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Statistical, descriptive and 
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North-western provinces 



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STATISTICAL, 




DESCRIPTIVE, AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 



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GORAKHPUR DISTRICT. 



COMPILED FBOM MATBBIAL8 COLLICTID 

BT 

B. ALEXANDER, C.8., 

AHD BDIT»D BT 

H. 0. CONYBEARE, C.S., 

AMD 

EDWIN T. ATKINSON, B.A., F.R.G.S., 

BEN9AL CIVIL. SERVICE. 




ALLAHABAD: 

H0BTH.WE8T1BN PE0VIHCH8 AND OODH GOVKBHKKNT PBB8B. 

1880. 



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FOR THE NORJ 






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STATISTICAL, DESCRIPTIVE, AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 

OF THE 

NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES. 



GORAKHPUR DISTRICT. 






CO 

TIVE. 


N TENTS. 




Part I.— Geographical and Descrip 




Part III.— Inhabitants, Institutions, and 


History. 






rage. 


Population by successive censuses ... 


Page. 
... 845 


Boundaries, area, &o. 




... 271 


Other census statistics 


... 849 


Administrative subdivisions 




... 27-i 


Castes and tribes 


... 351 


Change* in chose subdivisions 




... 274 


Oecuputions 


... add 


Tappus... 

Bab-district of Ka-iia 




... 277 


Emigration 


... 3«7 




... 2*2 


Customs and food ... ... 


... ib. 


Jurisdiotiuiisof civil courts... 




... to. 


Habitations and religious buildings ... 


... 3n8 


General appearance of the district ... 




... 284 


Religlou 


... 370 


Heights and soil*... 




... 281 


Language 


... 372 


Saline plains 




... 285 


Education ... ... ... 


... 373 


For sts and forest-grants ... 




... 286 


Post-office ... 


... 375 


Drainage and rivers 




«. 291 


Police 


... 376 


Alluvion and diluvion 




... 301 


Jail and lock-up ... . M 


... 378 


Proposed canals ... 




... ib. 


Fiscal history : former settlements ... 


... 379 


Lagoons 




... 302 


The current (settlements ... ... 


... 392 


Navigation 




... 30tf 


Revenue collections and instalments ... 


... 396 


Roads 




... ib. 


Proprietary tenures 


... ih. 


Tabic of distance* „, 




... 309 


Taallukas 


... 398 


Rainfall and climate 




... 312 


Leading families... 

Coudmou of landholding classes 


... 4O0 
... 4«»3 


Part II.— Producta : Animal, Vegetable, 




Alienations 

Condition and tenures of cultivating classes 


... 403 

... 404 


and Mineral, 






Rents and castes of tenantry 
Wages and prices 


... 408 

.. 410 


Animal kingdom : wild boasts, birds, &c. 




... 314 


Money-lending and interest .« 


... 411 


Cattle and Pastures ... ... 




... 817 


Manufactures and trado ... 


... ib. 


Fish and fisheries .. 




... 319 


Markets and fairs „ 


... 421 


Vegetable kingdom : cultivated crops... 




... 321 


Weights and measures ... 


... ib. 


Progress of cultivation 




... 829 


District receipts and expenditure 


... 4i3 


Outturn 




... 331 


Municipality and house-tax towns ... 


... tl. 


Crop areas 




... 334 


Income and license taxes ... 


... 424 


Trees and forest-produce ... 




... ib. 


Excise and stamps 


... ib. 


Agricultural processes : manuring 




... 837 


Kcgift ration ... ... .« 


... 425 


Irrigation 




... 338 


Judicial and medical statistics 


... U>. 


Floods 




... 348 


History : legendary and Buddhist periods 


... 428 


"Droughts and f amines 




... ib. 


Hindu period ... 


... 432 


Minerals and building material 




... 344 


Musalmau period 


... 4^9 


Salt „ 




... 316 


British period ... 


... 4jI 




Gazetteer of t 


le district, pago 





FA.RT I. 

Geographical. 1 

Gorakhpub, a district in the Benares division, and after Mirzapur the most 
extensive non-Him&layan district in the North-Western Provinces, lies between 
north latitude 26° 7' 45* and 27° 29' 15," and east longitude 83° 8' 0* and 
84° 32' 30." It is bonnded on the north by Nepal, from which it is separated 

1 The materials for this notice have been supplied chiefly by Mr. E. Alexander, B.C. 8., 
who acknowledges the aid derived from the Settlement licportt and the writings of Swiuton, 
Hamilton, Cunningham, Elliot, and others, But throughout the work, and especially in its 
latter portions, considerable additions have been made by Messrs. W. Cruokc and 11. Cony bears 
oi the same service. 

35 



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272 



GORAKHFUB. 



by an arbitrary line of boundary pillars ; and on the west by the district of 
Basti, the frontier being for a short distance formed by the Ghunghi and Rdpti 
rivers. On the south it is divided from the Azamgarh district by the river 
Ghagra ; and on the east from the Champ&ran and Saran districts of Bengal 
by a line mostly artificial, but supplied for a few miles by the former bed of the 
Great Gandak river, whose main stream now runs almost wholly within that 
province. The maximum breadth of the district from east to west is 86, the 
minimum 47, and the average 64 miles. Its maximum length from north 
to south is 83, its minimum 70, and its average 75 miles. Gorakhpur has, 
excluding fractions, a total area of 4,584 square miles, of which 2,700 may be 
roughly estimated as under cultivation, 1,102 as culturable, and 782 as barren. 1 
The total population by the last census (1872) was 2,019,361 souls. 2 

The following table shows the subdivisions into which for purposes of 
revenue and general administration the district is divided, and details the area, 
revenue, population, and police jurisdictions of each : — 



Tahsil. 



Farganah. 



Included by the 
Ain-i-Akbari in 



Land 
revenue 

in 
1877-78. 



Present 

area in 

square 

miles 

(omitting 

fractions.) 



Popula- 
tion in 
1872. 



Included In the police 
Jurisdiction of 



I.-MaharaJ- 
ganj. 



II— ITazur or 
Sadr. 



III.— Padrauna 
IV.-Hata 

V.-Banagaon, 

VI.-Deoria „ 
Total ., 



1. BlnAyakpur ... 

2. Tilpur 

3. Havcll Gorakh 
pur (Part I.) 

4. Ditto (Part II.), 



5. Bhauapar (Part 

6. Maghar 

7. Sidhna Jobna 
(including tappa 
Batsara.) 

8. Havcli Gorakh 
pur (Part III.) 

9. Shahjahanpur ... 

10. Silhat 

11. Anola 

12. Dhuriapar 

13. BhauApar (Part 
II) 

14. Chillupar 

15. Balempur 



\ Binayakpur and f 
j Tilpur. I 

Gorakhpur 

Ditto 

Bhauapara 
Ratanpur 
Dhewapara Kuha- 



Gorakhpur 

Dhewapara Kuha- 

na. 
Gorakhpur 

Anhola 
Dhuriapara 

BhawApara 

Cblllupara 
Dhewapara Kuha 



Rs. 

17,111 

48,575 

2,08,868 

1,74,217 

26,170 

62,953 

3,37,202 



87,258 

78,454 

1,15,987 

43,721 
1,12,181 

32,307 

42,070 
2,96,886 



16,83,460 



145 

287 

789 
474 

64 
116 



156 

138 

279 

111 
317 

77 

110 
587 



4,584 



21,722 Naikot or Piaaia. 
57,021 NichUral, Mahlrajganj 
Simra, and Kotibhar. 
240,812 Ditto, except Nicola- 

Tal. 
231,213 Panira,RJgauli,Baraicha, 
Manrirganj, Pipraich, 
and Gorakhpur. 
33,852 An outpost 

65.610 SahDjanua and Rudar- 

pur. 

74.611 Kotibhar Ramkola, 
Padrauna, Ka&siaa, 
BiBhanpura, Tarakul- 
wa and Kazipur, and 
Taria Sujan. 

Hata, Chaura, and Bar- 

Hata and Tar akulwa. 



69,821 

81,562 

135,847 

70,116 
177,693 

48,674 

48,919 
818,648 



H*ta> Deoria, and Ro- 

darpur. 
Rudarpur and Deoria 
Bansgfon, Belghat, and 

Gola, 
An outpost. 

Barhalgan). 

Khukundu, Khampar, 
Barhaj, and Laru. 



2,019,350 



1 Those accustomed to Indian statistics will not be astonished to learn that there is a 
difference of as much as 634 square miles between the highest and lowest estimates of culti- 
vation obtained from the different returns consulted. The figures above given are founded on 
the settlement reports, allowance being made for the increase which has undoubtedly taken 
place since they were compiled, as well as for cultivation in junple grant lands not surveyed 
at settlement. ' Details of this population will be fouud in the beginning of Fart III. 



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GOBAKHPUB. 273 

The parganah divisions almost all represent roughly the limits of the 
territories of the various petty princes who parcelled out the country between 
them before the Muhammadans acquired any real hold on it, and their origin 
may be briefly described as follows : — 

(1) Bindyakpur corresponds with the eastern portion of the Butwal 
Rfija's territory as it stood after the separation of (2) Tilpur by Tilak Sen 
about 1725 A. D. He represented the younger branch of this family, and 
divided the family possessions with his elder brother, Binayak Singh, The 
parganah of Bindyakpur was cut in two after the Nepalese war by the ces- 
sion of a strip of land to the Gurkha chiefs, and on the division of Basti from 
Gorakhpur in 1865 its western portion was included in the former district* 

(3) Haveli Oorakhjmr.— The northern, which is locally as well as in 
the settlement reports recognised as having formed a distinct tract from the 
southern portion, represents the domain held for some time by the Th&rfis. It 
was divided from the southern portion, which formed the Sat&si raj, by a vast 
forest, and was itself for the most part woodland. Not being clearly occupied 
by any R&ja, it received no separate name, and was considered by the Muham- 
madans as attached to the Haveli parganah. 

(7) Sidhua Jobna.— The name is said to be derived from its being a 
wild region, into which holy men or siddhas went to perform austerities. It 
embraces all the tract which lay above the territory of the Majholi R£ja and 
east of the Satisi rdj. The southern portion represents the country held by 
R&ja Madan Singh to the north and east, just as (9) Shfihjahanpur repre- 
sents that to the south and west. The north agrees roughly with the limits 
of the Padrauna taltika. Shahjahanpur was at one time included in the same 

parganah. 

(6) Maghar.— This parganah was cut in two at the separation of the 
Basti district (1865), and marks the limits of the old Maghar rdj. 

(5) Bhaudpdr corresponds with the possessions of the Satasi rdj along 
the west bank of the R£pti. 

(11) Anola was the territory of the Anola Rfija. 

(10) SUhat is the tract so long (1633-83) disputed between the Majhauli 
and Satfisi Rajas ; while (12) Dhuridpdr was the country conquered by Dhur 
Chand Singh (circ. 1350). (14) Chilltipdr, once known as Chahluapar, was the 
name of a part of the country annexed by the Simara Bdbu, who thereon 
became Raja of Chillupfir (circ. 1630); and (15) Salempur Majhauli was the 
permanent territory of the Majhauli R6jas, who held Shfihjahfinpur and Silhat 
for a time only. 

a4 



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11. 


Rasulpur Gbaus (2 mahals). 


12. 


Ramgrarh Gauri (2 mahals). 


13. 


Gorakhpur (2 mahals). 


14. 


Katahla. 


Iff. 


Rihlapftra. 


16. 


Mahauli. 


17. 


Mandwa. 


1R. 


Mandla. 


19. 


fiaUnpur Magbar (2 mahals) 



274 GORAKHPUR. 

The formation of the present district may now be briefly described. 
Elliot 1 describes sarkfir Gorakhpur as consisting in AkLar's time (1596) of 
19 parganahs and 24 mahals as follows: — 

1. Atraula. 

2. Anola. 

3. Biniyakpur (2 mahals). 

4. Bnmbnipara. 

5. Bhawapara. 

6. Tilpur. 

7. Chillupara. 

8. Dhuriapara. 

9. Dhewapara Kuhana. 
10. Rihli. * 

Elliot apparently considers that this sarkar corresponded on the east 
and south with the present district, and that Dhew&para included Sidhua 
Jobna, Salempur, and ShAhjahanpur. It is however more probable that the 
limits of the sarkar to the east corresponded with the western boundary 
Sarkar Gorakhpur line of parganahs Sidhua Jobna and Shahjahinpur, which 
and it. probable limit,. ^ Rt that t ; me ; ncluded togethep under the name of 

the former in sarkar SSran. In the settlement report of Sh&hjab&npur 
dated 1832 this is clearly stated to have been the case, and, as will be 
shown in the historical account of the district, Sidhua Jobna never really 
formed part of the Majhauli raj, and was not likely to be included with it 
in Dhewapara. The name of the latter tract, too, clearly signifies the country 
just across the Dhewa (a name of the GhAgra), and would be rightly applied 
to Salempur Majhauli, but not to Sidhua Jobna. Sidhua Jobna was trans- 
Limits extended, ferred to sarkfir Gorakhpur in 1137 F. S. (1730 A. D.) 
1IS? FeS * and carried SMhjahanpur with it: the latter not being 

created into a separate parganah until about 1150 F. S. (1743 A. D.) 

Salempur took its present name on the conversion of the Majhauli 

Kaja to Muhammadanism in about 1565 . 2 Silhat, the 
parganahs? " * * onlv other parganah now existing which is not given in 

the above list, was separated from Haveli Gorakhpur 

about 1700, after its reconquest by the Satfisi K&jas. And these four 

parganahs, with all those on the list except fifimgarh Gauri (which seems to 

have been retained by the NawSb Vazir), and with part also of Btitwal, 

Constitution of now in Ne P 6l > represent pretty accurately the district 

the district at time of Gorakhpur as it stood when made over to the Bri- 
of cession, 1801, . , . „ _~. « -, ,. . ,. , 

tish in 1801. 3 To this district, however, the following 

1 Races of the North-Western Provinces, Vol. II., p. 119. Sarkar Gorakhpur was included 

in the province of Oudh (Suba Avadh). * The popular and more ancient name of the chief 

town Salempur is Nawapar, or, according to Buchanan, Nagar. * It seems at this time 

to have been called in official correspondence sarkar Muazzimabad after Prince Muazzim, 

son of Aurangzeb. 



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GORAKHPUR. 275 

divisions were annexed when the first English officer was appointed to their 
charge : — 

(1) Chakla Mdhtil (consisting of 6 parganahs). 

(2) Chakla Azamgarh (11 parganahs). 
(3; Nawdbganj (6 parganahs). 

(4) Khairdgarh (7 parganahs). 
The last named was immediately afterwards placed in charge of a 
and changes in that separate officer, as being too distant from headquarters 
constitution. ^ j^ p r0 perly managed (1802). After the Nepdlese war 

the whole territory of Btitwal (except parganahs Bindyakpur and Tilpur, 
which had for some time before our rule belonged at least nominally to 
Oudh) was transferred to Nepdl (1816) ; while Nawdbganj was surrendered 
to the Nawdb in exchange for some land attached to the Sh&hjah&npur 
district, and in repayment of % money loan borrowed for war expenses. 
Parganahs 1, 4, and 10 in Elliot's list were thus made over to Oudh. The 
third change'occurred four years afterwards (1820), when the whole of chakla 
Azamgarh and the bulk of Mdhtil were transferred from the Gorakhpur to the 
Ghdzipur* and Jaunpur districts, the undivided charge being found too heavy 
for one officer. A fourth alteration in area arose from the transfer of the 
Tarai to Nepal after the mutiny. No further change seems to have been made 
till 1864, when, the extent of the district being found too great to Allow of its 
proper administration, a portion was separated to form the new district of 
Basti. This arrangement, completed in 1865, gave the new district parganahs 
Basulpur, Eatahla, Rihlapara, Mahauli, Mandwa, and Mandla, with parts of 
Bindyakpur and Maghar. 

It is not improbable that further changes will soon be made, as the 
Arrangement of district is still exceptionally large and populous. The 
t** 18 * 1 * present tahsil arrangement shown above dates only from 

1872. The division by tahsils seems to have been introduced for the first 
time in 1804, when the present Gorakhpur district, with some part of Basti, 
was divided into five subdivisions, over each of which a tahsildar was placed. 
This officer was at first charged with the maintenance of the police and with 
the protection of life and property throughout his tahsil, as well as with the 
collection of revenue, for whigh the kdmingo seems to have been directly 
responsible. He was allowed a percentage on the collections, and bound to 
maintain a sufficient police force to guard the treasure and put down dakaits 
with a strong hand. 



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276 



GOBARHPUR. 



The five tahsils were arranged as follows : — 

(1) The present parganahsof 8alempur and Chillupar. 

(2) Those of Bhauapar, Anola, and Bakhira (in the present Basti district). 

(3) Haveli, Silhat, Maghar, and Basuipur Ghana (in Basti). 

(4) Dhuriapar and Maholi (in Basti). 

(ft) Sidhua Jobna, including Shahjahanpur. 

Oar authority at this date seems to have been merely nominal in Tilpur 
and Bin&yakpur, which were mostly nnder forest. 

In 1809-10, after the restoration of the appointment of tahsildar, which 
Changes in iso»- had been abolished in 1808, Bhauapar and Anola were 
-°- joined to the sadr tahsil, while Maghar and Rasulpur Ghaus 

were taken from the latter and united to B&nsi (in Basti), In 1817-18 again, 
Changes after the a ^ ter ^ e settlement of the Nepal boundary, a new tahsil 
Nepalese war. wa8 f orm ed in the north from parganahs Tilpur and Binayak- 

pur. This arrangement seems to have continued undisturbed till 1835-40, 
when a new tahsil was located at Bausgaon, and Anola, 
Bhau&p&r, and Dhuriapar were put under its jurisdiction. 
In 1845 the Tilpur tahsili was brought further south and loeated at Man- 
stirganj, but after about 16 years the increase of culti- 
vation and revenue in the northern parganahs made it 
necessary to move it north again. The site at last selected was Maharajganj, 
where it is still situated. Simultaneously with this second change it was 
found advisable to diminish the area of the sadr tahsil, and in 1871-72 a 
new tahsil was built at Hata, which relieved it of a considerable portion of the 
Haveli parganah. To this new tahsil were added parganahs Shahjahanpur 
and Silhat from the jurisdiction of the Sidhua Jobna and Salempur tahsfls. 

The following table shows the present parganahs and their approxi- 
mate cultivated area, including Idkhirdj lands which are omitted in the settle- 
ment returns : — 



In 1889.40. 



In 1845. 



• 

Parganah. 


Areas in square 
mile (fractions 
omitted). 


Area in acres. 


Cultivated accord- 
ing to the last set* 
tlement returns. 

Column includes cul- 
tivated area of 
jungle grants, &c. 


Number of tap- 


Si 

s» 

85~ 


Population by 
the last cen- 
sus (1873). 


1. Binayakpur East, 


145. 


3,095 under settle* 

ment. 
63,065 jungle grant, 
&c, re* 
serve, &c. 

93,160 total. 


15,114 

26,738 in grants,&c 


69 


20,547 




41,836 





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GORAKHPUB. 



277 



Parganah. 



S. Tilpur 



3. Hafeli 



4. Sidhua Jobna 



5.— 






5. Magbar 



6. Silhat 



7. Shahjahanpur 

8. Bhauapar 

9. Anola 

10. Dhariapar 

1 1. Chillfipar 

12. Salempur Majholi, 



287 i 



Area in acres. 



Cultivated accord- 
ing to the last set- 
tlement returns. 

Column includes cul- 
tivated area of 
jungle grants, &c. 



1,420 < 

i 



928 



116 



279 



r 

i 



138 
142 
111 
317 
110 
687 



4,584 



1 1 5,9 1 3 under settle- 
ment. 

68,007 jungle 

grants, &c, 
reserve. 

188,920 total. 



285,484 jungle 
grants, Go- 
vernment 
' forests, &c. 

626,876 under settle- 
ment. 



69,000 
8,697 in gran ts,&c 



912,360 total. 



596,581 including 
grants. 



73,750 

148,600 under settle* 

ment. 
30,500 jungle. 

179,000 total. 



89,432 
90,970 
71,340 

202,383 
65,249 

374,366 



67,697 



120,000 in jungle 

grants, fee 
simple, &c. 

386,397 settled. 



* 



2* 



606,397 



347,968 

30,015 in jungle 
grants. 



877,983 total. 



60,874 
98,258 
23,943 in grants. 



122,201 



2,932,461 total. 



61,218 
68,822 
45,250 
116.700 
84,542 
257,593 



1,736,113 total. 



28 



o « 

*£ 

la. 
J* 



*S" 



582 

III 

0* 



297 57,021 



1,742 



12 



644,687 



436,374 



158 8,185 



65,941 
136,232 



81,248 
85,254 
70,135 

178,208 
49,724 

319,308 



2,044,674 



Tappas, 



Subordinate to the parganahs are many minor tracts known as tappas, 
which, after the r&j, are perhaps the oldest local subdivisions 
of the country. The i( roj " or territory of each separate 



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278 gorakhpubI 

independent Rfija, though its boundaries were occasionally altered by the results 
of a local war, was usually marked off with clearness, and, as already noticed, 
gave their limits to most of the present parganahs. The tappa division seems 
to have been almost as ancient and almost as clearly defined. 

Its exact origin is extremely hard to ascertain ; but there is much in 
favour of the theory that tappas represent the lands held by vassals of the 
independent Rfijas under what Elphinstone 1 justly calls the Rajput feudal 
system. There is no doubt that this system prevailed in Gorakhpur. The 
birt tenure in force to this day is nothing but a feudal tenure, the service it 
exacted having been, as in other similar cases, converted into a scutage or 
money payment.* There are 158 tappas in the present district, with an average 
area of about 30 square miles each. In Sidhua Jobna and in South Haveli 
Mr. Lumsden notices that the subdivisions are in many cases co-extensive with 
natural divisions of soil, or with limits marked off by other natural boundaries, 
such as rivers. He also mentions that in the latter parganah they often 
represent taliikas " which might appropriately be formed into tappas at the 
arrangement of fiscal subdivisions consequent on the cession." He does not, 
of course, by this mean that the tappa subdivision was only introduced at the 
cession. Tappas are mentioned as early as when R4ja Bernfith invaded and 
established himself in Chillupdr (circ. 625); and they seem to correspond roughly 
with the old "lordship often towns" mentioned by Manu. There is, however, 
one broad difference between them and the same divisions in other parts of the 
country : the township was never here the same important limit as elsewhere. 
Mr. Wynne, in his Sabfiranpur report, but speaking of Grorakhpur, has 
pointed this out ; and, as will be shown in the paragraph on " Tenures," the 
rights, tenures, and subdivisions below the raj were in almost all cases founded 
by and dependent on the Raja. The tappa was therefore no merely artificial 
classification of the townships for administrative purposes. It very probably 
at first represented the lands helds under the Raja by each baron and his 
kinsmen. Afterwards, perhaps, when the country had to some extent settled 
down, when payment had been substituted for service, and the division of 
property amongst different members of the family had been recognised, the 
tappps were converted into merely fiscal subdivisions and their boundaries 
fixed by fiscal considerations only. The word itself seems to signify a 
share or offshoot of some larger whole. Thus it is sometimes used to signify 
a colony from an older village, as in the case of tappa Patna, a daughter 
settlement of Patna Khas in parganah Shahjahanpur. The following ia a 
i Hist, Book II., Chapter 2. 2 Vide inf. « Tenures." 



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GORAKHPUB. 



279 



list of the tappas, showing the tahsQi and thana jurisdictions to which they 
each belong : — 

From north-east to south-west 



Tahsfli. 


Parganah. 


Thana. 


Tappa. 


Ixahirajgan} 


Biniyakpnr 


1. PiasiaorNaikot, 


1. Mirchawar. 

2. Sirsa. 








3. Part of Lehra. 






2. TutibWri ... 


4. Nagwan. 

5. Sukarhari. 




Tilpnr 


3. Nichlayal ... 


6. Khaa. 

7. Domarkand. 

8. Bharathfcand. 






4. Maharajganj... 


9. Sonari. 






6. Kotbibhar ... 


10. Purtnl Kathi. 

11. Nai Kartii. 

12. Mat kopa (part.) 




Hareli Gorakhpur, 


Mabarajganj... 


13. Katahar. 






6. Simara ... 


Lehra (part) 
14. Sumakbor. 






7. Rigoli 


15. Rigoli. 

16. Part of Bhiri Baiai. 

17. Hikra. 






8. Paniara ... 


Bhiri Baiai (part.) 
1ft. Banki. 






9. Baraicha ... 


19. Baraicha (part.) 
Matkopa (part.) 






10. Mansfirganj ... 


20. Unti. 

21. Andhaya. 

22. Lekhman. 

23. Part of Baraicha. 




2 parganaha and 


5 whole than is and 


23. 




part of a 3rd. 


part of 5 more. 


S*4r 


Haveli 


11. Pipraich ... 


1 Patra. 
2. Khuth'in. 






Rigoli 


3. Pachwara (part ) 






12. Gorakhpnr ... 


Ditto (part.) 

4. Kasbn. 

5. Marachi Chanda. 

6. Gura. 

7. Haveli. 




Bhauapar ... 


An outpost ... 


8. Ret 

9. Haveli. 




Hareli ... 


13. Chaura 


10. Kiutali. 






14. Barhi 


11. Hajdhani. 

12. Raaulpar. 




Maghar 


15. Sahnjanua ... 


13. Gahasand. 

14. Satagawan. 

15. Utter Haveli. 

16. Aurangabad. 

17. Bharaand. 






16. Rudrapar ... 


18. Bhaduseri. 

19. Suraa. 

20. Pachori. 

21. Khajuri. 




1 whole, 2 in part 


S whole, 6 in part. 


21. 



36 



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.280 



OORAKHPUB. 



TahsSli. 


Pargaoab. 


Thana. 


Tappa. 






( 


1. B a tsar a. 


Padrauna M . 


Sidhua Jobna 


Baralcha < 


Part of Nag wan. 
2. Nagwan. 
Part of Batsraa. 






m 


Part of Papur. 






17. Ramkola ... 


Parwarpar (part.) 
Papur (part.) 
Dandipur (part.) 
Ditto (part.) 






18. Padrauna ... 








Banai Chirigora. 








Part of Bargaou. 








Chaura. 








Pakri GangranL 








Papur (part.) 






19. Kaasia 


Parwarpar (part.) 

Bandi. 

Bhalaa. 














Mainour Sabikhor. 
Jhankul GangL 














Chaura (part.) 






20. Biasenpura ... 


Part Bargaon Chaura, 








Rimpur Roghi. 
Rampur Dhab. 
Pirthipur. 






21. Kaaipur ... 


Sipahi Kuchia. 

Dhuria Bijaipar (part.) 

Baduraon Bnatni. 

Khan. 

Part of Haveli 






22. Iaria8iyan -. 


Ha? eli (part.) 
Bank Jogni. 






23. Tarakulwa ... 


Malsil Sarini. 




1 parganah. 


5 whole thaoaa and 
4 in part. 


22 tappaa. 


Mate 


Haveli „. 


Maueurganj „. 


1. Padkhori. 

2. Bharsand. 

3. Parwarpar (part.) 






Pipraich 


4. Agaya. 

5. Bandwar. 




Haveli ... 


Hata 


6. Dedup&r. 




Sh&bjahanpur ... 


•M 


Parwarpar (part.) 




Silhat 


••« 


7. Badohole, 








8. Bhitni. 

9. Padiap&r. 

10. Narayanpar Cbiurha. 

11. Singhpur. 

12. Hanchara. 
18. Bakhira. 
14. Eatora. 
16. Chiriaoo. 
16. Paharpur. 




Shahjahinpur 


Tarakulwa 


17. Chak Deya. 

18. Nagwan. 

19. Tarakulwa. 

20. Pataa. 

2i. BhaiSadawar. 
it. Majhna. 



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OOBAEHPUB. 



281 



Tahsfli, 


Parginah. 


Thina. 


Tappa. 




8Uhat 


Deoria 


23. Sirijanou 

24. Dont. 

25. Idrakpnr. 

26. Barnai. 

27. Dhatura. 

28. Gura. 






Badarpnr ... 


29. NagwaTikari. 
80. Madanpur. 






Chanra 


31« Binayak. 
82. Indopnr. 




2 whole, 1 in part. 


2 whole, 5 in part. 


82 tappas. 


Bioagaoo 


Anola 


Rndrapur 


1. Harelf. 

2. Bankata. 




Dhnriapir _ 


Banagaon 


8. Bhadar. 
4. Mabsin. 




Bhauaper ••• 




5. Easwasi. 

6. PacbisL 

7. Garmahi. 

8. Eotha. 

9. Bhabnull. 

10. Pili. 

11. Shahpur. 
18. Gur. 

18. Tiar. 

14. Eunnfit (part.) 






Beligbai 


15. Parti, 

16. Thill. 

17. Utri. 
Eurrofit (part.) 

18. Nakuri. 

19. Chodur. 
90. Bareli. 






Gola 


81. Belfgbit (part.) 
22 Dlndi. 
28. Nahnri. 
24 Eobari. 

25. Ch&ndpar. 

26. Sarha. 

27. Bankat. 

28. Ratanpnr. 
Belighat (part.) 






Barhalganj ... 


29. Athfsi. 
80. Gagha. 
31. Majuri. 

82. Eatahao. 

83. Majholift. 

84. Hareli. 

85. Kasba. 

86. Semra. 

87. Sikandarpur. 




2 whole and 2 in part. 


4 in part 


37. 



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282 



GOBAKHPtTE. 



TahiflL 


Parganah* 


Thana. 


Tappa. 


Deoria 


Salempur Majholi... 


Deoria 


1. Deoria. 

2. Gfir. 

3. Kachnwar (part.) 

4. Suroli. 






Rudarpur ^ 


6. Nai Gojharl. 




8alempnr 


81. Khukhundn ... 


6. Samogar. 

7. Euchuwar (part.) 

8. Hatiaon. 

9. Baironan. 

10. Kbfikhundu. 

11. Baroipfr 

12. Paraina.- 






82. Barha 


13. Raipur (part) 

14. Eaparwir. 
Raipur (part) 






83. Khampar 


Mail (part.) 
15. Gh&tl. 
Ifi/Rbitnu 

17. Haveli. 

18. Gntaman. 

19. Balwin. 




t»4. Lar 


20/SobaDpur. 
21. Salempur. 








22. Dodh. 








Mail (part.) 








2*. Balia. 




1 whole, 1 in part. 


4 whole, in 
part. 


23. 


District total 


12 34 


158 



KaiBia. 



The subdivision of Eassia was separated from the Sadr in 1868, 
SubdirUion of * n order to avoid the inconvenience of managing the 
Sidhua Jobna parganah from so great a distance as 
Gorakhpar. Comprising that parganah and part of Sh&hjab&npur, it is in 
charge of an assistant magistrate-collector, who enjoys a large measure of 
independence. The subdivision is likely at no distant period to become a 
separate district. 

There are three munsifs' and one subordinate judge's court, their exist- 
CirU jurifldio ing jurisdictions being shown below. The munsifs 9 courts 
tionfl ' were formerly at Manstirganj, B&nsgaon, and Deoria; that 

of the last named being also held for three months in the year at Padrauan. 
In 1862 however, when the headquarters of the tahsfl were shifted from 
Manstirganj to Mahdr&jganj, the munsifs court was removed to Gorakhpur on 
account of the unhealthiness of the northern tract during part of the year. In 
1865 the visits of the munsif to Pad ra una were also discontinued, and the 



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GORAKHPUB. 



268 



following jurisdictions formed on the complete separation of the district have 
since been retained : — 



1. The Sadr Amin's or Subordinate 

Judges ; 
S. Manors, 1st grade 



8. MnDBifs, 2nd grade 



4. MnneiTa, 8rd grade 



> At Gorahpur 



At Deoria 



At Bansgaon 






Pargaoah Binayakpur 

East. 
Tilpur. 
HayelL 

4 tappas from Maghar. 
2 from Bhaaapar. 
8 from Sidhua Jobna. 

Sidhna Jobna, with ex- 
ception of 8 tappaa 
above Salempor. 

Majhauli. 

8 tappaa Siihat. 

Dhuriapar. 

Chillapar. 

Anola. 

Bhanapar,with the exeep* 
tion of 2 tappaa. 

The remaining 8 tappas 
in Maghar and 6 tap- 
pas in Salempor. 

Majhauli. 



General appearance. 



Besides these there is the court of the civil (sessions) judge at Gorakh- 
pur. The jurisdiction of the latter extends also over the district of Basti. 

Lying east of Oudh and close under the Himalayas, the district in its 
physical characteristics differs much from the Qangetic 
plain. Speaking generally, Gorakhpur is a level tract 
broken by nothing higher than a few sandhills in the centre and east, and sloping 
very gently from north-west to south-east. The surface of this plain is inter- 
sected by numerous risers and streams and dotted by a large number of lakes 
and ponds. The water supply, except in very dry years, is abundant, and the 
large amount of moisture in the soil gives the country a green fresh appear- 
ance, which at once strikes the eye of one entering the district from the more 
arid country south of the Ghfigra. In the north and centre are extensive tracts 
of jungle and sal forest. The trees are not as a rule of any great size, but the 
density and extent of the forest in some places convey a feeling of solitude 
and wildness which cannot fail to impress the traveller who has just left 
the populous and "highly cultivated country in the south. Here and to the 
south-east there is, an expanse of cultivation only broken by fine mango 
groves or by the numerous streams and tdU which occur at short intervals. 
The west and south-west of the district, intersected by the Xmi and the 
Ku&na, lie rather low, and in the rainy season this part of the country is as far 
as the Rapti liable to extensive inundations. If the rainfall is at all exception- 



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284 GOftAKHFOB. 

ally heavy the water collects in the valley of the Xmi, and joining the lakes to 
the east, presents the appearance of an immense sheet of water several miles in 
extent. To the east of the Rdpti the ground rises slightly and there are a few 
sandhills, bat it again sinks towards the south-east, and the general slope of 
the country is, as before mentioned, in this direction. 

Along the north of the district lies the tarai at the foot of the first range 
of hills ; these are about eight miles beyond the frontier in Nep&l. The snowy 
range can be seen distinctly from the frontier, and though there are no hills 
within the district, their propinquity changes the character of the country 
altogether from that which it bears in the south. The nature of the landscape 
in the north is somewhat similar to that of the Diin. The streams are clear, and 
run, in some oases, over pebbly beds. Large tracts are covered by forests which 
contain some fine trees. In these tracts there are often open pieces of sward 
admirably adapted for pasturing cattle ; sometimes there are large marshes full 
of naP and infested by tigers and other wild animals. The principal cultivation 
is rice, and the inhabitants are mostly hill men (Gurkhas) or Th&rus, who, 
though differing from the former, are more like them than like the people of the 
south. The climate of this tract is, as elsewhere in the tar4i, very dangerous at 
certain seasons of the year, but mild and pleasant at the beginning of the hot 
season. In the south the appearance of the country is altogether altered, and 
the population is composed, as in the districts below the Ghagra, chiefly of the 
ordinary Hindu and Muslim tribes. The climate is good and similar to that of 
the southern districts. In the east, especially somewhat north of the centre, 
the character of the country is mixed. Here are undulations and ridges which 
show for the first time an approach to the hills. Patches of jungle appear, 
and the climate is not so well suited to natives who come from other districts 
as that of the south. 

As before remarked, the slope of the country is from north-west to south- 

_ east The average height above the level of the sea is 

Heights* 

only 316 feet. In the north-west the usual elevation is 

about 350 feet, in the south-east about 305. The highest of the sandhills is 

386 feet, 5 and probably the ground nowhere sinks much below 300. 

The soils of the district are classified either according 

to their position or their composition. According to their 

position these soils are :— 

(1) Khddar or low riverside flats. Of such lands the Rapti basin affords 

typical specimens. 

1 A tall kind of reed. f This hillock lies between Padrauna and Kaasia* There is 

•fcotfter ridge, Tory little lower, south of MichUml in pergaoah Tilpar. 



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OOBAKHPUB. 285 

(2) Kachdr or the same when liable to yearly inundation, Kachdr land 
usually yields a spring crop only. 

(3) Ohaiwr bhdt— that is, land low and marshy, bat not necessarily near 
a river, nor liable to inundation in the same way as kachar. It is, in fact, 

rather a water-logged soil near some jhil than a kh&dir soil. , 

(4) Chauridr bhdt, a higher lying soil than the cliaur bhdt, with consider- 
able natural moisture and great fertility. 

According to their composition soils are distributed into the following 
classes : — 

(1) Balua, a sandy light soil similar to that known elsewhere as bhdr. i 

(2) Dorus? a dry siliceous loam, in which the sand slightly predominates ; 
over the clay, and whose spring crops, therefore, in most years require irriga- 
tion. 

(3) Mattiydr, in which the proportions of sand and clay are reversed, and 
which requires in most parts of the district little irrigation in ordinary 
years. 

(4) Bhit, % a calcareous soil retentive of moisture and requiring no irriga- 
tion in ordinary years. Its productive qualities vary very much according to 
its position, and even the best kind {chauridr bhdt aval) requires to be left 
fallow occasionally. 

The dorus soil is most prevalent in the south and west, the bhdt in the 
centre and east, and the mattiydr in the north of the district In the centre 
and south-east the more sandy soil crops up in the bhdt, and rises in some 
plaoes into the sandhills before alluded to. The mattiydr soil in some parts is 
called karela, a name properly applicable only to a very stiff clay which can 
be dug up in large clods, and does not crumble like most other soils. " When- 
ever," says Mr. Swinton, " excavations are made, the sand formation below the 
superimposed stratum of culturable soil is sooner or later met with. The depth 
of both strata varies very much in different localities." 8 

There is very little tear in the district, though some is met with in the . 
south. In the north there are some extensive swamps, and 
in Tilpur, Binayakpur, and the extreme north of Haveli, 

1 Doras is near the Ghigra usually known as banjar. In this locality it rises up towards 
the high bank of the Gh&gra. haying been raised by tne sandy deposit left after each eucces* 
sire inundation (Swinton 'a Manual, page 80.) f On the west ol the Little Gandak a 

number of smalt eminences crop up in the bhat soil, formed of silicious soil like dorus. 
* Manual, page 31. It may be here remarked that Mr, Lumaden was the only officer 
who at last settlement seems to hare made any thorough classification of soils, and even he 
does not always keep to the natural composition. In the Tilpur and Binayakpur reports Mr. 
White and Mr. Wynne seem often to take dorus, mattiyar, and balua merely aa names meaning 
lit quality, 2nd quality, &c. and it is not at all to be piesumed that what they call balua la 
really a sandy soil; it may be an inferior mattiyar. 



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286 GORAKHPUR. 

owing to the cold left in the soil by the excessive moisture, a good deal of the 
land bears virtually only one crop, that of rice. In the south-west, owing to 
the extensive inundations, some of the land oan be gown only with a spring 
crop, and there is consequently no autumn harvest. 

The forests of the district, still very extensive, were a few years ago 
enormous ; but the land they cover is chiefly culturable 
and often particularly good. From the historical sketch 
of the district hereafter given, it will seem probable that, owing to the 
long struggle between Bhars and invading Aryans, but little land was left 
free of jungle on the final subjugation of the former. The south-west was 
cleared by the Dhuri&p&r Rajas; Chilldp&r by them and Raja Bernath'a 
descendants ; and Salempur by the Majhauli Rajas. Between the latter 
and the Dhuriap&r Raja's territory was left a broad fringe of jungle which 
extended along the R&pti, covering the greater portion of Silhat and Haveli, 
and remaining unreclaimed, chiefly, no doubt, because it was a bone of long 
contention between the Sat&si and Majhauli Rajas. Bhau6par and a part of 
Haveli were brought under cultivation by the former ; Anola and Maghar were 
reclaimed by the descendants of Chandra Sen's other sons; Bin&yakpur was 
brought under partial cultivation during the Bfitwal regime, and Tilpur, with 
part of Sidhua Jobna, by the Tharfis. Haveli was almost entirely covered with 
jungle till about 1600. Its northern and western portions were afterwards 
largely reclaimed ; but the misgovernment of the 4mils between 1750 to 1800 
caused the cultivators to abandon their holdings, and the bulk of the parganah 
was in 1802 covered by jungle. On the rise of the Padraunu taluka the greater 
portion of the Sidhua Jobna parganah was in the same state, owing to the 
ravages of the Banjaras and the misgovernment of the amils. 

At the time of its cession to the British a very large portion of the dis- 
trict was covered with forest and scrubby undergrowth. The Collector x 
reported that a transit duty on timber had been levied under the preceding 
Government and brought in considerable sums. The duty was then farmed, 
and produced during its first year as much as ten thousand rupees for the Go- 
rakhpur, Basti, and Nawahganj districts, the wood exported being chiefly 
sdl 9 which was sent down to Calcutta. About 1829-30, jungle plots were for 
the first time granted^ subject to a progressive demand, which culminated 
during its tenth year. About 18,000 acres are still held under the terras 
of these grants on what is really fee-simple tenure. Most of this laud lies 
in the Gorakhpur parganah, and more than half its area is cultivated. Appli- 

1 Mr. Roatledge, 1802*03. 



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Q0RAKHPT7R. 



287 



cations for such grants soon, however, became bo numerous as to exoite appre- 
hensions that too large a portion of the land-revenue might become fixed at low 
rates incapable of enhancement. Government accordingly directed, about the 
year 1840, that no further grants should be made on such terms. Leases might 
be granted for periods sufficient to make it worth the grantee's while to clear 
the land ; but on the expiry of those periods the grants must be open to reset- 
tlement like other zamind&ri estates, and also liable to confiscation if the terms of 
the lease should not have been carried out. The main object of the grants was 
still to clear the land for cultivation, and a certain amount of land was fixed as 
the minimum which the grantee must clear if he wished to keep the grant. The 
amount of acres in any one gf ant was limited ; conditions were also introduced 
as to sale on transfer and the maintenance of drainage. Still, however, the 
amount of land held under jungle grants became so large, and the forest was 
cleared off so rapidly, as to render a scarcity of timber probable. It was deemed 
more profitable to preserve what was left than to allow its conversion into 
fields. Accordingly, about 1850, the grants were stopped and all persons were 
prohibited from cutting wood in the jungles reserved for Government ; licenses 
being, however, granted for the manufacture of charcoal. x 

The following list shows the jungle grants existing in the district during 
1842:— 



Blna/akpnr 



Tttpar 



Sidbua Jobna 



f Lady Malkia 
1 tMr. Bridgman 



Atrt*. 
13,200 
10,120 



Haveti 











Total 


... 


42,380 


(Mr. Finch 




... 


••• 




25,830 


.«• J „ Hastings 




... 


... 


.— 


1,932 


C n Downes 




•«• 


... 


... 


13,048 






••• 


Total 


••• 


40,316 


t Mr. Finch 
t H Sym 


23,672 




••• 


... 


... 


22,484 








Total 


... 


46,166 


1 


'Mr. Bridgman 




••• 


«•• 


... 


50,800 




„ Deboaru 




... 


... 


... 


82,164 




„ Arrouch 




>•• 


... 


... 


14,140 




„ Campier 




.«• 


••• 


M. 


17,624 




M Fitzgerald 




••• 


t*c 


... 


20,724 


..< 


h Sym 




M» 


*•• 


-{ 


24,484 
18,812 




„ Wilkinson 




... 


•o 


• •• 


11,020 




„ McComish 




... 


••• 


• *• 


11,198 




„ Augustin 




••« 


• •• 


... 


4,714 




„ Fitzgerald (R) 


••• 


••• 


... 


3,164 




(A) 


... 


... 


»•• 


11,484 








Total 


••• 


210,428 






Total for district 


... 


819 2X0 



IMJ, whM the n.# gnat ralot were pawed, grant* hare been few and far between. 

37 



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Grant. 


Cultivated. 1 


Acres. 


Acres. 


43,91ft 


S6 V 7S9 


16,9*9 


6,197 


SI 0,984 


107,607 


60,024 


30,0 i 5 


39,024 


13,943 



2g6 GORAKHPUR. 

Between 1842 and 1850 further plots to the amount of 30,000 acres were 
granted in Silhat and of 4,000 acres in Sidhua Jobna. At the end of 1872 the 
area of the various jungle grants and proportion of cultivation in each stood as 
follows : — 

Parganah. 

Bineyakpur ... ... 

Tilpur * 

Haveli ... ... — 

Sidhua Jobna .»• ... ... ••• 

Silbat ••• ••• ••« ••» 



Total ... 362,036 194,4U 

Since 1872 a further area of 1,330 acres has been granted on leases 
which will expire in 1922 ; and arrangements are in progress for a still larger 
grant (about 5,000 acres) to the Mah&r&ja of Bettiah. It will be seen from 
figures just given that more than half of the entire area has been reclaimed. It 
has now become so much more profitable to grow timber than to reclaim, that 
on many of the later grants less than half the land has been cleared ; aud as 
Government has recently waived its right to resume solely on the ground that 
a proper area has not been reclaimed, it is probable that the greater portion 
of the land now under timber will remain uncleared. 

The reserved forests are situate in 18 isolated blocks standing generally 
Forests reserved " Kke islands in a sea of cultivation, which runs up into 
by Government. little bays and creeks." The edges of such forests are 

uneven, and the demarcation has in many cases been clumsily made and imper- 
fectly denoted. A full description of the forests as they then stood is given 
in Major Pearson's report of 1870. 8 According to this officer, the area is 
between 120,000 and 130,000 acres, or 190 square miles ; and Mr. Colvin, in 
his letter on the settlement of the district, says 1 25,000 acres. From the report 
of the Forest Department for 1876, however, it appears that the area, lately 
125 square miles, has been reduced to 115 only. Hence it is clear that the 
areas above mentioned must include part of the jungle grants or grazing lands 
not immediately under the Forest Department, and therefore not to be classed 
as reserved. 

1 This column doe* not. like that at p. 977, Include the cultivation on fee simple grants. 
'Here the area had since 1842 diminished, owing partly to the settlement as zamindiri 
estates of such grants ub had fallen in, an.l partly to resumptions on account of rebellion* 
1 Printed in Selections from Government Records, 1670. 



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GORAKHPTO. 2ffJ> 

The discrepancy in the areas given by the Forest Department is perhaps 
to be explained by the transfer of a large block of forest land to the left bank 
of the Gandak, and to its annexation by the Mah&rdjaof Bettiah, with whom it 
has recently been settled as a grant. Though there are 18 blocks of Govern- 
ment forest, there are only nine forests shown in the departmental return for 

1872, vis.:— 

(1) Nagw6n, including blacks I. and VI. 



(2) Sonari 


» 


II. and part of VI. 


(3) Bhan B&ban 


» 


VII. and VIII. 


(4) East Lehra 


»» 


III. and V. 


(5; West Lehra 


»» 


X. 


(6) Belimpur 


u 


IX. and XL 


(7) Dudhai 


»» 


IV. 


(8) R&mgarh 


» 


XIII. 


(9) Tilkonia 


11 


XII. 



Domakand and Bharatkand are not shown, and it was from these forests that 
the land just mentioned was annexed by the Bettiah chief. The whole area 
now occupied by forests in the Gorakhpur district may be estimated at about 
200,000 acres, or about 313 square miles. In 1860 there were 600,000 acres 
in Gorakhpur and Basti, 1 and as at l£ast two -thirds of this must have been in 
Gorakhpur, it will be seen what a large area ha9 been since then reclaimed. 
It is, however, certain that the area reclaimed since 1860 is small compared 
to that cleared between the cession of 1801 and that date. 

The Income from forests is about Rs. 40,000 yearly, and the net profit 
after deducting expenses about Rs. 20,000. This income is chiefly derived 
from the sale of trees felled by the purchasers and of s&l logs sawed by the 
Forest Department. The usufruct of the minor produce, such as firewood, 
pasture, thatching-grass, and dyes, is usually let for each forest yearly, but 
yields little profit. A contraet for the wild honey is sometimes taken by the 
Bhar caste. Before the forests were reserved it was a common practice for 
these people to tap the trees for gum, which sold well ; but as it was found to 
ruin the trees it has been stopped. The forest is composed mostly of sdl 
(Shorea robusta) or sdkhu as this tree is called when young. There are also a 
large number of makua {Bassia latifolia), semal (Bombax Malabaricum), and 
shUJiam (Dalbergia sissoo) trees. Most of the timber is at present short. The 
trees are much overgrown with creepers, and too closely planted to admit of 
proper growth. The existing supply of timber is therefore limited to small 
beams for building purposes and firewood. Large scantlings, such as those 
used for the boatman's " dugouts, " are as a rule obtained from Nep&L 
1 Tbe authority is Swinton's Manual 



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2k> 



GoYxxjriaNi* Fo»bsts. The Hmits of the old jungle are taktn from a map 

which accompanies Mr. S win ton's statistical 

L — Nagwan. memoir, and are shown "by the dotted line 

- T 5"~« 0nil,i , The forest marked hy the lines CD of "black ink 

. DL — East I»ehra. aad numbered are the Got eminent forests. 

IV.— Dlradhai. Xhe remainder are held in grant or fee-simple l>y 

V.— Do. Madja*. wiYate indrriduals. 

VI.— Do. Jagpnr. 
VTL— BharJ Babsn. 
Yni-Bhan BaisL 
IX— Ban ax 
X.— West Lenra, 
XI.— Beltmpur. 
XII.-TOkonia. 
XIII.— Ramgarh. 
XIV.— Domakand kites. 

XV- N 

XV* # ** 

XVI 
XVII 



THE GORAKHPUR FORESTS. 



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OORAKHPUB. ttt 

The most important forest held by a private individual is that of Kusniahi, 

eight miles east of Gorakhpnr, belonging to the Mi&n 
Private fore**, g^ ^„ d ^ ghfl ^ rR ^ fa ^^ ^ m ^^ fa 

extent and has been preserved for nearly 70 years. The s&l wood, of which it 
mostly consists, is therefore very fine, and the forest highly valuable. Most of 
the other private forests, adjoin or intermingle with those reserved for 
Government, and having been cat as soon as the trees were worth any* 
thing at all, contain mere shrubs. The accompanying map shows roughly 
the jungles now existing with the changes since I860, but it is 
impossible without a regular survey to note the exact changes in the 
limits of the jungles, and the map does not pretend to any great accuracy. 
It must be noticed that some portion of the jungle area is overgrown with 
long grass only, and not by tree or underwood. This is especially the case in 
the Bin&yakpur and Tilpur parganahs. Here and there in those parganahs 
patches of cultivation are dotted over the grass jungle, but the size of the map 
does not permit of their being shown on it. The existing tree jungle lies 
chiefly in Haveli and Tilpur, bnt there is some also in Bin&yakpur, Silhat, and 
Padrauna. In Bin&yakpur still remains a good deal of grass jungle. A des- 
cription of the pasture land in the north of the district is given under the head 
of cattle in Fart II. of this notice. These pastures generally lie in or around 
forests. 

There are three great lines of drainage, the two first carrying southwards 
Principal lines of th e surplus waters of the north, the third receiving those 
tok*** waters and conveying them south-eastwards into ' the 

Ganges. 

The first line, that of the R&pti and its tributaries, drains the western half 
of the district. The watershed between it and the second line, which may be 
drawn a little east of the boundary between Tilpur and Bin&yakpur parganahs, 
passes down through Mansurganj, H&ta, Deoria, and Barhaj. In the northern 
portion of this tract is a network of small streams, of which the Robin, the 
Ghtinghi, and the Jh&rri are most important. These carry off the surplus water 
from the country immediately below the hills, pouring it into the channel of the 
R&pti, which carries it down to the Gtagra. To the Gh&gra the R&pti also 
oonveys the drainage of the centre of the district. The second line, that of 
the Little Gandak and its affluents, drains all the eastern half of the district, 
except a small portion of parganah Sidhua Jobna, which inclines towards the 
Great Gandak. This last-named river may, perhaps, be considered as mark- 
ing a fourth line of drainage, but affects the Gorakbpur district too little to be 
classed as one of the principal lines. 



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29$ GORAKHPUR, 

Of these the third is that of the Gh&gra, running south-eastward?. 
It drains the south-west corner of this and the south-east of the Basti dis- 
trict, receiving the Rdpti and Little Gandak on its coarse down to the 
Ganges. 

One of the distinguishing features in the first tract drained by the R&pti is 
the large number of lakes and swamps, and the wide spread of the water over- 
flowing from them and from the streams during the rains. The country in the 
centre of this line is lower, aud the water accumulates therein more, than in 
the other two. The third tract, through which the Gh&gra flows, is quite 
different. The country seems to rise towards the banks of the river, and the 
water flows past rapidly, with none of the stoppages which it encounters on its 
way down the R&pti. A more detailed account of the principal rivers may 
now be given. 

The name of the Rapti originally Irfivati, was corrupted by the Muham- 
RiTers of the district, madans into li&wati, whence its present title (vt-bt-pt). 
The Raptu After passing through Oudh and Basti it enters this dis- 

trict in parganah Haveli, near Mogalha. The general direction of its very 
tortuous course is towards the south-east. It joins the Gh6gra near R&jpur in 
tappa Kaparw&r, parganah Salempur ; and about three miles before the junction 
it divides into two streams, enclosing an island belonging to Gaura village. 
The size and velocity of the stream varies considerably. During the rains ifc 
is in some places more than a quarter of a mile broad, and runs at about five 
miles an hour ; while during the summer it is as a rule but 100 or 150 yard* 
wide, and travels rather less than two miles an hour. The bed consists of mixed 
sand and mud. Owing to its extremely winding course, and to the fact that 
the banks washed by its deep current are usually high and perpendicular, 
the river does not in most places cause extensive inundations. It nevertheless, 
by cutting fresh channels, transfers whole villages from one bank to the 
other, and south of Gorakhpur, where it forms the boundary, from one 
parganah to another. A precipitous bank on one side of the river is 
usually faced by a shelving bank on the other. But in some places (e. g. to the 
west of Gorakhpur) both shores are sloping, and here the river inundates the 
adjoining country. Such floods are fertilising, and only occasion loss when 
they retire so late as to prevent the ploughing of the riverside lands. There 
are a great number of small channels branching from and returning to the 
stream, but these are dry except in the rains. The chief tributaries of the- 
B&pti in this district are the GhAnghi, Dhamela, Rohin, Taraina, Xmi, Pharend; 
and Majhna. 



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GORAKHPUR. 293 

In the rains the surface of the river rises so considerably that these 
streams are stopped or thrust back to overflow their banks. The Domingarh 
and Ami&r lakes are thus formed by the stoppage of the Rohin and Xmi 
respectively. In the rains, boats of from 2,000 to 3,000 maunds x burthen 
ply on the stream as far as its junction with the Dhamela. 2 In the hot 
weather, boats of 300 maunds 8 can navigate it to the same distanoe, and 
boats of 1,000* maunds as far as Gorakhpur. The formation of its banks dis- 
courages its use for purposes of irrigation. 

Mr. Lumsden (Settlement Report) mentions that in 1864 the volume of 
the stream suddenly decreased so greatly as to excite fears that, except in the 
rains, it would no longer remain navigable for boats of any size. This decrease, 
which arose from the formation of a new channel in the Basti district, was how- 
ever only temporary, and next year the stream flowed as before. 6 The chief 
places of importance on the river are Gorakhpur, Gajpur, Kotha, Kaparw6r, 
Barhaj, and R&jpur. These are all market towns, Gorakhpur and Barhaj being 
the most important. There are bridges of boats at Bird gh&t and Bhau&p&r 
ghat ; but during the rains the former bridge is removed and a ferry takes 
its place. Nadua is another ghat lying within 'the jurisdiction of the sadr 
tahsil. K&rmaini gh&t lies within that of Maharajganj at the mouth of the 
Dhamela. The water of the stream is not very clear, as it bears in solution a 
good deal of mud. Its temperature is high. 

The river is of immense importance as a means for carrying cheaply, safely, 
and quickly the large export trade in grain and wood from Nepal and the north 
of this district down to Gorakhpur, and thence into the Ghagra and Ganges. 

(1) The Ghunghi nadi. — Rising in the Nepal hills, the Ghunghi flows 
Trib taiiea of 8° ut h- we8 * iwar ^ s till it joins the Dhamela in two branches 
the Repti. near Sikra and Giroi respectively. Its deep and well-defined 

bed serves for some miles as the boundary, first between 
Gorakhpur and Nepal, and again between Gorakhpur and Basti. The stream, 
which is clear, with a sandy bed, runs very rapidly in the rains, and at a 
medium pace during the cold and hot weather. It abounds with ndks or 
crocodiles. In the rains it presents a serious obstacle to travellers, but soon 
afterwards becomes fordable in most places. The water, escaping through its 

1 From 71 to' 107 tons. * From this poiut to near Bansi it it a small stream, 

only SO or 30 feet in width, during the cold and hot weather. It some years ago threw oat 
into the Basti district a branch which diverted the greater part of its waters from the old 
channel. The latter, to which the stream has never reverted, still exists to show how fine a 
river it must once have borne. 8 Between 10 and 1 1 tons. 4 Between 35 and 36 

tons. B This was entirely owing to the increase which took place in the volume and size 

of the Dhamela, a fact which seems to prove that the water which before found its way down 
the channel of the Bapti has been diverted in Basti to that of the former river. The old 
channel, as before mentioned, has remained almost dry. 



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2M G0&1KHPUB. 

collateral channels, often works a good deal of mischief. The stream is not 

navigable, but timber is sometimes floated down it. It has several tributaries 

which serve to irrigate the ricefields of parganah Bindyakpur. Chief of theaet 

are the Danda and the Gh£gra, both of which have steep banks, are infested 

by ndkz, and in the rains are considerable streams. There are no towns of 

importance on the Ghunghi in this district. 

(2) The Dhamela. — The Dhamela, though it has but a short course in 

_ _ . this district, is of considerable importance. On entering 

The Dhamela. .... r 

from Basti it is joined by the Ghunghi near Sikra and Giroi, 

and there divides ; its smaller branch flowing southwards and joining the R&pti 
in the Basti district, the larger running south-eastwards and joining it some 
70 miles further down its course, just above KArmaini gh&t. The Dhamela is 
here much the fuller and finer stream of the two, 1 and is on this branch never 
fordable. Boats of from 200 to 300 maunds* burthen can navigate it during 
the entire year. The banks are as a rule high and abrupt Here and there eddies 
or small whirlpools (bhaur), similar to those in the Great Gaudak, are met with; 
but navigation is safe. . In the rains the river floods a large part of the adjoining 
oountry, and often does mischief by sweeping away crops or boundary 
marks and preventing cultivation. The deposit left (partly sand and 
partly mud) does more harm than good, and the proprietors of the villages 
between the Dhamela and the Ripti complain of its effects. The banks in 
the hot weather are very steep, and the rise of the river in the rains is more 
than 20 feet above its summer level. The current is then very powerful, and 
the volume of water must be enormous. Dh&ni or Kh&nap6r B&zdr, one of 
the great grain marts of this district, lies a short distance east of this stream. 
N&ks and porpoises are common, as are rohu and the other ordinary river 
fish (vide list in Part II). The Government ferries, are at K&rmaini gh&t and 
Magarha, and a private ferry at Kanap&r is of some importance. 

(3) The Rahin. — The Bohin enters this distrct from Nep&l in parganah 
Biniyakpur East, and passing through parganah Haveli. 
joins the R&pti below Domingarh, at the western end of the 
city of Gorakhpur. It is joined in the north by the Bhagela nadi. For 
about 15 miles northwards from its junction with the R&pti it is navigable 
throughout the year by vessels of 100 maunds burthen, and in the rains for 
some -15 miles higher. It is not fordable, even in summer, for 25 miles 
above Gorakhpur. The current is sluggish. In the north the banks are 

1 The parganah map of last settlement does not seem quite correct here, neglecting to 
mark with santoient clearness the main stream of the Dhamela. * Between 7 and II 



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aoRAKHPtm. 295 

Steep and well marked, but after it enters Haveli Gorakbpur they are usually 
sloping. It is joined in this parganah by a considerable tributary from 
the north-east, tbe Piy&s or Jh£rri, which also rises in Nep&l, Floods are 
rare, but at the point where it joins the Edpti there is a large tract of 
lowlying land, which is completely submerged in the rains ; and it is 
chiefly owing to the rise of this river and a small stream near it that the 
Domingarh and Karmaini lakes to the west of Gorakbpur are formed. The 
Bhagela and Jharri are in the rainy season swift, strong streams, and serve to 
carry off tbe water which would otherwise accumulate below the hills. Both 
have high well-defined banks, and after the rains become shallow, sluggish 
streams easily forded. The colour and temperature of the water varies accord* 
ing to the time of year. In the summer it is clear and cold, being supplied in 
great measure by the melted snow from the hills ; in the rains it is discoloured 
and warmer. Passing as it does through the large forest in parganahs Haveli 
and Binayakpur, it is extensively used for floating down timber. There are no 
places of commercial importance on its banks, and it carries little trade north 
of M£oirfim. 

(4) The Tura nadi. — The Tiira nadi rises in tappa tJuti, parganah Haveli 

Gorakbpur. and falls into the R&pti near BelipAr, below 
The Tftrs and JCmf . . 

Gorakhpur. It is as small in size as importance. 

(5) The Ami. — Rising from a small lakeiu Basli, the Ami enters this dis- 
trict near Rampur village, at the junction of tappas Bharsand and Bhaduseri 
(parganah JIaghar). It flows first eastwards, then south-east, dividing the 
parganah from Bhauap&r, and eventually joins the Rapti near Sohgaura in 
tappa Garmahi (parganah Bhauapar). Except during the rains, it is, though 
deep in some places, a narrow, sluggish stream. Its waters are extensively used 
for irrigation, and the fishing iu it is very valuable, rohu and similar river fish 
being abundant. The bed is muddy. In the rains the river rises and causes exten- 
sive inundations. Between it and the Hapti there is a ridge of high ground, and 
again on the west another ridge capped by Bansgaon. Between them is a plain 
known as the Amiir T&l ; and the whole of this is in the rains one vast sheet of 
water, stretching for six or seven miles on either side of the Tucker embankment, 
and on a rough windy day resembling a small sea covered with white-crested 
waves. The river is bridged by the embankment just mentioned, and again near 
Chittai ; 1 also at Maghar in the Basti district. During the rains boats of 100 
maunds burthen can navigate it ; but the course of the stream being difficult 
to follow owing to floods, and sunken trees being numerous, the navigation is 

1 Where a line embankment, pietced by seven arches, hears across the Azamgarh road. 

38 



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896 GOfcAKfiPTTH. 

attended with some risk. The subsiding waters of the stream leave behind 
them very little deposit ; but such as is left is fertilizing loam, and the crops 
grown] thereon are exceptionally good. The water is described as rather 
turbid and warm. 

(6) The Majhna. — The Majhna rises from a pond east of Pipraich (par- 

ganah Haveli), and flowing southwards through the forest, 
joins the R£pti near Majharia of tappa Nagwa Tikari in 
Silhat. Both in volume and other respects the stream is insignificant. At 
ftudarpur its name is changed to Bathua ; at Surya, tappa Madanpur, it 
is joined by the Kurna nadi, and by the Eunhi near its junction with the 
R&pti. Both these tributaries are small summer-dried streams which, except 
for irrigation, are of no importance. 

(7) The Pharend. —The souroes of the Pharend must be found near 

Pipr&ich in Haveli Gorakhpur, whence the stream flows 
almost due south to meet the R&pti. In the rains its size is 
considerable ; but during the rest of the year it is narrow, shallow, sluggish, 
and fordable in almost all places. It is an irrigating, but not a navigable 
stream. Its name is derived from the pharend 1 trees on its banks. It 
joins the Majhna on the border of Silhat, and their united stream flows into 
the Ripti under the name of the Bathua nadi. 

(8) The Taraina nadi. — Rising from Til Sonda in tappa Bankata 

(parganah Anola), and flowing in a south-easterly direc- 
tion, the Taraina enters the north of the Bhenri Til 
in parganah Chillfip&r, whence it, or rather another stream bearing the 
same name, passes in to the R&pti. The banks are as a rule sloping. 
The water is much used for irrigation. In the hot weather the stream 
almost dries up, leaving a succession of pools. But' in the rains it runs 
with considerable force, as proved by the fact that in 1871 it swept 
away the bridge (now replaced) which bore the Benares road across it 
It is however fordable, even during the rains, in many places. There are 
no ndfo in this stream, and it is not navigable. It has one tributary, the 
Sibi or Gangri nadi, which rising in tappa P61i, parganah Dhuriap&r, 
flows southeast to join the Taraina in tappa Majuri, near Maktop&r. This 
muddy-bedded stream is used for irrigation, but dries in summer ; it is not 
navigable and can always be forded. It is called the Silni as far as Kan- 
wadi in tappa Gagaha, and thence to its junction with the Taraina, the 
Gangri. 

1 Elsewhere c*Uedjdman (Eugenia jambotana^ 



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GORAKHPUR. «7 

The Great Gandak or Nariyani, known in Nep&l as the Saligrfimi, 1 rises 

_ _ amongst the hills of the latter country and forms the north- 

The Great Gandak. e . T . 

east boundary of this district. Its course is, generally speak- 
ing, south-easterly, and it joins the Ganges opposite the opium storehouse at Patna. 
The Gandak itself forms the district boundary for a very short distance only, 
turning eastward at the north-east corner of tappa Batsara into Lower Bengal. It 
again, however, touches the district at the south-east corner of parganah Sidhua 
Jobna, where it skirts the Bank Jogni tappa. Between this point and that 
where it again turns into Bengal the boundary is partly formed by a branch 
whioh there is good reason to believe was not along ago the main stream. 
Where it first enters British territory its bed is stony and the stream itself clear 
and rapid. The banks are high and the body of water even at the end of the 
hot weather very large. The Great Gandak is never ford able, and boats of 800 
mannds* burthen can navigate it throughout the year. Owing, however, to the 
force of the stream and swirl of the so-called whirlpools (bhxiur) caused by irregu- 
larities in the river bed, navigation is somewhat dangerous. Timber rafts from 
Nep&l are frequently broken up and boats upset. Snags are also not uncommon 
and increase the perils of the stream. The branch before referred to, while re- 
sembling in some respects the main stream, has lower banks and frequently cuts 
itself new channels, to the great loss and discouragement of the neighbouring 
cultivators. Hr. Lumsden observes that its influence on cultivation is on the 
whole injurious. Floods, however^ very rarely occur ; and as the deposits of the 
stream are chiefly sand, the fact need not be regretted. This offshoot rejoins 
the Gandak north of the Bank Jogni tappa, and henceforward the stream 
appears to be confined to one channel and does little mischief. 8 Wood, grain, 
and sugar are the chief commodities borne by this river. The first comes from 
Nep&l, and the second mostly from British territory, while the third is the 
native chini manufactured in parganah Sidhua Jobna. 

Crocodiles, porpoises, and several kinds of fish abound, and the latter are 
caught in large numbers. The mahdser (Barbus mosal) is occasionally cap- 
tured. The sand of the river is washed for the particles of gold which have 
found their way down from the hills. 

The river is not much used for irrigation, chiefly because the soil near it 
is naturally moist (bfidt). Situated beside it are two marts, viz., Gola Pipragh&t 
on the main stream and S&hibganj on the branch in tappa Bank Jogni. 

1 Perhaps because ammonite f ossils ( Valigr&m) are found along its banks. Amongst Hindus 
ammonites are revered as symbols of Vishnu. The other name of the river, Narayani, is 
derived from one of the numerous titles of that god. * Between 28 and 29 tons* 

* The stream flawing through the old channel has steadily diminished till now ,- it completely 
dries up in the hot weather. In the rains it is navigable by vessels of 10 or 1 1 tons. 



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498 OOHAKHPUR. 

There are ferries at Parsoni ghfit, Madhub&ni, Gola Pipraghit, and Banii 
ghfit near Padrauna. Two rivers, the Sonmati and Banmati, are said to join 
it about 14 miles above the frontier, at a spot where there is an annual fair in 
Magh (January-February). It has in this district no important tributary. 
The water is clear, and from its depth has in many places a bluish hue. The 
temperature of the stream is cool, owing perhaps to the snow water it receives 
from the hills. 1 

From its source in the Chiriagora tappa, the Jharshi passes southwards 
into the Saran district, forming lower in its course the 
extreme eastern boundary of parganah Salempur, and ulti- 
mately joining the Ghagra. The stream is of considerable use for irrigation, 
and its piscatory is of some value. In the rains it flows with considerable 
foroe, but on their close slackens gradually until at the beginning of the 
< hot weather its water is almost stagnant. The stream is considered injurious 
to health, and a dangerous kind of malaria often attacks strangers who halt 
near it for any length of time. 

Like the JMrahi, the Bandi n&la has several branches which unite at the 

_. ^ # ,. ,, north of tappa Sandi. It is a running stream only for a 

The B&ndi nala. . n J , 

few months in the year, and soon after the conclusion of 

the rains is dammed up for purposes of irrigation. In the hot weather it 

dries up. It joins the Khanua in tappa Khan* 

Known of yore as the Sarju, the Ghagra or Dehwa flows along the 
southern boundary of the district. Entering the Dhuria- 
pa> parganah at Majdip of tappa Belighat, . and passing 
eastwards with a slight inclination to the south, it at length issues into the 
Saran district of Lower Bengal. The stream is rapid in the rains, and flows 
about two miles an hour at the beginning of the hot weather. Steamers 
can navigate it during the rains, and boats of 1,000 maunds 2 burthen throughout 
the year. The bed is sandy, and the breadth of the stream varies considerably 
according to the season. The main stream has been made the boundary be- 
tween Gorakhpur and Azamgarh, but its shiftings cause frequent transfers of 
villages from one district to the other. The main stream is said about 20 years 
ago to have joined the Ku&na, west of Dhuriapdr, in the parganah of that ilk, 
but now flows considerably further to the south. A branch which the river 
threw out in 1872 adopted as its bed the old channel, and it was anticipated 
that the main stream would revert to the same course ; but that anticipation 

1 In the south-east corner of the district it has daring the last year or two shifted its courts 
Slightly to tke east. « Between 85 and 36 tons. 



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GOBAKHPUR. 299 

has not jrot been justified by facts. The floods, which seldom though sometimes 
take place, serve but to injure the neighbouring crops, as the riverside is 
already watered amply from tanks and wells, and the deposit left is sandy. The 
Rapti joins the Ghagra near Rajpur, and tho Little Gandak further east. These 
streams and the Ku&oa are the only important tributaries from this district. 
The banks marking the usual limits of the stream in the rains are high and 
sharply defined, and it is only bettceen them that the breadth of the stream varies 
at the different times of year. When after the rains the river subsides, numerous 
chars, or islets of sand, appear in the channel, which becomes tortuous and 
in some places rather shaUow. Country boats of the largest burden can, however, 
always ply the stream, which is never fordable. The chief market villages on its 
banks are Barhalganj, Rajpur, Bhagalpur, Mail Khas, and Naridon. One of the 
most important marts in the district, Barhaj, stands a little way inland from the 
river above Rajpur. It was formerly situate on the river bank ; but the 
Rapti having shifted slightly to the east, and the Ghagra slightly to the south-* 
west, the town now stands on a channel of the former. An immense trade in 
grain, principally from Barhalganj and Barhaj, is carried down the river to the 
Ganges. 

There are ferries at (1) Kamharia gb&t, (2) Raja Sultanpur, (3) Chapri, 
(4) Sahia ghat, (5) Poila Rimpur, (6) Duhuja Khair&ti, (7) Barhalganj, (8) 
Rajpur, (9) Paina, and (10) Bhagalpur and Mail. In colour the water it 
rather opaque, containing a considerable solution of sandy mud. 

The Ku&na riBes in Oudh, enters this district in parganah Dhuriapdr, 
and flows into the Ghagra at Marhundia. Its name is 
said to be derived from the fact that its first source is a 
-well (Ma). Some years ago, when reinforced in Basti by branches of the 
Ghagra, it was during its course in Gorakhpur a deep navigable stream. But 
by a southward movement of the former river the volume of the Ku&na was 
greatly diminished. In 1872 the Ku&na was again swollen by two branches 
of the Ghagra, and increased so greatly in depth and volume as to be nowhere 
fordable in parganah Dhuriapar ; its capacity for navigation was thus of course 
-greatly enhanced, and if the volume of water continues as at present, boats of 
500 maunds 1 or more will throughout the year be able to navigate the 
stream for some distance above Dhuriaptfr. Mr. Lumsden notices a similar 
enlargement of this stream by a branch of the Ghagra in 1 855, the result 
then being a considerable amount of diluvion. At present floods are rare, 
but the stream has out numerous deep channels along its shores. 

1 Nearly IS torn burthen. 



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300 GORAKHPtJR. 

The banks of the stream are sleep and in the hot weather high. The 
current is slow and the bed sandy. Tikua B&z&r, Sikriganj, Gaurganj, Dhurii- 
p£r, Sh&hpur, and Gola are places of some size on its banks. At Tikua, Gaurganj, 
and Gola markets are held. There is a Government ferry at Benri, and numer- 
ous private ferries for foot passengers at intervals of two or three miles. 

Descending from the Nep&l hills, the Little Gandak Sows southwards till it 

joins the Ghftgra at Simaria, just within the S&ran dis- 
Tfae Little Gandak. . . . 

trict. It is often mistaken for a branch of the Great Gan- 
dak, but is really quite distinct, entering Gorakhpur to the west of that stream. 
For three months of the year, t.e., from the middle of July to the middle of Octo- 
ber, it can be navigated by boats of 100 maunds burthen. But its volume and 
current, then considerable, decrease rapidly after the close of the rains; and it 
soon becomes a small stream, not more than 20 yards across, sluggish, and in 
most places /ordable. The water contains a calcareous deposit which is said 
to be a frequent cause of goitre amongst those who drink it, and the soil along 
the stream is mostly blidt, which is largely composed of ehalk. Raggarganj, 
Captainganj, and Hetimpur are b&z&rs of some importance on its banks. 
Those banks are as a rule high and well defined, yet not so high as to prevent 
the frequent use of the water in irrigation. They are connected by Government 
ferries at Guria, Hetimpur, and Captainganj. A small branch known as the 
Khanoa n&la leaves this stream near Hetimpur, and passes south-eastwards into 
S&ran. But, except as the boundary between parganahs Sidhua Jobna and 
Sh&hjah&npur, and an occasional source of irrigation, this offshoot is of no 
importance. 

The Durinchi is connected with the Mohan, a small stream which, rising 
The Duranchi and we8 ^ °f Biraicha, flows south-eastwards as far as tappa Par- 
Mohan, wfirpar, where one branch joins the Dur&nchi and another 
the Little Gandak. The latter branch forms the northern boundary of parga- 
nah Sh&hjah&npur and effects its junction near Hetimpur. Exept during the rains, 
the Mohan is a mere rivulet. The Duranchi forms the border between the Silhat 
and ShAhjah-inpur parganahs, joining the Little Gandak at the south-east cor- 
ner of tappa Patna, When the rainfall is unusually heavy, and the Little Gan- 
dak rises so as to block their streams, these two rivers rise and inundate the 
neighbouring country. By such floods the sugarcane crop is damaged and a 
sandy deposit left to mar the soil. 

The Chillua rises in the centre of tappa Katahra, parganah Haveli. 
Flowing south-westwards, it widens out into the Chillua 
lake, which is also connected with the Bohin. The stream 



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GOHAXHPUR. 301 

Hows for some distance through the forest, and is hardly of much importance. 

In the rains it used formerly to obstruct traffic on the Rigoli and Captainganj 

road, which it now, however, crosses on an embankment pierced by bridges. 

With the numerous streams which flow through or by this district cases 

m of alluvion and diluvion are necessarily numerous; but 

Alluvion and dilu- . . 

vion. there appear to be no special local rules for settling disputes 

between the proprietors. Some of the large landowners, such 
ms the Mahdrdja of Bettiah, the RAja of Tamkuhi, and one or two others, decide 
all such questions amongst themselves on the principle that if the changes made 
are not of much importance, the deep-stream rule prevails and fixes the bound- 
ary. If, on the other hand, the lands transferred by this rule are of considera- 
ble extent, the line laid down in the revenue survey map is restored as nearly as 
possible. Speaking generally, the deep-stream rule is observed throughout 
the district In old days, any dispute on such a point between the zamind&rsof 
different villages would have been referred to the local R6ja, and a dispute 
between two R&jas would probably have been fought out. The larger rivers 
being usually the boundaries of the various principalities the deep-stream 
rule naturally obtained, as it would have been difficult for one R&ja to hold a 
small plot of land touching his neighbour's territory while severed from his 
own by a broad river. 

There are at present no canals in the district, either for navigation 

or irrigation ; and indeed the necessity for their con- 
Proposed canals. . 

struction is removed by a network of rivers. In 1859 

Mr. Bird, the Collector, proposed to convert the Little Gandak into a oanal 

for commercial purposes ; and Mr. Lumsden, in his settlement report, approves 

of the suggestion, and says that the levels are favourable for the purpose. 

No steps, however, have as yet been taken towards carrying out the idea, 

and it is doubtful if much necessity exists for doing so. Some of the 

numerous streams in the north of the district, such as the Danda, the Ghun- 

ghi, the Gh£gra, and the Rohin, might easily be rendered navigable 

by a succession of locks with weirs sufficient to allow the rush of water 

in the rains to escape. But until this portion of the district ha* much 

advanced the undertaking would be unprofitable. Running as it does by 

Lotan and near Butwal, the Ghtinghi offers, if thus treated, the best 

chance of financial success. In this part of the district there are, moreover, 

no good roads ; but the sincere co-operation of the Nep&l Government, so 

necessary in the construction of a northern-frontier canal, is hardly to be 

expected. 



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302 GORAKHPUB. 

The lakes of Gorakhpur are numerous — so numerous thai only those' 
conspicuous for their size, position, fisheries, or other quali- 
ties, can be noticed here. Such lakes may be divided into 
those that are perennial, those which alternate from a sheet of water in the 
rains to a swamp at other seasons, and those which the summer leaves com- 
pletely dry. 

To begin with those that are perennial :— 

The Nandawr Tdl in tappa Kasba, parganah Bhau&par, lies near the 

Benares road, about 6 miles south of Gorakhpur, and is 
The N&nd&ux Tai. 

some 2£ miles in length by half a mile in breadth. In 

its deepest parts it has during the hot weather about 25 feet of water. 
The rains seem little to affeot the size of the lake, which always contains a 
copious supply of water noticeable for its extreme clearness. It is plenti- 
fully stocked which rohu and other fish, while its waters are used for 
irrigation. 

The Bdmabhdr Tdl at Easia is about half a mile long by a quarter mile 

_ broad. In the rains its length extends to a whole, and its 

The B&mibhir TfiL . . 

breadth to half a mile ; but in the summer these dimensions 

sink to about half a mile and 250 yards in breadth respectively. The average 

depth in the rains is about 12 feet, and in the hot weather 5. The lake is never 

dry. The water is used, although not extensively, in irrigation ; and the fishing 

is valuable, letting for about Rs. 200 a year. It is chiefly remarkable on 

account of the Buddhist remains on its banks. These stand at the north-west 

corner of the lake, and consist of a lofty mound of solid brickwork now known 

as Devisthan, an oblong mound crowned by a brick stupa, 1 and a colossal 

statue of Buddha, lying a short distance apart from a small ruined building 

which was probably a shrine. To these remains some further reference will 

be made in the Gazetteer portion of the notice. 1 

To the north of the Hata road is a smaller lake, communicating with the 
Ramabhar Tal by two channels, oyer which bridges have been constructed. In 
the rains the water flows from this tal with considerable force towards the 
Ramabhar lakeland sometimes outs the road. The Ramabhar lake then rises 
and overflows towards the south-east, laying the Barhaj road for some distance 
under water. The Little Gandak is said to have once flowed by the more west- 
erly of the two channels mentioned above. 

We now come to the second class of lakes, which during summer dege- 
nerate into swamps. 

1 i.e. relic-temple. * Article " Kassia." 



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QOKAKHPUR. 803* 

The RAmgarh JK{1 9 near Gorakhpur, is abont 2' mites long By 1J broad. 
The bulk of its surface after the rains is covered by tall reeds, 
and presents the appearance of a dismal swamp. Passages 
are cnt through the reels for the fishermen's- boats. Rohu and other fish are 
caught in large numbers, and the fishing, which is leased out by the proprietor! 
is valuable. In the rainy season the water rises 20 feet or more and covers the 
reeds. The lake is then a large unbroken sheet of water at least 5 miles in length 
by 3 in breadth. Immediately after the close of that season the water begins to 
recede, and the rices, dham, and bora, are largely grown on the land thus cleared 
for cultivation. In the rains some parts of the lake are 40 feet deep, but in 
summer none are above 20. The influence of the R&mgarh swamp on the- 
health of those living near it is said to be decidedly deleterious, oausing bad 
fever and malaria. Two or three -chaunels branch forth from it. It is con- 
nected with another jhil of considerable extent, the Nfirh&i T&l, which like it 
is covered with reed and thorny plants. After the rains the latter t&l dries up 
in many places, leaving detached pieces of water. 

The surplus waters of the N&rh&i T&I are drained into the R&pti by the 
m^ ™* ._,. m ^ Gora brook. In the rains this is a stream of some size 

The Nirb&i T& 

and affords ample means for communication, but at ether 

seasons it scarcely runs at all and cannot be navigated, except by the smallest 

boats. A succession of little ponds linked together by the Gora form a chain: 

between the Ndrh&i Tal aud the Rdpti. Below the water in both the Narh&i 

and Rfimgarh jhih lies a deep mud. This when deserted by the waters and 

exposed to the sun grows hard and firm enough to support a man walking on 

it, but when covered or just left by water is soft and as dangerous to 

tread on as a quicksand. The dryiug of this mud and the stagnant nature 

of the swamp, except in the rains, are probably the cause of the malaria 

before mentioned. Crocodiles are common in the Rimgarh, but not in the 

Narhai T&l. Two or three offshoots from the R&pti join these lakes ; and in 

the rains the river deposits through these offshoots large qualities of loam, 

by which the Ramgarh T&l is being gradually silted up. The water, it is 

said, has reeeded two or three hundred yards towards the east in the last ten 

years. Very probably the R&pti originally traversed the present site of Gorakh- 

pur city, 1 flowing afterwards through part of the R&mgarh jhil and the channel of 

the Gora. In this case it has gradually receded westward, raising the broad 

embankment of rich earth which now separates it from the swamp and the 

brook. Peas, linseed, mustard, wheat, and melons are grown on the mora 

elevated portions of the land overlooking the water. 

