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( ; 










or THX 




I' . ^ 


Jf ^tt^fi^im Je rtftARea JknJbm, caput ffi noji rempublicanC* 

CicEKo, de Orat. lib. i|« 









AT*. Home. 

J. Kirkciulbright, 
%» Borgue, . . . 

3- Rerrick, - - - 

4- Urr, - . - 

5. Ptcfton-kirk, 

6. Kcclefj'reig, or St. Cyrus, 

7. Foulden, , - ^ 

8. Kilmore and Kilbride^ -^ 
p. Gartley, . . - 

^^o, Kilwinning, 

21. Coniric, ... 

1 2. Forbes and Kearn, 

13. Cameron, . • - 
^4. Kilmaronock, 

If. Airlj, - . - 

i^ Dunnottar, - 

17. Eccles, V - - 

18. Dunnet, - - . 
i> Wattin, . - - 
30. Kilchoman, 

51. Rildalton, 

52. KiUarrow and Kilmeny, 

43. Ednam, ... 

44. Girthon, - . . 
05 Oxnan, - . • 
26. Rofemariue, 

%^, Denino, - • - 
a8. Fintry. - - - 
29 St^Mungo, 

30. Cambraj, or Qmbracs, 

31. Ring-Edward, 
yi* Crimond, 

33 Lochalfli, 

34 Auchinlcck, 

35 Aberoethy . • . 
36. GlenbcTTie, - 

37- 5fi«' • - - 

38. £ddertoo» 

39. Hantly, - - - 

40. Cimock, - - - 

41. Chapei of Garioch, 
4a« Inverkeithny, 

43. AItcs, - - - 

44. Wefterkirk, 

45. Newton, - - - 
4^ Robcrton, 

47. ToUiallan, 

48. Cfoy, 

^^- i^^li " '^^ ' 
^o. CaUaadcr, 










IncTcafe, — 














































5Ma5 <^9»o«5 

— 12,209 12,200 







4" 5^ 










































42 a 












P^ge 17 liae 3 /or this nadtheCe 

ao — ^ 37 — V^elt Numitr 

' ai col. 9-^4 — I 

«» a4 — aioL 300I. 

-"— — 3^ "■"" 3* — workmanfliip — working it 

40 a5 — the ihot 

6i ao — Loch Orb — Loch Oi.i 

^8 la after Minerals, add \Jc, 

- 80 — — Pen. — nefcio read an 

104 ai — Coqflt Coaft 

160 16 for lod. read «. dd. 

- an— T before hiaoSti infert numhet oi 

afo a5 it delete Hence 

377 8 for 248 read 348 

— ^~ 453 — as — than ifiliam — thani filiam 
•"^ 457 —3^4^^^ »nd have fold at 30 years pnrchafe < 

w 480 - ' 



- la for Clums 
• 15 — pia 

- 16 ■— p29 

.18 — 58 

- atf tmdtr 13 
. tf Mr. 

read Clone 
. 60 

L aoi 

read Dodbr. 

57^ ^— 3 from the foot of the large print, Trofecltt 

read Trofachs. 
— ~ 577 »• for Glenfinlas read Glcnfinglas 

— 585 iofi — fertility are fertility is 

— 597 /«» If laL looL to — . i»l. to lool. 
-^— 601 line la/l, for bills -^ bulls 

— -«6te— 25 — pridelidtion -^- prediledion 

— — 611 — 9 — flmbery — (hrubs 

<p-*.6i4 18 f notes. Kefs fignifies, &c. 2^1/ whole fen% 

tente ought U te above Lenrick, and next the Rofes, 
— — ^15 line 6 of notes ^ for Gairtean read Goirtean 

— tfitf -«•. 15 fQf> fubjoa^TC — — fiibftantiye 





P A R t XI. 

N U M B £ R I. 

(Siewartry and Prejbyt&ry 6/ K%rkcuclbrighk-^yn6d of 

By the Rev. RoBEitr Mi^ter^ D. Di 

Origin of tie Ndtni* 

BAiTEA, in his 'Glojhriufn Anti^uitatuHi Briiahnictiriini^ 
fuppofes that Kirkcudbright ^a& known to the Romans 
by the name of Benutium^, ' Its preCsnt nam6, he thitikd, is of 
Sazoh original *. — How far this antiquarian iu well foiitidcd 
in his conjeflure^ muft be left to thofe T^ho ai'e beft acquaint- 
ed with the Saxon language to deterniine. l^ut whatever was 
the ancient defignation of this towti, it is eztfemely probable^ 
that its prefent name is of a modern date^ and derived from 
Vol. XL A a diflfeferit 

I apod atiouymum fe^uiori fcripttira, et cafu fexto Fttudw dicitur, 
" hodieque Tittolb (ot pntd), Scoto-Saxonico Vocabulo KirtcuJbrigBt^ et eft ad 
^ Ofiium OeVae fluminls in SelgoHs; Wtere^ Britatifii fbrfan dixerbt d^ 
^ ih mhr rit, ^od eft» ahf trajtBui JImmhti MfuM^L QttlH et ipftim Merm6im' 
^ tidetiir Hritannkl UngxA fokti fcriptnoL Jh» jf tiw^ ^iwd t&. Caput Dcfae, 
<* tffc Ofiinm Aqnie*** 

a Statifiical Account 

a ditferent ortgioaL Abont tbc diftancc of a quarter of • 
mMe froiii tlit boiougb» tkere is fituatid aa old chuctli-' 
yardt which, from tioie knmeaMrial^ has fenred the pur* 
pofeof abttrjing groond to the town, and a part of the land- 
ed parifli annexed to it* la fit>rmar tutieti a large ehotck waa 
built in the midft l>f this fields but it is now fo completely 
dec87ed» that there b not the fuMiUeft Teftige of it to be feen* 
This church was dedicated to St. Gnthbert ; and the church- 
jaid is caUed at this day St. Cutbhitn^i cburcbyard. The 
ccmtigttity of this burying field t^ the town, together with the 
different ways of fpeUing Kirkcadbrightt in fome old autheacie 
writings, as Kilculbrigtf KiricmJBmrgh^ KHrMrU^We. iiicliaea 
us to think, that whatever might have been its ancient de^ 
fignatKMv its prefeat name is derircd from St. Cnthbetti m 
honour of the tutelary faint of this place. Hence Kilcud- 
bright, or Kirkcudbrigfit^ fignifies die kirk or church of St.. 

ErtOiom and £»/Mit.— JIHiet is now called Kiricuibrighe 
Pari/b^ formerly confided of 3 fepaiate and diftiaft pariihes f 
which are marked in the ancient Tiduation roll of the ftewattry 
by the names of Dwnrod^ Gaitwt^^. and KtrkcudbrigbU The& 
names are ftill retained; and the diflferent church-yards^ whieb 
arc occupied at this day, as the bufyiag grounds of the inha* 
bitants of thefe parifhes, fuf&ciently fiiew, that they were once 
feparated, and disjoined from each other. The union of thefe 
pariihes, or rather the aane^tion of Duneod and Galtway ta 
.the pariih of Kirkcudbright^ appears to have taken place about 
130 years ago. — ^The burgh is thefeatof thepreftjteryr The 
figure of tlie pariih approaches nearly to an oblong iqoare, 
. and ftittches from N« to S. The town, or burgh, lies on the 
W. and projeds a little on- that iuie of the C^uarc The length' 
af the pariih is 7 Britiih miles : its breadih from 3 to 4: 


Th« geodTBl form of it» tod the diftria% with which it is 
furroanded, will appear frooa ^ aiiiicxed map. The pariQ^ 
is moOly bi%, ?i|4 has bttt l^is^ e^t^i^^d jdain. The hUlSg^ 
however, do i(ipt riie yttf high ; t^ dp they ti;rmi^ate at die 
top ia wqtlky ppints. They flope gxad^s^yt and form « vc^y 
obtofe ai)^^ with the plaifi. Along the .fides of. the hills, 
aoid c^reo op ^ tfa^ir higheft fgnw^t^, tj^ ^rq f/um^J ivrahle. 
Sodi as are not abomid with excdleat paftiir^ ^Ot f«&e«>, 
qaently the deepcft foil is to be found at the fop of the hill* 
This perhaps oi^y be owing to the l^r, operating more power- 
fully upon the high laodst wbidi are ip^re ea^ed to its in* 
floencea and gradually diflcdviDg the rotten rocks^ pf wbicU 
the tops of d)eic bills arf here chiefly compo£e4i a^^ by tbia^ 
roiepm fot^i; a (teejipr fpil» 

J'mLer-The foil of this pariQi ii| chie^y of |wq triads, wet. 
and dry* Tfai^ wet foil is ooca^ni:4 by a bar^t qold till, 
wbidi is generally fomd ifpoQ tbefe biUs \ whoGe (iirface is 
fmoptb, and lies al|pnt 6 iacb^9 below the fupcrficies. The 
tiU, by rttainiog the waier, proyes highly detdmepittf to yen 
getation* Manure, in this ciip, is of little or no ofe. Foe 
fach fo3s, after baTii^ been4^vere4 with a fnfficient quantitj 
of mark, lime or iea ibelU^ prove rery ongrateful, either iyi 
the prodq^on of eom or of grab* The dry foil, which is 
the moft general, confifts of a light, hszely earth, with a Ourp 
gravelly bottom. This kind 6[ foil is about 6i inches deep | 
and, srtien covered with any of the former manures^ and pro- 
periy treated, k inakes a fluoft apiple return $ efpedally if 
the ieabna are warm, and attended with freqti^eot fliowerK 
The foil in this cafe is aftonifliingly produdive^ l^th of gralis 
sad corn. Although the lands,, when uot oreccropp^, pro^ 
dooe ezoelleot grain, yet, from the peculiar quality of the 
grafii that grows herey the^ axa particularly ^spted for fat- 

A a tening* 

4 Statl/tkal AeCBunt 

tenfng;-' Nbljarifli in Scotland freSs cattle richer, or brttef. 
There are at leafl x,oeo acres of rich pafture grounds, which 
wlU feed' as tnanjr bullocks or heifers, laid oa m Maj, and 
taken off in November, from 20 to 30 ftones a piece. And^ 
if they are kept to the proper age, (5 or 6 years old), upon 
the different flock farms, thej^ will' attain from 40 to 70 ftone 
iveight. 'better beef, in point- of fatnefs and quality, is no 

where to be found. 

• . ■ • 

Climate; \Se. — Notwithftanding the wind blows chiefly from 
the S. and S. W.,'and confequently expofes this country to 
frequent (hewers, and fometimes to long continued rains ; yet 
the climate, upon the whole, is neither damp nor unhealthy. 
This is owing to the nature of its fliallow, hazely foil ; which, 
by admitting the rain to pafs eafily through its furface, quicklj 
atbforbs and fucks it up. Unlike to deep, clayey grounds ; 
which| by long retaining the falling fhowers upon their fur- 
face, permit the rays of the fun again to exhale them. Hence 
the air, impregnated with a confiant fucceffion of watery par- 
tides, is kept perpetually damp, which perhaps occafions 
thefe rheumatic and confumptive diforders, that are not often 
to be met with here. In proof of this, there are no epidemi- 
*ekl diftempers peculiar to this country. In general, the cli- 
mate is remarkably healthy, and people often attain to a Tcry 
great age.-*Inoculation is univetfally ptadifed, and with great 

Springsu^^ThcTe a^e no mineral fprings within the parifii, 
of much confequence. A chalybeate water, mixed with a 
little fulphur, has lately been difcovered in a field adjoining t» 
the bmgh; but as neither its ftrength nor virtues have hither- 
to been well afcertained, nothing decifive can be faid con- 
cerning it. The town is fupplied with excellent fpring wa- 

cf Kiricudhrigbt. g 

ier, eCMivtyed ia -leaden pipes, from ^a quarter of a ffiik's 
dtlltnce. This Tcry ofeful work, nvbich coft upwards of 
500L Sterling, was executed in 1164* One half of tbeez« 
pence was defrayed bj the burgh, and the other half, by pri - 
vate fnbfcribers : A great undertaking at the time, confider- 
ing the revenues of the town were but fmall, and the opulence 
of the individuals not great. 

farms^ Produce^ Improvement^ ^r.— -The whole 

landed property is divided into 40 farms, which, S€aeb atra. 
upon an accurate meafurement« contain - 12,325 

From a laboured calculation, made from 8 dif* 
ferent farms, promifcuoufly taken, the contents 
of which were exafily afcertained, the propor- 
tion of arable to pafiure land was as 4 to x. 
Hence the unarable 19 ^ - - - 3»o8i. 

Thefe, dedu&ed from the total number of acres, 

leave of arable ground - - - - 9*^44 

Of this quantity, one fourth is annually in tillage, a,3 1 1 

Of arable, there is annually in pallurage, « 
To this add the unarable parts, 

Kemain in hay and pafiurage yearly, 
^bout one fpurth of the ground in grain is an- 
nuaHy fown out, - . - 

As every acre in tillage yields, upon an ave- 
rage, at lead 33 Wincheiler bufhels, there is B^peh, 
produced annually, .... 76,163 

Of this quantity, the fiirmer referves, at an ave- 
rage, two thirds to fupport his family, feed his 
borfes, and fow his ground.— Remain for ' 

jp»le» - r a5»4ax 


Potatoeflf at an average, 5 bdU par farm, « - %%9 ImUk 

Wool, at the fate of 3 ftooca p«r|6rm, * ^ - tag &mm%m 

Milk, bmter aod cbeefip, gt lU. per ^w. • • 3 aoL 

The fpecies of grain, that is fown in the parifli, coofiits of 

bear, barley, and oats, chieflj the latter. Thej are all veiy 

good, though not fo weighty as what is produced upon deeper 

foils. Although wheat is but little cultivated in this part of 

the country, it is however the opinion of the moft expcriencred 

farmers, that the foil is equal to the produdion of any kind 

of grain \ being, though light and thin, exceedingly gracious. 

Yqt manuring the land, marie is here chiefly ufed. It is found 

more or lefs fcattered over the whole pari lb, in beds, from 2X 

feet thick to 3 inches, and at various depths below the fur^- 

face. Lime too is brought from Whitehaven, and employed 

by fome farmers for meliorating their land. But befides 

marie, which is found within the parifli, there is alfo an inez- 

bauftible fiore of ihelU lying along the coafty which are prin*- 

cipally ufed for enriching tb^ grounds that lie condgoous 

to it. 

Ca///^.— -The average number ip each fiiradi ^i4 die total 
number in the pariih arej as follows : 

Average number, in each, of borCes, * j Total, 
" milk cows, 

■ fale cattle, 

— — — — -^— ibeep, - 

— — ' ' calves, 

■■ year olds, 

Xn all, - ^ . • 3,x<i9 

Rents and Proprietors. — The whole parifh is rented, at an 
average, at 143. per acre. Some fieldsi however, of the beft 


' tf RrkcuStigbt. ^ 

kHl tite kt At a guineas t>er aterot The fanner drpeods, for 
At payment of bis rent, chiefljr opoD the iale of his Mlccka 
and heifera ^ 'W^ieh ate aanoally teat xo the Eoglifli market^ 
about 3 jeara old, atid feich escelleat ptioea. But ibould the 
demand lor GftUeway cattle and (keep at anj time oeafe, in the 
fimthem pans of the united kmgdMn, or flvovM liMr prioea 
ftU, for a few jears faccei&velj, the farmer mad infallibly 
beco m e bankrupt ; for he has little or no depaadeoce upon the 
lUe of his gmm, whichy fen- the moft part, turns out toaogfeaa 
ecoomit. From the thinnefs of the population, a^oanfiderabk 
qoantity of the gram produced oanaot be eonfumed in thia 
cooatiT'. Hcnee it mull be font coaft^ways, to the Eaglilh 
iMtf ket» or to Greeiiodc and die weft of Scotlaoid. But aa 
Aia ia attended with confideraUe expeoee, and bcfideadependa 
apoB a variable market, it does not always make that profit- 
able retem, which the farmer thinks he had a right to ei^peft. 
It is lor this reafon, that proprietors, when gmnitog kafea of 
their fitfms, geoesiUy eftimale the valoe ef the rent, from die 
ttnmber of ike^ and cattle which tiie £urm wiU fted, and not 
froaa the quantity of grain which it will produce." Accord- 
tog to the aaoient valuation roll, the free rent of die parifk 
waa 6oa9l. t|| id. Scotch, Its prefent oeot is morn than 
6,oooL SterLog. There are veiy few prnprietcnrs in this eK^> 
teafive pariA. The Ease, of Ssuurc poflefirs above fiire 
£xtba of the wbols^property* 

F&r^ 7r##j.— ^efidea thofe^rarioiis ufidEoI improvement 
in faolbandry, wfaidi aire carrisd on in the parifli, thefe which 
are alio adapacd &r oraament, as well as ostilicy^ ought not 
ID be omitted. The fiarl of Selkirk has planted, widr great 
tafte aad judgment^ ilnretal hsndred acres, with vacinha kinds 
of foreft trees, fuch as oaks, beeches, aihes, elms, birches, chef* 
autsjlycamores, hornbeams, rowans,- walnuts, larches, together 


8 Statiftiial Accouni 

with diiEerent forts of pines j as Scotch, bUutk «94 whit^ wid 
Americaa fpruce, We^mottth, iUver, and balm of Gtlead« 
He has alio reared a aarfcry, confiftiog of 1 5 acres, of grouad \ 
which, contains more than a million of plauils, all in a moCL 
thriving condition, and foon to be tranfplanted for cheriihing 
and beaati^ring various other fields. 

' Trmt 7m/.-*His Loidfliip has llkewife laid out an extea<« 
five orchard of fruit trees, for die purpofc of eftablilhing a 
iinall ordiard at every farm houfe. A few years ago, there 
was not a fingle fruit tree feen in any part of the parifli, 
except what grew about Su Mar ft IJle.i Same veftigea of 
old orchards, icattered up and down, are ftill to be traced 1 
but neither trees nor fruit are any where to be. found. They 
muft have gone into decay near a century ago. A great many 
indigenous plants are to be found, along the (bore, and in 
the environs of Kirkcudbrightt and efpecially around St. 
Mary's lile, which would afford much entertainment for the 
curious botanift ; but as they are all fo well delcribcd by the 
Kcv. John Liohtfoot, in his Flora Scotica^ a repetition of 
chem is unneceffary. In his Lordihip*s garden, at St. Mary's 
lile, there are 6 hot houfes, befides forcing, frames, all upon a 
new conftruftion, which contain various forts of fruits and 
exotics. Fruit trees, laid horizontally upon a baok| in place 
of a wall, have lately been tried by his Lordfliip*s gardener, 
and have anfwered remarkably well. In fiiort, from the va* 
rious improvements already made, and ftill carrying on# the 
face of this country will, in the courfe of a few years, be totally 
changed^ It will affume a moft beautiful appearance. The 
moft charming landfcapes will ftrike the eye, and afford de^ 
ligbtful fiibjefis £pr the poet's fancy, and die painter's pencil. 

Jtnvrr 09d lSllk*^Varioiu little ftmitoii which abouad 
with tr99l99 and •iher fmill fifh, flow iii m iticandetiBg couHb 
tbrofigh thia pariiht and afford excellent amufeme&t for fach ai 
#re fond ^ angling. But the onlj river worth noticing, botti 
on aooonnt of its large fize, and its eztenfive uCefulncfs, in 
the Dw. ^led bj the ancient Romans Diva. It riles out 
«f Loch ]>ee, which is fitnatcd at the bottom of thofe hills| 
Ihat feparate Ajrihire from Galloway. After running manj 
miles in a ferpentine couricv and receiving the water) of tht 
gxeat river Ktn^ it flows a confideiaUe way, till it reaches 
the par^ih of Kiritcudbright ; then runs alongft the weft fide, 
from N. E. to S. W. and empties itfdf into the bolwajr 
Frith. The river Dee abounds with exqellent falmon, iea 
froou and hjrlines. The falmon are fold here at different 
prices, from 6d. to ad. per pound. They feldom begin to 
run tin the month of March, and then appeat only iu fmall 
numbers. In May and June they fwim up in flioalsi with 
the tide, and are caught in great numbers. They are fup- 
pofed to be in the higheft perfeftion in the month of June, 
and beginning of July. Nothing can exceed the richnefs of 
the lalmon caught within the tide mark. Their flelh, when 
boiled, is generally intermixed with a white curd, which 
feels hard ; but if the fifli are kept for a day or two, this curd 
diflfolve^ into oil. To fuch as are unaccuflomed to eat falmoU ' 
till ieveral days after they ate taken, the diflblved curd ia 
moft agreeable. Sea trouts make their appearance in the ri- 
ver, during the month of June ; the hirlides in July^ and thi 
grilles in AugulL 

Fifi0rUs.n-TYke iflieries within this parifh are let fot abont 
40ol. per annum^ and belong t6 th^ Earl of Selkirk, Mr. 
MukraT, and the town ot tiirkcudbright. Mr. Munay*a 
fifbery lies in tha upper part, both abOvc the tide mark, and 

Y9U%1. B tmmirdiauljr 

1 o Stati^tcal Accqunt 

immediately where it flows. One half is within the parifli of 
Tungland, and the other in the parifli of Kirkcudbright. Al- 
though it is commonly called the Tungland fiflicry, yet all 
the grounds contiguous to the river, on the Kirkcudbright 
fide, belong to the Earl of Selkirk f- The fifliery below is 
carried on by what are called^/^ yairs. They are 13 in num- 
ber; one half adapted for the flood, and the other for the 
ebb tide. Some belong to the town, but the greater part to 
the Earl of Selkirk. J hey are rented at about locl. The 
leffee of the town's fifliery is reftriftcd by his tack, from fell- 
ing his fifh to any but the inhabitants of the burgh, and is 
not allowed to fell them higher than 3d. per pound, even al 
the earlied feafon. In the month of June h6 mull fell the 
l^ilmon at 2d., and the grilfcs at ifd. per pound. This was a 
very hun.ane regulation of the mJigiflrates and town council, 
for the benefit of the poorer citizens, who^ by this indulgence, 
participate a little of the revenues of the burgh. 

The nunnber of falmon, grilfes, and white t routs, that are 
annually caught in the doaghs or cruives, in the upper, or 
Tungland fifliery, is almofl^ incredible. They are all fliipped 
for the Englifli market, Liverpool and Whitehaven, aild fetch 
excellent prices, efpccially in the early fifliing fejfon. But 
the method of filhing, practifed by the fiflitrmen, in the up. 
per works, is moft dellruftive to the lower filherics. The 
dvaghs are raifed fo high, that fcarce a fi Ih can get over, unlefs 
there is an immenfe fwell in the river Dee, which feldom hap- 
pens during the fifliing feafon. 

The fpars alfo, which are fixed acrofs the river, in thefc 
doaghs, to prevent the fifli from getting up, inftead of being 


I A conCJcr%Uc part of thlt fiihery, called the Fand-Uit'^iihiR the tide matk^ 
was alfo unqueftionally, in former times, the jropcrty of hi> Lordlhip. How- 
ever, at prcfcnt, he enjoys no part of thig*fifttTy. By a gradual and iniquitouK 
encroachment upon hit righf, this parfr«f the fifhety was un]uft4y wrcftodfrotu 

of Kiricvdbrigbt. 1 1 . 

perpetidiculari are placed horizootallj, and not near the diT- 
tance from one another which Che law direfts. Neither is 
there any Saturday's Jlap^ (opening of the works), obferved 
during the filhing feafon, by which nxeans not a fingle iifli can 
get up till the legal time, 26th Auguft, expires. And even, 
after it expires, thefe deftru&ive works are kept up for 3 or 
4 weeks fuccefUvely. Hence not only the fiflberies below, but 
alfo the property of thofe gentlemen, who have confiderable 
eftates higher up the river, and by their charter have a right 
to fifli, are eiTentially injured. Some people here pretend 
to fay, that the fame number of fifh are always found to re- 
turn annually into the river, notwith (landing the immenfe 
quantities which are yearly taken'. But this, it may be pre- 
fumed, is juft as abfurd, as if one fhould aifert, that though 
you weie to deftroy 40 out of 50 breeders, you would ftill 
have as many produced next feafon from the ic, as you had 
the preceding year from the 50 breeders. 

Harbour. — The harbour of Kirkcudbright is fituated on 
the N. of the Solway Frilh, about 10 leagues N. E. of the 
Iflcof Man, and 7 leagues N. W. of St. Bee's Head, in Eng- 
land. It is a fafe, natural harbour, with good anchorage, 
and fliclter from all winds. There is no harbour in the S» 
coaft of Scotland fuperior to it ; but, being a dry harbour, it 
IS fit only for fuch veiTcIs as can take the ground. At the 
mouth of it there is an ifland called Zutle Rojs. The en- 
trance between this and the £. fhore is about ii mile. It is 
fafe and bold on both fides. About 200 or 300 yards N. E"^ 
of this ifland lies the proper road for veffels to anchor, where 
they ride in perfcft fafcty, unlefs the wind fets in from S. W. 
by S. to S. S. E. J and even then, if it does not blow a very 
hard gale. In this road there is a depth of 16 feet at low water, 
and 40 at high water, the rife being about 24 feet. At halt 

B 2 a mile^ 

1% StatyHcal Aectmnt 

% mile^s diftance, within Little Rob, oo the W. fide of th« 
ifland, there is a fmali hut bh harbour, called Bakuaigan 
Bay. At 4 hours flood, there is a depth of 12 or s j feet 
water for veflels to ride iui either at fpriog or neap tides ; 
liefides mooring, and fufficieat rocuQ for ao Urge vrflkls to 
lie, on a fqft clay bottom. 

Bay. — ^About al miles within Little Rtfls, On th^ £. fide, 
there is a large bay, called T^orr^i Lake^ or Manx-man^s Laii^ 
where more than 1 00 large veflels maj lie in fafoiy, upon a 
foft mud or clay bottom. At 4 hofurs flood, there is a depth 
pf Z4 or x6 feet water in this bay, either in fpring or nea^ 
tides. Two perches are placed on the right hand, and one 
$zed at the point of St. Mary's Ifle, to diieA veffi^ls to fleer 
|n without danger. 

J9ar, t/^^— Off St. Mary's Ifle there runs f bar, nearly aerofs 
the harbour. At ord^iary fpring tides the depth is about ao 
feet water \ and veflels may either pals over, or run chann^ 1^ 
Ctfurfe clofe in with the rocks on the S. fliore, according to th^ 
•^ind and time of the tide^ After paffing the bar, the channel 
Ibecomes narrow \ audit is neccflary that large veflels fliould have 
aleading wind to carry them up the river. Upon the fliorei dofis 
^y the town, there is a fine flielving beach, where the flsipping 
lie, or ^de at anchor in the channel. Here the dfpth is 8 feet 
at low water, and a 8 at high water. The rife being about 
to feet, the river is navigable to Tungland ; that is, a mile^ 
fbove the town. There is fuflicient water fpr veflTds of aoo 
tons, though it is but feldom that any except coafiing floops 
^cend fo high. The diilano^ from the entrance into the har« 
^ur, up to the town of Kircudbright, is 5 miles ; and the 
frideft part, at th^ppint of St. Mary's Ifle, ia s mile and 3 

$f KirkuSngbt. 13 

hghuHouft propofed. — In flormy weather, when veffels 
oo neither keep tlie fea, nor clear the land* thb harbour is 
the heft in the S. coaft of Scotland for {helter, and on that 
tccoiint b much frequented in winter. But the entrante in- 
to it being narrow, a firong tide fetting right acrofs, and no 
light*houle tO iittSt thetn» it is dangerous to run for it in 
the dafk, and engage with a lee fhore. Many fatal accidents 
happen bjr ihips mii&ng the harbour, and being driven, either 
into Wigton Bay, or on the banks of the Solwaj Frith. The 
iflaad of Little Rofa affoids* an excellent fituation for a light- 
houle. One might be ere&ed there at a fmall ejq^ence, and 
kept Dp on moderate terms. It would be ot the utmoft ntU 
lity to all ihspping, and particularly to (Irangeci, in the hour 
of danger. Were government apprifed of the great benefit 
that would refttlt from this, it is to be hoped they -would 
thuik the matter worthy their attention, and caufe a light* 
houle to be creded at the public ezpence* 

Sea Wart. — ^The harbour furniflies diUby tangle, and eom« 
mon fea-weed. A confiderable quantity of the latter is cut« 
made into kelp, and fold for the foap and bottle manufa&oriea* 

Sea Fijb ami JFatii/r.— Befides lalmon, fea*trouts and hirlinest 
the following iea £ih are to be found in the harbour : cod, 
which are fold at i|d« per pound $ fcad, called here lyth or 
Ijd; Uochan, mackerels, whitings, flounders, foles, Ikate, eels, 
iaad-eela, dubbocks, orcodlocks; (; lefierfpottedfliarks, 
called here dog-^*^ angel iharks * \ bull's heads, or nuUer'a 
thumbs; poipoiles, and herrings f. The fliell fiih are, rock 


*ODe tff tikele, tAtn bft fittiltticlr, aieafufed 5 feet inleBfib. 

f Hm grett flambar pf herrtng fry found in this harbour, afford a ftroog 
pcfiuoptioa, thothcfriaflieco&lhccoaftiatliefropttftilMii hatdteypaft 

14 Statlftkal Account 

ojfters^ lobdcrs, cockles, mufcles, wilks, buckieS) limpets, and 
crabs. — ^The fea fowls are barnaile ^cefc, curlews, herons, red 
legged crows or daws, fand pipers, called here land trippers^ fea 
pies, wild ducks, fcalc ducks, teals, pufHns, fcarfs, or black 
duckers, herring gulls, graj gulls, winter gulls, or maws, com- 
xnon fea maws, black caps, or fea crows, terns, &c. 

. Population* — The number of fouls in the pariQi of Kirk- 
cudbright, as taken, with great accuracy, at different vifita- 
tions, both in the town and country, will appear from the 



In 1786 

\d 179 a. 





Fern. TUal, 

Jnilictnrgh, - - 389 




83Z I64I 

lb ditto, */!« 1771, 




- 1153 

Increafe in the burgh in 15 years. 



—In %i 

year*, - 4S8 

la the country, - %S% 




344 654 

In the whole parifli, - 871 




1 1 76 2295 

ladiito^4«M. 1755, 




- 15IJ 

iDcrcafe in the f arlfh in 31 years*, 



— Inj7ycan, - yti 


* There is every rcafon- to belieTe, that the country parifb of Kirkcudbright 
vas much mi re pcpulous, ahoiit J30 years ago, than it is at prcfcnt. In the ja- 
rilhcs of Dunrod and Galtway, now annexed to Kirkcudhright, fonie veftiges of 
tillages may flill be traced ; and from good information, obtained from old peo- 
ple iiilVallte, the inhabitants of thcfe villages were very numerous. The caufe 
of this depopulation muft be traced back to the time of the civil wart, in the 
reign of Cuarlrs I. and Cromwell, the ufurper. J«>hn, 3d Lord Kiikcud- 
bright, who poffeficd almoft the whole property of this cxtenHve parilb, to<.k up" 
arms for the king, raifcd a regiment of foot upon his own charges, (levied chiefly 
from amobg his tenant.s and vaifals), a»d carried them over to Ireland, front 
yheccc, it may be prcfumed, ytr-^ few ever returned. Towards the end of lafl 


iif Kirkcudbright. i^ 

Nufflher oC married peifoDs, • 503 NiuHberof ftfrgeons, - ' 1 

wkiowcrs, - -.3* ' — mcnfcivants, • 4^ 

wldowi, - - 9» worn in ditto, - xaj 

marriages In 1792, - 14 — ^— — — ^"apprentices, - - 45 

bifths in do. - 65 journeymen, - 3^ 

de>th&t^n do. - 24 -^- fliip carpenters, '- 14 

■ twm> bom in 1789< a ftilort, - - 81 

■ ■ ditto X790» - % ' " pcffom between '70, 

> ditto - ■ 1791, - » . . and 80, - - i> 

> ditto ty^Zt - 2 ' :— do. between 80 and 90, 18 

boofcholdert, - 25* do*. —^—-90 and 100 f, » 

Number of bouieholder* in the burgh, czdufivc of the p^uprrs^ takeo »n- 
BuaUf at the Michaelmas head court, during the lad 9 year* precedinj^ 1792 : 

X7S3 - fta4 X7S6 - ftl9 1789 - 931 

Z784 • 121 1787 • 219 1790 • 341 

17*5 - »»i X788 - 239 1791 - 248 

^ Aldiouglv 

century, when the minider made application for an augmeutation of {lipend, the 
heritor! of Dunrod and Galtway oppofed it, Upon thi« ground, that thcfc pariihcs 
coabl not afford it, ** heimg m mert ^mJU** From this fev<e#e blow, thcVoantry 
ixariih hu never yet scgaitted its former popuHtion; nor is it pcol^bte, from the* 
large and cxtenfive farrn^, into which it is now ^Uvid«d, that U. will, for many 
5 cars to come. But the noble Lord did not only cffcntially injure the population 
«f the parilh, by his loyalty, but alfo fo funk and deranged his fortune, (hat foofi 
after hii death, amno 1664, bis eftate was delivered up to his creditors. 

\ rhe deaths, in 1 79 A, cannot be compared with thofe of former year*, a» 
DO rcgiJler of deceafcd pcrfons has been kept. Neither can the birth* be acca-* 
ratcly compared ; becaufe, from the great extent of the parifh, and the occafional* 
abfence of the miniftcr, children are fomctiiues chriflcncdby other miniftcrfc ; 
and from the parents neglcding to regifter ihcm, the names of a few src left un- 
recorded. They may, however, fafely be taken, at an average for the laft 4 
ycara, at 65. The exaA number, both of births and deaths, being accurately 
tAcB, at the vifliation in 1792, may be perfc«^ly depended upon. 

$Thc following inftances of longevity, it may be proper here to infert. In 
1 7g4, a woman died in Kirkcudbright, who was a native of the place, aged 103. 
Ixceptthelola of her fight, (he retained her other faculties till within a few 
DM>atWol het donth. And on the 28th of November 1791, William Marihall, 


%6 Statf/Kcal Aecotrnt 

Althoagh from the great inereafe of popohcipD b the iMttfh, 
fifice 177X9 the inhabitants in the town are become mn^ 
more numerous^ jet, from the conftant emigration of Toung 
people, the growing population receives a cooiiderable check. 
No town io Scotland fenda perhaps, for iu file, fo vuuxf of 
ks children abroad to foniga countries- Man j of them hMFc» 
by their indaftry and application, fuoeeeded eitremelj wriL 
Some have acquired very ample fortunesy with a fair and ho- 
nourable charafter. 

Poo^.— The number of poor people in die town and conn'* 
try amounts* upon an average, to 4a. Thej are fnpporced 
chiefly from-thp weekly collediona at the chuich doori upon 
Sunday. Each perfon, at the quarterly divifion, receives nc- 
cording tp his circumllaooes, at the rate of Ss. or xos. The 
whole annual colIeAion amounts, at an average, to 70K Ster- 
ling^* At the quarterly ^ivifion of the weekly coUedion, 
^y the miniilcr and elders, there is a peculiarity worth men- 
tiooing. The minifters and elders of the burgh meet toge* 
ther, and divide the quarterly colieftion among the poor 
people refiding in the town. Then the minifters and elders 
f f th% country parifh meet by themfelves, and diftribute what 


tbker, died here, »t the aftonifiuog 9^ •! xia Though he was oot a nati?e of 
(|iis place, but of KirkmichaeU >n the ibire of Ayr, yet, for feTcral yean before 
he died, he refided often in this hargh. This B&iracle of longcTity retiined his 
fenfes almoft to the laft hour ; and diftindtty remembered to have feen King 
'WiUiam^s fleet, when on their wi|y to Ireland, riding at anchor in the Solway 
VKth, clofe by the Bay of ^iihcttdbright, imd the tranljportt lying in the harbour. 
His funeral was attended by a great coocourie of people of all raniis, wlio paid 
4ue refpeA to his allonifhing age. 

n Xk. R9>tRT JoaN^TQKK t«f London bequeathed by wilU ^tat4d September 
fe^th 1639, the fom of jool. Sterling, to be employed in fUcki apd the intereft 
to ^diTided annually amung poor burgefles. The magtfttates are trvfteet (at 
IM mantig emcnt vf die principal, and tho diftribvtion of the intercfU 

ef Kirki^udbrigbt. pjt 

tkej hav« Gollefied, during the quarter, among the poor of 

the landward pariih* As each of them coIleAs at their own- 

particular doors of the churchy their funds by this means are. 

kept quite feparate. This praSice has extfted ever fincc the 

union of the parlfhes, and ;no doubt took its rife, froih a inf- 

picioQ entertained bj the heritors of the landward parifhi that 

if their coUeSions^ for the fuppoxt of the poor, wers con* 

founded with thofe of the town, thej would be fwallowed up 

bj the numerous beggars th^t generally frequent 'coantry 

towns and burghis. Time has ihewn that their fears were not 

groundlefs i- for the poor upon the town's roll are { times 

more in number, than thoGs upon the roll of the pountty 


Kirkcudbright United Society ,^^lti this town a fociety wa4 
condituted, in the year 2783, by a few perfonSf under the 
defignation of the United Society of Kirkcudbright. The fole 
objeA of this tbciety is to relieve the didreiTed, by preventing 
their want of fubiiftence while in ficknefsy and, in cafe of deaths 
to defray the cxpences of their funerals. Ic extends alfo to the 
relief of the widows and orphans of deceafcd members. Ac- 
cording to the regulations of this fociety, each member pays* 
upon his admifliop, 6s. 6d., and is. per quarter He mud 
be 5 years a member of this fociety, before he can receive any 
benefit from the funds. In ficknefs be receives 3s* per weelf: . 
till he is recovered ; and, at death, his widow or heir receives 
ll. xcs. to defray the cxpences of his funeral. The widow 
of a deceafed member receives a certain fum yearly \ and, in 
cafe there is no widow, the children receive what (he would 
have drawn, until the youngeft is 2 9 year$ old* Tbis fo-f 
ciety, which was eftabliihed at firft by a few well difpofed 
perfons, for tlie laudable purpofes already mentioned^ has now 
increafed in number, from 10 or xa, to no Ief:> than 126 mem« 
Vol.. XI. C bers, 

t9 Stati/iical Account 

ben.' Thoir ftock amounts to x6ol. The happy effefts of 
this benevolent ioftitution are daily felt by lick membersy and 
by the widows aod orphans of thofe that are deceafed *• , 

Jffr^i&.-->KiRKCUDBRiOHT, the head bargh of the ftewartrj, 
where tlie courts of juftice and public records are kept* was 
anciently a burgh uf regality, and held of the Douglafles, 
lords of Galloway^ as fuperiors. Upon the forfeiture of the 
eftates of James, 9th Earl of Douglas, and laft Lord of Gal- 
loway, at Edinburgh, 4th Anguft I455» ^'"S J'^*'^ ^I« 
erefied the town into a royal burgh, by a charter, dated at 
Fertbf %6ih OQohir 1455 ; which was renewed and confirmed 
by a novodamus from King Charles I. dated at Holyrood^ 
hmfi^ 20ib July 1633. 3y this charter, and the fet of the 
burgh, the town council is unalterably fixed to confift of 17 
perfonSy via. a proYoil, 3 bailies, a treafurer, and 13 coun-* 
fellors, who are to meet annually at Michaelmas, and vot« 
out 3 of their number, and eled 3 new counfellors in their 
place t. 

Rivenui. — ^The annual revenues of the burgh, which confift 
chiefly of the rents of its landed property and filheries, b^ 


^ There u alfo another fociety, fomewhat fimilar to the former, bnt upon t 
HaQch more eztenfive fcale, aVout to ke eftabliflied in thi« pla^e. It ti to hff 
called the KxascvDaaioBT Fxaicatt Sociztt. But at it it onlj in contem^ 
lation, a defcription of it muft be deferred until fome future period. 

f Thii rsguhdoD, howerer, hat pever been duly attended to. Somednet 
the old counCellors have rt-daSed tbewffiivet, without making any alteration at 
all. At other timm, particvlarly in two famQUt political Orugglet, one about 
50 yean ago, the other fo late at the year Z790, the party, forming the majo* 
rity, troted out no fewer than j; counfellors, and elefted as many new onet to 
(ttcceed them. However, thit arbitrary proceeding received, in the laft iaftancei 
f cheA fr^mtbc Cotut of SeQaa, 

9f KirkcudbrigbU l9 

AioQBt at prelent to about 33ol* But upon the explratioa 
of the ptefeot leafes of land, thej wiU rife confiderably above . 
that fum. Oat of this food the burgh pays about zool. to 
the public teachers. Thej are not much ia debt, and what 
thej owe arifes from the lands thej have lately purchafed* Had 
diey bought more property at an earlier period, thej would 
have confiderablj augmented the revenues of the community. 
However, though they haVe made but few purchafes, it does 
not appear, that they have alienated any property for a great 
many years paft. Gontiderable fums have been laid out in 
public buildings, particularly upon a large and elegant court 
bonfe, which they built about 3 years ago, for the accommoda* 
tion of the courts of juHice, and public meetings of the fleir 
artry. It coll above 60 ol. 

Ce//.-— In calculating the annual fupply, which is generally 
done in April, we cannot avoid remarking a piece of injuftice 
in the mode of afleiGDg a certain clafs of the inhabitanti. 
The fupply, which is about 4ol« Sterling yearly, is levied, 
one half from burgh lands, and from merchants and tradetl 
men for their refpedive trades ; the other half is thromi en* 
tirely upon the tenants of houfes, while nopart is charged to 
the account of thofe who poflefs and occupy houfes as their 
own proptrty. Such an egregious deviation from aU the 
rules of jullica and equity, is perhaps not to be parallelled in 
any burgh in the kingdom. But it is to be hoped, fuch an 
npequal taxation, where one defcription of perfons (and thofe 
by no means the pooreft), is totally exempted, and another 
burdened with the whole fum, will foon be lefUfied. 

7rtfii>.-~The town of Kirkcudbright had long ago a confi- 
^eraUe inland trade, and a good ihare of commerce. No town 
was better ficuated for it. How it came to lofc it in a later 

C a period^ 

2<> Statiftical Acccount 

period, can be accoanted for onlj from the contraband trade^ 
which it afterwards carried on with the IHe of Man. This 
iSegal commerce deranged, for a while, all their ideas of fair 
' and upright dealing. After this trade was fet afide, large 
fmuggling companies eftabliihed themfelves along the coaft of 
Gallowajy and with a high hand braved, for fome time, all 
the efforts of government to fupprefs them. However, from 
the vigilance and aftivitj of the revenue officers, efiabliflied 
at the port, and particularlj thofe upon the coaft, this trade 
Has of late gradually declined* 

ManufaBures^^^fiAxmX. a year ago, fome faint appearance^ 
of manufadorifs, in the cotton line, began to (hew them- 
felves. Mules and jennies have been ereded, and weavers 
brought from a diftance to work with the flj-ihuttle. A 
woollen manufa&ory is alfo begun, as well as a candle and 
{bap manufaftorj. Should thefe branches happily fucceed, 
it would be of the utmoft advantage to this town. Would 
government take off the high duty upon the importation of 
eoali^t which is the only fuel ufcd in this place, it would 
afford great encouragement to thefe manufactories, and turn 
the attention of the people to a more certain profit, than they 
can expeft from the precarious advantages which refult froa& 

5ir/r^iii;.— Twenty-eight brigs and floops belong to the 
port and difirid : tonnage, X053« 

* The C0AL9 imported for three yean paft, within the caftom-hoafe 6\&xiA 
of thii place, amounted, upoo an average, to 1490 chaldert. Of this quantity 
the town and parifli take the half, 755 chalders, which are equal to 605 tons. 
The duty of tiut i» %o^. The price, at the rate of il« 6s. per ton, is 786I. xot« 

•f KirkudbrigbL 


In foreigu trade, - X 
In ditto, - - 1 

autt in nu6, 

- 8 



In the coafting ditto, - 13 
Salmon fmacks, - 2 

3 & 4 from 
- 3 

30 to 80 

Shell boats, - - 7 


10 to 18 

On the flocks, an ezcife 

cutter, - - I 

m *■ ' * 


On the flocks, a coafting 

vcffcl, - - 1 



JctomU cf Corn and Grain fentcQqfiwi/e^ from the difiriS of 
' Kirkcudbright^ in the Tears 1790, 1791 and 1792, 

Tean. ^, Bo. 







Qr. Bu. 



<^. iBu. 





1790 36 4 

1791 8 I 
X79» 3* a 



13V * 


1598 5 





1 6) A 7 
1846 3 
3456 [ 3 





Tou! 7^ 7 



3736 3 



79»5 1 5 




Atct. %s I i 



ia4i 4 



a64i t 7 




Coirrfi izjv// Public Offices. — ^The burgh of Kirkcudbright 
is the place ezprefsly appointed bj ad of parliament, nvhere 
the fteward's courts are to be held, and no where elfe. This 
court confifts of, a fieward depute, who is the fupreme 
judge, a fteward clerk, and 7 foUcitors. or procurators. The 
court meets every Friday, excepting during the time of vaca- 
tion. There is alfo a cuilom-houfe eftablilhed within tho 
hargh. Formerly it was a member of the port of Dumfries. 
About 50 years ago it was disjoined from it, and eilablifhed 
a port of its own. It conlifts of a coUeftor, comptroller, fur- 


S9 Statifiical Accbuiit 

vejor, landwaiter, 4 tidemen, and 4 boatmen^ Within the 
diftriS there are 3 creeks, viz. Caicraig on Fket^ Bakarry 
Bay^ and Potu at Barlochan Mill^ upon the river Urr. The 
diAri^ extends from the eaft fide of the river Urr, inhere it 
joins the diftrift of the cuSom-houfe of Dumfriesi \o the 
bttm of Carfloath, where it cbnaeds with Wigtoa cuftom- 
'koufe, being about 50 miles in lengthy 

5irioo/r.— Within the burgh there are, i redorof the gram- 
mar fphool, X teacher of writing and arithmetic, and I teacher 
o£ Englilh* The re£tor enjoys a falaiy of 30L per annutn^ 
the other two have 30I. between them. The fcholars are 
numerous, and well taught. Both the redot of the gramnaar 
fchool, and the writing mailer, keep boarders, at the rate of 
26I. per annum. 

Churchy Sec. — The prefent minifter was ordained the a7tb 
of September 1770, is married, and has 13 children, viz* 
7 fons and 6 daughters. As to his flipend, he cannot well 
fay what it is. About 20 years ago he raifed a fummons of 
augmentation, with the concurrence and approbation of all his 
heritors ; but from the violent contefts which afterwards arofe 
amongft them, about their adjufling their tiends, the locality 
is not yet finiihed. The unavoidable ezpence, in which theie 
litigations have involved the minifter, is not le£s thaa ajo L 
Whether the heritors will lay this to heart, and reimburfe 
him, according to their promife at the commencement of the 
procefs, he cannot fay. When the locality is fixed, the whole 
ftipend, in money and vidual,'wi]l not exceed xziL^-a poor 
fum for fo rich and extenfive a parifli, and a populous royal 
burgh .-^Though there are 3 glebes in theparifii, yet the mi- 
nifter pofiefies only one, and h is the wo^ft of the three. It 
is the worft in quality^ and fcarce the legal half in quantity. 


of KirkcudbrtgbU t^ 

Ht has no tnanfe, notwitbftanding there were, in former times, 
3 churches, 3 manfes, and 3 glebes. Inftead of a manfe he 
has 15L per annum. This he had to contend for before the 
Court of Sedion. The fum is too fmali for the rent of % 
houfe in Kirkcudbright. 

CharaBer and Manners The people of Kirkcudbright are, 

in general^ of a pleafant, focial and agreeable difpolitiony and 
their morals are fully as good as thofe of their neighbours. 
Few or none arc ever incarcerated for crimes or mifdemeanors. 
Formerlj they were faid to have been much addided to drinking, 
and perhaps there Vas fome truth in the report ; now, except 
amongft a very few of the loweft clafles, the charge would be 
nnjuft. In point of tafle, thej are much fuperior to mod 
people of the parilhes around them. Their reading is exten* 
five ; and being furnilhed with an excellent fubfcription Iib« 
rarj of the beft modern books, thejr have acce(s to all the 
improvements in literature and politics. They are all loyal 
to government ; and no lefs attached to the principles of the 
Britiih G)ailitutiuo, than averfe to divifions in the Church. 
No minifter in the church of Scotland can boaft of fuch una- 
nimity amongil his people : For among the whole 2,295 th^c 
compofe the parifh, there is not one diflenter, or feceder, of 
any denomination whatever. 

Prices of Labour and Provifions* 

Xfen ferrBBtt per ana. JL.8 

.Salmon, • - L.o 3 

Woacs icrvaots, - 3 to 

OriUet, « . - 21 

Ujoorcrsperdajyfnmi it. 

Trouti, . - - If 

to - - • I 

Cod, - - - xf 

Beer,perll».£ngyfli, .00 

Heat, etch, • -0x0 

Mottooy - * • 


Chickens, • - 003 

Liiiib» . - .00 

Xggi, per dosen, • 003 

Fork, • • • Q 


Botter^pcrEngUlhlb. -007 

14^ Statifiical Account 

Scotch'cfaeefe.perftoiie*, L.O 5 4 Bear, per bolt, 

^glilh ditto, ditto *, • 080 Barley, pet boU^ 

Oat»y per boll f , * 0x80 

X 6 

Antiquities. — ^There are many yeftiges of Britiih and Ro« 
man camps to be traced through this parifli. Some are alznofl 
Oitire, others much defaced. In the Carfe o^ Culdoacb there 
h one of the former ftill viiible, though much effaced. From 
its fitustion, it feems to have been fornied with A view to dc-r 
fend the ford acroCi the river Dee, which lies immcdiatelj be- 
low it. In Little Sypland there is another Britiih camp, quite 
entire. In Whynny Liggat there is a Roman camp. lo 
Miikle Sypland there are two Britifh ; and in the farm of 
Bombie there is one Britifh and one Roman camp %. 

In the farm of Drummore there is one large Bridfii camp^ 
almoft entire 11* This camp, which is furrounded with a 


.<^ The Zfigtjfl ehiefi it fold «# Englffi tsfti^Bt, lut the Jinne 9/ Sc9tth cheefe eonftfit 
•f %% mtuea, 

f The KirkeuSrlght ho!l eimjifi ef 8 peeh^ and is efual h II JVinchifer hujheh. 

^Kcar the Roman camp there is a Druldical temple, which was deftroyed 
If ithin thefe eight years, by the hands of an ignorant Gotb^ who carried off the 
ftoncs, rplit them, and applied them' to building a contemptible bridge over an 
inGgnificant rivulet, called Buehland Burn. The (lones were 7 in nonibcf , of 
round granite, and of unequal fizes. The fmalleft at lejft 3 feet in diameter* 
In Milton there are alfo two Britifh campt, akid one Rom^n. fSee the map.) 

I From the filiation and extent of this camp, it is extremety probable that 
the ancient Britons had here coUe^ed a conilderable force together to repel the 
invaGon of the Romans, or perhaps to defend tKemfeive$ agaioft the plundering 
Daniih and Norwegian rovers, who, in a later neriod, infefted the coaft of Scdt- 
land. At fomc diflasce from this camp, in the farm of Balmae, there' was Found 
a few years ago, by two ditchers, a flraight plate of gold, which was fo: je- 
what thick at each end, and at the middle. It bent eaiily at the centre, fo as 
to admit the two extremities to meet. But to whom it originally belonged, or 
to what purpofe it was anciently applied, it is impoCDble to inveiligate. It wai 
fold for about 20I. Sterling. 

tf Kirkcudbright. 25 

4^p foSity is fituaied oa the higheft part of the fartn, and 
coaunaDds a moft extenfive profped of the Solway Frith. At 
feme diftance below the cainp» upon a marihj grouad, there 
is a large well, built of ftoaes, in a circular form, which had 
fapplied the camp with water ; for no water is to be found 
'where the camp ftood. It ia all rocky ground. — In the farm 
of Lnhforg^ there is a large artificial lake, with two fmall 
iflands in it« One of thefe is called Palace IJle^ the other 
Stuhb J/U^ Both of them bear ftrong marks of ancient 
fortificatioot and were unqueftiooabl/ the feats or cadles of 
Tc&ous, Lord of Gallowat. 

Cq/HeSf lie. — In the farm of Torrs there are vediges of a • 
a ftrong batteiy^ ereded hy King William the III., when 
bis fleet was wisd-boaad in this baj, as he was going to raife 
the fiege of Loadoadeny. Within the fame farm there is a 
remarkable eavcf in the precipice on the lea (here. From 
the entrance to the fartheff end it meafures 60 feet, but the 
height is unequal. It is narrow at the mouthy then gradually 
iTidens, rifiog ia height to la feet or more ; again it contra&s^ 
and at the end of 69 feet terminates. The door had been 
origindly built with ftones, and had a lintel^ which is now 
fallen down, and buried under the rubbilh. The cave itfelf 
is the work of nature. From its fequeftered fituation, and 
difficult accefsy amidft rocks and precipices, it appear^ to 
have been a hiding place in ancient times. It was not impro* 
bablj fome Druidical cave.— Adjoining to t^e burgh there is 
the veftige of an old fortification, called in ancient writings^ 
Cajlltmainsy now CafiUdyka ^. It is furrounded with a deep 

Vol. XI. D foffiEc, 

•Thit oftle Mnflfed orl^nill^ to the Lord* of GAi.LowAT,wHUft OaU 
W«rtf coodtt^ » fepartte pniriitce from Scotland, and fccflu to hate been bvilt 
pa porpoCc to proted the entnacc into the harbour. John Ballioi. haTios 


s6 Statifiical Account 

foflee« aud is fitaated near the river. The tide probaUjr 
flowed roufld it in former times, and fitted the fcMflKe with 

The prefent Caftk of Kirteudbrigh is fitaated in a different 
part of the town from Cafilemains. i ands higher up the 

river, and was built, anno 1582, by ^homas M'Glellak of 
BoMBiE, anceftor to the prefent Lord Kirkcndbright *. It is 
a ftrong mafly building, of the Gothic order. It is moftljr 
entire, excepting the roof, which was ftripped off and fold bj 
the late Sir Thomas Maxwell of Orchardton, about 40 years 

ago t. 


married DonMAoiLLAf the eldeft daughter, and one of the co-heireffes of Al- 
IAN, the lift Lord of Galloway, faccecded to a confidcrahle fliare of the pr»* 
perty of her father, and alfo to this caftle. When the cooteft boewcen the 
defcendants of BaUiol and Robert Bnice, for the crown of Scotland, tcnninatcd 
in fayour of ^e latter, the property of Balliol in Galloway wu liarfeited, and 
heftowed by the tUnj^ upon Aechibalo DoootAa, brother to Jamec, Lord of 
DougUt, for his eminent fervicet in driving £pwAa9 Balliol ont of the king- 
dom. Thit caftle remained in the hands of the Douglafet, Loidi of Galloway, 
tiU 1455, when their vaft poffeffiona in thit country were forfieited, and aonesed 
to the crown- Jauii IV gave a grant of this cafi)^ and &mc lands belong- 
lag to it, to the bargh of Kirkcudbright, by a charter, dated at EMmhurgb^ %6tA 
Fdmary 1509. It appears by another pharter, dated at KirJUuSHgbt 1 5 08, 
that the King had been here in perfon ; and tiie tradition is, that his Majefiy 
had been hofpitably entertained by the burgh, and that they claimed fome re* 
ward for their former ferviccs to Jamis II. when he was befieging the caftle of 
Trief, and for recfnt fervices to himfclf ; wherefore hit Majefiy granted, with 
49iffimt rf ParliameMt^ the Caftle and Caftlemains to the town. At thit time it 
vn^u not under the jurifdidion of the burgh ; but fince the King's grant, it hat 
been alienated by the corporauon, though the land ftiU continues fubjeA to » 
)>Qrgage tenure* 

* He obtained a charter from Jamet Vt. comprehending ** Towm tt imit^mm 
** folum fundmm^ ei Ueum fmper fuUus Imut tt tccltfia fratrum it KirkcuAright ptrfriut 
%' iMJirutkontuT^ fiu ^tJjfieekafitur^ am 9mmihts hpidikm Juptr qfkm txtJUntikus^'kmm 
f! ftim p^ariis horiU tt /em/uuiu,** Thit charter is daud at ZdUw^, tth Df^ 
fMs^r, 15^9- 

f 960dcs the Caftle of Kirkcudbright, there wit another flftnch more ancient ; 


rf Kirkcudbright. fty 

Th6 tdwn of Eirkctidbright bears fome matks of ancient 
fortifications. A deep ditch and a wall appear td hate formerlj 
fnrroaoded it. Strong gites were alfo placed at the entrance 
into the town, to prevent the apptoach of an enemj. Tbefa 
gates were pulled doWn not many years ago, to make way 
for building new hooles. Some remains of the ditch and wall 
axe ftill to be feen *• It is probable, that the ditch was then 
filled with water by the flowing tide ; but from the retreat of 
the fea along this coaft, it does not at prefent reach it. 

D a Religiout 

within this pariih, which belonged to the family of M'Clelhui, called Railerry 
l%C£r. It hung o^er a very dreadful precipice above the Solway Frnh, and was 
diqoiaed £r()m the main land by a deep foflee, and a firong wall next Uie cafile, 
with a draw4iridge of hard free-ftone, of to immenfe fis^e. The wall and 
4faw4>ridge were deftroyed only about 40 years ago ; the interior buildings 
fahips more than »oo years before that period. At prefent nothing remains 
but the deep foflee. This caftle was befieged and taken by William, £AaL of 
DoDOLAi, and Lord of Galloway, in 145a. Sir Patrick M'Clillam of 
BoMSis, the proprietor, having incuired the difpleafore of this proud and law- 
leis butm, partly from his conoedion with Lord Hiaiis, (who had withdrawir 
his dependence upon the Earl, and was hanged}^ and partly from his attachment 
to his g of ueign , wu lieised in his own caftle^ carried to the caftle of Trief, con- 
dcmaedt and difgracefbUy put to death. This family had another caftle at 
Jomhic, within this parifti, from whence they to«'k their title. It is now % 
heap of mins -^In tracing the various remains of old caftles^ which formerly be- 
Ifloged CO this powerfni clao, together with their vaft poffeffioos in land, oce can^ 
not ht^ reflcdtiog on the great inftability of human affairs, and the lad tiain of 
BisfiBrtnaes, vrhtch fbmetimes attend particular families more than othen- Of 
aD the great tflates that once belonged to this f efpe^able family, there does not 
now rcmaiB one fingle foot of land u the heir male of the title, the prefent 
Loao KiaxcuDBaiaaT. 

• In JVbsjA*'/ mid Bwrfft Bjfory of tit jhtipthUt ofWtfmvnUni aad Cumkr' 
hmd^ and the ancient fiate of the borders, during the reign of King £d« 
WAsn yi. (t547), there is a manufcript 4ccmMt^ by Sir Thomas CAaLiTON of 
Carltim'ffmOt " of a ferray in Scotland, conduded by himfelf, who eommanded 
'' a party under the (then) Loan Wbautom, warden of the Weft Marches.** 
JHr Thomas fiiyi, <* be went through Tevidale with his party, and plundered 



2S Statijlical Account 

Ritigtcuj Houfis.'^n Spottijwoo^i jtcetmnt $f Mfllgiou4 
Houfis im Sc^landj notice is taken of the Franoifeans, or Gray 
Friars, having been eftabliflied at Kirkcudbright in the latk 
centurj. Brother Joha Carpenter, who is iaid to have beea 
an excellent engineer, and dextrous in contriving all inftru- 
ments of war, was one of the perfons profefled in this place. Btu 
there are no records here, that can throw anjr light on the hif'- 
torjr of this order, whilft they continued at Kir^ccudbrighc 
The ancient records of this country, efpecially what helongedl 
to the church, were carried off at the Reformation, bjr the 
Popilh clergy, and lodged either in the Vatican at Rome, or 
in the Scotch College at Paris. The prefent church, however^ 
feems to have been built on the fame fpot of ground, which was 
formerly occupied by the Fratrcs min^rti^ oc Grey Friars^. 


the country; then attadbed Dnmfrlc*, which fubmicted to become liibjcAs of 
Edward. He fent atfo a fuRunona to XirMru (as he caOs h), to cotne and 
make oath to the King's Majefty. Upon rcfufing, he marched with his paity, 
and came to the town a little after fun-rifing. ** But they, who faw us cooung, 
» barred their gates, and kept their dikes ; for the town is diked on borh fides, 
*' with a gate to the water- ward, and a gate on the over end to the feH-^srard.*' 
However, according to Sir Thomas's accoont, the town, though attacked, was 
not taken. Afterwards, indeed, they fent their commiffioners to Bumfries, and 
engaged to ferre the KingN Majefty of England. This hiRorical anecdote^ 
ihews that the town, at that time, was tolerably well fortified. 

* From the ancient records of the bnrgh, there appears, by a contraft, dated 
44th March 1570, to have been given to the magiftrates, ■* the place and kitk 
■* in the town of Kirkcudbright, qohilk fometime pertained to the ^iart mtmt 
•* of Kirkcudhright ; alfo anc kirk within the burgh, called St. Aminxat JQrl^ 
'* with the ktrk-yeard, Chappelanes, am] yeard thereof; refeiTing to John 
'* McClelland, and John Mitchell, the chalmars and yeards, which they occupy 
*' at the date hereof, for their liferent*** — ^After the reftoration of epifcopacy in 
Scotland, notice is taken of a great tumult having ha]q»coed, in X663, upon 
the admiffion of a curate into the pariih of Kirkcudbright. The Lorda of hi 
Majefty's privy council appointed comnuifioiMrs to go to Earkoidbright, and 
examine inte the matter, and convene before them all fueh as were cooeemed 

ff KirkcuSright. y^ 

ti* Mat/s JJb^ now the beaptsftil ftat of tke Earl of Sok 
kirk, was fbnnerlj a priory^ and ibtiiided in the ceign ^f 
Da¥D I. bj FEaavs, Lord of GaUoway« It was csdled 
PrwtaiuM SunOa Maria d$ Ttrayll^ and bdd of the Afabqr 
of Holytoodhoufe. Tbo prior was a lord* of Pulioniont. 
There are no yeft^es a| prefent to (hew that it was originally 
a prio^. Two gates that led to it weio many years ago de^ 
molifticd* Tho ooter one, whieh was placed aboot hslf % 
miledifiant from the priory, and about an equal diftaace from 
the town, ftill retains its ancient name, the Great Crofs. The 
inner gate, which led immediately to a group of cells, the 
habiution of the monks, was called the Litth Croft. All 
tfaefe cells and buildings were pulled down, and removed 
about a century ago, and the ground now applied by his 
Locdiliip to a much better ufe, in extending his beautiful 
pleafnre ground, than ferving the purpofes of folly and fuper« 
ftition f . It is worthy of notice, that although the retreat 


tn adting thu tomiilt, aod prerenting the conte from entering the churdu 
At the meetins of the eommiffioners at Kirkcudbright, John Lord Kirkcod^ 
bright^ and many others, were arreded and fent priTonen to Edinboigh, for re- 
fnfing to qiieU the tumolt and admit the curate. Many women in the town, 
wbo had been moft adive in railing the mob, were condemned by tbe com« 
miffioneii to fiand at the market croft for fcvetml market days, with a paper 
on their face, intimating their crime, and then bound over to keep the peace* 
The magiftratcs were appointed to eiecnte the ientence. 

t A Hew years ^o, when his Lordlhip was extending his garden upon the 
eaft fide of the ille, the workmenf in digging and removing the fliells, acci- 
dentally diibovered the flceletons of 14 people, who had been buried under 
them. They were regularly placed alongfi the fide of each other, with their 
heads to the weft, and their feet to the eaft. One of them feemed to be diF- 
ifogniflied from the reft, by a row of thin fiones placed around him. Probably* 
be had been fome chief among them. How they came to be interred in that 
partlcolar fpot, when there was a burying place adjoining, which belonged to 
the monks, can only be czpUined, by fappofing them to have been buried there, 
long before the priory exifted. Be that as it will, the prefent Earl, with great 
bumaoity, canfed all the bones to be carefully coUeded, put into boxes, aii4 
sgun interred in the Oaltway church-yard. 

39 Statijlical Jtcbunt 

of the Oea 18 obfervable along the whole coaft, yet it is t&ore 
farticoho'ly remarkable around St. Mary's Ifle. The fea, ih 
former . times, had flowed, not only round the vrhde ifle, 
but had alfo covered at leaft one half of all that i^ now green, 
mt every flux of the tide. The former line of high water 
can be traced with great accuracy, by the large (hell bnnkSy 
that have been lately difcovered all along the eaft fide of the 
peninfubu The weft fide is high ground, defended by a bor- 
4er of rocks* 


cfBorguc^ jl 


^Strwartry and PreJbyUry of Kirkcudbright-'^ynod of 

By the Rev. Mr. Samuel Smith, Minijer. 

EreSiom and Names. 

BORGDE, SzNWicK and Kirkakbrkws, were united 
abont the jear 1670. Borgue^ or Borg^ the general 
name of the united pariflies, is derived from the Gaelic word 
iurg^ which fignifies a little hUl^ and is certainly very de- 
fcriptive^ either of the lituation of the church, which is placed 
on a beautiful eminence, in the middle of the pariih, or of the 
general appearance of this diftrid of land, which is remark- 
ably unequal in its furface. Senwick (originally SandwicS)^ 
is compounded of Jandzad wfVi, two Gaelic words, fignify-« 
ing a narrow neck of land. This is alfo very defcriptive^ 
both of the lituation and foil. Kiriandrews evidently takes 
its name from the tutelary laint of l^cotland, to whom it was 


I^Z, Stat^ical Account 

Situatum and Extent. — ^Thls parifli is fituated m die fbatbetil 
Extremity of the ftewartrj of Kirkcudbright. It extends 
farther fouth thaa anj land in Scotland, one point in the ihire 
of Gallowaj excepted, ks gtvaloft length is lo miles, and 
its greateft breadth 7. The figure of it is vtry irregular, and 
the whole extent maj be computed at 40 fquare miles. 

Sia Coajt and Fi^.^^Thert are upwards of 15 miles of 
fea coaft, nearlj half the circumference of the whole parifh. 
On thi$ coaft afe the following bays : Ro/j Bay^ which «f* 
fords a b& and commodious harbour for (hips ; Bridgtboufe 
and Kirkandrews baysi where yeiTels of light burthen anchor 
occafionallj, in fine weather ; and Knocibrix Bay^ which is a 
better haven than the two former, but much expofed to fbuth 
and wefierlj winds. The other parts of the ooaft are all 
xock J : For the moil part it is bold and' elevated ; and in 
fome places the cliffs rife 200 or 300 feet perpendicular ; and 
as this coaft is very much expofed to the fouth and weft 
winds, the fea often rolls in upon it with prodigious force, 
tfnd forms a fcene grand and awful beyond defcription. The 
fpray formed by the dafliing furge, is fometimes carried to 
t^e diftance of two miles. It blaAs the crops, and implies 
vegetation on the coaft ; but enriches and fertilizes the fields 
which lie beyond it. — Samphire grows among the rocks in 
great abundance. Confiderable quantities of other marine 
plants are gathered for making kelp. Cod, ikate and flounder; 
lobfterst oyfters, and other kinds of fhell fi(h, are alio found \ 
but it has never been efteemed a good fifhing coaft. Perhaps 
no good fiihers have ever made the experiment. 

Surface^ SM^ l^^.— The furface of the ground, it has been 
obferved, is remarkably unequal. Although there are no 
high hilis) yet an acre of level ground is fcarcely to be found 


of Bcrgue. ^^ 

in any part of the parifli* The little hlUSi which rife ever/ 
wbere, and in all the varieties of fliapef are nothbg but 
mafles of rocks, covered with a thin ftratam of earth. The 
foil is, for the moil part, a fine loam, fometimes intermixed 
with fand or gravel, and either founded on a rock, or hard 
gravellj bottom. Hence it is extremely iindiy, and, in wet 
feafona, very produftive, either in crop or pafturage ; but it 
is fooa exhaufted by tillage, and eafily injured by drought. 
Any level ground, which was to be found among the numer- 
ODS little hills, originally conliited of mofs ; which is now a1- 
moft entirely confumed in digging for fuel or marl, and hath 
left nothing but morafTes and pits of ilanding water. 

ProfpeBi. — ^The rifing grounds, in many different places of 
this parilli, afford very beautiful profpefts. The writer of 
this article has reckoned 15 or 1 6 different views of the fea, 
preicated through the openings among the little hills. A very 
exteafive view is exhibited of the circumjacent country, the 
furface of which is finely diverfified. On the one fide (lands 
Kirkcudbright, and the feat of the Carl of Selkirk ; on the 
other, Wigton, Garliefton, and Whitehom, the feat of the 
£arl of Galloway. Behind, are the mountains of Gallo- 
way, rifing gradually above one another at proper diftances: 
Before, Whitehaven, Workington, and other towns. The Iflc 
of Man, St» Bee's Head, and the lofty mountains of England j 
ftrttching otit to an extent of 60 or 70 miles, form the limits 

of the varied fcene There are no rivers or lakes which dc- 

fcrve to be mentioned 5 and very little wood, except a f*w 
fmill plantations around gentlemen's feats. 

CiimmU and Difiafet. — ^The climate does not admit of that 
extent and variation, that takes place in the inland and moun- 
tainous parts of the country. The cold is never fo intenfe 
Vol, XI. E in 

24 Statifiical Account 

tp tvinter, and perhaps the heats are not greater in fummer, 
from the well known effeds of fea breezes^ to cool the air in 
the one feafon, and to warm it in the other. Owing perhaps 
to this caufe, confumptions are lefs common than in other 
places of Scotland. Febrile dileaf(^ are more frequent than in 
the higher dilirids. Agnes formerly prevailed very mnch. 
There has not, however, been one inftance of this diforder for 
9 or xo yefirs paft f. Rheumatifm feem? pow to be the moft 


* Similar obfervations hiive been made in other ftatiftical hiftoriet , and va« 
rioQt caufefl affigned. It i« furely worth while to iQYeftigatc the true canfc of 
fads fo remarkable. The fuUowii^ theory it fubmitted with diffidence to the 
ynblicy if admiflible in a publication which it intended chiefly for a record of 
fada •■'•*• 

Marjb Miafma is aligned as the remote caufe of intermittent fevers; and 
when fuch difcafet become lefs pretaknt, it it Tery natural to fuppofe, that thi; 
Gaining of marine A ot moffetmiift be the occafion of it. But in this difirift 
aa moffes or marlhes have been drained, of any ^onlcqaence, for ma&y yearf 
paft ; nor has any ot|ier remarkable alteration happened to afied the f^lobrity 
of ihe air, except what may be fuppoied to arife from the fuperior cultivation 
of ^e ground. When land i» deepened and pulverifed, in confcquence of im- 
provements, bf^fime, (heUsy and mar), it ahibrbathe rains more ipncfcly and 
plemiftt)ly. Hence lefs moifii^ will arife in Evaporation ; left water alfi» wlU 
run along the furface, and ftagaate in the hollows, which are here to be found 
Ifi ahnoft every field. The water thus colleded fooner acquires a noxious qnap 
iSty, than t||at which is ih mbflea, which are commonly fed by fubttxrancous 
^^gsand nmni&g rivulets; In'creafed 'vegctatioiti vHlldiminilh'evaporatioo; 
lor water is abfotbed hi eonfiderable quantities by the plana tfaemielvea ; and 
in proportion to theiy luxuriance, they dimimflb the refledion of the lun's rays, 
and keep the air more cool and temperate during the heats of fummer and au- 
tumn. Moreover, it has been proved by JLAToisxea and others, that water 
contains pure air and inflammable air : and sAib, that inflammable and bad airs 
are in a great mcafure the food of plants. Thus, by increafing vegetation, that 
inflammable air, which is hurtful to' animals,' is abforbed in greater quantities. 
Water aUb is decompounded by them; the noxious parts it contains are returned ; 
and a vafk quantity of vital air is produced. Hence we may conclude, that 
cultiVatioii of (hit ground will in jrarious Dvays contribute to remove the caiife of 
' ■ "• ' '• ' igucf, 

of Bbrgue. ^^ 

prevalent diford^r In this parifli. It may in a good meafure 
be afcribed to fcarcitj of fuel, and cold and damp houles. 
From greater attention to cleanlinefs, and a more plentiful 
life of vegetables and fteili animal focfd, fcorbutic aind cuta- 
neous difeafes are lefs prevalent than formerly. Inoculation 
for the fmall pox is generally and fuccefsfuUy employed.-^ 
The climate, it appears, is favourable to longevity* On the 
1ft of January lai^, 13 perfons were alive Upwards of 80* 
One of 89, a tinker by trade, bids fair for rivalling his brothet 
Marshaix, celebrated in the annals of CroSmichael. He caa 
drink a glafs from the fole of his foot \ and in feats of firength 
and agility, would fiirpafs m6(l men of Bo. His teeth were 
all double, and molt of th^m yet remain faft in their fockets* 

Population. — ^The number of inhabitants has increafed above 
one tenth within thefe 4d years, as appears from the follow- 

Statistical Table : 

JMaUf. FmaUt. TotaL 
Number of fouls in 1793, - 364 407 771 

Ditto in 1755, at retunied to Dr. Webfter, - - ^9/ 

Increa£^ • . . 74 
t i Mttaabtf 

agws, and other febrile difeafet; and be of great nfe, in producing that fiate d 
the air which b favourable for promoting general health. Greater length of 
time, and a greater number of iJDftances, are doubtleft oeceflary to prove, with 
loll convidioo, that iiich difeafes become lefs prevalent as the landa aft betted 
cultivated. It is no uncommon thing for particular difeafes to appear at certaio 
periods, to rage for a while with great violence, and again to diiappear for 
fome time entirely, until fome peculiar date of the air takes place, whfn the/ 
again appear, and run their courfe as formerly. Thefe remarks, however*, it i* * 
hoped may be ufeful, to cxdcc farther inquiry into a matter, which it I9 peci^ 
Wlj intercfiing. 

^6 Statiftical Account 

Namber of famtlte** • 151 Number of mechtnict, - 40 

p<f font under 10 years fliopkeeperi, - 5 

of age, 137 -^__ keepcn of ak houfet, a 

reiiding heritort ♦» 5 Average of births f, - 33 

— noo-rcfident ditto, X) Number of black cattle, - ^95 8 

— farmers, who pay from ■ (beep, - 2x39. 

lool. to aocl. per annum, - 16 -■ horfet, - ayo 

do. from aool. to 300I % ploughs, - 66 

■ do. from joU to lool. 1$ • carts, - - yi 

■ do. under 50, - 14 

Cultivation. — The farms let at from 8s. to zL per acre. 
Both foil and climate are favourable to early feed-time and 
harvell. Seed-time ufuallj begins about the ift of March, 
and harveft about the lOth of Auguft. Agriculture, 
though much improved of late years, is not yet pethaps ia 
that improved ftate, which might be expeded from the ad- 
vantages of foil and climate, and from the eafy and independ- 
ent circumftances of the farmers* About one half of the land 
is arable; and feldom one fourth of the arable land is in crop. 
The manures chiefly employed are lime (hells and marl. 
Marl is found on mod farms of the pariilu It ^was ufed 
firft of any of the above manures, and anfwered extremely 
well for two rotations of crops. But it is obferved, that it 
feldom does much good when employed a fecond time ; nor 
do lime and fliells anfwer well after it. Shelb are found in 
great abundance in all the different bays, and efleemed the 
bed 6f all thefe manures. One fmall vein of limeftone has 
ftlfo been difcovered, but fo trifling as not to defray the ex^- 
pence of workmanfhip. 


* Tvc 9f theft gentleiKen reftde only occx/ionttly, 

t N. B. A'o rfgifer c/marriag.j or buricls h kept. Tie average $/ hirth* -woj Ua 
fame 50 yare ago. ^reviwt U that ^emd the fopuiatimiftemt /• b^vt htmi greater^ 

of BorgU€. 37 

Produce. — ^The principal crops are oats and barlej. Twice 
as moch of both is produced as to ferve the inhabitants oV 
tlie parifh. The furplus is exported to England and the weft 
of Scotland. Wheat, flax and hemp are alfo reared ; but in 
imall quantities. The foil is doubtlefs well adapted for tur- 
nipsy peafcy and other green crops ; but thej have never been 
cultivated to a great extent. The land is feldom laid out in 
fufficient heart. Compoft and dunghills, the moft valuable of 
all manures for a thin and kindly foil, are rarely ufed* 

Dt/aJvantages» — ^Three circumftances concur to check im- 
provement in agriculture : Short leafes of farn^s, want of 
finiw yards, and fcarcity of labourers. Where the proprietor 
gives only a leafe for a few years, fcarce any renriftions he 
canimpofe, or any encouragements he will give, are fufficient 
to induce the tenant to meliorate his farm. No manure is 
foond to be of lafting advantage in this country, except dung^ 
which cannot be colleAed in fufficient quantities, in any other 
way but by keeping the cattle in faoufes, or draw yards ; which 
no tenant will ere& at his own expence, without a very long 
leafe. Of this proprietors begin to be fenfible. Some time ago, 
the Earl of Selkirk, and lately Mr. Gairie of Dunroad, have 
creAed ftraw yards and farm houfes, on a very elegant and 
liberal plan. Others, it may be expeAed, will foon follow 
the example.^— Owing to the great increafe of manufaftures 
ia the neighbourhood, it is extremely difficult to find a fuf« 
ficicnt nomber of labourers, for carrying on improvements in 
agricultare. The price of labour is nearly doubled within 
tbefe laft 15 years, and is now perhaps as high as in any 
place in Scotland ; and as the price of grain is very little railed 
in that period, this muft alfo prove a material obftacle to the 
improvement of lands. 


38 Siatifiical Account 

Black Cattle.— The natural verdure of the foil, the teib« 
perature of the climate, and the great abundance of (belter 
afforded from the inecjualities of the furface, concur to render 
this one of the finefl grazing countries in Scotland : And the 
farmers, as might be expe&ed, have long been famous for 
their ikill in the management of cattle. Trials have been 
made of different forts of blacl& cattle, from England, Ire- 
land, and the Ifle of Man ; but none have been found to an. 
fwer fo well as the true GkiUoways. The fiirmers here are 
as attentive to the fliapes of cattle, as a jockey is to the propor* 
tiona of a horfe. Even an eje or an ear is not to be overlook- 
ed. Some of their obfervations may appear whimfical ; but 
in general, they are certainly well founded ; for one of good 
proportions is always eafily kept, foon fattened, and, as Mr. 
Ramfay has obferved, ** commonly tells well at the end of 
** the balance." It is to be regretted, that few of the cattle 
here are kept to fufficieot age, or fed out for flanghter. When 
this is done, no beef in the world exceeds it. They are com- 
monly bought up for the Engliih markets, at a and 3 years 
old. An ox or heifer, of i year old, fells from jl. to 5I. } of 
3y from 5I. to 7I. i and of 3, from 7I. to zol. 

Sheep and ffor/es. — ^There are fix different kinds of iheep 
in this parifh : the Spanijh iheep, introduced by Lord Daer j 
the Shetland^ introduced by Mr. Thompson ; the Cheviot 
fine-wooUed (beep brought from the fliire of Galloway ; the 
common muir or black faced iheep , the mug, and the Bake^ 
well breeds. The 3 firit kinds were only introduced lail 
year. It is intended to try a pure breed of all the different 
kinds, and alfo to crofs them various ways, which will moil 
probably lead to ufeful difcoveries for the improvement of 
wool. The muir iheep are only bought in annually, and fatted 
£6r the butcher. The miig and Bakcwell, or an intermixture 


of Borgue. 39 

of both, conftitutes^ tlie ftaple of the country. The average 
price of wool, of the fheep bred in the parifli, is i6s. pec 
floDc, of a8 lb. avoirdupois. Muir fheep, brought down in 
harveil, anfwer very well without fmearing, and the wool 
improves in quality. The wool of the Cheviot appears to be 
of the feme quality with that of the natives. The Cheviot 
ftccp are very well made. By crofTing the breed of them 
with the Shetland, whofe wool is remarkably fine, it is pro- 
bable that both the quality of the wool and of the mutton will 
be improved. — The foil here is no lefs adapted for horfes than 
for cattle. Not many are reared for fale ; though, under proper 
management, they commonly pay extremely well, and are 
efteemed much more durable, for the pnrpofes of agriculture^ 
than either the Englifh or Irifh, which are fometimes intro- 

Ca$mfurce^ ManufaBures and Fuel, — ^The prices of vivres 
of all kinds are regulated by Kirkcudbright, which is our 
ncareft market town, being only four miles dtftant. This 
diftrid has long been defervedly celebrated for fine honey. 
Jt is clear as cryflal, and of the richefl flavour.-r— A fmall 
inanofafture of cotton has lately been eftablifhed at Kirk- 
aodrews, where a village is alfo begun, but does not feem to 
iocreafe with rapidity. Until the duty on coal is taken oflT, 
it is not to be cxpeded, that population will greatly increafe, 
or manufa£lttres of any kind be carried on with fpirit. This 
partial and oppreflive tax is highly prejudicial to agriculture, 
as well as to manufaflures. The farmer mufl be employed 
daring a confiderable part of the fummer months, in prepar- 
ing and bringing home bis peats ; the materials of which are 
with great difficulty dug from deep pits, carried to a confi* 
derable diftance, and mufl afterwards be mixed with water, 
kneaded, and formed into loaves, after the manner that the 


40 Statiftlcal Account 

baker prepares his dottgh before it is pat bto the oven. The 
cottager * * * t 

Cburcb, School and Poor. — ^The Crown is patron. The 
ftipends confift of a chalders of meal, z of bear, and 8o3l« 
Scotch of money, befides 4ol. Scotch for communioa ele- 
ments, and 3 glebes, which lie detached, and meafure z6 
acres. The church and manfe are verj much out of repair ; 
bat the heritors, it is not doubted, will Toon repair them 
handfomely. They have lately erefted an exceeding good 
fchooUhoofe. The fchool is well attended, and the emolu^ 
ments may be averaged at 30!. a year. The poor are fup* 
plied from the colleftions in the church, which ufually are 
between 2 jl* and 30L annually, and from the intereft of i4ol. 
of ftock. Twelve or fourteen (the number commonly on 
the lift), are maintained. None of thefe beg from houfe to 
boufe; but beggars from other diftrias are very numerous. 

Antiqmius. — ^There are four or five moats in different parts 
of the pari(h ; one of which, (the Dun of Boreland)^ is very 
remarkable. Its fituation is confpicuous, and commands a 
very eztenfive profpeA of the circumjacent country. Its form 
is exadly circular, and at the top about 40 yards diameter. 
The foflee with which it is furrounded, is 10 feet deep, and 
7 or 8 in breadth at the bottom. At the diftance of a bow 


f It it with no finaU pleafure, that the author of this account hat jaft received 
intelligence, that the duty on coali it uken off The advaouget of thii will 
loon he felt among all ranks; and it will fcarcely admit of a doubt, that m a 
fiiort time it will prove equally advanugeout to the State. For, at a moderate 
calculation, the diftrid of Galloway alone will, in ten years, contain 1 0,000 
more inhabitants, who will pay thrice as much to GoTemmcnt, in aiier tazet, 
at it paid at prefent by the duty on coal. 

flidi froni it, ahd on lower grdund, there is another of the 
£une kind, and nearly of the fame circumference. This is 
alfo farxottoded with a fofKe, which had been filled with wa- 
ter, but is now become drji from the draining of a mofs 

adjoining tb it *; 


former State of 'the fdrijb. — About the beginning of this 
Centurj, the number of farms had been double, or nearly triple, 
IKrhac it is at prefent. Four or fix horfes wfcre yoked to a 
plough, whith is ilow drawn by two 6r three. The lands, 
hotvrithftandbg, were miferably cultivated ; the cattle poorly 
fed ; farms every where overftocked ; and beads of all kinds 
grazed promifcuoufly. Henee, though the foil was grateful, 

Vot. XI. F and 

^ In thk mofs, piecei of ipeiri, and an old iilver coin (the infcription efiaced); 
^ere latdy looiid. Ic if natural to conjedure, from the above particulars, tha^ 
thrf had been intended for military ftationt ; for which, in the opinion of fome 
gcntkmcn of the annjr, who lately vifited them, they are very well adapted. 
^th/t remaina of a ftrong fortification are alfo Yifible in the farm of .^omeas. It 
lb fitnated on a ^pendoos rock, which jntt into the fea. It is of a tdangulac 
Ibcm. On two fides the rock niea nearly aoo feet perpendicnlar. On the land fide, 
k Is fianified by two ftrong entrenchmenu, and a moond, the original height of 
which canaoc now be afcertained, as it is almoft entirely demolifiied. In other 
plaeea of the ihorc, at the bottom of very remarkable cliffs, there are two or 
flvee cnriotts aires. One of them evidently feems to have been artifical ; it ia 
^noertaitt for what pnrpofe it had been intended. The mod remarkable fa«ft, of 
which any nicm oc y is preserved by tradition, is the robbery of the church of 
fcnwick by French pirates. The church, at that time, contained a very confi- 
deraUe quantity of pUte, which the Frenchmen plundered, and had fafely e- 
Icaped with their booty ; but a ftorm arifing immediately after they had put to 
lea, the ihip was dalhed upon a rock, at a little difiance from the ihorc, oppofite 
to the chnrch, and every perfon on board periflied. In memory of this event,' 
the rock haa ever fince been ftyled the ^remhwtaCt jeici.^There are two fine 
old minaan the patiih; one of them called th9 tvmr of Salmmgam^ the other 
fimtm Cfpttn Tradition hu prefcnred nothing certain conoeroing them^ 

jf% Statiftical Account 

«Dd tbe fmak$ trifling, yet the iobabi taots appear (e ba^e a»* 
jpyed the coOQforlj^ of life ia a vctj iacoofidcrabk degree. 

frefint Stai$. — The rents of laiid at preCent aie x«creafied «i 
the proportion of 4 or even 6 to i. The quantity of ftock t^ 
greatly diminiflied. Many of the farmers, notwithftanding,have 
attained to opulenoe; all of them aie iodependent» and enjoy the 
comforts, and many of the pleafures of life, in no inconfidcrw 
tble degritt. The difadvantages, under which they Ux>ur, an 
comparatively £ew; and they enjoy advanuges more tha^^ 
fuftcient to make ?mple compenlation* Befidea the advaa^ 
tages of foil and climate already mentioned, vre apprehend it 
x^a^ be added, that their farms^ ia general, are of a proper 
taunt; that they are at a proper difiance from market 
towns ; that they need few articles of importation, and have 
a ready £i1e and eafy conveyance for articles of exportation ; 
94d that there are no villages, or Imall maaufafturiog tovm aa 
fhe pariifa. The laft of theie, we are aware, is ufaally daiU 
under the oppofite head. The politician, doubdefs, ought to 
confider the want of villages and manufadures as 9n evil^ 
|)|K:au(e it la unfriendly to population, and increafe of aationaj 
jfevenue i but the philo(bpber, with more enlarged and better 
fbntiments, forbeaffd to lament the lois, when ha oonfiders^ 
their pernicious influence'on the morals, health and happinels 
of mankind. It cannot efcape the notice of the attentive obfi 
(ef vcr, that, in villages, the moft worthleb and wretched part 
ef fociety is commonly to be found. Thither the dregs of tba 
community, from all quarters, are poured in. Every incentive 
to vice is prefented, and no proper police is efiabliihed to give 
9 check to the growing evil. Where villages arc founded^ 
Ija^nufaflures ought indeed invariably to be eftabliibed, as tho 
baft meaas to give encouragement to induftry ; which will 
apperate as a more effeftual check to the progrels of vice, and. 


«oitribal« more u the fdidtjr of the tnMbitantd, ttx9Xi the bift 
code of municipal laws, cm* the moft rigid exereife of that 
power which is vefted in baron bailies. Pafturage and agri- 
cultura are, doabtlcb, oC all^m^oymeats, the Ihofl favottrable 
to the health and morals of nankktd* Perhaps it is oi ad- 
Tantage where both are blended together. The leifiiro and 
opportnnitiefi of fqcial intercourfe, afforded hj the one, lead 
io indbleoGC and diffipation; the hard and unramittcd laboue 
«f the ether inipairs the vigour of the mind, and contrads 
the leetiogs of the heart : but the etrk arifing from either, 
are, in a great meafurei correded b^ the intermixture of 

Ciaro^rr.-— Thefe obfervations have been fugged e r'/rom 
taking a view of the occupations and chara&er, of the inhs^ 
bitants of this parifli ; who are, in general, rational in their 
fentiroents; liberal in their opinions; cheerful in th^ir tempers^ 
adive and intelligent in their profellion ; fatisfied with their 
own condition, and fympathifing with the diftrefles of others* 
The cottager lives long under the fame mafter ; the tenant 
feldom changes his landlord: the progenitors of the prefent 
race, centuries ago, inhabited the pari(h, and, in manj inftan- 
ces, the very farms which their offspring now inhabit. Thej 
are all allied by confanguinity or marriage ; a circumilance 
which prevents jealoufiesi envyings and contentions, and 
donbtleis contributes to that obliging inteltourfe with one 
another, for which they are remarkable. Religious differences 
are unknown ; and, though very moderate in their religious 
fentiiDents, they have, from time immemorial, been regular in 
attending ptiblic worihip.<-*It is not, however, to be denied, 
that, from two caufes, the morals of the inhabitants of this 
country have fuffered material injury : xjt^ From fmugglin^ 
which fiddom fails to beget habits of intemperance : And, 

Fa arf{r> 

44 StallTtcal Account 

ndly^ From too great a number of alehoufes, or rather dru^ 
{hops, eftablifhed in different places Y. 

* When the Iflc cf Man was an ivclfpcndnit princtpdity, the temptations to 
finuggling were fo great, that all daflcs of people became adventvrrn. Sinee 
that period, and ptrticnUrlf fince the dntiea op tea and fpiriu were kfieoef!* 
fmuggling hath gradually declined; and, of late yean, throngh the great vigi- 
lance of the excife and cnfiom-houfe oScors, it hath been ahnoft entirely fop- 
preiTed. In confequence of a bte wife regtdation, obliging all who keep public 
houfes, to take licences, a regulation which, in this covntrya is ftri6kly enforced, 
all onnecefiary pahlic houfes are in Ipie fnanner fupprefTed ; t)ie haj^ c^^^^^ ff 
which cannftt fail to be generally experienced. 


pf Rerrick. ^g 



[fnJhjUr^ of Kirkcudbright — Stewartrjf and Svfio^ «/ 

Py the Rev. Mr. James Thomsok, 

Extent and Surface. 

THE pariih of derrick is in length xo miles, and ia 
breadth about 6 ; the face of the country broken an4 
uneven. On the north (lands Bencairn^ a pretty high moun- 
tain^ with a few inferior ones round its bafe, all covered wit)i 
heath ; the reft confiils of mofs, meadow, plain fields, and 
fwelling eminences ; the whole is arable, excepting thofe parts 
on the north, and the different moffes, one of which contains 
about 300 acres, another 40, and another 30 ; befides feveral 
others, and two little lakes, that merit no particular defcrip- 

Sea Coafi^ IJiand^ \Sc. — On the N. £. comer, the ground 
is flat for about 2 miles ; where there is one of the pret- 
tieft little bayi| that is to be met with perhaps in the king* 


4$ Statijiical Account 

4oin. It firikes into the land at right angles, abont i milev 
long and x broad : Ac low water an uninterrupted bed of 
fmooth fand, with n^c a reck to be feen ; and fo drj and firm, 
that borfe-races have been held on it. Small craft may load 
and unload in any part of it. On tlie \V . fide is fcooped out 
by nature a eapacions bafon, where many vefltls, of great 
burden, may lie in fafcty from every ftorm. At the head of 
the bay there is a marih, of about half a mile, formerly, to 
all appearance, overflowed by the tide, but now undir culti- 
vation. Off, at one corner, (lands a gentleman's feat, with mo- 
dem improvements ; on the other, an ancient irregular vil- 
lage. Along the edges, there is a Hrtle rifing ground, fldrted 
with natural wood ; in the mouth of which, on a line with 
the coaft, is placed, exa£lly in the middle, a beautiful green 
fimooth ifland, called Hefim. It ftands high' out ot the water, 
and is paftured with flieep, and abounds with rabbits. 

Profpe3s,^^h% the high road leads acrofs the head of this 
bay, where the traveller has, on one hkind, the wild heathy 
profpeft in the neighbourhood ot Bencairn, and on the other, 
this ftriking contrail, it exhibits a fcene (efpecialiy while the 
morning fun looks into it, having the hiftre of its beams to- 
creafed by reSecUon from the water, at the facne time that 
their glare is correfted, by the woods and gncn fields that en- 
viron it), fo variegated, fweet, '^vd foothing, that any perfon 
of tafte and ftufibihty n uft fii i a degree of relndaoee in 
parting with it. Frcm this to the farthcft point on the S. W., 
the ground in general is confiderably elevated ; producing 
what is commonly called a bold ibore. Here the profpefi 
lifes from the fimplicitj of woods, creeks, and green fields, 
and fwells into the majeftic and fublime. If ;on take an in- 
land view, you have an extent of about 50 miles, tetmtoated 
by Caimfmoor, the hills of Carfpbaim and Qt^eeniberry. 


rf Rerrici. 47 

On tannig rooad, you have lying bc&re 70a tin Frith^ 10 
kagoct broad^ extending, <m the left hand, about 30 oiilea 9 
aad, oa the right, until it is loft io Cfae Irifii Sea. On the 
EogliOi coafty yoa have the towns of jtbtnAyj Mwyport, 
WvrUagt^n^ Herringtm^ Parton^ and Wbittbavin^ with cho 
iuerveniBg fields aod hedges : AU of which, except {he laft^ 
are dlfttnfily feen by the naked eye. On the back of thefe 
appear the Cumberland mountains, towering one above ano* 
ther ; but all overtopped by the lofty Siidda / which, how. 
ever, ieems lo have a competitor in Criffle, on the oppofite 
Iherc^ in the oeigliboarhood of Dumfries. Thele mountain* 
hiTe the eftft, as it were, of throwbg the Frith into a (hade, 
by which evo'y objefik is more diftindly perceived, and the 
Vcaaty of the whole greatly increafed. From the point of 
St. Bee's to the lile of Man, lying in the Irifli &a, is an ex* 
teat of xs leagues ; and from thence to the point of White- 
horn, of about 9 ; the whole track forming a curve of about 
90 osiles ; which, from feveral parts of the pariffa, the eyo 
tan take in diftinfily at once. But what completes the gran« 
4eur of the iceae, is, the variety of veflels that appear fcatteredi 
tvecy where, often to'the number of 40, 50, and 6o« And 
IS moft of the ftations from whence it is feen, ftand high, and 
die view reaches to the mouth of St. George's Channel, and 
towards the north of Ireland, (confequently very extenfive), 
the vcflels, by a well known law in optics, feem elevated one 
ibove another, according to their diftance^ till the fartheft ap* 
pear as if dropping out of the clouds : So that, in a certaia 
ftate of the atmofphere, it looks like an immenfe canvas hung 
down from heaven, widi thefe veflels piftured upon it. 

7|^.-*The tide in the Frith runs from £. to W. with cott«^ 
fiderable rapidity. Reafoning from analogy, and calculating 
from appearances, it is generally concluded, that there are 

3. great 

48 Statifiical Account 

great plentj and variety of fifli on the coaft, thongh httbifrttf 
there have been no fptrited exertions to afcertain the truth of 
this. There have indeed been feveral feeble attempts made 
in the Bay of Hefton, which have proved faccefsfol, and cor- 
roborated the common opinion. Along the whole ihore, but 
partioularlj about Hefton, there is plentj of ihell fiih of the 
common kinds. 

JlfiVr^o/i.— In the lands of Lord M^Cartket* ther« xi a rich 
iron mine^ which was opened up and carried on for fbme time 
by an Englilh company, but is now defifted from : Not, how* 
«ver, that it is by any means exhaufted ; but owing entirelj 
to the expence and inconvenience of (hipping it. The coaft 
tvexy where abounds with free-ftone, which hath bten much 
in requeft of late, for the ornamental parts of fome of the moft 
elegant houfes» both in this and the neighbouring pariflies ^ 
and laft year it was carried by land, at the diftance of 11 
miles, to one of the moft magnificent ftruftures in the countiy. 
There are no lefs than three places on the ihore, which have 
been laid open, and declared, by aft of parliament, to be free 
ports, viz« Bakarryy formerly mentioned, on the £, ; fnrt 
Mary^ (fi> called from Mary Queen of Scots taking ihipprog 
after the battle of Langfide), on the S. ; and Mullock Bay onr 
the S. W. The firft of thefe is fafe and commodious by ta^ 
ture ; the other two might be made fo, by a little affifiance 
from art ; that at Port Mary efpecially, by expending a few 
hundred pounds upon it, might be rendered inconeeivaUy ad- 
vantageous. And as all the gentlemen, whofe properties lie 
contiguous to it, are very public fpirited, it is to be hoped^ 
that, in this improving age, they will foon take up the matter 
in a ferious light. 

Bf Rerrick. 49 

Exports and Imports^ (^cr.-^This is the more earneftlj to be 
wiflKd for, fts a fpiric of improvemeot, introduced here oalj 
tbout a5 jears ago, is ftiU advancing; and confequently the 
articles of export and import are dailj mahiplying aad m«* 
creafing. As a fpecim.ent the annual importation of lime, for 
the purpofes of building and manure, is about io,oao bufliels 3 
bcfide^ confiderable internal refonrces of marl, ibells, and 
lea flime. And there are exported/ at an average, 15,280 
ftones of meal; 116 tons of potatoes ; 8ba buihels of barlejj 
aji of bear, and 198 of wheat« 

Cnltwatian and Improvenunts^^^Vfhtther it is owing to the 
Ibil, which in tnany places is cold and fpuiigy, or to its ele« 
vation and expofure to the fea, even where it is dry, in a 
country entirely naked with refpe£t to wood, or to the want 
of convenient and fuffioient fubdivifioos, or to whatever other 
aiSgnaUe caufe, is not determined j but the farmers do not 
find their account in cultivating the laft mentioned article, 
(wheat) ; Co that very little attention, in general, has hitherto 
been paid to it. Thefe inconveniences, however, with many 
other obftmdions to the improvement of huibandry, are daily 
removing, by the united exertions of die gentlemen, in pbnt* 
ingy repairing roads, inclofing ground, and binding down 
tenants to certain regulations. The yearly fund, denominated 
rmiilrtmmty^ is about 40L ; which is often confiderably aug* 
mented by handfome donations from fome of the proprietors. 
And fo prevalent is the laudable ambition of wiping off the 
reproech of our country, in refped of its wanting wood, (hat, 
within thefie few years, there have been planted, in the parifli, 
upwards of 170,000 foreft trees \ befides fisveral new orchards, 
to which the proprietors are paying the utmoft attention, by 
colle&iiig ^ants from the places moft noted for nurferies. 

Vol. XI. Q Cattle. 

50 Statifikal Account 

Caiife.^Bnt wbile the gendemen and principal fanners are 
thus ftudjihg and promoting agriculture, a principal fiiare of 
their attention, and that of the tenants in genera], is ftill 
paid to black cattle, wbich here, as well as over idl Galloway^ 
continues to be the ftaple commoditj of the country ; and no 
{Mirt of the Stewartry perhaps is fup^ior to feveral farms in 
this corner, both for rearing and fattening* The lands be- 
longing to Mr. Ross ^*Kl£ give daily proofs, that this is 
neitiiet a partial nor a ra(h aflertion. — ^Th^ live ftock of the 
whole parilh b as follows, viz; 

Oxen, - - 1150 Horfes, - - xgo 

Cows, - - 38:^ Sheep, - - 2383 

The black cattle are the produce of our own country, with 9 
iiDairniixtore of Highland and Iriih brted. The horfes are 
moftly Galloways j'many of them are reared in the parifli, 
efpiicaally 6t late years, fince their value came to be rated fo 
high. And the iheep, (excepting tbofe in the hands of a few, 
of a fttperior kind), ai^ the defcendAnts bf the old inhabitants of 
the moors and mountain^,' of a fmall fisse and with coarfe wool ; 
the beft here felling at 15s., and the ordinary run at iis. and 
las. per ftbne ; there being iio Woollen mannfadure as yet 
tn&td ih, this country, to induce the fanners to pay due at- 
tention to the breed. 

Natural Ctiriofities.-^Oa the march, in the northem.comer 
of the pariih, within the property bf Mr. Douglas of Or:. 
chardtown, there is a fniall ilreiim, which comes gurgling 
down from the mountains, in which are found a certain kind 
of little ftones, of a very ftrikrog figure and quality, quite 
tranfparent, with a faint colour of purple, and fo hard, that 

tf Rerrick. 51 

tlsey wiUf cat glals' like a diamond. They grow on th^ tocks 
that overhang the rivulet in large cluftersv. about |he fize of 
pin headSf where thej continue to vegetate (as nuajrbe colkft* 
•d £Fom the different ftag'es of their pr6grefs, evidently there 
to be feen) till they are near an inch long and | diameter; 
when dropping out of their fockets, they fall into the. water, 
and inix with the gravel at the bottom of the rill. The end 
that lat in the focket, very much refembles that part of a 
tooth which fticks in the ja^ \ the other end of moil of them 
is tapered ; and (which . is the great and inexplicable pbenom 
siMoa), are cut into triangular, quadrangular, and various 
ether figures,' as neatly and diftinftly, as if they had come 
through the hands of the bed lapidazy in the kingdom. Hoyr 
frequently thefe rocks bring to maturity, and caft off their 
Jkgularjrmtt whether in 50, xoo, or xooo yeafs, caiwot be 
£0 much as gueffed at* 

Papulation, and Z6ngevity*^^Tht return ttf Dr. Webfter, 
in 1755, was - • - - - - . idjt 

The prefimt number of the inhabitants of the parifh is lojo 

I , ■■■«■ 

i)ecr^a(e, • '^ x 

As there is at prefent no parilh rcgifter,' the average of births, 
l^urials, &c. cannot, with any precilion, be afcertained. Thefe 
particulars, however, may be calculated with an accuracy 
quite fufficient foir any pu'blic or political purpofe, from the 
ample data already afforded from places where regifters are 
iept; taking into confiHeration this circum dance', that the 
people here, in general, enjoy good health, and maiiy of them 
long life. As a proof of this, there died', within thefe laft 
S years, 00 lefs than 9 perfons, who had all arrived at the ad- 
nnced' period of between 80 and 90. And at this day there 

Gi un 

jfa Stati/Hcal Account 

are living 15 more, who fatve nearlj fttuioed the fame age* 
One woman in particular is 87, and has the ufe of all her 
fenfes and faculties. 

From certain ^pearances it might, at firft view, be eon* 
duded, that this parifh had decreafed greatly in its populatioa 
during the laft 50 years, there being feveral large farms now 
occupied bj one tenant only, which at that period was divided 
amcmg many. One of thefe in particular, which pays about 500L 
does not contain above 19 fouls. And there are 5 other fanast 
in which tradition fays there then lived about 50 families ; 
whereas they do not at prefent contain above 30. But to thefie 
plaufible arguments for depopulation, are oppofed the follow* 
ing fadls : In the ift place. There never was any emigradoa 
from the pariQi during this half century, worthy to he term- 
ed fuch : 2dly^ That akhough in the farms alluded to, there 
is but one principal family, yet they are generally pretty largc^ 
through the number of fervants that are necefiary to manage 
them : 3^, That although the two villages have been but 
litile, yet they have been fomewhat enlarged : ^hiy^ That 
there are now families rcfd^rg in ieieial other places of 
the parifh, which formerly were wild, and without an in- 

Church, \Jc^ — It may be added, as no fmall prefumption in 
favour of the increafe of the population, that the parifh chuA;h, 
which was enlarged in the year 1743, has for thefe feveral 
yearb been too fmall, and laft year received a coniiderable ad- 
dition. At tilt fame time, the manfe and office houfes were 
rebuilt i in which the heritors have fhewn their generofity, 
and poliiely cx^jrefTed their refpcft for the order of the clergy ; 
which example is fo compleiely imitated by the tenants, 
and everj other defcription of the inhabitants, that no member 
ot tlie church oi Scotland need be happier than the incumbent 


of Rerrici. j j 

of Hurick. And this is no temporary effufiooi extorted by 
difiiiigiiiflied merit, or s tribute paid only to popular talents ; 
but, like a natural priaciple, operates fteadily from one ge- 
neiation to another ; founded, probably, on this very fiogular 
cinomftance, that there have been, not only no violent fettle- 
meats, but there hath never been fo much as a vacancy in the 
pariihf fince the year 1691 ; the late and prefent incumbent 
baving bodi been fo happy as to be the unanimous choice o£ 
the people} having been ordained ai&ftants and fucceflbrs 
to their refpeAive predeceflbrs. The ftipend, exclufive o£ 
the glebe, and the allowance for communion elements, is 
83L 6$. td. 

Poor* — ^The funds arifing from the weekly colleAions, and 
a few donations from fome of the humane^and confiderate 
proprietors, are quite fufficient for the fupport of our poor 9 
diere being only 6 on the roll, that are regularly fupplied, and 
4 more occafionaly relieved* And it- now appears, that the 
aid of the £effion will be dill lefs reforted to, through the ready 
aietbod of earning fubfiftence in fome department or other of 
the jaanofaAures*. This is one of the many advantages flow- 
ing from this new Iburce of indnftry • Amidft thefe, ho wever, 
two evils are to be dreaded : The one is, leaft parents, either 
from needy circumftanccs, or from an avaricious difpc^ioo, 
ihould negkft the education of their children, and thereby 
facrifice the neceflary information of their minds, to the fup- 
ply of their own tables. The other is, left thofe who have 
the principal numagement of the bufincfs, and the. power of 
hiring and difcharging the hands, fliould not be men of a fin-' 


^Tndcfineo, mcchaDicsy sad all ibrto of labomcrf, are fo fcarce» anil their 
«agci aic riiiiig fo lafidl/, U>at a ftaodard can hardly be filed for the fpace of. 

54 Staiifiical Account 

ttte regard to morals and proprietj oT oondafi. If thefi? 
things are not carefully attended to, thej will evideatly, in 
the loog-runi eflentiallj injure fociet j. 

&ioo2r.-— ^he only cfefcription of the inhabitants that are 
deftitiite of the neceiTary means of fabfiftence, are oar fchool- 
tkiafterSf of whom we have twd, one in each vilhge/ which 
are difiant 4' £'ngli(h miles. Ihe falary, it is true, is the 
maximum allowed' by law* viz. ill. 6s. Sd., of which 7I. go 
to the fchoolmaftc^r A the Abbey, (which is looked upon as 
being properly the parifli fchool); andlhe remaining 4I. 6s. 8d. 
to the one at Aucheneairn. Nothing is more evident, con-. 
fidering the advanced price of every article, both of food and 
iaimenty than that t*he above fttm is inadequate for the (Jiir* 
pofes of a decent and comfortable fubCftence ; particularly 
when it is reflefied on, that the population' is fuch, that, when 
the children are divided between two fdhools, neither of them 
can be numerous ; and more efpecially, when it is con- 
fidered, that the quarter's wages are fo low, that to^ opulent 
fieirmer cait have his child waited upon, and taught Englifli,. 6 
hours every dayi^for the fom of 4d. a month. This is fo glaring- 
an inconfiftency, that,' to the honour of fome of our proprietors,' 
to whom it has been (hfewn, they have declared their readi- 
nefs to enter into an agreement, with the reft of the heritors, 
to fupply the defed, by an annual voluntary contribution. At 
the period when the law was enaded with refpefi to fchool- 
mailers, the provifion then made for them, bore a fuitable 
proportion to the other ranks and ftations of the community ;' 
but now, in the prefent altered (late of things, it is indifput- 
ably a radical defe& in the police of the country. It is there- 
fore moft devoutly to be wiihed, that all perfons of influence,' 
who have a regard to the rifiog generation, and feel in their 
minds a veneration for piety and morak, would unite their 


of Rerrick. 5 c 

endeavours in remedying this evil, bj^iving a reafonable eij* 
courag^menty to fo ufeful and necefiarj a bodj of men. 

Frofrietors and Rent •-^Thexe are 2 2 heritors in the parifli* 
The rental, as Hated in the valuation roll of the county, is 
5,9601. Scotch ; and the prefent rental is nearly 5,000!. Ster« 
ling, which will be greatly increafed when a few leafes are 
expired; there being lands in it which, about 15 years ago, 
were rented at Sol., and which now let for 260!. Sterling. 
Indeed it u not eafj to fay, to what fum the rental of the pa« 
rifli might be raifed, if the proprietors would aflift their te* 
nants in fencing their farms fufficieqtly, throwing them into 
fmall convenient fubdivifions, laying them out in good heart, 
and in building comfortable and commodious faoufiss f • 

Former andfrefent State comfared^-^Tht people here, till 
of late, lived what may be confidered a kind of pq/lorailife ; 
with that attention to agriculture only which was abfolutelj 
neceffary to mere fubfiftence. But now they have taken a 
different turn, and affumed the appearance of aAivity, tafle^ 
opulence, and gaiety. All our heritors, except 4, either refide 
conftantly, or occafionally. Several of thefe are among the 
principal heritors ; and, confidering the public fpirit and tafte 
for improvements, which gentlemen of their ftation now aU 
pioit every ^here cultivate, and the diftinguiihing figure 


* Of all the plant of improTcment, none i« more necefiarf, perhaps, thaa 
proper STaAwTAMBS for prooiriog dung: But of the adTantages of thU, neither 
preprtetort nor ccDaota, in general, fcem to be fviRcieotly aware. During the 
winter, there are fed in the fields, with hay and draw, no lefs than 1150 black 
cattle; now, if the dung of thefe were carefullj coUedcd, might it not coq- 
tribute greatly to increafe our ^antity of wheat, and enlarge our fields oi giceo 
btjpif^ ■ 

56 Statifiical Account 

vehich men of their rank now make, it muft neceflarilj pro* 
duce a material difference in the face of things, in comparifba 
of former dajs. 

Manmfa&ures and Villages. ^-JWltzl now givei a profpeft of 
oomfort, afflnence, and importance to the lower clafs, is a fpi« 
rit of cottoa mamifa&ure got in amongft nt ; which we hope 
will in time lead to the woollen. Here we have two fmall 
villages ; one at the old Abbey ^ and another at the head of 
He/ton Bay. At the former, a few fpirited young men com- 
menced bufineb laft fummer. At the latter, a company of 
farmers, headed bj a patriotic gentleman, are making pre- 
parations for beginning \he next; having fubCcribed a capital 
of x,20ol. for that purpofc. The machinerj of the lad men* 
tioned place is to go with water. And it is now alfo in con- 
templation, to ere& a fimilar houfe in the lands of Mr. Cairns 
of Dundrancn. Clofe bj each of thefe villages runs a bom, 
with water fuf&cient to drive pretty heavy machinery ; and, 
as their founuin heads are fcveral hundred feet higher than 
where they empty themfelves into the fea, works of that kind 
might be ere£led alongft them, in fuccef&on, for miles. Se« 
fides thefe, we have other three not greatly infetior, 

Di/advantage.'^lRut with all thefe natural advantages, be« 
fides the exportation of fooh a furplus of gram, and our 
commodious fituation with refped to harbours, there is one^ 
and only one, infuperable barrier to the carrying on of mann- 
fadures here, to any confiderable extent, viz. the want of 
fuel. For notwithftanding our large and numerous moffcs, 
fttch are the circumftances (which it would be needlelii here 
to narrate), that peats, to the generality of the inhiibitants, 
are nearly as high, and tea times lets comfortable, than coals 


ef Rerrtck. ^j 

nnported ^rom England, at the prefent exorbitant rate of aSs* 
and 30s. the ton* 

ProfpiQ of Relief — It has, however, been long a prevaQ- 

ing opinion, that the lands, now belonging to Mr. JoHNSOif 

Hannah, contain a complete remedy againft all thofe evils 

mnd inconveniencies. Tbefe lands lie upon the ihore ; and fo 

promifing are appearances, that veins, 3 inches thick, of ex* 

cellent coal, are found among the rocks at low water. This 

public fpirited gentleman, for the £atisfa&ion of the public 

and himfelf, has this year begun to give it a fair trial, and 

has, already got down 40 fathoms. The fymptoms hitherto, 

are neither highly flattering, nor have they given the leaft 

yeafon to defpair. The public anxiety for the event is not to 

lie defcribed. The eyes of the whole country hang upon 

him in eager ezpe&ation $,and ^^ eris tnihi magnus Apollo ^^ 

is the featiment that pofieiTes every mind, in cafe he fucceeds. 

Probable Con/efitences.-^Tht advantages accruing from it, to 
the community at large, would be very great, as peats, the 
principal fuel over all this country, feem to decreafe in pro- 
portion to the progrefs of agriculture ; many of the mofier 
and marlby places being thereby laid dry and fertilized ; and th« 
bruih-wood, and other combuftible materials cleared from the 
fields, for the purpofe of tillage 9 the demand being greatly aug- 
mented by the increafe of population ; and, even when peats 
are to be had, their value, of late years, is rendered extremely 
precarious by the wetnefs of the feafons. The benefit coal 
would produce to manufadures, can only be efiimated by 
thofe who know their importance. How inconceivably va* 
luable might it render the rich iron mine in its vicinity, be« 
longing to Lord McCartney ? And how beneficial might it 
jTove in faving men's lives and properties, by rendering it 

Vol. XI. H praSicablc 

^ Stati/iical Accbunt 

prftfVitabhe to fupport a light-houfe, ere£led on theiflando^ 
Hefton, or on fome prominent part of the coafl ? 

. Manners and CbaraSier.'^Ml ranks, both in their appear** 
ance and manner of living, make a very different figure from 
their ifiiQkediate foreSthers. The fame reafons, that account 
for iimilar changes, that have taken place over all the country^ 
will no doubt apply here ; thefe alterations being nowife pe- 
culiar to the inhabttants of this pariifa. The people here, in 
general, arc peaceable, iiumane, and hofpitablc ; have a Kvely 
fenfe of decorum and charader ; and many of them give in* 
dubitable proofs, that their minds are deeply influenced with 
tational piety. As an evidence of their fobriety and tem- 
perance, there are not two men in the whole parifh, who 
are fo far enflaved by a habit of drinking, as not to provide 
for their families, notwith (landing the many temptations 
they are expofed to, from the variety and abundance of fo- 
reign fpirits, ilWgally imported on the coafl ; and (what is 
perhaps the caufe of a lliil more general debauchery), the 
cheapnefs of whiiky. In refpeft, both of civil and ccclefiafii- 
cal matters, the inhabitants may jullly be faid to be a people 
who "meddle not with them that are ^i«r<ff#ofi&fl«^^." Thcfarm- 
ers here, as well as through the country at large, are a fet of 
civ lized, converfible, and well informed men, far fuperior to 
thofe in the fame (lation in many other places of the kingdom. 
Their line of buiinefs, being chiefly in the cattle branch, by 
which they arc often led out into the world, and frequently 
Jnti the company of gentlemen, who, here, arc all either fpe- 
culative or praftical dealers in cattle, gives an illumination to 
their minds, and a polifli to their manners, which thofe, in a 
Jtocie grain country, are abfolute ilrangers to. 


Kf Rerrick. 59 

^fttiquitifs. — With regard to Druidical tcmpks, and Saxon, 
^oman or Dinirti caxps, fo mucii has already been f.iid, m 
the courCe of the Statillical Account, that any farther def- 
criptioos, conjedures, and bold uITcrtions, mud appear trite 
to mod readers. Of the former there are 2, and of the latter 
12; befides a heap of lool'e dones, colieded apparently with 
great fatigue, on th^ very top of tiencairn, whofe fammit is 
1,200 feet above the level of the fca. — In the bottom of a 
4ong and narrow valley, about a mile and a half from the fea, 
ftands the old Abbey of Dundranen* ; a minute defcription of 

H 2 which 

♦ It may here, however, be ohTcrved, th»t according to lyi extra6fc from the 
Chrwdt f \Ulrofsf and other authentic dacument!«, it was founded by Fergus, 
the fir t Lord of Gallowat, in the year 1 141. The firft poffeffors came from. 
Rcivell in Yorkfliire, and were of the Cillercian order*; fo called from Robeiit>« 
Abbot of CUeau-y or CifleoM.f or Cjflertium, in Burgundy; who, about the year 
Ig88, made a fecond refinement on the principles of the Benedidlines, the firil 
having been made about the year 913. That the monks of this defcription were 
Tcry numerous we have 'hisftrong evidence, that they had no lefs than 14 con- 
vents m Scbtland, four of which were in Galloway^ 

The firft abbot of this monaftery was one Svlvanu^, who died in the year 
I189. In the year 1430. we find one Henrv granting a charter to Henrt 
CuTLAfi of OrreianJ; which was confirmed by Pope Paul lU. in 1437. Wc 
/lodanoiher of the name of Tnoi^AS, an honour not only to his country, but to 
the age in which he lived. Whether it was he who wrote the Chronicle of 
Melrofs, it not aflerted ; but it is allowed on all hands that* it was written by an 
abbot of Oundranen, at lead the latter part of it. The laft abbot of the place 
wasEowARD Maxwell, fon to Joay Lord Harries, who herp afforded au 
afylum to Mary Queen of Scots, in her flight from the battle of Langfide, ir 
the year 1568 ; and afcer whofe death, King J^mes VI. annexed this place to 
fait Royal Chapel at Stirling. The revenue of the abbey about this time, as to 
the money part of it, was jocl. Scotch ; but, according to the mode of endowing 
/eIigioa» houfirs in thofe da) », this muft have been the fmalleft part of it- 
There is no veftige of ^ny tomb deferving notice, though it is certain, that 
Allan, Loxd q£ Calloway, firnamed the Gaeat, Conftable of Scotland (whofe 


^d Statifiical Account 

which is deemecl totally unneceflkrjr. after the attention lately 
paid to it, both hj GA]tDOK£tL» and the celebrated 
Qiptaiit Gross. 

4aai(hter Doftif ao|lla wu mairied to Josn Baliol), was buried in tbit place 
in the year 1233. Thefe ate moff of the icanty hints that are now to be glean* 
«d from authentic records; a minute, cotane^ed, and fatisfadory accoimt, ha vine 
hitherto balBed the refearches of all our modem antiquarians. And no wonder, 
if what is ftciried be true ; namely, that all the principal papers bdonging tm 
this houic were carried ovtr to France. 


?^^^- it 


^County of Kircudbright — Synod and PreJbyUry ofDumJries.y 

^ tie Rfv. Mr. James Muirhead of hoQjof^ Minifiir 

Situation and Nami. 

J. HE ptrUh of Urr is fituated in lat. 54^; and, from a 
comp^rifon of the tides, appears to lie abeat 30' of longitude 
weft frovD Leith. The antient orthograph j was VR, and the 
prononciation was WUR. or WHUR, thoagh it is now fre« 
quentlj pronounced, and fometimes fpelt Orr. From this lit-i 
tie can be inferred, unlefs the above manner of pronouncing 
the V or ihoold fuggeft, that the inhabitants of Gallowaj 
were of German rather than Celtic cxtraftion. The confi- 
derable lake, out of which the river Urr iflucs, is called Lock 
Whor to this daj. There are alfo fome people in this country 
fimamed Macwhur : But even this leaves the derivation of 
the name of the parifh uncertain. - • 


6z Statiflifal Account 

Extent and Rent. — The length of Urr parilliy from the 
inarch of Kirkpatrick-Durham, nearlj from N. to S., is at 
lead 13 Scotch miles. The breadth varies, and at its grqateft 
extent fomewhat exceeds 4 miles. The number of acres the 
parifli contains, is nearlj 12,030 ; and though this eftimate is 
given partly from acquaintance with the adual furveys of 
fome of the larger eftates, and partly from computation, it 
will be found to differ but little from reality. The grofs rent 
yielded by this tra6l of land is at prefent 4,4461.; nor is it cx« 
travagant, whilft the prefent peace and profperity of the coun- 
try remain undiminiihed. The valued rent of Urr, or the 
rule by which it pays the land-tax, is fomething more than 
5,oooL Scotch ; and, in the reign of Charles I., this, was pro- 
bably an adequate rent for the whole pari(h. It may here 
with truth be obferved, that at prefent, through all Galloway, 
lool. Scotch of valued rent, imjjlies lool. Sterling of real 
rent ^ and, in the generality of inAances, a good deal more* 

River and Fijb.— From Loch Urr*, where the river fo called 
arifes, to the Ifle of Heftpn (where tj^e ftream is loll in the 


f Herp it may not be altogether improper feo gUnce at a fmall controYeiff 
fubfiftiog betwixt certain relpedable antiqiiai ies. It has been coounonly a^ 
ferted that Sir Cbkistopuer Seaton, the faithful companion of Wallace, 
was killed, or taken prifoner, at a place called Loch Orc, in Fife. The ezifteoce 
qf a chapel at Dumfries ereSed for the very purpofe of faying mafles for hii 
^0ul, led fome people alfo to think, that though Sir Chiiftopher was apprehend- 
ed in Fife, yet he was put to death at Dumfries. Nov the fa£t is, that at Loch 
Whur. or Loch Orr, in the (lewartry of Galloway, and around the loch, th^ 
$eaton family had a caflle and a very large domain. At this day the land-hold- 
crs, in that neighb«tQrhood, have moft of the old invcftituies of their eftatei 
from the Seatons. Sir John Skaton of Barnes feems to have fold the re- 
jnains of the family pri>perty in Galloway, fo late as the year XJ96. That the 
gallant ^ir Chiiftopher Seaton loft hjs life upon the eve of Brucc's coming ta 


hfVrr. 6 J 

Solway Frith'), is a courfe of more than ao miles'. The wa- 
; ter of Urr ikirts the parifli of that name, fo as to divide it from 
I (hofe of Croflmichael and Buittle ; but the fource of the river 
is about 15 miles farther up in the country, than the fpot 
where it becomes the limit of this parifh, -as already mention- 
ed. Vcfiels of 60 tons find the Urr navigable up to Dal- 
b.'aty, at fpring tides. At fmall expence, and with no confi- 
derable efforts of ingenuity, this navigation might be improve 
ed, both by bringing it farther inland, and by rendering it 
more commodions for imports and exports : But in this re- 
fpeft, as well as Jcme others^ patriotifm and difinterefted- 
cefs make but a tardy progrefs* — Beiides pikes, trouts, and 
fome other forts of frefh water fifli, this river affords falmon. 
In wet fummers, the latter are had in confiderable quantities ; 
but in dry feafons, fea fi(h can get but little higher than the 
flow of the tide. The price of falmon here depends much up- 
on the quantity taken, as little is fent out of the parifh. Two 
pence per pound was the average this year ; and at no time 
are fifli fold higher with us, than the market rates of Dum« 
fries, or of Kirkcudbright, from which towns, Haugh of Urr 
is equally diftant. 

Soil and Cultivation, — The foil of Urr is in general light, 
but, at an average, very kindly. The upper parts of the pa- 
riiK are moorxih ; but, in general, capable of tillage ; and it 
i> believed, the arable land in Urr may be, to that which can- 
not be plowed, as 12 to i. — Agriculture is by no means come 


Hstland, Is niuYerraUy admitted. Now the probability of Seacon*t bexog yi 
I'-'c, i»hen the patuiaDs of Bruce expe^ed that prince at Dumfries; the pro- 
t^btlity that any man, fo obnoxious to Edward I. as Sir Chriftopher Seaton, 
i- 'lM attempt to conccsl himfelf in Fife^ rather than in Galloway, (which at 
i^n time was one of the wildeft diftrids in Scotlapd), arc matters that may b« 
VC7 i-dicXj left to cooixooB fenfc to determine. 

^4 Statijical Account 

to perfedioOy but hath greatly improved within tbefe lafl 30 
years, and rents have at leaft rifen in prop6rtion. When it 
as told the public, that there are few farms, within 3 miles 
of Urr church, that have not been let, within thefe 40 jears, 
for one tenth part of the rent thej now yield, the aiTertioa 
maj feem improbable; the fad, however, is incontelliblc^ 
and very adequate caufes may be af&gned. By the perfeca- 
tion, through which the weft of Scotland, in general, aod 
Galloway in particular, fuffered fo much, during the reign of 
Charles II. the minds of the people feem not only to have 
been alienated from the labours of agriculture, but from every 
fpecies of bufinefs, flanding diftin£l from religion and politics. 
Even the revolution, in 1688, did not feem to affi>rd abfolnte 
fecurity againft the return of their former fufTerings* As this 
profped filled the old with defpair, it fired the young with 
refentment ; and hence many of them inlifted in the armies I 
of Britain and Holland, duting the wars of King William and 
Queen Anne, to oppofe the return of a family whofe principles 
they dreaded. Slowly, indeed, does a nation recover of the 
wounds made by civil difcord. It is not yet quite 100 years, 
fince farms in this neighbourhood, that now pay a rent of 
above aooL per annum, were offered at the church doors, to 
any tenant, who would pay the land-tax, minidef s ftipend, 
and other public burdens. Let us be cautious how fuch timei 
are brought back. With a government that exempts us from 
fuch calamities, we (kould not wantonly quarrel *• 

From the year 1688, to the year 1740, agriculture feejESj 
to have improved but very little ; and the value of land to 
have juft kept pace, with what degree of peace ana profpcft 


* Farmers ovght to be part*cularly cautious in countenancing intcflinc di^ 
•rden. In timet of prcfixrity and peace, a man ma,, be richer, and maj li«t 
more comfortably, paying aool. a year (or a farm, than he ifi oold be, to tii&ei 4 
dVil wwi if be had it f jr no.hing. 


ofUrr. €s 

i>f tratiqtuUity the countrj eojojed. la the year 1740, how- 
ever, (hell marl was difcovered in Galloway ; and the abund* 
ant crops, produced bj the ufe of this manure, encouraged 
the landholders, to let out for tillage large trads of land, 
^irbich had been enclofed for the purpofe of grazing black cat- 
tle. A fpirit of indudrj began then to be diffufed amongft 
the tenantry and labourers, which was, hawever, confiderably 
cramped by the vicinity of the Ifle of Man, with which the 
infaabitantB of Galloway carried on a coniiderable fmuggling 
trade. But that illand having been made fubjefi, about the 
year 1760^ to the revenue regulations of Great Britain, it is 
inconceivable how much the agriculture of every pariib, in 
the maritime parts of Galloway, was benefited : The impor^ 
tation of lime from England, by water carriage, foon became 
iieqoent; (this manure is now carried 15 miles up into the 
country from Dalbeaty Port) ; a corn trade fprung up with 
Greenock, and other towns on the weft coaft of Scotland, as 
well as with Whitehaven, Liverpool, and Other ports molt 
adjaoent in England ; and the profperity and opulence of this 
pariib, as well as the vicinity, have ever lince continued to 

Product and Black Caitk — Oats, barley, a little wheat, and 
black cattle, form the far greater part of the produce of Urr. 
In the year 1782, it was computed, that the oats and barley,- 
ibid out of the pariib, amounted to the value of 4,oooL Po- 
tatoes aUb form a confiderable article of commerce^ efpecially 
with the Eogliib ports. As to the number of black cattle 
difpofed of yearly, it is impoffible this can be fixed, with any 
precifioD, as many farmers keep what axe caBed running 
ftocks, i, i* buy in and fell out feveral times in the year. Pro- 
bably, however, if every farmer was to breed his own fale 
cattle, the parilh might produce 800 bullocks, of two and a 
half years old, which might annually be fent to England, or 

Vol. XL I other wifa 

66 Statiftical Account 

otherwife difpofed of. The verj bcft Galloway balkldCp at 
30 months old, will weigh from 30 to 35 ftones, and will ielt 
at 71, 7s., or at 81. 

