylon. London, 1939. 

Das Gupta (B. B.), Short Economic Survey of Ceylon. Colombo, 1949. 

Dulling (H. H.), Sketches from Ceylon History. London, 1934. 

Ferguson's Ceylon Directory. Annual. 

Gardiner (J. 8.), The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelacoea. 
2 vols. Cambridge, 1901-06. 

HocMey (T. W.), A Short Account of the People, History and Customs of the Maldiva 
Archipelago. London, 1935. 

Holdert (Lord), Ceylon. London, 1939. 

Hulugalle (H. A. J.), Ceylon. 4th ed. Oxford, 1949. 

Htusey (D.), Ceylon and World History. 3 vols. London. 1936. 

Jennings (Sir I.), The Economy of Ceylon. London, 1948. The Constitution of Ceylon. 
London, 1950. 

Jones-Bateman (Mrs. R.), Illustrated Guide to the Buried Cities of Ceylon. London 1932. 

Mendt* (G. 0.), Ceylon Under the British. Colombo, 1944. 

Mills <X. A.), Ceylon. Minneapolis, 1960. 

Rettie (Clare), Things Seen in Ceylon. London, 1930. 



ADEN. 



Aden is a volcanic peninsula on the Arabian coast, about 100 miles east 
of Bab-al-Mandeb. It forms an important bunkering station on the highway 
to the East. The colony includes Little Aden, a peninsula very similar to 
Aden itself, and the settlement and town of Shaikh Othman on the 
mainland, with the villages of Imad and Hiswa and Perim Island. 

Under the provisions of the Aden Colony Order, 1936, Aden became the 
Colony of Aden on 1 April, 1937. The colony is administered by a governor, 
who is also commander-in-chief, aided by an executive council which in 1948 
comprised 6 members. The council consists of the chief secretary, attorney 
general, financial secretary and such other persons as the governor may from 
time to time appoint. Under the provisions of the Aden Colony (Amend- 
ment) Order 1944 which came into force on 24 October, 1946, a legislative 
council was established in January 1947. It consists of the governor as 
president, 4 ex-officio members, not more than 4 official members and not 
more than 8 unofficial members. 

Area 75 square miles : including the protectorate and the Hadhramaut, 
about 11 2,000 square miles; of Perira, 6 square miles. Population of Aden 
(census of October, 1946): 80,51 6 (males, 60,689; females, 29,927) ; popula- 
tion of Perim : 360 (males, 202 ; females, 168). There were 9,456 Indians, 
7,273 Jews and 365 Europeans in Aden. Vital statistics : 



ADEN 



217 



Year 


Live Births 


Still Births 


Marriages 


Divorces 


Deaths 


1946 


2,224 


174 








1,764 


1947 


2,610 


185 








1,935 


1948 


2,192 


131 


1,498 * 


1,000 


1,681 



1 1,472 Arabs and Indian Moslems; 14 Jews; 6 Bohras (Moslems); 6 Hindus. 
* 994 Arabs and Indian Moslems ; 5 Jews ; 1 Bohra. 

Education in Aden Colony is under the control of the Director of Educa- 
tion. In the Eastern and Western Aden Protectorates it is under the 
immediate general guidance of the British Agents ; but the Government 
Department of Education inspects schools within the area. In the colony 
the government maintains 5 boys and 3 girls primary schools and 1 boys' 
secondary school. There are in addition 8 aided primary schools for boys, 
6 of which have a secondary section, and 4 aided primary schools for girls, 2 
of which have a secondary section. There are also a number of unrecognised 
schools. In all schools in the colony there are 5,215 pupils in primary or 
indigenous school classes (including 765 girls) and 1,132 pupils in secondary 
schools (including 147 girls). A number of students are sent abroad on 
scholarships for further education. Classes for adult females are conducted 
at the government girls' school. Commercial classes are held at the govern- 
ment secondary school and at a privately run commercial institution. The 
former advisory committee has been replaced by elected school committees 
representing the parents. 

The British Council opened an institute for men in 1940 and an institute 
for women in 1942. 

There were, in 1949, 7 cinemas with a seating capacity of 4,330. 

The government revenue is from duties on liquor, tobacco, motor spirit, 
opium and salt, and from income tax, court fees, judicial fines and local 
taxes. The total revenue during the year 1947-48 amounted to Rs. 
121,12,421, and the expenditure to Rs. 92,80,631. There is a Port Trust 
which issues a separate administrative report containing information 
on the port. Imports (1948), by sea, Rs. 351,278,439; by land, Rs. 
14,671,583; treasure (sea and land), Rs. 2,158,309; total imports, Rs. 
368,108,331 (1947, Rs. 329,748,238). Chief imports:- Fuel oil, petrol, 
kerosene, cotton piece-goods, grain, gums, hides and skins, tobacco, coal, 
coft'ee, sugar, fruits, vegetables and other provisions. Exports, by sea, 
Rs. 167,027,481; by land, Rs. 5,357,908; treasure (sea and land), 
Rs. 1,034,221; total exports, Rs. 173,419,610 (1947, Rs. 168,694,846). 
Chief exports : Salt, coffee, gums, hides and skins, cotton piece-goods, 
tobacco, grain, sugar and other provisions. These statistics are exclusive 
of government stores and treasure. In 1948, 2,994 merchant vessels of 
11,818,392 tons (net) entered the port of Aden, of which 1,677 were British; 
in the same year 2,260 country (local) craft of 142,858 tons entered. The 
harbour of Perim was closed for shipping from November, 1936. Aden 
itself produces little, its chief industries being the manufacture of 
salt and cigarettes and building of dhows. The trade is largely a 
transhipment. 

The Aden Protectorate (area about 112,000 square miles) lies to the 
east, west and north of the colony of Aden and consists of the territories 
and dependencies of Arab chiefs in protectorate treaty relations with His 
Majesty's Government. It is bounded on the east by the Qara country, 
which is part of the dominions of the Sultan of Muscat and Oman, and on 
the north and west by the Great Desert and the Kingdom of Yemen, whose 



218 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



southern boundary was temporarily fixed by Article III of the Treaty of 
Sana' (February, 1934), by which His Majesty's Government and the Yemen 
Government agreed to maintain the status quo frontier as it was on the 
date of tho signing of the treaty. The coastline of the Aden Protectorate, 
which is about 750 miles long, starts in the west from Husn Murad, opposite 
the island of Perim, and it runs eastward to Ras Dharbat 'AH, where it 
meets the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman. The population (of which no 
census has ever been taken) is estimated to be about 600,000. 

The Aden Protectorate is divided into the Western Aden Protectorate 
and the Eastern Aden Protectorate. The former consists of 19 sultanates 
and His Highness the Sultan of Lahej, Fadl 'Abdul Karim, is the premier 
chief. The Eastern Aden Protectorate comprises tho Hadhramaut (con- 
sisting of the Qu'aiti State of Shihr and Mukalla and the Kathiri State of 
Seiyun), the Mahri Sultanate of Qishn and Soqotra, the Wahidi Sultanates 
of Bir 'Ali and Balihaf, and the Sheikhdoms of 'Irqa and Haura. His 
Highness Sultan Sir Sahh bin Ghalib al Qu'aiti, K.O.M.G., Sultan of Shihr 
and Mukalla, is the premier chief of the Eastern Aden Protectorate, and 
the Hadhramaut is the mo?t important arid best organized of these areas. 
By treaties of 1938 and 1939 respectively a Resident Adviser was appointed 
to the Qu'aiti State of Shihr and Mukalla and the Kathiri State of Seiyun. 
Mulalla on the coast is the seat of government of the Qu'aiti State and 
Seiyun is the capital of the Kathiri State. The Hadhramaut is bounded 
on the east by the Mahri Sultanate and on the west by the Wahidi 
Sultanates. The Mahri Sultanate of Qishn and Soqotra is the most easterly 
area in the Aden Protectorate. Tho Sultan resides on the island of Soqotra 
(area 1,400 square miles), which lies 150 miles from Capo Guardafui. The 
population, said to number about 12,000, is mostly pastoral inland, fishing 
on the coast. Religion formerly Christian, but Moslem since the end of 
the seventeenth century. Chief products, dates and various gums ; sheep, 
cattle (hump-less) and goats are plentiful; butter is exported. The Sultan 
entered into protectorate treaty relations with His Majesty's Government 
in 1886. Principal village, Tamarida. 

In the Qu'aiti State of Shihr and Mukalla and in the Sultanate of Lahej 
there are now separate state departments of education. Lahej had in 
1948, a secondary school with 140 boys, while at Gheil ba Wazir boarding 
school in the Qu'aiti state there were 125 boys. No other education in the 
protectorate is above primary standard. There were, in 1949, 58 inspected 
schools with an enrolment of 4,378 pupils, including 196 girls. 

The Aden Protectorate, which is not directly administered, is under the 
control of the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Aden. 

Total trade (in ) between Aden (Colony and Protectorate) and the 
United Kingdom (Board of Trade returns) : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports into U.K. . 
Exports from U.K. 
Re-exports from U.K. 


61,357 
476,918 
15,460 


1,518,053 
2,236,483 
3,327 


629,425 
1,965,491 
13,230 


875,601 
2,521,089 
33,389 


808,322 
2,816,221 
54,014 



Governor and Ccmma-nder -in-Chief. Sir Reginald S. Champion, 
K.C.M.G., O.B.E. (appointed 21 December, 1944). 

Chief Secretary. W. R. C. Goode (appointed 5 Nov., 1949). 

The Kuria Maria islands form part of the Colony of Aden and are at 
present controlled on behalf of the Governor by the Resident in the Persian 



BORNEO (BRITISH) 219 

Gulf. The islands are situated in the Kuria Muria Bay off the south coast 
of Oman at 55 55' eastern longitude. They were given to the British 
Government by the Sultan of Muscat in 1854. They are 5 in number : 
Haskiyah (1 square mile), Suda (5 square miles, rising to 1,300 feet), Hal- 
laniyah (22 square miles, rising to 1,600 feet; about 70 inhabitants in 1947), 
Gharzaut, Jibliyah (from W. to E.). 

The island of Kamaran in the Red Sea, about 200 miles north of Perim, 
was taken by the British from the Turks in 1915, and is, since 1 Feb., 1949, 
administered by the Governor of Aden through a Civil Administrator. It 
has an area of 22 square miles and a population of about 2,200. A 
quarantine station for pilgrims travelling to Mecca from the East is main- 
tained on the island under the joint control of the Government of India 
and the Government of the Netherlands Indies. 

Civil Administrator. Major D. Thompson, O.B.E. 

Books of Reference. 

Annual Report on Aden, 1948. H.M.S.O., 1950. 

Forbes (H. O.), The Natural History of Sokotra and Abd-el-Kuri. Liverpool, 1903. 
Ingrams (W. H.), A Report on the Social, Economic and Political Condition of the 
Hadhramaut. London, 1936. Arabia and the Isles. London, 1938. 
Kossmat (P.). Geologic der Tnseln fiokotra. Semha, etc. Vienna, 1902. 
Meulen (D. van der), Aden to the Hadramaut. London, 1947. 
Stark (F.), Seen in the Hadhramaut. London, 1938. 



BORNEO (BRITISH). 

North Borneo occupies the northern part of the island of Borneo. The 
interior is mountainous, Mount Kinabalu being 13,455 feet high. 

The territory was a British protected state administered by the British 
North Borneo Company under royal charter granted in 1881. The 
sovereign rights and assets of the Company were transferred to the Crown 
with effect from 15 July, 1946. On that date, the island of Labuan (see 
p. 221) became part of the now colony of North Borneo and the first Colonial 
Government assumed the administration of the territory. 

The government is administered by a Governor aided by an appointed 
Advisory Council of 22 members of whom 8 are officials and 14 unofficial. 
There is also an Executive Committee consisting of 6 officials and 3 un- 
officials. 

From January, 1942, to 10 September, 1945, North Borneo was in 
the occupation of the Japanese. The country suffered heavily; the 
principal towns and villages were destroyed. Much repair work has already 
been done, and the railway carried, in 1948, more traffic than ever before. 

Area, about 29,387 square miles, with a coastline of over 900 miles. 
Population (1931 census), 270,223, of whom 205,218 were natives and 
47,972 Chinese. In 1948, the population (including Labuan) was estimated 
to be 336,000. The native population comprises Dusuns (mainly agricul- 
tural), Bajaus and Bruneis (mainly occupied in fishing), Muruts (hill tribes), 
Suluks (mostly sea-faring) and several smaller tribes. The Labuan popula- 
tion, which was 8,963 in 1941, comprises mainly Malays and Chinese. 

The principal towns are situated on the coast. These are Jesselton (the 
capital), Kudat, Sandakan, Lahad Datu and Tawau on the mainland, and 
Victoria on the island of Labuan. 

There are Protestant and Catholic missions. The laws of the mainland 
are based on the Indian penal, criminal and civil procedure codes, and local 



220 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



ordinances; in the island of Labuan, Straits Settlements laws generally 
apply. There are native courts for native and Moslem law and custom. 





1939 


1940 


1946* 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Revenue 
Expenditure 
Imports 
Exports 



416,701 
226,666 
786,708 
1,597,976 * 



503,436 
249,138 
1,186,718 
2,386,461 


$ 

1,833,259 
1,623,949 
8,156,886 
4,009,366 


$ 

7,171,068 s 
4,979,071* 
20,471,707 
16,932,637 


$ 

8,578,058 
6,892,320* 
25,419,172 
29,743,954* 


$ 
9,650,895 
7,926,070 
33,970,972 
37,716,589* 



* From 15 July (resumption of civil administration) to 31 December only. 

1 Including treasure and transhipment trade. Estimates. 

* Includes railway revenue. 

4 Recurrent; the special expenditure for rehabilitation is estimated at $6,940,297 in 1947 
(including $2,591,078 for redemption of pre-war British North Borneo Chartered Company 
currency); $4,498,813 in 1948; $6,404,808 in 1949. 

* In all probability the true figures for exports are considerably greater as the values 
given for timber, tobacco, manila hemp and some other commodities are nominal and subject 
to adjustment when the sale price is known. 

Most of the trade is carried through Singapore and Hong Kong. The 
main imports for 1948 were rice, provisions, textiles and apparel, tobacco 
and sundries. Comparative pre-war and post-war figures are given in the 
following table (in $1,000) : 





1939 


1940 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Rice 


1,038 


1,452 


2,960 


4,282 


6,017 


Provisions 


812 


998 


3,606 


3,557 


4,347 


Textiles and apparel 


783 


1,201 


2,827 


2,824 


8,799 


Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes 


446 


413 


1,879 


2,438 


1,998 


Ironware 


431 


670 








___ 


Sundries 


372 


698 


451 


478 





Sugar . 
Vehicles 





~ 








2,388 
1,340 



The main exports are as follows (in million dollars) :- 





1940 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Kubber 












14-50 


11-26 


18-50 


15-90 


Timber 












2-20 


1-50 


3-00 


6-40 


Cutch 












65 





50 


1-10 


Hemp 












55 


60 


60 


80 


Dried and i 


jaltfis 


h 








65 


50 


60 


50 


Tobacco 












45 


_ 


1-50 


2-00 


Firewood 












-40 


25 


25 


1-50 


Copra 












30 


50 


1-70 


7-50 



Merchant shipping (men-of-war and government vessels excluded) 
amounting to 813,722 tons nett register, used the ports in 1948, and cargo 
totalling 201,244 tons was handled. 

A railway, 96 miles, runs from Jesselton on Gaya Bay to Melalap in the 
interior, with a branch (20 miles) from Beaufort to Weston on Brunei Bay. 
There are 151 miles of metalled roads, 204 miles of earth roads and 601 miles 
of bridle paths. 

At Jesselton and Sandakan there are branches of the Hongkong and 
Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia 



BOENEO (BRITISH) 



221 



and China. The Hongkong bank has also a branch at Tawau. 
facilities exist at Labuan. 



Agency 



Labuan is an island, 35 square miles in area, lying 6 miles off the north- 
west coast of Borneo. It has a fine port, Victoria Harbour, safe and easy of 
access. The settlement comprises 7 smaller islands, some of which are under 
cultivation. It was ceded to Great Britain by the Sultan of Brunei in 1846 ; 
for its chequered administrative history see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 
1947, p. 189. In 1946 Labuan was re-united with North Borneo. The 
estimated population (1947) was 9,253. Capital, Victoria, 2,022 inhabitants 
(census, 1931). 

Total trade (in ) between North Borneo and the United Kingdom 
(Board of Trade returns) : 





1938 


1946 


1947 l 


1948 


1949 


Imports into U.K. 
Exports from U.K. . 
Be-exports from U.K. 


411,980 
49,694 
1,657 


160,923 
378,212 
49 


457,071 
1,030,524 
6,758 


1,107,922 
1,784,982 
9,837 


846,656 
2,367,115 

18,528 



1 Including Labuan. 
Commander -in- Chief. Ma j . - G en. 



Governor and 
K.B.E., M.C., T.D. 

Chief Secretary. J. Calder, C.M.G. 



Sir Ralph Hone, 



Brunei. A state on the north-west coast of Borneo, lying between lat. 
4 2' and 5 3' N. and long. 114 4' and 115 22' E. It is bounded on all 
sides by Sarawak territory, an intrusion of which splits the state into two 
separate parts. Area about 2,226 square miles with a coast line of about 
100 miles. Census population, 1947, 40,657; including 394 Europeans, 
31,161 Malays and Borneans, 8,300 Chinese and 434 Indians. Capital is 
Brunei (population about 10,620), on Brunei river 9 miles from its mouth, 
758 nautical miles distant from Singapore. Climate is of tropical marine 
type, hot and moist, with cool nights. 

In 1847 the Sultan of Brunei entered into a treaty with Great Britain for 
the furtherance of commercial relations and the suppression of piracy, and 
in 1888, by a further treaty, the state was placed under the protection of 
Great Britain. In 1906, by treaty, the general administration of the state 
was entrusted to a British Resident, whose advice must be asked and acted 
upon in all questions other than those affecting Malay customs and the 
Islamic religion. The present Sultan is His Highness Sir Ahmed Tajudin 
Akhazul Khairi Wadin, K.B.E., C.M.G. (succeeded in 1924). The supreme 
authority in the state is vested in the Sultan in Council, which at present 
consists of 12 members, including the British Resident, with His Highness 
the Sultan as President. On 1 May, 1948, the Governor of Sarawak became 
High Commissioner for Brunei. 

The country was under Japanese occupation from 16 December, 1941, to 
10 June, 1945. British military administration lasted from this date until 
6 July, 1946. 

The Resident is assisted by 2 Assistant Residents. The heads of the 
Police, Agriculture, Forest, Medical, Customs and Public Works Depart- 
ments are European officers, usually of the Sarawak establishment. 

The principal products are crude oil, rubber, jelutong and sago. Native 
industries include boat building, cloth-weaving and the manufacture of brass 



222 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

and silver ware. Most of the interior is under forest, containing large 
potential supplies of serviceable timber. 

In 1948 the Seria oilfields produced 2,645,412 metric tons; in 1949, 
3,302,879 metric tons. 

Revenue, 1949, 1,019,717; estimated revenue, 1950, 1,115,041. Ex- 
penditure, 1949, 493,323; estimated expenditure, 1950, 988,901. 

Imports, 1948, 4,083,369; exports, 1948, 5,723,213. Imports from 
the United Kingdom, 1947, 5,299; 1948, 73,865; 1949, 60,461. 

Free vernacular education in the Malay language is provided by the state. 
There were 25 vernacular schools in 1948, with 2,029 pupils. In addition 
there were 5 Chinese vernacular schools with 984 pupils and 3 private 
English schools. 

The police force consists of 167 officers and men (full strength, 172) under 
the chief police officer, an assistant commissioner from Sarawak con- 
stabulary. 

There were 5 post offices in the state in 1949. 

There is a central wireless station at Bunei in direct communication 
with Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo. There are also 3 subsidiary 
wireless stations at Belait, Seria and Temburong for internal traffic. Com- 
munication by small Straits Steamship Company's vessels and by launches 
is regularly maintained with Labuan, distant about 35 miles from Brunei. 

The currency is the Malayan dollar, with a par value of 2s. 4d. 

British Resident. E. E. F. Pretty. 

Sarawak. Area about 47,000 square miles, coast line 450 miles, many 
rivers navigable. The government of part of the present territory was 
obtained on 24 September, 1841, by Sir James Brooke from the Sultan of 
Brunei. Various accessions were made between 1861 and 1905. Under an 
agreement of 1888, Sarawak was placed under the protection of Great Britain. 
A supplementary agreement concluded in November, 1941, provided for 
the appointment of a British representative with certain limited powers. 
On 16 December, 1941, Sarawak was occupied by the Japanese. After the 
liberation, the Rajah took over his administration from the British military 
authorities on 15 April, 1946. He had previously proposed to the British 
Government the cession of Sarawak to the British crown. 

On 24 September, 1941, the Rajah began to rule through a constitution. 
Since 1855 two bodies, known as the Supreme Council and the Council 
Negri, had been in existence. By the constitution of 1941 they were given, 
by the Rajah, powers roughly corresponding to those of a colonial executive 
council and legislative council respectively. The Council Negri, on 17 May, 
1946, authorized the Act of Cession by 19 to 16 votes. During 1947, District 
and Divisional Advisory Councils on a representative basis, and 5 Local 
Authorities were established. 

Final figures of the population census of 26 Nov., 1947, show a total of 
546,385 (increase since 1939, 11%), consisting of Malays, Dayaks, Milanaus, 
Kayans, Kenyahs, Muruts, and other minor tribes, with Chinese and other 
settlers. Estimated population, 1950, 550,000. 

The chief towns are the capital, Kuching, about 18 miles inland, on 
the Sarawak River, Sibu, 80 miles up the Rejang River, which is navigable 
by large steamers, and Miri, the headquarters of the Sarawak Oilfields, Ltd. 
There are Church of England, Roman Catholic, American Methodist, 
Seventh Day Adventist and Borneo Evangelical missions with schools. 
The revenue is derived chiefly from customs duty, royalty on oil, land 
revenue, timber royalty, exemption tax payable by Malays, and from 
Dayak and Kayan revenue. 



CYPRUS 223 

Actual revenue, 1947, $12,879,213; 1948, $15,783,896; revised estimated 
revenue, 1949, $14,966,492; estimated, 1950, $17,152,624. Actual expend- 
iture, 1947 $10,986,633; 1948, $13,025,257; revised estimate, 1949, 
$20,211,672; estimated, 1950, $19,493,795. 

The country produces rubber, sago, oil, rice, pepper, gold and jungle 
produce. These are also known coal deposits. A considerable oil field is 
being developed at Miri. The trade is mostly with Singapore. In 1948, 
vessels of 1,600,699 tons entered and vessels of 1,379,674 tons left Sarawak 
from and to foreign ports. 

Imports, 1948, $98,769,885. Exports, 1948, $171,250,887. Exports to the 
United Kingdom, 1947, 126,365; 1948, 216,100; 1949, 268,259. Imports 
from the United Kingdom, 1947, 239,953; 1948, 458,050; 1949, 545,827. 

There is a constabulary of about 1,000 men, principally Dayaks and 
Malays, under European officers. There are no railways. There are 147 
miles of metalled road and 313 miles of earth roads, besides bridle paths. 
There are 36 post offices. The Government offices have a telephone system 
extending over Kuching and Upper Sarawak, and there is communication 
by wireless with Singapore, etc. There are wireless stations at Kuching, 
Miri, Sibu, Lundu, Mukah, Simanggang, Bintulu, Sarikei, Meluan, Kapit, 
Limbang, Baram, Saratok, Matu, Belingian, Selalang, Tatau, Lawas and 
Kanowit. Distance from London, 8,700 miles; transit, 25 to 30 days. 
Telegrams are sent by wireless via Singapore. 

The Post Office Savings Bank had 2,675 depositors at the end of 1948; 
the amount at their credit was $865,054. 

Sarawak and Straits Settlements currency, $1 = 2s. 4<. 

Governor and C.-in-C. Anthony Foster Abell, C.M.G. (sworn in, 4 April, 
1950). 

Chief Secretary. R. G. Aikman. 

Books o! Reference. 

Annual Report on North Borneo for 1948. H M.S.O., 1950. 

Annual lleport on Sarawak for 1948. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Annual lleport on Brunei for 1918. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Baring-Gould (S.) and Bampfylde (C. A.), History of Sarawak (1839-1908). London, 
1909. 

Cheesman (E. E.), Cultivation of Cocoa in Malaya, Sarawak and North Borneo (Colonial 
No. 230). li.M.S.O., 1948. 

Harrison (Tom) (editor), Borneo Jungle : An Account of the Oxford Expedition to 
Sarawak. London, 1938. 

Hose (0.), Fifty Years of Romance and Researcb. London, 1927. Natural Man: A 
Record from Borneo. London, 1926. 

Keith (Agnes), Land Below the Wind (North Borneo). London, 1939. 

Krohn (W. 0.), In Borneo Jungles. London, 1927. 

Roth (H. Linj?), The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo. 2 vols. London 1896 

Rutter (0.), The Pagans of North Borneo. London, 1929. 



CYPRUS. 

Constitution and Government. Cyprus is 40 miles from the coast 
of Asia Minor and 60 from the coast of Syria. At a very early date important 
Greek and Phoenician colonies were established in Cyprus and later it 
formed part of the Persian and Roman Empires. Its government frequently 
changed hands until 1571, when the Turks conquered the island from the 
Venetians, and retained possession of it until its cession to England for 
administrative purposes under a convention concluded with the Sultan at 
Constantinople, 4 June, 1878. On the outbreak of hostilities with Turkey 
on 5 November, 1914, the island was annexed. On 1 May, 1925, the island 



224 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

was given the status of a colony by letters patent, and the High Commis- 
sioner became Governor. There is an Executive Council, consisting, at 
present, of the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Financial 
Secretary, together with 2 non-official members. On 13 Nov., 1931, under 
letters patent, the Legislative Council, which had first been constituted in 
1882, ceased to exist, and power to make laws was granted to the Governor. 
Municipal corporations exist in 15 principal towns. Since April, 1943, 
members of the councils are elected by all male residents 21 years old or 
over. Since 1 December, 1931, the appointment of the mukhtars (head- 
men) of villages has been vested in the Governor. On 1 Nov., 1947, a con- 
sultative assembly drawn from representative elements of the island was 
convened to frame proposals for constitutional reforms, including the re- 
establishment of a central legislature. In May, 1948, a new constitution was 
proposed by His Majesty's Government for consideration by the Assembly. 
These proposals proved unacceptable to 7 Greek members of the Assembly 
who declared that they would no longer be able to take part in its delibera- 
tions. In these circumstances, which gravely diminished its representative 
character, the Assembly was dissolved on 12 Aug., 1948, but the offer of a 
constitution was not withdrawn. If responsible and fully representative 
political leaders in Cyprus ask that these or comparable constitutional 
proposals might be re-examined or implemented, or if there is any genuine 
manifestation of public opinion in their favour, His Majesty's Government 
will take the necessary steps. 

Governor. Sir Andrew Barkworth Wright, K.C.M.G., C.B.E., M.C. 
(Salary, 4,500, of which amount 1,200 is payable to the officer from time 
to time administering the government). 

Colonial Secretary. Roland E. Turnbull, C.M.G. (appointed 14 June, 
1945). 

Area and Population. Area, 3,572 square miles ; about 140 miles is 
greatest length from east to west, and about 60 miles is greatest breadth 
from north to south. Average rainfall for the past 10 years, 21-16 inches. 
Most of the rain falls between October and March. 

Population by religions at dilferent censuses : 



Religion 


1921 


1931 


1946 l 


Greek Orthodox 
Moslems .... 
Others .... 

Total . 


244,887 
61,339 
4,489 


276,573 
64,238 
7,148 


361,199 
80,548 
8,367 


810,705 


347,959 


450,114 



1 Excluding military and camps. 

Inhabitants per square mile, 1948, 131. Births registered, 1948, 14,980; 
deaths registered, 1948, 3,955. 

The principal towns are Nicosia (the capital), population 36,352; 
Limassol, 24,140; Famagusta, 17,618; Larnaca, 15,245; Paphos, 6,015, 
and Kyrenia, 3,060. There are 6 administrative districts named after these 
towns. 



Education. There is a separate educational system for each religion. 
Elementary schools are under the control of the Government, assisted by an 
advisory Board of Education for each religious community. In 1948-49 



CYPBUS 



225 



there were 484 Greek (48,209 pupils), 206 Moslem (11,166 pupils) and 5 
Maronite schools (270 pupils) ; also 5 Armenian and 5 Latin schools under 
independent management. 

Secondary schools (subject to varying degrees of state control) included : 
12 classical gymnasiums, 10 schools with an academic curriculum other than 
classical, 5 commercial schools, 1 government school of the grammar school 
type, 5 Turkish schools including 3 branch schools, 2 American academies, 
4 Roman Catholic schools. There is a government training college for 
schoolmasters, a mistresses' training centre, an agricultural school, an appren- 
tices' training centre and a boys' reform school. There is also a juvenile 
welfare service which includes a probation service. 

The total government-controlled expenditure on education in 1948 was 
889,924, of which 613,678 was from colonial revenue. 

Greek, Turkish and English are the official languages. English is spread- 
ing rapidly. There are 3 English, 6 Turkish and 18 Greek newspapers. 

Justice. The colony is divided into 6 judicial districts, viz., Nicosia, 
Kyrenia, Famagusta, Larnaca, Limaesol and Paphos. The present judicial 
system also provides for (1) a supreme court with appellate jurisdiction, both 
civil and criminal, over the decisions of all other courts, and original jurisdic- 
tion as a colonial court of Admiralty under the Imperial Act of 1890 and in 
matrimonial causes, with powers in such causes similar to those of the High 
Court in England; (2) 6 assize courts, having unlimited criminal jurisdic- 
tion; (3) 6 district courts, having unlimited civil jurisdiction, and summary 
jurisdiction hi criminal cases. There are also 3 Sheri Courts, for Moslems 
only, which administer the Moslem Sheri or religious law, and an appeal lies 
from their decisions to the Supreme Court. 

In 1948 the number of offences was 36,660, excluding 4,181 offences under 
the Supplies and Services (Transitional Powers) Act, and the number of 
persons committed to prison was 2,343 convicted, 491 unconvicted. Strength 
of police force, 31 Deo., 1948, 37 officers and 975 men. Strength of prison 
service, 31 Dec., 1948, 5 officers, 86 permanent and 43 temporary men. 

Finance. The revenue and expenditure for 5 years, exclusive of 
grants-in-aid, share of the Turkish debt charge, and colonial development 
fund grants and expenditure, were (in sterling) : 





1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Be venue 
Expenditure . 


3,105,701 
3,334,476 


4,292.720 
3,736,947 


6,040,442 
4,546,992 


5,825,823 
5,675,820 


4,458,164 
4,391,327 



1 Estimates. 

Chief sources of revenue, 1948 : Customs duties and port dues, etc., 
2,732,418; income tax, excise duties, property and animal taxes, licences, 
stamp duties, etc., 2,203,847; court receipts and payments for specific 
services, etc., 232,003; forest revenue, 40,153: railway, 80,332; mis- 
cellaneous receipts, 274,773. Annual grants from imperial funds (not 
included above), 92,800. 

The expenditure for 1948 includes railway expenditure, 82,782. The 
share of Cyprus in the Turkish debt charge, not included in the above 
expenditure, amounts to 92,800 annually; public debt, on 31 December, 
1948, amounted to 2,911,017. 

Since 1928 Cyprus contributes 10,000 annually to imperial defence. 



226 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Production. Chief agricultural products in 1948 : Wheat, 1,291,989 
bushels; barley, 1,947,752 bushels; oats, 167,214 bushels; vetches, 250,078 
bushels; olives, 6,686 tons; carobs, 42,104 tons; potatoes, 43,354 tons; 
raisins, 2,714 tons; cotton (unginned), 586 tons; cheese, 24,100 cwt. ; 
linseed, 3,820 cwt.; flax, 680 cwt.; hemp, 1,220 cwt.; silk cocoons, 2,406 
cwt. ; wines, 2,955,708 gallons; olive oil, 1,168 tons. 

Of the island's 2-3 million acres, approximately 1 million are farmed, 
out of which 570,000 acres are cropped annually. There are two main 
potato crops. 

Livestock in 1948: Cattle (including draught oxen), 36,932; horses 
and mules, 14,127; donkeys, 53,989; sheep, 291,346; goats, 186,534; pigs, 
43,877. 

The Forest Department has done much for the preservation and develop- 
ment of the forests existing at the time of the British occupation, and for the 
re-afforestation of denuded districts. The area of delimited forest is 622 
square miles. Sponge fishing is usuaDy carried on from June to October. 

The principal minerals exported during 1948 were : Iron pyrites, 369,925 
long tons; cupreous concentrates, 79,100 long tons; cement copper, 1,550 
long tons; asbestos, 7,980 long tons; gypsum, 18,321 long tons; umber, 
4,882 long tons ; chromite, 6,790 long tons. 

Trade Unions. Cyprus has in the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes 
Law of 1941, which replaced the Trade Union Law of 1932, trade union 
legislation on the lines of the English trade union acts. All combinations, 
whether workmen or masters, which have as their principal objects the 
regulation of the relations between workmen and masters, or between 
workmen and workmen, or between masters and masters, are considered to 
be trade unions. Registration is compulsory. At the end of 1946 there were 
registered 11 masters' associations and 144 workmen's unions, with a total 
membership of 658 and 13,414, respectively. Many of these small unions 
have recently amalgamated into fairly large pan-cyprian organizations. 

Commerce. The commerce and the shipping, exclusive of coasting 
trade, for 5 calendar years were : 



| 1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Merchandise : 
Imports 
Exports 
Bullion and specie : 
Imports 
Shipping entered 
and cleared 




4,804,767 
2,452,496 

24,036 
Tons 
474,126 



5,327,709 
3,532,787 

11,908 
Tons 
759,060 




8,123,709 
4,202,300 

14,126 
Tons 
1,610,436 



J 3.562,926 
6,140,734 

31,963 
Tons 
2,701,670 



15,407,639 
5,678,617 

158,452 
Tons 
2,973,572 



Chief civil imports, 1948 (in sterling): 



Wheat 


1 168.967 


Confectionery 




96,334 


Barley ..... 
Beans and peas 


454,541 
172,302 


Fish, dried, salted or pickled 
Fish, tinned, in oil or tornatx 


j 


83,953 


Bice 


76,066 


paste . . 








64,052 


Flour, wheaten, including semo- 




Coconut oil . 








136,407 


lina .... 


425,062 


Cotton seed oil 








64,911 


Fodder for animals (except bran) 
Butter substitutes . 


114,933 
119,075 


Groundnut oil 
Olive oil 








130,274 
95,342 


Milk, condensed 


126,380 


Sugar . 








326,262 


Beer and ale . 


51,339 


Tobacco, unmanuf 


acture 


d 




79,990 


Coffee, raw .... 


68,508 


Cigarettes . 








200,412 


Chocolates .... 


61,306 


Coal . 








56,835 



CYPRUS 



227 



Planks, boards, logs, etc. . 


655,668 


Woollen piece-goods 


549,657 


Timber, ready cut . 


78,785 


Artificial silk piece-goods 


188,493 


Cotton, ginned 


57,413 


Sacks, empty 


122,578 


Coconut oil, unrefined 


70,611 


Hosiery .... 


78,242 


Petroleum oils (other than ben- 




Underwear .... 


65,357 


zine and kerosene) . 
Earthenware and china . 


161,451 

89,806 


Leather boots and shoes 
Manure, chemical . 


107,743 
338,374 


Glass and glassware 


135,780 


Chemical manufactures, not 




Cement 


230,099 


elsewhere specified . 


122,386 


Iron and steel : 




Drugs, proprietary medicines 




Hare, joists, sheets, etc. 


206,531 


and medicinal preparations 


125,499 


Pipes and their fittings. 


117,309 


Paints, colours and varnishes . 


80,115 


Manufactures of iron and steel, 




Benzine 


353,447 


not elsewhere specified 


307,989 


Kerosene 


244,838 


Hardware and cutlery 
Tools used in handicraft . 


177,637 
61,253 


Lubricating oils 
Soap, common 


70,303 
94,593 


Electrical goods 


367,227 


Leather, dressed 


108,080 


Machinery 


1,095, Ofil 


Leather, sole 


56,294 


Wooden manufactures . 


103,909 


Paper and paper goods . 


157',610 


Cotton yarn .... 


198,876 


Bicycles 


110,267 


Cotton thread, finished . 


89,978 


Motor cars . 


26i,753 


Cotton piece-goods . 


688,847 


Chassis for motor cars . 


109,000 


Cotton manufactures, other 




Motor car parts 


86,503 


(except apparel) 


82,726 


Tyres for motor cars 


96.290 


Woollen and worsted yarn 


63,195 


Stationery .... 


106,266 



Chief exports, 1948 (in sterling):-- 



Carobs : 




Tobacco, unmanufactured 




95,498 


Whole 










39,172 


Hides and skins, undiessed 




65,582 


Kibble 










443,159 


Asbestos 




374,940 


Seed, incluc 


ingg< 


s rm 






91,609 


Copper cement 








81,562 


Grape fruit 
Oranges. 










102,409 
328,757 


Cupreous concentr 
Iron pyrites . 


ates 






1,256,500 
499,468 


Carob juice 










122,275 


Cummseed . 








63,710 


Onions . 










68,605 


Seed potatoes 








270 858 


Potatoes (except seed potatoes] 
Spirits, brandy 
Wine (except commandaria) 




150,591 
67,404 
172,464 


Buttons 
Mules . 








170,705 
104,344 






1 



In 1948, the United Kingdom supplied 38-07% of the imports (1947, 
31-36%), other parts of the Commonwealth 19-27% (21-18%); of the ex- 
ports, 20-83% went to the United Kingdom (1947, 28-69%), 20-61% to 
Germany (13-11%), 11-49% to France (12-18%). 

Imports from United Kingdom (Board of Trade returns) 1938, 794,941 ; 
1947, 2,125,273; 1948, 1,910,923; 1949, 1,780,398. Exports to United 
Kingdom, 1938, 658,212; 1947, 3,892,293; 1948, 4,674,887; 1949, 
4,158,480. 

Communications, etc. The primary system of arterial or main roads 
totals 882 miles, of which 724 miles have an asphalt-treated surface. The 
secondary system of feeder or village roads totals 1,816 miles. There are 
446 miles of telegraph lines; cable connects with Alexandria and Haifa. 
A narrow -gauge government railway runs from Famagusta harbour to 
Kalokhorio (71 miles). Telephones are extensively used for the conduct of 
private and government business. Total length of telephone lines, 9,063 
miles; number of telephones (1 Jan., 1949), 4,390. 

Civil Aviation. The following air companies operate scheduled ser- 
vices to and from or through Nicosia : Cyprus Airways Limited : twice 
weekly to Cairo, twice weekly to Beirut, thrice weekly to Athens, thrice 



228 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

weekly to Lydda, once weekly to Istanbul and twice weekly to Rome. 
The services to Rome and Athens connect with British European Airways' 
services to Southern France and the United Kingdom. Misrair : twice 
weekly to Cairo and once weekly to Istanbul. Middle East Airlines : twice 
weekly to Beirut. Hellenic Airline* : twice weekly to Athene and Paris. 
Turkish State Airlines : once weekly to Ankara and Istanbul and to 
Beirut. British Overseas Airways (Corporation : one stop per week in each 
direction on the service, London-Tripoli-Nicosia-Teheran. In addition to 
these scheduled services, numerous non -scheduled flights are made to all parts 
of the world. 

Money, etc. The Ottoman Bank, the Ionian Bank, Barclays Bank 
(B.C. and O.) and the Bank of Athens have establishments in the island, in 
addition to which there are various local banks. Moneys of account are 
pounds, shillings and Cyprus piastres. 180 Cyprus piastres or 20 shillings = 
one pound, which is equivalent to the pound sterling. Government cur- 
rency notes of 5, 1, 10*., 5a., 2$., Ls. and 3p. are in circulation, the value at 
31 Dec., 1948, being 4,708,015. Coins current Silver, 45, 18, 9, 4J and 
3 Cyprus piastres; bronze and nickel, 18, 9, 1, and J Cyprus piastres. 
Weights and measures are as follows : Length : 1 Cyprus pic = J yard ; 
Weight : 1 oke == 2-8 Ib. ; Capacity : 1 kile = 8 imperial gallons. 

Books of Reference concerning Cyprus. 

Annual Report on Cyprus, 1948. London, 1949. 

Cyprus Constitution. Despatch dat^d May 7, 1948, from the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies to the Governor of Cyprus. (Colonial No. 227.) 

Alastos (P.), Cyprus : Past and Future. London, 1944. 

Casson (Stanley), Ancient Cyprus : Ita Art and Archaeology. London, 1937. 

Chapman (Olive M.), Across Cyprus. London, 1937. 

Cobham (C. D.), An Attempt at a Bibliography of Cyprus. New edition by O. E. Jeffery. 
Cyprus, 1929. 

Bill (Sir George F.), A History of Cyprus. Cambridge, 1940. 

Mangoian (L. and H. A.) (editors), The Island of Cyprus. An Illustrated Guide and Hand- 
book. Nicosia, 1947. 

Newman (Philip), A Short History of Cyprus. London, 1940. 

Storrs (Sir B.), A Chronology of Cyprus. Nicosia, 1930. 

Storrs (Sir R.) and O'Brien (B. J.), The Handbook of Cyprus. London, 1930. 



HONG KONG. 

Constitution and Government. The Crown Colony of Hong Kong 
was ceded by China to Great Britain in January, 1841; the cession was 
confirmed by the treaty of Nanking, in August, 1842, and the charter bears 
date 5 April, 1843. 

The Japanese occupied Hong Kong on 25 December, 1941, and on 16 
September, 1945, surrendered to British forces. The military administration 
lasted until 1 May, 1946, when civil government was restored. 

The administration is in the hands of a Governor, aided by an Executive 
Council, composed of the General Officer Commanding in chief, the 
Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, 
the Financial Secretary (who are members ex-officio] and such other mem- 
bers, both official and unofficial, as may be appointed. At the end of 1949, 
there were 5 official and 6 unofficial members, three of whom were Chinese. 
There is also a Legislative Council, presided over by the Governor, and con- 
sisting of not more than 9 official members (including the same 5 ex-officio 
members listed above) and not more than 8 unofficial members. At the 
end of 1949, there were 8 official and 7 unofficial members. 



HONG KONG 229 

During 1947 the Secretary of State for the Colonies approved the pro- 
posals submitted by the late governor, Sir Mark Young, G.C.M.G., for a 
revision of the constitution. The new constitution provides for an unofficial 
majority in the legislative council, and for the establishment of a municipal 
council to which many of the functions of the present government would be 
delegated. The council which is to be partly elected and partly nominated 
will be constituted of 30 members, 1 5 of whom will represent the Chinese and 
15 the non-Chinese sections of the populations. The franchise is not con- 
fined to British subjects. 

Oovernor. Sir Alexander Grantham, K.C.M.G. 

General Officer Commanding in chief. Lieut.-Gen. Sir E. C. Robert 
Mansergh, K.B.E., C.B., M.C. 

Colonial Secretary. J. F. Nicoll, C.M.G. 

Area and Population. -Hong Kong is situated at the mouth of the 
Canton River, about 91 miles south of Canton. The island is an irregular 
and broken ridge, stretching nearly east and west about 1 1 miles, its breadth 
from 2 to 5 miles, and its area rather more than 32 square miles ; separated 
from the mainland by a narrow strait, the Lyemun Pass, about a quarter 
of a mile in width. The opposite peninsula of Kowloon (3J square miles), 
was ceded to Great Britain by treaty in October, 1860, and now forms part 
of Hong Kong. The southern shore of the extensive harbour is now built 
up for over 8 miles, nearly 5 of which are within the old limits of the City of 
Victoria, a term now seldom used. By a convention signed at Peking on 9 
June, 1898, there was leased to Great Britain for 99 years a portion of 
Chinese territory mainly agricultural, together with the waters of Mirs Bay 
and Deep Bay and some islands, including Lan-tao. Its area is 3oo square 
miles, including islands, with about 200,000 inhabitants, including a number 
of Europeans. Large areas have been reclaimed at Kowloon Bay, Wanchai 
and North Point. Total area of colony, 391 square miles. The climate of 
Hong Kong is sub-tropical, the winter being cool and dry and the summer hot 
and humid. The average rainfall is 84-26 in., May to September being the 
wettest months. 

No official census has been taken since 1931 when the population was 
849,751. By 1941 it was estimated to have risen to 1,600,000. During the 
Japanese occupation a rapid falling-off took place, and in August, 1945, it 
was estimated to be less than 600,000. 

Estimated population in Dec., 1949, was about 1,860,000, including about 
9,500 British subjects from the United Kingdom and the Dominions, 797 
Portuguese, some 3,000 British subjects of Portuguese race, 202 Americans, 
123 stateless persons and 1,920 aliens permanently resident. 

Education. Education is not compulsory, but all schools are required 
to be registered with the Education Department and, unless specially 
exempted, are inspected by its officers and are required to comply with 
government regulations as to staff, buildings, numbers of pupils and health. 

By the end of 1949, government schools had an attendance of 8,300 
pupils; grant schools, 13,750; subsidized schools, 28,000; private schools, 
93,000. In all, there were 819 schools. Northcote Teachers' Training 
College had 125 students, and the Rural Teachers' College, 48. 

In 1940 the University of Hong Kong had 572 full-time undergraduates 
(468 men, 114 women). The figures for Christmas term, 1949, were : 629 
undergraduates (450 men, 179 women). 

In 1949 there were 27 cinemas with a seating capacity of 35,462. 



230 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Justice and Crime. There is a supreme court, having original, sum- 
mary, criminal, probate, divorce, admiralty and prize jurisdiction, and courts 
of appeal, police magistrates' courts and a marine magistrates' court. In 
1949, 21,466 persons were committed to Hong Kong prisons for criminal 
offences. The police force numbered, in 1949, 3,477 men, and was com- 
posed of 42 officers, 365 inspectorate, 484 Shantung police, 2,462 Cantonese 
and 124 Indians. 

Finance. The public revenue and expenditure for the financial year 
ending 31 March were as follows : 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1941-42 * 
1947-48 


$ 

56,786,000 
164,298,310 


* 

60,642,715 
127,701,174 


1948-49 
1919-50 * 


$ 

194,933,955 
180,151,370 


$ 

159,954,023 
179,924,312 



1 Estimated. 

The revenue is derived chiefly from rates, licences, duties on liquor, 
tobacco, hydrocarbon oils and motor-cars, and a tax on earnings and profits. 

The outstanding public debt consists of $4,838,000 4% Conversion Loan 
(1933), $6,160,000 3J% Do 11 * 1 " Loan ( 1934 ) $8,018,000 3J% Dollar Loan 
(1940) and $50,000,000 3|% Rehabilitation Loan (1973-78). The Conver- 
sion Loan is redeemable in 1953 by means of a sinking fund. The Dollar 
Loans are redeemable by annual drawings over a period of 25 years. The 
Rehabilitation Loan is redeemable by a sinking fund at a rate of not less 
than 1% per annum as from 15 July, 1948. 

Industry and Commerce. The chief industries are ship-building and 
repairing, rope-making, the manufacture of paint, cement, torch batteries, 
matches and tobacco, preserving of ginger and the production of knitted 
and woven goods and canvas shoes with rubber soles. Fish is the main 
primary product. Deep-sea fishing is important, especially for the new 
territories. 

Hong Kong is a free port, except as regards the importation of intoxi- 
cating liquor, and other spirituous liquor, tobacco, proprietary medicine and 
toilet preparations, and hydrocarbon oils, and under the Ottawa Conference 
Agreements, a registration fee of 15% of their value charged on non-British 
motor- vehicles. Preference was also extended to Empire brandy and 
tobacco and tobacco manufactures. Principal articles of trade in 1948-49 
were foodstuffs, oils and fats, piece goods and textiles, Chinese medicines, 
metals, minerals and ores, paper, chemicals and drugs, dyeing and tanning 
materials, tobacco. Hong Kong is a port of call for steamship lines 
operating across the Pacific; it is also in direct communication with 
Europe, South Africa, Australia and the Americas, via the Pacific sea- 
board, the Panama Canal and the Suez and Atlantic routes. 

The trade of Hong Kong and the United Kingdom (Board of Trade 
returns, in sterling) is given as follows : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports into U.K. . 
Exports to Hong Kong . 
He-exports to Hong Kong 


1,002,360 
3,924,647 
55,878 


392,337 
5,989,526 
63,458 


2,088,387 
12,742,797 
85,948 


5,510,467 
20,575,326 
129,924 


10,269,700 
27,291,148 
126,375 



HONG KONG 231 

Imports from the British Commonwealth countries in 1949 ($769 
million) amounted to 26% of total imports (17-2% in 1938). Exports to 
British Commonwealth countries in 1949 ($542 million) were 22% of the 
goods exported from Hong Kong (16-3% in 1938). 

The total value of imports in 1949 was HK $2,750 million ; of exports HK 
$2,318 million. 

A Labour Office was established in 1938 as a sub-department of the 
Secretariat for Chinese Affairs ; in June, 1946, it was set up as a separate 
department. By the end of 1947, 147 Labour guilds were registered. 

Communications. In 1949, the colony had over 400 miles of roads, 
distributed as follows: Hong Kong Island, 173; Kowloon and New 
Kowloon districts, 106; New Territories, 125. 

There is an electric tramway of 19 miles, and a cable tramway connect- 
ing the Peak district with the lower levels in Victoria. There is a 4 ft. 8 J in. 
gauge government railway on the mainland, connecting Kowloon with 
Hankow, of which 22*06 miles are in British territory and 771 miles in Chinese. 
The receipts for the British section in 1949 were $7,234,712. 

Posts. There were 10 post offices in 1949; postal revenue (1948-49), 
$9,198,845; expenditure, $2,932,582. Telegraph and telehone routes, 
including cables, but excluding military lines, in 1949, 1,152 cable miles, 
99,505 wire miles (49,752 circuit miles). There is a wireless telegraph 
service, under the control of Cable and Wireless, Ltd., which provides for 
marine, meteorological and aeronautical communications, as well as a broad- 
casting service with facilities for medium and short-wave transmissions of 
European and Chinese programmes. Commercial wireless services are also 
under the control of Cable and Wireless, Ltd. There are also military and 
naval wireless stations. 

Shipping. Vessels engaged in foreign trade, including launches and 
junks, entering and clearing the port during 1949 totalled 44,206 vessels of 
26 million tons, while launches and junks engaged in local trade totalled 
25,081 vessels of 863,000 tons. 

Civil Aviation. The airport at Kai Tak is capable of taking aeroplanes 
up to 80,000 Ib. in weight and the adjacent marine base is suitable for all 
types of flying boats. British, Chinese, American, French, Philippine and 
Siamese airlines connect the colony by frequent scheduled services to all 
parts of the world. In 1949, 25,000 aircraft arrived on international flights. 

Money, Weights and Measures. The British banking institutions in 
the colony are the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, whose 
head office is at Hong Kong, the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and 
China, and the Mercantile Bank of India, Ltd. Note circulation of the 3 
banks in Dec., 1949, was $802,924,076. There are also several Chinese and 
foreign banks. 

The currency of the colony consists of the notes of the above-mentioned 
banks, and of Hong Kong government dollar notes and subsidiary notes of 
10-cent, 5-cent and 1-cent denominations, and 10-cent and 5-cent coins. All 
silver coin in circulation was called in under the Currency Order No. 64 of 
1935 and an exchange fund was established to control the exchange value of 
the Hong Kong dollar. On 14 Sept., 1945, Hong Kong reverted to its pre- 
war dollar currency, the dollar being worth Is. 3d. 

Weights and measures are : The Tael (leung) = 1 J oz. avoirdupois; the 
Picul (taam) = 133J Ib. (often taken as & of a ton) ; the Catty (kari) = 1J Ib. 



232 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

avoirdupois; the Chek (Chinese foot) = 14f inches (but varying from 11 J 
inches to 14-88 inches according to the custom of various trades); the 
Tsuen (Chinese inch) A of a Chek; the Cheung 10 Chek; the Lei 
(Chinese mile) = 707 to 744 yards. 

Besides the above weights and measures of China, those of Great Britain 
are in general uee. 

Books of Reference on Hong Kong. 

Annual "Report on Hong Kong, 1948. London, 1949. 
Blue Book. Annual, but not published since 1940. 
Historical and Statistical Abstract, 1841-1930. Hong Kong, 1932. 
, Hoog Kong Naturalist. 1930 ff. 

Abercrombie (Sir P.), Preliminary Planning Beport. Hong Kong, 1949. 
Davis (8. GK), Hong Kong in its Geographical Setting. Hong Kong, 1949. 
Eval (M. Y. W.), The Physiography and Igneous Geology of Hong Kong. (Transactions, 
B. Soc. of Canada, 3rd series, section 4, vol. 39, 1945.) 

Sayer (G. K.), Hong Kong : Birth, Adolescence and Coming of Age. London, 1937, 

Thorbecke (Ellen), Hong Kong. Hong Kong, 1938. 