1 Bee Dr. Planck's Sanitary Report, IS71, 

33 



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304 GORAKHPUB. 

The size of the Bhewri T&l, in tappa Sikandarpur of parganah Chillii- 

mi _ _ L , _„ par, varies very much according to the season of the year. 

The Bhewri Til. • , . . . • ■ - « .■ * 

In the rains it is a great sheet of water five miles long 

and three or four broad, but at their close it sinks rapidly, until at the end of 
summer it is about only one in length and about half that distance in breadth. 
The depth differs considerably, the greatest in the rains being 20, and in the 
summer 10 feet. The suson weed 1 grows in abundance on the ground left dry 
by the receding water, and is used as fodder for cattle ; rice is sown in consi- 
derable quantities along the edge of the lake. Here shells (sipi) are found from 
which mortar is made. The Taraina joins the lake at its north-west corner and 
helps to fill it in the rains ; while a branch of that lake stretches to the east, and 
in the same season shoots forth a stream to join the R&pti. It is said that when 
Raja Bern&th invaded Chillupar he was for a long time unable to take a castle 
which stood on an island in the south-west of the lake. At length a fisher- 
man pointed out to him that he could drain off part of the water into the Rapti. 
Acting on this advice he dug the channel through which the stream above 
mentioned flows, and was then able to cross to the island and storm the 
fort. 2 But though the channel may have been deepened or widened by the 
Baja, it is undoubtedly natural. The fishing is of some value and is let 
by the proprietors to boatmen who come from a distance. The usual arrange- 
ment is that the lessees shall pay half of what they catch to the landlord. 
When the rains are at all excessive the R&pti and G-h&gra are united through 
this tal, which is then nearly 8 miles in length. 

The Chillua Til lies north of Grorakhpur city, at the east of tappa Mar&che 

m,. ™.« m*, Chandur. This lake is formed by the Chillua river, and till a 
The Chillua Til. _ i 

few years ago was completely surrounded by thick jungle. 

The land to the south, however, has now been cultivated. To the north, north- 
east, and west there is still jungle, which near the water consists of cane and thora- 
bushes, but further inland of s&l trees. The breadth of the lake varies greatly, 
not only according to the season of year, but from one place to another, being 
at some points half a mile and at others 50 or <>0 yards only. At most seasons a 
current flows through it towards the Rohin ; but in the rains, when this stream 
is blocked by the Rapti, it in turn obstructs the Chillua, which then overflows, 
filling the Chillua Tal, flooding the neighbouring country, and mingling its water 
southwards with those of the K&rmaini lake. On the southern edge of the Chillua 
T&l the subsiding waters are succeeded by boro rice, and a considerable quantity 
of land reclaimed from the jungle is now sown with a spring crop watered from 

1 Not to be confused with sarson (mustard). * Certain boatmen (Mall&h*)» calling 

1 hemst'lves heirs of the fisherman here mentioned, have still rights of the fishing in the lake. 



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GOftAKBPtTB. t0$ 

the lake itself. The fishing is valuable, but as usual is rather overcrowded by 

the boatmens who rent it from the proprietors. 

The last class of lakes are those which disappear with the approach of 

_, . ., _ . summer. The Amiar Tfil, in tappas Kasw&si and Pachise of 
The Amir T41. . > , . ,. . ■ , . 

parganahs Bhauapar, exists only in the rainy season, when in 

conjunction with the Bijra TA1 it extends for some miles on either side of 

the Tucker embankment. It is formed by the overflowing of the Xmi and sinks 

rapidly at the end of the rains, leaving bare a soil which produces excellent 

crops. Boro is planted close to the river, where the mould remains sodden for 

some times. Further from the bank peas are extensively sown, while barley and 

other spring crops are raised at the extreme edge furthest from the river. In 

some rare years, when the rainfall has been heavy and the current of the Xmi 

strong, the river brings down a sterilizing deposit of sand. 

The Domingarh and Ki'irmaini lakes on the outskirts of tappas Kasha 
The Domin*arh an< * Gura in pargana Haveli, are formed, as before stated, by 
and Karmaini T4U. t j, e rise f fa R h,' n and a small stream to the west of Go- 
rakhpnr. The former lake is about 2 miles in length and 1£ in breadth ; the 
latter is larger. They are separated by some rising ground which becomes an 
island in the rains. 

The K&rmaini lake when at its greatest height extends north-west for five 
or six miles ; but a considerable part of it is covered by trees and is rather shal- 
low. The shores are lined by fine groves, which with their trees partly sub- 
merged lend a very picturesque aspect to the lake. One or two small streams 
connect it with the Rfipti. At the end of the monsoon the lakes rapidly sub- 
side, and in a month are dry. Great quantities of tall khar and some vernal 
crops are produced on the land thus uncovered. There is a current through 
the lakes from north to south, occasioned by the tendency of the water to flow 
into the Riipti, which eventually drains it off. 

The Nawar Tdl, in tappa Beh of parganah Bhau&p&r, is during the 
rains rather over 2 miles in length and about If of a mile in breadth. But at 
their conclusion it dries up almost entirely, only a few pools being left. 

Boro and spring crops are sown on the lately submerged soil, which is watered 
from the lake itself. 

The Ramkola Jhtt in tappa Papdr of parganah Sidhua Jobna, lies south- 
east of the R&mkola, from which it derives its name. This is during the 
rains a very large oval sheet of water, communicating with the Binde n&la. 
The soil when relinquished by the water acquires sufficient consistency to be 
capable of being dug with a spade, and resembles in appearance a stiff clay. 



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866 GOfiAKHPUR. 

It retains too much moisture to produce first-rate spring crops, and is even said 
to be nnsnited for the thirsty rice. If the lake could be drained so as to ensure 
the -retirement of its water immediately after the rains, it would probably 
become highly productive. It is too shallow to sustain many fish, but is 
frequented by large flocks of wild fowl. 

The lakes and rivers already named are only a few amongst the enor- 
mous number existing in the district. Small lakes, and 
more especially ponds (pokhra), are so numerous that but 
very little land is irrigated from wells. In a 'hot dry year, when there is little 
or no winter rain, disputes sometimes arise as to the use of water, but as a 
rule there is sufficient for all. In many places, especially in the north and 
east, no irrigation at all is required, the soil being naturally moist at all sea* 
sons. The large rivers-of the district are chiefly valuable as affording carriage 
for the grain and sugar trade, which is very considerable. 
The ordinary size of vessels employed in this carrying trade 
is from 200 to 1,000 maunds * burthen if the grain is to be carried out of the 
district as far as the Ganges, and from 500 to 2,000 maunds 2 if it is to be car- 
ried to Calcutta. Within the district the usual measurement is from 100 to 500 
maunds, 8 but boats of only 50 or even 20 maunds 4 are often employed on tha 
B&pti and Dhamela, where the current is sluggish and navigation easy. 

The only evil result of (he usual abundance of water is that the people in 
many places trust almost entirely to the winter rains and natural moisture 
of the soil for the water required by their crops. They therefore dig few wells, 
and suffer severely when a year of drought has left them without means of 
irrigation. 

In the district itself there are no railway stations. The nearest are those 

_ . „ at (1) Akbarpur on the Oudh and Rohilkhand line, in ihe 

"Communication!. . . 

Faizabad district, 68 miles from Gorakhpur ; (2) Zamania 

on the East Indian Line, in the GhAzipur district, 102 miles from ^Gorakhpur ; 
and (3) Faizabad in the district of the same name on the Oudh and Rohil- 
khand line, 84 miles from Gorakhpur. The construction of the proposed 
light railway to Dohrighat in Azamgarh would place a station just outside the 
district, on the opposite bank of the Gh&gra ; while that of a similar line to 
Gh&zipur will bring the nearest station of the East Indian Railway some 14 
miles nearer Gorakhpur on the south. There used to be telegraphic communi- 

1 Between 7 and 36 tons. * Between 17 and 78 tons. Theae large vessels usually start 

from Barhaj, the smaller boats being there unloaded and sent back to Gula, Gorakhpur, 
Dhani, or whatever mart they may ply from. * Batweena 3 and 18 tons • From 

under 2 to under 1 ton* 



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G0BAKHPUB. 307 

cation between G-orakbpur and Zam&nia,*but this has now been closed for many 
years. A light field telegraph was constructed daring the famine of 1873-74, 
but afterwards removed. 

There are two metalled roads, vit., (1) that from Gorakhpur to Benares 

vid Barhalganj, of which there are 35 miles within the 

district; and (2) the Basti and Faizabad road, of which 

only 15 miles extending to Maghar He within Gorakhpur. The greater portion 

of the latter road has been metalled within the last ten years. 

In constructing and maintaining these bridged 1st class roads, 1 the chief 

difficulties are found in the number of watercourses, streams, and lakes to bo 

crossed. The celebrated Tucker embankment on the Barhalganj line is a 

wonderful example of such difficulties overcome. Constructed over the Amiar 

and Bigra Tals, which, as before mentioned, extend for several miles during the 

rainy season, it is three miles long, and has two very large, besides two smaller 

bridges. Before its construction the passage of these lakes in the rains was a 

tedious and dangerous process, numerous accidents occurring to travellers who 

were obliged to undertake it. For a considerable distance the sides of the 

bank are flanked by stonework, to enable it to stand the wash of the water, 

which on a windy day is very great Commenced in 1845 and completed 

some five years later, it was named after Mr. Collector Tucker. An immense 

amount of convict labour was used in its construction, and, independently of the 

cost of maintaining these men, Rs. 70,000 were spent on the work. A bridge 

which convoyed the same road across the Taraina was less successful, being 

swept away during the rains of 1871 by that usually sluggish stream. It has 

been replaced by a new girder bridge. On the Basti road the encroachments 

of the Rapti are continually threatening, and have sometimes succeeded in 

cutting away the causeway, with which the stream runs parallel for the first 

six miles. Two large watercourses, tributary to the same river, are hardly 

less troublesome, and have on more than one occasion carried away the 

bridges with which they have been spanned. Mr. Peart has recorded his 

opinion that a bridge in the embankment bearing a road thus circumstanced 

is a source of weakness in time of flood, and likely to lead to disaster. 

The cost of keeping these, roads in order had up to 1871 been regulated 

very much by the annual grant. An organized system of maintenance has now 

been introduced, and Mr. Peart estimates the rate of repair at about Bs. 300 per 

mile per annum. That sum includes occasional renewal of metal and repairs 

to bridges. The traffic on the Barhalganj road is very great, but it is not heavy, 

1 The infonnaUen regarding roads has been furnished by Mr. Peart, late District Engineer 
of Gorakhpur. 



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308 



GOEAKBPUB. 



the R&pti serving for the transmission of most weighty articles. It was metalled 
for the first time in 1865 at a cost of nearly one lakh of rupees. This high- 
way, which affords throughout the year rapid communication with Benares 
and Azamgarh, is as important from a military as from a commercial point of 
view. Extensive repairs were effected during 1873 on the JBasti road, and a 
new embankment was made to remedy the injuries caused by river encroach- 
ments. The road was embanked and partly metalled in 1869-70. 

There are 912 miles of earthen or unmetalled roads, whereof almost the 

whole are tended by the Public Works Department. The only exceptions are 

the municipal roads in Gorakhpur city and a few other towns where the 

Chaukid&ri Act (XX of 1856) has been introduced. Of earthen highways 476 

miles are inoluded in the 2nd class — that isj amongst raised and bridged roads. 

2nd and 3rd Th° remainder are village roads, usually mere cart tracks, 

claea roacU. j }nt occa8 i nally bridged. All the principal places are thus 

connected with each other and the capital, as also with many important towns 

or villages in adjacent districts. Constant repairs are needed on these roads, 

owing to the damage done by the rains and to the way in which the sand 

works up to the surface. The average cost of repairing is about Rs. 30 a mile 

per annum, but the amount spent varies considerably from one year to 

another. The following list, while distributing unmetalled roads amongst the 

2nd and 3rd classes, shows also the mileage within the district of each line : — 

2nd Clam—Raised and bbidqbd, bot on metalled boadb. 



Name of line. 

Gorakhpur and Lotan 
,, „ Nichlaval 

N „ Bai.sighat 

i, „ Satour 

„ „ GatnUbat 

„ „ Kaibhanghat 



Mileage within 
district. 
... 45 
... 55 
... 48 
... f» 
... 61 
... 86 



Name of tow. Mileage within 

district. 
Kaurfrim and Gola ... 15 

Sikrfganj „ Larh ... 56 

Barhaj „ Padrauna ... 48 

Rudrapur w Gola ... 96 

Captainganj „ Karmainfghit . M 34 



Total tnd claaa 



476 



3rd Clam— Unbaibbd aoADa with occasional bridges ahd culybbts. 



Name of lime. Mileage with in 

distf ict. 

Captsinganj, Nimbna, and Bsgha .« 31 

n ., ., 8abia ... 25 

Padrauna and Nichlaval ... 38 

„ „ Tiwan patti ... 16 

,, „ 8aro6r ... 29 

Bhagalpur „ Bhingari ... JO 

„ ., Miusela ... U 

Nichlaval, Bagapnr, and Banai ... 86 

„ Cbaoparia and Mansfirganj 25 

Bndarpar and Barhaj ... 14 

„ „ Dhara tM 17 



Name of line. 

Rndarpur and Deoria 
Tiwari patti and Panmr 
Kazipur 



Kaurfrim f9 findia 
Pipriich „ Deoria 

„ ' M Barhi 

Bagtpur „ Bagha 
8ahnj«nna V9 Tilaura *. 

Shihpar branch, Rudrapnr-Gola 

road ... ... . M 

Maharftjganj branch, Gorakhpur- 

Nfchlaval road 



Mileage within 
district. 
... 7 
... 12 
... 14 
... 14 
... 82 
... 24 
... 88 
11 



IS 



Total 3rd claaa ... 436 



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GOIUKHPUR. 



309 



The difficulty of procuring nodular limestone (kunkwr) 1 renders it impossi- 
ble to metal the greater portion of tlnse roads ; but numerous bridges and 
embankments have rendered them most valuable means of communication. 
Few or perhaps no new road* appear to be called for, but much may yet be 
done to improve the existing lines, especially in the north of the district. 

The most important of the 2nd class roads are those — (1 ) from Gorakh- 
pur to Nichlaval ; (2) from Gorakhpur to Bettiah m'APadrauna and Bdnsigh&t ; 
(3) from Gorakhpur to Chapra vid Deoria, Ldrh, and Gatnigh&t ; (4) from 
Barhaj to Padrauna ;' (5) from Gorakhpur to Samtir vid Hata and Easia. 
The chief efforts of district engineers have of late been devoted to bringing 
the 2nd class roads into good order, and to making them passable at all times of the 
year by constructing embankments and bridges. The Deoria, Kasia, and Lotan 
roads have received special attention, and are now in very good order. Bridges 
have been constructed on them over thoTura,Majhna, Robin, Little Gandak, and 
Dhanua. The Nichlaval road and the road from Kigoli to Captainganj have also 
been put in order. They are both of considerable importance — the former as the 
road on which a large part of the rice and sugar trade from the north is brought 
down to Gorakhpur, the latter as connecting Captainganj with Dhani, Rigoli, 
and E&rmaini gh&t. Another 2nd class road of importance is that from Sikri- 
ganj to Ldrh, passing Barhalganj, Barhaj, and Paina. The facilities offered by 
the different rivers as a means of communication have been noticed above. The 
extreme north and north-west of the district will soon require something more 
than the cart tracks which at present serve as roads. The rice and pepper trade 
of that neighbourhood is becoming very considerable. If the Nepfcl authorities 
would only consent to facilitate trade between their country and British India, 
keeping up the roads on their side of the boundary line, a very important trade 
in rice, timber, iron, and copper might be carried to Gorakhpur either vid Tfiti- 
bh&ri and Nichlaval or by Lotan or Nai kot and Dh&ni. Even now the trade is large. 

The following tables shows the distances of the principal towns and villages 
from Gorakhpur. These are the distances by road, as a 
wagon would have to travel ; they have been in no case 
measured as the crow flies or by foot-path : — 



l. 
*. 

a. 

4. 
5. 



Gorakhpur to 

Bellptr 

Tucker embank- 
ment, north end. 
Kaurfram 
Gagaha 
Barhalganj 
Gola 



1 


s 













4 

CM 





3 






12 
16 


*3 

m 

3 


U 
** 


a 
1 


s 

3 


2 
1 


17* 


«* 


2* 


A 


« 1 


3 


86 


14 


11 


«» 


o 




36 


24 


21 


18» 


10 


» 1 


S3 


21 


18 


16| 


20| ' 


10) 1 



Gorakhpur 
to Gajpur ... 
Kotha 



1 

A 

26 

27 



20 
82 



1 Kunkur is found, but lies so deep that the expense of digging it is great. 



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310 



GOBaKBfUft. 



Gorakhpur to 

1. Chatai bridge... 

2. Rudrapur 

3. Anola or Bang- 

rainpur. 

4 BinBgaon* or 

Shahpur Kobra 

5 Dhuri Apart ... 
6. Shahpur .»* 



5 



JO 

•** 

5 


u 
o 
9* 




7 


a 




2 


10 


a 


tf 


18 


6 


3 


1 


19 


19 


9 


6 


30 


93 


90 


17 


87 


33 


97 


94 



is 



Gorakhpur to Bhadar, 17. 
„ Bankata, 90. 

„ Barhiapar, 15. 

* ViA Kauriram, 90 

f Via Sikriganj, 99. Sikriganj is 98 miles 
from Gorakhpur on loop road. 



Gorakhpur to 




1. Barhi 


13 


9. Rudarpur 


97 


8. Madanpur 


31 


4. Kaparwir 


37 


6. Gonra 


39 


6. Barhaj 


41 


7. Fain a 


44 


8. Mail 


49 


9. Bhagalpur 


69 



3 


? 


D 








n 

14 


•8 

P3 


1 


Ml 

* 


5 


5 

? 
^ 


18 
24 


4 
10 


8 


1 




26 


19 


8 


9 


o 




98 


14 


10 


4 


9 


31 


17 


13 


I 


6 


8 


36 


92 


18 


19 


10 


8 I 


39 


25 


91 


t« 


13 


11 



oS 

i 

flu 

6 

8 



1 

8 



Gorakhpur to Khaiopar— By road 81, direct 69. 



Gorakhpur to 

1. Subah Bazar 

9. Motfram Chauki 

3. Bhopa 

4. Chaura 

6. Patharhat 

6. Deoria 

7. Khukhundu 

8. Miuaela 

9. Salem pur 

10. Majhauli 

11. Larh 

19. Gatnfghft 







o 








To Saharanpur 






■♦a 














■s 


2 








... 


6 


1 


1 








... 


12 


7 


? 


o 








14 


9 


9 


1 


g 

I 

6 
17 


2 


••• 


16 
91 
33 


11 
16 

98 


4 

9 

91 


2 

7 
19 


3 

ft- 

12 


Deoria to 
khundu to 


... 


44 


39 


32 


30 


98 


98 


11 


2 © 

W e8 


... 


46 


41 


94 


89 


30 


95 


18 


2 


1 


••• 


) 
















••• 


J 63 


48 


41 


89 


37 


39 


20 


9 


7 


00* 


58 


53 


46 


44 


49 


87 


25 


14 


19 


... 


60 


55 


48 


46 


44 


39 


97 


16 


14 



By road 

68, 
direct 

65. 



8. 

8 



Gorakhpur to Rampur Kliaii<par 
„ Kahfcoa 



38 by road, 38 direct 



69 



46 



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Aorakbpur to 9 



1. C^ter'B Well ... 

5. FaHkki-kothi 

3. Kusmlha 

4. Jagdeepor 
0. Dhara 

6. Hata 

7. Hetimpur 

8. Kasia 

9. Dhampattl 

10. Kazipur 

11. 8amur 



i 



GOKAXHPUB. 



5 

1 



311 



3 3 



4 
6 
8 


1 

2 
4 


1 

2 


■a 

a 
i 


43 

! 


o 

<*• 

s 




11 


7 


5 


3 




S 


25 


SI 


19 


17 


14 


^ 


s 


28 


24 


22 


20 


17 


8 


a 

5 


38 


29 


27 


25 


22 


8 


87 


33 


81 


29 


26 


12' 


9 1 


40 


36 


84 


32 


29 


15 


12 


47 


43 


41 


39 


36 


22 


19 1 


51 


47 


46 


43 


40 


26 


23 



8 



W 



5 



Gorakhpur to Mainpur khas, 48 
,i Tamkuhi 55 

„ Taria Sujan 56 



3 
3 



4 

7 I 3 

14 10 

!■ 14 



Gorakhpur to 
1. Pipraich 
i, Captainganj ... 
f. Bamkola tM 
4. Padrauna ... 





■s 


•* 


1 » 


» s* 1 




9* 


38 


15 3 


38 


25 


10 


49 


86 


22 



I 

ii 



Gorakhpur to Semra Hardeo. 


By road. 


Direct. 






54. 


48. 


i> 


Bisbnpura ,.• 


62 


53 


n 


Binsgaon ... 


64 


54 


»» 


Amwa Khas ... 


68 


56 


ii 


Bampur Bora- 








han 


68 


59 


if 


Tiwari Patti ... 


59 


54 


ii 


Gola Pipragbat 
and.Sahibganj 
or the Great 








Gandak ... 


62 


55 



Gorakhpur to 



I. Kotihl 

t. Biraicha 

8. Kothibhtr 

4. Siswa 

5. Sabia 

6. Nichlaral 

7. Tutibhari 



83 
34 
40 
41 
43 
51 
57 



s 

1 

4 
10 
II 
13 
21 
27 



3 

i 

i3 

1 

3 
11 
17 



I 

2 

10 
16 



2 

i 

CO 

8 

14 



a 



i 

2 

6 



Gonkhpnrto 



I. MaMrfjgmj ,„ 
f. B*gapfe ^. 

I. Chaok 



38 
89 
41 



I* 



40 



■S 

! 

a 

8 



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M? 



GOIUKHfCft. 



Gorakhpur toMdniram 

„ Cbaaraukha ... 

,, Riiroli 

„ Dh&nl and Khinaplr 

w Simara 



Haikot by cart tracks 



••• 


7 


••• 


25 


• •• 


27 


••• 


S3 


... 


86 


••« 


07 



Rigoli, Dhanl. Kh&napfir, and Bela- 
hariya, which is about 39 miles 
from Gorakhpar, are on a differ- 
ent road branching from Rigoli 



Gorakhpur to Pauira— by road at 
direct 24. 









Gorakhpur to 










]. 


Piproli 




• •• M. 


•• . 


. • ••■ 


• 


M* 


2. 


Sahnjanua 




••• ••• 


• . 


• •• 


10 


4 


9. 


Bhiti 




••• ••• 1 


... 


i* 


7 








Gorakhpur to 








I*yroa4, 


1. 


Kohraulya 


... 


••• ... 




• M 


... 


52 


*. 


Marar Bind walla 


... 


••• ••• 


• #• 


• •• 


... 


5a 


8. 


Nautan ... 


... 


•M .»« 


• •■ 


• «• 


••• 


60 


4. 


Rnggarganj 


•M 


••• ••• 


«•• 


• ■• 


••• 


85 


0. 


Shahjahanpur 


• •• 


*•* •«• 


»». 


• •• 


M. 


37 


e. 


Tarikulwa . 


III 


fit ••• 


— 


• •■ 


... 


40 



The average rainfall of the district is about 46 incnes, but varies very- 
much from one year to aD other. In the following table k 
shown its average at the principal stations if the district 
between 1844-45 and 1849-50 :— 



Rainfall and climate. 



1844-46 » 

1846-46 

1846-47 

1847-48 

1848-49 

1849-50 




arerage 43-61. 



The average total rainfall for the ten years 1860-61 to 1870-71- is given 
below : — 





_: 


oi 


CO 


-# 


*o 


to 


►: 


00 1 


e» 


c? 




• 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


r» 


Period. 


o 
to 


to 


to 


V3 

to 


•to 


s 


to 


3 


8 






op 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


op 


00 


2 


1st June to 30th Sep* 


48'7 


46-9 


80*4 


431 


23*8 


34*0 


42-7 


47-8 


23*8 


83 9 


tember. 






















lit October to 8 1 8 t 


4*2 


100 


29 


8<2 


•8 


11 


•9 


25 


•6 


162 


January. 






















lat February to Slat 


82 


82 


•a 


16 


81 


4*2 


68 


If 


f 


2<3 


May. 






















Total 


49*1 


601 


84*2 


52*8 


387 


39*4 


499 


51-6 


25*2 


62'4 



and for 1870-71 it was 574 

J UntruBtworthy: the variations in different parts of the district are rery great. 



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QORAKHPlftt. 



aia 



- The fainfell In 1873 and again in 1876 has been abnormally ai»all, and' 
figures for previous years have therefore been given. The mean monthly 
temperature in the shade is about 76°, averaging from about 60° in January 
to 90° in June. How much the climate differs from that of most Dfiib 
districts m*y be proved, thus c — 

Monthly maximum and minimum average temperature, taken at meteorological 
observatory of Gorakhpur,from 1873 to 1877. 





1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876v ! 1877. 


Months. 


M 
08 

a 


m % 


i 

a 


'-6 

a 


a 

a 


i 

.9 

a 


■ 

a 

a 


• 


.A 

H 


a 
a 




h 


9 . 








If 


to 


In 

2 


N 


• * 




£a 


20 


fa 


S?a 


► a 


?a 


fa 


fa 


fa 


> s 




< 


< 


« 


«i 


•« 


«* 


< 


< 


< 


< 


January 


IV 


' 497 


75 


47* 


79*6 


48*1 


76-9 


47*5 


75*48 


51- 


February •- 


84' 


55-7 


79 


es- 


78 9 


548 


88*4 


51*5 


74-64 


49* 


[ March ... 


89' 


69*9 


89 a 


61* 


98-8 


64*4 


101-9 


61-9 


89*2 *J 


61-70 


Afcril 


100 


71* 


io«* 


70- 


101-3 


754 


981 


662 


100- 


68-83 


May ... 


103 SS 


7779 


108* 


784 


99 5 


76-3 


101-4 


74-2 


104-21 


7612 


June ... 


104* 


S3* 


92 


78' 


97 5 


80-5 


134-6 


50*5 


101-91 


61-53 


July 


94- 


86- 


94* 


783 


94-6 


796 


95-2 


8009 


98-54 


80-41 


August* ... 


n- 


80- 


90' 


79-7 


89 


789 


91-5 


78«* 


9712 


79 64 


September 


93" 


79* 


90- 


51*4 


919 


77-9 


91 1 


76 5 


99-08 


7836 


October 


92- 


66* 


89- 


71- 


97'0 


66-2 


86 6 


67-5 


9022 


68 09 


November M . 


8ft- 


57* 


89 80 


5870 


840 


56-4 


89'3 


55 7 


87-42 


5903 


December ... 


78' 


50- 


75-8 


49*8 


77-0 


51*9 


77-1 


48 


74-47 


£0-28 



The district, being situated near the hills, is not subject to very intense 
heat, and the abundance of moisture in the soil generally prevents the ground 
from retaining and giving out that scorching heat which is so distressing in 
districts like Agra. Dust-storms are very rare, and cool breezes from the 
north generally follow even short intervals of very hot weather. The climate 
is, however, relaxing, and the cold weather is not so keen or so bracing as in 
the North-Western Provinces west of Oudh. 1 Until a few years ago Gorakhpur 

1 From her husband's •* camp near Goruckpur," a few days before the close of 1837, Mrs. 
Henry (afterwards Lady) Lawrence writes as follows :— " For the last two months the weather 
has been as delightful as you can imagine— «-the very beau idealoi climate. There has not been 
a drop of rain since the first week in October. The mornings and evenings are very cold, 
and all day the air is so cool that we can sit out of doors. I never had such enjoyment of 
nature. Sometimes our march begins two hours before sunrise, and the starlight mornings 
with the dawning day are beautiful beyond description. We have been in the northern parts 
of the district, where it joins the Nep&l frontier, and where there are long tracts of forest 
and jungle. The country in which we are is a perfect plain, but we have been in sight of the 
Himalayas and have had some glorious views of them ; the lower range undulating and wooded 
behined them, the sharp peaks and angular outline of the snowy range looking tike opal or 
mother-o'-pearl. I could not have conceived the luxuriance of oriental vegetation till I paw 
It The trees are splendid, and in this district very abundant, independently of the forest."— 
lift of Sir Henry Lawrence, by Sir Herbert Edwards and Herman Meri?ale, C.B. The 
highest of the snowy mountains seen from Gorakhpur is DhvMagiri. It is probable that since 
Ike passage just quoted was written, clearsnce of forest has much altered the eUoaate. 



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314 GOBAKBroiL 

bore an unhealthy name, bat recent clearances of forest have rendered the 
Bonth and east of the district quite as salubrious as most places in India. The 
tarii and existing forest tracts are still, no doubt, highly malarious ; and in 
the northern part of Haveli, in Tilpur and Bin&yakpur, fever is terribly fatal 
during the quarter succeeding the close of the rains. The 'rainfall is generally 
heavy, and rain about or soon after Christmas is always looked for ; indeed, its 
failure has, as before remarked, an evil effect on the spring harvest The rains 
commence about the middle or end of June and last till the middle or end 
of September. 

PART II. 

Products of the District, Animal, Vegetable, and Minebal. 

Thb wide wastes and forests of the district shelter many wild animals. 
Through them within 30 years used to roam wild elephants, 
and tigers and leopards are still pretty common. In 1856, 
a short time before the rebellion, the mails to Padrauna and the north are Baid to 
have been stopped by the tigers which infested the road. These animals BtiB 
venture sometimes within five miles of the city, and indeed in 1873 the Magis- 
trate shot one within that city itself. Wild pig and deer are plentiful, especi- 
ally in the north of the district, where the black-buok is found in considerable 
numbers. The wild buffalo or arna is also met with near the Nepal frontier. 
Poisonous snakes are very common, and the death-rate owing to them is high. 
The amount of game in the district has much decreased since the mutiny, 
owing to the clearance of woodland and increase of population. Some trade 
in deer skins and horns is carried on with the north of the district and 
Nepal. 

The following is a list of the more remarkable animals found in the 
district : — 

Bdgh or %her } tiger (Fell* tigris\ still pretty common. 1 

Tendua, leopard or panther (Felis pardus), very common. 

Chita, hunting leopard (Felts jubata). 

Bhdlu or rkhh y bear {Ursus labiatu*), found occasionally on the Nepal 
frontier. 

Jangali suar or wild pig (Su$ Indicw), very common, especially in thick 
forest. 

1 A native authority who furnished a list 'of animals for the Gazetteer states there are 
four kinds of tigers : (l) the true sher, (S) the goghla t which is yery thick and short ; (3) the 
ndhar or ndjar chor, whioh is very long and fierce ; (4) the chitwa, which ill smaller, but very 
fierce. (This may perhaps be the chita.) 



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GOBAKHPTO. 315 

ChUcU or spotted deer (Axis maculattu). The male is called jhdnkh. 

KMnkhy antelope (Antilope bezoartica). 

Rhdnhra, identified by Mr. Lumsden with the barking deer ( Cervulus 
aureu*\ known in other parts of India as kdkar. The name perhaps contains 
an allusion to the long canine teeth of its bearer (khdng, a tusk). The kh&nkra 
is a small deer about two feet in height, and from its handsome little skin 
partalas or sword-belts are usually made. 

Silgdo or rojh (Portax pictus), common in the jungle. A variety called 
the Ghordrojh, which is found in the Diw&ra lands near Barhaj and Paina, 
owes its name to the fact that its form is stout and supposed to resemble that 
of a horse. 

Arna or wild buffalo (Bubalus ami). 

Longer or large monkey (Presbytis entellus)^ 

Sahi or porcupine (Hyatrix leucura). 

Ndk or magar> crocodile (Crocodilus biporcatus), very dangerous owing 
to the fact that it is almost omnivorous. 

Gharidl or gavyal (Gaviali* Gcmgeticu*) 9 a long-nosed river saurian, 
which, living on fish, is comparatively harmless. 

Sdns or porpoise (Platanista Gangetica), very common in the B&pti and 
all the larger rivers. A smaller variety is called gohtd. 

Gddur or flying-fox (Pteropus EdwardsH), everywhere abundant. 

The shdmdn, a bird with red and green plumage, is common here, but 
__ _ said to be rare elsewhere. Such birds are often sent for 

Bifuf. 

sale to other districts, where a very good specimen will 
fetch Bs. 10. When young they are sold for eight annas each. There is an 
immense variety of water birds, of which, however, few or none are peculiar 
to the. district. The large grebe is sometimes found. The florican and jungle- 
cock are met with in the north of the district Hill mainas and parrots are 
sometimes brought to Gorakhpur for sale, but no regular trade in them 
exists. 
_ , _ The natives believe at least a dozen kind of snakes to 

inflict fatal bites, and the following undoubtedly do so :— 
Gehuw&n, ^ 

JDogla, f Varieties of the Hid simp or cobra (Naja tripudiam). 

Doma, J 

' Karfit,' } 
Khatkhor, > Varieties of the bungarus. The female karait is 
Ghorkarait, J 

called noggin and the ghorkarait is said to make noise like a horse neighing. 



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316 



ooftAK&ptm; 



The following are only sometimes deadly, bat always cause pain and sickness 
in those whom they bite : — 

Amaita y a large snake with very long fangs. ^ 

Chitar or ehitra, a spotted snake about 18 inches long. 

Ahirin, mahar, about four feet long, yellow and grey ; the bite produce* 
swelling and great pain. 

Sonkatar. 

Sogana or sigona, a green snake. 

The ajgar ot python is sometimes, though rarely, found in the north of 
the district. 

Besides these there are a large number of harmless snakes, some of them 
possessing great beauty. Scorpions are very common. There are several 
water snakes which the natives declare are poisonous ; the commonest are the 
paniha, chakor^ and zardrang or yellow-hue. The number of deaths resulting 
yearly from snake-bite is very large. About half only of such cases are pro- 
bably reported ; but the following list of casualties thus caused during sit 
warm months of 1872 will be found sufficiently long :— 





Male. 


Ifemale. 


Total. 


May 187S .*. 

0UDQ & ••• •** ••• 

July I* ... ... •♦. 

.August „ ... ••. *•• 
September » ••• ••• ••• 

October », •«* •.* ••• 


10 
SO 
41 
SS 
S2 
12 


11 
39 
69 
68 
31 
13 


si 

•9 

103 

117 

5S 

25 


Total 


176 


S15 


391 



In the remaining half of the year, ie., in the drier and oolder months, 
but 43 cases occurred. Considering that (as before stated) there are probably 
just as many cases unreported as reported, this large total of 434 shows a 
very serious mortality. No measures, however, have as yet been taken for the 
destruction of venomous snakes, and perhaps none are possible. Except for 
the slaughter of pariah dogs and an occasional tiger, no reward for the 
destruction of noxious beasts has been claimed in the district for some 
years. 

Accurate returns of the number of cattle killed by snakes or wild beasts 
are not forthcoming, but it must be very considerable in the north, where large 
herds graze about forests still infested with tigers. The returns of persons 
destroyed by snake-bite and beasts of prey have since 1875 been amalgamated 



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GOtUKWUR. tlT 

find kept in less detail. It is only certain that 516 persons of both 

sexes thus perished in 1875, 480 in 1876, and 427 in 1877 : average 474 

yearly. 

The cattle of the district are as a role poor and much jnferior to those 

_ , , found up-country. Mr. Ridsdale mentions a letter written to 

Domestic animals, 

the Board of Eevenue about 1824-25 by the Collector 

of Gorakhpur, who complains of the extreme difficulty of getting any cattle 
sufficiently strong to drag the Government treasure carts. Since then cattle 
have certainly improved, but the breed produced is still inferior No systematic, 
breeding has been attempted ; but the purchase of cattle from neighbouring 
districts and the practice of bringing large herds to grase in the north of 
Gorakhpur have of course done something to improve the stock. 

The prieeof the common bullocks born and bred in this district varies accord* 

ing to age, strength, &c, from fis. 5 to Bs. 25, hardly ever 

exceeding the latter sum. The average value of a pair of 

bullocks used ia a plough in this district would probably be from Rs.15 to Bs. 80> 

if they were of the district breed. As, however, many cattle of better breed are 

purchased from other districts, this price must be raised to find the trot 

average for bullocks of all kinds. This may be fixed at about Bs. 25 a pair. 

Since the closing of the Government breeding studs atGhfoipur and Karantadih, 

stud-bred horses have rarely appeared for sale in the district. The ordinary 

country pony is the only steed for which anything like a 

demand can be said to exist, and is sometimes a very service* 

able beast. The price for such animals, when young, ranges from Bs. 5 to Bs. 20, 

and when in their prijne from Bs. 10 to Bs. 50. To the Englishman at 

Gorakhpur the acquisition of a good remount is a difficult or a doubtful matter* 

No horses are bred, and the station is too small and too much out of the way to 

attract dealers. No attempt has been made to establish a breeding stud of 

any kind here. 

In 1866-67 proposals were made to import some bulls from Hise&r in 

x A . order to improve the breed of cattle, but the animals were 
Attempts to im- r J 

prove the trade of found too large for the small cows of the district aad the 
M *' c * experiment foiled. At the same time some rams were intro- 

duced, but these too were a failure, as they died within a year of their arrival. 
In 1869 Mr. Collector Clifford, again tried the experiment with some long* 
wooled sheep, but again without success. It should certainly be quite possible to 
improve the breed of cattle if bulls of a good stock but small size were imported, 
and he capital pasture here procurable should have a healthening effect on the 



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318 GOBAMPUB. 

young calves. A number of persons, chiefly Ahirs, live by pasturing cattle in 
the north of the district and on the skirts of Nep&l. 

Scattered oyer the northern forests are large open glades covered 
with grass, which after the rains often grows to a great 
height. The charw&has ' (graziers) burn this and then 
bring their cattle to graze on the young shoots of grass which spring up. The 
best pasture lands are in the east of Sidhna Jobna. The exact extent of patches 
so mingled with the jungle cannot very well be estimated, but they must 
cover at least 30,000 acres. The grazier collects from his own and neighbour- 
ing villages a herd of cattle (lehar) containing from 60 to 200 head or even 
more. This he drives into the jungles at the end of K&rtik (October-Novem- 
ber). The cattle remain there till the end of Bais&kh or Jeth (t\*. May or 
June), some six or seven months later, when they leave in order to reach their 
villages before the rains descend. The rates which these heads pay to the 
landlord vary considerably from one estate to another. But as a general rule, 
a herd of cattle numbering 100 head of all ages and sexes would be allowed, 
on payment of Bs. 5, to graze for the whole season of six months. Nor would 
the fee be increased if the head of cattle were nearer 150 than 100. For 
buffaloes Rs. 8 per hundred is the usual charge, but a price of two annas a 
head is occasionally asked. Cattle are brought from great distances to graze, 
being often driven 40 or 50 miles, and sometimes 80. The grazier is some* 
times a servant paid at the rate of Bs. 3 a month by the different owners ; 
sometimes several cattle-owners take it in turns to pasture their common cattle, 
and sometimes, but very rarely, the herdsman is paid by a share in the calves 
born while the herd is under his charge. Herdsmen or graziers are as a class 
very honest. Camels are very rarely used in this district : elephants being com- 
mon, and the facilities of carriage- by water great, they are 
needed neither for riding nor burthen. The climate, more- 
over, does not suit them. Goats are numerous, but there is no specially good 
breed, nor have any attempts been made to improve the poorer breeds that 
exist. 

Several varieties of river fish are used for food in this district, and 
constitute an important item in the fare of the poorer 
classes. The best kinds are :— 

Rohu {Ldbeo rohita}, a kind of carp which runs up to 10 or 121bs. in 
weight, the average being about 3 or 4. This well-known fish is caught in 
great numbers in lakes, such as the Bhenri and Nandaur t&ls, whose fisheries 
are rented. It is taken all the year round, a but attains its best condition 



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OORAEHPUR. 319 

daring the winter. The Raronchhal and the Bakhna are varieties not quite 
so good to eat as the true rohu. 

The mahdser y here apparently called the mas&rh (Barbus mosal), is, as 
already mentioned, sometimes caught in the Naraini, towards the extreme 
north of the district 

Baikari (SchiUrichihys garua), of which the larger variety is known as 
silandi. This fish is only caught dnring the rains. It will take a fly, is found 
in very rapid currents, and in appearance somewhat resembles a mackerel. 

Naini (Cirrhina mrigala), resembles the rohu, but is yellower. Hindus 
say it is a foul feeder and seldom eat it ; but the formation of its mouth is 
opposed to this statement, and it is probably just as olean in its diet as the 
rohu. 

Arwdri or gray mullet (Mugil corsula), a small fish caught generally in 
the rains and of very good flavour. 

ChUlua (Aspidoparia morar), a very small fish of good but sometimes 
muddy flavour. This is the " whitebait 9 ' with which Indian butlers favour 
their English masters. Small as it is, it will readily take a fly. 

The following are also edible : — Qirai (Ophiocephalus punctatus), a 
small fish, eaten by the poor. 

Ooneh (Bagarius YarreUii), a large scaleless fish, rather like a fresh* 
water shark. It is a very foul feeder, has a long mouth armed with sharp 
teeth, and is only eaten by the very poorest classes. 

The JalkaphAr (Notopterua kapirot) resembles the baikari in appearance, 
and is very good eating. It is caught generally in the rains, and has a pair of 
long barbels. 

Tengar (Macrones tengara), a fish which is described as full-blooded. 
It is also full flavoured, and its flesh is rarely eaten except in the form of a 
spiced preserve. 

The hilsa is sometimes caught during the rains. There are two kinds 
of prawn (jhinga), one very large ; and two kinds of crab (kenkra). All of 
these are edible. 

Bdm-bdmi or eels (Anguilla Bengalenris) and bilondha are common in most 
of the rivers. 

The spines on the fins of the Singhi (Saceobranchus fossUU) and sakuchi 
(species unverified) are said to give poisonous wounds. The singhi seems to 
spend most of his time in mud holes at the bottom of the water. 

41 



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8*0 Ganiraptfft. 

The species of the following varieties remain to be identified by some 
practised ichthyologist : — Bhakura, a large fish which is excellent eating and 
sometimes attains a weight of 20 or 30 lbs. Raiya, a Bmall, edible, and grace* 
fill fish, something like a smelt- The sohiya, also small and edible, is a silvery 
fish which loves deep waters. Mie strong flavour of the piyds commends it to 
the palate of few except bargees* The moi t smooth and shining, has fine 
scales, many bones, and little flavour. Its stomach is, however, thought a deli- 
cacy. The entrails of the parni, which sometimes reaches a weight of 80 lbs., 
are similarly esteemed. The kuisi is silvery and edible, but bony. The sidhri,. 
mmbha, and ihuria are all small pond fish, eaten by the poorer classes. The 
turji is described as small, but well flavoured. The mangur is some 6 or 7 
indies in length and burrows in the mud of ponds. Its flesh is pleasant to the 
taste, but said to lack firmness. The pengna is a small fish with strong sharp 
fins, a body white below and brownish-green above, and a oouple of barbels. 
Last and almost least comes the patharchatar with its length of about 6 inches. 
It has a brown back, sharp fins, and pleasant flavour. 

Turtles {kackhua) are very common, but are not, so far as can be ascer- 
tained, extensively used as food. Many persons however eat their eggs, which 
are often found 50 or 100 together. The rohu and its varieties, the bhakura, the 
karonchhal, thebilondha,the bokhna, and the baikri, all yield oil. So do the 
porpoise and the gonchh ; but being too strong for the nets and lines ordinarily 
used, they are rarely captured. The fishermen are chiefly Mall&hs and Turhas, 
a division of the Kahar caste. Their apparatus is simple, but effective. The net 
^^^ most in use is the gdnja. This is a long hempen trap open 

at one end, and fixed along the course of a stream by means 
of a bambu framework. Through its open mouth, into a sort of chamber at the 
other end, the fish are driven by a boat pulling down-stream. The open end is 
then lifted out of the water and the net hauled ashore. The Jcorhel and the 
iipahu are generally used from boats ; they are shaped liked extinguishers, 
and, like the g&nja, have a bambu framework. In rivers they are pulled up 
against the current, and in lakes they are repeatedly pushed down amongst 
the weeds where the fish lie. The mahdjal or seine net is fortunately 
rarely used. It is set by three or four boats, and covering a circum- 
ference of 200 or 250 yards, is very destructive. If it were very 
oommonly employed, the fisheries of the district would probably be ruined. 
A small net called jhinguri or jhikhari is fastened to a triangle of bambu 
and pushed on in front of the fisherman by means of a long handle. 
Used to catch the prawns and small fish which abound in shallows, this is 
exactly similar to the prawn nets used in England. Besides these nets, long 



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and short rods, called respectively bansi, and katiya, aid the fisherman in his 
labours. The terms employed by the fisherman of Gorakhpur are, for 
his line, dori ; for his float, taraina ; for his lead, luka or goti ; for the book r 
kantiya or kdnta ; for the bait ehdra ; and for the frame on which the line is 
wound, pelni. The last name is sometimes also applied to a hand-line. It i» 
a common custom in the district to dam up streams which summer has left 
with little or do current, and then to build, across the shallow water below the 
dam, small compartments in which the fish can be easily chased and captured. 
Walls are often constructed across small lakes and ponds with the same object. 
Immense labour is sometimos spent on draining the lesser t&ls in ordqr to 
catch the fish thus left gasping on their ooza 

Native fishermen greatly overcrowd all places where there is anything 
like good fishing to be got As they never dream of sparing a minnow once 
caught, it is lucky that the rainy season, with its boisterous floods, protects 
the breeding fish, Quite common is it to find 40 or 50 boats fishing in one 
lake which is certainly not large enough for more than 30 ; and as the sons 
of each fisherman deem themselves in some measure entitled to oome and fish 
where their father fished before them, the number of destroyers is ever on the 
increase. Tho R&pti and the Ami are perhaps the two best streams for fishing, 
but fish are abundant in all of any size. The boatmen do not observe *ny 
regular close season, but catch fish whenever they can. For the due preserva- 
tion of a great food resource legislation may perhaps be required. 

The amount of fish consumed in the district must be something immense. 
Hindus and Muhammadans of all castes and classes eat it ; and the average 
prioe during the greater part of the year being about one anna per ser only, or 
two annas for the best fish, such food is within the reach of even the poorest. 
During the rains and afterwards, until the waters subside, the price rises to 
two or even three annas a ser. Those who abstain from fish are mostly a bhagat*" 
devotees who have taken a vow of perpetual celebacy, and avoid meat, fish, and 
intoxicating liquor or drugs. The caste in which they are most numerous is 
the Koeri. Some Brahmans, especially the worshippers of Shiva, refuse to eat 
scaleless fish (such as eels), but devour all other kinds. 

On passing from the animal to the vegetable kingdom, cultivated cropa 
Vegetable king- demand our first notice. Of these a local distribution wilt 
^ om * serve as well as any more laboured classification ; and we 

begin with the north of the district. 

Here the principal growth is rice (dhdn, Oryzck saliva), for whose culture 

Crops by local dit* and irrigation the moist tar&i soil and numerous streams 

tribution. Dhto. of Binfiyakpur and Tilpur afford exceptional facilities. More 



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822 



GORAKHPUR. 



of it indeed is grown than of all the other crops put together, and the rice 
fields often present an unbroken expanse of some miles in extent. In par- 
ganah Haveli also the crop occupies a large area, and it is met with every- 
where in the district, though to a small extent only in the southern and 
eastern tracts. A species of rice called boro must be elsewhere described, 
as its cultivation and time of reaping differ from those of the ordinary 
dhdn. Dh4n may itself be divided broadly into two classes — bhadui and 
aghani. 

The former is sown in Jeth (May- June) dn land which has been left 
fallow since the autumn harvest of the former year. The ground is ploughed 
in Pus (December-January) or M&gh (January-February) in order that the 
BhaduL 8Un ma ^ P enetrate and warm without hardening it overmuch. 

The field is again ploughed before sowing in Jeth. It is 
considered advantageous if a shower or two have fallen before this ; but whether 
it rains or not, the seed must be sown by the end of the month just named. 
Seed sown before rain falls is called dhuria bdwag (i. e., the dusty or dry sowing). 
The soil best adapted to receive the crop is that lying low enough for the water 
to lodge, but not too low, as excessive flooding is injurious. If no rain falls 
before sowing, and unless the soil is very cold and moist, it is usual to irrigate 
the fields directly after that process. It is for this purpose that the Thirds of 
Bin&yakpur dam up the small streams, which th^y then divert by numerous 
channels (hulaa) into their fields. As soon as the water has collected, naturally 
or artificially, to a depth of about three inches, the field is ploughed once 
more. This rather rough treatment is said not to injure the seeds, but to eradi- 
cate weeds which would otherwise choke tho young crop. In As&rh (June- 
July) any grass or weeds which may have sprung up are weeded out by 
women and children, who receive as wages about 2£ 8ers °f "cc a day. 
This process is called nirai. The amount of seed sown on the recognised 
Mglia varies slightly in different parts of the district : the highest being 28 
sers in B&nsg&on, the lowest 22 sers in the Sadr tahsil. After sowing, the 
crop is generally dependent on the rains, and is ruined if they fail. As this 
kind of rice thrives most when the water around it is not too deep, its 
sower prefers a season of light and sustained to one of sudden and heavy rain- 
fall. The fields have strong merhs or banks of about two feet high to retain the 
water. The crop grows rapidly aud is out in Kudr (September-October), or 
sometimes at the end of B had on (August-September), from which latter month 
it probably derives its name. Its best varieties are — jhali, kapdrch{ni y pajesar, 
bendi (white and black), muttri } bdnsphul, parni or padni, dudha, sdtha, or itUhiy 
Qnjanawct) *ina, kauria, gajbel, and bandelet. 



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GORAKHPUB. 323 

The seoond kind of dMn, aghani, is sometimes distinguished from its syno- 
Aehani. njm jarhani; but no perceptible difference between the 

two would appear to exist. There are indeed two varieties 
of aghanij but these are varieties rather of cultivation than species, and 
the term jarhani applies to both. Jarhani in fact merely denotes the winter 
(jdra) as opposed to the Bhadon or bhadui crop. Of the two varieties 
the first (chhitua; is generally sown or scattered (chhtina) over fields which 
have lain fallow for some time and have been prepared, like those for the 
bhadui dh&n, some months beforehand. Often, however, a field in which gram, 
kirao, 1 or linseed has been sown is selected for the crop. The stalks of the 
former one, being dug into the ground and mixed with the soil about two 
months before the rice is sown, form a kind of manure. The seed is sown in 
Asarh about a maund to an acre, and just as the crop has begun to rise from 
the ground, it is ploughed up again and dug into the earth. After a time it 
sprouts afresh with greater strength than before. It is cut generally in Kartik 
(October- November;. The second variety, behan, is so called from behan or 
bihan, a cutting or seedling. This crop needs two fields. The first, called 
khet biyar* is ploughed twice or thrice in Magh (January-February) and has 
high walls. In Asarh, after the first good fall of rain, it is ploughed and the 
water made to mix well with the soil. A plank heavily weighted is then dragged 
over it, and when the earth has become quite soft and slushy the seed is sprin- 
kled broadcast and the plank taken over once again. About 30 to 35 sers of 
seed are sown to the acre. After a month the plant is usually ready for trans- 
plantation to the second field, which has been carefully ploughed for some time 
previously. If the crop is a good one, a biswa's growth in the biyar field is 
enough for planting a bigha in the new one. The plants, which are one or 
1 J feet in height, are stationed in their new home at distances of some two 
inches from one another. As it is necessary to complete this work quickly 
a great number of hands are employed, the average being a dozen men or 
women to the authorized bigha. These persons if hired laborers get two razias* 
of rice and a quarter ser of charban, or, if they prefer it, two annas a day. A 
considerable quantity of water is needed for this crop, and the walls of the field 
are usually high and strong, so as to keep in the rainfall. The harvest is most 
often in Aghan (November- December). For carrying the crop to the thresh- 
ing-floor the labourers get either two annas daily or one sheaf in 16, or if the 
harvest be poor and labour plentiful, one in 24 only. This kind of rice 
being cut very late, it is impossible usually to grow spring crop on the same 

1 Kirdo it a small pea usually sown with barley, when the combined crop is called jau kir.i. 
* Bihnaur in Benares; in Fatehpur and Allahabad birha. *A raxta is equal to I| 

ser. 



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834 GORAKHPUR. 

land. The same fieldg are therefore used year after year for this crop alone. 
When it is cut stalks of about ten inches high are left in the field ; in the hot 
weather these are burnt, and as soon as any rain falls are dug into the ground, 
forming a valuable manure. Amongst the best kinds of agbani dh&n are the 
following i— Finer (mihin) grains, phen, gauria, baharni (white and black), 
syam jira, and gurdhi. Coarser (mota) grains, harbelas, rajal, sahdiya, karga, 
nainjot, and angetha. The aghani riee is as a rale more valuable, and yields 
for the same area a larger outturn than the bbadui, but the latter of course 
leaves the land vacant for a spring crop. In Sidhua Jobna a class of rice called 
sengar is largely grown on lakes or ponds where the depth of water during 
the rains prevents the ordinary kinds of rice being grown. Its peculiarity is 
that it floats on the top of the water, and that the growth of the plant, whose 
roots are fixed in the soil below, keeps pace with the rise of the surface, even 
when that rise is sudden. It is cut in November, very often from boats, if 
the rains have been late and the water has not subsided. 

In a good season the yield of riee is very great, and rice itself is the sta- 
ple food of the poorer classes throughout the district. The outturn per acre of 
this and other crops will be shown on a later page. The process of threshing 
the rice, or rather of treading it out with bullocks, is the same as elsewhere, and 
known as dauri. 1 But thoroughly to separate the grain from the husk, to turn 
the dh&n into ch&nwal, another process is required. The rice is placed in a 
dhenki or wooden mortar and pounded with a pestle, which, hinged on a ful- 
crum, falls by its own weight and is lifted by the pressure of a foot on its lighter 
or pedal end. Three sers of dh&n yield two of chdnwal and one of chaff 
(bhiUa). The husking is usually the work of hired labourers, who receive as 
wages one ser in twelve of the grain. 

Except the cardamum and a little ginger there is no other crop in this part 
of the district worthy of notice. The hill men raise a great 
deal of the former, which they sell on the spot to travel- 
ling merchants. These again export it, usually by the Dh&ni route, but some- 
times by Nichlaval and Gorakhpur. The cardamums, which grow on small 
bushes about 3 feet high, are plucked in Ohait (March- April) or Baisakh (April- 
May) and spread out in the sun to dry. Either the thatch of the houses or a 
dean-swept square of ground is chosen as the drying-place. The price paid is 
about Be. 1-8 a panseri or Bs. 12 a maund ; and the export trade vid Dhani, 
Gorakhpur, and Barhaj towards the Ghagra, and down that river to Patna and 
Calcutta, is considerable. 

1 Dauri is, strictly speaking, the rope with which the bullocks are tied together. See BlUot's 
Glossary and Forb«i' Dictionary. 



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oorakhpttb. 355 

Passing south and south-east, vte find that though rice is still very widely* 

Cultivation in the cultivated, sugarcane, wheat, and opium are the prin- 

touth and south-east. cJpal cropg The eagt f par g ana h Haveli and the 

whole of Sidhua Jobna produce a large amount of the first named growth, 
which is indeed one of the chief staples of the district. An extensive trade is 
carried on in ooarse chini (sugar), for whose preparation numerous factories 
have been built (Inf., Manufacture*). The orop, which 
pays well, demands an immense amount of care and 
attention during the earlier stages of its cultivation. The process begins 
directly after the old crop is reaped. Cuttings of stalk about 5 or 6 inches in 
length are placed between layers of damp straw in a hole in the ground. This 
bole being closed up with a coating of earth forms a kind of hot-bed. The 
pieces of oaneare called porha, and a bundle of one thousand an anwala. Some 
six of these bundles, costing from Be. 1-8 to Rs. 3, are required for the pakka 
bigha. After about eight days shoots sprout from the cuttings, which are dug 
up and planted in a field prepared with great care during the end of the rains 
and cold weather. It is necessary to plough the field some dozen times, besides 
taking a plank (pallia) over it to break up the clods. By March or April 
these preliminaries are complete, the shoots are planted lengthways in the 
farrow, about one inch apart and 2 inches below the surface ; and the soil is 
smoothed down with an unweighted plank. Sometimes the cuttings are after 
three days extracted and replanted, the plank being again passed over them ; 
but this is not always done. Manure is spread over the surface, shout 4 cart- 
loads to the bigha being sufficient. Partitions are then made in the field, 
which is carefully irrigated, the water being spread over the whole surface by 
means of a broad wooden shovel. From this time until the downfall of the 
rains the crop requires frequent watering ; but it is of great importance that 
the soil should not be sodden by too much at a time. The labour required 
if the rains are late is extreme, as irrigation may be needed twenty times 
over; but when once the monsoon has broken, little remains to be done until 
the harvest in Pus or Phdlgun. 1 Fields in which rice or kir&o have been 
previously reaped are considered best for cane, unless land which has been a 
whole year fallow can be obtained. If rice has been cut; the field is ploughed 
up and the cane sowed at the end of Ph&lgun ; if kir&o, at the middle or end 
of Chait (March-April). Two crops are often raised from the same plant, 
the stumps being left in the ground after harvest and frequently watered. 

1 t. e. from January to March. A little cane is cut and told for eating as opposed to 
manufacture in the earlier month of Aghsn (November- December). In the bhdt lands 
of the Gafcdak valley the plant is sometimes frown Without irrigation, but the Juice is less 



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326 GORAKHPUR. 

New shoots sprout in May or June, and a fair crop is often secured. 1 The 
more intelligent husbandmen assert, however, that this unrest is bad for the 
field. The name of the second crop is peri (or banjar). There are four kinds 
of sugarcane : — 

(1), Mahgujur, which grows to the greatest height. 



(2). Saroti ... y both yielding gur syrup, 

in abundance, 
yielding little gur and 



(3^. Bhaunwarw&r ... j in abundance. 



-\ yielding nine gur ana 
(4). Barokba or katarha J used chiefly for eating. 

Some account of the gur manufacture will be found in Part III. of this 
notice. 

Grown largely in the west of Haveli and centre of the district, wheat is 
8onthem crops. more especially the staple of the south. B&nsg&on is noted 
Wheat - for this and other spring crops, while Majhauli and the south 

of Padrauna also produce wheat in abundance. It is sown in October or Novem- 
ber, and very commonly mixed with barley, in which case the combined crop is 
known as g&jdi. The harvest is in April or May. About 30 sers are sown to a 
pakka bigha when wheat is sown alone. The dorus soil suits it best ; but it 
grows very well on the uplands of Padrauna. The crop requires watering, but 
not very often. In M&h&r&jganj, indeed, there are some spots where it grows 
without any irrigation. Usually, however, the soil in the extreme north is not 
well adapted for wheat, for which moreover the inhabitants, preferring rice, 
care little. A considerable export trade in wheat is carried on vid Qok and 
Barhaj, but cannot rival that in rice. The finest wheat is that grown in B&ns- 
gfion and Maghar. 

Owing to the splendid crops which are raised in the Hasanpur Maghar 
parganah, the phrase " Hasanpur k& gehun " is commonly used to denote an 
unusually fine crop. The outturn of wheat obtained without irrigation in the 
north is of course unequal to that of the highly cultivated south-country lands, 
but leaves a considerable profit to the farmer. Mastir {Ervum lens), urd 
Other growths of (Phaseolus radiatus), l&hi ( Brassica napus), merua (Eleusine 
the sooth. coracana), and other grains and pulses are grown throughout 

the south and centre of the district, but are not of enough importance to 
call for special accounts. The loki and the nenua, cucurbitaceous plants, some- 
thing like pumpkins, are grown in great quantities by the poor, who train the 
plants over their low huts. The fruits are very large, and being, though of little 

1 8oon aftei the first crop has been cot, the straw from its leaves, which hare been allowed 
to lie where they fell, is sometimes ignited. Flames spread al orer the field, without, however, 
Injuring the plants, which after a little irrigation shoot forth again from beneath the ashes. 



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GORAKHPUB. 82? 

flavour, edible, furnish a plentiful supply of food. They are seldom sold, but 
when they are, fetch about 12 annas a maund. Tobacco is extensively grown 
for local consumption, but is not exported to any great extent. Its cultivation 
hasjbeen described elsewhere, 1 and, being marked in this district by no special 
peculiarity, need not be described again. Gorakhpnr city is noted for its 
manufacture of kkamlra, a smoking mixture of tobacco and spices. 

Indigo is no longer grown in this district to the same extent as before 
the mutiny (1857), Many of the Europeans who then 
planted it have received or purchased sufficient land, untax- 
ed or otherwise, to afford an ample rental and place them above the need 
of undertaking the notorious risks of indigo culture. Thus many places stilt 
called indigo factories are really but private residences. There are yet, how- 
ever, a great number of factories where the manufacture is carried on more or 
less briskly. A list of these and a description of the process will be found under 
the head of Manufactures. Another cause which impedes the production 
of the dye in this district is the increased difficulty of obtaining rent-hold land 
on which to grow it. The crop is not one which native farmers care to sow 
themselves, and their landlords regard with jealousy the occupation of the 
soil By European planters. Tenants are therefore discouraged from subletting: 
their holdings to indigo-planters even when they might otherwise be willing to 
do so. The times of sowing differ according to the nature of the land, but 
the ordinary season is in Chait or Ph&lgun, before the rains. Such is the case 
where the soil, being moist and cool, needs no saturation by early showers, 
or in those few spots where cheap wells supply the place of the lingering 
rain-cloud. Where, on the contrary, land is high by position or dry by nature, 
sowings are delayed until the first rains of Jeth or Asarh have expelled its 
heat. The first kind of land is considered best, and it is deemed a great 
advantage in either kind if it has lain fallow during the past year. Before 
being sown the fields are carefully weeded and ploughed into long furrows. 
The seed is then deposited, and the ground combed with a harrow. The 
crop grows very slowly till rain falls, when it shoots up with wonderful rapid- 
ity, growing as much as a foot in a week. Premature destruction is the 
doom of any weed that appears amongst the crop at this stage of its growth. 
The best weather far the rising plant seems to be that in which an inter- 
val of rain too short to swamp is succeeded by another of sunshine too 
short to parch. The time for reaping is, according to the forwardness of the 
season, the end of Sawan (August) or the beginning of Ku&r (September). 
Sometimes, where lands are subject to extensive inundations, the seed is scat- 
1 See, for instance, the notice on the Bijnor district, pp. 270-2?3. 
42 



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328 



GORAKHPUB. 



Opium. 



tered over them broadcast as the water subsides and left to grow as it may. 
But the outturn of the crop thus sown in Bh&don or Ku&r is, as a rule, 
extremely poor, and the practice itself is extremely rare. 

Poppy cultivation is allowed in all the tahsils, but is far more exten- 
sive in the south of the district than in the north. In 
Padrauna opium is one of the chief products, being gather- 
ed from plants on over 20,000 acres. The cultivation is, as a rule, confined 
to prosperous and respectable cultivators, a fact only mentioned here because 
in describing the condition of the agricultural population it is proposed to 
show how well the system of advances works in this particular case. The 
land must be prepared very carefully for the crop, which is sown in K&rtik, 
and indeed needs, except as regards irrigation, almost more care than sugar- 
cane. About two sers of poppy seed are required per acre, but the amount 
appears to vary greatly in different localities. The crop is watered more or 
less frequently according to the nature of the ground and quantity of the 
winter rainfall. It always, however, demands laborious attention ; and this 
fact accounts more perfectly than any religious or moral scruples for its 
rare cultivation by Rajputs and other persons of high caste but lazy habits. 
Beady for tapping in Phdlgun or the beginning of Ohait, the crop usually 
pays well, unless injured by the not unfrequent calamity of hail. The accom- 
panying table, supplied by the sub-deputy opium agent (Sir. Campbell), 
shows admirably the difficulty of detenu ining the average yield for the dis- 
trict generally of any one crop, varying as the outturn does from year to year 
and place to place. In the north poppy lands are classed as unirrigated, and 
hardly ever require watering. The crop thrives best on a sandy loam 
(dorus), and requires, like the sugarcane, a good deal of manure. The opium 
is extracted from the standing plants by pricking the poppy-heads and collect- 
ing the juice which exudes during the night. 

Statement showing poppy cultivation by parganahs, together with produce 
and average of the Gorakhpur Division, 



Name of 
parganah. 


Amount of 

cultivation 

during 

1872 73. 


Amount of 

opium during 

1872-73. 


Average 
per 
bigha. 


Amount of 

cultivation 

during 

18oy-70. 


Amount of 

opium during 

1809-70 


Amount of 
average 
per bigha. 


Eaveli Gorakhpur, 

Bhuatar 

Anola 

Silhat 

Sbahjahanpur ... 

Maghar ... 

Tilpur 

cMlupdr 

Dburiapar 

Baleinpur Majhuli, 

Bidbua Jobna 


B. b d. 

1,612 19 19 

878 14 1 

1,661 6 

2,338 2 3 

767 7 

658 4 18 

109 18 6 

1,081 14 10 

4,497 8 10 

18.494 19 12 

17,046 3 8 


M. 8 c 
73 38 13 
122 23 
146 7 10 
220 26 2 

63 34 1 

64 13 1 
1 17 1 

138 7 13 

441 14 11 

1,473 12 5 

1,160 36 14 


K.p. 

20 

••« 

2 
2 
20 
2 

2 


6. c. 

1 13 
6 
3 8 
8 12 

3 5 

4 9 
8 
6 2 

3 14 

4 4 

2 13 


K.p. 

1 

50 

2 

2*0 
1 

20 

20 


B b. d. 

1,221 2 O 

877 15 

1.691 15 

. 1,799 7 

1,036 10 

453 5 

73 3 

1,164 13 

6,400 7 

14.687 4 U 

17,223 


M. 8. C 

143 19 10 

165 20 9 

214 16 3 

263 26 15 

108 38 

78 18 14 

4 13 15 

237 15 13 

711 15 10 

2,253 25 14 

2,572 28 11 


K.p. 
2 

2"6 

2 
2 

20 


a o. 
4 11 

7 9 
6 1 
6 10 
4 3 
6 14 
2 6 

8 2 
6 4 
6 8 
8 6 

6 


K. p. 
1 

2*0 

2*0 

10 
10 
20 


Total 


44,146 18 7 


3,906 31 9 


... 


3 8 


2 


45,619 1 


6,343 39 4 


20 


... 



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GORAKHPUB. S29 

The outturn is hard to ascertain exaotly, as a good deal is no doubt 
illicitly disposed of by the cultivators, but seven sers an acre is perhaps not 
above the mark. 

The other principal crops are peas, usually sown with barley ; barley 

^ itself ; linseed ; the pulses maanr (Ervum lens) and arhar 

Other crops. 

(Cajanus flavus\ the millet kodo (Paspalum frumen- 

taceum), boro rice, and sanon (mustard, Brassica campestris). Barley (jau) } 

as before remarked, is usually sown in the same field as wheat, whose 

cultivation its own closely resembles. As an unmixed crop, however, 

it is grown extensively in the Sadr tahsil alone, whence a good deal is 

exported vid Barhaj. It is of course a spring crop, being sown in Kirtik 

and cut in Ohait. Peas (mattar) are grown for the spring harvest, chiefly 

in the B&nsgaon, Salempur, and the Sadr tahsil. They flourish on the 

rather moist lands left bare by receding floods, and are exported from the 

district in some quantity ; masur also is a spring crop, grown mostly in the 

Sadr and Padrauna tahsils, and largely used for food ; nothing in its cultivation 

particularly calls for remark. 

Linseed and sarson are the principal oilseeds, the latter being chiefly 
grown in the Gorakhpur, the former in the Basti district ; they are spring 
crops. The mustard oil extracted from sarson is in great request as a relish 
for the bannocks (chapdti) which among the native population supply the 
place of bread. Kodo is largely used as an article of food by the lower classes, 
and like most millets is cultivated for the autumn harvest. Arhar is extensively 
grown and thrives exceedingly. The crops of this plant grown towards the 
north-west of Haveli are especially good, and with their dark-green foliage 
vivify a landscape that would otherwise be somewhat bare. Arhar is less vul- 
nerable than cereals to the attacks of hail, and as frosts are rare in the dis- 
trict, is considered a safe crop ; but it occupies the ground too long to return 
much profit. 

This is perhaps the fittest occasion to trace the progress under British 
Progress of cuiti- rule of opium, indigo, and sugarcane cultivation, and to 
role. 111111 ' record the various attempts which have been made to 

introduce new staples or improve those existing. On the cession of the dis- 
trict to its present rulers, sugar cultivation was a rarity. The exactions prac- 
tised on the cultivators rendered them unable as well as unwilling to grow 
so costly and troublesome a crop. Nor was the " beast more kinder than 
mankind." As late as 1819 the Collector, writing to the Board for the infor- 
mation of the Governor-General, says : " the extent of the forests, the white- 



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330 tiORAKHPUB. 

ants, and the wild riephants, which are very numerous in the north and 
Bast of the district, prevent the cultivation of the sugarcane, except in the 
south." In 1823 the Government monopoly of opium seems to have been first 
extended to the district, the Collector being made deputy opium agent, and 
the cultivation of opium, save under his permission, being prohibited. 
About 1830 the cultivation of indigo, little practised hitherto by the land- 
holders of the district, was started by European planters. In 1837-38 Mr. 
Reade, reporting on the condition of Gorakhpur, writes that the sugarcane 
tillage is spreading, but at present confined to three parganahs — Salempur, 
fih&bjah&npur, and Sidhua Jobna. In these parganahs it had, however, made 
great progress, as had that of the poppy, the outturn of opium being twenty 
times what it had been only twelve years before. Again in 1840, reviewing 
the excise receipts, he speaks 1 of " the marvellously increasing culture of the 
bounteous sugar, promising to drive out the poppy 91 and check the increase 
in the cultivation of the latter. The cultivation of both, however, continued 
to increase steadily. Its extension was most remarkable in Sidhua Jobna, 
fast recovering from the desolation whereto it had been reduced by the Ban- 
j&ras, and possessed of a soil which, requiring little water even in the 
driest years, is especially fitted for the growth of sugarcane. The total area 
of land under opium cultivation in 1830 was about 4,900 bighas (pakka). At 
last settlement there were about 40,000, and there are now some 45,000 bighas. 2 
Sugarcane cultivation has increased still more wonderfully. The crop is now 
grown over 50,000 acres, nearly half of which lie in Sidhua Jobna. In 1830 
there were not probably more than 5,000 acres at m ost, and the greater part 
of this was in Salempur-Majhauli. The increase of late years has been par- 
tially due to the usurers, who advance money more freely on sugarcane than on 
other crops. Indigo is not mentioned in the report of 1837-40, and was perhaps 
not grown to any very great extent till after the latter date. In his note on the 
settlement of the district Mr. A. Colvin mentions that there were 33,000 acres 
under indigo in 1870-71, but the statistics there given are deemed inaccurate, 
and from information locally collected it is probable that not over 20,000 acres 
are grown with indigo in a year. The average area thus cultivated amounts 
perhaps to 18,000 or 19,000 acres. Before the mutiny, the area occupied by 
this crop was probably greater than now. No systematic attempt has 
apparently been made to improve the staple crops of the district. The 
immense increase in the culture of sugar and opium is due rather to in- 
creased security of life and property under British rule than to any direct 

1 See Mr. Ridsdale'a notes. 'About 21,000 acree. The bighas here mentioned are 

opium pakka bights, which are no smaller than those of 1830. 



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GORAKHPUB. 



331 



Outturn . 



efforts for the extension of that culture. Indigo has been introduced by 
U8, but it can hardly be called a staple crop, and its tillage is not likely to 
increase. Experiments have been made occasionally with hemp (in 1811), 
cotton (1861), and Carolina and other rice, but with no marked results. Cot- 
ton and the bajra millet (Penicillaria spicata) are the two crops which succeed 
least in the district; and it would be bad policy to attempt their introduction 
on lands now grown with the rice, sugarcane, poppy, and wheat, which really 
suit soil and climate. 

The following statement shows the average produce per acre, average 
cost of cultivation, and average profits left to the cultiva- 
tor. Figures furnished by the tahsildars were in most 
cases so obviously incorrect and contradictory that no trust could be placed in 
them. Those given in the settlement report (para. 24 of Board's letter) are 
also manifestly inaccurate, the outturn per bigha being apparently shown in 
many cases for that per acre. Mr. Alexander has had, therefore, to trust to the 
figures arrived at by a comparison of the information obtained from European 
district officers and that supplied by the subordinate judge, Ali Bakhsh 
Khdn, who very kindly tnterrogated various landlords on this subject. One 
great difficulty has been the variation from place to place in the produce 
of the principal crops. The outturn in gur, for instance, from an acre 
of sugarcane in Padrauna is stated at 30 maunds, while at Bansg&on it 
is put at 5J only. Though the latter figure is certainly wrong, the difference 
in the yield is probably considerable : — 



1 

Crop 


Sown in 


Reaped in 


proximate 
rea under 
nltivation 
i acres. 


t of culti- 
ation per 
ere in ru- 
ees. 


duce per 
s r e in 
innds and 

rs. 


ueat aver- 
e rates in 
pees, and 
erage pro- 
per acre. 








< 


5 + « o* 


2 Z 3 ® 


£3f25S 


1. Wheat (gehtn) ... 


October, 


March, 


150,000 


9 to 18, aver- 


7 to 13 mdt , 


Value 14 to 




November. 


May. 




age 13 J. 


average 10. 


26, average 
20. profit 6 1 


2. Barley (jtf*) 


Ditto ... 


Ditto ... 


118,000 


6 to 12, aver- 
age 9. 


8 to 14 mds., 
average 11. 


Value 12 to 
25. average 


3. Wheat and barley 






. 






18|,proflt9§. 


mixed (gtjai) ... 


Ditto ... 


Ditto ... 


815,000 


7 to 16, aver- 
age 11-8. 


7 to 14 mds., 
average 10-3. 


Value 13 to 

27, average 

20, profit Sft. 


4. Oram (chana) % .... 


Ditto ... 


Ditto ... 


39,000 


average 5 ... 


10 to 15 mds., 
average 12-20 


Value 13 to 4 

16, average 

14*, profit 9 J. 


«. Arhar J *... 


Jane, July 


Ditto ... 


60,000 


M 5 ... 


18 of pulse, 

besides the 

stalks, which 

are used as 

fodder for 


Value 14, 
profit 9. 












cattle. 1 



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888 



QORAKHPCB. 



Crop. 


Sown in 


Reaped in 


Approximate 
area under 
cultivation 
in acres. 


Cost of culti- 
ration per 
acre in ru- 
pees. 


Produce per 
acre in 
maonds and 
•era. 


Value at aver* 
age rates in 
rupees, and 
average pro- 
fit per acre. 


6. Kodo, millet 


June, July 


August, 
September. 


94,000 


Average 4 


8 


Value 11, 
profit 7. 


7. Unseed QKUi) 


October, 


March, 


95,000 


Rarely grown alone. In 






November 


April. 




an acre of 


mixed crops 












probably not more than 












one-tenth would be lin- 








• 




seed. 






8. Agkani rice {dhdn 














jarkcmi) 


June, July 


November, 
December. 


220,000 


9 


18 


Value 28, 
profit 19. 


9. Bhadui rice {dhdn 














bkadui) •*. 


June ... 


August, 
October. 


380,000 


7 


12 


Value 18, 
profit M. 


10. Opium {pasta) ... 


October, 


February, 


91,000 


IS 1 


9 sera opium, 


Value 56* 




November. 


April. 






25 sere of 
seed. 


profit 38. 


11. Indigo (£/) 


March, 


September, 


18/00 


201 


15 sera of in- 


Valoe 50, 




June. 


October. 






digo. 


profit 30, 
from wbieh 
cost of manu- 
facture ia to 
be deducted. 


12. Sugarcane (AW) ... 


June, July 


November, 
December. 


50,000 


16 


80 mds. gur 
and about 
15 stalks 
and scum. 


Value 60, 
profit 44. 



It must be remembered that the " profits" shown include the wages of the 
cultivator's labour, and that he has to give much of that labour and some 
skill to the cultivation of opium and sugarcane. Indigo he rarely grows for 
himself, but sublets his fields to the planter, receiving a rent of Rs. 5 or Rs. 6 
per acre, and either so much for the crop or (more commonly) so much for his 
services as a labourer. 

The method adopted in ascertaining the cost of cultivation, and the diffi- 

Mode of calcula- cultfes attending that or any other method, may be shown 

* l ° n * best by an analysis of the process in the case of one crop. 

Let us take wheat. The elements to be considered in its cost are of course rent, 

capital, and labour. The rent of good average land suitable for its cultivation 

is about Rs. 2 J per bigha, or Rs. 4 J per acre. But in the cost of wheat the whole 

of this rent cannot be included. Very often a second crop of some kind is grown 

on the same land within the year ; and though wheat is the crop from trhich 

the cultivator expects his chief profit, we cannot allow its share of the rent to 

exceed three rupees. The elements of capital and labour may be considered 

1 Thia of course excludes coat of manufactures. 



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GORAKHPUR. 333 

together, intimately blended or interchanged as they are in *ne successive 
processes of tillage. The first of these processes, ploughing, varies in cost 
immensely according to locality and according as the farmer has or has not 
cattle of his own. The number of times and depth to which the ground 
requires ploughing, the hire of cattle and expense of their keep, are variable 
quantities which combine to raise the cost of this operation from a single 
rupee in one case to Rs. 3 in another. In sowing, again, the weight of seed 
used differs oddly from place to place. The 30 or 35 sers which suffice 
for a bigha in the east are increased in the south to a maund. Hence the 
average cost of sowing one acre is from Rs. 2 to Rs. 3 ; but to this must be 
added the wages of the hands employed to assist the actual cultivator in the 
process. As this should not exceed 8 annas, and is often less, the average may 
be fixed at 6. 

Irrigation costs from 8 annas to Rs. 3-8 an acre, according to locality, 
season, and nature of 9 soil. And lastly, the reaping and threshing, when the 
labourers are not paid in kind, demand an outlay of from 12 annas to one 
rupee. The total cost would thus range from about Rs. 7 J to about 14 an 
aore. To this, however, must be added a proportionate share in the expenses 
of buying, maintaining, and replacing the fixed capital, the plough-cattle, and 
agricultural implements. In some places the cost of digging an earthen well 
once every two or three years must not be forgotten. Inexorable custom 
demands, moreover, that the peasant should pay a share of his harvest to several 
village magnates, the landlord's factor, the accountant, the watchman, and the 
family priest Not less than half a maund must perhaps be deducted from the 
returns of eaoh aore for these payments (sahdri), 1 and this translated into 
money means about one rupee. Even supposing, therefore, that no well 
must be due ; that the cultivator has bullocks and ploughs enough of his own, 
and need merely pay his ploughmen and labourers, we cannot fix his outlay in 
money (or grain reduced to its money value at less than Rs. 9 an acre, 
while it may amount to nearly double that figure. Nor does this sum include 
any allowance for the subsistence of the cultivator, though to get a fair estimate 
of the cost of production, the value of the labour given by himself and his family 
must be added. The tenant has in most cases to borrow about sowing time, and 
this loan must be repaid with heavy interest. Without the loan he could not 
cultivate, and its interest should therefore be added to the cost of production. 

The profits here shown as left to the cultivator are minute, but it is 
doubted whether, taking good years with bad, they have been understated. In 
some papers published a few years back Mr. Halsey asserts that the cultivators 

1 Which it, being interpreted, aids. Con/, the aide of the * uropean feudal system. 



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334 



GORAKHPUR. 



of these provinces often work at a loss to themselves. Absurd as the state- 
ment sounds, it is probably true, in so far that the profits left them after 
their actual outlay do not equal fair wages at market rates for the trouble and 
skill they have bestowed on their work. In the compilation of the above 
table the farmer has been supposed to possess one plough and pair of bullocks, 
but has not, on the other hand, been allowed a large family to aid him. Some 
slight allowance has been also made for interest on borrowed capital. A 
fitting conclusion to the subject of agriculture may be given by the following 
statement, which shows roughly the areas grown in , 
different tahsils and during average years with the 
principal classes of crop : — 



Crop area. 



Name of crop. 


Sadr 
Tahsil. 


Bfinsgfion. 


Deoria. 


Hat* 


Mahartj- 
ganj. 


Fadrauna. 






Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Actes. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Wheat 


••i 


42,853 


41,674 


S V 4 


20,663 


82,305 


) 


Barley 


••• 


63,137 


62,511 


5*,797 


28,(65 


12,765 


£ 68,680 


Mixed wheat and barley 


53,595 


20,837 


4I.9C9 


12,482 


11,790 


) 


Oram 


... 


11,275 


5,214 


8,913 


5,4 13 


11,117 


915 


Peas 


... 


13,190 


5,214 


12/227 


16,130 


1,020 




Masur (pulse) 


i.. 


12,745 


2,607 


2,485 


2,919 


2,722 


1,667 


Mured peas, gram, 


and 














(often) barley 


... 


33,333 


5,2 11 


8,790 


9.503 


839 


12.872 


Linseed 


... 


