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Full text of "The Statesmans Year Book 1931"

00 

68425 



Advertisements. 



THE 



STANDARD BANK OF SOUTH AFRICA 

LIMITED 

Hankers fo the Imperial Government in South \frna. and to the Governments ol 
Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, and '1 anganyika 



CAPITAL Authorised and Subscribed - 10,000,000 

CAPITAL PAID UP .... 2,500,000 

RESERVE FUND 3,164,170 

CAPITAL UNCALLED ... - 7,500,000 



Head Office : 10 CLEMENTS LANE, LOMBARD STREET, 
and 77 King William Street, London, E.G.4. 

London Wall Branch 63 LONDON WALL, E C 2. 
West End Branch 9 NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, W C 2 

Ovci 370 Branches, Sub-Branches and Agencies in South, Fast and Central \futa 



BANKING BUSINESS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 
TRANSACTED AT ALL BRANCHES AND AGENCIES. 



EXECUTORSHIPS AND TRUSTEESHIPS UNDERTAKEN. 



The STANDARD BANK MONTHLY REVIEW Is tent post free on application 

It gives the latest information on all South, East and Central African matters 

of Trade and Commercial Interest. 



HLKTRAM I OU'XDl-S, London Man 



THE CHARTERED BANK OF INDIA, 

AUSTRALIA AND CHINA. 
38 BISHOPSGATE, LONDON, E.G. 2 

(INCOKPOK I 'I hi) 7>T ROYAL ClIAR'lER] 

Capital, 3,000,000. Reserve Fund, 4,000,000. 

COURT OF DIRECTORS 

Sir Montagu Cornish Turner, Chairman Sir Henry Pelham Wentworth Macnaghten 

Colin Frederick Campbell, Esq Sir William Foot Mitchell 

Bit William Henry Neville Goschen, Bt , K E E Archibald Rose, Esq , C I 
Archibald Auldjo Jamieson, Esq Arthur d' Any erg Willis, Esq 

Edward Fairbairn Mackay, Esq Jasper Bertram Young, Esq 

W E Preston, Chief Manager J 8 Bruce. 6 Miller, Managers 

Agencies and Branches : Alor Star (Malay States), Amritsar, Bangkok, 
Batavia, Bombay, Calcutta, Canton , Cawnpore, Cebu, Colombo, Dairen, 
Delhi, Haiphong, Hamburg, Hankow, Harbin, Hongkong, Iloilo, Ipoh, 
Karachi, Klang, Kobe, Kuala Kangsar (Perak), Kuala Lumpur, Kuching 
(Sarawak), Madras, Manila, Medan, New York, Peking, Penang, Sitia- 



wan (F.M.S.) Rangoon, Saigon, Semarang (Java), Seremban, Shanghai, 
Singapore, Sourabaya, Taiping (F.M.S.)* Tavoy (Lower Burma), Tient- 
sin, Tokyo, Tongkah (Bhuket), Tsingtao, Yokohama, Zambanga 



Singapore, Sourabaya, Taiping (F.M.S.)* Tavoy (Lower Burma), Tient- 
(Bhuket), Tsingtao, 
(Philippine Islands). 

The Corporation buy and receive for collection Bills of Lxch.inpe, grant Drafts payable at the 
above Agencies and Branches, and transact general Banking business connected with the T-ast 

Deposits of money are received jor lixed periods on terms which may be ascertained on 
application , interest payable half-yeirly joth June and aist December 

On Current Accounts interest is allowed at 2 per cent per annum on the minimum monthly 
balances, provided they do not fall below ,200 

The Bank is prepared to undertake Trusteeships and Executorships. 

[B] 



Advertisements. 



Two Popular Hotels in Central London 



OPPOSITE THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

THACKERAY HOTEL 

Great Russell Street, London, W.C. 1 



NEAR THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

KINGSLEY HOTEL 

Hart Street, Bloomsbury Square, London, W.C.1 



200 Rooms in each Hotel. Modern Arrangements. 
COMFORT REFINEMENT 

HOT AND COLD WATER AND ELECTRIC 
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Bedroom, Breakfast & Attendance 

From 8/6 per night. 

Inclusive Terms on application. 



Thackeray Hotel : THACKERAY, LONDON.' 
Kingsley Hotel: "BOOKCRAFT, LONDON." 



[c] 



Advertisements. 



The MERCANTILE 
BANK of INDIA Ltd. 

Head Office: 15 Gracechurch Street, London, E.G.3 

Capital Authorised .... 3,000,000 

Capital Paid Up 1,050,000 

Reserve Fund and Undivided Profits 1,666,8*5 



Branches and Agencies throughout the East 



Executors and Trustees 

The Bank has power to undertake these duties, and 

the appointment of a Corporation secures important 

advantages. 

A booklet giving full particulars may be obtained on 

request. 

School of Oriental Studies, 

LONDON INSTITUTION. 



(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON) 

FINSBURY CIRCUS, E,C. 2. 



Director - Prof. SIB E. DENISON Ross, C.I.E., Ph.D. 



Instruction is given in Arabic, Turkish, 
Persian, Hindustani, Tamil, Chinese, Japan- 
ese, Swahili, Hausa, and other important 
languages of the East and of Africa. Special 
arrangements are made for students desiring 
intensive instruction. 



THE 

STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK 



SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL PUBLICATION 



MACMILLAV AND CO, LIMITI n 

I ON DON ' BOM1J\\ CALCUI1\ M \DRAS 
MFI BOURNE 

THE MACMILLAX COMPANY 

VI \\ YORK BOSTON CIIRVGO 
1 \J 1 V^ AILAN'l \ S\ 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
OF CANADA, LIMITED 

TORONLO 



THE 

STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK 

STATISTICAL AND HISTOBICAL ANNUAL OF 

THE STATES OF THE WOELD 

FOR THE YEAR 

o 



1901 



EDITED BY 

M. EPSTEIN, M.A., PH.D. 

I HIOW 01- JHh KOYAL <.KO(-JUPHICAL, OF THh HV\ \L bUll-sTir \l , <VND OF THE ROYAL 
K( ONOMK s(KlMIJ-s 



JSIXTY-EIGUTH ANNUAL PUBLICATION. REVISKD AFTER 
OFFICIAL RETURNS 



MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED 
ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON 

1931 



Man sagt oft : Zahlen regieren die Welt. 
Das aber ist gewiss, Zahlen zeigen wie sie regiert wird. 

GOETHE. 



COPYRIGHT 
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 



PREFACE 

IT has been the aim of the Editor to make the YEAR-BOOK a mirror 
of the political and economic conditions of the countries of the world, 
as they were at the thirty-first of March of the present year. To this 
end every section lias been revised and brought up to date, and 
furnished with the latest statistics, including in many cases the trade 
returns for 1930. 

Since the last issue of the YEAR-BOOK was published a Census was 
taken not only in the United States, but also in Chile, Czechoslovakia, 
Hungary, Honduras, Latvia, Mexico, the Dutch East Indies, Norway 
and Switzerland. The returns will be found incorporated in the 
sections devoted to these respective countries. The two maps illustrate 
interesting aspects of recent political developments. 

Important information that became available too late for inclusion 
in the body of the book will be found under "Additions and 
Corrections." 

The Editor's task would have been impossible without the help of 
friends all over the world. To one and all he desires to express his 

warmest thanks. 

M.E. 

STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK OFFICE, 
MACMILLAN & Co., LTD., 
ST. MARTIN'S STREET, 
LONDON, W.C. 2. 

March 31, 1931. 



METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Metric measures most commonly found in statistical returns, with 
equivalents : 



LENGTH. 


SURFACE MEASURE. 


Centimetre 39 inch 
Metre 39 '37 inches 
Kilometre 621 mile 


Square metre ... 10 '26 sq. feet 
Hectare 2*47 acres 
Square kilometre ... 0'336 sq. mile 


LIQUID MEASURE. 


DRY MEASURE. 


Litre 176 pints 
Hectolitre 22 gallons 


Litre 0*91 quart 
Hectolitre 275 bushels 


WEIGHT AVOIRDUPOIS. 


WEIGHT TROY. 


Gramme 15*42 grains 
Kilogramme 2 205 pounds 
Quintal ... 220*46 pounds 
Ton 2204 '6 pounds 


Gramme 15*42 grains 
Kilogramme ... 3215 ounces, 
2*68 pounds 



CONTENTS 

PART I. THE BRITISH EMPIEE. 

PART II. THE UNITED STATES OF AMEEICA. 

PART III. OTHER COUNTRIES. 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES. 

I. THE BRITISH EMPIRE, 1929-1930. 
H,-~WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM. 
III. WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF COAL (1929 and 1930). 
IV. WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF IRON AND STEEL (1929 and 

1930). 
V. WORLD'S PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF SOME 

IMPORTANT METALS. 

VI. EUROPEAN PRODUCTION OF SUGAR. 
VII. WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF MOTOR CARS. 
VIII. MOTOR CARS IN THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OF THE 

WORLD J 

IX. WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL SILK. 
X. FLEETS OF THE WORLD 
XL WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING. 
XII.-THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

I. MEMBERSHIP. 
II. THE ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE. 

III. BUDGET OF THE LEAGUE. 

IV, PUBLICATIONS OF THE LEAGUE. 
V. MANDATES. 

VI. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE. 



Vlll 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



INDIA Coal production. 

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA Trade in 
1930. 

CANADA Distribution of trade in 
1930. 

ONTARIO Gold output in 1930. 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA Trade in 1930. 

FRANCE Final Budget figures, 1931- 
32. 



ALGERIA Budget, 1931-32. 
HONDURAS Trade in 1929-30. 

NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES Trade 
in 1930. 

NICARAGUA Managua destroyed. 
SIAM Trade in 1930. 

British Military Attaches At Paris, 
Rome, Vienna, etc. 



MAPS. 

1. YUGOSLAVIA, SHOWING NEW POLITICAL DIVISIONS. 

2. THE PRESENT STATUS OF SOUTH AMERICAN BOUNDARIES. 



CONTENTS 



PART THE FIRST. 
THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 



REIGNING KING AND EMPEROR 

I. GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND . 
II. INDIA, THE DOMINIONS, COLONIES, PROTECTORATES, 
DEPENDENCIES 

EUROPE 

NORTHERN IRELAND 
JSLE OF MAN 
CHANNEL ISLANDS 
IRISH FREE STATE 
GIBRALTAR . 
MALTA 



ASIA 
ADEN, PERIM, 

&c. . 

BAHRAIN ISLANDS 
BORNEO (BRITISH) 
BRITISH NORTH 
BRUNEI . 
SARAWAK 
CEYLON 

MALDIVE ISLANDS 
CYPRUS 
HONG KONG 
INDIA AND Di 
BRITISH PROVINCES 
AJMER-MERWARA 
ANDAMAN ANI 
ISLANDS . 
ASSAM . 
BALUCHISTAN 
BENGAL PRES 
BIHAR AND ORISSA 
BOMBAY PRES 
BURMA . 
CENTRAL PRO 

BERAR 
COORG . 
DELHI . 
MADRAS PRES 
LAOOADIVR Is 
NORTH-WEST 

PROVINCE 
PUNJAB 
UNITED PRO\ 
AGRA AND ( 
INDIAN STATES 

CIES . 
ASSAM STATE 



PAOE 

3 
5 



AND 



E8 . 






75 




PAGE 


ASIA- 


PAGE 


,ND . 


66 


INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 




. 


71 


INDIAN STATES & AGEN- 




S 


71 


CIES 




'E 


76 


BARODA 


165 




90 


BENGAL STATES . 


166 


t . 


92 


BIHAR & ORISSA STATES 


166 






BOMBAY STATES . 


166 






BURMA STATES . 


167 


SOKOTRA, 




CENTRAL INDIA AGENCY 
CENTRAL PROVINCES 


167 





95 


STATES 


167 


J 


96 


GWALIOR 


167 




97 


HYDERABAD . 


168 


a BORNEO 


97 


KASHMIR AND JAMMU . 


168 


. 


98 


MADRAS STATES . 


169 


. 


99 


MYSORE 


170 


. 


100 


NORTH-WEST FRONTIER 




DS . 


105 


AGENCIES . 


170 




106 


PUNJAB STATES . 


171 




109 


RAJPUTANA . 


172 


DENCIE8 . 


113 


SIKKIM 


172 


ICES 




UNITED PROVINCES 




7ARA 


145 


STATES 


172 


D NlCOBAR 




WESTERN INDIA STATES 


173 


. 


146 


THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS . 


173 


. 


147 


Cocos or KEELING ISLANDS 


178 


. 


148 


CHRISTMAS ISLAND . 


179 


IDENOY . 


150 


LABUAN .... 


179 


RISSA 


151 


FEDERATED MALAY STATES 


179 


IDENCY . 


153 


THE MALAY STATES NOT 




. 


155 


INCLUDED IN THE FEDER- 




VINCES & 




ATION .... 


183 


t 


156 






t t 


158 


Mandated Territories 




, , 


158 


PALESTINE .... 


186 


IDENCY . 


159 


TRANSJORDAN . 


193 


ILAND8 


160 






FRONTIER 




AFRICA- 




t 


161 


BRITISH EAST AFRICA 


196 


t 


161 


KENYA COLONY AND PRO- 




flNCES OF 




TECTORATE . 


196 


DUDH 


163 


UGANDA PROTECTORATE . 


200 


& AGEN- 




ZANZIBAR 


202 


. 


165 


MAURITIUS .... 


207 


t 


165 


NYASALAND PROTECTORATE 


210 


STATES . 


165 


ST. HELENA . 


211 



THE STATEMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931 



PAGE 

AFRICA- 
ASCENSION ISLAND . .212 
TRISTAN DA CUNHA . . 213 
SEYCHELLES . . .213 
SOMALILAND PROTECTORATE 215 
SOUTH AFRICA 
BASUTOLAND . . .216 
BECHUANALAND PROTEC- 
TORATE . . .218 
SOUTHERN RHODESIA . 219 
NORTHERN RHODESIA . 223 
SWAZILAND , . . 224 
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA . 226 
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE . 241 
NATAL .... 244 
THE TRANSVAAL . .246 
ORANGE FREE STATE . 248 
WEST AFRICA- 
NIGERIA . . . .251 
GAMBIA .... 255 
GOLD COAST . . . 257 
ASHANTI .... 259 
NORTHERN TERRITORIES 260 
SIERRA LEONE. . . 260 
THE PROTECTORATE . 262 
ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN . 263 

Mandated Territories 
TANGANYIKA TERRITORY . 269 
SOUTH-WEST AFRICA . . 272 
CAMEROONS. . . . 276 
TOGOLAND . . , .277 
AMERICA- 
BERMUDA . 277 
CANADA .... 279 
CANADIAN PROVINCES- 
ALBERTA .... 302 
BRITISH COLUMBIA . . 305 
MANITOBA . . .308 
NEW BRUNSWICK . .310 
NOVA SCOTIA . . .311 
ONTARIO . . . .314 



AMERICA 

CANADIAN PROVINCES- 
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 316 
QUEBEC . . . .318 
SASKATCHEWAN . . 320 
YUKON .... 321- 
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES 322 
FALKLAND ISLANDS . . 323 
GUIANA, BRITISH . . 324 
HONDURAS, BRITISH . . 327 
NEWFOUNDLAND AND LAB- 
RADOR .... 329 
WEST INDIES . . .333 
BAHAMAS . . . 333 
BARBADOS . . . 334 
JAMAICA . . . .336 
CAYMAN ISLANDS . . 338 
TURKS & CAICOS ISLANDS 338 
LEEWARD ISLANDS . . 338 
TRINIDAD . . .341 
WINDWARD ISLANDS 344 

AUSTRALASIA AND OCEANIA 
COMMONWEALTH OF AUS- 
TRALIA . . . .346 
NEW SOUTH WALES . . 361 
VICTORIA . . .371 

QUEENSLAND . . .378 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA . . 384 
WESTERN AUSTRALIA . . 389 
TASMANIA . . , .395 
NORTHERN TERRITORY . 400 
PAPUA . . . .402 
NEW ZEALAND . . 404 

FIJI 418 

PACIFIC ISLANDS 
TONGA . . . .421 
OTHER ISLANDS . . 422 

Maiidated Territories 
NEW GUINEA . . .425 
WESTERN SAMOA . . 429 
NAURU .... 430 



PART THE SECOND. 
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



UNITED STATES. . . 435 
STATES AND TERRITORIES- 
ALABAMA .... 484 
ARIZONA . . . .486 
ARKANSAS . . . .489 
CALIFORNIA . . .491 
COLORADO .... 495 
CONNECTICUT . . 498 



STATES AND TERRITORIES- 
DELAWARE . . . .500 
DISTRICT OF' COLUMBIA . 502 
FLORIDA . . . .504 
GEORGIA . . . .506 
IDAHO . . . .509 
ILLINOIS . . . ,511 
INDIANA .... 514 



CONTENTS 


xi 


PAGE 


PAGE 


UNITED STATES (STATES 




UNITED STATES (STATES 




AND TERRITORIES) 




AND TERRITORIES) 




IOWA . . 


517 


OREGON .... 


575 


KANSAS .... 


519 


PENNSYLVANIA . 


578 


KENTUCKY .... 


522 


RHODE ISLAND . 


581 


LOUISIANA .... 


524 


SOUTH CAROLINA 


583 


MAINE .... 


527 


SOUTH DAKOIA . 


586 


MARYLAND .... 


529 


TENNESSEE . . . . 


588 


MASSACHUSETTS . 


531 


TEXAS .... 


591 


MICHIGAN 


536 


UTAH .... 


593 


MINNESOTA .... 


538 


VERMONT .... 


596 


MISSISSIPPI .... 


541 


VIRGINIA 


598 


MISSOURI .... 


543 


WASHINGTON 


601 


MONTANA .... 


546 


WEST VIRGINIA . 


603 


NEBRASKA .... 


548 


WISCONSIN .... 


606 


NEVADA .... 


550 


WYOMING .... 


609 


NEW HAMPSHIRE 


552 


OUTLYING TERRITORIES- 




NEW JERSEY 


554 


ALASKA TERRITORY . 


611 


NEW MEXICO 


557 


HAWAII .... 


614 


NEW YORK STATE 


559 


PORTO Rico 


616 


NORTH CAROLINA 


564 


AMERICAN VIRGIN ISLANDS . 


619 


NORTH DAKOTA . 


567 


PHILIPPINE ISLANDS . 


620 


OHIO 


569 


GUAM . 


625 


OKLAHOMA .... 


572 


SAMOAN ISLANDS 


626 


PART THE THIRD. 


OTHER 


COUNTRIES. 




ABYSSINIA .... 


631 


CZECHOSLOVAKIA . 


770 


AFGHANISTAN . 


637 


DANZIG .... 


779 


ALBANIA .... 


640 


DENMARK .... 


782 


ARABIA 


644 


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC . 


793 


HEJAZ AND NE.ID . 


645 


ECUADOR .... 


798 


YEMEN .... 


647 


EGYPT .... 


805 


OMAN .... 


648 


ESTONIA .... 


821 


KUWAIT .... 


649 


FINLAND . . . . 


826 


ARGENTINE REPUBLIC . 


650 


FRANCE .... 


836 


AUSTRIA .... 


663 


ANDORRA .... 


866 


BELGIUM .... 
BELGIAN CONGO 


671 
683 


COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES 

A ay A _ 


866 


BHUTAN .... 


689 


.TVOIA 

FRENCH INDIA . 


868 


BOLIVIA .... 


690 


FRENCH INDO-CHINA . 


869 


BRAZIL. 


697 
708 


COCHIN-CHINA 
ANNAM .... 


870 
871 


BULGARIA .... 


CHILE 


717 


CAMBODIA 


872 


CHINA 


727 


TONKING .... 


873 


MANCHURIA 


744 


LAOS .... 


874 


TIBET .... 

SlN-KlANG .... 


745 
746 


KWANG CHAU WAN 


874 


MONGOLIA .... 


746 


FRANCE ASIA 




COLOMBIA .... 
COSTA RICA 


752 
759 


Mandated Territories 




CUBA 


764 


SYRIA AND LEBANON . 


875 



Ill 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931 



PAGE 

FRANCE- 


GERMANY STATES OF GER- 


PAGE 


AFRICA 


MANY 




ALGERIA . . . .879 


THURINGIA .... 


960 


TUNIS 885 


WURTTEMBERG . 


962 


FRENCH CONGO . . . 890 
MADAGASCAR . . . 892 
MAYOTTE AND THE COMORO 
ISLANDS . . . 896 
REUNION , 897 
SOMALI COAST . . . 898 
WEST AFRICA AND THE SA- 


GREECE .... 
GUATEMALA 
HAITI 
HONDURAS .... 
HUNGARY .... 
ICELAND .... 
IRAQ 


964 

97 
980 
984 
988 
997 
1004 


HARA .... 899 

SENEGAL . 902 


ITALY 


1010 


GUINEA .... 903 


FOREIGN DEPENDENCIES 




IVORY COAST . . . 903 


EllITREA .... 


1033 


DAHOMEY . . . 904 


SOMALILAND . 


1034 


FRENCH SUDAN . . 905 


TRIPOLITANIA . 


1035 


UPPER VOLTA . . . 906 


CYRENAICA 


1038 


MAURITANIA . . . 906 


AEGEAN ISLANDS . 


1039 


NIGER . . . .907 


TIENTSIN (CONCESSION OF) 1041 


MdTidatcd TcTvi/tori 6s ~~ 


JAPAN 


1044 




KORKA 


lOfil 


CAMEROON .... 908 


FORMOSA (TAIWAN) . 


J.UU1 

1065 


AMERICA 


PESCADORES 


1066 


GUADELOUPE AND DEPEND- 


SAKHALIN 


1066 


ENCIES .... 909 


KWANTUNG 


1067 


GUIANA . . .910 


PACIFIC ISLANDS . 


1067 


MARTINIQUE . . .911 
ST. PIERRE AND MIQUELON 911 
AUSTRALASIA AND OCEANIA 
NEW CALEDONIA AND DE- 
PENDENCIES . . . 912 
NEW HEBRIDES , . 913 
FRENCH ESTABLISHMENTS IN 
OCEANIA . , .914 


LATVIA .... 
LIBERIA .... 
LIECHTENSTEIN 
LITHUANIA 
LUXEMBURG 
MEXICO 
MONACO .... 
MOROCCO . 


1070 
1076 
1079 
1080 
1084 
1087 
1096 
1097 


GERMANY . . . .915 


NEPAL 


1108 


THE SAAR . . . . 939 


NETHERLANDS (THE) 


1110 


STATES OF GERMANY 


COLONIES 


1126 


ANHALT .... 939 


DUTCH EAST INDIES . 


1126 


BADEN .... 940 


DUTCH WEST INDIES- 




BAVARIA . . . .942 


SURINAM OR DUTCH 




BREMEN . . . .945 


GUIANA 


1133 


BRUNSWICK . . .946 


CURA9AO .... 


1135 


HAMBURG. . . .946 
HESSE 948 


NICARAGUA 


1138 


LIPPE .... 949 


NORWAY .... 


1143 


LUBECK .... 950 
MECKLBNBURG-SCHWERIN 950 


SPITSBERGEN 
JAN MAYEN ISLAND . 


1156 
1156 


MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ . 951 


BOUVET ISLAND . 


1157 


OLDENBURG . . .951 


PANAMA .... 


1159 


PRUSSIA .... 952 


PANAMA CANAL . 


1162 


SAXONY . . . .957 


PARAGUAY .... 


1165 


SCHATTMBTTRG-LlPPE . . 960 


PERSIA .... 


1171 



CONTENTS 



Xlll 



PERU . 
POLAND 
PORTUGAL 

DEPENDENCIES 
ROME, SEE AND 

OF . 
RUMANIA 
RUSSIA 
SALVADOR . 



, INDEX 



PAOE 




PAGE 


. 1180 


SAN MARINO . 


, 1264 


. 1189 


SIAM . 


. 1265 


. 1201 


SPAIN . 


. 1273 


1208 


SWEDEN . 


. 1292 


\D CHURCH 


SWITZERLAND . 


. 1809 


. 1215 


TURKEY 


. 1323 


. 1221 


URUGUAY . 


, 1336 


. 1229 


VENEZUELA 


. 1843 


. 1260 


YUGOSLAVIA . 


. 1349 






. 1361 



XIV 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931 



INDEX TO INTRODUCTORY TABLES AND 
ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS 



ALGERIA, Budget (1931-32), xxxin 

Aluminium, World's production and con- 
sumption (1913, 1927-29), xix 

Argentina- 
Motor cars (1930), xx 
Petroleum (1927-20), xvin 

Artificial silk, World's production (1920- 
30), xxi 

Australia, Motor cars (1930), xxi 

Austria- 
Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx 
Sugar (1923-31), xix 

BELGIUM 

Artificial silk (1929-30), xxi 

Coal (191 3, 1929-30), xviu 

Iron and steel (1913, 1929-30), xix 

Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx ; 
number of (1930), xxi 

Sugai (1928-31), xix 
British Empire 

Area and population (1929-30), xvi, xvu 

Commerce (1Q29-30), xvi, xvn 

Debt (1929-30), xvi, xvn 

Finance (1929-30), xvi, xvii 

Fleet (1931), xxn, xxin 

Naval Estimates ( I P31-32), xxlii 
Bulgaria, Sugar (1928-31), xix 

CANADA 

Area and population (1029-30), xvn 

Coal (1913, 1929-30), xvin 

Commerce (1929-30), xvii, xxxn 

Debt (1 929-30), xvii 

Distribution of trade (1929-30), xxxn 

Finance (1929-30), xvn 

Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx ; 

number of (1930), xxi 
Coal, World's production (1913, 1929-30), 

xviu 

Colombia, Petroleum (1927-29), xvin 
Commerce- 
British Empire (1929-30), xvi, xvn 

Canada (1929-30), xvn, xxxn 

Czechoslovakia (1929-30), \\xni 

Honduras (1929-80), xxxiii 

Nethei lands East Indies (1929-30), xxxiii 

Slam (1930), xxxiv 

South Africa (1930), xxxn 
Copper, World's production and consump- 
tion (1913, 1927-29), xix 
Czechoslovakia 

Coal (1913, 1929-10), xviii 

Iron and steel (1913, 1929-30), xix 

Motor oars (1928-29), xr 

Sugar (1928-31), xix 

Trade (1930), xxxiii 

DANZIG, Sugar (1928-31), xix 
Debt, British Empire (1929-30), xvi, xvii 
Denmark- 
Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx 
Shipbuilding (1929-30), xxiii 
Sugar (1928-31), xix 



EGYPT, Petroleum (1927-29), xviii 
England, Motoi cars, manufacture (1928-* 

29) xx ; number of (1930), xxi 
European production of sugar (1928-31) 

xix 

FINANCE 

British Empire (1929-30), xvi, xvii 

France (1931-32), xxxin 

Great Britain and N. Ireland (1929-30), 
xvi 

League of Nations, xxvii 
Finland, Sugar (1928-31), xix 
Fleets of the World (1931), xxn, \\iri 
France 

Artificial silk (1929-30) xxi 

Budget (1931-32), xxxiii 

Coal (1913, 1929-30), \vin 

Fleet (1931), xxn, xxni 

Iron and steel (1913, 1929-30). xix 

Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx ; 
number of (1930), xxi 

Na\al agreement with Italy, x\ni 

Shipbuilding (192^-30), \xni 

Su-ar (1928-31), six 
Franco-Italian naval agreement, TMU 

GERMANY 

Artificial silk (1929-30), xxi 

Coal (1913, 1929-30), xvin 

Fleet (1931), xxii, xxiii 

Iron and steel (1913, 1929-30), xix 

Motor cais, manufacture (1928-29), xx; 

numbei of (1930), xxi 
Shipbuilding ( 1929-30), xvin 
Sugar (1928-31), xix 

Great Britain- 
Iron and steel (1913, 1929-30), xix 

Great Britain and N. Ireland 
Area and population (1929-30) xvi, xvii 
Commerce (1929-30), xvi 
Debt (1929-30), xvi 
Finance (1929-30), xvi 
Shipbuilding (1929-30) xxiii 

Greece- 
Motor cars (1930), xxi 

HONDURAS, Trade (1929-SO), xxxiii 

Hungary- 
Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29) xx ; 

number of (1930), xxi 
Sugar (1928-31), xix 

INDIA 

Area and population (1929-30), xvi 

Coal (1913, 1928-30), xviii, xxxii 

Commerce (1929-30), xvi 

Debt (1929-30), xvi 

Finance (1929-30), xvi 

Motor cars (1930), xxi 

Petroleum (1927-29), xviii 
International Laboui Organisation, xxix- 

xxxi 

Iron and Hteel, World's production (1913, 
1929-30), xix 



INDEX TO INTRODUCTION 



XV 



Italy 

Artificial silk (1929-30), xxi 

Fleet (1931), xxii, xxiii 

Iron and steei (1913, 1929-30), xix 

Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx ; 

number of (1930), xxi 
Naval agreement with France, xxiii 
Shipbuilding (1929-30), xxiu 
Sugar (1928-31), xix 

JAPAN 

Artificial Bilk (1929-30), xxi 

Coal (1913, 1929-30), xvni 

Fleet (1931), xxii, xxiu 

Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx ; 

number of (1930), xxi 
Petroleum (1927-29), xvin 
Shipbuilding (1929-30), xxin 

LATVIA, Sugar (1928-31), xix 

Lead, World's production and consumption 

(1913, 1927-29), xix 
League of Nations, The, xxiv-xxxi 

Budget, xxvn 

International Labour Organisation, 
xxix-x\xi 

Mandates, xxvin, xxix 

Membership, xxiv 

Organs, xxv-xxvn 

Publications, xxvni 
Luxemburg, Iron and steel (1929-30), xix 

MANAGUA (Nicaragua), earthquake, XXMV 
Metals, World's pioduction and consump- 
tion of some important (1913, 
1927-29), xix 

Metric weights and measures, vi 
Mexico, Petroleum (1927-29), xvin 
Motor Cais 

Number of, in principal countries, xxi 
World's production (1926-29), \x 

NAVAL ESTIMATES, British, (1931-32), 

xxiii 
Netherlands, The 

Artificial silk (1929-30), xxi 

Coal (1913, 1929-30), xviu 

Motor cars (1930), xxi 

Shipbuilding (1U'J9-30), xxiii 

Sugar (1928-31), xix 
Netherlands East Indies 

Petroleum (1927-29), xviii 

Trade (1929-30), xxxiu 
Nicaragua, earthquake, xxxiv 
Northern Ireland, Motor cars (1930), x\i 
Norway, Motor cars (1930), xxi 

ONTARIO, Gold output (1930), xxxiii 

PERSIA, Petroleum (1927-29), xviii 

Peru, Petroleum (1927-29), xviii 

Petroleum, World's production (1927-29), 
xvni 

Poland- 
Coal (191 3, 1929-30), xviii 
Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx 
Petroleum (1927-29), xviii 
Sugar (1928-81), xix 

Portugal, Motor cars (1980), xxi 

RUMANIA- 
Motor cars (1980), xxi 
Petroleum (1927-29), xviii 
Sugar (1928-31), xix 



Russia [See Union of Soviet Socialist 

Republics] 
Coal (1913, 1929-30), xvin 
Iron and steel (1913, 1929-39), xix 
Motoi cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx 
Petroleum (1927-29), xvin 
Shipbuilding (1929), xxiu 

SAAR, THIS 

Coal (1913, 1929-30), xvni 

Iron and steel (1929-80), xix 
Sarawak, Petroleum (1927-29), xvin 
Scotland, Motor cars (1930), xxi 
Shipbuilding, World's (1929-30), xxiii, XMV 
Siam 

British Military Attaches, xxxiv 

Trade (1930) xxxiv 
South Africa, Union of 

Area and population (1929-30), xvi 

Coal (191 3, 1929-30), xvni 

Commerce (1929-30), xvi, xxxii 

Debt (1929-30), xvi 

Finance (1929-30), xvi 

Motor cars (1930), XM 
Spam- 
Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx , 
number of (1930), xxi 

Sugar (1928-31), MX 
Steel, World s production (1913, 1929-30), 

xix 

Sugar, European production (1928-31), xix 
Sweden- 
Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xxi 

Shipbuilding (1929-30), \xiii 

Sugar (1928-31), xir 
Swit/erland 

Artificial silk (1929-30), xxi 

Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx ; 
number ot (1930), xxi 

Sugar (192S-31), xix 

TIX, World's production and consumption 

(1913, 1927-29), xix 
Trinidad, Petroleum (1927-29), xviu 
Turkey in Europe, Sugar (1928-81), xix 

UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST RE- 
PUBLICS, Fleet (1931), \xn, xxm 
United Kingdom 

Aitificial silk (1929-30), xxi 

Coul (1913, 1920-30), xviu 

Sugar (1928-31), xix 
United States of America 

Aitificial silk (1929-30), xxi 

Coal (1913, 1929-30), XMii 

Fleet (1931), xxii, xxiii 

Iron and steel (1918, 1929-30), xix 

Petroleum (1927-29), xvni 

Motor cars, manufacture (1928-29), xx ; 
number of (1930), xxi 

Shipbuilding (1929-80), xxi i 

VENEZUELA, Petroleum (1927-C9), xv.ii 
WALES, Motor cars (1980), xxi 
YUGOSLAVIA, Sugar (1928-31), xix 

ZINC, World's production and consump- 
tion (1913, 1927-29), xix 



XVI 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931 



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INTRODUCTOBY TABLES 



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XV111 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931 



II. WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM. 

The following table shows the world's production of petroleum for 3 years : 



Country. 


19-29 


1028 


1927 


United States 


Metric tons 
141,992,032 


Metric tons 
127,152,000 


Meti ic tons 
128,017,000 


Venezuela . . . 
Russia ....... 


20,307,105 
14,250,584 


15,500,070 
12,285,046 


9,147,700 
10,284,000 


Mexico 


6,821,707 


7,654,852 


9,119,300 


Persia 


(5,022,092 


5,600,138 


5,227,200 


Dutch East Indies ... 
Rumania .... . 


5,100,000 
4,827,278 
2,830,371 


4,200,000 

4,509,787 
2,768,581 


3,628,116 
3,661,360 
2,073,800 


Peru . 
Trinidad 
Argentina ....... 


1,811,591) 
1,344,833 
1,259,302 


1,617,742 
1,1*2,953 
1,302,214 


1,392,040 
738,770 
1,235,790 


India 
Sarawak 
Poland 
Japan 

Egypt 
Other countries . 


1,170,374 
7<'0,1<56 
693,018 
287,b36 
271,520 
835,146 


1,146,821 

751,092 
773,762 
257,581 
268,461 
613,328 


1,164,770 

711,750 
823,860 
241,470 
183,284 
394,170 


Total . 


210,656,760 


187,074,431 


178,044,386 



III.-WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF COAL. 

The following table shows the world's production of coal for 3 yeais (m thousands of 
tons) : 



Country 


1013 


11)29 


1<J30 


United States .... 


517.000 


552,310 


482,110 


United Kingdom 


292,000 


262,046 


247,671 


Germany . 


140,700 


163,441 


142,098 


France 


44,000 


54,924 


55,027 


Japan ... 


23,300 


31,957 


28,877 


Poland . 


41,000 


46,237 


37,520 


Belgium . 


22,800 


26,940 


27,406 


British India 


16,500 


22,721 


22,948 


Russia 


29,100 


40,344 


47,220 


Czechoslovakia 


19,400 


16,521 


14,572 


South Africa .... 


8,200 


12,622 


11,890 


8aar . . 


12,100 


13,579 


13,23d 


Canada . . . 


13,600 


12,273 


10,268 


Netherlands . . 


1,900 


11,581 


12,211 




40,800 


61,100 


40,145 










Total 


1,222,800 


1,311,114 


1,193,799 











INTRODUCTORY TABLES 



XIX 



IV. -WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF IRON AND STEEL. 

The following table gives an estimate of the world's production of pig iron and steel 
for 3 years (in thousands of tons) : 







Pig iron 






Steel 






1913 


1929 


1930 


1913 


1929 


1930 


United States 


30,6'>3 


42,964 


31,903 


31,301 


55,184 


40,289 


Germany . 


19,000 


13,401 


9,695 


18,632 


16,246 


11,539 


France 


5,12(5 


10,304 


10,098 


4,614 


9,699 


9,403 


Great Britain 


10,2(50 


7,711 


6,296 


7,664 


9,791 


7,416 


Belgium 


2,445 


4,096 


3,394 


2,428 


4,132 


3,375 


Russia 


4,5(53 


4,322 


5,005 


4,181 


4,907 


5,683 


Luxemburg 





2,90(5 


2,474 


1 


2,702 


2,270 


The Saar . 





2,105 


1,912 


j 


2,209 


1,935 


Chechoslovakia 


230 


1,644 


1,435 




2,2">9 


1,835 


Italy . 


204 


1,678 


534 


! 


2,143 


1,774 


Total (including all 














other countries) 


77,714 


98,080 


70,670 


74,687 


119,040 


9% 385 



V. WORLD'S PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF SOME 
IMPORTANT METALS. 

The following table shows (in million tons) the world's production and consumption of 
copper, lead, /me, aluminium and tin 





Production 


Consumption 




(million tons) 


(million tons) 


Metal 








1913 


1927 


1928 


10'29 


1913 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Copper 


1 018 


1,519 


1,696 


1,908 


1,042 


1.V20 


1,733 


1,790 


Lead . 


1,186 


1,672 


1,043 


1,738 


1,182 


1,583 


1,610 


1,668 


Zinc . 


1,001 


1,818 


1,408 


1,468 


1,001 


1,311 


1,412 


1,453 


Aluminium 


65 


220 


243 


264 


66 


200 


'233 


269 


Tin 


132 


157 


183 


198 


129 


156 


175 


188 



VI.-EUROPEAN PRODUCTION OF SUGAR. 

The following table shows the production of sugar, according to principal countries m 
Euiopc (m million centals) : 



Country 


1930-31 


1929-30 


1928-29 


Country 


1930-31 


1929-30 


1928-29 


Germany . 


45,15 


39,34 


37,03 


Austria 


2,65 


2,41 


2,15 


Czechoslovakia . 


21,85 


20,45 


20,86 


Yugosla\ia. 


1,95 


2,63 


2,68 


Prance 


21,05 


18,20 


18,06 


Rumania 


1,90 


1,65 


2,68 


Poland 


15,15 


18,58 


15,14 


Bulgaria . 


0,95 


0,82 


0,60 


United Kingdom 


9,80 


0,63 


4,45 


Danzig 


0,85 


0,60 


0,60 


Italy . 


7,75 


8,82 


7,83 


Turkey in Europe 


0,25 


0,11 


0,08 


Spain 


6,85 


6,80 


5,88 


Swit7erland 


0,15 


0,14 


0,14 


Netherlands 


5,80 


6,30 


6,40 


Latvia 


0,14 


0,07 


0,04 


Belgium . 


5,55 

4'?*i 


5,04 
4 94 


5,59 

A A(\ 


Finland . 


0,06 


006 


0,07 


Denmark . 


3,45 


2,69 


8,40 


Total . 


158,00 


146,71 


140,75 


Sweden 


3,45 


2,48 


3,22 











XX 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931. 



VII.-WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF MOTOR CARS. 

The following table shows the extent of the world's production for 4 years: 



Item 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Pi eduction : 










World total number... 


5,035,204 


4,158,960 


5,203,239 


6,295,352 


Increase (+) or decrease () 










percent 


+ 2-9 


-174 


+ 25-1 


+ 20-9 


American manufacture (United 










States and Canada), per cent . 


89-5 


86 1 


88 4 


89.2 



The distribution of manufacture, by countries, is shown as follows : 







1^28 







1929 




Producing country 


Passenger 


Trucks 
and 


Total 


Passenger 


Trucks 
and 


Total 






buses 






buses 




United States 


3,827,849 


530,910 


4,358,750 


4,603,610 


754 804 


5 358,414 


Canada . 


196,741 


45,041 


242,382 


207,498 


50,797 


203,295 


Total . 


4,0-24,590 


576,551 


4,601,141 


4,SU,108 


810,601 


5,621,709 


All others : 














Austria . 


6,740 


2,670 


9,410 


5,960 


3,150 


9,110 


Belgium . 


6,000 


1.000 


7,000 


6,000 


1,000 


7,000 


Czechoslovakia 


10,360 


2,790 


13,150 


12,210 


2,580 


14,749 


Denmark . 


50 


115 


165 


__ 


150 


150 


England . 


105,852 


46,525 


211,877 


182,256 


57,576 


239,832 


France . 


15 '.,000 


55,000 


210,000 


215,000 


45,000 


260,000 


Germany . 


67,750 


22,200 


89,950 


56,500 


24,000 


80,500 


Hungary . 


201 


259 


460 


381 


251 


632 


Italy 


41,710 


13,300 


55,010 


44,000 


10,100 


54,100 


Japan 





470 


470 


__ 


215 


215 


Poland . 


20 


300 


320 


__ 


450 


450 


Russia . 


39 


760 


799 


152 


1,R54 


1,70 


(Spam 


l 


_i 


325 


190 


260 


450 


Sweden . 


1 


__1 


1,362 


500 


1.258 


1,758 


Switzerland . 


400 


1,300 


1,700 


150 


2,860 


3,000 


Total . 


- 


- 


601,998 


523,299 


150,344 


673,648 


Grand total . 








5,203,139 


5,334,407 


960,945 


6,295,852 



Not separately stated. 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES 



XXI 



VIII.-MOTOR CARS IN THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OF 
THE WORLD. 

The following table shows the estnrated number of motor cais m the principal countries 
of the world on January 1, 1930, and the number of inhabitants per motor cai . 







No of 






No. of 


Country 


No. of 
motor cars 


inhabi- 
tants 


Country 


No. of 
motorcars 


inhabi- 
tants 






per car 






per car 


United States 


26,053, 450 


4 


Italy . 


2oO,OOO l 


173 


Canada . 


1,016,867 


8 


Japan . 


41,000 


697 


England 
N. Ireland 


805.44Q 
1(5,727 


30 
51 


Netherlands East 
Indies 


37,708 


642 


Scotland 


77,132 


41 


Norway 


20,296 


67 


Wales . 


40,000 


"36 


Portugal 


16,512 


205 


Argentina 


263,724 


30 


Rumania 


25,970 


497 


Australia 


450,721 


10 


Spain . 


100,105 


130 


Belgium 


$3,000 


57 


Sweden 


80,000 


45 


France . 


902,lt)0 


31 


Switzerland . 


57,000 


56 


Germany 


432,000 


99 


South Africa 


124.500 


54 




3 1 9 5 


348 








Hungary 


11,339 


451. 


Total . 


3.'), 127,39s 1 


5 r > 


India . 


37,360 


2,083 









1 All kinds of motor vehicles. 



IX.-WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL SILK. 

The following table gives an estimate of the world's output of artificial silk for 2 years 
(in kilos) 



Country 


1930 


1929 


United States . 








50,900,000 


55,515,000 


Italy. 
United Kingdom 








29,650,000 
22,180,000 


32,340,000 
25,860,000 


Germany . 








22,000,000 


25,000,000 


Prance 








18,050,000 


16,80,000 


Japan 




. 




16,150,000 


14,000,000 


Holland . 








7,200,000 


7,750,000 


Belgium . 








4,750,000 


6,600,000 


Switzerland 








4,400,000 


5,570,000 


Total (including all others) . 


185,745,000 


200,210,000 



XX11 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931 



X.-FLEETS OF THE WORLD. 

The following table gives particulars of the Fleets of the world on February 1, 1931 :- 

BUILT. 



- 


ss 

I! 


United 
States 


(S 
1 


France 


t> 

s 


Soviet j 
Union 


Germany 


Battleships 


It 


18 


6 


9 


4 


4 


7 


Battle Cruisers .... 
Cruisers 


4 
53 


19 


4 
37 


16 


13 


8 


8 


Cruiser Minelayers 
Armoured Coast Defence Vessels and 
Monitors 
Aircraft Carriers 


3 

si 


1 
* 3 


4 

5 


1 


1 ' 






Flotilla Leaders . 
Destroyers . . 
Torpedo Boats . 


1G 
132 

59 


309 
107 


105 

67 


13 

60 
4 
54 


19 ' 
(n ' 
87 
40 


31 
6 

15 


16 
11 


Sloops ... . . 
Coastal Motor Boats 
Gunboats and Despatch Vessels 
River Gunboats . 
Minesweepers 


33 

i 
18 
33 


12 
8 
43 


3 

4 
10 
10 


8 
2 
44 
10 
26 


22 
30 
6 
2 I 

48 


4 

25 
2 

6 
20 


3 

27 



BUILDING. 



Battleships 












1 i 1 


Battle Cruisers . . . 
Cruisers < 0* 


9 


4 


5 


11 


__ i 


Cruiser Minelayei s 1 




1 


2 




\ 


Armoured Coast Defence Vessels and 
Monitors 












Aircraft Carriers ... . . ' 
Flotilla Leaders . . 3 7 


1 


1 


1< 

18 


1 


t _ 


Destroyers . . . . . . , 23* 
Torpedo Boats . . . 
Submarines ... . 7 * 


3 


10 
4 


1 
56 


12 
30 


l 


Sloops 8 1 






6 




1 


Coastal Motor Boats .... | 
Gunboats aud Despatch Vessels . . . ' , 
River Gunboats ; 1 
Minesweepers .... . ( , 


- 


- 




- 


4 

- 


- 1 

1 



1 Including 1 Seaplane Carrier which i not regarded as part of the War Fleet. 
' Twelve ntted as Minelayers, 23 assigned to Coast Guard duties, and 65 on the disposal 
list. 

Classed in Germany as large Torpedo Boats. 
4 Aviation transport. 

1 Details of Soviet Union Fleet must be accepted with considerable reserve Russian 
ships at Bizerta are not included in the number of the Soviet Union Fleet. In all classes 
excent Battleships it is stated that no details are available. 

Includes 3 not laid down. 

7 Including 1 not laid down. 

Includes 8 not laid down. 

Includes 1 not ordered and 2 not laid down. 
10 Includes 4 not laid down. 



INTRODUCTOKY TABLES 



xxin 



PROJECTED. 





SB 


1* 


s 


?> 




** a 


a 




II 


5 3 

poo 


1 


a 

I 


3 


11 


9) 

O 


Financial year (inclusive) up to which 




is 


o eo 


AS 

oo o> 


*g 




CO 


programme extends .... 




~ 


^ 








- 


Battleships 










__ 




3 


Battle Cruisers 












CO 




Cruisers . 




g 









1 





Cruiser Minelayers 
















s> 





Armoured Coast Defence Vessels and 
















Monitors 





. 











0" 





Aircraft Cairiers .... 














bc2 





Flotilla Leaders 








__ 





o ~ 

*"* 





Destroyeis ...... 




12 










4 


Torpedo Boats 












H o 


5 


Submarines ..... 




1 









"B *> 




Sloops 













A 


__ 


Coastal Motor Boats .... 



















_ 


Gunboats and Despatch Vessels 
Rivei Gunboats ..... 





~ 














1 


Minesweepers ...... 


- 
















6 



1 Not yet approved by Parliament. 

BRITISH NAVAL ESTIMATES, 1931-32. 

British Naval Estimates foi 1931-32 piovide for a total expenditure of 51,G05,000/ Dot, 
or 342.000/ less than the preceding year. New construction to be begun comprises two 
7,000 ton cruisers and ono of 5,000 tons ; a flotilla leader and 8 destroyers ; 4 sloops ; 3 
submarines ; a river gunboat ; a mining tender for the torpedo school : and a gate vessel 
for boom defence. A further reduction is to be eflccted in the strength of the personnel, 
which will be brought down to 93,050 officers and men. 

FUANCO-ITALIAN NAVAL AGREEMENT. 

By an agreement concluded between France and Italy m March 1931, the adhesion of 
these two countries has been secured to the general provisions of Part III. of the London 
Naval Treaty. Previously this section applied only to the British Empire, the United 
States and Japan. Threatened competition between France and Italy in the building of 
cruisers and lighter vessels in the years 1931-36 has thus been avoided. During this 
period France and Italy will each bo 'at liberty to construct two 23,000 ton capital ships 
armed with 12-inch guns, as an ottset to the German 10,000 ton battleships with ll-mch 
guns. France is to be allowed a total submarine tonnage of 81,989 against the figure of 
f>2,700, to which the other four parties to the London Treaty are restricted. 

XL-WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING. 

The volume of merchant shipping under construction in the various conntiies at the 
end of 1929 and 1930 respectively, is shown in the following table of gross tonnage : 

Gross tonnage of vessels under construction in principal shipbuilding countries 
of the world, on indicated dates. 



Country 


Dec. SI, 1929 


j No. of 
Dec 31, 1930 i 
! 1929 


Vessels 
1930 


Great Britain and Ireland 
Germany 
Netherlands . 
Japan . 
United States 
France 
Russia 
Denmark 
Bweden 
Italy . 


1,560,254 
253,256 
231,934 
188,670 
179,062 
167,177 
121,069 
104,589 
98,440 
77,919 


908,902 
218,215 
160,078 
86,060 
282,080 
174,215 

107,660 
145,750 
179,677 


1,558 
253 
232 
184 
171 
167 

105 

93 
78 


904 
218 
160 
86 
230 
178 

108 
146 
179 



XXIV 



THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931 



Merchant vessels launched throughout the world in 1930 represented a larger volume 
of tonnage than for any year since 1921 During 1930, for the first time in the history of 
world shipbuilding, the tonnage of motor ships launched was in excess of that for all 
other types of vessels combined. Another feature of the 1930 returns is the increase in 
output of the shipyards of the United States. Their laimchmgs were almost double their 
total for 1929. As a result, this country which ranked fifth in volume of output in 1929, 
is now second only to Great Britain and Ireland, 

A comparison of the launchmgs during the past two years is shown by the following 
figures, in gross tons, 1980 figures standing first, followed by 1929 figures (in parentheses): 
United States, 246,687(126,063), Great Britain and Ireland, 1,478,563 (1,522,623); other 
countries, 1,164,222(1,144,524); world total, 2,889,472 (2,793,210). 

Launchmgs since the war. 
[Gross tonnage.] 



Year 


Launchings 


Loss or gain 


Year 


Launch ings 


Loss or gam 


1913 


3,332,000 


_ 


1925 


2,193,000 


-54,000 


1919 


7,144,000 


+3,812,000 


1926 


1,674,000 


519,000 


1920 


5,861,000 


-1,283,000 


1927 


2,285,000 


+611,000 


1921 


4,356,000 


-1,505,000 


1928 


2,699,000 


+414,000 


1922 


2,467,000 


-'1,874,000 


1929 


2,793,000 


+94,000 


1<>23 


1,043,000 


-824,000 


1930 


2,889,000 


+96,000 


1924 


2 247,000 


+604,000 









XII. -THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

Secretary- General. Sir James Eric Drummond, K.C.M.G., C.B. 

The League of Nations is an association of States which have pledged themselves 
through signing the Covenant (i.e , the constitution of the League) [For the text of the 
Covenant, see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK for 1921, page xxviii], not to go to war before 
submitting their disputes with each other or States not membeis of the League to 
arbitration or enquiry and a delay of from three to nine months. Furthermore, any State 
violating this pledge is automatically in a state of outlawry with the other Stateg, which 
are bound to sever all economic and political relations with the defaulting member. 
The States Members of the League have pledged themselves to co-operate over a wide 
ranee of economic, social, humanitarian and labour questions. 

The League of Nations formally came into existence on January 10, 1920, through the 
coming into force at that date of the Treaty of Versailles. The two official languages of 
the League are English and French. The seat of the League is Geneva, Switzerland. 

1. MEMBERSHIP. 
The following 54 States are members of the League (March, 1930): 



ABYKSINIA . 


September 28, 1923 


FRANCE 






January 10, 1920 


ALBANIA . 


December 16, 1920 


GERMANY 






September 8, 1926 


ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 


1 July 18, 1919 


GREECE 






March 30, 1920 


AUSTRALIA . 


January 10, 1920 


GUATEMALA 






January 10, 


AUSTRIA 


December 16, 




HAITI . 






June 30, ,, 


BELGIUM 


January 10, 




HOLLAND 






March 9, 


BOLIVIA 


January 10, 




HONDURAS 






November 8, 


BULGARIA . 


December 16, 




HUNGARY 






September 18, 1922 


CANADA 


January 10, 




INDIA . 






January 10, 1920 


CHILE . 


November 4, 1$ 


19 


IRISH FRBK 


STAT 





September 10, 1923 


CHINA . 


July 16, 1C 


20 


ITALY . 






January 10, 1920 


COLOMBIA . 


February 16, 




JAPAN . 






January 10, 1920 


CUBA . 


March 8, 




LATVIA > 






September 22, 1921 


CZECHOSLOVAKIA 


January 10, 




LIBERIA 






June 80, 1920 


DENMARK . 


March 8, , 




LITHUANIA 1 






September 2*, 1921 


ESTONIA > . 


September 22, 1021 


LUXEMBURG 




December 16, 1920 


FINLAND 


December 16, 1920 


NEW ZEALAND 




January 10, 1920 



INTRODUCTOBY TABLES 



XXV 



NICARAGUA . 




November 3, 1920 


SKRB-CROAT-SLOVENE 




NORWAY 




March 5, , , 


STATE 


February 10, 195 


PANAMA 




January 9, ,, 


SIAM .... 


January 10, 


PARAGUAY . 




December 26, 1919 


SOUTH AFRICA . 


jj 


PERSIA . 




November 21, ,, 


SPAIN ... 




PERU . 




January 10, 11)20 


SWEDEN 


March 9, 


POLAND 







SWITZERLAND 


8, 


PORT UOAL . 




April 8, 


UNITED KINGDOM 


January 10, 


RUMANIA 







URUGUAY . 


M 


HANTO DOMINOO 




September 29, 1924 


VENEZUELA . 


March 3, 


SAN SALVADOR 




March 10, 







1 Made declaiations putting the piotection of then national minorities under League 
auspicf-s as a condition of their entry into the League 

1 Brazil on June 12, 1926, and Spain on iSeptember 8, 1926, announced their with- 
drawal from the League ; according to Ait. 1, par. 3, of the Covenant, the notice of 
withdiawal only comes into force two years after it hns been given. On March 22, 1928, 
Spain lesolved to continue a member of the League. Brazil's withdrawal became effective 
on June 12, 1928. 

The delegation of the Argentine Republic did not attend the second Assembly and 
withdrew from the first Assembly upon the latter's decision to refer the amendment to 
Article 1 of the Covenant proposed by the Argentine, for study J9y a committee that was to 
report to the second Assembly. The Argentine Government lias not given notice of an 
intention to leave the League, and appears to regard itself as in a state of suspended or 
passive membership, to continue until some measure regarded as a satisfactory equivalent 
to the amendment proposed by the Argentine has been adopted by the League. 

The following 10 States are not members of the League : United States, Brazil (see 
above), the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Turkey, Eteypt, Ecuador, Mexico, Afghan- 
istan, Costa Rica, and the Hejaz and other Arab States. Costa Rica became a member of 
the League on December 16, 1920, but on December 24, 1924, she gave notice of her inten- 
tion to withdraw, on the ground of the expense involved. The notice became effective ou 
December 24, 1926. She has since announced to the League her intention to bring the 
question ot her return before the Constitutional Congiess. Egypt is to apply for 
admission on the latiflcation of the tieaty settling the ' received issues' between herself 
and Great Bntaiu 

II. THE ORGANS OP THE LEAGUE. 
The primary organs of the League are : 

1. The Council. 

2. The Assembly. 

3. The Secretariat. 

4 The International Labour Organisation. 

5 The Permanent Court of International Justice (at the Hague). 

1. THE COUNCIL. 

The Council was originally composed of four permanent Members (the British 
Empire, France, Italy, and Japan) and four non-permanent Members to be elected 
every year by a majority of the Assembly. The first non-permanent Members, appointed 
by the Peace Conference and named in the Covenant before the first Assembly met, were 
Belgium, Brazil, Greece, and Spain. With the approval of the majority of the Assembly, 
the Council may appoint new permanent and non-permanent Members. At the Assembly 
of September 1926, Germany was admitted to the League and given a permanent seat on 
the Council. At the same time the number of non-permanent seats, already increased to 
six in 1922, was further increased to nine, the period of office to be three years. In 
order to institute the new system of rotation, three were elected for one year, three for 
two years, and three for three years, so that at all subsequent Assemblies three members 
ret're instead of nine at once. In 1928 (Sept) China, Colombia, and Holland were 
replaced by Spain, Persia, and Venezuela. Spam was specially accorded the privilege of 
re-elinibility on the expiiation of her three years period of office. Poland was accorded 
the same privilege on her election for three years in 1926, and was re-elected m 1929. 
Belgium and China both failed to get the necessary majority required for re-eligibility. 
Any Member of the League not represented on the Council shall be invited to send a 
representative to sit on it at any meetings at which matters especially affecting it are 
being discussed. A similar invitation may be extended to States not Members of the 
Leatrae. 

The Council meets on the 3nl Monday in January, the 2nd Monday in May, and just 
before and after the Assembly in September. 



xxvi THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, 1931 

The Council is at present (March 1931) composed of the following representatives : 

PERMANENT MEMBERS. 

British Empire The Right Hon. Mr. Arthur Henderson, Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs. 

France M. Anstide Bnand, Minister of Foreign Affairs. 
Germany Dr. Curtius, Minister of Foreign Affairs. 
Italy -Signor Gramli, Minister of Foreign Affairs. 
Japan M. Yoshisawa. 

NON-PERMANENT MEMBERS. 
Guatemala. M. Matos. 
Irish Free State Mr. Blythe. 
Norway. M. Mnwmckel. 

Persia M. Ah Khan Foroughi, Ambassador in Turkey. 
Peru M. Barreto. 

Poland-M. Zaleaki, Minister of Foreign Affairs. 
Spam M. Quinones de Leon, Ambassador m Paiis. 
Venezuela M. Zuiueta, Minister in Paris. 
Yugoslavia M. Mannkovitch, Minister of Foreign Affairs. 


2. THE ASSEMBLY. 

Every State Member of the League is entitled to be represented bv a delegation to the 
Assembly composed of not more than three delegates and three substitute delegates, but 
it has only one vote. It meets it the seat of the League (Geneva) on the first Monday in 
September. It may meet at other places than Geneva, but hitherto it has never done so ; 
extraordinary sessions may be called to deal with urgent matters. 

The President is elected at the first meeting of the session, and holds office for the 
duration of the session. 

The Assembly divides itself into the following six principal committees, on each of 
which every State Membei of the League has the right to be represented by one delegate : 

I. Juridical. 
II. Technical Organisations. 

III. Disarmament. 

IV. Budget and Staff. 
V. Social Questions. 

VI. Political Questions and admission of new Members. 

The decisions of the Assembly must be voted unanimously, except where the Covenant 
or the Peace Treaties provide otherwise. As a general principle decisions on questions of 
procedure are voted by majority or m some cases by a two-thirds majority. 

THE SECRETARIAT. 

The Secretariat is a permanent organ composed of the Secretary-General and a number 
of officials selected from among citizens of all Member States and from the United States 
of America. The Secretary-General, appointed by the Peace Conference (see Annex to 
the Covenant), is the Hon. Sir James Eric Drummond, K.C.M.G., C.B., British Foreign 
Office Official ; hereafter the Secretary -General will be appointed by the Council with the 
approval of the majority of the Assembly. The other officials are appointed by the 
Secretary-General with the approval of the Council. 

The Under-Secretaiies-General are : 

M. J. Avenol, former French Inspector-General of Finance (Deputy Secretary-General) ; 

Marchese Paulucci di Calboli Barone, former Italian Minister Plenipotentiary ; 

Herr A. Dnfour-Feronce, former German Councillor of Embassy ; 

M. Yotaro Sugimura, former Japanese Minister Plenipotentiary. 

4. THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION. [See below.) 

5. PERMANENT COURT OF INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE. 

The revised Statutes adopted at the 10th Assembly provide for 15 judges for the Court, 
and stipulate that the Court shall remain permanently in Session except for such holidays 
as it may decide. The judges are elected jointly by the Council and the Assembly of the 
League for a term of 9 years. 



INTBODUCTORY TABLES 



XXV11 



The Secondary Organs of the League are : 

(a) The Technical Organisations. 

1. Economic and Financial. 

2. Health. 

3. Transit. 

(b) Advisory Commissions. 

1. Military, Naval and Air Commission. 

2. Commission for Reduction of Armaments. 

3. Mandates Commission. 

4. Opium Corn-mission. 

5. Social Commission. 

(c) International Institutes. 

1. Institute of Intellectual Co-operation. (Pans.) 

2. Institute of Private Law, (Rome.) 

3. Into national Educational Cinematographic Institute. (Rome.) 

(</) Administrative Organisations. 

1. Saar Governing Commission. 

2. High Commissioner for the Free City oj Danzig. 

III. BUDGET OP THE LEAGUE 





(1) Scale of allocation of the expe 


nse oj the League 




Country 


Units Country 


Units , Country 


Units 


Abyssinia . 


2 


Germany . 


79 


Panama 


1 


Albania . 


1 


Great Britain 


105 


Paraguay . 


1 


Argentina . 


29 


Greece 


7 


Persia 


5 


Australia . 


. 27 


Guatemala . 


1 


Peru . 


9 


Austria 


8 


Haiti 


1 


Poland 


. 32 


Belgium 


. 18 


Honduias . 


1 


Portugal . 





Bolivia 


4 


Hungary . 


8 


Rumania . 


. 22 


Bulgaria . 


5 


India . 


56 


Salvador . 


1 


Canada 


. 85 


Irish Free State 


30 


Siarn . 


9 


Chile . 


, 14 


Italy . 


60 


Mouth Africa 


(Union 


China . 


. 46 


Japan 


60 


of) . . 


. 15 


Colombia . 





Latvia 


3 


Spam . 


. 40 


Cuba . 


9 


Liberia . 


1 


Sweden 


. 18 


Czechoslovakia . 


. 29 


Lithuania . 


4 


Switzerland 


. 17 


Denmark . 


13 


Luxemburg 


1 


Uruguay . 


7 


Dominican Republic 


1 


Netherlands 


23 


Venezuela . 


5 


Estonia 


3 


New Zealand 


10 


Yugoslavia. 


. 20 


Finland 


. 10 


Nicaragua . 


1 




. 


France 


. 79 


Norway 





Total . 


980 



(2) General Budget for the thirteenth financial period (1931). 
expenditure (One gold franc one Swiss franc.) 



Statement of income and 



Expenditure. 


Gold 
Francs. 


Income. 


Gold 
Francs. 


I. SECRETARIAT AND SPKCIAL 
ORGANISATIONS. 
Ordinary Expenditure . 
Capital Expendituie . 
II. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR 
ORGANISATION. 
Ordinary Expenditure 


16,865,086 
226,500 

8 568 652 


I ORDINARY CONTRIBUTIONS. 
(a) Towards upkeep of Secre- 
tariat and Special Organisa- 
tions 
(b) Towards upkeep of the 
International Labour Organ- 


16,865,086 
8,568,652 


Capital Expenditure . 
III. PERMANENT COURT OF 
INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE. 
Ordinary Expenditure . 
Capital Expenditure . 
IV. BUILDINGS AT GENEVA . 
V. PENSIONS .... 


93,000 

2,671,008 
41,660 
2,170,822 
1,000,773 


(c) Towards upkeep of Per- 
manent Court of Inter* 
national Justice 
(d) Towards Pensions . 
II. EXTRAORDINARY CONTRI- 
BUTIONS. 
(a) Towards Bldgs. at Geneva 


2,671,008 
1,000,773 

2,170,822 






(b) Towards Permanent 
Equipment, etc. . 


361,160 




81,687,501 




81,637,501 



xxviii THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK, mi 

IV. PUBLICATIONS OF THE LEAGUE. 

Principal Publications issued by the Publications Department of the Secretai iat of the 
League of Nations : 

Covenant of the League. 

Official Journal (and Supplements). 

Treaty Series (Treaties and International Engagements registered by the Secretariat of 
the League). 49 vols. to 1920. 

Records of the Meetings of the Assembly. 

Minutes of the Sessions of the Council of the League of Nations. 

Reports of the Secretary-General to the first nine Assemblies on the Work of the 
Council. 

Mmutes of the Sessions of the Mandates Commission. Publications of the Permanent 
Mandates Commission. 

The Monthly Bulletin of Statistics 

Records of the International Financial Conference of Brussels. 

Records of the Barcelona and Geneva Conferences on Transit and Communications. 

Records of the International Conference on Traffic in Women and Children. 

Records of the First and Second Opium Conferences. 

Records of the Confeience on the Control of the Traffic in Arms and Munitions of War. 

Records concerning the International Court of Justice (I. Documents presented to 
Jurists' Committee ; II. Proceedings of the Jurists' Committee ; III. Action taken by the 
Council and Assembly). 

Publications issued by the Information Section of the Secretariat : Monthly Summary 
of the League of Nations (current record of the League's doings) Pamphlet Series, 
Illustrated Album of the League of Nations, "Ten Years of World Co-operation," 
published in 1930. 

Quaiterly Bulletin of Information on the work of International Organisations. 

Handbook of International Organisations. 

Armaments Year Book. 

V. MANDATES. 

The African ani Pacific possessions of Germany and certain territories of the 
Ottoman Empire were ceded by these countries at the end of the war to ttie Allied and 
Associated Powers. The latter bad inserted an article (Art. 22) in the Covenant of the 
League according to which the inhabitants of these territories should be put under the 
tutelage of " advanced nations who by reason of their resources, their experience, or their 
geographical position, can best undertake this responsibility." These nations should act 
as mandatories of the League, and exercise their powers on behalf of the League. They 
should act on the principle that the well-being and development of the peoples under their 
tutelage formed a "sacred trust of civilisation," and should render the Council an annual 
report on the territory committed to their charge. 

Article 22 furthermore divides the mandated territories into three classes, according to 
the degree of civilisation of their inhabitants, economic and geographic circumstances, 
and so foith. Class A is composed of the communities detached from the Ottoman 
Empire, declared to have "reached a stage of development where their existence as 
independent nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the rendering of 
administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such tune as they are able 
to stand alone." 

Class B, consisting of the former German colonies in Central and East Africa, should 
be administered by the Mandatory under conditions which will "guarantee freedom of 
conscience or religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, the 
prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and 
the prevention of the establishment of fortifications or military or naval bases and of 
military training of the natives for other than police purposes and the defence of tenitory, 
and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other membeis of 
the League." 

Class C (German South- West Africa arid Pacific Islands possessions) is composed of 
territories which, owing to sparseness of population, small size, remoteness from centres 
of civilisation, or geographical cont'guity to the territory of the Mandatory Power, "can 
best be administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, 
subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous population." 

The Supreme Council, as the organ of tbe Allied and Associated Powers, allocated the 
mandates for the territories ceded by Germany and Turkey, subject to the approval of 
the Council of the League. The mandates and mandatory powers, as determined by the 
Supreme Council, are j 

A Mandates Mesopotamia (now the Kingdom of Iraq) and Palestine, attributed to 
Great Britain. Syria (including Lebanon), attributed to France. 

B Afondatet. Togoland and Cameroon, attributed in part to Great Britain and in 
part to France. 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES XXIX 

The North-Western portion of former German Bast Africa, attributed to Belgium. 

The remainder of former German East Africa (now Tanganyika Colony), attributed to 
Great Britain, 

C Mandate*. Former German South Pacific possessions (except Nauru and Samoa), 
attributed to Australia. 

Samoa, attributed to New Zealand, and Nauru, attributed to the British Empire and 
administered by Australia, New Zealand, and Great Britain. 

Former German North Pacific possessions (Yap, etc.), attributed to Japan. 

Former German South-West Africa, attributed to the Union of South Africa. 

VI. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION. 

The number of States Members of the International Labour Organisation is now 55. 
The Organisation has held fourteen Conferences, in 1919 at Washington, in 1920 at Genoa, 
ami subsequently in Geneva. At these Conferences the following Draft Conventions 
and Recommendations have been adopted : 

First Session ( Washington, 1919). 

Draft Convention limiting the hours of work in industrial undertakings to eight in the 
day and forty-eight in the week. 

Draft Convention concerning unemployment. 

Recommendation concerning unemployment. 

Recommendation concerning reciprocity of treatment of foreign workers. 

Draft Convention concerning the employment of women before and after childbirth. 

Draft Convention concerning employment of women during the night. 

Recommendation concerning the prevention of anthrax. 

Recommendation concerning the protection of women and children against lead 
poisoning. 

Recommendation concerning the establishment of Government health services. 

Draft Convention fixing the minimum age for admission of children to industrial 
employment. 

Draft Convention concerning the night work of young persons employed In industry 

Recommendation concerning the application of the Berne Convention of 1906, on the 
prohibition of the use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches. 

Second Session (Genoa, 1920). 

Recommendation concerning the limitation of hours of work in the fishing industry. 

Recommendation concerning the limitation of hours of work in inland navigation. 

Recommendation concerning the establishment of national seamen's codes. 

Draft Convention fixing the minimum age for admission of children to employment 
at sea. 

Recommendation concerning unemployment insurance for seamen. 

Draft Convention concerning unemployment indemnity in case of loss or foundering 
of the ship. 

Draft Convention for establishing facilities for finding employment for seamen. 

Third Session (Geneva, 1921). 

Recommendation concerning the prevention of unemployment in agriculture. 

Recommendation concerning the protection, before and after childbirth, of women 
wage-earners in agriculture. 

Recommendation concerning night work of women in agriculture. 

Draft Convention concerning the age for admission of children to employment in 
agriculture. 

Recommendation concerning night work of children and young persons in agriculture. 

Recommendation concerning the development of technical agricultural education. 

Recommendation concerning living-in conditions of agricultural workers. 

Draft Convention concerning the rights of association and combination of agricultural 
workers. 

Draft Convention concerning workmen's compensation in agriculture. 

Recommendation concerning social insurance in agriculture. 

Draft Convention concerning the use of white lead in painting. 

Draft Convention concerning the application of the 'weekly rest in industrial 
undertakings. 

Recommendation concerning the application of the weekly rest in commercial 
establishments. 

Draft Convention fixing the minimum age for the admission of young persons to 
employment as trimmers or stokers. 

Draft Convention concerning the compulsory medical examination of children and 
young persons employed at set. 



xxx THE STATESMAN'S YEAK-BOOK, 1931 

Fourth Session (Geneva, 1922). 

Recommendation concerning communication to the International Labour Office of 
statistical and other information regarding emigration, immigration and the repatriation 
and transit of emigrants. 

Fifth Session (Geneva, 1923). 

Recommendation concerning the general principles for the organisation of systems of 
inspection to secure the enforcement of the laws and regulations for the protection of the 
workers. 

Sixth Session (Geneva, 1924). 

Recommendation concerning the development of facilities for the utilisation of 
workers' spare time. 

Seventh Session (Geneva, 1925). 

Draft Convention concerning workmen's compensation for accidents. 

Recommendation concerning the minimum scale of workmen's compensation. 

Recommendation concerning jurisdiction in disputes on workmen's compensation. 

Draft Convention concerning workmen's compensation for occupational diseases. 

Recommendation concerning workmen's compensation for occupational diseases. 

Draft Convention concerning equality of treatment for national and foreign workers as 
regards workmen's compensation for accidents. 

Recommendation concerning equality of treatment for national and foreign workers as 
regards workmen's compensation lor accidents. 

Draft Convention concerning night work in bakeries. 

Eighth Session (Geneva, 1926). 

Draft Convention concerning the simplification of the inspection of emigrants on 
board ship. 

Recommendation concerning the protection of emigrant women and girls on board 
ship. 

Ninth Session (Geneva, 1926). 

Draft Convention concerning seamen's articles of agreement. 
Draft Convention concerning the repatriation of seamen. 
Recommendation concerning the repatriation of masters and apprentices. 
Recommendation concerning the general principles for the inspection of the conditions 
of work of seamen. 

Tenth Session (Qeneva, 1927). 

Draft Convention concerning sickness insurance for workers in industry and commerce 
and domestic servants. 

Draft Convention concerning sickness insurance for agricultural workers. 
Recommendation concerning the general principles of sickness insurance. 

Eleventh Session (Geneva, 1928). 

Draft Convention concerning ths creation of minimum wage fixing machinery. 
Recommendation concerning the application of minimum wage fixing machinery. 

Twelfth Session (Geneva, 1929). 

Draft Convention concerning the marking of the weight on heavy packages transport! tl 
by vessels. 

Draft Convention concerning the protection against accidents of workers employed in 
loading or unloading ships. 

Recommendation concerning the prevention of industrial accidents. 

Recommendation concerning responsibility for the protection of power-diiven 
machmerv. 

Recommendation concerning reciprocity as regards protection against accidents of 
workers employed in loading or unloading ships. 

Recommendation concerning the consultation of workers' and employer**' organisations 
in the drawing up of regulations dealing with the safety of workers employed in loading 
or unloading ships. 

Thirteenth Session (Geneva, 1929). 

(No Conventions or Recommendations.) 

Fourteenth Session (Geneva, 1930). 

Draft Convention concerning forced or compulsory labour. 

Draft Convention concerning the regulation of houis of work in commerce and offices. 

Recommendation concerning indirect compulsion to labour. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS XXXI 

Recommendation concerning the regulation of forced or compulsory labour. 

Recommendation concerning the regulation of hours of work in hotels, restaurants, 
and similar establishments. 

Recommendation concerning the regulation of hours of work in theatres and other 
places of amusement. 

Recommendation concerning the regulation of hours of work in establishments for the 
treatment or the care of the sick, infirm, destitute, or mentally unfit. 

By the terms of Part XIII of the Treaty of Versailles (Art. 405) the Members of the 
Organisation undertake, within one year at most, or in exceptional circumstances within 
eighteen months, from the closing of the Conference, to bring the Recommendations or 
Draft Conventions adopted before the authorities "vsithin whose competence the matter 
lies, for the enactment of legislation orot her action." On a Recommendation the Members 
have to inform the Secretary-General of the League of the action taken. If a Draft 
Convention is approved by the competent authorities, the Members undertake to deposit 
their formal ratification thereof with the Secretary-General and to take the necessary action 
to apply its provisions. 

The total results obtained up to the end of January 1931 in the ratiiication of the 
Conventions may be summarised as follows : 

Ratifications deposited with the Secretary- General of the League of Nations 421 

(excluding 14 ratifications of the Berne Convention prohibiting the use of white phosphorus 
in the manufacture of matches, which formed the subject of a Recommendation in 1919) 

Ratifications authorised by the competent authorities 2(5 

Ratifications recommended to the competent authorities 164 

The Governing Body, under the control of which the International Labour Office works, 
is composed of twelve Government representatives, six employers' representatives, and 
six workers' representatives. 

The following are some of the International Commissions which have been set up to 
assist the Office in its work . 

The Joint Maritime Communion. 

The Mixed Advisor}/ Committee in Agriculture. 

The Permanent Emigration Committee. 

Tht Correspondence Committee on Industrial Hygiene. 

The Correspondence Committee on Social Insurance. 

The Committee on Native Labour. 

The Committee on Article 408 (Application of Coni'fntions). 

The Advisory Committee oj Professional Wwkert. 

The Advisory Committee of Salaried Employees. 

The Unemployment Committee. 

The most important publications of the Office are . 

The International Labour Review (monthly). 

The Industrial and Labour Information (weekly). 

The Official Bulletin (irregular periodicity). 

Studies and Reports. 

Industrial Safety Survey (bi-monthly). 

International Labour Directory. 

The Legislative Sfrirs. 

The Documents of the International Labour Conference. 

Bibliography of Industrial Hygiene. 

International Survey oj Legal Decisions on Labour Lair. 



XXX11 



THE STATESMAN S YEAR-BOOK, 1931 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

INDIA, 

Coal production. Production of coal by provinces for 1928 and 1929 is shown in tha 
following* table : 



Province 


1928 


1929 


Assam 
Baluchistan 
Bengal 


Long tons 
298,089 
17,931 
5,639,993 


Long tons 
332,515 
10,222 
5,966,104 


Bihar and Orissa 
Central India . ... 
Central Provinces 
Hyderabad . 
Punjab . ....... 


14,827,45'i 
218,750 
732,353 
734,705 
4(5,152 


15,123.144 
205,132 
*82,83i 
815,875 
48 139 


Rajpntana 


27,386 


85,275 

1 



Total 



22,542,872 



23,418,734 



UNION OF S. AFRICA. 
Trade in 1930. Imports in 1930, 64,574,900 ; exports, 81,689,818. 

CANADA. 

Distribution of trade in 1930. Imports m 1930, 1,008,470,479 dollars; exports, 
885.906,366 dollars. 

The following table shows the distribution of trade : 





19 


30 


19 


29 


Countiy 


Impoits 


Exports 


Imports 


Exports 




1,000 dols. 


l,000dols 


1,000 dol. 


1 ,000 dols. 


British Empire : Total 


227,825 


316,377 


257,009 


395,880 


United Kingdom 


162,614 


235,214 


194,778 


290,207 


Australia 


4,722 


0,174 


3,519 


19,105 


British Guiana 


4,420 


1,326 


4205 


1,774 


British India . 


8,796 


7,724 


0,4*5 


9,470 


Fiji 


3,013 


281 


3,880 


411 


Bermuda 


803 


2, '46 


84 


1,984 


Bntihh E*8t Africa 


2,544 


1,198 


1,274 


1,554 


British South Africa 


2,953 


10,203 


12,777 


5 


Ceylon .... 


2,580 


281 


2,677 


588 


Jamaica. 


5,083 


4,024 


5,564 


59 


Newfoundland 


2,573 


11,486 


2,485 


11,713 


Foreign: Total 


780,654 


5fi0,530 


1,041,804 


787,024 


Argentina 


7,641 


12,417 


0.138 


19,603 


Belgium 


f,35l 


15,176 


18,057 


28,804 


China 


4,642 


8,519 


2,908 


27,269 


Colombia ..... 


5,692 


1,265 


6,080 


1,715 


France .... 


2,284 


18,660 


26,306 


16,042 




17,673 


14,891 


22,072 


32,903 


Greece .... 


284 


0,661 


854 


5,760 


Italy 


5,463 


15,860 


4,809 


12,507 


Japan ...... 


10,172 


28,422 


18,324 


87,505 


Holland 


7,523 


10,843 


9,702 


20,060 


St. Pierre and Miquelrn 


686 


10,168 


66 


4.895 


United States .... 


658,708 


395,688 


808,585 


522,678 



INTRODUCTORY TABLES 



XXX111 



ONTARIO. 
Goldoutput \n 1930, Tho value of the gold output in 1930 was 7,077,000. 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA. 

Trade in 1930. -Imports in 1930 amounted to 15,720,960,000 crowns and exports to 
17,494,703,003 crowns. Trade was distributed as follows : 





1030 


Group 







i Imports Export* 




l,000orowns 


1,000 crowns 


Live animals. 


723,384 


54,700 


Foodstuffs and beverages 


2,050,564 


1,705,800 


Raw materials 


i 7,123 373 


2,792,375 


Finished goods 


! 5,149,920 


12,665,596 


Precious metals and coins 


34,483 


13,235 


Goods returned . 


; 45,227 


63,467 



FRANCE. 

Final budget ftifurtsjoi 1031-32. As finally approved the Budget for 1931-32 estimated 
revenue at 50,643,485,043 francs, and expenditure at 50,640,500,352 francs. 

ALGERIA. 
Budget for 1931-32. Revenue, 2,365,507,608 francs ; expenditure, 2,304,937,820 francs. 

HONDURAS. 

Trade in 1929-30. For the fiscal year ending July 31, 1930, 'raports amounted to 
15,946,128 dollars, and exports to 20,171,218 dollars. 



NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES, 
in VJ30 The trade m 1930 was distributed as follows 





Imports 




Ex poits 




1930 


1029 




1930 


1929 




1,000 fl 


l,000fl 




1,000 fl. 


],000fl. 


Netherlands 
Japan 


189 950 
100,120 


186,780 
114,840 


Singapore 
Netherlands . 


251,280 
211,950 


802,070 
231,100 


Singapore . 


93,190 


111,680 


United States . 


146,870 


165,280 


United States 


89,510 


180,4tO 


British India . 


138,080 


148,590 


Great Britain 


87,240 


116,200 


Great Britain . 


98,660 


127,690 


Germany . 


84,800 


114,750 


Hong Kong . 


51.100 


45,880 


British India 


60,790 


56,920 


Japan 


45,590 


47,70 


Australia . 


25,110 


26,530 


China 


44,490 


5ft, 220 








Franco . 


38,330 


59,520 








Australia. 


28,170 


87,140 








Germany . 


21,480 


87,470 



THE STATESMAN 8 YEAR-BOOK, 1931 

NICARAGUA. 

Managua destroyed.'^ On March 31, 1981, a violent earthquake almost completely 
destroyed the city of Managua, the capital of Nicaragua. 

SIAM. 
Trade in 1920. Imports, 170,030,000 bahts ; exports, 187,750,000 bahts. 

British Military Attaches. 
At Pan*. Lt.-Col. G. G. Waterhouse, M.C 
At /20m*. Lt.-Col. H. K. 0. Stevens, D S.O. 

At Vienna, Budapest and Berne. Brevet Lt.-Col. F. N. Mason MacFarlane, M.C., R.A. 
At Madrid and Lisbon. Major M. M. Parry -Jones, M.C. 



PART THE FIRST 

THE BRITISH EMPIRE 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

THE British Empire consists of: 

I. GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, CHANNEL ISLANDS, 

AND ISLE OF MAN. 

II. THE IRISH FREE STATE, INDIA, THE DOMINIONS, COLONIES, 
PROTECTORATES, AND DEPENDENCIES. 

Reigning King and Emperor. 

George V., born June 3, 1865, son of King Edward VII. and Queen 
Alexandra, eldest daughter of King Christian IX., of Denmark ; married 
July 6, 1893, to Victoria, Mary, born May 26, 1867, daughter of the late Duke 
of Teck ; succeeded to the crown on the death of his father, May 6, 1910, 

Living Children of the King. 

I. Edward Albert, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of 
Rothesay, Heir-apparent, born June 23, 1894. 

II. Prince Albert Frederick, Duke of York, born December 14, 1895 ; 
married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, April 26, 1923. Offspring : Elizabeth 
Alexandra Mary, April 21, 1926 ; Margaret Rose, August 21, 1930. 

III. Princess Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary, born April 25, 1897 ; 
married Viscount Lascelles (now the 6th Earl of Harewood), K.G., D.S.O., 
February 28, 1922. Offspring : George Henry Hubert, February 7, 1923 ; 
Gerald David, August 21, 1924. 

IV. Prince Henry William; born March 31, 1900 ; created Baron Culloden, 
Earl of Ulster and Duke of Gloucester, on March 31, 1928. 

V. Prince George Edward, born December 20, 1902. 

Living Sisters of the King. 

I. Princess Victoria Alexandra, born July 6, 1868. 

II. Princess Maud Charlotte, born November 26, 1869; married July 22, 1896, to 
Charles, Prince of Denmark, now King Haakon Vil. of Norway. Ottsprmg: Olav, Crown 
Prince of Norway, born July 2, 1903. 

Living Brother and Sitters of the late King. 

I. Princess Louise, born March 18, 1848; married March 21, 1871, to John, Marquis of 
Lome, who became Duke of Argyll, April 24, 1900, and died May 2, 1914. 

II. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, born May 1, 1850 ; married March 13, 1879, to 
Princess Louise of Prussia, born July 25, 1860, died March 14, 1917, Living offspring. (1) 
Arthur, born Jan. 13, 1883, married Alexandra Victoria, Duchess of Fife, October 15, 
1013 ; (2) Patricia, born March 17, 1886, married February 27, 1919, Hon. Alexander B. M. 
Ramsay, D.8.O., R.N. 

III Princess Beatrice, born April 14, 1857 ; married July 23, 1885, to Prince Henry (died 
January 20, 1896), third son of Prince Alexander of Hesse. Living offspring : <1) Alexander 
Albert, born Nov. 23, 1886, married Lady Irene Denison ; (2) Victoria Eugenie, born Oct. 24, 
1887, married May 31, 1906, to Alfonso XIII., King of Spain. 

The King's legal title rests on the statute of 12 and 13 Will. III. c. 3, by 
which the succession to the Crown of Great Britain and Ireland was settled 
on the Princess Sophia of Hanover and the 'heirs of her body being 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE IGREAT BRITAIN 



Protestants. ' By Act of Parliament, 1927, the title of the King is declared to 
be ' George V., by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British 
Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.' 
By proclamation of July 17, 1917, the Royal family became known as the 
House and Family of Windsor. 

By Letters Patent of November 30, 1917, the titles of Royal Highness 
and Prince or Princess are (except for existing titles) to be restricted to the 
Sovereign's children, the children of the Sovereign's sons, and the eldest 
living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. 

Provision is made for the support of the Royal household by the settlement of the Civil 
List soon after the commencement of each reign (For historical details, see YEAR- 
BOOK for 1008, p. 5.) By Act of 10 Ed. VII. and 1 Geo. V. c 28 (August 3, 1910), the Civil 
List of the King, after the usual surrender of hereditary revenues, is flxed at 470,0001, of 
which 110,OOOZ is aupropnated to the privy purse of the King and Queen, 125,8007. for 
salaries of the Royal household and retired allowances, 193,0001. for household expenses, 
20,0001 for works, 13,200Z for alms and bounty, and 8.000J. remains unappropriated. 
The same Civil List Act of 1910 also provides for an annuity of 70,000 J to Queen Mary in 
the event of her surviving the King. Should the Prince of Wales marry, the Pnncess 
of Wales will receive an annuity of 10,0001., and should she survive the Prince of Wales, 
this annuity will bo raised to one of 30,OOOZ. Further, there is to be paid to trustees for 
the benefit of the King's children (other than the Duke of Cornwall) an annual sum of 
10,0001 in respect of each son (other than the Duke of Cornwall) who attains the age of 21 
years, and a further annual sum of 15,0001. in respect of each such son who marries, and 
an annuity of 6,0001. in respect of each daughter who attains the age of 21 or marries. The 
First Commissioner of the Treasury, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Keeper of 
the King's Privy Purse are appointed the Royal Trustees under this Act. The King has 
paid to him the revenues of the Duchy of Lancaster, the payments made therefrom, m 
1929 being 62,0001. for II is Majesty's use. 

On the Consolidated Fund are charged likewise the following sums allowed to members 
of the royal family 25,0001 a year to the Duke of Connaught ; 6,OOOJ to H.R.H. Helena 
Augusta Victoria (Princess Christian) ; 6,0001. to Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll ; 
6.000Z. to H R.H Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore , and 6,OOOJ. to each of the late King's 
daughters 

The Heir Apparent has an income from the revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall, the 
payment m 1926 on his account being 66,7131. 

Sovereigns and sovereign rulers of Great Britain, from the union of the 
cpowns of England and Scotland : 

Date of Date of 

Accession. Accession. 

House of Stuart. 

Anne 1702 



House of Stuart. 



Jaraes I. ... 

Charles I. 

Commonwealth. 

Parliamentary Executive 
Protectorate , 



House of Stuart. 



Charles II. 
James II. 



1603 
1625 



1649 
1653 



1660 
1685 



House of Stuart- Orange. 

William and Mary . , . 1680 
William III 1694 



House of Hanover. 

George 1 1714 

George II 1727 

George III 1760 

George IV 1820 

William IV 1830 

Victoria , . . ,1837 

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. 
Edward VII. . . . 1901 

House of Windsor. 1 
George V 1910 



1 Change of title made July 17, 1917. Formerly House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT 5 

GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND. 
Constitution and Government, 

I. IMPERIAL AND CENTRAL. 

The supremo legislative power of the British Empire is vested in Parlia- 
ment. Parliament is summoned by the writ of the sovereign issued out of 
Chancery, by advice of the Privy Council, at least twenty days previous 
to its assembling. 

Since 1914 the sittings of Parliament have been interrupted only by 
comparatively short intervals. Every session must end with a prorogation, 
and all Bills which have not been passed during the session then lapse. A 
dissolution may occur by the will of the sovereign, or, as is most usual, 
during the recess, by proclamation, or finally by lapse of time, the statutory 
limit of the duration of any Parliament being five years. 

Under the Parliament Act, 1911 (1 and 2 Geo. V, ch. 13), all Money Bills 
(so certified by the Speaker of the House of Commons), if not passed by the 
House of Lords without amendment, may become law without their con- 
currence on the royal assent being signified. Public Bills, other than 
Money Bills or a Bill extending the maximum duration of Parliament, if 
passed by the House of Commons in three successive sessions, whether of the 
same Parliament or not, and rejected each time, or not passed, by the House of 
Lords, may become law without their concurrence on the royal assent being 
signified, provided that two years have elapsed between the second reading 
in the first session of the House of Commons and the third reading in the 
third session. All Bills coming under this Act must reach the House of Lords 
at least one month before the end of the session. Finally, the Parliament 
Act limited the maximum duration of Parliament to five years. 

The present form of Parliament, as divided into two Houses of Legislature, 
the Lords and the Commons, dates from the middle of the fourteenth century. 

The House of Lords consists of peers who hold their seats (i) by 
hereditary right ; (ii) by creation of the sovereign ; (iii) by virtue of office- 
Law Lords, and English archbishops (2) and bishops (24) ; (iv) by election for 
life Irish peers (28} ; (v) by election for duration of Parliament Scottish 
peers (10). The full house would consist of about 740 members, but the 
voting strength is about 720. 

The House of Commons consists of members representing County, 
Borough, and University constituencies. No one under 21 years of age can 
be a member of Parliament. Clergymen of the Church of England, ministers 
of the Church of Scotland, and Roman Catholic clergymen are disqualified 
from sitting as members ; Government contractors, and sheriffs, and returning 
officers for the localities for which they act, are also among those disqualified. 
No English or Scottish peer can be elected to the House of Commons, but 
non-representative Irish peers are eligible. Under the Parliament (Qualifi- 
cation of "Women) Act, 1918, women are also eligible, and the first woman 
member took her seat in December, 1919. 

In August, 1911, by resolution of the House of Commons, provision was 
first made for the payment of a salary of 400?. per year to members, other 
than those already in receipt of salaries as officers of the House, as Ministers, 
or as officers of His Majesty's household. Payment began as from April 1, 
1911. This provision does not extend to the House of Lords. 

Under the Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act, 1928, the 
qualifications for the franchise are the same for men and women. Electors, 
for inclusion in the new register, must be of full age (twenty-one years), and 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 



have resided, or occupied business premises of an annual value of not less 
than ten pounds, in the same parliamentary borough or county, or one con- 
tiguous thereto, for the qualifying period of three months ending on 
December 1, 1928, and in Scotland, on December 15, 1928. There is also a 
University franchise, to be qualified for which a person must be twenty-one 
years of age, and must have taken a degree, or in the case of a woman, have 
fulfilled the conditions which would entitle a man to a degree. 

Every registered elector is entitled to vote at an election, but no person 
may vote at a general election for more than two constituencies, for one of 
which there must be a residential qualification. The second vote must rest 
on a different qualification, and eacli vote must be recorded in a different 
constituency. 

Disqualified for registration are (among others) peers, infants, aliens, 
bankrupts, lunatics aud idiots. Receipt of poor relief or other alms does 
not count as a disqualification. 

Two registers of electors must be prepared each year, one in the spring, 
and the other in the autumn, except in Ireland, where only one is required ; 
and the authorised expenses are met by local and State funds in equal 
parts. University registers may be made up as the governing bodies decide, 
and a registration fee not exceeding 11. may be charged. 

In university constituencies returning two or more members the elections 
must be according to the principle of proportional representation, each 
elector having one transferable vote. At a general election all polls must 
be held on the same day, except in the case of Orkney and Shetland, 
and of university elections. Provision is made for absent electors to vote, 
in certain cases by proxy. 

Under the same Act the seats in Great Britain were redistributed 
on the basis of one member of the House of Commons for every 70,000 of the 
population. By a separate Act, redistribution in Ireland was made on the 
basis of one for every 43,000 of the population. The total membership 
of the House of Commons was thereby raised from 670 (as established in 
1385) to 707. In 1922 the number was reduced to 615 (including 13 from 
Northern Ireland), owing to the establishment of separate parliaments in 
Ireland. 

The electorate in 1929 numbered 28,850,000. Under the provisions of 
the Representation of the People Act, 1928, it is estimated that about 
5,000,000 new voters were added to the register in 1929. 

The following is a table of the duration of Parliaments called since the 
accession of King Edward VII. (for heads of the Administrations see p. 8). 



Reign 


When met 


When dissolved 


Existed 


Edw 
Geoi 


ard VII. 

ge V. 



and Go 


orge V 


13 Feb. 1906 
15 Feb. 1910 
31 Jan. 1911 
4 Feb. 1919 
20 Nov. 1922 
8 Jan. 1924 
2 Dec. 1924 
25 June 1929 


10 Jan. 1910 
28 Nov. 1910 
25 Nov. 1918 
26 Oct. 1922 
16 Nov. 1923 
9 Oct. 1924 
10 May 1929 


Y, M. D. 

3 11 24 
9 18 
7 9 26 
8 8 22 
11 27 
9 1 
457 



The executive government is vested nominally in the Crown, but 
practically in a committee of Ministers, called thej Cabinet, whose existence 
is dependent on the support of a majority in the House of Commons, 

The head of the Ministry is the Prime Minister, a position first constitu- 



CONSTITUTION AND QOVEBNMENT 7 

tionally recognised, and special precedence accorded to the holder, in 1905. No 
salary is attached to the office of Prime Minister, as such, and it is usually held 
in conjunction with some other high office of State, generally that of First Lord 
of the Treasury. His colleagues in the Ministry are appointed on his recom- 
mendation, and he dispenses the greater portion of the patronage of the 
Crown. 

The present Government (appointed June 8, 1929) consists of the follow- 
ing members : 

(a) THE CABINET. 

1 . Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury, and Leader of the House 
of Common*. Right Hon. J. Ramsay MacDonald, born 1866. Prime 
Minister, First Lord of the Treasury, Foreign Secretary, 1924. Present 
appointment, 1929. 

2. Lord Privy Seal. Right Hon. Thomas Johnston, born 1882. Present 
appointment, 1931. 

3. Lord President of the Council. Right Hon. Lord Parmoor, K.C.Y.O., 
born 1852. Lord President of the Council, 1924. Present appointment, 
1929. 

4. Lord Chancellor. Right Hon. Lord Sankey, G.B.E., born 1866. 
Present appointment, 1929. 

5. Chancellor of the Exchequer. Right Hon. Philip Snowden, born 1864. 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1924. Present appointment, 1929. 

6. Secretary of State for Home Affairs. Right Hon. John R. Clynes, 
born 1869. Lord Privy Seal, 1924. Present appointment, 1929. 

7. Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Right Hon. Arthur Hender- 
son, born 1863. Home Secretary, 1924. Present appointment, 1929. 

8. Secretary of State for the Dominions. Right Hon. James H. Thomas, 
born 1872. Colonial Secretary, 1924 ; Lord Privy Seal, 1929. Present 
appointment, 1930. 

9. Secretary of State for the Colonies. Right Hon. Lord Passfield, born 

1859. President, Board of Trade, 1924. Present appointment, 1929. 

10. Secretary of State for fFar. Right Hon. Thomas Shaw, C.B E., 
born 1872. Minister of Labour, 1924. Present appointment, 1929. 

11. Secretary of State for India. Right Hon. W. Wedgwood Benn } 
D.S.O., D.F.C., born 1877. Present appointment, 1929. 

12. Secretary of State for Air. Right Hon. Lord Amnlree, K.C., born 

1860. Present appointment, 1930. 

13. First Lord of the Admiralty. Right Hon. Albert V. Alexander, 
born 1887. Parliamentary Secretary, 1924. Present appointment, 1929. 

14. President of the Board of Trade Right Hon. William Graham, 
born 1887. Financial Secretary to Treasury, 1924. Present appointment, 
1929. 

15. Minister of Health. Right Hon. Arthur Greenwood, born 1880. 
Parliamentary Secretary to Minister of Health, 1924. Present appointment, 
1929. 

16. Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries. Right Hon. Christopher 
Addison, M.D., born 1869. President, Local Government Board, 1919. 
Present appointment, 1981. 

17. Secretary for Scotland. Right Hon. William Adamson, born 1863. 
Secretary for Scotland, 1924. Present appointment, 1929. 



8 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 



18. President of the Board of Education. Right Hon. Hastings B. 
Lees-Smith, born 1878. Postmaster-General, 1929. Present appointment, 
1931. 

19. Minister of Labour. Right Hon. Margaret G. Bondficld, born 1873. 
Parliamentary Secretary to Minister of Labour, 1024. Present appointment. 
1929. 

20. First Commissioner of Works. Right Hon. George Lansbury, born 
1859. Present appointment, 1 929. 



(b) OTHER MINISTERS. 

Attorney-General Sir William A. Jowitt, K.C., born 1885. 
Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster. Lord Ponsoriby, born 1871. 
Minister of Pensions. Right Hon. Frederick 0. 'Roberts, born 1876. 
Minister of Transport Herbert Morrison) born 1888. 
Solicitor-General. Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, K.C., born 1889. 
Postmaster-General. Majci Clement R. Atlee, born 1883. 
Lord Advocate. Craigie Aitchison, K.O , born 1882. 
Solicitor-General for Scotland. J. C. Watson, K.C., born 1883. 
Heads of the Administrations since 1902 (L = Liberal, C = Conservative, 
Lab. = Labour). 

Heads of Dates of 

Administrations. Appointment. 

D Lloyd George(Coalitioi),Dec. 7, 1916 
A. Bonar Law (C.), Oct. 23, 1922 
S. Baldwin (C.), May 22, 1923 

R. MacDonald (Lab.), Jan. 22, 1924 
S. Baldwin (C ), Nov. 4, 1924 

R. MacDonald (Lab.), Juno 8, 1929 



Heads of 
Administrations. 



Dates of 
Appointment. 



A. J. Balfour (C), July 14, 1902 
Sir H. Campbell- 

Bannerman (L), Dec. 5 1905 

H. H. Asquith (L), April 8, 1908 
H. H. Asquith (Coalition), 

May 25, 1915 



The state of parties in the House of Commons after the general election of May, 
1929, was as follows (the figures in brackets indicate the position as on May 30, 1Q29) : 
Labour, 287 [162]; Conservatives (Unionists), 2601400]; Liberals, 59 [46]; Independents, 
9 [7] ; total, 616. 



II. LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 

England and Wales. In each county the Crown is represented by H.M. 
Lieutenant. There is also a sheriff, who represents the executive of the 
Crown, an under-sheriff, a clerk of the peace and a clerk of the County 
Council, coroners, who are appointed and paid by the County Councils, and 
other officers. The licensing of persons to sell intoxicating liquors, and 
the administration of the criminal law except that which deals with some 
of the graver offences are in the hands of the magistrates. 

For the purposes of local government England and Wales are divided 
primarily into sixty-two administrative counties, including the county of 
London, and eighty-three County Boroughs. The counties are administered 
by the justices and by a popularly-elected Council, called a County Council, 
who co-opt a prescribed number of aldermen, either from their own body or 
from outside it. Aldermen are elected for six years, half of them retiring 
every third year. A councillor is elected for three years. The jurisdiction 
of the County Councils covers the administration of higher and (outside 
certain Boroughs and Urban Districts) elementary education ; maintenance 
of main roads and bridges ; work in relation to agriculture (diseases of 
animals, destructive insects and pests, land drainage, fertilisers and feeding 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT 9 

stuffs, small holdings and allotments) ; provision of mental hospitals and 
other public health work (schemes for treatment of tuberculosis and venereal 
diseases, for maternity and child welfare, and for the welfare of the blind ; 
accommodation and care of mental defectives ; prevention of pollution of 
rivers ; and supervision of milk and other food supplies). The control of 
the county police is vested in a standing joint committee composed of equal 
numbers of magistrates and of members of the County Council. The 
Metropolitan police are, however, under the control of the Home 
Secretary. 

Secondly, the administrative counties, with the exception of the County 
of London, are subdivided into ' County Districts ' which are either ' Urban 
Districts' or * Rural Districts.' Generally speaking, an urban district 
comprises a town or a small area more or less densely populated, and a 
rural district takes in several country parishes. County District Councils 
administer the Public Health and Highway Acts, and exercise powers 
under the Housing Acts. Urban Authorities may also take over the 
maintenance and repair of main roads from County Councils ; provide 
burial grounds, allotments, baths and washhouses, libraries, open spaces, 
museums, isolation hospitals, &c. ; establish and manage trading services 
(gas, electricity, water, trams, &c.). Councils of Boroughs which had 
over 10,000, and of Urban Districts which had over 20,000 people in 
1901 are also usually the local authorities for elementary education. Rural 
District Councils may also make arrangements for an adequate water 
supply ; and exercise any ' urban powers ' conferred on them by the Minister 
of Health. 

Under the Local Government Act, 1929, the functions of the Poor Law 
authorities are transferred to county and county borough councils. These 
functions include the organisation and management of indoor and outdoor 
relief, responsibility for collection of fundamental vital statistics and 
responsibility for the provision, maintenance and management of all public 
iustitutions for the cure of diseases. Provision is also made under the Act 
to secure for every county district council the services of a medical officer of 
health. Industrial and freight-transport hereditaments are derated to the 
extent of three-fourths and agricultural lands are completely derated. The 
Act provides for the abolition of most of the assigned revenue grants, of the 
grants under the Agricultural Rates Acts, and of the percentage grants paid 
in respect of health services and certain roads. In place of these a grant 
comprising the equivalent of the total loss to local authorities both of rates 
and of grants under the Act, together with a substantial amount of new 
money, will be distributed as a " block grant" fixed for five years at a time 
on a basis of local need and ascertained by means of a formula* To avoid the 
difficulties created by a sudden change in the revenues of local authorities 
the allocation of grant will not be entirely by the formula until 1947. 

The main central authority in London is the County Council, created 
by the Local Government Act of 1888. It has considerable powers in regard 
to public health, housing, bridges and ferries, asylums, street improvements, 
parks, main drainage, fire brigade, sanitary control, education, and numerous 
other matters. It is also the tramway authority for the county. The City 
Corporation has powers respecting sanitation, police, bridges, justice, &c., 
in the City of London. London comprises the ancient city with an area of 
one square mile, and an area of 118 square miles beyond the city, which is 
divided into 28 metropolitan boroughs, under the London Government Act, 
1899, each with a mayor, aldermen, and councillors (women are eligible). 
The Councils have powers in regard to public health, highways, rating, 
housing, education &c. , but they are not municipal boroughs in the 

B 2 



10 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 

statutory sense as in the rest of the Kingdom. The County Council has 
certain powers of control over them. , 

In all incorporated towns, local business is administered by a municipal 
Corporation. There are two kinds of municipal boroughs, County Boroughs 
and Non- County Boroughs. A number of the latter are small boroughs of 
special and generally ancient jurisdiction. Most of the County Boroughs 
and a number of the Non- County Boroughs have a separate Court of Quarter 
Sessions. The County Boroughs are outside the jurisdiction of the County 
Councils. A municipal Corporation consists of the mayor, aldermen, and 
burgesses, and acts through a Council elected by the burgesses practically 
by the ratepayers. The councillors serve for three years (women are 
eligible), one-third retiring annually ; the aldermen are elected by the 
Council, and the mayor, who serves for one year, also by the Council. 
A Town Council as an Urban Authority is invested with all the normal 
powers of an Urban District Council ; and in addition certain powers, such 
as making byelaws or maintaining a separate police force, are conferred 
either upon all Town Councils 01 upon Councils of towns of certain sizes, 
or complying with other conditions, in virtue of their status as Councils of 
incorporated towns. 

Scotland.- K Local Government Act was passed for Scotland in 1889 
and followed in its main outlines the English Act of the previous year. The 
powers of local administration in counties formerly exercised by the Com- 
missioners of Supply, the Justices and Road Trustees were either wholly or in 
part transferred to County Councils, which took over their duties and respon- 
sibilities in 1890. By the Local Government (Scotland) Act, 1894, a Local 
Government Board for Scotland was constituted, consisting of the Secretary 
for Scotland as President, the Solicitor-General for Scotland, the Under- 
secretary for Scotland, and three other members nominated by the Crown. 
The latter Act provided that a Parish Council should be established in every 
parish to take the place of the Parochial Boards. Their principal function 
is the administration oi the Poor Laws, and in addition they exercise powers 
similar to those of the Parish Councils in England. There were 869 civil 
parishes in 1921. The powers and duties of the Local Government Board 
were by the Scottish Board of Health Act, 1919, transferred to the Scottish 
Board of Health, constituted as in that Act provided. Municipal bodies 
exist in the towns of Scotland, as in those of England. Each burgh has a 
Town Council consisting of a Provost or Lord Provost, Bailies and Councillors. 
The Provost is the head of the Scottish municipality and holds office for 
three years. Bailies are selected by the Councillors from among their own 
number; they act as magistrates and sit as such in police courts. There 
are in Scotland three principal kinds of burghs, numbering altogether 201 
(1921 census) : (1) Royal Burghs, i.e. burghs created by a Charter of the 
Crown ; (2) Parliamentary Burghs, which possess statutory constitutions 
almost identical with those of the Royal Burghs ; (8) Police Burghs, con- 
stituted under a general Police Act. All burghs of whatever class have 
new Town Councils and their administration is regulated by the Burgh 
Police (Scotland) and Town Councils (Scotland) Acts or corresponding local 
Acts. The Local Government (Scotland) Bill, 1929, makes many drastic 
changes in the local government machinery so as to bring it in line as far as 
possible with that set up for England and Wales. The new units of local 
government are the county councils and burghs with a population of over 
20,000. Only the four great cities are Poor Law authorities and parisn 
councils are abolished. 



AREA AND POPULATION 



11 



Area and Population. 

I. PKOORESS AND 'PRESENT CONDITION. 

The population was thus distributed at the census, taken June 19, 
1921 : 



Divisions 


Area in 
sq. miles 


Males 


Females 


Total 
Population on 
June 19, 1921 


England (including Monmouth- 
shire) 


50 874 


16 977 647 


18 703 372 


35 681 019 


Wales 
Scotland 
Isle of Man .... 

Channel Islands 


7,466 
30,405 
221 

75 


1,097,592 
2,347,642 
27,329 
41,741 


1,108,088 
2,534,855 
32,955 
48,489 


2,205,680 
4,882,497 
bO,284 
90,230 


Total .... 


89,041 


20,491,951 


22,427.759 


42,919,710 



Population at each of the four previous decennial censuses : 



Divisions 




1881 


1391 


1901 


1911 


England . 




24,613,926 


27,489,228 30,813,043 34,045,290 


Wales . 


, , 


1,360,513 


1,513,297 1,714,800 , 2,025,202 


Scotland . 


t 


3,735,573 4,025,647 


4,472,103 4,760,904 


Isle of Man 




53,558 55,608 


54,752 


52,016 


Channel Islands 


, t 


87,702 


92,234 


95,618 


96,899 


Army, Navy, and Mer-\ 
chant Seamen abroad/ 


215,374 


224,211 


367,736 


145,729 



Total , 



|30,066,646 J33,400,225 ,37,518,052 J41, 126,040 



In 1911, in Wales and Monmouthshire 190,292 persons 8 years of age and upwards, or 
7-9 per cent, of the total population, were able to speak Welsh only, and 787,074, or 32'5 
per cent., able to speak Welsh and English. In Scotland in 1921, 9,829 persons 3 years 
of age and upwaids could speak Gaelic only, and 148,950 could speak Gaelic and English. 

The age distribution of the population of Great Britain in 1921 was as 
follows : 



Age-group 



Under 5 






5 and under 10 






10 




15 






15 




20 






20 




25 






25 




35 






85 




45 






45 




55 






55 




65 






65 




70 












75 , 


85 




85 and upwards 




Total . 



Numbers in thousands 



England 
and Wales 


Scotland 


Great Britain 








3,322 


472 


8,794 


3,519 


477 


8,996 


3,660 


490 


4,150 


3,503 


478 


3,081 


8,151 


429 


3,580 


5,761 


714 


6,475 


5,346 


633 


5,979 


4,420 


535 


4,955 


2,913 


362 


3,275 


986 


123 


1,109 


657 


84 


741 


572 


74 


646 


76 


11 


87 


37,886 


4,882 


42,768 



12 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE I GREAT BRITAIN 



Estimated population (in thousands) of Great Britain and its divisions 
(exclusive of army, navy, and merchant seamen abroad) at the end of June: 



Year 
(30 June) 


England 
and Wales 


Scotland 


Total of 
Great Britain 


1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 l 


39,067,000 
39,290,000 
39,482,000 
39,607,000 
39,806,000 


4,892,000 
4,895,000 
4,893,000 
4,884,000 
4,886,000 


43,964,000 
44,182,000 
44,375,000 
44,491,000 
44,692,000 



l Provisional figures. 

1. England and Wales. 
The census population of England and Wales 1801 to 1921 : 



Date of 

Enumeration 


Population 


Pop per 
sq. mile 


Date of 
Enumeration 


Population 


Pop. per 
sq. mile 


1801 . 


8,892,536 


152 


1871 


22,712,266 


389 


1811 . 


10,164,256 


174 


1881 . . 25,974,439 


445 


1821 , 


12,000,236 


206 


1891 . . 29,002,525 


497 


1831 . 


13,896,797 


238 


1901 . . 32,527,843 


558 


1841 . 


15,914,148 


273 


1911 . . 36,070,492 


618 


1851 . 


17,927,609 


307 


1921 . 


37,886,699 


649 


1861 . 


20,066,224 


344 









Population of England and Wales arid of the Administrative Counties 
and County Boroughs in 1901, 1911 and 1921. (For areas of administrative 
counties, &c., 1911, see STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK for 1916, p. 17.) 





Area in 
Statute 


Census Population 




Acres, 1921 
(Land and 
Inland 
Water). 


Counties, including 
County Boroughs 


Administra- 
tive 
Counties 




Counties, 




only 




including 








"~" 




County 


1901 


1911 


19 


1921 




Boroughs 










ENGLAND. 












Bedfordshire . 


302,942 


171,707 


194,588 


206,462 


206,462 


Berkshire . 


463,834 


259,069 


280,794 


294,821 


202,548 


Buckinghamshire 


479,300 


197,046 


219,551 


236,171 


236,171 


Cambridgeshire 


315,168 


120,264 


128,322 


129,602 


129,602 


Isle of Ely . 


238,073 


64,495 


69,752 


73,817 


73,817 


Cheshire . 


657,950 


835,941 


965,967 


1,025,724 


625,227 


Cornwall . 


868,167 


322,334 


328,098 


820,705 


320,705 


Cumberland 


973,086 


266,933 


265,746 


273,173 


220,463 


Derbyshire 


650,369 


599,694 


683,423 


714,662 


584,866 


Devonshire 


1,071,364 


662,196 


699,703 


709,614 


439,996 


Dorsetshire 


625,612 


202,063 


223,266 


228,160 


228,160 


Durham . 


649 244 


1,187,474 


1,369,860 


1,479,033 


943,718 


Essex 


979,532 


1,083,998 


1,350,881 


1,470,257 


920,141 


Gloucestershire 


805,794 


708,489 


736,118 


767,651 


329,346 


Hampshire * . 


958,896 


717,164 


802.393 


910,252 


410,213 


Isle of Wight 


94,146 


82,418 


88,180 


94,666 


94,666 


* Administrate e County of Southampton. l Corrected figures. 



AREA AND POPULATION 



13 





Area in 


Census Population 




Statute 






Acres, 1921 








(Land and 
Inland 


Counties, including 
County Boroughs 


Admini- 
strative 




Water). 
Counties, 




Counties 










including 
County 


1901 


1911 


1921 


only. 




Boroughs 










ENGLAND (cont.) 












Herefordshire . 


538.924 


114,125 


114,260 


in, 189 


113,189 


Hertfordshire . 


404,523 


258,4-23 


311,284 


333,195 


333,195 


Huntingdonshire 


233,985 


54,125 


55,577 


54,741 


54,741 


Kent .... 


975,965 


961,139 


1,045,591 


1,141,066 


1,117,929 


Lancashire 


1,104,555 


4,378,203 


4,756,644 


4,027,484 


1,746,238 


Leicestershire . 


632,779 


437,400 


476,553 


494,46t 


260,326 


Lincolnshire 












The parts of Holland . 


263,355 


77,610 


82,280 


85,254 


85,254 


The parts of Kesteven . 


469,142 


103,062 


107,832 


108,250 


108,250 


The parts of Lindsey . 


972,706 


318,450 


373,848 


408,608 


260,301 


London .... 


74.850 


4,536,267 


4,521,685 


4,484,623 


4,484,523 


Middlesex .... 


148,692 


792,476 


1,126,465 


1,253,002 


1,253,002 


Monmouthshire 


349,552 


208,076 


395,710 


450,794 


358,436 


Norfolk .... 


1,315.064 


476,553 


400,116 


504,293 


322,932 


Northamptonshire . 


585,148 


294,506 


303,707 


302,404 


211,509 


Soke of Peterborough . 


53,464 


41,122 


44,718 


46,959 


46,959 


Northumberland 


1,291,515 


603,119 


696,893 


746,006 


407,317 


Nottinghamshire 


640,123 


514,459 


604,008 


641,149 


378,525 


Oxfordshire 


479,220 


170,062 


180,481 


189,615 


132,579 


Rutlandshire . 


97,273 


19,700 


20,346 


18,376 


18,376 


Shropshire 


861,800 


239,783 


246,307 


243,062 


243,062 


Somersetshire . 


1,037,594 


434,950 


458,009 


465,710 


397,041 


Staffordshire . 


741,318 


1,183,998 


1,279,649 


1,348,877 


710,865 


Suffolk, East . 


557,353 


255,800 


277,155 


291,073 


211,702 


Suffolk, West . 


390,916 


117,553 


116,905 


108,085 


108,985 


Surrey .. . 


461,833 


653,661 


845,578 


930,086 


739,402 


Sussex, East . 


530,555 


450 979 


487,070 


532,187 


261,234 


Sussex, West . 


401,916 


151,276 


176.308 


195,810 


195,810 


Warwickshire . 


605 275 


1,083,069 


1,247,418 


1,389,977 


342,376 


Westmorland . 


504,917 


64,409 


63,575 


65,746 


65,746 


Wiltshire .... 


864,101 


271,304 


286,822 


292,208 


292,208 


Worcestershire . 


45S,352 


363,490 


387,688 


405,842 


301,115 


Yorkshire, East Riding . 


750,115 


385,007 


432,759 


460,880 


173,730 


Yorkshire, North Riding . 


1,362,058 


377,338 


419,546 


456,436 


825,366 


Yorkshire West Riding . 


1,773,529 


2,761,321 


3,045,377 


3,181,174 


1,508,379 


York, City of 


3,730 


77,914 


82,282 


84,039 


84,030 


Totals . 


32,559,868 


80,813,043 


34,045,290 


35,681,019 


23,536,698 


WALES 












Anglesey .... 


176,630 


60,606 


60,928 


51,744 


51,744 


Brecknockshire. 


469 281 


54,213 


59,287 


61,222 


61.222 


Cardiganshire . 


443,189 


61,078 


59,879 


60,881 


60,881 


Carmarthenshire 


588,472 


135,328 


160,406 


175,073 


175,073 


Carnarvonshire 


866,005 


126,649 


125,043 


130,975 


130,975 


Denbighshire . 


426,080 


131,582 


144,783 


154,842 


154,842 


Flintshire. 


168 707 


81,485 


92,705 


106.617 


106,617 


Glamorganshire 


620,456 


859,934 


1,120,910 l,252,'48l 


814,627 


Merionethshire . 


422,372 


48,852 


45,565 


45,087 


45,087 


Montgomeryshire . 


510,110 


54,901 


53,146 


51,263 


51,263 


Pembrokeshire . 


393,003 


87,894 


89,960 


91,978 


91,978 


Radnorshire 


301,165 


23,281 


22,590 23,617 


23,517 


Total Wales (12 Counties) 


4,780,470 


1,714,800 


2,025,202 2,205,680 


1,767,826 


Totals 










England and Wales 


37,340,338 


82,527,843 


36,070,402 87,886,699 


25,304,524 



14 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 

The area and population of the County Boroughs, and more important 
other Boroughs, are given in the following table. The County Boroughs are 
designated by the letters C. B. 





Area in 


Census ] 


Population 


Estimated 




Statute 






Population 




Acres, 1921 


1911 


1921 


mid-1929. 


ENGLAND 










Accrmgton .... 


3,427 


45,029 


43,595 


44,220 


Ashton-under-Lyne . 


1,345 


45,172 


43,335 


51,750 


Barnsley (C.B.) 


2,385 


50,614 


53,661 


71,700 


Barrow-m-Furness (C.B.) 


11,002 


63,770 


74,244 


64,850 


Bath, City of (C.B.) . 


5,152 


69,173 


68,669 


69,240 


Bedford ... 


2,223 


39,183 


40,242 


41,470 


Birkenhead(C.B.) . 


3,909 


130,794 


145^77 


157,600 


Birmingham, City of (C B ) . 


43,601 


840,202 


919,444 


968,500 


Blackburn (C.B.) . 


7,420 


133,052 


126,643 


125,300 


Blackpool (C.B.) . 


5,189 


60,746 


99,639 


99,800 


Bolton(C.B.) .... 


15,260 


180,851 


178,683 


181,500 


Bootle(C.B.) .... 


1,947 


69,876 


70,487 


80,400 


Bournemouth (C.B.) 


6,545 


79,183 


91,761 


97,* 60 


Bradford City of (C.B.) . 


22,881 


288,458 


285,961 


294,605 3 


Brighton (C.B.) 


2,545 


131,237 


142,430 


146,800 * 


Bristol, City of (C B.) . 


18,430 


357,114 


376,975 


391, 145 l 


Burnley (C.B.) . 


4620 


106,765 


103,157 


100,200 


Bnrton-upon-Trent(C.B ) 


4,203 


48,266 


48,909 


48,970 


Bury (C.B.) .... 


5,925 


59,040 


56,403 


56,830 l 


Cambridge .... 


5,457 


55,812 


59,264 


60,730 


Canterbury, City of (C.B ) 


3,975 


24,62(5 


28,737 


22,850 l 


Carlisle (C.B.) .... 


4,488 


52,225 


52,710 


56,160 l 


Chatham .... 


4,356 


42,250 


42,013 


41,520 


Cheltenham .... 


4,726 


48,942 


48,430 


50,800 


Chester, City of (C.B.) . 


2,863 


39,028 


40,802 


40,750 


Chesterfield .... 


8,474 


53,389 


61,232 


65,270 


Colchester .... 


11,333 


43,452 


43,393 


44,890 


Coventry, City of (C.B.) . 


4,147 


106,349 


128,157 


162,100 


Crewe ... 


2,184 


44,960 


46,497 


47,900 


Croydon (C.B ) 


9,012 


169,551 


190,684 


222,800 


Darlington (C.B.) . 


4,614 


57,328 


65,842 


74,150 




5,959 


40,332 


37,906 


87,780 


Derby (C.B.) .... 


5,272 


123,410 


129,796 


140,500 


Dewsbury (C.B.) . 


6,720 


53,351 


54,160 


53,020 


Doncaster 


4,831 


48,455 


54,364 


59,890 




1,948 


43,645 


39,995 


89,600* 


Dudley (C.B) .... 


3,546 


51,079 


55,894 


58, 870 




2,946 


61,222 


67,755 


104,000 


Eastbourne (C.B . 


6,474 


52,542 


62,028 


58,'570 


East Ham (C.B.) 


8,824 


133,487 


143,246 


147,600 


Eccles 


2,057 


41,944 


44,242 


45,040 


Exeter, City of (C.B.) . 


4,705 


59,092 


59,582 


61,290* 


Folkestone .... 


2,482 


33,502 


37,536 


85,620 


Gateshead (C.B.) . 


3,132 


116,917 


125,142 


122,600 


Gillingham .... 


4,988 


52,252 


64,026 


56,670' * 


Gloucester, City of (C.B.) 


2,318 


50,035 


51,330 


52,010 


Great Yarmouth (C.B.) . 


3,598 


55,905 


00,700 


58,110 


Grimsby (C.B.) 


2,868 


74,659 


82,355 


91,440 


Halifax (C.B.) .... 


13,984 


101,553 


99,127 


97,400* 


Hastings (C.B ) 


%496 
2,875 


61,145 
84,592 


66,495 
87 659 


62,620 
88 450 




1,543 


42,173 


46^505 


51*480 


Hudderefleld (C.B.) 


11,875 


107,821 


110J02 


118,'lOO 


Ipswich (C.B.) 


8,112 


78,932 


79,371 


85,800 


Keighley 


3,902 


48,487 


41,921 


40,400 


Klngston-upon-Hull. City of 










(C.B.) 


9,042 


277,991 


287,150 


307,500* 



l Excluding non-civilians. 2 Extended April 1929. 



1 Extended April 1030. 



AREA AND POPULATION 



15 





Areas in 


Census Population 


Estimated 




Statute 






Population 




Acres, 1921 


1911 


1921 


mid-1929. 


ENGLAND continued. 










Lancaster 


3,506 


41,410 


40,212 


41, 360 * 


Leeds, City of (C.B.) 


28,090 


454 155 


458,23J 


478,500 


Leicester, City of (0,B ) 


8,582 


227,222 


234,143 


245,200 


Leigh 


6,359 


44 103 


45,532 


40,850 


Lincoln, City of (C.B ) . 


6,128 


6l',346 


66,042 


65,080 1 


Liverpool, City of (C.B.) 


21,242 


753,353 


802,940 


869,500 


Lowestoft .... 


3,327 


37,886 


44,323 


45,150 




3,132 


49,978 


57,075 


05,200 


Maid stone .... 


4,008 


35,475 


37,216 


40,*>50 


Manchester, City of (C.B.) 


21,690 


714,885 


730,307 


740,500 


Mansfield .... 


7,068 


36,888 


44,416 


47,130 


Margate ..... 


2,463 


28,458 


46,480 


29,580 


Middlesbrough (C.B.) . 


4,159 


119,910 


131,070 


133,100 


Newcastle-upon-Tyne, City of 










(C.B.) 


8,452 


266,603 


275,009 


283,400* 


Newport (Monmouth) (C.B) 


4,604 


83,691 


92,358 


95,990* 


Northampton (C.B.) 


3,469 


90,064 


90,895 


93,970 


Norwich, City of (C.B.) . 


7,898 


121,490 


120,661 


124,900* 


Nottingham, City of (C. B. ) . 


10,935 


259,901 


262,624 


260,800 


Oldham(C.B) . 


4,735 


147,483 


144.9S3 


142,500 


Oxford, City of (C.B.) . 


4,719 


53,048 


57,036 


73,810 


Plymouth (C.B.) . 


5,711 


207,449 


210,036 


199,000* 


Portsmouth (C.B.) . 


7,964 


233,573 


247,284 


242,000 * 


Preston (C.B.) .... 


3,964 


117,088 


117,406 


126,100 


Reading (C.B.) 


9,100 


87,693 


92,278 


96,850* 


Rochdale (C.B.) 


6,446 


91,428 


90,816 


90,900 


Rotherham (C. B.) . 


5,957 


62,483 


68,022 


70,790 


St. Helens (C.B.) . 


7,284 


96,551 


102,640 


109,200 


Salford(CB.) .... 


5,202 


231,357 


234,045 


235,600 


Scarborough .... 


2,727 


37,224 


46,179 


39,260 


Sheffield, City of (C B.) . 


24,930 


400,183 


490,689 


518,000' 


Smethwick(C.B.) . 


1,929 


70,694 


75,760 


85,120 


Southampton (C.B.) 


9,192 


145,096 


160,994 


172,300 


Southend-on Sea (C.B.) . 


7,082 


70,676 


106,010 


114,600 


Southport(C.B.) . 


0,728 


69,643 


76,621 


80,040 


South Shields (C. B ) 


2,899 


108,647 


116,635 


119,000 


Stockport(C.B.) . 


7,063 


119,870 


123,309 


127,800 


Stockton-on-Tees 


5,46;> 


58,521 64,126 


67,090 


Stoke-on-Trent(C.B ) 


11,142 


234,534 


240,428 


279,190 


8underland(C.B.) . 


3,357 


151,159 


159,055 


184,000 




4,265 


60,751 


54,920 


62,020 


Tynemouth (C B ) . 


4,372 


58,816 


63,770 


65,880 


Wakefleld, City of (C.B.). 


4,060 


51,511 


52,891 


56,640 


Wallasey (C.B.) . 


8,324 


78,504 


90,809 


101,30 


Wallsend 


3,420 


41,461 


42,995 


44,800 


Walsall (C.B.) .... 


7,483 


92,115 


96,926 


100,100 


Warrmgton(C.B.) . 


8,057 


72,166 


70,811 


79,400* 


West Bromwich (C.B.) . 


5,859 


68,332 


73,647 


80,840 


West Ham (C.B) . 


4,683 


289,030 


300,860 


807,600 


West Hartlepool (C.B.) . 


2,684 


63,923 


68,641 


69,370 


Wigan(C.B.) . 


5,083 


89,152 


89,421 


87,600 


Wolverhampton(C.B) . 


8,525 


95,328 


102,342 


184,300 


Worcester, Citv of (C. B.) 


8,662 


47,982 


48,833 


52,820 


York, City of (C.H. 


8,730 


82,282 


84,039 


85,290* 


WALKS 










Cardiff, City of (C.B.) . 


6,489 


182,259 


200,184 


221,000* 


MerthyrTydfll(C.B.) . 


17,760 


80,990 


80,116 


77,790 


Swansea (C.B.) 


21,000 


143,997 


157,554 


162,700 



1 Excluding non-civilians. 



Extended Oct. 1929. 



1 Extended Aprill929. 



16 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 



The following table shows the distribution of the urban and rural 
population of England and Wales in 1901, 1911, and 1921 : 



1901 
1911 
1921 


Population 


Percentage of 
j opulation 


England and Wales 


Urban Districts 1 j Rural Districts 1 


Urban* 


Rural > 


32,527,843 
86,070,492 
87,880,699 


25,058,355 
28,162 986 
30,035,417 


7,469,488 
7,907,556 
7,851,282 


77-0 
78-1 
79-3 


23-0 
21-9 

20 7 



1 As existing at each census. 

The municipal and parliamentary City of London, coinciding with the 
registration City of London, has an area of 675 acres. The registration 
County of London (the London for purposes of the Census, the registration 
of births, deaths, and marriages, and for pobr law purposes), coinciding 
with the administrative county, has an area of 74,850 acres, and nearly 
coincides with the collective area of the London parliamentary boroughs. 
The population of registration London, of the 'Outer Ring/ and of 
' Greater London ' (the area covered by the City and Metropolitan police), 



Registration London. 
' Outer Ring ' . 


1901 

4,536,267 
2,045,135 


1911 

4,521,685 
2,729,673 


1921 

4,484,523 
2,995,678 


1929 a 

4,417,900 3 
3,482,580 3 


1 Greater London '* . 


6,581,402 


7,251,358 


7,480,201 


7, 900, 480 3 



1 Area 448,449 acres. 2 Estimated for middle of year. Excluding non-civilians. 

For occupation statistics of the population in England and Wales aged 
12 years and upwards in 1921, see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK for 1925, 
p. 17. 

2. Scotland. 

Area 29,796 square miles, including its islands, 186 in number, but ex- 
cluding inland water 609 square miles. 

Population (including military in the barracks and seamen on board 
vessels in the harbours) at the dates of the several censuses : 



Date of 
Enumeration 


Population 


Pop. per 
sq. mile 


Date of 
Enumeration 

1871 
1881 
1891 
1901 
1911 
1921 


Population 


Pop. per 
sq. mile 


1801 
1811 
1821 
1831 
1841 
1851 
1861 


1,608,420 
1,805,864 
2,091,521 
2,364,386 
2,620,184 
2,888,742 
3,062,294 


54 
60 
70 
79 
88 
97 
100 


3,' 360, 01 8 
3,735,573 
4,025,647 
4,472,103 
4,760,904 
4,882,497 


113 
125 
135 
150 
160 
164 



The number of married persons in 1921 was 1,677,846 (833,393 males 
and 844,453 females), and widowed, 291,375 (88,810 males and 202,565 
females). 