Wood (W. A.), Brief History of ITong Kong. Hong Kong, 1940. 



FEDERATION OF MALAYA. 

Constitution and Government. The Federation of Malaya came into 
force on 1 February, 1948, as a result of consultations between representa- 
tives of the British Government, the rulers of the Malay states and the 
United Malays' National Organization. It succeeded the Malayan Union 
which was set up on 1 April, 1946, but to the constitutional arrangements 
of \yhich the Malays objected. Tho Federation consists of the same terri- 
tories as the former union, namely the 9 states of the Malay peninsula and the 
2 British settlements of Penang and Malacca ; Singapore, the third of the 
former Straits Settlements, is now a separate colony. 

The King and the Malay rulers have power to admit any other territory 
into the federation by mutual agreement. Under the High Commissioner, 
to whom power is delegated jointly by the King and the Malay rulers, the 
central Government consists of a federal executive council and federal 
legislative council. The legislative council consists of the High Com- 
missioner, 14 official members, a representative of each state and settle- 
ment council, and 50 unofficial members; it has powers of legislation in 
matters concerning the Federation as a whole. Each state is governed by 
its ruler, assisted by a state executive council and a council of state, and 
each settlement has a settlement council. The King, through the High 
Commissioner, exercises control over questions of defence and external 
relations. The rulers have agreed to accept the High Commissioner's 
advice in all matters of government, excepting those relating to the Moslem 
religion and Malay custom. The power of advice in state matters is to be 
exercised by the British adviser of each state. 

Federal citizenship may be acquired either automatically or on applica- 
tion for the High Commissioner's certificate ; the detailed regulations con- 
cerning citizenship follow the proposals set out in section 24 of Cmd. 7171. 

The legislative council was formally inaugurated on 24 February, 1948. 

Commissioner-General for the United Kingdom in South-East Asia. 
Malcolm MacDonald (appointed 29 Jan., 1946). His sphere of authority 
covers the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak and 
Brunei. 



MALAYA 233 

High Commissioner for the Federation. Sir Henry Gurney, K.C.M.G. 
(appointed 1 Oct., 1048). 

Sultan of Johore. H.H. Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Sultan Abu Bakar, 
D.K., S.P.M.J., G.C.M.G., K.B.E.(MiL), G.B.E., G.C.O.C.(I). 

Sultan of Pahang. H.H. Sultan Abu Bakar Ri'ayatu'd-Din Al-mu'adzam 
Shah ibni Al-marhum Al-mu'tasim Bi'llah Abdullah, K.C.M.G. 

Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negri Sembilan. H.H. Tuanku Abdul Rahman 
ibni Al-marhum Tuanku Muhammad, K.C.M.G. 

Sultan of Selangor. H.H. Hisamuddin Alam Shah ibni Al-marhum 
Sultan Ala-Iddin Sulaiman Shah, K.C.M.G. 

Sultan of Kedah. H.H. Tunku Badlishah ibni Al-marhum Sultan 
Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, K.C.M.G., K.B.E. 

Raja of Perils. H.H. Syed Putra ibni Al-marhum Syed Hassan 
Jamalullail, C.M.G. 

Sultan of Kelantan. H.H. Tengku Ibrahim ibni Al-marhum Sultan 
Mohamed IV, D.K., S.P.M.K., S.J.M.K., K.C.M.G. 

Sultan of Trengganu. H.H. Sultan Ismail Nairuddin ibni Al-marhum 
Sultan Zamal Abidin, C.M.G. 

Sultan of PeraL Pnduka Sri Sultan Yussuf Izzudin Shah ibni Al- 
marhum Sultan Abdul Jalil Radziallah Hti-'an-hu, K.C.M.G., O.B.E. 

History. In the period 1874-95, the former Federated Malay States 
of Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan (which is itself a federation of small 
states) and Pahang entered into treaty relations with Great Britain by which 
they sought and obtained British protection and the assistance each of a 
resident to advise the ruler, and of other British officers to assist in the 
administration. In July, 1895, these 4 states agreed to form a federation 
and to maintain a contingent of troops. In 1909 a federal council was 
constituted to pass laws concerning federal matters. 

The former Unfederated Malay States comprised Johore, Kedah, Perlis, 
Kelantan and Trengganu. The relations of Johore with Great Britain 
were denned by a treaty dated 11 December, 1885, and, by an amendment 
to this treaty made on 12 May, 1914, the Sultan agreed to accept, and to act 
upon the advice of, a British officer called the General Adviser. The 
Sultan is assisted in the administration of the state by an executive council, 
and by a legislative council consisting of official and unofficial members. 
The rights of suzerainty, protection, administration and control of the 
other 4 states were transferred from Siam to Great Britain by the Anglo- 
Siamese treaty of 10 March, 1909. 

Malacca, one of the oldest European settlements in the East, was occu- 
pied by the Portuguese under Albuquerque in 1511, and held by them till 
1641, when it passed into the possession of the Dutch, remaining in the hands 
of the Dutch till 1795, when it was captured by the English. It was restored 
(under the Treaty of Vienna) to the Dutch in 1818, being finally retroceded 
to the East India Company in 1824. 

Penang (Prince of Wales' Island) was the first British settlement in the 
Malay Peninsula, being ceded by the Sultan of Kedah to the East India 
Company in 1786, Province Wellesley being added in 1800. 

From 1826 to 1946, Malacca and Penang were incorporated with Singa- 
pore under a single government which, from 1867 onward, was a crown 
colony known as Straits Settlements. 

Area and Population. The total area of the Federation is about 
50,680 square miles. The capital is Kuala Lumpur. 



234 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



States 


Area 
sq. m. 


Population 
1947 census 


States 


Area 
sq. m. 


Population 
1947 census 


Perak 
Selaugor 
Negri Sembilan 
Pahang 
Johore 
Malacca 


7,980 
3,160 
2,580 
13,820 
7,330 
640 


953,938 
710,788 
267,668 
250 178 
738,261 
239 356 


Perlis 
Kelautan . 
Trengganu 
Penanff . 
Unlocated . 


310 
5,760 
5,050 
400 


70,490 
448,572 
225,996 
446,321 
2,087 


Kedah 


3,660 


554,141 


Federation 


60,680 


4,908,086 



Population by races, 1947 census .2,427,834 Malays; 1,884,534 
Chinese; 530,638 Indians; 10,061 Eurasians; 9,607 Europeans; other 
communities, 45,412. 

Estimated population, 30 June, 1949, 5,081,848. 

In 1948, there were 86,144 Roman Catholic and 47,461 Protestant 
Christians in Malaya. 

Education. In 1948, there were 3,785 government maintained, aided 
and private schools, of which 210 used English as the language of in- 
struction (2,646 teachers, 78,325 pupils), 1,321 were Malay schools (6,242 
teachers, 199,579 pupils), 1,364 Chinese (5,337 teachers, 189,230 pupils), 
and 890 Indian (1,267 teachers, 35,456 pupils). The English schools pro- 
vide a secondary education; of their pupils, in 1949, 50-7% were Chinese, 
23-7% Indians, 20% Malays and 4-1% Europeans and Eurasians. 

Professional education is given at the Technical College, Kuala Lumpur 
(with 12 instructors and 177 students in 1949), the School of Agriculture, 
Serdang (71 students), and the Forest School, Kepong (35 students). 

Malay teachers are trained at the Sultan Idris Training College in 
Perak (422 students in 1949) and the Malay Women's Training College in 
Malacca (111 students in 1949). 

A number of open and closed scholarships are available for Oxford, 
Cambridge and London Universities. 

Health and Social Welfare. The Government maintains 72 general 
and district hospitals, an Institute for Medical Research, the Leper Settlement 
at Sungei Buloh, Selangor (with 2,130 patients at the end of 1949), and the 
Central Mental Hospital at Tanjong Rambutan (2,750 patients at the end of 
1949). 

The Protestant Churches maintain 3 hospitals and 2 clinics, with 125 
beds. 

In May, 1946, the Central Welfare Council for Malaya was formed as an 
unofficial advisory body. It became an independent body in 1949. 

Justice* The Courts Ordinance, 1948, constituted a Supreme Court, 
consisting of a High Court and Court of Appeal and presided over by 
the Chief Justice. The same Ordinance established Session Courts, 
Magistrates' Courts and Penghulu's Courts. 

The strength of the Police Force on 31 Dec., 1949, was 333 officers, 319 
inspectors, 17,871 other ranks, and 29,984 special constables. 

There are 23 penal institutions. There were 19,732 admissions in 1948, 
of whom 7,147 were sentenced to penal imprisonment and 6,815 for safe 
custody. 5,767 persons were admitted to prison under the emergency 
regulations. 

Finance. The estimates of the Federation for the year 1948 were as 
follows -.Revenue, $197,633,219; recurrent expenditure, $139,180,228; 



MALAYA 



235 



extraordinary expenditure, $90,854,124; States and Settlements estimated 
and unforeseen expenditure, $46,432,117; total deficit, $78,833,250. The 
expenditure includes provision for the deficit on the railway budget 
estimated at $25,394,341. 

The public debt of the Federation of Malaya at the end of 1948 was 
$201,308,844. 

Production. The main industries are padi, rubber, mining, coconuts 
and oil palms, pineapples and fishing. Total area under agricultural crops, 
1948, 5,242,000 acres. 

Rice. Acreage in 1948-^9, 908,070 acres ; yield, 307,180 tons of rice. 

Rubber. Total production in 1949: Estates, 400,009 tons from 
1,952,347 acres; small holdings, 270,248 tons from (1948) 1,410,078 acres. 

Mining. Production of tin-in-ore (long tons): 1946, 8,432; 1947, 
27,026; 1948,44,815; 1949,54,910. Production of coal (long tons) : 1946, 
224,674; 1947,226,301; 1948,375,460; 1949,386,898. 

Palms. Production in 1949, 50,564 tons of palm oil; 10,459 tons of 
kernels. Commercial copra production in 1949, 122,937 tons; coconut 
oil, 63,698 tons. 

Tea. Production of " made " tea in 1948, 2,257,619 Ib. 

Fisheries. Landings in 1947, 41,800 tons; 1948, 53,200 tons. 

Livestock. Census, 1948: oxen, 235,900; buffaloes, 202,900; goats, 
174,400; sheep, 19,300; swine, 357,500; horses, 700. 

Trade Unions. There were, 31 Dec., 1949, 169 registered trade unions 
with 42,288 members. 

Commerce. The value of imports in 1948 was $862,095,415 (1947, 
$624,513,284), including $420,062,456 (1947, $286,567,572) for foodstuffs 
and $366,224,893 (1947, $282,777,241) for manufactured goods; 43-03% 
came from Singapore, 15-58% from the United Kingdom and 17-58% from 
other parts of the British Empire. 

Exports and re-exports totalled $1,116,668,653 (1947, $834,750,296); 
44-69% went to Singapore, 9-31% to the United Kingdom, and 7-05% to 
other parts of the British Empire. 

Rubber gross exports in 1948 totalled 731,378 tons (1949, 709,982 tons), 
valued $680,036,690 (1947, $586,843,107); of these, 169,569 tons went to 
U.S.A., 84,812 tons to U.K., 17,815 tons to Canada, 44,895 tons to 
U.S.S.R., and 301,098 tons to Singapore. 

Total trade (in ) of British Malaya, the Malayan Union and the 
Federation of Malaya with the United Kingdom (Board of Trade 
returns) x : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports into U.K. . 
Exports from U.K. . 
Ke-exports from U.K. 


5,473,726 
3,402,029 
32,180 


3,828,723 
6,432,184 
7,632 


17,450,279 
12,189,465 
106,310 


17,353,282 
16,371,804 
108,301 


13,889,743 
18,866,993 
106,328 



1 The figures are not completely comparable. 

Communications. The Public Works Department maintains about 
6,000 miles of public road, of which about 4,500 miles have been treated with 
bitumen. Motor vehicles registered at 30 Nov., 1949, numbered 43,401, 
including 20,637 cars, 11,800 goods vehicles and 7,457 motor cycles. 



236 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

The former Posts and Telegraphs Department has been divided into the 
Postal Services Department, which operates mails, money order and savings 
bank, and the Telecommunications Department, which controls telegraph, 
telephone (20,362 instruments in 1949) and wireless services. 

The Malayan Railway, formerly the Federated Malay States Railways, 
is owned and operated by the Government. The main line runs from 
Singapore to Prai, opposite Penang Island. From here, a branch line leads 
to Padang Besar on the Thai border, connecting Malaya with the State 
Railways of Thailand. Other branch lines connect the main line with Port 
Dickson, Port Swettenham, Teluk Anson and Port Weld. The east coast 
line, branching from the main line at Gemas, extends to Tumpat in the 
north of Kelantan; it was dismantled by the Japanese and has not yet been 
completely rebuilt. A short branch line from Pasir Mas to Sungei Golok 
establishes connexion with Thailand. In 1948, the track mileage was 1,075 
miles; revenue, $33,079,000; expenditure, $34,303,000. 

Seven government aerodromes are maintained in regular use, 7 govern- 
ment and 6 private airfields in usable condition; 17 airstrips were constructed 
in 1949 for security forces. 

Penang was declared a free port in June, 1946. 

Currency and Banking. The standard currency of the Federation 
is the Malayan dollar, divided into 100 cents and equalling 2*. 4d. sterling. 
Note circulation at 1 Dec., 1949, $402,915,000. Fifteen banks were 
operating in 1948, including the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and 
China; the Mercantile Bank of India; the Hongkong and Shanghai 
Banking Corporation. 

The savings bank held a total amount of $47,287,000, due to 229,648 
depositors at 31 Dec., 1949. 

Weights and Measures. These are the same as those used in 
Singapore. 

Books of Reference on the Federation of Malaya. 

The Federation of Malaya Annual Report, 1948. H.M.S.O., 1950. 

Monthly Statistical Bulletin of the Federation of Malaya. Dept. of Statistics, Kuala 
Lumpur. 

University Education in Malaya : Report, Sept. 1917. (Colonial No. 218.) 

Awbery (S. S.) and Dalley (P. W.), Labour and Trade Union Organization in the 
Federation of Malaya and Singapore. (Colonial No. 234.) H.M.S.O., 1949. 

BurkUl (I. H.),' Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. 2 vols. 
London, 1935. 

Cheesman (E. E.), Cultivation of Cocoa in Malaya, Sarawak and North Borneo. (Colonial 
No. 230.) H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Chellwh (V. A.) and McLeish (A.), Malaya and Singapore : Survey Directory of Churches 
and Missions. London, 1948. 

Fermor (Sir L. L.), Report upon the Mining Industry of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur, 1940. 

Grist (D. H.), An Outline of Malayan Agriculture. Kuala Lumpur, 1936. 

Hake (H. B. E.), The New Malaya and You. London, 1946. 

Holt (E G.), Report on Malayan and British Borneo Rubber Industry. London, 1946. 

Middlebrook (S. M.) and Pinniek (A. W.), How Malaya is Governed. London, 1949. 

Mill* (L. A.), British Rule hi Eastern Asia : British Malaya and Hong Kong. Oxford, 
1942. 

Perdval (A. E.), The War of Malaya. London, 1949. 

Purcell (V.), Malaya : Outline of a Colony. London. 1946. The Chinese hi Malaya. 
Oxford, 1948. 

Smvenor (J. B.), Geology of Malaya. London, 1931. A Sketch of Malayan Mining. 
London, 1928. 

Tan Cheng Lock, Malayan Problems. Singapore, 1947. 

Winttedt (Sir K.), Britain and Malaya. London, 1944. -Malaya and its History. London, 
1948. 



SINGAPORE 237 

SINGAPORE. 

SINGAPORE became a separate crown colony on 1 April, 1946, when the 
former colony of the Straits Settlements was dissolved, Penang and Malacca 
being incorporated in the Malayan Union (since 1 February, 1948, the 
Federation of Malaya), and Labuan being transferred to British North 
Borneo. At the same date, military administration came to an end. 

The early history of Singapore is obscure; in the 13th and 14th centuries 
it occupied a position of independence and importance till destroyed by the 
Javanese about 1365, after which date it remained almost uninhabited 
until 1819, when Sir Stamford Raffles founded a trading settlement. The 
original lease of the site of a factory to the East India Company, by the 
Sultan of Johore and the Temenggong, Chief of Singapore, was followed by 
the Treaty of 2 Aug., 1824, ceding the entire island in perpetuity to the 
company. In 1826, Penang, Malacca and Singapore were combined in an 
Indian presidency with headquarters at Penang. In 1830, the settlements 
were incorporated under the presidency of Bengal, headquarters being 
transferred in 1836 to Singapore. On 1 April, 1867, the settlements were 
transferred from the control of the Indian government to that of the 
secretary of state for the colonies. The Cocos Islands in 1886, Christmas 
Island in 1889 and the former colony of Labuan in 1905, were brought under 
the control of the Governor of the Straits Settlements, being incorporated 
in the colony, in the settlement of Singapore in 1903, 1900 and 1907 re- 
spectively. 

Governor and Commander -in-Chief. Sir Franklin C. Gimson, K.C.M.G. 
(appointed 29 January, 1946). 

Colonial Secretary. W. L. Blythe. 

Government. The Legislative Council consists of the Governor as 
President (with an original and casting vote); 4 ex-officio members (the 
Colonial and Financial Secretaries, the Attorney -Gen oral, and the President 
of the Municipal Commissioners) ; 5 nominated officials ; 3 elected severally 
by the Singapore, Chinese and Indian Chambers of Commerce ; 6 elected in 
2 two-member and 2 one-member territorial constituencies by universal 
suffrage of all British subjects over 21 ; and 4 nominated unofficials. 

Elections for the first legislative council took place on 20 March, 1948 : 
Progressive Party, 3 ; Independents, 3. 

The affairs of the Municipal area of 30-96 square miles chiefly public 
utilities, public health, roads and sewage disposal are run by a body of 
27 Municipal Commissioners, of which 18 are elected by popular vote and 
9 are nominated by the Governor, under a Senior Officer of the M.C.S. as 
President. It raises it own funds from rates. 

Area and Population. Singapore is an island about 26 miles long by 
14 wide, with an area of 220 square miles, separated from the southern 
extremity of the Malay Peninsula by a strait three-quarters of a mile in 
width. A number of smaJl islands adjacent form part of the settlement. 
The seat of government is the town of Singapore, at the south-eastern point 
of the island. 

The climate is characterized by uniform temperature, high humidity 
and copious rainfall. The variation of temperature throughout the year is 
very small. The average maximum temperature for the whole year is 
87 P. and the average minimum temperature 74 F. There are no well- 
marked dry and wet seasons. Rain falls throughout the year. The average 
annual rainfall is 95 inches. 



238 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

The estimated figures of the population in mid- 1949 are as follows : 





Malays 


Europeans 


Eurasians 


Chinese 


Indians 


Others 


Total 


Singapore Island . 
Christmas Island . 
Oocos Islands 


119,623 
213 
1,736 


10,923 
62 
16 


9,716 


761,962 
924 
10 


70,749 
17 
1 


7,846 


980,818 
1,216 
1,763 



Education. The numbers of schools and scholars in Singapore in 1948 
were as follows : 





Schools 


Enrolment 


Government English schools (boys and girls). 


15 


8,214 


Qrant-in-aid and private English schools (boys and girls). 
Government vernacular schools (boys and girls) . 
Grant-in-aid private vernacular schools (boys and girls) . 
Government junior technical (trade) school (boys) . 


68 
36 
200 
1 


25.130 
7,014 
59,251 
108 


Total 


320 


99,717 



In Singapore are Raffles College, formally opened in 1929, giving a 
higher education of a university standard in arts and science, and King 
Edward VII College of Medicine. These two institutions were fused on 
8 Oct., 1949, to form a University College of Malaya. 

Singapore and Malaya had, hi 1949, 170 cinemas with a seating capacity 
of 70,000. 

Justice and Crime. The law in force is contained in local ordinances 
and in such of the English common law and such Acts and Orders in Council 
as are applicable to the colony. The penal code closely follows the Indian 
penal code. 

There is a supreme court which is a court of record and consists of 
(a) the High Court, which exercises original criminal and civil jurisdiction 
and appellate criminal and civil jurisdiction in appeals from subordinate 
courts; (b) the Court of Appeal, which exercises appellate civil jurisdiction 
in appeals from the High Court. The Supreme Court is composed of a 
chief justice and three or more puisne judges. The chief justice and the 
judges of the supreme court also form the court of criminal appeal. An 
appeal lies from the Supreme Court to the Privy Council. 

Finance. Public revenue and expenditure for 6 years ( $1 = 2-s. 4d.) : 



Years 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Years 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1938 
1939 
1940 



8,161,448 
4,507,404 
5,736,803 



4,748,113 
5,017,254 
6,926,656 


1946 
1947 
1948 




3,441,517 
9,096,250 
9,184,374 




2,841,173 
6,046,134 
9,057,153 



* 1 April-31 Dec. 

The debt on 31 Dec., 1948, amounted to $123,675,378 (i.e., Straits 
Settlements 3% loan, 1962-72, $30,000,000; Straits Settlements 3% war 
loan, 1952-59, $25,000,000; Straits Settlements 3% war loan, 1953-60, 
$10,000,000; 3% rehabilitation loan, 1962-70, $50,000,000; war Barings 
certificates, $8,675,378). 



SINGAPORE 



239 



Commerce. The imports during 1948 amounted to $1,300,342,063, the 
exports to $1,113,120,406. While the money value was half as large again 
as in the comparable period in 1939, the quantity in tons was only one-half. 

The following figures are taken from the British Board of Trade returns, 
the imports including produce from Borneo, Sarawak and other eastern 
places, transhipped at Singapore, which is thus entered as the place of 
export ; the figures for 1946 and later, however, are not completely comparable 
with those for earlier years : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports (consign mente) 

















into U.K. from the 












Straits 


6,699,932 


22,723,676 


12,319,324 


14,919,008 


11,862,999 


Exports of British produce 












to the Straits 


7,713,903 


14,821,339 


17,879,390 


20,411,269 


23,177,082 


Exports of foreign and 












colonial produce to the 












Straits 


113,506 


127,562 


133,212 


126,103 


144,355 



Communications. Shipping. The total net tonnage of merchant 
vessels, with cargo and in ballast, which entered into and cleared from 
Malayan waters during 1948 was 23,559 J 63. 

Road and Rail. Singapore in 1949 had 112-7 miles of road outside the 
municipal boundaries, under control of the Rural Board, of which 105-4 
miles were bitumenized. 

There is a railway from Singapore to Johore Bahru passing across the 
Johore Causeway. 

Post. On 31 Dec., 1948, 186 post offices were in operation in the Federa- 
tion of Malaya and 19 in the Colony of Singapore. In addition, restricted 
postal facilities were provided by means of postal agencies at 111 places in 
the Federation and 4 in the colony. Telephones numbered 13,303 at 
1 Jan., 1949. 

Banking and Currency. There were 18 banks (including a post office 
savings bank) in the colony in 1947. 

The Board of Commissioners of Currency Malaya, originally constituted 
in 1938 and reconstituted in 1946, is the issuing authority for currency notes 
and coins for the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo and 
Sarawak. The Malayan monetary unit is the dollar of 100 cents. Malayan 
currency notes of $1 and upwards are of unlimited legal tender, and of 
below $1 the limit of legal tender is $2. The denominations of notes are 
1 cent, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents, $1, $5, $10, $50, $100, $1,000 and $10,000. 

The silver dollars are of limited legal tender up to $10, and silver, nickel, 
cupro-nickel and copper-bronze coins representing fractional parts of the 
dollar are legal tender up to $2. 

The circulation of currency on 31 Dec., 1948 was : Note, $400,938,886; 
coin, $28,680,353. Pre-occupation notes ($12,831,408) ceased to be legal 
tender with effect from 31 Aug., 1948. 

Five separate savings banks (Straits Settlements, Federated Malay 
States, Johore, Kedah and Kelantan) were in operation during 1948. There 
were 280,071 depositors and a total amount of $70,898,599 standing to their 
credit at the end of the year. 

Weights and Measures. The standard measures recognized by the 
laws of the colony are as follows : (a) Standard of length, the imperial yard ; 



240 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



(b) standard of weight, the imperial pound; (c) standard of capacity, the 
imperial gallon. 

Among the Asiatic commercial and trading classes, Chinese steel-yards 
(called * liteng ' and ' daching ') of various sizes are generally employed for 
weighing purposes. Other local measures of weight, capacity and length : 



Weight and capacity 


Length 


Obupak . 
Gantang . 
Tafail 
Kati (16 tahils) 
Ptcul (100 katis) 
Koyan (40 plculs) 


1 quart 
1 gallon 
HOZ. 
l|lb. 
133$ Ib. 
6,333J Ib. 


2 jengkals . 
2 hastaa 
2 elas 
4 equare depas 
400 square jemba 
1 chhum 
1 chhck 


1 hasta 
1 ela 
1 depa (1 fathom or 6 feet) 
1 square jemba (144 square feet) 
s 1 square orlong (1$ acres) 
l^K inches 
10 chhums (142 inches) 



The COCOS or Keeling Islands is a group of 27 small coral islands, lat. 
12 S. amd long. 96 50' E., 581 miles distant from Java Head (8. 56 W.), 
and 1,161 miles from Singapore (S. 30 W.). The largest is 5 miles by | mile. 
They were declared a British possession in 1857, were placed by letters 
patent of 13 Oct., 1878, under the control of the Governor of Ceylon, and 
by letters patent of 1 Feb., 1886, under the Governor of the Straits 
Settlements. In 1903 they were annexed to the Straits Settlements and 
incorporated with the Settlement of Singapore. The principal cultivation 
consists of coconuts ; the labourers live mainly on Home Island. Copra, 
coconut-oil and nuts are exported. In 1902 a station on the Cape- 
Australia cable route was established on Direction Island in the north- 
eastern part of the group ; it is now operated by Cable & Wireless, Ltd. 
There is an air-strip on West Island. 

Christmas Island is in the Indian Ocean, lat. 10 30' S. and long. 
105 40' E. It lies 223 miles S. 8 E. of Java Head, and 529 miles N. 79 E. 
from the Cocos Island. It is of irregular shape, about 1 1 miles long (at the 
longest point), and about 4J miles wide (at the narrowest point). Area 
about 60 square miles. The climate is healthy. The island was formally 
annexed on 6 June, 1888, placed under the administration of the Governor 
of the Straits Settlements in 1889, arid incorporated with the Settlement of 
Singapore in 1900. The island is administered by a district officer of the 
Malayan civil service. There is a small police force. The employed in- 
habitants (mainly Chinese and Malays) are employed by the Christmas 
Island Phosphate Company, Limited, registered in London, which work 
the large natural deposits of phosphate of lime to which the island owes 
its importance. In 1923 a wireless station was installed, and the island is 
in direct communication with Singapore. A school was established in 1931, 
and a teacher supplied by the Government. Population as at 1947 census, 
866 (males, 618; females, 248). 

Expenditure of district office in 1940, $31,086. Imports, 1940, chiefly 
iron, steel manufactures, building materials, oil and foodstuffs; exports 
in 1948 consisted solely of phosphate of lime, 174,765 tons. Shipping : 
70,660 tons entered and 70,660 tons cleared in 1948. 

Books of Reference on Singapore. 

Annual Report, 1948. H.M.8.O., 1949. 

A Social Survey of Singapore. Singapore, Department of Social Welfare. 1948. 

One Hundred Years of Singapore. 2 vola. Singapore, 1931. 

One Hundred Tears of the Chinese In Singapore. Singapore, 1923. 

Lawa of the Straits Settlement*. 6 rob. 1988. Supplement, 1941. 



ONION OF SOUTH AFRICA 241 



Cotipland (R.), Raffles of Singapore. London, 1948. 
Firth (K.). Malay Fishermen : Their Peasant Economy. London, 1946. 
Lasker (B.), Peoples of South East Asia. New York and Toronto, 1944. 
Onraet (R.), Singapore : A Police Background. London, 1947. 



AFRICA. 
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA. 

(UNTE VAN SUID AFRIKA.) 

Constitution and Government. 

THE Union of South Africa is constituted under the South Africa Act, 
1909 (9 Edw. 7, Ch. 9), passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 
20 September, 1909, Under the terms of that Act the self-governing 
colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange 
River Colony were united on 31 May, 1910, in a legislative union under one 
government under the name of the Union of South Africa, these colonies 
becoming original provinces of the Union under the names of the Cape of 
Good Hope, Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State respectively. 
There is a Governor-General, and an executive council in charge of the 
departments of state. 

Legislative power is vested in a Parliament consisting of the King, 
Senate and a House of Assembly. The Governor-General has power to 
summon, prorogue and dissolve Parliament, either both Houses simul- 
taneously or the House of Assembly alone. There must be a session of 
Parliament every year. 

The following is a list of the Governors-General : 



Viscount Gladstone . . . 1910-14 
Earl Bnxton .... 1914-20 

H.R.H. Prince Arthur of Connaught 1920-24 
Earl of Athlone .... 1924-31 



Earl of Clarendon . . . 1931-37 

Sir Patrick Duncan . . . 1937-43 

N. J. de Wet (Administrator) . 1943-45 

The Rt. Hou. G. B. van Zyl . 1946- 



The Senate consists of fo^rty-four members, eight (four being selected 
mainly for their acquaintance with the reasonable wants and wishes of the 
non- European races) being nominated by the Governor-GeneraT-m-Council 
and thirty-two being elected, eight for each province. Each senator must be a 
British subject of European descent, at least 30 years of age, qualified as a 
voter in one of the provinces, and resident for five years within the Union ; 
an elected senator must be a registered owner of property of the value of 
500 over any mortgage. The Representation of Natives Act, 1936, pro- 
vides for the direct representation of natives in the senate and the establish- 
ment of a natives representative council. This Act makes provision for the 
election of four additional senators, each of whom will represent one of the 
four electoral areas into which the Union is divided. Senators so elected 
hold their seats for five years. They are required to have the qualifications 
prescribed for elected senators and enjoy all the privileges of senators. 

The House of Assembly consists, according to the Ninth Delimitation 
Commission appointed in connection with the 1946 population census results, 
of 153 members chosen in electoral divisions in numbers as follows : 
The Cape of Good Hope, 55; Natal, 16; Transvaal, 66; Orange Free State, 
13. Act No. 18 of 1930 introduced female franchise and gave the vote to 
all white women over 21. Act No. 41 of 1931 extended the franchise to all 
males of European, or white, extraction over the age of 21, thus removing 
the property and wage qualifications existing in the Cape and Natal Pro- 
vinces. Each electoral district in each province returns one member, who 



242 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

must be a British subject f European descent, qualified as a registered 
voter, and resident five years within the Union. A House of Assembly 
continues five years from the date of its first meeting unless sooner dissolved. 
Under the Representation of Natives Act, 1936, the persons whose names 
appear on the Cape Native Voters* roll are entitled to elect three members of 
the House of Assembly, who shall be additional to the number of members 
provided for in the South Africa Act, 1909. These members hold their seats 
for five years notwithstanding any dissolution of the House of Assembly. 

The Natives Representative Council consists of six official members, 
four nominated members appointed by the Governor- General (one for each 
electoral area), and twelve elected native members, three for each electoral 
area. The functions of the council are to consider and report upon 
(a) proposed legislation in so far as it may affect the native population; 
(Z>) any matter referred to it by the minister; (c) any matter specially 
affecting the interests of the natives in general. In 1949, however, the 
Government announced its intention of abolishing this Council and 
developing instead the local councils and tribal systems. The matter is 
(April, 1950) under consideration. 

The House of Assembly, not the Senate, must originate money Bills, but 
may not pass a Bill for taxation or appropriation unless it has been recom- 
mended by message from the Governor-General during the session. Restric- 
tions are placed on the amendment of money Bills by the Senate. Provision 
is made respecting disagreements between the Houses, the royal assent to 
Bills, and the disallowance of laws assented to by the Governor- General. 

Each member of each House must make oath or affirmation of allegi- 
ance. A member of one House cannot be elected to the other, but a 
minister of state may sit and speak, but not vote, in the Honsf of which 
he is not a member. To hold an office of profit under the Crown (with 
certain exceptions) is a disqualification for membership of either House, 
as are also insolvency, crime and insanity. Pretoria is the seat of govern- 
ment of the Union and Cape Town is the seat of legislature. 

The result of the elections for the House of Assembly on 26 May, 1948, 
was as follows : National Party, 70 ; United Party, 65 ; Afrikaner Party, 
9; Labour Party, 6. 

In the Senate, for which elections were held on 29 July, 1948, the 
Government and Opposition each have 22 members. 

The Prime Minister receives an annual salary of 3,500; the other 
members of the Cabinet 2,500. 

The Executive Council (a coalition of the National and Afrikaner Parties), 
formed on 4 June, 1948, and reshuffled on 11 Aug., 1949, is composed as 
follows : 

Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief. Major the Rt. Hon. Gideon 
Brand van Zyl, P.C. (assumed office, 1 Jan., 1946). Salary, 10,000 per 
annum. 

Prime Minister and Minister of External Affairs. Dr. the Hon. D. F. 
Malan. 

Minister of Finance. The Hon. N. C. Havenga. 

Minister of Native Affairs. Dr. the Hon. E. G. Jansen. 

Minister of Lands, Irrigation and Forestry. The Hon. J. G. Strydom. 

Minister of Justice, Education, Arts and Science. The Hon. C. R. Swart. 

Minister of Transport. The Hon. P. 0. Sauer. 

Minister of Agriculture. The Hon. S. P. le Roux. 

Minister of Economic Affairs. The Hon. E. H. Louw. 

Minister of Health and of Social Welfare.Dr. the Hon. A. J. Stals. 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



243 



Minister of the Interior and of Mines. Dr. the Hon. T. E. Donges. 
Minister of Defence and of Posts and Telegraphs. The Hon. F. C. Erasmus. 
Minister of Labour and of Public Works. The Hon. B. J. Schoeman. 

In each province there is an administrator appointed by the Governor- 
General-in-Council for five years, and a provincial council elected for five 
years, each council having an executive committee of four (either members 
or not of the council), the administrator presiding at its meetings. Members 
of the provincial council are elected on the same system as members of 
Parliament, but the restriction as to European descent does not apply. 
Under the Representation of Natives Act, 1936, the persons whose names 
appear on the Cape Native Voters' Roll are entitled to elect two members 
of the provincial council, who shall be additional to the number of members 
provided for in the South Africa Act, 1909. These members hold their 
seats for five years notwithstanding any dissolution of the Cabinet. The 
number of members in each provincial council is as follows: Cape of 
Good Hope, 57 (including 2 members elected by persons appearing on the 
Cape Native Voters' Roll); Natal, 25; Transvaal, 66; Orange Free State, 
25. The provincial committees and councils have authority to deal with 
local matters of which provincial finance, education (primary and secondary, i 
other than higher education and technical education), hospitals, roads and 
bridges, townships, horse and other racing, betting, and game and fish 
preservation, are the most important. Other matters may be delegated to 
these councils. All ordinances passed by a provincial council are subject 
to the veto of the Governor-General- in -Council. 

There is a provincial revenue fund hi each province. The old colonial 
capitals are the seats of provincial legislature of the provinces. 

The railways, ports and harbours are managed by a Railways and 
Harbours Board, under the chairmanship of a minister of state. The 
revenues therefrom are paid into a special fund. All other moneys received 
by the Union are paid into a consolidated revenue fund, on which the 
interest on debts of the colonies forms a first charge. To the Union has 
been transferred the public property, real and personal, of the colonies. 

The English and Dutch languages are both official. The word * Dutch * 
has been expressly declared by Act of Parliament to include Afrikaans, 
the mother tongue of the majority of the white inhabitants of the Union. 

Diplomatic Representatives of the Union. 

The rank is Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, unless 
stated otherwise. 



COUNTRY 


OP THE UNION 


IN THE UNION 


Argentina . 
Australia l . 
Belgium 
Brazil 
British East Africa 
Canada l 
Chile 
Denmark . 
Egypt 


S. F. du Toit 
Dr. P. R. Viljoen, M.C. 
P. R. Botha 
E. K. Scallan 
Col. R. Campbell-Ross 2 
A. A. Roberts, K.C. 
See ARGENTINA 
H. M. Christiansen 
Maj.-Gen. F. H. Theron, 
C.B.. C.B.E. 


L. Fernandes-Pinheiro 
A. Stirling 
F. Jansen 
M. A. Barcena 

E. de Arcy McGreer 
J. Serrano 3 
E. Torp-Pedersen 
A. L. El Henna wy 



High Commissioner. 



* Commissioner. 



* Charg6 d'affaires. 



244 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



COUNTRY 


OF THE UNION 


IN THE UNION 


Finland 





H. von Knorring 3 


France 6 


H. T. Andrews 


Armand Gazel 


Germany . 


Maj.-Gen.W.H.E.Poole, 







C.B., C.B.E., D.S.O.* 




Greece 


Maj.-Gen. F. H. Theron 


R. Bibico-Rosetti 


India 








Italy . 


See EGYPT 


Dr. P. Janelli 


Netherlands 


Dr. D. B. Bosnian 


J. v. d. Berg 


Norway 


Thomas Wilhelmsen 


E. F. Hougen 


Portugal 


J. D. Pohl 


Dr. F. de P. Brito 


Sweden 


E. F. Horn 


C. O. Gisle. 


United Kingdom l 


Dr. A. Geyer (Trafalgar 


Sir Evelyn Baring, 




Square, W.C.2.) 


K.C.M.G., K.C.V.O. 


United States 


G. P. Jooste * 






1 High Commissioner. 

Head of Military Mission. 



3 Charg6 d' Affaires. 
Ambassador. 



There are Consuls- General in Argentina, Belgian Congo, Brazil, Madagas- 
car, Mozambique, New York and Portugal ; Trade Commissioners in the 
Central, East and West African Territories, in Belgian Congo, Singapore, 
Denmark and Norway. 

Consuls-General represent China, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Spain, Switzer- 
land, U.S.S.R. and Yugoslavia; Consuls, Liberia, Mexico, Panama and 
Peru ; Consular Agent, Colombia. 

Area and Population. 

The total area of the Union is 472,494 * square miles, divided between 
the provinces as follows : Cape of Good Hope, 277,113; * Natal, 35,284; 
Transvaal, 110,450; Orange Free State, 49,647. 

On 25 December, 1947, the Union formally took possession of Prince 
Edward Island and, on 30 December, of Marion Island, about 1,200 miles 
south-east of Capetown. 

The census taken in 1904 in each of the four colonies was the first 
simultaneous census taken in South Africa. In 1911 the first Union census 
was taken. 

The following tables give the returns of population at the various 
censuses classified according to race and sex : 



Year 


All races 


European 


Non-European 


Total 


European 


Non- 
European 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1904 
1911 
1921 
1926 
1931 
1936 
1941 
1946 


5,175.824 
6,973.394 
6,928,580 

9,689,898 
11,418,349 


1,116,806 
1,276,242 
1,619,488 
1,677,322 
1,828,176 
2.003,857 
2,192.181 
2,372,690 


4,059,018 
4,fi97,152 
6,409,092 

7,586,041 
9,019,269 


636,117 
685,lfi4 
782,035 
857,393 
930,641 
1,017,874 
1,109,291 
1,194,626 


481,689 
691,078 
737,453 
819,929 
897,634 
985,983 
1,082.890 
1,178,064 


2,047,118 
2,384,228 
2,754,957 

3,819,233 
4,593,552 


2,011,900 
2,312,924 
2,654,136 

3,766,808 

4,425,707 



The 1926, 1931 and 1941 population census were quinquennial ones of Europeans only. 



* Includes Walvis Bay (374 square miles'), which is an integral part of the Oape Province 
but is administered under Act No. 24 of 1922 by South- West Africa. 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



245 



Of the non-European population in 1946, 7,805,615 were Bantu, 285,260 
Asiatic and 928,484 of other races (preliminary figures). 

The increase in the total population, 1936-46, in the Union was 17-40%. 
The increase in the European population, 1936-46, in the Union was 
16-65%. 

Principal towns (including suburbs) in the Union classified according to 
the number of inhabitants of European race, 1936, 1941 and 1946 : 



Town 


Province 


1936 


1941 


1946 


Johannesburg 






Transvaal 






257,671 


281,706 


338,880 


Oape Town 






Cape . 






173,412 


187,946 


220,398 


Durban . 






Natal . 






95,033 


112,890 


127,695 


Pretoria . 






Transvaal 






76,935 


112,778 


145,220 


Port Elizabeth 






Cape 






63,461 


58,256 


68,632 


Germiston 






Transvaal 






32,564 


40,364 


57,507 


Bast London 






Oape . 






31,311 


34,834 


44,431 


Bloemfontein 






Orange Free S 


tate 




30,291 


33,254 


44,813 


Pietermaritzbtu 


g 




Natal . 






22,446 


28,539 


29,183 


Brakpan 






Transvaal 






17,355 


23,321 


27,243 


Springs . 






Transvaal 






18,436 


22,571 


32,590 


Benoni . 






Transvaal 






21,071 


21,302 


30,590 


Krugersdorp 






Transvaal 






18,066 


20,583 


42,838 


Eoodepoort 






Transvaal 






10,693 


17,363 


27,086 


Boksbnrg 






Transvaal 






15,916 


17,848 


22,473 


Kimberley 






Cape 






15,711 


17,018 


23,152 



Migration. 1947 gross figures (excluding ' In transit ') : European, 
arrivals, 142,720 ; 1948,36,631; 1949,14,780; departures, 112,706; 1948, 
28,097; 1949, 9,215. Non-European (1947), arrivals, 4,961; departures, 
6,220. 

Vital Statistics. The following table gives the total numbers of marriages, 
births and deaths registered in the Union for recent years for all races : 



Year 


European 


Non-European l 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 


58,765 
61,253 
60,358 
66,415 
65,677 


21,593 
21,437 
22,074 
20,924 
20,997 


24,491 
23,069 
24,071 
28,308 
26,691 


76,729 
80,055 
84,012 
86,619 
91,333 


64,230 
6G,485 
68,686 
63,861 
64,018 


29,755 
29.738 
31,125 
31,537 
30,224 



1 Partial registration only. 

Unifying Act No. 17 of 1923, which came into effect as from 1 January, 
1924, abolished compulsory registration of native vital events in rural areas, 
but made registration compulsory in all urban areas throughout the Union. 

The figures for non-Europeans imist therefore be regarded as merely 
recording registrations, and not the total number of actual events. 

Religion. 

The results of the census of 1946 as regards religious denominations are as 
follows: Europeans: Dutch Churches, 1,285,195; Anglicans, 383,243; 
Presbyterians, 87,905; Congregationalists, 13,084; Methodists, 169,634; 
Lutherans, 22,909; Roman Catholics, 92,453; Baptists, 23,497; Jews, 
103,435; Christian Scientists, 7,250; Apostolic Faith, Mission Church, 
31,765; other Christian sects, 50,626; others, 16,701. Non-Europeans: 
Dutch Churches, 379,541; Anglicans, 573,197; Presbyterians, 114,291; 



246 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Independents (Congregationalists), 143,780 ; Methodists, 877,869 ; various 
Christian Sects, 128,666; Lutherans, 366,922; Roman Catholics, 273,773; 
Native Separatist Churches, 1,089,479; Hindus, 160,117; Buddhists and 
Confucians, 3,671 ; Mohammedans, 79,088 ; no religion, 3,349,977 ; others 
and unspecified, 45,670 ; total, 7,586,041. There were 144 members of the 
Society of Friends in 1949. 

Education. 

The Union Department of Education administers technical colleges 
under Act No. 30 of 1923 ; reformatories and schools of industry under the 
Children's Act, No. 31 of 1937, and technical, housecraft and commercial 
high schools under the Vocational Education and Special Schools Act, No. 29 
of 1928. State-aided special schools for the deaf, the blind and epileptics are 
also administered under the Act of 1928. By Act No. 30 of 1937, agricultural 
schools were transferred to the Provincial Administrations. Special schools 
for certain edu cable, subnormal and defective children are administered 
under the Children's Act. Ineducable mentally defective children are cared 
for in institutions administered by the Commissioner for Mental Hygiene 
under the Department of Health. 

Higher Education. There are 8 universities in the Union: (1) The 
University of South Africa, founded in 1918, with its seat in Pretoria, is 
a federal university which now caters mainly for external students. (2) 
The University of Cape Town, founded in 1918. (3) The University of 
Stellenbosch, founded in 1918. (4) The University of Witwatersrand, 
founded in 1922, Johannesburg. (5) The University of Pretoria, founded in 
1 930. (6) Natal University, founded in 1948, Pietermaritzburg and Durban. 
(7) Rhodes University, founded in 1949, Grahamstown. (8) University of 
the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein. 

The following are statistics concerning universities and colleges in 
1946: 





Current 
(incl 


Number 


Number of 


Average number 


University or 
college 


capital) 
expen- 


of full 
time 
pro- 


lecturers and 
assistants * 


of students for 
the year 1946 




diture, 
1946 


fessors 


Full 


Part 


Pull 


Part 











time 


time 


time 


.time 


o a 


Cape Town 


474,161 


48 


193 


136 


3,833 


638 


4,371 


Stellenbosch . 


211,175 l 


55 


188 


27 


2,281 





2,281 


Witwatersrand 


683,015 


37 


226 


142 


4,443 


797 


6,240 


Pretoria. 


242,059 


42 


74 


191 


2,871 


59 


2,930" 


South Africa . 


69,271 




















Constituent colleges : 
















Orange Free State, 
















Bloemfontein . 


55,034 


24 


22 


27 


881 


250 


1,131 


Huguenot, Welling- 
















ton 


15,328 


6 


10 


6 


126 


4 


129 


Rhodes, Grahams- 
















town . . 


160,438 


22 


46 


47 


1,125 


21 


1,146 


Natal, Pietenna- 
















ritzburg . 


167,873 


26 


61 


23 


970 


980 


1,950 


Potchefstroom 


46,020 


17 


34 


15 


655 


161 


816 


Total . 


2,114,374 


276 


854 


613 


17,184 


2,810 


19,994 



1 Does not include expenditure on the faculty of agriculture. 

1 Includes students in the faculties of agriculture and veterinary science. 

* Includes part-time professors, but does not include farm and library assistants. 



UNION OP SOUTH AFRICA 



247 



State and State-aided Education, other than Higher Education. Subject 
to final control by the provincial administration, the central direction of 
public education in each province is exercised by the provincial education 
department. t 

Statistics of primary and secondary education : 





Number of schools 


Number of scholars 




Expenditure 


Year 






Number of 
teachers 


(excluding 
capital ex- 
penditure and 
loan charges). 


For 
European 
scholars 


For non- 
European 
scholars 


European 


Non- 
European 

















1940 


3,808 


5,188 


394,180 


649,108 


32,952 


10,387,435 


1941 


3,622 


5,229 


388,925 


678,161 


33,574 


10,011,049 


1942 


3,482 


5,363 


393,657 


702,054 


34,536 


11,555,325 


1943 


3,383 


6,551 


390,024 


731,548 


35,669 


12,301,316 


1944 


3,280 


5,654 


398,94:5 


7(50,141 


35,753 


15,395,464 


1915 


2,966 


5,710 


401,878 


800,870 


36,fi9S 


17,736,380 


1946 


2,851 


6,030 


413,884 


864,410 


38,194 


19,654,452 



In 1949, there were 452 cinemas with a seating capacity of 230,000. 



Social Welfare. 

Social Security. The social security measures administered by the 
Department of Social Welfare include the Disability Grants Act No. 36 of 
1946, and maintenance grants and family allowances in terms of the Children's 
Act No. 31 of 1937. 

Social Rehabilitation. Social rehabilitation measures as applied by the 
Social Welfare Department include work colonies; national employment 
training corps; settlements for the unfit, semi-fit and aged; readjustment 
services, including sheltered employment projects and the subsidization of 
workshops and hostels for the blind ; grants to societies caring for inebriates, 
epileptics and the deaf; the subsidization of social centres; adults probation 
services. 

Voluntary Organizations and Social Welfare. The Department is sub- 
sidizing over 200 trained social workers attached to voluntary welfare 
agencies. Departmental subsidies also include social centres and central 
registers. In terms of the Welfare Organizations Act No. 40 of 1947, a 
National Welfare Organizations Board has been established which renders 
advice to the Minister of Social Welfare as regards any matter in the field of 
social welfare, and is also entrusted with the responsibility of registering 
welfare organizations. The Act inter alia aims to prevent the mal-adminia- 
tration of welfare organizations which receive financial assistance from the 
State, local authorities or from the public. It also prohibits any person 
collecting contributions from the public without proper authority. 

Child Welfare. In the field of child welfare, the Department is concerned 
with the protection of infants; adoptions; subsidization of creches and 
boys' and girls' clubs; the care of children declared by the Children's Courts 
to be children in need of care; the supervision of juvenile offenders dealt 
with by juvenile courts; juvenile probation services. Places of safety and 
detention are run as state institutions under the control of the Department 
or are administered by voluntary agencies with 100% subsidy from the 



248 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Department. In addition, the Department administers children's institu- 
tions of its own and also assists voluntary agencies financially in the running 
of institutions certified under the Children's Act. These latter institutions 
totalled 192 in 1948. 

Housing. The Department, through its Rent Control Board at Pretoria, 
and rent boards throughout the Union, administers the Rents Act No. 33 
of 1942 and is also responsible for the control of the letting and hiring of 
houses. The Department also provides subsidies for the erection and 
maintenance of workers' hostels and homes for the aged. 

Poor Belief. The Department distributes poor relief to indigent persons 
in the Cape Province, Orange Free State and Transvaal. This service is 
rendered by the Department's own welfare officers in certain centres, while 
in other areas benevolent societies, local authorities or magistrates act as 
the Department's agents. 

Other poor relief measures administered by the Department include the 
distribution of blankets ; the subsidization of communal restaurants ; soup 
kitchens for pre-school children. 

General. Other Departmental activities include welfare services to 
merchant seamen and fishermen; the subsidization of legal aid bureaux; 
the control of coloured mission stations and communal reserves; survey 
work and research projects in the field of social welfare. 

Old Acre Pensions. Provision for the payment of old age pensions is made 
under Act No. 22 of 1928, as amended by Acts Nos. 34 of 1931, 34 of 1937, 
33 of 1943, 48 of 1944, 43 of 1946 and 4i of 1948. 

The Act as amended applies to white (European), coloured, Indian and 
native persons of 65 years of age and over in the case of a man, and 60 years 
of age and over in the case of a woman, domiciled and resident in the Union, 
with means not exceeding a prescribed amount. The maximum amounts of 
pension payable are 72 per annum to a white person, 36 per annum to a 
coloured person, 30 per annum to an Indian person, 12 per annum to a 
native. 

The administration of the Act is undertaken by the Commissioner of 
Pensions in the case of white, coloured and Indian applicants, and by the 
Secretary of Native Affairs in the case of native applicants. 

On 1 October, 1948, the number of white pensioners was 66,956, who 
received 4,206,180: the number of coloured 33,405, receiving 840,198, 
and the number of Indians 5,008, receiving 115,860. 

Justice. 

The common law of the Union is the Roman-Dutch law that is, the 
uncodified law of Holland as it was at the date of the cession of the Cape in 
1806. The law of England as such is not recognized as authoritative, though 
by statute the principles of English law relating to evidence and to mer- 
cantile matters, e.g., companies, patents, trademarks, insolvency and the 
like, have been introduced. In shipping and insurance, English law is 
followed in the Cape Province, and it has also largely influenced civil and 
criminal procedure throughout the Union. In all other matters, family 
relations, property, succession, contract, etc., Roman-Dutch law rules, 
English decisions being valued only so far as they agree therewith. The 
common law governing the prerogatives of the Crown is * with certain 
divergencies ' the same as in England, but has been varied by statute. 



UNION OP SOUTH AFRICA 



249 



The supreme court consists of an appellate division with a chief justice 
and five judges of appeal. In each province of the Union there is a pro- 
vincial division of the supreme court possessing both original and appellate 
jurisdiction; while in the Cape there are, in addition to the provincial 
division, two local divisions, with original and appellate jursidiction, and 
in the Transvaal one, exercising the same original jurisdiction within limited 
areas as the provincial divisions, but with no appellate jurisdiction. The 
judges hold office till they attain the age of 70 years. No judge can be 
removed from office except by resolution of Parliament. The circuit system 
is fully developed. In Natal there is a native high court; two Union 
native appeal courts and two native divorce courts were established in 
1927 and 1929 respectively. All of these courts have jurisdiction, to some 
extent concurrent with and in certain respects exclusive of that of the 
supreme court in cases in which natives are parties. 

Each province is further divided into districts with a magistrate's court 
having a prescribed civil and criminal jurisdiction. From this court there is 
an appeal to the provincial and the Cape local divisions of the supreme court, 
and thence to the appellate division. A distinctive feature of the criminal 
system is that magistrates' convictions carrying sentences above a prescribed 
limit are subject to automatic review by a judge. 