1,470 


277 


3,193 


10,852 


1,890 


7,076 


Sugarcane 


••• 


1,853 


4,535 


8,064 


12,572 


279 


S3,6 C 9 


Indigo 


»•• 


1,961 


1,751 


8,242 


418 


3*2 


2 408 


Opium 


... 


1,664 


208 


6,388 


1,713 


252 


10,149 


8 arson (mustard) 


••• 


1.619 


554 


585 


1,531 


1,061 


4.919 


Kodo (millet) 


••• 


12,745 


43,244 


15,72' 


12,002 


872 


11,098 


&£ ! ricM 


... 


45,740 


18,341 


55,2 « 1 


78,151 


79,95 


| 93.793 


••• 


77,K>8 


45,853 


35,696 


77,774 


83,447 


Arhar (pulse) 


... 


8,823 


10,427 


19,967 


5,991 


2,381 


11,602 



The mango (Mangifera Indica) is perhaps the commonest, and is . cer- 
Trees and forest tainly the finest fruit tree in the district It abounds in 
produce. ^he southern and central tracts, and, though not so com- 

mon, is frequently met with in the north. The Bombay and Maldah mangoes 
have both been introduced and thrive ; the price per hundred is from Rs. 4 
to 6. There are two kinds of the common country (desi) mango, which both 
sell from Re. 1-8-0 to Rs. 2-8-0 per hundred. The fruit ripens in June or 
July. The wood, which is much used for small beams and carpenter's work, is 
very cheap, and a fair sized tree may be bought for Rs. 10. The guava 
(Psidium pomi/erum) is also common, and the jack-fruit (Artocarpus integri- 
folia), mahua (Bassia latifolia), pharend (Eugenia jambolana), and orange 
(Citrus aurantium) also abound. The guava, planted usually by Koeris, ripens 



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GORAKHPUR. 335 

in September or October. The jack-fruit is sold, as a role, by weight. The 
pharendjor jamun bears a small bitter plum, from which a kind of vinegar, 
supposed to be efficacious in cases of indigestion and dysentery, is brewed. 
The flower of the mahua is chiefly used in the manufac' ure of country spirit, 
for which there is a great demand in the district ; while its wood is well 
adapted for purposes of building and carpentry. An average tree will, if sound, 
fetch about Us. 12. There are no less than nine kinds of oranges and limes. 
Of these the papery lime (kdghazi nimbu), so called from the thinness of its 
rind, and the sagdaran are most valuable, being supposed to possess medicinal 
properties. The papery lime (citrus acida) is also used in the concoction of 
sharbat The common orange (naurangi) is very extensively grown, and its 
price ranges from 12 annas to Be. 1-4-0 per hundred. Tin tar or palmyra 
(Borassus flabeniformis) and khajtir or date-palm (Phamim dactyli/era) supply 
the south of the district with considerable quantities of toddy. 
The principal woods, besides the mango and mahua, are :— 

(1) Sdl (Shorea robusta), grown chiefly in the Government forests or 
Nep&l, but also on land belonging to private individuals in the district. The 
average price for good wood already cut into logs is 10 annas per cubic foot. A 
medium sized tree is usually sold for Rs. 15 or 20 as it stands. The wood is 
very hard and durable. 

(2) Shuham (Dalbergia sissoo\ very plentiful. Its wood, which is 
streaky, rather soft, and much cheaper than s&l, is used chiefly for making 
boxes, palanquins, and furniture. 

(3) Bargad or banyan (Ficus Bengalensis). — This celebrated tree 
furnishes frames for arches and other brickwork, as well as for agricultural 
implements. Its wood is cheap andjeasily turned. 

(4) Kfaam, elsewhere gosham (Schleichera trijvga), a strong wood, used 
for making carts and palanquins ; is sold for about half the price of sal. 

(5) Tin (Cedrela toona). — This furnishes a good material for tables and 
other articles of furniture. The wood fetches about 4 annas a cubic foot. 

Besides these, the wild fig (Ficus glomerata), asna or asaina (Terminalia 
tomentosa), lasora (Cordia myxa), panan, elsewhere sandhan, (Dalbergia ovgei- 
nensis), akol (Alangium Lamarckii), ebony ( Diospyros dwmm),hara ( Terminalia 
ehebula), babtil (Acacia Arabiea), nim (Melia Indiea), and kurma, (Stephegyne 
parvifolia?) supply wood for agircultural implements. The piar (Buchanania 
latifolia), paniha (Randia uliginosa), baisa (Salix tetrasperma), and others serve 
for firewood. The ebony or tendu above mentioned is remarkable for the 
hardness of its black heart-wood, which is often used for the jath l (or upright 
1 Called elsewhere in the Benares division pa*. 
43 



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336 GOBAKHHTR. 

pestle) of the sugar-mill. Bambus of more than one species are abundant. 
The common cane rattan, or bent ( Calamus rotang), grows beside the Mal&wa 
swamp in the Son&ri forest and elsewhere, 1 but nowhere in any great 
quantity. 

Some of the trees already named are reputed to possess medicinal pro- 
perties. The vinegar of the pharend, has been mentioned. 
Medicinal trees, &c. . • 

The fruit of the hara is used as a purgative. The bark 

of the paniha is mixed in the decoctions with which quacks profess to fertilize 
barren women. The roots of semal saplings are made ingredients in tonic 
medicines. An embrocation from the leaves of the nun is prescribed in cases 
of rheumatism. Other trees, however, are laid under requisition by the druggist. 
The juice of the peach, aru or shaftalu (Prunus persica), is drunk to purify 
the blood. A decoction from the fruit of the bel ((Egle marmelos) is used in 
cases of dysentery, while the fruit itself is chopped up and given to cows and 
buffaloes with the idea of increasing their milk. The seeds of the parfis, else- 
where dhak (Buteafrondosa)) furnish a purgative medicine. The bark of the 
ganniar (Premna Integrifolia) is boiled to yield a tonic for persons suffering 
from boils. A strong purgative is supplied by the long cylindrical beans of 
the amaltas (Cassia fistula). The yellow fruit of the mainphal (Randia dumetorum) 
renders a medicine said to relieve headache. Infusions from the leaves of the 
kharanj (Albkzia procera), bakayan (Meliaa&edarach) y &TiA miuri (Vitex negundo) 
are administered to rheumatic patients. 

Trees used for other The following are some of the miscellaneous purposes 

purposes. served by the trees of the district : — 

The leaves of the s&l tree are made into cups in which offerings are made 
at marriages. The bark of the asna and the ashes of kusam wood are used in 
tanning. The berries of the aonla (Phyllanthus emblica) are brought to play in 
various religious ceremonies. The cotton-like substance found in the flowers 
of the semal is used for stuffing pillows. From the bark of the khair (Acacia 
catechu) is boiled a decoction oalled katha, which is mixed for chewing with 
betel. The flowers of the tun and harsing&r (Nyctanthes arbortrutis) supply a 
yellow dye, while a paler shade of the same colour is obtained from the fruit 
of the hara. 

The following vegetables and fruit* are largely grown by Koeris and 
other " market gardeners" of the district. They are chiefly 

sot before described produced in the garden lands round Gorakhpur itself, 
under crops or trees. ^^ alone ftny great demftnd f or them exists . but man y 

I It has, for instance, been mentioned above ai growing beside the Chillua Til 



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GORAKHPUB. 337 

of them are grown to some extent in the neighbourhood of other large 
towns : — 

(1) Vegetable plants. 

Baldi (turmeric). 
Piyac (oniony. 
Adrak (ginger). 



Marcha (pepper). 
Shakarkand (kind of jam). 
Gajar (carrot). 
Uuli (radish). 



Baingan (egg plant). 

Alu (potato). 

Gobi (cabbage). 

Pin (betel). 

Lahsan (garlic). 

Dhania (coriander-seed). 

Cucumber (kakri and kfra). 



Of these the commonest are yams, carrots, potatoes, and t arm eric. The first is 

sown in August or September, ripening in January or February (M&gh), and 

is usually sold for from Re. 1 to Be. 1-8-0 a maund. Carrots are sown about a 

month later, dug up in November or December, and bought for about 12 annas 

to Re. 1 a maund. Potatoes are dag about January or February and fetch as 

much as Rs. 2 a maund, their cultivation being more troublesome and their 

occupation of the ground much longer. Turmeric is sown in June or July and 

is ready by December or January, selling for Rs. 4 or 5 a maund. 

(2) FruUs. 

Pineapple (ananas). 1 Lichi. 

Plantain (kela). I Custard-apple (sbarifa). 

Melon (kharbfca and tarbosa). I Peaches (aru). 

The celebrated pineapples of Gorakhpur are largely exported. There 
remain to be noticed several processes common to the tillage of both field and 
garden : such are manuring and irrigation. According to Mr. Reade neither 
was much practised until the period of the settlements in 1833-37. 

" In many parts," he writes in 1860, "the use of manure was till then 

unknown. The improvement of crops by weeding and a 
Manure. , , . ,. _, ,»*..., 

better rotation was a novelty. Means of irrigation, always 

obtainable with ease from the nearness of water to the surface, were compara- 
tively little used." His account of the ignorance of the peasantry is confirmed 
by the evidence of Messrs. Grant and Wroughton in 1821-22. Enquiring 
carefully into the subject whilst surveying the district, they decided that not 
only was the system of agriculture slovenly and unscientific, but that landlords 
who should have given the lead in improvements were the most inclined to 
regard their ignorance as a sacred heritage. The introduction and rapid 
extension of sugarcane cultivation, the lessons learnt from indigo factories, and 
the further stimulus given by the extension of poppy culture with its system of 
advances, have done wonders in teaching the people the value of better hus- 
bandry. Manuring is now commonly practised, and near the town of Gorakh- 
pur as many as 20 or even 30 cartloads are given to one bigha. So liberal a 
measure is, however, dealt out only to such land as is expected to produce two 



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338 GORAKHFUB. 

or three crops in the year. No statistics exist to show the average quantity 

spread over a bigha of land adjoining an ordinary village, bat that quantity 

would probably vary immensely from north to south. In the north, owing to its 

natural fertility, and the fact that it is seldom sown more than once a year, the 

soil is very rarely manured at all. In the south five cartloads would perhaps 

represent fairly the average quantity spent per bigha on the homestead lands 

surrounding a village. Those at any distance are very rarely found manured. 

In the northern forests good crops are often obtained from the lands on 

which cattle have been penned during the spring and summer, and it is 

perhaps strange that this fact did not suggest systematic manuring to th* 

yokels of the neighbourhood. One reason probably why they have not adopted 

the practice is that till quite recently they were in the habit of moving about 

from one place to another, never cultivating the same land more than three 

years running. In the south manuring is now general, though it has only 

lately become so. In his report on the settlement of parganah ChilluapAr, 

Mr. Lumsden mentions that it had but recently been introduced in that pargana, 

and the remark holds good regarding the Dhuri&pir parganah also. 

Irrigation from streams, lakes, and other reservoirs is common, but that 

»_, x, ™ « fr° m w g11s * s > except in the south of the district, rare. The 
Irrigation, Wells, * 7 

plentiful supply of water in all but exceptionally dry years 

renders wells unnecessary over a great part of G-orakhpur ; and such tenants 
as have the means to make wells usually hold what they consider a sufficiently 
large area irrigable from natural sources. Hence, even near large towns like 
Gorakhpur, wells are seldom seen, although they might in most cases be con- 
structed without very much expense. The result has of course been that in 
years when natural supplies have partially failed the crops have suffered severely 
from want of water. An aocQunt of such calamities will be shortly given, 
flow near water lies to the surface in most places, and how easy therefore is 
the construction of wells, will be proved by the following extract from Mr. 
Swinton's Manual i— 

" In the Oorakbpur district water is often found in the cold season at from fire to six 
feet from the surface, and in no instance hare I found a brick well deeper than 29} feet to the 
bottom of the excavation with 14) feet of water in it. The greatest depth of water found in 
any well was at Maghar, in parganah Maghar, the water being 15 feet from the surface ; anu 
the shallowest pukka well found was at Datnsgar, between Belwa and Amorha, in parganah 
Amorha, 1 which was only 12 feet at the deepest part, with four feet of water* The highest 
parts of the district, judging from the depth at which water is found, are west of Bakhira, in 
parganah Hassan pur Maghar, where the well is 22} feet deep and the water 17 feet from 
the surface ; Maghar (in the same parganah), well 29 J feet deep, water 16 feet from the sur- 
face | Captaingftpj lo parganah Amorha, well IS feet deep, water IS feet from the surface) 
£ Row included in the Basti district. 



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GORAEHPtTR. 339 

and the city of Gorakhpur, well 184 feet deep, water 11 feet from the surface j whilst the 
lowest parts of the district would appear to be at Radhauli in parganah Hassanpur Maghar, 
well 11 feet deep, water 6 J feet from the surface ; Datnagar in parganah Amorha, well 12 feet 
deep, water 8 feet from the surface ; Amorha in the same parganah, well 13 feet deep, water 
9 feet from the surface. At Basti, in parganah Musanagar Basti, 1 the water is about 6 or 7 feet 
from the surface, but In a well constantly used the water was 14 feet in depth." 

Several other causes besides the natural moisture of the soil have com- 
bined to impede the spread of irrigation. These may be summarized as 
follows : — 

First. — The want of tenant-right not only prevented the free peasant from 
making wells, but gave him unsettled habits which survived even after the new 
law had invested him with fixed interests in the land. He was more or less a 
nomad, shifting the scene of his cultivation from year to year. Such villagers, 
on the contrary, as were adscripti glebce, hindered by a half-servile status from 
migrating elsewhere, had neither the will nor the power to make wells from 
which they could derive no profit themselves. 

Second — Until quite lately, at least, a very large proportion of the pro- 
prietors were Br&hmans, Th&kurs, or Bhuinh&rs, who then as now felt that 
repugnance to labour which makes them as a rule bad cultivators. Neither, 
therefore, were they disposed to dig wells themselves, nor to spend money on 
having them made. 

Third. — Before the introduction of sugarcane and opium the prin- 
cipal crops were rice, gram, and barley, which are very rarely watered 
from wells. 

Fourth— Owing to the large acreage till recently available for cultiva- 
tion, it was customary in most parts of the district to allow land to lie fallow 
every two or three years ; and this practice tended to discourage well 
sinking. 9 

Fifth. — These causes having rendered it unusual for the fathers to dig 
wells, except where earthen wells were extremely cheap, their conservative 
children are slow to recognise the advantages of an innovation which is merely 
a safeguard against occasional drought. 

The settlement reports of 1860-1865 show that outside the Bhau&p&r 

Beeent Increase of anc * Balempur parganahs well -irrigation is exceptional and 

weJJa * chiefly restricted to horticulture, whilst in all parganahs, 

•ave perhaps Balempur, water for the fields is derived from streams, lakes, and 

ponds. Noticing the same fact just forty years ago, Buchanan ascribed it to 

the greater cost of artificial irrigation in a country where natural is abundant. 

1 Alio in the Basti district. * Fallowing is now almost confined to the lighter soils 
of northern parganahs, such of Sidhna Jobna, which require occasional rest. In the south 
the general use of manure renders that rest leas necessary. 



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340 GOBAKHPUR. 

Since he wrote> the expansion of sugar and opium cultivation has caused a 
corresponding increase of wells, more especially in southern parganahs like 
Dhuriapdr and Salempur. * 

There can indeed he little doubt that the great extension of occupancy 
and probability of rights amongst the tenantry, and the spreading cultivation 
further increase. f valuable crops which require frequent and certain water- 

ings, must during the currency of the present settlement lead to further increase. 
If, as is likely, masonry linings are more often introduced to preserve the well, 
the best safeguard against the distress of drought will have been provided. 
Even in dry years the water, though sinking too low for many of the earthen 
wells, often only eight or ten feet in depth, would in most parts of the district 
be found sufficiently near the surface to fill masonry wells. The extent of 
the increase is likely in future years to depend much on the nature of the seasons. 
Dry years with a failure of the natural means of irrigation, though rendering 
the cultivators less able to afford the expense of well-sinking, will render the 
practice so obviously advantageous that it must be more generally adopted. 
"Years of abundant rainfall will have an opposite effect. 

The most common form of irrigation is undoubtedly that by the sling- 
basket (dauri. elsewhere beri\ This is worked by two or 
Irrigation by basket. n u. i A4 \ t A j. / 

four men (usually the latter), who, standing above the 

small basin in which the water is collected, immerse the basket, and then lift- 
ing it together with a swing, fling the water it contains into another basin 
some four feet higher. If the field is on a level with this second basin, nothing 
more is needed than to let the water thus raised run into the field by a narrow 
channel. But very often it is necessary to collect the water again in a third 
basin a little further on, and once more to raise it to a higher stage. Some- 
times, therefore, it is raised as many as four stages (bodar) ; but as a rule one is 
sufficient. The baskets are round and shallow, about two feet in diameter, and 
four strings are attached to them, two on each side. Thus, if two men are work- 
ing, both hands are used, one to each string, and if four only one hand. Some- 
times two baskets are worked at the same basin, one close behind the other. In 
this case both have to be swung in exact time, so as to enable the second to fling 
in its freight of water before the other returns. The work is fairly hard, and to 
an unaccustomed hand very hard ; it is however not at all unusual to see women 
taking part in it. The workers almost always work in gangs. The usual 
Dumber of workers to one basket is six, of whom four work, while a relief of 

1 See appendix IX to the Board of Revenue's Bnramary on settlement operations for 
1867. This statement, however, does not distinguish between masonry wells built for field 
irrigation and those serving other purposes. But a third and a half respectively of the large 
totals returned at the past and present settlements of Gorakbpur-Basti (21,583 and 27,414) 
are said to represent field wells* 



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GORAKHPUB. 841 

two sit out for about ten minutes. Standing in the field upon which the 
channel is turned, another labourer distributes the water with a wooden shovel 
(hatha). 

Water for such irrigation is most often obtained from lakes or tanks, and 
as these subside, lower channels and basins are dug down to the water from 
the first, or the original channel and basin are made deeper. In every stage 
the lower basin, from which the water is lifted, is deep, and the upper, into 
which it is thrown, is shallow. A larger daily area can be watered by the 
dauri than by the leathern bucket used in wells ; the swing of the former is 
rapid, whilst lowering and relifting the latter takes a considerable time. The 
bucket, which is called moth, costs from one to three rupees, according to its 
size. 

Mr. Crooke calculates that a party working one dauri with only one 
stage can water a little over one bigha daily ; with two dauris that area would 
perhaps become half as much again. This is supposing them to work in 
reliefs from morning to evening, with only the usual interval of about two 
hours in the middle of the day. From a well with one bucket not more than 
one bigha could be irrigated, and the usual area is probably rather less. If 
there are two stages to be worked by basket the space watered would be rather, 
but not much less than with one : provided always that the water has not very 
far to flow between the stages. When this is the case, much is necessarily 
lost through absorption by earth and air. The expense of the bullocks which 
work the well is about equal to that of the hired labourers who aid the tenant 
to swing his baskets. The water required for this kind of irrigation is often 
obtained from the bed of some shallow stream dammed up to supply an ample 
reservoir. Sometimes, again, it is drawn from running streams; but those 
of any size have before the beginning of the irrigation season sunk too far 
below the crest of their banks to be thus utilized. The rice-lands of the north 
are flooded from dams built across the streams, here so numerous. In some 
few cases the fields above the dam are injured by water- logging, and complaints 
are occasionally brought questioning the right to erect or maintain these 
obstructions of the natural drainage. The host of small but well-fed streams in 
this part of the district present great facilities for a system of irrigation which 
would all but avert the danger of drought. In ordinary years little demand for 
water, or rather little wish to pay the water-rate, could be expected ; but as 
a safeguard against scarcity and famine outlay, such a scheme might more 
than repay its cost. Perennial streams traverse the northern parganahs 
within eight or ten miles of one another, and might easily be connected by a 
net- work of small canals. 



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342 GOBAKHPUB. 

It is of coarse possible to be watered too much, and the south-west of the 
Gorakhpur district has not uufrequently to complain of 

slOOQSt » 

injury from inundation. The Ku&na and the Ami are, as 
already mentioned, both liable to sudden sw filings, which cause them to overflow 
their banks. In some seasons the Gh&gra also rises so high as to inundate the 
lower part of the Dhuriapar and Chilluap&r parganahs. Thus, on the 10th August, 
1823, 1 a remarkable and sudden uprising of both Gh&gra and its tributary 
Ku&na flooded the whole of the Ainorha, Auraogabad, and South Maghar par- 
ganahs of Basti, with a considerable portion of Dhuri&p&r and Chilluap&r. At the 
same time the flood waters of the Xmi and R&pti, which had also overflowed, 
were blocked back by those of the Ghfigra. The country round Gorakhpor 
itself became a sheet of water, and communication with Azamgarh was 
interrupted for several days. The damage done is described by the oollector 
as " deplorable." Nor was the destruction of several villages the only mischief 
worked by the flood. The drying of the waters was followed by so much sick- 
ness, and their losses had so disheartened the peasantry, that a long time and 
large Government advances were needed to restore cultivation. In 1 839 
another flood occurred, but luckily on a much smaller scale. Beyond washing 
away or swamping a good deal of rice along the R&pti, it did little damage. 
In 1840 the performance was repeated ; but except in 1871 and 1873, when 
some small injury was inflicted by the same cause, no floods of much impor- 
tance have since then occurred. The Gh&gra about three years ago broke into 
the Ku&na just under Sh&bpur of tap pa Belghdt, and swept several villages 
away. 

On the whole the floods of the district have been far less destructive than 

Droughts and fa- *k droughts ; but its rainless years have not been frequent, 
"fr - for only seven have occurred since its cession to British rule 

(1801). No records have survived to show how often they occurred in earlier 
times, but tradition mentions two only in which the drought was so great as 

Famines preceding^ *° canse any serious scarcity in the district Of these one 
British rule. befell during the long reign of Aurangeb (1658-1707), 

and probably in 1661.* It is said that no rain fell for two years, and that the 
R&pti ran almost dry. The R&ja of Sat&si nearly died of starvation ; and a 
Br&hman family who still hold the village of Pipara in parganah Sh&jah&npur 
are said to have acquired their position by the wealth miraculously bestowed 
on an ancestor* He was a Br&hman mendicant, and when the people could no 
longer give him alms a miracle raised for him large orops of barley on fallow 

1 Rldsdale's note. f * It is reasonable to infer/' writes Mr, Girdlestone, « that the 

scene of the (1661) famine lay about Dehli and the npper half of the Duab." It may also 
be inferred that the visitation extended to Gorakhpur. 



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GORAKHPUK. 34K 

lands which had never been ploughed. No sooner was the crop cut than 

another sprung up, and again, after the harvest of the second, a third. By the 

sale of the produce the Br&hman became immensely rich, and purchasing land, 

became the founder of a powerful family. The second famine occurred about 

50 years later, and in it a large number of persons are said to have perished, 

but no authentic details regarding it are known. Buchanan tells a somewhat 

strange story of a famine which in 1769 extended even to the beasts of prey. 

"Most of the herbivorous animals having then perished, the tigers were 

famished, and fixing in great numbers upon the town of Bhauap&r, in a very 

short time killed about 400 of its inhabitants." The remainder fled, leaving 

the town for some years deserted. 1 

The first drought recorded after the cession wa9 that of 1803 ; but a 

partial failure of the autumn crop and some trifling difficulty in collecting the 

„ , M revenue were its only results. " The records," writes Mr. 

Famines of 1803. 

Girdlestone, 2 "are almost silent concerning Gorakhpur. 

I have ascertained that in October, 1803, a considerable exportation of 
grain to the reserved dominions of the Naw&b Yazir took place. This could 
scarcely have happened if there had not been supplies enough in store 
for home consumption. It is also stated that rain fell for many days con~ 
tinuously in August and September. At the time of the cession Gorakh- 
pur was the least populous of all the districts which came into our posses- 
sion. It is probable, therefore, that, with more moisture and less mouths 
to feed, the kharif placed the people above actual want. There are other 
reasons besides for this inference. The revenue was realized up to March 
with only trifling balances, and the subsequent monthly accounts show 
Gorakhpur to have consistently maintained a smaller gross balance than any 
other district. No remissions were thoaght needful up to November, 1804 % 
when the crisis had passed." 

The next scarcity, in 1809, although it affected only the south of the dis- 
trict, was within certain limits severer than that of 1803, and the spring crop 
was much injured where no means of irrigation existed. In 1814 a temporary 
failure of rain caused some damage to the autumn crop ; but the spring was 
saved by a timely fall, nor does it appear that the natural 
sources of irrigation failed. The next serious drought 
was in 1837, when the collector repoj^ed that the want of rain and conse- 
quent depletion of natural water-stores had raised the price of gram from 
60 sers per rupee to only 15, and that of wheat from 33 to only 14. But 
1 Eastern India, Il. % 50O> * Report on Pott Famines in the North* Wetter* rrmrinea 

(1MI), pp. W-S0. 

44 



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344 O0BAKHPUB. 

this dearth, elsewhere so fatal, seems to have caused in this district little 
further distress than could be alleviated by a petty remission of revenue 
(Rs. 208). During the next twenty years Gorakbpur suffered more from 
inundations and excess of water than from want of it ; but in 1850 there was 
again a partial failure of the autumn crop owing to an insufficiency of rain. 
In 1860 and 1868-69, to so many districts years of exceptional drought 
and distress, the Gorakhpur district escaped with little injury. In the 
former year, indeed, revenue receipts increased, although symptoms of distress 
showed themselves in an augmentation of crime. Less easy, however, was 
the lot of the district in 1873-74. The results of insufficient or inopportune 
rain were aggravated by the Bengal famine, which caused an enormous export 
of grain stored in previous years. Distress grew so great that it became 
necessary to open relief works and distribute food to a considerable number 
of persons. It is to be noted, however, that but for the drain on district 
produce caused by famine in the Lower Provinces the distress would probably 
have been slight only ; and that it was chiefly the non-agricultural portion 
of the population who hied to the relief works. In 1875 there was again 
some distress owing to the same natural causes ; and had there been a similar 
export of grain, there would probably have been just the same state of 
affairs as in 1874. Fortunately there was not, and the distress was therefore 
small. 

In mineral resources the district is poor. Here is found no stone except 
such boulders and pebbles as mountain streams have suc- 
ceeded in hurtling across the northern border. Nodular 
limestone or kankar is scarce. Of its two varieties, telia and dudhia, the former 

is quarried chiefly along the Taraina,the latter in the south 
-Stone and kankar. * . ., . ° A „- . . 

country beside the Gnagra. Their average price on the 

spot is said to be Re. 1-8-0 per hundred cubic feet, but to this must always 

•be added about 8 annas a mile for carriage. The cost of metalling a mile of 

road with the usual depth of kankar (6 inches) would amount more nearly to 

Ks. 1,600 than Rs. 1,500. Owing to the dearth of kankar the lime made from 

that material is expensive and fetches about Rs. 20 per 

hundred maunds. An inferior kind is sold for Rs. 15. 

Chunam is a lime made from the sipi, a shell found in the Bhenri T&l and other 

•lakes. It sells on the spot for from 1^ 2 to Re. 1-8-0 a maund. 

Two kinds of brick are made in the district The smaller, known 

Bricks. as laJuyri > measures about 5" x ^xlj", and fetches from 

Re. 1-8-0 to Re. 1-12-0 per 1,000. The larger brick or 



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GORAKHFCR; 845 

polka tnta of 12*x6*x4|* sells for from Rs. 5-80 to Rs. 6-8-0 per 1,000. 
Ordinary flat tiles for roofing are obtained at from Rs. 2 to Rs. 2-8-0 the thou- 
sand, but a small kind sells for from Re. 1 to Re. 1-8-0 only. Round tiles fetch 
about half the price of flat The figures here given are averages, as the prica 
of tiles varies, and in the rains rises to almost double the usual amount. 

The manufacture of salt is prohibited in the district, and the salt sold 

comes chiefly from Patna by boats ; a large quantity of 

Baltpetre is, however, made. 



PART III. 
Inhabitants, institutions, and history of the district. 
The earliest statistics which pretend to number roughly the people of 
the district are those given by Buchanan, about" 
®® 1835. 1 Taking Gorakhpur, Basfci, and a part of Butwal 

since transferred to Nep&l, he reckons the population at 277,099 families of 
about 8 persons each, and the area at 7,423 square miles. 

His classification was made by police-circles ; and the following are thfr 
figures which seem to belong to the present district : — 



1. 


Gorakhpur 


2. 


Mansurgan] 


8. 


Padranna 


4. 


Kasia 


5. 


Belawa 


6. 


Balempur 


7. 


Bhagalpur 


8. 


Barhalganj 


9. 


Oajpar 


10. 


Bhauapar 


11. 


Anola 


IS. 


Gopalpnr 


13. 


Nichlawal 


14. 


Part of Lotan 


14. 


n PW 


14. 


„ Maghar 



a in square 


Number of 


miles. 


families 


4 


6121 


813 


23,879 


546 


20,366 


129 


8,203 


113 


5,641 


296 


13,498 


168 


16,697 


128 


10,801 


336 


11,868 


31 


7,350 


104 


3,843 


327 


9,463 


622 


6,825 


160 


4,500 


460 


200 


MO 


6,500 



Total ... 4,486 158,665 

His total population would therefore amount to some 1,226,120 soulffj 
Of that population he classes about 8 per ctot. as Muhammadans, and the rest 
as Hindus* His statistics are curious, and even labour to enumerate the 

I Eatkrn India, Vol. U. 



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946 



GORAKHPUR* 



number of single though marriageable girls. But as regards population they 
are hardly worth scrutiny, resting on certain rather arbitrary premises which 
are themselves based on very untrustworthy data. Thus he ascertained through 
native subordinates the number of ploughs in a certain area, and, assuming each 
plough to represent a certain number of persons, worked out his agricultural 
population on this basis. The only point worthy of notice is perhaps the very 
low figures given for Pali and Nichl&wal as compared with the adjoining Man- 
surganj and Lotan. The devastations of the Nep&lese war in the two former par- 
ganahs, and the settlement of numerous immigrants in the two latter, may 
perhaps account for the difference. Buchanan specially notices the large 
number of poor gentry who attempted to live on the land, though too proud to 
till it themselves. And to the demand thus created he attributes the steady 
influx of labour from Nepal* 

The first regular census of the district took place in 1847. Including 
Basti, it was found to number 2,376,533 inhabitants, 
of whom about l,473,055, x or somewhat less than two- 
thirds, may be taken as the population of the modern Gorakhpur. The follow- 
ing is a brief classification of the figures : — 



Centos of 1847* 



1 


Agricultural. 


Non-agricultural. 


Grand total. 


Htadtis ••» ••• i»« 
Masalmans ••• ... ... 


1,779,678 
198,765 


831,347 
66,843 


2,110,925 
365,608 


Total ... 


1,978,418 


898,090 


8,376,583 



The proportion of Musalmans was therefore nearly 12 per cent, and tho 
proportion of the agricultural to the total population about 85 per cent. 

In 1853 the population was for the same area found to be only 2,087,874, 
the proportion of Muhammadans being over 13 per cent. 
The distribution by sex and occupation may be thus 
shown : — 



Census of 1858. 



Hindus 
Maaalmans 



Agricultural* 



Male. Female. Total 



184,954 
136,121 



Total 



3*1,075 



1,890,559 
196,019 



1,967,518 
969,183 



1,908,571 1,599,646 



Non-agricultural. 



Male. Female, Total 



936,681 
57,234 



998,915 



219,581 
51,782 



964,313 



449 269 

108,966 



668,298 



Grand 

total. 



1,716,775 
871,099 



9,087,874 



«r * ^"i 61 ? 1 * h ?*~ h9 t n obtain *d &y dednoting from the grand total the totals for Amorha 
Hagar, Basti, Bansi, Basulpur Ghana, Bineyakpur West, Maholt, and half of Maghar. 



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GORAKHPUR, 



347 



Census of 1865. 



The population of Gorakhpur, excluding Basti, may by the same method 
as before be reckoned at 1,899,923. Neither, however, of 
the two returns just given can be viewed with much con- 
fidence. In 1865 the population of the same area, still including Basti, was 
found to be 3,439,513, an enormous increase on former totals. About 2,071,213 
of that figure belongs to Gorakhpur, and the remainder to Basti. The 
details of occupation and sex are as follows : — 





Agricultural. 


Non-agricultural. 


Grand 
total. 


i 


Class. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female, 


Total. 


1 
i 

1 




Adults. 


Boys. 


Adults. 


Girls. 


Adults. 


Boyi. 


Adults. 


Girls. 


Hindu* 

Xasslnmns 
and others. 


788,541 
86,406 


628,288 
00,063 


718,726 
83,568 


419,128 
50,804 


2,899,628 
281,736 


206,552 
42,656 


129,671 
28,347 


181,253 
40,962 


108,600 
21,313 


624,976 
183,178 


8,024,599 
414,914 


... 

••• 


ttofel .. 


824,948 


684190 


802,294 


469,932 


2,681,359 


248,108 


158,018 


222^15 


129,818 


768,164 


8,439,518 


465 



Ceasni of 1872. 



Before the next enumeration took place Basti had been severed from Go- 
rakhpur. The census of 1872, the latest and probably the 
most correct hitherto effected, gives for Gorakhpur alone a 
population of 2,019,361, or about 440 to each square mile. Th?re were 7,097 
villages and 381,237 houses, of which but 3,019 were built with skilled labour, 
m., of masonry. The average population to each village was thus about 285, 
and to each house a little over 5. The household in the better class of dwell- 
ing averaged 9* and that in the poorer class 5 persons. There were but 184 
towns containing populationsof over 1,000, and of these only 22 had over 2,000, 
12 over 3,000, 6 over 5,000, and 1 over 10,000 inhabitants. So that there were 
altogether 143 places with populations of between 1,000 and 2,000, 



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348 



GOBAKHPUB. 



The following tables show the distribution of the population in the dif- 
ferent parganahs, with statistics of religion and sex : — 

A.— Population distributed hy religion^ age, and sex amongst the various 

parganahs* . 



Pargana. 



Bhauapar, sadr 
tahail portion. 

HftYeli, do. 

Maghar 

Bhauapir, Bfos- 
gion portion. 

Anola m 

Dhuriapfr ,. 

Chillfipar 

HaTeIi,Maharaj- 
ganj portion. 

Binayakpnr .., 

Tilpnr 

Tappa Batsara, 
or Bateaara. 

Sidhna Jobna ,., 

Bh&bjahanpnr^ 

HaTeli, Padran 
na portion #M 

Silhat 

fialempor ,. 



Total 





HlftDIJfl. 




Up to 15 years. 


Adults. 


6 

1 


9 


i 


1 

PR 


9,989 


7,936 


14,108 


13,513 


45,161 


65,629 


64,269 


59,386 


13,734 


10,984 


19,185 


18,296 


7,179 


5,641 


9,623 


9,570 


15,251 


11,581 


20,127 


19,335 


36,231 


25,607 


53,746 


51,661 


9,401 


6,618 


15,559 


14,450 


47,713 


38,886 


65,430 


61,847 


3,695 


8,317 


6,738 


6,383 


10,817 


8,195 


16,257 


15,895 


6,648 


5,249 


10,420 


9,279 


68,109 


59,108 


106,545 


99,010 


15,555 


12,218 


22,088 


20,989 


14,163 


11,826 


20,249 


18,942 


26,591 


19,892 


41,874 


88,710 


56,877 


40,262 


100,168 


96,105 


386,595 


296,274 


584,790 


552,786 



MtJHAMMADANS AND OTHKBfi 

sot Hindi? s. 



Up to 15 
ysars. 



695 

5,131 

838 
489 

873 
2,272 

611 
5,877 

842 
1,383 

984 

12,093 
2,431 
1,338 

1,950 
4,812 



41,939 



i 



650 

4,403 
638 
346 

697 
1,699 

433 
5,044 

284 

1,168 

759 

8,998 

1,914 

988 

1,317 
3,391 



Adults. 



1,002 

8,730 
1,121 

598 

1,182 
8,290 
1,006 
8,345 

543 
2,205 
1,352 

18,395 
3,216 
1,696 

8,190 
8,847 



82,661 64,718 60,557 



4 
I 



788 

8,096 

1,024 

554 

1,070 

3,196 

946 

7,651 

525 

2,101 
1,249 

17,434 
3,151 
1,686 

2,890 
8,246 



Total. 



25,787 

123,495 
34,878 
17,789 

37,433 

95,539 

26,577 

127,364 

11,813 
36,163 
19,418 

204,142 
48,290 
37,131 

73,106 
170,704 



22,887 

107,718 
30,932 
16,119 

32,683 
82,163 
22,342 
113,448 

10,409 
26,859 

17,536 

177,650 
88,272 
32,690 

69,742 

147,944' 



1,078,078 94,2781 



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CJORAKHPUn. 
B. — Statistics of age in greater detail. * 



349 





Hindtit. 


Muhammadans and 
others not Hindus. 


Total population* 




Mali. 


Female* 


Malb. 


Femali. 


Malb. 


Female. 






«M 




*4 




«M 




«« 




ti 




«H 






O 




o 




o 




o 




o 




o 


• 


i 


1 

a • 

u ° 




a . 
fe o 


a 


2! 


i 

a . 
3*0 




$ 

a . 
9 ri 

81 


• 

B 

a 


* 

h 

9 S 
*** 

31 


i 

a 

9 

55 


9 

SP 

H 

9 "** 


' Up to one year, 


80,648 


31 


25,531 


8'0 


3,335 


2,824 


83,983 


28,655 


S'O 


.Between land 6 


1,47,758 


15*2 


1,81,603 


15 6 


16,048 


155 


14,590 


160 


1,63,806 


15 1 1,46,192 


156 


„ 6 and It 


1,68,004 


17-2 


1.18,677 


184 


18,949 


170 


12.176 


ISO 


1,86,253 


I7'4 


1,25,855 


18*4 


„ 19 „ 20 


1,46,632 


15*0 1,09.919 


130 


16,540 


14'A 


12,456 


13-3 


1,62,178 


15*0 


1,22,876 


180 


i» 90 „ 30 


1,83,875 


18 9 


1,86,48« 


220 


19,969 


18*7 


20,572 


22 


2,03,844 


18 9 


2.07,055 


219 


» «0 » 40 


l k 58.759 


15 8 


1,41,057 


16 7 


17,466 


16*4 


15,628 


16"? 


1,71,245 


158 


1,56,689 


16*6 


,, 40 „ 50 


82,024 


84 


73,054 


8-6 


9,354 


87 


7,915 


88 


91,378 


8*4 


8,965 


8*6 


„ 50 „ 60 


39,366 


40 


42,319 


50 


4,449 


4*1 


4,443 


4*7 


48,815 


40 


46,716 


5-0 


Above 60 years 


19,319 


1-9 


24,414 


2'8 


2,256 


2-1 


2,616 


2*3 


21,675 


20 


27,003 2'9 


Total ... 


9,71,885 


8,48,060 


... 


1,06,687 


98,918 


10,78,078 


... 


9,41,278 


••■ 



It will be seen that only 9*9 per cent, are Muhammadans, while the 
rest, an almost unappreciable fraction excepted, are Hindus. The Muham- 
madans are most mumerous in parganahs Haveli and Sidhua Jobna. But the 
Muslim population of the latter is mostly composed of the lowest classes, des- 
cendants of the camp-followers and soldiers who settled at Padrauna when that 
place became a cantonment of the Naw&b's army in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century. 

The proportion of males to females is amongst Hindus 54 to 46, and 
amongst Muhammadans 53*25 to 4675. Amongst R&jputs, a class else- 
where addicted to the murder of their infant daughters, the proportion is 
the same as amongst Hindus generally ; and the percentage of female babies 
(below one year of age) is exactly the same in the Hindu as in the Muham- 
madan population. These returns are, if correct, strong evidenoe that female 
infanticide is not extensively practised ; and this appears really the case. The 
great influence of his Brdhmans over the Sat&si R&ja seems to have been exer- 
ted against the practice ; and the Majhauli R&jas after their conversion to 
Muhammadanism, if not before, set their face against it. 3 Mr. Ridsdale's notes 
cite a collector's report of 1802, in which a R&jputani charged with girl 

1 These moat be accepted as mere approximations. The untutored mind of the Indian rustic 
-is rarely able to compute or recall his exact age, 'It is not to be supposed that the 

Majhauli Bftjaa are still Mahommadaas, They hare reverted to their ancient Hindu orthc* 



.-»*. 



> 



-v 



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350 GOBAKHPUB. 

infanticide is stated to have urged in defenoe the recognized and lawful custom 
of her clan. To support this plea she produced a certificate of the Nagar 
parganah registrar (kdn&ngo). The court of circuit ordered her discharge and 
told the collector not to make arrests in such cases before taking their orders* 
A few years later, however, the offence was declared criminal, and of late years 
strong measures have been taken to repress it in Basti. Here, as before observed, 
it seems to have never been at all common. Gorakhpar is one of the few dis~ 
tricts in which precautionary measures under the Infanticide Act (VIII. of 
1870) have been judged unnecessary. 

The census statistics show that the district contained 119 idiots, 105 per- 
sons of partly unsound mind, 772 deaf or dumb people, and 
465 lepers. The idiots are most numerous in the Sidhua 
Jobna pargana, along the banks of the little Gandak, where goitre is also very 
common. There is a proverbial expression, " Bhauapar ka banle," meaning a 
particularly stupid person y but this refers rather to the general stupidity of 
the people who used to live at Bhauap&r than to any prevalence of idiocy ia 
that parganah. 1 

The table last given shows that of the total population nearly 5 per cent, 
had passed their 60th year, an age which in this country 
is a great one. The life statistics generally speak well for 
the climate. 

The density of the population, as ascertained in 1872; was HI to the 
statute square mile, against 435 in 1865, 395 in 1853, and 312 in 1847. 
Taking the density in individual tahsils the returns shew 506 souls to the mile 
in Gorakhpur, 563 in B&nsgaon, 259 in Mahar&jganj, 499 s in Padrauna, ancf 
523 in Deoria. The number of villages or townships inhabited by the popu- 
lation is given by the census as 7,097 ; and amongst these are now (1878) 
distributed 8,216* mah&ls or estates. In 1847 four towns were entered, as 
containing over 5,000 inhabitants ; but of these one was 
Town population. M ^ Bridgman > g ^^ aad the other a 8imilar f aPeBt grftllt 

containing the town of Padrauna. There remained Gorakhpur and Rudarpur, 
with populations of 45,265 and 5,535 respectively. 

In 1853 such towns had really attained the number of four, ezoluding 
Padrauna, whose population is again mixed with that of its enclosing pro- 
perty. The inhabitants of Gorakhpur were returned as 54,529, of Gola as 
5,751, of Xmwa as 5,158, and of Barhalganj as 5,058. 

»Mr. Crooke ingeniously suggests that the phrase may be a mistake for bowaha ea-Aoft, 
or '«dumb idiot." The Sidhua Jobna idiots ire, he adds, called bang. *Qr, excluding 

forest grants, 7,573. 



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GORAKHPUR. 351 

In 1865 the number is tho same, but the towns are different. The 
population of Gorakhpur has fallen to 50,853, Rudarpur, with 7,565 inhabi- 
tants, has displaced Gola and resumed its place uext to Gorakhpur. Amwa 
maintains its place with 5,510, and Barhaj (5,080) has superseded Barhalganj. 
The population of Padrauna is again the population of the grant, and not of 
the town. 

In 1872 the number has increased to seven, viz., Gorakhpur, (51,117), 
Rudarpur (6,538), Amwa (6,150), Gaura kb4s (5,482), Paina (5331), Gola 
(5,147), and Padrauna (5,092). 

Distributing tho Hindu population amongst the four conventional 

divisions, the census of 1872 shows 193,270 Brahmans 

Hmdu castes. (9 0j382 females) ; 76,018 EUjptits (34,888 females); 58,061 

Baniy&s (27,177 females) ; and 1,492,093 persons as belonging to the " other 

castes" (695,613 females). 

The Br&hmans are classed as Kanaujiya (187,378), Bh&t, Bhikham, 
n Dube, Gaur, Gujr&ti, Gautam, Maithil, Up&dhia, SArasut, 

Sarwariya, Saugaldipi, Shukul, Tilang, or unspeci6od. 
None of these subdivisions, except the Kanaujiya, numbers more than 5,000 
members. Some of them, it should be observed, are not subdivisions at all. 
Dube, Upadhia, and Shukul, being mere titles borne by many subdivisions, 
are for purposes of tribal distinction useless. 

The Kanaujiyas, and therefore the Brahmans of the district generally, 
belong chiefly to the Sawalakhi, Bhuinhar, Naipdli, aud 
Sarwariya clans. They are, in fact, inferior of their class ; 
and this circumstance, together with their commonly lax habits, renders them 
of small account in the eyes of the Brahman aristocracy elsewhere. In his 
work on Hindu Castes 1 Mr. Sherring gives the fullest details procurable con- 
cerning these local Brahman clans. From his account, and from the earlier 
history of the district, it seems probable that the Naipali, and perhaps also the 
Kashmiri and Magadha Brahmans, were cut off from their fellow-Aryans by a 
wave of aboriginal invasion. Cooped up in the neighbourhood of the Nep&l 
hills, they may perohance have acquired from their conquerors many habits 
which they before regarded as corrupt. It has been suggested in like manner 
that the Th&rus were Rajputs who, reduced to submission, were suffered to 
remain in the north of the country. 

The Sawalakhi* or Siwalakhias are said to derive their name from low- 
born ancestors, who, passed off as Brahmans by an ancient king, retained that 
title ever after. The £ing had sighed for the honour of feasting at one great 

45 



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352 GORAKHPUR. 

banquet 125,000 (sawa lakh) priestly guests ; and as the requisite number was 

not forthcoming, made requisitions on other tribes. 1 The numerous Diib&, 

Upadhias, Tiwaris, Misrs, Diksbits, Pandas, Awasthis, and P/ithakhs of the 

district belong mostly to this subdivision. There is nothing to show when they 

first became Br&hmans. But the legend may perhaps merely denote that 

they belonged to the same class as the Naipdlis, and being found in the country 

of the aborigines when the Aryans recaptnred it, were deemed below the salt. 

The Bhuinhars represent a later stream of immigration . Mr. Oldham 

shows 2 strong grounds for believing thorn the offspring of 

Bajput fathers and Br&hman mothers. Buchanan says that 

they are often treated with contempt as of impure origin, and cites the 

Domkat&rs as an instance. 3 The Domkatdrs are not, however, true Bhuinh&rs, 

but Rajputs or men of already mixed race who intermarried with the Domras 

and other aboriginal tribes. The real BhuinhArs have always occupied a fairly 

respectable position, and scout the idea of being connected with the impure 

aboriginal tribes. Their chief branches are the Gautam, Kin war, and Gaur. 

They live exactly like Rajputs, and will not hold the plough themselves. Sher- 

ring notices the use amongst them of the title Singh, and this Raj pit suffix is 

not uncommonly attached to their names in Gorakhpur. The Raja of Tamkiihi 

is a Bhuinh&r. 

Sarwaria Brahmans derive their name from Sarwar or Sarjup&r, a title 
formerly applied to this district, Basti, and perhaps part 
, of Oudh. The following account of the tribe, supplied by 
a native lawyer, 4 confuses thom with the Sawalakhis, but is of interest, as show- 
ing what Brahmans themselves say: — 

" Rama » he writes, " invited to the district 16 latjs belonging to different clam (gotra) 
of the Kauaujia Brahmans, After investing them with the aaored thread, he gave them lands 
and titles as follows :— 

(1.) The Tiwdris , three in number, were sent to Pidi in Salcmpur Majhauli, Pfcla in. 
Bansi (of Basti), and Gorakhpur itself. 

(4.) The Shukuls to Bhcdi of Silhat. 
(0.) The Pdndes to Itaiya in Maholi (of Basti). 
(9.) The Dubes to Sarar in Haveli. 

(10.) The two Misrs to Dharampur in Maholi and Beri in Ilaveli. 
(12.) The Gautamias to Madhabansi of Saran. 
(13.) Bhargiwas to Bhagalpur in Salempur Majholi. 
(14 ) The Pdthakhn to Sanaura in Basti. 
(16 ) The Upddhias to Eauria in Maholi. 
(16.) The Chaubes to Nayanpur, also in Basti." 

1 In an essay on caste, Munahi Kishori Lai professes to flx the exact date as 1563. Who the 
king was seems a subject of much dispute. The name of the tribe may perhaps be connected 
with that of the Siwalikh hills. * Memoir of the Ghftzipur District, by Wilton Oldham, 

LL.D., Beugul Civil Service. 3 Eastern India, II., 350. * Uanga P rash ad Pande 



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QORAKHPITR. 353 

An Ojha Brahman of Tirhut afterwards settled at Havel i and a Bengali Brahman at Radhi, 
The latter immigrant forced the earlier B rah mans to admit him to equality, and all yielded 
except the Bhargiwa Brahmana of Bhagalpur. 

Later still, a king of Kashi (Benares) forced a host of persons belonging to other castes to 
assume the emblems and rights of Brahmana. 1 Their descendants are now known as 
Jutaha in opposition to the true Brahman or F&tiha j and if any of the latter intermarry or eat 
with the former, he becomes degraded. 

Before quitting the Brahmans we may briefly notice the kindred Bhdts. 
Mr. Sherring traces their lineage to a Brahman father 
and Sudra wife ; but they are in this district considered 
descendants of the celebrated Mayyura Misra by a Vaisya bride. Mayyura 
is often himself styled Bhat, but Misr seems to be his correcter title. Of 
the 3,524 Bhats in the district, some possess considerable wealth. In the 
census returns all the Sawalakhia and most of the Sarwaria Brahmans are 
entered as Kanaujias. This race is supposed to number 187,378. But very 
few real Kanaujias exist in the district. 

The principal Rajput clans, including those which would more 

„ properly be termed Agnikulas, are the Bais (12,597), 

lajputa. Sarnet (7,811), Ponwar (5,137), Kausik (4,844), Ohauh&n 

(3,470), Sengar 2,497, Sakarwar (2,243), Gautara (2,198), and Chandel 

(2,146). 

To the following tribes the census assigns less than 2,000 members 
each : — 

Bargujar, Bhat, Bhadauria, Bachhal, Bargyan, Bisen, Bhuinhar, Bil- 
khariya, Dikshit, Douwar, Dakhanwar, Qahlot, Gaur, Gahrwar, Jaiswar, JaJon, 
Kutiyar, Kachhw&ha, Kinwar, Katehriya, Karcholiya, Kusmani, Kakan, 
Kharag, Kauhpuria, Malkhan, Mahta, Nagbansi, Ujjaini, Rathor, Raghu- 
bansi, Raikawar, R&wat) Surajbansi, Solankhi, Sarwal, Sombansi, Suriya 
Tilag, and Thapa. About 12,000 Rajputs remain unspecified. The tribes 
which may be selected for some description are the Sarnet, Bisen, Rathor, 
Kausik, Surajbansi, Gautam, Sengar, Nagbansi, Chauhan, Ponwar, Palwar, 
and Kulhans, the two last not mentioned by the census. The invasion of 
the Sarnet Rajas will be described in the historical portiou of this notice. 
The earlier name of their tribe was perhaps Naikumbh ; and Mr. Oldham 
tells how the new title was bestowed by one of the Dehli emperors. Having 
to enter a doorway, some Naiktimbhs preferred to behead themselves on a 
sword fixed across it rather than bow their heads. But the derivation of 
the name conferred on their kinsmen by the admiring monarch is scarcely 

1 An allusion to the Sawalakhia. 



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354 GORAKHPUR. 

satisfactory. 1 Buchanan again derives that term from a band of gold called 

" net" which one of the tribe was allowed to wear when serving at the Delhi 

court. 

The R&jas of Satasi, Anola, and Maghar, i.e., Bansi, belonged to this 

clan, and another braneh held lands in Gh£zipur. The tribe is said to have 

emigrated from Srinagar near Lfihor, but its exact origin is of course 

uncertain. 

The Bisen clan once held the south-east of the district, spreading thence 

as far west as Undo. Though not pure Rajputs they are 

highly esteemed, and claim descent from Bhrigu, a saint of 

the golden age. Prom Bhrigu also was descendod Parasurama ; and from 

Parasurima, Mayynra, already named as the reputed ancestor of the Bhats. 

The head of the clan is the Raja of Majhauli. 

The R&thors of Gorakhpur are, as noted by Sherring, rather despised by 

_ . the other castes. This contempt is no doubt due to their 

Rathors. . . , \ 

former subjection oy the Domkat6rs or Donwftrs. It is 

not improbable, moreover, that the remnant left after that defeat formed 

mesalliances with the Domkatfirs and other less respectable tribes. 2 

The Kausiks claim descent from ancestors of the lunar race, who entered 

w ., the district with Dhur Chand. Legend traces them from 

Kausiks. 

Hamirpur to Ghazipnr, where King G&dh, brother of Dhur 

Singh, held his court. Ejected thenoe by the Muslims under Masaud Gh&zi, 

they took refuge in Gorakhpur. The R&jas of Barhi£p.ir and Gop&lpur hoth 

belonged to this clan. 

The only important Surajbansi or solar families are found in Maholi, 

„ .,_ . Amorha, and Nagar of Basti. Buchanan identifies them 

Surajbansis. 

with the Raghubansis, but is probably mistaken. The 

Surajbansis invaded Amorha under Kanhdeo, who wrested that parganah 

from the Bhars. These Surajbansis seem to have boen entered in the census 

returns as Bais. 

1 Two alternative derivations are Riven «, one from the Sanskrit sar, a head, and net, a 
leader, the other from the Persian sarnht, headtesfl. a The Naikumbbs then, as now, only raised 
the hand to the head ; and never bowed the head when making obefrance. The emperor, 
annoyed by this apparent want of respect of some Naiknmfrh chiefs in attendance at his court, 
ordered that before their entrance a sword should be placed across the doorway in such a man- 
ner that they, on entering his presence, should be compelled to stoop. Some of the Naifcumbh 
chiefs maintaining their position were decapitated. The emperor, satisfied with this exhibition 
of their firmness and determination, permitted them in future to make their saldm in their 
o\rn fashion, and gave them the title of Sirnet."— Statistical JU emir of the Ghdzipvr District. 
The Kathiya Kajputs have an exactly similar tradition. s Defeat, accompanied bj» 

circumstances of disgrace, would suflico to explain any contempt into which the Rathors may 
have fallen. Neighbouring Rajputs avoid intermarriage with certain Bisen families of Salem- 
pur, whose women are said to have suffered insult daring the sack of their village fa the 
mutiny. 



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GOKAKHPUR. 355 

The Gautams also are chiefly settled in Nagar, where they acquired 

a dowry of several villages by marriage with the Suraj- 

bansis. Many of the Gautams entered as Rajputs in 

the census seem to belong more properly to the Gautam branch of the 

Bhninharg. 

The Sengara are more numerous in the Basti district than here. Strongly 

represented in Et&wa and other Duab districts, they seem 
Sengars* • 

to have spread thence into Oudh, and from Oudh into 

Basti and Gorakhpur. They are said to have gained a footing in this district 
by taking service under a Bhar chief, whom they afterwards deposed and 
murdered. 1 

The N&gbansis, as their name implies! are reputed descendants of the 
Takshak, N6ga, or serpent race, sometimes called Scythians. 
They are, however, recognized as indubitable Rajputs, 
descended according to some accounts from a hero who sprang out of the earth to 
defend St, Vasishtha's cow. The child of this cow-deliverer was afterwards lost 
in a forest, when the grateful Vasishtha caused it to be suckled by a snake. The 
Ntfgbansis may probably be descended from the ancient N&ga race who gave 
princes to this tract in early times, and the story of a serpent foster-mother 
may point to the fact of an aboriginal ancestress. 2 Sidhua Jobna and Haveli 
are the principal homes of the Nagbansis. 

Of the Chauhfins the district has few to boast. The founder of the But- 
wal Raj claimed to belong to this olan, and the claim is main- 
tained by his kinsmen and others whose ancestors were his 
companions in arms. It is, however, exceediugly doubtful if the story of their ' 
flight from Ghittor is true. They seem rather to resemble the Domkatars and 
other mongrel tribes than the later invaders, the Kausik and Sdrajbansi Raj- 
ptits. 

The Ponw&r or Pram&ra clan, now so numerous, seems to have entered 
the district in but small detachments. Its present footing 
was gradually gained by marriage with the daughters of 
local chiefs, such as Majhauli. 

The Palw&rs, again, are not very numerous, but their legends furnish 

another interesting illustration of the intermarriage of 

castes in olden times. Their ancestor Patr&j had four wives 

of various races, one being a Bhar. From the Rajpfit wife was born a son 

1 A fall account of the Sengara will be found in the notice on Etawa Gazetteer, IV, 975, 
976. The Sengar river in that district is aaid to derive its name from the clan * The 

legend of the cow Ksmdhenn and it* attempted robbery by St. Viswamitra is somewhat 
differently told by Buchanan (II, 460,461). 



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356 GORAKHPUR. 

called Palwala, who ejected the Bhdrs eastward from Faisabad. From this 
new base a Pa I war colony invaded Basti, and finally established itself in 
Gorakhpur also. 

The Ghandel and Kulhans 1 clans seem to have once possessed considerable 
tracts in the Basti district, the latter being still largely 
represented in Basulpur Ghatis. Buchanan's account of this 
tribe seeuis to assert that their ancestor, and not that of the Si met Rajas, des- 
troyed the Domkat&rs. He was, says this writer, a Br&hman who came eastwards 
with bis employer, a learned scribe. A DonikaUir chief haying carried off the 
daughter of this priest, the scribe concerted and successfully effected the plan 
of poisoning the guards of the Domkatar fortress and murdering its chatelain. 
Having thus outwitted the Domkatar, the scribe was himself outwitted by his 
ungrateful servant the Brahman, who managed to establish himself as Raja 
of the newly -conquered domain. This tale is nonsense, and was probably 
concocted to conceal an origin derived from the intermarriage of Rajputs and 
aboriginal tribes. It does not account for the succession of the Sarnet family, 
or for the existence of Kulhans so far west of the Domangarh fort ; and seems 
copied from a legend which makes a Kayath and a Brahman eject the Bhars 
from Amorha. 

The following are the principal clans into which the census divides the 
Baniya or mercantile class: — OKandu (29,856), Kasaundhan 
mf ®° (9,795), Agarahri (3,883), Baramwar (3,516), Rauniyar 

(2,486), Unaya (2,485), Agarwala (2,107), Umar (787), and Kasrwani 
(367). The remaining tribes — Bandarwar, Chausaini, Dasa, Gindauriya, 
Jaiswa>, Mahesri, Rastogi, Rautgi, and Saraogi — have less than 300 members 
each. The Agarwalas, who hold a large amount of property in Gorakh- 
pur city and its environs, may be considered the wealthiest of the district 
merchants. The history of their clan has been given in more than one former 
notice.* 

The following list shows the names and numbers of the tribes included 
amongst the l< other (Hindu) castes " of the census returns (1,492,093 souls). 
But in preparing an enumeration of this sort some confusion of Hindus and 
Muslims was perhaps inevitable: — 



Agarei ... 


484 


Atit 




••• 4)635 


Barawar ... 


m. 6,910 


Aghori ... 


237 


Bahella ... 




984 


Barhai ... 


... 21.941 


Ahar ... 


... 3,906 


Bairagi M « 




... 3,132 


Berhia ... 


... 15,912 


Aheria ... 


501 


Bftndgar ... 




... 1,609 


Bari 


... 6,861 


Ahir ... 


... 242,383 


Banjara ... 




349 


Basor ... 


75 


Arakh ... 


143 


Bansphor 




... 5,099 Bat war ... 


... 1,932 


* Or Kulh&n. 


Both forms are used, but 


that 


given in the text is the 


commonest. 


1 See Gazetteer, II., 395, and 


IV., 290. 











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Beldar «» 


••• 


10,569 


Bharbunja 


••• 


3,717 


Bhat ... 


... 


3,524 


bhfij 1 ... 


••• 


638 


Bhartia w. 


•M 


198 


Bind ... 


*•• 


10,7 09 


Chai ... 


... 


3,736 


Ctoamtr or , 


Julaha*... 


210,103 


Chitarah 


••• 


107 


Dabgar — 


••• 


366 


Patzi ... 


•«• 


407 


lMhlwar 


... 


3,021 


Ifcswal w 


•t§ 


12 


Dhanuk 


•»« 


410 


Dharhi 


••• 


1,96o 


Dhobi .„ 


... 


22,864 


Dhuoia... 


•>• 


1,402 


Dom ... 


■•« 


3,707 


Dosadh 


... 


23,545 


Fakir ... 


... 


114 


Gadaria 


... 


9,794 


Gohal ... 


— 


1C4 


Gusaln 


• ♦• 


749 


Gujar ... 


••• 


81 


Hela ... 


• •• 


424 


Hajjani 


• •• 


80,45) 





G0RAKHPUR. 






357 


Halwai 




... 2,905 


Manihar , M 


»§• 


2,415 


Ilijrah 


... 


35 


Mochi 


... 


348 


Jaiswar 


... 


... 5,142 


Muaahar ... 


... 


ll,00tJ 


Jat 


• •• 


180 


Nalband ... 


... 


1,713 


Jogi 


••• 


195 


Nat 


... 


394 


Juliha 


... 


••• 132 


Naik 


... 


231 


Kahar 


• •• 


.,. 30,819 


Nun era .., 




44,316 


Kalal 


••« 


... 39,<K)9 


Fasi 


_ 


80,075 


Kanoangar ... 


... 18,370 


Patwa ... 


••• 


1,960 


Ran jar 


... 


337 


Pudhir ... 


... 


2,389 


Rasera 


•M 


264 


Bahti 


*M 


728 


Katwar 




200 


Kajbhar .« 


... 


1,464 


K4yath 


••• 


... 22,767 


Ramaia ... 


§•« 


872 


Mihtar 


• •* 


834 


Rimjani ... 


§•1 


74 


Khatik 


«•• 


... 7,307 


Raogrez ... 


•M 


4*6 


Khatiri 


•»« 


142 


Rawa 


••• 


424 


Kisaa 


• •1 


... 15,420 


R&wat 


... 


228 


Koeri 


•M 


... 89.321 


Sadh or Ssdhu 


... 


1,719 


Roll 


••• 


... 32,242 


Sat war 


••• 


41,649 


Kumhar 


•M 


,.. 37.103 


Sunar .., 


,.. 


16,472 


Rurmi 


*•• 


... 76,550 


Taga 


... 


67 


Lahera 


... 


m« 663 


Tarkhar ... 


*•» 


1 369 


Lo.lha 


*•• 


... 3,121 


Teli 


... 


55,ft54 


Loh&r 


ft. 


M . 85,994 


Th4ru ... 


t*. 


3,169 


Mill 


••• 


~ 8,694 


Thathera ... 


... 


2,535 


Mallah 


... 


... 110,565 









Tharoa. 



We must now proceed to notice some of the more carious or important 
races here mentioned. 

If, as before suggested, the Tharfis represent the remnant of the Aryan 
race who remained cut off in the north when the victori- 
ous aborigines expelled their kinsmen to south and west, 
there can be little doubt that they were Rajpfits of the old solar race who had 
invaded the district from Ajudhia. The arguments in favour of this theory 
are: — 

(1) The common tradition of the people themselves both here and in 
the Kumaon Tar&i asserts that they were Raj p tits who came up at the first 
sack of Chittor (which might well be substituted for the destruction of 
Ajudhia or of new Kdshi near Rudarpur by the Bh&rs). 



(2) 
the tribe. 

(3) 
(4) 



The sacred thread (janeo) is commonly worn by some members of 



The division into gotras, which is still recognised amongst them. 

The observance of some Hindu rules, such as the rejection of meat 
unless killed in the chase. 

It is possible that many later Rajput arrivals, who had lost caste by stoop- 
ing to tillage, were thus reduced to intermarriage, and thereby incorporation, 
with the Thfirus. The chief clans of that race are the Pachhimi and Pfirabi, or 
western and eastern. The former affect to despise the latter, and assume the 

'Though separately shown by the census, the fihuj and Bhfirbhunja tribes are probably 
Identical. 'This heading apparently refer toKoris or ttindu wearers There is a large 

community ol Musalman Jul&haa who have perhaps been entered amongst the Shaikhs. 



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358 GORAKHPUR. 

title of Chaudhari, which is properly restricted to their bartvdiks or headmen. 1 
This is all in favour of the thoory that some of the Th&riis represent a, later 
importation of Rajputs than the rest. And a further proof perhaps exists in the 
fact that amongst the Pachhimis some are known as Khattri, still wearing the 
sacred thread. But besides the western and eastern, there are several other sub- 
divisions, such as the Dagwaria, Nawalpuria, Marchaha, Kupaliha, Jogitharu, 
Kosith&ru, Kawasia, and Garhwaria; all of these, however, seem to belong to 
the Purabi class, being divided between the Barhka Ptirabi or " upper," and the 
Chhutka Pfirabi or " lower " eastern. The Pachhimi Thfcrus refuse to eat with 
the Purabi ; and even between the subdivisions of the latter there are many 
restrictions on the practice of eating together. This is more curious because 
most members of the caste will eat pig's flesh and fowls, while all will drink 
country spirits. 

In character Thards are peaceable and truthful. They seem rarely to quarrel 
amongst themselves, and have a horror of courts and cases which, it is hoped, 
will long continue. Their leading men are intelligent, and their manners are 
quite as good as those of true Hindis in the same relative position. The more 
ignorart of the other tribes are muoh afraid of them, especially of their women, 
who are deemed to possess the power of the evil eye, and can blight fields or 
persons by it. They appear to be worshippers of Mah&deo, on whom and 
perhaps on some other deities they bestow the 'title of lord (Thdkur). The 
name Thdru is derived by R&ja Sivaprasad from Athwdrw, a villein who must 
work every eighth day for his lord ; and if Thards be of Rajput descent, their 
condition during Bh&r supremacy could scarcely be far removed from serfdom. 
The Ahirs are here the most numerous of all the Hindu tribes. The 

a correctness of their numbers, as given by the census, is 

Ahirs* 

perhaps rather doubtful, and some Bh&rs and P&sis have 

perhaps been included in their ranks. But in any case the tribe is certainly 
very numerous. Their numbers may be explained by the wide extent of first- 
rate pasturage which still exists, and must have been at the times of the 
Rajpdt invasions almost unlimited. 

The Ahirs in all probability accompanied the Rajputs and Bhufnh&rs, 
tending their cattle and acting as camp-followers or marauders in their wars. 
Ahir women, were moreover, in some request as wetnurses ; and the favour 
of a Rajpdt foster-brother has raised more than one family to wealth and 

x Mr. Beames takes Barw&ik as the name of a distinct Thira clan, to which he assigns a 
Tibetan origin. Oat the correct meaning of the word is that given in the text. Mr. Crooke 
adds that the headmen of he Thar us are, like those of other tribes, called Mahto and Chau- 
dhari. He, too, thinks that the customs and general appearance of the clan denote a libetaa 
origin. 



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QORAKHPUR. 359 

respectability. 1 One Ahir household, with the title of Rawat, owns a large 
estate in Hasanpur Maghar. Ahirs, as a rule, remain faithful to their hereditary 
callino- of herdsmen. But a good many engage also in tillage, and a few earn 
their living as woodmen, foresters, or carriers. The Ahirs deny drinking spirits 
and eating flesh, but in the north of the district are certainly guilty of the 
former. The Ahirs separately entered by the census are, Mr. Alexander 
imagines, the same as Ahirs ; aud in that case have no connection with the 
Ahirs of Bohilkhand. 

The Cham&rs stand next in numbers. Like Ahirs, they seem in this district 
to have been rather the retainers of Aryan invaders than 
themselves the invaded aborigines. There is nothing to show 
any connection between them and the Bh&rs ; and their large numbers are not 
at all inconsistent with the belief that 400 years ago they were but few. A dis- 
trict which supplies abundant pasturage for cattle soon enough attracts 
curriers to cure their hides. 

Between Chamars and Eoeris intervene, in numerical strength, the Br&h- 

mans already described. The Koeris are the agriculturists, 

par excellence, of the district. It is they who keep up the 

market gardens around Gorakhpur, and produce also the greater part of the 

«pium grown in the district. 

Next to Eoeris in numerical strength, the Kurmis or Kuubis possess 
. many villages in the district. Their influence is perhaps 

greatest in Sidhua Jobna, where the proprietor of the 
Padrauna taluka is a Eurmi. His family, like that of many other Eurmis 
in the parganah, claim descent from the celebrated Mayyura Misra by his 
fourth wife, thus connecting themselves with the Majhauli and Tamkuhi 
R&jas. 

In point of numbers the Rajputs above mentioned press close upon the 
Konbis ; and next to the Rajputs come the Lunias. The name of the Lunias 
or Nunias shows salt-making 2 to have been the ancient occupation of their 
caste. They now, however, live chiefly by the manufac- 
ture of saltpetre and by labour on the roads. Their large 
numbers are their only claim to notice. 

The Telis or oilmen are also very numerous. But care is necessary 

_ M to distinguish the caste from the calling; for while 

Tells. ° ° 

some Telis are agriculturists, many oilmen are Musal- 

m&ns. 

1 Snch families are known as Barglh or Bargaha, and hold to some extent aloof from 
their fellows. ' Lonotnon, salt. 

46 



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360 GORA&HPtTft. 

Their servile status has perhaps prevented the Bhars from claiming of 

believing the distinguished history wherewith modern 
BhrtriondRajbhars, .,,... .j j ^ a , r>x- 

ethnologists have provided them. Some, known as RAj- 

bh&rs, go so far as to claim precedence over other Bh&rs on account of an 
nuproven admixture of Rajput blood. Bhdrs are contemned and disliked by 
Hindus, who accuse them of devil-worship, but fail to explain why the propi* 
tiation of malevolent demons should be worse than the propitiation of Shiva* 
Mr. S her ring plausibly proves that they were once a powerful aboriginal race 
ruling from the Nepal frontier to the hills of Mirz&pur. 

D&sddhs or Dos&lhs are by Sherring classed with Cham&rs, but the iden* 
tity of the ttf o races is by no means a certainty. Mr. E. A. 
Heade remarks that many Dos&dhs fought in dive's regi- 
ments at Paldsi (1757), and in the beginning of the century this clan supplied 
the district with all its village watchmen. 1 These, the only police maintained 
under the Oudh Government, were repaid by the use of a Small rent-free plot 
and contribution of grain at harvest. Other Dosadhs, after serving in the 
Nepdlese wars, received on its conclusion lands in parganah Haveli. 

The Doms or Domr&s seem an undoubtedly aboriginal tribe. To the 
present day they live a nomadic life, roaming about without 
any fixed habitation, and under colour of selling baskets or 
mats, subsisting chiefly by begging or theft. Tney are hereditary thieves, 
against whom the law relating to persons without visible means of subsist- 
ence 9 has been constantly enforced. Good figures and intelligent faces often 
combine to render their appearance not unpleasing. But their glittering 
eyes and uncombed matted hair give them that wild look which is every- 
where common to gipsy life. They themselves assert that there are seven 
divisions of their race, but the one most common and most troublesome is 
the Magaya. They will eat almost anything, and gladly accept broken 
victuals from givers of every creed and class except washermeo, with whom 
all the uncleanliness of cleansed garments is supposed to remain. Their only 
religion soems a superstitious dread of malevolent local spirits (bk&l). Their 
objection to work of any kind gives a good deal of trouble when they at last 
find a home in the jail. Like the Bhantus of up-country districts, Doms 
have a language of their own. This seems, however, rather a sort of thieves* 
latin than a genuine aboriginal tongue. 

Elliot represents them as founders of the Domangarh castle. But they 
boast that they never willingly lived in houses or under any shelter more 
substantial than a craftily constructed thatch of leaves. A few have abandoned 
» Beade'a Inferior Castes; Ridsdale'g notes, * Criminal Procedure Code, chap. XXXVIII. 



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GORAKHFUB. 361 

their camps for Homes in the larger towns ; but the thievish propensities and 
wild habits of the rest have banished them from the more civilized parts of the 
country. The unhealthiness of swampy forests, the imprisonment of many, and 
flight of others, have greatly reduced their ranks. But they are the pariahs of 
the district, despised by every other caste, and should they finally disappear, 
few will be found to regret their extinction. 

The name of Badhak, meaning assassin, sufficiently denotes the former 
occupation of the tribe that bears it. They were professional 
robbers, and furnished recruits to the bands of stranglers 
(thaff) which roamed the district both, before and some time after the British 
occupation. They were sometimes also called Siy&hmarwas, from their habit of 
killing and eating jackals. The misgovernment of the country shortly before 
the cession, and the absence of any regular police force, gave grand opportunities 
to all these robber tribes. And the Badhaks especially grew so numerous and 
daring, that it was found necessary to keep up a large force of mounted and foot 
police to guard the frontier against their inroads from Oudh. They were at last 
declared a criminal tribe, and a large number being seized were boated under 
surveillance near Oorakhpur. Most of the tribe have now settled down on the 
lands allotted to them. But some now and then contrive to slip away and 
resume their old trade of gang-robbery. Like the Domr&s, they have a slang 
argot once used to prevent bystanders understanding what they said. 

The Chais are here said to be connected with the Kewat subdivision of the- 
^^ boatman (mattdh) caste. Mr. Sherriug, however, classes, 

them with Nats and other jugglers. They seem now to 
belong tono tribe or caste, but to form a mere guild of thimble-rigging thieves. 
At fair? and other harvests of their trade they appear as a large and well- 
dressed swell-mob. An article pilfered by one is passed rapidly along through 
SO or 30 hands, and the respectable appearance of the thief when arrested, 
coupled with the absence of the corpus delicti, goes often far to convince tha 
accuser of his innocence. Chais are said to have secret roles binding themselves 
to provide for the family of any of their number who may be imprisoned for 
theft committed during such excursions, and to divide the spoil according to 
a fixed scale. The agreement holds in force only for one expedition, and after the 
division of the booty each thief is free to join another party if he pleases. But 
as a rule the same set combine together again. 

Bantarias are described by Elliot as a class of wood-rangers who received 
lands from the Native Government untaxed in liou of police 
services. They seem really to have been Ahirs. In 1839, 



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362 GORAKHPUR. 

after the revision of the police-force, their services were no longer required, and 
they were allowed to keep the land at a fair assessment of revenue. They then 
held 39 villages in the north of the Basti district, and their chief or R&wat 
maintained a force of 120 musketeers, supplying 25 as a police-guard for the 
courts of Gorakhpur. Many of the villages are still in their possession. 

The exaot origin of the various hill tribes is uncertain, except in the 
Paiitrfc or moan- case of the Gurkh&s, who are probably Rajputs. Their name 
tainesrs. Gurkhas. jj ag \ )Gen misapplied to the Pah&ris who recruit our hill 
regiments ; but the latter have no tribal connection with the ruling race of 
Kepal. Dr. Wright says that the Gurkhas, who still retain their Aryan 
appearance, quitted Rdjputana after the sack of Chittaur in 1568. 1 Settling 
down near Palpa, under the same chief who founded the Biitwal principality, 
they did not invade Nep&l until just two hundred years later. Their name, he 
adds, is derived from Gurkha, a town forty miles west of K&thm&ndu, which 
they occupied for some time before pushing into Nepal. It is quite certain 
that the Gurkhds were not heard of under their present name much before 
1600 A. D., and that the accounts given by Swinton and others of their 
invasion nearly a thousand years before is incorrect. Few (if any) Gurkhfis 
permanently live in the district : but as their territory borders thereon, this 
account is not perhaps out of place. 

The Chhatris or Kshatriya hillmen wear the sacred thread and claim des- 
cent from Brahman ancestors who wedded mountain wives. 
They hold in Nep&l the next place to Gurkhds, who, how- 
ever, keep aloof from them. 

The Rdnas, Magars, Gurangs, and J&pas come next. They are the 

soldier castes who mainly recruit our Gurkha regiments ; 
Other mountaineers. . « 

but are allowed to eat with Kshatris only where the food 

has been first purified with melted butter (ghi). Next come the New&ro 

and Garhtis, who represent the trading, mechanic, and agricultural callings. 

These cannot eat with Kshatris, but do so with the soldier castes. All the 

six classes last mentioned drink spirituous liquors and eat goat's flesh or fowls. 

All have the Mongolian type of features : small eyes, high oheek bones, and 

broad flattish noses. 

The Limb n, Kir&ti, and Bhotia hillmen never dwell in the district, but 

sometimes visit it to trade. 

1 History of Nepdl (1877), pp. 25,975-81. See also Blphlnstone'a Hist, bk. IX. t chap. 
1, and Thornton's Gazetteer, art. (< Udaipnr." If the Nepal Maharajas are descended, as they say, 
from the Mabirinas of Chittsur, Mewar, or Udaipnr, they belong to the Siaodiya branch of tha 
Gahlot Rajputs. The Maharajas of Visiansgram (Vijayanagar)area cadet branch of that 

illustrious family. 



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GORAKHPUR. 363 

Some ace ount of the Banj&ras will be found in former volumes. 1 But 
an ingenious local derivation of their name may here be 
added to those already mentioned. This erratic tribe used, 
it is said, to fire the woods, and thereby clear out glades on which their numer- 
ous cattle might pasture. The practice caused them to be called forest-kind- 
lers (ban, a forest ; jdrna, to kindle). a How they scoured the district towards 
the close of the eighteenth century will be shown in the historical section of 
this notice. They have now settled down into traders, carrying grain, salt, and 
other articles on pack -bullocks from one part of the country to another. 
The companies in which they travel are generally from twenty to thirty 
strong. 

The numbers of the Sun&rsare respectable, but the Sun&rs themselves 

are not much respected. There is no doubt that until a 
Sunars. . 

short time ago they were mostly receivers or stolen pro- 
perty, and many of them still live by the same felonious trade. A native 
proverb shows in what sort of estimation they are held : — 

Sdnta, bdnta, balkhara % 
Badal, bori, pdn t 
Yahi men ye lete ham, 
Chiter ko y sojdn. 

which is said to mean that, whether weighing with the usual scales, dividing 
by heaps, swapping (e. g. silver for gold), adjusting the balance, or testing by 
fire or water, these metallurgists will make something out of you. Verb. sap. 
The following is a list of the slang words used by Sun&rs to facilitate their 
frauds. It will be found to resemble in many cases that given by Sir H. Elliot 
under the heading %i Kasbbara": — 

fTagua (taga, a thread) ... Brahman. 

I Dhfirha (dhur, a land measure), a ramindar. 

{ Kiar ... ... ... a Sunar. 

I Masik (masi, ink) ... ... a Kiyatfi. 

Cast*! ,., \ Sagia (sag, rege table) ... a Koeri or Kurmi. 

I Kong „ ... ... aMusalman. 

i Khaolha (boiling milk) ... an Ah\r. 

# I Bokhara ... ... ... a distiller. 

ISishar ... ... ... a washerman, 

fBajina (bajna, to ring ?; ... a rupee. 

I Baburi an ashaf ri. 

Coin, «ta M ... J ° an ** ft ° (weaUh) * old - 

1 Pankh (money- testing) ... silrer. 

J Subh ... ... ... copper. 

LKulhi brass. 

1 See, for instance, Gazetteer, V, J89-90 (Bijnor notice\ * This derivation is ffiren br 

Itaja Bivaprasad, C.S.I., late Inspector of Schools. W gITen Dy 



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364 



GOIUKHPUR. 



fTangalna 
Tungani 
Malna 
Parera 
Pariw&r 



Words, CONNEC- 
TED WITH « 

ariiioHiHO. 



Chimetha 
Kokni 
Gadui 
Dhauai 



I 



pat 

Losini 
f Sojhina 



(pdra ?) 



Onus words ... <{ 



Phrases 



. to weigh. 
, scales. 
. to raise, 

, correct, said of scales. 
, so weighted that one scale remains a 
little down if so adjusted, 
with a false beam, 
hollow, 
solid. 

a false weight made heavier than it pur- 
ports to be, used in buying gold, &c. 
a true weight. 

filings of steel, &c, used for filling up 
jewellery which is made hollow. 

to steal, 
a fool,, pigeon, 
a sharp fellow, 
a thief, 
a man. 
a woman, 
dekho, look f 
test and weigh it 
don't steal any. 



I Frewa 

Bka 

I Kod 
I Chunua 

(.Kurti 

f Lao * 

{ Tarike palante do 
(Tepna bandho 

After perusing these words and phrases the reader will probably agree with the 
natives in their estimation of the Sun&r's honesty. 

The K&yaths are an important tribe by reason both of their numbers and 
their large landed possessions. The manner in which much 
of the latter was acquired is creditable neither to them nor 
our past administration ; but some K&yaths made very fair landlords. Tbo 
chief division is the Srib&stab, which, as noted by Mr. Sherring, receives hon- 
orary titles, such as F&nde, K&ntkigo, Amodha, R&i, Th&kur, and the like. 
The Srfb&stab now often styles himself B&bu.* 

The Atiths seem to form a subdivision of the Gos&ins, and are chiefly 

noticeable for the number of shares in villages which 
Atiths. ° 

they have managed to acquire. In Silhat, Sidhua Jobna, 

Haveli, and Tilpur they are found acting for the most part as ordinary* land- 
holders, though some who are part owners of villages still wander about the 
country. 

The Musalmdns number altogether 200,372 persons, of whom 93,069 are 
female. The great bulk (126,835) are Shaikhs. Muhammad- 
ans never had in this district the same influence as in 

1 Found sometimes in book Urdu as to. 'It appears that in the district itself this 

division of the Ks/aths la sometimes misnamed Sri Bate. 



Musalm&ns. 



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GOftAKHPUR. 365 

tnost otters of the Norlh-West. There are now a few families of some impor- 
tance, but none of any antiquity. 