There are 33 civil counties, as follows : 



ABEA AND POPULATION 



17 



_ 


Area in 
Statute 
Acres 


Census Population 


Estimated 
Population 
mid-1930 


1901 
Total 


1911 
Total 


1921 
Total 


1. Aberdeen (tnclud. Aberdeen) 
2. Argyll 


1,261,521 
1,990,472 


304.439 
73,642 
254,468 
61,488 
30,824 
18,787 
33,870 
32,029 
113,865 
72,571 
38,665 
218,840 
284,082 
90,104 
40,923 
6,981 
39,383 
1,389,327 
488,796 
44,800 
9,291 
28,699 
15,006 
123,283 
268,980 
76,450 
48,804 
23,356 
28,166 
142,291 
21,440 
65,708 
32,685 


312,177 
70,902 
268,337 
61,402 
29,643 
18,186 
32,010 
31,121 
139,831 
72,825 
43,254 
267,739 
281,417 
87,272 
41,008 
7,527 
38,367 
1,447,034 
507,606 
43,427 
9,319 
25,897 
15,258 
124,342 
314,552 
77,364 
47,192 
24,601 
27,911 
100,991 
20,179 
80,155 
31,998 

4,760,004 


301,016 
76,862 
299,273 
57,298 
28,246 
83,711* 
28,285 
82,542 
150,861 
75,370 
47,487 
292,925 
271,052 
82,455 
41,779 
7,963 
37,155 
1,539,442 
506,377 
41,558 
8,790 
24,111 
15,332 
125,503 
298,904 
70,818 
44,989 
22,607 
25,520 
161,719 
17,802 
83,962 
30,783 


294,700 
68,000 
293,000 
54,700 
26,600 
19,200 
25,800 
32,100 
153,300 
79,300 
47,500 
290,800 
2b3,000 
79,700 
41,000 
7,700 
20,400 
1,603,200 
516,100 
39,500 
8,200 
21,800 
14,900 
119,500 
297,300 
66,800 
42,900 
21,600 
23,800 
170,700 
16,600 
86,400 
28,700 


3. Ayr 
4. Banff 
5. Berwick .... 
(5. Bute 


724,523 
403,053 
292,535 
139,658 
438,833 
34,927 
157,433 
680,302 
170,971 
322,844 
559,037 
2,695,094 
244,482 
52,410 
575,832 
562,821 
234,325 
804,931 
104,252 
240,847 
222,240 
1,595,802 
153,332 
1,977,248 
426,028 
170,793 
852,319 
288,842 
1,297,914 
76,861 
311,984 


7. Caithness .... 
8. Clackmannan 
9. Dumbarton .... 
10. Dumfries .... 
11. East Lothian (lladdington) . 
12. Fife . . . . . 


13. Forfar (Angus) 
14. Inverness 
15. Kincardine .... 
16. Kinross 
17. Kirkcudbright . 
18. Lanark (including Glasgow) 
19. Midlothian (Edinburgh) 
20. Moray (Elgin) . 
21. Nairn 
22. Orkney 
23. Peebles .... 
24. Perth 


25. Renfrew 
20. Ross and Ciomarty 
27. Roxburgh .... 
28. Selkirk . 


29. Shetland .... 
30. Stirling 
31. Sutherland .... 
32. West Lothian (Linlithgow) . 
83. Wigtown .... 


TOTAL SCOTLAND . 


19,070,466 


4,472,103 


4,882,497 


4,879,700 



1 Including summer visitors. 

The birthplaces of the 1921 population were: Scotland, 4,466,711; 
England, 189,385; Wales, 4,891 ; Ireland, 159,020; British Colonies, etc., 
25,440 ; foreign countries, 32,652 (including 20,223 aliens). 

The * urban' population of Scotland in 1921 is defined as the popu- 
lation of localities containing over 1,000 persons, and are burghs, special 
scavenging districts, or special lighting districts. On this basis the * urban ' 
population was 3,771,762 or 77 '3 per cent, of the total, and the ' rural ' popula- 
tion 1,110,735 or 22*7 per cent. Population of the principal burghs : 



Burghs. 


Census P 
1911 


opulation. 
1921 


Estimated 
Population 
mid-1930 


Burghs 


Ceii 
Popul 

1911 

48,286 
29,?1S 
89,601 
38,644 
84,728 
32.986 
88,574 
35,864 


sus 
anon. 

1921 


Estimated 
Population 
mid-1930 


Glasgow 
Edinburgh 
Dundee . 
Aberdeen 
Paisley 
Greenock 
Motherwell 
Clydebank 


784,496 
320,818 
165,004 
163,891 
84,455 
75,140 
40,380 
87,548 


1,034,174 
420,264 
168,315 
158,963 
84,837 
81,128 
68,869 
46,506 


1,076,100 
427,500 
167,000 
158,800 
87,900 
81,900 
70,900 
49,800 


Ooatbridge 
Dunfermline 
Kirkcaldy 
Hamilton 
Kilmarnock 
Ayr. . 
Palkirk . 
Perth . 


43,009 
89,899 
89,591 
89,420 
35,763 
85,747 
33,808 
33,208 


44,7 00 
37,900 
89,400 
40,800 
38,400 
37,500 
35,600 
32,100 



18 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 



The number of houses in 1921 was: occupied, 1,057,609; unoccupied, 
51,835 ; building, 10,628 ; total, 1,120,072. 

For the occupations of the population of Scotland aged 12 years and 
upwards, according to the census of 1921, see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK 
for 1925, p. 19. 

3. Isle of Man and Channel Islands. 

The population of these Islands was found to be as follows at the suc- 
cessive censuses : 



Islands 


Census Population 


Area 

in Statute 
Acres, 1921 


1001 

54,752 
52,576 
40,474 
2,062 
506 


1911 


1921 


Isle of Man 
Jersey .... 
Guernsey, Herm, and Jethou 
Alderney. 
Sark, Brechou, and Lihou 

Total . 


52,016 
51,898 
41,858 
2,561 
582 


60,284 
49,701 
38,315 
1,598 
616 


141,263 
28,717 
16,018 
1,962 
1,386 


150,370 


148,915 


150,514 


189,346 



II. MOVEMENT OF THE POPULATION. 

1. Births , Deaths, and Marriages. 

England and Wales. 



Year 


Estimated 
Population 


Total Live 
Births 


Illegitimate 
Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 




at 30th June 










1926 


39,067,000 


694,563 


29,591 


453,804 


279,860 


1927 


39,290,000 


654,172 


29,023 


484,609 


308,370 


1928 


39,482,000 


660,267 


29,702 


460,389 


303,228 


1929 


39,607,000 


643,673 


29,307 


532,492 


313,316 


1930 


39,806,000 


649,430 


29,682 


455,397 


314,698 



In 1930 the proportion of male to female births was 1,044 male to 1,000 
female. In 1930 the live birth rate was 16*3 and the death rate 11*4 per 
thousand of the population. 

Scotland. ' 



Year 


Estimated 
Population 


Total Births 


Illegitimate 
Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 




at 30th June 










1926 


4,896,638 


102,449 


7,046 


63,780 


31,244 


1927 


4,891,953 


96,672 


6,978 


65,830 


32,553 


1928 


4,893,182 


96,822 


7,158 


65,271 


32,948 


1929 


4,884,032 


92,880 


7,165 


70,917 


32,999 


1930 


4,879,700 


94,538 


6,946 


64,283 


33,323 



Proportion of male to female births in 1930 was 1,034 to 1,000. 



RELIGION 



19 



In 1930 the birth rate was 19*3 and the death rate 13 '2 per thousand of 
the population. 

2. Emigration and Immigration. 

In the thirty-eight years 1815-1852, the total number of emigrants from 
the United Kingdom was 3,463,592. Up to 1852 the emigration returns 
made no distinction between British subjects and foreigners. From 1853 to 
1930 inclusive, the number of passengers of British origin, to places out of 
Europe, was 15,842,000. Figures of the passenger traffic to and from 
non-European countries in recent years are given as follows : 



Year 




Outward 






Inward 




Balance 
outward 




British 
subjects 


Aliens 


Total 


British 
subjects 


Aliens 


Total 


Total 


1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 


250,314 
284,009 
277,327 
270,720 
280,767 


104,609 
118,409 
136,792 
126,527 
118,63(> 


354,923 
4U2,438 
414,119 
397,247 
399,403 


163,258 
160,680 
173,724 
187,890 
188,230 


77,931 
70,699 
80,037 
88,815 
89,706 


241,189 
247,379 
259,701 
276,705 
277,936 


113,734 
165,059 
154,358 
120,542 
121,467 



The number of British emigrants (excluding persons only temporarily absent) to places 
out of Europe was 143,686 in 1929, 92,158 in 1930, and the immigrants of British 
nationality into Great Britain was 56,217 m 1929, 60,203 in 1930. 

The destinations of British subjects leaving the United Kingdom to take 
up permanent residence in non-European countries in 1930 were mainly the 
United States, 27,436 (30,709 in 1929); British North America, 31,074 
(65,558 in 1929); Australia, 8,517 (18,377 in 1929); New Zealand, 3,981 
(4,700 in 1929); British South Africa, 4,559 (5,766 in 1929); India and 
Ceylon, 5,636 (6,265 in 1929). 

The passenger movement between the United Kingdom and European 
countries (including all ports in the Mediterranean and Black Seas) in recent 
years is given as follows : 



Year 


Passengers 


Balance Inward or 
Outward 


To U.K. 


From U.K. 




By Sea 


By Air 


By Sea 


By Air 




1923 
1926 


1,257,510 
1,300,095 


11,295 
12,809 


1,229,595 
1,251,119 


9,426 
12,715 


27,915 inward. 
49,070 


1927 


1,371,885 


15,025 


1,294,257 


13,739 


78,914 


1928 


1,493,956 


22,888 


1,433,071 


21,112 


02,101 


1929 


1,501,297 


25,040 


1,444,585 


23,630 


58,122 



Religion. 

1. England and Wales. 

The Established Church of England is Protestant Episcopal. Civil 
disabilities on account of religion 3o not attach to any class of British 
subjects. Under the Welsh Church Acts, 1914 and 1919, the Church in 
Wales and Monmouthshire was disestablished as from March 31, 1920, and 



20 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 

Wales was formed into a separate Archbishopric. Property belonging to 
the Church in Wales, and a sum of 1,000,000. provided by Parliament, 
were assigned to a temporary body not exceeding three persons, called the 
Welsh Commissioners, for distribution to a body representing the Church 
(called the Representative Body), and to certain other authorities including 
the University of Wales. 

The King is by law the supreme governor of the Church in England, 
possessing the right, regulated oy statute, to nominate to the vacant arch- 
bishoprics and bishoprics. The King, and the First Lord of the Treasury in 
bis name, also appoint to such deaneries, prebendaries, and canonries as are 
in the gift of the Crown, while a large number of livings and also some 
canonries are in the gift of the Lord Chancellor. 

There are 3 archbishops (at the head of the three 'provinces' of Can- 
terbury, York and Wales) and 46 bishops, and 29 suffragan bishops 
in England and Wales. Each archbishop has also his own particular 
diocese, wherein he exercises episcopal, as in his province he exercises 
arcluepiscopal jurisdiction. Under the bishops are 32 deans and 110 
archdeacons. Under the Church of England Assembly (Powers) Act, 1919, 
there is a National Assembly, called 'the Church Assembly,' in England, 
consisting of a House of Bishops, a House of Clergy, and a House of Laymen, 
which has power to legislate regarding Church matters. The first two Houses 
consist of the Convocations of Canterbury and York, which in turn consist 
of the bishops (forming an Upper House), archdeacons, and deans, and a 
certain number of proctors, as the representatives of the inferior clergy 
(forming the Lower House). The House of Laymen is elected by the lay 
members of the Diocesan Conference. Parochial affairs are managed by a 
Parochial Church Meeting and Church Council. Every measure passed by the 
Church Assembly must be submitted to an Ecclesiastical Committee, con- 
sisting of fifteen members of the House of Lords nominated by the Lord Chan- 
cellor, and fifteen members of the House of Commons nominated by the 
Speaker. This Committee reports on each measure to Parliament, and the 
measure becomes law if each House of Parliament passes a resolution to 
that effect. 

The number of civil parishes (districts for which a separate poor rate is or can 
be made) at the census of 1911 was 14,614. These, however, in most cases, do 
not coincide with ecclesiastical parishes, which have, from the civil point of 
view, lost their old importance. Of such parishes there were (1929) 13,299, 
inclusive of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, but excluding Wales. 
Each parish has its church, presided over by an incumbent or minister, who 
must be in priest's orders, and who is known as rector, vicar, or perpetual 
curate, according to his relation to the temporalities of his parish. 
Private persons possess the right of presentation to 6,547 benefices; the 
patronage of the others belongs mainly to the King, the bishops and 
cathedrals, the Lord Chancellor, and the universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge. In 1929 there were about 12,824 beneficed clergy, and 4,224 
assistant curacies. The contributions in the Church of England in 1929 
amounted to 9,873,164^. 

Of 36,196 churches and chapels registered for the solemnisation of 
marriage at the end of 1929, 16,377 belonged to the Established Church and 
the Church in Wales and 19,819 to other religious denominations. Of the 
marriages celebrated in 1929, 56*2 per cent, were in the Established Church 
and the Church in Wales, 6 f O per cent, in the Roman Catholic Church, 11*4 
per cent, were Nonconformist marriages, 0*03 per cent, were Quaker 
marriages 0'7 per cent. Jewish, and 257 per cent, civil marriages in 
a Registrar's Office. 



RELIGION 



21 



The following is a summary of recent statistics of certain churches in 
England and Wales, Channel Islands, and Isle of Man : 















Sunday 


Denomination 


Sitting 
accommo- 
dation 


Full 
Members 


Ministers 
in 
Charge 


Local 
and Lay 
Preachers 


Sunday 
School 
Teachers 


School 
Scholars 
and Bible 














Class 


Wesleyan Methodist 
Primitive Methodist 


2,389,000 


547,028 
225,861 


2,810 
1,092 


19,611 
12,909 


116,000 
55,000 


803,435 
378,581 


United Methodist . 
Independent Methodist 


48,000 


156,945 
30,943 


735 
375 


5,203 


37,000 
3,000 


229,192 
24,000 


Wesleyan Reform Union 


56,000 


11,461 


25 


496 


2,400 


26,000 


Congregational 


1,727,000 


494,199 


2,883 


4,886 


67,5*2 


549,378 


Baptist . 


1,882,000 


414,000 


1,925 


4,871 


58,000 


531,000 


Presbyterian . 
Calviimtic Methodist 


184,000 
560,000 


84,000 
189,000 


360 
1,1(50 


208 


7,400 
24,000 


64,000 
161 ,000 


Moravian 


11,000 


3,000 


40 


2 


600 


4,000 


Lady Huntingdon's Con- 














nexion 


13,000 


1,700 


27 


46 


300 


2,700 


Churches of Christ 
Society of Friends 





16,000 
19,000 




2,000 


1,700 
2,000 


19,000 
15,000 


Anglican (in England) 


f>, 400,000 


2,204,000 


_ 





171,000 


1,056,000 

















The Unitaifans have about 350 places of worship, the Catholic Apostolic 
Church over 80, the New Jerusalem Church about 75. The Salvation Army, 
a religious body with a semi-military organisation, carries on both spiritual and 
social work at home and abroad, and had (December, 1928) about 35,074 
officers and employes, 15, 163 corps and outposts, and 252, 912 local officers; their 
places of worship in the United Kingdom have about 560,339 sittings. There 
are about 300,000 Jews in the United Kingdom with about 200 synagogues. 

Roman Catholics in England and Wales are estimated at 2, 15 6, 14 6. There 
were (1928) four archbishops (of whom one is a cardinal), fourteen bishops, and 
four bishops-auxiliary; aoout 4,000 priests (not all officiating); and over 
1,900 churches, chapels, and stations. 



2. Scotland. 

The Church of Scotland (established in 1560 and confirmed in 1688) is 
Presbyterian, the ministers all being of equal rank. There is in each 
parish a kirk session, consisting of the minister, and of several laymen 
called elders. There are presbyteries (formed by groups of parishes), 
meeting frequently throughout the year, and these are grouped in synods, 
which meet half-yearly and can be appealed to against the decisions of the 
presbyteries. The supreme court is the General Assembly, which con- 
sists of over 750 members, partly clerical and partly lay, chosen by the 
different presbyteries, with a few representatives from royal burghs and 
universities. It meets annually in May (under the presidency of a Moderator 
appointed by the Assembly, the Sovereign being represented by a nobleman 
known as Lord High Commissioner), and sits for ten days. Any matters 
not decided during this period may be left to a Commission. 



22 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 

On October 2, 1929, the Church of Scotland and the United Free Church 
were reunited and the two bodies met in Edinburgh as one, known as the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. The United Church had, in 
Scotland, on December 31, 1929, 2,986 congregations, 1,284,500 members, 
besides adherents ; 3,969 Sunday schools, with 45,877 teachers and 362,570 
scholars in attendance. The Church courts are the General Assembly, 12 
synods, 66 presbyteries, and 13 foreign mission presbyteries. Income in 
1929 was 2,391, 720Z. The Church has theological colleges at Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, Aberdeen and St. Andrews, with 32 professors and lecturers. The 
United Church's foreign mission agents (including natives) exceed 9,000, and 
income 700,0002. There are in Scotland some small outstanding Presbyterian 
bodies and also Baptists, Congregationalists, Methodists, and Unitarians. 
The Episcopal Church in Scotland had in 1929, 7 bishoprics, 415 churches and 
missions, 317 clergy, and 59,235 communicants. 

The Roman Catholic Church had in Scotland (1928) two archbishops, 
four bishops, one bishop-auxiliary, 638 priests ; about 450 churches, chapels, 
and stations, and about 600,000 adherents. 

The proportion of marriages in Scotland according to the rites of the 
various Churches in 1928 was: Established, 42 '3 percent.; United Free, 
23'1 ; Roman Catholic, 11*9 ; Episcopal, 2 '9 ; others, 6 '9 ; irregular, 11 '9. 



Education. * 

University Education. 

In England the highest education is given at the ancient universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, the former having 22 colleges and 3 private 
halls, and the latter 17 colleges and 1 hall ; the university of Durham, 
with a college of medicine and of science at Newcastle ; the university 
of London, with 2 Incorporated Colleges, 34 "Schools," and 28 Institu- 
tions giving instruction in 8 faculties ; tne Victoria University (Manchester), 
the Birmingham University, the Liverpool University, the Leeds University, 
the Sheffield University, the Bristol University, and the University of 
Reading, which started in 1860 as a college for art classes. There are also 
University Colleges at Exeter, 44 lecturers, &c., 584 students, 1930-31 ; 
Nottingham (founded 1881), 107 lecturers, and 927 students, 1930-31 ; 
Southampton (founded 1850), 65 lecturers, &c., 614 students, 1930-31 ; 
Leicester (opened in 1923), 19 lecturers, &c., 140 students, 1930-31. A 
University College was founded at Hull in 1928 with 28 lecturers and 107 
students in 1930-31. There are special Agricultural Colleges at Carlisle, 
Cirencester, Glasgow, Newport (Shropshire), Kingston-on-Spar (Derby), Wye 
(Kent), Uckfield (Sussex), and Ripley (Surrey). The university of Wales has 4 
colleges (Cardiff, 151 lecturers, 1,245 students; Aberystwyth, 91 lecturers, 735 
students ; Bangor, 83 lecturers, &c., 575 students ; and Swansea, 50 lecturers, 
&c., 511 students). In Scotland there are 4 universities, viz., at St. Andrews, 
Glasgow, Aberdeen, Edinburgh. The Carnegie Trust, founded in 1901 with 
a capital of 2,000,0002., has an annual income of 100,0002., of which half 
is devoted to the equipment and expansion of the Scottish Universities and 
half to assisting students. The following table gives the approximate number 
of professors, lecturers, &c., and students of the Universities for 1930-1931, 
(The dates of foundation are given in brackets. ) 



EDUCATION 



23 



Universities 


Number 
of Profes- 
sors, &c. 


Number of 
Students 


Universities 


Number 
of Profes- 
sors, Ac. 


Number of 
Students 


England 
Oxford . 
Cambridge 
Durham (1831) 
London (1836) 


450 
374 
254 
1,100 


4,572 
5,272 
1,464 
10,281 


Scotland 
St. Andrews (1411) 
Glasgow (1450) . 
Aberdeen (1494) . 
Edinburgh (1582) . 


136 
278 
156 
875 


919 
5,323 
1,280 
4,112 


Manchester (1880) 
Birmingham (1900) 


266 
257 


2, ',02 
1 693 


Total for Scotland 


945 


11,643 


Liverpool (1903) 
Leeds (1904) . 
Sheffield (1908) 
Bristol O909) 


312 
332 

178 
230 


2,155 
1,687 
2,671 
930 


Wales (1903) . 


375 


3,066 


Reading (1926) 


149 


1,039 


Totals of above 


5,222 


49,660 


Total for England 


3,002 


84,951 









1 Comprising 279 University Professors and Readers, and 845 ' Recognised Teachers. 

2 Undergraduates. 

Internal students In addition there are external students, i e., matriculated 
students who have not taken a degree nor been registered as internal students. The 
number ot these is not ascertamable but is probably greater than 12,000. 

* Includes evening students. 

At most of the Universities and University Colleges women students are admitted on 
equal terms with men. There are, however, several colleges exclusively for female 
Students : Bedford (66 teachers, &c., 620 students), Royal Holloway (83 teachers, 208 
students) and Westfleld Colleges (19 teachers, Ac., 150 students) in London ; Newnharn (11 
teachers, Ac., 287 students) and Girton (13 teachers, Ac., 258 students) Colleges m 
Cambridge ; Lady Margaret Hall (12 teachers, Ac., 140 students), Somerville College 
(10 teachers, Ac., 119 students), St. Hugh's College (9 tutors, 150 students), St. Hilda's 
College (11 teachers, 120 students), in Oxford. The Society of Oxford Home-Students 
numbered 18 teaeheis and 215 students in 1930. Women were first admitted to member- 
ship of Oxford University, and to take degrees, in October, 1920. 

Secondary and Technical Education^ <kc, 

England and Wales. The latest available statistics for secondary schools 
are as follows : 





Total Efficient 
Schools 


Schools on 
Grant List 


Total Pupils m Efficient 
Schools 


Full-Time 
Teachers. 
(Grant List) 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1926-7 
1927-8 
1928-9 
1929-30 


1,753 
1,786 
1,812 
1 904 


1,819 
1,829 
1,341 
1,354 


288,104 
238,981 

244,850 
252,602 


206,723 
210,819 
215,886 
22) ,042 


439,827 
449,800 
400,736 
473,644 


19,254 
20,102 
20,514 
21,165 



Included among the grant-receiving schools on Maich 31, 1930, were 701 
Council Schools, 86 Roman Catholic Schools, 465 Foundation and other 
schools, and 102 Welsh Intermediate Schools. On October 1, 1930, there 
were 194 preparatory schools not on the grant list, with 14,570 pupils. 

In the year ending July 31, 1930, there were 55 larger Technical Insti- 
tutes for advanced courses with 7,313 full-time students, and 162 Day 
Technical Institutes with 25,958 students. In addition there were 4,950 
evening schools giving part-time technical and other instruction to 852, 923 
students, and 60 separate Day Continuation Schools with 19,356 students. 
Among other institutions providing technical, commercial and other in- 
struction were 127 junior technical and housewifery schools with 20,128 
students, and 6 nautical schools with 1,041 students. There was in 1929-30 a 
total of 230 Schools of Art with 57,054 students. In the same year there 
were 108 training institutions for teachers \N ith 18,479 students (908 as teachers 
of domestic subjects), 



24 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 

The Universities in 1928-29 supervised 177 University Extension Courses 
with 3,637 students and 688 tutorial classes with 12,297 students. 

The number of students receiving instruction in full-time courses of higher 
education for blind, deaf, defective and epileptic students during 1929-30 
was 2,052, and of these 1,645 were blind. There were also two schools 
providing secondary education for blind children (43 boys and 37 girls). 

The total net expenditure by local authorities on higher education in 
1929-30 was 16,135,4802., and for 1930-31 is estimated at 17,560,353^. ; 
and the gross expenditure for London is estimated at 3,205,350. for 1930-31. 

Scotland. In 1929 there were 252 secondary schools (207 with primary or 
preparatory departments) with a total accommodation of 185,402 ; the average 
number of scholars on the registers being 154,206 (79,714 post primary). The 
number of students attending Central Institutions in 1928-29 was 7,067 day 
students and 11,257 evening students. Continuation Classes numbered 
971 in 1928-29 with a total attendance of 159,414 students. The number of 
teachers in secondary schools at March 31, 1929, was 6,452, including 3,855 
University Graduates. In 1929-30 there were 1,902 students training for the 
Teacher's General Certificate, including 944 graduates, in 4 training centres 
and 3 training colleges. 

Elementary Education. 

England and Wales. In the year 1929-30 the number of schools (public 
elementary, special, nursery, and certified efficient) for elementary education 
was 21,490. In 1930 there were 9,548 Council schools with accommodation 
for 4,585,421 pupils, and 11,25s 1 voluntary schools with accommodation for 
2,537,858 pupils; total ordinary public elementary schools 20,803, with 
accommodation for 7,123,279 pupils. The average attendance for the year 
1929-30 at these schools was 4,940,831. The number of scholars on 
the registers in 1930 was: 165,062 aged under 5; 4,275,089 aged 5 and 
under 12 ; 1,086,962 aged 12 and over. The number of teachers, 1929-30, 
was 168,038 (43,242 men and 121,796 women), of whom 124,597 were 
certificated, 31,385 were uncertificated and 7,497 were supplementary. 

There were 593 'special ' schools in 1929-30, comprising 78 for the blind, 
with accommodation for 4,647 pupils ; 50 for the deaf, with accommodation 
for 4,696 pupils; 173 for the mentally defective, accommodation 16,536 ; 
286 for the physically defective, accommodation 24,386 ; and 6 for epileptic 
children with accommodation for 609 pupils. There were also 56 Poor Law 
schools, 30 nursery schools and 302 play centres. 

The number of meals provided free in 1929-30 for necessitous children was 
32, 737, 037 as compared with 20,131,035 in 1928-29, and the total number of 
children in public elementary schools who were medically examined in 1929 
was 2,737,327, and there were 1,808,469 re-inspections. 

The total number of school clinics on March 31, 1930, was 1,649 (1,581 
in 1929). There were 2,292 medical officers, 704 dentists and 5,272 nurses 
employed for whole or part time. 

The total net expenditure of local authorities for elementary education in 
1929-30 was 63,334, 694?., and for 1930-31 is estimated at 65,935,931^.; 
for London the estimate of gross expenditure for 1930-31 is 9,968,7902. 

Scotland. In 1928-29 there were 2,915 Primary Schools with an accommo- 
dation of 861,585 scholars ; average number on the registers was 654,199, and 
the average attendance was 584,473. 

On July 31, 1929, there were 30 special day schools, 11 residential schools 

and special classes attached to 57 ordinary schools, and the number of 

defective children under instruction was 9,056 (5,675 in 1919), of which 

5,426 were physically defective and 3,630 were mentally defective. There 

i Including 0,677 Church of England schools and 1,177 Roman Catholic schools. 



JUSTICE AND CRIME 25 

were also 3 residential schools for blind children, 5 for deaf mutes and 2 for 
both combined. The total number of children under instruction was 957 
(292 blind and 665 deaf mutes). On December 31, 1929, there were 25 
reformatory and industrial schools with a total of 1,809 boys and girls, 
excluding 217 voluntary scholars. 

As at March 31, 1929, there were 19,044 recognised certificated primary 
school teachers, including 3,956 University Graduates. 

The total ordinary expenditure of Education authorities during 1927-28 
was 11,846,155^., including 8,011, 790/. on account of salaries and retiring 
allowances of teachers. Expenditure from Parliamentary grants for 
Education in Scotland amounted to 6,337,0287. in 1928-29. 

Justice and Grime. 

England and Wales. 

The Supreme Court of Judicature is the ultimate authority in most cases, 
civil and criminal, in England and Wales, and in others, where there is an 
appeal to the House of Lords, the penultimate. It exercises its power through 
the High Court of Justice, the Couits of Appeal, and (in a sense) a variety 
of subordinate local courts. The principal courts having criminal juris- 
diction are the petty sessional courts, the general or quarter sessions, the 
courts of oyer and terminer and gaol delivery, more popularly known as 
1 assizes/ and the Central Criminal Court, which is the Assize Court for 
London in the widest sense, including * the City ' and other neighbour- 
ing counties, and is also the Quarter Sessions for the City. Two or more 
justices of the peace, the Lord Mayor or any alderman of the City of 
London, or any stipendiary magistrate, sitting in a court house, constitute 
a petty sessional court. The courts of quarter sessions are held four times a 
year by the justices of the county. Two justices constitute a court, but 
usually a larger number attend. Women may be justices. Certain cities 
and boroughs have a court of quarter sessions, with similar jurisdiction to 
that of the county justices in quarter sessions, in which the recorder of the 
borough is the judge. The assize courts are constituted by Judges of the 
High Court (or in some cases by King's Counsel having His Majesty's special 
commission). These go on circuit twice or four times a year, visiting every 
county in turn, and hearing and determining all civil cases entered for trial 
and all criminal cases presented by the Grand Jury of the County or Riding, 
city or borough. Except in cases of treason when the trial is * at bar ' 
before the Lord Chief Justice and two or more judges of the King's 
Bench Division, criminal cases are tried by a jury, and the jury, subject 
to the direction of the Judge on points of law, are the sole judges of 
the facts of the case. Women serve on juries. The sessions of the Central 
Criminal Court are held at least twelve times a year and more often if neces- 
sary. The Recorder and the Common Serjeant, and, if the number of the 
prisoners makes it necessary, the judge of the City of London Court, sit on the 
first two days, after which they are joined by one or more of the judges of the 
High Court on the rota, for whom capital and certain other cases are reserved. 
Criminal cases of special importance or complexity arising in any part of the 
country may, by direction of at least two High Court judges, be brought for 
trial in the King's Bench Division. A petty sessional court deals summarily 
with minor offences, some of which are practically civil and can be reviewed 
by the judges. All offences are usually investigated by a petty sessional court 
before being tried at the sessions or the assizes, but with the consent of the 
accused, justices can dispose of many felonies. To every sessions, assize, and to 
every sitting of the Central Criminal Court, the sheriff summons a number of 
the chief inhabitants of the approximate district, of whom not less than 12 and 
not more than 23 are sworn and constitute a grand jury which examines the 



26 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 

bill of indictment against the accused person, hears the evidence of witnesses 
for the prosecution, and if it thinks a prima facie case for trial is made out, 
endorses the bill 'a true bill, 1 which is then tried by the petit jury. All 
criminal trials, except those which come before a court ot summary juris- 
diction or the House of Lords, take place before a judge and such a jury 
(twelve persons). Appeal is allowed in criminal cases: (i.1 on a point of 
law ; (ii.) on a question of fact, or other sufficient ground if the judge certifies 
the case as fit for appeal, or the Court of Criminal Appeal grants leave to 
appeal ; and (iii.) against the sentence (if not fixed by law) with the leave of 
the Court of Criminal Appeal. This Court can reverse, amend, or affirm 
the judgment: in a few cases its decision may be reconsidered by the House of 
Lords. The only other method of securing the revision of a sentence is 
through the Royal prerogative, exercised on the advice of the Home Secretary, 
by which a sentence can be modified or annulled. No man can be tried again for 
the same crime after a petit jury has found him ' not guilty. ' Nominally all the 
judges are appointed by the King, but in practice the Lord Chancellor (who is a 
minister, a member of the Cabinet, ex-officio president of the House of Lords, 
and goes out with the ministry), the Lord Chief Justice, the Lords of Appeal 
in Ordinary, who sit in the House of Lords and on the Judicial Committee 
of the Privy Council, and the Lords Justices of Appeal who sit in the Court 
of Appeal, are appointed on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, and 
all the other judges on the recommendation of the Lord Chancellor. 

The courts chiefly having jurisdiction in civil cases are the modern County 
Courts, created in 1846, Assizes, and the High Court, Quarter Sessions and 
old local courts also have this jurisdiction to a certain extent. 

The authorised strength of the police force in England and Wales on 
September 29, 1930, was 58,080 (including 19,731 Metropolitan police). The 
estimated expenditure from Parliamentary Vote on police account was 
10,405,3087. for 1930-31, and 10,854,1297. for 1931-32. 

Scotland. 

The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. 
It consists of all the judges of the Court of Session, and sits more or less fre- 
quently, as the number of cases before it may require, in Edinburgh or in the 
circuit towns. One judge can, and usually does, try cases, but two or more 
preside in cases of difficulty or importance. It is the only competent court in 
cases of treason, murder, robbery, rape, fire-raising, deforcement of messengers, 
and generally in all cases in which a higher punishment than imprisonment is 
by statute directed to be inflicted ; and it has moreover an inherent jurisdic- 
tion to punish all criminal acts, both those already established by common law 
or statute, and such as have never previously come before the courts and are 
not within any statute. 

The sheriff of each county is the proper criminal judge in all crimes 
occurring within the county which infer only an arbitrary punishment, and if 
the case is tried with a jury the High Court has no power of review on the 
merits. Even in cases indicted to the High Court the accused is, under the 
Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act of 1887, regularly asked to plead in the 
sheriff court, and minor objections to the indictment can be wholly or in par 
disposed of there. Borough magistrates and justices of t tue peace have jurisdic- 
tion in petty cases occurring within the burgh or county, and in a number of 
minor offences under various statutes. 

The Court of Session exercises the highest civil jurisdiction in Scotland, 
with the House of Lords as a Court of Appeal. 

The police force in Scotland at the end of 1928 had an authorised strength 
of 6,607. The estimated expenditure on police was 866,4432. for 1929-30, 
and 1,060,0111. for 1930-31. 



NATIONAL INSURANCE. PENSIONS 



27 



CRIMINAL STATISTICS Superior Courts. 



Year 


Number of persons for trial 


Convicted 




Males 


Females 


Total 




ENOLAND AND WALES. (Assizes and Quarter Sessions.) 


1925 










7,412 


727 


8 139 


6,639 


1926 










7,298 


625 


7,924 > 


6,350 


1927 










6,538 


593 


7,136' 


5,773 


1928 










6,686 


596 


7,283 l 


6,020 


1929 










6,528 


5J2 


7,072 l 


5,879 






Sc 


OTLA 


ND. (High Court of Justiciaiy and Sheriff Courts.) (a) 


1925 










1,001 


134 


1,195 


952 


192(3 










1,008 


129 


1,197 


994 


1927 










1,078 


136 


1,214 


963 


192S 










1,042 


138 


1,180 


929 


1929 










907 


142 


1,049 


872 



l Including corporate bodies. 

(a) Exclusive of persons outlawed, and also of cases where bail was forfeited for non- 
appearance. 

Courts of Summary Jurisdiction* 





Indictable offences 


Non-indictable offences 


Year 


Persons apprehended 
or summoned 


Con- 


Com- 
mitted 


Persons apprehended 
or summoned 






Total 


Females 
only 


victed 


for 
trial 


Total 


Females 
only 


Convicted 


ENGLAND AND WALES. 


1925 


59,993 


8,070 


21,224 


8,134 


615,126 


76,209 


499,177 


1926 


79,591 


8,460 


33,314 


7,919 


60(5,921 


76,335 


492,229 


1927 


65,163 


8,383 


25,223 


7,242 


621,710 


75,155 


513,164 


1928 


63,194 


8,119 


23,021 


7,363 601,138 


68,165 


493,877 


1929 


61,723 


8,032 


21,925 


7,231 , 588 811 


65,282 


480,133 


SCOTLAND. 




(a) 


(o) 




(b) 


() 


() 




1925 


19,783 


2,945 


14,841 


263 


94,159 


14,359 


73,550 


1926 


28,148 


3,886 


21,874 


234 


92,777 


13,560 


73,902 


1927 


19,519 


2,842 


14,585 


173 


99,513 


13,949 


78,485 


1928 


18,674 


2,622 


13,793 


164 


98,629 


13,340 


^8,405 


1929 


18,263 


2,284 


12,963 


179 


97,201 


13,467 


77,448 



(a) Persons ' proceeded against ' and exclusive of number ' committed tor trial.' 

(b) Persons reported to Crown Counsel, who directed trial by Sheriff summarily. 

(c) Number * proceeded against.' 

National Insurance, Pensions. 

Under the National Health Insurance Act 1924, the Unemployment 
Insurance Acts 1920-25, the Old Age Pensions Act 1908-24, and the Widows, 
Orphans and Old Age Contributory Pensions Act 1925, provision is made for 
insurance against loss of health, for prevention and cure of sickness, com- 
pulsory insurance against unemployment, and pensions for widows and 
orphans and aged persons. 

National Health Insurance. This is administered by the Ministry of 
Health in England and "Wales, and the corresponding departments in 
Scotland and Ireland; by specially constituted authorities, by approved 
friendly societies and trade unions. 

Subject to specific exceptions, persons who are compulsorily brought under 
the National Health Insurance Act, known as employed contributors, comprise 
all persons of the age of 16 years or over who are employed under contract 
of service, written or implied, whether by time or piece. Aliens are subject 
to compulsory insurance equally with British subjects. Among persons 



28 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 

excluded are those employed in non-manual labour at a rate of remuneration 
exceeding 250 a year. Insured persons who are not members of an approved 
society must contribute to a Post Office Fund, and are known as deposit con- 
tributors ; their benefits are limited. Certain persons not compulsorily insured 
may become voluntary contributors. The rates of contributions are given 
below. The ordinary benefits are (a) free medical treatment ; (b) payments 
during sickness (not exceeding 26 weeks), amounting to 15-s. a week for men 
and 12*. for women, after 104 contributions ; 9s. (men), 7*. 6d. (women) after 
26 contributions ; (c) disablement benefit after 26 weeks sickness benefit, 
7s. Qd. a week ; (d) maternity benefit of 805. payable to wife on confinement. 
Friendly societies may also give additional benefits. Deposit contributors 
receive sickness and disablement benefits at rates slightly less than the above. 

The National Health Scheme covers about 14 million persons, increasing 
to 16J millions in 1960. The total amount of National Health Insurance 
funds at December 31, 1930, was 127,000,000^. approximately. The total 
expenditure on benefits for England and Wales was estimated for 1929 at 
31,135,0002., including 5,733,0002. for disablement and 9,324,0002. foi 
medical benefit. The number of persons entitled to benefits was 14,964,000. 
The cost of administration was 4,882,0002. 

Widows, Orphans and Old Age Pensions. From January 4, 1926, all 
persons, with certain exceptions, who were insurable under the National 
Health Insurance Scheme, became insurable also under the Widows, Orphans 
and Old Age Contributory Pensions Act. The provisions of the scheme 
apply to sailors, soldiers and airmen in the same way and to the same extent 
as to ordinary insured persons. A widow receives 105. per week until she 
is 70 (unless she remarries), with 5s. for the first child and 35. for each other 
child until they reach the age of 14 (or 16 in certain cases). Orphans 
receive 75. Qd. per week for each child under 14 (or 16 if still at school). 
The rights to widows' pensions were extended by an Act of 1929. It is 
estimated that on January 1, 1931, 245,000 widows were entitled to 
pensions under the extension scheme. Persons over 70 years of age are 
entitled, as from July 2, 1926, to pensions of 105. per week under the Old 
Age Pensions Acts 1908-24, irrespective of means, residence or nationality. 
As from January 2, 1928, insured persons over 65 are entitled to pensions 
of 10*. per week under the provisions of the Old Age Contributory Pensions 
Act, 1925, subject to specified conditions, which include residence in Great 
Britain for two years immediately prior to the date of the 65th birthday. 
There is no means test. On reaching the age of 70, contributory pensioners 
come under the provisions of the Old Age Pensions Act. 

The full weekly contribution for National Health and Pensions Insurance 
is Is. Qd. for men and 1$. Id. for women, of which 9<. and 6d. respectively 
can be recovered from the worker. In the case of workers aged over 65 
contributions of 9d. (men) and Id. (women) are paid by the employer only. 

The total amount paid in England and Wales in respect of widows' and 
orphans' pensions for the year ending March 31, 1930, was approximately 
8,680,0002.; the beneficiaries were 252,507 widows' and 241,296 children 
(including orphans). The funds in hand under the Widows, Orphans 
and Old Age Contributory Pensions Acts were 46,000,0002. at March 
81, 1931. For Scotland (calendar year 1928) widows' and orphans' 
pensions amounted to 1,046,100/. The total number and cost of pensions 
awarded under the contributory old age pensions scheme (persons between 
ages 65 and 70) for the year ending March 31, 1930, was 48 0,000 (12,430,0002.) 
for England and Wales, and for calendar year 1928, 1,361, 6002., for Scotland. 
The total number of non-contributory old-age pensions paid in 1929-30 was 
926, 7852. 

Unemployment Insurance. This is administered by the Ministry of Labour 



LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT 



29 



through the Employment Exchanges, Trade Unions, and by certain associa- 
tions of employed persons. The scheme is wholly compulsory in its operation, 
and substantially all persons covered by the Health Insurance Scheme are 
insured against unemployment. Domestic servants and persons employed in 
agriculture are among those excepted. The minimum insurable age is 16 
years. Certain employees of Government Departments, public and local 
authorities, railways and certain other utility undertakings, and persons 
with rights under statutory superannuation schemes are also exempted 
where the Ministry of Labour certifies that they are employed under conditions 
which make the national insurance unnecessary. 

The contributions are : men (over 21 years of age), 8c?. a week from 
employer, Id. from employee; women (over 21), 7d. a week from employer, 
Qd. from employee ; young men (18 to 21), Id. from employer and 6d. from 
employee ; young women (18 to 21), 6d. from employer, 5d. from employee ; 
boys (16 to 18), 4.d. from employer, 3|c?. from employee ; girls (16 to 18), 
3%d. from employer, 3^. from employee. The State contributes in addition 
an amount equivalent to one-half of the joint contributions of the employer 
and employee. As from January 2, 1928, contributions ceased to be payable 
when a person attains the ago of 65, but if such person continues to be em- 
ployed after reaching that age, the employer is required to pay his share of the 
contribution only. Under the Unemployment Act, 1930, the standard rates 
of benefit are: (over 21 years of age), men 17s. per week, women 155. per 
week ; (between 18 and 21) young men 14.9. per week, young women 12s. per 
week ; (between 17 and 18), boys 9s. per week, girls 7s. 6^. per week; (under 
17), boys 6s., girls 5s. per week, subject to certain conditions. There are 
additional benefits for certain classes of dependents: 9s. a week for adults 
and 2s. a week for each child. 

Contributions from employers and employed peisons in the United 
Kingdom under the unemployment insurance scheme amounted in the year 
1930-31 to 29,600,000/. Payments for benefit amounted in 1930-3i to 
87,663,000^. (direct), and 4,833, 000^. (indirect). The total Exchequer con- 
tribution for unemployment insurance, 1930-31, is estimated at 35,600,000^. 
The estimated number of workpeople insured under the Unemployment 
Insurance Acts in Great Britain was 12,406,000 in July, 1930. 

War Pensions. The number of war pensions or allowances in payment 
as at March 31, 1930, was 1,370, 000 approximately, and the total expenditure 
of the Ministry of Pensions for 1930-31 was 51,850,000?., and estimated 
expenditure for 1931-32 is 50,039,0002. (inclusive of administration expenses). 

Labour and Employment 

Statistics of Trade Union Membership are as follows: 



Group of Unions 


No. of 
Unions 
Dec. 1929 


Membership at end of 


1013 
Total 

1,000's 


1028 
Total 
1,000's 

86 
614 

619 

361 
73 

157 
160 
03 


1929 


Males 
1,000's 


Female*. 
1,000's 

1 
2 

7 

223 

17 
84 
70 


Total 
l,000 f s 


Agi iculture, Horticulture, Ac. 
Mining and Quarrying 
Metals, Machines, Conveyance?, 
Ac. 
Textile : 
Cotton 


3 
120 

106 

171 
30 
82 
27 
34 


21 
920 

560 

372 

67 
84 
108 
46 


34 
615 

606 

142 
56 
70 
89 
60 


35 
617 

613 

365 
73 
154 
159 

65 


Bleaching, Dyeing, Ac, . 
Other Textile .... 
Clothing 
Woodworking and Furnishing . 



30 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 



Group of Unions 


No. of 
Unions 
Dec. 1929 


1913 
Total 
lOOG's 

91 

243 
57 

327 
712 

120 
234 
113 

00 

21 


Mombe 

1923 
Total 
1000's 


>rship at end of 
1929 


Males 
low's 


Females 
1000's 

39 

22 

4 

40 

52 
67 
149 
12 
1 

800 


Total 
1000'a 


Paper, Printing, Ac. . 
Building, Public Works, Con- 
tracting, Ac. 
Other manufacturing industries 
Transport : 
Railways 
Other 


27 

55 

8 
33 

34 
285 
17 
45 
3 


181 

808 
70 

412 

875 

229 
?J4 
211 

76 
ub 


144 

310 
54 

416 
817 

187 
301 
70 
68 
34 

4,033 


183 

310 

7G 

419 
803 

239 
808 
219 

75 
35 


Commerce, Distribution, and 
Finance 
National and Local Government 
Teaching 


Miscellaneous .... 
Agriculture, etc. 


Totals . 


1,114 


4,135 


4,794 


4,833 



The following table is a statistical summary relating to trade disputes for 
1929 and 1930:- 





Number of 


No. of Workers Aggregate duration 




Disputes 


involved in v/orking days 




1929 1930 


1929 


1930 j 1929 


1030 






1,000's 


1,000's 1,000's 


1,000's 


Mining and Quarrying . 
Brick, Pottery, Glass, 


162 


152 


SO 


150 ; COG 


074 


Chemical, &c. 


12 


7 


1 


i : o 





Engineering . 


18 


11 20 


1 , 62 


8 


Shipbuilding. 


25 23 8 


4 529 


15 


Iron, Steel and Other 










Metal . 


37 35 


11 5 170 


69 


Textile . 


58 


45 


400 


129 6.752 


3,392 


Clothing 


17 


21 2 1 11 


10 


Woodworking and Fur- 








nishing 1 17 


21 


1 i 3 15 


88 


Building, Contracting, 












&c. 


40 


47 


3 


4 23 


40 


Transport 


21 


22 




r > 1 13 


25 


Other Industries and 












Services . 


24 


31 


1 


7 29 


71 


Total 


431 


415 


534 | 310 t 8,287 


4,404 



The estimated percentages of the number of persons in Great Britain 
insured under the Unemployment Insurance Acts who were unemployed 
during the months of 1930 (corresponding percentages for 1929 are given in 
brackets), are as follows : 



January 12-5 (12'2) 
February 13'0 (12 -2) 
March 13'9 (lO'O) 
April 14'4 (9-8) 



May 
June 
July 
August 



15'2 (9-8) 
15-6 (9-7) 
16*9 (9-8) 
17-3 (10-0)] 



September 17'9 (10-0) 

October 18'6 (10'8) 

November 18*9 (10-9) 

December 19 -9 (11-0) 



Pauperism. 

Statistics giving the amount expended in poor-relief for year, ended in 
March for England and Wales, and May 15 for Scotland, and the numbers of 
paupers, are as follows : 



STATISTICS OF PAUPERS FINANCE 



31 



Year 


England A Wales 


Scotland 


Total Great Britain 


1922-23 
1923-24 
1924-25 
1925-26 
1926-27 
1927-23 
1928-29 



42,020,039 
37,883,260 
36,841,768 
40,083,455 
49,774,916 
40,918,528 
40,250,000 



4,538,127 
4,370,609 
3,964,683 
4,375,034 
5,621,434 
4,887,750 
4,603,187 



46,558,166 
42,253,869 
40,806,451 
44,458,489 
55,396,350 
45,806,278 
44,853,187 



Of the total amount expended on poor relief in 1928-29, 36,211, 054Z. 
was mot out of local rates. 

The total cost in money and kind of out-relief in England and Wales was 
12,708,125*. for 1929-30 and 13,470,845*. for 1928-29. 

Statistics of Paupers. 

England and Wales. 



1st 
January 


Indoor l 


Outdoor 1 


Lunatics in 
Asylums 


Casual 
Paupers 


Net total ot 
persons 
relieved 


1920 


221,9S6 


1,113,019 


90,511 


8,294 


,439,810 


1927 


226,027 


1,212,479 


99,6(58 


10,737 


,548,911 


1 928 


225,937 


1,026,031 


101,626 


10,479 


,364,691 


1929 


225,005 


899,597 


104,502 


11,502 


,210,666 


1030 


220, b7 2 


867,030 


100,061 


11,454 


,205,417 



1 Excluding casual paupers and lunatics in asylums. 
Scotland. 





Poor relieved 
(Excluding Vagrants) 


Vagrants 




Jan. 15 


Paupers 




Paupers 




Total 




(Including 


Dependents l 


(Including 


Dependents* 






Dependents,) 




Dependents) 






1925 


210,882 


111,974 


142 


23 


211,024 


1920 


247,902 


135,475 


201 ' 12 


248,103 


1927 


250,67(5 


129,702 


190 , 25 


250,866 


1928 


240,392 


122,751 


188 j 14 


240,580 


1929 


222,107 


110,418 


330 


23 


222,443 



l Included in previous column. 

Finance. 
I. REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 



REVENUE 



Tear ended 
March 31 


Estimated 
in the 
Budgets 


Actiial Receipts 
into the 
Exchequer 


More ( + ) 
orless(-) 
than Estimates 


1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 



824,750,000 
834,830,000 
812,262,000 
827,010,000 
873,280,000 




805,701,000 

"$fM34,988 
814,971,280 
857,760,934 



-19,049,000 
+ 7,994,465 
-f-24,172,988 
-12,038,720 
-15,519,066 



32 



THE BftlTISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 







EXPENDITURE 




Tear ended 
March 31 


Budget and 
Supplementary 
Estimates 


Actual Payments out 
of the Exchequer 


More ( f ) 
or less (-) 
than Estimate 


1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 



832,478,000 
839,204,000 
823,779,000 
836 002,000 
885,933,000 




812,395,027 
838,585,841 
818,040,525 
829,493,543 
881,036,905 


M 

-0,917,027 
-618,659 
5,738,475 
-6 508,457 
-4,896 095 



The total ordinary revenue for 1930-31 was 775,894,975/. ; expenditure, 
732,340,515^.; New Sinking Fund, 66,830,431^. The Budget estimate of 
ordinary revenue for 1931-32 is 803,500,000^., inclusive of 4,000,0007. 
from Rating Relief Suspense Account, and of expenditure 803,366,OOOZ., 
including sinking fund, 52,050,0002., but excluding self-balancing revenue 
and expenditure of 81,582,000^., for Post Office and Road Fund. 

The Imperial revenue in detail for 1929-30 (exclusive of 342,194?. duties 
collected for and due to the Isle of Man, but inclusive of the proceeds of 
duties the value of which is assigned under various Acts to local purposes), 
and the expenditure, are given below, as are also the Exchequer receipts 
for 1929-30, and the Budget estimates for 1930-31 and 1931-32. 



Sources of RKVKNU* 


Net Receipts 
1929-30 


Exchequer 
Receipts i 


Budget, 
Estimate 


Budget 
Estimate 






1920-30 


1930-31 


1931-32 


i. Custonik Imports : 


~ 


000's 


LOGO'S 


000's 


Beer .... 


5,896,079 








Cocoa, Chocolate, &c. 


689,773 








Coffee 


198,081 








Chicory . 


34,401 








Currants , 


81,027 








Raisins 


261,629 








Other dried fruits 


131,797 








Rum 


2,649,101 








Brandy . 


1,993,428 








Other spirits 


1,305,370 








Sugar, glucose, &c. . 


11,753,395 








Tea ... 


43,336 








Tobacco . 


62,909,202 








Wine 


4,889,710 








Hop & Hop Extracts. 


206,391 








Cinematograph Films 
Clocks and Watches . 


295,779 
585,078 








Cutlery . 


107,093 








Motor Cars and Motor 










Cycles . 


2,408,088 








Oil .... 


15,050,438 








Musical Instruments. 


407,676 








Matches . 


2,115,803 








Buttons . 


145,304 








Lace, Embroidery, 










Gloves . 


717,909 








Silk and Artificial Silk 


4,603,848 








Key Industry Goods. 


772,677 








Packing or Wrapping 










Paper . 


570,400 








Other articles . 


130,587* 










1 ft fill 00 


122,710 


122,500 


125,650 





Tuat is, revenue actually paiu into tne Exchequer duiing the Hnancial 3 ear. 
1 Including a deduction of 270,l97f. on account of moneys deposited and not 
appropriated to foods, and 180,2852. collected in the Isle of Man. 



FINANCE 



33 



Sources of RKYKNCE 


Net Receipts 
1929-30 


Kxcnequer 
Receipts 1 

1929-30 


Budget 
Estimate 
1930-31 


Budget 
Estimate 
1931-32 










000 


000 


000 


ii. Excise- 












Spirits . 


36,651,064 










Beer 


71,254,674 










British "Wine 


209,643 










Saccharin, Glucose . 


310,231 










Sugar 


1,458,198 










Club Duty 


171,634 










Licence duties &c. : 












Liquor 


4,290,615 










Other. 


531,317 










Railways 


52,118 










Table Waters 


358,617 










Matches . 


2,006,166 










Entertainments 


6,695,847 










Artificial Silk . 


1,650,258 










Patent Med. Labels 


1,234,199 










Betting Duty . 


285,949 










Monopoly Values . 


124,846 










Other sources 2 


58,146 














127,370,522 


127,500 


129,860 


119,850 




iii. Motor vehicle duties 

















26,597,926 


26,802 


4,950 3 


5,000 3 


iv. Estate, &c., duties 












Estate duty 4 


69,548,208 










Temporary estate 












duty 8 


1,095 










Probate and Account 












duty 5 . 


8,933 










Legacy duty . 


8,495,297 










Succession duty 


1,062,422 










Corporation duty . 


118,16-2 















79,234,117 


79,770 


83,000 


90,000 


v. Stamps (excluding 












Fee, &c., Stamps) 












Land and Property, 












excluding Stocks 












and Shares . 


4,849,217 










Stocks, Shares^ De- 












bentures, etc. 


7,269,800 










Companies capital 












duty . 


3,770,902 










Cheques, Bills of 












Exchange, etc. . 


4,837,457 










Receipts . 


2,686,205 










Shipping 


684,886 










Certificates and Li- 












cences . 


155,811 










Insurance and Mis- 












cellaneous . 


999,178 


2K.2fi3.4K7 


9.5. ft? 


27 .000 


24.000 



1 That is, revenue actually paid into the Exchequer during the financial year. 

2 Including deductions of 27,6051. on account of moneys deposited and not appro- 
priated to goods. * Exchequer share. 

4 On property of persons dying after August 1, 1804. 
On property of persons dying before August 2, 1894. o 



34 



THE BBITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 



Source of REVENUE 


Net Receipts 
1929-30 


Exchequer 
Receipts 1 
1929-30 


Budget 
Estimate 
1930-31 


Budget 
Estimate 
1931-32 










000 


000 


000 


vi. Land Tax 
vii. Mineral Rights Duty 





630,040 
248,873 


660 
220 


\ 800 


800 


viii. Income Tax 





237,873,052 


237,426 


260,000 


258,000 


ix. Sur-tax . 





56,624,217 


56,390 


64,500 


72,000 


x. Excess profits tax . 
xi. Corporation profits tax 





1,694,129 
644,000 


1,670 
580 


} 1,700 


2,200 


Total Produce of Taxes 





676,782,055 


676,576 


694,520 


697,500 


xii. Postal service . 


_ 


40,180,426 


40,200 


) 




xiii. Telegraph service . 


6,155,620 


6,300 


H0,125 r 


12,200 2 


xiv. Telephone service . 





21,644,596 


21,600 


J 




xv. Crown Lands . 





1,302,611 


1,290 


1,300 


1,300 


xvi. Interest onLoans,&c, 





32,639,596 


32,640 


33,000 


33,500 


xvii. Miscellaneous (in- 










cluding Fee, &c. , 












Stamps) 





36,364,684 


36,365 


34,500 


55,000 


Total non-tax Revenue. 





138,287,533 


138,395 


78,925 


102,000 


Total Revenue 3 . 





815,069,588 


814,970 


773,445 


799,500 



1 That is, revenue actually paid into the Exchequer during the financial year. 

2 Net receipt. 

3 Total ordinary revenue. The total self-balancing revenue and expenditure for 1929-30 
was 80,781, 532J. (Post Office, 58,900,000*., Road Fund, 21,881,5322.)) and for 1930-31 was 
81,865,959*., (Post Office, 59,000,000^., Road Fund, 22,865, 959^.). 

The national expenditure chargeable against Revenue falls under two cate- 
gories : I., the Consolidated Fund Charges, mainly bestowed on the National 
Debt; and II., the Supply Services, including the Defence and Civil 
Services. 



Branches of EXPENDITURE 


Year ended 
March 81, 1930 


Budget 
Estimate 
1930-31 


Budget 
Estimate 
1931-32 


I. Consolidated Fund : 
National Debt Services : - 
Interest ..... 
Management and Expenses 
New Sinking Fund . 




301,986,984 \ 
2,264,701 / 
47,748,815 


000 

804,600 
60,400 


000 

302,950 
52,050 




855,000,000 


355,000 


855,000 


Road Fund . .... 
Payments to Local Taxation Accounts i 
Payments to Northern Irish Exchequer . 
Civil Ltat . 
Annuities and Pensions 
Salaries and Allowances 
Courts of Justice . 
Miscellaneous 


21,881,532 
13,814,458 
5,526,004 
470, 000 ^ 
412,955 
21,135 V 
485,880 
l,921,584j 


28,650 
5,700 

3,300 


23,850 
( 350 

3,000 




44,038,548 


32,050 


32,700 


Total Consolidated Fund Services 


399,033,543 


887 r 650 


887,700 



FINANCE 



35 



Branches of EXPENDITURE 


Year ended 
March 31, 1930 


Budget Esti- 
mate 1930-31 


Budget Esti- 
mate 1931-32 


II. Supply: 
Army 
Air Force 
Navy 
Civil Votes . 
Customs and Excise 
Inland Revenue 
Post Office Services 

Total Supply Services .... 

Total Expenditure Chargeable against 
Revenue ..... 



40,500,000 
16,750,000 
55,750,000 
246,535,000 
4,045,000) 
7,080,000 / 
58,900,000 


000 
40,500 
17,850 
51,739 
295,686 

12,134 
60,275 


000 
39,930 
18,100 
51,615 
317,812 

11,569 
58,232 


480,460,000 


478,184 


497,248 


829,193,543 


865,864 


884,948 



The Exchequer issues shown above are those with which the various 
departments were supplied to meet all requirements, whether original 
or supplementary. 

In addition to the ordinary expenditure above given, there were in 
1929-30 issues to meet capital expenditure under the Telegraph (Money) 
Act, 1928, 10,550,000/. The money raised by National Savings Certifi- 
cates was 41,050,0002., and by Treasury Bills, 2,981, 419,000/., while 
Treasury Bills paid off amounted to 3,092, 785, OOOZ. The balance in the 
Exchequer on April 1, 1929, was 6,252,524Z. ; the gross receipts into the 
Exchequer in the year 1929-30 amounted to 4, 363,247, 721Z. ; the gross 
issues out of the Exchequer amounted to 4, 777,581, 331J. ; leaving a balance 
on March 31, 1930, of 6,125,2142. The Exchequer balance on March 31, 
1931, was 5,991, 593/. 

The actual ordinary expenditure for the year 1930-31 was as follows : 
Interest and management of National Debt, 293,1 69, 569Z. ; payments to 
Northern Ireland Exchequer, 6,424,670J. ; payments to Local Taxation 
Accounts and other Consolidated Fund services, 2,896,2762.; Supply 
Services (Army, Navy and Air), 110,524,0002. ; Civil and Revenue 
Votes (excluding Post Office) 319,326,0002. ; total ordinary expenditure, 
732,340,5152. The New Sinking Fund amounted to 66,830,4317. ; and 
the self-balancing expenditure amounted to 81,865,9592. (Post Office, 
59,000,0002.; Road Fund, 22,865,9592.). 

The following were the principal items of the original estimates for Grant 
Services for the years 1929-30, 1930-31 and 1931-32 ; 





1029-30 


1930-31 


1931-32 


Exchequer contributions to Local Revenues . 
Payment to Local Taxation Accounts 


000 
15,560 
14,6(30 
40,845 


000 
44,507 \ 
800 / 
51,685 


000 
46,246 
56,717 l 


Agriculture (including Land Settlement Grants and 
Loans and the Development Fund) 
Health Services 


3,067 
4,165 


2,683 

488 


5,428 
188 




12,819 


13,651 


14,543 


Reformatories and Mental Deficiency 
Police (voted grants additional to payment* through 


1,218 
5,957 


520 
8,820 


11,950 l 


State payments in respect of School Teachers and 


3,990 


4,419 




Unemployment Grants and Loans .... 


2,015 
151 


2,250 
792 


3,585 
889 










Total . 


111,142 


130,821 


139,596 



Including pensions. 



THE BBITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 



II. TAXATION. 

The net receipts from the principal branches of taxation, Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland (reserved taxes), were as follows in the years 
stated : 



Year ended 
March 31 


Customs l 


Excise 1 


Estate, 
Ac. 
Duties ^ 


Stamps i 


Land Tax, 
Land 
Valuer, 
Duties 


Income 
Tax 


Super 
Tax 


1025-20 
1926-27 
1927-28 
1928-20 
1929-30 


Thous. , 
103,282 
107,016 
112,296 
119,330 
120,953 


Thous 

134,476 
154,777 
163,928 
159,379 
153,968 


Thous. 
61,330 
67,430 
77,101 
81,021 
79,234 


Thous. 
25,129 
24,870 
26,81)4 
30 134 
35,2->3 


Thous. 
936 
848 
829 
833 
879 


Thous. 

258,065 
230,136 
253,495 
237,274 
237,873 


Thous. 
67,833 
66,296 
60,053 
56,214 
56,624 



* The principal items included in these branches of revenue are shown on pages 32-3 
above. The excise receipts include receipts from Motor Vehicle Duties. 

Income Tax. The gross amount of income brought under the review 
of the Inland Revenue Department in the year ended April 5, 1929, in 
Gt. Britain and Northern Ireland, was 3,181,256,9902. ; in 1929-30 it was 
estimated to be approximately 3,170,000,OOOZ. The income on which tax 
was actually received in 1928-29, after allowing for exemptions and 
reliefs, was 1, 345,85 7, 285 J., and the estimated amount for 1929-30 was 
1,355, 000, 000 J. The estimated number of incomes in Great Britain and 
Northern Ireland above the effective exemption limit in 1929-30 was 
5,100,000: the number actually chargeable with tax was estimated at 
2,250,000. 

Prior to April 6, 1915, incomes not exceeding 1602. were exempt from 
Income Tax, and from April, 1915, to April, 1920, incomes not exceeding 
130f. were exempt. The graduation of the tax on incomes in excess of these 
limits was effected by means of differential rates and by various abatements 
and reliefs (for wife, children, etc.) granted in the lower ranges of incomes 
only. 

Under the new system of graduation introduced by the Finance Act, 
1920, the exemption limit was fixed at 1352. of assessable income, i.e. it 
ranged from 1351. to 150/. according as the income was wholly investment 
or wholly earned; personal allowances of 135Z. assessable income (=150/. 
earned income) for single persons and 225?. ( 250J. earned income) for 
married persons, and allowances for children, dependent relatives, etc., were 
granted to all taxpayers irrespective of the amount of their total income. 
The effect of the increase in the earned income relief (from one-tenth to one* 
sixth) by the Finance Act, 1925, was to increase the personal allowances, in 
the case of earned incomes^ to ] 62/. and 270Z. respectively. Tax is charged 
(1930-31) * on the first 250Z. of taxable income at four-ninths of the standard 
rate, and on the remainder at the standard rate of tax, which has varied as 
follows : 



1920-21 and 1921-22 

1922-23 

1923-24 and 1924-26 

1925-26 to 1929-30 

1930 -31 and 1931-32 



6. iu the . 

6*. 

4 Orf. 

4* 

4*. 6(1. 



The gross income brought under review in 1928-29 was distributed as 
follows : 

J Previous to 1930-81, tax was charged on the first 225?. at half the standard rate. 



FINANCE 



37 



Profits from the ownership of Lands . . 50,500,000 

,, Houses . . . 363,787,921 

Profits from the occupation of lands . . 48,500,000 

British and other Government secur ties . . 171,487,944 

businesses, professions, and certain nterest . 1,399,866,974 

Salaiies of Offices and employments (including Manual 

wage-earners 1,097,144,151 

3,131,256,990 

The gross income from the ownership of lands and houses in 1928-29 was 
distributed as follows : 



- 


England 


Scotland 


N. Ireland 


Gt. Britain and 
N. Ireland 


Lands, etc. 
Bouses, etc. . 




42,100,000 
828,733,544 



0,200,000 
32,257,315 




2,100,000 
2,797,002 



50,500,000 
363,787,921 



Super 'tax. Super-tax (now called Sur-tax) is payable by persons with in- 
comes exceeding 2,0002. per year (prior to 1914-15, 5,000/. per year ; from 
19H-15 to 1917-18, 3,OOOZ. per year, and in 1918-19 and 1919-20, 2,500/. 
per year). 

As part of a general scheme for the simplification of the IDCOIHO Tax, 
the Finance Act, 1927, merged the Super-tax into one tax with the Income 
Tax having the same basis of assessment and payable, under the name of 
Sur-tax, as a deferred instalment of Income Tax on the 1st January in the 
year following the year of assessment. The Sur-tax was payable for the first 
time in respect of the year 1928-29 on January 1, 1930. Net receipt from 
Sur-tax in 1929-30, was 56,624, 217Z. 

Local Taxation Grant. In accordance with various Acts passed between 
1888 and 1911, there are paid out of the Consolidated Fund to the Local 
Taxation Accounts of England and Scotland, sums equivalent to the 
proceeds (in some cases of the year 1908-9, and in other cases of the current 
year) of certain excise licence duties, part of the beer and spirit duties, and 
part of the probate and estate duties. Certain other grants are also payable. 

The total payments made to the Local Taxation Account for England 
and Wales in 1929-30 was 12,000,740^., including 1,107, 260Z. on account of 
beer and spirit duties, 2,632,317Z. on account of licence duties and 3,293, 860J. 
under the Agricultural Rates Act, 1923. Scotland received a total of 
1,313,713*. The total estimated payments for 1930-31 was 14,660,0007. 

III. NATIONAL DEBT. 

Borrowing by the State on the security of taxes was practised in Norman 
times, but the National Debt really dates from the time of William III. 
The acknowledged debt in 1689 was about 664,0002., on which the annual 
charge for interest and management was only 40,OOOJ. At various subsequent 
dates the amounts were as follows (including the Irish debt throughout) : 

Annual Annuities only 

cnanre. includ- 

Year Debt* 

Million 

1727. Accession of George II. ... 52 
1756. Commencement of Seven Years' War 75 
1768. End 183 

1775. Commencement of American War . 127 
1784. End ,, 248 



charge, includ- (included in pre- 

mg annuities vious column) 

^ - Million 

0-2 

0*2 

0-5 



Million 
2-4 
2'8 
50 
4'7 
9-5 



0-5 
1*4 



There amounts do not include the capital value of terminable annuities. 



38 



THE BBITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 



Year 

1703. Commencement of French Wars 
1815. End ,. 

1817. Consolidation of English and Irish 

~ ' 



Gross debt 
including 
terminable 
Debt * annuities 
Million Million 
. 248 
861 


Annual 
charge '* 

Million 

9-7 
32-6 


Interest on 
Annuities 
(included in pre- 
vious column) 
Million 
1 3 
1-9 



1854. Commencement of Crimean War . 


775 


802 


1867. End 


808 


837 


1899. Commencement of Boer War 


599 


635 


1903. End ,, 


743 


798 


1914. Commencement of European War 
1924 (Ma fh an 


678 
7,694 


708 

7,708 


1925. 




7,653 


7,666 


1926. 




7,621 


7,634 a 


1927. 




7,640 


7,653 


1928. 




7,618 


7,631 


1929, 




7,608 


7,621 


1930. 





7,584 


7,596 



2-0 



4 
7'3 
65 
3-2 
0'4 



31-6 
27-4 
28-6 
23'2 
27 
24'5 

347-3 (1923-24) 
357'2 (1924-25) 0'4 
858 2 (1925-2(5) 0'4 
378-6 (1926-27) 4 
378-8 (1927-28) 4 
369-0 (1928-29) 0'4 
355-0 (1929-30) 0'4 

i These amounts do not include the capital value of terminable annuities. 

1 Including 1,110,453,6001. owing to other countries. 

Including Interest, Management and New Sinking Fund. 

The following statement shows the total amount of the Gross Liabilities 
and the Assets of the State on March 31, 1930 : 



Liabilities : Million 

Funded Debt 1,456-0 

Estimated Capital Liability of Terminable Annuities . 12-2 
Unfunded Debt 6,105-2 



Less Bonds tendered for Death Duties 
Other Capital Liabilities . 

Total Gross Liabilities . 



7,573 4 
104-4 



Assets : 

Suez Canal Shares, market value (March 31, 1928) 54 '6 
Other Assets i 90-1 

Exchequer Balances at the Banks of England and Ireland 



Million 



7,469-0 
127-2 

7,596-2 





144-7 
6-1 



The amount of debt provision issued in 1929-80 for interest and management was 
307,251,685?. 

The net decrease in the aggregate gross liabilities of the State in 1929-30 was 
24,642,6471. 

i Excluding advances from votes of credit to Dominions, Allied Powers, Ac., and other 
war assets. The amount of loans remaining unpaid at March 81, 1930, was : loans owing 
by Allies, 2,101*1 million ; Colonies, 116 5 million ; loans for relief and reconstruction, 30*4 
million ; other debts, 4*7 million ; total 2,252*7 million. 



IV. LOCAL TAXATION. 

The estimated rates collected by local authorities in 1930-31 are: 
England and Wales 149,000,000?., Scotland, 18,152,000?. For 1929-30 the 
amounts collected were England and Wales, 155,500,000?., Scotland, 
19,093,000?. In addition compensation was paid from the Exchequer to local 
authorities in respect of their loss of rates in 1929-30 under the Agricultural 
Rates Act, 1929, the Local Government Act, 1929, and the Local Govern- 
ment (Scotland) Act, 1929, estimated to amount to 13,000,000?. in England 
and Wales and 2,470,000?. in Scotland. 



DEFENCE 



39 



The approximate allocation of amounts raised by rates and Exchequer 
grant during 1928-29 and 1929-30 was as follows : 





England and Wales 


Scotland 


Total 


On relief of the poor . 
,, education . 
police . 
,, other services 

Totals . 


1928-29 


1929-30 


1928-29 


1929-30 


1928-29 


1929-30 


000 
36,200 
35,100 
10,100 
84,850 


000 
31,800 
30,900 
10,300 
89,600 


000 
4,858 
5,307 
1,073 
10,680 


000 
4,414 
5,517 
1,272 
10,360 


000 
41,038 
40,407 
11,173 
95,530 


000 
36,214 
42,417 
11,572 
99,860 


106,250 


168,500 


21,918 


21,563 


188,168 

I 


190,063 



In England and Wales the average amount of the rates per pound of assessable value 
was tj*. S^d. in 1913-14, 12s. M. m 1928-29, and 11 . 6d. in 1929-30. 

Defence. 

The Committee of Imperial Defence is responsible for the co-ordination 
of naval, military, and air policy. Of this Committee the Prime Minister 
is ex-officio President, and he has power to call for the attendance at its 
meetings of any naval or military officers, or of other persons, with ad- 
ministrative experience, whether they are in official positions or not. The 
usual members are the Secretaries of State for Foreign Affairs, for War and 
Air, the Colonies, India, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the First Lord 
of the Admiralty, the First Sea Lord, the Chief of the Imperial General 
Staff, the Chief of the Air Staff, Directors of the Intelligence Departments 
of the War Office and the Admiralty. During 1923 a Cabinet Committee 
inquired into the co-ordination of the policy and administration of defence. 
As the result of its report a standing sub-committee of the Committee of 
Imperial Defence has been appointed, with a Cabinet Minister as Chairman, 
the heads of the three services and representatives of the Foreign Office and 
Treasury as members, for the purpose of correlating defensive policy. Three 
further sub-committees have since been appointed, one composed of the Chiefs 
of Staff of the three services of Navy, Army and Air, to furnish the Cabinet 
or the main committee with expert advice on problems of defence, the second 
sub-committee deals with man -power, and the third, the principal supply 
officers' sub-committee, with the provision of munitions and supplies in time 
of war. At the beginning of 1927 an Imperial Defence College was founded 
to educate selected officers of the three services in working together in the 
solution of problems of Imperial Defence and to carry out detailed studies 
for the main committee. 

I. ARMY, 

The land forces of the United Kingdom consist of the Regular Army, the 
Territorial Army, and the Reserve Forces. The British troops of the Regular 
Army serve both at home and overseas and are commonly referred to as the 
British Army in contradistinction to the Indian Army or Native Army, 
and to the Local Forces in certain British Colonies and Dependencies, the 
personnel of which is native with a proportion of British officers. 

The Regular Army, whether at home or abroad, except India, is paid 
for by the Imperial Exchequer (although certain Dominions pay contri- 
butions towards its upkeep) ; India pays a contribution towards the cost 
of troops at home owing to these serving as a dep6t for the regular 
troops in India. The Imperial Exchequer pays for Indian and Colonial 



40 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 

troops serving outside their own countries. The Territorial Army serves 
only at home in peace time, but as the supreme position of the British 
Navy in Home Waters has practically eliminated all risk of invasion, 
members of the Territorial Army are now asked to accept liability for 
service overseas in time of war, subject to the consent of Parliament. 
The rank and file for both Regular Army and Territorial Army are 
obtained by voluntary enlistment. The Reserve Forces consist of the Army 
Reserve, the Supplementary Reserve of Officers and the Supplementary 
Reserve, the Militia and the Channel Islands and Colonial Militia, and the 
Territorial Reserve. The Army Reserve is composed of men who have com- 
pleted their period of colour service with the Regular Army ; its strength 
on January 1, 1931, was 130,917, The Supplementary Reserve of Officers and 
the Supplementary Reserve were created in August 1924, with establishments 
of 2,489 and 20,639 respectively, for the purpose of supplying officers and 
technicians to the army on mobilisation. The strength of the Supplementary 
Reserve on January 1, 1931, was 16,498. The Militia, which is intended to 
serve as a supply source to the Regular Army after the Army Reserve is 
exhausted, is in process of reconstruction. The Channel Islands and 
Colonial Militia consist of the Channel Islands Militia, the Malta Militia, 
the Bermuda Militia, and the Isle of Man Volunteers. The Territorial 
Reserve is in process of formation. 

Service is for 12 years, with permission to extend to 21 years in certain 
circumstances. Of the original 12 years, from 3 to 9 are spent ' with the 
colours,' i.e., on permanent service, and the remainder of the time in the 
Army Reserve ; the majority of the men serve for 7 years with the colours 
and 5 years in the Army Reserve, which is the rule for infantry other than 
the Foot Guards. Men enlist between 18 and 25 years of age. 

For purposes of training and command the fighting troops are for the most 
part organised in divisions, which consist of 3 infantry brigades, divisional 
artillery and engineers, together with the necessary auxiliary services. The 
cavalry is organised in brigades. The infantry brigades are composed of 
4 battalions, the cavalry brigades of 3 regiments. The organisation of 
the Territorial Army is analogous to that of the Regular Army, and it 
consists ot 14 divisions, composed of infantry, artillery, engineers, and 
auxiliary services, and of the mounted brigades, chiefly composed of 
yeomanry. During 1930 further progress was made in the process of 
mechanising tho Army. The experimental mechanised brigades, composed of 
artillery, infantry and tanks carried out extensive tests. New establishments 
increased considerably the number of machine guns with infantry and 
cavalry, and providing infantry with anti-tank guns. 

For purposes of command Great Britain is divided up into six 
' commands and the London and Northern Ireland Districts, The commands 
are (1) Aldershot, of very limited area, (2) Eastern, including the eastern 
and southern counties, (3) Northern, including the northern midlands and 
north-eastern counties, (4) Scottish, (5) Southern, including the southern 
midlands and south-western counties, (6) Western, including Wales, 
Lancashire and north-western counties. These commands (except the 
Aldershot command) are divided up into Territorial Recruiting districts for 
the Regular Army. The Eastern, Northern, Scottish, Southern, and 
Western commands and the London District each include from 1 to 4 
Territorial mounted brigades, and 2 or 3 Territorial divisions. There 
are normally two Regular divisions in the" Aldershot, one Regular division 
in the Eastern, one in the Southern command and one in the Northern 
command, the completion of the latter being made possible by the with- 
drawal during 1929 of British troops from Germany. At the head of each 



DEFENCE 



41 



command is a general officer (styled the General- Officer Commanding-ill- 
Chief). He is assisted by a general-officer of lower rank who is responsible 
for questions of administration apart from training and defence questions. 

The land forces are administered by an Army Council which is 
composed of the Secretary of State for War, who is its President ; the 
heads of the departments into which the War Office is primarily divided, 
and the permanent Secretary of the War Office. The Territorial Army is 
to a large extent administered by County Associations over which the War 
Office merely maintains a general control as regards expenditure. 

The principal military educational establishments are the Royal Military 
Academy, educating youths to be officers in the artillery and the engineers, 
the Royal Military College whence officers are obtained for cavalry and 
infantry, the Senior Officers' School, which trains officers for command, and the 
Staff College, which trains officers for the staff. The Officers* Training Corps 
in two divisions representing respectively the universities and public schools, 
is intended to provide officers for the Territorial Army, and for the Regular 
Army on expansion. 

The gross estimated expenditure for the army for the year 1931-32 
amounted (March, 1931) to 46,639,0002., and appropriations in aid to 
6,709,OOOZ., leaving a net expenditure of 39,930,000/. 

The total personnel charged to British votes for 1930-31 was 148,800, of 
whom 145,642 were British troops, 1,036 were additional numbers to 
cover temporary excesses over establishments, 2,222 were Colonial and 
Native Indian troops. There were in India 59,773 British troops, so that 
the total establishment of the Regular Army in 1931-32 was 148,800 -f- 
59,773 = 208,573. The strength of the Territorial Force on January 1, 
1931, was 135,850 including permanent staff. 

The distribution of Regular troops, except in India, was as follows : 

By Regiments, Corps, and Departments (British, exclusive of India). 





Officers 


Other ranks 


All ranks 


Cavalry 


871 
1,109 
470 
233 
3,011) 

205 
390 
550 
101 
803 
58 
182 
135 
44 
1,146 
7^8 
10 


7,744 
21,855 
VJ74 
4,780 
75,204 
508 
3,050 
5,010 
3,161 
143 
2,785 
120 
725 

252 
1,733 
4,153 
1,020 

139,S?8 


8,115 
22,064 
5,744 
5,010 
78,223 
508 
3,255 
5,106 
8,711 
244 
3,088 
178 
907 
135 
296 
2,879 
4,041 
1,086 


Royal Artillery .... ... 


Royal Engineers 




Infantry 


Corps of Military Police ... 


Royal Tank Corps . . ... 


Royal Army Service Corps 
Royal Army Medical Corps . 
Army Dental Corps .... 


Royal Army Ordnance Corps . 
Royal Army Veterinary Corps 
Royal Army Pay Corps . . . 
Royal Army Chaplains' Department, 
Army kiucational Corps 




Miscellaneous Establishments . . . 
Additional Numbers 




Total 


9,172 


148,800 





II. NAVY. 

The British Navy is a permanent establishment, governed by the Board of 
Admiralty. The First Lord of the Admiralty is the Cabinet Minister 
responsible for the Navy. 

c 2 



42 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 

The duties of the Admiralty are grouped under the two headings of 
Operations and Maintenance. The First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval 
Staff and the Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff, have charge and direction of 
the Operations Division. This Division is concerned with Naval policy and 
the general direction of operations, war operations in Home waters and 
elsewhere, strategy, tactics, the development and use of material, in- 
cluding types of vessels and weapons, and with trade protection and anti- 
submarine considerations. The four membeis of the Board who are in charge 
of the Maintenance Division are the Second Sea Lord and Chief of the 
Personnel ; the Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy ; the Fourth Sea 
Lord and Chief of Supplies and Transport ; and the Civil Lord. The 
Parliamentary Secretary and the Permanent Secretary are concerned with 
Finance and Admiralty business. 

The Washington Treaty of 1922, which relates to the British Navy and 
the Navies of the United States, France, Italy, and Japan, is concerned 
mainly with capital ships, defining for each Power what her replacement 
tonnage shall be, and fixing the maximum displacement of such ships at 
35,000 tons, and their heaviest armaments at the 16 in. gun. 

By the London Treaty of 1930 it was agreed to defer replacement of 
capital ships until after 1936. In the meantime, certain ships were to be 
discarded without replacement. In the British fleet, the ships so discauled 
include four battleships (Benbow, Emperor of India, Iron Duke, Marlborough) 
and the battle cruiser Tiger. Though withdrawn from the effective list, the 
Iron Duke, which it will be recalled was flagship of the Grand Fleet at 
Jutland, will be disarmed and retained for use as a training ship. 

Cruisers, which the Washington Treaty had restricted to a standard 
displacement of 10,000 tons and guns not above 8 inches in calibre, are dealt 
with in Part III of the Treaty, to which only the British Empire, the 
United States and Japan subscribed. Definite limits are assigned to the 
cruiser tonnage which may be maintained by these three countries during 
1931-36 in two categories, (a) cruisers armed with guns of more than 6*1 inch 
calibre, and (b) those armed with guns of 6'1 inch calibre or less. Destroyer 
and submarine tonnage, which had remained unaffected by the Washington 
Treaty, is also restricted by the same section of the Treaty. In the period 
1931-36, each of the three fleets concerned is allowed 52,700 tons of 
submarines. 

Washington Treaty restrictions concerning aircraft carriers remain in 
force, but the construction of any such vessels of 10,000 tons or less dis- 
placement mounting a gun above 6*1 inch calibre is forbidden to all five of 
the signatory powers. 

Under the 1929-30 Estimates there are building or completing for the 
British Navy one 7,000 ton cruiser (Leandcr), one flotilla leader (Kempenfelt), 
4 destroyers (Crusader, Comet, Crescent, Cygnet] , 3 submarines (Thames, 
Sturgeon, Swordfish), 2 sloops (Bideford, Rochester), 1 fishery surveying 
vessel (Challenger), and 1 tender for the torpedo school (NigtUingale). 

Under the 1930-31 Estimates there are under construction 3 cruisers of 
7,000 tons (Neptune, Orion, Achilles), 1 flotilla leader (Duncan), 8 destroyers 
(Defender, Daring, Diamond, Delight, Dainty, Diana, Duchess, Decoy), 3 
submarines (Porpoise, Seahorse, Starfish), 4 sloops (Dundee, Falmouth, 
Milford, Weston-wper-Mare), and 1 netlayer (Guardian). 

The Navy Estimates amounted to 55,865,0002. for 1929-30, and for 
1930-31 to 51,739,000*. net. 

The number of officers, seamen and marines borne on January 1, 
1914, was 144,871. The estimates for 1929-30 provide for a total personnel 
of 98,800, to be reduced by April 1, 1931, to 94,000. Officers included in 
this total numbered about 8,000. 



DEFENCE 



43 



SUMMARY OP THE BRITISH FLEET. 

With the disappearance from the lists of all capital ships armed with 
guns of less than 13 '5 inch calibre, the general tendency is to classify 
them as pre- Jutland and post- Jutland types. Of the last-named the 
only representatives at present are the Nelson and Rodney, though the 
Hood embodies in her design certain modifications based on war 
experience. 

The following summary of the more important units will illustrate the 
present position. 





Competed by end of 






1928 1929 


1930 


Battleships and Battle Cruisers . 
Cruisers 


20 20 

50 54 ! 


19 
54 


Aircraft Carriers and Tenders . 
Flotilla leaders and Destroyers . 
Submarines 


7 7 , 
157 150 I 
51 53 


7 
149 
61 









Ships and vessels of the Dominions are included in the above table and in 
the following paragraph. See notes following the ship lists. 

Of the 37 monitors which existed in 1919, three still survive. There are 
11 seagoing depot and repair ships, 27 sloops, 29 minesweepers (mostly laid 
up in reserve), 12 surveying vessels, and a large number of smaller craft, 
such as gunboats, patrol boats, drifters and trawlers. 

In the following tables the ships are grouped in classes according to 
type. The dates of the Naval Estimates under which they were sanctioned 
are given in certain cases, but, with reference to the capital ships affected by 
the Washington and London Treaties, the years are substituted in which 
they are due for replacement if desired. 



Battleships and Battle Cruisers. 







a 


Armour 






fe 


a 


** 




"2 








o 


!^ ^ 





2 g 

se 


Name 


t3 $ 





a 


O 


Main Armament 


Q 0) 


iff 


? 


QJ 




OQ ** 


m 


w) 




Er< 


M 


^ 






P 




M 






w 








Tons'" 


inches 


inches 








Knots 


1931-2 


/ Iron Duke . 
I Marlborough 


} 20,250 


12 


11 


10 18-5in. ; 12 6in. ; 
2 8m. AA 


4 


29,000 


21 


1931-2 


Tiger i . . 


28,900 


9 


9 


8 18-Sin. : 12 6in. ; 


4 


85,000 


28 


1937 


Queen Elizabeth 


^ 






4 3tn. AA 








1939 


Valiant . .1 














1937 


Warspite . . < ^81,100 


13 


11 


8 15in. : 12 Oin. ; 4 


4 


75,000 


25 


1937 


Barharu 








4in. AA 








1937 


Malaya . 


; 














1937 
1938 


Royal Sovereign 
Royal Oak 


1 














1941 


Uamillies . 


J-29,150 


13 


11 


8 15in. ; 14 6in. 4 


4 


40,000 


23 


1987 


Resolution 


1 






4in. AA 








1937 


Revenge . 


; 1 















1 Battle Cruiser. 



44 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 

Battleships and Battle Cruisers (continued). 



Date to be 1 
Scrapped 1 


Nnme 


Standard 
Displacement 


Armour 


Main Armament 


tl 
I* 


Indicated 
or Shaft 
Horse-power 


TJ 

I 

& 


1 


Big Guns 






Tons 


inches: inches 




1 Knot? 


1940 
1939 


Renown i . 
Repulse i . 


32,000 


6 


9 


6 16in. ; 15 4in. ; 4 
4in. AA 


10 112,000 30 


1941 


HoocU . . 42,100 , 12 15 


8 IMn. ; 12 5 5in. ; 4 


6 


144,000 31 




i 




4in. AA 






Naval 




i 










Esti- 












ihates 














1922 
1923 


f Nelson 
\ Rodney 


83,500 \,. n 
33,900 /'* 


9 IGm ; 12 6111. ; 
4 7m. AA 


2 


45,000 


23 




" 






Cruisers 


1910- 
1911 


1 Brisbane a 


5,120 


3 


s 


8 65n. ; 1 Sin. A A 


2 


25 000 


25 










00 










1911 
1912 


} Adelaide 8 . 


5,100 


8 


1 


9 6n. ; 1 Sin. A A 


2 


25,000 


25 










OQ 












f Cliampion . 
















1913- 
1914 


1 Comus 
J Cleopatra . 
Calliope . 
ICarysfort . 


8,895 


3-4 


W 

1$ 


4 flin, ; 2 Sin AA 


2-4 


40,000 


"8"i 




( Cambrian . 






OT 










1914 

1915 


1 Canterbury 
) Constance . 


















(. Castor 


















!Caledon 
















War 


Calypso 
Caradoc 
Concord . 
Centaur . 


4,180 
4,120 


3 
3 


Shields 


5 Om. ; 2 Sin. AA 

5 Gin. ; 2 3m. AA 
(Centaur, only 4 Gin ) 


8 
2 


40,000 
40,000 


20 




/Cardiff 


















Coventry . 


















Curlew 


















Cairo 
















War 


Colombo 
Capetown . 


- 4,200 


3 


00 


5 Gin. ; 2 Sin. AA 


8 


40,000 


29 




Calcutta . 






2 












Ceres. 






a? 












Carlisle . . 


















VCuracpa 


















Danae 


















Dauntless . 


















Dragon 

















War 


Despatch . 
Diomede a . 


4,850 


3 


2 

<o 


G Oin. ; 3 4in. AA 


12 


40,000 


29 




Delhi . . 






1 












Dunedin ** . 


















.Durban 






1 










War 


/ Enterprise 
\ Emerald . 


7,580 
7,550 


}s 


1 


7 Gin. ; 8 4in. AA 


12 


80,000 


32 



1 Battle Cruisers, 



1 Royal Australian Navy. * New Zealand Navy, 



DEFENCE 

Cruisers (continued). 



45 



} 


^ 


Armour 






- 






o 








_ *> 




-. 
S Name 

*l 


Standard 
Displace tue 


43 

% 


Big Guns 


Main Armament 


|j 

f! 


Indicated 
or Shaft 
Horse-pow 


02 

1 






Tons 


nches 


inches 








Knots 




{Efflugham . 


) 




en 
"O 










War 


Frobisher . 
Hawkins . 
Vindictive 


V0.770 
J 9,906 


3 


r <o 

1 

(A 


7 7 Sin. ; 3 4in. AA 
(Vindictive, only 
7 5in.) 


6 


6^,000- 
05,000 


80 


1021 
1922 


> Adventure l 


6,740 


3 


2 

Is 

a 


4 4-7in. 


- 


40,000 


27-75 










03 












. Berwick 
I Cornwall 


> 














1024 
1025 


1 Cumberland 
J Kent . 
j Suffolk 


10,000 


- 


3 


8 8m ; 4 4m. AA 


8 


80,000 


31 5 




1 Australia 2 


















V. Canberra- 


















fDevonshhe 
















11)25 


I London 
















1026 


j Shropshire 
\ Sussex . 


/ 10,000 





3 


8 Sin. ; 4 4m. AA 


8 


80,000 


3225 


1026 - 


( Dorse tshne 
















1027 


1 Norfolk 


; 














1026- 
1927 
1027- 
1028 


{York . 
| Exeter. 


1 8,400 


- 


3 


6 Sin.; 4 4m.AA 


6 


80,000 


32-25 



Aircraft Carriers. 





(-Furious 1 22,450 





! _ 


1055in. ; 04m.AA| 








Wai- 


\ Glorious \ 99 . nn 
(Courageous ;)22,500 


~ 


: - 


16 4 Tin. J 





00,000 


31 


War 


Hermes . 10,850 








6 5'5m. ; 3 4in. AA 





40,000 


25 


War 


Eagle * . , 22,600 


_ 





6in. ; 5 4in. AA 





60,000 


24 


War 


Argus . 14,000 








6 4in. AA 





20,000 


20 


1025 

102G 


j Albatross -'. . 5,000 


~ 


- 


44-7in AA 


- 


12,000 


20 



i Cruiser-Minelayer. 2 Royal Australian Navy. 

3 The Eagle was built as the Almirante Cochrane, battleship, for Chile, but was 
taken over in an early stage by the British Navy and completed for her present use. 

The destroyers of the post-war Fleet are of the following classes : flotilla 
leaders, 1330-1800 tons, 34-36'5 knots, 16 (including 1 Australian); 
R class, 900 tons, 10; S class, 930-1075 tons, 39 (including 5 Australian) ; 
V class, 1800-1325 tons, 27 ; W class, 1300-1350 tons, 37 ; A class (1173-1330 
tons), 12 (including 2 Canadian); B class (1330 tons), 8 ; total number, 149. 

The submarine s are of eight successive classes. H class (410 tons surface 
displacement) 14 ; K class (1710 tons) 1 ; L class (845 tons) 22 ; M class 
(1450 tons) 2 ; X class (2425 tons) 1 ; class (1311-1475 tons), 9 ; P class 
(1475 tons), 6 ; E class (1475 tons), 4 ; total number, 61. 

Dominion Navies. "When Admiral of the Fleet Earl Jellicoe made a tour 
of the Dominions with the object of arriving at an understanding with the 
Governments on the naval defence of the Empire, his report to the Government 
of Australia emphasized the desirability of the Common wealth becoming self- 
contained in regard to shipbuilding and the manufacture of guns, mountings, 
explosives, and aircraft, but no action of much importance has been taken on 



46 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 

the proposals. The Imperial Cabinet (July, 1921) left on record its view that 
co-operation among the constituent parts of the Empire was necessary, but 
that the details must be left to the Dominion Parliaments. So far the only 
one of Lord Jellicoe's main recommendations to be carried into effect has 
been the reorganisation of the Royal Indian Marine on a naval basis. 
Its strength at present is limited to 4 sloops, 2 patrol vessels, 8 trawlers, 
and 2 surveying vessels. 

The Royal Australian Navy, in addition to the 4 cruisers and 1 aircraft 
tender named in the list above, has 1 flotilla leader, 5 destroyers of the 
S class, 3 sloops, and a few other vessels. 2 submarines of the type were 
presented to the Royal Navy in 1931. 

The New Zealand Navy, in addition to the Diomede and Dunedin, has 
the obsolete light cruiser Philomel as a training ship, and a mine -sweeping 
trawler for instiuctional purposes. 

The Royal Canadian Navy has 4 mine-sweeping trawlers and 2 destroyeis 
of the A class (Skeena and Saguenay), which were delivered from England 
in 1930-31. 

The South African Navy has 2 mine-sweeping trawlers and a surveying 
vessel. 

Newfoundland has a transport built in 1925, the Caribou, which is 
employed under the Finance and Customs Department. 

III. AIR FOHCE. 

In May, 1912, the Royal Flying Corps first came into existence. On 
January 2, 1918, an Air Ministry was formed, and the control of the 
Royal Air Force was vested in an Air Council analogous to the Army Council. 
The Air Minister was given the status of a Secretary of State and became 
President of the Council. In April, 1918, the naval and military wings 
were amalgamated, under the Ministry of the Air, as the Royal Air Force. 

The Force consists of the Royal Air Force, the Air Force Reserve, the 
Air Force Special Reserve, the Auxiliary Air Force, and the Territorial Air 
Force. The establishment of the Royal Air Force for the year 1931-32 is 
32,000 exclusive of those serving in India, who are paid for by the Govern- 
ment of India. The establishment of the Auxiliary Air Force is 1,620, and 
the strength in January, 1931, was 871. During 1922 the Air Ministry 
took over control of Iraq and Palestine, and in January 1928 of Aden. 

The Air Force is organised into commands as follows : 

I. United Kingdom : (a) Inland Area, (b) Coastal Area, (c) Irish Wing, 

(d) Cranwell, (e) Halton. 

II. Overseas : (a) Middle East Area, (b) Iraq, (c) India, (d) Mediterranean, 

(e) Palestine. 

Areas are subdivided into groups and wings, a certain number of squad- 
rons being allotted to each group or wing. Squadrons are subdivided into 
flights. In March 1931 the establishment of the Royal Air Force was 
85 squadrons, 72 of which were regular squadrons and 8 Special Reserve or 
Auxiliary Air Force squadrons, while 5 are organised on a cadre basis. Each 
squadron is of 12 aeroplanes. 38 squadrons were in Great Britain and 
22 abroad, while 27 flights, the equivalent of 13 squadrons, were provided 
for the fleet air arm. During 1923 a scheme for the expansion of the Air 
Force primarily for Home Defence was sanctioned. This scheme provides 
for an establishment of 52 squadrons for home defence, 39 of these being 
squadrons of the Royal Air Force, 6 being non-regular, squadrons formed 
from the Auxiliary Air Force, and 7 being formed of the Special Reserve. 
During 1931 29 regular and 7 Auxiliary Air Force squadrons will have 
been formed for Home Defence. In November 1924 an Air Officer, 



PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 



commanding-iii chief Air Defences of Great Britain, was appointed to 
organise and command the Air Forces allotted for Home Defence. These 
are now divided into 3 sub-commands : the Fighting Area, with head- 
quarters at Uxbridge ; the Wessex Bombing Area, with headquarters at 
Andover, and the Special Reserve and Auxiliary Air Force. 

The chief educational establishments of the Air Force are the Cadet 
College at Cranwell and the Staff College at Andover. The chief training 
depot is at Halton. There are also 3 flying training schools, 1 central 
flying school, and schools of gunnery, ballooning, army co-operation, photo- 
giaphy and wireless. 

The net Air Estimates for 1931-32 amounted to 18,100,0002. 

For 1931-32 the net sum allotted to Civil Aviation was 470,0002. The 
air routes maintained were London-Manchester, London-Amsterdam, London- 
Brussels-Cologne, London- Paris and Cairo -Karachi. During 1931 a London- 
Capo Town service will be in operation. Owing to the disaster to the 
airship 11101, which was destroyed with all on board on its first flight to 
India, experiments on airships are in abeyance. 

Production and Industry, 
I. AGRICULTURE. 

General distribution of the surface: 



Divisions 


Total surface 
(excluding 
water) 1930 


Rough 
grazing land 
(1930) 


Permanent 
pasture 
(1930) 


Arable land 
(1930) 




Acres 
32,034,000 


Acres 
3,575,000 


Acres 
13,444 000 


Acres 
9 176,000 


Wales 1 


5,OW,000 


1,718,000 


2,104 000 


657,000 




19,009,000 


9,501,000 


1,560 000 


3,072,000 




141,000 


39,000 


21 000 


59,000 


Channel Islands (1023). . . . 


44,0002 


2,000 2 


10,000 2 


21,0002 



i England excludes, and Wales includes Monmouth. * No later litres are available. 
Distribution of the cultivated area, and the number of live-stock in 
Great Britain : 



- 


England and Wales 


Scotland 


1929 


1930 


1929 


1930 


Cultivated a'iea : 
Corn crops l 
Green crops * .... 


Acres 
4,769,266 
2,177,864 
23,936 
64,942 
248,853 
325,389 
2,369,478 
15,489,921 


Acres 
4,629,853 
2,184,454 
19,997 
66,209 
246,979 
294,048 
2,423,466 
15,547,498 


Acres 
1,047,232 
545,094 

7,927 
1,019 
5,489 
1,499,736 
1,547,510 


Acres 
1,030,094 
528,658 

8,233 
1,004 
5,562 
1,499,268 
1,568,903 


Hops 

Small fruit" w 
Orchards* .... 
Bare fallow .... 
Clover and rotation grasses 
Permanent pasture . 


Total 


25,437,679 


25,380,447 


4,652,988 


4,640,718 



i Corn crops are wheat, barley or bere, oats, mixed corn, rye, beans, peas. 

a Green crops are mainly potatoes, turnips and swedes, mangold, cabbage, kohl-rabi, 
rape, vetches or tares. 

In Scotland all orchard land is also Included against the crop, grass or fallow beneath 
the trees. In England and Wales orchard land is only duplicated where small fruit is 
grown beneath the trees. The figures for small fruit in all cases, therefore, include small 
fruit in orchards. 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 



- 


England and Wales 


Scotland 


June, 1920 


June, 1980 


June, 1829 


June, 1980 


Live Stock : 
Horses 
Cattle 
Sheep 
Pigs . . 


Number 
999,273 
5,957,694 
10,105,453 
2.866,543 


Number 
961,353 
5,849,776 
16,816,843 
2,310,241 


Number 
161,005 
1,232,945 
7,555,520 
142,217 


Number 
156,316 
1,235,999 
7,649,551 
143,269 



Details of the principal crops are given in the following table for 
England and Wales, and Scotland : 



ACRRAOE THOUSAND ACRES. 



- 


Wheat 


Barley 
or 
Bere 


Oats 


Beans ' 


Peas 


Potatoes 


Turnips 
and 

Swedes 


Mangold 


Hay 


England and 




















Walet : 














| ! 




1926 


1,502 


1.148 


1 864 


214 


119 


409 


330 


5,03(> 


1927 


1,636 


1,049 


1,751 


202 


110 


514 


716 1 306 


5,004 


1928 


1,396 


1,185 


1,763 


170 


114 


4V) 


722 1 208 


6,068 


1929 


1,330 


1,120 


1,854 


1,07 


133 


519 


<>90 j 200 


0,2'JO 


1930 


1,346 


3,020 


1,779 


173 


13t 


420 


071 


2SS 


6,646 


Scotland : 




















1926 


51 


122 


940 


3 


0-4 


142 


801 


1-1 


580 


1927 


C7 


117 


897 


4 


4 


147 


377 


1 1 


567 


1928 


58 


112 


878 


3 


03 


144 


378 


1-2 


5<>7 


1929 


51 


101 


889 


3 


0-4 


145 


371 


1 2 


576 


1930 


51 


107 


862 


3 


0'4 


123 


373 


1*2 


581 



TOTAL PRODUCE. 



England and 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


Wale: 


Quatrs 


Quatrs. 


Quatrs. 


Quatrs. 


Quatrs 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


1925 


5,893 


4,715 


10,317 


687 


235 


2,703 


10,983 


7,120 


7,123 


1927 


6,512 


4,480 


9,606 


716 


227 


3,055 


8,630 


5,448 


6,265 


1928 


5,659 


5,185 


9,900 


564 


241 


3,513 


9,953 


5,755 


6,418 


1920 


5,650 


5,047 


10,499 


472 


281 


3,588 


8,303 


5,687 


5,336 


1930 


4,913 


3,880 


9,502 


600 


257 


2,743 


7, ( >31 


:>,43S 


7,00 1 


Scotland : 




















1926 


256 


567 


4,99(5 


13 





890 


6,893 


23 


OD8 


1927 


305 


509 


4,366 


14 


__ 


799 


5,937 


20 


014 


1928 


282 


532 


4,797 


13 





1,032 


6,660 


22 


884 


1929 


263 


521 


6,058 


12 





1,155 


6,606 


25 


950 


1930 


264 


502 


4,477 


15 





860 


5,822 


25 


919 


Qt. Britain : 




















1926 


6,149 


5,282 


15,318 


700 


235 


*3,662 


17,676 


7,143 


8,121 


1927 


0,817 


4,989 


13,972 


730 


227 


8,854 


14,567 


5,468 


7,179 


1928 


5,941 


5,717 


14,697 


577 


241 


4,515 


16,613 


5,777 


7,302 


1029 


5,913 


5,568 


15,557 


484 


281 


4,743 


14,909 


5,712 


6,286 


1930 


6,177 


4,391 


13,979 


624 


257 


8,603 


13,763 


5,463 


8,823 



Figures for Scotland i elate only to beans harvested aa corn. 



The production of meat in Great Britain in 1923-24 was estimated at 
1,023,000 tons ; of milk, 1,350 million gallons. The value of produce sold off 
the farms in 1923 (excluding produce consumed in farmers' households) 
was estimated at 258,750,0002., namely: farm crops, 54,000,OOOZ. ; live stock, 



PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 



95,000,OOOZ. ; dairy produce, 79,000 3 OOOZ. ; wool, 4,250,0002. ; poultry and 
eggs, 1 3,500, OOOZ. ; miscellaneous crops, 13,000,000/. 

For the quantities of cereals and live stock imported, see under 
Commerce. 

The number of holdings in Great Britain (from 1 acre upwards) is given 
as follows : 



Size of Holdings 


England and Wales 
(1930) 


Scotland 
(1029) 


Great Britain 
(1929) 


1 5 acres 
r> 50 ,, 

50300 ,, 
Over 300 acres 

Total 


72,984 
181,945 
128,658 
12,236 


16,856 
33,400 
22,987 
2,413 


91,039 
217,63 r i 
151,685 
14,684 


395,823 


7 r >,746 


474,993 



In England and Wales, the Ministry of Agriculture make grants for, and, 
to some extent, supervise vocational education and scientific research in 
agriculture. The Board of Agriculture for Scotland dispenses certain grants 
for the development and improvement of agriculture, including agricultural 
education and research, in that country. 

Under the Development and Road Improvement Funds Acts, 1909 and 
1910, there are eight 'Development Commissioners,' appointed to advise 
the Treasury in the administration of a national fund for the development 
of agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and analogous reso\Trces of the United 
Kingdom. Grants are also made, in respect of research, from the Empire 
Marketing Fund. In 1929-30 a grant of 300,OOOZ. was voted to the Develop- 
ment Fund by Parliament. During 1929-30 the payment of grants from 
the Fund amounted to 423, 532/. and loans to 12,060/. The balance in the 
Fund at March 31, 1930, was 85,842?. 



II. FISHERIES. 



Quantity and value of fish of British taking landed in Great Britain 
(excluding salmon, except that figures for England and Wales include sea- 
caught salmon and sea- trout) : 



- 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 
(revised) 


1030 l 


England and Wales 
Scotland . * . . . 


Tons 
625,207 
823 041 


Tons 
654,301 
845 996 


Tons 
672,407 
830 189 


Tons 

714,556 
338 702 


Tons 
783,960 
809,091 














G.B. (excluding shell-fish) . 


948,248 


1,000,297 


1,002,596 


1,053,258 


1,093,951 


England and Wales 
Scotland 




12,700,657 
4,349,205 



12,769,516 
4,309,968 




13,230,388 
4,658,100 


& 

14,494,044 
4,672,910 


* 

14,161,940 
4,177,775 


G.*5. (excluding Nhell-fiBh) . 
Value of shell-fish 


17,049,862 
599,817 


17,189,485 
623,854 


17,897,438 
527,286 


19,166,960 
479,116 


16,389,715 
482,127 



Provisional figures. 



50 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE IGREAT BRITAIN 



Statistics for 1929 of fishing boats registered under Part IV of the Merchant 
Shipping Act, 1894 : 



- 


Boats on Register on 
December 31, 1929 


Total 
Net 
Ton- 
nage 


Boats 
employed 
at some 
time 
during 
year 


Estimated number of 
men and boys employed 
in sea-fishing 


Number 


Regular 
fishermen 


Others 


Bailing 


Steam 
& Motor 


Total 


England and 
Wales . 
Scotland . 
N. Ireland 
Isle of Man . 
Channel Islands 

Totals . 


5,505 
2,917 
698 
42 
121 


4,762 
3,053 
270 
76 
111 


7,267 
5,970 
%8 
118 
232 


181,008 
87,097 
4,335 
744 

578 


(5,833 
5,015 
474 
97 
224 


29,932 
22,494 
508 1 
179 
244 


3,812 
1,901 
7181 
87 
159 


0,283 


8,272 


14,555 


273,702 


13,243 


53,3571 


6,677 1 



Excluding Londonderry. 

Imports and Exports of fish into and from the United Kingdom are given 
as follows. The imports represent fish of foreign taking or preparation, and 
are therefore not included in the table above giving fish of British taking 
landed in the United Kingdom : 



- 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


1030 1 


Imports (fresh, cured, canned) 
Exports of United Kingdom pro- 
dace (fresh, cured, salted, canned) 
Ditto (cured or canned herrings only) 
Re-exports (cured or canned lish of 
foreign and colonial origin) . 


Tons 
240,000 

364,000 
257,000 

15,000 


Tons 
242,000 

384,000 
274,000 

19,000 


Tons 
273,000 

385,000 
279,000 

24,000 


Tons 
263,000 

414,000 
802,000 

23,000 


Tons 
263,000 

359,000 
250,000 

20,000 



i Provisional figures. 

The total sum recommended from the Development Fund for maintenance 
(1928-29) of fishery research was 34,003Z. 



III. MINING AND METALS. 

General summary of the mineral production of Great Britain and the 
Isle of Man in 1928 and 1929 : 





1 


128 


19 


29 


Description of Mineral 


Quantity 


Value at the 
Mines and 
Quames 


Quantity 


Value at the 
Mines and 
Quarries 


Alum clay .... 
Arsenic (white) and arsenic 
soot 


Tons 
8,964 

1,293 



t 

15,508 


Tons 
9,344 

958 



t 

10,241 


Barytes and Witherite . 
Bog ore and iron ore not 
used in iron making . 
Calcspar .... 
Chalk .... 


50,900 

3,641 
16,303 
5,996,041 


88,920 

16,610 
441,069 


57,095 

10,426 
15,187 
6,529,848 


105,107 

14,070 
485,208 


Chert and flint . 


158,049 


41,782 


137,176 


40,955 



t Included in total value. 



PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 



51 





19' 


28 


195 


!9 


Description of Mineral 




Value at the 




Value at the 




Quantity 


Mines and 


Quantity 


Mines and 






Quarries 




Quarries 




Tons 





Tone 





China clay .... 


787,296 


1,255,490 


826,046 


1,316,949 


China stone . 


61,579 


89,862 


64,558 


86,976 


Clay and shale 


33,278,243 


1,338,427 


14,271,198 


1,385,610 


Coal ... 


237,471,931 


152,515,958 


257,906,802 


173,233,199 


Copper precipitate 


104 


3,717 


104 


4,050 


Dolomite for use a> He- 










fractory material 


579,179 


95,5f>0 


605,698 


126,060 


Fireclay ..... 


2,261,470 


829,221 


2,207,651 


804,569 


Fluorspar .... 


40,862 


46,491 


41,762 


38,149 


Gold ore (dressed) 


ino 


476 








Gravel and sand . 


5,227,732 


884,537 


<>, 175,187 


1,041,622 


Gypsum 


034,645 


441,001 


966,081 


550,472 


Igneous rocks 


8,479,996 


3,206,469 


8,744,388 


3,181,601 


Iron ore and Ironstone 


11,262,323 


3,074,408 


13,214,943 


3,645,734 


Iron pyrites .... 


4,370 


3,005 


4,371 


3,654 


Lead ore (dressed) . 


18,771 


230,163 


23,260 


306,360 


Limestone (other thai, chalk) 


13,529,292 


3,194,331 


14,257,258 


3,247,281 


Mica Clay .... 


28,395 


14,900 


35,124 


21,041 


Moulding and Tig-bed sand 


666,224 


128,649 


681,810 


128,124 


Ochre, umber, Ac. 


10,504 


t 


9,343 


t 


Oil shale .... 


2,038,114 


589,508 


2,023,609 


598,447 


Petroleum .... 


78 


t 








Potters' clay 


188,913 


170,629 


206,186 


195,505 


Salt (brine and rock) 


1,931,823 


1,221,837 


1,959,362 


1,204,810 


Ganister and silica lock 


510,901 


12,494 


549,140 


206,389 


Sand (glass making) . 


76,241 


188,387 


87,061 


15,841 


Sandstone .... 


3,158,879 


1,720,841 


3,051,727 


1,633,166 


Slate 


300,251 


2,259,063 


800,829 


2,151,529 


Sulphate of strontium . 


4,536 


t 


5,321) 


t 


Tin ore (dressed) . 


4,F44 


532,063 


5,640 


4,844 


Tungsten ore (dressed) . 


96 


3,982 








Zinc ore (dressed) . 


1,558 


6,341 


1,811 


7,566 


Total (including Minerals 










not specified) 





174,750,483 





196,500,320 



t Included in total \alue. 



The metals obtainable from the ores produced in 1929 were : Copper, 
68 tons, value 5,431Z. ; iron, 3,964,483 tons, 15,329,31H. ; lead, 17,678 
tons, 410,940. ; silver, 35,989 oz., 3,665J. ; tin, 3,271 tons, 667,093J. ; zinc, 
664 tons, 16,462J. ; total value, 16, 432,953*. 

The total number of persons (including clerks and salaried persons) 
ordinarily employed at all mines in Great Britain under the Coal and 
Metalliferous Mines Regulation Acts during 1929 was 985,422. The 
number of mines at work was 2,743 ; 781,839 persons (males) worked 
underground, and 199,445 males and 4,138 females (including clerks 
and salaried persons) above ground. The number employed at quarries 
under the Quarries Act was 80,777, of whom 51,582 worked inside the 
quarries, and 29,195 outside. The number of quarries at-work was 5,828. 

Professor H. S. Jevons estimated the resources of British coal in 
1915, within 4,000 feet of the surface, at 197,000 million tons 



52 



THE BKITISH EMPIRE .'GREAT BRITAIN 



Coal raised in Great Britain, and coal, coke, and patent fuel exported : 



Year 

1925 
1920 
1927 
1928 
1929 


Coal raised 


Coal, Coke, etc., exported 


Bunkers for 
ships in 
foreign trade 1 


Tons 


Value 


198,978,154 
123,383,578 
183,544,218 
152,515,958 
173,233,199 


Tons 


Value 


243,176,231 
126,278,521 
251,232,336 
237,471,^31 
257,906,802 


54,089,000 
21,863,000 
54, SCO, 000 
53,676,974 
64,401,021 




54,313,000 
20,500,000 
49,187,000 
39,727,062 
52,84i),618 


Tons 
16,440,000 
7,706,000 
16,841,000 
16,729,594 
16,394,209 



1 Not included in exports. 

In the year 1929, the coal available for consumption at home is estimated 
to have been 173,500,000 tons, some of the principal uses being : domestic 
coal (including miners' coal), 40,000,000 tons ; railways, for locomotive 
purposes, 13,410,000 tons; gas works, 16,750,000 tons; iron works, manu- 
facture of pig iron, 14,180,000 tons 1 ; collieries (engine fuel), 13,690,000 
tons; electricity generating stations, 9,890,000 tons 1 ; bunkers for ships 
engaged in coastwise trade, 1,370,000 tons ; general manufacturing purposes, 
etc., 55,100,000 tons. 

1 Provisional figures. 
Iron ore produced in and imported into Great Britain : 



Tear 


Iron ore produced 


Iron ore imported and retained 




Weight 


Value 


Weight 


Value 




Tons 





Tons 





1925 


10,143,000 


2,919,000 


4,382,000 


4,774,000 


1926 


4,094,000 


1,247,000 


2,088,000 


2,147,000 


1927 


11,207,000 


3,240,000 


5,164,000 


5,441,000 


1928 


11,262,000 


3,071,000 


4,440,000 


4,656,000 


1929 


13,215,000 


3,646,000 


5,689,000 


6,218,000 


1930 


i 


i 


4,137,000 


4,479,000 



l Not available. 

The exports of British iron ore are insignificant. Of the ore imported 
in 1930, 1,804,230 tons, valued at 1,754,0002., came from Spain, and 
782,000 tons (882,OOOZ.) came from Algeria. Including 'purple ore,' the 
net quantity of iron ore available for the furnaces of Great Britain in 1929 
was 19,149,000 tons. 

Statistics of blast furnaces in operation : 



Year 


Furnaces 
in Blast 


Ore Smelted 


Pig-iron 
made 


Coal used 


Coke used 


Pig iron 
Exported 






Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


1925 


151 


14,811,000 


6,262,000 


886,000 


7,466,000 


468,000 


1926 


68 1 


5,716,000 


2,458,000 


282,000 


2,956,000 


277,000 


1927 


168 > 


16,967,000 


7,293,000 


1,093,000 


8,404,000 


272,000 


1928 


132 l 


15,914,000 


6,811,000 








397,000 


1929 


162 * 




7,580,000 


*~ 


~-~ 


456,000 



1 December. 



COMMERCE 



53 



The total output of steel in 1929 was 9,654,700 tons (8,525,100 
tons in 1928) ; the average number of tinplate and sheet steel mills in opera- 
tion in 1928 was 504 (493 in 1927). 

IV. WATER POWEIU 

The available water-power resources of Great Britain are estimated to be 
900,000 B.H.P,, of which 200,000 B.H.P. are developed (1922). 



Commerce. 

Value of the imports and exports of merchandise (excluding bullion and 
specie and foreign merchandise transhipped under bond) of the United 
Kingdom for five years : 



Year 


Total 
Imports 


Exports of 
British Produce 


Exports of 
Foreign and 
Colonial Produce 


Total Exports 


1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 l 



1,241,361,277 
1,218,341,150 
1,195,598,413 
1,220,765,300 
1,044,840,194 



653,046,909 
709,081,263 
723,579,089 
729,349,322 
570,552,946 



125,494,968 
122,952,839 
120,283,244 
109,701,828 
86,980,279 


778,541,877 
832,034,102 
843,862,333 
839,051,150 
657,533,225 



Pi o visional figures. 



The value of goods imported is generally taken to be that at the port 
and time of entry, including all incidental expenses (cost, insurance, and freight) 
up to the landing on the quay. For goods consigned for sale, the market value 
in this country is required and recorded in the returns. This is ascertained from 
the declaration made by the importers, and is checked by the expert knowledge 
available in the Customs Department, with the help of current price-lists and market 
reports. For exports, the value at the port of shipment (including the charges of 
delivering the goods on board) is taken. Imports are entered as from the country 
whence the goods were consigned to the United Kingdom, which may, or may not, be 
the country whence the goods were last shipped. Exports are Credited to the country 
of ultimate destination as declared by the exporters. 

Trade according to countries for the years 1929 and 1930 : 



Countries 


Value of Merchandise 
consigned from 
Countries in first 
column 


Exports of Merchandise consigned 
to Countries in first column 


British Produce 


Foreign and 
Colonial Produce 


1929 


19301 


1929 


1930 l " 


1929 


19301 


Foreign Countries : 
Europe and Colonies 
Russia (Soviet Union) 
Finland 
Esthonia 


Thous. 

20,487 
14,946 
2,497 


Thous. 

34,245 
12,641 
1,992 


Thous. 

8,743 
8,863 
464 


Thous. 

6,790 
2,415 
388 


Thons. 

2,799 
530 
236 


Thous. 

2,566 
430 
124 



Provisional figures. 



54 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GREAT BRITAIN 





Value of Merchandise 


Exports of Merchandise consigned 
to countries in first column 




Consigned from 




Countries 


Countries in first 
column 


British Produce 


Foreign and 
Colonial Produce 




1929 


19301 


1929 


19301 


1929 


19301 




Thous. 


Thous. 


Thous. i 


rhous. 


Thous. 


Thous. 


Latvia 


5,467 


4,836 


1,496 


1,152 


135 


95 


Lithuania .... 


587 


792 


380 


368 


14 


30 


Sweden . . . .1 25,709 


22,585 


10,548 


10,073 


1,156 


869 


Norway . . . .' 14,149 


11,976 


9,858 


12,933 


469 


342 


Iceland .... 551 


346 


059 


681 


105 


123 


Denmark and Faroe Islands 56,178 


54,121 


10,070 


10,249 


829 


742 


Poland . . . . ' 6,908 


7,947 


4,505 


3,564 


779 


617 


Germany .... 68,818 


65,841 


36,967 


26,830 


23,253 


17,312 


Netherlands . . . 42,372 


3D, 543 


21,818 


18,848 


5,212 


4,154 


Java .... 10,196 


6,5S6 


6,042 


4,510 


90 


91 


Dutch Possessions in the 












Indian Seas . . . 4 510 


1,876 


2,757 


1,082 


34 


12 


Dutch West India Islands 3,172 


8,151 


554 


413 


7 


IS 


Dutch Guiana . . 51 


52 


87 


83 


15 


12 


Belgium .... 44,019 


38,348 


19,413 


15,062 


9,205 


0,540 


Belgian Congo. . 278 


242 


750 


668 


30 


31 


Luxemburg . . . 402 


409 


Ib 


17 


1 


1 


France . . . , 56,549 


49,186 


31,003 


29,692 


17,517 


14,532 


Algeria .... 2,436 


2,195 


1,800 


1,635 


13 


25 


Tunis .... 1,289 


1.0.SO 


340 


339 


24 


14 


French West Africa . 1,252 


083 


2,129 


1,738 


123 


110 


French Somaliland . 203 


219 


279 


126 


1 


1 


Madagascar . 


017 


799 


102 


79 


2 


2 


Syria .... 


268 


249 


1,396 


1084 


22 


27 


French Indo-China. 


779 


276 


404 


397 


3 


2 


French Pacific POSP. 


11 


13 


84 


56 


1 


2 


St. Pierre and Miquelon 






437 


52b 


10 


17 


French W. India Islands 





1 


13 


24 


8 


8 


French Guiana 


2 




3 


4 


2 


2 


Switzerland 


13,741 


1'2,640 


6,424 


5,187 




1,097 


Portugal .... 


4,216 


3,653 


3,632 


3,359 


'358 


428 


Azores .... 


127 


126 


53 


55 


8 


1 


Madeira .... 


262 


260 


369 




27 


87 


Portuguese West Africa . 
Portuguese East Africa . 
Portuguese Poss. in India 


123 
5SO 
111 


70 
383 
161 


721 
3,160 
204 


766 
2,809 
141 


80 
2 


15 
65 
2 


Spain . 


19,074 


16 645 


12,055 


9 321 


486 


528 


Canary Islands 


2,896 


2*, 781 


1,317 




47 


87 


Spanish North Africa . 


92 


65 


407 


'338 


13 


8 


Spanish West Africa . 


1 




46 


30 


7 


6 


Italy . 


16 800 


15,005 


16 000 


13 832 


1 579 


957 


Libya .... 


52 


' 48 


' 86 


' 61 


4 


8 


Italian East Africa 


25 


87 


38 


21 






Austria 


2,782 


3,388 


2,521 


2,044 


469 


455 


Hungarv . 


720 


696 


1,059 


739 


71 


90 


Czechoslovakia 


6,676 


6,893 


2,101 


1,731 


136 


116 


Yugoslavia 


615 


718 


1,524 


1,157 


50 


30 


Greece 


2,526 


2,087 


4,921 


8,732 


15!) 


196 


Crete 


217 


149 


27 


18 


1 


1 


Bulgaria . 


106 


90 


853 


434 


12 


4 


Rouraania . 
Turkey, European 


2,965 
808 


4,727 
659 


2,317 
2,196 


1,947 
1,572 


58 
99 


39 
43 


Turkey, Asiatic 


1,442 


1,219 


628 


296 


21 


30 


E?n>t 


28,583 


13,910 


12,576 


9,808 


265 


192 


Morocco \ 


798 


836 


2,023 


1,404 


109 


131 


Liberia 


59 


43 


133 


120 


18 


10 



Provisional figures. 



COMMERCE 



55 





Value of Merchandise 
Consigned from 


Exports of Merchandise consigned 
to Countries in first column 


Countries 


Countries in first 
column 


British Produce 


Foreign and 
Colonial Produce 




1929 


19801 


1929 


19301 


1929 


19301 


Asia- 


Thous. 


Thous 


Thous , 


Thous. 


Thous. 


Thous. 


Abyssmla .... 


167 


228 


34 


:>3 


1 


1 


Arabia ... 32 


19 


147 


133 


2 


1 


Iraq ... . 1,676 


1,130 


2,426 


1,693 


71 


86 


Persia . . ' 9,148 


8,774 


2,261 


2,695 


86 


200 


Afghanistan ... 





4 


4 








Siam 


261 


290 


2,365 


2,030 


24 


20 


China (exclusive of Hong 














Kong, Macao and Wei- 














hai-Wei) .... 


12,157 


9,914 


14,029 


8,572 


117 


86 


Japan (including Formosa. 


9,132 


8,064 


13,435 


8,229 


207 


168 


Korea 


2 


1 


195 


145 


2 


_ 


America 














United States of America 


195,980 


153,610 


45,558 


28,716 


16,458 


11,247 


Philippine Is. and Guam 


2,041 


1,743 


1,096 


751 


24 


10 


Porto Rico 


34 


125 


100 


103 


4 


1 


Hawaii .... 


120 


107 


26 


14 


1 


_ _ 


Cuba 7,934 


6,871 


2,027 


1,283 


54 


32 


Hayti 167 150 


180 


167 


2 


2 


St. Domingo . . 1,734 1,852 


256 


153 


2 


1 


Mexico . . . U,6flO L>,886 2,538 


2,434 


39 


80 


Guatemala ... 40 58 437 


231 


8 


4 


Honduras (not British) . 1,109 495 


750 


517 


2 


2 


San Salvador ... 32 12 480 


341 


3 


3 


Nicaragua .... 81 105 264 


146 


4 


1 


Costa Rica .... 


2,560 


L>,820 


404 


162 


9 


5 


Colombia .... 


2,106 1,399 


3,241 


1,553 


63 


31 


Panama 


42 


40 


432 


614 


26 


14 


Venezuela .... 


462 


71)9 


2,510 


1,644 


87 


25 


Ecuador .... 


137 


165 


580 


392 


14 


7 


Pern 


0,462 


4,483 


2,007 


1,443 


86 


56 


Chile .... 


10,615 


7,347 


9,196 


6.903 


897 


821 


Brazil . ... 


7,293 


8,132 


13,383 


7,955 


822 


172 


Uniguay .... 


5,b51 


7,382 


8,723 


3,501 


52 


58 


Bolivia .... 


5,989 


3,379 


C73 


347 


15 


18 


Argentine Republic . 


81,447 


56,744 


29,074 


25,270 


603 


444 


Paraguay .... 


73 


114 


120 


148 


2 


8 


Deep Sea Fisheries . 


1,121 


1,158 


2 


2 





. 
















specified above) . 


861,923 


740,698 ! 401,898 


822,450 


86,640 


66,455 


British Possessions : 














In Europe : 














Irish Free State . 


45,087 


42,953 


36,078 


34,498 


10,220 


9,800 


Channel Islands . 


3,486 


3,425 


3,647 


3,701 


1,072 


1,003 


Gibraltar . 


48 


22 


7*5 


514 


74 


66 


Malta and Gozo . 


47 


38 


1,279 


1,028 


194 


175 


Cyprus 


374 


320 


468 


359 


10 


8 
















In Africa: 














West Africa 














Gambia .... 


137 


165 


187 


175 


ir 


16 


Sierra Leone . 


410 


313 


779 


625 


70 


54 


Gold Coast 4 Togoland . 


2,731 


1,740 


8,828 


8,450 


548 


414 


Nigeria ft Cameroons 


8,109 


5,936 


7,522 


6,479 


093 


699 


St. Helena and Ascension . 


51 


27 


52 


47 


14 


11 



Provisional figures. 



56 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 





Value of Merchandise 
Consigned from 


Exports of Merchandise consigned 
to Countries in first column. 


Countries 


Countries in first 
column 


British Produce 


Foreign and 
Colonial Produce 




1929 


19301 


1929 


1930 1 


1929 


19301 


South Africa : 


Thous. 


Thous. 


Thous 


Thous. 


Thous. i 


Thous. 


Protect, of S W. Africa 


108 


109 


249 


199 


2 


2 


Cape of Good Hope ' 
Natal . . . . 
Orange Free State . 
Transvaal 


24,309 I 


20,234 1 


3-2,536 I 


2(1,404 I 


..} 


1,242 


Basutoland 








33 


28 


1 


1 


Rhodesia (North) . 


3-27 


3">d 


411 


831 


2 


3 


Rhodesia (South) . 


1 294 


1,178 


2,0'24 


2,557 


58 


48 


JJechuanaland Prot. 


20 


15 


11 


12 








Swaziland 


1 


1 


3 


5 








East Africa : 














Tanganyika Territory . 
Zanzibar and Pemba 


750 
137 


67o 
108 


1,105 
233 


'216 


28 
4 


25 
4 


Kenya Colony . 


2,757 


2,437 


3,052 


2521 


85 


68 


Uganda Protectorate 


40o 


243 


375 


285 


9 


7 


Nyasaland Protectorate . 


881 


978 


201 


189 


7 


8 


Somaltland Protectorate . 


14 


28 


21 


23 


_ 





Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 


5,945 


3,732 


1,781 


1,910 


43 


40 


Mauritius & Dependencies 


3,928 


1,657 


069 


601 


14 


14 


Seychelles .... 


14 


23 


39 


37 


2 


1 


l,i Asia : 














Aueu and Dependencies . 


159 


79 


576 


410 


10 


8 


Palestine . 


1,020 


1,450 


^88 


1,004 


26 


28 


British India . 


62,845 


51,058 


78,2-27 


52,944 


1,145 


1 314 


Straits Settlements . 


14,173 


9,1.51 


12,272 


7,404 


327 


240 


Federated Malay States . 
Unfed^rated Malay States 
Ceylon and Dependencies . 


8,4^6 
36 
15,150 


2,207 
42 
13,518 


3,222 
71 
5,920 


2,937 
74 
3,9J>9 


93 
1 

217 


64 
1 

162 


British North Borneo 


276 


220 


70 


65 


4 


2 


Sarawak .... 


61 


25 


143 


107 


2 


3 


Hong Kong 


489 


423 


6,162 


4,356 


114 


95 


In Australasia : 














Australia . 


55,618 


46,495 


54,235 


31 061 


2,105 


1,392 


Territory of Papua . 


37 


48 


140 


77 


5 


2 


New Zealand . ... 


47,727 


44,939 


21,393 


17,808 


793 


764 


Nauru and British Samoa 


81 


13:5 


34 


42 


2 


1 


Fiji Islands 


'<06 


631 


447 


3'28 


10 


16 


OtherPacificIsrnds(Britisb) 


385 


241 


53 


53 


2 


1 


In America : 














Canada .... 


46,410 


3^,160 


35,008 


28,901 


2,503 


2,110 


Newfoundland & Labrador 


2,034 


2,197 


909 


754 


164 


141 


Bermudas .... 


4 


9 


602 


695 


39 


42 


Bahamas .... 


29 


26 


442 


344 


22 


19 


British West India Islands 


5,298 


5,113 


4,600 


4,405 


289 


278 


British Honduras 


126 


36 


196 


142 


21 


19 


British Guiana . 


628 


698 


1,070 


1,008 


86 


89 


Falkland Islands 


703 


463 


431 


348 


SO 


25 


Total, British Possessions 














(including those f not 














specified above) . 


358,842 


804,142 


324,451 


248,103 


23,062 


20,526 


Grand Total . 