Courts of native commissioners have been constituted in defined areas 
to hear all civil cases and matters between natives and natives only. An 
appeal lies to the native appeal court, whose decision is final, unless the 
court consents to an appeal to the appellate division of the supreme court 
on a point stated by the court itself. Criminal jurisdiction corresponding to 
the criminal jurisdiction of magistrates' courts may be conferred upon courts 
of native commissioners, while a very limited civil and criminal jurisdiction 
may be conferred upon the native chief over his own tribe. 

Persons convicted, all courts, 1943 : Males, 592,182; females, 133,157; 
total, 725,339; in 1944 : males, 605,633; females, 135,931; total, 741,564. 
There were 182 penal establishments with 158,902 prisoners in 1945. 



Finance. 

Prior to 1913-14 the expenditure of the four provinces was entirely met 
from grants by the Union Government. Since then various Financial 
Relations Acts have been passed defining the conditions upon which 
subsidies shall be granted to the provinces, assigning and transferring to 
them certain revenues and limiting their powers of taxation. Act No. 38 
of 1945 provides that a subsidy equal to 50% of the net, normal or recurrent 
expenditure of a province in each year is payable. 

Revenue and expenditure of the Union (excluding Railways and Harbours 
Administration) : 






1943-44 


1944-45 


1945-46 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


Revenue 
Expenditure. 



112,772,877 
112,445,976 



121,f)20,5l3 
117,999,576 




130,133,094 
133,539,232 



140,014,917 
133,238,939 




132,814,331 
124,698,212 




146,418,717 
141,689,469 



The budget for 1949-50 provides for 145,750,000 revenue and 
146,500,000 expenditure; that for 1950-51, 148,650,000 revenue and 
148,994,000 expenditure. 

The following figures show details of the ordinary revenue and expendi- 
ture of the Union Government for 3 years, ending March 31, in '000 : 



250 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Revenue 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


Expenditure 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


Customs . 


24,499 


22,540 


24,472 


Governor-General 








Excise 


17,888 


18,990 


18,663 


and Parliament 


309 


305 


311 


Posts, telegraphs 








External affairs . 


950 


840 


1,076 


and telephones 


10,749 


11,600 


12,957 


Defence 


18,375 


10,167 


9,609 


Mining . 


909 


984 


1,093 


Public debt 


12,083 


11,535 


12,464 


Income tax 


37,222 


48,187 


56,344 


Pensions . 


14,203 


12,717 


14,790 


Gold mines 








Provincial admini- 








special contri- 








stration . 


15,098 


16,586 


19,938 


bution . 


43 


12 





Education . 


7,087 


3,188 


8,975 


Excess profits 








Agriculture 


14,897 


12,154 


12,835 


duty 


14,988 





. 


Ministry of the 








New motor - car 








Interior . 


742 


742 


841 


sales tax 


. 








Posts, telegraphs 








Licences . 


1,137 


1,269 


1,464 


and telephones. 


7,007 


9,722 


11,281 


Stamp duties and 








Public works 


2,507 


3,293 


3,484 


fees 


4,671 


4,025 


3,620 


Social welfare 


2,421 


2,967 


4,721 


Death duties . 


1,507 


1,508 


1,504 


Public health 


3,361 


4,559 


5,795 


Native taxes 


1,521 


1,517 


1.5S6 


Police. 


5,592 


6,558 


7,325 


Forest revenue . 


1,296 


1,293 


1,417 


Native affairs 


2,255 


2,960 


3,255 


Rents of govern- 








National road fund 


2,250 


2,643 


3,101 


ment property 


317 


465 


667 


Native trust fund 


858 


927 


870 


Interest . 


3,768 


4,110 


4,285 










Fines and for- 
















feitures . 


584 


671 


830 










Departmental re- 
















ceipts . 


2,877 


3,391 


4,020 










National road 
















fund 


2,243 


2,714 


3,065 










Native trust 
















fund 


867 


847 


939 










Totals (includ- 








Totals (including 








ing all items) 


140,015 


132,814 


146,419 


all items) 


133,239 


124,698 


141,589 



Public debt on 31 March, 1949, 662,059,159, of which 581,657,597 
was permanent debt, and the net debt 644,508,091. Internal debt, 
648,628,169. 

Defence. 

The South Africa Defence Act, 1912, which became law on 14 June, 
1912, as amended from time to time, provided that every male citizen 
between the ages of 17 and 60 would be liable to render personal service 
in time of war, and that citizens of European descent between 17 and 25 
were liable to undergo a prescribed peace training in the Coast Garrison 
Force, the Active Citizen Force, the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, or a 
Rifle Association, spread over a period of four consecutive years. The Act 
stated, however, that only 50% of the total number liable to peace training 
shall actually undergo that training unless Parliament makes financial 
provision for the training of a greater number. " 

The Union Defence Forces comprise : 

(i) S.A. Permanent Force consisting of land, air and naval air units, 
(ii) Coast, Garrison and Active Citizen Force of units of all arms, 
(iii) Defence Rifle Association. 

The South African Naval Forces are administered by a headquarters 
staff at Cape Town. The Naval Forces include 1 destroyer (Jan van 
Riebeeck, ex-Wessex), 3 frigates, 2 fleet minesweepers, 1 surveying vessel, 
2 boom defence vessels, a controlled minelayer, and several motor launches. 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



251 



Production and Industry. 

Agriculture. The number of farms in 1939 was 107,536, with an area of 
213,181,456 acres. The production of principal crops by Europeans on 
occupied farms, for years from 1 Sept. to 31 Aug., is shown in the 
following table (in 1,00*0 Ib.) : 



Year 


Wheat 


Barley 


Oats 


Mealies 


Potatoes 


1942-43 


1,248,800 


78,856 


204,960 


3,925,427 


441,144 


1943-44 


1,076,818 


95,986 


243,715 


2,819,924 


323,225 


1944-45 


684,805 


121,409 


337,130 


2,974,771 


390,896 


1945-46 


608,693 


69,100 


169,861 


2,719,430 






Natives, in 1944-45, produced 297,271,000 Ib. of mealies on European- 
occupied farms, and 394,713,000 Ib. in rural reserves. 

The European production of other products, 1945-46 : Kaffir corn, 
70,112,200 Ib.; potatoes, 585,633,300 Ib.; tobacco, 29,585,833 Ib.; tea, 
1946-47, green leaf, 2,976,917 Ib. ; manufactured tea, 715.657 Ib. ; sugar cane, 
1944-45, 4,898,380 tons; 1945-46, 4,201,699 tons; 1946-47, 3,716,192 
tons. 

In 1946 the livestock in the Union was as follows : -12,593,062 cattle; 
30,832,070 sheep; 5,189,456 goats; 1,118,154 pigs; 687,319 horses; 
105,307 mules ; 799,297 donkeys. 

The production of wool during the 1948-49 season was 214,023,836 Ib. 
During the calendar year 1948 the production of factory butter was 
37,386,540 Ib.; of factory cheese, 17,619,873 Ib. 

Cotton-growing is now undertaken by many farmers, the plant being 
found a better drought resistant than either tobacco or maize. Yield in 
1949, 5,600 bales. 

On 31 March, 1948, the forest reserve areas comprised 3,527,000 acres. 

Irrigation. Technical and financial assistance is given by the state under 
the Union Irrigation Law of 1912, which was designed to encourage irriga- 
tion. The Government expenditure on irrigation in 1947-48 was 1,451,828 
and 717,437 from revenue. 

Manufacture*. The industrial census in the Union for 1945-46 gives 
the value added by process of manufacture, etc., as 206,165,400, and 
the value of the gross production of the industries covered as 418,038,272. 
The total number of factories which made returns was 11,351. Value of 
land and buildings, 76,917,459; machinery, plant and tools, 109,867,594, 
and cost of fuel, light and power, 10,193,354. Average number of persona 
employed, 519,671 (Europeans, 178,543). Wages paid, 105,455,368. The 
net value of the output of the principal groups of industries was : Food, 
drink, etc., 31,546,563; metals, engineering, etc., 47,767,026; chemicals, 
etc., 13,458,890; heat, light and power, 13,847,161; building, etc., 
12,764,134; clothing, textiles, etc., 20,064,142; books, printing, etc., 
11,526,421; leather, etc., 7,906,331; stone, clay, etc., 8,670,747; 
vehicles, etc., 7,779,318; furniture, etc., 5,630,241. 

Mining. The table hereunder gives the total value of the principal 
minerals produced in the Union to 31 December, 1940. The value of gold 
is calculated at 4-24773 per fine ounce up to 1919, when the gold premium 



252 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



came into effect, as from 24 July, and from 1925 onwards when the gold 
premium ceased to operate. The whole of the gold production of 1933 
to 1939 was sold at a premium; the premium for 1939 amounted to 
68,324,870. Copper, tin, antimony, scheelite and silver are valued on the 
estimated pure metal contained in shipments according to the average 
current prices hi London. The value of other base minerals is calculated 
on average local prices. 

The value of the principal minerals produced to 1944 was : 



Classification 


Cape of 
Good Hope 


Natal 


Transvaal 


Orange 
Free State 


Union 


Gold * . 
Diamonds 
Goal . 
Oopper . 
Tin 




34,699 
244,734,464 
2,059,482 
23,201,487 
72,833 



y 1,344 

55,609,539 

389 




2,324,833,353 
63,324,845 
84,452,696 
12,223,217 
8,339,517 



27,148 
33,243,632 
11,072,729 



2,324,989,444 
341,302,941 
153,194,446 
35,425,093 
8,412,350 



1 Including premium. 



Total value of the mineral production of the Union in sterling : 





1943 


1944 


1945 


1916 


1947 


Asbestos 


913,759 


712,984 


629,079 


596,254 


981,402 


Goal 


6,715,991 


8,036,039 


8,508,703 


8,732,791 


8,690,958 




1 063,615 


1,011,581 


1,507,353 


1,774,275 


3,150,668 


Corundum 


53,214 


53,216 


66,200 


31,955 


39,029 


Diamonds 


1,812,175 


5,846,179 


6,425,096 


9,041,762 


7,166,628 


Gold 1 . 


54,389,545 


62,160,547 


51,926,923 


50,663,377 


47,575,770 


Iron pyrites . 


63,406 


52.229 


56,008 


55,371 


50,715 


Lead ore 


3,804 


2,373 


3,361 


4,420 


5,246 


Lime and limestone 


1,001,871 


1,148,152 


1,227,869 


1,294,850 


1,363,715 


Magnesite 


31,205 


11,622 


15,108 


15,102 


19,384 


Manganese ore 


322,232 


90,170 


473,551 


987,918 


893,825 


Osmiridium . 


86,633 


85,165 


66,463 


70,601 


92,002 


Platinum 


435,009 


519,073 


433,321 


531,555 


646,676 


Silver 


141,216 


128,409 


158,072 


244,536 


218,062 


Soda 


30,G46 


40,609 


38,149 


37,345 


43,164 


Talc 


15,745 


8,477 


7,571 


13,637 


8,654 


Tin 


157,844 


192,429 


203,883 


190,417 


218,420 


Iron ore 


295,578 


341,424 


413,675 


484,151 


570,507 


Cbrome ore . 


246,373 


122,103 


434,878 


631,587 


789,114 


Mica . 


3,152 


2,267 


2,583 


6,824 


10,100 


Graphite 
Beryl (emerald crystals) 


414 


1,974 


341 

883 


1,061 
3,101 


1,315 


Total, including 












items not named . 


68,663,525 


71,519,601 


73,819,613 


76,540,480 


74,033,813 



Gold at standard value. 



The silver output in 1944 was 1,213,051 fine oz. ; diamonds, 933,682 metric 
carats. Gold output in 1949 was 11,708,013 fine oz,; 1948, 11,574,871 
fine oz. Coal output was 27-6 million tons in 1949; 26 million tons in 
1948. 

Value of output, 1949, of copper was 3,683,000 (1948, 3,115,000); 
asbestos, 2,770,000 (1,244,000); manganese ore, 2,280,000 (952,000); 
platintim, 1,344,000 (891,000). 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



253 



Commerce. 

The total value of the imports and exports of the Union of South Africa, 
exclusive of specie and gold bullion, was as follows (in sterling) : 



Yearly 
average 


Imports 


Export* 


Year 


Imports 


Exports 


1930-34 
1935-39 
1940-44 


62,658,362 
90,312,565 
110,720,451 


26,651,321 
31,521,253 
49,308,235 


1944 
1946 
1949 


102,644,705 
112,361,608 
314,579,015 


77,093.170 
77.473,500 
163,624,896 



The principal articles of import and export (in sterling) were :- 



Imports 


1944 


1945 


Exports 


1944 


1945 


Food and drink 


7,995,004 


11,516,751 


Fruits and nuts 


4,127,726 


4,850,766 


Pharmaceutial pro- 






Sugar . 


1,885,116 


1,366,010 


ducts 


1,526,190 


1,586,999 


Beverages 


2,064,230 


2,240,642 


Other chemicals 


1,759,402 


1,930,112 


Tobacco 


1,433,588 


1,053,791 


Bubber 


1,898,269 


2,262,644 


Chemicals 


16,654,813 


8,447,420 


Wood, sawn . 


2,110,137 


2,423,348 


Footwear 


1,466,387 


2,613,268 


Leather 


1,690,530 


2,311,103 


Wool 


4,674,955 


10,693,964 


Yarns and thread . 


2,603,590 


2,743,747 


Rubber 


2,341,119 


2,692,582 


Artificial textile 






Coal . 


3,450.622 


3,517,225 


fabrics 


3,210,721 


4,088,655 


Asbestos 


1,506,002 


1,095,330 


Wool fabrics . 


3,782,491 


3,778,274 


Diamonds, uncut . 


3,693,197 


6,950,724 


Cotton fabrics 


11,189,358 


11,639,089 


Diamonds, cut 


3,232,491 


4,789,002 


Flax, hemp and jute 






Base metals . 


5,938,469 


6,025,183 


fabrics 


1,094,983 


1,249,014 


Machinery . 


1,469,401 


1,680,726 


Clothing 


5,243,869 


7,406,828 








Bags and Backs 


3,068,163 


1,556,915 








Motor spirit . 


2,800,230 


2,564,214 








Lubricating oil 


1,538,603 


1,129,795 








Base metals . 


5,670,088 


7,746,550 








Agricultural 












machinery . 


1,000,638 


1,252,033 








Other machinery 


4,702,717 


6,469,906 








Electrical apparatus 


2,636,451 


3,821,914 








Vehicles 


12,769,335 


7,671,884 









In 1948, the exports of chrome ore totalled 332,869 short tons (1947, 
326,533 short tons), of which 276,523 went to U.S.A. ; of asbestos, 38,550 
short tons, of which 15,674 went to U.S.A.; of manganese, 318,283 long 
tons, of which 176,000 went to U.S.A. 

The distribution of imports into and exports from the Union was mainly 
as follows : 



Country 


Imports 
(including government 
stores) 


Exports 
(S.A. produce) 




1944 


1945 


1944 


1945 


United Kingdom . 


29,731,029 


37,289,774 


17,745,478 


17,144,289 


Best of British Empire 
United States of America 


27,009,069 
26,900,661 


24,648,784 
81,149,737 


24,426,986 
5,615,556 


25,188,225 
10,226.968 


Argentina . 


4,371,373 


3,492,818 


475,184 


688.039 


Belgian Congo 


3,376,633 


2,231,212 


1,028,053 


928,435 


Brazil 


8,719,864 


4,599,361 


474,199 


642,999 


Egypt 


186,409 


286,998 


15,754,838 


6,684,316 


Italy 


3,466 


1,464 


1,282,266 


2,049.121 


Mozambique 


1,066,115 


1,640.594 


696,126 


10,226,968 


Persia .... 


2,915,266 


9,634,657 





~~ 



254 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

The following figures are from the British Board of Trade returns : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports into U.K. . 
Exports to Union . 
Re-exports 




14,629,726 
39,493,503 
635,076 


15,278,464 
75,254,844 
197,698 


26,257,190 
91,836,832 
335,903 



31,679,683 
120,291,241 
476,502 


33,200,418 
124,864,333 
453,496 



Shipping and Communications. 

With the establishment of the Union in 1910, the state-owned lines in 
the four provinces were amalgamated into one centrally controlled state 
undertaking the South African Railways and Harbours Administration 
which also took over the control of the principal harbours of the country. 

Government-owned lines operated by the administration at 31 March, 
1949, totalled 13,340 miles, distributed as follows : Capo 5,255, Trans- 
vaal 3,400, Orange Free State 1,660. Natal 1,562, South West Africa 1,463, 
of which 12,493 miles were 3 ft. 6 in. gauge and 847 miles 2 ft. gauge. 622 
miles of private railways are also operated by the administration. Passenger 
journeys, 1948-49, 254,454,741; goods and mineral traffic, 54,670,830 tons. 

The administration also operated road motor services over a route 
mileage of over 25,000 in 1948-49; during that year 13,679,062 passengers 
were conveyed and 1,806,354 tons of goods were carried. 

Motor vehicles in operation on 1 Jan., 1949, included 413,766 passenger 
cars, 110,086 trucks, 4,004 buses, and 23,507 motor cycles. 

The four main ports are Durban, Capetown, Port Elizabeth and East 
London. In 1948-49, a total of 9,758 vessels of 22,657,755 tons net were 
handled at these ports. 

An efficient internal airways system is operated by the South African 
Railways and Harbours Board, with connexions to all airlines operated in 
Africa. The main trunk service (Springbok Service) is operated from Durban 
via Mozambique, Tanganyika, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, Egypt, Tripoli and 
Marseilles to the United Kingdom. At Cairo a connexion is made with the 
service operating to India and Australasia. First-class mail throughout the 
Union and for northern Mozambique, the Rhodesias and Nyasaland is 
forwarded by air as the normal means of conveyance. 

The total capital expenditure on railways, harbours, steamships, airways 
and aerodromes at 31 March, 1949, amounted to 271,893,260. During the 
year the total revenue (all services) was 88,937,259, to which the railways 
contributed 79,201,291. Total expenditure (all services) amounted to 
92,378,677 (85,295,481 net on railways). 

At the end of 1947-48 there were in the Union 3,431 post and 3,600 
telegraph offices. Mileage of telegraph wire, 14,518. The cash revenue 
of the Department of Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones, 1947-48, was 
11,600,165; expenditure, 9,722,423. The revenue included 1,228,807 
from the telegraph service and 5,480,219 from the telephone service. 

There were 384,633 telephone instruments and 206,493 subscribers; 
1,784 exchanges and 8,696 public call offices, excluding the telephones and 
exchanges owned by the Durban Corporation. On 1 Feb., 1932, the 
telephone systems of Great Britain and the Union of South Africa were 
linked together by means of the ' Beam ' radio svstem of Cable and Wireless 
of South Africa, Ltd. Service, suspended on 15 Sept., 1939, was reopened 
on 1 Dec., 1945. In addition, the following radio telephone services were 
introduced in 1946-48 -.Via Great Britain to Channel Islands, United 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



255 



States of America, Australia, Barbadoes, Bermuda, Ceylon, India, Canada, 
Cuba, Mexico, Switzerland ; direct to Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika, Belgian 
Congo. 

Banks. 

Statistics of the South African Reserve Bank l are as follows : 





20 Feb., 1948 


11 Feb., 1949 


24 Feb., 1950 













Subscribed capital 


1,000,000 


1,000,000 


1,000,000 


Paid-up capital .... 


1,000,000 


1,000,000 


1,000,000 


Reserve fund .... 


2,121,690 


2,157,056 


2,245,589 


Notes in circulation 


58,090,949 


64.326,874 


62,470,925 


Deposit and current accounts 
Coin and bullion 


206,261,228 
112,286,253 


99,504,896 
45,763,763 


87,497,634 
52,142,211 


Securities (Government and other) 


2,990,917 


5,839,522 


27,370,991 


Loans and advances . 


87,346,366 


95,464,658 


10,509,000 


Bills discounted 


60,543,510 


19,916,122 


68,646,949 



1 In December, 1920, under the South African Currency and Banking Act, 1920, a 
Central Reserve Bank was established at Pretoria. It commenced operations in Jane, 
1921, and began to issue notes in April, 1922. Liability for the outstanding notes of the 
commercial bonks was transferred to it on 30 June, 1924, and amounted to 152,284 on 
31 Aug., 1948. A branch was opened in Johannesburg on 1 September, 1926, and further 
branches at Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, East London, Bloemfontein and Pieter- 
maritzburg subsequently. 

Ratio of gold reserves to liabilities to the public was 64-4% on 1 March, 
1950. 

The total assets and liabilities of the institutions seeking registration as 
commercial banks on 30 June, 1948, amounted to 707,246,421. 

The number of depositors in the Government Savings Bank in the Union 
at the end of March, 1948, was 1,894,652 and the amount standing to their 
credit 82,698,314. 

Money, Weights and Measures. 

Act No. 31 of 1922 provided for the issue of a Union coinage with 
denominations identical with those of British coins, which remained in 
circulation as legal tender until 15 Jan., 1933, when they were withdrawn. 
On 1 July, 1941, by Act No. 16 of 1941, a South African Mint was set up for 
the Union. 

The Schedule to Act No. 31 of 1922 was amended by Act No. 57 of 1946, 
permitting the coining of crowns (55. pieces). Union of South Africa silver 
coins of 5$., 2s. 6rf., 25., 1$., 6c?., 3d., and bronze coins of Id., Id., \d., are 
being coined and are in circulation. Gold coinage was in circulation until 
21 Dec., 1932, on which date the Union suspended gold payments. 

Weights and Measures. The Weights and Measures Act, 1922, which 
came into effect on 1 April, 1923, established standard weights and measures 
throughout the Union and embodied the principle of optional use of the 
metric system, subject to provisions contained in the Act; it prescribes the 
denominations, and multiples thereof, of weight and measure which may be 
used in trade in the Union of South Africa. The original Act of 1922 was 
amended by Act No. 13 of 1933 and Act No. 8 of 1940. 

Regulations issued under the Act prescribe the manner and frequency of 
assizing of trade weighing and measuring instruments, as well as controlling 
the sale of goods and fixing standard quantities for commodities in general 



256 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

jfjf Books of Reference. 

1. OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

The South Africa Act, 1909. 

Official Year-Book of the Union of South Africa and of Basutoland, Bechuanaland 
Protectorate and Swaziland. Pretoria. Annual Vol. 23, 1946. 

Statistics of Production: Manufacturing Industries. Annual (but suspended from 
1929-30 to 1931-32 and from 1938 to 1942). 

Statistics of Production : Census of Agriculture. Annual (but suspended from 1929-80 
to 1931-32, and from 1939 to 1946). 

Annual Statement of Trade and Shipping of the Union of South Africa. 

Trade Report of the Union. Quarterly. 

The Selborue Memorandum on the Union of S. Africa. London, 1925. 

The mineral resources of the Union of South Africa, with a summary of the mineral 
resources of South West Africa. Compiled in the Office of the Geological Survey, Depart- 
ment of Mines, Union of South Africa. Pretoria, 1940. 



P| * 2. NON-OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. '' '' P "* >1 ^5 

Cambridge History of the British Empire. Vol. VIII. Cambridge, 1936. 

Carnegie Report on the Poor White Problem in South Africa. 5 vols. Stellenbosoh, 
1932-33. 

Overseas Reference Book of the Union of South Africa. London. 1945. 

Arndt (E. H. D.), Banking and Currency Development in South Africa (1652-1927). 
Oape Town, 1928. The South African Mints. Pretoria, 1939. 

Arndt (E. H. D.), Norval (A. J.) and Louw (J. D.), Economic and Legal Dictionary, with 
Appendix of Legal Latin Terms. Pretoria, 1933. 

Ballinger (W. 0.), Race and Economics in South Africa. London, 1934. 

Bilj&n (P. J. van), State Interference in South Africa. London, 1939. 

Batman (G. 0. R.), The Industrialisation of South Africa. Rotterdam, 1939. 

Botha (<*.), The Public Archives in South Africa (1 652-1910). Cape Town, 1928. 

Brown (A. Gordon) (editor), South and East African Year Book and Guide. Annual. 
London. 

Brvden (H. A.), Wild Life in South Africa. London, 1936. 

Calpin (G. H.), There are no South Africans. London, 1941. 

Campbell (A.), South Africa, What Now ? Cape Town, 1947. 

Cory (Sir G. JS.) t The Rise of South Africa. 6 vols. London, 1930. 

Cronin (A.), The Bantu Tribes of South Africa. Kimberley, 1934. 

De Kiewift (0. W.), The Imperial Factor in South Africa. Cambridge, 1937. A History 
of South Africa : Social and Economic. Oxford, 1941. 

De Kock (M. H.), Economic Development of South Africa. London, 1935. Central 
Banking. London, 1939. 

Dekking (G. W.), De Kaffer. Groninpren, 1934. 

Du Toil (A.), The Geology of South Africa. 2nd ed. London, 1939. 

Evan* (I. L.), Native Policy in Southern Africa. London, 1934. 

FittscanoJis (V. F.), The Lizards of South Africa. Pretoria, 1943. 

Frankel (S. H.), Capital Investment in Africa. Oxford, 1938. 

Franklin (N. N.), Natives and the Administration of Justice. Johannesburg, 1937. 
Economics in South Africa. Cape Town, 1948. 

Gelfand (M.), The Sick African; a clinical study. Cape Town, 1944. 

doodffllow (D. M.), A Modern Economic History of South Africa. London, 1931. 

Goold' Adams (R. J.), South Africa To-day and To-morrow. London, 1936. 

Haarhoff (T. J.), The Stranger at the Gate. London, 1938. 

flailey (Lordl (editor). An African Survey. London, 1938. 

Hatch CF. H.) and Carstorvhine (O. S.), Geology of South Africa. 2nd ed. London, 1909. 

Hatiqhton (D. H.), Some Economic Problems of the Bantu. Johannesburg, 1938. 

Hatiqhton (8. H.) (editor), Lexicon de Stratifiraphle. Vol. I. Africa. London, 138. 

Uertslel (J.), The Zulu Scene. Durban. 1 938. 

Hofrnlt (R. P. A.), South African Native Policy and the Liberal Spirit. Lovedale, 
Oape Province, 1989. 

Hofmeyr (J. H.), South Africa. (Modern World Series.) London, 1931. 

Bole CH. M.\ The Passing of rhe Black Kines. London, 1933. 

Hottvway (J. E.), American Negroes and South African Bantus. Pretoria, 193fi. 

Hor*/ (Sheila T. van der), Native Labour in South Africa. Oxford, 1942. 

Jeppr (0. W. B.), Gold Mining j n South Africa. London, 1949. 

Kilpin (R.), Parliamentary Procedure in South Africa. 2nd ed. Oape Town and London, 
1949. 

Knowte* (L. O. A.) and Knowle* (0. M.). South Africa. London, 1936. 

I^win (KvarifO, Roval Empire Society RlMioeraphjea No. 9. London, 1943. 

Lewin (J.), Studies in African Native Law. Cape Town, 1947. 

L*wi (A. D.), Water Law : Its Development in the Union of South Africa. Oape Town, 
1933. 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 257 

Ltwit (C.) and Edwards (G. E.) Historical Becords of the Church of the Province of 
South Africa. London, 1934. 

Macmillan (W. M.), Africa Emergent: A Surrey of Social, Political and Economic 
Trends in British Africa. London, 1938. 

Macrae (M.) (editor), Industry in South Africa : A Surrey of Opportunities for Industrial 
Expansion. Cape Town, 1942. 

Malherbe (E. G.), The Bilingual School ... in South Africa. Johannesburg, 194E. 

May (H. J.), The South African Constitution. Cape Town and London, 1949. 

McXerron (H.), A History of Education in South Africa, 1652-1932. Pretoria, 1934. 

Mttlin (Sarah G.), The South Africans. New edition. London, 1934. 

Mockford (J.), Here are South Africans. London, 1943. 

Nathan (M.), The Law of Damages in South Africa. Johannesburg, 1930. Workman's 
Compensation in South Africa. Durban, 1935. The Finance and Revenue Laws of the 
Union of South Africa. Durban, 1936. The Voortrekkers of South Africa from Earliest 
Times to the Foundations of the Republics. Johannesburg, 1937. The Huguenots in South 
Africa. Johannesburg, 1939. Paul Kruger: His Life and Times. Durban, 1941. 

Pastel (A. W.), The Mineral Kesources of Africa. Philadelphia, 1943. 

Peattie (B.), Struggle on the Veld. New York, 1947. 

Perham (M.) and Curtis (L.), The Protectorates of South Africa. London, 1935. 

Petlman (0.), South Africa. Place Names, Past and Present. Queenstown, 1932. 

Richards (0. S.), The Iron and Steel Industry in South Africa. Bradford, 1941. 

Rogers (H.), Native Administration in the Union of South Africa. Johannesburg, 1933. 

Rosenthal (E.), Old Time Survivals in South Africa. Pretoria, 1936. 

lioux (E.), Time Longer than Kope. A History of the Black Man's Struggle for Freedom 
in South Africa. London, 1948. 

Schaeffer (M.), The Wage Act (as amended). Cape Town, 1935. The Industrial Con- 
ciliation Act. Cape Town, 1935. 

Schapera (I.), Select Bibliography of South African Native Life and Problems. Oxford, 
1941. 

Schropshire (D. W. T.), The Church and the Primitive Peoples : The Religious Institu- 
tions and Beliefs of the Southern Bantu, etc. London, 1938. 

Simons (H. J.), Crime and Racial Conflict in Africa. London, 1937. 

Smuts (J. 0.), Africa and Some World Problems. London, 1931. 

Sowden (Lewie), The Union of South Africa. Garden City (U.S.A.), 1943. London, 1945. 

Tinley (J. M.), The Native Labour Problem of South Africa. Chapel Hill (U.S.A.), 1942. 

Van Biljon (P. J.), State Interference in South Africa. London. 1939. 

Walker (E. A.), Historical Atlas of South Africa. London, 1922. A History of South 
Africa. New edition. London, 1940. The Great Trek. 3rd edition. London, 1948. 

Welch (Rev. 8. R.), Europe's Discovery of South Africa. Cape Town, 1935. 

Wells (A. W.), South Africa : A Planned Tour of the Country To-day. Revised edition. 
London, 1944. 

Write (A.) and others, The Succulent Euphorbicae (Southern Africa). 2 vols. Pasadena, 
1941. 

Ziervogel (0.), Brown South Africa. Cape Town, 1938. 



PROVINCE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

(KAAPLAND.) 

Constitution and Government. The colony of the Cape of Good 

Hope was originally founded by the Dutch in the year 1652. Britain took 
possession of it in 1795 but evacuated it in 1803. A British force again took 
possession in 1806 and it was formally ceded to Great Britain by the Con- 
vention of London, 1 3 August, 1814. Letters patent issued in 1850 declared 
that in the colony there should be a Parliament which should consist of the 
Governor, a legislative council and a House of Assembly. On 31 May, 
1910, the colony was merged in the Union of South Africa, thereafter 
forming an original province of the Union. 

At the provincial council election on 9 March, 1949, the following 
parties were returned: United Party, 28; Nationalists, 26; Labour 
Party,!. 

Cape Town is the seat of the provincial administration. 

Administrator. Hon. J. G. Carinus (appointed July, 1946; salary 
2,750). 



258 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



The province is divided into 132 magisterial districts, and the province 
proper, including Bechuanaland, but exclusive of the Transkeian territories 
(with the exception of the districts of Mount Currie and Matatiele, where 
there are also divisional council divisions), into 95 divisional council divisions. 
This figure includes the two divisions in the Transkei, viz. Mount Currie 
and Matatiele. Each division has a council of at least 6 members (14 
in the Cape Division) elected quinquennially by the owners or occupiers 
of immovable property. The duties devolving upon divisional councils 
include the construction and maintenance of roads and bridges, local rating, 
vehicle taxation and preservation of public health. 

There are 139 municipalities, each governed by a mayor and councillors, 
a certain number of whom are elected annually by the ratepayers. There 
are also 86 village management boards and 22 local boards. 

Area and Population. The following table gives the population of 
the Cape of Good Hope * at the last seven censuses : 



Census 
year 


All races 


European 


Non-European 


Total 


Hales 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1918 
1921 
1926 
1931 
19.10 
1941 
1946* 


2,782,719 

3,529,900 
4,016,801 


1,348,589 

1,664,408 
1,903,764 


1,434,130 

1,866,492 
2,113,037 


311,312 
329,394 
358,058 
378,046 
396,375 
413,136 
428,085 


307,513 
321,215 
348,741 
371,185 
395,199 
412,534 
431,526 


1,019,195 

1,268,033 
1,475,679 


1,112,915 

1,470,293 
1,681^511 



Including Walvis Bay. 



1 Preliminary figures. 



The increase in the total population, 1936-46, was 13-8%. 

Of the non-European population in 1946, 16,901 were Asiatics, 2,327,099 
were Bantu and 813,190 were of mixed and other races. The great majority 
are engaged in agricultural or domestic employments. 

Chief towns : The census figures for the European population in 1946, 
are : Cape Town, 214,201 ; Port Elizabeth, 64,745 ; East London, 39,646 ; 
Kimberley, 18,915 ; Uitenhage, 11,015 ; Paarl, 10,935 ; Grahamstown, 8,900 ; 
Oudtshoorn, 8,174; Queenstown, 8, 1 36 ; Stellenbosch, 7,474 ; George, 7,300 ; 
Worcester, 7,277; King William's Town, 6,165. 

Vital statistics are shown as follows : 





European 


Non-European * 


Year 








Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1942 
1943 


19,422 
20,169 


8,540 
8,311 


7,911 
8,246 


45,039 
46,407 


33,105 
31,729 


14,215 
13,890 


1944 


20,540 


8,356 


7,962 


46,638 


30,808 


13,725 


1945 


20,847 


8,485 


8,245 


48,272 


32,965 


14,330 



1 Partial registration. 

Religion. In 1936 (Europeans) there were 758,944 Christian8-459,113 
members of Dutch Churches, 139,858 Anglicans, 24,755 Presbyterians, 
4,952 Congregationalists, 60,784 Methodists, 10,925 Lutherans, 33,434 
Roman Catholics, 11,211 Baptists and 23,912 other Christian sects. Jews 
28,163, others 4,467. Non-Europeans : Dutch Churches, 224,549 ; Anglicans, 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



259 



300,879; Presbyterians, 77,281; Methodists, 442,413; Lutherans, 81,016; 
Roman Catholics, 67,226 ; Congregationalists, 116,079; other Christian sects, 
48,115; Native Separatist Churches, 240,654 ; Buddhists, 69; Confucians, 
657; Hindus, 3,079 ; Moslems, 36,472 ; no religion, 1,090,236 1 ; others and 
unspecified, 10,711; total, 2,738,326. 

Education. Local school administration is conducted by school boards 
and school committees, the unit of administration being the school district. 
Each school district is under the control of a school board, a portion of the 
members being elected by the ratepayers and a portion nominated partly 
by the provincial administration and partly by the local authorities. 
Education is compulsory for European children and under certain conditions 
for coloured children. 

Provincial expenditure in 1946-47 on education (excluding higher 
education, which is under control of tho Central Government) amounted 
to 8,448,277. 

In June, 1948, there were 1,348 schools for European scholars, and in 
addition 9 institutions for the training of teachers. There were 160,014 
European pupils, mostly under school boards, and a total of 7,091 teachers. 
There were 3,351 schools for non-European scholars, of which 20 were indus- 
trial schools and 23 training institutions for teachers. Altogether, there were 
11,303 teachers in non-European schools and a total of 447,667 pupils, 
mostly under churches and missionary bodies. 

Finance. Since the coming into effect of the Union there is one 
financial statement for the four provinces together, particulars of which 
are given above under the Union. Since the passing of the Financial 
Relations Act, 1913, the provincial revenue consists of certain revenues 
assigned to the province (not included in the Union summary referred to 
above) and an amount voted by Parliament by way of subsidy. The 
following figures show the provincial revenue and expenditure for 6 
years : 





1913-44 


1944-45 


1945-46 


1946-47 


1947-48 


Bevenue : 

















Provincial collections . 
Union government subsidies : 


3,987,120 


4,420,538 


4,131,400 


4,653,076 


6,816,130 


Ordinary 


2,926,898 


2,939,504 
26,325 


4,850,000 
150,000 


5,505,360 
150,000 


5,908,330 
160,000 


Special 
In lieu of professional licences . 


20,325 


In respect of rural libraries 


250 


300 








National school feeding scheme 
Grants: 




240,000 











Native education 
National road construction 
National Road Board for interest 


703,600 
932,707 


844,000 
1,365,631 


918,688 
1,256,265 


1,062,626 
1,479,776 


1,522,477 
1,926,875 


and redemption . 


80,302 


74,507 


67,017 


64,938 


69,464 


Other 


78,527 


92,959 


46,559 


15,692 


17,919 


Total revenue .... 


8,736,729 


10,003,664 


11,419,829 


12,931,468 


16,401,195 


Total ordinary expenditure 


8,629,258 


10,655,226 


11,561,863 


13,273,370 


15,271,226 



Ordinary expenditure, 1947-48: General administration, 418,266; 
education, 9,518,934; hospitals and public health, 1,688,842; roads, 
bridges and local works, 1,143,117 ; miscellaneous services (public libraries, 

Indicates for Europeans 'No Religion ' (so returned),* and for non-Europeani cover* 
Bantu religions and non-Ohristian Hottentots and Bushmen. 



260 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



museums, agricultural societies, fish and game preservation, etc.), 105,784 ; 
interest and redemption charges on loans raised for schools, hospitals, bridges 
and other buildings, 469,418; national roads, 1,926,875. Capital 
expenditure. 1947-48, 770,625. 

The budget for 194849 provided for an expenditure of 18,340,175. 

Books oi Reference concerning the Cape of Good Hope. 

Botha (G.), Social Life in Cape Colony in the 18th Century. Cape Town, 1927. 

Du Toit (P. 8.), Onderwys in Kaapland, 1652-1939. Pretoria, 1940. 

Kilpin (E.), The Parliament of tbe Cape. London, 1939. 

MacMillan (W. M.), Cape Colour Question. London, 1934. 

Marais (J. S.), The Cape Coloured People, 1652-1937. London, 1939. 

Menttel (O. F.), Description of the Cape. Part I, 1921. Part II, 1925. Cape Town. 



PROVINCE OP NATAL. 

Constitution and Government. Natal was annexed to Cape Colony 
in 1844, placed under separate government in 1845, and under charter of 
15 July, 1856, erected into a separate colony. By this charter partially 
representative institutions were established, and, under a Natal Act of 1893, 
assented to by Order in Council, 26 June, 1893, the colony obtained respon- 
sible government. The province of Zululand was annexed to Natal on 
30 December, 1897. The districts of Vryheid, Utrecht and part of Wak- 
kerstroom, formerly belonging to the Transvaal, were annexed in January, 
1903. On 31 May, 1910, the colony was merged in the Union of South 
Africa, becoming an original province of the Union. 

The seat of provincial government in Natal is Pietermaritzburg. 

At the provincial council elections on 9 March, 1949, there were 
returned: United Party, 22; Nationalists, 2; Independent, 1. 

Administrator. The Hon. D. G. Shepstone (appointed Feb., 1948; 
salary, 2,250). 

Area and Population. The province (including Zululand, 10,427 
square miles) has an area of 35,284 square miles, with a seaboard of about 
360 miles. The climate is sub-tropical on the coast and somewhat colder 
inland. It is well suited to Europeans. The province is divided into 
45 magisterial districts. 

The returns of the total population at the last 7 censuses were : 



Census 
year 


All races 


European 


Non-European 


Total 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1918 
1921 
1926 
1931 
1936 
1941 
1946 J 


1,429,398 

1,946,468 
2,187,733 


707,600 

947,220 
1,067,812 


727,798 

I,0o7,248 
1,127,921 


62,745 
70,477 
81,170 
90,253 
96,157 
108,283 
115,718 


59,186 
66,361 
77,746 
87,196 
95,392 
109,856 
117,205 


637,123 

847,063 
947,094 


655,437 

906,856 
1,007,716 



1 Preliminary figures. 

The increase in the total population, 1936-46, was 12-1%. 

Population of Durban according to the census of 1948 : European 
128,382, total 369,579 ; and of Pietermaritzburg according to the census of 
1946 iEuropean 27,565, total 63,162. 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



261 



Vital statistics are shown as follows : 



Year 


European 


Non-European l 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 


4,445 
4,802 
6,057 
4,866 


2,132 
2,385 
2,285 
2,366 


2,054 
2,411 
2,066 
2,316 


13,609 
15,027 
16,812 
17,809 


8,598 
10,656 
11,904 
11,419 


6,140 
6,171 
6,053 
6,258 



1 Partial registration. 

Religion. Statistics of 1936 census for religion in Natal : Europeans' 
Dutch Churches, 37,763; Anglicans, 68,790; Presbyterians, 16,787; 
Methodists, 21,562; Roman Catholics, 16,199; Lutherans, 6,048; Con- 
gregationaliste, 4,106; other Christians, 13,049; Jews, 3,736; others, 2,509 ; 
total, 190,549. Non-Europeans: Dutch Churches, 7,471; Anglicans, 
83,617; Presbyterians, 12,820; Methodists, 113,340; Lutherans, 69,302; 
Roman Catholics, 112,858; Congregationalists, 14,338; other Christian sects, 
14,010; Native Separatist Churches, 294,185; Buddhists, 1,646; Confucians, 
56; Hindus, 147,570; Moslems, 25,917; no religion, 847,174; l others and 
unspecified, 11,605; total, 1,755,919. 

Education. With the exception of higher, technical and vocational 
education which is under the control of the Union Government, education 
comes under the provincial administration. In 1947, there were, for 
children of European extraction, 331 schools giving primary, 43 giving 
beyond primary education, in all 374 schools, which were supported either 
entirely or partially by government funds. In addition there was 1 train- 
ing school for teachers. For non-European children, there were 1,023 
native schools; 149 Asiatic schools and 34 other coloured schools, state 
and state-aided. The enrolment of European pupils in government and 
inspected schools was 35,239 in June, 1947. The number of native, 
Asiatic, and coloured children receiving instruction in June, 1947, amounted 
to 174,492. A sum of 1,453,109 was spent on native, Asiatic and coloured 
education, during the year 1947 out of public funds ; the corresponding figure 
in respect of European education was 1,328,018. It is estimated that only 
a very small percentage of European children are receiving no education. 

Finance. The following figures show the provincial revenue and 
expenditure for 5 years : 





1942-43 


1943-44 


1944-45 


1945-46 


1946-47 


Revenue : 
Provincial collections . 
Union government subsidies : 
Ordinary .... 
In lieu of professional licences . 
National Feeding Scheme 
Grants: 
8. A. native trust .... 
Other 



1,708,414 

753,239 
8,703 

307,709 
12,817 



1,884,429 

765,170 
8,703 
25,000 

350,764 
12,332 




1,887,367 

769,851 
8,703 
158,800 

412,131 
17,977 



1,940,064 

1,791,925 
197,639 

455,820 
6,129 



2,653,827 

2,102,616 
185,511 

573,602 
6,271 


Total revenue .... 


2,790,882 


3,046,898 


3,254,829 


4,391,577 


5,421,827 


Total ordinary expenditure 


2,675,730 


2,976,953 


3,523,988 


4,054,889 


5,735,442 



1 Indicates for Europeans ' No Religion ' (so returned), and for non-Europeans covers 
Bantu religions and non-Christian Hottentots and Bushmen. 



262 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Ordinary expenditure, 1946-47: General administration, 198,474; 
education, 2,499,626 ; hospitals and poor relief, 1,0 16,247 ; roads, bridges, 
works, 632,280; miscellaneous, 180,711; interest and redemption, 
208,104. The capital expenditure was 266,932. 

Production and Industry. On the coast and in Zululand there are 
vast plantations of sugar cane. The area in April, 1944, was 339,977 acres 
and the yield during 194243, 3,845,373 tons, exclusive of the non-European 
production, which is approximately 9% of the total Union production. 
Cereals of all kinds (especially maize), fruits, vegetables, the Acacia niolissima 
(the bark of which is so much used for tanning purposes) and other crops 
are produced. 

The province is rich in mineral wealth, particularly coal. For figures 
of mineral production, see p. 252. 

A whaling industry was commenced at Durban in 1908. 

Books of Reference on Natal. 

Birkby (O.) t Zulu Journey. London, 1937. 
Gu.llingwarth'9 Natal Almanac. Annual. Durban. 
Hattersley (A. P.), Portrait of a Colony. London, 1940. 
Krige (E. J.), Social System of the Zulus. London, 1936. 
Stafford (W. G.), Native Law as Practised in Natal. Johannesburg, 1935. 
Tatlow (A. H.), Natal Province : Descriptive Guide and Official Handbook. Durban 
and London. Annual. 

PROVINCE OP THE TRANSVAAL. 

Constitution and Government. The Transvaal was one of the 
territories colonized by the Boers who left the Cape Colony during the Great 
Trek in 1831 and following years. In 1852, by the Sand River Treaty, 
Great Britain recognized the independence of the Transvaal, which, in 1853, 
took the name of the South African Republic. In 1877 the Republic was 
annexed by Great Britain, but the Boers were not reconciled to the loss of 
their independence and war broke out towards the end of 1880. In 1881 
peace was made and self-government, subject to British suzerainty and 
certain stipulated restrictions, was restored to the Boers. The London 
Convention of 1884 removed the suzerainty and a number of these restric- 
tions but reserved to Great Britain the right of approval of the Transvaal's 
foreign relations, excepting with regard to the Orange Free State. In 1886 
gold was discovered on the Witwatersrand and this discovery, together with 
the great influx of foreigners which it occasioned, gave rise to many grave 
problems. Eventually, in 1899, war broke out between Great Britain and 
the Transvaal. Peace was concluded on 31 May, 1902, the Transvaal and 
the Orange Free State both losing their independence. The Transvaal was 
governed as a crown colony until 12 Jan., 1907, when responsible government 
came into force. On 31 May, 1910, the Transvaal ceased to exist as a 
separate colony, becoming one of the four provinces of the Union. 

The seat of provincial government is at Pretoria, which is also the 
administrative capital of the Union of South Africa. 

At the provincial council election on 9 March, 1949, there were 
returned: Nationalists, 34; United Party, 27; Labour, 2; Indepen- 
dent, 2. 

Administrator. Dr. Wm. Nicol (salary, 2,750). 

Area and Population. The area of the province is 110,450 square 
miles, divided into 45 districts. The following table shows the population 
at each of the last 7 censuses : 



UNION OP SOUTH AFBICA 



263 



Census 
year 


All races 


European 


Non-European 


Total 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1918 
1921 
1926 
1931 
1936 
1941 
1946 * 


2,087,636 

3,341,470 
4,183,779 


1,159,430 

1,846,576 
2,3l7,440 


928,206 

1,494,894 
1,860,339 


260,840 
284,388 
313,773 
357,504 
424,470 
487,727 
629,520 


238,507 
259,097 
294,849 
338,616 
396,286 
462,108 
612,315 


875,042 

1,422,106 
1,787,920 


669,109 

1,098,608 
1,354,034 



1 Preliminary figures. 

The increase in the total population, 1936-46, was 25-2%. 

According to the figures of the census, the largest towns had in 1946 a 
European population as follows: Johannesburg, 330,184; Pretoria, 
124,542; Germiston, 51,744; Brakpan, 27,351 ; Springs, 25,355; Benoni, 
24,303; Krugersdorp, 23,441; Roodepoort, 22,950; Boksburg, 20,512; 
Potchefstroom, 13,558, and Voreenigmg, 12,145. 

Vital statistics are shown as follows : 



Year 


European 


Non-European l 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriage* 


1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 


27,615 
28,937 
30,682 
29,606 


8,442 
9,104 
8,960 
9,420 


11,395 
12,098 
11,308 
11,772 


12,722 
13,658 
13,849 
15,105 


17,658 
18,641 
20,077 
20,918 


6,450 
6,632 
6,548 
7,043 



1 Partial registration. 
Religion. Statistics for the Transvaal (census 1936, Europeans only) : 



Churches, etc. 


Europeans 


Churches, etc. 


Europeans 


Dutch Churches 
Anglican 
Presbyterian 
Methodist . 
Boman Catholic 


426,725 
126,853 
38,000 
61,709 
40,446 


Lutheran .... 
Apostolic Faith Misaion Church 
Other Christian . 
Jews .... 
Others .... 


8,118 
20,293 
36,780 
63,924 
8,908 



Non-Europeans : Dutch Churches, 71,143 ; Anglicans, 149,693 ; Presby- 
terians, 17,461 ; Methodists, 199,763 ; Lutherans, 206,931 ; Roman Catholics, 
59,599; Congregationalists, 12,364; other Christian sects, 44,000; Native 
Separatist Churches, 446,655; Buddhists, 67; Confucians, 1,286; Hindus, 
9,454; Moslems, 16,664; no religion, 1,265,111; l others and unspecified, 
20,523; total, 2,520,714. 

Education. All education except that of a university and of a voc&- 
tional type is under the provincial authority. The province has been divided 
for the purposes of local control and management into 20 school districts. 
Instruction in government schools, both primary and secondary, is free. 

The following statistics of education show the position in June, 1947 : 

1 Indicates for Europeans ' No Religion ' (so returned), and for non-Europeans covers 
Bantu religions and non-Christian Hottentots and Bushmen. 



264 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



706 primary and junior high schools and 52 high schools for European 
scholars with a total enrolment of 184,732 and 6,939 teachers; 1,269 state 
and state-aided schools for coloured, native and Indian children, with 
251,917 pupils. There are 4 training institutions for European teachers, 
with 1,261 students, and 12 for coloured and native teachers, with 970 
students. During the year 1946, 6,899,651 was expended for educational 
purposes. 

The medium of instruction up to the fifth standard is the home language 
(English or Afrikaans) of the pupil. The teaching of the other language 
begins at the earliest stage at which it is appropriate on educational grounds. 
Both languages are taught as examination subjects to every pupil above 
the fifth standard. 

Finance. The following figures show the provincial revenue and ex- 
penditure for 5 years : 





1941-42 


1942-43 


1943-44 


1944-45 


1945-46 


Kevenue : 

















Provincial collections . 


4,840,833 


5,155,219 


6,766,389 


5,865,695 


4,832,071 


Union government subsidies : 












Ordinary .... 
In lieu of professional licences 


2,265,929 
28,013 


2,236,246 
28,013 


2,306,191 
28,013 


2.340,524 
28,013 


4,916,000 


In respect of rural libraries 





1,600 


1,600 


1,600 


600 


National feeding scheme 








38,409 


281,417 





Grants: 












S.A. native trust . 


280,085 


325,289 


457,997 


541,941 


631,049 


Other .... 


18,136 


17,855 


19,180 


21,361 





Total revenue .... 


7,432,996 


7,791,222 


8,617,779 


9,070,651 


10,379,720 


Total expenditure 


6,672,661 


7,017,167 


7,879,351 


9,314,044 


11,339,695 



Ordinary expenditure, 1945-46 : General administration, 366,829 ; 
education, 6,420,863 ; hospitals and poor relief, 2,099,828 ; roads, bridges 
and local works, 1,976,424 ; miscellaneous, 23,848 ; interest and redemption, 
451,903. The capital expenditure in 1945-46 was 1,183,368. 

The provincial revenue is mainly derived from licences, employers* 
(native registration) fees, personal and income tax, transfer duty, companies' 
tax, racing and entertainment taxation. 

Production and Industry. The province is in the main a stock- 
raising country, though there are considerable areas well adapted for 
agriculture, including the growing of tropical crops. 

The live-stock (excluding the number in towns and villages) numbered, 
in 1943, 3,879,541 cattle; 3,833,036 sheep; 974,271 goats, and 320,768 
pigs. 

For mineral production, see p. 217 f. The province has iron and brass 
foundries and engineering works, grain-mills, breweries, brick, tile and 
pottery works, tobacco, soap and candle factories, coach and wagon works, 
etc. The output of gold for 1944 was 12,277,228 oz., valued at 103,128,715 ; 
for 1945, 12,213,545 oz., valued at 105,326,731. 

Books of Reference on the Transvaal. 

Bot (A. K.), A Century of Education in the Transvaal. Pretoria, 1936. 
Oraumann (Sir H.), Rand Riches and South Africa. Capetown, 1936. 
Qray (J.) and Gray (B. L.), Payable Gold. London, 1937. A History of the Discovery 
of the Witwatersrand Goldflelds. Johannesburg, 1940. 



UNION OP SOUTH AFRICA 



265 



Harries (0. L.), The Law and Customs of the Bapedi and Cognate Tribes of the Trans- 
vaal. Johannesburg, 1929. 

Jacobson (D.), Fifty Golden Years of the Band. London, 1936. 
Macdvnald (W.), The Romance of the Golden Rand. London, 1933. 
Preller (G. S.), Argonauts of the Rand. Pretoria, 1935. 



PROVINCE OF THE ORANGE FREE STATE. 

(OBANJE VBYSTAAT.) 

The Orange River was first crossed by Europeans about the middle of 
the 18th century. Between 1810 and 1820, settlements were made in the 
southern parts of the Orange Free State, and the Great Trek greatly aug- 
mented the number of settlers during and after 1836. In 1848, Sir Harry 
Smith proclaimed the whole territory between the Orange and Vaal Rivers as 
a British possession and established what was call the Orange River 
sovereignty. Great dissatisfaction was caused by this step, as well as by 
the native policy of the British Government. In 1854, by the Convention 
of Bloemfontein, British sovereignty was withdrawn and the independence 
of the country was recognized. 