One of the most striking results is the extent to which the Muslim 
population has become Binduised. 1 Many observe the 

Rapprochement be- * ' . 

tween Muslims and Hindu festivals, and some even go so far as to offer sacri- 
fices of animals at shrines which, like that of Gorakh- 
nath, may not be strictly Hindu, but are certainly not Musalm&n. Some of 
their leading men, again, eat nothing which has not been cooked by Brahmans, 
and the tomb of Kabi r at Maghar is in charge of two custodians — one a Hindu, 
the other a Muslim. The Musalmans always paid great homage to the tomb 
and the memory of its occupant. Yet Kabfr was named by a Br&hman, and 
refused circumcision, besides making a pilgrimage to the temple of Jagann&th 
in Orissa, and otherwise showing his partiality towards Hinduism. 

Hindis, however, are on their side equally willing to reciprocate the toler- 
ance or laxity of the Muslims. They take part in such Musalm&n rites as those 
of the Muharram. The Muharram, which should be a mournful fast, is here a 
noisy festival ; and its Warlike processions are joined by all the idlers of the 
town. But as Hindiis in some cases make offerings to what are intended for 
representations of the tomb at Karbala and the cave at Medina, it is clear that 
they regard these solemnities a3 something more than a mere spectack. So 
also at the ceremonies held in honour of that somewhat mythical young mar- 
tyr, S&l£ri-Masadd. Gatherings which might be thought especially likely to 
produce ill-blood between the two creeds are attended by large numbers of the 
poorer Hindtis. 

Muhammadans are most numerous in the neighbourhood of Gorakh- 
pur. When the Raja of Salempur was converted, few Hindiis followed his 
example. The bulk of the parganah is held by Br&hmans who obtained 
grants from former R&jas or members of the family who still remained 
Hindus, and the family itself has reverted to Hinduism. The chief Muham- 
tnadan families are those of W&jid AH Shah, known as the Mian S&hibof 
Gorakhpur; of Sayyid Shdh Abdull&h Sabzposh, also of Gorakhpur ; the 
Pindaris of Dhuriap&r ; and the Sayyids of Shakpur in the same parganah. 
Of the Christian population more than the usual proportion are European 
landholders. Mr. Bridgman owns a very large area in both Gorakhpur 
and Basti, and his estate is perhaps the best managed in either of these 
districts. 

There are a few Sikhs, but they possess little influ- 
ence, and their religion is not at all generally followed. 
1 They are perhaps the descendants of converted Hindus not quite thoroughly Muslimised. 



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866 



GORAKMtJR. 



The census thus divides the people, according to 
occupation, into those who get their living from the land 
and those who do not : — 



Occupations. 





Agricultural. 


NON-AGBICUL- 


Total. 


Religion. 


Landowntrs. 


Cultivators. 








Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female 


Male. 

971,385 

106,403 

284 


Female. 


Hindus 
Muaalmins 
Christians ... 


72,967 

1,283 

2 


66,740 

1,219 

8 


223,160 

70,473 

124 

793,748 


630,937 
62,231 

74 


176,269 

31,646 

166 


I60,.<83 

29,610 

172 


848.060 

92,909 

249 


Total 


74,262 


67,962 


693,292 


210,073 


180,024 


10,78,078 


941/278 



The agricultural population numbers, therefore, 1,629,254 souls, or 
80*6 per cent, of (he whole. Of these 132,507 are Muhammadan, and the rest 
Hindds. The percentage (82 3) of the former is extremely low, but there 
exists little reason to doubt its accuracy. Of the Hindus 189,707, and of 
the Musalmans 2,502, are landholders. Ihe total gives a percentage of 
87 1 landowners to every 200 agriculturists, which is rather a low propor- 
tion, considering the number of villages and shares distributed by grants in 
birt} The proportion of Muhammadan to total landowners is 1'57 per cent. — 
a further proof of the small influence they possess in the district. Taking 
the total agricultural population, we find 116 acres of cultivated land to each 
individual ; and as we may assume about one able-bodied cultivator to every 
five individuals, the average holding must contain about 6 acres. 

The returns of 1872 divide the adult male population into six classes, 
Classification of non- °f which the fourth is the agricultural ; and distributes as 
agricultural population. f n ows tne classings of the remaining or non-agricultural 
classes. The first or professional class embraces all Government servants and 
persons following the learned professions or literature, artistic or scientific 
occupations. It numbered 2,999 male adults, amongst whom are included 191 
purohits or family-priests, 218 pandits or learned Hindus, 99 musicians, and 
so on. The second or domestic class numbered 27,107 members, and comprised 
all males employed as private servants, washermen, water-carriers, barbers, 
sweepers, innkeepers, and the like. The third represents commerce and num- 
bered 10,389 males ; amongst these are all persons who buy or sell, keep or 

Hnfra. « Ttuures." 



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GORAKHPUR. 367 

lend money and goods of various kinds, such as shop-keepers (4,005), money* 
lenders (955), bankers (224), brokers (36), and all persons engaged in the 
conveyance of men, animals or goods, such as boatmen (1,946), pack-carriers 
(1,479), and ekka or Cart-drivers (357). The fifth or industrial class, contain- 
ing 33,861 members) includes all persons engaged in the industrial arts and 
Mechanics, such as necklace-makers (294), masons (32a), carpenters (1,977), 
and perfumers (16) ; those engaged in the manufacture of textile fabrics, such 
as weavers (3,994), tailors (1,104), and cotton-cleaners (967); those engaged 
in preparing articles of food or drink, such as grain-parchers (538) and con-* 
fectioners (308) $ and lastly, dealers in all animal, vegetable, or mineral sub- 
fetances* The sixth class contains 55,437 members, including labourers 
(51)608), persons of independent means (203), and persons supported by the 
Community and of no specified occupation. The field labourers, as opposed to 
those who> like the beld&rs and Lunias, work chiefly on roads and other public 
Works, should perhaps be included in the agricultural population. The number 
of boatmen, though large, is probably understated. Almost all the very con- 
siderable heavy traffic of the district is Carried by water. The chief resorts of 
bargees are Barhaj, Dhani, Gorakhpur, Gola, and Barhalganj ; but their con* 
stant passage from one place to another must always render their enumeration 
somewhat difficult. Daring the past ten years but 7,322 inhabitants of this 
district (1671 females) have been registered for emigration beyond seas. Their 
principal destinations were Trinidad, Mauritius, Jamaica, Demerara, and the 
French West Indies. 

From the occupations of the people we may pass to notice some of their 

Customs and mode customs and habits of life. The councils known as panchd* 

*' ltfd * yat are mostly in vogue amongst the lower castes. The 

members are elected by the votes of the brotherhood. Their number, originally 

^ , , five, is now rather indefinite, and in some cases includes 

Panchayats, 

every present adult male of the fraternity. The panel is 

most often convened to decide questions of caste morality. Its sentence on the 

offender takes as a rule the form of a money fine ; and this is usually spent in 

feasting as many members of the caste as possible, the judges themselves being 

always included. 

An appeal often lies from this primitive court to the chaudhari or head* 
^_ , A . man of the clan, who was until lately a personage of much 

C7Afl Honor is% * 

recognized importance. It is said that chaudharis were at 
first peculiar to the Baniya and Kahar castes. They have now been adopted by 
every class except Brdhmans, Rajputs, Agarwala Baniyas, Kayaths, and the 

47 



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348 GOftlKHPUB. 

upper order of Musalmins : by every class in fact that holds panch&yats. The 
lower Musalm&ns, such as weavers (Juhika), are not without their chaudharia. 
The office is, as usual in India, hereditary. Bat if the successor is consi- 
dered unfit, the members of the caste concerned elect a panch&yat, who, after 
enquiring into the claims and qualifications of each candidate, appoint a new 
chaudhari. In important elections, such as that of a headman for the Baniy&s 
of the chief market in Gorakhpur, Government assent was till very recently 
necessary. And the chaudhari was held responsible for any serious breach of 
the peace within his jurisdiction. 

For his services, such as they are, the chaudhari is repaid in several 
different manners * 

(1). If he be headman of a market, he receives a small percentage, often 
J ser (about Jtb.) in the rupee's worth, of all grain sold. In S&hibgauj baz&r, 
however, he gets a fixed sum (about 8 annas a month) from each trader who 
uses the market. Any dues levied by tie landlord of the bfizar are collected 
by the chaudhari* 

(2). If he is headman of a craft or caste, like the carpenters or black* 
smiths, he is paid by a percentage on their earnings, usually about one-third 
of an anna in the rupee. 1 

(3). If he belongs to some class, €. y», the Mallah, in which this arrange* 
raent would not work Well, he is usually remunerated by presents of two or 
three rupees at marriages, and by one-fourth of all fines levied under orders of 
the panch&yat for caste offences. 

The diet of the labouring classes is usually limited to one meal a day, 
with perhaps a remnant for the evening. The food is 
coarse rice (mot* dhan), kirao pulse, barley when cheap, 
and cucurbitaceous fruits, such as the lauki and nenua. Water-nuts (Trapa 
bispinosa) are eaten when obtainable ; and in years of scarcity the berries and 
roots of the forest. A man's food costs from £ths to |ths of an anna per day. 
The middle classes eat all kinds of rice, barley, arhar pulse, wheaten flour where 
cheap, and fish. The average cost is two to three annas a day. The higher classes 
eat the better kinds of the same grains, fish, and fruit, which is very abundant. 
Exoept by Muslims and the lower castes of Hindus, flesh is always avoided. 
Those who eat neither flesh nor fish are known as Bhagats or ascetics. 

The houses in this district are almost all tiled, as thatch is found not to 

stand the heavy rainfall. The walls, as a rule, are of 
Habitations* . 

moistened earth well plastered. In the neighbourhood of 

the forests, however, they are built of brushwood woven round upright posts, 

1 I *., about a| per cent. 



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©ORAKHPTJR. 



S69 



*nd the roofs are often mere leaves matted strongly together by means of 
bamboo splints* The cost of a common tiled house in an ordinary village wr, 
including the price of labour, from Rs. 20 to 35. That of a better class build- 
ing, with well-beamed roof and doorways and the best tiles, is from Rs. 50 to 75. 
The brick houses, which are usually two-storied, have a good deal of wood- 
work about them, and demand an outlay of from Rs. 350 to 25,000 or more* 
Turning to religious buildings, we find two or three well-marked forms of 
Temples and Hindu temples. The oldest consists of a square base, with, 
uoe^uet, ^ sharp pyramidal roof or spire, thus ;— 




The next is- similar, but the lines of its spire are convex instead of 
atraight} thus :— ? 




mx 




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370 GO^AKEJPUB, 



i n i, 

l r >''" ■ \\ «. ^ The third is a further development of the second for m into tlie dams 
• 4 \j t ' usually adopted for Muh^mmadan mosques, thus :—= 



•J.-*'"* 



JC 




The expense of building au ordinary sized temple is said to be Rs. 2,000 a 
* mosque, being usually larger, would cost more. 

The absence of fanaticism amongst the Musalm&ns has been already 
noticed. They are mostly Shias, but the more influential 
among them are, with the exception of the Mi&n jSahih, 
Bunnis. The Brahma Samaj is not making much progress, but has been 
adopted by a few educated men in Government employ. Tho Christian religion 
gains a few converts yearly, but has never made any marked advance. The 
Christian village of Bisharatpur was founded in the last decade by Mr. Wilkin- 
son, a missionary. It has already a fair number of inhabitants, who support 
themselves partly by agriculture. 

Hinduism is of course the prevailing religion, and its 

votaries may be divided into the following classes: — 

(1). Those who have no marked preference for any one deity as compared 

with another, and will worship anything provided that it has been daubed with, 

a splotch of red paint, and the worship is not forbidden by their Brahraans. 

These are the uneducated, and therefore the majority, of Hindus. 

(2). Worshippers of Siva or Mah&deo, the destroying god, and his consort, 
Pdrvati or Bhaw4ni. These are the most numerous of the more educated 
sectaries. 

(3), Worshippers of Vishnu, the preserving god. These are not so 
numerous. 

(4). Worshippers of Vishnu's incarnations, Rama and Krishna. These 
are rather deified heroes than deities, and, being more human than the gods just 



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gorakKbur. 371 

mentioned, are perhaps more popular. A portion of the respect paid to Rama 
is extended to hia wife Sita and his monkey ally Hanum&n. 

(5). Worshippers of local deities and of deified mortals, such as Gorakh- 
path and Kabir. This class perhaps includes more persons than any except the 
first 

As elsewhere, the great mass of Hindus have no very clear ideas 
on religion, as distinguished from caste formalities and rites connected with 
&uch events as birth, death, or marriage. Their oreed may be summarised as- a 
belief in supernatural beings with power to harm them, and in the sanctity of 
Brahmans. A general worship is accorded to all the deities above detailed. 

But it is to the local divinities and the local shrines that persons seeking 
Local places of special favours haye recourse. The chief of such shrine* 
pilgrimage. is undoubtedly that dedicated at Gorakhpur to Gorakh- 

path, a personage who probably lived no earlier than 1400 A.D. This is in 
fact allowed by the more intelligent of his worshippers. But they explain that 
both Gorakhn&th and his preceptor, Maohhendar Natb, were merely illusions 
sent to reveal the shrine which had been built in the golden age, and that 
Machhendar Nath is really a name for Vishnu. Other legends relate that 
Machhendar N£th was a form of the Fourth Buddha, Loheswara, and that 
he acquired the name because he assumed the form of a fish (matsya) to listen 
to Siva. His residence was on the hills beyond Nep&I ; and Gorakhnath, 
having produced a drought in that country, got him to descend into the valley, 
where he worshipped him and obtained a blessing. 

The present shrine is said to have been built by Fiddi Kh4n, to whom 
the tomb of Kabir at Maghar is also attributed ; but is really much later. It is 
acknowledged that the first temple was destroyed by order of the bigoted An- 
rangzeb (1658-1707), and Wilson says that the present temple was built by 
Budhenath, a prior (mahant) of monastios, who lived not more than eighty years 
ago. This temple is visited 1 by over 10,000 people on the Shidratri festival. 
The temple of Siva at Dudh N&th, in the forest between the capital and, 
Kudarpur, that of Parasu Rama at Sohnfig in Salempur-Majhauli, and the 
images near Kasia, are, with the above shrine and the tomb of Kabir, the 
chief goals of pilgrimage amongst the common people. Both the figures at 
(Sohnftg and those at Kasia appear to be representations of Buddha. But their 
origin has long been lost sight of, and it is to the glamour of mysterious anti- 
quity that the sanctity of their unknown gods must be assigned. The temple 
lit Dudh Nfith and shrine at Maghar perhaps owe their celebrity to much the 

game feeling. 

I In PhaJgun (February-March.) 



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Plubaa. 
Hamhan bdtt*. 
Tunhan bdto. 
Unhan kdtcn or bdlains 



372 QOKAKBPtTB. 

The language of the common people is a peculiar variety of the Bhojpuri 
dialect It in many cases approaches Bengali rather than 
Hindi ; but would probably be just as unintelligible to a na- 
tive of Bengal proper (excluding Tirh&t) as to one from Agra. Bishan Dat 
P&nde has written on this subject a book which, if not printed already, cer- 
tainly merits printing by Government ;- and an elaborate analysis of the local 
grammar will be found in the appendix to Mr. J. R. Reid's Azamgarh Settle- 
ment Report. From these sources, and some notes kindly supplied by 
Mr. Crooke, have been taken the following brief particulars : — .. 

Verb* 

(I). The present tense of the verb " to be " is almost always supplied by 
an old root 1 distinct from that of hona, thus—* 

SlgGCLAR. 

Ut. Main or man bdto*. 
2nd. Tnin bdte. 
3rd. U t>*\ 

The present tense of other verbs is conjugated in the same manner. 
(2). The infinitive and future tense are always formed with a 6 tennis 
nation, 1 *s rahab^ to remain ; main rahabon, I shall remain. The latter is that 

conjugated : — 

Singular. I* Mainrahabonmm*inrah*mg* t %c % 

S. Tain rahabe. 

8. Urahab. 

Plural; 1. Hamhan rakab* 

9* Tain rahabo. 

8. Unkan rahabam, 

(3.) The past participle and past tense are compounded of the root and 
aH I suffix. Thus mdral struck ; main rahalj I remained ; tain dekhat pahIo,jovL 
kept looking. 

(4.) The active past tense is hardly ever formed with the usual n*» 
but by I, and terminations changing according to the person. Thus — Uhmar* 
lu$—u$ ne mdra ; uh marlen=unhon ne tndrou 

Pronouns* 

(1). The pronoun of the 1st person is thus declined :— 

Plnral. 
Hamman, hamhan. 
Hamar, hamar i, hamdrt* 
Hamrank* hammatke 



Singular. 
K. Main or men. 
G. Jfer, swri, wore, 
I). Ace, monke, swlf. 
Ab. Mo**<~ 



Hamraiue. 



lit i g a mittake, as pointed out by Dr. Fits Edward Ball (Hindi Readtr), to suppose that thif 
toot has any connection with that (bhd) which supplies the preterite hhayd. ■ So, else- 

where in the Benares 4iYiaion, paehheba is used for pnehhega, and the like This is in fact 
merely another instance of the interchange of 6 and g. The most familier illustration that 
can perhaps be selected is the change from Goillanme to " Bill." ^ ^ .^ ^ 

■ ^ , -x y* v - 

^ •- 

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GORAKHFUB. S73 



(S). As in otheT modern languages, the pronoun of the 2nd person is 
rarely used in the singular. The plural is thus declined :— • 

Honorific. 
IV, Baure {4p). 
G. Raunr or roifri . 
D. Ace raure. 
Ab, Jiaurg log te (1 ). 



Ordinary, 
Tain, tunkan. 

Tukdr, tor, Unhankt, fukaranke, 
Toke, torake, tunhanhe, tukarank*. 
Tu*te, tote. 



(3). The declension of the demonstrative pronouns, those of the 3rd 
person, may be shown thus :— 

Plural. 
Unhan. inham. 



8ingular. 
N. U or t (wnh or yih)* 
G. Okar, char, okari. 
D. Ace., OkarH, okartH, eke. 



tJnhanke, okaramkt, inhunke, ekaranke. 
Ditto, ditto. 



But besides these peculiarities in verbs and pronouns there are many 
others. Such is the habit of using what may perhaps be called diminutives, 
instead of the original nouns. Thus ghurawa is more often heard than ghora, 
lodua than kodo } dhobinia and bitiya than dhobin and beti. The participles 
barhka and ehhutka are used instead of their cognate adjectives bara and 
elehofa. A large number of words formed by metathesis from more familiar 
forms are commonly Used in this district. Champona, or ckaupna for instance, 
takes the place of pahunchna } niman of untda, lanish of ndlish, and bhdwan of 
khardb. A complete list would fill several pages, but a Rural tilotsary is 
being compiled by Mr. Croofee. 

No local literature, even in the form of a newspaper, exists. The district 
can boast of one printing press at Gorakhpur. 

Though still sadly deficient, education has of late years made considerable 

progress. Sow much better than their fathers the rising 

generation are instructed is shown by some statistics taken 

at the last census (1872). Of those over 12 years of age only 19 in 1,000 were 

found able to read and write; but amongst those under 12 the proportion rose 

to 3 in 1,000. 

About 1835, Buchanan 1 noted that the ordinary country dialect was 
universally employed ; that in many divisions of the district there was not a single 
schoolmaster, and that,except children of literate parents and the highest families, 
none learned to read and write. The schoolmaster, who was affectionately and 
even respectfully addressed as Bhaiydji, in some places taught during the rains 
alone. Writing only Devanagari, and not the cognate characters used in business, 
the Pandits were useless for ordinary correspondence. In 1847 the Collector, 
Mr. Tucker, 3 remarked that "with the exception of some Brahmans to calculate 
fortunate moments, some Eayath officials, and a few respectable Muhammadans, 
e\ population of 2 J millions was in a state of utter ignorance." 

1 Eastern Mia, II, 439. * Educational Statistic t compiled under orders of Gorem* 

toeiit, N.-W. P., by Mr. B. Thornton, C.& : Calcutta, 1 Wo. 



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374 



tJoltAKHPtra. 



la the wbolo district, which was then vastly greater than at present, there 
were bat 428 schools; of these 243 were Persian, 170 Sanskrit, and the remain- 
der Hindi. In the Persian schools the Daulat-i-Uind, a work on gardening 
and agriculture by Mr. Penwick, was much appreciated; but these schools 
seemed less susceptible of improvement than the Hiudi, whose teachers showed 
less self-confidence and presumption. The total number of school-attending 
children tfas 3,808, of whom the bulk were Brahinans (2,239) and Kayaihs 
(775). 

The system of halkibandi or primary village schools was intrd Juoed in 
1849, but cannot bo considered to have male any re il progress until after the 
mutiny. There are now (1877-78), as shown in the following statement, 180 such 
seminaries: — 

Statistics of schools in the Gorakhpur district, 1877-78. . 



Class of school. 



Zila or district (middle B.) 
Tahrfli and parganah ... 
GoTcrnment j Halkabandi ... 

Government girls ... 



I 
municipal. | 



and 



Municipal boys i 
girls f 



Aided by j Boys 
Government ( Girls 

Unaided. ... i f 1 ? 1 "^ and \ 
- • 1 Indigenous | 

Totat 






1 

7 

160 

2 



11 
6 

i 95 

40' 



Number if 
scholar $, 



83 67 
370 1 64 

C871 299 

63 ] 

209 5< 

561 13& 

84 26 



594 

8771 



87 
721 



'3 8 

t» a 

► at 

< 



139 
188 



277 



U0 ; 9S 
329-55 

«2 65 
35 

J 93 

«78 
136 

644 

8381*63 



*d 




Qt 


3 CO 


A 


♦a 2 


M 


— «a 


a> 




a. 


'S >> 


00 


e^2 


3 


K « 


18*07 


1,915 


5-6 


1.823 


27 


17,019 


76 


267 


273 


*•» 


1134 


8,816 


13X6 


604 


18 


••• 


48,14 


25,844 



Total 
charges. 



S,od« 

1,866 

17,10* 

267 

628 

9,690 
1,7,77 

1,178 
3,4,4 1* 



All these schools are supervised by the Inspoctor of the Benares Division, 
2ila# in conceit with tho local educational committee. Of the 

latter the Magistrate is, as usual, ex officio President, and one 
of his Assistants, Secretary. The committee exercises direct control over rillschools 
except the zila school at Gorakhpur. This is of the middle B. class, which 
instructs boys up to the standard of the middle-class vernacular examination* 
The Inspector reports aomawhat unfavourably on this school, aud, unless it 
improves "after not too long a period, could uot advise its maintenance in iU 
present status." 

The tahsili and parganah schools are at Barhalganj, Majhauli, Bteta, 

Tahsili and par- K&mkola, Siswa, Ldrh, and Piprauli. The results of the 

gftnih ' middle-class vernacular examination showed that of thesa 



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GORAKHPTJR. 



375 



schools Barhalganj alone could be " classed as efficient." Of the halkabandi 
schools 8 are returned as upper and the remainder as lower ; of the former three 
are pronounced "really," and the rest " fairly good." The returns of attendance 
may be deemed as accurate as careful and persistent scrutiny can make them* 
Teachers have been warned against keeping on the roll dummy names, and 
informed that quality not quantity, the offiaiency of the school and not its 
numbers, is the point on which their credit depends. Here as elsewhere there 
is great difficulty in obtaining good halkabandi masters. "It is almost 
impossible to get good local men on the present pay ( Rs. 5 to 10 monthly); 
while outsiders, even if batter qualified from an eJuoational point of view, 
entirely fail to conciliate or command the respect of parents ; and schools under 
their charge rapidly dwindle away and become comparatively useless.'* Fees 
levied at 6 pie per head monthly on the children of non-agriculturists have 
reduced the attendance in these schools, and it has been decided no longer to 
charge such fees for elementary instruction. The progress of other schools 
detailed above' has been satisfactory, but not such as to call for special 
notice. 

The increase of education is perhaps attested by the inctease of post-office 
transactions during the past ten or fifteen years. That in- 
crease may be shown as follows, by a statement of financial 
results :— 



Post-office 



Receipts in rupee*. 




4 


1- 


i 
i 


n 

a 


g 


„<s 


i 

3 


si 


0.0 


8,125 


so 


187 


... 


••• 


79 


**• 


98 



1 



6,091 
5,375 
17,747 
18,640 



0* 



5,780 
5,993 
9,177 
9,642 



i 



U 

<3 * 
il 

If 

O 



13,090 5,094 
11,778 2,048 
27,295 12,956 



28,437 



18,563 



Charges in rupee*. 



t 

CD 

3 



2,126 
3,817 
4,217 



m 
8 

I 



6,287 
6,038 
9,892 
9,628 



328 

70 

103 



9 

3 



140 

47 

160 

143 



i 

•a 
5 



13,647 
11,778 
27,295 
28,437 



The receipts from staging bungalows were formerly credited to post-offioe 
instead of public works, and amounted in the first of the years here mentioned 

48 



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376 



GORAKHPtm. 



to Rs. 3,847/ There are 18 imperial and 18 district post-offices, the former 
being divided into one central (sadr) and two subordinate, with their respective 
branch offices. The imperial offices are at Gorakhpur (central), Barhalganj, 
and Tamktihi (both subordinate), Bansgaon, Belaharia, Deoria, Hdta, Kasia, 
L&rh, Maharajganj, Mansurganj, Padrauna, Pipraich, Rigauli, Rudarpur, and 
Salempur (all branches to central office), Barhaj and Gola (both branches to 
Barhalganj). The district offices are at Barhi, Belghdt, Biraioha, Chaura, Kazi- 
pur, Kh&npur, Kotibh&r, Musela, Nichlaval, Panera, Piasia, Ramkola, Semra, 
Sahnjanua, Tarakulwa, Tutibh&ri, Bishanpur, and Taria Sujan. The annexed 
statement gives the number of letters, newspapers parcels, and books received 
and despatched during the years above mentioned : — 





1861-8S. 


1865-66. 


1870-71. 


1875-76. 


' 




S 








2 








e 








t 








g 


1 
© 


I 


1" 


2 

5 


E 

• 


00 


I 

o 


1 

<*• 

s 


1 

o 


| 


1 


E 

o 

2 


9 
ft 

! 




3 

o 

o 

n 


fceoeived, 


116,073 


16,035 


•4,569 


1,602 


167,782 


12,079 


1 
2,037j 1,135 


188,692 


13,225 


1,652 


3,005 


880^88 


18,324 


4,368 


2,340 


Despatch- 


97,053 


2,063 


440 


601 


150,155 


4,104 


1,669 18S 


239,814 


5,590 


945 


651 


• •* 


... 


... 




ed.! 










1 













The regular police are, like education and the post-office, an introduction 
Police. Former °f British rule. To the misgovernment of the Oudh prefects 
systems, (dmil) police was unknown ; and during the brief re-estab- 

lishment of native authority in 1857 many landholders clamoured for the aboli- 
tion of this foreign innovation, 2 The modern gurait or village watchman was 
represented in ante-cession times by the dfoddh, a servant or official paid by 
the villagers to guard their crops. Bui in the north there existed a special 
gendarmerie known as Bantari&s, who perhaps held rent-free land in payment 
of their supposed services in tracking offenders and recovering stolen goods 
from the forest. The grant of rent-free holdings was certainly confirmed to 
them about the time of the Nepalese war (1814). 8 

Under the system introduced with the Company's government (1801), 
the tahsildars were supposed to maintain a police force out of the percentage 
(11J per cent.) allowed them on the revenue. But, owing to the untrustworthi- 
ness of the tahsildars themselves, and the opposition of influential landholders, 
this practice soon declared itself a failure. In 1809 a force of barhanddz or 
grenadiers 4 was organized to protect treasuries and travelling treasure ; but of 
1 No record of covers despatched has during late years been kept. ■ Wingfield's 

Mutiny Narrative, para. 36. » Billot's Supplemental Gbesary, art. " Bantaria." 

t? Lightning thrower" is the literal meaning of this title. 



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GORAKHPURj '377 

police work, in the sense of protecting private property, they did nothing. 
Stations for these barkand&z were established at the tahsils and some places of 
importance along the high roads, such as Barhalganj and Nichl&val ; while along 
the Oudh frontier a strong force of mounted police was kept up to prevent the 
irraption of Badhaks and similar marauders from that misgoverned country. 
About 1818, officers were first appointed to the permanent charge of barkandfiz 
posts, with power to arrest and send up for trial criminals offending withia 
their jurisdictions. And this would appear to have been the germ of the police 
circle (thdna) system. 

About 1835 again, when a revision of the police administration took 
place, the number of th&nas was increased, and an efficient force assigned to 
each. This measure was by no means premature. Some of the jurisdictions 
extended over 800, 900, and even 1,000 square miles. The flite of the police, 
we are told, 1 were still employed in preventing the invasion of criminals from 
Oudh. But what immediately led to enquiries and reform was the repeated 
execution by their captors of thieves caught red-handed in the theft. The im- 
possibility of obtaining legal redress in the general dearth of policemen perhaps 
left the party of order no other alternative. 

There are now 40 police stations, whereof 16 are of the first, 18 

of the third, and six of the fourth class. The first 
Modern system. 

class stations, which have usually a sub-inspector, two 

head and a dozen foot constables, are at Gorakhpur city, B&nsgaon, Pa- 
drauna, Hata, Barhalganj, Gola, Rudarpur, Khukhandu, Barhaj, Kasia, L&rh, 
Belgh&t, K&zipur, Mahdr&jganj, Taraknlwa, and Semra. The third class 
stations, to which are generally attached two head and six foot constables, 
are at Deoria, Mansdrganj, Rigauli, Rudarpur, Barhi, Chaura, Khanapir, 
R&mkola, Taria Sujtin, Kotibh6r, Baraicha, Nichl&val, Piasia, Panera, Pipraich, 
Bishanpur, Sahnjanua, and Tutibhari. The fourth class stations or outposts, 
whose quota consists of but one head and three foot constables, are at Kauri- 
ram, Motlram-ka-udda, Fakir-ki-kothi, Gagaha, Belip&r, and Chaumukha, 
From the thdnas or stations of higher classes these fourth class, stations are distin- 
guished by the name of chauki. All police stations, of whatever class, are manned 
by the regular police enrolled under Act V. of 1861. They are assisted by 
municipal and town police under Acts XV. of 1873 and XX. of 1856 respec- 
tively. In 1877, the three forces together mustered 774 men of all grades, in- 
cluding 12 mounted constables. There was thus one policeman to every 5*92 
square miles and 2,608 inhabitants. The cost of the force was Rs. 96,378, and 
of this Rs. 87,986 were debited to provincial revenues, the remainder being 
1 Sec Mr. fi. A. Reade's note on the revision of the Gorakhpur police. 



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378 



GORAKHPUB. 



defrayed out of municipal and other funds. The following statement shows for 
a series of years the principal offences committed and the results of police 
action therein :— 





Cases cognizable b 
police. 


y the 


Value of 
property 


Cate*. 


Persona, 


Tears. 


u 


P 


- 


M 


6 

o 


a 


■ 

c 
o 
o 

2 

Id 

* 2 


i 

•*» 

o 

** 
•C3 


a 

3 

5*8 


•o 

2 


«H O 




1 


"c 
c 

I 


I 


3 


8 


3 

o 




o*3 

2> 


00 

2 


I 1 


S 1 


831 




s 


C 


i 


Kil 


« 


H 


& 


eu 


CQ 


«5 


Oi 






1 




Rs. 


Rs. 
















1870... 


4 


13 15 688 


1,445 


34,108 


17,943 


8,072 


1,650 


618 


1.851 


976 


375 


72-2 


1871... 


8 


18 15 1,100 


1,266 


27,207 


10,454 


2,858 


l,67i; 654 


1,590 


1,365 


225 


8V8 


1871... 


14 


6 6 1,119 


1,650 


254145 


'8,427 


8,647 


2,857 : 1,314 


3,052 


2,fi90 


847 


84 86 


1873... 


9 


6| IS 1,470 


2,567 


45,476 20.17S 


1 5,030 


3,828' 1,678 


3,293 


2,*52 


446 


82-28 


1874. 


10 


81 94 8,282 


3,979 


64,970 


24,501 


i 8,653 


6,755 2,515 


4,767 


4,014 


443 


84 20 


1875... 


5 


1 13 1,804 


8,909 


37,354 


13,784,10,871 


4,803 1,816 


3,568 


8,046 


291 


85 73 


J876... 


9 


3 7 830 


3,762 


81,238 


18,094 


U 1 1,350 


3,466 1,840 


3,611 


3,954 


336 


9001 


1877... 


10 141 14| 1,011 


5,105 


98,857 


17,623 


1 13,388 


1 4,086 2,581 


1 4,5(4 


4.125 


' 343 


91-18 



Besides the regular, municipal, and town police, there are 2,314 village 
and road watchmen (chaukidar or gurait, marhaladar), organized under Act 
XVI. of 1873. These were in 1877 distributed amongst the 7,110 inhabited 
villages 1 of the district at the rale of one to every 829 inhabitants, and at a 
sanctioned cost of Rs. 83,388, met out of the 10 per cent. cess. 

Convicts imprisoned through the agenoy of the police just described 
are sent to the Central Prison at Benares or the District 
Jail at Qorakhpur itself. The latter contained in 1850 an 
average population of 1,351 inmates; of 696 in 1860 ; and in 1870 of 509. 
The number of prisoners admitted was 2,248 in 1860 and 1,891 in 1870. The 
principal statistics for 1877 may be thus tabulated ; — 



Jail. 





Hindu*. 


Musalmdnt. 


u 

CD 


o> 

J* 




• 

to 


-a 




1 




Total 
number of 








B 


M 


5 




a> to 


2 i2 " 










§ 




Vi 

5 


•Sis 




IS 


r-ts 


prisoners 










►» 


9 






8 « 


et yearly cos 
of average 
after deduct 
Of manufact 


during the 
jear. 


i 

"3 


0? 

i 


i 

-a 


OB 

f 


e8 uD 

CU 

© 3 

2& 


a s 


I 




oa 

1 


1* 




a 


Ph 


3 


£ 


< 


•« 


Q 


« 


P 


H 


53 


















Rs. 


Bs. 


2,457 


1,782 


817 


215 


24 


608*50 


1,817 


1,764 


587 


66 


37 


33 



1 There was till comparatively recent times a watchman for every fillago, paid by aa 
assignment of lands or contributions at harvest. 



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GORAKHPUR. 379 

Of the total number of prisoners, 110, principally debtors, had been im- 
prisoned by order of the civil courts. The total population of the district 
being 2,019,361 persons, and the average daily number of prisoners as above, 
it will be seen that '0301 per cent, of the inhabitants are as a rule in jail. A 
comparison of the number of admissions with the total number of prisoners 
during the year will show that 640 of the latter had remained in jail sioce 
former years. The mortality was more than thrice as high as in any other 
district jail of these provinces ; but 22 of the deaths were due to an outbreak 
of cholera. The excessive casualties can hardly be assigned to the age or 
extreme youth of the jail inmates, as 42 of the persons who died were between 
16 and 40 years old. Of the jail population, generally, 29 are returned as 
juvenile offenders, or persons under 16 years of age; 1,868 as between 16 and 
40 ; 415 as between 40 and 60 ; and 27 as above the latter age ; but the age 
of the few remaining persons is not stated. The greater part of the average 
yearly expenditure on each prisoner consisted in the cost of his rations 
(Rs. 15-l-2£). The remainder was made up of his shares in the expendi- 
ture on establishment (Bs. ll-ll-9£), clothing (2-13-11 J), police guards 
(Bs.2-10-9f), building and repairs (Re. l-6-5±), hospital charges (Re. l-0-4±), 
and contingencies (Rs. 2-3-5). The average number of effective workers 
throughout the year was 493*25 ; and of these most were employed on build- 
ing or repairs connected with the jail (255*25) as prison servants (194*50), or 
on manufactures (103*50). The previous occupation of the prisoners was in 
few cases such as to fit them for profitable work in prison, the majority having 
been agriculturists (1,298), men of independent property or no occupation, and 
Government and domestic servants. Of non- agriculturists, a term whioh 
is presumed to include shop-keepers and handicraftsmen, there were only 
225. 

The lock-up (havaldt) for under-trial prisoners is at Gorakhpur a division 
of the jail. It had during the same year (1877) 2,376 
different occupants, of whom 1,911 were afterwards trans- 
ferred as convicts to the jail proper, and the average daily number of its 
inmates was 84. 

The fiscal history of the district begins with its cession to the East India 

„. ,,. Company in November, 1801. 1 The wretched condition 

Fiscal history. 

to which misgovernment had brought the country is vivid- 
ly portrayed by its first Collector, Mr. Routledge. €l Although the soil of the 
Gorakhpur district," he writes in 1802, " is proverbial for its fertility, and will 
certainly yield abundant crops (when properly cultivated) of the most valuable 
1 This sketch is based chiefly on Mr. Bidsale's notes. 



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380 GORAKHPUB. 

kinds, nothing bat the common necessaries of life are now grown, and these 
scantily. The jama (revenue) will fall below the estimate, and this is purely- 
owing to the exactions of the amil (Oudh governor) and his subordinates." 
Mr. Routledge discovered also that the Oudh Nawdb's troops had received no 
pay for a year, and he had great trouble in making them evacuate the district. 
They were, he says, a mere rabble, useless in war, but grievous as a burden on 
the unfortunate cultivators whom they were accustomed " to squeeze for the 
Amil and plunder for themselves. " 

The &mil who, during the first year of our rule, was still employed in 
Khairagarh, was now brought to account. Bjing found to have embezzled 
about a lakh of rupees, he was dismissed, and a European officer appointed 
to Khairagarh, which thereon was severed from the district. 1 

The &mil having been dismissed, Mr. R>u:ledge proceeded to make arrange- 
ments for the collection of the revenue through tahsild&rs. 
These were at first paid a fixed salary, to which a percentage 
of the collections was added if they managed to realize a fair proportion of 
their balances. The first year was spent in ascertaining the condition of the 
distriot and its inhabitants, and in acquiring the information necessary to any 
plan of administering its vast area. The collector was at this time subordi- 
nate to the Board of Commissioners for the ceded provinces at Farukh- 
abad, and it was to them, therefore, that he reported his proposed arrange- 
ments. 

The collections of the first year (1801-02) necessarily showed a large 

balance; and it was determined to make a triennial settlement u at fair rates," 

with specially favourable terms for the cultivation of waste lands. This, the first 

First settlement, assessment of Gorakhpur under British rule, marks the 

1803-04 to 1805-06 in- ... * . , . ,. , - 

elusive. substitution of settlement with the landholders themselves 

for the ruinous farming system of the later Nawabs. The change has perhaps 
contributed more largely than any other measure to the immense advance in 
prosperity which the district has made under English government. 

Including various cesses (Rs. 8,940), the revenue of Gorakhpur-Basti and 
Butwal had amounted at the date of cession to Rs. 6,27,570. But from this 
was to be deducted Rs. 77,715 of more or less permanent remissions (ndnkdr 
and rozina) ; and the net demand had therefore been Rs. 5,49,855 only. When, 
however, the first settlement was made, it was found that, owing to decreased 
cultivation and other causes, so large an assessment would, for the present at 
least, be futile. The demand was therefore fixed at Rs. 5,44,555, or, deduct- 
ing remissions (Rs. 66,173), at Rs. 4,78,382, of which Rs. 27,482 fell op 

1 Supra, p. 275. 



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GORAKHPUR. 381 

B&twal. 1 The new demand came into force with 1803-04. It had been esti- 
mated to increase during its third year (1805-06) by Rs. 1,70,000, but the col- 
lections fell far short of expectation. 

But before the settlement came in force, other administrative measures had 
not been neglected. Security of life and property were as necessary for the 
oollecticn of the revenue as intrinsically ; and to restore order a large body of 
Company's troops was imported into Gorakhpur. Attempts were made to esta- 
blish police jurisdictions; and advances were at the same time granted to land- 
holders to enable them to plough and sow their lands (1802-03). But, as might 
have expected, the recipients squandered these sums in increasing the number 
of their dependents and other private expenses, and the efforts of the tahsfld&rs 
toorganize a police were strongly opposed by the Rajas and other powerful pro- 
prietors. 

The R&ja of Biitwal was especially contumacious. His refusal to permit 
the establishment of police posts within his domains was very near bringing 
him into open collision with the Company's troops. It was reported in 1 804 
that he declined to pay a balance of about Rs. 12,000 due from him on 
account of the past two years. Inquiries showed that he had for many years 
under the Oudh regime succeeded in evading payment of the revenue due on 
his lands north of Tilpur. In 1805 he was imprisoned ; but as Nep&lese troops 
at this juncture invaded his domains, it was found impossible to recover the 
balance. The timidity of the peasantry was found as great an obstacle to pro- 
gress as the boldness of their landlords. Half a century of extortion and 
broken pledges rendered them suspicious of invitations to settle. It had indeed 
Suspicions of the keen a common trick for the amil or his subordinates, after 
samindars. entering into solemn engagements that the cultivators 

should hold at low fixed rates, to seize on the ripened crop and extort double or 
treble the sum before agreed on. 

It is not, therefore, surprising that these first advances of money proved 
a failure, and that great difficulty was found in recovering even a part of 

them. 

From 1802 to 1805 the Collector was occupied in enforcing the authority 

1802 to 1805. Dif- °f tne British Government and collecting the revenues of 
Acuities. tn e triennial settlement. It was found absolutely necessary 

to have recourse to farming leases in many cases where, the zamindars were 
either unwilling to accept or unable to satisfy the Government terms; and this 
led in some instances to armed resistance, which was met by sharp punish- 

1 In hU note on the current settlement Mr. Auckland CoWin gives a far larger sum, viz., 
Rs. 6,61,293. 



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382 GOHAKHPXTR. 

raent. Thus in 1803 one Damara Singh refused to acknowledge the British 
authority or to pay revenue. An armed force was Bent against him, drove 
him into his fort, stormed it and razed it to the ground ; 
after which his estates were farmed. Again, in 1805, the 
collector reports that the last of the forts held by oontumacious zamindars 
had been levelled, and that a sharp watch was being kept to prevent their being 
rebuilt In 1805 an attempt was made to raise the position of the tahsild&rs, 
Tahsfidars res- an( * afc the 8ame ^ me to P rov, 'de an efficient police, by 
powiibie for police, ma king these officers an allowance of 11£ per cent, on their 
collections and holding them responsible for " an efficient police administra- 
tion " within their jurisdictions. 

A second triennial settlement in 1806 granted a slight redaction on the 

actual, and a great reduction on the nominal, demand of 
Second settlement, ° ' 

1806-07 to 1809-10 loOo-Oo. The assessment of the district, including Bast?, 
inclusive. was fixed afc Rg 5^288, excluding remissions. 1 The 

transit dues hitherto taken were lowered, and a tax on professions was abo- 
lished. Some effort was made to ascertain the capabilities of the different 
mahdls (estates) by examination of the papers kept by the village accountants. 
The reduction seems to have been urgently needed, for, in some places, the 
zamfadars were beginning to quit their villages for the forest, with threats to 
eject by force any one who should presume to till their lauds daring their 
absence. 

In spite of all that had been done, sales of land for arrears of revenue 
Difficult position continaed frequent. The impossibility of efficient super- 
of the Collector. v j g { on and contro i i e ft the native officials almost completely 
to their own devices ; and native officials were in that day " indifferent honest" 
How was a single European officer, fresh to the district, and destitute of all 
those aids now available in the shape of maps, records, and well-informed 
subordinates, to form even an approximate idea of the effect of the assessments 
he proposed ? How could he scrutinize the action of tahsildars working in 
parts of the country which he had never seen, even on paper ? It seems'almost 
incredible, but it is true, that the collector was obliged to report his inability to 
describe the relative positions and extent of the parganas composing his 
charge. 1 The enormous area and unsettled state of the distriot gave its chief 
officer no time to inspect details ; and though, as before remarked, the principle 
of settlement at fair rates with landholders themselves had at once been 
recognised, years elapsed before it could be more than nominally carried 
out. 

1 Bs. 6,71,070 according to Mr. Colrin. ' See Mr. RidsoWs notes on 1805-06. 



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GORAKHPUB. * ~" 583 

The peculiar position of the RAjas in Gorakhpur-Basti was now of 

Settlement with great service. To make settlements with them, and even 

the Rajas, attain a rough fairness in the process, was comparatively 

easy ; while their position and influence served to check the tahsilddrs and 

underlings of Government, no longer supported in their exactions by a military 

force. 

The tahsilddrs nevertheless managed to abuse their pywer pretty freely ; 

_. . . _ , and the police became, under their management, almost as 
Visit of the Board. r . 

oppressive as the rabble of the dmils. In 1808; therefore, 

when the Board of Commissioners made on the spot a protracted enquiry into the 

TahBildirs dig- administration of the district, it was determined to abolish these 

missed ' . officials and attempt a system under which the revenue should 

be lodged directly with the collector. Needless to say that this scheme at once 

proved a failure, and tahsilddrs were reappointed in 1810. 
Reappointed, 1810. f_ _. ,..,,... , , , „ . 

the police administration being, however, taken from them. 

The machinery for the collection, as for the assessment, of the revenue was still 
very imperfect. The size of the district and the amount of thick jungle into 
which defaulters could always retire, the want of system and of adequate in- 
formation, all rendered it extremely difficult to introduce any well-digested 
Frequency of sales scheme. As the only means of checking arrears, sale of the 
for arrears. lands on which they occurred was resorted to, and carried 

out to an extent which soon caused fresh troubles. 

In 1812 the Board passed orders to reject sale in all cases where it could be 
avoided, as the frequency of the process had given occasion to serious disturb- 
ances, and in more than one case to successful resistance of authority. In 
1810-11, it seemed indeed as if the general dissatisfaction 
caused by these sales and by the misconduot of the native 
officials might excite violence requiring fresh military repression. But the 
new settlement of 1810 and the Board's orders in some measure soothed the 
Danger averted prevailing discontent. The Rajas were pacified by obtain- 
by third settlement, ing a mild settlement made directly with themselves and 
not with their dependents. 

The other zamindars could make no formidable resistance without their 
aid, and so the danger passed off without very serious consequences. The 
effect, however, of the excessive sales was for many years afterwards felt in the 
reluctance of zamindars to settle on the waste lands still so extensive in the 
district, and more especially in the north. 1 

1 Amongst other estates the greater part of the Padrauna talfika was sold $ the price obtained 
(Rs 8,000) was, howerer, so manifestly insufficient that the sale was annulled. 

49 



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384 CORAKHPTTIU 

Coming Into force with 1810-11, this third settlement seems to have 
been sanctioned for two years only. It was nltimately extended, however, for 
three years longer, expiring with 1814-15. In laying before the Board his 
proposals for assessment the Collector (1809) had to urge the inadvisability 
of making it permanent. His opinion was on this point accepted ; but when 
he proposed to settle with the birtias and other sub-proprietors in possession, 
he was taken to task for s porting with, and offering violence to, the rights of 
the B&jas and talukadars. The demand of the first year was fixed for the Gorakh- 
pur-Basti district at Bs. 6,21,220, excluding ndnkdr remissions (Bs. 80,000 k 1 
The excise revenue was at the same time farmed for an average of Bs. 83,000 
per annum. This settlement was financially a success; for, notwithstanding the 
increase of sales for arrears, irrecoverable balances were small till 1814. In 
the latter year the Nep&lese war of course diverted attention from their 
recovery. 

The operations of that war will be described elsewhere. Suffice it here 

Damage conae- to Ba y that t^ unfortunate B&ja of Bfitwal was again the 
quent on the war. cause f fa e disturbance. The amount of damage inflicted 
by the campaign was very great, and security of life and property was through- 
out the district rudely shaken. Large numbers of people were reduced to a 
state of destitution, and the zamindirs were not yet sufficiently tamed to resist 
the opportunities offered of indulging their animosities and reviving their ancient 

Frequency of feuds. Gang-robberies became frequent and singularly 
dacoities. bold. In 1813 over ten thousand rupees of Government 

treasure had been carried off by robbers while on its way to Azamgarh ; but in 
1 814 an attack was actually made on the B&nsi tahsili and was with great diffi- 
culty repelled. The assailants numbered over two hundred, and were armed 
with spears, bows and arrows ; and it was not before two barkand&z had been 
killed and several wounded that they were repulsed. In the same year also, near 
Magbar, twenty thousand rupees were carried off from Government treasure- 
carts after a pitched battle in which three barkand&z were killed and seventeen 
wounded. Several other unsuccessful attacks were also made on treasare parties 
during this and the two following years. 

Private property was, of course, exposed to still greater risk. But there 

Poverty of the wa8 a * present little private wealth to tempt the robbers, 
district. Th e Collector reported that there was no one able to contri- 

bute towards a Government loan, and that in his opinion there was no one 
whose bill for a thousand rupees would be accepted in a great trading city 
like Calcutta or Patna. The greater part of the injury done to private property 
* Or according to Mr. Colrin, who clearly includes these ndnkdr remissions, Rs. 7,18,027, 



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GOtUKHPTTR. 385 

was the work of the Nep&lese or of hostile zamindars ; but added to the 

unsettling effects of war, it produced great recusancy in the matter of revenue 

payments. Thanks, however, to the energy of the collector and his subordinates, 

who all (including the collector himself) received rewards for their services, the 

balances were not exorbitant. The demand of the tract which ohiefly suffered 

was indeed so light that its non-collection affected the total returns but 

little. 

The war ended in 1816, and the frontier of the British territories was 

fixed at the end of the year. A considerable part of the 
End of the war. _, . , , , *▼ ^, ,1 i 

Btitwal territory was ceded to Nepal, partly m order to 

secure a convenient and even boundary line, and partly to show our desire to 
treat the defeated Gurkh&s generously. With the latter object were also made 
large money allowances. With the former, a large tract west of the Rapti and 
other territorial concessions were exacted from Nepal. 1 

By the line thus hid down parganah Binayakpur was cut in two, and 
Adjua tmentot more than half of it, with part of Tilpur, made over to NepAl. 
the boundary line. j^ the same time the loan of ten million rupees was repaid 
Cession of Khai- *° the Nawib Vazfr by the cession of Khairagarh. Ohakla 
rigarh to Oudh. Nawdbganj, which had hitherto formed part of Gorakhpur, 

was at the same time ceded to that potentate in exchange for some territory 
added to the 8h£hjah&npur district. 

These changes effected, the authorities were at leisure to direct their 

Internal adminis- attention exclusively to the administration of the district. A 

tration. fogb or fourth settlement had opened with 1815-16, 

but was not formally sanctioned until after the close of the 

1815-it to 1819-20 war. Its demand amounted to Us. 6,86,175, excluding 

inclusive. remissions (about Rs. 90,000) and excise. It continued 

in force for five years ending with 1819-20. Under its operation balances were 

small and sales for arrears less numerous. To encourage zamind&rs and to 

counteract a failure of the autumn harvest in 1817, the Board authorised large 

Settlement of the advances. Many Th&rtis who had immigrated from the 

Tharua. north were settled on grants in the outskirts of the north 

Haveli jungle, chiefly in tappas Lehra and Samakhor. 

A final proclamation had been issued at the commencement of the war, 

calling on the ThArtis and other subjects of the British Government residing 

north of Nichlaval to migrate southwards. The object of this measure was 

twofold, It was hoped, by stopping the cultivation of the Tarai, to inflict loss 

J See Smith's Five Yean of tfepdl* 



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886 GORAKHPUtt. 

on the Nep&l Government; and at the same time to prevent British subjects 
from falling into the hands of the Gurkha troops. When the Gurkha raids 
began in earnest, so many persons obeyed these orders that 55 villages were 
colonised on lands still khown as the Jungle Buridi grants. Those settlements 
have continued to prosper ever since, and now include over a hundred villages. 
Their immediate effect was also most beneficial. Not only did the settlers 
themselves bring a large area under cultivation, but their example encouraged 
others to settle on the land to "the north and east. 

Trustworthy information had at last been acquired regarding the capa- 

Rtatistioal informa- bilities and condition of the district. In 1818 the col- 
lion flnt obtained. lector compiled a series of statements showing the progress 
of cultivation, the condition of the cultivators, the nature of the allowances made • 
to the various pensioners and dignitaries, and the incidence of the Government 
demand. These statements have unfortunately been lost; but the correspondence 

Progress ol the regarding them shows that the district had to some e.xteut 
diafcricfc * recovered prosperity in the south, while still backward 

in the north and east. These two portions of the district are frequently con- 
trasted. 

The south is mentioned as well cultivated, in some places with sugarcane 

Prosperous con- an ^ other valuablo crops. It was blessed with some fair roads* 
ditionof thesuuth. f a £ r health, and, except in rare instances, with immunity fronj 
breaches of the peace. It was also almost free from mischievous wild animals, 
which are mentioned as one of the chief obstacles to cultivation in the north. 

Backward state of ^ e l ft tter portion was almost entirely uncultivated, for the 
the north. settlements of Thdr6s had only just begun. It was, more- 

over, extremely unhealthy, covered to a great extent by morasses and forests, 
and devastated by wild elephants. 

The condition of the cultivators throughout seems to have been very low. 

Low condition of They had no rights of occupancy, and were almost all of 
the tenant class. the l owe9 t castes. They were despised by the landowners, 
and treated with nomore consideration than was absolutely necessary to prevent 
their running away. This, indeed, they were constantly doing, as the vast area 
still open to cultivation rendered it easy to find fresh holdings if life became 
nnsupportablc on those they at present occupied. 

The revenue of the district (Gorakhpur and Basti) had now risen to 

about six and a half lakhs, and was collected with ease and 

Fifth scttloment. ,,. */»ni I . ii/t * i 

Proposal for making punctuality. A fifth settlement was about to bo made, and 

it permanent ^ wag p r0 p 0sec j t make this permanent. Operations began 



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GORAKHPUR. 387 

in 1820-21 ; but before they were completed Mr. Holt Mackenzie's Regulation 
VII. of 1822 made its timely appearance. Under this enactment were insti- 
tuted a professional survey ami a thorough inquiry into the condition of the 
various parganahs. For each were furnished statements showing the amount 

of cultivation and other details. The principle of assess - 
Survey. . ... . 

ment on the capabilities of the soil, on the cultivated and 

culturable areas, was recognized. Before this, assessment had been made on 

a rough guess of the rental, furnished for separate villages by the kanfingo, 

and for the taltikas by the taldkad&rs themselves. 1 

The result of these enquiries was to show clearly how little the district 
was ripe for a permanent settlement The surveyors, Lieutenants Grant and 
Wroughton, were strong in their demonstration'of this view. They pointed out 
that the population was scanty, the modes of cultivation imperfect, the peasantry 
depressed, the requisite capital wanting, and the landholders so ignorant and 
obstinate as to be utterly incapable of developing the resources of the country. 
Permanent settle- The scheme was abandoned, most happily as results have 
ment rejected. shown ; but theenquries made proved of the greatest impor- 

tance. For the first time something more than a superficial enquiry was made 
into the position of the subordinate landholders ; and the nature of their tenures 
and the errors and defects of the old system of settlements on information pro- 
vided by the kanungos and village accountants were exposed. The paper3 kept 
by these officials were examined, and to some extent at least set right. Inquiries 
were instituted into claims made for^the recovery of proprietary (zamiudari) 
rights, and illegal appropriations of waste laud were cancelled. Property 
acquired a tangible and enhanced value. And lastly, the acquisition of sys- 
tematic information enabled European officers to assume more directly the man* 
agement of the district, while the power and authority of their subordinates 
was limited and carefully supervised. It is not saying too much to affirm that 
this settlement gave a new and powerful stimulus to the progress of the 
district. 

Soils were classified into b&ngar or uplands, Uth (mattiydr) and dhuri 
(balua), rental rates being fixed for each. In the determination of tenures, a 
bounty was paid to the Collector for every revenue-free holding which he dis- 
covered as liable to assessment. This inquiry brought to light a wholesale 
system of fraud, many entire villages having been entered as tax-free which 
had paid land-tax up to the date of cession. Such false entries brought to 
punishment many Tillage accountants and other Qovernment officials. Settle- 

1 Or, to translate into less accarato and technical language, for separate Tillages by the 
pargsnah registrar, au4 Uv the baronies by the barons themselves, 



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388 GORAKHPUR, 

ment was still made with the R&jas and other taldkadirs, but the Collector in 
many oase9 curtailed their power of enhanoing the amount payable by their 
birtia sub-proprietors. It was ruled that such enhancements must not exceed 
in proportion the enhancement made in their own revenue since last settlement. 
The chief control of the district had in 1819 been transferred to the Board 
of Commissioners for Bih&r and Benares, or, as it was afterwards styled, the 
" Board of Revenue for the Central Provinces." This new authority directed 
that the chief object in assessment should be to ascertain the average pro- 
duce of the soil, and the share in that produce usually paid to the zamfnd&r. 
The amount and value of the zamindar's yearly assets being thus discovered, 
Government would leave him 10 per cent, for profits ; another 10 per cent, 
to cover calamities of season, insolvency of tenants, &c, and 5 per cent for his 
trouble and expense in collecting the rents. In other words, the demand was to 
be fixed at 75 per cent, of the proprietor's average receipts. 

Thus assessed, the revenue for Gorakhpur-Basti amounted to Rs. 7,59,041, 
excluding the income from excise and ferries, which are now 
mentioned for the first time. 1 The settlement was comple < 
ted in 1824 and finally sanctioned in 1825. It lasted, in different parganahs, from 
ten to fourteen years, but meanwhile revisions and other causes had greatly in- 
creased its amount. The settlement in 1826 of parganah Atnorha * added 
Rs. 14,000 and raised the demand of that year to Rs. 7,63,000. In this case the 
Board set aside the claim of the Raja, and ordered a direct settlement with the 
subordinate landholders. A revision in 1828 of the assessment on the Sat&si 
estate increased the district revenue by Rs. 7,000, while a similar measure in 
Ratanpur-B&nsi added during the following year Rs. 16,000. The assess* 
ment of parganah Sh&hj&hfinpur had, owing to want of time, remained unaltered 
at settlement. It in 1830 came under revision, yielding an increment of 
Rs. 26,600. Without, therefore, allowing for the increase caused by progressive 
demands and assessment of waste land, the demand of the fifth settlement had 
by 1830 risen to Rs. 8,12,600. Including all items, it can hardly have amounted 
to less than Rs. 9,00,000. 

The currency of the fifth. settlement perhaps marks the transition from 
the misrule of violence to the reign of law. Disputes, which had been formerly 
settled by riot or by the coercion of some bribed native official, now found their 
way into the courts. A special commission in 1826 recommended that tahsil- 
d&rs should be invested with judicial powers to try such disputes. A long in- 
quiry on the subject of sales for arrears recalled attention to 
a Board's order which had in 1812 forbidden suoh sales, 
I Their proceeds being Be. 16,9 10. f In BtBti. 



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GORAKHPUR. 389 

unless after due investigation into the circumstances. This order had for a time 
checked the evil, hut on the inter arma silent leges principle wa8 forgotten dar- 
ing the Nepalese war. Between 1815 and 1821, therefore, sales went on briskly, 
and the enquiries now made in the fuller light of the settlement statistics re- 
vealed strange facts. The utter ignorance of the country, of the position of 

Tbtir injustice in *^e lower proprietors, and of the interests of all subordinate 
many cases. ^o ^ SU p e rior landholders, is shown by the fact that in the 

sales at first made all rights of every kind were declared cancelled, and the estate 
sold was surrendered to the absolute pleasure of the purchaser. Clear proof 

Fraudulently con- wa9 obtained that most sales had been manoeuvred by over- 
dais, trusted native officials, intent on buying at a bargain the 
auctioned land. These abuses had caused much discontent, and the auction- 

Administrative purchaser had in some cases been ejected vi et armis. They 
progress. now ceased an( j the effects of their suppression were soon 

visible. The revenue, which had been enhanced about ontf lakh and a quarter, 
was collected with ease, and even punctuality. The zamind&rs were more con- 
tented than they had ever been before, and were induced by the longer term 
of settlement to extend their cultivation. Gang-robberies, though still not 
unfrequent, had become less daring. Riots, arson, and similar offences arising 
from local feuds regarding boundaries or waste lands, grew rarer. And the 
police began to exercise their proper function of guarding private property 
instead of merely acting as armed guards to escort Government treasure. 
Communications were improved, and the export trade in grain, which is 
now of so much importance, began to attract capital and to extend itself 
rapidly. 

There were of course many checks and hitches in the course of this improve- 
ment. In 1821 the Collector wrote despairingly to the 
ing trustworthy info r- Board about his inability to obtain trustworthy information. 
m * tlon# u The records, he says," are deplorably deficient ; many im- 

portant documents have been extracted and others falsified or mutilated." On 
.another occasion, speaking of the kfintingos, he says " they are utterly unworthy 
of confidence; they are possessed of valuable information, but retain it for their 
own purposes." The system of collecting the revenue was still so unscientific 
that as a rule quarterly and, in some oases, monthly instalments were realised, 
without regard to time of harvest. 

In 1827-28 further information was collected. Invalid grants of tax-free 
land were resumed, and further inquiries as to the zamfnd&r's 

Progress. ^^ j n was t e p i t s we re directed. The settlements of some 



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390 GORAKHPUR. 

villages were, on the other hand, lightened, as it was shown that their value had 
through spite been exaggerated. 

In 1829 Mr. R. M. Bird was appointed Commissionerof Gorakhpur, Gh&zi- 
Appointment of a zipur, and Azamgarh, with headquarters at the capital of the 
Commissioner. first-named district. At the same time the Board of Reve- 

nue (Central Provinces) was abolished and the Commissioner made subordi- 
nate to the Sadr (Supreme) Board of Revenue. 

In 1830 the first jungle grant was made to a European (Mr. Wilkinson). 
First jungle grant, Up to this time, by a short-sighted policy, Government had 
183 °- prohibited Europeans from settling in the country, and had 

ordered the collector on no account to allow such dangerous " interlopers " to 
establish themselves on Government lands. This prohibition was a relic of the 
time when the Company feared infringement of its trade monopoly, but had be- 
come an anachronism as commerce was discarded for empire. The stimulus 

which the grantees gave to the progress of the district is one 
Influence of the „ _ * i .,«,..,. , n , - , , 

grants on the pro- of the most remarkable features in its history from this date 

gre8 ° up to the Mutiny. They contributed to the improvement of 

the country not only capital and energy, but personal influence. The protection 

afforded to the weak by their presence was of great importance in a day when 

courts were few, and when large questions left the district staff little time to 

inquire into petty acts of tyranny. 

In 1833-34 the terms of the current assessments began to expire, and in 
Sixth settlement : the proposals for a sixth settlement under Regulation IX. of 
first 'recognition of ig33 the rights of tenants are for the first time considered. 
The scheme advised by Mr. Bird, and with slight exceptions 
adopted, was to ascertain the class and value of the crops grown ; to discover 
the fair rental of the villages, much as is done now, by fixing soil rates; and to 
divide the rental, in the proportion of two to three, between Government and 
the zamindars. Tenants were to be granted leases for their holdings at a fixed 
rent not liable to enhancement during the term of settlement. The chief dif- 
ference between this and former settlements was the negotiation of assessment 
with the sub-proprietors to the exclusion of the tal6kd&rs, and the concession 
tothelatter in most cases of nothing more than a seigniorial allowance (mdWcdna). 
The claims raised by some of the Rajas to the ownership of forests in which 
Government was now making large grants were rejected. It was only 
conceded that no portion specially settled with them should be granted away, 
except for special reasons. 



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GORAKHPUR. 391 

Its accurate and exhaustive enquiries protracted the arrangement of 
Increase on tbo this settlement; but when at last sanctioned in 1841-42, it 
revenue. was sanctioned for twenty years. How great had been the 

material progress since last settlement is shovfti by the vast increase in the 
demand ; without proving oppressive, it was fixed at Rs. 17,63,000 in 1840, 
rising through progressive increments and other causes to Rs. 20,82,000 in 
1860. 

One result of settlement was to expose in the north of the district much 

Further exposure *^ e same a k uses as ^ ac ^ elsewhere come to light at the pro- 
of frauds by native ceding assessment. The collector notices in 1838 the extent 
to which citizens of Gorakhpur had acquired, by intrigues 
with tahsil officials, snug domains in this romote tract 

The revision of police before referred to suppressed at about the same 
time the custom of deciding boundary quarrels by force ; 
and to develope the rising commerce of the district Govern- 
ment organized a road fund, committees of landholders being appointed in 
the different parganahs to suggest and supervise improvements. 

The new settlement worked extremely well. The only opposition against 
M . it came from the Rdjas, who resented the system of an assess- 

1840. Successful - . m * / J 

working of the new ment with their inferiors and dependents, as they considered 

m t esi«ft . ^ e samindars in actual possession of the villages. In reporting 

the propossed arrangements for sanction, the Commissioner observes that " the 

Rajas and other talukadSrs must suffer from a village settlement They are 

the very creatures of anarchy, and their revenues have in fact consisted of the 

Position of the l& r g6 share of the Government's rights they continued to 

R*j*»- withhold." This language was much too strong, as the rights 

of the R&jas were far older than those which the Nawdb transferred to tho Com- 
pany, But it was impossible that their power and influence should be maintained 
under a strong Supreme Government such as now held the country. They 
were constrained to live at peace with each other, and having no longer any 
sovereign power, turned for excitomont and pleasure to a lavish expenditure 
on sensual pleasures. This soon brought them into debt, and in some cases to 

ruin. 

The R&ja of Barhi&p&r was one of the first to mortgage his property. 1 
TheR&ja of Gopfilpur plunged deeply into debt." The Sat&si and Majhauli estates 
were both so mismanaged that at the outbreak of the Mutiny they were on the 
1 Arrears of revenue had some time before this caused the transfer of a part of his estates 
to the Pindari chiefs settled in the district. * While reporting in 1836-77 the settlement 

of Dhuriapar, Mr. Reade writes that it is "equitable, bat must hasten the ineyitable ruin of 
the Raja of Gopalpur, who is deeply sunk in debt." 

50 



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39* GOBARHPUB. 

verge of ruin. The Padrauna family were not much better off. 1 The only 
local magnate who seems to have improved his position was the ft&ja of 
Tamkuhi. The Ifah&rfja of Bettiah also extended his influence in the dis» 
Jjrict, but his residence and the balk of bis estates were then as now outside 
it. 

From 1840 to 1850 the improvement of the district was steadily carried 
on. Treasuries were built for the safety of the Government money on its passage^* 
and the roads were put in order. Tahsilis were erected and courts established 
in the interior of the district for the convenience of suitors. The clearance 
of forest and increase of cultivation perhaps improved the climate, and the state 
of the district generally was very encouraging when thrown back by the Mutiny 
(1857). This, as will be hereafter shown, effected considerable changes in 
the proprietary body. The estates of the Sat&si, Chilliip&r, and Barhi&p&r Rajas 
were confiscated, the titles of the two former becoming extinct A part also of 
the Padrauna taliika was confiscated, and the stipend paid since 1845 to the last 
descendant of the Butwal Raja, in compensation for his talukadiri rights in 
Tilpur, was abolished. 

Seventh or cur- Preparations for the seventh or current settlement 

rent settlement. j^j begun before the j| a ti n j an d we re resumed in 1859. 

The chief peculiarity of this assessment was the heterogeneous nature of 
the agency and methods employed. As in Heerut and Budann, the collector 
was also the settlement officer. But, including as it then did Basti, his dis- 
trict was the largest in these provinces. His numerous and varied labours left 
him, as might have been expected, no time to supervise and control the work 
of his settlement subordinates. Except in the case of parganah Sh&hjahanpur, 
his assistants were left to their own devices, assessing their parganahs in separ- 
ate fashions, and submitting separate fiual reports on their proceedings. The 
parganah just named was settled between the winters of 1856-57 and 1861-62 by 
the .collector himself, the late Mr. T.M. Bird, C.S.; parganahs Chill6p4r, Bhaua- 
par, Dhuri&p&r, Anola, Sidhua Jobna, and south Haveli, between those of 1859- 
60 and 1866-67 by Mr. J. J. F. Lumsden, C.S.* afterwards collector; parganahs 
Tilpur and north Haveli 8 in the winter of 1861-62 by Mr. P. J. White; Salem- 
pur-Majhauli and Silhat between the winters of 1859-60 and 1862-63 by ttfe 
late B&bn Pi&ri Mohan Bdndhopidhyay ; parganah Maghar between those of 
1860-61 and 1861-62 by the late Mr. Herbert Wilson, C.S.; and parganah 
1 In 121 1 faslL i.e. about 1805 A. D., their taliika was Bold for arrears ; but an insuffi- 
cient price being offered, the sale was annulled, and one-half was placed under direct manage- 
ment, the vest being restored to the family. In 1237 fasli the whole was restored to them. 
1 In 1837, for instance, at Khalilabad and Bakhra in Basti; and afterwards at Captaioganj, 
Faikoli, and Pipraich in Gorakbpur. s South Haveli included the Hazur tah&fl and Hata 

portions of Haveli j north Haveli its remaining or Maharajgaoj portion. 



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GORAKHPUB. 



39J 



Measurements. 



Bindyaipur between those of 1861-62 and 1863-64 by the late Mr. H. LeP. 
Wynne, O.S. 

The operations of the settlement may be described as usual under the 

three heads of measurements, rent-rates, and assessments. 

The measuring agency varied little in the different parga- 
nahs. In four the pattcdris or village accountants alone were employed ; but fn 
the remainder the ignorance or inexperience of these officials rendered the enter- 
tainment of amins or skilled surveyors necessary. Five parganahs, 1 ' indeed", 
were measured by the amins without the aidr of the patwaris. The system of 
supervision employed by each of the six officers engaged in settlement was 
muoh the same. Sarghanas or head amins were appointed over parties of from 
25 to 30 other amins or patw&ris; and the work of these sarghanas was in turn 
checked as far as possible by the assessing officer himself. " On the whole," 
wrote Government in reviewing the settlement, <l although the measurements 
were not made with the same close accuracy of figure and survey as those of 
the succeeding settlements, it may be safely assumed that the field maps are 
sufficient for all ordinary administrative purposes, and the areas quite exact 
enough to form a trustworthy basis for assessment." The classification of area 
was as follows : — 











Area 


IN ACSSS. 










Unassessable. 


Assessable. 


Farganah. 


t 








Cultivated. 








■J 








9 

a 
o 
k 
«? 
PS 


. a 
m 


«8 
► 

s 

28,589 


a 

3 


IS 


f 

. s 




* 

5 


Salempor Majhauli 


5,612 


70,782 


12,143 


222,151 


35,121 


257,272 


374,396 


SiLhat 


1,454 


81,600 


42,342 


4,020 


88,724 


10,949 


99,673 


179,089 


Bidhaa Jobna ^ 


6,984 


60,120 


92,768 


35,278 


121,892 


226,076 


347,963 


633,063 


Shahjahaopur •• 


1,084 


11,015 


10,611 


4,502 


S3,9t7 


87,318 


61,220 


88,439 


South Haveli •« 


23,323 


48.484 


66,730 


16,23* 


161,471 


64.502 


225,973 


880,748 


Horth Haveli ... 


1,687 


28,504 


43,543 


16,964 


57,7*0 


100.420 


158,200 


248.148 


Binayakpur »« 


800 


1,947 


11,205 


2,281 


• 8,365 


11,953 


I5,3i8 


81,051 


Tilpur ... 


1,29 9 


9,021 


32,788 


13.698 


11,565 


47,610 


59,175 


115,881 


Dhoriapar m. 


4,310 


55,697 


20,165 


7,332 


93,656 


2S,rei 


116,718 


203)222 


Anola 


1,542 


, 14*71 


7,769 


2,845 


39,370 


5,906 


45,276 


71,803 


Cliillfip&T 


573 


17,246 


8,881 


4,989 


13,009 


21,60$ 


84,511 


66,149 


Bhauapar 


4,951 


20,086 


9,169 


3,892 


33,60-1 


19,635 


53,239 


90.867 


Magbar* ••• 


9,992 


84,414 


24.820 


10, '99 


77,341 


32,228 


109,564 


181,919 


Total 


55,531 


403.236 


379,725 


133,031 


947,834 


635,273 


1,583,107 


2,664,270 



"The parganahs measured solely by amins were Chillupar, Bhauapar, Dhuriapar, Anoia, 
and South Haveli ; those measured solely by patwaris^ Sidhua Jobna, Tilpur, North Haveli, and 
Binayakpur. a The figures in the line for this parganah art approximate only. Maghar 

has been haired between Gorakhpur and Basti, and but half the figures given in the 
Board's renew of leltleinent have been taken. 



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394 GOKAKHriTB. 

The next step was to assume standard rent-rates for the various soils or 

tracts of eaoh parganab, and, by applying these rates to the 
Rent*-r&t6s« 

areas, to ascertain the probable gross rental of each. In 

their manner of assuming such rates the assessing officers showed great diver- 
gence. Mr. Bird gives no clue to the method he adopted; and it is even doubt- 
ful whether, in ascertaining the rental, he went through the formality of 
assuming rent-rates at all. If he did so, however, he would seem to have 
fixed three general rates only, for clayoy, loamy, and sandy soils respectively. 
Mr. Lumsden's method " varied as his experience increased." 1 In Ohillup&r 
and Anola he adopted soil-ratos, arranging his soils according to their composi- 
tion into two classes, and using the same rates indifferently for both watered 
and unwatered land. 2 His rates wore based on those actually paid, as ascertained 
from personal enquiry on the spot, from the village records, and from the opi- 
nion of parganah officers. In Sidhua Jobna and South Haveli, following the 
custom of those parganahs, he assumed an average rate, not for each soil or 
village, but for each tappa as a whole. Mr. White sometimes adopted separate 
rates for different soils, and sometimes an all-round rate for an entire tract. 
But how sueh rates were framed, or on what induction of ascertained facts, ia 
nowhere recorded. The rates of Babu Pidri Mohan were based on the same 
data as those of Mr. Lumsden, and fixed for the three classes of clayey, loamy > 
and sandy soils. Mr. Wilson avowedly used no rent-rates, but depended chiefly 
on the results of inquiry into the actual rental returns of each village. Like 
Mr. Lumsden in Sidhua Jobna and south Haveli, Mr, Wynne framed average 
rates for each tappa, making no distinction between dry and irrigated lands. 
His rates were based on those returned by native officials as actually paid ; 
and he checked them by comparison with the average rates per acre paid for 
various crops. 3 There was one point in the methods of all those officers which 
struck the Board of Revenue as curious. Almost all explained that the rent of 
land was influenced mainly by its position with regard to the village-site : 
by its situation, that is, in the inner (goind), middle (miydna) y or outer (pdllu)* 
zones. But no single officer Seemed to have adopted as the basis of his cal- 
culations this well-recognized arrangement. The rates adopted for the different 
soils or tappas of the parganahs assessed by each officer will be shown in 
the gazetteer articles on those parganahs themselves. Meanwhile it maybe 

1 G. O. No. 2356A., dated 20th October, 1873. * It should be remembered that in a 

district where the spring-level is so high as in Gorakbpur, the difference in productive power 
and rent between watered and unwatered land is less than elsewhere. Mr. Lumsden *s two 
classes were (1) loam or loam and clay ; (2) sand. 3 The exact method of check is 

rather obscorely stated. 4 These words are derived respectively from Hindi gwaind, 

near, Persian miydn, middle ; and Hindi patla, margin, distance. They correspond to tho 
$a*kan or 6dra, manjha or ut"jkau(a 9 and barha or barhci of the Duab. 



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GORAKHPUR. 395 

mentioned that the average rate for the whole district, including Basti, was 
Us. 2-3-2 per acre. 

The application of the rent-rates to the total area, or, where rent-rates were 
discarded, other processes, gave for the whole Gorakhpur 
m ® # district an assumed rental of about Rs. 29,96,431. 1 Deduced 

from this rental at 50 percent., 9 the revenue would have reached Rs. 14,98,215. 
Its actual amount was fixed at Rs, 15,53,607, or including the 10 per cent, 
cess and fees (nazrdna) on revenuo-freo estates, Rs. 17,39,894. In framing their 
assessments and even rent-rates, most of the settlement officials seem to have 
been guided by an estimate of the probable revenue and rental prepared by 
Mr. Reade in 1860. This officer, formerly a Commissioner of Gorakhpur, had 
drawn up a careful statement showing the increase which might d priori be 
expected from each parganah. His predictions of the gross rental coincided 
closely with those made by Mr. Robert Bird some twenty years before, and 
furnished a fairly true key-note for subsequent proceedings Mr. Lumsden was, 
indeed, the only officer who worked with any pretence to independence of Mr. 
Reade's estimate, or who did not frame his rates more or less to suit that cal- 
culation. The assessments of Messrs, F, Bird and Wilson, who had either pro- 
bably or certainly worked without regard to rent- rates, were afterwards subject- 
ed to some critical examination. But iu neither case could much fault be 
found with the result. Mr. Bird's demand may have been deduced from a rental 
fixed by rule of thumb ; yet after Mr. Lumsden's scrutiny, the Board decided 
that it should stand. A revision of Mr. Wilson's assessment was proposed by 
Mr. Money, Senior Member of the Board ; but the idea was abandoned when it 
was found that resettlement on more approved principles would scarcely alter 
the result. The incidence of the new demand, again including Basti, was 
Re. 0-13-1 on the cultivable, and Re. 1-1-7 on the cultivated area. The cor- 
responding figures of the past settlement wore Re. 0-10-5 and Re. 1-1-3. The 
assessment just desoribod was sanctioned for thirty years, expiring on the 30th 
June, 1889. The demand was in some cases progressive, not attaining its 
maximum until several years after the beginning of that term. 

In giving the official account of the collections and balances for the past 
ten years, the following statement will also show how the settlement has 
worked :— 

1 The reason why the assumed rental can be giren but approximately is that the Basti and 
Gorakhpur portions of Maghar were settled together. We know, however, the amount of the 
ultimate demands assessed on each portion, and we know also the gross assumed rental for both. 
These form the data for a proportion sum whose result is the approximate assumed rental for 
Maghar of Gorakhpur. *It is perhaps hardly necessary to mention that at the settle- 

ments now current the demand was reduced from I to \ of the assets. 



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296 



GORAKHPUft. 











Pabticdlabs 


OF BALANCE. 


-' '■ 




Demand. 


Collec- 
, tion. 


Balan- 










Percen- 


Year. 




Real 






tage of 
balance 








ces. 










on de- 










In train 
of liqui- 
dation. 


Doubtful 


Irreco- 
verable. 


Nominal. 


mand* 




Ka. 


Bf. 


Hs. 


R*. 


Hs. 


Us. 


Hs. 


Hs. 


1868-69 


11,58.184 


11,47,318 


10,866 


148 


10,109 




•09 


•94 


1869-70 


11,60,908 


11,50,568 


10,316 




9,835 




510 


-89 


1870-71 


11,64,680 


11,54,406 


10274 








10,274 


•88 


1871-72 


11,63,628 


11,58,140 


5,488 




395 


565 


4,628 


•08 


1872-73 


11.61,497 


11,59,99' 


1,607 




1,442 


65 




-18 


1873-74 


16,70,068 


16,01,863 


68.200 






66,111 


2,089 


3*96 


187475 


16,73,974 16,71,632 


2,342 








2,842 




1875-76 


16,78,007 16,77,829 


178 




••• 




178 




1876-77 


16,80,716116,79,893 


823 


202 




••• 


621 


'01 


1877-78 


16,83,460116,89,370 


"i 


90 


••• 


*•* 


t«» 





Throughout the district the revenue falls due in four instalments. The 
first two are payable after the autumn harvest, on the 15th. November and 15th 
January ; the latter two after the spring harvest, cm the 1st of May and 1st of 
June. 

The tenures of the proprietors who pay this revenue may be classed under 
Pro rietar te three heads : — (1) the ordinary zaminddri, pattid*ri, 

and bhayach&ra, which have been described elsewhere,. 1 
and need not be described again ; (2) birt ; and (3) talukaddri. 

The word birt, derived by Wilson from Sanskrit vritti, maintenance, signi- 
fies a tenure originally granted by a feudal chieftain on account of kinship or 
of services rendered. This tenure is of four kinds : — 

(1) Jewan (jeona 9 to eat) is an assignment of villages made to a cadet 
of the Raja's family as a perpetual subsistence for himself 
and his heirs ; (2) Sankalp, meaning, according to Benfey, 
"expectation of advantage from a holy work," was a religious grant to Brahmans, 
made in return for rites which were supposed to secure the safety of the grantor's 
soul; (3) Marwat (mama, to die) was a landed compensation made to the family 
of a dependant slain in the wars of the R&ja : it was sometimes called khunbaha, 
or washing away of blood; (4) Mukaddam or headman's birt, which is 
described as more in the nature of a contract than the other forms. 

The nature and rights of a tenure so common in the district formed the 
subject of long enquiries and deliberations at each recurring revision of assess- 
ment. The chief point was to ascertain whether the birt-holders (birtiya or 

1 Gazetteer, II, 222, and V, 615-16. The zamindari sad pattidari tenures of this district have 
been largely created by sales since the introduction of British rule. But a few ancien-t bhaya- 
chara village communities exist in the south. Throughout the district, by an error of record 
at settlement, a number of genuine bhayachsra estates were entered as pattidari. 



Birt tenures. 



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aORAKHPUlL 397 

birtxha) were or Were not proprietors entitled to engage for the revenue. 

Government at first took the negative view, and directed settlements with 

the Rijas and talukad&rs. But in 1835 the Board changed its mind. On the 

The birti ai are re P orfc °^ the Collector, Mr. Armstrong, it held that the 

declared proprietors tenure was heritable and transferable, and that the birtiyas 

for the revenue, mU9 * be considered as proprietors of the villages held 

1885# by them. Settlement has ever since been made with 

the birtiyaa themselves, who have thereby become independent of their 

feudal chieftains. Bat they must still pay into the Government treasury, to 

be credited to those chieftains, a seigniorial fee (mdlikdna) of 10 per cent, on 

their revenue. 