Sbeep^'^The flieep kept in Urr are not numetons* Bj t!ie 
beft information, there are, jaft now, abont 900 in the parilh. 
Thofe kept in the moor farms are of the black faced kind. 
Tlieir wool confeqnentlj is coarfe^ On the farms that have 
been well cultivated, the Oieep are generally of the Englifk 
breed, and the wool is fine and more abundant. 

Here it may be proper to obferye, that^ in the reign of 
James VI., Galloway was underftood to produce the fineft 
Wool in Scotland, perhaps in Britain. William Lithgow fays» 
he had feen finer wool in Galloway than ever be fiiw in Spaim 
Even to this day, in fome particular farms, the wool is re-* 
markably fine, and of a brilliant whitenefs. The iheep from 
which this wool is cut, are white faced, rather fmall, and in 
all refpefts feem very much to refomUe the (beep of the Shet- 
land Ifies. Finding that the white faced (heep, with fine 
wool, had once been the common ftock of every farm in Gal- 
loway, it became a queftion^ Whence the black faced J^ep^ 
whofe wool is fcarce worth cuttings were imported f But no 
inveftigation or inquiry upon this fubjed, was attended with 
any fiicisfaAion. It may be obferved, that Galloway, in its 
uncultivated ftate, abounded with goats, which, in moorilk 
and moiTy traAs, are almoft uniformly of a black colour. 
Now^ that the goat and the (heep cafily, nay commonly, breed 
together, is undeniable ; and that the mules fo produced are 
as fruitful as either the feparate breed of goats, or of Iheep^ 
is a faft that cannot be difputed. In every farm, in the 
wilder parts of Galloway, at this day, where flocks of goats 
and iheep are kept, at no great diflance from one another, 
every fpring we fee, among the Iheep efpecially, feveral mong- 

of Urn 67 

fdsy wliieh are joft carried on with the flock of lambs to^ which 
dtej bdcmg. Now the goat^ in the wild and uncultivated 
parts of the country, is an animal of much larger bone, and 
far liardier than the ibeep. About the time, therefore, that 
James VI. left Scotland, and when the manufa&ures, com- 
merce aud agriculture of that kingdom began to decline, it is 
highly probable, that the black faced breed of flieep, (that is, 
the moogrela above mentioned), might he encouraged, fo as to 
fiock the greater part of the farms calculated for flieep* 
Woollen manufadures having fcarcelj any exiftence in Scot*' 
land, and the Englifli being hardly able to work their own 
wool, the only objefts that could intereft a Scotch farmer, as to 
flieep, were the eafe with which they could be pre&rved, the 
flavour of their flefli, and the weight of their carcafes. In 
aU tfaefe refpefts, the mongrels, bred betwixt the flieep and 
the goat, are fuperior, efpecially to the fm^U white faced 
flieep already mentioned, the wool of which was of fuch un« 
common finenefs. The mongrels are conflantly black faced, 
imd in their form differ little from the flieep thus diflinguiflied. 
Two or three removes might indeed produce all the diftindion 
that obtains. This qnongrel breed, (half flieep and half goat), 
however much they might fuit ancient times of barbarifm, 
ought no longer to be preferved, at a period, when the proper 
management of flieep, and the great profits of flieep farming, 
when ikilfuUy conduced, are fo much better underftoodt 

Reptiles^ fiirds and Plants.'^The animals and plants found 
in this parifli, have in ibem little of fingularity. The fmiall 
and deadly CQluber^ fatd to be found in Galloway, has very 
probably eziflence„ though this reptile may be rare. This 
probability is admitted, not only from numerous traditions, 
but becaufe the writer of this account has once or twice 
met with a copper-coloured {worm, or little ferpentj differing 

I 2 greatly 

68 Staii/iical Account 

greatlj from bnth the viper and the common Uikd worm* Hie 
heads of thefe fingnlar reptile^ ware fo much brutfedt in tha 
killiqg of them* that it was impoffible to difleft theai*..-.SeveT 
ral fpecies of birds, not formerly known in this country, feem 
lately to hare taken up their abode in it. Amongft thefe 
are the bullfineht and gold-crefted wren,«-Bat thongh many* 
exotic plants grow very well, upon being introduced here, it 
has not been learned^ chat the wind, the tide, or any fortui* 
tous caufe, has increafed of late the lift pf indigenous vege- 

3fur«ra/r— The natural produdions of Urr pariQi need 
hardly to be mentioned, differing little from thofe which are 
found generally throughout the 'ftewartry of Galloway* 
Shell marl there is in abundance ; but that whiqh could be 
dug at the cheapeft rate being exhaufted, the eafe of procur- 
ing lime from England renders the marl, which lies deep, of 
little value. Lime-ftone too there is, but of fo hard a na^ 
ture, that it is not meddled with, the rather as coal cannot 
be had to burn it. For the fame reafon, the abundance of 
iron ore remains an ufelefs gift of nature. The growth of 
wood| more efpecially of the Scotch £r, the oak, afli, elmt &c. 
(trees with which the face of this country was once covered), 
is exceedingly rapid f : And if the prefent unpopular tax on 


* Wer« we to fiatf , as natural curtofiticf, the great number of large booes, 
of various animals^ now extin& even as to fpecict ; the immenfe heads of ozeq, 
pr'bbably irri ; and the horns of deer, larger than any now found in Europe, a 
gteat deal might be wrote, with not much gratification to curiofity. Suffice it 
to fay, that almoft every marl pit, or peat mof^, in the parifli, has at times 
produced bones, heads, &c. fuch as the above mentioned. 

f One inftance may be given of this, inflead of many. In the year 2766, Mr. 
Copland of Collicfton planted about 60 acres, of very wafle land, near the 
village of Dalbeaty. For thefe 4 years now pad, Scotch Crs, to the value of 


ofUrr. 69 

cools from Cumberland coi\tinues, proprietor$ will be forced 
to plant in every farm what will afford a refource as to f)ie)^ 
at leaft this would be th<^ir intereft. 

^jift^iMf/.— In this parifl) there are few of anj importance; 
Several moats and fortified camps are to be met with, both ia 
Urr, and in the adjoining part of Buittle. Thefe moats ap« 
pear, however, to be Daniih or Britifh works, rather than 
Roman* Tradition itfelf hath Ipng been filent as to their 
origin. Earthen urns, filled with calcined bones, are fre« 
quentlj found in this neighbourhood. Bpt the burning dead 
bodies was a cuilom common to the Romans with the north- 
cm nations. The Moat of Urr is perhaps the largeft work 
of the kind in Scotland. It ftands on the wefl bank of the 
river, about half a mile below Urr church, A furvey and 
drawing of this moat would have been here given, had this 
coniified with the plan oi the work for which this article is 
written. Though the ditches, and the confirudion of Urr Moat 
in general, are bj no means Roman, yet, about 30 years ago, 
fome outworks remained, fecmingly erefted by that people. 
Thefe optworks adjoining to Urr Moat, and havipg fome re- 
lemblance to the Roman mode of fortifying, were placed up- 
on a rifing ground, where the moat itfelf, (fteep in other parts), 
is conneded with the furrounding plain, upon a levis afcen/us^ 
fuch as thofe where Csefar fo often awaited or invited tlie at- 
^cks of the barbarianfl^y obtaining decifiye vidory from an al- 


150I. per aosvm, hvft been fold out of this plantation^ for fupporting the coal 
auaes 10 Cumberland ; not to fpcak of a prodigious number of treei deftroyed 
bf the accidental firing of the heath, in the year 1781, and a conftderable num- 
ber (bid to the neighbourhood. For thefe so yeara to come, it it computed cheTc 
Scotch firs may produce the above annual revenue ; not to mention the d^dnoat 
wood, which is not yet fit for cutting. 

70 ' Statifiical Account 

fiioft imperceptible advaottge* X^^^ oatworlu lni?e| widitii 
thefe lo yearsi been obliterat64 by the plough*. 


* More dedfire prooft, hoveTer, lead in to bdiere, that the RoaiaM ban 
vifited, and perhapt made feme ftay in this part of ScotUmd, At Mill of Bait* 
tk, about half a snik weft from the moat already meotioned, there were feud, 
leveral yean ago, three feudl (ilTer coini fffitrui) one of Tibbkxoi, one of 
Hadkian, and oKe of Commodvs. The two laft of thefe coioi were givea, hj 
the prefent minifter of Urr, to Mr. CARi^0MNEL,.aii ingeniont antiqaary of 
Edmbnigfa. In the eftate of Mr> MAZfrKi.L of Mimlhet, alfo wbtmt a nuk 
tnd a hi^f S, W. of the moat, there were fonnd, not long ago, feveral kgiooarr 
fpeara» made of a very hard kind of brali. They were nearly of the Dune w> 
del with thole in the Advocates* Library of Edinburgh; but the labonriog peo- 
ple who fottnd them, miftakiag the hard brafs for a more precious' metal, thefe 
Ancient weapons were molUy broken ; though | beliete feme of them yet remsin 
entire at Manflies* Upon the whole, it feem^ probable, that the moat of Un 
may have been in the poflei&on of the Romans, though not an eredioo of tbein. 
If it was a Britiih town or fort, which the Romans converted Into cme of tbeir 
fiativa, there would be in it fufficient fpace for accommodating a legioo, with 
auxiliaries. More than half a mile te the £. of this fpot, within the eibte of 
Redcaftle, there is a mde block of granite, ftaoding upright, in a plain fieU : 
•bont 14 feet of the fione a 1 pear above the foil, and very probably J «r 6 
feet are funk in the earth ; bnt what perfon, or what event this monument of 
antiquity was meant to commemorate, no mortal pretends to lay, tradition itfdf 
being filent on thefuhjeS. 

If any thing were to be added to the fmall number of amiqnitiesbelongiDg ta 
this pariih, we might mention the ruins of feveral Roman Catholic chapeb, 
lituated within the ancient domain of the honourable family of Htnaiis ; and 
the tomb-ltones of thofe who periihed by military execution, during the infstu* 
ated reign of Charles 11. Thefe ftones hare from time to time been kept in re- 
pair, by the friends of that caufe in which the fufferers periihed ; and whtlft 
there was a PrHemder to the throne of Britain, each of the above fepokhrsl 
monumentt was, to governmenc, aa good as n confiderable military force io this 
part of the country. 


of Urr. yi 

Pofmlatwm. — ^The littmber of fouls in Urr, at Whitfusday 
laft, above to years of age, was *• - . ^j 

Aod under that period of life, - • - 357 

In all, - . 1354 
The recum to Dr. Webfter, in 1755, was, - - ixj^3 

Increafe, - - z6i 

Though the prefent minifter of Urr could never diiicover 
any roll, drawn up by his immediate predeceflbr, diftindlj 
fpecifying the number of inhabitants in the parifli, yet he ta 
aflured by the precentor, who did his duty alfo under the fot^ 
mer incumbent, that about 25 years ago, the whole number 
of people in Urr, of all denominations, hardly amounted tp 
900. This account of matters appears perfeftly credible. 
The villages in the parilh have almoft all arifen, within thefe 
laft I a years ; and the inhabitants of thefe, and of fundry 
foudl &rms, lately cut off from larger pofieffions, being fab- 
traded from the population of the parifli, as above (la ted» 
there is hardly a remainder of 900 *• It waj here be alked^ 
whence the increafe of population above flated has arifen, 
cfpecially in a diftrifi of country where no mannfaAures are 


• Owing to the oomber of DliTenten, as well ts to the confideraUe extent 
of the parifli, it ia impoffihle to be putkiilar as to Biktbs and Bxatss. la 
a trad of aowitry, 14 miles loog by 5 miles broady or more in ibme place? » 
it woold be exceedingly incoorenient to bring to church, (efpedallf in winter), 
mCittts of a few days otd. Owing to this, the prefent miaifter has not baptifed 
tcQ children ia the chorch during hit incumbency (as years). And very few 
marriagea haw been folemnixed in the church during that fpace. Thus it be- 
csoiea impoCble preci(ely to fix the annual number of baptifms and marriages : 
Aod to iay the truth, thofe whidi are Iblemnixed out of the church are but 
csrekfsly recorded. As to Bukxals, no record of them was ever kept.-— The 
Dales are confiderahly more numerous than the females. The want of labourers 
b a wide country, where the proprietors are moftly or all affluent, the influx 0£ 
Iriflmieo, driTen from home by tythes, Sec. and the eafineis of fubfiftence, render 
ihe anquiiitioo of male citiaens, fiich aa they are, daily and abundant. 

^i Statifiical Account 

c(Ubli(bed, or at leaft none that can encourtge populatioa to* 
any perceptible extent ? In aafwer to this, it may be obferv* 
ed, that the convenience of fuel feems to be one ^reat caixfe, 
why the number of inhabitants rapidly increafes here, wfailft 
{topulation continues at a ftand, or rather diminifhes^ in the 
parifhes adjacent. In moff parts of Galloway, and efpeciallr 
in the flat country, and on the Tea coafi^ the moiTes are either 
entirely worn out, or dug fo deep, that they ftand covered with 
i^ater ; nor arc the proprietors very attentive to the draimng 
of fuch modes as are in this fituation. Coals, indeed ibxghc 
be had from England, at the rate of about 4d« per cwc.^ m 
the courfe of fair trade 3 biut then a very ill judged tax^ on 
coalt carried coaftxiifc^ precludes this advantage, which equal- 
ly points at the improvement of navigation^ manufa&ures and 
agriculture. If we add to the duty on Coals catried couft- 
wife, as aftually paid to government, the infoUna of cuflom. 
faoufe officers^ and the vexatious manner in ^hich they reduce 
their inftrudions to practice, it may be averred fafely, that 
the cwt. of coals, that could be had for 4d. at farthefi, ftatfds 
the confumer abcfve a Jhilling. Frequent and continned ap- 
plications have been made to governmcut for takhig oflT this 
^x, equally pernrciotts and impolitic. One anfwer, however, 
has conllancly been made to all complaints on this fabjed : 
What tax will you put in place of the duty upon coals carried 
coaflwfe ? or. How do yon propofe to remunerate government 
for th^ diminution of revenue thus occajionedf One can bard* 
ly obviate fuch a childifli difScuhy, without being fomcwhat 
ruffled. Tliere*is not one fenfible man in Galloway, who will 
^or can deny, that if the tax on coals had been fupprefled id 
years ago, the king would have had io,ood fubjefts more in 
the maritime part of this country. Now the taxation oa 
ihefe, making the cftimate at only aos, a head, muft have 
yielded government ten times the tax in queftion. How the 
intereft of the cijlom-huvfi might have Hood, is acc:hcr quc- 
' Hion. 

ofVrr. ' 73 

fttoa. Ererj man (it has b^a obferved), who can have a 
fimilj, will have one ; but a fingle difficulty maj be ai effec- 
tual as a hundred. If to what has been already obferved, 
we add this unqueftionable truth, -that nine tenths of the 
dtf^afes, which afRift the poorer part of the people, are thofe 
of debility, and chiefly arife from cold, it can hardly be won« 
dered at, that the above tax has been produftive of confideraUe 
difcontent, and much emigration. 

VUlages.^^f^MVX II or I J years ago, the village of haU 
heatj was begun, by Alexander Copland of Kings Grange, and 
George Maxwell of Munfhes, Efquires, on both fides of a 
rivulet, called Dalbeaty Bum. This village affords one of 
the bed lituations, for a cotton or woollen manufaSure, that 
could even be wiflied for. The gentlemen already mention- 
ed feued houfes and gardens at a moderate rate ^ and to every 
feuer an allotment was made for perpetuity, in the lai^ 
mofleSi not far from the village. The rapidity with which 
this village has increafed, and the diftance from which feuers 
haTe come, plainly demonftrate how -much the tax, upon 
coals carried coaftwife, prevents population in this, and doubt* 
lelt in other parts of Scotland. In other places of Urr pa« 
rifli, villages are begun, but they advance flowly ; for the 
chief refource they have, as to fuel, is the remainder of the 
peats that can be fpared by MeiTrs. Maxwell and Copland, 
after accommodating their own feuers. This refource muft 
fail as the village of Dalbeaty enlarges > and already many 
farmers, as well as feuers, in the pariih, have their peats to 
lead from 3 to 5 miles dillance* In one word> it is not chi- 
merical to fuppofe, that, in to years, want of fuel might 
drive a great proportion of the people in this parifh, to Ame- 
rica, where indeed a great number of familieS| that emigrated 
from hence, are already fettled. 

Vol. XL K J^phj/mtnts. 

74 Statiftkal Account 

Emplojfments.'^^Tbougli agrknlture is the cbief chjtSL of 
indoflrj, yet there are a confiderable number of people, wbcr 
follow mechanical profeiEons. There are about ao weavetft 
in the parifh. Other tradefmen too, fuch as mafons, joiners, 
Smiths, flioenakersy &c. hold fullj as great a proportion to 
the total population, already dated, as could well be ezpefied. 
Enliftments in the army are very rare ; not above 2 or 3 of 
the natives of Urr having difpofed of themfelves in the mill* 
tary line for thefe 20 years. At prefent, few charaders much 
tainted with idlenefs or diflipation are to be found heref of 
abiblttte profligacy, there is not one known at prefent. 

Provifitms and Wages. — The prices of grain, beef, mutton, 
and proviiions of all forts, are eftimated in Urr at die rate o£ 
the Dumfries market. — As the encouragement for labourers, 
in the line of agriculture, is confiderable, Bumufafiures have 
not as yet been much thought of. Though fome parts of the 
parifli are well peopled, others are not. Even to this day, 
there is hardly in it one human creature for ten acres of land. 
Much wafle ground, tlierefore, is yet to be incloled and 
cultivated. The wages of labourers are high, and they are 
well paid. Day labourers can earn from xs. to is. 6d« fer 
dtem. Men fervants have from 4I. 4s. to 41. xos. in the half 
year, and fome 5I. Women fervants have from xl. 5s. to 
xl. 15s., and even 2I. per half year. What is called a cottar» 
or farm fervant has, by the year, as follows : 

X. 60 buiheU of corn, valued at i6d. pa: bu(hcl, - L.5 o o 
a. A houfe and yard, at- » - • -xoo 

3. A cow, kept tummer and winter, - • - ^ xo 9 

4. Three peckt of potatoes, fet with the mafter's, - s XO o 

5. A fiieep at Martinmas, or in lieu, a fwine grazed, - O xo o 

6. Waget for the year, in money, - . - - » o o 

L. 13 20 o 


i>f XJrr. 7^ 

'Some ptople (but ver j few) are difpofed to give lefs wages, 
and to put up with more indifferent fervants, than the above 
fates of hire would procure ; but fuch econom j feldom proves 
advantageous. In a word, there are few counties in Scotland, 
where the labouring poor have lefs caufe of complaint, than 
in the ftewartry of Gallowaj ; and it muft be owned, that 
they are honeft, happy and contented accordingly. Mechanics 
in general work by the piece \ their gains, therefore, in a 
daily feofe, cannot be precifely afcertained. Tailors, indeed, 
work moftly by the day: Their wages are 8d., with viduals, 

ManufaSures^ \3c. — Only one manufadure has been hither- 
to elUbliflied in Urr. It is that of paper. The neceffary 
machinery and repofitories were ere&ed at Dalbeaty, on the 
the eftate of Alexander Copland, £{q. fome years ago. Thia 
work has profpered abundantly. Indeed it is conduced by 
the proprietor of the paper mill ; a perfon fo prudent, fo Intel- 
ligent, and fober, that it is believed, few concerns would go 
wrong with him. There is alfo a lint mill at Dalbeaty, 
which is well conduced, and has its full ihare of what bufr. 
nels the country affords in that branch. This vicinity^ how- 
ever, and the weft of Scotland in general, feem by no means 
lb fit for the growth of flax, as the eaftem diftrids are. The 
copious rains that fall in Galloway render it one of the beft 
counties in Britain, for rearing and feeding cattle. Even when 
unexpeded and (evere droughts happen, (nor is this feldom 
the cafe), the abundance of excellent .fprings make confider* 
able amends for the hardfhip. But as the heavy rains are a 
difadvantage in the rearing of flax, the droughts, in a light and 
dry foil, are the deftru&ion of this commodity. In this pa- 
riih, therefore, it is not probable the culture of it will increafe, 
whilft grain pays the farmer at the prefent rate. The abfurd 
cuftom of fixing a rate of wages, at which (ervants and other 

K 2 labourers 


j6 Statifiical Auount 

labourers are obliged to workt is serer thotfgbt of io tlus 
Deigbbourhood. People of better conditioQ think of wbft( 
tbej can afford to execute, and fervants and labourers are iofc 
to their own judgment, as to what they will undertake. Thus 
in all things oecefTarj, labour and reward meet one aootber 
on equitable terms. 

. Health and Zongtoity.'^As the occupations, followed hf th# 
people, are not prejudicial to the health, fickne£i is not fre« 
quent, efpectalljr of late years; and fince the hoiiles of the 
tenantry and labourers were built of better materials, and 
rendered more convenient, warm and cleanly ,«-~more parti- 
cularly, iince thefe dwellings were improved, the burials of 
infants have decrea&d in a fnrprifing proportion. The di£« 
eafes nfually prevalent are thofe arifing from cold, hard la« 
hour, and other debilitating caufes ; and fuch diftempera acie 
fou'md to yield readily to ftrengthening medicines. There is 
one furgeon in the parifli, who pra£lifes through feveral other 
pari(hes adjacent, ^ttornies we have none.**Aj not onlj 
the labours ufually followed, but the air* and climate, are 
friendly to health, longevity is not uncommon. Within thefe 
X5 years, feveral perfons have died at the age of xoo, or above 
it. One Peter Buchanan died in the village of Dalbeatjr, 
about xo years ago. His age could not be exa&ly fixed ; but 
this much is certain, that he was above XI5 years old. He 
was furprifingly healthy and aQive to the day of his death, 
and died of about half an hour's fickoefs. There arc juft 
now two or three perfons in Urr aged 90, and feveral above 
fourfcore. Even at the age of 70, or above it, it is notiiiK* 
ufual to fee a labourer fubfifting himiielf, and earning the 
ufual day's wages : Nor is there a poor perfon in the parifli^ 


« Upon fair experiment, it Trill be found, th»t the thcnnomcter ilaads higher 
'in this part of Gallovrsy (tmwnmiktu UtiusJ^ than it does mt London. 
• 5 

vho ddes not nuke fome exertions in the waj- of induSiy, 
excepting one or two, who are quite fuperannuated. 

Cburcb^ School, and Poor.-^The minifter's (lipe^d is 
Sjl. 6s. 8d.| with an allowance of jl. for communion ele« 
Qoeats :— -aoo merks Scotch (or iiL as. ^rsd. Steding) are 
allotted for fopporting the parifli fchool \ but the large extent 
of the parifli has occaiioned even this fmall fum to be divided. 
— There never was any poor's rate in the pariih. There are 
at prefent 8 or 9 individuals, who receive from the funds 
of the poor, about a guinea a year, upon an average ; and 
what further aid is neceflarj is cheerfully afToried in the 
way of private donation. So attentive has this neighbour- 
hood been to matters of this kind, that for thefe ao years, 
there have not been 3 travelling beggars belonging to Urr ; 
nor did even thefe go beyond the limits of the parifh. At 
prefent, there is no poor perfon of the travelling defcriptioa 
amoogft us. 

RtUgioM.'^Ol the 2354 perfons, who compofe the popula* 
tion already liated, there are about 30 families of Antiburgher 
Seceders, and a8 families of Roman Catholics. The Seceders 
have had a meeting- houfe within the pariih for thefe 45 years 
paft, or more $ during which time, the Rev. Mr. John Milli- 
gan, a gentleman equally venerable as a minifter, and refped. 
able iis a citizen, has performed the paftoral duty. The 
Catholics attend divine fervice in a neighbouring pariih, where 
tb^y have a jj^ace of worihip*. Their clergy have* been 


* At MoiMSKSy in the pariili ot ^mtiii^ in the reign of Cuaklks I« 
Gaomox Maxwsli. of MuNSHts, a gentleman of great worth and probitj, 
was the judge ordinary of this county. Though himfelf a Roman Catholic, 
with a liberality Httk fnitcd to the timef, and hardly cooiiilcnt with his own 


yS Statiftical Account 

^wajs perfons of pietj, erudition, and irreproachable lives* 
Juftice requires it farther to be faid, that the lives and de- 
portment of the hearers do no difcredit to the example 
and infiruAions of the teachers. The whole amount of tbe 
DiiTenters in Urr is 270 perfons. The difference of rcligt- 
0U8 opinion has never occafioned much mifunderftanding or 
hitternefs. The eftabliihed minifter has been in ufe to vifit 
^more efpeciallj in affliSed families), without diftindion; 
and, on fuch occafions, to perform the ufual afts of devotion 
ivithont referre, or fear of giving umbrage. 

CharaQer. — ^With equal truth and fatisfadion it is alTerted, 
in the face of the public, that the behaviour of the inhabitants 
of the parifli of Urr hath been, for feveral generations paft, 
{and ftill is) fober, inoffenfive and dutiful. By faying this, 
it is not meant to detraft from that independence of fpirir, . 
that freedom of opinion, and that acuteneis of judgment, 
which diftinguifli the inhabitants of every free country, and 
which afford the beft fupport to every refpedlable government 
upon eiairth. In a quarter where (till of late) religious con* 
troverfies ufed to be agitated with great freedom and warmth, 


iafety, he fated tbe lives of leveral of thofi: perfccuted people, whom the fsry 
of the £pifcopal clergy, and the time-lcrTcrs of the court would have hrougbc 
to the gallowt. To do the inCerior people of this country juAice, the family of 
Munihei, has not, fince the Revolution, been much difturbcd in the ezerdfe of 
their religion. Once or twice, it is true, the houfe of Niunibes has been rnow- 
maged, for bo«ks coDtaauDg the doiftrines of Antichkist, and the veibpcna 
and implements of idolatry. On thtrfe occafions, however, we cannot Icsn, 
that the damage of the family was greater than the lo's of a Greek Tefiamcot, 
and of a book called " Tbefaifb/ut Farrier ;*' both of which were bjimt on ths 
CorbcUy Hill, near Dumfries, the ufual Topbet for fuch captures. The ovt- 
Isndifli charader, and a pidure or two, in the Teflament, left no doubt of it* 
popery ; as for the other book, its ingenious title was mif-read ** Tbeffuibfal 
** friar," There have been greater miftakcs, both in religion and politico 

ofTJrr. 79 

it is not to be fuppofed, that the minds of men (hould be de- 
prived of that acutenefsy v^hich refidts from fach diiquifitions. 
IgDoraocc and ftupiditj, however, no^Aiore a{^ar to be the 
parents of lojalty than they are of devotion. Though it has 
been annoonced in fome newfpapers, vrith an air of triumph, 
that ficditioos writings had never appeared in certain trads of 
conntry, and it has bj fome perfons been talked of as a lucky 
circ nmftanc e» that the people in feveral parts of the kingdom 
cnuld nai read works of a feditious tendency, fomething bet-» 
ter (it is hoped), may be faid for the inhabitants of this 
neighbonxhood. There is not one (it is believed) of the late 
feditious publications, that has not found its way into Urr* 
Thcfe, with fome of the anfwers (particularly a pamphlet 
called tht Patriot)^ were read, weighed, and decided upon. 
Therefnltis, that, according to every probability, there is not 
a man in the parilh, who would not riik his life for the fup« 
port of the Kbg's authority, and the Britifli conftitution, as 
eSablilhed at the Revolution in i688. 

fVamis of tbi Pa9^^^-^The natural advantages belonging 
to Unr pariA, and the fobriety and indoftry of its inhabitants, 
are its £ble refeurces. Acquired aids it has but few. The 
military road which pafTes through Urr, (and that in a line fo 
prepofterous, that mere FaUy could hardly have ftumbled up- 
on it), is the only benefit for which it ftands indebted to pub- 
lic benevolence. 

It has been obferved with juftice, that where the mere 
labourer is not encouraged, and enlightened by the man of 
letters, human induftry, and ingenuity too, will be ftationary. 
We may go farther, and affirm they will be retrograde. Ig- 
norance as natutally propagates ignorance, and far more 
ealily, than knowledge does knowledge. In an extent of 
country, fo large as that comprehended in the p^rifl^ of Urr, 


to Staij/fical Account 

more fchools than one would be neceflarj. The falaty of tfe€ 
prefent fchoolmafler is 200 merks Scotch ; and, from this 
pittanoe, 3L Sterling is abftrafted, for the hire of a perfon 
to keep a fchool in the mooriih part of the parift. For fach 
an encouragement, it is not to be expeded that teachers of Trry 
refpedable qualifications can be found. It is the cry of namj 
affluent people, however, ** The mod indifierent fehooUnafter 
'* can teach a young perfon to read^ and tofuhfcribt his name. 
** This is education fuffieient, Wh j flionld we make our 
•• tenants and cotters better men than their fathtn /*• To 
xnention no other abfurdity contained in this argument, fcve^ 
ral gentlemen, holding this language, feem little to be aware, 
how bx thej ezpofe thtir own fnmilus to the recolledion of 
the world. As to ignorance of hiflory^ it may well be ex- 
cttfed, when people do not renrember their own grandfathers. 
As to thofe alfo who think that ability defcends by entail^ or 
is fecured by feudal title^ it could be wifiied cfaeir opinions 
were more frequently juftified by their condudL The jea-* 
loufy, which the more powerful and affluent part of fociety 
hare fliewn, for feme time paft, with refpeft to the extanfion 
of knowledge, might profitably be contralled with the oon* 
duft of Scotland, for at leaft an age after the Reformation. 
If inattention to the wants of the public, in refpeft of reli* 
gious, moral, and even ufeful inftruAion, mucb longer pre- 
vails ; if contempt and harfimefs towards thofe moft opprellcd, 
and moft deCerving citizens, called parifh fchooUmaften, re» 
mains unabated, people, who have moft to lofe, have greateft 
reafon to dread the confequences. Nii vtri^ nil fan&ij mUla 
deorum metnsy nulla religio^ may ibon be the charafter of may 
mau, or any number of men; but, of this defbriptioo, wc 
read but ef few, in the courfe of 3009 years, who bave given 
caufe for the doubt, ne/cio mirabilior fnk adverJU quarn fe^ 
cttntHf rebus. • 


it IS true, a great part' of relrgiotif and moral ififtrudion,* 
is fappofed' Xtr drrrcdtre upon the clergy. Bat how can tbir 
happen; wheii a foandstion is not laid for their labours ? Fre« 
qaentlj it isobferved, that the clergj of the prefent day are 
nowife' fo popular as tbeir predece£R>rd. And this hath been 
made an argument, for the contempt anddeprfeffion, under v^tech' 
they bave kfctotlf ed of late years; The faft, however, fiioiild* 
be duly weighed. Of latfe years, the courts of law, and the* 
landed intereft^ have entirely fuperfeded the clergy, in thema«« 
ifagementof parifli fchook. Heritors will not fo much as allow 
tf mtnifler; to vote in the choice of a fchoolmafter. They 
willcboofe him from year to year ; they will pull into frag<* 
ments a (alary of ten pounds ; and the parifli minifler is nei« 
ther able to difpute fuch proceedings iii a law court, nor is it 
believed, that he would be well heard, if difpofed to aft: re^ 
dreli. The confequence is, that a parifh fchool is now a mo- 
mentary, or at leaft a temporary employment, for fome ne- 
ceffitous perfon of ability ; or a perpetual employment for 
fome languid infignificant mortal, hardly deferving the Iheltef 
of a charity work-houfe. Let us contraft with this ftate- 
ment, the charafter of fchoolraafters in Scotland, for a hundred 
years after the Reformation ; let us remember, too, the cha^ 
raAer which the inhabitants of Scotland maiqtained, and the 
figure they made among foreign nations, during that, and 
even fubfeqoeot periods ; let us advert to the laws of the ftate 
and of the church, refpeAing the provifion n|ade for fchool- 
mailers, and the qualifications expefied in them ; let us re« 
colleft too the periods when thefe laws were framed, and the 
men who framed them. Things are now changed. If a 
clergyman catechifes his parifli on religion, he finds they can- 
not read the Bible : If he fpeaks of morality, they anfwer 
him with a ftare. Learning and literature are out of the que- 
flion. At this xate^ in order to be popular, the parTon finds 

VoL^XL . L it 

S2 Staiifiical Account 

it indifpeaffiile to propagate a dangetous enthufiafmt or Co de* 
dare himielf retainer to a contemptible fnperftitioii. 

In his rooft rational efforts alib^ to do goodt the pazifii mi- 
aiftcr finds himfelf under one greats one infnpefmUe diffiqultj.. 
Whilft alnoft deprived of the aid, and of the influence of the 
fchoolmafter, the clergyman finds the fame pains, the fSune 
care, the fame attendance ezpe&ed, from ererj funily, from^ 
everjr individual in the pariih, that were ufual a centnrj- ago. 
Keverthelels, the population of the parifli is perhaps, teipkd, 
the ftipend is the fame, and the keepbg an affiftant is im* 
poffible. All this while, the Diflisnters, of everj denoauniu 
tion, are not idle. They are i^ot only eftablilhing, bnt multi* 
plying fchools of their own, and clergymen of their own : And, 
if public difcontent and patty fpirit are permitted, naj pro- 
voked, to eSeftuate thefe labours,, which might be expeded 
from the candour, the |uftice, the benevolence of a nation, 
how can it be otherwife, than that mattess fhould haften to a 
revolution ? It has often been obferved, that a religious efta^ 
Uiihment can only be difpenfed with in a republic,, if theru 
Thofe in power, however, are no doubt beft judges, how far 
the expence of the church is an objed, when the prefent form 
of government is kept in view ; in which expence, undoubted- 
ly, the eftablifliment of proper Ichools ought to be included *. 


* Thefe oblervationt are offered to the ittentioo of alT concerned, by a day- 
man, who never was a Schoolmastik bmfelft nor wai there ever one chofea: 
in his parUh fince he was incombfot. 

vf iPreJhn-KirL 83 



ip^mOy of Haddington — Prtjhytery of Lunbar^^^ynod of 
Lotbian and TTweeddab. 

Mj tU Bm. Mr^ Samel M^Qpuy, Mmi/ip'. 

Jtame^ Skuaiton and Exteni. 

THE pariih o{ Presjon-kirk (formcarly jcalled Tr^mh 
haugb'jf lies nearly in the centre of the fertile coon^ 
4>f Eafi Lotbian, extendmg liboilt 4 miles from W. to E^ 
on the line of the great roaid to England, by Berwick ; and, at 
its greateft (breadth, about 7 miles from N. to S. The parifli 
ichorch, which is pleafimtly fituatod on a final! eminence, dofe 
bj the liver Tyne, is equally 4iftant from Haddington and 

Swrfac9^ Soilf Rhfer and F|^.*— The forface of the groond 
is agreeably varied ; and, were it moM generally clothed with 
planting, would afford as beautiful views as any part of 
^€ county. But the richn^ of the ibilt and the fuperior 
profiu derived from tillage, prevent this from bebg die 
cafe. The river Tyiir, which takes its rife about zo milea 
above Haddington, winds through the middle of the pariib, 

La aii4 

^4- Statifiical Acccwnt 

and empties itfelf into the fea, about 3 miles E. of the church, 
on a flat fandj beach. On each fide of the river, the fields, 
in the weftem diftri&of Ae part(b, Aope graduallj towards its 
channel; but at the village of Linton, a little way above the 
church, the ft ream, after falling over fome broken rocks, of 
cqqfiderable height, xtsni chief^ through a flat fertile haugh, 
till it reaches the fea. In this lower part of the river, confi- 
derable quantities of iaimon .grejcaught, asd .excellent trouts 
through the whole cuti ; but it is thought the numbers of the 
former, would be much increafed, were the rocks that io« 
terrupt the channel at Linton Bridge, blown, fo as to afford a 
paiTage iot thcjpci to get up xnocie ixttlj^ and to fpawn. 

HilL'^Tht only confiderable hill in the parilh is Trafrane 
LaWi formerly called Dun^fender (two Gaelic words fignifying 
Steep HiU)t an appellation to which, from its appearance, 
efpecially on the. foudi fide, it is well entitled. Its height is 
about 700 feet above the level of the fea; and it forms one 
of the moft confpicuous objeAs to mariners, after entering the 
mouth of the Frith of Forth. From the top of it may be 
feen part of 13 counties. /. 

P^ulatiQH.^^Tht population, as returned to Dr. Webfier 
in i755f was - - . - . - 131^ 
The prefent number, (in 1793)9 of males 

grown up, is - 397 

« of females grown up*, 354 

— of children under 10, 425 

In all, - 1 1 76 1 176 

Decreafe, m • 14a 


9, 1*he|re is fxfx^ uiif onvnpn Inlban^^ of loogoKky at pfcfcat in the porifii ; 
a womiOi rciidi^g at Beanfioii Mill, aged za?. 

.tf Frtjlon-Ktrk. 85 

froduce. — ^The parilh contaioB nearly 5000 acres. Of theb, 

in the year 1792, there were. 


In wheat, - '• . « 700 

^—barley, - - . . 3jo 

— oats, - • - - - 750 

— peafe and beans, ... ^00 

— potatoes and turnips, • - 180 

— clover, ----- a8o 

— pafture grafs, ' - - • • 1S60 
— *fialloW| - - . - • 4JO 

In all, - 4990 

The Tahied rent, in chalders, is - * • ai£ 
The zeal rent is computed at « • L. 4700 

State of Agriculture, — ^Agriculture is in general profecuted 
i|i this parifii, with as much diligence and fuccefs, as in any 
part of the ifland*. — Drilled crops of tutnips and beans are 
cultivated to a vtrj confiderable extent. The turnips are eat 
off the ground, in the courfe of winter and fpring, by fheep 
bought fVi for the purppfe. The iheep are confined within a 
certain part of the field, by a moveable fence, which is ihifted 
fuccdSvelj, until the whole crop is confumed. This praftice has 
been found fo profitable (particularly laft year), as- to clear a( 
the rate of 7I. on the fcore of iheep. The ground, thus ma« 
naged, being clean, and in excellent condition, is very com- 
monly fown with wheat in fpring. The general tafte for agri- 

* It IS m ia&^ wordiy o£ rccordiiif , to the booGur of thU parifli, that it fet the 
ii^ emnple of fallowing ground, in this part of the ifland, now fo generally a- 
doi»ted« In the beginning of this century, John Walker, tenant in fieanfioo, by 
tbe adYicc of fome gentlemen from England, fallowed about 6 acres of land ; 
and finding the experiment anfwer hit ezpedation, he was led to extend it, the 
year following, to upwards of ao acres. His.neighbonrs, obferring the fucccls of 
the pradice, gradually followed him in it, until at length it became uniYcrOmy 

^6 Statlfiical Account 

cultoie which prevails b this ptrifli, and the abundant emploj« 
ment which it affords to perfons of dl ages, are circanftances 
unfavourable to the eftabiiihinent, or exteniive progre{s» of anj 
branch of manufa&ure. 

AntiquUiu — A. place of rdigloos worflup, it would appear, 

bas fubfifted on the fame fpot where the church now ftaodiy 

as far back as a thoufaod years. It is mentioned, in the Saxon 

Afinalsy under the name of Ecclefia SanBi Baldridi, the 

tutelar Clint of the place: And that record bears, that the 

SazonSy having made an irruption into £aft Lothian, in the 

eight century, burnt Exckfiam SanBi BaUridi^ it adjaceniem 

vi€tim di Tjningbam^ a fmall village, about a mile eaftwnrd 

of this place. It is a faft fomewhat curious, that upon 

taking down the old church, aj years ago, the oak bcaois 

bore on them, in feveral places, evident marks of fire ; fo that 

it is probable, they had belonged to the ancient &bric, and con* 

fequtntly muft have ftood diere nearly looo years. Some 

places, adjoining to the church, ftijl bear the the name of tbe 

ancient tutelar faint ; as RaUridU Witt^ apd Balinffi WbUU 

a pool or eddy in the river. The chancel, at the eafi ^nd of 

the old church, flill remabs, and is the burial place of the 

family of Smeaton. Under the head of the antiquities of the 

parifb, may alfo be mentioned Hailes Cafile^ which bears the 

marks of having been once a large building, and a place qf 

flrength. It itands dofe upon the banks of the Tyne, d>out 

two miles above Lbton, and was in former times the feat of 

the Earl of Bothwell, fo well known in hiftory, for his dar* 

kig and flagitious enterprife in carrying off the iinfortunate 

Mart. It now belongs to Mifs Dalrymple, patronefs of the 

parifli, eldeft daughter of the lately dcceafed Sir David Dai^ 

KTMFLE of Hailes— -a venerable name^— which will convey xb 

this, and to fuccecdbg ages, the rare memorial of talents which 


of Prefton^Kirk. 87 

wodd haye beamed through Indolence kfelf ; of indadrjr, 
which might have overtaken even the career of genius ; both 
cooiecrated, by the energy of the pureft principles, to the glory 
of his Maker, and the good of his fellow creatures. 

Citnl 5la/r.— There are 6 confiderable heritors in this pa- 
riih V a of whom only, (Mn Bucban Hepburn of Smeaton), 
refidcs*. This non-refidence of the proprietors, is an nn- 
favourable circuaiftance to the poor's funds, in refpeft to the 
GoUeAions at the church v ^ol. annually of afleflment being 
ncceflaiy to fnpply the defipency. 

E€€kfiafi$eal State.^^Tht prefent church was built in the year 
1770. The manfe is old, and in bad repair. The (lipend, ac- 
cording to an augmentation lately granted, confifts of 8 chalders 
3bollsof viftual, and 46I. Z5S. jd. of money, with a glebe 
of 7 acres. 

Mawmri of tbe Peopk. — The uniform, unremitting, but 
healthy labours of agriculture, which occupy the great ma- 
jority of the inhabitants of this pariih, are probably favour- 
able both to their morals and happinefs. They arc» in general, 
indnfirioos and contented with their lot. PofiefEng, as they 
do, tbe Ueffings of liberty, prote£tion, and equal laws, with 
the mcaas of providing, for themfelves and families, the necef. 
farics, and, to a certain degree, even the comforts of life, be 
would not be their friend, who would feek to agitate their 
nunds with fpeculative fources of difcontent. 


* Smkatoii HotrtB, the refideacc of this gentleman, hAs been lately rebuilt, 
«o la clcgmoc wad cttenfive plan ; and, by let commanding iltuation, forms a 
pen onuuaeoc of thi« part of the country. 

8^ Statifticed Jeceunt 

Tiht ^vCK^tts {or foStical reform^ confider tbenfdTcs, ikt 
doubty to be engaged in a good canfe. But without* calling 
their motives in qneftion, it may be allowed to thoTe, who 
have a deep intereft in the quiet of their country and neigb- 
bourhoodi to deprecate the effi&t which their zeal in it may 
produce. Such an intereft every clergyman has, both as a 
citizen, and as a paftor. Amidft the keennefs of political af- 
fociations, among men little qualified, eidier to difcem with 
precifion, or to profecute by proper meafures, the objeft at 
which they aim, there is danger that the yoice of religion may 
be difregardedf that the refpeft to extfttng laws may decay, 
that the amity of neighbours may be interrupted, and that 
the quiet docile charader of the people may be ttf exchanged, 
for a fpirit of difcontent, jealoufy, and pertinacious wrang- 


V ^cckfgrelg^ or St. Cyrus. 89 



{Cmnttj of KincareKne-^PreJbytery of ForiUun^^ynoi rf 
Angus and Meams.) 

By the Rev. Mr. William Walker. 

Origin of the Names. 

ECCLESGREIG is evidentlj a name of Latin origmy 
and an abbreviation of Ecdejia Gregorii^ the chnrch 
of Gregorj. It perhaps obtained this name from St. Gregory 
the Great, bilbop of Rome, or from fome later pope of that 
name, to whom it might have been dedicated ; or more pro- 
bably from Sc. Gregory, one of the firft miflionaries from 
Rome to this country. There is little probability that the 
other name, St. Ctru8« was derived from Cyrus^ the Mono- 
thclite, biihop, firft of Phafis, and afterwards of Alexandria, 
unlefs the new converts here favoured his doftrinc. It is 
more probable that there was a St. Cyrus refident here, either 
a miflionary, or a native ; bec^ufe there is a fpring of falubri- 
ous water in the pariih, called St. Cyruses Well, and a fmall 
portion of adjacent ground, called St. Cyruses Ward. From 
him it derive? its modem and familiar name ; but in formal 
Vol. XI. M writing 

,^ Statifiical Account 

vrritings, in ci^ and cccleiiaftical records, Ecckfgreig is tbc 
name generally ufed. 

Situation and Extent. ^-^The, pariih of Ecclefgreig or St.Gjms 
isiituated in the fouthern extremity of the county of Kincardine. 
It lies in 5^^ 45' N. lat., and 2^ 10' W. long* from London. 
The high road, from Montrofe to Aberdeen* runs through 
the pariih, from the 3d to a little beyond the 8th mile 
ftone from Monti ofe. It is 5 miles long from £• to W., and 5 
miles broad from N. to S. ; and, being nearly of a redangular 
form, its whole furface may be reckoned to contain 15 fquare 

SurfaccyXSc — The furface of this parifii cannot be faid to be 
uneven upon the whole, althou^^h it admits of fome gentle 
declivities, and gradual riiings, is interfe^ted by a few dens 
and rivulets, and rifes into feveral eminences and little hills. 
It is curious to remark with yirhat interrupted elevation the 
land rifes, from the bay of St. Cyrus to the Grampian Hills. 
It riles high, bold, and rocky, with a fudden elevation above 
the coafl. It then fubiides a little, or continues nearly on the 
level for a quarter of a mile towards the north. It afterwards 
rifes gradually, into feveral little hiXls or eminences, a mile far- 
ther north. It lowers again on the northern confines of the 
pariih ; and rifes Aill higher in the more extended chain of 
the hills of Garvock. It iinks almoft as low as the level of 
the fea in the h(xw^ or hollow lands of the Meams ; and rifes 
in fuUime heighth, dnd extended grandeur, in the Grampian 
"Mountains. , More than three fourths of the whole furface 
are arable. The hills of Bridgeton and Woodfton are plant- 
ed. The eminences of Bidderee and Craigie are already ar« 
able ; and tne hal of Morphy is modly capable of being made 
fo. The muirs of Cantcrland, Murihcad and Craig*'e, on the 


of Ecdefgreig^ or St. Cyrus. 91 

N. W. boundaries of the parllh, being lefs expofed to the fea 
tlian other uncultivated places, might be planted, with profit 
to the proprietor and advantage to the public. For wood is 
a fcarce article on this coaft, and does not thrive when much 
ezpofed to the fea breezes. The general inclination of the 
ground is towards the S. and S. E. Some farms indeed arc 
expofed to the S. W. fun, and decline to the river North Elk. 
The whole lies well under the benign influence of the fun ; 
yet the crops come not foon to maturity. The time of reap- 
ing feldom begins before the middle of September ; and harveft- 
wtrk is often not finilhed by the end of Odober. This may 
be accounted for, from the wetnefs and fliffnefs of the foil, 
and the coldneis of the climate. 

Soil. — ^The foil of the pariflx, in general, is deep day. In 
fome places, the clay is mixed with a little fand ; and in 
others, through long cultivation, and frequent application of 
manures, a black loamy earth, from 15 to 1 3 inches deep, is 
fnperiuduced above the ili^ clay. The foil foon becomes wee 
after rain, and unfit for tillage ; but it alfo foon becomes dry 
again, and fit for atiy improvement. Its wetnefs is not fo 
much owing to natural fprings of water, as to the rain water ^ 
which being prevented from finking to any confiderable depth, 
by the refiftance of ftrong fliff clay, floats at or near the fur- 
face, till it is exhaled by the fun, or dried up by the wind« 
This accounts at once for the oppoiite imprefSons fo fooVi made 
upon it by rain, or fair weather. The general depth of the 
rain water, which annually falls on this part of the coaft, has 
been computed to be from 24 to 28 inches. This computa- 
tioQ is thought to be nearly accurate ; but the rain that fell 
laft year, (1792) far exceeds it. Such an immenfc quantity of 
ram, in one year, is not in the remembrance of the oldefl mau 
it) the pariih. 

M 2 Climate. 

92 Statiftical Account 

CljmaU. — ^Thc climate is (harp and cold for Uic great(;A part 
of the year. But this may be accounted for, from its fudden 
elevation above the fea, its ezpofure to the callcrn blafi, its 
general want of planting, and its vicinity to the cold, fnow- 
covered hills of the north. It is however a healthy climate, 
as appears from the common longevity and healthinefs of the 
inhabitants, and from their general exemption from agues, 
and other chronic difeafe». The iharpeft winds are from the 
£., the coldeft from the N. £. and N., and the warmeft 
breeds, as well as the fined weather, from the W. The 
fonth wind is, for the moft part, either accompanied with or 
followed by rain. 

RiviT and Bridge. — ^The North £ik, which feparates tbie 
pafifh from Montrofe and Logic, is fometimes confiderably 
fwelled by rain and melting fnow. The common paifage 
through it to Montrofe, about ao years ago, was by a ferry 
boat and a dangerous ford, till a bridge was boik over it, by 
fubfcription, for 65C0I. Of that fum his Majefty was pleafed 
to give 700I., to encourage an undertaking fo ufeful. 


Salmon Fijbing* — In the fpace of about 2 miles from the 
mouth of this river, the proprietors of the ialmon fiibing, 
in this pariih, draw a free rent of upwards of 800I. yearly*. 
Between 40 and 50 men, including overfeers, bring in all this 
profit to the proprietors, befides what they make for their 
employers, and their own wages and maintenance. This too 


* Kinnabar, being in the pariih of Montrofe, is not Included in this efti- 
mau, though the rent, drawn from the falmon fiihing upon it, may amount to 
aool. a year. The author of this artick' is not io well acquainted with the 
Hate and profits of the falmon fifliing farther up the river; but iuppo£es it will 
not exceed 50I yearly, as far as the patifh extends, in conjun^on with that of 

of[EccleJgreigy or St. Cyrus. 93 

aappeos between the terms of Candlemas and Michaelmas^ 
which are fixed for the commencement and ending of cur 
falmon fiibiog. Seldom are the fame number of hands fo 
profitably employed ! Perhaps ic might be more for the be* 
acSt of tlie fifliiug, both to begin and leave it off a month 
fboner. Cootinutng to fiih to the end of September, comes 
too near the fpawning feafon i and if fo« muil flrike at the 
fource of the increafc of the fifli ; but to begin Juoner than 
Febraaiy, when the weather would permit, could do no in- 
jury. Fourteen boats aie employed in the falmon Aihing 
during the fummer montlis, but feldom half that num-' 
ber are needed in the fpring and autumn* The fiifpsrs^ 
or men who have the charge of the boats, and give di- 
redions when to draw the net, have for their Mr^ges, dur- 
ing the fi(bing feafon, 61., with 4 bolls of oatmeal, and 7s. for 
fuf^mouij^ or drink to their meals. When they have only 
5]., with the fame allowance for viduals, tliey receive the 
douceur of one halfpenny for each falmon they take* This 
gives them an intereil is the fuccefs of the fifhing, whicb 
makes them exert themfelves, and mufl be an advantage to 
their employers. They are al(b with propriety called Jigbi^ 
mttt i becaufe, from habit and attention, they become wonder* 
faUy qoick^fighted in difcerning the motion and approach of 
one or more iiadmon, under the water, even when ruffled by 
die wind, and deepened by the flowing tide. The ropemerij 
their affiftaats, who draw the net, have 3s. ^d. per week, 
with two pecks of meal for wages and maintenance. Of late, 
strj few of the falmon caught in this river have been fold 
for exportation. Indeed there has been no occafion ; for the 
hlh being preferved frefli in ice, or boiled in a proper prepara- 
tion of vinegar and fait, and fent by fea to London, meet with 
2 ready market. 


^j|. Statiftical Account 

Befides falmon and grilfes, fea-trouts, finnacks, feds, and 
herrings are fomecimes taken in the mouth of the river by the 
falmon fi(hers; but it cannot be their principal objed to take 
them \ and indeed the quantities taken are inconfiderable. Ilie 
feals are the greatefl enemies of our falmon fifhing. They 
watch the mouth of the river, purfue the falmon as they go up 
with the flo^'ing tide, and devour many of them. If ay, 
when the fiihermen are hauling their nets afliore, they fome- 
times get in below the net, and fometimcs leap over it, feize 
their ^ey, and inftantly make off with it ; not without injur* 
fng the net, if it obftrufts their paifage. In fummer 1791, 
the fiihermen, in order to deflroy thefe enemies and rivals, fa- 
hricated a ilrong net, of fufficienc length ro reach acrofs the 
river at high water, and deep enough to dcfcend from the top 
to the bottom of it, where it was firmly faftened with huge 
flones, and other heavy materials. When they faw that the 
feal had got up the river, above the net, which was lowered 
for the purpofe, they went into, their boats, with pikes and 
firelocks, raifed the net above the fur&ce of the water, and 
took their ftations below it, to prevent the feal from leaping 
over into the fea. Several ^ntlcmen, farmers, and others 
watched his motions from the fhore, and fired at him as often 
as he ventured his head above the water. As it [fell into its 
natural channel, by the ebbing of the tide, the feal was oftner 
feen, and of courfe oftener fired at. At length, he was fare 
to receive a mortal wound, and tinged the river with his blood. 
The incumbent faw three of them killed in this manner. The 
effed has been beneficial to the fifliing ; for more than twice 
the quantity of falmon were taken the enfuing feafon. 

Dens and RtTfulets^ — It is only near the fea, on a high coaft, 
that dens cxift. They are very diftinft f torn glens ^ which are 
valleys between hills. Thefe you can cafily furvey, in all 

5 their 

of Ecclejgreig^ or St. Cyrus. 95 

their grandear, from the fummit of the hill, od either fide* 
Bnt 70U cannot judge, from the appearance of the adjacent 
grounds, which are highly cultivated, and riCe not above the 
level of the furrounding fields, that there are any fuch obje&s 
as dens, till you come clofe upon them ; and the illufion 
heightens greatly the pleafure of the fpe£tator. Dens fink 
fuddenly from the common level of the country, and feem to 
owe their origin to fome fmall rivulet or dream ; which, iflu- 
ing from fprings on the higher la^ds, and meeting with foft 
materials in its way, has waflied all thefe away, in the courfe 
of ages, till it found the hard bottom, and met with fuch re- 
Cilance, as occafioned its fudden, and 'almoft perpendicular 
fall in fome places, which has formed two fine cafcades in 
this parifii— The dens here are 5 in number : Den Fenelt the 
Den of Laurieftou^ the Bum or Den of Wood/ton^ the Den o^ 
Morpbj^ and Den Side. The 3 firft run in a direftion from 
N. to S., and the a laft from £. to W. The rivulets which 
have formed the former, run into the German fea ; thofe 
which have formed the latter run into the North Elk. Den 
Fenel is aa abbrevation of FeneUa\s Den*. 

Ca/cades»^X)vtx this den, at the diflance of 7 miles from 
Montrofe, there is a bridge of one arch, reding on a rock on 
each fide, along which goes the great poft road, from Mon- 
trofe to Aberdeen. A little below the bridge, where the den 
grows more narrow, the cllfTs are very deep, and rugged, and 


• Thif Femzlla tras the danghter of the Karl of Anovs, a powerful no- 
bleman 10 thofe days. There is a tradition in the parifli, and it agrees to the 
acnttDt given by Johamnes Major, who wrote the Anti^it'm of the Mearnt^ 
that, after the cruel and bafe morder of Kenneti III., to which FanclU was 
inftigated by the lois of her fon, (he fled from her caftle of Kincardine, to this 
drn; hat, being pnrfutd and overtaken in it, foffered the puoiihrnent due to her 

g6 StallJIical Account 

boldly projeft, fo as to form a very pifturefque and intercftlng 
view, Tvhich cannot fail to delight the eye of the traveller, and 
fix hixn a while on the fpot. About 500 yards^below the bridge, 
there is tt fine eafcade^ which is not perceived tilt you come 
clofe upon ?t. This body of water falls from a height of about 
63 feet perpendicular ; and when the rivulet is fwelled into a 
river, or increafed by rain beyond its ufual channel, the be- 
holder is ftruck with aftjniihment at the grandeur of the 
of the fcene. The water, before it precipitates, holds its 
courfe 45 feet below the furface of the adjoining fields. The 
bum of Woodfton, which forms alfo ^ fmall den near its 
mouth, falls in a broken hypothenufal line, of about 75 feet, 
into the German ocean. Though this fall, deferves a place 
among the natural beauties of the parilh, and is one of the 
finefl objefts that meets the eye of the traveller eaft from 
Montrofe, yet that of Den Fenel far furpafles it Jn awfal 
grandeur, and ftriking fublimity. The rivulets, in fome of 
thefe dens, have contributed as much to profit as to plcafare, 
by fupplying water to fome of the corn mills of the paritti. 
The dens themfelVes afford, in general, excellent and Well 
iheltered paflure. 

Roads, iic. — Yet, after all the pleafure and the profits 
arifing from thefe dens, they have their inconveniences : Ther 
render the formation of high roads a work of great difficuhy 
and expence. So late even as 35 years ago, to travel from 
Montrofe to Bervie, (which is only 13 miles), in a carriage, 
was a dangerous journey. There was a rough, and often an 
unfafe ford, to pals through the North £ik ; then a ftcep wa- 
ter*woro path to climb up to the cocomon level of St. Cyrus 
parifli ; and tbea 3 dens to pafs, without bridges, by narrow 
and winding paths down their fteep fides, without one foot of 
made road all the way. Now, indeed, thefe inconvenicaccs 


of Ecckfgreig^ or St. Cyrus^ 97 


tre in a gr^t meafure remediedy bjr the bridges thrown over 
the North £ik and Den Fenel, the Burn of Woodfton» and the 
Den of LatirieftoQ ; and it is with pleafure that the author of 
this nanative is informedi that government have lately granted 
looL to heighten the Bridge of Laurieiloni which is now the 
moft dtfficnlt pafs in this parifli. Yet^ after all, the gentle- 
men of the county have it in their contemplation, to alter 
the line of road greatly for the better ; and to introduce turn- 
pikes, which are evidently for the public goody as well as for 
that of the county, when the expence of forming and keep- 
ing them up onfwers. 

Mimraif. Upon the farm of Eaft Mathers, there is a very 
valoable lime-ftone quarry* This farm is rented from the 
Vifcount of Arbuthnot, by George Carnegie, Efq. of Fit- 
tarrow, who took it for the purpofe of working the quarry, 
to a greater extent and more advantage, than could have been 
done by a common farmer. Only an inconfiderable quantity, 
znoftly for bmlding and plaftering, for which purpofes it is 
preferred to any oth^r in the country, was fold by the former 
tenant. Indeed, he had neither money nor genius to carry 
on the Work to any great extent ; nor were the benefits of 
ttfing lime, as an agricultural manure, fo well known, as to* 
occafibn a gteat demand for iu The lime rock begins on the 
Ihore about flood mark, and the poft is now from i a to 14 
feet deep. When firft difcovered and worked, it lay very 
near the furface ; but it dips in fo great a declivity, in a S. W. 
direftioo, that there is now 2$ feet of earth, and brittle 
red rock, above it. And as there is no level to carry off the 
water, it is drawn off by a pump, worked by two horfes, at 
great expence. 

The coals, for burning the likne-fione, are brought from the' 

Frith of Forth I and landed in a fmall creek near the works. 

Vol. XI. N which 

98 Statiftlcal Account 

which Mr. Caroegie has enlarged into a tolerable harbour for 
fmall vefTels. Thej are fubjeft to the tax on waUr-born coal^ 
fo much felt and complained of over a great part of Scotland, 
but from which, we obferve with pleafure, there is now a 
near profpe£l of being relieved \ feeing his Majefty's minifiers 
have recommended it to the conGderation of the legiflature, 
and are themfelves the promoters of its repeal. Culm is 
moftlj ufed bj Mr, Carnegie for the burning* of ^s lime ; 
but the flone is fo hard, and the demand at one feafon of the 
year fo great, that it will not anfwer without a mixture of 
great coal. The increaCng expence of removing the fuper- 
flrata of ear^h and rock, and of pumping out the water, to- 
gether with the rife on the rates of labour and wages, have 
obliged him to raifc the price of the boll of fhells, bj degrees, 
from i8d. to 2 2d. per boll, during a period of 94 years* The 
boll contains 2 barrels, and the barrel 44 pints, Scotch mea* 
fur^. It is the fame with the wheat meafure of this country, 
a boll of which is 88 pints. The quantity fold (commwtiBu^ 
annis) is 2c,ooq bolls* It is aim oil entirely ufed in agricuU 
ture ; and the demand is greater than can be fupplied. It is 
carried to the diftance of 12 miles, by iteep, rough roads, 
over tlic Hill of Garvock, into the How of the Mearns, (part 
of the valley of Strathmore) \ and is found to anfwer all the 
expence a confiderable way up the fides of the Qrampians* 
With the thin iharp foil of tbefe barren heath -covered muirs 
it agrees .remarkably well ; and it is pleating to fee fome 
parts of them annually converted into crops of com s^nd of 
grafs, by the operation of this valuable manure. The carriage 
to the greateft diflance roention^^^ is is. per boll. The cart^ 
load is from 3i to 4 bolls. 

The (lone ib of a blue colour, veined with white; and it is 
fnppofed, that, if poliflied, it wou}d be a beautiful grey 
marble* It is very bard, and takes a great quantity of gun- 


of l^cctefgnigy or St. Cyrus. 99 

ponder to force it from its fubterraneous bed. It is of an ex- 
cellent quality. The bed proof of this is, that, for mafon 
work, it requires a third part more fand than is ufualljr given. 
If that fpirituous liquor be allowed to be of the ftrongeft 
quality, which requires the greatell quantity of water to re- 
duce it, by the fame analogy it may be admitted, that the 
lime isofafuperior quality, which requires the greateft quantity 
of fand to reduce it to proper mortar for building. Every 
boll of this lime requires a cart load of pure fea fand, to pre- 
pare it for the ufe of the mafon. — Upon the fame farm, to the 
weftward, there is another (Iratum of lime-ftone, of equal 
quality, and much the fame depth, in a high bank, clofe to 
the fea. It being impoffible to remove the ftrata of rock and 
earth above it, Mr. Carnegie began lately to work it by 
mining, having brought an expert miner from Eaft Lothian 
for the purpofe, who teaches afliflants for himfelf. The ex- 
periment has been attended with fuccefs, and a great quantity 
of lime-ftone has been forced out, by the irrefiftible ilrength of 
gunpowder. The mafly pillars, which are left to fupport 
the incumbent hill, and which are open to view, will througl^ 
time produce a ftriking effeft on the eye. This quarry dips, 
in a diredion from the fea, more rapidly than the other ^ but 
it is not yet incommoded with water. 

At 'Milton, the lime-ftone quarry, which confifted of bare 
rocks within flood mark, is moftly wrought out. Charles 
Scott, Efq. of Criggie, has lately opened a new one, 
which, it is hoped, will be ufeful to the country, and profitable 
to himfelf. — At Laurieston there is an excellent free-ftone 
quarry, of a brown colour, formed, probably, by the chemi- 
cal procefs of nature, from a mixture of red clay and fand. 
The ftone is eafily cut, and much ufed for building, in Montrofe 
and throughout all the country. The quarrying, and carrying 
diefiBftoaea, afford employment and bread to many in the pariili ; 

N 2 which 

I oo Statical Account 

which 18 alfo the cafe with refpe£b to the lune quarries*-—' 
On the eftate of Woooston, there is another quarij of free- 
ilone» in every refped refembling that of Laurieftoo. The 
only advantage, that the latter has, is, that it eafUy difchargcs 
the rain water that falls into it, owing to a ftream chat mna 
through the den. — There is another quarry at Whitjc CRiaGS, 
facing the North £ik, from which are turned out ftones, of 
any dimenfions, of a beautiful whitiih colour, fimilar to thoCe 
ufed in the New Town of Edinburgh; but being reckoned too 
hard for the mafon's chizd, they are ufed only in ruble build- 
ing. There is another quarry of the fcurdy^ or whin-ftoiie 
kind, in the Heughs of St. Cyrus, of a dark blua colour, 
which is alfo ufed in ruble building. 

All thefe quarries are inexhauftible. The two lad men- 
tioned are parts of long chains of rocks, which run through 
the pariih, from W« to^E. all the way alpng the coaft. Near 
the E. ead of them begins a fpecies of rock, confiding of 
pebbles, baked, as it were, with a hard cement, (which we 
call the plumh-'pudding rocf)^ which continues, with fome 
interruptions, beyond Stonehaven.-— The fcurdy rocks, called 
\ht Heughs of St. Cyrust may perhaps have been in a ftate 
of vitrification at fome rpmote period. Upon this fuppofition, 
the vf ord /curdy may be a corruption of the fcoria^ which are 
the efie^s of volcanic fire. However that may be, the beautiful 
pebbles, and fpars of different forts, which are interqiixed 
with thefe rocks, deferve to be mentioned, as they are cer« 
tainly well worth the attention of thofe who delight in 

CVzvr— Nigh the fall of the burn of Woodilon, on the W., 
there is a natural cave, formed by the rude junftion of ftu- 
penduous rocks, after the manner of a Gothic arch. The en- 
trance to it is on a level with the fea, and the rocks and earth 


(^ Ecckjgrcig^ or St. Cyrus. 


ti& 200 fieet above it* The roof is of unequal height, and 
runs out, it is fiud, an unexplored length under the rocks 
that form it. 

Flawii and Herbs. — ^Whilft the mineralogift would find pleab- 
fore in examining the rocks, the botanift might alfo be enter- 
tained with the herbs and plants, which are to be found either 
in the Heoghs of St. Cyrus, or on the adjoining ihore. Pro- 
feflbr Beattzx, junior^ of the Marefchal College, Aberdeen, 
who has made botany a good deal his ftudy, favoured the 
wciter of this article with the following lift of them : 

I. Vakraam oflkinalif, 

%m PMCBBlptttOilCy 

3. PUeom aodofiim, 

4. Fcftnca fylvatica, 

5. Bmmi fterilb, 
6> AiPtm &tiui, 

7. Anodo aiaiaria, 
%m Eljims vomariiis ^, 
9. ScabcofrvTcoeiifif, 
la GaajnBoh gloiiierata» 
li« Pdmooam maritima, 
II. AUinm ^iaiak, 
xj. Ramexmaritjinos, 
X4* £|iilq^iiim aogofti-faliaiD, 
15. Epflpbiom hirfatnm, 
x4. SilcBc asutna, Sp. pi. f , 

Great wiU Yalerian* 

Cat*8 tail graffl. 

Another fpecicf of cat*a tail graft. 

Woodfefcne grals. 

Barren brome graft. 

Bearded oat graft. 

Sea reed graft. (Bent, Scots). 

Sea lime graft. 

Com fcabios. 

Lefler Canterbury belb. 


Crow garlic. 

Sea docl:. 

Rofe bay-willow herb. 

Hoary willow herb. 

Sea campion of Linn«uf.* 

z;. Anterrhinnm 

*Mr. IdOBTrooT, in hit appendix to the FUra StttUa, eiclndei this from 
tie lift of native plants: It is undoubtedly, however, a native of Scotland. 

tThe plant hero intended, though undoubtedly the /i^# mnrMff of LiH« 
"US, ftems to be unknown to our Bnglifli botanifts. None of them, from 
GttAU> downwards, take any notice of it. The plant they have miftaken for 
it» though very common on our coafts, agrees not with Linnsus's defcriptton, 
is loy one fpecific ch arj^dcr. This any perfoa may be convinced of, by con- 


loa Statljilcal Account 

jf. AntirrhinQm linaria, • Toad flax. ^ 

18. Turrkis l^irfau, - Tower muftard. 

19. Silene amzna, Bot. Ang. - Sea campion, 
sa Bancas cakele, . Sea rocket. 

ai. Geraniam fangainarium, - Bloody crane*8 bill. . 

«S. Viciarylvatica, - Wood vetch. 

aj. Vicia ftatjva $, - Tare ▼etch. 

54. Aftragalus arenariu% - Mountain milk-wort. 

45. Aftragalusglycyphyllos - Liquorice vetch. 

26. Hypericum quadranqualum^ -% 

ay. Hypericum perforatum, ' V - Three fpecics of St. John's wort^ 

a8. Hypericum hirfutum, -> [bed at noon- 

39. Tragopogoo pratenfe, - Yellow goat's beard, or, John go to 

30. Crupes tiaorum, - Succory, or Hawk*s weed. 

31. Carlina vulgaris, - Carline thiftle. 
39. Eupatorium cannabinum, - Hemp Agrimony. 
33. Conyza fquarofa, - Spykenard. 

34* Fili^o Germanica, - Mountain Cudword. 

Kame of Mathers. — Hard by the fall of the ftream of 
Woodfton, on the E., Hands the Kame of Mathers, the an- 
cient refidencc of the Barclays. This karac is built on a 
peninfular rock, whofe bafe is waQied by the fea. A fmall 
part of the ruins of this ancient building now remain. It 
muft undoubtedly have been a place of great firength. The 
accefs to it is by a narrow and almoH impaiTable ifthmus. 
The rock on which it (lands is perpendicular, and its height 

above the fea 60 feet*. 


fulttcg Gerard*t^ Mwifm*t or Parhrfint figure of the JiUne amana^ and com- 
paring it with the defcription of that plant in the $p€ei*s Plantanm, On the 
other hand, the filene amaena of the Eogliih botanifts, though one of the moft 
common of our maritime plants, does not feem to be at all defcribed by Linnaeus. 
§ 1 his differs from the common vieiafiaiiva^ in hiTing milk white flowers, 
and only one upon a pedicle. It is not taken notice of by botanical writers. 

^ Tradition accounts for the ere^on of this fisftnefs in the following man- 
ner :*-^The (hcriffof the Mcaros, Muville by name, czerciXed his authority 



of Ecclef^reig^" or St. Cyrus. 103 

JLmarieJioM. — On the fide of the Den of Lauriefton ilands 
the ancient caille. It was eredled in the loth or nth cen- 
turj -|-. It was formerly furrounded wich a deep moat, and 


with a high hand. He of coorfe became ohnoxiou» to the gentlemen of the coun« 
ty, who complained of his condoA to the king then reiguiog, who, it isfaid, wat 
James 1. of Scotland. Barclay of Mathers, in particular, made frequent and repeat* 
cd complaints; tired of which, in a moment of unguarded impatience, the King 
fild to him, " Sorrow gif he were fotLUm ^nAfapped in iru,** As your Majsiily 
pleaies, replied Barclay, who inftantly withdrew from the royal prcfcnce, add 
conuDg home in hafte, convened the gentlemen of the county, who were a« 
mach dii&tisfied with the conduAof the iheriff, as he was hioifclf. Having met 
in dole cabal, they agreed to adhere literally to the King's words, and to make 
the innocent, but aoguarded ezpreifions of royal impatience, a pretext for deftroy-* 
iag the iheriff. In order to accomplish their plan. In a manner the leaH likely 
CO create fufptdon in the mind of Melville, or put him on his guard, they agrc:ed 
to have a hunting- party on the forell of Garvock, and invited him to make 
one of their number. In the noidft of the hunting ground, a fire was by their 
diredioo kindled, and a caldron full of water boiled upon it. In the midft of 
their fpoct, they luihed with fatal dcfign to this memorable fpot, feized the un« 
fafpc&ing flkcriff, ftripped him naked, and threw him into the boiling caldron. 
After he was boiled for fbme time, «r /odt^n, according to the King's cxpreffioo, 
they took each a fpoonful of the fup ; fu aficr be tvasfoddem, tbey fuppcd bim in brUm 
When the King heard of this tragical event, he was highly incenfed againft the 
gentlemen of the Mearns, and particularly againft Bakclat, Wishart, and 
Ajlbotunott, who were the adlivc and leading men in this horrid bufi- 
nefs. To fcrecn himfelf from royal vengeance* Barclay built the Kame of 
Matben, where in thofe days he mud haVe been very fecure. So tradition re- 
ports the fiory, and many firmly believe iL Indeed, compared with the civi* 
lized aod gentle manners of our days, thofie of our forefathers, in every part off 
ScotJatid» were rude and barbarouk From the natural averfion which we hsve 
to every fjpcocs of inhumanity and cruelty, a tragic tale of thi« fort appenn 
icarcely aediblc. It is affirmed, however, that there is extant, amongft d» 
papers of Arbnthnott, a royal pardon to the Laird of Arbuthoott, for being art 
and pert .in th>t murder; and the ground of this pardon wat ^ bccaulc he ia 
^ wichio the Umib dtgru •/ kutdrU to lA'jyMi^ Thaoe of Fife 1" 

I Ifi the zcigs of King Datid II., ia the year Z3361 it fell into the hands of 


1 04 Stati/iical Account 

walls of an immenre thtcknefs, part of which, with two of 
the towers^ are ftill preferved, and incorporated with a new 
and elqjant ftrufture, built on the fcite of tlie old caftle, by the 
pfcIcDt proprietor. The greateft part of the eftate is beauti- 
fuUj fituatedi between Den Fenel and the Den of Lauriefton* 
It was for 430 years in the family of Stratou^ of which 
riiere were many who fignalized themfelves by their valoar 
i& ttirbulent times*. The laft lineal reprefentative of this fa- 
mily fold the eftate, early in this century, to Falconerof Monk- 
ton, and died without iflue. Jos£fh Stratok, £fq. is de« 
fcended from this ancient familyt and his anceftors hare been 
more than 300 years Lairds of Kirkfide, of which he is the 
prefent proprietor* From the heirs of Mr. Falcoker, the 
eftate of Lauriefton was lately purchafed by John Beakd, 
£fq.; who is laying out the grounds near the houfe» in an ex- 
ceeding good tafte. He has thrown a light bridge of one arch 
o^r the den, which leads to delight fnl walks, through trees 
and flirubs, and is naturally very romantic, though before 

Ci^Uo/ Morphy, ^r.— On the S. fide of the Den of Mor- 
^hy ftood another ancient caflle, the feat of the family of 
Graham, in whofe pofleflion the eflate of Morphy has beea 
tor feveral centuries. It was once a place of confiderable 
firength, and fecured from the attacks of an enemy by a 


tht Sni^, who phced a ganifon in it, ind fitcpgtbcned it with fettifleMioM. 
Befare that year waa expired, the Scotch, under the conunaBd of Sir AvMitw 
MaanAT, forced it to furrender, 

^ALKXAWDxa STftAToxt, who, with ferenl of hi* font, fell in the mlor- 
tanaie battle of Harkw, in the year i4n, was one of the Lairds of Lauriefton. 
The SraATONS were a race of men remarkable for iise and firength, down to 
« Terjr late oeriod. Their atucbment to thit Laoiixston, in St. Cyma, which 
if the original one, wai io great, that thej changed the name of tverj other 
place io Scotland, where any of them fettkd, into LAuaiisTox. 

t . 

^f Ecclejgreig^ or St. Cyrus. 105 

dkch and draw-bridge, according to the genius of thofe dajrs* 
but noinr few remains of it are to be feen* A huge Jquart 
fifuu pillar^ of about X2 feet high, is fiill (landipg at Stone of 
M^rpby^ and feems to have givcQ rife to the name*. 

Cibtfrfi&.— pA^bout x6o years ago, the church of Ecclefgreig 
ftood below the Heughs of St. C/rus, on the (hore, nigh the 
mouth of the North i^fk* The cburch-jard there ftill couf 
tiuues, and is uled as a buiTing ground by the pariih in ge- 
neral f. In the year 16311 this very incommodious fituation 
of the church was changed, and a new one built on an emin* 
cnce, a little above the Heughs of St- Cyrus, more conveni- 
cut to the pariih, from its eafy accefs, and centrical fituation^. 
By reafon of the increase of the population, this church be- 
came too fmall to accommodate the pari(h : It was alfo ill 
lighted, and narrow, and going faft to decay. The heritor^ 
£» w the DcceiBty of buildiog a new one ^ and, in the year 
1787, they finilhed a church, which, for elegance and accom- 
modation, has met with i^niverfal approbation. It is adorned 
iwith a fmall fpire, which Ls feen at a conGderable diftance. 
The manfe haa beqi repaired, and the ofSce-houfes rebuilt, 
)duriog the incumbency of the prefent minifter. The King 19 
f he undoubted patron of ^cclefgreig. The prefent Itipend is 
Vol. XI. 85 

* Whether this ancient ptlbr was ere«fted, to preferre the men^ory of fome 
gallant warrior of the name of Graham, or whether it be the only relick of a 
0niidical temple, it la difficult to determine. But ths firft conjeAure feemi to 
ht cbe moft natural ; becanfe it ia (he only ftone at that place, and goet by the 
same of The Stome of MoarnT. 

f Near the ehnrch-yard, the fea, in epnflux with the Tarying conrfe of the 
rirer, difirovered, fbme yean ago, the walla of a houfe, that had been, from time 
immemorial, entirely buried under the fand. From its dimcnfions, internal 
ditifiona, and fitaation, it waa vpdottbcedly the refideoce of the ^^iniftera in aa« 
ctflpt tsmei. 

jo6 Statiftical Accoynt 

85 bolls of viftual, partly meal, and partly bear, and 26I. i %%. 
in money. But an augmentation, with the concurrence of 
the heritors, will foon be obtained* 

ScboqL — ^The fchool-houfe, with abundance of accommo* 
dation for the fchool-ma(ler» was rebuilt about 10 years ago. 
The prefbytery have, by a committee of their number, now 
twice examined the fchools within their bounds, and mean to 
continue the piaftice annually, as they fee the bed effedls re« 
fulting from it. In general, attention is paid to the education 
of youth, and their morals are not negleded. Indeed, it 
were to be wifiied that more encouragement were given to 
men who have fuch an important trufi, as a fpur to their di<« 
ligence in oiEce, if it would have that eflfeft. 

Poor. — The funds, for fupporting the poor, arife from the 
intereft of their mortified money, from the coUedions made 
for them at the church, and from the fees given for the ufe 
of their mortcloths. They receive nothing from marriages, 
or baptifms, and very little from the iines exafted from thofe, 
who have been guilty of irregularity of conduct. The fol« 
lowing is a fiate of the number of the poor, and of the funds 
for fupporting them, from the year 1781, to the year 179(9 


of Ecckfgrcigj or St. Cyrus. toy 


Tnt^reft of 


Fees for 

1 Fines for ' 




their money. 

at the church 


/. 1. 


/. #. d. 

/. 1. 


/. i. 


/. «. d. 



16 13 

.%S 10 9^ 

» 4 

44 7 9: 



16 13 


»7 3 III 
26 a lO: 

3 » 


3 4 


50 4 i^: 
44 13 4 ; 



16 13 

I 17 




16 tz 


22 8 




41 10 4» 



16 xa 


31 5 8J 

% 8 

I. 10 

39 I 8i 



16 13 

35 8 10 

I 14 




53 6 7 



16 13 

3» 9 4i 

4 I 




53 10 6!; 



16 13 

44. 6 2i 

2 16 


63 15 H 



16 13 

39 ^0 5 

3 10 


I 10 


ss 4 % 



16 13 

38 18 ai 

^ 7 


57 I 85 

1 791 


16 13 

40 II i| 

» 7 




59 18 oj 

This fiate o^ the funds, for tfie fupport of the poor, in« 
eludes 4 colledionsy of about 4L each, made and given for 
the fupport of the lunatic hofpital at IdEontrofe, Deducing 
thejfe coUedionSy the whole Sas bieen diltfibuted among the 

In the year 1783, when provifions were both dear and 
fcarce, owing to the failure of the crop in 17812, the fefllon,' 
in concurrence with the heritors, broke in upon their funds,' 
and bought meal, which they diflributed gratis auiong the 
poor, together with 29 bolls 2 iirfots li peck of xneal which! 
they received from government. Had not theie feafonable 
reliefs been given, it is not ea(y to fay what would have been 
the coofequence, with refpeft to the poor, even in this opulent 
pari(h. Under this denomination, is chiefly meant poor la- 
bourers and houfeholders ; for we hslve very few mendicant 
poor ; but the numbef of vagrants and drolling beggars is 
prodigious, and has often been complained of as an infufiero 
able hardibip. 

State of jfgrtcultvte.^'^i all the parifii^ within the county 
of Kincardine, St. Cyrus has been the firil and the bed meli- 
orated by improvementt To this the lime quarries at Milton 

lo8 Stafipcd Account 

and Etft Mathers, have greatly coDtributed. Batthefe tnight 
liave perhaps remained in their original ftate, had not the late 
RoBERt ScoTr, Erq. of DuNNlVAULD, been induced, from the 
lime roekf within the flood mark at Milton, to rent die £aim 
bearing that name, on the eftate of Laurieftoa. As he was 
reprefentative in parliament for the conntjr of Forfar, which 
bis fon now reprefcnts,. in going up and coming down from 
X#ondon, he was not inattentive to the fyftem of agricnltore 
followed in England. Finding it fuperior to anj hither- 
to praAifed in Scotland, he tried to follow it, firft upon his 
own eftate, and afterwards upon the farm of Milton. He fet 
the example of draining, ftoning, liming, fallowing, cleaning, 
manuring, and properlj drefling the fields on this farm. The 
confequence was, he raifed great crops of all forts of grain, aa 
well as of grafff. The farmers, who at firft held his plana in 
deriCon, and were unwilling to leave their own old beaten 
track, began to be furprifed at his great crops; and when eVi- 
perience demonftrated to them the fucce(s of his fchemes^ 
they gradually turned round to imitate them. Hence aiofe 
a fpirit of agriculture, and even of emnlation in it, which has 
produced the happieft efieQs. The well filled bam yards af- 
ter harveft, are ftriking and folid proofs of the fuccels, with 
which this fpirit for improvement is crowned. The prefent 
high, and ftili rifing rent of land, is another proof of the lame 
faft. Twenty years ago, los. or 15s. was thought a high 
rent for an acre of the beft land in the pariih. Now, from aos. 
to 30s., and even up to 40s. per acre, is given for the fame land, 
in confequence of its melioration ; and no fooner does a leafe 
expire, than the farmers ftrive with one another, who ihall be 
tenant. Another proof of the fiouriftiing ftate of agricul- 
ture in this parifti, is, the comfortable manner in which the 
farmers can afford to live. Notwithftanding the rife of rent 
now mentioned, and the high price of labour, which Ihall 


ef Ecdejgrfig^ cr St. Cyrus. f o^ 

afterwards be noticed, tbe^, in general, enjoy a pleafing and 
agreeable affluence, and have it in their power to bring up and 
educate nnmerons families, and provide for their future fettle- 
ment in the world. Such are the happj tStSt^ of rural ia* 

ilf oJf ^Cultivation^ — The common mode of treatingland here, 
is, after fnnimer fallow, to lime and dung it ; and then to fow, 
the firil year, wheat \ the fecond, peas or beans, or a mixture 
of both, called maJhUi; the third, barley or Chefier bear, widi 
grab feeds. The grafs is. commonly cut the firft year for hay, 
and paflured two years afterwards. It is then broke up, wi& 
one furrow, for oats ; next year it is fown with barley, os 
Chefier bear, after three earths, or furrows ; the third year, it 
is wrought itito-a finer mould for turnips, which are always 
fown in drills, and well manured ; and the fourth year, it is 
fown with barley and grafs feeds. When the foil becomes 
{bttl, and is over-run with weeds, a new fummer fallow be« 
cooaes neceflary to clear it ; and then it is treated in the manner 
now defcribed. There are, and no doubt will be, feveral al« 
(eratioos from, and exceptions to this general fyftem. While 
men fpeculate in this, as upon other {ubjeQs, they will invent 
new plans, and experience alone muft juftify or condemn the 
alteration. Sometimes the ground, after one crop of hay, is 
broke up with the plough, in the beginning of autumn ; and 
wbeat is fown with fuccefs. To this facceed tomips, or 
pcafe and beans ; and the third year barley and grafs : 1 1 is made 
bajtbe fummer following } then paftured for a year or two j 
afterwards plowed for oats. Sec. 

Sometimes the land thus paftured, is taken for raifing^ir« 
The flax raifers are often different from the farmers, and pay 
them 5L or 61. an acre, for a fingle crop of fuch land as fnits 
their purpofe. They pay theexpence af the feed, the fowing, 

4 the 

1 1 o Statiftical Acccmnt 

the weeding, the pulling, the watering, the fpreading on and 
taking off the grafs ; in (hort, of everj thing, but drelEng the 
land, which the farmers, from whom they take it, do for them* 
Yet, after all, thej make a profit by it ; otherwife, whj would 
thej continue the fame prafiice jear after year? If the 
farmer, however, were to cultivate the flax himfelf, which is 
fometimes the cafe, he would doubtlefs make more profit by 
it \ but it may be a queftion, whether the high rent he receives 
be not equivalent for it ? The crop of flax is always removed 
in fufficient time, to allow him to fow his land with wheat, 
which is often done to advantage. — About a third part of 
t^rtTj farm is referved far hay and pallure. 

Blaci Cattlt. — Confidering how much of this pariih is aU 
ways under crop, and how little is referved for pafture, it 
mud be obvious, that the number of black cattle ^cannot be 
great. Yet, if the young are included with the old, the whole 
number will amount to 1150. Of thefe there are 100 ozen» 
all trained to the yoke. They are reared in the parifti ^ and, 
after ferving their matters 4 or 5 years, are carried to market, 
and fold to great advantage. The price they bring is often 
from lol. to 15]. The number of milk cows is about 420. 
The reft are young cattle, none of them exceeding 3 years old. 

Horfes and Sheep. — There are 204 draught, and 10 faddle 
horfes in the pariih. The number of ihecp is inconiiderable : 
1000 will comprehend every little flock in the parifti. What 
Iheep we have, however, are of a good kind : Thofe, in parti* 
cular, that feed near the ihore, furniflx mutton of an excellent 

Floughgates and Produce. — There are 50 horfe, and 10 
oxen ploughgates in the pariih| allowing 4 horfes and 6 oxen 


of Ecckjgreigt or St. Cyrus. m 

to the plough. From the number of work oxen, it might be 
fuppofedy that there would be more oxen ploughs:* But 
many of the farmers keep 12 oxen to one plough, yoking one 
half in the forenoon, and the other half in the afternoon. By 
(liefe means, they have time to feed, and the men who manage 
theoa are kept in conftant work. If we fappofe every plough- 
gate, to fpare from its produce 100 bolls for fale, (and the 
computation is very moderate), it will amount to 6^00 bolls 
yearly, partly wheat, partly barley, partly oat-meal, and 
'partly beans and peafe, after paying the rent, fowing the land, 
and every other expence that attends agriculture. 

Proprietors and U^fr/.— There are 11 heritors In the parifli*, 
and 27 confiderable farmers, befides many more of fmaller note* 
The valaed rent is 6,277!. 2s. 4d. Scotch ; the real rent, include 
ing 850I. fbrfalmon fi(hing, and lol. for kelp, is 3778I. Sterling. 
This flate of the real rent may not be perfefily accurate, be- 
caufe 3 of the proprietors have the greateft part of their eQates 
in their own hands ; but it is fuppofed to be near the truth. 
If the progrefs of agriculture, for 20 years to come, (hall bear 
any proportion to what it has been for the fame number of 
years pad, it ii more than probable, that the real rents of the 
parifli will be as many pounds Sterling, as the valued rents 
are now pounds Scotch. 


« Vk. William Adam, Elq. of Woodfton, M. P.— James Scott, Efq. of 
Brocbcrtoa ; — Robert Graham, Efq. of Morphy, a minor;— the Earl of Kin- 
tore ;— the Vifcount of Arbuthnott ;— Sir Alexander Ramfay Irvine of Balmain, 
Eart.;— John Bmnd, Efq. of Laurietton ;— Charles Scott, Efq. of Criggic;— 
Jamea Scott, Efq, of Comifton, a minor ;^Patrick Orr, Efq. of Bridgetooi^ 
^ Joieph Stntt4Mi, Efq. of Kirkiida. The five Ua rciide ia the pariih. 

119 St0i/lkal Account 

PopttJation -^Tht populatioa has incretfed coii6denUy 
wilhia thefe 40 jears. 

In the yev 1 755* die oumber of foah, in the piriih, vtt - 1271 

Ift 1781, ... - ... 16S7 416 

to ^ X7«5, «r04 X7 

to ■■■■ I7M» 1750 46 

|o I79»» ♦ '7*3 »3 

Tetal incmfe in 37 yearh • 49^ 

Tbe nnmber of children bora in the parifh is, anummmbu^ 
0ttMu^ about 6o. The marriages feldom e;Fceed la. Indeed^ 
fome years, they are not above half that number. With re- 
gard to funeralsi no regi|l^ acconut of them has been hither* 
to kept in the pariib« 

^TbjTfy.— The principal village in the parifh is Miltok, 
which ftands on the fea coaft. In the year 1781, there were 
46 families, containing 170 perfons, in this village. Their 
number is at prefent on the increafc. About 30 years ago, 
three filhbg boats belonged to Milton. Six men went out to 
fea with each boat; who caught haddocks, whitings, cod, ling, 
ikate, tarbot, and common flukes, or flounders, in great abund- 
ance, which they fold at moderate prices. For feverai years 
piaft, there has been but one boat employed in the white fi(h« 
ing ; nor has that boat been fuccefsful. The redu^lion of the 
fifliiag boats, and of the number of hands that went to fea 
with them, is without doubt, a real lofs to the country. It 
leaves no foundation for a nurfery of feamen, and prevents 
the inhabitants from enjoying that abundant fupply of excel- 
lent food, with which the fea is ftored. 

Thefe inconveniences might, however, be in a great mea« 
fttfc remedied. The fiihermen are fo poor, in general, that 
though fix of them join their little docks together, they can- 


of Ecclefgretg^ or St. Cyrus. 113 

itot afford to purchafe a new boat, when their old one fails. 
Now, if the proprietors of fi(hing villages were to furnilh the 
men with good boats, with all their necefTarj tackling, upon 
their paying a reafonable rent, as intereft for the monej, this 
would be a beneficial public fpirited meafure, and would 
greatly encourage the fifhing* Another ^mode of encouraging 
thisnfefulclafs of men might alfobe adopted. Every one knows, 
that accidents are continually happening, by which the heads 
of the families employed in fiihing lofe their lives. The 
confequence is of tb^ mod diftreiliog nature to their numerous, 
and, very often, young families, who are frequently left in the 
moft dellitute circumftances. Now if the county, or if go« 
vemment, fenCble of the ufefulnefs of this clafs of men, for 
recruiting the navy, would provide fubiidence for them in 
thefe cafes, on this exprefs condition, that all the male children 
fhould be brought up to the fame occupation, and be ready to 
ferve his Majcfty in cafe of a war, it would have the efFeil, 
both to relieve the diilrefTed families, and to increafe the 
number of that hardy and ufeful race of men *• Indeed, it 
is well known, that fcarce any but the children of fi(hermei| 
follow the occupation of their fathers, and that they are a 
kind of diftinft tribe, by their manners, aod by intermarrying 
only with each other. 

TXf Village of St. Cyrus ftands befide the church, nigh the 
centre of the pariQi. It contains 144 inhabitants, who are 
moftly mechanics, falmon iiflicrs, or day labourers. Indeed, 
no neighbouring pariih exhibits fo cheerful and populous an 
an- appearance ; for, from one end to the other, the traveller 
fees, on all hands, numerous, fubdantial, lyell built cottages 
of ftone, fome of them hewn flone, with well proportioned 
windows, introducing, at once, light and cheerfulnefs into the 

Vol. XL P habitations ^ 

* It miglit alfo tend, in a great degree, if not entirely, to fuperfede the ne- 
ceificy of adopting the4iarib, unpopular and unconftitutional meaTur^ of lu^ 
raessiNG Skamen, 

1 1 i^ $k:tiftkal Account 

habitations \ beCdes a number of gentlemen*s feats and farm« 

houfes, built in a very fuperior ftile» 

CbaraGer.—'Thc people of this parifh are, in general, aftive 

and induftrious : Thofc ewiployed at the litne quarries, and 
the falmon fiflieries, particularly deferve this charader. The 
former, working by the yard, obferve the maxim, •• The 
more they work, the more they win," (gain). The latter, 
whcti not filhing, employ themfelves in their refpeftivc trades, 
or labour by the day to thofe who employ theni *. The fe- 
male part of the parifh is not behind the'men in point of in- 
duflry. They are excellent fpinfters, and perform the opera- 
tion with both hands, fpinning two threads at once with the 
greated facility. It is a common and an eafy talk, for one of 
thefe two-handed females, to fpin 3 fpindles in the we^k ; 
which, at the rate of is. 3d. the fpindle, comes to 3s. pd. 
The writer of this narrative is informed, that, excepting in 
harveft, 500 fpindles of coarfe yarn are fpun weekly in the 
])ari(h. This quantity of yam muft bring, at the rate above 
ftated, 31L in the month; and allowing this to continue IQ 
monthSi the total fum made by fpinnbg, in the parifh, muft 


* The common hire of the day labourer U Sd. in the (hort, and xb. the long 
day, without maintenance. But, in harveft, the men have is., and the women 
jod., befides vidnalt. The farm fervanti are exceUent ploughmen. The Scotch 
plough alone is ufed. Their wages are lately advanced from 61. to 7L, 8L, and 
even xol. for the year's fcrvice. They ufually vfork 1 horfet, 4 hours in the 
forenoon, and 4 hours in the afternoon. The married fervants, who live in 
their own houfes, are allowed 2 pecks of oatmeal in the week, and one half- 
penny a day, for maintenance. They are engaged by their maftcrs at a public 
^arkct, without any certificate of their chara<Ser, and often without any know- 
ledge of their capacity for work. One of thefe markets for hiring frrvants is ^ 
held on the Hill of Garvock, and the other at Laurencekirk. T^he congrcfs of 
matters and fervants, at thefe places, is very numerous, and, almoft in ever; 
point of defer iptloo, refcroblet the Saturnalia q[ the ancient Romans. 

of EccUfgnig^ or Sh Cyrusi 1 1 j 

vmount to 310I. a year. The yam is manufa£lured, at Mon«, 
trofe, into {ail-cloth and other purpofes. In the above cal« 
dilation, the fine yam, which is fpun in the parilhy and made 
into linen and diaper for the ufe of families, is not included. 
This induftrlous fpirit in both fexes is very cocnmendable f • 

The rettgious cbdra&er of the inhabitants of this parifb 13 
moderate. They neither run into the extreme of fuperll'u 
tion, on the one hand, nor of fanaticifm oii the other; III 
truth, their i-eligion is of the calm mild call ; and they make 
no great noife or bulUe about it, though they are very regu- 
lar in attending its inftitutions. The gentlemen of landed 
property, 5 of whom refide in the pariih, are of the Epifcopal 
communion ; yet they very frequently, and almoft regularly, 
attend the Eftabliihed Church, fetting at once an example 
both of piety and liberal fentiment, and increafing the poor's 
funds by their voluntsiry oSerings. There are a few Seceders^ 
who join a meeting in the neighbouring pariAi of Benholm i 
but their number is fmall ; and they make little noife or dif- 
tnrbance, except for reform, which, perhaps, as indiiiidumh^ 
amtj ftand very much in need of. 


\ Smogglisg had a yttj bad tendenqr, iome time ago, to mllliiige the prin^ 
cipks of moraUcy among the lower clafies of people on this coatl: but the late 
wific regulation* 'of government have gone far to fapprcfs it ; and in proportion 
aa tbcj have taket^cAcift, the morals of the pco£>lc have improved. 

1 1 6 Slati/iical Account 



{fiounty of Berwick — PreJbyUry of Chirnfide — Synod ofMerJe 
and T'rviotdahJ) 

By the Rev. Do6ior David Young. 

Extent and Soil, 

HE pariih of Foulden, in its form, approaches nearer to 
that of a fquare than nnj other ; and, in breadth, is about ^ 
nxUes^ and in length 2(. The foil, on the S. fide, is a (Irong 
clay ; towards the middle of the parifti it beconoes more loamj, 
and on the N. it turns confiderablj light. 

CuhivatioH*cmd Prodttce.^^Thc whole lands in this pariAi lay 

Satmcrly run^rigg ; which, however nnfavourable to improvct- 
mcnt, was indifpenfably neceffary, as a bond of defence in 
thofe days, when the inhabitants of the Borders were in the 
pra£kice of committing depredations upon one another. Al- 
though thefe afts of plunder were relinquifhed, after the revolu- 
tion in i688y it was not till within thefe 40 years, that a full divi. 
4 fioa 

of FoulJcrt. lij 

fion of property took place ; bat fince the lands were divided, 
tbej have been in general well inclofed, and brought to a coft« 
fiderable degree of cultivation. They yield plentiful crops 
of wheat, barley, oats, peafe, tomips, potatoes, and gra(s« 

Renij^ Cattle^ He. — Although thefe lands fully bear the 
ahove defcription of foil and good quality, the beft of theni» 
cs£q»tiog fome crofts, were let no higher than zos. per acre; 
but fince the old leafes expired, they are now advanced from 
105., to aos^ 30s., and even 405., which is not too high, con- 
CderiBg the ftiort diftance from market and lime. Formerly^ 
a large traA of land, on the north fide of the parifls, called 
FauidiH Muitj waft occupied by the refidenters in the village^ 
by way of ftents, or pad are for cows and horfes, and, in that 
ibite, paid very little rent. The grafs of thefe grojtnds being 
always in great plenty, and of good quaiity, fuggefted the 
advantage of bringing them into a ftat>d of cultivation. About 
30 years ago, when improvements in agriculture were intro- 
duced into this part of the country, this piece of land was 
accordingly plowed up, and yeildcd a profufe crop, from a. 
good foil. It was foon after let out into different farms, which 
now pay aboat 300I. of yearly rent. Some part of this land 
has been found unfit for hufbandry, and is lately planted with ' 
&n, which promife a good return in due time. Lime is vety 
much u£td in thia part of the country. There is fiiell marl 
id the parifli, but it has never been properly tried ; and, for a 
number of years paft, it has been entirely negleded. There 
i3 nodiing remarkable in the mode of hu&andry, nor in the in- 
Uraments employed in it. The breeding or feeding of Iheep 
^as not been triedhere, although great part of the lands are 
^cry fit for both purpofes. The late proprietor had a fine 
laftc for the breeding and feeding of cattle. His horfes were 
^tcbeftin the country, and it is but "3 years fince the laft 


\it Statifiicd Account 

of his breed of oxen were fold. One ox weighed 128 Xloni:^ 
and was of a verj fine ihape and make* 

Climate^ River ^ ^r.-^This parifli, and fome other lands ad« 
jointag, (land upon a confiderable elevation, which continues 
to rife, towards the N., for a miles; and then flopes gradumlljr^ 
until it reaches the fea banks, which are very high and rocky. 
There is a river, called Wbittadder^ which runs on the S. 
fide, and empties itfelf into the Tweed, near Berwick. Xhe 
bed of the river is very deep, l>cing in no place under 40 
yards, and in many places 50 yards, from the top of the bank. 
Thefe banks are cut, upon the N. fide, into very deep dens 
by nature, through which rivulets of water run, from th^ 
whole lands in the neighbourhood, throughout the year. Thefe 
circttu^nces, added to an almoft unbounded profpeft to the 
S. and W., muft contribute to render the air pure and dry, 
and confequently le(s fufceptible of noxious or infieAious 
taints. It has been frequently remarked here, that the di& 
eafes, which are peculiar to our climate, fuch as intermittent 
and common continued fevers, putrid fever, and fore throat, 
are fcarce known amongft us, whitd they are fometimes very 
frequent and mortal, in the parilhes immediately adjoining. 
Thefe difeafes have indeed made their appearance here at fuch 
times, but unaccompanied with that malignity, which rendered 
them fo fatal to tbofe attacked with them, in lefs elevated 
and more moiil fituations. For thefe 7 years and upwards, 
only one young perfon has died, a female of x6 years of age, 
and one child. Good health is enjoyed through life, witii 
very little interruption ; and, except thefe two, none have 
died (refiding in this pariih), during the above mentioned 
period, who had not reached at leait 6o years ; and it is not 
unfrequent to attain the age of So, and even 90 years, in the 
full poffeffion of every faculty. 


of IpQuldeUn H9 

Po^iJation.'^' As the records have not been regularlj kept| 
the ancient ftate of the population cannot be precifely afcer* 
tiined. A confiderable village, containing about 60 families, 
being now reduced to z6 only, is fuppofed to have diminifhed 
the population ; and it is the opinion of old refidenters, that 
the number of fouls is not fo great now, as it was 40 years ago; 
although, qpon comparing the average of baptifms for the 
kft 7 years, with that of the fame number of years half a 
century ago, there appears to be very little difference. Hence 
fome incline to think, that although a number of old people 
have died, and feveral others have left the bounds to refide 
elfcwhere, the permanent population is fiill nearly the fame ; 
and the reafon they give, is, that feveral new farms have been 
erc6ted, with a number of houfes, containing many families, 
which bear a near proportion to the reduftion, which has taken 
place in the village. The former opinion, however, feems 
neareft the truth, the return to Dr. Webfter, in 1755, having 
been -------- 465 

^nd the number of perfons at prcfent (1793), being only 344 

Decreafe, « X2Z 

Animal aTcnje of births, • 6 PcrfoBt under xo yean of age, xoo 

■ marriages, - I . ■ . . between 10 and »o, - 40 

deaths, - X oo and 50, - 170 

Number of males, - ^ 1 70 50 and 70, - 30 

females, • 174 *-^— ■ 70 at d 90, - 4 

Eechjiajlical Staic^^Thc number of Seceders is very in- 
confiderable ^ fo that the people, in general, attend the ordi* 
oapces of religion in the parifii church ; which was rebuilt in 
1786. The manfe was built about 14 years before. The (lipend, 
by a late decreet of augmentation, is 56I. los. in money, 
Bod three chalders and a half of barley and oatmeal, equal 
parts. There is an allowance of al^ los. for the ezpeaces of 


Xia Statlftkal Account 

the facrament; and the glebe and garden is worth 3ol. Sterlbg^ 
Jamcs Wilkie of FouLBENy £fq. is patron*. 

AutiqttitUs. — ^There is an old ruin, called FoulJen^ which 
appears to have been a place of fecuritj and ftrength, in the 
times of the Border contcfts. There is alfo a property, called 
Nwilands^ where there was an e&ablifliment of nuns in former 
times ; but no record or tradition has been met with^ that gives 
Wiy hiftorj of cither f* 

Markets and Roads. — There are 2 fairs held annually in the 
village ; but little or no bufinefs is done at them. A very 
few cattle appear fometimes for fale, and a fmall quantity of 
wool. Formerly, great quantities of flioes were fold at the 
fairs here, add were bought by the people in Northumber- 
land. — The roads in this neighbourhood have lately under- 
gone a great repair, in confequence of feveral turnpikes hav* 
log been ere£led. 


« Tlitin-efeat incumbent fbcceedcd Mr Jonii BucbahaNi whole predccet 
lor, Mr Robert Pamk, was the fifft Pnibyterian minifter of thi* pariib aftd* 
ti^e Revolution in 1688 \ the Epifcr.-pal clergyman having continued in the 
charge about eleven year^ after Prelbyterian churdi-govemment was cilablilhe 
in Scotland. 

f There was alfo a fortified wall on the caft end of the village of FouWen, 
the remains of which were taken down fome years ago. 1 he chief dcfign of 
it fcems to have been, for a defence to the refidence of Loan Ross, who toA 
«n a^ive part in the wars between England aod Scotland, and who was propric* 
for of the eilate of Fouldcn id thole days. 

bf Kitmore and kiihrtdi. Hi 


tJNiTEi> Parishes ofkilivIore ANit 


(^Countj and Synod of ArgylU^VrefbyUry of torn^ 

' 6y thi Riv. Mr^ F^atrick M'Dokald, Minifer; 

Origin of the Names: 

THE oldei! etfjmology of Kilmore^ is KiLmoin: Oy\ ok*' 
Oigb^ figtiifjingfy in aocient Griaelicy the church, or pla^e of 
^orihip, of the Uefled Virgin. It was alfo called Kilmbeanacb^ 
tf the middle burial place, from being in the centre of the coun- 
try. Lately it had beieu called KHmar^ that is, the griat burying 
ptace^ (fnor figuifying great or large), becaufe the burial 
ground arotrnd this church was fotmerly of greater extent, 
than any other hi 0iis part of the country. Eilbkid^ is alfo' 
derived froni the fame root, JTt/, and fignifies a burial place, 
dr (dace of worlbip, dedicated to Si, Bridget. The church was 
ftbntk about 50 years ago. It is fuppdfed to have been- 
joined to the pariih of KilVnore, at the union of many other'' 
pariflies in the Highlauds, under the charge of one miniUer. 
K^ilbride was a vicarage, and Kilnolore a parfonage. 

Vot. Xk Q;, Situation^' 

Il2 Statijiical Account 

Situaiion, Extent^ Wr— Thcfc united pari(hes arc ficiiate^ 
in that diftria of ArgyllihiK called Mid Lorn. Kilmore is 
the feat of the prtlbylcry.- They are 7 miles long, and 6 
broad^ and in their form nearly circolar. The number of 
acres cannot be afcertained. An ifiand is annexed, facing 
0ban^ named Ktrera^ which is 3 miles in length. It is tlie 
property of Mr. M'Dougal of that ilk, excepting one farm, 
which belongs to Lord Breadalbane; 

Suffaci and 5oi/.— The country is hiHy, but not motui* 
tatnous. The hills,- tbough low, are covered with heath, ex« 
cepting a few that are cropped by the (heep, which are ia« 
creafing in the parilh. The valliea are generally arable. The 
foil is different in different farms ; but for the moft part (hal- 
low and fpouty. In miiny places it is mofljr, in fome clayi(h 
and. in others fandy, mixed with gravel. This parifli, like 
moil others in this county^ is more calculated to produce grafs 
than com ; yet it yields as large a proportion of the latter as 
any of the adjacent pariihes ; and from the increafing know- 
kdge of agriculture in this part of the country, more and . 
more of the arable lands are annually brought into cultiva* 

Climate andDifeafes^ ^c. — ^Though the rainy feafon, in thi^ 
part of the country, continues nearly two thirds of the year^ 
yet the health of the inhabitants does not fufier, fo much 
as might be imagined y but the grain is much injured by it, 
Weilerly winds prevail to a great degree ; but fevere frofis,* 
or great falls of firow, feldom occur. — This parifli is liable ta 
no particular maladies. Fevers and fluxes arc not more 
common than in the lower parts of the kingdom. Golds and 
iheumatifms are a little more prevalent, owtAg perhaps to the 
humidity of the air. Inflances of longevitjr fometimes occur. 

A few 

(f KHmore and Kiliride. 195 

A. few are now Xvnng in this parilhi aged 90 jiears and fip- 
vnda, aii4 a few oth^s died lately about the lame age. 

Cuhiva^n. — The mode of plowing, for 20 yean pad, waa 
\j 4 holies a)M%^i but now, % ooly are nfed, which has been 
found by experience to aufufer better*, The implements of 
hufbandry havt of late undergone a very confiderable degree 
of improvementt inlpmucb, that they are almoft equal to any 
ufed in the mod improve^ parts of Scotland. Within thefe 
12 or 14 ycar$, the ufe of carts has become congiinon, both 
among the gpntry a|id the fanpers, who are fenfible of the 
great ntility pf them.— The manures ar^ chiefly produced by 
^ttle butfidj or iuclofed in movpaUe fcJdS) from field to field. 
Sea wafe is alfo ufed, mize4 with mofs and earth. Shell land^ 
not being fo^nd in this part of Xhp country, is brought from 
the wel^em parts of t^p cpuoties of Rols and Inyemels. Ic 
is laid on the lee grounds, prod^pes good crops^'and aftervrard^ 
greatly enriches (be pile of grafy. liine-ftoni: ia found here ; 
bot the |ife of it is in a great meafure totally prevented, by 
the expenfiTcnels of the fuel in this pariih. The quantity of 
rain which falls here is fo great, as to injure much the peat or 
turf; yet notwithftanding this difadvanuge, and the ezorbit* 
ant price of coals, owing to the late heavy duty and freight, 
a few of the inhabitants have mfide an effort, and bun;i lim^ 

Qj^ Produce f, 

efte^time it a^t the middlo of March; harveft ahoat the I4»h of 
Anaofts hvt feme Tcry rainy feafons retard the har?eft to the fuccefdio|f 
«wffi»fc«- In the memorable 1782, the weather beisg very cold and wet, the 
price of meal rofe to |a6a. (per boll ; but, from the very great attention of go- 
veraacnty in frndiog a leafisnable lupply to the poor, and the management of 
thflfie to whom the diAribation was committed, together with the charity an^ 
JxacToksce of the moft able and bcft difpofcd in the conntryy the c<^itioa ^ 
the poor was rendered tolerable* 

1 34 Stati/ikal Account 

Pr^iuce^ \Sc. — The common crops are btfley, attft nm^ 
potatoes. The ordinary returns are, of birlcy, from j to 4f 
bolls s of oats, from 3 to 4 ; and of potatoes, from (S to 8, for 
X boU. Oats fell at from 13s. to 15s, p^r bo}i; barley froia 
X58. to 17s. ditto, Linlithgow meafure; and potatoes from %Sm 
to 56. pet barrel of 3 a Englifii gallons. 

LaieSf Rmrs ond Fj^-^There is 6nly one eonfideraUe 
lake in thefe parifties, named Lachntllj from which pne of tnkt 
principal heritors takes his title. It is 2 miles in lengtb : It^ 
greateft breadth is i mile. It Has its name from the Gaelie 
Vi^ord £1/, fignifying ayuMi^, a great number of thefe fewl$ 
frequenting it. It is c)ofely guarded by a zealous friend of 
fhe family of Lochnell. There are other lakes, but Yefy in« 
^nfiderable. There is only ope fmall river, which rtms about 
5 miles, and then falls into an arm of the Wefiern Ocean, 
palled Ldcb'feacban. The fifli in tliefe lakes, and in the above 
inentioned river, and (mailer brooks, are falmon, trouts and 
jKels. The falmon are found in confiderable numbers ia tbis 
fmall river, but of fmall fize. 

Sta Cpqfis^ C/f .-i^The coaft is of a femicircular form ; and, 
including creeks and bays, may be about 20 miles in extent*. 
It is in general high and rocky ; but, at the end of the bays^ 
flat, and fomewhat fandy. The fi(h caught on this coaft are 
grey fiAi of different kinds, lythe, fome cod and ling, Ikate, 
flounders, &c. There are no eftablilbed fifheries : They have 
bfsen tried, but with little fuccefs -, perhaps owing tp want o£ 


* There ere ve . ^ jiof oI4 cftftlo, or watch totren, along the coafti of diii 
parifli. It is fuppofed thefe towen were bnih by the Danei. They are buili 
in rityr of poe another, that ;he alarm of an a|>proacfaiog enesij might be giT^ 
the more readily. 

bJ Kihnort and Kilbride. 11/ 

fcipcr tackle and of perfeverenoey Th« fea animal^ planta, 
ind fea^ware, are (ha fame as \% <?ofnatioii over all the High^ 
Uad coafts. {^ittle kelp is made here : At an average, not above 
8 tons per annum. The tide ilows Northward. 

Harbomrs and Ferries j ijc — There arc 4 good ones 5 namely, 
ObaUf Dwi/lqffa0ge Bay^ Jirdintraive^ oppofite to Oban, in the 
illaod of Kerera, and the Horfsfttoe Harbour ^ a little to the weft^ 
ward of Ardintraive \t% the fame ifland. There are 3 ferries, 
viz. ConUFerrj^ between this pariQi and that of Ardchattan ; 
Fori Kerera^ between the main land and thart ifland \ and the 
MmU Ferry^ between the latter and the Ifland of Mull. There 
ii a very remi^rkable cuirrent at the Ferry of ConiL From 
the Semd of Moll enters an anq of the fea, which xuns up 
aboot 8 milea dtie£. to Bunrnw^ in Muekaira, where the 
Ji^nn-Fnnnce CompaiDj have their refidence. It then tume 
(o the N. £•, through a glen in Ardchattan pari(b, named 
£/iW, aboot 10 miles. At Conil, where it enters by a nar« 
sow pab, being confined at* half flood, and half ebb, it ruflies 
through wiffa impetiioas force, like a rapid river, over a 
rock, which is fcen at low ebb, and reaches almoft from fide 
to fide ; exoepdpg that, on the Kilmore fide, it has an opening 
wide enough ibr veflels of confiderable burden to pafs through. 
The fiea, at half tides, pours furioufly, and with fome noife^ 
^ver tliis rock, and forms a vafi variety of little whirlpools, 
rfpecially on the fide nes^t t)]e ocean. The ferry here, though 
in appearance very fof midable, is yet fafe, by reafon of the 
^ill of the ferrymen in piloting their boats through it ; and 
may be croflfed with fafety, when fome greater, and feemingly 
fmootfaer ferries cannot. 

Pokanic jtpp^arances, ^-^there are fome appearances of this 
^nd on part of the coaft. There are ftones of different fpe« 


\%6 Statifiicai AeemuiB 

(ies, ai|d metali, (many of them roiind)« found, finclf 
^nd cemented in the fao^ of the rocks, as if pkced hy 9XU 
Pr. HcjtVKT, the Bifliop oiDcrry^ and fome other natnraliAs^ 
who were on a tonr through this country a few years ago* 
aflerted^ that thefe appearances were certainly volcanic. Xhey 
evidently bear the traces of having hcea in an $gneou4 ftate at 
(bme dillant period. 

Eehoei and Caves. — There is a very remarkable echo, a lit* 
de to the N. W. of the old Caftle of Ounftaffnage, lying 
near Conil Ferry, 2 Englifli miles to the N« W. of it. It 
comes from an old chapel, where fome of the ancient kings 
pf Scotland are faid to have been buried. It is near a rock* 
pn the S. fide of it, one point of which ftretches towards the 
chape). If a man is placed on the one fide of the point, aocl 
(peaks, reads, or cries aloud, the found of his voice is htard 
on the other fide, fo diftin^y reverberated from the chapel, 
fis to make him imagine it conges from a perfon within the 
f hapel *. — Therfi have been many caves, but moft. of them 
are filled up by time. Urns have been found in feveral of 
them. The^e is a very remarkable one, in the face of a rock 
in the neighbourhood of Oban, narrow at the mouth, and ex- 
tending to an unknown length backwards. A colle&ion o^ 
|)uman bones and Ikulls ftill remain in it f « 

* It is affirmed, that at fome former period, a man contraded an ilbefi^ 
which terminated in death, by hearing a Ceimoo on mortality read to him by 
(VI alarming voice, in the duik of the evening, from the oppofite fide of the 
|)oint, by a perfon wl^o concealed himf<:lf. He believed t!^ wddrdk camq 
from one of the dead in the chapel. It warned him to prepare for death. 

f The account given of this coUedion is this, as related to the author of this 
article, by an old perfon iliU living in the nei^bourhood : Abottt 100 years 
»go, a relation of this petfon, having taken Ibme umbrage at bis grandfather, 
}et his boufe» with the purpofe of revenge. He went to Irdaadi and, fome 

of Kilmrc and Kilbride. iij 

RoaJsf BrUges^ l^r— ^There is one great line of toad finifli^ 
^ from Gonil Ferrj to the extremity of the pariih, on thd 
S., about 6 miles in length ; another from Obaii to Kilmore 
Kirk, acrofs the middle of the parifli eaftward^ libout 4 miles 
in length ; and a third from Oban to Conil, running alfoeaft* 
ward. It is now the common road for carriages, &c« from 
Oban to Ihrerarajr«-^Btidges are thrown orer wherevef thej 
are neccflaiy. Thefe roads have all been made during the in« 
cnmbencj of the prefent minifter, within thefe laft 33 years* 
There are 4 principal inns, vit» at Oban, Conil, Glaghchom- 
ble*, and Kilmore^ nigh the kirk, befides feveral fmaller 
ones. There is tather too much whilky drunk in all of them* 

Black CdtiU and Hor/es^^The breed of black cattle in this 
parifli as of the beft Weft Highland kind. They are a good 
deal larger than thofe iii the North Highlands, and are much 
approved of at market*— Such as are bred by gentlemen of 
property, bring from 41. los. to 51. los. a head; and fome 
have been fold at 61. and upwards. The cattle bred by th6 


fCMnahtTf retimed with a banditti df mifcreanti, with whom he conifurcd to 
let ire to the ^tlaj^ Dear Oban, in which hit grandfather dwelt. On the ap- 
pearance of the veiTely which brought them before Oban, the inhabitants received 
intelligence of their intentions, and likewife of the crew being infcded with 
the pcftilerioe ; on which the inhabiunts coUeded a ihperior force, watched their 
landing, afprcbcnded them, and (hut them up within the cave, where, by thfe 
hsiBattiCf of the young nan's grandfather, they were (though dofely guarded)* 
fed for £om€ time, till they all died of the diieafe which they brought to land 
with diem^^A man, who died lately, ooce vifited this cave in his younger years, 
m the hopes of finding a treaiure in it ; but found ohly a gold headed cane, and 
a hrgi filvcr broach; Thefe, however, he afterwards returned, being bmrnted* 
u he believed, by fpfHru^ tiU he had done fo. The ftory has a fuperilitious 
ifpe^, btic is eifily accomited for, by the force of imagination. 

* CUl^chombie iHn la fituated where the roads from Oban to Inverary, and 
Irem Cootl to Nether JLorn-crofs, nwet. It is not far from KUmore, and w^s 
an the cooumii canbge n»d to Obas, till of hte, that iha kwer one was finiihed 

120 Stati/iical Account 

fenantrfy er lower dafs of people, are fold from 3!. 5s. id 
3I* IDS. at pr^fcnt*. The horfes are ftroager than thofe vA 
the North Highlands. They art exceedingly hardy and fit fof 
every kind of labour. Their iojt ie from X a to 14 himds high ; 
and they are ilrongly made. 

Sbtp and 5'u>i«#.— -«Sbeep flocks are but lately introduced 
here. Hitherto they hare anfwered very well. Tbey are of 
the black faced kind, bred in Aonandale, and the high grounds 
about Moffat. As they increafe in numbers, they contribute' 
much to wear off the heath ; infomuch^ that feveral bills, 
covered with it about 50 years ago, have now got a beautifsl 
furface of grafs \ although, alas ! at the elfpence of reducing 
the number of the poor fanners ; many of the villages being 
quite depopulated. A fewperfoos rear fwine^ in fmali nuoi^ 
hers $ but they are not of a good quality^ 

Wild ^uadnipedj.^^<^zArTtptds of the wild kind, here, are 
foch .as are common in moil parts of the Highlands of Scotland > 
a few roes, many hares, of the largeft 6ze, wild cats, and a 
few badgers and otters, which are numerous. The foxes are 
nearly extirpated. There are many pole-cats, and beautiful 
weafels, befides rats, mice, and moles. 

JSirdi.'^TheTc are mpor-fowls, black and ted ^ hot not in fuch 
numbers as formerly, owing to burning the heath,, and the in-' 
crcafe of the flicrp. There are a]fo plovers, wild pigeons, crows,- 
and i*ooks ; the latter are become fo numerous, as to be very 
dtrftruflive to the grain and potatoes. Of the migratory kind, 
we have wood-cocks^ f wallows, fnipes, a few green plovers, 


* Beef, from 3d. to 4d. per lt>.; niuttod, 4d. to jd.; veil, ji; Umb,' 
6d.; pork, ^d.; a gooTe 2s. 6U.', dack 2».; k«at from 6d« to 8d.;>cgg«, ad* 
per doieo. 


of Kilmore and Kilbride. ., 120 

kad nickoos; of the fmaller birds filch as are cottitiiQil through 
Scotland. We have alfo water fowls of various kinds: There 
is one kind of duck, of the migratorj tribe, called the widgeon* 
They abound much in our bajs» Thej appear abojut the be* 
ginning of winter> and migrate about the end of fpiing* If 
the end of autumn is felrere and (lormji they appear forne- 
times before winter* 

Rents and Heritor^. — The valued rent, ad dated irt 1751^ 
was .3891. xos. 4d.: the real rent may be at prefertt about 
3180I, There are 13 heritors, great aiid fmall, in the pariOi^ 
of whom only 4 refide; Services are in a good itteafute abo« 
lilhed ; but tod many fiill remain. 

EccUJtaJiical State.-^Tlit chilrch of Kiloiore iffis built 
about 300 years ago* It was originally in the form of a ca« 
thedral, and continued fo during the eflabli(hmeht of Epifco-^ 
pacy in Scotland ; but, on the introdudion of Prefbytery, aa 
the old building became decayed, a part of it was repaired^ 
and reduced to the fize of an ordinary large kirk, about 60 
feet loog^ and 20 broad.— ^The kirk of Kilbride is of a leflet 
fize, 40 feet in length,, and 16 in breadth. Tlie walls of KiU 
more church are very fufEcient : The roof and windows have 
received repairs at different tiroes. It id poorly fcslted i but 
there is reafon to think, that the heritors will foon make up 
this defed. The kirk of Kilbride is not fo fufficient in thd 
walls, as that of Kilmore ; and the feats are equally bad. It 
fiands greatly in need of repairs. Neither of them have 
church*yards ; but it is propofed to have them foon. Indeed^ a 
few excepted, the kirks in the Weft Highlands are in a mifer** 
2ble condition, compared with thofe in many other country 
parilbes in Scotland. But, as improvements of all kinds ar# 
every where going on rapidly, we hope the churches, in this 

YoL. XL R part 

i ^o Statijilcal Account 

part of the country, will foon come in for their fhare. — The 
xnanfe was bnilt in 1760 ; but it is very flight and infufficieattf 
\i underwent ferae repairs not long ago ; bat it can never be 
made a good hotrfe. The fiipend, on the admiffion of the 
prefent incumbent, tras ftated to him at 60 bolls and a 
pecks of oatmeal, (9 (tones per boll), and 39I. 7s. 9|d. Scer- 
iing in money. The meal, at the old convcrfion of lool. 
Scotch per chalder, with the money, after deducing 5I. Ster- 
ling for communion elements included therein, reduces the 
fttpehd to 65K 1 2s. 9{d., together whh a competent glebe.— 
The Duke of Argyll is patron. — The whole pariih obferve 
the rites of the £ftabli(hed Church, excepting a or 3 families, 
who are of the Epifcopal perfuafionf. There b only a fingle 
family of the SeceiBon* 

Schools, — ^There is oiie paroehial fchool kept at Kilmore. 
There is no (chool-houfe ; but it is propofed to build one foon. 
The dated falary is lol. Sterling, with the inter^ft of icoo 
snerks Scotch : But this laft fum is onr a precarious footing, 
there being r^afbn to apprehend, that the intereft will be re- 
duced. The number of fcholars is (hifluating; in winter and 
fpring fiom 30 to 46, feldom 50. The iituatibn is very cen- 
trical for a numerous fch6ol ; and there have been at different 
{Periods very flourifliing fchools at thid ftation. But, owing 
to the reduftion 6f part of the funds which made up the (a- 
Ury, the want of proper boscrding places, and the (hort con- 
tinuance of feveral of the teachers, the fchool, fbr (bme years 
tack, has greatly declined. The quarterly payments for 
teaching, are, Englifh^ is. ; ditto and writing, is. 6dL. ; arith- 
iRetic, 2s. 6d. ; Latin, 2s. 6d. There is a flourifliing fchool 
at Oban, which will be noticed afterwards. There is one 
charity fchool in the ifland of Kctenii and one or more {imaller 
4 fchools^ 

^f Kilmore and Kilbride. 131 

fchoolsy kept up at the expence pf the inhabitants, in the re« 
inote parts of the parifli. 

Poor. — The poor are fupported chiefly by the inhabitants 
of the parifh. They beg from door to door ; but are np( 
very troublefome in this way, although the funds are by no 
means adequate to their number^ and wants : The whole 
amount, for many year$, was from ill. to- 14L, arifing from 
the weekly coUe£tions, and from a f/nall mortification or two. 
But of late 32I. 2s. 3id. was added by the commiflioners of 
the cuftoms, 30I. of which is laid out at intered, and the odd 
money (zl. is. 3^^.) was diftributed. among the poor, at the 
time when the ordsr was given by the commiilioners. 