1,220,765 


1,044,840 


729,349 


570,553 


109,702 


86,980 



1 Provisional figures. 

2 Exclusive of the value of Diamond* from the Cape of Good Hope. 



COMMERCE 



57 



Gold and silver bullion and specie : 





Gold 


Silver 


Year 








Imports 


Exports 


Imports 


Exports 
















1926 


38,547,498 


27,128,223 


11,198,113 


10,957,801 


1927 


32,404,512 


29,060,010 


7,173,051 


7,145,577 


1928 


47,800,890 


60,523,701 


10,205,998 


9,187,712 


1929 


62,411,414 


77,562,699 


8,330,718 


9,109,287 


1930 l 


86,658,814 


81,791,893 


8,516,626 


8,353,931 



Provisional figures 



Imports and exports for 1929 and 1930 (Great Britain and Northern 
Ireland) (latter year provisional) : 



Import Values C.I. F. 
Export Values F.O.B. 


Total 
Imports 


Domestic 
Exports 


Foi cign and 
Colonial 
Exports 


1929 


1930 

1,000 
72,928 
5,74* 
111,671 
18,318 
193,255 
57,907 
15,720 


1929 

1,000 
4,829 
3,07b 
1,724 
200 

} 36,202 

VJOG 


1930 


1929 


1930 


I. Food, Drtnfc, and Tobacco 
Grain and Flour .... 
Feediug-Stutls lor Animals . 
Meat 


1,000 
95,915 
9,003 
113,575 
16,370 
213,808 
07,040 
18,499 


1,000 
4,250 
2,172 
1,488 
222 

31,032 | 
8,483 


1,000 
1,821 
247 
3,581 
3 
15,202 
4,402 
757 


1,000 
1,729 
190 
3,203 
3 
13.0S9 
4,056 
939 


Animals Living for Food 
Other Food & Drink, Non-dutiable 
,, ,, ,, Dutiable 
Tobacco 


Total, Class I. 

II. Raw Materials, etc. 
Mining, &c. f Product*. Coal . 
T ii M : Other 
Iron Ore and Scrap .... 
Non-Ferrous Ores and Serai > . 
Wood and Timber .... 
Raw Cotton and Cotton Waste 
Wool, and Woollen Rags 
8Uk, Raw, Knubs and Noils . 
Other Textile Materials . 
Oil Seeds, Oils, Fats, Gums, &c. . 
Hid PS and Skins, Undressed . 
Paper-making Matenals . 
Rubber 


535,475 475,552 


55,616 


48,252 


26,013 


23,808 


S3 
5,967 
0,438 
17,007 
45,840 
77,800 
63,012 
1,901 
15,224 
43,928 
20,416 
13,150 
17,280 
12,107 


29 
5,275 
5,162 
12,240 
42,798 
44,920 
45,258 
1,620 
9,588 
33,874 
10,110 
12,074 
10,728 
11,231 


48,017 
1,995 
1,502 
1,092 
372 
1,161 
9,622 
28 
420 
5,159 
2,638 
1,569 
277 
3,860 


45,071 
1,049 
508 
789 
281 
600 
4,832 
14 
268 
3,613 
1,438 
1,048 
175 
2,809 


491 
4 
400 
718 
4,568 
24,910 
14 
1,050 
2,119 
12,773 
51 
5,481 
1,764 


871 
5 
214 
402 
3,382 
10,894 
17 
785 
1,459 
9,876 
27 
8,600 
1,285 




Total, Class II. . 

III. Manufactured Article* 
Coke and Manufactured Fuel 
Earthenware, Glass, &c. 
Iron and Steel Manufactures . 
Non-Ferrous Metals & Manufactures 
Cutlery, Hard ware, Implements, Ac. 
Electrical Goods and Apparatus . 
Machinery 


339,577 


250,808 


78,901 


63,815 


64,298 


88,370 


18 
11,297 
24,690 
37,01 
8,266 
6,510 
19,153 
9,684 
10,988 
16,225 


10 
10,907 
23,827 
29,382 
7,697 
7,082 
17,913 
8,741 
9,785 
14,264 


4,233 
14,005 
68,003 
18,293 
0,833 
18,169 
54,851 
3,002 
135,419 
52,883 


3,549 
11,901 
51,270 
12,088 
7,336 
11,929 
46,928 
2,215 
87,574 
36,956 


186 
220 
4,401 
1,374 
220 
1,630 
649 
809 
2,283 


161 

2C8 
2,848 
1,811 
500 
1,557 
620 
546 
1,505 


Manufactures of Wood and Timber 
Cotton Yarns and Manufactures . 
Woollen, Worsted Yarns & Manuf. 



58 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 



Import Values C.I F. 
Export Values F.O.B. 


Total 
Imports 


Domestic 
Exports 


Foreign and 
Colonial 
Exports 


1929 


1980 


1929 


1930 

1,000 
I,5t6 
19,558 
19,758 
21,967 
7,473 
5,262 
8,475 
50,742 
2,831 
30,433 


1929 


1930 


Silk and Silk Manufactures . 
Manuf. : Other Textile Materials . 
Apparel 


1,000 
13,173 
17,121 
19,956 
16,8B2 
43,428 
15,822 
17,972 
10,759 
3,757 
31,692 


1,000 
11,221 
15,331 
19,805 
13,568 
46,282 
15,247 
17,989 
6,821 
3,927 
28,798 


1,000 
2,168 
26,865 
25,612 
26,617 
8,599 
7,905 
9,809 
50,269 
8,405 
39,838 


1,000 
1,391 
2,826 
1,283 
958 
3,968 
2,233 
269 
683 
138 
3,875 


1,000 
1,100 
2,209 
1,277 
943 
2,829 
1,907 
271 
G40 
118 
3,491 


Chemicals, Drugs, Dyes, A Colours 
Oils, Fats, Resins, Manufactures . 
Leather and Manufactures 
Paper and Cardboard 
Vehicles (inc. Ships & Aircraft) . 
Rubber Manufactures . 
Miscellaneous Articles . 

Total, Class III . 

IV. Animals not for Food 
V. Parcel Post .... 

Total . 


334,862 


807,49l 


578,799 


439,751 


28,897 


24,162 


3,527 
7,825 


3,679 
7,303 


2,025 
18,968 


1,502 
17,233 


499 


035 


1,220,765 


1,044,840 


729,849 


570,553 


109,702 


86,980 



The principal articles of food and drink, and tobacco, imported and 
retained for consumption in the United Kingdom for the years 1927-1930 
are as follows : 



Articles 


1927 


1928 


1929 


19301 


Wheat . . Thous. Cwts 


109,962 


102,795 


110,821 


103,843 


Wheat meal and flour 




10,856 


8,813 


9,617 


11,551 


Maize 




40,511 


31,431 


38,251 


32,198 


Barley .... 


11 ! 


16,376 


12,925 


11,941 


15,248 


Oats ... 




5,907 


7,447 


6,930 


9,650 


Rice . . 


" ' 


2,319 


2,437 


2,240 


2,203 


Butter 




5,582 


5,949 


6,274 


6,650 


Margarine . 


ii i 


1,185 


1,103 


950 


846 


Cheese 


ii 


2,910 


2,975 


2,963 


3,082 


Eggs (in shell) Thous. gt. hunds. 
Coffee and chicory . Thous. cwts 


24,840 
488 


26,467 
394 


24,964 
382 


26,561 
890 


Cocoa, raw .... 


ii , 


1,117 


1,111 


1,150 


1,140 


Preparations of cocoa, dec. 


i i 


218 


207 


202 


194 


Tea 


Lbs. 


451,414 


418,831 


464,145 


453,041 


Beef (fresh & refrigerated) 


Cwts. 


12,969 


12,118 


11,465 


11,385 


Mutton and lamb (fresh 












and refrigerated) . 


ii ii 


5,493 


5,628 


5,625 


6,880 


Bacon and hams 


it ii 


8,957 


9,415 


8,938 


9,819 


Potatoes .... 


1 1 


5,832 


9,522 


5,869 


6,791 


Apples .... 


i ii 


5,791 


5,743 


6,499 


5,881 


Oranges .... 
Bananas .... 


, bunches 


7,643 
12,315 


7,489 
12,451 


8,956 
14,280 


9,590 
14,577 


Currants, dried . 


, cwts. 


1,189 


1,093 


1,104 


1,160 


Raisins .... 


i M 


1,450 


1,382 


1,608 


1,403 


Sugar (raw and refined) 
Wine .... 


', Galls. 


80,820 
16,948 


35,886 
18,499 


88,925 
14,422 


30,888 
13,748 


Spirits 2 . . Thous. 


Prf. 7, 


1,764 


1,670 


1,695 


1,488 


Beer ... 


8td. Brls. 


1,447 


1,851 


1,458 


1,598 


Tobacco . . . Thous. Ibs. 188,160 


141,726 147,822 


151,699 



1 Provisional figures. 



2 For consumption as bevenge. 



SHIPPING AND NAVIGATION 



59 



In 1930 the United Kingdom imported about 42,261,000 cwt. of wheat 
from other parts of the Empire and about 62,746,000 cwt. from foreign 
countries. The great wheat sources were: United States, 21,076,000 cwt. ; 
Canada, 26,196,000 cwt. ; Argentina, 15,205,000 cwt. ; Australia, 12,721,000 
cwt. 

Wheat flour imported 1930, 11,739,000 cwt., of which 3,178,000 came 
from the United States, 4,492,000 from Canada, and 1,713,000 from Australia. 

The total value of goods transhipped under bond was : 1925, 28,845,085?. ; 
1926, 30,011,7352.; 1927, 33,305,782*.; 1928, 81,897,0801.; 1929, 32,800,218*. 
(These amounts are not included above in the accounts of imports and 
exports. ) 



Shipping and Navigation. 

Vessels registered as belonging to the United Kingdom (including the 
Isle of Man and Channel Islands) at the end of each year : 



At end 


Sailing Vessels 


Steam and Motor 
Vessels 


Total 


of year 


No. 


Net Tons 


No. 


Net Tons 


No. 


Net Tons 


1925 


5,785 


619,821 


12,491 


11,463,257 


18,276 


11,983,078 


1926 


5,678 


516,999 


12,432 


11,389,529 


18,110 


11,906,528 


1927 


5,609 


506,490 


12,372 


11,346,839 


17,981 


11,853,329 


1928 


5,408 


496,011 


12,640 


11,763,192 


18,048 


12,259,203 


1929 


5,249 


480,065 


12,795 


11,888,976 


18,044 


12,369,041 



Fishing vessels registered and number of fishermen employed : 



At end of 


Sailing 


Steam and motor 


Total 


Regular and 
occasional 


year 










1 


fishermen 




No. 


Net tons 


No. 


Net tons 


No. 


Net tons 


employed * 


1925 


8,499 


40,135 


7,836 


247,033 


16,335 


287,168 


65,018 


192'3 


7,960 


86,445 


7,913 


244,039 


15,873 


280,484 


63,068 


1927 


7,376 


83,477 


8,013 


242,526 


15,889 


276,003 


1,821 


1928 


6,790 


29,897 


8,113 


242,063 


14,908 


271,960 


60,611 


19292 


6,283 


26,412 


8272 


247,350 


14,555 


278,762 


60,084 



Excluding Londonderry. 



2 See table on page 50. 



The total number of vessels on the registers at ports in the British 
Empire (including the United Kingdom) in 1927 'was 36,050 vessels of 
14,587,646 tons net (sailing, 14,978 vessels of 1,380,413 tons ; steam, 
14,555 vessels of 12,301,596 tons; motor, 6,517 vessels of 905,637 tons); 
in 1928, 36,860 vessels of 14,958,343 tons net (sailing, 14,745 vessels of 
1,368,843 tons; steam, 14,486 vessels of 12,413,461 tons; motor, 7,179 
vessels of 1,181,539 tons) ; and in 1929, 36,441 vessels of 15,071,706 tons 
net (sailing, 14,397 vessels of 1,348,089 tons; steam, 14,266 vessels of 
12,821,435 tons ; motor, 7,778 vessels of 1,402,182 tons). 



60 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 



Vessels (excluding war vessels) built in the United Kingdom (including 
vessels built for foreigners) : 





Sailing 


Steam and motor 


Total 


Year 


No. 


Net 
Tons 


No. 


Net 
Tons 


No. 


Net 
Tons 


1925 


329 


36,753 


481 


642,708 


810 


679,461 


1926 


203 


21,155 


304 


375,143 


507 


396,298 


1027 


221 


20,995 


547 


740,473 


768 


761,468 


1928 


180 


1(5,641 


dOO 


853,091 


780 


869,732 


1929 


179 


15,178 


60S? 


916,219 


878 


931,397 



Th gross tonnage of merchant ships launched was : in 1926, 
638,000; 1927, 1,250,384; 1928, 1,443,341; 1929, 1,525,105; 1930, 
1,488,150. The total world output for 1929 was 988 vessels of 2,777,689 
tons (gross) ; and for 1930 was 1,036 vessels of 2,890,232 tons (gross). 

Shipping under construction in the United Kingdom on December 31, 
1930, was 908,902 tons (gross). 

The total productive capacity of the shipbuilding yards in the United 
Kingdom is estimated to be about 3,000,000 tons. 

Total shipping of the United Kingdom engaged in the home and foreign 
trade (excluding fishing) : 



Years 
(Mar. 31) 

1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 


Sailing Vessels 


Steam and Motor Vessels 


Total 
Tonnage 
(Net) 


Number 


Tons (Net) 


Persons 
employed 


Number 


Tons (Net) 

11,136,691 
9,356,355 
15,860,804f 
15,893,094t 
16,397,886f 


Persons 
employed 


656 
554 
537 
484 
453 


63,654 
56,215 
61,252f 
57,961 f 
49,991f 


2,034 
1,634 
1,527 
1,325 
1 204 


5,470 
4,488 
4,550 
4,392 
4,474 


235,198 
194,924 
198,998 
198,788 
202,356 


11,200,345 
9,412,570 
15,912,056f 
15,96l,055t 
16,447,877f 



t Gross tonnage. 

In 1928, of 200,113 men employed, 15,291 were foreigners and 52,445 
were Lascars, and in 1929, of 203,560 men employed, 16,383 were foreigners 
and 53,571 were Lascars. 

Total net tonnage of sailing, steam and motor vessels, including their 
repeated voyages, that entered and cleared, with cargoes and in ballast, at 
ports in the United Kingdom : 



Year 


Entered 


Cleared 


Total 


British 


Foreign 


Total 


British 


Foreign 


Total 


British 


Foreign 


Total 


1935 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 


l.OOOtns. 
52,021 
53,270 
56,885 
56,562 
58,849 


l.OOOtns. 
81,997 
29,008 
84,608 
84,458 
37,755 


l.OOOtns. 
84,018 
82,278 
90,442 
91,015 
96,604 


l.OOOtns. 
62,839 
53,427 
56,801 
67,579 
69,276 


l.OOOtns. 
82,451 
29,181 
84,996 
84,683 
87,923 


l.OOOtns. 
86,290 
82J608 
91,297 
92,262 
97,199 


l.OOOtns. 
104,860 
100,697 
112,186 
114,141 
118,125 


l,000tns. 
64,448 
58.189 
69,603 
69,186 
75,678 


l.OOOtnu. 
175,886 
169,808 
164,886 
181,789 
198,808 



INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS 



Cl 



With cargoes only. 







Entered 






Cleared 






Tota 






British 


Foreign 


Total 


British 


Foreign 


Total 


British 


Foreign 


Total 


1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 


l,000toa. 
37,974 
43,523 
40,422 
40,221 
40,748 


l.OOOtns. 
17,538 
20,658 
20,108 
20,110 
21,954 


l.OOOtns. 
55,611 
64,181 
60,590 
60,337 
62,702 


l.OOOtns. 
41,407 
33,868 
42,363 
43,872 
45,337 


l.OOOtns. 
20,905 
13,094 
21,137 
21,072 
23,342 


l.OOOtns. 
62,312 
46,902 
63,500 
64,444 
68,679 


l,000tns 
79,381 
77,391 
82,785 
83,593 
86,085 


l.OOOtns- 
38,442 
33,752 
41,30 
41,188 
45,296 


l.OOOtns. 
117,823 
111,143 
124,090 
124,781 
131,381 



The total net tonnage of entrances at ports of the United Kingdom with 
cargoes during 1930 was 63,715,296 ; total clearances were 65,853,620 net 
tons. Of the foreign tonnago (22,928,038 tons) entered. 



U.S. America had 
Norway . . ,, 
Holland . . ,, 
Germany . . ,, 
Sweden . . ,, 



2,994,980 
2,704,711 
3,156,660 
2,558,062 
1,948,845 


France . 
Denmark 
Belgium 
Spain . 
Japan . 



had 2,230,252 

. 1,866,101 

. 1,321,103 

. 674,245 

. 551,187 



Greece . 
Italy . . 

Finland . 
Poitugal 



had 



637,678 

575,776 

467,837 

47,575 



Total arrivals, with cargo and in ballast, 1929 : foreign trade, 125,824,000 
tons; coastwise, 55,185,000 tons. Total departures : foreign trade, 
125,965,000 tons ; coastwise, 54,930,000 tons. 

The total net tonnage of vessels that arrived and departed from the Port 
of London with cargoes and in ballast was 57,578,000 tons in 1929. 

Internal Communications. 

I. RAILWAYS AND TRAMWAYS. 

Under the Railways Act, 1921, the railways of Great Britain are grouped, 
as from January 1, 1923, into four systems, namely : London, Midland and 
Scottish (7,464 miles); London and North-Eastern (6,464 miles); Great 
Western (3,765 miles); Southern (2,129 miles) ; total, 19,822 miles of route. 

The following table gives the latest railway statistics available for Great 
Britain : 



Year 


Length 
of road 
open at 
end of 


Paid up 
Capital 
(including 
nominal 


Number of 
Passengers 
originating 
(excluding 


Weight of 
goods and 
mineral 
traffic 


Kailway & Ancillary 
Businesses 




year 


additions) 


season- 
ticket 


originat- 


Gross 


Expendi- 








holders)! 


ing 


receipts. 1 


ture 8 




Miles 


Million 


Millions 


Million 


Million 


Million 











tons 








1925 


20.411 


1,177-4 


1,282-6 


316-0 


2177 


181-0 


1926 


20,41(3 


1,175-5 


1,069 


2166 


188-3 


169-1 


1927 


20,422 


1,187-7* 


1,174-7 


321-8 


227 4 


1849 


1928 


20,409 


1,1878* 


1,1958 


3061 


218 4 


177.3 


1929 


20,419 


1,190-0 


1,236-2 


3300 


2204 


175-3 



1 The equivalent number of annual tickets representing season ticket holders in 1927 
was 793,870, in 1928 was 784,560, and in 1929 was 781,000. 

2 The gross receipts from railway working only in 1928 were 194,005,049*. gross, 
40,508,130*. net, and in 1929, 196,409, 628*. gross, 44,089,559*. net. 

The expenditure on railway woiking wag in 1928, 163,496,919*.; in 1929, 151,319,904*. 

4 Owing to revision in the foi m and method of compilation of accounts the figures for 
1927, 1923, and 1929 are not comparable with those of previous years. 

The number of passengers carried in 1929 was 1,700,000,000. 

The net receipts on Railway and Ancillary businesses in 1929 were 45,099,504*. 
(41,112,741*. in 1928). 



62 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 



Tramways. In 1929 there were in Great Britain 2,420 miles of train- 
ways and light railways open for public traffic. The paid-up capital amounted 
to 106,192, OOO/., gross receipts 27, 067.000/., working expenses 21,480,000/., 
and net receipts 5,587,000/. The total number of passengers carried in 1929 
was 4,623,259,000. 

Civil Aviation. In 1929 the number of aircraft miles flown was 
1,386,000 ; number of passengers carried, 29,312 ; weight of cargo, 939 tons. 

II. CANALS AND NAVIGATIONS 

The total length of canals in the United Kingdom in 1905 was 4,673 
miles, of which 3,641 miles were in England and Wales, 184 in Scotland, 
and 848 in Ireland. 

The total tonnages originating on the principal canals l in Great Britain 
in 1929 were : Railway-owned canals, 1,772,663 tons ; other than railway- 
owned, 12,589,517 tons, including Birmingham, 3,684,017 tons, Grand 
Junction, 1,442,620 tons, Leeds and Liverpool, 1,652,862 tons, and Bridge- 
water, 1,208,907 tons, Aire and Oalder, 2,519,971 tons. Tonnage carried 
on the River Thames (above Teddington) was 397,552. 

Manchester, fourth port in the United Kingdom, was opened to maritime traffic in 
1894 by the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, which is 35 J miles in length, 
30 ft. in depth to Stanlow Oil Dock, thence to Manchester it is 28 ft. deep. The bottom 
width of the canal is not less than 120 ft. except for f mile near Latchford, where it is 
90 ft. The maximum width of the locks is 65 ft., with the exception of the entrance 
lock, which is 80 feet wide. The canal is in direct communication with all the principal 
railway systems and barge canals of the Kingdom. The total paid-up capital of the 
Company at December 31, 1930, was 19,975,5221 The gross revenue of the canal in 1930, 
including the Bndgewater department and the railways, amounted to 1,905,1951., and 
the net revenue, including miscellaneous receipts, to 701,675Z. (796,754i. in 1929). The 
traffic receipts in 1930 amounted to 1,395,5671. The merchandise traffic paying toll in 
1930 amounted to 6,290,625 tons. 

III. POST, TBLBGBAPHS, AND TELEPHONES. 
(Great Britain and Northern Ireland.) 

Number of Post Offices at March 31, 1930, 22,223, besides about 50,000 
road and pillar letter boxes; staff employed January 1931, 230,711 persons 
(176,950 males, 53,761 females). 

Letters, &c., delivered: 






1927-28 


1928-29 


1929-30 


Letters, Postcards, Printed Papers and News. 
papers 


Millions 
6,200 


Millions 
6,280 


Millions 
6,400 


Parcel* dealt with 
Telegrams dealt with 


153-1 

60'7 


1545 
59*4 


160'5 
56'5 











The number and value of money orders (including Cash on Delivery 
Trade Charge Orders) issued in 1929- 30 wore: Inland Orders, 11,959,000, 
amount 61, 666, OOO/. ; Imperial and Foreign (including those issued abroad 
for payment in Great Britain and Northern Ireland), 8,067,000, amount 
10,026,000*. ; total, 15,026,000, amount 71,692,000*. These figures include 



1 Excluding Manchester Ship Canal. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



63 



telegraph orders as follows : inland 631,000, amount 3,326, 000&; Imperial 
and Foreign (including I.F.S. and those issued abroad for payment in this 



country), 105,000, amount 1,039,0002. 
Postal orders issued : 



Year ended 
March 31 


Number 


Value 


Year end^d 
March 31 


Number 


Value 
















1925 


116,098,000 


40,035,000 


1928 


136,483,000 


44,814,000 


1926 


123,340,000 


41 685,000 


1929 


142,084,000 


46,042,000 


1927 


135,255,000 


41,723,000 


1^30 


163,796,000 


50,894,000 



The telegraphs were transferred to the State on February 5, 1870. On 
March 31, 1930, the mileage of Post Office wires used for telegraph purposes 
was 309,284 miles. The total mileage of Post Office wires, i.e., Telegraph, 
Telephone, and spare wires, was 8,667,854. Of this total, 1,306,327 miles 
were aerial, 7,344,406 underground, andj.7,121 submarine. 

The total number of telegraph offices open on March 81, 1930 (including Railway and 
Cable Companies' Offices, etc., which tiansact public telegraph business), was 12,552. On 
February 1, 1931, there were 24 Post Office wiieless stations in operation, and. several 
"stand-by" stations for emergency purposes. Imperial and International Communi- 
cations, Ltd., work certain stations under licence. 

All telephone exchanges deal with trunk telephone business, but on March 31, 1930, 
there were 17 exchanges which dealt only with trunk work. On that date there were 
15,991) Inland trunk and 93 International circuits (including 4 transatlantic channels) ; the 
mileage of Post Office wires used therein was 1,015,211 miles ; the number of calls during 
the year was 119,290,000. The London local exchange system had 140 exchanges, 6,016 call 
offices (including 1,709 kiosks), 2,611,283 miles of working wire and 675, 783 telephone?. The 
Provincial local exchange system had 4,490 exchanges, 25,075 call offices (including 6,331 
kiosks), 3,845,612 miles of working wire and 1,206,327 telephones. The approximate 
number of originated effective calls in 1929-30 was 1,822 millions (559'5 millions m London). 
For private wires, the rentals m 1929-30 amounted to 545, WOL 

The income and expenditure of the Post Office as shown in the 
Commercial Accounts was as follows : 





1927-28 


1928-29 


1929-30 


Total Postal Income *. 
,, Expenditure 1 

Net Postal Surplus . 

Total Telegraph Income 
,, ,, ' Expenditure 

Net Telegraph Deficit . 

Total Telephone Income 
,, ,, Expenditure . 

Not Telephone Surplus 
Net Surplus .... 


,C 
42,997,893 
34,154,107 



48,575,133 
34,329,827 



44,865,882 
35,207,112 


8,843,786 


9,245,306 


9,658,770 


5,010,947 
6,391,776 


5,132,213 

6,889,460 


4,957,001 
5,757,313 


1,380,829 


757,237 


800,312 


18,874,816 
18,767,425 


20,329,077 
19,804,382 


21.891,927 
21,378,718 


107,391 


524,695 


513,214 


7,570,348 


9,012,764 


9,371,672 



1 Including the cost of Savings Bank work in the Post Office under Expenditure, and 
1he amount recovered from the National Debt Commissioners in respect thereof under 
Income. 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 



Money and Credit. 

Value of money issued from the Royal Mint and of imports and exports 
of British gold and silver coin : 





Gold 


Silver 


Bronze 


British Gold Coin 


British Silver Coin 


Year 


Money 
issued 


Money 
issued l 


Money 
issued 


Imported 


Exported 


Imported 


Exported 

























1925 


3,518,000 


2,894,864 


34,355 


8,326,848 


10/281,672 


341,122 


96,700 


1926 


nil 


2,225,114 


72,825 


6,581,514 


4,705,612 


385,543 


69,520 


1927 


nil 


1,738,688 


284,555 


3,035,876 


6,072,046 


405,981 


29,413 


1928 


nil 


6,977,273 8 


266,115 


11,781,075 


3,301,671 


246,032 


75,650 


1929 


nil 


3,937,874 


257,545 


20,783,748 


866,164 


492,574 


80,484 


1930 


ml 


2 


2 


37,501,261 


1,138,057 


479,359 


119,425 



1 Excluding coins placed in Currency Note Redemption Account. 
- Not available. 

There is no State bank, but the Bank of England and the Bank of 
Scotland have royal charters, and the former lends money to the Government. 
Statistics of the Bank of England for the end of December for five years t 



Year 


l 




Notes 


Securities 


Gold 
Com and 


Capital 
and 


Deposits 
and Securities 


Notes in 
the 'Re- 


Coin in 
the 'Re- 








Bullion 


j 'Rest' 


Post Bills 


serve ' 


serve ' 




1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1926 


169,606 


19,750 


149,856 


17,933 


142,977 130,826 


28,821 


1,262 


1927 


171,218 


19,750 


151,468 


17,935 


138,539 123,027 


32,507 


940 


1928 


413,784 


260,000 


153,784 


17,935 


119,972 112,083 


25,541 


283 


1929 


405,848 


260.000 


145,848 


17,944 


115,669 ;107,159 


26,275 


179 


1930 


407,626 260,000 


147,626 


17,954 


175,190 |153,674 


38,824 


640 



Bank clearings, 1929, 44,896,677^.; 1930, 43,558,354,0001. 

The proportion of Reserve to Liabilities, January 1, 1931, was 261%. 

Post Office Samnfis Bank, Statistics for 1928 and 1929: 







1( 


)29 
















1928 




England 
and Wales 


Scotland 


Ireland 1 


Total 


Total 


Accounts open at Dec. 81 












Active , 


9,203,458 


410,368 


220,COO 


9,834,716 


9,788,442 


Dormant * 


7,457,979 


465,210 


456,391 


8,378,580 


8,281,700 


Amount- 








& 








Received 


74,204,574 


2,046,627 


1,169,505 


77,420,706 


77,777,951 


Interest Credited 


6,429,395 


228,950 


206,414 


6,80 f, 759 


6,827,097 


Paid . 


83,155,540 


2,778,518 


2,017,837 


87,951,890 


80,635,802 


Due to Depositors at 












Dec. 31 ... 
Average Amount due to each 
Depositor in Active Acc'nts 


267,283,191 
m. 199. Zd. 


9,360,209 
22* 14*. Id. 


8,809,361 

m. s. id. 


284,952,761 
281. 17*. lOd. 


268,619,180 
292. 8*. 5<l. 



1 Accounts with balances of less than II. which have been dormant for five years or more. 

1 As from Jan nary 1, 1928, the Irish Free State Office Savings Bank commenced 
operations and deposits for the British Post Office Savings Bank were no longer accepted 
at Irish Free State Post Offices. 



MONEY, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 65 

The amount due to depositors on January 1, 1931, was approximately 
290,000,000*. 

The receipts and payments include purchases and sales of Government 
Stock for depositors, but the amount shown as due to depositors is exclusive 
of such stock held by depositors. The latter amounted to 191,463,517*. 
at the end of 1928, and 190,778,792*. at the end of 1929. 

Trustee Savings Bank. The number of depositors in these banks in 1930 
was 2,345,379 aqtive, 279,683 dormant, and the amounts due to them were : 
in the General or Ordinary Departments, 79,081,550*. Cash, and 39, 321, 750*. 
(face value) Stock; in the Special Investment Departments, i.e., money 
invested otherwise than with the National Debt Commissioners, 54,094,045*. 
Cash, and 21,140*. (face value) Stock; total Cash, 133,175,595*. ; total face 
value of Stock, 39,342,890*. In 1913, the number of depositors was 
1,912,820 ; the total Cash due to depositors, 68,548,000*., and the face value 
of Stock, 2,795,000*. 

Money, Weights, and Measures. 

Thesovereigu weighs 123 '274 grains, or7 '98805grammes, "91666 (or eleven- 
twelfths) fine, and consequently it contains 113*001 grains or 7 '3224 grammes 
of fine gold. The shilling weighs 87 '27 grains or 5 '6552 grammes, and down 
to 1920 was '925 (or thirty -seven- fortieths) fine, thus containing 80727 grains 
or 5*231 grammes of fine silver, but under the Coinage Act, 1920, the fine- 
ness was reduced to '500 (one half). Bronze coins consist of a mixture' of 
copper, tin, and zinc. The penny weighs 145 '83 grains, or 9 '45 grammes. 
The standard of value is gold. Silver is legal tender up to 40 shillings ; 
bronze up to 12d., but farthings only up to Qd. Bank of England notes are 
legal tender in England and Wales, except at the Bank itself (3 and 4 Will. 
4, cap. 98). Under the Currency and Bank Notes Act, 1928, the Bank was 
empowered to issue 1*. and 10s. notes, which became legal tender for all 
payments. Under the Gold Standard Act, 1925, the issue of gold coin 
is suspended but bullion may be purchased at the price of 3*. 17s. 10c*. 
per ounce troy of gold of the fineness prescribed for gold coin by the Coinage 
Act, 1870. The note circulation at March 11, 1931, was: 400,927,721*., 
of which 50,600,783*. was held by the Bank of England and 350,326,938*. 
was in the hands of the public. 

Standaid units are : of length the standard yard, of weight the standard 
pound of 7, 000 grains (the pound troy having 5,760 grains), of capacity the 
standard gallon containing 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water at 62 F., 
the barometer at 30 inches. On these units all other legal weights and 
measures are based. 



66 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: NORTHERN IRELAND 

NORTHERN IRELAND. 

Constitution. 

UNDER the Government of Ireland Act, 1920, as amended by the Irish 
Free State (Consequential Provisions) Act, 1922 (13 Geo. V. Ch. 2, 
Session 2), a separate parliament and executive government were estab- 
lished for Northern Ireland, which compiises the parliamentary counties of 
Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, and Tyrone, and the 
parliamentary boroughs of Belfast and Londonderry. The Parliament con- 
sists of a Senate of 2 ex-officio and 24 elected persons and a House of 
Commons of 52 elected membeis. An allowance for expenses is made in the 
case of those members of both Houses who are not in icceipt of salaries as 
members of the Government or as officers of Parliament, amounting to 
(a) two guineas a day to members of the Senate for attendance at meetings 
of the Senate or committees, but the total allowance to each may not exceed 
80 guineas in any one year, unless under a declaration of insufficiency of 
means when an additional 100. per annum is paid irrespective of attendance, 
and to (b) 200. a year to members of the House of Commons. The 
Parliament has power to legislate for its own area except in regard to 
(1) matters of Imperial concern (the Crown, making of peace or war, 
military, naval, and air forces, treaties, titles of honour, treason, natuia- 
lisation, domicile, external trade, submarine cables, wireless telegraphy, 
aerial navigation, lighthouses, etc., coinage, etc,, trade marks, etc.), 
and (2) certain matters ' reserved ' to the Imperial Parliament (postal 
service, Post Office and Trustee savings banks, designs for stamps, regis- 
tration of deeds, land purchase). The executive power is vested in the 
Governor on behalf of His Majesty the King: he holds office for six years 
and is advised by ministers responsible to Parliament. Senators bold 
office for a fixed term of years : the House of Commons is to continue for 
five years, unless sooner dissolved. The qualifications for membership of 
the Parliament are similar to those for membership of the Imperial House 
of Commons. Power was given to the Northern Ireland Parliament by the 
Act of 1920 to alter the qualification and registration of electors, the election 
laws and the distribution of Parliamentary representation after June 1924. 
This power was exercised by the passing (a) of the Representation of the 
People Act (Northern Ireland), 192&, whereby the franchise was conferied 
upon women upon the same terms as it had hitherto been enjoyed by men ; 
and (6) of the House of Commons (Method of Voting and Redistribution of 
Seats) Act (Northern Ireland), 1929, whereby the system of Proportional 
Representation, under which the Parliaments which met in 1921 and in 
1925 had been elected, was abolished, and Parliamentary Representation, 
except for the constituency of Queen's University of Belfast, was based upon 
single-member constituencies. 

Northern Ireland continues to return 1 3 members to the Imperial House 
of Commons. 

An Act of the Imperial Parliament, passed in 1928, modified certain 
restrictions placed on the powers of the Northern Irish Parliament by 
the Act of 1920, principally by extending the powers of the latter 
Parliament to legislate on matters relating to trade in live stock and 
agricultural produce to consolidate branches of the statute law enacted by the 
Imperial Parliament whose general subject matter is within the jurisdiction. 

The legislative and administrative powers relating to Railways, Fisheries, 
and the Contagious Diseases of Animals were, under the Ireland (Confirmation 
of Agreement) Act, 1925, transferred to, and became, as from April 1, 1926, 
powers of the Parliament and Government of Northern Ireland. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENTAREA AND POPULATION 



67 



The Northern Irish Parliament met for the first time in June, 1921. At 
the election in May, 1929, there were returned 37 Unionists, 11 Nationalists, 
3 Independent Unionists, 1 Labour. 

Governor. The Duke of Abercorn, appointed for a term of 6 years from 
December 8, 1922 ; the appointment was extended on March 23, 1928 for a 
further term of 6 years Irom December 8, 1928. Salary, 8,OOOZ. per year, 
payable from Imperial Revenues (2,OOOZ. being recoverable from Northern 
1 1 eland Revenues). 

The Ministry is composed as follows : 

Prime Minister. Rt. Hon. Viscount Craigav on (salary, 3,200Z.). 

Finance. Rt. Hon. II. M. Pollock (salary, 2,OOOZ.). 

Home Affairs. Kt. Hon. Sir R. Dawsou Bates (salary, 2,000^.). 

Labour. Rt. Hon. J. M. Andrews (salary, 2,000/.). 

Education. Rt. Hon. Viscount Charlemont (salary, 2,000?.). 

Agriculture. Rt. Hon. Sir E. M. Arckdale, Bart, (salary, 2,OOOZ.). 

Commerce. Rt. Hon. J. Milne Barbour. 

The usual channel of communication between the Government of Northern 
Ireland and the Imperial Government is the Home Office. 

Local Government. 

In the two chief cities, the County Boroughs of Belfast and Londonderry, 
local administration is vested in Corporations, who are responsible for roads, 
public health, rating, housing, lighting, etc. 

In each of the six counties there is a County Council responsible for the 
consti notion and maintenance of roads and other public works, collection of 
rates, supervision of the anangements for dealing with tuberculosis and 
special diseases ; also of lunatic asylums, county infirmaries and county 
fever hospitals. 

The counties are divided into thirty-two rural distiicts, in each of which 
is a Rural District Council, which is the sanitary authority for the district, 
and is also responsible for such matters as provision of labourers' cottages, 
burial grounds, etc. Urban District Councils to the number of thirty have 
been established in themajority of the towns in Northern Ireland. 

The administration of poor relief and dispensary medical relief is vested 
in Boards of Guardians, which, in themajority of cases, are the Rural District 
Councils, but in a few cases their area extends over two Rural Districts. 

Area and Population. 

A census of Northern Ireland was taken on April 18, 1926. The area 
and population of the country at that date were as follows : 



Counties and County 
Boioughs. 


Area in 
statute acres 
(exclusive of 
water). 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Antrim 


702,851 


92,596 


99,047 


191,643 


Armagh 


312,767 


53,609 


56,4(51 


110,070 


Belfast C. B 


14,797 


195,539 


219,612 


415,151 


Down . ... 


608,861 


101,202 


108,026 


209,228 


Fermanagh 


417,912 


30,102 


27,882 


57,984 


Londonderry Co 
Londonderry C. B. 
Tyrone 


512,494 
2,199 
770,568 


47,119 
20,785 
67,136 


47,415 
24,874 
65,656 


94,534 
45,159 
132,792 












Northern Ireland 


3,851,444 


008,088 , 


648,473 


1,256,561 



68 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: NORTHERN IRELAND 



The provisional estimated population of Northern Ireland at June 30, 
1930, was 1,244,000. 

Vital statistics for 4 years 



Year 


Marriages 


Biiths 


Deaths 


Year 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


1926 
1927 


7,228 
7,175 


28,162 
26,676 


18,827 
18,216 


1928 
1929 


7,264 
7,441* 


25,963 
25,410 


18,004 
19,822 



1 Provisional. 

Religion. 

The religious professions in Northern Ireland, as recorded at the census 
of 1926, were: Roman Catholics, 420, 428 ; Presbyterians, 393,374 ; Protestant 
Episcopalians, 338,724; Methodists, 49,554; Other professions, 54,481; 
Total, 1,256,561. 

Education. 

The following are the latest available statistics for the Academic year 
1929-30:- 

University: The Queen's University of Belfast (founded in 1849 as a 
College of the Queen's University of Ireland, and reconstituted as an 
independent University in 1909), 88 Professors and Lecturers, and 1,400 
students in 1930. Secondary Education: 74 schools with 11,618 pupils. 
Technical Instruction : 60 technical schools and 69 other centres with 
approximately 24,600 students. Elementary Education: 1,920 public 
elementary schools with "~~ 



. 199,560 pupils on rolls. 

Justice. 



Under the Government of Ireland Act, 1920, a Supreme Court of 
Judicature of Northern Ireland has been established, consisting of the Court 
of Appeal in Northern Ireland and the High Court of Justice in Northern 
Ireland. An appeal lies direct, in certain conditions, from the former to the 
House of Lords. 

A system of County or Civil Bill Courts deals with cml disputes 
generally where the sum at issue does not exceed 50., but possesses wider 
jurisdiction in certain cases. Courts of summary jurisdiction generally 
attended by permanent judicial officers known as resident magistrates 
determine summarily minor criminal and quasi-criminal cases and certain 
minor civil disputes. Some cases are tried by resident magistrates sitting 
alone. 

The Police Force consists of (a) the Royal Ulster Constabulary, with a 
statutory maximum strength of 3,000 ; and (I) the Special Constabulary, a 
part-time force. 

Finance. 

The bulk of the taxation of Northern Ireland is imposed and collected by 
the Imperial authorities, who make certain deductions and remit the balance 
to the Northern Irish Exchequer. The exact share of the latter in the 
proceeds of such taxation is determined by the Joint Exchequer Board, a 
special body consisting of one representative of the Imperial Treasury, one of 
the Northern Irish Treasury, and a chairman appointed by the King. The 
deductions made by the Treasury represent a contribution towards Imperial 
liabilities and expenditure, and the net cost to the Imperial Exchequer of 
Northern Irish services 'reserved' to the Imperial Parliament. During 



PRODUCTION 



recent years the cost of these ' reserved ' services, together with the Imperial 
contribution, has represented about 25 per cent, of the total expenditure 
of Northern Ireland while the remaining 75 per cent, has represented the 
cost of administration in the Province, including education, widows and 
orphans, old age and blind persons' pensions, health and unemployment 
insurance, police, prisons, public works, agricultural development, com- 
mercial services, finance, etc. The Northern Irish Parliament has in- 
dependent powers of taxation, except as regards customs duties, excise 
duties on articles manufactured and produced, excess profits duty, corpora- 
tion profits tax, any tax on profits or a general tax on capital, or any tax 
substantially the same in character as any of these duties or taxes. It has 
no power to impose, charge or collect income tax, including super tax, but 
it can grant relief from these taxes to individuals resident and domiciled in 
Northern Ireland. The Northern Government also raises money, as lequired, 
by means of Ulster Savings Certificates and Treasury Bills, for the purpose 
of meeting temporary deficiencies of revenue and for advances to the Un- 
employment Fund. In October, 1925, a Government Loans Fund was 
established from which loans are made to local authorities and others for 
public utility services. This has been financed by issues amounting to 
4,000,000. Ulster Loans 4J% Stock, 1945-1975, and 2,000,OOOJ. Ulster 
Loans 5% Stock, 1950-60. 

The revenue accruing to the Northern Irish Exchequer and the expenditure 
for four years was as follows : 





1028-29 


1920-80 l 


1930-31 l 
(estimated) 


1931-32 
(estimated) 





8,136 000 




8 222 000 



9,219,9% 



8 582 373 


Expenditure . . . 


8,0 r >9,000 


8/205,000 


9,219,995 


8,582,373 



i Net, after deduction of estimated co.st of "ret-erved " bervices and contribution to 
Imperial Services. 

Production, 

Agriculture. The acreage under crops in Northern Ireland in 1928 arid 
1929 was as follows : 



Crops 



1928 



1929 



Clops. 



1928 



1929 



Wheat 


Acres. 
4,874 
307,103 
2,032 
599 
1,001 


Acres 
3,017 
314,087 
1,874 
554 
92(3 


Potatoes .... 
Turnips .... 
Mangels and Beet 
Hoot 


Acres. 
15.V09 
42,548 

1,404 
2,203 
2,173 


Acres. 
151,804 
41,990 

1,271 
2,499 
2,377 


Oats .... 


Barley and Bere . 
Rye 


Beans and Peas . . 
Total Corn Crops . 


Cabbage .... 
Other Green Crops . 

Total Green Crops 
Flax 


315,609 


321,058 


203,837 


199,941 






37,248 
8,846 
448,347 


33,911 
8,493 
465,452 


Fruit 


Hay 


Total under Crops 


1,013 887 


1 028,855 



The yield in 1929 was (in tons): oats, 286,746; potatoes, 1,124,056; 
turnips, 843,153 ; flax, 6,914 ; hay, 801, 415. 

The livestock in 1929 was : cattle, 699,989 ; sheep, 654,589 ; pigs, 192,058 ; 
goats, 50,950 ; horses used in agriculture, 85,805 ; unbroken horses, 6,325 ; 
mules and jennets, 254 ; asses, 8,691. Poultry in 1930 numbered 8,808,000. 



70 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: NORTHERN IRELAND 



There were 101,043 agricultural holdings exceeding one acre in area in 
1929, in the hands of 99,421 separate occupiers. 

Mining. The mineral output in 1928 and 1929 for Northern Ireland 
was :- 



1 


1023 


1929 




19-28 


1929 


! 

Bauxite, Iron Ore and 
Lignite .... 
Chalk I 


Tons. 

3,731 
194,160 


Tons. 

3,333 

254,481 


Gypsum . 
Granite 
Igneous Rock 


Tons. 

17 
102,054 
368,585 


Tons. 
1,430 

93.884 
4S5 007 


Clay . . . . . , 


173,722 


188,785 


Limestone 


51,458 


5q 481 


Fireclay . . . . 

Flint .... i 


4,700 
60f> 


6,600 

797 


Rock Salt . 
Sandstone . 


7,478 
207 058 


7,828 
188 088 


Gravel and Sand . i 


43,742 


50,763 


Diatoiuite . 


4,214 


4,207 



The number of persons employed, inclusive of those employed at coal 
mines, was: 1928, 2,450; 1929, 2,604. 

Manufactures. The two principal industries are linen arid ship- 
building, both centred in Belfast. The former provides employment for 
approximately 110,000 persons, excluding those engaged in growing the fibre ; 
1,000,000 spindles, and 40,000 looms. The value of linens exported from 
the United Kingdom during 1929 was 9,240,340Z., practically the whole of 
which came from Northern Ireland. The Belfast shipyards employ 
approximately 13,000 persons, and possess an output capacity exceeding 
250,000 tons a year. Other important manufactures are ropes and twines, 
tobacco, soaps, aerated waters, biscuits, spirits, hosiery and underwear. 

National Insurance. 

Sickness and Unemployment Insurance and Pensions. Schemes of com- 
pulsory insurance on similar lines to those in force in Great Britain aie in 
operation in Northern Ireland, and make provision for benefits during un- 
employment and sickness, including medical attention, and for pensions to 
persons over 65 years of age and to widows and orphans. 

A general outline of the piovisions ot these schemes is set out in the 
paragraph dealing with * National Insurance' in Great Britain. The number 
of persons in Noithern Ireland insured under the various schemes is approxi- 
mately : Health Insurance and Contributory Pensions, 338,000 ; Unemploy- 
ment Insurance, 258,000. 

Non-contributory Pensions.~0\d Age Pensions (non-contributory) and 
Blind Persons' Pensions are granted to individuals who are not eligible for 
Contributory Pensions provided they have reached the age of 70 (50 in case 
of Blind Persons), and comply with certain conditions as regards British 
nationality and residence in the U.K. 

The number of persons in Northern Ireland in receipt of non-contributory 
Pensions is approximately 42,000. 

Communications. 

The total first track railway mileage of Northern Ireland amounts to 
754 miles. The area is also well served by inland waterways, and possesses 
180 miles of canals. Total length of roads is 12,996 miles ; road budget for 
year ending March 31, 1931, was 1,200, OOOJ. 



ISLE OF MAN CHANNEL ISLANDS 71 

ISLE OF MAN. 1 

The Isle of Man is administered in accordance with its own laws by the 
Court of Tynwald, consisting of the Governor, appointed by the Crown ; the 
Legislative Council, composed of the Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man, two Deem- 
sters, the Attorney-General, two members appointed by the Governor, and four 
members elected by the House of Keys, total 11 members, including the 
Governor ; and the House of Keys, a representative assembly of 24 members 
chosen on adult suffrage with six months residence for 5 years by the 6 
1 sheadings ' or local sub-divisions, and the 4 municipalities. Women have 
the franchise as well as men. Number of voters 1930-31, 38,679. The 
island is not bound by Acts of the Imperial Parliament unless specially 
mentioned in them. 

Lzeut.-Governor.SiT Claude H. A. Hill, K.C.S.I., C.I.E. 

The principal towns are Douglas (population in 1928, 21,183), Ramsey 
(4,247), Peel (2,605), Castletown (1,817). Births (1928), 698 ; deaths, 730. 
In 1930 there were 38 elementary schools, 35 being provided schools. 
The enrolled pupils numbered 5,617, and the average attendance 4,877. 
The net expenditure of the Education Authority on elementary education 
for the year 1929-30, amounted to 68,61 61. There are 4 secondary schools 
(912 registered pupils), and 7 evening classes (478 registered pupils). The 
gross expenditure on higher education for 1929-30 was 26,819/. In 1929 
the police force numbered 65; in the year 1928 there were 816 persons 
convicted. 

Revenue is derived mostly from Customs. In 1929-30 the revenue 
amounted to 407, 187 J. ; and expenditure to 380,371Z. 

The principal agricultural produce of the island consists of oats, 
barley, turnips and potatoes, and grasses. The total area of the island, 
excluding water, is 140,986 acres ; the total area of arable land in 1930 
was 80,606 acres and of permanent grass, 21,475 acres. The total acreage 
under corn crops in 1930 was 17,123 acres, including 16,225 under oats, 
280 under wheat, and 459 under barley or bere. There were also 5,768 acres 
under turnips and swedes, 1,720 under potatoes, and 32,605 under clover, 
sainfoin and grasses under rotation. The number of agricultural holdings 
in 1930 was 1,369. The live stock in 1929 consisted of 3,628 horses; 
19,946 cattle ; 96,458 sheep ; and 3,630 pigs. Total value of minerals 
raised in 1923, 47,496/. Persons employed in mining numbered 414. In 
1929 there were belonging to the Isle of Man 104 fishing boats. 

The registered shipping (1929) comprised 8 sailing vessels (528 gross and 
421 net tons) and 39 steamers (28,822 gross and 11,850 net tons) and 24 
motor vessels (747 gross and 510 net tons) ; total tonnage 9,476 net tons. 
The tonnage of vessels arrived at ports of the island in 1929 was 1,173,568 
tons (1,060,882 tons coastwise), and departed 1,167,346 net tons 
(1,056,736 tons coastwise). The railways have a length of 46J miles, and 
there are 25 miles of electric railway. 

CHANNEL ISLANDS. 1 

The Channel Islands are situated off the north-west coast of France, and 
are the only portions of the "Dukedom of Normandy " now belonging to 
England, to which they have been attached since the Conquest. The islands 
are administered according to their own laws and customs. Jersey has a 
separate legal existence ; it is administered by a Lieutenant-Go vernor appointed 
by the Crown, and a Bailiff also appointed by the Crown. The Lieutenant- 
Governor has a veto on certain forms of legislation. He and the Crown officers 
Area and population, see p. 11. 



72 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 

may address the States but not vote. The qualification for a vote is the posses- 
sion of a minimum value of SQL real or 1201. personal property. The Royal 
Court consists of a tribunal of first instance and an appeal court. The States 
for deliberation and legislation consist of 12 Jurats, 12 rectors, 12 constables 
(who are the mayors of the parishes), 17 deputies, and 2 Crown officers. 
Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark are under one Lieutenant-Governor, but Guernsey 
and Alderney have a government of their own, and Sark is a dependency of 
Guernsey and under its jurisdiction. On May 10, 1905, a law was passed for the 
Island of Guernsey requiring the approval of the Lieut. -Governor and of the 
Royal Court of the Island previously to the acquisition, or leasing, or occupa- 
tion of immovable property by aliens or alien companies, registration and 
liability to local rates, &c., being also provided for. The Channel Islands are 
not bound by Acts of the Imperial Parliament unless specially named in them. 

Births: 1929: Jersey, 727; Guernsey, 757; deaths .-Jersey, 810; 
Guernsey, 622. 

Lieutenant- Governor of Jersey. Major-General E. H. Willis, C. B., 
C.M.G. Appointed May 28, 1929. 

Lieutenant- Governor of Guernsey, &c. Major-General the Lord Kuthven, 
C.B., C.M.G,, D.S.O. Appointed June 5, 1929. 

Finance. Jersey (financial year ended 31st January, 1930) : revenue, 
297,4017. ; expenditure, 270,9772. ; public debt, 939, 450/. ; 1929: revenue, 
233,129Z. ; expenditure, 264, 028J. Guernsey, &e. (1929) : revenue, 48f>,476Z. ; 
expenditure, 509,727Z. ; public debt (1929),' 1,073,2732. 

The total area of agricultural holdings and outside land in Guernsey 
(1928) was 9,336 acres. 

Jersey 1929, exports, 154,219 tons ; imports, 137,089 tons ; 1928, exports, 
149,616 tons ; imports, 125,537 tons. 

The imports from Guernsey into the United Kingdom in 1929 were : 
granite, 172,131 tons; tomatoes, 24,946 tons; potatoes, 313 tons; fruit, 
158 tons ; flowers, 3,742 tons. 

Guernsey registered shipping (1929), 4,147 tons (net), 

Books of Reference concerning Great Britain and Ireland. 
1. OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

The annual and other publications of the various Public Departments, and the 
Reports, Ac., of Roval Commissions and Parliamentary Committees. [These may be 
obtained from II.M. Stationery Office.] 

2. NON-OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

Annual Register. A Review of Public Events. London. (First issue 1759.) 

Aberconway (Lord), The Basic Industries of Great Britain. London, 1927. 

Amos (Sir M.), The English Constitution. London, 1930. 

Anton (Sir W. R.), Law and Custom of the Constitution. Vol. I., 4th ed., vol. II, 3rd. ed. 
London, 1907-9. 

Baedeker (K ), Great Britain ; Handbook for Travellers. Leipzig, 1927. London and 
its Environs, 19th Edition. London, 1930. 

Bagehot(W.), The English Constitution. London, 1913. 

Uaitide (C ), L'Angleterre Nouvelle. Paris, 1929. 

BraMty'n Naval and Shipping Annual. 

Suchan (J.), Editor : Great Britain (Nations of To-day Series). London, 1923. 

Burrow (B. J. ), The British Isles ; a Comprehensive Guide. London, 1929. 

Cahen (L.), L'Angleterre u xix siecle . son evolution pohtique. Paris, 1924. 

Currothers (W. A.), Emigration from the British Isles. London, 1929. 

Cassel's History of the British People. 7 vols. London, 1925. 

Cecil (Lord R.) and Clayton (H. J.), Our National Church. London, 1918. 

Clapham (J. H.), An Economic History of Modern Britain (1820-50). Cambridge, 1930 

Clarke (J J.), The Local Government of the United Kingdom. London, 1921. 

Cunningham ( W. ), The Growth of English History and Commerce. 4th Ed. London, 1904. 

Dearie (N. B.) t An Economic Chronicle of the Great War for Great Britain and Ireland, 
1914-1919. Oxford, 1929. 

Dicey (A. V.), Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution. 8th ed 
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BOOKS OF REFERENCE 73 

Dowell (Stephen), A History of Taxation, and Taxes in England. 4 vols. London, 18S8. 

Fisk (H. B.), English Public Finance from the Revolution of 1688. New York, 1920. 

Fortescue (Hon. J. W.), History of the British Army. 10 vols. London, 1910-20. 

Green (J. B.), History of the English People. 4 vols. London, 1877-80. The Making of 
England. New ed. London, 1897. 

Gretton(R. H.), A Modern History of the English People. 3 vols. London, 1912-1920. 
Ttie King's Government. London, 1913. The English Middle Class. London, 1918. 

Griffith (E S.), The Modern Development of City Government m the United Kingdom 
and the United States. London, 1927. 

HaUvy (E.), A History of the English People in 1815. London, 1924. A History of the 
English People, Vol. I., 1895-1005 London, 1929. 

Hargi eaves (E. L.), The National Debt. London, 1930. 

Hertslet(8iT E.), Treaties of Commerce and Navigation, Ac., between Great Britain and 
Foreign Countries. London. 

Higgs (II.), The Financial System of the United Kingdom. London, 1914. 

Ilbert (Sir C. P.), Legislative Methods and Forms. Oxford, 1901. Parliament, its 
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Inge (W. R ), England (The Modern World Series). London, 1926. 

Jackman (W. T.), The Development of Transportation m Modern England. Cambridge, 
1916. 

Janf (F. T.), Fighting Ships. Naval Annual. London 

Kdth (A. B.), The Sovereignty ot the British Dominions. London, 1929. A Constitu- 
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Lucas (C. P ), Historical Geography of the British Colonies [a series of volumes, with 
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Mallett (Sir B.) and George (C. 0.), British Budgets, 1013-14 to 1920-21. London, 1929. 

M anwanng (G. E.), A Bibliography of British Naval History. London, 1930. 

Marriott (Sir J. A. B ), Mechanism of the Modern State. Oxford, 1927. How England 
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May (Thomas Erskine), Treatise on the Law, Privileges, Proceedings, and Usage of 
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Mefdi (T. C.), A History of Great Britain and Ireland from 1900 to 1926. London, 1927. 

Mothersole (J.), The Isles of Scilly. 2nd edition. 1914. 

Jfutr (R.), How Britain is Governed London, 1930. 

Muirhead (F ), The Blue Guides. (1) England, (2) London; (3) Great Britain; (4) 
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New Survey of London Life and Labour. Vol. I. Forty Years of Change. London, 
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Official Tear-Book of the Church of England. Annual. London. 

Ogg (F. A.), English Government and Politic. Oxford, 1929. 

Ogtlvie (A. G.), Editor, Great Butain : Essays in Regional Geography. Cambridge, 1930 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. I. The British Isles and Mediterranean 
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Page(W.), Editor, Victoria History of the Counties of England. London. Commerce 
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Ferris (G. H.), The Industrial History of Modern England. London, 1914. 

Rogers (J. E. Thorold), Industrial and Commercial History of England. London, 1892. 
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Ross's Parliamentary Record. Annual. London. 

Siegfried (A), L'Angleterre d'Aujourd'hui : son evolution economique et politique. 
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Trevdynn (G. M.), History of England. London, 1926. 

Webb (S. and B.), History of Trade Unionism. [Contains Bibliography.] New edition. 
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Wcngfleld- Stratford (E.), The History of British Civilization. 2 vols. London, 1928. 

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SCOTLAND. 

Blue Guides. Scotland. London, 1927. 

Brown (P. Hume), History of Scotland to the Present Time. New Edition. Cambridge 
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D 2 



74 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GREAT BRITAIN 

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Morris (W. O'C.), Ireland, 1494-1905. Revised ed Cambridge, 1910 

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London, 1904. 



INDIA, THE DOMINIONS, ETC. 75 

INDIA, THE DOMINIONS, COLONIES, PROTECTORATES, 
AND DEPENDENCIES OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

In the following pages the various sections of the British Empire outside 
Gt. Britain and Northern Ireland are arranged in alphabetical order nnder 
the divisions of the world to which they belong: 1. Europe; 2. Asia; 
3. Africa ; 4. America ; 5. Australasia and Oceania. 

The term * Dominion ' is ued officially as a convenient abbreviation of 
the complete designation ' self- governing Dominion.' The Dominions are 
Australia, Canada, Irish Free State, Newfoundland, New Zealand, and South 
Africa. 

The Imperial Conference of 1926 defined the Dominions as ' autonomous 
Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way 
subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or foreign 
affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and freely 
associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations.' The 
Conference further laid down that, as a consequence of this equality of 
status, the Governor-General ot a Dominion 'is the representative of the 
Crown, holding in all essential respects the same position in relation to the 
administration of public affairs in the Dominion as is held by His Majesty 
the King in Great Britain,' and that 'it is the right of the Government of 
each Dominion to advise the Crown in all matters relating to its own affairs. ' 
The Conference also recognised certain treaty-making rights as appertaining 
to the Dominions. 

The term ' Colony ' is an abbreviation of the official designation ' Colony 
not possessing responsible Government/ and includes all such Colonie's 
whether or not they possess an elective Legislature, but does not include 
Protectorates or Protected States. The term 'Crown Colonies ' is properly 
applicable only to those Colonies in which the Crown retains control of 
legislation. 

Under the recent Peace Treaties certain ex-German and ex-Turkish terri- 
tories are administered by parts of the British Empire under mandates 
approved by the League of Nations. These territories includeSamoa, NewGuinea, 
Iraq, Palestine, and parts of the former German Colonies in Africa. 

Up to July, 1925, all sections of the British Empire outside of Great 
Britain and Ireland were dealt with by the Colonial Office. In that 
month a new Secretaryship of State, for Dominion Affairs, was created, 
and as a result the Dominions Office was set up, to take over from the 
Colonial Office business connected with the self-governing Dominions, the 
self-governing Colony of Southern Rhodesia, and the South African terri- 
tories (Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protectorate, and Swaziland), including 
business relating to the Imperial Conference. 

The Colonial Office now deals with the administrative work of the 
Colonies, Protectorates, and Mandated Territories other than those for which 
the Dominions Office is responsible. It contains seven Departments the 
"West Indian, Far Eastern, Ceylon and Mauritius, East African, Tanganyika 
and Somaliland, Nigeria, Gold Coast and Mediterranean dealing with the 
affairs of various groups of Dependencies ; a Middle Eastern Division, which 
was established in March, 1921, to conduct business relating to Iraq, 
Palestine, Aden, and Arab areas under British influence ; and a General 
Department, which is concerned with correspondence of a general and 
miscellaneous character including questions of promotion, postal, telegraph, 
and copyright matters, international conventions and commercial treaties, 
Letters Patent and Commissions etc. 



76 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : THE IRISH FBEE STATE 

EUROPE. 



THE IRISH FREE STATE (SAORSTAT EIREABTN). 

AN Act was passed in 1920 under which separate Parliaments were set up 
for "Southern Ireland" (26 counties) and " Northern Ireland" (6 counties). 
The Ulster Unionists accepted this scheme, and the Northern Parliament 
was duly elected on May 24, 1921, and opened by the King in person in the 
following June. The rest of Ireland, however, having proclaimed a Republic 
in January 1919 refused to work the Act On December 6, 1921 a treaty was 
signed with the British Government which was embodied in the Irish Free 
State (Agreement) Act, 1922. The Treaty contains the following provisions 
among others : 

Ireland to have the same constitutional status 'in the community of 
nations known as the British Empire ' as the Self-Governing Dominions, and 
to be called the Irish Free State. 

Its position in relation to the Imperial Parliament and Government to be 
that of the Dominion of Canada, and the representative of the crown in 
Ireland to be appointed in like manner as the Governor-General of Canada. 

The Irish Free State to undertake its own coastal defence, the defence by 
sea of Great Britain and Ireland being undertaken by the Imperial forces : 
these provisions to be reviewed at the expiration of five years. The Free 
State to afford, in time of 'war or strained relations' with other powers, such 
harbour and other facilities as the British Government may require. The 
establishments of the Irish defence force not to exceed such proportion to 
the British military establishment as the population of Ireland bears to the 
population of Great Britain. 

The ports of Great Britain and of Ireland to be freely open to the ships 
of 'the other country ' on payment of the customary dues. 

By the Treaty 'Northern Ireland' was given the option of continuing 
its separate existence under the Act of 1920, subject to the award of a 
1 Boundary Commission.' On December 3, 1925, the British Government 
and the two Irish Governments signed an agreement by the terms of which 
the partition of 1920 continues in force as determined in that Act, the 
Boundary Commission being discharged from the duty of delivering an Award. 

By the same agreement the provisions of the Treaty relating to a Council 
of Ireland and that stipulating the liability of the Irish Free State for a share 
of the National Debt of the United Kingdom were cancelled. 

Constitution. 

Under the Treaty a Provisional Government was constituted on January 
14, 1922, to carry on for a period not exceeding twelve months from the 
date of the Treaty (December 6, 1921). In September 1922 the Provisional 
Parliament met as a Constituent Assembly to adopt a Constitution for the 
Irish Free State. The Constitution was passed by the Provisional Parliament 
on October 25, enacted by the British Parliament on December 5 (see the 
Irish Free State Constitution Act, 1922 [Session 2], 13 Geo. V. ch. 1), and 
on December 6, 1922, came into effect by Royal Proclamation. 

The Constitution declares the Irish Free State to be a co-equal member of 
the Community of Nations forming the British Commonwealth of Nations, 
and that ' all powers of Government, and all authority, legislative, executive, 
and judicial, in Ireland are derived from the people of Ireland.' Every person 



CONSTITUTION 77 

domiciled within the area of the Free State on December 6, 1922, who was 
born in Ireland, or either of whose parents was born in Ireland, or who had been 
ordinarily resident within the area of the Free State for at least seven years, 
automatically became a citizen of the new State unless he or she elected not 
to accept such citizenship. The Irish language is declared to be the national 
language, but English is equally recognized as an official language. Liberty 
of person and the dwelling of the citizen are inviolable. There is to be no 
endowment of any religion. Freedom of conscience and the free profession 
and practice of religion are guaranteed to each citizen, as well as the right of 
free expression of opinion and the right to assemble peacefully and to form 
associations or unions for purposes not opposed to public morality. 
Elementary education is free. 

The Legislature, known as the Oireachtas, consists of the King, a Chamber 
of Deputies (Dail Eireann), and a Senate (Seanad Eireann). There must be 
at least one Session each year. Provision is made for payment of members, 
Legislative authority in respect of money bills is reserved to the Chamber 
alone, but the Senate may make recommendations. Every bill (other than 
a money bill) initiated in and passed by the Chamber of Deputies is sent to 
the Senate, and if amended there the Chamber shall consider the amend- 
ments. An elaborate machinery of procedure is established by the Consti- 
tution (Amendment No. 13) Act, 1928, to prevent the exercise of a veto 
by the Senate or a protracted deadlock between the Senate and the Chamber. 

The Representative of the Crown signihes the King's assent to bills 
passed or deemed to have been passed by both Houses of the Oireachtas. 
He cannot signify or withhold such assent, or reserve a bill for the signifi- 
cation of the King's pleasure save upon the advice of the Executive Council. 

Two ai tides, namely Aiticles 47 and 48, containing respectively pro- 
visions relating to a Referendum of the people and the initiation of proposals 
for legislation by the people have been removed from the Constitution by the 
Constitution (Amendment No. 10) Act, 1928. 

Amendments of the Constitution may be made within sixteen years from 
the date of the coming into operation of the Constitution by ordinary 
legislation passed for the purpose. 

All members of the Oireachtas must take the prescribed oath of allegiance 
to the Constitution. 

Citizens of 21 years of age or over, without distinction of sex, who comply 
with the prevailing electoral laws, can vote for members of Dail Eireann ; 
each voter has only one vote, and voting is by secret ballot. 

Every citizen of 21 years of age or over, not otherwise disqualified, is 
eligible for election to Dail Eireann. Election is upon principles of Pro- 
portional Representation. The number of Deputies is fixed on a popular 
basis, and is at present 153. Each of the Universities existing in the year 
1922 (the year in which the Constitution was enacted) is entitled to elect 
three Deputies. The General Election is to be held on the same day 
throughout the country, and Dail Eireann, unless the Oireachtas is sooner 
dissolved, continues for "six years or such shorter period as may be fixed by 
legislation." The period fixed by legislation is at present five years. 

The Senate consists of 60 members. The first Senate consisted of 30 
members elected by Diiil Eireann, and 30 nominated by the President of the 
Executive Council. Of the latter, 15 hold office for 12 years and 15 hold 
office for 6 years. In 1925 an election was held to elect 19 members in 
accordance with Articles 32 and 34 of the Constitution. 

Considerable changes were made in the year 1928 in the Articles of the 
Constitution relating to election to and membership of the Senate. To be 
eligible for membership a citizen must be at least 30 years of age and eligible 



78 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: THE IRISH FREE STATE 

for election to Dail Eireann. The members must be citizens who 'have 
done honour to the nation by reason of useful public service' or who repre- 
sent important aspects of the nation's life. The term of office of a member 
of Seanad Eireann is normally nine years. One-third of the members retire 
every three years, and their places are filled by an election * at which the 
electors are the members of Dail Eireann and the members of Seanad Eireann 
voting together on principles of proportional repiesentation.' A panel of 
candidates is prepared before each election in the manner prescribed by law. 

A person may not be a member of both Houses. 

The executive consists of a Council of not more than twelve nor less than 
five ministers. They aie responsible to the Dail, and must include the 
President and Vice- President of the Council, and the Minister for Finance. 
The President of the Council, the Vice- President of the Council, the Minister 
in charge of the Department of Finance, and the other members of the Executive 
Council must be members of the Dail, save that one of such other members 
may be a member of the Senate. The President is nominated by the Dull. 
He nominates the Vice -President and other members of the Council, who 
must be approved by the Dail. Every minister may speak in the Dail and 
Senate. 

The Chairman of the Dail Ceann Comhairle receives a salary of 1,700Z. a 
year; the Deputy- Chairman 1,OOOZ., the Chairman of the Senate (Cathaoir- 
leach) receives 1,200J. and the Deputy-Chairman 750/. a year; membeis, 
except ministers and officials, 30Z. a month, and free first-class railway 
facilities between Dublin and their constituencies. Ministers receive a salary 
of 1,700/. a year, and the President a salary of 2,500/. a year. 

The representative of the King is the Governor-General of the Irish 
Free State (Saorsttit Eireann). 

The Free State Parliament met for the first time, as such, on December 6, 
1922. General Elections took place subsequently in August 1923, June 
1927, and September 1927. The state of the parties in October 1930 was : 
Cumann na nGaedheal (Government), 63 ; Fianna Fail, 56 ; Labour, 13 ; 
Farmers, 6 ; Independent, 11 ; National League, 2 ; Ceann Comhairle, 1 ; 
Vacancy, 1 ; Total, 153. The Ceann Comhairle (Speaker) is not required 
by law to vacate his seat at a General Election. 

Governor-General. James McNeill, appointed December 16, 1927 ; 
formally installed February 1, 1928. Salary, 10,000/. 

The Executive Council is as follows (October 1930) : 

President. Liam T. MacCosgair (William T. Cosgrave, LL.D.). 

Vice-President, Minister for Finance and Minister for Posts and 
Telegraphs. Earnan d Blaghd (Ernest Blythe). 

Minister for Defence. Deasmhumhan MacGearailt (Desmond Fitzgerald). 

Minister for External A/airs and Minister for Industry and Commerce. 
Padraig MacGiollagain (Patrick McGilligan, M.A., B.L.). 

Minister for Education. Sean O'Suilleabhain (John Marcus 0* Sullivan, 
M.A., Ph.D.). 

Minister for Justice. Sec mas MacGearailt-0 Cionnaoith (James Fife 
Qerald-Kenney, K.C.). 

Minister for Agriculture. Padraig hOgain (Patrick ffogan, B.A.). 

Minister for Local Government and Public Health. Risteard Ua 
Maolchatha (General Richard Midcahy}. 

Minister for Lands and Fisheries. Fiondn Loinsigh (Finian Lynch, 
B.A.). 

The usual channel of communication with the British Government is 
the Dominions Office and the Department of External Affairs. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT 79 

Local Government. 

The Irish Free State is divided into twenty-seven administrative Counties 
and four county boroughs governed by councils which, with the exceptions 
mentioned below, are elected triennially. The county councils administer 
county affairs generally, can hold property, levy rates, borrow money and 
must meet the demands of other authorities, such as the boaids of health 
and public assistance and mental hospital committees, whom they are 
required by law to subsidise. The county borough council possesses with 
certain exceptions the powers of a county council, and is also a sanitary 
authority under the Public Health Acts. 

The administrative counties include the uiban county districts which a^e 
urban areas that have been constituted sanitary districts. Each such 
district is governed by an elected council that administers the acts relating 
to public health, housing, libraries, maternity, and child welfare, etc., and is 
the sole lating authority within its area. There are sixty-five urban sanitary 
districts, including six municipal boroughs, two towns constituted under 
special acts and fifty-three towns under the Towns Improvement Act, 1854. 
There are twenty-three towns constituted under the Towns Impiovement 
Act, 1854, which arc not urban sanitary districts. These towns have elected 
town commissioners who exercise certain minor powers and can levy a 
limited rate. There aic altogether eighty-eight areas under municipal 
government, four county boroughs, six municipal boroughs, two to\Mis 
under special acts, and seventy-six towns under the Act of 1854. 

The rural districts, which were subdivisions of the county, have been 
abolished as administrative units. An enlarged rural sanitary district, 
called the county health district, was created by the Local Government Act, 
1925. This district generally extends over the county with the urban 
districts excluded. The county council performs its duties as a health 
authority through a board composed of ten members of the council, and 
is required to appoint a county medical officer of health for the effective 
administration of the sanitary code. 

The health authority is also, with certain exceptions, the public assist- 
ance authority, and is called the board of health and public assistance. 
Public assistance is organised on a county basis ; the poor law unions 
within each county hive been amalgamated, boards of guardians have 
been abolished and workhouses closed as such. County homes have been 
established for the aged and infirm and chronic invalids, and county and 
distiict hospitals for the sick. Home assistance has become the normal 
method of poor relief. Old age pensions are a charge on State funds, but 
local authorities assist in the administration. The insane poor are under the 
care of statutory committees of the county and county borough councils who 
maintain nineteen mental hospitals. Industrial and reformatory schools 
are managed by religious communities, but maintained principally out of 
capitation grants from State and Local funds. Religious communities and 
voluntary associations also maintain schools for the deaf and dumb, the 
blind, the mentally deficient and other afflicted classes which local authorities 
have power to utilise and subsidise. 

Under special powers given to the Minister for Local Government and 
Public Health the Dublin Municipal Council and a number of other local 
authorities have been superseded by paid commissioners or managers whose 
terms of office are limited. 

The county borough of Cork has a system of government which combines 
an elected council with a city manager. The council has been reduced from 



80 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: THE IRISH FREE STATE 

fifty-six to twenty-one members, of whom seven retire annually and are 
replaced by the election of an equal number. The whole county borough 
forms the electoral area, the previously existing wards having been abolished. 
The council has certain specified functions, including the making of a rate, 
raising loans, and making bye-laws. All functions formerly exercised by 
the Council other than those now specifically reserved by law are exercised by 
the city manager, a paid official, who has control over all officers, and whose 
removal from office is subject to the sanction of the central authority. 

The future government of the metropolitan area is provided for in the 
Local Government (Dublin) Act, 1930. By this Act the City of Dublin will 
be extended and a new borough, the borough of Dun Laoghaire, will be 
established comprising the urban districts along the south coast of Dublin 
Bay. When the Act comes into force the rtqitne of the commissioners who 
have been acting in place of the elected Dublin city council since 1924 will 
come to an end. A new Council of 35 members is to be elected. Five 
members of the council will be elected by the commercial electors. Provision 
is made for the appointment of an officer who will combine the functions of 
City Manager and Town Clork, and who will exercise the functions that are 
not reserved to the Council 

Elected membeis of local authorities are not paid, but provision is made 
for a contribution towards travelling expenses. 

Elections to public bodies are held according to the principle of 
proportional representation. The franchise extends practically to all 
persons of either sex who are of full age and have during a qualifying period 
occupied as owners or tenants any land or premises in the area, except 
premises let as furnished lodgings. Any married woman of 30 years or over 
residing with her husband in premises in respect of which the husband is 
entitled to be registered as a local government elector is also qualified for the 
franchise. Women are eligible for election as members of all local govern- 
ment bodies in the same manner and on the same conditions as men. 

In order to abolish patronage and to ensure that only qualified persons 
are appointed to local offices a central body called the Local Appointments 
Commissioners is charged with the duty of selecting suitable persons to be 
appointed by local authorities to chiet executive offices, to professional and 
technical offices and to other prescribed offices. Before making an appoint- 
ment to a prescribed office which cannot be filled by promotion the local 
authority must request the Commissioners to recommend to them a suitable 
person. The Commissioners select persons for appointment by means of 
competitive examinations or by the machinery of selection committees. 

A scheme of combined purchasing has been established in order to enable 
local authorities to obtain commodities of standard quality at the lowest 
possible price. The central authority appoints official contractors after 
obtaining competitive tenders. Lists of contractors are published periodically, 
and local authorities are then in a position to obtain their requirements 
directly from contractors at list prices. 

The expenditure of local authorities is met mainly by receipts from rates 
levied on the annual value of rateable property and from government sub- 
ventions. The rates collected (1926-27) amounted to 5,223,819*. The 
government grants amounted to 3, 075,1 57 J. 

Area and Population. 

According to the census of population in the Irish Free State, taken in 
April, 1926, the following are the figures of area and population : 



AREA AND POPULATION 



81 



Counties 
and County Boroughs 


Area m 
Statute 
Acres ' 


Males 


Population 19 
Females 


26 
Total 


Province of Leinnttr 
Carlow . ... 
Dublin County 
Dublin C.B. . 
Kildare. . ... 
Kilkenny . ... 
Leix (Queen's) 
Longford . ... 
Louth . ... 
Meath . ... 
Off aly (King's) 
Westnieath . ... 
Wexford . ... 
Wicklow . ... 

Total of Leinster . 

Province of Munster. 
Clare 


221,485 
219,344 
8,357 
418,644 
509,470 
424,802 
257,935 
202,814 
577,816 
49%637 
435,004 
5SO,K94 
500,244 


17,802 
87,233 
151,762 
31,987 
37,084 
27,198 
20,805 
31,749 
33,082 
27,566 
30,151 
48,570 
28,911 


16,674 
101,728 
164,931 
26,041 
33,900 
24,342 
19,042 
30,990 
29,887 
25,026 
26,667 
47,278 
28,680 


34,476 
188,961 
310,693 
58,028 
70,990 
51,540 
39,847 
62,739 
62,969 
52,592 
56,818 
95,848 
57,591 


4,851,130 


573,900 


675,192 


1,149,092 


787,768 
1,840,905 
2, (585 
1.101,708 
001,573 
2,380 
1,051,289 
453,051 
1,438 


50,071 
145,914 
37,278 
76,863 
52,127 
19,045 
72,904 
26,770 
12,656 


44,993 
141,343 
41,212 
72,308 
48,768 
20,403 
68,111 
2 r ).145 
13,991 


95,064 
287,257 
78,490 
149,171 
100,895 
39,448 
141,015 
51,915 
26,647 


Cork Countv .... 
Cork C.B. \ ... 
Kerry . .... 
Limerick County 
Limerick C.B. 
Tipperary . 
Waterford County 
WaterfoidC.B 

Total of Muristei . 

Province of Ulster (part of) 
Cavan 


5,902,803 


493,028 


476,274 


969,902 


467,102 
1,193,573 
318,985 


43,550 
78,100 
33,258 


38,902 
74,408 
31,873 


82,452 
152,508 
65,131 


Donegal 
Monaghan 


Total of Ulster (part of) . 

Province of Connaught. 
Galway 


1,979,720 


154,908 


145,183 


300,091 


1,467 039 


88,481 
29.247 
86,778 
43,281 
86,666 


80,885 
26,060 
85,912 
40,275 
34,722 


169,366 
55,907 
172,690 
83,556 
71,888 


Leitniu 
Mavo 


376,774 
1,333,941 


Roscommon .... 

Sligo ... . 

Total of Connaught 
Total of Free State 


608,540 
443,928 


4,230,822 


284,453 


268,454 


552,907 


17,024,481 


1,506,889 


1,465,103 


2,971,992 



1 Exclusive of larger rivers, lakes and tideways. 

The population of the Dublin registration area (county borough of 
Dublin, and the urban districts of Rathmines and Rathgar, Pembroke, 
Blackrock and Dun Laoghaire) was 418,981, according to the census of 1926. 

The following are the births, deaths and marriages registered in the 
Irish Free State for 3 years : 



Years 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1927 
1928 
1920 


60,054 
59,176 
68,342 


43,677 
41,792 
42,974 


13,418 
18,716 
18,286 



82 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: THE IRISH FREE STATE 



Overseas immigrants, 1929, 2,117; 1930, 2,597. Overseas emigrants, 
1929, 20,802; 1930, 15,966. 

Religion* According to the census of population in the Irish Free 
State, taken in April, 1926, the principle religious professions were as 
follows- 



- 


Lemster 


Minister 


Ulster 
(3 counties) 


Connaught 


Total 


Catholics 
Protestant Episcopalians 
Presbyterians 
Methodists . 
Other Professions . 


1,032,885 

92,899 
8,589 
5,564 
9,205 


934,703 
28,614 
1,601 
2,397 
2,587 


215,454 
30,285 
21,263 
1,064 
1,125 


538,277 
12,417 
976 

738 
499 


2,751,209 
164,215 
82,429 
10,663 
13,416 


Total 


1,149,002 


969,902 


300,091 


552,907 


2,971,992 



Education. Elementary Education.* Elementary Education is free 
and is given in the National Schools, which are under local managers, but 
are subject to the control of the Department of Education. 

Since the establishment of the Saorstat the Irish language has been 
included as an essential part of the curriculum for all National Schools, and 
special courses in Irish have been held each year from 1922 to 1928 in- 
clusive. Approximately 8,854 teachers have already qualified tc teach the 
language. The use of Irish as a medium of instruction in the schools has also 
largely increased. 

The latest statistics available show that the number of schools in 
operation is 5,447. The number of pupils enrolled in the schools is 507,840 ; 
the percentage average daily attendance is 82 '6 ; the number of teachers of 
all classes is approximately 13,657. 

There are five State-aided Training Colleges. The number of qualified 
teachers who issued from the Colleges in 1928-29 was 354. 

The estimated State expenditure on Elementary Education for the year 
1930-31 is 3,617,116Z., excluding the cost of administration. 

Secondary Education. The Secondary or Intermediate Schools are under 
private control and are conducted in many cases by Religious Orders ; all 
schools receiving grants from the State are open to inspection by inspectors 
of the Education Department. The number of recognised Secondary Schools 
during the school year 1928-29 was 290, and the number of pupils between 
the ages of 12 and 20 years in attendance was 26,702. A new scheme of 
Secondary Education was introduced at the beginning of the school year 
1924-25, under which the schools are allowed considerable freedom in drawing 
up their programmes, and the grants paid to the schools are reckoned on 
a capitation basis. Estimated total expenditure for 1930-31, 318,9302., 
excluding the cost of administration. 

Technical Education. Technical Schools are established in all the cities 
and in the principal towns. These schools are controlled by the local 
authorities, and are maintained partly by the rates and partly by State Grants. 
Estimated total expenditure for Technical Educatibn for 1930-31 is 167,2272. 
(taxes), excluding the cost of administration, and 66,000^. (rates), 

University Education is given at the University of Dublin (Trinity 
College), founded in 1591, and at the National University of Ireland, 
founded in Dublin in 1909. The latter has three constituent colleges, namely, 
the University Colleges of Cork, Galway, and Dublin. The numbers of 
professors, &c., and students, in 1929-30, were as follows : 



JUSTICE 



83 



Universities. 


Professors and 
Lecturers 


Students. 


Trinity College, Dublin 


112 


1 357 


University College, Cork 




578 


M ,, Galwaj 


41 


498 


,, Dublin 


107 


1,520 








Total 


33<> 


3 953 









Justice, 

Justice is administered by Courts set up by the Courts of Justice Act, 
1924, pursuant to the Constitution. They consist of a Supreme Court, a 
High Court, a Court of Criminal Appeal, a Central Criminal Court, a 
Circuit Court and a District Court. 

The Supreme Court, which consists of the Chief Justice (who is ey- 
officw an additional Judge of the High Court) and two other Judges, has 
appellate jurisdiction from all decisions of the High Court. The High 
Court, which consists of a President (who is ex-officio an additional Judge 
of the Supreme Court of Appeal) and five ordinary Judges, has full original 
jurisdiction in and power to determine all matters and questions, whether 
of law or fact, civil or criminal. In all cases in which questions arise 
touching the validity of any law having regard to the provisions of the 
Constitution, the High Court alone exercises original jurisdiction. The 
Court of Criminal Appeal consists of the Chief Justice or some other Judge 
of the Supreme Court and t\vo ordinary Judges of the High Court. It deals 
with appeals by persons convicted on indictment where the appellant obtains 
a certificate from the trial Judge that the case is a fit one for appeal, or, in 
case such certificate is refused, where the Court itself, on appeal from such 
refusal, grants leave. Where leave to appeal is granted, the appeal is 
heard and determined by the Court of Criminal Appeal on the report of the 
official stenographer present at the trial, with power to the Court to hear 
further evidence or to refer any matter back for report by the trial Judge. 
The decisions of the Court of Criminal Appeal are final, unless that Court or 
the Attorney -General certifies that the decision involves a point of law of 
exceptional public importance, and that it is desirable that an appeal should 
be taken to the Supreme Court of Appeal. The Central Criminal Court 
consists of a Judge of the High Court, to whom is assigned, for the time 
being, the duty of acting as such Court. It is held at such times and in 
such places as the President of the High Couit may direct, and at it are 
tried criminal cases which aie outside the jurisdiction of the Circuit Court or 
which may be sent forward to it for trial from the Circuit Court. 

The Saorstat is divided into eight Circuits, each of which is presided 
over by a Jfdge of the Circuit Court. The jurisdiction of this Court in 
civil pioceedings is limited as to amount, save by consent of the parties, 
in which event the jurisdiction is unlimited. In criminal matters, it has 
jurisdiction in all cases save murder, attempt to murder, conspiracy to 
murder, high treason, treason felony, treasonable conspiracy or piracy. 

The District Court consists of thirty-three Justices of the District Court. 
Three of such Justices are assigned to the Dublin Metropolitan area ; the 
remainder of the country is divided into thirty districts, to each of which 
a Justice of the District Court is assigned. The District Court is a Court of 
summary jurisdiction with a small civil jurisdiction in contract cases up to 
25J., ana in cases of tort, with certain exceptions, up to 101. 

All Judges and Justices of the District Court are appointed by the 
Governor-General on the advice of the Executive Council. 



84 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: THE IRISH FREE STATE 



Finance. 

RECEIPTS. 








1929-30 
Actual 
Figures 


1930-81 

Estimates 
levised 






20,001,000 



20 517,000 




3,571,039 


3,700,000 




418,500 


400,000 


Telephone Capital ... ... 


80,000 
5,387,733 


94,000 
5,595,000 








Total n ceipts . t, 


30,058,872 


M),312,000 



ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURE 






1929-30 
Actual 
I'iguies 


1930-31 
Estimator 
revsed 


Central Fund ISeivices . 



4 IPS, 342 



4 194,072 


Supply Services 
Capital Issues . . 
Repayment of temporary borrowiugs .... 


20,851,719 
2,185,811 
2, <* 23, 000 


21,782,928 
1,335,000 
3,000,000 


Total expenditure . 


30,058,.S72 


30,312,000 



The estimated tax revenue in 1930-31 includes: Customs, 7,521,000?. ; 
excise, 6,491,0002. ; estate, etc., duties, 1,235,0002. ; stamp duties, 420,0002. ; 
income tax and super- tax, 3,940,0002. ; excess profits duty, 80,0002. ; cor- 
poration profits tax, 250,0002. ; motor vehicle duties, 850, 0002. 

The estimated expenditure for 1930-31 includes: Debt charges, 1,943,5292. ; 
old age pensions, 2,767,0002. ; education, 4,590,9352. ; army, 1,653,2482. 
There are in addition a number of items of a capital and productive character 
together with certain abnormal and non-recurrent charges, including Shannon 
Electricity Development, 1,241,0002. ; Road Fund, 850,0002. ; Issues under 
Telephone Capital Acts, 94,0002. ; Property losses compensation, 252,0002. 

On March 31, 1930, the public debt amounted to 26,063,0002. 

Defence. 

Article 46 of the Constitution of the Irish Free State lays it down that 
the Oireachtas has the exclusive right to regulate the raising and maintaining 
of the armed forces in the Irish Free State and the Oireachtas possesses 
control of every such force. The Executive Council is authorised by the 
Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Acts, 1923 to 1930, to raise, train, 
equip, arm, pay and maintain an armed force consisting of such number of 
officers and men as may from time to time be provided by the Oireachtas. 

The command in chief of, and all executive and administrative powers 
in relation to, the forces is by the Acts mentioned vested in the Executive 
Council and exercised through and in the name of the Minister for Defence. 
A Council of Defence is constituted by the ' Ministers arid Secretaries Act, 
1924 * to assist the Minister for Defence in the administration of the 
business of his Department. It consists of the Minister (Chairman), a 
Civil Member (a member of Dail Eireann), and three military members, 



PRODUCTION 



85 



being the Chief of Staff, the Adjutant-General and the Quartermaster- 
General. 

Enlistment is voluntary. The terms of engagement are : Infantry Arm : 
2 years in Army Service and 6 years in Class ' A ' Reserve ; 1 month (for 
men with previous Army Service), or 3 months in Army Service and 6 years 
in Class ' B ' Reserve. All other Corps : 4 years in Army Service and 8 
years in the Reserve. Army School of Music : 12 years in Army Service. 

The Irish Free State is divided into four military districts : the Curiagh, 
Dublin, Cork, and Athlone Military Districts. The Infantry is organised in 
six battalions. The remaining services are Air, Artillery, Armoured Car, 
Engineer, Signal, Military Police, Medical and Transport Corps, a School of 
Music, and a Military College. 

The strength provided for (1930-31) is 513 commissioned officers and 5,700 
non-commissioned officers and men. The Reserve consists of officers of the 
Forces who have retired therefrom and non-commissioned officers and men 
who, having served in the Forces, have been transferred to the Reserve. 
Reservists may be called out for training for a period not exceeding 30 days 
in any year. 

Coastal Defence. In accordance with the Treaty between Great Britain 
and Ireland, the defence by sea of Great Britain and Ireland is undertaken 
by Imperial Forces. The question of Ireland undertaking a share of her 
own coastal defence is to be the subject of a Conference. 

The estimated total expenditure for the financial year ending March, 1930, 
is 1,445,032/. 



Production. 

Agriculture. General distribution of surface (in acres) in 1929 : crops 
and pasture, 12,059,911 ; woods aud plantations, 233,127; other land, in- 
cluding grazed mountain, 4,731,443; total, 17,024,481. 

The following table shows tho area under the principal crops, with the 
estimated yield : 



Ciops 

Wheat .... 
Oats . 


Extent in Statute Acres 


Total Produce 


1928 


19^) 

28,583 
066,233 
177,591 
4,100 
362,854 
187,944 
88,333 
13,039 
29,699 
6,283 
2,334,064 


1928 


1929 


31,850 
648,1515 
129,092 
4,908 
363,814 
189,428 
84,555 
10,624 
80,910 
8,032 
2,155,430 


Tons 
31,703 
637,291 
131,697 
3,701 
2,246,336 
' 3,534,226 
! 1,600,410 
' 140,488 
328,573 
i 1,177 
' 4,719,456 


Tons 
31,718 
689,385 
127,720 
3,159 
3,006,676 
3,680,944 
1,757,586 
141,189 
330,800 
1,181 
5,088,747 


Bailey and Beve 
Rye . 
Potatoes . 
Turnips . 
Mangels . 
8u}:ar Boot 


Cabbage 
Flax . 
Hay 



The number of live-stock ia 1930 was : cattle, 4,038,000 ; sheep, 
3,515,000 ; pigs, 1,052,000 ; horses, 448,000 ; poultry, 22,900,000. 

Agricultural Production. According to the Census of Agricultural Pro- 
duction, 1926-27, the agricultural output, which consisted of live-stock and 



86 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE; THE IRISH FREE STATE 



live-stock products valued at 50,555,0002., and crops and turf valued at 
14,202,0002., was disposed of as follows: 



Consumed by the aeiicultural community .... 
Consumed or ntih&ed by others in the Irish Free State 




23,071,000 
11,560,000 
28,400,000 


Inct eases m stocks . 


1,717,000 



64,757,000 



The more important items of output were: Horses, 1,234,0002. ; cattle 
and calves, 13,809,0002. ; milk and cream, consumed or exported as such, 
3,473,0002. ; butter, 9,845,0002.; sheep and lambs, 2,858,0002 ; pigs, 
9,074,0002. ; poultry, 2,327,0002. ; eggs, 6,690,0002. ; potatoes, 3,786,0002. ; 
turf, 5,938,0002. 

Fisheries. The fishing industry represents a considerable factor in the 
national economy The numbers of vessels, men, and boys engaged in 
fishing in the year 1929 were : 12 steam, 349 motor, 1,008 sail, and 2,191 
row boats ; total 3,560 vessels ; men and boys, 12,146. 

The quantities and values of fish landed during 1929 were demersal 
fish, 82.684 cwts., value 123,0902.; pelagic fish, 235,885 cwts., value 
133,3432.; shell fish, value 75,3332. 

The inland fisheries are a very important national asset, providing some 
of the finest salmon and trout fishing in the world. There are also lakes of 
a total area of some 400 square miles containing considerable quantities of 
coarse fish available for capture. The quantity and value of the salmon 
captured in 1927 were 1,580 tons and 259,4002. respectively. 

The census of Industrial production for 1926 gives the following details of 
the gross value of output for the principal industries (figures in brackets are 
the gross values minus cost of materials, including fuel, light, and power) 
grain milling, 7,242,7562. (655,0932.) ; bread, flour confectionery, biscuits, 
4,900,5312. (1,833,1942.); butter, cheese, margaiine, 7,366,0892. (744,5582.); 
bacon curing, 5,457,3262. (449,3112.); aerated waters and bottling, 2,209,9932. 
(570,4157.) ; brewing, 7,300,3652. (5,184,6192.) ; tobacco, 5,033,3662. 
(1,129,1272.); clothing and millinery, 1,724,2592. (866,9652.); sugar con- 
fectionery, jam-making, 879,3292. (347,1852.); woollen and worsted, 737,3362. 
(343,2442.); malting, 766,6612 (306,8652.). The total selling value of 
tobacco products manufactured in 1929 was 5,215,7462., and of boot and 
shoe manufactures, 339,1972. 



Commerce. 

Value of imports and exports of merchandise (excluding bullion and 
specie and goods transhipped under bond) of the Irish Free State for 5 
years : 





1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Imports .... 
Exports .... 
Re-exports 



62,950,024 
43,373,531 
1,007,927 




61,286,075 
41,185,379 
771,333 




60,823,958 
44,168,118 
683,577 




59,852,122 
45,590,843 
713,916 



61,301,819 
46,808,448 
1,066,484 



COMMERCE 87 

The following table shows the value of the trade by principal countries : 



Consigned from 


1929 


Irish pioduce and 
manufactures 1929 
consigned to 


Great Britain . 
Noithern Ireland 
United States of America . 
Argentina .... 
Germany .... 
Canada .... 
Belgium 
Sweden .... 
Holland .... 
Franco . 
Australia .... 
Latua 
Norway .... 
Portugal . 
Si am 
Czechoslovakia 



41,7t,2,530 
0,117,079 
4,772,495 
2,440,717 
1,549, Soli 
774,637 
722,7ol 
554,314 
550,924 
404,867 
367,670 
143,664 
18<U28 
118/250 
115,323 
109,31<) 



Great Brit-nn . . . 38,420,030 
Northern Ii eland . . 5,045,220 
United States of America 993,320 
Germany .... 331,857 
Russia . . . 205,504 
France .... 181,468 
Australia. . . . 177,335 
Iialy . . . 174,379 
Belgium . . . 165,877 
Holland .... 130,979 
Egjpt .... 86,142 
Canada .... 85,483 
Butish India . . . 81,001 
Straits Settlements. . 68,271 
New Zealand . . . r )0,4()0 
Switzerland . . . 54,037 


Principal Imports and Exports during 1929 : 


Imports 




Value 


Exports (produce or manufacture 
of the Irish Free State) 


Value 


Horses . 

Bacon and liains . 
Butter .... 


L 
1,306,726 
1,027,01)4 
300,342 
3,186,842 
8,158,840 
2,438,784 
459,418 
020,877 
1,175,818 
349,743 
2<>5,100 
2,346,227 
273,834 
1,264,502 
612,409 
3,145,050 
407,487 

2,276,762 
627,609 

6S1.270 
2,163,650 
615,690 
1,860,244 
504,262 
794,852 
995,805 
1,188,059 
889,952 
1,202,439 

247,053 
1,746,221 
424,766 
1,093,637 
1,847,920 
565,518 


Cattle 
Sheep and lambs 

i>!gS 


* 
3,549,485 
1,381,860 
I,933,2b3 
2,517,522 
949,681 
2,816,553 
1 202,613 


Wheat .... 
Maize 




Horses 
Poultry 
Bacon and hams . 


Wheateii flour .... 
Mai/emeal . ... 
Oil-seed, cake and meal 
Fruit . ... 
Coc< a preparations 
Confectionery (except chocolate). 
Tea 
Hops 
Sugar, refined 
Tobacco uniuanufactuied . 
Coal 


Fish fresh (including ^hell-fish). 
Fish, cured or salted, lut canned 
Milk and creaai .... 
Butter 


334,847 
159,203 
bl 4,622 
4,554,855 
212,018 
3,218,854 
240,164 
502,681 
4,790,353 
148,223 
919,151 
888,126 
56,904 
832,701 
208,817 

279,569 


Fats and oils, refined edible 
Eggs .... 
Oats 
Biscuits 
Porter, beer and ale . 
Potable spirits .... 
Motor tractors .... 
Motor tractor paits . 


Cement for building . 
Iron and steel manufactures (ex- 
cluding cutlery and machim i y) 
Non-ferrous ore, metals and 
mai.ufactuies thereof 
Cutlery, hardware, implements 
and instruments 
Machinery 
Electrical goods and apparatus . 
Motor cars 




Linen yams and manufactures . 
Woollen and worsted yarns and 




183,105 
560,904 
140,445 
236,344 


Hides and skins .... 


Motor car and cycle parts . 
Parts for motor tractors 
Wood and timber 
Cotton piece goods . . ! 
Woollen and worsted tissues 
Apparel, outer garments 
Apparel, under garments (not 
hosiery) 
Boots and shoes , 
Hats, bonnets, etc. 
Hosiery. ..... 
Other apparel .... 
Leather and manufactures . 


Books and other printed matter 



88 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: THE IRISH FREE STATE 



Imports 



Rubber and manufactures 
Paper and cardboard . 
Petroleum lamp oil 
Petroleum motor spirit 
Fertilisers . 
Chemicals, drugs, dyes, colours 

and perfumery . 
Books and other printed matter 



Value 



427,540 
1,161,482 
257,383 
818,053 
760,349 

1,214,316 
(385,665 



Exports (produce or manufacture 
of the Irish Free State) 



Value 



Shipping. 

The following table shows the number and net tonnage of vessels entered 
and cleared in the foreign tiade at Irish Free State ports during the Calendar 
year 1929, showing the principal nationalities. 



Nationality of vessels 


With Cargoes 


Total with Caigoes 
and m Ballast 


Entered 
Irish Free State 
British .... 
American (U.S.) 
Norwegian 


Vessels 
4,211 
7,767 
67 
37 
65 
110 
103 


Tons 
2,370,790 
3,251,559 
289,017 
26,877 
33,833 
498,698 
102, 419 


Vessels 
4,551 
8,556 
106 
53 
77 
175 
145 


Tons 
2,544,411 
4,939,108 
700,191 
37,119 
42,607 
892,032 
125,880 


Dutch .... 


Other nationalities . 
Total entered 

Cleared 
Irish Free State .... 
British .... 
American (U.S.) .... 
Norwegian 


12,366 


6,673,593 


13,663 


9,287,438 


3,355 
2,595 
74 
19 
53 
68 
35 


2,264,676 
2,<)02,895 
476,412 
11,513 
19,308 
198,093 
5,lf,0 


4,547 
8,549 
109 
53 
77 
177 
145 


2,542,698 
4,951,947 
714,116 
37,789 
42,697 
893,642 
129,695 


Dutch .... 
German 


Other nationalities .... 
Total cleaied 


6,199 


4,978,107 


13,657 


9,312,584 



The number and net tonnage of vessels that arrived and departed in the 
foreign trade at the principal ports of the Irish Free State duiing the year 
1929 was: 



Port in the Irish Free State 



Arrived 



Departed 



Cobhi 


Vessels 
502 


Tons 
3 662,648 


Vessels 

488 


Tons 
3,659,766 


Dublin 
Dun Laoghaire 2 .... 
Coik 


5,742 
808 
1,482 


,2,323.590 
1,012^975 

074.647 


5,741 
806 
1,655 


2,328,706 
1,032,524 
691,788 


Waterford 
Greenore 


1,120 
276 


414,940 
106,011 


1,139 
277 


416,760 
106,824 


Limerick 


404 


220,905 


405 


223,470 




421 


327,663 


418 


827,306 













1 These figuies include Atlantic Liners that carried passengers and mails only. 

2 Practically all were vessels carrying passengers and mails only. 



INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS REPRESENTATION 



89 



Internal Communications. 

Waterways. There are 650 miles of inland navigation, including the 
Grand Canal, 208 miles ; the Royal Canal, 96 miles, and the Shannon 
Navigation, 157 miles. The traffic carried during 1929 was (in tons) : 
Grand Canal, 204,383 ; Royal Canal, 15,861 ; Shannon navigation, 67,848. 

Railways. The total route mileage of railways open for traffic at the end 
of the year 1929, including the mileage of railways situated partly within 
and partly without the Free State, was 3,029. The length of road, first 
track, actually situated in the Free State is 2,674 miles, of which 84 
per cent., is constructed to standard gauge. 

Statistics for 1928 and 1929 are as follows : 





1928 


1929 


Number of passengers . 


22,273,081 


23,268,303 


Number of miles run by coaching trains .... 
Merchandise and mineral traffic convejed tons . 
Number of livestock conveyed 


9,144,802 
3,649,5Gt3 
3,438,192 


9,404,511 
3,050,293 
3,226,249 


Number of miles run by freight trains .... 
Gross receipts . 
Expenditure 


4.763,342 
6,038,570 
5,040,191 


4,770,955 
5,936,039 
4,862,205 


Net receipts .... . 
Other receipts (including proportion of amount received 
under Irish Railways (Settlement of Claims) Act, 1921. 


998,379 
247,518 


1,074,434 
209,019 




1 245 897 


1 283 453 









The authorised capital 1 in 1929 amounted to 38,911,604Z. The capital 
receipts were 40,618,410/., and the capital expenditure 42,030,5637. 

Tramways. There were 71 miles of electric tramway worked in 1929. 
The number of miles run by trams was 9,019,772 in 1928, 8,546,431 in 1929, 
and the number of passengers carried in 1929 was 86,386,340, compared with 
98,540,127 in 1928. The gross receipts from passengers were 47,845Z. in 
1929, and 598,974J. in 1928. 

Road Motor Passenger Services. There were 4,506 miles of road run over 
by road motor passenger vehicles of the omnibus type at the end of the year 
1929. The total number of miles run by these vehicles during the year was 
24,089,925. The number of passengers carried was 48,112,414, and the 
gross receipts from passengers were 851, 686/. 

The Irish Free State joined the International Postal Union in 1925. 

Diplomatic and Representation. 

1. OF IRISH FREE STATE IN OTHER COUNTRIES. 

High Commissioner in London. John W. Dulanty (December, 1930). 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Washington. 
Mr. Michael Mac^Vhite (March 1929), 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Holy See. Mr. 
Charles H. Bewley (June 1929). 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Germany. Pro- 
fessor Daniel A. Binchy (October 1929). 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to France. Count 
Gerald O'Kelly de Gallagh (October 1929). 

1 Excluding capital figures relating to Fishguard and Rosslare Railways & Harbours Co. 



90 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: GIBRALTAR 

2. OF OTHER COUNTRIES IN IRISH FREE STATE. 

Representative of the Holy See. The Most Rev. Paschal Robinson, Titular 
Archbishop of Tyana. Nuncio Apostolic. 

United States Minister to the Irish Free Slate. The Hon. F. A. Sterling 
(July 25, 1927). 

French Minister. Charles Alphand (July 29, 1930). 

German Mmistcr.Georg von Dehn (September 2, 1930). 

Book^ of Reference. 

Official Report of Bail Eireann Debates. (Stationery Office, Dublin ) 

Merchant Shipping List and Portal Directory (Stationery Office, Dublin.) Annual. 

Guide to^Lrelaiul. lush Tourist Assoc. Dublin, 1929. 

Boyd (E. A ), Ireland's Literary Renaissance. New York, 1922. 

Brown (S. J.), A Guide to Books on Ireland. Dublin, 1020. 

Chart (D. A.), Economic History of Ii eland. Dublin, 1920. 

Connolly (J.), Labour in Ireland. Dublin, 1917 

Conroy (J. C.), A History of Railways in Ireland. Dublin, 1928. 

Curtis (E.), A History of Medieval Ireland, from 1110 to 1513. London, 1923. 

Dale(H.\ Ireland. London, 1928. 

Z>w&<tt8(P.), Contempoiary Ireland London, 1900. 

Dunlop (R), Ireland from the Earliest Times to the Present Dny. London, 1922. 

Faucon (G.), Le Stattit de L'Etit Libre D'Irlnnde. Paris, 1929. 

Flttcher (G.), (Editor), The Provinces of Ireland. 5 vols. Cambridge, 1921-22. 

(tood(3. W.), Ulster and Ireland. Dublin, 1919. Iiish Unionism. Dublin, 1920. 

Green (Alice S ), The Making of Ireland and its Undoing Dublin, 1908 Irish 
Nationality. London, 1929. 

Gwynn(S.\ The History of Ireland. London, 1923. Iieland (Modern World Series). 
London, 1925. Ireland : Its Places of Beauty, Entertainment and Historic Association. 
London, 1927. 

Owynn (Denis), The Irish Free State, 1922-1927. London. 1028. 

Ifdnna (Hon. Mi Justice), The Statute Law of the Irish Free State Dublin, 1929. 

Hayden (M.) arid Moonan (G. A.), A Short Hihtory of the Irish People London, 1921. 
ew York, 1927. 

fin? I (Eleanor), A History of Ireland and her People. London, 1927-31. 

Joyce (P. W.), Social History of Ancient Ireland. London, 1926. 

Macahtter (R. A. 8 ), The Archeology of Ireland. London, 1928. 

MacDonaghQA..), The Home Rule Movement. Dublin, 1020. 

MacNeill (Eoin), Phases of Irish Historv. Dublin, 1919. 

MacNeill (J. G. Swift), Studies m the Constitution of the Irish Free State. Dublin, 
1925. 

Maxwell (Constantia), A Short Bibliography of Irish History (Historical Association). 
London, 1921. A Short History of Ireland. Dublin, 1925. 

Murray (Alice E ), Histoy of the Commercial and Financial Relations between England 
and Iieland. London, 1907. 

Murray (R H ) and Law (Hugh), Ireland (The Nations of To-day) London, 1925 

O'Brien (G.), The Economic History of Iieland in the Seventeenth Century. Dublin, 
1919. The Economic History of Ireland from the Union to the Famine. London, 1921. 

O'Brien (W.), The Imh Revolution and How it Came About Dublin, 1923. 

Rzordan (E J ), Modern Irish Trade and Industry. London, 1921. 

Jiyan (W. P.), The Irish Labour Movement. London, 1919. 

Jiynne (Dr. M.), Die volkerrechtliche Stellung Irlands. Leipzig, 1930. 

Warren (R. de), L'Irlande et ses Institutes Pohtiques. Paris, 1928. 



GIBRALTAR. 

Governor. General Sir Alexander J. Godley, G.C.B., K.C.M.G. Salary, 
5,5002. with 1,OOOZ. allowances. Appointed October, 1928. 

Colonial Secretary. Lt.-Col. Hon. A. E. Seattle, C.B.E., M.C. 

The Rock of Gibraltar was under the dominion of the Moors till the 
15th century, when it was joined to the Kingdom of Granada. It was 
captured by the British in 1704, and ceded in 1713. It is a Crown colony, 
situated in 36 7' N. latitude and 521'W. longitude, in the Province of 
Andalusia, in Spain, commanding the entrance to the Mediterranean. The 



GIBRALTAR 



91 



Governor, who is also Commander-m-Chief, is assisted by an Executive 
Council, established by Letters Patent in September 1922. It is composed 
of the Combatant Military Officer next in seniority after the Governor, the 
Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Treasurer, and three unofficial 
members, selected by the Governor. Area, 1J square miles. Population, 
including port and harbour (census 1921), civil, 17,160 (8,471 males, and 
8,689 females) ; military, 2,932 (2,270 males, and 662 females) ; naval, 546 
(males 477, and females 69) ; total, 20, 638 (11, 218 males, and 9,420 females). 
Estimated fixed civil population, Januaiy 1, 1930, 15,647 (7,364 males, and 
8,283 females). In addition there were at that date about 1,152 aliens. The 
settled population are mostly descendants of Spanish and Italian settlers. 
Civil population births (1929), 388 ; marriages, 176 ; deaths, 262. Birth- 
rate per 1,000 of fixed civil population, 24 '79 ; death-rate, 16 "36. Religion 
of fixed population mostly Roman Catholic ; one Protestant cathedral and 
four Roman Catholic churches ; annual subsidy to each communion, 500?. 
Education is compulsory between ages 5 and 14 years. Several private 
English schools ; Government aided elementary schools, 13 (11 Roman 
Catholic). Pupils, 2,837 in 1929-30 ; average attendance, 2,490. There 
are 4 secondary schools. Government grant, 9,954?. One magistrate's 
court and a supreme court. In 1929 there were 925 summary convictions, 
and 2 convictions of serious crime. 





1925 


162,250 
167,267 1 


192(5 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Revenue .... 
Expenditure 




158,636 
147,942 




160,031 
160,114 



164,180 2 
165,993 



146,245 
165,705 



1 Includes 11,183?. depreciation on funds invested. 
- ,, 15,00(H. appreciation on funds invested. 

Chief sources of revenue, 1929 : Customs, 44,656?,; post office, 22,1422.; 
rents of Crown property, 16,224? ; fees and re-imbursements in aid, 16,374?. ; 
port, harbour, and wharf duos, 21,399?.; interest on investments, 19,887?.; 
licences and internal revenues, 5,364?. ; miscellaneous receipts, 199?. 
Chief branches of expenditure, 1929: Establishments, 107,537?. (includ- 
ing personal emoluments 71,239?., other charges 36,348/.); public works, 
31,145?. ; pensions, 16,1637. ; ecclesiastical grants, 1,000?. ; miscellaneous, 
9,810?. Contribution by Home Government, nil. Public debt, nil. Total 
net assets, 136,397?. Industries unimportant. The tiade of the port is 
chiefly transit trade, and the supply of coal to ships. There are import 
duties on malt liquors, wine, spirits, tobacco, motor spirits, and perfumery. 

Government savings-bank, with 2,975 depositors, had 96,179?. 
deposits at the end of 1929. 

Gibraltar is a naval base and position of great strategic importance. 
There is a deep Admiialty harbour of 440 acres. Vessels entered, 1929, 
4,833; tonnage, 8,135,377 ; cleared, 2,421; tonnage, 6,519,898. An auto- 
matic telephone system exists in the town, and the Eastern Telegraph 
Company has a station. Postal communication daily with England. Letters 
and post-cards in 1929, 3,048,601 ; newspapers, book packets, etc., 536,673. 
There is cable communication with the Continent, Tangier, the Mediter- 
ranean Eastern ports, and England, vid Eastern Telegraph Company's lines. 

Gibraltar is becoming increasingly popular with tourists as a centre for 
visiting Southern Spain and Morocco. In 1929, 72 tourist liners entered 
the port. 



92 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: MALTA 

The legal currency is that of Great Britain ; but Spanish money continues 
to circulate freely. Since the outbreak of the great war in 1914 there are also 
currency notes issued by the local Government. The amount in circulation 
at end of 1929 was 100,000/. There are four private banks. 

Books of Reference. 

Colonial Report. Annual. London. 

Gibraltar Directory and Guide Book. Gibraltar. 

Jesse* (Von 0.), Die Straase von Gibraltar. Berlin, 1020. 

Luc as (C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. 2nded. Vol.1. Oxford, 
1906. 

Macmillan (A.), (Editor), Malta and Gibraltar : Histoiical and Descriptive, <fec. 
London, 1915. 

Oxford Survey of British Empire. Vol. I. London, 1914. 



MALTA. 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief. General Sir John Du Cane, G.C.B. 
appointed March 16, 1927. 

Lieut. -Governor. Harry Charles Luhc, C.M.G. 

Malta was held in turn by Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians and 
Romans, and was conquered by Arabs in 870. From 1090 it was joined to 
Sicily until 1530, when it was handed over to the Knights of St. John, 
who ruled until dispersed by Napoleon in 1798. The Maltese rose in 
rebellion against the French and the Island was subsequently blockaded by 
the British Fleet, aided by the Maltese, from 1798 to 1800, and with the free 
will of the Maltese was finally annexed to the British Crown by the 
Treaty of Paris in 1814. It is one of the most important ports of call 
in the world, and is the base and resort for repair and refitment of the 
British fleet in the Mediterranean. 

Constitution Under the Malta Constitution Letters Patent, 1921, 
there is an elected Legislature to control local affairs, consisting of a Senate 
(partly nominated) of 17 members, and a Legislative Assembly of 32 elected 
members. Elections are on a proportional representation basis. There is a 
responsible ministry, as follows : 

Head of the Ministry and Minister for Police and Justice. The Lord 
Strickland of Sizergh, G.C.M.G., LL.B., M.L.A., Count della Catena. 

Minister for Public Health and Treasury. Prof. Robert V. Galea, L.S.A., 
M.L A. 

Minister for Public Instruction. Sir A. Bartolo t LL.D., B.Lit.,F.R.Hist.S. 

Minister for Posts. R. Hamilton, M.L. A. 

Minister for Industry and Commerce. Walter Salomons, M.L. A. 

Minister for Public Works. Edwin P. Vassallo, ArC.E., M.L. A. 

Minister for Agriculture and Fisheries. A. P. Montana, AiC.E., M.L. A. 

Certain ' reserved ' matters, including control of naval, military and air 
forces, Imperial interests, external trade, coinage, immigration, treaties, and 
relations with foreign States, are dealt with by the Governor, who is assisted 
by two Councils an Executive Council consisting of such ministers as he 
selects, and a * Nominated Council,' consisting of the Lieutenant-Governor, 
a Legal Adviser, and three officers of the Navy, Army, and Air Force. 

The English language, as the official language of the British Empire, and 
the Italian language, as the established language of record of the Courts of 
Law, are the official languages of Malta. The English language is the 
official language of administration, and all official records and public docu- 



AREA AND POPULATION EDUCATION FINANCE 



93 



ments and all notices of general public importance or interest issued by the 
Malta Government are in that language, without prejudice, however, to the 
use of Italian as a second official language of administration accompanying 
the British text in such records, documents and notices in so far as may be 
found desirable and convenient. Both languages are recognised as equal 
languages of culture in the University, in Secondary Schools and in the 
higher classes of Elementary Schools, as subjects of study. 

Area and Population. Malta is 17'4 miles long; area, 95 square 
miles ; and the neighbouring island, Gozo, 26 square miles ; total area 
(with Comino), 122 square miles. Population, Census April 24, 1921, 
224,680; civil population on December 31, 1929, 232,832. Births, 1929, 
7,743 ; deaths, 5,059 ; number of marriages, 1,598. Chief town and port, 
Valletta. 

Education. 156 public schools, with 24,478 pupils at the begin- 
ning of the scholastic year, 1929-30 ; a university with 115 students ; 
a Government high school for boys with 393 students ; 2 Government 
secondary schools, one for boys with 45 pupils, and one for girls with 
193 pupils ; and 25 technical manual schools. Expenditure on elementary 
education, 1929-30, 89,4382. ; secondary, 9,6012. ; university, 9,7642. 
There are about 50 unaided private schools, of which 15 arc State aided, 
with about 4,500 pupils. 

Justice^ In 1928-29, 988 persons were committed to prison ; 99 
persons were convicted of serious crime and 21,638 summarily. Police 
numbered 655 officers and men and 18 reserve constables on March 31, 1930. 

Finance. The revenue and expenditure in 5 years were : 



_ 


1925-26' 


1920-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


1929-30 


Revenue . 
Expenditure . 




862,246 

828,725 ! 




912,977 
825,106 



823,138 
887,523 



875,147 
821,252 




932,097 
930,113 



Chief sources of revenue (1929-30) : Customs, 484,9842. ; succession and 
donation duties, 30,4082. ; stamp duties, 17,2542. ; fees of office and reim- 
bursements, 41,9952. ; rents, 57,9632. ; Post Office, 33,3052. ; water service, 
36,9182.; electric lighting, 89,8732.; interest, 35,6452.; Lotto receipts, 
41,4692. Chief branches of expenditure, 1929-30: Justice, 49,6982. ; public 
instruction, 137,6382. ; public health and charitable institutions, 174,2902. ; 
industry and commerce, 40,3562, ; public works, water, electricity and railways 
departments, 114,3072. ; public works annually recurrent, 97,2782. ; public 
works and water and electricity works extraordinary, 96,3622. ; pensions, 
59,1722. Savings bank, March 31, 1930, had 10,918 depositors, and 
deposits, 1,033,4742. 

Production. Chief products : wheat, barley, potatoes, onions, beans, 
cumin, vegetables, tomatoes, forages, grapes and other fruits, cotton. Total 
value of agricultural produce 1929-30, 760,6302. Area cultivated (1929-30), 
43,018 acres in about 11,100 holdings, on leases of 4 to 8 years. Cotton is 
grown (640 acres in 1929-30; production, 151,588 Ibs.). Manufactures: 
lace, cotton, filigree, beer and cigarettes. Chief industry, farming ; on 31st 
December, 1929, horses, mules and asses numbered 9,706 ; horned cattle, 
4,429 ; sheep, 17,194 ; goats, 28,024. The fishing industry occupied 684 
boats and about 3,500 persons in 1928-29. The catch was about 11,000 
cwt., valued at 39,5002. 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : MALTA 



Commerce. Imports and exports for five years : 



- 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Imports 1 . . 
Exports l . 




4,495,966 
1,186,153 




4,539,057 
1,857,348 




4,285,436 
1,000,881 




3,999,109 
556,908 


& 
4,041,926 
685,870 



1 Including bullion and specie. 

Transhipment trade is excluded. Principal imports, 1929 : wheat, 
337,015/. ; petrol spirit, 77,437/. ; coal, 233,301Z. ; flour and scmola, 
168,287?. ; sugar, 76,729. ; textiles, 434,605^. ; metals and manufactures 
thereof, 172,492/5.; cattle foods, 363,764^.; wines, 106,962^.; petroleum, 
126,466Z. Principal exports (local) : potatoes, 128,4032. ; cigarettes, 
28,02U ; onions, 15,5027. ; hides and skins, 13,128J. ; cumin seed, 20,742^. ; 
old metals, 16,2707. 

Of the total imports in 1929, 1,153,200?. came from the U.K., 311,083J. 
from British possessions, and 2,577,643Z. from foreign countries. Of the 
total exports, 17,3987. went to U.K. and 8,1867. to the Colonies. 

Vessels entered, 1929, 2,641 of 3,825,024 tons, including 841 British of 
1,880,639 tons. Belonging to the port of Valletta on December 31, 1929, were 
10 sailing vessels of a gross tonnage of 757, 20 steamers of 3,644 tons gross, 
and 7 motor vessels of 239 tons gross. 

Communications, &C. Railway, 7J miles of metre gauge (belonging 
to and worked by the local government) ; telephones, 785 miles of wire. 
The Post-office traffic in 1928-29 was: Inland letters and postcards, 
1,352,491; newspapers, &c., 805,100; foreign correspondence, received, 
letters and postcards, 2,172,715; newspapers, &c., 692,500; dispatched, 
letters and postcards, 2,668,200 ; newspapers, &c., 132,100 ; parcels, received 
65,732 ; dispatched 13,220. 

Money. British coins and British Tieasury currency notes are the legal 
tender. The amount of British Treasury currency notes in circulation on 
March 31, 1930, was roughly estimated at approximately 650,000?. There 
is a very small issue of notes of the Anglo-Maltese Bank and the Banco di 
Malta ; but as the Banks are not under statutory control and do not publish 
balance sheets the amount of the note circulation is not known. 

Agent-General in London. Sir James Conolly. (Appointed Febiuary 20, 
1930). 

Books of Reference. 

Bine Book Annual. Government Pnntinp Office. Malta. 

Papers Relating to the New Constitution of Malta. [Cd. 1321 ] London, 1921. 

Bartolo (A.), The Sovereignty of Malta and the Nature of its Title. Malta, 1909. 

Borg(3.) t Cultivation and Diseases of Fruit Trees in the Maltese Islands. Malta, 1922. 
Descriptive Flora of the Maltese Islands. Malta, 1927. 

Despott (G.), The Ornithology of Malta. London, 1917. The Ichthyology of Malta. 
Malta, 1919. 

Macmillnn (A.), (Editor), Malta and Gibraltar: Historical and Descriptive, Ac. 
London, 1915. 

Mifsud (A.), Knicrhts Hospitallers of the Ven. Tongue of England in Malta. Malta, 1914. 

Porter (W.), A History of the Knights of Malta. I ondon, 1883. 

Schermerhorn (B. W.), Malta of the Knights. London, 1929. 

Sacluna (H. P.), Documents relating to the French Occupation of Malta Malta, 1928. 
The Archives of the Order o' St. John of Jerusalem and of Malta. Malta, 1912. 
Ji ), Malta. The Islands and their History. Malta, 1926. 



ADEN, PERIM, SOKOTRA, AND KUEIA MUBIA ISLANDS 95 

ASIA. 



ADEN, PERIM, SOKOTRA, AND KURIA MURIA ISLANDS. 

Aden. i- s a volcanic peninsula on the Arabian coast, about 100 miles east of 
Bab-el-Mandeb. It forms an important bunkering station on the highway to 
the East, and is fortified. The settlement includes Little Aden, a peninsula 
very similar to Aden itself, and the settlement and town of Shaikh Othman 
on the mainland, with the villages of Imad and Hiswa. 

In April, 1905, after demarcation of the frontier, Ottoman and British 
Commissioners signed an agreement which determines the boundary of the 
hinterland from Sheikh Murad on the Red Sea to Bana river, and thence 
north-east to the great Desert. By the Anglo-Turkish Convention of 1914, 
the boundary was prolonged through the desert to a point on the coast 
opposite Bahrein in the Persian Gulf. The territories of the Imam of San 'a 
now march with the border-line demarcated by a Mixed Commission (Anglo- 
Turkish) in 1902-4. The Settlement also includes the island of Perim at 
the entrance to the Red Sea, and is subject to the Bombay Government. 
The Government is administered by a Resident and Commander-in-Chief 
with four assistants. By an Order in Council, August 15, 19*29, the super- 
intendence, direction and control of the military government of Aden and 
its dependencies are transferred from the Viceroy of India to the Resident 
and Coinmaiider-m-Chief at Aden. 

Resident and Commander -in- Chief. Lieut. -Colonel B. R. Reilly, C.I E., 
O.B.E. Appointed March, 1931. 

Area 75 square miles ; including the Protectorate about 9,000 square miles ; 
of Perim, 5 square miles. Population of Aden and Perim in 1921, 54,923 
(36,878 males and 18,045 females), against 46,165 in 1911. 

The only Government revenue is from duties on liquor, opium, and salt, 
and from income tax, court fees and judicial fines ; local taxes go to the 
Aden Settlement Fund. There is a Port Trust. The gross revenue of the 
settlement in 1928-29 was Rs. 7,75,808. Imports (1929-30), by sea, 
Rs. 6,90,98,991; by land, Rs. 23,29,511; treasure (sea and land), 
Rs. 84,59,137; total imports, Rs. 7,98,87,639 (total, 1928-29, Rs. 8,60,94,600). 
Chief imports : Cotton piece goods, grain, hides and skins, tobacco, coal, 
coffee, sugar, fruits, vegetables and other provisions. Exports, by sea, 
Rs, 5,14,69,894; by land, Rs. 22,67,390; treasure (sea and land), 
Rs. 66,09,913; total exports, Rs. 6, 03, 47,197 (total, 1928-29, Rs. 7,06,50,871). 
Chief exports : Coffee, gums, hides and skins, cotton goods, tobacco, grain 
and pulse, provisions and sugar. These statistics are exclusive of government 
stores and treasure. In 1929-30, 1,636 merchant vessels of 6,178,350 tons 
(net) entered the port of Aden, of which 910 were British ; in the same year 
1,028 country (local) craft of 32,609 tons entered. At Perim 556 vessels 
entered, of which 15 were Government vessels. Aden itself produces little, 
its chief industries being the manufacture of salt and cigarettes. The trade 
is largely a transhipment one, and is divided into foreign, Indian, and inland. 
There is a branch of the National Bank of India, Limited, and there is 
also one firm of private bankers. 

The island of Sokotra (Hadibu alias Taharida) off the coast of Africa is 
under British protection, and the Kuria Muria islands, off the coast of 
Arabia, are attached to Aden. Area of former, 1,382 square miles. Popula- 
tion about 12,000, mostly pastoral and migratory inland, fishing on the coast. 
Religion, at one time Christian, Mohammedan since the end of the 17th 



96 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: BAHRAIN ISLANDS 

century. The island came under British protection in 1876, by treaty with 
the Sultan. Chief products, dates and various gums ; sheep, cattle, and 
goats are plentiful ; butter is exported. The Kuria Muria Islands, five in 
number, were ceded by the Sultan of Muskat for the purpose of landing the 
Red Sea cable. 

References, 

Apdt (P.), Eine Kolonialgeographisdie und Kolonialnolitische Studfe. Grossenhain. 

1929. 

Bent (J Th. and Mrs.), Southern Arabia London, 1900. 

Forbes (H. O ), The Natural History of Sokotra and Abd-el-Kuri . Liverpool, 1903 

Jacob (H. F.). Perfumes of Araby. London, 1915 Kings of Arabia. London, 1923 

Kofsmat (F.), Geologie der Inseln Sokotra, 8emha,&c. Vienna, 1902. 

Lucan (C P ), Historical Geography of the British Colonies 2nd. ed. Vol. I London, 

1900. 



BAHRAIN ISLANDS. 

The Bahrain islands form an archipelago in the Persian Gulf 20 miles 
ofl al Hasa on the Arabian coast. Bahrain, the largest island, is 27 miles 
long and 10 miles wide. About a twentieth part of its area is cultivated. 
Other islands are Maharaq, to the north-east of Bahrain, 4 miles long and 
J inile wide ; Sitra, to the east, 3 miles long and 1 mile wide ; Nebi Saleh, 
about 2 miles in circumference, and several uninhabited islets. The 
islands are low lying, the highest giound being a hill in the centre of 
Bahrain 400 feet high. 

The Ruling Family, the Al Khalifa, came originally from the neigh- 
bourhood of Kuwait and occupied Bahrain, which was then in the hands 
of the Persians, in 1782. The present chief, Sir Isa biu Ali al Khalifa, 
K.C.I.E., became the Ruling Shaikh in 1869. In 1923, owing to his 
advanced age, he handed over the active conduct of affairs to his eldest 
son and heir-apparent, Shaikh Hamad bin Isa al Khalifa, C.S.I. The Ruler 
is in treaty relations with the Government of India, who are represented by 
a Political Agent. 

The total population is estimated at about 120,000, of which three- 
quarters are the original inhabitants of the islands, of the Shia sect, the 
remainder, including the Ruling Family, being Sunnis. The Sunnis live 
mainly in the towns of Manama and Maharaq. There is a wealthy 
Persian community in Manama and a number of Indian merchai/ts. 

Manama, the capital and commercial centre, extends for 1 J miles along 
the shore. There are stone wharves and a pier, but at low tide the pier can 
only be reached in a light skiff. Manama contains two hospitals, schools, 
a branch of the Eastern Bank, Post Office, wireless station, and the official 
residence of the Ruler. Wide roads connect the various quarters of the 
town. There is a municipal council in Manama and also in the town of 
Maharaq, on the adjacent island, The two islands are connected by a 
service of motor launches, which also ply to the mainland. The popu- 
lation of Manama is about 25,000 and that of Maharaq is about the same. 
There is a community of some 20 Europeans in Manama, including members 
of the Dutch Reformed Church Mission. Water in the two towns is supplied 
by artesian wells and nearly 200 fresh-water springs on the various islands 
are used for irrigation. Motor traffic is in use and roads exist between the 
towns and villages, which number about 100, 

In the centre of Bahrain island there arc many thousands of ancient 
tumuli whose origin is still uncertain. 

Bahrain is the centre of the famous pearl fishing industry of the Persian 



BORNEO (BRITISH) 97 

Gulf. Over 600 boats and 15,000 divers from Bahrain are engaged in fishing 
during four months of the summer. During the season Bahrain is visited 
by numerous arab and continental pearl buyers from Europe. Other 
industries are : boat-building, manufacture oi sailcloth and reed mats, 
date cultivation and breeding of particularly fine white donkeys. 

The greater part of the trade of Nejd and Has&a passes through Bahrain. 
The revenue of the State is obtained from the 5 per cent, ad valorem 
Customs Duty. 

In 1927, the total imports amounted to Rs. 132,27,060 ; and exports to 
Rs, 83,58,825. The chief impoits were: rice, Rs. 50,77,240; wheat, Rs. 
3,51,710; wheat flour, Rs 4,24,980; sugar, Rs. 14,15,910; loaf sugar, Rs. 
7,33,980; coffee, Rs. 14,91,070; piecegoods, Rs. 29,89,330; tea, Rs. 
3,13,650 ; ghee, Rs. 4,29,190. The chief exports were : rice, Rs. 22,32,885; 
wheat, Rs. 1,80,270; wheat flour, Rs. 100,720; sugar, Rs. 7,73,200; loaf 
sugar, Rs. 579,430; coffee, Rs. 4,27,730; piecegoods, Rs. 16,76,340; tea, 
2,70,550 , ghee, Rs. 58,400; pearls, Rs. 20,59,300. 

There is a weekly mail service from India and a bi-weekly service to 
India. Import of arms and ammunition is subject to special permission. 