The policy of the plan now pursued cannot be questioned; but close inquiry 
into the former differences of the tenure make it rather doubtful whether it 
was fair to the Rajas to place all the birtiyas on the same footing of independ- 
ence. The Jewan and Marwat forms certainly carried with them a proprie- 
tary right in the land assigned. The quit-rent paid by the birtiya was often 
merely nominal/ and his right of transfer was in later times unquestioned. 
The Sankalp birt also, though it properly oarried no right of transfer, 
was so near to a gift of the proprietary right in the land that there was no 
injustice in recognising it as such after the grantee had been some time in 
possession. 

But the Mukaddam birt appears in many cases to have been merely a 
contract, whereby the management of lands, and a certain commission out of 
their rents, were granted durante bene placito of the grantor. Such assignments 
were not intended to convey a proprietary right. In some cases the birtiya 
was entitled to an allowance of but T l 5 th of the assets, while in return he was 
bound to collect the remaining -foths for his lord. It seems that another com- 
mon form of tenure was mistaken for birt, and that the confusion had something 
to do with the concession of proprietary right to this class of birtiyas. This 
other tenure was that on which the zamindars of villages in many of ihe 
Sidhua Jobna talukas hold* " In consideration of protection " these men trans- 
ferred their lands to the tal&kad&r, keeping back for their own support only a 
portion of the rent. 1 The tenure in this case was not a birt or maintenance, 
bat represented the land reserved by the real owner when making over his 
rights in the rest to some more powerful landlord. The following is a transla- 
tion of a comparatively modern " birt-n6ma " supplied by the kindness of 

»It the case of Marwat, writes Sir H. Elliot, the rate was bat hall that of ordinary birt 
tenures. *See Mr. Lumsden's report on the settlement of parganah Sidhua Jobna, 

paras. 41-64. 



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338 ooKAKHPim; 

Mr. Irvine. It will be seen that it hardly conveys the idea of a permanent 
alienation of proprietary right : — 

'< In the name of Raja Joddhra j Singh, whose happiness and prosperity equal those of Lakshml 
Narayan, who is conspicuous for his virtues in the circle of the tUptndemt* whom he protects; who 
is of the most dignified and noble presence, ihe Baja of Rajas, the god-like dispenser of good 
and evil. KatnauH village in tappa Fandu of M»nsfirganj having been assigned in birt to 
Bhoya G Minim Singh, the said person may with confidence cultivate the land himself or by 
mean§ of others, and shall pay the rent of the same according to the rates payable by birtiyas. 
Dated Asarh 1123 fasli." 

The express permission here given of cultivating by means of others is 
much opposed to the idea that the grantee could sell or mortgage the land 
without leave of the Raja. Being derived from the Rajas, birt tenure of all 
kinds is naturally rare in the north of the district. 

Taliikas or superior tenures, to which the birts were formerly subject, 

include the remains of the Dhuri&p&r, Mai haul i, and 
Taltikadari tenures. , 

Anola principalities. Next to these come the talukas of 

Padrauna and Tamkuhi, with several others of les3 importance, founded 

on grants made by the Majhauli or Sat&si Rajas ; and lastly, one held 

in great part revenue-free by the guardian of the Imamb&ra at Gorakh- 

pur. 

Within the ancient Raj of DhuriapAr are now included two talukas, known 

as the Pind6ri and the R&ni of Gopdlpur's jfigf rs. 

The Pind&ri j&gir was conferred on the celebrated chief Karim Khin in 

1818. The object of the grant was to remove him and 
The Pindari jagir, 

another marauder, Eadir Bakhsh, from the scene of 

their former evil influence, and to afford them sufficient means for a peaceful 
livelihood. The Rfija of Barhidpar being heavily in debt and also in arrears, 
Government sanctioned the Collector's proposal to purchase and makeover a part, 
of his estate to the Pindaris. The property was at first granted free of all taxa- 
tion, but was after Karim Kh&n's death assessed with a demand of Rs. 6,000. 
This settlement was in 1837 declared permanent. At the current settlement, how* 
ever, a sub-settlement was made with the birtiyas and other occupants of villages, 
while the Pindaris were allowed 55 per cent, of the estimated rental. The domain 
includes 142 villages and a share in another. Almost the whole is held in birt 
tenure. 

The Gopdlpur taluka is that portion of the Gop&lpur family estates 
TheGopaipnr Ra- still held by the Rdni. In this also are several villages held 
ni's taluka. by birtiyas. The history of the Gopalpur family will be given 

a few paragraphs hence. 



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GORAKHPUR. 399 

The Majhauli taluka, usually called the Majhauli RiJ, represents the remains 
Majhauli Raj and Anola °f fc ^ e °^ Majhauli principality, once co-extensive with 
taluka ' parganah Salempur Majhauli. A large number of the 

villages in this estate are held by birtiyas, who hold, indeed, very nearly half 
the parg&nah. The domain has been placed under management of the court of 
wards until such time as a loan made by Government to the Raja is repaid. In 
the Anola talfika, also, the bulk of the villages is held by birtiyas. 

The Padrauiia taluka, coinciding roughly with the northern half of par-' 
ganah Sidhua Jobna, originated in the grant of a few vil- 
lages made to a dependent by the R&ja of Majhauli about 
1750. During the troubles of the next 50 years it was rapidly extended by the 
fears of numerous weak yeogien, who surrendered a portion of their rights in 
return for the talfikadar's protection. The sons of the first grantee divided 
their possessions; and, owing to the mismanagement of one branch of the family, 
the history of half of the taluka was most disastrous, culminating in its con- 
fiscation for rebellion after the mutiny. The other half, though once sold 
for arrears and again nearly ruined by litigation between its owners and the 
Mahfir&ja of Bettiah, recovered under the management of Isri Part&p R&e, and 
is now in a flourishing condition. At the formation of the current settlement, • 
a distinction was made between those villages of the taliika which were still 
partly held by the original proprietors and those which were held by birtiyas. 
The former were admitted to a sub -settlement which, without forcing the pay- 
ment of seigniorial fees, mdlikdna, secured them in possession of the lands 
they retained when joining the taliika. The latter also were admitted to pro- 
prietary settlement, but required to pay the usual fee of ten per cent, on their 
-, L ^. .w* revenue. A similar course was followed in the case of the 

Tamktihi Raj. 

B&nk Jogni taliika, also known as the Tamkdhi R&j. 

Besides these there exist in parganah Sidhua Jobna five taldkas of less 

Minor taitikaa f d d * m P ortance — B&nsgaon, Ramkola, Parwarpfir, Sikhoni, 

on grants of the Majhauli and Sankhop&r. All of these originated in grants made 

by theR&ja of Majhauli to some of his retainers, after 

the defeat of Madan Singh's descendants and the conquest of his possessions 

in this parganah (circ 1590.) In parganah Haveli the Satdsi Rdjas were up 

to the Mutiny taldkadars, receiving seigniorial fees from a very large number 

of villages. The last R&ja having, however, joined the mutineers, his rights were 

confiscated and the R&j came to an end* His seigniorial rights were put up to 

auction and purchased for a large sum by a lady resident at Benares. As in 

other cases, the mdlikdna is chiefly paid by birtiyas at the rate of ten per cent 

on the demand, 

51 



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400 OORAKHPUR. 

The six taldkas of Tighra, Domri, Paikoli, Balaa, Barera, and Pandip£r, 
were derived from grants made to kinsmen or dependents by the Satasi Rajas. 
They had before the British occupation been extended in the same manner as 
the Sidhua Jobna talfikas. Bat after the cession (1801) the last-named property 
was broken up by sales at the instance of the proprietors, and after the 'Mutiny 
the two first were almost entirely confiscated for the rebellion of .their owners. 1 
The remaining three, though not of much size or importance, still exist Parg&na 
South Haveli until quite lately contained several taliikas held by Brahmans ; 
but of these Brahmpur-Methab61, owned by a large brotherhood of Dtibes, 
alone survives. The others, amongst which that of Lachhmipur was the 
most important, have been broken up by sales chiefly in execution of judicial 
decrees. 

The Kusmahi taluka, held by the guardian of the Im&mb&ra, consists of 

w , w w , 19 villages, whereof 15 are revenue-free. 2 The taldka had 

Imambara taluka. ° ' 

its origin in a grant made to the Shf a devotee Baushan Ali 

Sh£h by the Nawab Asaf-ud-daula (1775-97), who also built the Imdmbara. 

Raushan Ali was the son of Sayyid Qhul&m Ashraf, a native of Bukhara, who 

came to Dehli iu the reign of Muhammad Sh&h (1719-48), but fled thence 

during one of the Abd&li invasions. Either Raushan himself or his father 

afterwards settled at Sh&hpur in parganah Dhuri&p&r. When of middle age 

Raushan quitted that village and adopted a religious life. He rapidly gained 

a reputation for peculiar sanctity, and devoted all he possessed towards building 

an Im&mb&ra. 

Hearing of his fame Asaf-ud-daula in 1790 came to his assistance, and 
besides enabling him to build the Imdmbfira, which is still one of the finest 
buildings in this district, conferred on him 15 villages. Raushan Ali was 
suoceeded in 1816 by his pupil Ahmad Ali Sh&h, generally known as the Mi&n 
or Mir S&hib. This Ahmad lived to the age of 80. He assisted Government 
during the troubles of 1857-58, and his right to hold free of revenue 
the original 15 villages of the endowment was recognised. Four other 
villages which were acquired by purchase or private gift are assessed with 
revenue. The Mi&n Sihib died in 1875, being succeeded by his pupil W&jid 
Ali Sh&h. 

The history of the leading proprietary families will be described at some 

length in that of the district. Chief amongst them are 
Leadiog families. 

the titled houses of Anola, Majhauli, Tamkiihi, and 

1 The Tighra talCika was conferred on Mr. W. Reppe ; and half of the Domri taluka on 
Sardar £6rat Singh, a Sikh nobleman. Balaa has to a large extent been sold. ' The 

forest attached to this domain has been already mentioned, supra p. 291. The domain itself 
seems to be rather a large reYenue-free estate than what is generally known as a taluka, 



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GORAKHPUB. 401 

Gopfilpur. The Anola R&jas are Sarnet R&jputs, and Lave since the extinc- 
The Raiaa of Anola, Ma- ^ on °^ ^ e SatAsi title been the elder representatives 
jhauii. Tamkuhi, and Go- f a family which supplies also a R&ja to B£nsi of 
Basti. Their estates, which are taxed with a reve- 
nue of Rs. 6,000, lie in parganah Anola. The Majhauli R&jas are Bisen 
Rajputs who have been converted to Muhammadanism. Their estates, 
lying in parganah Salem pur-Majhauli and Lower Bengal, pay a Government 
revenue of Rs. 42,900. A younger branch of this house, the Rajas of Chilliip&r, 
was attainted for rebellion in 1857. The Bhuinhar Rijput family of Tamkiihi 
is far newer in the district than either of those already mentioned. Its founder 
was, after the battle of Baksar (1764), driven from S&ran into Gorakhpur, where 
he acquired a large estate much diminished by the time of his grandsons. One 
of these, Shamsher Sahi, about 1830-40, recovered by purchase a great portion 
of the lost acres, and settling at Salemgarh, founded the family known as B&bus 
of that place. The eldest grandson remained at Tamkiihi, and by continued 
good management increased the property. Inheriting the title of RAja which his 
grandsire had brought from Saran, he obtained from Government its recognition. 
The estates lying in parganah Sidhua Jobna are assessed with a rqjrenue of 
Rs. 54,500. In the Kausik R&jputs of Gop&lpur we again find an historic 
family. Their original founder, R&j a Dhur, entered the district about 1350; 
and in the sixteenth century began constant struggles between the Barhi&p&r 
and Gop&lpur branches of his descendants. In the beginning of the eighteenth 
century these quarrels ceased, and the bead of the latter branch settled at 
Gop&lpur as its recognized R&ja. The present R&ja is his descendant 1 The 
Mah&rija of Bettia possesses considerable property and influence in this 
district. But as his residence and the bulk of his estates are in Saran, it is 
unnecessary to give his family more than a passing allusion. 

Besides these families the following deserve notice : — (1) That represented 
by Sayyid Shdh Abdullah Sabzposh. The ancestor of this 
house, who, like other Sayyids, claimed descent from 
Muhammad, settled in Oudh during the reign of Sikandar Lodi (1488-1506). 
Hence his descendants came to this district in the time of Aurangzeb 
(1658-1707), and obtained some villages revenue-free. (2) The B&bus of 
Daifdup&r in parganah Haveli, descended from Rndar Singh of the Sat&si family. 
(3) The BAbus of Bftnsgaon in Sidhua Jobna descended from two troopers 
who received a grant from Aurangzeb. (4) The B&bus of Singhpur in 
Silhat, connections of the Sat&si family. (5) The B&bus of Rampur. 

'The title of Barhiapir, held by the other branch of this family, became extinct after 
the Mutiny. 



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402 GORAKHPUR. 

These- are Fram&r Rtfjputs of parganah Salempur, where they settled cm land 
granted by the R&ja of Majhauli. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the principal landed families are R&jputs 
Condition of the °f respectable and even great antiquity. In spite of their 
landnolding classes, large rental, their manorial cesses, and their low revenue, 
the greater part of the landowners are described as by no means well off. The 
chief reason of their poverty is the indebtedness which diverts a large share of 
their profits into the hands of the usurers from whom they borrow. And the 
reasons of that indebtedness hare usually been improvidence, excessive expen- 
diture on marriages, and, in the case of a very large number, aversion to doing 
any labour with their own hands. Buchanan, who calls the landowners ashraf, 

Their former dia- mentions that very few of them will plough, sow, or reap 
like of tilling their J r & r 

own lands, themselves ; and that of these three processes ploughing 

was held in the greatest aversion. The reason of this aversion was clearly 

that the men usually employed as harwdhas or ploughmen are of very low 

caste. They arc frequently Pfois or Bh&rs, who are accounted impure by 

the higher caste ; and the plough is considered as contaminated by their use 

of it. • 

The description given by Martin of the relations between landlord and 
tenant confirms the statement already made, that before our rule the latter were 
rather in the position of serfs or labourers than of tenants. It shows also how 
and contempt of w *de wa8 the division between them and the upper class, 
their tenants. the ^j^f or u n obility." The greater part of the land- 

holders were formerly either R&jputs or firahmans holding from the different 
R&jas ; and all their kinsmen enjoyed a position immeasurably above that of 
the churls who were retained to plough and do similar menial services. The 
invasions of the Hindfis were accompanied by the extirpation, or at least the 
expulsion, of all those amongst the former occupants who had any higher rank 
than that of servants or labourers. Consequently there was no tenantry hold- 
ing an intermediate position between the new owners and their slaves, and 
all who were not members of the conquering body were regarded as beneath 
contempt. 

In course of time there necessarily arose a class who, though members* of 
the chieftain's family, were in such reduced circumstances that they were forced 
to cultivate some small portion of land. These were probably the men whom 
These feelings Buchanan mentions as being considered ashr&f, though 
brforce eD of™?rcunvi holding an inferior position. The constantly recurring 
stances. wars f former times prevented the grantees' descendants, 



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GOEAKHPUR, 403 

unless Brahmans, from settling down into agricultural village communities. 
This, again, may have encouraged them to look on fighting as their proper 
occupation, and tillage as the inheritance of their servants or slaves. At any 
rate, the idea that cultivation was beneath the dignity of a gentleman survived 
till more peaceable times. When arms were laid aside, and attention was 
turned to the improvement of the land, the grantees found themselves 
restrained from personal farming. They accordingly let their properties at low 
rates to husbandmen of low caste, such as the Cham&ra, who were attracted from 
Oudh and the south. When our rule was introduced, the system of demanding fixed 
payments for a certain period rendered the landlords ready to follow the same 
course with their tenants, if they could thereby obtain an increased rent And 
the security given by our law and administration attracted a better class of 
tenants from the south. At the same time the withdrawal of the right of carry- 
ing on private feuds with their neighbours, and the non-recognition of any 
right of ownership over their servants or labourers, removed the causes which- 
had induced the landholders to cultivate through their villeins or serfs. The 
latter were, moreover, left free to migrate whither they pleased. The area held 
by tenants (in the usual sense of the term) and by kinsmen of the landlord 
greatly increased. But it required time to overcome the dislike which petty 
magnates felt to working in their fields; and meanwhile 
many had fallen into debt. At the same time sales 
for arrears, at first enforced with needless frequency, threw a large 
portion of the zamindars completely into the hands of the money-lenders. 
The rascality and fraud of the unwatched native officials has before been 
noticed. The bitter necessity of providing large sums suddenly, before 
inquiry into the justice of the demand, and under pain of being sold up, forced 
landholders to borrow frequently. Buchanan thought that thirty years of such 
injustices had done more to impoverish proprietors than all the misrule of 
Muslim Governments. He might perhaps have allowed that the fault was partly 
that of the Native Governments themselves, which had taught men to refuse 
revenue when not exacted by foroe. 

But, however contracted, the indebtedness of the proprietary body conti- 
nues a serious evil. It during the currency of the last 
/lienatlons. ° J 

settlement displayed itself in large transfers of landed pro- 
perty. Taking the whole area of Gorakhpur and Basti as 3,208,892 acres, the 
Board of Revenue 1 shows that 542,259 changed hands, 326,836 by private 
sale. The widest alienations were in the North Haveli parganah, where 102,670 
out of 249,111 acres passed from their former owners. 
1 See its review of the current settlement, No. 958A, dated 2nd October, 18? 1, appendix IX. 



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404 GORAKHPffR. 

From the landlords we pass to their tenants. The cultivators are as a 
Condition of the c * aS3 ignorant, unenterprising, and indebted. They have 
cultivating classes. hitherto lacked the spirit to raise themselves above an 
abject status inherited from ages of ill-usage and oppression. Even under 
their own R&jas and birtiyas they were regarded much as his villeins were 
regarded by a Norman baron ; and the Oudh Government, as already mentioned, 
subjected them to worse evils than that of mere contempt Mr. Wynne's 
settlement report constantly alludes to the degraded condition of many culti- 
* vators ; and in one place he mentions " a still lower class, veritable serfs," who 
had sold themselves for the loan of a lump sum, and who were perpetually 
working off the debt which they never succeeded in quite paying off. Mr. 
Oolvin also notices the absence of the village communities which amongst the 
more " robust tribes 9 ' are of such importance, and " the marked social distinc- 
tion between the zamiudars and cultivators which still exists." That distinction 
was at first, probably, one of race. 

As the different R&jas conquered their dominions, they brought under 

subjugation a host of Bhars and P&sis whom as their 
Their low status, ,. , , „ i , 

subjects they pro tected from other enemies, but as a class 
they considered immeasurably inferior to themselves. These vanquished 
people were at first, no doubt, the only tillers of the soil. Constant risk of 
hostile attacks forbade the conquerors to scatter themselves amongst the 
villages, and they must have lived in a compact body about their chief. The 
owner of a village was often not only an alien but an absentee. But there 
was another great gulf betwixt landlord and tenant. If, as security increased, 
the tenant managed to acquire a fixed right in his holding, that right was 
extinguished in the troublous times that preceded the British rule. 

In 1818 the Collector reported that " the zaminddrsoan evict all raiyats, 
and recent lack of unless holding on a term lease ;" and it appears that such 
tenant right. leases were rarely granted for more than three years. 1 

Again in 1831 we read a similar assertion, proceeding from the same quarter. 
" The cultivators generally claim no right of occupancy in the land. Their 
rents are paid in money, and are often fixed for a certain term, during which 
they cannot be evicted." As already mentioned, Mr. Bird in 1833 suggested 
that tenants should receive a twenty-years' lease, in order to give them some 
permanent interest in their holdings. The reports on the current settlement 
continue to record the depression of the cultivating class, notwithstanding 
that Act X. of 1959 was by this time investing some of its members with 
rights of occupancy. 

^Aidsdale's notea. 



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GOBAKHPtJB. 405 

In his report on parganah Rastilpur Ghaus Mr. Wynne notices 

Mr. Wynne's ex- that the condition of the tenants has not improved so 

ciuse^which'retord much ** mi g ht have been expected, considering the 

their prosperity. development of the district and the increased value of 

produce. For this he assigns three causes : (1) the exactions of the zamfn- 

dftrs under the name of cesses (abwdb) ; (2) the indebtedness and ignorance 

of the tenants themselves ; and (3) the uncertain demand for agricultural 

produce. 

In his report (1869) on B&nsi parganah he goes further and says : 
"As for tenant right it is non-existent A few of the more intelligent 
cultivators may have learned the purport of Act X. of 1859, but I have 
never heard any other opinion than that the tenancy of the cultivator lasted 
only so long as the landlord pleased. "Mr. Lumsden in his Anola report 
mentions how the Bhars and P&sis, who were the chief cultivators before the 
previous settlement (1840), " have been receding, giving way to the usual 
agricultural classes, Kurmis, Koeris, and Cham&rs, and passing further 
north in quest of fresh land which they can hold at the old almost nominal 
rates." And he notices that right of occupancy has been conferred solely by 
the provisions of Act X. Before the passing of that enactment it was unknown. 
Again, in his report on Sidhua Jobna he expresses his opinion that cultivators 
with a right of occupancy are a creation of the law lately introduced, 
which confers that right on all who have held land for a period of twelve 
years. 

These statements will at once show that the position of the tenan- 
try is lower, and was till lately more dependent on the caprices the 
landlord, than elsewhere in the North- Western Provinces. Under the pre- 
sent law their condition is improving and should continue to improve. 
B ut their progress is still opposed by two great obstacles — ignorance and 
indebtedness. The former prevents their comprehending the protection 
afforded them by law, and renders them unable to cope with the chica- 
nery of landlords or subordinate officials. The latter sweeps off to the coffer 
of the money-lender their fair share in the increased wealthy of the 
district 

Some check has now been placed on the extra cesses and contributions 

levied by landholders; but there is little doubt that much 
Manorial r^" * 



money is still exacted under the name of abwdb. In 1818 
the Collector, reporting on this subject, remarked that if all such exactions were 
prohibited, the zamind&r would get but Rs, 2 where he formerly got Bs. 4r or 5. 



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406 QORAKHPUB. 

The most common of the cesses levied on cultivators, as opposed to thosd 
realized from trade and market dues, were the following : — 

(1.) Fees on marriages ; on building new houses ; and ground-rent for 

houses occupied. 1 
(2.) Cost of valuing the crop with a view to fixings the money-rent. 
(3.) Present at harvest " to secure good will." 

(4.) Fees to the accountant, barber, and other village-servants, often 
collected and appropriated by the zamfaddr. 

(5) Penalty levied on grain sold to persons other than the zamind&r of 

his accredited agents. 

(6) Contributions to the landlord on the occasion of a marriage in his 

family. 

(7) Presents to the faotor on collection of the rents. 

The 5th is especially a serious burden, as the zamind&r often insists on 
buying at a lower rate than the fair market one. These exactions were more 
than once expressly prohibited by the Board and the Governor-General him- 
self; but in 1837 the Collector writes that such prohibitions were useless, 
The people did not understand their full value, and were too much in the 
power of their landlords to venture on resistance. He adds that he has been 
unable to gain any satisfactory information regarding the rights of the 
tenants, as the zamfnd&rs were unwilling to acknowledge, and the tenants 
were too poor and too ignorant to know if such rights existed. They 
" admitted the paramount authority of the zamind&r and their absolute 
dependence on his pleasure." 

The kanungos, he says, stale that a tenant has rights of occupancy for 
three years in land newly brought under cultivation by himself. But these 
rights were not strictly observed if it suited the zamindar's purpose to ignore 
them ; and he could as a rule eject a tenant when he pleased, whilst " the 
tenant could in no case transfer his lands to a stranger without express 
permission." 

With such a state of things existing less than 50 years ago, it is no 
wonder that the tenants have not yet freed themselves from all exactions. Nor 
are such exactions likely to cease until the general opinion of landholders sets 
against them. Mr. Alexander believes, however, that tenants have made a great 
advance towards independence of their landlords, tfrom the exactions of the 
money-lender they will find it harder to free themselves. The direct interference 
of Government is in such commercial matters difficult, if not inadvisable. The 

1 This parjot is too often regarded as a nefarious exaction. It is in fact a just and by 
no means exorbitant rent. In towns it is sometimes called ghardwdri, 



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GORAKHPUR. 407 

advances made by indigo-factories and by Government itself for the cultivation 
of opium are at present the only means that have in any way aided the pea- 
santry to free themselves of debt. Education may afford them some protection; 
but the existing generation of cultivators were reared in a day when education 
hardly existed, and are too old to begin learning now. So long as the money- 
lender secures the greater portion of the crop, it is vain to hope for much 
improvement in the condition of the cultivator. 

A small class of tenants known as dbddkdrs were formerly conceded 
certain privileges in return for bringing waste land under 
tillage. If they cultivated it themselves, they obtained 
a lease for a term of years, during which they could not be ejected; aud 
if employed as supervisors over the actual cultivators, they received a share in 
the rents, also for a fixed term of years. In both cases they could transfer 
their rights for the remainder of the term ; and in both it was usual for the land- 
lord to grant them an advance at starting. A few dbddkars still exist. 

The average size of a tenant's holding may be stated as rather over 5 acres 

in the north, rather over 3 in the south of the district. 
Size of tenant hold- . . 

ings. The larger area ot the northern holdings is partly explained 

by the fact that the frequent migration of their occupants 
leaves a large number of fields free for yearly disposal. In some parts of the dis- 
trict, such as the light soils of parganah Salempur, it is absolutely neces- 
sary to allow all except the well manured and carefully-tilled land near the 
village to lie fallow once in three or four years. If the fallow land were 
counted, the holdings would average above the areas now given. But by holding 
must be understood the land which the tenant holds for cultivation, and on 
this assumption those areas may be deemed fairly correct. 

In discussing the question as to t( whether a tenant with 5 m acres would be 
as well off as if he had Es. 8 a mouth/' it is necessary to assume the following 
conditions : — 

la** — That he has not to work with borrowed capital, and is not therefore 
burthened by the payment of interest as most oultivators really 
are. 
2nd. — That his rent is an average rent of (say) Rs. 3 an acre. 
3rd. — That the soil is of average quality only* 
AtJu — That he has a wife, one son, and one daughter to assist him, and 

that he ploughs with his own cattle. 
With these premises our answer to the question must be — No. If the hold- 
ing consists of mere average soil, the tenant cannot continue growing the 
whole of it with the more valuable crops ; and if he makes an average profit 

52 



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408 GORAKHPUB. 

of Rs. 12 an acre he is a fortunate man. A succession of two or three bad 

seasons may, moreover, throw him into debt, and once indebted he will find his 

expenses nearly doubled. In his report on parganah Rasfilpur Ghaus Mr. 

Wynne has gone very carefully into the question, and comes to the conclusion 

that an average of Rs. 5-11-6 per bigha — much less than Rs. 12 per acre — is 

a fair estimate of the profits. 

The effect of Act X. of 1859 and its successor, XVIII. of 1873, has 

^^ . been on the whole decidedly beneficial to the tenants. As 

Effect of recent . . . 

rent legislation. before pointed out, their right of occupancy was almost 

entirely created by the former law. Some landlords profess, 
indeed, that to prevent the growth of that right they are compelled to eject 
tenants whose twelve years' occupation is nearly complete. But such ejectments 
are really very rare, whilst the great number of tenants who have acquired 
rights under the law may be estimated from the figures given in an appendix 
to the Board's review of the current settlement (1871). These show that 
whilst but 3,504 tenants with rights of occupancy existed at the time of the 
former settlement (1833-36), there were no less than 158,701 at that of the 
present. 1 The advantage of conferring on the cultivator a securer position 
grows yearly greater, as unoccupied land on which he can settle, if ejected, be- 
comes yearly less. Since the appendix just cited was compiled, the number 
of tenants with rights of occupancy has largely increased, and it may safely 
be computed that at least one-third of the whole tenantry is possessed of them. 
Ex-proprietary tenants have also sprung into existence under the Act of 
1873. 

Rents are usually paid in cash, except in the north of the district, where 
the landlords almost always receive them in kind. When 
paid in kind their amount varies from one^third to two- 
thirds of the produce, but more than half is rarely taken. In some cases 
the produce is divided after reaping and threshing, and in others after the 
landlord himself cuts his share of the crops. Frequently the produce is 
estimated before being cut, and the tenant is bound to deliver a certain 
weight of grain, or of grain and straw, within a certain time after the har- 
vest In some rare cases the rent is fixed at a certain weight of grain when 
the tenant takes the field. Almost always, unless the landlord cuts his 
own share, the tenant has to bear the expense of cutting and treading 
out the whole. He has usually, also, to supply his own seed grain. If 
the landlord supplies it, he almost always takes it back with interest, in 

1 But while showing 198,701 tenants with rights of occupancy, this appendix ahows 469,334 
without such rights. The average holding of the former is given as 3 acres 2 rods 2 poles, 
and that of the latter as 2 acres 3 rods 13 poles. 



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GORAKHPUB. 40fr 

addition to the rent ; and as the landlord has a further advantage in measuring 
the seed, the tenant has a bad bargain. The grain is lent by one measure and 
recovered by a larger one, no allowance being made for the difference between 
the two. 

Bents are as a rule realised punctually and without difficulty. Consider- 
ing the great extent of the district, the number of suits for arrears is small. This 
is no doubt chiefly owing to the fact that the rents themselves are moderate. 
In the south of the district, where tenants have pretty generally acquired rights 
of occupancy, rents have risen. The increased value of produce caused by the 
extension of the export trade, the greater difficulty in obtaining fresh lands to 
cultivate elsewhere, and the right of occupancy conferred by the law after 
twelve years 9 possession, have all combined to produce this result. Even the 
south has hardly yet reached the stage when the amount of rent is hotly contested 
in the courts; but the struggle is just beginning. Suits for enhancement of 
rent have hitherto been rare, the lowness of the rates before paid leaving room 
for enhancement by agreement between the parties. In the north, owing to 
unhealthiness of climate, there are fewer tenants who retain holdings sufficiently 
long to acquire occupancy rights. And landlords are restrained from enhancing 
their rents by the difficulty of inducing cultivators to take the land except at very 
moderate rates. As, moreover, rents in kind are the rule, the amount received 
varies greatly accordiug to season, and there is perhaps less temptation 
to enhance than where the rent is paid in cash. In good years the value 
of the landlord's share increases with an increased harvest, and in bad years 
enhancement would be followed by the migration of his tenant. The Board's 
summary of settlement operations shows that since the former settlement, 30 
years before, the rent-rate on cultivated land had risen about 36 per cent. But 
this is ratHer a calculation worked out on certain assumptions than a statement 
of fact. 

There can be no doubt that since the Bhars, P&sis, Musahars, and other 
Castes of the te- migratory tenants have been replaced in the south by more 
nantr 7- settled and more skilful cultivators, the rents of this part of 

the district have risen very largely. Owing to a rather vague but general 
custom which requires a tenant growing the more valuable crops to pay a 
higher rent, the introduction of sugarcane into Sidhua Jobna has caused 
a great rise in the rental of that parganah. This custom is probably founded 
partly on the assumption that land capable of growing the more valuable 
crops is worth more than the rental commonly paid, and partly on the fact that 
these crops are generally grown by Kurrais and other industrious tenants 



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410 



GORAKHPUR. 



whom the landlords think it fair to assess much more heavily than Brahinaus 
or Th&kurs. 

In the south of Haveli also, and in other parganahs, the increased 
price of produce and cultivation of lucrative crops has led to an enhance- 
ment of rente, effected chiefly by agreement between landlord and tenant. But 
in the northern portion of the district the great increase in the rental must 
be ascribed to the extension of cultivation rather than to an enhancement in 
the rate of the rent. The progress made in northern Haveli and Binayakpur 
during the currency of last settlement was enormous. In the former the cul- 
tivated area increased from 89,900 bighas to 158,200, or by about 80 per cent.; 
and in the latter from 2,430 to 15,318, or more than 600 per cent. The latter 
percentage may be overstated owing to error in the figures given of the 
earlier settlement, but even taking it at 300 per cent, the progress is 
extraordinary. 

The estimated rental of Gorakbpur is now 42 lakhs in round numbers ; and 

as tho revenue with cesses, also in round numbers, is 
Landowners have at ««.,,, .. ./. ,i . i i 

present little reason to only 18 lakhs, it is manifest that landowners are not as a 
enhance rente. ru j e ca u 0( j on t enhance. There is in fact not much 

danger of a rack-rent being imposed during the present settlement Nor is it 
likely that the interference of the Courts will be much required in fixing rents. 
The illegal cesses before referred to are the peasant's real grievance iu most 
cases where a grievance exists. 

The wages received by agricultural labourers are sometimes paid 

wholly in kind, and seldom altogether in cash. 

But they may be set down as averaging Bs. 2 
monthly. The average monthly wages of tho chief artisan classes are as 
follows I— 1 



Masons 
Carpenters 
Blacksmiths 
Potters 



Rs. 

.. 8 
.. 8 



Cobblers 
Tailors... 
Dyers ... 
Barbers 



Rs. 

. 6 

. 8 

,. 8 

. 6 



Rs. 

Gold or silver-smiths, 8 

Braziers ... 8 

Cotton-carders ... 7 

Porters (coolie) ... 4 



Ri. 

Navvy (beldar) 4 

Litter-bearers, 5 

Watermen ••• 6 
Shepherds or 

.herdsmen.*, 5 



The wages of carpenters and masons were returned in 1868 at 4 annas, 

and of labourers as from 1 £ to 2 annas daily. It was at the same time stated 

that, wages had remained unaltered during the past ten years, but the value 

of that statement may perhaps be doubted. 3 

1 The following estimates of wages and prices in 1878 have been kindly supplied by the 
Magistrate-Collector. * See a rather perfunctory return submitted to Mr. W. O. 

yiotrdcn and printed in his Wages and Prices, 1871. 



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GORAKHPUR. 



411 



For comparing the prices of the past twenty years more abundant 
materials exist. The following statement shows the 
market value of the principal agricultural staples in 
1859, 1868, and 1878 :— 





Weight purchaseable for one rupee iff 


Articles. 






1859. 


1868. 


1878. 




S. c. 


b. c. 


S. c. 




22 


21 8 


U 10} 


Wheat 


35 15 


35 5 


16 4 


Barley ... ... ... 


12 4 


32 • 5 


11 14 


Oram ... ... ... ... ... 


10 8 


6 


12 6 


Bdjra millet ... 


35 9 


22 4 


18 11 


Jodr ditto ... ... 


21 2 


22 5 


. 10 15 


District rice 


26 2 


18 6 


8 5 


Pulses of sorts ... 


... 


... 


7 12 


Salt ... 


... 


... 


9 




Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Cotton, wholesale, per ser ... 


18 6 4 


18 8 


1 10 Si 



Money is invested chiefly in laud, grain-dealing, or usury. -It is of course 
Money-lending and in- difficult to lay down the exact rates of interest ; but 
tcrest the following are givon in Mr. Tupp's Imperial Gazetteer 

article on the district (1877). In small transactions, when cheap articles are 
pawned, from 12 to 15 per cent. ; and when merely personal security is given, 
from 18 to 37. In large transactions, when jewels and other valuable property 
are pledged, from 6 to 12 per cent ; and when land is mortgaged, from 9 to 18. 
When bankers lend money to bankers on personal security, the rate is from 9 to 
18 per cent only. It may be added that when seed-grain is borrowed and the 
crop hypothecated to the creditor, the interest in grain is 25 per cent, at harvest. 
When money for the sowings is borrowed on the same security, 12 J per cent, is 
paid. 

The manufactures of the district are few, and the only one of any 

Manufactures and g r * at importance at present is that of sugar-boiling, exten- 

tradc - sively practised in the Hftta, Padrauna, and neighouring 



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412 



GORAKHPUR. 



parts of the Deoria and Sadr tahsils. It is difficult to obtain any very 
accurate statistics of the number of sugar factories, 1 but 
the following figures were furnished a few years ago by 

the tahsildars : — 



Sugar. 



Parganah. 


Number 

of 
factories. 


Remark*, 


Silhat ••• ••• ... 

8hahjahanpur .„ ... 

Ba?eli ... ... 

Salenopur ... , M 
SidhuaJobna 


28 
73 

57 
65 


Of which 5 arc in Mehia Tillage of tappa 
Indarpur. 

Of which 37 are said to be in tappa 
Patna, moat of them being in Rampur 
Khinpur village, not far from Deoria. 

Almost all in the tappas lying north-west 
and north of Silhat. 

Of which half are said to be in Bar ha j. 

The exact number is not stated, but ia 
undoubtedly very large. Mr. Lumsden 
estimated that, in addition to the amount 
locally consumed, oyer 20,000 mauods of 
chini sugar were yearly exported from 
this parganah. Mr. Alexander thinks 
that the number cannot be far short of 
100, as this is the parganah in which 
the cane seems to thrive best. Mr. 
Lumsden numbers 52 factories in his 
settlement report, but the number has 
since increased. 



The factory owner does not as a rule cultivate his own sugarcane. He 
makes money advances to a number of neighbouring villagers, who grow the 
crop and usually also extract the juice (ras) in their own or hired mills. The 
kolhu or sugaivmill has already been described as " a large drum-shaped mortar, 
in whioh an almost upright timber beam or pestle is made to turn by an arrange- 
ment attaching it to a pair of revolving bullocks." 2 The pestle is here called 
jdth? The horizontal cross-beam which connects it with the bullocks is 
named kdtar; and on the latter sits a man, partly to guide the bullocks, 
partly to give greater weight to the jdth. Another man feeds the kolhu and 
pushes the cane against the jdth. When seen for the first time this operation 
seems likely to end in crushing the hand of the operator, but- accidents very 
rarely occur. The expressed juioe trickles into a lower compartment of the 
mill, called ghdgu; and hence flows through a wooden spout or parndli into the 
vessels set to catoh it. In Gorakhpur, owing to the difficulty of obtaining 
stone, the kolhus are all of wood. When extracted juice is generally boiled 

1 By factory is here meant a whole factory, and not a single vat. The term hdrkhdna 
is confusingly applied to both. And one tahaildar returned 137 factories, meaning vats, in 
the single village of Rampur Khinpur. * Gas., V., S3 (Budaun district). > Sir 

H. Elliot give this as the term used in Bohilkhand, as distinguished from Benares. Bat it 
is used in this part of Benares also. 



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GORAKHPUR. 413 

at once in large iron vessels called kardhi, which are usually lent by the owner 
of the factory to which the boiled syrup (guv or rdb) 1 is to go, but are 
sometimes owned or hired by the cultivators. Occasionally, if the factory 
be very close, the juice is taken there at once. It makes of course a 
great difference to the cultivator whether he manufactures independently or on 
behalf of the factory owner. The latter takes an ample return for* the 
advances he makes and for the hire of the karahi. But very few villagers grow 
cane altogether without advances ; and one manufacturer informed Mr. Alex- 
ander that he did not care to deal with such persons. He had not, he explain- 
ed, the same hold over them as over cultivators who had bound themselves, by 
taking bis advances, to grow a certain amount of cane. In a year, however, 
when cane is at all scarce, an independent cultivator could command a very 
high price for his gur and obtain large profits. The clients of the factory, 
who receive payment at a rate fixed beforehand, derive no additional profit 
from high prices. But where most of the cultivators must work on borrowed 
capital, this system of advances is perhaps the best way of supplying a use- 
ful want. 

After its receipt at the factory the rab syrup is again boiled twice and 
cleared of its scum. It is then allowed to harden and becomes chinif which 
finds a very large export towards the south. The sugar is sometimes refined 
by additional boiling and skimming, but is more often sent away in the rough 
state, packed in large earthen jars. 

No trusworthy statistics are available to show the average amount otJchdnd 
or dry sugar produced yearly in a factory. But some establishments visited by 
Mr. Alexander at Pipraich confessedly turned out from 400 to 500 maunds of 
refined sugar (ehini) each in a season. The average value was about Bs. 12 
to 15 a maund ; and as the cultivators get for their rib about Bs. 3 to 4 only, 
the factories must make considerable profits. But they have usually, it must 
be remembered, to carry the cMni some way before they can command a 
market. 

The principal places where the khdnd is collected for exportation are Cap- 

tainganj, Pipr&ich, Gorakhpur, S&hibganj (in Sidhua Jobna), and Barhaj. 

From Captainganj a little is said to go up to Nepal ; but by for the greater part 

of the trade finds its way by Gorakhpur, the Bapti, or the Little Gandak and 

Barhaj, to the Gh&gra. A considerable amount also descends the Great Gandak 

to Calcutta. The Little Gandak is, as before mentioned, navigable only during 

1 In Gorakhpur the word g*r is nsed without distinction for both gur and rib. ' Chtni 

<*r Chinese hi the term applied to coarse brown sugar, as opposed to the fine variety named 
misri or Egyptian. 



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414 GOUAKIirUR. . 

the rainy season ; but a large trade from along its banks travels by the Padrauna 
and Barhaj road to the latter place. 

But the great trade of the district is undoubtedly the export of grain ; 
and especially of rice, barley, and wheat In his report on 
the settlement of South Haveli (1867) Mr. Lumsden com- 
ments as follows on the vast increase which during the past twenty years had 
occurred in this traffic: — "The enormous rise in prioes throughout this district 
is mainly to be attributed to the great increase in export trade. The natives 
thoroughly understand this, and prices during the last famine in Bengal 
rose to little under those current in the famine district, though grain was 
abundant, and it was commonly remarked that if the Sarkar (Government) 
would only stop the export trade, barley would be selling at a maund the 
rupee." 

The rice comes chiefly from Nepal and the north of Gorakhpur, whence 
it finds its way by the Lautan, Nostanwoa, Deoghati, 
and Tutibhari tracks to Dhani b izar. Hence it is 
again distiibuted to Mendhawal in Basti, Gorakhpur, or Barhaj on the 
Gbagra. Another line taken by this traffic is through Bahwar or Tutibhari 
and Sichlaval to Captainganj, whence in the earlier part of winter the rice can 
be conveyed down the Little Gandak in boats. The carts which carry the rice 
are strongly constructed, so as to stand rough journeys across country. In the 
months of the eold weather, which is their busy season, they may be seen 
thronging the market at Dhani-bazar. Besides rices, they often bring chilis, lac, 
and the rough square pice of Nepal. 1 Except in the form of such coins, the 
import of copper into British territory is forbidden by the Nepalese Govern- 
ment. 

The rice imports from Nepal amount, as will be hereafter seen, to about 

1,37,500 maunds yearly ; but how large a weight is produced in the north of 

the district itself is shown by the annual acreage under rice in Maharajganj 

tahsil alone. 2 Allowing for the local wants of the population in that tahsil, 

Mr. Alexander thinks there should be a surplus of at least 50,000 maunds for 

exportation in a fair year. But Maharajganj is not the only tahsil which 

exports large quantities of rice. That of Sidhua Jobna finds its way either to 

Bagarganj on the Little Gandak, or by Tiwari Patti and Sahibganj to the Great 

Gandak. The large part played in export traffic by the 

rivers of the district has been already referred to. Qaan- 

1 A large proportion of the so-called Gorakhpur! pice are apparently Nep&lese. * About 

156,400 acres, $upra t p. 334. 



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GORAKHPUR. 415 

tities of graia from Bansg&on and the south-eastern parganahs of Basti 
find their way down the Ku&na to Gola and Barhaj. Timber as well as grain 
are conveyed from Nep&l by the Rapti and its tributaries, the Dhamela, 
and Bohin. The greater portion of all this traffic is absorbed by the Gh&gra. 
The trade pasting down that river, as registered by the Bengal Government 
atDarauli, just outside the Gorakhpur frontier, weighed in 1877-78 more than 
all the exports passing road posts in the North- Western Provinces and Oudh. 1 
"The trade of the Ghfigra," writes Mr. Buck, " is of very great importance in 
connection with the light railway project for theGorakhpur district. It seema 
now tolerably certain that a railway can alway soompete with a jiver. This 
being the case, it would seem that a line running from Naw&bganj (in Oudh) 
down the Ghftgra-Gandak du&b to Ohapra on the Ganges would best meet the 
requirements of trade. A great part, perhaps the greater part, of the Ghfigra 
trade consists of grain, oilseeds, and sugar exported to the port of Calcutta." 
Amongst the oilseeds thus exported linseed is conspicuous ; for like all sub- 
Him&layan tracts, Gorakhpur is a great producer of that commodity; 

So much for trade-routes by river. We pass to those by road. With 
Nepdl, as we have already seen, the traffic is less by road 
than track. The distributing emporium in Nep&l is as a 
rule Butwal, while the Gorakhpur emporia are Dh&ni and Nichlaval. The 
chief highways to and from Bengal are the Gorakhpur-Chapra and Gorakhpur- 
S&ran road, quitting the district at Gathnigh4t and Samur respectively. The 
trade with Gh&zipnr and Azamgarh crosses the Gh&gra at Deorigbat, entering 
this district at Barhalganj. Commerce with Basti passes by the Gorakhpur- 
Lotan and Gorakhpur- Basti roads. 

The traffic with Nepal, Bengal, and Azamgarh or Ghdzipur was in 
1877-78 registered at several outposts of the Agriculture 
c ntgts . ^^ Commerce Department. The Nep&l stations were at 
Nfotanwa and Deoghili in Bin&yakpur, and Tutf bh£ri and Bahwar in Tilpnr ; 
the Bengal, at Gathnighat in Salempur and Samur in Sidhua Jobna ; and the 
solitary south-frontier outpost was at Deorigh&t in Azamgarh. In the preced- 
ing year there had been a third Bengal outpost, at Pfpragh&t on the Gorakh- 
pnr-Bettia road ; but this was, owing to the insignificance of its registra- 
tions abolished. The following table shows the statistics of the Nep&l 
stations :— 

« The weight of Ghfigra exports, aa registered at Darauli, was 39,83,591 maunds ; and of 
Ghigra imports, 3,76,342 oiauuds. 

53 



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GORAKHPUB. 

Imported across Nepal Frontier, 1877-78. 

Class A. 





cs 


i 




-^ 


a, 




■s* 


tj 










* 3 


8 










Is 


2 


Fame of 

OUtpOBt. 


ft; 


<a 






<* 






^j 




^j 








9 

•a 


s 


"3 




IP 


> 


fee 


> 






Rs. 




Hb. 


Bahwar . • 


27,807 


38,859 


8,623 


8.623 


Ttitt- 


48,609 


61,870 


4,325 


4,321 


bbArl. 
DeogbAti 


21,031 


30.434 


1,520 


1,534 


Baotanw* 


40,092 


1,00,204 


1,836 


1,907 




Total .. 


1,37,591 


2,34,367 


16,304 


' 16,396 
i 



7,U 

1,698 



1,318 






Rs. 



9,296 
2,411 



1,400 
2,257 



11,330 



•8 

3 



Rs, 



1,783 24,436 
1,620 21,481 



15,354 3,407 



45,957 



1,72( 
1,961 

1,621 
1,92 



7.J22 







«J 


etc 


C8 


o 


>■ 


£ 




— — 


Rs. 




5.249 




5,874 


1,399 


4,753 


10 


6,319 


371 


21.224 


1,780 



Rs. 



6,865 

120 
1,643 



8,528 



Class B. 



Class 
C. 



5 
£ 



Rs. 



13,6ft W.S74 
l7,dtf 20,901 



31,071 



51,475 



Rs. 



48,145 1,10,687 
61,030 1,32,933 



39,400 
63,467 



2,120,61 ,4,82,3 16 700 



Rs. 



68 
1,466 



73,804/ 18 140 
1,15,411: 47* 4,724 



6,388 



Rs. 



6 

579. 



43* 

68 



69a 



Exported across Nepal Frontier in the same year. 



Class A. 


Class B. 


Class 
C. 


Name of 
eutposD. 


I 


3 
a 

V 


& 

s 
e 

•a 

a 

3 

s 


i 

1 
a, 

R 


1.1 

S B . 

5 S 3 


.3 






3 

6 




4 

l 


| 
> 


60 




*3 

> 


1 




•a 

> 




1 

"3 




-3 
> 


"Si 

"Z 


• 



-3 

> 


.SP 


'a 


s 






2 


1 






"3 
> 


© 

* 


© 

1 






Rs. 


R, 




Rs. 




Ri. 




Rs. 




Rs. 




Rs. 




Rs. 




Rs. 




Rs. 


Babwar 
Tiitl- 
bhari. 

DeoghAtj 

Naotan- 

wa, 


292 
29,93 


3,226 

33,793 


860 
2,82. 


631 
6,463 


453 
5,493 


550 
3,897 


242 
1,462 


13,973 
1,36,665 


6 

18 


3,67; 

6,277 


12(1 
115 


6,770 
6,105 


2,244 
11,103 


27,331 
1,90,835 


856 
1,508 


2,062 
8,23* 


968 
6,4 JO 


«,070 
3,608 


- 


3,614 
6,011 


722 
797 


4,511 
4,002 


493 
26s 


1,593 
1,262 


1,572 
2,b«rt 


1,027 
1,190 


1,113 
1,695 


82,998 
71,377 


18 
115 


M.0<H 
3.S6 


110 


6,996 
1,981 


4,378 
4,160 


1,06,256 
87,740 


587 
193 


3,-7* 

387 


1,508 
2,053 


3323 
479 


::; 


19,610 
2,146 


Total 


'.4,791 


3,456. 


\ 3,94 


9,831 


10,413 


6,654 


4,512 


3074)03 


157 


27,89 


m 


20,955 


11,885 


1,12,162 3;i 26 


9,418 


9,989 


9^80 


r 


29,411 



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GORAKHPUB. 



417 



As, however, traffic finds its way across the frontier by numerous by- 
paths, the registration is confessedly imperfect. It has been determined to 
move the Nepal posts further back from the frontier, chiefly on account of the 
highly malarious character of their present sites : and this measure is likely 
to increase also the accuracy of the returns. The figures for the Bengal posts 
have been supplied in less detail, being simply arranged under the headings of 
class A, or articles whose value is generally proportionate to their weight ; 
class B, beasts or other chattels reckoned by number; and class C, goods 
whose value bears no relation to their weight :— 





Imposts. 


EXPOBTS. 




Class 


Class 


Class 


Clast 


Class 


Class 




A. 


£. 




c. 


A. 


B. 


C. 


Tost. 


• 

a 

a 
a 

o 




a 

a 

n 

o 






B 

p 

o 




a 

3 
P 

O 










6 

a 


hi) ** 

.2? o> 


*3 




"5 




*o5 




0> 

9 

*3 


"5 




£ 


> 


* 


t> 


> 
Rs. 


!* t> 


£ 


> 


P> 






Ri. 




Bs. 




Ks. 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Samfir 


15,469 


1,95,436 


1,274 


2,399 


1,427 


44,984 


1,19.300 


9,449 


42,091 


42Q 


Gat nig list ... 


10,966 


2,06,996 


4,705 
6,069 


1,968 


6,056 


18,345 


1,90,61] 


2,242 


929 


1,076 


Total ... 


26,425 


4,02,431 


4,367 


7,482 


63,329 


3,10,111 


11,691 


43,021 


1,496 



For the Deorighat post, which at the close of 1877-78 had been estab- 
lished for nine months only, the returns are even simpler. They may bo 
shown for half a year as follows : — 





Imports. 


Exports. 


Whence or whither bound. 


Maunds. 


Rupees. 


Maunds* 


Rupees 


■To or from Ghuiipor 
Azamgarh 


24,124 
8,509 


1C,09,396 
2,14,908 


8,468 
2,839 


62,291 
24,303 


Total 


32,633 


16,24,204 


J 1,307 


76,594 



The principal imports passing this station were, from Gh&zipur, Euro- 
pean piece-goods (15,088 maunds), oilseeds, and saltpetre; from Azamgarh, 
cotton goods, oilseeds, and metals. The chief exports were to Gh&zipur ric$ 
•(5,528 maunds), and to Azamgarh grain. 



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418 GORAKHPCR. 

From these registration statistics and other information it may be 
Summary of ex- gathered that the chief exports of Gorakhpur are rice, sugar, 
porta and import*. graillj and il see ds ; the chief imports, European and other 
cloth. The district, in fact, disposes to others of its surplus food, and receives 
from others their surplus clothing. The distinctive feature of the cloth-trade 
is the import of European piece-goods from Gh&zipur. In the district itself, of 
•whose total area but '002 per cent, is under cotton, little cloth is produced. Indi- 
genous cotton and cotton manufactures find their way from many surrounding 
marts, and chiefly through Oudh from Cawnpore. But European fabrics are des- 
patched from a few distributing centres only, of which Ghazipur is one. The 
merchants who export grain are said to take in exchange large quantities of 
doth, which are sold at Gorakhpur, Barhaj, Dh&ni, Sahibganj, and Mendhfiwal, 
to numerous travelling retailers (baipdri). Gorakhpur is of course the principal 
seat of this business ; and a statement of its cloth and other imports will be 
found in the Gazetteer portion of this notice. A good deal of cloth is re-exported 
to Nep&l, just as most of the Nep&l rice is re-exported to other districts. Amongst 
minor imports must be mentioned the timber, hides, braziery, deer-horns, wool, 
and ivory, that Nep&l sends into this district. In Sidhua Jobna, also, is a large 
liide trade. That of Salempur has somewhat declined — a fact which, as the 
business tended to encourage cattle-poisoning, is hardly to be regretted. Brass 
and iron vessels find their way from Patna and Calcutta as well as Nep&l. 

The district trade is of quite modern growth. In 1802 Mr. Routledge 
Growth of the pre- writes that " the dmil has before parting wrung out the 
sent trade. j^ remnan t f wealth in this desolated province. Nothing 

is grown beyond the bare necessaries of life, though the soil is good and fine 
crops might be grown on it. The produce is barely sufficient for local consump- 
tion." But jealous of a monopoly which they feared might be infringed, and of 
forests whose clearance they dreaded, the Company's officers did little at first to 
encourage trading enterprise. One of their first measures was to order a Mr. 
McCleish, who sought leave to build a bungalow, out of the district. 

The first export trade seems to have been in timber, ifrhich anyone wa3 
apparently allowed to cut on payment of a duty. The collection of this duty 
was in 1803 farmed for Rs. 11,501. There was also some traffic in cattle and 
in a kind of coarse cloth imported from Nepfil ; but the chief articles of import 
were salt and sugar. Small as it was, this trade was almost crushed by end- 
less duties. Mr. Routledge reported that a sdir tax was levied on every article 
crossing the NepAl frontier, the Ghagra, and the Gandak , and a rahddri or 
transit duty at every parganah boundary which it crossed. He endeavoured 
to make these imports smaller and more certain ; and selecting at the same 



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GORAKHPim. 419' 

time trade depots in each parganah, placed over each depdt a police officer 
(kotwdl) and a public weigbman. In 1803 he speaks of establishing a flourish* 
ing trade between Btitwal (then within British limits), Bhutan, and Tibet. 
Btitwal was then as now the great oentre of Nep&l trade in this part of the 
submontane country. The same year an exceptionally dry season caused a 
scarcity, and a bounty was granted on the import of grain. 

In 1806 application was made by another European, Mr. Yeld, for leave 
td build rt a residence for purposes of cultivating indigo and manufacturing the 
same." The Collector of the day strongly supported the request ; but the Gover- 
nor-General in Council refused it, as against public policy. In 1807 mention is 
made of bank-notes appearing in the district ; agd in 1805 or 1809 some land 
was at length granted for an indigo factory in Azamgarh, then a part of this 
district. Excise seems always to have yielded a large revenue, and the amount 
of this in 1812 was Bs. 1,07,405; but excise hardly perhaps comes within the 
scope of a trad6 history. 

In 1812-13 exportation of grain into Oudh and Nepal was forbidden, 
in view of * c the impending scarcity." After a few months, however, the pro- 
hibition was removed. Three or four years later mention is made of a consi- 
derable trade from Benares in cloth, sugar, and saltpetre. In 1820 Lahori 
salt is noticed as selling at 2£ seers the rupee, and in the same year mention is 
made of an ad valorem duty of 5 per cent, on all goods coming into Gorakhpur 
city. In 1824 the Collector reported on the large lac trade flourishing in Bansi 
and other places, and with Government consent imposed a heavy tax thereon. 
As an illustration of the means by which Government officers sought in those 
days to increase their salaries, it may be mentioned that he respectfully 
claimed a percentage on the collections, as a reward for having discovered this 
new source of revenue. 

In 1827 the Governor-General in Council again grew uneasy about Eng- 
lish and other European interlopers, " often men who have accumulated money 
by embezzlement, and who nowwish to take the trade of the oountry into their 
own hands." This gives the clue to the objections entertained by Government 
against indigo-planters and other European settlers. It was feared that in a 
vast district, officered by but one or two European officials, such persons might 
acquire sufficient influence to monopolise trade. 

In 1830, after Mr. Reade's appointment as Magistrate and Collector, we 
hear the first mention of a considerable export trade in grain. He writes that 
" the roads to Nepal, Oudh, Saran, Ghazipur, and Tirhtit are in excellent order, 
and large quantities of grain have lately been exported for the western 



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420 GORAKHPUR. 

markets." Iii the same year salt outposts were established to stop the illicit 
trade with Oudh, and an immediate rise in the price of salt ensued. In 1831 
the first jungle grant was leased to Mr, McLachlan. 

About 1835, Buchanan made some attempt to gauge the exports and im- 
ports from or to the north of the district. How unsuccessful the attempt was 
may perhaps be gathered from the fact that he valued the rice imports at over 
18 lakhs of rupees. The more modest modern estimate of the Agriculture 
and Commerce Department ( Its. 2,34,367), though no doubt imperfect, is far 
more likely to be accurate. Buchanan's rice, moreover, was all, save a minute 
fraction, husked ; and recent returns shows that the rice now imported is 
all, save a minute fraction, unhusked. It is hard, again, to believe him when 
he writes that the greater part of commodities other than timber " is sent by 
land carriage, and not by rivers." His remarks on the state of arts, commerce, 
and manufactures disclose the existence of no remarkable or peculiar in- 
dustry. The arts were washing, carpentry, and boat-building ; the manufac- 
tures brazen vessels, threads or string, cloth, and salt. The commerce in grain 
and sugar is noticed, and the timber trade mentioned as one of considerable 
importance, in which two Europeans are engaged. And we are told that the 
copper, copper-vessels, and copper-coin, " all come from the dominions of 
Gurkha." 

In 1839 it is mentioned that the owner of an indigo factory near Barhaj 
applied for a lease of the town and market for Rs. 1,000 yearly. He was refused, 
on the ground that he wished to compel the cultivation and export of indigo, 
which the people much dislike. But it is not even hinted that the town is a 
great centre of trade, and the export business of Gorakhpur seems in truth to 
have been irregular and unimportant until 1840. When Government treasure 
was not unfrequently snatched by gang-robbers from the custody of the spear- 
men, private traders would have been foolish to carry about them more than a 
few rupees worth of goods. 

The rise of the present trade undoub tedly dates from the revision of 
police by Mr. Reade, 1 and the clearance of the forest under numerous leases 
about 1810, when large tracts were granted to different gentlemen whose capi- 
tal and enterprise gave a stimulus to commerce generally. How greatly com- 
merce has extended in the last twenty years may perhaps be shown by the 
statistics relating to the import of cloth. Mr. Swinton's Manual 2 values the 
cloth imported yearly into the district about 1860 at half a lakh of rupees. 
The Provincial Administration Report for 1862-63 increases the figure to two 
ldkhs. About 1872, the imports of cloth into Gorakhpur city alone wero 

1 Supra, p. 377 * P. 25, 



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GORAKHPUR. -421 

deemed worth 3£ lakh*, aud the municipal returns for 1876-77 show that in 
that year the figure was actually over 5 lakhs. 

There is still room for an extension of the trade, especially with Nepdl ; 
and if the Government of that country would but remove some of the import 
and export duties which now press on the traders, and turn their attention to 
improving the roads between Butwal and Lotan, or making some of the small 
streams in the same neighbourhood navigable, a large import business in copper, 
iron, and timber might be expected. 

In the foregoing remarks on trade have been mentioned the principal 

marts of the district. But in each parganah are several 
Afarfcets And fairs* 

lesser towns or villages where markets occur once or more 

weekly. At certain places fairs are held, generally in honour of religious fes- 
tivals. The largest is the Dhanuk Jag fair at Baikunthpur, in parganah Salem- 
pur-Majhauli. Held in November- December (Aghan), to commemorate the 
marriage of R&ma, it has an estimated attendance of from 30,000 to 40,000 
persons, and lasts a fortnight. The bathing-fair at B&nsighat in Sidhua Jobna, 
held in the preceding month, is said to gather together 25,000 people, who 
for three days wash their sins away in the Gandak. Similar gatherings with 
10,000 or 15,000 attendants -muster at Rudarpur in Silhat on the Shiurfittri 
festival in February-March ; at Barhaj on the Karttik Puranm&shi in October- 
November ; at Birdgh&t in Haveli, on the R&mlila in August-September; at 
Barhalganj on both Ramlila and K&rttik Puranmashi ; at Paikauli in Salem* 
pur, on the Janam-Ashtami and Ramnauamf, in March and August ; l at 
the Sohu&g shrine, in April-May ; at Bahrdmpur in Haveli, in May-June, to 
celebrate the memory of Sayyid Saldr-i-Masdud, saint and martyr; at Kabfr- 
n&th in Sidhua Jobna, to worship at Shiv&'s shrine ; and at Tarkulwa, in tho 
same parganah, to worship at that of his consort. Commerce and gaiety are tho 
principal objects of these fairs ; but the religious character which attaches to 
them is still something more than a fiction. 

In the measures used at its marts and fairs the Gorakhpur district 
Weights and moa- ^ mos * peculiar. In some parganahs every small market 
8ures * village has its own standards of capacity, weight, and 

measure. These vary not only from place to place, but in many cases 
with the nature of the commodity sold. The Government maund weighs as 
usual 8,2281b. avoirdupois, containing 4 panseris or 20 sers of 2,0571b. each ; 
while tho ser contains 16 chhat&ks of about 2 ounces. But in some par- 
gariahs, as for instance Binayakpur, these measures are altogether unknown. 

1 At Paikauli lives a holy man named Fanhan-ji, who presides over the fairs both at that 
place and Baikunthpur. 



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423 



60BAKHPU8. 



There the weight of 4 B6twal pice equals 1 ganda ; 25-gandas equal 1 *jij 
16 seis, one m&ni; and 16 minis, one gon. 1 The sei weighs 1*149 of a 
Government ser. The mini is a familiar measure of seed, and therefore of 
land, 2 in Bundelkhand and the Central Provinces. The rajia or razia is another 
grain measure, weighing 42 gandas of pice. 

The measures of area are no less Protean. The following table shows 
the officially reoognized value of the bigha in different parganahs : — 



Parganah. 


Measure of 

Government 

bigha in square 

yards. 


Number of 

bfgbaa to the 

acre. 


Bigha, what 

decimal fraction 

of the acre. 


Dhuriapar, Bbauapar} 

Chiliupar and Anoia 5 

TUpnr and Binayakpur 

,Maghar 

fiidhoa Jobna M . — M . 

•Majbanlt 

SUhat 

Shahjahinpur ... ••• 
.Haveli 


3,186 

4,444 
8,588 
1,968 
3,806 
3,161 
9,600 
3,164 


1-5433+ 

1-0891 

1-8700 

S-4593 

1*4640 

1-5311 

184 

1*5297 + 


•6480 

•9181 + 
•7300 
•4066+ 
•6880 + 
6531 
'7436 + 
•6537 + 



The bigha is the square of the measure of length known as a jarib or 
chain. The jarib contains as a rule 20 laiha^ a term which may be literally 
tiauslated rod or pole; and the latha 5 hdths or cubits. The ignorance of 
mensuration shown by the common people throws a great power for evil into 
the hands of the landlord and village accountant. " I have over and over 
again," writes Mr. White in his Haveli Settlement Report, " asked a cultivator 
to give me his idea of a bigha, to measure it off in paces 3 or otherwise intelligibly 
describe it to me. And the invariable reply has been — ' Don't know. Whatever 
the zamind&r and patwari mark off and point out to us, that is our holding of 
so many bighas, and we pay rent accordingly.' The better sort of cultivators 
are not so obtuse ; but I speak of the general ruck of raiyaU" A quarter of a 
bigha, or 5 biswas, is sometimes called manda; and half a mile, or a quarter 
of a Jcos, is known as dhdb. The bigha is used as a measure of distanoe as well 
as area. 

1 Under the name of don, this measure is familiar also in the west and south. * The 

.measurement of land by the quantity of seed required to sow it is common amongst the hifla "' 
on either aide of Ganges valioy. See Mr. Oonybeare's Note on Parganah Duahi and ift 
aneetment, Chap. IV. 8 The pace, elsewhere Warn, is here known as parag or deg. 



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GOBAKHPtm. 



423 



The statistics of this part of the notice may be closed with a financial 
District receipts statement showing the total revenue and expenditure 



and expenditure. 


of the district for three out of the past fifteen years 


:— 


Receipts. 


18*3-64. 


1870-71. 


1877-78. 


Expenditure. 


863-64. 


1870-71. 


1877-78- 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Land revenue ... 


28,35,478 


16,61,642 


17,34,639 


Revenue charges, 


1,04,719 


85,470 


1,26,257 


SUmps 


146,676 


1,84,510 


1,98,690 


Forest 


2,597 


4,581 


... 


Miscellaneous and 


••« 


... 


... 


Excise 


1,092 


5,614 


2 876 


revenue receipts. 








Assessed taxes, 


1,894, 


315 


5,809 


Medical receipts 


12,440 


48,308 


27,915 


Stamps 


7,114 


5,542 


1,619 


(L. and J.) 








Settlement 


54,667 


14,670 


... 


Police 


8,950 


1,060 


1,586 


Judicial charges, 


62,613 


1,95,733 


1,11,363 


Public works 


881 


6,900 


4.267 


Police, district and 








Income tax 


1,16,616 


68,845 


43,214 


rural 


1,19,461 


94,530 


90,119 


Local fund ... 


2,90,434 


3,10,584 


3,78,132 


Public works 


13,479 


11,500 


1,04,000 


Poet-office ... 


8.319 


16,170 


29,611 


Provincial and 








Medical 




... 


10 


local funds 


2,51,601 


2,65,881 


283,004 


Education 


. 


»•• 


749 


Post-office m. 


6,228 


17,842 


18,7215 


Excise 


1,18,918 


1,06,843 


1,00,300 


Medical 


8,803 


9,516 


18,519 


Forest ... 


4,953 


31,760 


29,861 


Educational 


1,200 


7,750 


8,661 


Cash and transfer 


82,639 


88,160 


57,505 


Cash and transfer 








remittances. 








remittances 


20,22,478 


2,95,616 


4,83,221 


Transfer receipts 


4,44,527 


8,45,153 


1,81,272 


Transfer receipts 








aud money orders. 








and mooey order 


13,80,247 


54,813 


66,139 


Mud id pal funds ... 


... 


24,074 


36,036 


Municipal funds ... 


... 


29,397 


44,277 


Recoveries 


6,21,745 


3,480 


732 


Advances 


9,30,051 


2,780 


21,696 


Ledger and savings 


... 


1,56,785 


1,54,886 


Pensions 


1,230 


10,073 


10,195 


bank deposits. 








Ledger and savings 








Miscellaneous 


35,803 


16,210 


11,824 


bank deposits ... 


... 


1,11,099 


1,45,028 


Jail 


260 


2,510 


6,840 


Miscellaneous .. 


3,160 


2,130 


8,775 


Registration 


•*• 


16,284 


16,121 


Jail 


20,879 


18,100 


28,331 


Deposits ••• 


6,98,811 


2,44,713 


2,04,630 


Registration 


... 


6,620 


4,824 










Deposits ... 


6,70,296 


2,69,004 


2,66,261 










Military 


1,24,306 


1,35,348 


1,75,534 










Interest and re- 








" 








funds 


5,160 


5,702 


4,869 


Total 


58,56,640 


1 

82,82,495j3!,6I,292 


Total ... 


50,86,995 

1 


15,79,026 


19,27,104 



Several items of the above account seem to demand some brief detail. 
The municipal funds are collected and disbursed, 

hou^-Kwns. a n d under Act XV - of 1873 > h 7 the owporatioB of Gorakhpur. 

In 11 lesser towns — Barhalganj, Gajpur, Gaura, Gola, 

Larb, Padrauna, Pipraich, R&mpur-Kb&npur, Rudarpur, Salempur-Majhauli, 

and Siswa-baz6r — a house-tax is levied under Act XX. of 1856 on well-to-do 

residents. The income and outlay both of such towns and tho municipality 

54 



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424 



GORAKHPUR. 



will be detailed in the Gazetteer articles on each. Meanwhile, it may be 
mentioned that the expenditure is in every case chiefly on police, conservancy, 
and public works. 

The income-tax was imposed by an Act of 1870, and abolished with the 

close of the financial year 1872-73. It was in the latter 

^Income and license- leyied up(m 55g incomes exceeding Rs. 1,000, and 

realized Rs. 18,528. The license-tax, imposed by Act 
VIII. of 1877, was in force for a part of 1877-78, attaining in that year a 
total return of Rs. 43,214. 

Excise is levied under Act X. of 1871, The income 

and expenditure under this head may be shown for five 
years as follows :— 



Excise. 











1 
















Qi 
















O 


03 


CO 












'3 


a, 





tn 


00 

2 


i 




| 

'3. 


§ § 

00 O 

a a 



n 

at 
ao 

O 


e8 
o 

CO 

s 

ft* 


"3 

8 

ft* 


Q 


Rs 


H 


O 


fe 


O 


a 


55 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


7,500 


746 


16,602 


48n 


665 


97,101 


4,9*2 


92,170 


7,872 


238 


16,210 


1,025 


108 


78,377 


3,805 


74,571 


9,156 


240 


14,249 


1,494 


28 


88,444 


2,938 


85,506 


10,100 


360 


17,210 


1,406 


21 


1,04,534 


1>,450 


102,085 


14,394 


492 


19,805 


1,549 


10 


1,19,198 


3,356 


115,842 



Stamp duties are collected under the Court Fees Act (VII.) of 1870 and 

the Stamp Act (I.) of 1879, which has lately superseded 

Stan,pS ' that of 1869. 

period as the last the revenue and charges under this head :— 



The following table shows for the same 





6 


■i* 


09 


*c5 










-4 0* 


11 


s 

a 
to 


0) ^ 


P4 


00 

Of 

to 


CD 


Yean 




.0 « 
5 ® 


00 




u 


ft- 
c5 
.fi 
O 


.5* 






s *■ 

2 '3 


2a 


ft* 
O 


5.3 


3 




OQ 
00 

2 


ft* 




W * 


w 


O 


Q 


H 





*4 




Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


1872-7.1 


1,140 


82,603 


1,12,394 


497 


1,46,634 


3,054 


1,43,580 


1873-74 


814 


35,377 


1,34,292 


375 


1,70,858 


2,605 


1 ,68,752 


1874-75 


1,486 


37,145 


1,27,679 


279 


1,66,639 


2,771 


1,63,368 


1875-78 


1,259 


29,341 


1,36,628 


410 


1,67,637 


3,068 


1,64,568 


1878-77 


1,525 


32,088 


1,44,908 


228 


1,78,749 


3,148 


1,75,092 



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GORAKHPUR. 



425 



Registration. 



Judicial. 



In 1876-77 there were 4,728 documents registered under the Registration 
Act (VIII. of 1871), and on these fees to the amount of 
Rs. 13,192-6-3 were collected. The expense of establish- 
ment and other charges amounted during the same year to Bs. 4,755-11-7. 
The total value of all property affected by registered documents is returned as 
Rs. 21,91,318, of which Rs. 19,35,412 represents immoveable, and the remainder 
moveable property. 

Connected with the subject of judicial recjipta and expenditure is the 
number of cases tried. This amounted in 1878 to 42,197, 
of which 5,853 were tried by civil, 6,017 by criminal, 
and 30,327 by revenue courts. 

The medical charges are incurred chiefly at the six dispensaries : the 

contral at Gorakhpur, and branches at Rudarpur, Kasia, 
Medical statistics. _. , . . ^ . . . . __ , . .. . JL 

JDarnalganj, Uelahana, and Maharajganj. The returns 

given below show that the chief endemic disease of the district is intermittent 
fever or ague, due to the moisture of the climate, the highness of the spring- 
level, and the abundance of forest. The character of the ague varies in different 
parts of the district. In the south it is comparatively mild ; but in the north, 
towards the Tarai, it is of a severe and often intractable type, being attended with 
complications of the liver and spleen. The latter form of the disease often goes 
by the name of Gorakhpur fever. Goitre is extremely common on the calca- 
reous bfidt lands near the river Gandak and its branches. It may be attributed, 
with great probability to the water, whioh contains large quantities of lime salts 
in solution. The severest cholera epidemic of later years appears to have been 
that of 1869. Dr. Prentis came to the conclusion that about 11 per cent, of 
the inhabitants of Gorakhpur perished from it, and the cholera returns of the 
year show for the whole district 8,593 deaths. The mortuary statements for 
the five recent years may be thus summarised : — 



Year. 


Fever. 


Small- 
pox. 


Bowel 
com- 
plaints. 


Cholera. 


Other 
causes. 


Total. 


Proportion 
of deaths to 
every 1,<KH> 
of popula- 
tion. 


1873 ••• »•• 
1874 

1875 ... ••• 

1876 ••• ••• 

1877 


37,028 
84,308 
28,969 
32,439 
36,329 


14,928 

13,795 

611 

765 

68 


2,312 
2,580 
2,286 
1,272 
1,441 


429 
3,988 
2,662 

898 
4,285 


6,270 
4,835 
5,604 
6,778 
8,179 


59,967 
69,506 
40,099 
49,131 


29*69 
29*46 
19*85 
20*66 
23-40 



The number of deaths from small-pox will at once arrest attention. 
But that the Government vaccinators have not been idle will be seen from the 



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426 



GORAKHPU*. 



following figures:— In 1873-74 as many as 6,912 ont of 10,111 vaccine opera- 
tions were successful; in 1874-75, 11,515 out of 16,027 ; 12,700 out of 15,956 
in 1875-76 ; 19,584 out of 23,585 in 1876-77 ; and in 1877-78, 22,013 out 
of 24,711. 

The following exhaustive list of indigenous medicines was supplied by 
the kindness of Dr. Prentis. It will be seen that many of them are familiar 
to the European as well as native pharmacopoeia : — 



Order. 


Scientific name. 


Vernacular name. 


Part used. 


Vbqbtablb, 












Ranunculacess 


••• 


Ranunculus sceteratus 




••• 


••• 


Menispermacese 


••• 


Cocculus cordifolivs » 


••• 


Guluncha 


Root. 


Papayeracea 


•M 


Papaver comniferum 


••• 


Post, afim C poppy, 
opium). 


Capsule ; juice from 
seeds ; oil. 


ft 


••• 


Argemone Mexicana 


••• 


Shiyal-kanta «• 


Oil from seeds. 


Fumariacea 


••• 


fumaria parviflora 


••• 


8hahtara 


Mt 


Craciferse 


••• 

• •• 


Sinapis juncea 
„ alba 


— 
... 


^™° n }(m«.tMd) 


Ditto. 


i* 


••• 


Leptdium sativum 


••• 


Halim (cress) ... 


Seed. 


Capparidaoen 


• •• 


Gynandropsis heptaphylla, 


Karaela — 


Ditto. 


Tamaricace© 


••• 


Tamarix Gallica 


••• 


Jhao (tamarisk) ... 


••• 


Malrace© 


••• 


Hibiscus tsculentus 


... 


Bhindi, okra ••• 


Capsules. 


n 


M« 


Sida acuta 


••• 


Kungoni ... 


Root. 


9$ 


••• 


Gossypium herbaeeum 


... 


Kapis (cotton) ... 


Hairs attached to 

seed. 
Fruit. 


Tiliacese 


... 


Grswia Asiatic* 


••« 


Phalsa 


Aurantiaoea 


• •• 


Citrus aurantium 


••• 


Naraogi (orange) .. 


Ditto. 


» 


... 


„ Umonum 


... 


Nimbu (lemon) ... 


Ditto. 


it 


... 


»i Bergamia 


••• 


(bergamot) 


Ditto. 


n 


»•• 


JEgU marmeios 


••• 


Bel 


Ditto. 


r* 


••• 


Feronia elephantum 


••• 


Kath-bel, kaith — 


Ditto. 


Meliacese 


»•• 


Mcha atedarach 


••• 


Nfm 


Bark and leaves. 


Cedrelacea 


• •• 


Cednla toona 


••• 


Tun 


Bark. 


linace® 


•«• 


Linum usitattssimum 


••• 


Tisi, alsi (linseed) 


Oil from seeds. 


Anacardiacea 


—9 


Mangiftta Indica 


••• 


Am (mango) 


Kernel of seeds. 


Leguminous 


• •• 


Clitoria ternatea 


••• 


AparsjtU 


8eeds, root. 


»• 


"• 


Dalbergia sissoo 


••• 


Shfsham (*' Indian 
rosewood"). 


Bark. 


it 


— 


Mucuna prurient 


Mff 


Kiwach (cowach)... 


Hairs on pod. 


99 


••• 


Butea frondosa 


— 


PaWB, dhak 


Seeds and gum. 


n 


••• 


Abrus prccatarius 


M* 


Mtilhati (Indian 

liquorice). 
Amaltis ... 


Boot. 


>♦ 


••• 


Cassia fistula 


••• 


Pulp of pods. 


•1 


•«. 


„ alata 


• •• 


•— 


... 


M 


•m 


Alhagi Maurorum 


• •• 


Jawftsa M , 


8accharine exudation* 


■• 


— 


Cmsalpinia bonducelt* 


• •• 


Kath-karanj 


Seeds. 


l» 


••% 


Tamarind** Indica 


••• 


Irali (tamarinds) ... 


Pulp of pods. 


n 


••• 


Acacia Arabica 


••• 


Babtt 


Qum (arabic). 


19 


— 


99 catechu 


••« 


Kbair kath 


Catechu. 


Moringaoea 


M# 


Moringa pterygosperma 


••• 


Sabajna, sainjna 
(** Indian horse- 
radish"). 


Boot. 


Lytbraret» 


... 1 Lawtpnia alb* 


••• 


Mihndi (henna) ••• 


Leaves. 



«• 



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GOKAKHrUR. 



427 



Order. 


Scientific name. 


Vernacular name. 


Part used. 


Combretaceas 




Terminalia bell erica 


••« 


Bahera} fmyroba- 


Fruit 


t> 


••• 


• „ chebula 


... 


Harra > lans). 


Ditto. 


Granate® 


•♦• 


Punica granatum 


••• 


Anar (pomegra- 
nate). 


Bind of fruit and 
bark of root. 


Cucurbitaceas 


••• 


Cucurbita pepo 


— 


Eadu (pumpkin) .♦. 


Seed. 


»» 


••• 


Cucvmis utilissimus 


... 


Kakri (cucumber), 


Ditto. 


Umbelliferas 


••• 


Carum nigrum 


... 


Zira, kila 


Fruit. 


t« 


•N 


Cuminum Cyminum 


• •• 


„ sufed (cummin) 


Ditto. 


tt 


M. 


Ptychotis Ajowan 


... 


Ajwftin (aniseed) .. 


Ditto. 


>i 


••■ 


Foeniculum panmorium 


... 


Sonf (fennel) ... 


Ditto. 


H 


• •• 


Anethum soma 


• •• 


Sowa (diU) 


Ditto. 


» 


••• 


Coriandrum sativum 


*M 


Dhanya (coriander- 
seed). 
Gajar (carrots) ... 


Ditto. 


n 


... 


Dave u& carota 


M. 


Root. 


n 


• •• 


HydrocotyU Ariatica 


... 


Jal-kari (water 
cress?). 


Leaves. 


Composite 


• •• 


Cichorium Intybus 
Vermmia anthelmintica 


• •• 


Kasi (chicory) ... 


Fruit. 




«•• 


... 


... 


Ditto. 






Arteminia Jndica 


••• 


Danna ... 


Leaves. 


l» 


• •• 


Matricaria suavedens 


... 


Babuna-k£-phal ... 


Flowers, 


Sapotacess 


••■ 


Bassia latifolia 


• •• 


Mahua ... 


Kernel of seeds. 


Asclepiadace® 


... 


Cahtropis gigantea 


••1 


Madax ... 


Bark of roots. 


ft 


••• 


Hemidtsmus Indicus 


• •• 


Anantamul ... 


Ditto. 


Apocynace© 


»•• 


Holarrhena antidysenterica, 


Indarjau ... 


Seeds. 


99 


• •• 


Nerium odorum 


• •• 


Kanir (oleander) ... 


Root. 


LoganiaceflB 


• •• 


Slrychnos nux vomica 


M. 


Eachila ... 


Seeds. 


Bignoniacess 


• •• 


Sesamum Indicum 


••• 


Til 


Oil from seeds. 


Convolvulacea 


• •• 


Pharbilis nil 


• *. 


Kala dlna 


Ditto. 


» 


•M 


Ipomma Turpethum 
Datura alba 


• •• 


Trepatta M 


Roots. 


Setanacess 


••• 


M* 


Dhatura ... 


Leaves and seeds. 


w 


... 


Solatium Jacquinii 


»•• 


Kutnya 


Fruit and root. 


ft 


• •• 


„ Indicum 


••• 


Kulai 


Root. 


91 


•«• 


Nicotiana tabacum 


... 


Tambiku (tobacco,) 


Leaves. 


_ t» 


• •• 


Cupsioum annuum 


••• 


Lai mirch (chiU), ... 


Fruit. 


Labiates 


... 


Mentha viridis 


— 


Podina (mint) ... 


Leaves. 


M 
ft 


• •• 


Ocimum sanctum 
„ basilicum 


••• 


Tulsi \ ,. . lx 
Bihan J( ba8ll > - 


Seeds. 


» 


... 


Dracoeephalum Royleonum, 


Bslangu „ 
Kafur-k*-patta ... J 


Ditto. 


VerDenaceae 


••• 


Meliandra Bengalensis 


... 


Leaves. 