During the first five years of its existence the Orange Free State was much 
harassed by incessant raids by, and fighting with, the Basutos. These 
were at length conquered. The British Government then stepped in and 
arranged matters much to the dissatisfaction of the conquering party. By 
the treaty of Aliwal North, only a part of the territory of the Basutos was 
incorporated in the Orange Free State. 

On account of the treaty between the Orange Free State and the South 
African Republic, the former state took a prominent part in the South 
African War (1899-1902), and was annexed on 28 May, 1900, as the Orange 
River Colony. After peace was declared crown colony government was 
established and continued until 1907, when responsible government was 
introduced. On 31 May, 1910, the Orange River Colony was merged in the 
Union of South Africa as the province of the Orange Free State. 

The seat of provincial government is at Bloemfontein. There are 64 
municipalities. 

At the provincial council election on 9 March, 1949, there were 
returned: Nationalists, 21; United Party, 1. 

Administrator. Dr. the Hon. S. P. Barnard (appointed 1941 ; salary, 
2,000). 

Area and Population. The area of the province is 49,647 square 
miles ; it is divided into 36 districts. The census population has varied as 
follows : 



Census 
year 


All races 


European 


Non-European 


Total 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1918 
1921 
1926 
1931 
1936 
1941 
1946 


628,827 

772,060 
876,645 


321,373 

381,903 
430,808 


307,454 

390,157 
444,737 


93,969 
97,776 
104,392 
104,738 
101,872 
100,145 
101,319 


87,709 
90,780 
98,593 
100,637 
99,106 
98,392 
99,772 


223,597 

28M31 
329,489 


216,674 

291^051 
344,965 



1 Preliminary figures. 



266 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



The increase in the total population, 1036-46, was 13-4%. The capital, 
Bloemfontein, had, in 1946, 37,750 European inhabitants, out of a total of 
82,322. 

Vital statistics are shown as follows : 





European 


Non-European * 


Tear 








Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1942 


4,661 


1,742 


1,735 


2,633 


2,993 


2,991 


1943 


4,857 


1,793 


1,736 


2,637 


3,204 


3,062 


1944 


4,974 


1,856 


1,733 


2,856 


3,696 


3,412 


1945 


5,050 


1,803 


1,738 


2,826 


3,384 


3,494 



1 Partial registration. 

Religion. The census of 1936 (Europeans only) gave the following 
results: Dutch Churches, 164,122; Anglican Churches, 10,629; Presby- 
terians, 2,802; Methodists, 7,692; Lutherans, 726; Roman Catholics, 
2,374; Apostolic Faith Mission Churches, 2,243; other Christians, 4,751; 
Jews, 4,822; others, 817. Non-Europeans: Dutch Churches, 76,378; 
Anglicans, 39,008; Presbyterians, 6,729; Methodists, 122,353; Lutherans, 
9,673; Roman Catholics, 34,090; Congregationalists, 1,999; other 
Christian sects, 14,038; Native Separatist Churches, 116,487; Hindus, 
14; Moslems, 35; no religion, 147,456 ; a others and unspecified, 2,822; 
total, 571,082. 

Education. Higher and vocational education is under the control of 
the Union Education Department, while primary and secondary education 
and the training of primary teachers are controlled and financed by the 
provincial administration. The amount spent during the year ended 
31 March, 1945, on European education was 1,144,259, and on non- 
European education, 213,437. Under the Education Ordinance of 1930 
the province is divided into 25 school board districts, for each of which there 
is a school board elected by the school committees in the district. In June, 
1945, there were 451 European public schools and 11 aided private schools 
in the province, with a total enrolment of 40,595 pupils. The number of 
teachers in European schools totalled 1,881. The Normal College had 169 
teachers in training, and a staff of 17 teachers. Similarly, there were 548 
non-European public and aided private schools with total enrolment of 
61,247 and 4 training institutions for native teachers with 847 pupils; the 
number of teachers in all non-European institutions was 1,581. Education 
is free in all public schools up to the university matriculation standard, but 
certain schools are allowed to charge fees and to expend the proceeds for the 
advantage of the schools. Attendance is compulsory between the ages of 
7 and 16, but exemption may be granted in special cases. Unless parents 
object, the two official languages English and Afrikaans are taught to all 
pupils, the home language of the pupil being the chief medium of instruction 
and the second language being introduced gradually during the primary 
school course. 

1 Indicates for Europeans ' No Religion ' (so returned), and for non-Europeans covers 
Bantu religions and non-Christian Hottentots and Bushmen. 



SOUTH-WEST AFRICA 



267 



FinaQC6. The following figures show the provincial revenue and ex- 
penditure for 5 years : 





1940-41 


1941-42 


1942-43 


1943-44 


1944-45 


Heverme : 

















Provincial collections . 


654,881 


724,441 


767,547 


948,606 


995,413 


Union government subsidies : 












Ordinary 


937,041 


937,321 


936,761 


936,761 


936,761 


In lien of professional licences 


5,931 


6,931 


5,931 


5,931 


6,931 


In respect of rural libraries 








200 


150 


100 


National feeding scheme 














45,703 


Grants : 












S.A. native trust 


83,470 


105,385 


134,201 


164,618 


199,253 


Other .... 


10,014 


12,198 


11,027 


11,918 


12,023 


Total revenue .... 


1,691,337 


1,785,276 


1,865,712 


2,067,984 


2,195,184 


Total expenditure 


1,708,076 


1,767,044 


1,860,703 


1,894,993 


2,347,661 



Ordinary expenditure, 1944-45: General administration, 62,865; 
education, 1,357,697 ; hospitals, poor relief, etc., 197,261 ; roads, bridges 
and local works, 433,811 ; miscellaneous, 8,607 ; interest and redemption, 
287,420; total, 2,347,661. The capital expenditure in 1944-45 was 
158,555. 

Production and Industry. The province consists of undulating 
plains, affording excellent grazing and wide tracts for agricultural purposes. 
The rainfall is moderate. The country is still mainly devoted to stock- 
farming, although a rapidly increasing quantity of grain is being raised, 
especially in the eastern districts. 

For mineral statistics, see p. 217 f. 

The money, weights and measures are English. The land measure, the 
morgen, is equal to about 2-1165 acres. 

Books of Reference on the Orange Free State. 

Malan (J. H.), Die Opkoms van in Republiek of die Geslriedenis van die Oranje Vryitaat 
tot die Jaar 1863. Bloemfontein, 1929. 



SOUTH-WEST AFRICA. SUEDWES AFREKA. 

Situation and Physical Features. This country is bounded on the 
north by Portuguese West Africa (Angola) and North Rhodesia, on the west 
by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south and southern portion of the eastern 
boundary by the Cape Province of the Union, and on the remainder of the 
eastern boundary by the Bechuanaland Protectorate and North Rhodesia. 
On the western coast, a strip varying from 60 to 100 miles in width and 
extending from the Orange River in the south to the TJgab River, which 
borders on what is known as the Kaokofeld, consists of barren desert, and 
this is also the case in that portion of the Great Kalahari depression which 
is included in the country on its eastern boundary. The eastern portion is, 
however, not barren, being good grazing ground. 

The Kunene River and the Okavango, which form portions of the northern 
border of the country, the Zambesi, which forms the eastern boundary of 



268 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

the Caprivi Zipfel, the Kwando or Mashi, which flows through the Caprivi 
Zipfel from the north between the Okavango and the Zambesi, ana the 
Orange River in the south, are the only permanently running streams. 
But there is a system of great, sandy, dry river-beds throughout the country, 
in which water can generally be obtained by sinking shallow wells; these 
are the Kuiseb, Swakop, Omaruru and Ugab on the west ; the Fish River in 
the south ; the Nossob, the Auob and the Elephant Rivers in the south-east, 
and a series of what are known as Omuramba in the north-east, with numer- 
ous smaller stream-beds. In the Grootfontein area, which geologists describe 
as a * karst ' region, there are large supplies of underground water, but except 
for a few springs, mostly hot, there is no surface water throughout the 
country. 

Government and Administration. The country was annexed by 
Germany in 1884, but was surrendered to the Forces of the Union of South 
Africa on 9 July, 1915, at Khorab. It was administered by the Union 
under a mandate from the League of Nations, dated 17 Dec., 1920; but in 
July, 1949, the Union government informed the United Nations that no 
further reports on the administration of South- West Africa will be submitted 
to them. The laws of the Union, subject to local modifications, if required, 
may be applied to the country and are gradually being introduced. 

The administration is conducted from Windhoek, and the country is 
divided into 17 districts controlled by magistrates. The Secretary for 
South- West Africa is also Chief Native Commissioner and has charge of all 
native affairs in the territory. 

Windhoek, the capital, is situated in the centre of the territory, and with 
its surrounding district contains a population of 7,908 Europeans, 7,217 
coloured and 12,730 natives (1946 census). 

The administration has been vested by the Union Parliament in the 
Governor-General of the Union, who has delegated his powers to an admini- 
strator with full authority to legislate. By Act No. 42 of 1925 the Union 
Parliament conferred a constitution on South-West Africa, providing for an 
Executive Committee, an Advisory Council and a Legislative Assembly 
with such powers, authorities and functions severally as are in the Act 
defined. 

The Legislative Assembly consists of 18 members, 12 of whom are elected 
and 6 nominated by the Administrator. 

By Union Act No. 23 of 1949 provision was made for the representation 
of the Territory in the parliament of the Union, for the abolition of the 
legislative powers of the Governor-General and those of the Administrator 
which were delegated to him by the Governor-General, for alteration in the 
constitution of the Executive Committee, for the abolition of the Advisory 
Council and for a change in the composition and legislative powers of the 
Legislative Assembly. 

Administrator. Col. P. I. Hoogenhout (appointed 1 April, 1943). 

Area and Population. The total area of the country including the 
Caprivi Zipfel is 317,725 square miles; that of Walvis Bay, administered 
by S.W.A., 374 square miles. 

Owing to the difficulty of satisfactorily controlling that part of the 
Caprivi Zipfel, east of the line running due south from Beacon 22, situated 
west of the Kwando (or Mashi) river, which flows through the Caprivi Zipfel 
from the north, as from August, 1939, it was decided to make over the 
control of this area to the Union Department of Native Affairs. 

The European population (1946 census) amounted to 37,858, the native 



SOUTH-WEST AFRICA 269 

population (provisional figures) to 269,569. As large areas of the country, 
particularly along the coast and in the north, are uncivilized, it has been 
impossible to procure precise figures. In particular it has been difficult to 
estimate the population of the Bushmen, who still exist in considerable 
numbers in the north-eastern portion of the country. 

The principal native races are the Ovambos, Hereros, Bergdamaras or 
Klipkamrs, Hottentots and Bushmen. 

The Ovambos are a Bantu race and are both agriculturists and owners 
of stock. They still possess tribal organization to its full extent. 

The Hereros are a pastoral people who formerly owned enormous herds 
of cattle. The Germans oppressed them, their tribal organization completely 
disappeared and they were scattered throughout the country on farms 
arid in the different towns, where they formed the ordinary source of labour. 
Since the Union occupation of the country, reserves have been set apart 
for them and they have considerably increased in numbers and in animal 
wealth. 

The Bergdamaras are, it is believed, also of Bantu origin, though some 
authorities hold that they belong rather to the Hottentot race, whose 
language they now speak. They are an inferior tribe, and were alternately 
the slaves of the Hereros and the Hottentots in pre-European days, accord- 
ing as the former or the latter were in the ascendant. 

The Hottentots, so called, consist of two distinct sections : one, whose 
remnants are found in the central portions of the country, being of pure 
native extraction, is thought to have migrated from the region of the 
Central African lakes in prehistoric times ; the other is composed of tribes 
whose members are descended from persons born in the Cape a couple of 
centuries ago with an admixture of European and Hottentot blood. These 
tribes, after conflict with their European neighbours, sought refuge across 
the Orange River. 

The Bushmen are the oldest inhabitants of South -West Africa, and are 
found in considerable numbers in its eastern portion from lat. 26 to the 
northern boundary. 

In the centre of the country just south of the Windhoek district is the 
Kehoboth Gebiet, occupied by a race known as the Bastards, whose origin 
is much the same as the second class of Hottentots mentioned above, except 
that the admixture of European blood is much greater and their ordinary 
language is Afrikaans. These people have a measure of self-government 
under a council of which the local magistrate is chairman. They number 
about 5,000. 

Education. European. There are (1948) 52 Government schools with 
7,005 pupils, and 18 registered private schools with 908 pupils. Of the 
children in Government schools 3,477 are accommodated in 42 hostels which 
are conducted by the Administration in conjunction with the Government 
schools. The general policy has hitherto been to bring the country children 
into these hostels and so obviate the necessity for single-teacher country 
schools. 

Native. The education of the natives is mainly under the direct super- 
vision of the various missions. There are (1948) 5 Government native 
schools, 1 Government coloured school and 90 Government-aided mission 
schools for coloured and native children, with 8,177 pupils. There are 2 
training schools for native teachers, 1 Government and the other subsidized 
by the Government, with 118 student teachers in training. 

In 1949, secondary classes for coloured pupils were instituted in one 
centre (23 pupils). 



270 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Finance. The revenue and expenditure (in sterling) were : 





1943-44 


1944-46 


1946-46 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


Revenue . 
Expenditure l 


1,856,141 
1,046,600 


2,360,246 
3,457,412 


2,300,244 
2,340,927 


2,877,154 
2,844,633 


3,196,777 

3,008,506 


3,297,991 
3,427,208 



Including loan expenditure, 1943-44, 47,798; 1944-45, 97,136; 1945-46, 3,785; 
1946-47, 6,034; 1947-48, 27,908. 

For the purposes of Customs and Excise revenue the territory is included 
in the South African Customs Union. The total revenue from this source 
for the year 1947-48 was 620,545. 

Production and Industry. South- West Africa is essentially a stock- 
raising country, the scarcity of water and poor rainfall rendering agriculture, 
except in the northern and north-eastern portions, almost impossible. 
Generally speaking the southern half of the territory is suited for the raising 
of small stock, while the central and northern portions are better fitted for 
cattle. The stock census for the year 1946 (tlie latest taken) was as fol- 
lows : 1,520,293 head of cattle, 3,559,982 head of small stock, 37,485 horses, 
83,929 donkeys and 3,579 mules. Considerable attention is being paid 
to the improvement of cattle and the production of butter, the quantity of 
butter manufactured during the year ended 30 Sept., 1948, was 8,340,954 
lb., of which 6,897,741 Ib. were exported. Cheese manufactured at factories 
was 165,776 lb., of which 27,674 lb. were exported. 

More and more attention is being centred on the production of karakul 
pelts. The number of pelts exported during 1948 was 2,040,145. 

Minerals constitute 25% of the total value of exports from the territory. 
Diamonds, which constitute the principal production, are recovered from 
alluvial sources on a 300-mile stretch along the coastline from the Orange 
River northward. Exports in 1947, 179,554 carats, valued at 2,103,960; 
in 1948, 210,281 carats (2,476,490). 

Vanadium, tin, lithium ores and lead-copper-zinc concentrates are being 
worked in the north of the territory. Exports (1948) : Vanadium concen- 
trates, 2,700 long tons (152,335); tin concentrates, 148 long tons (51,750); 
lead-copper concentrates, 47,864 short tons (1,692,248); lithium, 1,861 
short tons (6,778); zinc concentrates, 10,474 short tons (242,394). 
Lead-copper concentrates come from the Tsumeb mine, where operations 
were resumed in Feb., 1947. 

Commerce. Imports and exports for 6 years : 



Year 


Imports 


Exports 


Year 


Imports 


Exports 


















1941 
1942 
1943 


2,730,986 
2,644,762 
3,316,966 


4,961,431 
4,166,571 
6,639,618 


1944 
1946 
1946 


4,029,702 
4,847,688 
6,979,941 


6,969,186 
8,160,660 
9,693,127 



Imports from overseas, 1946, 2,756,237; Union of South Africa, 
4,223,304. Exports overseas, 6,613,301; Union of South Africa, 
3,029,826. 

Total exports to the United Kingdom in 1947, 462,748; 1948> 
1,028,462; 1949, 893,640. Imports from the U.K., 1947; 273,692 ; 1948, 
325,415 ; 1 949, 368,668 (Board of Trade returns). 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA 271 

The bulk of the direct imports into the country is landed at Walvis 
Bay, which is now administered as a portion of South-West Africa, and the 
Government proposes to develop this port as the main harbour. 

Communications. The railway line from Walvis Bay to Karasburg 
extends southwards and connects with the main system of the South African 
Railways at De Aar. 

The total length of the line inside South- West Africa is 1,133 miles of 
3ft. Gin. gauge, and 353 miles of 2ft. gauge. The Railway Administration 
also operates well developed road motor services, totalling 73,077 route 
miles as at 31 March, 1949. These services have played an important 
part in the opening up of vast undeveloped areas. The service between the 
rail head at Grootfontein via Tsumeb and Angola border has established an 
important link between South- West Africa and Portuguese West Africa, 
and that between Gobabis station and Buitepos, on the farm Sandfontein, 
has linked South-West Africa with the Bechuanaland protectorate. 

At 30 Sept., 1949, there were 118 post offices and 1,691 private bag 
services distributed by rail or road transport. 

On 30 Sept., 1949, there were 3,868 circuit miles of trunk lines, 406 miles 
of telegraphs, 3,838 miles of super-imposed telegraphs, 763 miles of rural tele- 
phones, 2,633 miles of carrier circuits, 43 miles of phantom circuits, 2,902 
miles of high-frequency telegraph circuits, and 2,218 miles of farm telephone 
lines ; 92 telegraph offices, 59 telephone exchanges, 26 rural call offices and 
3,606 rented telephones. There are 19 point to point radio stations in 
operation. 

A Post Office Savings Bank was established in 1910. The number of 
accounts open at 31 March, 1949, was 19,168, with a credit of 1,382,727. 
Savings certificates of a value of 50 are also issued. The balance due to 
holders as at 31 March, 1949, amounted to 366,900. 

Books of Reference. 

The Territory of South West Africa. (Beprint from Official Tear Book of the Union of 
South Africa.) Pretoria, 1947. 

Administration of South-West Africa, The Native Tribes of South-West Africa. 
Windhoek, 1928. 

Department of Mines : Quarterly Information Circulars : Industrial Minerals. 

Earth (P.), Sudwest-Afrika. Leipzig, 1926. 

Evans (I. L.), The British In Tropical Africa. Cambridge, 1928. 

Kaiser (Erich), Dtanmnten-Wtiste SUdwestafrika. Berlin, 1926. 

Wagner (P. H.), The Geology and Mineral Industry of South- West Africa. Cape Town 
1916. 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA. 

East Africa High Commission. The East Africa High Commission, 
which consists of the Governors of Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda, came 
into being on 1 Jan., 1948, to provide for the administration of services 
common to the three territories, neither political federation nor fusion of 
the existing governments being involved. The High Commission is assisted 
by the East Africa Central Legislative Assembly of 23 members (7 from the 
staff of the High Commission, 5 from each of the territories and 1 Arab) 
which is empowered to legislate for certain specified common services in- 
cluding railways, income tax, customs and excise, posts and telegraphs, 
and research services. The governments of the three territories remain 
responsible for all basic public services such as administration, police, 



272 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

health, education, agriculture, animal health, forestry, labour and public 
works. 

The East Africa Army command also includes Zanzibar, the former 
Italian SomaUland, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, and Mauritius. 
In 1947, work started on the army supply depot at Mackinnon Road, Kenya, 
which is to be developed as the centre of the East African defence scheme. 

Communications. By an Order made by the East African High Com- 
mission with the approval of the Legislative Councils of Kenya, Uganda and 
Tanganyika, the Kenya and Uganda Railways and Harbours and the Tan- 
ganyika Railways and Ports Services, were, with effect from 1 May, 1948, 
amalgamated into the East African Railways and Harbours Administration, 
which was placed under the administration of the East Africa High Com- 
mission. Its functions are exercised by the Commissioner for Transport 
with the advice of a Transport Advisory Council. 

The East African Railways, which is metre gauge, consists of: main 
line, Mombasa island to Kampala, in Uganda, 878 miles ; other lines in 
Kenya are: the Nakuru Kisumu line, 134 miles; the Voi-Kahe Branch, 
92 miles, with running powers over the Tanga line (Tanganyika Territory) 
between Kahe Junction and Moshi; the Magadi Branch, 91 miles; the 
Thika-Nyeri-Nanyuki line, 145 miles; the Solai Branch, 27 miles; the 
Kitale Branch, 41 miles, the Thomson's Falls Branch, 48 miles and the 
Kisumu-Butere Branch, 43 miles. In Uganda, Mbulamuti-Namasagali 
line, 19 miles; Port Bell-Kampala Railway, 6 miles; Tororo-Soroti line, 
100 miles. In Tanganyika, the Tanga railway from Tanga to Arusha via 
Moshi (273 miles); the Central Railway from Dar es Salaam to Kigoma 
(775 miles), with branch lines from Tabora to Mwanza (236 miles), from 
Msagali to Hogoro (37 miles) and from Kaliuwa to Mpanda (135 miles, 
under construction); and the Southern Province railway from Mkwaya 
to Noli (112 miles, under construction; open for goods traffic to 
Nachingwea, 80 miles). Total mileage, 2,930. 

The harbours comprise the following : The Port of Mombasa, which 
includes Kilindini Harbour, Mombasa Old Port, Ports Reitz and Tudor; 
and the ports of Lamu, Malindi and Kilifi. Kilindini Harbour possesses 
7 deep-water quay berths, a bulk oil jetty and a lighterage berth. 

The East African Railways and Harbours also operate steamer services 
on lakes Victoria, Kioga and Albert and on the river Nile, and a motor- 
transport service, 75 miles, between Masindi Port on Lake Kioga, and 
Butiaba, on Lake Albert. 

Revenue, 1948, from railways, 5,426,963 (Kenya and Uganda) and 
1,915,488 (Tanganyika); from harbours, 1,341,023 (Kenya and Uganda) 
and 393,838 (Tanganyika). Expenditure, 1948, on railways, 3,881,294 
(Kenya and Uganda) and 1,174,375 (Tanganyika); on harbours, 632,096 
(Kenya and Uganda) and 370,496 (Tanganyika). 

Posts and Telegraphs. With effect from 1 Jan., 1949, the Posts and 
Telegraphs Department of Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda was converted 
to a self-contained department with its own capital account. The new 
department is designated 'The East African Posts and Telegraphs Depart- 
ment.' 

The telegraph and telephone system has 50,358 miles of wire (Kenya 
29,613 miles; Tanganyika 13,259 miles; Uganda 7,486 miles). Cables 
from Mombasa and Dar-es- Salaam connect with Zanzibar. Number of 
telephones in British East Africa (1949), 14,470. 

Administrator. Robert Scott, C.M.G. 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA 273 

Blocks of Reference. 

Overseas Economic Survey : British East Africa, March, 1948. H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Civil Services of Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda and Zanzibar, 1947-48 : Report, 31 March, 
1948 (Colonial No. 223). 

African Labour Efficiency Survey, 1947. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

East African Bice Mission Report, 1948. (Colonial 246.) H.M.S.O., 1949. 

East African Annual, 1944-45 (15th year). Nairobi, 1945. 

Road Book of East Africa. H.M. Eastern African Dependencies, Trade and Informa- 
tion Office. London, 1930. 

Brown (A. S.) and Brown (G. Q.) (editors), The Guide to South and East Africa. Annual. 
London. 

Buxton (P. A.), Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Africa, 1947. H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Coupland (B.), East Africa and its Invaders : From the Earliest Times to the Death 
of Seyyid Said in 1856. London, 1938. The Exploitation of East Africa, 1856-90. The 
Slave Trade and the Scramble. London, 1939. 

Debenham (P.), The Water Resources of East Africa. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Gregory (J. W.), The Rift Valleys and Geology of East Africa. London, 1921. 



KENYA COLONY AND PROTECTORATE. 

Government. The Kenya Colony and Protectorate extend, on the 
Indian Ocean, from the Umba River to Dick's Head, and inland as far as Lake 
Victoria and Uganda. The protectorate consists of the mainland dominions 
of the Sultan of Zanzibar, viz., a coastal strip of territory 10 miles wide, to 
the northern branch of the Tana River; also Kau, Kipini and the Island of 
Lamu, and all adjacent islands between rivers Umba and Tana, these 
territories having been leased to Great Britain in 1895 for an annual rent of 
10,000, since raised to 16,000. The colony and protectorate, known as 
the East Africa Protectorate, were, on 1 April, 1905, transferred from the 
authority of the Foreign Office to that of the Colonial Office, and in 
November, 1906, the protectorate was placed under the control of a 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief and (except the Sultan of Zanzibar's 
dominions) was annexed to the Crown as from 23 July, 1920, under the 
name of * The Colony of Kenya,' thus becoming a Crown Colony. The 
territories on the coast rented from the Sultan of Zanzibar became the Kenya 
Protectorate. In 1908 foreign consular jurisdiction in the Zanzibar strip of 
coast was transferred to the British Crown. 

A treaty was signed (15 July, 1924) with Italy under which Great Britain 
ceded to Italy the Juba River and a strip from 50 to 100 miles wide on the 
British side of the river. Following on ratification of the treaty, cession 
took place on 29 June, 1925. 

The Executive Council consists of 12 members, in addition to the 
Governor, while the Legislative Council consists of 11 elected European 
members, 5 elected Indian members, 1 elected Arab member, 1 Arab 
nominated to represent Arab interests, 4 nominated unofficial members (all 
Africans) to represent the interests of the African community, 7 ex-officio 
official members and nominated official members not exceeding 9 in number, 
with the Governor as President and a speaker who is also Vice-President. 
The constituencies for Europeans, Indians and Arabs are separated from one 
another (i.e. communal franchise). Legislation is by Ordinances made by the 
Governor with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council. 

In 1946 the administration of the colony was reorganized by the group- 
ing of the departments of the Government under members of the Executive 
Council who became responsible to the Governor for their respective groups. 
At the same time a Development and Reconstruction Authority was estab- 
lished under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary, who became also 
member for development. To facilitate these proposals the estimates of 



274 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



the colony were divided into two parts, providing respectively for the 
ordinary budget of revenue and expenditure and a fund for development 
and reconstruction. 

There are 5 provinces, which are as follows : Coast (capital Mombasa), 
Central (capital Nyeri), Rift Valley (capital Nakuru), Nyanza (capital 
Kisumu) and Northern Province (capital Isiolo). There is also 1 extra- 
provincial district, i.e. Masai. 

Area and Population. The territory has an area of 219,730 square 
miles; census population in 1948 totalled 5,373,078, including 29,660 
Europeans, 97,687 Indians and Groans, 24,174 Arabs and 5,218,232 Africans. 
On the coast the Arabs and Swahilis predominate ; further inland are races 
speaking Bantu languages, and non-Bantu tribes such as the Nilotic Kavi- 
rondo, the Nandi, the Lumbwa, the Masai, the Somali and the Gallas. 
Mombasa harbour is situated on the eastern side of an island of the same 
name, and is the terminus of the Kenya and Uganda Railway. Kilindini 
harbour on the south-western side of the island is the finest land-locked and 
sheltered harbour on the east coast of Africa and is accessible to vessels of 
deep draught. The principal river in the north is the Tana, which flows into 
the Indian Ocean. Nairobi is the capital; the city was given a Royal 
charter on 30 March, 1950. Land under European cultivation in Kenya 
in 1948-49 included 199,073 acres of wheat, 120,925 acres of maize, 23,616 
acres of pyrethrum, 17,474 acres of sugar cane, 226,146 acres of sisal, 64,261 
acres of coffee, 17,765 acres of tea, 13,102 acres of barley, 13,413 acres of 
oats. 

Religion and Education. The prevailing religious beliefs are Pagan ; 
but on the coast Mohammedanism has made great progress. There are 
many Christian mission societies, British, French, Swedish and American, 
several being Roman Catholic. There were 58 government schools 
(12 European schools, 20 Indian schools, 7 Arab and Somali schools and 
19 African schools) in operation in 1948 as well as 2 Indian and 10 African 
government teachers' training colleges, and 2,379 non -government schools, 
of which 2,238 were African schools. There are also a few private schools 
for Europeans, Indians and Africans. 

In 1949, there were 44 cinemas with a seating capacity of 19,350. 

Justice. The Supreme Court is based at Nairobi while a resident 
judge is stationed at Mombasa. There are district registries at Nakuru, 
Kisumu, Eldoret and Nyeri, and criminal sessions are held at these stations 
and elsewhere as may be necessary. Subordinate courts presided over by 
magistrates are held in each district. 

Finance. Revenue and expenditure (in sterling) for 6 years : 



Tear 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1945 
1946 
1947 


8,034,196 
9,057,390 
9,877,196 


7,815,928 
8,795,237 
9,023,624 


1948 
19491 
1950 l 


11,411,664 
9,696,482 
10,748,926 


10,966,893 
10,339,000 
10,643,444 



1 Estimates. 

Of the revenue for 1948, customs and excise accounted for 5,040,282; 
licences, duties, taxes, etc., 3,081,611; fees, etc., 237,073; posts and 
telegraphs, 649,337; earnings of government departments, 244,538; 
revenue from government property, 98,758 ; sale of government property, 
165,387; miscellaneous receipts, 103,454; agricultural production and 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA 275 

settlement board, 25,646; Forest department, 152,904; land sales, 
96,279; and reimbursements, 567,716. Public debt, 31 May, 1949, 
22,643,000: colony, 13,106,578; railways and harbours, 9,536,422. 

Agriculture, Forestry and Mining. As agriculture is possible 

from sea level to altitudes of over 9,000 feet, climatic conditions are ex- 
tremely varied, and tropical, sub-tropical and temperate crops are grown. 
The main producing areas are in the highlands where coffee, maize, wheat, 
sisal, tea and pyrethrum are crops of major importance. At lower altitudes 
where conditions are tropical, maize, sisal, sugar, coconuts and cotton are 
crops of principal importance. The dairy and wool industries are important 
and considerable quantities of hides are exported annually. 

Groundnuts, simsim, potatoes, beans, essential oils, cashew nuts, wattle 
and other miscellaneous crops are grown according to elevation and 
rainfall both for export and home consumption. Livestock in the possession 
of Europeans (1949) : Cattle, 532,800; sheep, 231,500; pigs, 35,000. 

The total area of gazetted forest reserves in the colony amounts to 5,725 
square miles of which 5,323 square miles or 93% are situated in the 
highlands. The merchantable forests extend over some 2,050 square miles, 
nearly half of which are at present economically inaccessible. Crown forest 
(land) reserve is 4,894 square miles; crown forest (mangrove) reserve is 
174 square miles ; and native forest reserve 657 square miles. 

The forests of the highlands, situated on Mount Kenya, Mount Elgon, 
the Aberdare Range, the Kikuyu Escarpment and the Mau-Elgeyo- 
Cherangani system at altitudes between 6,000 ft. and 11,000 ft. above sea- 
level may be divided into two main classes, namely, cedar forests and 
camphor forests. The upper edges of the highlands forests are ringed by a 
zone of bamboo forest (Arundinaria alpina) which occur mainly between 
altitudes of 8,000 and 10,500 feet and occupy some 14% of the total area 
of the highlands forest reserves. 

Of the total area of gazetted forest reserves, as much as 1,368 square miles 
or 24% of the whole are occupied by protection forests which are carefully 
preserved for their effects on soil and water conservation and for the climatic 
benefit of the colony generally. 

The colony has now a thriving area of 139 square miles of plantations 
spread over the more important forest centres of the highlands. Of the area 
of plantations established to date, nearly 50% consists of exotic softwoods 
and hardwoods being grown on a rotation of 35 years and under working 
plans in course of preparation it is hoped that Kenya will be able to produce 
from the year 1960 onwards very large quantities of softwood timbers. 

The mineral resources are not yet fully explored. Production for 
1948 was as follows : Gold, 23,429 fine oz. troy (value 202,076); silver, 
3,184 fine oz. troy (value 558); soda-ash and other soda products, 121,250 
long tons (value 1,171,765); salt, 16,547 long tons (value 65,465); lime, 
13,408 long tons (value 56,969); kyanite, 14,600 tons (value 61,741); 
diatomite, 1,019 long tons (value 11,606). Total value of all mineral pro- 
ducts in 1948 was 1,587,828. 

In addition, considerable quantities of building stone, marble, gypsum, 
coral and other minerals were produced. 

Customs and Commerce. The colony and protectorate of Kenya, the 
Uganda Protectorate and Tanganyika Territory have formed a customs 
union since 1927, and complete freedom of trade exists between the two 
territories and Tanganyika, customs revenue being allocated to the con- 
suming territory. 



276 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Imports into Kenya and Uganda (excluding government stores and 
government bullion and specie), the domestic exports of Kenya and Uganda, 
and the tonnage entered and cleared colony and protectorate of Kenya 



were :- 



Year 


Trade 
imports 


Domestic 
exports 


Customs 
revenue 


Tonnage egistered 
of vessels entered 
and cleared 


1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 


13,946,486 
13,029,748 
20,326,471 
29,528,544 
42,010,544 


12,439,919 
15,731,730 
16,751,820 
21,065,621 
25,831,411 


2,288,174 
2,244,159 
3,690,005 
4,918,701 
5,732,008 


4,962,192 
3,772,027 
4,778,689 
4,322,264 
5,036,928 



In 1948 the main imports were : Base metals and manufactures thereof, 
5,427,061; machinery, vehicles, apparatus, etc., 10,343,776; products 
for lighting, heating and power, 4,790,664; unmanufactured tobacco, 
274,436; gold and specie, 796,372 ; cement, 7 12,509; cotton piece-goods, 
7,244,410; bags and sacks, 945,859; paints and colourings, 526,571; 
drugs and medicines, 450,056 ; tyres and tubes for vehicles, 843,033. 

The principal countries of origin were : United Kingdom, 52-05% ; 
India, 7-08% ; Union of South Africa, 4-13% ; other British possessions, 
12-35% (total British Empire, 75-61%); Persia, 5-43%; United States of 
America, 6-6%; other foreign countries, 12-36%. 

Principal domestic exports of Kenya and Uganda, during 1948 were : 
Coffee, 5,247,464; sugar, 770,672; tea, 871,792; cigarettes, 842,771; 
cotton, 7,554,362 (mainly Uganda); sisal, fibre and tow, 2,431,254; 
hides and skins, 1,478,990; wattle bark and extract, 692,153; sodium 
carbonate, 957,578 ; timber and manufactures, 540,207 ; beans and peas, 
459,618; wheat flour, 273,969 ; gold bullion, 241,150. 

The chief countries of destination were : United Kingdom, 30% ; 
India, 22%; Union of South Africa, 6%; British Possessions, 17% 
(total British Empire, 75%); United States of America, 5% ; other foreign 
countries, 20%. 

1949 exports to the United Kingdom (Board of Trade returns), 
20,134,887; 1948, 17,407,611; imports from the United Kingdom, 1949, 
5,501,239; 1948, 4,079,398 ; re-exports, 1949, 88,993; 1948, 63,649. 

Communications. The country is fairly well provided with roads and 
tracks. There is a motor road from Nairobi, across Uganda, to Mongalla 
in the Sudan. For railways see p. 272. 

A short-wave wireless station, owned by Cable and Wireless, Ltd., is 
established at Nairobi and provides communication between the colony and 
protectorate and Great Britain, and the company also maintains a local 
broadcasting service. 

Money. The currency of the colony and protectorate, which is the same 
as that of the Uganda Protectorate, Tanganyika Territory, Zanzibar and 
British Somaliland, is controlled by the East African Currency Board (4 
Millbank, London, S.W. 1 ) which maintains a stable rate of sterling exchange. 
The standard coin is the East African shilling of 100 cents, introduced 
as from 1 Jan., 1922, which is legal tender to any amount. Twenty East 
African shillings equal 1 East African pound. The subsidiary coins consist 
of 50 cent (silver), 10 cent, 5 cent and 1 cent (bronze). The silver corns are 
being replaced by cupro-nickel. The paper currency consists of notes of 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA 277 

1, 5, 10, 20, 100, 200, 1,000 and 10,000 shillings. The 1- and 200-shilling 
notes are being gradually withdrawn. Three banks operate in the colony : 
the National Bank of India, Ltd. ; the Standard Bank of South Africa, 
Ltd. ; Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial & Overseas). 

Governor and C 'cmmander -in-Chief '. Major-Gen. Sir Philip Mitchell, 
G.C.M.G., M.C. (appointed 19 September, 1944; salary, with allowances, 
8,500). 

Chief Secretary. J. D. Rankine, C.M.G. (appointed 19 September, 1947). 

Books of Reference. 

Kenya Colony and Protectorate. Report on Native Affairs, 1939-45. H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Nairobi : Master Plan for a Colonial Capital. H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Annual Report on Kenya, 1947. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Travel Guide to Kenya and Uganda. Issued by the Kenya and Uganda Railways and 
Harbours Board. London. 

Kenya Handbook. H.M. Stationery Office, London. 

Broume (G. St. J. Orde), The Vanishing Tribes of Kenya. London, 1926. 

Cobbold (Lady E.), Kenya : The Land of Illusion. London, 1935. 

Cranuorth (Lord), Kenya Chronicles. London, 1939. 

Dilley (Marjorie II.), British Policy in Kenya Colony. London, 1938. 

Hobley (0. W.), Kenya from Chartered Company to" Crown Colony. London, 1929. 

Huxley (E.), White Man's Country. Lord Delamere and the Making of Kenya. 2 vote. 
London, 1935. 

Murray- Hughes (R.), Geological Survey of Kenya. Nairobi, 1933. 

Strange (N. K.), Kenya To-day. London, 1934. 

Wagner (G.), The Bantu of North Kavirondo [Kenya]. London, 1949. 



THE UGANDA PROTECTORATE. 

The territories now comprised within this protectorate came under 
British influence in 1890, and a portion of them was for a time administered 
by the Imperial British East Africa Company. In 1894 a British protector- 
ate was declared over the kingdom of Buganda and some of the adjoining 
territories. The present limits are approximately as follows : On the 
north, the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan boundary ; on the east, a line drawn from 
Mt. Zulia on the Sudan boundary along the Turkana escarpment over the 
top of Mt. Elgon, and along the west boundary of the Colony of Kenya to 
the eastern shores of Lake Victoria; on the south by the Tanganyika 
Territory (formerly German East Africa) ; and on the west by the eastern 
boimdafy of the Belgian Congo. Within these boundaries lie part of the 
Victoria Nyanza, part of Lake Edward, the whole of Lake George, half of 
Lake Albert, the whole of Lake Kioga, the whole of Lake Salisbury, and 
the course of the Nile from its exit from Lake Victoria to Nimule, where the 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan commences. Total area 93,981 square miles, 
including 13,680 square miles of water. For administrative purposes it is 
divided into 4 provinces : (1) the Eastern Province, comprising the districts 
of Busoga, Teso and Mbale; (2) the Western Province, comprising the 
districts of Bunyoro, Toro, Ankole and Kigezi; (3) Buganda Province, with 
islands in Lake Victoria, comprising the districts of Mengo, Masaka and 
Mubende; and (4) the Northern Province, comprising the districts of 
Karamoja, Lango, Acholi and West Nile. 

Government. The province of v Buganda is recognized as a native 
kingdom under a * Kabaka,' with the title of ' His Highness.' He is assisted 
in the government by three native ministers and a Lukiko, or native 
assembly. In Buganda, and in Bunyoro, Ankole and Toro, also ruled over 
by native * kings,' purely native matters are dealt with by the various 



278 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Lukikos. The remainder of the protectorate is under an indirect administra- 
tion, in which the native chiefs and councils are encouraged to conduct 
their own affairs. The principal British representative is the Governor, 
who is assisted by a legislative council, of which 4 members are Africans, 
and an executive council in carrying out the functions of government. 
The headquarters of the British administration is at Entebbe; the com- 
mercial centre is Kampala. 

Population and Education. The population of Uganda is 4,993,965 
(census of Aug., 1948), composed as follows : African, 4,953,000; Asiatic, 
37,517; European, 3,448. Among the Africans approximately 1,300,000 
are Baganda, the tribe from which the protectorate takes its name, and 
which was the most powerful and civilized at the time when the first 
explorers visited the country. 

Until 1925 educational work was entirely in the hands of missionary 
societies, which still receive grants. For the last 20 years the efforts of 
the missions have been supplemented by a government educational scheme. 
The total number attending schools in 1948 was 284,563, of whom 147,118 
were within the aided system. A higher college was established by govern- 
ment at Makerere (Kampala) in 1925, and reconstituted in 1939 under the 
management of a council, representing the various East African territories 
from which the student body is recruited. Total expenditure of public 
funds on education in 1948, 392,500. About 2,500,000 Africans speak 
Bantu languages; there are a few Congo pygmies living near the Semliki 
river ; the rest of the Africans belong to the Hamitic, Nilotic and Sudanese 
groups. 

Justice. The High Court, presided over by the Chief Justice and two 
puisne judges, exercises original and appellate jurisdiction, civil and 
criminal, throughout the protectorate, and district courts presided over 
by magistrates exercise limited and criminal jurisdiction hi each district. 
The Court of Appeal for Eastern Africa, presided over by a bench selected 
from the judiciary of all East African territories, hears appeals from the 
High Court. Native courts of varying limited jurisdiction deal with cases, 
both civil and criminal, involving Africans only, but certain classes of cases 
are reserved to the protectorate courts. Such native courts are supervised, 
in Buganda, by a qualified judicial adviser, and elsewhere by the adminis- 
trative staff, the High Court having appellate powers in such cases in 
Buganda and exercising revisional jurisdiction over such courts elsewhere. 

There is an armed constabulary force under a British commissioner 
of police and British officers, in addition to native government police forces- 

Revenue and Expenditure. The revenue and expenditure (exclusive? 
of loan disbursements) for 6 years were (in sterling) : 



Tear 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Year 


Bevenue 


Expenditure 


1943 
1944 


2,428,658 
2,658,242 


2,136,554 
2,597,660 


1946 
1947 


4,053,236 
5,331,222 


3,574,194 
4,473,773 


1945 


3,866,424 


3,199,422 


1948 


6,351,888 


6,513,740 



In 1948 the native poll-tax amounted to 653,730, customs and excise 
to 1,948,000, and income tax, 370,000. Public debt, 183,680. 

Production and Trade. Cotton is the principal product, and is grown 
almost entirely by Africans. The area under cotton in the 1948-49 season 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA 279 

was 1,551,047 acres, yielding 380,000 bales; in 1947-48, 1,036,829 acres, 
yielding 167,802 bales. Other products are coffee, chillies, oil-seeds, tin ore, 
hides, ivory, sugar and tobacco. There are valuable forests. 

Since 1927, Uganda has been united in a customs union with Kenya 
and Tanganyika. 

Total exports in 1948, 14,461,000; cotton, 7,458,000; coffee, 
3,247,000; ivory, 51,600 lb., 37,128; hides and skins, 531,000; tin ore, 
103,000; sugar, 763,000; rubber, 392,400 lb., 18,356; tea, 229,000; 
cigarettes and tobacco, 843,000. The total value of imports for consump- 
tion in 1948 was 10,415,000, consisting mainly of cotton fabrics and manu- 
factures. The trade is chiefly with Great Britain, the United States and 
India. 

Total imports into the U.K. from Uganda, 1948, 3,961,176; 1949, 
6,044,910. Exports from U.K. to Uganda, 1948, 2,551,300; 1949, 
3,580,545 (Board of Trade returns). 



S. There are steamer services on Lakes Victoria, Kioga 
and Albert. The steamers on Lake Albert descend the Nile to Nimule, on 
the Sudan boundary, whence there is a motor road (about 100 miles) round 
the rapids extending to Juba, the terminus of the Nile steamers from 
Khartum. 

There are 2,200 miles of all-weather roads and 5,300 miles of other 
motorable roads. For railways see p. 272. 

Mail services by motor radiate from all main centres. The Sudan- 
Egyptian telegraph and telephone system is working as far as Rejaf. The 
Uganda telegraph line connects with the Belgian Congo via Fort Portal 
and the Semliki. The length of telegraph and telephone line in the pro- 
tectorate is (1945) 7,139 miles. There is a wireless station, used mainly for 
messages in connexion with the aeroplane services and the meteorological 
service, at Entebbe. The thrice-weekly air mail service connects Uganda 
with the United Kingdom and South Africa by flying boat, while local air 
services connect Uganda four times a week with the neighbouring territories 
and with the air mail services via Nairobi. 

Currency and Banking. The currency unit is the shilling, introduced 
in 1921 and standardized, with subsidiary coinage of silver 50 cent pieces, 
and bronze 10 cent, 5 cent and 1 cent pieces. East African Currency Board 
notes of shillings 10,000, 1,000, 200, 100, 20, 10, 5 and 1 are also in circula- 
tion. The National Bank of India (Limited) has branches at Entebbe, 
Kampala, Jinja and Mbale, and the Standard Bank of South Africa and 
Barclays Bank (Dominions, Colonial and Overseas) have branches at Kam- 
pala, Jinja and Mbale. 

Governor and Commander-in-CJiief. Sir John Hathorn Hall, G.C.M.G., 
D.S.O., O.B.E., M.C. (appointed 19 September, 1944). 
Chief Secretary. H. S. Potter, C.M.G. 

Books of Reference. 

Annual Report on Uganda, 1947. H.M.R.O., 1949. 
Uganda Handbook. H.M. Stationery Office, London. 
Blcmd-Sutton (Sir J.). Men and Creatures in Uganda. London, 1933. 
M air (L. P.), Uganda : An African People in the 20th Century. London, 1934. 
Rosco (J.), The Bagesu and other Tribes of the Uganda Protectorate. London, 1924. 
Saben's Commercial Directory and Handbook of Uganda, 1947-48. Kampala, 1947. 
Thomas (H. B.} and Scott (BA Uganda. London. 1936. 

Thomas (H. B.) and Spencer (A. B.), A. History of Uganda Land and Surveys and of the 
Uganda Land and Survey Department. Entebbe, 1938. 



280 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Tothill (J. D.) (editor), Agriculture in Uganda. By the Staff of the Department of 
Agriculture, Uganda. Oxford, 1940. 

WortMngton (E. B.), A Development Plan for Uganda. Entebbe, 1947. The 1948 
Revision Plan. Entebbe, 1949. 



ZANZIBAR. 

The island of Zanzibar is situated in 6 S. latitude, and is separated 
from the mainland by a channel 22J miles across at its narrowest part. It 
is the largest coralline island on the African coast, being 50 miles long by 
24 broad, and having an area of 640 square miles. To the north -east, at 
a distance of some 25 miles, lies the island of Pemba in 5 S. latitude, 42 
miles long by 14 broad, having an area of 380 square miles. The average 
annual rainfall is about 60 in. in Zanzibar and just over 70 in. in Pemba. 

In the 16th century the Arabs of the east coast sought the assistance 
of the Imams of Muscat to drive out the Portuguese. The subsequent 
allegiance to Muscat, however, was of a more or less nominal character 
until Seyyid Said transferred his capital to Zanzibar in 1832. On his death 
in 1856 the African possessions were, under an arbitration by Lord Canning 
(then Governor-General of India), declared independent of the parent state. 
In 1890 the supremacy of the British interests in the islands of Zanzibar 
and Pemba was recognized by France and Germany, and they were declared 
a British Protectorate in accordance with conventions by which Great 
Britain waived all claims to Madagascar in favour of France and ceded 
Heligoland to Germany. In the same year the mainland possessions, which 
extended over the coast from Warsheikh in 3 N. latitude to Tunghi Bay 
in 10 42' S. latitude, were ceded to Italy, Great Britain and Germany, 
respectively, Great Britain and Italy paying rent for the territories under 
their protection, while Germany acquired the Sultan's rights by the pay- 
ment of a sum of 200,000. At a later date Italy also acquired similar 
rights by payment of a sum of 144,000. The British-rented territories 
on the mainland were included in the East Africa Protectorate and now 
form the Protectorate of Kenya. Thus the Zanzibar Protectorate is 
confined for administrative purposes to Zanzibar, Pemba and adjacent 
small islands. In 1891, a regular government was formed for the Protector- 
ate with a British representative as first minister. In 1906 the Imperial 
Government assumed more direct control over the Protectorate and re- 
organized the Government. On 1 July, 1913, the control of the Protectorate 
was transferred from the Foreign Office to the Colonial Office, legal effect 
being given to the change in the following year. 

Constitution and Government. The Sultan, Seyyid Sir Khalifa bin 
Harub, G.C.M.G., G.B.E. (born 1879), succeeded on the abdication of his 
brother-in-law, Ali bin Hamoud bin Mahomed, 9 December, 1911. The 
Government is administered by a British resident, who is appointed by 
commissions under His Majesty's Sign Manual and Signet, and exercises 
his functions under the Zanzibar Order-in-Council, 1924, as amended by 
the Zanzibar Order-in-Council, 1925. 

Legislation consists of decrees of His Highness the Sultan, which are 
binding on all persons when countersigned by the British resident under 
the Order-in-Council. 

In 1926 executive and legislative councils were established. The former 
is presided over by His Highness the Sultan, and the latter by the British 
resident. The legislative council consists of 4 ex-officio and 4 official 
members. There are 8 unofficial nominated members (3 Arabs, 2 Indians, 2 
Africans, 1 European). 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA 



281 



Population, Religion and Education. The population of Zanzibar 

and Pemba, at the 1948 census, was 264,162 (Zanzibar, 144,575; Pemba, 
114,587). The African population is composed of the indigenous Watum- 
batu, Wahadimu and Wapemba, and also the Waswahili comprising 
representatives of at least 50 mainland tribes. The racial composition 
of the population was as follows in 1948 r- 1 Africans, 199,860; Arabs, 
44,560; Indian, 15,892; Europeans, 296 ; others, 3,554. Zanzibar town 
has a population of 45,284. 

Most of the natives are Moslems (Sunnis of the Shafi school); the 
Sultan and the principal Arabs are of the Ibadhi sect. There are 3 Christian 
Missions : the Universities Mission to Central Africa (Church of England), 
the Mission of the Holy Ghost (Roman Catholic) and the Friends' Industrial 
Mission. 

Primary education is free. There are government schools for Arabs and 
Africans; a few mission schools; Indian schools supported by different 
communities for the children of their sects and grant-aided by government; 
a few private schools, and a non-sectarian grant-aided school. The total 
number of children attending these schools in 1949 was 9,601. There 
is a government rural boarding school, a teachers' training school for Arab 
and African boys and a teachers' training school for women of all races. 
Government boys' and girls' secondary schools are attended by all races. 
Government girls' schools in Zanzibar town were attended by 1,053 Arab 
and African pupils in 1949, of whom 59 were boarders. 

Justice* In cases in which persons subject to the Zanzibar Order-in- 
Council, 1924, are concerned, justice is administered by His Britannic 
Majesty's High Court and the courts subordinate to it, and in other cases 
by H.H. the Sultan's court for Zanzibar and the courts subordinate to that 
court. Subordinate courts are held by resident magistrates, administrative 
officers, Arab Kathis, and Mudirs, and an appeal lies from those courts to 
the British or Zanzibar court as may be required. An appeal lies from 
the British court and from the Zanzibar court in the exercise of their original 
civil and criminal jurisdiction to His Majesty's Court of Appeal for Eastern 
Africa and thence to the Privy Council. 

Capitulations for foreign subjects in Zanzibar were abolished by exchange 
of notes with the European governments concerned between 1904 and 1907. 



Finance.- 

follows : 



-The revenue and expenditure (in sterling) were as 





Revenue 


Total 






Revenue 


Total 




Year 


from 
customs 


revenue 
(excluding 


Expendi- 
ture 


Year 


from 
customs 


revenue 
(excluding 


Expendi- 
ture 




(gross) 


loans) 






(gross) 


loans) 




1944 


292,718 


637,067 


565,942 


1947 


375,24L 


746,333 


877,720 


1945 


309,784 


628,866 


647,986 


1948 


479,556 


809,451 


850,037 


1946 


474,205 


795,063 


749,533 


1949 


620,000 


991,409 


1,129,364 



1 Includes duties on imports and clove export duty. 

Besides customs, the chief sources of revenue in 1948 were : Interest 
on loan to Kenya and other investments, 25,026 ; electricity department, 
31,454 ; agriculture, 11,165 ; court fees, etc., 100,407 ; post office, 16,000 ; 
rent of mainland territory, 10,000 ; rent of government property, land and 
houses, 19,938. The chief heads of expenditure in 1 948 were : Agriculture, 
76,949; customs, 23,406; port and marine, 73,724; police, 37,481; 



282 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



education, 76,894; health, 80,192; provincial administration, 58,080; 
public works, electricity and land survey, 40,257, and pensions, 74,192. 