The principal coins in use are Indian rupees, but Austrian (Maria 
Theresa) dollars (worth Is. lid.) and Turkish liras (worth about 18s.) are 
current. The measures employed are : dhara (=s 19 inches). The weights 
are : roba (4 Ibs. ) ; maund (56 Ibs.) and ruffa (560 Ibs.). 

Political Resident, Persian Gulf, The Hon. Lieut. -Col, C, C. J. Barrett, 
C.S.I., C.I.E. 

Political Agtnt at Bahrain. Q&yt. 0. fi. Prior, C.I.E. 

Indian Assistant at Bahrain. Khan Bahadui Sayyid Siddiq Hassan. 

References, 

Foreign Office Reports. Annual series. London. 

Bent (J Th ), The Bahrein Islands in the Persian Gulf. Proc. R G. 8oc (N.8. 
xii 1) London, 1890. 

Zwemtr (S M.), Arabia : The Cradle of Islam. Edinburgh and London, 1900. 



BORNEO (BRITISH). 

British North Borneo. Governor. A. F. Richards (February, 1980). 

British North Borneo occupies the northern part of the island of Borneo- 
The interior is mountainous, Mount Kinabalu being 13,455 feet high. 

Area, about 31,106 square miles, with a coast-line of over 900 miles. 
Population (1921 census) 257,804, consisting mainly of Mohammedan 
settlers on the coast and aboriginal tribes inland. The Europeans 
numbered 533; Eurasians, 213; Chinese, 37,856; Malays, 20,263. The 
number of natives was 197,058. The most numerous are the Dusuns, 
112,287; the Muruts, 37,447; and the Bajaus, 33,070. Chief towns, 
Sandakan (population 11,936), on the east coast, and Jesselton, on the 
west coast. 

The territory i* under the jurisdiction of the British North Borneo 

Company, being held under grants from the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu 

(Royal Charter in 1881). It is administered by a Governor (appointed 
with the approval of the Secretary of State) in Borneo, and a Court 
of Directors in London, appointed under the Charter. On May 12, 1888, 
the British Government proclaimed a formal protectorate over 'the State 
of North Borneo. In 1898 certain border lauds were acquired from the 

E 



98 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: BRUNEI 



Sultan of Brunei, and more recently certain inland territories have been 
occupied. For administrative purposes the whole country is divided into 
four Residencies, which are sub-divided into Districts. In December 1904, 
an area of about 200 square miles was transferred to Sarawak in exchange 
for rights over coal mines on Brunei Bay. 

There are Protestant and Catholic missions. The laws are based on the 
Indian Penal, Criminal, and Civil Procedure Codes, and local Ordinances. 
There is an Imam's Court for Mohammedan law. Native and Indian con- 
stabulary, 800 men under European officers. 



- 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 | 1929 



















Revenue 


399/)50 


433,927 


454,588 


453,629 


449,403 


Expenditure . 


270,033 


202,7,02 


250,440 


201,370 


20?, 4 -\C> 


Imports i 


854,399 


970,319 


1,224,705 


1,180,202 


1,137,825 


Exporth 1 


2,083,800 


1,987,233 


1,1>78,5.')6 


1,528,057 


1,536,223 



1 Including treasure and transhipment trade. 

Sources of revenue : Opium, birds' nests, court fees, stamp duties, 
licences, import and export duties, royalties, land sales, &c. No public 
debt, 

Most of the trade is carried on through Singapore and Hong Kong with 
Great Britain and the colonies, The chief products are timber, sago, rice, 
coconuts, gums, coffee, many fruits, nutmegs, cinnamon, pepper, gambier, 
gutta-percha, rubber, camphor, rattans, tapioca, sweet potatoes, and tobacco. 
Coal, iron, gold, and mineral oil have been found. The exports comprise 
the products mentioned, with birds' nests, seed pearls, bgche-de-mer, &c. 
Exports of leaf tobacco: 1928, 116,662*.; 1927, 189,574?.; of Estate 
rubber, 1928, 592,074?. ; 1927, 1,088,493?. ; of timber, which is the 
greatest natural resource of the country, 1928, 247,2682. ; 1927, 211,782?. 
Merchant Shipping (Men-of-War and Government vessels excluded) : 1928, 
entered 387,644 tons; cleared, 387,760 tons; 1927, entered 365,733 tons ; 
cleared 362,364 tons. 

A railway, 127 miles, runs from Jesselton on Gaya Bay to Melalap in the 
interior, with a branch from Beaufort to Weston on Brunei Bay. There is 
communication by telegraphy, telephone, and wireless telegraphy. 

At Jesselton and Sandakan there are agencies of the Hong Kong and 
Shanghai Banking Corporation, the Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and 
China, and the Bank of Taiwan. A State Bank has been established, with 
Head Office in Sandakan and a branch at Jesselton. 

The Government issues its own copper coinage (cents and half-cents) ; 
nickel coinage of 1, 2J and 5 cents, and silver coinage of 25 cents; also 
notes of one, five, ten, and twenty-five dollars, and of 25 and 50 cents. 
Accounts are kept in dollar currency. 

Brunei. In 1888 the neighbouring territories on the north-west coast of 
Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak, were placed under British protection. On 
January 2, 1906, by treaty, the Sultan of Brunei handed over the general 
administration of his State to a British Resident. The present Sultan 
Ahmed Tajndin Akhazul Khairi Wad-din is a minor, and succeeded to the 
throne on the death of his father in September 1924. The Pengiran 
Bendahara and Pengiran Pemancha were appointed Joint Regents during 
his minority. The Sultan receives an allowance of 1,400?. a year from State 
funds, and his two principal ministers 700?. a year each. Area about 2,500 



SARAWAK 99 

square miles, and population, 1921 Census, 25,454 (Europeans, 35 ; Malays 
and Bornean races, 23,938 ; Chinese, 1,434 ; Indians, 37, others 10). The chief 
town is Brunei (pop, 12,000). The old town is built over the water on the 
Brunei river, and a new town has developed on the mainland since 1910. 
Theie were six vernacular schools in 1929, with 672 pupils, Police force, 
1929, 1 Chief Inspector, and 62 non-commissioned officers and men. The 
climate is hot and moist, with cool nights. Average annual rainfall is 
a little over 100 inches. The native industries in Brunei town include boat 
building, cloth weaving, brass foundries, and manufacture of silver ware. 
The principal pioducts are cutch (mangrove extract), rubber, jelutong, and 
sago. Most of the interior is under jungle, comprising numerous kinds of 
serviceable timber. There is abundant evidence of oil, but it has not yet 
been found in payable quantities. 

Revenue 1929, 40,283Z. (Customs, 15, 4 58Z., monopolies, 7,858J., licences, 
2,375Z. ; lands and forests, 8,44 \L t cession moneys, 1,778/.); expenditure, 
40,H4Z. Public debt, Dec. 31, 1929, 47,4832. 

Imports, 1929, mainly rice, 23,298?., tobacco, 14, 599Z.,piecegoods, 11, 374J., 
machinery, 20,353^. Exports, cutch, 2,104 tons (value 21,676/.), rubber, 
1,027 tons (86,683/0, jelutong, value 19,264/., dried prawns, 6,343/., live 
stock, 1,795/. 

The post office dealt with 64,312 articles in 1929. 

There is a central Wireless Station at Brunei, and a subsidiary station at 
Labuan, which enable telegraphic communication to be maintained with 
Labuan and thence by cable with Singapore and Europe. There is also a 
Wireless Station in the Temburong District and another in the Belait 
District. 

The distance from Labuan is about 43 miles. Communication by steam 
launches from Brunei is regularly maintained. The passage between Singa- 
pore and Labuan takes about 4 days. 

Straits Settlements Currency, 1 dollar = 2s. 4.d. 

British Resident. P. A. B. McKerron, M.C.S. 

Sarawak. Area about 50,000 square miles, coast line 450 miles, many 
rivers navigable. The government of part of the present territory was obtained 
in 1842 by Sir James Brooke from the Sultan of Brunei. Various accessions 
were made between 1861 and 1905. Under an agreement of 1888 Sarawak is 
recognised as an independent State under the protection of Great Britai ri. The 
present Kaj ah, H.H. SirCharles Vyner Brooke, G.C.M.G. appointed May 17, 
1917. Population estimated at about 600, 000, Malays, Dyaks, Kayans, Ken- 
yahs, and Muruts, with Chinese and other settlers. The chief towns are the 
capital, Kuching, about 23 miles inland, on the Sarawak River, Sibu, 60 miles 
up the Rejang River, which is navigable by large steamers, and Miri, the 
headquarters of the Sarawak Oilfields, Ltd. At Kuching are Church of England 
and Catholic missions with schools. The revenue is derived chiefly from 
Customs, the Govt. opium monopoly, gambling, arrack and pawn farms, 
royalty on oil, laud revenue, timber royalty exemption tax payable by 
Malays, and from Dyak and Kayaii revenue. The revenue in 1929 was 
6,671,201 dollars : expenditure, 6,515,757 dollars Public debt,' nil. Coal 
exists in large quantities, and a syndicate has been formed for developing 
the coal fields at Selantik. A considerable oil field is being developed at Miri 
and Bakong in the Baram district. Foreign trade, 1929 : imports, 22,726,657 
dollars ; exports, 63,311,501 dollars. The chief exports (1929) included (in 
dollars) sago flour, 860,392; pepper, 1,804,606; plantation rubber, 
8,579,995 ; gutta jelutong, 1,611,587 ; guttapercha, 3,563 ; cutch, 110,520 ; 
benzine, 85,305,622; kerosene, 3,420,380; liquid oil fuel, 4,705,659; 



100 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: CEYLON 

crude oil, 1,989,983 ; fish, 326,471 ; damar, 165,996 ; rattans, 16,738. The 
trade is mostly with Singapore. Shipping entered and cleared in the 
foreign trade, 1928, 1,569,021 tons. There are military and police forces, 
consisting of about 1,000 men, principally Dyaks and Malays, under British 
army officers. Round Kuching are about 46 miles of roads, besides bridle 
paths. There are 30 post offices. The Government offices have a telephone 
system extending over Kuching and Upper Sarawak, and there is communi- 
cation by wireless with Singapore, &c. There are also wireless stations at 
Kuching, Kuching (6th mile), Miri, Sibu, Sadong, Lundu, Mukah, Simang- 
gang, Bintulu, Binatang, Kapit, Selalang, Limbang, Baram, Saratok, Matu, 
Belangian, Tatau, Lawas, Rejang and Kanowit. Distance from London, 
8,700 miles; transit, 25 to 30 days. Telegrams are sent by wireless from 
Singapore. 

Sarawak and Straits Settlements currency, 1 dollar = 2s. 4d. 

There is a Special Commissioner for Sarawak in England whose offices 
are at Millbank House, Westminster, London, S.W. 1. There is also a 
Sarawak Pilgrim Officer at Jeddah. 

Books of Reference concerning Sarawak, &c. 

Barin0-Gould(8 )and Bampfylde(C. A.), History of Sarawak (1839-1908). London, 1909. 

Cator (D.). Everyday Life among the Head-Hunters. London, 1905. 

Hose (C ), In the Heart of Borneo, ' Geographical Journal.' vol xvi.. p. 39. The Pagan 
Tribes of Borneo. London, 1912. Fifty years of Romance and Research, London, 1927. 
Natnral Man : A Record from Borneo, London, 1927. 

Krohn (W. O.), In Borneo Jungles, London, 1027. 

Roth (H. Ling), The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo. 2 vols. London, 1896. 

St. John (Sir S.), Life of Sir Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak. London, 1879. 
Rajah Brooke. London, 1899 

Rutter (0.), The Pagans of North Borneo. London, 1930 



CEYLON. 

Constitution and Government, &c. 

Ceylon, the ancient Taprobane (Tamraparni, the island of " dusky 
leaves "), is an island in the Indian Ocean, by the south of India, lying 
between 5 55' and 9 50' N. lat, and 79 42' and 81 53' K. long. Its area 
is 25,332 square miles. 

In 1505 the Portuguese formed settlements on the west and south, 
which were taken from them about the middle of the next century by 
the Dutch. In 1796 the British Government annexed the foreign 
settlements to the Presidency of Madras ; in 1802 Ceylon was separated 
from India and formed into a Crown colony. 

According to the terms of the Constitution established in 1833, modi- 
fied on various occasions, and now embodied in the Order in Council dated 
19 December, 1923, and the Amendment Order in Council dated March 
21, 1924, the administration is in the hands of a Governor, aided 
by an Executive Council of nine members viz., the Colonial Secretary, 
the Attorney-General, the Controller of Revenue, the Colonial Treasurer, 
one official and four unofficial members nominated by the Governor, 
and a Legislative Council of 49 members (12 official and 37 unofficial) 
exclusive of the Governor. Of the unofficial members, 23 are elected to 
represent territorial divisions, 2 to represent the Europeans, 2 the Burgher 
Community, 1 the Chamber of Commerce, 1 the Western Province Tamils, 
3 the Muslims, 2 the Indians. The remaining 3 are nominated by the 
Governor to represent Special Interests. 

The recommendations of the Special Commission on the Constitution 



AREA AND POPULATION 



101 



appointed in 1927, as amended by the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
in his Despatch to His Excellency the Governor dated October 10, 1929, 
weie accepted in principle by the Legislative Council on December 12, 1929. 
The chief features of the new constitution are that the existing Legislative 
Council will be replaced by a State Council which will deal with adminis- 
trative as well as legislative matters and will therefore sit in executive as 
well as legislative session ; the control of departments will be decentralised 
and the existing Colonial Secretariat will be replaced by groups of depart- 
ments in charge of ten Ministers, of whom seven will be elected members 
of the Council, the remaining three, to be called Officers of State, being the 
Chief (formerly Colonial) Secretary, the Attorney-General, and the Trea- 
surer : in the administration of his departments each of the seven elected 
Ministers will be associated with a Standing Executive Committee ot the 
State Council ; communal representation will be abolished ; and the territorial 
franchise, which was limited to adult males possessing certain literary and 
property qualifications, will be extended subject to certain specified qualifi- 
cations to adults of both sexes. The State Council will be composed of 
50 members elected on a territorial ba&is, with 8 Nominated Unofficial 
Members, and the 3 Officers of State. 

Governor. Sir Graeme Thomson, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. (appointed December 
1, 1930). Salary 8.000Z. (including entertainment allowance of 1,500^.). 

For purposes of general administration, the island is divided into nine 
provinces, presided over by Government Agents, with assistants and subor- 
dinate head men. There are three municipalities, with eight Urban District 
Councils and fourteen local boards, mainly for sanitary purposes. 

Area and Population. 

The population of Ceylon (exclusive of the military and the shipping) at 
the Census held on March 18, 1921, showed an increase of 9 '6 per cent, since 
1911. The distribution by Provinces, and the average number of persons 
per square mile in each Province, are shown in the following table : 



Provinces 


Area: 
English 
sq miles 


Populati 
Total 


jii, 1921 

Per sq 
mile 


Provinces 


Area: 
English 
sq. miles 


Populatic 
Total 


>n, 1921 

Per sq. 
mile 


Western 
Central 
Southern 
Northern 
Eastern 
North 
Western 
North 
Central 


1,432 

2,288 
2,140 
3,429 
3,b30 

8,016 
4,009 


1,246,847 
717,730 
671,234 
374,829 
192,821 

402,181 
96,525 


871 
314 
313 
109 
50 

163 
24 


Uva .... 
Sabaragainuwa 

Total . . 

Military . . 
Shipping . . 
Miscellaneous 

Grand Total, 


3,290 
1,893 


233,804 
471,814 


71 
249 


25,332 


4,497,854 

951 
4,993 
751 


178 


- 


4,504,549 



The estimated population on December 31, 1929, was 5,479,000. 

For the race distribution of the population at the census of 1921 and 
the increase per cent, since 1911 see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR BOOK, 1930, 
p. 100. 

Of the population (exclusive of the military and the shipping) enumerated 
at the census of 1921, the occupation of 2,803,056 or 62 '3 per cent, (of 
whom 1,347,415 were earners and 1,465,641 dependants) was returned as 
agriculture ; 533,400 or 11*9 per cent. (288,697 earners, 244,703 dependants) 
industrial occupation; 345,824 or 77 per cent. (162,876 earners, 183,448 
dependants) trade. 



102 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: CEYLON 

The population on the principal estates, mainly consisting of immigrant 
Tamils from Southern India, numbered, at the census of 1921, 568,850, and 
formed 12 '6 per cent, of the total population. The Indian Tamils on 
Estates numbered 493,944. 

Marriages registered, 1929, 28,916 1 ; births registered, 198,007 (100,851 
males and 97,156 females); deaths registered, 135,277 (67,940 males and 
67,337 females). 

The urban population is 12 '9 per cent, of the total population. The 
principal towns and their population (exclusive of the military, shipping, 
and estates), according to the census of 1921, are : Colombo, 244,163 ; Galle, 
39,073; Jaffna, 42,436; Kandy, 32,562. 

Religion and Education. 

At the census of 1921 the numbers of adherents to the principal 
religions were : Buddhists, 2,769,805 ; Hindus, 982,073 ; Muslims, 
302,532 ; Christians, 443,400, exclusive of the military and the shipping. 

Buddhism was introduced from India in the third century B c., and is 
still the religion of the majority of the inhabitants, especially in the 
southern part of the island. It is (unlike Buddhism in Tibet, China, and 
Japan) materialistic and atheistic, and in popular usage has a large admixture 
of the doctrines and practices of popular Hinduism and of the aboriginal 
wild tribes. 

Education is free in vernacular schools, but fees are charged in English 
schools. 

The number of vernacular schools in 1929 was : Government schools, 
1,199 (attendance, 111,870 boys and 64,825 girls); Aided schools, 2,0f>5 
(attendance, 146,225 boys and 104,871 girls); Unaided schools, 522 
(attendance, 9,178 boys and 4,847 gii'ls). There wore also 514 English 
and Anglo-vernacular schools, attended by 81,359 boys and 24,153 girls. 

The total sum spent by Government on vernacular education in 1928-29 
was 7,185,964 rupees. 

The Royal College and the Government Training College with the 
English school attached to it are Government institutions. The other 
English schools are grant-in-aid schools ; the total grants to which m 
1928-29 amounted to 1,775,083 rupees. A University College opened in 
January, 1921, has (1928-29) 315 students on the roll. Technical 
education is given in the * Technical Schools' (598 students in 1929). 
There are 102 industrial schools. 

Justice, Crime, and Pauperism. 

The law is Roman-Dutch, modified by colonial ordinances. Kandyan 
Law is to a certain extent in force in the Kandyan Provinces, and special 
systems of personal law are recognised for the Muslim community, and for 
the Tamils of the Jaffna District. The criminal law has been codified on 
the principle of the Indian Penal Code. There are a Supreme Court, police 
courts and courts of requests, and district courts, intermediate between the 
latter and the Supreme Court. Village councils deal with petty offences. 
In 1929 the number of cases instituted in the police courts and municipal 
magistrates' courts was 134,450. Offences against the Penal Code dealt with 
during the year 1929 numbered 17,914 ; of these, the number disposed of 
by the courts as true cases was 12,079, and the convictions 3,170 2 ; 15,894 

1 This is exclusive of Muslim marriages, which are seldom registered. 

2 For cognizable offences exclusive of theft cases under Us. 20 and simple assault 
cases. 



FINANCE DEFENCE PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 103 



convicted persons were sent to prison, Police force, December 81, 1929, 
3, 160 of all ranks. 

There is no poor law, though a few old persons receive a charitable allow- 
ance from the Government varying from Re. 1 to Rs. 12*50 each per 
mensem. 

Finance, 

15 rupees = 1. 



Financial 
Years 1 


Revenue 



6,824,208 
7,702,64*) 
8,301,077 


1 
j Expenditure | 


Financial 
Years 1 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1923-24 
1924-25 
1925-26 


1 & 
\ 6,713,048" 
! 7,000,200 
7,333,089 2 

i 


1926-27 

1927-28 
1928-29 




8,623.928 
8,942 330 
7,187,885" 




8,069,753 2 
10,140,480 
8, 393,060 



i 12 months ended September 30. 

z Exclusive of Expenditure chargeable to Revenue pending raising of Loan Funds. 
* Exclusive of Railway Revenue, which amounted to 2,16b,597/. 
4 Exclusive of Railway Expenditure, which amounted to 1,570,6321 

The principal sources of revenue in 1928-29: Customs, 3,521,4742.; 
port, harbour, wharf, warehouse, and other dues, 421,0372. ; arrack, rum and 
toddy licenses, 661,5582. ; stamp duties, 570,5772. ; Government railway 
receipts, 2,166,5972. ; and land sales, 62,2892. 

The principal items of expenditure in 1928-29 : Military expenditure, 
150,8192. ; pensions and retired allowances, 501,9282. ; interest and sinking 
fund on loans, 744,2392. ; post and telegraph, 570,7252. ; railway depart- 
ment, 1,570,6322. ; department of medical and sanitary services, 681,1002. ; 
education, 722,8172. ; on public works (annually recurrent), 702,5152. ; 
railway department (extraordinary works), 412,7012. * 

The net public debt on September 30, 1928, incurred entirely for 
public works, was 12,644,1932. sterling and 3,000,000 rupees. There 
were accumulated sinking funds for their redemption amounting to 
4,440,1432. 15. Id. and Rs. 1,944,771.14 lespectively. 

Defence, 

In normal times Ceylon pays three-fourths of the cost of the Imperial 
garrison. At present the defence of the Colony is almost entirely in the 
hands of local troops. 

Production and Industry. 

The area of the colony is 16,212,400 acres, of which it is estimated 
that about 3,200,000 acres are under cultivation, and about 456,000 acres 
pasture land. The approximate areas under the principal products in 1929 
were : paddy, 800,000 acres ; other grain, 105,000 acres ; cacao, 34,000 acres ; 
cinnamon, 26, 000 acres; tea, 457, 000 acres; coconuts, 1,100, 000 acres; rubber, 
534,000 acres. In 1929, the exports of tea were nearly 252 million Ibs., of 
which nearly 155 million Ibs. were sent to the United Kingdom. The exports 
of desiccated coconuts were 690, 000 cwts, , copra, 2, 042,000 cwts. , and coconut- 
oil, 879, 000 cwts. In the same year, 180, 632, 000 Ibs. of rubber were exported, 
of which 40,176,000 Ibs. went to the United Kingdom and 114,394,400 Ibs. 
to the United States of America. In 1929, 20,211 acres of crown land were 
sold and settled. The live stock in 1929 was reported to amount to 2,000 
horses, 1,650,000 horned cattle, 57,000 sheep, 45,000 swine, and 184,000 

1 Decrease due to separation of Railway Accounts from the Colony's Budget. 



104 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE .'CEYLON 



goats. There is a Government Dairy, possessing over 800 head of cattle. 
There were 81 plumbago mines working at end of 1929. The exports of 
plumbago in 1929 were 255,000 cwts. Other minerals, such as gold, thorium, 
and monazite, exist, but, except the last-named, so far have not been found 
in quantities of commercial importance. There are some hundreds of 
small -gem quarries, from which sapphires, rubies, moonstones, catseyes, 
and other gems are obtained. Ceylon ese manufactures, which are at present 
of very minor importance, are weaving, basket work, tortoise-shell boxes, 
&c., earthenwares, jewellery, metal work, lacquer work, carving, &c. 
Manufactures on any large scale are confined to the products of agriculture, 
such as the production of coconut oil. In 1929 there were about 1,800 tea, 
rubber and cacao factories, 1,100 cinnamon, citronella, coconut, fibre, oil, 
&c., factories, 15 saw mills, and 37 aerated water, ice, &c., factories. 

Commerce. 

The values of the imports and exports for six years are given in the 
following table (Rate of Conversion : 11. = Rs. 15) : 



Tears 


Imports l 


Exports ! 


25,701,161 
32,841,095 
33,576,599 


Tears 

1 


Imports 1 


28,075,198 
27,474,643 
28,619,688 


Exports 1 


1924 
1925 

1926 


& 
20,821,898 
24,025,354 
27,191,141 


1927 
1928 
1920 



29,951,583 
26,171,332 
27,158,187 



l Including bullion and specie. 

Principal exports in 1929: Cacao, 282,4092.; cinnamon, 252.2962. ; 
coir (and manufactures), 305,870Z. ; copra, 1,754,3992. ; coconut oil, 
1,201,624?. ; tea, 13,679,6062. ; plumbago, 181,9762. ; coconuts, fresh, 
85,4617. ; coconuts, desiccated, 791,7192. ; areca nuts, 179,9392. ; rubber, 
6,221,1722. ; citronella oil, 81,7642. 

Principal imports in 1929: Cotton manufactures, 1,635,0452. ; rice and 
paddy (in the husk and not in the husk), 6,902,3782. ; coal and coke, 
1,176,4222. ; spirits (brandy, gin, and whisky), 251,1892. ; sugar (raw and 
refined, palm and jaggery), 1,051,2192. ; manures, 1,011,2582. ; bullion and 
specie, 1,752,7532. 

In 1930 (British Board of Trade Returns) the value of tea imported into 
the United Kingdom from Ceylon was 11 ,442,6902. (quantity, 152,668,213 Ibs. ). 
Among the imports in 1929 were: rubber, 1,774,8142. (41,218,600 Ibs.); 
coconut oil (unrefined) 340,0372. ; coconut, desiccated, 440,2222. The principal 
exports of United Kingdom to Ceylon in 1929 were : cotton piece goods, 
836,8802.; iron and steel goods, 685,9442.; machinery, 442,3332.; 
tobacco, 272,2492.; coal, 107,6272. Total imports into United Kingdom, 
1930, 13,517,7342. ; 1929, 15,150,3522. ; total exports of British produce 
to Ceylon, 1930, 8,998,7022. ; 1929, 5,920,1762. 

Shipping and Communications, 

Shipping entered and cleared, 1929, 24,466,389 tons (British 14,050,570 
tons). 1928, 22,725,000 tons (British 13,303,000 tons). In 1927, the total 
tonnage was 21,394,000, and British, 13,152,000 tons. On December 31, 
1929, 133 sailing vessels of 10,915 tons, 1 motor vessel of 18 tons, and 9 
steamers of 845 tons net, remained on the ships' registers of the ports in 
Ceylon. 

951 miles of railway were open at the end of September 1929, and 
several new lines have been surveyed. 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 105 

On December 31, 1929 there were 842 offices of various classes open for 
postal business ; money order offices, 452 ; telegraph offices, 249 ; letters, 
postcards, and printed matter, samples, etc., passed through the post office, 
120,725,000 (exclusive of parcels, 1,306,000). 11,646 miles of telegraph 
wire ; telegrams dealt with, 2,354,000. 

Money and Credit. 

Eleven banks have establishments in Ceylon : the Mercantile Bank of 
India, Ltd., the Imperial Bank of India, the National Bank of India, Ltd., 
the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the Chartered Bank 
of India, Australia and China, the Eastern Bank, Ltd., the P. & O. Banking 
Corporation, Ltd., Thos. Cook & Son (Bankers), Ltd., the Bank of Uva, 
Ltd., the Jaffna Commercial Corporation, Ltd., and the Hatton Bank and 
Agency Co. The Ceylon Savings.Bank on December 31, 1929, had 54,143 
depositors, and deposits amounting to Rs. 7,590,590 ; and the Post Office 
Savings Banks 288,720 depositors, and deposits, Rs. 13,040,837. 

The weights and measures of Ceylon are the same as those of the United 
Kingdom. The currency consists of : Copper : Ceylon 1-cent and ^-cent 
pieces, 6J cents being equivalent to Id. English. Nickel : Ceylon 5-cent 
piece. Silver: Indian rupee (=100 cents), equivalent to Is. 4d. ; and 
Ceylon 50-cent, 25-cent, and 10-eent pieces. Ceylon Government currency 
notes of Rs. 1,000, 500, 100, 50, 10, 5, 2, and 1. On December 31, 1928, 
the value of currency notes in circulation was Rs. 57,416,500. 



Dependency. 

The Maldive Islands, 400 miles south-west of Ceylon, are governed by 
an elected Sultan, who resides in the island of Male, and pays a yearly tribute 
to the Ceylon Government. Next to the Sultan is the first Wazir, or Prime 
Minister, then the Fadiyaru or Kazi (Chief Judge), and 6 Kilegefanus or 
Councillors, and besides them 6 Wazirs or Ministers of State. The Maldives 
are a group of 13 coral islets (atols), richly clothed with coconut palms, 
and yielding millet, fruit, and edible nuts. Population over 70,000 
Muslims at the 1921 census. The people are civilised, and are great 
navigators and traders. 

Books of Reference concerning Ceylon. 

Administration Reports of Ceylon. Annual. 

Blue Book of Ceylon. Annual. 

Annual General Report. 

Census Publications from 1871. Decennial. 

Ceylon Sessional Papers. Annual. 

Correspondence relating to the Revision of the Constitution of Celyon. Cmd. 1906 of 
1928. and Cmd. 2062 of 1924. London. Report of the Special Com mission on the Con- 
stitution. London, 1928. 

The Handbook of Commercial and General Information for Ceylon. Compiled by 
L. J. B. Turner, M.A., C.C.S. Colombo, 1926. 

The Official Handbook. Compiled by the British Empire Exhibition Handbook Sub- 
committee, 1924. 

Colonial Office List. Annual. London 

Statistics of Ceylon ; in ' Statistical Abstract for the Colonial and other Possessions of 
the United Kingdom.' Annual. London. 

'Times of Ceylon' Green Book. Annual. 

1 Morning Leader ' Year Book. Annual. 

Basaett (R. H.), Romantic Ceylon. London, 1929. 

Burrows (8. M.), The Buried Cities of Ceylon: <x Guide-book to Anuradhapura, Ac. 
London. 

furguson's Ceylon Directory. Annual. 

Gardiner (J. 8.), The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, 
2 vole. Cambridge, 1901-1905. 

2 



106 THE BRITISH ^MPIRE : CYPRUS 

Gibson (A.), Ceylon. London, 1929. 

Mitton (G. E.), The Lost Cities of Ceylon. London, 1916. 

Plate's Ceylon, 1924. 

Rettie (C.), Things Seen in Ceylon. London, 1929. 

Spittcl (R. L.) t Wild Ceylon London, 1925. 

Toulba (Ah Foad), Ceylon, the Land of Eternal Charm London, 1926. 

Ti autz (Friedrich M.), Ceylon. Berlin, 1926. 

Christmas Island. See STBAITS SETTLEMENTS. 



CYPRUS. 

Governor.- SIT Ronald Starrs, K.C.M.G., C.B.E. Salary, 3,600Z., of 
which amount 600Z. is payable to the officer from time to time administering 
the Government. 

Colonial Secretary. II. Hennikcr-Heaton, C.M.G. Salary, 1,4002. 

Cyprus Trade Commissioner in London - Major W. H. Flinn, 1 Queen 
Anne's Chambers, Dean Farrar Street, Westminster, S.W. 1. 

Constitution and Government. Cyprus is 40 miles from the coast 
of Asia Minor and 60 from the coast of Syria. At a very early date 
important Greek and Phoenician colonies were established in Cyprus, and 
later it formed part of the Persian and Roman Empires. Its government 
frequently changed hands until 1571, when the Turks conquered the island 
from the Venetians, and retained possession of it until its cession to England 
for administrative purposes under a convention concluded with the Sultan 
at Constantinople, June 4, 1878. On the outbreak of hostilities with Turkey 
on November 5, 1914, the island was annexed. On May 1, 1925, the Island 
was given the status of a colony by Letters Patent, and the High Commis- 
sioner became Governor. There is an Executive Council, consisting of the 
Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Treasurer, and the Chief 
Commandant of Police, with three locally resident additional members. 
The Legislature consists of twenty- four members, nine being office holders, 
including the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney -General and the Treasurer, 
and fifteen elected (for five years), three by Moslems and twelve by non- 
Moslem voters. The voters are all male British subjects, or foreigners 
twenty-one years of age, who have resided five years, and are payers of any 
of the taxes known as 'Verghis.' Municipal corporations exist in the 
principal towns, elected practically by all resident householders and rate- 
payers. 

Area and Population. Area 3,584 square miles. Population at 1921 
Census: 310,715, including 61,339 Moslems. Population, Census 1911: 
Moslems (Ottoman Turks), 56,428; Christians (Orthodox of the Auto- 
cephalous Church of Cyprus under the Orthodox Archbishop of Cyprus and 
three Bishops ; Maronites under a Uniat Archbishop of Cyprus, who resides 
in the Lebanon; Armenians; and Anglicans under the Archdeacon for 
Cyprus and the Bishop in Jerusalem), 214,480 ; others, 3,200 ; total, 
274,108. Inhabitants per square mile, 76*48. Births registered 1929, 
10,608 ; deaths, 4,731. 

The principal towns are Nicosia (the capital), 18,579 ; Larnaca, 9,765 ; 
Limasol, 13,302 ; Famagusta and Varosha, 6,980 ; Paphos and Ktema, 
4,117; Kyrenia, 1,910. There are six administrative districts named after 
these towns. 

Education. The system of elementary education is designed so that 
each race has its own schools. Besides elementary schools there were in 1929 
4 Gymnasiums, a commercial Lyceum, 8 Greek high schools for boys and 4 



JUSTICE FINANCE PRODUCTION 107 

high schools for girls, a Priests' Training School, and two Moslem high 
schools, one for boys and one for girls. Total number of elementary schools in 
1929, 982 (696 Greek-Christian, 267 Moslem, 6 Armenian, 7 Maronite, 5 
Roman Catholic, and 1 Jewish) ; teachers, 1,379 in elementary schools, of 
whom 967 were Greek-Orthodox, 342 Moslem, and 70 of other denominations. 
Total enrolment in elementary schools, 49,070, comprising 8,951 Moslem, 
38,908 Greek-Orthodox, 544 Armenian, 205 Maronites, 452 Latins, and 10 
Jews. The Government contributed (1929) 65,5962. to education. Total 
expenditure on elementary and secondary education, 133,4542. State aided 
private education is provided in the English school, Nicosia (200 boys), and 
the American Academy, Larnaca (210 boys). There are 3 weekly news- 
papers in Turkish and 19 in Greek and 3 in Armenian. 

Languages spoken are a local dialect of Modern Greek ; Osmanli Turkish 
by Moslems ; English and French by educated classes. English is becoming 
more and more widely spoken. 

Justice. The law courts have been reconstituted by an Order in 
Council of 1927, which divided the Colony into three judicial districts, viz., 
Nicosia-Kyrenia, Famagusta-Larnaca, and Limassol-Paphos. There now 
are: (1) a supreme court of civil and criminal appeal, with original civil 
jurisdiction in disputed claims of 300/. and over, patents and admiralty 
actions, and election petitions ; (2) three assize courts, having unlimited 
criminal jurisdiction ; (3) three district courts, having, subject to (1) 
above, an unlimited civil jurisdiction ; (4) magisterial courts with summary 
jurisdiction; (5) three assistant district judges' courts. In all the courts 
Cypriot (Christian and Moslem) judges take part. There are also three 
Sheri Courts, for Moslems only, which administer the Moslem Sheri or 
ecclesiastical law, and a Sheri Tribunal of Appeal. In the year 1929 the 
number of offences was 31,683, and the number of persons committed to 
prison was 6,507. Strength of police force, December 31, 1929, 26 officers 
and 827 men ; total, 853. 

Finance. The revenue and expenditure for five years, exclusive of 
Grant- in- Aid, and share of the Turkish debt charge, were 

' 1925 ! 1926 ! 1927 I 1928 I 1929 




















Revenue 


668,131 


629,266 


655,997 


713,753 


757,117 


Expenditure . 


619,621 


655,227 


615,029 


679,980 


717,342 



Chief sources of revenue, 1929: excise, 175,4062. ; customs, 301,981?. ; 
sheep, goat, and pig taxes, 12,8192. ; verghi kimat, 29,00fi. ; defter hakani, 
21,9062. ; court receipts and stamps, 57,1822. ; port dues, &c., 27,9572. ; 
railway, 26,0732. ; forest produce, 11,2712. ; interest on Government moneys, 
35,9312. Annual grant from Imperial funds to revenue (not included above), 
92,8002. 

The above noted expenditure does not include Cyprus' share of the 
Turkish debt charge, 92,8002. per annum, but includes railway expenditure, 
1929, 19,887^. ; public debt, 1929, for harbours, railways and irrigation, 
167,7392, 

Since 1928 Cyprus contributes 10,0002. annually to Imperial defence. 

Production. Chief agricultural products in 1929: wheat, 2,195,173 
kiles; barley, 2,820,763 kiles ; vetches, 238,835 Itiles ; oats, 241,229 
kiles; olives, 7,939,058 okes ; cotton, 1,676,254 okes ; raisins, 8,924,873 



108 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: CYPRUS 



okes ; carobs, 259,657 cantars ; potatoes, 19,611,222 okes; linseed, 
351,736 okes ; silk, 13,827 okes; cocoons, 183,289 okes; cheese, 903,627 
okes; butter, 24,151 okes; flax, 127,565 okes; hemp, 56,096 okes; wine, 
4,406,185 gallons ; olive-oil, 2,034,511 okes. In 1930 there were 290,018 
sheep, and 235,470 goats. One-third of cultivable land is under 
cultivation, about 112,788 acres being under vineyard cultivation 
(1930). The Forest Department has done much for the preservation 
and development of the forests existing at the time of the British occupation, 
and for the re-afforestation of denuded districts. The area of delimited 
forest is 635 square miles. Sponge fisheries are carried on, the take in 1929 
being about 4,051 Ibs. Gypsum, terra umbra and marble are found in 
abundance ; cupriferous iron pyrites are being mined on a largo srale and 
291,929 tons of ore were exported in 1929. Asbestos is mined, 13,796 tons 
being exported in 1929. 

Commerce. The commerce, and the shipping, exclusive of coasting 
trade, for five calendar years were : 



- 


1925 


192C 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Merchandise : 

















Imports . 


1,583,198 


1,570,086 


1,585,306 


1,840,442 


1,983,833 


Exports . 


1,198,615 


1,103,571 


1,542,870 


1,435,767 


1,635,736 


Bullion and specie : ! 










Imports . 


4,085 


2,596 


3,757 


10,627 


1,596 


Exports . 


5,000 





18,524 


209 


6 


Shipping entered 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


and cleared 


1,333,306 


1,584,685 


1,746,757 


1,824,805 


2,048,764 



Imports, 1930, 1,419,9902. ; exports, 1,217,7272. 

Chief imports, 1929 : Beans and peas, 16,2832. ; butter, 9,8742. ; coifee 
raw, 27,8822. ; confectionery, 7,0352. ; flour, wheaten, 222,5282. ; fish, 
21,1032. ; oils, edible, 31,7082. ; oils, not edible, 22,0562. ; provisions, 
13,7632. ; rice, 17,5982. ; sugar, 40,0272. ; tobacco in leaf, 29,8122. ; coal, 
16,6442. ; iron and steel bars, joists, rods, etc., 18,6882. ; petrol and 
benzine, 61,3712. ; petroleum, 48,4082.; timber, 52,8102.; blasting powder, 
dynamite, etc., 9,8202. ; bedsteads, 10,0242. ; cement, 22,3722.; chemicals, 
10,4582. ; cotton manufactures, 218,7722. ; electric materials, 9,1202.; glass 
and glassware, 16,0952. ; haberdashery and millinery, 17,8482.; hardware 
and cutlery, 23,3702. ; implements of agriculture, 16,3682. ; iron and steel 
manufactures, 50,0762. ; leather and leather manufactures, 67,0352. ; machinery, 
169,8902.; manure, chemical, 83,1032.; medicines, 16,5622.; motor cars, 
motor cycles, and parts 65,7812. ; tyres and tubes for motor cars and 
motor cycles, 21,5882. ; paper and paper goods, 17,0982. ; sacks, 41,5602. ; 
silk manufactures, 28,6832. ; soap, 18,1052. ; stationery, 10,5142. ; woollen 
manufactures, 74,9142. 



Chief exports, 
carobs, 171,2642. ; 
almonds, 10,4032. 



1929 : Animals, 70,9182.; beans and peas, 6,7612.; 

cheese, 21,6722. ; barley, 49,5552. ; wheat, 16,1422, ; 

grapes, 11,0612. ; lemons and oranges, 42,9142. ; pome- 
granates, 22,2592. ; raisins, 67,1482. ; potatoes, 132,9242. ; vinegar, 5,9582. ; 
wines, 62,3242. ; tobacco, in leaf, 18,6772. ; asbestos, 292,9712. j cotton, 
raw, 55,4572. ; hides and skins, 31,4122. ; linseed, 10,2272. ; copper ore, 
pyrites, 279,4832. ; silk cocoons, 12,5342. ; silk, raw, 24,6322. ; spices and 
seeds, 21,7862.; sponges, 3,064; sumac, 7,7462.; terra umbra, 16,6012.; 
wool, 27,7732.; emoroidery and needlework, 21,4962. ; gypsum, 18,4552. 



HONG KONG 109 

Imports from United Kingdom (Board of Trade Returns), 1930, 358,630Z. ; 
1929, 468,0342. Exports to United Kingdom, 1930, 319, 637/,; 1929, 373,5492. 

Communications, etc, There are 513 miles of motor roads, 368 miles 
of good secondary roads, 2,084 miles of village roads, and 144 miles of bridle 
roads ; 245 miles of telegraph lines ; cable connects with Alexandria and Haifa. 
A narrow-gauge Government railway runs from Famagusta Harbour through 
Nicosia and Morphou to Evrykhou (76 miles), and a boat train connects 
with arrival of mail steamers from Egypt. Total number of letters, 
postcards, newspapers, book-packets, and parcels delivered in Cyprus, 
1929 : local, 2,362,511 ; received from abroad, 1,079,770 ; posted for abroad, 
826,472. Telephones are extensively used for the conduct of Government 
business. Total length of telephone lines, 250 miles. 

Money, etc, The Bank of Cyprus, the Ottoman Bank, the Bank of 
Athens and the Ionian Bank have establishments in the island. The 
Government Savings Bank was abolished in 1929. Coins current Gold 
sovereigns ; Silver, namely, 45 piastres, 18 piastres, 9 piastres, 4J piastres, 
and 3 piastres ; copper 1 copper piastre, J c.p. and J c.p. 9 copper 
piastres = 1 shilling. Government currency notes, of 52., 12., and 10s. 
denominations, are also in circulation, tho value at December 31, 1929, 
being 396,9992. Weights and measures are as follows : Length : 1 Cyprus 
Pic = yard; Weight : 1 Oke = 2'8 Ib. ; Capacity : 1 Kile = 8 Imperial 
gallons. 

Books of Reference concerning Cyprus, 

Annual Report of the Governor. 

Statistical Abstract for the Colonial and other Possessions of the United Kingdom. 
London. 

Baedeker's ' Palestine and Syria, including tho Island of Cyprus.' 5th ed. 1912. 

Sevan (W.), Notes on Agncultuie in Cyprus and its Products. 1019. 

Fhnn (W. H.), Cyprus : A Brief Survey of its History and Development Cyprus, 1924. 

Gordon (Helen C ), Love's Island [Incidents in the History of Cyprus] London, 1925. 

Jeffrey (G. E ), The Present Condition of the Ancient Architectural Monuments of 
Cyprus. Oxford, 1910. Historic Monuments of Cyprus. Cyprus, 1918. An Attempt at 
a Bibliography of Cyprus. Cyprus, 1930. 

Luke (H. C.), Cyprus under the Turks. Oxford, 1921. 

Storrs (R.)and O'Brien (B. J.), The Handbook of Cyprus. London, 1030. 

Macmillan'g Guides : The Eastern Mediterranean. London 

Memorandum on the Island of Cyprus. Hesperia Pres*, 1919. 

Orr (C. W. J ), Cyprus under British Rule. London, 1918. 

Oxford Survey of British Empire. Vol. I London, 1914. 



HONG KONG. 
Constitution and Government. 

THE Crown Colony of Hong Kong was ceded by China to Great Britain in 
January, 1841 ; the cession was confirmed by the treaty of Nanking, in 
August, 1842 ; and the charter bears date April 5, 1843. Hong Kong is 
the great centre for British commerce with China and Japan, and a military 
and naval station of first-class importance. 

The administration is in the hands of a Governor, aided by an Executive 
Council, composed of the General Officer Commanding the Troops, the 
Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, 
the Treasurer, and the Director of Public Works (the last being a special 
appointment), and three unofficial members. There is also a Legislative 
Council, presided over by the Governor, and composed of the General Officer 
Commanding the Troops, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the 
Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Treasurer, the Director of Public Works, 



110 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: HONG KONG 



the Captain Superintendent of Police, the Harbour Master, and the Director 
of Medical and Sanitary Services (the last four being special appointments), 
and eight unofficial -members, viz., six nominated by the Crown (three of 
whom are Chinese), one nominated by the Chamber of Commerce, and 
one by the Justices of the Peace. 

Governor Sir William Peel, K.B.E., K.C.M.G. Appointed February, 
1930. Salary 7,OOOZ., including 2,200Z. allowance. 

Colonial Secretary W T. Southorn, C.M.G. 

Area and Population. 

Hong Kong is situated at the mouth of the Canton River, about 90 miles 
south of Canton. The island is an irregular and broken ridge, stretching 
nearly east and west about 11 miles, its breadth from 2 to 5 miles, and 
its area rather more than 32 square miles ; separated from the mainland by 
a narrow strait, the Lyeemoon Pass, about half a mile in width. The 
opposite peninsula of Kowloon, on the mainland, was ceded to Great Britain 
by treaty in Oct. 1860, and now forms part of Hong Kong, The city of 
Victoria extends for upwards of five miles along the southern shore of the 
beautiful harbour. By a convention signed at Peking on June 9, 1898, 
there was leased to Great Britain for 99 years a portion of Chinese territory 
mainly agricultural, together with the waters of Mirs Bay and Deep Bay 
and the island of Lan-tao. Its area is about 356 square miles, including 
islands, with about 94,000 inhabitants, exclusively Chinese. Area of Old 
Kowloon is 3 square miles. Large areas have also recently been reclaimed 
at Kowloon Bay, Wanchai, and North Point. Total area of colony, 391 
square miles. 

The population of Hong Kong, excluding the Military and Naval establish- 
ments, was estimated to be at the end ol 1929 as follows : Non-Chinese 
civil population, 18,150; Chinese civil population: City of Victoria 
(including Peak), 577,500 ; villages of Hong Kong, 46,080 ; Kowloon 
(including New Kowloon), 296,480 ; New Territories (land), 96,250 ; popu- 
lation afloat, 109,050 ; total Chinese population, 1,125,360 ; total civil 
population, 1,143,510 ; 1921 Census returns : 12,856 Non-Chinese, 612,310 
Chinese; total 625,166. 

The registered births and deaths for five years were as follows : 



Year 


Birthg 


Deaths 


Births 
per 1,0001 


Deaths 
per 1,000 i 


1925 . 
1926 . 
1927 . 
1928 . 
1929 . 


3,654 
4,041 
7,500 
9,309 
10,223 


14,991 
12,516 
14,761 
14,757 
17,565 


4'64 
4'5 
8'4 
9'5 
9'8 


19 05 
15-90 
16-50 
15-1 
16-8 



i Birth and death rates are calculated only on the population of Hong Kong and 
Kowloon, there being no jurisdiction by the sanitary authorities over the New Territories 
(except New Kowloon). 

In 1926 the number of Chinese emigrants was 216,527, and the number 
of immigrants 128,661 ; in 1927, 285,593 and 181,100 ; in 1928, 257,162 and 
187,847, and in 1929, 227,523 and 185,390 respectively. 

Education, 

Education is not compulsory, but all schools are State-inspected, and 
required to maintain a certain standard of efficiency. There are 5 Govern- 



JUSTICE AND CRIME FINANCE DEFENCE 



111 



ment schools, including 1 first-class secondary school, for children of British 
parentage, with an average attendance of 352 (1929), and 13 Government 
schools for Chinese boys and two for Chinese girls, with a total average 
attendance of 3,423. There is one school for Indians, with an average 
attendance of 118 (1929). There are also numerous schools in receipt of 
grants. The total number of pupils in all schools in 1929 was 59,120. 
The total expenditure on education m 1929 was 1,152,375 dollars, net. 

The Hong Kong University in 1929 had 314 students, of whom 32 were 
women. The majority of the students are Chinese. The University is a 
residential teaching University with six halls of residence. 

Justice and Crime. 

There are a Supreme Court, the second court or Court of Summary 
Jurisdiction, and a third court or Appeal Court, three police magistrates' 
courts, and a marine magistrate's court. In 1929, 2,056 were committed 
to Victoria gaol for criminal offences ; in 1928, 1,117. The daily average 
of prisoners in gaol was 1,071 in 1928, and 1,075 in 1929. There is a police 
force in the colony numbering (1929) 2,007 men, of whom 253 are Europeans, 
739 Indians, and 1,015 Chinese. 

Finance. 

The public revenue and expenditure of the colony were as follows 
in recent years. The dollar of Hong Kong is of variable value ; for 1926 
it is here taken at 25. 2Jd. f 1927, 2.9. Od., 1928, 2*. OJrf., 1929, Is. lid. 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 



2,587,103 
2,084,506 


Year 


j Revenue 


Expenditure 


1926 
1927 



2,333,2(58 
2,184,453 


1028 
1929 


2,4Qrt,839 
( 2,257,303 



2,123,024 
2,106,728 



The revenue is derived chiefly from land-taxes, licences, quarry rent, 
liquor and tobacco duties, and an opium monopoly. 

Public debt, 341,8002., raised in 1887 and 1893 for public works. 
Another loan, 1,143,9332. in Inscribed Stock at 3i per cent, was raised in 
1906 for purposes of railway construction, also a 6 per cent. Public Works 
(1927) Loan of 5,000,000 dollars was authorised. On December 31, 1929, 
the balance of assets over liabilities was 9,662,852 dollars. 

Defence. 

The military expenditure for 1929 was 3,343,095 dollars. The Defence 
Corps cost 83,758 dollars for 1929. Hong Kong is the headquarters of the 
China Squadron. 

Industry, Commerce, Shipping, and Communications. 

The chief industries are sugar refining, ship-building and repairing, rope- 
making, tin refining, tobacco manufacture, the manufacture of cement, and 
the manufacture of knit goods. Deep-sea fishing is important, especially for 
the New Territories. 

The commerce of Hong Kong is chiefly with Great Britain, India 
and Ceylon, Australia, United States, China, Japan, Indo-Cbina, and 
Siam. Hong Kong is a free port (except as regards the importation of 
intoxicating liquor and tobacco). Principal articles of trade aie sugar and 
flour, rice, cotton, cotton yarn and cotton and woollen piece goods, silk, 



112 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: HONG KONG 



hemp, leather, tin, wolframite, mild steel, bulk and case oil (kerosene), oils 
and fats, peanuts, Chinese medicines, fish and fishery products, tea, coal, 
cement, condensed milk, matches. 

The trade of Hong Kong and the United Kingdom (Board of Trade 
returns) for five years is given as follows : 



- 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


1930 l 


Imports (consignments) 


& 


& 


& 








into Gt. Britain from 












Hong Kong .... 


664,502 


477,203 


481,206 


488,924 


422,188 


Exports of British Pro- 












duce to Hong Kong . 
Exports of Foreign and 


3,182,460 


4,909,904 


5,472,229 


6,162,007 


4,355,899 


Colonial produce . . 


67,077 


90,557 


97,526 


114,016 


95,132 



1 Provisional figures. 

Imports, 1930, x into Hong Kong from British Empire (excluding Great 
Britain), 3,708.84H. ; exports to British Empire (excluding Great Britain), 
4,419,584^.; impoits from foreign countries, 36,776,255<?.; exports to foreign 
countries, 34,556,790^. 

In 1929, 52,574 vessels (including 23,522 junks and 7,437 steamships 
under 60 tons), representing altogether 39,871,149 tons, entered and cleared 
in the foreign trade. Of these, 4,734 with a tonnage of 11,151,152 were 
British ocean-going steamers 

There is an electric tramway of 9J miles, and a cable tramway connect- 
ing The Peak district with the lower levels of Victoria. The British section 
of the Kowloon-Canton Railway was opened to traffic on October 1, 1910. 

There were 20 post offices in Hong Kong in 1929 ; revenue (1929) postal, 
816,455 dollars; telegraphic, 190,532 dollars; expenditure, postal, 369,108 
dollars; telegraphic, 228,244 dollars (salaries, wages, etc., 151,678, expendi- 
ture on new plant, 76,566 dollars. Telegraph lines, including cables, in 1928, 
427 miles; telephone wires, excluding military lines, 62,424 miles. There 
is a wireless telegraph service under the control of the Public Works Depart- 
ment, besides a military and naval wireless station. 

Money, Weights, and Measures. 

The British banking institutions in the Colony are the Hong Kong and 
Shanghai Banking Corporation, whose head office is at Hong Kong, the 
Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Mercantile Bank of India, 
Ltd., and the P. & 0. Banking Corporation, Ltd. Note circulation of the 
three former banks, end of 1929, 78,731,331 dollars. There are also several 
Chinese and foreign banks. 

The currency of the Colony consists of the notes of the above-mentioned 
banks, and of British, Hong Kong, and Mexican dollars, besides subsidiary 
coins. The British Dollar is of 416 grains of silver 900 fine, as compared 
with 41774 grains of 902 '7 fineness of the Mexican dollar. 

Subsidiary coins are 50 cent pieces (209*52 grains 800 fine), 20 cent pieces 
(83-81 grains 800 fine), 10 cent pieces (41 '90 grains 800 fine), 5 cent pieces 
(20 '95 grains 800 fine), and 1 cent copper pieces of 115*75 grains of copper 
or mixed metal. 

1 Provisional. 



INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 113 

"Weights and Measures are : 

The Tael . , = 1J oz. avoirdupois. 

Picul = 1331 Ibs. 

Catty = 1} ,, 

,, Chek = 14| inches. 

,, Cheung = 12 T \ feet. 

Besides the above weights and measures of China, those of Great Britain 
are in general use in the Colony. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Hong Kong. 

1. OFFIOTAL PUBLICATIONS. 

Administrative Reports. Annual. Hong Kong. 
Annual Report on Hong Kong. London. 
Blue Book (Annual). 

Convention between the United Kingdom and China respecting Extension of Hong 
Kong Territory. Treaty Series, No. 16. 1898. London, 1898. 
Government Gazette. Published weekly on Fndavs. 
Historical and Statistical Abstract Decennial. Hong Kong 
Names (Chinese) of Islands, Bays, Hills und Passes Hong Kong. 
Notes upon Climatic and General Conditions of Living. Hong Kong 
Sessional Papers. Annual. Hong Kong, 

2. NON-OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

Ireland (A.), The Far Eastern Tropics. [Studies in the administration of Dependen- 
cies]. London, 1905 

Lucas (G. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. 2nd ed. Vol.1. London, 
1906. 

Oxford Survey of British Empire. Vol. II. London, 1914. 



INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES. 

INDIA, as defined by Parliament (52 and 63 Viet. c. 63, s. 18), comprises 
all that part of the great Indian Peninsula which is directly or indirectly 
under British rule or protection. In a popular sense it includes also certain 
countries such as Nepal, which are beyond that area, but whose relations with 
India are a concern of the Foreign and Political Department of the Govern- 
ment, whose envoy resides in the country concerned. These countries will be 
found included in the third part of the YEAR-BOOK among Foreign 
Countries. The term British India includes only the districts subject 
to British law, and does not include Indian States. The term is so used, 
unless otherwise stated, in the tables, &c., that follow. 

Government and Constitution. 

The present form of government of the Indian Empire is established 
by various Parliamentary Statutes which are now consolidated in the 
Government of India Act, 1915, as amended by the Government of India 
(Amendment) Act, 1916, the Government of India Act, 1919, the Govern- 
ment of India (Leave of Absence) Act, 1924, the Government of India 
(Aden) Act, 1929, and other amending Acts of no great intrinsic importance. 
All the territories originally under the government of the East India 
Company are vested in His Majesty, and all its powers are exercised in his 
name. Under the Royal Titles Act, 1876, the King of Great Britain and 
Ireland has the additional title of Emperor of India. 

It is the declared policy of Parliament, as stated in the preamble of 
the Act of 1919, implementing the Declaration of August 20, 1917, to 
provide for ' the increasing association of Indians in every branch of the 



114 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions 
with a view to the progressive realisation of responsible government in 
British India as an integral part of the British Empire.' The Royal Statu- 
tory Commission was appointed on November 8, 1927, with The Rt. Hon. 
Sir John Simon, K.C.V.O., K.C., as Chairman. It made two visits to India 
in 1928-29, and its report was published in June 1930. 

In October, 1929, it was agreed between the Commission and H.M.G. 
that the Commission's terms of reference covered consideration of the 
relations of the Indian States with British India, and that after the 
Commission had reported a tiipartite conference of representatives of 
the British Government, Biitish India and the Indian States should 
be held to formulate proposals for the new Constitution of India. The 
decision to hold this Conierence was announced by the "Viceroy in India 
in a Gazette Extraordinary on October 31, 1929, together with the 
statement that * it is implicit in the Declaration of 1917 that the natural 
issue of India's constitutional progress, as there contemplated, is the 
attainment of Dominion Status.' The Conference met in London on 
November 12, 1930. 

Government in England. The administration of the Indian Empire 
in England is entrusted to a Secretary of State for India, assisted by 
a Council of not less than eight and not more than twelve members, 
appointed for five years by the Secretary of State. At least one-half of the 
members must be persons who have served or resided ten years in India, 
and have not left India more than five years previous to their appointment. 
No member can sit in Parliament. The duties of the Council, which 
has no initiative authority, are to conduct the business transacted in the 
United Kingdom in relation to the government of India. Subject to the 
Government ot India Act and rules made thereunder, the expenditure of the 
revenues of India, both in India and elsewhere, is subject to the control of 
the Secretary of State in Council, and no appropriation can be made without 
the concurrence of a majority of votes of the Council. The Secretary of State 
regulates the transaction of business. 

In exercise of the power given by the Government of India Act, a High 
Commissioner for India in the United Kingdom was in 1920 appointed to 
act as agent of the Governor-General of India in Council, and on behalf of 
provincial governments in prescribed cases, and to conduct any business 
assigned to him by the Secretary of State in Council. 

The salary of the Secretary of State, and the cost of the India Office for 
other than agency services are borne by the British, and not, as formerly, 
by the Indian Exchequer. 

Central Indian Government. The superintendence, direction and control 
of the civil and military government of India is vested in the Governor- 
General in Council, often styled the Government of India. The Governor- 
General, or Viceroy (so called since 1858), is appointed by the Crown, and 
usually holds office for five years. The Capital of India and the seat of 
government were moved from Calcutta to Delhi in 1912, the latter being 
formed into a separate territory under a Chief Commissioner. The creation 
of the new Capital at New Delhi was completed in December 1929 by the 
entry of the Viceroy into his new residence ' The Viceroy's House, ' planned 
by Sir Edwin Lutyens, R.A. The formal opening took place in February 
1931. The summer seat of the Government is at Simla [April to October], 

Viceroy and Governor- General of India. His Excellency the Rt. Hon. 
the Earl of Willingdun, G.C.S.I., G.C.M.G., G.C I.E., G.B.E. (April, 
1931). Salary, Rs. 2, 56,000 a year. 



GOVEKNMENT AND CONSTITUTION 



115 



The following is a list of the past Governors-General of India, with the 
dates of their assumption of office : 

Warren Hastings . . . 1774 

Sir John Macpherson. . . 1785 



Earl (Marquis) Cornwallis . 1786 

Sir John Shore (Lord Teignmcmth) . 1793 

Marquis Wellesley . . . 1798 

Marquis Cornwallis , . . 1805 

Sir Geo. H. Barlow . . . 1805 

Earl of Miii to . . 1807 

Earl of Moira (Marquis of Hastings) . 1813 

Earl Ambers t 1823 

Lord W. C. Bentmck .... 1828 

Lord Auckland 1836 

Lord Ellenborough .... 1842 
Sir H (Lord) Hard in ge . . .1844 

Earl (Marquis) of Dalhouslo . . 1848 

Lord Canning .... 1856 



Earl of Elgin 1862 

Sir John (Lord) Lawrence . . . 1864 

Earl of Mayo 1869 

Lord (Earl of) Northbrook . 1872 

Lord (Earl) Lytton . . 1876 

Marquis of Ripon . . 1880 

Earl (Marquis) of Dufferin . 1884 

Marquis of Lansdowne . 1888 

Earl of Elgin 1894 

Lord (Marquis) Curzon of Kedleston. 1899 

EarlofMinto 1905 

Lord (Viscount) Hardfe\ge of Pens- 
hurst 1910 

Lord (Viscount) Chelmsford . . 1916 

Earl (Marquis) of Heading. . . 1921 

Lord (Baron) Irwm .... 1926 



There is an Indian Legislature consisting of the Governor*General and 
two Chambers, the Council of State and the Legislative Assembly (opened 
1921). The Council of State consists of 60 members, of whom 33 are elected 
and 27 nominated : not more than 20 may be officials ; but not more than 
17 officials are at present (1929) nominated. The Legislative Assembly 
contains 145 members, 41 nominated, of whom 26 are to be official 
members, and 104 elected. The life of the Council of State is five years, 
and of the Assembly three years, but dissolution may occur sooner, or the 
period may be specially extended by the Governor-General. Joint sittings 
of the two Chambers may be held for the settlement of differences between 
them. The Legislative Assembly was presided over for the first four years 
by a President appointed by the Governor-General ; thereafter he is to be 
elected. This Legislature has power, subject to certain restrictions, to make 
laws for all persons within British India, for all British subjects within 
other parts of India, and for all native Indian subjects of the King in any 
part of the world. The Governor-General, with the assent of His Majesty 
signified, after copies of the proposed eaactment have been laid before both 
Houses of the British Parliament, may enact measures essential for the 
safety, tranquillity, or interests of British India or any part thereof, against 
the wish of the Council or Assembly. 

The Members of the Governor- General's Executive Council are appointed 
by the Crown i three must have had ten years' service in India, and one 
must be a barrister or pleader of not less than ten years' standing. They 
have charge of the following Portfolios : 

tfow*. Sir James Orerar, K.C.SJ , C,LE., I.C.S. (July 1927). 

Finance. Sir George Schuster, K.C.M.G., C.B.E., M.C. (November, 
1928). 

Education, Health and Lands. Khan Bahadur Mian, Sir Fad-i-Hussain, 
K.C. I.E., Kt. (April 1930). 

Law. Sir Brojendra Lai Mitter, Kt., Barrister -at- Law (December, 1928). 

JRailways and Commerce. Sir George Rainy, K.C. I.E., C.S.I., I.C.S. 
(April, 1927). 

Industries and Labour. Sir Joseph William BJwre, C.B.E., K.C.I.E., 
' I.C.S. (April 30, 1930). 

The salary of each member is Rs. 80,000 a year. 

The Foreign and Political Department is directly under the Governor- 
General, The Commander-in-Chief is also the Army Member of the Executive 



116 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

Council. At the head of each Department (except the Railway Department 
which is under the Chief Commissioner of Railways) is one of the Secretaries 
of the Government of India. 

British India is now divided into fifteen administrations. Madras, 
Bombay, Bengal, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the Punjab, 
Burma, Bihar and Orissa, the Central Provinces and Berar, and Assam are 
each under a Governor ; and the N.W. Frontier Province, Ajmer-Merwara, 
Coorg, Baluchistan, Delhi, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands are each 
under a Chief Commissioner as far as British territory is concerned. 
Detailed information regarding the British Provinces will be found at p. 144. 

High Commissioner for India in the United Kingdom. Sir Atul Chandra 
Chatterjee, K.C.I.E. (appointed 1925), India House, Aldwych, London. 

Provincial Government. According to the Government of India Act, 
1919, which came into operation in December, 1920, and January, 1921, 
the various functions of government are classified as Central and 
Provincial subjects, the latter being practically definitely committed to 
the Provincial Governments, while for purposes of convenience certain 
Central subjects, such as the collection of income tax, may be dealt 
with by the Provincial Governments as the agents of the Central Govern- 
ment. The Governor-General in Council retains unimpaired powers of control 
over the Provincial Governments in their administration of ' reserved ' 
subjects, but in ' transferred ' subjects is only competent to intervene 
where it is necessary to safeguard Central subjects or to decide questions 
where two or more Provinces are concerned, or to safeguard the due exercise 
and performance of any powers and duties possessed by or imposed on the 
Governor- General in Council in regard to the High Commissioner, to the 
raising of loans by local Governments, or under rules made by the Secretary 
of State in Council. The list of subjects transferred to Indian Ministers, 
with certain reservations, includes local self-government, medical administra- 
tion, public health and sanitation, education, public works, agriculture, 
fisheries, co-operative societies, excise, registration, development of 
industries, adulteration, weights and measures, and religious and charitable 
endowments. Certain sources of revenue are definitely allocated to the 
Provinces, which are required to contribute to the Central Government 
certain annual sums which are to be the first charge on their revenues. 

The Provincial Governments are based upon a scheme of dyarchy, 
or dualised form of government, and consist of the Governor-in-Council 
and the Governor acting with Ministers. The Ministers, who are elected 
members of the Legislative Council, have charge of certain Departments 
of Government known as transferred subjects,' while others, the ' reserved 
subjects,' are administered by the Governor-in-Council. Thus each side has 
its share in the conduct of the Government, with responsibility for its own 
work, while co-ordination is achieved by the influence of the Governor, who 
is associated with both sections. 

The Governor's Executive Council consists of not more than four members, 
to be appointed by the Crown, one being qualified by twelve years' public 
service in India. The Legislative Council contains not more than 20 per 
cent, of official members and at least 70 per cent, (in Burma 60 per cent. ) 
elected members, and, in addition to its legislative functions, votes all 
expenditure, subject to certain specified exceptions and to the power of the 
Local Government to incur expenditure, on reserved subjects without the 
Council's assent if the Governor certifies such expenditure to be necessary. 
The normal duration of the Legislative Council is three years, but it may 
be dissolved sooner by the Governor, or its term specially extended for one 
year. The Ministers are appointed by the Governor to administer the 



GOVERNMENT AND CONSTITUTION 117 

transferred subjects, and are not to be officials. The Governor may not be 
a member of the Legislative Council, but may address the Council. 

The Proyinces to which this new form of government has been applied are 
Bengal, Madras, Bombay, Bihar and Orissa, United Provinces, Punjab, Central 
Provinces, Coorg, Assam and Burma. The minimum number of members in 
each Legislative Council is : Madras, 118 ; Bombay, 111 ; Bengal, 125 ; United 
Provinces, 118 ; Punjab, 83 ; Bihar and Orissa, 98 ; Central Provinces, 70 ; 
Coorg, 17 ; Assam, 53 ; Burma, 92. The numbers may be increased 
There are 7*8 million voters out <of the population of 247 millions 
in British India, including Burma. In Madras, Bombay, Bengal, 
United Provinces, Punjab, Central Provinces, Assam, Burma, and 
Bihar and Orissa the franchise has been extended to women ; and 
women are eligible as candidates for the Madras, Bombay, United 
Provinces, Central Provinces, and Punjab Councils and for these con- 
stituencies in the Legislative Assembly. 

The provinces are usually formed into divisions under Commissioners, and 
then divided into districts, which are the units of administration. At the 
head of each district is an executive officer (collector and magistrate, or 
deputy- commissioner), who has entire control of the district, subject to 
the control of his official superior. Subordinate to the magistrate (in most 
districts) there are a joint magistrate, an assistant-magistrate, and one or 
more deputy-collectors and other officials. There are 273 of such districts 
in British India. 

Government of Indian States. The control which the Supreme Govern- 
ment exercises over the Indian States varies considerably in degree ; but they 
are all governed by the Indian Princes, ministers, or councils. The 
Princes have no right to make war or peace, or to send ambassadors to each 
other or to external States ; they maintain military forces within certain 
limits ; the sanction of the Government of India is required before Europeans 
of certain classes can be employed ; and the Supreme Government can exercise 
control in case of misgovernment. Within these limits the more important 
Princes are autonomous in their own territories. Some, but not all of 
them, are required to pay an annual fixed tribute. The number of Ruling 
Princes and Chiefs having a salute of guns is 119, and of States and Estates 
without a salute, 441. The total area is 598,138 square miles, with a 
population of nearly 70 millions. 

In 1921 a Chamber of Princes was established as a permanent consultative 
body to discuss matters relating to affairs of Imperial or common 
concern. In 1929 a committee under the chairmanship of Sir Harcourt 
Butler reported on the relations between the Paramount Power and the 
Indian States. Action on its recommendations is under consideration. 

Chancellor (1930). H.H. the Mahaiaja of Patiala. 

LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT. 

There were at the end of 1927-28, 774 municipalities, with a population 
of 19 millions. The total number of members of the municipal bodies 
was 12,677, of whom 11,786 were non-official. The municipal bodies have the 
care and lighting of the roads, water supply, drainage, sanitation, medical 
relief, vaccination, and education, particularly primary education ; they 
impose taxes, enact bye-laws, make improvements, and spend money, with 
the sanction of the Provincial Government. Their aggregate income in 
1926-27 was Rs. 17,00,52,389, exclusive of loans, sales of securities, 
and other extraordinary receipts amounting to Rs. 19,20,86,861. The 
aggregate expenditure was Rs. 18,42,75,329, excluding extraordinary and 
debt expenditure of Rs. 18,17,84,139. By the Local Self-Government Acts 



118 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



of 1883-84, the elective principle was introduced, in a large or small measure, 
all over India ; and has since been further extended by recent legislation. 
In all larger towns, and in many of the smaller towns, the majority of 
members of committees are elected by the ratepayers ; everywhere the 
majority of town committees consists of Indians, and in many committees 
all the members are Indians. In many municipalities women have the right 
to vote, and in a few they are eligible for election. For rural tracts, except 
in Burma, there were 787 district and sub-district Boards or Councils, and 
469 Union Panchayats in Madras, with 21,426 members in 1927-28, 15,744 
being elected. These Boards are in charge of roads, district schools, 
markets, public health institutions, &c. Their aggregate income iu 1927-28 
was Rs. 15,56,01,554, and expenditure Ks. 15,95,91,764. 

Area and Population. 

I. PROGRESS OF THE POPULATION. 
British Territory 



Year 


Area in sq. mis. 


Population 
(millions) 


Year 


Area m sq. nils. 


Population 
(millions) 


1871 
1881 
1891 


860,000 
875,186 
964,993 


184-85 
198-54 
220-87 


1901 
1911 
1921 


1,097,901 
1,093,074 
1,094,300 


231-25 
243-93 
247'00 



Following are the leading details of the census of March 10, 1911, and 
that of March 18, 1921 :- 



British Provinces 


Area m 
square miles 
(1921) 


Population 
in 1921 


Population 
in 1911 


increase 01 
Decrease 
1911-1921 


fop. per 
sq. mile 
1921 


Ajiner-Merwara 


2,711 


495,271 


501,395 


- 6,124 


188 


Andamans and Nicobars . 


3,143 


27,086 


26,459 


-f- 027 


9 


Assam .... 


53,015 


7,606,230 


6,714,299 


4- 891,931 


143 


Baluchistan 1 . 


54,228 


420,648 


414,412 


-1- 6,286 


8 


Bengal .... 


76,843 


46,695,636 


45,482,605 


-h 1,212,931 


608 


Bihar and Orissa 


83,161 


84,002,189 


34,489,544 


487,355 


409 


Bihar .... 


42,360 


23,380,288 


23,752,429 


- 372,141 


552 


Orissa. 


13,736 


4,968,H73 


5,133,753 


- 162,880 


862 


Chota Nagpur . 


27,005 


5,653,028 


5,606,362 


-h 47,666 


209 


Bombay (Presidency) 


128,621 


19,348,219 


19,696,266 


- 348,047 


157 


Bombay 


77,035 


16,012,342 


16,136,666 


124,324 


208 


Sind .... 


46,506 


3,279,377 


3,513,435 


- 234,058 


71 


Aden .... 


80 


56,500 


46,165 


-f- 10,335 


706 


Burma .... 


233,707 


13,212,192 


.12,115,217 


+ 1,096,975 


57 


Central Provinces A Berar 


99,876 


13,912,760 


13,916,158 


3,398 


139 


Central Provinces 


82,109 


10,837,444 


10,868,996 


- 21,552 


132 


Berar 


17,767 


3,075,316 


8,057,162 


-t- 18,154 


173 


Coorg .... 


1,582 


168 888 


174,976 


11,138 


104 


Delhi .... 


593 


488,188 


413,447 


-f- 74,741 


823 


Madras .... 


142,260 


42,318,085 


41,405,404 


-f- 018,581 


29 


North-West Frontier 












Province * 


13,419 


2,251,340 


2,196,933 


4- 54,407 


168 


Punjab .... 


99,846 


20,685,024 


19,578,578 


-f 1,106,451 


207 


United Provinces . 


106,295 


45,375,787 


46,807,490 


- 1,431,708 


427 


Agra .... 


82,137 


83,209,145 


34,249,486 


- 1,040,841 


404 


Oudh .... 


24,158 


12,166,642 


12,558,004 


- 891,862 


504 


Total Provinces 


1,094,800 


247,003,293 


243,933,178 


+ 3,070,115 


226 



1 Districts and Administered Territories. 



AREA AND POPULATION 



119 



In 1911 the population of British India consisted of 124, 707, 915 males and 
119,225,263 females; in 1921, of 126,872,116 males and 120,131,177 females. 

The following Indian States and Agencies were in political relations 
with the Indian Government at the time of the 1921 census : 



State or Agency 


Area in 
square miles 
m 1921 


Population 
in 1921 


Population 
in 1911 


Increase or 
Decrease 
1911-1921 


Pop. per 

sq. mile 
1921 


Assam (Mam pur) State . 


~ 8,456 


884,016 


346,222 


+ 37,794 


45 


Baluchistan States . 


80,410 


378,977 


420,291 


41,314 


5 


Baroda State . 


8,127 


2,120,522 


2,032,798 


-f- 93,724 


202 


Bengal States . 


5,434 


896,926 


822,505 


+ 74,361 


165 


Bihar and Orissa States . 


28,648 


3,959,609 


3,945,209 


+ 14,400 


138 


Bombay States (including 












States in the Western 












India Agency) 


63,453 


7,409,429 


7,388,051 


-I- 21,378 


117 


Central India Agency 


51,531 


5,997,023 


tt,129,019 


131,996 


116 


Central Provinces States . 


31,170 


2,060,900 


2,117,152 


- 50,252 


66 


Gwalior State . 


2(5,357 


3,186,075 


3,227,961 


- 41,886 


121 


Hyderabad State . 


82,698 


12,471,770 


13,374,676 


- 902,906 


151 


Kashmir State . 


84,258 


8,320,518 


3,158,126 


+ 162,392 


39 


Madras States Agency . 


10,690 


5,460,312 


4,811,841 


+ 648,471 


511 


Mysore State . 


29,475 


5,978,892 


5,806,193 


+ 172,699 


203 


N.W Frontier Province 












(Agencies A Tribal areas) 


25,500 


2,825,136 


1,622,094 


+ 1,203,042 


111 


Punjab States Agency 


37,059 


4,416,036 


4,212,794 


+ 208,242 


119 


Rajputana Agency . 


128,987 


9,844,384 


10,530,432 


686,048 


76 


Sikkiin State . 


2,818 


81,721 


87,920 


6,199 


29 


United Provinces States . 


5,949 


1,134,881 


1,189,874 


- 54,993 


191 


Total States 


711,032 


71,939,187 


71,223,218 


+ 715,969 


101 


Total India . 


1,805,332 


318,942,480 


315,156,396 


+ 3,786,084 


177 



Total population, Census March 8, 1931, 851,500,000. 
The following table shows the figures of previous decades: 



Census 
of 


Top ulat ion 


Variation per 
cent, since 
previous census 


Census 
of 


Population 


Variation per 
cent, since 
previous census 


1872 
1881 
1891 


206,11)2,360 
203,S!>6,330 
287,314,b71 


+ 232 

+ 13 2 


1901 
1911 
1921 


294,301,056 
315,150,3'Jo 
318,942,480 


+ 2-5 
+ 71 
+ 12 



The following table, in millions, applies to India, British territory and 
Indian States, in 1921 : 





Unmarried. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


Total. 


Males .... 
Females 


807 
54-8 


7M 
71-6 


10'3 
26-8 


1621 
153-2 



Total Population classified by age and civil condition . 
II. POPULATION ACCORDING TO LANGUAGE, &c. 



315-3 



The following are the languages more prevalent than English, with the 
numbers (in thousands) of people who speak them : 



120 THE BBITISH EMPIRE; INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 





No. of 




No. of 




No. of 


Language 


speakers 
(OOO's 


Language 


speakers 
(OOO's 


Language 


speakers 
(OOO's 




omitted) 




omitted) 




omitted) 




1921 




1921 




1921 


Western Hindi 


96,715 


- 
Malayalam . 


7,498 


Kashmiri . 


1,269 


Bengali 


49,294 


Lahnda or West 




Kurukh or OrAon 


866 


Telugu 


23,601 


ern Panjabi 


5,G52 


Tulu . 


592 


Marathi 


18,798 


Kherwari 


3,503 


Balochi 


485 


Tamil . 


18,780 


Smdhi 


3,372 


Kandhi or Kui 


484 


Punjabi 


16,234 


Bhili . 


1,850 


Sgaw . 


3(58 


RajasthanI 


12,681 


Assamese 


1,727 


Pwo . 


352 


Kanarese 


10,374 


Western Pahari 


1,634 


Manipuri . 


343 


OriyS . 


10,143 


Gondi . 


1,617 


Shan (unspeci- 


327 


Gujarat! 


9,552 


Pashto 


1,496 


fied) 




Burmese 


8,423 


Eastern Hindi 


1,400 







The English language comes next in order with 308,071. 

The British-born population was in 1911, 122,919; in 1921, 115,606. In 1921, the 
total number of persons not born in India, including the French and Portuguese posses- 
sions, was 603,526. Of these, 343,890 were from countries contiguous to India ; 
128,686, other countnes in Asia; 115,606, the United Kingdom; 10,587, European, 
American, or Australasian countries; 4,757 born in Afnca, Ac,, or at sea. 

III. OCCUPATIONS OF THE POPULATION. 

Distribution of the total population of India according to the occupations 
by which they were supported in 1921 : 



- 


Thous 


- 


ThouK. 


Pasture and agriculture . 
Fishing and hunting 
Mines, quarries, salt, Ac. 
Industry 
Including 
Textiles .... 
Dress and toilet 
Wood 


229,045 
1,607 
542 
88,167 

7,848 
7,425 
3,014 


Trade. ... 
Including 
Hotels, cafe's, Ac , an i 
other trade in foodstuffs 
Trade in textiles 
Banks, exchange, insur- 
ance, Ac. 
Other tiades 


18,115 

9,989 
1,286 

993 

5,846 


Food industries . 
Ceramics . . 


3,100 
2,215 


Army and Navy 
Air Force 


758 
1 


Building industries . 
Metals .... 
Chemicals, Ac. . 
Hides, skins, Ac. 
Other Industries 
Transport (including postal, 
telegraph, and telephone 
services) .... 


1,754 
1,602 
1,194 
731 
8,484 

4,331 


Police .... 
Public administration 
Professions and liberaliarts 
Including : Religion . 
Instruction 
Medicine . 
Others 
Domestic service 
All others , ... 


1,423 
2,644 
5,021 
2,458 
805 
660 
1,098 
4,570 
14 882 






Total 


316,055> 



1 The population here dealt with falls short of the actual population by 2,887,000 
persons who were not enumerated by occupation. 



IV. MOVEMENT OF THE POPULATION. 

The ratio of births and deaths in British India per thousand of the popu- 
lation under registration is officially recorded as follows : 



AREA AND POPULATION 



121 





Birth rates 


Death rates 


Province. 








1927 


1928 


1927 


1928 


Delhi 


40-53 


84-86 


30-32 


34-86 


Bengal Presidency . 


27-7 


29-0 


256 


25'5 


United Provs. of Agra A Oudh 


36-72 


38'24 


22'59 


24-15 


Punjab .... 


42 3 


46-3 


27-46 


24-7 


Central Provinces and Berar 


45-58 


46-51 


31,31 


33-66 


Burma .... 


25-08 


25-86 


19 55 


21-28 


Assam .... 


30-25 


81 24 


23-47 


2216 


Bihar and Orissa 


37-6 


38-3 


251 


25-3 


Madras Presidencv 


86-5 


374 


243 


26-4 


Bombay Presidency 


8685 


38-17 


25-72 


27-28 


N W. Front. Prov . 


293 


32-5 


2205 


19-3 


Coorg 


19-17 


1794 


31 36 


31-21 


Ajrner-Merwara 


30 46 


33 32 


2618 


25-90 


Total 


35-27 


36-78 


24-89 


25-59 



The registered deaths in 1928 numbered 6,180,114, of which choleia 
accounted for 351,305; plague, 121,242; fevers, 3,428,951; dysentery and 
diarrhea, 221,338. The births registered were 8,882,573(4,611,688 males 
and 4,270,885 females). 

The number of emigrants from India under the Indian Emigration Act, 
1922, was 136,489 during 1929. The emigration of unskilled labour is at 
present lawful to Ceylon and Malaya only, and of skilled labour to all 
countries, subject to certain safeguards. 

V. PRINCIPAL TOWNS. 
Tha urban population of India (excluding Aden) in 1921 was as follows : 



Towns with 


No. 


Population 


Over 100,000 
50,000100,000 .... 
20,000 50,000 . 
10,000 20,000 .... 


35 
54 
199 
450 


8,211,704 
3,517,749 
5,925,675 
6,209,583 


5,000 10,000 . 
Under 5, 000 


885 
690 


6,223,011 
2,331,054 


Total. 


2,313 


32,418,776 









The population (1921) of the principal towns of India was as follows : 



Towns Population 
Bombay. .1,175,914 
Calcutta (with 
suburbs) 1 .1,132,246 
Madras . . 526,911 
Hyderabad . 404,187 
Rangoon 341,962 
Delhi , . 304,420 
Lahore . . 281,781 
Ahmedabad . 274,007 
Lucknow . 240,566 


Towns 
Bangalore 
Karachi . 
Cawnpore 
Poona 
Benares . 
Agra 
Amritsar 
Allahabad 
Mandalay 
Ndgpur . 



Population 


Towns 


Population 


237,496 


Srinagar . 


. 141,735 


216,883 


Madura . 


. 138,894 


216,436 


Bareilly 


. 129,459 


214,796 


Meerut . 


. 122,609 


198,447 


Trichinopoly 


. 120,422 


185,532 


Jaipur . 


. 120,207 


160,218 


Patna . 


. 119,976 


157,220 


Sholapur 


. 119,581 


148,917 


Dacca 


. 119,450 


145,193 


Surat 


. 117,434 



Including Howrah it was 1,327,547. 



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EDUCATION 



123 



Towns 


Population 


Towns 


Ajmer 


113,512 


Jullundur 


Jubbulpore 


108,793 


Sialkot . 


Peshawar 


104,452 


Bikaner , 


Rawalpindi 


101,142 


Hubli 


Baroda . 


94,712 


Bhagalpur 


Indore . 


93,091 


Gaya 


Multan . 


84,806 


Allgarh (Koil) 


Mysore . 


83,951 


Jhansi . 


Moradabad 


82,671 


Coimbatore 


Calicut . 


82,334 


Bhatpara 


Hyderabad 




Saharanpur 


(Bombay) 


81,838 


Conjee veram . 


Lashkar . 


80,387 


Moulmein 


Imphal . 


80,003 


Kumbakonam . 


Ambala . 


76,326 


Tanjore 


Jodhpur . 


73,480 


Bhavnagar 


Rampur . 


73,156 


Gorakhpur 


Trivandrum . 


72,784 


Fyzabad 


Shahjahanpur. 


72,616 


Kolhapur 



Population 
71,008 
70,619 
69,410 
69,206 
68,878 
67,562 
66,963 
6,432 



Towns 
Shikapur. 
Mirzapur. 
Ferozepore 
Negapatam 
Darbhanga 
Cocanada 
Muttra . 
Salem 



65,788JFarukhabad 



62,261 !Cuddalore 
61,376iQuetta . 
61,301 Patiala ,. 
60,700 Bhopal . 
59,913 JAlwar . 
59,392 1 Jamnagar 
57,985|Bellary . 
56,620: 
55,594 



Population 

. 55,503 

, 54,994 

. 54,351 

. 54,016 

. 53,700 

. 53,348 

. 52,840 

. 52,244 

. 51,567 

. 51,007 

. 50,527 

; 49,001 

. 47,531 

. 45,094 

. 44,760 
42,495 

. 39,842 



Of the Christians the following are the chief sub-divisions (1921 census): 



Denominati 


on 




Persons I 


Denomination 




Persons 


Roman Catholics 






1,823,079 i 


Methodists . 




208,135 


Anglicans 






' 533,180 


Congregationalist . 




123,010 


Presbyterians 






254,838 


Salvationist . 




88,922 


Baptists 






. 444,479 


Synan (Romo-Synan) 




423,968 


Lutheran 






240,816 


Syrian (others) 




367,588 



Education. 

The following statistics are those of the census of 1921 : 



Males . . 
Females 


Able to read and 
write 

~ 19784M88""" 
2,782,213 


Unable to read and 
write 

T4 2, 623, 691 ~ 
150,807,889 


Total 

" 1627465, 129~~ 
153,590,102 


22,623,651 


293,431,580 


316,055,231! 



1 This number falls short of the total population of India by 2,887,249 persons 
enumerated in tracts where literacy was not recorded. 

The extent of literacy by sex and religion is thus shown : 



Numbers per raillo who are literate for all ages, 5 and over 



Religion 


1921 


1911 


1901 




Persons 


Males 


Females 


Persons 


Males 


Females 


Persons 


Males 


Females 


All Religions 


82 


139 


21 


69 


122 


12 


61 


112 


8 


Hindu . 


75 


130 


16 


64 


116 


9 


57 


107 


5 


Sikh . 


68 


107 


16 


77 


121 


16 


66 


110 


8 


Musalman . 


53 


93 


9 


44 


80 


5 


38 


70 


4 


Christian . 


285 


855 


210 


253 


839 


159 


245 


335 


147 



124 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



The persons with a knowledge of English numbered 2*5 millions. 

Educational institutions in India are of two classes : (a) those in which 
the course of study conforms to the standards prescribed by the Department of 
Public Instruction or by the Universities or Boards of Sccondaiy and Inter- 
mediate Education, and either undergo inspection by the Department, or 
regularly present pupils at the public examinations held by the Department 
Universities or the Boards. These institutions are called Recognised,' 
but may be under public or private management, (b) Those that do 
not fulfil these conditions. These are called * Unrecognised. ' As regards 
recognised institutions, the system of education operates, in general, 
through (i) the Primary Schools, which aim at teaching, through the vernac- 
ular languages, reading, writing, and other elementary knowledge ; (ii) the 
Secondary Schools, in which the instruction does not go beyond the matricu- 
lation or school-leaving certificate standard. The schools are divided into 
English or vernacular, and also into high and middle schools ; (in) the 
Intermediate Colleges ; and (iv) the Colleges. The colleges are affiliated 
to eight federal universities Calcutta (1857), Madras (1857), Bombay (1857), 
Punjab (1882), Patna (1917), Nagpur (1923), Andhra (1926), and Agra 
(1927). There are also six unitary teaching and residential universities 
Allahabad (1887), Lucknow (1920), Rangoon (1920), Dacca (1921), Delhi 
(1922), and Annamalai (1929) ; two denominational universities the Hindu 
University at Benares (1916), and the Muslim University at Aligarh (1920) 
and two universities in Indian States Mysore (1916) and Hyderabad 
(Osmania) (1918). 

There are in addition, various institutions of a special character, such 
as technical schools teaching arts and industries, engineering, &c. ; law 
schools ; medical schools ana colleges ; and training colleges and normal 
schools for the training of teachers, schools for adults, defectives, criminal 
and hill tribes, labourers and factory children ; and reformatoiy schools for 
juvenile offenders. 

The following table gives the number of institutions and scholars in 1928-29 
in British India, including Ajmer-Merwara, British Baluchistan, the Civil 
and Military Station of Bangalore, and the administered areas in Indi.in 
States : 



Type of Institution 


Instit 
For Males 

16 
223 
11,566 
171,386 


utions 
For Females 

19 

1,021 
30,302 


Schc 

In Insti- 
tutions 
for Males 


lars 

In Insti- 
tutions 
for Females 

1,364 
150,483 
1,132,972 
1,293,819' 

227 

5,597 
9,044 


General Education. : 
Universities .... 
Arts and Science colleges 
Secondary schools . 
Primary schools . 
Total 


8,078 
67,163 
1,952,493 
7,860,619 
9,908,353 

17,425 
25,753 
287,279 


183,191 


31,342 


Special Education : 
Professional colleges 
Training schools . 
Special schools 
Total 


04 
548 
8,258 


7 
201 
188 


8,865 
30,792 


396 
8,430 


330,457 
541,470 


14,868 
76,872 


Indigenous schools : 
Unrecognised institutions . 

Grand Total 


^2l>, 848* 


35.168 


10,780,2M) 
12,16 


1,88^,559^ 
5,889 


258,016 



* There are ix Boards of Secondary or Intermediate Education in British India which 
are not included in this table. 



JUSTICE AND CEIME 



125 



There were in 1928-29 in British India 223,796 'recognised* institutions 
with 11,547,497 scholars, and 34,222 'unrecognised ' with 618,342 scholars. 

The following was the educational expenditure for recognised institutions 
in recent years from fees, provincial resources, local rates, municipal funds, 
endowments, etc. : 



Year 


RS. 


I Year 


Rs. 


1923-24 
1924-25 
1925-26 


19,90,36,346 
20,87,02,222 
22,77,83,531 


i 1926-27 
! 1927-28 
1928-29 


24,58,47,572 
25,82,78,819 
27,07,32,253 



A system of State Scholarships exists by which it is possible for a boy 
to pass from the village school to the University. There are also State 
Scholarships, awarded by local Governments and the Government of India, 
to enable the holders to study in the United Kingdom for two or more 
years. 

During 1928-29 the following newspapers and periodicals were published : 
in Madras, 310 ; Bombay, 314 ; Bengal, 742 ; United Provinces, 620 ; Punjab, 
409 ; Burma, 154 ; Bihar and Orissa, 140 ; Central Provinces and Berar, 65 ; 
Assam, 45 ; Delhi, 79 ; N.W.F.P., 11. The number of printing presses was 
5,919 ; and 2,332 books in English or other European languages and 14,815 in 
Indian languages were published. 



Justice and Crime. 

The Presidencies of Madras, Bombay, and Bengal, and also the 
Province of Agra, the province of Bihar and Orissa, the province of the 
Punjab and the Province of Burma, have each a supreme high court, with 
14, 10, 16, 12, 11, 13 and 11 judges, respectively, in 1930. There is appeal to 
the Privy Council in England. Oudh has a chief court. The Central 
Provinces and Berar, North-West Frontier Province, Coorg, Sind, and Chota 
Nagpur have judicial commissioners. For Assam the high court of Calcutta is 
the highest judicial authority. Below these courts are, for criminal cases, Courts 
of Session, and below these, Courts of Magistrates (first, second, and third 
class). The inferior civil courts are determined by special acts or regulations 
in each province. The most extensive system consists of the sessions judge 
acting as a ' District Judge '; subordinate judges ; and below them ' Munsifs.' 
There are also numerous special courts to try small causes. Side by side with 
the civil courts there are revenue courts, presided over by officers charged 
with the duty of settling and collecting the land revenue. The number of 
civil suits instituted in 1928 was 2,326,000, and of persons under trial in 
criminal cases 2,211,000. 

Nearly all the civil judges, and the great majority of the magistrates, in the 
courts of original jurisdiction are Indians ; in Bengal, Madras, and Bombay 
the proportion of Indians in the appellate court is considerable. 

The civil police in 1928 were 192,635 in strength, varying from 4*2 per 
10,000 of the population in Bihar and Orissa to 25 per 10,000 in the North- 
West Frontier Province. 



126 THE BRITISH EMPIBE: INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



Finance. 1 

(Rs. 10 = 1.) 
Figures from 1928 converted at Rs. 13J = 1. 



Years 


Revenue 


E>penditure Charged to Revenue 


ended 


_ - , ___ 


. _ 





March 31 


In India a 


In England 


Total 


In India <J , In England 


Total 




1,000 


J6 1,000 


1,000 


1,000 1,000 


1,000 


1027 


127.K81 


3,819 


131,700 


104,580 


27,120 


131,700 


1928 


92,939 


2,508 


95,447 


6VS42 


26,605 


Q5,447 


]029 


94,356 


2,371 


96,727 


69,015 


27,349 


96,964 


19302 


95,579 


3,935 


99,514 


70,211 


29,102 


99,313 


19312 


99,141 2,590 101,731 72,922 28,1(54 


101,0b6 



1 Since tbe introduction of the Reforms from April 1, 1921, definite sources of revenue 
are now allocated to Provincial Governments. Hence the accounts and estimates of the 
Government of India now embrace only the transactions of the Central Government. 
Provincial Governments used to pay annual contributions to the Central Government. 
The contributions in the first year were R. 983 lakhs. These were reduced to Rs 608 lakhs 
in 1926-27. In 1927-28 there was a permanent remission of 350 lakhs, and a non-recurring 
remission of the balance Rs. 258 lakhs. There was complete and final remission of Pio- 
vincial contributions from 1928-29. 

2 Estimates. 

3 Figmes for the Central Government only, and including Exchange, 

The following table shows the items of revenue and expenditure of the 
Central Government, in India and England, for 1930-31 (Budget estimates) . 



REVENUE. 




EXPENDITURE. 




Heads of Revenue, 


1930-1931 


Heads of Expenditure. 


1930-1931 


Customs .... 
Taxes on Income . 
Salt . ... 


Rs. 

54,63,81,000 
17,99,78,000 
7 04 83 000 


Customs .... 
Taxes on Income . 

Salt 


H 

98,14,000 
75,89,000 
1 33 49,000* 




2,71,80,000 


Opium 


(54,57,000 


Land Revenue 
Excise 


40,17,000 
53,82,000 


I^and Revenue 
Excise 


10,30,000 
17,59,000 




28,84,000 


Stamps ..... 


65 000 


Forest 


32,46,000 




40 91 OOO 1 


Registration .... 
Tributes from Indian States. 
Railways (net receipts). 
Irrigation (net receipts) 
Posts and Telegraphs (net 
receipts) .... 

Interest Receipts . 
Civil Administration 


1,60,000 
73,98,000 
88,10,00,000 
14,25,000 

21,52,000 
33,45,31,000 
1,06,44,000 


Registration .... 
Railways 
Irrigation .... 
Posts and Telegraphs . 
Debt Services. 
Civil Administration . 
Currency and Mint 
Civil Works .... 


80,000 
32,36,43,000 
25,71,000 
92,73,000 
17,81,58,000 
13,26,60,000 
77,66,000 
2,81,00,000 


Currency and Mint 
Civil Works .... 
Miscellaneous. 
Military Receipts . 
Extraordinary Items . 


2,89,15,000 
26,17,000 
80,11,000 
3,62,08,000 
32,00,000 


Miscellaneous . . 
Military Services . 
Extraordinary Items . 


4,10,87,000 
57,97,08,000 
60,000 


Total . , 


1,35,64,11,000 


Total 


1,34,78,11 000 











1 Includes Rs. 1,82,000 for capital outlay on Salt Works. 
Includes Ra. 4,51,000 for Forest capital outlay. 

The following table shows the items of revenue and expenditure of the 
Provincial Governments for 1030-31 (Budget estimates): 



FINANCE 



127 



RKVKNUE. 




EXPENDITURE. 




Heads of Rc\enue. 
Land Revenue 


1930-1931 

Rs. 

35,85,60,860 
13,61,15,900 


Heads of Expendituie. 

Land Revenue 
Stamps 


1930-1931 

~ Rs. 
4,27,62,183 
31 80 318 




10,55,85,700 


Excise 


2,05,09,232 


Taxes on Income . 


29,2o,000 


Forests 


3,46,17,064 


Forests 


5,70,99,143 


Registration . . 


77,58,220 


Registration . 
Scheduled Taxes . 
Interest , 
Receipts by Civil Department 
Miscellaneous 
Railways 


1,40,36,900 
39,^0,000 
2,46,96,100 
4,08,30,953 
1,77,17,000 
2,85,000 
7 77 47 301 


Scheduled Taxes . 
Assignments AConti ibutions 
Interest ... , 
Salaries, etc , of Civil Deptn. 
Miscellaneous . 
Railwa>s .... 
Irrigation .... 


38,000 

3,42,45,394 
57,19,43,352 
7,22,39,112 
73,134 
5 86 39 557 


Civil Works . 
Assignments^ Contributions 
Extraordinary Items . 


98,25,800 
1,00 04,000 


Civil Works .... 
Extraordinary Items . 


12,23,96,702 
20,000 


Total .... 


95,51,58,667 


Total .... 


96,84,22,274 



The estimated capital expenditure of the Central Government on State 
railways in 1930-31 was 12,562, OOO/., and initial expenditure on New 
Delhi, 3SS,800/. 

The following table shows the receipts of both the Central and Provincial 
Governments from the most impoitant sources of revenue in recent years : 



Year ended ! T mnAl 
March 31 | Landl 


Opium 


Salt* 


Stamp* 


Excise 8 


Cus- 
toms 4 


Taxes 
on In- 
come 5 


Railways 

(net 
receipts) 


Irrigation 




1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1925-2G 


36,862 


4,150 


6,330 


13,656 


19,897 


47,780 


16,120 


34,434 


6,287 


1926-27 


34,883 


4,381 


6,698 


13,196 


19,827 


47,381 


15,983 


34,093 


6,801 


1927-28 


26,76.'. 


2,9^9 


4,974 


10,181 


14,866 


36,161 


11,570 


29,042 


5,215 


1928-29 


24,872 


2,449 


5,699 


10,298 


14,983 


36,960 


12,792 


28,180' 


5,782 


1 929-80 


26.4SO 


2,312 


5,041 


10,634 


15,357 


38,266 


13,049 


27823 


5,678 


1930-31 


27,194 


2,038 


5,286 


10,425 


15,078 


40,979 


13,718 


2S,5i>7 


5,938 



1 Exclusive of Portion of Land Revenue due to irrigation. 

2 The salt duty was raised in 1P23, and reduced to previous level in 1924. 

* The Excise revenue is derived from intoxicating liquors, hemp drugs, and opium con- 
sumed m the country. The bulk of the revenue comes from spirits. The excise systems 
and rates of duty vary from province to province. 

4 Liquors, petroleum, sugar, tobacco, cotton manufactures, metals, manufactured 
articles, are the chief items from which the customs revenue is derived. Under this head 
are also included the proceeds of export duties on rice, on jute (imposed in 1916), on tea 
(imposed in 1916, abolished in 1927), and on hides (imposed in 1919); and of excise duties 
on motor spirit (imposed in 1917), and on kerosene (imposed in 1922). The import of silver 
bullion and coin except under licence was prohibited in July, 1917, but the prohibition 
was withdrawn during 1920-21. 

8 Includes the proceeds of a super-tax imposed in 1917. 

6 The figures from 1924-25 to 1926-27 have been converted at the rate of Rs.10 to the , 
and those from 1927-2& at the rate of Rs 13| to the . 

7 Includes the proceeds of an excess profits duty imposed in April, 1919. 
Estimates. 

Land Revenue. This is levied according to an assessment on estates or hold- 
ings. In the greater part of Bengal, and Bihar and Orissa, about one-fourth 
of Madras, and some districts of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the 
assessment was fixed permanently at the end of the 18th century ; while it ia 
fixed periodically at intervals of from twelve to forty years over the rest of 
India. For details as to the nature of the different tenures of land that prevail 
in India see the YEAR-BOOK for 1886, p. 799. See also under AGRICULTURE. 



128 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



The land revenue was contributed in 1929-30 (revised estimate) as 
follows : 



Administrations 
India, General 

Baluchistan .... 
N.W. Frontier Province 

Madras 

Bombay ..... 

Bengal 

United Provinces of Agra and 

Oudh .... 



Rs. Administrations Rs. 

6,41,000 Punjab 2,64,21,000 

11,05,000 Burma 5,53,66,000 

22,47,000 Shan States Federation . . 4,76,000 
6,28,96,000 Bihar and Orissa . . . 1,77,03,000 
4,98,54,000 Central Provinces and Berar . 2,09,32,000 

8,28,90,000 Assam 1,22,38,000 

Coorg 3,78,000 

. 6,99,98,000 

Opium. In British territory the cultivation of the poppy for the production 
of opium is practically confined to the United Provinces, and the area under 
cultivation in that Province is being gradually reduced. Opium is also 
grown in many of the Indian States of Central and Northern India. The 
question of suppressing poppy cultivation in these States has been investi- 
gated by a Committee, which started work in November, 1927. After giving 
careful consideration to the report submitted by the Committee, the Govern- 
ment of India have formulated a scheme which forms at present the basis of 
negotiations with the States. Public auctions at Calcutta were discontinued 
from April 1926. Export to China was prohibited in 1913 ; and in June 1926 
the Government of India decided to reduce progressively exports of opium 
from India, except for strictly medical and scientific purposes, so as to ex- 
tinguish them altogether at the end of 1935, The maximum for each country 
is fixed, and a reduction of 10 per cent, of the 1926 exports is made each year. 
Army Expenditure. The net expenditure in recent years on military 
services is given as follows : 



Year ended March 81 j 


Year ended March 81 


- 


i 
1924 ! 
1025 l 
1920 
1927 j 


Rs. Crores 
56.23 
55.63 
56.00 
55.97 


1928 
1929 
lOsorE*' images) 
1931 (Estimates) 


Us Ciore"> 
54.79 
55.10 

55 10 
0435 



Debt. On March 31, 1930, out ot a total debt of 1,131.72 crores (sterling 
portion converted at Is. Qd. = R. 1), 772.52 crores were productive in rail- 
ways, telegraphs and irrigation; 177.02 crores were unproductive; 39.73 
crores on account of cash, bullion and securities held on Treasury account ; 
and 142.45 crores were incurred on behalf of Provincial Governments. 

Finance of Separate Governments, and Local Finance. The revenue and 
expenditure of each Government, Central and Provincial, in 1928-29 (revised 
estimates) were as follows : 



Government 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


India, Central 
Madras .... ... 
Bombay 


RK. 

1,32,84,08,000 
18,75.88,000 
16,02,48,000 


Rs 

1,32,49,08,000 
17,53,75,600 
15,97.54.000 


Bengal 


11,38,46,000 


11,43,56,000 


United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. 
Punjab 
Burma . 


13,18,60,720 
11,37,40,000 
10,45,29,000 


12,37,17,660 
11,49 61,000 
11,22,21,000 


Shan States Federation 
Bihar and Orissa 


50,93,000 
5,88,59,000 
6,38,68,000 


66.03,000 
6,11,35,000 
5 54,83, (500 


Assam 


2,73,69,000 


2,92,81,000 


Coorg .... .... 


15,51,000 


15,06,000 



Local Funds. The above excludes the revenue and expenditure of muni- 
cipalities and of district and local boards. The income of the former is 



DEFENCE 



129 



derived mainly from rates, octroi, taxes on houses, lands, vehicles and 
animals, tolls, and assessed taxes ; and of the latter from cesses on land. 
The gross income for 1927-28 of all municipalities was Rs. 36, 21, 39, 250, 
The gross expenditure was Rs. 36, 60, 59, 468. The income of district and 
local boards was Rs.15,56,01,554, and the expenditure Rs. 15,95,91,764. 

Defence. 

The defence forces of India consist of units of the Royal Air Force, units 
of the British Regular Army, the Indian Army, the Auxiliary and Territorial 
Forces, the Indian Army Reserve and the Indian State Forces. With the 
exception of the last, these forces are administered by the Air Vice-Marshal 
and the headquarters staffof the Army in India respectively, under the supreme 
control of the Commander-in-Chief, who is the Army-Member of the Viceroy's 
Executive Council. The military forces are organised into the Northern, 
Southern, Eastern and Western Commands, and the Burma Independent 
district ; each Command contains a number of districts and independent 
brigades. The garrison of Aden was transferred in 1927 from the Indian 
to the Home Commahd. 

The Biitish regular forces in India are paid by the Indian exchequer. 
They are organised in brigades and divisions with the Indian Army, the 
normal proportion being 1 British battalion to 3 Indian. There are 19J 
Indian Pack Batteries. The personnel of the remaining batteries of Horse, 
Field and Garrison Artillery is wholly British except for a proportion of 
Indian drivers. The Tank Corps and Royal Air Force are wholly British. 

The Auxiliary Force, organised under the Indian Auxiliary Force Act, 
1920, is confined to persons of British extraction. Enrolment is voluntary, 
but entails periodical training extending to 64 hours annually for infantry 
and 80 hours for other arms. The force, which comprises all arms, is liable 
to be called out or embodied for local service within strictly defined limits, 
and acts as a second line to the permanent garrison of India. Its strength 
in 1929 was 31, 600. 

The Indian Territorial Force was brought into existence in 1920, and is 
organised on the lines of a militia, with an annual training of 28 days. It is 
intended to form a second line to the regular Indian Army in time of war, the 
whole of its personnel being liable to general service. Its strength in 1930 was 
18 provincial, 4 urban, and 11 university training corps units. Strength, 
15,400. 

The Army in India Reserve has been recently constituted, in 2 classes : 
class A, of men who have completed from 5 to 7 years' army service with 
less than 15 years' combined service ; class B, of men up to 15 years' 
combined service. Strength in 1929 was 32,436. 

The Indian State Forces are raised and maintained by Indian States, and 
are trained under the supervision of British officers, who act in an advisory 
capacity. Strength, in 1929, 44,000. 

The composition of tke forces in India was, in 1930, except for Indian 
State Forces, as follows : 













n 
<u 
"C 


2 









1 




3 





eft 


CO 


9 





! 


. S ! 3 


si 




fri 
It 
33 


R.H.A. 
Batterie 


R.F.A. 
Battene 


Medium 
Batterie 


PackBa 


a 5, 

* 8 

00 


8. A M. 
Compan 


Infantry 
Battalio 


Pioneer 
Battalio 


Armour* 
Compan 


British 


5 


4 


44 


9 


6 





. 


45 


^^ 


8 


Indian 


21 








19* 


4 


J4J 


123 


7 





130 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



AUXILIARY AND TERRITORIAL FORCES. 





Cavalry 
Regiments 


R.F. &R.G.A. 
Batteries 


Engineenng 
Units 


1, _, Railway 
1 -* 1 Battalions 


Infantry 
Battalions 


S- 
8 

. M 

SI 




ll 

fc> 


ri 

Sj 
t>fi 


Auxiliary Force .... 
Territorial Force .... 


10 


21 


4 


25 
22 


1 


4 


ll 



The strength of the British army in India in 1930 was 61,284, and 
of the Indian Army 168,660. The Field Army is organised in 4 divisions 
and 5 cavalry brigades. 

The supply and transport services are provided by the Indian Army 
Service Corps. The medical services of the Britiwh troops are provided 
by the Royal Army Medical Corps, and those of the Indian Army by the 
Indian Medical Service. 

Theie are units of the Indian Army serving in Iraq, Palestine, and 
Colonial stations. The&e are paid by the British exchequer. 

The 7th Light Cavalry, the 16th Light Cavalry, the 2/lst Madias 
Pioneers, the 4/19th Hyderabad Regt., the 5th Royal Battn. 5th Mahratta 
Light Infantry, the l/7th Rajput Regt., the l/14th Punjab Regt, and the 
2/lst Punjab Regt. have been selected for Indianisation. Ten Indian 
gentlemen are now nominated annually to the Royal Military College, Sand- 
hurst, to enable them to quality for commissions in the Indian Army. The 
preliminary education is given at the Prince of Wales' Royal Indian Military 
College at Dehra Dun. 

The Royal Air Force in India comprises 6 squadrons organised in 3 wings 
of 2 squadrons each ; the Aircraft Depot and Aircraft Parks are directly 
under R.A.F. Headquarters, India. Its establishment is 260 officers and 
1,912 British and 148 Indian other ranks. 

The Government of India has decided to complete the reconstruction of 
the Royal Indian Marine in accordance with the recommendations of the 
Departmental Committee of 1925, but the force will not have the right to 
be called the Royal Indian Navy. It has now, however, become a com- 
batant force serving under conditions similar to those originally proposed for 
the Royal Indian Navy. At present the seagoing units of the R.I M. com- 
prise the 4 sloops Hindustan (completed 1930), Cornwallis, Clive and 
Lawrence, 2 surveying vessels and 2 patrol vessels. 

Agriculture and Industry. 

Agriculture, Land Tenure, <bc.~ The chief industry of India has always 
been agriculture. The total number of the population supported by agri- 
culture, including forestry and raising of livestock, was, according to the 
census of 1921, a little more than 229 millions out of a total population of 
318 millions. In most of the provinces there is a Department of Land 
Records, and in every province a Department of Agriculture. There are 
staffs of experts in the provinces ; an Imperial staff of experts with a fully 
equipped central station, Research Institute and College for post graduate 
training of private students and of those who have completed the Agri- 
cultural Course in provincial colleges ; a Civil Veterinary Department for the 
prevention and cure of cattle diseases ; an Imperial Institute for veterinary 
research for the preparation of sera and antitoxins, and an Imperial Institute 
of Animal Husbandry and Dairying. Following the recommendations made 



AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY 



131 



by the Royal Commission on Agriculture, an Imperial Council of Agricultural 
Research has been established by the Government of India with the object 
of promoting, guiding and co-ordinating agriculture and veterinary research 
throughout India. Improved varieties of crops have been introduced in 
over 12 million acres, the average increased value of the produce being over 
Rs. 14 crores. 

In provinces where the zaminddrl tenure prevails (i.e., where single pro- 
prietors or proprietary brotherhoods possess large estates of several hundreds 
or thousands of acres), the State land revenue is assessed at an aliquot part 
(usually about one half) of the ascertained or assumed rental. The revenue 
is payable on each estate as a whole, the assessment remaining unchanged 
(or the period of settlement. In the greater part of Bengal, and Bihar and 
Orissa, and in parts of the United Provinces and Madras the settlement 
is a permanent one and not liable to revision. In provinces where the 
raiyatwdri (or ryotwari) tenure prevails (i.e., where each petty proprietor 
holds directly from the State, as a rule cultivates his own land, and has no 
landlord between himself and the Government), the revenue is separately 
assessed on each petty holding, and land revenue becomes payable at once 
(or after a short term of grace in the case of uncleared lands) on all exten- 
sions of cultivation. The raiyatwdri proprietor may throw up his holding, 
or any portion of it, at the beginning of any year after reasonable notice, 
whereas the zaminddr or large proprietor engages to pay the revenue assessed 
upon him throughout the term of tne settlement. 

The following table shows in 1927-28 the latest available returns of the 
land surveyed under the two types of tenure, and the land revenue assessed: 





Zamindari and Village 
Communities 


Raiyatwari, Ac. 


Province 


Area 
Surveyed. 


Population 
ofSurveyed 


Revenue 
Rs. 


Area ; Population 1 -r,^ 
Surveyed, 'of Surveyed) Rev ie 




Acres 


Area 




Acres 


Area 




Madras (23-24) . 


29,628,376 


11,924,946 


86,05,620 


62,091,336 


30,394,039 


6,42,33,856 


Bombay (includ- 














ing Hind) 25-26 


4,042,903 


(a) 


(a) 


74,594,123 


18,117,112 


4,76,46,024 


Bengal (22-23) . 


49,175,515 


45,787,685 


2,91,57,672 











United Provinces 














(26-27) 


67,553,738 


45,858,489 


7,19^9,917 











Punjab (27-28) . 


GO, 245,385 


20,601,923 


5,03,67,303 











Burma (27-28) . 











155,652,668 


13,212,192 


5,76,44,779 


Bihar and Orissa 














(26-27) . 


53,078,859 


34,003,550 


1,63,81,227 











Central Provinces 














and Berar (27-8) 


40,452,892 


13,912,760 


2,24,97,229 


23,667,5031 


(b) 


(t>) 


Assam (27-28) . 


5,679,303 


(a) 


17,11,762 


*9,620, 667 


7,469,398 


1,01,44,555 


N.-W.Pron.rrov. 














(27-28) . 


8,437,402 


2,339,383 


27,84,041 











Ajmer-Merwara. 














(27-28) . 


1,770,921 


839,574 


3,66,762 








. 


Pargana Manpur 














(27-28) . . 


~ 








31,353 


4,565 


16,176 


Coorg (27-28) . 





_ 





1,012,260 


163,838 


4,12,684 


Delhi (27-28) . 


369,398 


488,188 


4,84,592 





" 






(a) Included under Raiyatwari, Ac. (b) Included under Zamindari. 
i Includes 12,475,670 acres of Government Forest. 



The following table shows the total acreage in all India under the chief 
crops and the production in two years : 



132 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



Name of crops 


1928-29 


1929-30 


Area Sown 


Yield 


Area Sown 


Yield 


Rice. . 
Wheat 


Acres 

83,020,000 
31,973,000 

2,568,000 
3,109,000 


Tons 

32,138,000 
8,591,000 

Raw Sugar 

2,707,000 
322,000 
908,000 
495,000 
(Nuts in Shell) 
3,211,000 
Bales 
5,811,000 
9,906,000 
Ihs. 
403,764,700 
26,839,300 
InCwta of Dye 
13,200 


Acres 

79,906,000 
31,347,000 

2,504,000 
2,801,000 
5,840,000 
5,318,000 

5,643,000 

25,692,000 
3,415,000 

170,906 
67,300 


Tons 

30,849,000 
10,853,000 
Ra\v Sugar 
2,766,000 
374,000 
1,088,000 
460,000 
(Nuts in Shell) 
2,475,000 
Bales 
5,260,000 
10,380,000 
Ibs. 

28,022,800 
InCwt* of Dye 
14,600 


Sugarcane 


Rape & muhtard 


7,025,000 
5,543,000 

6,351,030 

27,053,000 
3,144,000 

773,000 
167,100 

71,600 


Groundnut 


Cotton . .... 
Jute * . 

Tea * .... 


Rubber 1 ... 





1 Figures left r to Calendar year. 

The net cultivated area actually sown in British India in 1928-29 was 
228,166,096 acres. 

Of the total area under irrigation in 1928-29, 26,186,675 acres were irri- 
gated by canals; 5,798,579 acres by tanks; 12,954,992 acres by wells; 
and 4,821,448 acres by other sources. The average area irrigated by 
Government Works rose from 26,750,000 acres in 1918-20 to 28,100,000 
acres in 1925-26, The net return on capital outlay was 6*47 per cent, in 
1926-27. 

Livestock Census, in British India (exclusive of Baluchistan), 1924-25 : 
oxen, 120,340,000 ; buffaloes, 30,612,000 ; sheep, 23,233,000 ; goats, 
39,237,000; horses and ponies, 1,711,000; mules, 70,000 ; donkeys, 
1,411,000 ; camels, 505,000, 

forests. The lands under the direct control of the State Forest Department 
are classified as ' Reserved Forests' (forests intended to be permanently main - 
tamed for the supply of timber, &c. , or for the protection of water supply, 
&c.), ' Protected Forests/ and ' Unclosed ' forest land. The following table 
shows the extent of these areas in 1928-29 : 



- 


Keservod 
Forests 
Sq. miles 


Protected 
Forests 
Sq. miles 


Unclassed 
Forest land 
Sq. in ilen 


Total 
Sq. miles 


Madras 


18,914 




343 


19,257 


Bombay (including Sinrt) 
Bengal 


13,710 

6,462 


1,195 
628 


3,445 


14,905 
10,535 


United Provinces .... 
Punjab 
Burma ...... 


5,159 
1,532 

29,190 


4 
3,210 


38 

509 
93,784 


5,201 
5,341 
122,974 


Federated Shan States . 
Bihar and Orissa .... 
Central Provinces (including Berdr). 
Assam 


3,067 
1,799 
19,641 
6,105 


1,271 


21,541 
3 

14,302 


24,608 
3,073 
19,041 

20,407 


North-West Frontier Province . 
Baluchistan (portions under Br Ad.) 


245 
313 

141 


- 


472 


245 
785 
141 


Coorg . 


610 






519 


Andaman s .... 


52 




2,138 


2 190 












Total, 1028-29 . 


106,849 


6,308 


136,665 


249,822 



>i 

* 



*8 

S 






AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY 



133 



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134 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

The net revenue from the State forests in 1928-29 was about 
Rs. 2,27,47,874. 

Industries. The most important indigenous industry, after agriculture, 
is the weaving of cotton cloths. Other important indigenous industries are 
silk rearing and weaving, shawl and carpet weaving, wood-carving and 
metal-working. One of the most important industries connected with 
agriculture is the tea industry, the average number of persons employed 
being about 900,000. The area under tea in 1928 was about 770,600 
acres, distributed as follows: Assam, 427,200; Bengal, 193,500; Bihar 
and Orissa, 1,900 ; United Provinces, 6,000 ; Punjab, 9,700 ; Madras, 62,900 ; 
Coorg, 400; Tripura (Bengal), 7,600; and the Travancore State, 61,400. 
The production was, in 1928, 404 million Ib. The exports of Indian tea from 
Britisli India (including the State of Travancore) in 1928-29 were : to United 
Kingdom, 299,003,000 Ib. ; Canada, 11, 208, 000 Ib. ; United States, 7,686,000 
lb.;Persia, 4,154,000 Ib.; and to Australasia, 5,796,000 Ib. The total 
exports were 350,502,000 Ib. in 1926-27 ; 362,012,000 Ib. in 1927-28 ; and 
359,784,000 Ib. in 1928-29. 

Some statistics for 1927 of mills, factories, &c. , subject to the Indian 
Factories Act, are given as follows for British India (excluding Indian 
States and Government factories). 



Class of Industry 


No of 
Establish- 
ments 


No. of 
Persons , 


Class of Industry 


No. of 
Establish- 
ments 


No, of 
Persons 


Cotton spinning and 






Tea factories 


868 


68,359 


weaving mills . 
Jute mills 


278 
90 


842,315 
332,119 


Foundries 
Saw nulls 


65 
207 


2,520 
18,264 


Cotton ginning and 






Petroleum refineries . 


11 


12,837 


pressing factories . 
Railway and tramway 


2,116 


143,300 


Woollen mills 
Sugar factories 


9 
45 


6,759 
14,519 


workshops 


78 


76,989 


Stone dressing 


6 


311 


Rice mills . 


1,459 


71,693 


Oil mills 


211 


10,840 


General engineering . 
Electrical works . 


233 
50 


33,622 

6,587 


Kerosene tinning and 
packing works . 


26 


10,003 


Printing presses . 
Tanneries and leather 


280 


22,750 


Motor works and coach 
building . 


77 


6,217 


works . 


80 


5,638 


Tobacco factories 


14 


7,512 


Jute presses. 


122 


35,471 


Paper mills . 


7 


4,976 


Tile and brick factories 


66 


9,547 


Lac factories 


17 


1,954 


Shipbuilding . | 20 


24,292 


Silk mills . 


8 


1,787 



With regard to cotton spinning and weaving the number of spindles 
in all India in 1927-28 was 8,251,970, and of looms, 159,710. The pro- 
duction of yarn in 1928-29 was 648 million Ib. and of woven goods, 
446 million Ib. 

Companies. On March 31, 1927, there were 5,834 joint stock companies 
incorporated in British India and in the Indian States of Mysore, Baroda, 
Gwalior, Indore, Hyderabad and Travancore, and in operation, with paid-up 
capital of Rs. 2,76,83,61,000. 

Co-operative Societies. In 1928-29, there were in Britisli India and the 
Indian States 85,377 agricultural co-operative societies with a membership of 
3,009,900. 

Mineral Production. The quantity and value of the minerals produced 

India in 1928 were as follows (1 = Rs. 13.4). 



COMMERCE 



135 



Items 


Quantity 


Value 


Items 


Quantity 


Value 
















Coal . . . tons 


22,542,872 


6,604,106 


Magnesite . tons 


24,406 


11,969 


Petroleum . gals. 


305,943,711 


4,314,207 


Oypsuin . . do. 


59,050 


10,919 


Manganese ore tons 


978,449 


2,321, 201 > 


Steatite . . do. 


5,539 


9,706 


Lead . . do. 


443,654 


1,642,086" 


Bauxite . . do. 


14,667 


7,034 


Gold . . ounces 


376,063 


1,588,252 


Miscellaneous re- 






Building materials tons 


9,697,275 


1,110,007 


fractory materials do. 


31,425 


6,3flO 


Silver . . ounces 


7,425,810 


bft'2,46" 


Zircon . . do. 


855 


4,267 


Salt . . . tons 


1,615,849 


745,899 


Ochre , . do. 


6,153 


3,953 


Mica (a) . cwts. 


95,419 


098,130 


Diamonds . carats 


not reywrted 


3,875 


Zinc 01 e (a) . tons 


70,031 


553,051 


Fuller 'seaith tons 


3,394 


1,852 


Iron ore . . do. 


2,055,981 


413,058 


Asbestos . do. 


166 


1,622 


Copper 01 e and 






Bantes , . do. 


3,OP6 


1,463 


matte . . do. 


20,033 


399,150 


Monszite . do. 


103 


1,242 


Tin ore . . do. 


2,780 


338,895 


Apatite . . do 


805 


1,081 


Saltpetre () . cwts. 


89,570 


74,629 


Amber . . cwts. 


29 


897 


Ghroinite . . tons 


45,455 


57,139 


Antimony ore tons 


370 


769 


Jadeite (a) . cwts. 


2,698 


48,4b8 


Alum . . cwts. 


478 


412 


Ilmenite . tons 


25,307 


41,557 


Corundum . tons 


21 


207 


Nickel speiss . do. 


2,933 


89,922 


Garnet . . do. 


480 


90 


Clays . . do 


18"), 676 


31,65^ 


Soda . . do. 


13 


44 


Antimonial lead do 


1,241 


23,658 


Bismuth . Ibs 


82 


20 


Tungsten ore . do. 


622 


22,354 


Serpentine . tons 


2 


6 


Kuby, sapphire 






Borax . . cwts. 


15 


2 


.and spinel . carats 


40,380 


13,247 


Copperas . do 


3 


1 



Export f.o.b. value. 



(a) Ext.ort. 

8 Excludes value of antimonial lead. 



The average number of persons employed daily in the coal mining industry 
in 1928 was 179,687, and the output per head employed was 125 '5 tons. 

Commerce. 

The following table applies to the sea-borne external trade of India : 



Years 


Imports 


Exports and Re-Exports 


Merchandise 


Treasure 


Merchandise 


Treasure 


1925-26 . . 
1926-27 . . 
1927-28 , . 
1928-29 . . 
1929-30. . 


Rupees 
236,00,12,595 
240,81,84,303 
261,62,38,665 
263,39,79,360 
249,70,74,490 


Rupees 

55,48,77,580 
41,53,20,573 
34,89,63,529 
37,29,42.646 
27,83,10,584 


Rupees 
386,81,21,842 
311.05,04,300 
330,26,37,283 
339,1506,656 
318,98 97,089 


Rupees 
8,83,91,668 
2,21,13,404 
3,13,60,896 
6,35,31,454 
5,14,33,004 



The following table excludes Government stores and Government 
treasure : 



Years ended 




IMPORTS 




March 81 


Merchandise 


Treasure 


Total 


1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 


Rupees 
226,17,77.961 
231,22,08,176 
249,83,64,866 
253,80,59,741 
240,79,69,841 


Rupees 
65,40,31,421 
41,81,45,879 
34,81,60.468 
87,29,40.842 
27,76,76,929 


Rupees 

281,58,09,882 
272,58,54,055 
284,65,24,884 
290,60,00,588 
268,56,45,270 



136 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



Years ended 
March 81 


EXPORTS AND RE-EXPORTS 


Merchandise 


Treasure < Total 


1926 
1927 
1928 
1920 
1930 


Rs. 

385,32,69,476 
309,44,55,843 
828,69,18,133 
337,96,31,677 
317,93,23,862 


Rs. 

3,51,68,068 
2,00,85,279 
2,62,49,689 
2,93,10>80 
1,56,87,154 


Rs. 

388,84,37,544 
311,44,91,122 
831,31,62,822 
840,89,22,557 
319,50,11,016 



Of the exports of merchandise in 1929-80 Rs. 310,80,55,200 represented the products of 
the country. Rs. 7,12,68,662 wore re-exports of imported foreign merchandise. 

In many cases the Indian States impose Customs duties on goods imported from 
other parts of India 

The imports and exports, excluding Government stores and Govern- 
ment treasure, were distributed as follows in 1929-30 : 



| Bengal 

1 


B 


ihar and 
Onssa 


i 

i 


Burma 


i 

i 


Madras 


Bombay I 


Sind 


Imports. 
Exports 


I Rs. 
1 87,03,39,081 
1 133,67,46,283 




Rs. 

12,540 


1 R8. 

'21,69,57,552 
|39,50,70,578 


; Rs. Rs. j 
31, (54,85,723 101,28,34,247, 
45,06,51,850' 75,51, 93,089i 


Rs. 

28,90,28,667 
25,73,36,676 


Imports and exports 


of bullion 


and specie 


were as follows 



Years ended ! 
March 31 , 


Imports of 
Gold 


Imports of 
Silver 


Exports of 
Gold 


Exports of 
Silver 


1925 ! 
1926 
19?7 i 
1928 
1929 | 
1930 ! 


Rs. 

74,28,97,987 
35,22,99,438 
19,50,12,002 
18,13,44,062 
21,21,89,692 
14,23,11,477 


Rs. 

24,28,07,337 
. 19,89,70,504 
j 21,76,34,160 
! 16,47,37,417 
15,92,18,307 
! 18,41,90,827 


Rs 

36,32,121 
37,53,564 
10,06,554 
3,44,106 
1,91,003 
1,03,081 


He. 

4,20,66,671 
2,77,29,354 
1,89,53,825 
2,63,72.790 
6,15,11,381 
4,79,78,629 



Gold is used chiefly in the form of ornaments, and much of it is imported 
in small bars. 

The distribution of commerce by countries was as follows (merchandise 
alone) in years ending March 31, 1929 and 1930 : 



Countries ! 


Imports into India from Exports of Indian Produce to 




1928-29 


1929-30 1928-29 


1929-30 


i 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


United Kingdom 


113,24,42,969 


103,10,80,140 


69,04,89,078 


66,07,17,223 


France . j 


4,77,56,040 


4,57,28,403 


17,76,75,868 


16,81,00,449 


Germany i 


15,84,36,461 


15,79,20,847 


82,32,08,897 


26,33,25,111 


Austria 


1,40,11,930 


1,22,93,647 8,81,780 


4,52,887 


Hungary i 


6,54,456 


66,85,494 I 4,801 


3,905 


Italy . 


7,35,81,631 


6,73,36,961 


16,18,63,136 


11,31,14,528 


Belgium ' 


7,19,96,747 


6,78,67,518 


18,40,01,836 


12,15,35,183 


Netherlands ; 


4,70,78,761 


4,22,88,916 


8,70,68,965 


8,86,37,947 


Spain . ; 


26,78,318 


29,78,101 


8,90,76,889 


8,60,27,566 


Russia : 


84,87,218 


45,67,962 


24,90,742 


89,92,489 


China (including Hong 










Kong) . . . 


5,10,10,594 


4,83,13,802 


11,84,57,845 


15,95,97,880 


Japan. 


17,67,67,462 


23,68,56,269 


84,42,66,946 


82,26,71,840 


Ceylon 


2,10,40,666 


1,80,18,018 


18,76,69,185 


12,78,58,403 


Straiti Settlements . 


5,10,86,712 


6,16,58,849 


7,81,14,672 


7,90,54,656 


Java, Borneo and > 










Sumatra . . . 


17,93,70,100 


14,92,21,118 


5,80,48,666 


6,19,23 455 


Arabia . j 


86^8,857 


35,88,791 


2,20,24,680 


2,09,28,100 


Fersii. . . .1 


8,82,40,989 


8,71,62,898 


1,59,09,694 


1,60,90,000 



COMMERCE 



137 



Countries i 


Imports into India from 


Exports of Indian Produce to 


| 


1928-29 


1929-30 


1928-29 


1929-30 




Ks 


Ks. 


Ks. 


Rs. 


Egypt ... 


48,78,653 


44,13,987 


3,40,65,843 


3,95,59,234 


Kenya, Zanzibar and 










Pemba . . . j 


2,71,61,964 


3,43,80,918 


1,54,31,504 


1,51,19,138 


Other B. African ports 


29,00,200 


35,77,726 


2,74,47,546 


2,21,93,130 


Mauritius (including | 










Seychelles) 


3,68,156 


87,642 


1,63,19,591 


1,66,56,196 


United States . . ! 


17,92,08,948 


17,66,15,164 


39,11,17,4-17 


86,32,81,509 


South America . . ! 