••• 


Vitex negundo 


•M 


Nirgunch, nirgunthi, 


Boot, leaves, and 

fruit. 
Leaves and root. 


t> 


*— 


CUrodendron viscosun 


... 


Bhant 


_ »» 


• •• 


Verbena officinalis 


HI 


••• 


Leaves. 


Plumbaginace© 


•«• 


Plumbago rosea 


... 


L41 chitra — 


Bark and root* 


»• 


• •• 


„ zeylanica 


• •• 


Chitra, chitrftng ... 


Bark of root. 


Aristolochiacess 


• «• 


Aristolochia Mtlica 


••• 


Tsan mui . -, 


Koot. 


Suphorbiacess 


• •• 


EmbHca officinalis 


... 


Aonla ... 


Seeds and bark. 


» 


••• 


Rottlera tinctoria 


M« 


Kamala 


Leaves covering 
capsules. 


» 


... 


Ricinvs communis 


••• 


Arcnda (castor-oil 
plant). 


Leaves and oil from 
seeds. 


i* 


• •• 


Croton tiglium 


••« 


Jamilgota (oroton- 
oil plant.) 


Ditto. 


_ •» 


• •• 


Jatropha curcas 


•••' 


Bagrandi — 


Ditto. 


Urticacese 


• •• 


Cannabis saliva 


••• 


Bhang (wild hemp,) 


Resin and flowering 


_ n 


•m 


Ficus Carica 


•*• 


Anjir (fig) 


top. 
Fruit. 


Zingiberaceae 


... 


Zingiber officinale 
Curcuma Tonga 


• •« 


Adrak (ginger) ... 


Rhiaome, 


_. »» 


••• 


.«■ 


Haldi (turmeric) ... 


Tubers. 


Musacesa 


•tt 


Musa sapientum 


••• 


Kela (plantain, ba- 
nana). 


Leaves. 



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488 



GORAKHPDK. 



Order, 


Scientific name. 


Verncular name. 


Part used. 


Lilioceas 


»•• 


Scilla Jndica ... 


Kandra, Kundru 

(squills J 
Niriyal (cocoanot) 

Akh (sugarcane) ... 


Bulb. 


Palmaceae 
Gramlnaceas 


••• 


Coeos nucifera ... 
Sacckarum officinarum Mt 


Kernel of fruit and 

its oil. 
Sugar. 


Animal. 










Annelida 


••• 


Hirudo medicinali* ... 


Jonk (leech) 


The living annelid 
itself. 

Honey and wax. 


Coleoptera 
Hymenoptera 


.•• 


Mylairia cichorii 

Apis nullified ... 


Teli 

Madhmakhi (honey- 
bee.) 


Inorganic. 










» 


••• 

••• 

••• 


Carbo ligni 

Potasta nitras ... 
Calcis carbonas impurus ... 
5orfti chloridium ... 


Eocla (charcoal.) 
Shora (saltpetre.) 
Kankar chuuam. 
Nimak (table-salt.) 





Cattle-disease. 



Like other skilled Europeans who have investigated the subject, Dr. 
Prentis has little belief in empirical native systems of medicine. He thinks 
that the district does not contain a single " enlightened hakim" Turning from 
man to beast, he observes that though rot sometimes 
appears amongst the sheep, he has heard of no regular 
cattle-epidemic. Mr. Orooke adds, however, that rinderpest (debi or debt ka- 
niksdr) is often imported into the district by cattle returning from the Tarai 
pastures. Foot-and-mouth disease (khdna) is common and causes, if it occurs 
at agricultural seasons, great injury. The rot mentioned by Dr. Prentis is 
most frequent in the Ghdgra and Rapti valleys. 

We close this portion of the notice with a sketch of the district history. 
The legends of the traditional age which preceded the 
advent of the Muslims are as usual contradictory, absurd, 
and untrustworthy. But by the aid of other lights the following main points 
can be made out. The districts of Gorakhpur and Basti probably formed part 
of the ancient kingdom of Mahd-kosala. 1 Rama, who seems a not altogether 
mythical hero, is said to have passed some time in prac- 
tising austerities near the junction of Rapti and Ghagra 
in Gorakhpur. It was here that he received instruction from the sage Visva- 
mitra ; here that he in gratitude ceded the country north of Sarju to that sage's 
Kausik descendants. Some Brahmans of the district affirm, indeed, that the 
name Gorakhpur is a corruption of Gaurakshpur, denoting the country in 
^Buchanan's Eastern India (1838), p. 925. 



History. 



Bama, circ, 8COB. C. ? 



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. * 



GOKAKHPUR. 429 

which R4ma tended the herds of cattle belonging to his uncle during a season 
of great drought at Ajudhya. Though undoubtedly wrong, the derivation 
is of some value as evidence in favour of the theory that the district was at 
one time a part of Mahfc-kosala and an appanage of Ajudhya. 

Buchanan places the death of Rdma and first destruction of Ajudhya 

about 750, and the second destruction of that city abont 512 years before Christ. 

The birth of Buddha, S&kya Muni, or Gautama, took place, according to 

Gautama Buddha, circ. the Desfc authorities, at some date between 600 and 550 B.C. 

**> B-C. at Kapila ; while his death occurred between 550 and 

500 B.C. at Kusianagara, which General Cunningham 1 has satisfactorily 

identified with Kasia in pargana Sidhua Jobna. From the accounts which 

we possess of his life and death, and from the description given of the 

country by Hwen Thsang, the Chinese traveller, it is certain that the country 

in the neighbourhood of Padrauua and Gorakhpur was 

ar mrm ©a. ^^ ^ ^ ^^ localities in which the Buddhist doctrines 

gained general adherence, about 500 B.C. The next event in order of time 

Conquest by the Bhsrs, is the traditional conquest of the district by the Bhars 

°- B «E!«n n « £ h4^(i8, and Thariis. 

evre* 500-460 B. C. 

Buchanan asserts that, according to the people of Ajudhya, their city 

remained "deserted from the date of its second destruction till the era of Vik- 

ramiditya (57 B.C.) He quotes also other legends showing the spread of 

Buddhism down to Benares ; the expulsion of the family of the Sun from that 

town; and the destruction of the same race at Ajudhya, and of the Lunar race 

at Magadha, by the Cherus. He adds a tradition, familiar in the district, 

oftheatte mpt made by some R&ja of one of these two 

before 7hem P1 into this races to establish himself near Rudarpur 2 and found a 

di8trict - new Kfahi (Benares). 

His account is much confused ; but the local tradition clearly points to the 

fact that this R&jacame from Ajudhya after its second destruction (512 B.C.), 

and had very nearly succeeded in completing the walls of his new city. 

When, however, 999 out of the 1,000 projected temples had been built, he 

was overwhelmed and slain by the Bhars and oilier 
Bat is ejected. . , ., 

impure tribes. 

Buchanan alludes in the same passage to an invasion of Gurkhas, who, he 
says, were expelled by the Tharus ; and he seems to consider these last were Chi- 
nese. But the Gurkhas, as is well known, were not heard of till very much later. 3 

i Archaohaical Survey Reports, vol. II. ; see also Gazetteer article on Katia. ■ Iuparpma 
Silhat. Buchanan mentions that thejplace was then called Hansakshetra or 'G** 1 *. «* gires 
the name of the prince as Vasishta Singh, ; Probablynot till the sixteenth century A. D. 

Svpra p. 363 



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430 OOBAKHPUB. 

And it is likely that they have been confused with the Cherds and Bhars, namea 
which were probably synonymous. 1 It is probable that on the first Aryan 
invasion these Bhars and Cheriis fled for the refuge to the hills ; and that their 
long residence in the mountains, before descending to reconquer the plains, 
may account for their confusion with Gurkhas. In a long article on the Bhars 
Mr. Sherring has plausibly proved that they once ruled a wide tract including 
the bulk of Gorakhpur and Basti, and extending to the foot of the Vindhyas in 
Mirzapur. Their present degraded status in no way disproves his theory, 
which is that the Bhars and other aboriginal tribes succeeded for a time in 
reconquering the Aryan invaders. The Bhars themselves say they came from 
the west, and the R&jbhars claim connection with the Rajputs. But the latter 
pretension is easily explained by the desire of a conquered and utterly crushed 
people to give themselves more consequence in the eyes of their conquerors. 
The only difficulty in identifying the Bhars with the aboriginal Cheriis 

lies in the tradition which unites them with the ThArus. 
Bhim^d^hiSs q ^t£ The latter were eiiter originally Hindus, or anciently 
rt^ te tota^ Hinduized to a far greater extent than any other race 

we are acquainted with. Their tradition of descent 
from Bajputs of Chittor has been already noticed. 2 They sometimes trace 
their lineage to Br&hmans who lost caste by mixing with the aborigines, drink- 
ing spirits, and eating flesh. But they also assert kinship with the Nep&l 
Br&hmans, whose rules have been relaxed somewhat similarly. While dismiss- 
ing these theories as unlikely, Buchanan notices their pretension to be consi- 
dered the real descendants of the Sun, who, dispossessed for a time by Gur- 
khas or impure tribes, recovered their kingdom after a short period of exile. 
It is not improbable that this last tradition may be founded on fact. The 
Th&rus may really, perhaps, represent the remnant of the old Siiraj- 
bansi invaders, who, unable to escape southwards from the Bhars, took refuge 
in Nep&l. They may have afterwards descended, and settling down amongs . 
the conquerors, lost their caste distinctions. It may indeed be doubted if the 
strict rules regarding eating and other habits of life were in force at so early 
a date as that of the expulsion of the Aryans. The title Th&ru perhaps, as 
already noticed, records the servile condition of the tribe under Bhar rule.* 
The tradition which makes Tharus leaders amongst the Bhars is easily 
explained by the closer connection between the former and the Aryans, 
and the unwillingness of later Aryan conquerors to allow that the Bhars were 
ever a nation strong enough to dispossess them of the country. 

1 Buchanan seems to think that the Cheriis represent a distinct and earlier wave of 
intasion than the Bhars. But Messrs. Sherring and C. A. Elliott (Chronichs of Unao) consider 
these races identical. > Supra pp. 357-58. > Ibid* 



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GORAKHPUB. 431 

The Th4nis are said to have ruled the whole district with great splen- 
dour, and to have constructed castles all along the Ghigra. But it is more 
convenient to suppose that they have been confounded with the Bhars, and to 
accept the common theory that the latter were the really predominant race of 
that day. Whatever the caste of the new rulers, the fact remains that, shortly 
after the rise of Buddhism, wild or aboriginal tribes succeeded in turning the 
tables on their civilized Aryan masters. 

" When the Aryan race first settled in Ajudhya, " writes Mr. C. A, 
Elliott, " the natural resource of the aborigines was to Gy to the hills or 
jungles. When the curtain next rises we find Ajudhya destroyed, the 
Sdrajbansis banished, and a vast extent of country ruled over by aborigines 
called Cheru in the far east, Bhars in the centre, and U&jpusis in the west v 
The history of Gorakhpur fits in exactly with this 
^Bhars probably abori- gketch F j rgt we find u fttfcacheiJ to Ajudhya as a 

vast pasture land for the cattle of the Siirajbansi or 
Solar princes ; next, bestowed by BAma on his spiritual instructor, 
Viswamitra ; afterwards, garrisoned by one of the great chiefs of Aju- 
dhya, who constructed the enormous fortified works near Rudarpur ; lastly, 
annexed by a dynasty of Bhar kings, who expelled the Surajbansis not only 
from Gorakhpur but also from Ajudhya and Magadha. These Bhars ruled in 
all probability for many generations. 

Mr. Sherring believes that the aborigines rose and expelled the Aryans 
after the latter were weakened by the contest between Br&hmanism and Bud- 
dhism. It is not improbable that the conquering aborigines were themselves 
Buddhists or Jainas. We know that Jaina Thirus established a dynasty else- 
where in the sub-Him&layan tract, 1 and we know that a Buddhist Siidra 
dynasty was about 350 B. C. established at Magadha. 

The legend connecting the spread of Buddhism to Benares with the des- 
truction of the families of the Sun and Moon is perhaps the story of the 
triumph of Buddhist Bhars or Cherus, over the Aryan invaders. The 
Buddhist remains noticed by Buchanan in the neighbourhood of Rudar- 
pur may perhaps have been relics of a reoocupation by Buddhist abori- 

It has been mentioned that the Siirajbansi founder of buildings in the 

same tract had fled eastwards before the Bhars from Ajudhya. This quite agrees 

with the legend of the Bhars themselves, that they came from the west. The 

date of their conquest may here be fixed at between 500 and 450 B. 0. And 

.they probably passed onwards to Magadha, where, according to Elpbinstone, 

>Oudh Gazetteer, 1,111 

55 



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432 GORAKHPUR. 

Biidras established a dynasty about 400. The struggle between themselves and 
their Aryan masters must have lasted for many years. 

The theory now advanced that Buddhism was the religion of the Bhars 

and other aboriginal or at least earlier races is sup* 

.^The Bhars probably Bud- porfced by the facfc that Gorakhpur and the C0U ntry 

about it was certainly the tract first converted to the 
new faith ; and was with equal certainty wrested from the Aryan conquerors 
by the Bhars about the time when the faith began to spread. About 250 B. 0. 
we find the authority of Asoka, the great Buddhist Siidra of Magadha, recog- 
nized not only in this district, but elsewhere north of the Narbada, Near 
Bh&galpur in parganah Salempur, is a pillar inscribed with his edicts ; while at 
Kah&on, in the same parganah is a similar monument erected by some other 
Gupta king. * 

If assumed to have conquered the district by 450 B.C., the Bhars must 

" Keconqoeet of the dfa. have he,d U for near a ^ousand years. The history 
trict by the Aryans, dre. of the reconquest by the Aryans seems to correspond 

with the legendary account of the revival of Brah- 
inanism, known as the regeneration of the fire-races. ' But at its commence- 
ment we enter on the first stage of the historic period, and pass out of that 
which is merely traditional. 

The first reinvasion seems to have been that of the B&thors, who, advanc- 
ing from Eanauj about 550 A. D., expelled the Bhars from a tract on the east 
bank of the R&pti, from its mouth to near Gorakhpur. They are said to have 
established themselves in a fort near the Bamgarh lagoon ; and legends repre- 
sent them as living in amity with the Th&rus. 

The Chinese traveller Hwen Tbsarig passed through the country about 

635 A. D., but he makes no mention of the R&ja of 

6«5. Wen ***' CirC ' Gorakhpur or of any other town of importance in its 

neighbourhood. 8 He describes the country as filled 
with ruins of Buddhist convents and relic-temples, but says that it was 
for the most part desolate, overgrown with jungle and scoured by rob- 
bers. 

About 900-950 A. D., a R&ja called Mdn Sen, or perhaps Madan Singh, 

MA - was ruler of Gorakhpur (not then, however, known 

by this name). Buchanan 4 considers him to have 

been a Th&ru, but other traditions represent him as a R&thor. The difference 

1 Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. I. * Marshman's History, vol. I , pp. i7-i«. 

« The earlier pilgrim Fa- Hi an (circ. 400 &.D.) would appear to have visited Kasia, if not Rudar* 
pur and other places in the district. For a map of his probable route see volume referred to in 
penultimate note. * Eastern India! vol. II., p. 843, 



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GOBAKHPUR, 433 

may perhaps be reconciled by the common story that the R&thora and Th&rus 
held the town together. 1 He seems at all events to have been a real person* 
A large tank at Gorakhpur, called M&ns&war (M&n -sugar or M&n-sarovar) is 
ascribed to him ; and a smaller one, named Kaulada, to his wife Kaulavati. 
His wealth was widely celebrated and brought down on him an invasion by a 
Invasions of the Domka- tribo called i both in ^ e district and by Buchanan 
t * ars - Domkatdr, but who seem to be the same as the Donwar 

Rajpnte mentioned by Oldham and Sherring.* The exact origin of this tribe 
is not known, but there is no doubt that they were the descendants of Aryans 
who had intermarried with the aboriginal Doms (or Domras), and that they 
now fell on Man Singh's capital and sacked it. They next proceeded to establish 
themselves in a very strong position to the east of the present town, and built 
a fort which was called after them Domangarh, and stood on a small island 
formed by the river Bohin. 

After them came the mixed Bhuinhar families, which seem to have been 

very common at this time. It appears, indeed, by no 

And BhuinharB* 

means improbable that up to about this period inter- 
marriage between different races was not prohibited ; and that all the strict, 
rules relating to caste were introduced only when Brahmanism had again 
triumphed over the aboriginal tribes. 8 It is at any rate almost oertain that at 
this time the Brahmans allowed the Kajpnt chiefs who fought for them to 
marry into their families, and such alliances account for the Rajput titles Kausik, 
Donwar, Ac, by which Bhuinhar Brahmans have distinguished some of their 
sub-divisions. 4 The license of intermarriage was in some cases, like that of the 
Donwars, extended to marriages with women captured from the impure abori- 
ginal tribes. 

The Bhufnhars invaded the district from the south, treading close on the 
heels of the Domkatars. The first family is said to have settled at Harpur in 
Dhuriapar, and to have been followed by that from which the Rajas of Majhauli 
are descended. The ancestor of this family, Maiur or Mayyura, is called a 
descendant of the Brahman Parasram (Parasurama). But by other traditions 
he is styled both a Rajput and a Bhat. He is supposed to have married four 

Foundation of the Ma- wives of different castes, and from one of these, a Raj- 
jhauli Kaj by putni, Bissu Sen, the founder of the Bissen Rajputs 

was born, 

1 It would also confirm the theory that TbarGs are descended from the Solar race, and 
therefore closely connected with Rsthors. • See Sherriog's Castes, page 238. The differ- 

ence there noticed as made by Dr. Oldham between the Donwar Rajputs and Bhufnhars is 
strong evidence in favour of the identity of the former with Domkatars. " See a note on 

castes by Mr. Growne, published in the Census Keport of 1872, 4 See Mr, Oldham's 

Memoir of Ghazipur. 



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434 aORAKHHJB. 

Bissu Sen established himself at Nawftpur, now Salempur, and soon 

BissnSen Bisen circ. rose into importance as one of the most powerful chiefs 

lloo A. u. i n t hj 9 part of the country. His date is fixed at about 

1100 A.D. Between his territory and that of the Domkatars or Domw&rs 

there was a broad tract of jungle which prevented their coming into collision. 

The Bhars still retained possession of the west of the district, and continued 

to hold Amorha in Basti till the time of Akbar, who granted 

it to the Jaipur princess, his wife. Her relations expelled 

then, from this last stronghold and founded the Amorha R&j out of their 

possessions. 1 

About 1350 A. D., the Rajput chiefs who had been 
puts. expelled by the Muslim invaders began to enter the 

district. One of the first of these was Dhur Chand, who claimed descent from 
Dhur Chand Knusik one ^ ft J a Kausik, uncle of Visramitra. The legend which 
founds the Dhurtapir made R&ma grant Sarjupur to that saint's descendants 
was now turned to advantage. That legend as given by 
Elliot 3 relates that Rdma, having promised to Yisramitra as much land as bis 
arrow could cover in its flight, drew his bow on the banks of the Sarju, and sped 
a shaft which fell at the foot of the hills. The tract thus bestowed was called 
Sarjupftr or Sarwar, t. e. " beyond Sarju." The exact site of the Ghadipur 
from which Dhur Chand's ancestors are said to have travelled is unknown. 8 
All that can be said with certainty is that a Kausik Rajput invaded the dis- 
trict from the south and established himself in the tract of country called after 
him, DhuriAp&f. The Bhars he is said to have conquered witli ease, and the 
Bhuinh&rs of Harpur with difficulty. Before his death he had acquired con- 
siderable power, and his sons are said to have been allies of the Shark] kings of 
Oaunpur (1394-1457). 

About the same time the founder of Sat&si R/ij, Chandra Sen, 4 appeared 

Foundation of the Sa- i n the west of the district. He was a Sarnet Rajput to 
Usi Ittj by Chandra Sen . J f 

g arne t. whom tradition assigns a small domain near Ldh r. 6 

Offending an emperor of Dehli, be was pardoned only at the intercession 

of a Brahman from this district 6 On his release he accompanied the Brahman 

eastward, and after many adventures reached the Kufina river in this district. 

* Seo Mr. P. White's Settlement Report, Amorha. * Races of the North- Western 

Provinces, vol. I., p '50, where the story is told regarding a jrrant to the bar w aria Brahmana, 
* Elliot thinks it was part of Kanauj, p. 157. 4 In his Bausi report Mr. Wynne puts the 

foundation of thegatasi JRdj at 1144 A I). Mr. Alexander thinks this date too early, and adds 
that Sen ia merely a local pronunciation of the Rajput Buffix 8inh or Singh. » The name 

of his birthplace wa9 Srfnagar, but its exact location is uncertain. • Why a Muslim 

emperor should have heeded the intercession of a Gorakhpur Hrahman the legend does not 
explain Tbe intercessor is paid to have lived mar Stltmpur Majhauli, and some improterished 
Brahmans in the district still claim descent from him. 



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GORAKHPUK. 485 

Here be established himself and began to extend his authority eastward*. 
In bo doing he became involved in hostilities with the Domkatar (or Donw&r) 
chiefs. 

They were on the point of compelling him to quit the district and seek 
Hostilities with the h* s fortunes elsewhere, when his Brahman adviser sng- 

mk&t&rs. gested a stratagem which proved completely successful. 

Chandra Sen, being a pure R&jput, was deemed somewhat superior to the 
Domw&rs, who had intermarried with both Doms and Bhars. He now there- 
fore proposed to wed his daughter to the son of the principal Donwir chief, on 
condition of being allowed to retain a part of the country he had invaded. 
His proposal was gladly accepted. Immense preparations were made, and 

„, , L , Chandra Sen gained admittance to the Domin- 

Treacherous conduct of ° 

Chandra Sen, and Murder garh fort with a large body of followers. Then 
of the Domkatars. . . ,. , .. , , , , , , a1 _ 

seizing his opportunity he treacherously murdered the 

Domkatar chiefs, while his followers outside slaughtered as many of the 
beguiled clan as could be found. The power of the Donw&rs was crippled by 

this blow, and Chandra Sen became one of the most 
powerful chiefs in the district 
The victims of his treachery fled in many cases to the north, where their 
1300-1400. descendants still flourish. During the same century 

Origin of the Biitwal Raj. ( j b0 0- 1 400) the Biitwal RAj was founded by an adven- 
turer whom his descendants represented as a Cbauh&n RAj put. They used to 
say that he escaped from the siege of Chittaur in 1303, that his name was 
Makhund Singh, and that he at one time had great power. The truth of this - 
story is, however, doubtful. Had he escaped from Chittaur, he would have 
been a Gahlot rather than a Chauh&n. 

His descendants never maintained the position of pure RAj puts, but 
Family not probably intermarried with the TiiAnis. They never, moreover, 
*^ put8 ' possessed much authority within the present district of 

Qorakhpur. Being cut off from the Satasi RAjas by a wide tract of forest, 
they did not come into collision with those chiefs till much later. With the 
Bansi branch of the SaiAsi house they, however, carried on a long struggle, 
which reduced the border country to a state of utter desolation, and resulted 
at last in the defeat of the BAnsi family. 

The establishment of the Satasi RAj marks that period in the history of 

„ . , the district when the invasions from the south began 

Cessation of the invasions 
after foundation of the to cease. A few petty chieftains made conquests in 

the east of the district. But the power of the Dhu- 

riapar and Majhauli R&jas checked the stream of invasion from the south, whilst 



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436 GORAKHPUR, 

the troubles in which the kings of Dphli were involved prevented the Muham- 

madans from making any vigorous effort to subjugate the district. 

Chandra Sen had prudently conneoted himself by marriage with the Ma- 

jhauli Raja, and thus averted invasion from that quarter till he had secured his 

position. After his death his three grandsons divided his possessions. The eldest, 

. Jagdhar, took the eastern portion, extending over a 

Origin of the nunc Satdst, ■ 

circuit of 84 kos and including a considerable extent 

of land on the east of the Rapti. The circuit of his territory was soon extended 
to 87 ko8, and fiom this fact his Raj was known as the Satdsi. 

The second grandson, J&i, settled at Mag bar, and is said to have held lands with 
a oircuit of 42 koa. He was the founder of what afterwards became the Bansi Raj. 
The third, Randhir, occupied Anola, south-west of Gorakhpur, with a 
boundary line of 21 kos. The residence of the Sat&si Rajas was at first a 
fort on the Ramgarh jhil. The site is still pointed out, but no traces of the 
building remain. The first hundred years of their dynasty are noticeable for 
a war which they carried on with the Majhauli Raja regarding a tract of land 
near Rudarpur, and for the birth of Gorakhnath. 

The war continued with brief intervals of peace for three generations, and 

1350- U50. War between m &*& ,n ^e occupation of the disputed tract by the 

the Satfsi and Majhauli Raja of Majhauli. As consolation the Satdsi Rajas 

succeeded in wresting a small tract of country from the 

Dhuriapar family. It is probable, however, that this tract had previously been 

taken from the Satasi Raj during the struggle between them and Majhauli. 

It was about this time that the celebrated Gorakhnath flourished, and that the 

town of Gorakhpur was founded. 

Regarding the life of Gorakhnath there are hardly any authentic details. 
Gorakhnath, drc. 1400 Hia name is said to have originally been Matsyendra 
A,D * or Machhendrandth, and he lived as the pupil of a 

Hindu Gosdin in the jungles near Rasiilpur. He discovered at the site of 
the present temple a shrine sacred to the god Gurakh or Gorakh, who 
appears to have been •a deity of great fame in the Nepdl country ; and having 
devoted himself to the service of this deity, practised the greatest austerities. He 
obtained a character for peculiar sanctity and took the name of Gorakhndth or 
servant of Gorakh. 

Shortly after bis death a quarrel in the Satdsi family induced some of its 

Foundation of the pre- members to leave the Rdmgarh castle and establish 

sent town of Gorakhpur. themselves near the shrine, from which the town they 

founded took its name of Gorakhpur. Beyond the resemblance of sound, there 

1 Other accounts, however, represent him as bat a friend of Machhendarnath. See Elliot's 
(ftwiwy, art. Harbongka-rdQ. t 



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GORAKUPUR. 



4&7 



is not much to connect Gorakbpur and Gorakhn&th with the Gurkhas. Ab 
already mentioned, the latter derive their name from a town named Gurkha. 
About 1,41)0 A. D. the Satasi Raja died childless, 
and Hoal Singh, whom he had adopted from the Anola 
family, was declared Raja. It is not improbable that this event had something 
to do with the qnarrel just noticed. 

About the condition at this period of eastern Gorakhpur little or nothing 

is known. When Buddha died, towns of some size must have flourished in this 

part of the country. The names of one or two, such as Kusianagara (Kasia) 

and PAwa i Padrauna) are still preserved. But when Hwen Thsang visited these 

places they were in ruins. In the beginning of the fifteenth century 'the south of 

the modern parganah Sidhua Jobna and the greater part of parganah Shah- 

jah&npur are mentioned as attached to the dominions of one Mardan or 

Madan Sen, who appears to have been a chief of considerable power. The 

accounts left of him are too vague to identify this chief. But it is not impos- 

sible that he was the RAja of Saran and Champ&ran 

who gave the Muhammadan deputies of those parts 

bo much trouble. Though a Rajput and a personage of mucfariater date, he is 

very commonly confused with the Madau Singh whom the Domwars ousted 

in the tenth century. 

At the close of the fifteenth, the district was therefore divided as follows: — 
^. . . , A1 _ ,. , . , The soul h-east,parganahs8alempur and Silhat, was held 

Divisions of the district > r & i y 

at the close of the fifteenth by the Bisen Rijas of Majhauli. The Kausik descendants 
centufy * of Dhur Chand occupied the south-west— that is 

parganah Dhuriapar and its neighbourhood. The Sarnet Rajas of Satasi and Anola 
ruled the centre and west for some 20 miles north and east of Gorakhpur, as 
well as southwards along the right bank of the Rapti. Further east of this was 
Madan Singh, whose territory could, however, have included little of this district. 
North of the Satasi country was a vast forest which furnished hunting-grounds 
for the Raja. In the extreme north-west was the Butwal Raj ; while the north- 
east was probably an uninhabited jungle. Beyond the limits of the present 
district, to the west of Anola, lay the domains of the Sarnet Raja of Maghar. 
All these Rajas were quite independent of each other, and within their 
Independence and isolation several territories had sovereign power. They and 
of the different Ra>s. t k e i r k{ nsmen appear to have lived on the produce of 

their lands, careless of the world beyond their borders. With their neighbours 
they had little intercourse, except in the case of an occasional boundary dis- 
pute. No traditions, no remains of roads or bridges, testify to any commerce 
or connection with the neighbouring districts. The history of the country after 



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488 oorakhpur, 

the fall of the Bhars is in fact merely that of the rise and fall of a number of 
separate families. There is no trace of any national bond of union between the 
Hindu invaders, 1 or of any assimilation between them and the people they 
displaced. A small body of fellow-clansmen would eject the aborigines and 
settle down on a fertile tract large enough to support them. They would in 
turn be ejected or exterminated by some fresh tribe of invaders, who seldom 
oared to extend their conquest further than food requirements demanded. 

It seems probable that between the downfall of Buddhism and the in- 

Desolate condition of the vasion of Domkat&rs and Bisens, the bulk of the dis- 
tbe district after the fall of triot had become uninhabited. As noted by General 
Sleeman in Oudh, jungle soon springs up on land which 
in these parts once falls out of cultivation. With the jungle come wild beasts 
and malaria; and it soon becomes extremely hard to reclaim. What, therefore, 
more likely than that the country, when laid waste by war between the 
B&thors and Bhars, should become a forest, broken only by the narrow clear- 
ings on which nomad aborigines grew their scanty meals. The invaders who 
first repeopled the district would naturally settle down in these clearings, 
knowing nothing of their neighbours, until extension of tillage removed the 
forest curtain and brought them into contact with one another. 

Information regarding the extent to which the Muhammadans invaded and 
mbdued the district is exceedingly meagre and unsatisfactory till quite recent 
Muhammadan period, circ. times. The best authorities almost entirely ignore 
1280 A. D. Qorakhpur, and the local traditions deal only with the 

semi-miraculous exploits of a few favoured individuals. The fact appears to 
be that the district was one of those in which the Muslims really interfered very 
little. Its Hindu R&jas remained independent in ail but name until the time 
of the Naw&bs of Oudh. 

The first mention of the Muhammadans is almost fabulous. Dh6r Ohand 
is said to have fled before the Muhammadan force under SAl&r-i-Masaiid 
GMzi. The date of this precocious hero is here fixed 300 years later than in 
Rohilkhand, or at about 1330 A. D. 8 The sons or grandsons of the same R6ja 
are said (1399) to have sent an envoy with gifts to Timtir ; but as Timur 
never came nearer than Bijnor, it is doubtful if they ever reached his fleeting 
camp. The struggles that followed between the Jaunpur and Dehli kings, and 
the wildness and poverty of the district, protected it for some time longer. The 

1 Common ancestry formed a land of union between the Anola, Maghar, and^Satisi Rajas, but 
they muat be considered as exceptions. Even between them there was after the first century 
iittle intercourse. * Some account of Silar-i-Masaiid is given in Gazetteer, II, 77, and V„ 00. 

Ganted his existence, it is doubtful whether he ever penetrated further down-country than 
Bahraich But h.e is here credited with tip foundation of Ghaoipur. 



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GORAKHPUR. 439 

legends which describe the wealth and grandeur of such chiefs as M&n Singh 
mast be deemed exaggerations. The R&jas in the south of the district seem to 
have professed a kind of submission to the Sharki kings of Jaunpur 
(1394-1476), but they neither paid tribute nor furnished a vassal contingent. 

Bablol Lodi (1450-88) sent a force up as far as the Ghfigra, but did 
not cross it ; and the struggle (1535-40) between Hum&- 
yun and Sher Sh&h seems to have prevented either 
from turning his attention to the conquest of the country. The descendants 
of Dhur Chand are s&id to have sent an envoy to B&bar (1526), and to have 
been honoured in return with the title of his " faithful allies. " But this seems 
a mere repetition of the tale about Tiniur : and until the reign of Akbar, who 
included the district in the province of Oudh, Gorakhpur would seem to 
have remained almost an unknown land. 

On his rebellion against Akbar (1564) Kh&n Zamfin seems for some 
First historical invasion * ime to have established himself on the Gh&gra, cross- 
of the Muslims, 1564. ing over w h en pre8ge d by the Emperor's forces, and 

taking refuge in the jungle which lined the bank. 1 A royal force was sent 
over to secure him, and fruitlessly searched through the forest. But mean- 
while Kh&n Zam&n had escaped to the hills. 

This was the first historical invasion of Gorakhpur or Basti by a Mus- 
lim force. After the defeat and death of Khdn Zam& (1567), a fellow-rebel 
named Sikandar Kh&n, who is described as a kinsman of the usurper Sher 
Sh&h,* fled across the Ghigra into this district. He was pursued by the offi- 
cers of Akbar ; but when they arrived at Gorakhpur, they discovered he had 
crossed the Gandak into territory still held by the Afgh&n chiefs of Bengal ; 
and after waiting some time for orders, the force was recalled to Agra. 9 
Local traditions assert that it numbered over a hundred thousand fighting 
men, and was led by a general called Fid&e KMu. Eutering the west 
of Basti, it marched through that district into this. During its stay at Go- 
rakhpur the Dhuri&j&r R&ja, who readily professed submission, and perhaps 
pleaded that his ancestors were the faithful allies of Timur or Babar, was not 
interfered with. 

But the K&ja of Majhauli, by opposing the scouts sent to search for Si- 
kandar, incurred the resentment of the invaders. He seems at first to have offer- 
ed a determined resistance, but was speedily convinced 
of its futility. He not only submitted, but turned 

1 Tabalcdt-i. AJcbari ; Dowson's edition of Elliot's Hutorians, V., 307. • He was pro- 

bably the same Sikandar as deposed by Humayun from the throne of Dehli and who submitted 
to Akbat in 1656. The Tabakdt-i Akbari (Elliot, V., 320) describes him as again breaking his 
engagements. * Tabakdt, Elliot* 324 ; the first mention of Gorakhpur in the chronicles, 

56 



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440 GORAKHPTJB. 

Mnsalm&n. Legend relates that with this army was a holy 'man named 
Salem Sh&h, who had foretold the birth of Akbar's son Jahangfr. Ho was 
now rewarded by a grant of land opposite to Naw&pnr, and placed under 

Origin of the name Sa- ^ e special protection of the Baja. In his honour the 
lempur. jj^ja named the new town which grew up round his 

residence Salempur, a title which was afterwards prefixed to that of its enclos- 
ing parganah Majhauli. As, however, the R6ja on his conversion assumed 
the title of Isl&m Kh&n, it is not improbable that the town and pargana are 
named after him. 1 Majhauli itself seems equivalent in meaning to the English 
Middleton. 

After reducing Nawfipur, the army probably marched up the left bank 

Satfid family driven oat of the Bfipti and entered the Satdsi territory. The 
of Gorakhpur since 1570 Raja resisted the invasion and was worsted. Refusing 
conversion, he was expelled the district. His family 
removed to Gajpur, in parganah Bhau&par, where they afterwards came to 
terms. Fidae Kh&n, however, occupied Gorakhpur, where he is said to have 
built a large tank in order to Bupply his camp. The tank was perhaps dug to 
provide earth for an entrenchment or employment for the troops ; but the 
neighbourhood of the B&pti renders the necessity for any fresh-water supply 
unlikely. The Raja of Maghar was also attacked and compelled to declare 
himself tributary. 2 With the exception of the north and east, the whole district 
thus became, in name at least, subject to the Emperor. In the west, however, 
some portion was still held by the Bhars ; and this tract was now given by 
Akbar to the Kachhw&ha kinsmen of his wife, the princess of Jaipur. After a 
severe struggle they, partly by treachery and partly by strength of arms, ejected 

Kise of the Amorha Raj, ^ e Bh*r& and established themselves in Amorha. 
1570-1620. On quitting the district, the imperial army seems to 

have left garrisons at Gorakhpur and Maghar, Meanwhile (1577-92) 
Akbar was busy in crushing the Afghans of Bengal, and their defeat by him 

War between Majhauli gave an opportunity to the Majhauli Rija of seizing 
and Mardan Singh's family. on fa ooun t r y held by the descendants of Madan or 
Mardan Singh, who was probably tributary to the Afgh&n princes. 

1 The legend as to the period of Majhaulf s conversion is here given for what it may be 
worth ; but Mr. Crooko's researches tend to Bhow that that conversion really occurred much later. 
The renegade Raja, Boddh Mai, was the fifth predecessor of the present. Existing deeds by 
this Boddh and his son Bhawani are dated 1767-68 and 1778-79 (1175 and 1186 fatli) res- 
pectively ; bo that the death of the former may be fixed at a little more than 100 years ago* 
The appearance of his tomb, which 6tands on the Little Gandak between Salempur and Majhauli, 
points to the same conclusion. It seems that, being in arrear for his tribute, Boddh was sum- 
moned to L)ehli and there converted. On his return his relations refused to receive him at 
Majhauli, and ho lived at Salempur till his death. Meanwhile his orthodox son Bhaw&ni warn 
raised to the cushion. * Not, howovcr, before he had been driven from Maghar to Biasi. 

JTvom the latter place his descendants still take their title. 



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OORAKHPUR* 441 

Tradition declares that the R&ja or chief who was then head of the family 
owed his rain to the curse of the goddess Devi, whose priest he had vainly com- 
manded to visibly reveal her. His fall was really due to a dispute between 

his dependents and those of the Salempur R&ja, who 

Destruction of the family. .. , . . .. . i ,. , * * 

marching against him with a large army defeated and 

slew him. As usual, the victory was followed by the extirpation of the con- 
quered family, and their dominions were parcelled out amongst the victors* 
retainers or relations. The talukas of Rimkola, Bansg&on, Parwarpdr, and 
others, since broken up or absorbed in Padrauna and Tainkuhi, owe their ori- 
gin to granis made at this time. 

Buchanan's statement that the vanquished family were Th&rfis, 1 and their 
chief's alleged contempt for Devi, receive some corroboration from another 
legend which describes the image at Kasia as the wicked chief himself. It ii 
just possible that, in spite of their Rajput origin, they may have kept up the 
.temples and statues of Buddha still traceable around that town. 

A little later, the succession to the Dhuriapar principality was fiercely 
disputed between two of Dhur Chand's descendants, Badr and Pirthi. The Raj, 
4is is not uncommonly the case in this country, did not necessarily descend to 
Internecine quarrels in ^ ne eldest son. One son inherited, the others being in 
Dhuriapar, the position of mere dependents, receiving food and 

clothing from their luckier brother. In this case both claimants were power- 
fully supported, and the result was a violent struggle. It ended, as we shall 
hereafter see, in the division of Dhuri&par between the combatants. Its 
immediate consequence was the plunder of both parties by their neighbours. 
The first to take advantage of the struggle was Babu Bernith Singh of 
Semara, a kinsman of the Majhauli R&ja. He succeeded in crossing the Rapti 
And foundation of the and annexing two tappas of Dhuri&par, corresponding 
ChiUupar Raj, 1620-50. roughly with what is now called Chillupdr. Establish- 
ing himself at N&harpur, he assumed the title of Raja. Another chief, Raja 
Ho&l Singh of Satdsi, is said to have helped himself to ten more tappas of the 
disputed tract. As Ho&l probably lived some two centuries before the quarrel, 
it is moro likely that the robber was one of his descendants. But by one annexa- 
tion or another Dhuriapar lost during this civil war 16 out of its 40 tappas* 

Meanwhile the progress of events in the Basti district, though not perhaps 
properly within the scope of this Memoir, claims attention. The two districts 
-are so closely united in their history that it is impossible to explain events 
^clearly in one without touching on the history of the other. 

1 The assertion that they were Tharus is clearly due to a confusion between Madan SingK 
l f or Man Sen, and Madan Singh H. 



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442 



jgoraehpub. 



It has already been mentioned that the Bhars were at this time expelled 
Expulsion of the Bhars fr om Amorha by the Kachhw&has or their dependents. 
&m mm The first RAja of Amorha was, however, not a Kachh- 

wfiha, but a Kayasth favourite of Akbar's Kaehhw&hiu wife. Jagafc Singh 
appears to have accompanied Fid&e Khan's army to Maghar. There his aid 
was invoked by the Brahman Bidyadhar, who wished to prevent a forced 
marriage between the Bhar chief Mahiar and a Brahman's daughter. After 

Foundation of the Amor- treache ^ 18, J fining the confidence of the Bhar, 
baand Nnjrar principalities Jagat intoxicated and slew him during a festival, 
' * with the aid of Bidy&dhar. For this meritorious 

act his family is said to have received the sacred thread. They at all events, 
under colour of the real or pretended grant to their mistress, established them- 
selves in A morha. 

A Rfijput connected with the Udaipur family, and therefore a Sisodiya 
Gahlot, was with Jagdeo at the time of the murder, assisting in both it and the 
subsequent straggle with the Bhars. In consideration of his services he 
received the eastern portion of the conquered tract, and established himself at 
Nagar. The ousted Bhars took refuge in the extreme north of the district, 
where they are said to have founded the Katahla R&j. 

In 1610, Gorakhpur, which appears to have been looked on as a tributary 
province, was bestowed by Jab&nofr as a fief on Afzal Kh&n, governor of 
Patna. The troubles, however, which soon afterwards beset the Dehli empire 

„ , . „ , „ . rendered the Muhammadan hold on Gorakhpur inse- 

Expulaion of the Muslim . . 

garrison from Gorakhpur. cure. The garrison was small, and its commandant 

1 at%K QA 

had incurred odium by some petty act of tyranny. 
Taking advantage of these circumstances, Raja Basant Singh of Sat&si, a des- 
cendant of Hoal Singh, raised forces and expelled it. He then established 
himself in a fort on a site now occupied by the Basantpur quarter. At the 
same time, or soon after, the R&ja of Maghar or B&nsi expelled the imperial 
garrison from the former place, and almost all the local R&jas withhold pay- 
ment of tribute. 

During Sh&hjah6n's reign (1628-58) the Muhammadans were too busy 
in the Dakkhan to turn their attention to thin part of the country, and no 
occupation of this district by them is recorded. But on the accession of 
Aurangzeb (1(558) and establishment of his power their influence revived. 
About 1680, Kazi Khnlil-ur-Rahm&n was created chaklad&r of the Gorakhpur 
government, and marching from Faiz&bad quickly made his power felt. The 
new R&jas of Amorha and Nagar submitted promptly, and were therefore not 
much molested. But Maghar was occupied by a strong force, and the R^ja 



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GORAKHPUB. 443 

was for some time at least deprived of the government of the country south of 
* Occupation of Khalil- his capital, which he now established at B6nsi. Khalil- 
abnd and Qorakbpur. a b a( j wa8 a b out this time built, and through it a road 

was made from Faiz&bad to Gorakhpur. Basant's son, Rudar Singh, was 
expelled from the latter town, taking up his abode in pargana Silhat, near the 
spot where the ancient Surajbansi R&ja was said to have founded his new Kash. 
Here he fortified himself strongly; and the Muhammadans, having other 
Foundation of Rndarpnr matters to attend to, appear again to have accepted a 
in Silhat, nominal submission and a promise to pay tribute* 

The town which grew up round his fort was called iu his honour Rudar pur, and 
is now one of the largest places in the district. 

The MusalmAns seem, however, to have taken on this occasion more 

efficient means of retaining their position. They re* 
Re-appointment of a . ° r J 

Muhammadin commander paired Basant Singh s fort at Gorakhpur,' making 
atGorakhpnr. . fc ft roa ]]y s t roa g place; and they left an officer with 

a numerous garrison in charge of the town. 

From this date— that is from about the end of the seventeenth century— 
the tribute which the Rajas had nominally promised* to Akbar was collected 
with some regularity. But the Muhammadans never assumed the government 

Independence of the IU- * n ^ e same direct manner as the British*. The inde- 
***• pendent position of the R£jas is strongly brought out by 

Mr. Wynne in his settlement reports. He notes that they held not as mere 
middlemen, nor even as mere representatives of the central authority (sarkdr), 
but as that central authority itself. " It was they who assigned lands and 
honours, although the confirmation of the Emperor at Dehli might be solicited 
whenever the position attained by the grantee was so conspicuous as to draw 
attention to him. Almost the whole of the subordinate tenures in the district 
(and before our rule they contained the greater portion of it) are derived 
from grants w^ich they made in their own names, and not merely permissively 
as agents of the Dehli or Oudh families." 

Before going further into this subject, we should notice a visit paid to the 

1680-1700 A. D. VibH of district towards the close of the seventeenth century 
Prince Muazzim. b y the Emperor Bah&dur Sh&h, then Prince;Muazzim. 

He was attracted to Gorakhpur by accounts of its wonderful sporl ; and to him 
is ascribed the cathedral mosqne (J ami Maxjid) at its capital. In his honour 
a division newly formed from sarkdrs Gorakhpur and S&ran, with headquar- 
ters at Gorakhpur, was named Muazzimabad ; and by this title the districts of 
Gorakhpur and Basti are mentioned in all official records from this date to 
that of the cession (1801). 



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444 GORAKHPUR, 

Prince Muazzim's visit may have strengthened the hold on this district of 
his dynasty. But, before the establishment of the government of the Vazirs at 
Luoknow, the real masters of the district were the Rfijas. The imperial officers 
at the head of the division were qaite content to accept an almost nominal sub- 
mission from the load potentates ; but the Nawdbs of Oudk, who lived nearer 
and had more leisure, attempted a more systematic and scrutinising form of 
Greater influence of the government. The settlement of the dispute between 
Nawab Vazira. {.fae rival claimants in Dhuriap&r is the first sign of the 

change. The 'parganah' (which is then first mentioned under this designation) 
was divided into two equal portions. The descendants of Bhadr Singh settled 
to the west at Barhi&p&r, and Pirthi Singh's descendants to the east at Gop&l- 
pur. The dmil or prefect is said to have marked out the boundary between 
them, and to have been the chief agent in settling the dispute. As this 
took place about 1700-50, it is reasonable to connect it with the ap- 

w pointment of Saadat KMn as Viceroy of Oudh in 

8aadatKhan. *\ A . .„ , . _ , \ _ _. 

1721. It will be remembered that the Oudh pro- 
vince (Suba) had, since the reign of Akbar, included Gorakhpur. Being a 
man of energy, Saddat soon succeeding in becoming virtually independent of 
More regular collection * ne weakening Dehli empire. He firmly established 
of tribute. ^ y^ j n j. ne p rov j nce) reduced the power of the 

Bnjas, and, in the south of the district at least exacted their tribute with 
regularity. In the north, owing probably to its difficulty of access, or its 
uninviting poverty, his authority was never so surely introduced. But soon 

_ a _ after the division of Dhuriap&r, a quarrel in the 

Circ 1725 A. D. • « 

Butwal family and the assumption by Tilak Sen of 

independent authority obliged the Nawdb to march a force into this part 

of the country. 

Tilak Sen was head of the younger branch of the Butwal family, which, 

expelling the Thfirus from Tilpur 1 , had for some time 
^Tilak Sen and the Ban- held .,, rf ^ e j der branch He now re j ecfcod thfl 

suzerainty of his cousin, and declared himself an in- 
dependent R6ja. The chief instrument of his ambition was the aid of the 
Banj&ras, who now began to make occasional inroads from the west In this 
turbulent and restless race he found useful and willing mercenaries. If his 
date was really rather later than that here given, these Banj&ras were perhaps 
fugitives driven before the Rohillas from Pilibhit and Khairagarh. Tradition 
asserts, that to shade their camping-grounds, they planted most of the mango- 
groves in the west and south of the district. 

J The name of Tilpur was long anterior to that of this particular Tilak ; but Tilak Sen wa« 
probably a common title in the family. 



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eoRAKHPtnt. 445 

It is certain that owing to their inroads that district declined in prosperity, 
for they pillaged and destroyed without attempting to colonize and recultivate 
the country. Much of the jungle south-east of Gorakhpur is said to have sprung 

Anarchy produced by the »P at this time ; and the lawlessness they carried with 
Banjaras. them infeoted the Muhammadan garrison at Gorakhpur, 

who arose and re-opened the old quarrel with the Sat&si Raja. About 1750 A. D. 

Invasion of a fourth Mu- *to state of affairs called urgently for interference, and 
lummadan army. the Naw&b accordingly marched a large army into the 

district under Ali K&sim KhAn. 

This army first reduced the turbulent Muhammaans to order, razing a 
stronghold which their leaders had constructed on the 
old site of the Domangarh castle* It then marched 
north, routed a force brought against it by Tilak Sen's son, and invaded the 
Butwal territories to recover arrears of tribute. But a tough struggle was 
required before the Bdja even nominally submitted ; and peace was restored by 
compromise nearly twenty years later, when the Butwal Buja seems to have 
paid the Naw&b a personal visit and arranged terms. After the subjection of 
Tilak Sen's son, the country he had held was annexed to Butwal. No attempt 
was apparently made to conduct its government through Muhammadan offi- 
cials, and tribute was only nominally levied. 

In Gorakhpur, however, a large force was established, and it was pro- 
bably about this time that the Muhammadan rule was strongest and most dis- 
tinctly felt. Owing to the absence of written chronicles and he indifference of 

Muhammadan authority natives to the past history of the district, it is extremely 
W8tored » difficult to ascertain the exact character of this rule, and 

the extent to which it interfered with the powers and prerogatives of the local 

But no real government KAjas. Certain, however, that it did not even profess 
mtroduced. to p rov id e its subjects with police and protection. It 

is extremely doubtful if, except at Gorakhpur itself, there were any courts of 
justice. The people trusted to themselves and their R&jas for protection 
against robbers and marauders, such as the Banj&ras. 

The parganah divisions of the Muhammadans survive, but only because 
they corresponded pretty closely with domains known before as those of the 
various R&jas or their creatures. The Muhammadan name of the town and 
district, Muazzimabad, is unknown to the common people ; and the government 

Attention paid only to seems to have been at best an imperfect machinery for 
the collection of revenue. collecting revenue. The fact that hardly any place of 

Muhammadan influence note bears a Muhammadan name, and the scarcity 
^^ of mosques or other Muhammadan buildings, show 



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446 OORAKHPUB. 

the fleeting nature of even the Naw&b Vazir's mark on the district. Even in 
Gorckhpur itself — a town which they undoubtedly held for some time — the 
traces of the Muslim governors are but scarce and faint compared to those 
of the Hindu kings and saints whom they nominally conquered. Isl&m 
itself is probably nowhere else so strongly coloured by Hindu ideas and 
usages, and in few places have the two sects so closely united as in Grorakh- 
pur. 

All evidence in short tends to show that the position occupied by the 

Hindu Rajas tributaries, Hindu Rajas of the district had up to this time been 
not subjects. that rather of tributaries than of subjects. In his 

B&nsi report Mr. Wynne writes that, " throughout, the authority of the local 
B&jas was sufficient to counterbalance, if not to overcome, that of the chakladar 
(or representative of the central government at Lucknow). The k&n6ngos 
appointed by the latter were, till a few years before the ceesion, regularly 
expelled, and the revenue they were sent to collect was as often withheld 
as paid. The right of private war was exercised without question. Occa- 
sionally the chakladAr was able to collect revenue from the tenants 
direct ; but in general such sums as were realised at all were paid through 
•the R&jas." 

Under these circumstances, it would appear natural that when the 

Battle of Buxar (Baksar), Naw&b's power was weakened by the battle of Baksar, 

1784 A. D. * the local Rajas would have thrown off the yoke and 

expelled the underlings who were no longer supported by his army. The 

result was, however, just the reverse. At no period prior to* the cession 

v f th 1 wer offi- c ' oes *^ e au ^ or ^y °f ^ e R&jfrS seem to have been 
oen rather increased than bo weak, and the power of the delegates from Luck- 
w * cow so strong, as at this. Not only did the notorious 

Major Hannay exercise an almost supreme power over the south of the 
district as the Viceroy's commander-in-chief, but the prefects and their 
subalterns also acquired an influence which they had never before pos- 
sessed. 

Up to this time no regular system of collection seems to have worked, 
except in the south of the district. The power and the nominal submission of tho 
local R&jas had enabled them to maintain their government by merely paying 
a kind of tribute. Even Sa&dat Khan seems merely to have enforced payment 
of this tribute, and to have left the government and 
^^ih!lSZ^ the collection of rents to the B&jas. In other districts 
***- there was a regular system, under which a graded 

series of officers were appointed to make collections from the persona in 



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GOBAKHPUB. 447 

possession of the land. This was extended to Azaingarh, bat in Gorakhpur 
struck no root. It seems to have been as follows : — 

An officer called chaklad&r was appointed to the charge of a chakla or 
tract rather larger than a modern district, and under him were officers called 
dtnil*, who held a smaller division, about the size of a tahsili. Below these 
were kandngos, who were supposed to keep the entire accounts of a tract about 
the size of a pargana, and to supply all the information necessary for the realiz- 
ation of a fair revenue from the persons holding cultivated Land within it. 
Besides these was a semi-military officer called the naziin, who seems to have 
been employed in coercing contumacious defaulters and protecting treasure ; 
and beneath him were several deputies (ndib-ndzim) who carried out these 
duties under his orders. 

But, as before noticed, the system could not work in a country where a 

This system not carried *warm of local potentates had each sufficient power to 
into force in Gorakhpur. h | d fa kAnungos and even the fcnils in contempt, 

and to counterbalance all the influence and strength of the chaklad&r himself. 
The kanfygos were expelled, and the dmils soon arrived at the plan of bargain- 
ing with the local Rajas for the payment of a certain sum in return for absolute 
non-interference. This system very soon passed into one of farming. The 
office of chaklad&r as at first instituted was abolished, and under the title of 

Custom of farming the * m, 'l> tne local Jtyjftj if he was strong enough, or some 
revenues. publican from Oudh, if he was not, took a contract for 

collecting the revenues. The term of his lease was one, three, or five years, 
and a regular counterpart (kab&Hyat) for the sum to be paid, as well as a large 
amount in advanee, was handed over to the viceroy. 

When a RAja was weakened by a war with his neighbours or other causes, 

Varying power of the tne f arm °^ m# s domains would be bought for a large 
** men - sum by some powerful noble or professional farmer, 

who seized the opportunity of making his collections direct from the R&ja*s 
dependants and tenants. And when the R6ja recovered his strength, he would 
either agree to take the farm himself, or to buy out the interloping farmer by 
guaranteeing him a certain pro6t on his engagement. Not unfrequently the 
matter was solved by the farmers taking a large compensation from the R&ja 
and disappearing with it, leaving the viceroy to realize the revenue as best he 
could. In such cases it was seldom realized at all, as this course was only 
adopted when the Naw&b's difficulties prevented the pursuit and punishment 
of the defaulter. 

The Luck now revenues, so far as drawn from this district, were indeed 
very precarious. A few tappas lyiug along the Gh&gra and for several miles 

57 



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448 0ORAKHPUB. 

up the banks of the Itapti wfcre, aft Mr. Reade mention's, 1 held directly by 
Musalman delegates. Their great fertility, and their accessibility from the 
headquarters of the chaklad&r at Azamgarh, ensured the proper collection of 
their income. But in other parts of the district fealty to the Oudh Govern- 
ment was merely verbal, and revenues were paid only when coercion became 
imminent. 

Thus were affairs conducted till within thirty years of the cession to the 
British. But in that short space of time occurred changes which completely 
altered the administration and delivered the country to a reign of exaction and 
misrule which unpeopled and well nigh ruined it. 

As before mentioned, the Banj&ras first attracted attention about 

The Banjwas become a 1720-30. Thirty years later we find them a verita- 

serious nuisance. ble scourge and terror in the district They seem to 

have formed a number of separate bands under various n&iks or leaders, but 

frequently united to resist a powerful enemy like the Raja of Bftnsi. 

Their object was almost always plunder ; and the centre and east of the 
district, where great forests afforded an ample refuge, formed at first their base 
of operations. The east was t moreover, better adapted to their plans, because 
since the downfall of Madan Singh no power nearer than that of Majhauli 
could venture to repress them. And to this day the memory of their violence 
and cruelties lives fresh in this part of the district. But as plunder and 
success inoroased their strength, they began to take an active part in the polities 

of the district. They fomented quarrels between the 
Rajas, being always ready to supply troops to which- 
ever side offered the best prospect of advantage or revenge. The peasantry 
were not, indeed, their only victims. Chiefs were harassed and weakened till 
they fell an easy prey to the swarm of oppressors who, under the authority, real 
or pretended, of leases from the viceroy, quartered themselves on the district; 
These harpies usurped the titles of former officials, calling themselves, 
without much regard to their power, Naw&bs, Chakla- 
dars, Xmils, N&zims, Talukad&rs, and Naib-nazims ; 
but were all guided by one principle, that of acquiring as much money as they 
could in the shortest time possible. The chief officer of the district set them 
the example. 

Soon after the battle of Baksar, a Major flannay received charge of 

the Naw&b's troops and of the Bahr&ich and Gorakh- 

ed byMajoTHan^ay. 8 **' P ur revenues. With the actual administration or 

maladministration of the country he fieems to have 
1 Report on Salempur, 1836. 



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GORAKHPUR. 449 

interfered but little. But he certainly strengthened the hands of revenue 
collectors, and maintained a force sufficient to coerce the Rajas, weakened as 
they were by their local disputes and warfare. Had he applied his power to 
maintain order and prevent the farmers and marauders from pillaging the 
people, he might perhaps have saved the country from the worst misfortunes 
which overtook it It must, however, be allowed that the task would have been 
difficult, ' and might have cost him not only his position, but his life. The 
Oudh Government had already fallen into a condition of almost unparalled 
inefficiency and venalitv. To realize this it is only 
of ■*?%&£& of Oudh! necessary to quote the description of Oudh given by 

General Sleeman a lifetime later in 1850, and to apply 
the quotation to Gorakhpur. His account may be summarized as follows: 
*' The revenue was farmed to men whose only object was to extort as much as 
they could during their term of office. The Nawab's attention was engrossed 
by the course of events which threatened his throne. Except the most power- 
ful landholders, no man was safe for a moment in person, office, or property ; 
and with such a feeling of insecurity prevailing, it was impossible that any 
country should flourish. There was.no police. Those who should have 
protected were the first to plunder ; and justice was to be had only by those 
who could pay for it." Such was Gorakhpur as left by Major Hannay. 
Regarding his personal exactions and cruelties there is perhaps not sufficient 
evidence to warrant a decided opinion. Burke accused him of haying done in- 
calculable mischief; and Mill, endorsing this opinion, states that he laid waste 
a vast tract of country which before his oppressions was rich and flourishing. 1 

*' „.„ „ „ . But whether he directed or permitted the pillage, the 

Responsibility of Major «... V. , 

Hannay for the wretched effect of bis government was equully injurious. Either 
ata o t e coun ry. ^ e jj a( j uo ^ the courage and wiU to oppose the extortions 

of his subordinates, or he had not the power. Perhaps the truth lies between these 
two alternatives. It is certain at all events that he made no scruple in farming 
out his charge piecemeal to a set of extortionate and heartless underlings, who 
rackrented and not unfrequently pillaged the people, till a great part of the agri- 
cultural population were driven to abandon their holdings and quit the district. 
The Satasi Raja meanwhile, instead of devoting his strength to protect 

his domain from these evils, plunged into a war with 
Bu^aTR4jaa? Q "" ** fche Butwal Raja, by. whom he was defeated with much 

slaughter in 1788. The Bansi Raja oocupied himself 
in expeditions against the BanjAras, whom he finally drove from his dominions 
about 1790, following them up and inflicting severe punishment on. all who 

1 History, yoI. IV., p. 313. 



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460 GORAKHPUB. 

fell into his hands. The Dhuri&p&r R6jas had not jet recovered from their long 
family quarrel, and, having been farther weakened by the Banjaris, were power- 
less to withstand the exactions of the farmers backed by Major Hannay's troops. 

The Majhauli R&ja alone seems to have been prudent enough to reserve 
Prudent conduct of the ^ 8 strength for the piotection of the land around his 
Majhauli R&ja. capital. He virtually withdrew from the contest 

with the Banjaras in the east, and abandoned the tract which now forms the 
Sidhua Jobna parganah to their ravages. By this means he contrived to save 
the greater portion of the Majhauli parganah from them and the farmers ; and 
at the cession this was found to be almost the only portion of the district 
which was fairly cultivated and inhabited. 

The terrible state of insecurity in the Sidhua Jobna parganah gave the 
Rise of the Bink Jogni opportunity for the rise of the two principal talukas 
and Padrauna talukas. which still comprise between them the greater portion 

of the parganah. 

The first of these was Bank Jogni taluka or Tamkfihi R&j, which was 
founded by Fateh Sahdi, Bhuinh&r Raja of Hoshydrpur in S&ran, He claimed 
descent from Mayyura, founder of the Majhauli R6j, by a Bhuirfii&r wife ; and 
his descendants are still recognized as connections by the Majhauli family. 
Refusing to acknowledge British authority, he was after the battle of Baksar 
expelled from S&ran, and settled on an estate he had bought a few years 
before in tappas Bank and Jogni. He brought with him a large amount of 
treasure, and received also the support of the Majhauli R6ja, who was wise 
enough to see the advantage of retaining a friendly power xs a rampart 
between himself and the Banjaras. By usurpation, or more commonly by volun- 
tary transfers from weaker zamindars, he extended his possessions swiftly and 
widely over the south-east of Sidhua Jobna, and before his death was recog- 
nised as talukad&r of nearly 100 villages. 

The second taluka, that of Padrauna, rose into importance much in the 
Foundation of the Pa- same way, although its founders had a severer strug- 
drauna taluka. g\ Q ^fa ^, e Banjaras before they succeeded in estab- 

lishing any kind of security for their dependents. It originated in a grant 
made by the Raja of Majhauli to one of his followers, and the first grantee 
was a dependent who had risen from a menial capacity, and was rewarded by 
the grant of sjme of the villages most harassed by the Banj&ras. This cheap 
method of providing for importunate claims accorded also with the policy 
which led the Raja to support Fateh Sah&i. 

The grant at first consisted of but two villages ; but the state of the 
country gave the grantee an opportunity of extending his authority. The 



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GORAKHPU*. 451 

fact of his being a Kurmi furnished the pretext of claiming descent from 
Mayyura's fourth wife ; and the influence he obtained from this connection with 
the Majhauli Raja, still the most powerful prince in the district, gave him an 
ascendancy which enabled him very quickly to make the neighbouring villages 
acknowledge his authority. The dread, moreover, of Banjaras and other 
marauders foroed the weaker proprietors to obtain the support of some power- 
ful ally. He usually , therefore, found them ready to surrender the nominal 

ownership of their villages, and to pay a certain 
Extension of the Uluka. - , . . . - , 

percentage of their incomes, in return for the pro- 
tection which he promised to afford them. The estates of the more inde- 
pendent he either by fraud or force annexed. In that age of misrule no redress 
could be obtained, except by those who were too strong to require it. The 
Majhauli Raja was unlikely to interfere; and this portion of the district had now 
become too poor to attract the rapacity of either Hannay or his subordinates. 
In this manner the taluka rose into importance almost as rapidly as that 
of Fateh Sahai ; and, owing to their common dependence on Majhauli, both 
parties refrained from aggression on each other's domains. Whatever may be 
thought of the coercion and fraud by which these talukas were to some extent 
established, there can be no doubt that the security they afforded was of the 
utmost value to the subordinate landholders whose estates they enclosed. With- 
out the central authority of the talukad&r these men could never have com- 
bined effectively to resist the Banjaras. Nor would there have been any 
means of ending the quarrels and violence which prevailed before. One rapa- 
cious master was better than a host of petty tyrants. 

But in 1801 -the arrears of subsidies, due under various treaties for the 
Cession to the East India use °f English troops, had reached an amount which 
Company, 1801. ^ ^ a w&b Vazir found himself quite unable to pay ; 

and to wipe off the debt JSaadat AH surrendered Gorakhpur and other tracts to 
the East India Gompany. Since the 10th November in the year just men- 
tioned the district has been subject to British rule. 1 

Its condition at the time of cession was about as wretched as could well 
be imagined. It is described as almost entirely without administration, over- 
grown with jungle, roadless, infested by robbers, and in many places laid 
waste by the armed retainers of the principal landholders. " I find it impos- 
sible," writes Mr. Boutledge in 1801, "to convey to you any adequate idea 
of the desolated state of this country. I have been informed that in one year 
nearly 400,000 raiyats (led from it ; and those who remained only cultivated 
by stealth for fear of opposition." 

. * See Aitchison's Treaties, yol. II, p. 61, note. 



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452 'GORAKHPHR. 

The Bdtwal domain in the north was considered less unfortunate ; but it 
had been wasted by wars with Sat&si, and was still scoured by Nep&lese 
marauders pretending to oollect a tribute which the Bdja did not owe. Like 
his brother chieftains, that K&ja was little disposed to submit tamely to the new 
government. Plunder and private war had become as the breath of their 
nostrils. Despoiled by' the Banjdras, the east was only beginning to recover 
under the protection of the newly-formed talfikas. The depopulation of the 
South- west had been successfully undertaken by the collectors of taxes ; and 
the south-east, or Majhauli country, was the only flourishing part of the 
district. Its centre had always been occupied by a large tract of jungle, which 
the misgovernment of later days had greatly extended. 

The fiscal and general administration of the district, from the date of the 
cession to that of the Nepal ese war, has been else- 
8 * where described. Long before the former event the 

Gurkhas had taken advantage of the prevailing anarchy to increase their 
possessions in the plains. Their encroachments had extended all along the 
Tarii country at the foot of the hills, but were most marked in what was then 
the north of this district They had driven the R&ja of Butwal from his moun- 
tain domain of P&lpa, and followed up their success by the occupation of his 
Tilpur and Bin&yakpur territories. 1 They had annexed Shiur&j, a tract on 
the left bank of the Arrah, just north of the modern Basti. For the revenue 
of these tracts they indeed professed themselves liable to the Oudh Govern- 
ment ; but they paid it or not, just as best suited their own convenience. 

It has been already mentioned that at the first British settlement of land 
' AggrewionB of the Our- revenue the B&ja of Butwal himself engaged to pay the 
' khas. assessment on his nominal domains in this district, 

and that he was. afterwards imprisoned for refusal to defray arrears. About 
18C5 the Gurkhas claimed Bdtwal as part of the country conquered from hiru, 
and sent officials to collect the revenue. On his release from imprisonment 
the B&ja was inveigled to Kathm&ndu, where he was murdered on the ground 
of alleged intrigues with the British. His family surrendered Butwal to the 
direct management of the Company, and retired to enjoy their pension (mdli- 
Icdna) in peace at Gorakhpur. Meanwhile, by the beginning of 1806, the 
Nep&lese had annexed two-thirds of the disputed country. The provisional 
Governor-General, Sir George Barlow, who was then at Allahabad, sent them 
a letter demanding the evacuation of Butwal, but offering to let them keep 
Sbiurij. This they answered by an offer to engage for the Butwal revenue on 

1 Political and Military Transactions in India, 1818-23, by H. T. Prinsep, Bengal Civil 
Service : London, 1825. This contemporary work ia the. best that can be consulted on the subject 
of the Nepttese war. 



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0ORAKHPUR; 453 

the terms of the first settlement But Sir George was shortly afterwards super- 
seded by Lord Minto, whose attention was engrossed by other matters. The ques- 
tion dropped out of sight, and the Nepalese completed the annexation of Bfitwal 
Emboldened by British indifference, they in 1810-11 crossed the Bfitwal 

boundary and seized some villages of parganah P&li« 
A commissioner is appoint- J ° r ° 

*d examine their claims, This led at the beginning of 1812 to a remonstrance 
18, °" 11 " from Lord Minto, who, while repeating the offer of 

Shifir&j, demanded the instant evacuation of Bfitwal. The Gurkhas replied 
by asserting a distinct fight to all they had taken and more* Anxious to do 
them every justice, Lord Minto appointed a commissioner to investigate 
their claims. Proceeding to the northern frontier of this district, Major 
Paris Bradshaw in 1813 submitted a report on the whole dispute. He showed 
that the Gurkhas had no right to either Biitwal or Shifir&j ; and Lord Minto 
thereon demanded the evacuation of both. The Nep&l court sent a respectful 
and even affectionate answer, in which, without giving reasons, they said that 
Major Bradshaw's investigation had led them to a conclusion just the reverse of 
that formed by the British Government. 

How Lord Minto would have met this reply it is vain to speoulate. But 

The Company resnmes at ^ end of 1813 he WaS 6 ™<**<*ed by Lord Moira, 
possession of the submon- who early in the following year peremptorily 
tane country. ordered the Gurkhas to quit both Bfitwal and 

Shifir&j. The Magistrate of Gorakhpur was at the same time directed 
to march the Gorakhpur contingent into the disputed tract if the order 
yrere not obeyed in 25 days. The Nep&lese, however, remained where they were^ 
and the Magistrate (Sir Roger Martin) handed the dispute over to the military 
officer commanding. Three companies occupied Shifirdj and Biitwal without the 
slightest opposition. The Magistrate established police-stations at Chitwa, Ba» 
sauria,and Saurain Bfitwal, with subordinate outposts in Shiurij (April, 1814), 
Before, however, the troops had rearrived at Gorakhpur, the Nep&lese snr* 
Slaughter of its officials rounded «"* attacked the three stations in Bfitwal. 
and declaration of war, Eighteen policemen were killed, and the chief officer at 

Chitwa was, after bis surrender, murdered in cold 
blood (May). The Magistrate ordered the fugitive remnant to retire on 
B&nsi ; meanwhile 090 of the Shifir&j -outposts was attaoked and four more 
policemen slain (June). War was now of course inevitable, but its declaration 
was for- several reasons postponed til] the 1st November, 1814*. 

The larger operations of the two campaigns that followed were conducted 
0Y1 the Panj&b, Du&b, and Bih&r portions of the 
Nepal frontier. .But of. the .four columns engaged in 



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454 GORAKHPUB. 

the first campaign, one under General J. S. Wood was directed to make Go- 
rakhpur its base of operations. Starting hence on the 15th of November, it 
was to penetrate through Btitwal into Palpa. The column consisted of about 
4,000 infantry, including the 17th Regiment of British foot, and was strength- 
ened by 11 guns of different calibre. 

It was late in November before General Wood left Gorakhpur. Through 

Action at Bfitwal, Janu- Biniyakpur or Tilpur, and Bdtwal, he marched 
ary, 1815. without opposition. But the town of Bdtwal itself 

lies at the foot of the hills, in the mouth of a pass ; and across this pass the 
Nep&lese Colonel, l Vazir Singh, had built a strong stockade. To reconnoitre 
and carry this work General Wood left his Tar&i camp on the 3rd of January. 
A Brahman servant of the Butwal family, still living at Gorakhpur, offered 
his services as guide, and conducted the force up the banks of the Ghunghi. 
The last seven miles of the road lay through thick s&l forest, but the General 
had been led to expect an open space in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
stockade. Be was still in the wood with his advanced guard when the road 
brought them suddenly in front of their goal, now not more than fifty yards 
distant. The Nep&lese opened a smart fire, and, before General Wood had 
completed a hurried reconnaissance, wounded two officers. But the main 
body, including the British regiment, soon arrived ; a party that had sallied 
from the stockade was driven up the hills ; and in pursuing them upwards 
three companies of the 17th succeeded also in outflanking the enemy's work. 
The enemy scrambled away up the hillside behind the stockade. But Gene- 
ral Wood, thinking the fortification would be untenable unless the hill also 
' were carried, forbore to press his advantage, and sounded a retreat Flushed 
with the prospect of a oertain and easy victory, his troops were grievously 
disappointed. They had lost 24 comrades to no purpose. The fatuous strategy 
of their leader can only be excused on the ground that he had been hurried 
and worried by a difficult morning's march. 

The bravery displayed by the enemy, and exaggerated rumours of 
Imbecility of General ^ e * r strength, led him to imagine his own force in- 

j s. Wood. adequate for an advance. Parties of irregular cavalry 

were added to his force ; but instead of attempting to penetrate the hills, he 

confined his operations to the defensive. Throwing up works at Lotan in 

Basti, he placed there a garrison to defend the main route from Gorakhpur. 

He himself moved with his main body to repel an incursion into Nichlaval. 

1 The Nep&lese had early adopted English titles for their military officers. Bnt these 
titles implied greater commands in their army than in the English. There were but one general 
and some three or four colonels on the whole of their army list, A captain commanded a bat- 
talion, and a laf tan or lieutenant a company. 



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GOEAKHPUR. 455 

His vacillating policy rendered such incursions an almost daily occurrence. 
January, February, and even March, saw villages in the north of this district 
plundered and burnt Though reinforced by further infantry and artillery, he 
still deemed himself too weak to act offensively. He burnt by way of retaliation 
several Gurkha villages, and marched whithersoever he heard the foe were 
advancing. He still, however, believed and represented the Nep&lese force to 
be much greater than his own. And it was not till April, when directed to 
verify his belief by actual contact with the enemy, that he again appeared 
before Bdtwal. On the 17th of that month he bombarded the place for several 
hours without result. He then laid waste the Nep&lese possessions in the plain 
and returned to cantonments at Gorakhpur. In. the middle of May the vic- 
tories of General Ochterlony put an end to the fii;st campaign, leaving Dehra 
Dun and Eumaun in the hands of the English. 

But the demands of the Company were not yet satisfied. In March the 
Close of the first cam- Nep&lese General Amar Singh had been consulted as to 
^^?n of th^Twaito ^ ■dvisaWIity of ceding also the Gorakhpur and Saran 
the Company, 1815. Tar&is, and had counselled his chief against it. In May 

the English had 'demanded the whole of the Tar&i, whether in Gorakhpur, S&ran, 
or elsewhere. The Nep&lese were, however, unready to surrender a traot ill 
which most of their principal courtiers had been granted fiefs ; and the 
Governor-General deemed preparations for a fresh campaign advisable. It 
was proposed to reinforce the Gorakhpur column, and place it under the com- 
mand of Colonel Nioholls for renewed operations against Butwal and Pdlpa. In 
the second campaign, however, the Gorakhpur column took no part. Negotia- 
tions lingered on till the end of October. The British demand had by that 
time been reduced to the Tar&i country between the Sarju and Gandak, and any 
other parts already held by our forces. Compensation to the extent of two l&khs 
of rupees was at the same time offered to disappointed Nep&lese grantees. These 
terms were accepted, and a treaty signed at Sigauli on the 28th November. 

But this treaty was, so far as the Gurkhas were concerned, a mere feint. 

Conclusion of the war, Ratification under their great seal was promised in fif- 

March, 1816. t een <J a y8, but never came ; and it was soon ascertained 

that the Nep&lese intended to continue the war. A formal intimation to that effect 

met the British army on its way to the border in February, 1816. Sir David 

Ochterlony this time penetrated into Nep&l through Bihdr, completing the 

campaign by the beginning of the following month. The Nep&lese ratified the 

treaty of Sigauli on the 4th March, and the whole of the lowlands between 

Sarju and Gandak, except Butwal Khds, 1 passed into the hands of the British. 

1 i. e. Bfitwal, excluding Biniyakpur and Tilpur. 

58 . 



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456 GOBAKHPUB. 

But as a politic act of conciliation, the Governor- General decided to surrender 
to the conquered Nep&lese as much of the Tar&i as might not be required to 
form a straight and even frontier. The boundary was surveyed and marked 
out in the same year. It ran in a fairly direct line parallel to the trend of the 
hills, but, except just north of P41i and Shitipur, did not approach their foot. 

Between the close of the Nep&lese war in 1816 and the outbreak of the 
Mutiny some forty-one years afterwards, the history of the district is marked 
by no important events, except the settlements and famines already described. 

The rebellion of 1857 was ushered in by disturbances towards the close 
of May. Some of the more turbulent landholders, including those of Paina 

on tte GJi&gra, burst out into acts of robbery and 

Rebellion of J857-58. ° ' * *" u 

violence. On the oth June, the headquarters of the 
17th N. I., which supplied a detachment to Gorakhpur, mutinied at Azamgarh 
and on the 7th July the convicts in the Gorakhpur jail made a desperate but 
unsuccessful effort to escape. On the 8th the infantry detachment attempted 
to seize the Government treasure, but were checked by Mr. Wynyard, the 
Judge, with some troopers of the 12th Irregular Cavalry. On the lOtb six 
European officers who had escaped from FaizAbad were murdered in Nagar 
of Basti, and about the same time a detachment of the 17th N. I. plunder- 
ed the opium treasury at Basti itself. Towards the close of July the land- 
holders of the northern and western parganahs proclaimed our rule at an 
end, and the criminal classes reaped a rich harvest of plunder. Six Nep&Iese 
regiments were now marohed to Gorakhpur by Colonel Wroughton, and the 
remnant of the 17th N. I. was disarmed (1st August). But disorder still 
spread through the district, and in what is now Basti a number of the tahsilis 
were plundered. Mutineers from Sigauli attempted to plunder also the opium 
treasury at Salempur, but were repulsed by the guard. It is not very clear 
why the civil officers felt themselves forced to abandon their district on the 
13th August. Sir Charles Wingfield thinks it " sufficient to say that they declin- 
ed to remain with less than four regiments," while Colonel Wroughton declined 
to leave more than two. But there had as yet been no outbreak at Gorakhpur 
itself, and that post could hardly be deemed untenable. On the 13th, however, 
Europeans evacuate the Europeans and Nep&lese left together ; the Joint Ma- 
district, August 1857. gistrate, Mr. Bird, alone remaining. The oare of the 
district had been entrusted to a committee of five EAjas — Sat&si, Gop&lpur, 
Majhauli, Tamktihi, and Bdnsi ; and Mr. Bird hoped to supervise their labours. 
The retreating Europeans and Nep&lese wdre followed from Gorakhpur 
by a body of insurgents under Muhammad Hasan, who was however repulsed 
with loss (18th July). On his return to Gorakhpur two days later he w&* 



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GOBAKHPU& 457 

welcomed by the jail guard, whose charges had been released, and by the 
R&ja of Sat&si, who had turned rebel. Mr. Bird fled into the forest, and, not- 
withstanding the reward of Rs. 5,000 set on his head, reached Motih&ri in safety. 
The committee of B&jas of course dissolved itself. By the treachery of Satdsi 
and non-attendance of Majhauli, its numbers were by this time reduced to three. 
The B&jas of Barhi&par, Nagar, Chillup&r, and other chiefs, followed the example 
of Satdsi, openly siding with the rebels. 

The insurgent army camped near Gorakhpur, setting fire to most of the 
houses in the civil station and cantonments. But, considering himself secure in 
Muhammad Hasan esta- ^ s new authority, Muhammad Hasan endeavoured as 
Wishes a rebel government f ar M p 0SS ible to prevent destruction of property. 
Large sums of money were extorted by violence from the merchants and 
bankers of the city. And in the words of Sir C. Wingfield, who was appointed 
Commissioner just after the rebellion, u the strong preyed everywhere on tho 
weak." 

In & very short, time however, the reign of Muhammad Hasan came to an 
end. The Nep&lese forces advanced under Sir Jang Bah&dur from the north, 
and the British force under Colonel Roweroft from the south. The former 
The English re-occupy occupied Gorakhpur on the 11th January, 1858, ! after 
the district. slight skirmishes at Pipra on the Gandak,and Pipraich. 

The latter defeated the rebels under Harkishan Singh at Mairwa. The insurgents 
were driven through Gorakhpur city across the Rdpti, and Muhammad Hasan 
fled with such speed that he the same day crossed the Gh&gra at Tanda. British 
authority was re-established, and many disloyal landholders were punished 
by death or the confiscation of their estates. 

Thus in 1858 the Sat&si Raj fell after an existence of 500 years. The Bar- 
hi&p&r title and estates* were forfeited, and it was some years before the R4ja was 
pardoned and allowed to return to the district. Part of the Padrauna taluka 
shared the same fate, and the family having lost large sums in litigation with 
the R&ja of Bettia, were only saved from utter ruin by the industry and ability 
WPTttblUeofPaaraan* of Isri Partib, father of the present Bie.« TheRajaof 

Gop&lpur had remained faithful; but his estates were 
so burdened by debt that it was absolutely necessary to sell the greater portion. 
The R&ja's daughter-in-law, who purchased part of them, is generally known 
as the R&ni of Gop&lpur. The Ghillup&r R&j came to an end ; the Raja being 

1 Sir Charles Wingfield simply says the 6th, without mentioning the month or year ; but the 
date has been taken from Colonel Rowcroft's own report. ' Such as they were ; but extra- 

Tagance and litigation had left very little to be forfeited. * The family regained their pros- 

perity by the purchase for a small sum of the Jangal Padrauna grant, held before by Mr. Sym. 
t " The income derived from this rich tract," writes Mr. Lumsden, " has enabled Isri Partab to 
pay off his debts and recover a portion of the taluka." (Sidhua Jobna Beport, para, 4). 



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458 GOBAKHPUB. 

hanged, and a small pension of about Us. 30 paid to his widow. The Muslim 
Eija of Sh&hpur in Dburiip&r met with the same fate. Part of his property 
was bestowed on the Gop&Ipur R&ja, and may be said to have saved the latter 
from ruin. .The R&ja of Majhauli was so deeply indebted that, bat for the 
timely intervention of Government, a few years must have seen him rained. 
But his creditors were paid off by the State, and his lands placed under the 
Court of Wards, by which they are still managed. 

The R&ja of Anola remained almost undisturbed by the rebellion ; while 
the Tamktihi chief, who had prudently abstained from putting himself promi- 
nently forward on either side, preserved, and has since greatly increased his 
possessions. The R6ja of Nichiaval, last representative of the Biitwal family, 
joined the mutineers, thereby forfeiting the stipend Government had since 
1845 allowed him in compensation for his taltikad&ri rights in Tilpur. A year 
or two later Nep&l was rewarded for its assistance by large territorial con- 
cessions in the north of the district. The evil effects of the rebellion have now 
passed away and the revenue of the settlement since effected with ease. 