Production and Industry. The clove industry is by far the most 
important in the Protectorate, the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba yielding 
the greater part of the world's supply. It is estimated that there are in both 
islands about 50,000 acres under cloves and over 4 million trees in bearing, 
the average output of the last 35 seasons being over 20 million Ib. The 
exports in 1949 were 151,769 cwt., which is equivalent to 7,588 tons against 
an average over the 10-year period 1939-48 of 10,915 tons. In addition, 
143 tons of clove oil were exported in 1949. The large plantations are owned 
chiefly by Arabs and Indians, but many Africans possess small holdings. 

The coconut industry ranks next in economic importance. It is esti- 
mated that there are about 4 million bearing trees in both islands, but as 
these are not systematically planted the acreage is very difficult to assess. 
The export of copra amounted in 1949 to 7,922 tons only as against an 
average for the years 1 939-48 of 9,523 tons. This decrease was made good 
by increased exports of coconut oil, which in 1949 totalled 6,540 tons. Oil 
cake and soap are also exported. During and just after the Second World 
War, a substantial trade developed, particularly in Pemba, in the export 
of mangrove bark used for the extraction of tannin. Stripping of bark is 
now regulated in order to allow the forests to recover from the excessive 
war-time cutting. The production of locally grown foodstuffs received 
an impetus during the war, particularly as regards rice cultivation, and 
this has been maintained. Oranges, pineapples, mangoes, paw-paws and 
other tropical fruits are grown, and there is a small export trade in oranges 
to the mainland. 

The manufactures are clove and clove stem oil, coir fibre and rope, soap, 
coconut and simsim oil, jewellery, ivory and ebony ornaments, copper and 
brassware, chests, mats, etc. There are no mines in the Protectorate* 

Commerce. The total imports, exports and shipping for 5 years were: 



Tears 


Imports 
(including bullion 
and specie) 


Exports 
(including bullion 
and specie} 


Shipping entered 
(gross tonnage) 


1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 



1,234,177 
1,977,996 
2,012,432 
2,699,717 
2,979,874 



1,383,004 
2,163,886 
1,476,042 
2,116,858 
2,823,336 


Tons 
537,625 
713,855 



The principal articles of import and export in 1949 were : Imports : 
rice and grain, 156,934; cotton piece-goods, 518,143; motor spirit and 
petroleum, 96,824; sugar, 98,081 ; wheat flour, 185,696; tobacco, cigars 
and cigarettes, 66,262 ; ivory, 140,153. Exports : Copra, 424,938 ; cloves, 
843,993; ivory, 115,154; coconut oil, 582,039. 

The trade between Zanzibar (and Pemba) and the United Kingdom 
(Board of Trade returns) for 5 years is given as follows (in sterling) : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports Into U.K. . 
Exports from U.K. 
Re-export* from U.K. 


43,160 
109,681 
1,919 


168,544 
326,481 
234 


141,395 
404,298 
1,707 


104,267 
508,815 
360 


1,026,321 
669,850 
1,052 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA 283 

Communications. The vessels of many British and foreign steamship 
companies visit the port. The Zanzibar Government steamers operate a 
weekly service to Pemba and Dar es Salaam, and a monthly service to 
Mombasa. 

Ocean-going shipping dealt with in 1949 : 1,362,356 tons net (301 vessels) ; 
coastwise, 125,607 tons (274 vessels); dhows, 81,320 tons entered and 
80,726 tons cleared. Excellent water supplied at 35 tons per minute is 
available for shipping. 

There is an all-weather landing ground in Zanzibar and a smaller dry- 
weather landing ground in Pemba. 

There is cable communication with Europe either via Aden or via Durban. 

There are 151 miles of tarmac roads in Zanzibar and 27 miles of all- 
weather unsealed roads ; in Pemba there are 56 miles of tarmac roads, 4 
miles of all-weather roads, and 64 miles of dry-weather earth roads. 

The Government maintains a telephone system in the town of Zanzibar, 
which is connected with the district and agricultural stations in the country. 
A telephone service also exists in the island of Pemba, connecting the 3 
main townships, i.e., Wete, Chake Chake and Mkoani. There are 5 post 
offices in the two islands. The Government savings bank at the end of 
1948 had 12,963 depositors, with 312,961 on deposit. 

Currency, Since 1 January, 1936, the East African Currency Board 
shilling (20 = 1) has been the unit of currency in Zanzibar with sub- 
sidiary coinage of 50 cents (silver), and 10 cents, 5 cents and 1 cent (bronze). 
Notes issued by the East African Currency Board are also legal tender. 

The rupee of British India and Seyyidieh copper pice ceased to be legal 
tender after 6 April, 1936. Notes of the Zanzibar Currency Board may 
be redeemed for East African currency on presentation to the Chief 
Accountant. 

The value of East African currency in circulation on 31 December, 
1948, was: Coin, 192,669; notes, 215,650. Zanzibar currency notes 
unredeemed on 31 December, 1948, amounted to 1,604. 

An important local unit of weight is the frasla (or frasila) = 35 Ib. av. 

British Resident. BIT Vincent Goncalves Glenday, K.C.M.G., O.B.E. 
(appointed 3 March, 1946). 

Chief Secretary. Major E. A. T. Dutton, C.M.G., C.B.E. (8 June, 1942). 

Books of Reference. 

Annual Report on Zanzibar, 1948. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

A Guide to Zanzibar. Zanzibar, 1949. 

Ingrams (W. H.) Zanzibar: Its History and Its People. London, 1931. Chronology 
and Genealogies of Zanzibar Rulers. Zanzibar, 1926. 

Tidbury (Q. E.), Zanzibar : The Clove Tree. London, 1949. 

WUham* (B. O.), The useful and ornamental plants in Zanzibar and Pemba. Zanzibar 
and London, 1949. 



TANGANYIKA. 

Government. German East Africa was conquered in 1918 and was 
subsequently divided between the British and Belgians. In March, 1921, 
the district of Ujiji and part of Bukoba, formerly administered by the 
Belgians, were handed over to British jurisdiction, leaving Ruanda-Urundi 
as the Belgian section, of the original German colony. The country is 
administered under United Nations trusteeship, the former League of 



284 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Nations mandate having been terminated and replaced in 1946. For the 
terms of the trusteeship agreement see Cmd. Paper 7081 (1947). 

Under an Order in Council, dated 22 July, 1920, the territory is admin- 
istered by a governor, who is assisted by an executive council, comprising 
3 ex-officio members, 6 official members and 4 unofficial members, all of 
whom are nominated. A legislative council has been constituted as from 
1 October, 1926. An Order in Council which came into operation on 
23 November, 1945, made the council consist of the Governor as President, 
8 ex-officio -members, 7 official members and not more than 14 unofficial 
members. The unofficial members comprised 7 Europeans, 4 Africans (in- 
cluding 3 chiefs) and 3 Indians in April, 1950. 

Rights in or in relation to any public lands vest in the Governor, but the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies may appoint, if he sees fit, another trustee 
or trustees to exercise such right. 

Area and Population. The territory extends from the Umba River 
on the north to the Rovuma River on the south, the coast-line being about 
450 miles long, and includes the adjacent islands (except Zanzibar and 
Pemba). The northern boundary runs north-west to Lake Victoria at the 
intersection of the first parallel of southern latitude with the eastern shore. 
The boundary on the west follows the Kagera Kiver (the eastern frontier 
of Ruanda), thence the eastern boundary of Urundi to Lake Tangan- 
yika. The western boundary then follows the middle of Lake Tanganyika 
to its southern end at the Kalambo River 50 miles south of Kasanga 
(formerly Bismarckburg), whence it goes south-east to the northern end of 
Lake Nyasa. Rather less than half-way down the lake the boundary turns 
east and joins the Rovuma River, whose course it follows to the sea. The 
total area is about 360,000 square miles, which includes about 20,000 square 
miles of water. Dar es Salaam is the capital and chief port, population, 
69,227 (1948). Other towns are Tanga and the inland towns of Arusha, 
Bukoba, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma, Moshi Mwanza and Tabora. Arusha 
and Moshi are situated on the Tanga railway in the farm country around 
Mount Meru and Mount Kilimanjaro. Dodoma, Tabora and Kigoma are all 
important trading towns on the Central Railway, the latter town being 
located on Lake Tanganyika and serving as the western terminus, 

In 1948 the European population was estimated at 16,299 (including 
5,397 Polish refugees), the Asiatic population at 60,738 and the native 
population at 7,335,291. According to German law every native born 
after 1905 was free, but a mild serfdom was continued under German rule. 
Legislation for the abolition of slavery was enacted in 1922. 

The native population of Tanganyika is made up of members of more 
than 100 tribes, each with a distinctive dialect and varying customs. Most 
of the tribes are of Bantu origin, although some are Bushman ; and there is a 
strong Hamitic strain in the north (e.g. the Masai tribe). Swahili, the 
language of Zanzibar, is generally spoken and understood throughout 
Tanganyika, particularly along the trade routes which originally radiated 
out from Zanzibar. 

Education. European Education. 3 schools are maintained by 
government for the education of European children, at Dar es Salaam, 
Arusha and Mbeya (the last two being boarding schools). A correspondence 
course, which also serves other East African territories, is conducted from 
Dar es Salaam, for children in the more remote districts. Assistance is 
given to 9 privately maintained schools (3 English, 1 Afrikaans, 1 Greek, 
and 4 kindergarten schools). The total enrolment in 1949 was 1,170. 

For secondary education European children go to schools in Kenya. 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA 



285 



Bursaries are awarded for secondary education in Kenya and South Africa. 
The total enrolment in secondary schools in 1949 was 256. 

Indian Education. There are 92 Indian schools with a total enrolment 
in 1949 of 11,425. Grants-in-aid are paid to 80 schools in respect of staff, 
and to 15 in respect of buildings and equipment. 42 schools are maintained 
by The Aga Khan's Central Council of Education. Instruction in the lower 
standards is conducted in Gujarati or Urdu, and in the higher standards in 
English. Secondary instruction up to the Cambridge schoolcertificate exam- 
ination is given in the Government Indian Central School, Dar es Salaam, 
the Aga Khan's Boys' School, Dar es Salaam, and the Indian Public School, 
Dodoma. 

There are 2 Goan schools with an enrolment in 1949 of 762, including 176 
Indians. 

African Education. Schools for Africans are provided by government, 
the native authorities and voluntary agencies, the latter two being subsidized 
by a grant-in-aid system controlled by the education department. 338 
schools are maintained by government or the native authorities, including 
8 secondary and 5 girls' schools. Primary schools are usually co-educational. 
The total enrolment in primary schools in 1949 was 40,219. 

Assistance is given to 810 schools run by voluntary agencies whose total 
enrolment in 1949 was 108,757. In the 19 secondary schools the medium 
of instruction is English. After 4 years of the secondary course many 
students enter government departments, where they are given further 
technical instruction, and some proceed to the clerical course of one year at 
Dar es Salaam government secondary school, in which boys intended for 
the local civil service are taught office routine, accountancy, typewriting 
and shorthand. Three of these schools give a 6-years secondary course, at 
the end of which students may sit for the entrance examination of Makerere 
College, Uganda, and for the Cambridge School Certificate. There are 2 
government teachers' training centres, which provide the grade II teachers 
course, 1 with full grade I course, and 2 government and 6 native authority 
centres with part I of the grade II course only. 

In the primary schools, stress is placed on the improvement of rural 
economy, and many village schools have their gardens. Industrial sections 
teach carpentry, masonry, smithing and tailoring. 

The expenditure from general revenue on education in 1948 was : 
European 50,721 , Indian 57,426, African 245,273. The total expenditure 
on education in 1948 was 353,420, exclusive of further sums contributed by 
the native authorities and missions for African education. 

FinUlC6. The revenue and expenditure (in sterling) were : 





1946 


1947 l 


1948 l 


1949 l 


1950 18 


Eevenue 

Expenditure . 


6,146,761 
5,140,443 


6,012,732 
5,931,257 


7,888,077 
7,378,331 


9,121,464 
9,110,108 


12,656,508 
12,651,388 



1 Includes development plan. 



1 Estimates. 



The chief items of revenue in 1948 were : Customs and excise, 
3,220,378; licences, taxes, etc., 2,266,793 ; reimbursements, 120,526; 
revenue from government property, 491,661; fees of court or office, 
293,890; posts and telegraphs, 253,657; miscellaneous, 162,849; 
colonial development and welfare grant, 266,855; agricultural develop- 
ment fund, 128,254. The chif items of expenditure were : Public works, 



286 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

628,508; medical, 479,318; education, 373,047; subsidization and 
temporary bonus, 336,914; provincial administration, 330,922; native 
administration, 314,745; miscellaneous services, 359,820; pensions and 
gratuities, 292,778; development, 996,367; agriculture, 238,068; 
police, 200,595; public debt, 237,474; defence, 124,141; posts and 
telegraphs, 280,736; veterinary, 142,180. 

Loans were received from the Imperial Government in the years 1920-21 
to 1925-26, amounting to 3,135,446, for capital improvements and develop- 
ments. 1,288,983 were expended upon railway works; other works, 
770,995 ; restoration of war damage, 177,909, and to meet deficit upon 
recurrent account, 897,599. The loan for railway and other works is being 
repaid by equated annuities of 100,053, commencing on 31 March, 1947, 
and terminating on 31 March, 1964. The rate of interest has been reduced 
from 5% to 3% per annum. The repayment of the balance of 1,075,508, 
representing the loan to meet deficits on current account and repair of war 
damage, has been remitted. Other loans: Guaranteed loan, 1951-71, 
3,000,000, of which 1,930,363 was allocated to railway works ; guaranteed 
loan, 1952-72, 500,000, of which 81,975 was allocated to railway works; 
Barclays Overseas Development Corporation Loan, June, 1948, 250,000, 
raised for purchasing 255,000 1 -shares in Tanganyika Packers, Ltd. The 
balance of 5,000 is being met from revenue. 

Production and Industry. Tanganyika has three natural regions 
the coast lowlands, the high plateau and the high mountain slopes around 
Mount Kilimanjaro and other northern peaks and round Rungwe and the 
Livingstones in the south. In these regions there are high rainfall areas as 
also in the foothills of the Ulugurus and Usambaras characterized by the 
presence of tropical rain-forest. The known total area of forest other than 
dry zone forest is in the region of 19,000 square miles or 5-5% of the land 
area of the territory : of this area 27% represents forest reserves, 26% areas 
awaiting reservation and the balance either native authority forest reserves 
or areas to which forest rules of some sort apply. The area of the dry 
forest or myombo exceeds 131,000 square miles or 38% of the land area. 
The forests contain some good merchantable timbers in varying quantity, 
among which camphor, podo, mvule and certain African mahoganies are 
the most important. In addition valuable species of hardwoods occur 
as single trees or in groups widely scattered throughout the large areas of 
savannah forest, chief being mninga and African blackwood. The man- 
grove woods are valuable as a source of tanning bark and also of poles 
which are carried by Arab dhows to the Persian Gulf. The possible output 
of the territory's forests far exceeds the normal local consumption but 
war-time demands and the restriction of markets has made such heavy calls 
on the forest estate that a reassessment of the position is overdue. The 
approximate production of timber in 1949 was 7 million cubic feet, firewood 
200 million cubic feet, the total value being 4,000,000. 

Agriculture is the chief occupation. The most important commodity 
exported is sisal, which constitutes in value approximately one-half of the 
principal exports. Tanganyika Territory is the world's leading producer of 
sisal. In 1949 the territory produced 132,514 tons approximately one- 
third of the world's supply ; other important producers are Central America, 
Indonesia, Mozambique, and Kenya. Other agricultural exports are cotton, 
coffee, papain, pyrethrum, rubber, hides and skins, ghee, copra, tea, sesame, 
sugar, tobacco, rice, groundnuts (peanuts) and sunflower seed. The 
important products collected from the forests are beeswax, gums (arabic 
and copal) and mangrove bark. The average yearly production of cotton 



BRITISH BAST AFRICA 287 

was 53,446 bales in 193&-48; it was 53,823 bales in 1948 (39,963 in 1947). 
Coffee exports were 12,040 tons in 1949. 

In areas of dense population and land scarcity, soil conservation is more 
advanced than in the sparsely population areas where plentiful land permits 
shifting cultivation. Territorial and colonial development and welfare 
funds have been provided for the development of rural water supplies and 
for water conservation and distribution. 170,000 was spent on these 
services in 1949. 

In 1949 there were 6,379,916 cattle, 2,31 1,449 sheep and 3,483,435 goats. 

The value of minerals mined and exported or sold locally in 1949 was 
as follows (in sterling) : 



Gold (refined) 
Silver (refined) 
Diamonds 
Kaolin 

Mica, sheet . 



692,574 Salt . . . 98,477 

5,550 Tin ore . . 63,655 

1,683,983 Building minerals 77,221 

2,406 Lime . . 16,428 

45,572 Phosphates . 349 



Tungsten ore . 13,091 
Total . 2,699,363 



Trade and Shipping. There is a uniform custom s tariff in Tanganyika, 
Kenya and Uganda, the three countries being united in a customs union 
since 1927. Total imports, 1949, 27,576,110; 1948, 22,608,564. Total 
exports, 1949, 20,124,985; 1948, 16,923,394. 

Chief exports, 1948: Sisal (117,092 tons), 8,930,461; coffee (11,259 
tons), 897,4(38; cotton (221,606 centals), 1,328,178; diamonds (148,103 
carats), 1,040,459; gold, unrefined (62,339 fine oz.), 498,103; rubber 
(1,212 centals), 10,354 ; beeswax (905 tons), 261, 356; hides (2,536 tons), 
315,146 ; skins, sheep and goat (1,649,900 pieces), 145,277 ; papain (2,609 
owt.), 195,007; wood and timber (368,741 cu. ft.), 129,079; tobacco 
(3,186,366 lb.), 249,389; gum arabic and copal (1,490 tons), 78,350. 

Chief imports, 1948: Cotton piece-goods, 3,768,805; foodstuffs, 
681,247; cigarettes, 743,812; kerosene and motor spirits, 745,157; 
machinery other than electrical, 2,503,608 ; building materials (including 
cement and galvanized iron sheets), 923,311 ; iron and steel manufactures, 
2,226,471; spirits, 119,180; sugar, 169,733. 

Trade with United Kingdom : Imports into U.K., 1949, 8,107,618; 
1948, 7,820,136; exports from U.K., 1949, 11,126,684; 1948, 9,003,447; 
re-exports, 1949, 38,872; 1948, 42,502. 

Communications. Light motor traffic is now possible over 21,371 
miles of road during the dry season. For railways see p. 272. 

There are steamers on Lakes Victoria, Nyasa and Tanganyika. 

Dar es Salaam is in telegraphic communication with many inland centres 
and with the adjoining territories Nyasaland, Kenya, Uganda and Northern 
Rhodesia. Cable communication exists between Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar. 
A wireless station exists at Dar es Salaam for communication with shipping, 
and stations for dealing with aircraft are installed at Lindi, Mbeya, Dodoma, 
Dar es Salaam, Tanga, Mwanza, Nduli, Moshi, Kongwa and Tabora. There 
are 146 post offices and postal agencies and 182 offices at which telegraph 
business can be transacted. Postal order, money order and savings bank 
business is conducted at 35 head offices, and at a number of sub-offices. 
Telephone exchanges are established and trunk telephone communication 
is in operation between various centres in the territory and also with Kenya 
and Uganda. 

East African currency is in use, consisting of a silver shilling (also cupro- 
nickel), the equivalent of 100 cents ; a 50 cent silver piece (also cupro-nickel) ; 
copper and bronze 10 cent, 6 cent and 1 cent pieces. There are currency 



288 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

notes in denominations ranging from 1 to 10,000 shillings. Four banks, the 
National Bank of India, the Standard Bank of South Africa, Barclays Bank 
(Dominion, Colonial & Overseas) and the Banque du Congo Beige have 
branches in the country. 

Governor. Sir Edward Francis Twining, K.C.M.G., M.B.E. (appointed 
18 June, 1949). 

Chief Secretary. E. R. E. Surridge, C.M.G. (appointed 18 February, 
1946). 

Books of Reference on Tanganyika. 

Report on the Administration of Tanganyika, 1948. (Colonial No. 242.) H.M.S.O., 
1948. 

Atlas of the Tanganyika Territory. Dar es Salaam. Revised ed. 1949. 

Tanganyika Guide. Dar es Salaam, 1936 ; new ed., 1948. 

Cameron (Sir D.), Tanganyika Service. London, 1939. 

Oilman (0.), A Population Map of Tanganyika Territory. Dar es Salaam, 1936. 

Leubiacher (Charlotte), Tanganyika Territory: A study of Economic Policy under 
Mandate. Oxford, 1944. 

Reid (E.), Tanganyika Without Prejudice. London, 1934. 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA. 

SOUTHERN RHODESIA. 

Rhodesia includes the whole of the region extending from the Transvaal 
Province northwards to the borders of the Belgian Congo and Tanganyika 
Territory, bounded on the east by Portuguese East Africa, Nyasaland and 
the Tanganyika Territory, and on the west by the Belgian Congo, Portuguese 
West Africa and Bechuanaland. The region south of the Zambezi (Mata- 
beleland and Mashonaland) is called Southern Rhodesia; that north of the 
Zambezi is known as Northern Rhodesia. 

Prior to October, 1923, Southern Rhodesia, like Northern Rhodesia, 
was under the administration of the British South Africa Company. In 
October, 1922, Southern Rhodesia voted in favour of responsible govern- 
ment. On 12 September, 1923, the country was formally annexed to His 
Majesty's Dominions, and on 1 October, 1923, the new form of government 
was established under a governor, assisted by an executive council, and a 
legislature. The latter consists at first of a single elected legislative assembly, 
but that body may pass a law constituting a legislative council in addition, 
but up to the present this power has not been exercised. The constitution 
also limits the powers of the Legislative Council respecting appropriation 
and taxation bills. There must be a session at least once a year, and the 
duration of the legislature is 5 years, unless sooner dissolved. The legisla- 
ture may amend, by a two-thirds vote of the total membership, the Letters 
Patent setting up the constitution, with certain exceptions (relating to 
reservation of bills by the Governor, native administration, Crown letters 
patent and governor's salary). The Legislative Assembly numbers 30 
members, each of whom receives a yearly allowance of 600. In July, 
1928, the franchise was extended to all British subjects over 21 years of 
age, subject to certain qualifications. 

Under the constitution a native council may be established in any native 
reserve, representative of the local chiefs and native residents, to advise 
the Governor and manage such local affairs as may be entrusted to it. 
In October, 1937, an Act was passed providing for the establishment of 
such councils. In 1943 an Act was passed enabling native councils to levy 
taxation. In 1948 there were 55 such councils in existence. 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 



289 



In March, 1945, a standing consultative Central African council was 
set up, covering Southern and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. 

The Legislative Assembly, elected 15 Sept., 1948, consists of 24 United 
Party, 5 Liberal Party, 1 Rhodesia Labour Party. 

Governor and Commander -in-Chief. Major-Gen. Sir John Noble Kennedy, 
K.C.V.O., K.B.E., C.B., M.C. 

The cabinet is as follows (reconstituted Nov., 1948) : 

Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, and of External Affairs. Sir 
Godfrey M. Huggins, P.O., C.H., K.C.M.G., F.R.C.S. 

Minister of Finance, and of Posts and Telegraphs. E. C. F. Whitehead, 
O.B.E. 

Minister of Mines and Transport. G. A. Davenport. 

Minister of Justice, Internal Affairs, Health and Education. T. H. W. 
Beadle, O.B.K., K.C. 

Minister of Agriculture and Lands. P. B. Fletcher. 

Minister of Trade and Industrial Development. R. F. Halsted. 

Minister of Native Affairs. W. A. E. Winterton. 



High Commissioner in London. K. M. Goodenough, C.M.G. (Rhodesia 
House, 429 Strand, W.C.2.) 

Area and Population. The area is 150,333 square miles. The growth 
of the population is given in the following table : 



Census 




Europeans 




Asiatic 
and 


Native 
total 


Total 
population 




Males 


Females 


Total 


total 


(estimated) 


(estimated) 


May, 1911 
May, 1921 
Muy, 1931 
May, 1941 
May, 1946 


15,580 
18,987 
27,280 
36,615 
44,220 


8,026 
14,633 
22,630 
32,339 
38,166 


23,606 
33,620 
49,910 
68,954 
82,386 


2,912 
3,248 
4,102 
6,521 
7,470 


745,000 
862,000 
1,064,000 
1,378,000 
1,674,000 


772,000 
899,000 
1,118,000 
1,453,000 
1,764,000 



The chief towns are Salisbury (the capital), population (including suburbs) 
at the 1946 census, 69,049, including 21,293 Europeans ; Bulawayo (including 
suburbs), 51,698, including 17,317 Europeans; Umtali, Gwelo, Gatooma, 
Que Que, Eiffel Flats, Shabani, Selukwe, Bindura, Wankie, Penhalonga 
and Fort Victoria. 



Vital Statistics 


1939 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Births (European) . 
Marriages 


1,433 
1.013 


2,038 
804 


2,147 
1,032 


2,637 

1,093 


2,853 
1,243 


Deaths 


597 


687 


687 


718 


821 


Immigrants 


3,338 





7,182 


13,595 


17,037 



Education. At the end of 1948 the schools for Europeans numbered 
110, with a total enrolment of 17,992 pupils. These figures include 15 aided 
farm schools (166 pupils) and 11 private schools (499 pupils). In addition, 
there were correspondence classes conducting primary work, with a total 
enrolment of 635 pupils. There were also 16 schools for coloured children, 
including Eurafrican and Asiatic, with a total enrolment of 2,489 pupils, and 



290 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



2,097 schools for native pupils, with a total enrolment of 211,919 pupils. 
The total expenditure on public education (other than native education) in 
the year ended 31 March, 1948, was 906,172, against which receipts were 
121,432, while 401,634 was expended on native education. 

Justice. There is a high court (composed of a chief justice and 3 
judges) with criminal and civil jurisdiction. The Chief Justice and 2 
other judges are stationed at Salisbury and 1 judge is stationed at Bulawayo. 
Sittings are held at three of the other principal towns three times a year. 
There are 10 principal courts of magistrates, also courts presided over by 
detached assistant magistrates and several periodical courts. Natives are 
subject mainly to the same laws as Europeans, though there are special 
restrictions relating to arms, ammunition and liquor, and there are laws 
particularly applicable to natives, such as those dealing with marriage, 
taxation and registration and passes. Native commissioners have juris- 
diction in civil cases in which the rights of natives only are concerned, and 
in criminal cases in which the accused is a native and, on appointment as 
such, have the jurisdiction of an assistant magistrate. A court of appeal 
for Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland has been 
established. 

Finance. Revenue and expenditure for 5 years (year ended 31 
March) : 





1945-46 


1946-47 


194748 


1948-49 * 


1949-50* 


Revenue 
Ordinary expenditure : 
From revenue funds . 
From loan funds 
Total expenditure . 



11,096,123 

6,162,481 
2,490,997 
8,653,478 



11,214,278 

10,001,039 
5,095,653 
15,096,692 4 



12,700,414 

12,899,754 
38,613,661 
61,513,416 



13,576,468 

13,546,335 
10,256,989 
28,803,324 



16,455,000 

16,480,862 
13,311,087 
29,791,949 



1 Unaudited. Exclusive of war expenditure of 6,306,084 in 1945-46. 

* Estimates. 4 Including demobilization expenditure. 

1 Including 30,000,000 for acquisition of Rhodesia Railways. 

Receipts from customs and excise duties during the year ended 31 March, 
1948, were 3,074,414; income tax, 5,838,390; excess profits tax, 
133,900; tobacco sales tax, 409; native tax, 483,568; posts, tele- 
graphs, telephones and radio, 676,245; mining revenue, 114,762 
(from royalties and mining fees) ; stamps and licences, 317,151. 

Principal items of expenditure from revenue funds were as follows : 
Ordinary expenditure: 1,211,467 for service of loans; 857,688 for 
public health and hospitals; 1,307,806 for education, including 401,634 
for native education; 1,408,261 for police, defence and air; 882,186 for 
public works and roads and 1,002,850 for agriculture and lands (including 
irrigation) ; 94,172 for internment camps and refugee settlements. 

The net amount of the public debt outstanding was, at 31 March, 1948, 
61,707,740. 

Production and Industries. When responsible government was 
granted to the colony the British South Africa Company relinquished all 
rights and interests in the land in Southern Rhodesia,~except in the estates 
which it was already developing and working on 10 July, 1923, but was 
recognized by the Crown as the owner of the mineral rights throughout 
both Southern and Northern Rhodesia. In 1933 th$ t mineral rights in 
Southern Khodeaia were 'purchased by tjue Government for the 



BRITISH SOXJTH AFRICA 291 

2,000,000. Land amounting to 21,127,040 acres has been set apart for 
tribal settlements ( c native reserves'). A further 7,859,942 acres have been 
set aside as native purchase areas, while the area of surveyed and un- 
surveyed Crown land remaining unaiienated and unassigned and available for 
sale and settlement is 32,685,659 acres. The country is well adapted for 
agriculture and European settlers. European-owned livestock (1948) : 
Cattle, 1,109,483 ; sheep, 101,458 ; pigs, 31,001 ; goats, 18,034. Native-owned 
livestock (1948): Cattle, 1,712,346; sheep, 200,160; pigs, 72,442; goats, 
536,974. Acreage under crops, Europeans only (season 1947-48), maize, 
323,432; tobacco, 118,617; groundnuts, 7,696; wheat, 5,489; potatoes, 
4,006. Tobacco crop, 1947-48, 77,917,197 Ib. wet weight; maize, 1,912,005 
bags of 200 Ib. Large fruit orchards have been planted, and nearly all fruit 
trees thrive, the cultivation of oranges and lemons constituting an expanding 
industry. The sale of citrus fruit amounted to 299,543 cases in 1947-48. 
The sale of dairy produce is a profitable industry. In 1948, 4,351,330 
gallons of milk were sold, and 1,439,793 Ib. of butter and 542,186 Ib. of cheese 
were available for sale. 

Soil Conservation. In 1941 an act was passed to make provision for the 
conservation and improvement of the natural resources of the colony. A 
Natural Resources Board was set up to exercise general supervision and to 
recommend legislation to the government. The act provides for the 
voluntary setting up of Intensive Conservation Committees consisting mainly 
of local farmers who, with government assistance, carry out soil conservation 
in their areas. Total mileage of protective works pegged since 1929 in 
European areas is 22,306, protecting an area of 505,090 acres. Since 1944, 
conservation work in all native areas has been undertaken by the Depart- 
ment of Native Agriculture. 

The 1947 census of industries showed the value of gross output of 
industries covered as 29,080,000. The value of materials and fuel pur- 
chased was 15,276,000, and the net output was 13,804,000. Numbers 
employed were 71,466, including 8,904 Europeans, and total salaries and 
wages paid amounted to 7,260,000. 

Labour. A government statement, issued on 5 Jan., 1949, regulates the 
working conditions for Africans in commerce and general industry. The 
regulations do not apply to railway workers, who already are provided for, 
farm workers, who have opportunities to cultivate land for themselves not 
available to town workers, mine workers, as this industry is well organized 
with regard to the treatment of employees, service workers, who are con- 
sidered to be provided for adequately already, and domestic servants, who 
have advantages not enjoyed by the average commercial and industrial 
workers. 

For Africans in the industries with which the regulations are concerned 
the minimum wage is 35$. a month with, and 75$. a month without, rations, 
fuel and accommodation laid down. Employees are also to be graded with 
minimum cash wages ranging from 35$. to 190s. a month. Provision also is 
made for a general retrospective increase in pay for natives who have been 
in continuous service with one employer, and for increases after the first and 
second year's service, gratuities for long service, annual leave with pay, 
overtime and welfare measures. 

Mining. The country contains gold and other minerals. The gold 
output in 1949 was 622,736 ozs,, valued at 6,197.074; in 1&48, 614,440 oz., 
value4 at 4.437,049, The total value of minerals proceed in 1948. w<p 
8,803,471; /n 194011,292,431. ' "''*" ' *'" ' * W 



292 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIEE 



Commerce. Southern Rhodesia, which formed part of the South 
African customs union system since 1903, terminated its customs union 
with the Union of South Africa in 1935. On 6 Dec., 1948, however, a 
Customs Union Interim Agreement was signed between the two countries 
in Salisbury to re-establish a full and complete customs union and to 
extend such customs union to other African States and Territories.' The 
agreement establishes a * Southern Africa Customs Union Council,' com- 
posed of one member and alternate to be appointed by each, the Govern- 
ment of Southern Rhodesia and of the Union of South Africa, and a third 
member and alternate to be appointed by both governments jointly. 

Total imports and exports excluding specie (in sterling) for 5 years : 





1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Imports 
Domestic exports . 
Re-exports . 


11,677,636 
14,283,142 
1,466,592 


12,502,630 
15,820,123 
2,133,197 


20,358,583 
18,602,442 
2,669,561 


33,490,499 
20,778,395 
2,870,886 


42,614,842 
25,619,852 
3,569,621 



Total imports of merchandise from the United Kingdom in 1948 amounted 
to 19,558,264; from the Union of South Africa, 10,499,070; from the 
United States, 3,980,474. Domestic exports to the United Kingdom were 
14,552,932; to the United States, 1,461,729; to Northern Rhodesia, 
2,519,863, and to the Union of South Africa, 1,197,895. 

Principal articles of merchandise imported in 1948 : Cotton piece-goods, 
33,508,932yd. (3,181,834); machinery and parts, 1,974,675 ; motorcars, 
5,021 (1,600,608); outer garments, 1,255,086; motor trucks and vans, 
2,308 (1,030,962). 

Principal articles of Southern Rhodesia produce exported in 1948 : 
Unmanufactured tobacco, 67,660,395 Ib. (11,214,717); gold bar, 517,135 
fine oz. (4,460,350); raw asbestos, 67,763 tons (2,919,167); chrome ore, 
249,148 short tons (1,134,435), of which 169,117 were shipped to the 
United States. 

Total trade (in ) with the United Kingdom (Board of Trade returns) : 





1938 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports into U.K. . 
Exports from U.K. . 
Re-exports from U. K. . 


2,304,543 
3,609,657 
44,036 


6,939,787 
9,827,229 
32,663 


11,407,062 
16,522,179 
26,404 ' 


12,447,451 
23,493,280 
41,391 



Communications. Aviation. The Central African Airways Corporation 
operate regular services for the carriage of passengers, mail and cargo between 
Salisbury-Nairobi (Kenya), Salisbury-Elisabethville (Belgian Congo), 
Salisbury-Mbeya (Tanganyika), Salisbury-Johannesburg (Union of South 
Africa), Salisbury-Blantyre (Nyasaland), Salisbury-Beira (Portuguese East 
Africa) and Salisbury-Livingstone (Northern Rhodesia). An internal service 
is also maintained. Freighter- cum -passenger aircraft specially designed for 
the carriage of large cargoes are operated on the main line routes, 

Railways. The total mileage of the Rhodesian railway system at 31 
March, 1949, was 2,430 miles, of which 1,361 miles were operated within the 
boundaries of Southern Rhodesia. The system begins at Vryburg in the 
Cape Colony, and extends through the Bechuanaland Protectorate and 
Southern and Northern Rhodesia to the Belgian Congo and Portuguese 
East Africa. In conjunction with the railways of the Union of South Africa 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 293 

and of Portuguese East Africa it provides through communication from 
Cape Town to the Congo border (2,153 miles), and (by a line from Bulawayo 
via Salisbury) to the port of Beira on the Indian Ocean (2,020 miles). There 
are also several branch lines in Southern Rhodesia. A system of road motor 
services has been organized, having in March, 1949, a total route mileage of 
2,232 miles. All shares in the Rhodesia Railways, Ltd., have been purchased 
by the Government of Southern Rhodesia. The Rhodesia Railways Act, 
1949, passed by the Legislative Assembly of Southern Rhodesia, provides 
for the establishment of a unified railway system for Southern Rhodesia, 
Northern Rhodesia and the Bechuanaland Protectorate. 

Post. On 31 Dec., 1948, there were in Southern Rhodesia 152 post offices, 
60 of which are savings bank offices. The postal revenue for the year 
1948 was 774,259 and the expenditure 754,870. There is an extensive 
telephone system in operation with automatic telephone exchanges at 
Salisbury, Umtali, Bulawayo and Gwelo. 

Cable and Wireless, Ltd. operate a wireless station at Salisbury, with 
telegraphic and phototelegraphic services with London. 

On 1 Jan., 1905, a post office savings bank was established, and on 
31 Dec., 1948, the balance due to depositors amounted to 7,908,387. 

Currency, Southern Rhodesia coin and currency notes are legal tender 
in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The total 
currency on issue to the three territories at 31 March, 1949, including bank- 
notes outstanding, was 9,019,488. At that date the assets of the currency 
fund stood at 9,958,424. 



NORTHERN RHODESIA. 

By an Order in Council, dated 4 May, 1911, the two provinces of North- 
eastern and North-western Rhodesia were amalgamated under the title of 
Northern Rhodesia, the amalgamation taking effect as from 17 August, 1911. 
The limits of the territory, as defined by the Order in Council, are ' the 
parts of Africa bounded by Southern Rhodesia, German South-west Africa 
(now South-west Africa), Portuguese West Africa, the Congo Free State 
(now the Belgian Congo), Gorman East Africa (now Tanganyika Territory) 
Nyasaland and Portuguese East Africa.* 

By an Order in Council dated 20 February, 1924, the office of Governor 
was created, an executive council constituted and provision made for the 
institution of a legislative council. This latter council has, since 1945, an 
unofficial majority. On 1 April, 1924, the British South Africa Company 
was relieved of the administration of the territory by the Crown. 

The Legislative Council was, in 1949, composed of 9 nominated official 
members, 10 unofficial elected members, 2 nominated European unofficial 
members in African interests, and 2 African members elected by the African 
Representative Council. There are also five unofficial members (one of 
whom must be a representative of African interests) in the Executive 
Council, and by an agreement made between the unofficial members and 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies in June, 1948, and reaffirmed in April, 
1949, the view of the unofficial members in Executive Council carries the 
same weight as the views of unofficial members of the Legislative Council. 

Northern Rhodesia has an area of 287,640 square miles, and consists 
for the most part of high plateau country, covered with thin forest. Some 
of the country is suitable for farming and contains areas carrying goo,d 
arable and grazing land. The census population 6n 15 October, 1946, Was as 



294 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



follows: Europeans, 21,907; Asiatics, 1,117; coloured, 804. Estimated 
population at 30 June, 1948, was 28,800 Europeans, 2,300 Asiatics and 
coloured, 1,690,000 Africans. European vital statistics, 1947: Births, 
740(1948,801); marriages, 289 ; deaths, 171 (1948, 158); infantile mor- 
tality, 36 (1948, 35). Immigration (1947), 4,618; (1948), 5,516. 

The territory is divided into 6 provinces. The seat of government is at 
Lusaka, on the railway about 30 miles north of the Kafue River, having 
been moved from Livingstone, the old capital, on 28 May, 1935. The most 
important centres are Broken Hill, Fort Jameson, Livingstone, Lusaka, 
Abercorn, Kasama, Ndola, Luanshya, Mufulira, Kitwe, Chingola. The 
administrative centre of the Malozi Province is Mongu Lealui. The police 
force, called the Northern Rhodesia Police, is composed of natives, with 
European officers and non-commissioned officers ; the provincial administra- 
tion also have at their disposal a force of messengers, a body of whom, 
varying in number from 12 to 30, is stationed at every district headquarters. 

The Northern Rhodesia Regiment, which has been incorporated into 
East Africa Command, has African rank and file and European officers and 
non-commissioned officers, who are seconded from the British Army. 
During the Second World War the Regiment was expanded to a total of 7 
battalions. 

There were in 1949, 14 government European schools, including 1 
government-aided (13 of which are co-educational), and 7 private schools. 
For Africans there were 45 government, 26 native authority and 1,169 
mission schools, all of which are aided by government. In addition there 
were 375 unaided mission schools. 

Northern Rhodesia has been united in a customs union with the Union 
of South Africa since 1911. 

Revenue and expenditure (in sterling) for 6 years : 





1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 l 


Revenue 
Expenditure 


3,338,612 
3,363,827 


3,433,607 
2,543,370 


3,362,141 
2,898,788 


4,302,926 
4,534,132 


6,715,517 
6,208,455 


10,24.5,890 
9,983,825 



1 Estimates. 

The revenue in 1948 was made up as follows : Customs revenue, 
976,725; licences and taxes, 4,484,652; postal revenue, 164,124; fees, 
etc., 340,267 ; interest and loan repayments, 194,772. The public debt 
at 31 Dec., 1948, amounted to 2,347,000. 

Gross imports of merchandise, 1948, 16,098,874; exports, 28,129,623 ; 
re-exports, 339,657. 

Total trade (in sterling) with the United Kingdom (Board of Trade 
returns) : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports into U.K. . 
Exports from U.K. . 

Ee-ezports from U.K. 


4,089,403 
1,262,068 
9,436 


8,338,524 
1,498,044 
3,401 


15,593,189 
1,954,494 
1,932 


20,172,249 
3,465,558 
2,034 


19,469,301 
5,388,856 
6,701 



Principal agricultural products are maize (production in 1947-48, 
670,000 bags ; estimate 1948-49, 340,000 bags), tobacco (1948, circa 4,000,000 
lb.) and cattle (numbering about 710,000). The most important timber is 
Rhodesian ( redwood * (Baikiaea plurijuga). 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 



295 



The total value of minerals produced during 1948 was 29,771,862, 
made up as follows : 



Mineral 


Weight 


Value 


Mineral 


Weight 


Value 
















Gold . 


1,180 oz. 


9,967 


Lead . 


13,020 tons 


1,243,330 


Silver . 


145,866 oz. 


21,142 


Manganese ore 






Cobalt alloy 






(13-6% Mn) 


3,989 tons 


6,846 


(37-63% Co) 


20,620 cwt. 


434,491 


Selenium 


21,132 Ib. 


10,566 


Copper (blister) 
Oopper(conccntrate s) 


152,247 tons 


18,161,258 


Vanadium pentoxide 
Kino . 


304-34 tons 

22,170 tons 


205,428 
1,700,397 


(21-29% Cu) 


203 tons 


7,984 


Zinc concentrates . 


12,230 tons 


240,628 


Copper (electrolytic) 


61,368 tons 


7,694,797 


Limestone . 


79,900 tons 


35,954 


Iron ore (68-4% Fe) 


147 tons 


74 









High-grade iron ore fields near Lusaka are being investigated, and in 
1949 investigations started into the Territory's coal resources in several 
different areas. The 1948 and 1949 production of copper was considerably 
affected by the inability of the mines to obtain sufficient coal, a deficiency 
that was only partially offset by converting some of their plant to burn wood 
fuel. 

The trunk line of the Rhodesian railway system traverses Northern 
Rhodesia from Livingstone to the Congo border. Branch lines connect 
to Nkaiia, Mufulira, Chingola (Nchanga) and Luanysha (Roan Antelope), 
in the Copper Belt. There is a private line from Livingstone to Mulobezi 
and Mululwe. The Zambezi, Kafue, Chambesi, Luangwa and other rivers 
are navigable for a considerable portion of their extent. 

There are 54 post offices, 14 being money order offices, and 26 
telegraph offices. Telegraph and telephone lines run alongside the railway 
from the Southern Rhodesia border at Victoria Falls to the Congo border 
north of Ndola with branches to the principal towns of the Copper Belt. 
All the other principal centres are provided with radio communication. 

The main internal air services, operated by Central African Airways, 
connect Lusaka with Fort Jameson (twice weekly); Balovale via Living- 
stone and Mongu (once weekly), and Abercorn via Ndola and Kasama (once 
weekly). Through services are provided by the B.O.A.C. Solent flying-boat 
service which calls twice weekly in either direction at Victoria Falls, and 
the Viking service between Johannesburg and Nairobi, which calls at Salis- 
bury, Lusaka and Ndola. 

There are hydro-electric power stations at Mulungushi and Lunsemfwa, 
which serve the Broken Hill Mine and township, and at the Victoria Falls, 
which serves Livingstone. Total horse-power developed during 1946 was 
19,695. 

There are 2 registered European trade unions, the Northern Rhodesia 
Mineworkers' Union and the Rhodosian Railway Workers' Union; and 3 
African trade unions (Mineworkers, Shop Assistants, Drivers). 

Governor. Sir Gilbert McCall Rennie, K.C.M.G., O.B.E. (appointed 10 
November, 1947). 

Chief Secretary. R. C. S. Stanley, C.M.G., O.B.E. (24 August, 1947). 

Books of Reference concerning Southern and Northern Rhodesia. 

Annual Departmental Reports of the Governments of Southern and Northern Rhodesia. 
Salisbury and Lusaka. 

Laws of Northern Rhodesia. 7 vols. Gtovt. Printer, Lusaka, 1948. 
The Statute Law of Southern Rhodesia. 5 rote. Salisbury, 1989. 



296 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Official Year Book of the Southern Rhodesian Government. Salisbury, Southern 
Rhodesia, 1924, 1930, 1932. J ' 

Northern Khodesla Official Handbook [with full bibliography], Lusaka, 1948. 

Ehodesian Manual on Mining, Industry and Agriculture, 1937-38. 

Tear Book and Guide of the Rhodesias and Kyasaland, with Biographies. Salisbury, 
1937 fl. Annual. 

NADA. Southern Rhodesia Native Affaire Department. Salisbury. Annual. 

Northern Rhodesia : Keport 1948. H.H.S.O., 1949. 

Ten-year Development Plan for Northern Rhodesia. Lusaka, 1949. 

Davidson (J. W.), The Northern Rhodesian Legislative Council. London, 1948. 

Macmillan (A.) (editor), Rhodesia and Eastern Africa. London, 1931. 

Priest (0. D.), Birds of Southern Rhodesia, London, 1933. 

Richards (Audrey I.), Land, Labonr and Diet in Northern Rhodesia : An Economic 
Study of the Bemba tribe. Oxford, 1939. 

Robertson (W.), Zambezi Days. London, 1936. 

Rubin (T.), Geodetic Survey of South Africa. Vol. VI. North Eastern Rhodesia. 
London, 1933. 

Standing (T. G.), The Story of Rhodesia. London, 1936. 

Trapnell(G. G.) and others, Vegetation Soil Map of Northern Rhodesia. Lusaka, 1949. 

Wilson (Godfrey), An Essay on the Economics of Detribalization in Northern Ithodesia. 
Oxford, 1941. 



NYASALAND PROTECTORATE. 

The Nyasaland (until 1907 British Central Africa) Protectorate, con- 
stituted on 14 May, 1891, lies along the southern and western shores of 
Lake Nyasa (the third largest lake in Africa, about 360 miles in length 
and from 10 to 55 miles wide), and extends toM'ards the Zambezi. It is 
administered under the Colonial Office by the Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief, assisted by an executive and a legislative council, both consisting 
of nominated members, the Governor having the right of veto (Order in 
Council of 4 September, 1907). The laws consist of local ordinances duly 
enacted, with such British Acts as are of general application. 

Land area, 37,374 square rniles, divided into three provinces, each in 
charge of a Provincial Commissioner, and fourteen districts, each ad- 
ministered by a District Commissioner. Estimated population, at the end of 
1948, was 3,000 Europeans, 4,000 Asiatics and 2,400,000 Africans. The chief 
settlements are Blantyre and Limbe in the Shire Highlands, with about 600 
European inhabitants; others are Zomba (the seat of government), Cholo, 
Lilongwe and Mlanje; on Lake Nyasa are Salima, Fort Johnston, Kota- 
Kota, Chinteche, Nkata Bay, Likoma and Karonga. There are good motor 
roads in all directions and life and property are safe. 

Education. Education is controlled by the Education Department. 
European primary education is available up to standard IV at 2 government 
day schools at Zomba and Lilongwe, and up to standard VI at a government 
boarding school at Blantyre and 2 grant-aided boarding schools at Limbe 
and Mkhoma. There are no facilities for European secondary education. 

Grants-in-aid are paid to mission societies for native education. The 
government has established a training centre for native teachers and has 
financed the establishment of 2 secondary schools for Africans. There 
were, in 1949, 67 principal mission stations, 642 assisted schools and 3,692 
unassisted schools, with a total roll of 217,222 pupils and an average attend- 
ance of 171,220. The total grant-in-aid paid by government to missionary 
societies in 1948 was 93,043 in respect of native education. The grant-in- 
aid to the 2 secondary schools was 5,503. The grant-in-aid for European 
education was 2,559, plus 4,373 for educational assistance to Nyasaland 
children attending schools in Southern Rhodesia, South Africa and the 
United Kingdom. 1,217 was paid in bursaries to European children 
attending schools in Southern Rhodesia, 280 to Indians and 948 to 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 



297 



Eurafricans. The grants-in-aid to the 4 Indian schools amounted to 1,641 
and 1,070 to the Eurafrican school. 

Justice. Justice is administered in the High Court, which has jurisdic- 
tion in civil and criminal matters and also as a Court of Admiralty. Sub- 
ordinate courts are held by magistrates and assistant magistrates in the 
various districts. Appeals from decisions of the High Court are heard by 
the Rhodesia and Nyasaland Court of Appeal. 

Production. With the exceptions of sugar and wheaten flour, the 
country is normally self-supporting in all agricultural products and great 
efforts have been made to stimulate the production of food and economic 
crops for export. Owing to the serious drought during 1949 the export of 
foodstuffs was greatly restricted, and export figures for economic crops, 
with the exception of tobacco, showed a marked decline below those of 
1948. 

Tobacco forms a very large proportion of the total exports. In 1948, 
23,846,148 Ib. (1949, 25,491,330 Ib.) were exported. Tea cultivation is 
centred round Mlanje and Cholo; acreage in 1948 was 21,201 acres; exports 
amounted to 15,070,655 Ib. (1949, 12,769,952 Ib.). Cotton exports (in lint) 
were 4,905,842 Ib. in 1948 (1949, 2,930,528 Ib.). Export of pulses was 
3,405,732 Ib. (1949, 614,315 Ib.); of groundnuts, 3,060 Ib. (1949, nil), and 
tung oil, 801,684 Ib. (1949, 642,033 Ib.). Livestock in 1948 : Cattle, 266,880; 
goats, 232,907; sheep, 46,270; pigs, 79,527; asses and mules, 136; horses, 
57. 

The principal imports in 1948 were iron and steel goods (186,000 ; 
1949, 291,500) and cotton manufactures (1,637,000; 1949, 1,192,000). 
There were marked increases in imports of foodstuffs (particularly sugar), 
industrial machinery, vehicles, cutlery and hardware. Footwear imports 
increased from 2,674 dozen pairs in 1947 to 6,781 dozen pairs in 1948. 

The trade ports are Port Herald (Lower Shire), Chileka, Blantyre, 
Luchenza, Limbe, Chipoka, Kota-Kota, Fort Manning, Karonga and Fort 
Johnston (Lake Nyasa). 