26,51,135 


21,75,749 


11,05,90,447 


10,10,17,819 


Australia . . . i 


8,45,55,088 5,53,76,413 


7,37,63,036 


5,78,00,949 



The value of the different classes of goods (private merchandise only) 
was as follows : 



Imports 



Exports of Indian Produce 





1928-2t 


1929-30 


1928-29 


1929-30 




Ks 


Ks. 


Ks. 


Ks. 


I. Food, drink and tobacco 


46,08,48,713 


40,25,99,804 


07,33,66,457 


67,56,56,369 


11. Raw materials, and pro- 










duce A articles mainly 










unmanufactured . . 


22,51,98,349 


23,30,32,582 


170,27,01,665 


156,43,65,226 


III. Articles, wholly or 










mainly manufactured . 
IV. Miscellaneous and un- 


180,30,38,680 


172,82,93,794 


89,58,90,322 


84,09,12,065 


classified, including 










parcel post .... 


4,39,73,999 


4,40,43,161 


2,93,20,342 


2,71,21,540 












Total .... 


233,30,59,741 


240,79,09,341 


330,12,78,786 


310,80,55,200 



The value of the leading articles of private merchandise (Indian produce 
only in the case of exports) was as follows in 1929-30 : 



Imports 


Value 


Exports 


Value 


Cotton manufactures (in- 


19-29-30 
Rs. 




1929-30 
Rs 
7 17 37,585 


cluding twist and yarn) . 
Sugar (refined A unrefined, 
molasses included) . 
Metals, and ores . 
Machinery and mill work . 
Silk (raw A manufactured) . 


59,48,73,128 

15,77,65,467 
23,61,90,859 
18,21.85,156 
4,58,42,9h9 


,, (manufactured) . 
Cotton (raw) 
,, (manufactured) in- 
cluding twist and 
yarn 
Rice 


51,'92,67,860 
65,07,70,040 

7,18,67,090 
31 50,91,840 


Oils 


11,68,64,992 


Wheat and wheat flour . 


1 28,42,287 


Chemicals .... 
Hardware .... 
Liquors .... 
Matches .... 
Paper and pasteboard . 
Salt . . 


2,78,73,582 
5,06,64,838 
3,76,68,457 
10,89,250 
3,72,31,138 
1,30,38,629 


Othei gram and pulse 
Tea 
Hides A skins, A lealhei 
goods .... 
Seeds (oil seeds mainly) . 
Lac (excluding lac dye) 


1,99,82,213 
26,00,68,568 

16,14,50,947 
26,46,75,604 
6,96,72,024 


Woollen goods 


8,76,74,800 
3,25,75,158 


Wool (raw) .... 
Wool (manufactured) . 


4,42,21,543 
91,32,731 


Provisions .... 
Instruments, apparatus and 
appliances & parts thereof 
Tobacco .... 


5,63,61,190 

5,38,10,964 
2,69,70,990 


Opium .... 
Oils 
Rubber (raw) 
Indigo 


1,42,00,875 
72,33,373 
1,78,87,892 
2,40,612 


Glass 


2,51,93,168 


Other dyes and tans . 


1,09,16,086 


Dyeing A tanning sub. 
stances .... 


2,43,80,710 


Paraffin wax 


3,17,68,989 
1,96,88,940 


Drugs and medicines . 
Wood and timber 
Apparel (excluding haber- 
dashery, millinery, hosiery 
and boots and shoes) 


2,26,25,877 
1,08,54,241 

1,71,28,780 


Saltpetre .... 
Coffee 
Hemp (raw) 
Manganese ore . 
Other kinds of metals A ores 


8,87,265 
1,45,89,869 
68,38,083 
2,28,56,453 
8,05,39,101 

F2 



138 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



Imports 


Value 


Expo) t a 


Value 




1929-30 




1929-30 




Rs. 




Ks 


Soap 


1,66,68,406 


Oilcakes .... 


8,11,91,560 


Building and engineering 
materials 


1,34,44,273 


Provisions .... 
Fruits and Vegetables 


60,40,37$ 
90,61 581 


Fruits aud vegetables . 
Paints & painters' materials 
Tea-chests . 


1,82,86,858 
l,46,54,05o 
80,24,414 


lobacco , 
Silk (raw and cocoons) 
Silk (manufactured) . 


1, 06,42, 0:>7 
30 00,024 
2,81,465 


Haberdashery and millinery 
Belting for machinery 
Mechanically propelled 
vehicles. . . . 


1,04,*7,791 
00,20,627 

9,40,23,813 


Coir goods . 
Man ui es .... 
Wood 
Coal and coke . 


1,03,88,453 
1,24,95,38^ 
1,80,06,684 
72,05,511 


Stationery .... 


l,05,0t),3>-0 


Sugar (refined A unrefined) 


3,68,486 


Animals, living . 


32,41,974 


Fodder, Bran and pollards 


1,1^63,142 


Books, printed and punted 








matter .... 


71,81,903 






Earthenware and porcelain 


72 33,585 






Boots and shoes . 


87,81,272 






Umbrella^and fittings 


4!-, 66, 220 






Gram and pulse . . . ! 5,42,i>5,036 






Coal and coke . . . | 45,54,552 







The trade between India and the United Kingdom (British Board of 
Trade Returns) is as follows 



_ 

Imports (Consignments) into U.K. from 
India 


1927 



65,810,065 


192S 


64,472,793 


1929 


62,814,790 


1930 



51,0&7,78t> 


Exports to India 


85,OU,842 


83,900,440 


7^,227,208 


59,944,430 


Foreign and colonial 


1,291,831 


1,167,625 


1,145,431 


1,314,132 



The principal articles of import from India into the United Kingdom 
(Board of Trade returns) : 



- 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Corn Oftals 



997,858 




1,246,220 


M 

1,391,357 


Tea 
Wheat , .... 
Rice . .... 
Cotton (Raw) 


24,114,864 
3,184,274 
506,308 
1,685,243 


20,181,539 
940 6M) 
471 383 
8,744,818 


20,082,540 
78,134 
402,182 
8,825,962 


Hides . .... 


212,109 


420,108 


106,502 


Skins, Goat . . 


52S53C 
647 553 


862,544 
690,105 


852,233 
941,528 


Rubber 


1,048,142 


633,766 


508,418 




609 459 


1,882,261 


631,925 




999,6 .2 


692,443 


1.596.798 


Gurus and Resins 
Jnte ... . 
Teak 


1,570.265 
7,368,041 
828,972 


1,721,948 
6.121,092 
990,082 


1,487,640 
6,413 196 
957,671 


Wool, Sheep's .... 
Leather ... 
Coir Yarn 


2,961,540 
6,778,09* 
507,101 


2,931,981 
6 805,848 
60>,298 


2,992,030 
5,111,360 
619,031 


Jute Manufactures 


2,378,866 


2,136,295 


2,797,675 



The chief articles of British produce exported to India (Board of Trade 
returns) are as follows : 



COMMERCE 



139 









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o 






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o 


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H 




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us 


JC 


CO 


g 


1 




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oT 


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4> 






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CO t^ <M 1^ 


rj 


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g 




d 


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CN C^ 00 CO 


S 


o 


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co" 


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00 


































2 






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CO OS <N CO 


CO 


rH CO 
OS OS CO CO 




us 






BO 


r-i 1-, (N rH 


CO 


00 00 O 






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a 
o 


w^r-Tor r-T 


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O iO rH l^ 


rlT 


d 




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(N rH CO 10 


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!> 












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wr: t>* co o 


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cTcToTcT 

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o o o o 

O rH !> rH 


KO 

os 


o -^ o o 


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CO 


oo 


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OS 


\O OO CO US 




xi \ 


tcs d 


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OS OS UT5 CO 


o 


OS O CO OS 
US <N OS US 


CO 
CO 


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49 






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CO 


rH rH ^J1 


oo 




*H 






US CSI 


oo" 


CO" (N 


oo" 


S: 


OB 


""" 




"* <N 00 OS 


CO 


00 <N rH OS 


o 


CO 


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6 


t> t^ OS CO 


oo 


US rH rH <N 
rH CO t- CO 


oo 


CO 


3 






C^ 


CO 


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co" 


** 


<D 

3 






.... 





.... 





* ' 






3 










rt 


,S 


J 


S 

> 


"d ' 





d ' * 





2 


g 




o 


r^ 




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140 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



- 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Tobacco 




1,216,706 



1,148,101 



1,270,116 


Drugs 


579,856 


585,991 


646,644 


Painters' Colours .... 
Cotton Yarns 
Cotton Goods, piece .... 
Cotton Goods, others .... 
Implements and Tools 


553,004 
2,173,162 
31,130,169 
012,632 
540,750 
8,734,256 


511,170 
2,419,060 
30,425,885 
954,188 
529,792 
10,124,804 


507,049 
2,299,812 
26,081,012 
I 037,940 
481,466 
9,179,555 


Iron and Steel and Manufactures 
Brass and Manufactures . 
Copper and Manufactures . 
Soap 


12,267,546 

08.1,890 
669,147 
975,256 


10,778,779 
753,851 
706,574 
1,011,887 


9,108,443 
597,631 
560,647 
1,009,548 


Paper . . ... 
Rubber Manufactures 
Locomotives 
Wagons and Trucks . 
Motor Cars and parts .... 
Woollen and Worsted Tissues . 


819,413 
24^,596 
674,2t>9 
974,037 
1,882,038 
1,134,337 


909,609 
207,802 
1,610,671 
273,435 
1,610,472 
914,21') 


987,837 
199,850 
2,017,157 
466,342 
1,944,616 
616,917 



The total imports and exports of the largest ports in private merchandise 
only in 1929-30 were, in rupees: Bombay, 156*9 crores; Calcutta, 208*3 
croresj Karachi, 52'0 crores; Rangoon, 55'6 crores; Madras, 40-6 croics ; 
Chittagong, 8*7 crores; Tuticorin, 6*8 crores. 

Shipping and Navigation. 

The tonnage of vessels which entered with cargoes in the interportal trade 
was 19,824,733 tons in 1929-30 ; and cleared 19,927,279 tons. 

The number and tonnage of vessels built or tirst registered at Indian 
ports for five years 

, - ; . . 

1925-2G I 1020-27 1927-28 . 1928-29 1929-30 

ill 



~"~ 


No 


Ton- 


No Ton- ' No 


Ton- 


No 


Ton- NQ 


Ton- 






nage 


, nage 


nage 




nage , ^ 


nage 


Built 


25 


1,151 


62 ! 4,182 ! 33 


3,321 


34 


1,285! '29 


1,017 


Registered .... 


65 


5,215 


122 6,83;) I 4h 


13,531 


49 


11,732^ 41 

I 


3,028 



Miles open 
1922-23. 37,613 
1923-24. 38,038 



Communications. 
I. RAILWAYS. 

Miles open Mile* open 



1924-25 38,270 
1925-26 38,579 



1926-27 39,049 
1927-28 39,711 



Miles open 
1928-29 40,950 
1929-30 41,724 



The railways open on March 31, 1930, included 31,218 miles of Imperial 
State lines and 5,365 miles of Indian State lines. There were 1,812 miles 
of new railway lines opened in 1929-30. 

The gauges of the Indian railways in 1928-29 were : (1) The Standard, 
or 5ft. 6in. (20,509 miles) ; (2) The Metre, or 3ft. 3fin. (17,176 miles); and 
(3) The Special gauges of 2ft. 6in. and 2ft. (4,039 miles). 

The total capital at charge on Railways to the end of 1929-30, in- 
eluding lines under construction and survey, &c., was Ra. 8,561,299,000. 
From 1924-25 Railway Finance has been separated from the general finances 
of Government. The Delhi-Umballa-Kalka Railway was purchased by the 
State in April, 1926, and the Southern Punjab Railway on January 1, 1926. 



MONEY AND CREDIT 



141 



Passengers carried in 1929-30, 634,297,400; aggregate tonnage of goods 
and livestock, 87,835,000; gross earnings on railways, Rs. 116*08 crores; 
working expenses, Rs. 7579 crores ; net earnings, Rs.40'59 ciores ; average 
return on the capital at charge 4*70 per cent. The net gain to the State, after 
meeting all charges for interest, &c., was Rs. 4 '03 crores. The railway staff 
at the close of 1929-30 numbered 4,975 Europeans and 819,083 Indians ; 
total, 819,058. 

India and Ceylon are connected by rail and steamer ferry combined, 
the steamers plying between Dhanushkodi Point on Rameswarain Island and 
Talaimannar in Ceylon. 

II. POSTS, TELEGRAPHS, AND TELEPHONES. 

On March 31, 1930, there were 23,888 post-offices and 63,155 letter-boxes. 

In the year 1929-30, the number of letters, post-cards, and money-orders 
passing through the post-offices was 1,205,935,000 ; of newspapers 
92,912,000; of parcels 17,581,000; and of packets 115,944,000; being a 
total of 1,432.372,000. 

There were 13,139 telegraph offices in India on March 31, 1930. Statistics 
of the Government telegraphs for 1929-30 : Miles of wire, 561,647 ; miles 
of line, 103,534 ; receipts, Rs. 2'46 crores; charges, Rs. 2'55 croies *, paid 
messages, 19,476,184, 

The number of wireless stations maintained and worked by the Indian 
Posts and Telegraphs Department was 26 on March 31, 1930, of which six 
were coast stations available for general public correspondence with ships at 
sea, and the remainder were inland stations. Thiee of these stations 
provided regular communication with aeroplanes in connection with Air 
Mail Services. Two of the coast stations and one other were equipped with 
direction -finding installations. 

The telephone system is in the hands of the Indian Posts and Telegraph 
Department, but telephone exchanges have been established in Calcutta, 
Madras, Bombay, Ahmedabad, Karachi, Rangoon, and Moulmein, by private 
companies, under licences fiom the Government. On March 31, 1930, there 
were 23 telephone exchanges, with 35,091 connections, established by the 
licensed companies, and 281 exchanges with 21,810 connections established 
by the Department. 

Money and Credit. 

The value of money coined at the Calcutta and Bombay Mints in five 
years was as follows : 



Year ended 
March 31 


Silver 


Nickel 


Copper 


Bronze 


Total 


1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 


Bs. 
64,33,512 
50,49,435 
10,15,927 
52,66,678 
1,80,000 


Rs. 
45,13,084 
28,92,326 
26,93,550 
32,15,475 
46,63,500 


Rs. 

2,500 

z 


Rs. 

6,52,970 
7,21,909 
3,51,718 
7,45,490 
11,38,600 


Rs 

1,16,02,066 
86,63,670 
40,61,195 
92,27,538 
59,82,100 



A branch of the Royal Mint was established at Bombay at the end of 
1917, but since April, 1919, the Branch Mint has been closed. 

In August, 1926, the Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance 
submitted their report, including the recommendation of the stabilisation of 



142 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 



the rupee at a rate corresponding to an exchange rate of Is. 6d. (gold). In 
March 1927, the Indian Currency Act made this stabilization statutory. 

Since 1900, rupees have heen coined as required to meet public 
demands. The entire profit accruing to Government on the coinage up to 
March 31, 1907, and during the year 1912-13, and half such profit for the 
years 1907-08 and 1908-09 were placed to the credit of a separate fund 
termed the Gold Standard Reserve, with the object of ensuring the stability 
of the currency policy of Government. Any profit arising from this source 
is at present credited entire to the Gold Standard Reserve. On June 30 1 , 
1930, the Reserve amounted to 40,000,0002. 

Notes of the values of one, two-and-a-half, five, ten, fifty, and a hundred 
rupees are legal tender throughout British India. The total value of notes 
in circulation on March 31, 1980, including the notes held in Government 
treasuries and the Head Offices of the Imperial Bank of India, was 
Rs. 1,77,23,06,294. 

Banks. The following table shows the 'Capital,' 'Reserve,' * Public and 
other Deposits,' at the Imperial Bank of India on Dec. 31 of three years : 





1927 


1928 


1929 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs 


Paid-up Capital 


5,62,50,000 


5,62,50,000 


5,G2/)0,000 


Reserve . ... 


5,12,50,000 


5,22,50,000 


5,82 ;>o,ooo 


Public Deposits 


7,20,22,752 


7,94,85,640 


7,50,06,984 


Other Deposits 


72,07,22,160 


71,30,44,347 


71,04,31,282 



There were 18 exchange banks doing business in India in 1928, and their 
deposits in India were Rs. 71,13,86,000. 

Statistics of the Post Office Savings banks for five years : 






Depositors 


Balance at end of 
Year, in Rupees 


19-25-26 


2,317,000 


27,23,15,000 


1926-27 


2,518,000 


29,50,90,000 


1927-28 


2,606,000 


32,66,68,000 


1928-29 


2,021,000 


34,49,08,000 


1929-30 


2,305,000 


37,13,13,000 



Currency, Weights, and Measures. 

The monetary unit is the Indian liupee, the gold value of which is fixed 
by the Indian Currency Act of 1927 at Is. 6d. or 8 '47512 grains of line gold. 

The coins in circulation are: silver, 1 rupee which equals 16 annas and 
weighs one tola or 180 grains troy, el even -twelfths fine ; J rupee or 8 anna 
piece ; J rupee or 4 anna piece ; J rupee or 2 anna piece ; nickel, 1, 4, and 
8 anna pieces ; bronze, 1 pice = J anna ; j pice J anna ; 1 pie = <fo anna 
or J pice. 

There are Government Currency Notes in circulation in denominations of 
100, 50, 10, 5, 2J, and 1 rupee. 

A hundred thousand rupees is called 1 lakh and is written thus : 
Rs. 1,00,000 ; and one hundred lakhs is called 1 crore and is written thus : 
Rs. 1,00,00,000. A lakh of rupees when the rupee is Is. Qd. is equivalent 
to 7,500Z. 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 143 

Weights and measures are as follows : 

The Maund of Bengal of 40 seers . = 82*28 Ibs. avoirdupois. 

,, ,, Bombay . . . = 28 Ibs. nearly. 

,, ,, Madras . . . = 25 Ibs. nearly. 

,, Tola = 180 gr. 

,, tier of SO tolas . = 2*057 Ib. 

Statistical and other Books of Eeference concerning India. 

Special works relating to Provinces and States are shown under their 
separate headings. 

1. OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

Adraluist ration . Reports on the various provinces. Annual. 

Agricultural Statistics of India. Annual Calcutta. 

Finance : Accounts and Estimates, Explanatory Memorandum. Annual.- Estimates 
of Revenue and Expenditure. Annual. Financial Statement of the Government of India 
with discussion in the Legislative Council Annual. Home Accounts. Annual. Income 
and Expenditure under specified heads. Annual. 

Gazetteers: The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 2nd ed. 26 vols. completed in 1909. 
London Provincial and District Gazetteers. 
- The Indian States Annual. Calcutta. 

Labour Gazetre Monthly. Bomhav. 

Population : Report* on the Census of British India, 1022-24. Calcutta. 

Statistical Ab*>tra<-t for British India. Annual. London. 

Public Health Repoit of the Public Health Commissioner with the Government of 
India. Annual 

Trade. Annual Statement of the Trade of British India with Foreign Countries, &c. 
Calcutta Review of the Trade of India Annual Calcutta. 

India Trade Journal. Weekly. Calcutta 

Summarv of Commercial Treaties affecting India. Calcutta. 

Mora) and Material Progress and Condition of India. Annual. London. 

Report of the Indian Statutory Commission (Simon Commission). 2 vols. London, 
1930. 

Report of the Indian Taxation Inquiry Committee, 1924-25. Calcutta, 1926. 

Repoitof the Indian Currency and Finance Commission. London, 1926. 

Report of the Indian States Committee. Calcutta, 1929 

Report of the Indian Agricultural Commission, 1928. Calcutta, 1928. 
^, Report of the Indian Cinema Committee. 19'J8. Calcutta, 1928 

Report of the Indian Roads Development Committee. Calcutta, 1928 

Report of thft Education ( Hartog) Committee. London, 1929. 

Report of the Indian Central Committee. London, 1929. 

Report of the Age of Consent Committee Calcutta, 1029. 

Statement showing progress of the Co-opeiati\e Movement in India. Annual. 
Cal< utta. 

Handbook to the Records of the Government of India in the Imperial Record Depart- 
ment, 1748-1859. Calcutta, 1925. 

2. NON-OFFICIAL PUBLICATION*. 

Afja Khandl. H.), India in Transition : a Study in Political Evolution. London, 1918. 
Age Khub DeUita, India To-moriow. London, 1927. 
Aiyer (Sir P. S. 8 ), Indian Constitutional Problems. Bombay, 1928. 
Alexander (ft. G.), The Indian Ferment. London, 1P29. 

AmJxdkar (B. R.), The Evolution of Provincial Finance in Modern India. London, 1925. 
Andcrson(Q ), British Administration in India. London, 1920. 

y*tt(/m<m(G.),&Stt&*lar(M.),The Expansion of British India (1818-1858). London, 1918. 
Andrew* (C. P.), Mahatma Gandhi's Ideas. London, 1929. 
Anaiey (Vera), Economic Developn etit ol India. London, 1929. 
Archboki(Vf A. J.), Outlines of Indian Constitutional History. London, 1926. 
Baden-Powell (B. H.), Land Revenue and Tenure in British India. Revised by Sir W. 
Holdernesa to 1907 : Appendix to 1012. Oxford, 1912. 

Jianerjee (D. N.), Tie Indian Constitution and its Actual Working. London, 1926. 

Banerjee /Sir Burendranath), A Nation in Making. London, 1925. 

Sevan (Edwjn), Thoughts ou Indian Discontents. London, 1929. 

Broughton (G. M.), Labour in Indian Industrie*. Bombay, 1924. 

Brown (J. Ooggin), India's Mineral Wealth (' India of To-day '). Bombay, 1928. 



144 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : INDIA AND DEPENDENCIES 

Chablam (H. L.), Indian Currency and Exchange. Bombay, 1925. 

Chand (G}an), Financial System of India. London, 1920. 

Chirol (Sir V.), India, Old and New, London, 1921. India (The Modern World Senos 
London, I92ti. 

Chudgar (P. L.), Indian Princes under British Protection. London, 1929. 

Clarke (Sir G ), The Post Office of India. London, 1921. 

Cotton (C. W. E.), Handbook of Commercial Information for India. 2nd ed. Calcutta, 
1924. 

Coya}ee(J C.), The Indian Cuirency Sjstem, 1S35-1926. Madras, 1931. 

Craddock (Sir Reginald), The Dilemma in India. London, 1929. 

Curzon (Marquis, of Kedlestou), British Government in India. London, 1925. 

The Directorate of the Chamber of Princes.- The Bntish Crown and the Indian States. 
London, 1929 

Dekobia(U.) t Los Tigres Parfnmes. Paris, 1929. 

Dotlwell (H ), A Sketch of the History of India from 1858 to 1918. London, 1925 

JSwbank (H. B ) (Editor), Indian Co-operative Studies. Bombay, 1920. 

Farquhar (J N.), Modern Religious Movements in India. New York, 1919. 

Field (11. F.), After Mother India. London, 1929. 

Forrest (Sir George), History of the Indian Mutiny. 4 vols. Edinburgh, 1904-1914. 
The Life of Lord Clive. London, 1918. 

Fatter (Sir Wm.), The English Factories in India, 161S-1669. 13 vols. Oxford, 1906- 
1927. John Company. London, 1926. 

Gamble (J S ), Manual of Indian Timbers. Revised, London, 1922. 

Gadgil (D. R), Industrial Evolution of India in Recent Times. Bombay, 1924 

Gartatt (G. T.), An Indian Cominentaiy. London, 1928. 

Guides (Arthur), Au pays de Tagore. Paris, 1929. 

Grterson (Sir G. A.), Linguistic Survey of India, Calcutta, 1903-1928. 

Hariu(\). G.), Irngation in India ('India of To-day '). Bombay, 1923. 

Havell (E. B ), A Shoit History of India from the Eaihest Times to the Present Day. 
London, 1924. 

Hawaii (E.), European Non-Officials in the Indian Legislature, 1921-1925. Allahabad, 
192(5. 

ffoldei ness (Sir T. W.), Peoples and Problems of India. london, 1920. 

Holme(T. R ), History of the Indian Mutiny London, 1904 

Home (E. A.), The Political System of British India. Oxford, 1922. 

Howard (A.), Crop Production in India. London, 1924. 

Hoy land (J.), The Case for India London, 1929. 

Hunter (Sir W W.), The Indian Empire : its Peoples, History, and Products. London, 
189S.(Editor) Rulers of India Series. Oxford, It90-1899. 

Hbert (Sir C. P.), The Government of India. Oxford, 1922. 

llbert (Sir C P.), and Meston (Lord), The New Constitution of India. London, 1923. 

Iyer(C. S. Ranga), India: Peace or War. London, 1930. 

Iyer (K. V.) t Indian Railways ( India of To-day'). Bombay, 1924. 

Jain (L, C.), Indigenous Banking m India. London, 1930. 

Jevons (H. Stanley), The Future of Exchange and the Indian Currency. Bombay, 1922. 

Keith (A. B.), Speeches and Documents on Indian Policy (1760-1921). Two Vols. 
London, 1922. 

Kelmnn (J. H.), Labour in India: A Study of the Condition! of Indian Women in 
Modern Industry. London and New York, 1923. 

Keyne* (J. M.), Indian Currency and Finance. London, 1924. 

Leake (H M ), The Foundations of Indian Agriculture. Cambridge, 1924. 

Lovett(&\T V.). A History of the Indian Nationalist Movement. London, 1920. India 
(' The Nations of To-day '). London, 1923. 

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Macnicol (N.j, The Making of Modem India. London, 1924. 

Marvin (F. L.), India and the West. London, 1927. 

Mathai (John), Village Government in British India. London, 1915. Agricultural 
Oo-operation in India. Madras, 1925. 

Mayhew (A ), The Education of India: A Study of Educational Policy in India, 1835- 
1920. London, J926. 

Mitra (H. N.), The Indian Annual Register. Calcutta. 
Molony (J. C.), A Book of South India. London, 1926. 

Mordnnd (W. F.), India at the Death of Akbar: An Economic Study. London, 1920. 
From Akbar to Auranpzeb: A Study in Indian Economic History. London, 1023. 
Jahangir's India (Prof. P. Oeyl, joint translator). Cambridge, 1925. 

Momton (Sir Th.), The Economic Transition in India. London. 1911. 

Muir (Ramsay). The Making of British India, 1750-185*. Manchester, 1915. 

Mukerjee (R), Ruial Economy of India. London, 1926. 

Mukherji (P.), The Indian Constitution. Calcutta, 1920. 

Jftcrray'f Handbook for Travellers in India, Ceylon, and Burma. 13th ed. London, 1929. 

Narain (Brij), The Population of India. Lahore, 1925. 



AJMEB-MEBWAEA 145 

O'Dwyev (Sir M.), India As I Knew it. London, 1925. 

Pamkker (K. M.), Relations of Indian States with the Government of India. London. 
1927. 

Paul (K. T.), India and the British Connexion. London, 1927. 

Pillai (P. P.), Economic Conditions in India. London, 1926. 

Powell (E. Alexander), The Last Home of Mystery. London, 1929. 

Rao (R V.), Ministeis to Indian States Trichlnopoly, 1928. 

Rapson (K. J.), Editor. Cambridge History of India. Vols. I and III. Cambridge, 1922 
and 1928. 

Rau (Ramachandra), Present-day Banking in India. Calcutta, 1926. 

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Phase. London, 1928. 

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the Crown. Oxford, 1916-1920. 

Ronaldshay (Earl of), India A Biid's-eye View. London, 1924 The Heart of Aryavarta. 
London, W2">. -Lif of Lord Curznn, Vols I. -Ill London, 1928 

Salmon (J. H.), The Book oflridian Crafts and Indian Lore London, 1928. 

Sapni (Sir T. B ), The Indian Constitution Madras, 1920. 

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Smyth us (E A ), Indian Forest Wealth. Oxford, 1926. 

SUbbmg (E P.), The Forests of India. 3 vols. London, 1922-26. 

Strickland (C. F.), Introduction to Co-opeiation in India (' India of To-day '). Bombay, 
1922. 

ISudariBaram (A, N.), Indian States Register and Directory, 1929. Madias, 1929. 

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Thompson (E.), Reconstruction of India. London, 193^. 

Trotter (L. J.), and Hutton (W. H ), History of India. London, 1917 

Touch* (T. H de la), Bibliography of Indian Geology and Physical Geography. Calcutta, 
1917-18 

Vakil (C. N.), Financial Developments in Modern India, 1860-1924. London, 1925. 

Vincent (A.), The Defence of India (' India of To-day '). Bombay, 1922. 

Wattal (P K ), The System of Financial Administration in British India. Calcutta 
and London, 1924 

Weitzman (Dr. S ), Warren Hastings and Philip Francis. Manchester, 1929. 

Whitehead (Right Rev. H ), Indian Problems in Religion, Education, Politics. London, 
1924 

Woodroffe (Sir J ), Ig India Civilised ? Madras, 1919. 

Woolacott (J. E ), Britain's Record in India. London. 1927. India on Trial. London, 
1929. 

Tounflhuibmd (Sir P ), The Epic of Everest. London, 1926. 

Zwumd (S.), Living India. London, 1928. 



BEITISH PROVINCES. 

Information concerning the Provinces in British India is 
given below, in alphabetical order. 

AJMER-MERWAEA, 

An agency subordinate to the factory at Surat was established at Ajmer 
early in the 17th century. The British received the tract by cession after 
the Pindari War in 1818. This small province of Ajmer- Merwara consists of 
one district with three sub-divisions, Ajmer, Kekri, and Merwara, with an 
area of 2.711 sq. miles and a population of 495,271. The administration is 
under a Chief Commissioner, who in the capacity of Agent to the Governor- 
General in Rajputana resides at Mount Abu. The local administration is 
under a Commissioner. Tho city of Ajmer has a population of 113,512. 
The income of the province was Rs. 167 lakhs in 1926-27, and the expend!- 



146 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLES. 

ture Rs. 29 '5 lakhs. In 1927 there were 10,566 scholars in 178 recognised 
educational institutions for males ; and 1,707 in 20 similar institutions for 
females. The Government College at Ajmer had 125 students in 1927. 

Chief Commissioner. The Hon. Mr. L. W. Reynolds, C.I.E., C.S.I., 
M.C., I.C.S. (appointed March 14, 1927) ; salary, Rs. 48,000 per year. 
Administration Report. Annual. Calcutta. 



ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS. 

The Andaman Islands lie in the Bay of Bengal, 120 miles from Cape 
Negrais in Burma, the nearest point on the mainland. Five large islands 
closely grouped together are called the Great Andaman, and to the south is 
the island of Little Andaman. There are some 200 islets, the two principal 
groups being the Ritchie Archipelago and the Labyrinth Islands. The total 
area is 2,508 square miles. The Great Andaman group is about 219 miles 
long and, at the widest, 32 miles broad. The group, densely wooded, contains 
many valuable trees, the best known of which is the pada.uk or Andaman red- 
wood. The islands possess a number of harbours and safe anchorages, 
notably Port Blair, Port Cornwallis. and Bonington, the last being most 
favourably situated for forest trade. The aborigines, 786 (414 males and 
372 females) in 1921, live m small groups over the islands ; some are 
savages of a low Negrito type. The total population of the Andaman 
Islands in 1921 was 17,814 (15,551 males and 2,263 females). In 1928-29 
the forest receipts amounted to Rs. 15,00,706. The coconut, rubber, Manila 
hemp, and Bahamas aloe are successfully cultivated. In 1929 there 
were 9,718 head of cattle and 4,627 goats. There is wireless telegraphy 
with Burma. A mail steamer connects Port Blair with Calcutta, Rangoon, 
and Madras. The islands have been used since 1858 by the Government of 
India as a penal settlement for life and long-term convicts, but the practice 
is being discontinued, the island being left to develop on free lines. The 
settlement possesses about 72,363 acres of cleared land. There were, in 
1929, 6,985 convicts (including 183 women) in the place, of whom 6,688 
(including 179 women) were on ticket-of-leave in the settlement supporting 
themselves. The Andaman Islands are under the Government of India, 
and the Officer in Charge is the Chief Commissioner. The Civil, Military 
and convict population of Port Blair in 1929 was 15,962. 

The Nicobar Islands are situated to the South of the An damans, 75 
miles from Little Andaman. The British formally took possession in 1869. 
There are twenty- one islands, nine uninhabited ; total area, 635 square miles. 
The islands are usually divided into three groups, Southern, Central, and 
Northern, the chief islands in each being respectively, Great Nicobar, Camorta 
with Nankauri, and Car Nicobar. There is a fine land-locked harbour 
between the islands of Camorta and Nankauri, known as Nankauri Harbour. 
The Nicobarese inhabitants numbered 9,272 (5,242 males and 4,030 females) 
in 1921. The islanders are known to have pursued the coconut trade for at 
least 1,500 years. The coconut production is estimated at 15 million nuts per 
annum, of which some 8 million are sold by barter and exported in small 
native craft and Chinese junks in the form of copra. The Government is 
represented by a permanent Assistant Commissioner at Car Nicobar and a 
Tahsildar at Nankauri. The islands are attached to the Chief Com- 
missionership of the Amlamans and Nicobars. 

Chief Commissioner at Port Blair. Lieut. -Col. M. L. Ferrar, C.S.I., 
C.I.E.,O.B.E., LA. : salary, Rs. 3^,000 per year. 



ASSAM 147 

Administration Report by the Chief Commissioner. Annual. Calcutta Selections 
from the Records of the Government of India (Home Department) Nos. XXV. and LXXVII. 

Brown (A. R.), The Andaman Islanders : A Study in Social Anthropology. Cambridge, 
1922. 

Klot* (C. B.) In the Andamans and Nicobars. London. 1903. 

Whitekead (G.), In the Nicobar Islands. London, 1924. 



ASSAM. 

Constitution and Government. As&am first became a British Pro- 
tectorate at the close of the first Burmese War in 1826. In 1832 Cachar was 
annexed : in 1835 the Jaintia Hills weie included in the East India Company's 
dominions, and in 1839 Upper Assam was annexed to Bengal. In 1874 
Assam was detached from the Administration of the Lieut. -Governor of 
Bengal, and made a separate Chief Commissionership. On the partition of 
Bengal m 1905, it was united to the Eastern Districts of Bengal under a 
Lieut. -Governor. From 1912 the Chief Commissionership of Assam was 
revived ; and from 1921 a Governorship was created. There are two Members 
(one an Indian) of the Governor's Executive Council for 'reserved* subjects, 
and two Indian Ministers for the ' transferred ' subjects. The Legislative 
Council consists of 53 Members, 39 elected, and 14 nominated and ex-officio 
(not more than 7 may be officials). For the purposes of administration 
there are two Commissionerships with 12 Districts and 2 frontier tracts. 
There are 19 Local Boards ; and there are 17 Municipalities and 8 Town 
Committees. 

Manipur State (p. 164) is in relation with the Government of Assam. 

Governor. ILK. Sir Egbert Lain io Lucas Hammond, K.C.S.I., C.B.E., 
I.C.S. ; took his seat on June 28, 1927 : salary Rs. 66,000 per year. 

Area, Population and Religion. The plains districts, the hill 

districts and the frontier tracts exclusive of the State of Manipur cover an 
area of 53, 015 square miles, with a population of 7, 606, 230 in British territory. 
More than half are Hindus : and only 22 per cent, speak Assamese. Over 
100 different languages are spoken in the province. The capital is Shillong. 

Instruction. There were two Art Colleges, affiliated to the Calcutta 
University, with 1,124 students in 1928-29; also the Earle Law College, 
at Gahuati, founded in 1914, with 80 students on its roll. The number of 
secondary schools for boys was 376 with 55,215 pupils: primary schools for 
boys numbered 4,906, with 229,563 pupils. The number of girls at school 
was 49,169. There were 1,592 pupils in 49 Tea Garden schools of 'A' and 
' B ' classes. 

Justice and Crime. The Province (Manipur State and the hill and 
frontier areas excepted) is under the jurisdiction of the High Court of 
Calcutta. For criminal work there were, in 1927, 2 Sessions Judges and 94 
other Officers. In 1927, 26,302 criminal cases were brought to trial, and 
39,718 civil suits were instituted. The Assam Rifles, with 5 Battalions 
formerly known as the Military Police supply garrisons for the frontier. 
There is a civil Police Force of 4,328 under an Inspector-General. 

Finance. The gross revenue for 1928-29 was 275 lakhs of rupees, to 
which Land Revenue contributed 117 lakhs, Excise 66 lakhs, Forests 88 
lakhs, and Stamps 22 lakhs. The total expenditure in 1928-29 was 280 
lakhs. General Administration cost 26 lakhs, Education 80 lakhs, Police 27 
lakhs, Land Revenue Administration 19 lakhs, and Forests 21 lakhs. The 



148 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: BALUCHISTAN 

contribution formerly paid by the Local Government was completely 
remitted by tbo Central Government during 1928-29. 

Production and Industry. Agriculture employs neaily 89 per cent, 
of the population. Silk- weaving and Cotton-weaving are the most important 
of the Homo Industries. At the end of 1928 there were 980 Tea Gardens 
with 427,225 acres under tea. The area of tea plucked in 1928 was 403,906 
acres ; the total out-turn was 246 million Ibs., and the daily average number 
of persons employed was 543,920. All-India statistics regarding the tea 
industry are given on p. 131. In 1927-28 there were 6,108 sq. miles 
of reserved forests. In 1927, 24J millions of gallons of crude oil were ex- 
tracted from the oil fields of the province. 

Commerce and Communications. In 1927-28 there were 397 

miles of metalled roads, 1,339 miles of unmetalled roads, and 2,223 miles 
of bridle roads. The open mileage of railways was 1,164 miles. 

Administration Report. Annual. Shillonp. 
Monographs on the Hill Tribes of Assam. London, 1908-1926 
Gait (Sir E.), Ih&tory of Assam Calcutta. 2nd eH., 1020. 

Shakespear (L. W.). Histoiy of Upper Ass>am, Upper Burma and the Noith-East 
Frontier. London, 1914. 



BALUCHISTAN, 

Government. After the Afghan War, 1878-81, the districts of Pishin, 
Shorarud, Duki, Sibi, and Shahrig were assigned to the British and in Novem- 
ber, 1887, were formally constituted as British Baluchistan. In 1883, the 
districts of Quetta and Bolan were made over by the Khan to the British on 
an annual quit-rent of Rs. 25,000 and Rs. 30,000 respectively. In 1886, 
the Bori valley, in which is now the cantonment of Loralai, was occupied. 
In 1887, the Khetran country, now known as the Barkhan tahsil, was 
brought under British control ; in 1889 British authority was established in the 
Zhob valley and Kakar Khurasan ; in 1896 Chagai and Western Sinjrani were 
included in administered territory ; in 1899, the Nuskhi Niabat was made over 
by the Khan of Kalat on an annual quit-rent of Rs. 9,000 ; and in 1903 
the Nasirabad tahsil was acquired from the Khan on an annual quit-rent of 
Rs. 117,500. The area of British and administered territory, including 
tribal areas, is 54,228 sq. miles, and the population (1921) 420,648. The 
chief town is Quetta, with a population (1921) of 49,001. It is the only 
municipality. The head of the civil administration is the Agent to the 
Governor-General and Chief Commissioner in Baluchistan. The area under 
his direct administration is divided as follows : Quetta-Pishfn, Sibi, Zhob, 
Loralai, Chagai districts and Bolan Sub-division. The revenue administra- 
tion of the Province is entrusted to an officer who is styled the Revenue and 
Judicial Commissioner. 

Regular troops are cantoned at Quetta, Chaman, Fort Sandeman, and 
Loralai, and detachments are stationed at different places, principally in the 
Zhob and Loralai Districts, for the preservation of law and order. There 
is also a police force, supplemented by levies. The Indian Staff College 
was opened in Quetta in 1907. 

Agent to the Governor -General and Chief Commissioner in Baluchistan, 
Sir Beaucharap St. John, K.C.I.E., C.B.E. : salary, Rs. 48,000 per year. 

Area and Population. Area, 134,638 square miles ; population (1621 
census), 799,625. The main divisions are : (1) British Baluchistan proper, 
with an area of about 9,096 square miles, consisting of tracts assigned to 



RELIGION AND EDUCATION JUSTICE FINANCE, ETC. 149 

the British Government by treaty in 1879 ; (2) Agency Territories, with an 
area of about 45,132 square miles, composed of tracts which have from time 
to time been acquired by lease, or otherwise brought under control, and 
placed directly under British officers ; and (3) the States of Kalat and Las 
Bela, with an area of about 80,410 sq. miles, the former consisting of a 
confederation of tribes under the Khan of Kalat, and stretching westwards 
to Persia, while the latter occupies the alluvial valley between the Fab and 
Hala ranges from the sea to Bela. 

Religion and Education, The religion of the population is either 
Musalman, in general of the Sunni sect, or Hindu. The Musalmans 
numbered (1921 census) 733,477 ; Hindus, 51,348 ; Christians, 6,693 ; Sikhs, 
7,741 ; others, 366. At the close of 1927-28 there were 100 public schools 
and 180 private si-hooh, of which 8 and 2 respectively are girls' schools. 
There are also 2 European schools for boys and girls. Of the 9,199 pupils 
1,711 were girls. 

Justice. Almost all cases in which local men are concerned are referred 
to 'councils of elders' (locally called jirga) for settlement along the well- 
tried lines of the ancient customary and tribal law. 

Finance, In the directly administered territory the chief items of 
revenue are : Taxes on income, land revenue, excise and stamps. In some 
places the land revenue is levied in money in accordance with a fixed 
assessment, but generally it is levied in kind. The revenue from all sources 
in 1929-30 was Rs. 24*86 lakhs; and the expenditure Rs. 107'21 lakhs. 

Production and Industry. The country consists largely of barren 
mountains, deserts and stony plains ; its climate is subject to the extremes 
of heat and cold, and the rainfall is uncertain and scanty. The agricultural 
products are wheat, barley, millet, lucerne, rice, maize, and potatoes ; while 
grapes, apricots, peaches, apples, and melons are grown in abundance. 
Panjgur in Mekran is famous for its dates. 

Commerce and Communications Registration of trade was dis- 
continued from April, 1925. There are 203 miles of metalled and 1,823 
miles of unmetalled roads and 846 miles of broad gauge and 174 miles of 
narrow gauge railway. 

The North- Western railway, gauge 5ft. 6in., enters Baluchistan near 
Jhatpat and crosses the Kachhi plain to Sibi, where it bifurcates, one branch 
going by Harnai and the other by Quotta, and reunites at Bostan, whence 
the line runs to Chaman. There is a line of railway to Nushki 82J miles 
long, and an extension from Nushki up to Duzdap on the Persian border, 
and also a short narrow gauge line from Khanai to Fort Sandeman, a 
distance of about 174 miles. 

There is a complete and frequent postal service in British and adminis- 
tered territory, extending to Kalat and through Duzdap to Seistan and Meshed. 

A network of telegraph wires covers the north-eastern portion of the 
Province and extends to Kalat, and westwards via Nushki to Killa Robat, 
where it connects with the Indo-European system, while a further line 
connects India with Persia and Europe, ma Las Bela, Panjgur, and Nok 
Kundi. 

The Administration Report of the Baluchistan Agency. Annual. Calcutta. 

Aitchison'B Treaties. Calcutta, 1009. 

Thornton (T. H.), Sir Robert Sandeman. London, 1896. 



150 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: BENGAL PRESIDENCY 

BENGAL PRESIDENCY. 

Constitution and Government. The British first came to the shores 
of Bengal in 1633, when the first factories were established. A new centre 
of trade was fixed hy Job Charnock at Calcutta in 1690. In 1699 Bengal was 
constituted a separate Presidency, and there were Presidents and Governors 
of Fort William from 1700 to 1774, the last being Warren Hastings. There 
were Governors-General of Fort William from 1774 to 1834. In 1834 the 
Bengal Presidency was divided into two Presidencies, ' Agra ' and * Fort 
William in Bengal.' In 1854 the Government of Bengal was entrusted to a 
Lieutenant-Governor, the offices of Governor-General of India and Governor 
of Bengal having previously been united in one person. In 1874 the Bengal 
Province was reduced to Bengal proper, Bihar and Orissa. In 1905 a portion 
of Bengal proper together with Assam went to form a new Province, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam. In 1910 the Government of the remainder of Bengal 
with Bihar and Orissa was constituted into a Lieutenant-Governorship with 
an Executive Council consisting of three Members. A new Presidency of 
Bengal, reuniting all the Bengali-speaking districts, was established in 1912 
under a Governor in Council (three Members). Finally, from 1921, in ac- 
cordance with the Government of India Act of 1919, the administration 
consisted of the Governor with four Executive Councillors (two being Indians) 
for the * reserved' subjects and of the Governor with three Indian Ministers 
for the 'transferred' subjects. The hot weather capital is Darjeeling. 
There is a Legislative Council of 140 Members consisting of 114 elected and 
26 nominated and cx-officio Members (not more than 20 may be officials). 
For administrative purposes there are five divisions, under which there are 27 
districts, exclusive of Calcutta. For the purposes of Local Self-Government 
there are 26 District Boards, all except two with non-official Chairmen ; 82 
Local Boards; and 2,217 smaller units called Union Boards. There are 
115 Municipalities. The Calcutta Corporation was reconstituted by an Act 
of 1923 with a Mayor, Chief Executive Officer and other officials, all of 
whom are to be elected by the Corporation ; there are 85 Councillors and 5 
Aldermen. 

Governor. H.E. Sir Hugh Stephenson, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., I.C.S. : 
appointed June 6, 1930: salary Rs. 120,000 per year. 

Area, Population and Religion. Bengal in its present form, as 
reconstituted in 1912, covers 82,277 square miles, of which 76,843 square 
miles are British territory. The population (1921) is 46*6 millions in British 
territory and 896,926 in two Indian States. Calcutta with its suburbs 
accounts for 1,132,246; the urban population of the remainder of the 
Province is only 4 per cent, of the whole. Howrah has a population of 
195,301 ; and Dacca of 119,450. Mohammedans constitute 53*5 per cent, 
and Hindus 43*7 per cent. Of the 149,075 Christians, 22,730 were Europeans. 
Bengali is the mother tongue of 92 per cent, of the total population, 
though altogether 80 different languages are found spoken in Bengal. 

Education. Recognised Educational Institutions in 1926-27 numbered 
58,833, and unrecognised 1,610. The number of pupils in all classes of 
Institutions was 2,343,380. The Calcutta University is both an affiliating 
and a teaching University, dating from 1857. Dacca University is a teach- 
ing University, founded in 1921. Art Colleges for males number 41 with 
22,131 students ; of these 9 were maintained by Government. There were 2, 675 
secondary schools for Indian boys. The primary schools for boys numbered 
38,187. Of the total number of pupils in primary schools 53 '3 per cent, 
were Muhammedans and 45*9 per cent, were Hindus. There wore 98 



JUSTICE AND CRIME FINANCE PRODUCTION, ETC. 151 

Institutions for the training of teachers. There were 731 students in Engineer- 
ing in 2 Institutions. There were 14,748 Institutions of all kinds for Indian 
girls. For children of Europeans and Anglo-Indians there were 62 
Institutions. 

Justice and Crime.- The High Court consists of a Chief Justice 
and 16 Judges. For Criminal and Civil justice there were in 1927 
42 District and Sessions Judges (including Additional Judges). For Criminal 
justice theie were 411 stipendiary and 635 honorary Magistrates, and for Civil 
justice 44 Suboidmate Judges and 235 Munsifs (Civil Judges of the first 
instance). There were 295,039 criminal cases brought to trial in 1927 ; 
and outside Calcutta 588,164 civil suits were instituted. The Bengal Police 
has a strength of 24,325 under an Inspector-General. The Calcutta force 
is a separate force under a Commissioner of Police who is directly under 
Government. 

Finance- The Revenue (revised estimates) collected in 1927-28 was 
1,077 lakhs of rupees. To this sum Stamps furnished the largest contribu- 
tion, nearly 350 lakhs ; next, Land Revenue, 315 lakhs, and then Excise, 
224 lakhs. Registration fees gave 40 lakhs and Bengal Forests 34 lakhs. 
On the expenditure side the total was 1,103 lakhs. Police cost 188 lakhs, 
Education 138 lakhs, General Administration 119 lakhs, and Medical De- 
partment 55 lakhs. The administration of Justice cost 108 lakhs. Forests 
gave a surplus of income over expenditure of 17 lakhs. As a special measure, 
the annual contribution of 63 lakhs to the Central Government has been 
remitted for six years from 1922-23. 

Production and Industry. During the close of 1926 there were 
1,234 registered factories of all kinds. There were 85 jute mills and a daily 
average of 325,190 operatives. Cotton mills numbered 12 with 12,781 
operatives. The Coal Mining Industry in Bengal had in 1926-27 209 mines, 
employing 43,506 operatives with an output of 5,137,688 tons. Seventy- 
seven per cent, of the population depend on agriculture. 

Commerce and Communications. The foreign trade of Bengal in 
1927-28 amounted to 89 crores of rupees of Imports and 148 crores of 
Exports. Cotton goods accounted for 34'06 per cent, of the Imports. Of the 
Exports, jute manufactures and raw jute accounted for 62 '2 per cent. The 
United Kingdom sent 55 '9 per cent, of the Imports, and received 21*6 per 
cent, of the Exports. 

In 1926-27 the length of metalled roads was 3,434 miles and of unmetalled 
roads 34,261 miles. Bengal possesses no less than 1,876 miles of navigable 
canals. The length of railways within the province on March 31, 1927, was 
3,288 miles. 

Administration Report. Annual. Calcutta. 

Calcutta Port Trust. A Brief History of Fifty Years' Work, 1870-1920. Calcutta, 
1920. 

Atcoli (F. D ), Earlv Revenue History of Bengal. Oxford, 1917. 

Cotton (Sir E.), Calcutta, Old and New. Cal utta. 

Jack (J. C.), Tt.e Economic Life of a Bengal District. Oxford, 1916. 

0'Afa//e7/(L. 8. .), Bengal, Bihar and Oriss*, Sikkim. Cambridge, 1917. History of 
Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa under British Rule. Calcutta, 1925, 



BIHAR AND ORISSA, 

Constitution and Government. The Province, containing the three 
different ethnic areas, Bihar, Chota Nagpur and Orissa, was taken from the 



152 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : BIHAR AND ORISSA 

old Province of Bengal and constituted under a Lieut. -Governor in Council 
in 1912. After the Reforms Act of 1919, the administration was changed 
into a Governorship. For the 'reserved' subjects there is an Executive 
Council with two Members (one an Indian), and for the ' transferred ' subjects 
two Indian Ministers. There is a Legislative Council of 103 Members, 76 
elected and 27 nominated and ex-officio (of whom no more than 18 may be 
officials). For the purposes of administration there are 5 divisions, covering 
21 districts. 

Governor. H.E. James David Sifton, O.S.I., C.I.E., I.C.S. : appointed 
June 6, 1930: salary Rs. 1,00,000 per year. 

Area, Population and Religion* The British territories cover 83, 161 
square miles, with a population (1921) of 34 millions. The Feudatory States 
of Orissa and Chota Nagpur attached to the Province of Bihar and Orissa 
have an area of 28,664 square miles and a population of 3,959,669. 
The three principal towns are Fatna, the capital (119,976), Bhagalpur 
(68,878), and Gaya (67,562). The hot weather seat of the Government is 
at Ranchi. Hindus form the great majority of the population. 

Education. At the census of 1921 the proportion of literates was only 
4*7 per cent, as compared with 7*5 for the rest of India. The percentage of 
Indian boys attending school reached 40'0 in 1928-29. The University of 
Patna constituted in 1917 is an affiliating Univer&ity. A Board of Secondary 
Education was constituted in 1922. In 1928-29 there were 3,717 students in 
Arts and Science Colleges. There were 125,251 pupils in 882 secondary 
schools, and 940,708 pupils in 29,673 primary schools. Theie is a College 
for Engineering at Patna (Bihar) and a School at Cuttack (Orissa) ; also the 
Tirhut Technical Institute and the Ranchi Technical School. 

Justice and Crime- There is a High Court (constituted in 1916) at 
Patna with a Chief Justice and 8 Judges, excluding two temporary additional 
Judges. On the Criminal side there are Sessions Judges, Stipendiary and 
Honorary Magistrates. For the administration of Civil Justice there are 
District Judges, Subordinate Judges, and Munsiffs (Courts of first instance). 
The Police Force is under an Inspector-General ; there is one policeman to 
2,367 of the population and to 5*8 square miles of the area of the Province, 
the combined proportion being less than in any other Province of India. 

Finance* The revenue (revised estimates) for the Bihar and Orissa 
Province in 1929-30 was Rs. 589 lakhs, including Rs. 193 lakhs from Excise, 
Rs. 177 lakhs from Land Revenue, Rs. 110 lakhs from Stamps, and ueaily Rs. 10 
lakhs from the Forest Department. The expenditure was Ks. 611 lakhs. The 
chief items were: Police Rs. 85 lakhs, Education Rs. 92 lakhs, and General 
Administration Rs. 75 lakhs. No contribution is required for the Central 
Government. 

Production and Industry* The Province is principally agricultural ; 
814 persons per mille depend on agriculture for their livelihood, and 
983 per mille live in villages. The principal crop, rice, covers nearly half 
the cropped area ; then come sugar-cane and maize. The area under indigo 
in Bihar was 15,800 acres in 1928. The coal area is in the Manbhum 
and Hazaribagh districts of Chota Nagpur. The total output was 14*8 
million tons out of 21'6 millions for the whole of India in 1928. The 
districts of Hazaribagh, Monghyr and Gaya form the most important' source 
of mica in the world. In Smgbhum are the Tata Iron and Steel Works at 
Jamshedpur, with a pay-roll of 30,000 employees, and an additional 16,000 
engaged in collieries, mines and quarries. The reserved forests cover an area 



BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 153 

of 1,799 square miles. In 1929 there were 9,316 Co-operative Societies with 
a working capital of Rs. 582 lakhs. 

Commerce and Communications There was in 1924-25 a trans- 
frontier trade of 526 lakhs with Nepal, and a smalJ maritime trade in Orissa. 
Tho total mileage in 1928-29 of metalled roads was 4,677 and of unmetalled 
roads 27,598. There are also 501 miles of navigable canals in Bihar and 
Orissa. The East Indian, Bengal and North- Western, Bengal Nagpur and 
Eastern Bengal Railways traverse the province. There are also 4 light 
railways with 149 miles. 

Administration Report. Annual Patna. 

Handbook of the Mining; and Mineral Resources in Bihar and Orissa. Patna, 1924. 
Collins (B. A.), Chotanagpur and Orissa. Journal of Indian Industries and Labour, 
Nov. 1921. Calcutta, 1921. 

0' Mailey (L. 8. S.), Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, Sikkim. Cambridge, 1917. 
Mazumdar (B. C.), Omsa in the Makirg. Calcutta, 1925. 



BOMBAY PBESIDENCY, 

Constitutional Government. The English obtained a factory at 
Surat in 1616. Bombay was acquired by the Portuguese in 1530, and given m 
1661 to Charles II as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza. In 1668 
the king granted the Island of Bombay to the East India Company for the 
small annual rent of 10 : it was placed under the President of the factory at 
Surat. The headquarters of the Bombay Governor were transferred from Surat 
to Bombay in 1708. Tho early summer seat of Government is at Poona ; 
for the hottest months the Governor resides at Mahableswar. The adminis- 
tration is in the hands of the Governor and an Executive Council of four (of 
whom two are Indians) for the ' reserved ' subjects, and of the Governor with 
three Indian Ministers (the Minister of Local Self-Government, the Minister 
of Education and the Minister of Agriculture) for the 'transferred' sub- 
jects. The Legislative Council consists of 114 Members, including the 
4 Members of Council. There are 86 elected Members and 28 nominated 
and ex-officio Members, of whom not more than 16 may be officials ; but the 
present (1930) number is 15 only. There are, in addition to Bombay 
City, 5 administrative Divisions Northern, Central and Southern, Bombay 
Suburban, and Smd under which are 27 Districts. In 1928-29 there were 
155 Municipalities, 27 District Local Boards, and 220 Taluka Boards. The 
Commissioner in Sind has considerable independent powers. His head- 
quarters is at Karachi. 

Governor. H.E. the Rt. Hon. Sir Frederick Sykes, P.C., G.C.I.E., 
G.B.E., K.C.B., C.M.G., appointed June 27, 1928. Salary Rs. 120,000 per 
year. 

Area, Population and Religion. -The British Districts cover an 
area of 123,621 sq. miles: population (1921), nearly 19J millions, mainly 
Hindus. The Indian States in relation with the Bombay Presidency cover 
28,562 sq. miles and have a population of 4 millions (p. 165). The Western 
India States (p. 171) are in relation with the Government of India. In 
Sind, the Mohammedans are in the majority. Parsis are only 0*43 per cent, 
of the population in British territory. The density varies from 71 per sq. 
mile in Sind to 48,996 in Bombay City. The chief languages are Sindi, 
Gujarati, Marathi, and in the South Kanarese. The principal towns are 
Bombay (1,175,914), Ahmedabad (274,007), Poona (214,796), and Karachi 
(216,883). 



154 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: BOMBAY PRESIDENCY 

Education. The Bombay University founded in 1857 is an affiliating 
University. Under the University are 18 Arts Colleges and 11 Professional 
Colleges, for Engineering, Medicine, Agriculture, Commerce, and Law. In 
1928-29 the number of students in the Arts Colleges was 7,132, and in the 
Professional Colleges 2,667. Recognised and unrecognised Educational In- 
stitutions numbered, in 1928-29, 17,042 with 1,230,840 scholars. Secondary 
schools numbered 548 with 103,927 pupils, and primary schools 14,606 with 
1,050,104 pupils. To the total expenditure on education Government con- 
tributed 49 '6 per cent., local authorities 18*2 per cent., and fees 18*3 per 
cent. 

Justice and Crime. The High Court of Bombay has a Chief Justice 
and 9 Judges. In Sind there is the Court of the Judicial Commissioner. 
Criminal justice is administered by the High Court, the Sessions Judges and 
985 Magistrates. The number of persons tried was 259,605 in the year 1928. 
The Stipendiary Police Force of 18,125 men is under an Inspector-General; 
but Bombay City is under the control of a Commissioner of Police who 
commands a force of 4,175 men. Outside of Bombay City the incidence of 
the Police Force is one to every 821 inhabitants. 

Finance. The estimated revenue of the Government of Bombay for 
1930-31 is Rs. 1,573 lakhs, the chief contributions being Rs. 512 lakhs 
from Land Revenue, Rs. 389 lakhs from Excise, Rs. 173 lakhs from Stamps, 
and Rs. 78 lakhs from Forests. The estimated expenditure for 1930-31 is 
Rs. 1,601*5 lakhs. General Administiation was estimated to cost Rs. 323 
lakhs, Education Rs. 203 lakhs, and Police Rs. 178 lakhs. The contribution 
of the Bombay Government to the Central Government has now been 
remitted. Under the head of Capital Expenditure Rs. 421 lakhs have been 
provided for the construction of Irrigation Works. 

Production and Industry. Sixty-four per cent, of the population 
are dependent on agriculture. The textile trade is dominant in production. 
The number of looms in 1929 in Bombay Island was 74,825, and in the 
rest of the Bombay Presidency 51,399. The number of factories of all kinds 
was 1,751 in 1929, and the number of operatives in all industries was 
366,029, including 74,924 women and 4,527 children. There is a steady 
decline in the number of child operatives. There are 15,000 sq. miles of 
reserved forests. 

Irrigation. There are two spheres, the Deccan and Gujarat, and the 
Sind. The Lloyd Barrage at Sukkur is intended to supply the defect due to 
the low natural level of the Indus. This scheme provides for the irrigation 
of 500,000 more acres than the total cultivated area of Egypt; and the 
estimated cost is over 12,000,000. In Sind 3,171,205 acres were irrigated 
in 1927-28, and in the Deccan and Gujarat 231,544. 

Commerce and Communications. in 1928-29 Bombay had 9,178 

miles of metalled roads and 20,320 miles of unmetalled roads. In 1928-29 
the total length of railway open in the Bombay Presidency was 5,689J miles. 

In January, 1928, the electrification of the suburban services to the 
North of Bombay was inaugurated, and is now extended to Poona. 

The total foreign trade in 1928-29 was Rs. 195 crores, and the total 
coasting trade Rs. 62} crores. Bombay had Rs. 108J crores of Imports and 
Rs. 86 crores of Exports ; Karachi had Rs. 29 crores of Imports and Rs. 25 
crores of Exports in 1929-30. India cotton to the extent of 480,000 tons 
left Bombay for abroad. 



BURMA 155 

Administration Report. Annual. Bombay. 

Abbott (J ), Siml. Bombay, 1924. 

Burnett-Hurst (A. R), Labour and Housing in Bombay London, 1925. 

Edwardes (8. M.), The Bombay City Police, 1072-1916. Bombay, 1923. 

Keatinge (G ), Agricultural Progress m Western India. London, 1921. 

Mann (H II ), Land and Labour m a Deccan Village. Bombay Ft. I., 1917 ; Pt. II. 
(with N. V. Kamtkar), 1921. 

The Labour Office, Government of tiovibaif, Wages and Hours of Labour in the Cotton 
Mill Industry (Bombay Presidency) Bombay, 1923 and 1925. Agricultural Wages m the 
Bombay Presidency. Bombay, 1924. Bombay Labour Gazette (Monthly). 



BURMA. 

Constitution and Government. AS far back as 1612 the East 

India Company had agents and factories at Syriam (near Rangoon), Prome 
and Ava. From 1796 there was a Resident at Rangoon. The first Burma 
War gave in 1826 Arakan and Tenasserim to the British ; in 1852 Pegu was 
annexed by Lord Dalhousie; in 1862 the Provinces in Burma were amalga- 
mated under a Chief Commissioner; and in 1886 Upper Burma was annexed. 
In 1897 the charge was changed to a Lieut. -Governoi ship. From 1923 the 
Province has been constituted a Governor's Province under the Government of 
India Act of 1919. In the hot weather season the Government moves from 
Rangoon to Maymyo. The Governor and two Members of the Executive Council 
(one a Burman) are in charge of the ' reserved ' subjects, and the Governor and 
two non-officwl Ministers are in charge of the ' transferred ' subjects. There 
are seven administrative Divisions, exclusive of the Shan States (four Lower 
Burma, three Upper Burma) under Commissioners, and under these again 
38 Deputy Commissioners of Districts. The Northern and Southern Shan 
States, which form part of British India, are administered by their Chiefs 
under the supervision of the Commissioner of the Federated Shan States. 
These groups were federated in 1922; and since 1923 there has been a 
Council of Chiefs. The Legislative Council of Burma consists of 103 
Members, of whom 80 are elected and 23 nominated and ex-ojficio. No more 
than 14 may be officials. 

Governor. H.E. Sir Charles Alexander Innes, K. C.S.I., C.I.E., 
I.C.S. : appointed 1927 : salary, Rs. 1,00,000 per year. 

Area, Population and Religion. The area of the Province is 
262,732 sq. miles. Burma proper, inclusive of the Chin Hills and Kachin 
Hill Tracts, covers 184,102 sq. miles. The Shan States cover 62,305 sq. 
miles ; and there are 16,325 8q. miles of unadministered territory. The total 
population (1921) was 13,212,192. The leading towns are Rangoon, the 
capital (345,505), and Mandalay (148,917). The proportion of religions per 
1,000 in 1921 was: Buddhists, 851; Animists, 53; Hindus, 37; Moham- 
medans, 38; Christians, 20; and others, 1. The Burmans belong to the 
Tibetan group. Cultivation of various kinds supported 9,158,932. 

Education. The number of pupils in the 7,282 recognised colleges and 
schools was 503,564 in 1928-29 ; and 201,614 in the unrecognised institutions. 
Burma is the most literate Province in the Indian Empire ; far ahead of 
India in primary education. Higher education is controlled by the University, 
Anglo-Vernacular and English schools by Government, and Vernacular 
education by Local Bodies. In almost every village there is a Buddhist 
monastery, where the three R's are taught. Tnere were in 1928-29, 279,122 
pupils in upper and lower primary schools, and 203,056 pupils attending 
1,445 secondary schools of all kinds. The teaching University of Rangoon 
was constituted in 1920, with two Arts Colleges ; and there is an Inter- 



156 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: CENTRAL PROVINCES, BERAR 

mediate College at Mandalay. There is also a Forest School at Pyanmana, 
an Agricultural College and Research Institute at Mandalay, and a Technical 
Institute and a Yeteiinary School at Insein (near Rangoon). 

Justice and Crime. There is a High Court at Rangoon (con- 
stituted 1922) for the control of the administration of Civil and Criminal 
Justice; there are a Chief Justice and 11 Judges. Besides Sessions 
Judges there were 602 Stipendiary Magistiates in 1928-29 : 135,202 criminal 
cases were brought to trial in 1928. The number of civil suits instituted 
was 68,267 in 1928. There is a Civil Police Force of 13,559 officers and 
men under an Inspector-General; a Rangoon Town Force of 1,525 under 
a Commibsioner ot Police ; and the special feature of Burma several 
battalions of Military Police, the strength of which is 10,050 men. 

Finance. The revenue receipts (revised estimates) of 1929-30 were 
Rs. 1,045 lakhs, to which Land Revenue contributed Us. 554 lakhs, Forests 
Rs. 183 lakhs, Excise Rs. 127 lakhs, Stamps Rs. 71 lakhs, and Irriga- 
tion Rs. 11 lakhs. The expenditure charged to levenue (revised estimates) 
in 1929-30 totalled Rs. 1,122 lakhs, the largest item being Civil Works 
Rs. 230 lakhs; next, Police Rs. 161 lakhs; Education Rs. 127 lakhs ; and 
General Administration Rg. 109 lakhs. There was no contribution to the 
Central Government by the Provincial Government in 1929-30. The net 
surplus from Forests was Rs. 103 lakhs. 

Production and Industry. The area of reserved Forests at the end 
of 1928-29 was 29,190 sq. miles. The out-turn of teak by lessees was 309,965 
tons. In 1928 the output of tin was, in the Tenasserim area, 3,522 tons; of 
tungsten ore, 445 tons ; of silver, almost entirely from the mines of the Burma 
Corporation, Ltd., in the N. Shan States, 7,404,728 ounces. The total 
provincial output of petroleum (1928) was 262,187,263 gallons. The total 
number of factories of all kinds was 976 in 1929 ; and the total number of 
persons employed in factories was 98,077. 

Commerce and Communications, In 1928-29 the whole sea-borne 
trade of Burma was Rs. 106*5 crores. Customs duty realised Rs. 467 lakhs. 
The length of metalled roads was 1,576 miles, and there were 7,860 miles 
of unraetalled roads. Burma had also 60 miles of navigable canals. Its great 
river, the Irrawaddy, is navigable up to Bhamo, 900 miles from the sea ; and 
its tributary, the Chindwin, is navigable for 300 miles. The railways of the 
Province were taken over by the Government of India in January 1929. 
The open mileage for the year 1929-30 was 2,046 miles. 

Administration Report. Annual. Rangoon. 

Brown (R G.), Burma as I saw it, 1889-1917. London, 1925 

Hall (D. G. E ), Early English Intercourse with Burma. 1587-1743 London, 1928. 

Nolan (J. J.), Rangoon and the Port Journal of Indian Industries and Labour, Feb. 
1922. Calcutta, 1922. 

Penzer (N. M.). Mineral Resources of Burma. London, 1922. 

Scott (Sir G.), Burma : a Handbook of Practical, Commercial and Political Information. 
London, 1924. Burn. a from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. London, 1924. 

Talbot Kelly (R ), Burma, 2nd ed. London, 1929. 

White (Sir H. T.), Burma. Cambridge, 1928. 



CENTRAL PROVINCES AND BERAR. 

Constitution and Government* From 1853 the territories of the 
Kingdom of Nagpur were declared by Lord Dalhousie to have lapsed to the 
Paramount Power, and were then administered as the Nagpnr Province by 
a Commissioner under the Government of India. With some additions this 



AREA, POPULATION EDUCATION JUSTICE FINANCE 157 

area was constituted the Central Provinces in 1861. The seat of Govern- 
ment is at Nagpur, but in April and September for two peiiods of three 
months arid one und a half months respectively, it is transferred to 
Pachmarhi. Owing to the bankruptcy of Berar and the debts owing to 
the British Government, a treaty with the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1853 
allotted to the British certain districts known as the Hyderabad ' Assigned 
Districts' for the payment of the Hyderabad Contingent. In 1902 the 
lights of the Nizam over Berar were leased in perpetuity to the Govern- 
ment of India at an annual rental of Rs. 25 lakhs ; and Herar was transferred 
to the administration of the Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces. 
In 1920 a Governorship was created. Associated with the Governor are two 
Executive Councillors (one an Indian) for the 'reserved' subjects, and two 
Ministers for the ' transferred ' subjects. There are five main administrative 
divisions with 22 districts, each under a Deputy Commissioner. All the 
Feudatory States are under a Political Agent. The Legislative Council 
of 73 has 55 elected Members and 18 nominated and ex-officio Members 
(not more than 10 may be officials). For Local Self-Govern men t there are 
18 District Councils and 2 Independent Local Boards in the Central 
Provinces and 4 District Councils and one Independent Local Board in 
Berar ; also 68 Municipalities. 

Governor. His Excellency Sir Montagu Butler, K.C.S.I., C.B., C.I.E , 
C.V.O., C.B.E. : appointed 1925 : salary Rs. 72,000 per year. 

Area, Population and Religion. The British Districts of the 

Central Provinces have an aiea of 82,109 sq. miles and a population (1921) of 
10,837,444 ; Berar an area of 17,767 sq. miles and a population of 3,075,316 ; 
and the Feudatory States an area of 31,176 sq. miles and a population of 
2,066,900. The urban population is only SO per mille. The leading 
towns are: Nagpur, the capital, 145,193; and Jubbulpore, 108,793. The 
Hindus in 1921 numbered 13'1 millions (nearly five-sixths of the total 
population); the Animists 2*1 millions; Mohammedans 0'5 million; and 
Christians 0'07 million. 

Education. The Nagpur University was established in 1923 : to this 
the Colleges at Nagpur, Jubbulpore and Amraoti are affiliated. There were 
2, 133 collegiate students in 1 929-30. There is a High School Board for regu- 
lating and supervising high school education. There were 111,706 pupils in 
secondary schools in 1929-30. Under the head of primary education there 
were 4,181 recognised Institutions (with 295,126 pupils) for boys, and 374 
similar Institutions (with 24,747 pupils) for girls. For Technical Education 
there is an Engineering School with 174 students at Nagpur. There are 
46 pupils at the Kajkumar College, Raipur. 

Justice and Crime. The Court of the Judicial Commissioner at 
Nagpur, with a Judicial Commissioner and four Additional Judicial Com- 
missioners, is the highest Criminal and Civil Court. There were in 1929 
12 District and Sessions Judges, vith 819 Magistrates for criminal cases, 
and 123 Subordinate Judges for civil cases. There were 41,857 criminal 
cases tried; and 144,313 civil suits were instituted. 

Finance. The revenue (revised estimates) for 1929-30 was Ra. 539 
lakhs. Towards this total Land Revenue contributed Rs. 209 lakhs, Excise 
Rs. 125 lakhs, Stamp Duties Rs. 70 lakhs, and Forests Rs. 61 lakhs. On 
the expenditure side the total was Rs. 555 lakhs ; General Administration 
cost Rs. 72 lakhs ; next, Police Rs. 63 lakhs ; Education Rs. 59 lakhs : 
Civil Works Rs. 87 lakhs; and Forests Rs. 43 lakhs. 'Ihe contribution of 



158 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: COORG -DELHI 

Us. 22 lakhs hitherto payable by the Provincial Government of the Central 
Provinces and Berar to the Central Government of India was remitted 
permanently with effect from the year 1928-29. 

Production and Industry. The Agricultural College at Nagpur 
had 101 students in 1928-29. The result of the distribution of improved seeds 
by the Department of Agriculture was an increased out-turn valued at 
about 112 lakhs. The area irrigated from State Works in 1928-29 was 
410,219 acres. The number of Co-operative Societies of all kinds in 1928-29 
was 3,954. Berar and the Western Districts of the Nagpur Provinces grow 
cotton. Nagpur is the centre of a cotton-spinning and weaving industry. 
The Forest Department controls 19,641 sq. miles of Forests : the Forests 
gave in 1928-29 a surplus of Rs. 13*9 lakhs. The coal output in 1928 was 
732,353 tons, and the manganese output was 590,832 tons. There were 
893 factories of all kinds, in 1929, with a daily average of 69,291 employees. 

Communications, In 1929-30 there were 5,000 miles of metalled 
roads, and 3,592 unmetalled. The railway mileage is 2,572, of which 1,734 
miles are broad gauge and 838 narrow and metre gauge, 

Administration Report Annual. Nagpur. 

Zow>(Sir E.), The Possibilities of Industrial Development in the Central Provinces and 
Berar. Journal of Industries and Labour, Feb. 1921. Calcutta, 1921. 

Russell (R. V.) and Lai (R. B. II.). The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of 
India London, 1916. 



COORG. 

This Province came under British control in 1834, when, at the wish of 
the inhabitants, the reigning Raja, a cruel tyrant, was deposed. At first 
there was a Superintendent of Coorg, acting under the Commissioner of 
Mysore and Coorg. In 1881 the Resident in Mysoie became the Chief Com- 
missioner of Coorg. The local Administrator is the Commissioner of Coorg 
at the capital, Mercara. A Legislative Council of 20 was created in 1924. 
The area is 1,582 sq. miles ; and the population (1921) is 163,838. Kanarese 
is the chief language : Kodagn (Coorg language) is a dialect of old Kanarese. 
In 1930-31 the estimated revenue was Rs. 15*25 lakhs and the expenditure 
Rs. 1576 lakhs. There were, in 1929, 735 boys in high schools and 8,098 
in primary schools, and 241 girls in high schools and 680 in primary schools. 
There are 40, 020 acres under coffee, and 2,680 tons were exported in 1928-29. 
Chief Commissioner. The Hon. Lieut. -Col. R. J. C. Burke, I. A. : 
salary, Rs. 48,000 per year. 

Administration Report. Annual. Bangalore. 



DELHI. 

The Delhi Province, with an area of 593 sq. miles, was part of the 
Punjab Province before October 1912, when the enclave was created into a 
separate province under a Chief Commissioner. In 1915 a tract of land in 
the United Provinces comprising 65 villages was added to the Delhi Province, 
and is included in the above-mentioned area. The population is 488,188 
(1921) ; the urban population in Delhi town itself is 304,420. 

The revised estimate for the new capital is Rs. 1,601 lakhs ; an expendi- 
ture of Rs. 1,510 lakhs was incurred up to 31st March, 1930. Accom- 
modation is required for a population of about 66,000. 

The University of Delhi, intended to be a unitary, teaching and 
residential institution, was founded in 1922. There are three Arta Colleges 
affiliated. There is also the All-India Lady Hardinge Medical College for 



MADRAS PRESIDENCY 159 

the Medical Education of Indian Women (opened 1916). A Board of 
Secondary Education was established in 1926. 

The revenue of the Province in 1929-30 (estimate) was Rs. 44 lakhs ; 
and the expenditure (estimate) Rs. 45 lakhs. 

Chief Commissioner. The Hon'ble Sir John Thompson, K.O.I.E., C.S.I. : 
appointed August 8, 1928 : salary, Rs. 36,000 per year. 

Adimmstiation Report. Annual. Simla. 

Fanshawe (H. C.), Delhi Past and Present. London, 1902. 

//earn (Sir G ), The Sc\en Cities of Delhi, iind Edn. Calcutta, 1929. 

Sharp (Sir H.), Delhi : its Story and Buildings. 2nd Edn. London, 1929. 



MADRAS PRESIDENCY 

Constitution and Government. The first trading establishment 
made by the British iu the Madras Presidency was at Peddapali (now 
Nizampatam) in 1611 and then at Masulipatam. In 1639 the English 
were permitted to make a settlement at the place which is now Madras ; 
and Fort St. George was founded. By 1801 the whole of the country 
from the Northern Oircars to Capo Comoriii (with the exception of certain 
French and Danish settlements) had been brought under British rule. The 
administration is now in the hands of the Governor in Council (four 
members, two being Indians) for ' reserved ' subjects, and of the Governor 
acting with three Indian Ministers for the * transferred ' subjects. The 
Legislative Council at present consists of 132 Members, of whom 98 are 
elected, and 34 nominated and ex-officio. The maximum number of officials 
is 23. There are 26 Districts each under a District Collector and Magistrate. 
Under the head of Local Self-Government there are 25 District Boards (all 
but one under a non-official President), 81 Municipal Councils, and the 
Corporation of Madras. The summer capital is Ootacamund. 

Governor. His Excellency the Rt. Hon. Lieutenant Colonel Sir George 
Frederick Stanley, G.C.I.E., C.M.G. ; appointed October 26, 1929; salary 
Rs. 120,000 per year. 

Area, Population and Religion. Area, 142,260 sq. miles. There 
are also five Indian States which are separately described (p. 169). Population 
(1921), 42'3 millions. Principal languages, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and 
Kanarese. The first two account for 78 per cent, of the population. The 
principal towns are, Madras with 526,911 inhabitants, Madura with 138,894, 
and Trichinopoly with 120,422. Hindus form 89 per cent., Mohammedans 
7 per cent., Christians 3 per cent, and Auimists 1 per cent. 

Education. There are three Universities, the Madras University, the 
Andhra University, and the Annamalai University. The first of these, 
founded in 1857, is an affiliating University and since 1923 has been dis- 
charging teaching functions to a limited extent The Andhra University, 
founded in 1926, is mainly an affiliating body. The Annamalai University, 
founded in 1929, is the fiist attempt in South India at organising a unitary 
residential type of University. The number of Colleges affiliated to or 
recognised by the two affiliating Universities in 1929-80 was as follows : 
Madras 68, of which 14 were maintained by Government ; Andhra 27 (4 
maintained by Government). On March 31, 1929, male Arts students 
numbered 12,832, and women Arts students numbered 488. Public 
educational institutions numbered 56,013, with 2,729,237 scholars. There 
were 50,096 public elementary and 528 secondary schools for Indian boys, 
and 4,722 elementary and 67 secondary schools for Indian girls. Public funds 
contributed 63 per cent, of the total expenditure on education in 1928-29. 



160 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: LACCADIVE ISLANDS 

Justice and Crime. There is a High Court with a Chief Justice 
and 13 Judges. There were in 1928 in all 964 Criminal Courts ; and 
305,130 criminal cases were instituted in 1928. The Police Force in 
1P29 numbered 29,687, under an Inspector-General, while there was a force 
of 2,206 for Madras City. The total number of civil suits instituted was 
532,024 in 1928. 

Finance. The revenue (revised estimates) of the Government of 
Madras was Rs. 1,876 lakhs in 1929-30, the chief contributions being Us. 764 
lakhs from Laud Revenue, Rs. 596 lakhs from Excise, Rs. 251 lakhs from 
Stamps and Rs. 65 lakhs from Forests. The expenditure (revised estimates) 
in 1929-30 was Rs. 1,754 lakhs. General Administration accounted for 
Rs. 251 lakhs, Police for Rs. 201 lakhs, and Education for Rs. 268 lakhs. 
The contribution to the Central Government was completely and permanently 
remitted from 1928-29. The proportion of the expenditure in the ' trans- 
ferred ' departments to the total expenditure (excluding the contribution to 
the Central Government) was 40 per cent, in 1929-30. 

Production and Industry. Agriculture engages 71 per cent, of 
the population. There were in 1928-29, 23 cotton mills with 32,866 vvoikers. 
The total number of factories working in 1929 was 1,530 with 143,217 
operatives. The Madras Government in 1928-29 treated at the Government 
Quinine Factory 645,907 Ibs. of cinchona bark. The area irrigated in 1928-29 
was 7,262,096 acres : productive irrigation woiks showed a retum of 7 '94 per 
cent, on the capital outlay. The output of timber by the Forest Department 
was 4,734,500 cubic feet in 1928-29. 

Commerce and Communication.-^ 1928-29, Madras Presidency 
had 21/231 miles of metalled roads, and 10,232 miles of unmetalled roads, as 
well as 1,493 miles of navigable canals. In 1929-30 there were 4,850 miles 
of lailway, in addition to 13(5 miles of District Board lines. The imports 
of private merchandise under the head of Seaborne Foreign Trade were valued 
m 1928-29 at Rs. 27*59 crores, and the exports at over Rs. 46 crores. Trade 
to the United Kingdom represented 30 per cent, of the total trade of the 
Presidency. In 1928-29 the Madras Port accounted for 48 '64 per cent, of 
the total trade ; its imports and exports amounted to Rs. 52 02 crores in 
1928-29. Cochin is the chief of the other ports. 



LACCADIVE ISLANDS. 

(ATTACHED TO MADRAS PRESIDENCY.) 

A group of 14 islands (9 inhabited), about 200 miles off the west or Malabai 
coast of the Madras Presidency. The northern portion is called the Amindivis 
and is attached to the oollectorate of South Kanara, the remainder to the 
administrative district of Malabar. Population 13,633, nearly all Moham- 
medans. The language is Malayalam, but the language in Minicoy, which 
is considerably to the south of the other islands, is Mahl. The staple 
products are coconut husk fibre (coir) and coconuts. 

Administration Report. Annual Madras. 

Aiyangar (&. K.), South India and her Muhammadan Invaders Oxford, 1921. 
Barlow (GA The Story of Madras. Bombay, 1921. 
Dodwell (H.), The Nabobs of Madras. London, 1926. 
Ellis (R. H.), Short Account of the Lacradive Islands. Madras, 1924. 
Molony (J. C.), Book of South India. London, 1926. 
Slater (G.), Some South Indian Villages. London, 1918. 

Tkurston (E ), Castes and Tribes of Southern India. Madras, 190D. Tb,e Madras 
Presidency, with Mysore, Coorg and Associated States. Cambridge, 1914. 



PUNJAB 161 

NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE. 

In 1849 the territory on the frontier was annexed and placed under a 
Board of Administration at Lahore in the Punjab. The frontier districts 
were separated in 1901 from the Punjab under the name of the North-West 
Frontier Province: the districts are Hazara, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and 
Dora Ismail Khan. The British territory represents one-third of the whole 
area of 38,665 sq. miles under the Chief Commissioner and Agent to the 
Governor- General ; the remaining area is tribal territory, partly under 
Political Agents, and partly under the political control of the Deputy Com- 
missioners of the British districts. The British territory in the five districts 
has an area of 13,419 sq. miles and a population of 2,251,340 (1921). About 
95 per cent are Mohammedans. Peshawar, the capital, had in 1921 a 
population of 104,452. The hot weather capital is Nathia Gali. The chief 
language is Pashtu, an Iranian tongue with many Punjabi words. The chief 
Court is that of the Judicial Commissioner and Additional Judicial Commis- 
sioner ; and there are three Sessions Judges. In 1928-29 the total number 
of offences reported was 33,528. The total number of civil suits instituted 
was 20,607. (The gross revenue in 1929-30 (revised estimate) was Ra. 85*41 
lakhs, of which Rs. 21 '06 lakhs came from Land Revenue, and 10 '90 
lakhs from Stamps. The gross expenditure (revised estimate, 1928-29) was 
Rs. 313-57 lakhs, Rs. 23*86 lakhs being Political expenditure, Rs. 133*99 
lakhs on Frontier Watch and Ward, Rs. 28 '35 -lakhs expenditure on Police 
and Rs. 30 '82 lakhs on Civil Works.) In 1928-29 there were 830 recognised 
educational Institutions for males with 71,296 scholars, and 110 similar 
Institutions for females, with 9,395 scholars. The percentage of scholars to 
the total population is 6. The expenditure on Education was Rs. 28*35 
lakhs, of which 73'6 per cent, is from Government Funds. Wheat covered 
41 per cent, of the acreage sown in 1928-29. The irrigated area in that year 
was 966,106 acres. The railway line through the Khyber, 27 miles long, 
with 34 tunnels, from Jamrud to the frontier of Afghanistan, was opened in 
November 1925. 

Chief Commissioner and Agent to the Governor-General. The Hon. Mr. 
S. E. Pears, C.S.I., C.I.E., I.C.S. : appointed 1930 ; salary, Rs. 66,000 per 
annum. 

Administration Report. Annual Calcutta. 

Eiinqws (C. M.), The Pathan Borderlaud, from Chitral to Dera Ismail Khan. Calcutta, 
1921. 

Douie (Sir J.), The Panjab, North-West Frontier Province and Kashmir. Cambridge. 
1916. 



PUNJAB. 

Government and Constitution. Punjab denotes the land of the 
five rivers, viz. Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Bcas and Sutlej. British power in 
the Punjab began with the dissipation by the successors of Ranjit Singh of 
the power consolidated by him. In 1849 the country was annexed, and 
placed under a Board of Administration. In 1853 it was placed under a 
Chief Commissioner, and by 1859 the Punjab and the Delhi Territory con- 
stituted the charge of a Lieut. -Governor. The N.W. Frontier area was 
separated in 1901, and the Delhi enclave in 1911. In 1921 the administra- 
tion was handed over to a Governor with an Executive Council of two 
Members (one an Indian) in charge of 'reserved' subjects, and the Governor 
with three Indian Ministers in charge of ' transferred' subjects. The Legis- 
lative Council consists of 94 Members, 2 ex-officio, 71 elected, and 21 



162 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: PUNJAB 

nominated : of the latter p.ot more than 14 may be officials. There are 29 
districts grouped for administrative purposes under five Commissioners. The 
system of election has been introduced in the membership of all the District 
Boards, except Simla. There are 107 Municipalities. Lahore is the capital, 
but from May to October the Government Offices are transferred to Simla, 
where the Governor's residence is known as Barnes Court. 

Governor. H.E. Sir Geoffrey Fitzhervey de Montmorency, K. C.S.I., 
K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O., C.B.E.: appointed August 10, 1928 : salary Rs. 1,00,OOC 
per annum. 

Area, Population and Religion. The Punjab proper comprises 
an area of 99,846 sq. miles and has a population of 20*6 millions (1921). 
Its Indian States, 34 in number, have an area of 37,059 sq. miles with 4 '4 
million people. Of the population 55 per cent, is Mohammedan, 31 per 
cent. Hindu and 11 per cent. Sikh. The leading towns are: Lahore, the 
capital (281,781), Amritsar (160,218) and Rawalpindi (101,142). 

Education. The University of the Punjab was constituted as , an 
examining University in 1882. It has always maintained an Oriental 
College and a Law College, also a Commerce College (1927) ; and since 1920 
various departments of University teaching have been added. In 1929-30 
there were 11,435 male students in Arts Colleges; in 1928-29 571,242 
male scholars in secondary schools, and 359,844 scholars in primary schools. 
The total expenditure on Education in 1928-29 was Rs. 308 lakhs, of which 
Rs. 172 lakhs were provided by Government Funds and Rs. 62 lakhs 
from fees. 

Justice and Crime. The Chief Court of two Judges created in 1866 
was converted in 1919 into a High Court at Lahore, consisting of a Chief 
Justice and 12 Judges, including one inspecting judge who sits for six 
months in the year. There are 22 permanent District and Sessions 
Judges, and 5 others. In 1929 the number of criminal cases brought to 
trial was 134,929, and the number of civil suits instituted was 217,538. 
The Provincial Police Force of nearly 23,000 officers and men is under 
an Inspector-General. 

Finance. The revenue in 1929-30 was Rs. 1,114 lakhs, to which 
the receipts from Irrigation Works contributed the large proportion of Rs. 
383 lakhs, Land Revenue Rs. 257 lakhs, Stamps Rs. 118 lakhs, and Excise 
Rs. 119 lakhs. The expenditure was Us. 1,147 lakhs. The chief items of 
expenditure were : Education Rs. 172 lakhs, Police Rs. 124 lakhs, and General 
Administration Rs. 115 lakhs. The entire contribution of the Punjab to the 
Central Government was permanently remitted in 1928-29 by the Central 
Government. The net profit earned by the Irrigation Department has 
been : 





Lakhs 


" 


Lakhs 


1923 24 ... 


RH. 807 


1926-27 


Rs. 270 


1924-25 


Rs. 888 


1927-28 


ll. 289 


1925-26 


Rs. 857 


1928-29 


Rs. 254 



Production and Industry. Agriculture affords subsistence to 60'5 
per cent- of the population. In 1930 there were 3,405,836 acres of Forests 
under the Forest Department, The net profit of this Department in 1929-80 
was Rs. 3 '07 lakhs. There is a Punjab Arts and Crafts depot at Lahore 
which serves a dual purpose ; the provision of art craftsmen with a market 



UNITED PROVINCES OP AGRA AND OUDH 163 

for their wares, and the improvement of design and workmanship. Next to 
agriculture, hand-loom weaving is the most important industry, both as 
regards the number of workers^eiigaged and the value of the products : it is 
estimated that over 200,000 rely on weaving as their main occupation. 
Agricultural prosperity is mainly due to irrigation : the canal-irrigated area 
rose from 3 million acres in 1893 to 13 million acres in 1928-29. 

The total number of factories registered under the Indian Factories Act 
is 613, which provide employment to 49,875 operatives. 

Commerce and Communications. The Punjab possesses an ex- 
tensive system of railway communications. The route mileage (6,827 miles) 
on the N.W. Railway has been increased by the opening to public traffic of 
6 miles of new lines during 1929-30, and in addition 261 miles of new 
lines were under construction at the end of the year. The main source of 
wealth lies in the export of wheat and cotton. The wheat traffic to Karachi 
on the N.W. Railway fluctuates considerably. In 1929-30 the export of 
wheat was 9,000 tons ; and of cotton, 214,000 tons. The passenger traffic 
on the N.W. Railway was 85'4 millions in 1929-30. There are about 4,000 
miles of metalled roads and about 20,000 miles of unmetalled roads in the 
province, excluding village roads. Punjab has also 220 miles of navigable 
canals. 

Administration Report. Annual. Lahore. 

Badenoch (A. C.), Punjab Industries. Lahore, 1917 

Braync (F. L.), The Remaking of Village India. Bombay, 1929 -Socrates in an Indian 
Village. Bombay, 1929. 

Calvert (H.), Wealth and Welfare of the Punjab. Lahore, 1923. 

Darling (M. L.), The Punjab Peasantry in Prosperity and Debt Bombay, 1925 
Rusticus Loquahur, or the Old Light and the New in the Punjab Village, London, 1930. 

Dome (Sir J.), The Panjab, North- Western Frontier Province and Kashmir. Cam- 
bridge, 1916. 

Ibbetson (Sir Denzil), Punjab Castes. Lahore, 191f . 

Latijl (Muhammad), Histoiy of Punjab. Lahore, 1891. 

Latiji (A.), The Industrial Punjab : a Survey of Facts, Conditions and Possibilities, 
London, 1911. 

Leigh (M. 8.). Punjab and the War. Lahore, 1922. 

Rose (H. A.), Glossary of Tribes and Castes. Lahore, 1914. 

Travaikis (H. K.), The Land of the Five Rivers. London, 1928. 



UNITED PROVINCES OF AGRA AND OUDH. 

This territory grew out of various cessions and acquisitions. In 1833 the 
then Bengal Presidency was divided into two parts, one of which became the 
Presidency of Agra. In 1835 the Agra area was styled the North- West 
Province and placed under a Lieut. -Governor. Oudh was annexed in 1866. 
The two provinces of Agra and Oudh were placed, in 1877, under one 
administrator, styled Lieut. -Governor of the North-West Province and 
Chief Commissioner of Oudh. In 1902 the name was changed to ' United 
Provinces of Agra and Oudh,' under a Lieut. -Governor, and the Lieut. - 
Governorship was altered to a Governorship in 1921, The administration 
of the * reserved ' subjects is in the hands of the Governor and an Executive 
Council of two Members, one of whom is an Indian ; and the * transferred * 
subjects are under the Governor with three Indian Ministers. The Legis- 
lative Council consists of 123 Members. There are 100 elected Members, and 
23 nominated and et-officio Members: of the latter not more than 16 may 
be officials. There are 10 administrative divisions, covering 48 districts, the 
average size of which is 2,000 square miles and the average population just 
under a million. The Municipalities in 1928-29 numbered 85, and the 
District Boards 48 ; of the former all but 5, and of the latter all are tinder 



164 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: AGRA AND OUDH 

non-official Chairmen. There are three Indian States, one of which, Benares, 
came into existence in 1911. 

Governor. His Excellency Sir William Malcolm Hailey, G.C.I.E., 
K.C.S.I., I.C.S. ; appointed August 9, 1928 ; salary Rs. 120,000 a year. 

Area, Population and Religion The area of the British districts 
is 106,295 square miles: population (1921) about 45J millions; slightly 
over 1 million are in the 6,267 square miles of the three Indian States. 
The population is rural to the extent of 89 '4 per cent. Lucknow 
(240,566 in 1921) is the largest city ; but the second place is now taken 
by Oawnpore (216,436) instead of Benares (198,447). Agra had in 1921 
185,532, and Allahabad 157,220 inhabitants. Hindus during the last decade 
have lost numbers to Christianity and Aryaism, but still cover 85 per cent. 
Mohammedans form 14 per cent. 

Education. The University of Allahabad, first constituted as an 
affiliating University in 1887, was recognized in 1921 as a unitary 
teaching and residential University : at the same time it exercised control 
over the affiliated colleges. Since July 1927 these colleges have been 
tiansferred to the new Agra University, which is a purely affiliating and 
examining University. The Benaies Hindu University was constituted in 
1916 ; Lucknow University in 1920 ; and the Aligarh Muslim University in 
1920, all being unitary teaching and residential Universities. All four had 
5,764 students in 1928-29. Government maintains an Engineering College 
at Roorkee, an Agricultural College at Cawnpore, and an Industrial School 
and a Medical College at Lucknow, besides three Training Colleges for English 
Teachers at Allahabad, Lucknow and Agra. Educational Institutions of all 
kinds numbered 26,298 in 1928-29. For secondary education there were 944 
Institutions with 158,709 scholars ; and for primary education 20,013 schools 
with 1,139,971 scholars. There were 2,160 institutions for Indian girls with 
90,044 scholars. There was compulsory primary education in 29 Munici- 
palities, Government supplying two-thirds of the extra cost involved. The 
percentage of scholars to the population is 57 for males and 65 for females. 
Government contributed 56 per cent, of the total cost of education in 
1927-28. 

Justice and Crime There is a High Court of the Agra Province with a 
Chief Justice and 11 Judges, sitting at Allahabad j also a Chief Court of 
Oudh (constituted November 1925) with 5 Judges in all, at Lucknow. There 
are 19 Sessions divisions in Agra and 6 in Oudh. The persons brought to 
trial were 166,966 in the Agra Province and 98,712 in Oudh in the year 
1928. The stipendiary Police Force is under an Inspector-General, with 
a force of nearly 33,800 officers and men. The village watchmen have in 
recent years been reduced from about 88,000 to 43>800. 

Finance. The revenue (revised estimates) of the United Provinces in 
1929-30 was 1,319 lakhs of rupees. To this total the main contributions 
were: 700 lakhs from Land Revenue, 179 lakhs from Stamps, 131 lakhs 
from Excise, 62 lakhs from Forest*, and 126 lakhs from Irrigation. On the 
expenditure side the total (revised estimates) for 1929-30 was 1,237 lakhs. 
On Education were spent 201 lakhs ; on Police 171 lakhs ; and on General 
Administration 139 lakhs. No less than 97 lakhs were spent on the interest 
on debt incurred on Irrigation Works for which Capital Accounts are kept. 
On the construction of new Irrigation work, 147 lakhs went in capital 
expenditure in 1929-30. 



INDIAN STATES AND AGENCIES 165 

Produce and Industry. Agriculture absorbs 76'8 per cent, of the 
population ; over 34J million acres were under cultivation in 1928-29, and 
about 3 million acres were irrigated from canals. The productive canals 
(excluding the Sarda Canal) gave a net revenue of 5 '88 per cent, on the total 
capital outlay. The Sarda Kuchha and Sarda Oudh estimates have been 
combined into one project, which is estimated to cost 950 lakhs and to 
irrigate 1,350,000 acres. The great centre of industry is Cawnpore. In 
1929 there were 384 factories in the United Provinces. The cotton mills 
employ most labour ; then follows engineering. 

Communications There were, in 1928-29, 7,918 miles of metalled 
and 22 346 of unmetalled roads. On the River Ganges and Gogra 425 miles 
were kept open for navigation. The trunk lines of the East Indian Railway 
intersect the province. 

Administration Report Annual Allahabad 

Ckatterjee (Sir A. C.), Notes on the Industries of the United Provinces. Allahabad, 
1907. 

Creole (W ), Religion and Folklore of Northern India. Ed. R E. Enthoven. London, 
1926. 

Martin Leake (H.), The Bas.es of Agricultural Practice and Economics in the United 
Provinces. 

Morrison (Sir Th.), The Industrial Organization of an Indian Piovince. London, 1906. 



INDIAN STATES AND AGENCIES. 

Information is given below regarding the leading States and Agencies, 
arranged in alphabetical order. 

Assam State (Manipur). The only feudatory States with which the 
Assam Administration has political relations are Manipur and the petty 
States in the Khasi Hills. Manipur has an area of 8,456 square miles and a 
population (1921) of 384,016. About one-thiid are animistic tribes. The 
revenue is nearly Rs. 8 lakhs. There is a tribute of Rs. 5,000. The ruler is 
H.H. Maharaja Chura Chand Singh, C.B.E., born 1885; succeeded 1891; 
salute of 11 guns. Capital, Imphal. The State Administration is under a 
Darbar consisting of a President (whose services are lent by the Assam 
Government), three ordinary and three additional Members. 

Baluchistan States There are two States Kalat and Las Bela in 
relation with the Agent of the Governor-General, who is also the Chief 
Commissioner of Baluchistan and resides at Quetta. There is the Political 
Agent, Kalat. The leading chief of Kalnt is His Highness Beglar Begi Mir 
Sir Mahmud Khan, G.C. I. E., Wali of Kalat, who was bora in 1864 aud 
succeeded in 1893 ; he has a personal salute of 21 guns. He is the head 
of a confederacy of chiefs. The area of Kalat State is 73,278 square miles, 
and the population 328,281 (1921). The Khan's revenue, including the 
subsidies and rents for the leased areas paid by the British Government, 
amounts to nearly Rs. 17 lakhs annually. In 1926 private property in 
slaves in Kalat was abolished. 

The ruling chief of Lns Bela is Mir Ghulam Muhammed Khan, Jam of 
Las Bela, who was born in 1895 and succeeded in 1921. The area of the 
State is 7,132 square miles ; population, 50,696 (1921) ; the revenue is about 
Rs, 3*8 lakhs. The State is under the immediate control of the Political 
Agent in Kalat. 

Baroda. The State was carved out of the remains of the Moghul 
Empire under Sivaii and then under the Peshwa, and is interlaced with 



166 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: BENGAL, BIHAR, BOMBAY 

territory in Gujarat and Kathiawar. The Gaekwar Pilaji acquired portion of 
Gujarat in 1725. The influence of the British as suzerain dates from 1772. 
The Gaekwar, Malhar Kao, installed in 1870, was deposed in 1875 for mis- 
government, and on May 27, 1875, the widow of Khande Rao adopted as heir 
the present ruler, a descendant of the founder of the family, who was 
invested with full ruling powers in 1881. The area of the State is 8,135 
square miles; the population, 2,126,522. Baroda City, the capital, has 
a population of 91,178. The receipts in 1928-29 were Rs. 249 lakhs. There 
were 2,848 educational institutions with 220,561 pupils, including Baroda 
College with 685 students. There were 975 Co-operative Societies of all 
kinds, with 34,138 members and a working capital of Rs. 7S lakhs. The 
ruler is H.H. Farzand-i-Khas-i-Daulat-i-Inglish-i-a Maharaja Sir Savaji Rao 
Gaekwar, Sena Khas Khel Shamsher Bahadur, G.C.S L, G.C.I.E , born 
1863 ; succeeded 1875 ; salute of 21 guns. There is an Executive Council of 
5 members, and a Legislative Council of 27 members, 10 being elected. The 
Government of India is represented by a Resident, who resides at Baroda. 

Administration Report. Baioda. Annual. 

Sergeant (P W.), The Ruler of Baroda. London, 1928. 

Rice (8.), Life of ' s aya.)t Rao III , Maharaja of Baroda. 2 vols. Oxford, 1931. 

Bengal States, There are two semi- independent States, Cooch Behar 
and Tripura, in respect of which the Governor of Bengal acts as Agent to the 
Governor-General. Cooch Behar is under a Regent, H.H. the Maharani of 
Cooch Behar, on behalf of her son, H.H. Jagaddipendra Narayan Bhup 
Bahadur, who, when only seven years of age, succeeded in 1922. The ruler 
has a salute of 13 guns. There is a Regency Council, the Vice-President of 
which is an officer lent by the British Government who resides at Cooch 
Behar. The area is 1,318 square miles; population (1921) 592,489; the 
approximate annual revenue is 40 lakhs of rupees. 

Tripura State covers 4,116 square miles; the population is (1921) 304,437 ; 
the approximate revenue Rs. 29 lakhs (inclusive of the revenue of the landed 
properties owned by the State in British India). The ruler is H.H. Maharaja 
Manikya Bir Bikram Kishor Deb Barman Bahadur; born 1908; succeeded 
1923 ; salute of 13 guns. He was formally invested with the powers of a 
Ruling Chief by the Governor of Bengal in August, 1927. 

Bihar and Orissa Feudatory States There are 26 Feudatory 

States attached to Orissa, the Political Agent and Commissioner of which 
resides at Sambalpur. Eighteen are administered by their own Chiefs, and 
8 are under the administration of the Government of Bihar and Orissa. 
The total population is 3,959,669, and the total area 28,664 square miles. 
The real income in 1929-30 was Rs.l, 12,72,479, and their tribute to the 
Government was Rs. 96,449. 

Bombay States. There are 151 (131 being without a salute) States and 
Estates which are in political relations with the Bombay Government, the chief 
of which is Kolhapur, with an area of 3,217 sq. miles, a population of 833,726, 
and an approximate revenue of Rs. 113 lakhs. The Maharaja of Kolhapur is 
Lieut. -Colonel H.H. Shri Sir Rajaram Chhatrapati, G.C.LE. ; born 1897; 
succeeded 1922 ; salute of 19 guns. From 1926 the Dewan of Kolhapur and 
three Ministers constitute the Council of the State, Khairpur has an area of 
6,050 sq. miles and a population of 193,152. The Mir of Khairpur is H.H. 
Mir Ali Navaz Khan Talpur ; born 1884 ; succeeded 1921 ; salute of 15 guns. 
The State of Idar is under Lieut. -Colonel H.H. Maharaja Sir Daulat Singhji, 
K. C.S.I, (born 1 878 ; succeeded 1911 ; salute of 15 guns). The area is 1,669 
sq. miles ; and the population (1921) 226,855. See also Western India States 
(p. 173). 



BURMA CENTRAL INDIA CENTRAL PROVINCES, ETC. 167 

Burma States The 6 Northern and the 35 Southern Shan States, 
federated since 1922, are not States on the same footing as States in other 
parts of the Indian Empire, but are an integral part of British India, form- 
ing, as they did, part of the old Burmese Kingdom. They do not, however, 
form part of Burma proper, and are specially administered. The total area 
is 56,313 sq. miles, with a population of 1,433,000. 

To the south of the Southern Shan States are the three Karen-ni States, 
with an area of 4,280 sq. miles and a population of 63,730. They form a 
group of Feudatory States, and are not part of British India. They are 
administered by their own Chiefs under the advice of the Commissioner of 
the Federated Shan States through his representative, an Assistant Political 
Officer, who resides at Loikaw. 

Central India Agency This Agency, covering 51,505-3 sq. miles, 
with a population of 5,997,023, includes 28 Salute States and 59 Minor 
States and Guaranteed Estates. The bulk of the population are Hindus. 
The Government of India is represented by an Agent to the Governor-General 
at Indore ; and under him are Political Agents for Baghelkhand, Bundelkhand, 
Bhopal, and in the Southern States of Central India and Malwa. The 
territories of the different States are much divided and intermingled, and 
their political relations with the Indian Government and with one another 
are very varied. 

Indoie has an area of 9,519 sq. miles, a population of 1,151,598, and an 
approximate levenue of Rs. 1,36,00,000. The Ruler is H.H. Maharajadhiraja 
Raj Rajeshwai Sawai Yeshwant Rao Holkar Bahadur; born September 6, 1908; 
succeeded 1926, and was granted Ruling powers on May 9, 1930 ; permanent 
salute of 19 guns. 

Bhopal has an area of 6,902 sq. miles, a population of 692,448, and an 
approximate revenue of Rs. 62,10,000. The Ruler is Lt.-Col. H.H. Nawab 
Haji Sir Muhammad Hamidulla Khan Bahadur, G.O.I.E., C.S.I., C.V.O., 
B.A., permanent salute of 19 guns. In 1927 the King Emperor recognised 
the right of a daughter of a Ruler to succeed iu the absence of a son ; and 
a Legislative Council was established. 

Rewa has an area of 13,000 sq. miles, a population of 1,401,524, and an 
approximate revenue of Rs. 60 lakhs. The ruler is H.H. Maharaja Sir Gulab 
Singh Bahadur, K. C.S.I. ; born March 12, 1903; succeeded 1918 and was 
granted Ruling powers on October 31, 1922 ; salute of 17 guns. 

Central Provinces States Under the Government of the Central 
Provinces are 15 Feudatory States covering 31,082 sq. miles, with a popula- 
tion of two millions. Their total revenue is 60 lakhs, and they pay tribute 
in all of Rs. 2*4 lakhs. The largest is Bastar, which has an area of 13,062 
sq. miles, a population of 464,137, and an approximate income of Rs. 9,60,000 
to which the Forest income contributed Rs. 3 '4 lakhs in 1929. The head- 
quarters of the Political Agent is at Raipur. 

Owalior. This State is the premier Mahratta State in Central India. 
The founder of the dynasty, Rananji Scindia, held military rank under 
Peshwa Baji Rao (1720) and established his headquarters at Ujjain. In 1782 
Mahadji Scindia was recognised by Lord Hastings as an independent ruler. 
In 1886 Gwalior Fort was restored to Maharaja Scindia by Lord Dufferin. 

The area of the State is 26,382 sq, miles, the population 3,195,476(1921); 
Hindus form the bulk of the population. The approximate revenue is 
Rs. 207-53 lakhs. 

In 1928-29 there were 1,188 educational institutions with 59,160 pupils, 
including Victoria College, Lashkar, aud Madhav College, Ujjain, with 248 



168 THE BRITISH EMPIRE ; INDIAN STATES AND AGENCIES 

students. There were 37 municipalities. There were 3,637 co-operative 
societies with 64,444 members and a working capital of Rs. 677 lakhs. Up 
to the end of 1929 the capital outlay on State railways was Rs. 2 '63 crores. 
The State maintains a special irrigation department with a chief engineer-in- 
charge. Special irrigation works in progress, the most important of which is 
Parwati Project, with an estimated cost of Rs. 97 *93 lakhs. The irrigation 
works within the State number 611 (major 136 and minor 475). The total 
cultivated area during the year 1928-29 was 85,93,360 bighas, out of which 
1,44,157 bighas were under iriigation. 

The ruler is His Highness Maharaja George Jivaji Rao Scindia Alijah 
Bahadur ; born 1916 ; succeeded 1925; salute oi 21 guns. The State is now in 
direct relation with the Government of India through a Resident, who resides 
at Gwalior. The administration is cariied on by a Council of Regency under 
the presidency of Her Highness the Senior Maharani during the minority of 
the Maharaja. 

Administration Report. Lashkar. Annual. 

Hyderabad, The territory of this State, the largest and most populous 
of Indian States, had become a province of the Moghul Empire in 1687. 
In 1713 the Emperor appointed Mir Kamruddin AH Khan, otherwise 
known as Chin Killij Khan, of Tuikoman descent, as Subadar or Viceroy 
of the Deccau with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk (administrator of the land). 
Nizam-ul-Mulk became independent, and founded the present dynasty of the 
Nizam in 1724 ; and Hyderabad, founded in 1589 by a descendant of the 
Golconda dynasty which gave way to the Moghuls, became the capital. The 
present ruler is a direct descendant of the original Nizam-ul-Mulk. 

The area is 82,698 sq. miles; and the population, 12,471,770 (1921). 
Most of the people are Hindus. The administration is carried on, subject to 
the order of H.E.H. the Nizam, by an Executive Council. There is a 
Legislative Council of 20 members, in addition to the President. Of these, 
12 are official, 6 non-official and 2 extraordinary members. The Government 
of India is represented by a Resident whose headquarters are at Hyderabad. 
Besides the Hyderabad Municipality, there are 15 District and 107 Sub- 
district Boards. There are Regular Troops, Imperial Service Troops and the 
Golconda Brigade. 

In 1928-29 there were 145 officers administering criminal justice, and 
134 Civil Judges of all classes. In that year 37,171 criminal cases were 
instituted and 42,456 civil suits. The District and City Police numbered 
14,554. The number of public educational institutions was 4,247 with 
291,144 pupils, with a total expenditure fiom public and private sources of 
Rs. 86 lakhs. There were 6 Arts Colleges with a total strength of 942 
pupils. The revenue (estimate) for 1929-30 is Rs. 8 '19 lakhs and expendi- 
ture (estimate) Rs. 767 lakhs. The number of co-operative credit societies 
was 2,073, with about 57,000 members in 1928-29. Under Industry there 
were 5 cotton mills, 282 ginning and pressing factories, and 270 flour and 
other mills. Trade covered Rs. 2,025 lakhs Imports, and about Rs. 2,086 
lakhs Exports. . 

The ruler is Lieut. -General H.E.H. Sir Mir Usman All Khan, Faithful 
Ally of the British Government, G. C.S.I., G.B.E., Nizam of Hyderabad; 
born 1886 ; succeeded 1911 ; salute of 21 guna. 

Administration Report. Hyderabad. Annual. 

McAvliffe (R. P.), The Nizam, the origin and future of the Hyderabad State. London, 
1904. 

Jammu and Kashmir. The State of Kashmir, which had been 
under Hindu rulers and Mohammedan Sultans, became part of the Moghul 



HABEAS STATES 169 

Empire under Akbar from 1581. After a period of Afghan rule from 1756 
it was overrun by the Sikhs in 1819. Ranjit Singh entrusted in 1820 the 
territory of Jtunmu to a feudatory, Gulab Singh, and after the decisive battle 
of Sobraon in 1846 Kashmir was made over to the latter by Lord Hardinge 
on payment of the indemnity demanded from the Sikhs. British supremacy 
was then recognised. The bulk of the population are Mohammedans, though 
the ruling race is Hindu. The area is 84,258 sq. miles ; the population 
3,330,518. Geographically the State may be divided into (1) the Tibetan 
and semi-Tibetan tracts which contain the districts of Ladakh and Gilgit; 
(2) the Jhelum valley, within which is situated the lovely and world-famous 
" Happy valley " of Kashmir ; (3) the submontane and semi-mountainous tract 
'which, includes Jammn, the winter capital of the State, which is connected 
with the railway system of India ; and (4) the outer Hills, in which are com- 
piised the Poonch Illaqa and Bhadarwali : a miniature " Happy valley." 

The Government of India is represented by a Resident, who resides at 
Srinagar. In 1927-28 there were in addition to the High Court 128 Criminal 
Courts and 14,192 offences wore tried. There were also 22,597 civil suits 
instituted in 67 courts. In 1927-28 there weie 9,451 sq. miles of demarcated 
forests. The trade in 1928-29 was : Imports, 332 lakhs ; Exports, 184 lakhs, 
and the total receipts 251 lakhs. The revenue of the State in 1928-29 was 
Rs. 251 lakhs. The Civil List amounted to Rs. 24,69,060. In 1927-28 there 
were two Arts Colleges at Srinagar and Jammu with 868 students. There were 
in all 1,012 educational institutions with 55,914 pupils, inclnding 4,610 girls. 

In addition to agriculture the chief industry is sericulture, which dates 
back to the 15th centtny. There are considerable mineral resources which 
have not yet been fully surveyed. A Department of Industry was created in 
1922. It is equipped on modern lines and an up-to-date laboratory has been 
attached to it. The State has great natural resources and the Department of 
Industries is intended to help in their scientific development. Industries 
ate being fostered by the Government. In recent years the State has made 
rapid strides in the field of progress. Fiimary education for boys has been 
made compulsory in the cities. A High Court Bench has been constituted. 
The Agriculturist's Relief Regulation and other legislations have been de- 
signed for the protection of the ryots. The marriage of boys below the age 
of 18 and girls below the age of 14 has been penalised. His Highness' 
Government has done much to protect the interests of the hereditary State 
subjects A Board called the Civil Service Recruiting and Scholarship Selec- 
tion Board has been set up for regulating appointments and selections for 
training. A Conference of Representatives is summoned twice every year 
and their representations are carefully considered by His Highness. 

The present ruler is Colonel H.H. Maharajadhiraja Sir Hari Singh 
Bamadur, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O., Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir; born 
1895 ; succeeded 1925 ; salute of 21 guns. 

Administration Report. Jammu. Annual. 

Tyndnle Bucoe (C.K ) Kashmir in Light and Shade. London, 1922. 
Administrative Reports of Jammu and Kwshmir. Annual. 
Summary Administration Report of Jammu and Kashmir. 1929. 

Madras States Since 1923 the States of Travancore, Cochin, Puduk- 
kottai and two smaller States have been placed in direct relation with the 
Government of India under an Agent to the Governor-General in charge of 
the Madras States Agency, who resides at Trivandrum. Travancore has A 
area of 7,625 sq. miles and a population of 4,006,062 (1921). Hindus form 
two-thirds of the population; and Christians one-fourth. The ruler is 
H.H. Maharaja Rama Varma; born 1912; succeeded 1924; salute of '10 

o2 



170 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : INDIAN STATES AND AGENCIES 

guns. The Government is under a Regent. There is a Legislative Council. 
The approximate revenue is Rs. 2*51 crores. 

Cochin has an area of 1,418 sq. miles, and a population of 979,080 (1921). 
The ruler is H.H. Maharaja Sir Rama Varmah, G.C.I.E , who was bom in 
1858 and succeeded in 1914 ; salute of 17 guns. The approximate revenue is 
Rs. 91 lakhs. , 

The present ruler of Pudukkottai is H.H. Raja Gopala Tondaiman} 
born 1922 and installed November 28, 1928. As he is a minor, the 
State is administered by a Council of Administration. The area is 1,179 
sq. miles and the population 426,813 (1921). The approximate revenue is 
Rs. 22 lakhs. 

Administration Report, Travanoore Trivandrum. Annual. 
Daviea (F. S.), Cochin, British and Indian. London, 1923. 

Mysore. The ancestors of the present dynasty came to Mysore in 1399, 
and established themselves in Hadmad, a few miles from the capita! of the 
State. By ^successive conquests, the family extended the kingdom till it 
reached a position of eminence during the seventh century. The real power 
passed into the hands of Hyder Ali, a soldier of fortune in the latter part of 
the eighteenth century. Under him and his son, Tippu Sultan, the territories of 
Mysore were further extended, till they attained the dimensions of an empire. 
But on the defeat of Tippu in 1799, the territories were partitioned and the 
Mysore State, in its present shape, was handed back to the old Hindu 
dynasty, in the person of Krixhnaraja Wodeyar III, the grandfather of the 
present ruler. Owing to alleged misgovern in ent, Lord William Bentinck 
assumed direct administration of the State in 1831 ; and for fitty years Mysore 
was thus governed. In 1865, the father of the present Maharaja WES adopted 
as heir by the deposed ruler, and was invested \\ith powers by Lord Ripon in 
1881 bv an Instrument of Transfer. In 1913, a Treaty was substituted for 
the Instrument of Transfer. In 1927, the Government of India remitted in 
perpetuity Rs. 10J lakhs of the annual subsidy. 

The area is 29,475 sq. miles ; and the population (exclusive of the civil and 
military station of Bangalore) 5,859,952 (1921), nearly all Hindus. The ad- 
ministration is carried on under the Maharaja by the Dewan (Prime Minister), 
and three Members of the Council. There is a Rperesentative Assembly of 273 
members and a Legislative Council of 50 members. The Government of India 
is represented by a Resident at Bangalore. In 1928-29 there were 94 criminal 
courts besides the Chief Court, and 38 civil courts. There were 19,619 
offences reported and 38,945 civil cases instituted in that year. There were 
1,962 co-operative societies with 116,586 members. The University of Mysore 
has 5 Colleges with 3,268 students. The number of educational institutions, 
public and private, on March 31, 1 929, was 8,236, with 318,867 scholars. The 
total revenue of the State in 1928-29 was Rs. 374 lakhs,and the expenditure 
chargeable to revenue was 374 lakhs. The State forests cover 3,440 sq. 
miles. The five mining blocks in the Kolar Gold Fields area produced 
375,886 ounces of fine gold in 1928. 

The Ruler is Colonel H.H. Maharaja Sir Sri Krishnaraja Wodiyar 
Bahadur, G. C.S.I., G.B.E. ; born 1884; succeeded 1895; salute of 21 guns. 
Administration Report. Bangalore. Annual. 

North- West Frontier Agencies and Tribal Areas. Between 
the border of the British Districts of the N.W. Frontier Province and the 
Afghan fmntier is the tribal territory. The Government of India exercises 
the minimum of interference. The region is divided into five Political 
Agencies : Malakand (Dir, Swat and Chitral), Khyber, Kurram, North 



NORTH-WEST FRONTIER AGENCIES AND TRIBAL AREAS 171 

Waziristan and South Waziriatan. There are, further, areas known as Tribal 
Areas under the political control of the Deputy Commissioners of the five 
British Districts. All are under the Chief Commissioner of the N.W. 
Frontier Province in his capacity of Agent to the Governor-General. 
Chitral is ruled by H.H. Sir Shujaulmulk, K.C.I. E., the Mehtar of Chitral. 
The area under tribal territory, including that of the Agencies, beyond 
the British border is approximately 25,500 sq. miles, with a population of 
2,825,136. The protective units are the North Waziristan Scouts, South 
Waziristan Scouts, Kurram Militia and the Chitral Scouts in the Frontier 
Corps ; a Frontier Constabulary ; and Levies and Khassadars. 

Administration Report of the Border of the North- West Frontier Province. Peshawar. 
Annual. 

Pcnndl (T. L.), Among the Wild Tubes of the Afghan Frontier. London, 1922. 
Thomai (L ), Beyond Khyber Pass. London, 1926. 
Wattcvdle (H. de), Waziristan, 1919-1920. London, 1925. 

Punjab States There are 13 States of the Punjab which, since 1921, 
have been in direct political relation with the Government of India through 
the Agent to the Governor-General, Punjab States, who resides at Lahore. 

The following are details : 



Name. 


Permanent 
Salute in 


Area 
(sq. miles) 


Population 
(1921) 


Approximate 
revenue, 
lakhs of 




guns 






rupees 


Bahawalpur 


17 


15,000 


781,191 


49'8 


Bilaspur 


11 


448 


98,000 


3-0 


Chamba 


11 


3,216 


141,883 


8'4 


Fandkot 


11 


043 


150,661 


18-9 


Jind . 


13 


1,259 


808,183 


293 


Kapurthala 


13 


630 


284,275 


87-0 


Loharu 


9 


222 


20,614 


1-3 


Malerkotla 


11 


168 


80,322 


14'7 


Mandi 


11 


1,200 


185,048 


15-4 


Nabha 


13 


928 


263,334 


29-8 


Patiala 


17 


5,932 


1,499,730 


135-7 


Sirmur (Nahan) 


11 


1,198 


140,468 


6-0 


Suket . 


11 


420 


54328 


28 



The present Ruler of Kapurthala is Colonel H.H. Maharaja Sir Jagatjit 
Singh Bahadur, G.C.S.I., G.C.I. E., G.B.E. ; bom November 24, 1872; 
succeeded September 5, 1877 ; local arid personal salute of 15 guns. 

The present Ruler of Patiala is Major-General H.H. Maharaja Sir Bhu- 
pindar Singh Mahindar Bahadar, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., G.C.V.O., G.B.E., 
A.D.C. ; born October 12, 1891; succeeded November 9, 1900; personal 
salute of 19 guns. 

The present Ruler of Jind is Colonel H.H. Maharaja Sir Ranbir Singh, 
Rajendra Bahadur, G.C.I.E., K.C.S.I. ; born October 11, 1879; succeeded 
March 7, 1887 ; local and personal salute of 15 guns. 

The present ruler of Bahawalpur is Captain H.H. Nawab Sir Sadiq 
Muhammad Khan, Abbasi, Bahadur, K.C.S.I., K.C.V.O., born September 
30, 1904 ; succeeded March 4, 1907. 

The present ruler (Minor) of Nabha is H.H. Maharaja Pratap Singh 
Malvendra Bahadur ; born September 21, 1919 ; succeeded February, 192% 
local salute of 15 guns. V ' / < 

There are 21 other States which are in political relation with the Govern* 
ment of the Punjab. 



172 TBE BBITISH EMPIRE .'INDIAN STATES AND AGENCIES 

Raj put ana, The Rajputana Agency, \vith an area of 128,987 sq. 
miles, and population of 9, 844,384, includes 19 States and 1 Chiefship. 
The bulk of the population are Hindus. The Government of India is repre- 
sented by an Agent to the Governor-General (headquarters Mount Abu), 
who deals direct with Bikaner and Sirohi. Under him are the Mewar 
Residency {Udaipur) ; the Jaipur Residency (for Jaipur, Kishangarh and 
Lawa) ; and the Western Rajputana States Residency (for Jodhpur and 
Jaisalmer); also the Eastern Rajpntana States Agency (for Bharatpur, 
Dhoipur, Karauli, Alwar and Kotah); the Southern Rajputana States Agency 
(for Banswara, Dungarpur, Paitabgarh and Kushalgarh); and the Haraoti 
and Tonk Agency (for Bundi, Tonk, Shahpura, and Jhalawar). 

The largest is Jodhpur (Marwar), with an area of 35,066 sq. miles, a 
population of 1,848,825, and a revenue of 152-4 lakhs. The Ruler is head of 
the Rathor Rajputs, and is at present Major H.H. Maharajadhiraja Sir Umaid 
Singh Bahadur, G.C.I. E., K.C.S.I., K,C.V.O. ; born 1903; succeeded 1918 ; 
permanent salute of 17 guns. The State of Bikaner has an area of 23,315*12 
sq. miles, with a population of 659,685, and a revenue of Ks. 1,13,75,000. 
The Ruler is Major-General H.H. Maharajadhiraja Shri Sir Ganga Singh 
Bahadur, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., G.C.V.O., G.B.E., K.C.B., A.D.C., L.L.D. ; 
born 1880; succeeded 1887 ; permanent salute of 17 guns. The State of 
Jaipur has an area of 16,682 sq. miles, a population of 2,338,802, and a 
revenue of Rs. 1,30,00,000. The Ruler is the head of the Kachhwaha clan of 
Rajputs, and is at present H.H. Maharajadhiraja Sawai Man Singh Bahadur ; 
born 1911; succeeded 1922; permanent salute of 17 guns. The State of 
Udaipur (Mewar) has an area of 12,915 sq. miles, a population of 1,406,990 
and a revenue of 52 lakhs. The Ruler (head of the Sisodia Rajputs) is H.H. 
Maharajadhiraja Maharana Sir Bhupal Singh Bahadur, K.C.I.E , born 1884; 
succeeded 1930; permanent salute of 19 guns. The Udaipur family is the 
highest in rank and dignity among the Rajput Princes of India. 

Sikkim. In March 1890, a treaty was signed by the Viceroy of India and 
the Chinese representative, by which the British protectorate over Sikkim is 
recognised by China. The British Government has direct and exclusive 
control over the foreign relations, and is represented by the Political Offieev 
in Sikkim. The present Maharaja is H.H. Sir Tashi Namgyal, K.C.I.E., 
born 1893 ; succeeded 1914. Since 1918 His Highness and the Members of 
the Council carry on the administration. 

Area. 2,818 square miles. Population in 1921, 81,722. The inhabitants 
are Bhutias, Lepchas, and Nepalese, the last-named being now the most 
numerous. The capital is Gangtok. The State religion is Buddhism, but the 
majority of the people are Hindus. 

The revenue is about 4 *6 lakhs per year. Sikkim produces rice, Indian 
corn, and millets, cardamoms, oranges, apples, and woollen cloth. Fruit 
gardens are maintained by the State. There are extensive forests in the State. 
The principal trade route from Bengal to Tibet passes 'through Sikkim. 

A collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sanads relating to India and neighbouring 
countries. By C. U. Aitclnson. Volume II. Calcutta 

Eastm (J.), An Unfrcqnented Highway (through Sikkim and Tibet to Chumolacri) 
London, 1928. 

Frethfleld (D. W.), Round KangeheBJungt. London. 1908. 

Ronaldthay (Lord), Lands of the Thunderbolt. London, 1923. 

irhite(J. C.), Sikkim and Bhutan. London, 1909. 

United Provinces States Three States, Benares, Rampur and Tehri, 
are in political relation with the Governor of the United Provinces in his 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 173 

capacity as Agent to the Governor-General. The ruler of Rampur is Nawab 
Saiyid Muhammad Raza Ali Khan, Mustaid Jang; born November 17, 1906 ; 
succeeded June 20, 1930 ; salute of 15 guns. The Rampur State covers 892 
sq. miles, with a population of 453,607 (1921) ; the approximate revenue is 
54 lakhs. 

The Family Domains of the Maharaja of Benares were constituted in 1911 
as an Indian State. The Ruler is Lieut. -Colonel H.H. Maharaja Sir Parbhu 
Narayan Singh Bahadur, G. C.S.I., G.C.I.E. ; born 1855; succeeded 1889 ; 
personal salute of 15 guns. The Benares State has an area of 875 sq. miles, a 
population of 362,735 (1921) ; the approximate revenue is 22 lakhs of rupees. 

Captain H.H. Baja Narcndra Shah, C.S.I, (born 1898 ; succeeded 1913; 
salute of 11 guns) is the ruler of Tehri, which has an area of 4,502 sq. 
miles, a population of 318,482, and an approximate revenue of 18 3 lakhs. 

Western India States Agency in 1924 the Indian states in 

Kathiawar, Cutch and Palanpur (previously under the Government of 
Bombay) were placed in direct relation with the Government of India 
through an Agent to the Governor-General in the States of Western India, 
who resides at Rajkot. There are Political Agents for Barias Kantha, 
Western Kathiawar, and Eastern Kalhiawar Agencies. The States in 
Kathiawar cover an area of 20,882 sq. miles, with a population of 2,542,000. 
One is the Nawanagar State with an area of 3,791 sq. miles, and a population 
of 345,353 under Lieut. -Colon el H.H. Maharaja Shri Sir Ranjitsinhji Vibhaji, 
G.C.S.I., G.B.E.; born 1872; succeeded 1907; personal salute of 15 guns. 
The Ruler of Cutch is H.H. Maharao Shri Sir Khengarji Savai Bahadur, 
G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., who was born in 1866 and succeeded in 1876 ; he has a 
local salute of 19 guns. The area of Cutch is 7,616 sq. miles (exclusive of 
the salt marsh called the Runn of Cutch); the population, 484,547 (1921); 
and the approximate revenue is 31 lakhs. 

Wdbri force-Bell (Capt. H ), The History of Kathiawar. London, 101(5 
The Ruling Pimces, Chiefs and Loading Personages in the Western India States Agency. 
1st Edition. Kujkot, 1928. 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 

Constitution and Government, 

Malaya The Straits Settlements, a Crown Colony, comprise the Settle- 
ment of Singapore (including the Cocos Islands, Christmas Island and 
Labuan), Penarig (including Province "Wellesley and the Bindings), and 
Malacca. Malacca, one of the oldest European settlements in the East, was 
occupied by the Portuguese under Albuquerque in 1511, and held by them 
till 1641, when it passed into the possession of the Dutch till 1795 when it 
was captured by the English. It was restored (under the Treaty of Vienna) 
to the Dutch in 1818, being finally retroceded to the East India Company 
in 1825. Penaug (Prince of Wales* Island) was the first British Settlement 
in the Malay Peninsula, being ceded by the Sultan of Kedah to the East 
India Company in 1786, Province Wellesley being added in 1800. The 
early history pf Singapore is obscure ; in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 



174 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

it became a position of independence and importance till destroyed by the 
Javanese in 1377, after which date it remained almost uninhabited until 
1819, when Sir Stamford Raffles founded the trading settlement, which is 
now the port and city of Singapore. The original lease of the site of a 
factory to Raffles, on behalf of the East India Company, by the Sultan and 
Temenggong of Johore, was followed in 1824 by a Treaty ceding the entire 
Island in perpetuity to the Company. In 1826, the three Settlements were 
incorporated under one Government as an Indian Presidency with head- 
quarters at Penang. In 1830, they were incorporated under the Presidency 
of Bengal, headquarters being transferred in 1832 to Singapore. On April 1, 
1867, the Settlements were transferred from the control of the Indian 
Government to that of the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The Cocos 
Islands in 1886, Chrismas Island in 1889, and the former Colony of Labuan 
in 1907, were incorporated in the Colony, in the Settlement of Singapore. 