The large income and area of the district, as it then stood, in 1865 caused 
its division into two charges by the separation of 
Basti. Even thus shorn, Gorakhpur is much larger 
than the average district, and further reduction of its area has been long dis- 
cussed. 

Looking back to the beginning of the century and of British rule, no one 
could deny that the strong arm and just intentions of our Government have 
despite defects of administration, developed the resources and multiplied the 
wealth of a land which native misgovemment had prostrated and ruined. 



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GAZETTEER 

OF THE 



NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES- 



GORAKHPUR DISTRICT. 



CONTENTS. 



Amwa ... «• 

Anola ... ... 

Anola parganah 
Baikunthpur ... 
Bnirauna 
Banagion I. .- 
Bansgaon II. ... 

Bansgaon tahsil 

Barhaj 

Barhalganj ^ 

Barhi 

Belaharia ... 

Belghat 

Belfpar 

Bhagalpur ... 

Bhauapar parganah 

Binayakpur parganah 

Biraicfaa ... ... 

Bishanpur .„ ... 

Captainganj .. ... 

Chaumukha 

Chaura ... ... 

Chillupar parganah 
Deoria ... ... 

Deoriatahsil ... 

Phani 

Dhuriapar parganah ••• 

Fakir-ki-kothi ... 

Gagaha ... ... 

Gajpur ... ... 

Ganra ... 

Ghati 

Gola ... *•• 

Gopalpnr ... ... 

Gorakhpur 

Gorakhpur or Head-quarters tahefl 

Ilata 

Hata tahoit ... 

llaveli parganah 

ltaya •«• ... 

Kan ion ... 

Kasia •«« ••• 



Page, 

400 

ib. 

ib. 
4b2 
4o3 

ib. 
464 

ib. 

ib. 
467 
408 

ib, 
4*9 

ib. 

ib. 
470 
472 
475 

ib. 
476 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
478 
479 

ib. 
480 
485 
486 

lb. 
487 

ib. 
488 
489 

16. 
499 

ib. 

ib. 
500 
505 

ib. 
506 



Page. 



Kazfpur 


... 


••* 


510 


Khakhundu 






ib. 


Khanapar 




• •• 


612 


Kotibhar ... 


••• 


• •i 


ib. 


Larh 






ib. 


Maghar parganah 




... 


613 


Maharajganj 


... 


• ■• 


5)5 


Maharajganj tahsil 


••• 


•M 


516 


Majhauli and Salem pur 


• •• 


ib. 


Mansfirganj 


••• 


..I 


619 


Motiraru-ka-udda 


... 




tb. 


Musela ... 






620 


Nichlaval ... 




,.'. 


ib. 


Padrauna ... 




••• 


ib. 


Padrauna tahsfl 




»*« 


623 


Paikauli 


••• 


•«• 


ib. 


Paina ... 


... 


•*i 


524 


Paisya 


•■• 


••• 


525 


Panera 




••• 


ib. 


Pipraich .„ 


... 


••• 


ib. 


Hani kola ... 




»•• 


526 


Rampur-Klianpur 


... 




ib. 


Ranigha't ... 


••• 


... 


ib. 


Rigauli 


... 


... 


ib. 


Kudarpur-East 




... 


ib. 


Rudarpur-Weht or ] 


Rudrapur 


•M 


530 


Sahiya 


••• 


• •• 


531 


Sahojanua ... 


.♦• 


... 


ib. 


Salem pur parganah 


•— 


... 


ib. 


Scraral 


••• 


... 


634 


Semra II 


••• 


... 


ib. 


Shahjahanpur parganah 


.«• 


ib. 


Sidhua Jobna parganah 


... 


537 


Silhat parganah 


••• 




541 


S is wa- bazar 


••• 




543 


Sohanag 


*••■ 


... 


544 


Surauli 


... 


• •• 


646 


Tamktihi ... 




• •• 


ib. 


Tarakulwa ... 


••t 


• •• 


ib. 


Taria-Sujan 


••• 




647 


Til pur parganah 




••• 


ib. 


Tutibhari ... 


•M 


'••• 


560 



59 



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460 GORAKHPUR. 

Amwa Kh6s or Proper, a collection of scattered villages in tappa RAmpur 
Dh&b of parganah Sidhua-Jobna, stands near the Champaran frontier, 68 miles 
by road from Gorakhpur. The Great Gandak, ou whoso bank it formerly 
stood, now flows some miles to the east. Bat the alluvial tract between Amwa 
and the river is still subject to occasional flooding. 

Its population, 6,150 in 1872, is Amwa's only claim to notice. But 
except in numbers, that population is nowise remarkable. It consists chiefly 
of agriculturists belonging to low Hindu castes. The villages or hamlets which 
compose Amwa contain no private buildings of any importance, and no public 
buildings at all. So insignificant, indeed, is the place that iu 1870 the Sanitary 
Commissioner 1 was unable to find it. And he very rightly came to the conclu- 
sion that, except in the form of scattered villagos, no such town could 
exist. 

Anola or Sangrfimpur, a compact village in tappa Haveli of the parganah 
to which it gives, its name, stauds on a cart-track branching from the Gorakh- 
pur-Belghat road, 13 miles south-south- west of Gorakhpur. It had in 1872 a 
population of 2,735 persons, chiefly husbandmen and Hindus. 

The village stands on a slight eminence, and, being surrounded by thick 
masses of trees, presents at a short distance a rather picturesque appearance. 
Not far north of it lio some large patches of forest, which are preserved for the 
sake of the sport which they afford to the local raja. The strong bramble 
hedges that fence in the fields around the village show that deer, antelope and 
other four-footed foes of cultivation are still numerous. The only public insti- 
tution is an elementary school. The rfija of Anola, whose family history has 
been elsewhere 2 told, inhabits a large brick house in the village ; and a good 
many old brick wells may be found in the neighbourhood. But the prevailing 
material of construction is mud. A house-tax was formerly levied under Act 
XX. of 1856, but this has now been abolished. The name of the village is 
sometimes written as if it were derived from dnwla or aonla, the tree elsewhere 
known as emblic myrobalans. But between the place and the plant there 
seems to be no real connection. Anola is still spelt Anaula, and was once 
spelt Anhaula. 

Anola, a parganah of the Bansgaon tahsil, is bounded on the south-east 
and north-east by parganah Bhauapdr ; on the north by Bhau6p&r and parganah 
Maghar ; on the south-west by the Basti district, and on its irregular southern 
frontier by parganah Dhuriapdr. The north-eastern boundary with Bhau6pa> 
is formed by the Amiir lagoon and Ami river. The Kuana affords an . 

*See his report for that year, p. 38, para 1 19. 2 Above, pp. 401, 43*. 



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GORAKHPUR. 4ftl 

occasional frontior with Basti ; and the Tarena, which rises in the parganah, 
with Dhuriapar. Anola is divided into three tappas, Haveli, Mahsin, and 
Bankata. Containing 401 of the revenue divisions known as villages (mauza) T 
it had in 187 8 l an area of 71,303 acres and a land revenue of Rs. 43,721. 

According to the census of 1872, parganah Anola contained 325 inhabi- 
ted sites, of which 217 had less than 200 inhabitants ; 90 be* 
Population. ^^^ 20Q and 50Q ^ 12 between 50Q an(J ^ 000 . 2 between 

1,00^) and 2,000; 3 between 2,000 and 3,000; and 1 (Bfinsg&on) between 
3,000 and 5,000. The population numbered 70,116 souls (32,683 females), 
giving 294 to the square mile. Classified according to religion there were 
66,294 Hindus, of whom 30,916 were females ; and 3,822 Musalmans (1,070 
females). Distributing the Hindu population among the four great classes, 
the census shews 9,818 BrAhmans (4,565 females) ; 4,735 R6jputs (2,232 
females) ; and 2,014 Baniyas (924 females) ; whilst the great mass of the 
population is included in the " other castes," which show a total of 49,727 
souls (23,195 females). The principal Br6hman sub-division found in this 
parganah is the Kanaujiya (9,818). The chief Rajput clans are the Sarnet 
(2,414), Sakarwal, Bais, and Chaulmn. The Baniyas belong to the following sub- 
divisions: K&ndu( 425), Agar wal, Agrahri, Baranw&r, Unai, and Kasaundhan. 
The most numerous among the other castes are the Bind, Teli, Koeri, Abir, 
Loh4r, Hajj&m, Chamdr, Dhobi, Kah£r, Satwfir, Gadariya, Kurmi, Bhar,, 
Mallih, Nuniya, K&yath, Kalwar, Sonfir, Kam6ngar, Kah&r, Dom, Barhai, 
Bh&t, Pasi, Thathera, M&li, Bfinsphor, B&ri, Atith, Khatik, KMkrob, KMn, 
Halw&i, Bharbhunja, and Beldar. The Musalmdns are distributed amongst 
Shaikhs (3,317;, JSayyids (10;, Mughals (6), and Pathans (444), or left 
unspecified. 

The parganah is a well-wooded and well-cultivated plain, whose only pro- 
physical and agri- minences are the slight undulations adjoining the low 
cultural features. basin of the Xmi. A memorial of ancient woodland sur- 
vives in tappa Bankata, whoso nanie means the ft forest-elearing ;" and at the 
assessment of 1839-40 there was still a large area of forest. But this has 
dwindled down till limited to the game-preserve, less than one square mile in 
extent, north of Anola. 2 The bulk of the parganah is cultivated and, thanks 
to the freshness of its cultivation, fertile. Of the total area 55,390 acres are 
recorded as either tilled or arable. 3 The extension of cultivation under British 
rule has allowed the land-revenue to increase nearly fourfold. 

1 Government Circular No. 70A M dated 4th July, 1878. * Sec article on that village. 

* Mr. Luuwdeii'u settlement report, which gives the same total area as shown above. 



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462 GORAKHPtnr, 

The soils are loam (dorm) and sand (balua). There is no natural clay soil 
(mattiydr) although the manured lands around village homesteads sometimes 
pass by that name. 1 Water for irrigation is obtained from many ponds and 
the pools of many streams. Eighty-seven per cent, of the total area is watered. 
But the instability of the sub-soil, and the distance of water from the surface, 
render wells expensive. Of the two harvests, the largest and most remunera- 
tive is the spring. Its principal crops are barley, wheat, and pulses ; but gram, 
peas, tobacco, and opium are extensively raised. 

Anola can boast no other noteworthy products. The only considerable 

manufacture, that of coarse cloth, is not peculiar to the 
Economical features. 

parganah. Weekly markets are held at five towns or 

villages, of which the most important for trade purposes is Bhainsa Mathu in 
Mahsin. The official capital is Bausgaon, the historic capital Anola. The 
marts at which the parganah sells its crops are, however, rather outside it than 
of it. It is connected by road or river with many places, such as Gorakhpur 
or Barhaj. Two unmetalled highways traverse the centre, two cart-tracks the 
east of the parganah. The Ami and the Kuana are navigable for at least two- 
thirds of the year. 

The parganah was first cleared and colonized by the dependents of the 
Sarnet Rajputs. The traditional leader of the colony was 
Randhir Singh, ancestor of the present r&ja of Anola. At 
what exact period he lived it is now impossible to say. But at the end of the 
sixteenth century we find Anola a parganah of the Gorakhpur division (mrkdr) • 
and Oudh province («rf&a), with a State rental of Rs. 5,028. a Part of Oudh it 
remained until ceded to the Company and included in its present district 
(1801). The land-taxes since imposed on it have been at the first assessment 
Rs. 11,698 ; at the second, Rs. 10,648 ; at the third, Rs. 9,542 ; at the fourth, 
Rs. 12,368 ; and at the fifth, Rs. 30.673. The sum last named had before the 
expiry of the fifth settlement risen to Rs. 43,200 ; and the demand of the 
next or current assessment has been shown above. 8 

Baikunthpur, 4 a village in tappa Kachu&rof parganah SalempurMajhauli, 
. stands on the banks of the Little Gandak river, about 40 miles southwest of Go- 
rakhpur. It in 187 2 had 869 inhabitants. The village is held by a family of Bisen 
Bajputs, an offshoot of the Majhauli house. It is remarkable as the site of the most 
important fair in the district, held "by the Panhdri Ji of Paikauli (q. v.) on the 
fifth of the bright half of Aghan. 5 The fair has been established for the last 52 

1 For a brief description of all these soils see above, p. 285. * 3,oi,i80</<fflu; see 

Akbar's Institute*. ' For some account of all these settlements see above, pp. 379-65. 

f This article has been kindly contributed by Mr. Crooke. * November-December. 



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GORAKHPUR. 463 

years. On its principal day a dramatic performance, representing the Dhanuk 
Jug, or contest for the hand of Sita, daughter of Janaka, king of Mithila, is 
given. The successful suitor, Ramchandra, breaks the bow of Siva on a large 
masonry platform amidst the acclamations of the assembled spectators. The 
fair is attended by about 30,000 people ; while it lasts, a large market is estab- 
lished ; and as there is no good trade-centre in the neighbourhood, the sur- 
rounding villagers flock hither to lay in their annual supplies of cloth, vessels, 
&c. The sales are very large. 

Bairauna Kh6s or Proper, a village in tappa Bairauna or Bairondu of 
parganah Salempur Majhauli^ contains the ruins of an ancient fort attributed 
to the Bhars. 1 The distance by unmetalled road from Crorakhpur is about 37 
miles. The population in 1872 was 738 only. 

Bansg^on, or " the village of barabus," is the capital of the tahsfl so named. 
It stands on a cart-track in tappa Mahsin of parganah Anola, 19 miles south 
of Gorakhpur. The population amounted in 1872 to 3,069 souls. 

The town or village really consists of 10 hamlets, whereof the principal are 
Shahpur Kabra or B&nsgaon, Baraban, Dunkhar, and Majhgawan. On the 
slight eminence crowned by Bar&bau, 6< the great forest," stand close together 
the munsiPs court and the tahsili. Between them and Dunkhar, which con- 
tains the first-class police-station, lies the excise store-house. Beyond the 
police-station, in Shahpur Kabra, rises the great mass of the village houses, 
which are mostly poor buildings of mud. The only public institutions not 
•hitherto mentioned are the imperial post-office, a Government school, a hostel 
(dharma&la) built in 1871 by general subscription, two Hindu temples and one 
Muslim mosque. As might be expected, however, in a mere cluster of agricul- 
tural hamlets there is no building of any special interest. 

In Baraban are some masonry structures and the greatest appearance of 
comfort, but as a whole the place looks like most Indian villages— poor, squalid, 
and untidy. Where, however, a short distance lends enchantment to the view, 
Bar&ban nestling amongst its fine groves of mango trees looks well enough. 

The land around the town is held by a great number of proprietors, 
some of whose holdings are barely sufficient to support existence. Owin^ 
probably to the nearness of Gorakhpur, into which the villagers carry 
their grain for sale, there is little local trade. But a market is held every 
Friday, and a fair on the ninth of the bright half of Ku&r (September-Octo- 
ber). On this latter occasion, writes Mr. Crooke, all the Sarnet Rajputs go to 
worship Devi at an old asthdn or shrine. Cutting their bodies in seven places, 

1 For some account of the manner in which the Bisens expelled the Bhars sec articles 
on MajhauU and Salempur, 



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464 GORAKHPUR. 

they offer up the blood to the goddess. They also sacrifice a male buffalo, 
and carry round a young pig, which they kill by knocking it against the 
ground. The ceremony is in memory of their conquest of the Chauhans 
and occupation of Bansg&on. 

BXnsg^on, an agricultural village in tappa Rampur Ragaha of parga- 
nah Sidhua Jobna," lies 64 miles by road east of Gorakhpur. Its only claim 
to notice is its population, which amounted in 1872 to 3,340. 

Bansgaon has an elementary (halkabandi) school. About a dozen years 
ago one of its landholders started an indigo factory which has long ceased 
working. The village is said to have been founded by Bhuinh&rs from the 
south, and still contain many Bhuiuhar inhabitants. 

BXnsgaon, a tahsil with head-quarters at the Bansgaon first mentioned, 
is bounded on its irregular north-eastern frontier by the Rapti, which severs it 
from tahsfls Deoria, Hata, and Gorakhpur ; on the north, again, by the Go* 
rakhpuror Head-quarters tahsil, on the west by the Basti district; and on the 
south south-west by the Gh&gra, which divides it from the Azamgarh district. 
Tahsfl Bansg&on contains the parganahs of Anola, Dhuriapdr, and Chillupar, 
with all except the two northern tappas of parganah Bbauapar. It had in 
1878 a total area of 394,648 acres, or over 616 square miles; and a total 
land-revenue of Rs. 2,30,279. Its population in 1872 was 345,401, or 563 
persons to the square mile. Bat a detailed account of the tahsil will be found 
in the articles on its four parganahs. 

Barhaj, in tappa Rafpur of parganah Salempur Majhauli, is the prin- # 
cipal mart of the Gorakhpur district. It staads on the junction of several un- 
metalled roads and a cart-track, 41 miles south-east of Gorakhpur. Tradition 
mentions that the Gh igra and R&pti used once to meet nearly four miles west 
of the town. But the tendency of Che confluence has ever been to follow east- 
wards the current of the two rivers. In 1873 they mingled their waters just 
opposite Gaura, less than two miles west of Barhaj ; and Barhaj now stands 
on the Rapti, above its union with the Ghdgra. The town had in 1872 a popu- 
lation of 4,970 persons, chiefly Brahmans, Kalw&rs, Mallahs, and Ahirs. 

u Barhaj," writes Mr. Crooke, u is certainly the most thriving and about 
the dirtiest town in Gorakhpur. But besides its commercial importance, it has 
not a single feature of iuterest. From the Rapti it presents the appearance of 
a mass of squalid houses interspersed with the spires of a few Hindu temples. 
The river bank is covered with immense piles of wood, part for exportation, 
part for boat-building, whiel^ is an active trade, and the greater part to feed 
the furnaces of the numerous sugar factories. The only buildings even modor- 



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gotukhpur. 4G5 

ately respectable are a brand new masonry police-station (first class) and a 
Government (halkabandi) school. At right angles to the river is one long street, 
which passes by a bridge over the foul Rakba watercourse — the i cloaca 
maxima' of Barhaj. This road was once metalled, but is now out of repair. As 
it approaches the river it loses itself in a maze of filthy lanes which wind on to 
the police-station and the ghats. The rest of the town consists of crooked 
irregular streets crammed with Eperchandise of all sorts. 

" The school has about 60 boys on its rolls and an average attendance of 

about 40. All the pupils are from the poorer classes. None of the merchants' 

sons attend. One of the leading mahdjans remarked lately to the writer that 

they did not send their sons to school because they did not want Government 

service, which was the sole end of education* They prefer to let their sons 

sprawl about the shops and pick up the mahdjani alphabet from the clerks. 

One of the principal trades of Barhaj is sugar-refining. It is carried on, 

according to the usual system, by boiling down the lumps of raw sugar (bheli) 

in an immense caldron (kardh), skimming and filtering the syrup, and then 

coagulating it in earthen pots, finally dissolving the treacle from the saccharine 

particles by the moisture from a layer of river grass (siwdr). The process is 

rather rude and there is little regard to cleanliness. The sugar produced is of 

the coarse brown variety known as Chinese. 1 Barhaj is the depdt for all the 

sugar produoed in parganahs Sidhua-Jobna, Salempur Majhauli, and Shfih- 

jah&npur. Dr. Planck ten years ago (1870) reckoned the number of factories 

at 40.* A visitor who sees the town only in its squalid every -day state would 

be surprised to watch on a market day the enormous string of carts which 

crowd into the place and render traffic in the narrow lanes almost impossible. 

Cloth and vessels are largely imported and sold for local use or distribution to 

the smaller district marts. Since the license-tax was introduced a new 

. industry has been started, that of preparing a second set of ledgers for the 

inspection of the assessing officer. The most enterprising merchants are a 

colony of M&rwaris, and some Kalwfire, Baniy&s, and Ir&kis. Some of the 

M&rw&ris do a good trade in insuring boats and cargoes from the danger of 

the snags and rapids of the R&pti and Gh&gra. The influence of the Barhaj 

trading classes in the neighbouring parts of the district is very* large. They 

acatter advances through the villages for sugar and grain ; and there are few 

threshing-floors or sugar-mills in the vicinity where one of their emissaries is 

not on guard during the harvest season. It must be admitted that the Barhaj 

dealers have rather an equivocal reputation. Judiciously managed bankruptcies 

are a regular trade. 

1 Supra, p. 413, note. ' See above, page 412, table, '" Remarks" column. 



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466 GORAKHPUR. 

" In Barhaj sanitation and local improvements are at a very low level. 
As the trustee of the rAja of Majhauli, the owner of the place, Government 
has no funds to spare for conservancy or local works. The most pressing 
work is to clear a road straight down to the B&pti landings and improve the 
town drainage. At present the refuse of the sugar refineries, added to the 
usual abominations of a native town, supply a bouquet of disgusting odours 
which Cologne could not rival*" 

The above description requires but little supplement. The Hindu temples 
therein mentioned are four or five, modern structures dedicated to Mah&deo or 
Siva. There is at least one good-looking modern mosque ; and to the list of 
public institutions must be added the imperial post-office. A few masonry 
houses are occupied by leading merchants. Numerous but ill-kept wells tap 
water at a distance of 25 feet from the surface. Many of the sugar factories 
are really considerable buildings, enclosing extensive courtyards. The manu- 
factured sugar is shipped in large quantities for Calcutta, but is not the only 
great export of Barhaj. The town is an important depdt for the down-country 
distribution of grain. It in 1870 contained no less than 31 golaa or granaries, 
courtyards surrounded with covered racks for the storeage of the laden sacks. 
Amongst minor exports must be mentioned wood, oilseeds, and hides ; amongst 
the imports iron, cloth, and salt But something on this subject will be found 
in the account of trade and manufactures for the district generally. 1 

The principal business quarters are Farehatta, Namakhatta or the salt- 
market, Dalhatta or the pulse-market, and Naya or New B&z&r. At the east 
of the town is an extensive quarter of Mall&hs or boatmen. Six hundred resi- 
dent members of that caste earn their liviug by loading and unloading vessel 
with that grain. But at Gorakhpur and Dh&ni, higher up the R£pti, the 
numbers are only 250 and 100 respectively. 2 The Rakba or Bh&gar water- 
course joins the Rapti, and its mouth forms a convenient dock for small ship- 
ping. On the R&pti itself may be seen a little forest of masts. 

Markets are held every Tuesday and Wednesday, and on the full moon of 
October-November (Karttik) Barhaj is enlivened by a fair. Near the town 
stand the villages of Gaura and Paina, where many of its merchants have 
villas. Though practically suburbs of Barhaj, these places will be described 
in separate articles. If their population be added to that of Barhaj, the result 
will be a total of 15,783 inhabitants. 

Legend derives the name of Barhaj from one Barahan or Barha-ji, a 

• Bi&hman hermit who turned Musalmftn. His supposed 
tomb is still an object of veneration. Later still lived 

* Supra pp. 411-21. * Report? furnialu4 by tahsUdars to Mr. Alexander. 



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GORAKHPUB. 467 

one Eunwar Dhir Sahi, who built here a castle. This stronghold is said to 
have been stormed and destroyed by Musalmans not long before the foundation 
of the modern town ; but its ruins may still be seen. The founders of the 
existing Barhaj were the ancestors of the Majhauli r&ja, and its age is computed 
at about 110 years. Its rise to commercial prominence had been rapid. In 
1870 Dr. Planck was informed that the first sugar factory had been started but 
40 years before. 

Barhalganj, a small town in tappa Havel i of pargana Chilliipfir, stands on 
the crossing of the metalled Azamgarh and another unmetalled road, 35 miles 
'south south-east of Gorakhpur. The former highway crosses the Ghdgra just 
south of the town. Barhalganj was in 1872 inhabited by 4,449 persons. 

It was formerly deemed to include four muhallas or quarters. The first, 
Lfilganj, was called after the Lai S&hib, brother of the rebellious Bisen raja of 
Narharpnr. The second was Kasba Barhal or Barhalganj proper. The third, 
Chillup&r, which perhaps gave its name to the parganah, took that name from 
the fact that it lay across {par) a small stream styled the Chillu. In the fourth, 
Gola or the granary, a grain-market was formerly held. But the separate 
existence of the three quarters last named has been almost forgotten, and the 
terms L4lganj and Barhalganj may be considered nearly synonymous. 

The town consists chiefly of a street of masonry shops lining the sides 
of the Azamgarh road. It has a fine metalled market-place flanked by stone 
drains. There is a famous temple sacred to Shiva as lord of Jalesar {JaUsar-Ndth 
Afahddeo). Another thdkurdwdra, known as the Charanp&dnka, is under the 
management of the prior of Paikauli {q. v.) A little distance north of the town, 
beside the Azamgarh road, the leading merchant Jagmohan Das has built a 
third temple. In the town itself is a fine masonry house belonging to the 
same citizen. Attached to the first-class police-station are 
a pretty garden and two mounted policemen, who patrol 
the road just mentioned. Barhalganj has also a parganah school, a hostel 
(sardi) for travellers, a dispensary, and an imperial post-office. Several fine 
groves surround the town ; and the trimness with which its road and market- 
place are kept give it an exceptionally neat appearance. The 
Chankiddri Act (XX. of 1856) is in force ; and during 
1877-78 the house-tax thereby imposed, added to a balance of Rs. 7 1 from 
the preceding year, gave a total income of Rs. 871. The expenditure, which 
was chiefly on police (Rs. 480), conservancy, and public works, amounted to 
Rs. 730. Of the 944 houses 225 were assessed with the tax, the inoidenoe 
being Rs. 3-8-11 per house assessed and Re. 0-2-11 per head of population. 

60 



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468 GORAKHPtm. 

Barhalganj has little trade of its own. But a good deal of traffio passes through 
it along the metalled road, on its way to or from the GhSgra shipping, Azam- 
garh, or Benares. Retained between calcareous {kankar) banks, the Gh&gra is 
here unusually narrow. On the full moon of Kjirttik (October-November; and 
the ninth of the bright half of Chait (March- April) large multitudes flock 
hither to bathe in the stream. 

Until the rebellion of 1857 the market belonged to the raja of Narhar- 
• pur, a village about one mile east of the town. On the 
confiscation of his property it was found (hat the dues 
brought in about Rs. 2,400 yearly. But Mr. Collector Young, under whose 
direct management the estate was placed, remitted the collections and imposed 
the house-tax already mentioned. The removal of what was virtually a 
transit duty gave a great impetus to the prosperity of the town ; but Barhal- 
ganj is still behind Dohari, the Azamgarh mart on the opposite bank of the 
Ghagra. Outside the town lie some lands known as Kr&zi Barhalganj, which 
when confiscated were bestowed on the rfija of Gopalpur in reward for his 
mutiny services. He both mortgaged and sold them, an inconsistency which 
has led to long lawsuits not yet ended. Riots and disputes between the rival 
claimants have lately compelled the Collector to take this property also under 
direct management. 

Barhi, 1 the Bite of a police-station and district post-office, stands on 
the left bank of the Rapti, in tappa RajdhAni of parganah South Haveli, 
13 miles south-east of Gorakhpur. The population amounted in 1872 to 
1,058 souls. The road from Gorakhpur to Barhi crosses the line of drainage 
from the Ramgarh and adjoining lakes, and is cut away every rainy sea- 
son. It is not now kept under repair. The surrounding country is greatly 
exposed to inundation from the R&pti, and the soil is so sandy as to 
render the construction of buildings very difficult. It is proposed to transfer 
the third-class police-station to the adjoining village of Dihghat, which occupies 
a more elevated site. The first estabishment of this station was due to the 
host of highwaymen which once infested the road. A short distance east of 
Barhi, in the villages of Tongri, Upadaulia, andRajdhani khas, are the remains 
of a great oity and fortress coeval with the Sahankot of Rudarpur, and said 
to be the home of the Maurya dynasty. 2 

Belah ARIA, or Bela Haraiya, the site of a dispensary and post-office, lies 
in tappa Lehra of parganah North Haveli, on the road from Nichlaval to 

1 This and the fire succeeding articles are chiefly from the pen of Mr. Crooke, of whose 
notes some advantage was taken also in the last. 2 /.«* the dynasty oi Chandragupta 

(Sendrakottos) and Atoka. 



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GORAKHPUK. 469 

Karmaini-gh&t, about 40 miles north north-west of Gorakhpur. It lies on 
the forest grant 1 of Mr. J. H. Bridgman ; and an excellent house is occupied 
by his resident agent, Mr. W. Palmer. Hard by stands S&hibganj b&z&r, 
an important mart for country produce. Bela Haraiya had in 1872 a popu- 
lation of 1 ,730 inhabitants. 

Belghat, a large agricultural village of the tappa so called in parganah 
Dhuri&p&r, stands on the junction of an unme tailed road and a cart-track, 
about 26 miles south south-west of Gorakhpur. The population amounted in 
1872 to 1,513 persons. The village contains a first-class police-station and 
district post-office. It is the head-quarters of Babu B&mavatdr Singh, a 
Kausik Rajput of the Gop&lpur family, who has a considerable estate in the 
neighbourhood. During the rains the place is difficult of approach from 
Gorakhpur, owing to the necessity of crossing the Ku&na river. There is 
nothing of any interest in Belghat. Its name implies that the Sarju or Ghagra 
once flowed past it ; and a late change of course has again brought the river 
within some two miles of the village. 

Bel* Pin, a police outpost on the metalled Azamgarh road, stands about 
14 miles south of Gorakhpur, in tappa Kasw&nsi of parganah Bhau&pfir. It 
occupies the high ground overlooking the Amiar lagoon. The embankment 
known as the " Tucker bandh," which connects Belipar with Kaurir&m on the 
other side of the marsh, begins a short distance south of the outpost. The 
population of the village is 679 only. 

BhAgalpur, a market village* in tappa Ballia of parganah Salempur- 
Majhauii, crowns the left bank of the Ghagra, 52 miles south-east of Gorakh- 
pur. It had in 1872 a population of 1,540 inhabitants. The place was evi- 
dently the site of a very ancient city. Apparently the ruins at Khair&garh, which 
are now on the Azamgarh bank of the river, were once conterminous with 
Bhdgalpur, and have been separated from it by a change in the course of the 
GhAgra. The ancient buildings on the Gorakhpur side have almost all dis- 
appeared, and only the ancient pillar described by Buohanan 2 remains. 

«« Bhagalpur," writes that wordy author, " is said to be a corruption of Bhargiwapur, * and 
it is said to have been the residence of the family of Br ah mans which gsve birth to Parasurama, 
the incarnation of Vishnu. * * * Immediately below Bhagalpur the Dehwa (Qhsgra) has laid 
bare some masses of brick rubbish, and this may possibly be part of the family abode, 
the remainder of which has been swept away by the river ; but the quantity of bricks 
is trifling, and they are usually considered by the natives as having belonged to a mud 
fort built above by Sudrishta Narayau, a Kumar or younger brother of the Bhojpur 
family who made some conquests in this part of the country Near this fort, in a 
garden, is a stone pillar, which is a mere cylinder with a small flat cap, and totally 
1 Supra, pp. 286-87. * Eastern India, W $ 364-66 ; see also Cunningham's 

Archaobgical Survey Reports, I, 85-86. 8 I e. the town of Bhargiwa Sarwfcriai. 



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470 GORAKHPDR. 

destitute of elegance. There are no traces of buildings round it, and a considerable portion is 
probably sunk in the ground. It has contained a long inscription in an ancient character, which 
the Pandits cannot entirely read, many of the letters being of obsolete forms. The inscription 
is besides very much defaced, partly by the action of time, and partly by some bigot having 
attempted to cut through the pillar just in the middle of the inscription. The zeal of this bigot 
was cooled before he cut half through the pillar, and if he wrought with a sword, as is usually 
alleged, he must have had considerable patience to cut so far. It is however commonly believed 
that he desisted from terror, blood having sprung from the stone when he made a gash in it 
with one blow of the sword. Some Bay that this zealous person was a Muhammadau; others give 
the honour to a Yogi. This latter opinion has probably arisen from some persons having carved 
above the inscription, in modern characters, the words ' Raj Yog/ 1007; but this, 1 am told, has 
no connection with a person of the order of Yogis, but implies accession to the Government, 1U07. 
Neither the name of the person succeeding nor the era is mentioned, and the character being 
very different from the other part of the inscription, had even these circumstances been known, 
they would hare thrown no light on the antiquity of the pillar. Many persons call it the staff 
(fdth) or club (yada) of Parasurama; but others say that it belonged to Bhim, the supposed son 
of Panda, and others allege that it was erected by Bhagadatta, of whom I made frequent 
mention in the account of Bang pur." 

During the last rains, 1879, the remains of an ancient masonry passage 
tinder the river are said to have been discovered. 1 The head-quarters of a sub- 
division of the Opium Department, fihagalpnr has a good opium bungalow 
with weighing sheds and other offices. Its bathing fair on the full moon of 
K&rttik (October-November) is attended by some 6,000 people. 

BhauaP4K, a parganah of the Bansgaon and Head-quarters tahsils, is 
bounded on its convex north-eastern frontier by the meandering Rapti, which 
divides it from parganahs Silhat and Haveli ; on its concave south-western fron- 
tier by parganahs Maghar, Anola, and Dhuriapar ; on its short eastern termina- 
tion by Silhat ; and on its short western termination by Maghar. Alarge portion 
of the boundary with Maghar and Anola is supplied by the Ami river and the 
Amiar lagoon. Bhauapar is divided into seven tappas. Of these the two northern, 
Bet and Haveli, belong to the head-quarters tahsiL The five southern, Kuswansi, 
Pachasi, Gurhmi, Kota, aud Gagaha, are a part of tahsfl Bansgaon. The par- 
ganah contains 432 of the revenue divisions known as villages (mauza). It 
had in 1878 an area of 91,200 acres and a land revenue of Rs. 58,477.* 

Acoording to the census of 1872 Bhauapar contained 280 inhabited sites, 

of which 151 had less than 200 inhabitants ; 87 between 
Popu ation. 2Q0 and 50Q ^ 2g between 50Q ^ ^ 00() . 1Q betweea ^qqq 

and 2,000 ; and 2 between 2,000 and 3,000. 

1 Granted however its existence, this passage must not he deemed an anticipation off 
Brunei's Thames-tunnelling feat. The passage did not run under the river, but the river has 
run over the passage. General Cunningham mentions a tradition that the li nigra once flowed 
thre* miles north of fihagalpnr. 2 49,610 acres and Rs. 39,307 belong to the Bansgaon 

tahsil j 41,6*0 acres and Ks. 26, 1 TO to the Head-quarters, 



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GORAKHPUR. 471 

The population numbered 82,526 sonls (39,000 females), giving 1,153 to 
the square mile. Classified according to religion, there were 77,452 Hindis, of 
whom 36,660 were females, and 5,074 Musalm&ns (2,340 females). Distributing 
the Hindu population among the four great classes, the censtis shews 13,065 
Brdhmans (7,228 females) ; 5,296 Rajputs (2,479 females); and 3,560 Baniyas, 
(1,706 females) ; whilst the great mass of the population is included in the "other 
castes" of the census returns, which show a total of 12,444 souls (5,761 females). 
The principal Br&hman sub-division found in this parganah is the Kanaujiya 
(12,867). The chief Rajput clans are the Ponwdr (1,292), Chandel, Sarnet, 
Sakarwdl, Bais, Kausik, Solankhi, and Chauhan. The Baniyas belong to the 
Kandu (1,460), Agarwil, Agarahri, Baranwdr, Unai, and Kasaundhan sub- 
divisions. The most numerous among the " other castes" are the Bind, DosAdh, 
Gound, 1 Teli, Koeri, Ahir, Lohdr, Hajjam, Cham6r, Dhobi, Kah&r, Satw&r, 
Qadariya, Kurmi, Bhar, Mullah, Nuniya, K&yath, Musahar, Kalw&r, Rajbhar, 
Son&r, Kamingar, Kahir, Dom, Barhai, Barai, Bh£t, Pasi, Thatheri, Mali, 
Bansphor, Bairagi, B&ri, Atith, Kis&n, Halwii, Kadera, Bharbhunja, and 
Beldar. The Musalm&ns are Shaikhs (4,034), Sayyids (27), Patbaos (426), 
and unspecified. 

The parganah is a long irregular strip of country with a maximum 
Physical and agri- expanse of about 30 by 7 miles. The flatness of its sur- 
cnltarai features. f ace j B b ro k en on \y by slight undulations whose ridges 
are often shaded by fine mango groves attributed to the Banj&ras. The 
soil is fairly productive ; and of the 9,867 acres returned as its total area 
at settlement 66,290 were either cultivated or culturable. The soils are loam 
(doras) and sand (balua). What is called clay {matti&r) is only found to a 
very limited extent in lowlying situations. The crops chiefly grown for the 
autumn harvest are bhadain or bhadni rice 2 and maize ; for the spring harvest 
the usual cereals, the usual pulses, and indigo. Until a few years ago at all 
events no sugarcane was raised. Bhau£p&r is well drained by the Rdpti and Xmi, 
which meet at the junction of tappas Kusw&nsi and Gurhmi. The interfluvial 
tract including tappas Ret, Haveli, and Kusw&nsi, is much exposed to inunda- 
tion not only from the rivers themselves, but from the Nawar and Nandaur 
lagoons. During the monsoon this part of the parganah is a continuous sheet 
of water, spanned between Belip&r and Kaurir&m police outposts by the mag- 
nificent embankment known as the Tucker Bandh. 8 When the floods subside 
they leave a rich alluvial deposit ; the beds of the smaller lagoons are sown with 
a winter crop ; and the Xmi shrinks into a narrow stream winding through 
fertile corn lands. The south of the parganah is as a rule higher and sandier, 

1 Sic in tbe Census report Perhaps Qond is intended. * Supra p. 32*. » Supra 

p. 307. 



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472 GORAKHPUR. 

while the spring crops are generally better than further north. Of the total 
cultivated area 61 per cent, is irrigated, chiefly from lagoons, artificial ponds, 
and former beds (dokar) of streams. But as water is very near the surface, 
temporary unbricked wells are easily dug. 

The leading families are the Sarnet R&jputs of P&ndepar, Balw&n, and 
Landholding fami- Kota, the Palw&r R6jputs of Gagaha, the Tiw6ri Brah- 
Ucs - mans of Saigaura, and the Pande Brahmans of BalwSn. 

The Naiks or Banj&ras of Chauriya in tappa Gurhmi deal largely in eattle, 
and lend money and grain in the neighbourhood. The Satdsi family 1 has 
settlements in Gajpiir and Bhau&p&r villages ; and at the latter place are 
the ruins ot a large castle on the highland overlooking the R&pti. It was 
above 3 mentioned how in 1769, when a famine had killed the cattle, the tigers 
fell upon the inhabitants of Bhau&p&r. In the time of Buchanan '1835) the 
same beasts were still credited with slaying yearly some seven or eight people 
and 250 cattle of the neighbourhood. But the parganah has now been so 
long without tigers that it bas almost forgotten their existence. 

The chief commercial mart is Kalesar in tappa Ret, near the bank of the 
Rapti, and adjoining the metalled road from Gorakhpur to 
Basti. This lately established emporium is an important 
dep6t for the produce of the fertile parganah Maghar. Piprauli in the same 
tappa, south of Kalesar, is a thriving market, noted chiefly for the country cloth 
which is imported for sale from Gorakhpur, parganah Maghar, and the neigh- 
bouring villages. The minor bazars are Saraiya, 8iw6i, Gajpur, and Daunrpdr. 
The parganah is thoroughly traversed by the metalled Basti and Azamgarh 
roads and their unmetalled feeders, while an additional trade-route is provided 
by the navigable Rdpti. 

The only remains of archaBologioal interest are the Satasi stronghold at 
Antiquities and Bhau&par and numerous mounds or other traces of old 
HiBt0 . ry - forts and villages attributed as usual to the Th&rus. The 

Institutes of Ahbar (1596) return Bhaw&para as a parganah of the Gorakhpur 
division and Oudh province, with a State rental of Rs. 3,897 (1,55,900 dams). 
How greatly cultivation has since then extended is shown by the revenues 
imposed at modern British settlements. These were, at the first, Rs. 15,430 ; 
at the second, Rs. 14,721 ; at the third, Rs. 14,750 ; at the fourth, Rs. 17,253 ; 
and at the fifth, Rs. 40,904. The demand of the next or current assessment 
has been shown above. 

Bin*yakpur, the most northern parganah of the district and the Mahd- 
r&jganj tahsil, is bounded on the north north-east and west north-west by 

»P.43<J. *P. 343. 



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GORAKHPUR. 473 

Nep&I, the boundary on the latter quarter being supplied by the Ghunghi 
river; on its irregular south south-western frontier by parganah Havel i; and 
on the south-east by the Jharri river, which severs it from parganah Tilpur. 
To distinguish it from Binfiyakpur of Basti, the parganah is sometimes called 
Bin&yakpur East. It is divided into three tappas, Mirchwar, Nngwan, and 
Sirsia ; and contains 79 of the revenue divisions known as villages (mauta) 1 . 
Binayakpur had in 1878 an area of 93,116 acres and a land-revenue of 
Bs. 17,111. 

According to the census of 1872 it contained 77 inhabited sites, 

of which 55 had less than 200 inhabitants ; 18 between 
Population. 

200 and 500 ; 2 between 500 and 1,000 ; and 2 between 

1,000 and 2,000, The population numbered 21,722 souls (10,409 females), 

giving 150 to the square mile. Classified according to religion, there were 20,028 

Hind6s, of whom 9,600 wore females; and 1,694 Musalmfins (809 females). 

Distributing the Hindu population among the four great classes, the census 

shows 544 Br&hmans (222 females); 255 B&jputs (111 females); and 474 

Baniy&s (217 females); whilst the great mass of the population is included in 

the "other castes," which show a total of 18,755 souls (9,050 females). 

The principal Br&hinan sub-division found in this parganah is the Kanaujiya 

(539). The chief R&jput clan is the Bais (127). The Baniyds belong to the 

Agarw&l, K&ndu, Agarahri, and Easaundhan sub-divisions. The most numerous 

among the other castes are the Ahfr (3,389), Hajj&m (1,525), Chamfir (2,177) 

and Kurmi (1,832). The following castes comprise less than one thousand 

members each : Dos&dh, Teli, Koeri, LohSr, Dhobi, Kahfir, Gadariya, Kurmi 

Bhar, Mall&h, Nuniya, K&yath, Musahar, Kalwir, Son&r, Kahar, Barhai 

Barai, Bh&t, Pasi, Thathera, Bansphor, Bairagi, B&ri, Atlth, Khatik, Kh&krob 

Kis&n, Halwai, Kumar, Kori, and Baheliya. The Musalm&ns are Shaikhs (1 366) 

Sayyids (16), Mughals (5), Pathans (243), and unpecified. 

As a part or outskirt of the Sub-Him&layan Tar&i, Binfiyakpur is both 
Physical and .grl. wild and swampy. From the base of the lower Him&laya, 
cultural features. gome 15 m y es djgtant, a series of rapid and roughly parallel 
streams flow down across its northern border. Excluding the Ghunghi and 
Jharri, already mentioned as mere boundaries, we find the west of the parganah 
traversed by the Ghfigar, Danda, and Ainjar, tributaries of the former ; the 
centre by the Rohin and its affluents, the Nidhi, Dhundi, Bhaghela, and 
If anauwa. The course of all these streams lies almost due southwards. The 
Ghunghi and Rohin, which rise in the hills themselves, are as usual 
1 This estimate includes forest grants. 



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474 GORAKHPUR. 

distinguished from other rivers by their high banks of accumulated alluvial 
matter. These banks slope rapidly down to the level of the surrounding country, 
the beds of the rivers being often, probably, raised above that level. 

Of the total area about 38,300 acres are or were jungle grants; 1 about 
23,200 are reserved Government forest. But before 1872 some 26,720 acres 
of the jungle grants had been brought under cultivation ; and when the term 
of the last grant expires, in 1906, tillage will have still further extended* 
Including the area just mentioned, the total cultivation amounts to about 
39,910 acres. 2 

But how small a fraction of the total area this represents may be seen 
by referring to the first paragraph. The parganah consists chiefly indeed of 
marsh and forest ; and of these the eastern tappa Nag wan is wholly composed. 
Here are numerous morasses growing long reeds, the resort of the tiger and 
wild buffalo; here probably may be found the origin of that malaria which 
makes Bin&yakpur East twice as feverish as its western namesake, although 
not so unhealthy as its eastern neighbour, Tilpur. But in the remaining tappas 
reclamation has of late years proceeded rapidly. Along the banks of the 
Ghunghi tillage has now reached the Nep&l frontier. Along, however, a con- 
siderable part of that frontier, the parganah is a dreary land of grass dotted 
near streams with a few trees. Hither at the end of the rainy season large 
flocks are brought for pasture. But as they return southwards, the drovers 
find pasture gradually give way to rice-fields and s&l forest to mango-groves. 
The owners of villages are chiefly Brahmans, Rajputs, and Mongol-faced 
Th&rus ; the peasantry are mostly of the caste last named, Kurmi's and Ahirs. 
In their system of cultivation advantage is taken of the many streams, which 
are dammed and diverted through artificial channels (kulaj to water the fields. 
The principal crops are for the autumn harvest late (jarhan) rice ; for the 
spring harvest cereals and pepper. But the people assert that, owing to the 
" coldness " left in the soil by the rains, little of a spring harvest is realized. 

Its crops and timber are the parganah's only important products. But 
Economical fea- at ^8 own little villages, such as Paisia and Sirsia, there is 
ture8# even in these little trade. Dhani, Nichlaval, and other marts 

of neighbouring parganahs are also the marts of Binayakpur. Of officially- 
recognized roads the parganah is entirely destitute. 

In the fourteenth century, Bin&yakpur and Tilpur were colonized by the 
first r6ja of Bdtwal, now a town of Nep&l. This chief is 
said to have been a ChauhSn R&jput ; but if the tradition of his 

1 Supra, rp. 286-88. * Or 13,190 acres, cxcludiug the cultivation of jungle grants. 

See Wynne's Settlement Report. 



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GORAKHPUB. 475 

migration from Chittaur is to be trusted, was more likely to have been a Gahlot 
His descendants intermarried with the Thirus and other hill -tribes ; and at 
some date unknown a cadet of the family obtained Tilpur as a separate fief. 
Though the independence of the Tilpur rulers was never recognized, the separa- 
tion between the two tracts continued. In the Ain-i-Akbari (1596) they are 
entered as separate parganahs of the Gorakhpur division (sarkdr) and Oudh 
province («iifta), Bin&yakpur being credited with a State rental of Rs. 15,000 
(6,00,000 dims). The parganah was then, however, very much larger than now. 
It included, as it now does not, the eponymous village of Bin&yakpur. When 
the tract was transferred from Oudh to the East India Company (1801), the r&ja 
of Bfitwal was granted a money allowance in lieu of his claims on the dbddkdrs. * 
But not many years afterwards the Nepalese ejected him from his hill domain of 
Palpa, and in virtue of this conquest claimed and seized Bin&yakpur also. 
Their presumption was ultimately punished in the Nep&lese war, and Bin&yak- 
pur once more became British territory. 

But in the course of the campaigns the population had been greatly 
strengthened by the influx of refugees from Bfitwal and the Tarii, and within the 
next twenty years Captain Stoneham was employed to bring this parganah and 
the neighbouring North Haveli into better cultivation. Lands were parcelled 
out, embankments were built, and channels for draining the marshes were dug. 
Thus began a work which has been toilsomely continued by the unassisted 
efforts of the people themselves. 

After the rebellion of 1857-58, the friendly services of the Nepfclese were 
rewarded with a grant of territory which, extending to the northern frontier of 
Haveli, severed Bin&yakpur into two portions, east and west On the forma- 
tion of Basti (1865) the latter was included in thct district. The first British 
assessment of the parganah took place in 1813, and the demands, then and since 
imposed, have been as follow :-1813, Rs. 520 ; 1839, Rs. 688; and 1864, 
Rs. 7,505. 

Biraicha, a village in tappa Biraicha of parganah Haveli, stands near 
the right bank of the Little Gandak river, 34* miles north-east of Gorakhpur. 
The population amounted in 1872 to but 1,370 ; and Biraicha is remarkable 
only as the site of a third-class police-station and district post-office. 

Bishanpur or Bishanpura is another small village noticeable for the same 
causes. It stands in tappa Patnipur of parganah Sidhua-Jobna, on an old bed 
of the Gandak and a cart-track, 62 miles east of Gorakhpur. Its police-station 
and post-office are of the same classes as those at Biraicha. But of its popula- 
tion, which is insignificant, the Magistrate-Collector is unable to supply details. 

* Svpra p. 407. 
61 



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476 GORAKHPUR. 

CaftaiNGANJ,' or Kaptfinganj, a fairly thriving market village in tappa 
Parwarpar of parganah South Haveli, stands on the junction of two unmetalled 
roads, 28 miles east-north-east of Gorakhpur. The population amounted in 
1872 to 3,647 souls. The village, writes Mr. Crooke, 1 was after the mutiny 
confiscated for the treason of its former owners, and the market has since re- 
mained in the hands of Government. A metalled road and masonry drains have 
been constructed. Hard by on the east flows the Little Gandak ; and the place 
has a considerable trade in sugar and country produce, which is sent down that 
river to Patna and D&napur. Captainganj or Captain's market is the 2nd stage 
on the road from Gorakhpur to Padrauna. It has a good encamping-ground 
and an elementary school. 

Cbaumukba, a police out-post on the crossing of the unmetalled Gorakh- 
pur-Lotan and Captainganj Karmaiuigh£t roads, lies in tappa Bhari of par- 
ganah North Haveli, 25 miles north of Gorakhpur. East of it rises a dense, 
but somewhat stunted sal forest. The population amounted in 1872 to 
933 only ; and the place is only noticeable as a halting-place on the junc- 
tion of two important highways. It derives its name from a well with a tall 
four-faced platform, said to have been built by a former district officer as a 
traveller's refuge from the numerous wild elephants which then haunted the 
neighbourhood. 

Chaura, or Chaura Chauri, a village in tappa Keutali of parganah South 
Baveli, stands on the unmetalled Gorakhpur and Deoriaroad, 16 miles south-east 
of the former place. It was in 1872 inhabited by 132 persons only. But Chaura 
has a third-class police-station, a district post-office, a small hostel (sardi) for 
tavellers, a cattle pound, and an eletnentary school. It occupies some high 
ground overlooking a great depression which is Hooded in the rains. When in 
early winter the water subsides, fever is prevalent. The village contains so 
few grain-dealers 9 shops that supplies must be brought a considerable distance. 

CfliLLtfplR, the smallest parganah of the district and the Bansgdon tahsil, 
is bounded on the north-east by the R4pti f which severs it from parganahs 
Salempur and Silhat ; on the west north-west by parganahs Bhau&p&r and 
Dhuri&p&r ; and on the south by the Gh&gra, which divides it from the Azam- 
garh district It is divided into five tappas, Majhaulia, Semra, Haveli, Kasha, 
and Sikandarpnr ; and amongst these are distributed 210 of the revenue divi- 
sions known as villages (mavza). Parganah Chillup&r had in 1873 an area of 
70,636 acres and a land-revenue of Ks. 42,070. 

According to the census of 1872 it contained 163 inhabited sites, of which 

. , . 88 had less than 200 inhabitants ; 50 between 200 and 

^epilation. 

500 ; 19 between 500 and 1,000 ; 5 between 1,000 and 

1 From whose notes this and the tiro following articles are taken. 



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GQRAKHPUB. 47? 

2,000 ; and one (Barhalganj) between 3,000 and 5,000. Jbe population nura- 
bered 48,919 souls (22,342 females), giving 203 to the square mile. Classified 
according to religion there were 45,923 Hindfis, of whom 20,963 were 
females, and 2,996 Musalm&ns (1,379 females). Distributing the Hindu popula- 
tion among the four great classes, the census shows 8,025 Brfihmans (3,602 
females) ; 3,510 Rdjputs (1,629 females) ; and 1,516 Baniy£s (731 femalea) ; 
whilst the great mass of the population is included in the " other castes/* which 
show a total of 32,872 souls (15,001 females). The principal Br&hman sub- 
division found in this parganah is the Kanaujiya (7,931). The chief R4jput 
clans are the Ponwar (323), Chandel, Bais, and Kausik. The Baniyas belong to 
the following sub-divisions : Kdndu (726), Agarwdl, Agarahri, Barasw&r, 
Unai, and Kasaundhan. The most numerous among the other castes are the 
Bind, Dosftdh, Gound, 1 Teli, Koeri, Ahir, Lohar, Hajj6m, Chamar, Dhobi, 
Kah&r, Satwir, Gadariya, Kurmi, Bhar, Mall&h, Nuniya, Kiyath, Musahar, 
Kalwfir, Son&r, Kam&ngar, Kahftr, Dom, Barhai, Barayi, Bhat, Pasi, Thathera, 
Mali, B&nsphor, Bairagi, B&ri, Atifch, Khatik, Kisan, Halw&i, Kadera, Bhar- 
bhunja, Beld&r, Kum&r, and Eori. The Musalm'ms are Shaikhs (2,559), 
Sayyids (56), Pathans (137), and unspecified. 

The plain of Chill dpar forms the point of the wedge between Rapti and 
Physical and agri- Grhagra. Through it, after furnishing for some distant 
coharal features. fa boundary with Dhuriipar, the Taraina runs on to 

join the former river. The chief geographical feature is the wealth of large 
lagoons, which filling in the rainy season become almost dry before the end of 
the hot Of such reservoirs the greatest is the Bhewri, 2 through which the 
Taraina flows. From, them and artificial uonds the fields obtain most of their 
water. Except in the west of tappa Haveli, wells are devoted almost solely to 
garden crops. But an additional source of fertilizing moisture is found in the 
Taraina, which as it becomes stagnant is dammed for irrigation. A little over 
40 per cent, of the cultivated area is watered. The parganah is perhaps the 
most highly cultivated in the district. No less than 45,331 acres were at 
settlement (1861) returned as tilled or arable. But arable waste is rare, and 
no traces of forest are left. The soils are loam (doras) and sand (balua), clay 
being unknown. The sand along the bank of the Gh&gra is extremely light 
and poor. 

As the water recedes towards the centres of the lagoons, their edges are 
sown with rice. This and indigo are the principal crops of the scanty autumn 
harvest. The spring harvest, which is by far the most important, consists 
mostly of wheat, barley, garden-crops, and the pulses masiir, gram, and arhar. A 

1 See article on parganah Bhaudpdr, " Population," note. * Supra p. 304, 



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478 GORAKHPUR. 

little sugarcane is frown. Though said to be of comparatively recent intro- 
duction, manure is highly prized. The soil is no longer so fresh as in other 
parts of Gorakhpur, and requires restoratives. 

Its agricultural raw produce is Chillup&r's only noteworthy product. 

Economical fea- When not sold at Barhalganj, Semra, or some other 

tures * local mart, this can be exported to other districts by 

the Rfipti. But one metalled and one unmetalled road connect the parganah 

also with Gorakhpur, Barhaj and Gola, in the district itself. 

The earliest traditional masters of the parganah were as usual the Bhars. 
It is said that they were expelled about the middle of the 
fourteenth century by Dhur Chand Kausik, first r&ja of 
Dhuridp&r. In the end of the sixteenth or beginning of the seventeenth, 
quarrels amongst his descendants enabled Bern&th Singh Bisen of Semra to 
seize most of Chillupdr, and to assume from that tract the title of rAja. 1 From the 
time of this annexation Chilltip&r probably dates its existence as a separate par- 
gana. It is entered in the Institutes of Akbar (1596) as a separate malidl of 
the Gorakhpur division and Oudh province, with a State rental of Rs. 7,232 
(2,89,302 ddms). The same authority mentions that at Chillup&r village is a 
brick fort On its transfer from Oudh to the Company the parganah was included 
in its present district The demands assessed on the parganah at successive 
British settlements have been at the first, Rs, 12,283 ; at the second, Rs; 1^145; 
at the third, Rs. 14,204 ; at the fourth, Rs. 14,543 ; and at the fifth, Es. 31,257. 
The present demand of the next or current settlement has been shown above. 

Deoeia, the head-quarters of the tahsil so named, is a town of tappa 
Peoria, in the north of parganah Salempur. Through it passes an unmetalled 
road from Gorakhpur, 33 miles distant on the north-west. The population of 
1872 was 1,069. But this estimate includes as usual the inhabitants of several 
separate villages which together form the nominal town. 

Deoria has a tahsfli, a third-class police-station, a mnnsif 's court, an 

imperial post-office, and an excise godown. Proposals were once made for 

removing the office first named to Musela or Salempur, It was formerly located 

at Mahuadih in Silhat, where the remains of one of the round towers formerly 

used for the deposit of Government treasure are still visible. Plans for the 

abolition of the excise godown have been based on the statements that the 

water of the neighbourhood is unsuitable for the manufacture of liquor, and 

that the demand for liquor is small. 

1 The rajas of Chill6p&r lired at Narharpur, near Barhalganj, and on that account were 
sometimes etyled the Narharpur rajas. Their title became extinct in I860, when the last 
raja was c onricted of rebellion. 



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GORAKHPUR. 479 

About half a mile from the sandy hillock on which stands the tahsfli 
may be seen the village of Mehra. Here is the market-place of Deoria. The 
only modern institution which remains to be mentioned is the encamping- 
ground. Near it in a field lies the grave of a British soldier who died here at 
the time of the expedition to Paina. 1 

According to General Cunningham 2 the name of Deoria is com- 
monly applied to some place which contains a temple or 
other holy building. Mr. Grooke notes that in the village 
of Bharauli, about a mile north of the town, and on a mound beside the Eurna 
watercourse, are an old statue of Shiva and the remains of what was probably 
a temple. " In the next village, Bamhni, south of the Kurna, there are more 
extensive ruin?. It is said that about ten years ago one Hikhai Tiwari, of the 
adjoining village of Pinra, dreamt that there were some images in the mounds 
of Bamhni. He proceeded to dig and ultimately found an ancient lingam and 
argka? and a small black stone image about a foot high, now known as the 
Bhagawati. The moulded black foundations of two old temples are visible. 
West of these temples is an ancient tank about 40 yards square ; and op to 
the temples there are remains of what was apparently a flight of masonry 
bathing stairs. North of the Bhagawati temple is a very old pipal tree. 

" At the other side of the Kurna, where the Gorakhpur road crosses the 
water-course, are the remains of some Oudh governor's fort. The moat is still 
clearly traceable. On the top is a Musalmdn tomb called the 'martyr man 
(shahid mard).' Here the country people piake petty offerings, but none can 
say whom the grave contains." 

Dkobia tahsil will be described in the article on its single parganah 
Saleinpur, with which it is co-extensive and identical. 

DhAni, an important market in tappa Bigoli of parganah North Haveli, 
stands on the meeting of two cart-tracks, 33 miles north north-west of Gorakh- 
pur. The market-place really lies in Khinapdr, 4 from which Dhajii is a sepa- 
rate village. But it is always known as Dh&ni bdz&r. The population 
amounted in 1872 to 1,913, or including that of Kh&nap&r to 4,886; but this 
population fluctuates from season to season. 

For Dhdni stands just west of the Dhamela. During most of the year 

this stream flows quietly about 30 feet below the level of its banks, which are 

steep and well defined ; and at soch seasons the place is crowded with traders. 

1 Supra, Mutiny History. * Arch. Surv. Reports, L, 65. * The lingam is the 

phallic emblem of Shiva. The argha is the boat-shaped metal ressel from which libations are 
poued. * Not to be confused with the Khanapar in parganah Salempur. 



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480 GORAKHPUJGL 

But during the rains the river rises, and at many points overflows its banks. 
Floods and the violence of the current put a stop to trade and navigation ; and 
the merchants return home to Gorakhpur, Barhaj, or elsewhere. The trade, 
which is DhAni's chief claim to notice, has been described above. 1 Its landlords, 
chiefly Rajputs and Brahmans, derive from its market a large income. The 
streets are rather narrow, and the Dhamela landing might well be improved. 
The surrounding fields are very fertile, and let at rents which in some cases 
rise to Rs. 12 or 14 per acre. This rate is for Gorakhpur high indeed ; and 
is perhaps demanded because the land produces about the best potatoes in the 
district. Near the town is a large lagoon which affords good fishing. 

DhuriIpXR, the largest parganah of the Bansgaon tahsil, is bounded on 
the east by parganahs Chilliip&r and Dhuri&p&r, and on the north by parganah 
Auola, all of its own tahsil ; on the north-west by the Basti district ; and on the 
south south-west by the shifty Ghdgra, which divides it from the district of 
Azamgarh. The parganah occupies, in fact, the south-western corner of it* 
district. It contains the 24 tappas of Pali, Tiar, Gur or Gaur, Dandi, Nahuri 
or Narrai, Kohara, Athaisi, Majuri, Ehutahan, Barhaj, Chan d par, Karmaut or 
Earmiit, Bhabnuli, Sh&hpur, BhadAr, Parsi, Usri, Thdthi, Nakuri or Nakauri, 
Chodur or Chorur, Haveli, Bankat, Ratanpur, and Belghat. 

Of these all except the last and largest lie north-east of the Kuina river. 
Dhuri&p&r is divided also into 1,213 of the revenue divisions known as villages 
{mama). It had in 1878 an area of 203,099 acres and a land-revenue of 
Bs. 1,12,181. 

In it, according to the census of 1872, were 945 inhabited sites, of which 

„ . x . 666 had less than 200 inhabitants ; 232 between 200 

Population. „ ' 

and 500; 36 between 500 and 1,000; 9 between 1,000 
and 2,000 ; and one between 3,000 and 5,000. The only town containing 
more than 5,000 inhabitants was MadSriya or Gola, with a population of 5,147. 

The inhabitants numbered 177,692 souls (82,153 females), giving 261 to 
the square mile. Classified according to religion there were 167,235 Hindus, 
of whom 77,258 were females ; 10,454 Musalm&ns (4,895 females) ; and 3 
Christians. Distributing the Hindu population among the four great classes, 
the census shows 28,101 Brahmans (13,123 females); 8,969 Rajputs (4,166 
females) ; and 4,321 Baniyis (1,976 females); whilst the great mass of the 
population is included in the " other castes," which show a total of 1 25,844 souls 
(57,993 females). The principal Br&hman sub-division found in this parganah 
is the Kanaujiya (27,127). The chief lUjput clans are tho Ponwar ^346}, 

1 Pp. 414-418. 



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GORAKHFUB. 481 

Chandel, Bais, Kausik, and Chauhan. The Baniyis belong to the following 
sub-divisions : Kindu (887), Agarwfil, Agarahri, Barauna, 1 Unai, and Kasann- 
dban. The most numerous amongpt the other castes are the Bind, Dos&dh, 
Teli, Koeri, Ahir, Lohir, Hajjfim, Chamfir, Dhobi, Kah&r, Satw&r, Gadariya, 
Rurmi, Bhar, Mallah, Nuniya, K&yath, Musahar, Kalw&r, Sun&r, Kamangar, 
Kahar, Barhai, Bar Ay i, Bhat, Pasi, Thathera, M&li, B&nsphor, Bair&gi, B&ri, 
Atith, Khatik, Khakrob, Kisan, Halwai, Kadera, Bharbhnnja, Kumh&r, Kori, 
Baheliya, Gos&in, and Jaiswar. The Musalmfins are Shaikhs (2,250), Sayyids 
(1,612), Mughals (49), Pathans (814), and unspecified. 

The parganah is a rather fertile plain, of whose total area 143,215 acres 
were in 1865 either culturable or cultivated. Its staple crop is that of the 
spring harvest. Now, as that crop requires plenty of irrigation, 81 per cent, of the 
cultivated land is watered. The water is drawn from lagoons, small ponds, 
wells, and streams. The lagoons are never large ; but the largest are at Kasoh 
and Nenua in tappa Chdndpar and at Karpaicha in tappa Tiar. The two for- 
mer are silting np. The parganah is first bounded, and afterwards traversed, 
by two streans flowing south-east towards the Ghagra. Of these the most 
northerly is the Taraina, fora short distance the frontier with Anola. Running 
between raviny banks, it is on the close of the rains dammed for irrigation. 
The other and larger river, the Ku&na, is for a few miles the boundary with 
Basti. Its lower reaches are navigable at all seasons ; but in the drier months 
by light craft only. This Kuana * divides Dhuriap&r into two rather differ- 
ent portions. The kachfy or alluvial lowlands of tappa Belgh&t and the bdngar, 
The lowlands, uplands or remainder of the area. The lowlands clearly 

owe their origin to the deposits of the Ghagra, which from 
year to year and place to place still shifts across them. Owing to this fact, 
and to the great sandiness of their soil, they have never been brought into 
perfect cultivation. They are covered in places by tall wild grasses, and by 
picturesque palmyras, which in ancient days were called the kings of grasses 
(trinardja). But except tappa Khutahan, this is the only tract in which 
sugarcane is systematically cultivated. Even here there are no sugar factories. 
The cane is eaten raw, or its juice is merely boiled down into the coarse 
treacly syrup known as gtlr. Throughout the lowlands water lies near the 
surface, but in the uplands its distance increases U> about 18 J feet. 

The uplands, writes Mr. Crooke, are " a fairly flat tract consisting 
generally of doras or light loam, well adapted for the culti- 
vation of the Bhadui or autumn rice and the usual spring 

1 Probably intended for Baranwar, i.e., Baniyas oi Bulandshahr, * And the Ghagra, 

where that mer has usurped the Kuana a bed. 



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482 GORAKHPUR. 

cereals. In some parts poppy is extensively grown, bat the deficiency of large 
towns does not encourage the cultivation of vegetables, for which the soil 
is well adapted. As in most of the district there is nothing grand or striking 
about the scenery. A glimpse of the Himalayan snows can occasionally be 
seen on a clear morning in the cold weather. The horizon is shut in on all 
sides by splendid mango groves, 1 amidst which red-tiled hamlets nestle, each 
graced by a lordly pfpal or bargad tree or surrounded by clumps of feathery 
bamboos. But the landscape has a quiet grace of its own when seen under an 
unclouded sky in the winter months. At this season the young crops cover 
the country with one sheet of green, varied only by the yellow flowers 
of the mustard. The sole exception to the general fertility is an faar or 
saline plain extending over some 2,000 acres at the junction of tappas Gaur, 
Chandpar, and Kurmaut. Traversed and gnawed into ravines by a small 
watercourse called the Kachani, this tract is still haunted by herds of blue- 
bull which damage the neighbouring crops. 

" The most remarkable fact in connection with the recent history of 
Shifting of the Dhuriapar is the change in the course of the Ghagra, which 
Ghigra. occurred about eight years ago. Formerly this river met the 

south-western corner of the parganah at the village of Majdip. Thence, taking a 
south-eastern course, it wound round by the villages of Shiupur Raushanganj 
and Urdiha, and met the Kuana at the village of Narhon, about 2 miles south- 
east of the important commercial mart of Gola. But about the year 1871-72 
it suddenly changed its bed and burst away due east from Majdip, through a 
series of marshes and lowlying land, until it met the Kuana under the pre- 
sent town of Shahpur or Bilaon Ehurd. Thenceforward the Ghagra and 
Kuana became one stream, and the old bed of the Kuana was considerably 
widened. The effect of this change has been to sever from the rest of the 
parganah over a third of tappa Belghat. The tract so severed, which now lies 
on the Xzaragarh side of the deep stream of the Ghagra, has a maximum 
length from east to west of about 13 miles, and a maximum breadth fropa north 
to south of about 4. At the recent alluvial settlement it became a ques- 
tion whether or not this portion of the parganah should be transferred to Azam- 
garh. It was finally decided to retain it as part of Gorakhpur for the follow- . 
ing reasons : — Its transfer would have involved sending the records to Azam- 
garh and necessitated a re-adjustment of police and revenue jurisdictions. Most 
of the proprietors, moreover, live in the Gorakhpur district and fined it more 
convenient to do their business there. Up to the present (1880) the Ghagra 

*Mr. Alexander remarks that the gro?ea are not quite so fine as in Anola or Bhauapar. 



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. GORAKHPUR. 488 

has year after year changed its course. Its latest tendency is to push once 
more southwards, and resume its former channel bj gradual erosion of the entire 
intervening country. The soil being a very unstable alluvium, all hope of coo- 
trolling the movements of the river has been abandoned* The change in its 
course has caused enormous loss to the proprietors of the villages which have 
been destroyed ; and Government has of course been compelled to make 
extensive remissions of revenue. 

" The parganah contains few objects of antiquarian interest At Dburia- 

. . . . p&r proper, which is said to take its present name 1 

Antiquities. • 

from a somewhat mythical Raja Dhdr Chand, there 

are the ruins of an enormous fort on the left bank of the Ku£na. This, like 
all similar ruins in this district, is traditionally assigned to a Bhar or Thara 
dynasty. All really known is that it was for long occupied as their head- 
quarters by the Kausik R&jputs, who have divided* into the two families 
now residing at Gop&lpur and Barhi&p&r. Barhiap'ir is marked on the settle- 
ment maps as Bhadar Kh&s, in tappa Bhadar, at the extreme north of the parga- 
nah. Here is a series of enormous mounds, evidently marking the site of a 
very extensive city. The place has not yet, it is believed, been properly 
explored. Some of the mounds may perhaps represent the sites of temples* 
The writer at a recent visit could find no inscriptions or images in the neigh- 
bourhood. It is suggested that the remains are of the early Brahmanical period. 
" The chief families in the parganah are the Kausik R&Jputs of 

r M a ... Gop&lpur and Barhiap&r. Both hav# lost most of 
Leading families. .. f . . , . m . „ .. - .. 

their importance in modern times. The bopalpur family 

is now represented by Dulhin Barpftl Kunwari, nephew's wife of the 

late Raja Krishn Kishor Chand, who distinguished himself for loyalty 

in the mutiny. At the time of that rebellion the Barhifip&r r&ja was Tej 

Purt&b Bah&dur Cband, who when aopused of treason absconded. After a 

wandering exile of some 14 years, he was finally allowed to return. Hia estates 

and title were confiscated, the former being made over to Jhagru Tiw&ri, the 

loyal landholder of Rajgarh in tappa Narri. The present representative ef 

this grantee, who near the end of the rebellion was killed in a skirmish at 

Ch&ndfpur ghfit on the Gh&gra, is Rauaphal Tiw&ri. The Barhiapar family 

now hold but half their original estate. This moiety, which was entered on the 

revenue-roll in the name of the Rini, escaped confiscation. The RAni has 

1 The former name of tbe parganah, and presumably of the Tillage also, is said to hare been 
Sherpur. But it is altogether unlikely that ihe Persian word Sher or Lion could have been 
imported into the district before the present name was crystallized. Dhur Chand is supposed 
to have lived in the fourteenth century. The first invasion ol the Persian-speaking Muslim* 
took place much later. Supra pp. 434, 439. 

62 



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484 OOBAKHPTJB. 

adopted as heir her nephew L&lendar Bahadur Chand, commonly called the 
Lallan Sahib. The Sikriganj domain is held by a family of Piudaris who 
were settled^ here after the great Central India campaign. 1 They are now 
represented by Muhammad Shah and Muhammad Ydr Khans, who arrogate to 
themselves the title of Naw&b * They receive the usual seignioralty (mdlikdna) 
of ten per cent on the revenue of the domain, which has been snbsettled with 
Birtiyas and other under-proprietors. 3 Another branch of the Kausik family 
is settled at Belghat and is now represented by Ramawatar S&hi, a man of 
considerable influence in this part of the district. Other leading Kausik fami- 
lies are the B&bus of Malanpar and Jaswantpur in Tappa Bhabnuli, and of 
Hata in tappa Majuri. Amongst Br^hmans the chief families are the Shukuls 
of Mankor and Kakdijkor in tappa Majuri and the Pandes of Sariya. Most of 
the proprietors are Brahmans and Rajputs. The villages are generally broken up 
into petty shares. The proprietors occupy the best lands as home-farm. Rent- 
rates are low except near Gola, Rs. 2 or 3 per btgha being the prevailing rate. 
Like most of the Gorakhpur proprietors, the people are extremely litigious. 
This evil is increased by the smallness of the shares. Widows' inheritances and 
alluvial lands are fertile causes of litigation. Crime is rare, and very few 
serious offences ever occur. 

" There is no specially noted shrine in the parganah* Before the change 

nllI , ., _ in the course of the river the chief bathing-place was 
BeligiouB buildings. * r 

Narhon in tappa Barhaj. Now the chief scenes of religious 
ablution are Bisra ghat, Jhapatiya gh£t and Shahpur. The enormous profits of 
the grain trade have lately enabled the Gola merchants to erect several Shivalas 
and other temples. Such are those built by Buddhu Kalwfir and being built 
by Hanuman Kalw&r. The latter promises to be, when complete, a very mag- 
nificent building. Dulhin Harpdl Kunwari is raising a fine temple at Bisra 
gh£t, a mile west of Gola. 

" There are few or no manufactures in theparganah. The indigo factory 

Trade and manu- at Beuri, adjoining Gola, formerly the property of Mr. 

factures. Goutier, is now owned by Messrs. Moran and Co. of Calcutta. 

There is a branch concern at Dhuriapar proper. The parganah contains 21 

places where markets are held. The chief grain marts are Gola-Gopalpur in tappa 

Barhaj, formerly on the Kuana, but now on the Ghagra ; and Dhakwa Bazar on 

the Kufina in tappa Bhadar. The former belongs to the Gopalpur, and the latter to 

the Barhifipdr family. From both are exported by river large quantities of wheat, 

1 Supra p. 398. « The title is not recognized by Government. » Gorakhpur- 

Basti Settlement Report, L, 46-47. 



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GORAKHPUR. 4S5 

linseed, and rice. Next to these Mr. Lumsden mentions Bilaon Rhurd. The 
minor markets for country produce are Uruwa in tappa Kurmaut, Sikriganj 
in tappa Parsi, Jhalia, Kdnri and At&nagar in tappa Belghdt, Dhuriapar pro- 
per in tappa Bankat, and MAlanpar in tappa Bhabnauli. Asaunji in tappa 
Tfaathi is famous for excellent gdrha cloth. Dhuridpar is the only parganah in 
the district whioh produces the wood of the babdl acacia. This is extensively 
exported for making the beds of sugar-mills [kolhu). 

" There is little or no shooting. A few herds of nilgdi and wild-pig 

frequent the diwdra of the Gh£gra. The numerous 

small ponds and marshes are in winter a favourite 
haunt of snipe and the various kinds of wild-duck. The Gh&gra produces 
excellent fish, the chief of which are the bhatura y rohu, and parhin. It abounds 
with gavyals and crocodiles ; and on the wide sandbanks immense flocks of 
wild geese congregate in the cold weather/' 

We have already seen that the history of the pargaftah begins with its 

colonisation by Kausik Rajputs in the fourteenth century. 

At the end of the sixteenth it is entered in the 
Aih-i-Akbari as a parganah of the Gorakhpur sarkdr and Oudh province, with 
a State rental of Bs. 37,942 (15,17,708 dams). But by this time the inter- 
necine quarrels between the Dhuriapar and Barhiapar brandies of the Kausik 
tribe had enabled a Bisen to sever and annex ChilliipAr (q. v.) Similar annexa- 
tions continued until, at the close of the civil war, Dhuridpar had lost 16 out of 
its 40 tappas. The feud was at length suppressed by the Nawdb of Oudh, pro- 
bably in the second quarter of the eighteenth century. Dhuri&p&r and Barhifi- 
p4r then became, as above mentioned, separate principalities. But the effects of 
long war and anarchy were still visible for nigh a hundred years afterwards. 1 
The parganah was not brought into proper tillage until long after its 
neighbours Anola and Chilltip&r. But cultivation may now be said to have 
reached its average margin. The progress which has taken place since the 
fourth British settlement of land revenue (1813) may be shown by the amounts 
of the demands imposed before and after that assessment Those demands 
were ; — at the first settlement, Rs. 44,907 ; at the second, Rs. 41,947 ; at the 
third Rs. 37,743 ; at the fourth, Rs. 40,358 ; at the fifth, Rs. 88,436 ; and at 
the sixth or current (1865) Rs. 1,12,391. It will be observed that at the 
third assessment (1809) the demand was actually less than in the reign of 
Akbar. 

FAKfR Ki kothi, or the Hermitage, is the site of a police outpost on the 
unmetalled road to Hata, 6 miles east of Gorakhpur. The Magistrate-Collector 

* Mr. Lumsden anserta in faiB settlement report that the parganah had not altogether record- 
ed er ea at the time o( the last settlement (,1635). 



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486 GORAEHPTTR. 

is nnable to discover in his office any record of the population by the last 
census. 

Gagaha, 1 a police outpost in tappa Gagaha of parganah Bhauapdr, 
stands on the metalled road from Gorakbpur to Benare3, 26 miles from the 
former. This place, which in 1872 had but 159 inhabitants, is the head- 
quarters of the Palwar Rajputs. Sir Henry Elliot is wrong in fixing the 
Palw&r Chaurdri in Anola. 8 It is really in tappa Gagaha. The Pal wars 
are said to have originally held but 84 bighas of land, which increased by 
conquest to 84 villages. They speak of " unchds kos-Ubhdt, " meaning that 
kinsmen from 49 kos distance atteud their weddings and other ceremonies. 
But the 49 kos are thus reckoned : — 

Kos. 
f Kauriya ... ... 7 

Acamgarh district ... J Chhota Gopalpur ... ... 7 

( Atraulia ... ... 7 

Faiaabad ditto ... i * ir *** • - - " 

"• \ Surharpur ... ... 7 

Gorakhpur ditto ... Gagaha ... ... 7 

Total •... 49 

They also have the phrase " unchds kos-U-kumak" thereby boasting that 
they can get help from 49 kos. They were a most turbulent tribe. In the 
mutiny they attacked a party of Gurkhas escorting treasure. The story is that 
the Gurkhas threw a box of rupees among them, and, while they were seizing 
its contents, flung a shell filled with pepper over them, and then attacked them 
while they were still in a stupefied state. A number of Palw&rs were taken 
prisoners, of whom all were beheaded with the deadly Nep&lese knife (kukari), 
as the people say, " like so many goats." The villages of the defeated 
party were burnt, and a great part of their land was afterwards con- 
fiscated for rebellion. The Palw&rs have never held up their heads 
since. Gagaha has an elementary Government school and a very ancient 
masonry well. Nodular limestone (kankar) is found in its neighbourhood. 

Gajpur, a small town on the right bank of the R&pti, in tappa R&rapur 
Eota of parganah Bhaufip&r« lies 18 miles in a direct line south south-east of 
Gorakhpur. 3 It in 1872 bad 3,2 JiO inhabitants. 

Gajpur once possessed a police out-post; and the Chaukid&ri Act (XX of 
1856) is still in force. During 1877-78, the house tax thereby imposed, added 
to a balance of Rs. 179 from the preceding year, gave a total income of 
Bs. 587. The expenditure, which was chiefly on police (Rs. 205 \ conservancy, 
and public works, amounted to Rs. 343. Of the 590 houses in the village, 
"149 were assessed with the tax, the incidence being Rs. 2-11-10 per house 
assessed and Re. 0-2-7 per head of population. 

1 Tbis and the following article haye been kindly contributed by Mr. Crooke. * Beamea' 

Elliot, II., 61, ' Twenty-five milei by road. 



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GOBAKHPUH. 487 

Gajpur has not much trade, and is in fact little better than a halting- 
place for boats on the R&pti. IS early opposite the village a bank of nodular 
limestone runs across the river. This, which is a serious impediment to boats, 
it has been proposed to remove by mining. The place belongs to the Satdsi 
domain. Near the river is a ruinous kot or castle occupied by the widow 
of the L&l S&hib, son of the late attainted R&ja of Satasi. The castle was 
built by R&ni Soh&s Kunwari, grand-mother of the Lai £&hib. 

6 AURA, a western suburb of Barhaj, stands on the un metalled road be- 
tween that place and Barhalganj, 39 miles south-east of Gorakhpur. The 
population amounted in 1872 to 5,482 souls. Musalm&ns are rare ; butMallaha 
and other persons earning their livelihood by traffic on tbe Rapti are common. 
The place contains also many Rajputs, Brahmans, Kurmis, Kalwars or distillers, 
Sunars or metallurgists, and Lunias or saltpetre-workers. Though Gaura is 
a suburb of Barhaj, and though both are parts of parganah Salempur, the 
former is situate in a tappa (Kaparwar) different from that of the latter. 

Gaura has several chini sugar -factories ; but Barhaj absorbs most of 
the trade which might otherwise belong to it. The Ghaukidari Act (XX. of 
1856) is in force; and during 1877-78 the house-tax thereby imposed, together 
with a balance of Rs. 236 from the preceding year, gave a total income of Rs. 
1,094. The expenditure, which was chiefly on police (Rs. 593*, conservancy, 
and public works, amounted to Rs. 783. Of the 1,063 houses in the town 130 
were assessed with tbe tax, the incidence being Rs. 2*9-7 per house assessed 
and Re. 0-2-2 per head of population. Except, perhaps, two temples of Shiva, 
Gaura can boast no noticeable buildings. 

Its name is somewhat laughably derived from the Arabic gliaur 9 reflec- 
tion — the reflection being that of the Majhauli Raja when asked to permit the 
foundat'on of the town. But Gaura was probably christened in much the same 
manner as Gauda or Gonda of Oudh and Gaur of Bengal. Some connection 
with Gaur Rajputs or BrAhmans may be suspected. 

GflXTi, a village in the tappa so named of parganah Salempur, stands in 
the fork between Khanua and Little Gandak rivers, about 45 miles in a direct 
line south-east-by-east of Gorakhpur. 

The population amounted in 1872 to 913 only, and about the village itself 
there is nothing interesting. It contains, however, a second-class police-station 
and district post-office. The surrounding country is very fertile and well culti- 
vated, growing large quantities of sugarcane, poppy, and other valuable crops. 
During the rains, owing to floods from the Chhota Gandak and its tributaries, 
the approach to the village is difficult. 