Population, — ^The number of inhabitants has greatly in- 
creafcd within the lad 50 years: For,notwith(landing that many 
farms have been turned into grazings, yet fuch is the fpirit of 
improvement, in making roads, inclofures by fione walls 
and ditches, building houfes, &c. that the population, iuflead 
of diminiihing, has increafed above a third within that period* 

It is difficult, however, to afcertain tfaeexad number of the 
inhabitants of both thefe pariflies, as they »re in a very fluc- 
tuating (late, by many annually going to the Low Country, 
and from one part of this country to another ; but from tb^ 
two laft years lifts*, there appeared to be, at an average, of 
inhabitants, of all ages, 

Kxamm. perfitu. Stulu 

\n 179^ in Kilmore, about r - yjQ 

In 1791, in Kilbride, about - - 500 0O9 

In 1792, in Ob&n, ^ - - - 440 386. 

In all, • 940 2886 

Ra In 

* Tlw diiferentt between this and laft year's acconn^ (Osan es^ted) h 
Tfry tsc;.flfiderablc. 


Statifllcal Accouni 

In 17559 the total number, as returned to Dr. Webr 

ftcr, was only - - - - • - 2 aoo 

Increafc, - t\i6 

Acconnt of Baptisms and Marrxagf.s^ from ift Jj^nuary 1784 
to zft January 17911 in both parilhes*. 











'• 45 




- 46 








• 46 








• i* 





ManufaElures.'^OLt late a fmall branch of the cotton ma- 
nufadlure vras introduced into this quarter, by Mr. David. 
Dale of Qlafgow \ but its progrefs has hitherto been greatly 
retarded by the dearth of fuel. That caufe being now re->. 
inoved, other gentletnen of enterprife and public fpirit have i( 
in contemplation^ to eftablifh works of the fame kind. 

. Village of Oban. — ^This village is fituattd on the N. W. 
fide of the pariih, and covered from the Weflern Ocean by the 
Ifland of K£R£RA. It has two entries, one from the S., and 
one from the N. The firft houfe of any confequence in Oban 
was built about 8o*jears ago, by a trading company of Ren. 
frew. They ufed the houfe as a (lore-room ; Oban being 
confidered, even then, as one of the moft convenient fituations 


* The above lifts txt taken from Odober to OAober, according to the tax 
regulation eftabliihed by goveroment.— There is no lift of buriali kept in thia 

of Ktlmore and Kil^idt. 1 33 

in this country for trade. The next building was a cuftom* 
faoufcy which was e^eded 28 years ago ; Oban being reckoned 
a proper plice <or clear, .g out vcflels for the herring fiQiery. 
It was foon aTter made the place of general rendezvous foe 
the herring boffes ; and for many years, they reforted to it ill 
great numbers, till other places of the fame kind were ap** 
pointed. About the year 1778, the fpirit of building arofe 
in this village, and has been gradually increafihg till the pr»« 
fent time. It was on that fide of Oban which belongs to the 
Duke of Argyll, that thefc buildings were firft erefted. But 
now, Mr. Gampb£LL of Diunjlaffnage has feued put part of his 
property, for the fame purpofe, on the other fide ; and the 
deiiand for new lots daily increafes. Behind the village^ there 
is a fliallow lake of fome extent, with iloping ba^ks, which 
are cultivated for hay, corn, and garden (luffs. The lake 
might, at fome expence, be drained. There i<s alfo a water 
that runs from it, into the fea, and divides the Dake of Ar- 
gyll's farm iiom Duiiftafihage's lands. 

Bay and Siipping >--^The Bay of Oban is of a femicircular 
form, and from x 2 to 24 fathom deep. It is large enough to 
contain 500 (ail of merchantmen. The anchorage is every 
where good. About 20 years ago, there were from 20 to 
30 vefiels reglflered aX Oban, which were chilly employed in 
the fiOieries ; but, frqm the decreafc of that trade on the 
N. W. coaft, the number of veiTels is now much fmaller. 
Still, however, there are from 15 to 20 floops employed in 
the fifhiog and coafting bufinefs ; and one veficl, from 250 to 
330 tons, is employed in the Baltic trade. But the traders, 
and inhabitants in general, labour under great inconvenience 
for want of z proper quay to difcharge their goods. It is 
hoped this defeft will foon be fupplied. 


1 34 Statijiical Account 

Church propofed. — ^It is intended to build a cliapel of eafe 19 
Oban« as the number of the inhabiunts are rapidly increafiag. 
snfomuchy that none of the parifh churches can contain theau 
The building will be begun, as foon as proper funds are col- 
lefied {for that purpofe, and for affording a competent falarjr 
10 the preacher. 

School. — ^There is a very good fchpol-hoofe. It was bijilt 
by the Duke of Argyll, ai.d the inhabitants ; who make up 
a (alary, to the fchoolmafier of 20I. a year. His other emou 
luments are coniiderable. The number of (cholars, is at a]| 
average, from 40 t^ ^o through the year. 

JPopulation of OJ^,— The tptal number of families in 

Oban, is---r--- -m 

The number of fgnl^' (^s above noticed), is * - jSC 

Of the different profefllon?, there are in this village, 

CIcrki, . - - . 7 Baker, - . . . ^ 

8!aters, - . • . 5 Currier, . - - . j 

I^abourert, - • ^ ^4 Tanpcrt, • - . • ^ 

SawerB, - - - - 7 Sailors, • . • • x^ 

Cooper*, .... 3 Joincrt, . • • . j^ 

Weavers, • - - - X7 Smiths, - • • • xa 

Fainter, . - - - t Shoemakers, - - - 25 

Tailors, - - - - 9 Merchants, * , . ^ 

Carpenters, • - - xa ■ . 

Mafons, .... 3 Xfital, - 4x73 

Barber, - , . • j 


\ BcCdes thcfe, there are a good many other tradcfmeB fcattered over the 
ptfifh— Men iervams get from 3I. to 61. per annum ;->women, from al. to 
dL xos. ;— day labourers, from lod. to r4d. per day ;-^raalbiif, ss. ;— wrigbts, 
^om IS. ad. to is. 8d.;— tailors, 8d., with maiotenancc But tailors, flioemaken, 
weavers, &c. whtn working by the piece, earn, at an average, from i6d. to x8d. 
per day ; Ibip carpenters, as, j axid houic ditto, (rom ^u U. Xo !•. I«^ 

"^ of Kilmore and Kilbride. 13^ 

tmprtfo^meht of the Vittage. — This village arofe from a ver/ 
final] beginning. Till the cuftom-houfe was built, it confid- 
ed of onlj 2 or 3 houfes of meaq appearance. But after the 
coftom-houfe was ereded, and fome trade began to arife, from 
the oonrenient fituation of the bay, Ijing near the Weftem 
Ocean, and in the vicinitjr of a populous country, the at- 
tention of the Duke of Argyll, Mr. Campbell of Dunftafi^ 
n^ge, and fome other perfons particularly interfefted in the 
profpcrity of the village, was attrafted. They feued grounds 
for buildiiig t6 a very confiderable extent ; and a great addi- 
tion of buildings is to be made this year. If encouragement 
is given to the trade of the place^ by erefting a quay, it will 
go on to increafe to a very great height.-^ We cannot omit 
mentioning here, with all due refpeft, two gentlemen, bro« 
tbers, of the name of SrEVENSON, who have oontributed very 
much by their induftry and afiivity, to the improvement and 
profperity of Oban. They came to the place in 1778, in the 
line^ of plain tradefmcn ; and, by their genius and ability^ 
difplayed in various branches of trafiic, they have greatly im- 
proved their own fortunes, while they have at the fame time 
promoted the good of the country at large : Oban, in parti- 
cular, may look on them as its founders ; for the elder bro- 
ther commenced, and fucceflively keeps up the bufinefs of 
iliip-building ; a branch never attempted to any extent before 
in this country. And the younger brother employs alfo 
aaany artificers in houfe-buildiog. In a word, ObaB> and its 
tovirons are Angularly indebted to them. 

CharaSer of the Pro^Zf.— The change in the circumflances^ 
tlie appearance, and the morals of the people of the lower 
clafs, in this parifii, has been confiderable, fince the prefent 
incumbent*! admifiion. In refpeft of the firft, three fmall 
tillages^ of tolctable black farm*houfc8, were almoft wholly 


i 3$ Statijiical Accoiini 

fiockcd with inhabitants, confiding of tenants and cottagers. 
The rents being then verj moderate, the people lived com* 
fortablj in their line, though on fimple farfc, and in homelj 
clothing. But| fince that period, the rents have been doubkdi 
najr, in fome parts tripled ; and noany of their pofleiEons have 
been taken by the more opulent : The lower tenants were, of 
coarfe, obliged to remove and ihift for themfelves. The aged, 
the feeble, and the poorer fort, became cottagers \ bat the 
mod vigorous, and bj far the greateft number, engaging in 
the public works, which were carrying on over the country 
to a very great extent, found means to fubfiU more comfort* 
ably. This circumftance afforded them a very providential 
relief, and tended to prevent their being infefted by the pre- 
vailing fpirit of emigration. As to their appearance^ if we 
were to judge from the change in their drefs and manner of 
livingi (particularly of the workpien and fervants), more 
cfpecially of the younger fort, many of them have arrived at 
fuch a pitch of gaiety in the one, and of expence in the other, 
that their circumftances would appear to be much improved : 
But there is reafon to believe, the change is mote to be a- 
fcribed to their advance in luxury, than in opulence. It de« 
ierves, however, to be remarked, that the old tenants have 
hardly made any alteration in their manner of living. 1 he 
cxcurfions made to the Low Country, by the labourers and 
fervants, may account, in a good meafute, for theit advance- 
xncnt in luxury, in drefs and living. Thefe excurfions have 
alfo made a confiderable change on their languagt^, and on 
their demand for wages, perhaps little to iheir own advan- 
tage, and certainly not to that of their country. The harj- 
ihip is particularly fcrit from the demands of houiV hold fer- 
vants, whofe high wages have become an iiitolerabie griev- 
ance. On account of their frequent inteicourfc with the Lovr 
Country, they very foon learn the Engliih language, info- 


of Ki Into re and Kilbride. 137 

much that mod of them can fpeak it tolerablj. ^ But it is to 
be regretted, that thej adulterate their native forcible lan- 
guage with Anglicifms, which produce a difagreeable medley. 

J(fora/f--*The people of this pari(h have been, fince the 
pre&nt incumbent's admiffion, as regular, on the whole, as 
any on the Weftern Coaft. Indeed, he has obferved, that, 
not only within his own parifli, but within the bounds of the 
pre&j^ery in general, there has been, fince his firft acquaint- 
ance with them, a very remarkable change to the better, in 
one Tery important part of duty, namely, in their attendance 
on, and decent behaviour at public worihip, and at all religious 
ordinances. Moft of them are likewife docile and food of in- 
ftmftion : And few people are lefi^ fubjeft to religious divi- 
fions. A tinfture of enthufiafm indeed, never before known, 
began of late years, to infeft a certain corner within the 
bounds of this preibytery, and to fpread its baneful influence 
among a few individuals in the adjacent pariih; but, by every 
appearance, if is now on the decline. The inhabitants, in 
general, are rational in their religion ; fober, with a very few 
exceptions ; laborious and induftrious : The gentlemen are 
well.bred, polite, difcreet and hofpitable. 

Vol. XI. S NUM- 

t^$ Statiftical Account 

N U M B E R IX; ^ 


(fiounty qf BariffL^PreJbytery of Strutlbogie — Synod o^ 
Moray.) \ 

Bf the Rev. Mr. James Scott, Minifter. 

Form and Extent. 

THE parKh of Gartly is of an oval form, though not 
very regular. It is about i^ Engliih miles in length, 
from E. to W. ; and 6 in breadth, from S. to N., about th» 

River and Ftjb. — It is divided nearly in the centre, by tli« 
rivulet Bogie ; which, running in a ferpentine form, alfo di- 
vides the counties of Banff and Aberdeen, as it falls to the 
N., and forms a very pleafant flrath, from which this county 
derives its name, Strathbogie. Its banks are moflly covered 
with aller ; and it abounds with excellent yellow trouts, and 
falmon in the fpawning feafon. 

Surface and 5of7, %ic. — ^The boundaries of this pariib, both on 


of Gartly. 139 

Ae £• and W. fides^ are hiUjr, and moftl/ covered with heath* 
In thefe hills there is pleoty of mofs, which not onlj fupplies 
the inhabitants of the parifli, but alfo the town of Huntly^ 
With fiiel. From thefe hills feveral fmall brooks fall into the 
Bogie. The vallies, fupplied bj thefe brooks, are very fer-i 
tile, as well as the lands on the different fides of the Bogie^ 
when properlj cultivated, though in general rather late. 

Cultivation and Produce^-^The cultivation of the foil haa 
been annually more and more attended to, fince the year 1770 
At that time there were only two gentlemen farmers, (both 
of whom had been in the army)^ who had a field in turnips 
or fown grafs ; whereas now there is not one, who has not 
more or leis of his farm under thefe crops. One of thef# 
gentleman, who firfi fet the example, and who is ftill refident 
in the pari(h, is now carrying his improvements ftill farther, 
by introducing horfe-hoeing ; whereby he raifes moft lux- 
uriant crops of cabbages and turnips. The crops are, bear, 
6ats, peafe, and potatoes; arid the returns from thefe do much 
more than fupply the wants of the padfh. 

Catile, — ^The lands are now moftly tilled with horfes, 
which are of different fizes, fitted for the different ways they 
are employed ; and are in number above 340* The black 
cattle here are generally fmalU but of a very tight Highland 
breed, and about 1,500 in number. The fheep are alfo of 
St fionall kind, and in number betwixt 4,000 and 5,000. 

Minerals ."^ThtTt is a lime quarry in the parifli, but fo deep, 
and expenfive to work, that the farmers, rather than dig ftone 
from it, choofe to bring their lime from the diftance of 4 or 
5 miles* There is alfo a Very fine flate quarry in the pariih. 

Sa The 

140 Statifiicai Account 

The flates found in it are of a dark blue coloar, aad very 
durable and light. 

Propriety and /{#«/•— The Duke of Gordon is fole pro- 
prietor of the pariih. The yearly rent is about 1,600!. Ster- 
ling $ and the valued rent a,o8oU Scotch. 

Population. — The number of inhabitantSi about xo years 
agOy was greater than it is at prefent. This decrcafe can only ^ 
be imputed to the principal tenants extending their farms, 
and removing their cottagers. Within thefe 40 years^ how- 
ever, it has increafed coofiderably, as appears from the fol- 
lowing table : 

Population Table of the Fariih of Gartlt. 

Nambcr of fouls in z ^tl^ - aoco Annual arerage for the laft 10 yean. 

Ditto in X793, - - 1800 Of birthsi . . • tz 

— ^ — oaarriagesy - - - 6 

Decreafe in zo yeart, - aoo -» biuiaU *• - * - 14 

Nambcr of fouls in z 755, - xjaS 

— * Several of thefe are from other 

Increafe in 38 years, - 47ft parilhes* 

Wages. — Day labourers, in winter, get 6d« per day \ in 
fummer, 8d. ; in autumn, is«, with their viftuals. Men fer- 
yants receive, per annum, from 61. to 7L Sterling : Women 
fervants, by the year, from ah los. .to 3]., and herds in pro- 
portion. Country wrights, that go from houfe to houfe, get 
6d. per day in winter, and 8d. in fummer, with their victuals. 
Tailors receive 6d., belides their maintenance. 

Cburcb and School, — The kirk was built in the year 1621, 
and was lately repaired very fubftantially. A new manfe was 

7 built 

of Gartly. 141 

bailt in the year 1756: Both it and the fchool*houre are in 
good repain The ftipend is not quite 6eL Sterling. The 
Duke of Gordon is patron. 

Poor*— The poor's funds are from about 150I. to 200I. 
The number of poor on the roll is from aq to 23 \ among 
whom are divided from 141. to 271. annually, arifing from 
the coUeftions, intereft on the funds, mortcloth, &c. ; befides 
occafional fnpplies to fome neceffitous perfons not on the roll. 

Lifeafes and Cbara&er^ lie. — ^It cannot be faid, there is any 
dlfeafe peculiar to this parifh ; but feverat of its inhabitants 
are affeded with fcrofiilous and gravelliih complaints*— 
Thej are, in general, indufirious, orderly, and well affeded 
to government.— -There are two licenfed diftillers in the 


* loiliocet of longevity are not uncommoii. A fanner, named John Fii- 
iitA, died at Kirkney, in this parilk, in the year Z7S8, aged I02. The only 
utiquity in the pariih it an old ruin, called the Plast •/ GmtHj. 

,142 Statiftical Account 



(County 0/ jfyr — PnJbyUry of Lrvim^^ynod of Glafgow 

and Ayr. 

By the Rev. Mr 4 Thomas Pollock. 

Ori^n of the Name, 

THE Kelxdees, or Culdees, are fuppofed to have been 
originally Chriftian Britons ; and, about the latter end 
of the third century, to have fled into this country, to avoid 
the barbarous and inhuman cruelties, inflxded upon the Chrif- 
dans, during the perfecution under Dioctefan the Roman Em- 
peror. They were faid to have been diilinguiihed for their 
great learning, extraordinary piety, exemplary decency and 
purity of life and manners ; and, as minifters of religion, 
being unwearied in the faithful difcharge of their duty, they 
were univerfally held in the higheft efteem and veneration. 
From their retired and folitary way of living, their ufual 
places of refidence were called cells ; and, after their deaths, 
were turned either into pariih churches, or monafteries. Thefe 
religious houfcs were often dedicated to the memory, and 


of Kilwinning. 143 

bore the name of the Keledee, who had been borni or educated, 
or buried in, or near fuch places. From Cella Winnini^ there- 
fore, it is highly probable this pariih takes its name. There 
is a welU ait no great diflance from the manfe, called Winning*s 
Will; and a fair, held annually, on the firft day of February, 
is called Winning^ s^day Fair, Not many years after the erec- 
tion of the monaftery, Kilwinning, all over this part of the 
country, was called Saig-town ; and, by this name, it is dill 
Tery well know to the inhabitants. Saig^town is evidently a 
corraption of Saints^town. From the mortified and contemp- 
lative lives of the monks, from the frequency of their devo- 
tions, and other religious ezercifes, and from their reputation 
for learning and knowledge, they were regarded by the fu- 
perftitious, ignorant, and credulous laity, as an order of fu- 
perior beings. Nothing, therefore, could be more natural, 
than to call the place, where perfoxis of fuch charaders lived, 
Saig-town, or the Town of the Saints. It ought alfo to be 
obferved, as it very ftrongly marks the fpirit and manners 
of thofe dark ages, that the fairs, in all the towns and village^ 
conne&cd with the monaftery, were named after fome parti- 
cular faint, who was afterwards accounted the proteftor or 
tutelar iaint of the place : Such as, St. Anthwy^ St. Colm^ or 
Columba^ St, Margaret, St. Bride^ or Bridget. The days on 
which thefe fairs are held, are dill called after the faint whofo 
name they bear ; as, Colm^s^day^ Margaret^ s-^day^ \Sc. 

Situatiim and Extent.^-lt b fituated in Cunninghame, one 
of the diftrifta or fubdivifions of the county of Ayr, and is 
feparatcd from the Weft Coaft, or Irifli Sea, by part of the 
pm(Les of Irvine and Stevenftown. It is fuppofed to be 9 
£oglifli miles in length, and, in fome parts of it, not much 
kfc in breadth. The figure, however, it forms, is very irre- 
{olar, bebg in feveral places interfered by the neighbouring 


144 Statifiical Account 

pari{hes. There is no map of the pariih, nor has any regular 
meafurement ever been made of it. For this reafon, the pre- 
cife number of acres it contains cannot be afcertained. 

General Appearana.'^t lifes gradualtj from the W. and 
S. and S. W., to the £. and N. £• In both thefe dire£kions» 
it terminates in what majr be reckoned high landsi but with- 
out any intervening high hill, or mountain* The face of the 
pariffi is beautifully diverfificd, by thefe eafy, natural rii^ngs, 
-which flope gently towards the fea. The fummits of many of 
them, and particularly of fuch as are in the more immediate 
neighbourhood of the town, were planted by the late £atl of 
EcLiNTOUNE. The greater part of thefe plantations^ being 
rather more than 40 years old, give a rich and very highly 
cultivated appearance to this part of the country, 

Clwiate^ Difeafts^ and Longevity* — The frequent, and fome- 
times heavy rains that fall here, are probably owing to the 
pariih being fo very near the fea, and to its ilcuation with refpe£t 
to Kintyre to the Hands of Arran, of Bute, and the other 
Weftern Ifles. The atmofphere, by thefe rains, is often ren- 
dered thick and cloudy. The denfer parts of the clouds, how- 
ever, being attraded by the high bills on the S. and N., the 
air is, for the moft part, drier and purer, than in thofepariflies 
which are near or contiguous to thefe high hills. The rains, 
therefore, which fall here, though frequent, and at times 
fevere, are not known to produce any malignant epidemical 
diforders. Difeafes of this kind are, almoft always, brought 
into the pariih from its intercourfe with other places, either 
nearer or more remote ; and they are even lefs malignant, or 
not fo fatal, as in thofe parts from which they are brought. 
From this peculiar wholefomenefs and purity of the air, the 
inhabitants are, in general, very healthy. Many of tbem 


of Kilwinning i 145 

live to a verj advanced age. Within thefe 40 years, feveral 
have died confiderably above 8o. During this period, a man 
died at 9I9 and a woman at the very great age of 104. There 
are now living 2 men of 85, one of 91, and not a few per- 
fons, of both fexes, between 70 and 82. 

SmaUPox. — ^Thiai difeafe; it rnuft bie acknowledged, is a 
mdancholy exception to thefe fafts. It rages here, at times, 
with the utmoft violence, and is often extremely fatal. IvL 
the fnmmer and autamn of 1791; upwards of 90 childrezt 
had the natural fmaU pox, and more than one half of them 
died. The chin-cough and natural fmall poi: not tiinfreqaent- 
Ij prevail at the fame time. When this happens, as was the 
cafe at the above period, the ravages cdmmitte<l by this laft 
dileale, are tnily dreadful. The coincidence of thefe difeafes 
might, in a great meafure, be prevented by inoculation. But 
though in this, and in every other fefpeS, inoculation is at- 
tended with th^ happieft confequences, it is only praAifed 
here in two or three families. From ignorance, and the 
moft fnpefiitious prejudices, the parents, regardlefs, or iii- 
lenfiUe of confequences, inftead of inoci^lating their children^ 
crowd into thofe hoofes in which the difeafe is of the mol£ 
malignant nature, and at a time when it is the moft infe^ious« 
The very worft kind of this dangerous and loathfome difeafe 
is, in this matnner, commanicated and fpread, and thoufand^ 
of valuable lives are loft to the community. This impious 
prefumptioo, thefe illiberal and groutdlefs prejudices, are not 
peculiar to this parifti ; in every other country pariih in 2>cot« 
land, the great bulk of the people think and ad pretty much 
in the fame way. It is well known, at leaft to the clergy, 
that every argument in fupport of inoculation, however con* 
clnfive or felf-evident, makes no impreffion upon their minds. 
To make a law, bbliging all perfolns, without diftinftion, to 

Vol.. XI. T inoculate 

146 Statiftical Accwnt 

inoculate their children, would be thought inconfifient inritfc 
the liberty of Britiih fnbjefis, and even with the common 
principles of hunumitj. But as the profperity, naj the very 
exiftence of every country, is infeparably connefied with the 
number of its inhabitants, fomething certainly ought to be 
attempted, to render, if poffible, inoculation in Scotland more 
general than it is at prefent. With a view to this, the fol- 
lowing outlines of a fcheme are humbly propofcd. 

1^, That by an aA of parliament, all the furgeons in Scot- 
land be appointed, under certain penalties, to keep regular 
fcparate lifts, both of thefe children who are inoculated by 
them, and of thofe under their care, who take the difeafe in 
the natural way \ and to ftate the precife number of fuch as 
die of the inoculated, and of the natural Imall pox. 

ftd/f , In order to fix, with the utmoft certainty, the exaA 
number of thofe children who take the natural fmall pox, 
that all parents be appointed, by the (sme authority, and un- 
der the ikme penalties, to inform their family furgeons, even 
of fuch of their children, as have the difeafe in fuch a £i- 
vourable way as not to need the ailiftance of a furgeon* 

3^/^, That thofe lifts be figned, and fent to Edinbut^ht 
once every year, or oftener, if it fliall be judged neceflary ; 
and printed under the particular direftion of government. 

/{My^ That when printed, thefe lifts ftiall be immediately 
tranfmitted to the magiftrates and clergy of every town, and 
to the juftices of the peace, and the clergy of every country 
pariih, to be by them diftributed, and made as univerfally 
known as pof&ble among the people. 

Sthly, That a falary to the furgeons^ adequate to tiieir 
trouble, be eftabliflied by government ; as well as a fund for 
inoculating the children of the poor. 

5 A feries 

of Kilwinning. 147 

A feries of faAs, thus dearlj and I11II7 ftated and authen* 
Qcatedy will, by degrees, it is hoped* convince even the moit 
%iionnit and prejudiced of the propriety and neceflitj of ino- 
colattoa i and, at bft, make them readily and cheerfully fall 
in with a pra&ice lb wonderfully calculate under Gos, to 
prefisrve life« 

Lakesy MimralSf and Mineral Waieri.-^Thtre is only one 
lake in the parifh, called the AJhin^yard Loch* It abounds in 
excellent pikes and perches. — There are quarries of free-fton^ 
in different parts of the parifh* Some of thefe ftones are of a 
veiy fine quality ; and are carried in confiderable quantities to 
Irvine, and to feveral other places i^ the neighbourhood- 
Lime-fUme, of the very heft kind, and in very great plenty, 
is to be found in almoft every quarter and divifion of the pa« 
riflii" There is one chalybeate fpring clofe by the town; from 
the nie of which, perfbns, labouring under nervous pon»j»}aiKtf« 
have received confiderable benefit. 

Caillbrw/.— -There are three collieries in the parifli, viz^ 
Eqfier Dowra^ belonging to I^otd Liile, which lets at 1401. 
per annnai. At this work from la to z6 colliers are emr 
{doyed. Laigb Fergus JnU% belonging to the heirs of the late 
Mr. M'Sowal, which is at preCent under leafe, for a year, at 
xooL Moni^greenaUf the property of Mr. Bowman of Aihe 
grove. From 4 to 6 men are here ufiially employed. It is 
let at lol. a year. From the two firft of thefe co^tUworks^ 
there is fiill an ezportatioa to Ireland, from the port of Ir« 
vine. Tliis trade, however, is now very triflbg and inconfip 
deiablci compared to what it was formerly, 

Staie of Property.-^Tht valued rent of the pariih is 630I. 
Scotch; The real yearly rent is thought to be about 6ooo|. 

T? Sterling; 

143 \StatifiicalAccqunl 

Sterlbg ; and thr rent of the houfea in the town 47|I. %6m. 
The Earl of Eglintoone is proprietor of niore tha« a tfaaxd 
part of the lands of die partih. There are 9 other coofider* 
aUe proprietors ; 4 of whom refide in it) and $0 fiuaU pro* 
prieto^, called fcners, 15 of wbpm are npnfcefidkig* There 
have been 

Kewhoafesbnilt, wiUun thefezoyein, - - - - 16 
Hoofei pQlled down, tnd itlkoik on a mndi neater and mare commodkma 

plan ten futterly, •••*.. s( 

heaven fliopt new bttilt, •-*••• ^ 

Thennnlierof ftfonit . * . . • i^^ 
Thefise of the fiurmt is reckoned to be from 15 to opwardt of zooacret. 

Number of honfet in the town, • - • - 183 

Average rent yearly, . • • • • tiL isa. 

Ubinhabited hon&i% - - . - • • 4 

Rivers and Fi^f iffr— —There are a rivers in th« pariflit 
Gtnmoci and Lugton. The laft c^ thefe rifes In the pwiii of 
NeiLflon in Reafrewfhire. It runs through a great ptft of 
this pariihy and falls into the Garoock, about an Engliih mile 
below Eglintonne Caftle. There is plentj of Tcry iae tmuts 
in it. Gamock, bj fo the moft oobfideraUe of diefe a rivers, 
has ks fonrce in the high hills in the parift of Kilbinfej, 
about the diftatice of 10 Engliilh mtiea from i^ towa of 
Kilwinning. A£ttt running for fome myes through this pa- 
riih, it fidis into the Iriik Sea at the harbout of Irvine. It is 
well ftored with falmon, ai^ with d^rent kindtt of e^codleot 
trouts. The fsdmon fifhiag, in this river, is at the beft in the 
snonth of July; and is the exchifive property of Lord Eglin« 
toune, ffbm about one fourth of a mile above the town, to 
where the river falls into the icz. Ifike all rivers which 
have their fources in very elevated iituations, it is liable to 


* Thefe sbonfet are in the pariih. Id the towD» the honlei arc all inhabited. 

' of Kilwntdf^. 1 49 

fsdte inmidatiott8*> On this river, and aKo on the Lugton, 
there «re fomc ficnations eztremelj proper for ere&ing cottoa 
niUi. There is a plentiful and conftant fupplj of the very 
beft water for all kinds of machioerj \ a populous and highly 
caltivaied countrj, in the near neighbourhood of fome goo4 
market towns \ oatmeal, the ordinary food of the labouring 
people, is cheaper by id., and fometimes by ad. a peck, than 
is Glafgow and Paifley ; and' all other kinds of provifiona are 
ia the lame proportion* 

^%aii and Bridges. — ^There are 4 turnpike roads in th^ 
parifii. Thefe were originally made and kept in repair by 
the ftatote labour. This was exacted formerly in kind ; but, 
for more than ao years, it has,, by an aft of parliament, beea 
converted into money. Every farm, whether in tillage or in 
gca£^ pays at the rate of jd- Sterling for every pound Scotch 
of valued rent ; and eyery houfeholder, who does not occupy 
land to the amount of lal. Scotch of valued rent, pays 3s. 
Sterling yearly. Such poor families as produce a certificate 
10 the c<dle&or, from the miniiler, of their inability to pay 
this tax, are exempted from payment. The average annual 
aflMont of the money levied for fiatute labour is 99L This 
fttm bciag f^fficient for making the roads, and keeping them 
ia piioper repair, there is no toll levied, nor any toll-bar 
Acfiid ia the parilh* Unfortunately, the 4 roads are almoft 
jtt the voy citremities of the W* and S. W. parts of the pa* 


^ Ob the t9lii of Septonber 1790, there was a Tcry remarkable inundatioD. 
The lirer rde 4 ktx higher, than eTcr it was known to have done at any former 
Knod. This flood did great damage to the growing corns, and carried into 
dK fa great quantities of fnch as were cut down. The town lies on both (idea 
■f the river ; and the lower parts of it were hud almoA quite under water. Aa 
dkis ioandatioo happened m the night, many of the inhabitants were ia thegreatcft 
dH|er,aBd had jvft time to tk^t with their lirea. 

150 Stctf/fical Account 

rifh. Th« other roads, not included in the preCent aft of par* 
Uament, are totally negleAed, and are nfezt to impaflable for 
snore than three fourths of the je9x. One of theniy leading 
from th^ town to the very eaftem boundary of the parifh, mud 
nearly through the very middle of it, is about 6 Englilh 
miles long. This line of road, the very worft, perhaps, in 
the whole county, is effentially neceflary to every agricoltaral 
improvement in the parifli ; and, if made, would open a com-> 
munication between this part of the country and Glafgow, 
feveral miles nearer than the prefent line by Irvine and Stew- 
artown. It is, therefore, moft eamcftly requefted, that when 
a new county road bill, is applied for, this road may be pur* 
ticularly included in \U 

Birisj Plants^ Woods and Soil, — ^The migratory birds are 
the cuckoo, the wood-cock, the bulfinch, and the green mad 
gray plover. — There is no curious plant to be found liere. 
The greater part of the parifli being cultivated, no rare indi- 
genous plants are to be met with, except a few of the Cryfto^ 
gamia of Linnaeus.— There are no natural woods in the parifli. 
Befides the very extenfive plantations, the property of Lord 
Eglintoune, there are feveral other plantationa in diffBrenc 
parts of the parifli, and fome very fine full-grown old trees 
of afli, plane, beech and elm. The weather on the whole of 
this weft coaft is often very variable. There are frequendjr 
very quick tranfitions from heat to cold, from froft to rain* 
Thefe tranfitions, attended fometimes with violent S. W. and 
W. winds, are hurtful to vegetation. Trees, in general, and 
efpeciaUy all fuch trees as are of the refinous kinds, fuffier very 
much from them. — About one half of the parifli is a ftiff, wet, 
clay foil, a&d the other a light fand and loam, 


of Kilwinning. 15 1 

Rentt^ jigriculture^ \Jc.f ^The average rent of the 

fanns, per acre, is x8s. The whole of the parifh is 

aodofed with hedge and ditch. Such of the hedges a^ 


f By wif of contraft to the prefent improTcd (btte of the parilh, i^ 
■Xf HOC be improper to infert the reiU^ mode of eultivaiiou^ prUet of privi^ 
fm»^ f!f«. t^«. that took place ahout 50 years ago. In the year Z741, the 
aYcra^e rent of an acre was i% The parish was then wholly unindofed, ' 
cicepting an iadofare or two about EgUntoune Caftk. The fonnera 
flowed with 4, and fometxmei with 6 hories, and 3 men. The bnfineis of 
«f die third man, it was pracended, would keep the plough fteady, and prevent its 
fiartiDg allde, or g«ng out of the firaight line. The ridges were exceffiTel j 
hroad, and raifed very high in the middle. Nearly two thirds of every ridge 
were left, in a great meafnre, without any of the foil, and even the very little 
thatfemttBed being, during the winter, ahnoft covered with water, was iiMured, 
and eoolequeatly in a ftate that produced very little, either of grafs or grain. 
Every farm was confidered as divided into ourrirLo and iMriiLD, or, as this tail 
vras odle^ lit enft. The infield, or the croft, was in proportion to the iise of 
the Cum, from 6 to 16 acres. It was kept conftantly in tillage. The tmtfi ^ 
tnpf vraa, xft,bear; ad, peafe and beans ; 3d, oau; then dnngedfor bear. The 
•atfield vraa never manured* It was divided into two parts, crept with oaU % 
yeui^ and paffantd %• Tbii was the general pradice. There were ibme who cropt 
it % years» and pafinrcd 3. Produce from i^ to % county bolls. This produce 
did little more, (if So nrach), than to defray the expences of feed and labour 
There vraa no iown graft ; confeqnentty no bay, except in Ibme few farms, s 
fittfe cQorle meadow hay. F^om thisflovenly and abfurd mode of management^ 
the paftnre vraa extremely fcanty, and of a very poor quality. There were no 
carta. The produce of the £um was brought to market in facks on horfeback. 
The dsng was carried to the croft in finall creels on horfeback, or in fledges. 
Though the ibil was wet, and entirely without any flielter, every farm kept a 
certain numbet of (beep. The number varied according to the extent of 
the iamu They were conftantly houfed at night. The wool they produced 
waa coarie, and in very ihiall quantities. There were very few milk cows. 
From their ignorance of a dairy, the profits the formers made of the few cowa 
they kept, were extremely inconfiderable. Skimm*d milk cheefe was the only kind 
they knew how to make. The little fweet milk cheefe which wu then ufed, 
wa»fflRpBrted firom Ireland. Lizpe was very little known, and ftill lels ufed as a 
nuonre* There were no potatoes planted, except perhaps a very few ia a gar- 
den, or in the concr of a field- 

i^i StoHJlical Account 

are kept cleaov aod btherwife properly attended to, thrite ex- 
tremely welly |ind become, in a few years, a Teiy ftrong 
fence. On feme farms,* tfees are planted in the hedges. It 
is much to be regretted, that this mode of inclofing was not 
more generally praftifed. Thefe hedge rows, befides the 
warmth lind (belter whidh they afford, embellifli and enrich^ 
to a very great degree, the whole face of the country. What- 
ever reludance and averfion, from ignorance or prejudice, 
the farmers ttigh't, at firft, difcovei to indafiogt they now 
leel and acknowledge its advantages,' and co&fequeatly are 
univerfally fond of it. Difregarding the former abfutd divi- 
iion into outJUld and infield^ or croft, farms are now divided 
into 3 or 4 inclpfures, as nearly equal as poflibly can be done. 
Such fiums as are divided into 3 indofufes, or* as they are 
comoaonly called, breaks^ the tenant, by his leafe, is bound, 
under a certain ftipulated penalty, to plow dne only of thefe 
.at a time \ to crop 3 years, and pafture 5. Hie 4th year it 
is cut for hay. The principal crop is oats. He (bwd between 
< and 7 bufliels an acre : Reaps, at a medium,- frbni 5 to 6 
boUs. On a clky foil, or a rich loam, beans are fon^'n, at the 
rate of between 5 and 6 bnfliels an acre. The average pto-' 
duce is 7 bolls, j bufhels to the boU. Four bu{Iiels bear pro- 
duce 5 bolls, 8 bttlhels to the boll. There is however very 
little bear now fown, and no wheat nor barfey, and but few 
beans. The alinoft univerfal crop in the parifh is oats. Some 
time in the month of Auguft it is limed on the fward ; and, 
about a fortpight or three weeks before plowing, whatever 
dung the farmers have, is laid out, and fpread over the Ume. 
The price of lime at the draw-kill, is from 4id. to $A* a bn-- 
ihel. The ground . is fown down the 3d year with xye-grafs* 
and clover, at the rate of 3 bufhels rye-grafs an acre, and 
from 6 lb. to xo lb. red and white clover. The produce is 
' from 150 to 2ao ftones, 24 Englifli lbs. to the ftone. Farms, 


of Kilwinning: i j3 

divided into 4 inclofures, are managed precifely in the fame 
way ; with this only diScrence, that every inclofure refts 9 
years inftcad of 6. — ^The Scotch plough, of the lighted and 
beft kind, is generally ufed ; and it is drawn by 3, and fome- 
times by 4 horfes, with a man and a boy. The price of the 
ploagh is from 25s. to 30s. When the feafon happens to be 
uncommonly dry, oats and beans begin to be fown about the 
middle of March ; but, in general, very little is fown before 
the month of April. Bear continues to be fown, from about 
&c beginning to the latter end of May. There is no general 
harveft till about the iirft, and fometimes the fecond week pf 
September. It is moftly over about the latter end of October. 
By far the greateft part of the hay and harveil work is done by 
women, at from is. to ijd. a day, without visuals. When 
hired till the whole of the grain is cut dowti, which is the 
more general praAice, they have from 2 js. to 30s., with 

Faiiure of the Crop in X 78 2.— •Different caufes, no doubt, con- 
tributed to this failure, in different parts of the country : But 
in this parifh, and in others immediately on the fea coaft, the 
chief caufe of its failure was owing to a very fevere weft 
wind, about the middle, or towards the latter end of the 
month of Aoguft^ which continued with the utmoft violence 
fior a confiderable time. The corns had their roots loofened, 
and were otherwife much damaged by this ftorm. From be- 
ing in general, very green, when it happened, in a few days 
afterwards they grew white, but never filled. Snow alfo, in 
fnch parts of the pariih as were at the greateft diftance from 
the lea, fell earlier, and in greater quantities, than ever had 
been known at that feafon of the year. A boll of well ripen- 
ed oats yields, at an average, from 17 to ao pecks of meal, 
and even, fometimes, more: But, in 1782, the boll of oats. 

Vol.. XI. U of 

ijf4 Statlftical Account 

ef i6 pecksy yielded only from lo to 1 2 pecks of meal. The 
price of the peck of meal that year, was from I4d. to i8d« 
The parifh produces grain aimed equal to the confumptioQ of 
its inhabitants, though more than one third of it be in 

Pajlurage^ \3c,F^iTi a wet clay foil, it generally takes 3 
acres to feed a milk cow $ but, in a light dry foil, li, or at 
mod a acres, are fufficitnt. The weight of a milk cow is 
from 16 to 20 ftones ; the average produce from 4l* to 5!. 
For grais to a horfe, 50s. ; for ditto to a milk cow, from 30s. 
to 40s. There is a great quantity of fweet milk cheefe made 
in the parifh, and of the very beft quality j for which there is 
« conftant demand in Glafgow and Paifley, and of late in 
Edinburgh. Every farmer has one, or more, one-horfe carts, 
worth from $\. to 81. 

Poiatee Hujbandry^ C^r.— -Potatoes are raifed by hor(e*hoe« 
ing, and are planted at the diftance of '3 feet between the rows, 
and 6 inches from plant to plant in the rows. The ground 
is dunged at the rate of from 50 to 70 carts an acre. It gets 
5 plowings i the 2 firft with 3 horfes, and the other 3 with 
2 and z horfe. The planting and raifing cofts from 8s« to 
I OS. The potatoes are commonly raifed with the fpade, in«- 
ftead of the plough, owing to the heavy rains, which generally 
fet in at the time they are raifed. The produce is from 30 
bolls an acre, and upwards j the average price 6d* a peck. A 
potatoe crop is reckoned an excellent fallow for oats or bear. 
Lord Eglintoune has, under his own management, a very ex^ 
tenfive farm, the greater part of which is of a light fandy 
foil. The high broad ridges are now reduced to low ridges, of 
8 feet each. One year before it is broken up, it is limed on 
the fward, at the rate of from 80 to 15P bolls an acre. The 


of Kilwinning^ i ^^ 

rouaiom of crops ia, the a firft years oats, ; the 3d, a fallow, 
or a horfe-hoed crop of potatoes and turnips. This crop is 
danged» at the rate of 60 carts an acre. The 4th year barley, 
and ibmetimes oats. It is then laid down with natural grafs 
feeds, and clover and lye-grals, and allowed to reft from 8 to 10 
years. The produce is from 6 to 10 bolls an acre. Gompofta 
of dang, earth and lime are fpread on the field in the 2d and 
3d years after it has been laid down. Cattle, fed on the farm, 
clear from aos. to 30s. an acre_There are now only 3 malt 

Prices ofProvifions.'^The average priceof oatmeal, for thcfe 
laft ao years, has been i ifd. a peck -, beef, per pound, 44d.; veal» 
4d. ; lamb, 3d. ; pork, from 4id. to jd.; fweet milk cheefe, 
from 5 id. to 6d.; fkimm'd milk ditto, from ij^d. to 4d.; butter, 
9*^* f ^SS^f pcf dozen, from 4d. to 6d. ; a hen, from is. to 
Is. 4d. ; a duck, from 9d. to is. id. ; candles, per pound, 16 
ounces, 7id. ; hard foap, 8d. j foft 4itto, (d. ; a pair of ihoes, 
6s. For the prefent prices of labour, fee the table of profef«< 
lionsj Sec. pages 160 and i6x. 

U a Manmr 

*FrQia the very imperfed fiate of agriculture in X74l» and forfeveral 
years afterwards, the price of oatmeal was Tariable ai^d uncertain. It was 
fiMBctinies as ht^ as x8d. a peck, afld again ta rery low as jd. a peck. The 
prices of butter, and other providoos, per lb. (94 Englifli ounces to the lb.}, were 
butter 3d.; beef, from x^ to l}d.; Teal, ad.; iamb, i{d.; mutton, X'jd.; 
ikimmM milk chcefey x^.; candles, x6 ounce to the lb, 4d ; hard foap, 4d.; foft 
ditto, 3d. ; eggs, a dozen, xd. ; a hen, from 3d. to 4d. ; a duck, 4^* > > P^ 
of flioes, from as. to as. 6d. ; a load of coals, (8 loads in the ton), 6d. ; b^ary 
per boU, (S Winchefter bulhels per boU), from 9s. to xos. ; malt ditto, from xos. 
to X3t. 4dt "^c wages of a male farm fenrant were from 358. to 40s. per an n. 
of a female ditto, from a6s. to 30s. Domeftic female fenraats had the famf 
wages. There were no domeftic male ferrants, except foch as were in liTcry. 
The wages of a day hboufer wae 3|d« or 4d. with his mMnteaa&ce ; and 8d« 

156 Skiti/iical Account 

Manner of Lining^ t^r.— It is to be obferved, that, not- 
withftanding the very great rife of rents, and of fetvants 
wages, the farmers live much more comfortably, and make a. 
more decent and refpefiable appearance, than they did 30 
years ago*. Their rents are more regularly and punftnally 
paid, and there arc fewer bankruptcies, or failures among 
them. There is, however, a ftill greater, and more ftriking 
difference, in the drefs and manner of living of the tradefmen, 
than of thefarmers. Agood deal of Englifli broadcloth is worn 
by the men ; and both miftrefles and fer van t* maids, (for in 
point of drefs there is little difference between them), have 
their filk cloaks and bonnets, their muflin and calico gowns ^ 
their ribbons and flounced petticoats, with cotton and thread 
ilockings. Tradefmen do not live nearly fo much on oatmeal 
as they did in 1741* There is fcarcely one of their families 
in which tea, with wheaten bread, is not ufed for breakfall \ 
and very few that do not drink it in the afternoon. Farmerst 
tradefmen, and day-labourers, live a good deal on butcher 
meat, with potatoes. In 1792, upwards of aoo fatted cows 
were made ufe of, befides veal, lamb, and pork. 


* In 1741, the mm irore firoDg coBrfe doth; the greater parr, if not the 
whole, of which was fpun in their own families, and woven and drcflcd in the 
pariih* Knit woollen ftockiogs were then only beginning to be nfed by a few 
of the men. Plaiding hofe were ftill the general wear. There were no hats; 
bonnets were uniTerfally in ufe.— The wives of fome of the mord wealthy and 
fubftantial farmers, and tradefmen, had fUk plaids; but by far the greater part 
of the married women, red or firipcd worfied ones. Young women wore 
woollen cloaks, with hoods of the fame kind of doth. This cloih was of home 
manufadure. They had no buckles in their (hoes; thefe were tied with a piece 
of red or blue tape. The women in general, and particularly the yonngerpart 
of them, feldom put on flioes and fiockings, eicepting to the church, or to a 
fair or market. Their head-drefs was extremely plain and fimple. — ^They lived 
chiefly on oatmeal and milk, or butter and (kimmed milkchcefe. Butcher meat 


of Kilwinning. 2 r 7 

Za^/-— The leafes are commoolj of 19 or a i jears endur-* 
ace. Theie (horc leafes are a verj great difcouragement to 
tbemduftryof the farmer, and confequently highlj injariousto 
tke intereft both of the proprietor and the tenant. With fuch 
a Ihort leafe he will make no new experiments ; be will not 
even proceed with fpirit and animation, in the common beaten 
trad of hnfbandrj pradifed by his neighbours, or impofed on 
htm by the terms of his leafe. Or ihould he, at the com- 
mencement of it, make any uncommon exertions, he very 
foon becomes difpirited, if not carelefs and remiis. The . 
thought of the (hortneis of his leafe forces itfelf upon his 
mind, almoft inceilantly ; and he is fcarcely entered on poflef- 
fioB, when he thinks he fees the end of it. He has a young 
increafing family of children. They are unaUe to ailift him : 
He is neceifiirily obliged to hire fenrants, at very high wages* 
The education of his children, the board and wages of his . 
fenranta, and other unavoidable expences, embarais him to 
fuch a degree, that, with all his induftry and attention, he 
can with the utmoll difliculty pay his rent. After i a or 14 
years, his profpefts begin to brighten. The oldeft of his 
children arc now of fome ufe to him, in the cultivation of his 
farm. He knows, from experience, the different foils that 
are in his farm, and the different kinds of grain that are beft 
adapted to thefe foils. In a very few years he will have it in 
his power to difmifs all his fervants, and to work his farm 


v» (cldom nfcd by the farmcn, cicept in feed-time and harveft ; and veiy lit- 
tle of it, at any time, by tradcfmen anu day labourers. About the beginning 
of November, a few finall Highland cows were brought from the iflands of 
Arran aod Bute, and fold at from 13s. 4d. to oos. One of thefe was divided 
among three or more familiea. Such farmera as were reckoned in very opulent 
dfcunftaaeei, fometimes killed a cow in November, which had given milk till 
the beginniofr of Auguifc. There were only 4 tea kettks in the parifh m X742* 
TlMre waft not one in it before 1 709* 

158 Statiflical Account 

with the aififtance of his childreo. But, anotdft thefe tMber^ 
ing profpefts, his leafe is at an end. With his family^ be 
xnuft remove he knows not whither, and leave the fruits o£ 
his laborious and painful induftrj^ to another; a ftranger, per* 
haps, or even an enemy, who has long envied him» While 
fnch is th« ftate of leafes, can the country be cultivated witli 
fpirit and e£Fe£t ? To accomplifli this, the farmer muft have 
fomething like the idea of property in his poffeiBon, or, at 
kaft, the higheft degree of probability of tranfmitting it to 
his children. To render this equally advantageons to the 
landlord and to the tenant, the form of a leafe, propofed ia 
his book on hufbandry, by the very ingenious, learned, sod 
patriotic Lord Kames, feems to be more efieftual, than any 
other hitherto ofiered to the public *• 

Horfes. — There is « very excellent breed of large, ftroog, 
handfome horfe^. They are brought from Lanarkihire when 
about a year old. The average price is ill. After being 
kept for 4 or 5 years, they are Ibid, from ajU to 40I., for 
the draught or carriage. 

population. — ^The return made to Dr. Webfter, io ITS 5% 

5 of 

* As this book is not in the hands of a great many, and as it is read, par* 
liapSy but by few, bis Lordibip*8 form of a leafe is here copied. " In order tp 
" excite the induftry of tiic tenant, at the end of the leafe, he Ihall be entitled 
«* to a renewal of it, upon paying the proprietor a fifth part more of rent, on- 
'* lefs the proprietor give him ten years {urchafe of that fifth part. For ex- 
** ample; the rent is xooL; the tenant offers laol. : He (hall therefore continue 
** in the poflcfiion another 19 years, at the advanced rent, unlefs the landlord 
** pay him aool. Should the tenant ofier a ftill higher additional rent, the pro- 
** prietor cannot turn him out, unlefs he pay him ten years purchafe of that 
« ofier." 

of Kiholnning. i^ 

of the populatioii of this parifli, was - 2541 Souls, 

From alateeaumenition there are, in the 

country part of the pariih, - iioo n 

And in the town, - - - ia6oJ*3 ^ 

Decreafe, - - - 181 

Thefe are all of the eftabli(hment, except 212 Antlburgher 
Seceders, a few families of Burghers, and an equally fmaE 
number of the Relief perfuafion. There are no Epifcopaliaos 
nor Roman Catholics. From the moft unqueftionable tradi« 
don, it appears, that, about 50 years ago, the country parilh 
was confiderably more populous than it is now. The caufes 
of thu decreafe in the population feem to be the three fol- 
lowing :— -1^1 The union of two or more fmall farms into one 
large fium. This has happened in not a few inftances, 2d/^^ 
The barony of Eglintoune, formerly one of the moft populous 
qnaiters or divifions of the parifh, is inclofed and &rmed hy 
Lord Eglxktoune, and inhabited only by a very few families 
of his Lordfhip*s fervants. Sdfyf The almoft total want of 
cottagers. Every farm had formerly one or two, or more o£ 
thele families upon it. The cottages are now, in a great mea« 
fvci demoliflied ; and this numerous and induflrious clafs of 
people has been under the neceiEty of removing to IrvinCt 
and to the other towns in the neighbourhood. From the want 
of trade and manufaOures, very few of them fettled in Kil- 
winning. Owing to the rapid progrefs of manufaftnres, how« 
ever, the population in the town has, for fome years pafi, been 
on the increafe. From the fpirit of induftry and enterprife 
nniverially fpread throilgh the country, there is every degree 
of probability, diat thefe will make a ftill more fuccefiful and 
cxtenfive progrefs ; and that the population will proportionablj 



Statifiical Account 

The following table exhibits a view of the prefent nam1>er 
of the different artifts, their journeTmen and apprentices, their 
rates of wages, Skc. 








31 i 

From 08 to xo 

— — iilkgtuxch 


I 6 to » 6 


— — I 6 to » 6 









7 ■ 

-*— 6 to 9 



la - 

z 6 




X 4 



9 • 

— I 8 to » 



Md. wkbTia. 



X 6 

Honle carpeoursy 




a 6 




z 8 




























** Women, andgirU from 7 years old, arc employed in tambonrlng muflins. 
The othen flower mufims with the needle. The gaozes and miiflias ave feac 
here, for that purpefe, by the muattfa^urers of CUTgov and Faifley. 

of Kilwinning. 1 6 1 

Keepers of public houfct in the town *^ • . . . . j • 

Skopkeepere, grocers, &c. •.... . •-zi 
Shipmaflen 3, fetmen ix f, - • . • . j^ 

Soldiers in the amy f, • - . • . •!» 

Cttriers to Oh%o«r aod Pkiiky, - . . . ^ % 

Cuttrsychiefly employed in bringing coals to the towa, . • . ^ 
Diybboarers, - .... 37^ from n. to 11, 6d, a day 
Male fum iiervantSy per annflm, . . « from zoL to xal. 

Female ditto. 4L to 61. 

Bometic ditto, ---..-.. 3I, jq,. 

A Lift of BiiiLTHS, Deaths, and Marriages, for the lafl 
eight years ; extrafte^ from the pariOi regifter. 


Dkatrs. I 

Ma a 11. 









































































Totat . 










.95 1 






ManitfaQures.^'^ne xnanafa6lnrer employs 9 looms, in 

weaving lawns^ and linen gauzes, for the Iriflx market. There 

Vol, XL X is 

^ There are noite in the country pvifli i Thde in the town are by far too 
many for the nomber of inhabitants, and are hot too often nurferies of idlenefs 
and vice, Whiflcy is what they chiefly drink. From its cheapneis, the diflt- 
pated and profligate indulge themfeWes in it to exceis, to the hort, and fre* 
^emly the rnin of their familiei. Were gofemment to raifc the daties on whj/iy^ 
and Wwer them on «i^, this, in all probability, would inereafe the revenue, and 
tend molt cfledtually to promote the indnflry, the health, and the moials of the 

1 1 During the laft war there were in the navy 13, and in the arm/ 5, from 

1 62 Statiftical Account 

IS a tannery lately ereded, which carries on a good deal of 
bufinefs. This laft year, the company bought 400 hides* 
Within thefe 3 years, 2 houfes have been ereAed for fpinning 
cotton, with common and mule jennies ; alfo a cotton mill, 
on a fmall fcale, for carding the cotton. In thefe 2 houfes 
there are x a mule jennies, and 16 common ones. The per« 
fons employed, arc 

Men« Women. Boyift Girls. TouL 

ao zx 30 6z 

Who tarn from * -> it. 8d. to ai« zod. tmiu 6d. to zod. 

None of the yarn is manufa&ared here into cloth* It is fold 
in Glafgow ^nd Paifley. As long as this is the cafe, the cot- 
ton manufafiure can never be carried on to any extent. 
Though a large capital be no doabt necci&ry, for bringing 
cotton goods of all kinds into the market, it is not, how- 
ever, fo mnch the want of a capital, as of a marker, that 
prevents the manufafturers in this place, and on the whole 
of this weft coaft, from manufaAuring their own cotton yam. 
The ceadieft, and, every thing confidered, perhaps the moft 
advantageous market for this weft country, would be Ireland. 
But fo very high are the Irifli duties on Scotch muflins, and 
on every kind of Scotch goods, in which there is (b much as 
a fingle thread of cotton yarn, as amounts to a total prohibi- 
tion of carrying thefe goods to the Iriih market. This gives 
the greateft encouragement to fmuggling, and has alfo made 
feveral very confiderable cotton manufadurers leave Glafgow, 
and other places in its neighbourhood, and fettle in Ireland* 
At the fame time, it is not a little furprifing, that Irifli linens 
are brought into Scotland duty free. Does not this difcover 
an undue partiality in favour of that kingdom ?' It is thoughty 
that no lefs than Xoo,oool. worth of Scotch muflins, and other 
Scotch cotton goods, would be annually fold in the Iriih market, 


ef Kilwinning. 163' 

were it not for thefe exceffivelj high duties. An objeft of 
filch importance to the commercial intereft of Scotland, merits 
the aioft ferious attention of the Britifh parliament. Should 
the Iriihy upon an accurate and fair (latement of the matter, 
refofe to lower the duties on Scotch cotton goods, it is hum- 
U7 fubmitted, how far it would not become the wifdom and 
jullice of the Britilh parliament, to lay a proportionable duty 
on all Iriih linens brought into Scotland. 

flax and Jlff//f.-»From zi to 14 hogflieads otjtax feeds are 
IbwD annualljr. The flax is fpun and manufaAured for the 
various family ufes of the inhabitants. A very (mail quan- 
tity of it only is made into a coarfe kind of cloth, called ham^ 
whioh is brought to market, and fold for Ihirts to the lower • 
claffes of the people. There is a flax mill, at which 137 
ilones of flax are drefled annually ; befides a waulk or fulling 
loil] ; 4 for grinding corn, z for wheat, and a for barley*. 

TCbirlage. — ^A great part of the parilh is thirled to the Kil- 
winning mill, called the ^bhey Mill^ and to the Mill of Seven 
AcreSf the property of Lord Eglintoune. Some farms pay 
an exceiSvely high multure, no lefs than the lath peck. This 
iervitnde is evidently a very great hindrance to improvement. 
It makes the millers n^ore negligent than otherwife they 
would be. They know that the corns of fnch lands as are 
thirled mnfl be brought to them, in whatever carelefs, or even 
fraudulent a manner, they may juftly be fufpeAed of hav- 

2^ A ing 

* Fifty yeari ago there were no \nx\ty piills. Inftead of tbefe, sJmoft every 
family had a pretty large fione, called a morter done. This ftone was hollowed 
fcy a oialba to what was reckoned a proper depth. Into it wai put at much 
bear or barley as could be eafily wrought. A little water wai thrown upon it, 
to make it part with the hvflci. It was then beat with a large wooden melt, or 
mailety till it was fit to be vied for auking broth. 

1 64 Statiftical Account 

ing done their duty. Small proprlerorsi dierefore, ought cer<r 
tainlj to purchafe their thirlage, at almoft any price ; ancl 
proprietors of mills ought to free their own lands of this bur* 
den, aod lay an additional rent on their tenants, equal to what 
is paid by the miU to which they are bound. Thirlage being 
once abolifhed, and farmers at liberty to go where they pleafied 
with their corns, mills would beerefted in the moft convenient 
parts of parifliesi grain of conrfe would be better gromidg 
and at a much lower rate, and a great deal of time and labour 
would be faved to the fisirmer. 

FueL — ^The mofles in die pariih are, the Mofs MvHoch^ 
the Jucbenmodi and Auehtniyhir Mojfis. This lad mofs is 
fuppofed to contain more than 200 acres. In fome parts of it, 
it is ver/ deep, no lets than from z a to 16 feet. It produces 
very good peats. When the fnmmer is dry, tfaefe make ex* 
cellcLt firing, and are nfed as fncfa by the neighbouring fitrmr 
ers. But the ufnal and common fuel of the inhabitants 19 
coals. In no parifli, perhaps, in Scotland, is there coal in 
greater plenty, or of a better quality, than in this pariih. Very 
lately, however, the price of coals has been raifed ezceffively 
high. A load of coals, 8 loads to the ton, which, 50 years 
ago, coft from 3d. to 4d. at die cool pit, is now 8d. ; and the 
probability, at prefent, is, that it will be advanced to a ftiU 
higher price. Tliia fcarcity and dearnefs of coals is owing 
entirely to their not being wrought. Not to mention the in- 
humanity of fuch a conduft to the deftitute poor, proprietors 
of coals certainly mifiake their own interefi, in fuffering them 
to remain unwrought. An additional rife on coal, is to them, 
when properly confidered, a very trifling objed, compared 
Tvith the rife of the rents of their lands ; and this can be e£. 
feded only by the improvements in agricultuie, and the in- 
creafe of trade and nanufaAures. But it is a fed univerlally 


of Kihoinning. i6g 

icknowkdgcd, that few, if any, real improvements in agri. 
culture can be made, and that trade and manufadures cannot 
be extended to anj great and permanent degree, without cheap 
fncL Influenced, then, by a fenfe of their own itrtereft, let 
proprietors immediately work their own coals, and, at the 
Ikiiie time, lower the price of them. This will induce &rmei9, 
manafadurers and tradefmen, to leave thofe places in which 
firing is fcarce and dear, and fettle in this parifh. 

Pmt.^— There are at prefeat on the poor's roll 36 perfons, 
who receive from as. to 53. per month. Befides thefe, a 
joung men, fatuous, are maintained at the rate of 8s. 8d* 
» month, each* The annual amount of thefe penfions is 55L 
Siftribntion is $dfo madoi occafionally, to other poor fick 
perfoos, not on the penfion lift ; and even to thofe penfioners, 
wbofe circumftances require additional fupply, to the average 
f am, yearly, of i8l. The following is a ftate of the funds. 

Tbe weekly colle&bns, at a medium, amount to ;£. 30 o o 
Mortdodis at funerals, -* - ^ * 690 
Procbmations for marriages, « - * i 29 o 

Rents of fieats in the church, « - « 3 9 o 
Private charities, fome years, have amounted to • 10 o o 

As thefe, however, are lb liable to be withheld, 
they cannot be confidered as making any part of a 
permanent fund for the fupport of tbe poor. 
The intereft of 1481. at 3 per cent. • « 780 

% farma^, the property of the poor, bring at pre. 

fent a yearly rent of • - 30 a o 

Total, ;C. 89 4 o 


« One of ibde itfm»i oUed th« Woaooaaav, ii foppsM to contain «p- 


1 66 Statiftical Acccount 

There are 3 charitable focieties belongiog to the parlili. 
When any of their members, from (ickoefs or age, are on- 
abk to 'work, they are regularly, and even liberally fupported 
by thefc focieties. At prefent, there are only 3 beggars in 
the pariih ; but the inhabitants are greatly oppreffed with 
beggars from other parifhes, and even with feveral from Ire« 
land. The nomber of poor has, of late years, very much in* 
creafed, and is flill on the increale. From the very advanced 
wages of the manufaduring and labouring people of every 
defcription, and from the idlenefs, the diffipation and profli- 
gacy of manners, the ufual, and, indeed, the almoft infepar- 
aUe confequences of very high wages, it is next to an abfolote 
certainty, that the poor, in a few years, will increafe in a 
proportion hitherto unknown in Scotland. The common and 
ordinary funds, particularly in populous manufaduring pa* 
riflies, will be unable to fupport them. In thefe parifliea the 
poor's funds, from many very obvious caufes, are, for fooM 
years paft, greatly diminiflied. One very general and prin- 
cipal caufe of this decreafe is, that MEN of ravk and for* 
TUNIS are very irregular, and even crimisuilfy ntgltgcnU in their 
attendance upon divine fervice on the Sabbath. This condud, 
however fafhionabki is not only difrefpe£kful to religioo, dif- 


wardf of 80 acres, all araUe, of aa excellent improveaUe foily'and lying within 
a quarter of a mile of the town. Were it out of leafe, it would bring, at leail, 
a yearly rent of 80I. to the poor. In Z743, the immediate predeccflbr of tlie 
jprefent incumbent let it for the very loag period of 76 years, at the extremely 
low rent of 12I. The tienant alfo pays 1 boUt and 6 pecks of meal yearly to 
the pariih minifter, and the half o£ the cefs and fchodmafierVialary. This 
^lery extraordinary length of a leafe was thought, by many, to be beyond tfie 
powers of the minifter and fefion to grant. By the advice of a lawyer, of the 
very firft charader for profcfConal knowledge and abilities, the prefent incom* 
hent, with the concurrence of the feflion and principal heritors, commenced a 
proccfs of redttftion before the Court of Sefllon. The Coart, however, gave a 
^efitUHfifattttue agai^ft tbt pHr^ and in f^^voor of the teumt* . 

of Kilwinning. 167 

gracefol to the laws of jtheir coantrj, and peraicious in the 
highefl. degree to die morals of the people at large, but muft 
eveotaallj bring, upon tbem/ehes, aiTeflcnsnts, or poor's rattSm 
Of all the taxes impofed on the people of England, this is one 
of the moft oppreffive, and ruinous to the profperitj and im- 
provement of their country. In England, the poor's rates are 
lapidly increafing to the enormous fum of three millions 
STKiiLiva yearly ! An evil of fuch magnitude ought moH 
anxiouflj to be guarded againft, and, if poffible, to be pre- 
vented bj every clafs of men in Scotland, and, in particular, 
by the landed interefi. To render this tax unneceflary, or, at 
all events, to leflen it, (hould it be found impolfible to be al- 
together prevented, every man of property, once a year, or 
oftener if neceflary, ought regularly to fend the amount of 
his weekly charity to his own parifli church \ and to every 
other pariih, a fum proportioned to the property he hoh)s in 
that parifh. 

EccUfiaftical State. — ^There is at prefent but one clergyman, 
the miniiier of the Eftabliihed Church. An Antiburgher 
ndnifter, ordained in 176a, died about 3 months ago. The 
ftipend was augmented in 1786. The living is now worth 
140]., beiidcs a glebe of between 4 and 5 acres, and a very 
excellent manfe, built in X773. The church is a very beauti- 
ful ftrufiure, built partly in the ancient Gothic tafte, to cone- 
fpond to the venerable ruins of the monaftery* But though 
it be almoft ao years (ince it was built, it has never been 
ieated. This has been owing to an unhappy difference of 
opinion among the heritors about the divifion of the area of 
the church, and which is ftill unfcttled* The Earl of Eglin- 
TOUNE is patron of the pariih. - 

6 Scbools. 

t6d Staii/Hcal JccottHt 

Schooli^^^Tht faiaiy of the parilh lehoolmaftor is 9!. g^^ 
This, with the ichool fees and other emdiiments, makes the 
office of fchoolmafler worth about 251. a jea^. There is a 
fchoolJionfe, but no houfe for the fchDolmafter. Engliih, 
ivritiiig, arithmetic, imd book4ceeping, with the Latin, Greek» 
and French languages, are taught in the parifli fcbool. There 
are al£b a other fchools in the town, and a in the country psrt 
of the parifli, inteiided chiefly for teaching Englifli and writ« 
ing. The edticatioo of youth is indifputably of the very ut-J 
moft importance to the reUgbus and civil intereft;i of fociety • 
No clafs of mta, therefore, can be of more (if indeed of 
equal) conlequence and utility, dian parifli {choolmafters. But, 
So the difgrace of an enlightened and liberal age, thefie men 
have been moft amaxmgly neglefied. Their fidarics, when 
originally fixed in Scotland, bore a reafonabie proportion tcf 
the value of money, and to the price of labour and provi-s 
fions. Even then, however, it was only by the greateft at«« 
tention, and the moft rigid economy, that they were enabled 
to live with any kind of decency, and fecure that degree of 
refpeA To abfolutely neceffaiy to their nfefulneis. For many 
years after that period, parifli fchools were filled with men 
highly refpeftable for their exemplary lives, and for their fu- 
perior parts and learning. Hence that tafte for literature, 
that general knowledge, for which the Scotch were fo deferv* 
edly celebrated, whilft the great mals of the people of the other 
nations of Europe were funk in the moft favage ignorance. 
Since that time, the mode of living is entirely changed. 
Every article of drefs, provifions and houfehold furniture is 
rifen to a degree almoft incredible ; and a fltilliog, in real va- 
lue, is worth little more than a penny was then. For thefe 
reafons, the Salaries of the judges in Scotland, and the livings 
of the greater part of the clergy, have been confiderably in- 
creafed $ but no addition whatever has been made to the (a- 


of Kilwinning. 1 69 

Uries of parifh fchoolmafters. A common tradefman, or day 
labourer, if fober and induftrious, will earn a great deal more 
than the generality of fchoolmafters can poffiWy do. Is it to be 
imagined, that a man having any thing like a liberal education, 
and, in other refpeds, of an unblemifhed cli a racier, will en- 
gage in an o£Eice, the duties >of which are fo extremely labo- 
rious, for the miferably narrow, fcanty pittance at prefent 
amiexed to it ? Should trade and commerce make the fame 
rapid and cxtenfive progrefs, which of late ihey ha^ done, 
parifli fchools, it is to be feared, will be filled with perfons 
tvretchedly ignorant, or of grofsly indecent and immoral 
lives. The confequenctfs of this, to the riling generation, are 
too painful to be dwelt upon. Some evils, in order to be ro. 
dreflcdy need only to be mentioned. A fenfe of duty, and genu- 
ine patriotifm, it islioped, will ftrongly and efL^liially impel 
parents, and the friends of humanity and virtue, to unite ia 
applying to the legiilacure, to make a tar more decent and 
comfortable proviEon tor pariib fchoolmafters, than is done^t 

Monaflery* — This monaftcry was founded in the year 1140, 
by HucHDG MoR£ViLLE, a very opulent and powerful baron, 
Lord of Cunninghame, and Lord High Ccnftable of Scotland. 
It was dedicated to St. Winning. The monks were brought 
from Kelfo*. — In 1360, Alexander £ari of Glencaikn, 

Vol. XL Y one 

• They were cailcd Tyronenfej^ from Tyron, in the diocefc chartrcs. There, 
RoiKOU^, Earl of Ferche and AlBriagne^ gave a Ictikmcnt to St. Beknakd, 
ihcir Crft abbot* From him they, as well as the Ci/lertiaitt, were called Ber- 
ffAAOiNZS. They followed the rule of St. Cenedict, or Bcnnet, but reformed 
acd enlar^^ed by St. Bernard. K<n{; Robeiit I. gav^ to this monaflcty the lands 
of YisWAUd Jwxta hurgitm lie Jrvine ; as alTo •viginti fotiJos^ quot aMffuatim de terra fua 
^ K:Iasernecb LereMut dt Bal'tolo reddere fclcbant, JoiIAI^NES dc MeneTHETH 
i)ouitiM% de Akxah tf de KnaFDai-E^ grants to the cioLlis of this abbcy>//a- 

1 70 Statiftical Account 

ODt of the moil diftinguifhed and active promoters of the Re- 
forroation« in confequrnce of an order from the States of Scot- 
land, in a great meafure demoliihed this venerable and magni- 
ficent monaftery*. The only entire ruins of the abbey, novr 
remaining, are a fteeple and gable. Thefe were lately re- 
paired* at a very confiderable expence, by the prefent Earl of 

Mafonry. — It is the remark of a hiftoriao, that from about 
tlie beginning to the middle of the X2th century » the woribip 


\ fronaiut et advocatiMih ttcUparwm SmBs MarU, ei ScnB^ Brtgeiey infitU de Arrmm^ 

tumfutt cafeUU et UrrU, The charter i» given at KilwinDing, the lath of OAo- 
ber 1357. In the r igs of Robert III., Sir fViUiam CuHmrm^Ume •/ Xilmares, 
*' for the health of his ov^nfitU, and for the fouls of ht» emceftws^ g^^c, in pure 
* alms, Co the mcnka of this abbey, the laods of Grange.** In Z538, died 
James Bithude, Archbifhop of Glafgow, and Commeodator of Kilwinning. 
He wa« fuccecdcd, as Abbot of Kilwinning, by Gavin Hamilton, the laft 
Popilh abbot of this place. Abbot Hamilton was a firm and zealovs friend of 
the Queen Regent, and of her beautiful but unfortunate daughter. Queen 
A/Iaet ; and was employed by them in fcveral very important negotiations. 
He Was killed in the Canongate of Edinburgh, June aSth ZJ71. In the year 
X552, he made Huob, Earl of Eclintouke, jufiiciary, chamberlain, and bailie 
of Kilwinning, and gave him a confiderable faiary for difchaiging tbeie oi&cea. 
This grant was confirmed by the Queen t« 

* The above Earl of Glbncaieii obtained a grant of the abbey, and made 
fci« fon ALEZANOta commeodator of it. To him fucceeded William Mkl* 
viLLE, of the family of Raith. On his refignation, January 5th X603, Hugh 
Earl of Eglintoune got a new grant of the abbey, with all the lands, and titles, 
and patronage of the churches at that time belonging to it, erefted into a tem^ 
poral lordihip. At the Reformation, the revenue of the monallery, exdufive cf 
the property lands, amounted to 840I. 3s. 4d. Scotch, 8 bolls of wheat, 14 chal- 
dcrs I boll and 15 pecks of bear, 67 chaldcrs of oatmeal, 13 ftirks, Z40 capons, 
xcc hens, 268 checfes,and 9 fathom of a pe;tt ftack. According to the tradition- 
try account of the entire revenue of the monajftcry, it ia aflcrtcd* that ita prcieo^ 

f StipuhUc ret9rdt, 2ift ho$h, chari* 7f* 

of JGlwinntng* 171 

t>f Gob, in Scotland,^ was, in a great meafare, laid afide, ot 
could with the greateft dif&cuUj be performed, on account of 
the noife of the hammers and trowels, which were employed 
in erefting monafteries and other religious houfes. It was 
during this period that a number of mafons came from the 
Continent to build this monafter j, and with them an archite£t 
or matter mafon, to fuperint^nd and carry on the work. This 
archtteft refided at Kilwinning ; and being a gude and true 
inafon, intimately acquainted with all the parts of. mafonry 
known on the Continent, was chofen mailer of the meetings 
of the brethren all over Scotland. He gave rules for the con- 
dud of the brethren at thefe meetings, and decided finally in 
appeals from all. the other meetings or lodges in Scotland. 
From this time, down to the 15th century, very little of ma- 
fonry can be known, with any degree of certainty ; ,only it is 
£iid, that at Kilwinning the head meeting of the brethren was 
held. King James I^ of Scotland, eminently diftinguifkcd^ 
for his knowledge and tafle in polite literatare, and in the fine 
arts, not long after his return from England, patronized the 
mother lodge of Kilwinning ; and prefided as grand mailer,, 
till he fettled an annual falary, to be paid by every mailer 
mafon of Scotland, to a grand mailer, chofen by the brethren, 
and approved by the crown. This grand mailer was to be 
nobly born, or a clergyman of high rank and charader. He 
had his deputies in the different counties and towns of Scot- 
land. Every new brother paid him a fee at entrance. As 

Y a grand 

«ii]i«al atnonnt would be at lesift ao,oooL Sterling *. This fuppofitioD feems to 
be pretty well founded, from the following number of chu'che«., w ich are welL 
known to have held of it : Kiiwinning, Irvine, Kilmarnock, Loudon, or New 
MilU, ArdroiTan, Kilbtrney, Kilbride, Bfith, Dunlop, Dreghorn, Dairy, Ste- 
▼enftown, and Stewartown; (all thefe chuiches are in Cunninghame) ; Kihna- 
roDOck and Dombarton, in Dambartonfliire ; South and North Koapdale^ la 
the ibirc of Argyll; and Siliaory and Kilbride, ia the Ifland o( Arran. 

172 Stati/iical Account 

grand mailer, he was empowered to regulate and- determine 
every matter in difpute, between the founders and builders of 
churches and monafteries, and which it would hare been im« 
proper to have decided bj a court of law. King James 11. 
conferred the oiRce of grand mafter'on William Sikclair, 
Earl of Orkney and Baron of Rosltk. By another deed of 
the fame king, this office was made hereditary in this very 
ancient and ijluftrious family* Earl William, and his fuccef- 
fors, barons of Roflin, held their head courts, or, in the ttjle^ 
of mafonry, aflembled their Grand Lo2>ges, at Kilwinning, 
as being the mother lodge, or the place where regular and 
ftated lodges^ had firft been held in Scotland. The fobriety 
and decency of the brethren in all their meetings, the very 
peculiar and diftlnguifhing union and harmony, in which they 
lived together, and their humanity and liberality to the fick 
and indigent, made the mother lodge highly refpected in the 
l6<h century. An uncommon fpirit for mafonry |h«n difco- 
vered itfclf. Laws, founded on the original a£ls nnd conilitu- 
tlons of the mother lodge, were renewed, and are flill inva- 
riably adhered to. Ttiis is evident from her records ilill 

Archery. — It is well known, that in former times, the bow 
and arrow were ufed in war throughout the whole of Europe. 
By one or more of the old acls of the Scotch parliament, the 

* young 

♦ Thcfc records Contain a fucctffion of grand niafters, charters of ereSion to 
other lodges, as daughters of the mother lodge, &c. The Earls of Eglin- 
tounc have fucccffively patronized this lodge. Some y<;ar8 ago, the-prefcnt 
£ari made a donatioir to the fraternity of a piece of ground, for building a new 
and very elegant lodge ; and, with many other gentlemen, anxious to prcfervc 
the rights of the vciy ancient and venerable mother lodge, liberally contributed 
to its erection. There is a common fcal, cxprcfGvc of the antiquity of the nlo- 
iher lodjre, and of the emblems of the ancient art of mafortry, and by ivhick 
charters, and til other public deeds of the Ibciet/, are ratified* 

of Kilwinning. 173 

rrang men in every pari(b were ftricUj commanded to prac* 
fee archery, for an hour or two, evfrj^ Sunday a/ief divine 
iroice^ After the invention of fire arms, archery wa» laid 
side, as no longer ufeful and neceiTary in war. Though for 
this reafon it was difufed in moft other places in Scotland* it 
\%% been prafiifed here, as an elegant and manly amufemeut, 
almoft without any interruption* to the prefent day. At the 
iame time* the laws and ufages of the Company, (the term 
afcd for the Society), are known* and that too very imperfeft- 
Ij* onl^ by tradition, prior to the year 1488, This dale is 
acknowledged and rendered authentic* by a minute in the re^ 
cords, dated September 1688. This minute is figned by a num^ 
ber of gentlemen of the moft refpedable chara£lers» From this 
time, .archery has been praftifed annually* at a certain ftatcd 
time of the year, generally in the month of June. What 
has contributed, perhaps more than any thing, to its continn* 
ance, has been the monaftery. This fuppolition is rendered 
highly probable, from the fpecies of archery in ufo h^re from 
time immemoriah It is of two kinds. The one is a per- 
pendicular mark, called a popingoe* The popingoe is a bird 
known in heraldry. It is, on this occafion, <:ut out in wood^ 
fixed in the end of a pole, and placed X20 feet high, on the 
fteeple of the monaftery. The archer, who (hoots down this 
mirk, is honoured with the title of Captain of the Popingoe. 
He is mailer of the ceremonies of the fucceeding year, fends 
cards of invitation to the hdies, gives them a ball and fupper* 
and tranfmits his honours to pofterity by a medal, with fuit* 
able devices* appended to a Giver arrow. The prize, from 
1488 to 1688* was a (afli* or, as it was called, a benn. This 
was a piece of taffeta or Perfian, of different colours, chiefly red* 
green, white and blue, and not lefs in value than 2cl. Scotch, 
This honourable badge was worn by the captain* which he kept* 


174 Statifiicd Account 

and produced another of equal value the following year. At 
the revival of archery in 1688, there was fubftituted a piece of 
plate, which continued to be given by every captain till 1723. 
The prize was then converted into the prcfcnt filver arrow. 
•^The other kind of (hooting, is for prizes at butts, points 
blank diftance, (about 26 yards.) The prize at butts, is fome 
ufefiil or ornamental piece of plate, given annually to the 
fociety by the fenior furviving archer. 

Eminent Mai.— Eglintoune Gaftle, the feat of the family 
of Eglintoune for upwards of 400 years, is in the parifli* 
Of the men of this family, eminently remarkable for their 
patriotifm, their loyalty, their high fenfe of honour, and dif- 
Unguiihed abilities in peace and war, the two following only 
fliall be mentioned. At the battle of Octerburn, Sir Johk 
MoNTGOM£.Ri£, married to the heirefs of Eglintoune, and 
niece to King Robert II,, had the command of part of the 
Scotch afmy under the brave Earl of Douglas ; and his per- 
fonal valour and military condud contributed not a little to 
the celebrated vidorj obtaii.ed over the Englilh. The re- 
nowned Henry Perot, well known by the name of Hotjpur^ 
and general of the Englifli army. Sir John Montgomerie took 
prlfoner with his own hands, and with his ranfom built the 
cafile of Punnoon, in Renfn wihire. — All the valuable im- 
provements in gardening, planting, and agriculture, which, 
within thefe 50 years, have been made in the pariib, and in- 
deed in the greater part of the county of Ayr, are owing in 
a great meafure to the uncommonly fpirited exertions, to the 
very refined and corre^ tafte, of Alexamber, the late Earl 
of Eglintoune. By minute and accurate inquiry and obfer- 
vation, he made himfelf acquainted with the ftate of Englifli 
agriculture, with the truly noble and generous defign ofbe^ 
fiefiting his native country. Deeply regretting the idlenels, 


of Kilwinning. 1 75 

die lazinels and the poverty of the farmers, and the very igno- 
nntand abfurd nianner in which thej cultivated their lands, his 
Lordfhipt at a great expence, engaged and brought to his 
e&ates ia the parifh, and other parts of the county , men of 
real knowledge and experience in agrtcuhure, who had been 
regularly bred to it, and who had long lucce&fuUy praftifed 
it. By the converfation and example of thefe pra&ical im- 
proyers, the people, roufed from their former torpid ftate, 
YCDtured to deviate from the mode of management handed 
down by their forefathers ; and, convinced at lait, of tho 
infinitely fuperior advantages of this new fyilem of hufbandry, 
bj degrees adopted it. His Lordihip alfo inflituted an agru 
cultural Jociety^ confining of the moil adive, intelligent, and 
refpedable farmers. In this fociety he prefided for feveral 
years. By communicating fuch obfei vations as were the effeds 
cf his own experience, and fuch as he had coUefted in con^ 
Tcrfing with men of knowledge, his Lordihip excited and dif« 
fuCed a keen and enterphfing fpirit of induftry and experi- 
ment ; the very happy effe&s of which, in the improvement 
and wealth of the country, had little more than appeared, 
when he died by the hands of an unprincipled and mercilefs 
tiTiffin. His Lordihip's farm of Eglintoune, with the planta* 
tioos, contains about aooo acres Scotch meafure. The whole 
is planned and executed, with fuch an exquifitely fine tafte, 
AS to render the ancient feat of the family, one of the nobletb 
aod mod beautiful of any in ikotland. To the patriotic ex* 
ertloos of this truly great man, his country chiefly owes the 
ad of parliament, which aboliihed what was called the optional 
doufi of the Scotch banks. By the aboVe claufe, the banks 
liad it in their power, to refufe payment of their notes, for no 
kfs than Jix months after it had been demanded. This cer- 
uiiily was a very great national grievance, and had it continued, 
Scodand could never have made the improvementS| which it 


176 Stat'i/lical Account 

has done, in agriculturey in commerce, and in msnufaftnres. 
Sincere and fteady in his friendthips, humane and generous, 
the patron of unfortunate merit, of the moft pohflied and 
agreeable manners, and pbflefled of all the more amiable and 
efpeAaole virtues, the death of the late Earl of Eglintoune 
will be long and painfully regretted by every good man, by 
every friend of humanity, and of hi& country*. 

Names of P/orr^i— Not a few of thefe, it is faid, are ori- 
ginally Gaelic ; ll'ch ns, Auchentncuie^ Auchentyhtr^ Auchen^ 
wnjie^ Aucbenfarvie^ iSc. Other names are evidently Englifh. 
or thefe, fome are delcriptive of their particular fitoations, 
as IVoodf JVcod'Jtde, Wood^end. Tradition fays, that in thefe 
places, there was in foriner time^ a very eztenfive wood; but 
there is not the lead veftige of it now remaining. Other 
names defcribe their ancient proprietors ; as SmitVi^towa^ 
Ft^rgus^biU-ball^ \Sc. 

Wit ttnd Cold Summers.*^\t is in the recolledion of many 
flill living, that the fummers, in this pan of the country at 
leaft, are now much more wet and cold than they were 50 
years ago. By men of undoubted veracity it is alTerced, as 
an abfolutely certain faA, that, at that period, the farmers, 
in plowing for bear, about the middle of the month of May, 
were under the neccflSiy of beginning to plow fo very early 
as at 3 o'clock in the morning and to leave off at 8. The 
beat, at that hour, became fo very intenfe, that it was impoiV 
fible for them to continue their work any longer : Nor could 
^hey begin again till between 4 and 5 o'clock in the afternoon. 


* Cui pi' dor, et juftitix foror 
Tncorrupta fide«, nudaque Veritas, 
Multii ilk bonis flcbilit occidit. 

of kiltmnning. 1 77 

For a number of years paft, quite the reverfe has been the 
cafe. The month of Nfajr, in particular, has been Very cold 
and wet, and unfavourable to vegetation ; and, infome yearst 
we have had very little of what may be reckoned fummer 
wiatber. Tbp barvpft of courfe, then, w^ aiuch earlier than 
it has been fince. In Several places in the neighbourhood, it 
is bUt rift h^veft was finilhed about the latter pnd.of An^oft. 
The fafts themfelve^ are here barely ftated : The phyfical 
caufes of fo very rem'ar£able a change are left to be accOtint<^d' 
for by others. 

Ciara^er p/ ibf P^o^if— The people arr, iij ^eneralf "^^7 
decent, fober, honeft and induftriotts. Owing to t^e iilk. and 
muiiin manufaAures, feveral ftrangers, of late, have fettled 
in the town. What effe&s thefe, in time, may have, on the 
morals of the people, cannot as yet be faid. Though the only 
civil officer in the place be a conffable,' there are fewer riots 
conunitted, than in moll othej: places equally populous and 
extenfive. It is now upwards of 2 a years iince the prefent 
incumbent was ordained, during which time no inhabitai^ of 
die parilh has beeh banilhedy or fuffered a capital puniifament. 

V0L23. t NUK. 

178 Stattftkal Account 



(County of Perth — Prejhytiry of Auchttrarder^^ynoi of* 
Perth and Stirling.) 

Drawn up hy the Rev. Mr. Colik Baxter, Minifier of Mo^ 
nivaird^ from Materials chiefly colkSed by the ReVn Mn 
Hugh M'Diarme^, Minifler ofComrie. 

Origin of the Name* 

THIS parifli takes its name from the village of Comrh, 
in vuYxxch the church ftands. Gompe is derived &091 
the Gaelic, Comb^ruidh^ which iignifies the con^uence of two 
rivers. Thefe are the Erne^ and the Ruchil^ which join their 
fireams a few yards to the weftward of the chnrch, and flow ia 
one body, till they fall into the Taj. There is another pa- 
rifli, called TuIlichetU^ united to Comrie» The foundation of 
the church, whieh is ftill vifible, is furrounded by a pretty 
large church-yard, and is diftant from the village of Gomrie 
about a Scotch mile. Tullichettl^ in allulion to the dead 
buried there, fignifies in Gaelic, the plain ofjleep. 

Extent.<^The extent of this parlih is very confiderable, 
being about 13 miles long, and between 9 and 10 broad. It 


of Comric. 1 79 

^oofifis of the ftrathi ox fiat ground^ from Gomrie to Locberne* 
bead, ood of 4 glens ; 1 of them large, GUnairtnty and Glen^ 
teJmttig s and two fmall, Finrngkn and GlenUariin, The 
figure of the pariih U irreguW. 

SitiuUum^ SoU^ aui Surface. — ^It is fituated in the county of 
Perth, and is the weftem boundary of Stratherne. The foil, 
in general, in the low grounds, is light and gravelly, and full 
of fmall fiooes. In fome farms, efpecially in the glens, it ia 
deeper and rather fwampy. On the fides of the glens, and of 
the ftrath, to the £• end of Locherne, and of the loch itfelf^ 
diere is a continued chain of hills. Thefe hills, which com- 
prehend by far the greateft part of the parifli, confift moftly 
of flieep farms. In the higher parts of the glens,^ there is 
litde encouragement to plow and fow, as the crops are al- 
ways late, and often deftroyed by die froft and rains. 

Climate and Difeafesw^^Tht air, in general, is very pure and 
healthy j but the climate in the ftrath differs confiderably 
from that in the hilly part of the pariQi. In the glens, there 
is a great deal of rain : In the ftrath, which is pretty broad 
near the village, they feldom think they have too much. Be- 
fore the j^oats were baniflied from the country, this pariih was 
much refbrted to by invalids, from Edinburgh and Glafgow, 
for the recovery of their health. Moft of the inhabitants live 
to a good old age. There are among them, at prefent, 8 men 
and 9 women between 80 and 90 years old, and a great num« 
bar between 70 and So* Colds and rheumatifms are the moft 
common complaints. A few have of late been attacked by bilious 
diforders, efpecially in fummer and harveft. Colics too have 
ibmetimea proved fatal, particularly (it is remarked) to thofe 
of the name of Ftrgujfon. The (mall pox were formerly very 
deftroftive^ bnC| about 7 years ago, the people were prevail- 

Za ed 

X 8o Statifikal Account 

ed upon t6 allow their children to be inocaltted ; and ever 
fince the pradice has been general, and very fucoelkfiil. 

Rivers and Lakes. — ^The principal rivtrtf kre the Em€ av4 
the RucbiL The Erne iiTues from the lake of that niamey 
about 4 qiiles W. from th6 village of Cdmrie. Rachil figpi- 
fies; in Gaelic, the red flood ; and it is fo called* from the red- 
nefs of its waters, when fwcUed with rain^. It takes its rife 
among the high hills at the head of Glenftirtaej ; ib a fite 
fiihing ftream, and remarkable for the great numbers of fei 
trouu which are to be found iil it. Thefe rivers,' and the 
Zednaig^ the third largeft iti the pariih, abound with' bum 
trouts; but there are few falmon in any of them, except 
during the fpawning feafo'n.«— £o^i Erne is about 8 miles long, 
and I broad« It is called Emef in Ga^ic Erinn^ itQVk \ii 
weflerljr iituation. Its banks, for above 5 miles on both 
fides, are covered with natural oak wood, of great extent and 
value. The roftd from Crieff, through the parifitea of Moni- 
vaird and ComHe, tO.Locib.£me head, prefenta a greUt va* 
riety of natural beautiful ofafeds,'^ and is pethajis not inferior 
to any of the fatne extent in the Highlands* of Scotland^ 
X<och-£me is not difiinguiihed as a jBibing lake. It is istd^ 
that it never freezes* ' Near each tiid of it, there is a fmafl 
ifland, evidently drtificiil, on which the rfeanfaia of a caftk 
are ilill vifible; There are only % other imaU fadces iii tiie 
parifh ; the one above Dnnira, the othet in the biaes of 6kn* 
lednaig, both of which fwarm with trosts lAout the hJk of 
herring^. '^ ^*' ■ — 

Hills ^ Woods f and Springs.-^Thi^ parifli haa massy .fa%h 
hills in it; but the higheft, not only here, hot in all Strath* 
erne, is B^nvurlich, that is, iie mountain of tie great Jbie : 
And Loch-Erne is certainly great, when compared vnih the 


odier ^kes in Stratherae* lo a clear dajr, this mountiiin U 

diftin&lj £een from ferth, from the Caftle-hill of Edinburgh, 

and from a rifing ground at Loudon Cafile, in Ajrfliire. Its 

devation above the ^evel of the fea is about 3,200 feet. Be* 

fides the oaks on each fide of Loch-Erne, above mentionedt 

there is ^Ifo an extenfive and valoable oak wood on the eilates 

of Ihadra^ ^ulUlannacbar^ Comrie, and jiberrucbiL A great 

varxet J of other trees, particularlj of the fir fpecies, have alfo 

been planted of late, in feveral parts of the pari{h« and are 

in a very thriving condition. — The only remarkable fpring 

here is that of St. Fillan f, the Fopiih faint of Breaidalbane; 

at the W. end of Stratherne. 

Aumals. — ^T^he number of fheep is about 161500 ( of black 
cattle, 3,Bao j of horfes, 726 \ of deer, in the foreit of Glen- 


^ Thit rprigg, tradition reports, reared its head on the top of Dun-F^aMm^ 
(Fxllan's BHt)^ for a long time doing much good; but in di/gnji^ (probably at 
the Reftrwutint i ) it rewwvtd fuddenly to the foot of a rock, a quarter of a mile to 
i1^ foothiran!, whex'e It fliU rmakm^hwMti indeed, btit not forfalteh. It it 
ftiU rifitdd by Hbtletudisary people, efjpcflaUy on tlie xft of May, and the xft ^ 
Aagoft, No fewer than 70 perloAi Yiiiud it in May and Auguft X79I. The ib- 
validf , whether men, women, or children, Walk, or arc carried, round the well, 
three timet, in a dire^ion Deijial, that is, from E. to W. according to the courfe 
of the Sun. They' alfo drink of tbe water, and bathe in It. Thefe operations 
are aceoimted a certiin remedy for various difeafes. They are particularly ef- 
icadons for cvmiDg barreoncfs ; on which account it is freqoently vifited by 
tbofe who are very deilrous of offspring. AU the invalids throw a white (lone 
on the iaint's cairn, and leave behind, as tokens of their confidence and grati- 
kttde, fome rigs of linen Or woollen dnth. The rock on the fummit of the h3J, 
fortncdt erf* itfilft a chair for the faint, which ftiH remains. Thofe who complain 
of rbettnatifoi in the back, mufl afceod the Kill, fie in this chair, then lie down 
on their back, and be pulled by the legs to the bottom of the hill. This opera* 
tion is 0iU performed, and reckoned very efllcacious. At the foot of the hiil, 
there is a bifon, made by the faint, on the top of a large (lone, which feldom 
wants water, even in the ^ateft drought : And all who are dlilxeB'cd with 
fcsc eyes muft walk them three times with this water. 

i8t Statifiical Jccount 

airtney, between loo and 300 $ of goats, about too. The 
iheep are of the black faced kind, and on mod of the faratis 
are eVerj year improving. The fmall Highland breed 9 
once very-Butnerons here, is now almoft entirely baaiflied. 
The hill horfes loo, to fnake room for the fbeep^ are reduced 
to a very fmall nnmber* The fmeared or tarry wool, is fold 
at from 45. to 5s. per ftone ; the white wool at 75. 6d« — ^There 
•are in Che pari& hares, rabbits, foxes, martins, partridges, 
groufe, and a few ptarmigans and heath fowL 

Prcducct C^r.-— The principal crops are oats-and bear* Potatoea 
are planted every where in great quantities, and, with milk, 
conftitute the principal part of the food of the lower dafles, 
for 8 months of the year. A good deal of meal is bought 
from the neighbouring parifhes of Monivaird, GriefF and Mo- 
thil. Thofe parilhes alfo fupply qut finall whiiky ftiUs with 
about xaoo bolls of barley yearly* 

Jlftfuv/a^vrf j.«— Our flaple manufafiure is linen yarn, of 
which a great quantity is fpun and fold every year. With the 
money which this yam briogSt moft of the farmers pay a great 
part of their rents. This yam fells at about as. 4d. per 
fpindle. From the tow of the lint they fpin ham yarn, which 
is made into cloth, that brix^gs from 9d. to is. per yard. 
The finer fort is ufed for men and women's (birts ; the coarfcr 
for failors jackets and troufers. The women make alfo a great 
^quantity of plaiden cloth, which is fold at from lod. to is. 
per yard ; and a confiderable quantity of tartan, of which 
they make plaids and hofe* Thefe are partly for home ufc^ 
and partly for the market. 

Prices of Labour. — The wages of fcrvants and labourers 
have riCen very much within thefe zo years* Day labourers 

of Ccmrte. '^ 183 

get from lod. to xs. in fttmmer, and from 7d. to pd. In win* 
ter, when their provifions are not allowed them* When they 
take work bj the piece, and are employed in making roads^ 
in ditching, building ftone fences, quarrying lime-ftone and 
flues, th^ often earn from xs. to xs. 6d. per day* The men 
femmts receive from the farmers, from 5!. to lol. a year $ 
The women fervants from 2I. xos. to 3!. xos. 

Union of Farms, l/r.— About a third part of this pari(h 
once belonged to the family of Perth ; and when their eftite 
was'forfeited, and put under the management of commifllonerg» 
federal farms, fdrmerly poflefTed by many tenants, were givea 
to one perfon. This leflened the number of inhabitants con- 
fiderably. The village indeed has increafed vexy much o£ 
late; but, by comparing what the large farms have loll of 
tenants and cotugers, with what the village has gained, the 
population does not appear to be on the increafie. A great 
part of the vUlage is inclofed, efpecially what belongs to 
Mr. Drummokd of Perth } and fome of the finrms are 

JUnMs and Profrietors^^—Tht farms on the Perth eftate are 
allowed by all to be low rented ; and they are certainly fa, 
when compared with the reft of the country, The higheft 
grab farm pays about 20ol. : The reft are from 80L down to 
5I. In the neighbourhood of the village, the land lets at from 
xL to xl. xaU per acre. — ^The valued rent of the parifh is 
4133L 6s. 8d« Scotch : The real rent, though many of the 
beft £uins are let very low, is about 267GI. Sterling. One 
catting of the oak woods in the parifli will yield about 
13,0001* There are xo greater, and 6 fmaller proprietors* 
None of the greater refide conftantly in the parilh, but almoft 
all of them vilit it annually ; and 3 of the greateft refide ia 


1 84 Slatifiical Account 

the neighbourhood, at leaft for half the yean Fhre of tbo 
Sthaller heritors refide conftantlj. 

PopuJaiion. — ^The popuUtien of this parifli is not thought 
to fae iacreafiogf although, witbin thefe 40 years, it has aug— 
fiiCDled coofiderabiy. The nambcr of iAhabitantSi ci all ages, 
amounts to about - - - . - • - 3000 
The return to Dr. Wcbftcr/ in 1755, was only - ^S^^ 

Hence thefe is evidently an increafe of • 454 

Wheii the number of arable acres, the infant ftate of trade 
and manufafiufesy with Che Scarcity and high price of fuel, are 
confidered, this part of Stratheme is fufHciently populous. 
Many boys and girls are employed as herds,' and many young; 
Inen and women, as fervants, every year, ixi the neighl)ourin^ 
Lowland parifhes. Were a coarfe woollen nianufafiory efta- 
bliihed at Comrie, it would meet with encouragement, do 
inudi good, and employ many half idle hands/ For 8 years 
pail, none have emigrated from the parifli, but 6 cottagersi with' 
their families, to Blair-Drummond M ofs, in Monteith'. 

Ecctefiafiical Stare. — ^Th'e prefent incumbent^ Mr. Hugh 
M^DiARMED was admitted minifier of Comrie in July X78i. 
iThe church is old, too fmall, and not in very good xepair. 
There is another church, 4 miles weft from the village, in 
which divine fervice is performed, almoft wholly in Gaelic, 
every fourth Sunday. The manfe and offices were built in 
X784. The glebe confifts of near 9 acres, 6 of which are pretty 
good ; the others are very poor. The ftipend is, in money, 
521. as. 3d. ; and, in grain, 16 bolls of meal, and 8 bolls of 
b^r ; in all, about 69U ; and in this fiim is included what is 
allowed for communion elements. There is a Imall meeting 
of Antiburgher Seceders in the village ^ and there are 6 Pa- 


6f Comrie. 185 

pillsy who attend the Roman Catholic chapel in the neigh* 
homing pariOi of Muthil, in which, as well' as iii Criefip 
many ot* them' refide. 

Schools. — ^Befides the parochial' fchool, at which are Caught 
from 70 to 100 fcholars, thiere are 3 others, foppdrted hj the 
Society fo^ propagating Chrtflian Knowledge ; one of whick 
has often, during the winter feafon, ioo ; the other a from' 
50 to 6d fcholars. In the remote parts of the parifh, there 
dre 1 or 3 fmall fchools, fopportcd b/ (ht tenants, whofe 
children derive benefit from them. 

Poor ^-^^Thc nuttober of poor on. the parifli roll is I a. Some 
of thefe receive a weeklj, and fome on! j an occafional fup- 
p\j» The weekly penfioners' receive 6d. or is. ; the occa- 
sional ones as. or 3s. three or four times in the jear ; and, at 
Martinmas and Candlemas, even the weekly penfioners receive 
as. or as. 6d. each. The annual fum expended for their re* 
Kef is about 40I. This fum is produced by the coUefiions 
in the church, by proclamations, and mortcloth dues,' by fines 
for irregular marriages, and other trefpafles, and the intereft 
of xool. The poor ai'e pei'mitted to beg in the pariQi. Somo 
poor boufe* keepers beg for corn in fpring j and many poor 
honfb-wiVes beg for wool in fnmmer. 

Roads and Bridges^ — There is one gr^t road through the 
pariih, leading from Crieff to Loch-Erne head ; and feverat 
fmalle^ roads through the glens. Between Criefi* and Loch« 
£me there are 5 done bridges acrofs the river Erne, 3 of 
which confift of 4 arches. There are befides feveral Hone and 
Wooden bridges on the RuchiF, the Lednaig, &c. The roads 
in this and the neighbouring parifhes were formerly made by 
fbe ftatute labour i but this was lately converted into money. 

Vol. XI. A a Tenants, 

i96 Statl/ikal Account 

TeoantSy who poflefs farms of 30L yearlj Ten% paj from 91^ 
to 145. All above and bdow this fam pay- in proportioiu 
Cottagers^ villagers and tradefmen, pay 2S. or is.- 6d/each«. 
The converfion monej is very well laid oat ; bat the inhm- 
bitants of the glens complain of late that too much is expead-i^ 
ed oa the great road* The fum coUeded is infuflkient for 
keeping all the roads in proper repair, as thej are very niw 
morousy and liable to be hurt by the mountain torrents. 

CbaraBtr and Language^ — Like the generality of the com-i 
^on Highlandersi the lower ranks here are modeft, peaceable^ 
and very obliging. There are few law^fuits among them 9 
and there have been none for thefe xo years, except about 
legacies, multures, and marches. They are frugal, moderate^ 
and indufirious; and, except at merry meetings, are not much 
addided to drioking. — The common knguage of the people 
is Gaelic. All the natives underftand it; but many, efpecially 
of the old> do not underftand Englifh well. AU the young 
people can fpeak Englifh ; but, in order to acquire it, they 
mud go to fervice in the Low Country. The Gaelic is not 
fpoken in its purity, neither here nor in any of the bordering, 

Advantages and Difadvantages.-'^^tbh parilh having good 
roads, particularly on the £• and W., has a fafe and eafy 
communication both with the Low Country and the High4 
lands. The traders, in the village, traffic much with the people 
of Balquhidder and Killin. Thefe they ferve with oat-mealt 
barley-meal, and whiiky ; and get in return flax, linen yamy 
and wool. There is a good flate quarry near the foreft of 
Glenairtney. It is the only one in this part of the country* 
There is likewife an excellent lime quarry, at the W. end of 
the pariih, very near the fide of Loch-Erne, which has beett 


tf Comrie. 187 

the sieans of improving a great part of the land, in this and 
the neighbouring pariih of Monivaird. The raw lime-ftone 
15 brought in a large boat to the £. end of the loch, and there 
foU, burnt or unbumt, as purchafers incline.-— The greateft 
difbdvantage, under which manj pares of the pariih labour, is 
the fcmrcitj and high price of fuel. White timber, or peeled 
oak, once plentiful and cheap, is now fcarce and dear. Peats^ 
at beft a troublefome and ezpenfive, though the mod common 
fuel, are diflaat from the village, and moft of the farms, a or 
3 miles. Tht neareft ^ood coal lies at the diftance of 25 
mfles from the village. Were the (hort road made acroft the 
hills to the fouthward of Comrie, which is eameftlj longed for, 
coals will become cheaper and more plentiful. This road 
will leflen the diftance verj confiderablj, and, when procured, 
will tend much to advance the happineis and profperitj of this 
part of the couotr j, 

jintiquitUs. — ^In 3 different places in the pariihes, there are 
to be feen the remains of fmall Druidical temples*. The 
greateft piece of antiquity here is the Roman camp on the 
pUin of Dalgincrofs^ in the neighbourhood of Comrie. On 
this j^ain are ftill vifible very diftinA remains of two camps, 
with only an inconfiderable diftance betw.een them, and joined 
J)7 an agger f. 

AzTi Eartbquaiiif 

• The ftonci of one of thcfc near the ^hge were broken to piecet,»bout 10 
fan ago, anditfed is bmlding one of the new houfe< : And it has been remark- 
ed, by fome lovers of antiquity, that thofe who were guilty of this ad of iacrilege 
•etcr profpetcd a/terwards. 

* Mr. Gordon, in his Jtiurarittm St^temtrimuUef^MxOiicd in 1726, (hews 
thk to have bees the plain, on which the battle was fought between AoRicoi.4 
Bad Oaloacvs. One of the camps u 40% paces long, and 39) broad. The 
Cher ii now confidcrably dixainiihed by the encroachmeati of ihe Ruchil. 

|[ 88 Statiftkal Jccount 

Earthquakes, — ^This parilh, and the neigbbonrhood, haye^ 
for more than 3 years pa(t, been iiot a little alarmed by 
feveral fmait ihocks of an earthquake. It was firft felt» 
or rather loud noifes, unaccompanied with any concnflioot 
were heard bj the inhabitants of Glenlednaig, dnring autuaaxK 
17.89. Thefe noiCss were firft fuppofed to be peab of thun- 
der i afterwards, as thej were heard foo^etimes when the Ikj 
was quite clear, the people imagined thej were occafioned bj 
the firing of the carronades at Dnnira. Finding, however, on 
inqnirj, that they did not proceed from this eaufe, they were 
at a Io(s how to account for them, till the 5th of November 
9789, when, about 6 o'clock in the evening, they were alarm« 
ed by a loud rumbling noife, accompanied with a fevere (hock 
of an earthquake. This ihock, which is generally fuppoled to 
be the moft violent of any that has happened here^ was very 
fenfiUy felt over a traft of country of more than 10 miles in 
extent. Since that period the fliocks have been very frequent, 
and at times pretty violent ; but hitherto they have done no 
harm. Within thefe 3 or 4 weeks, fince the weather has 
iettled into drought, they have ceafed altogether. The cen- 
tre of the earthquake is, as nearly as can be guefied, about 
the mouth of Glenlednaig, a mile or two north from th» vi}* 
lage of Comrie. What fupports this conjedure is, that the 
people who live on the £. fide of the glen, feel the earth- 
quake begin in the N. W., and proceed in a fouth-eafterly 
direftion : Thofe again who inhabit the country on the W. 
fide of it, think it takes its rife in the Nt E«, and expires in 
thcW.' :.•..-.. 


pf Forbes and Kearn. JS9 

N U M B E R xn. 


{Prejbytery of jUford^^Cauntj and Synod of Abirdan*) 
B^ the Rev. Mr. Bekjamzk M£RCER» Minijier of the PariJIf. 

Origin of the Names. 

TQE a&cient n^me of the parifh of Forbks is totally uq-i 
known. The parlfli feems to derive its prefenc appel- 
lation from the noble family of Forbes, who have been pro- 
prietors of it for feveral centuries pall. Kearn has its name 
from. a cairn in the parifh ; which feems to have been, in an- 
cient timeSf an extenfive dry fortification ; but when, or by 
whom erefted, tradition itfelf pretends not to fay. 

Siittaium and Extent^ %ie. — ^Thefe pariiheb are difiant from 
Aberdeen about 2 a miles, fouth-weflerly ; their length, froni 
N. W* to SX., is about 6i miles i their breadth 1. They meet 
in a point, in the middle of « ridge of mounuins, which cx« 
tend 10 or II miles from tte chapel of Garrioch, on the 
N. £., to Auchendoir and Kildrummy on the S. W. Thefe 
mooncauos have various appellations, according to their dif- 

i 90 "Statifllcdl Account 

Cerent fituitions. That part of theto which feparat^s Porbe* 
aad Kearn, ^nd whicb .is about 5 miles over, is called Careen^ 
which, thej, who are acquainted with the Gaelic, faj, fignifies 
>the HUl of the Muirfowl^ and with which, indeed, it pretty 
n^UQh abounds. On the S. E^. fide of this mountain, and otk 
a gentle declivitj, extending about a miles along the banks of 
the river Don, lies the -pariih of Forbes. It contains, bjr a 
-late meafurement, 4075 acres ; of which there arc* 

^n4er tillage, - .« 807 Pafture, ^ ^ 58 a 

Ia»me&4ow f ni«, - 53 Muix;, ^ - %Slt 

In wood and grafi, - 60 Mofs, • .- - 40 

«— Kearn Kes on the N« W. fide of the faid mountain, on n 
very eafj declivity to the river Bogie« As the meafureroent 
of this parifli never happened to come into the hands of the 
author hereof, he cannot afcertain its extent with precifion i 
but it is fuppofed to contain 2716 acres, of which there may 
be about 600 under tillage, the reft in pafturci mdb and muir. 

Soil and ProduBions^ (^r.— The foil throughout the whole 
^i{tri£t is naturally light and dry. This quality renders i% 
favourable for early harvefts. The crop, however, in dry 
(eafons, is generally thin and (hort ; but, when refreihed with 
frequent Ikowers of rain, it becomes very weighty and luxu- 
riant, where the foil is in good heart. The principal produc? 
tions of this diftrift are oats and bear : Some tenants fow a few 
peafe, but to no great extent. All of them, however, fow a 
few turnips ; and plant fuch quantities of potatoes, greens 
and cabbages, as are fufficient for their own confumption* 
•The diflrift fupplies itfelf with provifions, and fends a confi. 
^erable 'quantity to market* 

^f Forbes and Keam. igx 

Cultivaiiam^ — The old mode of cultivation continues; tho 
old Scotch plough, drawn by 8, lo, and i% oxen, and fome 
with horfes and oxen together ; one crop of bear and 3 of 
corn, after diinging the infield ; and 5 crops of com on out- 
field, after lathing. The outfield lies other 5 years in natural 
gab ; but the infield generally goes on in the forefaid rota- 
tion. There is not an acre of land improved in this diftriA^ 
excepting a fewy which Mr. Grant of Driminner has improv- 
td, in the farm which he has in his own hands ; all the reft 
lies in the lame ffate in which it was 30 years ago. 

Woodj Rivers and Fi/bf ^c. — There are no artificial planta- 
tioQs of timber in this diili i£t. There isfome natural wood along 
the banks of the Don and the Bogie, coniiiling of aller, birchf 
and fome hagberry ; but of no great extent or value. — ^The 
rWer Don, which runs through a fmall part of the parilh o£ 
Forbes, and almoft bounds it on the S. £. smd St, is a beau« 
tiful limpid ftream, and abounds with fine bum trouts, ibme o£ 
them 3 lb. and 4 lb. weight. Some falmon come upin the fpring, 
and are uken with the rod and fpear in fummer. It often 
everflows its banks, and, as its motion is rapid, it does great 
burt to the crops in fummer, and fometimes carries ofiT great 
quantities of corn in autumn. The Bogie, which bounds Keara 
on the N. W. having its fource and part of its courfe in moii^ 
ground, is naturally black and muddy. It abounds, however, 
with fmall burn trouts ; but no (almon come up fo far as Keam. 
It frequently alfo overflows its banks ; but, as its motion is 
flow, it does little hurt to the com fields, either in fummer or 
dntumn. There is another fmall ftream, called the Efiel, which 
divides Forbes from Tillinefsle, and which has z lint and 3 
Cora mills on it. 

Motntatht^^Tht hill of Correeni which feparates Forbes 


igi iStatifiicdl Account 

ifrom Keaniy is covered with heath, mofs and turf. It makes 
an excellent (heep-walk in fammer. As thej ftroll in it night 
and day, thejr afford excellent mutton in the months of Sep* 
tember and 0£^ober, in drj feafons. Its perpendiculSir heighc 
from the bed of the tlver Don, will be between 400 and 300 
yards. Immediately on the oppofite fide of the river, there is 
linother mountain, nearly of' the fame height, called Calwar ; 
at the foot of which there is one farm belonging to the parilh 
of Forbes: That part of the hill which belongs to this farm, is 
covered with heath, and makes a good fii^ep-walk. 

FueL — ^Peati abd turf are the only fuel made ufe of in this 
diftriA, which the hill of Correen affords in great plenty, and 
of the beft quality. The tenant, however, cannot accommo- 
date his family with fo neceffary an article, but at a very 
high txpence yearly*. For befides the expence of cafting up 
^eats and turf, the whole fummer quarter is fpent in drying 
and bringing them home ; and if to this be added the lofs of 
the fummer feafon, for preparing dung for the land, it will be 
impolSble to calculate the damages, either to the tenant as an 
individual, or to the public at large. Heath is generally made 
tife of for drying com for the mill, as well as for houfe ufe.* 
No coal is ufed in this diftrifi but for fmithy work. 

Manure. — Animal dung (mixed with earth and peat adies}/ 
3s the only manure ufed in the diftrifi. Although there be a' 
Iime-ftone quarry in the hill of Correen, of a very fine qua« 
Kty, and plenty of peats and turf to burn it,«no perfevering 
ittempt has yet been made to bring it to a proper bearing. 
The heritors are carelefs and remifs, and the tenants have nei« 
ther abilities nor encouragement to work it. 

• CUmate 

^f Fprbes and KcArn. 193 

C&maU and Di/ta/es.—'The air is drjr^ clear, and healthfal; 
and as tiie couotiy in general is mountainous, it has a fine 
drculiition at all feafons, thQugh "Ofteja very fliarp and cold« 
The difitafes incident to the people of this diftrift, and of the 
country in general, ace yarioos : lingering feyers, of ithe nefy« 
oas kind, few inflaneimatory ; gout, rheumatifm, Ja\Midice>, 
fcrophnla, fcurvj, gravel and ftone, fmaU^pox, meafles^ hoop-* 
ing conghy &c. Inftances of all thefe ace frequently to be 
met with among the people. Some children ate loft by the 
liaxalUpox, meafles aad hooping cough. But as the peoplr, 
in ft great meafure, have got oyer jtheir prejudices agaihft ino^ 
colatioo, very few now die in the fmaU*po^. But of all the 
difeafes that prevail in this country, the (ci^vy is the moft 
epidemical, and may juftly be cidled the bane and fcourge of 
human nature. This diftemper may primarily be contrafted 
from various caufes ; idle iodoteat habits, unwholefome food, . 
impure air, the want of attention to cleanlinefs, 4 fedentary 
life, &c. mfty occafion it. Sedentary employments are evi- 
dently nourifhers of this, as v^ell as of all other putrid dif- 
orders ; and when any putrid diforder gets hold of the humaa 
conllitution, it is not eafily expelled, agd of confcquence be- 
comes hereditary, and is handed down to pofterity with all 
its woeful incjeaiing force. Tliis in reality is but too much 
the cafe with the fcurvy among the people of this country. 
When this diftemper is cutaneous, its tfftAs are often dread- 
ful ; but 9 opt of zo have it latent in the body, and then its 
<ffeds are baneful indeed ! It falls upon the fofter and warmer 
parts of the body, mixes itfelf intimately with the circulation 
of the blood, corrupts it, weakens and enfeebles all parts of 
the frame, and corrodes the lungs, ftomach and inteftines ; 
hence foetid breath, perfpiration and (lool j collive habits, ob- 
ftrudions of the menfes j various pains throughout the body ; 
coughs and difficulty of breathings fofu eyes and throats; 
Vol. XT. B b ilitche*, 

1 94 Statijlical A^cowt 

iticched; headachs ; fwellings and boils, now and iheiif ox^ 
various parts of the body ; lafiitudes and melancholy habtts« 
&c. All thefe, apd many more that will not bear defcription, 
are the difmal efieSs of this dreadful fcourgei and are all 
feverely felt from time to time among the people at large , 
and preipature death is often the confequenpe; feveral inftance^ 
of which could be given in this, ^nd in other neighbouring 
diftriftsy within thefe lo yeai:s paft. It is dreadful to think 
in how many ways this (hocking diftemper preys on the hu* 
man frame, and often renders the unhappy fuSerer a nuilancc 
to himfelf and to fociety. Befides, the nature of this, as well 
as of all other putrid diftemper^, is extremely infedioos ; 
The clothes fcorbutic perfons wear and fleep in, and the ai^ 
they breath, will convey inlenfibly the contagion to a clean 
perfon ; and they who fleep with them piuft foon feel the 
woeful coufequences*. It is ft pity that no fpecificbas yet been 
found fuificient, to eradicate this growing evil, or ^t leaft to 
counteract its malignant force. Nothing, perhaps, would be 
more worthy the attention o£ government, than to offer pre- 
miums for the mod effedual fpecifics againfl fo deftruftive a 
diftemper ; the confequence might be, the hardy fold^er, and 
the healthy fubje6t. 


* Of the troth of tlifi above remarki, there u a mclancholf infiance io thu 
pariOl, of a perfao, who, after having enjoyed the beft ftate of health for the 
fpace of 48 yean of hit age, unfortunately, by deeping with a perfon deeply 
tinAured with this difteffiper. in a fioaall cloie room, eaught the lofeAioo, and, 
for xo yean paft, hat experienced all ttt dreadful effedt ; and indeed, for three 
of thefe jeart, bat been rfndered incapable, in a great meafure, of attending to 
any bufineft; aii4» after laying out, of a (joaall inconae, a coniiderable fum of mo* 
ney, on dodort, medicinet, goat*i whey, flee, endeavouring to get clear of the 
diftemper, he hat little other hopes left, than to fpin out the remainder of hit 
dayt in the fame woeful lituation, and to wait for purification in the grave. 
Thit ought to be a warniog to every individual in health, to beware with who;a 
they aftociate, left they meet with the Jbme fatal coufcquencrt. 

of Forbes and Keartf. 1 95 

Pojmlation.^As no regular regifter has been kept here for 
tnaoj years paft, no proper account can be given of the po- 
pulation at . different periods; onlj, in the year 1722, when 
Forbes and Kearn were united, the number of examinable per- 
fons in both was . « - • . 300 

And, in 17551 Vi:hen the return was made to Dr. Web- 

fter, the number of fouls was - - -* 43^ 

At prefcnt (179^)1 it amounts only to - - f 37© 

Uecreafe, - - - 66 
Of thefe there are Males. Females, Total. 

At and under zi years of age, - 49 


• 93 

Between 13 and 69, inclufive, « ilz 



At and above 70, - - - it 






The number of families in both parifhes is 



The average number of perfons in each, 



Manvfa£iures .^^Thc chief tnanufadure, carried on in this 
and the neighbouring parishes, is knitting of (lockings ; in 
which occupation moft of the women, thoughout the whole 
year, and fome boys and old men, during the winter feafon, 
are employed. They receive for fpinning, doubling, twifling 
and weaving each pair, from lod. to 2s. Sterling, according 
to the finenefs or coaifenefs of the materials, and the dimen- 
fioDS of the ftockings. Some few women are employed in 

B b 1 Cattle. 

t The oumUr of foult ih thefe f arilhci bat been Kvch the fame u at preient 
ior 16 yean paft. 

196 Statijiical Accwnt 

Cattle. — The number of black cattle, in the dift t i£l, is $i§ 
— — — iheep^ — ^ ^074 
————— horfes, 105 
carts, — 5^ 

Church and School. — ^At what time the churches of Forbes 
and Kcam were' built, ho perfon living knows. Thej are at 
prefent in lad re{>air ; and, at the death of the prefent incum- 
bent, the pariihes are to be annexed to Auchendoir and Til- 
liaefsle. The manfe was built about 70 jears ago, and has 
got many partial repairs (ince, but is ftill a mean habitation. 
The ftipend is 'i}L Sterling, indnding 4U Scotch for com- 
munion elements, and 3 cbalders of Tiftual^ together with a 
glebe of about 8 acres, grafs included. The tithes are faid 
to be valued and exhaufted. Lord Forbes lately was, but 
now Lord Fife is, patron. There never has been any legal 
fchool in this diftrifi \ only fome of the minifiers either kept 
a fchool themfelves, or kept a boy for educating their own 
children, and admitted the children in the neighbourhood to 
partake of the benefit. The prebnt incumbent applied for » 
fchool 4 years ago ; but the application was uofuccefsfuL 

Poor. — Before the year 178a, the funds for the poor were 
only about 30I. Sterling, befides the ordinary coUedions, which 
fcarcely amount to il. Sterling per annum. But in l*]Z^•^ 
the j[aid funds were totally exliaufled ; and therefore no pen- 
fions can be beftowed on any, but only Come aiSftance given 
where it is abfolutely neceflary. No poor's rates have yet 
tnken place in this country. In the years 178a and 1783, by 
the a&ivity of the fefHon, partly by the forefaid funds, and 
partly by the government's gratuity, together with the ufe of 
private money, the poor in this diftrift were equally well Inp- 


of Forhes and Ktarn.^ i^j 

plied ^^ itih any in the neighbourhood. But the heritors nei* 
thcr tcol^ any coacem, nor expended a fingle fliilliog for their 

Heritors^ Remts^ and Roads. — There are 3 hefitors in this 
diftn£b» odI/ x of whom refides. The valued reQt is ii66h 
Scotch ; the prefent rent, reckoning the viftual paii to the 
berstors at tis. Sterling per boll, is 65 2I. Sterling. The roads 
in this diftri^ are made and repaired by the flatute labour on- 
ly ; and, of confequence, they are in a moft wretched Aate, 
being fcarcvly paffiible in the winter feafon. 

jtntiquHks. — There are no antiquities in this diitriS worth 
mentioningy excepting fome Druidical places of worihip, and 
m few trifiing tumuli, ishicb bcm to have been burial places 
in the times of heathenifm. None of them haye yet been 
opened. Driminner, the ancient feat of jthe family of Forbes, 
is the only caiUe af»d ^ntlemau^s &ftt .in (he diftrifi:. It feems 
to hsTc been built about the middle of the 16th century; the 
oldeft date is 1 577» 

C&ara£F#r.— That the people in this dtftti^ we (atiafied 
with their prcient fituation, cannot with propriety be faid | 
their rents being triple and quadruple what they .formerly 
were, their lands ftill unimproved, their leafes ihofti Hior flock 
exhaufted in the years 1782 and 1783, befides the high rates 
of femnts fees. All tbefe, as well as other circuniftattoet that 
could be mentioned, keep them ftill in pinching poverty, ia 
fpite of their utmoft iodollry* They are, in Aature, about 
the middle £2^^ and, in general, of a fomewhat fvrarthy con* 
plezion. As to their manner of life, they ate indttftciocst 
feber, regular attendants on public worlhip and other ordinances 
of the gofpel $ charitable, and of an obliging temper and A\U 
pofitioHi There are no feftaries among them. 


i^^ Statift'tcal Account 


{fnJhyUry of St. Andrews — Synod and County ofFifo.^ 
By tbi Rev. Mr. John Mair, Mmifter: 

£riaiont SUuationi and Extent. 


THIS parifli was disjoined from St. Andrews about z6ar 
years ago. The church and manfe lie almoft in the centrep 
mbbut 3 computed miles S. W. from the citj of St. Andrews. 
Its extent, from N. to S., is 3 computed miles 9 and 4 from 
£'. to W. ; but, from N. E. to S. W., and from N. W. to 
S« Em 4 computed mHes each waj. 

Cmkwationt Mineraltf Scil^ %ic. — About 30 years before 
the disjunftiouy there was plenty of game ; and long after that 
period, even no farther back than 60 years ago, almoft all eaft- 
ward £rom the church, there was one continued trad of heath ; 
but atpzefent nothing of that kind is to be feen, excepting upon 
the lands of Lathocker, belonging to Mils Scott, who, it is 
to be hoped, when fhe arrives at majority,' will give proper 
encouragement to cultivate that barren fpoc. What has been: 


of Cameron^ ipg 

M Cogulac fervlce in making fach an alteration is the lime.ftone 
^od coal, with which this parifli abounds* The foil differs 
Tcrj mach through the whole pariQi ; and though fome verj 
good grain is produced, (efpecially on the farms to the northr 
waxd of the church), yet, in general, it is better adapted for 
pafturage. The proprietors are fo fenfible of this, that more 
than one half of the pari|h, \vhich was all open fields 30 years 
ago, is now inclofed ; and fimilar improvements are daily 
making upon the reil of it. 

Farm Rents ^ Prices of Labour ^ ^c. — Rents arc confiderably 

raifed within thefe 30 years. All the farms, of which leafes 

]xive been lately granted, produce to the proprietor double, 

and fome of them triple, of what they did formerly. The price 

of labour, in fome meafure, keeps pace with the rents. Tailors, 

whofe wages were po more than 4d. per day, demand zed. ; 

ma(bn5,whoufedtoworkfora merk, (13s. 4d. Scotch), look for 

IS. 8d. Ster.; day labourers cannot be got under is. ; common 

ploughmen have raifed their wages, from 40s. and a pair of 

ikoes, to 5K Snerling ; and they who fow and iigg, exped 7 

goineas. Women (iervants, who ufed to be fatisfied with 20s. 

in tbe year, will not now engage under 2I. zos. at the loweft, 

and few can be got un Jer 3I. The article of coals is very much 

advanced in price within thefe 40 years : A cart load at the 

hill coft only is. 4d. i but now, for the fame quantity, 3s., 

axid ibmetimes 3s. 6d. is paid. Indeed, it muft be owned, 

tbtt the expence of working coal is greatly increafed. Two 

fire engines are employed for that purpofe, in this pari(h, by 

Mr. Durham of Largo, and the coal-hewers receive more 

wages. Adjacent to one of thefe fire engines, he has lately 

trefted a number of houfes to accommodate the workmen. 


fQO Stati/lkal Ace^ufU 

Population. — ^Though this be a new village, the nnml^ci' of 
inhabitants in the parifii has iiicreafed Tcry little within thefc 
13 years, afid has decrcafed confidcrably within thefe407ears, 
as appears fiom the fbUowing 

Population Table of the Parifli of CAHCiioir. 

Ildmber of foul* m 1 755, 1095 Nuqibcr pf weavers, - . ao 

Jlitto in I7JS, - - 1165 • ■ ■ taaors, . . ^ 

wrigfitt, . . f 

Decreafe in 38 years, 130 Ihocmalcens - » 

Population in 1780, - Iiji maibn^ . - j 

— I ■ imitht, - - 6 

iscreafe within the latt 13 ye»s, 14 ■ *« drc^eri, - x 

The above decreaip is to be aUrib^tcd to the many mclo* 
fures which have taken plao€» which natttrallj operauxA dii- 
xninifiiing the aecefiity of having 9 number of fervants. 