The administration of the Colony is in the hands ot a Governor, aided by 
in Executive Council, composed of the General Officer commanding the 
Troops, the Colonial Secretary, the Resident Councillors of Penang and 
Malacca, the Attorney-General, the Treasurer, the Colonial Engineer and 
two unofficial members. There is a Legislative Council, consisting of the 
General Officer commanding the Troops, twelve other official members, and 
thirteen unofficial, eleven of the latter nominated and two elected by the 
Chamber of Commerce at Singapore and Penang. The municipalities of 
Singapore, Georgetown (Penang), and Malacca are administered by Municipal 
Commissioners appointed by the Governor. 

The Governor of the Straits Settlements is also High Commissioner for 
the Malay States, and British Agent for British North Borneo and Sarawak. 

Governor. Sir Cecil dementi, K.C.M.G. (February, 1930). 
Colonial Secretary. John Scott, C,M,G. (February, 1929). 

Area and Population. 

The total area of the colony, with dependencies, is about 1,600 sq. 
miles. Singapore is an island about twenty-seven miles long by fourteen 
wide, with an area of 217 square miles, separated from the southern 
extremity of the Malay Peninsula by a strait three-quarters of a mile in 
width. A number of small islands adjacent form part of the settlement. 
The seat of government is the town of Singapore, at the south-eastern 
point of the island. Penang is an island of 108 square miles, off the west 
coast of the Malayan Peninsula, and at the northern entrance of the Straits 
of Malacca. On the opposite shore of the mainland, distant from two to 
ten miles, is Province Wellesley, a strip of territory forming part of the 
Settlement of Penang, averaging eight miles in width, and extending 
forty-five miles along the coast, including ten miles of territory to the 
south of the Krian ; total area 280 square miles. The chief town of Penang 
is George Town. Off the coast of Perak is the small island of Pangkor, 
which, together with a strip of the mainland, is British territory, the whole 
being known as the Bindings. Malacca is on the western coast of the 
peninsula between Singapore and Penang about 110 miles from the former 
and 240 from the latter ; it is a strip of territory 42 miles in length, 
and from eight to 25 miles in breadth, with an area of 720 square miles. 

The population, according to the census of 1921, was 883,769 (558,741 
males and 325,028 females). The estimated population for 1928 and the 
census totals in 1921, inclusive of the military, are as follows : 



EDUCATION 



175 



Europeans and i 
Americans . J 
Eurasians . . 
Asiatics . . . 

Estimated 
Totals (1928) 

Census \ 
Totals (1921) / 


cim ga 
Males 


ipore A 
Females 


Feu 
Males 


an R a 
Females 


Mai 
Males 


aura 
Females 


Tot 
Males 


AlB 

Females 


5,181 

3,280 
350,995 


4,553 

3,411 

191,850 


1,203 

950 

188,567 


728 

1,198 
149,287 


393 

972 
123,877 


288 

1,094 
67,718 


6,867 

5,202 
663, 439 


5,569 

5,703 
40S,h55 


359,456 


199,814 


190,810 

v 1 


151,213 


125,242 


69,100 


675,508 


420.127 


550,270 
425,912 


342,023 
304 835 


194,342 
153,522 


1,095,635 
883,769 


285,176 | 140,736 


180,944 


125 897 


90,767 | 62,755 


558,741 | 325,028 



i Inclusive of Labuan Island. a Inclusive of Province Wellesley and Bindings. 

Births and deaths for 1929 : 



- 


Singapore 


Penang 


Bindings 


Province 
Wellesley 


Malacca 


Labuan 


Total 


Births . 
Deaths . 


20,902 
14,851 


7,346 
5,490 


597 
502 


5,515 
3,630 


7,464 
4,904 


278 
107 


42.102 
29,544 



In 1929 there were 293,167 immigrants from China, and 114,252 from 
Southern India. 

Education. 

There is an Education Board consisting of official and unofficial 
members, and provision exists for an Education Rate. Vernacular instruc- 
tion is provided for Malays free of charge, and attendance is compulsory. 
Instruction in English for all nationalities is provided in Government and 
numerous aided schools, and fees are charged. All the Government schools 
are unsectarian. There is a reformatory in Singapore for juvenile offenders 
and vagrants, where industrial instruction is provided. 

The numbers of schools and scholars in 1929 were as follows : 



- 


No. of 
Schools 


Enrol- 
ment 


Attend- 
ance 


Government English schools (boys and girls) . 
Grant-m-aid English sohools (boys and girls) 
Government Vemacular schools (boys and girJs) 
Orant-in-aid Vernacular schools (boys and girls) 


22 
28 
213 
39 


9,648 
15;i82 
20,471 
3,946 


9,251 
14,531 
19,087 
3,536 


Total . .... 


302 


49,247 


46,405 



In the colony are Raffles College, formally opened in 1929, giving a 
higher education of a University standard in arts and science, and King 
Edward VII. College of Medicine. 

Justice and Crime. 

The law in force is contained in local ordinances and in such English and 
Indian Acts and Orders in Council as are applicable to the colony. The 
Indian Penal Code, with slight alterations, has been adopted, and there is 
a Civil Procedure Code based on the English Judicature Acts. There is a 
Supreme Court which holds assizes at Singapore and Penang every two 



176 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 



months, and quarterly at Malacca, civil sittings monthly at Singapore and 
Penang, and once a quarter at Malacca. 

There are, besides, distiict courts, police courts and marine magistrates' 
courts. Police force, actual strength 4,027 in 1929. 

Finance. 

Public revenue and expenditure for six years (1 dollar = 2s. 4c.) : 



Years 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Years 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1924 
1925 
1926 



3,341,235 
6,282,612 
4,254,275 




3,115,737 
6,719,295 
4,311,495 


1927 
1928 
1929 



4,386,909 
4,444,092 
6,403,634 




4,579,548 
4,084,221 
4,166,400 



The leading items of revenue for 1929 were : licences, excise, and 
internal revenue not otherwise classified, 2,816,798Z. ; posts and telegraphs, 
276, 26R ; fees of court or office, payments for specific services, and reim- 
bursements in aid, 136,796Z. ; rents of Government property, 214,506Z. ; 
interest, 401, 793 J. ; land sales, 88.788Z. Chief items of expenditure : military 
expenditure, 501,0192.; civil service, 83,2582. ; marine, 74,6402. ; police, 
345,2312. ; geneial clerical seivice, 119,9972. ; hospitals and dispensaries, 
262,3152. ; medical, 125,4442. ; education, 166,5982. ; post office, 202,1942. ; 
Government monopolies, 196,8812. ; public works, 709,9732. ; pensions, 
196,8382. 

Estimated revenue for 1931, 32,000,000 Straits dollars; expenditure, 
47,000,000 Straits dollars. 

The debt on December 31, 1929, amounted to 6,913,3522 borrowed for 
public works; I,758,6b82. war loan; and 9,355,0002. other loans lent to 
Federated Malay States Government ; total, 18,027,0202. 

Commerce. 

The trade of the Colony of the Straits Settlements is not now separately 
distinguished ; the foreign trade of British Malaya which includes the 
Colony, the Federated Malay States and the States of Johore, Kedah, Perlis, 
Kelantan and Trengganu passes principally through the two free ports of 
Singapore and Penang in the Colony and Port Swettenham in the F.M.S. 

Rubber, coconuts and palm oil are now cultivated in addition to rice. 

The output of the rubber estates amounted in 1930 to 236,775 long tons 
(1929,246, 113 tons\and native production to 197,078 tons(1929, 199,349 tons). 

The principal imports comprise foodstufls, clothing and machinery ; the 
chief exports, raw materials and articles partly manufactured. There is an 
important transit trade in the ports of Singapoie and Penang. 

The following shows the total values of Imports and Exports for five 
years : 



Trs 


IMPORTS 


EXPORTS 


Prom 
U.K. 


From 
Colonies, 
&c. 


From 
Foreign 
Countries 


Total 


To U.K. 


To 

Colonies, 
&c. 


To 
Foreign 
Countries 


Total 


1925 
1926 
1927 
1028 
1M9 


1,000 

15,760 
18,063 
16,331 
16,822 
10,718 


1,000 

23,923 

2S,U18 
24,354 
20922 
lfr,096 


],000 

77,914 
80,532 
78,249 
6t,865 
66,980 


1,000 

117,606 
122,518 
118,744 . 
102,' 02 
102,808 


41,010 

20,785 
24,236 
18,544 
11,485 
15,516 


1,000 

14,445 
15821 
14,983 
12,929 
12,402 


1,000 

115,527 
108,516 
91,154 
74,989 
80,051 


jei.uoo 

150,487 
148,572 
124,681 
99,403 
107,968 



SHIPPING AND NAVIGATION COMMUNICATIONS 177 



The values of the principal imports and exports in 1929 were as 
follows: 



Imports 


1929 


Exports 


1929 




1,000 




1,000 


Rico 


11 137 


Para Rubber . 


50,475 


Rubber 


9,522 


Tin .... 


21,2*8 


Motor Spirit 


6,2t3 


Motor Spirit . 


4,202 


Cigarettes 


8,202 


Copra 


3,841 


Cotton Piece Goods . 


4,499 


Rice 


3,270 


Machinery . 


2,529 


Pepper . 


2,052 


Pepper 


2,110 


Fish, Dried and Salted 


1,634 


Petroleum (Kerosene) 


2,028 


Arecanuts 


1,681 


Milk, Condensed and sten 




Cotton Piece Goods 


1,101 


hsed 


1,855 


Preserved Pineapples 


1,077 


Fish, Dried and Salted 


l, r >37 


Rattans . 


446 


Sugar .... 


1,437 


Sago 


437 


Coal .... 


1,129 







The following figures are taken from the British Board of Trade Returns, 
the imports including produce from Borneo, Sarawak, and other eastern place?, 
transhipped at Singapore, which is thus entered as the place of export : 



_ 


1926 


1927 


1928 1929 1 


1930 l 


Imports (consignments) 

















into U.K. from the 












Straits . 


19,867,174 


10,57(5,903 


10,167,4<0 


14,172,700 


9,133,755 


Exports of lintish pro- 












duce to the Straits 


11,510,146 


11,404,760 


11,434,233 


12,271,821 


7,4fM,9S0 


Exports of foreign and 
Colonial produce to 








! 




the Straits 


328,457 383,939 


294,196 


327,353 


239,591 



1 Provisional figures. 

The principal exports to the United Kingdom in 1929 were tin* 
3,196,000/. ; rubber, 9,590,00<M. ; preserved pineapples, 738,0004. The 
principal imports from the United Kingdom were : cotton piece goods, 
2,591,000. ; iron and steel plates, girders, etc., 516,OOOJ. ; cigarettes, 
2,491,000. ; machinery, 1,513,0002. 

Shipping and Navigation. 

The total number of merchant vessels entered at the ports of the Colony 
during 1929, exclusive of native craft, was 14,472, with a tonnage of 
22,730,766. The number of native craft was 32,877, with a tonnage of 
1,150,059. The number of merchant vessels cleared at the ports ot the 
colony and dependencies was 14,467, with a tonnage of 22,704,629. The 
total number of native craft cleared in 1929 was 33,365, with a. tonnage of 
1,171,830. 

Communications. 

The Straits Settlements at the end of 1929 had 7176 miles of roads, of which 
2040 ware of asphalt, and 15,500,000 dollars were expended on maintenance and 
construction in 1929. There is a railway from Singapore to Woodlands on the 
Johore Straits, and thence across the Joliore Causeway to Johore Bahru. The 
Federated Malay States Railway extends from Parit Bun tar in Krian to Kuala 
Prai in Province Wellesley, whence are ateara fenies to Penang. There is a 



178 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

railway from Malacca to Tampin in Negri Sembilan. All the railways 
have a gauge of one metre, and form a part of the Federated Malay States 
Railway system, a continuation of which through Johore was opened in 1909. 
There are cables connecting Singapore and Penang, and land lines from 
Singapore to Johore, Malacca, Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, and Penang, from Penang 
to Alor Star (Kedah), Tung Song and Bangkok (Siam), Taiping, Ipoh, Kuala 
Lumpur and Singapore, and from Malacca to Tampm Senmban and Kuala 
Lumpur. There are 2,163 miles of overhead and 6,515 miles of under- 
ground telephone line in Penang and Province Wellesley, and 1,932 miles 
of overhead and 648 miles of underground telephone line in Malacca. 

In 1929, 26,140,771 letters and other articles of correspondence were 
posted, and 19,607,212 delivered. The number of letters sent to China in 
clubbed packets was 2,127,122. The parcels posted numbered 241,538, those 
delivered 148,769, 

From Labuan there are telegraph cables connecting with Hong Kong, 
Singapore and Sandakan. 

Wireless stations exist at Paya Lebar on Singapore Island and at Penaga 
in Province Wellesley ; their functions at piesent are limited to ship traffic 
(except for traffic with Christmas Island and Kuching in Sarawak). 

Money, Weights, and Measures, 

There are twenty-seven banks with establishments in the Colony. The 
amount of deposits in the Post Office Savings Bank on December 31, 
1929, was 4,306,359 dollars. 

The dollar, value 25. 4d., is the standard coin of the Colony, and with 
the half-dollar and the British sovereign is legal tender for the payment of 
any amount. A bill was introduced in 1923 to base the currency on British 
sterling. Subsidiary silver coins are 20, 10, and 5 cent pieces; nickel five 
cent pieces ; copper cents, half-cents, and quarter-cents. On December 
31, 1925, Government currency notes to the value of 115,636,274 dollars 
were in circulation. 

The measure of length in use in the Settlements is the English yard, 
with its divisions and multiples, and land is measured by the English acre. 
The native terms are, however, still in use. Commercial weights are : 
1 Kati =16 Tahil = 1J Ibs. avoirdupois, 
1 Pikul =100 Kati = 133J ,, 

1 Koyan= 40 Pikul = 5, 333 J ,, 

The kati of 1 J Ibs. is known as the Chinese kati. Another weight, known 
as the Malay kati, and still in partial use in Penang, is equal to the weight of 
24 Spanish dollars, or 9,984 grains. This gives 142 '628 Ibs. as the weight 
of the pikul, and 5,705*143 Ibs. as the weight of the koyan. The measures 
of capacity throughout the Colony are the gantang or gallon, and chupak or 
quart. 

The COCOS or Keeling Islands, a group of about twenty small coral 
islands. Latitude 12 5' S. and Longitude 96 53' E , 581 miles distant 
from Java Head (S. 56 W.), and 1,161 miles from Singapore (S. 30 W.). 
The largest is 5 miles by J mile. They were declared a British Possession 
in 1857, were placed by Letter Patent of October 13th, 1878, under the 
control of the Governor of Ceylon, and by Letters Patent of February 1st, 
1886, under the Governor of the Straits Settlements. In 1903 they were 
annexed to the Straits Settlements and incorporated with the Settlement of 
Singapore. Estimated population, 800. There are large coconut plantations, 



THE FEDERATED MALAY STATES 179 

and copra oil and nuts are exported. In 1902 a station on the Cape- Australia 
cable route was established on Direction Island in the north-eastern part of 
the group. 

Christinas Island. In the Indian Ocean. Latitude 10 25' S. and 
Longtitude 105 43' E. It lies 223 miles S. 8 E. of Java Head, and 529 
miles N. 79 E. from the Cocos Island. It is densely wooded and ot irregular 
shape, about 12J miles long (at the longest point), and about 4 J miles wide (at 
the narrowest point). Area about 58 square miles. The climate is healthy. 
Average daily maximum and minumum temperatures 87 F. and 75 F. 
There is a prevalent E.S.E. trade wind. Known to navigators since about 
the middle of the seventeenth century. The Island was formally annexed 
on June 6th, 1888. The Island was placed under the administration of the 
Governor of the Straits Settlements in January, 1889. In 1900 it was 
annexed to the Straits Settlements and incorporated with the Settlement 
of Singapore. The Island is administered by a District Officer who is a 
member of the Malayan Civil Service. There is a small force of Sikh 
Police drafted from the Straits Settlements Police Force. All the 
inhabitants (mainly Chinese and Malays), with the exceptions of the 
District Officer and his staff, are employed by the Christmas Island 
Phosphate Company, Limited, registered in London, which works the 
largo natural deposits of phosphate of lime to which the Island owes its 
importance. In 1923 a wireless station was installed, and the Island is 
now in direct communication with Singapore. Population, 1928, 1,421. 
Revenue, 1929, 12,130Z. (approx); expenditure, 1929, 2,500/. Imports, 
1929, 13,560Z., chiefly machinery and engineering stores; exports, 1929, 
235,550. (approx), solely phosphate of lime. Tonnage cleared and entered 
in 1928, 61,267 tons, and in 1929, 70,516 tons; of the latter 7,935 tons 
were for British, and 62,581 tons for Japanese ports. 

The island of Labuan lies about 6 miles from the north-west coast of 
Borneo. It was ceded to Britain in 1846 ; on January 1, 1907, was incor- 
porated with Singapore, and on December 1, 1912, was created a separate 
Settlement. Area 30 sq. miles ; the population in 1929 was 6,029, includ- 
ing 25 Europeans, 4,180 Malays, and 1,607 Chinese. Capital, Victoria, 
which has about 1,500 inhabitants. Revenue, 148,454 dollars ; expenditure 
(excluding Government Monopolies), 234,571 dollars. Shipping entered 
and cleared, 1929, 248,774 tons. Trade, 4J million dollars. 



THE FEDERATED MALAT STATES. 

Constitution and Go vernment.- The Federated Malay States of Perak , 
Selangor, Negri Sembilan, and Pahang, in the Malay Peninsula, are under 
British protection. The Governor of the Straits Settlements is ex officio 
H.M.'s High Commissioner for these States and the other* Malay States in 
the British sphere. 

High Commissioner. Sir Cecil dementi, K.C.M.G. 

Chief Secretary to Government. C. W. H. Cochrane, C.M.G., M.C.S. 
(Appointed 1930). 

The following are the Rulers and Residents of the four States : 
Ruler of Perak.H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Iskandar Shah, K.C.M.G. 
K. C. V. 0. , ibni Idris. Resident. Vacant. 



180 THE BRITISH EMPIRE .'FEDERATED MALAY STATES 

Ruler of Selangor. H.H. Sultan Ala'idin Sulaiman Shall, G.C.M.G,, 

ibni Al-Marhum Raja Muda Musa. Resident. J, Loruie, 

M.C.S. 
Ruler of Negn SemWan. H. H. Muhammad, K.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., ibrii 

Al-Marhum Antah, Yang Di-Prtuan Besar, Negri Sembilan. 

Resident. 3. W. Simmons, M.C.S. 
Ruler of Pahang.~H.H. Al-Mu'tasim Bi'llah Al-Sultan Abdullah, 

K.C.M.G., ibni Al-Marhum Al-Sultan Ahmad Al-Maazam 

Shah. Resident. Vacant. 

In Perak, Selangor, and Sungai Ujong, which State was subsequently 
amalgamated with other States to form the Confederation of Negri Sem- 
bilan, Residents were appointed in 1874, with a staff of European officers 
whose duty was to aid the native rulers by advice, and to exercise executive 
functions. The supreme authority in each State is vested in the State 
Council, consisting of the Sultan, the Resident, the Secretary to the Resi- 
dent, and some of the principal Malay chiefs and Chinese merchants. The 
Residents are under the control of the Chief Secretary and the High 
Commissioner. 

In 1883 the relations of the Straits Settlements with the small Native 
States on the frontier of Malacca were consolidated. These States were con- 
federated in 1889, under the name of Negri Sembilan (signifying Nine 
States). In January, 1895, Sungai Ujong (including Jelebu, which had been 
administered by a Collector and Magistrate under the Resident of Sungai 
Ujong since 1888) and Negri Sembilan were placed under one Resident ; and in 
July, 1895, a treaty was signed by which the administrations were amalga- 
mated. The new federation, which retains the ancient name of Negri Sem- 
bilan, comprises the States of Sungai Ujong, Johol, Jelebu, Rembau and five 
smaller States. In 1887, by agreement with the Raja of Pahang, the control 
of his foreign relations, &c., was surrendered to the British Government. 
This was followed by a further agreement in 1888 with the Raja (now styled 
Sultan), under which Pahang was taken under British protection, on the same 
terms as the Protected Native States on the west coast of the peninsula. 
Pahang is situate on the east coast, within 200 miles by sea from Singapore. 
In July, 1896, the treaty between the four Protected Native States, Perak, 
Selangor, Pahang, and Negri Sembilan, and the British Government came 
into force by which the administrative federation of these States under a 
Chief Secretary to Government is provided for, and the States agree to furnish 
a contingent of troops for service in the Colony should His Majesty's 
Government be at war with any foreign nation. 

The laws of each State are contained in enactments passed by the State 
Councils, up to December, 1909, and from that date, in matters common to 
the four States, by the Federal Council ; the State Councils may still legis- 
late in purely State matters* 

The Federal Council was created in 1909 in order to give effect to a desire 
for the joint arrangement of all matters of common interest to the Federation 
or affecting moue than one State, and for the proper enactment of all laws 
intended to have force throughout the Federation or more than one State. 
The Federal Council, as now constituted, consists of the High Commissioner 
for the Malay States (an appointment held ex officio by the Governor of the 
Straits Settlements) as President, the Chief Secretary to Government, 
Federated Malay States, the four British Residents, the 'Legal Adviser, the 
Financial Adviser, the Principal Medical Officer, the Controller of Labour, 
Malaya, the Director of Public Works, the Director of Education, S.S. and 
F.M.S., the Commissioner of Trade and Customs, one additional official 



AREA POPULATION EDUCATION JUSTICE AND CHIME 181 

member, and twelve unofficial members, who are nominated by the High 
Commissioner with the approval of His Majesty the King. The Federal 
Council generally meets at least three times a year. All Federal legislation is 
passed by it, and the estimates of expenditure and revenue require its approval. 

Area- The areas of these States are approximately : Perak, 
7,800 sq. miles; Selangor, 3,150 sq. miles; Negri Sembilan, 2,550 sq. 
miles ; Pahang, 14,000 square miles ; total, 27,500 sq. miles. 

Population- Census 1921 : Perak, 599,055 (378,902 males and 220,153 
females); Selangor, 401,009 (267,165 males and 133,844 females); Negri 
Sembilan, 178,762(119,569 males and 59,193 females); Pahang, 146,064 
(87,892 males and 58,172 females); total 1,324,890 (853,528 males and 
471,362 females). The population contained 510,821 Malays, 494,548 
Chinese, 305,219 natives of India, 5,686 Europeans, and 3,204 Eurasians. 
The preponderance of males over females is due to the number of Chinese 
and Indian immigrants. Estimated population, June 1926, 1,476,032. The 
largest town is Kuala Lumpur (in Selangor) with about 80,000 inhabitants. 
Births, 1924, 39,512; deaths, 33,585. 

Education. In 1929, there were 49 English schools (36 for boys, 
13 for girls), with an average enrolment of 13,147 boys and 4,230 girls, 
and an average attendance of 12,513 and 3,943 respectively, maintained or 
assisted by the Government; also 1,426 vernacular schools (Malay, Tamil, 
and Chinese), with an average enrolment of 73,265, and an average 
attendance of 62,654, which are under the control of the Education Depart- 
ment. The total number of schools (1929) was 1,475 with an average 
attendance of 79,110. There are many Chinese vernacular schools, of which 
82 having an enrolment of 8,710 pupils were assisted by the Education 
Depirtmeut. Expenditure on education (excluding buildings) in 1929 was 
307,1992. 

Justice and Crime- The courts in the States are : (1) The Supreme 
Court, comprising the Court of a Judge and the Court of Appeal. (2) The 
Court of a Magistrate of the first class. (3) The Court of a Magistrate of the 
second class. (4) The Court of a Kathi and the Court of Assistant Kathi. 
(5) The Court of a Pcnghulu. The Court of Appeal consists of two or more 
Judges the Chief Justice being President. There is a final appeal in civil 
matters to the Privy Council. 

The number of cases of serious crime reported in 1929 was 4,973. The 
number of prisoners in gaol on December 31, 1929, was 1,086. 

The Police Force, with European and Malay officers, consists of an Indian 
and a Malay contingent. The strength at the close of 1929 was : Gazetted 
Officers, British and Malay, 67 ; British Chief Inspectors and Inspectors, 
42 ; Malay and Asiatic Inspectors, 36 ; Malay subordinate police officers 
and constables, 2,201 ; Indians, 1,671 ; others, 291 ; total, 4,308. 

Finance. The revenue of the States in 1929 was 9,543,285*. (1928 
revenue, 11,159,8152.), and expenditure, 9,877,114?. (1928 expenditure, 
12,717,1611). 

Leading items of revenue in 1929 were : railways (net revenue only) 
211,4962. ; licences, 508,3672. ; customs, 8,615,0502. ; Excise, 1,752,0022. 
fees of court, 671,2602. ; lands and mines, 520,9032. ; interest, 390,9682. 
municipal, 377,4882. ; postsand telegraphs and telephones, 373,2932. ; forests 
204,7952. ; light, water and power, 874,4342. Expenditure police, 383,7732. 
medical, 636,7692. ; education, 861,1112. ; posts and telegraphs, 293,30?2. 



182 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: FEDERATED MALAY STATES 



municipal, 364,6142. ; public works, 2,729, 0382. ; other departments, 
2,557,0702. ; railways (expenditure on capital account), 643,3782. ; charges 
account public debt, 726,2322. ; miscellaneous services, 720,3372. ; pensions, 
461,4842. Public debt on December 31, 1929, 9,355,0002. 

Production. The staple products are coconuts, rice, rubber, sugar, 
tapioca, pepper, gambier, nipah and oil palms. The chief industrial enter- 
prises are the cultivation of rubber, and the mining of tin. The Krian 
irrigation works in Perak irrigate 70,000 acres of rice (padi) land and 
supply drinking water to the district. The canal is 21 miles long with 
16 J miles of branches and 1884 mi ^ es f distributory channels. The forests 
produce many excellent timbers, besides gutta-percha, gums, oils, resins, and 
canes. In 1929 the total quantity of timber of all kinds taken from the forests, 
on which payment was made, was 806,333 tons, in addition to a large quantity 
used free of royalty by the native Malay population and the tin miners. 
In 1929 the tin export amounted to 67,041 tons, and in 1928 to 61,935 
tons. In 1929, 26,782 ounces of gold, and in 1928, 18,693 ounces were 
produced in the Federated Malay States. Besides gold and tin, many 
minerals are found, including lead, iron, copper, mercury, arsenic, manganese, 
wolfram, scheelite, plumbago, silver, zinc, and coal, but with the exception 
of coal, they have not so far been discovered in workable form. The 
exports of tungsten ore in 1929 were 324 tons. The labour force engaged 
in mining at the end of 1929 was 104,468. 

Commerce* The trade (excluding bullion and specie) was as follows 
in 1929, with total for 1928 : 



- 


Perak 


Selaugor 


Negn 
Seinbilan 


Pahang 


Total 
1929 


Total 
1928 


Imports . 
Exports ^ 
and Re- [ 
exports J 


& 

9,325,153 

19,258,500 




11,423,743 

14,265,600 



1,942,937 

5,874,903 




763,994 

1,233,792 




23,455,&27 

40,632,795 



22,277,703 

32,422,705 



Chief imports, 1929: Rice, 3,497,8492. ; wheat flour, 246,1492. ; feeding 
stuffs for animals, 328,5152. ; live animals for food, 476,4852. ; milk con- 
densed, sweetened, 563,3892. ; sugar, 382,7242. ; tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, 
1, 436,8432. ; spirits, wines and malt liquors, etc. , 702, 71 82. ; iron and steel and 
manufactures thereof, 1,071,0222, ; machinery, 1,165,7912. ; cotton yarn and 
manufactures (including cotton piece goods), 1,395,8912. ; kerosine, 532,1952. ; 
motor spirit, 1,219,1542. ; lubricating oil, 280,6322. ; motorcars, 547,4992. 
Chief exports, Para rubber, 1929, 259,774 tons, 23,405,4632 (1928, 170,157 
tons, 15,267,5522.); copra, 1929, 1,244,5422. (1928, 1,336,9662.); tin and 
tin ore, 1929, 13,680,6712. (1928, 13,824,5622.) ; timber, etc., 1929, 117,4702. 
(1928, 131,1752.) ; hides, 1929, 22,1552. (1928, 18,1552.). 

Trade with United Kingdom: imports, 1929, 3,299,1532. (1928, 3,952,9912.). 
Exports, 1929, 5,186,6952. (1928, 3,473,0922.). 

Bullion and specie imported in 1929, 40,0712. ; exported 1929, 85,3402. 

Shipping, 1929. The total number of vessels, exclusive of native craft, 
entered and cleared at the various ports in the F.M.6. was 13,190 with a 
tonnage of 7,757, 599J. The number of native craft entered and cleared was 
28,887 with an aggregate tonnage of 573,776. 



UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES 183 

Communications- There werein 1929, 2,734 milesof metalled cart roads, 
107 miles of unmetalled roads, and 1,818 miles of bridle roads and paths ; 
also more than 1,059 miles of paths maintained by the Forest Department. The 
Government has made, purchased, leased, or is making, the railway systems of 
the whole peninsula south of the Siamese boundary, including the railway on 
Singapore Island. When the system is complete, there will be a main 
trunk line throughout the peninsula, diverging at Gemas in Negri Sembilan 
into West Coast and East Coast lines, and linking up with the Southern 
Siamese railway system on the Perlis-Siam and Kelantan-Siam boundaries 
respectively. The two Siamese lines converge at Haad Yai, in Singora, 
and thence a single line continues north to Bangkok. On the West Coast, 
the line is open for tiaffic from Singapore to Padang Besar (Perlis Siamese 
boundary), 585 miles, and on the East Coast from Gemas (a point situated 
at mile 142 on the West Coast Main Line) to Gua Musang (in the south of 
Kelantan), 200 miles. A section of 82 miles iu the north of Kelantan from 
Turnpat to Kuala Gris, and one of 12 miles from Pasir Mas to Sungei 
Golok (Kelantan-Siam boundary) are also open. The vSiamese line from 
the Golok to Haad Yai was opened on November 1, 1921, thus making 
through rail communication between Kelantan and the rest of the Peninsula. 
The section in Johore, fiom Johore Bahru to Gemas (120 miles), is leased 
from the Johore Government. The total mileage open for traffic was 1,114 
in 1929. The mileage under construction during 1930 being about 46 
miles. A causeway, carrying a double line of railway and a roadway, 
connects Singapore with the mainland across the Johore Straits. 

There were, in 1929, 106 post offices and 67 other places for postal business. 
In that year 42,995,160 postal packets (registered letters, 1,282,752, and 
parcels, 347,084) were received and delivered In 1929 there were 3,084 
miles of telegraph and telephone lines, and 24,607 miles of overhead wire, 
of which 21,444 were telephone wires. In addition there were 144 miles of 
underground cables containing 13,100 miles of wire single line. The net 
revenue collected by the department amounted to 373,293/., and expenditure 
406,7452. Savings Banks : 42,956 depositors and 529,697Z. deposits on 
December 31, 1929. 

Money, &C. The current money consists of Straits Settlements 
dollars with subsidiary silver and copper coins. In February, 1906, the 
value of the dollar was fixed at 2s. 4rf. or 60 dollars = 71. Currency notes 
and bank notes also circulate, and the sovereign is legal tender for any 
amount at the above rate. Weights and measures (as well as currency) are 
as in the Straits Settlements. 



THE MALAY STATES NOT INCLUDED IN THE 
FEDERATION. 

The Malay States not included in the Federation are five in number, 
namely, Johore, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Trengganu. 

The relations of Johore with Great Britain are denned by a treaty dated 
December 11, 1885 ; and, by an amendment to this treaty made on May 12, 
1914, the Sultan agreed to accept, and to act upon the advice of, a British 
officer called the General Adviser. The Sultan is assisted in the administra- 
tion of the State by an Executive Council, and by a Legislative Council 
consisting of official and unofficial members. 

The rights of suzerainty, protection, administration and control of the 



184 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES 

other four States were transferred from Siam to Great Britain by the Anglo- 
Siamese treaty of March 10, 1909. In all four States the Rulers are assisted 
in the administration by State Councils, and by British Advisers appointed 
by the British Government. 

In these States the currency, weights and measures are the same as in the 
Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States. Their trade is almost 
entirely earned on with the Straits Settlements. 

The religion of the Malays is Mohammedanism. 

Johore (area 7,678 square miles, population in 1929, 336,829, of whom 200,780 were 
Malays, 111,345 Chinese, and 21,245 Indians) lies at the southem extremity of the Malay 
Peninsula. Births registen-d (1929), 18,567; deaths, 11,904. There were (1929) 6 English 
schools and 129 vernacular schools 

Revenue (1929), 17,033,212 dollars (from Customs, 5,893,862 dollars, land 2,510,582, 
licences 5,073,011) ; expenditure, 16,200,829 dollars. Imports (1929), 45,372,007 dollars 
(animals, food, drink and tobacco, 24 331,728 ; raw matenals and articles mainly un- 
manufactured, 2,444,187; articles wholly or mainly manufactured, 18,467,300, com and 
bullion, 128,902; sundries, ml). Exports, 09, 206,98ti dollars (rubber, 74,712,411 dollars). 
Rubber output, 1,020,808 pikuls. 

At the end of 1929, 733 miles of metalled road had been constructed. The railway 
from Penang to Singapore traverses Johore for a distance of 120 miles The Johore 
section has been leased to the Federated Malay States Government for a term of 
years. Rubber estates are situated on either side along practically the whole length, 
and thus, with the help of roads and navigable rivers, good communication is available 
A causeway across the Straits of Johore and connecting Johore with the island of 
Singapore was opened to railway traffic in October, 1928, and to vehicular traffic in June, 
1924. 

An efficient medical service and thirteen public hospitals are maintained by the 
Government. Police force, end of 1929, 1,110 

The Postal revenue (1*)29) was 304,522 dollars. Letters, parcels, Ac., received, 
4,791,940 ; despatched, 3,026,234. 

Ruler. His Highness Sultan Ibrahim, G.C.M.G., K.B.E. 

General Adviter C. E. Shaw, O.B.E. 

Kedah, on the west coast of the Peninsula, And north of Province Wellesley and 
Perak, has an area of 3,618 square miles. The population (census 1921) is 338,554, of 
whom 237,043 are Malays, 59,403 Chinese, 33,019 Indians, 235 Europeans, 75 Eurasians, 
and 8,779 other races, The capital is Alor Star on the Kedah River, about 70 miles 
from Penang by sea, and 59 by rail or road. Owing to the Sultan's ill-health, the head 
of the Government is the Regent. Ther^ are (1929) 52 Phiropeans in the Government service 
The police force had a strength (Juno 1930) of 819 men (principally Malays). There 
were at the end of June 1929, 86 Government schools (about 11,OC8 pupils), 13 telegraph 
offices, and 19 post offices. A telephone system extends throughout the State, the wire 
mileage in 1929 being 1,960, The railway connecting the Federated Malay States and 
fiiam passes through the State. A metalled road (26 miles) connects Alor Star with Perhs, 
and (29 miles) witn the Senggora frontier (Siam), and a metalled road (44 miles) connects it 
with Province Wellesley. Another metalled road (7 miles) connects Baling with Upper 
Perak in one direction and with Province Wellesley in the opposite direction. The total 
mileage of metalled road (1929) is 307. 252 miles of canal were maintained in June 1929. 
The revenue of the State for the year 1929 ( Mohamni edan year A. n. 1348) was 6,580, 701 dollars, 
including Customs, 1,880,195; lands, 882,798; and land sales, 108,932 dollars; and the 
expenditure, 6,937,299 dollars. Public debt, July, 1929, nil. The principal produce of 
North Kedah is rice. There are rubber (export, 1929, 34,644 tons), coconut, and tapioca 
estates In South Kedah. Several steamers ply between Penang and the various ports o.f 
Kedah. Kedah internal trade (1920-30): imports, 8,605,857 dollars ; exports, 34,558,821 
dollars. Postal and telegraph revenue, 1Q29-30, 134,682 dollars ; expenditure, 159,288 
dollars. Postal articles dealt with, 8,605,290. 

Ruler H.H. Sultan Sir Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, K.C.M.G., ibni Almerhum Sultan 
Ahmad Tajudm Mukarram Shah (succeeded in 1881). 

Regent H.H. Tunku Ibrahim, C.M.G., C.V.O. 

Sritith Adviser. T. W Clayton, M.C.9. 

Perils, on the west coast of the Peninsula and north of Kedah, has an area of about 
316 square miles and a population (1921 census) of 40,091. Malays numbered 84,167 of the 
population, Chinese 3,689, Indians 8 16, and other races 1,619. Police force (19-29) 79 N.C O.'s 
and men. 19 boys' and 4 girls' schools were maintained in 1929 with about 2,100 
pupils. The principal products are rice, tin, and coconuts. There are guano deposits. 
There are 37 miles of metalled roads and 22 i miles of paths and gravelled roads in the 



UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES 185 

State. The revenue for A.H. 1348 (1929-30) was 487,436 dollars (customs 181,656), and 
the expenditure 573,788 dollars. Public debt, 1930, nil. 

Ruler. H.H. Raja Syed Alwi, C B.B. 

British Adviser. L. A. Allen, M.C.S. (acting). 

KelantaD, on the east coast of the Peninsula, has an area estimated at 5,713 sqnare 
miles and a population (1921 census) of 809,300, including 12,799 Chinese. Kota Bharu, 
the capital, has a population of about 12,000. There are 66 Government elementary 
schools in the State. The High Court, the Central Court, and the Small Court are at 
Kota Bharu, and there are District Courts at Kuala Krai, Pasir Puteb, Pasir Mas, and 
Tumpat respectively. Police force, 1929, 432. The revenue of the State in 1929 
amounted to 2,481,140 dollars (licences, excise, <bc., 699,617 dollars ; customs, 838,545 
dollars ; land revenue, 548,495 dollars), and the expenditure to 2,215,771 dollars. Public 
debt (1929) 4,080,684 dollars. 

The chief industry is agriculture. About 476,589 acres were under cultivation in 
1929. Chief products : rice (180,176 acres), coconuts (57,200 acres), rubber (89,213 
acres). Pepper, tapioca, sugar-cane, and maize are grown in smaller quantities for 
local consumption. The jungle which covers a large part of the State produces some 
serviceable timber, resin and rattans and bamboos. The State supports cattle (105,399 
in 1929), buffaloes (27,504 in 1929), sheep, goats, and poultry. Numerous estates are 
owned by Butish companies. Mineral resources are said to comprise gold, galena, and 
tin, but the existence of these metals m payable quantities has not been proved. The 
principal manufacturing industries are silk-weaving, boat-building, and brick-making. In 
1929, total exports, 7,983,889 dollars; total imports, 7,522,954 dollars (1928, 6,159,455 
and 8,356,769 dollars lespectively). Chief exports, 1929 : betel-nuts, 197,520 dollars ; 
flsh, 189,073 dollars; copra, 941,482 dollars; para rubber, 5,732,427 dollars. Chief 
imports, 1929: fish, 45,976 dollars; rice, 1,511,017 dollars; wheat and flour, 91,S94 
dollars; milk, ]fil,162 dollars; sugar, 177,888 dollars; tobacco, 693,401 dollars; salt, 
17,595 dollars; gambier, 17,018 dollars; petroleum, 415,509 dollars; textiles (all kinds), 
861,265 dollars; timber, 18,360 dollars; cement, 83,920 dollars; machinery and metal 
goods, 70 1, 944 dollars; opium, 124.470 dollars. 

Tonnage of steamships inwards and outwards, 1929, 144,384 tons. 5,206 fishing and 
other boats are registered. There is regular steamship communication with Bangkok and 
Singapore. The principal roads are the Kota Bharu-Pasir Puteh road and the trunk 
road from Kota Bharu to Kuala Krai, and there are others extending a few miles from 
Kota Bharu. The metalling of these roads is not yet completed. Communication inland 
is by the rivers. There is railway communication between Tumpat (on the coast) and 
Kuala Gna (81 miles inland). There is also a line to the Siamese border, on which a daily 
service is run in connection with the Siamese trains to the Kedah boundary, and thence 
with the Kedah service to Penang and tbe Federated Malay States. Kota Bharu is in 
direct telegraphic communication with Bangkok and Penang (via Siam), and possesses 
a limited telephone service. There were (1929) 6 post offices and 7 sub-post offices in the 
State. 

BU&T. H.II. Sultan Ismail, K.C.M G. 

Bnttsh Adviser. A. 8. Hayues, M.C.S (Acting). 

Trengganilj with an area of about 5,500 square miles, and a population, at the 
ensus 1921, of 153,765, lies on the east coast between Pahang and Kelantan. The capital 
is Kuala Trengganu, with a population of 12,456. There are 18 vernacular schools 
(1,795 pupils enrolled in A.H. 1348, average attendance 1,289, teachers 58), 1 Government 
English school (69 pupils) and 1 Chinese school (130 pupils, teachers 6). Trengganu was 
the last British possession to tolerate slavery for debt. The practice has been abolished 
by an enactment passed in 1919. Police force 297 in 1348. There are about 92 miles of 
road in use, and a 60 mile trunk road connecting Kuala Trengganu with Kelantan is 
under construction. There are telephone exchanges at Kuala Trengganu, Romanian and 
Besut. There is telegraphic communication witit other parts of Malaya. There are no 
railways, and communication with the interior is by rivers and good native paths. 
Steamers connect regularly with Singapore and Bangkok, and locally-built motor-boats 
maintain passenger services along the Trengganu coast. The industries are similar to 
those of Kelantan, and the country is of the same general character. 

Revenue (1948, June 8, 1929, to May 28, 1980), 1,391,471 dollars, and expenditure, 
1,524,706 dollars. Exports in 1929 was 7,191,427 dollars. Imports in 1929 was 5,898,556 
dollars. Debt, 1348, 2,400,000 dollars. Chief exports : para rubber, 1,722,551 dollars; 
tin ore, 1,007,220 dollars; dried flsh, 1,186,401 dollars; haematite, 278,462 dollars; 
manganese, 257,463 dollars; and copra, 432,605 dol'ara. Chief imports: rice, 667,528 
dollars ; cotton and silk stuff, 703,850 dollars ; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, 397,937 
dollars ; sugar, 235,760 dollars ; petroleum, 235,222 dollars. 

/tutor. H.H. Sir Suleiman Badaru'1-alam Shah, K.C.M. G. He Is assisted bra State 
Council. 

Britiih Adviser. A. J. Sturrock. 



186 MANDATED TERRITORY IN ASIA : PALESTINE 

Books of Reference concerning the Malay Peninsula. 

Colonial Office List. Annual. London. 

Blue Book for the Straits Settlements. Annual. Singapore. 

Annual Reports on the Federated Malay States. London 

Mamml of Statistics of the Federated Malav States. London. 

Tin Fields of Malaya (Scnvenor). Kuala Lumpur. 

Annual Report on the COCOR Islands. London. 

Malayan For? st Records. Kuala Lumpur 

Federated Malay States. General information for intending settlers. Issued by the 
Emigrants' Information Office, Westminster 

Andrews (C. W.), A Monograph on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London, 1900. 

Banner (H. S ). A Tropical Tapestry. Londou, 1929. 

Cook (P. C.) [editor], Malayan Trade Annual. London. 

Gibson (Ashley), Tie Malay Peninsula. London, 1928. 

German (R L.), Handbook to British Malaya. Malay States Information B'.reau, 1927. 

Graham (W A), Kelantan, A State of the Malay Peninsula. Glasgow, 1Q08. 

Harriton (C. W.), Illustrated Guide to the Federated Malay States London, 1920. 

/acfoon (H. M ), Federated Malay States. Report on Survey Department for 1914. 

Lucas (C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. 2nd ed. Vol.1. Oxford, 
1906. 

Mills (L. A.), British Malaya, 1824-18(57. Singapore and London, 1926. 

Myoberff (B.), Forest Life and Adventures in ihe Malay Archipelago. London, 1930. 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol II. London, 1914. 

Schebfxta (P.), Among the Forest Dwarfs of Malaya. London, 1929. 

Swettenham(Sir F.) t British Malaya. London, 1929. 

Sydney (R J II.), Malay Land. London, 1926. 

Watson (Sir M.), Prevention of Malaria in the F M S. 1921. 

Wilkiniion (R. J.) [edited by], Papers on Malay Subjects. Parts 112. Kuala Lumpur, 
P.M.S. Malay Beliefs. Leiden 

Wheeler (L 11 ), The Modem Malay. London, 1928. 

Winstedt (R. O.), Malaya. London, 1923. Shaman, Saiva and Sufi. London, 1928. 



MANDATED TERRITORY IN ASIA. 

PALESTINE. 

THE natural and historic boundaries of Palestine run from the desert on 
the east, along the slopes of Mount Herraon over to the Litani on the west, 
where the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon first break into a series of elevated 
plateaux, and thence over to the Mediterranean coast, and on the south 
from the Gulf of Akaba across the Desert of Sinai. 

For the present political boundaries, see THE STATESMAN'S YEAR BOOK, 
1928, p. 185. 

Government. After its conquest in 1917-18, by the British Forces, 
the country remained under British Military Administration till July 1, 1920, 
when a Civil Administration was set up. 

High Commissioner. Lieutenant-Colonel Sir John Robert Chancellor, 
G.C.M.G., G.C. V.O., D S.O. (Appointed July 6, 1928.) 

Chief Secretary Mark Aitchison Young (appointed July 17, 1930). 

The country is administered by Great Britain under a Mandate, which 
was passed by the Council of the League of Nations on July 24, 1922, 
and came officially into force on September 29, 1923. This provides 
for the Balfour Declaration of November 2, 1917, to the effect that 'His 
Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of 
a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours 
to facilitate the achievement of that object, it being clearly understood that 
nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of 
existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political 
status enjoyed by Jews in any other country/ 



AREA AND POPULATION 187 

Conatitutwn.On September 1, 1922, a new constitution was promulgated. It provides 
for the appointment of a High Commissioner and Command er-in-Chief and an Executive 
Council. 

A Legislative Council will replace the Advisory Council and have authority to pass 
such Ordinances as may be necessary for the peace, order, and good government of 
Palestine, provided (1) that no Ordinance shall restrict complete freedom of conscience and 
the free exercise of all forms of worship, save in so far as is required for the maintenance 
of public order and morals, or tend to discriminate in any way between the inhabitants 
of Palestine on the ground of race, religion, or language ; (2) that no Ordinance shall 
take effect until either the High Commissioner or His Majesty has assented thereto : 
(3) that the High Commissioner may reserve any Ordinance for the signification of His 
Majesty's pleasure, and shall so reserve any Ordinance which concerns matters dealt with 
specifically by the provisions of the Mandate ; and (4) that His Majesty may disallow any 
Ordinance to which the High Commissioner may have assented within one yeai of the date 
of the High Commissioner's assent. 

In exercise of the powers vested in him by the Palestine (Amendment) Order in 
Council 1923, the High Commissioner has appointed an official Advisory Council composed 
of the heads of the principal Government Departments and the District Commissioners of the 
Noi them and Southern Distucts. Owing to the abstention irom the elections of considerable 
numbers of the Arab inhabitants, the Legislative Council under the new constitution 
has not yet been formed, and the Advisory Council will remain in being until such 
time as the election of a Legislative Council becomes possible. 

All Ordinances are laid before the official Advisory Council and made public, as 
Bills, m the Official Gazette, for one month, before promulgation. 

Regulations were made by the High Commissioner in 1927 for the 
organisation of the Jewish population of Palestine as a religious community 
and its recognition as such by the Government. The Jewish community 
thus enjoys autonomy for its internal affairs, religious, cultural aud com- 
munal, and has power to levy rates on its members. The organs of the 
community are a Chief Rabbinate and local rabbinical offices, an Elected 
Assembly, a General Council, which is elected by the Assembly and which 
represents the community in its dealings with the Government, aud local 
committees. A number of Jews have opted out of this community. 

The British Government and Palestine Administration recognise the Jewish 
Agency (conisting both of Zionists and non-Zionists), which in Palestine is 
represented by the Palestine Zionist Executive, as the Agency of the Jewish 
people in all matters pertaining to the upbuilding of the Jewish National Home. 

There is a Moslem Supremo Council to control Moslem religious affairs. 

English, Arabic, and Hebrew are the official languages of the country. 

Area and Population. Palestine under British Mandate is about 
10,000 square miles in extent. The population, taken by official census on 
October 23, 1922, was 757,182, of whom 590,890 were Moslems, 83,794 
Jews, 73,024 Christians, 7,028 Druzes, 163 Samaritans, 265 Bahais, and the 
remainder Sikhs, Hindus and Metawilehs. The estimated population on 
June 30, 1930, was 588,849 Moslems, 162,467 Jews, 82,590 Christians, and 
9,226 persons of other religions, making a total of 843,132, excluding about 
103,000 nomads. 

The country is at present divided into two districts : Southern (Jaffa), and 
Northern (Haifa) ; and the Jerusalem division. 

The chief town, Jerusalem, which had been in Moslem hands since 1244, 
and under Turkish rule since 1517, surrendered on December 9, 1917. 
Its population in 1922 was 62,678. The population figures for the other 
principal towns at the 1922 census were: Jaffa, 47,709; Tel- Aviv, 36,754; 
Haifa, 24,634; Gaza, 17,480; Nazareth, 7,424; Nablus, 15,947; Safed, 
8,761 ; Tiberias, 6,950 ; Hebron, 16,577 ; Ramleh, 7,312 ; Bethlehem, 6,658 ; 
Lydda, 8,103 ; Acre, 6,420. There was an appreciable increase in Jewish 
immigration during 1929. Total immigrants (1929), 6,566 ; Jewish immi- 
grants, year ended December 81, 1929, numbered 2,453 men, 1,937 women, 
and 859 children while Jewish emigrants in the same period numbered 1,746. 



188 



MANDATED TERRITORY IN ASIA : PALESTINE 



There are some 760 Arab villages and a considerable number of Arab 
tribes, and three German Templar (Christian) settlements, Wilhelma, Sarona 
and Neuhardthof. 

The Jewish Settlements are grouped in four districts, namely, in J udea 
87 ; in Samaria 13 ; in Lower Galilee 40 ; in Upper Galilee 9. The total 
population of these settlements is now about 32, 000. More than 30 of them are 
built on land belonging to the Jewish National Fund, which was established 
by the Zionist Organisation for the purpose of acquiring land to remain the 
property of the Jewish people, and were founded with the assistance of the 
Keren Haycsod (Foundation Fund), also created by the Zionist Organisation. 
The total area of th Jewish settlements exceeds 1,200,000 dununis (4j 
dunnms equal one acre). The local affairs ol the smaller Jewish settlements 
are controlled by Vaadim or Councils elected by the male and female resi- 
dents who own registered holdings or pay taxes. The larger villages, Arab 
and Jewish, are, for internal order aud rates, administered by Local Councils, 
constituted under Ordinance, which exercise modified municipal powers. 
Satisfactory progress is being maintained in calastral survey and in land 
settlement. 

Births and deaths for recent years are given in the following table : 



Year. 


Estimated 
Topulation 
(mid-year). 


No. of 
Buths. 


No of 
Deaths. 


Infantile 
Mortality 
(pei l.OOObiiths). 


1927 

1928 
1929 


778,809 
794, ^16 l 
810,064 


89,193 
42,895 
4,742 


21 ,800 
23,054 
21,634 


2005 
18'S 
150-5 



1 Excludes nomad population, estimated at 103,000 in 1022. 

Religion. Jerusalem, being a Holy City for three Faiths, is the seat 
of a number of Prelates and religious bodies. There are three Christian 
Patriarchs, Orthodox, Latin and Armenian having the style of ' Beatitude, ' 
and, in addition to the Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem, a Jacobite and a 
Coptic Bishop. 

The Moslems have the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, who is President of 
the Moslem Supreme CoimcU, and the Jews have two joint Chief Rabbis, 
one for the Sephardim, the other for the Ashkenazim. These three 
dignitaries have the style of 'Eminence.' In ISablus there is a Samaritan 
High Priest. 

Education. The schools maintained by the Government number 310, 
and contain 21,63fl scholars, the great majority of whom are Moslems. In 
the Government Training Colleges for teachers there are 84 men and 84 
women students. Technical education is being carried out in some of the 
Government town schools. A Law School exists in Jerusalem, in which 
lectures are given in the three official languages. 

The Christian and Jewish Communities provide, the former to a very large 
extent, and the latter almost entirely, for the education of their own children. 

The Jewish Agency, through the Department of Education attached to 
the Palestine Zionist Executive, controls 230 schools attended hy 21,031 
pupils, and other Jewish bodies control 98 schools attended by 8,758 pupils, 
making a total of 328 Jewish schools attended by 29,789 pupils, Tnese 
institutions include secondary schools in Jerusalem, Tel- Aviv and Haifa, 
Teachers' Training Colleges (General, Orthodox, "Women's and Kindergarten), 
Schools of Music in Jerusalem, Jaffa, and Haifa, Agricultural Schools, an 



ANTIQUITIES JUSTICE 189 

Arts and Crafts Institute (Bezalel), Evening Classes, and a Technical College 
at Haifa. 

There are 162 Christian Schools, including Orthodox, 24 schools with 
2,083 pupils ; Catholic, 86 schools with 8,957 pupils ; Protestant, 49 
schools with 4,022 pupils ; miscellaneous, 3 schools with 77 pupils. 

There are also 75 private Moslem schools mainly maintained by local 
committees; these provide for about 4,710 children. Two of these schools 
include secondary classes. 

Non-Government schools receive a capitation grant-in-aid from the 
Department of Education. The schools of the Jewish Agency receive a block 
grant of P20,000 a year. 

The Kadoorie Agricultural School for Arab students was opened in 1930. 

The Hebrew University on Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, was inaugurated on 
April 1, 1925, and has 131 students, The new library building, which 
houses 200,000 books, has now been completed. 

Antiquities A new Antiquities Ordinance was passed in 1929 to give 
better effect to the provisions of the Mandate as regards excavation and pre- 
servation of antiquities. Eleven privately organised expeditions were at 
work on various sites dining the year 1929. The Department of Antiquities 
undertook several minor works of conservation, including that of the carved 
Crusader lintels of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The new Museum 
presented by Mr. John Rockefeller, Jun., is nearing completion. 

Justice. The Courts in Palestine are either civil or religious courts. 
The former have jurisdiction over local subjects in all matters save those of 
personal status and Waqfs or charitable endowments, and over foreign 
subjects in all matters, subject to the provisions mentioned below. 

There is a Magistrate's Court in every sub-district, and in the larger 
towns such as Jerusalem, Jaffa, and Haifa, two such courts. 

There are four District Courts, each composed of a British President and 
two Palestinian judges. They serve respectively the sub-Districts of Jerusalem, 
Hebron, and Beersheba ; Jaffa and Gaza ; Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem, and 
Nazareth ; and Haifa, Acre, Tiberias, and Safed. They go on circuit within 
the area of their jurisdiction. A District Court has jurisdiction in first 
instance over all crimes except those punishable with death, and civil cases 
outside the jurisdiction of a magistrate ; it also hears appeals from the 
decisions of magistrates both in civil and in criminal cases. Crimes punish- 
able with death are tried by the Court of Criminal Assize, which consists of 
the Chief Justice or senior British Judge of the Supreme Court sitting with 
the District Court. 

The highest Court in Palestine is the Supreme Court, which is composed 
of a British Chief Justice and one other British judge and four Palestinian 
judges. The Court sits in two forms: (1) as a Court of Appeal, in which 
capacity it has appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters decided 
in first instance by the District Courts, the Land Courts and the Court of 
Criminal Assize ; (2) as a High Court of Justice, in which capacity it hears 
applications of the nature of habeas corpus and of mandamus proceedings. 

The Court of Appeal is composed normally of three judges, while the 
High Court may sit with two judges. In either case a British judge 
presides. 

A Bench of honorary magistrates has been established in Jerusalem, 
Jaffa, and other towns, who try contraventions for which the maxi- 
mum penalty does not exceed P5 fine and 15 days imprisonment. In 
addition to the bench of honorary magistrates, a stipendiary magistrate has 



190 MANDATED TERRITORY IN ASIA: PALESTINE 

been appointed to try such contraventions in the Municipal Areas of 
Jerusalem and Jaffa. 

Special arrangements exist in the Beersheba sub-district, where minor cases 
are disposed of according to tribal custom by the Court of Sheikhs. The 
District Court of Jerusalem visits Beer&heba every month to hear appeals 
from the local courts and to try more serious criminal cases. Liaison Boards 
have recently been established for the settlement of disputes between Beduin 
tribes of Palestine and those of adjacent countries. 

All matters of personal status affecting Moslems are within the jurisdic- 
tion of the Sharia Courts. A Sharia Court consists of a Qadi, and appeals 
from his decision He to the Moslem Court of Appeal, which is composed of a 
President and two members. 

Jewish Religions Courts have exclusive jurisdiction in certain matters ot 
personal status of Jews, and jurisdiction by consent in other matters. An 
appeal from the decision of the Jewish Religious Courts lies to the Rabbinical 
Council. 

The different Christian communities (such as the Orthodox and the Latin), 
have similar jurisdiction to that of the Jewish courts. 

Questions of jurisdiction as between the Civil and Religious Courts are 
decided by a Special Tribunal composed of two British judges of the Supreme 
Court and the President of the Highest Court of the Religious Community 
concerned. 

The police establishment (including municipal police) at December 31st, 
1929, was 130 officers and 1,859 other ranks, in addition to the British 
Police, consisting of 8 British officers and 365 other ranks stationed at 
Jerusalem, Jaffa, Haifa and Nablus. 

1,276 heinous crimes were reported in 1929 (944 in 1928), and 7 death 
sentences were carried out. 

Finance. For the year ending December 31st, 1929, the revenue was 
P2,323,672, and the expenditure P2,140,032. 

The main heads of revenue for the period were : customs, P917,049 ; port 
and marine, P8,677 ; licences, taxes, etc,, P761, 823 ; fees of court or office, 
etc., P230,843; posts and telegraphs, P207,288; revenue from Govern- 
ment property, P16,5*0; interest, P104,206 ; miscellaneous, P16,650; 
railways, excess of revenue over expenditure, P29,195. 

Defence Palestine falls under the Middle East Command of the 
R. A.F. Two squadrons of aircraft and four sections of armoured cars are 
available for Palestine and Transjordan. Two battalions of infantry are 
distributed over various centres in Palestine. The Transjordan Frontier 
Force, the cost of which is borne by the Imperial Treasury and Palestine 
Government, has its headquarters at Zerka, Trausjordan, and detachments 
at Samakh, Beisan, and at certain other stations in Palestine. Its actual 
strength on December 31, 1929, was 39 officers (16 British) and 645 other 
ranks. The force is partly mechanised and partly mounted on horses and 
camels. 

Production and Industry. Palestine comprises four zones of country. 
On the west, along the shores of the Mediterranean, which are deficient 
here in good natural harbours, is the maritime plain, which varies in width 
from 15 to 20 miles at Gaza to about 2 miles at Acre, and at the Plain oi 
Esdraelon stretches for a considerable distance into the interior, and separates 
the highlands of Galilee from those of Samaria and Judaea. From the coastal 
plain the country rises into a plateau intersected by deep wadis or valleys, 
which drop steeply to the east to the third zone, formed by the great depres- 
sion down which the river Jordan runs to the Dead Sea, and which is 



COMMERCE 



191 



prolonged for another 100 miles to the Red Sea as the Wadi Araba. This 
depression reaches a depth below sea-level of 2,600 feet in the deepest portion 
of the Dead Sea, the surface of which is about 1,300 feet below sea-level. 
The Dead Sea is 46 miles long and has an average width of 8J miles ; it 
receives the wateis of the Jordan and of six other rivers and has no outlet, 
the surplus being carried off by evaporation. It is intensely salt, with a 
specific gravity one-sixth greater than water, and with 24 per cent, of salt. 
East of the Jordan Valley the country rises again steeply to a plateau and 
merges into the Arabian desert. 

Palestine is essentially an agricultural country. In 1929 the area 
under British Administration, exclusive of Trans-Jordan, produced : 
Wheat, 85,064 tons; barley, 51,972 tons; durra, 31,000 tons; olives, 
224 tons ; olive oil, 3,178 tons ; lentils, 1,397 tons. In 1929 there were in 
the country 231,719 sheep, 372,896 goats, 27,541 camels, and 418 buffaloes. 

Limestone is found all over the country ; sandstone abounds on the 
coast ; gypsum of good quality is found at Mount Usdum and at Mount 
Oipsia near Melhamia (Galilee). Rock salt abounds in the Jordan Valley and 
on the shores of the Dead Sea, where also sulphur is obtainable. The Dead 
Sea contains cooking salt, carnallite, and bromide. A concession for the 
exploitation of these minerals was granted in 1929, There are medicinal 
springs near Tiberias and also at El Hamme, for both of which leases have 
been granted. 

The principal industries of export importance are those of wine-making, 
especially in the Jewish villages Zichron Jacob, Rishon le Zion, and 
Petach-Tikvah ; soap-boiling in Nablus and Haifa ; olive oil in Nablus, 
Acre, and the district round Jaffa. Oranges, grown chiefly in the Jaffa 
district, are exported to Egypt and Europe. The orange crop exported in 
1929 was 1,722,078 cases. The wine production was 3,581,391 litres. 
Bananas are being successfully grown round Jericho. 

According to an industrial census, there were in Palestine in May, 1928, 
3,505 industrial establishments (mostly small), employing 18,000 work- 
people ; a sum of 3 5 million pounds was invested on them. There were 
14 tobacco factories working in 1929 with an annual aggregate output of 
about 652,000 kilograms. 

Further progress has been made in the reservation of state forests ; nearly 
821,262 dunums have been reserved out of a total area of 1,500,000 dunums 
of natural forest land. Extensive planting of timber, fruit and shade trees, 
has been effected by Goveinmeut and private agency. Approximately three 
million trees were planted during 1929 both timber trees and fruit trees, 
including vines, oranges and olives j 21 nurseries have been maintained 
during 1929 for the free issue and sale of stock to the public and the 
provision of material to Government plantations. 

Commerce* Trade for 5 Calendar years was as follows : 



Year ended December 31 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 




P 


P 


P 


P 


Imports of Merchandise . 
Imports of Specie . 
Exports of Merchandise 


6,594,098 
11,118 
1,308,838 


6,184,454 
262,059 
1,899,759 


6,770,818 
17,949 
1,487,207 


7,160,598 
12,810 
1,554 262 


Exports of Specie . 
Re-Bxports of Foreign 


18,698 
179,737 


8,4*0 
240,592 


22,254 
177,892 


212,667 
197,671 


Goods .... 










Goods in Transit . 


110,829 


181,029 


177,447 


265,501 



192 



MANDATED TERRITORY IN ASIA: PALESTINE 



The trade was distributed as follows in 1929 : 



Countries 


Imports 


Exports 


Countries 


Imports 


Exports 




P 


P 




P 


l 3 


United Kingdom. 


1,011,082 


455,672 


Greece 


i 


13,3 7 


Egypt. 


1,781,620 


366,767 


Czechoslovakia 


139,707 





Syria . 


1,055,011 


307,009 


Austria 


122,381 


_ 


Germany 


743,653 


116,871 


Russia 


82,886 





France 


405,148 


67,520 


Bulgaria . 


67,843 


_ 


Belgium 


170,561 


57,051 


Swit/erland 


64,080 





Holland 


83,136 


34,284 


China 


63,073 





Italy . 


284,388 


27,369 


Other countries 


437,216 


53,308 


TT ft A ir\orir<a 


395 Q33 


e\(* K.(\f. 








Rump ma . 


189,275 


19,063 




7,160,593 


1,554,262 



1 Included in other countries. 

The principal articles of import in 1929 were: rice, P152,832; sesame, 
P80,777; wheat, P152,528; wheat flour, P390,263 ; coffee, P63,336; 
sugar, P 142, 867 ; potatoes, P48,940 ; wood prepared for orange cases, 
P143,433 ; wood and timber, P141,245 ; olive oil, unrefined, P130,388; 
iron bars, angles and rods, P88,676 ; iron pipes, tubes and fittings, 
P99,519; machinery of all kinds, P230,979; electric wire, cable, lamps, 
batteries, apparatus and fittings, P103,106; cotton fabrics, <P427,303 ; 
woollen fabrics, P126,147; silk fabrics, P143,545 ; boots and shoes, 
P74,338; wearing apparel, P2S6,780; kerosene, P201,738 ; benzene, 
P201,629; motor cars, P150,564; manure and fertilisers, P59,396. 
The principal articles of export were: oranges, P516 621 ; laundry soap, 
P214,135 ; water melons, P101,736 ; wines, P27,304 ; almonds, 
P22,933; Durra and maize, P90,856; sesame, P72,325; barley, 
P26,f>52; lentils, P24,590; wool, raw, P20,927; sheep and goat skins, 
P24,016. 

Exports to the United Kingdom (Boardof Trade returns), 1930, 1,450,3992. ; 
imports from the United Kingdom, 1930, 1,063,941Z. 

Shipping" and Communications. The most important ports of 
Palestine are Jaffa and Haifa ; the two ports of lesser significance are Acre 
and Gaza. For the calendar year 1929, 1,076 steamers, totalling 2,773,548 
tons, and 2,460 sailing vessels, totalling 49,047 tons, arrived at Palestinian 
ports Palestine possesses no shipping of its own, other than some small 
sailing vessels and power launches, A modern harbour is under construction 
at Haifa. 

A regular passenger service to Palestinian ports is provided by some 30 
shipping lines. 

The total length of the Palestine railways is 774 miles, divided as 
follows: standard gauge (4' 8J") Kantara-El Arish-Rafa-Lydda-Tulkarem- 
Haifa, 259J miles ; Jaffa- Lyd da- Jerusalem, 54j miles ; Safrieh-Sarafand, 
2 miles ; Kafr Jinis-Beit Nabala, 2J miles ; Ras El Ain-Petah Tikva 
4j miles ; narrow gauge (3' 6") : Haifa-Samakh, 54 $ miles ; Nassib 
South Mudawara, 282g miles ; Acre Junction- Acre, 11 miles ; Afule-Jenin- 
Nablus-Tulkarem, 61 miles. The section Kantara to Rafa, known as the 
'Sinai Military Railway' (125 miles), is being worked by the Palestine 
Railways on behalf of the Air Ministry. There is through communication 
with Egypt, and trains connect at Kantara West daily with Cairo, Alexandria, 
Port Said, and Suez and other parts of Egypt, railway vehicles being sent 
across the canal by means of a truck transporter. 

East of Haifa the Palestine Railways system terminates at Samakh, 



TRANSJORDAN 193 

and the section Samakh-Deraa (Junction of the Hejaz Railway to Medina) 
is operated by the Hejaz Railway, which in turn is controlled by the Govern- 
ments of the territories through which it passes. Steam rail cars of the 
Sentinel -Cammell type have been introduced on certain sections of the 
railway with success. 

There are 445 miles of metalled roads in Palestine extensively used by 
motor transport, and in addition, many hundreds of miles of tracks passable 
for wheeled traffic of all kinds during dry weather. 

The Imperial Airways, Ltd., have established an aerodrome at Gaza, 
from which passengers and mails are carried to Egypt and Iraq once weekly 
in each direction. A weekly flying boat service is also operated between 
Alexandria, Haifa, and Cyprus. 

Posts and Telegraphs. In 1929 there were conveyed 11,625,742 
letters, 942,259 postcards, 5,750,000 printed communications and samples* 
153,451 parcels, and 336,902 telegrams. Length of telegraph and telephone 
trunk lines, 12,822 km. ; local lines, 10,433 km. Number of telephone 
subscribers, 2,496. 

Banking and Currency- The most important bank in Palestine is 
Barclay's Bank with branches at Jerusalem, Jaffa, Haifa, Nazareth, Tel- 
Aviv, Nablus, and Acre. The Anglo-Palestine Company has its head office 
in Jaffa, with branches in Jerusalem, Tel-Aviv, Haifa, Tiberias, and Safed. 
The Banco di Roma has branches in Jerusalem, Jaffa and Haifa. The Otto- 
man Bank has branches in Jerusalem, Jaffa, Haifa, Nablus, and Amman 
(Trans-Jordan). 

There are also established, in addition, a Jewish Workers' Bank, several 
Co-operative Credit Institutions, a Building Loan and Saving Association, 
a Central Bank of Co-operative Institutions and other savings societies. 

The standard of currency from November 1, 1927, is the Palestine pound 
(P), divided into 1,000 mils, and equivalent in value to the pound 
sterling. Silver coins, 720 fine, of 100 and 50 mils, weighing 180 and 90 
grams respectively, nickel of 20, 10 and 5 mils, and bronze of 2 and 1 
mils are used. The 2-mil coin is about equal in value to the United States 
cent. Gold coins are not being issued for the time being. About P2,500,000 
is in circulation. 

The metric system is followed by the Government and local authorities, 
but the local weights and measures are still largely employed by the public. 



Transjordan, This territory, which roughly corresponds to the area 
of the old Seljuk Kingdom of Kerak and of the Lordship of Montreal or 
Oultrejourdain in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, is governed by a 
local Arab Administration under His Highness the Amir Abdullah Ibn 
Hussein, K.C M G,, G.B.E., born in Mecca, 1882, second son of ex-King 
Hussein of the Hijaz and elder brother of King Feisal of Iraq, who became 
its ruler in April 1921 and is assisted by an Executive Council. The 
country is covered by the Palestine Mandate, but the clauses relating to 
the establishment of a national home for the Jews are expressly excluded 
from operation therein. In April 1923 a Declaration was made that, 
subject to the approval of the League of Nations, His Majesty's Govern- 
ment will recognise the existence of an Independent Government in Trans- 
Jordan, under the rule of His Highness the Amir Abdullah, provided such 
government is constitutional and places His Britannic Majesty's Govern- 

H 



194 MANDATED TERRITORY IN ASIA: TRANSJORDAN 

ment in a position to fulfil its international obligations in respect of the 
territory by means of an Agreement to be concluded between the two 
Governments. This agreement was signed in Jerusalem on February 20, 

1928, and having been accepted bv the Legislative Assembly set up under 
Article 11 was ratified by the High Contracting Parties on October 31, 

1929. The Organic Law has been published, and the Legislative Council 
assembled for the first time in April 1929. In 1928 a separate commission 
was issued to the High Commissioner for Palestine appointing him High 
Commissioner for Trans-Jordan; he is thus High Commissioner for both 
areas. 

For the frontiers of Transjordan, see the STATESMAN'S YEAR BOOK,' 
1929, pp. 191-2. 

The population is probably about 260,000. Of these, 220,000 are Arab 
Moslems, 30,000 Arab Christians ; the remaining 10,000 are Caucasian 
elements (chiefly Circassian) settled by the Turks in Transjordan some 45 
years ago following the Turco-Russian war. Most of the towns and larger 
villages have schools, and the Budget provision for education in 1929-30 is 
22,350/. The Arab Legion, which comprises Gendarmerie, Police and 
Prisons and Passport personnel, is a body of 859. Detachments of 
the Royal Air Force are located at Amman, and there is a military force 
of some 700 men raised in Palestine and Transjordan, but officered 
largely by British Officers stationed in the country. This Force is known 
as the Trans-Jordan Frontier Force. The country to the east of the 
Hedjaz Railway line is largely desert, but to the west of this line is 
potentially of high agricultural value. The resources of the country are 
agricultural and pastoral products, while several antiquity sites, of which 
the most not able are Amman, Jerash, Kerak and Petra, are becoming an 
essential part of the itinerary of Eastern tourists. There are also phosphate 
deposits (undeveloped, though examined). Potash is found in the Dead 
Sea, and possibly there is oil in the southern area. A metalled road, fit for 
motor traffic, connects Amman with Jerusalem while unmetalled roads have 
been constructed making motor traffic possible from Amman to all the chief 
towns in the country. The road running from Amman to Maan has been 
continued to Aqaba, and, from this main road, branches run to Madeba, 
Kerak, Tafileh and Wady Musa (Petra). The towns of Jorash, Irbid, Ajloun, 
Kufrinji, Remte and Deraa, the last named being in Syrian territory, are 
joined by good roads to Amman. From Irbid a branch runs to Jisr Mejamie 
and Jisr Sheikh Hussein on the Palestine boundary. An alternative route 
from Amman to Deraa may be taken, the road running via Zerka and 
Mafrak. From this latter, a branch road runs to Remte, El Hosn and 
Irbid. The oasis of Azrak may be reached by motor car from Mafrak, 
Zerka or Amman, and from Azrak cars can pas's across the desert via Rutba 
to Baghdad. The Hejaz Railway from Deraa to Kalaat Mudawara runs, 
with the exception of the first few miles, through Transjordan territory. 
South of Maan, however, the Railway is in disrepair. The Cairo-Baghdad 
air route traverses the country from west to east, and there is an aerodrome 
with a Royal Air Force detachment at Amman, while at Zizia there is a 
landing ground used by the Imperial Airways Co. as a fuel replenishing 
station. The estimated revenue of the country in 1929-30 is 359,345?. 
including reimbursements and an estimated Grant in Aid from the Imperial 
Government of 74,000?. Great Britain is represented by a British Resident 
subordinate to, and the agent of, the High Commissioner for Tranajordan. 
The official language of the country is Arabic. 

British Resident: Lt.-Col. 0. H. F. Cox, O.M.G,, D.S.O. 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 195 

Books of Eeference. 

Report on Palestine Administration, Annual. London. 

Draft Mandates for Mesopotamia and Palestine. [Cmd. 1.176.] Miscellaneous, No. S 
(1921). 

Statement of Policy, by II.M.G. in the U.K. [Cmd 3,692.] London, 1930. 

Franco-British Convention of December 23, 1920, cm certain points connected with the 
Mandates for Syria and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia. [Cmd. 1,195.] Miscel- 
laneous, No. 4 (1921.) 

A Imagia (Roberto), Palestina : Visione del Mondo. Rome, 1930. 

Ashbee (C. R ), Jerusalem. London, 1924. 

Barron (G. B.), Mohammedan Wakfs in Palestine. Jeiusalem, 1928. 

Bentwich (Norman), Palestine and the Jews, Past, Present and Future. London, 191Q 

Bordea ux (Henry), Palestine (Illustrations). London, 1930. 

Oust (L.), Jerusalem. (Illustrated.) London, 1924 

Dana(L. P.), Arab-Asia : a Geography of Syria, Palestine, Irak, and Arabia. Beirut, 192 . 

M&ton (R.), Travellers' Handbook for Palestine and Syria. London, 1929 

JSrskine (Mrs. Steuart), Trans-Jordan. London, 1924. 

Gottheil (R.), Zionism. Philadelphia, 1918. 

Gmnovsky (A ), Boden und Siedburg In Palastina. Berlin, 1929. 

Grant (Ehhu), The People of Palestine New York, 1921. 

Holdheim (G.), Palastina : Idee, Probleme, Tatsachen. Berlin, 1928. 

ffyamson (A. M.), Palestine, Old and New. London, 1928. 

Kennedy (Sir A.), Petra : Its History and Monuments. London, 1925. 

Koeppd (P. R.), Palastina : die Landschaft in Karten und Bildern Tiibingen, 1930. 

landauer (Georg), Palastma. Munich, 1925. 

Luke (H. C ), Anatolica. London, 1924. Prophets, Priests and Patriarchs London, 
1928 

Luke (H. C.), and Ktith-Roach (E ), The Handbook of Palestine, London, 1980. 

McCrackan (W. 1) ), The New Palestine. Now Yoik, 1922. 

Newman (E. W. P.), The Middle East. London, 1926. 

Preiss (L )and Rohrbach (P.), Palastma und das Ostjordanland. Zlirich, 1925. English 
edition, London, 1926. 

Rees (L. W. B.) The Transjordan Desert. London, 1929 

Reynolds-Ball (E.), A Practical Guide to Jerusalem and its Environs. Srded. London, 
1925. 

Robinson (T. H.), Hunken (J. W.), and But Lett (F. C.), Palestine in General History. 
Oxford and London, 1930. 

Rupptn (A), Hyrien als Wirtschaftssrebiet Berlin, 1917. (Also in English ) Aufbau 
des Landes Israel. Berlin, 1919 DIG landwirtschaftliche Kolonisation der Z.O. m 
Palasfcina. Berlin, 1925. English translation, London, 1920. 

Schwarzenbcrger (G ), Das Vdlkerlmmis Mandat fiir PaJastma. Stuttgart, 1929. 

Simon (L.) and Stem (L.), The Awakening of Palestine. London, 1928. 

bimpson (Sir J. H.), Report on Immigration, Land Settlement and Development. 
[Cmd, 3,686 ] London, 1930. 

Smith (Sir G. A.), Historical Geography of the Holy Land. New ed. London, 1917. 
Jerusalem. 2 vols. London, 1008. Syria and the Holy Land. London, 1918. 

Sokolow (N.), History of Zionism. 2 vols. London, 1919. 

Stoyanovsky (J.), The Mandate for Palestine. London, 1928. 

Thompson (Edward), Crusaders' Coaist. London, 1929 

Thomsen (P.), Die Palastina-Literatur. (4 vols.) Vol. 4. Leipiig, 1927. 

Waldstein (A 8.), Modern Palestine. New York, 1927 

WeiBl ( W. ), Der Kampf urn das Heilige Land. Berlin, 1925. 

Whittingham (G. N.), The Home of Fadeless Splendour, or, Palestine of To-day 
London, 1921. 

Wiener (A.), Kritische Reise durch Palastina. Berlin, 1927. 

Wilbushewitz (N.), The Industrial Development of Palestine. London, 1920. 

Wirth (A.) F Vorderasien und Aegypten in historischer und politischer, kultureller und 
wirtcchaftlicher Hinsicht geschildert. Stuttgart, 1916. 

Wonfold (B.), Palestine of the Mandate. London, 1925. 



196 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: AFRICA 

AFRICA. 

ASCENSION ISLAND. See ST. HELENA. 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA. 

British East Africa consists of a large area on the mainland, together with 
the Islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. For details as to international agree- 
ments, &c., with regard to the British sphere in East Africa, see the 
STATESMAN'S YEAR BOOK for 1907, pp. 216 and 217. 

KENYA COLONY AND PEOTECTOEATE. 

Government, The Kenya Colony and Protectorate extends, on the Indian 
Ocean, from the Umba River to Dick's Head, and inland as far as Lake Victoria 
and Uganda. The Protectorate consists of the mainland dominions of the 
Sultan of Zanzibar, viz., a coastal strip of territory ten miles wide, to the 
northern branch of the Tana River ; also Kau, Kipini, and the Island of 
Lamu, and all adjacent islands between Rivera Umba and Tana, these 
territories having been leased to Great Britain in 1895 for an annual rent of 
10.000J. The colony and protectorate were formerly known as the East 
Africa Protectorate. On April 1, 1905, this was transferred from the 
authority of the Foreign Office to that of the Colonial Office, and in 
November, 1906, the Protectorate was placed under the control of a 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief and (except the Sultan of Zanzibar's 
dominions) was annexed to the Crown as from July 23, 1920, under the 
name of 'The Colony of Kenya,' thus becoming a * Crown Colony,' The 
territories on the coast rented from the Sultan of Zanzibar were proclaimed as 
the Kenya Protectorate. 

A treaty was signed (July 15, 1924) with Italy under which Great Britain 
ceded to Italy the Juba River and a strip from 50 to 100 miles wide on the 
British side of the river. Following on ratification of the treaty, cession 
took place on June 29, 1925. 

In 1906 Executive and Legislative Councils were constituted, the former 
consisting of 4 members, in addition to the Governor, the latter of 8 official and 
4 unofficial members. In 1919 the Legislative Council was enlarged to consist 
of 11 elected representatives of the European community, three nominated 
members, two representing the Indian population and one the Arabs, and a 
sufficient number of official members to give a majority in the Council. A 
new constitution was adopted in December, 1925, under which the Executive 
Council consists of 11 members, in addition to the Governor, while the 
Legislative Council consists of 11 elected European members, 6 elected 
Indian members, 1 member nominated to represent African interests, 1 elected 
Arab member, and a sufficient number of ex-officio and nominated official 
members to give to these a majority. Until such time as five Indian 
members have been elected, as many Indian members may be nominated as 
will make the number of Indian members, including elected ludian members, 
fire in all. The constituencies for Europeans, Indians and Arabs are 
separated from one another (i.e. communal franchise). Legislation is by 
Ordinances made by the Governor with the advice and consent of the 
Legislative Council. In 1908 foreign consular jurisdiction in the Zanzibar 
strip of coast was transferred to the British Crown. 

There are 10 provinces, which are as follows : Coast (capital Mombasa), 
Ukambaf capital Machakos), Kikuyu (capital Nyeri), Nyanza (capital Kisurnu), 



AREA, POPULATION RELIGION, EDUCATION, ETC. 197 

Northern Frontier Province (capital Isiolo), Nzoia (capital Eldoret), Tur- 
kana (capital Kapenguria), Rift Valley (capital Nakuru), Naivasha (capital 
Naivasha), and Masai (capital Ngong). 

Area and Population. The territory has an area of 224,960 square 
miles; population in 1929 estimated at 3,003,158, including 16,663 Euro- 
peans, 39,504 Asiatics, and 12,504 Arabs. On the coast the Arabs and 
Swahilis predominate ; further inland are races speaking Bantu languages, 
and non- Bantu tribes such as the Nilotic Kavirondo, the Nandi, the Lumbwa, 
the Masai, the Somali, and the Gallas. Mombasa is the second largest 
town ; population about 50,000, of whom 1,200 are Europeans. The harbour 
is situated on the eastern side of an island of the same name, and is the 
terminus of the Kenya and Uganda Railway. Kilindini harbour on the 
south-western side of the island is the finest land-locked and sheltered 
harbour on the cast coast of Africa and is accessible to vessels of deep 
draught. The principal river in the North is the Tana, which flows into 
the Indian Ocean. It is navigable for about 400 miles by shallow- draught 
steamers. Nairobi, the capital and the headquarters of the administration, 
has 51,599 inhabitants, of whom about 4,411 are European. There are about 
2,882 European farmers in the Colony. 

Religion, Education, Justice, The prevailing religious beliefs 
are Pagan ; but on the coast Mohammedanism has made great progress. 
There are many Christian mission societies, British, French, Itali&n, 
Swedish, and American, several being Roman Catholic. There were 57 
(including 17 European) Government schools in operation in 1929, and 
over 2,000 mission and native schools. The Supreme Court is at Nairobi, 
and sessions are held at Mombasa, Nakuru, Eldoret, Kisumu, and other 
places. District Courts presided over by magistrates are held in each district. 
Jn native cases local ideas and customs are considered. The legal status of 
slavery has been abolished throughout East Africa. 

Finance. Revenue and expenditure for 6 years : 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1924 
1925 
1926 


& 

2,111,564 
2,430,509 
2,627,223 




1,861,510 
2,339,996 
2 414,681 


1927 
1928 
1929 




2,846,110 
3,020,094 
3,833,742 


JB 

2,515,115 
2,834,647 
3,505,072 



Of the revenue for 1929, customs accounted for 949,725J. ; licences, 
duties, taxes, etc., 902, 566Z. ; posts and telegraphs, 182,1582. ; fees, 
etc., 123,8437. ; earnings of Govt. depts., 96,988. ; revenue from Goyt. 
property and royalties, 74,657?.; sale of Govt. property, 60,0462.; mis- 
cellaneous receipts, 11,7672. ; reimbursements, 770,843*. ; interest, 66, 3992.; 
and land sales, 85,2882. Public debt at end of 1929, 13,500,0002. & 

Agriculture and Mining, Maize, coconuts, sisal and-cotton are crops 
of major importance at lower altitudes, and coffee, maize, sisal and wheat at 
higher elevations. In addition, sugarcane, groundnuts, simsim wattle, 
barley, potatoes and miscellaneous crops are grown according to elevation 
and rainfall, both for export and home consumption. 

The export value of hides and skins is oonsideiable, and dairy and wool 
industries are growing in importance. 

The merchantable forest area extends over 3,300 square miles. At the 



198 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: KENYA 



Coast are found mangroves, ebony, copal and other trees, but 95 per cent, of 
the forests are in the Highlands. They are mainly Coniferous (Juniper and 
Podocarpus), but also contain valuable hardwoods such as Camphor and 
Olive. Pencil Cedar is abundant, and the export of pencil slats promises to 
be an important industry, as does also the exploitation of the large bamboo 
forests for paper pulp. 

The mineral resources are not yet fully explored. Production for 1929 
was: gold, 845 ozs. (value 3,6722.) ; marble, 250 tons (value 2,5002.); 
lime, 1,650 tons (value 1,6502.) ; mica, 3,755 Ibs. (value 560?.). 

Commerce and Shipping. There is a uniform Customs tariff in 
Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika. The Colony and Protectorate of Kenya 
and Uganda Protectorate are one administrative unit for Customs purposes, 
and complete freedom of trade exists between the two territories and 
Tanganyika, Customs Revenue being allocated to the consuming territory. 

Imports into Kenya and Uganda (excluding Government stores, bullion 
and specie), the domestic exports of Kenya and Uganda, and the tonnage 
entered and cleared Colony and Protectorate of Kenya were : 



Tears 


Trade 
Imports 


Domestic 
Exports 


Customs 
Revenue 


Tonnage entered 
and cleared 


1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 


8,628,035 
7,680,577 
7,851,611 
8,747,777 
8,920,579 



7,821,844 
6,010,386 
5,397,216 
6,661,673 
7,020,668 



1,192,920 
1,150,593 
1,176,077 
1,345,170 
1,390,026 


2,630,977 
3,108,392 
3,615,935 
3,820,402 
4,104,124 



In 1929 the main imports were : cotton piece goods, 1,337,8152. ; textiles 
and textile manufactures, 441,5052. ; motor cars, parts and accessories, 
322,8392. ; instruments and implements, 286,9682.; machinery, 241,1902. ; 
motor lorries, tractots, parts and accessories, 378,3572. ; grain and flour, 
58,6442. ; cigarettes, cigars and tobacco, 226,7982. ; spirits, wines, ale and 
beer, 180,7962. ; haberdashery and wearing apparel, 170,4522. ; motor spirit, 
266,4792. ; kerosene, 163,6282. ; other oils, fats and greases, 239,8062. ; iron 
sheets (galvanised and corrugated), 129,4122. ; chemicals, drugs and 
medicines, etc., 115,4792. ; rice, 160,0372, ; tea, 73,5082. ; motor cycles and 
tricars and parts and accessories, 13,4632. ; cycles (not motor), 61,9002. ; 
sugar, 39,0932. ; ghee, 87,1642. ; cement (building), 117,7722. 

The principal countries of origin were : Great Britain, 36 '83 per cent. ; 
British Possessions, 23 '10 per cent. ; (Total British Empire, 59 '93 percent.) ; 
Belgium, 1*51 per cent. ; Dutch East Indies, 3 '32 per cent. ; France, 1*33 
per cent. ; Germany, 4 '62 per cent. ; Holland, 5*12 per cent. ; Italy, 1'60 
per cent. ; Japan, 5 '67 per cent. ; Persia, 1 '63 per cent. ; United States of 
America, 12 '03 per cent. ; other foreign countries, 3 '24 per cent. 

The principal domestic exports of Kenya and Uganda during 1929 were : 
cotton (mainly Uganda), 3,315,1012. ; coffee, 879,8952. ; fibres, 553,5722. ; 
maize, 309,7742. ; hides and skins, 518,9422. ; seeds, 476,6472. ; carbonate 
of soda, 277,2942. ; ivory, 38,2742. ; chillies, 26,1432. ; wood and timber, 
27,8482. ; wheat meal and flour, 32,0602. ; other grain and flour, 37,5122. ; 
ground-nuts, 34,4362. ; wool, 48,8712. ; rubber, 28,8182.; barks for tanning, 
25,3362. ; potatoes, 27,0522. ; sugar, 32,2522. ; wheat, 38,2812. ; tin ore, 
63,9002. 



COMMUNICATIONS MONEY 199 

The chief countries of consignment were : Great Britain, 8 6 '91 per 
cent. ; British Possessions, 35*22 per cent. ; (British Empire, 72*13 per 
cent.) ; Arabia, 0'21 per cent. ; Belgium, 6 '19 per cent. ; Egypt, 0*25 
per cent. ; France, 1*26 per cent. ; Germany, 0'93 per cent. ; Holland, 
0*45 per cent. ; Italy, 1'60 per cent. ; Italian East Africa and Colonia 
Eritrea, 0'83 per cent. ; United States of America, 2 '30 per cent. ; Japan, 
10*64 per cent. ; other foreign countries, 3 '2) per cent. 

1930 exports to the United Kingdom (Board of Trade Returns), 
2,436,7252.; imports from the United Kingdom, 2,521, 401^. 

Communication between the ports of Kenya is kept up by small steamers 
owned by the British India S.S. Co., Messrs. Cawasji Dinshaw Brothers, at 
Aden, and the African Wharfage Co., Ltd., at Mombasa. 

Communications. The Kenya and Uganda Railways and Harbours 
are State Owned; the Railway, which is Metre Gauge, consists of: Main 
Line, Mombasa island to Jinja, on Lake Victoria to Uganda, 826 miles, 
other lines in Kenya are: the Nakuru Kisumu line, 131 miles ; the Voi- 
Kahe Branch, 92 miles, with running powers over the Tanga line (Tan- 
ganyika Territory) between Kahe Junction and Moshi ; the Lake Magadi 
Branch, 91*miles ; the Nyeri line, including the old Thika Branch, 127 
miles ; the Lake Solai Branch, 27 miles ; the Kitale Branch, 41 miles, and 
the Thomson's Falls Branch, 48 miles. In Uganda, Mbulamuti-Nama- 
sagali line, 18 miles ; Port Bell-Kampala Railway, 6 miles ; Tororo-Soroti 
Branch, 101 miles; lines under construction are: the Jinja- Kampala 
(Uganda) extension, 58 miles ; the Kisumu-Yala Branch, 32J miles. The 
Naro Moru-Nanyuki extension of the Nyeri line, 18 miles. Surveys have 
been made for Kedowa-Sotik-Kericho line, ..66 miles, and the^Bukonte-Jinja 
diversion, 53 milfs. 

The Harbours comprise the following : the Port of Mombasa, which 
includes Kilindini Harbour, Mombasa Old Port, Ports Reitz and Tudor ; 
and the Ports of Lamu, Malindi and Kilifi. Kilindini Harbour possesses 
4 deep-water quay berths (a fifth berth, in addition to a bulk oil jetty and 
lighterage berth, is under construction). The quays are equipped with 
electric cranes. 

The Kenya and Uganda Railways and Harbours also operate steamer 
services on Lakes Victoria, Kioga, Albert, and on the River Nile ; and a 
motor transport service, 75 miles, between Masindi Port on Lake Kioga, 
and Butiaba, on Lake Albert. 

During the year ending December 31, 1929, 1,105,302 tons of goods and 
1,161,770 passengers were carried; revenue, 2,448,9602.; expenditure, 
1,445,070J. Telegraphic communications exist along all lines of rail. 
Through bookings are in operation between Kenya and Uganda Railways 
and Harbours and Tanganyika Railways and Harbours via Moshi and 
Mwanza. The country is fairly well provided with roads and tracks. There 
is a motor road from Nairobi, across Uganda, to Mongalla in the Sudan. 

The Post Office of the Colony and Protectorate (inclusive of the Uganda 
Post Office, which is worked by the Kenya Post Office) received and 
despatched 13,475,200 letters, packets, &c., and 538,906 telegrams during 
1929. The telegraph system has 10,998 miles of wire (exclusive of Uganda). 
A cable connects Mombasa with Zanzibar. 

Money* The currency of the Colony and Protectorate, which is the 
same as that of the Uganda Protectorate and the Tanganyika Territory, is 
controlled by the East African Currency Board domiciled at 4 Millbank, 
London, S.W. 1, who maintain a stable rate of sterling exchange. The 



200 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: UGANDA 

standard coin is the East Africa shilling of one hundred cents, introduced 
as from January 1, 1922, which is legal tender to any amount. Twenty 
East African shillings equal one East African pound. The subsidiary 
coins consist of 50 cent (silver), 10 cent, 5 cent and 1 cent (bronze). Tne 
paper currency consists of notes of the following denominations : 5, 10, 20, 
100, 200, 1,000 and 5,000 shillings. Three banks operate in the colony. 
Savings bank deposits end of December, 1929, 119,8662. 

Governor and Commander -in-Chief t Brig. -Gen. Sir Joseph A. Byrne, 
K.C.M.G., K.B.E., C.B. (October, 1930). Salary, with allowances, 8,500Z. 

Colonial Secretary. H. M.-M. Moore, C.M.G. 



THE UGANDA PROTECTORATE. 

The territories now comprised within this Protectorate came under British 
influence in 1890, and a portion of them was for a time administered by the 
Imperial British East African Company. In 1894 a British Protectorate was 
declared over the kingdom of Uganda and some of the adjoining territories. 
The present limits are approximately as follows : On the north, the Uganda- 
Sudan boundary ; on the east, a line drawn from Mt. Zulia on the Sudan 
boundary along the Turkana escarpment over the top of Mt. Elgon, 
and along the west boundary of the Colony of Kenya to the eastern 
shores of Lake Victoria ; on the south by Tanganyika Territory (late 
German East Africa) ; and on the west by the eastern boundary of the 
Belgian Congo. Within these boundaries lie part of the Victoria Nyanza, 
part of Lake Edward, the whole of Lake George, half of Lake Albert, 
the whole of Lake Kioga, the whole of Lake Salisbury, and the course of 
the Nile from its exit from Lake Victoria to Nimule, where the Egyptian 
Sudan commences. Total area 94,204 square miles, including 13,616 square 
miles of water. For administrative purposes it is divided into 4 provinces : 
(1) the Eastern Province, comprising the districts of Busoga, Toso, Lango, 
Karamoja, Bugwere, Bugishu, and Budama ; (2) the Northern Province, 
comprising the districts of Bunyoro, Gulu, Chua, and West Nile ; (3) the 
Western Province, comprising the districts of Toro, Ankole, and Kigezi ; 
and (4) Buganda Province, with islands in Lake Victoria, compiising the 
districts of Mengo, Masaka, Mubende, and Entebbe. 

The whole Protectorate is now under direct administration ; but the 
native kings or chiefs, whose rights are in some cases regulated by treaties, 
are encouraged to conduct the government of their own subjects. The 
province of Buganda is recognised as a native kingdom under a 'Kabaka,' 
with the title of 'His Highness.' He is assisted in the govern- 
ment by three native ministers and a Lukiko, or native assembly. In 
Buganda, and in Bunyoro, Ankole and Toro, also ruled over by native 
1 Kings,' purely native matters are dealt with by the various Lukikos, but 
in serious cases there is an appeal to British courts. For Europeans and 
non-natives justice is administered by His Majesty's courts. The principal 
British representative is the Governor, who is assisted by a Legislative 
Council and an Executive Council in carrying out the functions of Govern- 
ment. The headquarters of the British Administration is at Entebbe ; the 
commercial centre is Kampala. 

The total population of Uganda (December, 1929) was estimated at 
3,410,857, composed as follows: Native, 3,396,323; Asiatic, 12,539; 
European, 1,995. Among the natives approximately 830,000 are Baganda, 



THE UGANDA PROTECTORATE 



201 



the tribe from which the Protectorate takes its name, and which was the 
most powerful and civilised at the time when the first explorers visited the 
country. At first educational work was entirely in the hands of the 
various Missionary Societies, who still receive grants towards scholarships, &c., 
for students and teachers. Their efforts have now for some years been 
supplemented by a Government educational scheme, and a University 
College is established by Government at Makerere (Kampala) for the 
higher education of natives. The attendance at the Schools in 1929 was 
146,6'0 boys and 93,310 girls, About 2,000,000 natives speak Bantu 
languages ; there are a few Congo pygmies living near the Semliki river ; 
the rest of the natives belong to the Hamitic Nilotic, and Sudanese groups. 

There are local and special courts of justice, and a High Court with 
civil and criminal jurisdiction. The appeal court consists of the judges 
of the High Courts of the Colony of Kenya, Uganda, Nyasaland, Zanzibar 
and Tanganyika territory In 1929, 7,833 criminal cases were tried. There 
is an armed constabulary force under a British Commissioner of Police and 
British officers. There is also a volunteer reserve of Europeans. 

Cotton is the principal product, and is grown almost entirely by natives, 
The area under cotton in 1929 was estimated at about 683,495 acres. 
Other products are coffee, chillies, oil-seeds, tin ore, Para rubber, sugar and 
tobacco. There are valuable forests. 

Total exports in 1929, 4,274,758Z. (1928, 3,395,2702.) ; cotton, 
3,312,6682. ; coffee, 177,1452. ; cotton seed, 433,999Z. ; rubber, 28,818Z. ; 
ivory, 24,758/. ; hides and skins, 165,444Z. ; tin ore, 63,900Z. The total 
value of imports for consumption in 1929 was 2,318,1772 , consisting mainly 
of cotton fabrics and manufactures, 605,7072. Total imports in 1928 
amounted to 3,395,2702. The trade is chiefly with Great Britain, the United 
States, and India. There is a uniform Customs tariff in Kenya, Uganda, and 
Tanganyika. 

The revenue and expenditure (exclusive of loan disbursements) for 6 years 
were : 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


| Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1924 
1925 
1926 




1,239,790 
1,479,2-4 
1,889,641 




918,662 
1,108,390 
1,295,612 


! 
1927 
1928 
1929 




1,292,306 
1,519,237 
1,682,918 



1,430,976 
1,368,188 
1 315,997 



In 1929 the poll-tax amounted to 588,9932., customs to 439,3751, and 
cotton excise to 231,488*. Debt, 1,088,4982. 

There are steamer services on Lakes Victoria, Kioga, and Albert. The 
steamers on Lake Albert descend the Nile to Nimule, on the Sudan 
boundary, whence there is a motor road (about 100 miles) round the rapids 
extending to Rejaf, the terminus of the Nile steamers from Khartum. The 
main line of the Kenya and Uganda Railway now extends to Jinja on Lake 
Victoria, by way of Nakuru, Eldoret, Turbo and Tororo. Lines from 
Jinja to Namasagali on Lake Kioga, and from Tororo to Soroti serve as 
feeders to bring in the important cotton crop of the Eastern Province. 
There is a railway from Port Bell to Kampala, 7J miles in length, and a new 
track is under construction between Kampala and Jinja. A network of all- 
weather motor roads has been constructed} and a fleet of Government motor 
vans serves those main routes on which a regular private transport service 
doea not exist. 

H2 



202 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: ZANZIBAR 

Mail services by motor and relays of runners radiate from Entebbe, 
Kampala and Jinja. The Sudan-Egyptian telegraph and telephone 
system is established to Bejaf. The Uganda telegraph line is extended 
to Mutir and to Nimule, 89 miles from Rejaf, and also connects with the 
Belgian Congo via Fort Portal and the Semliki. The length of telegraph and 
telephone line in the Protectorate is (1929) 3,328 miles. Telephone exchanges 
are installed at Entebbe, Kampala, Jinja, Iganga and Mbale, with trunk 
communication between. 

The currency unit is the shilling, introduced in 1921 and standardized, 
with subsidiary coinage of silver 50 cent pieces, and bronze 10 cent, 5 cent, 
and 1 cent pieces. East African Currency Board notes of shillings 10,000, 
1,000, 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, and 5 are also in circulation. The 
Savings Bank had 29,948. deposits and 1,949 depositors on December 31, 
1929. The National Bank of India (Limited) has branches at Entebbe, 
Kampala and Jinja, and the Standard Bank of South Africa and Barclays 
Bank (Dominions, Colonial and Overseas) have branches at Kampala and 
Jinja. 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief. Sir W. F. Gowers, K.C.M.G. 

Chief Secretary. P. W. Ferryman, O.B.E. 



ZANZIBAR. 

The Island of Zanzibar is situated in 6 S. latitude, and is separated 
from the mainland by a channel 22J miles across at its narrowest part. It 
is the largest coralline island on the African coast, being 53 miles long by 
24 broad, and having an area of f>40 square miles. To the north-east, at a 
distance of some 25 miles, lies the Island of Pemba in 5 S. latitude, 42 miles 
long by 14 broad, having an area of 380 square miles. 

In the sixteenth century the Arabs of the East Coast sought the assistance 
of the Imams of Muscat to drive out the Portuguese. The subsequent allegiance 
to Muscat, however, was of a more or less nominal character until Seyyid Said 
transferred his capital to Zanzibar in 1832. On his death in 1856 the 
African possessions were, under an arbitration by Lord Canning (then 
Governor-General of India), declared independent of the parent State. In 
1890 the supremacy of the British interests in the Islands of Zanzibar and 
Pemba was recognised by France and Germany, and they were declared a 
British Protectorate in accordance with conventions by which Great Britain 
waived all claims to Madagascar in favour of France and ceded Heligoland to 
Germany. In the same year the mainland possessions, which extended over 
the coast from Warsheikh in 3 N. latitude to Tunghi Bay in 10 42' S. 
latitude, were ceded to Italy, Great Britain, and Germany, respectively, Great 
Britain and Italy paying rent for the territories under their protection, while 
Germany acquired the Sultan's rights by the payment of a sum of 200, 000 J. 
At a later date Italy also acquired similar rights by payment of a sum of 
144, OOOZ. The British-rented territories on the mainland were included in 
the East Africa Protectorate, and now form the Protectorate of Kenya (see 
above under Kenya). Thus the Zanzibar Protectorate is confined for 
administrative purposes to Zanzibar, Pemba, and adjacent small islands. 
In 1891, a regular Government was formed for the Protectorate with a 
British representative as first minister. In 1906 the Imperial Government 
assumed more direct control over the Protectorate ana reorganised the 
Government, On July 1, 1913, the control of the Protectorate was trana- 



CONSTITUTION POPULATION, RELIGION, EDUCATION 203 

ferred from the Foreign Office to the Colonial Office, legal effect being given 
to the change in the following year. 

Constitution and Government The Sultan, Seyyid Khalifa bin 
Harub, K.C.M.G., K.B.E. (born 1879), succeeded on the abdication of his 
brother-in-law, Ali bin Hamoud bin Mahomed, December 9, 1911. The 
Government is administered by a British Resident, who is appointed by com- 
missions under His Majesty's Sign Manual and Signet, and exercises his 
functions under the Zanzibar Order-in-Council, 1924, as amended by the 
Zanzibar Order in Council, 1925. 

Legislation consists of Decrees of His Highness the Sultan, which are 
binding on all persons when countersigned by the British Resident under 
the Order-in-Council. 

In 1926 Executive and Legislative Councils weie established. The 
former is presided over by His Highness the Sultan, and the latter by the 
British Resident. The Legislative Council consists of three ex-officio official 
members and five others. There are six unofficial members, representing 
various communities. 

Population, Religion, Education, &C. The population of Zanzibar 
and Pemba, according to the census of 1924, was 216,790 (Zanzibar, 128,099; 
Pemba, 88,691). The registered birth rate in 1929 was 19'76 per 1,000 for 
Zanzibar and 18 '47 for Pernba ; and the death rate 21 '20 and 13-33 respectively. 
The Arabs arc the principal landlords and employers of labour. The black 
population is mostly Swahili, but there are representatives of nearly every 
African tribe. According to the 1921 census there were 14,125 non-native 
inhabitants, including about 270 Europeans, most of whom are English, and 
about 12,000 British Indian subjects, through whose hands almost the 
whole trade of East Africa passes. Zanzibar town has a population of 
38,700. 

Most of the natives are Mohammedans (Sunnis of the Shafi school); the 
Sultan and the principal Arabs are of the Ibadhi sect. There are 3 Christian 
Missions : the Universities Mission to Central Africa (Church of England), 
the Mission of the Holy Ghost (Roman Catholic), and the Friends' Industrial 
Mission. 

Education is free. Subjects of H.H. the Sultan are liable to compulsion, 
but for others education is voluntary. There are Government schools mainly 
for Moslems, a number of mission schools, Indian schools supported by 
different communities for the children of their sects, private schools and 
a non- sectarian school. The total number of children attending these 
schools in 1929 was 4,164. There is a Teachers' Training School and a 
Commercial School. In 1927 education for Arab girls was started under the 
auspices of government. 

Justice. In cases in which persons subject to the Zanzibar Order-in- 
Council, 1924, are concerned, justice is administered by His Britannic 
Majesty's High Court and the Courts subordinate to it, and in other cases 
by H.H. the Sultan's Court for Zanzibar and the Courts subordinate to that 
Court. Subordinate Courts are held by Resident Magistrates, Administrative 
Officers and Arab Qadis, and an appeal lies from those Courts to the British 
or Zanzibar Court as may be required. An appeal lies from the British 
Court and from the Zanzibar Court in the exercise of their original civil and 
criminal jurisdiction to His Majesty's Court of Appeal for Eastern Africa 
and thence to the Privy Council, 



204 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : ZANZIBAR 



Finance. The revenue and expenditure for 6 years were as follows :- 



Year 


Revenue 
from 
Customs 


Total 
Revenue 
(excluding 
loans) 


Expenditure 


Year 


Revenue 
from 
Customs 


Total 
Revenue 
(excluding 
loans) 


Expen- 
dituro 


1924 
1925 
1926 



291,737 
341,021 
199,058 




492,527 
578,023 
449,037 




451,730 
548,000 
649,877 


1927 
1928 
1929 




809,159 
256,842 
290,865 



540,345 
471,771 
514,000 




606,301 
598,791 
561,944 



Besides Customs, the chief sources of revenue in 1929 were : interest on 
loan to Kenya and other investments, 18.142Z. ; electricity department, 
27,963Z. ; agriculture, 30,369Z. ; court fees, fines, etc., 95,1332. ; rent of 
Kenya Protectorate, 10,0002. ; rent of Government property, land and 
houses, 11,4792. The chief heads of expenditure in 1929 were: public 
works, 174,3042. ; port and marine, 40,7742. ; police and prisons, 33,0732. ; 
electricity and wireless department, 23,2352. ; judicial department, 25,6462.; 
agricultuie department, 40,6982. ; district administration departments, 
27,7562. ; medical, 51,0772. ; education, 22,0752. ; pensions, 31,2922. 

Public debt at end of 1929, 100,0002. ; sinking fund, 107,9982. 

Production and Industry, The clove industry is by far the most 
important in the Protectorate, the Islands of Zanzibar and Pomba yielding 
the bulk of the world's supply. It is estimated that there are in both 
islands about 48,000 acres under cloves and over 3 million trees in bearing, 
the average output of the last 20 seasons being 19,343,004 Ibs. The exports 
in 1929 were 174,778 cwts., and clove-stems 19,430 cwts. The large plan- 
tations are chiefly owned by Arabs, but many natives possess small holdings. 
The coconut industry ranks next in importance after cloves. It is estimated 
that there are about 55,000 acres under cultivation and 3J million trees in 
both islands. The export of copra amounted in 1929 to 334,071 cwts. 

The manufactures are pottery, coir fibre and rope, soap, oil (coconut and 
simsim), jewellery, and mats. There are no mines in the Protectorate. 

Commerce. The total imports, exports, and shipping for 5 years 



Tears 


Imports 
(Including bullion 
and specie) 


Exports 
(Including bullion 
and specie) 


Shipping entered 
(gross tonnage) 


1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 



1,834,015 
1,688,551 
1,771,124 
1,585,258 
1,664,242 



2,029,620 
1,585,884 
1,828,258 
1,640.681 
1,722,498 


Tons 
1,967,681 
2,322,747 
2.038,921 
2,687,818 
2,763,830 



Chief articles of import and export : 



- 


Imports 
X1928). 


Imports 
(1929) 


Exports 
(1928) 


Exports 
(1929) 


Cotton Piece goodi . . 
Rice and Grain .... 
Chillies 


Rs. 

87,73,594 
32,73,853 
2.457 


Rs. 
34,81,164 
48,96,852 
2.584 


Ra. 
21,67,856 
7,86,868 
20.647 


Rs. 
14,41,216 
11,73,395 
29.941 



SHIPPING, COMMUNICATIONS, ETC. 



205 



Chief Articles 


Imports 
(1928) 


Imports 
(1929) 


Exports 
(1928) 


Exports 
(1929) 


Cloves 


Rs. 

492 


Rs. 

2 802 


Rs. 

86 78 580 


Rs. 
1 16,72 692 


Clove-stems .... 
Copra 


194 
18,28,406 


12 57 059 


5,95,709 
49 65 447 


2,88,945 
47,36,561 


Tobacco (Manufactured) . 
Ghee 


1,71,890 
4,49,696 


1,75,764 
4 52 880 


41,983 
81 945 


51,959 
88,985 


Sugar 
Petrol and Petroleum 
Hardware 


9,75,708 
16,72,407 
28,154 


9,16,799 
9,40,564 
35,897 


3,57,828 
944,874 
11,203 


2,90,748 
5,93,285 
5,530 


Hides and Skins 
Flour 


11,790 
7,15,439 


16,997 
7,47,866 


92,767 
2,68 278 


41,431 
2 00,672 


Bags 
Simsim 


2,68,957 
8,36,367 


2,20,286 
1,53,559 


2,01,283 
79,771 


1,63,495 
71,379 


Spirits .... 


96,870 


1 14,445 


7 387 


3 416 


Dried Pish .... 
Coffee* (raw) .... 
Cotton (raw) .... 
Wax (Bees) .... 
Soap 


1,44,039 
92,055 
4,351 
3,168 
77,165 


1,59,262 
1,00,409 
3,436 
2,905 
00,005 


1,18,680 
13,179 
66 
6,700 
23,391 


1,22,951 
8,043 
763 
3,186 
23,856 













The distribution of trade in 1929 was as follows : 



Principal Countries 


1929 
Imports 
there- 
from 


1929 
Exports 
thereto 


Principal Countries. 


1929 
Imports 
there- 
from 


1929 
Exports 
thereto 


India and Burma 


Rs. 

82,81,724 


Rs. 

46,15,996 


Italy .... 


Rs. 

1,00,301 


Rs. 

39,51,603 


Tanganyika Territory 
Gt. Britain AN. Ireland 
Kenya Colony 
France 
Portuguese East Africa 
Madagascar 
Germany . 
Union of South Africa 
United States . 


20,37,079 
41,24,927 
5,65,804 
1,48,515 
5,01,894 
1,24,816 
1,82,555 
62,464 
4,73,072 


35,43,074 
15,36,424 
4,87,908 
12,65,742 
6,98,569 
33,618 
3,07,803 
99,259 
14,82,395 


Italian Eat Africa 
Holland 
Dutch East Indies 
Switzerland 
Arabia 
Japan . 
China . 
Austria 
Belgium 


6,33,417 
6,08,206 
15,32,317 
1,01,294 
1,71,632 
10,97,209 
1,23,654 
60,073 
1,22,674 


2,63,526 
6,00,430 
20,17,708 

1,96,774 
97,686 
2,91,819 

69,296 



The trade between Zanzibar and the United Kingdom (Board of Trade 
returns) for four years is given as follows: 





1927 


1928 


1929 


1980 l 


Imports (consignments) into Gt. Britain 
from Zanzibar . ... 




176,804 



106,259 



137,209 


& 

108,891 


Exports of British produce to Zanzibar 
Exports of Foreign and Colonial produce . 


265,845 
5,045 


243,760 
8,680 


233,076 
3,516 


216,815 
3,626 



i Provisional. 

Shipping and Communications, &C. Several British and foreign 
Steamship Companies have regular services to Zanzibar and all the important 
ports on the coast of East Africa. The Zanzibar Government steamers 
maintain regular weekly connection with Pemba, as well as making calls 
at Dar-es-Salaam. 

Ocean-going shipping dealt with in 1 929, 1,428,639 tons net (349 vessels) ; 
coastwise, 130,849 tons (331 vessels) ; dhows, 75,985 tons entered and 76,473 
tons cleared. Excellent water supplied at 3*5 tons per minute is available 
for shipping. 



206 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : ZANZIBAR 

There is cable communication with Europe either via Aden or via Durban. 

There are 238 miles of roads throughout the Islands of Zanzibar and 
Pemba suitable for motor traffic. 

The Government maintains wireless stations in Zanzibar and Pemba, 
and a telephone system in the town of Zanzibar, which is connected with 
the District and Agricultural stations in the country. There is also a 
Telephone Service connecting the three Administrative Districts in the 
island of Pemba. There are six post offices in the two islands. The 
number of articles dealt with at the post office in 1929 was 1,574,984 (letters, 
1,563,256). The Government Savings Bank at the end of 1929 had 2,982 
depositors, with 366,869 rupees on deposit. 

The British Indian rupee -is universally current ; currency notes of Re to 
500 rupees are in circulation. The value of notes in circulation on December 
31, 1929, was 29,16,815 rupees. Seyyidioh copper pice are legal tender 
up to 64 pice (= one rupee). A frasla (or frasifa) of cloves is equivalent 
to 351bs. av. 

British Resident. R. S. D. Rankine, C.M.G. (December, 1929). 



Books of Reference concerning British East Africa, 

Correspondence and Farther Correspondence relating to Zanzibar. London, 1886-90. 

Annual Reports of the Administrator of East Africa. London. Reports of H.M, 
Commissioner in Uganda Reports on the Mombasa-Victoria Railway. Precis of Infor- 
mation concerning the British East Africa Protectorate and Zanzibar, revised in the 
Intelligence Division of the War Office London, 1902. Report by Mr. A. Whyte on his 
Travels along the Coast-Bolt of the British East Africa Protectorate (Africa. No 3 1903). 

Report by J. Parkinson on the Geology and Geography of the Northern Part of the 
East Africa Protectorate (Cmd. 729). London, 1020. 

East African Slave Trade, Reports, Ac., 1870-71, 1872-73, 1887-88, 1890-91 ; papers 
and correspondence 1892-96, 1897-99. London. 

Report of the East Africa Commission (Cmd. 2387). London, 1925. 

Hertslet's Treaties and the Map of Africa, by Treatv. 2nd ed , Vol II. London, 1897. 

Road Book of East Africa. H.M. Eastern African Dependencies, Trade and Informa- 
tion Office. London, 1930. 

Brown (A. 8.), and Brown (G. G.), Editors : The Guide to South and East Africa. 
London, Annual. 

Browne (G. St. J. Orde), The Vanishing Tribes of Kenya. London, 1925. 

Buchanan (Sir G.), British East Africa (Kenya Colony). London, 1922. 

Cramoorth (Lord), Profit and Sport in British East Africa London, 1920. 

Cratter (J. E. E.), Pemba : The Spice Island of Zanzibar. London, 1913. 

Crofton (R. H.), Statistics of the Zanzibar Protectorate, 1893-1928 Zanzibar, 1929. 

Drumkey's (Y 8 A ), Tear Book for British East Africa. Bombay. 

Emin Pasha, his Life and Work, compiled from his Journals by G Schwartzer. 2 vola 
London , 1898. 

Gregory (J. W.), The Great Rift Valley. London, 1896. The Rift Valleys and Geology 
of East Africa. London, 1921. 

Hobley (C W. ), Kenya from Chartered Company to Crown Colony. London, 1920 

Hollis (Sir Claud), The Masai . Their Language and Folklore. Oxford, 1905. The 
Nandi : Their Language and Folklore. Oxford, 1909. 

Ingram* (W. H.), Zanzibar An Account of its People, Industries and History. 
London, 1924. Chronology and Genealogies of Zanzibar Rulers. Zanzibar, 1926. 

Joelson (Pt 8.), Eastern Africa To-day. London, 1928. 

Johntton (Sir Harry), The Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899. The Uganda 
Protectorate. 2 vols. London, 1902. 

Kenya Annual and Directory, including Uganda section. Nairobi. 

Kenya Handbook, H.M. Stationery Office, London. 

Kmunke (R.), Quer darch Uganda, Berlin, 1913. 

Leys (N.), Kenya. London, 1924 

Lucas (Sir Charles), The Partition and Colonization of Africa. London, 1922. 

Lugard (Sir F.), The dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa. London, 1923. 

Nordtn (H.), White and Black in East Africa London, 1924. 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. III. London, 1914. 

Pearce (Major Francis B., C.M.G.), Zanzibar: Past and Present. London, 1920. 



MAURITIUS 207 

Said-Ruete (B.), Said Bin Sultan (1791-1856) Ruler of Oman and Zanzibar. London 
1930. 

Roseoe (J.), The Northern Bantu. Cambridge, 1916. Twenty-five years in Bast Africa. 
Cambridge, 1921. The Bagesu and other Tribes of the Uganda Protectorate. London, 
1924. 

Ross (W. H.), Kenya from Within. London, 1927. 

Stanley (H M.), Through the Dark Continent. 2vols. London, 1878. 

Stigand (C. H.), The Land of Zinj. Being an Account of British East Africa. 
London, 1913. 

Uganda Handbook. H.M Stationery Office, London. 

Wayland (E. J.), Peti oleum in Uganda. London, 1925. 



MAURITIUS. 

Mauritius was known to Arab navigators at an early date, probably not 
later than the tenth century. It was no doubt visited by Malays in the 
fifteenth century, and was discovered by the Portuguese between 1507 and 
1512, but the Dutch were the first settlers. In 1710 they abandoned the 
island and it was occupied by the French under the name of Isle de France. 
The British occupied the island in 1810, and it was formally ceded to Great 
Britain by the Treaty of Paris of 1814. 

Constitution and Government. Under Letters Patent of 1885, 

1901, 1904, and 1913, partially representative institutions have been estab- 
lished. The government of the Colony, with its dependencies, Rodrigues, 
Die*go Garcia, &c., is vested in a Governor, aided by an Executive Council, 
consisting of the officer in command of His Majesty's troops, the Colonial 
Secretary, the Procureur-General, the Receiver-General, and such other 
persons holding office in the service of the Government of the Colony as the 
Governor, through instructions from the Secretary of State, may from time 
to time appoint. There is also a Council of Government, consisting of the 
Governor and twenty-seven members, ten being elected under a moderate 
franchise, eight ex~officio t and nine nominated by the Governor. The 
official councillors comprise the four Executive members, the Collector of 
Customs, the Protector of Immigrants, the Director of Public Works and 
Surveys, and the Director of the Medical and Health Department. 
Governor of Mauritius. -W. E Francis Jackson (Appointed March 7, 1930). 

Area, Population, &c, 

Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean, 500 miles east of Madagascar, has 
an area of about 720 square miles. According to the census of 1921, the 
population of the island, including Dependencies (8,394) and Military (206), 
was 385,074, consisting of general population, 112,370, Indian population, 
265,884, Chinese population, 6,820. The estimated population of Mauritius 
at end of 1929 was 415,543, including 9,985 in the Dependencies. 

Birth-rate (exclusive of Indians) in 1929, 34 '5, Indian birth-rate, 82'5 
per thousand; death-rate (exclusive of Indians) in 1929, 28*4, Indian 
death-rate, 31*7 per thousand, Population of Port Louis, the capital, 
with its suburbs, 54,147 (1929). 

In 1921 there were 117,491 Roman Catholics, 3,371 Protestants (Church 
of England and Church of Scotland). State aid is granted to the Churches, 
amounting yearly to Rs. 196,107 ; the Indians are mostly Hindus. 

Education, &c. 

Primary education is free but not compulsory. At the end of 1928 
there were 55 Government, 92 aided and 3 technical schools. Average 



208 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: MAURITIUS 



attendance at Government schools, 1929, 9,028 (13,175 on roll); at State- 
aided schools, 13,826 (19,588 on roll, of whom more than three-fourths were 
in Roman Catholic schools). For secondary education there is a Royal 
College and a School (with many scholarships and exhibitions) with (1929) 
399 pupils. There were also in 1929 nine aided secondary schools for boys 
and girls. The total Government actual expenditure in 1928-29 on education 
was Rs. 1,579,923 ; the estimated expenditure for 1930-31 was Rs. 1,376,744. 
The total number of convictions at the inferior courts in 1929 was 12,536 
and at the Supreme Court 19, 

Finance. 



Years ended 
June 30 




1924-25 


1925-26 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 




Rs. 


Rs, 


Ra. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Revenue 


19,672,843 


15,894,763 


14,682,807 


15,303,918 


18,822,248 


Expenditure. 


17,355,868 


16,117,988 


16,461,062 


16,725,513 


16,930,182 



Principal sources of revenue 1928-29 : Customs, Rs. 4,818,483; 
licences, excise, &c., Rs. 5,212,926; Interest, Rs. 1,470,360. 

The debt of the Colony on June 30, 1929, was : Government De- 
benture Inscribed Stock Debt, 2,484,8962., mainly for public works. 
Municipal Debt of Port Louis (1929), 69,593?. 

Defence. 

Port Louis is fortified. The Colonial contribution to the military ex- 
penditure is estimated at Rs. 781,632 (1930-31). 

Commerce, 

(Rupees converted at rate of 15 = 1?.) 



Year 


Imports 


Exports 


Year 


Imports 


Exports 


1924 
1925 
1920 




5,094,376 
4,128,821 
3,373,076 



3,485,502 
2,977,630 
2,582,749 


1927 
1928 
1929 



8,679,042 
8,295,853 
3,088,354 



3,774,203 
3,158,094 
3,496,737 



Staple exports, sugar, 3,293,848*. in 1929 ; copra and poonac, 18,788?. ; 
aloe fibre, 55,232?. ; rum, 2,283?. The trade was chiefly with India and 
Burma, and the United Kingdom. The sugar crop in 1930-31 is estimated 
at 230,000 metric tons, against an actual crop of 234,276 (metric tons) in 1927. 

Imports into the United Kingdom from Mauritius (British Board of Trade 
Returns) 1929, including unrefined sugar, 8,845,266?. British exports to 
Mauritius, 1929, including cotton goods, 136,725?. ; machinery, 36,088?. ; 
iron and steel, and manufactures, 56,758?. ; ammonium sulphate, 83,319?. ; 
soap, 52,898?. ; motor cars and tyres, 28,472?. ; tobacco, 16,106?. Imports 
into United Kingdom, 1930, 1,657,045?. ; exports to Mauritius, 1930, 
600,646?. 

Shipping and Communications. 

The registered shipping January 1, 1930, consisted of 18 sailing vessels 
of 3,868 tons, and 2 steamers of 2,060 tons ; total, 20 vessels of 5,928 tons. 



MONET, WEIGHTS, MEASURES DEPENDENCIES, ETC. 209 

Vessels entered in 1929, 194 of 542,314 tons (118 British of 324,679 tons); 
vessels cleared 198 of 552,596 tons (121 British of 334,904 tons). 

There are railway lines of 144 miles, of which 24 miles are narrow gauge. 
The Railway Department is run on a commercial basis. Its receipts are 
excluded from the general revenue of the Colony. Gross earnings, 1929, 
Rs. 2,845,424. Working expenditure, Rs. 3,106,684. 

Of telegraphs and telephones there were (1929) 545 and 224 miles of 
line respectively ; there is cable communication with Zanzibar, Australia, 
Reunion, Madagascar, and Durban. In 1929 the Post Office dealt with 
1,584,227 letters, 103,789 postcards, 2,077,488 newspapers, 28,665 parcels, 
and 122,286 telegrams. 

Money, Weights, and Measures. 

On June 80, 1929, the Government Savings Bank held deposits 
amounting to Rs. 5,253,899, belonging to 36,810 depositors. 

The currency consists of Mauritius bronze pieces (1, 2, and 5 cents) ; 
silver pieces (10, 20, 25, and 50 cents) ; Indian rupees and its silver sub- 
divisions ; nickel pieces (Indian 4 annas); Government notes (Rs. 50, 10, 
5, and 1) ; and Indian currency notes (Rs. 50, 10, and 5). All accounts 
are kept in Indian rupees. Average note circulation in 1928-29, Rs. 
14,743,250. The metric system is in force. 

Dependencies. 

Bodrigues (under a Magistrate) is about 350 miles north-east of Mauritius, 
18 miles long, 7 broad. Area, 42 square miles. Population (census 1921, 
6,584) on 31st Dec., 1929, 7,993. Estimated revenue (1930-31), Rs. 84,370 
and estimated expenditure, Rs. 142,842 ; imports (1929), Rs. 415,517 ; exports, 
Rs. 409,043. There are two Government and two Aided schools. 

The Lesser Dependencies are Diego Garcia, Six Islands, Peros Banhos, 
Solomon Islands, Agalega, St. Brandon Group, Trois Freres. The nearest 
island is 230 miles from Mauritius, and the most remote about 1,200 miles. 
Total population of the lesser dependencies, census 1921, 1,810 (1,038 males, 
772 females). 

Diego Garcia (the most important of the Oil Islands Group), in 7 20' S. 
lat, 72 26' E. long., is 12J miles long, 6J miles wide, with 445 inhabitants 
(census 1921), a large proportion negro labourers from Mauritius. 64,476 
litres of coconut oil were exported in 1928 from the Lesser Dependencies. 
Other exports are coconuts, copra, guano, and salted fish. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Mauritius. 

Colonial Office List. Annual. London. 

Reports on Mauritius, and on Rodrigneg, in Colonial Reports. Annual. London. 
Statistical Abstract for the several colonial and other possessions of the United Kingdom. 
Annual. London. 

Mauritius Blue Book. Annual. 

Mauritius Royal Commission 1909. London. 

Mauritius Almanac and Commercial Handbook. Mauritius. 

The Mauritius Civil List. Mauritius. 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. III. London, 1914 

Balfour (A.), Report on Medical and Sanitary Matters in Mauritius. London, 1922 

Bertuchi (A. J.), The Island of Rodrigues. London, 1928. 

Ve Burgh'Edwardes (8. B.), The History of Mauritius. London, 1922. 

Hart (W. E.), L'lle Maurice. Mauritius, 1921. 

MacOreffor (M. E.). Report on the Anophelinae of Mauritius. London, 1924. 

Macmillan (A,), Mauritius Illustrated. London, 1914. 

Philoglns (R), The Island of Mauritius. Port Louis and Mauritius, 1928 

Walter (A,), The Sugar Industry of Mauritius. London, 1909, 



210 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: NYASALAND PROTECTORATE 



NYASALAND PKOTECTOKATE (BRITISH). 

The Nyasaland (until 1907 British Central Africa) Protectorate, con- 
stituted on May 14, 1891, lies along the southern and western shores 
of Lake Nyasa, and extends towards the Zambezi. It is administered 
under the Colonial Office by the Governor and Commander-in- Chief, assisted 
by an Executive and a Legislative Council, both consisting of nominated 
members, the Governor having the right of veto (Order in Council of 
September 4, 1907). The Laws consist of local Ordinances duly enacted, 
with such British Acts as are of general application. 

Land area, 37,596 square miles, divided into four Provinces, each in 
charge of a Provincial Commissioner, and nineteen districts, each administered 
by a Resident and his assistant. Population on Dec. 31, 1929, 1,936 Europeans 
(mostly in the Shire Highlands), 1,117 Asiatics, and 1,356,945 natives. 
The chief settlements are Blantyre and Limbe in the Shire Highlands, with 
about 600 European inhabitants ; others are Zomba (the seat of Government), 
Port Herald, and Mlanje ; on Lake Nyasa are Fort Johnston, Kota-Kota, 
Bandawe, Chintechi, Nkata, Likoma, and Karonga. Good motor roads are 
being made in all directions, and life and property are safe. Education is 
controlled by the Education Department. Grants in aid are paid to mission 
societies for native education and there are four elementary schools for 
European children, which are maintained as private establishments and 
receive grants from Government. The Government has established a 
training centre for native teachers. Fourteen Christian missions are at 
work ; in 1929 there were 2,588 native schools with a total roll of 135,746 
pupils and an average attendance of 91,396. The total grant in aid paid by 
Government to missionary societies in 1929 was 8,360. in respect of native 
education. The grant in aid for European education was 600Z. These grants 
were distributed in accoidance with the provisions of the Education Ordin- 
ance, 1927. 

Justice is administered in the High Court, which has jurisdiction in civil 
and criminal matters, and also as a Court of Admiralty, Subordinate courts 
are held by magistrates and assistant magistrates in the various districts. 
Appeals from decisions of the High Court are heard in H. B. M's. Court of 
Appeal for Eastern Africa, sitting at Mombasa. 

In the Shire" Highlands coffee is cultivated; in ,1928, 46,248 Ibs. and in 
1929, 100,117 Ibs. were exported. Tobacco exported: in 1928, 11,632,497 Ibs., 
and in 1929, 10,340,217 Ibs. The area under tobacco in 1929 was 19,269 
acres. The area under cotton cultivation in 1929 was 1,219 acres. In 1928, 
1,785,611 Ibs., and in 1929, 2,121,618 Ibs. were exported. Tea-growing is 
tried on estates aggregating about 8,866 acres (1929) ; in 1928, 1,407,728 Ibs., 
and in 1929, 1,755,419 Ibs. were exported. Cattle in the Protectorate (1929), 
goats, 201,928; horned cattle, 166,157 ; sheep, 88,360 ; pigs, 61,379 ; asses 
and mules (mostly belonging to the natives), 214 ; horses, 6. 