1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 






















Imports l 


1,682,945 


1,620,822 


2,050,176 


3,583,054 


4,204,000 


5,041,627 


Exports l . . 
Revenue 


1,502,154 
812,781 


1,876,063 
913,848 


2,364,970 
989,119 


2,760,390 
1,077,865 


4,172,000 
1,997,914 


4,689,733 


Expenditure 


639,723 


744,689 


846,562 


981,441 


2,173,242 


~~~~* 



1 Excluding specie, goods in transit and government imports. 

Exports to the United Kingdom, 1949, 4,487,455; 1948, 3,290,443; 
imports from the U.K., 1949, 2,612,145; 1948, 1,754,019. 

The ordinary revenue in 1948 was : Customs, 540,000; taxes and 
licenses, 755,870; fees of court, 41,966; posts and telegraphs, 68,130; 
rents, 73,750; interest, 11,842; miscellaneous, 77,775; widows and 
orphans pension fund contributions, 10,320. Public debt, 31 Dec., 1948, 
4,569,148. 

There are military, volunteer reserve and civil police forces. 

Communications. There is a Marine Transport Department on Lake 
Nyasa, operated by Nyasaland Railways, Ltd. Lake transport registered 
in Nyasaland consists of 1 motor vessel, 4 steamers and about 60 dhows and 
lighters. 



298 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

There are 44 post offices. The post office savings bank had 13,000 
depositors at the end of 1948 ; deposits, 270,000. There is a 3 ft. 6 in. 
gauge railway system extending from the Port of Beira, in Portuguese East 
Africa, to Salima near Lake Nyasa (496 miles) crossing the Zambezi at Sena 
(199 miles) by the Lower Zambezi Bridge and passing through Blantyre 
(853 miles). The road system comprises about 4,000 miles. Good motor 
road communication with South Africa exists and the extension northwards 
links Nyasaland with the Great North Road through Northern Rhodesia, 
Tanganyika Territory and Kenya Colony. 

Several aerodromes, landing grounds and emergency landing grounds 
have been constructed, and the principal centres of ChUeka and Lilongwe 
are suitable for aircraft up to 30,000 Ib. gross weight. Regular services for 
mails and passengers fly between Chileka and Salisbury, Fort Jameson. 
There ia a telegraph line through the Protectorate connecting southwards 
with Cape Town and northwards with Tanganyika, Kenya and Uganda. 
Telegraphs are controlled by the Government. Wireless stations are 
situated at Zomba, Mzimba and Karonga. Electric light and power plants 
have been installed at Zomba, Blantyre and Limbe. 

Banking and Money. At Blantyre, Zomba and other centres there are 
branches of the Standard Bank of South Africa and at Blantyre and Limbe 
there are branches of Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial & Overseas). The 
currency consists of British coin, gold, silver and bronze, and Rhodesian 
bank-notes, silver and cupro-nickel coin. 

The rainy season in Nyasaland lasts from November to April. 

Governor and Commander -in-Chief. Sir Geoffrey Colby, K.C.M.G. 
(appointed March, 1948). 

Chief Secretary. Fiank Leslie Brown, C.M.G., O.B.E., M.C. (appointed 
5 April, 1945). 

Government Commissioner in London. S. S. Murray (lib, Lower Regent 
Street, S.W.I.). 

Books of Reference on Nyasaland. 

Census Reports, 1911, 1921, 1931 and 1945. 

Keport on Tea Cultivation and its Development In Nyasaland, 1933. 

Land Bank Report, 1936. 

Memorandum on Native Policy, 1939. 

Beport of the Commission appointed to Inquire into the Financial Position and Further 
Development of Nyasaland. (Colonial No. 152.) London, 1938. 

Annual Beport, 1948. H.M.S.O., 1950. 

Barnes (B. H.), Johnson of Nyasaland. London, 1933. 

Johnson (W. P.), Nyasa : The Great Water. Oxford, 1922. 

Maugham (R. 0. P.), Africa as I have known it: Nyasaland, East Africa, Liberia, 
Senegal. London, 1929. 

Murray (8. S.), A Handbook of Nyasaland. Crown Agents for Colonies, London, 1932. 

Norman (L. S.), Nyasaland without Prejudice. London, 1934. 



THE three Territories in Southern Africa which are not part of the Union : 
Basutoland, the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland, are adminis- 
tered, under general direction and control from the Commonwealth Relations 
Office in London, by a High Commissioner appointed by the King. The 
High Commissioner also holds the office of High Commissioner for the United 
Kingdom in the Union of South Africa. He is the sole legislative authority 
for these Territories, and IB in much the same position as a Colonial Governor, 
but responsible to the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations. 
The day to day government of the Territories under the High Commissioner 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 



299 



is conducted by 3 Resident Commissioners. The Territories are generally re- 
ferred to for convenience as the High Commission Territories in South Africa. 

All three Territories are members of the South African customs union 
system, by agreement dated 29 June, 1910. 

Total trade (in sterling) of the 3 territories with the United Kingdom 
(Board of Trade returns) : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports into U.K. . 


1,862 


163,042 


442,176 


640,818 


837,834 


Exports from U.K. 
Re-exports from U.K. . 


47,361 
96 


34,495 
37 


36,434 
70 


61,482 
133 


63,125 
260 



High Commissioner. Sir Evelyn Baring, K.C.M.G. 



BASUTOLAND. 

Geography and Climate. Basutoland is bounded on the west by the 
Orange Free State, on the north by the Orange Free State and Natal, on 
the east by Natal and East Griqualand, and on the south by the Cape 
Province. The altitude varies from 5,000 ft. to 11,000 ft. The climate is 
dry and rigorous, with extremes of heat and cold both seasonal and diurnal. 
The temperature varies from a maximum of 93 F. to a minimum of 11F. 
The rainfall is capricious, the average being about 30 inches per annum. 

History and Constitution. Basutoland first received the protection 
of Britain in 1868 at the request of Moshesh, the first paramount chief. In 
1871 the territory was annexed to the Cape Colony, but in 1884 it was 
restored to the direct control of the British Government through the High 
Commissioner for South Africa. The country is now governed by a Resident 
Commissioner under the direction of the High Commissioner for Basutoland, 
the Bochuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland. For administrative purposes 
the country is divided into 9 districts under District Commissioners as 
follows : Maseru, Qacha's Nek and Mokhotlong, Leribe, Butha-Buthe, 
Teyateyaneng, Mafeteng, Mohales Hoek, Quthing. Each of the districts is 
sub-divided into wards, most of which are presided over by hereditary 
chiefs allied to the Moshesh family, who are responsible to the paramount 
chief in all matters relating to native law and custom. The heir to the 
Paramountcy is Bereng, the minor son of Ma'Bereng (second wife of the late 
Paramount Chief Seeiso Griffith), for whom Ma'Ntsebo (the late Paramount 
Chief's principal wife) acts as regent. In 1903 there was established a 
Basutoland council, consisting of 100 members. The council meets annually 
to discuss domestic affairs of the territory, but it has no legislative authority. 
District councils were established in each district hi 1944. 

Area and Population. The area is 11,716 square miles. According 
to the 1946 census, the population numbered 561,289 natives, 1,678 Euro- 
peans, 340 Asiatics and 464 coloured, totalling 563,852. In addition over 
35,000 Basuto migrant labourers were employed on the Witwatersrand gold 
mines at the time of the census, and it is probable that a further 75,000 
were engaged in other occupations. Basutoland is a purely native territory, 
and the few European residents consist of government officials, tradeit, 
missionaries and artisans. 

^ Education. Though school attendance is not compulsory, about two- 
thirds of the Basuto of school-going age attend school. There were 811 



300 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



government and government-aided schools in the territory during 1949, of 
which 11 were institutions (secondary, normal and technical), 67 inter- 
mediate schools and 743 elementary vernacular schools ; in addition, there 
were 94 unaided and 113 private schools. In 1949 the total enrolment 
in primary schools was : Government schools, 836 ; aided mission schools, 
83,680 ; unaided and private mission schools, 5,353 ; institutions, 908. There 
were also 6 small schools for European children with an enrolment of 113. 
The expenditure on education for the year 1949-50 was estimated at 
166,745 from revenue, plus 11,506 from the Colonial Development and 
Welfare Fund. 

Finance. Revenue is derived mainly from native tax and customs and 
excise duties. Other major sources of revenue are posts and telegraphs, 
income tax, wool and mohair export duty. Under the native tax law 
every adult male pays 34s. or 40s. per annum (dependent upon income), and 
if he has more than one wife he pays 25s. per annum for each additional wife 
up to a maximum of 90s. tax in all. Native tax receipts for 1948-49 
amounted to 267,170. Income tax is levied on the lines of that of the 
Union of South Africa. Surcharges of 45% and 50% are added to the sums 
assessed on married and unmarried persons respectively. The yield for 
1948-49 was 132,579. Basutoland, a member of the South African Cus- 
toms Union, is dealt with for customs purposes as a part of the Union of 
South Africa, receiving a fixed percentage (0-88575%) of the total customs 
collected on imports into the Union. The revenue from customs during 
1948-49 amounted to 356,134. 





1942-43 


1943-44 


1944-45 


1945-46 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


Revenue 
Expenditure . 




486,937 
385,990 



547,242 
420,203 



589,621 
538,360 



723,934 
672,234 




827,100 
861,351 




900,654 l 
886,937 



908,427 * 
915,564 



1 Including 57,337 from the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund. 

There was an excess of assets over liabilities of 535,554 on 31 March, 1949. 

Police. The police force on 30 September, 1949, numbered 17 European 
officers and the African personnel, consisting of 347 other ranks. 

Production. The chief crops are wheat, maize and sorghum ; barley, 
oats, beans, peas and other vegetables are also grown. The estimated yields 
for wheat, maize and sorghum in 1948 were 430,000, 830,000 and 380,000 
bags of 200 Ib. respectively. Sheep -breeding is in a high state of efficiency. 

The prosperity of the territory depends almost entirely on its agriculture, 
BO that soil conservation and the improvement of crops and pasture are 
matters of vital importance. By the end of 1948 a total area of over 475,485 
acres had been protected against soil erosion by means of terracing, training 
banks and grass strips. A vigorous campaign to encourage the manuring of 
lands has resulted in increased yields of maize and sorghum, and strong 
efforts are being made to secure the general introduction of rotational grazing 
in the mountain area. 

Commerce. The following are the total values of imports and exports 
by traders during recent years (in sterling) : 





1938 


1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Imports , 
Export* 


749,126 
401,612 


1,422,525 
616,538 


1,624,734 
501,269 


2,056,182 
485,204 


1,628,621 
837,tt3 


1,807,246 
1,333,269 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 301 

Principal imports are blankets, ploughs, clothing, tin ware and other 
native requirements, and principal exports in 1948 were wool (9,500,316 lb., 
value 739,343), mohair (1,635,925 lb., value 101,335), wheat and wheat 
meal (90,528 bags, value 115,458), sorghum (86,391 bags, value 104,607), 
maize and maize meal (34,644 bags, value 38,496). 

Communications. A railway built by the South African Railways, 16 
miles, connects Maseru with the Bloemfontein-Natal line at Marseilles 
station. There is a main road running along the western border of Basuto- 
land, with outlets to the border ports of exit. Internal communications of 
Basutoland consist mainly of paths suitable for pack animal transport only. 
Regular motor services of the South African Railways operate between 
railheads at Zastron and Fouriesburg (Orange Free State) and the Govern- 
ment stations of Quthing, Mohales Hoek and Butha-Buthe. 

Currency* The currency is the same as in the Union of South Africa. 

Resident Commissioner. A. D. Forsyth Thomson, C.M.G., C.V.O., C.B.E. 
(appointed November, 1946). 

Books of Reference on Basutoland. 

Annual Keport, 1947. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

An Ecological Survey of Basutoland. London, 1938. 

Geological Report on Basutoland. Maseru, 1947. 

Financial and Economic Position of Basutoland. London, 1933. 

Dutton (Major E. A. T.), The Basuto of Basutoland. London, 1924. 

Rosenthal (E.), African Switzerland. London, 1949. 



BECHUANALAND PROTECTORATE. 

Area and Population. The Bechuanaland Protectorate comprises 
the territory lying between the Molopo River on the south and the Zambezi 
on the north, and extending from the Transvaal Province and Southern 
Rhodesia on the east to South-West Africa on the west. The climate is 
on the whole sub-tropical and the atmosphere throughout the year is very 
dry. Area about 275,000 square miles ; population, according to the cen- 
sus of 1946: Europeans, 2,325; Asiatics and coloured, 1,804; Africans, 
292,754. The most important tribes are the Bamangwato (100,987), whose 
capital is Serowe (population 15,935), 32 miles west of the railway line at 
Palapye; the Bakgatla (20,111), under Chief Molefi; the Bakwena (39,826), 
under Chief Kgari; the Bangwaketse (38,567), under Chief Bathoen, the 
eldest son of the late Chief Seepapitso; the Batawana (38,724), under 
Regent Mrs. E. P. Moremi, assisted by a council, during the minority 
of the heir to the late Chief Moremi; the Bamalete (9,500), under Chief 
Mokgosi; the Batlokwa (2,530), under Chief Kgosi Matlala ; and the Baro- 
long (5,516), under Chief Lotlamoreng. 

Government. In 1885 the territory was declared to be within the 
British sphere; in 1889 it was included in the sphere of the British South 
Africa Company, but was never administered by the company ; in 1890 a 
Resident Commissioner was appointed, and in 1895, on the annexation of 
the Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland to the Cape of Good Hope, new 
arrangements were made for the administration of the protectorate, and 
special agreements were made in view of the extension of tne railway north- 
wards from Mafeking. Each of the chiefs rules his own people as formerly, 
under the protection of the King, who is represented by a resident commis- 



302 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



sioner, acting under the High Commissioner. The headquarters of the 
administration is in Mafeking, in the Cape Province, where there is a reserve 
for imperial purposes. 

The territory is divided for administrative purposes into 8 districts, 
each under a district commissioner. There is a tax of 2 8s. on every male 
native in the territory, and under the native treasuries scheme, 35% of the 
tax collected in each native reserve ia transferred to the native treasury of 
the tribe concerned, which manages expenditure upon such items as 
education, tribal stock improvement and native tribunals. A graded tax 
on natives wholly accrues to the native treasuries. Licences for the sale 
of spirits are, as a rule, granted only at certain railway stations and hotels. 
The police force consists of 38 European officers and other ranks, and 214 
African ranks. 

Education. There were 9 European, 4 coloured and 152 African 
schools in 1948. The European schools were assisted financially by the 
Government to the extent of 6,582 in 1948. A sum of 102,503 was 
expended on African education in 1948 from general revenue, surplus 
balances and native treasuries, of which 58,328 represented capital ex- 
penditure. Under the Director of Education, the schools are controlled 
in most of the reserves by school committees with missionary and African 
representation. In addition, there is a government centre for the training 
of teachers and 4 mission schools, 1 of which supplies homecrafts training 
for adolescents. 

Welfare. There are 4 government hospitals, 8 government health 
centres or dispensaries, 3 mission hospitals and a missionary maternity 
centre. During 1948, 336,523 outpatients received medical attention, and 
6,017 were treated in hospital. 

Production. Cattle-rearing and dairying are the chief industries, but 
the country is more a pastoral than an agricultural one, crops depending 
entirely upon the rainfall. In 1948 the estimated number of cattle was 
957,060 ; sheep and goats, 586,284. Livestock and hides to the estimated 
value of 630,584 were exported in 1948, mainly to the Union of South 
Africa ; this export produces the greater part of the taxable national income. 

Gold and silver to the total value of 13,036 were mined in 1948. 

Finance. Revenue and expenditure (in sterling) for 6 years : 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1943-44 
1944-46 
1945-46 


361,133 
426,991 
416,570 


293,490 
384,175 
356,067 


1946-47 
1947-48 
1948-49 


469,075 
482,887 
661,289 


405,071 
475,619 
641,247 



Chief items of revenue, 1948-49 : Income tax, 143,970; customs, 
121,181; native tax, 83,221; posts, 59,220; rentals and transfer 
duties, 22,764. Chief items of expenditure, 1948-49 : Resident commis- 
sioner and government headquarters, 33,376; district administration, 
36,916; police, 58,166; public works (ordinary, extraordinary and recur- 
rent), 123,339; veterinary, 113,821. Excess of assets over liabilities on 
31 Maroh, 1949, 270,377. 

When the Union of South Africa was established, an agreement was made 
with the Union Government on 29 June, 1910, under which the previously 
existing customs union was continued. Duty on all dutiable articles im- 



BRITISH SOUTH AFBICA 303 

ported into the protectorate is collected by the Union customs department 
and paid into the Union treasury, a lump sum representing a certain propor- 
tion of the annual customs revenue of the Union being paid over to the 
protectorate. 

Commerce. Imports in 1948 amounted to 1,176,037 (1947, 1,438,984) ; 
exports to 753,788 (1947, 889,878). Chief items of import -.General 
merchandise (963,482), vehicles (112, 60,607), maize (35,820 bags, 57,697), 
cattle (2,647, 34,957), wheat (11,481 bags, 30,623). Chief items of 
export : Cattle (42,799, 540,638), hides (283 short tons, 57,626), butter 
(393,539 lb., 45, 913). 

Communications. The telegraph from the Cape of Good Hope to 
Rhodesia and the railway extending northwards from the Cape of Good 
Hope traverse the protectorate. Wireless communication has been estab- 
lished between headquarters at Mafeking and various police stations. 
There are 6 post offices and 28 agencies; receipts, in 1948-49, 59,220; 
expenditure, 13,785. In 1948-49, 40,138 was deposited in the savings 
bank and 76,022 withdrawn. 

The currency is South African. There is no bank in the protectorate. 

Resident Commissioner. A. Sillery, C.V.O. 

Books of Reference on Bechuanaland. 

Bechuanaland Protectorate ; Report, 1917. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Brown (J. T.\ Among the Bantu Nomada. London, 1926. 

Schapera (I.), The Bantu-Speaking Tribes of South Africa. London, 1937. A Handbook 
of Tswana Law and Custom. London, 1938. Migrant Labour and Tribal Life. Oxford, 
1948. 



SWAZILAND. 

Area and Population. Swaziland is bounded on the north, west and 
south by the Transvaal Province, and on the east by Portuguese territory 
and Zululand. The area is 6,704-6 square miles. 

The territory is divided geographically into three longitudinal regions 
of roughly equal breadth, running from north to south, and known locally 
as the high, middle and low or bushveld. The mountainous region on the 
west rises to an altitude of over 4,000 feet. The middle veld is about 
2,000 feet lower, while the low veld, bounded on the east by the Lebombo 
Mountains, has an average height of not more than 1,000 feet. The 
mountainous region, or high veld, is free from malaria, which is present in 
the low veld, and in a slight degree in the middle veld during some of the 
summer months. The high veld and the middle veld are remarkably well 
watered. Innumerable small streams unite with the large rivers, which 
traverse the country from west to east. Except for these the low veld is 
not very well watered. The climate is good except for a few months in 
summer, when the heat is somewhat excessive in parts. The high veld 
portions, however, seldom experience any excessive heat, a spell of hot 
weather being almost invariably followed by cooling mists. 

Population, census 1946, 185,214; namely, Europeans, 3,204; Natives 
(Bantu), 181,269; coloured, 735; Asiatics, 6. Estimated population, 1948, 
185,210. There ia no compulsory registration for Natives. European 
births (1948), $5; deaths, 21. , 1f ' ' , 



304 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Government. The Swazis are akin to the Zulu and other tribes of the 
south-eastern littoral. Up to about 100 years ago they occupied the country 
just north of the Pongola River, but a hostile chief in their vicinity forced 
them farther north, and, under their chief Sobhuza, they then occupied 
the territory now known as Swaziland. This chief, who died in 1839, was 
succeeded by Mswazi II. The further order of succession has been : 
Ludonga, Mbandini and Bhunu, whose son, Sobhuza II, was installed as 
Paramount Chief in 1921, after a long minority, during which his grand- 
mother, Labotsibeni, acted as regent. 

The many concessions granted by Mbandini necessitated some form of 
European control, notwithstanding the fact that the independence of the 
Swazis had been guaranteed in the conventions of 1881 and 1884, entered 
into between the British Government and the Government of the South 
African Republic. In 1890, soon after the death of Mbandini, a provisional 
government was established representative of the Swazis, the British and 
the South African Republic Governments. In 1894, under convention 
between the 2 European governments, the South African Republic was 
given powers of protection and administration, without incorporation, and 
Swaziland continued to be governed under this form of control until the 
outbreak of the Boer War in 1899. 

In 1902, after the conclusion of hostilities, a special commissioner took 
charge, and under an order-in-council in 1903 the Governor of the Transvaal 
administered the territory, through the Special Commissioner, until the 
year 1907, when under an order-in-council (1906) the High Commissioner 
assumed control and established the present form of administration. 
Previous to this, steps had been taken for the settlement of the concessions 
question by the definition of the boundaries of the land concessions and 
their partition between the concessionaires and the natives. The bound- 
aries of the mineral concessions were also denned and all monopoly 
concessions were expropriated. Title to property is, therefore, now 
clear. 

An elected advisory council, representative of the Europeans, was 
established in 1921 to advise the administration on purely European affairs. 
The seventh council was elected in November, 1938. 

The seat of the administration is at Mbabane; altitude, 3,800 feet; 
European population, 554. 

Education* During 1948, 6 schools for Europeans were maintained or 
aided from general revenue, providing primary education for 430 children 
and secondary education (at 2 of these schools) for 42 children. One 
private school had 51 pupils. There were 4 schools for Eurafrican children, 
2 of which received government assistance ; the enrolment was 226. There 
were 198 schools of all types for primary native education ; enrolment in 
1948 was 11,012. Of these schools, 95 were aided mission schools, 3 national 
schools, and 93 private mission schools. One Native trades school provides 
training in building and carpentry. 

Justice. A High Court, coming on circuit twice a year and having full 
jurisdiction, and subordinate courts presided over by District Officers are in 
existence. A Swaziland police force was created in 1907; authorized 
strength (1948), 24 Europeans and 130 natives. During 1948 there were 
5,689 convictions in subordinate courts and 48 convictions in the High 
Court. Native chiefs exercise jurisdiction according to native law and 
customs in all dvil matters between natives, subject to a final appeal to the 
High Gourt of Swaziland. ,> 



BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA 305 

Finance. Revenue and expenditure (in sterling) for 6 years : 





1943-44 


1944-45 


1945-46 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


Eevenue 
Expenditure. 


207,355 
196,478 


256,788 
303,834 


491,903 
462,063 


446,784 
457,387 


472,412 
523,335 


476,596 
541,324 



Chief items of revenue, 1948-49: Native tax, 57,100; customs and 
excise, 69,000; posts and telegraphs, 28,400; licences, 18,377; income 
tax, 124,858; base metal royalty, 16,672. Chief items of expenditure, 
1948-49: Headquarters, 30,259; district administration, 24,240; police, 
33,222; public works, 42,990; medical, 41,617; education, 44,063; 
veterinary, agriculture and forestry, 86,375; pensions and gratuities, 
10,428 ; posts and telegraphs, 22,304. 

The public debt amounted to 64,728 in 1949. 

Production. The agricultural and grazing rights of natives are safe- 
guarded and delimited. The agricultural products are cotton, tobacco, 
maize (the staple product), sorghums, pumpkins, ground-nuts, beans and 
sweet potatoes. It is sometimes necessary to import maize from the Union 
of South Africa and elsewhere. Stock numbers approximately (1948) : 
Cattle, 418,551, of which 72,948 were owned by Europeans; sheep, 24,366, 
Native and European owners; goats, 124,177; pigs, 10,064; horses, 1,969; 
donkeys and mules, 16,068. About 114,000 sheep were brought into Swazi- 
land from the Transvaal for winter grazing. 

The territory produces a large tonnage of asbestos from the Havelock 
Mine, Emlembe, north-west Swaziland, and is still producing small quantities 
of tin, entirely from alluvial and eluvial sources. The main production of 
gold comes from the Pigg's Peak Mine, but there are also two smaller 
producers. There is a deposit of barytes with large proved resources on the 
Londosi river in Swaziland, near Steynsdorp in the Transvaal. Develop- 
ment is proceeding and a small quantity of the mineral is being produced. 
There are other proved deposits of semi-anthracitic coal in the low veld, 
and haematite in the north-west mountain region. There are numerous 
prospects of talc, fluorspar, calcite, cassiterite, gold asbestos, monazite, 
kaolin, euxenite, coal corundum, galena, vermiculite ; all of which require 
detailed investigation. 

Geological work and investigation of mineral occurences has been 
organized by a small geological survey department since 1944. This 
department is to be considerably expanded with funds made available 
under the Colonial Development and Welfare Act of 1945. 

Mineral development in general is hampered by the complicated nature 
of mineral ownership, overlapped in some cases by native reserve areas, and 
the lack of cheap transport facilities. 

Gold is subject to a tax of 10% on profits; base metals to a royalty 
of 2J% on output ; in addition to any rentals now payable. 

Exports. By agreement (dated 29 June, 1910) with the Union of South 
Africa, Swaziland is united in a customs union with the Union of South Africa 
and receives a pro rota share of the customs dues collected. Chief exports, 
1948, were : Live cattle, 17,701 head, valued at 240,000; hides and skins, 
70,473 lb., valued at 58,355; bonemeal, 138 tons, valued at 1,728; 
butter, 195,324 lb., valued at 20,627; tobacco, 401,991 lb., valued at 
29,948; wool, 440 bales, valued at 1,136; groundnuts, 12,000 bags, 
valued at 21,000. Exports, 1947, included metallic tin, 50,400 lb., valued 



306 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

at 8,828; asbestos, 55,909,200 lb., valued at 840,535; barytes, 378,420 
lb., valued at 1,603; bullion and specie valued at 45,638. 

Communications. There is daily (except Sundays) communication by 
railway motor-buses between Bremersdorp, Mbabane and Breyten ; Bremers- 
dorp, Mankaiana and Piet Retief ; Piet Retief and Hlatikulu ; 5 days weekly 
between Bremersdorp and Stegi ; 3 days weekly between Bremersdorp and 
Gollel ; Gollel and Piet Retief; Gollel and Ingwavnma ; twice weekly between 
Bremersdorp and Hlatikulu, and Bremersdorp and Balegane. Post offices 
working in 1947, 26. There are telegraph and telephone offices at Mba- 
bane, Pigg's Peak, Bremersdorp, Ezulwini, Hlatikulu, Dwaleni, Mahamba, 
Stegi, Nsoko, Emlembe, Goedgegun, Hluti and Gollel. Post office savings 
bank deposits, 68,683 during year ending 31 March, 1948; at that date 
119,225 stood to credit of depositors. 

Currency and Banking. The currency is British and Union of South 
African coin, also coins of the late South African Republic, which are of 
similar denomination to the British. Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial 
and Overseas) has branches at Mbabane and Bremersdorp, and the Standard 
Bank of South Africa, Ltd., at Bremersdorp. 

Resident Commissioner. E. B. Beetham, C.M.G., C.V.O., O.B.E. 
(appointed 25 Aug., 1946). 

Books of Reference on Swaziland. 

Annual Report, 1947. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Kuper (H.), An African Aristocracy. London, 1947. The Uniform of Colour. Johannes- 
burg, 1948. 

Marwick (B. A.), The SwazI : An Ethnographic Account of the Natives of the Swaziland 
Protectorate. Cambridge, 1940. 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA. 

These possessions are the colony and protectorate of Nigeria; the 
Gambia colony and protectorate; the Gold Coast colony with Ashanti 
and northern territories, and the Sierra Leone colony and protectorate. 

Parts of Togoland and the Cameroons are also included as trusteeship 
territories. 

NIGERIA. 

History and Constitution. This territory comprises a number of 
areas formerly under separate administrations. Lagos, ceded in August, 
1861, from a native king, was placed under the Governor of Sierra Leone in 
1866. In 1874 it was detached, together with the Gold Coast Colony, and 
formed part of the latter until January, 1886, when a separate ' colony and 
protectorate of Lagos ' was constituted. Meanwhile the National African 
Company had established British interests in the Niger valley, and in July, 
1886, the company obtained a charter under the name of the Royal Niger 
Company. This company surrendered its charter to the Crown in 1899, and 
on 1 January, 1900, the greater part of its territories was formed into the 
new protectorate of Northern Nigeria. Along the coast the Oil Elvers pro- 
tectorate had been declared in June, 1885. This was enlarged and renamed 
the Niger Coast protectorate in 1893 ; and on 1 January, 1900, on its absorb- 
ing the remainder of the territories of the Royal Niger Company, it became 
the protectorate of Southern Nigeria. In February, 1906, Lagos and 
Southern Nigeria were united into the ( colony and protectorate of Southern 
Nigeria,* and on 1 January, 19U, the latter was amalgamated with, tit* 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA 307 

protectorate of Northern Nigeria to form the ' colony and protectorate of 
Nigeria/ under a Governor. 

Lagos is the seat of the Central Government, and the protectorate is for 
administrative purposes divided into three groups of provinces, each under 
a chief commissioner subject to the final control and authority of the 
Governor : the northern provinces (headquarters Kaduna), the western 
provinces (headquarters Ibadan) and the eastern provinces (headquarters 
Enugu). The colony area is administered by the Governor, with the 
Commissioner of the colony as chief executive officer. 

The trusteeship territory of the Cameroons is attached to Nigeria for 
administrative and customs purposes. 

The executive council of the colony was made, from 1 January, 1914, 
the executive council of the protectorate also. It consists of a few of 
the senior officials, and since 1 October, 1942, of 3 unofficial members ; 
in addition, 4 Africans were appointed in Aug., 1949, to serve on the 
executive council for one year. 

A legislative council came into force on 1 Jan., 1947. This council 
legislates for the whole of Nigeria. It consists of the Governor as president, 
13 ex-officio members, 3 nominated official members, 24 unofficial members 
and 4 elected members. The unofficial members are 4 members of the 
House of Chiefs appointed by that House, 16 members of the 3 regional 
Houses of Assembly (14 appointed by those Houses and 2 by the Governor), 
1 nominated member for the colony and 3 nominated members to represent 
interests not otherwise adequately represented (appointed by the Governor). 
In addition, there are a House of Chiefs and a House of Assembly for the 
northern provinces, a House of Assembly for the western and a House of 
Assembly for the eastern provinces, each House of Assembly having an un- 
official majority. 

Governor of Nigeria. Sir John Macpherson, G.C.M.G. (sworn in 14 April, 
1948). 

Chief Secretary to tlte Government. Hugh Mackintosh Foot (appointed 
September, 1947). 

There are altogether 25 provinces, including the Cameroons, each under 
the immediate control of a Resident. Much local administiation is carried 
out by native chiefs and councils who have statutory powers. 

Most of the rain falls between April and September in the north, and 
March and November in the south. Curing the dry season the Harmattan 
blows from the north-east, bringing with it a haze of dust. The rainfall ia 
highest on the south-east coast, with an average of 150-99 in. at Bonny and 
145 in. at Forcados. At Lagos there were 70 in. in 1947. In the middle 
of the country Kaduna has an average of 43-55 in., and in the north 
Katsina has 28 in. and Sokoto 25-45 in. In the Cameroons the rainfall 
varies from 355 in. on Cameroons Mountain on the coast to 25 in. at Dikwa, 
near Lake Chad. 

Area and Population. Area approximately 372,674 square miles, 
including the Cameroons under British trusteeship; population 1948 (esti- 
mate), 21,800,000. Northern provinces : 281,703 square miles, 12,980,000 
population. Eastern Provinces : 45,443 square miles, 5,200,000 popula- 
tion. Western Provinces: 44,147 square miles, 4,350,000 population. 
Colony : 1,381 square miles, 450,000 population. 

The populations of eleven largest towns in 1946 were : Ibadan, 335,500 
(including farming suburbs); Lagos, 176,000; Kano, 97,940; Ogbomosho, 
84,500; Oyo, 70,340? Iwo, 86,000; Oshogbo, 6-^000; Abeokuta, 56,600; 
Maria, 54,684? Eda> -61,500 ; Iseyin,^8,4tO.' > *<* 



308 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Justice. The judicial system of Nigeria was re-cast in 1946 by putting 
into force the legislation enacted in 1943, which merged the protectorate 
courts in the Supreme Court and unified the magistrateships. The Supreme 
Court now has jurisdiction throughout Nigeria, which is divided into 11 
judicial divisions. The Bench consists of the Chief Justice, the senior, 
the second, and 15 unclassified puisne judges, each having power to exercise 
the jurisdiction of the court. For magisterial purposes Nigeria is divided 
into 18 magisterial districts, each having one magistrate (except the colony, 
which has 10). Magistrates are divided into first, second and third grades; 
those of the first grade are professional, with jurisdiction up to 200 in 
civil cases and two years' imprisonment in criminal; the others are 
administrative officers with more limited jurisdiction in out-of-the-way 
localities. There are also native courts with extensive jurisdiction in the 
north and a more limited jurisdiction in the south. The number of persons 
brought before the Supreme Court and magistrates' courts during 1948, 
was 65,789, of whom 53,124 were convicted. 

Religion and Education. No reliable statistics are available. 
Speaking generally the more primitive peoples retain their ancestral animistic 
religions but, in so far as they become progressive, they tend to embrace either 
Christianity or Islam. The Christian and Moslem religions show a strongly 
Droselytizing character and, although the missionary endeavours of the 
Moslems are less organized, they are not the less powerful. In the most 
northerly regions of Nigeria, Islam is the dominant religion. In the western 
provinces, also, there are very many Moslems. There is, on the other hand, 
an interesting difference between the northern and the southern Moslems. 
Islam in the north still has a mediaeval character and a conservative 
attitude, while in the south its adherents show a much greater readiness to 
adopt European customs and ideas. In the eastern provinces, Islam has 
made remarkably little headway. Generally speaking the people are either 
Animists or Christians. 

The main Christian missionary societies represent the Roman Catholic, 
Anglican, Scottish, Methodist and Baptist Churches. In addition there 
are several inter-denominational Protestant societies such as the Sudan 
Interior Mission, the Sudan United Mission and the Qua Iboe Mission. 
The larger Protestant societies have achieved a considerable degree of 
co-operation. Africans play a large and increasing part in Church affairs, 
both as clerics and laymen. There is a considerable number of independent 
African Christian communities which, for the most part, have split off from 
one or other of the parent Churches. On the whole these have a nebulous 
character and nomenclature, which make it very difficult to assess their work 
and influence. In the past there has been a broad difference in the attitude 
of Christians and Moslems with regard to secular education. The Christian 
missions have generally regarded the provision of secular schooling as a 
normal part of their work. The Moslems' view of education, on the other 
hand, has been restricted to studies in the religion and law of Islam. Thus, 
although Moslem local authorities in Northern Nigeria have provided schools 
offering secular subjects, they have mostly done this at the instigation of 
government. There are recent signs, nevertheless, that the northern 
Moslem is beginning to feel the need of a general education. In the western 
provinces the position is somewhat different. Here, although the Moslems 
have lagged behind the Christians, there is now an unmistakable keen- 
ness to opn schools and a good deal of voluntary effort has been aroused. 

Number of children of * school age/ i.e. between 7 and 14 years, between 
3 and 4 million; number of children on roll i primary schools, 1948, 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA 



309 



820,300. 13,350 children are on roll at secondary schools. Number of 
trained African teachers at work 6,924; number of untrained African 
teachers at work, 31,624. Schools are owned and maintained by govern- 
ment, by voluntary agencies (mainly Christian missionary bodies), by 
native authorities and by private individuals. 

The number of institutions directly maintained by government (including 
native authorities) comprises 674 primary, 11 middle (junior secondary), 
9 secondary schools and 11 teachers' training colleges. 

All schools are subject to inspection by the Department of Education. 
The estimated expenditure by government on education for the financial 
year 1949-50 is 2,301,856, apart from 582,870 which has been allocated 
under the Nigerian Development Scheme and colonial development and 
welfare scheme. Of a further 486,700 which has been allocated for the 
building programme, 320,000 is allocated under development and loan 
expenditure (Nigerian funds) and 166,700 for technical education under 
the colonial welfare and development schemes. 

Vote for technical education 1949-50: 175,939, of which 108,640 has 
been allocated under the colonial development and welfare scheme and 
67,299 under the development and welfare schemes. 

An autonomous University College was established in 1947 at Ibadan, 
with temporary accommodation for 240 students and a staff of about 30 
professors and lecturers. Courses leading to London University degrees in 
medicine, science and arts are provided, and more faculties will be added 
later. It is proposed to raise the status of the College to that of a 
University of West Africa which will confer its own degrees. 

There were, in 1949, 25 cinemas, with a seating capacity of 13,250. 

Finance. Revenue, expenditure, and public debt (including the 
Camerbons territory under U.K. trusteeship : 



Year (ending 31 March) 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Public debt 


1946-47 .... 
1947-48 .... 
1948-49 .... 
1949-60 l .... 




14,832,438 
18,404,132 
23,811,380 
27,940,940 



14,061,688 
17.185,940 
23,898,426 
27,230,290 



22,064,599 
22,064,599 
22,064,599 
22,064,599 



1 Revised estimates. 

Production and Industry. The principal exports for 4 years were :- 



Principal exports 


Quantities 


Value () 
1948 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Palm oil, tons 


114,199 


100,885 


125,954 


139,204 


3,880,653 


Palm kernels, tons . 


292,588 


277,242 


316,376 


327,174 


6,262,253 


Cotton lint, centals of 100 


23,743 


148,108 


117,645 


103,824 


400,918 


Cocoa, tona . 


77,004 


100,186 


110,793 


91,449 


7,458,580 


Mahogany, cu.ft . 


805,442 


973,968 


921,077 


729,461 


192,124 


Tin ore, tons ^ 


15,166 


13,929 


14,090 


12,169 


4,241,393 


Gold (raw ore), o*. . 


8,021 


1,984 


691 


41 


362 


Groundnuts, tons . 


176,242 


285,668 


255,866 


245,155 


6,785,330 


Hides and skina tanned 












CWt. . 


1,456 


2,221 


3,654 


2,740 


105,901 


Hides and skins un tanned 












cwt. . 


126,720 


115,031 


197,020 


189,000 


3,202,528 


Bananas, cwt. 


20,558 


116,265 


419,643 


1,023,145 


309,593 


Rubber, Ib. . 


23,561,439 


25,642,711 


16,677,659 


17,962,418 


719,040 


Benniseed, tons 


6,738 


7,334 


5,698 


7,542 


113,538 


Goal, tons . . 


192,624 


188,382 


156,686 


97,806 


167,942 


Gum arable. Ib. 


5,204,049 


7,160,440 


2,359,843 


1,494,830 


,40,178 



310 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



The natives have worked iron, lead and tin for centuries. There are 
also deposits of silver, galena, manganese ore, lignite and monazite (which 
contains thorium). Coal output, 1948, 605,405 tons. Mining rights are vested 
in the Government, but under an agreement made with the Royal Niger 
Company at the date of the revocation of the charter, that company 
receives half the gross profits derived from royalties on minerals won 
between the main stream of the Niger on the west and a line running 
direct from Yola to Zinder on the east, for a period of 99 years with effect 
from 1 January, 1900. 

Commerce. The principal ports are Lagos, Warri, Burutu, Sapele, 
Degema, Port Harcourt, Opobo, Calabar, Tiko and Victoria. Numerous 
rivers and creeks form the chief routes for transport, and there are many 
well-made roads. 

Considerable trade is carried on in the northern provinces. There is 
alao a large trade by caravans which, coming from Salaga in the west, the 
Sahara in the north, and Lake Chad and Wadai in the east, make use of 
Kano as an emporium. 

The trade and shipping of Nigeria are shown as follows (bullion and specie 
are included) : 



Year 


Trade 


Shipping entered and cleared 


Imports 


Exports 


Total 


British only 


1944 . 
1945 . 
1946 . 
1947 . 
1948 . 



18,504,070 
15,917,862 
25,685,201 
39,421,512 
44,897,309 



17,929,384 
19,251,836 
25,357,830 
E8,369,070 
37,527,112 


Tons 
3,125,652 
2,913,355 
3,685,341 
3,228,011 
4,085,173 


Tons 
2,209,881 
1,996,131 
2,671,000 
2,190,503 
2,552,210 



Value of the chief imports (in ) for 4 years was : 





1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1948, Quantity 


Gotten piece-goods 












Iron and steel 


5,158,900 


5,921,284 


9,993,753 


12,368,240 


124,695,662 sq. yd. 


manufacture 


1,018,892 


1,565,019 


2,541,009 


2,918,810 





Fish . 


25,691 


97,188 


222,748 


299,362 


5,499,100 Ib. 


Salt ... 


405,646 


612,450 


675,110 


760,082 


165,469,681 Ib. 


Imports from : 












British Empire 


12,359,304 


20,296,779 


26,219,369 


28,228,651 





U.S.A. 


2,234,862 


1,889,155 


5,755,062 


4,726,000 


_ 



Total trade between the United Kingdom and Nigeria (including the 
Cameroons), according to Boafd of Trade returns (in sterling) : 





1938 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports to U.K. . 
Exporte from U.K. 
Re-exports . 


6,256,621 
4,246,371 
268,834 


86,210,896 
15,430,049 
72,072 


53,648,511 
24,516,064 
80,384 


66,227,703 
34,928,581 
185,308 



Communications. The railway system comprises (1) a western line 
from Lagos to Kano (700 miles), crossing the Niger by bridge at Jebba, 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA 311 

with an extension from Kano to N'Guru (143 miles), and branches from 
Minna to Baro (111 miles); from Zaria to Kaura Namoda (137 miles); and 
from Ifo Junction to Idogo (27 miles). (2) An eastern line (569 miles) 
from Port Harcourt, crossing the Benue River at Makurdi, and joining the 
Western Railway at Kaduna junction with a branch lines connecting 
Kafanchan (458 miles) with Jos (62J miles). The total capital expenditure 
on the Nigerian railway, up to 31 March, 1949, amounted to 23,580,328; 
interest charges payable, 900,774; operating receipts, 5,762,540; working 
expenditure, 4,194,372; operating surplus, 1,568,168; net revenue 
account receipts, 229,427; net revenue account expenditure, 1,616,156 
(including loan interest charges); net surplus, 181,439; passengers 
carried, 6,197,049; goods and minerals transported, 1,384,660 tons. 

Under the Ten -Year Development Plan it is proposed to construct 
17,173 miles of roads in order to reach the total of 48,275 miles estimated 
to be necessary. Links will be provided with the road systems in adjoining 
territories which will eventually provide connections between Nigeria ana 
both North and South Africa. 

The Posts and Telegraph Department provides postal, savings bank, 
postal and money order, telegraph, wireless telegraph and telephone services, 
and also maintains telegraph and electric block signalling apparatus at all 
railway stations, radio telegraph and telephone apparatus at all mam 
railway centres, wireless services for the Aviation Department at 16 aero- 
dromes and arranges the collection and distribution of meteorological infor- 
mation. It is also responsible for maintaining Nigerian marine wireless 
facilities and for the Nigerian police radio telephone. Radio distribution 
services are maintained in Lagos and 5 provincial centres. 

On 31 Dec., 1948, there wore 508 post offices (including agencies), 
telegraphs being available at 120 of them. The Savings Bank on 30 June, 
1949, had 138,675 depositors, with 2,628,012 to their credit. 

Currency. Currency is controlled by the West African Currency Board 
and is of a special pattern which is common to the four British West African 
Colonies. The denominations are : notes, 1 and 10s. ; alloy coins, 2s., 
Is. and 6d. ; nickel coins, 3d., Id., half-penny and tenth of a penny. On 30 
June, 1949, the circulation, in Nigeria only, amounted to 31,522,743, and 
consisted of 20,588,488 hi alloy coin, 2,549,086 in nickel coin and 
8,385,169 in notes. 

The Bank of British West Africa, Ltd., Barclays Bank (Dominion, 
Colonial & Overseas), the Nigerian Farmers* and Commercial Bank, the 
National Bank of Nigeria, and the African Continental Bank, have branches 
in the larger towns. 

Books of Reference. 

Annual Report on Nigeria, 1948. H.M.S.O., 1950. 

Handbook of Nigeria, llth edition. London, 1936. 

Nigeria Inquiry into the Oost of Living and the Control of the Coat of Living. Beport 
by W. T. Davies ; Despatch from Secretary of State for the Colonies to Governor of Nigeria. 
(Colonial 204.) 1946. 

A Ten-year Plan of Development and Welfare for Nigeria. Lagos, 1946. 

Report of West African Oilseeds Mission. (Colonial No. 224.) H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Maiden (G. T.), Among the Ibos of Nigeria. London, 1921. Niger Ibos. London, 1938. 

Bvms (A. 0.), History of Nigeria. 4th ed. London, 1948. 

Cook (A. N.), British Enterprise in Nigeria. Philadelphia, 1943. 

Crocker (W. B.), Nigeria. London, 1936. 

forde (D.) and Scott (R.), The Native Economies of Nigeria. London, 1946. 

Hogben (S. J.), The Muhammad an Emirates of Nigeria. London, 1930. 

Jacob (B. M.). Census of Nigeria, 1931. Vols. I-VI. London, 1933. 

Lugord (Sir F. D.). Beport on the Amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria, and 
Administration, 1912-19. London, 1820. 



312 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Meek (C. K.), The Northern Tribes of Nigeria. 2 vols. London, 1926. Tribal Studies 

In Northern Nigeria. 2 vols. London, 1931. A Sudanese Kingdom. London, 1931. Law 
and Authority in a Nigerian Tribe. London, 1937. 

Nodel (S. F.), A Black Byzantium : The Kingdom of Nupe in Nigeria. London, 1942. 

Nash (T. A. M.), The Ancbau Kural Development and Settlement Scheme. H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Niven (C. R.), A Short History of Nigeria. London, 1937. Nigeria : Outline of a Uolony. 
London, 1946. 

Palmer (Sir B.), The Bornu Sahara and Sudan. London, 1936. 

Perham (MargeryV The Native Administration of Nigeria. Oxford 1937. (Editor 
Vol. I, The Native Economics of Nigeria. London, 1946. Vol. II, Mining, Commerce and 
Finance in Nigeria. London, 1946. 

Quinn-Young (0. T.) and Herdman (T.), Geography of Nigeria. London, 1946. 

TalbOt (P. A.), Life in Southern Nigeria. London, 1923. The Peoples of Southern 
Nigeria. 4 vols. London, 1926. 



GAMBIA. 

Gambia was discovered by the early Portuguese navigators, but they 
made no settlement. During the 17th century various companies of 
merchants obtained trading charters and established a settlement on the 
river, which, from 1807, was controlled from Sierra Leone; in 1843 it was 
made an independent Crown Colony; in 1866 it formed part of the West 
African Settlements, but in December, 1888, it again became a separate 
Crown Colony. It is administered under a Governor with an Executive 
Council (including 3 unofficial members) and a Legislative Council (including 
1 elected member). In Bathurst, the capital, a town council was estab- 
lished in 1946. A similar self-governing body, the Kombo Rural Authority, 
came into being on 1 January, 1947, for the contiguous district of Kombo St. 
Mary which, although part of the colony, was administered for many years 
on the protectorate system, but has now been restored to the colony. 
Other parts of the country are administered on the protectorate system. 
Since 1901 both banks of the Gambia have been under direct British control 
up to the Anglo-French boundary. 

Area of colony (comprising Bathurst and some adjoining land), 96 
square miles; population (1944 census), 21,152. In the protectorate (area, 
4,005 square miles) the population (1948 census) was 229,284. 

The rainy season lasts from May to November. The total rainfall at 
Bathurst was 57-98 in. in 1948. 

Education. In 1945, all primary education in Bathurst was taken over 
and is now financed by the government. The schools have been re-organized 
in 3 groups, Anglican-Methodist, Roman Catholic and Moslem. Each 
group has a boys' primary, girls' primary and infants' school with the 
exception of the Moslem group which for the present has a mixed boys' 
and girls' primary school and an infants' school. The total number of pupils 
enrolled in all these schools was 1,567 boys and 605 girls in 1948. 

The Methodists and Roman Catholics each have 2 secondary schools with 
a total of 197 boys and 171 girls enrolled; these receive financial assistance 
from the government, to cover all teachers' salaries. 

In the Colony there is 1 government school with a total of 160 children. 
In the Protectorate there are 1 government school, 6 Mission schools and 
5 Native Authority schools, with a total of 506 children. 

Government grants amounted to 6,322 and government expenditure 
on education was 29,539 (in 1948). 

Finance and Trade. Revenue, expenditure, imports and exports for 
5 years were as follows (in sterling) : 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA 



313 





1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Revenue . 
Expenditure . 
Imports l 
Exports l 


523,909 
444,198 
1,186,818 
377,993 


687,004 
430,729 
1,216,337 
776,955 


616,328 
545,854 
949,093 
696,292 


693,774 
633,273 
1,948,590 
1,170,524 


866,900 
1,014,097 
2,621,024 
1,758,384 



1 Including specie. 

Public debt on 31 December, 1948, was 38,760. On 31 December, 1894, 
the assets exceeded the external liabilities by 937,877 (excluding public 
debt, 38,760, and sinking fund, 15,245). 

Principal items of revenue in 1 948 : Customs, 376,466 ; taxes, 230,468 ; 
licences, 5,935; post telephones, etc., 10,902; port dues, 3,097. 

Chief imports, 1948 : Apparel, 44,934 ; bags and sacks (empty), 20,565 ; 
boots, shoes and slippers, 16,970; cotton (piece-goods), 491,016; cotton, 
other, 30,732 ; cotton yarn, 19,260 ; flour, wheaten, 23,475 ; hats and caps, 
14,950; kola nuts, 159,428; lumber, 10,496 ; machinery, all kinds, 62,069; 
medicines and drugs, 22,835; metals, all kinds, 76,987; motor vehicles, 
122,227; oils, edible, 19,842; oils, non-edible, 99,502; rice, 101,009; 
soap, 24,738; spirits, potable. 3,428; sugar, 50,837; tobacco, 47,442; 
beer, 7,620; cement, 22,863 ; artificial silk (piece-goods), 21,495; woollen 
manufactures, 21,937. 

Chief exports, 1948: Groundnuts, 1,628,001; palm kernels, 30,221; 
bees-wax, 2,105; hides and skins (cattle, untanned), 777. 

Imports from United Kingdom in 1949, 1,147,155; 1948, 979,333. 
Exports to United Kingdom, 1949, 2,539,959; 1948, 2,468,620. 

Of the 353 vessels (630,074 tons) entered and cleared in the foreign 
trade in 1948, 178 of 512,912 tons were British. 

In 1948, 588 aircraft (5,144 tons) entered and cleared; of these, 390 
(2,742 tons) were British. 

Internal communication is maintained by steamers or launches. There 
are several post offices, and postal facilities are also afforded to all river 
towns by means of a travelling post office on the Government river mail- 
steamers. Bathurst is connected with St. Vincent (Cape de Verde) and with 
Sierra Leone by cable, but there are no local railways. Bathurst is in wire- 
less communication with Georgetown, Kuntaur and Basse in the Protector- 
ate. In 1948, the Government Savings Bank had 6,118 depositors holding 
deposits value 143,979. A special West African alloy currency was intro- 