Climate and £oif^/Kzii>j;.-^There.i9 no difeafe peculiar to thi« 
parifli ; and when any become epid«mictl in the .neighbour^ 
hoody they fpld^m find their ^y fo hi^ as to seach thie^ ez» 
cepting the fmall-pos and the meafles, which the ftraggling 
poor fometimes introduce. The climate is remarkably healthy \ 
and as an evidence of this, fix p^rfons, within theft 40 
years, were al) alive about the fame time, aged upwards of 
90. At prefent, a few can. reck^on 80 years \ aod the mini- 
fter himfelf (who writes this narrative) is 71 complete, and 
has been 41 years in the parifii, having been oidatnef jo March 

Cburcb^-^Tht ftipend is made up by 10 bolls and 3 firlots 
of bear j ^ bolls, 2 firlots and 6 lippies olfufficient oats, (the 


if GmerfOh Ckoj 

vxpieffion in the decreet of locality), and by 98 bolls a firlots 
of black oats, at hdlf pricCy >vith Z58U 133. 4d. Scotch, aa 
the parfianage tithes^ and the vicarage of St. Andrews and 
Cameron parilhesi the coUeding of which is both ezpeofive 
and troublefome, being paid bj 110 perfons, and fome of th^ 
articles not excefdbg om$ fttmy an4 ihr^e faHhing$ / a verj 
trifling income \ Indeed, under the denomination of commu^ 
nion elements, one particular farm is fitddled with la bolls 
and a firlots of black oats, at half price \ and there is. a fuffi. 
dencj of jinexhanfted tithes to anfwer a tolerable augmen« 
tation, which will certainly be obtained, whenever an incun^ 
^t ihall purfue fw it 

ltM#, Scbwil^ ond Paor.— The valued rent is $859!. 7s. lod. 
Scotch, and yet affords no more than zoo merks of falary to 
the icboolmafter.— The minifter and elders have hitherto main- 
tained the poor by the weekly colle&ions in the church, and 
die emoUimenta arifing from the mort««loth. 

Vot. !?U. C 9 NUM. 

^o$ ^a^ica/ AccwMi 


(jpmfij and Pr^jtery pf DunAarton^^Syftod of Glafgoj^ 

and Ayr. 

By thi Rtv^ Mr* Andrew Whits, Min\fitr^ 

jMaMtf, ErtBum^ ^nd ^xtnU. 

KILMARONOCK fignifies the cell, chapd, or bniylog^ 
place of Sc Maronoch, or St. Mtrnoch. About the 
middle of laft centuxy, g confiderahk part of the parifli was 
disjoined from Kilmarooock, and annexed to BonhilL Its pre- 
fent extent is about 5 miles iq length, and from ^ to 4 miles 
in breadth. From the Dumbarton moors, the ground has in 
general a gentle declivity towards the north. 

River, Lah^ HUls^ and ^01/,— The wmdings of < he river 
Endrici^ through a plain of more than 3000 acres, the Houfe 
of Buchanan fituated in the middle of the plain, with the ex« 
tenfive lawns and forefis belonging to the Duke of Mootrofeg 
prefent to the traveller through this parifli a moft beautifbl 
landfcape. Lochlomond, with its numerous iflands and va« 
7ic|ate4 banksi the furrounding hills, and towering moun* 

bf KitiiUironocL itb^ 

tiiii^ with the dond-capt Benlomond, Gombine t6 rendet thd 
fetneiy vety pifturefdittc— On th« banks of the Endrick, the 
fid is a deep rich loam, verj faTonrable for pafturage or til's 
hge ; on the rifing gronnd above the pltfint the foil is in ge^ 
Kill a €old wet till ; and, towards the moors, of a mofly 

AgneMkmr€,i''-^r\M there are feldom ioffances of good hnU 
haodry on finall farms^ except on (bils of the greateft fertility^ 
or where there is a command of manure, is a maxim which \% 
verified in this pariih. Many of the frrms are fo (mall, as to 
yield bnt a fcanty fubfiftence to the farmer i and as no lime 
or ftinrolating manures can be got but at a high price, little 
attention is paid to the melioration of foil, or rotation of crops* 
From the price of hbbur and mannrei compared with the be^ 
iMfit of rearing and fattening cattle, fome of the moft judicious 
tenera, in ihia psrilb and neighbottrhood^find their intereft itl 
having dieir groands in paflnre rather than tillage. But as 
■gricttkimS is acknowledged to be the mod permanent bafis o£ 
die weakh of a coantry^ it woidd certainly redound to the ho- 
aonr and intereft of gentlemen, who are poffefled of large 
sAates, to exhibit d pattern of iinpcoTemait ; or, if this is 
fiot found conyenient, judicious and eitperienoed farmers might 
be more encoiAaged, by letting I^Kfes od one or more lives. 
Such a prafttce, it is evident, would be attended vrith thd 
inoft beneficial cdnfequences ^ at leafl, it ^buld cerfaioly fab * 
prieferabfe to tiie cuftomp of granting leafes of arable farmf 
Um nioe^ or even nineteen years 9 where the fiirmer no foonef 
begins to improve, than he purfues an oppolite fyftem, of ex^ 
haoftittg hb farm by too frequent cropping, from the tde* 
ftat he may be tamed out at the expiration ol die kafie, woA 
a fttai^gcr who oSsrs more sent preCertoib 

• ci 

ta/f. SiatifUcal AcctUfnt 

Mitts Mi Mmlturet. — ^Thcie aiie three corii'^iuHt in die p^ 
fifit ; ^e greateft part of the lands are thirled* or aftrided f^ 
one or other of thefe mills. The multure, in geiierd» after ik 
dedudion of feed and horfe^^com, amounts to about a tweUU» 
fiart of the crop ; a ferritude not Only bighlj oppreffite tm 
tiie farmer, but which has a tendencj to prevent em«latifniii> 
among the millers, in the execution of their bufinefs. 

tyberiiiu^Tht Endrick abounds, at eertain feafiMt , < 
fiilmons, pikes, trouts,. perches, pars, Sec. Theee is an cs» 
client falmon fitherj iti Lochlomond, near the plaeo where 
fhfe Endriok difeharges iAto the bke. Ai the falmoe ait «ot 
l>ow interrupted ia their courfe up the Lcven, as fovmerlj-^ 
the filheries, on the banks of the lake, are WuAj toteaiovt 
^tj profitable to the diflferent propcietorsk 

' Po/ii£rf Me.-^The popubtion of this parifi is en; the dtob 
Mine, chieflj o^ing to the increafh of trade and manttfii£huee« 
ec BonhUl and Balfroo, where many of the people have fet* 
tied* The return to Dr. Webfter, in 1755, ^* * ''93 
Ftx>m an enumeratioe m 179% there were found to be 
only *-•--*.- 8te 

Oecreafe^ « • • • 3^^ 

Of thefe theremrere,. below to jears of age,. • aie* 

The number of families was - «- - • 175 

No authentic account can be giveh of the births, as many of 
the people, and paf ticularlj the DiiTenters, decline to hare 
them inferted in the pari(h f^tfter. 

Serii^s and Reni.^'The number of heritors Is 54, THe 
greateft part of them have but £aiall properties ; 3% are refi* 


toc» wsA aa n<ni»refident. The vidued rent is %y^. i6s. 6d* 
Scoccfa : Xhe real rent cannot be eafilj afoertained, as a great 
part of the laoda are in tlie handa of tbe proprietors. 

&m^h and Seiootf^^^Tb^ cimrch has much the appear^ 

tece of antiqiutj. The mft&fe was built in 175X, and fince 

dwt tk&e it has been enlarged and repaired% The ftipend, hf 

a late augmentation! beiUes die glebe, is 6 chalders of meal^ 

I dmlder of bear, and 40U 58. Sterling, in money, xnclnding 

•onuDimion elements. Lord Stonefield is patron.— -The pa*' 

rodiinl fchooknafter has too merks ftlarj. The vnmber of 

feholan is ufuallj abbnt 40. His living is onlj about 15L 

per anavm. Befides tht parochial fehool, there are generalljr 

ether two. The fchoolmafter of one of them has 50 merka 

fidarj, befides fchool fees. If feme fuitabie encouragement 

ia not foon given to Ichoelmafters, it is apprehended, that^ 

in manj places, the education of children will be totally 


Prices ^ imb^ur^ Tud l^^— -The wages of a good ploughs 
man, for the year, befides board and lodging, are from 81. to 
taL Sterling. Thofe of a woman fervant, for the year, be« 
fides board, are from 3!* to 4l* Sterling. The prices of pro« 
vifions are nearly the fame with the Glafgow and Dumbanoir 
market8.-*Peats are the common fuel. Coals are brooght^ 
fh)m Kilpatrick, a difiaace of i a or 24 miles. 

Jtooir.— The military road from Stirling to Dumbarton^ 
after croffing the Endrick, by an excelknt modern bridge^ 
pafles, from £• to W., through the parifii. There is alfo ao^ 
excellent turnpike road, which is now nearly completed, lead^ 
ing froA this place Igr £attf» Kilpatrick>to Glafgew* 


lad StStiJkdi Accwfit 

Springs^ fVodit, aiUl Gami.^l^erj field ilmoft ihtmAdM 
tlidi perennial fprings^ ooziiig from rock8 of free-ftone. Of 
thefe St. MartnoeVs WM is the moil famous. From d^ 
fprlngs coUeded, fmall rivalets run» interfefting the grounds, 
add render them very eoihrenieat fcfr paftiiTage.^^There ^re 
federal woods in the parifli, die valoe of which has confider- 
ably increafed within thefe few years. The woods on the 
basks of Lochlomondy belonging to Mils Buchanan of Dmio* 
kill, and John Buchanan, ECj. of Ardoch,- abound with wood^' 
cocks, in the beginning of winter^ — 'The moors^ on the con-^ 
flnes of the pariik, are much reforced to by the fportfrnea, ist 
the hunting feafon. There is a general complaint, that the 
birds are much foarcer within thefe few years. This maj* 
be partly accounted for from the increafe of the ftock of (beep, 
and the fimall indueement the lliepherds have to preferve tbo^ 

Antiquhiiu — I'here are the remains of i RomUh' cKipeb^ 
At Catter^ now the property of the Duke of Momtrosb^ 
there is a large Artificial modnd of earth, where, hi anc^t 
tiroes, courts were held \ near to which the Duke of Letmoc 
had a place of refidence. There is not now the fimalleft veC^ 
tige of the building. The catftles of Kilmaronoek* and Bau 
turret f , now in ruins^ appear to have been formeily very 
magnificent edifices. 

Mi/cellamous Ob/ervaiions.'^'theTt are no towns nor vib 
lages in the patifli, libr any manUfadures carried on. l*he 

'The prftpetty of RoSert M*lOoiiiie, Efq. of MaiiSi. 
f The property of George Hd4aoe, Efq. of Gkneagle^r 

^ Ktlmaronodt. 1207 

«ca are^ in generail, employed in haibandry^ but, as the 
farms arc fmall, they ar^ not opprefled with hard labonn 
The iMromcn are engaged in fpinning flax, or in work they 
receive from manufafiurers. The people arc grave and foberi 
hoc fi^me of thepi are rather difpoied to be litigious* • 


^ Abom tke tegliiaiag of tlie prefcnt iiCfitpry, the pirifli was nrach eipofei 
to tbe de|itc«UtiaiL of certain frcebqptcrt, who cafried off |he pittle ; fo that the 
bnaera, fior thdr prote^ion, engaged to pay them, or othert, a certain tax, i»iBe4 
fktek ■«■/, which waa regvlaxlj exa^ed ua;il 1/4^, when a better police ww 

sol Sk^/Hctd Aceomt 

K U M B £ R XV. 


C^ff/httty •/ MngU^— County cf Tvrfar-Synoi •/ jimguf 
I and Mtanu. 

Sjf ibt Rev. Mr. Jamzs SroKiiOKTa, Miaj/ftr, 


Form^ Ext mi ^ and Soil, 
'nnHE form of this pariik is an irregular panllellograa- I9 
*** length it is between 5 and 6 miles; in breadth between 
3 and 4f and in fome places more. The foil is varioust go- 
Berallj a light (and» or deep Uack mouldt 

Situation^ CUmaie and Difeafi4.^Tht parifli may be divid* 
cd into 2 diftri&s. Abont two thirds of it lie in Strathmore, 
and the other forms the higher ground, which feems to ter- 
minate the ftrath on the N. In the former the climate is 
jnildeft ; but the air is inoft pure and healthj in the latter, 
and freeft from the fogs. Rheumatifms, flow fevers, and 
fometimea agues prevail, efpecially in the neighbourhood of 
the mofl/. and fwampy ground. 


tf Airly. 209 

Smrfaee and Cultivation — ^The lower part of the parifb 
has the appearance 'of being flat ; but ia maay places it is 
▼erj uneqaaL About a6 years ago, it was almoft in a ftate 
of oature, vith icarcely an enclofure in it: NoW, the greateft 
paxt is cultivated to a high degree, and about two thirds of 
it fubftantiallj enclofed, either with flone dikes, ditch and 
hedge, or ditch and paling ; which fences, with the ftripes 
and damps of planting, well drefled fields, and bandfome 

farm fteadings, make a moft beautiful appearance. 

Of arable land it is fuppoTed there are aibont - 4300 

Of moify, fwampy, and wafie ground, about « 700 

And in planting, about . . - * . 900 

In all, ^ - - 59^^ 

Produce and Catiffe, lie. — ^The common returns from the' 
arable ground* in oats and bear, are from 4 to 6 bolls per 
acre; and of wheat from 8 to lo. There is but little haj 
made, the fkrmer finding his account rather in fattening cattle.* 
Of thefe there maj be reared in a feafon abont 500, and fat* 
lened on turnips from 180 to 20c. There are about 400 mord 
cattle in the.pariih. The mod^ of culture is much the fame 
with what has been defcribed in other improved pariihes. 
Farmers, who pay from Z50I. to 300I. of rent, pofie(s about 
one half. There is qne farmer in(leed who pays more.; but 
he, with other two, does not refide. There is one threlhiDg 
machine in the pari(b. There is onlj one flock of (beep. The 
ewes were brought from Northumberland about a year and 
a half ago, and thrive remarkably well. Their fleeces bring 
about 45. each ; and, when fat, they weigh about 22 lb. per 

Vol. XI. Dd . leg. 

^Tbe pticctof labour tnd provifioDt are touch the fame -at ki the nri^- 
bonriog pariihet of Meigle and Kingoldmm. 

2IO Statifilcal Account 

legf Their namber, aod that of the ploughs and miUsy as as 

follows : 

SHiBPt Ploughs. Mills. 

9 fcfire ewei, - z8o 

9 fcore lambs, - I So 

7 fcorc hogs, - X4C 

Total, - 500 

Two-hoife plM^hft - 33 

Thrcc^horfc ditio, - 7 

Fourhorfe ditto, - z6 

Total, - 56 

Com milk, «> 4 

Flour ditto, - i 

Lint ditto, r X 

Total, - 6 

Heritors^ Rmt^ and Fuel. — The heritors are 7 in nuaibcr ; 
none of whom reCde, excepting one gentleman, a few months 
in fumm^r. There is onljr one gentleman's feat in the parifli ; 
but Airly Caftle will foon make another. — The valued rent is 
33x01. Scotch. The real rent is about ^850!. Sterling, in- 
duding what arifes from mofs and marl. The former will 
bring for per^ts, the chief fuel of thp lo\yer clafs, near looL, 
and the latter about 300I. 

Churchy School^ and Poor.— The church i^as rebuilt in 
X783y and the manfe in 1792* The Hying is 85 bolls 3 fir- 
lots z peck f lippie meal, and 43 bolls 3 firlots bear, with 
about 9^.' of vicarage tithes, a glebe and garden. The Earl 
of Strathmor£ is patron. — The fchoolmafter's falary an4 
fcbool fees amount to about x61. or i7l.-^The poor are fup- 
plied by the weekly collections, mortcloth money, and the 
lAtereft of about 130I. The number upon the roll, during 
the lad 10 years, Has been from 4 to 9, befides many who 
have received occafional fupplies. In 1782, aol. Sterling 
were expended in purchafing meal for the mod neceflitou^ 

Population* — The number of pariibioners has decreafed 

within thefe 40 years, owing to the improvements of land 

find junftion of farms, which have alfo greatly diminiihed the 

number of inhabited houfes. 


^f Airly. 


P0PUI.ATION Table of the Parifli of Airlt. 

iWberof TonU in Z755, - 1 01 a Members of the Eftabliihed 

Dittoiai79ay . 















— ' honlSes uninliabited, or pulled Peribns under 10 years of age, 187 



- 150 

wca«Bn» * 

A9 - 

— — ■ 2© and 50, 

- ^^9 



- no 

Iboenuken, * - 

4 - 

- x6 

fimtfaa, - - 5 — 

- 3 



MAKaiAOtSy BiMTHi, aod Bo&ials, for the lail xo years. 




















































AiRLT Castle. — Airly Gallic, which gave title to Ogilvjr 
Earl of Airly, is fituated ia the N. W. comer of the parifli, 
U the cooflttz of the Melgin aud Ifla. It ia built on a pro« 
aioiitQry, fbnned by tbefe two rivers, aod elevated above 
tbeir bed more than zoo feet. It has been a very large and 
flrong fortreCi, feemingly inacceflible on every fide but the 
Southy on which it has beenfecured by a ditch and draw-bridge, 
niore than 20, perhaps 30 feet wide, and a wall (the front of 

D d a the 

2 1 2 Stati/iuai Accmint 

the callle), lo fieet thick, and 35 feet high*. For romantie 
fitoation, and natural beauties, (fuch as the Terpentine wind- 
ings of rivers> trees and fhrobs ftarting fnom the brows of 
fteep rocks, and lining the fides of deep dens), it exceeds anj- 
thing in this part of the oountrj. Till within thefe 3 yemrs 
it has remained a ruin ; but now an elegant mddem houfe, 
built on the principal foundations of the caftle, is joft 

Cajlle of Balrie^^^Tht caflle of Balrie, another ruin, fitip* 
ated in Strathmore, has been built upon a rifing grdund, to- 
wards the W. end of the prefent mofs (formerly a large loch^, 
containing about 1 20 meres, to the eaftward of the caftle, and 
6 or 8 to the weftwaxd. The prefent proprietor, about xo 
years aga, dug up a part of the caufeway which led into the 
draw-bridge ; fo that there is little doubt of this place having 
been once very flrong, and almoft impregnable. The vralls, 
in general, are about 8 feet thick ; but the houfe has been 
fmall, and rather Intended for a place of refuge in times of 
danger, than the conftant refidenoe of a family f • 

Mofs of Balrie* — ^The mofs of Balrie was begun to be 
drained about 40 years ago^ and has,^ at various intervals, un- 
dergone d liferent degrees of draining ; the great objeCt of 
which has no doubt been the immenfe quantity of fine ihell 
marl found In it, as well as peats. Th^ one has contributed 


• At what time \i wu boilt, h not fo certain, u that it was deftroyed by tbe 
Marquis of Argyll in 1640 ; wkich was repaid in kind by the Mar^nis of MoMT- 
mofla and the royaiifts, a few yean after, when they burnt I^vckaet and 
DoLLAK, and overthrew Lqchow, Argyll's principal rciidence. 

f The neighbouring lands, with the caftle, were the pro perty of the lall JLord ^ 
VifcGUOt Fenton, whofe eldeft daughter married into the family of SraATn^ 
atoas, and of which lands the Earl of Strathmore is fiill foperior. It it Gud to 
iJr more than Xoo years iincc any part of the roof of the cattle wafftanding. 

rf Airly. 215 

s nmch to tlie improTement of the neighbouring countrj, as 
die other has to the conofort of the poor. Several thoufand 
Mb of marl are dug out of this mofs jearlj, which in price 
hs arife^ firom ^fiA.^ to zed. per boll, 8 cubical feet being 
allowed to the boll. And there are ftill beds of marl in it 
16 fleet perpendicuhri bj the boring iron, and the bottom not 
iimnd; but inpoffible lo work ont, without more water being, 
tiken off^ ipvhich will be as difficult as ezpenfive*. Confider- 
aUe quantities of marl have likewife been found in the moiTes 
of other proprietors. 


* Screral very Urge deep*t honu have been foond in the Mofs of Balzie \ 
«K of which, prcfented hy the proprietor to the Antiquarian Sodety, weighed 
aboat ^Ih. There are other two in hb pofleffion, one of which weight aboof 
16Tb. and the other abont I4lbw In the year 1775, the tufk of a wild boar was 
dag np upon a marl fpade. The length of it, from the fuppofed itcat in the jaw- 
bone^ia 4 inches; the greateft breadth near two. It rcfembles vtsy much th» 
cdoar and fabikuice of ivory, but is faid to be only bone. 

214 Statifiical Aaount 



(Couniy of Kincardim — Prejbytery of Fardonu^Sjuod of^ 
Angui and Mtartu^ 

By the Rev. Mr. James Walker, Mimijler. 

Name^ Extent^ and Situatioa. 

DUNNOTTAR is Taid to have been anciently vfrittcn 
Dunotyr^ which is of Gaelic original^ derived from the 
fituation of the old callle bearing that name, the ruins <^ 
which ftsind upon a rock on the coaft, almoft infulated from 
the land. — ^This parifh is nearly of a triangular form, extend- 
ing about 4 miles on each fide. It is divided almoft into two 
equal parts, bj a den, pc hollow, which takes its origin at 
the N. £. angle ; and, widening as it reaches the fouthern 
boundary, gives beginning to the great How^ or Holiow of the 
Meams ; which alb extends through the Ihire of Angus, 
under the name of Strathmore ; being bounded all along, on 
the W., by the chain of the Grampian mountains, which 
reach obliquely acrofs the ifland, from this neighbourhood to 
the weft coaft *• 


* Here it may be obferTed, tluit along this hollow »ppein to have been the 


ofDunnoitar. 215 

Surface^ Soil, and Minerals. — The farface of this parifh, 
in general^ is uneven, with fmall rifings, but no confiderable 
tin. The foil is various : Toward the fea coafi, loamy and 
dajey ; in the middle, wet and mollj ; towards the Weft, 
gravelly mnd moorillu The Jlraia appear, both from the fea 
coaft and inland quarries, to ^ep toward the S« W. ; which 
obferratioa is alfo applicable to all the country round. The foil 
is full of round fmall ftones, of various kinds, having the 
appearance of being water-worn. Thefe ftones are very ufe- 
fol for improvement, in filling drains in wet land, almoft 
every field having fnfiiciency in itfelf ; and the harbour is 
fuTTounded with excellent free-ftone quarries, of a moft dur- 
able quality, which prove extremely valuable for building. 

Climate^ D\/eafBs^ Rivubts^ \3c. — The air and climate here 
are much the fame as along the whole eaft coaft ; variable, 


fiar of Biarch, which ill invaden from Eoghnd followed, at the diifereot periodt 
wb^". they 0Ter-ran Scotland. To this they were particularly direded, by th» 
fordable paiTages of the river Tay, above the flow of the tide at Perth, and coiw 
fined by the Grampian chain on the weft. The progreia of the Romaxii, parti- 
cohrly, in this diredion, is evident, from a regular fcries of encampmcnu all 
the way along the foot of the hills. And it appears probable, that in this nelgh* 
boorhood, where the hills join with the fea, the famous battle was fought, nar- 
rated by Tacitus, of the Scotch, under Gai.oacos, with the Romans, ilopt at 
the end of their progrefs, by the mountains and moraffes; which are defcribed 
as being at the foot of the Grampians, in fight of the Roman fleet. But at no 
other place in Scotland do the Grampian hills approach the fei. And in the 
neighbouring parifh of FetlerelTo, about three miles to the northward of this 
place, there are the remains of a very Urge irregular camp in the hills, flrongly 
entrenched oo the quarter next the fea. This would feem to have belonged to 
tbe Scotch army ; whereas, at the diftance of about two miles farther down, doCe 
to a flat fea beach, there were evident veftiges of a Roman caop, a few years 
ago, though they are now defaced by the improvement of the ground. And 
upon a moor nigh to the foppofed Scotch camp, there are a nnmber of tomnls, 
indicating it to have been the field of battle* 

a i6 Sfatiftlcal Account ^ 

f iviog occafion to rheumatifm and confumpdon ; but not re- 
tnarkable for any other difeafe. Agues are here quite un- 
4Lnown» though prevalent through all the pariihes to the 
dfouthward. — No rivers run through this pari(h, but feveral 
imall rivulets, which chieflj find their way into the Carrom 
upon the N« ; the reft of the water running toward the 
fouthern boundary^ and forming there a fmaU ftream. la 
the Carron there are excellent trouts, and at its mouth a fal^ 
moo fiihing in the fea, t)f which the produce is verjr incoo- 

Sea Coqfl and Fowls. — ^The Tea coaft is very 1>oIdy formed 
-of fiht plumlh^udding rock^ and containing feveral deep caves. 
The moft remarl^able part of the coaft is called FowtsJfeugb, 
"ribout ti mile in extent, and 50 fathoms high, bhabited by 
fea fowls i fuch as gulls, coots, and kittjweaks, in fuch num- 
bers, that it is an employment, during the fummer months, 
Co climb thefe perpendicular rocks, by the help of .a rope tied 
round a man's middle,, in which he is let down from the top 
«to catch the fowls. The feathers and down of thefe fowls are 
in great demand ; and the kittyweaks, whofe flefh resembles 
that of folan geefe, are fold at high prices in the neighbour- 
ing towns. A rent of about al. los. is paid to tlie proprietor 
for the liberty of catching the fowls.: And € men are com- 
monly employed in the work $ 5 of thefe being required to 
lc;t down and draw iip the perfon in the rope. Thefe fea fowls 
are all migratory, appearing in April, and removing fouth- 
Ji«ard in JSeptember. 

Fijb and Kelp. — The fifliing, upon this part of the coaft, 

Ixgs much declined for fome years paO, the fea not producing 

fiear its ufual quantity : But what are caught, are of excellent 

^quality. Three boats and a yawl, with -6 men in each, are 

• commonly 

^f Dunnottar. 217 

fcomntodljr tihplojed from this parifli. TIte filfa caught are cod, 
ting, haddocks, Whitings, and flounders \ befides a cotiltderable 
quaotity of crabs and lobilers, which are moftlj confumed in 
ihe ticighbourhood. Some kelp is made along this coaft, 
once in three jears, the fea weed requiring that time to grow* 
But the quantity is very iuconfiderable. 

Town and Harlour. — .At the N. E- comer of the p^ariffa, 
where the Carrbn runs into the fea^ is fituated the fmall town 
of Stok£Rav£K, or Stonehive. The principal circumftance 
obfervable with refpe£b to it^ is its harbour, for which there 
is the beft natural fituation. It is a bafon, fheltered from the 
S. £• by a very high rock, which fiands out into the fea } 
and on the N. £• there is a head^ or qtlay^ which in fome 
me^&fure defends it from that quarter. At high tides there is 
a depth of 22 feet wHter at the entrance. If the prefent qiiay 
^ere carried farther out, and another built oppofite to it, vef- 
fels could lie in perfe£t fafety. And it would be of the utmoft 
importance to all the {hipping upon the E. coaft of Scotland, 
^hat fome improvement of this kind were made : For there 
is not a harbour betwixt the Frith of Forth and Cromarty, 
that veSeis in diftrefs can fo eafily get into ; as all t\\t fea« 
faring people can bear witnefs. A fmall aid from gorem- 
ment would bte requifite for this improvement, to be joined 
to the (hore^does and private contributions^ 

Commerce and Government — ^There is very little trade here, 
except by 3 or 4 fmall velTels, which are employed for fup- 
plying the neighbourhood, in bringing lime and coals from 
Sunderland and the Frith of Forth, with a few cargoes of 
Wood, iron and flax from the Baltic** The town eonfifts o£ 

Vol. XL E e feu»\ 

* Thit town, at well at the reft of the pariib, bt» labovrcd under a fpm 


2i8 Statijlical Account 

feus granted by the Earls Mati/cbaloi Scotland* within wbofe 
cftate it was fituated. It is a burgh of baronj, of which tha 
jurifdidion, bj charter, is vefted in magiSrates, chofen by 
the fuperior and feuers. The principal fupport of the town 
has been derived from the iheriff court of the county, which 
has its feat here ;>-retail (hops for the accommodation of the 
neighbourhood ; — commiffion upon flax given out to fpin for 
inanufaftures in Aberdeen and Montrofe ; — and the provifion 
for (hipping, which occaiionallj put in here, or are detained 
by contrary winds* — The number of procurators, or attor- 
nies, before the fheriff court, is 4. 

MaMufaShires^'-^ln point of natural fituatipn, no place has 
greater advantages, for the eflablifliment of manufadures, 
than Stonehaven, having a good fea port, an excellent com- 
mand of running water, a populous diftrift of country around 
it, and abounding with the bed fpinners f • In the courfe of 
lad year (1792), fome branches of manufadure, of the Ofna- 
burgh, iheeting, linen cheque, and cotton woolfey kinds, have 
been here fet on foot, chiefly by merchants in Arbroath^ 
iThefe manufa£l:ure& are as yet but in their infancy ; but are 


^Ifadvantagc for nany yean paft, Sy Setng part of the forfeitures of 17 rj, ioVi 
to the York BuUdiog Company. The alEuxii of that Company having faUea 
into diforder, about the year 1740, ever fince that period there has been no fu- 
perior to forward the trade, and fupeiintend the police of Stonehaven : And few 
of iu inhabitants being poflefled of any ftock, little was to be czpeded from 
them. Hence all improvement was prevented, and matUrs continued in th% 
finne ilate of backwardnefs. 

f A confiderable manufadure of fatl-cloth was carried on here Ibme yeart 
ago, by a merchant in Aberdeen, which employed about 50 looms within this 
town, and 15 in the neighbourhood. But though attended with great fnccelt^ 
it was given up, upon the death qf that gentleman, and an end put to the trade 
•f the place ilcGe that period. 

^f Dunnottar. 219 

^opofed to be confiderably extended. Their prefent ftate is 
as follows : 

The number of weMws^emploftd it 4», who earn, at «b myerage» 

8a. 6d. per week, amouoting in the year to •• • - L. 928 4 e 

•Six fiaxdreflert, at zos. per week, amounting to - - 1^6 o • 

TweWc labourerf, $%. per week, .... 1^5 o o 

Total wages paidtomanufadnren in the year, - X^ Z140 4 • 

And, fincc the comtpencement of the prefent year (1793), 
another manu£a£lare of fail-cloth has been eftabliihed, coo- 
taining 12 looms, requiring a capital of 300I. each. Sut to 
ihew to what extent the manofadures might be carried here« 
it is to be obferved, that there are wages given to fpinners in 
fills neighbourhood, bj perfons in Stonehaven, who give out 
flax for manufafturers here and in other places, to the annual 
anount of a652L 9s. 6d. Of this fum, a large proportion is 
on account of manufadures in Aberdeen, Montrofe, and PiX^ 
broath, which have the burden of carriage of the flax and re«- 
turn of the yarn, to and from thefe towns, at the refpedive 
diftances of 15, 2a, and 36 miles. To Montrofe alone, there 
are fent, weekly, at an average, 30 cwt« of yarn throughout 
^e year. 

Manner of Livifig.^'Tht^j\e of living here is much above 

'<what might be fuppofed in fo fmall a town, poiTefled of fo 

little trade. But it is much to be regretted, that among the 

tradefmen, and }ower fort of people, the praftice of drinking 

fpirits is much too prevalent, to the ruin of their morals, 

health, and circumflances. The native beverage of our coun. 

try* ale, is defpifed, though it is fitted to fupport the labourer 

for his work, and encourages agriculture and manufadures^ 

while fpirits, which enervate body and mind, alfo confume 

ihe profit of labour* 

£ e ^ JZ^anf, 

220 Statiftical Acccount 

fi^evenue^ Imports^ V^.-^The pvUic refcnae of SMMliaviei| 

confifts chiefly of the flu>re dues, amounting annually to ab^u^ 
45I., in which there has been a very great incrcafc of late 
years, from the great qaamity of Hme brought by fca, for 
the improvement of Tands in the neighbourhood* — Upon ai^ 
average of 3 years, 10,566 bolls yearly have bc^n imported 
from Sunderland and from the Frith of Forth, each boll be- 
ing 118 Scotch pints. The reft of the revenue arifes from 
4 fairs in the year, and foroe tmall patches of ground, pro« 
ducing together about 20I. more. This fum, if properly ap- 
plied, would do much to the improvement of the harbour : 
fiut, till of late years, it has been levied to little account* 
From this fund, however, the town has lately been provided 
in excellent water, conveyed in leaden pipes ; the ftreets pui; 
in' good repair ; and a new fteeple built, with a public clock. 

Fuel. — ^No lime-ftone or coals have ever been difcovered ii^ 
this neighbourhood; nor are there the leaft indications of 
them. The general fuel of Stonehaven, is coals, however, 
which are brought partly from the Frith of Forth, and partly 
from Newcaftle and Sunderland : The Scotch coal at the 
iifual rate of 8s. 64. per ^oll, of 72 done ; the Englilh at 38. 
for 24 ftone avoirdupoife ; of which the laft are found cheapei^ 
and moft econonaical *. 9iit while coals arefo heavily taxed, 
the greateft bar is laid in the way of manufaflures and im- 
provement; which is bene the more fenfibly felt, as our neigh- 
bours in Forfar0iire, {rom a local exception, are free from 
this obnoxious tax, no duty being paid, on Scotch coal, all 
along the coaft of Fife and Angus, till they are brought ta 
the borders of this county. But it is with great pleafure we 
underftand, that government have it in view to grant us re- 
lief in this neceiTary article. Peats in this neighbourhood 


^ Id X793, Scotch coal wai up at Iit.> and Engliihat 31. 6<l. 

tf Dunnottar^ jjl 

arc fe very diftanl (about 6 miles), that every perfon is coa«» 
vioced that coals, even high priced as they are, yield thQ 
d^eapeft fir«. 

P^puLuiom — ^NotwithAandingallthe difadvantagcs this pa- 
rifii bas long laboured under, there has been a gradual increafo 
of the population within thefe 40 years, as appears from the 
foUowtng comparative view of feveral ezac^ enumerations, 
taken at different periods. 

In X7i5. the total number of fouls, returned to Dr. Wcbftcr, was 1570 
)n 177a, there were tn the town, 923, in the country, 939; total zt6} %^% 

In 1775, — ' 917, 94»; 1869 7 

In T791,-..- loia, ^ 894; X906 37 

U 179a,— J07a, S90; 19^ 5d 

Total inacafe within thefe 40 years, • • • 31^^ 

It appears, however, that the number has been almoft fta« 
tionary for the lad 20 years, with only a fmall addition in the 
town, of late, owing to the eftabliibment of the new mapu- 
fa&ares, and a trifling decreafe in the country, from the ex« 
pulfion of cottagers by the farmers. 

It has been found impoffible to keep bills of mortality^i 
with any accuracy, owing to feveral circumftances. The peo-. 
pie never were in the praAice of regularly giving in their 
childrcns names for regiilration, particularly the Diflenters ; 
and fince the impofition of the late tax, hardly any have ap- 
plied for that purpofe** The number of births entered on 


* Ia the law refpeding the tax on births aii6 burials, there appears a defe A 
of not oading a compulfatory upon people to regiftrate, agreeable to the fpirit 
9f the lA, by empowcdng the keeper of each pariih regifter to f ae dcfaulten, 

^21 Stsni/ilcal Account 

the regiftcr, has generally been only about 25. The nnmbtfr cf 
marriages is afcertained^ by the proclamation lift, to be, at an 
average, 15. A regifter of deaths has never been attempted 
here ; and to attain ahy accuracy in it* would be ftill more 
difScult than with refpe^t to births* as not one hidf of -the 
people who die in this parifli are buried within it, but are 
carried to the neighbouring parifh of Fetterefib, partly to the 
church-yard there, and partly to ftbe burying gtound of aa 
old chapel within its bounds f • 

Produce. — ^With refpefi to prodpce^ this pariQi is roore 
than fuf&cient to fupply itfelf, affording confiderable quantities 
of bear, barley and meal, to the Aberdeen market, which 
forms ihe fl^andard price here, after deducing the expence of 
cs^riiage. Since the late faleof the York Buildings Company'^ 

^ ^andsi 

pnd recover a penalty : whereas it \% onlj cnaAed, that every perfcn erawmg % 
regiHration, iliall pay fucb a tax. A Dew regulation to this piirpoic i^pears tt 
\t a very proper improvement of our police. 

f from the flightcft obfcryation, the deaths appear confiderably to exceed 
the births, on account of numbers of old people, and perfont decayed, boUi 
jn health and circtraifi antes, whoo'etire to Stonehaven from the neighbouring 
jdarilhcs, when unable to hold poirciBonK in the country. It is alfo obfervablr, 
that notwithfiaoding the decay of manufadures forfeveral years, already mcn» 
tioned, yet the population of Stonehaven not only continued nearly the fame, 
t)ut alfo a coniidcrable addition of buildings has fpread out from it, into the neigh- 
^uring parifli of Fettereflb, which is feparated from it only by the Carrog« 
This circumftance is to be explained from the {late of the adjacent conntry. 
Upon the fale of the York Building Company's lands in the pariihes of Don« 
nottar and Fettereflb, a confiderable revolution took place, by eje^d cottagers 
zemoving from tbe country to the town. And from the progrefs of impnive- 
inent upon thefe eftateSjHnce that time, not only tbefe perfbns find Mnployment 
a« day- labourers, but a number of Grangers from other plaees have been dntvA 
liitiier for the fame purpofc. All thefe have fought refidence hi Stonehaven; 
>vhich has occafiened the increafe of houfes,and kept up the population wit^Qt 
ihc alTiAance of mannfadurcs or trade. 

of Dunnottar. 223 

Isods, enclofing and planting have been rapidly carried for^ 
ward. Hard wood and larches are found to fucceed beft, par* 
ticfdarlj the latter. Scotch firs are mod backward. — ^Th« 
moft general crops of grain are bear and oats> with very little 
bailey, and no wheat. Turnips and potatoes are likewib 
verj much cultivated. The culture of turnips particularly, 
has been greatly ' extended, which here fucceed remarkaUj 
well. Formerly they wer^ chiefly ufed for fattening cattle; 
bat, of late, the high prices have induced moft people to ufs 
tbem for rearing. They are commonly (own in broad caft 
with moft advantage, the foil being generally dry, A con- 
(derable quantity of clover and rye-grafs is now (own ; but 
sot fo much as is requifite for good farming ; the horfes being 
chiefly fed upon ftraw, and the ground not fufficiently refted 
after improvement by fallow and lin^. 

Stati of Property. — A very accurate map of this county 
was executed in the year 1774 ; by which it appears, that in 
the pariih of Dunnottar there are 6418 Scotch acres ; of 
which about 3600 may be fuppofed arable, the reft being 
green paflure and moor. The greateft part of the land lies 
open; and much of it is let in fmall parcels, from 4 to 10 
Mres. The rent is various, according to the diflTerent foils 
and the diftance from Stonehaven, being from 8s. to 2I. pejr 
acre. Few farms are above 50I. rent. The whole rent of the 
pariih is about ax col. The heritors are 4 in number, cf 
whom only x refides within its bounds. 

Catih^ — ^The labour is here chiefly performed by horfes ; 
there being x88 work horfes in the parifti, and only 24 oxen. 
"-There is only i farm in the parifli with a fiock of iheep ; 
))ttt they have never been attended with any fuccels. 


C44 Siatifiical Account 

Prices of XflJo«rr.— The inhabitants of the countrj pariJb 
iirc inoftly farmers and cottagers, with very few tradefmcn ; 
thefe latter commonly refiding in Stonehaven. Of late, the 
praftice, of farmers letting ground to cottagers who do their 
work, is much laid afide ; and they either keep their fervants 
in their own families, or depend upon labourers from the 
town. The ordinary wages of a farm fervant or ploughman^ 
living in his mailer's family, are from 61. to 7L per annum : 
The wages of a labourer, per day, from icd. to is., without 
Tiduals ; and, in harveft, the fame wages, with viduals. The 
women, in this neighbourhood, are generally employed in fpin* 
ning flas: to mtnufafturers in Aberdeen and Montrofe, as well 
AS Stonehaven, by "^hich they gain, in ordinary times^ about ^ti 
per week. But of late, the price of fpinning has fo much 
advanced, by the increafed demand, that many reach as high 
as 4S. per week. Of confequence, the wages of women fer^ 
Vants are alfo raifed to about 2I. ics„ and 31. per annam^ 
and xl. for harved work, when engaged for by itfelf. 

Poor.-— Since the intr6du&ion of improvements in land, an j 
the eftablifhment of manufaAures in this neighbourhood, the 
number of poor in Stonehaven has greatly increafed ; parily 
owing to the cottagers and old people being banilhed from 
the country around, and repairing to the town ; and partly 
to the luxury too commonly introduced by high wages among 
labourers and tradefmeo ; fo that they ftill rife in their ex- 
pences above the proportion of their gains. The number of 
poor now receiving alms in this pariih is 71, of whom 35 are 
refident in the country, and 46 in the town. The annual 
fum expended Upon them, of public charity, is about 50I., 
of which 3al. arifes from the weekly coliedions at the church, 
upon an average ef feveral years paft ; and the reft from in- 


^ of biinnbttaK 1225 

Hreft of a fum funded for their benefit, and the feveral in- 
cidents in the parilh, fuch as fines, proclamation of hanns, 
thd burials. In the country, the poor, being generally fober 
and induftrions, earn a large (hare of their own maintenance* 
In the town, befides relief from the public funds, the poor 
i^ceive frequent fupplies from charitable perfons, in private, 
otfaerwife a legal aiTeflinent would be necefiary ; which has 
never yet taken place in this part of the country. 

Ecekfiqfiical Staie and SthooL — ^The cftablilhed clergy mln» 
by a late augmentation, has a living of about X15I. value, 
befides a gliebe, which might rent at about 8h The church 
tvas rebuilt in 1782^ and the manfe in 1786. In Stonehaven 
thefe are 2 diiTenting meetings, onfe of the qualified Epifco^ 
palians of the Church of England ; the other of Scotch Epif- 
copalians* ; to each of which belong about 1 50 fouls.— The 
parifli fchool is placed in Stonehaven, where there is a very 
confiderable number of fcholars^ having fometimes amounted 
to ICO. l*hefalaty and emoluments may be abont 40I. ; and 
in fome jears haVe amounted to 30I. in proportion to the 
number of fcholars, and the adivity of the teacher f • 

Vol. XI. Ff Roadt^ 

* The Epifcopal oonjaratit pHnciple was ihoft prevalent iti this neighbourhood, 
for many years after the late rebellions, owing to attachment to the forfeited 
MaeischaI family. But the fpirit of that fcA has here fubGded, as well as in 
bther placets and the people of the difierent communions live together in the 
greateft harmony. As an iiiftance of the liberality of mind fubfifiing ambn^f 
Uiem, in the year 1 78a, when the pariih church was rebuilding^ the clergyman, 
with the congregation, had accels to the qualified Episcopal meeting- honfe, to 
perform divine fervice; and the two congregations were blended at each of the 

t There are few objeds, that merit more df the pubb'c attention than the edu« 
cation of youth, and the improvement of por fchools, which, in general, through- 
^t Scotland, are in a hmcntablc fituatioa. Ii would fecm, that by attempting 


^26 StaiiftUal Account 

. Roads. — Two highways pars through thi5 pariih ; the out 
direaij for Perth, the other bebg the poll road from Edin* 
burgh along the coafi, by Pundee, Arbroath, and Montrofe f 
which two roads, uniting at Stonehaven, are continued in one 
to Aberdeen. It mud be acknowledged, that no highways 
in Scotland are in worfe condition } the ftatute labour having 
been very imperfeSly applied, although there is reafoo to 
believe, it would have been tolerably fufficient for their fup* 
port, if commuted for money s the country being populous, 
and tlieie being no great towns to occaGon heavy carriages. 
The fame remark may be applied to the greateft -^part of 
this country But, by the ruinous date into which the high- 
ways have fallen, the county have become fcnfible of the ne- 
ceifity of turnpikes, for which an application is refolved to 
be made to parliament next feiGon, as well as for a commata- 
tion of the ftatute labour. 

Caftle. — Tlife Castle of Dvkvottax, now iq rnins,.!s the 
only antiquity, in this pariih, deferving particular attention. 
It is fituated on a perpendicular rock, level on the top, of 
feveral acres extent, proje&ing into the fea, and almoft fepa- 
rated from the land by a very deep chafm. By this (ituation. 
It forms one of the moft majeftic ruins in Scotland. From 
fome old papers ftill extant f , it appears, that upon this rock 
was formerly fituated the pariih church; and that the fortrels 


to make them all LatU fchooU, their eod it much lofl. Perhaps the eredion 
of only a few of thefc, with an annual vilitation of the whole, by the Commi£- 
iionerf of Supply and Prelbytery of the bounds, would be attended with the beil 
cfieds. Thefe vifitors might alfo have the power of fixing and augmenting the 
f alary each year, to be afTefled upon the refpe^vt parilhcs, according to the 
merit of the teacher. 

•f Thcfe papers are in the cuftody of Mr. Kjcitb of Ratilstonk, who caa 
give a particular account of this place. 

of Dtinoiiar* 21 j 

vm built there, daring the conteft between the parties of 
Bei7C£ and Baliol, bjr ao anceiior of the Marifchal familj * 
who acquired this right, upon condition of building a parifli 
diorch in a more convenient place, which probably occafioned 
a tranflation to the prefent fituation. Before the ufe of artil- 
lery, this caftle, from its fituation, muft have been altogether 
impregoablef; but, by the modem art of war, could be eaiily 

Y i% approached. 

f la great reputation for firength gare occafioD to a circnmfiaDce which ren- 
dered it very remarkable. The Regalia of Scotland (the crown, fceptre and 
^Pord), were depofited here, in the year x66i, to preferve tbem from the Eng* 
liih amy, which ofcr-ran this coantiy daring the civil wars of that period. Be- 
ing lodged in this place by order of the Privy Conncil of Scotland, Earl Maex- 
scBAL, proprietor of the caftle, obtained from the public a garriibn, with an or- 
der for foitable ammunition and provifions. He, joining the King's forces in 
England, appointed Giorce Oxiivrt of Bakras, a neighbouring proprietor* 
who had been officer for feveral years in the King's fervice, to be lieutenant 
governor of the caftle. This ttuft Mr. Ogiivy maiouined wit^ the greateft 
relblotion. For after all the other forts and piaces of ftrength in Scotltod weie 
redaced by the Engliih army, a body of troops, under the command of Lambert, 
lat down before Dunnottar. It was firft fUmmoned to furrender in November 
li^l, and repeatedly afterwards during the courfc of the winter. About the 
begioning of May following, the iiege was converted into a blodLade. And 
thoogb Governor Ogilvt was in the greateft ftraits for provifions and ammu- 
nition, with a moft fcanty garrifoo, and though he received orders from the 
Earl Marilchal, by that time a prifoner in London, to deliver up the place, and 
was repeatedly urged by the Chancellor cf Scotland, and others, to convey away 
tfao regalia to fome fecure place in the Highlands, and thereafter capituUte ; 
yetbe iUll held out, till preffed by famine, and by the mutiny of the garrifon, 
and having found means to convey the regalia privately to the clergyman of 
KincrieC in which pariih Mr. Ogtlvy's property chiefly lay, he at laft capitu- 
lated upon honourable terms. The EogUfh, not finding the regalia, as they 
cipcded, were highly difappointed, and (hut up the Governor and his wife 
dole prilbiiers for a year, uiing every feverity or allurement for years afterwards, 
to induce them to a diicovery : But in vain. Mr. Ogiivy continued his fidelity 
dqripf aU the interval, till the reftoration of Charles II. ; when, addreiling 
him, he madt known hit trofii and received orders to delif er the regalia to the 


a a S Statj/fical Account 

approached, and commanded on every fide. In the year t^H^p 
Duppottar Caftle ^as employed as a place of ccmfinemcn^ 
for a body of Frefbyterians, to the number of 167 men and 
women, who bad been fqzed at different times in the weft oi 
Scotland, ^i^i'ii^g the perfecution under Charles II« ; and aftef 
being fome time prifoncr$ in Edinburgh, wer^fent to Dunnnt- 
tar, upon the news of Argyll's invafion. Here they were treated 
with the greateft cruelty, which is particularly defcribed ia 
JVoodrow^s HifiQry}\ the whole number being confined, dnriaff 
the warmeft feafon of the year, in one vaplt, which is ftiU 
to be fccn entire, and called ** the Whi^s VauU!^ A lift of 
their names is upon record, in the iberifflcourt office of thc» 
county J and a grave ftonc, in the church-yard of Dunnottar, 
placed upon a number pf theI^ who died under confinement, 
narrates the faft. The falfe policy of thofe times requires no 
comment: And it muft afford latisfadion to every liberal 
mind to refleft, that the principles of toleration are now fiiUy 
eftabliflied j which not only fecure the fights of confcience to 
every individual, but alfo tend, in a high degree, to prefervq 
the peace of fociety, if not abufed and perverted by &aious 
and defigning men* 


Earl MarircW, who gnnted a receipt for them, which it 1? the cuftody of the 
family of Barras at this time. ' 

For aU thii dead J fcrwe to the Crown, attended in its confeqneocet with 
many yeart confinement, and piuch loft of property, Gonmor OgilTy wceiTe4 
no farther mark of royal favour, or reward, bnt the HtU of Barmn, and a new 
coat of arms, exprefliTe of the adion, as the motto heart, " F««ct aevm atox 
« «T acGNo tiayiTioii f' while fome other pcrfont, of higher intereft, claim- 
ing merit on the fame ground. teceiTed ample hononn and emolnmentt. The 
whole original letters, relating to the fiege of Dnnnottar, and the prefemtioo of 
the regalia, are in the poflcflion of Sir David Ooilvt, prefest proprietor of 
Barras, in this parilh. 

^ Dunnottar. %%^ 

iSkaraB^r^^^Tht labouring people in the .country, in gene^ 
nl« are very fober and induftnous. Thofe in the town, are 
of tbe (ame charafter as in other towns along this coaft. It 
is to be regretted, th^t the depopulation of the country, by 
banifhiog cottagers into towns, has fo much prevailed every 
where pf late i by which the breed of men is enervated, their 
inorals corrupted, and the firength of the (late impaired. It 
is from the temperate and healthy family of the country la- 
bourer, or tnuiefman, and not from the Ipathfome fink of a 
town, that the race is to be fought, who are to cultivate our 
fields, or defend onr property in the time of danger. In ge<« 
Bendy the chara&er of charity may with great jullice be 
afciibed to the body of the people here ^ fo that no fubjeS of 
diftre(s can be long without relief voluntarily offered. And 
perhaps, in a moral view, the encouragement of this virtuj; 
may be none of the leaft arguments againft the eftabliflimenC 
qi foofs raUt. For the extrcifi of private charity^ and comm 
fajffion^ mujl always dfcline wbfre there is a public affejfment. 


'^3d Statyiical Accomit 



{County of Berwick — Prejbytery of Dunfe — Synod of Mtrje 
and Tiviotdak* 

By tbi Rev. Mr. Adam MuHrat, Miniftir^ 

Origin of the Name* 

ECCLES is evidentlj derived from the word Eeckfia^ 
which, in the Greek, fignifies a congregatioiii aiTemblj, 
or meeting of people. Sometimes it fignifies the place where 
the meeting is held \ and, in modern times, it is confined to 
an aflemblj of Chriftians meeting together for devotion and 
worfliip, and agrees with the Latin phrafe, Ctetus fanSut 
Chfifiianorum^ cut adesfacra. — From an appendix to Hofe's 
Minor PraQics^ hj the late John Spottiswood, Efq. of 
Spottifwood, advocate, (which takes notice of all the religions 
houfes in Scotland, at the time of the Reformation), it appears, 
that EccLES, in the county of Berwick, was ancientlj the 
feat of the nunnery of the Benardine^ or Cifiertian Nuns. It 
was founded in the year Z154, according to Harj>en ; bnt 


xf Eccki. 231 

CoWFAR &7S, ia his book, anno dam* 11$ $9 conve$Uus moncom 
Uamfecunio^ venit ad Eccles** 

Extent and Situation. ^^Tht extent of this parifli is very 
coofiderable, being no lefs than 8 miles from E. to W.y and 
nearly 6 from N. to S. It lies adjacent to the county of 
Roxbarghy on the W ; and contains above ii|Ooo acres of 
gToiuidf fcarcely one acre of which is wafte or ufelefs. 

SoU and Improvement. ^^1)^9 foil is in general good, and 
Gooiifls of various kinds ; loami gravel, and deep clay. The 
clay foil is moft prevalent; and as there is a confiderable 
mixtare of fand in it, when it is properly cultivated, and 
proper manure applied, it bears very luxuriant crops of every 
kind. It is the opinion of fome writers, that lime is not 
fitted to improve a clay foil. The reverfe of this, however, 
has been found in this parifh. Without lime, we can neither 
have wheat nor grab ; but with it, the moft abundant crops 
of both. Indeed it requires a greater proportion of lime 
than foils of a lighter texture f. Towards the S. it is more 
inclined to gravel \ and in feveral farms there is found a very 
rich loam, capable of producing almoft any crop. Our crops, 
in general, when not hurt by a wet fpring, or excef&ve 


• It wu founded by Corfpfttrick Earl of March, father to Earl Waldave, 
■ad confecratcd to the Virgin Marj. Ada de Frazer was priorefs of Ecdei, 
ta the year XS96. There is in the public records, lib. ax. No. 537, a charter, 
whereby Marieta Hamilton, priorefs of Eccles, difponei to Alexander Hamiltoa 
of Inoenrick, the Tillage aad bnds of Eccles, in the year 1569 ; which charter 
waa coofinned by Qneen Mary, at Edinburgh, the xxth of May the fame year. 
This place was eaaAed into a temporal lordfbip, ia favour of George Hume, 
afterwards Earl of Dunbar. 

f The late Mr. Trotter of Belchcfter Uid on no lels than 90 bolk of ihells 
to the EngUfli acre; and though the foil wai a deep clay, it produced as rich 
graft «fl aay in Benrickfhire. 


i^i Statjfticat jiccotint 

Aroogbt, ht rains in fuminer, are very prolific ; and perhapi 
tbece is no place in Scotland more diftingniOied for luxuriant 
crops of wheat, grafs and peafe, than Eccles. The forface, 
heing, in general, low and flat, is apt to be injured in fpring 
ttod autnmn bj exceffive rains ; and confequentlj the rifiog 
grounds are the beft, becaufe not expofed to the pernicious 
lofluence of ftagnant water. The whole of the pari(h is arable. 
The farms are all enclofed in the verj beft modern manner ; 
and on many eftates, the hedge rows, which are all in a thriv- 
ing ftate, when feen at a diftance by the traveller, exhibit the 
appearance, of a highly cultivated garden. Of late years^ 
great improvements have been made in agriculture, through 
the whole county of Berwick ; but in no parilh have they 
been carried on with greater rapidity, and to greater advan-* 
tage, than in this. Notwithftanding the diftance from lime^ 
which is above 14 Englilh miles, the carts and horfes of al^ 
moft every farmer in the parifh drive 6 days in the week^ 
during the fummer months ; firft for lime to the turnips, and 
afterwards for the fallow. In confcquence of this induftry, 
the farmers in general are wealthy and opulent, and live in a 
fiile and manner very different from their fathers f. 


f The writer of thtt srtlde is oU eaough ttf remember, th«t butcher meat 
WM feldmn feea 00 a fiuiner's table, eicept on a Sunday, fiut how n the fccne 
Oianged ! Mo perfon now entertains better than the fanner, nor u there more 
neatner»or elegance any where to be foand, than in their hoafei; and ma atf 
this is the effeft of induftry, they have an unqueftioDable title to enjoy the 
fruiu of their honed bibour. Formerly, in this county, eftates ^ere made only 
by geatlemen 10 the law department. But the cafe is now entirely altered. 
Tberc are, in the county of Berwick, above a do2ea farmers, who, by their in* 
gcnuity and induftry, have acquired very coniiUerable eftates ; and there is 
erery reafon to believe, that many more will foon be in the fame independent 
iitaatiipn« The price of labour has kept pace with the progrefi of improvement. 
Tweoty years ag6, domcftic mca lervaBU could hate bcci) had for 4I. and 5I. 

a year, 

of Eccks. a^j 

AgrkuUure and Produce, — ^If not prevented bj rain in the 
fpringy oats are fown in the month of Mareh and beginning 
of April ; and if the fammer is favourable, they are common- 
ly reaped from the end of Augoft to the middle of September. 
Barliy is generally fown in April and the beginning of May* 
and i$ reaped as foon as the oats. Peafe, cdd feed, if the 
weather ^mits, are fown in February and the beginning of 
March. When fown later, they feldom come to perfeAion. 
Wheat (a great qu^itity of which is produced in the parifli), 
is generally fown updi^ fdlow in the end of September. 
A nnmber of farmers Ijpw wheat after peafe \ and, if the 
land is clean, and the pea^e a good crop, it generally fucceeds ; 
though feme are of opipfiop, that it is a fpecies of hulbandry 
not to be imitated. ' Wheat is alfo fometimes fown in th6 
fpring, after turnips ; but the crop is feldom good, as it is 
generally very late, and neither gives muoh wheat nor flour. 
Akbough there are no lands in Berwickflrire, that will produce 
turnips of greater fize and quantity, than fome farms in tbie 
parifli, yet the moft judicious farmers are of opinion, that 
they can turn their lands to greater acceant. Theincon* 
veaiences attending turnips, on a clay foil, are the following : 
s/f, They cannot be taken off without injuring the land roa« 
terially, as the water ftands the whole winter in the tracks o^ 
the wheelsr and the ground cannot be properly prepared for 
the next crop. %ily^ It is abfolutely impraSicable to fud 

Vqu XI. G g flieep 

a-yctf, they ceanot now begot for Ids than 9I. ud lol. per anmiiii. Fcaule 
fdvuiti are lA the lame proportion. Formerly, they could bave been got for sL 
B year ; they ha^e npw got up to 4I. and 5I. The wages of men labourers at 
hedge and ditch, are (rom is. to is. 3d. a day, from the xfi of March to the 
sft of November ; and from 8d. to rod. the reft of the year, except that, in 
tine of harveft, they are from X|i ^d. to as. a-day. Work, howtter, fncfa as 
Sfldpfing, aad weeding turnip* &€. is gencraUy done by the piece* 

^34 Statlfiia^ Account 

flMsep uyiM fnch land, as the animals oe v«r faavfl a diy bed, and • 
%ff 9flaa Qp 10 tbe belly in mnd aod water, la Uieib plaovQ 
of iHe parilb where the ibil is light, great pffoftts are aiiade bjp 
feeiiiig iheep oo tumipfl. They are generally l^t at fro|» 4!^ 
to 5I. the Englifli acre ; aad the ymtgt ^(oof b^ opce ao4 
^gaia fold tbeeDi for 5 gisioeas. 

. CUmi^H amd BifMftu^^Jl^t Qtioiate of Cccle6» from its lew 
aod flat iittiation, is by 00 aaeans the moft healthy; aod frooa 
the meiik miafma^ (arifing from vain water ftagnatiog on tt^ 
fttrfaoe of a foil, chiefly clay), the people are peculiarly oIk 
aoadous to difeafes of debility, fucU 1^ agues, nervous fevers^ 
ehionic rbeumatifins, feo. Within thefe left zo years, thefe 
difeafes were aknoft epidemic, amopg the lower clafies of the 
people. Of late, however, they are tnueb le(s frequent, and 
greatly milder. This mey be attributed to two oaufes : |>9^ 
To the advanced ftate of agriq|ltan|l impfovemcnt, and efpe* 
eially draining of laad if which, by drawing off the rain water 
Aat formerly ftagnated on the furface^ has rendered the foil 
dryer, aad conieqitently more wboklbme : a4tf^i To thelowet 
dafliBs being more comfortably clothed and lodged, and living 
more on animal food than formerly. That the iafluenoe of a 
damp climate is correfted by a generous mode of living, \% 
abundantly evident from this eh^umftanee, diat while the 
pocfrer fort are often vtfited by the abovementioned diftafira, 
the gentry apd opulenf farmers almoft always efcape« Among 
the canfes, which have contributed to leflen the influence of 
the difeafes peculiar to thi^ climate, there is one, which the 
incumbent's perfonal knowledge of its happy effefls will not 
allow him to omit y the vo$armg f/T vlamhel nt»t the fdn. 
Nor 18 it diQicuIt to aticoont for this effeft. Rheumatifm 
proceeds evidently from the perfpiration being obdrufied on 
the furfaoe of the body ; and notbbg b^t flannel will pr^rve 


^ Etxks. 23 jf 

tim difcliarge niiiibtftt ^d ibquablb, m a tiimate which is Tub- 
)tded to fogSy add to thi Vapbutt which arifie from Water flag* 
natiag oti the furfiice of thb gtodnd. Coxihl people be pre** 
Tailed <Ax tuiiverfally to adopt this ptaftice, it wouM do more 
to allevi&tei if not extirpate nervous difeafes, than the united 
powers of the whole nmttrU ffuiica.^^^Tht raTages made by 
the Gaaall pbx were fbrmerly Very great; not tefs than a third 
part of all thofe infeded being carried off by this malignant 
difeafe : But fincie the introdudion of inoculation^ which of ^ 
late has become Very general, the baneful in^uence of this 
difeafe has bten greatly taitigated \ 

Rhfer asid Fj^.^^This parifii has no river that runs through 
it, but the Tweed I which feparacea Scotland and England, 
waflics the ifoutbeni boundaryi and affords a very lucrative 
lalaoon filbiag, though at the diftance of ''near ao miles fcom 
die fea« The ptoperty belongs to the £arl of Hom£. 

Population,^^\ti a Ihrvey made by Dr. Webfter, about 40 
ytarl ago, the number of examinable perfous in the pariih of 
Ecclesy was - - • • - . • 1240 

And the number of foiils, •>...• 2469 
From a very accurate furvey of the prefent inhabitants, 
taken by the writer hereof, the number is not lefs 
thaft . - - - -.- - - 1783 

Confiequcntiy, in the {pace of 40 years, there has been an in* 

crvafe of ai^t. 

Oga As 

• ftbtafCM hair •fMsdytag out of mrily fcmidfeds wlio Mam to tliit 
fitotyffmddm^ wfcik thafe fiunilM^ iH»> firaai i gapt m oB, M^tauj •r prt» 
jndicei coaU mm, be promfled apoa to txj die ftlutuy ciperiment. have beta 
piaiiMd by. the io6 of mcve thsn half tbeir daldren. It it mvch to the hoaour 
of the gentlemen in thii pariih, that Uiey hate dooe erery thing m their power 

236 Statiftical Account 

As agricuhare is the principal bufinels carried on m 
the parifli, the inhabitants are mofilj employed in that 
particular branch* There is a conCderable number of 
tradefmen, fuch as Cmitbs, carpenters, and plough-wrights* 
yiho are all employed by the farmers, and are generaUy in 
eafy circumflances. No man in this parifli is unemployed ; 
and there is rather a want of hands for kbourt than a fuper- 

Abdraft of Marriages f, Baptifms, and Burials, for 3 Years, 
viz. from the ift of Oaobet 2789, to the xft of Oaober 

BtpdL Marr. Bur. 
From I. Od. 1789 to ditto 1790, 80 zo ^3 

From i. Oft. 1790 to ditto 1791, 7a 13 ao 

From I. Apr. 1791 to z. Apr. 1792, 86 z6 aa 

Cattle^ l^r.^-.The number of cattle and ploughs in the pa- 

riih is as follows : 


to reconcile the minds of the commoo people to.thii ufeful pradke, Vj psying t^ 
eipence of inoculating the children of the poor around thenu In thia way, they 
have done more to promote the pradice, than either reafon or eloquence could 
ha?e effeded. 

f To account (tft the tmall number of regiffered marriagea, it is to be eb-> 
ferved, that the pradice of marrying in a clandeftine and irregular manner iUU 
fubfiib upon the Borders; and though the fyngd of Merie and Hviotdale have 
done every thing in their power to reprefs it, yet it is fUU kept up by fimie 
mcmbets of the Church of Bngland, who lacrifice the dignity of their profcfiioQ 
to a little tranfieot emolument*— 'There are alfo many more baptifins than thefe 
whidi are regiftered; but of late yean, fince the te» of Aretpemu was paid to 
the King, over and above the ufiud fees of regiftration, many cannot be prevailed 
on to enrol their childrens names. The minifier has done every thing in his 
power, to convince them of the propriety of the mcafure s but aaaay individnalt 
iliU continue obllitMtte and refradory. 

of Eccks* ^37 

Kinber of labouring horfes, Number of cal^Ks reared an- 

iblely employed in the plougb, a 66 Dually hj ditto and labour- 

-^ ditto from a to 3 years old, 70 crs, ... - XOOd 

^n&ttgaod carria^ ditto, 50 Ditto of black^cattle, " - aSjS 

^^-fbakiearedbytbc farmers, 200 — pbnghs*, • -. j^^ 


Sbetp and Wool. — ^Oar farmers do not breed manj (heep« 
This is owing to the nature of the foil, which often produces 
that baneful difeafe, well known by the name of the rot. The 
greateft proportion is confequentlj bought In, and fed off. 
The Iambs are generally fold in the months of June, July, 
and Auguft, and the ewes about Michaelmas and Martinmas. 
The wool of thefe flieep is not very valuable, as they are ge» 
nerally bought in from mountainous counties, fuch as Tweed* 
dstle and Lammermuir. Such wool fells from los. to las. per 
Hone. As for the ihecp purchafed from Northumberland and 
Bi/bopricif they are of a very fuperior kind. The wool of 
that fiaple generally fells from z8s. to one guinea per done, 
and the carcafe weighs from 70 lb. to 80 lb. There are only 
1 farmers in the parilh who are breeders of flieep ; which 
turn out to great account. The flieep which they breed, are 
^nal to any bred in Northumberland, both for weight and 
fioeneis of fleece ; and, as a proof of this, 100 lambs, with 
the wool of the ewes, were fold for zco guineas ; and a con- 
fiderable profit was made of them, both by the butcher and 

Union of Far mi. '^ About 25 or 30 years ago, the farms m 
tbe parifli of Eccles were very fmall, and feveral gentlemen 


* There wovld be many more plongbi, if there was not a cofifidenble fua^ 
titj of isQ^ ]||[d off ia the heft order, both for breeding and feeding. 

i^i Siaiijikcd Account 

of fmall Atit% fannlid their own lands. Ai this period^ little- 
profit arofe from agriculture; and it is onl^ finoe farms were 
trailed, that great profits hnve been made* It is bow to be 
Icared, however, that farraiog is going to the ofipofito ntronic; 
and the writer hereof cannot help thinking, that too great 
property, and too eztenfive farming, is a rety great lofi to 
any coiintty* In the parifh of Ecclea, fome farms are far too 
titenfive, tonfldering the good quality of the land. Some tenants 
^oflefs abov* 906 acres, feveral 806, atid fcafcdy can a fai-m 
of 56 tit 66 acres be got for any rent. In land ihch as that 
tt Eccles, thet« ought not to be a fafm exceediug 300 acres; 
Ithis quantity of land would fupport a family very decently, 
a<id befides alFord an ample provifion for their children ; and* 
in the opinion df fome, it is very improper to elevate men 
too high abtfVe their ftation. As many of our farmers have 
got a tery narrow education, tiches have often the unhappy 
effed of making them proud, and leading them to treat their 
fttperiors with infolence and contempt. 

Kent and Propriitors^ t^r.^;^The rent of this parifh, at pre- 
fcnt, is nearly ii,oool. ; and it will advance coiifiderably in 
a vety Ihort time, as fome old leafcs, upon extenfive eftates, 
mud foon expire. There is no farm, fince the author has 
been mihiller of the parifli, but what has been doubled in rent, 
and fome of them have been tripled ; and if grain and ftock 
continue to bold the value they do at prefent, it vfdixiA not be 
furprifing, if, in the courfe of a few years, the rental of this 
patiih ihould exceed x8,oool. or even 20,cooL per annum. 
There is a farm, near Eccled, that expires in a year or two, 
fented at tSol., and it is credibly reported, that 480I. has been 
Ofiered, and refufed.— There are above 30 gentlemen, pro- 
prietors of eftates; fome of whom poflefs i,40ol.| many 800I. 
dnd 900I. per annnm, many confidtrably lefs, and fome fmall 
6 heritors, 

ff Eccks. |it^9 

kcritofSy who do not e^cred xooL p^r tooim. Oar tenanu 
trt XQ QUXQlieT 36; and huqj of pur geotleinen retain as mttcli 
hod 10 th<ir owq handf a9 ^camn^Qdatea their fami}ies vriti? 
tbc Mreflkrifa 9f life. 

Ecckjiqfiicml Staif. ^Tht incimbent has bad grrat d\At^\ty 
ro afcertam tl^ ei^tetil pf the aocieat Numurf. Ii appears to 
have Wttfi i||»rl J a fqaare of 6 acres i eKteodiog rather farthar 
to tht S. wd W. than to tha £. aod N. The ooly Teftiga 
itmainiog of it it two raulted cells f, which the late Sir 
John Pal^r&m converted inti^ two cellars^ for holding winot 
ikst^c.— The old chorch wa$ % Gothic boUdiogt ia the 
li»riii of a erofsv vanUed and covered with large 0ag ftones, 
dcdieated tQ St* Andrew, the tutelar (aiot of Scotland, and 
arnamenf ad with a crofs^ and a vevy elegant ileeple. The 
baiUtng might have flood for i|iany eenturies» and it waa 
with Che greateft diScnltj it was taken down* But as it wa^ 
too CmaU to accommodate the inhabitants, the proprietors of 
the parifh took it down about ao years ago, and built a very 
kandfome modem phurch on the fiime ground, 75 feet long, 


t The btfiil groood cootigaoos to thde vanlts it all flagged with fine ftooe, 
4 ha beneath thf fnfCftc* ; whadi » a cl^ar pniof that there h^nt been manj 
wmt cella, of a flmilar kind to the toner $ and a« the groendiwhen tened up, 
obibiu only a mixture of Iknd, liine* and earth, it appears to be nothing but 
the mbbtfli of the fallen fudti. It at <kid, that the prmeipal entrance to the 
aoaacrf mt fr»A the W^ ntae then way a very fpackiis gate, beastifiiUf 
Mpcnred, and ada r ead with a nriaif at igerce. 9e£9re the Iront door of 
the maniion heale «f So^et, a ft^ae $oSa waa dag outt above 6s feet long, and 
€«? cred above with flag ftona. At it ha^ been baraed ybove aoo yean, every 
part of the body wa« reduced to aihes. At the infide of the flone waa pretty 
fi&eeth,aad dK wiMie portrait of the parte vifibie (thoegh in aflles). Sir John 
Pateribo had the cvriofity to coUeft the whok, and (Windcifiil to tcU !) it did*' 
i ia wei^ ane ovaca «n4 » hllf I 

S4^ Statiftical Account 

l»7 35 broad; where lodo people are very coovenientljr feated. 
It was built after the model of the Chapel of £afe in Edin- 
burgh, is in every refpeft well finilhed, and is, without dtf- 
pute, the heft and handfomeft country church in Berwickihire* 
The prefent incumbent was the fiirfi minifter who preached in 
it* The manfe and offices were built at the fame time* They 
were removed from the place where they fbrmeily ftood, 
which was a little to the S. W. of the manfion-honfe of 
Eccles ; and as the heritors would not confent to the removal, 
nnleis Sir John was at the whole expenee of the new build- 
ings, he acceded to the conditions. The glebe was exchanged 
at the fame time, and placed very conveniendy in the front 
of the manre. It confifts of rather more than lo acres of 
good arable ground, and is well worth as many pounds Ster- 
ling. As the ftipend, when the prefent minifter entered to 
the charge, did not exceed 72!., every thing included, he was 
obliged to purfue for an augmentatio|i. The Lords of Seffiod 
granted one to the extent of 30L : But, what is extremely 
hard on him, although it is above 18 years finoe it was ob- 
uined, the allocation is not yet finally fettled, Several of tho 
heritors, indeed, paid by the firft allocation, bat many more 
have refufed payment ; and there are arrears, ^t this moment 
due, to the extent of feveral hundred pounds, 

Poar^ — The poor, that are rated in the books, amount to 
the number of 30 perfons; and the pariih is aiTefled in X2ol. 
per annum for their fupport. As for the induftrions poor« 
when ftmilies may want occafional fupport^ they are relieved,* 
either from the money coUefted on the Sabbath-day, or by 
the gcnerofity of the gentlemen in the pariih. The author 
mentions it to their honour, that on a proper reprefentatioa 
of diftrefsi he has always found them liberal and beneficent. 


ff Eccku a4i 

Jbu i^ pi lu it^^twsk our TiciAky to Engltad, it augkc hsM 
%ec& ezpefied, that we fliould liav« had maDy memorials of 
thofe blobdy cooteibt which formeriy fubfifted between dift 
•eighbbttring kingdoms. We have onlyy however, one of 
thu idnd. It is a monttment erefted tooite of the paROtn^ 
yjrtio fell hv ftlildo^ engagement with one of the rival fiunUy 
of DoDGLAS. It confifts of a large fqnare ftoiie, fiill 9 fieet 
tbovo die furface. On one fide of the ffaate i^pearftthe 
jgiej)iottn4t which is thePercte*^ creft ; on another, the Sguft 
«f a ndkxA maait in mde fcnlpture ; and, on the 4ther two 
fidetf, the ancient fword i(nd battle-ax are poortrajediki \\ 
ftlnda nearly a mile to the N. *£. pf the village of Ecdes. 

DiJadpnntagu^i'^Amofig the natural defefts h tfie fituatioa 
of Ecdes, null fifS be mentioned the want of running wattrm 
]n times of fevere drought, our brooks and rivulets are oftea 
entirely dried up ; and our farmers are fometimes obliged to 
drive their cattl^ to the Tweed, a diftance of between a and 
3 miles. Another di&dvantage under which we labour, is 
our difiance from coals and lime. We are obliged to brin|{ 
both thefe articles fifom Northun[iberland, whith is not lefo 
remote than from 14 to 18 miles. Hence fuel becomes amoft 
expeofive article in houfekeeping ; and (he diftrels of the 
lower ranks, in fevere winters, is unfpeakably great. Our- 
diflance from market^ is alfo another inconvenience. Our 

Vol. XL H h farmers 

f Tlwrc M DO laTcnption whatever to be traced on thit ilone ; fo that it i« 
iayoffibie to aicertaiD its antiquity. It muft, howeTCTt have beeo coniiderably 
prior to the Union. The bte Sir John Paterfon wiflied to have it removed 
near the manfion of Ecckt, but found the thing impradicable. The monument 
St fixed in a large ikone baiuy which it penetrates ; and the workmen followed 
it Ibme feet imo the earth, without being able to get to the foundation. The 
place where it ftands is called Buul Xiggt, from the great number of the flain ; 
and fo dreadful was the flaughter, that tradition reports, that a little (Ireamlet, 
ia its odghboarhood, ran vUh hlt^djw S4 hmtn i 

^4* Statj/iicai AcccuMt 

fiurmen cannot depend on a ready fale, and quick return of 
money, in any market nearer than Berwick^ which is diftant 
•Imoft ao miles ; and it is to that place, accordingly, that thej ^ 
commonly fend all their wheat and barley. Kelfo, indeed, is 
within 6 mileS of Ecdes ; but as no com merchants attend 
there, to buy grain for eicportation, the only purchafers are 
country millers, who buy it for internal confumption, an4 
with whom it is generally difagreeable, and often uniafe to 
deal* The circumftance, which enables us to ftroggle under 
thefe inconveniences, is the goo^nels of our public roads ; and 
the gentlemen of the county deferye high praife for the at« 
tcntion they have paid to this impprtaot particular, and thf 
regulations they have made for keeping the roads in a ftate 
pi good repairr 


ij U M B E R XVlil. 


{fitmUy (Md PnJbjfUry of Caitlmtjs^Symd of Gakhmfi aad 


By the Rni Mr. Thomas JdLXT, Minifien 

Origin of the Name. 

^ I ^HERC is no certainty ad to the origin of the name of 
JL this pariih. Some fttppofe it to be from the Gaelic; 
in that language it is called Dunnivit^ which is probably taken 
from tome part or property in the Hcad-land» that being the 
inoft remarkable place in the parifh*. The names of many 
places in the parifli, however, are clearly of Daniih extraftion; 
as Ratter^ Sjifler^ Reqfler^ Holm (fince called Hiam\ Sunnigoe^ 
^Jbigoti Gtitriegtiif Aljbigoe^ \3cm 

H h a ExUntf 

^ Wlttt rebdefs ditt prbbabie, U, diat die 8. W. part of bannet llea^ 
Itert a ftrodg n/kaMaoiU to the groimd, upon which the Caftie of Dmuiottar 
(^ aoie BOt ufimtfaur in (band to Doaact) , ia the coaaty of Mcanii ii boitof 

«44 Statj/luai Account 

Extent, Situation^ and SoS. — ^The pmfk is tlilmt xo wSkm^ 
long, from N. W^ to S. £ ; and 4 mfles bfoad« ftbout the 
middle, but much narrower towards thecxcsemitiea. It bone 
of the moft northern pariflies in Scotland ; and indeed the ex- 
tremity of Dunnet Head, by the lateft obfervatbns^ is fonod to 
be fomewhftt ftftfier N. than cveti DuncaifbayBiad, or Jobs 
o' Groat*8. The foil is, ni general, of a light nature, widi litde 
ftiff cUj, or deep loam. On the W. it is fandj, and toward* 
the E. it IS chiefly a Kght Mack (oil ; but not without the eio- 
€eption of feveral farms, which are rich clay. The Cmt greater 
part of the parith is uncultivated, and, indeed, a great part of 
it unfit for cultivation. 

Dunnet Hifai.— Dunhet Head is an extenfive promootoiy 
on the W. It confills of feveral ^ hills, but none of them of 
confiderable height* imerlpctCid with vaUicSt in whidi these 
is a great extent of pafture for fmaU cattle or Iheep. It was 
formerly well flored with the latter ; which are laid to have 
{ucceeded well : But as thefe were deftroyed by the introduc- 
tion of a difeafe, it has, for many years paft, turned to littk 
account to. the neighliouring proprietors^ who have it iaoom 
moQ. Donoet Head prefents very bold rodts, towards the 
fiea, from lOO tr 400 feet high, \hrou^ its whole cticuiH 
which is not led than 9 miles, exclufive of 2 miles of low which it is joined to the reft of the pariih. Thetfe is 
no part of it inhabited. The foil is chiefly mols, vunaing on 
freewftone, or fiMidy clay. The free-ftone» which is the enlj 
kind of ftooe found there, is exceedingly hard^ and feems to 
be very little affe&ed by the influence of the air« as appearr 
by the comer ftones of a fi&all fteeple, adjoining the charcfa» 
which ft ill bear the original marks of the iron, though it has- 
iK>t ilood,.by the beft accounlsi lefs tbiaa aoo years* Soeh an 
eslostof daod)iefree.AonB.quarc|r| wooldv ia feme posts of 


of Dufmtf. .-145 

AtkiflgdolBt W a treafarc; bat here it yields nothing, except 
% firnril vent to one of the neighboortog proprietors, for the 
ffinkge of qnarxying mtUftones ; an article, in which the 
giceCer pert of the county are fupplied from thence. There 
aie fifveraS fmall look in different parfs of the Head, which 
fax^i^ water, fefficient for a milt, through the greater part of 
the jcat # 

Sm C$ti0t £A^f Laie$^ &c.^JOn the E. of Dnnnet Bay, 
Acfe u a beautiful level fimd, for two miles along the {bore,- 
ew tirhich the fea ebbs and flows, above a quarter of a mile. 
fiat as Ibere ta commonly a great breach npon the ihore, veij 
few (betl £ih are found in it, and thefe of little value. The 
iaM, above high«> water mark, is loofe ^ and by being expo&d 
to driviflig, from the fu&ion of the bay, frequently huru the 
irighbeiging lands. Adjoining to that, there is a trad of 
banen bnd, nearly a miles in diameter, which is faid to have 
Wen arable ^ottod, or rich pafture, feme time about the end 
4f laft oentury. The rutn» of cottages are now appearing, in 
different paiti of it ; but they feem. to be of a much older date. 
The pert of the paridi to the £• of Dunnet Head, along the 
Pcailand Frilh, has a low rocky (hore, which, on an average, 
may prodniee about ao tons of kelp per annum. A few 
tone amy likewife be made on the (hores to the N. of 
DoMMt Bay. The odier uncultivated grounds are chiefly 
bmIs and moor; and of the lad a great part is capable of cul- 
thradon. There is fcarcely an eminence in the pariih, except 
in Duaaet Head, that deferves the naote of a hill. Three 
lakes, each about a mile in length, and half as much in breadth, 
fiipply the principal mills with water. A few fmall trouts are 
finaod in one of thefe y the other two, being in the vicinity of 
the fimd, ant £cequented only by a few eels. 

i4^ StoHJikal Jctount 

Ttidis ^The current in Pendand Frith is eieeedlagl j &6ar|i 

during fpring tides, fo that no veffel can ftem it. The flood ikSt^ 
runsy from W. to £., at the rate of to miles an hottr, withi 
and full moon. It is then high water at Scal^fsktny (« 
the ferrj boat crofles from Dunnet for Orkney), at 9 o*doclc* 
Immediately as the water begins to fall upon die (hore, tli^ 
current turns to the W. ; But the ftrength of the flood is fe 
great in the middle of the frith, that it continues to nm £^ 
till abcnt twelt^e. Thefc contiguous Currents,' niaiiing withi 
amazing velocity, in oppofite direftions, have a ftfinge aj^ 
pearance from the land, io a day favourable for obftnrmg 
them. With a gentle breete of wefterly wind,' about 8 o*clock 
in the morning, the whole frith feems as fmooth asT a flieet of 
glafsi from Dunnet Head to Hoy Head, in Orkney. Abcmt 
9 the fea begins to be in a rage, for about 100 yards, to appear- 
ance, off the Head, while all without that continues fmoodi as 
before. This appearance gradually advanaes towards the fridt* 
and along the (here to the £., though the effeflis of it are not 
much felt upon the fliore, uU it reach Scarfskerry Head, which 
is about 3 miles diitant trom Dunnet Head^ as the land bCi^ 
twecn thefe tivo points forms a confiderable bay.^ By a o'clock^ 
the whole frith feems to be in a rage. About 3 in the afker^ 
noon, it is low water on the fliore, when all the former phcnou 
mena are reverfed ; the fmooth water beginning to appear on 
the land, and advancing gradually till it reaches the middle of 
the frith. From the ilrengch of the tides, and the furprifing 
Velocity of thefe contiguous currents, in oppofite dir«&ionSt 
Pcntkud Frith is a very dangerous navigation to ftrangers; 
cfpecially if they approach near the land. But the nadves; 
along the coaft, are fo well acquainted with the dire&ion of 
the tides, that they can take advantage of every one of thefe 
Gurrenis, to carry them fafe to one harbour or another. Henoc 
very few accidents bappcni but from want of flciU or know. 


9/ Dunnet. $^y 

Mge of die tidet • The fiifeft waj for ftrang^vs is eifter to 
take a pilot on board, or to keep at a confiderable diftance 
fiom the land *• The frith is faid to be about 12 miles broad^ 
oppofite to. Bannet, thoagb no exaft meaLuresoent has pto^ 
baUj been taken. 

Harhours, — ^Though Dunnet Bay runs far into the land, \t 
affords no flielter for any veflel upon the N* fide of it, which 
is cootiguons t. Dnnnet Head, as it is ezpofed to the W. But 
on the Pentland Frith, to the £. of the Head, there are feveral 
Tery iccnre havens for boats or fmall craft. The haven of 
Bromgb, dofe by the Head, is well iheltered from every wind 


* la fpriDg 179X} there was a veflcl from Dant^ic, of about 500 or 4oo ton^ 
Vurden, paflSog through the frith, on a voyage to Liverpool. The mafier, find- 
iBg tbe cnrreDt pgmmfi him, to the middle of the frith, when about 8 or 9 miles 
£. ol Baaoet Head, bore in for the fliore, where he fell in with the laft of the 
ebb, caUrd by the people here tb* W«r khth. The wind was about N. W, 
Tbe current broueht him up paft Scartskerry ; but he was fo near the (bore, 
that the people on land were much alarmed for his fafety. Soon after, a boa* 
went out, and offered him a pilot, which he rcfufcd ; on whic! they advifed him 
to ftand Utmt auks out to fea. When he came up dofe with Dunnet Head, he 
tacked, and ftood out only about a milo to fea. Fmding the current ftrong to 
tbe W., he thought it unBecefiary to continue longer on that tack, as be knew 
it was not near low water in the frith ; upon which he tacked again, and ftood 
to tbe W., hoping all danger was over. He cleared Dunnet Head; but hf 
that time it had begun to flow upon the ibore ; and the eafter birth fetting in, 
Ibes reached him with confiderable ftrength. Upon finding his veflcl carried 
to tlie B^ by the ftem, and laft appcpacbing the bead land, he attempted to 
tacky but found that impoflible, as the wind and current, being nearly in the 
fame direAion, the veflel would not anfwer the helm. He then attempted to 
mar, but with no better d[tA, The people on fbore obferved, that nothing, 
ia ibat fituation, could have fiived him, but dropping an anchor over the ftern; 
and die moncot he found that Jold, fo as to turn the veflel, flipping the cables 
and ftaading to fea. Ncgledtng that preautton, he was driven afliore and 
wrecbcd, ind that through oMre ignoAace, without the leaft ftreis of weather. 

949 $tatiJHealj€C9fmt 

hot the M. W.; ma • tmUl expeoce might render It i 
agaii^ it too, by throwinK a pier from die land, to a hrge 
ctett^ or ottt-fltodiog rock, which u about too yards fcona 
the (hore« Nature has already done tfagt in part, by fermin^ 
a barr, or ridge of large ftones, out to that rock ; ba| that 
barrier Li not fuflkiently high, to prevent the feas breal;.ing 
over it, at high water« Mr. Kkox, in the poiirie of his tour, 
was much taken with that harbour, and feemed to think the 
e;p:ecUtiog fuch a pier, an objeft worthy ^ attenticm. This 
could be effefted with the greater eaie, as there woold be no 
Occafion for quarrying a fingle ftone^ or for ^rryingone above 
aoo yards. The fpace to the £• of the pier, being cleared o£ 
ftones, would form an excellent harbour for fmall veilels \ the 
CDtrance to which is about 3 fathoms deep at low water, an4 
without any bar. Brough has, befides, the advantage of be* 
ing very contiguous to the bell fiihiog ground for cod and 
ling ; and hence is not only capable of being rendered a ia£e 
harbour, but the inoft commodious fijfaing ftation in the pariib, 
or even on this fide of the Pentland Frith. The harbour of 
Ham or Holm^ is fcarcely a mile to the caft of Brough. It 
might alfo be rendered fafe for fmall vefTels, at little expence. 
There is a fupcrficial pier erc^ed there already ; and» the 
ground within it being pretty well cleared of (tones, veffds of, 
or beloW 100 tons, find no inconveniency of loading or un- 
loading a cargp, or even lying there for weeks in the fununer 
feafon. It has, however, the inconveniency of a bar, or ridge 
of fand and gravel, acrofs the enti^ance of it, upon which 
there is not fufficient depth Of water for vefiels in any great 
burden, but with fpring tides. S^arfshrry is a narrow creek 
between two rocks, and affords a convenient landing for boats 
with eafy wcather| but is not capable of bciog much im^ 

t>f DunncL 449 

F|^.— -DunnetBaj affords excellent flounders^ and haddocks; 
and is fonaetimes frequented by ihoals of herrings, in Julj and 
Augull. Bttt their continuance in the bay, or even their coming' 
to it, has hitherto beeh reckoned fo uncertain, that no ex- 
tenfive herridg fifhery has been attempted. Befides thefe^ 
great quantities of cuddinr^ as they are called here, or fmall 
laiths, are ufually caught in the fumhier fedfon. Pentland 
Frith abounds with excellent cod and ling ; not of a very 
large fize, but remarkably thick and of a good quality. The 
haddocks and flounders are taken with fmall lines, mounted 
with 5 or 6 fcore of hooks, which are fet^ and left in the fea 
cooimonly through the night. The cuddens are taken with a 
n>d and line, to which is fixed a iingle hook, and for the mod 
pait'inlhallow \^ater^ dr near the ihore. The cod and ling 
«re found principally in deep water, in the tide way, and taken 
with a line of 50 or 60 fathoms, to which a fingle hook is fixed, 
and a lead weight or finker. There are various other kinds 
of fifh occafionally taken, as turbot, ikate, whitings. Sec. In 
harveft, t0O| amazing ihoals of fmall fifli, cvXLtd feUacii (which 
are no other than the young of faiths, and fome fpecies of the 
cod), frequent the fliores, and ar« often taken in a fmall 
fweep net, to the quantity of feveral bufhels at once. There 
are fcarcely any fhell fi(h to be found here, but lobfters, ci^bs, 
and limpets. 

Birds* — A great variety of fea fowls frequent the rocks of 
Sunnet Head ; though, ad the higheft rocks front the W. 
and N. W., they are not fo numerous as they would other* 
wife probably be. There is a bird, called a Azjr^r, h^re, that 
hatches in fome parts of the rock. It is reported, that it is 
only to be found in Dunnet Head, Hoy Head in Orkney, in 
Wales, and in the Cliffs of Dover (where it is faid tobeknowft 
by the name of the fvffin)^ and in no other place in Britain, 
.Vol. XL - li The 

i^^Q Statiftkal Account 

The old ooM. are. little eideemed ; bnt the yduBg are reckoned 
^tremelj delicate. As there is no way, however, of. gQcdn^ 
to their nefts, but by defceadiog from the top of. the rock« hy 
the afiiftance of a rope, no perfoo in this pariih has attempt* 
^ to catch any of them for many years paft. A £ew eagles, 
a varie^ of hawks, ravens, crows, and wild pigeons, likewifb 
l^atch in the rocks. The other birds moft common in the' 
I^rifli, are plove^ and groufe i but the latter are not in gteaft 

W(iU ^uadruf€ds^''-'Oncx$ are occafionaUy found in Dunnei 
Hc^ ; and feals often frequent the Ihores, but not. in fo great 
numbers as in n^iny other parts of the county. The only 
xavenoiis animals here are foxes andweaiels. There are a 
good many hares in different paru ; and the fandy ground, iis 
the neighbourhood of Dunnet.Bay, would make a good rab- 
bit warren^ if they were prcferved: But, as they ezpofe die 
fand to driving, by breaking the ground, the proprietor al«^ 
lows every perfon to flioot them, without reftrifiion. It has 
not, however, been pofliible wholly to extirpate diem, though 
they dp great mifchief. Some of them have found their way 
into Dunnet Head, where they would probably multiply ra* 
pidly, were they not a prey to the foxes and eagles. 

Climate ^nd Lifeafes^ lie. — ^The climate varies according to^ 
the dj;ft9pce from the fea. Along the Pentland Frith the air 
is. generally temperate in fummcr, and cold and iharp in win*, 
ter i but foow feldom continues upon the ground, for any 
great leiigth. of time. Towards the S. £^ or more inland 
parts of the parifh, the frofts are much keener in winter ; and 
the coru§ ate more liable to be hprt by hoar frofts, in fpring^ 
apd avitumn. The village, or rather farm, of Duknet, iituated 
tQ the .£• of Dunnet Head,^ and, to the N^ £• of the Bay, has k 


of I^nneU ^5^ 

tamtifol^xpofare and dediVity to tht S.» and is reckbned 
4xk exceediogly healthy fituatiou ; yet there a^e few Wdl iit- 
tefted inflances of longevity in it. This may be owing to 
the people's mode of life. They have all of them very fmatt 
inms ; and moft of them depend upon the fea principally for 
itfaeir fubfiftence. By theTe means^ they oBferve little rega« 
hiity in diet, being fometimes obUged to live chiefly on ve- 
getables, and at other feafons, confined perhaps' wholly to 
aniihal food* They are befides frequently ezpofed to cold 
and damps, and fometimes, like other feafaring people, to 
excieffive Bitigue, which brings on rheumatifms and coughs. 
Thefe are no doubt greatly increafed, by their being ill ac- 
isommodated in lodging. Tbeir houfes ^re for the mo(l part 
erc&ed of tnrf, exceedingly low and ill aired. I^or have 
they that regard to deaslinefs which is neceflary for health. 
They are, however, improving in th^t refpeA« . 

Fopubaian. — All the infortnaribn, diat is delirable on this 
article, cannot be obtained, from the want of authentic re- 
cords. That of baptifms is the only regiller, that has been 
kept with any degree of accuracy^ Indeed, the principal re- 
gifter of the parifli is faid to have been deflroyed, or carrie4 
off by a clerk, in revenge of a difference between him and 
fome of the heritors. There were in thii parilb, oti the id bf 
Maith 1791, ttialfes 645t andfeindles 754*; in all, xJ99f6uls« 
The return to pr. Webtter, in 1755, was - 1235 

Hence there is an increafe of -^ 264 . 
lia The 

* The peit ^proportloDi between the malet and fenjaljer» ii prebably owing; 
{0 the ntuttber that enHfted with dlffh'ciit recrui^ng partiet, during the Ame-« 
tican war \ Vcfidea a greit many that have gone to fea. And being m the tI- 
ftnic J of Orkneji where die HndfoD't Bay Aect generally call« very few ycara 


aS2 Statiftlcal Account 

The number of houfeholders was - . •: - Soq 
.,/ of married men (befides widowers), - 243 

The annual average of births for the laft 5 jcars, is - 4cf 
Ditto, fron^ i. Jan. 1752, to i, Jan. 1757 ♦, - - 35^ 

piSerencei only - - - if 

Occupations. — ^In the inland parts, tlie people depend chief- 
ly on their farms for fubfiftence ': But along the coaft, their 
chief fupport is from the fea. And there are fcarcely any 
handicraftfmen in the parifli, who do not occafionally follow 
the profeflion of farmers, or fiflierracn f. — ^The women are 
generally employed in fpinning linen yam, which they make 
of a good quality, though the^ cannot do a great quantity in 

a da^. 

Ba(t» without fome Yovng tnen going thither. A few have Hkewife gone oC 
fate to ^e fouth of Scotland, in gueft of emplpynient : But thefe laA cannot 
have much affeded the proportion, as feveral females have alfo gone thither, 
with the fame view. » 

"* It is generally believed, that the parifli has incrcafed in population withia 
thefe 40 jeafs ; and Dr. Webfter's report affords a proof of it. But it would 
appear, from the above averages of baptifms, that the difference is not confider- 
»l>le. Yet there are finqaeftionabl^ great trads of common that have beeQ 
peopled within that period. 

f The employment of fiihing feemi to be a great bar to indoftry in other 
branches, as it partakes too much of the nature of fport» as well as of labour. Tlie 
fiiccefs never being known till the experiment be made, one day's fuccefsiful 
iiiking will prevent a week's application to any other bufinefs. Women, when 
hired by the day, draw irom 4d. to 6d., according to the work in which they are 
employed.— >The wagea to a man, per annum, is about 45s. ; and his allowance 
for food, is 3 bolls of oat-meal, at 8^ ftone per boll, and 3 bolls of bear-meal, at 
9 ftonc per boll. A woman fervant'^ wages and allowance are about «ie half 
of the former. The veages of fervants, however, are upon the increaie, Me^, 
hired by the day, draw 8d. without maintenance : But as mofi of the anbabitanu 
arc fiihcrmcn, it is ^ery difficult to procure day labourers. 

of Dunnet. ^53 

iA%j. Some of them have of late begun to fpin on two. 
banded vheels, and are making ^ftonilhing progrefs with 

Agriculture, ^^ll is fuppofed, that there are about z6co acres 
in cultivation in the parifii. The onlj grain cultivated is 
oats and bear» wij:h a very fmall quantity of peafe. Of late, 
Jiowever, confiderable quantities of potatoes have been raifed, 
particularly in the farm of Dunnet, where the foil is well 
adapted to that Toot» the benefit of which was much felt in 
the late bad years* Small quantities of lint are raifed alfo in 
different parts. The quantity of grain raifed is fufiicient to 
fupport the inhabitants, and admit of an export of about 509 
bolls of bear* and the faipe quantity of oatmeal, per annum. 
Pf the hoi^eholders, 194 occupy fmall farms. Mod of thefe 
have one plough, and a few of them two ; but the farms of 
ibme are fo fmall, that two or three of them unite in fumiih- 
ing q^ttle, to labour their joint pofleilions. There are 190 
ploughs in the pari(b, befides 14 on 4 farms laboured by the 
proprietors*. The tenants ploughs are generally drawn by 
4 horfes, or oicen, yoked a bread. That praAice , appears 
ridiculous to firanger^ : But a better acquaintance with the 
people's circuipft^nce9 would lead to a more favourable opi- 
nion. The cattle are very fmall and ill fed ; and hence their 
iirength is not fufficient for drawing a plough, if they were 
yoked in any manner, where p$irt might have an opportunity- 
of throwing the whole burden occafionally upon the red. This 
pradice, however, is attended with the inconveniency, that 
pne of the cattle mud walk on the plowed ground. Of this 


* Thefe 4 ianni contain about mo acres ; which, being taken from the 
•bove i6oo acfcfl, the remaining 13SOJ laboored hx 190 plojnght, w abaut 7^ 
fcret per plough, on ao average. 

'254 Statijlical Account 


iome are begmniiig to be fenfible, and are fubHil^riiig 3 caftlb 
•a-breaft, inftead of 4 ; endeayoaring to get tbcfe of n better 
quality. The great lol^ this pariih fuflains, in refpeft of 
agriculture, is fro^iji the fcarcitj of grafs and provender ; % 
defieft that can never be fupplied, till the infaafaitantB fee the 
propriety of cultivating artificial gtafey and grean chips. Nor 
-would it be difficult to periuade them of the advint&ge of 
thefe, were it not for their .rooted prejudiee againft winter 
herding. So far as they are not prevented by that preju- 
dice, they are beginning to afpire to the ftid^ing of fmall 
inclofures about their houfes, and fowing theft with clover 
and tye.gra{s« Twenty years ago, there were not above 15 
carts in the pariih ^ and now there are more than 4 tio^ea that 
nmnber. Progrefs in improvement^ however, ftnill We flow, 
while the farms are fo fmall, and fuch a numl^ (Hf ^wretched 
^bouriog cattle kept upon them. 

Biaci Cattle^ Hprfis and Sieep.-^As the pariii ia not wel^ 
fupplied with pafture, few cows can be kept by the ftrniers ; 
and hence there is fddom any cattle reated for eipottatioh. 
A fupply of horfes from Orkney is needed aotitially. &y the 
way, the greater part of Caitbnefs, eiccepting the Highland 
parifhes of Latheron, Halkirk, and Reay, is fupplied with 
horfes from Orkney 5 and yet, what may appear ftrangei very 
few breeding mares are kept in that county. They antaally 
import feveral hunditd colts, of 1 or a years old, from Strath- 
naver and the high lands of Gaithnefs, and t±pott their owtt 
horfes to Caitbnefs, about the age of 6 Or 8 years. That 
plan they follow fo regularly, that, in fome parts of Orkney, 
a dead bor/e is thought a curiofity. Unhappily that is not 
the cafe in Caitbnefs, and particularly in the pariih of Dun- 
net, where numbers every year fall a (acrifice to age and po- 
ycrtv. The greater part of the horfes, imported from Ork« 

tf BUMCU 2J^ 

nef^ ate Isnded at Squrfskorrjy about At Lammas feaTosu. 
The &ai€ boats that cany over the colts^ geoeiAlIj. mtum 
loaded with horTes^ There are about 500 fbeepjo the pa«. 
rilk, of a. very indifiexent quality ; a. very inconfiderablenunifi. 
her indeed, coofidetiQg the.ekteot o£ pafture in Donoet Head*. 
Bat as the proprietors bai^e not^ for manj years, paid- 
say atCentioQ Ho that objoft, it is not poffiUe for the pooc 
fsmicrs to reap much' advantage frcpn it ; as. the fheep therft< 
iiiaft.bc ezpofed. to xMny accidents, from the height of tho- 
rocks, and from the ravenous animalSf if not pmperlyi 

AriNr/ and Ibn^r-^The^parifli belongs to 3 heritors ; andb 
% of: thefe refide o^cafionally in. it. The valued rent i>a; 
i309l« i-as. 6d« Scotch ; and: the real rent about 95f2L. 

Ecfbfiq^ical Siati^^—Tht. value of. the livfang, is about 
9aU Sterling, incl^diog the glebe. Sir Johk SikcLlAUl o£ 
Utf snK« B%rt« is patrgin* The. parifli church is an ancieni^ 


a It JMt not Jieefi potfible toafceffttio an averajg^ei ehher riF tbo export or ini^ 
fffty with accancy. But, from the beft infomiation that cf be got on the fob- 
jc^ aboot 300 coltt are annually imported into Orkney ; mnd bmewhat more 
than half .at many hoii«a retomed. Such aa arc carjried to. the north iflcs' of 
Qtkoey, ficldom return, but ar^ alloiff ed .t^ renaia..tliefic:f till they die of old; 
ag^ as in other paru of fl^e kingdom. 

f Mf^ James FuUerton waamiaifter at the Revohtsont and waa foccccdtd by. 
Ma. George Ofirald, fomc time before the cod of USk century^ Dr. Jame» 
Qfcrnld foccecdad'hta father in tjtji and being rtfjioTed to McthTen, in JPcrth- 
ibirc, in 1750, waafucceedcd by Dr. George Trail ; to whom the prefeot incum. 
Wnt was fettled affiiUnt and fuccclTorv in 1 784, and fuceesded to the chaage u^ 

4£6 Statiftical Account 

baildibg*i but It b Neither commodious, nor in good repair. 
The laft manfe was built in 1765. But as the undertaker had 
only I cool. Scotch for executing the work, it was never pro- 
perly finiihed. As the incumbent, however, had a numerous 
family, he found it convenient to give the old manfe foxne 
repair, at his own expence. The prefent incnmbent had a 
fmall allowance from the heritors, for giving it « farther re«- 
pair. Neither the roanfes, however, nor the offices, are ia 
good condition. There are no feftariesy excepting 9 or 5 
families of Seceders.' 

School and Poor.— -The fchoolmaller's falary is only 
til. 133. 4d. Sterling ; and, as the emoluments frdm teaching, 
and other perquifites, are inconliderable, it is not Worth cheT 
acceptance of a perfon of education. The prefent teacher's 
knowledge extends only to reading £ngli(h, writing, Ind the 
common rules of arithmetic. The pari(h has the benefit of a 
Society fpinaing fchool. Apd as tHe different partis of it are 
much detached from one another, it has been found convenient 
to have 2 or 3 private fchoob, in the remoteft corners. At 
thefe diffierent fchools theje have been, for the laft 3 years, 
generally about 90 fcholars, male and female. The only lan- 
guage taught and fpoken is Englifli. — ^As the people are, in 
general, in low circumftanoesf the weekly coUe&ions for che^ 


* It is not known it what period it wasbntlt; but fi'om traditibD, and from' 
c^hercirctunihmcM, if wm' probably- fome time before the Refonnation. There 
is a gravc-ftone in the church-yard, the tnfcription of which hat a ftroog re* 
femblanre to the ftory of the itsfoftuoate Mi£i Rae, which was fo much the 
fubjetft of convcrfation fome years ago. The inlcription is,—** Here lies' 
^ Margaret Wallace, daughter of William Wallace, who was murdered by 
■< Alexaodei Caldcr, fon of Alexander CaUer in Dusftaet, becaufe he could not 
^ have har in marriage. Augjuft th< a9th, in the year of God 1 635.**— There 
is ftill a tradition, that the murder was committed on a Sunday morDing;.asd 
that the znvrdcrcri by fleeing to Orkney, efcaped puniihment, 


xff DunneL 257 

poor are ezceediagly finadl. Hencs Aey woidd hare beea 
-wtxj dcftitute, b^d It not been for the liberality of the late 
]Rcv. Dr. James Ofwdd, who was a native of the patifli, and 
vho fettled an annuity of aol. Sterling, for charitable pui^ 
.poCes in it. 

^iB/f9ii/ir}V#.-*-Tfaei% are few namral cnriofkies in the pariSx^ 
excepting a or 3 caves^ in the rocks of Dnnnet Head, and 
^one at Ham. But as thcaccefs to them is dtiBctilt, they htive 
not been fuiSciently ex;iflMned to permit a defcnption. None 
of them, however, exceptiog the laft, are fuppofed to be of 
great extent. Veftiges of 3 chapels are ftill yifible. One 
of thefe is fituated in Dunnet Head, and fuppofed to have 
been a place of penance. Two inner cells of PiAs houfea 
are dill entire at Ham. Thefe appear to be divided only 
)>▼ a ftone partition, 3 or 4 feet thick, probably hearted with 

CharaBer. — The inhabitants are, in general, a lagacious 

people \ and, excepting in fo far as they are prevented by 

Vol. XI. Kk their 

" The entnnces are tboat 8 feet afuisder, and fee« to have led from 2 outer 
drcolar apartmenta, of about 17 or t% feet diameter, which appear to haye 
had a communication from the one to the other. The entrance to tiie largeft 
cell it near 30 inches wide ; but at it it much filled up with earth, it it not 
known what the heighth of it nay have ocigioaUy been* The cell it about y 
feet long, and -6 feet wide about the middle; but becomes narrower towards 
the farther extremity, which U circular. The roof it at prefent about 5 feet 
from the earth in the floon The wallt are conftru<&ed of large rough ftones, 
apparently without any kind of cament. Every courfe in the walls project a 
Utile over that immediately below it, till they approach within about 3 feet of 
one another. That fpace it covered by a courfe of (Irong done lintelt. The 
iJoatler cell it finiihed in the iame nuuaner. And the whole is covered with 
earth, which forms a beautiful greea mount, about 8 or p feet above the level of 
ibe adjacent ficl4* 

a^B Staff/iical Account 

(their ▼icinitj ^ the lee, i^peer to want nothing bat a ibffi- 
|nent fpnr tp make them induftrious. Thej have not jet, 
bowe?er> overc o me all thelMd habita that unlimited Cervices, 
npon ^e fmnp of the proprietor?, naturally produce. But 
as that pernicious fervitude is now almoft wholly abolifliedp 
there is every reafon to hope, that the moft happy efi^fis will 
(oon aj^pear. And as fome of the tenants are obtaining mo* 
derate leafes, and beginning to improve their fmall pofleffions» 
it is not to be doubted, that they will enjoy a degree of iiU 
dependence and comfort unknoiP?n to (heir predeceflbrs. 


i'- *• •• 

ff Wiatiri. «59 

N n M B E It XI& 


^County md Prefiyierj of Caitinefs^^ynoi tf CiUhhefs and 
' Suth'etldnd.') 

hf the Reif. Mr. Joseph TaTLOR, Miniftirl 

Name, Siiuatum^ and Extioi* 

WHENCE or Kow this ^aridi obtained the name of 
Wattin^ cantibt be determined with nnj certainty* 
Perhaps it Was from the large lake of that tta[me» as thote 
who pretend to an acquaintance with the Danilh lay, that the 
word Waitm^ in that language^ is the fame with waUr in onrs. 
tt is an inland pariih, fitjiated. in the centre of the eonnty of 
CaithneCi. It is of coniiderable extent, fiietching, from S. 
to N«, between 8 and 9 computed miles $ andi from £; to 
W., about 7. 

Soil and Cttmdte.^^Thi (oil, in general, is of an excellent 
Quality I confiding of a rich deep loam, ftiff and friable elay } 
land mixed with day $ and in the neighbourhood of the moon 

Kka and 

^6ct TStati/Hcdf Accwnt 

and tnofleSs of which there is great extent, it is for the moff 
part verj light.— The air is fluirp and pure, and die cliiaate 
verj chang^hle from heat to oold, Cromwet to dry, and frooi^ 
fre(h to fsoft. Snow feldora lies for any length of time ; nc^ 
▼ertheleis, the inhabitants are yary healthy. 

JRfvrr, Laief, and fijb^ %3c — ^The fmall river Wick has iu 
Iburce in the rifiog grounds, which diride this parifh from that 
af ,Latbefon« In its courfe, it is joined by % ftreams ; the ono 
ifluing from the lake of Thfttngmll^ lying on the S. W* 
boundary \ the other from that of Watting fituated nearly in 
the centre of the pariih. It is a large and beautiful fheet of 
water, extending full 3 miles from £• to W., and nearly % 
from S. to N% Eek and trouts are caught in it. Sea fowls, 
and ducks of different kinds, frequent it. 

Po^/flr^fOJf.-^From the catechlfing rolls, made up at differ* 
ent periods, it appears, that there has been a gradual decreafe 
in the population^ within tiiefe ao years. 

)n the year 1774, tbeparUh cootaned X435 ^^^ 

.1780,. 1 1 s^^i^ 13)58. Decreafe, 67 

:jr-- Jt79^» ^ xas^t '3* 

- Totaddecrcafe in 18 years, - 205, 

IBut,: m th^year tjs$t the fetom to 1 
• Br. Wabfter having bean S 

Jltucfr it sppetrs, th«t ^t^ hitd been an- iiicreafe, in 
19 years, of - - - - - . - rr 

^And that the tQ,^il de(:reafe,, in 3.7 yetrS| is only. i* ^ i^ 

rfWattui. i^t 

XiM» dtcreafe i^pivdy to be afcvibtd ta t&e ttore eify and 
faemiMi nievcQiitie with xhn mord fcutheni ooiiBiies, whew 
w ages . o£ eycry kinil a» dMugkt aioi«;i»viMig; pardy to^ 
title finlate of ooops .xfSaaod 1783, whiofa forocd'niaay from 
Oeir BirtiTe faamet ^ aad psrtly to tb« gsomng eaiMnt of farttK. 

lotliejear 1730 there were 59 Bapti(hii»aad 19 Marri»gcit. 
1740 «4 9 

1750 fe <J 

»?«• 47 ir ' 

i77« •© • '' H 

»790; 45 8 

, . 335 . «i . 

Annual aTcra^ of eqlii-difUnt pe» 

riodi wkBiii 60 yean, • 47 6-7ths i» i«7tb 

SiritorSf Renf^ and Poor.— This parifh is the ptoperty of 
9. heritorsi a of whom only refide. — The valued rent amounu 
to X9391* 4s« rod. Scotch..^ince X782, the number upon the 
poot^s roll has been greater, than at any period fince regular 
rolls appear to have been kept here. It cannot, however, be 
faid that their funds increafe in proportion. CHur ordinary 
colledions, at an average, do not exceed xs« Sterling pet 
Sabbath. Thofe, on facraraental occafions, amount only te^ 
between 2l. and 3!* This, with the intereft of about xool., and 
the occafional fines paid by delinquents, are all that the poor o£ 
this parilh have to look to. And, were it not for the charity 
of their ai&uent fellow men, their wants would be infupport* 
able. All that thefe funds will admit of^ is, the price of a 
pair of fhoes tp fome i as much as will buy a coarfe covering 
toothers; and what may purchafe a firlot or 6- pecks of meal^ 


P There heiog feveral hxupng placet within the bmindt of the pariib, b«fidM 
die chvchHyard, the nvmhcr of deaths cannot be afccrtained* 

%62 ^tatjfiical Jbcount 

i^na^ die fearceft ieaioiiy to thft moft iadigeot. Bj Ae com-*' 
«»€iid9ble liberalitj of our heritor^ who latdj pnrdiiiiBA tbe' 
krgeft cfiate in the psrifli, the more neceffitous have hpd dieir 
yearly allowance intoreafied. This is not neocioned watfa a 
view to flatter, but as an esample worthy the imi'taticm' of 
non*refiding heritors in general. It is a duty incuoibeae up- 
on them to remember the poor, within the bounds of fihAr re- 
fpedive parilhes, by contribnting aniiaally (omewhat (or their 
Support. Heritors draw a great part of the produce of their 
eftates, to fpend whefe they will, and at their pleafure ; wInliE 
the poor, upon that very fpot which maintailis them in eafe 
and affluence, are deprived of ttfting the (inalkft offid which 
itaay come from their table. 

Church and SchooL^-'From 2744 to l^g2t the living was 
joo merks, ao bolls oatmeal, and la bolls bear, widi 40L 
•Scotch,' in name of communion element money ; befides a gXebe, 
Confiding of about 12 acres, part of which is of a very indi& 
ferent quality. L'aft fumnier,' an augmentation' was obtained,' 
inodifying the yearly iBpend to j^l. ids.' Sterling,' ao bolb 
batmeal, il bolls bear, and 401. Scotch for communion ele- 
inents'. Tlie manfe and offices were rebuilt in fummer I7'8i; 
the church wa^fe^aired in 1784; abd the fchbol-^'oiife is about 
to be rebuilt the enfuin^ feafon. The fchdolmaller's &lary 
was modified in the year 17(6, by the Commilbonen oIT Sop- 
^y, to be X chalder oatmeal, and 56 merks in money, yearly; 
leaving it optional to the fevefal heritors to' pay their pro^ 
portion of the visual, either in kind or in money, at the rate 
of 5!. Scotch per boll. AH of them chofe to pay their rei 
fpefiive proportions in moiiey,' to iht no fmatl prejudice rf 
The teadher. It is' much to be regretted, that in tbu our cl!. 
vilized country, fuch an ufeful body of men (bould be fo much 
negleded. The education of youth is an objeft highly de- 


of Wattin. 26j^ 

fcrving the attention and encouragement of every enlightened 

Occmpaiions^ ImpnmeminiSf ^c. — There being neither vily. 
lage nor manu&Aory within the bounds of this pariih, its in-* 
Jiadtttants are all enplojed in the bufinefs of fanning. Even 
our tradefmen (of whom there are fufficient numbers of everj 
idnd to fupply the demands of houfeholders), as well as our 
femotSy betake |hem((Blves to that opcupation, dividing their 
time between the labours of the field, and their particular pro* 
fcflSMMis. As to our improvements in farming, it muft be al- 
lowed^ w^ are ftiU greatlj behind ou^ fellow fubjefts in the 
moce {bndiern counties. At the fame time, every one, capable 
of snaking the observation, fees, that confiderable progrefs has 
lieeo made, during the pourfe of 12 or 14 years paft. Now, 
the fpirit becomes daily more vigorous ; and, in a few years 
hence, large trads will afliime a different appearance. Nature 
has been uncommonly favourable to us. Our com fields are„ 
fi»r die ssoft part, extenfive, though as yet, in many places. 
irregular."' They hang, with an eafy declivity, from S. to N., 
amd from N.' to S. : And the moors and commons, though not 
rich, afford an eztenfive pafture to fmall black cattle, iheep, 
andhories, '^ 

PfWure-^Bear and oats, with as many potatoes as are fuf- 
ficient to ferve the people, are the cfops generally cultivated. 
Our oats are partly of the black', and partly of the grey 
^ind : The former, weighing from 10 to zif ftones per boll, 
according to the foil and culture they meet with ; the latter 
from 7 to 8 Ilones, and. of a very poor quality. The only 
Teafon, which can be affigned for continuing to fow them, is, 
that they fland almoft any wind. Several of the gentlemen 
farmers fow fome white oats ; and, where the land is good, and 
* •' wcl^ 

umil prepartd, tb^ oofwer to thek £m«£iflki«eu Xhe ] 
nlitj, however, of farmers are prejudiced againft them^ fe 
a belief that thej are not fo fruitful as either the hlwck, or 
gcey i befiides being much more liable tio be ibaloM. 

^rfVir/torY-*-Tboiigb -this be the coomon plan of oKop-^ 
jptag, it is oeverthclefs allowed, bj ever7 one ikiUcd in inrm- 
jng, that our foil is exfieedtngly well adaj^ted for iprecn cnopn 
of every kind. And, upon trial, it has been foond to be the 
wcafe. For fereral years paft, large fields have been laid down 
in grab, tumipst peafe and beans ; ail of which have anfwered 
«he moft fangttine expeftation. Triai^is making jnft mw, 
whether wheat may not be raifed. Eight bolls wene town 
2aft fenfon ; an4« though the winter has been very mlnvour-. 
pki^ it promifes £sicly. fiedgesy too, have the appeoxnnce of 
Aicceeding to advantage. Mose vi^rou^ healihy jhooca could 
not .be defiiwd, than&<rfe to be feengtowing^ironnd the ditclics 
.upon the Mainfl of Watdn* Abont oo years ago, the out*. 
Jiines of a large farm, on Che S. fide of the loch, were laid with 
thorns ; and, though toealty neglefted, both is to cleaning and 
4ieffiflg, feveral dtains lengths, widiont a breach, have come 
to fuch per£edion« as to he a f uficient £enoe againft ^ kinds 
of cattle. The fields under culture are mucl) infeftod, both 
with top and root weeds. But this is owing to the eftabliflied 
mode of farming, and not to any natural t,endeocy in the (oil* 
The iofield groimd is perpetually under tiUage. One jpcar, 
a third part goes to bear^ and the other two thiuds to oats ^ 
and ib 00^ in conftant rotation. The ikiaHnfffs of thek pof- 
ieflions, and the uncertain tenor by which ^ticy hold ifaem^ 
prevents their attempting to fiiUow. Indeed, they have tittle 
jinclination that way ; nor will their prefent circiiinft«noes|>eF- 
init tbem to undergo an immediate la&, far Che pmfpcjft of 
future gain. Without flock to begin upon, very few -ever 

bf Wattin. (i6s 

jet atove the world. Aitd this feems to be the principal rea- 
fon of their being fo averfe to hold their pofleffions by leaf*. 
Unable to bear an j great lofs, either by, failure of crop of 
tattle, they think themfelves fafeft, when free to remove at any 
term they choofe, after finding matters likely to go againft 
tbem. And yet, notwithftanding of this, removals are by no 
means fo frequent as might be expeftcd. It is very common 
to fee the fon fucceed the father, and end his days within: 
the Waifs of the fame dwelling in which he was born. 

Farmi^ \3c. — ^The ordinary extent of farms, is from x 2 to 20 
acres infield, from 2 to 6 oatfteld, from i to 2 meadow; off 
'Which they cut a {hort kind of natural hay, with fome acres 
of pafture ground, and the liberty of common. The yearly 
rent of fuch pofleiBons is from 2!. to jl* Serling, and from 6 
to 9 bolls oatmeal, at 9 ot ^ flohesper boll. Tbey like wife 
pay fome feet of cufiom peats, as they are called ; the nutiiber 
almoft nniverially ill proportion to the £ftance they are at 
from the moft ; from 8 to 12, or 13 fowls, with iht cutting 
down of an acre, or an acre and a half of corn* Such fmall 
poffeflion^, amd there are very many below this extent, cannot 
afford mu6h for the fabfiftence of the labourer and his family ; 
sod may be affigned as a reafon why the inhabitants in general 
ate fd very poor. A fpirit for larger farms,* however, now 
begins to^ break otit amongft them. Several are venturing to 
join two into one. Unlimited fervices, fome time ago exa£led 
almoff by every proprietor, are nearly aboHIhed in this place* 
The abolhiott of this pra£^ice, baneful in the highed degree, 
both to the intetefts and morals of the people, has made a very 
perceptible change^ not only on their fpirit, but oii their indnf« 
try. Still, however, they require to be encouraged, if not 
nurfcd by their landlords. Improvement, even in hnibandry, 
is not to be expeAcd, but by the labour of the aftuol farmer. 

Vol. XI. , L 1 Proprietors 

a66 Statiftical Account 

Proprietors may trim up and adorn a few acres, around their 
own manfions, but it is only the judicious, diligent, perfevetinj; 
efforts of the hufbandman, which extends improvement, and 
renders it bene ficiaUy lading to the public at large. 

Method of Plowing. — Their yoke confifts of 4 beafts ; 
horfcs, oxen, or cows, as they happen to have, or can afford 
them, all going abreaft, and drawing by thiets. One treads 
conftantly upon the tilled land, another goes in the furrow, and 
two upon the ftubble, or white land. The perfon driving 
walks backwards, holding the cattle tied with halters, 
and taking care that each beaft has its equal {hare of the 
draught. This, though moft aukward to appearance, is a 
method of yoking, by which the creatures evidently fieem to 
have mo& power. Were they yoked in any other way, it does 
not appear that they would be able to ciraw a plough, with 
any thing like a furrow, after them. One, not accuftomed to 
their manner, upon looking at their pitiful fize, and lean con« 
dition, would not think they were able^ many of them, fo fiv 
to blacken a rig (raife a furrow), as to cover the feed : Yet 
fome of them will turn ov6r the mould to the depth of about 
4 inches \ and it is furpriiing what good crops their Jbufflmg 
labour produces, both of bear and oats. When the feafbn is 
^ry, a part of the ground is plowed, after the corns are ga^ 
thered in, generally for the following bear crop. During the 
winter feafon, and the firft month of fpring, nothing without 
doors is done. The whole of their time is employed ia 
threihing down and manufaduring the crop. As foon as the 
weather fets in dry, and the land becomes fit for plowing, 
which generally is not before the beginning or middle of 
March, they are on the fields, labouring from morning to 
night. When once they begin, greater aftivity, or more per- 
ievcrance^ is not to be feea amongil aay body of people. The 


of Watttn. iCj 

fiune fpirit is obleryable during the harveft feafon. In fam- 
mer and winter, it mud be allowed, the like praife is not due 
to them** 

Seofons. — ^Vegetation here makes but flow progrfefs during 
the firft part of the feafon. Until towards the fummer fol« 
ftice, both corn and grafs make but a poor appearance. In* 
deed, as to the latter, few think of keeping off their cattle 
before they fioith their labouring; and naany ftill permit them 
to traverfe, and feed even upon the fown land, till the bear 
feed is begun* But, when once cattle of every kind are care« 
fiillj kept off, and the night begins to lengthen, it is fur- 
pri6ng what vigour vegetation affumes, and what ^uick pro«- 
grefs it makes f. 

• Afwot to yeari ago, few, if any, thought of plowing before the middlo 
«f Bifanh, even when the feafon wat favourable. And, when they did begin, it 
wai^ for the moft part, with giving the firft.forrow to their beat land I'bcy ne* 
vtr thought of laying down their oa^ before the middle of April ; and every 
Aoe was defirous that the feed fliould follow the plough at faft as poflible. But, 
ever fioce the year 1783, they turn out at any time When the ground is fit for 
piowtog, and are anxioni to have the feed fown as ibon as poffible ; from a con* 
«idioD,chat an early laying down is both laieft and moft fobftantial. 

f Oar harvefts are not fo kte as might be expc&ed, confidering how far 
north we lie. For foveral years pad, they have not been either fo early, or fo 
good, as they were wont to be. But this has not been peculiar to us. Lcff 
damage is fuftained here, by a ratpy feafon, than in moft countries. High 
winds fometimes break down a good deal of corn, about the time they are 
ocirly fbU; but any thing confiderable of this kind fcldom happens, our grain 
hciog of a hardy qo^ity. To prevent lols by rain, great care is taken to fe« 
cure the corns, when cut, as foon as polfible. Little attention is paid, by the 
general run of farmers, to win the grain in the ftook. They are careful to cue 
when dry ; and, if poffible, before it gets focked with rain, they put it together 
in very fmall ftacks, allowing it to Ue in that ilate for feveral weeks. When 
deadened by lying in this manner, they lay it open a fecond time, by building it 
^pcnia i(ackt, coniiderably larger than the former, and fit to (Und the wint^ 


2 68 Statj/iical Account 

FuiL — The labouring being ended, the next work which 
conaes oo, is to make provifion for winter firing4 We have 
fuel in great abundance, and of an excellent quality. Caftifig« 
winning, and carrying home their peats, however, coafunies 
a greit deal of time, iiotwith (landing thej be at no great dif* 
taace from them, mod places having readj accefs to the ad«* 
jacent moors and commons. Their labour, in this refped, 
however, will become lefs, as the/ oow begin to ufe carts 
even for that purpofe. As yet they are, in general, of a ver j 
trifling kind, though, at the fame time, tolerably well adapted 
to the fi^e of their cattle; and the principal ufe made of tbcmi 
is to carry out their dung in the bear-feed feafoa. Amongft 
the gentlemen and more fubftantial farmers, carts of a verj 
good fize are ufed ; fome drawn by horfes, others by a oxen, 
and applied to all the purpofcs of farming and carriages. 