The trade ports are Port Herald (Lower Shire"), Kota-Kota, Fort Manning, 
Karonga, and Fort Johnston (Lake Nyasa). 





1924-25 * 


1925-26 > 


1926-27 * 


1927* 


1928* 


1929* 


Imports 2 . 
Exports 2 . 
Revenue 
Expenditure 




548,156 
583,555 
293,055 
295,481 




591,654 
564,926 
322,160 
801,934 



791,054 
671,086 
348,820 
818,899 




938,461 
960,869 
346,841 
266,619 




869,463 
706,757 
874,967 
407,877 



770,855 
625,480 
872,508 
410,688 



1 Years ending March 81. 
* April to December. 



1 Excluding specie and goods in transit. 
* Year ending December 1929. 



ST. HELENA 211 

Direct imports from Great Britain, 1929, 75 per cent, of total ; direct 
exports thereto, 1929, 99 '31 per cent, of total. 

The imports (1928) consisted chiefly of manufactured articles, 618,489^. ; 
provisions, 65,0902. The principal exports (1929) were tobacco, 403,678Z. ; 
cotton, 62,66U ; tea, 74,3832. 

The revenue in 1928 was derived chiefly from Customs, 141,2292.; Road 
and River Dues, 34,8822.; Licences, Excise and Internal Revenue, 175,0292.; 
Fees of Court, 17,9992.; Posts, Telegraphs, 19,2022.; Rents, 9,2252.; 
Miscellaneous, 7,0982. 

Public debt, Dec. 31, 1929, 822,6702. 

There are military, volunteer reserve, and civil police forces. Police 
force, December 31, 1928, 16 European officers and 521 African ranks. There 
is a Marine Transport Department on Lake Nyasa, consisting of three vessels. 
For ordinary traffic there are small steamers, besides small sailing vessels. 

There are 30 post offices through which, in 1929, about 2,373,273 postal 
packets passed. The postal savings bank had 775 depositors at end of 
1928; deposits, 4,6242. A railway, of 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, from Chiudio 
on the Zambezi in Portuguese East Africa to Blantyre has been constructed 
(174 miles). A railway from Murra9a on the southern bank of the Zambezi 
to the Port of Beira (175 miles) in Portuguese East Africa was opened for 
traffic in April, 1922, thus establishing direct railway communication 
between Blantyre and Beira. A bridge across the Zambezi to connect these 
two railways is shortly to be erected, also the railway system is to be ex- 
tended northwards to Lake Nyasa. During 1928 the new road from Salisbury 
to Blantyre via Tete in Portuguese East Africa was open for light cars. 
There is a telegraph line through the Protectorate connecting southwards 
with Cape Town and northwards with Tanganyika, Kenya and Uganda. 
Telegraphs are controlled by the Government. At Zomba there is a water- 
power electric light installation which provides for the whole settlement. 

At Blantyre, Zomba, and other centres there are branches of the 
Standard Bank of South Africa and at Blantyre there is a branch of Bar- 
clays (Dominion, Colonial and Overseas) Bank. The currency consists of 
British coin, gold, silver, and bronze. There is no note circulation. 

Governor and Commander-in.Chief.Sir T. S. W. Thomas, K.C.M.G., 
O.B.E. 

Chief Secretary. K. L. Hall 

References. 

Colonial Office Reports on Nyasaland Protectorate 

Precis of Information concerning the British Central Africa Protectorate. By C. B. 
Vyvyan. London, 1901. 

Duff (H. L.), Nyasaland under the Foreign Office. 2nd ed. London, 1906. 

Johnson (W. P.), Nyasa : The Great Water. Oxford, 1922. 

Johntton (Sir H. H.), British Central Africa, London, 1897. 

Maugham (R. C. F ), Africa as I have known It: Nyasaland, East Africa, Liberia, 
Senegal. London , 1 929 

Murray (S. S.), A Handbook of Nyasaland. Crown Agents for Colonies, London, 1922. 

Sharpe (Sir Alfred), The Geography and Economic Development of British Central 
Africa. Geographical Journal. January, 1912. The Backbone of Africa. London, 1931* 



ST. HELENA. 

Governor. SIT Charles Harper, K.B.E., O.M.G. 

Government Secretary. Lt.-Col. E. L. Salier, M.O. 

St. Helena, of volcanic origin, is 1,200 miles from the west coast of 
Africa. Area, 47 square miles. Population, 1921 Census, 3,747 ; estimated 
civil population, December 31, 1929, 3,846. Births (living), 1929, 121 ; 



212 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: ASCENSION ISLAND 



deaths, 40 ; marriages, 34. Civil emigrants (1929), 67 ; immigrants 38, 
Four Episcopal, 4 Baptist, 1 Roman Catholic chapels. Education, 8 
elementary schools (of which 8 are Government schools), with 702 pupils 
in 1929. Police force, 6 ; cases dealt with by the Supreme Court, nil ; by 
police magistrate, 52 in 1929. A detachment of the Royal Marine Artillery 
is stationed on the island. The port of the island is called Jamestown. 
The following table gives statistics for St. Helena : 





1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Revenue * . 
Expenditure 



21,731 
19,567 




28,944 
23,154 


& 

20,486 
16,740 


& 

15,549 
15,794 




20,456 
23,385 


Exports 
Imports * 


47,476 
57,805 


39,977 
56,040 


34,274 
49,678 


31,267 
49,030* 


38,571 
47,405 



1 Including Imperial grants (7,0001. in 1925 2,5001. in 1926, 2,500?. in 1927, 2,000?. in 
1928, and 2,0001. in 1929 ) 

* Including specie. * Including specie, but excluding Government stores. 

Including Government stores (1929, 2,862J.). 

The revenue from customs in 1929 was 5,2532. 

Public debt, nil ; the Colony's assets at December 81, 1929, exceeded 
the liabilities by 2,666. 

The principal export is fibre, tow, rope and twine, 1,445 tons in 1929. 

Savings-bank deposits on December 31, 1929, 17,730J., belonging to 228 
depositors. 

Fruit trees, Norfolk pines, eucalyptus, and cedars flourish in St. Helena. 
Cattle do well, but there is no outside market for the meat. The flax 
(phormium) industry is now established, a Government mill having com- 
menced operations in 1908. There are 8 private mills. The area of land 
under flax was estimated at 2,000 acres in 1927. A lace-making industry 
was started in 1907. The number of vessels that called at the Island in 
1929 was 35 Total tonnage entered and cleared (1929) was 173,459. 

The Post Office in 1929 received 309 bags of mail, 1,993 parcels and 1,470 
registered articles, and despatched 82 bags of mail, 261 parcels and 2,225 
registered articles. 

The Eastern Telegraph Company's cable connects St. Helena with Cape 
Town and with St. Vincent. There are telephone lines, with 41 miles of wire. 

St. Helena is an Admiralty coaling station. About two of the Cape of 
Good Hope Squadron visit St. Helena every year. 

Ascension is a small island of volcanic origin, of 34 square miles, in 
the South Atlantic, 700 miles N.W. of St. Helena. Down to November 
1922 it was under the control and jurisdiction of the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, but it was then transferred to the administration of 
the Colonial Office and annexed to the colony of St. Helena. There are 
10 acres under cultivation providing vegetables and fruit. Investigations 
are being made into the possibilities of exploiting the minerals on the 
Island and reports are encouraging. 

The island is the resort of the sea turtle, which come to lay their eggs 
in the sand annually between January and May. Rabbits, wild goats, and 
partridges are more or less numerous on the island, which is, besides, the 
breeding ground of the sooty tern or " wideawake," those birds coming in 
vast numbers to lay their eggs about every eighth month. Phosphates and 
guauo are collected. The island is included in the Postal Union. 

Resident Magistrate. E. A. Willmott. 



SEYCHELLES 213 

Tristan da Cunha, a small group of islands in the Atlantic, half-way be- 
tween the Cape and S. America, in 37 6' S. lat. 12 1' W. long. Besides 
Tristan da Cunha and Gough's Island, there are Inaccessible and Nightingale 
Islands, the former two and the latter one mile long, and a number of rocks. 
Tristan consists of an extinct volcano rising to a height of 8,000 feet, with a 
circumference at its base of 21 miles. The habitable area is a small plateau 
on the north-west side of about 12 square miles, 100 feet above sea-level. 
Here the struggle for life is great : it is now impossible to grow corn owing 
to the depredation of rats, which came from a wreck in 1882 ; and fuel is 
scarce owing to deforestation. The staple food appears to be the potato. 
There are apple and peach trees ; bullocks, sheep and geese are reared, and 
fish are plentiful. Besides being inhospitable, the island is extremely lonely. 
Until the middle of the last century the neighbouring waters were frequented 
by numerous American whalers, but these have now disappeared, as have 
also the clippers which called occasionally. Since 1900 the annual visits 
of a warship have been discontinued. Despite these disadvantages, the 
community is a growing one. In 1880 it numbered 109, declining to 52 in 
1893, since when it has increased to the present figure of 130. The 
characteristics of the people are longevity, good health, and a certain 
shyness of disposition. It had been argued that inter-marriage must have a 
bad effect upon their qualities, but Surgeon Commander Rickard, of the 
Dublin, who visited the island in 1923, reported that this was not the case. 
The original inhabitants were shipwrecked sailors and soldiers who remained 
behind when the garrison from St. Helena was withdrawn in 1817. Many 
attempts have been made to induce the inhabitants to leave. The lack of 
educational facilities for their children was the sole argument which carried 
weight in the eyes of the inhabitants. A proposal to establish a settlement 
in South Africa for the surplus population nas been revived in order to 
prevent the recurrence of times of scarcity. There is no form of government. 

References. 

Colonial Report. Annual. London. 
Brooke's History of St. Helena. 

Barrow (K. M.), Three Years in Tristan da Cunha. London, 1911. 
DeUrain (H.), Dans 1'Atlantique. Paris, 1912. 
Handbook of Tristan da Cunha. London, 1924 
Jackson (E. L.), St. Helena The Historic Island. London, 1903. 
Mellist't Physical and Topographical Description of St. Helena 
Rogers (Rev. H. M.J, An Outpost of the Atlantic (Tristan da Cunha). London, 1922. 
Royen (Rose Annie), The Lonely Islands. London, 1926. 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. III. African Territories. London, 1914, 
Correspondence and Further Correspondence relating to the Island of Tristan da Cunha 
London, 1887, 1897, 1898-1903, and 1906. 



SEYCHELLES. 

Seychelles and its Dependencies consist of 101 islands and islets with 
a total estimated area of 156 square miles. The principal island is Mane" 
(65 square miles), smaller islands of the group being Praslin, Silhouette, La 
Digue, Curieuae, and Micite. Among dependent islands are the Amirantes, 
Alphonae Island, Bijoutier Island, St. Francois, St. Pierre, the Cosmoledo 
Group, Aatoye Island, Assumption Island, the Aldabra Islands, Providence 
Island, Coetivy, Farquhar Islands, and Flat Island. 

The islands were first colonised by the French in the middle of the 
eighteenth century, the object being to establish plantations of spices to 
compete with the lucrative Dutch monopoly. They were captured by the 



214 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE I SEYCHELLES 



English in 1794 and incorporated as a dependency of Mauritius in 1810. 
In 1888 the office of Administrator was created, an Executive Council of 2 
tx-officio members and 1 nominated member was appointed, with a Legislative 
Council of 3 official and 8 unofficial members, the Administrator being 
president of both Councils and having an original and casting vote in the 
Legislative Council. In 1897 the Administrator was given full powers as 
Governor, and in November, 1903, he was raised to the rank of Governor. 

Governor and Commander -in- Chief. de Symons M. G. Honey, O.M.G. 
(January, 1928). 

The population at December 31, 1929, was estimated to be 27,588 ; census 
of April 24, 1921, 24,523 (11,974 males and 12, 549 females). The death-rate 
for 1929 was 17 '94 ; the birth-rate 30 '59. The number of births in 1929 
was 844; deaths, 495; marriages, 176. The capital is Victoria, which has 
a good harbour. Education is not compulsory. There were in 1929, 
27 grant-in-aid schools and 2 other primary schools. In addition, there 
are 3 secondary schools with a total of 357 pupils. Total number of children 
attending school in 1929 was 2,845 ; average attendance, 78 '5 per cent. In 
1929, .65 cases were brought before the Supreme Court (Criminal Side). 
The police force numbered 93 of all ranks (1929). 

Revenue, expenditure and debt for five years : 



Year. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure. 


Debt. 













1925 


51,884 


43,801 


4,653 + Rs. 85,000 


1926 


44,170 


47,580 


8,G91 + Rs. 25,000 


1927 


49,134 


44,216 


2,805 + Rs. 15,000 


1928 


50,109 


48,109 


1.8Q4 


1929 


57,155 


57,539 


959 



Chief items of icvenue : customs, 1928, 24,428?., 1929, 29,0422. ; Crown 
lands, 1928, 2,1382., 1929, 2,1472. ; licences, taxes, excise and internal 
revenue, 1928, 29,8072., 1929, 25,9282. 

Chief products, coconuts (over 28,240 acres under cultivation) and 
cinnamon, patchouli and other essential oils ; on some islands mangrove- 
bark is collected and phosphate deposits are worked. Live-stock at end of 
1929 : Cattle, 935 ; goats, 100 ; sheep, 50 ; horses, 150; asses, 100. Fishing 
is actively pursued, chiefly for local supply, but will probably be extended. 

Imports, 1928: Rs. 1,744,719 ; 1929: Rs. 1,813,283. Exports, 1928: 
Rs.2,434,330; 1929: Rs.2,143,743. Principal imports, 1929: Rice, Rs.363,650; 
cotton piece goods, Rs. 184,455; sugar, Rs. 85,889; wine and beer, 
Rs. 73,852; wheat flour, Rs. 72,519; coffee, Rs. 42,488; gunny bags, 
Rs. 20,813; tobacco and cigarettes, Rs. 41,814; whisky, Rs. 18,387; 
galvanized iron sheets, Rs. 26,799 ; kerosene oil, Rs. 23,138 ; dholl and 
lentils, Rs. 25,964 ; sewing thread, Rs. 22,693. Chief exports, 1929 : Copra, 
4,560 tons; cinnamon oil, 65,311 litres; Patchouli oil, 4,324 litres; guano, 
12,789 tons ; rubber, 1,725 kilos ; tortoise shell, 995 kilos ; birds' eggs and 
albumen liquid, 29,170 kilos. Imports in 1929 from : United Kingdom, 
Rs. 619,649; India, Rs. 637,460; France, Rs. 166,943; Dutch Possessions, 
Rs. 78,586 ; French Possessions, Rs. 3,000 ; Japan, Rs. 72,905 ; Spain, 
Rs. 21,526. Exports, 1929 to : United Kingdom, Rs. 229,096 ; South Africa, 
Rs. 802,398; New Zealand, Rs. 116,370; Germany, Rs. 163,726; France, 
Rs. 41,436 ; U.S A., Rs. 492,742. 

Shipping entered and cleared (1929), 240,052 tons, mainly British, 



SOMALI LAND PROTECTORATE 215 

exclusive of coasters trading between Mahe* and the dependencies. The 
British India steamers call every four weeks from Bombay on their way to 
Mombasa, and every eight weeks on their way from Mombasa to Bombay. 
There is fairly regular communication between the islands. 

There is a good road system in Mah6, and further road-making is in 
progress in Matte" and in Praslin. In 1929 the post office despatched and 
received 139,000 letters and post cards, 117,700 newspapers, &c., and 3,875 
parcels. There is direct telegraphic communication with Mauritius, Zanzibar, 
Aden, and Colombo. The Government Wireless Station at Victoria has 
been reopened for the exchange of radiotelegrams with ships at sea, but the 
service between Victoria and the Praslin group of islands is still suspended. 

At the end of 1929 the Savings Bank deposits amounted to Rs. 241,034 to 
the credit of 674 depositors. 

Current money in the islands consists of rupees and notes. 

References, 

Annual Reports on the Seychelles. London. 

Fauvel (A. A.), Bibliographies dos Seychelles. Published by the Seychelles Govern- 
ment. 1908. 

Gardiner (3. Stanley) The Seychelles. Geographical Journal, Vol. XXVIII., and also 
proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

Lucas (Sir C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. 

Mural (M.), Gordon's Eden, or the Seychelles Archipelago. 

Walter (A.), Mauritius Almanac and Commercial Handbook. Appendix on Seychelles. 
Fort Louis. 

Sierra Leone. See WEST AFRICAN COLONIES. 
Sokotra. See ADEN. 



SOMALILAND PROTECTORATE. 

The Somali Coast stretches from Lahadu, west of Zeyla, to Bandar 
Ziyada 49 E. long. After 1884, when Egyptian control ceased, the terri- 
tory was administered by the Government of India, but was taken over by 
the Foreign Office on October 1, 1898, and was transferred to the Colonial 
Office on April 1, 1905. 

By an arrangement with Italy in 1894 the limits of the British Pro- 
tectorate were defined ; but in 1897, by an arrangement with Abyssinia, 
a fresh boundary as required by that country was determined, and about 
15,000 square miles were ceded to Abyssinia. An agreement for the regula- 
tion of Anglo-Italian relations in Somaliland was concluded on March 19, 
1907. The area is about 68,000 square miles ; population about 344,700 
Mohammedan, and entirely nomadic, except on the coast, where con- 
siderable towns have sprung up during the British occupation. 

No census of the population other than the Europeans and Indians has 
been taken, but a rough estimate of the main towns of the Protectorate is 
as follows: Berbera, between 15,000 and 30,000; Hargeisa, 20,000; 
Burao, 10,000 ; Zeilah, 5,000. Police, 555 officers and men on Deo. 81, 
1929. Convictions in 1929, 1,138. Revenue in 1929, 105,7814., reckoned 
at 1*. 6d. to one rupee. Customs in 1929, 79,5774. ; expenditure, 1929, 
207,0674. Free Grant-in-aid in respect of military expenditure, 1929, 
65,0004. Imports, 1929, 473,2944. ; exports, 1929, 238,8674. Bullion and 
specie are inclnded, The imports are chiefly rice (188,686 cwt.), dates 
51,395 cwt,), sugar (48,823 cwt), textiles (2,708428 yds.), and specie; 



216 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: BASUTOLAND 

the exports, skins and hides, gum and resins, ghee, cattle, sheep and goats, 
and specie. Tonnage entered in 1929, 86,498; cleared, 86,125. The 
rupee is the basis of the currency. Government of India notes are also in 
circulation. Transport is by camel and motor-car ; there are no porters. 
Besides ordinary telegraphs there are wireless telegraph stations at Berbera, 
Burao, Hargeisa, Zeilah, Erigavo, and Buramo. 

The Protectorate forces now comprise a Camel Corps of 396 officers and 
men, with a reserve of 146 men, and 563 Police. 

Governor and Commander -in-Chief. His Excellency Sir H. B. Kilter- 
master, K.B.E., C.M G. Appointed January 26, 1928. 

Books of Reference. 

Drake-Brockman (B. E.), British Somaliland. London, 1917. 

Hamilton (A.)> Somaliland. London, 1911 

Jardine (D. J.), The Mad Mullah of Somaliland. London, 1923. 

Jotlson (F. S ), Eastern Africa To-day. London, 1928. 

Mosse (A H B.), My Somali Book. London, 1913. 

Pease (A. E.), Somaliland. 3 vols. London, 1902. 

Rayne (H.), Sun, Sand, and Somals. London, 1921. 

Correspondence relating to Affairs in Somaliland [Cd. 7,066]. London, 1913. 



SOUTH AFRICA. 

BASUTOLAND. 

Basutoland, an elevated but rugged plateau, forms an irregular 
parallelogram on the north-east of the Cape of Good Hope Province. The 
provinces of the Orange Free State, Natal, and the Cape of Good Hope 
form its boundaries. Area, 11,716 square miles. The territory, which 
is well watered and has a fine climate, is stated to be the best grain- 
producing country in South Africa, and the abundant grass enables the 
Basutos to rear large herds of cattle. 

Basutoland has been under the authority of the Crown since 1884, and 
is governed by a Resident Commissioner under the direction of the High 
Commissioner for South Africa, the latter possessing the legislative authority 
which is exercised by proclamation. The country is divided into seven 
districts, namely : Maseru, Leribe, Mohale's iHoek, Berea, Mafeteng, Quthing, 
and Qacha's Nek. Each of the districts is subdivided into wards, mostly 
presided over by hereditary chiefs allied to the Moshesh family. 

According to the census of 1921 the population numbered 495,937 
natives, 1,603 Europeans, 172 Asiatics, and 1,069 coloured. European 
settlement is in general prohibited, and is more or less limited to the few 
engaged in trade, Government, and missionary work. Maseru, the capital 
and largest town, has a population of 1,890 natives and 399 Europeans. 

There were 512 native elementary schools and 35 intermediate schools 
with an average attendance during 1929 of 37,069 pupils ; expenditure in 
connection with education amounted during the year ended March 31, 1930, 
to 57,1102. There are some Normal and Industrial schools (aided). There 
is also a large and well-fitted Government native industrial school at Maseru. 
There are 7 white schools with H5 pupils. 

The police force at 31st December, 1929, numbered: 12 European 
officers, \ drill instructor 30 non-commissioned officers (native) and 309 men 
Datives). 



REFERENCES 



217 



The revenue arises mainly from the Post Office, native tax, licences, and 
income tax customs rebate from neighbouring territories. Under the 
Native Tax Law every adult male native pays 11. 5s. per annum, and if he 
has more than one wife by native custom he pays II. 5s. per annum for his 
wives up to a maximum of 3Z. 15s. A levy of 3s. for educational purposes 
is paid DV every adult native, An Income Tax has been enacted on the 
lines of that existing in the Union of South Africa, and the collections for 
the year 1929-30 amounted to 10,732Z. 



- 


1925-26 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


1929-30 


Revenue .... 
Expenditure . 




281,522 
267,880 




274,404 
272,627 




292,378 
283,602 



324,790 
316,573 


4 

326,540 
832,949 



Native tax yielded 136, 237 J. 105. in 1929-30, and customs, 95,566Z., 
education levy, etc., 14,885/. Balance of assets over liabilities, March 31, 
1930, was 122,5662,, of which 70,000^. is Reserve Fund. 

The products are wool, wheat, mealies, and Kaffir corn. There are 
indications of iron and copper, and coal has been found and is used in some 
parts. 

Basutoland is in the South African Customs Union. The total trade in 
recent years was : 






1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Imports . 
Exports . . 




850,978 
756,106 



665,014 
696,950 


& 
842,893 
839,095 



921,574 
1,013,392 



706,416 
694,794 



The imports consist chiefly of blankets, ploughs, clothing, iron and tin 
ware, and groceries, and the exports (1929) of wool and mohair (530,4352.), 
wheat and wheat-meal (64,408/.), Kaffir corn (21,334Z.), maize and maize- 
meal (42,144Z.). In addition to the imports above given, there were goods 
to the value of 54,686/. imported by the government. 

There are telegraph offices at the various magistracies in connection with 
the systems of the Cape Province and Orange Free State. 

A railway built by the C.S.A.R., 16 miles, connects Maseru with the 
Bloemfontein-Natal line at Marseilles Station. 

The currency is exclusively British. 

Resident Commissioner. John C. R. Sturrock, C.M.G.(May, 1926). 

References, 

Colonial Report. Annual. London. 

Despatches (1869-70), Correspondence, Further Correspondence, and other Papers 
respecting Basutoland (1680-1887). London. 

Bryee (J.), Impressions of South Africa. 3rd edition. London, 1899. 
Dutton (Major K. A. T.), The Basuto of Basutoland. London, 1924. 
Ellenberger (Rev. D. F.), History of the Basuto. London, 1912. 
Johntton (Sir Harry), The Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899. 
Lagden (Sir G.), The Btsutos. 2 vols. London, 1909. 



218 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : BECHUANALAND PROTECTORATE 



BECHUANALAND PROTECTORATE. 

The Bechuanaland Protectorate comprises the territory lying between the 
Molopo River on the south and the Zambezi on the north, and extending from 
the Transvaal Province and Matabeleland on the east to South- West Africa, 
Area about 275,000 square miles; population, according to the census of 
1921, 152,983, of whom 1,743 were Europeans. The most important tribes 
are the Bamangwato (35,000), under the Chief Tshekedi (acting as regent 
during the minority of Seretse, the son of Sekgoma, who died in November, 
1925) whose capital is Serowe (population 17,000), 40 miles west of the rail- 
way line at Palapye Road ; the Bakhatla (11,000), under Chief Molefi Pilane ; 
the Bakwena (13,000), under Sebele II. ; the Bangwaketse (18,000), under 
chief BathoeS, the eldest son of the late chief Gaseitsiwe ; the Batawana, 
under Mathibe ; and the Bamalete (4,500), under Seboko Mokgosi, who 
assumed the Chieftainship on July 9, 1917. In 1885, the territory was 
declared to be within the British sphere ; in 1889 it was included in the 
sphere of the British South Africa Company, but was never administered 
by the company ; in 1890 a Resident Commissioner was appointed, and 
in 1895, on the annexation of the Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland 
to the Cape of Good Hope, new arrangements were made for the adminis- 
tration of the Protectorate, and special agreements were made in view of 
the extension of the railway northwards from Mafeking. Each of the 
chiefs rules his own people as formerly, under the protection of the King, 
who is represented by a Resident Commissioner, acting under the High Com- 
missioner. The headquarters of the Administration are in Mafeking, in the 
Cape Province, where there is a reserve for Imperial purposes, with ample 
buildings. An assistant Resident Commissioner was appointed in 1923. 

The Territory is divided for administrative purposes into 11 districts, 
each under a Resident Magistrate. There is a tax of II. on each hut and 6s. 
Native Fund Tax, for education, &c. Licences for the sale of spirits are 
granted only at certain railway stations The police force consists of 32 
European officers, warrant officers and sergeants, 50 mounted police, and 215 
dismounted constables. 

Education is provided (there were 10 European, 2 Coloured, and 90 
native schools, 1929-30). The European schools were assisted financially 
by the Government to the extent of 1,720Z. The native schools, with the 
exception of the school at Serowe, which is supported by the Chief, are now 
mainly financed by the Native Fund, the charge to which for 1929-30 was 
5,322J. The schools are supervised by the various missionary bodies operating 
in the Reserves (chiefly the London Missionary Society, Church of England, 
and Dutch Reformed Church). 

Cattle-rearing, and agriculture to a limited extent (production of maize 
and Kaffir corn), are the chief industries, but the country is more a pastoral 
than an agricultural one, crops depending entirely upon the rainfall. Cattle 
numbered on May 3, 1921, 495,000 head, sheep and goats, 380,000. During 
the year 1929, 30,673 head of cattle were exported. 

Gold and silver to the total value of 7,548. were mined in 1929-30. 

Revenue and expenditure for six years : 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1925-26 
1926-27 
1927-28 




107,345 
131,568 
147,911 


4 

104,132 
108,223 
119,984 


1928-29 
1929-30 
1930-81 1 



142,246 
146,884 
154,420 




143,346 
155,822 
154,566 



Estimated. 



SOUTHERN RHODESIA 219 

Chief items of revenue, 1929-30 : income tax and poll tax, 40,844?. ; 
customs, 30,913Z. ; hut-tax, 42,45R ; licences, 6,787Z. ; posts, 15,648?. ; 
Chief items of expenditure, 1929-30: Resident Commissioner, 10,440?.; 
district administration, 14,544Z. ; posts, 5,881?. ; police, 30,322Z. ; ad- 
ministration of justice, 5,605?. ; public works (extraordinary and recurrent), 
17,274?.; medical, 11,797?.; veterinary, 14,827?.; capital works, 21,510?. 
There has been no Imperial grant-in-aid since 1911-12, when the grant 
amounted to 10,000?. 

There is no public debt. Excess of assets over liabilities on April 1, 
1930, 82,972?. 

When the Union of South Africa was established, an agreement was made 
with the Union Government under which duty on all dutiable articles im- 
ported into the Protectorate is collected by the Union Customs Department 
and paid into the Union Treasury, a lump sum representing a certain portion 
of the annual Customs Revenue of the Union being paid over to the Pro- 
tectorate. Under this arrangement full figures relating to imports and exports 
of the Protectorate are not available. The export of dairy products was in 
1929, 57,582?. 

The telegraph from the Cape of Good Hope to Rhodesia passes through the 
Protectorate. Similarly the railway extending northwards from the Cape of 
Good Hope traverses the Protectorate. It is the property of the Rhodesia 
Railways, Limited. In the Protectorate are 23 post offices ; receipts, in 
1929-30, 15,648?. ; expenditure, 5,881?. In 1929-30, 2,279?. was deposited in 
the Savings Bank and 2,581?. withdrawn. 

The currency is British. There is no bank in the Protectorate. 

Resident Commissioner. Lieut. -Col. C. F. Rey. 
Government Secretary. C. L. O'B. Button. 

References, 

Annual Report on the Protectorate. London. 

Reports by and Instructions to Major-General Sir Charles Warren, K.C.M.Q., a 
Special Commissioner to Bechuanaland, 1884-86. Correspondence and Further Corre- 
spondence respecting Bechuanaland, 1887-98. London. 

Hi own (J. T.), Among the Bantu Nomads. London, 1926. 

Johnston (Sir Harry), The Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899. 
, Die Kalahari. Berlin, 1904 



SOUTHERN RHODESIA. 

Rhodesia includes the whole of the region extending from the Transvaal 
Province northwards to the borders of the Belgian Congo and Tanganyika 
Territory, bounded on the east by Portuguese East Africa, Nyasaland, and 
the Tanganyika Territory, and on the west by the Belgian Congo, Portuguese 
West Africa, and Bechuanaland. The region south of the Zambezi (Mata- 
beleland and Mashonaland) is called Southern Rhodesia ; that north of the 
Zambezi is known as Northern Rhodesia. 

Prior to October, 1923, Southern Rhodesia, like Northern Rhodesia, 
was under the administration of the British South Africa Company. In 
October, 1922, Southern Rhodesia voted in favour of responsible government. 
On September 12, 1923, the country was formally annexed to His Majesty's 
Dominions, and on October 1, 1923, the new form of government was estab- 
lished under a Governor, assisted by an Executive Council, and a Legislature. 
The latter consists at first of a single elected Legislative Assembly, but 



220 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: SOUTHERN RHODESIA 

that body may pass a law constituting a Legislative Council in addition. 
There must be a session at least once a year, and the duration of the Legis- 
lature is five years, unless sooner dissolved. The Legislature may amend, by 
a two-thirds vote of the total membership, the Letters Patent setting up the 
Constitution, with certain exceptions (relating to reservation of bills by the 
Governor, native administration, Crown Land Agent, and Governor's salary). 
The Crown reserves the right to disallow laws. The powers of the Legislative 
Council respecting appropriation and Taxation Bills are limited. In July 
1928 the franchise was extended to all British subjects over 21 years of age 
and to married women, subject to certain qualifications. 

A native Council may be established in any native reserve, representative 
of the local chiefs and native residents, to advise the Governor and manage 
such local affairs as may be entrusted to it. 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief. Sir Cecil H. Rodwell, K.C.M.G., 
Appointed August, 1928. (Salary, 4,0002. ; allowances, 2,000/.). 
The Cabinet is as follows (Aug. 1928) 

Premier and Secretary for Native Affairs. H. U. Moffat, C. M.G. 
Mines, Works, and Industries. G. Mitchell. 
Agriculture and Lands. R. A. Fletcher. 
Attorney General. Major R. J. Hudson, M.C., K.C. 
Colonial Secretary. -W. M. Leggate, C.M.G. 
Treasurer. P. D. L. Fynn, C.M.G. 



High Commissioner in London. Hon. J. W. Downie, C.M.G. 

Area and Population, The area is 149,000 square miles. The growth 
of the population is given in the following table : 



Year 


Europeans 


Asiatic 
Coloured 
Total 


Native 
Total 


Total 
Popula- 
tion 


Males 


Females 


Total 


Census of 
May 1904 
May 1911 
May 1921 
May 1926 

Estimated mean popu-\ 
lation, June 80, 1927 / 
.. ,. ,. 1930 


No. 

8,979 
15,580 
18,987 
21,808 


No. 
3,614 
8,026 
14,633 
17,366 


No. 
12,623 
23,606 
33,620 
39,174 


No. 
1,944 
2,912 
8,248 . 
3,612 


No. 
591,197 
744,559 
862,319 
933,899 


No 

605,764 
771,077 
899,187 
976,685 


23,172 


18,452 


41,624 
48,400 


3,706 
4,000 


950,638 
1,060,000 


995,968 
1,092,400 



The chief towns are Salisbury (the capital, population, 27,000 (approx.), 
including 9,900 Europeans), Bulawayo (25,000, including 10,600 Europeans), 
Umtali, Gwelo, Gatooma, Que Que, Shamva, Wankie and Victoria. 

The number of births (European) was 1,093 in 1929, 1,049 in 1928 : 
deaths, 469 in 1929, 400 in 1928. 

Education. At the end of 1929 the schools for Europeans numbered 78 
primary, 11 secondary and 2 vocational, the latter including one school -the 
Matopos School of a new type specially designed to prepare boys for life on the 
land. There is a primary teachers' training centre with 1 2 teachers in training 
in 1929. There were also 76 aided farm schools, taught by private tutors or 
governesses, with an aggregate enrolment of 383 pupils. Including these, the 



JUSTICE FINANCE PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIES 221 

total enrolment of European children at the end of the year 1929 was 8,046. 
There were also 7 schools for coloured children, including Eurafrican and 
Asiatic, with a total enrolment of 648 pupils ; and 1,649 schools for native 
pupils, with a total enrolment of 96,403 pupils. The total expenditure on 
public education in the Colony in the calendar year 1928 amounted to 
271,418?., against which receipts from boarding and tuition fees were 
91,862?. 

Justice. There is a High Court with criminal and civil jurisdiction. 
Single Judges are stationed at Salisbury and Bulawayo and sittings are held 
at five of the other principal towns twice a year. There are nine principal 
Courts of Magistrate, also courts presided over by detached Assistant 
Magistrates and several periodical courts. Natives are subject mainly to the 
same laws as Europeans, though there are special restrictions relating to 
arms, ammunition and liquor, and there are laws particularly applicable to 
natives, such as those dealing with marriage, taxation and registration and 
passes. Native Commissioners have jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters 
in which natives only are concerned, but generally exercise jurisdiction in 
their capacity as Assistant Magistrates. 

Finance. The total revenue for the year ended March 81, 1930, 1 was 
2,489,000*. (2,333, 0001. in 1928-29), of which the receipts from stamps and 
licences were 140,100?. (136, 500/. in 1928-29 ; Native tax, 343,7002. 
(321,900?. in 1928-29); income tax, 499,000?. (606,000?. in 1928-29); 
and customs and excise duties, 704,700?. (681,100?. in 1928-29), and lands 
department, 112,700?. (117,800Z. in 1928-29). Total expenditure (including 
loan expenditure), 1929-30, * was 2,967,800?. (2,930,600?. in 1928-29), 
including 329,300?. for education, 323,200?. for police and defence, 490,400?. 
for public works and roads, and 346,400?. for debt services. 

The net amount of the Public Debt outstanding was, at March 31, 1930, 
6,142,479?. (6,145,881?. in 1929). 

Production and Industries, The British South Africa Company has 
relinquished all rights and interests in the land in Southern Rhodesia, 
except in the estates which it was already developing and working on 10th 
July, 1923. The Crown has recognized the Company as the owner of the 
mineral rights throughout both Southern and Northern Rhodesia. Land 
has been set apart for tribal settlements ('native reserves'). The country 
is well adapted for agriculture and European settlers. Live stock (1929) : 
cattle, 2,398,000 (2,326,300 in 1928); sheep, 353,800 (359,300 in 1928), 
and pigs, 61,300 (68,600 in 1928). Acreage under crops (1929): maize, 
325,300 (295,300 in 1928); tobacco, 17,800 (46,600 in 1928) ; ground-nuts, 
9,700 (6,900 in 1928); legumes and fodders, 29,300 (23,400 in 1928). 
Large fruit orchards have been planted, and nearly all fruit trees thrive, the 
cultivation of oranges and lemons constituting a rapidly expanding industry. 
Exports of citrus fruit have increased from 53,000 boxes in 1923-24 to 
159,000 boxes in 1929. The sale of dairy produce is a profitable in- 
dustry. Animal products sold in 1929 include, 513,000 dozen eggs, 1,042,000 
gallons milk, 123,000 Ibs. cheese, and 1,447,536 Ibs. butter. 

A Land and Agricultural Bank makes loans to settlers on easy terms of 
repayment, for the purpose of improving and developing their agricultural 
holdings. The amount of applications for advances granted was 170,7257. 
in 1929 and 232,280?. in 1928. Numerous companies have been formed 
with the purpose of developing land and minerals. 

1 Provisional figures. 



222 THE BBITISH EMPIRE :SOUTHEKN RHODESIA 

Mining. The country contains gold and other minerals. The total 
output ot all minerals from 1890 to December 31, 1929, is valued at 
95,932, 0002., of which gold accounted for 75,080,1082. The gold output in 

1929 was valued at 2,374,3592., and in 1930 at 2,316,6492. The output in 

1930 of other minerals was valued at: coal, sales, &c., 476,7732. ; chrome 
ore, 519,5812, ; asbestos, 1,070,8472. ; copper, 70,0142. The total mineral 
output for 1930 was valued at 100,450,1472. 

In addition to the foregoing a number of minor industries are now 
established in the Colony. These include brick and tile works (10), 
cigarette and tobacco factories (6), cold storage and ice making installa- 
tions (9), iron and brass founders (13), mineral water manufactories (12), 
and electric light and power undertakings (14). 

Commerce. The total value of imports (including bullion and coin) 
into Southern Rhodesia in 1929 was 8,864,0002., the chief being : food and 
drink, 971,3072. ; textile goods, wearing apparel, 1,590,0002. ; machinery, 
967,8362. ; metals and manufactures, including motor cars, 2,278,4612. ; 
railway and tramway materials and locomotives, 564,8632. The value of 
the exports, including gold, was 8, 637,0002. (including re-exports, 1,990, 0002.), 
the chief being: raw gold, 2,321,0002.; asbestos, 891.000/.; maize, 389,0002. ; 
chrome ore, 639,0002. ; animals (cattle for slaughter), 377,0002. ; tobacco, 
503,0002. Total imports from the United Kingdom in 1929 amounted to 
4,019,0002. (4,022,0002. in 1928) ; from the Union of S. Africa, 1,902,0002. 
(1,651,0002. in 1928) ; from the United States, 1,025,0002. (952,000 in 1928). 
Domestic exports to the United Kingdom in 1929, 2,571,0002. (2,721,0002. 
in 1928) ; Union of S. Africa, 2,116,0002. (2,163,0002. in 1928). 

Communications. The British South Africa Company has a controlling 
interest in the Rhodesian railway system, the total mileage of which (including 
the Beira Railway) at the end of 1928 was 2,525. The system begins at 
Vryburg in the Cape Colony, and extends through the Bechuanaland 
Protectorate and Southern and Northern Rhodesia to the Belgian Congo and 
Portuguese East Africa. In conjunction with the railways of the Union of 
South Africa it provides through communication from Cape Town to the 
Congo border (2,149 miles), and (by a line from Bulawayo via Salisbury) to 
the port of Beira on the Indian Ocean (2,036 miles). There are also several 
branch lines in Southern Rhodesia. At a conference in London in 1926, 
attended by the representatives of the Company and of the Governments of 
Southern and Northern Rhodesia and the Bechuanaland Protectorate, a 
a scheme was drawn up for the public control of traffic rates, which has 
resulted in a deduction of the railway rates aggregating 1,128,0002. A 
system of road motor services has been organised, having in September 1929 
a total mileage of 1,357 miles. 

On December 31, 1929, there were in Southern Rhodesia 206 post offices, 
47 of which are money order and savings bank offices. During the year 
1929, 12,577,000 letters and post-cards were despatched; 4,500,379 news- 
papers, books, and parcels, and 216,082 registered articles. The postal 
revenue for the year 1929 was 235,5002., and the expenditure, 180,0902. 
There is an extensive telephone system in operation. An automatic 
telephone exchange has recently been brought into operation in Salisbury, 
and an additional one has been ordered for Umtali. 

On January 1, 1905, a Post Office Savings Bank was established, and 
on December 31, 1929, the deposits amounted to 229,0002. 



NORTHERN RHODESIA 223 

NORTHERN RHODESIA, 

By an Order in Council, dated May 4, 1911, the two provinces of North- 
Eastern and North-western Rhodesia were amalgamated under the title of 
Northern Rhodesia, the amalgamation taking effect as from August 17, 1911. 
The limits of the territory, as defined by the Order in Council, are ' the 
parts of Africa bounded by Southern Rhodesia, German South-west Africa 
(now South-west Africa), Portuguese West Africa, the Congo Free State 
(now the Belgian Congo), German East Africa (now Tanganyika Territory), 
Nyasaland, and Portuguese East Africa.' 

An Administrator was appointed by the British South Africa Company 
with the approval of the Secretary of State, and had, for consultative 
purposes, an Advisory Council of five members, chosen by the white settlers. 

By an Order in Council dated February 20, 1924, the office of Governor 
was created, an Executive Council constituted and provision made for the 
institution of a Legislative Council. This latter Council is composed of five 
ex-officio members, who also constitute the Executive Council, four nominated 
official members and seven elected unofficial members. On April 1, 1924, 
the British South Africa Company was relieved of the administration of the 
Territory by the Crown, from which date the Order in Council of February 
20, 1924, took effect. 

Northern Rhodesia has an area of 287,950 square miles, and consists 
for the most part of high plateau country, covered with thin forest. 
Much of the country is suitable for farming and contains areas carrying 
good arable and grazing land. The permanent European population in 
December 1929 was computed at 9,981. The native population on December 
31, 1927, was estimated to number 1,298,651. The territory is divided into 
nine magisterial districts. The seat of Government is at Livingstone, three 
miles from the Zambesi. The most important centres are Broken Hill, Fort 
Jameson, Lusaka, Mazabuka, Abercorn, Fort Rosebery, Ndola, and MoDgu- 
Lealui. The police force, called the Northern Rhodesia Police, is composed 
of natives, with European officers and non-commissioned officers. 

There were in December 1929, 6 Government, 9 Farm or Mine Schools, 
with 33 teachers and 518 pupils. There is 1 Government school for natives, 
at Mongu, and a large number of Mission stations and schools, many of which 
receive Government grants. 

Revenue, 1929-30, 672,289?. (taxes, licences, etc., 259,194*. ; customs, 
251, 330?.; posts and telegraphs, 49,472?. ; fees, 54,655?.; land sales and 
rents, 44,850?. ; miscellaneous, 12,788?.). The expenditure for 1929-30 
was estimated at 554, 000?. 

Imports (inclusive of specie), 1929, 3,602,417?.; exports (including specie), 
899,736?., including living animals, 8,928?., pig lead, 37,729?.; copper, 
236,716?. ; gold (bar), 3,441?. ; vanadium, 16,389?. ; zinc, 262,611?. ; wheat, 
13,855?.; maize and maize meal, 43,348?.; tobacco (unmanufactured), 70,310?.; 
hides, skins, and horns, 39,165?. ; ivory, 8,922?. ; timber, 20,316?. 

Agricultural products are maize, tobacco, wheat, and European fruits. 
There is timber of various kinds ; gold, copper, zinc, lead and vanadium 
are mined; coal has been discovered. Production 1929: gold, 699 ozs., 
value 2,969?. ; copper, 6,465 tons, value 408,258?. ; lead, 1,635 tons, value 
38,852?. ; zinc, 22,229 tons, value 547,964?. ; vanadium, 131,290 Ibs., value 
93,544?. ; mica, 5,919 Ibs., value, 1,479?.; manganese, 1,849 tons, value 
2,773?. ; iron ore, 3,556 tons, value 1,778?. Total value of mineral produc- 
tion : 1929, 1,097,846?. 

The trunk line of the Rhodesian railway system traverses Northern 
Rhodesia from Livingstone to the Congo border. The Zambezi, Kafue, 



224 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: SWAZILAND 

Chambesi, and other rivers of Northern Rhodesia are navigable for a con- 
siderable portion of their extent. 

There are 41 post offices, 15 being money order offices. There is a tele- 
graph line alongside the railway from Livingstone to the Congo border, 
and other lines link up Fort Jameson with Nyasaland and Abercorn with 
Tanganyika Territory and Nyasaland. 

Governor (Appointed August 31, 1927). Sir James Crawford Maxwell, 
M.D., K.B.E., C.M.G. 

Chief Secretary. H. C. D. C. Mackenzie-Kennedy. 

Books of Reference concerning Southern and Northern Rhodesia 

Annual Reports and other publications of the British South Africa Company. In- 
formation for Settlers. Handbooks for Tourists and Sportsmen (latest editions) 

Correspondence regarding a proposed settlement of various outstanding questions 
relating to the British South Africa Company's position in Southern and Northern 
Rhodesia. (Cmd. 1914.) London, 1923 

Agreement between the Secretary of State for the Colonies and the British S.A. Co. for 
the settlement of outstanding questions relating to Southern and Northern Rhodesia. 
(Cmd. 1984.) London, 1923. 

Official Year Book of the Colony of Southern Rhodesia. No. 2, 1930. London, 1930. 

Northern Rhodesia Blue Books, 1924 to 1929. 

Brown (A. 3. and G. G.), Guide to South Africa. London. Annual. 

Colvin (Ian), The Life of Jameson London, 1922. 

Darter (A.), The Pioneers of Mashonaland. London, 1914 

Fufe (H. Hamilton), South Africa To-Day, with an Account of Modern Rhodesia. 
London, 1911. 

Qouldsbury (Cullen) and Sheane (Hubert), The Great Plateau of Northern Rhodesia. 
London, 1911. 

Hole (H. M.), The Making of Rhodesia. London, 1926. 

Hone (P. F.), Southern Rhodesia. London, 1909. 

Johnson (J. P.), The Mineral Industry of Rhodesia. London, 1911. 

Jolhe (B. T.), The Real Rhodesia. London, 1924 

Keane (A. H.), Africa. Vol. II., South Africa. 2nd edition. London, 1904. The Gold 
of Opinr. London, 1901. 

Keltie ( J. Scott), The Partition of Africa. 2 Ed [Contains Bibliographical Appendix of 
works on Africa.] London, 1895. 

Lucas (C. K.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. Vol. IV. Oxford, 1897. 
The Partition and Colonisation of Africa. London, 1922. 

Macmillan (A.), Ed., East Africa and Rhodesia. London, 1930. 

Miehell (Sir Lewis), Life of the Right Hon. Cecil J. Rhodes. London, 1910. 

Native Races of South Africa (issued by South Africa Native Races Committee). 
London, 1901 

Smith (Rev. E. W.), and Dale (A. M.), The Ila-Bp caking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia. 
1920. 

Taylor (Guy A., editor), Nada: the Southern Rhodesia Native Affairs Department 
Annual, 1924. Salisbury (Rhodesia) and London, 1925. 



SWAZILAND. 

Swaziland lies at the South-eastern corner of the Transvaal. On 
June 25, 1903, an Order in Council was issued conferring on the Governor 
of the Transvaal authority over Swaziland, and by Order in Council of 
December 1, 1906, this authority was transferred to the High Commissioner 
for South Africa. 

The seat of the administration is at Mbabane ; altitude 3,800 feet. 
. Area, 6,704 square miles. Population, census 1921 : 112,838 (Europeans, 
2,235). The Government maintains 13 European schools at different centres, 
average attendance, 502 in 1929 ; and 1 native school at Zombode, the kraal 
of the ex-Chief Regent, average attendance, 97 in 1929. The Government 
also subsidises certain native schools with an average attendance in 1929 of 
6,018, and one school for coloured children, at which the total average 
attendance in 1929 was 161. 



SWAZILAND 



225 



A Special Court, having the full jurisdiction of a Superior Court, and 
Assistant Commissioners' Courts have been established. A local Swaziland 
police force was created in 1907. Authorised strength (1929) 25 Europeans 
and 148 natives. During 1929, there were 2,986 summary convictions, and 
29 convictions in the Superior Court. Native chiefs continue to exercise 
jurisdiction according to native law and customs in all civil matters between 
natives, subject to a final appeal to the Resident Commissioner. 



- 


1925-26 


1926-2T 


1927-28 


1928-29 


1929-30 


Revenue 
Expenditure 




110,108 
97,047 



92,090 
111,835 



90,706 
103,681 




96,325 
130,809 



111,087 
119,403 



Chief items of revenue, 1929-30: Native tax, 42,517/.; customs, 17,134?.; 
sales of Crown lands, &c., 8,809. ; dog tax, 4,089J. Chief items of ex- 
penditure, 1929-30: Police, 18,421Z. ; public works, 24,3432. ; Veterinary 
and East Coast Fever, 14,672/. ; medical, 9,017J. ; education, 8,59H. ; 
justice, 5,44U. 

The public debt of Swaziland amounts (1929) to 55.000Z. 

Gold is subject to a tax of 10 per cent, on profits ; base metals to a 
royalty of 2J per cent, on output, m addition to any rentals now payable. 

The agricultural and grazing rights of natives are safeguarded, and 
delimited. The agricultural products are cotton, tobacco, maize (the staple 
product), millet, pumpkins, ground-nuts, beans, and sweet potatoes, grown 
in insufficient quantities for local supply. Stock numbers approximately 
(1929): horses, 1,000; cattle, 380,000; native sheep and goats, 200,000; 
pigs, 9,500. About 360,000 sheep are brought into Swaziland from the 
Transvaal each year for winter grazing. The territory is reported to be rich 
in minerals, but it has not yet been systematically prospected. Alluvial tin 
is being mined and shipped. In 1929 the output was 185 tons, valued at 
38,692Z. A few gold mines are worked on a small scale, the output in 1929 
being 90 oz. valued at 382J. 

By agreement (dated June 30, 1910) with the Union of South Africa, 
Swaziland is treated for customs purposes as part of the Union and receives 
a pro rota share of the Customs dues collected. The chief exports, 1929, 
were: slaughter cattle, 85,OOOJ.; cassiterite tin, 38,692J. ; tobacco, 35,613J. ; 
hides, 7,250Z. ; cotton, unginned, 29,129Z. ; cotton, ginned, 8.832J. 

There is daily (except Sundays) communication by Railway Motor buses 
between Bremersdorp, Mbabane and Breyten, and between Piet Retief and 
Hlatikulu, and bi-weekly services between Goedgegun and Hluti ; Bre- 
mersdorp and Stegi and Goba ; Bremersdorp and Gollel. Elsewhere com- 
munication is by carts, donkey packs, or runners. Post offices working in 
1929, 20. There are telegraph and telephone offices at Mbabane, Pigg's 
Peak, Bremersdorp, Ezulweni, Hlatikulu, Dwaleni, Mahamba, Stegi, Nsoko, 
Goedgegun, Hluti and Gollel. Post Office Savings Banks deposits, 2.038J. 
on March 31, 1929, belonging to 477 depositors. 

The currency is Britisn coin and Union of South Africa, also coins of 
the late South African Republic, which are of similar denomination to the 
British. The Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial and Overseas) has branches 
at Mbabane, Hlatikulu, Bremersdorp and Stegi, and the Standard Bank of 
South Africa Ltd. , at Bremersdorp and Stegi. 

Resident Commissioner. T. Ainsworth Dickson, C.M.G., M.C. (October, 
1928). 

Deputy Resident Commissioner and Government Secretary. B, Nicholson, 
C.B.E., D.8.0..M.C. 



226 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

THE UNION OP SOUTH AFRICA, 
Constitution and Government. 

THE Union of South Africa is constituted under the South Africa Act, 
1909 (9 Edw. 7, Ch. 9), passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 
September 20, 1909. Under the terms of that Act the self-governing Colonies 
of the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, the Transvaal, and the Orange River 
Colony were united on May 31, 1910, in a legislative union under one 
Government under the name of the Union of South Africa, these Colonies 
becoming original provinces of the Union under the names of the Cape of 
Good Hope, Natal, the Transvaal, and the Orange Free State respectively. 
There is a Governor-General, and an Executive Council in charge of the 
Departments of State. 

Legislative power is vested in a Parliament consisting of the King, 
a Senate, and a House of Assembly. The Governor- General has power 
to summon, prorogue, and dissolve Parliament, either both Houses simul- 
taneously or the House of Assembly alone. There must be a session of 
Parliament every year. 

The Senate consists of forty members, eight (four being selected mainly for 
their acquaintance with the reasonable wants and wishes of the n on -European 
races) being nominated by the Governor-General in Council and thirty-two 
being elected, eight for" each Province. Each senator must be a British 
subject of European descent, at least 30 years of age, qualified as a voter 
in one of the provinces, and resident for five years within the Union ; an 
elected senator must be a registered owner of property of the value of 500Z. 
over any mortgage. 

The House of Assembly consists, according to the Fifth Delimitation 
Commission appointed on July 19, 1927, of 148 members chosen in Electoral 
Divisions in numbers as follows : The Cape of Good Hope, 58 ; Natal, 17; 
Transvaal, 55 ; Orange Free State, 18. Parliamentary voters must have the 
qualifications existing in the several colonies at the time of the Union. 
On April 10, 1930, a Bill was passed giving the vote to all women over 21, 
and it is proposed to remove the property or wage qualification for men. 
Each electoral district in each province returns one member, who must be 
a British subject of European descent, qualified as a registered voter, 
and resident nve years within the Union. A House of Assembly continues 
five years from the date of its first meeting unless sooner dissolved. 

The House of Assembly, not the Senate, must originate money bills, but 
may not pass a bill for taxation or appropriation unless it has been recom- 
mended by message fr^m the Governor-General during the Session. Restric- 
tions are placed on the amendment of money bills by the Senate. Provision 
is made respecting disagreements between the Houses, the Royal Assent to 
Bills, and the disallowance of laws assented to by the Governor-General* 

Each member of each House must make Oath or Affirmation of 
Allegiance. A member of one House cannot be elected to the other, 
but a Minister of State may sit and speak, but not vote in the House of 
which he is not a membe.r. To hold an office of profit under the Crown 
(with certain exceptions) is a disqualification for membership of either 
House, as are also insolvency, crime, and insanity. 

Pretoria is the seat of government of the Union, and Cape Town is the 
seat of Legislature. 

Gkvernor-Qeneral and Commander -in- Chitf. Earl of Clarendon, G.C.M.G. 
Appointed January 1931 (salary 10,000 per annum). 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT 227 

The Executive Council was constituted (November 1924) as follows : 

The Governor-General. 

Prime Minister and Minister of External Affairs. General The Honourable 
J. B. M. Eertzog (3,500Z.). 

Minister of the Interior ', of Public Health and of Education. The 
Honourable Dr. D. P. Malan (2,500Z.). 

Minister of Mines and Industries. The Honourable A. P. J. Fourie, 
(2,500Z.). 

Minister of Railways and Harbours. The Honourable C. W. Malan 
(2.500Z.). 

Minister of Finance. The Honourable N. 0. Havenga (2,500Z.). 

Minister of Justice. The Honourable 0. Pirow, K.C. (2,500.). 

Minister of Defence and Labour. Colonel The Honourable F. H. P. 
Creswell, D.S.O. (2,500/.). 

Minister of Agriculture. General The Honourable J. C. G. Kemp 

(2.500J.)- 

Minister of Lands. The Honourable P. G. W. Orobler (2,500Z.). 

Minister of Posts and Telegraphs and of Public Works. The Honourable 
H. W. Sampson, O.B.E. (2,500*.). 

Minister of Native Affairs. Hon. E. G. Jansen. 

Secretary to the Prime Minister and Secretary for External Affairs. 
H. D. J. Bodenstein, LL.D. 

The result of the elections in June 1929 was : Nationalists, 78 ; South 
African Party, 61 ; Labour (Creswell), 5 ; Labour (National Council), 3 ; 
Independent, 1 : total, 148. 

In each province there is an Administrator appointed by the Governor- 
General for five years, and a Provincial Council elected for three years, each 
council having an executive committee of four (either members or not of 
the council), the administrator presiding at its meetings. Members 
of the Provincial Council are elected on the same system as members of 
Parliament, but the restriction as to European descent does not apply. The 
number of members in each Provincial Council is as follows : Cape of 
Good Hope, 51 ; Natal, 25 ; Transvaal, 50 ; Orange Free State, 25. The 
provincial committees and councils have authority to deal with local 
matters such as provincial finance, education (elementary), charity, municipal 
institutions, local works, roads and bridges, markets, fish and game, and 
penalties for breaches of laws respecting such subjects. Other matters may 
be delegated to these Councils. All ordinances passed by a Provincial 
Council are subject to the veto of the Governor-General-in-Council. 

There is a provincial Revenue Fund in each province. The old colonial 
capitals are the capitals of the provinces. 

The railways, ports, and harbours are managed by a Harbour and Railway 
Board, under the chairmanship of a Minister of State. The revenues there- 
from are paid into a special fund. All other moneys received by the Union 
are paid into a Consolidated Revenue Fund, on which the interest on debts 
of the colonies forms a first charge. To the Union has been transferred the 
public property, real and personal, of the colonies. 

The English and Dutch languages are both official. The word ' Dutch ' 
has now been expressly declared by Act of Parliament to include Afrikaans, 
a local variant of the language of Holland. 

High Commissioner in London. Hon. C. te Water (appointed Sept., 1929. 
Agent-General of the Government of India in South Africa. -Sir K, V. 
Reddi (1929). 



228 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States. 
E. H. Louw (1929). 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Holland. D, J. 
de Villiers (1929). 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Italy. ft. J. 
Prendar (1929). 

High Commissioner for South Africa and High Commissioner for the 
United Kingdom in the Union of South Africa. Sir Herbert Stanley > 
G.C.M.G. (appointed November 21, 1930). 

The High Commissioner for South Africa is responsible for the admiDis- 
tration of the territories in Basutoland, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, and 
Swaziland. The administration of native affairs and affairs specially or 
differentially affecting Asiatics vests in the Governor-General-m-Council. 
The government of the native territories of Basutoland, Bechuanaland 
Protectorate, and Swaziland may be transferred to the Union Government. 

Area and Population. 

The total area of the Union is 471,917 square miles divided between the 
Provinces as follows : Cape of Good Hope, 276,536 ; Natal, 35,284 ; Trans- 
vaal, 110,450 j Orange Free State, 49,647. 

The census taken in 1904 in each of the four Colonies was the first simul- 
taneous census taken in South Africa. In 1911 the first Union census was 
taken. 

The following tables give the returns of population at the various censuses, 
classified according to race and sex : 



VAOW 


All Races 


European 


Non-European 


Year 


Total 


European 


Non- 
European 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1904 


5,175,824 


1,116,806 


4,059,018 


635,117 


481,689 


2,047,118 


2,011,900 


1911 


5,973,394 


1,276,242 


4,697,152 


685,164 


591,078 


2,884,228 


2,312,924 


1018 





1,421,781 


_ 


728,866 


692,915 








1921 


6,928,580 


1,519,488 


5,409,092 


782,035 


737,453 


2,754,957 


2,654,135 


1026 





1,676,660 


~ 


856,918 


819,742 


~ 





The 1920 population census was a quinquennial one of Europeans only, and was 
taken tinder the provisions of the South Africa Act for the delimitation of political 
constituencies. 

Walvis Bay, area 430 sq. miles, previously included in the area of the Cape Province, 
has been included for administrative purposes in the mandated territory of South West 
Africa. 

Of the non-European population in 1921, 4,697,813 were Bantu, 165,731 
Asiatic, and 545,548 of other races. 

The increase in the total population, 1911-21, was: Union, 15*99 per 
cent. ; Cape, 8 '49 per cent. ; Natal, 1971 per cent. ; Transvaal, 23 '81 
per cent. ; 0. B 1 . S. 19*06 per cent. The increase in the European population 
in the Union, 1911-21, was 19*06 per cent,, and in other races 15 '16 per cent. 
The proportion of Europeans to the total population in 1921 was 21*93 
per cent. 

Principal towns (including suburbs) in the Union classified according to 
the number of inhabitants of European race, 1921 and 1926 : 



AREA. AND POPULATION 



229 









1921 




1926 


Town 


_ . 












* ro vi nee 


Euro- 
pean 


Non- 
European 


Total 


European 


Over 20,000- 












1. Johannesburg 


Transvaal 


151,836 


136,295 


288,131 


170,741 


2. Cape Town 


Cape . 


114,110 


98,887 


212,997 


130,568 


3. Durban . 


Natal . 


58,085 


93,667 


151,642 


70,883 


4. Pretoria . 


Transvaal 


45,361 


28,691 


74,052 


54,826 


5. Port Elizabeth 


Cape . 


26,803 


25,995 


52,298 


83,871 


6. East London 


Cape 


20,374 


14,299 


34,673 


23,210 


7. Bloemfontein 


Orange Free State 


19,867 


19,667 


39,034 


22,695 


Over 10,000 and less 












than 20,000 
8. Pietermaritzburg . 


Natal . 


17,998 


18,026 


36,023 


19,748 


9. Geriniston 


Transvaal 


18,477 


27,612 


46,089 


19,495 


10. Kiniberley 


Cape 


18,288 


21,414 


39,702 


17,268 


11. Benoni . 


Transvaal 


14,483 


33,158 


47,641 


14,899 


12 Boksburg 


Transvaal 


12,416 


25,563 


87,979 


12,144 


13, Krngersdorp 


Transvaal 


10,699 


10,888 


21,480 


11,253 



The occupational census in 1926 was as follows: 



Class 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Primary producers 


173 661 


4 115 


177 776 


Mining 
Industrial 


22,826 
114,985 
86 957 


63 
10,814 
1 690 


22,889 
125,799 
88 647 




86 487 


29 130 


115 617 


Professional- 
Administrative Government") 
Other professions / ' 
Personal service ..*.... 


19,999 

9,880 
20 030 


22,147 

18,853 
20 316 


42,146 

28,733 
40 846 


Dependent 


834,833 
37,260 


704,564 
8 050 


1, 089^397 
45 810 










Total 


856,918 


819,743 


1,676,660 



Migration. 1928. Gross Figures (excluding "Intransit,") European: 
Arrivals, 33,852; departures, 32,001. Non-European: Arrivals, 4,072; 
departures, 6,591. 

Vital Statistics. The following table gives the total numbers of marriages, 
births and deaths registered in the Union for recent years for all races : 



Year 


European 


Non.European * 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 


42,346 
48,411 
48,876 
44,347 
44,813 


15,503 
15,371 
16,080 
16,627 
17,642 


12,742 
14,002 
14,908 
15,622 
16,348 


54,285 
51,611 
63,348 
51,113 
62,577 


44,709 
41,181 
41,713 
45,219 
45,810 


15,832 
16,231 
17,090 
10,972 
18,131 



Partial Registration only. 



230 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



Owing to wide variation of the laws relating to the registration of births 
and deaths of natives in the four provinces, and to the entire absence of 
native registration in one province, the figures of 1923 must be regarded 
as merely recording registrations and not the total number of actual events. 
Unifying Act No. 17 of 1923, which came into effect as from January 1, 
1924, abolished compulsory registration of native vital events in rural areas, 
but made registration compulsory in all urban areas throughout the Union. 

Religion. 

Religions. The results of the European census of 1926 as regards religions 
are as follows : Europeans : Dutch Churches, 921,961 ; Anglicans, 311,281 ; 
Presbyterians, 79,516; Congregationalists, 9,965; Wesleyans, 105,217; 
Lutherans, 23,371; Roman Catholics, 71,227; Baptists, 17,316; Jews, 
71,816 ; others and unspecified, 13,109 ; Christian Scientists, 3,930 ; Apostolic 
Faith, Mission Church, 15,544 ; other Christian sects, 32,432; total, 1,676,660. 
Non-Europeans as at the census of 1921: * Dutch Churches, 276,486 ; Anglican, 
420,059 ; Presbyterians, 115,897 ; Independents (Congregationalists), 145,723 ; 
Wesleyans, 730,022; various Christian Sects, 57,186; Lutherans, 241,807 ; 
Roman Catholics, 82,008 ; Hindus, 109,261 ; Buddhists and Confucians, 
14,127 ; Mahommedans, 49,936; no religion, 2,402,652; others and unspecified, 
763,928; total, 6,409,092. 

Education. 

Under the South Africa Act, for a period of five years after the establish- 
ment of the Union and thereafter subject to decree of Parliament, control of 
education other than higher education was granted to the four Provincial 
Administrations. This arrangement still obtains. For practical purposes 
it has been provisionally determined that all post-matriculation instruction 
and vocational education shall be deemed to constitute Higher Education. 

Higher Education. By legislation of 1916 three Universities, with 
teaching and examining functions, were established on April 2, 1918, in 
place of the University of the Cape of Good Hope, provision being made for 
the conversion of the South African College into the University of Cape 
Town, of the Victoria College into the University of Stellenbosch, and of 
the University of the Cape of Good Hope inio a federal University, styled 
the University of South Africa, with the remainder of the University Colleges 
as constituent colleges, the names of which, with appropriate details, will be 
found in the table hereunder. In 1921 the University College of Johannes- 
burg was created the University of the Witwatersrand, and Potchefstroom 
University College was incorporated as a constituent college of the University 
of South Africa, In October 1930, Transvaal University College, a con- 
stituent college of the University of South Africa, received its charter as the 
University of Pretoria. 



Institution 


Year of 
Foundation 
and In- 
corporation 


Current 
Expen- 
diture 
for year 
1920 


No. of 
Pro 
fessors 


Mo. ot 
Lec- 
turers 
and 
Assis- 
tants 


No. of 
Students 
at end of 

1929 


Total Value 
of 
Bursaries 
held In 
1929 


University of Cape/ 


1829 } 
(Incorpora- 




185,208 


46 


156 


1,783* 




7,757 


University of Stell-/ 
enbosch . . . .| 


ted 1837) J 
1866 ] 
(Incorpora- 
ted 1881) j 


83,279 


39 


54 


1,110 


8,559 



1 The 1926 Census was for Europeans only. 

As the South African College constituted the University of Cape Town on April 2, 1918. 

to the Victoria College constituted the University of Stellenbosch on April 2, 1918. 

Includes 850 music students. 



EDUCATION 



231 



Institution 


Year of 
Foundation 
and 
Incorpora- 
tion 


Current 
Expen- 
diture 
for year 
1928 


No. of 
Pro- 
fessors 


No. of 
Lec- 
turers 
and 
Assis- 
tants 


No. of 
Students 
at end of 
1928 


Total Value 
of 
Bursaries 
held in 
1928 


University of Wit-\ 
watersrand . . . | 


1903 1 
(Incorpora- 


& 

178,228 


37 


158 


1,476 




8,865 


/ 


ted 1922)1 J 












University of Pre-\ 


1908 \ 












toria ( 


(Incorpora- 


59,546 


43 


50 


776 


985 


i 
University of South f 


ted 1930)2J 












Africa Constituent! 














Colleges. . .1 


1918 > 


~~ 


"" 


~" 


_ 


**"" 


Grey University Col-f 


1855 1 












lege, Bloorafontein| 


(Incorpora- 


27,157 


13 


23 


31 


1,236 




ted 1910) j 












Huguenot University/ 
College, Wellington^ 


1874 \ 
(Incorpora- 


13,512 


7 


9 


88 


535 


Rhodes University^ 
College, Grahams-) 
town ] 


ted 1907) j 
1904 


52,017 


17 


21 


459 


2,310 


Natal University) 














College, Pieterma-J 


1909 


21,892 


15 


30 


259 


1,613 


ritzburg . . . J 














Potehefstroom Uni-/ 
versity College .\ 


1905 \ 
(Incorpora- 
ted 1921) J 


15,237 


10 


11 


204 


1,170 


Totals 




636,076 


227 


518 


6,470 * 


27,530 

















1 Formerly University College of Johannesburg. 

8 Formerly Transvaal University College, Pretoria. 

* On the dissolution of the University of the Cape of Good Hope (founded 1873). 

4 Includes 350 music students. 



State and State-aided Education, other than Higher Education. Subject 
to final control of the Provincial Administration the central direction of 
public education in each Province is exercised by the Provincial Education 
Department. 

Statistics of State and State-aided education otker than higher educa- 
tion : 



Year 


Number of Schools 


Number of Scholars 


Number of 
teachers 1 


Expenditure 


For 
European 
scholars 


For Non- 
European 
scholars 


European 


Non- 
Europe&n 


1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 


4,679" 
4,707 
4,665 
4,924 
4,906 


3,275 
3,408 
8,501 
8,727 
3,985 


329,834 
330,762 
336,459 
342,083 
847,989 


276,926 
289,545 
804,617 
824,700 
361,553 


21,322 
22,274 
23,121 
24,484 s 
25,086 



7,002,190 
7,186,269 
7,597,672 
7,570,490 
7,935,624 



1 Primary, intermediate and secondary schools only. 
3 Private farm schools in Natal excluded. 
1 All teachers. 



232 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Justice. 

The Common Law of the Union is the Roman-Dutch Law, that is, the 
uncodified law of Holland as it was at the date of the cession of the Cape in 
1806. The Law of England as such is not recognised as authoritative, though 
by Statute the principles of English Law relating to mercantile matters, e.g., 
companies, patents, trademarks, insolvency and the like, have been intro- 
duced. In shipping, insurance, and other modern business developments 
English Law is followed, and it has also largely influenced civil and criminal 
procedure. In all other matters, family relations, property, succession, con- 
tract, &c., Roman-Dutch Law rules, English decisions being valued only so 
far as they agree therewith. The prerogatives of the Crown are, generally 
speaking, the same as in England. 

The Supreme Court consists of an Appellate Division with a Chief Justice 
and two ordinary and two additional Judges of Appeal. In each Province of 
the Union there is a Provincial Division of the Supreme Court ; while in the 
Cape there are two Local Divisions, and in the Transvaal one, exercising the 
same jurisdiction within limited areas as the Provincial Divisions. The 
Judges hold office during good behaviour. The Circuit System is fully 
developed. 

Each Province is further divided into Districts with a Magistrate's Court 
having a prescribed civil and criminal jurisdiction. From this Court there 
is an appeal to the Provincial and Local Divisions of the Supreme Couit, and 
thence to the Appellate Division. A distinctive feature of the Criminal 
system is that Magistrates' convictions carrying sentences above a prescribed 
limit are subject to automatic review by a Judge. 

Persons convicted, all courts, 1929 : males, 409,183, females, 55,924. 

Finance. 

Prior to 1913-14 the expenditure of the four Provinces was entirely met 
from grants by the Union Government. Since then various Financial 
Relations Acts have been passed denning the conditions upon which 
subsidies shall be granted to the Provinces, assigning and transferring to 
them certain revenues and limiting their powers of taxation. Act No. 46 
of 1925 bases the subsidy on the attendance of pupils receiving education, 
assigns certain revenues collected by the Union to the Provinces and gives 
special grants to the two smaller Provinces. 

Revenue and expenditure of the Union (excluding Interest on Railway 
Capital, now paid direct to the Public Debt Commissioners, and Subsidies to 
Provincial Administrations). 





1925-26 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


1929-80 










& 


& 





Revenue (ordinary) . 
Expenditure (ordinary) . 
(loan account) 


26,986,778 
21,014,444 
12,309,115 


28,577,003 
21,850,419 
12,920,075 


30,094,004 
22,840,768 
11,251,886 


30,501,650 
28,180,076 
11,183,456 


80,400,000 
24,747,279 
11,288,000 



1 Estimates. 



The following are the estimated figures for ordinary revenue and expendi- 
ture for the year 1930-31 : 



DEFENCE 



233 



Ordinary Revenue. 




Ordinary Expenditure 




Customs 
Ezcise 
Posts, Telegraphs & Telephonei 
Mining 


& 
8,460,000 
2,092,000 
4,240,000 
1,380,000 
160,000 


H.R.H. The Governor-General . 
Legislature .... 
Prime Minister and External \ 
Affairs .... I 
Native Affairs . 



28,888 
178,118 

89,278 
390,411 


Stamp Duties and Fees . 4 


950 000 




940,815 


Income Tax, Super Tax, and\ 
Dividend Tax / 
Death Duties .... 
Native Taxes . 


6,758,000 

1,000,000 
975 000 


Mines and Industries . 
Higher Education and Child \ 
Welfare . . / 


655,252 
1,147,404 
44,000 


Native Pass and Compound \ 
Fees. . . / 
Land Reveuue, Quit Rent, i 
and Farm Taxes . . / 
Forest Revenue 
Rents of Government Property 
Interest 
Departmental Receipts 


50,000 

110,000 

95,000 
185,000 
2,125,000 
720 000 


Public Debt .... 
Pensions 
High Commissioner in London . 
Miscellaneous Services 
Inland Revenue .... 
Audit 
Customs and Excise . 


5,023,000 
3,573,540 
64,787 
153,000 
154,969 
72,781 
248,118 
86,806 


Fines and Forfeitures 
Recoveries of Advances . 
Miscellaneous . . . 


260,000 
8,000 
300 000 


Superior Courts .... 
Magistrates 
Police 


248,501 
620,494 
2,556,006 


Reparation Receipts . 


120,000 


Prisons and Reformatories 


721,470 
245,803 






Public Health .... 
Mental Hospitals and Train- \ 
ing Schools . / 
Printing and Stationery , 
Public Works .... 
Agriculture .... 
Agriculture (Education) . 


476,261 
585,471 

263,906 
1,116,106 
847,505 
200,453 
202,458 






Posts, Telegraphs and Tele-) 
phones .... I 
Lands, Deeds, and Surveys 


8,824,000 

363,754 
251,674 






Public Service Commission 
Labour 


28,147 
221,966 


Total . 


29,988,000 


Total ordinary * 
Expenditure, loan account . 


25,112,627 
10,811,000 



1 Excluding 5,700,589 for provincial administrations. 

The gross Public Debt of the Union at March 31, 1929, was 244,044, 513J. 
and the net debt, 227,698,198Z. 

The estimated expenditure for 1930-31 on Railways is 30,298,633J. ; 
harbours, 1,532,6431. ; steamships, 109,0881. 



Defence. 

The South Africa Defence Act 1912, which became law on June 14, 
1912, as amended by the South Africa Defence Act Amendment Act of 1922, 
provides for the establishment of Defence Forces comprising : 

1. The South African Permanent Force, which consists of : (i) The 
South African Staff Corps ; (ii) The South African Instructional Corps ; 
(iii) The South African Naval Service ; (iv) The South African Field 
Artillery ; (v) The South African Permanent Garrison Artillery ; (vi) The 
South African Engineer Corps ; (vii) The South African Air Force ; (viii) 
The South African Service Corps ; (ix) The South African Medical Corps ; 

12 



234 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

(x) The South African Ordnance Corps ; (xi) The South African Veterinary 
Corps ; (xii) The South African Administrative, Pay, and Clerical Corps. 

The South African Naval Service includes the officers and men of the 
South African Division of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve engaged for 
whole-time service. A surveying vessel of 800 tons and two minesweeping 
trawlers are maintained in commission. 

2. The Active Citizen Force ; 3. The Citizen Force Reserve ; 4. The Coast 
Garrison Force Reserve; 5. The Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve; 6, The 
National Reserve ; 7. Rifle Associations ; and 8. Cadets. 

Every citizen of European descent between the ages of 17 and 60 is liable 
to render personal service in time of war, and those between 17 and 25 are 
liable to undergo a prescribed peace training with the Active Citizen Force 
spread over a period of four consecutive years. The Act states, however, 
that only 50 per cent, of the total number liable to peace training shall 
actually undergo that training unless Parliament makes financial provision 
for the training of a greater number. 

The establishment of Rifle Associations is a marked feature of the Act ; 
citizens between the ages of 21 and 25 who are not entered for peace training 
with the Active Citizen Force are to be compelled to undergo training during 
these four years in a Rifle Association, thus ensuring that, in course of time, 
all citizens will at least know how to handle and use a rifle. 

Provision is also made in the Act for the cadet training of boys between 
13 and 17 in urban and other populous areas where facilities can conveniently 
be arranged. 

The Union is divided into 6 military districts. To each military 
district have been allotted various units of different arms, to which the 
citizens entered for peace training in their 20th and 21st years are posted. 

Under the 1922 Act the Permanent Force is relieved of all Police duties 
in peace time for which they were liable under the Act of 1912, and becomes 
a purely military force. Its strength in June, 1930, was 143 officers and 
1,255 other ranks. The strength of the South African Air Force was 28 
officers, 258 other ranks and 108 natives (non-combatants) ; 20 officers, 
nursing sisters and nurses and 11 other ranks of the Active Citizen Force 
are in whole-time employment. 

Production and Industry* 

Agriculture. The production of wheat in recent years is shown by the 
following table. 



Production on European Farms Only. 


Native 
Reserves, 
Locations, etc 


Year. 


Cape of 
Good Hope. 


Natal. 


Transvaal. 


Orange 
Free State. 


Union. 


1928-24 
1924-25 
1925-26 
1926-27 
1927-28 


l,0001b. 
305,056 
342,737 
410,981 
329,667 
227,221 


1,000 Ib. 
490 
769 
822 
1,178 
693 


1,000 Ib 
33,405 
32,800 
59,117 
59,796 
59,046 


1,000 Ib. 
13,747 
45,610 
69,619 
91,944 
58,517 


1,000 Ib. 
352,608 
421,417 
540,539 
482,585 
440,477 


1,000 Ib. 
5,694 
6,498 
12j089 

i 



Not enumerated. 



The following table gives the production of maize : 



PKODITCTION AND INDUSTBT 



235 



Production on European" Farms Only, 


Native 
Reserves, 
Locations, etc. 


Year. 


Cape of 
Good Hope. 


Natal. 


Transvaal. 


Orange 
Free State. 


Union. 


1923-24 
1924-25 
1925-26 
1926-27 
1927-28 


1,000 Ib. 
107,616 
161,257 
98,291 
127,347 
108,226 


l,0001b. 
244,001 
317,696 
248,756 
435,310 
318,732 


1,000 Ib. 
745,619 
1,529,364 
788,092 
1,167,115 
1,513,617 


1,000 Ib. 
569,290 
2,179,607 
563,228 
1,364,832 
1,382,352 


l.OOOlb. 
1,666,426 
4,187,923 
1,698,367 
3,094.609 
8,322,927 


1,000 Ib. 
581,342 
671,193 
485,617 
556,771 
514,344 



Other products, excluding Native Reserves, &c., 1928 : barley, 
38,806,650 Ibs. ; oats, 190,450,800 Ibs. ; Kaffir corn, 178,681,000 Ibs. ; 
potatoes, 299,476,950 Ibs. ; tobacco, 22,019,416 Ibs. 1927 : barley, 
51,585,300 Ibs.; oats, 195,822,000 Ibs.; Kaffir corn, 132,909,800 Ibs.; 
potatoes, 237,901,050 Ibs. ; tobacco, 20,202,850 Ibs 

In 1928 the live-stock in the Union was as follows : 10,473,286 cattle ; 
42,500,276 sheep; 7,475,142 goats; 835,236 pigs (horses, mules, donkeys 
and ostriches not enumerated). 

The production of wool in 1928 was 216,924,103 Ibs., and of mohair, 
5,268,062 Ibs. The export of ostrich feathers in 1928 was valued at 
31,4582. ; hides and skins at 4,656,6592. and wattle bark and extract at 
975,0692. 1928: wool, scoured and greasy, 253,508,000 Ibs.; mohair, 
7,703,816 Ibs. 

Cotton-growing is now undertaken by many farmers, the plant being 
found a better drought resistant than either tobacco or maize. Yield in 1928, 
12,013,970 Ibs. Sugar is also cultivated ; yield of 1927-28 season, 247,273 
tons. The area under tea (1928) was 3,357 acres, from which the yield was 
3,325,674 Ibs. (green leaf). It is estimated that some 15,000 acres of land 
suitable for tea plantations are available. 

On March 31, 1929, the forest reserve areas comprised 2,296,093 acres 
demarcated, and 470,024 acres undemarcated : total, 2,766,117 acres. 

Irrigation. Technical and financial assistance is given by the State under 
the Union Irrigation Law of 1912, which was designed to encourage irrigation. 
The Government expenditure on irrigation in 1926-27, 1927-28, and 1928-29 
was 160,3312., 143,1392. and 140,0552. respectively from Loan Funds and 
182,5872., 187,8252. and 194,9142. respectively from revenue. 

Manufactures. The report on the industrial census in the Union in 
1927-28 gives the value added by process of manufacture, &c., as 51,521,3332., 
and the value of the gross production of the industries covered at 106,981, 6972. 
The total number of factories which made returns was 7,360, Value ol 
land and buildings, 23,712,8472., machinery, plant, and tools, 36,402,0032., 
of materials used, 55,460,3642., and cost of fuel, light, and power, 3,538,5852. 
Average number of persons employed, 207,736 (Europeans, 84,978). Wages 
paid, 25,293,8222. The gross value of the output of the principal groups 
of industries was: food, drink, &c., 33,919,6882.; metals, engineering, &c., 
20,872,3092.; chemicals, &c., 7,047,0152.; heat, light, and power, 6,364,1472.: 
building, &c., 9,696,3992. ; clothing, textiles, &c., 4,597,0812. ; books, 
printing, &c., 5,200,3842.; leather, &c., 3,727,2762.; stone, clay, &c., 
3,446,819J. ; vehicles, 4,146,1382. ; furniture, &c., 2,168,6712. 

Mining. The table horeunder gives the total value of the principal 
minerals produced in the Union to December 31, 1928. The value of gold 
is calculated at 4*247732. per fine ounce up to 1919, when the gold premium 



236 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : UNION OP SOUTH AFBICA 



came into effect, as from the 24th of July, and from 1925 onwards when the 
gold premium ceased to operate. Copper, tin, antimony, scheelite, and 
silver are valued on the estimated pure metal contained in shipments 
according to the average current prices in London. The value of other base 
minerals is calculated on average local prices. 



Classification. 


Cape of 
Good Hope 


Natal. 


Transvaal. 


Orange 
Free State. 


Union. 


Gold 
Diamonds . 
Coal .... 


& 
21,947 
206,766,739 
2,022,048 



86,514 

82,807,897 



1,005,578 899 
52,045,151 
40,544,897 


& 
252 
25,378,747 
4,910,885 



1,005,687,612 
284,190,687 
80,285,172 


Copper 
Tin . 


20,734,721 
62,482 


889 


5,352,598 
6,201,780 




26,087,703 
6,824,262 


Total . 


229,607,932 


32,894,800 


1,109,782,820 


80,289,834 


1,402,575,88 



The total value of the mineral production of the Union is given here- 
under for recent years : 





1925. 


1926. 


1927. 


1928. 


1929. 


Ammonia, Sulphate of 
Asbestos . 



11,920 
152,115 




10,680 
216,466 



10,335 
843,801 



11,064 
899,550 




8,729 
497,397 


Coal 


3 862,118 


4,046,620 


3,825,664 


3,672,906 


3,777,722 


Coke 


92,643 


106,153 


120,509 


97,987 


105,874 


Copper . 


514,219 


494,852 


577,119 


608,552 


720,887 


Corundum 


13,229 


44,871 


8,473 


12,696 


19,879 


Diamonds 


8,198,128 


10,683,597 


12,892,808 


16,677,772 


10,590,113 


Gold 


40,767,981 


42,285,139 


42,997,608 


43,982,119 


44,228,748 


Iron Pyrite 


8,400 


8,376 


3,091 


6,087 


7,679 


Lead 


55,966 


5,726 


7,543 


571 


794 


Lime 


220,664 


251,093 


256,813 


265,415 


288,866 


Mtgnesite 


4,007 


4,211 


8,935 


8,161 


3,556 


Osmindium 


170,995 


96,734 


58,137 


86,921 


87,248 


Platinum . 


__ 


93,307 


144,191 


241,110 


221,645 


Salt (including by-products) 


105,969 


188,356 


181,518 


124,271 


135,483 


Silver . 


166,898 


126,580 


118,531 


124,064 


113,508 


Soda (crude) 


13,480 


22,970 


82,710 


80,127 


30,814 


Talc. 


262 


385 


2,740 


3,993 


2,594 


Tar 


8,441 


15,466 


19,098 


24,258 


23,445 


Tin 


804,552 


310,899 


829 947 


269,285 


246,254 


Quarries . 


105,248 


84,107 


90,959 


91,045 


108,876 


Iron Ore . 


_ 


16,958 


29,686 


7,486 


13,441 


Chrome Ore 


21,001 


14,623 


24,939 


35,265 


65,424 


Mica 


4,577 


2,969 


8,754 


8,422 


3,598 


Graphite . 


1,510 


1,575 


2,027 


1,670 


1,661 


Beryl (Emerald) Crystals 











3,192 


10,206 


Total including items not 












named . . . 


54,804,940 


59,084,280 


61,546,801 


66,796,058 


61,827,887 



The gold output in 1928 was 10,354,264 fine oz. ; silver, 1,031,376 fine 
oz. ; diamonds, 4,372,857 metric carats; coal production 1928, 13,403,415 
tons. The gold output (Transvaal) in 1930 was 10,719,760 fine oz. 

The following table shows the average number of peraona employed on 
mines and in allied concerns in the Union in 1929 : 



COMMERCE 



23? 





Number of Persons 








Proportion of 


Classification 


European 


Asiatic 


Natives and 
Other 


Total 


Total Persons 
Employed 








Coloured 






Gold . 
Diamonds . 


22,805 
12,089 


193 
24 


204,849 
61,278 


227,847 
63,391 


65-1 
18-1 


Coal 1 . 


1,632 


1,161 


32,337 


35,130 


10-1 


Other Minerals 


1,166 


1 


18,176 


19,348 


5-5 


Power Supply Com 












panics and Quar 












ries . . . 


971 


43 


3,116 


4,130 


1-3 


Total . 


38,663 


1,422 


809,756 


349,841 


1000 



1 Coal and coal by-products works. By-products works employed 5 white and 48 
coloured in the Transvaal, and 35 white and 451 coloured persons in Natal. 

Commerce. 

The total value of the imports and exports of the Union of South Africa, 
exclusive of specie, was as follows : 



Tear 


Imports 


Exports 


IYear 


Imports 


Exports 


1924 
1925 
1926 



65,815,617 
67,928,799 
73,159,054 




84,256,972 
82,365,219 
75,926,117 


1927 
1928 
1929 



74,069,808 
79,087,658 
83,449,196 




80,060,854 
78,078,894 
87,270,792 



The principal articles of import and export for 1929 and 1928 were : 



Imports 


1928 


1929 


Exports 


1928 


1929 




& 













Apparel . 


3,406,122 


3,351,133 


Angora Hair . 


724,132 


643,032 


Arms and Ammuni- 






Bark 


975,069 


755,237 


tion . 


466,261 


459,693 


Blasting Compounds 


12,782 


15,009 


Bags 


1,436,034 


1,273,453 


Butter & Substitutes 


19,140 


156,925 


Cotton Manufactrs. 






CoaU 


889,875 


940,117 


and Piece Goods. 


6,971,332 


6,706,824 


Diamonds . 


8,888,416 


10,751,126 


Drugs and Chemicals 


1,272,186 


1,268,571 


Feathers, Ostrich . 


31,458 


42,954 


Electrical Wire and 






Fish .... 


802,815 


802,120 


Fittings 2 . 


2,458,834 


2,951,538 


Gold (in ingots) 


24,467,178 


84,587,671 


Food and Drink . 


8,568,816 


8,105,716 


Hides and Skins 


4,656 669 


3,113,026 


Furniture 


1,061,596 


1,288,379 


Maize 


3,520,454 


2,811,542 


Glycerine 


807,966 


241,986 


Maize Meal . 


431,398 


512,009 


Haberdashery 


1,678,929 


1,665,188 


Meats 


276,055 


840,076 


Hardware A Cutlery 


8,806,519 


4,141,074 


Tobacco . : 


69,061 


41,443 


Hats and Caps 


730,675 


741,568 








Implements: Agri- 












cultural 


1,418,672 


1,790,603 








India Rubber 












Manufactures * . 


1,288,680 


1,249,208 








Iron and Steel 


1,897,611 


2,107,200 








Leather Manufac- 












tures. Mainly 












Boots and Shoes . 


1,282,726 


1,523,148 









Excluding bunker coal. 

Include* tyres imported separately. 



1 Including Electrical Machinery 



238 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



Imports 


1928 


1929 


Exports 


1928 


1929 


















Machinery 1 . 


4,102,202 


4,253,944 


Wines . . . 


53,019 


78,376 


Nitrates . 


260,096 


227,778 


Wool 


16,851,351 


14,521,088 


Oils (including 












Petroleum 


2,874,709 


3,836,892 








Printing Paper 
Stationery & Books 


757,180 
1,886,057 


752,118 
1,470,860 








Tobacco . 


93,281 


103,655 








Vehicles* 


6,188,247 


7,810,278 








Wax (Paraffin and 












Stearine) 


841,210 


365,984 








Wood and Timber 


1,960,458 


2,013,859 








Woollen Manufac- 












tures . 


2,560,377 


2,403,655 








Zinc 


71,533 


70,659 









1 Excluding agricultural and electrical machinery, and locomotives. 

1 Excluding tyres Imported separately (included under rubber manufactures). 

Imports of specie amounted to 26,068*. in 1928 and 6,2582. in 1929, 
and exports to 1,821,3561. in 1928 and 10,581,448*. in 1929. 

The total value of general merchandise, exclusive of specie, imported 
into British South Africa in 1928 was 78,843,046*., and in 1929, 82,911, 682*., 
of which 36,213, 668*. in 1928 and 36,577,849*. in 1929 came from the United 
Kingdom ; 8,500,442*. in 1928 and 8,716,644?. in 1929 from the rest of the 
British Empire; 13,570,9457. in 1928 and 15,842,187*. in 1929 from the United 
States of America; and 19,143*. in 1928 and 15,811*. in 1929 from the 
Belgian Congo. The imports of Government stores amounted to 3,804,817*. 
in 1928 and 4,555,048*. in 1929. 

The total exports, excluding specie, in 1928, were 78,121,811*. and 
86,785,779*. in 1929 (excluding ships' stores value 1,971,315*. in 1928 and 
2,022,191*. in 1929), of which 49,278,145*. in 1928 and 60,357,072*. in 1929 
went to the United Kingdom, 5,905.693*. in 1928 and 4,118,572*. in 1929 to 
the rest of the Empire and 1,826,225*. in 1928 and 2,153,121*. in 1929 to the 
U.S.A. 

Shipping and Communications. 

Oversea shipping 1929: entered, 1,468 vessels of 5,233,225 tons net; 
cleared, 1,465 of 5,245,880 tons. Coastwise: entered, 4,132 vessels of 
10,263,779 tons net; cleared, 4,121 of 10,281,653 tons. 

Prior to the Union the State Railways of the several colonies were operated 
by the separate Governments. In May, 1910, the Government lines were 
merged into one system, the South African Railways, under the control 
of the Union Government. The total open mileage at the end of March, 
1029, was 12,597 (comprising Cape 5,055 miles, Orange Free State 
1,548 miles, Transvaal 3,175 miles, Natal 1,455 miles, and South West 
Africa 1,364 miles), of which 11,701 miles are 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, and 
896 miles 2 ft. gauge. Capital expenditure on Government Railways up 
to March 1929, amounted to 138,921,930*. Earnings, 1928-29, 26,090,712*. ; 
working expenditure, 1928-29, 20,298,664*., including depreciation amount- 
ing to 1,500,000*. ; passengers, 1928-29, 81,994,517. Mileage of private 
lines, 1928-29, 411 miles (Cape 249, Natal 84, O.F.S. 4, and South West 
Africa 74). 

At the end of 1929-30 there were in the Union 3,334 post and 2,801 
telegraph offices; 6,555,215 telegrams of all classes were forwarded. The 



BANKS MONEY, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES 



239 



number of money orders issued during the year 1929-30 was 634,097, while 
601,574 orders were paid. 4,354,317 postal orders were issued, and 3,860,341 
paid. The cash revenue of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, 
1928-29, was 3,900,983Z. ; expenditure, 3,095,411Z. The revenue figures 
include 541, 540Z., from the telegraph service, and 1,492,392Z. from the 
telephone service. 

At the end of March, 1930, there were 36,057 miles of telegraph wire, 
and 370,826 miles of telephone wire in use; there were 100,473 telephone 
instruments and 70,041 subscribers. A station working on the "beam" 
sytsern and in direct communication with the United Kingdom was opened 
for the acceptance of public traffic on July 5, 1927. 

The number of depositors in the Government Savings Bank in the Union 
at the end of March, 1930, was 420,351, and the amount standing to their 
credit 6,075,759^. 

Banks. 

Statistics of the banks in the Union are as follows : 



- 


Seven Banks. 
March 31, 1930 


South African 
Reserve Bank, l 
March 31, 1930 


Subscribed capital 




17,502,626 




1,000,000 


Paid-up capital 
Reserve fund 


7,993,760 
4,978,612 


1,000,000 
599,777 


Notes in circulation 
Deposit and current accounts 


1,585,829 
101,197,698 
2,529,640 


9,146,352 
7,766,728 
7,428,940 


Securities, Government and other 
Bills of Exchange 


17,714,693 
23,918,356 


2,414,088 
7,779,681 




53,379,185 


276,525 









1 In December, 1920, under the South African Currency and Banking Act, 1930, a 
Central Reserve Bank was established at Pretoria. It commenced operations in June, 
1921, and began to issue notes in April, 1922. Liability for the outstanding notes of the 
commercial banks was transferred to it on June 30, 1924, and amounted to 165,7842. on 
March 31, 1930. A branch was opened in Johannesburg on September 1, 1925, and further 
branches at Cape Town. Durban, Port Elizabeth and East London by the end of the year. 

Money, Weights, and Measures. 

An Act of 1922 provided for the issue of a Union Coinage with denomina- 
tions identical with those of British Coins, which remain legal tender, and a 
branch of the Royal Mint has been established at Pretoria. 

Union of South Africa silver and bronze coins of 2s. Gd. t 2s., Is., Qd. t 3d., 
ld. 9 Jd., Id. are being coined and are in circulation. A considerable portion 
of the gold output is being minted. 

An Act (No. 22 of 1922) was passed legalizing the optional use of 
either the metric or the imperial standard weights and measures, but under 
a proclamation of 1923 the cwt. has been replaced by the 'cental* of 
100 Ibs. The following old Dutch measures are, however, still in use: 
Liquid Measure: Leaguer = about 128 imperial gallons; half aum = 15J 
imperial gallons ; anker = 7J imperial gallons. Capacity : Muid = 3 bushels. 
The customary surface measure is the Morgcn, equal to 2*1165402 acres ; 
1,000 Cape lineal feet are equal to 1,033 British imperial feet. 



240 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Books of Reference. 

1. OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

The South Africa Act, 1909. 

Official Y ear-Book of the Union of South Africa, and of Basutoland, Bechuanaland 
Protectorate, and Swaziland . Pretoria. Annual. 

Statistics of Production : Manufacturing Industries. Annual. 

Statistics of Production : Census of Agriculture. Annual. 

Reports of Select Committees, Commissions, etc,, since 1910 : classified according to 
subject. 

Annual Statement of Trade and Shipping of the Union of Sonth Africa. Cape Town. 

Report to the Board of Trade on Economic Conditions in South Africa. Annual. 
London. 

Trade Report. Monthly. Cape Town. 

The Selborne Memorandum on the Union of S. Africa. London, 1925. 

2. NON-OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

South African Who's Who, 1929-30. Cape Town, 1929. 

Agar-Hannlton (J A. J.), The Native Policy of the Voortrekkerg. Cape Town, 1928. 

Arndt (E. H. D.), Banking and Currency Development in South Africa (1652-1927). 
Cape Town, 1928. 

Barnes (L ), Caliban in Africa. London, 1930. 

Sleek (D. J.), The Naron A Bushman Tribe of the Central Kalahari. Cambridge, 
1928. 

Botha (G.), The Public Archives in South Africa (1652-1910). Cape Town, 1928. 

Brown (A. S.) and Brown (G. G.), Editors. The Guide to South and East Africa. 
Annual. London. 

Brown (J. J.), Among the Bantu Nomads. London, 1926. 

Cory (Sir G. E.), The Rise of South Africa. 5 vols London, 1930. 

Dawson (W. H.), South Africa : People, Places and Problems. London, 1925 

De Kiewiet (C. W.), British Colonial Policy and the South African Republics, 1848-72, 
Imperial Studies No. 3. Royal Empire Society. London, 1929. 

Dt Kock (Dr. M. H.), Analysis of the Finances of the Union. Cape Town, 1922. State 
Ownership in South Africa. Cape Town, 1923. The Functions and Operations in Central 
Banks with Special Reference to the South Afncan Reserve Bank. Cape Town, 1930 

Dornan (S. S.) t Pygmies and Bushmen of the Kalahari. London, 1925. 

Edgar (J. ), A History of South Africa. Oxford, 1923. 

Eybert (G. W.), Select constitutional documents, illustrating South African History 
1795-1910. London, 1918. 

Fairbridge (D.), A History of South Africa. London, 1918. Historic Houses of South 
Africa. Cape Town, 1922. 

Frankel (8. H.), The Railway Policy of South Africa. London, 1928. 

Gerdener (Dr. G. B. A ), Boustowwe vir die Geskiedems van die Nederduits-Gere- 
formeerde Kerk in die Transganep. Caps Town, 1930. 

Hahu (C. H. L.), The Native Tribes of South- West Africa. Cape Town, 1926. 

Harries (C. L.), The Law and Customs of the Bapedi and Cognate Tribes of the 
Transvaal, Johannesburg, 1929. The Sacred Baboons of Loinondo. Johannesburg, 1929. 

Impey (S. P.), Origin of the Bushmen and the Rock Paintings of South Africa. Cape 
Town, 1926. 

Lament (A. B.), Economic Geography of South Africa. Cape Town, 1925. 

lehjeldt (R. A.), The Natural Resources of South Africa. London, 1922. 

leppanCEL. D.), The Agricultural Development of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions with 
Special Reference to South Africa. Johannesburg, 1128. 

Lloyd (A. C. G.), A List of the Serial Publications Available for Consultation in the 
Libraries and Scientific Institutions of the Union of South Africa. Cape Town, 1921. 

Lucat (Sir C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies, South Africa. Part I. 
History, revised by Sir C. Lucas, and Part II., Geographical, revised by A. B. Keith. 
Oxford, 1915. Partition and Colonisation of Africa. London, 1922. 

Mark* (J L.), Illustrated Guide to South Africa. Cape Town, 1925. 

Mcndelttohn (S,), Bibliography of Books relating to South Africa. London. 

MttrowicK (F. C.), The Development of Higher Education in South Africa (187S-1927). 
Cape Town, 1929. 

Millen (8. G.), The South Africans. London, 1926. 

Narath (R.), Die Union von Slid Afrika und Ihre Bevftlkerung. Leipzig, 1930. 

Nathan (M.), The South African Commonwealth. London, 1919. South Africa from 
Within, London, 1926. Empire Government. London, 1928. The Law of Damages in 
South Africa. Johannesburg, 1930. 

Oxford Survey of the British Empire. Vol. Ill* African Territories. London, 1914. 

Preller (G. 8.), Voortrekkersmtnse. 8 vols, Cape Town, 1918, 1920, 1922. 



PROVINCE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE 



241 



Schapera (I.), The Kboisan Peoples of South Africa, Bushmen and Hottentots. 
London, 1930. 

Scully (W. C.), A. History of South Africa, from the Earliest Days to the Union. 
London, 1915 

Soga (1. H.), The South-Eastern Bantu: Ab:-Nguni, Abe-Mbo, Ama-Lala. Johan- 
nesburer, 1030 

SHrke (D. W.), Eight Years Among the Barotse London, 1922. 

Sioanepoel (J. T.), The Sounds of Afrikaans. London, 1926 

Theal (G. McCall), South Africa Eighth Edition. London, 1917. Catalogue of Books 
and Pamphlets relating to South Africa south of the Zambesi. Cape Town, 1912. 
History and Ethnography of South Africa. 11 vols. London, 1907-20. 

Tilby (A. Wyatt), South Africa (1486-1913). London, 1914. 

Walker (E. A.), Historical Atlas of South Africa. London, 1922. A History of South 
Africa, London, 1927. 

Worsfold (W. B.), The Union of South Africa. London, 1912. Lord Milner's Work in 
South Africa, 1897-1902. London (new edition), 1913. The Reconstruction of the New 
Colonies under Lord Milner, 1902-1905. 2 vols. London, 1913. 

PROVINCE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

Constitution and Government. The Colony of the Cape of Good Hope 

was originally founded by the Dutch in the year 1652. Britain took 
possession of it in 1795 but evacuated it in 1803. A British force again took 
possession in 1806 and the Colony has remained a British Possession since 
that date. It was formally ceded to Great Britain by the Convention of 
London, August 13, 1814. Letters Patent issued in 1850 declared that 
in the Colony there should be a Parliament which should consist of the 
Governor, a Legislative Council, and a House of Assembly. On the 31st 
May, 1910, the Colony was merged in the Union of South Africa, thereafter 
forming an original province of the Union. 

Cape Town is the seat of the Provincial Administration. 

Administrator. The Hon. J. H. Conradie. Appointed 1929. (Salary 
2,500J.) 

The Province is divided into 125 magisterial districts, and the Province 
proper, including Bechuanaland, but exclusive of the Transkeian territories, 
into 90 divisions. Each division has a Council of at least 6 members 
(14 in the Cape Division) elected triennially by the owners or occupiers of 
immovable property. The duties devolving upon Divisional Councils 
include the construction and maintenance of roads and bridges, control of 
outspans, trekpaths and public servitudes, destruction of noxious weeds, and 
preservation of public health. 

There are 128 Municipalities, each governed by a Mayor or Chairman 
and Councillors, a certain number of whom are elected annually by the 
ratepayers. There are also 70 Village Management Boards. 

Area and Population. The following table gives the population of 
the Cape of Good Hope at each census : 



Census 
Year 


All Races 


European 


Coloured 


Total 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1865 
1875 
1891 
1904 
1911 
1918 
1921 
1926 


496,881 
720,984 
1,527,224 
2,409,804 
2,564,965 

2,782,719 


255,760 
869,628 
767,827 
1,218,940 
1,255,671 

1,848,589 


240,621 
851,856 
769,897 
1,190,864 
1,809,294 

1,434,130 


95,410 
128,910 
195,956 
818,544 
801,268 
811,812 
889,894 
857,588 


86,182 
112,873 
181,081 
261,197 
281,109 
807,518 
821,215 
848,554 


160,850 
245,718 
571,871 
900,896 
954,403 

1,019,195 


154,489 
288,488 
578,866 
929,667 
1,028,186 

1,112,915 



242 



THE BKITISH EMPIRE: CAPE PROVINCE 



The following table gives the area and population of the Province and 
native Territories in 1921 and 1926 









1921 




1926 




Area in 
8q. Miles 


European 


Non. 
European 


Total 


European 


Colony Proper . 
East Griqualand 
Tembuland 
Transkei . 
Pondoland 


260,186 
6,602 
3,339 
2,504 
3,906 


635,651 
6,245 

4,627 
2,292 
1,512 


1,183,077 
258,582 
230,361 
195,803 
263,392 


1,818,728 
264,827 
234,988 
198,095 
264,904 


690,079 
7,065 
4,693 
2,477 
1,823 


Total Province 


276,536 


650,327 


2,131,215 


2,781,542 


706,137 



Of thfcjion-European population in 1921, 7,696 were Asiatics, 1,640,162 
were Bantu, and 484,252 were of mixed and other races. The great majority 
are engaged in agricultural or domestic employments. 

Chief Towns: The census figures for the European population in 1926 
are: Cape Town, 130,568; Kimberley, 17,268; Port Elizabeth, 33,371; 
Graham's Town, 7,652; Paarl, 6,678; King William's Town, 6,444; East 
London, 23,210 ; Graaff-Reinet, 4,576 ; Worcester, 4,233 jUitenhage, 8,121 ; 
Oudtshoora 5,649. 

Vital statistics are shown as follows : 



4 Year 


European 


Non -European * 


Births 


Deaths 


Mairiages 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1924 
1925 
1926 
192T 
1928 


18,730 
18,366 
18,675 
18,537 
18,032 


6,740 
6,910 
7,053 
7,212 

7,519 


5,345 
5,723 
5,973 
5,978 
6,351 


37,693 
36,981 
38,793 
87,514 
37,719 


27,262 
26,094 
26,114 
28,679 
28,167 


8,S23 
8,704 
9,154 
9,037 
9,377 



i Partial registration. 

Religion- In 1926 (Europeans only) there were 678,309 Christians 
410,227 members of Dutch Churches, 132,703 Anglicans, 25,539 Presby- 
terians, 4,494 Congregationalists, 42,043 Methodists, 10,781 Lutherans, 
28,023 Roman Catholics, 10,149 Baptists, and 14,350 other Christian sects. 
Jews 23,984, others 3,844. 

Education. Local school administration is conducted by school boards 
and school committees, the unit of administration being the school district. 
There are now (1929) 110 such districts, each under the control of a school 
board, two-thirds of whose members are elected by the ratepayers and one- 
third nominated by Government and local authority. Education is com- 
pulsory for children of European parentage. Grants in support of education 
are provided from Provincial Council revenues, primary education being free. 

Provincial expenditure in 1929-30 on education (excluding Higher 
Education, which is under control of the Central Government) amounted 
to 2,726,9742. on European, and 667,0432. on non-European education. 

In 1929 there were 2,351 public and 34 aided private schools for 
European scholars, and in addition 12 Institutions for the training of 
teachers. There were 141,109 European pupils, mostly under School 
Boards, and a total of 6,353 teachers. There were 2,319 public and aided 



PAUPERISM FINANCE COMMERCE 



243 



private schools for non- European scholars, of which 16 were industrial 
schools and 22 training institutions for teachers. Altogether, there were 
5,406 teachers in non- European schools, and a total of 199,683 pupils, 
mostly under churches and missionary bodies. 

Pauperism. There is no organised system of poor-law relief, but in 
1928-29, 30,648?. was distributed in such relief. 

An Old Age Pension Act was passed in 1928, and came into force on 
January 1, 1929. The Act provides for an amount of 30Z. per annum being 
paid to indigenous European persons who reach the age of 65, and 181. per 
annum to persons of mixed or coloured race but not Bantus. Up to July 
22, 1929, awards had been made to 31,106 Europeans, and 12,623 coloured 
persons. It is anticipated that 900, OOOJ. will be required to meet the claims 
in 1929-30. 

Finance.~~^ mco tjie comin g in to effect of the Union there is only one financial 
statement for the four provinces together. Particulars are given above under the Union. 
Since the passing of the Financial Relations Act, 1913, the Provincial revenue consists 
of certain revenues assigned to the Province and an amount voted by Parliament by way 
of subsidy. The following figures show the provincial revenue and expenditure for five 
years 





1924-25 


1925-26 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


Revenue 
Provincial .... 
Union Subsidy 



1,076,311 
2,301,315 1 




1,487,863 
2,510,014 



1,580,685 
2,412,640 J 



1,680,651 
2,423,3931 



1,80S,861 
2,410,506 l 


Total Revenue .... 


3,977,626 


3,997,874 


3,993,325 


4,104,044 


4,214,367 


Total Ordinary Expenditure 


3,537,880 


3,679,879 


3,910,284 


4,119,757 


4,281,045 



Includes 30.000J. for 1924-25, 46,500?. for 1925-26, 290,6001 for 1926-27, 309,000*. for 
1927-28, and 325,200J. for 1928-29 in respect of a Special Grant from the Umon Govern- 
ment for Native Education. The figures also include 40,750?. for 1925-26, 59,250. for 
1926-27, 41,000*. for 1927-28, and 5,000*. for 1928-29 in respect of a Special Grant from the 
Union Government for Roads 

Ordinary Expenditure 1928-29 : General Administration, 373, 999 J. ; 
Education, 3,204,5342. ; Hospitals and Poor Relief, 265,5202.; Roads, 
Bridges, Works, 386,992^. Capital Expenditure 1928-29, 225,9622. 

Commerce. Since the coming into effect of the Union there are no 
special records of trade for each of the Provinces. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning the 
Cape of Good Hope, 

1. OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

Colonial Office List. Annual. London. 

Statistical Abstract for the several Colonies and other Possessions of the United King- 
dom. Annual. London. 

2. NON-OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

Beyer$ (C.)i Die Kaapse Patriotic (1779-1791). Cape Town, 1930. 
Botha (G.), Social Life in Cape Colony in the 18th century. Cape Town, 1927. 
Brown (A 8. and G. Q.), Guide to South and Bast Africa. Annual. London. 
Leibrandt (H. C. V.), Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope, 1695-1708, 
1715-1806. 6 vols. Cape Town, 1896-1906. 

Levyn* (M R.), A Guide to the Flora of the Cape Peninsula. Cape Town, 1929. 
Mentzd (Q. F.), Description of the Cape. Part I. 1921. Part II. 1925. Uape Town. 
(E. E.), Old Capo Highways. Cape Town, 1927. 



244 THE BBITISH EMPIRE : PBOVINCE OF NATAL 



Playne (8,) Oape Colony : Its History /Commerce, Industries, and Resources. London, 
1912. 

Stow (G. W.) The Native Races of South Africa, London, 1905, 
Trotter (A. F.), Old Cape Colony, 1652-1806. London, 1928. 



PROVINCE OF NATAL. 

Constitution and Government, Natal was annexed to Cape Colony 
in 1844, placed under separate government in 1845, and under charter of 
July 15, 1856, erected into a separate Colony. By this charter partially 
representative institutions were established, and, under a Natal Act of 1893, 
assented to by Order in Council, June 26, 1893, the Colony obtained respon- 
sible government. The province of Zululand was annexed to Natal on 
December 30, 1897. The districts of Vryheid, Utrecht and part of 
Wakkerstroom, formerly belonging to the Transvaal, were annexed in 
January, 1903. On May 31, 1910, the Colony was merged in the Union 
of South Africa, becoming an original province of the Union. 

The seat of provincial government in Natal is Pietermaritzburg. 

Administrator. The Hon. H. Gordon Watson (Jan. 1928) (2,OOOJ.) 

Area and Population. The Province (including Zululand, 10,427 
square miles) has an area of 35,284 square miles, with a seaboard of about 
860 miles. The climate is sub-tropical on the coast and somewhat colder 
inland. It is well suited to Europeans. The Province is divided into 
41 Magisterial Districts. 

The European population has more than trebled since 1879. The returns 
of the total population at the last six censuses were : 



Census 
Year 


All Races 


European 


Coloured 


Total 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1891 
1904 
1911 
1918 
1921 
1926 


648,918 
1,108,754 
1,194,048 

1,429,398 


268,062 
550,631 
564,648 

707,600 


275,851 
558,123 
629,395 

721,798 


25,787 
56,758 
52,495 
62,745 
70,477 
81,170 


21,001 
40,351 
45,619 
59,186 
66,361 
77,746 


242,275 
493,873 
512,153 

637,123 


254,850 
517,772 
583,776 

655,437 



The ngures for 1891 exclude Zululand ; those for 1904 and 1911 in- 
clude the districts of Vryheid, Utrecht, Paulpietersburg, Ngotshe, and 
Babanango. 

Population of Durban according to the census of 1921 : European 58,085 
other 93,557, total 151,642; and of Pietermaritzburg: European 17,998, 
coloured 18,025, total 36,023. The European population of Durban in 1918 
was 48,413, and of Pietermaritzhurg, 18,525. The census figures for the 
European population of Durban in 1926 are 70,883, and of Pietermaiitzburg, 
19,748. 

Vital Statistics are shown as follows : 



Year 


European 


Non-European 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Mariiages 


1926 
1927 
1928 


8,588 
8,435 
3,614 


1,508 
1,502 
1,496 


1,842 
1,456 
1,625 


8,278 
7,262 
8,259 


4,348 
3.891 
4,844 


2,941 
8,024 
2,122 



1 Partial registration. 



EDUCATION FINANCE PRODUCTION AND INDU8TKY 245 



Education. With the exception of Higher Technical and Vocational 
Education which is under the control of the union Government, Education 
comes under the Provincial Administration. In 1929 there were, for children 
of European extraction, 166 schools giving primary, 28 giving beyond 
primary education, in all 194 schools, which were supported either entirely 
or partially bv Government funds. In addition there were 1 training 
school for teachers, anc^ 241 farm schools. For non-European children, there 
were 691 native schools ; 76 Asiatic schools and 22 other coloured schools, 
State and State-aided. The average number of European pupils in 
regular attendance at the Government and inspected schools was 25,910 
for 1929 ; the average daily attendance 92 per cent, of the number on the 
registers. The number of native, Asiatic, and coloured children receiving 
instruction in 1929 amounted to 62,511. A sum of 152,3352. was spent on 
native, Asiatic and coloured education, during the year 1929-30 out of 
public funds ; the corresponding figure in respect of European education 
was 556,9782. It is estimated that only a very small percentage of European 
children are receiving no education. 

Finance. For financial arrangements, see p. 228 above. The follow- 
ing figures show the provincial revenue and expenditure for five years: 





1924-25 


1925-26 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


Revenue 
Provincial 



448,350 




485,420 




610 298 



655 574 



738,273 


Union Subsidy .... 


611,880' 


538,781 


553,491 


535,6491 


560,89H 


Total Revenue .... 


1,000,230 


1,024,201 


1,169,7*9 


1,191,223 


1,299,164 


Total Ordinary Expenditure . 


1,070,144 


1,114,129 


1,090,431 


1,149,870 


1,256,688 



Includes 10.000/. for 1924-25, 21.250J for 1925-26, 73,250?. for 1926-27, 79.760J. for 
1927-28, and 94,062*. for 1928-29 m respect of a Special Grant from the Union Government 
for Native Education. 

Ordinary expenditure, 1928-29 : general administration, 60,2932. ; 
education, 723,5492. ; hospitals and poor relief, 159,5952. ; roads, bridges, 
works, 313,2512. The capital expenditure in 1928-29 was 216,6762. 

Production and Industry. On the Coast and in Zululand there 
are vast plantations of sugar (output, 1928-29, 295,934 tons) and tea, 
while cereals of all kinds (especially maize), fruits, vegetables, the Acacia 
molissima, the bark of which is so much used for tanning purposes, and 
other crops are produced. 

The Province is rich in mineral wealth, particularly coal. Other 
minerals are asbestos, copper ore, fireclay, gold, graphite, gypsum, iron 
ore, lead and silver ore, limestone and marble, manganese ore, mica, 
molybdenum ore, nickel ore, nitre, oil shale, and tin ore. For figures of 
mineral production, see, p. 234. 

The various factory industries of Natal in 1927-28 numbered 1,088, 
with an annual output valued at 24,128,2972. They had 11,088,4332. 
invested in machinery, etc. ; annually used materials worth 13,776,3432. ; 
and paid 4,550,8652. yearly in wages to 42,837 employees. 

A Whaling Industry was commenced at Durban in 1908. It is regulated 
by the Provincial Government, as indiscriminate slaughter was driving the 
whales away from the South African waters. 

Commerce, Since the coming into effect of the Union there are no 
pecial records of trade for each of the Provinces 



246 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: TRANSVAAL 



Statistical and other Books of Reference, 

Statistical Abstract for the several colonial and other possessions of the United 
Kingdom Annual London. 

Bryant (A. T.), Olden Times in Znluland and Natal. London, 1929. 

Culling worth' s Natal Almanac. Annual. Durban. 

Ingram (J. F.), Natalia History of Natal and Zululand. London, 1897. 

Maclcenstan (G.), The Cradle Days of Natal, 1497-1845. London, 1930. 

Rowell (T.), Natal and the Boers. London, 1900. 

JButMlZ(R-). Natal, the Land and its Story. 6th ed. London, 1900. 

Stiiart (J.), A History of the Zulu Rebellion, 1906. London, 1913. 

Tatlow (A. H.)i Natal Province Descriptive Guide and Offlcia Handbook. Durban 
and London. Annual. 



PROVINCE OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

Constitution and Government. The territory was colonised by 
Boers from Cape Colony in 1836-37. In 1852 the independence of the 
Transvaal Government was recognised by Great Britain, but in 1877, in 
consequence of financial difficulties and troubles with the natives, and 
in accordance with representations and petitions from the Boers, the 
territory was annexed by the British Government. In 1880 the Boers 
rebelled, and in 1881 a Convention was signed restoring self-government, but 
with conditions, reservations, and limitations, and subject to the suzerainty 
of the British Crown. This arrangement was modified by a Convention 
in 1884, in which the name of the South African Republic was given 
to the Transvaal State ; but the control over external affairs, other than 
engagements with the Orange Free State, was reserved to the Crown. The 
discovery of gold and the conditions which followed this discovery occasioned 
difficulties finally resulting in war. This led to the annexation of both States 
to the British Crown, the one on September 1, 1900, under the name of 
The Transvaal, and the other (May 24) as the Orange River Colony. 
Hostilities continued till May 31, 1902. [See STATESMAN s YEAR-BOOK for 
1906, under The Transvaal.] 

The administration was thereafter carried on under a Governor and 
Lieutenant-Governor, assisted by an Executive and a Legislative Council. 
On December 6, 1906, Letters Patent were issued providing for a Constitution 
of responsible Government in the Colony. The Colony was merged in the 
Union of South Africa on May 31, 1910, as an original Province of the Union. 

The seat of provincial government for the Transvaal is at Pretoria. 

Administrator. TL\\Q Hon, J. S. Smit. Appointed November 2, 1928 
(salary, 2,500Z.). 

Area and Population. The area of the Province is 110,450 square 
miles, divided into 37 districts. The following table shows the population 
at each of the last six censuses : 





All Races 


European 


Coloured 


Census Year 


Total 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1890 


._ T 


_ 


_ 


66,498 


52,630 


<-IB 


. . 


1904 


1.269,951 


702,569 


567,382 


178.244 


119,033 


524,825 


448,349 


1911 


1 686,212 


971,555 


714,657 


236,913 


183,649 


734,642 


531,008 


1918 


__ 


_ 





260,840 


288,507 








1921 


2,087,630 


1,159,430 


928,206 


284,388 


259,097 


875,042 


669,109 


1926 





*""* 





818,773 


394,849 


_. 


"""" 



RELIGION EDUCATION F IN ANCE 



247 



The largest towns had in 1 926 a European population as follows : 
Johannesburg, 170,741 ; Pretoria, 54,326; Germiston, 19,495 ; Benoni,14,899 ; 
Krugersdorp, 11,253 ; Boksburg, 12,144 ; Potchefstroom, 9,336 ; and Roode- 
poort-Maraisburg, 7,217. 

Vital Statistics are shown as follows : 



Yoor 


European 


Non-European * 




Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1924 


15,287 


5,479 


4,642 


5,118 


9,416 


2,624 


1925 


16,348 


5.226 


5,319 


5,031 


8,434 


2,986 


1926 


16,304 


5,913 


5904 


4,897 


9,344 


8,206 


1927 


17,050 


6,326 


6,383 


5,019 


10,583 


3,142 


1928 


17,949 


6,797 


6,615 


5,192 


10,848 


3,708 



1 Partial Registration. 
Religion. Statistics for the Transvaal (Census 1926, Europeans only) : 



Churches, Ac. 


Europeans 


Churches, Ac. 


Europeans 


Dutch Churches 
Anglican 
Presbyterian 


322,088 
103,462 
32,938 


Apostolic Faith Mission Church 
Other Christian . 


9,742 
22,815 
38 802 


Methodist 
Roman Catholic 
Lutheran 


38,603 
28,142 ' 
6,165 i 


Hindus and other non-Christ ians 
Other Religions and Sects 


2,359 
3,506 



Education. All education except that of a university and of a voca- 
tional type is under the provincial authority. The Province has been divided 
for the purposes of local control and management into thirty-two school 
districts. Instruction in Government Schools, both primary and secondary, 
is free. 

The following statistics of education are for the year ending Dec. 31, 1929 : 
1,197 primary schools with 122,229 pupils ; 40 beyond primary schools, with 
an enrolment of 11,545 pupils ; 635 State and State-aided schools for coloured, 
native and Indian children, with 72,700 pupils. There are four training 
institutions for European teachers, with 845 students ; and five for coloured 
and native teachers, with 383 students. During the year 1929, 3,146,393f. 
was expended for educational purposes. 

The medium of instruction up to the fourth standard is the home 
language (English or Afrikaans) of the pupil, but parents may request that 
the other language be gradually introduced as a second medium. Above the 
fourth standard both languages may be used at the parents' option or aa 
occasion allows. Bible History is taught in every school, but no doctrine or 
dogma peculiar to any religious denomination or sect may be taught. 

Finance. For financial arrangements, set p. 228 above. 

The following figures show the provincial revenue and expenditure for 
five years : 



248 



THl BRITISH EMPIRE: ORANOE FBEE STATE 





1924-25 


1925-26 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


Revenue : 
Provincial .... 
Union Subsidy .... 




1,872,171 
1,558,986' 



1,966,072 
1,778,583 



1,843,449 
1,962,619 




2,008,260 
1,938,039 




2,094,384 
1,959,355* 


Total Revenue . ... 


3,431,157 


3,744,655 


3,806,068 


3,946,299 


4,053,739 


Total Ordinary Expenditure . 


3,548,320 


3,617,696 


8,740,306 


4,041,293 


4,103,%8 



l Includes 15 500Z. for 1924-25, 15,OOOZ. for 1925-26, 61,4501. for 1926-27, 6S,600Z. for 
1927-28, and 80.600J. for 1928-29 m respect of a Special Grant from the Union Government 
for Native Education. 

Ordinary Expenditure, 1928-29 : General administration, 136,224Z. ; 
education, 2, 947, 026 J, ; hospitals and poor relief, 470,1932. ; roads, bridges, 
works, 550,525^. The capital expenditure in 1928-29 was 251,319Z. 

The Provincial Revtnue is mainly derived from Licences, Native Pass 
Fees, Poll Tax, Transfer Duty and Companies' Tax. 

Production and Industry. The Province is in the main a stock- 
raising country, though there are considerable areas well adapted for agri- 
culture, including the growing of tropical crops. 

The live-stock numbered, in 1928, 3,019,123 cattle; 5,500,600 sheep; 
905,651 goats. 

For mineral production, see above, p. 234. The Province has iron and 
brass foundries and engineering works, grain-mills, breweries, brick, tile, 
and pottery works, tobacco, soap, and candle factories, coach and wagon 
works, Ac. The Transvaal gold output in 1928 was valued at 43,982,119^., 
in 1929 at 44,259,780*., and in 1930 at 45,558,980Z. 

Commerce. Since the coming into effect of the Union there are no 
special records of trade for each of the Provinces. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference. 

Papers, Correspondence, Ac., relating to the Transvaal from 1852 to 1903. London. 

History of the Wax m South Africa, 1899-1902. Compiled by direction of H.M 
Government. 2 vols. London, 1907. 

The War in Sonth Africa. Prepared in the Historical Section of the Great Genera. 
Staff, Berlin. Trans, by Col H. Du Cane London, 1905. 

Anuiy(L. S.), (Editor), "The Tunes" History of the War in Sonth Africa, 1899-1902. 
London, 1909. 

Botha (P. M.), From Boer to Boer and Englishman. [English Translation from the 
Dutch.] London, 1900. 

Oloet* (H.), History of the Great Boer Trek and the Origin of the South African 
Republics. London, 1899. 

Oolquhoun (A. R.), The Africander Land. London, 1906. 

Harriet (C. L.), The Law and Customs of the Bapedi and Cognate Tribes of the Trans- 
vaal. Johannesburg, 1929. 

Kea** (A. H.), Africa, Vol. II. : South Africa. 2nd ed. London, 1908. 

Kruyer (P.), Memoirs of Paul Krtiger. Told by Himself. 2 vols. London, 1002 

Leyds (W. J ), The First Annexation of the Transvaal. London, 1906 The Transvaal 
Surrounded. London, 1919. 

M&ckentit ( W. D.), South Africa : Its History, Heroes, and Wars. London, 1900. 

Willoufhby (W. C.), Native Life on the Transvaal Border. London, 1000. 

Wilmot (Hon. A.), History of South Africa. London, 1901. 



PROVINCE OF THE ORANGE FREE STATE. 

The Orang* River was first crossed by Europeans about the middle of 
the 18th century. Between 1810 and 1820, settlements were made in the 



AREA AND POPULATION 



249 



southern parts of the Orange Free State, and the Great Trek greatly augmented 
the number of settlers during and after 1836. In 1848, Sir Harry Smith 
proclaimed the whole territory between the Orange and Yaal Rivers as a 
British Possession and established what was called the Orange River 
Sovereignty. Great dissatisfaction was caused by this step, as well as by 
the native policy of the British Government. In 1854, by the Convention 
of Bloemfontein, British Sovereignty was withdrawn and the independence 
of the country was recognised. 

During the first five years of its existence the Orange Free State was much 
harassed by incessant raids by, and fighting with, the Basutos. These 
were at length conquered. The British Government then stepped in and 
arranged matters much to the dissatisfaction of the conquering party. By 
the treaty of Aliwal North, only a part of the territory of the Basutos was 
incorporated in the Orange Free State. 

On account of the Treaty between the Orange Free State and South 
African Republic, the former State took a prominent part in the South 
African War (1899-1902), and was annexed on May 28, 1900, as the Orange 
River Colony. After peace was declared Crown Colony Government was 
established and continued until 1907, when responsible government was 
introduced. On May 31, 1910, the Orange River Colony was merged in the 
Union of South Africa as the Province of the Orange Free State. 

The seat of provincial government is at Bloemfontein. 

Administrator. The Hon. C. T. Wilcocks (salary, 2,000?.) 

There are municipalities at Bloomfontoin and other centres, 61 in all ; 
local authorities have, so far as possible, the usual local administrative powers. 

Area and Population. The area of the Province is 49,647 square 
miles ; it is divided into 31 districts. The census population has varied as 
follows : 





All Races 


European 


Coloured 


Census 








Year 


Total 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


1S80 


183,518 


70,150 


63,368 


81,906 


29,116 


88,244 


84,252 


1890 


207,503 


108,362 


99,141 


40,571 


87,146 


67,791 


61,996 


1904 


387,315 


210,095 


177,220 


81,571 


61,108 


128,524 


116,112 


Iflll 


528,174 


277,518 


250,656 


94,488 


80,701 


188,080 


169,955 


1918 


__ 





_ 


93,969 


87,709 








1921 


628,827 


821,373 


807,454 


97,776 


90,780 


223,597 


216,674 


1926 











104,392 


98,593 





"- 



The capital, Bloemfontein, had, in 1921, 19,367 white inhabitants, and 
19,667 natives and other coloured persons; total, 39,034. The 1926 
Census figures for the European population are 22,695. 
Vital statistics are shown as follows : 



Year 


European 


JNon-Jfiuropean 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


Births 


Deaths 


Marriages 


1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 


4,919 
5,188 
6,809 
5,325 
5,818 


1,698 
1,708 
1,611 

1,587 
1,828 


1,468 
1,661 
1,690 
1,800 
1,857 


1,012 
1,277 
1,880 
1,328 
1,407 


1,920 
8,101 
1,913 
2,066 
2,451 


1,507 
1,717 
1.78Q 
1,769 
1,924 



1 Partial registration. 



250 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: ORANGE FREE STATE 



Religion. The census of 1926 (Europeans only) gave the following 
results : Dutch Churches, 163,504 ; Anglican Churches, 13,235 ; Presby- 
terians, 3,945 ; Methodists, 7,478 ; Lutherans, 893 ; Roman Catholics, 2,516 ; 
Apostolic Faith Mission Church, 1,889 ; Jews, 5,753 ; others, 3,772. 

Education, Higher and vocational education is under the control of 
the Union Education Department, while primary and secondary education and 
the training of teachers are controlled and financed by the Provincial Adminis- 
tration. The amount spent during year ended March 31, 1930, on Euro- 
pean education was 892,932^., and on non-European education, 38,0662. 
Cinder the Education Ordinance of 1920 the Province is divided into 61 
School Board Districts, for each of which there is a School Board elected 
by the School Committees in the district. In 1929 there were 748 European 
public schools and 83 aided private schools in the Province, with a total 
enrolment of 44,999 pupils. The number of teachers in European schools 
totalled 2,126. Similarly, there were 228 non-European public and aided 
private schools with total enrolment of 23,176 and 2 Training Institutions 
for native teachers ; the number of teachers was 541. Education is free in 
all public schools up to the University Matriculation standard, but certain 
schools are allowed to charge fees and to expend the proceeds for the ad- 
vantage of the schools. Attendance is compulsory between the ages of 7 
and 16, but exemption may be granted in special cases or when a child has 
passed Standard VI and is in regular employment. Unless parents object, 
the two official languages English and Afrikaans are taught to all pupils, 
the home language of the pupil being the chief medium of instruction and 
the second language being introduced gradually during the primary school 
course. In all the towns and villages of the Province there are either 
secondary or intermediate schools preparing pupils up to the standard of 
the University Matriculation. The Normal College trains about 200 teachers 
annually. 