duced in 1920 (see under NIGERIA, p. 311). West African currency notes 
in circulation 31 December, 1948, amounted to 704,567. There is one bank 
in the colony, the Bank of British West Africa. 

Governor. Percy Wyn Harris, C.M.G., M.B.E. (appointed 4 Aug., 1949; 
salary 2,500 and 750 allowances). 

Colonial Secretary. Edward Rex Ward, C.M.G. (appointed 1 October, 
1945). 



GOLD COAST. 

The Gold Coast first became known through Portuguese navigators 
in the 14th century, and English and Dutch traders and companies 
exploited the district in the 17th century, their main objet being the 
slave traffic. The Dutch held settlements on the coast until 1871, when 



314 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

a convention was made transferring them to the English. The colony 
stretches for 334 miles along the Gulf of Guinea, between the French Ivory 
Coast and Togoland. It is administered by a Governor with an executive 
and a legislative council, which consists of 18 elected members and 12 
official and nominated members. Under the new constitution which came 
in force on 29 March, 1946, the Gold Coast is the first British colony in 
Africa with an unofficial majority of Africans. An African was appointed 
president of the legislative council in 1949. 

Attached to the Gold Coast are Ashanti and the Northern Territories, 
and, for administrative and customs purposes, Togoland under United 
Kingdom trusteeship. 

The West African Council, of which the West African Governors are 
members, has its seat on the Gold Coast. 

Area and Population. The area of the colony, Ashanti, Northern 
Territories and Togoland under U.K. trusteeship is 91,843 square miles; 
population (census, 1948), 4,095,276, including 6,773 non-Africans. Chief 
towns (population, census, 1948): Accra, 135,456; Kumasi, 70,705; 
Sekondi-Takoradi, 44,130; Cape Coast, 23,061; Koforidua, 17,715; 
Tamale, 17,372; Winneba, 15,920; Obuasi, 15,833; Keta, 11,373; Tarkwa, 
7,649; Bibiani, 7,189; Ho, 5,818. 

Education. In the colony, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and 
Togoland under United Kingdom trusteeship there were in 1948-49 21 
government schools and 646 assisted schools (including 10 secondary schools 
and 20 training colleges). Of the latter, 63 are native authority schools 
and 5 are managed by undenominational bodies ; the remainder are under 
the management of Churches and Missions and the Prince of Wales School, 
Achimota and the Achimota Training College Councils. There is also a 
government technical school. Of the 3 former middle boarding schools 
which were taken over by the military authorities for the duration of 
hostilities, 2 have been re-organized as government trade training centres. 
There are in addition 2,426 non-assisted schools, including 852 designated 
schools, most of which are supported by the various religious bodies. 
Government expenditure from colonial revenue on education in 1948-49 
(excluding Achimota) was 960,220. 

The total enrolment of the several institutions, excluding the com- 
mercial institutions, was 292,681 (222,897 boys and men and 69,684 girls 
and women); of this number 100,264 (71,333 boys and men and 28,931 
girls and women) were in government assisted institutions, including 
1,500 teachers in training, of whom 1,087 were men and 413 were 
women. 

In 1949, there were 19 cinemas with a seating capacity of 9,200. 

Police Force. The establishment of the police force, which IB distributed 
throughout the Gold Coast Colony, Ashanti and Togoland under United 
Kingdom trusteeship, was (1949) 73 police officers, 1 European bandmaster, 
80 inspectors and sub-inspectors and 3,581 other ranks. Of these, 2 Euro- 
pean police officers, 2 African inspectors and 268 other ranks are normally 
stationed in the Northern Territories. Convictions (1948-49), 20,844 
persons, excluding 13,127 persons convicted summarily for motor traffic 
offences. 

Medical Service. There are 18 hospitals, 15 dispensaries and 5 native 
administration dispensaries in the colony. Medical officers are stationed 
in all important centres. 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA 
Revenue and Expenditure (for the year ending 31 March) :- 



315 





1944-45 


1946-46 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1948-49 


Revenue 
Expenditure . 



8,032,532 
6,696,196 



9,327,771 
7,309,333 




9,860,177 
8,009,655 



12,265,589 
12,531,171 



14,294,981 
13,366,688 



Chief items of revenue, 1948-19 : Customs and excise, 5,616,838; 
direct taxation, 3,046,460 ; licences, 356,849 ; fees of court, etc., 864,497 ; 
posts and telegraphs, 385,805 ; rents of government lands, etc., 89 7 896 ; 
interest and loan repayments, 501,046; colonial development and welfare, 
219,720; railway, 2,253,857; Takoradi harbour, 401,800. 

Chief items of expenditure, 1948-49 : Agriculture, 435,306; customs, 
772,280; education, 822,580 (includes 32,000 endowment, 27,500 for 
Achimota School; 17,500 for Achimota Teachers' Training College, and 
1,000 for conservation of Achimota grounds); electrical department, 
351,702; forestry, 123,205; medical, 802,623; military, 499,993; 
pensions and gratuities, 501,340; police, 403,428; political admini- 
stration, 178,422; posts and telegraphs, 422,964; prisons, 154,197; 
public debt charges, 440,396 ; public works department, 400,672 ; public 
works annually recurrent, 789,090; transport, 126,998, Extraordinary, 
1,238,096; development, 1,308,901; railway, 1,718,220; Takoradi 
harbour, 160,664. 

Public debt, 31 March, 1949, 8,410,000. Colony's general revenue 
balance account, 5,093,159; reserve fund, 1,500,000. Sinking fund for 
the amortization of the funded debt of the colony, 1,934,486. 

Industry. The Gold Coast Industrial Development Corporation was 
established in May, 1948, with an authorised capital of 100,000. The 
corporation is managed and controlled by a board of directors composed of 
Africans and Europeans. Its primary purpose is to establish industries 
based on subsidiary agricultural products of the country, to explore the 
possibilities of other industries, and to give financial assistance to individuals 
and craftsmen who have the knowledge and technical ability but lack the 
capital. The corporation will not retain control over businesses any longer 
than is necessary to establish these. The corporation is not a bank and 
does not advance money to increase purchasing power or establish internal 
trade. 

Electricity produced in 1948 was 19,499,945 kwh. (16,933,633 kwh. in 
1947). 

Trade. In 1948, the imports amounted to 42,239,847 and the exports 
to 33,842,315. The principal imports were : Cotton goods, 62,323,803 
square yards, valued at 6,710,573; oils, 37,821,552 gallons (1,633,740); 
machinery and iron and steel manufactures, 3,629,112; tobacco, 2,378,478 
Ib. (670,186). The principal exports were : Cocoa, 214,302 tons 
(20,327,048); gold, 670,645 fine oz. (5,754,021); manganese ore, 629,973 
dry tons (2,698,706); timber (unmanufactured). 7,094,671 cubic feet 
(2,453,403). 

Imports (1948) valued at 29,682,017 came from the United Kingdom, 
755,360 from Dutch West Indies, 899,750 from Belgium, 1,750,573 
from Netherlands, 624,981 from India, 392,710 from Italy, 1,188,782 
from Germany, 628,762 from Canada, 556,566 from Czechoslovakia, 
and 2,166,393 from the U.S.A. Exports to the value of 13,862,568 were 



316 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

sent to the United Kingdom, 9,511,953 to the U.S.A., 930,713 to Canada, 
736,861 to Australia, 650,146 to Norway, 868,830 to Netherlands, and 
1,022,883 to the Soviet Union. 

Exports to the United Kingdom, 1949, 17,322,284; 1948, 15,796,267; 
imports from United Kingdom, 1949, 24,804,930; 1948, 17,014,855; re- 
exports, 1949, 140,088; 1948, 87,415 (Board of Trade returns for Gold 
Coast and Togoland). 

The shipping entered and cleared in the foreign trade in 1948 was 
5,562,422 tons, of which 3,583,287 tons were British. The harbour of 
Takoradi, opened in March, 1928, and appointed as a port on 3 December, 
1928, is the only complete shelter for ships of over 30 ft. draught between 
Sierra Leone and Nigeria. 

Communications. Railway communication consists of a main line 
running from Takoradi to Kumasi thence to Accra, a distance of 366 milea 
with branches. Takoradi Junction to Sekondi (3 miles), Tarkwa to Prestea 
(18 miles), Aboso to Cinnamon Bippo (4 miles), Huni Valley to Kade (99 
miles) and Dunkwa to Awaso (46 miles). The main line and branches are 
3 ft. 6 in. gauge. The railway gross earnings for the year 1948-49 were 
2,253,857, and the working expenditure including provision for renewals 
(199,591) and pensions was 1,694,596. The total number of miles open 
for traffic on 31 March, 1949, was 536, and the capital cost 9,093,947. 

Total mileage of roads all classes in the colony is 8,022, made up as 
follows: All weather roads, maintained by P.W.D., 2,714 miles; roads, 
occasionally closed to traffic in wet weather, maintained by political 
administration, 3,385 miles ; pioneer roads, closed to traffic in wet weather, 
maintained by native administrations and timber companies, 3,000 miles. 

There were in the colony (31 March, 1949), 4,949 milea of telegraph 
land *wire, 12,732 miles of telephone trunks, 380 offices, and there are 201 
telephone exchanges and call offices with 5,864 telephones in use, and 
7,663 miles of underground and overhead land wire in the exchange areas. 
The telephone trunk system connects up all the main towns in the colony. 
There are internal wireless stations at Accra, Kumasi, Enchi, Wiawso, 
Bawku, Lawra, Kete-Krachi, Tamale and Yendi. 

In 1948-49 the savings bank had 277,628 depositors with 3,870,926 to 
their credit. The Bank of British West Africa, Ltd. and Barclays Bank 
(Dominion, Colonial & Overseas) operate in the colony and Ashanti. For 
currency, see under NIGERIA, p. 311, 

Ashanti was placed under British protection on 27 August, 1896, and 
an Order of the King in Council, dated 26 September, 1901, defined the 
boundaries of Ashanti and annexed it to His Majesty's Dominions, and 
provided for its administration under the Governor of the Gold Coast Colony. 
By a subsequent Order in Council, dated 22 October, 1906, the boundaries 
between the Gold Coast Colony and Ashanti, and between Ashanti and the 
protectorate of the Northern Territories, were readjusted and denned, with 
due regard to tribal land and natural features. By a further Order in 
Council (9 November) of 1934, the limits of Ashanti were further defined, 
and the Governor vested with full power for its administration, the making of 
laws and the appointment of a Chief Commissioner, Judges, Commissioners, 
Justices of the Peace and other necessary officers therefor. By the same 
Order Ashanti was brought under the constitution, and by Additional 
Instructions, dated 23 November, 1934, the Chief Commissioner was made 
a member of tile executive council of the Gold Coast. Sections 5-17 of 
this 'Order in Council, defining, the ^powers ,of the Governor as regards 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA 317 

Ashanti, have been revoked by the Gold Coast Colony and Ashanti (Legisla- 
tive Council) Order in Council 1946, which provides for the constitution 
and powers of a legislative council for the Gold Coast Colony and Ashanti 
in which four Ashanti members represent the peoples of Ashanti. By 
Letters Patent dated 7 March, 1946, the Governor's powers regarding 
the administration of the Gold Coast Colony and Ashanti are also 
defined. 

Ashanti is administered by a Chief Commissioner, acting on behalf of 
the Governor, with an Assistant Chief Commissioner as relieving officer, 
and a staff of 21 administrative officers. In Jan., 1935, the Confederation 
of Ashanti, which was broken up and had remained inoperative for 35 years, 
was re-established with Otunfuo Sir Osei Agyemen Prempeh II, K.B.E., a 
nephew of the late Nana Prempeh, at its head. 

The area is 24,379 square miles, with a population (census of 1948) of 
818,944 (including non-Africans, 1,162). Kumasi, the chief town, has 
78,483 inhabitants. In 1948-49 there were 1,671 children in the govern- 
ment schools and 74,167 in the mission and church schools. There are 
3 hospitals, 8 dispensaries and 3 native administration dispensaries. 
Medical officers are stationed in Kumasi and Sunyani. 

The southern half of the dependency is within the rich, high forest zone, 
which produces timber and cocoa, and has gold mines. 7,500 square miles, 
or nearly two-thirds of the area, still bear dense forests, in which mahogany 
and other huge and valuable timber trees are found. In accessible parts 
there is a lively logging industry, mainly for export. Tho forests are being 
steadily cleared to make further land available for cultivation, but in the 
west great blocks are still amost untouched. Forest reservation is just 
under 2,200 square miles, mostly of protection forest. The principal agri- 
cultural exports of Ashanti are cocoa and cereals. Approximately 100,000 
tons of cocoa are exported annually to the United Kingdom and several 
hundred tons per year of maize and groundnuts are sent to the big consumer 
centres in the south. The amount of cereals, etc., exported varies. Rice 
cultivation is increasing; about 4,500 tons of paddy are now produced 
annually. 

The Northern Territories lying to the north of the parallel of 8 N. 
lat., bounded on the west and north by the French possessions and on the 
east by Togoland, were placed under British protection in 1901. They 
are administered, under the Governor, by a Chief Commissioner, an 
Assistant Chief Commissioner and 26 administrative officers. The country 
is divided into 6 districts : Mamprusi, Dagomba, Gonja, Wa, Lawra Tumu 
and Krachi, with the headquarters of the protectorate at Tamale, 237 miles 
north of Kumasi. Population (census, 1948), 1,076,696, including Togo- 
land; non- Africans, 214. Chief towns, Tamale, 16,164; Wa, 5,163; 
Salaga, 3,158; Kete-Krachi, 2,022; Gambaga, 1,974. Area of the pro- 
tectorate, 30,486 square miles. The Moslems have substantial mosques; 
there are Koman Catholic and other missions. For the purposes of 
education tho Northern Territories are regarded as a part of the Gold 
Coast underh te administration of the Director of Education, but having 
a separate Ordinance and Rules. At Tamale there is a government senior 
boys' boarding school which admits selected pupils from the native authority 
schools at Gambaga, Kpembe (Salaga), Wa, Bawku, Lawra, Sandema, Yendi, 
Yeji, Krachi, Chiana and Zuarungu. There is also a similar girls' school at 
Tamale. There are also a few Mission schools. The number of pupils in 
Northern Territories at the end of 1948 was 3,970. In 1949, there were 67 
students in training at the Government Teachers' Training College. There 



318 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

are 8 hospitals and 15 dispensaries. Medical officers are stationed at Tamale, 
Bawku, Navrongo and Wa. 

There are 2,818 miles of permanent motorable roads in the dry season. 
The chief crops grown are yams, guinea corn, millet, maize, rice and tobacco. 
Live-stock, 1947: Cattle, 300,000; sheep and goats, 465,000; donkeys, 
16,000; horses, 6,000; pigs, 1,500. The Department of Animal Health 
has its headquarters in Accra, with veterinary stations at Nungwa in the 
Accra Plains and at Pong-Tamale in the Northern Territories. The Pong- 
Tamale station trains Africans in veterinary work and animal husbandry; 
but its primary purpose is the production of anti-rinderpest and contagious 
bovine pletiro-pneumonia sera and vaccines, which have successfully 
controlled the two main killing diseases of cattle and have nearly trebled 
the cattle in the last 10 years. Twenty-two native administration livestock 
farms are established throughout the Territory for the development of 
the livestock industry. The control of imported livestock is effected by five 
quarantine stations on the frontier. By 1947 there were over 200 farmers 
in the Northern Territories who had adopted mixed farming methods with 
bullock cultivation. Anti-erosion measures also figure in the development 
plans of the Department of Agriculture. Gold-bearing quartz and alluvial 
deposits, and mica, exist. 

Governor of the Gold Coast. Sir Charles N. Arden-Clarke, K.C.M.G. 

Colonial Secretary of the Gold Coast. R. H. Saloway, C.I.E., O.B.E. 
(appointed 12 Jan., 1950). 

Chief Commissioner, Colony. Sir Thorlief R. 0. Mangin, C.M.G. 

Chief Commissioner of Ashanti. Major C. O. Butler, C.M.G., E.D. 

Chief Commissioner of the Northern Territories. E. Norton Jones, 
O.B.E. 



SIERRA LEONE 

The colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession, in 1788, 
by a native king to English settlers, of a piece of land intended as a home 
for natives of Africa who were waifs in London, and later it was used as 
a settlement for Africans rescued from slave-ships. The present combined 
colony and protectorate are bounded on the north-west, north and north- 
east by French Guinea, on the south-east by Liberia and on the south-west 
by the Atlantic Ocean. The colony, including those portions administered 
as protectorate, lies along the coast, extending from the boundary of French 
Guinea to the north of the mouth of the Scarcies River to the boundary 
of Liberia at the mouth of the Mano River, an approximate distance of 210 
miles. Inland it extends to a distance varying from J to 20 miles and 
includes the Yelibuya and other islands towards the north, as well as 
Sherbro and several smaller islands to the south, but the Isles de Los were 
ceded to France under the convention of 1904. Sierra Leone proper consists 
of a peninsula about 28 miles long and 9 miles wide of which Cape Sierra 
Leone is the north-west point. 

There are a nominated executive council and a partly nominated, partly 
elected legislative council, both common to the colony and the protectorate. 
Under the new constitution of 30 July, 1948, the legislative council consists 
of 7 elected members for the colony, 13 elected and 1 nominated members for 
the protectorate, 2 nominated members with experience of public affairs and 
a knowledge of economic conditions who may be either European or African ; 
and 7 official members. Elected members must be 25 years of age; they 
hoto their e^ats for 5 years. The frfentshifce is Confined to males. 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA 



319 



Area and population. The area is about 2,500 square miles. Those 
portions which are administered strictly as colony (viz. the Sierra Leono 
Peninsula, Tasso Island, Banana Islands, the township of Bonthe on Sherbro 
Island and York Island) cover approximately 271 square miles; population 
(estimated 1949), 124,000. Europeans numbered 964; Asiatics, 2,074. 
Chief town, Freetown, 86,000 inhabitants (Feb., 1944). 

Education. In the colony area there were, in 1948, 52 primary schools 
belonging to Christian bodies, 3 to Moslem organizations and government 
primary schools. In all these schools teachers' salaries, equipment and 
materials are provided from public funds. The average attendance in 
these 57 schools and in the primary classes attached to secondary schools 
was 7,546. Salaries paid to African teachers in assisted schools, including 
grants to 5 European teachers at Roman Catholic schools, amounted to 
23,262. There were 1 government and 8 assisted secondary schools (5 
for boys and 4 for girls) with an average attendance of 1,374. Besides 
these there were 20 unassisted primary schools with an average attendance 
of 2,806, and 1 unassisted secondary school with an average attendance of 70, 

Fourah Bay College, an institution of which the Church Missionary 
Society is the proprietor, is affiliated to the University of Durham and pro- 
vides courses in theology and arts and a training course for primary teachers. 

Police. Police force at end of Sept., 1949, had an authorized strength of 
20 officers (European and African) and 530 other ranks. In 1948, 199 
persons were convicted in the Supreme Court. 



Finance 


1942 


1943 


1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Revenue * 
Expenditure l 
Imports 
Exports 



1,478,163 
1,340,418 
4,954,774 
1,346,398 




1,747,838 
1,688,008 
6,227,100 
1,022,228 



1,656,829 
1,677,184 
5,484,203 
1,497,147 



1,825,750 
1,886,771 
3,718,162 
1,786,912 



2,195,474 
1,833,483 
3,961,884 
2,139,624 




2,109,638 
2,119,823 
4,586,922 
2,801,727 



2,648,983 
2,172,031 
4,979,350 
4,164,566 



1 Excluding railway revenue and expenditure. 

The revenue in 1948 from customs was 1,039,025 (gross) ; fees, payment 
for services, etc., 165,853; post office, 63,177; harbour and light dues, 
17,721 (gross) ; taxes, 992,342. 

Net public debt, 31 Dec., 1948, 1,418,841. 

Principal imports, 1948 : Beer and ale, stout and porter, 180,711 
gallons, 69,435; flour (wheaten), 36,969 cwt., 90,937 ; animals and birds 
(living) for food, 11,054, 47,207 ; milk (all kinds), 4,476 cwt., 32,743 ; salt, 
all kinds, 83,263 cwt., 44,997; spirits, potable, 22,302 gallons, 36,441; 
sugar, 27,375 cwt., 62,881; tobacco (unmanufactured), 1,173,254 lb., 
135,117; tobacco (manufactured), 198,190 lb., 93,275; wines, 86,643 
gallons, 43,484; coal, 69,455 tons, 337,585; apparel (all kinds), 
225,018; bags and sacks (empty), not including paper bags, 1,067,836, 
105,221; cotton manufactures, 1,283,325; artificial silk manufactures, 
167,819 lb, 104,359; woollen and worsted manufactures, 59,963; 
machinery, mining and gold dredging, 94,610; metals, iron and steel 
manufactures, other kinds not elsewhere specified, 127,642 ; motor vehicles, 
378,156,965; cement, 12,830 tons, 83,443; matches, 42, 114 gross of boxes, 
15,413; medicines and drugs, 60,686; petroleum oils, 3,688,071 gallons, 
208,049; soap, all kinds, 7,538 cwt., 36,870. ; 

Principal exports, 1948 :- Kola nuts, l,84Jl tons, 166,633; ginger, 1,319 
tons, 73,682; ..piapsava, 2J60 ,^,,##8^6; diamonds, 4ql,68$,<urats; 



320 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

iron ore, 869,238; chrome ore, 8,411 tons, 42,655; palm kernels, 66,431 
tons, 1,744,591; palm oil, 2,214 tons, 116,364; groundnuts, 891 tons, 
26,597. 

Imports (Board of Trade returns) from United Kingdom in 1938, 
1,076,299; 1948, 3,417,550; 1949, 3,447,917. Exports thereto, 1938, 
564,436; 1948, 5,181,288; 1949, 6,844,070. 

Communications. The only civil airport is at Lungi near Freetown. 
West African Airways Corporation provide a twice-weekly in tor- colonial 
service connecting Sierra Leone with the other British West African colonies, 
Liberia and Dakar. Air France aircraft flying from Dakar to the French 
Cameroons call once a week in each direction. 

A government railway, a single line of 2 ft. 6 in. gauge, is open from 
Freetown to Pendembu, near the Liberian frontier, a length of 227^ miles. 
From Bauya Junction, 64J miles from Freetown, a branch line runs to 
Makeni, a distance of 83 miles. Total line open, 1947, was 336 miles, 
including sidings. Total receipts, 1948, 410,635; gross expenditure, 
416,401. There were (1948) 1,638 miles of railway telegraph and tele- 
phone wires, excluding post office telephones. There are 75 post offices and 
postal agencies. At the end of 1948 there were 37,770 depositors in the 
savings bank, with 887,438 (inclusive of interest) to their credit. 

Money and Banking. The West African Currency Board, London, 
which was established in 1913, is responsible for providing the currency in 
the colony. At 31 Dec., 1948, West African Currency Board notes in 
circulation were estimated at 563,990 and com at 1,249,421. A small 
amount of British silver coins still circulates. Bank of England notes are 
not legal tender. West African silver coins, which were replaced by alloy 
corns in 1920, have almost completely been withdrawn from circulation and 
the latter replaced by a new form of alloy ' security-edge ' coinage intro- 
duced in 1939. The Bank of British West Africa and Barclays Bank 
(D., C. & O.) have their headquarters at Freetown. 

The Protectorate. On 31 August, 1896, a proclamation was issued 
declaring a protectorate over the hinterland of Sierra Leone. The area 
of the protectorate is approximately 27,669 square miles and, according to 
the 1931 census, it has a population of 1,672,000. An enumeration census 
in 1948 indicated a population of 1,734,000. It is bounded on the north and 
the east by French Guinea, and on the south-east by Liberia. 

The Governor and Commander-in-Chief for the time being of the colony 
is also governor of the protectorate. The protectorate is administered by 
a chief commissioner, responsible to the Governor. The territory is divided 
into 3 provinces, each administered by a provincial commissioner. These 
are subdivided into 12 districts. 

The legislative council of the colony and protectorate legislates for the 
protectorate. Protectorate interests are represented by 3 nominated para- 
mount chiefs. In addition, there is the protectorate assembly, which was 
convened for the first time on 23 July, 1946. It is under the chairmanship 
of the chief commissioner and is the recognized body empowered to advise 
government on matters relating to the political, social and economic develop- 
ment of the peoples of the protectorate, and contains elected and nominated 
members. The former consists of two persons elected by and from each of 
the 12 district councils. The latter represent various interests such as 
commerce, missions, trade unions, etc., together with a number of officials. 

There are 192 chiefdom courts, each presided over by the paramount 
chief -of the chiefdom and empowered to hear and determine all native 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA 321 

disputes not involving serious crime. There are 12 magistrates' courts 
presided over by the district commissioners. Magistrates' courts are 
subordinate to the Supreme Court which sits at the different district head- 
quarters as and when required. 

The chief articles of imports are coal, cotton and artificial silk goods, 
flour, beer, wines and potable spirits, tobacco and petroleum oils. The 
chief agricultural exports are palm kernels, kola nuts, piassava, cocoa, 
coffee and ginger. Minerals comprise more than half of the value of the 
exports, diamonds and iron being mined in considerable quantities. Two 
iron ore deposits are known, the major one of which has yet to be worked. 
Deposits of chromite near Hangha on the Government railway are also 
worked. There is a small production of alluvial gold and platinum. In 
1948 government maintained 1 secondary school witn an average attendance 
of 156 and 4 primary schools with average attendance of 358. There were 
also 19 native administration and 153 other non-government schools, 
conducted by various missionary societies. Of these, 90 received grants 
amounting to 23,035. The total enrolment was 15,327, representing 
4-54% of the children of school age. There were 3 teachers' training insti- 
tutions, one conducted by government, one by the Roman Catholic Mission 
and one by the Protestant Missions, with an aggregate roll of 151. 

Governor. Sir G. Beresford Stooke, K.C.M.G. (appointed Sept., 1947). 
Colonial Secretary. R. 0. Ramage, C.M.G. 

Books of Reference. 

GAMBIA, GOLD COAST, ASHANTI AND SIERRA LEONE. 

British West Africa : Overseas Economic Survey, Feb., 1940. H.M.8.O., 1949. 

The Gambia Colony and Protectorate. An Official Handbook. London. 

Annual Report on Gambia, 1948. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Annual Eeport on Gold Coast, 1947. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Coast Gold Handbook. London. Annual. 

Disturbances in the Gold Coast, 1948. (Colonial No. 231, 232.) H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Gold Coast Constitutional Beform. Col. 248, 250. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Annual Eeport on Sierra Leone, 1948. H.M.S.O., 1940. 

An Outline of the Ten-year Plan for the Development of Sierra Leone. Freetown, 1946. 

Bums (Sir A.), Colonial Civil Servant. London, 1949. 

Butt-Thompson (Capt. F. W.), Sierra Leone in History and Tradition. London, 1926. 

Cardinall (A. W.), The Natives of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast. London, 
1920. 

Carey (J.), Britain and West Africa. London, 1946. 

Dangudh (J. B.), Akan Laws and Customs. London, 1928. 

Davey (T. H.), Trypanosomiasis in British West Africa. H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Fuller (Sir Francis 0.), A Vanished Dynasty Ashanti. London, 1920. 

Ooddard (T. N.), Handbook of Sierra Leone. London, 1925. 

Gray (J. M.), A History of the Gambia. London, 1940. 

Hardinge (B.), Gambia and Beyond. London, 1984. 

Jones (G. H.), The Earth Goddess : A Study of Native Farming on the West African 
Coast. London, 1936. 

Luke (H. 0.), A Bibliography of Sierra Leone. Oxford, 1925. 

Martin (B. O.), British West African Settlements. A Study in Local Administration. 
London, 1927. 

McPhee (Allan), The Economic Eevolution in British West Africa. London, 1927. 

Meek (0. K.), Macmillan (W. M.) and Hussey (B. B. L.), Europe and West Africa: 
Some Problems and Adjustments. London, 1940. 

Migeod (F. W. H.), A View of Sierra Leone. London, 1926. 

Nash (T. A. M.), Tsetse Flies in British West Africa. H.M.S.O., 1948. 

Rattray (E. S.), Ashanti. London, 1924. Ashanti Law and Constitution. London, 
1929. The Tribes of the Ashanti Hinterland, Oxford, 1932. 

Redmaync (Paul), The Gold Coast, Yesterday and To-day. London, 1988. 

Utting (F. A. J.), The Story of Sierra Leone, London, 1931. 

Ward (W. B. F.), A History of the Gold Coast. London, 1949. 

Welman (0. W.), The Native States of the Gold Ooast. London, 1930. 

Wight (M.), The Gold Ooast Legislative Council. London, 1947. 
M 



322 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



TERRITORIES UNDER TRUSTEESHIP. 
CAMEROONS. 

The Cameroons, lying between British Nigeria and the French Equatorial 
Africa, marches with the eastern boundary of Nigeria north-eastwards from 
the coast to Lake Chad. It was captured from the Germans in February, 
1916, and was divided between the British and French under a declaration 
signed at London 10 July, 1919. The British portion is a strip stretching 
the whole length, save for one short break, of the Nigerian boundary. Area 
34,081 square miles and population estimated at 1,027,100 (1948). Bantu 
negroes live near the coast, Sudan negroes inland. The country is adminis- 
tered under a trusteeship agreement which has superseded the mandate 
conferred on 20 July, 1922, containing provisions directed against slavery, 
forced labour (except for essential public services) and abuses of the traffic 
in arms and spirituous liquors. The northern part is attached to the 
provinces of Bornu, Benue and Adamawa in Nigeria, and the southern part, 
Cameroons and Bamenda Provinces, to the Eastern Provinces of Nigeria. 
There were, in 1948, 276 schools including 270 primary and 1 secondary 
school, 1 industrial, and 4 teachers' training institutions financed by the 
Central Government, the Local Authorities and the Voluntary Agencies. 

There are graduated direct taxes for natives and Europeans. The 
revenue and expenditure are incorporated in the accounts for Nigeria. 
Government revenue for 1946-47, 240,870 (including customs, 66,000; 
direct taxes, 40,870); expenditure, 471,450 (including administration, 
171,200; economic, 226,950; social, 73,300). Estimates, 1947-48 :- 
Revenue, 272,800 (including customs and excise, 87,270; direct taxes, 
52,500); expenditure, 541,080 (including administration, 182,130; 
economic, 266,510; social, 92,440). 

The soil in the coast region is fertile, and this area is heavily forested. Near 
the coast are a number of plantations controlled by European firms. Their 
chief products are palm oil, palm kernels, cocoa, rubber and bananas. 





1942 


1943 


1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Imports. 
Exports. 



49,968 
145,184 




45,578 
188,625 



60,566 
245,327 



53,357 
282,476 



112,729 
317,321 



144,938 
400,352 




397,192 
658,609 


Chief exports : 
Bananas (fresh) 
Palm kernels 
Cocoa 
Eubber 


Tons 

260 



Tons 
84 


Tons 

1,090 
652 


Tons 

925 
743 


Tons 
4,583 
601 
1,697 


Tons 
19,882 
911 
1,107 
1,439 


Tons 
2,500 
649 
1,467 
1,220 



Chief imports : Textiles, salt, cement, paints and colours, iron and 
steel manufactures, and machinery. 
Vessels entered : 





Number 


Tonnage 


Port 








1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Victoria 


48 


32 


48 


76 


67,381 


43,269 


75,582 


126,103 


Tiko . 


88 


83 


97 


48 


1,136 


2,956 


1,681 


38,602 



Vessels cleared, 1948, 42 of 57,596 tons at Victoria, and 81 of 123,515 
tons at Tiko. 



CONDOMINIUM : ANGLO -EGYPTIAN SUDAN 323 

The currency is British, similar to that in use in Nigeria. There is a 
branch of Barclays Bank (D., C. & O.) at Victoria. 

Administrator of British Zone. The Governor of Nigeria. 

Books of Reference. 

Keport on the Administration of the Cameroons under United Kingdom Trusteeship for 
the year 1948. (Colonial No. 244). H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Calvert (A. F.), The Cameroons. London, 1917. 

Escherich (G.), Kamerun. Berlin, 1938. 

Kuczynski (E. K.), The Oameroons and Togoland. London, 1939. 

Labouret (H.), Le Cameroon. Paris, 1937. 

Mansfeld (A.), Westafrica aus Urwald und Steppe Zwischen- Crossfluss und Benue. 
Munich, 1928. 

Meek (0. K.), Tribal Studies in Northern Nigeria. 2 vols. London, 1931. 

Migeod (P. W. H.), Through British Cameroons. London, 1925. 

Reynolds (A. J.), From the Ivory Coast to the Cameroons. London, 1929. 



TOGOLAND. 

Togoland, between the Gold Coast Colony on the west and French 
Dahomey on the east, was surrendered unconditionally by the Germans to 
British and French forces in August, 1914. On 30 September, 1920, the 
country was divided between France and Britain in accordance with the 
Franco-British declaration of 10 July, 1919. The boundary between the 
two spheres extends from the north-west corner in a general direction 
south-east and south, terminating not far from the port of Lome, but so that 
no part of the British sphere reaches the coast. (See map in THE STATESMAN'S 
YEAB-BOOK, 1920.) The area allotted to Great Britain is 13,041 square 
miles, and for administrative purposes it is attached to adjacent provinces 
and districts of the Gold Coast Colony and Northern Territories. The 
population (census, 1948) was 382,717. 

For purposes of education, Togoland under United Kingdom trusteeship 
is considered as part of the Gold Coast. 

Medical officers are stationed at Ho and Hohoo. 

The revenue and expenditure and imports and exports of the area are 
included in the figures for the Gold Coast. Expenditure still greatly exceeds 
revenue. 

The principal imports are cotton goods, salt and tobacco. The principal 
export is cocoa. There are also minor inter- West African exports of raw 
cotton, coffee, kola nuts and native foodstuffs; and cottage industries 
manufacturing mats, cloths, soap and pottery. Tobacco is a very popular 
cash crop in some districts and rice has also become established as an 
economic crop in others. 

Administrator of British Area. The Governor of the Gold Coast. 

Books of Reference. 

Report on the Administration of Togoland, 1948. (Colonial No. 243.) H.M.S.O., 1949. 
Trierenberg (G.), Togo. Berlin, 1914. 



CONDOMINIUM. 
ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN. 

Government. 

The rule of Egypt in the Sudan, after having gradually extended during 
the course of 60 years, was interrupted in 1882 by the revolt of the Mahdi, 
who, with his successor, the Khalifa, held the country from 1885 for about 13 



324 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIBE 

years under a desolating tyranny. In 1896 an Anglo-Egyptian army com- 
menced operations for the recovery of the lost provinces, and on 2 September, 
1898, the overthrow of the Khalifa was completed at the battle of Omdur- 
man. In November, 1899, he was finally defeated and killed by General 
Wingate's forces near Gedid. 

A convention between the British and Egyptian Governments, signed at 
Cairo, 19 January, 1899, provides for the administration of the territory 
south of the 22nd parallel of latitude by a Governor- General, appointed by 
Egypt with the assent of Great Britain, and declares the general principles in 
accordance with which the administration shall be carried on. This status 
of the Sudan as a Condominium on the above lines was re-affirmed in the 
Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The British and Egyptian flags shall 
be used together; no duties shall be levied on imports from Egypt, and 
duties on imports from other countries, via the Red Sea, shall not exceed 
those levied in Egypt ; the import and export of slaves is prohibited, and 
special attention shall be paid to the Brussels Act of 1890 respecting the 
import and export of arms, ammunition and spirits. 

The Sudan is divided into nine provinces under Governors who may 
be advised on matters concerning the internal administration of their 
province by statutory councils consisting chiefly of Sudanese. Adminis- 
tration is carried out through District Commissioners, one or more of whom 
are appointed to each of the 46 districts into which the provinces are sub- 
divided. Sudanese administrative officers are employed as or under the 
District Commissioners. Local administration is now largely in the hands of 
statutory local government authorities, which in tribal areas are the sheikhs 
and chiefs, and in urban or advanced rural district are councils. The 
number of formally constituted councils in 1948 was 16 urban, 18 rural and 
17 (all rural) not yet formally constituted. Courts of sheikhs and chiefs have 
varying powers of limited jurisdiction over their territories in accordance 
with native custom throughout the country. 

In 1910 a Governor- General's council was created to assist the Governor- 
General in the discharge of his executive and legislative powers. This 
council ceased to exist on 20 Dec., 1948. 

In 1944 an advisory council for the Northern Sudan was constituted. 

On 20 Dec., 1948, the Governor- General in Council established a Legis- 
lative Assembly, of 10 nominated and 65 elected members, and an Executive 
Council, at least half of which must be composed of Sudanese. 

The first elections for the Legislative Assembly took place on 15 Nov., 
1948. The Independence Front secured a large majority; the National 
Front, which favours union with Egypt, boycotted the elections. 

Area and Population. 

Extending southwards from the frontier of Egypt to Uganda and the 
Belgian Congo (approximately N. lat. 5), a distance of about 1,650 miles 
and stretching from the Red Sea to the confines of Wadai in Central Africa, 
the territory has an area of 967,500 square miles. The population of the 
Sudan in 1948 was estimated at 8,053,669, including 1,994,216 men, 2,413,245 
women, 3,605,832 children ; non-natives, included in these figures, numbered 
40,376. (As so great a proportion of the people are nomads, the numbers 
are difficult to assess with any degree of accuracy, and the figures of the 
native population must be taken as approximations only.) The Eritrea- 
Sudan frontier and the frontier with French Equatorial Africa have been 
delimited and demarcated, as also has the greater part of the frontier with 
Abyssinia. 



CONDOMINIUM I ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN 



325 



Area and population of provinces, with inhabitants of provincial 
capitals, are as follows : 



Province 


Area (sq. miles) 


Population 


Capital 


Inhabitants 


Bahr el Qhazal l 


82,630 


714,500 


Wau 


6,000 


Blue Nile 


54,775 


1,466,400 


Wad Medanl 


66,600 


Darfur 


138,150 


882,800 


el Fasher 


22,000 


Equatoria l 


76,495 


690,900 


Juba 


10,000 


Kassala 


134,450 


676,000 


Kassala 


80,000 


Khartoum 


6,700 


333,000 


Khartoum 


61,800 


Kordofan 


146,930 


1,618,900 


el Obeid 


65,800 


Northern 


236,200 


666,300 


ed Darner 


6,500 


Upper Nile 


92,270 


711,500 


Malakal 


9,500 



1 Bahr el Ghazal was amalgamated with Mongalla in 1935 to form Equatoria, and again 
separated in 1948. 

Other important towns are : Omdurman (the old Dervish capital), 
population, 117,650; Port Sudan (47,000), Khartoum North (30,850), 
Atbara (42,000). The capital is Khartoum. 

The population of the northern provinces is Arabicized and Moslem, 
that of the southern (Bahr el Ghazal, Equatoria and Upper Nile) Nilotic 
and Negro. 

Religion and Education. 

The population of the 6 northern provinces is almost entirely Moslem 
(Sunni), the majority of the three southern provinces is pagan. There are 
small Christian communities, with 2 Coptic bishops, a Greek Orthodox 
metropolitan, an Anglican bishop and assistant bishop, 3 Roman Catholic 
bishops and Greek Evangelical, Evangelical and Maronite congregations. 

The education system falls into two spheres, the northern and the 
southern. The former comprises the provinces of Blue Nile, Darfur, 
Kassala, Khartoum, Kordofan and Northern, and the latter the provinces 
of Bahr el Ghazal, Equatoria and Upper Nile. 

In the northern provinces education up to the secondary level is, for 
the most part, directly in the hands of the government. Higher education 
is represented by tho Gordon Memorial College, which is constitutionally 
independent of the government, and by the Kitchener School of Medicine 
Which is controlled by a special board. The College has established schools 
of arts, science, agriculture, engineering, veterinary science and administra- 
tion and law. It has been granted recognition as a University College and 
has 262 students reading for college diplomas or for external degrees of the 
University of London. The Kitchener School of Medicine has 16 students 
reading for diplomas in medicine and surgery. 

Secondary education is provided at Wadi Seidna and Hantoub schools 
for 791 boys. A third school will open at Khor Taggat in 1950. Two junior 
secondary schools provide vocational training in commerce or agriculture 
for 191 pupils and 14 intermediate schools provide a 4-year post-elementary 
course of general education for 2,255 pupils. There are 2 technical 
intermediate schools at Omdurman and El Obeid with 312 pupils and a 
Sudan Railways school at Gebeit. Some 26,074 boys attend 160 elementary 
schools. The training of elementary and intermediate schoolmasters and 
the preparation of syllabuses and textbooks are carried out at the Institute 
of Education, Bakht er Ruda, and at a subsidiary training centre at Dilling. 
The output of Bakht er Ruda and Dilling is 120 elementary and 60 inter- 



326 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

mediate schoolmasters annually. Refresher courses for serving school- 
masters and special courses for adult education officers, boys' club leaders, 
literacy officers and village welfare workers are also held. A Publications 
Bureau supervises the production of textbooks and publishes a fortnightly 
youth magazine. 

The number of girls attending schools is comparatively small but is 
increasing rapidly. A secondary section was attached to the Girls' Inter- 
mediate School, Oindurman in 1945, with, in Sept., 1949, 63 pupils. Inter- 
mediate schools in Omdurman, El Obeid and Wad Medani accommodate 
313 girls; the Girls' Training College, Omdurman, has an annual output 
of 50 schoolmistresses. A second training centre attached to the Inter- 
mediate School at Wad Medani in 1949 will tram an additional 15 domestic 
science mistresses annually. Some 9,539 girls attend 89 elementary schools. 

Sixty non-government schools are managed by independent authorities 
and in most cases subsidized by government. These schools provide varying 
levels of education for 3,578 girls and 11,213 boys. In addition, 321 sub- 
grade schools and 223 subsidized Khalwas (Koranic schools) provide educa- 
tion, below the elementary level, for 38,550 pupils. 

In the southern provinces, the missions, Roman Catholic and Protestant, 
are the main educational agents of the government. Mission schools, sub- 
sidized and inspected by the government, provide differing levels of educa- 
tion for some 20,669 pupils. Primary teacher training centres, financed by 
government but controlled by boards representing both government and 
mission, have been established at Bussere and Mundri. Three elementary 
schools at Rumbek, Aweil and Tonj with 291 pupils, one intermediate school 
at Atar with 150 pupils, a newly opened secondary school at Rumbek, and 
training centres for clerical and agricultural employees at Juba abd Yambio, 
are directly administered by government. A Publications Bureau at Juba 
produces literature suited to local requirements. 

Health and Welfare. 

The Sudan Medical Service maintains 40 hospitals, 352 dispensaries and 
120 doctors. 

Justice. 

The High Court of Justice comprises the Court of Appeal and courts of 
original jurisdiction under the general supervision of the Chief Justice. In 
addition to the Chief Justice there are 5 judges of the High Court. 

The Court of Appeal which exercises jurisdiction only on the civil side is 
constituted by 3 or more judges of the High Court sitting together and is 
usually presided over by the Chief Justice. An appeal lies of right from a 
decree of a judge of the High Court or a province judge if the relief claimed 
is more than 50. When there is no appeal as of right the Court of Appeal 
exercises wide power of revision. 

On the civil side the High Court judge, sitting singly, exercises general 
original jurisdiction. One High Court judge is stationed in each of the 
five central provinces, namely Khartoum, Northern, Kassala, Blue Nile 
and Kordofan Province. In provinces in which no judge of the High 
Court is stationed, general civil jurisdiction is exercised by a province judge. 

Subordinate to the judge of the High Court or province judge are the 
district judges of the 1st, 2nd or 3rd grade within the province in which 
he is stationed. There are 6 specially appointed district judges of the 1st 
grade, all Sudanese, and 5 specially appointed district judges of the 2nd 



CONDOMINIUM 



-ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN 



327 



grade, likewise all Sudanese, stationed in the 5 central provinces. The 
judge of the High Court or province judge exercise power of revision from 
decrees of district judges. 

Criminal justice is administered in accordance with the Sudan Penal Code 
(which is an adaptation of the Indian Penal Code) either by courts of 3 
magistrates (major or minor courts), by single magistrate or by benches of 
magistrates. Decisions of certain non-summary cases require confirmation, 
by the Governor-General in the case of major courts and by the judge of the 
High Court or the Governor in other cases. Rights of appeal to the con- 
firming authority also exist. 

On the criminal side tho judges of the High Court have each been 
appointed circuit judge over the whole or part of the province in which they 
are stationed. As circuit judges they constitute and preside over the 
major courts held within the circuit for the trial of serious crimes. 

The Moslem Law Courts administer the Moslem religious law in cases 
between Moslems relating to succession on death, marriage, divorce, and 
family relations generally, and also Moslem charitable endowments. 

Apart from the civil, criminal and sharia courts above-mentioned there 
is throughout the country a large number of native courts with various 
degrees of powers who try civil, criminal and sharia cases in accordance 
with native law and custom. The powers of the larger courts may amount 
to E100 fine and 4 years imprisonment. These courts are under the 
administrative authorities and appeal lies to the Governor or district 
commissioners. 

Defence. 

Defence is vested in the Sudan Defence Force owing allegiance to the 
Governor-General. Its commander, called the Kaid, is an ex-officio member 
of the Executive Council. 

The force consists of a number of independent corps recruited on a 
territorial basis. It is officered by British officers, seconded from the 
Regular Army, and Sudanese native officers, all of whom receive the 
Governor-General's commission. 

In addition, one British battalion, a Royal Air Force unit and one 
Egyptian Army battalion are normally stationed in the Sudan. 



Finance. 

The revenue and expenditure of the Sudan are as follows (E1 
1 0s. 6d.) : 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1943 . 
1944 . 
1945 . 


K 
5,861,944 
6,578,769 
7,763,078 


E 
6,601,790 
6,529,662 
7,548,186 


1940 . 
1947 . 
1948 . 


E 
8,288,985 
10,141,495 
12,782,346 


B 
8,207,802 
9,434,667 
11,320,352 



The main sources of revenue in 1948 were : Direct taxation (E827,739), 
royalties (E491,132), railways net profit (E400,000), agriculture and 
forests (E1,074,544), customs (E4,406,342), and posts and telegraphs 
(E596,717). 

The total external debt of the country at 31 Dec., 1948, was E 12,809,700, 
including E5,414,525 indebted to Egypt for development, etc., advances. 



328 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Production and Commerce. 

The Sudan is the chief source of the world's supply of gum arable, 
exports of which in 1947 amounted to 25,968 tons, valued at E1,390,776; 
of this, 9,908 metric tons went to Great Britain and 6,033 metric tons 
to the United States. 

Egyptian cotton has been well established, and increasing quantities, 
which "compare favourably with corresponding varieties grown in Egypt, are 
being produced annually. In the 1946-47 season the area of cotton on the 
Gezira Irrigation Scheme (put into operation in 1925) was 206,825 acres and a 
crop of 814,057 kantars of 315 Ib. seed cotton was harvested. The areas of 
cotton grown on the Gash and Baraka Deltas were 27,448 and 52,620 acres 
respectively and produced 49,602 and 95,467 kantars of 315 Ib. seed 
cotton. In addition, considerable quantities of high-grade, long-staple 
American cotton are produced in the Northern Province under irrigation, and 
as a rain crop in the Kordofan, Upper Nile and Equatorial Provinces. 
The total area under cotton in the 1948^9 season was 412,049 feddans, and 
the total crop was 1,224,932 kantars of 315 rotls seed cotton. 

Other products of the Sudan include sesame, senna leaves and pods, 
groundnuts, dates, hides and skins, mahogany, dom nuts (vegetable ivory), 
chillies, semn (ghee), melon-seed, beans, maize, trochus and mother-of- 
pearl shell, shea nuts, salt, ivory and gold. The principal grain crops 
are dura (great millet), the staple food of the people in the Sudan and 
used as cattle and poultry food outside the Sudan, and dukhn (bulrush 
millet). The cattle and sheep trade of the Sudan is capable of great 
development. 

A Rural Water Supplies and Soil Conservation Board was set up in 
Oct., 1944. 

In 1944 there were in the Sudan approximately 20,000 horses ; 500,000 
asses; 850 mules; 3,195,000 cattle; 4,808,000 sheep; 3,991,000 goats 
and 1,109,000 camels. Pigs are kept by the Nubas only about 3,500. 

The forests which line the Blue Nile River banks, rich in fibres and 
tanning material, extend to the frontier of Abyssinia. The forests of the 
Southern Sudan contain valuable trees, the mahogany and tho acacia arabica 
being the most important. The finest gum forests are in Kordofan, Blue 
Nile and Kassala. The sudd area in the upper reaches of the White Nile 
is composed of an inexhaustible quantity of papyrus. 

Gold is being successfully exploited in the Sudan, mines being worked 
at Gebeit and other places in the Red Sea Hills. Salt pans at Port Sudan 
supply the whole needs of the country, and considerable quantities of salt 
are exported annually. In 1946 the exports of salt totalled 21,101 tons. 

IMPORTS AND EXPOBTS. 



Year 


Imports l 


Exports 1 


Year 


Imports l 


Exports 


1943 . 
1944 . 
1945 . 


E 
9,201,212 
9,947,932 
10,018,613 


E 
6,016,920 
8,638.695 
10,555,878 


1946 . 

1947 . 

1948 . 


B 
11,429,543 
16,207,129 
22,153,257 


E 
9,267,144 
14,865,848 
23,665,251 



1 Including gorernment imports. 

Excluding re-exports, which were E590,718 in 1943 ; E630,301 in 1944 ; E538,702 in 
1945 ; E773,267 in 1946 ; E529,833 in 1947 ; E628,502 in 1948. Specie (E433,561 in 
1943; E309,834 in 1944; E432,993 in 1945; E455,869 in 1946; E449.603 in 1947: 
E254,881 in 1948) are also excluded. 



CONDOMINIUM : ANGLO -EGYPTIAN SUDAN 



329 



Principal items of imports and exports are shown as follows : 



Item 


1947 


1948 


Quantity 
(metric tons) 


Value 
(E) 


Quantity 
(metric tons) 


Value 
(E) 


Imports : 
Sugar 

Machinery .... 
Metals and metalware 
Gotten piece-goods . 
Tobacco, tombac, cigars and 
cigarettes .... 
Ooffee 


20,129 

6,999 

399 
9,091 
2,517 
5,218 

390 
74,960 


642,227 
598,950 
1,044,069 
3,501,706 

430,493 
807,559 
633,049 
496,793 

559,374 
409,359 
739,966 


60,557 

7,689 

440 
11,444 
1,951 
5,586 

611 

77,020 


1,950,923 
1,240,837 
1,392,800 
4,572,778 

511,452 
1,059,605 
465,956 
722,114 

797,917 
483,679 
883,280 


Tea 
Sacks 
Cotton and rayon piece-goods 
mixture .... 
Oil fuel and gas fuel 
Vehicles .... 

Total (incl. other items) . 

Exports : 
Oottpn 





16,207,129 


_ 


22,153,257 


52,589 
25,969 
89,488 


8,437,502 
1,390,776 
1,607,117 


50,118 
34,655 
90,387 


16,016,707 
1,586,351 
2,338,850 


Cottonseed .... 

Total (incl. other itnms) . 


- 


14,865,848 





23,665,261 



Principal sources of imports into the Sudan in 1948 : United Kingdom 
30-0% (1947, 24-0%); Egypt, 21-2% (21-6%); India and Pakistan>9% 
(ll-6$>); principal countries of exports from the Sudan: United King- 
dom, 61-8% (39-6%); India and Pakistan, 12-1% (21-8%); Egypt, 13-7% 
(17-9%). 

Trade with the United Kingdom (in sterling, Board of Trade returns) : 





1938 


1947 


1948 


1949 




3,367,283 


6 636 269 


16 734 845 


22 204 778 


Exports from TJ.K. 
Re-exports from U.K. 


1,185,661 
28,697 


4,094,218 
9,884 


5,413,588 
22,144 


7,813,275 
30,008 



Communications. 

The Sudan railways system runs from Wadi Haifa in the Northern 
Sudan, and from Port Sudan on the east coast via Haiya Junction to Atbara 
where the railway headquarters, workshops and stores are situated. From 
Atbara the line runs south via Khartoum and Wadi Medani to Sennar 
Junction where it is joined by a line running from Haiya Junction via 
Kassala, Gedaref and Es Suki. From Sennar Junction the line runs in a 
westerly direction via Kosti to El Obeid. There are branch lines off the 
Wadi Halfa-Atbara line to Karima, off the Port Sudan-Atbara line to 
Suakin and off the Haiya-Sennar Junction line to Tessenei in Eritrea. The 
main flow of exports and imports is to and from Port Sudan via Atbara. 
Port Sudan is a modern port with quay accommodation equipped with 
electric cranes and transporters. The total length of Une open for traffic is 