Houjcs^ Cattle^ y^:.— After the peals are l^rought home, their 
next labour, is the repairing and trimming of their houfes : And 
this they are under the neceffity of doing annually. We have 
no wood growing ; and what is imported fells at a very high 
rate. This circumilance obliges the people to ufe as little of 
that article, in jthe condruftion of their houfes, as polilble. 
Though their poflei&ons be fmall, they keep a number of 
cattle, poorly fed, at all feafons. A fiarmer here, who rents 
only to the extent of 31. and 9 bolls, makes a {hift to keep 
'alive from 4 to 6 little horfes, from 16 to 20 head of black 
cattle, and from 20 to 30 head of flieep. This ftock (for, 
during all feafons, they are houfed in the night time, except 
their horfes, which, throughout the fummer, lie on the com- 


jTcafou. By thcfe means, thty hftve an opportunity of dtfcovering any IheaTet 
that tnay chance to be fpoiled by rain or heat, and of l<rpanidDg them from 
what is entirely found. 

of Waltln. ^69 

S| aoda ia harveft, ftand upon Uthir^ during the night 
as well as dsij)^ requires confiderable extent of houfing* 
Tkough heritors furniQi wood for the firil crcdion, or give 
allowance to the tenant upon his removal, ftill lie is ezpofed 
Xo confiderable ezpence. Seeing they bold their poiTefEons 
without anj leafe, and being themfelves but in flraitened cir^ 
/camfiancesi it is neither fafe nor convenient for them, either 
to laj out monej, or fpend a great deal of labour, for their 
accommodation in the article of houfing. On thefe accounts* 
they /themfelves, as well ?s their cattle, are but poorly accom- 
modated in that refped. The walls of their dwelling houfes 
conCIl of a or 3 feet of ftone, coarfely huddled together with 
3 or 4 feet of feal laid above them : Their roofs very thinly 
wooded, aud covered with the lighted divots (or turfs) they 
can procure, tied dowo with ropes made of heather, to prevent 
blowing oflF by the wind. Bams, byres, and fiablcs, it may be 
believed, are not more elegant and fubilantial. Compofed of 
fuch coarfe materials, and put together with fo little art, they 
cannot be very lading, efpecially when expofed to the (everity 
pf a boifterous climate. 

i)^£&ri>/.— Qf late years, the greater part of their bear is 
diftilied by themfelves ; and, it is to be feared, too much of 
it is drank, without bringing what it otherwife might into 
their pockets. From the number of fmall dills in the coun- 
try, they have an opportunity, as often as they choofe, of 
drawing 3 bolls of malt, upon paying the owner of the dill a 
certain confideratton. This produce they difpofe of as they 
bed can; and, while they are employed in the manufa&uring 
and difpofiog of it, they have likewife an opportunity of 
fafiing ; and thus lofing their time, and fpending parr, at 
lead, of their profits. Neither their conditutions, nor morals, 
are gainers by this new branch of buiinefs, whatever advan- 

2 70 Statiftical Account 

tage It maj briag to the revenue ; and it will bear a queftion^y 
"whether their profits are, upon the whole, mach incrcaTeci 
by it. 

Commerce. — ^What quantity of grain, of the growth o€ 
this parifli, mav be fold, is imp(^ble to fay with certainty. 
There muu, however, be fotnething confiderable, befides the 
viftual rent, which is at leaft the half of what is paid, and 
which feldom, if ever, fails to be exported. The Weft 
Highlands is the common market. Indeed, it requires na 
fmall quantity of grain to maintain the inhabitants f. Befides 
what vi£tual they may difpofe of, after paying their rents, 
and maintaining their families, which is more or lefs in pro* 
portion to the extent of their farms, and the number of eaters, 
they fell annually i, a, or 3 ydung cattle, as they can fp«re« 
Thefe being poorly fed, at all feafons, bring but little money. 
And when no demand oomes from the South, t^ey are at a 
lofs to difpofe of them, owing chiefly to the narrownefs of 
the country. The general run of ftots and qneys, ' reared 
here, from 3 to 4 years old, feldom fetch above 30s. or 40s., 
according to their fite and fliape. Milk cdws and labouring 
oxen, particularly the latter, give a tolerable price, and, of 
late years, have rifen greatly in their value. Horfes, confix 
dering their fmall fize, fell exceedingly high. This circum- 
fiance is juft beginning to induce gentlemen, and fome of the 
more fubftantial farmers, to ufe a larger fizc than the original 
breed of the country. Inftead of 4 garrma^ as they are here 
called, drawing a plough, a tolerable fizcd horfes are ufed by 
ieveral. From the great number oeceflary to carry on work 
of every fort, agreeable to the praftice of thexountry, they 


t Oat and bear meal, with what nilk they can afford, are the chief article 
«f their fubfiftence. Very little butcher meat i« ufcd amongU them. The qqa 
^ wj;cublet are a few cabbajres and poutoea. 

of Waifin. %j\ 

do not rear fo many as are needed. Indeed, from feme miC* 
taken notions, they feldom keep what they rear, till they are 
£t for the purpofes of labour. When about a year old, they 
are fold, and carried into the Orkneys ; from whence they are 
brought back, in their prime, and fold again at a very high 
rate. Strathuaver, too, furnifhes a good many horfes anA 
mares for the accommodation of this quarter. 

£i^^._The few flieep they may have to difpofe of, are 
confumed, either in the towns of Wick and Thurfo, or in the 
families around. Indeed, that ufeful animal does not profpex 
here fo well as could be wiihed. The moors, moiles, and 
commons are, it is thought, too wet for them. But, befides 
this natural difadvantage, they are not fo well taken care of, 
as they ought and deferve to be. The pafture is not only 
poor, but greatly overftocked : and they are, all the year 
round, confined, during the night time, in very low clofe huts. 
The winter feafon, too, is changeable, boifterous, and rainy. 
Thus ezpofed, upon bare open fields, without any thing na<* 
tural or artificial to ihelter them, numbers often die, during 
the courfe of winter and fpring, of what are here called the 
rott, pock, and fcab. 

Jl/am^^vr^/.— *The only thing, befides corn and cattle, 
which brings any money amongft us, is a little fpinning, for 
the manufadurers in feme of the more fouthem counties. 
This, by the by, is but a mere trifle. Our women, perhaps, 
are more employed in the field, for at lead 8 months in the 
year, than in mod other places of the kingdom. This affords 
the generality of them but little time for making any thing 
confiderable by that branch of bufinefs. Almoft every family, 
too, fows what linfeed they think will anfwer the purpofes 
of their own wearing. The produce thereof| and the fmall 


4 yl Siatiflical Account 

ptreel of wool which their few (beep yields, exhaufls the 
greater part of the time thej can fpare, from the labour of 
their little farms. No fmall lofs is faftained bj the coantrj 
at large, that more cloth, efpeciallj woollen, is not made 
amongft them. 

MiWflfir, Wr.— This comer is capableof very great iraprove- 
xnent. Befides the natural quality of the foil already under 
tiliagCi there ate vaft trads of ground fit to yield crops of every 
kind, at liltle or no espenee. It requires only to be plowed 
ftp and reduced. In different places,* coniiderable quantities 
of marie have been found ; and in fome, lime-ftone, of a very 
excellent quality, though difiicttlt to work. In general, the 
country abounds with it. 

Prejudicial Cnfioms,^Jfrom our remote iituation, and little 
intcrcourfe with other countries, we have hitherto been neglcff- 
ed, if not defpifed. Of late, flrangers have begun to creep in 
amongft us ; And a litde time will convince, both ftrang^rs 
and natives, that our remote fituatton is by no means fo un- 
friendly, cither to happinefs or ioJtereft, as has too ^generally 
been believed. No douht there arc local praSices, and tecaf 
prejudices arooogft us, which require to be laid afide, before 
great improvement can take place, or flrangers refide with 
teid comfort to themfelves. From time immemorial, it had 
been the pradice here, for cattle of aU kinds to travel and feed 
jnromifcuoufly, without diftindlion of property, from the day 
the laft iheaf was put into the farm-yard, till the concloiioit 
of the bear feed, iii the end of May, or beginning of June** 
The prejudice this praftice is of, to land in general, but to 
arable land in particular, is now fcen by many, and begins to be 
aboliihed. Few men will obfltnately perfift in prejudices or 
eufloma, whoa they are jodicioufly ezpoled, and ihewn to h^ 


contrary to their inCercft. Still, however, the geoerBlicj are 
•gaiiift winter herding* And it is mmtter of great regret to 
every friend of improvement in agriculture, that the laws re. 
fpeaing that praftioe are not oaiverlally enforced and obfeiv^ 
ed. The aOive enterprifing fanner can never aVail himfelf, 
of all the advanuges to be derived from his poflelSoa, unlela 
he be at liberty to uft and lay it out as he pleafes. He can 
never benefit himfelf, either by fallow or green crops, fb long 
as cattle of every kind, his neighbours as well as his own, 
are at freedom, for 8 months, nearly, out of la, to Uwerfe 
his fields, day and night, wet and dry. Such a coAom may, 
and, no doubt does, profit die Jt^ggurA. His cattle are half 
maintained almoft at the expenoe of his neighbours, Bvt 
men of this dcfcription ought not to be fupported, at the ez« 
pence of the walling, induftrioos farmer* His fpirited endea- 
vours to provide for himfelf, and ferve the pnblic, ought 
not to be rendered abortive, merely to gratKy the indolence 
of the floven ; who, rather than «xert himfelf in conftant a£b 
of indufiry, is contented to live in a hovel, to be dothcd w 
rsgs, and to feed upon bread and water. 

Jioais^ (^^•— -Another ciicomfiance, which gready retarda 
the improvement of this place, is the want of good roads. 
Some attention, indeed, has been paid to this firft and moft eflen- 
tial ftep towards improvement. Our roads, in general, have 
been lined out, and fbmething done upon them, rduftantly, 
by the ftatut^ labour of the people. By thefe means* we have 
a more plain and direA tniA, during the dry feafon of the 
year, to the ports of Wick and Thutfo, for travellers, as well 
as riders and carts : But from this neglefi, and the infufficient 
manner in which they are executed, they become £0 foft after 
rain, and are fo Uown by die frofl, tkat in many ^aoes, dauw 
ing winter and fpring, the beft horfes-are not fit to drag a cart 

Vot. XI. Mm with 

C74 Statjflical Account 

with fafctj. Tiiis circumHanoe Tenders the carriage of grain^ 
woodt and indeed every otfa^r article, to and frooa port ex<« 
trenielj difficult ^nd tedious. From the oarrowneb of theiv 
farms, they can keep only horles of a very fmall fize ; which* 
with the badnefs of their roads* obliges ^«n to make feveral 
joumies, where one might otherwife ferve. Every thing, by 
tbefe means, muft be carried on horfe*back, and that, too, in 
very fmall quantities. 

CbaraSer Ijf .-.^Fond of drefs, rather to escefs, too much 
of their eamingSi particularly of the younger part of both 
fexes, goes to gratify their fancy in thatrefpeft ; and it is not 
always with the heft or mod fubftantial articles of any kind, 
that thpy are fiipplied. Being naturally of a fprightly turn, 
what appears the rood Ihowy gains their choice; and, while 
it pleafes for a little, itsfervioe is foon at an end. This lively 
turn, is, perhaps, oi|e reafon why our young men, 'in general, 
ihow fuch a relilh for a military life. No fooner does a recruit., 
ing party make their appearance, than numbers, even before 
they are fit to carry arms, are willing to inliil. Wages, it 
muft be allowed, do not bear a proportion with what is given 
in more fouthem counties ; but thefe, like every other thing, 
are dsiily increafing*. Sripp^ngs now get n^re than 39s. per 


* About 15 'or so yean ago, a man fervant, qualified for all the por« 
pofet of ivmiDg, did not look for more than z8t. or 10s per half year, tritk 
3 bolb fuMifiepce, h«lf oat, half hear meal ; the fbnner at 9i fiones per hoU, 
the latter at 9 done. Women, qualified for tending cattle throughout the win- 
ter, driving the plough, and filling the dung cart in fpring, had only ahout 
8s. Sterling, with juft half the fubfifience allowed the man. Why fo little 
fnbfiften^e was and fUll is allowed to women, no good reafon can be affigned. 
£ftablilhed cnftoma cannot always be accoonted for, nor are they eafily or fad* 
flenly •▼erturned. Thia artide of wages, however, ha* of late ri£^, and ftil) 
contipaes to iDcreafe* 

of Wottiri. 275 

ikulf year, and th« better qualified nearer to 4^^., with the old 
ullowance for fubfiilence; and the women from 128. to 15s. 
IS'cverthelefs, numbers of both fexes annually leave the place, 
in hopes of higher wages, and in the belief that better living 
is to be had dfewbere, than what they are accuftomed to at 


2j6 Statifiical Account 



{County and Synod of ArgyU^PriJbytery of ISmtyreJ) 

By thi Riv. Mr* John M^Liesh, Minifier. 

Ifamif Situation, and Extent. 

TRADITION fays, that Chomanus was fent from the 
mooaftcry of IcolumiiU^ bj St. Columbus, to plant the 
gofpd in Iflajy and beiog buried in this placet gave name to 
the pariih of Kexl^chomak. It is fituated in the ifland of 
of Iflay, is 20 mUes long, and 6 broad, and is of a peninfa- 
hx forms ^ Lochgrunart and Zocbindab^ two amcis of the 
fee, cut deep into the country. 

Coq/l, Harbour^f and ^irr/ar#.-— The ihore^ to the W*, is 
rough and bold, affording no anchoring ground ; but Lochia- 
dale, to the E., Is a fair fpacions harboitr, with a fine quay 
at the viUage of Bowmore; and very much frequented, as the 
fca, to the W. of Iflay, in fiormy wefither, is very rough, 


if KUcbomafiw 2 77 

nfhig licenily meuniain high. A ridge of moor laiklsi fa- 
mous for grazingi runs through the pariflx. 

SoUf FroiMKif Exports^ \3c. — ^The ground all sronad the 
coaft is araUe, producing corn and barky, flax and potatoes. 
The foil is of dtSereot qualities ; mofs, clay, loam, and (and ; 
but no other crops are raifed, owing to the open ilate of the 
country. SheH, fand, and fea-weed are made ufe of for ma^ 
Dure, as there is no lime-ftone in the parifli. Thefe are found 
to give good crops, and to mend the grafs : When mixed 
with mofs, they proY« an exeeUent compoft. Large fields of 
potatoes are annnaHy raifed by it, which is very fertuiiate 
for the poorer fort of people, who can get no other manure, 
and who live upon potatoes and fiih for three fourths* of the 
jear. The rearing barley and flax is much praftifed by the 
common tenantry, wlio by thefe make up the greater part of 
their rent, yam being one of our principal exports. The 
{tfodttce of die country^ in -.good ieafoos, is fofficicat to fup- 
port its iahabitaMtt ; but, ia bad feafiMiSy they have been ob- 
liged to import a good deal of meal, 

Cubiwaifm, He. — Of late, the farmers have got into the 
way of fowing early oats, which gives them an earlier har- 
▼eft i for our cropa have been ofiteo much hurt by the winds 
and rains, that fet ia from the W. early in aucnmo, Seed». 
time coBUttnces about die a ad of March ; and by the middle 
of OBbBbct all the crop is generally got in. The broad 
Scotch plou^ with 4 horfes, is moil generally ia ufe. There 
are ieveral tacUmen in the parifli, who employ cottagers to 
work their &rms, and tend their dairy. This mod be the 
cafe with gentlemen who have large farms, as it would be 
impoffible to take fervants into their boufes to carry on all 
their bnfiueCs \ and as there may be feme of them, whofe 



478 Statiftiad Account 

drcmnftaiioes eoaUe them to be tteve taklag fuch dradg^ry 
upon tbemfelves. 

CHimUi ani Dtfitafts.-^Xytit climate is the fame with thac 
of other maritime places. If we have our wefterly wiods aad 
ndnst we are free of the frofts and (bows of the eaftj^ fiiow 
aerer oontiauing above a daj or two with us* An inftance 
of the wholelbmeoefii of that cKmate, maj be Seen ia the 
healthfulneb of oar people, who are feldom or never vifited 
widi any epidemical diftemper, and generally live to a good 
age. The fmall pox, which ufed to make a vaft devaftadoo, 
is now eafily got over by inoculation y one futgeon having, 
laft feafon^ performed that operaUon upon more than 800 
children^ very few of whom died. Some people advanced in 
years were alio inoculated, with good eSefts. The poor 
were inoculated gratis, and the operator enjoys their blei&ng« 

WiU Ammais**^Anj oi^e, thae has a right to Keep a gna 
and dog, may find plenty of game here ; foeh as partridges, 
woodcocks, Uackcocks, moorfowl, plovers, wild geefe anS 
ducks, and wild pigeons ; alfo otters, rabbits, and hares, fea 
and land bamicles. 

Blaei Ca^Z/f.^— The rearing of cattle is a principal ob^ 
jtSt with the gentlemen of Iflay, who have the merit of 
having brought the Iflay catde to vie with the beft of their 
neighbours at market, and to be much run upon. The farm* 
ing bniinefs may be purfued to advanuge in Iflay ; bat black 
cattle have been its greateft riches of late years. There are 
about 800 of thefe annually fold out of this parifli, at the 
avarage price of 3!. 15s.; they arc carried by drovers to Dam* 
barton and Falkirk, and even to England, occaiionally* 


of Kilcboman. 279 

Horfis.^^^ are faid to keep too many horfes, which is a 
gainft the fyflem of black cattle : Tet thefc borfes bring a good 
deal of money into the conntrj, the Irifli being Tcrj fond of 
them, as they arc neat lively creatures, and fit for the faddle, 
Onr manner of hufbandry requires alfo a good many horfes, 4 
i'^ng yoked in each plough ; and peats, com, and fulzie car- 
ried home on horfeback. As the country is champaign, anj 
the roads good, an Iflayroan will fcarce flir from home with« 
out his pad. 

Sheep. — It is much to be wiihed, we had got more into the 
rearing of (heep than we have, as the country would anfwer 
them well ; and the higher lands would be excellent flieep 
walks, being green to the top, and there being no foxes or other 
vermin to deflroy them. The tenantry content themfelves, 
bowever, with rearing no more than ferves their own families: 
Hence mutton and wool fell high. 

Popttlaiiant^^'By a late enumeration, the number of inha«. 
bitants in this parifli amounts to - * - 2300 

The population in 1755 is uncertain. Dr. WebAer fays^ 
that the ifland of Iflay contamed then only the two parifiies 
of Killar ow and Kildalton ; under which, it is probable, that 
Kilmenie and Kilchoman were included. We are enabled, 
however, to ftate the exaft increafe of population in the 
whole ifland; as the total number of people in Iflay, at 
prefent, amounts to above - , - - 9500 

From which dedufting the return, in 

1755, from Killarow, - - 1762 "> 

/Uid that from Kildalton, - - 3583 j ' ^344 

The total increafe in the ifland is <- 4x56 


zSo Statj/iical Account 

The following Is an 

abflrad of birt^M aoc) nanruiges* far 

8 jears paft : 



















^y . 




- 445 


ATcrage, » 

• sA 


£f7i^^ff»tfii#x,&c..«~The inhabitants are all employed in d» 
farming and gtvfing liact there being no mannfa&oty cftablilh- 
cd in the country \ but they are well fnpplied with tnuief- 
xnen, in the common and moft neceiSTary arts* who ooake a 
good livelihood of it. Travelling merchants gather our yarn, 
and bring home our flsx-feed, grocery goods, and rather too 
many Jmeries. But our people like to appear to advantage. 
There are about 80 hogibeads of laz-feed annually imported 
into the pariih ; the cultivatioi^ of which, and mannfaAuring 
the produce, conilitnte the princi|pal bufineis in the ifland. The 
people are much more given to the making of linen, tfaaii 
woollen cloth, this being a flaxen country. Many of the gen* 
teeler families keep weavers employed for themfelves, all tho 
year through. The Highland drefs has not made fnch rapid 
progrefs among us, as with our neighbours to the N. We 
are more clad in the long coat, hat, and breecbeSi than the in« 
habitants of any of the Hebrides. Befides the fcarcity of 
%vocl, there is anotheri and indeed a veiy great diiadvantage, 


* No regukr regifter of buriils has been kept, on account of the great 1 
ber of burial placet in the parifli. On . occafiont of baptifinii marriagea, and 
burials, the ezpcnct incurred border* on eatraTagancCi through a iMj com<» 
pliance with the old faihion. 

of kUcbiyman. 48t 

4:b«t Ifl«7 lies under, hj a fcarcitj ef wood; timber. being 
brought from the northern lakes, at a very high price, and 
dittcttlc to obtain evea for it, owing to the great demand for 
charcoal; Hence implements for huibandrj, houre-buildingi 
ftnd carpenterj bufinefs, come to be very espenfire. 

Fififeriis^ Fuil^ Scc«-*Bat if the fea has bared ottr coun- 
try of wood, it has filled its coafts with fifli. Lochindale 
affords all kinds of fea fiih, and Portnah^en, a fifliing village^ 
in the Xioiis of Iflay, is famous for its cod fifliing : And for 
tb^r encourageanent, Mr; Cam^ell of Shaw&eld has gives 
them fome boats, lands, and timber for houfes. Another very 
great advantage, v^e have, is, that no country is better fupplied 
with fire and watbr. Atmoft every farm has peatmofs within 
itfelf, of ad excellent kind, affording charcoal for the fmith, as ' 
we have no coals. Theft peats, with the fifli oil they bural 
in lamps, make tbe habitation of the meaneft cottager warm 
and cheery. As to qiir waters, thef e txt alembics enough to 
inake them light and wholefome. They are remarkably good 
taut bleaching, which the ctearnefs of eur linens can ihow ; 
•fid it is probable the bleaching bufinefa might be profecnted 
Widi gffcot advantage in Iflay. 

Laie and Ifland.'^^TYktrt are no waters in tbe pafifli that 
Beferve tbe name of rivers. There is one lake, which covers 
abotit loo acres of land, and is well fupplied with fine trouts. 
Tbere are feveral latge oak trees at thfi bottom of it, wbidn 
ihews tbe country was once under woo4« In thia lake, there 
is a finall ifland, fortified very ftrong. Its baftions are all 
entire. To this fort, it is faid, M'Dokald of Islay betook 
bimfelf in his difEculties*. Now the owls of the defert nefilf 
in it. 

VoL.X|. Nil Roods 

t Tbe battle fought between tbe M'X>0Dald« and the M'Leani, ia 1588, u 


ttSi Statifiical Account 

Roads and Bridges — None of the Wefiern Ifles ean boafl 
of fuch good roads and bridges u Iflay. The iohaUtants are 
every year called out to work upon them } and aoj gentleinan 
naj drive for 30 miles thr6iigh the ifle in his carriage* To 
complete the line, our communication with the main (bora 
is kept up bj a packet, which goes and returns regularly 
every week, with the mail, paffcnger^ and goods on board. 
This packet baa 40L of lalary from the country, and joh 
from government. The expence of government ia more than 
defrayed by the poft-office here, as fisafariog people, along 
with thofe in the country, fend a great many letters through 
that channel. . 

Prcprutdr and Rent. — ^Mr. Camfbell of Shawfield is 
proprietor of the whole ifland, and poffefles one of the beft and 
noft coropafi eftates, enjoyed by any commoner in Britain. 
On the forfeiture of the M'Donalde,' Illay, Jura, and the famda 
of Muckaim, were made over to Campbell of Calder, who 
was then a favourite at court, on condition of his paying 
500I. yearly of a feu*duty out of Iflay, which is the reafon 
of the duty being, fo high } and Calder fold all thafe lands 
again to Shawfield, for X2,oool. ; which, if the rage for renU 
ing land continues, will, by and by, be the income from it. 


die moft remarkaBle CT«t of this diftriA. M'Lean, being married to NPDoif. 
mkl's daughter, was to hare part of Iflaj as her portion ; hot the treaty not bck 
ing implemented, he came from MuU with 1400 of his clan, to force IkCDooald 
to a compliance. M*Dooald, with looo of hit tribe^ gave him battle, and def- 
troycd the flower of his army. M'Lcan himfclf was killed with an arrow, and 
lies interred in the kirk of Kilchoman. A favage courtfliip indeed ! bot (uch 
were the times ! It is not certain how long the M'Donalds maintained thei^ 
dominion in Iflay, and other places^ after that mxx ; but fnrc it if^thak| by theiff 
vcftlcfsdilpoiltion, they at lafl forfeited them. 

tf Kilcboman. 283 

fjtvr^i.— .The charch* now made ufe of, ftands in the 

«iiddle of the parifli. The minifter goes occafionally to the 

Hurts of it, and preaches for more than one half of the year, 

in both languages ; a dtitj which none but the clergy in the 

Highlands have to go through. He has 50I. of ftipend, a 

glebe, and manfe-monej, with 5]. for communion elements \ 

"has been fettled xo years in the parifli, and is married to his 

predccefibr's widow,* by which her children drew aool. out of 

tbe widow's fund. The King is patron of all Iflav, and draws 

500L yearly feu^duty out of it. All the inhabitants belong 

U> the Eftablilked Church. There are 4 parifhes, but only 3 

jnimfiera in the iffland, notwithftanding the great number of 

the inhabitauts. 

S«&ooZr.— .The parochial fchool is taught in the church. 
There axe at prefent about 40 fcholars attending it. The 
mmfler has 100 merks of yearly falary, with dues from 
chriftenings and marriages. There are feveral other fchools in 
different parts of the parifli ; the mafters of which are main- 
tained and paid by the contribotions of individuals. An in- 
doftrions good fchoolmafter is a moft valuable member of fo- 
ciety, and much needed in this parifli, to affiil in guarding the 
youth from the errors of Popery, as we are juft in the very 
neighbourhood of Ireland. A fourth minifler is alfo much 
to be wiflied for in the ifland ; as, upon fome occafions, 3 
elergymen have to difpenfe the facrament to no fewer than 
1100 communicants. 

N n a Improvements. 

* This pariih it obliged to the devotion, or rather to the foperftition, of iu 
iormer innabitanu, for the many vefiiget of chapels, or placet of worihip, that 
Are to b« feen in it ; thefe being no Icfs than 6 in number, whofe walls, croflcf, 
and fonts are pretty entire. Bot bow could it be othcrwife, whh a place that 
is within a few leagues of the monaftery of the lamout Ion a, which difper&d 
in otiEoD wici all over Britain I 

a 84 Statjfiical Account 

ImprovBmffUs. — ^Onie other circttmftftnce that tfderres to hta 
noticed* in the hiftoiy of liaj, is the attedfioii that has of late, 
been effefied in the polica of it. Changes and ioiproveiDenCs^ 
la all countries, take their rife from the fpirited exeftioiu of 
particular indiTidualsi who feem bom for the purpofe of rcmf- 
ing the multitude from a ftate pf ignoraaioe and torpor« 
Within thele doxen of years, the prefent proprietor has flhore 
than doubled his rents ; jet the tenantiy. as n^ell as himfelf^ 
ure better off than ever. They have giftti trim, as it were, 
an addition to his eftate, hj re&uing many acres, of moor and 
mofs, from a ftate of nature, and briagtng them to yield 
good crops of corn and grab. On the other handi the pro>A 
prietor has given the tenants fuch advantageous leafes, that 
thej have greatlj bettered their circumllances, as well as in« 
creafed their nombers, and are enabled to live mueb more 
comfortably than formerly. And indeed. they ape fe fenfible 
of the advantages they enjoy, and are in general fo contented 
with their fituation, that vtrj few have emigrated from the 
ifland : And the farms of thofe who have^ have never con«^ 
tinned long unpoiTeffed. When tenants are emaaeipated from 
the avarice of monopoltfers, they feem to breathe a purer air, 
and improyepents go on rapidly » for nothing has tended more 
to excite the fpirit of emigration, than the Drason of Monopcrfy, 
^hich leads the avaricious to add land t* laad, nsld £irm to 
farm. The writer of this article, cannat approve of the maxim^ 
V That thf men rents you lay pn, the tenants will wori tbt 
hetter.^^ This, like the Egyptian bondage, is exafting bricks 
without firavv, and tends to check, rather than incite, the fpirit 
of induilry. But if the moderation and lenity, that have 
hitherto been obferved in Iflay, continue to be adhered to, we 
may vetiture to proiftife, that the people will rather flay at 
home, to improve the lands of their native ifland, than go 
abroad to cultivate the wilds of America. Ameai 


of KilcbtmMf %%f^ 

CharaSer, and Afanners.^^'So objeftlon can be made againft 
Hhcir natural parts and abilities^ which are fubtle and ingenious. 
Th«7 are fond of tbdir own country, and are not much addid- 
cd to enlifting in the army or navy. They marry young, and 
are greatly conneAed by intermarriages, which mud always 
be the .cafe with infolar fuuations ; and yet they ate very kind 
to all ftrangers, who come to refide among them, or vifit them. 
They are in general as contented with their fitQation as mod 
people, as they have the comforts and conveniences of life in a 
reafonable degree. The Gaelic is the general language of the 
commMi. people ; yet Engliih is pretty well underffood, and 
Uoght in all our fchoolsr The dance and the fong, with 
ihinty and putting the (lone, are their chief amufements. 
Numbers of them play well on the violin and bagpipe. They 
have a natural eafe and gracefulnefs of motion in 'the dance, 
which is peculiar to themfelves. The gentlemen, once a year, 
treat the ladies with a ball, where cheerfulneis and propriety 
of condud, always prefide ; and more elegance of mannei:| 
are to be feen, than could well be expefied in lb remotif a 



§■85 Sicuiftkal Account 



(^Qoutaj and Synod of ArgylU-TnJbyttry t^ ^ntyn.) 

^y the Rev. Mr. Argbuals Robertsoh, MUnfiir. 

Namff Situation^ and Extent. 

THE name of this parifb is probabl/ derived from fomo 
eminent perfon who had been the firft that was buried 
here. It is fituated on the S. E. end of the ifland of Iflajp 
«nd extends along the fca fliore, from the Motile of Keann-outb^ 
to M^Carture^s Head^ near the entrj of the Sound of Iflay* 
from the £• It is above 15 miles in length, and about 6 iii 

SoUj Cultivation^ Roadsf &€.— There is great variety in tli« 
foil over all the pariih ; for, in the fame farm, you will find a 
very poor, light, fandj foil, and fome verj good ground, 
that would produce a rich crop, if it had tillage and manure. 
There is fome clay ground, and a great quantity of mofs. 
But the great lofs, in this country, is, that the fmall tenant 
are almoft every year plowing down all their arable ground; 
and they feldom manure any ground| except for potatoes and 
a barleys 

ff Kildalton. C87 

.torley \ b tbat tbey cannot have a good crop of oats. Tbm 
gentlemen farmers, ^g^io^ employ aknoft their whole time in 
zearing good black cattle, and lay out their fine araUe ground 
in feeding them ; in confeqaence of which, the cultivation o£ 
grain is very little attended to. All the farmers here plow 
with 4 faorfes^^exeeptiBg a very few, who, having light ploughs,' 
employ only a. The reft make ufe of heavy clumfy ploughs^ 
of their own manufadure. They carry out their manure ia 
fmall creek on horfebaek, and they bring home their peats in 
the fame manner ; whereby much time is* fpent in doing vety 
little work. This is partly owing to the want of good public 
roads ; fot the inhabitants only work at them a days in tho 
year, and the ftatute labour is never commutedi They do 
little or nothing for the reparation of private roads* It is 
much to be wiflied, that the tenants knew the vsdue of good 
roads, and that they would employ carts to manure the 
ground, as they do in the next parilh,. where they have a 
good public road, which is upheld at a fmall expence to titt 
tenants. The people of Killarow are encouraged to improve 
m little in agriculture, by the example of Mr. Campbell of 
Shawfield, who is one of the beft farmers in the weft of Soot«« 
land : And perhaps his Iflay eftate is capable of as much iokm 
provement as any in the kingdom* 

lnclofire^,^^Thete is only a very fmall part of this pariih 
indofed ; and the large parks, that the principal tenants have 
made, are employed for feeding their young black cattle in 
winter. Thefe parks are very feldom, if ever, plowed ; and 
in barveft no beaft is fed in them, as they are kept for winter 
grals. The parifli might eafily be inclofed, for we abound in 
ftones ; and the want of inclofures is feverely felt in this pa« 
ri(b, where we are fo much expofed to every wind that Uows, 


%ti ISiati/iUal Accbuni 

ttod vlicre we lofe fo much griiti in autumn bj (hakitig witfcl^V 
But we want ifumej and the fpirit for agriculture , for if wc 
had a real defirc of improviag our lands^ we might live com* 
fortablfi and be of great ufe to focietj. 

Pro(/ir^^.«— The tenants fow yearly about 18 hogfheads of 
flax'feed ; but the quantity of oatSy barley and poUtoes, that 
mre fown here, cannot be knowo^ beeaufe the farmers feldom 
neafure any thing that they fow. The number of ploagfas 
employed here, is more or lefs, according to the ieafbn. Whes 
we have a great quantity of rain in fpring» which is often the 
cafe, we are obliged 10 employ mc^e ploughs, in order to 
finilb the work of the field early ; for a late hanreft is very 
dangerous in this ifland, where we have fuch a deluge of rain 
in the end of autumn. 

Imporis and Exports. — ^This parifli imports annually meal, 
felty fugar, tea, iron, flazfeed, green hides, and other goods, 
to a confiderable amount. The chief articles exported, are 
black eattle, horfes, and linen yam ; for the women here are 
always employed in fpinning, excepting a few weeks during 

/br^otrr/..— >Tliere are many anchoring places along this 
Ihore, where fmall veffels may be fafe in time of danger. Ope 
of thefe is about 3 miles to the S. W. of the Sound of Iflay, 
and is known by the name of Locb^Knoci. The name is taken 
from a very high hill, which rifes in the figure of a (bgar 
loaf, near the head of the lake or bay, and is the firft part of 
this end df the ifland, that is feen by mariners, when they are at 
n great diftance from the fliore. There are two very large 
flag ftones erefted near this lake. They are placed about 24 


Ibiac (iom eaoh otber, and Aef aTe'CHHed the Two Stones •/ 

J/lmidM^ 4^r^— Theve are tiSo « fiew fmaH iflands on each 

fide of this ^ntiy to the Idee. Strangers fliould therefore be 

ipery dfefiil to keep at a proper diftance from thefe iflands, 

"wlicn near this fliore, -as they are very near the main ifland. 

Xhefe is another aiicboring place, about 3 'miles to the S. W» 

of *Loch-Ki3fbck, which is 'known by the name of Laga^ 

HdhiftlM. There are 3 #ays of comhig to ihis anchoring place, 

iwllich is oppofite to a fmtU villiigei and diey ufually caft 

Mdior near a quay, that Kes below diis village. The entry 

next the maoile, on the W. fide of the bay, is the beft f • The 

Vol. XI. O o church 

* The coiainop tnufitioD conccrainf tKde ^Umes it, that a daughter of one 
of the klflgt of Denmark was buried here, wbofe name was Y«la ; and that 
from her this ifland was called Islat, or Iila; which fcenis to be the moie 
probable, that a Highbinder pronounces both thefe words nearly in the fame 

f On the £• fide of this ^bce khttt Is a tower, or caftle, Vitowii by the name 
of Dmr-iiAOMaAto. This caiUe is bulk on a large roek, which isfutronnded 
^ the fea pD aUiide^ asetpt the N. There are ttlU, ^oa the N., the rcmaias of 
many old hoofes, that had been boilt for barracks and ilorehoufes. Some of the 
cellars, and a baker's boufe, arc ftill Ttfible here. There is a very ftrong wall art 
the W. fide, between the caftle and the barracks ; and the fide walls of a large 
gate aie ftill ftamliBg. This gate is ealkd the Irm Cfate ; and it is reported 
here, that the iart wasfu|ipUcd with water IrQm a fmall river, that mna paft the 
end of the manfe; and that it was tonduAed in pipes, under the fca, acrois tliis 
bay, to the diftance of about half a mile. There is a large (lone ro«-)m on the 
top of the Ibrt ; and here the gun ports are entire. On the N. fide of this room 
there i§ an earthen mound, which is very thick ; and it appears to hare been 
boilt np to the top of the furr, as a kind of defence to that part of the buildiog | 
Ibr the N* is die only piece where an enemy could make an attack on thia fort. 
There is a high hill on the W. fide of the bay, oppofite to this fort, where there 
aras alio a tower, 'for the defence of Don^naomhaig ; and as bi/th places are 
aMfly of chetttiie height, and oaly about the diftance of about a quarter of a 


^ago Statiftkai Acct>9ml 

ehurch now emplojed for public worikip is at tbk phce^ 
and the village contains loo fools. There is, to the W«» 
of this place about a miles, aa ifland, called 7#»a / and, 
on the N. fide, a very good phce for anchoring krge ibips. 
The anchoring is oppofite to an old chapel,^ that is about the 
middle of the ifland. Thofo who are fisaogevs here, fliould 
keep, if poffible, at the diftance of a mile from the W. end 
of this ifland, when they arc going through the found, between 
this and the main ifland, or when they are obliged to caft 
anchor ; as there is a ridge of rocks that lie out frotti the 
W. end, un^ you are on a level with the N. fide of this 
ifland. The £• end of the ifland is £Me from vooks, and the beft 
ground for anchoring is near the fliore. This ifland ib near 
% miles in length, and above ^ mile in breadth. There is 
good pafture in this fmall ifland; and there is a burying- 
pkce around the chapel, the waHs of which are partly 
Handings. Thefe are the remains of other 2 or 3' chapels in 
this parifli, where they were formerly wont to bury thofo 
who were of the popifli religion ; but the whole inhabitants 
of this parifli now belong to the £ft«hliflied Church ; fo that 
there are none now buried at thefe chapels, unlefo when n 
ilranger happens to die here, who is of the Roman Catholie 

Bayi^ and Rod*, Mc^Pl little to the N. W. of this ifland, 
there is a bay, called the Lowdinas^ where many fmall veflfels 
may anchor ; for it is large, and w'ell flickered on all fides but 
the S» The whole of thefe anchoring places are very dan- 

mile fnm each other, it wuen eafjr nutter lo preunt tauiU vdUU bom coeiios 
to this place ; for no vcflcl* that draw above 6 or 7 feet water, can c<ime her* 
at any time. It u faid, that the M^DopaUs of Iflaj lived here about the be- 
ginning of the Uft centuryr There are a great maaf foru and buildiagp 
siib within a Cqw niilei of thi> place. 

geram ibr flnngen to come intOi becaofe «M of rtiem aro for- 
scamitA widi large rock«, chat run along the whole ooaft, and 
in man J places jnt oat into the fea 3 or 4 miles ; «nd fome of 
them are vifiUe, others not* When Grangers are obliged to 
take Aelcer hete from a ftorm^ tb^ ibouldi if pofllble, g^ 
out fome boat from the fhore, thattiiejr may have fome of the 
natnvs of the ttaod to pilot them^hrongh thefe rocks^ and to 
condnA them into the beft ground for anchoring. The in- 
liabitantt here are very ready to perform this fervice to att 
fiffangers, if it lies 10 their power to give ihem .aiBftance* 
There are many other joreeks along this ooaft, into which the 
natives ma wiHi their fmall boats ; bur ftrangers :are in very 
gseat danger, when they venture into any of thofe creeks, be** 
canfe many of them are full of fiink rocks. There is a place 
called Dmn^AiA^ where a Danifli iort was formerly ■ built. 
Ttfe rock on which this fort ftood is very large, and its height, 
from the boctom of the foa, is very extraordinary. The top 
of 'die rock is now covered widi grals ; for there is no ap«i 
peannce of tey building now.semaimog. The wall, on the 
N« fide, is nearly covemd with earth, and the whole N. fide 
is £oe pnflure for fteep. Tbeivs is mora than an acse^f ground 
between theitop and the N* fide of il^ rock. There is a deep 
vaBcy boih on the W« tnd die £• -of this roek; and the 
afcent b fo very fteep on each ^e, that it is alnioft impoffibfe 
for any man to creep up Upon his hands and feet to the 
tap. Nonoadinary gun is foppofied to be capable of carrying 
U ball from dip bottom of this valley ti> the top of dierock^ 

Qoa There 

* It U iaidy that the ool/ wsy of accelt iq» to it was on the iirf edge of 
this greit ^Uey ; and that there waa a cave made here, where a £ew men were 
lad ; who, when they faw any perfon coming near the entry, either lMB them 
hooi the cave, or drove them over the precipice, whereby they were daihcd ta 
f ieces before they reached the botton of thia immenic vallejr. 

agz Statifikal Acfotmi 

Tberd b« pait o£ K wftH j«e (UodiBg*. in a piaot Itet i« ] 
very daogerons to Apfrotf«b» This m41 i» a)K>qC iS fce^ 
thick. The iieay alinoft every daf, deOiea againft it iii a OMift 
tremendiletes maoiier ; fbr this place ia vet jr near Ae MfHe mf 
Clmmn^tMh, and it is the raoA daagaraua pteae in this fuHk 
for an J vtSA ta come near. AU the famnS' rauad thia fort 
hare Dantfii names, fach as KgmAms^ Jljjfbu^ KMmM^ lirrw 
lus^ aad Cragjokut* 

laies, HUbf Sce.^^Thcfe ace 4 lakes in thia codof tliep»« 
riiky and thece are alifb fadie lakes in die High aa^ontaias h^ it ;. but the|i ar^ c£ litde ufe ta the peopk hen» 
v/ho have . alaaoA theiir wfacie fifli from the fta ; only tfaafe 
who* are aear thefe Idtes aaay foobetiiBea eat^ a few trouta 
iathem. The moantaiiibiUi putt of the parilk is Terj cju 
tc0five» and part o€ it it a eofasnon to aH the teaants,. where 
thejr padiire. their ftraog black cattle and hocfea ta ftMUOMC^ 
and a pait of autunm* Some pacta of thafe mountaias aic 
barren apd. wet; hut tfaete iafiBenadfy foil^. where flietp aaigbc 
gnd gaid p^kntt ; and if .a great pttanhcc of them were fed 
here, tl^&gca^ would, gradually becooae betlcr every jear^ 
Thece.arc only a flew fliee^ of airery faaall hiad^ that feed on 
' thefe mounmina, Irana tlieidaie they fow aheir feed till ilia 
%«hole epop ia>g0t ia. 

fVcodsifid Fkii. — The< giaatefk part gf the wood of IfiiQp! 
lies omeaeh fide of Locfa-Knack- llns wood^ adnch coafifia 

of fmall timber of various kiada, extends above a miles alon^ 
the fea. The whole inhabitants have liberty to cnt dowa 
timber, and carry it away at pleafure, out of this wood. Here 
they g&l bark| and wood^ fat their farming utenfits ; and finne 
of t^^.uie the timber for fuel, when they are fcarce of 
, . ^ peats^ 

vrihiob v« the pnacieal £«b1 we have, and ve very 
ylfiDlifvl thi^iigbom all this ifland. 

Pi»)lfi£iih(Mr«Y-»-Tbis parilh containa above 1600 Sbula ; «id 
4»e &maka are move av^rous tkan ebe males, ^ great aumr 
Wf o£ jKHing mem baviag left tbe paviib, aad gene to the Low 
Cou»ti7 fay eaaplp^jiaent : SoBie have (oae te Amerka aii4 
f>Aer places ^ fo thai the nOHibeff of kifaabkaat^ had dtninUh* 
cd mihifii thefe 40 yeais*. There is no regifter kept of the 
Iroxsals. The foll&wiag is a lijCt of the bapufms aad akarriag^i 
























' 3» 








^Dwtl anrcnges 





fl^pif Manner pf Lmng^ dcc.«-^The wages of men far- 
I ate jL Sierfingv befiAes-ibac little advantageff, fiich as 
ground fnc fiowing flax4ieed^ or potatoes. Womea fervanta 
have flboot'the half of that fuos* The Ime of bech is 
dowdiie what it was ao ycais ago ; and theta is aloooft an 
aniual iacfeafe ia dietr wa^. There are very few employ, 
ed by the day; but wbca tbcy avr, tbey get 6d. a day and 
Aeir maimaiaaiice. Tradeikaci^ art generaUy paid to much 
per piece ; but as wm have oa kind of maaufaftare, the num- 
ber of tradefmeu is very few. The poor people who have 


e For the decreaiie 10 thii psrilh, at well a| the total iocrcafe 10 tbc iflsad. 

^94 Statical Jccatmt 

families, fpend much of their timet infprmgv inprepsriag 
fome poutoe land, and in canybg manufe from the (hoca 
on their backs, which thej fprtad on fuch mod land as they 
procure ; for the fea-ware is very abuhdant, and proves good 
manure for mofs ground. The fummer, again, is omplojcd 
in cuttbg their own peats, and the peats of Dhole on whom 
they depend for a houfe, or a oow's graft, or any other ad« 
Tantages they enjoys which are aH paid for in labour of this 
kind. They are alfo fireqnendy employed,' -on fimilar terms, 
iajiarveft, as they get ground forfosring flax-fieed, which 
they pay for, by alfifting the farmers in cutting down Aeir 
barley and oats ; nothing elfe being fown here excepting potn- 
.toes, which is the o^ly fupppxt of the poor. They $Uo catch 
ibme ^y fiih and cod, which they dry, and keep for winter 
provifions ; and they fomjBtimes get a few herrings in the 
winter feafon ; but the herrings aje only4riveu here in fl^oi^wj 
weather, and feldom continue any time. 

Poor.*— The number of thofe who apply to the kiik-feffiou 
for charity, feldom exceeds so, as we have no fund for their 
relief, except what is coUeded on Sabbath in the church, 
which is very trifling. However, the wants of the poor are 
par.tly fqpfiilied by the tenants at their own honfes, wbere 
they give freely what is neceflary for their maintaiaance and 
clothing. The natives are very hofpitaU^ to ftrsngers ; and 
are often impofed upon by vagrant beggars, who are very 
capable of working for their own fupport. Givii^ charity 
to fuch perfons is an encouragement to idleoels and vice, 
which every friend to mankind ought to difconrage, and t^ 
ViAtd the oppofiie virtues of induftry and fobriety. 

Churchy (^f .— The old church walls are entire, though the 
iroof was demoliihed many years sgo. It is about a century 


f^f-KxldaltMl 79^ 

fifiee pubKc wbrflii was performed m it. There is at pr». 
fisnt 00 appearance of any honfe near this ehnrch^ There is^ 
kowever, wi^in the chardi-yard, a* very large cro& % and 
tfiereis another crob on the outfide of the wail that inclofes 
the burying ground ; and both of them have the appearance 
of havug been very long in this place. This church ftands 
in the N. E. end of the parifli, and within a few miles from 
the entry to die Sound of Iflaj. There is alfo^ in the other 
end of the parifli, the remains of an old churohi at a place 
known by the name of KUnaughian. The walls of this kirk 
mre very much decayed ; and in a few years both the kirk 
and the burying ground will be covered over with- fand^ that 
is driven from the ihore in great quantities. There is much 
•f the burying ground already deftroyed; for there is no wall 
or fence around this burying place, and it is veiy difficult to 
fence it, fo as to prevent the fand from blowing over the 
whole chnrch-yardf as it is fonear a ftormyiea. The greateft 
part of the inhabitants are buried in this place. The nearefl: 
fiumt to this is called BaiUe Vicar ^ or the Ficar^s Town ; and 
there is joined to this farm the clerk's fattb^ which is now o£ 
tome value. There is, at the diftance of 4 miles, a farm 
called Baiib Narngbtani and, as that farm is the centre be- 
twete the two kirks, it was judged a proper fituation for the 
ninifter's manfe. Thefe a farms are juftly efteemed the beft 
land in the whole parifli. The church now employed for 
public worfliip was built about 60 years ago, near this lail 
fiirm ; end it is flill a good edifice; only the roof wants fome 
repairs. Public worlhip was performed here before the new 
church was built. Thereis a convenient manfe near this church, 
whidi was built a few years ago, and was lately plaiftered. 
Good office houfes were alfo built within thefe a years. The 
glebe is large, and maintains, through the whole year, la 
cows, and 4 horfea* It produces la Iflay bolls of oat$, 

Z bolls 

ft iwlls of bodlej^ anl 4 kdHs d£ -piolBloes ; ibeSdes theiftofli 
groilnd, that fomt poftr peofde lisve for | jetfs gfstUMf fMt 
pofiatoe fzonndf* Tiie Aipead is naij $dL Stfldiag, ip hich is 
ftU paid bjr the faAor of Iflsj ; a9 the 'Odiole fuiAi Moagi 
to BCr. CMiq^ieli^f StMurfidd. 

^S^ioo/r.*— There heve beea afdheolAouTes Initlt hefe widus 
ihefe 3 years, and both the fcbeolmaders aie hidged Hftdor die 
iame roof, in a hofufe joined Id each of die &haol-hoidea. 
'the one is the parochial Hohocil, and the other a charity fchooL 
Befides thefc, we foiaelintts have other a fAotA^ at the taopt 
diftant comers of this large parilh ; and there is great need of 
Ihean aU die year, if k wese poffibte to ftt]qiort the teacbera. 

PecmMar Privilege^ aud €on/ejuenciSs*^This ifland hoth « 
liberty of brewing Tehiikj, without heiag under the neoeffit j 
«f paying the pfoal exctle doty to govemaieot* We have 
net an cxcife oAcer in the whok iflaad« The quanlaty these-* 
foie of -whi&y made here » very great ; and the evil, itat 
foUows drinking to eiccefs of this li^uori is Very vifibk in 
this ifiand. This is one chief canfe of onr poverty; for the' 
barley, that ibould fuppott the £nnily of the poor tenant* ia 
fold to a brevrer for i7s« the boll ; and the Unne fisnner m 
«fken obliged to boy nseal at il. js. Sterling, in order to keep 
Ilia family from ftarving. When a brewer knofws that a 
poor man is at a lofs for money, he advances Jum a trifle, on 
condition that he makes him fore of his bscrky at the above 
price ; and it is often boaght by the brewers even, at a lower 
fate ; whiie thofe who aire not obliged to alk aaoney until they 


t These U a ^ny Urge qvantit/ of mois land in this illi&d, that tmghi eafily 
be improvedi if the poor people had it for 1 or 3 yemc», rent free, they might 
iiipport their own iiumlicti and be of grcaffcrvlce to the tenants whofb lands' 
arc cultivated. 

of Ktldaltdm igy 

Oliver iheir bsfrle/, receive 26s. 6r more for ilf. This evil, 
of <fiftiUiog as much h^tjts might itokintain mahy families, 
it i^ hoped, hj fome means or other, will be foon aboliihed* 
It nlaj take fome time, however, to prevent the people from 
drinking to excefs ; for bad habits alt not eafiiy otercome ; 
but there wooM furelj be fome hopet of a gradual reforma- 
tion,* if fpiritotts li<juors were nOt fo abundant^ and fo eafily 

Vol. XI. ?p KUMBEIt 

2^ Stati/lical Account 



(fioitniy and Synod •/ Argyll— Frejbytiry ef Ktntyre.y 

Bf the Riv. Mr. JoHK Murdoch* Mimfltr. 

Origin 9f the Nanus. 

ISLAY is tntditionallj derived from Isla, daughter of oae 
of the kings of LochIia» or Norway, who lies buried im 
a neighboaring farm. Killahrow took its name from St. 
Marrow, whofe cell or burying place was in the parifli : And 
KiLMEKT has doubflefs had a fimilar derivation. Killarrow 
is now frequently called Bowmore ; the old church at Killar- 
row having been thrown down, and the piefent church built 
at the village of Bowmore. 

Extent, Surface, Rivers, Tijb, &c — The parifli of Bow- 
more is of great extent, being 17 or 1 8 computed miles long, 
and 8 broad. Th6 lands are generally low ; the hilb arc not 
very high, nor rocky, but covered with heath and fern. The 


of KHlarrow und Kilmenj^ 299 

tiver ^huggan^ where there is a falmon fi(hing, is one oT the 
largeft in the diftrift, emptying itfelf into a baj of the fame 
name» in the S. corner of the pariih. The rtver of Kiffarrow 
runs a great waj in the coantrj, and empties itfcif into the 
bay or harbour of Lochendaal, which harbour runs from the 
Mull of Klaj and the Hunn's Point, about za miles, to Shaw- 
field's pleafure grounds. It is an^xcellent harbour for ihippingt 
ta ver y much reforted to, and of late more than ever ;. as the 
proprietor has lately built a fiue quay at the village of Bow« 
more, which will contain many veflels from 8 to xo feetwa* 
ten The harbour abounds with all forts of fi(h ; and, in good 
weather, the inhabitants, with fmall boats, fupply themfelvea 
abundantly. Salmon fells at i^d. per pound; when deareft^ 
at ad. per pound. As every farm round Lochendasd has a 
boat of its own, fi(h are in no great demand, nor is 4ere a 
market conventent*^ 

Sb//, Produce and Cultivation^ iSc.^-Tht foil varies in moft 
of the farms. The farmers plow too much ground. The 
average produce of oats is, from 3 to 4 returns, of barley from 
4 to 5; but where marl and lime, or ibell fand, are eafily 
obtained, and the lands are drained, the increafe is much 
greater. Mr. Campbell has improved large trafts of moor 
ground, within view of his own houfe, which lies about 3 
Eaglifii miles from the vfllage ; and, from his method of cul- 
tivation, they have produced large crops. He fpares neither 
pains nor expence; and in this refpeft feveral of his te« 
nants attempt to imitate him. It is computed that he lays 

P p a out 

* JKboot ao iMsrs ago, foiae gendemeti adveatiirers (rom Liveifoal, fitce4 
oat 3 finacki, with wells, and caught great quantities of cod and ling at tha 
Bmd Lsmdit which fupplicd the Liverpool markeu abundantly; bnt^ ihe bad<«oa» 
dod of the periea» ca^Ioyed obliged tham to give it t^. 

300 StaHftical Account 

out jtwAj from 700!. to zoool. pej annom upoa impTMr^. 
meats, though his ftsjr here be hut a or 3 mouths ia Am 
jear. X)at9 «rt fown from xhp middle of Marcl^ to the middle 
of Ap^'U '^^ barlej iya April and lif ay^ as well as the Aaxp» 
ieed» of yrhidi the people of this ifland iow f ao hogihead^ 
(new fkpi) auouallj ^ befides what i« reared in the cooutry, 
.the vali^ of which, m the year, may amount to aoocd. 
There is a great 4^al of lioeo clQth manufa^red for homo 
coiifumption, and fome for (ale. The harve^ is as early ia 
Iflay, as in the aeighhourhood of Glf%ow 

CHmqie^ |fc.-*^The air is generally ipoift, froo^ its lop4 iitu* 
jation, being fijinounded by th^ fea, an/d haying pp i)ielter from 
the ftorms of |he Atlantic Ocean, neai]er than North America^ 
1J^^J is the moft wedem part of Scotland, The prevailing 
winds are the W. and $• W. The feafpns of late \^^vt pfaanged 
to the diCMlyantage. The 2 laft years we had little or no 
froft or fpring ; foretimes the tops of the trees were covered^ 
The rains and high wti^ds \n the fuc^jseding fumnoers, hurt 
the crops, which obliged the inhabitants to import meal % 
whereas, in former years, they ufed to export lar|(e quantities 
to other macketp. 

Co/fiSf— There Ut tifici; a year, a in^rket for black cattle i 
%o which drovers frpm the main land always refort, and buy 
up great nufubeirs. The cattle are of an excellent ijuality, 
aud dff w high prices. 

ff^buifm^'^lStom % Ifat^ furvey, th^ number of fouls ii| 


^ Klllarrow and Klltneny. 301 

KiUarroWy including thofe in the village, amount to • 2^00 
Tiiere ate in Eiimtojr about .««.«- aooo 

^ 4500 

The return to Dr. Webfter, in 1755, was only • 1761 

^ence there is an incr-eafe tS, « ^739 

Indeed xhe whole population of lilaj has inpreafed greatlj 
within thefe 40 jears f , owing principally to the ten^Qt^, who 
are in poffeflion of large farms, dividing their ppiTeffiona 
among their children, wh^h encourage^ marriage* Some, 
however, who are reduced in their circumfliances, are obliged 
ito emigr:%te« 

V^Ilagf.'^The village of Bqwmore was beguu in the year 
17 68, and laid out on a regular plan. By order of the pro- 
prietor, the new church was built at the end of one of the 
principal fireets, in a very elegant manoeri and iipon a new 
plan» It is ornatmen^ed with afteeple, fronting thequay, bui}c 
from tbe^ foundation with freed one* It coil about xoooL 
There are already no houfes built in the village, 50 of which 
aire covered with blue flates, 20 with tiles, and the reft are 
thatched. The inhabitants are increafing. The number at 
prefect ((793)9 of o]4 and young, is al^oiit 500, 

Church f School^ and Poor*— Befides the new church in Bow« 
more above mentioned, there is another in the parifh of Eal« 
meny, 7 miles diflant. The value of the livings is but fmall, 
and, including the glebe and manfe, not worth above foL 
a year. J^e King is patron.— There is only one charity 
ichool in both the pariihes, though the people are fond of be« 
^ng ioftroded. — ^The poor of both pariihes are not very nii» 


i For the par^cabn of t^e total lacreafe, fie |piCBOiCAV| page 279. 

302 Statiftical Account 

■lerous* Sach as are able to travel from door to door avo 
trell fapplied ; fuch as are coafiaed are affifted bom. the col- 
iediona on Sundays, and fome little fonds in the poor's box* 

Roads amd jBrft(f n •— The roads in Iflaj are carried on to 
great perfeftion* Thofe already finiflied are excellent^ parti* 
cularly from the Sound of Iflay to Bowmore, a diftance of 
al>out ta miles, wherein there are 7 bridges, built with ftonc 
ai>d lime* The reft of the roads go on in courfe; and, in Ids 
than 20 years, they may be all travelled with carriages. 

Minerals. — ^There is plenty of lime*l(one and marl, which, 
when the roads now making by the proprietor are finiJbed, 
will be the means of improving large trafis of land, ftill in 
a ftarte of nature, but very capable of improvement. 

CbaraBer of Ae Pfo//r.— The inhabitants are moftly na- 
tives of the ifland, and all belong to the Efiablifhed Church. 
They are hofpitable, generous, and humane ; and, like all 
iflanders, attached to their country. 


^ Edcnbam^ ^03 



{Qwnty of Roxhurgln^PreJbytery of Ketfo^^Synoi of Mtrfi 
and T'ivioidaiiJ) 

By the Rev, Mr. Datid Dickson, Minifter. 

Namif Situation^ ami Rivers, 

THIS parlih derives its name from a compound of < Edem 
and Ham; being fituated on the banks of the river Edett^ 
and Ham fignifjing a village. The vUlage, where the church 
fiands, is built on the N. bank of the river Eden^ which 
runs for more than 3 miles through this diflrifi, and joint 
the Tweed at Edenmouth. The pariih is placed in one of the 
mod delightful fituations in' Scotlandf on the banks of the 
river Tweed. This beautiful river, after being joined by the 
Tiviot at Kelfo, bounds the pariih of Edenham, about a mile 
below it« OB the S. and S. £• The pariih is not quite a mile 
and a half diftant from the Engliih border, at the bum of 
Carham, on the oppofite fide of the Tweed, formerlj well 
known by the name of the March Burum 


564 StAtlfllcal Account 

Extent and Climate. — In extent, it is about 3 miles broad, 
end rather foine what more in length. The elimate of Edenham, 
from its fitaation 00 the two rivers, is undoubtedlj falabri- 
oas ; yet, firce the prefent incumbent was fettled, it has been 
viiited by different epidemical fevers, that fometimes proved 

Cultivation, Surfaeti Hills, Soil^ He. — Agriculture is carried 
on to a great extent in this pari(h. The indnftrj and &£tivity 
of the farmers cannot be exceeded, and they are all opqjent and 
profperoos. The furface of the grounds confifls of feme beauti^ 
f ul flats in many ; laces, efpecially on the fides of the rivers Tweed 
and Eden. The parifh contains alfo fe«^eral fields, lying on in* 
clined plains. There are ttvorifing grounds, one on theN. fide 
of the Eden, near the village, called Edenham Hill^ and another 
between the Tweed and the Eden, called Henderjide Hill. 
The height of neither is great, though not afcertaincd ; but 
they are both highly cultivated. The foil is of various kinds : 
Some part of it ftrong clay, fome of it light fand and channel^ 
and fome of it a mixture of both. In a few places there is a 
thin bed of mofs, covering rich ftores of marl. The marl has 
been dug for manure, at confiderable expence, and it has been 
attended with great luccefs. Burned ]ime*flone is brought 
in great quantities from Northumberland, at the dlflance of 
17 or 18 miles. 

Prodnce and Tarm Rents — ^The ground produces wheat, 
barley, peafe and beans, and oats, all of the bed quality, 
Wbich can fcatccly be exceeded in any part of Scotland. It 
produces aMb turnips, and broad clover, in abundance ; and the 
paftnre land is of the richeft kind. Land rent is confequent- 
]y high in price : 3!. an acre has been given here both for 


of Edcnbanu 305 

•nbk aod paftore laad^ and inferior prices acoordiag to 
the qualitj. 

CattU and fW/.— -The £irmers confider the land as too good 
for breeding cattle or Iheepv and therefore few are reared ia 
the pari(h : The fheep and cattle are moftlj all bought in, and 
fed for the butcher to great valtte. Fuel is ▼exy expenfive, as 
there are no coals, but "what are brought from Northumber- 
land, at the diilance of x 6 or x 8 miles. 

Po/si&/fOff-— The number of inhabitaata has laereafed con- 
fiderablj within thele 40 years* 

The pre&nt number of fouls is about « « . tfoo 
The return to Dr. Wehfter, in X 755, was onljr - - 387 

Increafej^ « « 113 

The number of births, burials, and marriages is not eafily 
albertained* Seceders, though obliged bj law to regifter the 
births of their children ia the parifh regifter^ confider the tax 
on baptilms as a profauaiiQn^ and often negleft it on that ac-i 
count; though afterwards it may be prejudicial to their 
children. And marriages are often made fo irregularly, by 
perfons not legally qualified, that thofe, who belong to tho 
SeceiSon, do not willingly fubmit to the difcipline of the^ 

Improvements and ManufaBuret^ &c.— The population of 
this parifli has not, however, increafed in proportion to what 
It once promified. When the late James Dicksok^ £{q. M. P. 
became proprietor of Edenham, being a perfon of public 
fpirit, he indofed all his lands, planned and built a neat tH* 
lage, the boufes being all of brick, covered with pantiU^ or 
ilaies ^---^brought manufaOurers from England, and efta« 

VouXI. 0^4 W>^^* 

3o6 Statiftical Account 

bliibed yrooUen miioufadares for cloth» particulau-Ij for Eng« 
liih blankets. He alfo erefied a waulk mill, to promote 
this ufcful undertaking \ but his death marred the pro^refs of 
thofe public fpirited fchemea. He built alfo an extenfivo 
brewcrj, which i^ ftill carried on with great fuccefs ; and 
great quantities o( the ale and porter, brewed in it, are export- 
ed to England. We have likewife a corn mill and a good 
bleacbfield in the parifh. 

i?oai2r.-*-The roads are verj- bad. They are repaired bj a con^ 
▼erfion of the flatute labour. Lail winter, however, (i 79 2-3)9 
an a£l of parliament was obtained for making feveral roads 
near Kelfo, and eftablifhing toU-bars. Bj this ad, three new 
roads will be made through thb parifli, which will be of great 
ftrvice in this part of the country, where they have been mucl^ 
wanted for thcfe many years paft* 

C&iirtf&.— The church is very fmall, was built about 3^ 
years ago, and is very infufficient. There are fome Quaker^ 
and Epifcopals, but no Roman Catholics* The number ctf 
Seceders is not eafily afcertained, as aU (he denominations of 
them have hoiifes of worfliip in Kelfo, and Edenham lies fp 
near it, that many of the inhabitants attend thefe meetings ; but 
aU the principal farmers attend the Efiabliflied Church. The 
King is undoubted patron* 

Heritors and Ppor.-p-Thc number of heritors are four. As 
none of them refide in theparifli, the coUedions at the church 
doors are but trifling ; in confequence of which the poor are 
obliged to be maintained by afieflmentSi regularly laid on fpr 
thpir fupport. 


of Edcnbatn. 307. 

Eminent Men* — Mr. James THoMsoir» the celebrated author 
bf the Seq/bns, gcc. was the fon of the reverend Mr. Thomas 
Thomfon, the fecoiid mimfter of this p<iriih after the Revolu- 
tion, and was born at Edenhami in the year 1700. It is un- 
neceffarj here to enlarge upon the merits of an author fo well 
known, and whofe genius and abilities do Co much honour to 
his native Country. A p^pofal ^as mstd^, fome years ago, 
to ereft a monument to his 'memory, on Edenham Hill, with- 
hx view of the mahfe; biit the plan has not yet been accdn- 
pllflied. Several noblemen and gentlemen, however, with a 
laudable zeal for the literary fame of their country, have met 
annually at Edenham, for fome years paft, to celebrate Thom- 
fon's birth day, as well as with a view to forward the execu- 
tion of that defign; 

jfHtiquitiesi — ^Tbere is a fmall riling ground, W. from the 
▼illagt, called the PiUs Kn6w ; out of which, fome years ago, 
tvere dug three ftone coffins, with an urn in one of them. The 
Know is fince inclofed, and planted with ttees^. 

QJii NtlM. 

* A £uiii in this parilh it aamed C«ii^/itf, which feemt to be io calleif from it^ 
comaifUDg eitenfive earthen mounds, called Cami'inow*, At» before the union of 
tiic kingdoms, this was the warlike part of the country, thefe ttttnuU tUm to 
izrt bedta mifed by art, as meazis of defence. 

^oS Stati/iical Account 


{C*iMty andprtjbyttry ofKiricudi)rigit—^jii»do/Gmikviay^ 

By the Rev4 Mr. Wbluam Thouvrh. 

Kttunwn and Exieni* 

GIRTHON lies 9hout 6 mSLtn N. W. of the bufgh of 
Kirkcudbright* It no where aflumes a regular figure. 
The extent from N. to S. is about ao miles; and the breadth, 
from £. to W., from 3 to 5. 

Soil and SmfaCij^^thxSt are extremely varied. For 
about 10 mjles from its northern, and all along its eafiem 
boundary, it is bleak, unequal, hill j, and covered with heath. 
For xo miks to the S., within a mile of the Fket^ it prefent» 
a beautiful level furface, which yields grain and grafs of aa 
excellent quality. Except the extenfive wood of Cafiramoni^ 
there is little natural wood ; though the foil feems higklj 
favourable for rearing tsees of overy fpeoies« 


ofCirthoi/. ^6§ 

Ctimati. —The air and climate vary with the (oil and tvit* 

face. In Che high lands, and to the £• aUd N.» they are coUl 

mod ttaplea£uit : la the low lands, and towards the S., they 

are mild and agreeable. Though die frequent rains rendc^ 

tlie foil there rather moid ; yet, from its being defended wit& 

the hiUa and high lands, ezpofed to the fun, and opea to the 

fea breezes, the atmofphere which covers it, is, in general, purd 

mnd healthy* The di&afes, which appear here, are in ao re« 

fpeft pecalian They are fuch as afflift the inhabitants €^ aU 

the foothera diftri£U of Scotland. 

CtthmUkm^ jSaimab, Futl^ t/^.—- The fyftem of agriculture 
is the ikme here, that is generally adopted by all who cultivate 
knd near the fea coail*. The horfes are mdlly bred by the 
farmers. The eows are of the well known Galloway breed. 
The iheep arc af the fmall aioor kind.— ^various forts of game 
and wild animals are found here : Groufe, Uack-cocks, par-^ 
tndges, hares, nbWts, woodcocks, badgers, foxes and pole«< 
cat!.* Peats, the fuel nfed by the farmers and cottars, are 
dear, owing to the diflance of the mofies, aiid the bad roads 
Ivhich lead to them. 

Rivers^ Fifty and Latti. — The Fint^ which bounds this pa« 
iifli to the W* is a beautiful winding river, and difembogues 
itfolf into Wigton Bay. There is a falmon fifhing belonging 
to it, now oT littfe value ; owing probably to the lime import- 
ed, and to a foap houfo lately ereAed on its banks. The 
lakes are, Locb» Fleets the fource <^ the river, abounding 
withtrouts: Loch^Sctro^ abounding with pike: Locb^Grun^ 
itoHi, about 3 miks long^ and, in fome places, i mile broad, 


*For a deffiri^ion of flw laptaaeau of hvibaodry, nuioiin, csopi^ lice. » 
TCferwce it nude to the ft>tiftk«l accoiintt of the oeighbouriof piriihci ; pwtW 
•akrlj, ^Mm WU.,111 and IV. y iMr ^Wkfr#. 

j i o Siatifiical Account 

tcmatkaUe for its vaft numbers of charr, a fpecks of fiflr rar^ 
in Scotland: aifd LochWbifmyamt aboondiog with troats« 
This lake* it deferves notice, fumilhes the cotton mills at 
Gatehoufe with a copious ftreafm of wuter ; the courfe for 
conveying which from the lake, was cuit a long way throngbr 
a hill, at the expence of above xaooL 

Prepruior\ Maftfion^Himfe^ Sec. — The whole parifh is the 
property of James Murray, Efq, of Brougbton, whofe man- 
iiott-houfe, Catty, flands about an £ngli(h mile below Gate- 
houfe, at a fmall diftance from the borders of the Fleet. The 
fituation is extremely plealant. The houfe is modem, and 
amongft the largeft, and moft princely, in the fouth of Scot* 
land. The place ia laid out on an extenfive fcale. About 
looo acres are in planting, gardens, orchards, and pleafure-^ 
grounds* The gardens were made at a great expence, and 
have eqiialled the proprietor's expeftatioas. Befides the com* 
jnon fruits, they yield apricots, figs, grapes, and nefiarines^ 
equal to any in the hot-houfes of this country* There is alfo 
a deer park, well ftocked ; the venifon of which is reckoaed 
equal, if not fuperior to any ia Britain* 

Rita, Ltafes^ Strvituies, \ic. — ^The total valuation of the 
pariih, in the cefs-book, is 3181L 3s. 6d* Scotch, or 2731* 8?* 
7 Id* Sterling. The prefent rent is about 3500I., including a 
moderate average rent for the lands not in leafe* The leafcs 
arc generally given for 19 years. The greater part of the 
moor lands are let by the lump : The low lands bring about 
IDS* per acre : The fields, near Gatehoufe, from il. to al. 
The opprefiive practice of thirlage prevails, and hurts their 
lands. The barony of Caftramont is thirled to the mill of 
Kelleren, in the parifh of Anwoth } and the barony of Cally 
to the tnill of Burby, in this parilh. The proprietor has eon- 



ef Glrtbon. ^i% 

fderablj leifened the multares of the mill oti his own eftate^ 
to the no fmall enconragementof its agricalture. The cotton 
works eftablifhed at Gatehoufe, have much advanced the 
inrage^ of &rm fervants. 

Population. — ^As no regular regifter has been kept, the an* 
.cient ftate pf the population cannot be afcertaiaed precifely^ 
From Dr. Webfter's report, however, we are certain, that it 
has increafed greatly within thefe 40 years, even excluding 
the vaft addition made to it, by the new village of Gatehoufe« 
The reft of the pari(h at prefent (1792)1 contains^ 

Males, - %%!'% Weavers, . * • • 9 

FenuijMp - 199$ Total, -580 hoopers, - - - . i 

Tht retnni in 1755, was • '367 Millers, - . . - | 

■ ' ■ Dyer and apprentices. - - 4 

Increafe, - aJ3 Joiner and ditto, - • • 4 

When to this is added the nnra* Farmer^ about - » • 200 

l^r of Ibpb in G?tchotti)e, - S15Q 

The toul increafe is 1363 

Church and Poor.— The living, every thing included, ts 
about i2oI. yearly. The manfe was built a conliderable time 
ago, and is in a very uncomfortable ftate. The church is 
fnaall, and, from its fituation, extremely inconvenient for the 
bulk of the inhabitants. The weekly coUeftions, fines for 
irregularities, &c. amount to about ijl. a year. Paupers, to 
the number of 10, are affifted therewith. 

Gtnerat Chara£ier. — Six M'Millanites excepted, the tenants 
and cottagers are all Prefltyterians. Much praife is due to 
their religious and moral conduft. A circulation of good 


jl f Stati/Hcal Account 

ioflces takes place amongft tbem: Thej are orndid, fober^ aal 
isduftrious : They afied no parade of fanAitj : Thej have 
nothing of ah indtfcreet, or intokrant zeal : Firm to the re» 
ligion of their countrj^ ^* thej meddle not with thi^e that arf 
•• giyen to change.** 


Siimiion and Origm.^'SthiB neat.aad beantifnllj fituatcd 
village ftands to the S. W. |of the pari(h» on the banks of the 
Fleet. Its Increafe has jbeen rapid. Though the firft honfe 
in it was built as an inn, not aSove 30 years ago, it now con« 
tains upwards of 160 houfes, aqd iZ5oinhabitant|». The cot^ 
ton works, which have fwelled it to its prefent file and popu* 
lation, promife fodn to give it a rank among the towns di& 
tinguiibed for induftry and comnierp^. 

Hottfes^ Rents, i/r.— ^The village is )ield in fea £rom Mrt 
Murray. The ground fteads^ of 30 feet in fipont, 150 back» 
for a kitchen garden, paid, till within thefe few years, only 
IS. annual feu-duty each. Since that period, they pay at the 
rate of 3d. per foot in front, with 150 back. The bonfes are 
built of brick, or of whin-ftone, and are moftly 2 flories high. 
Owing to the vaft influx of inhabiunts, they l>ri^g ^ S^^% 
rent. A houfe of 3 ftories, with but indifferent convenience 
and accommodation, will let fo high as 30L yearly. The 
village is divided into 3 ftreets, which rife parallel frqm th^ 
river. It is well watered, and allowed to be by far the plea- 
fanteft in Galloway. Though its induflry has kept it as yet 
quiet, a burgh police is certainly neceffary for the cftabliihing 
and perpetuating good order. It is matter of pleafute to the 
inhabitants, that the fuperior has fignified, that his attention 
ihall fbon be turned to this important obje6l. It deferves re- 

of Girtboni 313 

fidark, that there is not a lamp«poll in anj of its (Ireets. This, 
vrith many other difadvantages, would be attended te, and 
remedied, by feveral refpeftaUe inhabitaatSi if « they were in- 
veiled with any external authority. 

/o«y Road^ ^r.— *Belides a good inn, there are about 15 
Koufes in which fpiritous liquor^ are fold. The road, betwixt 
JDumfries and Portpatrick, runs through this village, andmakes 
its principal inn well frequented. Two miiil coaches arrive 
here, at 7 o'clock every morning, one from Carlifle, the other 
ixom Portpatrick. 

Bank, Commerce^ Shippings y^.— A. Branch of the Paifley 
Union Bank was lately eftabliflied here, ahd tranfafis bufineCi 
to a confiderable amount.-.-The right of a weekly market, 
-which the village charter gives, has not yet been ufed. The 
beft frequented markets are, for eight focceffive Fridays, after 
the firft Friday of winter \ and at fom^ of thefe there is a con- 
fiderable ihow of black cattle*. &!veral vefiels, of 80 tens and 
under, belong to this port. They trade chiefly to the weft of 
Scotland, and to the north of England. One of them trades 
conftantly to London. The commodities imported are, ale, 
porter, wine, grocery goods, raw hides, tallow, timber, lime, 
cotton wool, coals, &c. Cotton xnanu&&ureSf' tanned leather, 
^^Pf g^iOf potatoes, &c. are exported. 

JldKaiuy/^^arrei.— Many branches of commerce thrive in 

Gatehoufe. It has a tannery and foapery, both carried on to 

Vol. XI. R r a 

* Butcher meat is in general to be got here. Beef, mutton, veal, and pork, fell 
from 3 id. to 4id. the pound ; butter, at 6d. the pound ; Scotch checfe, at 3d. 
the poBttd : The pound to all it x6 os. Meal it from t^ 7d. t^ as. the ftone. 

314 Statijiical Account 

ft good extent. But its indutlry is principally directed fo tb€ 
manufaSuring of cotton wool. Befides about 50 mules and 
jennies, managed bj private hands, it has 4 milb in conftaifC 
employment ; and will probably have 3 more in a (hort time. 
Of thofe built, the 2 largeft are twift mills ; the 2 others are 
mule mills. The mule mills are 3 (lories high, 70 feet by 20 ; 
have about 130 mules each, which give employment to up^- 
wards of 100 labourers. The largeft of the twift mills is 4 
ftories high, 110 feet by 30; and employs about. 300 labour- 
ers. The other twift mill is 3 ftories high, 84 feet by 32 ; 
and is not yet completely fet agoing. There is alfo a cotton 
fadory, in which are wove muflios, and other cottonsi of neat 
patterns and good fabric *. 

Fuel. — Coals are the general fuel here. They are imported 
from Whitehaven, Newcaftle, &c. and run from 30s. to 40s. 
the ton. Notwithftanding the extravagant price of this necef* 
fary article, the inhabitants are often in abfolute want. This 
tends to hurt the manufaAures, as it caufes many of the la- 
bourers to remove ; and will, when known, prevent ftrangers 
from fettling;. Employers would therefore confult their own 
intereft, would they adopt fomc method of fuppljing their 
workmen conftantly, and upon as moderate terms as poffiblc. 
The duty upcn coals was a frequent, and juft caufc of com- 
plaint, which, fmcc the commencement of this account^ has 
been hap^jily removed. 


« The cotton workcri arc paid, fdme by the day, othen by the poond, others 
by tl.c piece. A picker will earn I8. prr day ; a carder is. 2d, ; a fpinncr 
as. 6d. One male, houfc, or fama fcrvant, has from 7I, to 9I a year; a female 
diti > from 3I. to 4I. Mal.ns and carpenters have from is. 6d. to as. per day, 
without meat ; mjI^js 8d. per day, with mea't. Shoemakers, weavers, &c. ajQK 
paid according to tlic ^uauti:/ and quality of their work, 

of Girtbon, 


SchooL^^Thert is one fchool here, very well endowed. It 
is fubjed of regrety however, that fo large a pariih has only 
oii«. Xhis is a great difadvantage to the farmery and cottagers 
ohildren, who cannot travel as far as Gatehoufe. . What de- 
ferves commendation is^ that the fchoolmafter has, though 
urith little encourage oent, opened a Sunday fchool, for the in- 
ftruftion of fuch children as are obliged, from the ftrattened 
circumftances of their parents, to attend the cotton mills dur- 
ing the reft of the week. 

Population and fw/ZoyOTf/ir/.— At Whitfunday 1792, th« 
nunaber and profeiBons of the inhabitants of the village itood 
as follows ; ^ 


Souls, * 

ExciTemeD, • 
loflkeepers and 
whilky fellers, 

549 Carriers, • - a 

60 X Soap-boilers, • % 

— ChaiTc-dnvers, - 3 

ZZiO Slaters,. - - a 

X Founders, • ' % 

Q. Saddler, • - Z 

X Gfover, - - I 

4 Butchers, - - 4 

3 Barber, - - I 
X3 Stocking- weavers, - % 

Mafotts*, - %4 

- 13 Turners, - - 5 

4 Joiners, - - ^4 

Ditto, female, 
Ditto, employed in 

the cotton manu- 

People employed in 

the cotton works, 

in general, above 500 


- 4 




CbaraSier and Manmrs. — As the mixture, of which the 
population of Gatchoufe is compofcd, has, as yet, affumcd no 

R r a uniform 

• Among thcfe, aod aU the foUowiogprofeflioni, joorneymen vd apprenticci 
arc included. 

31$ Sfati/ikal Account 

uniform or regular appearance, general lineaments cannot be 
given of its charafter and manners. This, however, may be 
fafelj afferted, of the inhabitants, that tbej are attentive, and 
iadnftrious. The greater part of them are Freib jterians ; 
And even thofe of them who belong to the Church of Eng- 
land, whofe moral conduft is (bber and orderly (having no 
minifler of their own communion), regularly attend the efta* 
Uifhed place of worihip ; receive the (acramencs as difpenfed 
by the Church of Scotland ; walk by its rules, and fubmit 
peaceably to its difcipline. 


of Oxnam^ 317 



(fio9My of Roxhurgb^-'PreJbytery of JeSurgb — Synod of 
Mtrfe an4 iiviotdakJ) 

fy the Rev. Mr. John Hunter, Minifies 
[with a map of the parish.] 

Origin of the Name^ \Sc. 

IN all ancient writings, the name of this pari/h is fpelled 
Oxenham, whereof the prefent mode of fpelling it is 
an abbreviation. Several names in the. parifh are evident! j 
taken from animals, and mod probably from thofe, for which 
the various places have been moft eminent : As Hindbope^ 
from hind, where there had been a foreft ; Swinjide^ from 
fwine, one of thefe having been kept in many places bj every 
cottager ; Stotjield^ from flot, a young bullock ; Oxenbam, 
from oxen and ham, which, in the Saxon language, fignifies a 
hamlet or village. The names of many other places defcribe 
and ezprefs their local fituations, and other concomitant cir- 
cumftancet. Thus, MiUbeugb, the heugh by the mill \ Mofs^ 
bum/ordf through which the burn from Scraefburgh Mufs 


3 1 5 Statlflical Account 

runs, and where paffengers crofs the water of ^ed; Bloody^ 
laWSf a riiing ground, where much blood was £bed bj the 
licentious Borderers ; Pear/laws^ another rifing ground, where 
perhaps there had been an orchard ; Sec. Plenderleitb^ Rtc-- 
ca/ton, and Dolphijlon^ are moil probably the names of their 
original projirietors. 

Form, Extent, and General Appearance, ^^TYi^ figure of the 
parifli bears a (Iriking refemblance to that of Scotland. The 
greateft length, from the head of Coquet water, on the £ng- 
lilh border, in a line by Swinfide, to Capehope, a farm ilead 
on the N. point of the pariifa, in a direction N. W. f N., is 
9f Englifti miles ; the greatell breadth, in a perpendicular di« 
le&ion, from Kaimburnfoot, on the W., in a line bjSwinfide, 
to Conzierton march on the £„ is 4f Englilh miles \ on the 
N. it runs nearly to a point ; and about ii miles from the S. 
end,, it is only 2 miles broad. The general complexion is 
rather bleak, interfperfed with beautiiul green hills, fertile 
fields, and dark heath ; and almoft uninclofed. But though 
it is hilly, yet there are no hills of very confiderable magnitude. 

Climate, Soil, and Difeafes. — The country is damp, and 
the air often moid, by rains from all diredions, and in parti- 
cular from the £. The rains ariiing out of Solway Frith, on 
the S., are condu£ted, as it were, along the vale of Liddif- 
dale, and frequently fall in great quantities on the adjoining 
fells, whilft they fcarcely touch this parifli. The foil is vari- 
ous, admitting both the amufements of pafturage, and the la- 
bours of agriculture. At the fame time, the agreeable inter- 
change of hill, dale, and ftreams of water, gives a vibration to. 
the air which renders it healthy, and free from agues. Certain 
it is, however, that rheumatifms, confumptions, and nervou& 
fevers are pretty frequent. 


'■'■'■■■' '■■'■ n- 

pa t 


Statiftical Account 

gronfe. The woodcock, and fieldfare appear in the beginning 
of Odobcr, and remain during winter. The curlew, the greea. 
and the grej plover, come in March, breed in the moors, and 
go in the latter end of harveft. The cuckoo, fwallow, dottrel, 
and land and water rail, appear in Maj, hatch their youngy 
and then dilappear* 

Population. — The population of Oxnam h^s decreafed with- 
in thefe 40 years f. 

The return to Dr. Webfter, in the year 1755, was - 760 
Theprefent number of inhabitants (April 1793), is « 690 



Population Table of 

the Parijb of OXNAM. 


N* Tot. 

Emflotments, &c. Tot* 

Under so years of age, - 


Refident heritors. 


From zo to ao, 


Mininer of the parifli. 


aoto 30, 


Students io divinity. 


30 to 40, 



40 to 50, 




50 to 60, 




60 to 70, 











Day labourers. 



Male labouring ferrants, - 



Female ditto. 








In their fabiilies. 






In their families, 


Widowers and widows, - 


Wives, children and friends 



of tradeiincn, cottagers. 



&c. - . 





— 690 

t This decreafe of the popalation has been chieflf occalioned by the monopoly 


of Oxnam. 32 1 

« V . •• • 1 . . ^ 

HiTchge of births*, for the laft ro years, - «• • 15 

!■■ marriages, . . - . - - • *• • 5 

— — produce of each t> - - - " • 7 

■ of deaths |, - - - - --6 

Villages. — OxKAM was once large and populous ; but, at 
prefont^ there are hardly cottagers in it fufficient for the pro- 
per culture of the land,' and only 4 tradefmen. NewSiggin^ 
has been pofTefTed by pdrtioners, wha bold of the Marquis 
6£ LothiaOff fince 161 i. The fote property of it, how- 
ever, falls to his Lordfliip' at Martinnfias 18159 according to 
the decifioix of Lord Juftice Clejk, to whom it was referred 
}ry both pardesJ Swinfide^ Dolphi/lon^ and Mofsburnfird^ 
ist inconfidefable villages. 

Churchy lie. — The church was built in 1738, has undergone 

confiderable altefatTbns, and is in pretty good repair §• T£ie 

Vol. XI; S s manfe 

of farms. Not to mnkiply inftances, in the village of Oznam, hetween 4o and 
70 years ago, there were %% tenants, who kept about 16 ploughs, drawn by % 
ozfen and % horfes, driven by a boy ; whereas now, 3 perfons occnpy the whole, 
and have only 7 ploughs, drawn by 9 Eorfes. 

*The pfriih regifter was accurately kept, from 1700 to 1710, during 
irhich, the births amounted to 398, annual average 40 nearly. Since that pe- 
riod, the regiiler has not been fu accurate ; occafioned, chiefly, by the ne^leA 
cf parents to fave a very trifling ezpence. Within the laft 10 years, the annual 
a^age of births has h6tn about ts, of which only xo are ^gi&d-edl 

f TBere is an inftance of one marriage producing a» births, and of % mar- 
riages oat of theie, producing each jj. 

% paring the above period, the mortdoth has been ufed Z07 times, 99 of 
lAiich were for interments in this chdrch-yard. There is a'ftboe in the church- 
yard, bearing the ages of a father and mother, a fons, a daoghter-in-law, and 
3" grandchildren, amoanting to 6 J 8, aver^ 77 years; the oldeil of whom was 
^, and the youngeft 70. 

{ There is a remarkably diftinift echo from the church to a (mall eminence, 
tyo yards diredlly £, of it, in th% lerel of tiie gallery. 

322 Statj/fical Aecoit^ 

manfe was built much ab6ut dife btne time, and lab oftdr* 
been repaired at a great expence. 'thn Crown and the Marquis' 
of Lothian both gare prefentaddnt lo ^ach of the 4 laft mini- 
fters. The living confifts of 30 bdls of barley, ai bolls i firlot 
ll (tone of oatmeal, Tiviotdale meafuref, and 30I. as. a Ad- 
Sterling ita money *• The glebe, meafuring la EngUfh acres, 
is worth about r4L There are a church-yards, one at the 
kirk, and one at Plenderleith, about 4 miles S. of it ^ where, 
in all pro)iability, there has been arefiding vicar. The mini-' 
Her has alfo the privilege of tutf, alternately, from 3 ftock 
farms belonging to the Marquis of Lothian. A confiderable 
proportion of the inhabitants of this parifli are connefted' 
with the diOfeuting meetings in Jedburgh.' 

School. — The fcholmafter's (alary is 5I; lis. i}d., and he' 
has 4L 3s. 4d., intereft of money mortified by Lady Yefter, 
for teaching poor children ; 4!. x^s. for ooUefting poor's rates i 
and, being clerk to the feffion and heritors, 4d. for every re- 
giOration and extra£l, and zs. 6d« for each proclamation. The 
fchool is in general well attended. The wages are, is. per 
quarter for Engliih, is. 6d. for Englilh and writing, and as« 
6d. for arithooietic. The higher branches are tauj^ht by agree* 
ment. The above is the minimum legal (alary of Scotland, 
and the fchool wages are flill the original appointment. As 
the value of money is now fo much funk, and as the wages of 
all the other daffes are greatly increafed, an augmentation of the 


* The Tiviotdale boU of barley ii 5 flrlots, and of meal i4 done. 

t Befides the above Ripend, the former miniften let in leafe to th^ Doke of 
Roxburgh, during their refpedive incambenciei, the Ticarage tithei of three 
fiock farms, now let at loool., for a graiTum of loool. Scotch, and an juAj 
leu-daty of looL Scotch. His Grace, wiihing to convert the graflum and tent 
into VI yearly ftipcnd, took no leafe from the prefent incurobeat ; and, it bein^ • 
a point of law, it is bow depending before the Court of Seffion* 

IdioclmaAers falaries^ an4 fchool feesy (eejogis to be indif- 
ipenlibly oeceflfarj. 


PooTwr^lvk coafeqneaoe of s legal iatimation of 10 free 
daj8« the heritors, tenants^ and kirk«(eiSon hold meetings 
about the terma of Candlemas, Whitfiuiiday, Lammaa and 
Martinmas. Upon the daj of meeting thej choofe a prefes ; 
after which their clerk reads the minutes of laft federunt, 
Tvhen they proceed to the roll of the poor, confider their cir« 
cnmftances individually, and appoint them correfponding ali« 
ments. This inrolled poor amount to 24 ; and the quarterly af* 
ieflment for their relief is, at prefent, about X9]., being of lata 
greatly increafe^, by the high prices of provifioas, as well as 
by the advanced age, and growing infirmities of moft of them* 
The higheft yearly allowance for a fingle perfon is 4 guineas, 
and for a frail old couple 61. 9s, 9ut when any perfon is fo 
circnmftanced at to require a nurfe, the heritors provide one* 
In order to their enrphneat they ppuft give inventories of their 
cffeAs, which become the legal piroperty of the heritors, and 
are expofed to fale at their death. The heritors, fteadily and 
uniformly, infill upon having thefe inv^toriesi^ both for en* 
livening their own induftry, and for fiimulating their children 
and near gelations to give them aid. It is much to be regret- 
^, that a tafte for finery, inconfiftent with their fiation, pre- 
vents many from relieving their aged and indigent parents, 
and other near relations, ai^d expofes .them to want, upon the 
approach of ficknels or old age ; whik, at th^ fame time, ic 
deprives them of a luxury, far fupcrior to that of fuperfluous 
ornament, the coBUKX FLEAsyaE of difpeljing grief, and 
fOMMUVicXxiyo HAPPINXSS. The afleflment is divided a- 
mongft the heritors, according to their valued rents ; and the 
proportion which falls to each is paid, one half by the pro* 

S 8 a prietor 

324 Statifi'kal Accwnt 

prietor bimfelfy and the other bj his tenants. In propor^on t<^ 
their real rents*. 

Heritors and i?^«tf.— There are 7 heritors ; but only a re- 
fide. The valued rent of the pariih is i4,ioiL los. 8d. Scotch, 
and the real rent about 31679]. Sterling. The yearly rent oC 
the arable land is from los. to upwards of aos. per acre, and 
of ftock land from 33. to 3s. 6d. per acre. Farms are rented 
from 4oU to about 6ool. per annum. Two confiderable ftock 
&rms are poffefled by tenants, who do not refide. 

Produce^ CattU^ Provi/ionSf gtc. — ^The pariih contains fuUj 
10,500 Englifli acres f, which are laid out, nearly, in the 
following manner : 


£mg. Acres. £^. Aertf* 

In wheat, - • - Xs^ Brought forward, 1,685 

— oats, - - - - 8ao In pafture, . , - 28,8x{ 

— barley, . - - aio ■ 

— peafe, . - - • 140 Tota!, - • 20,500 

— turnips, - - - X40 

— pOtatQCS, - - • 3^ MVMBSR OF CATTLt. 

— flax, - - - - 14 Horfes, - - - -r l6x 

— fown graii, - - - 146 Cows, &c. - - - 449 

— firs, - - - - 140 Sheep, about - - 15,000 

Carry forward, - 1,685 


♦ Pame Margaret K;err, La4y YcAer, by her letters af mortification, date4 
4th November 1630, aod 14th March 1638, caufed to be built a fchool, and a 
fchoolmafter's houre, at Oznani bridge end, and little dwelling houfcs, for ac- 
commodatiDg 4 poor people, commonly called alms houfes^ at Oxnam Rawfoot ; 
and hkewife mortified loool. Scotch, the annual rent of which being 4I. 38. 4d.J 
together with the weekly coUcdions, isdiibibuted, in i^naU proportions, amongl|^ 
&ch ind^cnt poor as are not on the roll. 

f There is no map of the pariih, diftind from Mr. Stobie's of the county ; 
but all the heritors, except one, have accurate plans of their cftates. 

) The above calculations were made from the quantity of feeds fown, in the 


£/* OxnanL 



^Vfcett, per boll, of 4 firlots, 
pats, per ditto, of 5 ditto, 
B vley, per ditto, of 5 ditto, 
Peafe, per ditto, of 4 ditto, 
Tomipi, per Eoglifli acre. 
Potatoes, per boll, of 5 firlott, . - 
FlM,perftone,of a4ib^ 
Calves, tmfed, - , , 

Ditto, fometimet fed to 
Bbck cattle, year-olds, ^ 
bitto, two-year-olds, 
Pitto, three-ycar-olds, 
iVedders ditto, 
PittOf two-year-olds, 

Praughe ewes, ? < 

* Z ' ■ iip 

/« 1763. /« 179^. 

X o 
o »3 
o 13 
o x6 

o 10 

o 7 

O 10 

/. *. 

z 10 


1 o 
I 4 
3 o 
o 7 
o xz 

o S 

% to 

1 18 

z o 
o x6 
o 1% 
• li 

^aicit or WOOL, chiise, &c. 

)Vhite wool; pef ftofie, of »4 lb. Troy, 

Jt'id ditto, per ditto, 

fewe cheefe, per ditto, 

Cow ditto, - - 

Butter, in firMns, per ditto, - • 

^rcih batter, per iUoe, of H ^« P^ lb*» 

o zz 

o 5 

o 4 

o 7 
o 6 

♦o Z9 
o 7 
o 5 
o z» 
o xo 


foUowbg maimer : |t was fnppofied, that 4 firlott of oats were Town on each 
^QgUfli acre : The wheat and peafe were proportioned as 6 of oats to 4 ; and 
the barley as 10 of oats to 7 : 8^ fiilots of potatoes plant an acre ; and Z9 lip- 
pies of liotfeed may be fown on the iame qaantity of ground* 

« « To prevent confiifion in the table, the higheft prices of wool are here 
ftated. White wool fomctitres fold at aos., in Z79S, and laid wool fometimei 
fo low If x6s^— Wool is fuppofed to drop coniidcrably this cUp^ Z793« 


326 Statical Account 

Cu&ivatioH^^liht upper part of the parifli, towards the 
Englifii Border, is found healthy dock land, but very ftormy ^ 
the hills being high, and the vallejs deep and narrow. The 
hills are' moftlj green and fertile, with an intermixture of 
heath, mols, bent, ling, fprat, Sec. ; parti/ drj, and partly wet 
and marflij- The arable land, in this part of the parilh, is 
almoft wholly laid into grab. Towards the middle of the 
parifh they raife rather more com ^ but their principal de- 
pendence is upon ftock. The land is inferior in quality, but 
not fo ftormy, as the Border hills. On the lower end of the 
parifb, they depend more upon their crops than upon their 
flocks. Three (mall farms in this part of the parifh keep no 
iheep at prefent. 

Improvtments. — ^The ftock land has bfeen muah improved 
of late, by draining the wet and marihy grounds i by plant- 
ing clumps of firs, for ^elis to (helter the flocks in ftorms i 
snd by inclofiiig fome part of the lands contiguous to the farm 
houfes, for hay to the (beep in lievere winters and fprings. 
For a nuinber of years, excellent crops of turnips have been 
raifed on the lower end of the parifh, to which the foil, wbici| 
is dry and gravelly, is well adapted. The lime ufed for thefe^ 
and for wheat, is brought, both frpm Tillfide on the £.^ and 
from Redwater on the S. A cart load, of 5 bolls, cofts iis. i 
and 5 loads are commonly fpread upon an Englilh acre. The 
general pradice is to allow the fheep to cat them upon the 
field* Throughout tlie whole parifli, potatoes are raifed in fuch 
quantities, as to become the principal food of the lower ranks 
of life for 8 months in the year. They are alfo ufed in feeding 
fwine, horfesi poultry, ficc. afid fome are fold to the people oa 
the fells, 


of Oxnam. 327 

Sbup Sec— On the upper end of this, and of the neighbour- 
ing pariibes bordering on Northumberland, the flieep haye been 
greatlj improved of late, in fhape, in weight, and in qualitj of' 
\¥ool. This has been eSefted, partlj, by purchafing tups 
from Northumberland, and other counties in England, or bj 
purchafing from, and exchanging them with each other ; and 
partly, bj adopting a different mode of breeding their tups* 
The farmers of the laft generation took thcfir tups dut of the 
whole flock, when thej cut their lambs ; whereas now, they 
feled a few of their beft ewes, and fuch as have the fioeft fleece,' 
which they keep apart from the reft of the flock, during the 
^pping feafon, with a good fibe woolled tup, procured as above ; 
and out of the lambs bred from thefe, they cb<x>fe their tup 
hmbs.^-There b a good breed of horfes in the parifli, and' 
diaoy prefer them, with a little blood,, for long carriages. 

Commerce, — ^The produce of the lands far exceeds the con« 
ibmption of the inhabitants; Part of the redundancy is fold 
at Jedbufgh,* and part is manufafiured at the mills of Swin« 
tide and Oxnam, and carried over the fells to the ftockfmea 
and their herds. A gteat quantity of cbeefe, of butter, and 
of veal is fold at Jedburgh ; the eggs are carried weekly to 
Berwick, and the poultiy, both there aitd to Edinburgh, by 
perfon^ who return loaded with lalt, groceries, and other com« 
ihodities, fbt fupplying the inhabitants, and merchants in Jed^ 

Seed'timi and JEEurv^^— -Wheat is fown from the o^dle 
to the clofe of Odober ; oats, peafe, and flax, from the xoth 
61 March to the middle of April; barley, rye-grals and clover^ 
from the middle of April to that of May; potatoes are put in- 
to the ground during the fiime period; and turnips are drilled 
during the conrfe of June and to the middle of July. The 


^2% Stati/Kcal Attouiii 

hanreft beginSy for the mod part* with S^ptetnber ; the dbm 
16 all cut in 20 or ii working days ; and, in 5 or 6 after, if 
is generally feciired in the barns, and barn-jards, except when 
the feafons prove cold and wet. 

ImpUmtnti of Hujbandry. — ^There are '41 ploughs and 53 
iarts in the pariffa. The old Scotch plough is entirely laid 
afide, and the new conftru&ion, with metal mould boards, oni- 
verfally adopted. Two ilout horfes, driven by the plough** 
nan, are quite fufficient, except in a few inlt^ances, where jp 
faorfes are ufed, and a driver. Carts, of a light mike, on 
wheels 4 feet 8 inches high, commonly ftajed with iron at 
each comer, are ufed for coal and lime ; and the loa^f cart 
with rung and iheth, for com, peat and tttrf ^: 

K^^^/.— Tradefmen are paid as follows : 

Joinen mceive per day, without Ttduals, * -» h,o l 6 

Mafons, - - « - - - -ox 10 

Tailors, - - • - - - -01 » 

JLabonrert, ito fummer, - - -^ - . 0x4' 

■ I ■ ■ ■ in winter, •- • ■ • • ox a' 
A man, in harreft, receitret, till the crop be cut, with Tiduali,' - X 7 o 

And a woman, daring the fanie period, - - . i x o 

Male fenrantf, per annum, with board, ^ \. 

J from - • 3 10 o* 

to • - 4x0 * 

Female ditto, ditto, 

Cottagers are taken bound to weed turnips, and make 
h%j t% days, at 3d. per day, with their maintenance, and' 


* Before the iotrodtt&i6n of carta, a clnmfy unweildy carriage* upon % wheek,' 
drawn by % oxen, and a, or fometimet 4, horfes, called a vfaim, was ufed merely 
i'or dragging dang to tlie fields, and bnogtog bomc com, hay and wood. 

6f Oxnani. 329 

to reap in harvcft without receiving any thing but their 
bbard ; for which they pcfiefs a honfe and yard, have one 
or two dargs of turf or peat, which their mafters bring 
home, and give them as muk:h ground as the alhes will 
cover for fowing barley. They have like wife tw© lippies 
of lint-feed fown, and half a firlot of potatoes planted. 
Their crop» when it is good, conflitutes a great part of 
their living throughout the year; and, in that cafe, their 
houGes coft them little. Hiiids receive S bolls of oats, 2 bolls 
of barley, I boll of pefafe, a cow's grafs, and il. 5s. for fheep,* 
ds the wages of their own labour j; s^nd are bpuiid to the fame 
fervitude with a cottager for theif hoHiTes, lint, potatoes, Sec 
The wages of herds are coniiderably higher than thofe of hinds, 
and differ according to the extent o^^ their charge. They are 
J>aid with iheep, and cows, which rjcquire a ftock at beginning/ 
and fubjed them to frequent loffes. 

Antiquitxei^^^Tht only remains of antiquity are, a chapel 
at Plenderleith, 3 old forts, and a Roman caufeway. The 
chief fortification is a tower at Dolphiflon, faid to have beep 
built by one D'olpaus, from whom it took its name. The 
walls are from 8 to 10 fee^ thick, bui(t of hewn ft6ne, and fo 
elofely cemented with lime, that it is found! more difficult to 
obtam fiones for building from it, than from a quarry. It 
has been estenfive, and divided into fmall apartmeitts by ftone 
partitions. Several vaulted apertures are in the middle of 
the walls, large enough for a fmall bed, and fome of them fo 
long, as to be ufed by the tenants for holding their ladders* 
On a rifing ground, a little to the S*- there is an area of a 
chain fquare, which is faid to have been a watch tower or 
light hotife, and ihows that Dolphifton Yower had been ufed 
as a fort, or place of refuge. The tower on Mofsburnford 
ground, N. from Dolphifton, which is nearly entire, is built and 
Vol* XL Tt divided 

3 3 o Statiftical Account 

divided in the lame maimer, bat far inferior in flrength*. The 
Roman road, or canfewaj,,45 the eaftem boundary of the parifli^ 
and runs the whole length of itf. This ftrect has been traced 


• * The Ckag Towtk was Imilt on a rock of base emiDencCy oa die E. fi^e 
of Oxnam water, about 500 yards W. of the church. Within thefie to yeart, 
it wai a place of the fame conllnidUon with thofe already mentioned, hut modi 
Wronger from iti natural fituation, heing furronnded with water os three fideb 
In the memory of many now living, there was a pit in the middle of it, which 
tt faid to have heen a road cntthroogb the rock to the -water, by ^ndiidi it wia 
fuppUed when bdicgcd* It it alTo faid to haiprbeen furronnded on iheacc^hle 
iidc, with a flrong wall, within which the iohahitants of the netghboorfaood 
iifed to (hut up their cattle, to prcTcnt the plunderen from carrying them off is 
the night. Anciently, the nppoiite bank of Osmam water, 00 the W^ was co- 
vered with wood^deoominaxed httnutod^ and it fcid to have bees the rendesvout 
of the inhabitant*, to oppofe the £ngli(h freebooten, when the watch word was, 
a hemwQody^ A quarter of a mik to the W^ on Millheagh^&rm, theffe is a hil* 
lock, called Gallala«Kk9w, which it iaid to have been ufed in the Border 
wars at a place of eiccution. Many buildtngi, flmttar to thofe deCcrihed, are 
icattered over the country, efpcctally on th( fiorderi which wore ea&d ^ca&.— 
There it a tradition, that, dnring the animofitiet between the twokingdomi^ one 
of the principal belli, now upon the cathedral of Durham, wat carried from this 
parifh. Certain it is, that Oxmam is iafcrihod upon it ; but whether it he the 
name of this parish, or of the founder, it not determined. Some are of opi- 
nion, that as Oinam wa» fub}ed to the abbacy of Jedburgh, the Crag Tower 
might be a reUgiotit honfe, and the bell it faid to have been bung upon it. 
Before the onion of England and Scotland, which fcem dciUned^by their fitna. 
tion to conftitute a mighty monarchy, among the military and twrtmlent Bor^ 
derers, fo little acquainted with the arts of peace, and fo averfe to indoftry and 
labour, juflice was feebly, irregularly, and parCiaBy adminiftered; and great op- 
prcfiion and vtoleiKe prevailed, when rapine was the only trade, and bloodflied 
often kd the way to the fvccefefal profecution of it. By the interpofal of iht 
authority of both houfe« of parliament, the reij^n of good lavi n efiablifbed, 
tending, in an eminent • .rce, to form habits of order, iodudry, and virtue, to 
iflcreafe the hapj^iaefs of individuaU, to promote national prefpeiity, and to in* 
f roduce a ta<>e for general improvemem, throughout this, as well as other parts 
ti t|^e kingdom. 

f A number of years ago, in a fiild belonging to Cap-hope, on the R point 


of Oxncm. 3 3 1 

to Borougbbridgc in Yorkflilre, and has its direftion to the 
Lothiaos by Bofweps Green, where oar of the largelt fairs ia 
Scotlmnd is anniullj beld« on the z3tb of Julj^ 

£0a/£f^-^Forfnerly, the ftatulc labour, for county roadi, 
from 2o to 22 feet broad, wa3 levied from the number of men 
attdhoffesy •^f .lftt«<at is. for *a <aisiiH and is. 6d. for a horfe. 
In cottfequence of ^n applitratton froil> the gentiemeu of this 
county, a few years ago, an aift of parliament was granted to 
colled it from the tenants according to theic valued reptt>, but 
HOC to eaccft^. 10s, Starting Afji^ap itlie ioqU Scotch^ The 
conoty is dmded into ftttK diAri^a, JfdbUrgb^K^yh^ Hataick^ 
and Melro/e^ tii^ each of them has a conftable for iufpe^ing 
the roads, and for feizing vagrants. Thongh thefe do not all 
collea to. the full .auaoiiut fjpecifieii iu .tjh<j a0, y^t i% is, found 
ncQcfiary. ta^da i» in tht9}diitei# fof JH^urgh, pn apcoont of 
its bcaog inteffefled by fewer, public roadsi h, road is novf 
making, from WooiinJ)Urn Bridge^ in the parilh of Crailing, 
and Kaimbumfoot in this parli]}, coni^eft'bg J^hc great, turn* 
pike .roads from Kclfo . tp. ^fawipfe,. j»d.iJrQm iuliuburgh, by 
Jedbar^, t#Na«m4te« in «rd4r404«onip)eteat Speedily, fome 
pttbiio fpirited %i^a^miH Htfv^ t^keti o^t a CAJh ajccountj to 
be paid off every half year w!th the.ftatute money. Atten- 
tion has alfo been ^id to other. roa4s .in th.e parifb, whereby 
Ml. ■' • .1. . n " ; 'JTJ;!-.. w.. ,' 'communication 

, of the pariih, coptigowM U> t]i« X9^^ a Ji«a4 piece of plate irpn, fuppofed to b^ 
Romao, wai tutaed up by the plough, and is \n the poficirioo of the prcicnt 
tenanL It weight. «)U>« Mroirdupotfe; and, ■Ji-.hough a little willed, could 
sever nceigh »ib» • lu tmo^ ji an oval «f ? * 9 ifiches hf 6 « 9, withoDt any 
edgci, only, bent /or^ard ab<Htt baif 9^ ifich^ b<;^re and cm the iidc* VX^ the 
brim oC a pat. It u 5 . ^inchei deop, and the top is a very flat Gothic arch, 
10. a inches long, jutted out befurc and bchiod. It is evidciuly hammered, 
but has not the fmallcft appearance of any joining. In autumn 1 791 , a ftiJlUng 
of HoBiaT BaucB was found at a garden in Ncwbigging, and was- UM ta 
Cjtoaoc Cvaai^, Efq. adrocaie. 

33^ Stati/iical Afcotmt 

comtaunication is greatlj facilitated. Not long ago» fmalt 
coal was brought from Rjecbefter» and great coal from Ital, 
.on horfeback, but tbejr a,re now brought ia carts, which have 
been univerfajly ^dop,ted fipcc jthe bettering of the roads. 

Lijadvantaget. — One of the chief difadvantagec, the greateft 
part of this parifh labours under, is its diftance from coaI« 
which is ililli notwithftanding, the cheapeft iyxt\ to thofe who 
have horfesy but which poor people cannot afford topurchaf«. 
A two-horfe cart-load of coal, f^om Ryechefter, cofts lis. 6d.y 
and ODc from Ital coQs about 148. 6d. Though this parifli 
abounds in excellent peats and turf^ yet the moft populous 
parts have no claim to them, and are but fcaatily fupplied 
with turf, of far inferior quality, f;rom a moor, once common, 
and which ftill goes by that name. Another growing di(ad* 
vantage is, the depopulation of the parifh, by fuffuring the 
cottage houfes to fall into decay ; whereby the country is de« 
prived of many ufeful members of fociety, and the tenant of 
aid for carrying on his laboursy efpecially in harye^» when he 
is overtaken by Ilorms, particularly of wind, which often do 
great and irreparable damage to the valuable produdions of 
the yean 

General CharaBer^^^The people are induflrious, fober* and 
economical, and feem to have no inclination either for a mili- 
tary or a feafarin^ life. They are friendly to one another, 
and hofpitable to ftrangers. The labouring part fuppott their 
families in a very Recent manner, and give their children a 
tolerable education. Even in 1783, when the penfions of the 
poor were doubled by the failure of crop 1782, no fiamily in 
the parifli folicite^ relief from the heritorsi nor were fupplied 
with provifions^ at reduced prices, as was tjie cafe in many 
other parilhes. 

* "'' NUMBER 

of Rofcmarkie. jjj 


(JCounty and Synod of Rofs-^PnJbytery of Cbanonry.^ 
By the Rev. Mr. Alexander Wood, Minifler^ 

Name and Extent, 

THE Dame of this pariih was anciently Tpelled Rojfmarhie^ 
and fometioies Rofemarknie. The inoft probable acr- 
count of the origin of the name is this: To the parifh church, 
in former times, was annexed a fieeple, in an elevated and 
confptcuous ftfllion, which being one of the firft obje&s 
obferved bj mariners in coming «p the Murraj Frith, 
they would naturally fay to one another, " Mark ye Roje !'' 
which, for the fake of better found, was turned into Rofll. 
markie. The extent of the pariffa, from £• to W., is about 
6 i^Uet in length ; and 3 mites in breadth, from S. to N« 

Situation^ Sot/, Climate^ and Difeafes.—T\it lltuation of the 
parifli is very fine and pleafant, as it rifes gradually from the 
itzi and the hills, both on the S. and N., are for the moft part 


234 Statiftical Account 

arable, in fummer covered with verdure, and producing rich 
and early crops. The nature of the foil is various. In the 
neighbourhood of the town, where there is a large and beautiful 
flat, well cultivated, it is a fine black inouM upon light gravel* 
which, in moderately raiby feafons, never fails to yield a lux- 
uriant produce of barley and peafe, which are the grain prin- 
cipally fown here. la other parts of the parilh, the lands lie 
generally on a deep clay bottom, producing oats in great 
abundance, that make excellent meal. As the country lies diy, 
aud has the benefit of fine fea breezes, the air is pute and 6u 
lubrious, fo that few contagious diftempers make their* ap- 
pearance, and when they do, their progreis is quickly checked. 
The fmall-poz, that, in former cti&es, ufed to make the greateft 
ravages, is now alleviated by inoculation^ to which even the 
lower ranks of the people b^in to be reconciled. In this 
parilh, very few ohildrctt have died of that diftemper for the 
lafl 10 years- 
Co^, Shell Fi/bf (»nd (7AVf A-^The coaft all along, between 
Rofemarkie and Cromarty, is bold and rocky. It abounds 
with romantic views,' and fright^l precipices. Along thefe 
the ivy creeps in ragged difs, where hawks and wiM pigeons 
neftle, and 

** Low brow*d rocks hang oo^^ o'er Ihe deefr." 

Crabs and lobflcrs are dragged from holes among the ipcks, 
with old com hook^, by countiy women \ and C^s are often 
feen on them, and otters fbot, though not very numerous. 
There are likewife a variety of curious natural caves along 
the fhore, fome of them very deep, and one that runs quits 
through the rock» for about 50 yards, aSbiding aH open 
ptflay to fuch as wi& to examine iCt Some of tbcfc have 


of Rofcmatkie. 335 

been ufed as a temporarj lodging bj fiihers, when there was 
a great run of herring, and others refortcd to bj fmugglers 
as fit places for concealing of their prohibited articles. 

Woods^ Fiftferies^ Ferry^ Sec. — ^Though large tracks of the 
pariih were of old covered with wood, it had become quite 
exhaafted* In tbe courfe of 20 years back, fome confider- 
able plantations of iirs have been raifed, which are verj thriv- 
ing ; and as the parifli is but poorly fupplied with mofs^ thefe 
will be a ufeful fund for fuel. There is a falmon fiiliing at 
the Point of Chanonry Nefs, where the falmon are caught» 
frelh from tbe fea, in their higheA perfe&ion. About 40 
years ago» tt was rented at a lOO merks Scotch. It now pro- 
duces 70I. Sterling. The Point here projeAs a good way in- 
to the feaif and form? a fine curve, which makes it a beautiful 
objeft. It terminates the Links of Fortrofe, about an £dg- 
lifli mile in length, and fmooth as a carpet. This is fine ground 
for the^o^ which is often played here by the gentlemen of the 
town and coontry. Tie Point is the fituation for tlie ferry- 
boat that paflfes to Fort*George ; and fo fafe is the pafTige, 
that there is not an inftauce of any being loft on it in memory 
, of man. 

jigrkuiturtj Produce ^ and Cattle, — The common Scotch 
plough is for the mod part ufed in the pari(h ; but fome 
farmers begin to prefer that with the feather fock, as moft 
convenient, efpecially for turning Ice or meadow ground. The 
number of ploughs in the country and town is reckoned to 
be aH )ut $0. Thefe are commonly drawn by 6, and fome* 
ttnus 3 mic'idle fixed, or rather fmall oxen, which are found 
beft adapted for ftcep or hilly lands, and go through their 
labour with much fteadinefs. Small horfes are employed in 
carrying manure, yoked in a fort of light fledge, rolling on 

3 woodv'a 

336 Statiftical Account 

wooden wheels. But where the ground 5s tolerably* level, 
many farmers now begin to ufc coups^ drawn bj a couple of 
oxen, which make the work much eafier and more expediti- 
ous. . Horfes are chiefly employed in cultivating the lands 
about the burgh. The method of farming there, for time 
immemorial, has been remarkably uniform. It confifts of a 
conftant fucceflion of barley j and though the lands be feldooi 
or never retted, it is furprifing how much they produce, bearing 
commonly fix or feven returns.' When a quantity of fca ware 
and tangles are thrown alhore (which often happens in a ftorm}, 
the farmers, in fpring efpecially, are very attentive in gather- 
ing it, and fpreading it upon their lands ; and they reckon it 
an excellent manure for a barley crop. They feldom take 
time to mix it in a compott dunglull, though that might better 
anfwer the purpofe. Of late, they have begun to ufc the roll- 
er, which in light foil they find to be an advantage. In the 
country part of the parifh, the tenants are not fo aecoftomed 
to raife green crops, but frequently fow oats in the fame fields 
for feveral years running, which renders them much Icfs pro- 
duftive. A large quantity of potatoes is raifed here, of a very- 
free and fweet quality. Some of the farmers have flocks of 
flieep, of a fitiall kind, wh^ch are paflured on heath, and 
among whins and broom \ but their flocks are not numerous*. 

Improvements. — Here it may not be amifs to take notice of 
a fmall improvement lately made by the minifter of the parifli, , 
which, in fimilar operations, may ferve as an example and 
encourageihent to otheis. Very near the nianfe, on the fide 
of the public road to Fortrofe, there was a lake, covering be- 
tween 3 and 4 acres, in winter filled with water, running 


♦ The prices of labour, fervflnts fees, and aittrlcs of |Tovifirn, are much the 
f«me u ill the neighbouring pariflict. Aloft of them Rrc nearly doubled (iDCi 
die preheat xniDiiler iva» Tc wiled* 

of Rofemarkle. 337 

down from a hill above it, and kept in by a rtfing ground on 
the fide contiguous to the king's highway. Owing to this, 
k was, in the middle, at Teaft four feet deep ; and a fmall 
boat has been feen paddling through it, with perfons in 
queft of wild ducks. By the ftagnation of the water in 
the heat of fusDOoer, and the fteeping of lint by the people 
(which raifed a mo A difagreeable and unwholefome fmell), 
it was often an intolerable nuifance. Many fcheoies had 
been formed for draining it, but they were generally thought 
impraAicable. However, the writer of this, coniidering that 
his glebe, which lay diredtly opposite to it, on the other fide of 
the road, was upon a bank of gravely (having firil taken a feu 
of it from the town, at a reafonable feu«dnty), determined to 
cut a very deep drain acrofs the road into his glebe, fo as to 
command the level of the water (which required about 14 feet 
in depth), and then to let it oflF by degrees, in hopes the gravel 
bank might fwallow it. The experiment anfwered his expcfta- 
tion^ and, in the courfe of lefs than a month, there was not a 
drop left in it. He then cut a wide and deep ditch by the 
fide of it, to receive the water as it fell from the hills ; and, 
befides a number of crofs drains, filled with (tones, he dug 
under ground an open drain, faced with flone and covered with 
flags, communicating with the bottom of the ditch, and convey* 
ing the water, for more than 150 yards, into the bankof chingle, 
where it finks, and never more appears. Sometimes, indeed, 
on a fudden thaw, or a violent rufh from the hills, the drain 
cannot immediately command the water, and fo it breaks out 
upon the. furface \ J)ut in a ihort tra& of (air weather {t goes 
down, and leaves a fliinc,. which fetves to enrich the foil. 
Thefe operations were attended with confiderable ezpence^ 
but the fuccefs has amply repaid it. From a fingle boll of 
EiTex oats, ^wn here in 17S9, in fcarce an acre and a half, 
there were adually reaped 2 a bolls and a firlots, a very ex- 
traordinary return. The ftalks in many parts were from 6 tq 
Vol. XI. Uu 

3 3 S Statifiical Account 

*j feet long. Lad Ceafon a part of it was laid down with largs 
glcflj black oatSf from a farm in Aberdeenfliire*; and though 
(he feed happened to arrive rather too late, it produced a good 
Return. This fpecles of black oats is a new grain in this coun* 
trji but thty are faid tQ meal remarkaUj well, and a few 
^olls of them have been circulated to give them a fair trial* 
It is hoped the length" of this article will be excufed, as it 
inaj ificite others to make the like ufeful experiments. 

Poptflation^-rrKn exaA enumeration of the inhabitants of 
the parifli was made out laft fpring. From the lofs of fome of 
the old regiflers, and the negligence of the people in regifler*? 
^ng the births of their children, the baptifms cannot be ftated 
yeith perfeft accuracj. No regiiler of bnripls has been kept 
in the pariQi \ but as its ijtuation is uncon^.monlj healthjf , thefe 
father full below the ordinary prppprtion. In moft years, the 
births cf n^ako and females are nearly equal \ but upon the 
ivhole, the ma^c^ arc mod r/r- ."'•'^•'?: All the inhabitants arc 
pf the Eftablilhed Church, excepting one or two families in 
the town of Chanonry, who ^e of the JE^pifcopal perfuafion, 

The ftatement, therefore, for 1793, ftands thus : 
Number of examinable pcrforsf, « - • - zo4o 
fouls at and b^low 7 years of age, - . - 193 

Tctal number o'' in J ••*■ .nti, - • - . ia6» 

The return to Dr. \^ et'iei , in 1755, wat ^ - - II40 

fncreafe, - - • - \i% 

The town of Chanonry cortains, 

ortains, - 445*1 

. - ft96i 

ariib, - 5a'3 

The town of Rofenarkie, - 496 J- - - • 1264 

The country par; of the par>A» 


* Viz. MoNKSRitt, a fann belonging to Dt. An9IR«ov, Editor of the Bee, 
who, in ap eifay on the different fpeciea of oats, firongly reconuncodt thefe 
black oats as of excellent quality, which was the reaCbn of fending for them^ 

-f In the memory of the prefent minlfter, witliiq little snore than ao years, t# 


of Rofetharkie. 5 J9 

Asntial avefajrc of births, • 34 Tailorj, * - - 4 

■ marriages, - 7 Mafoiu, - - - » 

Proprietors, great and fmall, - %% Glowers, - - ^ 

ACcrchantt in the towns, - 7 Smith, - ^ - 1 

• % 

Shoemakcrt and their apprentices*, 3 % fiutcheri , 

Wearers and their apprentices*, 35 Writer, 

Square-wrights, ... 4 Tearhert, 

MUl-wrights^ . . • 2» MintKcr, * - - 2 

Wearers and their apprentices*, 35 Writer, - - - i 

Square- Wrights, - - . 4 Tearhers, .- - - 4 

Heritdrs dnd Rents.-^The jJrincipal htritors ate, Alexander 
Rofs, £fq. of Cromartj ; the heirs of Abraham Leflj, £fq» 
of Findracj ; Sir Roderick M^Kentie of Scalwell, Bart.; And^ 
rew Millar of Rincardj ) Roderick M'Senzie of Flowetburn ; 
and about the burgh, Seaforth, the heirs of the late Sir Alex- 
ander Grant of Dalvej, Bart«$ Duftcan Forbes of Wellfield» 
and about 14 other fmall heritors, who are polTeffcd of burgagd 
lands and tenements. None 6( the prinfcipal heritors rcfide ill 
the pariflu The toul valued rent is 37 J3I. iss- 4d. Scotch j 
the real rent is about 1350 bolls of grain, and above fool.- 
Sterling in iponej^ About the burgh, lands are rented froni 

U tt a 30S4 

^t'foDs hire liiccf in tfic jiaridi, 4ged 90 and npwirds; 3 %n now hving 90 yenrv 
old, and about 30 between 70 and So. One vigorous old man of 87 put off 
his wig laft year, and has now a fet of venerable grey locks. He was in Edtn^ 
burgh at the hanging of Captain Porteovm, whkh, he fayt,^ he welf deferred, as if 
fweet-heart of his was wounded by the firing. 

• * k has beeff remarhed, that for ages paft, the g/eater j^alt of the inhalit- 
cnta» of the lower clafJ, in Chanonry, haVe been ihoefnakert, and, hi Rofcmarkie, 
weavers; and they commonly trahi their children to the fame occupsttions. Th0 
flioenakers not only fnraiih fhoes for the pa^iih, bky car^ a parcel weekly fur 
file to Interne fs, though they compbin that the tanners enjt>y afnSoft all their 
profits. The weavers art conftantly employed in working lineA, a cobfiderabro 
quantity of which is fold at the two annil^al fairs, which circulates a good deal 
<of .money in the place. They ratfe and manufK^i^i the lias themfeWas Sf9m 
whtwh the linen ik uia<^e. 

340 Statlfilcal Account 

3«s. to 40s. per acre (though not-indofed); and in the conn- 
try, good arable ground draws from tjs* to aos. 

Burgh. — The town of Rosemarkie, though not krge, is 
of confiderable antiquity. It was erected into a royal burgh 
by Alexander King of Scotland ;-^which of them is not fpeci- 
fied, but it was- probably Alexander II. About a mile to 
the W. of it, ftands the town of Cbanonry^ fo called from its 
being the chanonry of Rots, where the biihop formerly had 
his reiidence, and which is npw die prefbytery feat. It was 
united to the burgh of Rofemarkie, by a charter granted by 
King James IL anno 1444, under the common name of For/* 
rofs^ now foftened into Forttofe; which charter was ratified 
by King James VL, an^rio i J929 and confirmed in a ftill more 
ample form, by the fanie monarch, in the year 161 a* Thefe 
charters bear, that it was to be *' entitled to all the privileges, 
** liberties and immunities, granted to the town of Invemefs.'' 
Fortrofe is then fpoken of, as a town fiourifliing in the arts 
and fciences, having been at that time the feat of divinity, law 
and phyfic, in this corner of the kingdom*. 

Court HilL^^Ahort Rofemarkie there is a circular hill, 
quite level on the top, which feems to have been artificial. 


« About 6 ycvt a^, • parcel of fiWer coioi were found in a finall caira of 
ftones, in a moor, about a mile from Rofemarkie. They were moftly fhilliDp 
of Queen Elizabeth, with a mixture of othcf coins, and particularly feme bean- 
dful ones of James i. and Charles U of different Uses. It b probable tbey were 
depofited there in the time of the cm! war, and may have been brought to the 
country by the gallant Marquis of Montrofe, or feme of his followers* Moft 
of them arc in the poiTeflion of Mr. Wood, the minifter of the pariflu^ Aboot 
aoo more filver coins were found lately, in a malTy copper }ag of an antique 
form, in digging up tke foundation of an old houfe at Chanonry. They were 
coined in the reign of Robert Klog of Scots, and arc nearly of the lize of a Britifii 

of Rofcmarkie. 34 1 

It his been always called the Court Hill. In ancient tiroes, 
it was probably the place where courts were held, for the ad-' 
miniftration of jailice. 