Finance* For financial arrangements see p. 232 above. The following 
figures show the provincial revenue and expenditure for five years : 





1924-25 


1925-26 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


Revenue : 
Provincial .... 
Union Subsidy . 




422,233 
622,805 > 



410,416 
770,398 



419,739 
754,478' 


n 

506,061 

74 6, 362 



550,104 
751,1111 


Total Revenue 


1,045,038 


1,180,814 


1,174,217 


1,252,443 


1,801,215 


Total Ordinary Expenditure . 


1,045,554 


1,087,479 


1,207,037 


1,238,750 


1,295,111 



Includes 10,OOOL up to 1924-25, 13,5001. for 1925-26, 18,500*. for 1P26-27, 22,263Z. for 
1937-28, and 27,882J. for 1928-29 in respect of a Special Grant from the Union Government 
for Native Education. 

Ordinary Expenditure, 1928-29 : General administration, 62,904Z. ; 
education, 943,968Z. ; hospitals and poor relief, 65,712Z. ; roads, bridges, 
works, 242,527/. The capital expenditure in 1928-29 was 238.47R 

Production and Industry. The Province consists of undulating 
plains, affording excellent grazing and wide tracts for agricultural purposes. 
The rainfall is moderate. The country is still mainly devoted to stock -farming, 
although a rapidly increasing quantity of grain is being raised, especially in 
the Eastern Districts. 

For Mineral Statistics see p. 236. 



NIGERIA 251 

Commerce. Since the coming into effect of the Union there are no 
special records of trade for each of the Provinces, 

The money, weights, and measures are English. The land measure, the 
Morgen, is equal to about 2*1165 acres. 

Statistical and other Books of Reference. 

Correspondence, Reports, Despatches, Proclamations, &c. , relating to the Orange Free 
State and Orange River Colony. London, 1899-1901. 

Keane (A. H.), Africa. Vol. II. London, 1908. 

Malan (J. II ), Die Opkoms ivan in Repubhek of die Qeskiedenis van die Oranje 
Vrystaat tot die Jaar 1863. Bloemfontem, 1929. 

Wet (Chr. R de), Three Years' War (1899-1902). London, 1902. 



WEST AFRICA. 

These Possessions are the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria ; the 
Gambia Colony and Protectorate ; the Gold Coast Colony with Ashanti 
and Northern Territories ; and the Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate. 

Parts of Togoland and the Cameroons are also included as mandated 
territories. 

NIGERIA. 

History and Constitution, This territory comprises a number of 
areas formerly under separate administrations. Lagos, bought in August, 
1861, from a native king, was placed under the Governor of Sierra Leone in 
1866. In 1874 it was detached, together with the Gold Coast Colony, and 
formed part of the latter until January, 1886, when a separate ' Colony and 
Protectorate of Lagos ' was constituted. Meanwhile the National Africa" 
Company had established British interests in the Niger valley, and in July, 
1886, the company obtained a charter under the name of the Royal Niger 
Company. This Company surrendered its charter to the Crown in 1899, and 
on January 1, 1900, its territories were formed into the two Protectorates of 
Northern and Southern Nigeria. The latter absorbed the * Niger Coast 
Protectorate,' which was formed in May, 1893, from the 'Protectorate of 
the Oil Rivers,' which had been constituted in June, 1885. In February, 
1906, Lagos and Southern Nigeria were united into the * Colony and 
Protectorate of Southern Nigeria,' and on January 1, 1914, the latter 
was amalgamated with the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria to form the 
* Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria,' under a Governor. Lagos is the seat of 
the Central Government. 

The Colony of Nigeria had its boundaries defined afresh, and the Protec- 
torate was divided into two croups of provinces, the ' Northern Provinces ' 
and the ' Southern Provinces, each under a Lieutenant-Governor appointed by 
the King, and subject to the control and authority of the Governor. 

The British mandated territory of Cameroon is now attached to Nigeria 
for administrative purposes. 

The Executive Council of the Colony was made, from January 1, 1914, 
the Executive Council of the Protectorate also. It consists of a few of the 
senior officials. There is a Legislative Council, created by Order in Council 
in November 1922, consisting of the Governor, the members of the Executive 
Council, and other official members (total official membership not exceeding 
30) ; three members elected by the ratepayers of Lagos ; one member elected 
by the ratepayers of Calabar ; four members selected respectively by the 
Chambers of Commerce of Lagos, Port Harcourt and Kano, and the local 
Chamber of Mines; two members to represent respectively Banking and 



252 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: NIGERIA 

Shipping interests ; and eight members to represent African interests in 
those parts of the Colony and Southern Provinces which do not return elected 
representatives. This Council legislates for the Colony and the Southern 
Provinces of the Protectorate, laws affecting the Northern Provinces being 
enacted by the Governor as heretofore. 

Governor of Nigeria. Sir Donald C. Cameron^ K.C.B. (appointed 
December, 1930). 

Chief Secretary to the Government. G. Hemmant, O.M.G. 

Lieutenant-Governors in the Protectorate. Capt. W. Buchanan- Smith, 
O.M.G., M.O. (Southern Provinces); C. W. Alexander, C.M.G. (Northern 
Provinces). 

There are altogether 24 provinces, including Cameroons, each under the 
immediate control of a Resident. In many provinces the administration is in 
the hands of the paramount chief and his officials. 

Area and Population. Area approximately 335,700 square miles; 
population, 19,409,001, including about 5,939 Europeans (Northern 
Provinces: 275,724 square miles, 11,047,275 population. Southern Pro- 
vinces : 89,670 square miles, 8,361,726 population). The population of the 
Northern Provinces consists of several principal racial groups of Sudanese 
origin, in many of which a state of political organisation had been reached 
which facilitated and encouraged the policy of administration through native 
rulers and chiefs and existing native institutions. Similar conditions existed 
in a limited area in the Southern Provinces and the same policy has been 
extended mutatis mutandis to the thickly populated areas of more primitive 
peoples. 

Justice. The Chief Justice is the president of the Supreme Court of 
Nigeria, and three other judges are stationed in Lagos and one in Calabar. 
Police Magistrates have District Courts at Lagos aud Ebute Motta, and Station 
Magistrates at Port Harcourt, Ibadan, Warri, Onitsha, Enugu, Calabar, Kaduna, 
Jos, Lokoja, Kano, and Zaria. In the other places where the Supreme 
Court has jurisdiction, District Officers have the same powers as Police and 
Station Magistrates. In each province is a Provincial Court consisting of 
the Resident and his assistants, and such Justices of the Peace as may be 
appointed by the Governor. Native courts exist in Mohammedan localities 
where there are chiefs and councillors, and amongst pagan tribes Judicial 
Councils with limited judicial powers have been established in localities 
where the intelligence of the natives renders such a policy possible. The 
number of persons summoned before the District and Provincial Courts in 
1929 was 26,826* of whom 20,450 were convicted; while 1)5,583 persons 
were convicted in the Divisional and Native Courts. 

Religion and Education, Northern Provinces. In this area the 
majority of the population has adopted the religion and social system of Islam. 
There are, however, regions into which Islam has not penetrated, and where 
therefore, the social life of the people is still very primitive and their religion 
some form of animism. In the Mohammedan Emirates education is chiefly in 
the hands of the Government, while the Missions concentrate upon the Pagans. 
The main principles underlying the educational policy are the use of vernacular 
in elementary education, the correlation at every stage of manual and 
literary subjects, and the provision at the top of more advanced education 
for the best pupils from the lower grades. The latest figures show that there 
are 30,203 Koran Schools with 300,500 pupils, 253 Elementary and Primary 



FINANCE PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 



253 



Schools with 9,200 pupils, 12 Middle Schools with 1,000 pupils, and 2 
Training Institutions having a combined roll of 140 students. 

Southern Provinces. Although the vast majority of the inhabitants are 
wholly pagan, Christianity, presented by the various Christian Missions, and 
Islam, assimilated by contact with numerous African adherents, are rapidly 
gaining ground. The lower stages of education are mainly given in Mission 
schools or schools conducted by the African Churches and similar agencies. 
More advanced education is eiven in some Mission and Government institu- 
tions. The direction of policy and the supervision and inspection of all 
schools is undertaken by the Government Department of Education. The 
latest figures show that there are, in the Elementary or Primary grade, 
2,732 schools with 185,500 pupils, and also 19 Secondary Schools with 700 
pupils, and 15 Training Institutions having a total roll of 500 students. 

Six British, three French, one American, and the Basel Missionary 
Societies are working in the country as well as the Salvation Army and the 
different African Churches. 

Finance. Revenue, expenditure, and debt of Nigeria as a whole : 



Year (ending March 31) 


Revenue 


Expenditure- 
Ordinary 
Recurrent 


Total 
Expenditure 


Public 
Debt 


1925-20 



8,268,928 



5,668,223 




6,583,167 



19,309,210 


1926-27 
1927-28 


7,734,429 
6,304,663 


6,259,086 
6,723,623 


7,584,692 
7,086,775 


23,559,209 
23,559,209 


1928-29 


6,031,270 


6,861,099 


7,495,058 


23,559,209 


1929-80 


6.045,621 


6,289,900 


6,986,500 


23,559,209 



In 1929-30 the total expenditure included 696,5992. advanced for loan 
works to be repaid from a loan ; the revenue included 262. so repaid. 
The true surplus at 31st March, 1980, was 4,444,2752. 

The expenditure for the year ending March 31, 1930, on railway construc- 
tion was 182,4862. 

The main items of revenue for the year 1929-30 were : Customs, 
3,360,1792. ; Railway, 2,729,3432. ; Direct Taxes, 848,0012. ; Fees of Court, 
436,6012. ; Marine, 337,2472. ; Mining, 73,5912. ; Posts and Telegraphs, 
121,4422. ; Interest, 340,0182. ; Miscellaneous, 311,0852. The chief items 
of expenditure were: Railway, 2,657,8072. ; Charges on account of Public 
Debt, 815,2442. ; Public Works, 1,361,4242. ; Administrative, 581,4752. ; 
Military and Police, 574,4612.; Education, 263,4562. ; Medical, 351.880J. ; 
Marine, 448,8122. ; Agriculture, 133,7482. ; Colliery, 105,767^. ; miscel- 
laneous, 171,6622. ; Pensions and Gratuities, 324,9522. ; Posts and Tele- 
graphs, 283,6462. ; Prisons, 136,8502. ; Railway Capital Expenditure, 
154,5202. ; Medical Health Department, 127,4512. ; Surveys, 105,3362. 

There is established in each native State in the Northern Provinces a 
Treasury which regulates the expenditure of that portion of the local revenue 
which is annually assigned to the native administration of each Emirate for 
its support and maintenance. There are also native treasuries in a few of 
the more advanced States in the Southern provinces. 

Production and Industry. The products are palm-oil (exports 1929, 
181,845 tons) and kernels (exports 1929, 251,477 tons); cotton lint 
(exports 1929, 117,302 cwt.), cocoa (exports 1929, 55,236 tons), mahogany 
(exports 1929, 17,211 tons), tin ore (exports 1929, 15,129 tons). Sheep and 
goat skins are tanned and dyed. The natives have worked iron, lead, 
and tin for centuries. There are also deposits of ooal, silver, galena, man* 
ganese ore, lignite, and monazite (which contains thorium). 



254 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: NIGERIA 



Mining rights are vested in the Government, but under an agreement 
made with the Royal Niger Company at the date of the revocation of 
the charter, that Company receives half the gross profits derived 
from royalties on minerals won between the main stream of the Niger on 
the west and a line running direct from Yola to Zinder on the east, for a 
period of 99 years with effect from January 1, 1900. 

Commerce. The principal ports are Lagos, Warri, Burutu, Sapele, 
Koko, Akassa, Degeina, Port Harcourt, Bonny, Opobo, Calabar, Tiko, 
and Victoria. Numerous rivers and creeks form the chief routes for 
transport, and there are many well-made roads. 

Considerable trade is carried on in the Northern Provinces. There is 
also a large trade by caravans which, coming from Salaga in the west, the 
Sahara in the north, and Lake Chad and Wadai in the east, make use of 
Kano as an emporium. 

The trade and shipping of Nigeria are shown as follows (bullion and specie 
are included) : 



Sear 


Trade 


Shipping entered arid cleared 


Imports 


Exports 


Total 


British only 


1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 



16,278,349 
13,597,480 
16,664,637 
16,663,525 
13,404,447 



17,370,161 
17,339,618 
16,340,957 
17,206,983 
17,922,501 


Tons 
2,655,001 
3,096,115 
3,367,312 
3.871,850 
4,018,801 


Tons 
1,61,679 
1,787,417 
1,004,514 
1,976,099 
3,075,034 



The chief imports (1929) were: Cotton-piece goods, 3,401, 325?.; fish, 
747,345?. ; coopers' stores, 190,256Z. Chief exports (1929) : Palm kernels, 
4,264,5502.; palm oil, 3,767,301?.; cotton lint, 543,2667. ; cocoa, 2,305,836?.; 
ground-nuts, 2,465,713?. ; hides and skins, 928,615?. 

Imports from the British Empire, 1929, 9,772,187?., and from U.S.A., 
1,005,162?. 

Communications. The railway system comprises (1) a Western line 
from Lagos to Kano (704J miles), crossing the Niger by bridge at Jebba, 
with branches from Minna to Baro (111 miles) and from Zaria to the Bauchi 
tin fields (Jos) (133 miles, light railway) ; and from Zaria Ka to Kaura Namoda 
(137 miles) ; and from Ifo to Idogo (27 miles). The Kano-N'Guru extension 
was opened on October 1, 1930. (2) An Eastern line (569 miles) from 
Port Harcourt to Kaduna on the Western Railway, crossing the Benue 
by train ferry at Makurdi with a branch line connecting from Kafanchan 
junction (mile 458J) with the tintields (Jos) 62J miles. Total capital 
expenditure on Nigerian railway, to end of March, 1930, 19,765,483?. ; 
gross receipts, 1930, 2,692,661?. ; working expenditure, 1,229,365?. ; gross 
expenditure, 1,655,716?.; net profit, 1,036,945?.; passengers carried, 
3,851,060 ; goods and minerals transported, 929,608 tons. 

The Railway also control the Udi Gear Mines at Enugu, the output of 
which was 347,115 tons for the year ending March 31, 1930. 

There is a wireless station at Lagos under the control of the Eastern 
Telegraph Company for ship to shore communication. 

In 1929 there were 159 Post Offices in Nigeria and the British sphere of 
the Cameroons. The Savings Bank on Dec. 31, 1929, had 9,842 depositors, 
with 37,743?. to their credit. 

A special silver coinage for West Africa was introduced in 1913, the de- 



GAMBIA 255 

nominations being 2s,, Is., 6d. 9 and 3d., of the same size, weight, and fine- 
ness as corresponding coins of the United Kingdom, The new currency, 
with adequate reserves in London, based on gold and securities, is under the 
control of the West African Currency Board. A nickel coinage (penny, 
half-penny, and tenth of a penny) is also in use. In 1916 local currency 
notes were introduced (present denominations 20s. and 10s.), and in 1920 
an alloy coinage of similar denominations to the silver coinage was added. 

The Bank of British West Africa, Ltd., and Barclays (Dominion, 
Colonial and Overseas) Bank, Ltd., have blanches in Nigeria. 

Books of Reference. 

Papers relating to the Royal Niger Company. London, 1899. 

Boundary Convention with France, 1898. London, 1899. 

Annual Reports on Northern and Southern Nigeria. 

Handbook of British West Africa. H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1920. 

Handbook of Nigeria. London, 7th ed., 1926. 

Travels of Clapperton, R. Lander, Richardson, Barth, Rohlfs. 

Basden(Q T.), Among the Ibos of Nigeria. London, 1921. 

Buchanan (A.), Out of the World North of Nigeria. London, 1921. 

Burns (A. 0.), History of Nigeria. London, 1929. 

Prater (D. C.), Impressions Nigeria, 1925 London, 1926. 

Geary (Sir W. M. N.), Nigeria Under British Rule. London, 1927. 

Hall (H. C.), Barrack and Bush m Northern Nigeria. London, 1924. 

Hastings (A. C Y Nigerian Days. London, 1925. 

Hoyben (8. J.), The Muharamadan Krmvates of Nigeria. London, 1930. 

Johnston (Sir Harry), The Colonisation of Africa. Cambridge, 1899. 

Keltie( J. Scott), The Partition of Africa. 2nd ed. London, 1895, 

Lucas (C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. West Africa. Third 
edition, revised to end of 1912 by A. B. Keith. Oxford, 1913. The Partition and 
Colonisation of Africa. London, 1922 

Lugard (Sir F. D.), Report on the Amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria, 
and Administration, 1912-19. London, 1920. 

Meek (C. K.), The Northern Tribes of Nigeria. London, 1926. 

Mifjeod (H.), Through Nigeria to Lake Chad. London, 1924. Across Equatorial Afiica. 
London, 1926 

Orm&by-dort (W. G. A.), Report on a visit to West Africa (Cmd. 2744). London, 1926. 

Schultte (A.), The Sultanate of Bornu. Translated, with additions, by P. A. Bonton 
London, 1914. 

Talbot (P. A.), Life m Southern Nigeria. London, 1923. The Peoples of Southern 
Nigeria (4 vols.). London, 1926. 

Unvin (A. H.), West African Forests and Forestry. London, 1920 

Viseher (I.), Croquis et Souvenirs de la Nigerie dn Nord. Paris, 1917. 



GAMBIA. 

r. Herbert R. Palmer, O.M.G., C.B.E. (2,5002., and 7502. 
allowances). Appointed February, 1930. 

Gambia was discovered by the early Portuguese navigators, but they 
made no settlement. During the seventeenth century various companies of 
merchants obtained trading charters and established a settlement on the 
river, which, from 1807, was controlled from Sierra Leone ; in 1843 it was 
made an independent Crown Colony ; in 1866 it formed part of the West 
African Settlements, but in December, 1888, it again became a separate 
Crown Colony. It is administered under a Governor with an Executive and 
a nominated Legislative Council containing an unofficial element. With the 
exception of the Island of St. Mary, on which Bathurst, the capital, stands, 
the whole Colony is administered on the Protectorate system, Since 1901 
both banks of the Gambia have been under direct British control up. to the 
Anglo-French boundary. 



256 



THK BRITISH EMPIRE : GAMBIA 



Area of Colony proper, 4 square miles; population, 10,000. In the Pro- 
tectorate (area, 4,130 square miles) the population in 1921 was about 200,000. 

There were, in 1929, 6 elementary Government-aided schools and 3 
Government Maliomraedan schools, with 2,164 pupils enrolled, and an 
average attendance of 1,22S ; Government grant, proportional to results 
(1929), 1, 9547. Of the elementary schools 2 are Roman Catholic, 3 Wesleyan, 
and 1 Anglican. The Wesleyane and Roman Catholics each have 2 secondary 
schools with a total of 38 boys and 108 girls enrolled. In May, 1929, 
Government opened a Vernacular School in the Protectorate, and this has 
had an average attendance of 31 pupils. In June, 1929, a Government 
Vocational School was opened at which boys from the assisted elementary 
schools attend for one half day a week. Total Government expenditure on 
education (1929), 6,4557. 

There is a company of the West African Frontier Force of 142 men. The 
armed police has a strength of 142 men 

Finance and Trade. 





1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


Revenue 
Expenditure . . 
Imports i 
Exports i 



189,086 
271,836 
617,823 
727,815 




214,181 
213,643 
656,307 
904,160 




252,419 
277,625 
966,741 
999,887 




255,385 
250,596 
1,235,663 
1,178,409 



236,265 
289,f>06 
617,852 
844,760 



1 Including specie. 

2 Includes 50,0002. set aside for establishment of a Reserve Fund. 

There is a public debt amounting (Dec. 31, 1929) to 37,5967. On 
December 31, 1929, the assets exceeded the liabilities by 144,0597. 

Principal items of revenue in 1929 : Customs, 124,3962. ; Taxes, 11,6657. ; 
Licences, 7,7367. ; Fees of Courts or Office, &c., 21,9217. ; Post Office, 
4,1017. ; Interest, 7,5247. ; Port Dues, 4,3557. ; Miscellaneous, 31,7817. 

Chief imports, 1929: specie, 20,6917.; apparel, wearing, 9,8487.; bags 
and sacks, 6,7767. ; biscuits, bread, and cakes, 5,6937. ; boots and shoes, 
6,3797.; cement, 6,2727.; coal, 8,9707.; cotton (piece goods), 82,7157.; 
cotton manufactures, other, 24^4377. ; cotton yarn, 8,6817.; flour, wheaten, 
9,8557. ; hats and caps, 8,7187. ; kola nuts, 54,9177. ; lumber, 10,5937. ; 
medicines and drugs, 3,1917. ; metals, all kinds, 19,8907. ; motor cars, 8,3157. ; 
oils, edible, 8,9997.; oils, not edible, 18,9097.; rice, 117,8447.; salt, 1,9347.; 
soap, 7,0647. ; spirits, potable, 3,3367. ; sugar, 15,7387. ; tea, 10,0677. ; 
tobacco, 18,5917.; wines, 7,1657. Chief exports: ground-nuts, 785,5167.; 
hides and skins, 6,1557.; palm kernels, 10,2327. 

Imports from United Kingdom in 1930, 174,5317. ; exports to United 
Kingdom, 1930, 184,6997. 

The tonnage of the 565 vessels entered and cleared in tho foreign trade 
in 1929 was 1,280,888 tons, of which 869,626 were British. 

Internal communication is maintained by steamers or launches. There are 
four post offices, but postal facilities are afforded to all river towns by means 
of a weekly travelling post office on the Government river mail-steamers. 
Postal packets and parcels dealt with in 1929, 321,869. Bathurst is 
connected with St. Vincent (Cape de Verde) and with Sierra Leone by cable, 
but there are no local railways. Bathurst is in wireless communication with 
Georgetown, Kuntaur and Basse in the Protectorate. The Post Office Savings 
Bank had 643 depositors holding deposits value 1,6397. in 1929. A special 



GOLD COAST 



257 



West African alloy currency was introduced in 1920 (see under Nigeria, 
p. 254). West African currency notes in circulation December 31, 1929, 
amounted to 201,5442. There is one bank in the Colony, the Bank of 
British West Africa. 



GOLD COAST. 

The Gold Coast first became known through Portuguese navigators in the 
fourteenth century, and English and Dutch traders and companies exploited 
the district in the seventeenth century, their main object being the slave 
traffic. The Dutch held settlements on the coast until 1871, when a conven- 
tion was made transferring them to the English. The Colony stretches for 
384 miles along tho* Gulf of Guinea, between the French Ivory Coast and 
Togoland. It is administered by a Governor with an Executive and a Legis- 
lative Council. Attached to it inland are Ashanti and the Northern 
Territories. The British mandated territoiy of Togoland is also attached 
to the Gold Coast for administrative purposes. 

The area of the Colony, Ashanti, and Protectorate is about 80,000 square 
miles ; population, census 1921, 2,078,043 ; Europeans, 2,165. Chief towns : 
Accra, 38,000 ; Sekondi, 10,000 ; Cape Coast, 15,000 ; Keta, 10,000; Win- 
neba, 7,000; Saltpond, 6,500; Koforidua, 5,500. 

In the Colony, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and the British 
mandated territory of Togoland there were, in 1929-30, 32 Government 
Schools (including 2 kindergaiten, 1 technical and 4 junior trade schools), 
246 assisted schools (including 2 secondary schools and 3 training colleges) 
which are under the control of the various missions, and the Prince of 
Wales' College at Achimota (formally opened on January 28, 1928), and 
including kindergarten, primary, socondaiy and university courses and 
classes for the training of teachers). The total number of pupils on the roll 
of Government and assisted schools was 40,259, of uhoni 8,691 were girls, 
and 464 were teachers in training. There are in addition a large number 
of non-assisted schools supported by the various religious bodies. Govern- 
ment expenditure on education in 1929-30 (including the Northern Territories 
but excluding Achimota) was 215,300^. 

The strength of the police, which is distributed throughout the Gold 
Coast Colony, Ashanti, British Mandated Togoland and the Northern 
Territories is (1980-81) 89 European officers and 2,018 other ranks. Summary 
convictions (1930-31) 23,131. 

Staple products and exports, cocoa, gold, manganese, diamonds, kola 
nuts, mahogany, palm kernels, rubber, copra, and palm oil ; in 1929 there 
were 150 horses, 50 asses, 100,000 sheep and goats, and 1,500 pigs and 
85,000 cattle. Many of the coast inhabitants are fishermen, and there 
is considerable traffic in dried fish by rail into the interior. 





1925-26 > 


192C-27 1 


1927"28 l 


1928-29 


1929-30 l 


Revenue . 
Expenditure . 
Imports 1 * 
Exports * 



5,871,650 
4,255,1^0 
9,782,610 
10,800,223 



4,365,321 
4,828,150 
10,285,876 
12,104,800 



5,217,639 
4,714,947 
13,770,542 
14,850,355 



4,703,907 
5,419,732 
12,200,045 
18,824,875 



4,691,422 
5,226,120 
10,082,881 
12,677,716 



1 Year ending March 31. 

' Including bullion and specie. 

' Year ending December 31. 



258 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : GOLD COAST 

Chief items of revenue, 1929-30: customs, 2,489,575?.; icences, 
215,901?. ; railways, 1,181,8342. ; posts and telegraphs, 127,6142. ; miscel- 
laneous, 206,333^. 

Chief items of expenditure, 1929-30 : extraordinary, 1,091,636?. ; 
railways 1,197,0722. (includes 104,289?. Railway Renewals Fund 
and 45,7612. capital works) ; public debt charges, 694,158?. (includes 
628,673/. borne by railways); medical and sanitation 364,0832. (including 
research, 17,088?.); education, 268,506?. (including 50,463?. for Achimota 
College) ; agriculture, forestry and veterinary, 132,8882. ; Takoradi harbour, 
185,1542. (includes 2,618?. capital works). 

Public debt, March 31, 1930, 11,791,000?.; colony's surplus and reserve 
1,037,406?. and 1,187,833?. respectively; Sinking Funds for Amortization, 
1,505,350?. 

1929. Imports, 10,082,381?.; exports, 12,677,716?. 

Chief imports, 1929: apparel, 180,861?.; bags. and sacks empty 
(4,875,784 Nos.), 228,086?.; beads (other than real coral) (559,459 Ibs.), 
70,052?. ; beer and ale, stout and porter (1,380,567 gallons), 234,6922. ; 
biscuits, bread and cakes (3,963,763 Ibs.), 100,282?. ; coal, coke and patent 
fuel (72,839 tons), 164,281?.; cement (54,874 tons), 177,588?. ; cotton- 
manufactured piece goods (31,533,574 sq. yards), 1,406,0802. ; other kinds, 
215,853?.; cordage and twine (11,118 cwts.), 66,687?.; hats, caps and 
other headgear, 61,9222. : machinery (all kinds), 267,3062. ; medicines 
and drugs, 109,170?. ; iron and steel manufactures, other than corrugated 
iron sheets, 330,496?.; corrugated iron sheets (10,272 tons), 202,145?.; 
oil illuminating (3,062,957 gallons), 157,280?. ; oil motor spirit (6, Oil, 818 
gallons), 387,9532.; fish canned or preserved, etc. (6,256,595 Ibs.), 
170,0682. ; dried, salted, smoked or pickled, etc. (5,279,005 Ibs.), 87,5342. ; 
rice (214,085 cwts.), 181,290?. ; flpur-wheaten (228,562 cwts.), 248,4892. ; 
perfumery, 61,771?. ; sugar all kinds (107,037 cwts.), 133,858?.; meats- 
canned and bottled (3,881,433 Ibs.), 147,745?. ; beef and pork salted or 
pickled (7,425,035 Ibs.), 90,623?. ; motor cars (including lorries) (2,207 
nos.), 415,6252.; motor cars (mcludipg lorries) parts, 125,885?.; silk 
manufactures, other than artificial, 229,816?. ; artificial (other than 
apparel), 214,491?. ; soap, other than toilet and shaving soap (113,602 
Ibs.), 175,428?. ; spirits (potable) other than gin (166,979 gallons), 139,327?,; 
gin (569,746 gallons), 188,883?. ; stationery, 64,0252. ; tobacco, unmanu- 
factured (2,023,626 Ibs.), 112,5532.; cigarettes (415,289 Ibs.), 237,1292.; 
tyres for vehicles, 145,063?. ; wine all kinds (271,707 gallons), 103,2222. ; 
wuod and timber, unmanufactured (6,654,465 superficial feet), 111,4372. ; 
wool, manufactured, 55,996?. 

Chief exports, 1929: cacao (238,068 tons), 9,704,493?. ; gold (225,386 
ozs.), 869,8632.; manganese (408,224 tons), 748,2862. ; diamonds (660,536 
carats), 584,613?.; kola nuts (6,846,100 Ibs.), 127,2832.; mahogany 
(1,430,230 cubic feet), 160,364?.; palm kernels (6,569 tons), 96,4472.; 
rubber (648,861 Ibs.), 28,423?. ; copra (1,236 tons), 21,216?. ; palm oil 
(596 tons), 16,830?. Export of cacao in 1930, 186,733 tons. 

Imports, 1929: United Kingdom, 4,757,7122. ; U.S.A., 1,601,6742. ; Ger- 
many, 1,134,998?.; Holland, 732,773?. ; France, 407,3352. 

Exports, 1929: United Kingdom, 3,615,8352.; U.S.A., 3,667,0022.; Ger- 
many, 2,079,6052.; Holland, 1,493,535,2. ; France, 447,7892. 

The shipping entered and cleared in the foreign trade in 1929 was 
5,504,387 tons, of which 2,977,635 tons were British. The harbour of 
Takoradi, opened in March 1928, and appointed as a port on December 3, 
1928, is the only complete shelter for ships of over 30 ft. draught between 



ASHANTI 259 

Sierra Leone and Nigeria. There was a net loss of 70,273Z. in 1929-30 on 
the working of the harbour. 

Communications. A Government railway runs from Sekondi through 
Tarkwa to Kumasi (168 miles). There is a branch line from Tarkwa to 
Prestea (19 miles), and from Inchaban Junction to Inchaban, 5 miles. 
Another line runs from Accra to Kumasi (192 miles). A third line runs 
from Huni Valley (53 miles from Sekoudi on the Sekondi-Kumasi line) to 
Kade in the Central Province, 98 miles from Huni Valley. Mean mileage 
operated, 495 miles ; gross railway earnings, 1929-30, 1,183,035Z. ; working 
expenditure, 1929-30, 643,712^. ; net earnings, 1929-30, 539, 323/. ; total 
capital expenditure, 9,137,662. 

There are 6,264 miles of motorable roads in the Gold Coast, Ashanti, 
and the Northern Territoiies. There were in the Colony, March 31, 1930, 
4,298 miles of telegraph trunks and 7,169 miles of telephone trunks and 
264 offices, and there are telephone exchanges at Aburi, Accra, Ada, Adeiso, 
Akrokeri, Akuse, Axim, Bekwai, Cape Coast, Dodowa, Dunkwa, Kfiduasi, 
Half Assim, Ho, Kehuuia, Keta, Kibi, Koforidua, Konango, Kumasi, 
Mampoug (Ashanti), Mangoase, Mpraeso, Nsawam, Nkawkaw, Obuasi, 
Oda, Swedru, Saltpond, Sekondi, Sunyani, Suhum, Tafo, Tarkwa, Tamale, 
Takoradi, Winneba. Theie are over 1,895 telephones now in use, and 
over 2,735 miles of wire in the exchange areas. The telephone trunk 
system connects up all the main towns in the Colony. Telegrams in 
1929-30: 410,859. There is a wireless telegraph station at Takoradi. 
The number of letters, packets, &c., handled in the postal service in 
1929-30 was 8,322,068. In 1929-30 the savings bank had 12,361 depositors 
with 98,362Z, to their credit. 

The Bank of British West Africa, Ltd. and Barclay's Bank (Dominion, 
Colonial and Overseas) operate in the Colony and Ashanti. For currency, 
see p. 254. West African currency notes in circulation at March 31, 1928, 
amounted to 1,691,166*.; March 31, 1929, 1,831,66s/.; March 31, 1930, 
1,935,379/. 

Ashanti was placed under British protection on August 27, 1896. Under 
Orders in Council of September 26, 1901, the country was definitely annexed 
by Great Britain, the Governor of the Gold Coast being appointed Governor of 
Ashanti, though only some of the laws and ordinances of the Gold Coast apply 
to the annexed territory. The area is 24,560 square miles and the popu- 
lation (census 1921) was 407,000; Europeans (1921), 400. Kumasi, the 
chief town, has about 25,000 inhabitants. For purposes of education, 
Ashanti is considered as part of the Gold Coast. The number of children 
in the Government schools was (1929) 1,154, and in the mission schools, 
3,668. At the Agricultural and Forestry Training Centre 48 students were 
in residence during 1928-29. Police force (1929-30), 3 European officers 
and 267 other ranks. Prosecutions, 1929-30, 6,066, but there is little 
serious crime. There are 1,191 miles of motor roads. Agriculture is the 
staple industry. 60,413 tons of cocoa were exported by rail in 1928-29. 
Gold output (1929-30), 131,198 oz. (557,3307.). Average number employed 
in mining industry, 3,004 in 1929-30. 

In the western parts of the Colony are rich forests of mahogany, 
cedar, &c., and trees yielding fruits, oil, rubber, and gum copal. This 
district has been opened up by a trunk motor road from Kumasi to Pamu 
on the western frontier, via Sunyani, with the accompanying branch roada. 
The country is well watered, and with proper restraint it would contain 
inexhaustible supplies of valuable forest products. On the eastern side the 
forests are sparser, though timber ar>d oil trees are common and game fairly 



260 THE BRITISH EMPIRE -.SIERRA LEONE 

plentiful ; the products there are chiefly maize, yams, coco-yams, bananas, 
ground-nuts, and cocoa, the plantations of which are rapidly extending. 
In 1929 there were 1,000 cattle, 50,000 sheep and goats, and 8,000 pigs. 

The Northern Territories lying to the north of the parallel of 8 N. 
lat., bounded on the west and north by the French possessions and on 
the east by Togoland, were placed under British protection in 1901. They 
are administered, under the Governor, by a Chief Commissioner and 21 
Political officers. The country is divided into two provinces Northern and 
Southern, with headquarters at Tamale in tlie Southern Province, 237 miles 
north of Kumasi. Population (1921), 527,914 ; Europeans (1921), 49. 
Chief towns, Tamale, 4,000 ; Navrengo, 15,000. Area of the Protectorate, 
35,000 square miles ; Mandated Teiritory is about 10,000 square miles in 
addition. Police force (1929-30), 2 Euiopean officers and 309 other ranks. 
The Mohammedans have substantial mosques ; there are Roman Catholic and 
other missions. For purposes of education the Northern Province is con- 
sidered as part of the Gold Coast, though still having a separate Ordinance 
and Rules. A new scheme of education was inaugurated on April 1, 
1927, under a Superintendent of Education, with European masters on his 
staff. Government schools exist at Tamale, Gambaga, Salaga, and Wa. 
Pupils in 1929, 761. There is now a veterinary school in Tamale. 
There are also Mohammedan schools. There are 794 miles of motorable 
roads in dry season. The chief crops grown are yams, guinea corn, millet, 
maize, rice, and tobacco. Livestock, 1929 : cattle, 110,000 ; sheep and 
goats, 250,000; donkeys, 9,550; horses, 2,850. There are 5 quarantine 
stations through which foreign cattle and sheep enter the Protectorate. 
Gold-bearing quartz and alluvial deposits, and mica, exist. 

Governor of the Gold Coast. Sir Alexander Ransford Slater, K.C.M.G., 
C.B.E. 

Colonial Secretary of the Gold Coast. G. A. S. Northcote. 

Chief Commissioner of Ashanti. II. S. Ncwlands. 

Chief Commissioner of Northern Territories. Major F. W. F. Jackson^ 
C.M.G., D.S.O. 



SIERRA LEONE. 

The Colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession, in 1788, 
by a native King to English settlers, of a piece of land intended as a home 
for natives of Africa who were waifs in London ; and later it was used as a 
settlement for Africans rescued from slave-ships. It lies between French 
Guinea on the north and the Republic of Liberia on the east and south-east. 
Sierra Leone proper consists of a peninsula about 26 miles long, and 12 miles 
broad, with an area of about 260 square miles, terminating in Cape Sierra 
Leone. The Colony of Sierra Leone extends from the Scarcies River on the 
north, to the border of Liberia on the south, 180 miles. Inland it extends 
to a distance varying from 8 to 20 miles and includes the Yellaboi and 
other islands towards the north, as well as Sherbro and several smaller 
islands to the south, but the Isles de Los were ceded to France under the 
Convention of 1904. There are for the Colony and Protectorate a nominated 
Executive Council and a Legislative Council consisting of the Governor, 
twelve official members, three elected unofficial members, and not more than 
seven nominated unofficial members, of whom three are paramount chiefs of 
the Protectorate. Elected members must be 25 years of age, and hold their 
seats for five years. The franchise is confined to males. 



SIERRA LEONE 



261 



Area of the Colony 4,000 square miles approximately ; population (census 
1921), 85,163. Europeans, 1921, numbered 1,161. The birth-rate (1929) 
was 24'8 per thousand, and the death-rate 32*8 ; infantile mortality-rate 319 
per 1,000 registered births. Owing to the fact that many births escape regis- 
tration, the birth-rate appears lower and the infantile mortality-rate higher 
than they really are. Chief town, Freetown, 44,142 inhabitants (1921). 
The battalion of the Royal West African Frontier Force has its headquarters 
at Wilberforce, Freetown. Freetown, the greatest seaport in West Africa, 
is a second-class Imperial coaling-station, with an excellent harbour. 

In 1929, after the amalgamation, there weie 48 primary schools, belonging 
to missionary societies and assisted from public iunds, and 1 Government 
primary school. The average attendance in these 49 schools was 4,591. 
Salaries paid by Government, under amalgamation scheme, to Afiican 
teachers in mission schools, including grants to European teachers at 
Roman Catholic schools, amounted to 10,0702. There were 7 assisted 
secondary schools with an average attendance of 689. The grant awarded 
these secondary schools amounted to 1,1442. One of these (the Albert 
Academy) includes industrial work in its curriculum. There were also 
2 assisted industrial schools with an average attendance of 95, and one 
(The Sir Alfred Jones' Trades School) controlled by Government with an 
average of 24 boys. The assisted indnstiial schools received grants amount- 
ing to 204?. Besides these there were 2 Secondary, 1 Preparatory to 
Secondary, and 2 Primary unassisted schools. 

The Government conducts in Freetown a Model School for primary and 
post-primary education with an average attendance of 303, and a secondary 
school for boys with an average attendance of 80. Fourah Bay College 
which is under the management of the Church Missionary and Wesleyan 
Missionary Societies is affiliated to the University of Durham. 

Police force at end of 1929 had an authorised strength of 305, including 
6 European officers. In 1929, 32] persons were convicted in the Supreme 
Court, and 55 in the Circuit court.' 





1925 


1^26 1927 


1928 


1929 
















Revenue 


945,581 


855,440 


719,637* 


826,318 


740,646 


Expenditure . 


843,321 


957,155 I 754,610* 


815,373* 


871,087 


Imports 


2,178,461 


1,844,122 i 2,112,024 


2,054,507 


1,789,053 


Exports 


1,820,686 


1 871,446 


1,707,259 


1,829,003 


1,532,237 



* Excluding railway revenue and expenditure. 

The revenue in 1929 from customs was 507,0472.; railway, 233,5122.; 
licences, 20,0582.; court fees, 54,7402.; post-office, 15,1602.; light dues, 
17,0942.; house tax, 77,4452. 

Net public debt, December 31, 1929, 1,787,6732. 

Principal imports, 1929 : cotton manufactures, 304,2452. ; coal, 42,315 
tons, 65,9302.; spirits, 38,847 gallons, 28,7822. ; tobacco manufactured, 
58,025 Ibs., 24,9482. ; tobacco unmanufactured, 1,815,845 Ibs., 86,6292. ; 
oil (kerosene), 896,319 gallons, 28,3072. Principal exports, 1929: ginger, 
1,548 tons, 59,3082. ; kola nuts, 3,128 tons, 266,4222. ; palm kernels, 60,205 
tons, 876,8082.; palm oil, 2,845 tons, 75,1532.; piassava, 1,232 tons, 17,1772. 

Imports (Board of Trade returns) from United Kingdom in 1930, 
625,4232. ; exports thereto. 312,6332. ; 1929, imports, 779,0042.; exports, 
409,9672. 



262 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: THE PROTECTORATE 

The tonnage of vessels enterecUand cleared in the foreign trade (excluding 
vessels in Admiralty service) was (1929) 4,812,566 tons, of which 2,984,305 
tons were British. 

A Government railway, a single line of 2ft. 6in. gauge, is open from 
Freetown to Pendembu, near the Liberian frontier, a length of 227J miles. 
From Bauya Junction, 64J miles from Freetown, a branch line runs to 
Makeni, a distance of 83 miles. Total line open, 1929, was 310 miles, 
excluding sidings. Total receipts 1929, 233,512Z., gross expenditure 
28 6, 843 1. There are over 2,008 miles of telegraph and telephone, 
including electric-train-staff lines. In 1929, 2,096,664 postal packets 
were dealt with in the Colony ; money order transactions amounted 
to 46,533?. There are 1,097$ miles of combined telegraph and tele- 
phone wires in operation. There are 74 post offices and postal agencies. 
At the end of 1929 there were 7,499 depositors in the savings bank with 
63,4022. (inclusive of interest) to their credit. The West African Silver 
Currency was introduced in 1913 (sec under Nigeria, p. 251), and in 
1920 West African Alloy Coinage was put into circulation ; but British 
coins are still used. Currency notes of the West African Currency Board 
are in circulation (150,0002. at the end of 1928). The Bank of British West 
Africa and the Colonial Bank have their headquarters at Freetown. 

The Protectorate. The Protectorate was proclaimed August 21, 1896. 
On March 7, 1913, an Order in Council was issued providing for its adminis- 
tration ; this was revoked and replaced by an Order in Council of January 
16, 1924. The Order applies to the territories, not being portions of the 
Colony of Sierra Leone, lying between the sixth and tenth degrees of north 
latitude and the tenth and fourteenth degrees of west longitude, and 
beginning at the extreme southerly point of the Colony on the Anglo- 
Liberian boundary, as delimited under the provisions of the Anglo-Liberian 
Conventions, November 11, 1885, and January 21, 1911. The Protectorate 
extends inland about 180 miles. 

The Governor and Commandcr-in-Chief for the time being of the Colony 
of Sierra Leone is also the Governor of the Protectorate. Authority is 
given to the Legislative Council of Sierra Leone, by ordinance, to exorcise 
and provide for giving effect to the powers and jurisdiction acquired by the 
Crown. 

The Protectorate has an area of 27,000 square miles, and a population, 
according to the census of 1921, of 1,456,148 (natives, 1,450,903). The 
whole territory has been divided into two Provinces, each of which 
is placed under a European commissioner. Circuit courts are held at 
the chief centres of population. There are also district commissioners' 
courts, chiefs' courts for purely native cases (not serious crime), and com- 
bined courts (a chief and a non-native) for small debts and trivial misde- 
meanours (assaults, abusive language) arising between native and non-native. 
The chief articles of imports are cotton goods, spirits, hardware and tobacco ; 
the chief exports are palm kernels, kola nuts, palm oil, and ginger. A 
platinum-bearing area of about 40 square miles has been discovered. Platinum 
and gold are now being mined in small quantities. Two large haematite 
deposits have been discovered and exploitation of one deposit is being pro- 
ceeded with. Deposits of chromite ot commercial value have been found at 
a short distance Irom the Government Railway. There were 126 mission 
primary schools, 75 of which received assistance from the Government. The 
average attendance at the assisted schools was 3,471 and the grant paid them 
was 2,858?.; 6 assisted secondary schools with an average attendance of 
366, and which received grants amounting to 796?. ; one industrial school 



ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN 263 

with an average attendance of 49, and which received a grant of 92Z. 5s ; a 
Government School for the sons and nominees of chiefs at Bo, with 161 
pupils at the end of 1929 ; in 1929, Government opened a Central School at 
Koyeima, the 136 pupils from the old school at Njala being transferred 
theie. There were also 8 smaller Government Rural Schools, with a total of 297 
pupils ; 20 apprentices were in training at the Agricultural College at Njala. 

Governor. Arnold Weinholt ffodson, C.M.G. (1930). 

Colonial Secretary. C. E. Cookson. 

Books of Reference. 

GAMBIA, GOLD COAST, ASHANTI AND SIERRA LEONE. 

The Annual Blue Books of the various Colonies, and Reports thereon. 

The Colonial Office List. Annual. 

The Gambia Colony and Protectorate. An Official Handbook. London. 

Gold Coast Handbook. Compiled by J. Maxwell. London, 1928. 

Statistical Abstiact for the Colonies. Annual. 

Alldrulge (T. J.), A Transformed Colony : Sierra Leone as it was and as it is. London, 
1910. 

Butt-Thompson (Capt. F. W.), Sierra Leone in History and Tradition. London, 1926. 

Cardmall (A. W.), The Natives of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast. London, 
1920 

Clandge (W. W.), A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti, from the Earliest 
Times to the Twentieth Century. 2 vols. London, 1915. 

Crooks (Major, J. J.), A History of Sierra Leone. Dublin, 1903. 

Danguali (J B.), Akan Laws and Customs. London, 1928. 

Fuller (Sir Francis C.), A Vanished Dynasty Ashanti. London, 1920. 

Goddm d (T. N ), Handbook of Sierra Leone. London, 1925. 

Lucas (C. P.), Historical Geography of the British Colonies. West Africa. 3rd edition, 
revised to end of 1912 by A. B. Keith. Oxford, 1913. The Partition and Colonisation of 
Africa. London, 1022. 

Luke (H. C.) f A Bibliography of Sierra Leone. Oxford, 1925. 

Macmillan (A.), The Red Book of West Africa. London, 1920. 

Mat tin (E C ), British West African Settlements. A Study in Local Administration. 
London, 1927. 

Md'hee (Allan), The Economic Revolution in British West Africa. London, 1927. 

Migeod (F. W. H.), A View of Siena Leone. London, 192G. 

Powfll(R S. Baden), The Downfall of Preinpeh. New ed. London, 1900. 

Jlattray(E. S ), Ashanti. London, 1924. Ashanti Law and Constitution. London, 
1929. 

Reeve (H F.), The Gambia Its History, Ancient, Mediaeval and Modern. London, 1911 

Weiman (C W.), The Native States of the Gold Coast. London, 1930. 



Zululand. See NATAL. 



ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN. 
Government. 

The rule of Egypt in the Sudan, after having gradually extended during 
the course of 60 years, was interrupted in 1882 by the revolt of the Mahdi, 
who, with his successor, the Khalifa, held the country from 1885 for about 18 
years under a desolating tyranny. In 1896 an Anglo-Egyptian army com- 
menced operations for the recovery of the lost provinces, and on September 
2, 1898, tne overthrow of the Khalifa was completed. In November, 1899, 
he was killed by the Egyptian forces near Gedid. 

A convention between the British and Egyptian Governments, signed at 
Cairo, January 19, 1899, provides for the administration of the territory 



264 THE BRITISH EMPIBE: ANGLO- EGYPTIAN SUDAN 

south of the 22nd parallel of latitude by a Governor-General, appointed by 
Egypt with the assent of Great Britain, and declares the general principles in 
accordance with which the administration shall be earned on. The British 
and Egyptian flags shall be used together ; laws shall be made by proclama- 
tion ; no duties shall be levied on imports from Egypt, and duties on imports 
from other countries, via the Red Sea, shall not exceed those levied in 
Egypt ; the import and export of slaves is prohibited, and special attention 
shall be paid to the Brussels Act of 1890 respecting the import and export 
of arms, ammunition, and spirits. 

The Sudan is divided into thirteen Provinces under Governors. Adminis- 
tration is carried out through British District Commissioners one or more of 
whom are appointed to each of the districts into which the provinces are 
subdivided. Native, administrative officers are employed under the District 
Commissioners. Courts of Sheikhs and Chiefs have varying powers of limited 
jurisdiction over their tribesmen in accoi dance with native custom through- 
out the country. 

In 1910 a Governor-General's Council was created to assist the Governor- 
General in the discharge of his executive and legislative powers. All 
ordinances, laws and regulations are now made by the Governor-General in 
Council. 

Area and Population. 

Extending southwards from the frontier of Egypt to Uganda and the 
Belgian Congo (approximately N. lat. 5), a distance of about 1,660 miles, 
and stretching from the Red Sea to the confines of Wadai in Central 
Africa, the subject territory has an area of 1,008,100 square miles. 
The population in 1929 was estimated at 5,579,776. The Gambela 
Enclave, situated within the boundaries of Abyssinia, is leased by the 
Sudan Government from the Abyssinian Government as a Trading Post. 
The Eritrea-Sudan frontier and the frontier with French Equatorial 
Africa have been delimited and demarcated, as also has the greater part 
of the frontier with Abyssinia (see under Abyssinia). The chief towns 
are : Khartoum, population 42,240, the capital ; Omdurman (the old Dervish 
capital), population 102, 983 ; Khartoum North and Rural District, population 
102,512; Wadi Haifa, Merowe, El Darner, Atbara, Port Sudan, Suakin, 
Kassala El Dueim, Kosti, El Obeid, Nahud, Wad Medani, Singa, and El 
Fasher. 

Education. 

The schools under the Central Authority are classified as follows: 
(1) The elementary vernacular schools (Kuttabs), 87 in number (January, 
1930), situated in all parts of the country, and with a total number of about 
8,348 pupils. Instruction is given to boys from 7 to 12 years of age. (2) The 
primary schools, of which there are now 10 at Khartum, Omdurman, Wad 
Medani, Atbara, El Obeid, Haifa, Rufaa, Berber, El Dueim and Port Sudan. 
The number of boys in attendance is 1, 276. The school at Gordon College is 
attended by 553 pupils. There is also in the Gordon College buildings a 
training college attended by 8 students, who are eventually drafted out as 
Kadis in district courts. The industrial workshops, of which there are three, 
at Khartoum, Omdurman and Atbara, are attended by 387 boy apprentices. 
There is a training college for girls in Omdurman attended by 61 students, 
and 21 other girls' schools, attended by 1,858 girls altogether. Affiliated to 
the Gordon College are the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories, where 
investigations are carried on in connection with diseases and with the 



JUSTICE DEFENCE FINANCE 265 

economic products of the country. In addition to the above the Central 
authority aids 768 native schools (Khalwas) attended in 1930 by 26,880 boys. 

Justice. 

The Courts of Justice as well as the Registry of Lands, the Department of 
Government Lands, and the offices which deal with the legal business of the 
Government, are administered by the Legal Secretary, who has a permanent 
seat ex-ojficio on the Governor-General's Council. 

The High Court of Justice for the trial of civil suits comprises the Court 
of Appeal and Courts of original jurisdiction. Judges of the High Court 
sitting singly have general original jurisdiction. The Court of Appeal is 
constituted by any two or more Judges of the High Court sitting together. 

The general superintendence of the High Court is vested in the Chief 
Jubtice. In addition to the Chief Justice there are four Judges of the High 
Court. 

Subordinate to the High Court in every province is the Province Court. 
This comprises a Province Judge, except in Khartum Province, and District 
Judges of three grades. An Appeal lies to the Court of Appeal from a decree 
made in a suit of value more than E50 if the value of the relief claim in the 
appeal is more than E50. There are wide powers of revision exercised by 
the Court of Appeal or the Province Judge in matters where there is no right 
of appeal. 

In Provinces where there is neither a High Court Judge nor a specially 
appointed Province Judge the Governor acts as Province Judge, and in any 
District where there is no specially appointed District Judge, the district 
commissioners and assistant district commissioners act as District Judges. 
There are six specially appointed British District Judges, and seven specially 
appointed District Judges of the second grade. 

The Mohammedan Law Courts administer the Moslem religious law in cases 
between Mohammedans relating to succession on death, marriage, divorce, 
and family relations generally, and also Mohammedan charitable endowments. 

In sorno districts there are native courts presided over by sheikhs, chiefs, 
or village elders. This system is being developed and extended. 

Criminal justice is administered either by single magistrates, or courts 
of three magistrates. Judges of the High Court, and District Judges of 
the first and second grades, governors of provinces, district and assistant 
district commissioners, and some subordinate administrative officials are 
magistrates ; there are also native notables appointed as magistrates to sit as 
members of courts. Decisions of courts in the more serious cases require 
confirmation either by the Governor of the province or by the Governor- 
General, both of whom have extensive powers of revision. Rights of appeal 
exist. 

The Sudan penal code is an adaptation of the Indian penal code. 

Defence. 

Egyptian troops were evacuated in 1924, and a new Sudan Defence Force, 
owing allegiance to the Governor-General, has been created. 

Finance. 

The revenue and expenditure of the Sudan are as follows (E1 = 
d.): 

K 2 



266 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: ANGLO- EGYPTIAN SUDAN 



Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Year 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


1925 . . 
1926 . . 
1927 . . 


4,806,883 
5,857,989 
5,929,945 


E 

4,375,670 
5,482,888 
5,550,489 


1928 . . 
1929 . . 
1930 l . . 


B 
6,646,883 
6,981,500 
4,929,000 


K 

6,045,286 
6,610,274 
4,929,000 



Budget estimates (including net leceipts only from Jtailwaj s and Steamers). 

The main sources of revenue in 1929 were: Land Tax (E91,856) ; 
Animal Tax (E154,338); Royalties (E132,043) ; Customs (E729,654) ; 
Railways and Steamers (E2,549,582) ; Posts and Telegraphs (E173,364). 

These figures do not include the revenue and expenditure of Local 
Provincial Services, which amounted in 1925, to E239,937 and E203,168 ; 
1926, to E208,168 and E192,422 ; 1927, to E157,174 and E143,673 ; 
1928, to E133,577 and E116,743 ; 1929, to E126,729 and E108,719. 

Production and Commerce, 

The Sudan is the chief source of the world's supply of gum arable, 
exports of which in 1929 amounted to 16,787 tons, valued at E687,672. 
Egyptian cotton has been well established, and increasing quantities, 
which compare favourably with corresponding varieties grown in Egypt, are 
being produced annually. In 1929-30 the area of cotton on the Gezira 
Irrigation Scheme (put into operation in 1925) was increased to 174,000 acres 
and produced a crop of 405,670 kantars of 315 Ibs. seed cotton The areas 
of cotton grown on the Gash and Baraka Deltas were 55,500 and 45, 000 acres 
respectively and produced 80,000 and 54,600 kantars of 315 Ibs. seed cotton. 
In addition, increasing quantities of high-grade, long-staple American cotton 
are produced in the Northern Provinces of Berber and Dongolla under irrigation, 
and as a raiiicropin the Kassala, Fung, Blue Nile and White Nile, Kordofan, 
Upper Nile, and Mongalla Provinces. The total area under cotton in the 
1929-30 season is recorded as 355,594 acres, and the crop ot 1929-30 amounted 
to 27,480 tons of lint and 61,000 tons of cotton seed. 

Other products of the Sudan include sesame, senna leaves and pods, ground- 
nuts, dates, hides and skins, salt, ivory and gold. The principal grain crops 
are dura (great millet), the staple food of the people in the Sudan and used 
as cattle and poultry food outsido the Sudan, and dukhn (bulrush millet). 
The cattle and sheep trade of the Sudan is capable of great development. 
For some years Egypt has depended to a great extent on the Sudan for 
her meat supply. 

In 1929 there were in the Sudan approximately 22,000 horses; 350,000 
asses; 1,000 mules ; 1,505,000 cattle ; 2,200,000 sheep ; 200,000 goats ; 
and 400,000 camels. Pigs are kept by the Nubas only about 5,000. 

The forests which line the Blue Nile River banks, rich in fibres and 
tanning material, extend to the frontier of Abyssinia. On the White Nile 
they contain valuable trees the ebony tree, the gum acacia, the bamboo, the 
rubber creeper, whilst the sudd area in the upper reaches is composed of an 
inexhaustible quantity of papyrus. The finest gum forests are in Kordofan, 
and the best rubber in the Bahr el Ghazal. 

Gold is being successfully exploited in the Sudan, a mine being worked 
at Gabait in the Red Sea Province. Natural salt fields on the Red Sea 
coast near Port Sudan supply the whole needs of the country, and con- 
siderable quantities are exported annually to Abyssinia. In 1928 and 1929 
the output from the salt fields totalled 12,186 tons and 11,688 tons respec- 
tively. A new company has been formed, at Port Sudan, for the manufacture 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



267 



of salt on a large scale by evaporation of sea-water, and some experimental 
pumping has been carried out. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS, 



Year 

1924 . . 
1925 
1926 . . 


Imports i 

E 

5,474,910 
5,437,727 
5,574,401 


Exports a 


Year 


Imports i 


Exports 2 

E " 
4,956,090 
5,634,769 
6,526,112 


E 

3,541,866 
3,801,348 
4,876,236 


1927 . . 
1P28 . 
1029 . . 


E 
6,155,314 
6,463,206 
6,856,114 



1 Including Government Stores. 

a Excluding re-exports, which were E2S8,305 in 1994 ; E367,016 in 1925 ; JBE314,269 
in 1920; E273,329 m 1927 , E312,257 m 1928; and E2ft3,010 in 1929, 

Specie (1929 imports E147,932, re-exports E89,551) and Transit trade (E422,614 in 
1929) are also excluded. 

Summary of merchandise imported and exported showing countries of 
importation and exportation for 1928 and 1929 : 



Countries Imported from 
aud Exported to : 


Imports 


Exports 


1928 


1929 


1928 


1929 


Abyssinia .... 
Africa (Union of South) 
Arabia 
Australia .... 


K 

201,793 
99,007 
4,702 
44,095 
406,732 
3,390 
1,657,433 


B 
237,287 
98,756 
6,798 
96,685 
635,757 
19.789 
1,590,446 
11,854 
113,124 
85,380 
2,177,468 
22,658 
155,036 
594,634 
460,741 
174,696 
480,005 


E 

12,615 
10 
5,274 
13,291 
58,093 
1,789 
448,158 
9,446 
245,839 
123,935 
4,188,354 
19,853 
138,461 
11,391 
26,818 
216,189 
115,258 


E 
21,676 
888 
8,935 
19,994 
36,023 
2,806 
512,290 
4,242 
151,708 
151,113 
5,211,044 
20,492 
72,314 
3,660 
20,820 
244,639 
44,468 


Congo and Uganda 
Egypt ! 


Eritrea .... 


12,343 
112,009 
80,122 
2,250,247 
53,817 
124,547 
560,866 
295,397 
169,418 
387,288 




Germany .... 
Great Britain .... 
Holland 


Italy 


India (British) and Aden 
Japan 
United States 
Other countries 



1 Includes goods of non-Egyptian origin imported into the Sudan via Egypt. 

The value of import* from abroad other than tobacco, etc , m parcels post from all 
countries in 1929 was E114,612. These imports are now classified in the same way as 
other imports. 

The following table shows the value of the principal imports for 1928 and 
1929 : 







19 


28 


192 


9 






Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Horses, donkeys, mules and camels 
Cotton fabrics 


. units 
tons 


1,529 
5,139 




9,938 
923,471 


521 
7,098 



6,051 
1,178,819 




. metres 


1,701,478 


66,443 


2,005,442 


64,848 




. tons 


2,984 


189,861 


4,802 


177,880 


Clothing, underclothing and hosiery 
Carpets, woollen blankets and ruga 


. value 
. units 


27,548 
150 


69,688 
21,898 
11,929 


43,042 
194 


74,504 
80,388 
18 188 


Cotton yarn and sewing cotton . . 


. value 




18670 




15558 



268 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: ANGLO -EGYPTIAN SUDAN 







19 


28 


19f 


9 






Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Cotton covers 


units 


68,715 




8,135 


78,064 



10,978 


Silk fabrics 


tons 


66 


43,077 


31 


20,799 




metres 


174 399 


11 360 


193 634 


13 183 


Butter and margarine 


tons 


45 


6,059 


58 


6,980 


Sugar, refined 




24,298 


535,966 


29,922 


611,968 


Coffee 




3,754 


225 460 


4,064 


276,032 


Flour (wheat) 




10,909 


154,609 


14,641 


195,290 


Tea 




2,494 


255,130 


2,396 


208,340 


Kice 




1,622 


24,490 


2,lb8 


31,121 


Spices, pepper and chillies .... 
Jams and confectionery ..... 


> 


4fi6 
998 


24,931 
47,074 


608 
1,121 


30,550 
49,119 


Preserved alimentary vfgeiables . 
Bread and ship's biscuits, biscuits and 
cakes 


value 
tons 


109 


13,881 
11,232 


189 


20,318 
12602 


Wheat 




958 


12 513 


1 617 


19 213 


Liquors and liquems (including whisky) 


lities 


205,319 

984,007 


41,031 

28,152 


215,b77 
956,544 


44,568 
28,597 




*' 


78 085 


8 184 


73 352 


7 485 


Coal, coke and patent fuel .... 
Motor spirit (benzine) 


tons 
cases 


102,592 
186,603 


127,194 
79,155 


130,918 
108,188 


170.617 
41,012 




tons 


29 


1 115 


2 894 


24 338 


Petroleum (kerosene) 


cases 
tons 


183,468 


49,511 
42 


183,130 
1 307 


35,722 
5 076 


Essential and volatile oils .... 
Soap (household) 





38 
2,343 


19,639 
68,727 


48 
2 613 


26,548 
73 852 




" 


106 


6,115 


89 


6,822 


Matches 


value 




14 823 




17 262 


Chemicals and drugs (including medical 
plants) 






76 709 




91 877 


Tanned and untanned skins and hides 
saddlery and other leather goods . 
Boots and shoes 




pairs 


123 079 


82,013 
35 410 


154 472 


85,859 
48 963 


Machinery, all kinds of (including steam 
engines, motor cars, etc ) . . . 
Finished iron and steel tools, etc. . 
Timber (including railway sleepers). 
Paper and printed matter . . . 
Tobacco, tombac, cigars and cigarettes 
Dura and dukhn 


value 





tons 


824 
23 


628,316 
691,192 
123,227 
34,246 
341,308 
158 


308 
63 


710,689 
448,969 
176,830 
44,711 
311,095 
871 




" 











Internal Communications, 

There is a railway from Wadi Haifa to Khartoum with connections to 
the Red Sea at Port Sudan and Suakin, to Kareima in Dongola Province 
and Sennar and El Obeid. There is also a line 498 miles long from Haiya 
on the Atbara Port Sudan line to Sennar on the Blue Nile passing through 
Kassala (near Eritrea) and Gedaref. A new section from Gedaref to 
Makwar, 140 miles, was opened in 1929. The total length of the line open 
for traffic is 1,990 miles. The gauge is 3ft. 6in. 

There is a motor transport service throughout the year between Juba and 
Aba (Belgian Congo) a distance of 125 miles, and between Juba and Nimule 
(104 miles) on the Uganda border, from the end of December to the third 
week in March, Motor transport, privately owned in Kenya, operates 
between Nairobi and Kampala and Juba during dry season November to 
April, 

All navigable arms of the Nile and its tributaries between Assuan (Egypt) 
and Rejaf are served by a fleet of Government steamers. 

There is telegraphic communication with Egypt, Erythrea, and Abyssinia, 
and also wireless communication with Gambela in Western Abyssinia and 



TANGANYIKA TERRITORY 269 

submarine cable communications with the Hedjaz. There are 19 wireless 
stations, 5,700 miles of telegraph and telephone routes, and 17,970 miles of 
wire, including those maintained by the Sudan Government Railway. There 
are 81 stationary Post and Telegraph Offices and 19 travelling Post Offices, 
and one office is opened to telegraph business only. In 1929, 19,901,363 
postal packets were dealt with, 287,219 parcels and 9i4,907 telegrams. There 
were 1,297 telephone subscribers. 

Governor-General. Sir John L. Maffcy, K.C. V.O., C.S.L, C.I.E. 

G.O.C. Troops. Major-General H. J. Huddleston, O.B., O.M.G, D.S.O., 
M,C. 

Legal Secretary. N. G. Daiidson, Esq , C.B.E. 

Civil Secretary. H. A. MaeMichacl, Esq., C.M.G., D.S.O. 

Financial Secretary. A. J. 0. Huddleston, Esq., C.M.O., O.B.E., M.C. 

Books of Reference, 
1. OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

Egypt and the Sudan. Despatch to H.M. High Commissioner. Cmd. 2269. London, 
1924. 

Handbook of the Sudan. London. Annual. Annual Reports on the Sudan. Bud an 
Customs Monthly and Annual Statements of Trade with Foreign Countries and Egypt. 
Central Economic Board Monthly and Annual Reports. Sudan Almanac. 

2. NON-OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 

Baedeker'g Ec;ypt. 8th Edition, 1929. 

Beinatzik (H A.), Zwischen Weiseem Nil und Belgisch-Kongo. Vienna, 1929. 

Budge (Hir E. A. W.), The Egyptian Sudan, its History and Monuments 2vols., London, 
1907 By Nile and Tigris. London, 1920. 

Chapman (A.), Savage Sudan. London, 1921. 

Dugmore (Major A. R.), The Vast Sudan. London, 1924. 

Evans (I. L ), The British in Tropical Africa. London, 1929. 

Firth (0. M ), The Archeological Survey of Nubia. (Report for 1009-10 of the 
Egyptian Survey Department.) Cairo, 1915. 

Orossard (Lt.-Col ), Mission de Delimitation de 1'Afnque Equatoriale Franchise et du 
Soudan Anglo-Egypueu. Paris, 1925. 

Macmichael (II. A.), A History of the Arabs in the Sudan. 2 vola. Cambridge, 1922. 

Macimllan's Guides : Guide to Egypt and the SfUlftn. 7th ed. London, 1916. 

Martin (P. F ), The Sudan in Evolution. London, 1921. 

Millais (3. G.), Par away up the Nile. London, 1924. 

PHieger (R. P.), Vers les U616s par la Voie du Nil. Brussels, 1929. 

The works of many travellers may be consulted, among them being those of Baker 
(1867-73), Colborne (1883), Colston (1878), De Cosson (1873), Eusor (1875-76), Felkin 
(1879-80), Jephson (1887-88), Junker (1875-76), Grant (1864), Lejean (1860-61), Pethenck 
(1852), Marno (1873-75), Sehwemfurth (1868-71), Speke (1803), Russegger (1838). Also see 
Bibliography appended to Dr. Badge's 'The Egyptian Sudan.' 

See also under Egypt, below. 



BRITISH MANDATED TERRITORIES IN AFRICA (TAN- 
GANYIKA, SOUTH-WEST AFRICA, CAMEROONS, AND 
TOGOLAND), 

TANGANYIKA TERRITORY (LATE GERMAN EAST AFRICA). 

Government. German East Africa was conquered in 1918, and was 
subsequently divided between the British and Belgians. In March 1921 
the district ot Ujiji and part of Bukoba, formerly administered by the 
Belgians, were handed over to British jurisdiction. The country is administered 
under mandates approved by the League of Nations. The mandates lay 
down conditions directed against slavery, forced labour (except for essential 
public works and services), abuses in connection with the arms traffic, the 



270 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: TANGANYIKA TERRITORY 

trade in spirits, usury, and security of labour. The interests of natives are 
safeguarded. 

Under an Order in Council, dated July 22 1920, the Territory is admin- 
istered by a Governor, who is assisted by an Executive Council, all of whose 
members are nominated. A Legislative Council has been constituted as 
from Oct. 1, 1926, consisting of 13 official members and not more than 
10 non-official members. Rights in or in relation to any public lands vest 
in the Governor, but the Secretary of State for the Colonies may appoint, 
if he sees fit, another trustee or trustees to exercise such right. A Native 
Affairs Department was established in 1926. 

Area and Population, The Territory extends from the Umba River 
on the north to the Rovuma River on the south, the coast-line being about 
600 miles in length, and includes the adjacent islands. The northern 
boundary runs approximately north-west to Lake Victoria at the intersection 
of the first parallel of southern latitude with the eastern shore (Mohuru 
Point). The boundary on the west follows the Kagera River (the eastern 
frontier of Ruanda), thence the eastern boundary of Urundi to Lake Tangan- 
yika. The western boundary then follows the middle of Lake Tanganyika 
to its southern end at Kasanga (formerly Bismarckburg), whence it goes 
south-east to the northern end of Lake Nyasa. Rather less than half-way 
down the lake the boundary turns east and joins the Rovuma River, whose 
course it follows to the sea. The total area is about 374,000 square miles, 
which includes about 20,000 square miles of water. Dar-es-Salaam is the 
capital, population, 25,000. 

The native population consists mostly of tribes of mixed Bantu race, 
and was enumerated (April 1921) at 4,107,000. Asiatics numbered 14,991 
(Indians 9,411, Goans 798, Arabs 4,782), and Europeans 2,447. In 1929 
the European population was estimated at 6,630 and the native population 
at 4,794,000. According to German law every native born after 1905 is 
free, but a mild serfdom was continued under German rule. Legislation for 
the abolition of slavery was enacted in 1922. 

Education, There were in 1929, 88 Government schools, 1,622 Roman 
Catholic schools and 1,281 Protestant schools, with an average attendance 
of 86,263 pupils. The amount allotted to education in the 1929-30 
Estimates was 100,9772. There are 3 schools for the children of Dutch 
settlers in the Arusha District and another European school at Ngare 
Nairobi in the Moshi District. A school for young European children has 
been established in Dar-es-Salaam, and a correspondence course exists for 
children in outlying districts. 

There is a monthly paper published by the Government in Swahili. 

'finance. The revenue in 1929-30 was 1,992,6752. ; expenditure 
2,084, 8982. The chief items of revenue were licences, taxes, etc., 
915, 4192. ; customs, 744,2202. ; fees of court or office, 112,8982. ; posts and 
telegraphs, 71,0302. The chief items of expenditure were : public works, 
296,6052. ; provincial administration, 375, 5 4 51. ; medical and sanitation, 
248,2332.; military, 117,9322.; police and prisons, 137,8612. Estimates 
1930-31: revenue, 2,054,5002.; expenditure, 2,145,9122. 

Loans have been received from the Imperial Government in the years 
1920-21 to 1925-26, amounting to 3,135,4462. for capital improvements and 
developments and have been expended upon railway works, 1,293,6142. ; 
other works, 766,324 ; restoration of war damage, 177,909, and to meet deficits 
upon recurrent account, 897, 6992. Interest at 6 per cent, and sinking fund at 
1 per cent, is being paid on the loan for railway and other works, while the 



DEFENCE PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY TRADE, ETC. 271 

balance is temporarily free of interest, but repayment is to be considered in 
19,33. A further loan of 2,070,000*. was raised in the home market in June, 
1928, under the East African Guaranteed Loan Bill. Railway works, 
1,736,000*.; ports and harbours, 100,000*.; other works, 234,000*. The 
loan bears interest at 4J per cent. No payment of sinking fund for 
redemption need be made for a period of three years from date of flotation. 

Defence. The Southern Brigade Headquarters, two battalions and one 
company of the Nyasaland Battalion of the King's African Rifles are 
stationed in the Territory. The police force consisted (1929) of 1, 768 all ranks. 

Production and Industry. The total area under forest other than 
savannah forest is approximately 4,071 square miles of which 95*2 per cent, is 
Government forest reserves, 3'4 per cent, awaits reservation, and 1*4 per cent, 
is valuable forest in private ownership. These forests contain some good 
merchantable timbers in large quantity, among which Pencil Cedar, Yellow- 
Wood and Mvule are the most important. In addition, valuable species of 
hard woods occur as single trees or in groups widely scattered throughout large 
areas of savannah forest. Ebony is plentiful near the coast, and the creeks 
and river mouths support extensive mangrove woods valuable as a source of 
tanning bark and poles. The possible output of the Territory's forests far 
exceeds the present local consumption. The approximate production of 
timber and iuel wood in 1929 was 381,700 and 10,608,000 cubic feet 
respectively. 

The chief export crop of the territory is sisal fibre, the export of which 
in 1929 reached 45,728 tons, valued at 1,485,5932., as compared with 36,186 
tons, valued at 1,111,429*. in 1928. Other major export crops are: coffee, 
cotton, groundnuts, copra, simsim and grains. Cultivation of tea and 
tobacco by Europeans in the south-western highlands is proceeding, 
although still in the experimental stage. 

In 1929 there were 4,867,444 cattle, 2,134,596 sheep and 2,906,638 goats 
in the territory. 

The value of minerals produced in 1929 was: diamonds, 88,030*. ; gold, 
38,630*.; salt. 39,200*.; mica, 14,780*.; tin, 2,825*.; red ochre, 2572. 
Companies desiring to investigate the mineral resources can obtain in- 
formation and assistance from the Mines Dcpt., Dar-es-Salaam. 

Trade and Shipping. There is a uniform Customs tariff in Tanga- 
nyika, Kenya, and Uganda. Total imports, 1928, 3,737,3582. ; 1929, 
4,285,952*. ; total exports, 1928, 4,050,5947. ; 1929, 3,988,365*. ; transit, 
1928, 2,061,078*. ; 1929, 2,631,206*. 

Chief exports, 1929: Sisal (45,728 tons), 1,485,593*. ; cotton (110,821 
centals), 487,863*. ; coffee (177,140 cwts), 588,871*.; ground-nuts (7,765 
tons), 120,448*. ; hides and skins (50,988 cwts), 223,002*. ; copra (7,920 tons), 
145,015*. ; grain (160,924 cwts), 95,09U. ; simsim (4,256 tons), 74,773*. ; 
beeswax (6,721 cwts), 48,149*. ; ghee (9,073 cwts), 36,547*. ; diamonds 
(23,290 carats), 91,247*. ; gold (10,462 ozs. troy), 39,184*. Chief imports, 
1929: Cotton piece-goods, 903,384*.; iron and steel manufactures, 227,035*. ; 
food-stuffs, 203,412*. ; machinery, 264,616*. ; building materials (including 
cement and galvanised iron sheets), 292,786*.; kerosene and motor spirits, 
237,457*. ; sugar, 71,518*. ; rice, 85,198*. ; spirits, 47,426*. : cigarettes, 
75,116*. 

In 1929, 565 steamers (exclusive of coastal boats) of 2,337,974 tons, and 
4,436 dhows of 98,942 tons, entered and cleared the various coast ports 
from places beyond the Territory. 

The chief seaports are Dar-es-Salaam, Tanga, Lindi, and Mikindani. 



272 THE BfUTISH EMPIKE : SOUTH-WEST AFBICA 

Communications. Light motor traffic is now possible over 10,683 
miles of road during the dry season. 

There are two railways of metre gauge in the territory. The Tanga 
Railway from Tanga to Moshi (219 milee), with a branch line from Ran 
Rivir via Sanya to Arusha (55 miles) ; the construction of the direct route 
from Moshi to Sanya approaches completion. The Central Railway from 
Dar-es-Salaam to Kigoma (772 miles), with a bianch line from Tabora to 
Mwanza (235 miles). Also a 60 c.m. tram line from Mingoyo near Lindi to 
Ndanda (57 miles). This is worked by hand during certain periods of the 
year only. There are steamers on Lakes Victoria, Nyasa and Tanganyika. 

Dar-es-Salaam is in telegraphic communication with many inland centres 
and with the adjoining territories Nyasaland, Kenya, Uganda and Northern 
Rhodesia. Cable communication exists between Dar-es-Salaam and Zanzibar 
and communication with the Belgian Congo is effected by wireless between 
Kigoma and Albertville. A wireless station with a range of 450 miles spark 
transmission and 1,000 miles continuous wave transmission was erected at 
Dar-es-Salaam in 1927. There are 119 Post Offices and Postal Agencies, 97 
of which are Telegraph Offices. Telegraph Money Order and Savings Bank 
business are conducted at 22 Head Offices, and Postal Order and ordinary 
Money Order business at 31 Sub Offices. Telephone Exchanges are estab- 
lished and Trunk Telephone communication is in operation between 37 
Inland centres and also with Mombasa. 

East African currency is in use consisting of a silver shilling, the 
equivalent of 100 cents ; a 50 cent silver piece ; copper and bronze 10 cent, 
5 cent, and 1 cent pieces. There are currency notea in denominations ranging 
from 5 to 1000 shillings. Four banks, the National Bank of India, the 
Standard Bank of South Africa, Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial and 
Overseas) and the Banque du Congo Be"lge, have branches in the country. 

Governor. Si* Stewart Symes, K.B.E., O.M.G., D.S.O. Appointed 
January, 1931. 

Books of Reference. 

Official Reports on Tanganyika Territory (Annual). London. 
Calvert (A. F.) German East Africa. London, 1917. 
Dundas (Hon C ), Kilimanjaro and its people. London, 1924. 
Fonck(H.), Deutsch-Ostafrika Berlin, 1909. 

Jodson (P. S.), The Tanganyika Territory. London, 1920. Eastern Africa To-day. 
London, 1928 

Smuis (J. C.), German East Africa, Geographical Journal, March. 1918. 
Saym(Q. F.) f Editor. Handbook of Tanganyika. London, 1930. 



SOUTH-WEST AFBICA. 

Situation and Physical Features. This country is bounded on the 
north by Portuguese West Africa and North Rhodesia, on the west by the 
Atlantic Ocean, on the south and southern portion of the eastern boundary 
by the Cape Province of the Union, and on the remainder of the eastern 
boundary by the Bechuanaland Protectorate and North Rhodesia. On 
the western coast, a strip varying from 60 to 100 miles in width and 
extending from the Orange River in the south to the Ugab River, which 
borders on what is known as the Kaokoveld, consists of barren desert, and 
this is also the case in that portion of the Great Kalahari depression 
which is included in the country on its eastern boundary. The eastern 
portion is, however, not barren, being good grazing land. 

The Kunene River and the Okavango, which form portions of the northern 
border of the country, the Zambesi, which forms the eastern boundary of 



GOVERNMENT, ETC. AREA AND POPULATION 273 

the Caprivi Strip, the Kwando or Mashi, which flows through the Caprivi 
Strip from the north between the Okavango and the Zambesi, and the 
Orange River in the south, are the only permanently running streams. 
But there is a system of great sandy dry river beds throughout the 
country, in which water can generally be obtained by sinking shallow 
wells ; these are the Kuiseb, Swakop, Omaruru and Ugab on the west, 
the Fish River in the south, the Nosob, the Auob and the Elephant 
Rivers in the south-east, and a series of what are known as Omurainba in the 
north-east, with numerous smaller stream beds. In the Grootfoutein area, 
which geologists describe as a "karst" region, there are large supplies of 
underground water, but except for a few springs, mostly hot, there is no 
surface water throughout the country. 

Government and Administration. The country was annexed by 
Germany in 1884, but was surrendered to the Forces of the Union of South 
Africa on July 9, 1915, at Khorab. It is now administered by the Union 
under a Mandate from the League of Nations, dated December 17, 1920. 
The laws of the Union, subject to local modifications, if required, may be 
applied to the country and are gradually being introduced. 

The Administration is conducted from Windhoek, and the country is 
divided into 17 Districts controlled by Magistrates. In addition there is a 
Native Commissioner at Windhoek who has charge of all Native Affairs in the 
Territory. Under him are officers at the larger labour centres and Super- 
intendents of Reserves in the Districts where there are large Native 
Reserves. The officer in charge of Native Affairs in Ovamboland keeps in 
touch with the Ovambos living there. There is also an officer stationed at 
Kuring Kuru on the Okavango River, who keeps close touch with the natives 
living along the North-Eastern border of the territory. 

Windhoek, the capital, is situated in the centre ot the territory, and with 
its surrounding district contains a population of 4,602 Europeans (1926 
Census) and 13,753 (estimated) Natives. 

The administration has been vested by the Union Parliament in the 
Governor-General of the Union, who has delegated his powers to an Adminis- 
trator with full authority to legislate. By Act No. 42 of 1925 the Union 
Parliament conferred a Constitution on South- West Africa, providing for 
an Executive Committee, an Advisory Council, and a Legislative Assembly 
with such powers, authorities and Junctions severally as are in the Act 
defined. 

Administrator. A. J. Werth (April 1926). 

Area and Population. The total area of the country including the 
Caprivi Zipfel is 822,394 square miles; that of Wai vis Bay, administered 
by S.W.A., 374 square miles. 

The European population according to the figures of the 1926 Census 
amounts to 24,115. The Native population is estimated at 237,701. 
As large areas of the country, particularly along the coast and in the 
north, are uncivilised, it has been impossible to procure precise figures. In 
particular it has been difficult to estimate the numbers of the Bushmen, who 
still exist in considerable numbers in the north-eastern portion of the country. 

The principal native races are the Ovambos, Hereros, Bergdamaras or 
Klipkaffirs, Hottentots and Bushmen. 

The Ovambos are a Bantu race and follow agriculture. They still possess 
to its full extent tribal organisation. 

The Hereros are a pastoral people who formerly owned enormous herds 
of cattle. The Germans oppressed them, their tribal organisation completely 
disappeared and they were scattered throughout the country on farms 



274 THE BRITISH EMPIRE : SOUTH-WEST AFRICA 

and in the different towns, where they formed the ordinary source of labour. 
The Herero makes an excellent herd. Since the British occupation of the 
country Reserves have been set apart for them and they have considerably 
increased in numbers and in animal wealth. 

The Bergdamaras are, it is believed, also of Bantu origin, though some 
authorities hold that they belong rather to the Hottentot race whose 
language they now speak. They are an inferior tribe and were alternately 
the slaves of the Hereros and the Hottentots in pre- European days, as the 
former or the latter were in the ascendant. 

The Hottentots, so called, consist of two distinct sections : one, whose 
remnants are found in the central portions of the country, being of pure 
native extraction, the source of which is but little understood ; the other is 
composed of tribes resulting from an admixture of European blood in the 
Cape with the Hottentot races residing there a couple of centuries ago, which, 
after conflict with their European neighbours, sought refuge across the Orange 
River. 

The Bushmen are the oldest inhabitants of South-West Africa and are 
found in considerable numbers in its eastern portion from Lat. 26 to the 
Northern boundary. 

In the centre of the country just south of the Windhoek district 
is the Bastard Gebiet occupied by a race known as the Bastards, whose 
origin is much the same as the second class of Hottentots mentioned above, 
except that the admixture of European blood is much greater, and their 
ordinary language is Cape Dutch. These people have a measure of self- 
government under a council of which the local Magistrate is Chairman. 
They number about 5,000. 

Education. European. -There are (1929) 63 Government schools with 
3,623 pupils, and 56 registered private schools with 1,368 pupils. Of the 
children in Government schools 1,056 are accommodated in hostels which are 
conducted by the Administration in conjunction with 22 of the Government 
schools. The general policy has hitherto been to bring the country children 
into these hostels and so obviate the necessity of single-teacher country 
schools. In consequence of the.expenditure involved, however, this policy is 
now being modified, and wherever possible Government farm schools and 
aided private farm schools are being established. There are 19 Government 
farm schools and 46 aided private farm schools. 

Native. The education of the Natives is under the direct supervision of 
the various Missions. There are (1929) 64 Government-aided mission schools 
with 4,428 pupils. There are 2 Training Schools for Native Teachers, 
subsidised by the Government, with 69 student teachers in training. 

T Finance. In 1929-30 the revenue amounted to 867, 524?. and the 
expenditure to 1,202,3897. (including 272,841 1. loan expenditure, and 
192,0712. expenditure in connection with settlement of Angola farmers). 
The Estimates for 1930-31 are: revenue 707, 0002., expenditure 1,516,7102. 
(including 358,8902. loan expenditure, and 265,000. from Union Govern- 
ment in connection with settlement of Angola farmers). 

The principal source of revenue is the tax on diamonds, which is 66 per 
cent, of the gross proceeds less 70 per cent, of the working costs. 

For the purposes of Customs and Excise revenue the territory is included 
in the South African Customs Union, and a lump sum based on the customs 
and excise duties on goods consumed in the territory is paid over to the 
Administration. The total annual revenue from this source is now approxi- 
mately 270,0002. 



PRODUCTION, ETC. COMMERCE COMMUNICATIONS 275 



Production and Industry. South- West Africa is essentially a stock- 
raising country, the absence of water rendering agriculture, except in the 
Northern and North-eastern portions, almost impossible. Generally speaking 
the southern half of the Territory is suited for the raising of small stock, 
while the central and northern portions are better fitted for cattle. It is 
estimated that in 1929 therb were about 636,661 head of cattle, 2,435,550 
head of small stock, 18,998 horses, 53,830 donkeys and 1,792 mules. 

The staple product is diamonds, which are found along the coast from the 
Orange River to Conception Bay. The fields are alluvial and the deposits 
shallow. The stones are small but of a very good quality. Other minerals 
worked are copper, rich deposits of which exist at Tsumeb and in the 
neigh boui hood, vanadium, marble and tin. Gold and silver are known to 
exist but in too small quantities to work remuneratively. 

Commerce*. Imports and exports for 6 years : 



Year 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Year. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


1924 
1925 
1926 




1,777,164 
2,189,851 
2,507,625 




2,851,473 
2,828,222 
3,292,986 


1927 
1928 
1929 



2,490,816 
2,881,562 
3,081,848 



8,475,561 
3,355,937 
3,595,313 



The principal exports are diamonds, the exports in 1929, 597,059 carats, 
valued at 1,563,805. In 1929, 73,572 tons of copper were exported, value 
703,011*. 

Imports from overseas, 1929, 1,247,256. | Union of South Africa, 
1,834,5922. Exports overseas, 2,999,665^.; Union of S. A., 595,6482. 

The bulk of the direct imports into the country are landed at Wai vis 
Bay, which is now administered as a portion of South-West Africa, and the 
Government proposes to develop this port as the main harbour. 

Communications. The railway line between De Aar Junction and 
Prieska has been extended through Upington across the Orange River and 
joined up with the line from Kalkfontem south to Windhoek.. 

The whole of the lailway system, from De Aar in the Union to the border 
and within the border, is controlled by the S.A. Railways and Harbours 
Department through the System Manager in Windhoek. 

The total length of the line inside South West Africa is 1,096 miles of 
3ft. 6in. gauge, and 353 miles of 2ft. gauge. Thc^ro are also 98 miles of 
private line, most of which have been constructed for the service of the 
diamond fields south of Luderitz. 

At the 31st March, 1929, there were 109 Post Offices and 395 Private Bag 
Services distributed by rail or road transport. The number of articles posted 
was 3,801,876 and 5,365,152 were received. 

On 31st March, 1929, there were 4,194 miles of trunk lines, 2,795 miles 
of telegraphs, 1,469 miles of super-imposed telegraphs and telephones, 682 
miles of rural telephones and 1,077 miles of farm telephone lines; 85 
telegraph offices, 41 telephone exchanges, and 1,293 telephone subscribers. 

A Post Office Savings Bank was established in 1916. The number of ac- 
counts open at 31st March, 1929, was 4,947, with a credit of 171,7941. 195. 9d. 

At Walvis Bay there is a 3-i k.w. Coastal Wireless Station. 

Books of Reference. 

Numerous Imperial Blue Books, especially the Report on the Natives of South-West 
Africa (Cd. 9146, London, 1918) ; and Cape Parliamentary Papers, especially the Report on 
Ovamboland (U.Q. 88/15, Pretoria, 1916). 



276 THE BKITISH EMPIRE : BRITISH CAMEROOtfS 

South-West Africa Handbook. II. M. Stationery Office, London, 1920, 

Administration of South-West Africa, The Native Tribes of South West Africa. 
Windhoek, 1928 

The Native Tribes of South-west Africa. London, 1029. 

Earth (Paul), Suedwest-Afnka. Leipzig, 1926. 

Calvert (A. F ), South-West Africa during the German occupation. London, 1915. 

J5Vans(l. L.), The British in Tropical Africa. Cambridge, 1928. 

Jrle (L.), Die Herero. Guetersloh, 1906. 

Kaiser (Erich), Diamanten Wuste Suedwestafrikas. Berlin, 1926. 

Keltic (J. S ), The Partition of Africa London, 1895. 

Tbnnesen (J ), The South- West African Protectorate. 'Geographical Journal,' April, 
1917. 

Wagner (P. H.), The Geology and Mineral Industry of South- West Africa. Cape Town, 
1916. 



BRITISH CAMEROON. 

The Cameroons, lying between British Nigeria and the French Congo, 
extends from the coast north-eastwards to the southern shore of Lake Chad. 
It was captured from the Germans in February, 1916, and is now divided 
between the British and French under a Declaration signed at London 
July 10, 1919. The British portion is a strip, area about 34,236 square 
miles and population estimated at 700,050, stretching from the sea along the 
Nigerian frontier to Lake Chad. Bantu negroes live near the coast, Sudan 
negroids inland. The country is administered under a mandate which con- 
tains provisions directed against slavery, forced labour (except for essential 
public services) and abuses of the traffic in arms and spirituous liquors. 
The northern part is attached to the Provinces of Bornu and Yola in 
Nigeria, and the southern part known as the Cameroons Province, to the 
Southern Provinces of Nigeria. There are Government schools at Victoria. 

The soil in the coast region is fertile. In Victoria, experiments are being 
made towards the cultivation of cloves, vanilla, ginger, pepper, and other 
products ; there is an active trade in ivory and palm-oil ; hardwood and 
eboiiy are abundant, and gold and iron have been found. 

There are graduated direct taxes for the native population. Europeans 
are not subject to direct taxation. The revenue and expenditure are in- 
corporated in the accounts for Nigeria. Government revenue for 1928-29, 
88,904Z. ; expenditure, 138,50U 

Imports into the British Cameroons in 1929, 214, 621 Z. ; exports, 307, 607Z. 
Chief exports : bananas (dried), palm kernels, palm oil, cocoa, coffee and 
rubber. Chief imports : textiles, spirits, timber, salt, iron wares, flour, 
kerosene, fish, rice, tobacco, cigarettes, motor spirit, coopers' stores, hard- 
ware, and colonial produce. In 1929, 137 vessels, having a total tonnage of 
265,738, entered Victoria, and 97 vessels (53,908 tons) entered Tiko, 

The mark was in use until July 1, 1922, on which date British currency, 
similar to that in use in Nigeria, was substituted for it. 

Administrator of British Zone, The Governor of Nigeria. 

Books of Reference* 

Cameroon Handbook. H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1920. 

Draft Mandate for the Cameroons. (Crnd. 1350.) London, 1921. 

Official Reports on the British Bphere of the Cameroons Annual. London. 

Calvert (A. P ), The Cameroon*. London, 1917. 

Haase(L.) t Durchs unbekannte Ramenm. Berlin. 1915. 

Migeod (F.W H.) Through British Cameroons. London, 1925. 

Reynolds (A. J.), From the Ivory Coast to the Cameroons. London, 1929 

Zimmermann (E.), Neukamemn. Berlin, 1913. 



BERMUDA 277 

TOGOLAND. 

Togoland, between the Gold Coast Colony on the west and French 
Dahomey on the east, was surrendered unconditionally by the Germans to 
British and French forces in August, 1914. On September 30th, 1920, 
the country was divided between France and Britain in accordance with 
the Franco-British declaration of July 10th, 1919. The boundary between 
the two spheres extends from the north-west corner in a general direction 
south-east and south, terminating not far from the port of Lome, but so 
that no part of the British sphere reaches the coast. (See map in the YEAR 
BOOK for 1920.) The area allotted to Great Britain is approximately 12,600 
square miles, and for administrative purposes it is attached to adjacent 
provinces of the Gold Coast Colony and Northern Territories. The popula- 
tion, according to the 1921 census, is 188,265 (including 20 non- Africans, of 
whom 15 are Europeans). 

For purposes of education the British mandated territory is considered 
as part of the Gold Coast. 

In the Biitish mandated area the Ewe Mission has 50 schools with 2,229 
pupils, average daily attendance 2,042, and the Roman Catholic Mission 
has 12 schools with 816 pupils, average daily attendance 758. 

The revenue and expenditure of the area are now included in the figures 
for the Gold Coast. Expenditure still greatly exceeds revenue. 

Separate figures for imports and exports are no longer available, being 
included in the general total for thb Gold Coast. 

The principal imports are cotton goods, salt, and tobacco. Principal 
exports are palm oil, palm kernels, cocoa, kola nuts, and raw cotton. 

Administrator of British Area. The Governor of the Gold Coast. 

Books of Reference. 

Draft Mandate for Togoland (Cmd. 1350). London, 1921. 
Official Reports on the British Sphere of Togoland. Annual. London. 
Togoland Handbook. H.M Stationery Office, London, 1920. 
Tnerenberg (Q.), Togo. Berlin, 1914. 



AMERICA. 

Antigua, Bahamas, Barbadoi. See WEST INDIES. 



BERMUDA. 

A Colony, with representative government, consisting of a group of 360 
small islands (about 20 inhabited), 580 miles east of North Carolina, and 
677 miles from New York, noted for its climate and scenery ; favourite 
winter resort for Americans, who number some 30,000 annually. 

The Spaniards visited the islands in 1515, but they had previously been 
discovered' (the exact date is unknown) by Juan de Bermudez, after whom 
they were named. No settlement was made, and they were uninhabited 
until a party of colonists under Sir George Somers was wrecked there in 
1609. A company was formed for the ' Plantation of the Somer's Islands, 
as they were called at first, and in 1684 the Crown took over the Government. 

Governor. Major-Gen. T.A. Cubitt, C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., appointed 1931 
( salary 8,400J.-f-l,OOOZ. for entertainment allowance), assisted by an Executive 
Council of 7 members (four official) appointed by the Crown, a Legislative 
Council of 9 members (three official), also appointed by the Crown, and an 
elected House of Assembly of 36 members ; 1,523 electors. 



278 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: BERMUDA 



Area, 19*3 square miles (12,360 acres, 2,759 under cultivation). Civil 
population at census 1921, 20,127 (7,006 white) ; 13,021 belong to Church of 
England (census 1921). Estimated civil population, 1S29, 31,500 (15,550 
white). In 1929 the birth-rate was 24-34 and the death-rate ll'Sl per 1,000 ; 
there were 205 marriages. In 1929 there was an excess of immigration 
over emigration of 233. Chief town, Hamilton ; population 3,000. 
Bermuda is an important naval base on the North America and West Indies 
Station, with dockyard, victualling establishment, &c. Police force, 
1929, 60. 

Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 13, and Govern- 
ment assistance is given by the payment of grants, and, where necessary, 
school fees, but there are no Government schools. The aided schools must 
reach a certain staudaid of efficiency, and submit to Government inspection 
and control. In 1929, 32 aided primary schools, with 3,719 pupils, and 
4 secondary schools, received in Government grants 13,2252. There are 2 
garrison schools and 1 naval school; about 15 other primary schools 
receiving no Government grant. 



- 


1925 


192<> 


1927 I 


1928 


1929 


Revenue 
Expenditure . 




248,476 
312,283 




314,298 
291,209 


' 
290,236 ' 
249,420 i 



336,870 
303,642 




364,675 
334,262 



Chief sources of revenue 1929 : customs, 240,648?. ; lighthouse tolls, 
6,1482. ; postal, 47, 769 L Chief items of expenditure salaries, public 
works, education. In 1929, 50,234/. was spent on the tourist traffic. 
Public debt (1929), 70,0002. 

The chief products are jonions, potatoes, lily-bulbs, and various kitchen 
garden vegetables. 



- 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 



1,587,470 
177,015 


1929 


Imports 1 . 
Exports 



1,325,041 
166,020 




1,404,824 
239,553 




1,532,794 
249,958 




1,718,248 
185,903 



1 Excluding Government stores from imports. 

Imports (excluding Government stores) from United Kingdom in 1929, 
573,5692. ; Canada, 326,6842. ; other countries, 817,9952. 

Food supplies are mostly imported from the United States and Canada, 
and nearly all the export produce of Bermuda goes to the-' United States. 
The principal imports in 1929 were: beef, 44,3332. ; bran, 25,5582. ; flour, 
28,6832. ; clothing, 26,8182. ; cotton goods, 69,5252. ; electrical goods, 
35,3292. ; hardware, 51,4742. ; oats, 42,3262. ; woollen goods, 42,4632. ; 
kerosene oil, 23,2372. ; machinery, 40,4912. ; malt liquor, 39,2052. ; coal 
(steam), 5,2682. ; fresh fruit, 32,8042. ; smoked and pickled meats, 59,8162. ; 
groceries, 40,4392. ; fancy goods, 169,0102. ; canned goods, 44,4072. ; butter, 
41,4382. The principal exports in 1929 were : lily bulbs, 10,2322. ; potatoes, 
51,4732. ; other vegetables, 74,1452. 

The registered shipping consisted (1929) of 13 steam vessels of 26,421 
tons net, 1 motor ship of 19,086 tons, and 20 sailing vessels of 3,378 tons 
net, and two motor boats of 93 tons net; total net tonnage, 48,978. In 
1929 the total tonnage of vessels entered and cleared was 4,073,457 tons, 
of which 3,774,332 were British. 



CANADA 279 

There are 220 miles of telephone wire under the control of the military, 
and 15 of telegraph cable. There is also a private telephone company, 
with over 1,600 miles of wire. Cables connect the islands with Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, Turks Island, and Jamaica. There were (1929) 19 post offices 
in the colony ; the number of letters and post cards dealt with in the year 
1929 was 3,784,052 ; newspapers, book packets and circulars, 914,440 ; 
parcels, 95,123. The post office revenue was 48,908Z., and expenditure, 
16,4552. Savings bank deposits on December 31, 1929, were 91,486^. to 
the credit of 4,712 depositors. 

There are two banks in the Island, the Bank of Bermuda, Ltd., and 
the Bank of N. T. Butterfield and Son, Ltd., both local. Bills of exchange 
issued by the Treasury Chest Office in the Colony form the basis of exchange 
with the outside world. 

The currency, weights, and measures are British. The British II. and 
10$. notes are legal tender. The Bermuda Government is also authorised 
to issue 11. and 105. notes up to an amount not exceeding 40,OOOZ. A 
considerable quantity of American paper is also in circulation, being largely 
used for remittances to the United States. 

RJSFKRENCKS: Bermuda m Colonial Reports. Annual. London. 

Aspmall (A ), C.M.G., Pocket Guide to the West Indies, British Guiana, British 
Honduras, the Bermudas, the Spanish Mam and the Panama Canal. London. Annual. 

Ilayward (W. B.), Bermuda: Past and Present. London, 1923. 

The Year Book of the Bermudas, the Bahamas, British Guiana, British Honduras and 
the British West Indies. New Yoik and London. Annual. 



CANADA. 

(DOMINION OF CANADA.) 

Constitution and Government, 

The territories which now constitute the Dominion of Canada came under 
British power at various times, by settlement, conquest, or cession. Nova 
Scotia was temporarily occupied in 1628 by settlement at Port Royal, was 
ceded back to France in 1632, and was finally ceded by France in 1713, 
by the Treaty of Utrecht ; the Hudson's Bay Company's charter, conferring 
rights over all the territory draining into Hudson Bay, was granted in 1670 ; 
Canada, with all its dependencies, including New Brunswick and Prince 
Edward Island, was formally ceded to Great Britain by France in 1763 ; Van- 
couver Island was acknowledged to be British by the Oregon Boundary Treaty 
of 1846, and British Columbia was established as a separate colony in 1858. 
As originally constituted, the Dominion was composed of the provinces of 
Canada Upper and Lower Canada, now Ontario and Quebec Nova Scotia, 
and New Brunswick. They were united under the provisions of an Act of 
the Imperial Parliament known as 'The British North America Act, 1867,' 
which came into operation on July 1, 1867, by royal proclamation. The 
Act provides that the Constitution of the Dominion shall be ' similar in 
principle to that of the United Kingdom ' ; that the executive authority 
shall be vested in the Sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland, and carried 
on in his name by a Governor-General and Privy Council ; and that the 
legislative power shall be exercised by a Parliament of two Houses, called 
the * Senate ' and the ' House of Commons.' The present position of Canada 
in the British Commonwealth of Nations was denned at the Imperial 
Conference of 1926: * The self-governing Dominions are autonomous Com- 
munities within the British Empire* equal in status, though united by a 
common allegiance to the Crown,' The Dominion has its own representatives 



280 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: CANADA 

in the United States, France and Japan, and was elected a member of the 
Council of the League of Nations in 1927. Provision was made in the 
British North America Act for the admission of British Columbia, Prince 
Edward Island, the North- West Territories, and Newfoundland into the 
Dominion ; Newfoundland alone has not availed itself of such provision. 
In 1869 Rupert's Land, or the North-west Territories, were purchased 
from the Hudson's Bay Company ; the province of Manitoba was 
erected from this territory, and admitted into the confederation on July 15, 
1870. On July 20, 1871, the province of British Columbia was admitted, 
and Prince Edward Island on July 1, 1873. The provinces of Alberta and 
Saskatchewan were formed from the provisional districts of Alberta, Atha- 
baska, Assiniboia, and Saskatchewan, and admitted on September 1, 1905. 

In February 1931 the Government of Norway formally recognised the 
Canadian title to the Sverdrup group of Arctic islands. Canada thus holds 
sovereignty in the whole Arctic sector north of the Canadian mainland. 

The members of the Senate are nominated for life, by summons of 
the Governor-General under the Great Seal of Canada. By the Amendment 
of the British North America Act, 1867 (May, 1915), which came into effect 
in 1917, the Senate consists of 96 senators namely, 24 from Ontario, 24 
from Quebec, 10 from Nova Scotia, 10 from New Brunswick, 4 from Prince 
Edward Island, 6 fiom Manitoba, 6 from British Columbia, 6 from Alberta, 
and 6 from Saskatchewan. The total number may not exceed 104. 
Each senator must be 30 years of age, a born or naturalised British sub- 
ject, and must reside in, and be possessed of property, real or personal, to 
the value of 4,000 dollars, within the province for which he is appointed. 
The House of Commons is elected by the people, for five years, unless 
sooner dissolved, the province of Quebec always having 65 members (one for 
each 36,283 persons at the 1921 census), and the other provinces propor- 
tionally, according to their populations at each decennial census. The 
sixteenth Parliament, elected on Sept. 14, 1926, comprised 245 members, in 
accordance with the Representation Act of 1924 which, as the result of the 
census of 1921, fixed the representation as follows : 82 for Ontario, 65 for 
Quebec, 14 for Nova Scotia, 11 for New Brunswick, 17 for Manitoba, 14 for 
British Columbia, 4 for Prince Edward Island, 21 for Saskatchewan, 16 for 
Alberta, and 1 for the Yukon Territory. Voting is by ballot. Women 
have the vote and are eligible for election to the Dominion Parliament. 

State of the Parties in Parliament, elected on July 28, 1930 : Con- 
servatives, 138 ; Liberals, 87 ; Liberal -Progressives, 3 ; United Farmers of 
Alberta, 10 ; Progressives, 2 ; Labour, 3 ; and Independent, 2. 

The Speaker in the House of Commons has a salary of 6,000 dollars per 
annum, the Deputy Speaker an allowance of 1,500 dollars, and each 
member an allowance of 4,000 dollars for the session, subject to deductions 
for non-attendance. 

The Speaker and members of the Senate have the same sessional indemnity 
as the Speaker and members of the House of Commons, with no extra allowances. 

Governor- General. The Right Hon. Lord Sessborough, G.C.M.G. 
Appointed February 9, 1931. Salary, 10,000^. per annum. 

He is assisted in his functions, under the provisions of the Act of 1867 
by a Privy Council composed of Cabinet Ministers and other persons. 

The following is the list of the Cabinet, which was sworn in on August 7, 
1930, in order of precedence, which in Canada attaches generally rather to 
the person than to the office : 

Prime Minister, President of the Privy Council, Secretary of State for External 
A/airs and Minister of Finance (pro tern.). Rt. Hon. R. B, Bennett^ M.P. 



CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT 281 

Minister without Portfolio. Sir George H. Perley, K.C.M.G., M.P. 

Minister of Fisheries. Hon. E. N". Rhodes (Senator). 

Minister of Labour. Hon. Gideon Robertson (Senator). 

Minister of Justice and Attorney-General. Hon. Hugh Guthrie, M.P. 

Minister of Trade and Commerce. Hon, H. II. Stevens, M.P. 

Minister of Railways and Canals. Hon. R. J. Manion, M.P. 

Minister of National Revenue. Hon. E. B. liyckman, M.P. 

Minister without Portfolio. Hon. J. A. Macdonald, M.P. 

Postmaster-General. Hon. Arthur Sauve, M.P. 

Minister of Pensions and National Health. Col. the Hon. Murray 
MacLaren, M.P. 

Minister of Public Works. Hon. H. A. Stewart, M.P. 

Secretary of State. Hon. 0. H. Cohan, M.P. 

Minister of National Defence. Col. the Hon. D. M. Sutherland, M.P. 

Minister of Marine. Hon. Alfrrd Duranleau, M.P. 

Minister of Interior and Superintendent- General of Indian Affairs. 
Hon. Thomas G. Murphy, M.P. 

Solicitor General. Hon. Maurice Duprd, M.P. 

Minister of Immigration and Colonization and Minister of Mines. Hon. 
W. A. Gordon, M.P. 

Minister of Agriculture. Hon. Ptobert Weir, M.P. 

Each minister with portfolio has a salary of 10,000 dollars a year, and 
the Prime Minister 15,000 dollars, in addition to the 4,000 dollars sessional 
allowance. The Leader of the Opposition receives a salary of 10,000 dollars, 
in addition to the sessional allowance. 

The Department of External Affairs is the medium of communication 
between the Government of Canada and the governments of other countries. 
Canada has diplomatic representatives at Washington, Paris, and Tokyo, 
and the Governments of the United States, France, and Japan are also 
represented at Ottawa. 

High Commissioner for Canada in Great Britain. Hon. G. H. Ferguson, 
K.C. (appointed November 28, 1930), Canadian Building, Trafalgar Square, 
London, S.W. 1. 

High Commissioner for the United Kingdom in Canada. Sir William 
Henry Clark, K. C.S.I., C.M.G. (appointed April 25, 1928), 114 Wellington 
Street, Ottawa Canada. 

Canadian Advisory Officer, League of Nations. Dr. W. A. Riddell 
(appointed 1925), 41 quai Wilson, Geneva, Switzerland. 

Canadian Minister in the United States. Major William D. Herridge, 
D.S.O. (appointed March 8, 1931). 

United States Minister in Canada. Lieut. -Colonel Hanford MacNider 
(appointed Aug. 1930). 

Canadian Minister in France. Hon. Philippe Roy (appointed 1928), 
1 rue Fi an 901*3 Premier, Paris, France. 

French Minister in Canada. (Vacant Sept. 1930), Wellington Street, 
Ottawa. 

Canadian Minister in Japan. Hon. H. M. Mailer (appointed 1929), 
Tokyo, Japan. 

Japanese Minister in Canada. Mr. lyemasa Tokugawa (appointed 
1929), Wellington Street, Ottawa. 

PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT. 

The nine provinces have each a separate parliament and administration, 
with a Lieutenant-Governor appointed by the Governor-General in Council 
at the head of the executive. They have full powers to regulate their own 



282 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: CANADA 



local affairs and dispose of their revenues, provided only they do not interfere 
with the action and policy of the central administration. Among the subjects 
assigned exclusively to the provincial legislature are : the amendment of the 
provincial constitution, except as regards the office of the Lieutenant- 
Governor ; direct taxation for revenue purposes ; borrowing ; management 
and sale of crown lands ; provincial hospitals, reformatories, &c. ; shop, 
saloon, tavern, auctioneer, and other licences for local or provincial 
purposes ; local works and undertakings, except lines of ships, railways, 
canals, telegraphs, &c., extending beyond the province or connecting with 
other provinces, and excepting also such works as the Dominion Parlia- 
ment declares are for the general good ; marriages ; administration of 
justice within the province ; education. Quebec has two Chambers and the 
other Provinces one Chamber. The North- West Territories and the Yukon 
Territory are governed by Commissioners assisted by Councils. 

Area and Population. 

The following is the population of the area now included in the Dominion : 



Year 


Population 


Year 


Population 


1806-7 (est.) 


433,000 


1881 


4,324,810 


1825 


860,000 


1891 


4,833,239 


1851-2 


2,383,500 


1901 


5,371,315 


1860-1 


3,183,000 


1911 


7,206,643 


1871 


3,689,257 


1921 


8,788,483 



The estimated population in 1930 was 9,934,500. 

The census population of the Prairie Provinces as at June 1, 1926, was as 
follows: Manitoba, 639,056; Saskatchewan, 820,738; Alberta, 607,584; 
Total, 2,067,378. Total rural, 1,313,681 ; Total urban, 753,697. 

The following are the areas of the provinces, etc., with the population 
at recent censuses: 



Province 


Land Area 
sq. miles. 


Water 
Areal 
sq. miles 


Total Area 
sq. miles. 


Popula- 
tion, 1901 


Popula- 
tion, 1911. 


Popula- 
tion, 
1921. 


Prince Edward Island 1 


2,184 





2,184 


103,259 


93,728 


88,015 


Nova Scotia > 


20,743 


685 


21,428 


459,574 


492,888 


523,637 


New Brunswick l 


27,710 


275 


27,985 


381,120 


851,889 


887,876 


Quebec > * . 


571 ,004 


23,430 


594,434 


1,648,898 


2,005,776 


2,361,199 


Ontario ' 


303,2^2 


49,300 


412,582 


2,182,947 


2,527,292 


2,938,662 


Manitoba * . 


224,777 


27,055 


251,832 


255,211 


461,394 


610,118 


British Columbia 


349,970 


5,885 


355,855 


178,657 


892,480 


524,582 


Alberta 


248,800 


6,485 


255,285 


73,022 


874,295 


588,454 


Saskatchewan 


237,975 


13.725 


251,700 


91,279 


492,432 


757,510 


Yukon . 


205,346 


1,730 


207,076 


27,219 


8,512 


4,157 


North-West Territories 


1,258,217 


51,465 


1,309,682 


20,129 


6,507 


7,988 


Royal Canadian Navy . 

















485 


Totals . 


3,510,008 


180,035 


3,690,043 


5,871,815 


7,206,643 


8,788,483 



1 The water areas here assigned to Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
and British Columbia are exclusive of the territorial seas, that to Quebec is exclusive of 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Ontario is inclusive of the Canadian portions of the great lakes 
of the St. Lawrence system. 

2 By Federal Act passed during the session of 1912, the boundaries of the provinces of 
Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba were extended at the expense of the North-West Terri- 
tories. Ontario was enlarged by 146,400 square miles, Quebec by 351,780, and Manitoba 
by 178,100. 

3 As amended by the Labrador Boundary Award. 



AREA AND POPULATION 



283 



Of the total population in 1921, 6,832,747 were Canadian born, 1,065,454 
British born, and 890,282 foreign born, 374,024 of the latter being U.S. 
born. 

For figures for the population in 1921 according to origin see THE 
STATESMAN'S YEAR BOOK, 1928, p. 278. 

Population of the principal cities and towns : 



Cities 


Population 


Cities 


Population 


Montreal (1929) 
Toronto (1929). 
Winnipeg (1929) 
Vancouver (1929) . 
Hamilton (1929) . 
Ottawa (1929) . 
Quebec (1929) . 


1,098,409 
690,645 
336,202 
277,631 
134,566 
165,987 
135,000 


Calgary (1929) . 
London (1929) . 
Edmonton (1928) . 
Halifax (1929) . 
SaintJohn,N.B (1929) 
Victoria (1929), 
Windsor (1929) 


102,470 
68,400 
69,744 
64,000 l 
60, 500 l 
39,394 
66,893 



1 Approximate. 

The total 'urban* population of Canada in 1921 is given as 4,352,122, 
against 3,272,947 in 1911. 

While the registration of births, marriages and deaths is under pro- 
vincial control, the statistics for the nine provinces are now by arrangement 
compiled on a uniform system by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 
The following table gives the provisional results for 1929 : 





Living Births 


Marriages 


Deaths 


Province 




Rate per 




Rate per 




Rate per 




Number 


1,000 


Number 


1,000 


Number 


1,000 






population 




population 




population 


Prince Edward Island 


l,6f>8 


194 


469 


5-5 


1,122 


130 


Nova Scotia 


10,672 


19'4 


3,510 


64 


6,657 


12-1 


New Brunswick 


10,U4 


24-4 


3,117 


7'4 


5,213 


124 


Quebec 


81,380 


303 


19,610 


7-3 


37,221 


13-8 


Ontario 


68,411 


20-9 


27,605 


8-4 


38,102 


11 6 


Manitoba . 


14,236 


21-5 


5,269 


79 


5,808 


8-8 


Saskatchewan 


21,310 


24-6 


6,535 


7'5 


6,707 


7'7 


Alberta . 


16,748 


25-9 


5,999 


9'3 


6,234 


97 


British Columbia 


10,266 


17'4 


5,151 


8-7 


6,386 


108 


Total 


284,915 


240 


77,265 


7'9 


113,450 


11-6 



Immigrant arrivals in Canada during 4 years : 



Number of Immigrants arrived in the Tears 
ended March 31 





1926-27 


1927-28 


English nnd Welsh 
Irish 


32,572 
11,553 


27,775 
8,756 


Scottish 
Total British . 
The United States 
Austrian ... 


16,7^8 
60,853 
20,025 
580 


14,841 

50,872 
25,007 
606 


German .... 


15,221 


12,082 



1928-29 



33,544 

9,199 

16,137 

58,880 

30,560 

409 

12,806 



1929-30 



35,283 
10,159 
18,640 
64,082 
80,727 
437 
14,281 



284 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: CANADA 



- 


Number of Immigrants arrived in the Years 
ended March 31 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1928-29 


1929-30 


Norwegian and Swedish 
French and Belgians . 
Italians 


7,960 
5,196 
3,466 
4,863 
6,564 
19,313 


7,461 
3,039 
5,593 
4,296 
6,713 
36,978 


5,731 
1,967 
792 
3,301 
4,559 
48,717 


5,174 
1,393 
1,277 
8,544 
5,330 
37,043 




Russians and Finlanders 
Other Nationalities 

Total 


148,991 


151,597 


167,772 


163,288 





Immigrants in the calendar year 1930 totalled 104,806(164,992 in 1929). 

Religion. 

The number of members of each religious creed was as follows in 1921: 



Roman Catholics 

Presbyterians 

Anglicans 

Methodists . 

Baptists 

Lutherans 



3,389,636 

1,409,407 

1,407,994 

1,159,458 

421,731 

286,458 



Congregationalists . 
Greek Church . 
Jews 

Miscellaneous creeds 1 
No creed stated 

Total 



. 30,730 

. 169,832 

. 125,197 

. 368,686 

. 19,354 

8,788,483 



l Including Pagans. 
The numbers of the leading denominations in the provinces, 1 921 : 



Province 


Roman 
Catholic 


Church of 
England 


Presby- 
terian 


Methodist 


Baptist 


Ontario 


576,178 


648,883 


613,532 


685,463 


148,634 


Quebec 


2,023,993 


121,967 


73,748 


41,884 


9,257 


Nova Scotia 


160,872 


85,604 


109,860 


59,069 


86,833 


New Brunswick . 


170,531 


47,020 


41,277 


34,872 


86,254 


Manitoba . 


105,394 


121,309 


138,201 


71,200 


13,652 


British Columbia 


63,980 


160,978 


123,022 


64,810 


20,158 


Prince Edward Island . 


39,312 


5,057 


25,945 


11,408 


5,316 


Alberta 


97,432 


98,395 


120,991 


89,723 


27,829 


Saskatchewan 


147,342 


116,224 


162,165 


100,851 


23,696 


The Territories . 


3,849 


648 


45 


18 


10 


Yukon 


699 


1,582 


579 


117 


85 



Education. 

By the British North America Act the Provincial Governments have 
control in educational matters. In all provinces except Quebec the number 
of private schools is small, so that elementary and secondary education in 
Canada is almost entirely State-controlled. In Quebec primary education is 
only partly State -con trolled. Roman Catholic secondary education is given 
by independent institutions, mainly consisting of State- subsidised classical 
colleges for boys and convents for girls. Except for a few independent 
schools, Protestant education, primary and secondary, is State-controlled. 
Primary schools i. e. elementary scnools, and in all provinces, except 
Ontario, continuation schools other than regular secondary schools are free, 
and the same is true of secondary education in most provinces. In Quebec 



JUSTICE AND CRIME FINANCE 



285 



(except in certain municipalities) a fee is collected for primary education for 
every child of school age without reference to school attendance. In the same 
province Catholic and Protestant schools are under one Department of Public 
Instruction and are supported by a common system of taxation, but are 
administered independently. In Alberta, Ontario, and Saskatchewan minority 
elementary schools, whether Protestant or Catholic, are called Separate 
Schools, and are under the same provincial administration as majority 
schools. Secondary education in these three provinces is non-sectarian. 

There are 6 State-controlled universities in Canada, and 17 independent 
of provincial control, making 23 in all, with 4,210 professors, lecturers, 
etc., and 57,254 students in 1928-29. The 97 colleges in Canada had 
25,137 students registered in 1928-29. 

Information respecting the State-controlled elementary and secondary 
schools, exclusive of technical schools, in all provinces and including all 
primary schools in Quebec 



Provinces 


Year Ended 


Schools i 


Teachers 


Pupils 


Expend/- 
tnre 


Ontario 


Dec. 31, 1928 Elena. \ 
June 30, 1929 Sec / 


7,056 


19,659 


708,081 


Dollars 

47,288,691 


Quebec 


June 30, 1928 


7,914 


20,240 


510,470 s 


30,881,878 


Nova Scotia 


July 31, 1929 


1,756 


3,382 


113,309 


3,048,230 


New Brunswick 


June 30, 1929 


2,388 


2,630 


83,336 


3,068,670 


Manitoba . 


June 30, 1929 


2,011 


4,272 


150,517 


9,423,803 


British Columbi 


June 30, 1929 


1,189 


3,784 


109,558 


11,149,996* 


P. E. Island 


June 30, 1929 


472 


618 


17,180 


485,138 


Alberta 


June 30, 1929 


3,568 


5,827 


161,285 


11,866,816 


Saskatchewan 


June 30, 1928 


4,826 


8,464 


227,263 


15,574,106 


Total . 




31,775 


68,888 


2,080,949 


183,687,327 



1 Where possible the number of school-houses is given, and elsewhere the number of 
school districts with schools in operation. 
1 Includes Primary Schools. 
Exclusive of British Columbia University. 

As a result of assistance given by the Dominion Government to the 
provinces in providing for technical and vocational education, the enrolment 
of students in technical schools increased from 56,774 in 1921 to 121,252 in 
1929. 

In 1930 there were in Canada 1,609 periodical publications, classified as 
follows : Dailies, 116 ; tri-weeklies, 5 ; weeklies, 966 ; semi-weeklies, 21 ; 
monthlies, 388 ; semi-monthlies, 56 ; miscellaneous, 57. 

Justice and Grime. 

There is a Supreme Court in Ottawa, having appellate, civil and criminal 
jurisdiction in and throughout Canada. There is an exchequer court, which 
is also a colonial court of admiralty, with powers as provided in the 
Imperial 'Colonial Courts of Admiralty Act, 1890.' There is a Superior 
Court in each province ; county courts, with limited jurisdiction, in most of 
the provinces ; all the judges in these courts being appointed by the Governor. 
General. Police magistrates and justices of the peace are appointed by the 
Provincial Governments. 

For the year ended September 30, 1929, total convictions for indictable 
offences were 24,097 ; total convictions for all offences amounted to 321,966. 

Finance. 

The following relates to the Consolidated Fund, i. e. general Revenue 
and Expenditure : 



286 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE : CANADA 



Tears ended March 31 


Net revenue 


Expenditure 


1925-26 
1926-27 
1927-28 
1928-29 
1929-80 


Dollai s 
380,745,506 
398,695,776 
422,717,983 
455,463,874 
441,411,806 


Dollars 
320,660,479 
319,548,173 
336,167,961 
350,952,924 
367,779,794 



Consolidated Fund revenue, 1929-30 :- 



1928-29 


Dollars i 


1928-29 


Dollars 


Customs .... 
Excise .... 
Public works (including 


179,429,920 
65,035,701 

1 451 798 


War Tax Revenue . 
Various .... 


134,086,005 
28,062,997 


Post office . . . 


33,345,385 


Total 


441,411,806 



1931 



Detailed estimates of the expenditure for the year ended March 31, 



Services 


Dollars 


Services 


Dollars 


Public Debt, including 
Sinking Funds 
Charges of Management . 
Civil Government 
Administration of Justice. 
Penitentiaries . 
Legislation. 
Agriculture 
Immigration and Coloniza- 
tion 
Soldier Land Settlement 
Pensions .... 
Superannuation . 
National Defence 
Railways and Canals- 
chargeable to Income . 
Public Works chargeable 


122,639,743 
984,690 
13,490,633 
2,201,500 
2,449,452 
2,395,314 
8,751,795 

2,931,000 
2,315,000 
43,736,222 
1,330,500 
22,239,665 

949,440 


Government of the North- 
west Territories 
Government of the Yukon 
Terntorv .... 
Dominion Lands and Parks 
Pensions and National 
Health .... 
External Affairs . 
Miscellaneous 
National Revenue 
Railways and Canals- 
chargeable to Collection 
of Revenue 
Public Works chargeable 
to Collection of Revenue 
Post Office .... 
Trade arid Commerce . 


643,500 

225,500 
5,215,126 

10,037,500 
685,487 
3,798,570 
14,114,952 

2,891,500 

1,024,400 
37,336,369 
6,009,803 


Mail Subsidies and Steam- 


1 270 050 


Total Consolidated Fund 


368,387,102 


Ocean and River Service . 
Lighthouse and Coast Ser- 
vice 
Scientific Institutions 
Steamboat Inspection 
Fisheries 


4,015,550 

3,290,700 
1,229,260 
145,080 
2 503 500 


Railways and Canals- 
Capital .... 
Public Works Capital . 
Public Works Capital- 
Marine Department 


10,279,500 
8,269,000 

5,800,000 


Subsidies to Provinces 
MinesandGeolocricalSurvev 


12,590,709 
760 400 


Total Capital 


30,348,500 


Labour .... 
Public Printing and Sta- 


399,000 
212 000 


Total .... 
Adjustment of War Claims 


398,735,602 
622,500 


Indians .... 
Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police .... 


5,801,055 
3,126,566 


Grand Total 


399,358,102 



On July 31, 1930, the net debt was 2,140,862,233 dollars. 

Foreign Debts: The amount of Greek debt outstanding is 6, 765,000 
dollars; the original Rumanian debt has been funded and with interest 



DEFENCE 



287 



aggregates 23,969,720 dollars. Italy, France and Belgium have paid off 
their loans. 

PROVINCIAL ORDINARY REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES. 1 



Province 


Year Ended 


Revenue 


Expenditure 


Alberta 
British Columbia . . 
Manitoba .... 
New Brunswick . . 
Nova Scotia . . . 
Ontario 
Quebec 


Mar. 31, 1929 
Mar. 81, 1929 
Apr 30, 1920 
Oct. 31. 1929 
Sept. 30, 1929 
Oct. 31, 1929 
June 30, 1929 


Dollars 

15,265,084 
21,094,427 
12,150,490 
5,991,375 
7,390,410 
65,549,718 
39,976,283 


Dollars 

13,686,261 
22,825,520 
12,344,493 
6,521,575 
7,288,486 
61,906,824 
35,964,482 


Prince Edward Island 
Saskatchewan . . . 


Dec. 31, 1929 
Apr 30,1929 


1,083,571 
16,090,606 


1,033,315 
15,971,231 



Total 



184,')98 > 024 



177,542,192 



1 Figures subject to revision. 

At the beginning of 1929 investments abroad totalled 1,746 million 
dollars, and foreign investments in Canada totalled 5,904 million dollars. 

Defence. 

1 The National Defence Act, 1922, ' which came into force January 1, 1923, 
provides for a Department of National Defence presided over by the Minister 
of National Defence. 

Militia. Canada is organised in 11 military districts, each under a 
Commander and his District Staff'. 

The militia of Canada is classified as active and reserve, and the active is 
sub-divided into permanent and non-permanent forces. The permanent force 
consists of 11 units of all arms of the service, with an authorised establish- 
ment limited to 10,000, but at present the strength is 3,629. The non- 
permanent active militia is made up of cavalry, artillery, engineeis, machine 
gun, signalling, infantry and other corps. The total establishment of the 
Canadian non-permanent militia totals 8,971 officers and 114,580 other 
ranks, organised as follows : 













1 






Batteries 












Kegi- 
mcuts 


Field 


Medium 
and 


Bat- 

talious 


Com- 
panies 


Troops 


Units or 
Detach- 
ments 








Heavy 










Cavalry .... 


85 












_ 


Artillery , 
Infantry .... 





64 


23 


122 


U 








Engineers . 


_ 








17 


7 





Signals. , 


L _ 





., 


11 


7 


__ 


Medical Corps 


_. 


_ 









49 


Army Service Corps . 
Officers Training Corps 
Other administrative services. 





_ 


~ 


12 





23 
49 


Total .... 


35 


64 


23 


122 


55 


14 


121 



Machine Gun Companies. 



288 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: CANADA 

The reserve militia consists of such units as are named by the Governor 
in Council and of all able bodied citizens between the ages of 18 and 60, 
with certain exemptions. 

The reserve of the active militia consists of (1) reserve units of city and 
rural corps, (2) reserve depots, (3) reserve of officers. 

The above organisations are supplemented by numerous cadet corps and 
rifle associations. The Royal Military College at Kingston, Ontario, pro- 
vides both a military and a general education for about 200 cadets. The 
course extends over four years. Each year there are available for graduates a 
number of commissions in the Canadian Permanent Force and the Royal 
Canadian Air Force, also in the British Army and the Royal Air Force. 
R.M.C. graduates are given one year's seniority in the British or Indian 
armies because their course is longer than that given at Woolwich or 
Sandhurst. 

The estimated expenditure for the militia for the year ending March 31, 
1931, was 11,061,800 dollars. 

Navy The Royal Canadian Navy was established in 1 910. Its authorised 
complements are: 104 officers and 792 men of the permanent force (Royal 
Canadian Navy), 70 officers and 430 men of the Royal Canadian Naval 
Reserve ; and 70 officers and 930 men of the Royal Canadian Naval Volun- 
teer Reserve. The vessels at present maintained in commission are the 
destroyer Champlain and the mine-sweeping trawlers Fcstubert and Ypres, 
based on Halifax, N.S. : the destroyer Vancouver and mine-sweeping 
trawlers Armcnticres and Thicpval, based on Esquimalt, B.C. Two British- 
built destroyers, the Saguenay and the Skeena, of 1,320 tons each, will be 
completed in 1931, to replace the Champlain and Vancouver. There are 
several small craft, some armed, used for fisheries protection and patrol 
duty on the eastern and western coasts and on the Great Lakes, but 
these are attached to the Department of Marine ind Fisheries or to 
the Customs Department, and do not normally form part of the naval 
forces. H.M.C. dockyards are at Halifax and Esquimalt, having been 
taken over from the Imperial Government in 1910. Naval depots are 
maintained at both bases, and ere used as training headquarters for the 
personnel of the R.C.N., R.C.N.R., and R.C.N.V.R. 

The appropriations for naval services for 1929-30 amounted to 3,600,000 
dollars. 

Aeronautics. The direction and control of aeronautics in Canada, both 
civil and military, come under the jurisdiction of the Department of National 
Defence. The powers and duties involved are exercised, under the direction 
of the Minister, by four separate branches of the Air Services, namely : 
(a) the Royal Canadian Air Force; (b) the Directorate of Civil Government 
Air Operations ; (c) The Controller of Civil Aviation ; (d) The Aeronautical 
Engineering Division. The total personnel of the above four branches as at 
August 1, 1930, was 177 officers and 681 airmen. The Royal Canadian Air 
Force administers and controls all military air operations. The proposed 
establishment of the Royal Canadian Air Force is (i) Permanent Active Air 
Force, 202 officers and 803 airmen ; (ii) Non-Permanent Active Air Force, 
85 officers and 130 airmen. 

The foregoing personnel does not include cadets and boys who undergo 
flying training and artisan training each summer at Camp Borden. The 
number undergoing such training during the summer of 1929 is as follows : 
University and R.M.C. Cadets, 72; boys from various technical schools, 39. 
The estimated expenditure for the R.C.A.F. for 1930-81 was 2,610,000 
dollars. 



PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY 



289 



The Directorate of Civil Government Air Operations administers and 
controls all air operations carried out by State aircraft other than those 
operations of a military nature. The personnel consists of R.C.A.F. officers 
and other ranks who are loaned to this branch for various periods of duty, and 
a small number of civilian tradesmen. The work of this branch consists of 
carrying out operations for other Dominion Government Departments such as 
air photography for the Department of the Interior, Topographical Surveys 
Branch ; forest fire patrol and suppression for the Forest Service of the 
Department of the Interior ; experimental dusting operations for the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture ; transportation for the Department of Indian Affair