2,001 miles as at 31 Deo., 1946. The gauge is 3 ft. 6 in. 

Supplementing the railways are regular river steamer services of the 



330 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Sudan railways, between Shellal and Wadi Haifa, 210 miles (which links 
the Egyptian state and Sudan railways systems) ; from Kareima to Kerma, 
211 miles; from Khartoum to Juba, 1,090 miles; from Malakal to Meshra 
Er Rek, 235 miles, extended to Wau, 389 miles, in the flood season ; from 
Malakal to Gambeila, 353 miles (in the flood season only), and from Es 
Suki to Roseires on the Blue Nile, 131 miles. 

A motor transport service under the control of the Sudan railways, runs 
between Juba and Nimule (122 miles), and provides a regular link between 
the Kh&rtoum-Juba steamer services and the Lake Albert steamer services 

operated by the Kenya and Uganda railways and harbours. 

Sudan Airways, operating De Haviland Dove 7-seater aircraft, run 

regular services from Khartoum; weekly to Juba, calling at Malakal; 

weekly to Asmara, calling at Kassala ; weekly to El Geneina, calling at 

El Obeid and El Fasher, and twice weekly to Port Sudan, calling at Atbara. 

They also undertake charter work. 

There are 35 wireless stations (including a coast station, 7 aerogonio 
stations and 5 mobile stations), 6,384 miles of telegraph and telephone 
routes, and 32,721 miles of wire. There are 3,520 telephone subscribers. 
There are 91 post and telegraph offices and 13 travelling post offices. 

The National Bank of Egypt maintains 6 branches, Barclays Bank 

(D., C. & O.) 4 branches and the Ottoman Bank one branch in the Sudan. 

Governor-General Sir Robert G. Howe, G.B.E., K.C.M.G. (appointed 
April, 1947). 

Civil Secretary. Sir James Wilson Robertson, K.B.E. (appointed 
2 April, 1945). 

Financial Secretary. A. L. Chick. 

Legal Secretary. C. C. G. Cumings. 

Agency in London. Wellington House, Buckingham Gate, S.W.I. *> 

Books of Reference. 

Governor-General's Annual Report. London. 

Administration, Finances and Conditions of the Sudan in 1947. (Cmd. 7835.) H.M.S.O,, 
1949. 

Sudan Almanac. Annual. Khartoum. 

Aglietti (B.), II Governo di Alcunl Condomini. Florence, 1939. 

Anchieri (B.), Storia della Politica Ingleso nel Sudan (1882-1938). Milan, 1939. 

Atiyah (B.), An Arab Tells His Story. London, 1946. 

BernaUik (H. A.), Zwischen Weissem Nil und Kongo. New edition. Vienna, 1944.- 
Gari-Oari : The Call of the African Wilderness. London, 1936. 

Crabites (P.), The Winning of the Sudan. Toronto, 1934. 

Hamilton (J. A. de 0.) (editor), The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan from Within. London, 1935. 

Henderson (K. D.), Survey of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1898-1944. London, 194C. 

Hill (R. L.), A Bibliography of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Oxford, 1939. 

Macmichael (Sir H. A.), A History of the Arabs in the Sudan. 2 rols. Cambridge, 1922. 
The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. London, 1932. 

Nadel (S. P.), The Nuba. Oxford, 1947. 

Naegeli (J.), Sudan : Eine Bilderreportage vom Mittelmeer zum Vlktoriasee und an den 
Indischen Ozean. Mit 175 Originalbildern und einer Karte. Thun, 1941. 

Tothitt (J. D.), Agriculture in the Sudan. Oxford, 1948. 

Tnmingham (J. S.), Islam in the Sudan. London, 1949. 



SOMALILAND PROTECTORATE. 

British Somaliland occupies the north-east horn of the African continent 
along the south of the Gulf of Aden, although the point of the horn formed 
part of pre-war Italian Somaliland. The protectorate is bounded on the 
east and southeast by the former Italian colony, on the south and south- 



SOMALILANB 331 

west by Ethiopia, and on the west by French Somaliland. The territory 
covers an area of approximately 68,000 square miles, and lies between 8 
deg. and 11 deg. 27 min. N. lat. and 42 deg. 35 min. and 49 deg. E. long. 
The interior of the protectorate is characterized by an elevated plateau rising 
to\v ards the north to an altitude of from 2,000 to 7,000 feet, and descending 
in scarps and broken hills to the coastal plain, which varies in width from 
10 to 60 miles. Vegetation consists largely of coarse grass and stunted thorn 
and acacia trees, which furnish good grazing for camels, sheep and goats. 

Climatic conditions on the coast are governed by the south-west mon- 
soon (Xharif) which blows from May to September, and the north-east 
monsoon which lasts from November to March. Much of the interior is 
generally cool and healthy owing to its elevation. 

The protectorate owes its foundation to the capture of Aden by the 
Bombay Government in 1839, when Turkey claimed the Somali coast from 
Zeilah to Cape Gardafui. The Egyptians bought the port of Massawa in 
Eritrea in 1864, and subsequently spread their jurisdiction south to Zeilah 
and Berbera at a time when this coast provided the chief source of supplies 
for Aden. As they were pre-occupied by events in the Sudan and the rise 
of the Mahdi, the Egyptians withdrew from the Somali coast in 1884. 
Troops were sent from Aden to Zeilah to preserve order and safeguard 
British interests, and from 1884 to 1886 treaties were made with Somali 
tribes from Zeilah eastwards, placing most of them under British protection 
and guaranteeing their independence. On 20 July, 1887, the Powers 
were notified that a British Protectorate had been established on the Somali 
coast from the Ras Jibuti to Bender Zaida. Its boundaries were later 
defined by treaties with France, Italy and Abyssinia; but they are still 
artificial and partly undemarcated. 

In 1901 a local Mahdi, later known as the Mad Mullah, appeared in 
the interior preaching a holy war against the British. Indecisive fighting 
with regular British troops took place intermittently for the next 9 years, 
and in 1910 t*he constant expense of the operations and difficulties of 
transport caused the British Government to withdraw from the interior to 
the coast. A period of great inter-tribal unrest resulted, until the final 
defeat of the Mullah in 1920. 

The protectorate was invaded by Italian forces on 4 August, 1940, and, 
after resistance against greatly superior numbers, the British forces were 
evacuated on 18 Aug., leaving the Italians temporarily in occupation. 
British sovereignty was restored in 1941. Military administration ceased 
on 15 Nov., 1948. 

The Governor is the sole executive and legislative authority. The pro- 
tectorate is divided into 6 districts, which bear the names of the 6 prin- 
cipal towns: Berbera (population in hot season about 15,000; in cold 
season about 30,000), Hargeisa (15,000 to 20,000), Burao (10,000), Borama, 
Erigavo and Las Anod. 

The nomadic population is estimated at 700,000, and consists entirely 
of Somali tribes who are Moslems of the Qadrayeh and Saleyeh 
sects. The life and wealth of the people is centred round their stock 
(camels, sheep and goats). Agriculture is confined to small areas with 
sufficient rainfall. Millet is grown in the western parts. Frankincense and 
myrrh are found in the east. The coastline abounds in fish, and the presence 
of coal, oil and minerals in the interior is reported. The chief exports are 
meat, hides and ghee. Game in the protectorate includes lion, kudu, 
ostrich and all types of gazelle. Revenue (1947-48), 422,92 1 ; expenditure, 
545,357 ; *iri#6rts (1948), 1,051,291 ; exports, 449,686. 

Imports into U.K., 1938, 29,026; 1947, 24,591 ; 1948, 3,554; 1949, 



332 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

4,404. Exports from U.K., 1938, 52,111 ; 1947, 33,548 ; 1948, 39,318 ; 
1949, 120,436. 

Governor. Gerald Reece, C.B.E. 

Chief Secretary to the Government. Cmdr. F. J. Chambers, O.B.E., R.N. 
(retd.). 

Commissioner for Native Affairs. E. P. S. Shirley, O.B.E. 

Books of Reference. 

Annual Beport, 1048. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Drakc-Brockman (E. E.), British Somaliland. London, 1917. 

Hamilton (A.), Somaliland. London, 1911. 

Jardine (D. J.), The Mad Mullah of Somaliland. London, 1923. 

Joelson (P. S.), Eastern Africa To-day. London, 1928. 

Mosse (A. H. E.), My Somali Book. London, 1913. 

Pease (A. E.), Somaliland. 3 vols. London, 1902. 

Rayne( H.), Sun, Sand and Somals. London, 1921. 



MAURITIUS. 

Mauritius was known to Arab navigators probably not later than the 
10th century. It was no doubt visited by Malays in the 15th century, 
and was discovered by the Portuguese between 1507 and 1512, but the 
Dutch were the first settlers (1598). In 1710 they abandoned the island 
and it was occupied by the French under the name of Isle de France (1715). 
The British occupied the island in 1810, and it was formally ceded to Great 
Britain by the Treaty of Paris of 1814. 

The island is of volcanic origin. The climate is free from extremes of 
weather, except for tropical cyclones at times. Yearly rainfall varies from 
30 in. on parts of the coast to 150 in. in the uplands. 

Constitution and Government. Under the constitution of 19 Dec., 
1947, the government of the colony, with its dependencies, Rodrigues, 
the Oil Islands, etc., is vested in a Governor, aided by an executive council, 
consisting of the Colonial Secretary, the Procureur and Advocate-General, 
the Financial Secretary, and 4 members elected by the legislative council. 

The legislative council consists of the Governor as president, 3 ex-officio 
members (the Colonial Secretary, the Procureur and Advocate-General, the 
Financial Secretary), 12 nominated and 19 elected members. Women have 
got the franchise. Legislation is enacted by the Governor with the advice 
and consent of the Legislative Council, the vote in which is free. In 
exceptional cases, however, the Governor is given power to enact legislation 
considered by him to be essential in the interests of good government. 

In the general election in Aug., 1948, 11 of the 19 elected members of the 
legislative council were Indians. 

Governor. Sir Hilary Blood, K.C.M.G. (appointed Jan., 1949). 
Colonial Secretary. James Dundas Harford, C.M.G. (appointed 21 
Nov., 1947). 

Area and Population. Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean, 500 miles 
east of Madagascar, has an area of about 720 square miles. According to 
the census of 1944, the population of the island was 419,185 and that of 
the dependencies was 13,463. The estimated population of Mauritius at 
the end of 1948 was 447,503 (males, 223,892; females, 223,611). 

Births, 1948, 19,039 (43-1 per 1,000); marriages, 3,239 (14-7 per 1,000); 



MAURITIUS 



333 



deaths, 10,518 (23>8 per 1,000), Population of Port Louis, the capital, 
with its suburbs, 71,250 (1948). 

In 1944 there were 141,941 Roman Catholics, 4,165 Protestants (Church 
of England and Church of Scotland). State aid is granted to the Churches, 
amounting yearly to Rs. 202,931 ; the Indians are mostly Hindus. 

Education. Primary education is free but not compulsory, though 
under the Education Ordinance of 1944 compulsion is being gradually intro- 
duced as circumstances permit. At the end of June, 1948, there were 
58 government and 73 state-aided schools. Average attendance at govern- 
ment schools, 1948, 12,891 (17,709 on roll); at state-aided schools, 18,683 
(25,656 on roll), of whom two-thirds were in Roman Catholic schools. 
There are also a number of unaided primary schools. 

For secondary education there are 2 government boys' schools with 
(1948) 550 pupils, and 9 aided and 28 unaided secondary schools for boys and 
girls, with a roll of 4,170. There is a Government Agricultural College and 
a Government Training College for teachers. 

Total government estimated expenditure on education in 1948-49 was 
Rs. 2,854,295 ; the actual expenditure for 1947-48 was Rs. 2,237,508. 

Finance. 



Year ended 
30 June 


1943-44 


1944-45 


1945-46 


1946-47 


1947-48 


1949-50 * 


Revenue 
Expenditure 


Bs. 

37,678,894 
29,876,532 


Bs. 
34,713,517 
31,832,797 


Bs. 
42,898,113 
43,587,752 


Rs. 
50,511,566 
52,513,055 


Bs. 
39,856,646 
49,147,495 


Bs. 
46,431,647 
46,154,386 



1 Estimates. 

Inclusive of Bs. 2,808,185 special revenue and Bs. 2,851,553 special expenditure in 1943- 
44; Bs. 861,691 special revenue and Bs. 321,947 special expenditure in 1944-45; Bs. 690,764 
special revenue and Bs. 1,842,892 special expenditure in 1945-46; Bs. 1,949,627 special 
revenue and Bs. 13,489,144 special expenditure in 1946-47; Bs. 2,543,008 special revenue and 
Bs. 838,247 special expenditure in 1947-48. 

Principal sources of revenue, 1947-48 : Customs, Rs. 10,221,017 (in 1945- 
47, Rs. 9,279,284) ; licences, excise and internal revenue, Rs. 18,949,030 (Rs. 
19,160,370); reimbursements, Rs. 1,335,840 (Rs. 3,332,493). 

The debt of the colony on 30 June, 1948, was : Government Debenture 
Inscribed Stock, etc., 3,296,584, mainly for public works, agriculture and 
loan to His Majesty's Government. Municipality debt of Port Louis on 
31 Deo., 1948, Rs. 874,092 (1947, Rs. 759,092). 

Defence. There is a regular garrison and also a naval volunteer force. 
The Mauritius police has an armed contingent. The colonial contribution 
to the military expenditure was Rs. 4,239,063 for 1943-44. 

Commerce. 





1943 


1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Imports 
Exports l . 


Bs. 
48,044,633 
49,835,441 


B3. 
65,706,982 
53,566,950 


Bs. 
68,132,214 
37,315,774 


Ba. 
66,700,209 
53,864,680 


Bs. 
113,833,412 
96,219,108 


Bs. 
136,189,339 
139,703,493 



> Excluding value of sugar quota certificates, which was estimated in 1943 at Bs. 4,880,000, 
In 1944 at Bs. 4,875,000, in 1945 at Bs. 4,837,500, in 1946 at Bs. 4,850,000, In 1947 at Bs. 
4,793,000, in 1948 at Bs. 4,793,000. 



334: THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

Sugar exports in 1947, 297,783,392 kUos, value Rs. 89,758,970; in 1948, 
385,844,207 kilos, value Rs. 132,437,691. The sugar crop in 1946-47 was 
168,690 metric tons; in 1947-48, 334,208 metric tons. 

Imports into the United Kingdom from Mauritius (British Board of 
Trade returns), 1938, 3,631,223; 1947, 884,683 ; 1948, 6,247,113; 1949, 
8,866,431. British exports to Mauritius, 1938, 726,199; 1947, 2,097,718; 
1948, 3,411,182 ; 1949, 3,605,638. He-exports from the United Kingdom, 
1938, 8,660; 1947, 5,559; 1948, 7,744; 1949, 12,720. 

Shipping and Communications. The registered shipping, 1 January, 
1948, consisted of 5 sailing vessels of 128 tons, 4 steamers of 3,698 tons, 
and 1 motor vessel of 176 tons. 

In 1948, 183 vessels of 622,014 tons entered and 183 of 620,570 cleared the 
colony. 

There are 106-25 miles of railway of 4 ft. 8 in. gauge, and 9-55 miles 
narrow gauge of 75 cm. The railway department is run on a commercial 
basis. Its receipts are excluded from the general revenue of the colony. 
Gross earnings, Rs. 3,521,751 ; working expenditure, Rs. 4,941,962 for 
1947-48 (Rs. 3,335,322 and Rs. 4,163,782 respectively in 1946-47). 

Of telegraphs and telephones there were (1948) 218 and 6,700 miles of 
line respectively ; there is a cable communication with Zanzibar, Australia, 
Reunion, Madagascar and Durban. Number of telephones (1949), 3,926. 

There is a weekly air service (Air France) between Mauritius and Europe 
via Nairobi. The aerodrome is at Plaisance, Grant Port district. 

Money, Weights and Measures. On 30 June, 1948, the Government 
Savings Bank held deposits amounting to Rs. 17,147,123, belonging to 
62,630 depositors. There is a branch of Barclays Bank (D., C. & 0.) at 
Port Louis. 

The currency consists of: (i) The Government note issue of Rs. 1,000, 
Rs. 10, Rs. 5 and Re. 1 ; (ii) the Mauritius silver rupee and its silver sub- 
divisions; half rupees (50 cents), quarter rupees (25 cents) and 20 cents; 
(iii) cupro-nickel coins of 10 cents; (iv) bronze coins of 5 cents, 2 cents and 1 
cent. All accounts are kept in rupees and cents. The note circulation as at 
30 June, 1948, was Rs. 28,703,625. The metric system is in force. 

Dependencies, 

Rpdrigues (under a magistrate) is about 350 miles north-east of Mauritius, 
18 miles long, 7 broad. Area, 42 square miles. Population (census 1944), 
11,885; estimated population on 31 Dec., 1948, was 13,326 (6,467 males; 
6,859 females). Actual revenue (1941-42), Rs. 40,955 (exclusive of revenue 
collected in Mauritius) and actual expenditure, Rs. 152,419 (exclusive of 
expenditure incurred in Mauritius). Imports, 1948, Rs. 1,449,051 ; exports, 
Rs. 773,479. There is one government and 3 aided schools. 

The lesser dependencies are Diego Garcia, Six Islands, Peros Banhos, 
Solomon Islands, Agalega, St. Brandon group, Trois Freres. The nearest 
island is 230 miles from Mauritius, and the most remote about 1,200 miles. 
Total population of the lesser dependencies, census 1944, 1,578 (842 males, 
736 females). 

Diego Garcia (the most important of the Oil Islands group), in 7 20' S. 
lat., 72 26' E. long., is 12J miles long, 6J miles wide, with 501 inhabitants 
(census 1944), a large proportion being labourers from Mauritius. Coconut 
oil exports in 1946, 22,821 litres ; in 1947, 10,078 litres ; in 1948, 2,019 
litres, from the Lesser Dependencies. Other exports are coconuts, copra, 
guano and salted fish. 



SEYCHELLES 



335 



Books of Reference concerning Mauritius, 

Tear Book of Statistics. Mauritius. 

Annual Report on Mauritius, 1948. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Final Report on the Census Enumeration ... on 11 June, 1944. 

Mauritius Blue Book. Annual. 

Mauritius Almanac and Commercial Handbook. Mauritius. 

Bamwell (P. J.), Visit and Dispatches. Mauritius, 1598-1948. Port Louis, 1949. 

Bfrtuchi (A. J.), The Island of Rodrigues. London, 1923. 

Ingrams (W. H.), Short History of Mauritius. London, 1931. 

Philogene (R.), The Island of Mauritius. Port Louis, Mauritius, 1928. 



SEYCHELLES. 

Seychelles and its Dependencies consist of 92 islands and islets with 
a total estimated area of 156J square miles. The principal island is Mahe 
(55J square miles), smaller islands of the group being Praslin, Silhouette, La 
Digue, Curieuse and Felicite. Among dependent islands are the Amirantes, 
Alphonse Island, Bijoutier Island, St. Fra^ois, St. Pierre, the Cosmoledo 
Group, Astove Island, Assumption Island, the Aldabra Islands, Providence 
Island, Coetivy, Farquhar Islands and Flat Island. 

The islands were first colonized by the French in the middle of the 
18th century, the object being to establish plantations of spices to compete 
with the lucrative Dutch monopoly. They were captured by the English 
in 1794 and incorporated as a dependency of Mauritius in 1810. In 1888 
the office of administrator was created, an executive council of 2 ex-officio 
members and 1 nominated member was appointed, with a legislative council 
of 3 official and 3 unofficial members, the administrator being president 
of both councils and having an original and casting vote in the legislative 
council. In 1897 the Administrator was given full powers as Governor, 
and in November, 1903, he was raised to the rank of Governor. In 1931 
the constitution of the executive council was altered by the addition of 
an * unofficial ' member. The capital is Victoria, which has a good harbour. 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Dr. Percy Selwyn Selwyn-Clarke, 
C.M.G. (appointed April, 1947). 

The population, 1949, was estimated to be 34,847. The number of 
births in 1948 was 996 ; deaths, 477 ; marriages, 159 ; divorces, 4. 

There were in 1949, 23 grant-in-aid schools (17 Roman Catholic and 6 
Anglican) and 2 Roman Catholic unaided primary schools. In addition, 
there are 2 secondary schools, 1 for boys and 1 for girls, each with a pre- 
paratory department, with a total of 471 pupils. There is also a mixed 
government modern school, with 85 pupils. Total number of children 
attending school was 4,654; average attendance, 75%. 

In 1943, 2,833 cases were brought before the Supreme Court (criminal 
side). The police force numbered 85 of all ranks. 

Revenue and expenditure (in rupees) for 6 years : 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1944 
1945 
1946 


1,418,003 
1,764,812 
3,376,382 


1,178,403 
1,340,493 
1,863,549 


1947 
1948 
1949 1 


2,575,553 
2,950,528 
3,286,436 


2,283,987 
3,038,787 
3,424,085 



1 Revised estimates. 



Estimates. 



There is no public debt. 

Chief items of revenue, 1948 : Customs, Rs. 1,180,000; port and 



336 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



marine, Rs. 36,200 ; licences, taxes, etc., Es. 835,000 ; fees of court, Rs. 
114,120; post office, Rs. 215,000; Crown lands, Rs. 94,920; interest, Rs. 
95,394 ; miscellaneous, Rs. 93,984. 

Chief products, coconuts (over 28,500 acres under cultivation) and cin- 
namon, patchouli and other essential oils. Foodcrop production is being 
encouraged, particularly on government estates where rootcrops, maize and 
fresh vegetables are being grown in increasing quantities. On some islands 
mangrove-bark, turtles and the yolk of birds' eggs are collected and guano 
deposits are worked. Livestock is increasing by importation of high-grade 
cattle, pigs and poultry. Fishing is actively pursued, both for local supply 
and export of salted fish to East Africa. 

Imports and exports (in rupees) for 4 years : 



Year 


Imports 


Exports 


Year 


Imports 


Exports 


1945 
1946 


2,668,145 
3,261,060 


2,323,199 
5,527,795 


1947 
1948 


5,087,106 
4,792,877 


4,163,626 
5,177,926 



Principal imports, 1948: Rice, 1,400 tons, Rs. 871,140; sugar, 915 
tons, Rs. 404,149; cotton piece-goods, 387,242 yards, Rs. 341,129; maize, 
1,236 tons, Rs. 206,666 ; flour, 459 tons, Rs. 192,398 ; motor cars and cycles, 
27, Rs. 82,359; motor spirit, 253,214 litres, Rs. 65,671; cigarettes, 
5,554,200, Rs. 65,364 ; butter and cheese, 20 tons, Rs. 54,458. 

Principal exports, 1948: Copra, 7,591 tons, Rs. 4,099,040; guano, 
21,578 tons, Rs. 479,791; cinnamon leaf oil, 40 tons, Rs. 268,918; 
patchouli oil, 2 tons, Rs. 93,840 ; vanilla, 3,643 kilos, Rs. 48,246. 

Imports, in 1948, from United Kingdom, Rs. 1,518,909; Kenya, Rs. 
574,197 ; India, Rs. 520,966 ; Mauritius, Rs. 431,031 ; South Africa, Rs. 
180,087 ; Australia, Rs. 142,394. 

Exports, in 1948, to United Kingdom, Rs. 4,444,899 ; South Africa, Rs. 
191,706 ; New Zealand, Rs. 160,012 ; Australia, Rs. 83,601 ; Kenya, Rs. 
68,000; Mauritius, Rs. 65,687. 

Total trade with the United Kingdom (Board of Trade returns, in 
sterling) : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports to U.K. 
Exports from U.K. 
Be-exports from U.K. 


14,640 
34,238 
785 


206,666 
93,364 
4,601 


276,080 
99,419 
6,962 


296,078 
123,890 
1,029 


486,460 
171,042 
436 



(1948) entered, 8,876 tons; cleared, 29,755 tons, mainly 
British, exclusive of coasters trading between Mane* and the dependencies. 
Steamers normally call every 4 weeks from Bombay on their way to 
'Mombasa, and vice versa. There is fairly regular communication between 
the islands. 

There is a good road system in Mane", and further road-making is being 
undertaken. There is direct telegraphic communication with Mauritius, 
Zanzibar, Aden and Colombo. 

Books of Reference. 

Annual Report on the Seychelles, 1948. H.M.S.O., 1949. 

Fauvcl (A. A.), Bibliographic des Seychelles. Published by the Seychelles Government. 
1908. 

Murat (M.), Gordon's Eden, or the Seychelles Archipelago. 



8T. HELENA 



337 



Otanne (J. A. P.), Ooconute and Creoles. London, 1938. 

Walter (A.), Mauritius Almanac and Commercial Handbook. Appendix on Seychelles. 
Fort Louis. 



ST. HELENA. 

St. Helena, of volcanic origin, is 2,100 miles from the west coast of 
Africa. Area, 47 square miles, with a cultivable area of 8,600 acres. It 
is administered by an executive council consisting of the Governor and 3 
official members. The Governor is assisted by an advisory council con- 
sisting of 6 unofficial members. Population (1946 census), 4,748. Births 
(living), 1948, 157; deaths, 39; marriages, 26; divorces, 3. There are 4 
Episcopal and 4 Baptist chapels. Education : 1 1 primary and 1 secondary 
schools controlled by government, with 1,203 pupils in 1948. Police force, 
12; cases dealt with by police magistrate, 29 in 1948. The port of the 
island is Jamestown. 

Governor. Sir George Andrew Joy, K.B.E., C.M.G. (appointed 31 May, 
1947). 





1943 


1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


Revenue * . 
Expenditure J 
Exports . 
Imports ' . 



70,558 
70,774 
34,755 
88,610 



83,941 
74,491 
31,585 
98,645 



63,715 
84,053 
35,200 
95,482 



98,594 
88,823 
31,790 
94,376 



60,668 
124,756 
48,043 
107,469 



119,997* 
95,325 
73,260 
118,204 



1 Including imperial grants (1943, 37,000; 1944, 15,000; 1945, nil; 1946, 25,000; 
1947, nil; 1918, 30,000). 

a Including government stores. 
Estimates. 

The revenue from customs was, in 1944, 16,826; 1945, 17,909; 1946, 
15,161; 1947,13,824; 1948, 14,500. 

The colony's liabilities at 31 Dec., 1947, exceeded the assets by 31,912. 

The principal exports are flax fibre, tow, rope and twine ; they totalled 
1,357 tons in 1948. 

Total trade between Ascension and St. Helena and the United Kingdom 
(Board of Trade returns, in sterling) : 





1938 


1946 


1947 


1948 


1949 


Imports to U.K. 
Exports from U.K. 


7,263 
44,455 


40,230 
74,017 


55,624 
64,205 


80,101 
83,214 


83,850 
86,674 


Re-exports from U.K. 


5,793 


8,366 


16,661 


21,623 


23,924 



Savings-bank deposits on 31 Dec., 1948, 84,596, belonging to 494 
depositors. 

Fruit trees, Norfolk pines, eucalyptus and cedars nourish in St. Helena. 
Cattle do well, but there is no outside market for the meat. The flax 
(phormium tenax) industry is established at a government mill and 6 private 
mills. The area of land under flax was estimated at 3,250 acres in 1934. 
A lace-making industry was started in 1907. The number of vessels that 
called in 1948 was 31 ; total tonnage entered and cleared was 163,590. 

The Cable and Wireless cable connects St. Helena with Cape Town and 
with St. Vincent. There is a telephone service with 80 miles of wire. 

Ascension is a small island of volcanic origin, of 34 square miles, in 
the South Atlantic, 700 miles N.W. of St. Helena. In November, 1922, 



338 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

the administration was transferred from the Admiralty to the Colonial 
Office and annexed to the colony of St. Helena. There are 10 acres under 
cultivation providing vegetables arid fruit. Population, 31 Dec., 1946, was 
292; 31 Dec., 1947, 183; 31 Dec., 1948, 191. 

The island is the resort of sea turtles, which come to lay their eggs 
in the sand annually between January and May. Babbits, wild goats and 
partridges are more or less numerous on the island, which is, besides, the 
breeding ground of the sooty tern or * wideawake,' these birds coming in 
vast numbers to lay their eggs every eighth month. 

Resident Magistrate. H. L. N. Ascough. 

Tristan da Cunha, a small group of islands in the Atlantic, half-way 
between the Cape and S. America, in 37 6' S. lat., 12 1' W. long. Besides 
Tristan da Cunha and Cough's Island, there are Inaccessible and Nightingale 
Islands, the former 2 and the latter 1 mile long, and a number of rocks. 
As from 12 January, 1938, the 4 islands have become dependencies of 
St. Helena. Tristan consists of an extinct volcano rising to a height of 8,000 
feet, with a circumference at its base of 21 miles. The habitable area is 
a small plateau on the north-west side of about 12 square miles, 100 feet 
above sea-level. Only about 30 acres is under cultivation, three-quarters 
of it for potatoes. There are apple and peach trees; bullocks, sheep and 
geese are reared, and fish are plentiful. The island is extremely lonely, 
but the community is growing. In 1880 it numbered 109, in 1949, 231 
islanders and 17 Europeans. The original inhabitants were shipwrecked 
sailors and soldiers who remained behind when the garrison from St. Helena 
was withdrawn in 1817. 

At the end of April, 1942, Tristan da Cunha was commissioned as 
H.M.S. Atlantic Isle, and became an important meteorological and radio 
station. In Jan., 1949, a South African company commenced crawfishing 
operations. An Administrator was appointed at the end of 1948 and a 
body of basic law brought into operation. The Island Council, which was 
set up in 1932, at present consists of 10 elected islanders under the chair- 
manship of the Administrator, with the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts' missionary and the company manager as ex-officio 
members. Women's affairs are discussed by the Island Women's Council 
which presents them for consideration to the general council. 

Administrator. H. F. I. Elliot. 

Books of Reference. 

Annual Report, 1948. H.M.S. 0., 1949. 
Handbook of Tristan da Cunha. London, 1924. 
Christopersen (Erling), Tristan da Ounha. London, 1940. 
Crawford (Allan B.), I went to Tristan. London, 1941. 
Oosse (Philip), St. Helena, 1602-1938. London, 1938. 
Munch (P. A.), Sociology of Tristan da Cunha. Oslo, 1945. 



AMERICA. 

CANADA. 
Constitution and Government. 

The territories which now constitute Canada came under British power 
at various times by settlement, conquest or cession. Nova Scotia waa 
temporarily occupied in 1628 by settlement at Port Royal, was ceded 



CANADA 



339 



back to France in 1632, and was finally ceded by France in 1713, by 
the Treaty of Utrecht ; the Hudson's Bay Company's charter, conferring 
rights over all the territory draining into Hudson Bay, was granted in 1670; 
Canada, with all its dependencies, including New Brunswick and Prince 
Edward Island, was formally ceded to Great Britain by France in 1763; 
Vancouver Island was acknowledged to be British by the Oregon Boundary 
Treaty of 1846, and British Columbia was established as a separate colony 
in 1858. As originally constituted, Canada was composed of the provinces 
of Upper and Lower Canada (now Ontario and Quebec), Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick. They were united under the provisions of an Act of 
the Imperial Parliament known as * The British North America Act, 1867,' 
which came into operation on 1 July, 1867, by royal proclamation. The 
Act provides that the constitution of Canada shall be * similar in principle 
to that of the United Kingdom ' ; that the executive authority shall be 
vested in the Sovereign, and carried on in his name by a Governor-General 
and Privy Council; and that the legislative power shall be exercised by 
a Parliament of two Houses, called the * Senate ' and the * House of 
Commons.' The present position of Canada in the British Commonwealth 
of Nations was defined at the Imperial Conference of 1926 : * The self- 
governing Dominions are autonomous Communities within the British 
Empire, equal in status, though united by a common allegiance to the 
Crown.' 

Provision was made in the British North America Act for the admission 
of British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, the North- West Territories 
and Newfoundland into the Dominion. In 1869 Rupert's Land, or the 
North-West Territories, was purchased from the Hudson's Bay Company; 
the province of Manitoba was erected from this territory, and admitted 
into the confederation on 15 July, 1870. On 20 July, 1871, the province 
of British Columbia was admitted, and Prince Edward Island on 1 July, 
1873. The provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were formed from the 
provisional districts of Alberta, Athabaska, Assiniboia and Saskatchewan, 
and admitted on 1 Sept., 1905. Newfoundland formally entered the 
Dominion as Canada's tenth province on 31 March, 1949. 



The following is a list of Governors-General of Canada : 

1867-1869 H.E.H. the Duke of Connaught 

1869-1872 Duke of Devonshire 

1872-1878 Viscount Byng of Vimy 

1878-1883 Viscount Willingdon 

1883-1888 Earl of Bessborough 

1888-1893 Lord Tweedsznuir . 

1893-1898 Earl of Athlone 

1898-1904 Field-Marshal Viscount Alex 
1904-1911 ander of Tunis . 



Viscount Monck 
Lord Lisgar . 
Earl of DufTerin 
Marquess of Lome . 
Marquess of Lansdowne 
Lord Stanley of Preston 

Earl of Aberdeen . 
Earl of Minto 
Earl Grey 



1911-1916 
1916-1921 
1921-1926 
1926-1931 
1931-1936 
1935-1940 
1940-1946 

1946- 



In February, 1931, the Government of Norway formally recognized the 
Canadian title to the Sverdrup group of Arctic islands. Canada thus 
holds sovereignty in the whole Arctic sector north of the Canadian 
mainland. 

On 30 June, 1931, the House of Commons approved the enactment of 
the Statute of Westminster emancipating the Provinces as well as the 
Dominion from the operation of the Colonial Laws Validity Act, and thus 
removing what legal limitations existed as regards Canada's legislative 
autonomy. The statute received the royal assent on 12 December, 
1931. 

The members of the Senate are nominated for life by summons of 
the Governor-General under the Great Seal of Canada. By the Amendment 



340 THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 

of the British North America Act, 1867 (May, 1915), which came into effect 
in 1917, the Senate consisted of 96 senators. As a result of Newfoundland's 
admission the Senate now consists of 102 senators, namely, 24 from Ontario, 
24 from Quebec, 10 from Nova Scotia, 10 from New Brunswick, 4 from 
Prince Edward Island, 6 from Manitoba, 6 from British Columbia, 6 from 
Alberta, 6 from Saskatchewan and 6 from Newfoundland. Each senator 
must be at least 30 years of age, a born or naturalized British subject, and 
must reside in, and be possessed of property, real or personal, to the value 
of $4,000 within the province for which he is appointed. The House of 
Commons is elected by the people, for five years, unless sooner dissolved. 
The British North America Act provided that while Canadian Confederation 
lasts the province of Quebec shall have, in the Canadian Parliament, a fixed 
representation of 65 seats and all other provinces shall be represented pro- 
portionately according to their population, at each decennial census. The 
twenty-first Parliament, elected on 27 June, 1949, comprised 262 members, 
with the representation as follows : 83 for Ontario, 73 for Quebec, 13 for 
Nova Scotia, 10 for New Brunswick, 16 for Manitoba, 18 for British Columbia, 
4 for Prince Edward Island, 20 for Saskatchewan, 17 for Alberta, 1 for the 
Yukon Territory and 7 for Newfoundland. Voting is by ballot. Women 
have the vote and are eligible for election to the Dominion Parliament. 

State of parties in the Senate (Jan., 1950) : Liberals, 77 ; Progressive 
Conservatives, 15; vacant, 10: total, 102. 

State of the parties (Jan., 1950) in the House of Commons : Liberals, 
189; Progressive Conservatives, 41; Co-operative Commonwealth Federa- 
tion (Canadian Socialist Party), 13; Social Credit Party, 10; smaller 
parties, 8; vacant, 1; total 262. 

The Speaker of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Commons 
receive salary and allowances of $10,000 per annum. The Deputy Speaker 
of the House of Commons receives salary and allowances of $5,500, and 
these three officers receive in addition the sessional allowance of $4,000 
paid to all Senators and members of the House of Commons. An additional 
allowance of $2,000 is paid at the end of each calendar year; this 
allowance is taxable with Senators, Ministers of the Crown and the Leader 
of the Opposition, but not subject to income tax with members of the 
House of Commons. 

Governor-General. Field-Marshal the Rt. Hon. Viscount Alexander, 
K.G., G.C.B., G.C.M.G., C.S.I., D.S.O., M.C. (appointed 1 Aug., 1945; 
installed 12 April, 1946; salary, 10,000 per annum). The office and 
appointment of the Governor- General are regulated by letters patent, 
signed by the King on 8 Sept., 1947, which came into force on 1 Oct., 1947. 

He is assisted in his functions, under the provisions of the Act of 1867, 
by a Privy Council composed of Cabinet Ministers. 

The following is the list of the Cabinet as in Jan., 1950, in order of 
precedence, which in Canada attaches generally rather to the person than 
to the office : 

Prime Minister and President of the Privy Council. Rt. Hon. Louis 
Stephen St. Laurent, P.C., K.C. 

Minister of Trade and Commerce. Rt. Hon. Clarence Decatur Howe, P.C. 

Minister of Agriculture. Rt. Hon. James Garfield Gardiner, P.C. 

Minister without Portfolio. James Angus MacKinnon. 

Minister of Labour. Humphrey Mitchell. 

Minister of Public Works. Alphonse Fournier, K.C. 



CANADA 



341 



Minister of National Defence. Brooke Claxton, K.C. 

Minister of Transport. Lionel Chevrier, K.C. 

Minister of National Health and Welfare. Paul Joseph James Martin, 



Minister of Finance. Douglas Charles Abbott, K.C. 
Minister of National Revenue and Minister of Mines and Technical 
Surveys. James Joseph McCann, M.D. 

Minister without Portfolio. Wishart McLea Robertson. 

Minister of Veterans' Affairs. Milton Fowler Gregg, V.C. 

Minister of Fisheries. Robert Wellington Mayhew. 

Secretary of State for External Affairs. Lester Bowles Pearson. 

Minister of Justice and Attorney-General. Stuart Sinclair Garson. 

Minister of Resources and Development. Robert Henry Winters. 

Secrelary of State for Canada. F. Gordon Bradley. 

Solicitor-General. Hughes Lapointe. 

Postmaster-General. Gabriel Edouard Rinfret. 

Minister of Citizenship and Immigration. Walter E. Harris. 

The sessional indemnity of a member of the House of Commons is 
$4,000. The remuneration of a Cabinet Minister is $10,000 a year (and of 
the Prime Minister $15,000 a year) in addition to the sessional indemnity. 
A Cabinet Minister is also entitled to a motor-car allowance of $2,000. The 
Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons receives an annual 
allowance of $10,000 in addition to the sessional indemnity. The Speaker 
of the House of Commons receives, in addition to his sessional indemnity 
of $4,000, a salary and motor-car allowance amounting to $7,000, and is also 
entitled to an allowance of $3,000 in lieu of residence. Members of the 
House receive $2,000 per annum as an expense allowance, payable at the 
end of each calendar year. The allowance is not subject to income tar 
except in the case of Ministers of the Crown and the Leader of the Opposition. 



Diplomatic Representatives. 



Country 


Canadian Representative 


Foreign Representative 


Argentina 
Australia 


J. D. Kearney, M.C., K.C. 
Major-Gen. L. R. La Fleche, 


Dr. Agustin Nores Martinez 
Rt. Hon. F. N. Forde 




D.S.O. 




Belgium . 


Victor Dore, C.M.G. 


Vicomte Alain du Pare 


Brazil 


James Scott Macdonald 


Dr. Acyr Paes 


Chile 


C. Eraser Elliott, C.M.G., 


General Arnaldo Carrasco 




K.C. 




China 


Hon. T. C. Davis 


Liu Chieh 


Cuba 2 . 


Dr. E. H. Coleman, C.M.G., 







K.C. 




Czechoslovakia 3 


E. B. Rogers 


Stanislav Klima 


Denmark 2 


Dr. Henry Laureys 


G. B. Holler 


Egypt . 
Finland . 


T. A. Stone 


Ali Shawqi Bey a 
Urho Vilpiton Toivola * 


1 High Commissioner. Minister. Charg6 d' Affaires. 



342 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Country 


Canadian Representative 


Foreign Representative 


France 


Major-Gen. George P. 


Hubert Guerin 




Vanier, D.S.O., M.C. 




Germany 


Lieut. -Gen. Maurice Pope, 







C.B., M.C. 4 




Greece 


G. L. Magann 


Constantino M. Sakellaro- 






poulo 


Iceland 2 . 


E. J. Garland 


Thor Thors 


India 1 


W. F. Chipman, K.C. 


Hon. S. K. Kirpalani 


Irish Republic l 


Hon. W. F. A. Turgeon 


Hon. J. J. Hearne, S.C. 


Italy 


Jean Desy, K.C. 


Mario di Stefano 


Japan 


E. H. Norman 4 





Luxemburg 2 . 


Victor Dore, C.M.G. 


Hugues Le Gallais 


Mexico 


Charles Pierre Hebert 


Primo Villa Michel 


Netherlands 


Pierre Dupuy, C.M.G. 


Dr. J. H. van Roijen 


New Zealand 1 


A. Rive 


Hon. James Thorn 


Norway 2 


E. J. Garland 


Daniel Steen 


Pakistan x 


I). M. Johnson 


Mohammed Ali 


Peru 


Emile Vaillancourt 


Manuel Cacho-Sousa 


Poland 3 . 


K. P. Kirkwood 


Eugeniusz Jan Milnikiel 


Sweden 2 . 


Thomas A. Stone 


Per Wijkman 


Switzerland 2 . 





Dr. Victor Nef 


Turkey . 


Major-Gen. V. W. Odium, 







C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., 






V.D. 




Union of South 


E. D'Arcy McGreer 


Hon A. A. Roberts 


Africa 






U.S.S.R. . 


John B. C. Watkins 3 


Nikolai D. Belokhvostikov 3 


U.K. 1 . 


L. Dana Wilgress 


Sir Alexander Clutterbuck, 






K.C.M.G., M.C. 


United Nations 


Gen. The Hon. A. G. L. 







MacNaughton, C.H., 






C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. 5 




U.S.A. . 


H. H. Wrong 





Uruguay 2 





Cesar Montero de Busta- 






mante 


Yugoslavia 2 




Mato A. Jaksic" 



High Commissioner. ' Minister. 8 Charg d'Affaires. 
' Permanent Delegate. 



4 Head of Mission. 



Area and Population. 

The following is the population of the area now included in the 
Dominion : 



Year 


Population 


Year 


Population 


Year 


Population 


1806-7 (est.) 


433,000 


1891 


4,833,239 


1931 


10,376,786 


1861 


3,229,633 


1901 


5,371,316 


1941 


11,506,665 


1871 
1881 


3,689,257 
4,324,810 


1911 
1921 


7,206,643 
8,787,949 


1948 (est.) 
1949 (est.) 


12.883,000 
13,549,000 



CANADA 



343 



The following are the areas of the provinces, etc., with the population 
at recent censuses : 



Province 


Land area 
(sq. miles) 


Fresh 
water 
area 1 
(sq. miles) 


Total land 
and fresh 
water area 
(sq. miles) 


Popula- 
tion, 
1921 


Popula- 
tion, 
1931 


Popula- 
tion, 1941 
(2 June) 


Newfoundland . 








154,734 


263,033 








Prince Edward Island 


2,184 





2,184 


88,615 


88,038 


95,047 


Nova Scotia 1 . 


20,743 


325 


21,068 


623,837 


512,846 


577,962 


New Brunswick l 


27,473 


512 


27,985 


387,876 


408,219 


457,401 


Quebec 


523,860 


71,000 


594,860 


2,360,510 


2,874,662 


3,331,882 


Ontario l 


363,282 


49,300 


412,582 


2,933,662 


3,431,683 


3,787,655 


Manitoba 


219,723 


26,789 


246,512 


610,118 


700,139 


729,744 


British Columbia 


359,279 


6,976 


366,255 


524,582 


694,263 


817,861 


Alberta . 


248,800 


6,485 


255,285 


588,454 


731,605 


796,169 


Saskatchewan 


237,975 


13,725 


251.700 


757,510 


921,785 


895,992 


Yukon 


205,346 


1,730 


207,076 


4,157 


4,230 


4,914 


North- West Territories 


1,253,438 


51,465 


1,304,903 


8,143 


9.316 


12,028 


Boyal Canadian Navy 











485 


4 


4 


Totals 


3,499,116 6 


234,028 s 


3,845,144 


8,787,949* 


10,376,786* 


11,506,655 



1 The salt-water areas of Canada are excluded. 

1 By Federal Act passed during the session of 1912, the boundaries of the provinces of 
Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba were extended at the expense of the North- West Territories. 
Ontario was enlarged by 146,400 square miles, Quebec by 351,780 and Manitoba by 
178,000. 

As amended by the Labrador Boundary Award. 

4 Distributed according to naval station or home residence. 

8 Excluding Newfoundland. 

Excluding population of Newfoundland which was 289,588 in 1935, and 321,819 in 1945. 

Of the total population in 1941, 9,487,808 were Canadian born, 1,003,769 
other British born and 1,014,133 foreign born, 312,473 of the latter being 
U.S.A. born. The population born outside Canada in the provinces was 
in the following ratio (per cent.): Prince Edward Island, 2-57; Nova 
Scotia, 7-05; New Brunswick, 4-50; Quebec, 6-72; Ontario, 19-36; Mani- 
toba, 26-53; Saskatchewan, 26-66; Alberta, 32-45 ; British Columbia, 37-26. 

In 1941, figures for the population, according to origin, were : 



Origin 


1941 


Origin 


1941 


British : 
English .... 


2,968,402 


Italian 
Russian 
Austrian 
Chinese 
Finnish 
Hungarian . 
Bulgarian and Human 
Czech and Slovak 
Belgian 
Japanese . 


ian 




112,625 
83,708 
37,716 
34,627 
41,683 
54,598 
27,949 
42,912 
29,711 
23,149 
22,174 
21,214 
11,692 
72,632 


Scottish .... 
Irish .... 


1,403,974 
1,267,702 


Other .... 
Total, British . 
French .... 


75,826 


5,715,904 


3,483,038 


German 
Scandinavian * 
Ukranian . 
Hebrew 
Netherlands 
Polish 
Indian and Eskimo 


464,682 
244,603 
305,929 
170,241 
212,863 
167,485 
125,521 


Yugoslavic . 
Greek 
Other and origin not s 

Grand totals. 


tated 


11,506,655 



1 Includes Danish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish, which were, respectively 
37,439, 21,050, 100,718- and 85,396. 

Population of the principal cities and towns according to the returns 
of the 1941 Dominion census : 



344 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



Cities 


Population 


Cities 


Population 


Montreal 
Toronto 
Vancouver 
Winnipeg 
Hamilton 
Ottawa. 
Quebec 
Windsor, Ont 
Edmonton 


903,007 
667,467 
275,353 
221,960 
166,337 
154,951 
150,767 
105,311 * 
93,817 


Calgary 
London 
Halifax 
Verdun, P.Q. 
Regina 
Saint John, N.B.. 
Victoria 
Saskatoon . 


88,904 
78,264 
70,488 
67,349 
68,245 
51,741 
44,068 
43,027 



1 Amalgamation of Windsor, Walkerville, East Windsor and Sandwich, 1 July, 1935. 
* Greater ' Montreal had 1,139,921 population, * Greater ' Toronto 900,491, 

- Greater ' Vancouver 351,491 and ' Greater ' Winnipeg 290,640 in 1941. 

According to the quinquennial census of the Prairie Provinces, 1946, 
Winnipeg had 229,045 population, Edmonton 113,116, Calgary 100,044, 
Regina 60,246 and Saskatoon 46,028. 

The total ' urban ' population of Canada in 1941 was given as 6,252,416, 
against 5,572,058 in 1931. 

While the registration of births, marriages and deaths is under pro- 
vincial control, the statistics for the nine provinces are now by arrange- 
ment compiled on a uniform system by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 
The following table gives the results for 1947 : 





Living births 


Marriages 


Deatlis 


Province 


Number 


Per 1,000 
population 


Number 


Per 1,000 
population 


Number 


Per 1,000 
population 


Prince Edward Island 


2,992 


31-8 


676 


7-2 


1,020 


10-9 


Nova Scotia . 


19,265 


31-0 


5,861 


9-4 


6,009 


9-7 


New Brunswick 


17,771 


86-2 


6,189 


10-6 


4,832 


9-8 


Quebec . 


115,663 


81-1 


35,494 


9-6 


33,708 


9-1 


Ontario . 


108,863 


26-0 


44,056 


10-5 


41,619 


9-9 


Manitoba 


20,409 


27-5 


7,712 


10-4 


6,771 


9-1 


Saskatchewan 


23,334 


27-7 


7,674 


9-1 


6,610 


7-9 


Alberta . 


24,631 


30-0 


8,797 


10-7 


6,543 


8-0 


British Columbia 


26,286 


25-2 


11,852 


11-4 


10,613 


10-2 


Total . 


369,094 


28-6 


127,311 


10-1 


117,726 


9-4 



Immigrant arrivals in Canada during 4 calendar years :- 



Origin 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


English and Welsh 
Irish 
Scottish . 


11,936 
1,057 
1,684 


39,543 
3,218 
8,647 


28,243 
2,908 
7,596 


*M08 
4,178 


Total British . 
The United States 
German 
Norwegian and Swedish 
French and Belgians , 
Italians . 
Jews 
Buasianfl and Finlanders 
Other nationalities 


14,677 
6,394 
98 
90 
469 
43 
347 
46 
553 


51,408 
11,469 
449 
856 
2,491 
145 
1,617 
176 
3,709 


38,747 
9,440 
300 
241 
1,366 
139 
1,866 
277 
11,752 


46,067 
7,381 
3,051 
492 
2,146 
3,202 
9,386 
1,606 
62,094 


Total .... 


22,722 


71,719 


64,127 


125,414 



CANADA 



345 



Religion. 

The number of members of each religious creed was as follows in 
1941 : 



Roman Catholics 
United Church 
Anglicans 
Presbyterians . 
Baptists 
Lutherans 



4,800,895 

2,204,875 

1,751,188 

829,147 

483,592 

401,153 



Greek Catholics . . 185,657 

Jews . 168,367 

Greek Orthodox . . 139,629 
Others (incl. 894 Quakers), 

and religion not stated 542,152 



Total 



11,506,655 



The numbers of the leading denominations in the provinces, 
1941 : 



Province 


Roman 
Catholic 1 


United 
Oliurch 


Anglican 


Presby- 
terian 


Baptist 


Prince Edward Island 


42,743 


24,005 


5,739 


14,724 


6,443 


Nova Scotia . 


188,944 


124,301 


103,393 


47,415 


89,272 


New Brunswick 


220,454 


63,268 


55,165 


15,382 


88,766 


Quebec . 


2,894,621 


100,196 


162,056 


56,086 


12,303 


Ontario . 


882,369 


1,073,425 


815,413 


433,708 


192,915 


Manitoba 


203,259 


194,001 


125,076 


43,073 


13,267 


Saskatchewan . 


243,734 


230,495 


117,674 


54,856 


19,460 


Alberta . 


191,343 


193,664 


113,279 


68,910 


32,268 


British Columbia 


113,282 


200,817 


245,531 


94,300 


29,780 


Yukon . 


742 


404 


2,545 


422 


76 


N.W. Territories 


5,061 


299 


5,327 


271 


43 



1 Includes Greek Catholic. 



Education. 

By the British North America Act the Provincial Governments have 
control in educational matters. In all provinces except Quebec the number 
of private schools is small, so that elementary and secondary education in 
Canada is almost entirely state-controlled. Primary schools i.e. element- 
ary schools in all provinces, except Quebec, are free, and the same is true 
of secondary education in most provinces. In Quebec (except in certain 
municipalities) a fee is collected for primary education for every child of 
school age without reference to school attendance. In the same province 
Catholic and Protestant schools are under one Department 01 Public 
Instruction and are supported by a common system of taxation, but are 
administered independently. In Alberta, Ontario and Saskatchewan 
minority elementary schools, whether Protestant or Catholic, are called 
Separate Schools, and are under the same provincial administration as 
majority schools. Secondary education in these three provinces is non- 
sectarian. 

There are 6 state-controlled universities in Canada and 12 independent 
of provincial control. These, together with colleges of higher education, 
had an enrolment of 217,198 students in 1947, of whom 109,430 were of 
post-matriculation grade. 



346 



THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND EMPIRE 



The following statistics give information respecting the state- con trolled 
schools, exclusive of universities, in all provinces and including all primary 
schools in Quebec : 



Provinces 


Year ended 


Schools l 


Teachers 


Pupils 


Expendi- 
ture * 


Pr. Ed. Island 


30 June, 1947 


458 


672 


18,422 


687,087 


Nova Scotia 


31 July, 1947 


1,738 


3,838 


122,211 


7,697,408 


New Brunswick 


30 June, 1947 


1,591 


2,873 


96,435 


4,660,146 


Quebec 


30 June, 1947 


9,381 


26,546 


615,759 


68,000,000 


Ontario 


30 June, 1947 


7,300 


23,004 


678,043 


77,819,808 


Manitoba . 


30 June, 1947 


2,093 


4,312 


120,813 


10,391,087 


Saskatchewan 


30 June, 1947 


4,41s 1 


7.066 


170,329 


18,392.335 


Alberta . 


30 June, 1947 


2,577 


5,818 


155,517 


18,228.911 


British Columbia 


30 June, 1947 


963 


4,782 


137,827 


16,123,711 


Total . 




30,509 


78,911 


2,115,356 


222,000,493 



1 Number of school sections or districts. 

1 By and through school boards, excluding expenditures of provincial governments. 

The aboriginal Indian population numbered 118,316 in 1941 and of 
these about 110,000 live on the Indian Reserves. The Dominion Govern- 
ment provides a special school system for the Indian youth, of whom 
19,622 were enrolled in its schools in 1947. 

In 1948, there were 1,950 cinemas with a seating capacity of 930,491. 

Justice and Crime. 

There is a Supreme Court in Ottawa, having appellate, civil and criminal 
jurisdiction in and throughout Canada. There is an Exchequer Court, which 
is also a Court of Admiralty. There is a Superior Court in each province and 
county courts, with limited jurisdiction, in most of the provinces, all the 
judges in these courts being appointed by the Governor-General. Police 
magistrates and justices of the peace are appointed by the Provincial 
Governments. 

For the year ended 30 Sept., 1948, total convictions for indictable 
offences were 41,632; total convictions for all offences amounted to 918,277, 
These figures are for convictions of adults only. The number of juvenile 
delinquents who were convicted of major and minor offences was 7,155 for 
the year ended 30 Sept., 1948. 



Social Insurance. 

The Canadian Unemployment Insurance Act came into operation on 
1 July, 1941. At first no person who received more than $2,000 per year 
was covered, but by an amendment to the Unemployment Insurance Act, 
which came into effect on 1 September, 1943, all employees paid on a 
oontraotual basis of an hourly, daily, weekly or piece rate (including a 
mileage rate) are now included in insurable employment regardless of the 
amount of their earnings, together with all other employees who receive 
$2,400 or less per year under monthly or semi-monthly rates, or less than 
$3,120 per year under a weekly rate. 

From 1 July, 1941, to 31 December, 1948, employers and employees paid 
$513,067,763 into the fund and the Dominion added $102,603,224. 



CANADA 



347 



Finance. 

The following relates to the Consolidated Fund, i.e., general revenue 
and expenditure : 



Years ended 31 March 


Ordinary revenue 


Total expenditure 


1943-44 
1944-45 
1945-46 
1946-47 
1947-48 
1948-49 


Dollars 
2,570,094,424 
2,300.097,373 
2,363,161,854 
2,588.530,895 
2,629,845,986 
2,649,089,827 


Dollars 
5,322,253,505 
5,245,611,924 
6.136.228,506 
2,634,227,412 
2,195,626,454 
2,175,892,334 



Consolidated Fund revenue, 1948-49 (in dollars) : 



Customs .... 
Excise .... 
Return on investments 
Post Office 


222,975,471 
204.651,969 
107,888.905 
80,604,216 


Revenue from taxes 
Various 

Total 


2,008,614,836 
146,759,678 


2,771,395,076 



Detailed estimates of the expenditure for the year ended 31 March, 
1950 : - 



Department 


Dollars 


Department 


Dollars 


Agriculture 
Auditor-General's Office . 
Chief Electoral Officer 
Civil Service Commission . 
External Affairs 
Finance .... 
Fisheries .... 
Governor-General and Lieu- 
tenant-Governors . 
Insurance. 
Justice 
Department . 
Penitentiaries 
Labour 
Department . 
Unemployment Insurance 
Legislation 
Mines and Resources 
National Defence 
National Health and Wel- 
fare . 
National Revenue 
Post Office 
Prime Minister's Office 
Privy Council . 
Public Archives 
Public Printing and Sta- 
tionery 
Public Works . 
Reconstruction and Sup- 
ply 
Department . 
National Film Board 


49,408,253 
565.081 
74,668 
1.405,143 
15,498,881 
613,464,982 
7,196,340 

247,972 
293,119 

4,373,108 
6,852,680 

11,008,525 
38,620,631 
4,157,013 
63,311,709 
375,000,000 

396,348,311 
62,592,566 
81,474,204 
132,065 
3,321,985 
176,393 

575,000 
87,766,955 

2,981,838 
1,983,910 


Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police. 
Secretary of State . 
Trade and Commerce 
Department . 
Dominion Coal Board . 
National Research Council 
Atomic Energy Control 
Board 
Canadian Arsenals 
Limited . 
Transport 
Veterans' Affairs 

Total Expenditure . 

Chargeable to Ordinary 
Account 1 
Chargeable to Capital 
Account* 
Chargeable to Sp