Cathedral^ \3c. — Only a fmall part of the ancient cathedral * 
now remains. This feems to have been a wing that ran from £« 
to W., with an arched roof, about 100 feet in length, and 30 
in breadth. It had a communication, by entries or poxches, 
with the main b^.dy of the cathedral. It was preferved and 
repaired, by fome of the bifliops, fince the Reftoration, as a 
place for public worihip ; but now it has gone much to de- 
cay f; and as the roof is in danger of falling in, it is quite 
deferted. It is ftill ufed as a burial place by the M'Kenzies, 
and other old families in this country. No infcriptions are to 
be found about it worth notice, excepting one on a large old 

• Though the BiHiop of Roft wis originalljr ftflcd Epifcopus Rofinarkienfir^ 
tlie cathedral church (loud in the town of Chanonrt, in a fpacious fquare* 
Here the bilhop refided, with a number of his clergy ; fo that there is fcarce a 
koufe in the bargh, of any great value, bat was formerly a manfe belonging to 
fomc of the chapter, as appears by the ancient charters and infeftmenfs. The 
cpifeopal fee was founded by David I. king of Scotland ; but there is n% certain 
account at what period th» cathedral was built, though it is faid to have been & 
fine one, with a lofty fteeple. Bifliop Leflie alfo takes notice of the palace, 
which ftood ^t a little diftance from tfte honfes of the canons ; and he rcprefenti 
it, in his time, as a fplendid and magoificcnt building. 

f It is highly proLable, that this cathedral, at the Reformation, had fufTered 
the fate of many others, though it be a current tradition in the place, that the 
greater part of it, together with the biihop*s palace, already mentioned, was 
pulled down in the time of Oliver CromwelL By his order, the (tones were 
carried by fea to Invernefs about the diltance of S miles, for crefling a fort 
there, called CromweWs Fort, whereof the flitch and ramparts arc ftill difcem- 
ible. No chartulary belonging to the biihopric has been IbunJ in Scotlajid. It 
is probable that Lefly, the laft Popifh bilhop of Rofs, and the zealous advocat« 
for the unfortunate (^een Mary, when he was forced to. go abroad^ carried all 
the writs of the diocefe with him, either to France, or to BruHels, vyhcre 
he died ; and where tliefc parchments may ftill be mouldering in duft an'i 

34^ Stati/iical Account 

belly now hung in a fmall modem fpire. It bears the name 
of Mr. Thomas Tulloch, as bifhop of Rofs, and declares 
the bell to have b^n '* dedicated to the mod holy Mart and 
** the bleffcd BoNirACE*, Anno Domyny 1460." There arc 
fonfte fteae coffins in niches f by the infide of the wall, with 
figures of the bifliops in their canonicals, elegantly cut in 
ftone ; but they are much defaced by time, and no name or 
year is to be feen on them. In the dire&ion of the main body 
of the cathedral at the £., and detached from its remains, 
flands a houfe that was probably the ▼eflry. It contains a . 
vault below, with a ftrong arched roof, now converted into a 


• The favourite faint and patron of the place, by cvcfy incient monument, 
appears to have been St. Boniface. This is quite a different pcrfon from St« 
Boniface, archbiftiop of Menu, coofecrated by Pope Gregory IL, and errone* 
•ully fuppofed, by fome of our Scotch writers, to be the fame with the other. 
The hiftory of our faint, according to tradition, b (imply this. In the year 
693, or, as others fay, about the year 697, Boniface, an IttUan, a grat^e and 
venerable perfon, came to Scotland, to make up oar acquaintance with th^ 
church of Rome. He built, to the memory of St. Peter, a church where hef 
, landed, at the mouth of a little water, betwixt the (hires of Angus and Mearns ; 
trcdled another church at Fclin, a third at Reftcnnoth, and a fourth at Roft^. 
markie ; where, being taken with the pieafantne& of the place, he thought fit 
to reiide, and was buried there. Biihop LeOy fpeaks of Rofemarkie as deco- 
rated with the relifis of the faint, and the very ancient fepulchres and monu« 
nents of him and his parents ; whence it would feem, that he hai brought hii 
parents from Italy with him, in this pious expedition. 

f Bef^des this famous faint, tradition reportSi that there was buried in thi4 
pl«:e a Oanifli chief, of a large fize, who fell in a battle fought in the Mull 
Buy, an cxtenfive moor about 3 miles diHant. There arc, indeed, evident markf 
of graves and battles ; and fome huge piles of flones, in digging among which, 
feveral ftone co(fins have been difcovered. lo tlus moor, it is probable, the in- 
habitants of the country fought the Danes, after they had landed ai Cromarty. 
In the church-yard, too, lies the body of Andrew Murray, a very brave man, 
regent of the kingdom in the reign of David If., who, after defeating the Eng- 
lilh in many battles, and quieting the ftate of the nation (according to Buchanan), 
having gone to the north, to take a view of Lis poffcffit»ns there, died in I^J* 
and was buried at Rofemarkie. 

(f Roftmarku. 34;} 

prifott ; and the upper part of it, lately repaired, is the Caun-* 
cil Chamber of the burgh. 

From the traditional account of St. Boniface annexed, there 
is ground to tliink, the prefent parifh church had its foundation 
bid t>7 him. In repairing it, anno 1735* in a vault, under 
a very ancient fieeple, there were found fome (lone cofEns of 
xude workoaanihip, one of which might probably contain the 
bones of this venerable apoflle. To perpetuate his memory, 
v^e have here an annual market, called St. Boniface Fair, 
and a well of excellent water is alfo diftinguifhed by his name. 
I^ay, what is Hill more, the feal of the old cathedral is yet 
preferved, and ufed as the public feal of the burgh, with this 
infcriplion, iq Saxon charaders, ^ scafituu scc«/ fetki 
ET bonefacii de rosmarkik. St. Feter (lands on it with 
his keys, and Boniface with his crock, in capital order — 
(See the Copperplate^ fronting page 317.) 

Churchy %3c. — ^The minifler's flipend is 6 chalders and 8 
J)olls of bear, and 3 chalders of meal. But with refpcfi tQ 
the payment of it, there are fome things a little uncommon. 
Above 2 chalders are drawn in teindjheaves^ or in kind, frooi 
(he lands about the l^urgh, which, when the decreet of locality 
was pafled in 1716, was beneficial to the incumbent ; but the 
tenants, for many years, having turned at leaft a fourth part 
of the lands into potatoes and grafs, (from which the minifter 
receives nothing)^ his living is thus diminifhed. He has like- 
wife, on account of thefe drawn teinds, a valuation in the pa- 
p(h of 104I. Scotch, by which he pajs cefs, and is burdened 
with a proportion of the expcuce of kirk and ipanfe, an4 
fchoolmafter's fa}ary. This he reckons a hardlhip ; and ay 
the drawing of the teind from the fields is very troublefome 
and difagreeable, for this and other reafons, he has been ob-^ 


« Thtt fecsu to be a cofitra<aiop for S^NCTORV^f 

344 Stattfiical Account 

liged to applj to the Court of Sefllon, to hare tbefe teiodf 
paid in another manner, and his living put upon a better and 
more certain footing than it now \% f • Kenneth M'Kenzie, 
£fq. of Cromarty, is reckoned patron of the parifli. The 
prefent manfe was built in 1756, on a rifing ground, direft]j 
oppofite to Fort George ; and commands a fine extenfire 
profpeft of the Mnrraj Frith, Invernefs, Nairn, and the ad- 
jacent country. It is jull about to be repaired -, and is fur- 
rounded with the glebe, confiding of about 4 Scotch acres. The 
church Hands about a quarter of a mile diftant, in the town 
of Rofemarkie, on a dry bank of fand, near the fea iliore. 
It was built upon the old plan, uncommonly long and narrow, 
which is very difagreeable to the preacher ; but when the 
prefent roof fails, it is hoped the heritors will hare it re«. 
built, in a more proper and commodious form* 

Poor.— The lift of the poor in the parllh is above 60. In 
this, however, are included a good number, who, though able to 
work for themfclves, receive fmall annual fupplies, efpecially 
when they are known to have young families. Thefe the 
minifter and kirk-fefllon endeavour to proportion to their real 
neceflities. Few or none of them travel about to feek charity 
in other pariflies« The fund for their fupport arifes from the 
weekly colle£lions in the church, which may amount, through- 
out the year, to between 81. and 9I., and a fmall capital of 
above 2coL, laid out at intereft, with fome rents of feats in 
the church. In the late hard years they were forced to en- 
croach upon theit capital, for the fubfiftence, not only of their 
ordinary poor, but of many other families, then reduced to 
very ftraitened circumftanccs* Befides this, there are two 


f The prefent mbifler fuccceded his father in 1775. He hat ZO children, 

p tops and 6 daughters. 

f^f Rofcmarkh. 345 

ttortiGcations for the poor of Gbanoorj; the one hy BARBARik 
M'Kekzie Counfefs of Seaforth, anno 1680, of 17 bolls 1 
.£rIota land rent« under the adminiftration of the mintfters of 
Hofemarkie and Avoch ; and the other of 27 bolls, from fome 
•lands difponed by fiiihop Patersok, and others pnrchafed 
^th money mortified by Sir Alexander M'Kekzie of ConI, 
n^hereof the magiftrates are adminiftrators. Ttiefe are no 
doubt ufefttly but would be much more fo, had they been deC. 
tined, or could they lie regulated, fo as to operate as an incite- 
ment and reward to -induftry. John Fowler, Efq. a native 
cf this place, who died laft year in Jamaica, has alfo bequeath- 
.•d lool. to the poor, and 100 guineas to the academy. 

AcADEMT.— The origin of thisinftitution is a little fingular, 
.snd will require a piirticular detail. In the year 1699, Thomas 
^ORBEs, bailie of Fortrofe, who feems to have been a good 
and pious man, mortified (funk) a bond of 1800 merks Scotch, 
or lool. Sterling, for aXalary to a catechift and examiner of 
the inhabitants ; until, by the charitable donations of others, 
fuch a fum might be contributed, as might produce an annual 
fiipend for a miaifter of the Eftabliflied Church, (erving the 
^ure in that burgh. This bond was granted to himl>y Isobel 
Countefs of Seafortn ; and, in the deed of mortification, the 
miniiiers of Rofemarkie and Avoch, are left fole adminiftra- 
tors of the fund ; John Qallas and Hugh Saillie, then writers 
in Fortrofe, having been nominated during their lifetime only. 
At what time this money was €rft received, or how it was 
appKed for many years, there is no evidence to be found. le 
is certain, however, riiat the monification was much negteded, 
.and in danger of being entirely loft. Its recovery was greatly 
owing to the exertions of Mr. Alexander Rat, roinifter of 
Avoch^ with the i^ftance of Mr. Nicol Splnce, then agent 
for the church, who were forced to raife a procefs againft thofe 
IToL* XI. X z * principall/ 

54^ Stfitjfiical j^cpunt 

principallj poncerned in u, which began io ^*J^^^ and coo- . 
tioued till 17 31 ; when tbej recovered what tbej eould, and 
got the mqnej lettled to boar lotereft. On the death of Mr. 
Kaj, in 17351 the fund fell chiefly under the management of 
Mr. JoHK Wood, late minifter of -Rofemarkiey who beftowed 
on it the utmoft attentbn ; and, aotwithftanding fbipe misfor- 
tunes, to which all human affiiirs are liable, bj the power of 
accumulation, and the care of the admin iftratqrs, in laying it 
out to the bell advantage, it is now brought up to a capital of 
about aoool Sterling. And, fincc the year 1746, a fqfiall (a« 
lary of 308. yearly has been alfo paid from it, to a catechift 
in the town of Fortrofe. 

The prefent adminiftrators, Mr. Alexander Wood, minifter 
of Rofemarkie, and Mc. James Smith, miniAer pf'Avoch, find- 
ing the fund in fo thriving a (late, from their own aftentioa 
to it, as well as tlie fidelity and diligence of their predeceflbrsy 
began to think in what manner they might apply it to the 
moft ufeful purpofe. With a view to this, it occured to them, 
that ic could not be employed better than in the eftablilhment 
of an academy at jFortrofe. To this they were invited much 
by the healthy fituation of the place, free from temptations 
to vice, and abounding with many fine walks and places of 
cxcrcife for the ftudents. They faw likewifei that this could 
be effeAed, fo as fully to aofwer the intention of the pious 
donor^ and to be produdive of the beft effe&s to the community. 
This inftitution has been accordingly formed. With the aid! 
of a liberal fobfciption from the gentlemen of this county, and 
many others, (to the amount of above 6ool. Sterling), the 
admiuiilrators purchafed a new houfe and garden, in a very 
agreeable part of the towi;, commanding a moft pleafant pro- 
fpe& i and have built another houfe in the fame fquare, with 
excellent rooms for teaching, and other accommodations. One 
•£ thefe houles is deftined for the re&ori and the other for the 
. (eacher 

bf lR,ofematBe. 347 

tocher of matliematics ; and both are very fit for lodging 

In this bulinefa, the adtniniftrators are liappj in having 
the afliftance and fupport of feveral vttf refpefiable gentle- 
men of the countj of Rbfs, who are named Vifitors of the Aca- 
demjy to obferve that the regulations be properly attended to ; 
and each of thefe has the privilege of fending to it any youAg 
man they pleafe, to be educated without paying fees to the 
mafters* The inftitution is yet in its infancy ; but, from a 
variety of circunoflances, there is little doubt ^of its fuccefs. A 
finer of heidthier fituatiohfor fuch a feminary, is not to be found 
in Scotland ; andj as there is now a ve^rj frequent inrercourfe 
by trading vefiels, this affords a cheap aiid eafy conveyance 
to Fortrofe from London, Leith, and other principal feai ports ; 
and ftudents who attend here/ among many other advantages 
in point of health, may have the benefit of excellent fea 

The pfefent vifitors are, Sir Hedor Munfo of Novar, K. B.; 
Fraiicis Humberfton M^Kenzie of Seaforth i Sir Hugh Munro 
of Fowlls, Bart.; Sir Charlds Rofs of Balnagown, Bart.; Sir 
Hedor M'Kenzie of Gairloch, Bart.; Donald M^Leod, Efq. 
of Geanies, {herrifi'-depute of Rofs and Cromarty ; Charles 
M'Kenzie, Efq. of Kilcoy; Kenneth Murchifon, Efq. of Tar- 
tadale; David Urquhart, ££}. of Bhielangwell; and Robert 
Bruce Aneas M'Leod, Efq. of CadbolL * To thefe, other gen« 
tlemen will be added froth time to time; who proVe bene- 
fiidors to the academy. 

The adminillrators will require about jooL more, to com- 
plete their plan, in finifhiog the buildings, purchafing mathe- 
matical inftruments, and making up a decent library, which 
they hope yet to be fupplied with by the liberality of the 
ptiblic. They find thait this bufinefs occupies much of thehr 
iime,' and has been attended with no fmall perfonal tr6ttUe ; 

X X a but 

34^ Statiftlcal Account 

but this they will not regret, if it turn out, as tbej expert, 
the general utility. The redor titaches the Greek, Latin« 
£ngli(h and French languages ; the fecond mafier, arithmetic^ 
book-keeping, geography, all the branches of mathematics, n- 
Tigation, perfpedive drawing, &c.*, and » third mafter is em- 
ployed for initiating children in the elements of the Latin aod 
Engliib languagesi writing and arithmetic. 

Language. — It is fomewhat remarkable, that in this, as 
"Well as the neighbouring partihes of Cromarty and Ayoch, 
the minifters preach only in Engliib, which is the commoif' 
language of the people ; and it has been remarked by travel- 
lers, that even the lower fort of them pronounce it with eafe 
and propriety. In this parifh> no Gaelic is to be found, but 
among a few fervants who come from the Highlands ; and 
they foon acquire the J^ngliOi by their refidence here. From 
this, it (hould feem, that thefe pariihes were not originally 
peopled with natives of thefe northern regions, but by perfona 
. who came by fea to fettle here, invited by the pleafautneft 
. and fertility of the country. Among thefe, there has pro« 
bably been a mixture of Danes* 

Eminent Men — Sir George M*KEKZiBof Rofehaugb. that 
eminent fiatefman and able lawyer, pafled a part oi his timo^ 
at Fortrofe, and had a particular attachment to it, on account 
of its delightful walks and profpefis JDr. Gsoaes M'Keit- 
ZIE, too, the laborious compiler of *^ the Lives of the moft 
* eminent Writers of the Scotch Nation," refided here, in aa 
oldcafile belonging to the Earl of Seaforth, and lies interred in 
the tomb of that family in the cathedral. And Dr. James 
M*K£KZir, who writes ** the Art of preferving Health," i:» laid 
to have been for fome time employed in teaching the grammar 
fehool of the burgh* 


- of Rofm^rkie^ ^^^ 

iiifadvantages.^t is to be regretted, that the ftate of im-i 
provement, in this and the neighbouring pariQies, is ftill fo 
far behind, though moK of the heritors have fet a good ex- 
ample to their tenants. This proceeds from different caufes. 
The principal one is the want of leafes, fu£cientl7 long to 
encourage the people to improve their farms. What induce- 
menr can a farmer have, to be at anj extraordinary pains in 
improving his | bScflion, by inclofing, raifing turnips, fown 
grafs, &c. when, at the expiration of a fhort tack, he muft 
cither pay an additional rent, or be deprived of all the fruit» 
•f his toil and induftrj ? Another ferious grievance, to the 
farmer, is the fcarcity of fervants, and the increafe of their 
fees. The joung fellows, for the moft part, either go into 
the army, or travel to the fouth, where they meet with better 
living, and higher wages. It is certain, however, that every 
znan has naturally a flrong attachment to his native place, 
which makes him very unwilling to abandon it. Surely, 
then, it mud be the intereft of all concerned, to induce the 
people to remain at ^om'e, by every reafonable encouragement. 
This will always be found the moft effcdual method. 

Circumflances attending the Scarcity iVi 1 7 8 2 - 3 .—In this coun- 
try, the crops in a great m^afure failed in 178a aod 1783, which 
were remarkably hard for the farmers. Tet none here, at 
that time, were fuppofed to have died of real famine. Th6 
white peafe and other grain from Englandt on the event of 
the peace, afforded a moft feafoaable fupply to many poor fa- 
milies. One thing remarkable was, that in thefe years, fevere 
ms they were, fewer were fick among the pariihioners, than have 
been obferved before or fiqce ; which may in a great meafure 
be attributed, to their being unable to fpend their money In 
drinking fpiritous liquors, and thus being obliged to llvo 
febcily. Another good effcft proceeded alfo from this tem« 


^ 50 Statj/licdl Account 

'potzrj fcarcity; — that various kinds of grain hating 
then imported, from England and other countries, thcj were 
fotVn in various foils, and on different farms ; and accordio^ 
to the goodnefs of the produce, they were preferved snd con- 
tbued in the country. The early oats were particularly diT- 
tinguiflied, which, upon late farms, are found to be of the 
greateft benefit. This has rendered thofe farms far mare va~ 
luable than they were foriherly. 

Farming Society, — ^It gives pleafure to the writer of this, to 
bbferve, that within thefe few months, z fociety has been 
f6rmed, under the name of the Rofslhire Farming Society, of 
which he and fome other clergymen are meinben, that pF€>- 
mifcs to be of fcrvice to the county. It confifts already of 
above jc members, who have contributed a fdm of money 
for the pubfic benefit ^ and as it is propofcd to branch U out 
into feveral committees, it will probably prove more ^xten-* 
£vely ufefifl. In a little time, it may excite a fpirit of emu- 
lation among the pradical farmers, who will thus have an 
opportunity of communicating to one another thei^ obfervt- 
tions and experiments, which may be the means of introducing^ 
valuable improvements. Now that the duty is taken off the 
coals imported^ to the north, this will tend much to forward 
the views of the fociety, and facilitate the operations of the 

Propo/ed Improvements. — ^The parlfli of Kofemarkie is ex- 
ceedingly well fituated, for a manufadure of coarfe linens or 
Ofuaburghs, which might be carried on here to great advan- 
tage. To this branch the inhabitanss are already much ac- 
cuflomed. The price of (pinning is cheap ; on which ac- 
count flax and tow arch rought here from Aberdeen, to be 
given out to fpin, and the yarn returned by the merchants to 


of Refcfoarkis.' . 55 1 

their correfpondents; being allowed a certain rate far commiC* 
fion. A good deal of flax is rgifed in the pariQi, which would 
no doubt be increaCed, hat for want of a lint mill to drefs it. 
It would be of conlideral)le fervice to the people, to have a pro- 
per one erededy by encouragement from the truQees for im- 
provemepts and manufaftures, or by anj of the proprietors* 

Aie^Houfes, — ^There is every reafon to complain of the 
number of obfcure tippling houCes, in this as well as the ad« 
jacent pariihes. Thefe have the moft baneful eSefts in injur- 
ing the healthy wailing the fubftance, and debauching the mo- 
rals of the people. Many, by haunting them too often, bring 
ruin on themfelves and their families. It is much to be wifli-i 
ed, that ibme effedual courfe were devifed and pu^ in execu- 
tion to cru& them. 

CharaSffr,,^JThe minifter, however, has the fatlsfadion to 
lay, that the inhabitants of the parilb, in gpnieral, efpecially 
tbofe of the better fort, are Ibber and induftrious, moderate in 
their principles, and decent inth^ir condud; and free from thofe 
contra&ed notioQs and religious preju^ces, which are flill fo 
prevalent in more northern pari(hes, anfl fome other parts of 


553^ Stati/lical Aceou^a 


{Couffty and Synod of Fife^-Prejhytery {/" Sf. Andrtojs^ 
fiy Mr. William West^ Stjum Ckrk and Scbaolmafitr. 

Origin of the Nan^e. 

SOME perfons, little lefs fanciful, pethaps, than inteHif^en^ 
think that Denino derives its origin irom the Gaelic 
word Dumymacb^ whofe firft conftituent lignifies a bill^ and the 
two Wtt young women, Tas feminijie original ferms, in their* 
judgments, to be deducible from the apparent fimilitudc of the 
Gaelic word to the name Denino. Thej infer, therefore, that 
Denino and the Hill of Virgins are terms perfedl j equivalent* 
But tiroes, and manners too, are doi;ibtlefs ouich changed fince 
the primarjr impofition of this fo verj pure and endearing 
title of our parifli. Unfortunately, there is not the lead cir« 
cumflance, either in tradition or record, tending to eftabliik 
the authenticity of this derivation. Indeed no circumilance 
appears fo decifive of the matter as the local fituation of Deni- 
no. The fimple confideration of its ilanding in the immediate 
vicinity of a large and deep den, where, in fight pppoiicion to 


tf Denim, ^^ 

iU two bv^e rocks fecm tothrtaten an embrace over tbe fer- 
cnaial dream below* appears to have naturallj fuggefted thp 
name^ Ihmaoj or, in other words, the FUlage on the Hetu 
And» when it is further known, that, unlefs in cafes of inac- 
curac^f or of inadvertency^ the ancient and modem ortho« 
^raphies of I>enino ar^ uniformly the fame, tbe latter opi«- 
aion, with regard to its original, mud appear the more cre- 
dible. The firli fyllable of .the word beii^ attended with no 
difficulty, bj onlj admitting m 4?ommon tranfpofition, as to 
the two xemaioing'Onea, Deaino and tbe Village on the Den, 
will appear plainly fyaoi^moos* 

Siiuatiou and Extent. — The pari(h lies among the eaftero 
^iftrids of the county of Fife^ on the road between St. An«r 
^rews and Anftruther. The extent of Oenino is uncomnionlj 
circumlcribed, being Icarcely 3 miles in length, and little more 
4han half as mu«b in breadth* 

Figun^ Surfiue^ Riouleis and i^.— *The form of tbe parifii 
is pretty regular ^ diftinguifhed fay no intcrfedtions from other 
jiariihes ; to a good degree paralellogramical \ with a largis 
extent of its centre furroanded by circularly rifiog. ground^ 
which, being generally but barren, produces a lingular conca- 
vity of very confiderable fertility. It is b^utifully inter* 
fperfed with a variety of fmall rivers, abounding with troi^t 
of various fpecies and of moderate fize, but of fapefior fla^ 
vour. The wild and protuberant banks of thefe rivulets, if 
luitaUy decorated with thofe diverfities of plantation, with 
which, to tbe honour, and, eventually, to the emolument qf 
their proprietors, they now begin ^ be occupied|^ muft pr^- 
jent fcenes highly pidnrefque and gratifying. 

Vqi.. XI% y y SgU 

354 StatlJHcal Account 

Soilf ifc. — — .— This pariffli^ though farrounded onfeverjr 
liand, almoft, hy^eztenfive moor, dcftitute nearly of what 
j tntghtp at a vierj trifling expence, compared with future rer 
turns, contribnte to general gratification and indalgenoe, xi| 
i^ddition to the more intimate advantage and pleafure of hidi« 
Tjdoals, is Far from being barren. Hiongh, from the finall- 
ncfs of the extent, no perceptible variation of air, or of di- 
srate, can b^ naturally expefted ; yet this is not the cafe re- 
fpeding its foil, ulrhich is confiderably diverfified. Some of the 
ground confifts of a black and light, bi^t tolerably fertile loam, 
refting upon n gravelly botCpo^ ; while a large proportion of 
it difplajs a foil of a deep and ftiff clay, with a bed of white 
>nd light fand. The mod juft idea of it, however^ will be 
ii^ from the information, ifbat the foil, in general, is, in ft 
great meafare, wet and fpungy ; in mott of the farms of the 
parilh, frequently broken by large fwamps and fens ; and, 
though pretty well adapted for producing corn, is principally 
remarkable lor crops of artificial grafs and natural pafturage. 
Some of the proprietors, therefore, availing themfelves of this 
obvious property pf their eftates in this diftrift, have, with 
jBuch fuccefs, converted them into thofe fpecies of forms, fof 
Tpehich their lands are thi|s fo very well calculated. 

CUmati and Diffafes. — ^Denino, Iheltered from no quarte^ 
bv any confiderable planting or eminences, except by fome 
fifing ground toward^ the S. W.^ is often expofed to great 
winds ifrom the fea, whioh, blowing with great force and 
Aarpnefs, concur with the natural coldnefs of the foil, in ren- 
dering the frequent humidity and bleaknefs of the climate^ 
the more fenfibly felt. Tht air and climate are, however, of 
Inch a nature and temperature, as to occafion but few intei'- 
ruptions in the health and native gaiety of the people, th«t 
rheumatifoa and byfteric comnlainu bcbg the chieJF diforders 

^iioh occor. ^t inhabittfnts, though dominoolj bealtbji 
tad maoj of them long-lived^ fiiraiiU no inftaoces of remarks 
Idde loagevitj. 

Miurab atki Mineral tVoiers.-^CiM (^tmit f rodi the vail 
iininber of old pits in varioas places of the parifli« to havet 
fome time ^o, been a vetj plentifdl article he^ There 
is ftiU, it is faid, plenty of it in feveral eftates of this diftria $ 
bot it is uneertain when any of its proprifctdrtf will open tbefe 
tninesi' or rattiefy whether their future gaind would compen« 
fate the expenditure neeeflary for that piirpofe* Free*ftone ia 
a)lb foiind in much abundance ; but, thougH of an eafy accefs^ 
and of a tolerable good ^uality^ it is leldom called for beyond 
the limits df the pariih. The cre6tioa and reparation of en^ 
dofuresy particularly on Sir William Erikine's efiate of Cieni- 
ho, and the building of his tenants fubfiantial premifesf are th6 
chief Ufcs to which it has hitherto been^ aiid is ftill occafiou'^ 
ally applied. There is an uncommon variety of places in 
the parifh, where ochre ii fddnd, particularly at ti number ot 
ehalybeate fprings. Between 30 and 40 jears agoi thefe 
%ipcte mneh reforted to« for relief in diforders, chiefly fcorbutic 9 
but of late they have loft much of their former celebri^^ 
though^ td all appearaneci very undefervedly; 

Cirri^/fri.— Towards the S. W. end of the parifli of De^^ 
hino, theire is a moft remarkable fall of water, of probably 
near to feet, from the (helve of the rock to the common CxuT'^ 
face of the very deep pond, into which, among a vaft ndmbet' 
of the finny race, (and which, according to the conjedures of 
the inhabitants, forms the boundary of their joumeyfaig up* 
wards,) it pours almoft perpendicuiarly. This fall, from fomu 
itidicrousy but perhaps nataraU analogies^ has, for time im« 

Y y ft memoriali 

35^ S/ati/tkal Accdmf 

Memorial, been cooftandjr known by a very marked tppeHrfbii!^ 
To the pond below there is no acced, but up either fide of 
the headlong current, overhung by rocks, fome of ikem im* 
minenC and dreadful ; while the immediate entrance to the 
))ond lis tiarrowed, by the feemingly artificial and mirtiial pro-i 
}feftion of two focks^ ereded in the form of pods, de&rnod for 
doors and hinges ! The only artificial curioftty, is a ftibterrm- 
neous caaal, of nearly 30 yard^ in kngth, of betwven 4 and 5 
feet of an average breadth and height^ and dug from the one 
end to the other, under a folrd and continued rock of fVee* 
fione, about 10 yards from the furfk:e of a large piece 6£ 
hrable ground, aduaUy peninfnlvr. This Very ingenions con-* 
crair,'\^bich forms the peculiar haunt of a fbw otters, was, about 
So years ago, effeftuated by one of the then refiditog heritors, 
with an intention of conducing, through below the founda- 
tions of this ifthmus, an increafe of water to bis mSI, tn ha 
remote vicinity. The ezpence, attending the atchievemeot 
of fnch an aftoniihing piece of work, was no led than tlre9 
pounds Sterlings and a hott of mealt and f6r tht damage occ»* 
tloned by the inUtke^ as it is ironically called, there is fl^ll an 
"yearly i^lowance of as* and 3 firlots of oats, madi; by tbe 
tenant , of the above mill, to a tenant of another, through 
whofe hitm the water runs, befbre its difappearance in the 
mouth of its invifibk receiver. There are two or three echoes 
to be* met with in the pariib, which merit no de&ription. 

Population.'^The pari& records of Denino extend back only 
to a little before the middle of laft century ; and it is fome- 
thing curious to obferve, that the date of population was then 
very litde above what it is at prefent. From 1771 till to- 
wards 1778, the popuhtion of the di(!rid of Denino appears 
gradually to have decreafed, till it aflbmed its prefdit feem- 


of Dcnino. 357 

inglj fettled ftate \ The total amount of fotsb, wilJi TarioM 
ptber circuoiftancc^ relating to the date of Che parilH, accord* 
iog to a very recent and exad calculation, are as under : 

Statistical TTable of the Pari/b of Denino. 

JLe^gdi 10 Engfifli milet, 


Aver, ditto, from 174% to iys%^ a^ 

Breadth, not ({idee 


^opuUtioD in 2755, 



death., . t 7 

^^^ -dL-^ births from 1780 to 1790, xo 

Decreale, - ai5 marriages,fromdo. todd. t ^ 

Aver. Births, from 1^43 to X653, S deaths, from d^ to do. - § 


*For fosie time preceding the middle of the prefcnt century, the principal 
yart, if not the whole, o{ the pari(h hnibandry was performed by cottagers; who 
cnjojed, as a material perquifite of their ferrices, a fmall portion of hmd.— * 
The pariih alfo abounded with penOcUn^ at inferior, tenants. Thde> therefore 
nod the cotugen, together with a confiderahle nvmber of teiilies employed iv 
A* eoal mines^ bvt moft of all, the diviiion of farms, and employing of hired 
fcrtants in their enltivation, contribnted much to the multiplication of the in- 
babitaots; and haaco it « etfy to perceive the tiaufca «f lb remaricable a depo-' 
palation ; which is a natural confequcnce of the union of farmsr More thas 
30 inhabited houfes ezifted in theparifh, aboaC half a century ago, of [whicb 
fcarcely a fingle Teftige now remains. It may be remarked &rther, diat the 
converfioo el a very large extent of the didriA into graft farms, has operated 
very materiaHy to the decreafe of the people, by employing a much (mailer 
Bomber of f^srvuts of either fejt. * 

fThis is the average, after making a proportional dedudion, for the many 
lorials from other parilhes, that take place here, on account, it is faid, of the 
fupeiiority of our burial-ground. In the above averages, the baptifms, marri* 
ages, and burials of the inhabitants of Kings Muir are included; it being found 
impoffibte, from the' connexion they neceflarily had with Deniao,. to make any 
esad difcrtmination from the records* 

tThe number of births, marriages, and deaths, for xo yean» in^medlatdy 
preoeding 1 790, are as followf : 

4 Ttarj 



Stat^fol Jia^uhi 

InhitoMits id DeaaliOi 
•— — — Kiagt Mair, 
Homber ol makt iii OemnOi 

— fcmtto, 

pcrfont under lo 
/ears of age 
' between xo and io, 

— -^— ao and 50, 

■ — — 50 and 70, 

■ -— — — 7oandzoOt 

■ I ■ « honfes inhabiced» tf 

Atct.^ perfoot in cacb, nearlj 
number o£ honics uninhabiied, 

■ sew honfes lately 

^tm^^mmm^^ married penoBti - 
'■ children, at an aver- 

age,irom each mar- 
^ married 









Nnmbcrof widowf, 

I membertof tlleEftar 

bUihed Church, - 

^— ^ ^ Burgher Secedei^ 

■ Relief ditto, 
T perfoni born out of 

the parifli, • 
' ' ' fropnetorsi • 

■■ « clergymen, 
*• ichoolmafteni, 
i^ farmcra.ataooLper 

do. at joLandt^ 






- do. between aoLand 

• ihopkeepen, * 

- isnkeepcn, 

- tarpenten^ * 
















Total within xo years, • to6 
AYcnge, nuxlft - xr 









ffamhtr ^wmjnHt 4 Kumberof yoongpcrfiuutuight 

. ■ n . .1. tailori*, - 3 EogUflisWsiting^ltc. 40 

i ■ milleri, - - 4 J ■ acwt, in Knglifl^ ipea" 

. — male fcnrtnti, - ^ fiire, - 9280 

> female ditto, - IX cartt, - • S4 

- flax-<litflera9 - t — ■■ ■■ ■■ plought, t ^ 

• a]»premicciy r » Vafaied rent^ in Scotch 

- day-Uboiirerf» . r ^ mone^, n ^3^4^ 6s. 84* 

• poor, - "3 Rf»l rent, mnao 1795, 

Capita] of their fondf, - ZioU in ^terlingy - zZ57hof.o4; 

4^^nnnal income, • - 12L 

Proprietors^ Rents^ and Improvements.'-^on^ of the pro^ 
pnetors refide in the parilh. A few remains of the vtrj an- 
pient and venerable feats of their progenitors lie in it, in the 
wildeft ft ate of ravage and of Gothic defolatlon ; and whicb, 
whether re/lored according to their former conftitution^. or 
after a^modern and more refined plan, ninft, at any rate, af- 
ford bnt indifferent accommodation for their more illuftrioiis 
fucceflbrs. There is a fmall farm in this pariih, of 27 acres, 
belonging to the kirk-fef&on of Elj, a confiderable village 
about 5 miles S. of thisj and there are ^ feuers in it, whofe 
fen-dntjy to Mi(s Scott of Scotftarvet, for about 11 acres 
of pretty good ground, is 51. 2s, 4Td. Within lels than 30 
years, the landed property of the diftrift of Denino has un- 
dergone frequent changes, and has always been attended with 
confiderable augmentations in the purchafe. The whole rental 
pt a confiderable eftate in it, little more than ao years ago, 
was only Z96I, per annumy though now it draws no leb tfaaa 


? le it fimiewbat ranarkable.. tfatt thera iwtther are, nor have been, for 9a 
pnksown tiiM paft, any JhmaJktn in the pariih of Denino, notwithfianding of 
the inceflant demand for their fenricet in every other place. To remedy at 
much as poflible, however, (his inconvenience, the parilhionert are far from be- 
ing defpicable aumfer^ of flioet. The circnmlbnce of being, at the neareft, j 
fJdn diiUot from any wnihrs, bat taught them thit article of ingenuity. 

.j6o S/a^/lk^ Juount 

50ol. a fMET* The Mwnige price of the whole fuiSk it ■— riy 

tcs. 6d. in acre ; good &nns letliiig at about xjs. per acre, 
ft an avenge. The very 1>eft mxj be about ll. ; the fecond 
about I2s.i while the inferior kind is not worth more than 
js« an acre* Laft year, a confiderable ellate herct tfaon|^ al- 
snoft wholly nniaclofed at die timei was foU for 5,000 ^lu* 
veas, which yf%% no lels than 35 years pnrchafe, Wtat has 
chiefly oantributed, to raife the price of land to fuch a degree, 
is the now general praAice of inoloiing, which only commea- 
ced in this diftrift about ao years ago, but ever fioce has 
made the moft rapid advances, Moft of theinclofures of the 
parifh coniift of dry ftone dikes, topped with a ftony layer, 
of ftonee placed upon their edges, and the whole caft with 
lime. InclofureSy confifting c€ ditch and hedge, likewife go 
fad forward, and are paving the way for an univerfal emula« 
lion on thofe grounds, which beft agree with fuch kinds af 
indofurcs^^-The valued and real rents of the whole diftrifi 
are ftated in the table* In calculating th^ latteci the lens are 
' not included. 

jlgricttburt.'^TYiCTc is only a fmall proportion of the .pa-» 
rifli under grain ; but that (mall part is well cultivated. Dur- 
ing the fbort '%>ace of ao years paft, the date pf our cultiva- 
cion has undergone very confiderable improvement; infomucbt 
that the ground, which formerly was let for about as. 6d. an 
acre, on an average, is now rented at near 146. an -acre ; and, 
even at this rate, it is thought fuffioiently cheap* There ia 
l^erhaps fomething in the management of the grals farms in 
the parifh worthy of remark : Of fuch (mall portions of them, 
-as^arcfbldy oocupied by eats and barley, the ipecies of graia 
for which their foil is ntrtorally adapted, Che cenants are pro- 
hibited from taking anjr ffiore than two crops running ; and 
of thefe fiirms allb| which are almoft all arablci about a fixtb 


"tf l)emnak 


yatt IS annusdij tinder the above fpecies of crops ; the one 
half* or near it, is to be yearly fown down with clover and 
tye^gra(!i« This fingakr rotation maft be uniformly and 
punftually obferved. There being fcarcely any cattle nfed ' 
in hnibaodry here, and only 5 cottagers employed in it, who 
liave portions of land for part of their labour, the hired fer- 
>rant cultivates his fields with a middle fized horfes yoked in 
'm plough, which U aln&oft tmifbrmlj of the Englilh conftruc* 


Annual produce*. 



per Aert 

I. s. d. 


1. i; i. 














3 la 
3 14 6 
11 6 
i I 



3 »S • 






491 IZ 

61 17 6 

ao5 x6 

60 15 



Sowo Gials, 1 

Hsj, J 

Si. z8o 

90 ' # 
65 10 

454 3 4 



Straw, as. per '[ 

boll of com, 1 
Pafture, at ' 
51. per horfe, J 
ft L per cow, j 



3596 la 10 
291 1$ 


3(89 8 10 




•The abeve Iketdi of the inonsl ptodace of the ptrilh may he of Cervice, la 
IripiDg to form a conception of^fimilar articles in dioft diibiA^ from which- 
l»%oftf^Hff thckioAiaayhatthcoBgiftaia. 

^^ Sfa/i/^al Account 


Sliim1>er of draught horlcs - 63, Taloed at 
^1 ■ ■■ ' fiddle ditto, • 3, ■ 

, ■ ■ I « ■ beft cattiB, • 9*» ■^^■•••■^w 

■ ii inferior dkto • 174, . 

■ ■ firtfie, - x8; ■ 

Total ?aluc of fipd^ • « • « JL.«474 

Pq/lth^agi, Sbiip^ l^c»— From a fiirvey of the aboro tables, 
St appears, that there j^e ooljr al^out 7^1 aprea of the pariik 
•f Denino under real crops* There are fully 180 acres of 
perfeft moor ui it, of bo ufe, uuleis perhaps for planting, of 
which it 18 hitherto deftitute. The ps|riih is, howerer, adoni« 
cd with nearlj 60 acres. of planting, eonfifting, in a great de^ 
gree, of ftripes, as tl^ej are callsyi, and judieiouflj enough de> 
figned for cherishing the ogld gtounds, where they flourilb ta 
lieautiful and pltntifal rarietj^ There are, in the laft plact» 
generally about 40 acres of fallow ii^ die pariih ; ib ihat^ if 
£roni|. aaSo acres, which the whole ^iftf i^ 0$ DeninooMUifis» 
we 4pdurft 99Z, the ninnbertuider corft, fUloW| &c, &e. tibere 
will appear a balance of 1289 acres of n^ituxal and artificial 
]pafturage.f upon, the laft diviiion ^ which, great numbers of 
•xcdknt cattle are £^, during the fommer, by the grazierst 
and either occafionally difpofed of, to the itinerant merehant^ 
or driven to the country markjets. The number of iheep io 
Ae parifli does not excee4 ao \ th^ are kept and ftd by fome 
of th9 farmers, for their own ufe only, during^ tb^ fumai^r. 

Prices of Zabour and Prov^<wi/.— From a view of the 
table of the annual produce, it appears, that the pariih muft 
do confiderably nK>re than maintain its inhabitants. The ave- 
tagc pricea of the feveraj fpeclcs oj^ g^rain, thorein fjecjfied. 

i Itcttei fls ¥egalated hj tlie county fiats ; or rftAer, T>7 tb« 
^{ciieral ftate of the market. — ^The yearly wages of a labotiring 
nttt-fervkift, are 7L; andthofe of n 'womaci/sL The day. 
Imboorer has t$. a day, wkhoirt ipeat ; Is. %i^ per acre^ for 
4iay ciitliiig;'Biidfar making dittos or for titrnip hoeing, either 
hy makis or femaks^ 6d«, end foAiet!mes yd. -per day. The 
|irice of t goole here is eo&motdjr js.; a hen, ks.; and eggs^ 
5fd. a'ddssen ; butkr URs at 8d», and cheefe from 3d. to 6d# 
.per poand ; pigeohs, ^d. a puir ^ chickens at 4d. each ; rah- 
^ts, {aninuils v^ry conttmott in thb parifli of Dehtnoj, at 6d. 
^ paftr, without Ae Ikin | and 'tetdher meat, unirer^ny, af -^d^ 

3t4elefiq/lkut 5/^f(p.«-»Tlle manft;, dmoR thrown down froAi 
4he ibuadation, and Tebuilt, on a durable conftni6Hon, about 
tte year t74i, is a tolerably decent bo^zfe, a florifs high, 
vndicontams 6 moderately good rooms, with a kitchen, aifd 
'Anne otter apartments* Since its 1si| erection, it has un« 
flergbtoe ^rtry taany repairs. The glebe contams littb 
teore than 4I acres of Englifli meafurCf worth aboiit li. tc$» 
jper acre, if duly cnltivated. The ilipeod confids of 24I. in 
inoney, with 5 chalders, or 80 bolls of vidnal ; the one half 
ineal, and the other bear. The whole annual income, ex- 
idnfive of the manfe, and a toflerably good garden, is ^bout 
90I. Stetliog. The church is one of the fmalleft of country 
churches, perhaps, with an aile, and afrnfll porcb by one of its 
front doors. It is uncertain when it was built ; but yo^^ perfoni 
are peribflly fure of its having been very lately and very ma« 
feriaSy repaired. Mr. James Br0WK, ordained 13th May 
9790, is the prefent minifier of Pen;no, 

£rioo/.— .The fchool-houfe is a very (hort, low, thatched 
^oufcy ^fid^ Chough not very old, a very crazy edifice. Tha 

Zz% icho<4. 

5^4 Staytiud ctwnt 

Ibhool* xtTf fofMptely for the health of the tncfber* «• wA 
as of tbole who aie taught, is large^ and capable of . outaiao^ 
a few Qfeore fchokrs, bffidcs the paroohial onea? a great nuaa- 
bciroC ^whom convttoaly attend it. ^tfides a vary good gas^ 
deii« o£ 8 by xm paoea* tba» ia a Calary of too mcrka 
(51, IS9»' oid. Sto^iofc)* aod tl|e feffion* clerk's Saea, wbicia 
amount to al. ija* 8d.j with an occafional gratuitj of 5s* 
. S,terling, at the difpenratipn of the Loi;d*s Supper, for eztcaov- 
dioary ikiging. be feea for teaehing are, for £nglifli« is. 3d.; 
for readiug.and wntiiag, xs«'*6d«$ for arithmetic, ls*i and for 
^Aio, a^ . 64* Other faraaches of* educatioQ are feldom da- 
fired ; and eren the laft not very frequently. Moft of ihc 
people have a laudable ambition to have their children edu- 
cated ; and tli^e .payattaot of the quarter, fees ia fcascely ever 
grudged* though often pkxi, with a good dq^re^ of tar(litte6» 
arMtag from ^ aftnal penury of iat^ of the parents. The 
dues on a proclanxatim oi marriage, are ^s. ^. when rega^ 
)ar, pne third whereof goes to the beadle ; and^ wben irregn- 
|ar, or performed in ihorter time than thf church ftandarda 
didate, an additional gratuity is commonly given by the 
employers. The dues on . each baptiim are 29«> of which dio 
beadle gets jld.; sod tbore on certificates a^ 6d, each, of 
which the beadle hs^s no (hare. The feffion-cle^k has alf<^ 
4d. each for rcgifirating burial^. Qi^ annual income, altoge^ 
tber, does not exceed -aal*, at an average, one year with ano« 
ther. Such, howeyer, is the liberal provifipD allotted for th^ 
far greater part of thoie members of fociety, fi:om whofe fer* 
vices mufl ever, fundamentally, proceed whatever is elegant 
atid refpedable in the lives a^d mauners ^f their feUovfr 

Poor.<^Tbe large coutributions formerly made for the poor 
herc^ and the £maU diib^rlemeatSi haycf railed t^e f relent ca^ 


ff 2)tnin9. j6y 

flttl of their fendtf to i^ol. ; which is lodged ytattlj io tho 

booids of- a leiidcd proprietor^ partly in fome of the ^Banks, 

acid draws intereft, copimoaly at 4i ^r cent. pc)r anniim, 

XiiiSt with the we^j coUeftions at church, which are about 

as. each Subbath, at an average^ and the dues ariling from thia 

two pattst (chie one of which produoes 58« and the other xs. 

4Sfd* from the funerals at which thej are i|fed)f may raife the 

annual income of the poor to about i%h Each of the poor 

lias nearly 7id. erery week ; but their penfions are propor^ 

f ioned, notwitbftanding, to their ocqalional neoeffities. What 

of their yearly incoqi^ remains thus unezhaufted, is expend* 

^ in the payn^ent of £dartes ; fuch as, the feffion-clerk*s« 

the bcadle^Sy the preibytery clerVs, &cc. &c. ; with Tarioua 

^pairs abo^t the church, the fchool, and Ichool-houfe ; and erea 

aboot the public bridges of the psrifli* Thefe repairs, how« 

f ver, devolve upon the kirk-feffion, who defray thefe ezpencea 

only in fuch cgies as they judg^ unworthy of an application 

to the heritors of the parifli. But, at any rate, thofe who 

have theif &lariea as above, paid from the poor's funds, 

are perhaps equally neceifitous with thofe for whom thej 

wens originally deftincd. Upwards of 15I. was expended 

lately in the purchafe of a new pail, without touching th# 

poor's capitaL 

jintiquitiiSf C^r.— -It is affirmed, that there are fome relict 
pf antiquiiy in the panib, but they happen to exift more ia 
|he imaginations of the credulous antiquary, aided by fuper* 
(litious report, than otherwife. There are only two even of 
thefe : the one is a Qruidical temple, which is laid to hayo 
flood \n the vicinity oji a plape called Balietbly i from whicbf 
^in the opinion that Baal, the Sidonian deity, and the Grod 
^tyezebilf was worihippd there), it is alTerted to have de« 
fived its name. Of ituf JDiuidical temple n^t the 919ft lmallef( 


^ Statijtimi Aitomi 

i^eftH^e (cias tiov lie TeMh— w^Tte ot1ierYiip[16rei stui^iii^r 
is a Roman camp \ which it Add Co give smb* tt> a plsoe nair 
ft, called CbeJIuM. Hiet« atfe. It it troe^ fiotte vcFf "vifikk 
tiiarks of this ancient tatttnobvMttt \ Imk iaft^ft <rf l>cng 
iwhar it is vnlgarij bctievtd |o he, k appeals, on a piopcr 
iriew of ciroimftatioesy to be in reality no znoie than-* hoiaie- 
%j drain from a number of oU coal-pits ! TThe ieeming cab* 
formity of Ohtjlui to certain £oglfii nalnes, fooh as, Obijht^ 
'Cold>€ftir^ Uc. lays a foundatidD for the ingembns coiijeftnrcs 
^f feveral kamed anci^aries. ^anj pf the names of places, 
liowever, in the panfli of I>emno, are evidently of Celtic dew 
aivation^ fuoh as, Sify^ KinaUy^ Straviiiy^ lie* Moft dC 
them, however, are obvioufly of Engliih origiD, and fignifip 
eant of their local fitnations } as, Bpnnjfield^ i^Hi^o/}, Fot&^ 
Jhne^/M^ am} the like. 

i}^/feA«ft^/>.*^The leading fol^eft of eompkitat, wJth Htm 
iifferMTclafles of onr parifhioners, is the fcarctty of eaah^ 
(the only atrticle'of thcpatiih fuel), even in die ktni^f cmJI 
By the fielfifiinefs of individuals, tlie people here feem to be^ 
In a great meafure, lexcltided from thofe ineftimable and aei» 
ceflary flwonrs, lb lib^lly poured around them, by the bcw 
nignity and wifdomof the Almighty, for, notwidiftaadinf 
the great quantity of coals formerly raiiiNi in our immediate 
neighbourhood, the (pirit of monopoly has for many year^ 
paft dfsprived us of this bounty of ptovidente^ and it is faar4 
to fay how long the fame fpirit may continue to afflifi the 
poor of this parifli ; the principal proprietor of the coal-minea 
bere having entered into an agreement with the proprietor of 
an adjoining colliery, to keep his own coal-works (but til| 
thofe of the dther {hall be cdmpletely ezhaixfted \ in retuni 
for Which the other has bound himfelf, and his heirs, &c. t6 
pay him an annuity of ao 1. a-year \ Thus the poor of thia 



ffmltkf U MbQ •$ the adjac^t 00011017^ ut dqirived of % bleK 
$i^ evukniljj mtcoded for them bj Providence ; and oUig. 
^ to purchafe fiad from a confiderable diflance, at a highetf 
yoWf mi ^ aivorfe qoalilj^ To this eflfeotial^ and ftem^ 
V»glj iiamnadiabk grievaooe, maj be added, miUMrlage^^ 
whidbtf hoii«i9er» are not fp mtidi Mt ia tiua as in oihes 


JffirM^, Prmlegei, t/r. This is a very extenfive traft of' 
groundv containing more than loeo acres. It is called King*s 
Alidrf on account of its beings fome time after the rcftoration o£ 
Charles II. conferred bj that Prince upon one CqL Borthwick, 
who had attended hin\ui his adventures and exile,. ptfevioii(l]Ft» 
his attainment of' the throne, as a reward for his attachment 
ahd fervices. This ils the account given of its origin, by Mr J 
HannO| the prefent proprietor. Moft of the ground o£. tbiSb 
a|icieat rqjal donatbn is, ^ its naipe inlinuaies^ extieiB^ 
wild in appearance ; though, upon the wholes BMieh le& un* 
fertile than might be ezpefted. The proprietor, however^ 
if of opinion, that, taking all of it together, it is not worth 
i^re than is. $d. an acre ; while others rate it much higher* 
Xt is wboUj exempt from affeflment ; and the circumftanoc off 
its not yielding either minifter's ftipend or fchoolmafter's ia* 
brj, feems, in the conjeftnres of manyi to have cbflbd ie 
with no pariQi whatever. Its inhabitants have, nevertbelaftf 
eiliier from their vicinity to our church, or the popolari^ o0 
its minifters, always confidered themfelves as pariihioBers ofi- 
Oenino, in the moft decided preHerence te Crail ; b whofe' 
puriik they are aflferted, by a fiew, to be legally included. As 
the picfeat laird ^i Eing'a Muir has aot his charter by him^ 


'^6i Statffticaljteawit 

we flitll levre die detenoinarion of this eontroTerijr, to tWd 
who may think it worth the inveftigfttion* It may not bo 
mmils to oUenre, however, that although the people of Ktog'a 
Moir haveJI for time immemorial, oonnefted themfdvea widi 
the diftrift of Dentno^ pi^adjaera ; yet there is a little fhrm^ 
fitoaced between this parifli and it, which pays ftipend to tfaa 
sninifter of Crail, as he himfelf (ays, though perfeftly unooiu 
seded with King's Muir, and belonging to a diflEierefit pro« 
prietor. The moft fertile parts of King's Muir are parodied 
out into ImaU farms, let by the lump, to peffons, moft of 
whom are either tradefmen, or work, during a great pait 
of the year, by day-labpur. The populatiou of it is us «a« 


MskcisbofeiOydntfige, $$ Pamilief, • « ^^ 

Pemalci, • - - 75 Widows, - - . ^ 

Children, nnderio, - 19—153 Widower, - - • i 

Between lo and ao, - 4» Natives, etther of King'a Maif^ 

■ ■ ■ so and 50^ - • 57 ©r Denino, • * ;t 

■■■ ■ ' 5 and 70^ - 30 Bwffafir Sccedefs^ • * 4 

f— — *70 and 100^ • - i— «53 

ProfnHcr^ Hfnf, Minefals, He.^Tht dlate of King^l 
Muir is now entailed on the name of Banm^ the fumame of 
its ^efeot laird, whofe whole yearly rental amounts to iool« 
There is nothing remarkable in the King's Muir, befides its 
containing the ooal*mine above mentioned, and one of the 
two mines that convey the water from the links, which was 
4ug nearly 50 years ago, being more than 300 fathoms m 
length ; in moft places 9 ditto from the fur&ce of the earth ; 
origmally 18 inches wide, and jf feet high. The coal here 
was hitherto wrought by a wind-mill, no veftige of which 
lemainsi but will ia fiUure be wrought by a diffexent de- 

of Den}nt\ 369 

fltenC, and by different machinery* Th« <ft«lc of King's 
Mttir is whollj devoid of planting*- and no lefs deftitote o£ 
- cflillofures, or any kind of fence. Xkis large {»ece of ground* 
apparently an outcafi from all pariflies, aa its iphabitants ate 
iboaetimes hnmouroufly told, by tbofe of tfae adjacent diftriAs, 
'wottldf with that extenfive part of this parifh, which went to 
complere the vicarage of Cameron, but which ought ftill to 
pay tome proportion to Denino^ form a pariih of a very re« 
fpeftable estedt. 

General CiaraSifr. — Of the inhabitants of this parifli it 
may juftly be aflerted, that indudry and hofpitality, iincerity 
and an obliging behaviour, are their general charaderiftici. 
They are alfo noted for moderation and fobriety, generofity 
«nd candour. From thefe virtues there may be, however, aa 
iS but too natural, not a few deviations. The bulk of the 
people, though poor, are contented and reSgned. The mi- 
nority, ^hofe circumilances are more affluent* appear to in- 
dnlge as much in the luxuries of the table, and of drefs, as 
the fnperiority of their fortunes can yftll countenance. The 
inferior claiTes feem to be uncommonly fond of perfonal de- 
coration I and rather than (as they imagine) difgrace the 
back, they will often ftarve its fupporter. This remark is, 
perhaps, not more applicable to the one fex tlian to the other; 
or to this diftrift more than to other pirifhes. Spiritous li- 
quors produce, at prefent, fewer unpleafanc fcenes than fome 
time ago. NotwithOanding the general penury of the di^ 
Arid, the inhabitants are proof againil the fordid invaCons of 
avarice. As a fpecimen, both of the morals and natural 
tempers of fome of the individuals in the parifli, let the fol- 
lowing fa& fuffice : Two men in the parifli of Denino have, 
for nearly 30 years, held a coniiderable farm aud mill in con^- 
junSion; prefervbg every article, regardbg their external 
Vol. XL 3 A property. 

37^ Statyiical Account 

propertjy in perfed coxnmanitjv their wives and private 
property oolj excepted. The people in general are humane ; 
and, as far as means will allow, more than ordinarily chari- 
tahle to the poor. 

Language. — Refpeding this article there is nothing at all 
ftrikingv except that the vulgar dialed is remarkably exemp- 
ted from the corruptions that abound on the coafty as well as 
from many of thofe Scotticifms, and uncouth phrafes, fo pe-> 
culiar to many other places, whofe inhabitants lay claim to a 
higher degree of refinement. This bit of iMgo-eminence may 
• have arifen from the vicinity of Denino, in common with 
. many other adjacent diftriitsi to Alma Mater ! Agreeably 
to the general pra&ice of the county, the inhabitants here 
difplay a fingiilar hoUownefs in the accentuation of dietr 
-words, with an unufual prolongation of the final tone of 
their fentences ; all aided at leaft by the antique manner of 
enunciating fome of the vowek and diphthongs. 


•f Fintry, 371 


(JCouniy of Stirling-^^Pre/hytiry of DuffAarton^-^Synod of 
Glafgw) and^ ^^0 

By the Rev. Mr. Gavin Gibb, Minijer of Stkhthblavz. 

NamCf Situation^ and Extent. 

'THE name of this pariih is of Gaelic origto, and figiufies 

Fair Lund. Contrafted with the bleak and precipitous 

rodeneb of the adjacent moors and mountains, its gta^" 

hills, its fertile and fvell watered valleys, entitle it to this 

appellation. Fintry is fituated in the midft of that range of 

hills, which reaches from Stirling to Dumbarton, and behind 
that particular diftrift of them ufuallj denominated tbe Camp' 
Jit FeUs. . It lies 17 miles due N. from Glafgow, xa miles 
W. by S. from Stirling, and ax or 22 miles £• by N. froxh 
Dumbarton. It belongs to tbe commifiariot of Glafgow. It 
extends frQm £. to W. 5 miles, and from N. to S. more than 
4 ; though the only parts of it, which are inhabited, are a 
ftnall valley on the 'banks of the Endrick, and another on 
the banks of the Carron -, both of which rivers have the£r 
fource in this pariih. 

General Appearance. -^Tht general appearance ^ the couor 
try is hilly. Tbe hills are fmall ; they are clothed with re. 

3 A. 2 frcifaing 

yj2 Statijttcal Account ^ 

frefhing verdure ; and their ihapes are finely diverfified. Ca^ 
vered with iheep, thej fugged many paftoral images. The 
caftem p;trt of the pari(h coofifts of three ranges of hills, with 
fcarcelj any intervening plain. Between the two fouther- 
moft of thefe ranges, the Carroa bog or meadow commences ; 
the largeft perhaps in Svotland. Beginning in Fintry, it raos 
£. between the parilhes of Kilfyth and St. Ninian's to the 
cltent of 4 miles ; is in fome places a miles in breadth, and 
in no place lefs than i \ containing about 500 acres in one 
continued plain. It affords fudenance during the winter to 
the cattle of the furrounding farms. This remarkable mea« 
dow, befides its ntility, adds great livelinels and beauty ta 
the general face of the country. The fcene it exhibits da« 
ring the months of July and Auguft, of ao or 30 differenc 
parties of people employed in hay- making, is certainly very 
cheerful : And during winter, the greater part of it bein^ 
cverffowed by the Carron, which runs through the middle of 
it, and which is then indudrioufly led over its whole extent, 
to fertilize it for the enfuing crop, it aflumes the appearanoe 
of a large and beautiful lake, in both fititations, it afibrds aa 
agreeable relief from the bleaknefo of the country around it. 
Towards the weft end of the partfli, the hills are more rockj 
and rugged. The valley through which the rapid ftream of 
the Endrick runs, widens gradually to the extent of a mile. 
Several groves, recently planted, beginning to lift their heads 
along the banks of the river ; the cultivated fields on its mar- 
gin ; the hedges and hedge rows round the enclofures on the 
£ftate of Culcruich ; an extenfive plantation behind the man- 
fion-houfe of that name ; and fome weli^difpofed clumps of 
trees on the fides of the oppofite hills, gratify the traveller* 
not only with a view of beauty, but of welKdireded induftry. 
Above thefe, the fummits of the mountains on both fides, bro« 
ktfi^ and prefenting abrupt precipices, and fometimes covered 


of Ftntry. 375 

wid) clouds, add grandeur and dignitj to the fcene. The 

profped, however, is confined within narrow limits, excepting 
towards the weft, where it is terminated by Benlomond, that 
rifes with eminent dignitj above the neighbouring Gram- 
pians. Thus fenced and fequeftered, the little hills and val- 
leys oF Fintry fuggeft ideas of tranquil and undifturbed fe- 
clu&on. Nor can any thing of the kind be more agreeable 
than when in fummer, the fun letting by the fide of Benlo- 
mond, throws a Uaze oC parting radiance on the rommntitf 
banks of the upper Endrick. 

Stnl. — ^The foil in thofe parts of the pariib which ate fit for 
agriculture, ir light, quick, and fertile; agrees better with 
dung for manure than lime ; and, when enriched with the 
former, produces excellent crops. Some recent experiments 
however have (hewn, that when the ground is paftured fbr 
two years, then limed and allowed to reft another year, it 
will thereafter yield better crops, than by any mode of huf- 
bandry hitherto praftifed. 

Cwhivation and Preduci^F-^ln agriculture, however, the in- 
habitants have made but few improvements. They folbw 
fervilely the ancient mode o/fq/htriagf andqf/owmg oats^ for 
two or three years alternately on their out-field, and of uni- 
formly fo wing as much land with bear as the winter's dung will 
cover ; and from which they afterwards take two fncceffive 
crops of oats. However a few of the farmers are now beginning 
to get the better of thefe prejudices, and find their account ia 
altering the mode of cropping. In making this change they 
have been inftruded and prompted by Mr. Sfxers of Cul* 
eruich, who, fince his refidence on his eftate, has fet the ex- 
ample of clearing the ground with turnips, and has introdu- 
ced the fowing of grals and clover feeds for haj. The bene- 

374 Statifiical Account 

ficial effSsd of this method, has encouraged fome of his owa 
tenants to follow his ezample 9 and there is no dooht but 
the prafiice will become general in all thofe farms upon 
which the endofures are fencible againft (heep The method 
alluded to confifts, as was meoiionedt in cleaning the ground 
with turnips and potatoes ; in fowing next year bear with 
grafs feeds ; in raifing hay for two years ; in pafiuring one 
or two ; in fowing oats for two years ; and then in returning 
to the turnips. This routine anfwers very well, and^ with 
the iingle improvement of taking only one crop of each 
kind, and pafturing two years, is bed adapted for this foil, 
which, being light, is foon impoveri&ed by a continuation of 
crops, and if not regularly cleaned by pafturing and crops of 
turnips, is apt to be over-run with the creeping wbeat-grafs^ 
known by the vulgar name oi felt^ or pirl-grafs. There is 
no foil better adapted for raiiing potatoes, of which the in* 
habitants plant confiderable quantities ; after which they 
commonly fow flax-feed, which fucceeds very well, yielding 
from three to four ftones from each peck fown. 

Atf<&.-— But die attention of the inhabitants is, with very 
few exceptions, con&ncd to grazing *, which is by 6tf the 


* Under thhrartkk it i» bat jisftice to mcntiao the name of Datid Bair, a 
flum whole ezertkmi, in improviog the mode of giaxiog, Are Xivlj Uttdahle,a&d 
to whofe cxunple its prefent advanced (late, through a conGderable part of the 
weft of Scotland, it in a great meafure owing. He has the merit of firft im* 
proTing the breed of black cattle and fhrep, by raifing them to a greater ^zt^ 
aod feeding them more tliorooghly, than was ever done before upon graft alone* 
'Sut he hat acooa|pliihed,by jodidoafiy feleding the moft choice caitle^to ftock 
his fanoi with, aod by keeping his grafs lighter, i. e. by pmtiig fewer cattle 
npon the iamefpace of grouod, than what bad been ufedin former times. -As 
afpecimenof his fucceia in this branch, the writer dates the following fa«£b« 
which are well attefted. * At one time he fold a Highland fiot, which was fcOl- 

of Fintry.: 375 

moft'beniefioiai^ mode of ufing the ground in this pa^iih, whert 

hiU and ^nfe equally afford moft excellent pafture for black 

cattle and fheep. Thej ufe the plough therefore chiefljr with 

a -view to the fuQenance of their cattle through winter^ atf 

£odder is the great obje£^ of labour. In fome of the farnif 

the reut is folely paid from the produce of milk- cows ; in^ 

deed butter and cheefe form the ftaple produce of the pari(b« 

Feeding of cattle is alfo generally praflifed. In the mouth of 

Mfay, each farmer buys a number of Highland cows, propor* 

tioned to the extent of his farm, which he fattens during 

fummer, and again fells off in the months of September and 

Odober. When markets are briik, and fales ready, this is by 

snuch the moft convenient and advantageous method of ufing 

the ground in this parifliy as the excellence of the paflure 

during fummer, enfures the fattening of the cattle purchafed, 

and the difficulty of procuring fodder for winter prevents the 

rearing any more than are neceffary, to keep up the (lock of 

mtlk-cows. Sheep are alfo an objeA of attention. Xhe 

breed is in general good, a confequence of the excellent paf. 


ed in Glafgow, and weighed, according to the purchafer's confeflion, 52 ftonet 
htct^ and to iUmes tallow 1 the price he reeeiTed wat 25 guineai. At another 
time he Ibid %s Highland (U>ts at ill. each, the lighteft of which weighed vp- 
warda of 30 ftones. He fells annually about 60 tup-Umbs of a year old^ for 
"which he never receiTct lefs than a guinea elich ; and his Iambs for killing he 
commonly fells in May, at half«a-guinea each. He carries oiNii; plan on a very 
cztcnfive feale, renting farms in different parti of the country, from one to ano- 
ther of which» he removca hla cattle at the proper feafont, according to the qna- 
litf of the farm, and the ftate of the cattle. His ftots he fell* at 5 years old, 
but calves of his own rearing fometimes equal his beft cattle, at three yean old^ 
and are accordingly fold at that age. When he dealt to the greateft extent he 
paid rents to the amount of 1800I. per annum ; the lar^ell proportion of which 
he paid to the Duke of Mootrofe. His annual dock at that time was 470 black 
catcje, and S740 Ibeep, of which' aoo. were ewes, as a petmaneat ftocky ftvo 
which |ie has frc^aently fold in a y^ 300 lambs. 

37^ Statifiical Account 

tore on which thej graze, as well as of the cue which is ts- 
ken to improve the ftock, by croffiog the hreed, sad icftring 
none but the beft ewi-lamis. Lambs are aUb fxequ c A tly 
brought from the foutfaero parts of Scotland, which improve 
greatly on this foiL The wool is of a veiy good quality. 
Lambs generally fell at 6L per foore ; wool fells at from js, 
to 78. per ftone. The following taUe will (hew the nomlMr 
•f cows and iheep kept in this pariih : 

Milk Cows, • . • 263 

Fat ditto, - - - • 37^ 

Sheep, • • • . ^470 

Topulaiion. — The population of this pariih, like that o{ 
moft other grazing countries in Scotland, has decreafed very 
much within thefe 40 years. Since the return to Dr. Web« 
fter, in 1755, it has decreafed mpre than a third part. There 
are feveral farms in the pari{h, upon which from ^4 to 20 
familes formerly lived, where only from 5 to 8 fumilies now 
refide. This depopulation is evidently caufed by throwing 
feveral fmall f^rms into one, which eoables the pofieflbr to 
pay a greater rent to the proprietor, and at the fame time to 
live better in his own family, than vihen parcelled out in 
fmall portions. Nor is this counted difadvantageous to thofe 
who are ejeQed, as the great demand for hands by manufac- 
turing companies, affords them a ready reception; where they 
and their children can earn more, and live better, than upon a 
fmaU farm. But, notwithftanding prafent opinions, it ftill 
remains a doubt, whether this revolution in this flile of a 
country, will in the end prove a national advantage. Whe- 
ther a pallid and fickly race, brought up in the confined sir 
of cotton mills, with few attachments, and little cducstieo, 
win compenfate for the (lurdy fons of our hills and mouo« 


if Ftntry. 377 

taitis, or afford a fet of as loyal and virtuons fubjefls, is a 
queflion which we leave poftcrity to determine— The prefeot 
4late of the population is as under. { 

Population "Table of the Parijb of Fintrt. 

Fopulation in 1755, • • ^9* Between 50 and 70, - ss 

]>itto in X793, * * 543 ■ ■ 7oand loo*, - Ij 

— Weaver!, f - - J 

Decreafe, ^ 24^ Tailors, - - - 3 

Of tlicfe there are, Smiths, • • • % 

Males, m * m «73 Shoemaker, - • I 

Females^ * ^ a 70 Average «f births for the lail 15 

iJnder loyearsof age, ^ Z36 years, - - , 16 

Between 10 and ao, • 1 10 Ditto of deaths^ -^ • t 

" ■■■ ■ »o and 50, • %2S 

ManufaHures and Nevi Pillage. — This pariQi is oti the eve 
of experiencing a great change, by the introdudlon of ma- 
fiafafiureSf on a very large fcale. A cotton mill is juit 
creded on the eftate of Gulcruichy 156 feet in length, and 
40 feet widd ; ^hich, when finiihedi will employ 1000 hands. 
A handfome village^ upon a rifing ground along the fide of 
the Endfick, it alt'eady feued off, and building fot the recep^ 
tion of the work people. The houfes, according to a regular 
Jilan, are to (land id one row, and to confid of two dories 
and garrets* Thus fituated^ the village tViil be well aired, 
dry and healthy ; and very pleafant, having the gardens in 
front, fepdraUd from the houfes By the turnpike road^ d reded 
on a (loping bank down to the river. 

\oL. XI. 3 B . Troprieton 

• it is worthy to be recorded, that thefe died, a fe# monrhs previous to tak* 
iog up this lift, one man above 80, and another 103 years old. 

f Some of thefe have aipprtntices and journeymen ; and they are fupp!ied 
with work from mannfadnring companies. Men ferrants wages are 4I. and 
4L 10s. iathc half year 7 w«mtn fcnraati from iL its. to si. 

37' Statiftical Account 

Profriitors and RiBt, — The whole property of the parilk 
is vefted in the Duke of Moktrosc, and Mr. SrxKRS of Col- 
cniich ; the former of whom is patron of the pariih, and tb^ 
latter is the onlj refiding heritor. The prefent rent is betweca 
1500K and 1900!.; bat it maj be ezpefted to rife confider- 

Churchf \3c — ^The church was built before this century: 
Part of it appears to be of a very ancient date. The manfe 
was built in 1732, and* has undergone feveral iqairs. The 
fiipend coniifts of 44 bolls of meal, 5 bolls of bear, and 24I. los. 
Sterling in money; exclufive of the glebe, which contains 9 
acres^ 4 of which are arable. 

Po^r .-^The poor of this parifli are fupported by the week- 
ly collections, and the interell of a fund, which has accumu- 
lated to aooh Sterling and upwards, chiefly by donations 
from the family of Montrofe. The prefent number on the 
poor's roll is 7, and varies from that zo« They receive, indi- 
vidually, according to their neceffities, from is. to 3s. weekly. 
Befides this ftated diftribution, attention is paid to clothmg 
the moll deQitute, and fupplying them with fuel. Thele 
fupplies are adequate to their waots ; infomuch^ tha^ there is 
not, nor has been for many years pall, a iingle inftance of a 
poor perfon, belonging to the pariih, going out to beg. Tliia 
attention to their own poor, however, does not by any meaas 
free the inhabitants from the burden and plague of mendicants 
from other places. Crowds flock thither, from the great 
towns and populous villages, for the fpace of 30 miles round, 
who frequently repay the charity they receive, by making 
nightly depredations upon their humane landlords^ 

FW.— The fuel which has been principally ufed hitherto 
in this parifli, is peat ; in cutting, drying, and carrying home 
which, the whole fiunmer is fpent, from the end of feed- 

cffitttry. 379 

time, till the beginning of the hay harveit. This, were there no 
other obftacle, is a powerful bar to agricultural improvements, 
as the only time of the jear, in which the farmers can carry 
lime, is fpent an preparing and fecuring their fuel. It is to 
be hoped, howevier, that this obftade will foon be removed. 
An attempt is juft now making to find coal upot^ the eftate 
of Colcmich, and appearances have hitherto been favourable. 
Whatever may be the ultimate iffue of this fearch, great praife 
is due to Mr. Spiers for his inde&tigable el:ertions, in promot- 
ing every meafure that can contribute to the profperity of the 

Roads and Bridges — ^Till within thefe two yedrs, the acceft 
to Fintry was extremely difficult on all fides, infomuch, that 
had it not been rendered eafier, no improvement could have 
made its way thither. The difficulty was even fo great as 
ftlmoft to forbid any attempt to remove it. A hill, almoft 
perpendicular, over which horfes could fcarcely crawl with 
half a load, cut off the communication with Campfie and 
Glafgow, from which fide coal could only be got \ and dee^ 
tnoor and roofs obftrufied the approach on the N. and W. 
Thefe obftades, feemingly infurmountable, are now happil/ 

3 B a overcome, 

^TKc MODE Of BoaiNd, which he hM adopted, m fuch m muft afcertaiti, 
whhoat a donbt, whetAer thert be coal in the country or not, and may ferve at 
m leflbn to othen, who may have occafioo to make trial tor coal in hiUy countries. 
7*be top of the hill confiftt of a very thick bed of whin ftonc, below which 
there li a bed of free-ftone equally thick. Beginning at the bottom of thfi 
frcc4kone, which is half a mile op the hill, with a lo fathom bore, be takei \hi 
level of the bottom of this bore down the fide of the hill, making allowances for 
the dip and run of the metalt, where he boree again to the depth of xo fathoou. 
And fo OQ, continuing till he reaches the level of the river. In one of thefe 
bores there was found Uft week a fmall crop fcam of coal, which it ii to be hop* 
cd is the fot'emoner of one of greater confcqucnce. If the attempt fucceeds, 
h will be' of the utmoft importance, to a trad of country for lo oiikt ra 
the greatell part of which Ilea at prefent ao mtlet frun coal. 

380 Etati/iical Account 

overcome^ bj the public fpirited exertions of Mr. SriBRS aii4 
Mr. DuNMO|i£. The gentleman lail mcntionedf has formed, 
AS it were, a qew creation on the water of Endrick, and given 
life an.d fpirit to a country which, 4 years ago, feemed con? 
dcmaed to perpetual duUnefs; haying, io that fpace, brought 
from different parts of the country, to the neighboorisg pa- 
rilhes of Balfron and Killearn, no fewer than IKOO per(bas. 
Both thefe gentlemen, with much private expence, obtained 
an ad of parliament for a new diftrid of roads, in the weftera 
parts of Stirlingfhire \ and, with ^ promptitude of execution, 
equal to their zeal in moving the roeafure, have furniflied thif 
part of the country with as good roads as any part of Scot- 
land. The Craw Road^ a mile in lepgtb and upwards, which 
>vas formerly i foot of afcent in 7, and iq fome places z foot 
in 5, is now reduced to i foot in 20, in the fte^peft place. 
This line of t:oad reaches from Glafgow through Fintry, and 
joins the military road between Stirling and Dumbarton, about 
6 miles to the N. of this place. The county road to the W. 
is alfo now put into a date of repair ; fo that, from being the 
n^oft diiHcult of accefs, Fintry is pow eafily apceffible on all 
fides. — The bridges, on this line of road are numerous, and 
}idd very much to the eafe of the communication ^ a9 the deep 
ravines formed by the mouiitain flreams, \yhich were former- 
ly very difficult to pafs, are all arched over, and filled up to 
|he level of the adjacent banks. The bridge over the £nd« 
rick confi(ls of 4 arches, % of which are 26 feet wide, and the 
other two la feet each. The bridge on the old line of road, 
about a mile farther up the river, confifts of one beautiful 
arch of 47 feet wide, and another of 15 feet. 

Rivers, Fi/b,&LC.-^Tht En Jrici has its fo^rce in the hill of Fin- 
on the northern fide of the parifh. It runs E. a little way, 
takes a fudden turii to the S., forming the eaftem boundary 


4>f Fintry. 38 1 

of the pariih for % miles ; then turns due W.,. rufhmg over 
the Loup of Fintryt and iaclo&ng part of the parifti within 3 
iides of a fquare. After receiving the river Blanc^ and other 
plentiful ftreams^ in its courfe» and forming 2 beautiful caf- 
cades at Gartness, the fpot where the famous Napier of 
M&RCHISTON invented his logarithms, it lofes itfelf in Loch« 
lomondy about 14 miles below Fintry, This river abounds 
svith trout and par. llie trout are reckoned to be of a fupe« 
rior quality 9 and may be taken in great numbers, even by an 
unikilful angler ; upon which account it is very much refort* 
jcd tp, by perfons fond of that amufement. Salmon, likewife, 
make their way in great numbers into the mouth of this 
river ; fome of which, when the water is high, come as far 
up as Fintry. The Carrpn rifes in the W, end of the parifh, 
on the S. of the Eodrick, and runs E. in a (Iraight diredion, 
vateriog the Carron Bog in its paiTage ; leaving whic]i, it ru11}?s 
over the AuchinlilyLinn Spout j a tremenduous catar:.d, cor- 
rcfponding to an interefting defcription in the tragedy of 
^ Pouglas,— 

•• Red came the river down,*' &c. &c. 

From this it continues its courfe eaftward, through the Carf(^ 
of Falkirk, and falls into the Forth, about 3 miles from that 
town* It abounds with fmall and large trout ; fome of which, 
taken in the pools in Carron Bay, meafure 29 inches iq 

Natural Curiqfities. — ^Thc only curiofiiy which is uni- 
yerfally remarked in this parifh, is the above mentioned Loup 
0/ Fintry ; a cataraft of 91 feet high, over which the Endrict 
pours its whole ftrtam. In rainy weather, and more efpeci* 
jjly after a thunder fbower, or a water fpout, which frequently 


382 Statijikal Accimnt 

happen in thefe parts, the L$Mp of Fimry maj he mentioned 
along with what is moft magnificent in this kind of objefi« 
w.There is alfo in thb parifli a gnuid range, or colonnade, 
of baCdtic pillars, which rife in a hill called Z)»i, or Dovm, 
lit the end of the hill of Fintiy. The range coofifts of 70 
colttxnns in front, which are of a gigantic ftature, feme of them 
feparatiog in loofe blocks, others apparently without joints 
from top to bottom. Thej ftand perpenficular to the hori- 
' son, and rife to the height of 50 feet. They are feme of 
them fqnare, others pentagonal and hexagonal. A (dock, fe« 
parated from one of the hexagonal colunms, meafnrcd bj aa 
accurate fnnrej as follows : 

5th fide, -IS 

6th do* * o loi 

Its greateft diameter, % ix 
Its lead ditto, a 3 

On the £. fide of the range, the columns (land feparated one* 
from another, by an interftice of 3 or 4 inches. This inter- 
fiice leflens gradually towards the W. fide, till nothing bat a 
feam is difcernible, and then all is blended in one folid mafs 
of rock, which is very much honey-combed, and has the ap- 
pearance of having been ignited. The mountain above men- 
|ioned| confids of very extenfive be4$ of red ochre. 




ift fide. 




2d do. 




3d do. 




4th do. 




^SLMungQ, 1%^ 


^County and Synod ofDumfrut — Prejbyttry of Locimaien^ 
Bf the Rtv. Mr. David Dicksok, Minj/ler, 

ErfBion and Nam^» 
IrN CrawfuriPj Peerage of Scotland, Roiert ie Bruct^ tbe ad 
lord of Annandale, is (aid to have granted to the Epifcov 
pal See of Glafgow, *' cum co^fcnfu Robtrti de Bruce^ JUii 
** fid^ frofalute anima fua^^ the churches of Moffat, Kirk« 
Patrick* Drumldalei Hoddam, and Caftlemilk, (now St. Mun« 
go). The date of this charter is not mentioned. It is high« 
ly probable, however, that it mud have been about the year 
ia5oorx26o, when the cathedral church of Su Mungo at 
ClaJjgoMi was built, from which this parilh has derived its 
name* Whether the whole of this pariih, or only a part of 
it, was then called CqftkmiU^ as mentioned above, cannot now 
be afcertained* 

Siiuatimty Estteftt^ Surface^ Soilp and Minerals, — This pariih 
lies in that part of the county of Dumfries which was for«* 


3 §4 Staliflical Account 

merly called the ftewartry of Annandale. It extends from 
N. to S. nearly 4 miles, and from E. to W. rather moie. 
Being bounded with high hills to the E. and the W. it ap* 
pears like a valley to the traveller at a diffance ; aod the riiing 
grounds in the middle of the parilh, called Nut-^hoimHi//*^ are 
difiin^lly feen from the heights above Moffat, on the very 
boundary of Annandale. From different fuiveys, the pariih 
is faid td colitain about 4CC0 Scotch acres ; f part of which 
is of a loamy and fertile foil. On the floping fides of the 
rifing grounds it is more iharp and ftoney. The higher ground 
is in general the bed, and is all arable, except a very few 
fmall fpotSy which contain iron . and copper-ftone in abun« 
dance. Some free-done is found in the parilh of a white cc* 
lour, fit for* building ; and in fome parts of the lowlands 
there are lime^^ilone and (everal valuable marl pits. 

Rivers ^Fi/h, MinerallVater^ Wo^ds^ t^c.-The river MiUruM 
along the N.E. fide of theparifli, and divides it fromTunder- 
garth ; afterwards it interfefts the parifh for almoft two miles, 
and, on the eafiern extremity, empties itfelf into the river ^a* 
nan* The Annan runs nearly 4 miles along the S. and W. and 
feparates St.Mungo from theparlihes of Daltonand Cummer* 
trees* Both thefe rivers abound with freih water and fea« 
trout, falmon, and hidings. Thefe waters were much re^* 
forted to by fportfmen from didant parts of the country, but 
fince the general ufe of lime as a manure^ the number of filb 
has greatly decreafed. to the Annan, a little below the 
manfe, there is a pool called the Rod-Hole^ vulgarly Rotcbelt 
of an afioniihing depth, formed in the middle of a rock^ 
where incredible quantities of falmon are caught^ by a new 


* On Nusholm Hill, the Tcftigcs of a Roman, and of fevcral Britifh campi^ 
could lately be dlHindlly traced; but by the lapfc of time, aud the progrcfs rf 
tuhlv3tion, they are now alnioft entirely defa€«d* 

of St. Mungo. 385 

ftnd fingular mode of filhing, ctlled grappling. Three or four 
large hooks are tied together, in different direftions, on a 
ftrong lin^, having a weight of lead fafBcient to make it fink 
immediately as low as the perfon inclinesi and then by giving 
,the rode a fudden jerk upward, the books are fixed into the 
(almon, which are thus dragged to land bj force. Salmon 
and hirlings are mod plentiful in thefe rivers in the month of 
Auguft. This parilh likewife abounds with fprings of excel* 
lent water ; and there is one mineral well, which, as far as 
the writer knows, has never been applied to anjr valuable 
purpofe. There are alfo feveral natural woods and planta- 
tions, the banks of the Milk being clothed with natural wood, 
beautifully floping towards the river ; and the hills orna* 
inented with planted wood on the mod confpicnous parts. 

Climate and Li/eafts^ lie. — ^Tbe air is generally moift for 
H confiderable part of the year. As the Solway Frith is only 
6 miles diflant, aud the country around is very hilly, greater 
quantities of rain are fnppofed to fall on this and the neigh* 
bouring parilhes, than in any other part of the county* Not« 
withftanding of thefe circumftances , no epidemical difeafea 
are prevsdent here, and the inhabitants are uncommonly 
healthy, except that they are fometimes afflifted with the cq« 
lie in rainy weather. 

Population. — ^The population of St. Mungo has varied con« 
fiderably at different periods : "^ 

In the year X755, tbe number of Ibult waa only - 481 Intrtafi. 

In ■ ■ ■ ' 1763, by an acconte fnrTcy, it amounted to 600 

Incnrafe in 8 ycart, • *-^ I If 

|d ■ X784, it wai reduced to • • . 560 

Dccreafe in %\ years «, • . 40^ 

In ■ ■ 179^, by an exad enumeration, it bad rofc to 640^ Surtlui 40 

Incrcafe in the laft 8 yean, • • 8o3 . * 
Total tncreafe in 37 yean, . • • • 159 

Vol, XL 3 C Employments^ 

38^ Statiftkal Account 

Employments^ Wages, &c.— As this parifh is farroundedwitl| 
xpanj thriying and populous villages, verj few mechanics re« 
i)de in it. There ^rt only a or 3 joinersy and about as many 
weavers, blapkfmiths, and tailors. There 9re no writers, 
furgeoqs, nor (hoemakers in the parlfh. There is but one 
alehoufe, fituated op the tprnpike road from Glafgow to Car- 
Ijfle. The number of farmers, great and fmall, amounts to 
about 50 ; and of thofe who occupj cottages, the number may 
be nearly the fame. The farmers cultiyate their lands them- 
felves, with the h^lp of their famiUeS| fervants, and cotta* 
gers. The wages of a m^m by the day have lately increafed 
to IS. 44^ or IS. 6d. in fummer, and to lod. or is. in winter | 
andof a woman to is. in fummer, and 8d. in winter. Servants 
hired by the half-jear, and maintained in the houfe, are pai4 
9^t (bp U^t rate, 

Ecclejuiflical Siate^ &c. — ^AU . the inhabitants are of the 
Eftabliihed Church, except %2. Of thefe a attend the EngUlh 
Chapel, % the Kirk of Relief, 2 the Burgher, and 16 the Ao. 
tiburgher Meeting- Houf^s in the neighbourhood. The church 
and manfe ^re fituated in the very extremity of the parifli to 
fhe S. W* on the bank of .the river Annan, where the lands, 
which rife by a very gradual afcent, to the difiance of half a 
inile, in every direOion, have formed by nature a moft de- 

f The cavfepf the 4f^eaife,hetFefn X763 aodi I7$4« !• imputed to a divifioa 
mi the commoni in the parifli, which took place about the year 177a The 
poorer fort of ^e people, being thnt depri^f iM fome of their fonqer pn^ilege^ 
temoTcd to the Dcighbouring towDt of fjockerbie apd Ecdetfecban. Another 
circumfbaDce might haye contributed to diminifli the ii\iimbef of iobahitantib 
Sometime ago, a pian waB adopted by fome of the heritors, of roaping their 
muir farms annoally ; whereby they were more thinly inhabited, and frc^cntly 
poiTeircd by the proprietors themfelfei. Fortonatcly this caitfc of depopnlatic^ 
|i fcanoTed,, the farmi being new let on Uafe.^ 

bf St, Mungiii ' 38^ 

iigiitfiil fituationf. The prefcnt church was built in 1754, 
l>ut feems never to have been properly finiihed. It is nei-^ 
iher plaflered nor ceiled. It has no bell ; and the feats are ia 
a ruinous condition. There are only the traces of a dyke a- 
round the church-yard.— ^The manfe and offices were built 
only 7 years ago, at an expence of 374I. Sterlingy and are 
ialready fcarcely habitable ! This fingular fad can only be 
accounted for, from the abfurd methodi which the generality 
of heritors in this part of the country adoptf of contrading 
tor manfes, kirks, &c. with the friend of foihe leading man 
in the pariQ), or with fuch as will build them at the fmalleft 
fcxpence. Ami though the prelbytery get tradefmen upoU 
oath, to declare them fufficient, yet even this does not pro- 
duce the deiired efFeA ; for fuch people generally declare^ not 
that the work \s Juhjlantiatly executed^ or that the houfes will 
fiand for a reafonable time, but only, that th<i money is laid 
out according to tbt eftimate. Hence the hojufes built at the 
'expence of the pariQi, are fuperficially executed, and confe- 
quehtly produftive of miich additional trouble and expence^ 

l>oth to the heritors and to thofe who occupy them. -The 

King is patron. The fiipend was formerly only 50I.. Ster- 
ling ; it is now 52I. los. exclufiveof the glebe, which is efli* 
imated at 40I. per annum, being upwards of 40 i^coteh acrea 
of the beft land in the partlh. About 2 years ago the prefenC 
incumbent obtained an augmentation of 4 chalders of bear 
knd meal, worth abotit 40I. more. There is no parocbiat 
Jchool in the pariih, nor any falary appropriated for the fup- 

3 C » ... post 

f In the centre of thia vplft, ^licre ibe matife is placed, there are Tome res* 
roaios of an ancient village (built prcihably by the friart from Gbfgow), and 
likewife o£ an eztenrive garden, iwiih a fifa-pond in the middle of it. Of thcfe^ 
the prcfcnt incumbent hifth fecn many iiifAlUble proofs, though neither tr^i« 
lion nor hiltory (as far as be kiK>w») have thrown any light oa Uie fubje^* 

390 ' StatifiicaJ Account 

porution of Hoae, and efpeciaUj of eoal. Is a great ob(lni6iod 
to the improvement of this part of the country. The mofles 
.being almoft exhaufied, fuel is extremely fcarce, the neareii ^ 
, coals being at the diftance of 20 milesy which renders this 
neceflarj article of domeftic oeconomj very expenfive. Some 
fpirited exertions, however, are now making by one of the 
proprietors, to difcover this ufeful mineral, and, from ap- 
pearances, fuccefs may be hoped for^ 


- "if here 4^ only one gentleman's feat in this pknOx t76rtfay 
of notice. CaQlemilk ftands on a moft beautiful flopiDg 
hill, in the middle of a ine valley, through which the river 
MiU glides gently along. Oliver Cromwell invefted this 
Caftle ; and though his entrenchments (ftill diftin&ly vifible) 
bad greatly the command of it, it ftood out for a conCderablt 
time*. The Caftle was demolifhed in the year 1707, and 
converted into a dwelling houfe, which has iince been much 
improved. It is now one of the moft delightful and romantic 
lituations which can well be conceived, having fine pleafure 
grounds furrounding it, and a beautiful country in its neigh- 
bourhood. The prefent proprietor is Robertsok Liddjlr- 
Dale, Efq.f 


* From the tumuli in OLnrit's camp, and immediately under the CaiUe 
trhich wai opened fome yean ago, it it evident, that the lofs of IWei, in thit 
liege, muft have been very great. 

t. Castleiulk was formerly a feat of the ancient lords of Annandale, ind 
came from the Baucas to the Stcwarta by WiiLxaa, High Steward of Scot- 
land, marrying the daughter of King Robert Bruce ; and fo defcendcd tv 
Robert, High Steward of Scotland, then* fon, the firfi of the Stewaru ^t 
name to the Crown, in ISJI. It afterwards belonged to the Maxwdlt and the 
Douglaflcs. It wat befieged by the Duke of Smtierfipt, Protedbor in the 

Minority of Edward VI. ; whofe flation ii dill extant, the balls being found 
m 1771, when planting that fpot, which is ftill called " the Cannon Holes-"— 
Sir John Stiwaet of Caftlcmiik, sear Ohfgow, takes his deCgnation from 

of Ctmbraes^ 39 1 



(fiounty of Ayr — Prejbytery of Irvine — Synod of 
Giafgow and Ayr^ 

By « Friend of tie Rev. Mr. Hekrt GraHAM , Minijer tf 
that Parijb, 

Name^ Situation^ and Extent. 

THE name Cambrat, Cimbrat, or Cimiraei, is faid to 
be derived from the Gaelic, implying a place of fhelter, 
•r refage. It is an ifluid in the Frith of Cljde, furrounded 
by the fea, diftant from Largs a* milesi upon the E.j from the 
liland of Bate 4 miles, to the W.; and feparated from the 
Little Cimbraes^ upon the £[., by a ftrait three quarters of a 
mile over. The length of the ifland, from N. £• to S. W., 
is 2y miles \ the breadth, from E, to W., i| miles* It is of 
an irregular figure. The furface contains about 2»30o acref, 
one thif d of which is, or might be made, arable* 

Hil/i and ProffeSi. — ^With few exceptions, the hills rift 
^ith a gentle aflent^, to tbe various heights and forms they 

39^ Statiftical Account 

ftflume, from the ikirts of the ifland, till towards the centre, 
where thej may come near 400 feet above the level of the 
fiea ; and, unlefs in a or 3 places, thej are not muchldcnm* 
bered with rocks. The profpeft, from every point of view, 
is delightful ; particularly from the S., where the little Cim- 
braes, and the Point of Pencrofs, with their ancient caftles, 
bound it by (ea. The Frith, too, often difplays the beau* 
tiful fcenery of the extenfive navigation of the Weft ; while 
that noble beacon, Eilfa, rifes towards the horizon ; andf to 
the N., Gatefield> in Ai^^m, feems to fupport the clouds on 
its brow *t 

Climate and Di/eafes.'^Tht ifland, being furronnded by the 
fea, and there being little marfliy ground, the air is pure and 
falubrieus. Snow feldom lies long ; and froft does not pene- 
trate deep, unlefs in very fevere winters. Its effed upon the 
vegetables in the gardens, is much lefs than on the adjoining 
grounds. The pariih abounds with excell^t fpring wa- 
ter. Thefe advantages, joined with temperance and indufiry, 
contribute greatly to the health of the inhabitants. As aq 
evidence of the goodnefs of the climate, there are at prefent 
(May 1793)1 35 people above 60 years of age in the ifland ; 
an uncommon number advanced in years, in £b fmall a com** 
snunity. There is no particular difeaCe prevalent. Fevers 
rarely viiit the ifland; and, when they do, feldom prove 
fatal f • Inoculation now prevails, which renders tb^ {mall-pox 
both much milder, and more frequent. 

^ Unlefi the weather it pvticalafly dear, a cloud gencnlly hangs oa the 
^of GcfteficJd. 

f In the year Z7S3, a great aumber of feof\c were attacked by a oervoQi 
(ever ; but it proved fatal in only one ioflance. The finall-pox fre^oeiitly made 
great depredatiooi, when the iniedion was iotreduced bat once ia leveral years, 
which indeed was the cafe about 40 years a|p, io &m(1 places of ^tl994 
They generally appealed IP thofc d?ys with peftilcntial maliguity. 

rf Cimbreas: 395 

SoU^ Cultivation^ Produce^ and Minerals.-^^ht foil, in ge- 
tieialy is a gravelij loam, aod fome claj. It produces good 
crops of oats, bear, peafe, potatoes, and fome flax. The 
manure, beiides what is made on the farms, is fea weed, and 
fliells, with fmali coral, which thej dig out of pits in feveral 
parts of the ifland. It has been obferved, that were the 
{arms more generally inclofed, and fubdiyided and improved, 
bj the introdu&ion of turnips and fown grafs, it would add 
much to the fertility of the ifland. The advantage of thefe 
Improvements, and the addition of the manure, upon their 
farms, that fuch crops would producre, could not fail, with 
the induftry of the farmers of this ifland, to be highly bene** 
ficial, and would put the ground in a progreflive fltate of me- 
lioratioh. Were a plan of this kind properly formed, there 
can be little doubt but Suitable encouragement would be given 
by the proprietors, by aiBfting them in inclofing their farms, 
and by lengthening their leafes, which are too fliort, and their 
renewal too precarious, for great exertions ; a circumflance 
which equally afleds the intereft of the proprietor and tenant^ 
There is plenty of lime-ftone in the ifland ; but the great 
expence of coal has hitherto prevented its being ufed as ai 
manure* There is alfo an unexhauftible fund of free-flohe. 

7rees. — There are few trees on (he ifland ; but the few we 
have, feem to grow tolerably well. Lord Glafgow has made 
a fmall plantation of pines and Scotch firs, on a piece of 
inoorifli rifing ground ; and, fhould they thrive, the hills 
might be planted farther up ; and, aflifted by the flielter of 
th<^e below, in keeping them from the influence of the fea 
Water, fuch plantations might, in time, be very valu- 
able, from the demand on the Clyde," and the adtantage of 
water carriage. 

^dt.XI. 3D Populatiom 

394 Statiftical Account \ 

Population.'^Tht popubition of this ifland is nearly ddoBleJ 
witbin thefe 40 years. On the ift of Jaaoary 1793, them 
were in' the pariih, 

Mileif • ^ . ^47 PerioDi under 60 yean off age» 474 

¥cmales» - - 9/6% — between 60 tnd 70, • xt 

^— 7* and 80, - 10 

Itfali; - 509 ■ ■ ■ ao md yo, - 6 

fimiliet, - - x»S ■ aged 96, - - i 

ATcrage of bircht for xo jean* ao »-^ 

' ■' marriafet, — 4 Total, - 509 

■ deaths, ■■ S{ 

The return to Dr. Webfter, in 1755, wai ... - - 159 

< Hence there U an increafe of v • * • . a^e 

The number of weavers ia « 4 Number of joinen, - j 

I I tailow - 5 mafoni and qoarrieri*, x6 

Cattle^ CdmrniTce^ fijb^ ManufaSures^ iic. — There are tt 
prefeot, on the iflandi 33 horfes, 350 black cattle, and 347 
jheep. The prices of provifions are regulated by the Green- 
ock market. The farmers £nd a ready lale for what they 
can fpace, after fupplying tfieir familiesi among the feafaring 
people ancf tradefmen' ;. who, befides a ready market, lave 
them the expence of carriage. The fifli chiefly caugBt here, 
are baddocks^ cod, whitings, lyth^ cuddies* mackerel, and a 
few herrings. Of fliell fi(h, too, there is feme variety, but' 
in no great quantity. No manufadures of itny cbnfequence 
bave ever been attempted here. The chief obfiacles, to any 
confiderable exertion in that way, are the ezpence of fueV, 
the want of a fufficient run of water to drive machinery) and 


• The fiamtn *d their (ertaiftt oonJUtnte but a ihiall partof the con* 
ihunity, the feafaring people being the moft numerous. Servants wages are 
much the fame as in the naghbouring parifiies : men fertanu from 61. to 81. 
Sterling, a year ; women, from 3!. to 4U- A malbn gets %9^ a joiiicr xs.*Sd.yan4 
a uilor xod., with meat, per day. 

^fClmbraes^ ^5 

Ihe ferry being ofmi interrupted bj ftorms. From x6qo to 
$090 yards of coarfe linen, hpwever, and fome linen yarny 
are exported from the ifland ; with free-ftoiie, to the value 
pf fully more than aool. a year\ 

VUlagt^ Harbour and Roais — The village of Milnfort, con- 
(toins about 60 houfcs, which have been mollly built within thefit 
S5 years, aad are ftill increafing. Jt is pleafantly ficuated on tb^ 
S* W* fide of the i^nd, and has a commodious dry harbour, 
that will admit vefTels of i^nfiderable burden, particularly du«> 
ring fpring ti|de«, when the water rifes from 10 to 19 feet along 
|he (hore9* There is alfo an anchoring ground, which is well 
iJielter^ by a fmall rocky i^^nd, where veflels may be moor- 
ed to irpn rings in the pKks, and ride in ikfety in the greateft 
itorms. The profperity of thb village, as well as that of th^ 
ifland, is much owing to its being the rendezvous of the Royal 
Qeorge revenue cutter^ Captain James Crawford. The offi* 
cers and crew of tbis veflel are inhabitants of the ifland. Therf 
^ little dope to the roads, excepting to that between the vil- 
lage and ferry, which has lately been repaired, and a ready 
intercQurCe eftabliflied between tbe ifland and Largs, 

Proprietors and l{/ii/j.-r-The whole ifland belongs to th« 
^arls of Glafgowf and Bute. The valued rent is 1087I. 8s. 2d* 

3D a Scotch; 

* An the free-ftone, enployed in ereding the mncli improved hirbour of 
^oftpatrick, was taken from tiiis ifland. 

t About the beginning of laft centorf , according to the tradition of tbe 
ifland, there wata family of the name of Montgomerie, who then pofleflcd the 
-ficateft part of the land now belonging to Lord Glafgow, and had a manflon 
Amab «t BiUikellet. Among the lail of that family wm Dame Margaret Monu 
foneiir, joint patroneft of the kirk, who» being onhorfeback at the green of the 
Jarga^ ia laid to have been thrown off amidft a crowd of people; but, being a 
^imasn of .hi^ f|pirit| flic pnifaed (he (Mvfei and received a ftroke of his foot, 


39^ Stati/fkal Account 

Scotch ; the real rent is nearly 700L The arerage rent o^ 
the arable land maj be from los. to I2s« per acre ; and the 
remainder of heath and pafture, firom xs. to as. per acre. ^ 

Cburcbt Poorf and ScbooL^-^The value of the living is about 
70I., with a toiall glebe. The Earl of Glafgow is patron. 
The church was bnilt iq the 1611, and is now too fmaH to 
accommodate the inhabitants. The manfe was bnik abottt 
26 years ago, and is in good repair. There are few poor np« 
on the fefBon lift. The coUedions made at the church door, 
amounting to about 16I., with the intereft of a fmall fund^ 
is nearly equal to their fupport. Englifliy writing, and arith^ 
roetic, are carefully taught, and the fchool is pretty well at- 
tended ; but the fchoolmafter's ialary and perquifites are veij 

Natural Curiofities. — ^There are two rocks, called Refptt 
s Walls^ on the E. fide of the ifland. They rife out of the de* 
vated ground, and run along, or rather acrols, a plain near 
the fea, in the dircftion of S. by £., and N. by W., diftant 
from each other 500 feet, running in parallel lines ; the one 
to the £• about 30 feet in height, 89 in length, mean thick- 
nefs 10 feet ; that to the W. loo feet long, 70 feet high, 
where it comes out of the hill, and £0 feet near its outer 
"end; the thicknefs xa feet. In the fame direction, there is 
the appearance of a foundation running into the (ea. Some* 
thing itmilar to thefe are feen in the oppofite fide of the iflanik 


vrhich proved inftaatly fatal. The arms of this family are upon tlie end of the 
kirk, and were lately to be fcea on a part of the mint of BitlikeUet. AboiK ^ 
4|iiarter of a mile from BtUikellet, there it a laige ftonc fet np 00 cad. About 6 
feet of it is above the ground. Ic appears to have been the mde momimait aC 
fome ancient hera There it is alfo a phu:e which the iohabltaa$i poiac «Bt|«s 
haviBg beta a Daniih ump, though no veftigcs of it now remain. 

• * 

* ff CAmhraes^ 395P 

Thej have joints and feams like the bafaltic rocks in Staffa, 
but not columnar. They are compofed of the {ame materials, 
and may be eftirtiated as the prodndion of volcanic fufion and 
eruption ; a procefs of nature, vrhich, however dreadful and 
tremendouSy feems to be produdive of the greateil changes 
the furface of this globe has undergone* 

CharaBtr. — ^The people are fober, regular and induftrious, 
in a remarkable degree. It is not known , that any perfou 
bom in this pariih has ever ftood trial before a criminal court. 
Coofidering their opportunity of improvement, diey may I»e 
deemed intelligent ; and it is but juftice to the feafaring part of 
the community to fay, that, fq^ their line of life, their general 
conduft is peculiarly -pvoper and praife-worthy . 


^9^ St^i/Heal 4tfm$ 


ifrijbytpry gf tnrr^hr-(kmtf (otd Sjimod pf 4btrim:\ 
Pjf AzxxAKDER Snmoir, A.M. Sfhtntmujltr of tht Barifk. 


Nam$^ Figure^ River^ Surface, and Spil. 
EN-ED AR was the ancient name of the parlfli, vhkk 

like all the old names of places in this countxy, is np 
doubt a word of Gaelic derivation. The parifli is of an ob? 
long irregular figure, from the northern eiLtremitj, which is 
within a quarter of a mile of the town of Banff, extending i| 
Engliih miles S«£. and varying from 3 to 5 miles in breadtL 
The Deveron runs along the W. end of it for fevcral mileS| 
and divides it from the parifli of Alvah ^ but two detached 
parts of the latter lie on this fide the river, one of which 
ineeting the parifh of Gamrj, entirely disjoins the N. end of 
this pari(h from the reft. The country, though flat, rather 
than hilly, is diverfified with high and low grounds, and in? 
terfeded hj feveral bums and rivulet?. All the higher lands 
ure covered i^ith (hort heath, and except where the foil is en- 
tirely mofs, or extremely poor, retain marks of former cul- 
tivation* The foil is in general dry and gravellyi but, as 

^ King-TLdnx/ard. 399^ 

fii/'be expefiedy in a parUh of fuch extent, fields of a diflb- 
reot and oppofite nature are not uncommon. 

Hiritars^ Escteni, Reni, Scc-^The parifli is the property 
•f the Earl of Fil^, William Urqnhart of Craigfton, Adam 
Urquhart of Bjth, ■ C^ordon of Iden, and John RufleH 

and John Tajlor of Balmad ; all of whom, except the Easl 
of Fife and the proprietor of Iden, refide in the parifli. From 
Ml aftiial furvej of the feveral eilates, except that of Iden, a- 
computation of the meafurement of which is here included, 
the parifli is found to contain 14,000 Scotch acres^ of which 
648a are arable, 440a moor and pafture^ and 1982 mois. Ott 
the property of the Earl of Fife there are 550 acres of woo^ 
on that of Mr. Urquhart of Craigfton 500^ and on that of 
Mr. Urquhart of Bjth 84 acres, conlifling of various kindsr 
of foreft trees ; bat chiefly Scotch fir. In low and flieltered 
fituations, the wood is thriving and of laige fize ; but in thoie 
that are elevated,, and more expoCed to the killing blafts from 
the- N. fea,. it rifes little higher than a flirub ; however, under 
cover of thefe flirubs, a fecond plantation makes greater pro^ 
grefs ; fo that by attention and perfeverance, trees of confider^ 
able fize may be raifed in places which appear the mod unfa-^ 
vourable te their growth. The valued rent of the parifli ig 
40981. 6». 8d. Scotch ; the prefent rent, including. 141 7 boUa 
of meal, at xos. per boll, is not under aaSjL Sterlbg. CuC* 
toms and perfoaal Cervices are &lling into difule, and on the 
Earl of Fife's eftate they are all commuted* The heritors of 
Balmad enjoy only the increafe of rent which has taken place 
fince the year X750, or thereabout, when this eftate was ibid, 
by King's College ; the rent which it bore at the time of tbo 
fide contmues to be paid to the iaid College and the ibhool of 

Ft/bify.—^Tiht (almoa fi^g oa the Deveroni below the 


4c6 Statifiical Jccount 

hkaivtSt k partly, in this and partlj in the patUh of Banff; 
and being the property of the JLad of Fife, and let to €um 
tackfman, the rent, as far as this parifli is concerned, cannot 
be ezadlj afcertained. An acconnt of the rent of the whole 
has been anticipated, in the report for the pariSi of Gamiy*. 
The falmon canght above the cruires are fold at home at od. 

Mills and Mu Iturts. -^Thc parifli Is accommodated with 
dlrnt mills, a wanlk mills, and lo fbr grinding com. For 
^in carried to the mill, the rate of mnltnre raries from 
TT to iV» ^d for what Is fold nnmanufadnred iV Is general- 
ly ezaded, which Is called dry or abftrafied mnltnre. From 
thefe mills, the heritors, who have their tenants reftri&ed to 
a certain mill, receive annually about 328 bolls of meal, part 
of the rent in grain before mentioned. To enable the tackf« 
men to pay this mill rent, and to defray their own labour 
and charges, the quantity of meal made annually in the pa- 
rifli, together with the grain fold uomanufadured, muft be 
irom 7000 to 8oao bolls. 

Chnrcb and School. — ^The Rev. Mt. RoBEax Durr is mi- 
niflcr of the parifli. The church, which is an old buildiag, 
has been repaired, and the manfe rebuilt fincehis admiiBon to 
the charge. The living is 60I. lbs. id. Sterling, in mdhey ; 4 
thalders, 2 firlots, a pecks, of meal, and x chalder of bear, 
with a glebe of 12 or 13 acres of arable and paflnre land. 
The King is patron. — The fchoolmafter*s falary« lately aug- 
mented, and paid by the heritors, is lol.; as feflion-clerk he 
receives al. js. 4d. Scotch, for a proclamation of marriage, and 
for rcgiftration of a baptifm 6f d. Sterling, each. At prefent 
the number of fcholars is 27, who are taught to read Englifli 


♦ S(e Vol I., No. L. 

5^ King^Ednuard. 401 

«; IS., wriuog, arithznqtic, or X^atio, at as. .6d^ pef guar- 
tcr. , 

jnwr.-:^The nntnbev 6f- fi(MJr at prefent on the roll is 19. 
Tfie'colkftioAjT in the church z8l,; intereft ofttionej fiiyed, lal. 
t08. ; antaiiflfl r«ot of a mortification, 61. los. ; feat rents, il. 
5«# \ penffleiis, • and the ufe of a ttiortctoth,' 5L make a jearlj 
revenutf oif 431* 5s. for their iapport. 

PifpntatkHi-^^^Uhe p^putatibn «f this pari(h has been almoft 
ilaticnarf f<A' the fe laft 10 Ijreir^, but has ' Inereafed above 
one 6th within the 30 preceling : 

In the jeair 1783, the number ©f fouls was 1572 

In ' r- 1793^" is - - • ^577' 

L Increafe 5 

Bntin— — « 1755, it was^bl/ - - ^35* ■*— . 220 

Total increafe p. 40 years, .- 225 

Of Aefe there are belonging to the Eilabliilied Church, 1510 
Epifeopala, ■ ^ - 30 Relief S^cedefs, - 15 

Sjoman Catfaolicst 8 . fiereanst/ . • 4 

Ptllage. — 'New Byth, which is'fhe only v?f!age in the pa- 
rilh, began to be feued in 1764, oh a plan fimilar to that of 
Cnmineftown in Monqubitter ^. It contains 195 inhabitants, 
and enjoys the advantage of a charity fchool. By feuing'and 
dividing th'e land into fmall parcels, James Urquhatt, the late 
proprietor of Byth, raifed the rent of his eftfte nearly to 5 
times what it was in 1731, when he came to* the manage- 
ment of it. The valuation of this eftate is only one icth, and 
the number of its inhabitants more than one 4ih of the whole 

Vol. XI, 3 E A 

•«cc V«l. VI. 'No. XVlir. 

409 Statifticdl Account 

A ho\ife, formerly intended as a linen naanufaftorj, aii4 for 
fome time ufed as foch, diSant from the pariik church lo 
miles, was Uft year conrerted info a d»apel of eafe^ tat dieaoaooD^ 
modation of the people at Bjth^ Application waa made to the 
Society for Propagating Chriftian ^owbdge, for thr aid of 
fheir boontf » who, with refervation of the right of pa(iop- 
lige, agreed to give 251. »-jear for Ae fnpport of a clergy- 
aaan, upon condition that the heritor of Bjth woold gi^e fe« 
icurity for this fiune (urn, a^brd hioa a dfreili|ig*ho»fo and 
offices, with )aod fufficient to ousintain % horfe and a oows. 
As thefe conditions are con^plied with, (he affiiir will be eftt- 
Uiihed on fnch ^ footing as to affi>rd a deceit living to the 
mifiionarjy and be a lading advantage^ not only to this pa- 
rifli, bi^i to thofe parts of fome neighbouring pariijies, which 
gre alfo diftant from their owf^ churches^ 

Agriculture^ i^f, — ^All the people, even thofe who are 
handicraftfroen and artificers, are employed in agfftoilture. 
According to their extent, and the quality of the Ifndt the 
rent of forms vfries from <SL to 85I,, valuii^g the meal at lOs. 
per bolU Improvementa in agriculture have made confider- 
able progress for fpme years pa^. Tb^ aiode of culture, and 
rotation of crops, haye undergone a great an4 almoft tot^ 
alteration ^nce the year 1745 ; Even later than that period, 
the ufe apd efficacy qf lime as a ipanure *, thfs jidvantage of 
artificial grafles, fa^ow, and greeo crops, wefe littje known : 
Thefe are now fo common, that not only the principal iarm- 
er^i }>Ht aln)e(t every cqtUger, has a proportioii of bis laod 


* Inftfad of each farmer for himfelf ^mtng time at home, tviiich tSU lately 
^» the geperal prajAice, ihell UiOfC from luiglaod and the S. of fcotlaii4 it im- 
ported by thofe priacipally who are dUbnt from Umo4boe. It it oolj 5 or 6 
rears iince thii trade began, apd fo much 1^ the de^u^d. iacrealed, that 14 
^f^<^t Iffte inioof ted at Macdttff this kzUiU. 

rf King^Edward. 40 J 

In potateeS| turnip, 8od dovcr. Small black oats, which 
formerlj occupied what was called the out.fieldi have given 
place to white oats } and the diftiD£Hon of infield and outfield 
begins to be lefs attended to. After fallow or turaipsi where 
the land is drj, the following crop ts barlej^ widi fown grafa 
for 3 or 4 years ^ where the land is wet, oats are found to 
focceed better. After breaking up^ the rotation differs ac- 
cording lo the nature of the foil, and genius of the fanner^ 
Afoft families raifc flax fufficieut for private ufe ; and fomo 
have obtaiacd premiums from the tntftees.-*^^The advan-' 
tages of inelofures are better tinderftood than experienced^ 
Excepting the^elds in the immediate poileflion of fome of the 
heritors, we have few fenced with done or hedge. Stones fit. 
for building are not to be found above ground in anj part of 
the pariih ; and tnclofing with hedg«, or ftoae quarried and 
carried to a diftance^ would be attended wkh an expence^ 
greater than the rent of land and the fhortaefa of leafes can 
afford. Though fome of the heritors are difpofed to make 
uompenfatioa at the expiration of a leafe, for building and in-« 
clofing ; jet the expence of both, or either of thefc, would 
fink too much of the fmall ftock, with which manjcoBunencar 
^ iarmers« 

Manmr 6fthnn^^ Produce^ 6^4 — Animal foocf is tzttlj an 
article in the bill of fare, but on holidays $ among the bettei^ 
fort of farmers, tea is ufed once and cften twice a-day ; and 
oQcafionally among tbofe of inferior rank. Inflcad of ale^ 
with which our forefathers ufed to make merry, whiiky poncb 
IS now ufcd at all (bcial meetings. Oa(s, bear, aad peafe^' 
meal, potatoes, and other vegetables, with milk, oonftituta 
the ordinary fare of the bulk of the people, Befides what is 
fieceffary for this purpofe, all the rent paid in grain, and a 
confiderablc quantity of meal and grain, belonging to the te- 

3 E » aaott 

404 Statf^ical jfccwnt 

nants» are anmially exported to the S. aiit W« of Scotland. 
When the price is low, bear-meal foqietimes finds a market 
in Norway. The brewery of ale and porter at BanlF» aad 
the foiall licenfed whi&y ftilb in the neighbourhood, afford a 
good market for barley : Thefe laft, befides increafing the con* 
fumption and price of barley, and fupplying us with whiikj, 
of a quality greatly faperior to what we have from the large 
ftills in the foothem difiriAs, as well as cheaper, and no le(s 
whoUfome than foreign fpirits^have given a great check to fmug- 
gling, and, in every point view, are a reciprocal advantage to 
the farmers, and the country at large*. Eitending the pa- 
ilure, and rearing cattle for the grazier and drover, arc at 
^refent the principal objefis of the farmer ; for this purpofe 
turnips are more frequently applied to, than feeding for the 
butcher.. A high proportion of rent in kind is fometimes an 
obflruftion to this mode of farming, as it lays the tenant un- 
der the neceflity of keeping more land io tillage, than he can 
properly manure, which mull prevent him from having ei- 
ther fo much grafs or corn, as he might have, at Icfs expence, 
a not £0 red rifted. But the convcrfion of fuch rent into 


* la I78>, fome farms of an early foil produced what was neeeflary to pay 
ifiafter and fervant ; but the deficiency of the crop of that year, was Tuch, io 
geoeial, as to make the in<portation of grain from England neeeflary. It would 
be doing injuftice to the principal proprietors uf the parifli» sot to mentioo that 
they Tolnntarily (hared the calamity of that, and the following ycar» by fupply- 
ing the people with meal and ^grain at a reduced price, accepting bear-meaJ in- 
ftcad of oat-meal for part of their grain rent, and a moderate comrcrfion inmo- 
iiey for what they could not afford to pay in kind. fiy«thcfc a(5^s of humanity 
•D the part of the heritors, the dilburfcment of Sol. cxrraordinary from the 
poor's fund, -and 15 bolls of meal fent by Government, the waou of the poor 
were fupplicd, and the uniortuoate aflifted. An advance in the price of black 
cattle, and the plentiful crop 1784, ftiH "wre cffcw^ually repaired the loft fuf- 
• tained by the two preceding years, which w^uld othtrwilc have been more 
deeply f«lt. 

of King-Edward. 405 

money having in feme inflances taken place, and every ad- 
dition of rent, oh renewing a leafe, beng now in money, thfs 
inconvenience will feon be removed. 

Cattle^ JVageSj,(fx. — The pariih at prefent maintains 179^ 
hUck cattle, 447 horfes, and 1334 iheep. About 400 black 
cattle can be ^red annually; moll of them being fold.yoqng, 
at or aader 3 years old, the average price may be eflimated 
at 3I. xjs. The number of ploughs is 135, of which 15 are 
drawn by oxen, 76 by 2 horfes, end 44 by 4 horfes^ each ;*— 
of carta 316, of which 3 sre drawn by oxen, 76 by a horfes 
in a line, and 247 by a fingle horfe each. By a flronger 
breed of horfies, and an improved conflruftion of ploughs and 
carts, the operatious of hufbandry ave greatly facilitated, and 
the increafing price of labour in fome meafure counterbalan- 
ced. A fingle man, wxiji a pair of horfes, will do more work 
in the fame time, than was performed by 2 men and 4 horfes, 
40 years ago. The hire of a man qualified to work a>pair of 
bor&s is from 61. to 81. ;— of a woman faim-fervant, fron\ 
aU los. to 3U per annum ;— of a man engaged for harvell il. ' 
108. ; — of a woman for ditto, il. zs., with maintainance. The 
day-labourer earns 8d. with, or lod. without maintenance ; 
when employed at cutting hay, is. with^ or is. 4d. without 
viflnals. Women are chiefly employed in making woollen 
and linen cloth for family ufe, and partly for fale, fpinning 
flax for the tlhread and linen maimfa£tttrers, knttcing dock- 
ings, and in the dairy *• 


* About 60 yean ago, they were much emplored in making a rpecles of 
woollen rioth called mL&iii: wr6.'^ containtng 30 elU each, which were nfually 
fold at Is. per ell. At the above period, and for fome year a after, when the 
oiunbcr of Iheep was perhaps ten times what It is at prcfcnt, this manufadurff 
Riuft have been verjr advantageous; but from the defire of pTefirnt profit* the 
rioih was often made fo flight and coarfe, as to ruin a trade, which, under 
proper management, might have been of lafling benefit Co the country* 

4o6 Statiftical Account 

Sieept Commercej Sec— .When iheep abounded bere^ the 
pafture, which for a great part of the year was cofDoaon, ivaa 
fo overftockedy and fo little food afforded them in time of 
fnow, that manj hundreds died in a fevere feafon ; and chofe 
that fanrived were of fmall fixe and value. When fo lUttle 
attention was paid to them» the profits of a flock muft bare 
been fmall and uncertain, which, with the expence of winter 
herding, when turnips and fown grab were introduced* maj 
be afligned as the principal caufes* whj their number as lb 
greatlj diminiflied. Where thej fiill retain tbeit ground, 
the breed is improved both as to fize and quality of tirooL 
The articles which bring in money, are grain, cattle, butter, 
eheefe, and linen jam. Of thefe, cattle, in the opinion of tbe 
mod judicious farmers, is the flaple commodity. 

Roads and Fuel. — ^The public roads are made and repaired 
by the flatute labour, which the people perform with reluc* 
tance, and often in a foperficial manner. The poft road from 
Banff to Turriff is well fupplied with bridges^ and has of late 
been much improved ; but on this, as well as on many pri- 
rate roads, much remains to be done. It is the general opt* 
nion, that affeffments in money, or the introduftion of turx>. 
pikes, are the only effe&ual way of making and keeping the 
roads in good repair, as the experience of many years ihews 
the fiatttte labour to be inadequate to that piirpofe.-<^Ptats, 
turf, and broom, are ufed for fuel. Wet feafons, of whieh 
we have had many of late, together with the great expenee 
of preparing and bringing home peats, induced many to burn 
Eoglifli coal, even before the late redudion of duty on that 
neceffary of life took place. 

CharaQer of the People. — The people are fober and induf- 
iciotts, fttbmif&ve to tke laws, and attached to their refpec* 


of King^I^dward. 407 

tive heritors. Though not in affluent circumflaoces, they tU 
enjoy the neceiTariedy and many of them, the comforts of life ^ 
and feem as well fattsfied with their fituation as can be ex« 
pe&ed., In point of living, drefs, and cleanlinefs, their con* 
dition is fuperior to what it was in former times. It is high- 
Ij reafonaUe, that an order of men, by the fruit of whofe la- 
boars all are fed, (hould enjoy fuch a competence as to make 
their condition eafy and comforuble* They claim the fup- 
port and encouragement of all who wiih well to their (^oun- 
try, who have any iatercft in its pxofperity, or power to pro- 
mote iu 

Propoftd JmprovimenU^'^To give greater encouragement 
to the induftrious, and make improvements in agricnlture 
nu)re permanent and ejctenCve, nothing is more requifite In 
this place than longer leafes. The ufoal period of Icafes does 
not eacceed 19 years \ though, it mud be owned, there are 
ezceptiene on Craigfton's and the Earl of Fife's e&ates.«»-The 
converfion of multures, and particularly of abftra&ed muU 
tures, might likewife promote this end, and would certainly 
free the future generation from an accumulating tax on im« 
ptovement. As what is here fuggelled is at prefent in agita-* 
tion, and has already, in fome inftances, taken place, this 
grievance will be foon remedied, and the people enjoy the 
fame privilege in manufafiuring their grain, which they have 
in making their carts and ploughs, of employing thofe who 
ferve them bed. 

CaftU —On the poft road from Turriff to Banff, flands the 
ruin of the Caftle of King Edward {iwovfi which the parith 
probably derived its name), the ancient feat of the once 
powerful Earl of Bucban *. It feems to have been a placa 


^ |a the Ttsr 1%J%» A<.szampse Comin, Barl of BveaaM, fouad^ an Hot* 


4o8 Stattftical Account 

of great Arengtb, fortified on the S. fide b/ a fteep rock, 
wafhed by the bum of King-Edward^ and, on the other fide, 
where the fite of the building is on a level with the a^ja.- 
ccnt ground, by a wide and deep ditch. 


pitil at Turriff, and endowed it with a ccrtaui extent of land in the nciabboor- 
hood of that TilUge, and an ansnal payment of p'ain, i chaldert of meal, and 
% chalders of bear, in lien of the tythet of his Caftle of KtV-MAK. This faoC- 
pital was to contain 13 poor men who had been laboaren in the cwiotry ci£ 
Buchan, and a mafler and 6 chaplaint, who were to iky daily prayon for hin 
fcui, for the imiJk of hia predecdSbra tad fuceeffort, and of King Alixa v^sn. 
the III. 

A law was hrtely opened on the farm of Strathairy, in which was found a 
imall urn conuinlng fome aflies ; in digging away the earth many loofe irre^lar 
ftones were fannd, particnlariy round the bafe of the monnt , and in feme plaoea 
narks of fire were difcovered. On the lame farm there n a iinaH fyot, called 
OiirtM QaovM»» whidi, till Ute'y, it Wat thought iacriiege to break with ^wdc 
or plough. It if now conyened into a com field, nor has any interruption beet& 
given by the ancient proprietors. This ii mentioned at one iniUnce, amoD^ 
■lany^ of the decline of faperftition. 


PARISH or crimon'Tj: 

{CoMUy and Synod 0/ jAirdini^'^Pri/hyiiry of Deer.) 

By Mr. William Gall, AHifiant to the Rev. Mr. James 
Johnston Mtnifier of the Par\/b. 

SittiatioHf Exteni^ Smfetee^ and Rhmlett^ &c. 

THE parifli of Crimond b fituated in that diftrift of 
Abcxdeeoibirei called Bttchany and lies nearly in a line • 
between the lea port towns of Peterhead and Fraferiborgh 1 
being aboot ^f miks diilant from the former, and 7f from 
the latter; and bounded on the N. E. bj the German Ocean. 
The fignre of the pariih, including die Loch of Scrathbegt 
(part of which is in the pariih of Loanmay), is triangular. 
' The bafe of the triangle, adjacent to the German Ocean, is 
nearly 3 miles, and its height is about 5i miles. It contains 
about 4600 acres, of which nearlj 3000 are araUe. The re- 
mainder is occupied by mofles, links, fands, a common, and 
the lake of Strathbeg* About a quarter of a mile from high 
water mark, there is a fieep hill along the fliore, almoft per« 
pcndicular, and nearly aoo feet m height. From the fummk 
9f thb bill there is s gradual defcent for about a mile, till the 
Vo^ XI« 3 F ground 

4^0 Siatjfiical Account 

ground be but a little higher than the level of the fea ^ after 
'which there is a gradual afcent, with a few variations, ta the 
upper part of the parifli. As the pari(h lies verjr flat« there 
Are few fpriogs of loft water ; and, in drj fummers, manj* 
have coniiderable difficulty, and muft go to a great diftance to 
procure water for themfelves and their cattle. There are a few 
fireams of foft water in the parifli, ariiing from moffes ; but 
they contain very little water in fummer. The mod confi- 
dcrable of thefe dreams, or bums, divides the pariih of Cri- 
mond from Loanmay, and falls into the Loch of Strathbeg ; 
but its whole courfe, with all its turnings, will not exceed 4 
miles. Yet, though there is rather a fcarcity of foft water, 
there are many mineral fprings ; moft of them are fuppofed 
to be much impregnated with iron. None of them, however, 
have been much ufed for aay naedicinal purpofe. 

Heritors and Rent, — ^The parifli is divided among 4 heri- 
tors: Mr. Irvine of Drum, proprietor of the lands of Crimond 
and MiHhiU; Mr. Harvey of Broadland, proprietor of the lands 
of Rattray and Broadland ; Mrl Duff of Fetereffo, proprie- 
tor of Logie; and Mr. Annand of Haddo, proprietor of Had- 
do ; beiides 2, who pofTefs only a few acres each. Of thefe, 
Mr. Harvey of Broadland generally refides. The valued rent 
of the parifli is 2172U 13$. 4d. Scotch ; the real rent is above 
13001. Sterling. The value of the land here has rifen verj 
eooiiderably during the lad 50 or 60 years. 

Manu/aBures and Commerce. — ^From the fcarcity of water in 
the parifli, there can be no manufadtures edabliihed here. The 
women, however, are employed partly in fpinning flax, for 
the manufa&urers of Aberdeen and Peterhead ; partly in 
ginning tow, which is manufadured into a coarfe kind of 
travrQW dotby called bam, which labouring people ufe for 


of Crimond. 41 1 

Hurts, and which fells, unbleached, at about 6d* or ^d. per 
yard ; or into a flill coarfer kind, which is made into bags 
for carrying grain, and which, being much clofer woven, 
fells at about 8d. or xod. per jatd. A confiderable quantitj 
of this cloth is fold yearly at different fairs in this neighbour- 
hood ; and a ftill greater proportion of linen yarn is fpun, 
and Cent by land carriage, chiefly to Aberdeen, a diflance of 
55 miles* The women will gain, byfptnning, from 4d* to 6d. 
a day. ^ 

Fijb^ Kelp^ Scc«*~The coaft abounds in fi(h, particularly cod, 
which are of an excellent kind (Rattray cod being very famous); 
but for want of a proper landing place, they are not caught 
in very great quantities here. There is no fifhing town in the 
parifli ; hot fome of the crofters and artificers, on the eftates of 
Broadland and Haddo, fifh' in good weather, when they are not 
otherwife employed. Mr. Harvey of Broadland propofes to 
make a proper landing place, but has not yet begun to put 
his plan in execution. Sea weed, or ware, is ufed as a ma« 
Dure ; and a fmall quantity of kelp is manufactured here. 
Rattray Head^ in this pari(b, is a very dangerous roek. It 
is very low, and firetches a good way into the fea. A great 
number of veflels have been ihipwrecked there. In thefe 
cafes, the condud of 10 omany of the lower ranks, in this and 
the ndghbeuring pax ifhes, efpectally of thofe who are molt 
adjacent to Rattray Head, can by no means be juftified ; for 
they pilfer and carry off from the wreck whatever they cab 
lay hold on, fometimes in a very barefaced manner. The 
rre^on of a light*houfe at Kinnaird*s Head, about 7 miles 
W. from Rattray Head, will probably render thefe wrecks 
ieCi frequent at the latter. The lad fliip wrecked tliere was 
ihe Delight of Burlington, a large veffel, laden with iron» 
wood and tallow, in November or December 1790. 


2 F a dimaU 

412 Statiftkal Account 

Climate and 5bi/.— The climato ii healthy, tol teems not 
fo liable to infedioas diforderai as other pariflies in the nei^s* 
bourhood. The putrid fere throat raged with great Tioieaoe 
d or 5 jears ago, in moft fariflies in the neighbonrhood, nod 
carried off great numbers i bat though a fSew werefeitied with it 
in Grimood, none died oi that diforder. Confnmptive difbidcra 
are moft frequent here. At prelent an infeftions fever prew 
vails, which has proved fatal to feveraL In fpring 179a, ao 
people, from i to 16 years of age,^were inoculated for the 
fim^ll pol. One of them did not catch theinfcftion; die 
other 19 had them in the moft favourable manner* But noe^ 
ivithftanding this fucceb, the example is not Ukelj to be 

The land next the ihore is a verj light body fail, ^ 
produces, in general, weighty crops of bear, peafe and I 
It is eafily cultivated, and would produce exceUeot crops of 
early grafs ; but this hufbandrj has been feldom attempted in 
that part of the pari(h. In the N. W. part of the pariflit fer 
a or 3 miles from the fea, is a light loam, earlier than omA 
other parts i and fome of it produces weighty crops. FlUt is 
on a claj bottom ; much of it is a cold damp late foil, paitictt- 
larly near the mofles ; and as a great part of the parifli sp. 
pears once to have been covered with mob, this foil is to b0 
found in many places. The only grain produced here is ones, 
bear, peaTe and beans i the two laft in not very great gnnn* 

AgricuUun and Preducf ^-^It is but latdy that any coflfi. 
derable improvements in agriculture were made here. It is 
indeed nearly 60 years finoe Mr. Irvine of Crimood began to 
nfe lime. But fb little was the nature of that msBore known 
at that time, that he took 7» 8, and even xi fuoceffive ctnpa 


if Crhmnd. 413 

sftcar KnSsg* SMie fields hsre not yet recovered tbe bad ef* 
fcAs of this OTer^croppiag. When the tenants, about 30 of 
40 years ago, began to ufe lime, the landlords, in order td 
prevent overcropping, caufed tnfert a clanfe in the leafes they 
granted, prohibitiog tenants from taking more than 4 cropa 
after folding with (heep or cattle, and 5 after limingi widioat 
the intervention of a green crop ; but if the 5th crop aftet 
liming was peafe, they could, by their leafe, make the 6th 
bear, and then a 7th and 9th oats. It is eafy to fee, that fudk 
a mode of nfiag ground, muft have greatly retarded improve 
ment. Liming is not much ufed at prefent here, as moft of 
the ground, for which it is proper, has already been limed^ 
and got fuch a large dofe, that a fecond liming is rather hurU 
ful than beneficial. What lime is now ufed, is commonly har« 
xowed in with bear, and clover and rye-grafs feedi, after tur* 
sups and potatoes, in old infield ground. Shell marl is begin* 
tiiDg to be ufed as a manure, and feems to anfwer well. 

It is not much above ao years fince potatoes, turnips, ot 
nrtificial graflcs, were to be feen in the fields in any quantity. 
But peopk now begin to perceive the advantages of thofe im- 
pcovements. Potatoes are planted in quantities fuflkient to 
fopply the confumption of the pariih, which is Confiderabk. 
A few were fold laft year for exportation ; but the expeoce 
•f land carriage will probably prevent any attempts to raife 
them for exportation. Many have large fields of turnipa. 
Summer fallow is fometimes ufed ; and the potatoe, turnip, 
end fallow fields are generally fowa down with rye^grafs, and 
xed aad while clover feeds; and fometimes grafs feeds are 
ibwa in ground not fo well p rep ared . But a great deal ro. 
Maina to be done % and it will be a long time before the dif^ 
trsft ean erctve at the degree of cultivation it is oapable of* 
These is no regular rotation of crops carried on here, unlefii 
IgroM OT two tenants. A very good rotatioui which has been 

% ufed. 

414 Statiftical Accouni 

jifedi is, xft, Cumipsy potatoesi peafe, or fallow; id, in tfighe 
foil, oats } and, in a ftrong, barley, each with artificial graces j 
Bd, haj ; 4th, 5th, 6th, aod 7th, paftare ; 8th, oats : 9di, 
^Ibmctimes oats, which finiflies the rotation ; fometimes bear i 
gnd, in that cafe, loth oats. 

Nearly the half of the arable groand in he parifli is in na« 
tural or artificial grafles. About a 5th part of the remainder 
is in potatoes, lumips, peafe, or other green crop. Everj 
lenant, for the mod part, has a greater or lefier qnantitj of 
flax, chiefly for family ufe. What remains, t S in oats and bar- 
ley. The turnips are ufed, partly in feeding cattle for die 
butcher, bat chiefly in rearing young cattle. The parifli will 
produce nearly, on an average, 6000 bolls of grain annually ; 
of which from 1000 to 2000 are exported ; the remainder is 
needed for feed, and the fupply of the inhabitants. The va- 
lue of cattle fold yearly, including a few flieep, amonnta to 
more than the grain exported. Very fine cattle are reared 
and fed here. The number of black cattle is rather above 
800. There are but few iheep. About 20 years ago, horfes 
ufed to be brought from other places, to fupply the farmers in 
this and the neighbouring pariflies ; but now good horfes are 
reared and exported. The number of horfes in the diftrift is 
exa&ly 205. Some farmers alfo difpofe of a little hay. 

Some time ago, in this diftrid, the plough was drawn by 
6 horfes, or 10 or Z2 oxen ; now 4 horfes, or 4 oxen, and 
fometimes 2 horfes, are ufed. The Scotch plough is general* 
ly employed. There is icarcely any of the pariih indofed, 
which is partly compenfated by the praftice of winter herding. 
About T 6 or 20 years ago, many of the tenants began to in- 
, clofe with earthen fences ; and perhaps a third part of the pa* 
.rifli was* inclofed in that manner. But as thefe fences fooa 
.mouldered away, and becao^e infufficient, a flop was put to 
that manner of inclofing, and the earthen fences were gcn^ 

of CritnonJ. 4f^ 

raUy thrown down. In fome parts of the difirifti ilones aroi 
BOC to be got in fufficient quantities for inclofing ; and, even 
where thej can be got, a tenant can hardly be ezpeAed to in»<' 
clofe on a Icafe of 19 years, the longeft generally granted 
here* • 

The Ihortnels of Feafes ufually given, feeme to prefent an 
infaperable bar to perfedion in agriculture. From the da* 
creafing value of money, the landlord imagines he muft be 
a lofer by granting a long leafe. But might not a leafe be 
granted for 3, 4, or 5 nineteen years, without any material in- 
jury to tlie landlord, arifing from the progrefCve decreafe of the 
value of money ? For inftance, might not the rent of a farm be 
regulated by the price of oatmeal, or of any kind of grain ^ 
Suppofe a farm to be let for lol., and the price of oatmea^ 
at the beginning of the leafe, to be zos. per boll, then the 
rent, or aoL, would be equivalent to 40 bolls of oatmeal. 
Suppofe, at the end of the firft 19 years, the price of oatmeal, 
on an average of 7 years, to be 12s. per boU, then let the 
rent for the fiscnnd 29 years be the price of 40 bolls of meal, 
at 128. per .boll, or 241. Suppofe, at the end of the fecond 
19 years, oatmeal to be z 4s per boll, then let the rent, for the 
third 19 years, be the price of 40 bolls of meal, at 145. per 
boll, or 28L The ri^g rent might in the iame manner be 
regulated by the price of cattle or iheep of a certain weight, 
or of beef or wool, or other produftions of the farm. A 
moderate advance might likewife be made for the capability 
of improvement. A long leafe might furely be granted, upon 
this or a fimilar plan, without materially injuring the land- 
lord ; while the tenant would be encouraged to attempt fub- 
ftantial improvements, as he would have a certain profpeft of 
reaping the fruits of his induftry. 


41 6 Stati/lkal Acc(m$a 

P0ft$laiioH.'^AteoTding to Dr. Webftec^f nport, dieattou 
Wr of fi>al8, in 1755, was 765*. 

Population in Februaiy 1791. 

311 Memben of tlie BftaKliflirJ Onvcfta 

• • Z17 childitii included, - 66» 

• 390 8cot^ EpUcopaliuu^ - 944 

9f Antibuflier Secedcn, • t 

^-^ Roman Catholki, • • 3 

Total f, " 91;^ NumWr of £unUiet» - - %%t 

' • About the time that the return wai made to Dr. Webfter» and for fbnie time 
^ibUt the population wai (kid to be on the increafe, owing chiefly to the 4hid* 
ii^ of IsTge farms into fmaller onei. Bat Cnce the year X770» the popnlatiQa 
Asopt to have been upon the deoeafe. lo 1771, it appear^ from the lift kept 
hf the overlecr of the roadi, that there were A31 men in the pariih, from z6 to 
40t fiabk to work 00 the highways. Thefe have gradually dccreafed finoe. In 
17I1, there were but aoo i and left year only 171. 

f In February X793, there was a dccreafe of 15, owing to die removal of 
% funilies and i or 6 artisans out of the parilh. — It is impoffibk to gire nf 
fccovlit of thf btnht, deaths, and marriages. Scarcdy auy of the < 
fort their childrens births in the regifter ; and even fome of the ] 
Church are equally nrgUgent. Before X7S3, no regifter of burials and 1 
•gea was kept, and fcarcely the half have been regillered fince that period 
The decreafe of the population may, among other cauies, contribute to the b^ 
yriioc of labour, wd to what is of worfe confequeuce, the difficulty of procaa^g 
Ubourers. At the time that the large farms were divided into finaUcr on^ the 
fubtcnants and cottagers rented partly the finaller farms, and partly crofts^ frooi 
the heritor, which were generally too Isrge. When the pofleflbrs of thefe fmsll 
Ibrms and crofts were found not to be the heft improvers of the ground, the 
landlords began to put two or more of the fmall farms into one, fo that bow 
there are fcarcely any fubtenauts, and few crofts let by the heritors. As these 
are no villages ia the pariih, and no cottages to be let, but (uch as have a piece 
of ground annexed to them, young people, for want of a fettlcment, remove to the 
mamifa^uring towns of Peterhead and Aberdeen ; Co that day-hbonrers and 
handicraft people are procured with the greattfl difficulty. It would probably be 
of fKtt lAvatuge both to thaniclves aad the publici if the boiton vronld allot 


of Crimond. 417 

Church *, School^ Poor^ \3c. — ^The ftxpend is t chalder of 
bear, a. chalder of meal, 7«o merks Stotch' in money, with 
50 merks for communion elements, and a glebe of about 5 
acres of very good grouad. The Earl of Enrol is the preCeot 
patron. The church was built in 1576 ; at lead this date is 
above one of the doors. It is probable, however, that it had 
only been repaired that year, as there is iiill a font ftone in 
the £• end. The manf<9 was built in 1763, and new offices 
about 4 or 5 years ago.^-A new fchool«houfe, with rooms for 
the mailer, was built in 1791* The fohoolmafter's falary is 
zoo merks Scotch, and, including all perquifites and (chool fees, 
will not amount to a^bove iil. or lah a year. — ^The poor are 
fupported by the weekly coUedions, and the intereft of X30L 
Sterling. Of this, zoo merks Scotch were mortified by a pro- 
prietor of Logic, about the beginning of the century, and p 
merks by Mr. Leflie, late minifler of Crimond, about the 
year 1740. Thefe two fuma, by being lent out at interefi, 
amounted, in 1748, to 700 merks Scotch ; and, in Z782, with 
fome fmall favings, to 1 70I. Sterling : A pradical proof of 
the accun^ulation of money by compound intereft f • 

Vol. XL 3 G Roads. 

a fnoll part of their eftate (near a mofs if pofTible) to he lee in fmall crofts of % 
or 3 acres to day-Ubouxert and artificers, and to grant them leafes. By tbefc 
aieans many would fettle in the country, the bell nurfery of the human fpecics, 
and it would always be eafy to procure labourers and artificers, which is fre- 
quently not the cafe at prefent. This difficulty of procuring day-labourers, lu- 
bcfuriog fenrants, &c. prerents many iniproTenients from being aucmpted. (t 
would alio be of coofequence, that fuch «rofts were yery fmall, becaufe if they 
were large, they would either take up too mj^cb of the poIfciTor's timci or the 
neceitiry attention would not be paid to them. 

* Mr. WILLIAM Law, probably the firft Prcfbyteri;in minifter at Crimond 
after the Revolution, was depofcd, foon after the beginning of the century, by 
the Synod of Aberdeen, for what they were pleafcd to call herefy^ he having af- 
ferted in a Synod fcrmon, *' 7^.^ I'irtue was more natwral to the human mind 
•* than Tice.** 

t Since th^t period the capital has de^reafed. The poor are literally fupport- 

41 8 Statifiical Accmnt 

Roads.'^The toids in this diftria ftte s^pftlrtd hj die lis. 
tote labotEir, whichi if properlj peifonned, wouM have ktpc 
them in repair : But the worit wes alwejs tbo fspeificially 
performed, becaufe too much was attempted iu one year. 
And» aa the roada ftood aa much ia need of repair as ever, 
in a few years they became very bad. This readtrad pM^ 
averfe and aokward in peiforming the (latute labour. Be» 
fides, about lo, |2| or ao years ago, the then refidiog heri* 
tors trequently repaired their private roads by means of the 
ftatute labour | and overfeers were often partial or negli- 
gent. More attention, however, has been paid to the public 
roads for fome years pafl, and they are now confiderably im- 

Laie^ Hiii, &c.--The Loch of Strathbeg is partly in the pe* 
ri(h of Grimond, partly in that of Loanmay. It contains about 
550 acres, and is above a mile in length from £. to W.; the 
breadth is unequal, The £• end, which is in Crimond, if 
nearly half a mile from the fea, the W. end fomewhat far* 
th^r *• At the E« end of the Loch of Strathbc^t in a rery 


ed by the poor. The heritors either do QOt refide» pr do fiot attcad fohi^ 
worfiiip. A great many are diflenters, ^ho centribttte little or noduflf to chp 
ftipport of the poor. For zo or la yeai» paft, Mr. IrYJoe of Dmm has cuiird 
5 or 6 bolls of oat-meal, and fometimcs more, yearly, and, at diflerent liaicf 
money, to be diftributed amorg the poor of his cfiace : Ancpoiple which de- 
fenres to be followed by all non-rciidipg heriton, and thoie who do not acuad 
public worihip. 

* At the beginning of the prefent century, this lake was of much fmaller ex- 
tent than it is now. It was confined to a fmail part of the £. end, and had a 
communication with the Tea, fo that vefleis of fmall burthen could enter it. 
FcDple bom about the beginning of the century well remembered the firfi otcx- 
flowing of the W. part of the Loch, though the particular year is not now 
known, but it muft have been about 1720. Previous to that time there was a 


tf Crtmondi 419 

pbaikiit fituiuion, thete it a (kaali hill, of a ctrcnlar form, 
whofe top is ezaftlj half a Scotch acre in ttxxoX^ called tb$ 
Cq/Ut^HUl. It rifes 38 feet d)ove a fmall plain on the N. £• 
bot is 00I7 I a or 14 feet above the higher ground 00 the oppo'« 
fite fide. The famous Gomouae Earl of Bucban, had a feat 
here % hot after his defeat at the battle of Inverury* bj King 
ilobctt Brace, this caftle fell into ruins. B7 the blowing of 
the light Caady ground in the neighbourhood, which verj 
frequently happens, it is now covered with a deep foil, and 
produces crops of grain and grais^ Such is the ioftabilitj of 
human affidrs *• About a quarter of a mile S; of the Caftle* 
hiU, the wutfs o^ a chapel, furtonnded by a burial place, are 
*ioftly entire f. Around this chapei formerly flood -the 
burgh of Rattray. It is faid to have had the fame privileges 
as a royal burgh, except fending members to parliament. 
The burgage lands are of confiderable extent |. This diftri£t 

g O a is 

*%U1 of find, between the hill above mentioned tnd the fea, and ftill higher than 
it. A furious K. wind blew awa/ this kill of iand in one night, which Aopped 
the cofsmuoication between the loch and the fea bx forming a find bar. The 
low Ijing ground to the W. was foon overflowed, and the extent of the loch raudi 
Ulcreafed. An attempt has been made to drain this loch : the operations for 
dratniog it were begun in 1797, and are ftill continued, though hitherto nnfuc- 
ce(sftiL The proper method of draining it does not appear to be jet difcovered. 

* About tfo 7C«n ago, Mr. Arbnthoot, then of Broadland, canfed dig up an 
tfllinenee at titt S. K. fide of the Oaftle^iiU, where he found a great number of 
Ibooes, foppofed 10 belaaglo the kitchen of the caftle, ai ike workmen found 
^nvf Uxgt kcsarfk-ftoDes covofed with alke^ 

f It is fuppofed to have been a private chapel for the ufe d the farri 
family. The length is 45 feet within the walli, the breadth it feet, the thickneCi 
•f the walls % feet, and the height of the end walls, ftill above ground, 1% feet« 
In the £. end of the chapel are 3 arched windows ; the largeft, which is in the 
middle, is il feet high and a feet wide. The other % ^e each 7 iSeet high« and 
a wide. The walk are built of very Onall ftones firmly cemented with lime. 

% Tfaen sre asw only s leua^orntktr a lea divided in»o t. The oUift eksr- 


420 Statifiical Account 

is called, in an old charter, the Great Pari of Crhnoiid* 
There are, however, verj few trees in it at prefeot ^ bat it 
appears, from the mofles, that there have been large planta- 
tions formerly. Many oaks, ftili fre(h, have been found in 
the mofi«s ; but foaroely any other kind of wood. In thefe 
places, when the mofs is exhaufted, or nearly fo, coots of 
very large oaks are to be feen, as clofe together as trees of 
their Cze could well be fuppofed to grow in a plantation. In 
fbe upperoxoft part of Crimond, the adjacent parts of Loan- 
may, and a part of Longfide» which was disjoined from Cri- 
xnond in the laft century, there are feveral very extenfive 
xnofTes contiguous to each other, which, if we may judge 
from thofe already exhaufted, have been once covered with 

AU Houfes. — ^There is only one licenced public houfe in 
the pariih ; but there are feveral perfons, who, by getting 


ter upon this feu, extant, was granted in 16*7. In that year* in a burgh-court 
holden at Rattray, by the Honourable Jghn Hay of Crimondmogate, Williaxn 
Dalgardno of filackwater, and David Rivis of Strathftedlie, bailies of the bargh 
of Rattray, a jury of 13 honed men, citizens of the faid burgh, find, tbat 
Magnus Smith, the father of William Smith, died poflefled of 4 roods of land 
in the faid burgh. Upon this, David Rivis, one of the faid bailies, fuperior of 
the lands of Rattray, grants a charter on the £aid 4 roods in favour of William 
Smtth.-^The next charter is granted in 1675 by William Watibn of Haddo, 
bailie of the burgh of Rattray, fuperior of the fatd Uuids» in fiivoor of Ifobcd 
Watfon, fpoufe of Alexander Bil&t in Bilboe.— -xThe lateft charter is granted 
in 17x1, by Charles fiarlof Errol, fuperior of the lands of Rattray, in favour 
•f the daughters of the faid Alexander BifTet and Ifobel Watfon. 

* In Fordoun*s Chronicle, after mentioning the defeat of Cummine at Invr- 
rury, rt is narrated, ** That Bruce purfued him to Turriff, and afterwards de- 
** ftroyed by fire his witole earldom of Buchan.** The large plantations of trees 
were no dtfubt deftroyed with the reft of the earldom ; and this is the more 
probable, as maHu of fire have been perceived on trees deep burie4 in the mofs. 

of Crimond. . 421. 

tnarittfets from the excife officers, contrive to retail ale and 
fpiritoas liquors during a great part of the year ; and as thej 
pay no licence, and hardly any duty on ale, and have little 
convenience, they can afford to fell below the ordinary price 
in a decent houfe. Hence thefe private ale houfes are too 
mach fireqnented, and their efFefis may foon ^become pernici- 
oos. Dmnkennefs, however, is not a prevailing vice here. 
The fevere feafon of 1782 was attended with many bad con- 
fequences ; but it had one beneficial eSefl: in this neighbour- ' 
hood, that of almoft putting a (top to this vice. 


42 2 Stati/lual Account 



(CSMMtff of Koft^^'BriJbyttry of Locbcarron^Synmi of 

By thi Rev. Mr. Alexakder DowkiEi Minifler* 

Namet Situation^ and Extent. 

THE general name of this parifli, like thofe of mod of 
the £iinDs of which it confillsi feems to be Danifh. It 
18 fitnated on the N. W. coaft of Scotland* The figure of 
the inhabited part approaches neareft to a quadrangular pen- 
infula, being inclofed by the fea 6tl 3 of the fides. The 
Kyle, or narrow fea, which feparates the adjacent ifland of 
Sky from the main land of Scotland, is its weftern boundary; 
the bays of Lochduich and Lochlong eocompafs it on the S.$ 
and that range of high hills^ which divides the eafl from the 
weft coaft of Scotland, bound it on the eaft. The inhabited 
part ]j computed to be 10 miles long, and 5 broad. 

3 Surfaci^ 

of iMcbalJb^ 4S^ 

Surfacif Soil, and Cttmate^ (^r..^The general sppeanuio6 
of the country, like that of all Highland pariihes, is nioun* 
tanious. The hills are neither rocky, nor cOTcred with 
heath, as in the neighbouring countries to the N* Oa the- 
declivity of the fmaller hills, and in the intermediate hollows, 
the foil is rich, and commonly of the fame quality with the 
ground which covers lime-ftone rocks. On the top they are 
covered with thin mofs. The whole produces excellent pa- 
fture, reckoned fuperior in quality to any in the neighbour- 
ing countries. The climate, as may be expeHed, from the 
attradion of the clouds by the high hills in the pariQi, and 
the ftill higher hills of Kintail and Sky, is exceedingly moid 
and rainy. The inhabitants, however, ^re healthy, and many 
lire to a confiderable age. Nervous fevers are the principal 
epidemical dillempers to which they are fubjeft. 

ProArrr .— The produce of the country is oats, barley, po« 
aatoes and peafe. But the attention of the farmer being 
ptineipally occupied in rearing cattle, the railing of com be- 
cotties a (ecottdary confideration. The inequality of the fnr- 
fiice renders cultivation difficult, and the wetnefs of the climate 
makes the return precarious. In the beft feafons it doea not 
pfoduee com fnfficient for the inhabitants. They annually 
import oat-meal from Ireland, the Frith of Clyde, or Caitb* 
nefs, at from x js. to 14s. per boll, of 8 ftone Dutch weight. 
The quantity varies, according to the goodnefs of the harveft, 
or the feverity of the fpring. In a bad fpring, the cattle oftea 
confume their com after the provender has been exhauftcd. 

Cattle, — ^The number of cattle in the parifli; accordbg te 
jl ytry accurate Turvey lately taken, is as follows : 


4^4 Statifiicai Account 

Milk <;ows, 






- 5«7 




Yottog cattle. 

- 1554 






The (heep and goats are kept folelj for familj ufe. By 
the produce of the black cattle, the farmer lives and pays his 
rent to the landlord. About 400 are annually fold to drovers 
from the fouth of Scotland, who come to purchafe them, from 
April to November. The average price will be about three 

Commerce and Cultivation. — ^A confiderable quantity of bat- 
tler and cheefe is annually exported. The butter is e&eemed 
of the beft quality and higheft flavour. Formerly, the farmer 
trufted for winter provender folely to paflure grafs, on which 
Qoxrattle were paft^ired from the lath of Auguft to the zath of 
November. , Having little ilraw, and so hay, many, cattle^ 
i.n fevere winters, periflicd for want. They now begin to in. 
clofe their ground, and grow natural and artificial hay, bj 
which means this lofs is in a great meafure obviated* Bj 
railing more hay, and keeping a lighter flock, cattle of greater 
value, fecure from bad feafons, might he reared. A very ex« 
teniive bank of coral and ihell fand, to which all the. teaanu 
on the eftate have free accefs, will greatly contribute to pro- 
mote agriculture amongft them. Of late years it has been 
generally ufcd ; and experience fo much convinces them of its 
utility, that it is now carried in fmall bo^ts, bearing from t% 
to 18 barrels, through Lochduich, 15 miles, and foroetimes to 
a confiderable diftance afterwards by land carriage. Thofe 
who carry it by contraft, demand 6d. per barrel for delivering 
it on the (hdre. By employing large flat»bottomed boats, the 
^ice of carriage might be much reduced, and the manure, 


of Locbal/b^ 42^ 

fottod fo much adapted for corn and grafs, more ualverfallj 

Populatkn^ Manner 0/ Livings &c»— Within thcfe 40 years, 
the population is more than doubled. 

The number, at prefent, is, of males, •* * 640 

— — — — ^— females, - - . - - 6^4 

In all, - - .. . - 1334^ 

In Dr. Webfter's report, the number is only * 613 

Increafe, - - - • - ^az 
The pre&nt number of families is - • « 179 

As there 'was a confiderable emigration from this country^ 
to Korth America, in 1770, and a large drain of young men 
to recruit the army during the late war*, it is di£5cult to af«« 
lign adequate caufes for this rapid increafe of population* 
It cannot be accounted for, from any change in the divifion of 
firms, moft of which have been bounded by the fame marches 
for upwards of a century, and ftill pofiefled by what may be 
G^ed the Ahorigines of the country, often defcending, from, 
father to fon, in the fame family, to the fourth generation. 
The cultivation of potatoes, introduced here about 45 years 
ugOj (vihich, with various kinds of fi(h, now conftitute the 
greateft part of the food of the people,) feems to have princi- 
pally contributed to it. Their mode of farming, requiring 
little of their attention, during the fummer and beginning of 
harvefi, they are much employed in filhing of fythe, (a fmall 
fpecies of the cole filh), herrings, and fometimes ling, cod and 
Vol. XI. 3 H ikate. 

* Since writtng the ftbore, tlw proprietor, who is dow rsifing t regtiaeot, 
nlfed here upwards of 40 volunteen in a days. 

4^6 Statiftlcal Account 

Ikftte. The fythe arc cat frefli ; the herrings are pickle^ tb 
be eat with the potatoes daring the harveft, winter, and 
fpring. Though 63 boats be employed in this manner, tbere 
are no fifli exported from the parilh. Communicating the fmM^ 
pox by inoculation, now become univerfal over this coaft, and 
pradifed with fuccefs, has alfo very much contribnted to pr&- 
ferve the lives of the people f. The emancipation of the 
lower clafles, too, from the remains of feudal oppreflion, and 
their circumfiaiices greatly improving, under the fofteriog 
e^re of a liberal landlord, enables them to marry earlier is 
Hfe, and to provide with more eafe for a rifing £amily. 

Church, Poor^ Scboois, &c.— The church was built in 1641. 
It was repaired and Qatcd in 1766, and lately fumilhed with 
commodious feats. The living, including the glebe, is worth- 
65I. per annum. The patronage is vefted in the Crown* The 
fole heritor, Mr. M'Kenzie of Seaforth, does not rcfide in 
the parifli. All the people come to the Eftablilhcd Churchy 
excepting 62 Roman Catholics, who attend a Popifli meeting- 

houfe in the neighbouring parifli of KinuU ^The number of 

pocr at prefcnt on the parilh roll is 35- The only fund for 
their fupporr, arifing from coUeaions at the church door, does 
not exceed 7I. per annum, which is diftributed by the kirk- 
fcffion according to their neccffitics. The parochial fchool is 
fituated near the church. The faJary is aoo merks Scotch. 
Laft year, the Society for Propagating Cbriftiau Knowledge 
reftored one of their fchools to a detached diftrift of the pa- 
rilh, with a falary of i jl. Sterling. 

Rent J ^ 

f About 40 year, .go i^hen inoculation was not praAifed here, this Tirul«t 
Aitemper .Jinng them m the «anir.l way. gave cufc to ««,/«,J,.ppy p^ 
rents, to bewail the lofs of a whole ftmiJy of children. 

of Lochaljb. 427 

JRmHj, ¥uil^ &c.— The valued rent of the parifli is not ex* 
jidlj known. The real rent is nearlj 800I. Sterling, befides 
what ariies from a confiderable quantity of kelp annually ex- 
ported. This eftate has remained in the fame family for up- 
wards of 4 centuries. — The only fuel ufed is peats, which, in 
wet feafons, in this rainy climate, are expenfive and preeari* 
ous. Neceffity has fometimes obliged them to purchafe coals^ 
at the extravagant rate of 19s. per ton. It is to be hoped 
the juftice of the Britilh legiflature will not fufier a country, 
where firing muft always conftitute one of the mofl efTential 
comforts of life, to groan anjr longer under a partial and ini.. 
quitous tax on that neccflary article*.-.The Gaelic is the only 
language, in which public inflrufiion is conveyed to the peo- 
ple ; tboogh, from the introdu&ion of Society fchools^ and a 
ilronger defire in the people to have their children educated, 
inoft of them are now taught to read and write. 

WiUL jtmmali.'^'Rtd deer, mountain haresi and tarmagai^ 
frequent the higher hills. In the lower, may be found roes» 
foxes, black-cocks, groufe, plovers, partridges, eagles, and a 
variety of hawks. The migratory birds are the wood»cock« 
lapwing, cuckoo, land rail, fwallow, and mountain finch, or 
fnow.f ake« X^^ ^^^ ^^ abounds with a variety of water 

Advantages and Di/advantages.^'The parifli derives its 
principal advantage from its local fituation on the fea coafl, fa 
contiguous to the bays of Lochduich, Loehcaixon, Kifliom, 
and Lochorn, fome one of which, and generally all of them,, 
ihoals of herrings never fail to vifit between the end of June, 
and the beginning of November.. From benefiting by this 
advantage, they are, however, in a gti^ajC meafure, prevented^ 

3 H a- by 

^ Since this wai writteOi the coal tax has been bappilf abplifliad 

428 Statiftical Account 

by the prefent exifting laws regarding yZi/^. If this obilacle 
were removedy by allowiog the country people fait at the ikme 
duty as the fiih curers have it, for curing fifli for home con- 
fumption, their condition would be greatly improved. They 
would then not only have it in their power, to cure a foffi- 
cient quantity for the ufe of their femilies, at a fmaller ex* 
pence, but likewife find profitable employment in curing her- 
rings for the Irilh markets. It is now not at all oncom* 
n\on to fee them, after catching a quantity of fiih, in propor- 
tion to their fmall ftock of {alt, return from a lake where 
boat loads might be taken. The country people, from the 
iame caufe, not two years ago, fold good herrings in Loch- 
duich to the mafters of bulTes, at from is. to 2s. per bar- 
rel. The people being, from their infancy, principally em- 
ployed in attending cattle, are generally difpofed to be idle, 
and, though able-bodied, continue at hard work with re- 
ludance. The women particularly, ignorant of the arts of 
domeftic induftry, contribute little to the fupport of their &• 
milies. Habits of induftry, however, begin to be acquired. 
The introduAion of fome fpecies of manufafture would great- 
)y meliorate their condition, without interfering much with 
their principal employment of herding. The manufaAure of 
coarfe ftockings feems to be the heft adapted for the local fi- 
tuation of the country. There is a great quantity of wool 
raifed on iheep farms in the neighbourhood, which might be 
fpun during the winter, a feafon generally fpent in idlene&, 
and knitted white they fit in the meadows tending their herds. 
If the population continues to increafe, in the fame proportion 
as it has done for the la{l40 years, unlcfs fome employment be 
found for the people, the country will foon be unable to fup- 
port them, and they will be reluftantly compelled to feck, in 
other countries, that encouragement and proteAion which 


of Locbal/b. ^^ag 

their own native land refufes. It is^unneceflarj to remark 
the difadvantage to the ftate, of lofing fo many of Its hardieft 
fabjedsy remarkable fipr their fimplicitj of manners and 
obedience to the laws at fiome, and ready and fuccefsfol in 
defending its liberties abroad. The time may perhaps not bo 
far diftgnt, when, enervated by luxury, and funk in eSemi* 
nacy, the more refined inhabitants of the South will yield to 
the hardier fons of the North, the feat of empire and the em« 
porium of trade, for which their natural refources, .their 
perfonal ftrength and vigour of nsind, and perhaps local ad« 
T^iotages, fo much qualify them. 


439 S/ati/lical Account 


(County and Prejbytery of Ayr^^Synod of Gtafgov) and Ayr!) 

Drawn up from the Communications of the late Rev, Mr. JoflV 
Dun, Minifter of that Parifb *. 

Name^ and Extent. 

AUCHINLECK is a Celtic compound, fignifying tH 
Field of Rocif an appellation indicative of its fitua. 
tion, the houfes at the extremities being founded on rock* and 
rocks appearing in moft places in the pari(b, chiefly of the 
fpecies called Free^Jione. The length of this diftrid is about 
18, and the breadth, on an average, a Englifli miles. 

Soil and Produce, -r^Kxctpt upon the rocks, and the banks of 
the dreams, which are warm rich land, th^ foil is a (hallow, 


* Mr. Dun had propofed to draw up a fuller aiul more complete account, Irat 
onfortuoately died before he could carry his intentioiu into execijtioa. 

of Aucbinkck. 43 i 

|iDor clay, upon a cold till bottom. Glenmore, in the nppef' 
part of the pariih, extending 8 miles in l^gth, ia covered 
with heath. The claj foil prevents the praftice of toniip 
eropsy and winter feeding for cattle ; and has occafioned fe^ 
veral arable farms to be let for grazing. No wheat is now 
ibwn, except bj the Earl of Dumfries \ oats, big, or bear, 
barley, clover, and rye*gralfi, are much cultivated, but peafe 
do not thrive well. Lime is ufed as a manure on all the- 

Climate^^ Mimral Waters, Fijb, He ^Tbe ridges of hills t^ 

the N. and S. of this pariih, attrafting the clouds coming, 
from the Atlantic^ prevent fo mqph rain falling here as in 
ether neighbouring pari(hes. There are two mineral wells, 
the one a chalybeate, and the other of a purgative 9uality. 
Salmon come up the waters of Ayr and Lugar. Trouts,- 
which formerly ufed to abound in the Lugar, are now become 
icarce, owing to their being caught with nets, and falted like 
herrings. Pike come into the Lugar from New (llumnoct 

Mm0rais.-~JOn the efiate of Auchinlcek, there is ah eatcet- 
knt coal, wrought from time immemorial. For i^ or 14- 
mles above the church, coal is to be found alippft €wtry 
where, and is wfought wherever any demand prevails. Above 
the coal; on the rocky banks •f the Lugar, there i« a beautiful 
Uuiih free ftone, fine in the grain, which cuts well i and at 
Bell's Park, there is a lead mine, which has never boea 
wrought, and is faid by a Ikilful perfon to look rather like a 
filver mine. On the lands of Wallace-town there is a quarry 
«f UadL fire^proof ftone, carried far and near for building, 



Statifiical Account 


Knmbcr of fouls to 





- » 8 

.•^ *L_ 1 




• • 1 

of the pariih, in 

'79«» - 



. « X 

•_ ^1- - _: 


• 340 


- 15 






MiUeis, .» 

* 3 

Decreifc fince 1755, 


Smiths, - 

~ ~ 4 

Burgher Seceden. 





- 1 

Antiborgher ditto. 


Ezcife officer, . 

- X 







B»ker, - - 










Sheep, between 8000 and 9030 





































Mariktst Roais^ ViOage^ Mc On the laft Tuelcbiy of Ao- 

gaft there is a well frequented fair for the fale of Ismhs f^ 
Aboat X7709the roads were almoft impaflable ki winter ; but 
now three turnpike roads pafs through the parifli. The vil- 
lage of Auchinleck has for thefe two or three years paft beea 
on the decline^ and feveral hoofes are now emptj^ owiag« ia 
fome meafurei to the Muirkirk Iron and Coal Tar Works, 
but move efpecially to the Cotton mill at Catrine, which ha?e 
attracted inhabitants from this pariik.. 


* As the Seceders do not regifter the birtha of their chUdren, thde are ort 
iadttded in the above ftateoenL 

igf Auebinkck. 433 

EecUJSafiicat Siaii^^r^T^e chnrcfa of Ancfainleck, placed iii 
p beautiful fituation^ and fpunded on a rock, was repaired and 
^edarged in 1754* The ftipend| iocloding communion ele- 
pients, is no more than jol. js. zi^d. Sterling in monej, 
<we chalders of meal, and one of bear, the latter con^moa 
lieap meafure, or i^ pecks to the buihel; being the fiunc 
tihat was fetjded by decreet in 1649, fince which period no 
vugmeiitation has taken place, though all the other pariihes 
in the neighbourhood haire had their ftipends incrcafed. The 
ananfe, one of the moft commodious neat fmall houfes to be 
tnet with, was built in 1756. The glebe contains 6 acres, 
Jaius Bosweix, £(q. of Auchinleck, a well known literaiy 
fliaraAcr, is patron and principal heritpr, 

£«iff. Poor's Fwut^ 6*^.— •The gained rent of the parifli 19 
3800 1. Scotch, divided among 13 heritors, of whom 5 ufual- 
if refide in the parifli. — ^The capital of the poor's fund, which 
in Z751 amounted to 50 1. is now augmented to 100 L lent 
out at the annual intereft of 4 and 5 per cent. The coUec* 
tions, which, from 1740 to 1752 f, were, at an average, 61. 
<{s« yearlj, have for 10 years preceding Z791, amounted to 
f 8 1. per aonnm. The kirk-feilioq annually distributes 6 1. 
arifing from the money received for the hire of the moru 
cloths, for the dues payable on marriages and baptifms, and 
the intereft of the before-mentioned capital of 100 1 *• The 

Vol. XL 3 1 twci 

* For 30 yean paft, the fcffion has nerrr diftributed mopey to th/t poor, ei« 
ceptin tlie way of loan, in order that if any of them get a legacy, or become 
a^le to refund, a^ion may lie againft them. But an aiBgnation t% their move» 
ables is n«rer taken, becaufe in the cafe of ficknefs, the parochial funds would 
thereby be loaded with an enonnous espeace Sot an attendant. 

f Since 175 a, the wages of ipale ferrants have advanced from 4L to yl., 8L» 
sad pL; of female fervants, from il. 13s. and 4d. to 5L per annum ; of labour- 
crsy from Sd. to IS. ; of mafons, from is. to m. and as. tfd. a-day. The price of 
eggs has rifen from 13 for id. to 4d. ^per do<en ; mutton from ad. to 4id. per 
lib.; hens, from 4d. to is. ; b eef fells at 56. per lib. of 34 atoifdupois ounces ^^ 
ireal at 4id. i simI kmb M 3d. per lib. 

454 Siati/Ucal Acamtt^ 

two priacipd berkoa» die Earl of Dumfries ta4 |Cn Beffdl 
•f Auchinleck, haye never refuiiBd the late laciiiiibeat moatj 
fn the relief of the poor wheo neceflaij. 

jAuiquities and RemariaUf Plac^^ ^e^^Jin an aq^e* fom^ 
«d by the Lagar and the Oupol bora, there are the semaios 
of the old Caftle of Aochinleck, of whoTe age there ia not the 
imalleft account to be Ibund. Near thia caftle there are throe 
remarkably ftraigbt and tall £r trees, planted in the laft cen- 
tury by one of the BofweUa of Auchinleck, who breu|^t die 
plants in his boot from Ilalzid near Hamilton* Next die 
caftle, lies the Place of Auchinleck, in a romaaticaUy plea* 
fant fituation ; and about half a mile fronk thence, the Hode 
of Auchinleck, built by the late worthy Lord Auchzmlbck. 
Ayr's Mob, in this parifli, is &mou8 for a defeat of a party of 
the 0)¥enanters in Charles IPs time. On a green know 
therein, is a tomb*ftone to the memory of Mr. Richard Caia^ 
ron,' preacher of the gofpd, and feven others, killed*j^ the 
engagement. At the head of this mofs, which extends { 
miles in length, and i in breadth, there are the reasains of 
an iron forge, erefied at a great expence by a Lord Catbcar^ 
but fuddenly given up, even when bar iron was manufafinced 



PARISH OF abernethy: 

^CifuiHy and fttfifttrj ofPtrth^^noi of Perth and Sttrling^ 
Jty the kev. Mr. WliXAii DmcAX, Mm^tr.^ 

Origin of tbt Name* 

r^HE town of Abernethj, irom wfaich tbe parifli tak^ 
X its name, is called, in the PiAUh Chronicle (pabliihe4 
bj Innes, and afterwards hj Pikkertov) '^ Ahurmibiyt^'^ 
or " Apumetbfye ;*' the b and f being indifcrioiinatelj ufed 
in the Gaelic language. The name^ which Highlanders give 
to Abernethy, is Obair or Abair NedcbtaiUf that is, tbe 
nvori of NeBan. This Nethak, or Nkctan the I. began 
his reign over the Pids, A C. 456, and reigned aj years. He 
is faid to have founded the church of Abernethy*, and to have 
dedicated that towoi and an a4joining diilrid of landi to God 
and St. Bridget • 

3 I a JTor/n, 

* Other Kingi might tfterwards confirm and ad^ to the fiMmdatiop t from 
which, as was often the cafe, thej might be ftikd Foonders. 

43^ StotiftUal Accwnt 

F^rm, Extiai, Smfaa, ami CUmaii. ^This pui& is d# 

an irregular figure* It eztendt from £. to W. 4 milesy and 
from N. to S., in fome places, about 5. The furfiioe is voh* 
erett ; a confiderable part of it is hill/, and forms a part of 
that ridge of hills, called the OcbiUt. The low groBndt 
bounded bj the riVers iCay and Earn on the N. and Ae 
hills on the &• are nearly an oblong fquare ; in length £nm 
£• to W. about 4 £ngli(h miles, ah^ in breadth from N* to 
S. about li. There is a bank of a geatk rife^ that nmadia- 
goaallj through this tquarc. It begims in a point on the T^ 
at the north-t aftef^ extremity of the pari(h, and extends nearly 
in a. line to the foot of the hills, not far from the weftem ex- 
tremity/ AU below this bank, to the banks of the Tay nod 
the Earn, which may be about two thirds of the low groundt 
is flat, and die foil ardficial. As the air is fdubrious, there 
h no dlfcafe peculiar to this parifli. The prejudicca againft 
inoculation are weariikg off* No part 6f the conntiy can a& 
ferd better diverfion to the fportijBuin for hares, partridges, 
foXes, bc# 

5(0i7.— About 15 feet ^low the furface of this flat ground* 
Add 4 feet below tie higHefi fpring tide mar^ in the rivdta 
Taiy and Earn, therie is uniformly a ftratum of mols, from %■. 
to 3 feet thick. This Ib6fs is a compbfidon of the wood anct 
leaves of fbme trees, IntYi as oak, aller, hazle, birch, Sce^ 
The foil above this bed of mofs is compofed of flrata of c^aj 
alid fand, of different thicknefs, and of differeht colours and 
qualities. The fand for the moft part is very foiall, and in 
colour browta and iMrhite ; the clay oi^nge a^d blue ^ and in 
Ibme places the one, and in other places the other is at the 
farfirce^. The foil of this flat then, Apon thbt account* is vari- 
ous. The fand, indeed, eved in the eompofition of tlie feif, 
and its extent upon the fnrfoce, bears but a Imall proportion 



Of Jbernetbyi 4^j 

t» that 9i the cUj. Theie are fields of blue claj, fields of 
orange clay, and fields of light fand, all on the fame farm y 
and even in the fame fields part is fometimes clay, and part 
iand, and often a mixture of both. The blue clay is thougiit 
to be richer than the orange, and mor^ eafilj cultivated* 
]^th are equally productive by proper management. The 
fimd where there is little or no clay is very eafily managed, 
&ough not fo produ&ive as the days. But where there is a 
proper mixture of clay and land, which is often the cafe, it 
is eafily managed, and nfually more produ&ive than any of 
the othen The Earn, by breaking down the oppofing banks 
in its ferpentine turning, has formed beautiful links or 
haughs, alternately, on each fide of its ftream. The high 
fpring tides, which overflow thefe haughs, carry back, and 
leave on their furface, the fineft particles of the day waflied 
down by the riven This clay mixing with the rulhes, and 
rich grafles that grow and rot on thefe haughs^ has formed a 
ioil of amazing fertility. S^ome of thefe haughs are now fe» 
cured from bemg overflowed by embankments. The foil of 
the hanky that runs diagonally through the plain, is vege^ 
table mould, or loatti with a mixture of fand \ in feme parta 
fli mixture of till or natural clay. Above the bank, to t&e 
loot of the hills, theie are large fields of deep loam, fome 
finall fiel^ of natural clay, but, in general, the foil is a 
light loam, with a mixture of fand or till, and a gravelly 
bottom. This gravdly bottom conveys the water from the 
hills, which, when not carried ofi* by proper drains, is very 
hurtful* The foil in general, among the hiUs, where they 
tfre arable, is a light vegetable mould, with fome banks in* 
dining to till or natural day. 

'Agriculture and FrQd$K€*^^lAiiit or no improvements ia 


^jd Stoical Account 

agriculture were made in this parifli before the jear X}8a^« 
From that period, farmers from different parts of the conn- 
tcjt but efpecially from the Carfeof Gowrie, have lettled in 
the parifli, and now moftly poflefs ail the lower part of It. 
A different mode of culture is introduced; a regular rotation 
of crops is eftabliflied. Fallow, wheat, green crop,' (peafe 
beans, fometimes drilled turnip and potatoes}, barlej, gta&^* 
and oats, is the general pradice.* Fallow is prepared by 5 
plowxngs ; t in winter and 4 in fummer, dunged and limed 
according to the quality of the foil. The wheat is fown £ram 
the middle of Septemder to the end of Ofiober, and the re- 
turn is from xo to 15 bolls an acre. Peafe and beans are 
fown as eirly in March as the feafon will permit ; the ground 
Is prepared by i plowing in the fpring ; fometimes bj t 
plowing in the winter and another in the fpring. The letums 
however are precarious; from 2 to 12 bolls an acre J — ^Barley 
is fown in May ; the ground is prepared as fine as garden 
inould, by x plowing in autumn and i or more in fpring / 
ao lib. weight avordupois of red clover feed. If the gnds is 
intended for green feeding, (and, if intended for hay, the ad- 

• Some particular ficldi, and CTcn farms^ both ki the hiOt and lorn gtmmi 
kiad httn liBied, but by continual croppinf, aad naflulibl masafemcnt, tht 
lifht land had been run almoft to a capmi morr»MB, and the clay reduced to a 
fttte worTe than that of nature. The farms in general, both in the hills and 
low ground, ^ere divided into inJUld and outfield. In the hills, barley and oats 
ahenately, with fometimes a few peafe, was the mode of cropping on the in- 
field ; 3 years o&ts, and 3, 4, and fometimes 5 years in natural grab, waa the 
mode of managing the outfield. The dung made through the year was laid or 
as a preparation for bear. The (heep and cattle, during fummer, folded at 
sight 00 that part of the outfield pafture that was intended for oaU next year* 
fiRnetimes enriched it Ibificiently for 3 fucceeding crops. The culture of the 
low ground dlflSered little from that of the hill, only a few fflore pcaie aud beans 
were fown, and here and there a few acres 0f fallow, which was followed by 
wheat, but little or no fowu grafs. No regular rotation of crops. 

difioa of z bulliel of lye-gtais feed), is Cbwa ia each acre a« 
long with the bark/. The return is from 5 t» zo bolls ai| 
acre. Grais is partly cut green tot fummer food to the 
yfotk. horfes and milk cows, and fbnoetimes £or a few you^g 
cattle in the llraw yard ^ aUo a little for pafture to give the 
cows an airing. Tlie reft of it, which will commonly be 
abont the half, is made into hay ^ which the farmer uicfi fbc 
bis own horfes, or occafionally liells. The quantity of hay 
upon an acre will be from 200 to 400 ftones, 22 lib. avoir- 
dupois to the ftone. The firft crops were more luxuriant ; 
about 500 ftones of excellent hay have been produced, at aa 
average, over a large field. Sotne of the ftems of clover^ ii^ 
the fwath after the mower, meafiired in length 4 feet. From 
-«the lo(s of milk cows, and the danger weU known in paftor- 
ing red clover by homed cattle, fome of the farmers are now 
laying down part of their land with white clover, ijt^ and 
rib grafs for pafture. Oats are fown ia March and the be- 
ginning of April; the ground is prepared by z plowing; the 
returns from 8 to Z2 bolls an acre. One man and a pair of 
horfes plow in the low ground. The ploughs ave of diffe-i 
rent kinds, fome with iron heads, fome with crooked focks, 
chains below the beam, &c. ; but all with caft iron mould- 
boards. — ^The harrows are different ; fome coupled one way, 
fome another, fome drawn by a pair of horfes, fome by a 
fiogle horfe. The rollers ufed are of different conftrufiions 
aad different i^eights, for the .purpofes of breaking xlods, 
Dosoothing the furnace for the fmaller feeds, and condcnfing 
the lighter foils. There are 4 threfliing machines which are 
found to anfwer well. — ^Harveft begins in the month of Sep- 
tember, Ibmetimes later even in the low ground, and always 
in the hills. Some of the farmers that hav^fettled here from 
olher parts of the country, owing poIBbly to the fmallnels 
loi their ftock, the exhaufted ftate of the j^round at their 


44^ Stati/tical Account 

tntrj, the gfeat rife of rent, and the improvement of die&r 
fiirms» have for fome time paft had a ftmggk to falfil Aeir 
engagements ; but now their farms begin to anfwer their ova 
ezpeftationsy and far to exceed the expeditions of thofe a- 
mon^ whom thej have fetried. Nor have the old temnts, 
vrith liftlefs apathy, feen the exertions and improvementB of 
thofe who have fettled among them ; cfaej have not onlj co- 
piedf but even tried to excel them in improvement. FalloVy 
wheat, and fown graft have been introduced among the hill 
farms. Lime is now laid on old lej, as well as fidloW, widi 
judgment and fucceft* The crops of wheat and fown gn6 
'>are often confiderable, and of good quality. This new aaode of 
farming has induced many of them to give up keeping (heep. 
Some of the hill farms are very exteniive. ' Great port of 
what is called outfield is fteep, and of difficult acoefs^ ^7^ 
tdfo at a diftanoe from their honfes ; that ground thcj are 
with great judgment laying out for pafture in parks from a- 
bout 4 to ao acres. The fmall feuert in the town of Aber- 
aethy, who may h^ve x, a, or 3 acres, and not lyiog nU to- 
gether, though they cannot conveniently get it fallowed, are 
laying on lime, fowing graft, and drilling beans. £acfa 
fiinner raifes as much flax as is fufficient for his own family i 
little is raifed for ftle. 

Inehfunst Orcbardt^ 8oe.*«Some farms in the low ^un4 
nre indoftd, and fubdivided by ditches and dioro hedges. 
The farmers, not thinking the ground adapted to pafture, fty 
ihe hedges are hurtful, by ftoppine the free circulation of 
air, and hoarding a ^at number of fparrows, and other 
birds, that deftroy the grain. None of the hedges are in a 
thriving condition (except thofe on the eftate of Crasgfetiie)^ 
which is chiefly owing to the little care taken of them. One 
farm at the foot of the hiUsi containing about 88 acres, fit 


Of Ahemetbj, 441 

bckh /or grain aad pailore, Mr. WiUkm Samoierville (tbot 
hmag onlj a lealie of )o years) has fufficicoily indoM aad 
iilidinded by Hone dikes aad thom badges at his own ex.. 
pence* Fmk trees thrive ^ell in the low ground, aiid their 
finut is not thoHgbt infineior to any in tbe coontfy-^Tberp 
ore 4 orchards in the parifli : Alkf elnit plane trees, to. 
wherever thqr have been planted, grow to a good fixe, ai|d 
the wood is of tbe beft quality. The N. fide of the hill is 
pnrticnhdy adapted for planting. Scotch, and otjber finp, if 
plantedt would tnm out to the advantage of tbe proprietors, 
and tend to beautify tbe country. A part of tbefe hills, 
plantad about 20 or 30 y«ra i^o, are in a thriving oendi- 

CaUk^ Ctmmen^^ W^l%$% te^^Both cattle and horfts are 
bred in this pariib, of a good fiae and confidereUe vdlue; 
Some of tbe fiurmers pay a parbcnlar attention to this pleaf« 
ing and proftable oljea. There are only 3 flocks of iheep. 
About 50 yean ago, alm'oft every farmer had a dock. At 
that time there was little wheat ibwn, and no gnift. From 
experience, it is found, that die advantages arifiqg from wheat 
•nd grafti aihcl their being aUe to breed double the number 
of cattle bmd foiuetly, far overbalances the profit derived 
from keeping flieep* ThoTe who now do fo, have an exten* 
five range of hiUy ground i a confideraUe part of which is 
cofered with heath. CSonfidemble quantities of wheat and 
barley are fold and carried to Perth, or exported at New« 
bofgh (bore. Small quantitiea of oats and peafe are pur* 
chafed by the farmers in iifo for feed. The ancient fervtr 
tudes, fo oppreflive and harraffing to the farmer, are almoft 
entirely abriiiked. Men fervants get from 61. to lol. Ster« 
ling Oi^year ; women fervants from al. los. to 31. Men fer- 
vants during harveft {jot about a month) receive from il. js. 

3K f to 

44^ Statiftkal Accuunt 

to iL I09. ; women from i8s. to il. is.* Mafons wm^ 
«re IS. 8d. per day ; Wrights^ is. 3d. ; tailors, 8d. ; a thai^ch- 
€r gets 18. 6d. a-daj, a labourer is.» and a tlireflier 8d« with 
their viftualSf or 7d. per boll. The prices of proTifiooa are 
nearly the Csime as in Perth ; but there are rather too nmny 
ftle-bonfes in the parifti there being no fewer than 11, wliem 
Of 4 might fttffice. 

Rhers^ Fijb^ IJhnd, Mills, &€.^T)ie Tay, which waflm 
part of the northern boundary, is navigaUe ; it affords voanj 
ftlmon and lea-tront. The proprietor of Carpow has fifiunga 
upon it, which yield him lool. per annum. In the middle 
of thb river, oppofite to Mugdri^m, (which is in the parifli of 
Newburgh), is an ifland (called Mugdntm IJIamd) belooging 
to this parifli. It is oeariy i Eoglifli mile in length j its 
breadth varies, but its greateft is I98 yards i foot. It me«* 
fuf«s 31 acres, of which ai are embanked under cmltivation, 
and produce Iui:uriant crops ; the remaining part b efteemed 
valuable as a fait marfli for pafture. There is a houfe upon ir« 
in which the tenant refides with his fennly; it rents about 
581. Sterling. Mr. Hay of Leys, the proprietor, has fifliinga 
-in the river that rent at about apol. yeariy.^-The Earn, 
which bounds the northern part of the parilfa, (till it falls into 
Ihe Tay, a little below the manfioo-houfe of Carpow), is na. 
^igable for feveral miles, which l^as been pf late years the 


? Abottt tf ^ar^ ago, .the bcft plijughmp coi^4 ^Vfp bo^ Imi at 4I. or 4!. 

f OS. Sterling, and women at aL for the year. Hameft-men at il. and women at 
xjs. Farmers ^oudlj complain of the fudden and gfc«t rife of wages. Cottages 
are not ^couraged { they' are eyen demolifhed. By thts impolitic meafure many 
ffi the jo^er clafs of people are forced into towns, and their children trained 
^o other occupations. Thus the coiintr^r is deprived of the beft nnrfery for ablp 
and healthy fervaiits, frrvants trained from their infancy to fobriety and indu^- 
' try, y^^\^ *od pradicc in the occriiar labouii of agriculture. 

Iburcc of much ftgricultaral improvcmeotf atf moft of the 
farmecs have their Ume brought bj w^ter, either £roia the 
N; of England, or the Earl of Elgin's Ihne kihis on the conft 
of Fife. It piroduced falmcn and trout as tHe Izy. The 
frflmon are of an excellent qualitj, fell at 6d. and 7^. per 
Itb* in the fpring, and 4^. during fumraer. Few indeed are 
fold in the neighbourhood. They are chiefly fent to Perth, 
.and from thence to the Englifli market* FifUng upon t\m 
Taj begins about the middle of April \ upon the Earn, 
when sot frozen, aboufr the beginning of February ; it is given 
over in both on the zjth of Anguft. There are two paflago 
boats 00 the Earn 1 - one at Cary^ which is feldom employed $ 
•nother at Ffrryfiilii upon the eftate of Carpow : this place 
being near the junftion of the Earn and the Tay, die boat be* 
longing xm it is often employed^ in carrying paflengers' over the 
Tay to the Carfe of Gowrk. There are ao boats from the 
parifli tfnsUy employed ift fiihing during the feafen \ each 
boat having 1 men.* who are generally tradtfmen or labourers 
in the neighbourhood : they ere allowed, for wtfges^ 6s. 6i. 
a*week, with what trout they Catch^ The Farg^ a rivulet, 
about an Engliik mile and a half W. from Abersethyy -a- 
bounds with fmall trout. Upon it there are one oil mil]^ 
with % com and t lint dkce belonging tcr this parifli^^There 
is another imall rivulet^ oalled the Ballo Bum^ that runs by 
Abemethy on the W^ and fupplies the inhabitants with ^9* 
ter \ on it alio there b a com miU« 

Populaiioni^'^tbit population has ^eetea&d fomevvhaf 
within thefe 40 years. 

The return to l)r. Web((er in 2755* was -» I490 

By an accurate lift uketf in the months of Odobet 

and November 17921 the number was oiily - 1415 

Seoteale, * 75 

3 £ a e 

444 StattJIkd Atcoma 

or tbdc there were, MdeiLViBHlM. Meaiben oT die Uab. Ctaf^ «st 

1Mcr»ycM«(ip, ijt 141 


^ • 774 

Betwtca 10 Md se^ 

158 III 

Bw^hcr dktsi 

• • 4 

— — waadjOk 

Ut% 337 

Rdkf ditto. 

- - 1 


1x8 Its 


AgcA 70 Md apwirdt*, at s> 


6«4 731 


list or BAFTism, Maikiaob, aks Bouau, 



Mtkt. rendn. 




^» 5 




X4 x6 




19 22 




n 14 




19 20 




27 x8 




\s 19 




16 14 




17 24 




Anfiuftl wertgei 

162 352 



ilf«in^ll«rM^TIien are m tlw {Mrifli 81 oitk i»eivm 
■and 3 female ones. Many of theui cacefl in wtiridli* aD 
-lutida of boufehold cloth : bat die gtcatdl adnber \m^ teen 
employed, for feveral yean paft, in working wbtft ia called 
»l<(lia Unttt, to tbc Perth merchaatt. The yam &r tbefe 


• There «te none BOW liwig in the ptrifli, who have etteined tp the •« cf 
JO, Irat a or 3 ere veiy near it. One man died lately at the age of 96. 

t Tho«ghitappea»,ft«ntU8li*ofbari*h. which i» emiiaed fttw *e na- 
.rilhietifter. theie hare beta ibr , 7M.ap.ft 347, ^t thii doe. not ttemahi 
ea^y the deaths that took pbce daring that tine. » fewral perfomfiwnothef 
rj^aiftcthai* ton btricd here, sad a few from thti iq otha placet. 

ofAhtmethy. ^45 

webs diqr get warp'd and ready to put into ttw loom, aadaas 
ollo«9ed fe much per yaid for weariiig. Some tiitoe ago tfaetr 
profits were great, but tbej now find it difficult to procure e«« 
plojOMDt ; and, when employed, can earn but a feaotj fabfift- 
coce. Two or three buy yam, which they mana&aure and 
fell where they can find die beft markn. Afmall qnanthy of 
dialer and dornick is made here ; but tbefe only for the mCs 
of private families. 

lUnU amd Pffrietorj.^Tb^ vahied rent is 8884!. 15s. Id. 
Scotch : The realiprnt about 400ol. Sterling. Farms kt at 
from los. to al. per acre : Bnrgh acres from il. zos. to 4I. 
There are 90 proprietors of land. Excepting three they are 
all feuers ; feme of them hold of the Earl of Mansfield ; al« 
moft dl in Ae town of Abemethy hold of Lord Douglas.-* 
There are 1 commons, x belonging to the burgefled of A-^ 
bemethy, lying a little above the town, on which Ae inhabi- 
tants pafture their cows and horfes in fummer, and from 
which they are furnifhed with div0ts^ turf, Sec. The other 
lying £• from the hills of Balgony and Abemethy, belongs 
to the adjoining heritors and feuers. A divifion of this 
common is intended. 

EteUfiaJKcal Sta^^ Sc^. — The church is remarkable for 
nothing hot its antiquity. There are no records, nor fo much 
as a tradition when it was built f • The value of the living, 


f Here was an EpSfcopal ice, tad there v«rc a^'eleAms of bUbopt wlicft 
there was only i bt0iop in Scotland, or at leaft in the kin^don of the K^hrf- ■ ■ ■ ■ 
When KiMVBTB the III. Kin^; of Scois^ had cntirci/ fnbdved the FiAs^ be 
tranflated the Epifcopal fee to St. Andrew V After thb the Church of Aber^ 
nethjT became a Collegiate Church, poreffed by the CuUeca. While they WA 
it, there was an Umkurfiiy here for the education of youth, as appean from the 
ftKfty book of St. Andrew's.— i^Ia the year uyj^ (by which tt*e the Cnhleaa 


446 Siatj/licaJ Jiccaumt 

cxclnfive of the glebe and manfe, is 591. xjs. 7id4 Cc 
-elements, fl. xxs. x/r*; gn^f ^1* 13'« A^^'t ^^ bell> 3 
and 1 pecks of bear; x8 bolls of oaumeal; x boU 3 fiilocs 
and a pecks oi wheat. The manfe was built in die jear 
1774 ; both it and the offices are in good repair. There nre 
4 acres of a glebe. The Earl of Mansfield is pativuu The 
Antiburghers have a meeting^houfe here. Their minifter is 
a very prudent fenfible man, quiet, and conicieaiioiis in the 
difcharge of his duty. The fpirit of feceffion has for fomc 
time paft been on the decline* The members of theeftaUilh- 
ment and the Antibuig hers live in the nmft friendly liabxt^* 

Schools and Poor.'-^TheTt are a fchools in the parilh, at an 
average about 50 fcholara at each during the winter* The 
parochial fchoolmafter has generally that number thromglioac 
the year. His (alary, and i^rquifites as (eilion-clerk, amounts 
to about 9I. i8s. He has likewife the iocerefl of X90L and il. 
xjs. 4d. from a mortification for teaching poor fcholars. The 
fees for teaching are very low. He has a good houfet but no 
garden* His income will not exceed 3oL«^The poor's funds 
are made up of the money colleSed on Sundays, and the 
rent of 11 acres of land, called Kiri land^ amounting annnally 
to about 25!. Sterling. The poor on thefe funds are from 13 



were much difcoaraged), it was turned into a priory of regular canofts of St. 
Augufitne, who Were brought, h is faid, from die abt>cy of Inchaffray.— -— Fotf- 
91s, in his Treatife on Tytbes, fayt, that " the Collegiate Church was found- 
** ed by the Earl of Angus ;*' probably he meant Archibalb Earl of Ang^v 
tord of Abernethyf who gsve the town t Oiarfer bf Privileges, AftgMk 23. 
1476. The fiarl might be a beBefador to the Collegiate Chuith, or reftore it 
to a better ftate than it had been in §dt fome time bcfott, and, on that account, 
might be faid to haw fonnded it. To the above charter, a venerable man, S:r 
JoBR FaitZLi, (that is FtAtca), Provoft of the Collegiate Church of Aber- 
nethy, was one of the witnelTes. This charter was renewed by Wiliiax Eafl 
of Adgus^at Holyroodhoufe, oa| the i6tfa of November i6xfr. By thir ckvtet 
<he*(overamMt of Abemcthy is vefttd hi 2 bailies and 15 coinreUor&r 

of Abernethy. 447 

%.o 189 and get from is. to 5s. a.month. The Antiburgher 
Icirk-feftioD diftribotes 2cl. Sterling anntiallj to the poor in 
^is pariih, befides contributing to the relief of others that 
attend their ipeeting-honfe from neighbouring pariihes. There 
are no begging poor in the parifli, jet no place is more pefter* 
cd with vagrants and poor from other c^uarters* 

Roads and Bridges. ^--^-^TheTt are 2 public roads 9 .that 
which leads to Fife by Newburgh is in tolerable repair ; the 
other, which is through the glen of Abernethj (and bj which 
great quantities of coal and lime are brought from Fife to 
Strathearn) is very bad $ that which ftrikes off the glen to 
Auchtermuchty, is in winter almoft impalEible. The ftatuts 
ImlMur, and compofition-mooey allowed^ are totally inadequate 
to keep thefe roads in repair. There are 2 bridges over the 
Fargi the one at Gowly, which is old and ruinous, the 
other b^low Potty Mill^ which is too narrow for carriages, 
and lies at fomt diftance from the public road. A new bridge 
over this water, near Aberargie, would be a defirable objeft, 
as after heavy rains it fwells to fuch a height, and is fo f apidf 
that it \% both difficult and dangerous to crofs itf 

Antiquities. — ^Tn the churchf-yard (lands a tower of an tj^ 
traordinary conftrudlon* It confifts of 64 courfes of hewn 
done, laid ciiyrularly and regularly, is in height 74 feet, in 
irircumference 48 feet. It is difficult to affign this to any but 
the PiAs, as it (lands in the capital of their dominions. There 
is but one other tower of a fimilar flrudure in Scotland, vix« 
at Brechin. The ufe of thefe towers, according to the lateft 
and moft probable conjedures, was not only for the con* 
finement of thofe who were doing penance, but alfo for calU 
ing people to public worlhip by the found of a horn or 
trumpet, before the introdudion of bells. S. W. from the 
^wn thefc is ^ hill, called Cajlh-l^w. Tradition fiiys there 

44t Statjfiual Accomnt \ 

a fert upon the top of it ; it pcobaUj ftrvel £bc eae of 
tlioft watch towen on which the PiAs ubd to kindle fire% on 
ittdden iavafiont, infurreftionay or At approaeh of the ese- 
mj ; thefe fignals were coamiiiiicated from tower to tower, 
till the whole country was alarmed and flew to arms. Xhcfe 
fires were attended with the blowing of horns, which w«s the 
figoal for war. From this hill there is a moft beaatifal and 
flstenfive profpeft. Abont a oule and a half £• firom Aher- 
nalhj, a little helow the manfiiwwhoofe of Garpow, ftoed the 
ancient caftle which belonged to the Lords of Aberacthy*; 
part of its foundation may ftill be feen. In the S. W. comer 
of this pwiih, among the hills, ftanda Bahmrd CasOi^ whid 
belonged to the MuaaATS of Bslvaird, in the leign of Ro- 
SUT the lid. It is now the property of the £ari of Mam- 
nuLOy the lineal defioendent of that ancient houie. 


« One of the predtcdfanaf tiw Earl of Aaavs mairied the heti«& ^ JLm^ 
HiTST, and by her got this lonUhip, which is now yefted in the perfoa of Lori 
DoooLAi, who annually receives the fiMisof naoy neighbouring cftates^ as well 
m tf the town of AbezMthy. 

of Gknbfrvie^ 449 


QCpuMijf of Kincaritm^^PreJbytery of F^rioun-^Sjnod q/ 
^n^ and Meami.^ 

f]f tht Rru. Mr, Alexakbe T90M, Mim/Ur* 

NanUf SiiMatiofif and Extent. 

THIS parlih affords few materials for ftatiftical inveftu 
gation. It probaUj takes its name from its low 
fitnation^ and vicinity to the water of Bervie, along the £• 
fide of which it extends for nearly 3 miles. From N. to S. 
it is 6i miles in length, and 5 miles in breadth from E. to 
W., con^funing abo\it 10,990 Scotch, or 13,963 Englifli 

Soilf Produce^ Culthqtion^ and Climate, Sec.— tThe foil, in the 
upper and northern part of the pariih, is generally a wet 
bluiih day, and, in the lower, a light loam. The principal 
^opa are oats, bear, peafe, potatoes, clorer and rye-grafs* 
The crops are, in general, more than fuificieat for the fopport 

yot.XI. * 3L of 

45© Statl/Hcal Account 

of the inhabitants *• The cultivation of turnips likewifb en-s 
gages the attention of the farmer now ; and he alwajs finds 
them a profitable crop, if properly managed. For the know* 
ledge, however, of this, and indeed of improvements in ge^ 
neraly this county and neighbourhood are principally, if not 
altogether, indebted to Mr. Barczjiy of Urie, whofe exer- 
tions in agriculture have been very great, and attended with 
fuccefs. The diiyate here is rather cold than otherwife, but 
healthy; and the bar veil is early or late according to the fem- 
fon, the nature of the foil, and the fituation of the ground. 
There are 53 ploughs in the pariih. 

Population. — The number of inhabitants in this pariih has 
increafed above one fourth, within thefe 40 years, as will ap« 
pear from the following 

PopuLATioK Table of the Pariih of Glevbehvie. 

Voder 10 ycirt of age, - 477 

Between 10 and 20, . 244 

■ ao — 30, - siS 

— — :— 30 and 40, - 19^ 


T 46 




« In 1782, however, which wat a Ycry remarkable yeat here, the cn>p wa» 

ycry deficient, and the poor reduced to great diftrefs. The ground did not 

produce fo much grain ai would have mamtained the inhabitants 6 months. lo 

that and the following year, the kirk-feflion were obliged to apply nearly 140^ 

Sterling of their fund*, in parchafing white peafe and barley, in order to prefervo 

the poor from fuffering by want, and to lelievc the neceflltiea of other isiaatr 


No. of malet, - - 750 

Toul, - — — 


ed to Dr. Webfter, 




No. of Scotch Epifcopf liaof, • 


— — Secedera, 


.'— — Roman CathoUcty 


of Gknher^ki 451 

. ATcnfe of binhf fer the laft 5 No. of fquare wrig^tt, • 8 

ycari*, - - 29 --^— tailorty " - XJ 

bitto of marriagcf, - 10 ' wcaveri, - i^ 

tMtto buriaU, - * 16 fmiths, * - 5 

No. of proprieton, * f 7 ihocnaakcri, - 27 

■ ■■ fanners, - - | 33 flaz-dreflln, - 8 

■ cottagcrty or fubtenasts x6o — coopers, - - 4 
-mafona, - - 4 whccl-wrighti, - § 3 

Kents and Liafes. — The valued rent is 3,336!. Scotch ; the 
i^eal or prefent rent about loool. Sterling, which could be 
nearlj doubled, were the Isnds to be let immediately. But 
as manj of the leafes ate of an old date, the rents at prefent 
paid are low, and the ihduffrioiis judicious tdnant is in a thriv- 
ing ilate. The tenants, efpeciallj on the lands belonging to 
Lord Monboddo, are in this agreeable fituatibn. Thej hold 
their farms on eafj, and, perhaps, peculiar terms ; and, froih 
this circuiiiftance, and the countenance of his Lordfliip, they 
have the greateft encouragement to induftry. Tlieir leafes 
are, probably, of an ilncoihmon nature ; being, a life, 19 
years ^ and a life : The pofTeflbr, during the 19 years, bames 
the life with which the leafe ends. 

3 L a Churchy 

^ ifo certain conclulioii, at to the increafe or decreafe of the population, can 
be dflnm from this average, at the tc^l^er of bapcifmt is very imperfed. Thii, 
io a great degree, it owing to the carelei&ieft of the parents about the regtib*- 
tton of their chlldrent names, and their backwardnefs to paj the uz. 

f Of thefe only z refidet in (be pariih. 

X In this nnmber, thofe who have finall pieces of ground, and tu^bhmr^ at 
they call it, vtitb etbers in plowing, are not included. 

4 In the abovt lift of ttadefmcn, jottrncymen and apprentices art enuaei^ 

45< Stattfikdl AccouMt 

Churchf School^ and Poor — ^t*he chnrch Was pardj refpoBf 
in 1771, and is in good condition, bat is ill contrived for 
the intended parpofe, and too fmaU for the congregation. 
Thofe of the Scotch Epifcopal perfuafion have a fmall sneec* 
iDg houfe for public worihip. The manfe inras built ^SkmA 
70 jears ago, and has been three times repaired. The ffi* 
pend was augmented laft year, and is nor^ ^6 boUs of meal, 
^a boUs of bear, and 43I. 17s. lo^d. in monej, induding 
5I. for communion elements. The glebe is a little above the 
legal fize* Mrs< Helen Milne NicoUbn of Glenbervy is pa- 
tron* There is a parochial fchoolmafter, a new fchool-hoofe, 
and a dwelling-hoofe for the mafter^ The fcfaool fees^ for 
teaching Engliih and writing, are is. 6d« ; for arithmetic, 
2s. ; and, for Latin, as. 6d. The number of fchcdars are 
about 40, at a medium. The falarj is about 200 merka 
Scotch. The number of weekly penfioners may be tecknatcd, 
at an average, about 5 or 6,- befides many others, who receive 
occafional, and often coniiderable fupply^ The fund for their 
fupport and relief arifes from the intereft of Z36I. Sterling, 
faved moftly out of former coUeAions, the weekly collec- 
tions on Sunday (about 8s. at an average), mortcloths, pro- 
clamation money, and the rents of a few feats in the 

Ror/es^ Sheep ^ &o.-*There are about x6i draught horfes, 
which may be valued at ill. Sterling each, one with anotber, 
and a confideral^le number of black cattle, but few iheep, uk 
comparifon of the number that might be reared, and kept 00 
the hills belonging* to the parifh. Mr. Buff of Fettereilo 
has a fmall eftate in this parifh, called Motgie^ that would 
maintain x 500 black-faced (heep, which, when fully fed, would 
fell at il. js. each. Perhaps the new mode of fsuming is 


aglmft the iacreife of tbe mtniber of diia irecy viiefiil 

Village^ — Drumlithie is u fmall village in the parilli, ly^ 
ing oo the fide of the ro9d £rbm Laurence-kirk to Stonehayea. 
It is imbabited chieflj by trades people;, fuch as weavexi^ 
flioemakers^ &c. In this village tbere id a public hoolcy 
which is the only one in the pariih. 

jintiquities, -^There ate no antiquities in this parilhy cx« 
cepting an ertA ftone in the E. end of the church, and m 
ftone cheft *, ivhich ftaiiids direSly above the vault, whereia 


* The following are tht infcriptions on the ftone ;— >*' Hie jatent, io ^ 
** boDx reforreflionts, Glenbenrii Comarchi, infra defigoati, et CecuDdum cc^g^ 

** Domina fingnlis claffibus diviii, ab anno 730.'* ** Hago Hafla, Gennan«% 

** tiliac ^nc perigrinatofi, ubi priecUrii meritis poftqoaxn iniSgnis appanilflei^ 
** Gcranioda Dervics, Glenbenrii heretrice nnpta, fub hoc primum tumnlocsai 
** CQBJage, UberiTqne ihii obdormit. Horum pofterl contlnuernnt *in amnwi 

** 1004."——** Helena ultima Haflamm fobolet.*' ** Duncanut Oliphaoce^ 

" McnuiDecnrio, interfedit Donaldo et Waltcra HafTeia, fratribus pnediAa 
** Heleiue, dara pngpa a casnpo in Barry expuUando Dano^ Helens heretsidl 
** oaptQfy Glenbervio fuccedit, gignitqoe heredem Waltenxm, 6iianique Mai>» 
*■ garetam, cmn agris, nune ArbuUmah defignatii« Ortiit inde; eft Robertus, « 

^ prefente vicecomes jfecundaa de eodem nomine princeps.** '" Walterat 

«* dttzit nxorem Matildam Sinelli Angufiae than ifiliam. Oibert««, horum fiS- 
'* na» JEgidiam Hay, Arrollii filiam, militiae fiudena, cum Godfredo BnHoiM 
" in Syriam perrexit, relifta filia unigenita heretrice, in praelio occifus. Kc^ibi 
** 1057, Jacobo Malviil.Hungaria nobili orto, cui peperit filium Hugonem, ina* 
** trimonio Gerardi Macpendarii, Memii thani, fills, datum. Horum poAcn 
** continutrunt in annum 1440.**——" Militi, filio fecundo Archibald! Coikii 
<* Anguiiae, Tulgo BiiUtbcCat^ Gulielmo Duglafio, a Bred wood, Jacobum pafi> 
** rem heretricis a Glcnbervy, nupts, EliiabeU Klalvil, nupta Johannl Affle3^ 
* de eodem peperit." 

Infcription on the head of the cheft : 

'* Hie jacet vir illuftriiTmiuiy Gulielmui Duglafiuf, Angufix comea, primw 

«* Glenber^ 

454 SjaijfiUai Jctount 

. the bxoSljf who wet e fermeffij proprietors of GleDbeH^ii^ ait 

buried ; and which, from the infcriptions they contain, maf 
be confidered as fuch. 

** Gkabenrii comirchoi, qui diAo conuCatui hcredlcario yskt faccefSt : ObSe 
** kaldid. Jalii, inno Salatki 1591 ; aeUdi foe 59/*_«< Hie jacet fflafrriftng 
^^ fiBiniM, Doauaa JSgidia Ofahain. prsfiai comitn mar. qns am 4oaiiab 
*■ cmn iplb coojuntftifluiie vixiflety «c vidiM marito et fibit hoc 
" pofttillec Obitt iniio sutu— Die, amio Dofnial'* 



(OauMiy and Synod rf Abtrditn^^PreJbytery of jUf^rd^ 
fy the Rev. Mr. Alexavber Saf ith, Mhi/i^* 

Siiuatiottf Extent^ Snrfaa^ and Soit, 

THIS pariih is divided on the N. and £• bj high hills, 
from the pariihes of M onymufk, Oyne, Premnaj and 
Leflj. It is in form fomewhat irregular, but compad ; th^ 
inhabited part of it extending from the church, in all direc- 
tions, from It to 2 miles. Bj furv^js made of the different 
cftates, it contains 1704 acres arable, and 43 z acres pafture 
ground, befides a coniiderablc extent of hills and moor, and 
360 acres in wood, moftlj natural. As the arable ground 
lies partly on the declivities of hills, and partly in a flat 
country, interfered bj the river Don, the foil is variouSj, 
and the furface unequal. The hills are moftlj covered with 
)ieath, and afford tolerable pafture for flicep and black cattle, 
pf a ImaU breed, ^ 

45^ StatlftiC4l Account 

CUmaie and Difeafes. — The country is inland, and coofidef- 
■ibiy abore the level of the fea. The winters, therefore^ are 
often prettj fevere, and the work of the fprxng is fometimes 
retarded bj the long continuance of firoft and fnow \ yet the 
Itarveft is not later here than in moft other parts of the txxaa- 
tj* Owing to the vicinity of high hills, thunder, and partial 
Aowers of rain, are pretty frequent in fummer. Fogs are 
c&en feen reding upon the river, and fome part of the low 
grounds, in the nights of Juiy and Auguft; the oom, bow- 
ever, if fowed in proper feafon, is Jddom materially injured 
by firoft or mildews. The dinute u certainly very &vour« 
phfe to the humati oonftitution. No epidenuoil diftemper, 
^oepting the fmall pox and xneafles, has been known §or 
many years. The influenza was not communicated to others, 
by thofe who had caught it in Aberdeen. The people are, ia 
general, healthy; and neither rheumatic nor bowel complaints 
^e frequent, though their honfes are often damp and infof- 
Sdent, and, in fome feafons, fuel (carce and bad. The fcro- 
^mla may perhaps be reckoned the moft common diftemper i 
and, when pulmonary or hypochondriacal afiedions occar^thefe 
iDomplaints af e generally conneded with a fcrophulous taint 
in the blood. The aiUftance of a phyfician is feldom aiked, 
till the cafe is defperate. In all inward diforders, whiiky or 
black beer are the common prefcriptions. In cutaneous erup- 
tions^ (which are much lefs common, and confidered as more 
difgraceful than formerly), recourfe is too frequently had to 
mercurial belts an4 ointments, whi^h can be got in moft coun- 
try (hops. The confequences are often fatal. The country 
people are leis relu£hint than former^, to go as patients to the 
Infirmary of Aberdeen, where they find themfelves treated 
with much kindnefs and attention. 

State of Property^ Scc-^T^e Duke of Gordon is fi^rior 

3 of 

^ ^"g' 457 

of the whole lands hi thil diflfift; Thf ee of die 6 eftaties xa' 
the pfltiflihave changed proiffifetors within thefe 8 years, an* 
hare fold at 30 years purchafe or upi^ards. In the courle of 
10 jearsy moft of th^ fanns have alfo changed theif pdStSors. 
For-fome time paft land has rifen in value. Putacbiey the 
feat of the fkmfly of F<nrbe5, lies in this piarijlk Th« houfe 
was btiilt in 173 x. It comttiandS a ver/ pleafatff view of the 
Valley of AUbrd, of the windings of the river Donj and'of 
Ibveral gentlemens houftds and plantations. The buildings^ 
policy, and &rm ha^e been ktely much improved and enlarged*. 
Adjacent to it, th^e i^ a n'atural wood of confiderabie extent, 
which contains trees of xhoft of the kindf coMmon in the 
North of Scotland, and produces 10 or 12 kinds of wild 
fruit. Roes ate alwa^ t9- be found in it, and red and fallow 
deer often frequent it; 

PoptJationi &.c.-^The population has varied confiderably 
at different periods \ but has greatly decreafed within thefe 
lad x6 yeai-s, as wiU appear from the following table. 

STATXSrWAt ITabLE of the Pari/b q/ Keiv. 

NadCfovbin 1777, • ^15 Afist^Saea. MaU, Fem. . Trial 

Ditto, tt retnnied to Dr. Wcb'fter Under 7 yean. - 33 - 26 - $9 

m 1755, - - 499 AboTC 7 195 - %%i - 416 

Increaie in %% retri, - t|6 In all, • az8 247 475 
Population tnMij 1791* - A1S 

Decrcftfe in ts years*, - S40 Boufu 

-— inhabited by niarried pairt, - 79 

TvftA decrealB in 37 yean, S4 ■■ widowers, - 9 

Vol. XI. jKf lahaUied 

* This UntaSi haa Mutk owlogpanly to ihe increafe of ifada aad ina&»- 
lidtem at Aberdeen, and partly to the failare of the cropi in 1782 and 1783, 
hot chiefly to peculiar and tevporary caufet, not likely again to recor. 

45 ^ Statifttcal. Account 

Inhafaittd by mvkmt^ • \s 

bwhdor^ - 8 poor on the rail, 

' noaurried womeoy 6 ^— - proprieton rcfidenc. 

— ^ _^ ditto ftoD^tfident, 

Toul number of bottfei, xx; — « Epilbopdini% 

A^ oi i i> rHrf > ' iii,Jte. mcaibmortlitEftablilh. 

No. of ftopke^fln^ - s . cd Cbnrcb, - 464 

■ I miUerf, - - 4 

~— hawkers, - - X CSmXt, &c 

J^ tailon, - 3 ■ hoffet, • - 14! 

w iift fo n , - 3 ■ »cow% - . - ft04 

ihocmalwf% - 4 q»en»te. - 406 

■ fqyare irrigiiti, - x ^ flieep, - - X%%/^ 
- bdancfly • - X ■pioogfai, - -^ 47 

— — iankeepen, - X ■ ciiti, - - j» 

■ ■■ ■ , mfaiflett, - X <—-<-' pain of OMby - 11 

Female Employments, &c— Knitting ftockings for the Aber- 
deen manufa&ures is the principal occupation of die women. 
Half a crown weekly may be earned bj a veiy good hand i 
and it is fuppofed that a ftim, equal to two thirds of the land 
rent, is annually gained in this way. As a lint mill has 
been lately ere&ed in a neighbouring parilh, it is probaUe 
that another mjioufa&ire will be gradually introduced. 

jigriculiure^ Produce^ Sec. — ^Excepting the few mechanics 
xnentioned in the table, the men are chiefly employed in 
agriculture. Improvements in that branch, however, are 
yet in their infancy. Few of the tenants fow grafs feeds, or 
nufe more trunips or potatoes than are neceflary for the pot. 
The general mode of culture is that which has already been 
repeatedly related, in the accounts of feveral parifhes in the 
N. of Scotland. Bear, or bigg, with dung, and afterwards 
^ frops of oflts^ fometijliea^ mixed with rye^ is the oommoa 


^f ^«ir- 459 

rotarion upon infield. The outfield, after producing 3 or 
4 crops of oats, is left nnplowed 3, 4, or 5 years more. IW 
Ttdges of both Out and InJUld are generally very broad, and 
not vety ftraigbt* They are often very much raifed in the 
middle, and baulks- left betwixt them without any apparent 
neceffity. There are fome farms of confiderable extent. The 
reft are £aidl ; and the horfes and cattle of two neighbouring 
tenants are often joined in one i^ongh. The number cf 
idoughs is 47, which are drawn by 88 horfes^ 87 cowi, and 
153 oxiu and young cattle. Creels (or b^ikets) are ftill ufed 
for carrying dung and fad on the fides of harfes. Where 
there ar^ neither green crops, hay, indofures, nor winter 
herding, cattle and flieep muft fare very poorly for a confir 
derable part of the year. The greater part of the flieep her 
long to the pefiefibrs of crjoftts and pendicles \ and they are left, 
for one half of the year, to wander, during the day, in fmaH 
parcels of froqi 10 tp 40. They are therefore Bmch more 
detrimental to the neighbours, than advantageous to their 
owners. It is fuppofed, howejrer, that this pariib commands 
hill pafture fi>r fheep^ ^o the extent of at lei^ .2000 acres* 

Tarm^Riuts^JVagis^ £cc. — ^The rent of the infield ground 
is from lis. to 21s.; of outfield, from as. to 5s. per acre. 
The rent is paid partly in money, and partly in grain, cn£- 
toms, fervices, an4 mill multures. The wages of men fer- 
f ants 4re from 4I. los. to 61. los., or 7I.;— ^f women ferr 
vants, from 2!. to 3I. per annum ; — of d^y labourers, 6d. 
with maintainance. There are few day-labourers, as it is only 
at fome feafons of the year that they could find employment 
^om the farmers. Reapers are hired for the harveft, the 
^en at 2I. and the women at il. 

|{oAJ!r.-^Abcrdeen is the neareft fea port, bebg 25!. miles 
3 M 2 diftant. 

460 Statifikul Account 

diftint* The tpads are madep and kept 10 repair, by tbe fti^ 
tate labour ; but the landholders, in this and other |wirifflint 
in the neighbourhood, have latdj fuhfcnbed ditfercnt pro- 
portions of the valued rents of their eftates^ for the puzpofe 
of making Come miles of road in a new tmft to Aberdeen. 

Ctmrcbf Scbool^ and Poor.— The Crown is patron. Tbe 
ftipendy incloding conunanion element monqr, is 55L 69. 8d^ 
a chalders meal, and i chalder bear. The temd viftual, paid 
from lands in this pariih to Monyomfl^, amounts to aa bolls 
of meal-i— The ibhoolmailer's falarj is 100 merks Sootch. 
The number of children, who attend the tphool, is from 10 
•CO 30 — Befides die poor <m tbe r(dl, who, for feveral years 
paft, have not exceeded ro, others have been affifted occafioo- 
ally. The pariih funds, at pre£mt, are 3I. los* per annum, 
lor intereft of money lent. The animal colleftioas, gcc may 
amount to, from 5L to Bl. Till lately, die poor were moxe 
numerous, and the pariih funds lels confiderable \ but no per- 
fon, belonging to this- parifli, has begged for 25 years paft. 
The pei^le, in general, are fufficiendy, attentive and ai&Aing I 
to their neighbours, when in want or diftrefs. The refiding 
•bericors are remarkably £b j and their attention and affiftance 
are not cMfined to their own eftates. 




fJOouHty and Synod of Roft—Pnjbyterj of Itain.) 

By the Rev. ^r. AUXA^PU MuMRO, Mini/In'^ 

Name, SUuatiottf and ExtifiK 

THE jMrlQi of Edbkrtowk certamlj derives its name 
£rom its fituadon^ belnj on all fides, excepting the N., 
^rroanded hj hills and AounfaiDs. It is pronounced Edtr^ 
douM in Gaelic, and furely ought to be written fo in Engliih. 
The pariib is fituated in that part of the county of Rois, call- 
ed £a|^ Kab* It is about zo miles Jn length, and 7 in 
breadth, and the Frith of Tain walhes its ooaft on the N« 

RhmUift Soil^ Cultivation^ Sec. — There are no rivers of 
aote, but feveral IknaH rivulets, known by the appdlation of 
^urnsi which, when fwelled with rainy weather, being with- 
out bridges, greatly interrupt the traveller. Here there is a 
a variety of foils, generally deep and rich \ but the moifture 


4(» StatiJHcal Jccwnt 

faSLmg ftom tbc furrounding hills makes the bottom fsoUi^ and 
occafions late harvefts. The climate is the fame widi that of 
At pariflies arotmd it* There are no mttnral woods, but 
Sir Charles Rofs of Brinagown, and Mr. M'Leod of CadboO, 
bave fome hundred acres planted with Scotdi firs. 

Cattle^ Cuhivation^ and Prodvce. — ^Tkere are about zoc9 
Uack cattle in tl^e parifii. There are no Iheep walks ; bat 
as every tenant and cottager rears i^ few (beepy the number 
apon the whole muft be confiderable. As there are no im« 
provements in huibandrj, the time and attention of the peo* 
pie is taken up in the managemet^t of the fiirms, which re- 
ipire many hands, and occupy many cattle, their hoifcs and 
«zen being of a fmall fize. Thofe of Mr. Hu^ Scobie of 
Ardmore, howeyer/ muft be excepted. This gentleman la* 
hours fuccefsfully aoeofding to the new fyftem» and was lata- 
ly at the expence of bringing a manure, known by |he name 
titjhittf Jandy from the ifland of Tanara, near UUapocd, 
through tlie Pentland Frith, to his farm ^t Ardmore. His 
labour and expence are already moft amply repaid. His fiock 
of cattle is large, and of the beft quality, the place giving 
him every advantage for thefe purpofes. In fummer he abounds 
with grafs, aiid in winter he has the beft of covering, and a 
good fhore. He likewife rears large quantities of wheat, bar- 
Icy, oats^ beans, peafe, potatoes, turnips, and artificial grafs. 
The farm of EaJter^Feam^ for which, alfout 40 years ago, a 
tenant could not be found at the rent of aiL, is b improve^ 
by watering, that it lets now at more than triple that funu 

Inchfunsy Fuet^ \3c. — ^This pariflt is very capable of im« 
provement, having great trafts of moors, gently floping, with 
day and gravelly bottoms *• The grounds inclofed by Sir 


* fincc the yeir 1745, there btn bcea very coofiikrabfe addititiiiB to the 


. 4^/ Eddertawiii j^6j 

Joliif Rols, iozmtvly barr«n moor, axe now rkhlj toveeea 
^w^ith barkjy oats, turnips, potatoes, clover and rje-grab. The 
-ivhole inclofure coniifts of 3^0 Scotch acres, of a circular 
form, and on the outfide kxf the circle is a deep belting of firs, 
^£b, and other foreft timbers. Hie death of that geademaa 
£eeins to have put a ftop to unj more of the ground being 
Aibdivided and turned into com land. Few pariihes have 
more the means of improvement within themfelves ; the foil <£ 
the moors is good j there is great abundance of turf f and peat^ 
and the burn of Daan, which is prettj centrical, abounds 
nvith lime. There are great quantities of Tea weed, commonlj 
<:alled fiea ware, on all our ihores. 

PaftUatiofU'^^Tht population of this pariih is upon the in* 

The prefent nmnber of fouls, of all ages, is about - 2oco 
The return to Dr. Webfter^ in 17559 was onlj -* 7S0 

Increafe, • - - - - ^20 


anlk ground of thii parifli, by cottagers fettling in tlhefe moon. The kte 
AiaunX Sir Jobm Ross of Bilnagowaff, iockfed and fiibdinded^ with ej^el* 
lest AoM diiket, about 60 acrci. 

f H«re 2ft may not be infropcr to cake ootke of ttg Dutcb v/ty ifprtpsnmg 
Toav. Aiibon aa the Datch have fown their ffring com, they begin to pre- 
pare the torf lor winter fud. They firil take off the green fix! ; they then* 
pour water on the turf monld, and dig it out, by littli and little, dll they reach 
fandy foih The hole it made flopping, that a horfe and cart msy g^ intO'itr 
Thii mud it carted out on a field ; then fpread with a fpade, to 3 or 4 iachca 
thicks then cut croft ways. Thofe who wifli to have their turf ftiil harder, 
fijueele the mud, whilft fo£t, into round fonnt, refembling loavet, or form tbcna 
in (hapes like brick making, and then let them dry in tha fields.' When the 
pieces of turf are become a little hard, they are laid in heaps, that they m;iy 
dry, and be aaore elSeAnaUy flidtered firom iido# Firom thb. they ate carntad- 
homa, and put under a roof. The turf foil is cither browui itd| or bJack| but 
mift ao( be mizad with (and or clay. 

4^4 iStoR^cid Accimni 

Rents and Profrietors.^^Tht grofs rent of ^e iinifli is 
about 650 bolls of gnun, and 500!. Sterling in m&mcy. The 
tent is fluAaating; but is daal^ increafing. The heri tor s are. 
Sir Charles Rofs of Balnagown, Mr. M^Leod of GaAwfl, 
Mr; M^en£ie of Ardrofs, Mr. John Roibertfon mkrAmxt in 
6lafgow, and Mr. Rb£i of K^e. None of tbefe geridemes 
refide in the pariflf. 

Church and School.'^Tht Chnrdi is fitnated mtliin a mfle 
of the eaftem extremity of this {fttrifli. Both cfanrdiaad 
xnanfe are old, aind ftand mach in need of repairs. The ffi« 
pend is lao boUs of grain, and j^* <4^- ^ Sterfing^ for 
vicarage and communion elements. All the parifliioncrs are 
in communion with the church of Scotland. Hie patent is 
Capt. Kenneth M^enzie of Cromart7.<^-There is a parodnsl 
Ibhool. The falarj is fo very fauJl, that none ofei lie got to 
teach it, who is at all maftef of any of the letmed lan- 
guages. However^ the cultivation of the Engliih language 
is increafing. 

Emptoytmmis amd CharaSer.-^We have no eftaUiihed nu* 
ftufsAures.; but tbe women and girls are often employed in 
fpinning, what in this country we CTlLfaBmy ynm^ from hnt; 
and the beft fpinners among them, with difficulty, earn a4<i. 
per day. The people fobfift chieffy by agricnlture, and like 
their neighbours, are of a mixt chara&er. They are very in- 
duftrious ; and, upon the whole^ are very regular in attend- 
ing divine oidinanees. 

^/7ff;»tViV/, &c— -There is a large plain, about half a mile 
to the W. of .the church, and in circumference about 3 miles, 
where there «are evident marks of an encampment. Tiadi- 


4oil b^Sji diat \ bfl^e was fought here agaiaft the Danes *. 
Near to this there is a large circle of earth, flat in the top. 
Had raifed a]iH>ut 1 fe^t above the lerel of the ground around it. 
it« In the centre of this circle, there is a large obelif^ above lo 
feet high above the ground. No tool feems to have been enw 
ployed in forming it, though there are fome rude figures ftill 
difcemible, the largeft of a triangular form, with fraall circles 
fufpended from it. Here the Prince of Denmark, who com- 
manded his countrymen, is faid to be interred. The plain is 
called Carriblair} and the village, immediately to the S. of 
it, is to this day dalled Balliocb^ or PhyfictatCs Town, where, 
it is faid, the wounded were lodged and taken care off. There 
is only one other piece of antiquity, that merits attention, which 
is Dunaii/kagf about 4 miles from the church, ,by the fea fide. 
It is one of thefe circular buildings, called by fome cairns^ by 
Others ifocmi* The (tones are of a very large fize, and laid 
very regularly and dofe. To the 3. W. it is ftill about 12 
feet high, and 7, where it is lowed t« The entry is to the 
S.; and the middle of the wall, which makes the circle, hi^ 
Vol. XI. 3 N open. 

* There are erident marlu, indeed, of a battle, and a rery bloody one, as 
tiiere aro ftiU many heapt to be fcen, under whieh the flain had been interred. 
One of thefe, about xo yean ago, was levelled by the fchoolmater ; and, whei^ 
trenching it, along with the gronnd around it, his fpade ftruck againft a coffin. 
He fooa found five of fhem, in which there were human flceletons perfedly en- 
tire, ekcepting one that wanted the head. The coffins were made of fir, and 
ia the higheft |ireferrati«||. By the ikeletons it would appear, that the fii^e of 
the bodies was about 5 feet xo indies. 

t Offiaa menticms the battle of Garros in. one of the detached pieces annexe^ 
lo Fingal, and where he himfelf commanded, and worded the Danes. Pjerhaps 
this may have been the fccoe of a^ionv CarriUair, in Gaelic, fignifying ih httttt 
9/ Csrrt. 

f In the memory of ou^ny ftill lining, it wm m^tt than doqble iu |relent 

V ^f*Sh^. 

466 Statifiical Account 

open, witf^ a ftair on each fide of the door; The onlj re- 
piarkable natural curiofity, is a water fall, over which the 
fmall river Grugag, in the wefter end of the parflh, Ms, 
which is thought to he ahout 100 jards of pe^pendicokr 

jbdg^t. About thdc circUi that is Gatk a ^npetf loi <]>fiakD$f ibu fkc aotbof 
^ thit artid^ IhaU i|^ TCBt|^« t9 ac^^ 


of Huntly* i^l^y 


(County of Aberdnn^-M^ynod of Moruf^'^^fr^Jkytitjf if 

Mff the RUf. Mr, Kol|£KT IkkeI, Minifin^ 

£riSiOft and Namiu 

lJtTfni.Y, li^htch is the itiodefm 6afiie 6^ titt ^itiiii tdn-a 
fifta of 2 divifiofiSy the td^n and the countiy part* The( 
ttfwn bears hj mnch th^ greatei' proporttonf. The p%viSh coa« 
fifted, formerly, of 2 diftiDft parifbes, both ferved by otle parw 
fim. The name of the ofie was Damtendfif which fignifietf 
/i&# iottom qftbe bill; and atcotdingly a^U the farm-houfes ard 
placed at the bottom of ' the different hills forroundbg tho 
tillage, fncOi As, Clajhmach, the gre;^.he«led hilt i Bin^billg 
or the flonj-hill i OrdfuU^ or the bftttle-hill, &c. The namd 
of the other pariflx, before they were United, tn»r ^inott^ that 
is, the gold or ydlow-biadid biU% and in all public adterttfe« 
stents it is ftiH thxts diftingniihed.— ^Tbefe • parHhes of I>am« 

3 N 2 Wnaa 

46S Stati/lical jiccaw0 

Wnan and Kinore were united by « decree of the Lotdt ckf 
Seflion and Plantation of Kirks, and called the parifli of 
HuMTLT, in honour of the Duke of Gordon** eldeft fon ; and 
a place of worihip ereAed, centrical to bodi, in the year x?!?- 

ExtMtimdRoaJs.^^Th^ eztreou^ of that part of tha pariih« 
called Rinorif is dillant from the town of Bontly 3 computed 
miles, over Tcfy rough and rockj ground ; and to the extmnity 
of the other, called DuvA§ndm^ it is alfo 3 oompoted mkt, 
equally rough and rocky $ and» indeed, in thofe parts wbcte 
the roads through the pariih have been attempted to be made 
by fiatute labour, as they have hitherto been condufiedt thcj 
ate often impaflable. 

Climate^ Difea/es^ \3c. — The air of Huntly is fidubrioiu. 
lliere are no diftempers peculiar to this place, but what ate 
common to other matiafaQuritlg towns. Weavers, and thofe 
^vrhofe bufinefs confines them to low and damp (hops, may be 
more fubjeft to afthmatic and fcorbutic complaints, but the 
place, on the whole, is healthy, and the inhabiunts, who 
are in general fober and induftrious, live to a good vftu 
There are many now living in the pariih aged from 70 to S7; 
and one died a few years ago aged 90* But the number of 
al^-^heufes, and private retailers of fpiritous Uquors, not only 
becomes hurtful to the health, but veiy prejudicial to tlla 
morals of the lower dab of tradefmen and mechanics^ 

Hill, tic— To Kioore there is a hill called St. Mungo^ on 
the W« fide of which there is a fpring ifiutng from it, caUed 
Su M^fngo^s Witlf of no medicinal quality but what aiifes 
frpm fuperftitious credulity. On the top of the N. end, Acre 
is a large circular opening, which^ in a rainy ieafon, is full 
of water, and feldom quite empty. In very dry fummers 


of Huntiy. \&^ 

foroe peats have been got from it, but of a fulphorous nature. 
Manj plccei of hard and porous AuIFy refembling iava^ or ra- 
ttier the refufe of a fmith*8 forge, have been found about it. 
^ear to thb opening there is a very large ftone, and another 
juft bj it of a tnuch lefs fize, the fiiperficies of each ejcaSlj 
correfpondilig to the bther, as if thej had faUen afunder by 
ibme extraordinary cottvulfion. The whole of this hill is 
ftoW inclofedi abd planted with trees of various kinds. 

9<Kuii.— The town is placed in a drj and healthj fituatioUi 
futrouoded with hills, but at a convenient diftance, all moft« 
I7 inclofed, full of plantations of firs, elms, oaks« birch, hx. 
It is the feat of the prelbjterj, and a pod town^ There 
are a principal (treetk in the town of Huntlj, crof&ng each 
other at right angles, forming a fpacious fquare, where the 
iveeklj arid other markets are held. Here too there was 
once a town-houfe and a prifon ; but thej are now demoliih* 
ed. On eaeh fide of the fquare there are many decent and 
commodious dwelling-houfes ; and many on the ftreet leading 
Xo it.-— A fpfrit of building Hill prevails. 

Riven, Bridgu^ Millsf l^c.— Two pleafant rivers run on 
each fide of it ; the Doveron on the W. and the Bogie^ on the 
£., both uniting half a mile below it, ^here they prefeot a 
delightful and romantic fcene, and, thus uniting, glide over a 
rough and rocky channel, (haded with trees on each fide, till 
they fall into the fea at Banff, 11 miles N« E* of Rnntly. On 
each of the rivers there is a bridge : that over the Bogie 
la modem, and has 3 arches, very convenient for heavy car* 
riages to and from Aberdeen^ which is 34 meafurtd milea 
diAant ; and for brieging peats and torf from the mofs, 5 miles 
di0ant The bame of this river is fald to be Gaelic, and to 
fignify fnarJbyJlQxv^mnningviafer, Tlic water is of an excellent 


470 Stati/lical Account 

quality, and fit for every purpofe, particalarly wbitening md 
bleaching doth. There are, accordingly, feveral bleachfields 
richly covered in the bleaching leafon with white linen doth, 
to a great value, thread, fiockings, cotton, &c. Upoa this 
water (which rifes in the pariib of Achlbdore, 8 miles S. of 
Hantly, and is increafed by the water of Kiriuej and JV{//- 
SogU^ with fome fmall butHs), there are feveral mills for 
grinding corn, barley, malt, and other grain, well occupied 
from the adjacent fruitful fields. One of thefe, called tht 
Mill of Huntly^ is in this parifli, and is fupplied with water 
from the Bogie.— >The river Doveron takes its fonrce in the 
Cahracb^ I a miles above Huntly s a little below it meets 
with a river called tbg Blaci^water, and is increafed by fome 
fmall bums, till it becomes very full and rapid at the Kirk o£ 
Clafs* Over the river Doveron there is a bridge of x arch, 
very victent, but very firong, built upon a rock ; and each 
flone of the arch, as far as the river in a flood may be fuppof. 
ed to reach, is ftrongly bound together with iron. Standing 
upon the bridge, one has a mod ajgreeable view, whether he 
looks downward to the fpot where the rivers join, called tk 
JnvirSf or up the river, gliding through fpacious and fruitful 
fields on each fide. It leads alfo to Huntly Lodge through a 
broad avenue, gently afcending to the Houfe, (haded with 
trees of various kinds *• The Doveron would be often im« 


* It may not be improper to ohfiu^, that, thongfc, fo'r tkoc launemonal, the 
water hai ktpt iti prcfent courfe, there it ground to think it has not ilways doce 
to ; but that its ancient courfe had beeq^ by a l^ng range of bank« now called 
l£f Mtjdam Bratt, and terminating at a pla^e called iBe Kiln Bsrmt^ probably 
from Hi having been the place where the ont houfe*, ftablea, bama, ftc of thai 
pobk family ftood, when they reiidfed at the caftle, and which have fi&ce beea 
detached to m proper difiance from it. The old foondations are (UH to be ieen. 
TUi hog cUr? ed bank ii now iadofed by a ditch and ihong hedge, cpmffwd* 

of Huntly. 471 

paffable, were It not for this bridge, by which the roads on 
the other fide lead, the one to Portfoy, 10 computed miles 
diilant northward; the other to Keitb, Fochaberj, Gordon 
Caftle, and the river Spej. 

JPj^,.i-.Both the Doveron and the Bogie afford excellent 
fronts. Thofe of the Bogie are preferable to the others, froni 
its muddy And clayey bottom, and perhaps from the foft qua- 
lity of its water. After a flood, many falmon are got; and did 
the proprietors of the falmon-fi(hing, at Banff*, obferve the le- 
gal openings in their cruives or dikes, many more might be 
caught, to the great advantage of the different heritors* 

jlftii/ra/r.>^Upon the banks of the Doveron, near its junc- 
tion with the Bogie, there was an attempt made, fome years 
ago, to difcover a lead mine, and, after digging to a confider- 
able depth, many pieces of a black friable matter, like the 
ore which the lead pencils are made of, were jrot ; but the 
work was difcontinued.— ^A lime-flone quarry was happily 
difcovered, ibme years ago, in' the S. W. end of the pariih, 
but when opened, it was found fo difficult to get at, that it was 
abandoned, after working to a confiderable depth,— Near the 
fame place there is a kind of white marble, of which the 
author has feen a horizontal dial made, perfcdly fmooth on 

the furface, and ell the lines an4 figures drawn quite clear an 
OH ilate, 

jtf^ricuUure.^\n this pariffi there are many excellent farms, 
rented from aol. to 6ol., including a certain proportion of 
farm meal| of the heft quality, which the tenants are obliged 


ing to the tarm of the foppofed ancient coorfe of the river, S|^4 plaatejl wi^l^ a 
variety of trees, different Ihnibi, and cianpt of narlieriet, all kept is good 
^isioa 1^ very thriving. 

47 2 Statifiical Account 

to cMTjr from tbe granarj at thtir own charge, and wkidi ii 
all the fenriee the proprietor requires. It would feeoit that 
the country io general had not been dvourahk for the pio- 
duftion of barley, till of late that the eredton of dilHllerifa 
has encouraged farmersi to prepare their grounds for diat 
now very TcndiUe grain* But were farmers morn cnoou- 
raged, by the heritors granting longer leafea than are general- 
ly given, under certain re(%idions, and oaodes of tnapfove- 
ment, It would give vigour and fptrit to the indnftrions frnn- 
tt. He would be encouraged to improve hia knd to the 
higheft degree of coltivatton, of which it waa capnbk ; and 
the face of the country would prefent a more beanttfnl ap* 
pearance, and become more profitable to both landholder and 
tenant* At prefent, except firaightening the ridges* whett 
that can be done, little mpre, in iu9h a ftate, can, in genetil, 
be looked for^i Some of the moft fubOantial tenants have 
ftrong ploughs and good cattle ; but moft farmera plow witk 
poor horfes, and weak cattle, yoked together, 

Co//^»— -<^The number of catde cannot be afcertabed 
Many dealers in that article, rent parks from the neigbboor- 
ing proprietors, for the fole purpofe of keeping thrir ftoekoa 
^and, for a few days or weeks, till they have opportunity of 
driving to market.— —>This is not a flieep country* The in* 
clofurcs and planting oblige the tenant to reduoe the nomber 
of thefe ufeful animals, and the few that are in i^are poor and 
fliabby, and of a comparatively diminurive fize; except thofe 
wedders thaf range the hills, and are (eldom or never hoofed, 
•r foch as aire fed, and fold for butpher-meat. 

Improvements and Produce^ C/r.«-Tbe village of Huntlj 
has furprlfingly increafed within thefe 50 years, in populs* 
Hon an|} induftryi infomuch tbat^ whezc all around it, for 

I fome 

of Huntfy. 473 

•i«me diftanoe, was formerlj barren heath, fwamps, or marfli, 
Cfaere is now fcatcelj one uncultivated fpot to be feen ; and 
4>arlej, oats, lint, potatoes, and turnips, are produced in mm 
l»andance, where nothing grew before. This fpirit of im- 
provement and manufa&ure was firfl ii^troduced bjn few 
ivho dealt in the yarn trade. From their laudable example, 
9nd from oUerviag the profits arifing fropa induftry, othecs 
i¥ere encouraged ; and now it is become one of the firft vil« 
lages in the North, both in pobt of population and manu&o* 
tiires* Being fituated in the midft of a large and fertile coun* 
(17, the indoftrions inbabitants have a ready £|le far what 
f hey bring lo mafket, by wbiph many poor cottagers and fub- 
Ccnanta are enabled to pay for their fcanty pQfleffioQs. 

f rices of laii^ur and Provifioms* — ^The advanced price of 
all the neceflaries of life makes wages high in proportion. 
The cpmmon hire of a ploughman is from 7!. to 81. yearly, 
of a day*labourer from 8d« to lod. or is., according to the 
"work he is hired for,^ and his fkill in doing it. A mafon's 
vages are is. gd. a-day ; a wright's and flater^s the fame, when 
the work is not- undertaken by private bargaIn.-*The price 
of provifions, of all kinds, has been greatly advanced of late 
years; that of fiih, in pai:tlcular, has increafed. Haddocks, 
• formerly fold for 5d. or 6d. the dozen, now fell for 7d. pd •' and 
even Cometimes is. 6d. the half doxen. The heft beef fells at 
3id. and 4d* the pound ; and mutton from is. 6d. to as. the 

Rent and Profrietors^-^Thc real rent of the parilh is 
about 1700L Sterling, and the valued rent about a6ool. 
Scotch. JThe Duke of Gordon is proprietor of the whole 
pariih, excepting a haugh of land in the N. end of Kinore, 
which belongs to Mr. Gordon of Avochy. 

Vox,. XL 3 O P<^ukuim^,, 

474 Statlfiical Account 

Populatiom,^^The number of iohabUants is not ezadly iC- 
certiinedy but old and joung* ia town and couatrj, maj he 
lafelj ftated at • - - • 3600 

The return to Dr. Webfter, in X755t waa only - 1900 

There Is therefore an increafe of, at lead, - 1700 

•— tt is but of late, that much attention was paid to the iv- 
giftration of births and burials ; tnaoj difientarsi as vdl is 
others, either negle&iog, or rafufing, to in£ert dieir cfaildrens 
names in the -regifter of baptifms kept here ; and many having 
their burial places in t>ther pariihes, the number of deitfas 
cannot be ezadlj known. Since the year X78S9 howertr, 
thej ftand thus: 




J 7 86, there were 




• mQ». 









1789* ' 





39 . 




ly^O, ■' 


,792, : 

ManufaSures and ProfyffUm^^^TYiet^ are employed in the 
town of Huntly 51 flazdrefiers. At an aTexage, each haod 
will dreb 40 mats of flax in a year, each mat weightflg 109 
libs. £ngli(h, the average value whereof will be 3U Scerliog 
per mat, which fpins from 4 to xa hanks per lib., and will 
be worth, when fpun into yam, 7L t68« Sterling per mat: 

. The whole will amount to 16,1141. Sterling* ^There are 

likewife 209 weavers, wh6 will work in a year, at an aver* 
age, 73,150 yards of clofh, which, at as. per yard, will 
amount to 7315I. Sterlingi ezclufive of the weavers emplojed 


of Huntty. 475 

\j the maniifadurers in Huntlj, in different towns, and in 
the counciy around. — ^There is alfo a cotton mannfaftory efta« 
bliflied in this place, but it is jet in an infant ftate. There 
are about 3a wrights, including wheel and cart-wrights. 
There are alfo mafons, blackfoiiths, tailorsi &c. in propor* 

Cbmreh^ C/r.-»>The churchi when firft erefted, might have 
Wen perhaps large enough, to contain more than, at that dme, 
attended the Edablifhed worfliip, but it cannot now hold 
above 3 fourths of the parilh, though 3 galleries hare been 
of late erefted. One of thefe is diredly fronting the pulpit, 
which, from the narrownefs of the church, proves a very 
great incumbrance to the fpeaker's voice, and equally fo to 
many of the hearers. The other a galleries were ereAed at 
the expence of the feffion, and the rent of the feats annually 
paid for the ufe of the poor. If there had been a church 
erefted here, equal to the number of inhabitants, and fuited 
to the high rank of the patron, it would have prevented many 
diflenters and fedaries, and, what is of greater confequence, 
would have contributed to a more religious obfervation of the 
Sabbath ; as many, who cannot find room in the church, either 
go to other places of worihip, ftay at home, or ftroU in the 
fields.— There are other 3 places of public worihip, I of the Se* 
cei&on (Antiburgher), i of the Church of England, and i of 
Roman Catholics ; but the numbers attending thefe are, not 
increafiog. The paftors of each, however, live in mutual 
friendfliip and Chriftian charity. There is no manfe proper- 
\j belonging to the minifter. There is a glebe, but it lies at 
fodi A diftance from the town, that the prefent incumbent 
finds it more profitable, to let it in leafe from year to year, 
than to cultivate it. It confifts •f xo acres of ground, of va» 
pau% qualities, partly of a hard, dry, and fiuidy foil, and 

30a partly 

47^ Statifiical Ac$0unt 

partlj of a iMinjr claj. The ftipend is looo metks Scocchy 
of whkh there are 3 chalders of oaumeal, at 8 ftoae per boUv 
and 50 inerks for cominiuiioa elemeoti. The Duke of 

Gordon is patron. 

^rioo/r.*— There is a parochial fchool, but it is pooilj en« 
flowed, the falarj being only 61. i8s. lod., with the perqoi. 
fites, viz. 6d. for each baptifm, is. Ibr each marriage, and iL 
4S. 5d. as fei&on»clerk. Thefe, with the quarterly paymeaU 
for teaching, (Engliih rs. 6d., for writing and arithiiietic» as., 
and for Latin as. 6d.) are the whole of the fchoolmafter's emo- 
lumeots. There are other private fchools here, of gtrat ad- 
vantage both to parents and children; nevertbelefs a Snndaji 
•r a charity ichool wauld be of great ufe. 

Poor.— -The fund for the fupport of the poor oonfifts chiefly 
bf coUe&ions from the congiegatioo, which, at an average, 
may be from 5s. to 8». weekly 1 with the intereft of 1000 merks 
^ mortified money, and fome lent out on hills, together with 
penalties incurred by delinquents, and the rents of the feats 
in the a galleries. The feflion regularly meet every two 
months, and diftribute to the poor on the roll, according as 
their neceilities (from the bca of their knowledge and infor- 
mation) demand j befides many interim diiburrements for cof. 
fins, ifaoes, clothes, Sec. as occafion requires. The gallery in the 
front being credcd at the expence of the Society of Weavers, 
the money arifing from it is aHotted to indemnify that ezpence. 
The inhabitants in general are of that charitable difpofition, which 
tends to invite many poor people, and even whole families, 
from other parts, to refide among them. The writer hereof 
has known fome young fellows, on cxtraordbary emergencies, 
fo through the whole parilh, dividing it into particular dif. 

^ Huntly* 477 

trIAs, to each of which ooe or two of theal wti feot, and 
thus coUeft nooey, meal, &c. for the immiduue relief of fitch 
poor, as age, iofirmitj, or accideatal misfortUQe, had render- 
ed obje&s of compaiSoB. The Socic^ of Weavers, Flax-dref« 
fers, and Gardeners, have a box, to which each aiember pays 
a quarterly contribution, befides what is paid on his admif- 
fion, for the relief of the poor widows, childrent and decay* 
cd ttadefmen of their refpeftive ibcicties. 

Cqfiti^ &c.— Nigh to the bridge of Doveron flaod the remama 
of Hunify^Casile^ which fliU afford a finking proof of the 
grandeur and hofpitality of that ancient fiimily % though ond 
part only of the original plan feenis to have been completed* 
On the N. front are the arms of the fiunily cut in ftone, with 
the names of the original proprietMSt Gsorox GoanoK, £rft 
Marquis of Huntly, and HxvaiETTA St£Wa&t, firft Marchi* 
ends of Huntly, 1601* Though they have been expofed to 
the boifterous N* wind near aoc years, and no care has beeft 
taken to preferve them, from the wanton and injurious hands 
of the vulgar, the artifi's cbiffel is ftrongly and diftindly 
marked. A fpacious turnpike ftair leads to what has been 
once a very grand hall, and which ftill bears the marks of its 
former fplendor and magnificence* Its length is about 43 
feet, its breadth 29, and itt height x6. There is another 
grand apartment immediately over this, 37 feet in length and 
29 in breadth. The chimneys of both are highly ornament- 
ed with curious fculpture of various figures, which, confider-i 
iog the inattention paid to this once magnificent fabric, are 


* MuKf people, ftfll in fife, renember to have feen a noge o( piflart, fop- 
poffttog an arched roof, which Icemed to have ^0 intended at a -cover for fach 
at inclined to take the ur, or a vteir of the garden which lay before the Caftle* 
there hciBi a deor that had kd to it, from the npper hall, m a kTd with it 

47S Staij/tiad Account 

ftin ia a tol«tIik ftate of pre&rtvlioii, and maft attnd the 
•Merradoo of any one who has a tafte for ancient fcolptnre. 
The thickaefii of the wall admits of leveral finall dofets, and, 
in the upper apartments, there are large bow windowsi a 
little pngeAed from the fnrface of the wall frondng the S. 
Indeed moft of the apartments are ftiU in tokiaUe preCenra- 
ti<m i particalarly the ceilings, which are ornamented with s 
great variety of paintings^ in fmall divifions, containing ms- 
ny emblematical figures, with verfes, exptcl&ve of loms mo- 
fal fimtiment, in doggerel rhime. At a little diftance from the 
Caftk. on the N., there are the remains of Come works, which 
feem to have been intended for defence ; and, on the W., a 
large mound, which probably had been coUeAed firom the 
•arth and rubbiih dug £m: die foundation of the building, (sod 
fcr other apartments below, which are all vaulted), and after- 
wards made into its prefent form, fomewhat reffimbling a co- 
sue figure, or rather a fugar loaf broke off near the top. On 
the avenue which leads to the Caftle, there are a iqaare 
towers, which had defended the gateway, and whidi the pre^ 
lent incumbent has feen adorned with the arms of die fiunilj, 
cut out ia ftone, in the front of the wall adjoining each tower, 
in good repair. The hewn ftone of the windows and coraeti 
has been taken out, and applied to other more ignoble par- 


. •fqarnpck. , 479 



(Cmmty and Synod of Fife — ^nfbyterj of Dumfemdam!) 

By fhi Rev. Mr. AuxAKOtn Tbomsok* 

Origin of the Name. 

IT 18 not known, when, either the parifb, or the tnllage 
from which it is denominated, received the name of 
Camoci. fiat it is probable, that this happened at the tiaie 
when the Gaelic was the prevailing language in the Lowlanda 
of Scotland. Im that language, the words Cair^ or Caim^ 
and Knotty (of which Camoci is fuppofed to be acompoand), 
fignifj a Village c^ CoIbSion of Houfei adjoining to afmaU 
hiilf which is very expreffive of its fitaation. The adjoining 
cminenoa of Cameil Hill feems to have been the fpot where a 
battle WM once fought, probably during the time of the Da« 
nifli invafioa, ia 1039, or 1042 * ; and perhaps derivad its 
Aama (Caim^Neil) from one of the chieftains who fell on that 


• riABmiMmii Bifi, &•#. /^I. VI. 

4Se Statl/Kcal Jce&ytii 

Situation, Extettt^ Smrfaee, and HUb.—Thh parifli is ficiM 
ttted in the weftern extremttjr of the connty of Fifis. Its 
form is nearly fqaare^ if we except ui eiccrelbenoe containiDg 
die baronj of Pitdennies, which terminates in the ▼iUi^ of 
Caimey'UUf and extends the whole breadth of die parilk at 
its fouthern extreinitf. T|ie Itngdi a^d I>reaidi ads about 3 
£ngli(h miles at a medium f • The groond is level towards 
the £f but has « gentle d[eclivit/ towards the S.f and is 
bomidcd on the N. and N. £. hj fome hills, which terminate 
in a precipice, called Craig^Lnfcar, bejond the limita of the 
pariih. 0(her hills, called tb$ Ct$m9f iepaiatp this parifli 
from that of Saiine. Moft of the ground coofifts of gentle 
declivities. The Campus Bani on the S. and Comet/ Httlt on 
the W. are confiderable eminences, commanding exteofiva 
profpefts of the Frith of Forth, and the coontry adjacent. 
The former has a fine expofnre tiwards the S., ooofifting 
moftlj of arable land gready improved ; the latter confifts oi^ 
excellent paflure* 

SoS^ Producff Woois^ frc — ^The foil is pardy black eardi^ 
and pardy clay or till* In fevcral places there is a mixture 
of gravel near the for&ce % but the two firft fpecies of foil 
are moft prevalent, and the country is of conference prettf 
ferule. The hills, except foch as are in tillage, are in general 
covered with grafs ; but the heath begins to appear upon the 
riGog grounds tpwards the N. The ground produoea crops 
of oats, barley, peafe^ wheat, turnips, and ibwn grafs, in coi^ 
.fiderable quantities* There is alfo natural grab, mixed with 
.fevtcal herbs, and fit for pafture, oa thofe grponds, which 


fThe fredfe nomber of acres it not afceftatned, there being no map q£ tt« 
pariih, though it b pretty accurately delineated in SToaia*e map of FifdhiRf 
puhliihed shoot the year 17791 or 17^0. 

ef Camock. ' 481 

either are not arable, or have not been tilled within the me- 
mory of *inan. There are pretty confiderable plantations of 
wood on the lands of Clune and Pitdennies, chiefly fir, ivith 
ibme aib and larix trees intermixed. In Lufcar Ikan (or 
Den) there are feveral pleafant walks among the trees, with 
very romantic icenery -, and upon the banks of the rivulet, 
near the village of Carnock, there are fome trees which have 
ftood thefe 50 years, and afford a refrefliing (hade during th^ 
heat of fummer« 

ClimaU and Dt/ea/es^^-^The air is rather damp in winter 
and fpring, but in fummer it is abundantly falubrious. £pi* 
demical diftempers are more rare in this, than in Ibme of the 
neighbouring parilhes. The mod common complaints are 
coughs and rheumatifnis, which prevail mod in winter and 
fpring. Fevers and fluxes are rare. The fmall-pox general- 
ly vi£ts the pari& oitce in 3 or 4 years* The 4 lad recurns 
were in 1780, 1783, 1787, and 1789, That of 1787 was by 
far the mod fcvere, when 15 children out of 45 died of that 
diftemper^; and that of 1789, the mod favourable, when only 
tbree died out of 6j ; and, of thefe 3, one at lead was in bad 
health before. In 1780 and 1783, the medium of deaths was 
from 4 to 6 each year, though a great many had that difeafe. 
Inoculation has as yet made but little pron;rers, though the 
prejudices of the common people, againd that falutary prac- 
tice, feem to be fubfidinff. 

jtgriculturey Crops, Experts^ Sec ^-The rotation of crops is 
much the fam^ here as in other parts of the country. After 
rye-grafs, oats, fometimes repeated, then peafe and beans, then 
turnips or potatoes, or fallow and lime, fuccceded by a crop 
of wheat. There fcems to be a feveuth part of the arable 
land in fallow and turnips, and about a feventh part under 
Vol, X;. • 3 P ' ibwa 

4^2 Statl/iical Account 

(own grafs. The ploughs employed bj the farmers are the 
common Scotch plough tnd Smairs plough. The letter was 
introduced here within thefe laft lo jears* Wh^n the ground 
is limed, 5 or 6 bolls of lime, mixed with dung or cooipofi, 
generally fuffioes for an acre ; but a much larger quantity is 
found neceflary on land taken in from moors. Upon part of 
the ellate of Clone, about 50 bolls per acre were uied, when 
it was firft improved* Inclofnres haye made gasat progrcfs 
within the lad 30 years, above four 5ths of the arable land be« 
ing already inclofed, and the remainder in the near profped 
of being fo« The fences are partly Aone walls teeibed with 
lime, partly ditches, with thorn hedges on the top, which 
thrive pretty well. The quantity of ground, laid out under 
the different crops, cannot be exaftly afcertaiocd, but the fol- 
lowing is nearly the average of the arable land. Under clover 
and rye-grafs one jth, wheat one loth, barley one 5th, oats 
pne 4th, peafe one 5th, turnigs one xotb, potatoes one 8th, (lax 
one loth, and, in field cabbage, a few falls of ground *; bcfidcs 
about one 4th kept in pafture. There is no common, even the 
moor land being exa£Uy divided among the different proprie- 
tors. Within thefe 2 years there has been mere than ufiuJ 
attention paid to the growth of flax, feveral acres being an- 
pually laid out in that way, by perfons who make it their 
bufinefs to attend to it during fummer. The producCj even 
when the crop is but indifierent, is fully adequate to the con- 
fumption of the inhabitants. When plentiful, it is exported 
in coaliderable quantities. Barley is fent to Culrofs, Borrow- 
ftownpefs, Alloa, and Dunfecmline, where it is manufafiur- 
ed into n^alt. Meal and potatoes are alfo fent to Dunfenn* 

l^ineralsr- — This parilh is plentifully fupp|ied with coals, 


* There is no rye fown in the pvifb, nor any black oats; althoDgh cooiu!(r- 
able quantities of th« ladtcr were fown lall century in the N. £. part of t^e 

of Carnoctt. 483 

'there being at leaft 5 difTerent coal mines in it, belonging to 
as many different proprietors ; yiz. Sir John Halket of Pit« 
firran — ^the Rev. Dr. John Erikine of Garnock— Mr. Mill of 
Blair—Mr. Mutter of Annfleldt — and Mr. Hogg of New Lit 
ton. There is alfo fome iron-ftpne on the eftates of thefe 
gentlemen. The produce of the mines is uncertain. Mr. 
Mutter's coal lets at 1 ool. a-year, and Dr. Erfkine's at 40L Mr. 
Mill's, which is wrought for his own emolument, is fuppofed 
to produce from 8ol. to lodl. per annum. The ftone quar« 
ries on the N. part of Dr. Erikine^s eftate are of great ex- 
tenty and eafily wrought without any tirring* They are fi« 
tuated within 3 miles of the port of Torry, and 5 of Lime- 
kilns, where they can be conveniently (kipped for etporta-^ 
tion. They confift of 5 different kinds of iione, one of a 
bluiih black colour, with a fine grriif capable of receiving tt 
poli(h like marble^ This ftone will ftand the fire, and thd 
longer it is expofed, it becomes the more durable, and con* 
trads the blacker hue« The feeond is a white fiene, of a fine 
fmall greeif foft when firil raifed from the quarry, btft gra- 
dlually hardening afterwards. Though, to appear ancoi not 
very durable, it wiihftands the ravages of rain and tempeft. 
Stones of both thefe fpecies have been dug up, 24 feet long 
and 5 or 6 broad i and, it is not doubted, they might be raif- 
cd of far greater dimenfions. The third is of a browniih co« 
lour and a harder quality than the fecomd^ well calculated fSc 
building houfes, 2&c. Some of this ki^d.have beed raifed 7 
or 8 feet long. They take a fine polifii. Double the quan- 
tity of ftones can be quarried here, in the fame fpace of time^ 
that can be done in any of the other quarries in the country, 

Sf rings and Rivukts.-^Thtrt are a few mfneral fprings in 
the parifh, chiefly of the chalybeate kipdi but they are littlo 

3 P a attesd^d 


4S4 Statiflical Account 

attended to. There are no lakes of tny magnttode, bnt a few 
pooh, called dams^ f uch as, Ronbtad Dam, Camock Dam, Car- 
neil Dam, iSc. The firft and laft of thefe furnifli the leads of 
the mill of Carnock. There arc 3 rivulets, viz. the Cam^k 
Burn or Biair Uurn^ the Camps Burn^ and the Burm of Pii- 
denies or Cairny^bilL They all ran from E. to W., suhI, afier 
. joining feveral other fmall ftteams, difchargc themfelves into 
the Frith of Forth beyond the bounds of the pariflu Tkcrc 
is a fourth on the northern boundary, which runs weftward 
ind afterwards to the S., where it obtains the name of Hfn- 
dtrfofCs Burn^ and at laft joins tliat of Carnock, which pro- 
duces a few trouts and eels. 

^^mma/f.-^The quadrupeds are fucfa as are common 10 the 
country. The horfes and black cattle are of the middle fise, 
and thrive in proportion to the richnefs of the pafture and 
goodoefs of the feafon. There are but few flieep, efpecially 
iince fown grafs became general in the pariih. The birds, 
befides the common poultry and a few turkies, are magpies, 
{parrows, crows, and a few bawks^ with fwaUows and cuckoos 
in their feafons'. 

Po/«&/io;r.-*With rcfpefi to the popvlatiotf of the parilli 
in ancient times, we cannot now fpeak with precifion, only it 
spears, that thefouthcrn part was much lefs populous for- 
merly than it is at prefent. There are people yet alive, who 
remember only a few houfes, (perhaps tvyo or three) ftanding 
upon the ground which is now occupied by the populous 
village of Gairuey-hiU, where there are now more than 4CO 
fouls ; and there are feveral adjoining farms on the proper- 
ty of Sir John Halkett in this parifli, upon each of whick 
•here are faojiliea of childrcu and fervants probably as nmmc- 


of Carnock, 


roQS as before the village exified. In other parts of the pa- 
riili, the populatioo is more fimila to what it was 30 or 40 
jears ago. The average of burials, from 1754 to 1761,. is 
about ii-r» which, if multiplied bj 36, gives 414 : perhaps 
that regiller is not perfeAlj exad; but if we fuppofe 
that it is, and that the proportion of burials, to the number 
of inhabitants, is the fame here as above, they were fcarce the 
balf of their prefent number. The population, at differenc 
periods, and the proportion of marriages, births, and burials* 
to the number of inhabitants in 1781 and 1791, maj be ob- 
&rved bjr infpeding the following tables : 

Statistical Table of the Parish 07 Carnock. 

Population in 175 s, - . - 583 Imreaje. 

■ in 1781*, - • 9ii 

Incceafe in a6 years, — -— 
Number of fouls^in^ 1791*9 * - 970 
Increafe in 10 years, 

Totd increafe in 37 years, 

Arainal avei^ge of buiiab for 7 

yean, from 175410 1761, - ii{ 
JUiXXo of births for the \z& 10 

jcars, nearly - aS 

' marriage^oearly - 8 
■■ deaths, - - 19 

Members of the BBab. Church, 

incladiilg jhfants, - - 489 
Btflenten of various deno* 

Biixiationi, • - 481 


Number of houfei, - 

. ploughs f, 

— " carts, 

horfes, - 

■ ■ ' ^« black cattle, 
■■ iheep, 


- 140 


«— farmers irirr'^, i% 

— ditto unwacried, -, 4 
^ heritors refident, 3 

— ditio non- refident, 4 

— fcuars in villages, • S# 


* * Theftf furveys trerrmade, and the lifts' completed, the former in March 
178 1 , Add the latter in December 1791^ 

> Oxen are eittplojed in about a third ^f thefe. The reft are entirely dtawB 
by horfes. | All of tbefe have childreji. 


Stati/ilcal Account 

Namb«r of ditto in the 



Number of mincn, 


. < 

■ weavers^ m afters, - 

■ 35 

■- colliers. 



-- mlniftersy 





-^ tstiburghcr ditto, 




-» (tudents 

(Xft dlvinxtr. i 

' mafonst 

>. noor on the rails 



•- malp rtrv&iirs 


•— — — tailors, 


- -5» 


^ jgy»l>hQi»T**f* 






Malei. Females. 


Males- Females. 


1781, - 10 







X7.8a, - - 6 







1783, - 7* 







1784, - 10 







1785, - 17 




4 ' 



X786, - - 8 







1787. - 6 







X788, - 10 







1789, - 8 







1790, - - 5 














Aver, for 7 o? 
loy«rs,j 8'^ 


»3 . 





ViOagef and Mantifa£iurej,'^The two principal villages 
are Carnoci and Cairney^hiU^ both pleaiisntly fituated, the for- 
mer upon a fxnall rivulet, the latter upon the great road lead- 
ing from Duafermline to Torrjburn, Culrefs, Alloa, aod 
Stirling. The bridge, which joins the li divifions of Ac vil" 


Qf Carnock. 487 

lage of Carnock, bears date 1638* The village of Cairney* 
hill forms part of the eilate of Pitdennies, the property of 
Sir John Halkett of Pitfirran* Baronet. The villages of 
Gowk^bfill and New Lufcar are but fmall, and moil of the in- 
habitants live in hamlets of two, three, or perhaps fix honfes 
each. Our only manufaflure is the weaving of cloth and 

Ecclefiaflical State *. — The church of Carnock appears, by 
an infcription flill legible upon it« to have been built inl6o2, 
by Sir George Bruce of Carkock, who was one of the 
Lords of Seilionf and aacellor of the prefent Earl of Elgin- 

* It IS remarkable, that % of the miniilers of Carnock were defPofed or ejededp 
yet none of them for any alleged immorality; but all of them for what may be 
charitably fuppofed to hate been with them mjttert of eonfiiince. One was ejed* 
ed by Archbifhcp Sharp in 1662, for refufing to ackifowledge the Epifeopal fbrm 
cf Church Oovemment and Worfhip;-~another after the Resolution ^ell a mar- 
tyr to Epifcopacy, by fuffering deprivation for not acknowledging King William 
and Queen Mart ;— and a third, in the prefent century, was folcmnly depofc^ 
by the General Alfembly of the Church of Scotland, for not bearing a part in 
n Ttolent fettlcment, to which he had been enjoined by the authority of that 
Conrt. This was the famous Thomas Gillbspis, afterwards founder of the 
PacsBTTERT ofRsLitr, whofe cafe has long been, and ftill is reckoned by 

fome, a fingular inllance of Prf/hjterian perfecutUn. ^A» the lift of clergy 

can be traced as far back as 159a, it may not be improper to fubjoin the whole 


I. From 1594 to 1646, Mr. Jehn Row, • - - • 54 

ji. —ii* 1647 — 1663, Mr. George Belfrage, • • l4 

3. 1664 — 1679, Mr. L. Schaw, ... 15 

4. X679 — 1689, Mr. T. Marihall, - - - XX 

5. 1693 — 1697, Mr. W. Innes, - * - 4I 

6. — 1699 — X734» Mr. Jamci Hogg, - - 34f 

7. Frpw 

4^B Stati/lical Account 

It ^vas laft repaired about the year 1772. The church bcU 
bears date 1638, and the pulpit 1674, with this motto, Ser^ 
fnonim vitit pnthenUs ; Phiupp. ii« 16. The manfe^ and xnoft 
<^f the offices, were built in 1742; and repaired, with fome 
additions in 178 1^ The ftipend, by a decreet of augmenta- 
don granted in 17939 confifts of 7+ chalders of grain*, and 
aol. IDS. o4Td. in money, (including communion elements). 
The glebe confifts of 9 acres, which are worth about zol. a- 
year; and the manfe and oflSces, garden, and other privileges, 
may be worth about lal. Sterling per annum. So that 
the whole may be eftimated at an average of from 105I. to 
107I. Sterling a-year ; but in the years 1782 and 1783, it was 
not worth above X03I. The augmentation in whole is about 
241. Sterling. The Reverend Dr. John Eiikine of Camock 
b patron; 

S^hool,^ The falary of the parochial fchoolmafter is 81. 

6%. 8d. Sterling, beiide a free houfe and yard. He dfo re. 
ceives 2os« per annum as feffion-clerk, with r2s, 6d. for his 
iMLtraordinary trouble at the Sacrament. The fchool fees are 


7. Prom 1734 to ^739i Mr Daniel Hunter, - - . , . ^l 

8. 1 741 —17511 Mr. Thuraas Gillcfpie, - ^ jqX 

9. 1753 •— 1780, Mr G. Adic, - - . 

JO. — 4780 —1793. Mr. Alexander Thomfon, 


Vacabciet on dificrent occafioot, 

• Viz. 61 bolU, I firlot, X peck, i lippic and nine jthi meal; 39 boHi, 3 Jr- 
lots, X peck, 3 lippiet and one 5 th bear, and 19 bolU oatt. 

t The patronage wat acquired, together with the cftate, from the Earl of 
Kincardine, about the year 1697, by the late Colonel £rikine» (who died ii 
x;43}i ^c grandfather of the Po^r« 

of Carnock. 489 

eftimated at about 3I. a-jear ; and the perqulfites paid for 
proclamations of marriages, and regiftration of baptifms, ivill 
amount to 1 guineas more ; befides which, he receives a fmall 
annuitj of 5 merks Scotch, (or 5s. 6Ad. Sterling), from a 
donation bequeathed to the kirk*fe(Con of Carnock, bj the 
Reverend Principal Row, who, being a native of this parilh, 
left this as a fmall teftimony of his regard for the place of his 
birth. The fchoolmafter's whole income maj be calculated 
to amount to 15I. 6s. 8d. Sterling ; a fum bj far too fmall^ 
in the prefent expenfive age, to oompenfate any man of let* 
ters and genius, for executing the laborious talk of teaching 

Poor,n— Though the number of poor upon our ordinary lift 
is at prefent only 15, yet, upon an average of 10 years, it 
appears to have been not le{s tha|i 18 annually. To thefe 
there are 6 diftributions made in the year, befides occafionat 
fvppliea to others, whofe nec^fOties, occafioned by temporary 
indifpofition, or fudden calamities, require charitable aid. 
For thefe purpofes, there are 4 quarterly diftributions made,^ 
in February, May, Auguft, and November j befides 2 extra- 
ordinary meetings, viz. one about the beginning of the year^ 
and another at one of the occafions of difpenfing the Lord's 
Supper, as that ordinance is celebrated twice a,.year in this 
pari(h. Sometimes, however, that coincides with one of our 
quarterly meetings, which is confidered by the kirk-feflion, 
and feveral of the quotas are increafed in proportion. The 
funds for the fupport of the poor are as follows : 

Vo^. XI* 3 Q^ Three 

490 Statj/Kcal Account 

Three hundred poiinds Sterling, lent out at 5 
per cent.y producing intereft annuallj, a- 
mounting to - • • L-X^ao 

Weekly colIeAions at church, rate per annunii^ 

about • - - - 440 

Average dues, p^id for the ufe of the mort- 

doth, - - - z zo o 

Annual gratuity, from the principal heritor, % % o 

.CoUeAions at the two (acramental occafions, 6 18 j| 

In all, - L. 29 14 si 

,The total annual income of the poor's funds may^ therc- 
fore» be ftated at 30I., befides occafional donations : though, 
indeed, we have had no legacies thefe many years. The an- 
nual average of difburfements to the poor, for ^hefe lafl xq 
years, has been about 2ol. Sterling *, 

* The ftate of this parifii, lo 1783 and 1783, meiitt particular attentioB, u 
extraordinary exertions were made on thefe occafions for the fapport of the 
poor, who would otherwife have been in very deplorable circiunftanceg. At the 
defire of feveral of the proprietors, a meeting was called, on the sift of De- 
cember T 783, of the heritors and kirk-fefCoa conjundlf , when it was agreed, 
that an aflefiment of the lotb part of the valued rent ihould be IcTted. This 
was accordingly done, and 61. being taken from the poor's funds, and fereial 
private voluntary donations added to it, the fum of 30L Sterling was railed, 
with which meal was bought at the market price, and fold to the poor at the 
reduced prices of is. per peck for the oat meal, and 8d. per peck for the bear 
&nd peafe meal. This fale continued for 8 months, from the i8th of January to 
the 19th of September 1783, when the meal fell to the prices above-mentiooecl; 
and, upon calculating the fum total of expenditure, it apf>eared that about 24]. 
StciUng had been laid out for that b^nevol^nt purpofe. On that pccailoo, tooi 

tf Cfirnock. 49 1 

Heritdrs and /?^«//.-— Theft are 7 great proprietors in this 
^ariihy who paj ftlpend and all public burdens ; befides one 
JTmall fetter, who pays onlj a ttifle of vicarage, one large feu- 
er, who pays no ftipend, and a great number of others, who 
have no other property but their houfes, and a fmall fpot of 
ground (often lefs than an acre) adjoining to each. Their 
number is^ therefore, uncertain and variable. The landed 
property (including that of the whole of thefe feuers) may 
1)e edlmated at about iiool. per annum** In this fum is 
Included the rent of the feffion houfes on the feveral eftates ; 
and the rents of the gentlemens houfes, inhabited or habit- 
able, within the parifli, may be computed at 50I. more* 
The beft arable land lets at about 23s. per acre ; in- 
ferior grounds at los. iss. and 15s. Failure lands let 
at from 5s. to 7s. 6d. The average rent of farms is a« 
bout 70L a-year, none of them being very large, few indeed 
exceeding 100 acres, and fome being much lefs. The fize of 
farms, however, and confequently the rents, are upon the in- 
creafe ; the greater part of the arable land being now enclof- 
ed, as both proprietors and tenants feem convinced of the ad- 
vantage of enclofures. 

3 Q^a Fuel. 

the kirk'CcflioB were more liberal than tifual In their didributiont; and our pa« 
tron and principal heritor evidenced his liberality by giving two Guineas to the 
poor in May 1781, and three more in December, befides hit proportion of the 
afliefTment, which amounted to upwards of feven Ouineai. By thefe meani» 
under the blei&ng of God, the poor of this parilh were provided for, and not on- 
ly prevented from rioting and moUimg^ but pretty comfortably fupported, tin 
the return of plenty fuperfeded any farther demands upon the generoiity of the 

* Landed property has not been very fluAuating in thi pariih, none having 
been difpofed of within thefe 20 years, except the eUatcs of the Clune and tkf 
Camps ; which, it is fatd, were fold at about |o years purchafe. 

49^ Statiftical Account 

Fuel. — ^There is a fmall quantitj of mofs in the S. £. part 
of the pariihy from Tvhicb a few peats are dag, but thefe are 
folely appropriated to the kindling of fires, coals being the 
only fuel ufed in this diftrift, as thej abound both in this 
pariih and in the neighbourhood. The average price of great 
coal is 2s. 6d. for 40 ftonrs, and^ for the fame quantity of 
chows, or fmall coal, is. 3d. The carriage paid for a fingle 
horfe cart of coals is 4d. per mile. But here it will be pro- 
per to give a particular account of the coal mines on the di£> 
ferent eftates in this pariih. 

Blair Colliery. — There are two veins of coal, the one 4 and 
the other 7 feet thick ; both of which have been wrought 
fome jears, and are ftiil working. They are of a ftoney qua- 
lity, and emit a very confiderable heat when ufed as houfe 
fuel. They are fold at is. 3d. per cart (of 40 ftones weight), 
exclufive of carriage. The fmall coal has been found to 
anfwer well, for burning lime, and for falt-works. Under 
thefe two veins of coal there are other two ; the one 2 feet 
10 inches, and the other 3 feet thick. The former is z,/ptint 
coal, the latter Vifmitby coal of a good quality. Of thefe two 
veins only a fmall part has yet been wrought, as they are 
under level. Preparations, however, are now making for 
working both *. 

Merrylees Colliery. — Thb coal-work is the property of Mr. 
Mutter of Annfield, and has been wrought to a confiderable 
extent for thefe 8 years paft* The laft leafe taken of it was 
at the rent of lool. Sterling, and a fteam engine was ereded 


* On the Blair eftatc there is alfo iron ftone, both of the bed and biUl kiod, 
but no proper uial bis jet been made to afcertain its qualitjr. 

ofCarnoci. 49 j 

for draining it. There are paany reins of this coal, feveral 
feet thick, partlj above level and partly below. It is princi- 
pally ufed for drying corn and malt for the mills, for which 
it feems peculiarly well qualified, as the grain, dried by it» 
does not receive the fmalleft tinge, but is rather fairer after 
the operation than before it. But the moft valuable, as weU 
as fingular property of this coal, is, that grain or malt dried 
by it, is proof agaioft the depredations of the weevil, and aH 
other £maU vermin. And it is even^ faid to be afcertained, 
by repeated experiments, that if only a part of the grain be 
dried with this coal, and mixed with other grain, the vermin 
am^ng the grain not dried with it will be deftroyed : — So 
powerful are its effefts ia dellroying thofe pernicious animals, 
without communicating any quality to the com, in the fmall- 
eft degree prejudicial to the health of man. On thefe ac- 
counts this coal is of confiderable ufe to maltfters and corn- 
dealers. When there is a great demand, it is (hipped at Toi^ 
ry pier, oppofite to Borrowftownnefs, where veflels are load- 
ed with the greateft difpatch. 

_ • 

Wbinny-hill (7o///^ry.— — This coal belongs to Sir Johrt 

Halkett of Fitfirran, and has the fame qualities with that of 
Merrylees, as the two collieries are fituated very near each 
other, and are feparated only by a fmall rivtdet, which forms 
the march, or boundary between the two eftates. This coal 
is at prefent (May 1791) wrought to a confiderable extent, 
and is delivered at Torry pier, and put on fhip-board, car- 
nage free, at 30s. per chaldron. Notwithflanding the great 
abundance of coals, there are no coal waggons in the parifh* 

J{oai!r.— -The fituation of this parifh is upon the whole ad- 
vantageous ; but the inhabitants labour under one great in- 

494 Stati/iical Account 

convenience from the badnefs of the roads. In fummer tha 
ftre tolerable, but in winter^ or during a long conrfe of raioj 
iveather, thej are hardly paflable, owing to the foftnefs cf 
the foily and the great number of heavy carriages. It is hop. 
cdy however, that this inconvenience wiU foon be temedidi 
by a proper application, or reafonable commutation of the 
ftatute labour, as well as by the eredion of turnpike roads ; 
the advantages of which, being already felt in fooie of the 
neighbouring diftrids, are now more generally acknowledged 
than formerly. 

Inns and Ale-houfes. ^There are about lo fmall inns and 

ale-houfes in the parifh, viz. 4 in Camock, 5 in Caimy-hill, 
and I in Blair. Although thefe, as well as mod other ac- 
commodations, and enjoyments in life, are and may be abuf- 
cd to the purpofes of intemperance, yet it muft be admitted 
fiiat feveral houfes of this kind are neceffary in country pa- 
riflies, for the convenieace of travellers, and the accommoda- 
tion of the people who come from a diilance, to attend public 
worfliip on the Sabbath day. Perhaps, however, the number 
at prefent in this parilh might be diminifhed, without anj 
great inconveniencci or rather, probably, with advantage to 
the inhabitants. 

Houfes and Cottagesy isi'c. Within thefe 10 jt2T$j about 

ao new houfes have been built in difierent parts of the pa- 
rilh. Scarce any have been pulled down, except fome cot- 
tages belonging to the colliers, who frequently move from 
one colliery to another ; and the habitations being flight and 
fuperfiqial foon go to ruin. Two or three huts, pofTeffed by 
fmall^tenants, have alfo become ruinous, but the number of 
cottages erefted within that period greatly counterbalance* 


ofGarnocL 49 jj 

them ; a very coofiderable niunber o£ cottagers, beiing em^ 
plojed as day-labourers, from the villages of Carnock aii4 
Caimjohill. The emplojing of cottagers has been found 
preferable to the hiring of fervants, being equally cheap and 
fiar lefs troublefome *• ' It is a faft, that improven^nts, pro« 
jecuted in this manner, on feyeral of the neighbouring eftates, 
haive turned out to good account. And it may be added, that 
thofe gentlemen who thus employ the inferior ranks, do the 
Bioft eflential fervice to their country, by not only beautify^ 
ing and enriching the ground, but, at the fame time^ giving 
encouragement to population and honeft induftry. 

Improvements. — ^Within thefe lafl 16 years there have beem 
planted in the lands of Blair above 1 30^000 foreft trees, part- 
ly firs of different kinds, and partly hard wood. There 
are two parks on Carneil-Hill, in high cultivation, mak- 
ing about zoo acres between them. About five or fix bolla 
of lime (mixed with dung or coropofi), ara ufed for an acre. 
\n the land of Clune, about jO or 60 bolls of lime were ufed 
^or an acre, when firft taken in from moor* Lime bebg 


*. Day-labourers generally get is. per d»y in fummer and lod. in winter,^ with-- 
oat maintenance. Men fervants receive from 61 to 7L, and women fsom aL 
I OS. to 3L Sterling, befides their board. The expencc of a common labouier 
and his family may be eftimated at from 15I. to iSL per annum, which' is de- 
frayed by the united induftry of the parents and their children, fi^ the time 
they are able to do any thing. The wages of a day-labourer will be about 14L 
Sterling a-year of clear gain, at an average. At hay-roaking the men get zed. 
and the women 7d. Male reapei)|^uring harveft get lod. per day, and females 
7d., with their meat. Ditchers get is. per day without maintenance— It 
may be added, that the wages of tradefmen are in proportion ; as hagfe-carpcnt- 
ers get zs. id. pei day ; maibns is. 6A, for 9 months, and is. the other 3 ; flaten 
a . in funmer and 6d. in winter ; and tailors jd» per day, befides maintenance. 

49^ Statlftlcal Account 

' pletitifiily there is no demand for marl, though feme of tK« 
latter has been dag from the mo($ in the S. £• part of tbe 
parifli. The farm of Cameil was all enclofed finoe 1761, sod 
like wife the Clune fahn fince 1757 » the former being dooe 
bj Mr. Colvilly the prefent farmer, and the latter bj Mr, 
Chalmers, the late proprietor of thefe lands* 

Xahguagi.^^Th^t the Gaelic or Erfe was the ancient km 
gtttge of this part of the country, is erident from the names 
of moft places in the parifli ; fuch as Camoci^ Lufcar^ Chaty 
Blair^ Pitdenny^ Cameil^ ficc.; though ethers, indeed, of later 
date, are clearly of modern derivation ; fuch as Bonny^Town^ 
Herd^Hill, Gowi.Haff^ Wood^End, Jgw, The language now 
generally fpoken in this diftrift, is the broad Scotch diale^i 
with the Fifcfliire accent, which gives fome words fo peculiar 
a turn, as to render the fpeaker almoft unintelligible to tb^ 
natives of a different county, 

Eminent .Men.m^Vnitx this head, we can only ennme^ 
rate as natives of this pariih, or refidents in it, the Rev, 
John Row, above mentioned, (whofe father was minifter 
of it in the beginning and middle of laft century, and) who 
was promoted to be principal of King's College in Aberi 
deen ; and the late Mr, Johk Erskike of Camock, profef- 
for of municipal law in the college of Edinburgh, and 
author of the larger and leffer Injlitutis of fbf Law of 
Scotland^ Of Mr. Erikine*s abilities we need fay nothings 
His eminence as a lawyer is univerfally known. He refidcd 
mt his houfe of Newbigging, in this parifli, during the fum- 
mer feafon, for upwards of 30 years ; but at laft removed to 
Cardrofs, in Monteith, where he died in the year 1767, hav« 
ing, fome years before that, purchafed coniiderable property 
4 ther^i 

bf CarnocL 49^ 

there, which U now poficfled by his fecoiid toni Jamem 
£rsK1K£, ££j. of Cardrols; 

Antiquities. — Of thefe we dintiot boaft that We have maoj^ 
There feems to have been a camfi little S. from the village 
of Carnocky upoh an eminence, which dill retains the name 
of Camps ; and probabl j another, in fume remote period, up^ 
on Cameil'bilL Both feem well adapted for that purpofe ; 
the afcent being fleep and difficult upon two fides at leall^ 
and the profpefl of the adjacent country nbbte and extenfive 
from the fununita# Upon opening a cairn upon Gameil-hill^ 
about ao jears ago^ there was found an urn of earthen ware^ 
containing fome fmall copper coins, but thejr had no infcrip- 
tion which could be read bj thofe into whofe hands they 
' came« There are evidently the remains of a camp (probably 
one of the Roman Cajira ftathio)^ upon Craig^Lufcat Hill^ in 
the pari(h of Dunfermline, adjoining to the N. £. boundary 
of ours.-^We have no barrows or tumuti^ certainly known as 
artificial. There are indeed fome Knows ^ ox fmall iminenees^ 
as the Knows of Luf car ^ and the Law Know adjoining to Cm 
jiock. From the name of the lafi of thefe, we may be led to 
believe, that it was a place for aflembling the vafials and de-k 
pendants round their fuperiors^ in the days of the feudal fyf* 
tem, that differences might be decided and jufiice ladminifter^ 
ed« Several of the hamlets preferve fome traces of thofe dlf'** 
traded times in the names they bear, as they feem to indU 
eate war^ confufion^ and noj/ir.—— Among the antiquities of 
Caraock may alfo be mentioned an ancient crofs^ in the 
middle of the northern divlfion of the village. This crols ia 
of a circular form, containing fix rounds of (tone fteps, rifiog 
one above another, and gradually diniinifhing in diameter as 
they afcend. In the middle grows a venerable tbom tree^ 
Vol. XI. 3 R which 

49^ Slati/itcal Account , 

xvhi^h was* even within thefe few jears, covered with leaver 
and bloflbms in fummer ; but is now much decayed. It is 
called the Thome in our feffion records ; about the middle of 
the laft centurjr ; and is probably about 200 years old. 

Ini Craig, — The Ink Craig of Camock, adjoining to tht 
Dam Diii^ defcrvcs to be mentioned as a curiofity. It produces 
It liquid, rcfembling ink, M'hich dfops almofl conftantly from 
the rock. A chemical analyfis was made of this liquid, hj 
the ingenious Dr. Black, when it was found to contain a 
mixture of coal, flinty earth, and clay. 

Stature^ CharaDer^ and Manner of Living,^^The natives 
of this parilb have nothing remarkable in their iize or ftrength : 
neither are they difcriminated from their countrymen by any 
peculiar qualities of the mind. Their iize is generally be« 
tween 5 and 6 feet ; and fcarce any one has been known to 
exceed 6^. A laudable fpirit of induftry prevails much 
among the inferior clalTcs. The men are moftly occupied in 
huibandry, and the women in fptnning, fewin^, knitting 
iiockings, &c. There are very few who incline to go to fea, 
though feme are engaged at the ports on the Frith. The na- 
tives arc equally averfe to the land fervice ; not above 9 or 
10 having inlifted in the army thefe many years ^ and of 
thefe, 2 or 3 only of late. In point of benevolence, it is 
but juftice to fay, that the people of this parifli are at leait 
upon a par with their countrymen in the neighbouring dif- 
trifts ; and in times of extraordinary fcarcity, exertions have 
been made by many individuals in behalf of the didrefled, 
which did honour to their feelings. The coaimon people 


tf Carnoik, 


live rather too fparingly* ; although there is rcafon to believe, 
that, in this, as well as other refpefts, their manners, cuftoms, 
drefsy &c. have conliderablj altered within thefe 50, or cveii 
within thefe laft 20 years ; and perhaps the extreme, into which 
fome may now be in dangerof running, \% that of living rather 
beyond their income, the fatal confequences of which need 
not be prognofticated* As to crimes^ no inilance has occurred 
of any native of Camock being fubje£led to a criminal pro- 
Qtb for thefe 10 years paft. May the virtue, fobriety, induf« 
try, and regularity of the inhabitants continue and increafe \ 
^men ! » 

3 R a 


f When they work hard, the country people fliould, in general, take more, 
pourifliiog diet that at prefent, aod malt liquors inftead of fpiritous ones.— ? 
The prices of provifions in our neaTeft market, are generally as follows :— 
beef, 4d. a pound ; teal and mutton ditto ; lamb, ^\L ; pork, 4d.; (pigs and 
gcefe not fold) ; ducks, is. each ; chickens, i\\. or 4d. ; (no rabbits) ; butter, 
8d. and pd. ; cheefe, 3d. and 4d. A^Hieat, barley, and oats may be reckoned, 
«t a medium, ii. per boll under the Mid-Lothian high fiars. 

^ Tbt foUtywinf^ IfJI of inhabitants^ takfn iniySi, omitted in its proper 
placet may here be/uhjoined. 

Children under 6 years of age, Z59 

Males above that age, - 3S5 

Females, . - - 366 

In all, - - . 9»o 

Children of the Eftabliftied 

Church, - . - Jo5 

Examinable perfons of ditto, 420 

Antiburghcr Seceders, - 143 
Burgher ditto, - - - 1 03 
Members of the Church of Relief, 54 
Ditto of the Chapel of £afe, Dun- 
fermline, - - - - 3' 
Cameronijins, - - -. «. 
Chil Ircn of Diflcntcrs, - 'S3 

In aU, 


^ef Stati^csl JccouMt 

N U M B E E XLI.' 

(pomtty ^ni l^n^d •f^bn^dcif — ^^^fiy^^rj of Garioc^.') 
By the Rev. Mr. JopN $hakd, Mififier. 

Kami and EreQion* 

THE ancient name of thb parifh was Logie-DumOf ai 
Durnochf^ which figntfies a /oti; or boUow place. The 
chorch was transferred from Logie Dumo, on the N. fide of 
the water of Ury, to its prefent fituation, at the E< end of 
the hill of Banpochie, early in the 17th century ; at which 
period the parfonage pf FetterDeer, lying on the N. fide o£ 
the river ]pon, was annexed to the pariih, which was then 
appointed to be called Chapel of Gariocb, in a decree refpeA- 
ing the ftipend obtained aboi^t that time. It is the feat of the 
prefbytery of (ixarioch, 

Rsvers^ Form^ Exteai, Soil^ C^mqU^ &c — ^Thc river Don 
divides it, on the S. fide, from the pari(h of Kemnay, and is 
the boundary between them for about 1 miles. The pariih 


t Hence, probably^ the origin of Doraock in Sutherland, and Bornick in 

Qf Eba^l of OarmK $^:\. 

\% of a yery irregnlar figure : Its greateft extent, from N. to 
S., is about 8 miles; and from E. to W., about 7. The ap« 
pearance of the country is hillj. The foil is of various qua* 
lities; in general, it is very improvable. The air is fuffi« 
cieady dry and healthy. The W. epd of the parifli is indee4 
fobjefted Co frequent fhowcrSt from its vicinity to the hill of 
Bannochie. There are do diftempers peculiar to the parifli ; 
the mqft prevalent are fevers and rheumatifm. The water of 
Vry runs through the parifli for feveral miles* It abounds 
with ^ne trout* Pike is alfo to be found in fome of the pools ^ 
but no falmon, excepting ip the fpawning feafon. 

WoUty Agtimhmii^ ani Product; ^. — ^Trc^s of all kinds 
thrive well; and th^e are plantations, of conflderable extent, on 
the eftates of ^ogu^ Pittodrif^ Balquham^ and on the lands 
oiJlffhrfif^ belonging to Sir Archibald p rant, in the parifli^ 
It would be highly bfine^ial to this part of the country, that 
trees were more cultivated than they are. A great deal of 
ground in this parifli is fit only for planting. Wood has, of 
late, |>ecome much more fcarce in this diftrifi than formerly^ ^ 
and has of confequence rifen greatly in value. The number 
of acref i^ not afcertained. The greater part of the arable 
land is employed in raifing oats knd bear* Some of the farms 
are of ooofiderable extent, and will fow between 50 and 60 
bolls of gnain. f here are few enclofures in the pariib, ex- 
cepting upon the farms in the pofi[effion pf the proprietors \ 
GODfeqaently (own ^rals or turnips cannot be much culti- 
vated f* 

4 CatiUf 

* Mr. Kalkett of InYcnmraT, about 30 ^tiM ago, 6rft introduced the cultsre 
of tumipt sod fown grait in this parifli ; and his eiample in farming has been 
focccishilly fbUowed by 01^7 in the neighbourhood. The crop of one field, 


^o J Statiflical Account 

Caitlc-^Tht cattle produced in this parilk is bf the coBt 
snon North Country bree^» Mr. Lefiie of Balqohain, one of 
the heritors, has introduced the Gallowaj kind, which are 
xnuch efteemedy' as being hardy, large boned, and well ihaped. 
TThe number of cattle amounts to 859, of iheep 1550, of 
horfes to 2oy« 

Population^^-^Thc population of this pariih has decreafed 
above one-third within thefe 40 years, as will appear from 
tht following table. 

Population Table of the Parish of Chapel of Garioch. 

population, as returned to Dr. ' Between 50 and 70, - S; 

Wcbftcr in 1755, - 1351 Arcrage of birth*, 9 it 

pitto inl703, inalc^, - 469 -^ oiar/iagas, - 4 

females, - 517 deaths, - 1: 

— sfi6. Epifcopalians, - - . li 

— Faeiilf of (fakers, - - i 

Decreafe, - 3^$ ■ Roman Catholics, - i 

Undeno years of age, - I99 Refidcnt heritors, - 4 

Between 10 and ao, - acS Non-refident ditto, . - < 

■■- ao and 50, - 40^ 

Churchy School^ and Poor^ &c. — The prefent church was 
tuilt early in the 17th century, and repaired about 50 years 
ago. The manfe, and mod of the office houfes, were built in 
1788 and 1789. The prefent flipend is 49I. 13s. 4d. Sterling 
in money, 57 bolls of meal, and iii bolls of bear. The 
glebe is about 16 acres, feme of it very poor ground. Mr. 
Horn Elphinftone of Logic" is patron. There is an EpifcopaJ 
xneeting-houfe ziBlairdaff^ in this pari (h. — ^The fchoolmafter's 


upon the Mains of Invcramfay, which, before Mr. HalkcU*s improvemcnta, w« 
fold for 30s. is now reckoned worth 60I. Stciling ; and the reft of the farm i^ 
ImproTed in the fame proportion. 

tfCbaptl of Garioch. jo J 

lelarj !s 14 bolls % pecks of meal, 40 merks as feffion-clerk* 
7he fees for teaching ire, is. 6d. for arithmetic and writing, 
and a«. for Latin, per quarter. The average ijumbcr of 
fcholars is about 30. The prefent fchoolmafter is very dili- 
gent and attentive. — The number of poot on the roll is 30. 
The amouift of the funds for their fupport is about 351.- 
Sterling, which includes colleftions, penalties, and mortcloth 
monfej; alfo 4!. 159. of intereft, and lol. Sterling, mortified 
bj Dr. Anderson, late of St# Chriilophers, a native of this 
parifli. ' 

'Roads and Inns. — ^The roads in the parifh are made and re-* 
paired by the ftatute labour, which is, in general, very fuper- 
ficiaUy performed « The road froni Aberdeen to Invernefs 
pafles through the pari(h for about 7 miles, and is often, in 
many places^ almoft impaifable. The crofs roads are numer- 
ous, and very bad in winter. — There are 3 public houfes in 
the pariih \ 2 of them on the road to Invernefs, and the other 
on the road that leads to the upper part of Garioch* 

Di/aJvantages, — The people feem to be fenfible of the be^ 
nefit of enclofures and green crops ; but they labour upder 
many^difad vantages. Tliey are far from the means of im- 
provement : Their leafes, in general, are ibort : The mill 
multures are either an abA'radted thirlage, or amount to the 
loth or nth part of the whole produce of the farm« Mr. 
Horn of Logie^ and fome others of the heritors, are convinced 
of the impolicy of this tax, and its hurtful efi*e£ts uponim^ 
provements, and are taking every ftep in their power to re- 
medy the grievance. Among the diladvantages of the*parifli, 
may alfo be reckoned the difficulty of procuring fuel. A 
coniiderable number of the pari(hi9ners go to the hill of Ban- 
aoohie £mt their p^ata, by a Very ftcep road, which, in a rainy 


jf04 Statlfikal AccouHi 

feafoDy is impaflkblei The diftancc £rom liflse is alfo a gmt 
difadvaotage; Indications of lioiefionc appear on the efiite 
of Pittodrie ; which is to be jwrticttlarlj examined bj Colonel 
Knight the proptietor ; and if it fucceed upon trials it wiU 
be of great benefit to this part of the conntrj^ Perfonal fier- 
irices are not aboUIhed in this pariffli^ and are cenfidcrcd as 
a gteat bar to improvement. The wages of fenrants are alib 
iocreafed beyond what the tenants can bear: A pIoiigfaBaa« 
wh0 was formerly fatisfied with 3U in the year, liew dcimmilt 
7I; J and the wages of other fertahta haire rifeii in the bstt 

AHti^iei^ Ecbp^ tf tf--^Theit h a ijmklical ttmple neir 
the old ruinooa caftle of Balquhaiii: From this eaftle there 
is one of the fiaeft tchoi in Scotland. There is a large fiooe^ 
abont half a mile Wa from' the chnreht which is about 10 feet 
high above gfonnd; 4 feet broad, and a foot thick ; it is calkd 
ibe Maiden Stona There are feveral corions hierogryphical 
figures cut upon it, which are de(cribed in Pennant's Tour* 
and an elegant plate of them given. The Uoody battle of 
Harlaw * was fought in thu pariflia 

* This battle was fougbt in the jear 14!;, between Alexander Earl of Min> 
who commanded the royal army, and Donald Lord of the Ifle& It proved fatal 
to a great number of the nobility and gentry of that age, being obftinately coo> 
tended on both fides. Buchanan fays, that night feparated the combataots, ra. 
ther wearied with fighting, than from any idea that either had gained the bat- 
tle ; for when each army reviewed the number of their flain, they confidered 
themfelves as vanqniOied. In this battle, more men of rank and fame loft their 
lives, than had fallen in any foreign engagement for many yean preceding, bf 
which this obfcure village was rendered memorable to pofterity. 

^ Inperkcitbny^^ 505 



(jCounty of Banff^Jlynod of Abcrdeen^^PreJbytery of^urriff^ 

*By the Rev. Mr. John Milne^ Minifur. 

Nami, StttsatioMf River, and Extent. 


AVERT large burn, or rivulet, which 'comes through 
the pariflies of Drumblade and Forg\ie, falls into the 
river Deveron, near the church, from which it is probable the 
parifli derives the name of Inverhithny. The parifli is fitu- 
ated on the S. fide of the river, and is in the commiffariot of 
Moray. It is in length, along the river fide, from 5 to C 
£ngliih miles,' and between 4 and 5 in breadth* 

Produce and Rent.^^A confiderable quantity of grain is 
annually raifed in the parifli. The rent is fully 90oL Ster* 

fuei, — ^There is fcarcely any thing in the pariflii that can be 
yoL. XI. 3 S caUcd 

^06 Statiftical Auoumt 

called mofs or ptaU. The inhgbiunts are fupplied with peals 
from the mofles of Foudlani^ in the parilh of Forgue, and of 
Auchintoul^ in the pariik of Mamoch. They alfo bom a kind 
of turfi which they get upon the hills. Banff Is the nenft 
fea-port where coals can be got, which is abo^t 12 Engliih 
miles diftaot from the ch^roh. 

Ecclefiaftical Mattirs.^^Tht church and manfe are fituated 
in a narrow valleji near the bank of the Deyeron. Tbe pa^r 
riih formerly. belonged to the Synod of Moray and Prelby- 
tery of Huntly. An exchange was made with the psKifh of 
Mortlicht which originally was in the Synod of Abeideea 
and Prefbytery of Turriff, and the minister of Inyerkeithny 
ftill draws (7s. 8d. Sterling as the fieu*duty of a houfc in El- 
gin, which has, probably, been one *of the ftalls in the ca- 
thedral at Elgin. There are no dlflenters from the EftaUifb- 
ed Churchy except a few members of theEpifcopal Church of 

Pofttlatiott.'-^The population of Inrerkeithny has decreafed 
^pGderably wkhin theft ao years, ^his has l^een partly oc- 
cafioned by the fcarcity of fuel, but chiefly by the frnnetf 
thbkiiig, from the high prices obtained for cattle and graio, 
that they had moro profit, by cultivating their farms them- 
felyes, than by fubfettiog a confiderable part of them, as wai 
formerly done in all the northern parts of Scotland. 

The return to Dr. Webfter, in the •year 1755, 

was - - - - - 571 fouls. 

The number of fouls at prefent (in 1793) is 460 

Decreafei^ - iii 
6 EmplojimenU 

tf liiverkettbny. 507 

JSmpioymenh and CharaBer. — ^There is no village in the 
pari(h ; but there are trade&nen of different forts, fuch as 
fmitbs, weaVersi wrigbtSy and tailors. All the reft are farm- 
ers. The inhabitants are in general an induilrious people, in 
the middle rank of life, and are particularly diftbguiflied, hj 
their pa7ii\g due refped and attention to the ordinances of 

3S» NUM-i 

jot Stati/lieal Accomrt 



{County and Prejbytery of Elgin SyMd of Moray. y 

By tbe Rev. Mr. William M'Beak, Mini/ler. 

Extent^ Surface^ Soil^ and Climate* 

THE parifli of Alves is about 5 Engliih miles in length, 
and nearly the fame in breadth. The Moray Frith 
waihes its coaft on the N. The face of the country prefents 
a moft agreeable mixture of hill and dale ; and the planta* 
tions lately made by the Earl of Moray, will, in a (hort tir^e, 
add not a little to its beauty. The foil is diftinguilhed for 
its fertility, being generally a deep loam on a clayey bottom ; 
though, in a few places, it is of a lighter quality. From the 
nature of the foi], the crops are rathe; late; but ftom the 
happy climate of the couoty of Moray, this is attended with 
no material inconvenience to the farmer. 

Cultivation and Produce^ — The tenants are very indufbrious, 
and their labours arc amply rewarded by excellent crops. 
For ceoturies paft, they have raifed wheat \ and, until lately, 

t tf Alvci. 50(^ 

\ tonfiderable proportion of their rents was paid to the Earl of 
Moray in that grain. This his Lord(hip has now converted 
into money, as the tenants found it more advantageous to 
cultivate barley : But wheat is fiill fown, though not to fo 
great an extent. They are now making a rapid progrefs in 
the modem ftyle of agriculture. Grafs feeds are laid doWn* 
on a large fcale. Beans are planted in drills. Many acres 
of turnips are fowo both in drills, and in the broad cad way, 
with great faccefs. Potatoes are alPo raifed in very confider- 
aUe quantities; both by the plough and fpade. 'The general 
fueeeffion-of crops is three plowtngs for barley ; the firft in 
autumn, the fecond. after dunging, in April, and a feed 
furrow in the beginning of May. The fuecceding crop is 
commonly oats, if grafs feeds are not laid down with tfie bar- 
ley. Occafionally, grafs feeds are laid down with the oats ; 
and, when that is not the cafe, tlie following crop is peafey 
and barley with grafs feeds thereafter. The oats, that grow 
in Alves, are about a fortnight later in ripening than thcfe 
produced in the neighbourhood, and therefore are in requeft 
for feed in the light and fandy grounds in this country, and, 
on trial, ar^ found to produce an excellent quality of grain, 
and foperior quantity of fodder. 

Leafet* — It would be of material confequence to the ix^ 
tereft, ^oth of proprietors and farmers all over Scotland, but 
efpecially in this comer, that long leafes were introduced. 
They would animate the farmers to fuperior induftry and pro- 
fitable fpeculation, as they would alceruin to them the fruits 
of their induilry, and prevent their having reconrfe to ex- 
handing crops, under the apprehenfion of being foon remov- 
ed. It is with pleafurc rhat the writer of this article can 
addy that ia this parifliy upon Lord Moray's property, there 


^to StatiJIical Account 

ixt mixkj Giraisi that have-been continued in the pbfleflioa of 
the fame families £or feyeral generations*. 

PbmghSf Cattle^ Scc«*-The ntunber 5f ploughs in this pn« 
riih may be ftated at XI5 : the number of horfies at 560 ; 
moll of them are of a ptettj large, lize, and £b ftonc, that % 
of them draw a plough. The number of black cattle is about 
xioo. The cattle ate not now fo numerous aathcj^pvete 
fbrmerlji but confideraUj increafed in fize, from their -betag 
fed with artificial graffes and turnips. The number of fheep 
is about 2500. Thej are of a wtrj (mall fize, ezoepting a 
few of the large Bakewell breed; 

Pricis of Ldbbur^^'Tbt priee of labour is confideraUy ad- 
vanced within thefe few jears. The wages of men fervants. 
employed in huibandty, are from 61« to 81. when thej live in 
the family, and 2 pecks of meal in the week when they da 
not. Women fervants have generally from 30s, to 409. pet 
annum, with fome perquifites. The wages paid to reapers^ 
during harveft, are from xSs. to xL xos. They are gene- 
rally hired for the feafon, except in thofe cafes ^hen the fium^ 
ers have cottagers : To cut down their com is a part of their 
ftated labour ; and, for this and other lervices, the cottagers 
have a free houfe and a garden. 

a tt is a tircttxnftince tlitt deferves partlciilar ndtice^ at it points out wlict 
indttftrj and a fteady economy can produce, and at tKe fame time proves the 
laudable fbftcring care and attention of fome proprietors, that a£umly, of the 
aame of Akokrsok, have occupied a farm in this pariih, on the eftate of the 
Earl of Moray, for upwards of 400 years. The prefent tenant, having produced 
to the late Earl of Moray receipts far rents u far back as the time of Earl 
Randolph, obti^ed fiom his Lordihip a reaewil of his Jeafc on the moft indul- 
gent terms« 



of Alveu 5H 

MmfTiflSf Fuel^ Inns^ C^r.— The E. end of thf pari{h a« 
V>UQd8 with inezhauftible quarries of excellent freeftone» 
very fit for either building or milKfiones. — This pariih was 
once abundantly accommodated with peats for fuel ; but the 
moffes are now almoft ezhaufted, and many of the country 
people are neceffitated to purchafe coals. — There is but one 
inn or public houfe in the parifli. It lies^on the county road 
from Elgin to Forres, which paffes through AItcs. 

Heritors and Rent. — ^The heritors are, the Earl of Moray; 
the Earl of Fife ; William Brodie of Windyhills, Efq.; Peter 
Rofe Watfon of Callfield, Efq.; Mifs Brodie of Letheo ; John 
Spence Munro of Kirktown, Efq.; and George Forteath of 
Newton, Efq— two of whom only have their reiidence in 
the pariih. tt is not pretended to give an accurate flatcment 
of the real rent, as that mull depend upon the price of grain ; 
but, at an average, it may be eftimated at upwards of 3000]. 
Sterling per annum. Land, in general, hero lets at from aos. 
to 30s. per Scotch acre. The rents are paid, partly in mo« 
ney, and partly in grain } that, is^ oats, at 5 firlots per boU, 
and barley. 

Population *.«i-By every information, the population of 
this parifli is veiy confiderably diminiihed. This is ftill far- 
ther confirmed, by comparing the return to Dr. Webfter in 
1755, which was . . •/ « 169c 

with the prefient population, in 1793, - xiii 

Which fhews an evident decreafe f , within thefe jo 
years; of - - - - 580 


* The ptrtfli regifter liu bcco fo imgnlarif kept, that the ntimber of births, 
naniaaes, and deaths, for ibne yean paft, cannot be afccrtained. 

f This decretie may be afcribed to two caufes, that appear fuily adequate to 


^it Statifiical Account 

Of the prefent inhabitants, there are. 
Under 7 years of age, - - - • ' 12S 

And above that age, . . - - 9S3 

Churcbf Scbooly and Poor* — The Earl of Moraj is patrcm 
of the par>ih of Alvc:>. A new and fubfiantial church was 
built in the year 1709. The manfe is faid to have been built 
in the year 1690, aTid has fioce undergone frequent repain. 
The ftipend'is 80 bolls of barley, 3C0I. Scotch, with 60 merks 
for communion elements. The falary of the fchoolaialler Is 
JO bolls of bear, and 33I. 6s. 8d. Scotch. Tlie quarterly 
paynoent for reading is is,, for reading and arithmetic is. 6d.t 
and for Latin 2S. The fchoolmafter is ;dways fcffion^clerk, 
for which he has a falary of il. xas. per annum, together 
with thecafual perquilites aridng from the regiftration of bap< 
tifms and marriages. In the year 1715, GfORGE Duncav, 
late merchant in Invernefs, mortified (funk) jooomcrks for the 
benefit of this fchool ; the intereft of which is applied to the 
education of 6 boys, not above xo years of age, each of them 
enjoying this for 4 years. Thefe burfars are named by the 
Diinifter and kirk-fcfTion, — ^The funds, for the fupport of the 
poor, arifc frdm the weekly coUedions, fines from delin* 
quents, moncloth dues, and fome mortifications. The late 
Rev. Mr. Alexander Watt, who was once incumbent at 
Alves, and died minifler of Forres, mortified the principal 
fum ot 30I. Sterling, for behoof of the poor of this pariib. 
Tbefe funds afford a comfortable i^lief to our poor, who ai^ 
not very numerous. 


the eOVas: The fcarcity of fuel, arifing from the raoffcs being wora out; and 
the crtfts and fmall pofieffions being converted into very ezteufive farma. This 
laft meafure is peculiarly hoftilc to population, and in the end wiU appear wtt 
much againft the bed interefts of our country at large, as well as the^rmaocot 
advantage of the proprietors. 

^Ktiquitiet — ^Under the head of antiquitjes, there is little 
that deferves notice, but a prodigioufly large cairn of ftones^ 
in a moor on the N. fide pf the pod or county road, where 
tradition iays a battle was fought ; but no circumftances are 
handed down concerning iti Some Lochaber and Daniih 
axes, of a particular figure, have been dug out of the mofs of 
Eamfide, in thfe neighbourhood of this cairn. An infcrip* 
tioD on a grave-ftone in the church-jard, dated in the year 
I J90, records a very uncommon circumflanee. It runs thus: 
** Here libs Anderson of Pittehfere, tnaire of the earldom o£ 
^ Momjf with his wife Marjo&T, wbiii bim never dj^ScitJ* 

CharaSer of the PeopU.'^Tht people, in general, are veiy 
fober and indiiftrious, regular in their attendance upon public 
worihip, and fully equal to their neighbours in point <4 
knowledge and information. They have lately acquired e 
tafie for greater neatnefs in their hotifesi furniture and drel|p 
than formerly prevailed* 

Vol. Xt. 3 T NUM- 

514 Stati/Heal Actima 


{County and Synod lif Dumfriii'^—Frefijiery ^Langboin^ 
Bjf tb^ B4V^ Mr. Wiujam X4TTU;» Mooter. 

Origin of the Namti 

WESTERKIRK w^s fonncrlj auned Wsstsaku. Iff 
the writs of the family of GtEVDOHwni ol that 
ilk, ia the parifli, there is a conGrmationy by Archibald Earl 
of Douglas* of a charter, dileSi nojhi Domini Ad^ d§ Glen^ 
donwyne^ mUitis^ dondm ejufdtm^ mortifying certain of bis 
lands in the barony of Hawick, for the foundation of a cha- 
pel in the parifh of W$finktr^ with a fuitable maintenance 
for a chaplain therek), for the ^^^ry oftbefouh of James late 
Earl of Bouglasy and Sir Simon of Glendonwyn, his brother- 
german* ; alfo for his own foul, Margaret, his wife, and their 
children, 6ur., dated at Glendonwyn, 9th December, and con- 
firmed the penult day of the fame month, A. D. 13 s^ I. Bar- 
tholomew, grandfon of the faid Sir Adam Glendonwyn, 
took orders in the church ; he was chaplain to the chapel of 
Wefterker, but was deprived of his charge, for non-refidence, 


• James Karl of Donglu and Sir Simon Gkodoaw^ fell ia the BseiiMnble 
Vattle of Otterbarn, anno t^%Z, 

QfWefltrkirL $1$ 

hj Andrew, biilxop of Ohfgow, aaoo 1459 *• About a mtl^ 
from tbe prefent church there is a faroii the propiertjr of Sir 
James JohnfionCt but which formerly belonged to tbe family 
of Glendoowjm, called WtfUrhsTs from which the pariHi 
feems to haye got its name ; and this cooje&ure !& the mor« 
probable, that, on a ni^ck of land between the £ik and th« 
Megget, and part of the farm of Wefterker, thene are feveral 
large whin or moor ftoqes placed ia the ground ereftljr^ 
which are evxdenti j the remains of a Druidical temple. The 
parilh of \Vefterker migh^, in procefs of time, be named 
W^Uriirl^ from the circnmftaace of iu being the mod weft^ 
crly of the five kirks of Elkdale, commonly fo called^ y\i^ 
Cannohie^ Wauchope^ Ewes^ Siapfegordone^ and Wefterkiri $ of 
the laft of which the prelent parifli of EJkdakfntdr was a 
part, till the year 1703, when it was ereded into a feparatfe 
eftabliihment. The farm uf Wtfttrhcr^ from which the paridi 
is fuppofed to have got its name, was probably fo called fh>na 
its vicinity to, and its fituation in refpeA of an ancient build- 
ing in the neighbourhood. There are veftiges of a caftle on 
the farm of Crooks, a great part of which was ftaading in 
the memory of many of the prefent inhabitants. Ctf^r, ta the 
Gaelic language, figniiles caille, and W^er^catr^ or Wefter.* 
kcr, muft mean a place to the weft of the caftle ; and the farm 
of Wefterker feems to have been fo called,^ becaufe it lies a« 
long the W. fide of the Megget, oppofite to, aad diftatit not 
inore than a furlongs from the place where the caftle formec* 
ly ftood* 

Extent. — ^The length of the parifh, from tbe N. to the E. ex-L 
tremities, is 9 miles ; but as the boundaries on the N. and S. are 
generally regulated by the water falls, or ridges of the moun« 

3 T a tains,. 

t (^rona^e of Scotlaod j Tule GUndotnvyn of that lU^ 


Stati/Heal Account 

tahiSy its breadth is verj irregular. In the S. £. and N. W« 
vhere the Efk divides it from the parithes of Laogfaola and 
Eikdalemuir, the breadth, at an average, does not exceed % 
^iles ; whereas between the church, which is nearly in the 
centre, and the N. W* end of the pariib, the breadth, in fome 
places, is little ihort of its length. Though the length on thf 
S. exceeds, by a miles, that on the N. bank of the £lk» jet 
%s Wcfierkirk extends i^ great way among the hills to dia 
northward, till it reaches the boundaries of Tmotdale« two 
thirds of the patiih, or thereabouts, are fituated on the N, 
fide of the river. The parifh confifts of ^7,307 acres ; bat 
not morei perhaps, than a twentieth part of it arable. 

Surfacf^ Soil^ and CRnuUt, — ^The appearance of the country 
is hilly i and the hills in general are high. Some of them 
mre covered with heath, but they are motlly green and dry, 
and afford excellent pafture for iheep.«-~-The foil is various ; 
the lower grounds along the banks of the Elk, which are flat, 
confift in general of a light loam, and produce plentiful crops 
when under proper management: The foil on the rifing 
grounds is a deep firong loam, interfperfed with fiones ; and 
the tops of many of the hills are covered with mob. — ^The 
climate is not unhealthy, though fomewhat moift, as the hilb 
on the S. fide of the parifii are among the firft that intercept 
the clouds, in their p^ogrefs northward^ from the Irifli fea an4 
f he Solway Frith. 

JtfWi ^The Blaci EJk^ dividing the parilh pf Wefterkirk 

on the S. from that of Efkdalemuir on the N., for about m 
mile in length, falls into the white E/k at a place named the 
King Pool^^ in the neighbourhood of the farm houfe of Bailie^ 
4 hill. 

* Tradition relates that one of the Pi^tilh kings was drowned la this pool, 
19 tttemptins to paft oyer the ice, from which circumiUnce it got the name of 


cfWeJUrkirk. ^ly 

Y\Xi. FrqiB the confluence of the Eikst the riTeri bj % va« 
sietj of beautiful curves, runs through the parifli toward the 
8. £• for the fpace of 7 miles, till it reaches Dowglen^cleugh^ 
and then pafles along the I^« fide of ihe parifl), nearlj in the 
fame direAioo, till it reaches a place named Craig-cteugh ; a 
rivulet which divides the pari(h from that of Langholm oql 
the Sm as Dwogkn-ckugh does on the N. fide of the £&'• 
Many burns, or rivulets, fall into tl^e Elk within the bounds 
of the pariib. From the hills on the S. fide of the river there 
are 13, and from thofe on the N. 9, befides the Megget and 
Steunis water. In the S. fide of a ridge of mountains, the 
fummits of which are the line of divifion between the county 
of Dumfries, in this diredion, and that of Roxburgh or Ti. 
yiotdale, the Megget and Stennis water have their fources, 
Thej'are divided in their courfes by a ridge of hills, and fed 
in their progress, \yitt) a variety of f^reamlets from the ueigh- 
bouriog mountains ; and running fouthward for 6 miles, the 
Stennis water, near a place named the Crooks^ joins the Meg«- 
eet, which pafles on in the fame diredion for about half » 
mile, and falls into the £ik in the neighbourhood of Wauk- 
mill. The Eik, the Megget, and the Stennis water abound 
with trout ; and falmon were a^b taken in the Elk in great 
number^, till the late Dr. Graham of Netherbie built a hzj 
acrofs the river, for the profefltd purpofe of procuring water 
for working the mills, which he was then ere£ling in the 
neighbourhood of Langtoun ; but fince that time fcarcely anj- 
falmon get up the Elk, excepting when it happens to be greatly 

Population. " ■ T he population has increafed nearly one 
fixth within thefe 40 years, as appears from the following 

King Toolt and tliat his corpfc was interred in the top of a ne i«^ibouring hill, 
within the patiOi ^f Wcftcrkirk, callkl ShaurtJge. 


Shiti/Ucgl Account 

Porut ATioK Table of the Parilh of Westeekiuc 

KvuQber of fools in 1755, as retnmed to Dr. 

Webftcr, - - - ^45 

Examinable perfons, 484 1 
Children under 7 years 1 ^ 

of age, . - 83 M ^j^^^ 
Diflentersy - " '5 J *"""" 3i 

— 73 

Pitto in 1768% 

Pitto xn X79J, 

Total increafe, ic6 



Unj^r 10 ftwn of age, 



- ? 5t3 

^ween 10 and so, 

- XXO 


- 34» 

' so and 7*1 

• 3«> 

Married pcrfaot, - xjj 


^ - IS 





- s« 

Above 100 1, 



Aopkcepen, % 

CMper, - 


firnzdi^ - I 

MUler, . X 

- % 

Catpenten, 7 

Baker, . - s 

Tfilon. - 


Weaver^ t| 


* Thitftate of the popvtation, ia X76S, was takea hj the hte Mr. Scot* 
%AHP during the couife of his Tifitation. 

t This man, aecording to hit own account, is xe6 years old, but his name it 
not on the feflion record; the probability however is, all circimiUncea conikkr. 
cd, that he is above xoo. 

I In the above lift of profcSons, jom^neymen and apprentices are included, 
•nd they all find fufficient employment in working for the inhabirants, except 
the weavers, who lometlmes make cloth for people who do not rcfidc ia the p-. 

Of Wefierlirk. jfig 

Lux of Bkniws, Marrxaois, and Buriils, for the hS 
Nine Years. 

Yean. Baptiihifl. MarrUgeib Buriab. 




























156 4S 104 

Ann. overage, neu-lj 17 5 zz 

RnU* and Farmx T he Ttlaed rent is zo,8o8 merktf 

Sootdi, the TCsI r«nt 3570!. 17s. There are a7 farms, be* 
fides what one of tha bcvitora retains in his ovn poflelBoiv 
and what is rented hy a miller and a fmith, who peffeis each 
» few acres. T he rent of one farm is between 400!. and 
500I. There are 9 between iod. and aooK ; the others are 
•U below lool., and a few of them are wider aol. a-jrear. 

^gneuUurt, Prodye»,Catt/e,^c.'-Coa&iex3ble improvement* 
bave been made in agricidture finee the ufe of carts became 
general, and efpeciallj fince the jear 1 775, when a bridge 
was thrown over the £(k at Langholm, hy which means the 
tenants have taSy accefa to the lime-kilns in Caanobie. The 
principal crops are oats, barlej, peafe, potatoes, (own grafs ^ 
and wheat has fometimes been cultivated with fuccels. Oat» 


po Statifiical Juouitt 

ktt fown from the beginning of March to the loth of A|iril \ 
pdfe in the end of March or beginning of April ; baxiej h 
fown« and potatoes are planted, from the middle of AprQ to 
the middle of May \ turnips are fown in Jofte, and wheat xb 
the end of Angiill or beginning 6i September. The haxvA 
^mmences about the end of Auguft, and is generallj ooi. 
du^ed about the mid^e of Odober. Clover and xTe-grvis 
are almoft aniverfallj fown with barlej, and the genend rm 
tation is as follows : 


I. Barley with clover and rye-grafs^ 

a. Clover and rye-grafs. 

3. Oats. 

4* Fallow^ or turnips, or potatoes. 

tViih the fifth feed time the rotation begins anew when 
the land is again fowed with barley, together with clover and 
tye-grafs. Some take two crops of oats after the clover and 
rj'^.grafs, and others 3 ; and perhaps the fecond crop win be 
better than the firft, becaufe it is nee fo apt to lodge when the 
feafon is wet. But in grounds, that are eonftantly under tfl- 
iage, efpecially where the foU is light, this praftice is very 
injurious to the tenant, becaufe it impoveriflies the land to 
fuch a degree, that it cannot be brought to produce a plentiful 
crop for fcvcral fucceeding fcafons. There are 6^ carts in 
the parifli, and 35 ploughs, which laft ate generally of the 
EngUfli form. There are 86 horfes, 181 cows, with their 
followers ; and a few black cattle are bred for the EngUfli 

Sheep and JToo/.— The parifli maintains 17,480 iheep, and 
thefc are all of the long or white faced kind, now known un- 


Of Wejlerkirk. 521 

der the name af the Cheviot breed. Every farmer dlfpofes of 
his whole lambs, excepting what he retains for keeping up 
his ftock^ I. e, he referves as many of his beft ewe Iambs, 
when he fells the others in the month of July, as are equal to 
inrhat of his flock had died fince the Michaelmas preceding, 
sind the number of draught ewes which he intends to difpofe 
of in the SeptemUer following: At this feafon, he difpofes yearly 
of fome of the oldeft and worft of his ewes. The number of 
draughts fhat he fells annually, is about a feventh part of the 
vrhole ; and therefore the oldeft ot his flieep are not more 
than 7 years of age. A ewe 8 years old may be expedled to , 
bring a better lamb than when ibe was 4 or 5 ; but her fleece 
ivill be both coarfer and lighter^ and ihe be in greater danger 
of dying during the winter or fpring. The lamlis and draught 
ewes are generally fold into Northumberland aud Yoikfliire# 
The iheep are falved about Martinmas. A gallon of tar, 
mixed with a Scotch ftone of butter, will falve, of young and 
old throughout the flock, about 45. One man will falve 20 
flicep in a day. Of late years the fanners have been in ufe 
to buy tups of the Cheviot breed; and, by this improvement, 
the value of wool is fuppofed to be increafed at the rate of 
about 2s. 6d. per ftone. TUl this feafon, the price of wool 
had increafed thefe feveral years. Some of it fold, laft year, 
as high as i8s. a ftone: Tins year (1793), it is fallen about 
5s. a ftone. Eight fleeces, at an average, go to a ftone. 

Bridges and Uwi^j— There are in the pariO), to the great 
accommodation and fafety of travellers, « 16 ftone bridges^r 
Thefe, however, are moftly built on a fmall fcalc ; none of 
them has more than one arch, excepting that which is over 
the £fk, in the neighbourhood of the church, and confifts of 
3 arches. This was built about 50 years ago, and at the cx- 

VoL. XL 3 U pence 

j^22 Statjjiical Account 

pence of the county. Five of the bridges arc th»wa over 
bums or rivulets, which fall into the Eik from the hills oa the 
S., and lo are built over thofe that come from the mountains 
on the N. fide of the river. There are 2 public road?, which 
are kept* in excellent repair, ind run from the S. E. end of 
the parilh J the one along the S., the other along the N. banks 
of the Eik, for about 6 miles. The road on the S. croflfcs 
the river 2 miles above the church, and, on the N. fide of 
the Eik, joins the other, which is continued into the pariih 
of Eikdalemuir. lliough fome of the bridges were built, 
and the roads were originally formed, and are dill kept in re- 
pair, with raonej coUcdtd from the occupiers of land, in lieu 
of the (latute labour, in terms of an ad of parliament obtained 
for this county, yet the public is much indebted, for the coo- 
veniency of good roads and fufRcient bridges, to the benevo-i 
lent exertions of Sir James Johnstone. From him the pro- 
pofition firll came to throw a bridge over the Elk, at Lang- 
holm, by which the inhabitants of Wefterkirk have ready 
accefs to the lime kills and coal pits of Caniiobie ; and his 
attention is unremitted, while he refides in this part of the 
country, to the reparation of the roads and bridges. 

School and Poor, — The fcIu>olma(ler*s falary is xool. 
Scotch : The number of fcholars, at an average, is about 45 
in winter, and 25 in fummer. He receives, for teaching 
Englifli, per quarter, is- 6d ; for writing, as. 6d. ; for arith- 
metic, 3s. 6d ; and for Latin, 5s. As feflion-clerk and pre- 
centor, he has 13s. from the feflion ; on every marriage he has 
19., on every baptifm 4d., and 3d. on every certificate : Be- 
fidcs, he is collcSor of the aficffment for the poor, for which 
he has il. ics. a year. The office may be worth about aal. 
Sterling per annum. Ti}e number of poor upon the roll at 
prcfont is 18. The annual amo^mt of the contributions for 


of Wejierkirk. 523 

their relief la 57I. 6s. 4d. Of the above affeflment, the fef- 
fion advances 7L 5s. 5d. ; the reft is paid, one half by the 
heritors, and the other by the tenants. There is a fum of 
160I. in ftock, the intereft of which, at 4 per cent, together 
with the colleSions, the ufe of the roortcloth, and what fines 
or penalties are exedted from defaulters, enable the feflion, 
not onlj to advance more than an 8th part of the whole an- 
nual aifeirment, but to provide clothing for fevexal of tlie pau- 
pers, and to relieve fuch individuals as fall into circumftan« 
ces of diftrefs between the quarterly meetings. The number 
of poor upon the roll had increafcd no more than 2 for zo 
years preceding Candlemas laft, whereas the afleiTment was 
nearly doubled. 

The number of poor upon the roll in February 1783, was 17 
Ditto, in February 1793, - 19 

TIic quarterly affeffment, in Feb. 1783, was J^. 7 15 9 J 
Ditto, in Feb. 17931 - 14 6 7 

This rapid increafe of poor's rates may indeed be fomewhat 
alarming to thofe by whom the affcflinent is paid. Trufting 
to tbcfe rates, individuals are n«t fo folicitous, perhaps, as 
they other wife would be, to make provifion for a time of 
ficknefs, a feafon of dearth, or the indigence of old age ; and 
this mode of providing for the poor may ferve to leftcn that 
attention to parents, and that defire to provide for their com- 
fortable fubfiftence, which are fo much the duty of, and fo 
very becoming in children: On the other hand, fince this 
method of maintaining the paupers commenced, the parifh has 
not been much infeiied with vagrants and fturdy beggars ; 
and the ]f>oor being thus provided for, live comfortably at 
home, and are not reduced to the neceflTity of wandering up 
and doiyn the country begging bread. 

3 U 2 Heritors^ 

5 24 Statifiical Account 

Heritors^ Slc. — The property of the parifli belonfs, at pre^ 
fent, to 4 heritors, viz. the Duke of Bacclcagh, Sir James 
Johnftone, Bart. John Johnftone, £fq. and Major Dirom; of 
whoiD Sir James Johnftone oolj refideg, and thai but oc- 


Ecclejiqftical State.^'-^Tht manfe was rebuilt In 1 783, and is 
in good repair : The kirk in 1788, and it is one of the neaOeft 
and beft finiflied country churches in the fouth of Scotland* 
The ftipend was formerly 70I. i6s. td*, including 4U 3s« 4d* 
for communion elements ; but an augmentation of 4 chalders 
t)f vidualy half meal, half barley, was obtained in February 
laft. The glebe confifts of about 19 Engliih acres, whidi the 
prefent incumbent inclofed, and fubdivided with ftone fences, 
at an expence of not lefs than lool. Befides the glebe, die mi« 
nidcr has a right of paftange for 44 Iheep on the ntighbonr^i 
ing farm of Jiirtonhill. 

Prices of Labour^ f/c— The wages of a man labourer are 
^d. a day without vidluals, except when he is employed as a 
mower, and in the time of harveft, when they arc xcxl. or 
when he is engaged in falving ibeep, for which he receives is. 
The wages of women are 8d. a day in harveft, with oiain* 
tainance, and 6d. at other times. The wages of a mafoo are 
^s., and thofe of a carpenter js. 6d. a day, when tfiey find 
their own victuals. The wages of men fervants, who eat in 
the houfe, are from 8 to 10 guineas a year ; and -thofe of wo- 
men, from ^h los. to 4 guineas. The ihepherds are allowed 
grafs for a certain number of flicep, as their wages» Some of 
them have a IclTer, others a greater number, according to 
their iktil and the largenefs of the flock which they tend ; 
^d the wages of fome of them of late jears, owing to the 


of Wefterkirk. ^2$ 

liigh price of wool. Sec. have been little ifaort of rsl» per an« 
nixm, befides their maintainancCk 

minerals^ \^c, — ^Therc is a pit of excellent fhell marl • 
in the farm of Megdale^ the property of thq Duke of Buo- 
cletigh. Little of the matl, however, is ufed, becaofe it can- 
not be got for monej, but muft be afked as a favour ; and the 
tenant is naturally averfe to the trefpals which horfes would 
cccalion, bj being brought upon his grounds to carry it off; 
befides the pit is fituated in the declivity of a hill, and by no 
means of e^fy accefs. Sir James Johnftone had, for more than 
30 years back, been in fearch of lead in the grounds of Glen- 
dinning. In the year 1788, metal was difcovered ; but, up- 
on trialy ic was found to be antimony. Antimony^ ihefubium 
of the ancients, by the Greeks called frtfifih is found in Hun- 
gary, in Germany, in France, in Rullia, and in Siberia ; but this 
is the only mine of antimony that has, as yet, been difcovered 
iti Great Britain. The reafon of its modern denomination is 
referred to £ajil Valentine^ a German monk, who, as the tra- 
dition relates, having thrown fome of it to the hogs, obferv- 
cd that, after it had purged them haftily, they immediately 
fattened ; and therefore imagined his fellow monks would be 
the better for a like dofe. The experiment, however, fuc- 
ceeded fo iU, that they all died of it ; and the medicine was 
henceforward called antimoine^ antimonk f* Of the mines in 


* About 50 ytxn ago, one of the tenants of Glendiaoing ( mjuiured part of 
bis arable land with marl from this pit. His neighbour did not make the es- 
perimant ; and that part of the field on which the marl was laid, is diiUnguKh^ 
cd from the other, even to this day, by producing a more luxuriant crop. 

f Johnfon*s Di^Ionarj ; vide Antimony, 

\ Tbit plaee^ in former times, a*m$ named Glcndonwjo, and hat been aU 
ready mentioned. 

526 Statifilcal Account 

the grounds of Glendinning^ Sir James Johnllone retains two 
fourth (hares. He has let one fourth (bare to Captain Cocfaras, 
and another to Mr. Tait. The company has built a fmelting 
houfe in the neighbourhood of the mines, in which the ore is 
manufaflurod. It is made into Jtdphurated antimony^ and rr- 
gulus (xf antimony. When the ore is beaten fmall, and wafli- 
edf it is put into an earthen pot, the bottom of which is per- 
forated with a number of holes. This pot is let into the 
mouth of another, which ferves as a receiver. They arc then 
put into the furnace ; and feveral fets of this apparatus are 
commonly worked at once. The fluid antimony pafTes through 
the holes into the undermoft pot, while the unfuiible matters 
remain in the uppermofl: What is found in the undermoft 
pot, when the procefs is finilhed| is called fulpburaud antu 

Regulut of antimony is prepared in the following manner. 
The ore, when beaten fmall and waflied, is put into a cruci- 
ble, and, along with it, a certain preparation of iron, and an 
alkaline flux: the crucible is then placed in a furnace ; and 
the iron having a greater affinity to the fulphur, than the ful- 
phur has to the ore, feparates the one from the other, mak- 
ing the fulphur fwim sn the top of the fluid metal ; TTic 
matter in the crucible, when fuflSciently heated, is poured in- 
to a caft iron cone, from which it is taken when cooled, and 
th6h the fulphur readily feparates from the metal. The me- 
tal is again beaten into fmall pieces, put a fecond time into 
a crucible in the furnace, and melted, with a mixture of anti- 
mony and an alkaline flux ; it is then poured into a vefTel of a 
conical fhape, from which it is taken, when cooled, having 
the form of a large fugar loaf^ and a fine flarry furfacc- Its 
texture is full of little fhining veins, or threads, like needles^ 
and is brittle as glafs. Regulus of antimony is a common in- 
gredient in fpeculums, in bell metal, in types for printing, &c» 


of Wefterkirh 527 

The fulphurated antimonj is fold at 42I., the rcgulus of 
antlmoDy at 8^1. per ton. 

Miners^ Village^ \Sc* — ^Tliere are 4 people, exclufive of an 
overfeer, employed at prefent in the mines, and in preparing 
the antimonj. A miner's wages are from 23I. to 26I. a year, 
and, as fuch, he enjoys many other advantages* The com- 
pany l\as built a village, which is pleafantly fituated on the 
banks of the Megget, and named James* 7ow«, in which 
every miner is provided with a comfortable lodging for him- 
felf and his family, at a moderate rent : He has grafs for a 
cow, during the fummer, for which he pays no more than aos., 
and I OS. for coarfe hay for her provifion in the winter; and 
may have as much land as he has occafion for, at the rate of 
10s. per acre, for cultivating cabbages and potatoes. A ftore- 
houfe is built by the company, in which they mean to lay up 
grain when the prices are low, and fell it out to the workmen^ 
at all times, even in a fcafon of dearth and fcarcity, at the 
rate at which it was purchafed. The miners are at work 
only 6 hours a-day ; and, to encourage them to read, a pre- 
fent was, fome months ago, made them in books, by the com- 
pany, to the value of 1 5I. ; and thefe, with others, which the 
workmen have fince been able to purdiafe, amount at prefent 
to 120 volumes. To render the fituation of the miners aft 
comfortable as poflible, the company has built a fchool-houfe, 
for the purpofe of having their children educated; has grant- 
ed confiderable advantages to the teacher, and purpofes to 
give zcl. per annum, to which each of the workmen is to add 
Is. a quarter, as a fund for the relief of fuch individuals 
among them, as may be difqualified for following their cm« 
ployment by ficknefs and old age. We wifli fuccefs to this, 
undertaking. The mining company not only finds employ- 
went to many individuals^ but has done an eifential fervice t© 


j^28 Statlftical Account 

the pablic, bj making an excellent road, along the E. fide of 
Meggct, between James* Town and Waulk-Mill; and» in the 
line of this road, which is three miles and a half, has bmk 
4 ft<me bridges^ of one arch each. 

EmifUfU Men^ &c. — The prefent family of Wefterhall arc 
all natives of the pariih ; and they have diftinguiihed thcm- 
felves much, and are well known in the world. Mr Pulte- 
VET, who married the heirefs of Bath, is one of this family, 
as was the late Governor Johkstone, whofe bravery as an 
officer, and whofe information and eloquence as a (bnator, are 
fufficiently known, and wiU long be remembered. Here, 
too, are depofited his remains, over which, and many of his 
anceftors, John Johnftone of Alva, £fq. has ercded a very 
elegant mau/okum. This is a piece of excellent architedare, 
and muff have cod 700I. or thereabout. The pariih gave 
birth alfo to Commodore Paslet, who at this inilant com* 
mands the firit divifion of the van fquadron of Lord Howe^s 
fleet, as it lies in line of battle at Torbay. 

jtntiptiiief. -^Be&dts the remams of the Druidical temple 
above .mentioned, veftiges of encampments may be traced on 
the tops of feveral of the hills in the N. W. end of the pa- 
rifh. Thefe feem to have been out ftations of the Roman 
camp, which bears the name of Cq/lle*o*er^ in the S. end of 
the pariih of Eikdalemuir ; and there are others along the 
banks of the £(k, which were probably formed as part of a 
chain of communication between Caftle-o'er and die camp ac 
Netherbie, in the neighbourhood of Langtown. There is 
a great number of burians in the parifh. Thefe are all of a 
circular form, and are from 36 to 50 yards diameter*. On 


^ They are fuppofed by fome to be remains of PkliHi encampments ; otht n 


^f WeJierkirL . 549- 

On the fisirm of Enzieholm, there are the remains of an old 

fbtrrification, of a triangular form. It has the appearance of ' 

gre&t antiquity, and has undoubtedly been a place oi .very . 

confiderable ftrength ; but it is fo much fallen into ruins, that - 

no probable conjedure ca» now be formed, either of the time 

^wtien it was built, or by whom it was pofiefled. There are . 

veftiges of an old tower, or caftle, at Glendinning, and tho 

Tenoains of another at Wefterhall« 

fFo9i/.-^About 50 j^ears ago, the pariih was much better 
ilored with wood than it is now. From the S. £• end of it, 
however, to about a mile beyond the church, there is a con.* 
fidcrable quantity of natural wood along the banks of the 
£ik, and feveral thriring plantatidbs on the eflates of Craigs, 
Dowglen and Wefterhall ; at the laft of which places, there 
^re many very venerable aihes and plane trees. 


Diffo/is^There are no difea&s peculiar to the pariik** 
Tht rbeumati/m 2nd tuberculous pbtbifis are| the moil preva*.* 
lent. The pradice of inoculation has, for many yeaxs, been- 
very general, and very fuccefsful. 

Vol, XI. 3X mid. 

th'nk that they #ere places of ilrength, into which the inhabitants coUeAed 
tbeir cattle, when alaraofid with a yifiution from the EngUfli Borderen ; and 
many are of opihion that they were formed for the purpofe of proteAing th« 
cattle, during the night, from the ravages of wild beafts, when this country was 
moftly covered with wood. The laft of thefe fuppofitions feems to receive fome 
roootenance from the following circumftances, that there is a burian on almoft 
trery farm, and that its fituation, in general, is on the firft piece of dry or rifinfi 
ground that is to be met with in the neighbourhood of the farm-Head, e^ieciallf 
Vhcn fof^h a fitnation is rendered the more iuacceffible, by the baitk of the river, 
§f foroe other adjoining precipice. 

530 Siatsftical Account 

Wild Ammals* — ^There are haves, rabUtSy and fooac iofxa 
in the pariih. We have the /waBwa, the wood-cock, the 
cacioCf and other migratorj birds, in their feafoos. Part- 
ridges have not been fo numerous for fome years as thej 
fomierlj were. The moor^oci an4 iem are natives, and in 
confiderable numbers ; but the black-^bck. is ieldom to be 
met with. 

Ftf^/.— i-Peat was the onlj fuel formerly in ufe i but as mois 
is no-where to be found in anj confiderable quantity, except 
on the tops of the hills, (and is therefore of difficuk acceis), 
and as peats cannot be properly got in rainy feafons, axMl efpe- 
cially as a road for carts is now opened into the parilk of Can- 
nobie, where coals are workted, thefe are become part of the 
fuel ufed in almoft every family. 

Prices of Grain^'^^'Tht pric^of grain was remarkably higft 
laft feafon. Oatmeal foM at is. 8d. a ftone, of ifi lbs.; yet 
none that the wviter knows of were in danger of periihbg 
for want. The meal is now felling at 2s. the ftone, and the 
price is ezpeded to be ftill lower, as there has not been, per- 
haps, in the memory of man, a more plentiftl crop of oats 
and barley, in this part of the country, than the prefent, 
which, within the bounds of the pariih, is now lOSober ai.] 
almoft gathered itv, and in excellent order. 

CharaStr^ £cc. — The inhabitants of Wefterkirk have long 
been remarked for decency and regularity of condud. They 
are, in general, religious without fuperftition, and charitable 
without oftentation, and temperate almoft without exception. 
None of the poor are reduced to the necellity of begging 
bread: in what they receive from the pariihi and what they 

af Wejlerkirk. 531 

can earn, they have a comfortable fubfiftence ; and many of 
the tenants are men of very confiderable property. The dif- 
fentersy of all denominations, do not amount to more than 
10. There are 4 ale-houfes in the parifli; but thcfe are little 
frequented ; nor do thofe who keep them depend much on the 
profits of this employment for the fupport of their families. 

3X1 NUM- 

53^ . ^atjfticid Accoutd 


{County of EdMurgl — PreJlyUry of DaUeith — Symod 9f 
Lothian and TweedJalc.') 

By John Maiit, D. D. Minifier. 


A CCORSING to Dr. Webfter's reportt the number of 
fouU in this pftrifb, in the year 1755, was - 1x59 
Bj an exad lift, taken in June lad (1795)1 ^^ ^''^ 
found to be reduced to • • « Z13J 

Hence there is a decreafe of * « - 64 

Of the above number there are Males. Females. TotaL 
Under 8 jears of age, - • 147 150 297 

Above that period of life, « 4x0 428 838 

In all, « - 557 578 113s 


of Newton. 533 

The miinber of femiltes is, - « « 239 

A.onual average of bapdfms for the lad zc years, - 43 

> I - marriages*, - - -» xo 

Proprietors. — ^Tbere are 4 heritors in the parifh ; the Duke 
of Buccleugh, the Earl of Wemjrs, Mr. Wauchope of £d« 
xnonftoney and his eldeft fon. 

Ecclefiaftical State. — ^Mr. Wauchope is patron of the par- 
rilb. The ftipend, which confifts (of money and grain, in- 
clttdiog loo merks Scotch, as the intereft of mortified monej^ 
and the allowance for communion elements, may be reckoned^ 
at 90 average about zo6L per annum. The glebe confiffs of 
7 acres, z rood, and 31 falls of good arable land, lying very 
conveniently round the manfe,^ and all lately inclofed with a 
hedge, by the prefent incumbent. The church was built in 
the year 1741, and is fituated very nearly in the centre, no 
part of which can be (aid to be more than a mile and a half 
dillant from it. The manfe was built in the year 1749, and 
ftands within lefs than htdf a mile of the church, towards 

SclooL — ^The fchoolmafter^s falary is rool. Scotch, The 
number of fcholars, at an average of 20 years, amounts to 4S; 
and the prhole of his income, including the falary, fchool dues, 
and the emoluments of the fei&on clerk's office, may be reck- 
ooed, at an average of that period, no more than 24!. per 


* No regular regifter of funerals bas been kept for fome time paft. They 
can onlj be colledted from the treafurer's accounts, who charges birafelf with 
the dues of the mortclothi, which he has received. This account muft.have been, 
Jbr (bme time paft,^ very deficient, owing t» a ciicumftaace, which wiU be «»• 
plsiacd afterwards, ^ the explanation may be ufeful to other pariifaes. 

534 Statifiical Account 

Poor—- -The average of fiated penfioners on the poot*s roll, 
for the laft zo years, is X4. The expenditure on thefe, in« 
eluding occafional fapplies to others, and the falaries of feffion 
derict precentor, beadle, fynod and prelbyterj clerks, and 
pNtbytery officer, amounts, at an arerage, to 41I. per annum. 
The money at prefent in the kirk treafurer*s hands, is a mere 
trifle* The poor, however, have been, hitherto, maiouined 
pretty decently, by the funds arifing from 'the weekly coDcc- 
tionsv and from ttie ufe of the parilh mortcloths, without hav- 
ing recourfe to any afltiTment for that purpofe, though not 
without the necellity of frequent encroachments on the very 
(mall capital in the treafurer's hands. 

Charitable Sociitiei and Mortcloths. ^^The body of colKers^ 
in this pariih have been in ufe to keep what they call a box^ 
firom which they allow an aliment, or fupport, to fuch of the 
contributors as are laid afide from work by iicknefs. This, 
no doubt, afforded a temporary relief to the pariQi funds. 
But when the contributor dies, there is no provifion made 
for the widow and family, who mud, confequently, fall a bur- 
den on thcfe funds. They purchafed, fome years ago, from 
this dock, a fet of mortcloths, the ufe of which was given, 
gratis^ to the contributors. The body of cart^rs^ who have a 
fund of the fame kind, within thcfe a or 3 years, followed 
their example. As the great body of the parifli fendfts of 
thefe two defcriptions of people, the kirk*feflIon forefaw, that 
this praAice, if allowed to continue, would foon go nearly to 
extioguifli altogether the funds arifing from the ufe of the. pa- 
rifli mortcloths. They communicated their ideas on this cir- 
cumJlance to the heritors of the parilh, who unanimoufly agreed 
to concur with the kirk-fefiion in trjiag> the point of law on 
this fubjed, and to defray the whole expence that fliould be 
ancnrred on this^ occaiion. The cetghbmtring parilh of Liber- 


of N€wton. 535 

ton, who were in the fame fimation, joined ia dw procefs. Ac* 
cordiogljy^ -decree of the Court of Seffion, dated November 
3otb X792» was obtaised^ ^'ftridlj prohibiting the nie of anj 
** but the pariih mortcloths." Notwithftanding this decifioa 
in their &voar, the kirk-feffioo. in confideration of that de» 
gree of relief which they were fenfible the parifli funds de- 
rived fr6m thefe boxes, by maintaining decently fuch of the 
contributors as may be laid afide, by accident or difeafe, were 
willing to grant them fome indulgence. Accordingly, after 
having obtained the full con&nt of all the heritors, they agreed 
to allow them the ufe of their own mortclotbs for the fpace of 
30 years, by which time their pcefeat mortclotbs may be fup- 
pofied to be worn out ; on condition that, at every time any 
of them are ufed, they pay to the kirk treafurer, for the be* 
nefit of the poor, the moderate fum of 4s.$ it being expreisly 
underftoodj that this indulgence Ihall continue only during the 
continuance of that sud which they have been accuftomed to 
give to the parifli funds ; but, that the moment any of thefe 
•boxes are given up, and confequently that aid is withdrawn, 
this indulgence fhall be at an end i and the kirk-fei&on, ia 
that event, ari^ determined immediately to avail themfelves of 
the fight which they now poflefs, by virtue of this decree. 

CbJEISrrM/.— -Coal works have been very long carried on here. 
The following ftate of the feams of coal is given from the beft 
authority : There are no le(s than 19 different feams that run 
through this pariib,, ftretching nearly N. and S. Six of thefe 
(earns are termed,/b||, becaufe they lie in a horizontal pofitioBt 
and make but a fmall angle with the horizon ; dipping to the 
eaftward, i in 10, and ibmetimes i in 15 or ao feet. The other 
13 are called edgif§a^s^ owing to the pofition in which they 
ftand, runnbg down from the earth's forface in a perpendicu* 
lar direftiony and making an angle of near 50 degrees with 


536 Stati/tical Account 

the horizon. Thefe feamt vmrj in their thicknefles. The 
thickeft of the flat feams are about 4 feet, and the thinneft 
about aT. The thickeft of the edge feams are about 9 or 10 
feety and the thioneft about a. All of thefie feams have been 
already wrought in part ; feme of them probaUj aoo jcars 
ago ; fereral of them by levels taken from the fea, and ocheit 
by lerels from the loweft pacts of thefe lands. SoQse of the 
fat feams, which are of die bed quality, have beeii wrought 
^f late, and aii|.ftill working by fire engines, and oilier ma- 
chinery, a6 fathoms perpendicular depth below the iau There 
fiill remain to be wrought a great quantity of thefe feams; 
which, if ever attempted in any future period, will require 
very powerful fire engines to drain the water from them, and 
confequently a great outlay of mooey, befoie thefe coals cai| 
be brought to market. 

Wages and CbaraOer. — The bufinds of a collier feems te 
l>e a very lucrative one. Each of them may earn i8s. or 
«05. |>er week* It is however matter of mnch regret, that 
very tew inftances are known, of fuch as are fo attentive as to 
Cive any thing at all. On the contrary, it is .the heavy com- 
plaint of all the coal-mafters, that a collier will work nona, 
fo long "as he has any money in his pocket* This is the real 
reaibn of the fcarcity of that article, which was fo deeply and 
univerfally felt during the coorfe of laft winter, 

^irff^iVi/i.— The only antiquity hioftf that deferves to be 
taken notice of, is a very fflgh ridge, oiyu circular form, and 
of confiderable extent, which evidently appears to be altoge- 
ther artificial. The people of the country have always called 
it ** T%e Kaim,** a corruption, it is Cuppoled, of tl^e word 
Camp, If it is the remains of a camp, it could not be a^oman 
one, as it is well known that their camps were of a Square form. 


tf Roherton^ jj-* 



Parish of roberton. 

(Counties of Selkirk and Roxhurgb — Prejbytery of Seliirt'm 
Synod of Mer/e and Tevioida/e.^ 

My the Rev. Mr. Jamks HAt, Miniver* 

Situation^ Extent^ Rivers^ Lakes, and Tijb. 

THE pariih of Roberton, in the prcibjterj of Selkirk^ 
lies in the weffem extremities of the (hires of Rox« 
Viirgh and Selkirk, where they march with the county of 
Dumfries. It is eflimated about thirteen miles in length, 
and fix in breadth.— —I'he water of Borthwick^ running 
to the £• frocQ the high grounds, where the (hires of Sel- 
kirk and D'umfrieis meet, divides the pari(h into two parts^ 
nearly equaL The water, Ak^ flowing from a beautiful cir- 
cular lake, of neatly % miles in circumference, in the N. W. 
quarter of the pari(h, holds, while in it, a courfe ne&rly pa« 
rallel to the Borthwick, from which it is about i miles dif- 
tant- — Befides Alemuir Loch, there are feveral fisialler lakes, 
in which there is abundance of fine perch and pike i and ia 
•ne there is to be found an excellent red trout, much refemb*^ 
Vol. XL 5 Y fing 

538 Siaufticat Accomi 

ling that of Lochlevcn. The waters, Bortfawidc sad Ale, 
augmented in their courfe by a great number of rivulets, 
abound with trooCs of the baft qaalitj ; bat it is fxAj in the 
fpawning feafon that thcj are Tifited hj falmon. 

Gami^ Woods, and Mqffism The diverfion of (hooting maj 
here be as much enjoyed as that of angling, as there is plenty 
of all the common kinds of game. — That the part of this pa- 
lilh lying in the fiiire of Selkirk, was within the bounds of 
the royal foreft, appears from the valuation of the land. The 
Taluations, in* proportion to prefent rents, are uniformly 
higher in Selkirk-(hire than in Roxburgh->(hire. At prefent, 
there is but little wood in the parifli : In a few years the banks 
of the Borthwick will be more covered, as fome proprietors 
are at prefent rearing oonfiderable plantations. — Mofies are 
numerous ; almoll every farm has its particular mofs. The 
sninifter has the privilege of cafting peats, by a yearly rota- 
tion, in no le& than 5 of them. The marl, found in fome of 
thefe mofles already drained, is of the heft (hell kind ; and 
has, for many years, been profitably ufed. Peats Tary much 
in quality in the different mofles. 

Surface and 5oi/.— The pariih b hilly ; but there is no 
hill of extraordinary magnitude or height in it* From 
the Borthwick and the Ale, the land rifes by a gentle afcent. 
The lower grounds are in a ftate of cultivation, and there 
are fome fpots of planting along the Borthwick ; the higher 
grounds are employed in pafturage ; the fummits between the 
Ale on the N«, and the Teviot on the S., are, in part, mofly, 
but generally covered with grals or heath ; and thofe fpots, 
only, where moffes are wrought, appear black. Cra(s is pre- 
dominant ; and the general appearance of the pariih, to the 
eye, is that of grafly hills.-— The foil, locally varybg, is, in 


rf Riherton. 539 

generaly of good quality. The greateft part> even of thd 
higher grottods, k ^a hard gravellyy or rocky bottom. In 
the higheft and weftera part of the parifiiy there is a confider- 
able proportion of wet and boggy land. From land, which 
has a foutfaem expofure, has been drained, or is naturally 
dry, cropa have been raifed as early, and as good, as from 
Janda many miles lower down the country. The peculiar 
fitnefs of the fo^I, for the pafturage of (heep, is evinced by 
their reputatioa in the country for foundaefs, for carcafe, and 
for wooL 

CltmaU and Difeafes^ \Sc. — The fituation of the parilh, 
nearly centrical between the £. and W. feas, fufficiently in- 
dicates the nature of the elimate*^— Though this parilh ap- 
pears level, when viewed from heights, greatly infenor to the 
Ettrick hiUs on the Nm and tfaofe of Ltddifdale on the S ; 
yet it is £b high, as always to intercept fome portion of the 
moifture of thofe heavy clouds, which are fo often feen attraft« 
ed to either or to both of thefe quarters. The autumnal rains 
are particularly violent, 0knd fometimes of long duration. In 
the monihs of November and December, they are accom^ 
panicd with fuch boifterous winds, that only a few houfes 
can perfeAly exclude the waters of the weftern temped. There 
arc inftances of houfes, built with lime, and judged fufficient, 
through which theie rains force their way every winter. The 
noxious effe&s of a damp atmofpfaere were formerly prevent- 
ed by the copious ufe of fpirits, and now by better houfes 
and clothing ; but flannel is little, if ever, ufed by the labour. 
log people, among whom rheumatifm is a general complaint, 

3 Y a almoft 

* At Beakxsolm, in the immediate ticioity, j> more rain falk than at DaU 
keith ; and f more at Langholm, iS miUs W. gf Bran«lioIm| than at it. Vid^ 
J^irt, PbiL Tranf. Vol. /. 

540 Statiftical Account 

dmoft invarlftbl/ accompaoying the decline of life. Uokfii 
(he weather be teinpellttoosy the kboun of the fidd mre nevci 
interraptedy on account of acafual, though heavy rain. Not- 
withilanding the great moifiure of the clinatev to which the 
labouring inhabitants are expofed, thej are healthy, robufi, 
and generally reach a good old age. No inftances of rare Ion* 
gevity occur ; but there were recent, and there are exifting 
examples of great vigour and aCtivity» in perfons who hare 
feen fpurfcore years, 

Produce and Cultivation. — ^AU the ordinary kinds of grain, 
pndfometimeswheaty are raifedinthe parilh, but it is thought 
not i^ proportion to the confumption. The mode of culture 
has, of la^, been greatly reformed by the introduSion of 
green crops, grafs feeds, and efpecially the judicioua ufe of 
marl. There is, perhaps, too great a proportion of the arable 
land ftill kept in tillage ; but this is a miftakd, which is be^ 
coming pvery year more obvious, and will foon be correfied. 
^uch of the land is fit for the growth of flax ; but its cul- 
ture muft be neglefted, as upprodudive, till a flax mill be 
ereded fome where in the neighbourhood. It is far the 
breeding an4 feeding of flieep, that the foil and climate are bed 
adapted, and to which, accordingly, the chief attention of the 
inhabitants is direfied. The iheep paflure has been greatly 
meliorated, by the burning of heath, draining of wet lands, 
and ufe of marl *« 

Proprietors and /?«»/.— There sre ii heritors ; 4 of whom 
have hoi^fes, and generally reiide in the pariih. Que manfion- 


* For breed, management, Stc. of (beep, crops, rates of wages, prices of 
pTOvifions, Sec. fee Statiftical Account of the pariih of Hawick, Fo/. YIIL 
yum* 3a. Hawick is the market town of this diftriA. 

of Roberlon^ 54I 

liOttfc, formerlj the feat of an ancient family, is falling into 
rains. The valaed rfent is zo,95oK Scotch $ the prefent adual 
rent exceeds 3CO0I. Sterling. 

Caith.'^-'The number of cattle is computed to be, as under; 
iSyOCO flieepi 358 black cattle, 127 horfes; 

Produce. — ^There are 358 bolls of grain yearly fown, and 
95 P^cks of wool annually fold. 

Fuel. — ^Peats are the principal fuel, and are reckoned at 
dear as coals from Lothian or Northumberland, a diftance of 
30 miles. The convenience of this fpecies of fuel, its being 
near at hand, and procured at a feafon, when fervants upon 
farms could not be otherwife fo profitably employed, give it 
the preference ; and cottagers, living near moffes, mak& it a 
bufinefs, through the year, to carry peats from the diftance 
of 8, and even fometimes 14 miles, to Hawick ; where they 
are fold, at the rate of from 3s. to 4s. the fingle cart load| 
and from is. 3d^ to xs« 6d. the back load. 

Roads. — ^The expeoce of fuel is heightened by the badnefs 
of thic roads. The principal road in the pariih* and the moft 
direft one from Dumfries, &c. to the towns of Hawick, Scl* 
I;.irk» Sec. is along the Borthwick, but if made only half way 
up this pariih, and not even formed where it enters that of 
Wilton. The gentlemen of Dumfries-ihire have carried thi« 
line of road nearly to the confines of their own county y and 
it is to be regretted, that they have not been fcconded by pro- 
prietors of land in the counties on the £., in a meafure of 
fuch obvious importance. The heritors of Roberton are ^t 
prefj:i)t improving, at a great expence, their part of this road, 


541 Stati/iical Jccount 

mud founiog fo«io olhen* The road mooej, for die K»z« 
bttrgh»ibir« p»rt of tbb parilli^ is levied by an affeffmciit of 
from 7$. to ids. on the lool. Scotch of yalued rent : For thai 
an Selkirk-fliire, bj the ftatute labour. 

Ecclefiqftical State* — Roberton is a modem pariih. Hajau 
dian^ the old one, about 9 miles lower down the coaotiy, 
ivas annexed to Minto and Wilton. This was ereAed from 
parts of tbe pariibes of Hawick, Selkirk, Wilton, and Hafien- 
dean. The fuppreffion of Haflendean, and ereAion of Hober. 
ton, took place about the year i68a. The decreet is fuppofed 
to be loft. The kirk bears the iolbription 1695 ^. la 1789, 
it received a complete repair* About the fame time the 
manfe was alio repaired ; and in 179I9 new offices were built. 
The King is patron. The fiipendt (including communion 
elemcDts), confifts of 77I. money, 14 bolls meal, add 12 
bolls barley, Tcviotdale meafure. The grain, and part of the 
money, is paid from lands, in what was the old pariih of Haf. 
fendean 9 tnd, before an augmentation was •btained in I7&t, 
by the prefent incumbent, there was 00 more than 9I. paid 
to him, and 3]. to the minifter ^ Wilton, £rom lands within 
the prefent cure, upon the fuppofition, that the remaining 
part of the old lliperd, paid in money, by the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh, was for his lands in Haflendean % and this is the pro* 
bable fuppofition. 


* There we to be traced! the remains of a chapels; in one of vvfairh, on the other 
fide of the Sorthwicfc, and of^fitc to the prefent kiric, cvrates froiD Hafl'eolraa 
were worn to officiate. The church-yard ol the other, (whkh is faid to have 
belonged to the diocefe of Galloway), at Borthwick Brae, about 2 miles far- 
ther up the fame water, is (till ufcd as the principal buryiag ground in this 
neighbourhood. Gsiiys and Pott are the names moft frequent on the toish 

rf Rohtrtm. 543 

School. — A new fchool-houfe was built in 2790. Th6 
fchoolmafter Bas the ordinary leg^l falary, fome perqai&tes as 
feilion-ckrk and precentor, and a (mall fee from the heritors, 
for uplifting and diftributing the poor's money. Till fome« 
thing be done by the public to render country fchoolmafters 
more comfortable and independent, the important office which 
they bear, cannot be filled by men of education, of talents, 
and confequence enough to benefit fociety, as (hey, with fome 
encouragement, might do. 

Po^..-.The average number of poor on the roIl» young 
and old, may be about 32. They are fupplied by colledliona 
made in the kirk and quarterly aflefTments. A fum is always 
kept in hand for occafional fupplies ; and, if fuch fund fhould 
fail, the minifter has hitherto had the approbation of the he- 
ritors for taking credit, till fuch fund be replaced by the col- 
ledions, or by a new alTifraient. The expence of their main- 
tainance for the current year is i a4L 

PofuJaiion.^'Thc return to Dr. "Webiler, in 1755, 
was - - ----- 651 

The. number of inhabitants, of all ages, in 179X9 and 

179a, was ------ 629 

Decreafe *, - • - aa 


• Fonncriy there were fe^rtl htmlets, of which no vellige* now ren^aiti. 
The grtatcft coUedion of families, in one place, does not exceed 5 or 6« There 
is no viUftge, and no licenfed retailer of fpirits in the parifli. The expence of 
rearing hoafes is the great obftacle to population, and appeafs to be one cauTe 
alfo of the advanced price of labour. Cottages that fall down are feldoni 

544 Statlftical Account 

Of thde there are, 


Males. FimaUs. 

Married Pairs. 


309 3»o 



Emfloyme$Us.^^Ot thcfc families 18" are tenaotij ; the reS 
confift of (h^pherdsy hinds» daj labourers, and fome tndef- 
men. The number of the latter, owing to the neighbourhood 
of Hawick, is fmall. There is not a Ihoemaker in the pa- 
rifii. The nature of the foil and climate has fnggefted to 
herds and labourers the ufe of a kind of a ilrong leather 
ftoe, with a wooden fole, fhod with iron* This is porchafed 
in the market town, mended at home, and known by the 
same of elogs. 

Condition and CharaBer — ^The inhabitants, in their fevtral 
Sations, are comfortable and independent ; nor are there 
wanting indances of confiderable wealth. Thej are cquallj 
indutlrious and frugal. There are a good manj feparatifb 
from the Eftabliihed Church ; Burghers, Antibnrghers, and 
Cameronians ; but no Epifcopalians or Roman Catholics. Tbe 
charader of feparatifis and adherents fcarce admits of any 
ihade of diftinfiion, unlefs it be, that the former have the ap- 
pearance of greater zeal in religious matters than the latter. 
In other refpe&s, they are much alike. If the Seceders 
think themfelves more religious, thofe belonging to tbe 
Eftablifiiment fancy themfelves better moral men, and more 
heartily attached to Government. Happily no party rancour 
j8 known, and no religious or political controverfics interrupt 
the exercife of that fympathy to one another in diftrefs, and 
of that neighbourly and obliging difpofition, which are the 
more ftriking an4 diftinguifhing features of the Chriftian 


t>f Roberton. 545 


jintiquitiiSf Ca/cadtf &c. — There are feveral remains of en« 
vampxnents and fortifications^ One large fquare encampment, 
flanked by a rivulet, whofe banks are deep, having the 
Berth wick im front, and artificial ramparts towards the hill, 
bears to this day the name of Africa. Between this, and 
others of a circular or femicircular form, the CaUrail (of 
^hich fome veftiges, though with breaks, may (lill be traced), 
is fuppofed to have run *• One of thefe femicircular encamp- 
ments, above 1 miles from the fquare one, and of which it 
has a difiind view, has, for its diameter, the fleep and craggy 
bank of a rivulet, where there is a beautiful cafcade; the fall 
of water being about ao, and the breadth 6 feet, when the 
rivulet is in flood. 

Vol, XI. %t NUM. 

• See GotPOjr*t Am* 

54^ Statjfiical Acctmnt 



{County ofPirtb — Pr(fbytery of Dumhiane — Synod of Pertt 
and SiirHngJ) 

By the Rev. Mr. David Simsok, Minifker. 

Namt^ Extent^ and EreSion.^ 

npUtLlALLAK, according to thofc who are acquainted wilfc 
"^ cheGaelic language, fignifies theheauiifulbill; which name 
was probablj given to it from its appearance, the greateft part 
of it being a beautiful bank, gentlj declining to the S. and 
W.» and the reft of it floping to the N. and N. £• ft is 
generally fuppofed to be 4 miles from S. to N., and 4 miles 
from £• to W. It is of an irregular figure, being broader at 
the two ends than in the middle. Originallj, it comprehended 
the barony of TuUiallan only; but, in 1659, the barony of 
Kincardine, the lands of Lurg and Sands, and Kellywood, 
were disjoined from the parilh of Culrofs, and annexed to it. 
The whole pariih now contains about 2760 acres. 

Soil^ Cultivation^ and Produce, ^^Tbt foil is various. Tt 
confifts of clay, rich loam^ fand, and dtyfield ; all of which lie 
upon till or rock. About 40 years ago, it was in a fiate of 
nature 1 but^ fince that period, it has been highly improved ; 


x>f Tulllallan. 547 

«nd tlie greateft part of It has been enclofed with ftone dikes* 
or hedges, which laft have fucceeded amazinglj well. As 
the farmers are diligent in procuring dung from the village of 
Kincardine, and lime from Lord Elgin's lime quarries, at a 
confiderable expeoce, and are aiUduous in cultivating their 
farms, they generally have good returns of wheat, barley, 
oats, beans and peafe, potatoes, turnips, and fown grafs. 
Were not the tenants redri&ed by their leafes, the quantity 
of oats fown would be lefs than any other grain, owing to 
the high thirlage. If a tenant carries 1 1 bolls of oats to the 
mill, he may lay his account with leaving one behind him as 
dues ; I had almoft faid x in 10 ; which is very difcouraging 
|o the improvenaent of lands, 

Rtvir, Climaie^ and 2)^/>/2r/.— ^Surrounded "by the river 
forth on the S. W., ezpofed to a free current of air in this 
diredion, and well iheltered by the elevation of tlie ground, 
and the adjacent woods on the N. and E., this parifli pof- 
fefles, at all feafons, a more mild and temperate climate than 
many other parts of Scotland, in the fame latitude. ' Violent 
inflammatory difeafes, depending on the qualities of the air, are 
feldom feen here, excepting the croup among infants, which 
prevails mod in cold and damp fituations. During the courfe 
of the laft 20 years, the fmall pox ^the moft fatal difeafe in 
this diflrid), has been obferved to become epidemical every 
lecond or third year, often preceded by the chincough, and 
followed by the meafles. The fcarlet fever, thrice on one 
occaiion was ufiiered in with all the fymptoms of the malignant 
(ore throat; and the dyfentery once io Auguft 2784, which, 
at its commencement, was, in fever al inftances, fatal. With 
thefe exceptions, infe&ious fevers are very uncommon. Agues, 
formerly prevalent, have not appeared thefe many years, 
owing, in fome meafure, to the improvements in agriculture, 

3 Z a th« 


548 SUitlftkal Jccount 

the general deaolmefs, and free ventilation of the bouics of 
nianj of the inhabitants % who, being in eafy circnm&aocetp 
feel lels the evils arifing from poverty and extreme want* It 
is probaUe, that the inortality of manj of the difeafes men* 
tinned, has been, of late years, mitigated, bj an improved mode 
of living, a more eafy acceb of the inhaUtants to a greater 
variety of vegetable produftions, and a more moderate nfe of 
fiQiy which abound in the river* The fmall pox has alfo been 
greatly alleviated by inoculation. Praditioners of cxperi* 
ence affirm it would be more general and fuccefsfnl, if prac« 
tifed by mothers on children, one or two months old ; the 
eruptive fever being of much fliorter duration, and the puf^ 
tnles very few in number, at this early period. 

Ftflkriu.^-Thtxt are above xoo crmhei in the parUh; 
in which are caught herrings, whitings, haddodu, fparlings, 
ff the, fprats, cod, ikate, with fooM few fidmon and flounders. 
Of thefe laft, there are 4 different fpedes, called. here xht/ok^ 
the turhpi^ the fand^ and the bumfck flounders. The fole 
and turbot are efteemed the heft. The precife value of a 
cruive cannot be afeertained, as it depends on the quantity of 
fifli caught. When the herrbgs are numerous, it may amount 
to more than 5L, befidea the tytbe^ that is, a tide in the Aream. 
In other years, their gain would fcarcely keep them in repair. 
The average of a cruive, in good and bad fiflibg feafooa, is 
eftimated between 4oe« ,and 50s. yearly, befides the tythe. 
When the herring fifliery fuccecds, it is a great benefit to the 
place and neighbourhood. Thefe, together with the potatoes, 
fupport the poor people for fome months in the end of the 

CoUiery and Salt Work. — About 6p years ago, there was 

an exteniivc colliery and fait work carried on here. Them 

tf Tulliallan. 549 

is a man livingi who knew 41 pikemeo, and their bearers, 
employed m it. The coalsi at that time, were either fold to 
the country, or coofumed by the pans ; none of them were 
exported ; but after the fliipping increafed, they carried them 
to Dundee, Perth, fcc. Though there is abundance of coals 
^o work, and a fteam engine was ereded, nothing has been 
done for a number of years. There were formerly 35 falc 
pans in this parilh, 14 of which have been in ruins beyond the 
memory of any man living. Their foundations were lately 
diig upt uid there is not a veftige of them to be feen. About 
60 years ago, there were ax in the pariib, 6 at NiwPant, and 
15 At Wtjl fans^ now CflAtdi Kincardine The author has 
known x8 of them working at one time. The proprietor 
<iimiihcd each pan with 36 fmall cart loads of coals in the 
week; and for thefe the falter was obliged to produce 4 
draughts of ialt, each draught containing 14 frlots of Lin* 
lithgow barley meafure. The produce of the whole pans, 
(fuppofing them to go conftantty), was aja bolls in the week, 
and 13,104 bolls in the year ; which were fold at 48s. the boll, 
amonntilig to 2,62ol. i6s. Bui after the duty was laid upon 
it by aft of parliament, it was fold at as. the buflieL The 
wages paid to the falter, were a peck of oatmeal, at 8,\d, the 
peck, and what fait he had more than his 14 firlots from his 
draught \ and, when cleaning the bucket, pots, &c., he had 
only 4d. per day. The whole of thefe pans are in ruins, ex« 
cepting two, which work but little ; for as the coal is not work- 
ing, the pan wood muft be carried from the AUoa collieries 
to Alloa (here, and from thence to Kincardine, by water^ 
which makes it very dear. The fait is at prefent felling here 
at 4S. the buihel. A firlot of fidt, uken from the pan, weighs 
j8 lb. or a bufliel and a lb. After it hath lain {ovok time in 
the granary, it will weigh (3 lb. or a bulhel and ^ lb* 


550 Statifiical Account 

Village and Markets^ Sic — KnrcA&Din is a prettj larg« 
Tillage on the banks of the FoTth« conUiDing $1% hoofes, fnb- 
ftaatiUly built, and are generallj finiflied neadj in the infidc 
A confiderable number of them confift of two, and fome cf 
them of three flats. Thej are mofilj covered with tiles, and 
built upon pan a(hes ; whicht being naturally dry, contributes 
greatly to the health of the inhabitants. There are two mar* 
ket days in the week, viz. Wednefday and Saturday^ whicfc 
are generally well fuppUed with provilions. Beef^ mottoo, 
▼ealy and lamb, fell from 3d. to jd. the lb ; butter from 8d. 
to lodi andcbeefe from 3d. to 4d. the lb: fowls, from is. to 
i4d. a piece; a duck at 8d.; a chicken 8d.;eggs from 4d. to 
£d. the dozen. There is a poft office in the village of Kincar* 
dine; and we have two polls from Edinburgh regularly every 
day in the week, the one by Stirling, and the other by the 
Qu^eensferry. By the latter, all letters from Fife, Perth, and 
the North Country, are conveyed. For thefe laft three 
years, the amount paid into it, by this pariih only, wa^ 
247I. zos. 7d. 

RoadSf Ferry^ and Harhour^^Tbe roads are extremely bad 
in winter^ in foft weather, though good in fummer. The pa-* 
rilh aflfords no materials to make them of, but £ree>fione and 
pan aihesy which carriages foon grind to powder. There is a 
pafiage boat between Kincardine and HigginU Neai^ at prefect 
on a very incommodious footing. It is only within 2 hours, 
before and after fined, that they can pais with a horfe ; and foot 
paflengers art often obliged, at low water, to wade through 
mud for 40 yards. The ihipmallers here, by a voluntary 
contribution, have begun to build a pier. If their finances 
allow them to finifli it, it will be a great advantage to tbofe 
who have occafion to pafs here* 


of I'ultiallan. ^^i 

Shipping and Commerce. — ^Kincardine is a creek, within 
the precin&s of the cuftom-hoafe of Alloa*. For thefe 40 
years pad, a coniiderable number of fhip carpenters have re« 
fided here, who built annually feveral floops and brigantines* 
Veilels of 200 and 300 tons have been built here^ for the 
Weft India trade, and the Greenland fifhery. In 1786, there 
were 9 veflels upon the ftocks at one time ; and the number 
then belonging to this place was 91, and their tonnage 5,461 ; 
which is about aoo tons more than what belongs to Alloa, 
and the whole precin&s of that port, at prefent ; and more than 
half of the tonnage f of Leith in that year. If the diftilleries, 
in this pariih and the neighbourhoodi had not failed, they 
would have been oonfiderably increaled : But owing to thefe, 
and a ftagnation of trade that fiicceeded in this plaee for two 
years, theirihipping decreafed} and, fince that period, 04 veiTels, 
amounting to 1859 tons, have been fold or loil. Within thefe 
three years, trade has begun to revive, and feveral veflels have 
been built. The number of floops and brigandnes belonging 
to Kincardine, at prefent, is 75, and their regifter tonnage 
4043. All thefe, excepting two, are included in the {261 tons, 
which, in the Statiilical Account of the parifli of Alloa, are 


* In the beginning of this century, there were no (hipping of any confeqaence 
belonging to it. They had only 5 boats, from 10 to 20 tuns burden. Thefe 
were employed in carrying fait to Leith, and importing from thence wood, and 
iron, for the ufe of the pans, and in the lime trade. They went no farther. 
But after fome fliip carpenters had come to fettle in it, the fpirit for fliip build- 
ing prevailed fo much, that, in 174O, they had 30 veflels, from 15 to 60 tons 
burden, amounting to 860 tons. In 1745, feveral of thefe were employed in 
government fervicc. When the coal was working, and the fait pans going, 
they "had abundance of exports ; but fince thefe were given up, they have had 
none. Yet this did not deftroy their fpirit for trade and Ihip building ; for they 
had the addrefs and good fenfe to become carriers to other ports. 

t Vide LocVs Eflay on the Trade, tec. of Scotland, Vol. IL p. f. 

g£2 Statijitcal Account 

ikid to belong to thtt port*. They require about 300 lailors 
to navigate them. Thej import a great quantity of wood^ 
iron, flax, and lintfeed, from the Baltic and Holland^ and barlej 
from England and the Carfe of Gowrie, &c* ; and they ex- 
port coak from Alloa, Clackmannan, and the other coUieri«i 
on the Frith, to Dundee, Perth, Norway and Sweden. Some 
of them are in the Mediterranean and Levant trade, and one 
of them has been in government fervice to the Eaft Indies. 

Coafi. — At Kincardine there is a very good road-ftead, 
where zoo vcflels may ride with fafety. The beach where 
they dean and repair their vefiels is hard gravel. From the 
W. end of the parilh to New Pans, the ihore is level ; and, 
where the flood ebbs, 400 or 500 acres of fine mud might be 
taken from the river by a fea dike, and annexed to the land. 
From New Pans, to the pariih of Culrofs, the {bore is fall of 
rocks, which are vifible when the tide ebbs, but covered when 
It flows. 

Jfin^a/z.-^This pariih abounds with excellent quarries of 
free^ftone, both yellow and white. The quarry of Loogannat 
hath been in great reputation, time immemorial. It is a dur- 
able ftone, perfe&ly white, of a fmall greei^ and takes on a fiae 
fmooth polifii. The demand for it has been greater than the 
quarriers have ever been able to fupply. Befides many houfes 
in the neighbourhood, of the Crft archittdure, that have been 
built out of it, it has been carried by fea to many diftaat 
places. The Royal Exchange, Infirmary, and Regifier Office, 
in Edinburgh, and one of the churches in Aberdeen, were 
partly built oat of it. And it is reported here, that one of 


• Sec VoL VHt Np. XL. 


•f TuB^ttanl 5^5 

die principal honfes of Amsterdam, and the St%dt-I{oafe of 
H0U.A9B were built oat of it *• 

JIff/b.— -Them are 4 iQiUs in this pariihi within 40 yards of 
each ether, built in a moft fubftantial manner ; viz. a meal, 
^ barley, a;flottr9 afid a threlbing mill, all driven by the fame 
water. Little, if any, of that water arifes from fprings, foi; 
there are very few in the pariih, but from what falls from the 

-clouds. Before fteam engines were invented, the coal ma« 
chinery on the lands of Kincardine were driven by this water, 
as they had no rivers nor rivulets by which they could be 
wrought. To repaedy this defed, a ftrong dike was built 
between two rifing banks, about 40 yards in length, and aa 
feet deep, and around all the rifiog ground, they caft ditclics, by 
which the water, tailing from the clouds, might be con^iAej 
into what is called the Papermill Dam, which, when full, covers 
66 acres, and contains water fiifficient to drive the mills, and 

. the coal machinery, for 9 months of the year. They likewife 

built another damj which, when full, covers 50 acres. Thta 

Vol. XI. 4 A ia 

* Thefc two Uft, perligps, may be tboaglit difpot&ble ; but, to conroborat* 
thb aflertion, there ve ftill the remains of a long pier, faidr, to be built bj a 
I>utch company, to be feen. About 40 yards of it, neareft to the land, are in » 
%tt%t mexfore entire. From this pie¥ to low water, they built two ftooe dikes, 
ibme yards diftant from ope another, in which were ereAed poUies, by which 
they hauled out their vefl*els through the dock formed by the two^ dikes. Tfaia 
dock was 9 feet deep at high water, but is now almoft filled up with mud. Gonti- 
|;qous to ity there are the remains of a large refer^ir, built by them. Which filled. 
when the tide flowed ; and, when it was near ebb, they opened a fluice in the 
lefervoir, of about 9 feet wide, which emptied itfelf along the pier into the 
dock, and carried ofF the mud which the former tide had wafhed into it. A 
link weft from it, there is another pier (if it may be fo called), named the Rt^ai 
JEMhrnnge Pier^ becaufe at it they loaded their Tefleb with (tones for that, 
tuildinj; { and at this pier they generally load their nfleli ft prcil^oL. 

554 Statiftical Acccuni 

is not fo deep as the fbrmer, and only contains a quarter of 
a year's water. The laft is often dry in fummer, and the 
other, in a great drought, has not fo much water running iota 
it as would ill a half inch pipe. 

Biftillerbs and Ganle^^^ThfiTC are two large diftillerxes ia 
thb place* which feed annuaUy from X70 to ^00 cattle. Thefe, 
when fed| are fold at from xol. to 151. each. They employ a 
great many fenrants and horfes, befides what they hire. 
Their fpirits go to the Fife, Edinburgh, and Glafgow markets. 
They import barley from England, Carfe of Gowrie, &x^ 
befides what they purchafe in the neighbon.hood. 

MantffaSures.'^lJo manufaftures, excepting (hip building, 
which has been carried on fucceffively for above 50 years pail, 
have been introduced into Kincardine, until within thefe two 
years, that two companies for tambouring have fettled in it, 
who employ about 50 girls each, and z8 looms. The other 
mechanics are employed in working to the people of tho 

Houfet^'^ln 1740 there were 214 houfes in the pariih. Of 
thefe 51 have been pulled down, and the ground they occo* 
pied annexed to farms. The number of houfes now ftandbg, 
that were built before the yea,r 1740, are . - 98 

iRebuilt fince that period, 1 • « 75 

New houfes built fince 1740, « « •« 399 

Total number of houfes, •» • 47a 

Population. — If we may judge of the fotmer number oC 
inhabitants by the number of hoiifes, they would not amount, 
^o years a^o, to one half of what they are at prefent. ^And^ 

• ifninattatti ' iss 

jnSLttii fi\)iii Dr. Webftec's report, the number a^pearl to 
kave been nearly doubled within that period. 

The number of fouls at prefent (1793)1 '^ ^^ parifli^ is 343« 
In the year 17559 it was only - - 1321 

Increafe, » - * • ZZ09 

The marriages, births*, and deaths f, as recorded in th« 
pariih r^gifier, for the laft 10 yearsi are as follows ; 

Anno Mariaoes. Births; i)£ATHS^ 









































- ■■ 

II • 1 






Anaoal average^ 

- aa» 



4 A a Pnfrkt^h 

• Thomas Scotlana, a fliocmakcr in Kinbardine, hU hod 13 children by one 
%afe, xo of whom were at 5 binhs fucccffiTely. 

f An eiaA account of the births and deaths is not to be etpedled in this 
place ; for fcveral of the Scccders do not regiOaU their childia*** hirthi, aai 
£t feral fallors are loft or die at fei. 

SS^ Stutifiical Actouttt 

FrppriiUm and Reni^^-^Thtrt are 7 heriton is the pn&) 
all of whom are non-rcfideDt, except two, whofe p r op e rty dee> 
not amount to 50 acres. The valtiatiod of the landed pco* 
perty is 1589I. 98. 6-^. Scotch* 

Ecelefiqfiieal State ^"^There are two clergTinen in the pa* 
riih, the minifter of the Eftabliihed Church, and of the Burgh- 
er Seceders. The number of their hearers, and of the ptbcr 
fedariesy are as under : 

Members of the Eftablilhed Church, - X04d 

Burgher Seceders, • • - • 370 

Antiburgher ditto, - - - • itf 

Seceders from thefe, « « « • 9 

Anabaptifts, - - « - « ^ 

In alf, - - * ^ 2430 

The church was formerly built about a mile farther 
north than it is at prefcnt, and was very finall, being onlj 
36 feet in length, x6 in breadth, and 8 feet in height. 
The prefent church is built half an Englifli mile £nom the 
fliore, upon a rifing ground, overlooking the village of Kin- 
cardine, which lies between it and the Forth. It was built 
in 1675 ; and, were it not for its Gothic windows, would be 
taken for a modern edifice. It appears, from the pariih re- 
cords, that though the heritors built the church, they did not 
fiat it. This the kirk-fef&on, in order to accommodate the 
people, did, out of the poor's funds ; and afterwards, to reimi> 
burfe tbofe funds, fold them to the pariflioners ; which they, 
their heirs, and aiSgnees, poflcfs to this day. A feat, hold« 
ing 5 perfonsi that was then fold for 45*^ now feUs f