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488 GORARHPUR. 

Gola, Mad Sri a or Gola-Gop&lpur, a flourishing town of tappas Ch&ndpor 
and Barbaj in parganah Dliuriapar, stands on what was once the bank of the 
Ku&na and is now the bank of the Ghagra. On it converge three unmetalled 
roads fromGorakhpur, 33 miles distant on the north ; and one of these conti- 
nues its way to Barhalganj and Barhnj. By the last census (1872; the popu- 
lation mustered 5,147 ; but, since the change in the course of the Ghagra, must 
have very greatly increased. The most influential caste is the Kalwar, to which 
most of the local merchants belong. 

Some fine groves which surround, and the river which flows past it, give 
Site and appear- Gola an appearance which at a distance is decidedly pleas- 
aDCe> ing. A nearer inspection is not so satisfactory. In spite 

of the house-tax imposed some years ago for conservancy and other purposes, 
there is still room for improving the tidiuess and fragrance of the town. Gola 
consists of one narrow straggling street of shops running parallel to the Ghagra 
and separated from it by*a thick mass of mud houses, through which a network 
of narrow lanes leads down to the river landings. There are five muhal las or 
quarters, viz., (1) Bhfkhlganj, said to derive its name from the metallurgists' 
(Sunar's) shops which used once to abound in it; 1 (2) Ruihata, or the cotton- 
market ; (3) Baramthan ; (4) Daldahi ; and (5) Anjaiganj, or the grain-market. 
The third and fourth are small quarters on the bank of the river. On that bank 
are several large masonry houses. As remarked in the Dhuriapar article, the 
traders have of late years shown much rivalry in erecting fine temples. Gola 
has a new first-class police-station, an imperial post-office, and a good element- 
ary (halkabandi) school. It is the head-quarters of a sub-division of the Opium 
Department. 

The town is a considerable depdt for the collection and river-export of 
Trade and house- g ram > but ^ as ^ l ^ e original trade. A brass-founder named 
tax. Bishweshwar has a local reputation for making a kitid of 

squirt used in sprinkling perfumes at marriages and other festivities. The 
Chaukidari Act (XX. of 1856) is, as already noted, in force. During 1877-78 
the house-tax thereby imposed, added to a balance of Rs. 213 from the preceding 
year, gave a total income of Rs. 1,104.' The expenditure, which was princi- 
pally on police (Rs. 578), conservancy, and public works, amounted to Rs. 756. 
Of the 1,298 houses in the town 191 were assessed with the tax, whose 
incidence was Rs. 4)40-8 per house assessed and Re. 0-2-9 per head of 
population. 

» The reason of this derivation is not apparent. Bhikhi is more Hkelj to mean a beggar 
than a metallurgist. Bat it i* not uncommon as a man's name j and after some person so 
named the quarter was probably called. 



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aORAKHPUB. * 89 

GoW-Gop&Ipur, or Gopdlpur's grain-market, was so called because found- 
ed by some former Raja of the neighbouring Gopalpur. 
History. T ^ market gtiU be i ongs to the family, and the present 

riija derives from its rents an income of about Ra. 5,000 yearly. The pros- 
perity of Gola depends almost altogether on the caprices of the GhAgra. About 
the time of the great rebellion, when that river reinforced the Kuana with its 
channels, the town could as a grain emporium compete with Barhaj. But 
before 1872 suoh channels had ceased to flow; aud when visited in that year by 
Mr, Alexander, Gola looked poor and squalid enough. The Ghagra has now 
in its full vokm€( usurped the bed of the Ku&na ; and the town has resumed its 
place as a great distributor of grain. It can no longer, however, claim to be 
the rival of Barhaj. 

GopXlpur, a large village in tappa Chfindpir of parganah DhuriSp&r, lies 
on an unmetalled road about four miles north-west of the place just described. 
The population amounted in 1872 to 1,213, or including the inhabitants of 
Old Gop&lpur, to 1283. The prevailing caste is the Rdjput. Ever since .the 
division of the parganah between its contending Eausik factions, 1 Gop&lpur 
has supplied title and residence to a raja* A fine castle of brick is still occu- 
pied by r&ni Dulhin Kuarin, widow of the late rdja Krishn Kishor. From 
its walls can be obtained a good view of the surrounding country, which is 
rather low and liable to inundation. An excellent elementary school is held in 
a housd belonging to the Hini, who takes great interest in education. West 
of the village rises an extensive mound used as a brick quarry by the villagers. 
It was apparently a very large fort of the older Kausik colonists. 

Gobakhpur, 8 the headquarters of the district, lies between north latitude 
26°42 / and east longitude 83°23, about 335 feet above sea-level and 134 miles 
from Benares. 3 Its population was 45,265 in 1847, 54,529 in 1853, and 50,853 
in 1865. The census of 1872 gives its site an area of 727 acres, with an aver- 
age of 70 persons to the acre. There were in the same year 51,117 inhabitants, 
t of whom 33,986 were Hindus, 16,924 Musalmans, and 207 members of the 
Christian and other faiths. Distributing the population among the rural and 
urban classes, the returns show 1,444 landowners, 4,412 cultivators, and 45,261 
persons pursuing occupations unconnected with agriculture. The number of 
houses according to the same returns was 11,538, of which 1,925 were built 

'See article on pargana Dhuridpdr, " History." * This article has been compiled 

from the accounts of Messrs. Alexander and Crooke; a minute, dated 22nd February, i860, 
by Mr. E. A. Reade, C.B. ; Mr. Planck's Sanitary Reports ; Buchanan's Eastern India ; the 
Census Report of 1872 ; and Thornton's Gazetteer. * The distance is thus computed : 

By nil from Benares to Jaunpur, 32 miles ; by road from Jannpur to Gorakhpur, 102 miles ; 
total, 184. Another route is by rail from Benares to Akbarpur of Faizabad, 84 miles ; by 
road from Akbarpur to Gorakbpur, 71 miles ; total, 156. 



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490 GORAKHPUR. 

"with skilled labour,' 1 L e., of masonry, and 9,613 of mud. Of the former dwell- 
ings 1,' 88, and of the latter 6,574, were occupied by Hindus. Taking the 
male adult population, who numbered 18,815 persons over fifteen years of age, 
we find the following non-agricultural occupations pursued by more than 
fifty males: — servants, 5,057; labourers 2,038; cultivators and ploughmen, 1,948; 
weavers, 910; grain-dealers and sellers, 771; land-owners. 635; shoe-makers and 
sellers, 483; greengrocers, 380; cloth-merchants, 364: oil-makers and sellers, 
350; carpenters, 292; tailors, 278; washermen, 277; porters, 265; beggars, 261; 
Government servants, 252 ; shopkeepers, 208 ; milkmen, 200 ; barbers, 199 ; 
fruiterers, 159 ; fishmongers, 155 ; grain-parchers, 148 ; gold apd- silver smiths, 
144 ; water-carriers, 130 ; pandits, or doctors of Hindu divinity and law, 124 ; 
butchers, 112; pack-carriers on ponies or on bullocks, 107 ; cotton-cleaners, 104 ; 
dyers, 101 ; tobacconists, 97; betel-leaf-sellers, 95; wood-sellers, 93; toddy- 
sellers, 87 ; rope and string makers and sellers, 85 ; merchants, 84 ; black- 
smiths, 81 ; blanket-weavers, 80 ; sweepers, 74 ; book-sellers, 70 ; braziers, 67 ; 
and brick- layers, 62. 

Bounded on the south-west on the navigable Rapti, Gorakhpur may be 

said to be surrounded on every other quarter by lakes. To 
Site and appearance. 

north-west and north lies the Karmaini aud Domingarh 

Tfcls ; to the east and south-east those of Ramgarh and Narhai. When the 
rains have swollen such waters, sailing becomes a favourite amusement with 
the European residents, of whom several possess tiny yachts. Not many miles 
east of the civil station lie forests which provide the additional pastime of 
shooting. The town itself seems to have found its origin in a small hamlet 
or village known as Old Gorakhpur, which was built, under circumstances here- 
after mentioned, by a branch of the Sarnet Rajput house of Sat&si. Old 
Gorakhpur is now so widely severed from the more southern modern city as 
hardly to be deemed a part of it at all. As their numbers gradually grew, the 
settlers founded other hamlets near the first, and the later Muhammadan 
invaders built castles around which more villages sprung up. The names of 
these settlements, derived from their founders, from some local deity, or from 
some circumstances under which they were founded, often give a clue to their 
ages. Its piecemeal method of accumulation fully accounts for the large area 
over which Gorakhpur is scattered, as well as for its present appearance* 
Though containing less than 52,000 inhabitants, the town stretches more than 
three miles from north to south. Though its component villages have become 
muhallas or quarters of a single municipality, that municipality still seems in 
most places a collection of villages rather than one continuous town. The dif- 
ferent quarters are often severed by market gardens aud groves of fruit-trees 



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GORAKHPUR. 



491 



and bamboos. For the soil is rich, manure is handy, and water but 12 or 15 feet 
from the surface. Wells are numerous, but their contents are for drinking purposes 
not so good as those of wells beside the Ganges. 

But, in spite of its straggling character, Gorakhpur may be broadly divided 
The town may be into two portions — a northern with 29 and a southern with 
divided into two parts, 39 quarters. The two are divided, not only by a strip 
of cultivation, but by a water-course which from a small pond connected with 
the lUmgarh lagoon finds its way to the BApti. 1 They are so entirely separate 
that on leaving one for the other it is at first hard to believe that one Baa not 
altogether quitted the town. 

The principal quarters of the northern portion are Dilfc&rpur, Alinagar, 

and Captaingani. Of these the largest is Alinagar, where 
Anorthernand ,. ,, r , ,, . . . . . . * .1 - -r, , 

live all the wealthier native inhabitants ot the city. Its tree- 
shaded main-street, lined by well-built masonry shops, is the best market- 
place in Gorakhpur. In the southern part of ^he town the chief muhallas are 

Basantpura, Mi&n-b&zar, Urdu-bdzar, Sdhibganj, Gola, and 
m southern. _, . _. _ ■ _ 

Ghampur. The main-road of Basantpura is a narrow street 

winding parallel to the river. It has a few fairly good shops, but its neigh* 
bourhood, the south of the city, is a poor one. Mi&n-bdzar lies on the eastern, 
outskirt, and therefore adjoins the civil station. Its site drains towards the 
Ramgarh jhil, and through it by an artificial cutting flows in flooded seasons 
the water of the RHipti. Its name is derived from the fact that the late Midn 
SAhib of the Gorakhpur lm£mb&ra founded here a fine market-place (bdzdr). 
Near the market-place is the house still occupied by his successor. Between 
Mi&n-b&zar and the river lies Urdu-bdzar or the Camp-market, the most important 
and populous quarter in the city. Many of its houses are brick built. Con- 
nected with it by a westorn road is Halseyganj or Halsey's mart, named after 
an Assistant Magistrate who some years later enriched Cawnpore with the fine 
market named Collectorganj. This Halseyganj is a small triangular space with 
a fenced and grass-grown centre. From another but a much earlier official, 
Routledge Sahib, the Sdhibganj market and muhalla takes its name. Mr. 
Routledge * was first Collector of the district. Sdhibganj, which stands just 
north-east of the jail and river, passes between two great tanks, of which more 
will be said hereafter. It contains some substantial masonry houses and shops, 
and is the principal grain mart of the town. Leaving it by a northern road 
we reach Gola. Gola too means, as usual, a grain market ; but its northern 
portion is a market for vegetables also. Here are sold the potatoes, pineapples, 

'This watercourse has now half a dozen different names. When the Rfipti si flooded the water- 
course may perhaps be slid to ran from the river to the Ramgarh jhil. * Supra pp. 379.80. 

63 



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4&2 GORAKHFUR. 

yams, carrots, and radishes, for which the market-gardens of Gorakbpnr are 
famous. The market-place stands on a raised site, shaded in the centre bj trees, 
but blocked towards its northern end by a small mud-built im4mb&ra. It is to 
the southern part of the city what Alina«rar is to the north. North again 
of Goia lies Ghanipnr, a Musalm&n quarter, which is also the northern* 
most quarter of this part of the city. It includes the garden lands on the 
banks of the dividing water-course already mentioned. 

The civil station and cantonments lie east of the sontbern portion of the 
Civil station and town. Neither are large of their class. The European 
cantonments. residents of the former are generally limited to the judge, 

the magistrate-collector and his two covenanted assistauta, the civil surgeon, 
the district engineer, the district superintendent of police and bis assistant, 
the sub-deputy opium agent, the inspector of customs, the inspector of post- 
offices, and the postmaster. In the latter is located a native infantry regiment 
with its complement of officers ; but a troop of native cavalry has sometimes 
been detached hither from Kasauli. In 1841 there was, besides these 
forces, a detail of native artillery. 1 Within the cantonments and north of the 
military lines stands the military hospital. This has been surrounded with an 
earthwork embankment, and would be used as a place of refuge in case of 
disturbances. 

Before closing the descriptive part of this notice, it remains to mention 
some of the principal public buildings. The masonry sarti 
or hostel of Mr. Collector Chester stands in Basantpura, 
on the rising ground overlooking the stretch of modern alluvium which 
intervenes between the city and the river. Its high and turreted enclosing 
wall is entered by a great gateway ; the enclosure within is shaded by trees 
and includes a mosque. Dr. Planck (1870) complains that it is isolated from 
the rest of the city by mud houses, which block up its approaches until " what 
might be a great ornament seems lost in a corner.' 9 The same causa damages 
the appearance of the Im&mb&ra. An im&mb6ra, it should be explained, is a 
consecrated building where during the Muharram festival Musalmftns perform 
the rites of mourning for the Imams Hasan and Husain. This im&mb&ra was 
built, as above 2 related, by a holy mendicant named Baushan Ali, assisted by 
Asaf-ud-daula, Naw&bof Oudh (1775-97). Though an imposing, it is there* 
fore not an ancient structure. The adjoining bouse of its guardian, the Mian 
84hib, was mentioned in the ^penultimate paragraph. The Khudai mosque, 
the principal place of ordinary Muhammadan worship, closes the vista formed 
* Bengal and Agra Guide for that year, quoted by Thornton. * P.40P. 



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GOfiAKHPOB. 493 

by the long line of shops in the Urdu b4z£r. It is a plainly built and rather 
heavy-looking edifice, raised on a narrow plinth above an open space from 
which four roadways diverge. The builder was K&zi Khalfl-ur-Bahm&n of 
Maghar ; but the building was, as elsewhere 1 told, ordered by prince Muaasim, 
in whose honour Gorakbpur was for a short time called Muazzimabad. 

The jail marks the site of the old fort reared above the R&pti by rij* 
Basant Si ugh of Satasi, after whom the enclosing quarter, 
Basantpura, is named. 8 This stronghold was afterwards 
occupied as a cantonment by both the Muhammadan and the British masters 
of the district. But when the present cantonments were laid out east of the 
city, it became converted to its present uses. The last remains of the old 
castle were removed in 1874, during the extension of the jail ; and the RApti 
has now receded some distance to the west. The site is raised about eight or 
ten feet above the general level of the town, and the jail itself is built through- 
out of masonry. It has a double wall entered on the north by a not very 
imposing gateway ; and is aired within by several open spaces grown with 
grass, flowers, or shrubs. Ventilation has been secured without by removing 
the surrounding houses, till on the city side there is now a clear precinct of 
about 40 yards width. The low-land abandoned by the river is cultivated as a 
jail garden. 3 

The shrine of Gorakhnfith, adjoining the old Oorakhpur quarter, is 
Shrine of Gorakh- more remarkable for the strange legends told of the saint 
n *'k in whose honour it was founded 4 than for any architectural 

merit The building is buried in the enormous grove for which its multitude 
of mango-trees is said to have earned the name of Pachlakhia 6 ; and is thus 
hidden from observation in a manner that somewhat adds to its mystery. Not 
far from the shrine is the M&nsarwar pond/ overlooked by another temple. 
The priests at St. Qorakhn&bh's are Earbored Jogis. 7 

Mr. Commissioner Heade's dharmsala or hostel stands in the Alfid&d 
quarter, on tbe south of the city. It was built about 1837 for the use of 
landholders visiting the city, and is now a benevolent trust managed by Gov- 
ernment. On the shores of the Domingarh lake and site of the old Domin- 
garb castles 8 the same officer erected a large bouse intended as a sanatariuin 
for the European residents of Gorakhpur. Of European houses at Gorakh- 
pur itself, tbe finest is perhaps that belonging to Mr. Bridgraan. 9 Othor 
British buildings which deserve special mention are the church, orphanage 

1 P. 443. * See p. 442. Basant Singh flourished about »68S. » Further par* 

ticulara relating to the jail will be found at pp. 8/8-79. * For some account of St. 

Gorakhnath nee p. 436. * I.e., the grcve of five hundred thousand Such exagger* lions 

•re in naming groves not uncommon. Thus at Farukhabad we find a JNaulakhaand a Lakhola. 
• Supr* p. 433. ' Gszr., V. 692. • Supfa pp. 433-86. • Fp. 387, 360. 



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494 GOBAKHPUR. 

and sohools of the Church Missionary Society in the civil station. Three miles 
east of the city, at a place which bears the very appropriate name of Bish&rat~ 
£ur or Evangelopolis, the society has a branch establishment. In Urdu b&zir 
it has a small masonry schoolhouse. 

The courts and offices of the judge, magistrate- collector, and other 
European officials will be found in the civil station. Gorakhpur has also 
atahsili, a new central police-station (kotwdli) in the Turkm&npur quarter, 
police outposts in several other muhallas, a central dispensary, a district {zila) 
and five municipal schools, and a central post-office. It has been already men- 
tioned that some good native houses and shops may be seen in Alina^ar, 
Urdu b&z&r, S&hibganj, and other quarters of the city. But Gorakhpur is built 
chiefly of mud ; and most of its dwellings have therefore a poor and squalid 
appearance. Its tiled roofs give it no doabt a neater look than is possessed 
by the towns of thatch, but this advantage is somewhat neutralized in its 
northern quarters by the monkeys, the chartered libertines of many an In- 
dian city. According to Buchanan, these animals " in their insatiable curio- 
sity to discover what is below them turn over tile after tile, thus setting whole 
roofs in disorder." 

An unfailing characteristic of mud-built cities is the large number of holes 
Sanitation and pits from which the earth for buildings has been dug. Dry 

in summer, in the rainy season charged with stagnant of 
and unsavoury ditchwater, such excavations have always been the chief eyesore 
of Gorakhpur. But within the last fifteen years strenuous exertions have been 
made to reduce their number, and to turn the larger pools into graceful reservoirs. 
The largest were the Egrets' pond (Baglddah) and the Crows 1 pond (Kauh 
wddah), between which the Sfihibganj road passes. The improvement of the 
former was taken up as a relief-work during the famine of 1873-74 ; and it 
has now been converted into a tank with regular sides, surrounded by a 
municipal garden. The Crows' pond, whose name popular legend prefers to 
derive from a princess named Kanlivati, 1 was similarly treated during the 
famine of 1877-78. It is now a magnificent oblong sheet of water. The over- 
flow of these tanks is conducted into the B&pti. 

To prevent the flooding formerly so common in the city, natural drainage 
lines have been widened and deepened. The west of Gorakhpur is now drained 
into the Crows' pond, the north into the Sonaha tal, the centre, south, and east 
into the BAmgarh jhil. But these have not been the only improvements of 
late years. About 1870 Mr. Collector Young did much for the city in widen- 
ing its main streets ; and there were then no less than 14 public latrines. 

1 Seep, 433. 



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GORAKHPUtt. 



495 



The rapid development during the last seven years of the municipal income 
has enabled the Municipal Secretary, Mr. Crooke, to push forward reforms with 
his accustomed energy. New roads have been constructed through the purlieus 
of the Mian-b&z&r quarter and the slums between Alinagar and Jafra b&z&r. 
Funds are now available for clearing a similar passage from Halseyganj to 
Birdghit on the RApti, and for removing the unsightly houses between the 
Crows' and Egrets' tanks. Existing highways have been metalled and flanked 
by excellent masonry drains. Some police lines have been built opposite the 
jail, a vegetable market in Halseyganj, a new school on the Domingarh road, 
and new octroi outposts on various outskirts of the city. 

From the duties collected at those outposts the municipal income is chiefly 

derived. The following table shows the expenditure as well 

as the income for two recent years : — 



Municipality. 



Receipts. 



Opening balance ... 
'Class L— Food and drink 

„ II.— Animals for slaughter, 

„ III.— Fuel, &c. 

n IV.— Building materials ... 

n V.— Drugs and spices, &o 

„ VI.— Tobacco 

„ VII.— Textile fabrics -. 

„VHI.-Metals 



o 



Total 



Rents ... 
Fines ... 
Pounds ... 
Miscellaneous 



Total 



1876-77. 


1877-78. 


Rs. 


Rs. 


10,390 


10,652 


19,503 


19,870 


758 


776 


4,854 


4,816 


525 


331 


511 


441 


464 


787 


8,004 


6,201 


1,099 


881 


35,118 


33,503 


480 


606 


317 


410 


] 1,03a 


3,683 


36,947 


38,203 



Expenditure. 



Collection 

Head-office 

Supervision 

Original works ... 

Repairs and main- 
tenance of roads. 

Police... 

Education 

Registration of births 
and deaths. 

Lighting 

Watering roads .. 

Draiuage works .. 

Water-supply 

Charitable grants.., 

Conservancy 

Miscellaneous 



Total 



1876-77. 



Rs. 
8,024 
341 

8,254 

3,836 

1,340 
24 

2 016 
••• 

1,750 

17 

4,472 

4,578 

647 



30,297 



1877-78. 



Rs. 
3,486 
349 

12,415 
8,366 

4,593 
1,520 

1,845 

2,370 

1,032 

6,267 

331 



42,274 



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496 



GORAKHFUB. 



Trade import*. 



In the year last shown the octroi fell at the rate of Be. 0-7*11 per head 
of population. The corporation or municipal committee 
consist of 18 members, whereof 6 sit ex officio and the 
remainder by election of the rate-payers. In epitomizing the local imports, 
the municipal registers give also some idea of the local trade. Such imports 
may be thus shown, again for two years : — 





iVet imports in 


Gontmmption per head in 


Articles. 


1874-76. 


1876-77. 


1874-75. 


1876-77. 




a 

3 





s 






a 
« 
a 


4) 



5 


1 

o 

Mds. s. c. 


2 






Mds. 


Bs. 


Mds. 


Rs. 


Mds.s.c 


Rs. a. p. 


Be. a. p. 


Grain ... 


2,72,977 


... 


9,34,838 


... 


6 11 8 


... 


4 21 16 


— 


Sugar, refined 


3,847 


••• 


4,164 


»•• 


2 15 


... 


3 4 


... 


Do., unrefined ... 


19,365 


... 


15,861 


••• 


15 


... 


12 5 


Mt 


Clarified batter 


2,256 


••• 


2,661 


••• 


1 12 


... 


2 1 


... 


Other articles of food, 

Animals for slaugh- 
ter. 


3,14.699 
hds. 
17,553 


15,457 
••• 


2,73.924 
hdfl. 
2,044 


25,785 


6 3 13 


4 10 


5 12 3 


7 11 


Oil and oil-seeds ... 


10,74* 


... 


60,119 


— 


8 4 


»•• 


1 5 3 


... 


Fuel, &e. 


1,76,708 


... 


2.41,408 


••• 


3 16 18 


•»• 


4 27 


... 


Building materials ... 


... 


13,601 


... 


37.474 


... 


4 3 


•*. 


11 6 


Drags and spices ... 


... 


20,165 


••• 


20 428 


... 


6 3 


... 


6 4 


Tobacco 


... 


15,447 


... 


15,454 


... 


6 4 10 


4 9 


... 


European cloth 
Native do. 


1 : 


5,19,558 


:! 


4,29,849 r ... 

87,633 I ... 

i 


9 12 6 


: J 


8 2 11 
1 10 2 


Metals ... 


... 


29,976 


... 


73,184. ... 


9 1 


... 


1 6 8 



Grain, fuel, sugar, oilseeds, and cotton are, therefore, the chief articles of 
trade. The city itself produces little except tobacco and the vegetables above 
mentioned. Its manufactures are few and unimportant. The only specialities 
are the carpentry, chiefly palanquins, made in the R&iganj quarter, and the 
turnery, such as round boxes, made in R&iganj and Ih&ta P&nde. In ih* 



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GOR*KHPITll. 497 

account already given of the district trade 1 will be found some scattered 
references to Gorakbpnr. But it is not a commercial city. With the exception 
of the officials, the troops, and the traders who supply the local demand for 
necessaries, the population is chiefly agricultural. 

The name of the town was probably derived, as already told, 2 from St. 
Gorakhn&th, whose shrine adjoins old or original Gorakh- 
pur. A quarrel in the Sat&si family induced some of its 
members to quit the ancestral castle beside the B&mgarh jhil, and migrate 
hither in the beginning of the fifteenth century. But legend says that Mansar- 
war tank in the same neighbourhood was excavated in the tenth century by a 
king named M&n Sen, who was overthrown by the DomkatAr founders of the 
Domangarh fort. 3 

It seems certain that the cluster of hamlets which first constituted Gorakb- 
pur lay somewhat north of the present site. There are grounds for believing 
that the Rapti then flowed considerably north and east of its modern course, 
sweeping round through that site and the Ramgarh jhil. " Evidence of this, 19 
writes Mr. Reade, " is constantly furnished by the discovery of drift wood and 
portions of dinghia (boats) in excavating new wells." The first settlers pro- 
bably found their position defended by the great Haveli forest to east and 
north, by the Rohin to the west, and by the R&pti to the south. 

In 1567 and 1570, during the reign of Akbar, Gorakhpur was visited for 
a first and second time by Muslim invaders. They built here a brick fort which 
is mentioned at the end of the century by Akbar's Institutes. But as the posi- 
tion of that fort is unknown, its erection furnishes us with no clue as to the date 
when the recession of the Rfipti made way for the present city. That recession, 
however, took place before 1610, when the Muslim garrison was ejected and a 
fort built on the site of the present jail by r6ja Basant Singh of Sat&si. 
About 1680 the founder of the Khudai mosque, K&zi Khalil-ur-Rahm&n, was 
appointed governor. He re-expelled the Hindus, repaired Basant's fort, and 
threw into it a garrison. Mr. Reade informs us that the citadel of the fort was 
built by Maizz-ud-din Khan, " who first seems to have been able to establish 
Security of life and property in the neighbourhood of the forests. 9 ' But by 
Muizz-ud-din is probably meant prince Muazzim, afterwards the emperor 
Bahfidur Sh&h, who visited Gorakhpur towards the close of the century. For 
many years the city was in his honour officially styled Muazzimabad. 

1 Supra pp. 418-18. * Page 486. * It should be observed, however, that 

UansaroTar is the name of a great Tibetan lake with which the mythology of the Hindus has 
always beea sufficiently familiar. And ponds Darned after that lake nay be found in other 



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498 GORAKHPUR. 

Before the middle of the last century the Musalmdn garrison had shown * 
tendency to assert independence of the emperor and his Oudh naw&b. On the 
part of the latter, therefore, a large army under Ali K&sim visited the city ) 
and razed a tower of refuge which the rebels had built on the site of the old 
Domangarh castle. About the same time Gorakhpur was visited by the Jesuit 
father Tieffenthaler. He mentions that the R&pti was crossed by a bridge of 
boats 100 paces in length ; and that the circuit of the city was three miles, 
though the residents reported it as seven. He notices the Khud&i and another 
mosque, which being ruinous in Buchanan's time is probably no more. His 
plan of the forb shows a square building with a bastion at each corner and 
two intermediate bastions on each curtain. 

In the second year of the next or present century the town and district 
were ceded by the now independent Oudh naw&b to the- British. The first col- 
lector pitched his tents near what is now the racquet -court, on the margin of a 
pond whose edges had been cleared of jungle. Round his camp, to keep off 
the tigers, was drawn a cordon of elephants. The cantonment was located in 
the Captainganj quarter, on the site of a house and grounds afterwards called 
Crommelin's. But in summer both the civil and military officers used to take 
refuge in the fort, which had been repaired, and was probably cooler. In 1810, 
when the behaviour of the Nep&lese brought the importance of Gorakhpur as a 
military station into prominence, the Company's troops were removed from 
Faizabad in the naw&b's territory and posted here. A larger cantonment 
was necessary, and that now existing on the east of the city was laid 
out. " The natives," writes Buchanan, " will not in general consent to cut 
any tree that has been planted; and it required a very odious exertion of 
power to clear so much ground as was sufficient to from a parade and a kind 
of breathing-hole for the European officers of Government." Meanwhile a 
civil station of double-storied houses had arisen on the other side of the 
town. But the civilians were not long in following the soldiers, and thus their 
present settlement arose. The security afforded by the presence of a large 
military force, and the abolition of a cess hitherto imposed on the native in- 
habitants by the raja of Satdsi, largely increased the number of persons who 
made the town their home. In 1815, during the first Nepftlese campaign, 
Gorakhpur became the head-quarters of a column under General J. S. Wood, 
The collector who was his contemporary, Sir Roger Martin, laid out a race- 
course bisected by the Bhauap&r road. But this hippodrome no longer exists. 

The growing size of Gorakhpur had not hitherto been accompanied by a 
growing attention to cleanliness. But in the third decade of the century the 
city had the good fortune to be ruled by a collector who of all officials in these 



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G0BAKHPU1L 499 

provinces has perhaps earned for. himself the longest immortality. Mr. R. MT. 
Bird steadily directed his efforts to clearing and bridging the natural lines of 
drainage. These efforts did not cease when Mr. Bird was prortioted to the 
commissionership ; but they were brought to an abrupt close by a Government 
order transferring to imperial or provincial purposes all the funds (Rs. 26,000) 
whith had been saved for the improvement of the town. About 1835 that town 
was visited by Buchanan, who describes the buildings as very mean and the 
streets as " crooked, dirty, and filled with impediments. 9 ' In this state of relapse 
Gorakhpur continued until 1850, when Mr. Reade describes its sanitary con- 
dition as " deplorable." He, however, drew up a minute, 1 laying down the 
lines of those improvements which have ever since been steadily effected. 
Some impetus to reform was given by the appointment in 1868 of a municipal 
committee, and Gorakhpur is now as tidy and well ventilated a place as could 
be found in the North- Western Provinces. 

Gorakhpur, the Head-quarters, Sadr, or Haziir tahsfl of the district, has 
its offices at the place just described. It is a tract of very irregular shape, but 
its minor excrescences and indentations being disregarded, it m*y be said to be 
bounded on the south, east, and east north-east by tahsfl H6ta ; on the north- 
east by tahsfl Mah6r6jganj ; on the west north-west by the Basti district ; and 
on the south south-west by intruding angles of the Bansgaon tahsil. The 
R&pti forms for some distance the boundary, first with Basti and afterwards 
with Bansg&on. The Head -quarters tahsil includes the two northern tappas 
of parganah Bhau&p6r, the whole of the Gorakhpur parganah Maghar 3 , and 10 
tappas on that side of parganah Haveli which adjoins the R-ipti. It had in 
1878 a total area of 419,819 acres and a total land-revenue of Rs. 2,63,340, 
Its population in 1872 was 330,875, or 506 persons to the square mile. But 
a detailed account of. the tahsil will be found in the articles on its three par- 
ganah s. 

HaTA, a village in tappa Badaholi, of parganah Shfihjah&npnr, stands on 
the unmetalled Kasia road, 28 miles east of Gorakhpur. Not far west of it 
flows the Mohan brook. The population amounted in 1872 to 1,033 persons 
only ; but Hata has since 1872 been the head-quarters of a tahsfl. 

It contains, besides the tahsili, a first-class police-station, an imperial 
post-office, a tahsili school, and a branch dispensary. 

Ha'ta, a tahsil with court and treasury at the place just described, is 

bounded on the east north-east by the Padrauna tahsil, the Khanua river 

forming in places the boundary ; on north-by-wcst by the Mahirajganj tabsil ; 

1 Mr. Reade was then a Member of the Board of Revenue. * It should be remembered 

that adjoining this parganah Maghar is another in the Basti district. 

64 



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500 GORAKHPUB. 

on its concave western frontier by the Head-quarters and BansgAon tahsil*, 
the Rdpti being for a short distance the border with the latter ; on the sooth 
south-west again by the R6pti, which severs it from the Bansg&on tahsil ; and 
on the south-east by tahsils Deoria and Padrauna. Tahsil Hata includes the 
parganahs of Shfihjahanpur and Silhat, and 6 tappas on the central eastern 
side of parganah Haveli. It had in 1878 a total area of 367,867 acres and a 
total land-revenue of Rs. 2,81,699. Its population amounted in 1872 to 
287,230 souls. But further details of area, revenue, and population will be 
found in the articles on the three parganahs of the tahsil. 

Haveli or Haveli-Gorakhpur, the largest parganah of the district, forms 
part of the Maharajganj, Head-quarters, andH&ta tahsils. On east-by-north it 
marches with parganah Sidhua Jobna, the boundary being the Little Gandak 
river : on the north-east its angles protrude into parganahs Tilpur and Bin&- 
yakpur ; on the north-west the Ghunghi river severs it from Nepal and Basti ; 
on west south-west, or south-west by west, it is bounded chiefly by the Dha- 
mela and R&pti, which divide it from Basti and parganahs Maghar and Bhaua- 
p&r ; its irregular south-eastern frontier indents or is indented by parganahs 
Silhat and Shahjahanpur. It contains 28 tappas, — namely, Snmakhor, Katahra, 
Bigauli, Sikra, Lehra, Matkopa, Bhari-Baisi, Banki, Baraicha, Unti, And hay a, 
and Lekhman, all in tahsil Maharajganj ; Patra, Khutahan, Pachw&ra, Kasba, 
MarAchi-Chandfir, Gaura, Haveli, Ketitali, Rajdh&ni, and Rasulpur, all in the 
Head-quarters tahsil ; and Padkhori, Bharsand, Parwarp&r, Agaya, Bandw&r, 
and Dedupar, all in tahsil H&ta. The parganah contains 2,001 of the revenue 
divisions known as villages (mauza). It had in 1878 an area of 909,117 acres 
and a land-revenue of Rs. 4,69,843. 1 

According to the census of 1872 Haveli contained 1,592 inhabited sites, 

of which 657 had less than 200 inhabitants ; 713 between 

Population. 200 and 500; 174 between 500 and 1,000 ; 25 between 

1,000 and 2,000 ; 6 between 2,000 and 3,000 ; and 4 between 3,000 and 5,C00. 

The only town containing more than 5,000 inhabitants was Gorakhpur, but 

this had over 50,000. 

The population numbered 541,846 souls (253,856 females), giving 580 
to the square mile. Classified according to religion there were 483,011 Hindis 
(226,038 females*, 58,319 Musalmans (27,576 females), and 516 Christians. 
Distributing the Hindu population among the four great classes, the census 
shows 33,185 Brahmans (15,574 females) ; 5,894 Rajputs (2,546 females); and 

1 605,294 acres and Re. 2,08,368 belong to the Maharajganj, 100,265 acres and Bl. 87,268 to 
the Hata, and 903,568 acres and lis. 1,74,217 to the Head-quarters tahsils* 



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GORAHKPTTB. 501 

15,648 Baniyas (7,409 females); whilst the great mass of the population is 
included in the "other castes," which show a total of 482,284 souls (200,509 
females). The principal Brahman sub-division found in this pargana is the 
Kanaujiya (32,448). The chief Rnjput clans are the Bais (1,521 >, Ponwir, 
Chandel, Sirnet, Sakarwal, Kausik, and Chauh&n. The Baniyas belong to 
the Kandn (3,121), Agarw&I, Agarahri, Barawa, 1 Unai, and Kasaundhan sub- 
divisions. The most numerous among the other castes are the Bind, Dos&dh, 
Gond, 2 Teli, Koeri, Ahir, Lohar, Hajj&m, Cham&r, Dhobi, Kahar, Satw&r, Qa- 
dariya, Kurmi, Char, Mall&h, Nuniya, Kayath, Musahar, Kalw&r, Rajbhar, 
Sonar, Kam&ngar, Kah&r, Dom, Barhai, Bar&yi, Bh4t t P&si, Thathera, M&li, 
Binsphor, Jogi, Bairagi, Bari, Atith, Khatf k, Kh&krob, Kis&n, Halw&i, Kadera, 
Bharbhunja, Beld&r. Komar, Kori, Baheliya, Gosain, and Jaisw&r. The Mu> 
salra&ns are Shaikhs (34,872), Sayyids (948), Mughals (204), Pathdns (10,955), 
and unspecified. 

The settlement reports divide Haveli into two portions ; the northern 

Physical and agri* containing the six tap pas first named, and the southern the 

cmtoral features. twenty-two remaining sub-divisions. North Haveli had 

in 1865 an area of 358,659 a'3res, whereof 158,200 were cultivated, 59,807 

were cultivable, and 115,511 formed parts of forest grants 
North Haveli. , ' ' _. . r _ . * 

more or less reduced to cultivation. On the east an un- 
broken plain of flourishing fields, it towards the centre, as tappa Katahra is 
reached, becomes worn into undulations by numerous water-courses. In the 
troughs of such undulations lie considerable stretchers of low moist land grown 
chiefly with late rice (jarlian). But the cultivation is unmistakably inferior 
to that of the tract we have just quitted, and is, moreover, subject in places to 
the ravages of four-footed marauders from the great forest. Between 
tappas Katahra and Lehra that forest even yet forms an almost impenetrable 
barrier. It is no purely local feature, but a part of the great wedge of wood- 
land which stretches from Nep&l to some 20 miles south-east of Qorakhpur 
city. The rivers along which it grows are the Rohin and the Rohin's affluents, 
the Jharri or Piyas and the Chillua. The Rohin is the only stream that com- 
pletely crosses Haveli ; and the Jharri is its only important feeder which does 
not rise within that parganah. About two miles west of the former river the 
forest ceases and the cultivation of tappas Lehra and Sum&khor begins. This 
tract consists of a northern or Jangal Buridi and a southern or Rajgat 

sub-division. The name of the former shows it to have been shorn from the 

1 See article on parpanah Dhuridpdr, " population," note, * Article on parganah 

Bhauudpdr u population*' sectiou, note. 



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£02 GORAKHPUR. 

forest 1 ; but it is less fertile than the latter, which was brought under cultivation 
earlier. Passing westward over Mr. Bridgman's great forest grant, we finally 
reach tappas Rigauli and Sikra, the richest perhaps of Haveli. Watered by many a 
lagoon and by the pools of many a stream, they receive every rainy season 
rich alluvial deposits which, in return for no other labour than sowing, yield 
most luxuriant spring crops. After traversing a corner of the tract, the 
navigable Dhamela throws itself into the Rapti. 

South Haveli had in 1867 an area of 553,639 acres, whereof 225,973 

^ were cultivated and 82,968 cultivable. The proportion of 

South Haveli. \ \ r 

forest grants, which as in North Haveli have been more or 

less brought iincter tillage, was 172,891 acres. As in North Haveli, the wood- 
land belt continues to bisect the parganah, and though greatly narrowed and 
sometimes pierced by modern clearings, still girds with a broad fringe of forest 
the country north and west f the capital. East and west of this belt the 
landscape might but for its many mango-groves be called open. On both 
sides the land is thickly peopled and thickly cultivated, but much of the low 
western side is subject to inundation from the R&pti and its tributaries. The 
fine alluvial soil always produces a rich spring crop ; but the autumn outturn, 
especially beetween Rupti and Robin, is often endangered by the floods. Though 
everywhere common, lagoons are on this side of South Haveli commonest. 8 
On the eastern side of the forest the land rises into undulating ridges (dhug) of 
sand. Large patches of waste land are commoner than on the west ; but the soil 
is sufficiently fertile to produce large 'quantities of sugarcane. This part* of 
the parganah is drained by the Tura, Pharend, Mohan, and Majhni, of which 
ihe last forms the boundary line with Silhat. In the extreme south the surface 
fe much broken by deep watercourses which convey the drainage of tappa 
Rajdhani to the Rapti. These and floods have between them caused the aban- 
donment of the road along the bank of that river, from Gorakhpur to Barhi. 
The soils of the parganah are as usual divided into loam (dor as) y sand 

(balua)y and clay (mattiydr or karaila). But of that last 
8 oils. 

named south Haveli has but little, and this fact fully accounts 

for its small outturn of winter rice. On the banks of the Ghiinghi and R&pti, 

as well as on the eastern side of North Haveli, is a good deal of the marly soil 

1 Like the name Bankata, so common in these provinces, Jan gal Bnridi simply means the 
t oreBt clearing. * " The principal of these," writes Mr. Crooke, " is Ramgarh, which 

18 connected with a string of smaller marshes, and extends due south nearly as far as the 
'Barhi police-station. In the rains this line of jfiits becomes one mass of waier. A consider* 
,able part of their drainage passes into the Rapti by a ndla (watercourse) under the village 
of Laheaara, about 4 miles fro'u Gorakhpur. The question of draining the Ramgarh jhil 
lias been for some time under consideration; It has been proposed fur this purpose to deepen* 
/the Lahesara aud other uala*. There can b« little doubt that this would be a most valuable 
sanitary improvement, and would greatly improve the climate of the city and cautouiueut&" 



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GORAKHPUR. 503 

called bhdt. Land flooded by Rfipti is known as kachdr. On the distinction be- 
tween the three great natural classes of soil just named the people lay littlo 
stress, for in each are found very great differences of quality. The numerous 

streams and lagoons afford ample means of irrigation; 

and Mr. Lumsden was satisfied that not 10 per cent, of the 
cultivated area in South Haveli was left unwatered for want of facilities. The 
average depth of water is but 11 J feet from the surface, and unbricked wells 
are easily dug. The staple crop of the parganah is autumn (bhadui) rice. But 

as already mentioned, winter rice is not altogether absent, 

and the drying margins of lagoons are in summer largely 
planted with the rice called boro. Another great crop of the autumn harvest 
is mash or urd pulse ; and sufficient indigo is raised to keep several factories 
at work. At the spring harvest the principal staples are wheat, barley, linseed, 
and gram. For the excellence of their wheat the western tappas, and 
especially Paohw&ra, are noted. The cultivation of poppy is comparatively 
limited. 

• Except those of indigo and sugar, which latter is refined at many fac- 
Trade and com- tories, the parganah has no important manufactures. Its 
munications. crops are in fact its only noteworthy products. The principal 

markets are Gorakhpur, Dhani, Captainganj, Pipraich, Rigauli,and Sahibganj ; 
but there are also many smaller village marts, such as Gaura, Jaswal, and Par- 
tawal. The mileage within Haveli of the metalled Benares road is small. 
But some half dozen unmetalled roads traverse the parganah on their way to 
Gorakhpur, and one on its way from Padrauna to Karmaini-ghat. Additional 
trade routes are provided by the rivers fi&pti, Dhamela, Rohin, and Little 
Gandak, of which all are navigable. 

"The chief places of archaeological interest," writes Mr. Crooke, "are 
the great Dom fort at Domingarh, near the junction of the 
Rohin and Rapti ; the immense Maurya city at Upadaulia 
or Rajdhini proper in tappa Rajdh&ni ; the tomb of Abdul K&dir Hazrat at 
Itaya in tappa Ehutahan ; the Jh&r Khandi Mahfideo in tappa Baveli ; and 
remains of forts at Mathia in tappa Unthi, Mednipur in tappa Bahraicha, Baila 
Gaunar and Bagh&r in tappa Kiutali, and Barhampur in tappa Rasulpur. 

" A good deal of shooting may be got in the parganah. The jungle east 
of Gorakhpur itself abounds in deer, nilgai, and pig, and 
*° several leopards have been shot there. Tigers have dis- 

appeared owing to the cutting of the forest which once ran in one unbroken 
line up to the Tar&i. There are immense quantities of duck and teal in the 



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504 GORAKHPUR. 

lakes of Rftmgarh, Chillua, and Jamu&r, and there is excellent snipe-shooting 
in the neighbourhood of Gorakhpur. The blaek partridge is found in the east 
of the parganah." 

What existing tribe can claim the honour of having first peopled par- 

_. ganah Haveli is doubtful. The earliest ruler of whom 

Historv. • ° 

tradition speaks was one M&n Sen, ^ho is variously called 

a Tharu or a Bdthor. He was overwhelmed about the middle of the tenth 

century by the Domkat&rs or Domwars, a race of somewhat mixed origin. In 

the fourteenth century, again, the Domkatars succumbed to the Sarnets, whilst 

a chieftain said to have been a Chauh&n occupied some small northern part of 

the parganah. The two principalities thus founded, those of Satasi and Biitwal, 

continued their existence into the present century. 

With the appearance of the Muslims, towards the close of the sixteenth, 
the parganah assumed its present name. Haveli signifies the land su rounding 
a fort, the fort in this case being that of Qorakhpur. 1 In the Institutes of 
Akbar (1596^ Haveli Gorakhpur has a State rental of Rs. 14,209 (5,68,385 ddms). 
The smallness of the sum shows how large a part of the parganah must still 
have been under forest. We know that a hundred years later Prince Muazzim 
was attracted to Gorakhpur by accounts of the grand sport which the neigh- 
bourhood afforded ; and the turmoils of following centuries are unlikely to 
have favoured the increase of cultivation. Much of the woodland south-east 
of Gorakhpur is said to .have sprung up during the devastations of the Banji- 
ras in the beginning of the last century. 

With the beginning of the present however, when the parganah 
passed to its present rulers, a marked improvement took place* After the 
Nep&lese war (1816;, the Jangal Buridi villages were bestowed for reclamation 
on refugees who had fled the scene of campaign. Forest grants to other per- 
sons still further increased the area under the plough. But the spread of cul- 
tivation under British rule is best proved by the steadily rising demands of 
successive revenue assessments. These demands were at the first settlement 
(1803) Rs. 55,660; at the second (1806;, Rs. 59,688; at the third (1809), 
lis. 70,045 ; at the fourth (1813), Rs. 79,290 ; at the fifth (1840), Rs. 2,76,610 ; 
and at the sixth or current (1865-67), Rs. 4,00,109. The remaining forest ia 
so valuable that reclamation has probably reached its limit ; but during the 
term of the fifth or last assessment large tracts of waste and woodland were 
converted into fields. The extension of tillage was not the sole effect of this 
conversion. The climate was improved, facilities of traffic increased, and the 

1 See article on Gorakhpur city, " History." 



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GORAKHPUR. 505 

security of life and property was established against the attacks of robbers and 
the ravages of wild beasts. 

Itaya, a hamlet in the forest, about 8 miles north-east of Gorakhpur, is 
a place of worship much affected by the Musalmans of that city. Its shrine 
is thus described by Buchanan, to whoso account Mr. Crooke thinks nothing 
need be added : — 

"It is a smtll monument dedicated to a saint named Abdul Kadir Ha z rat Ghaus Lizim 
Dastgir. He was buried at Bigbtlad, but he fasted 40 days and nights in the forest here , and 
the keeper says that he is the saint's descendant. As such a fast is considered by the people 
here as rather an ordinary exertion of holy men, the keeper, in order to enhance the merit of 
his monument, has brought a brick and lamp from Kict*hauchha in the dominions of the Nawab 
Vaztr. He has 1 00 bighas free from assessment, and from 1,000 to 1,500 people assemble ou 
the day of the longnamed saint." 

In 1872 It&ya had but 307 inhabitants. 

KahAon, a small village in tappa M&il of parganah Salem pnr-Maj haul i, 
lies three miles north of Mail and 46 south-east of Gorakhpur. It had in 1872 a 
population of 352 persons only. 

Kahaon is part of the Majhauli domain, now under the Court of Wards. 
Its only interest arises from its Buddhist or Jaina antiquities. Chief of these 
is a coarse grey sandstone column, standing 24} feet from the surfaoe, and 
popularly known as Bhimsen's pillar (lath). For 4 J feet from the base it is 
square, each face being 1 foot 10 inches broad ; for the next 6} feet it is octa- 
gonal ; as it tapers further upwards towards its bell-shaped capital it is first 
fluted into 16 sides and afterwards circular. A metal spike at the top would 
seem to show that the pillar was once crowned by a lion or some other termina- 
tion. In small niches on each side of the square abacus above the capital are 
naked figures, and on one side of the base is a sculptured image of some divine 
being facing west The image rests its back on what is supposed to be a canopy 
of cobra's heads, and at each of its feet is the representation of a votary. On 
the three northern faces of the octagonal portion is a fairly legible inscrip- 
tion in the Gupta character of the Allahabad column l It merely mentions 
that one Madra, " the constant and friendly patron of Br&hmaus, Gurus, and 
Yatis,'' dedicates five images of Indra. The term Yati is in the present day 
applied to Jain priests, who are generally Br&hmans. The naked figures of the 
columns, with their crisp curled hair, must, says General Cunningham, belong 
either to the Jains or the later Tantrika Buddhists. It may be added that the 
cobra canopy, though applied also to other deities and prophets, is the special 
symbol of the great Jain tirthdnkdra, Parasn&th. The date of the inscription 

1 Copies of the inscription and engraving* of the pillar will be found in Buchanan's Eastern 
India, ir, an4 Cunningham's Archaological Reports, I. 



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506 GORAKHPUR. 

is 141, but the era is still a point of dispute amongst the learned. If Dr. Fitz- 
Edward Hall is right in supposing the sambat intended, the pillar was raised 
in 84 A.D. ; if General Cunningham'* choice of the Sdka be approved, the year of 
erection was 219 A. D. The overthrow of the Gupta or Maurya dynasty 
occurred some hundred years later. 

In tho immediate neighbourhood of the pillar are three ancient tanks or 
gars 1 known as the Purena Karnahi, and Jhakarahi or Sopha. Around the pil- 
lar are no traces of the enclosure mentioned by Buchanan, and the old well has 
been filled up. Near the edge of the Karnahi tank is a small ruined temple, 
almost levelled with the ground. This may have been the two storied pyra- 
midal building seen by Buchanan. On the rubbish is a black stone image of 
Buddha, now broken into two pieces but once about 7 feet high. The natives 
call this Ak&skamfni, and the same name is applied to another large tank east 
of the village. Arrangements are being made for protecting this idol from the 
weather. Curiously enough, it seems to have escaped Buchanan's notice. The 
fragments of two images mentioned by him are not now visible. Nor could 
they be discovered at the time of the archaeological survey (1861-62;. 

The officer who effected that survey presumes that the pillar must have 
been placed opposite the temple in which the Panchendra, or five images of 
Indra, were enshrined. Several temples and other buildings are likely to have 
been crowded round the column ; for it would otherwise be hard to account for 
the great size of the mound on which both oolumn and village stand. Though 
not more than 6 feet in height above the fields, this eminence extends from 
west to east upwards of 1,200 feet, with an average breadth of 400. 
The village contains some fine old wells, whose gigantic bricks must 
surely have been taken from some ancient building. It may be men- 
tioned that the inscription on the pillar would seem to call that village 
Kakubharati ; and from some compound of Kakubha, such as Kakubh&wan, 
the name Kah&wan or Kah&on might easily have come. " The pillar," writes 
Mr. Crooke, "is analogous to that at Bhigalpur, which is about 7 miles south 
on the banks of the Sarju (Gh&gra). But the Kahaon pillar is much more 
elaborately carved, and is not disfigured by some zealot as is that at Bhagalpur. 
Kah&on is probably one of the Buddhistic stages between Bhagalpur and 
Kasia, as mentioned in the article on Sohanag. No fair is held, but milk and 
other dainties are offered to the image by the neighbouring villagers." 

Kasia, the head-quarters of the sub-division so named, is a village of tappa 

Mainpur-Sabekhor, in parganah Sidhua-Jobna. It stands on the crossing 

1 Thi« strange word is by Genera! ftinninffhain derived from Sanskrit or*, to wet. But may 
it not be auother form of yarha, yadhaiyu y &».? . 



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GORAKHPUR, 507 

of two unmetalled roads, 37 miles east of Gorakhpur. The population 
amounted in 1872 to 918 persons only. 

Kasia contains a first-class police-station, an imperial post-office, a 
branch dispensary, and the court and residence of the officer in charge of the 
sub-division. It was not long ago proposed to make the village the head- 
quarters of a separate district But that schemo is for the present shelved ; 
and Kasia still derives its chief importance from its Buddhist associations and 
Buddhist remains. 

The latter lie south-west of the village, near the Khanua and other 
branches of the Little Gandak river. They consist of (I) a 
lofty mound of solid brickwork, styled Devisthan or Ram- 
abhar-Bhawaui ; (2) an oblong eminence bearing a much -ruined relic-temple 
(xtupa * and named the castle of the dead Prince ; (3) a large statue of Buddha the 
Ascetic ; (4) a low square mound covered with broken brick, near the village 
of Anrudhwa ; aud (5) a number of small earthen hillocks which are scat- 
tered like barrows over the plain north and east of the groat mound. 

The Rainabhar mound (tila) derives its names of Devisthan and Bhawant 

. from the fact that its summit is now sacred to the consort 

Devisthan. r oli mi _ . . . , 

of Shiva. The goddess has no temple ; but some votivo 

figures of baked clay, shaded by a fine old banyan-tree, mark the place as her 
own. The mound is situated on the western bauk of the Riitnabhar lagoon, 1 
which forms part of the bed of tho Roha watercourse, a discarded channel of 
tho Little Gandak. Devisthan is somewhat less than a mile distant from Kasia,. 
and still rises 49 feet above the surrounding fields. It is probably the ruin of 
a great brickwork relio-temple ; and at its south-eastern foot General Cunning- 
ham 3 discovered the remains of a smaller stupa. The wedge-shaped bricks of 
this latter building showed its diameter to have been 161 feet only. 

Nearly 1,600 yards north north-west of the Ramabhar mound lies that 

known as the castle of tho Dead Prince, or Prince Matha 
Mat ha kuar kakot. 

(Aldtfia kuar kd hot). This, which is now covered with 

scrub-wood and broken bricks, rises over 30 foot above the plain. Some 600 

feet in length by from 200 to 300 in breadth, it would seem to have been formed 

from tho ruins of two largo buildings and of several small ones. At its highest 

point stands a Buddhist relic-temple of tho usual typo, i. e.,a round brickwork 

tower with sphorical grass-grown roof. General Cunningham concludes that 

this tower was built between 200 and 600 A. D., on the debris of some older 

building. Its original diameter, now somewhat reduced, was about 27| feet; 

aud its original height would, according to the usual proportion, have beeu 

1 Supra, p, 302 * Archaeological Survey Reports, I., 77. 

65 



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508 GOBAKUPUR. 

twice that figure. Small detached mounds and wedge-shaped bricks seem to 
show that several lesser stupas must have once adorned the eminence. Towards 
its north-west end are some rather large spaces quite clear of bricks ; and these 
may be supposed to represent the courtyards or other vacant intervals between 
the buildings. The mound is shaded in places by fine pipaU, sacred trees of 
the Hindus. But the total absence of statues seems to show that it was crowned 
by few or no Hindu temples. 

The Buddhist statue of the " Dead Prince" himself lie? prostrate some 

1,100 feet from the standing stupa just described. Carved 
Statue of Baddha. / ° . „ , 

from the dark-blue stone of Gaya, it represents Buddha 

the Ascetic seated under the Bodhi tree near that city. The sculpture is 10J 
feet in height by 4} feet in width ; and the figure itself is colossal, the breadth 
across the shoulders alone being 3 feet 8£ inches. 1 The statue has, however, 
been split from head to foot and otherwise injured. The short inscription on 
its pedestal has been almost worn away by constant use as a whetstone. Be- 
side it on the east is a low square mound, once perhaps the site of the temple 
which enshrined it. By local legend this statue is sometimes described as the 
remains of a wicked king, who was first petrified and afterwards cleft it twain 
by a holy hermit. 

Between the Ramabhar and Mtitha ktiar mounds lies a lower eminence 
The Anrudhwa some ^00 feet square, which from its neighbourhood to the 
mound, village of Anirudhwa or Anrudhwa may be called the An- 

rudhwa mound. This mound bears some fine pipal trees, and some ruins 
which from their square shape are perhaps the ruins of a Buddhist monas- 
tery. The adjacent village clearly derives its name from Aniruddha, the cousin 
of Buddha. But of both persons more hearafter. General Cunningham identi- 
fies the mound and village as the site of the ancient Buddhist city. 

To north and east of the Hatha kuar mound are a host of low grassy 
barrows from 3 to 6 feet in height and from 12 to 25 in 
diameter. That they are tombs General Cunningham is 
certain. Mcgasthenes (circ. 300 B.C.) describes the Indian sepulchres as plain 
tumuli of low earth. But neither here nor elsewhere at Kasia did the General's 
excavations result in any discovery. An old resident told him that these mounds 
were called Bhim&wat, which perhaps means "fearsome spots"; and that 
ghosts were sometimes seen flitting about them. The common people have a 
legend that these are the graves of some gypsy tribe once numerous in the 
neighbourhood. 

i A sketch of the carving will be found in Buchanan's Eastern India, I. ; and of iti site 
in Cunningham's Archavloyical Reports, I. 



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GORAKHPUB. 50D 

Such are the existing remains of Kasia. Its many Buddhist shrines have 
been effaced by the floods of the Little Gandak, or destroyed 
to supply material for the humbler structures of surround- 
ing villages. But for over 1,100 years Kusinagara, the city of the holy grass, : 
was a place of importance and sanctity. It was here that, ' about 550 years 
before Christ, Buddha died, or in the language of his followers, obtained nir- 
vana. 2 On his death the assembled mendicants were consoled by the venerable 
seer Aniruddha, who was not only his cousin, but one of his ten great disci- 
ples. The gods, said this Aniruddha, were looking down on earth and 
bewailing the saint with dishevelled hair and uplifted arms. The death, he add- 
ed, must be announced to the Mallian chieftains. And the Mallian chieftains 
came with garlands, and bright raiment, and music ; and for six days the body 
lay in state, attended by the people of Kusinagara. On the seventh, when the 
nobles attempted to lift it for cremation, they found themselves unable to move 
it. This, explained Aniruddha, was because they intended to carry it into the 
city by a southern gate ; let them carry it through the northern. They assented, 
and the body was lifted. Bearing it on a bier formed of their lances, they 
brought it to the coronation-hall of the Mallians. Here was the funeral pile ; 
but the chieftains were unable to ignite it, and Aniruddha said that the gods 
would prevent its burning till Mahak&syapa arrived ; for Mahakasyapa had 
been the saint's chief disciple. At length from Padrauna (P&wa) came this 
Mah&k&syapa ; and when he had opened the end of the pile, it burnt without 
mortal lighting. 

Easia now became a great place of Buddhist pilgrimage, and as such 

„ ... was in the fifth and seventh centuries visited by the Chineso 

Chinese pilgrims. > 

writers Fa Hian and Hwen Thsang respectively. The lat- 
ter informs us that Buddha died in a s&l-forest rather more than half a mile from 
the city, that is from the modern Anirudhwa. The forest was at a short dis- 
tance from the Hiranyavati or Ajitavati river. This is now called the Little 
Gandak; but in conversation with General Cunningham a man of Padrauna styled 
it Hirana, which is of course a relic of the name first given. 8 From these details 
it may fairly be assumed that Buddha died on the spot now called the Castle 
of the Dead Prince. On the scene of his death were erected three large and 

1 Ease, Poa cynosuroidet. In the Buddhist books Kusinagara has several alternative 
fonos, such as Kusinagara, Kusinara, and Kusigrimaka. * i. e., emancipation from 

matter and re-absorption into the essence of the Deity. The Buddhists say that their pro- 
phet's death took place on the foil moon of Baisakh (April-May) 543 B C. 3 Buchanan 
makes the Hirana a feeder of the Little Gandak. Bat in the districts adjoining the larai 
riye s often desert their beds, which thereon become mere affluents. The name of Hirana 
may still live in those of more than one branch or affluent of the Little Gandak. 



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510 GORAKBPUB. 

three small stnpas, all standing in Hwen Tlisang's time. The largest, 200 
feet in height, had been built about 250B.C. by Asoka. That monarch 
also erected here a pillar whose inscription described the nirvana of Buddha. 
In a great vihdra or monastery on the same site was a recumbent statue 
representing Buddha as about to enter that state. The ruins of this monastery 
and of Asoka's stupa were by Qoncral Cunningham identified with existing 
remains on the Miitha kiiar mound. 

Of the city itself Hwen Thsang remarks that its walls are ruined and its 
interior almost deserted. But that its circuit had formerly been about two miles • 
(12li) was clear from the brickwork foundations then still visible. The ruined 
mound of Anrudhwa General Cunningham would identify with the palace of 
the Mallian kings, where according to the Ceylonese account above given 
Buddha was burnt. But there are other legends as to the exact spot where the 
cremation took place ; and these the General would reconcile by supposing that 
the Rdmabhar mound was its scene. We know that the place was marked by 
a famous stupa, and we have already seen that the remains of stnpas exist on 
that mound. Hwen Thsang describes Kusinagara as 116 miles north-east of 
Benares, and about 148 miles north-west of Vaisali. The distance by modern 
routes is much the same. 

KaZIPUR or Fazlnagar, a village of parganah Sidhua-Jobna, stands on the 
meeting of an unmetalled road and a cart-track, 47 miles east-by-south of 
Gorakhpur. It had in 1872 but 419 inhabitants, and is remarkable only as 
the site of a first-class police-station and a district post-office. 

Khakhundu or Khukhundu, a village in tappa Khakhundu of parganah 
Salempur, stands on the unmetalled road from Gorakhpur to Gathnighat, 44 
miles sonth-east of the former. It has a first-class police-station, and a popu- 
lation by the last census of 1,424. But its chief claims to notice are 
antiquarian. 

The remains cover nearly one square mile on the southern outskirt of the 
village. They include a few large tanks and about 
30 low mounds bristling with broken bricks and thick 
scrub-wood. Of the mounds all the largest are square, leaving little doubt 
that they were once the sites of temples. But the fine trees which now 
shade their summits, the sacred figs, 1 the bel, and the tamarind, and the sir as, 
have overthrown the houses of the gods. 

Most of the mounds (deora) have no special name. The greatest, which 
lies just between Khakhundu and the hamlet of Parhalahi,is 120 feet square at 
base and 16 feet in height. One or two have been already ransacked in the 
1 The banydn, the pipal, and the pdkar are all represented. 



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GORAKHPUR. 511 

house-building peasant's search for bricks ; but except Baragaon in Bihar, 
General Cunningham has seen no place which would still so well repay the 
excavations of the antiquary. u Amongst the rubbish," he writes, " we might 
expect to find both statues and inscriptions, and perhaps other objects, all 
of which would help to throw light on the rise and progress of modern 
Brahmanism, more particularly during the long period of its struggles with 
expiring Buddhism." 1 

But on the tops of the mounds many ancient and interesting objects are 
even now visible. There are four-armed figures of Vishnu, and representations 
of the same god under five of his ten incarnations. There are phallic emblems 
of Shiva, and statues of himself, his wife Parvati, and his son Ganesha. So 
much for stone antiquities ; but there are also fragments of walls, of bricks with 
flower ornaments and other mouldings, and of the plaster that covered the walls. 
In some cases the remains, whether sculpture or masonry, are distinctly Jain 
in character. Thus on the pedestal of one statue we see naked or " sky-clad 
(dlgambara) " figures, and an antelope, the cognizance of the 16th Jain hierarcn 
(tirthankara) Santanath. In the headdress of a naked figure, which General 
Cunningham deems to represent Shiva, is a smaller naked figure, which he 
calls a $uddha. A mutilated four-armed figure in another spot is called 
Jug-vf ra y " the hero of the age ;" and this title might not unfitly be applied 
to Maha-vira, '' the great hero,' 9 the 24th hierarch and pontiff of the present 
age. On a long low mound of bambu-hidden ruins General Cunningham 
discovered the remains of an octagonal building which he was inclined to 
believe a Buddhist relic-temple (stupa). 

Though it now contains no Jain residents, Khakhundu has still a Jain tem- 
ple. This is a small modern structure, square, flat- 
Modern Jftin temple. * , , , . , , ., T • i , . ■ • 

roofed, and brick-built. Inside, squatting beneath a 

triple umbrella, is a blue stone figure. Over his head flits an aerial drum- 
mer ; and on his pedestal is a bull symbolizing the faot that he is Adinath, 
the 1st Jain heirarch. By the people, however, he is mistaken for the 
23rd, Parasnath. Another statue, surmounted by a naked Buddha-like figure, 
resembles that mentioned at the end of the last paragraph. The temple is often 
visited by Agarwala Sarajogis from Gorakbpur and Patna, who say that the 
proper name of the village is Kishkindapura. Eishkinda is the title of a 
Southern Indian mountain, celebrated in the Lay of Rama; but coming as it 
does from a class little distinguished for veracity or learning, the derivation 
must be distrusted. 

1 Arch. Survey Reports, L, 91. 



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512 GORAKHPUR. 

The Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hwen Thsang, who visited Kasia about 
635, encountered 30 miles south-west of that city a large town ; and in this 
town dwelt a Br&hman millionaire who was devoted to Buddhism. From its 
position one might at first suspect that the town was Rudarpur. But it was on 
the route from Kasia to Benares, and through Rudarpur that route could not 
have passed. Such an alignment would have involved the passage of the Rapti 
as well as the Ghagra. General Cunningham is satisfied that the old high road 
crossed the latter river at some point below its reinforcement by the former; and 
popular tradition places the ancient ferry at Mail. The General suggests, there- 
fore, that the town must have been Khakhundu, which by the old winding 
tracks would have been about 30 miles from Kasia, and which is the most 
extensive of the several ruined towns 1 in this part of the district 

Kh^napAr, or " the other side of the Khdnua," stands near that branch of 
the Little Gandak, in tappa Haveli of parganah Salempur. Fifty-two miles 
south-east of Gorakhpur as the crow flies, the village is 61 miles distant from that 
city by road. It in 1872 contained but 1,435 inhabitants, and is remarkable 
only as the site of a third-class police-station. 

Kotibha'r, a village in tappa Purani Karhi of parganah Tilpur, stands on 
the unmetalled road from Gorakhpur to Nichlaval, 40 miles north-east of tho 
former. Tho population amounted in 1872 to 575 only ; but Kotibh&r has a 
third-class police-station and district post-office. 

La'rh or L&r, a town of tappa Balia and pargan ah Salempur, is the 
principal place in the south-pastern corner of the district. Flanking the junc- 
tion of two unmetalled roads from Gorakhpur and Carhaj respectively, it lies 
58 miles south-east of the former. It had in 1872 a population of 4,382 
persons. 

" From a distance," writes Mr. Crooke, " it looks one of the most impos- 
ing towns in the district. It is surrounded by 
Site an appearanc . beautiful mango-groves and fields in unusually excel- 
lent cultivation. On a closer inspection it is found to contain no building of 
importance except the imambdra. The bazar is narrow and incommodious, and 
the merchants' houses are mean in the extreme." L&rh has, however, a first-class 
police-station, a parganah sohool, and an imperial post-office. It possesses also 
a hostel (sardi) for travellers ; but this a poor structure standing on a site 
exposed to floods. Besides the im6mb&ra, which in design and workmanship 
is the best modern Muslim building in the district, there are two or three 
1 See articles on Bhdgalpwr, Kahdon, and Sohdndg. 



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GORAEHPUB. 513 

mosques. All those places of worship aro duo to the strong Muhammadan 

m m „ fervour of the Iraki Shaikhs, who are the principal 

The Irakis. ! * 

merchants of the town. Though their name would 

point to a Mesopotamian origiu, their physique and appearance indicate an 

extensive admixture of Hindu blood. 

The Irakis might be called the only enterprising Muslims in the district. 

Exporting to Calcutta and Patna large quantities of grain, 

spices, indigo, hemp, linseed, and sugar, they import in 

exchange cloth. This again they jbx port, by way of Dhani or Nichlaval, to Nep&l. 

They some time since attempted to start sugar refineries. But the black-ants 

which abound in the town are said to have impeded the business, and all the 

sugar of the neighbourhood is now refined at Barhaj. The Chaukidari Act (XX. 

„ of 1856) is in force at Larh ; and during 1877-78 the house- 

House-tax. 

tax thereby imposed, added to a balance of Rs. 208 from 

the preceding year, gave a total income of Rs. 948. The expenditure, which 

was chiefly on police (Rs. 398), conservancy and public works, amounted to 

Rs. 614. Of the 901 houses in the town 251 were assessed with the tax, 

whose incidence was Rs. 2-15-2 per house assessed and Re. 0-2-9 per head of 

population. 

L&rh has no history. It has however a Hindu temple, whose foundation 
is ascribed to the descendants of a local saint. Now as this saint had a cow which 
was carried off by a tiger, his name was probably Vasishta. 1 The stolen 
animal was rescued by following the trail of foam (Idr) which had dropped 
from her mouth. And hence, says tradition, the salivaceous name of L&r. 

Maghar or Hasanpur- Maghar, a parganah of the Head-quarters tahsfJ, 
is bounded on the east by parganahs Bhau&p&r and Haveli ; on the north by 
Haveli and parganah Maghar of Basti; on the west by the parganah last 
named ; and on the south by parganah Anola. The greater part of the 
boundary with Bhauap&r is formed by the Ami river, and the whole of that 
with Haveli by the R&pti* The parganah is divided into the nine tappas of 
Gahas&nd, Satgawan, Uttar-Haveli, Aurangabad, Bhars&nd, Bhadesari, Suras, 
Pachuri or Paohauri, and Khajuri. It contains 333 of the revenue-divisions 
called villages. It had in 1878 an area of 74,661 acres and a land-revenue 
of Rs. 62,953. 

According to the census of 1 872, parganah Maghar contained 264 inha- 

„ , . bited sites, of which 149 had less than 200 inhabitants ; 89 

Population. 

between 200 and 500: 17 between 500 and 1,000; 8 

between 1,000 and 2,000/ and one between 2,000 and 3,000. 

1 gmpra, p. 356. 



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514 GORAKHPTTC. 

The population numbered 65,810 souls (16,113 females), giving 567 to 
the square mile. Classified according to religion there were 62,1 99 Hindtis( 29,280 
females) and 3,611 Musalmans (1,652 females.) Distributing the Hindti. popu- 
lation among the four great classes, the census shews 8,575 Brahmans (4 ,081 
females), 1,619 Rajputs (710 females\ and 2,517 Baniyas (1,212 females) ; whilst 
the great mass of the population is included in the " other castes, " which show 
a total of 49,488 souls (23,277 females). The principal Brahman sub-division 
found in this parganah is the Kanaujiya (8,369). The chief Rajput clans are the 
Sakarwal (451), Bais, and Solan khi. The Baniyas belong to the Kandu (1,427), 
Agarwal, Agarahri, Unai, and Kasaundhan sub-divisions. The most numerous 
among the other castes are the Bind, Teli, Koeri, Ahir, Lobar, Hajj&m, Cha- 
mar, Dhobi, Kahar, Satwar, Gadariya, Kurmi, Bhar, Mallah, Nuniya, Kayath, 
Musahar, Kalwar, Rajbhar, Sonar, Kahar, Dom, Barhai, Barayi, Bhat, Pasi, 
Thathera, Mali, Bansphor, Bairagi, Bari, Atlth, Khatik, Bharbhunja, Beldar, 
Kumar, Gosain, and Jaiswar. The Musalmans are Shaikhs (1,933), Sayyids 
(1 6), Mughals (8), Pathans (500), and unspecified. 

Maghar is a flat and fairly fertile plain, sloping almost imperceptibly 
Physical and agri- down to the Rapti. The tract skirting and once formed by 
cultural features. t] m {. river, a fine alluvial tract famed for its wheat, includes 
tappas Gahasdnd, Satgawan, Uttar-Haveli, and Aurangabad. The five remain- 
' ing tappas, or southern portion of the parganah, are equally if not more produc- 
tive. But after crossing them the river Ami forms, as already mentioned, the 
boundary with Bhauapar ; and the land along its banks is comparatively poor. 
Here the fields are either low and liable to flooding, or cut into small ravines 
through which the freshets of the monsoon rush down to join the stream. In tappa 
Bhadesari are yet left remnants of the forest which once clothed the face of 
the parganah. Groves of mango and mahua are still numerous elsewhere. 
But since the time of Buchanan (1835), who describes Maghar as scantily cul- 
tivated and covered in great measure by trees, tillage has made rapid strides. 
The parganah is now as open as any in the district. The soil is chiefly loam 
(doras) ; but clay (mattit/ar) is not unknown, and along the banks of the Rapti is 
a little of the marly bhdt. A few small lagoons are scattered over the parganah, 
and the great Bakhira mere intrudes into the north-western corner from Basti. 
The land adjoining this jhil is subject in the rains to inundation. 

The metalled Gorakhpur and Basti road passes from east to west through 

Communications and the heart of the parganah, and an unmetalled lino of the 

trade - third class spans its north-eastern corner. The navigable 

Rapti provides a third trade-route. The principal market villages within 



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GORAKHPUR. 515 

the parganah itself are Sahnjanua, Bhiti, Gahas&nd, Harpur, Pachaurr, 
and Khajuri. But the marts chiefly u$ed by the inhabitants are in* 
the adjoining parganah Maghar of Basti. Such are Mendhawal, B&gh- 
nagar, and Hanumanganj. It is almost needless to remark that the one great 
product of Maghar is its agricultural raw produce. 

Its earliest existing colony was that founded by Sarnet B&jputs. In the end 
of the fourteenth, or beginning of the fifteenth century Jaf 
Singh, a grandsonof the first r&ja of Sat&si, settled at Maghar, 
now in Bastr. His possessions rapidly extended until their circuit was 84 miles,, 
aad he assumed the title of r&ja. His descendant Bfinsdeo moved to a plao* 
called Komar, which he renamed Bdnsi ; and Batan, the son of Bfinsdeo, gave 
the new capital the additional title of Batanpur. Hence, in the Institutes of 
Akbar i\596) 9 Maghar forms part of a larger parganah called Batanpur op 
Batanpur- Bansi. Some twenty years earlier Maghar village had become the 
quarters of a Mupalm&n garrison ; but some thirty years later the rfija of fi&nsi 
or Maghar expelled the intruders* About 1680 the Musalm&ns re-occupied 
the place in force ; and it was probably at this time that Maghar, with the 
Musalman prefix of Hasanpur, was severed from Batanpur-Bansi. In 1801, 
on their cession to the British, both Masanpur-Maghar and Bataupur-B&nsi 
became separate parganahs of Gorakhpur, and on the separation of Basti, 
in 1865, twenty tappas of the former and the whole of the latter were transfer- 
red to the newly-formed district Since thus shorn the parganah has not been 
subjected to any fresh assessment ef land-revenue. What portion of former 
' demands fell on its remaining nine tappas is uncertain ; and those demands 
need not, therefore, be shown. 

Mahab^jganj, the head-quarters of the tahsil so named, is a village of 
tappa Sonari and parganah Haveli. The terminus of a third-class un metalled 
branch from the road between Gorakhpur to Nichlaval, it stands 36 miles 
north-east-by-north of the former. Its population, amounted in 1872 to 1,249 
only. 

The tahsili is a strong masonry building which cost over Bs 20,000, 
and might be defended against a force which lacked artillery. But this is not 
the only Government establishment at Maharfijganj. There are a first-class 
police-station, an imperial post-office, and a branch dispensary. The patients 
attending the last suffer chiefly from goitre and fever. The neighbourhood of 
the Tarfii and of the Sonari forest render the surrounding country unhealthy. 
And this circumstance, together with its isolation, makes Mahfir&jganj a* 
unpopular a station amongst native officials as Padrauna. An excise godown 

66 



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516 GORAKHPUR. 

which formerly existed has been closed, and its materials are being utilized in 
the construction of a new building which will house the dispensary. 

The tahsili establishment was removed hither from Mansurganj about 1870, 
when the increased land-revenue of the northern parganaha demanded its 
location nearer the northern frontier. 

Maharajganj, a tahsil with court and treasury at the place just described, 
is bounded on the north-north-east by the Gandak river, which divides it from 
the Champ&ran district, and for a much longer distance by Nepal ; on the 
north-west by the Ghfinghi river, which divides it from Nep&l and the Basti 
district ; on the west by Basti, the rivers Dhamela and Rapti supplying some 
two-thirds of the boundary ; on south-by-west again by the R&pti and Basti, 
and by the Head-quarters and Hfita tahsils ; on the east-south-east by the 
Padrauna tahsil, and for a short distance by the Gandak and Champaran. 
Tabsfl Mah&r&jganj contains the whole of parganahs Tilpur and Binayakpur, 
with 12 tappas of parganah Haveli. It had in 1878 an area of 782,164 acres 
and a land-revenue of Rs. 2,74,074. Its population amounted in 1872 to 
355,504 persons, or about 259 to the square mile. But further details con- 
cerning the tahsil will be found in the articles on its three parganahs. 

- Majhauli and Salrmpdr, adjoining villages of tappa Haveli and parganah 
Salempur, stand on either bank of the Little Gandak river, 53 miles south-east 
of Gorakhpur. They may be considered as one town, of which Majhauli is the 
Hindu and Salempur the Musalm&n quarter. In 1872 they had between them 
a population of 4,850 persons, amongst whom RAjputs, Br&hmans, and Muslims 
were largely represented. 

The more ancient of the two is Majhauli, which rises on the north or left 
bank of the river. Here are the residence of the Majhauli rajas, four temples 
of Shiva, and a parganah school. In Salempur on the right bank are an 
imperial post-offioe, two mosques, and a market-place. The markets are held 
every Wednesday and Saturday ; and to them the crops are conveyed along 
the Gorakhpur and Gathnighat road, which^passes through Salempur. 

The Ghaukidari Act (XX. of 1856) is in force at Salempur.Majhauli. 
During 1877-78 the house-tax thereby imposed, together 
with a balance of Rs. 169 from the preceding year, gave 
a total income of Rs. 891. The expenditure, which was chiefly on police (Rs. 
480), conservancy, and public works, amounted to Rs. 642. Of the 797 houses 
in the united villages, 310 were assessed with the tax, whose incidence was 
Bs. 2-5-4 per house assessed and Re. 0-2-1 per head of population. 



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GORAKBPUR. 517 

" In connection with this town," writes Mr. Crooke, " it may be interesting 
The Bisens of Ma. to give some account of the great Bisen house of Majhauli, 
J haoU * certainly the most important of the ruling families in 

Gorakhpur. It claims descent from an ascetic called Mewar 1 or Mayur Bhat. 
There are various accounts of his origin. Some say he came from Hastin&pur 
and was the son of one Ashwa Th&ma ; others that he wus an emigrant from the 
Panchbati MaharAshtrades. He read Sanskrit for a while at Benares, and be- 
came a proficient in astrology. Quitting that city at last under a divine im- 
pulse, he settled in Kakr&dih village of parganah Sikandarpur in Azamgarh. 
The whole of that parganah gradually became his own. He had three wives, 
the -first a Br&hmani named JSagseni ; the second Stirajprabha, a Sfirajbans 
Rajputni; and the third Haikum&ri, a Gantam Bhuinharin. But besides these he 
had a Kurmin concubine. He is said to have been a contemporary of Bikram&jit 
of TJjjain. By his wife Stirajprabha he had a son, Biswa or Bissu Ben, the ances- 
tor of the Bisens ; by Haikum&ri, a son Baikal or Bagmar S6bi, the ancestor of 
the BhuinhAr families of Kuw&ri and Tamkfihi ; by Nagseni, a son Nages, 
Nagesar, or Nagsen ; and by his concubine a son Indardawwan Mai. At this 
time the west part of parganah Salempur was held by three Bhar brothers, of 
whom the chief was Suraha of Surauli, while Biru held Bairauna and Niru the 
fort of Nai. Taking advantage of the opportunity afforded by the marriage 
of Suraha'B daughter, Mayur captured the Surauli fort. This seems a common 
narrative in connection with the early R&jput conquest, and is told in other 
places in connection with the downfall of the Bhars and Thatheras. 2 Mayur 
then founded a fort in Kundilpnr of tappa Haveli, which is now called Kunara, 
and lies about two miles south-east of Majhauli. All his wives came to live 
there; but his Kurmin concubine lingered on at the old castle of Kakr&dih. 
S&ran district was then held by Chakra Narayan B&jbhar. Mayur conquered 
him also. In his eld he surrendered the kingdom to Biswa Sen and went off 
on a pilgrimage to the Him&laya, where he died. From Indardawwan Mai, 
who remained in possession of Kakr&dih, a large Kurmi house has sprung. 
To the third brother, Baikal, Biswa Sen gave the north-eastern portion of his 
kingdom, that portion which now forms the Tamkuhi and Hathwa estates. Nag- 
sen, the fourth brother, got some villages near Majhauli and planted the 
Chaubaria R&jputs to watch the frontier. 8 After Biswa Sen came 79 genera- 
tions, all of whom retained the title of Sen. The 80th r&ja, Hardeo Sen, 
obtained for his bravery the title of Mai from one of the Dehli emperors. 
Then followed 23 generations, of whom nothing is known but their names. 

1 Beaues' Elliot, L, 42, and supra, pp. 353, 36 f, 433. * Onda Gazetteer, II., 63, 

107, 408. * bee article on Surauli. 



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51*8 GORAKHPUR. 

For the rdjas who followed some scraps of history may be gathered from 
papers in possession of the Dharmner branch of the family. Bhim Mai, who 
reigned from 1311 to 1366 A.D., is said to have been arrested for arrears of reve- 
nue by Mubarak Khilji, Despatched to Dehli, he was there condemned to be 
crushed to death by an elephant, but showed such bravery that he was released 
and restored to his kingdom. The fact that nothing is really known of the r&j till 
the fourteenth century seems to show that this was the true period of its origin. 
This is indeed about the time given by the Oudh R&jputs, such as the Somban- 
sis, Nikumbhs, and Kati&rs. 1 As to the immediate successors of Bhim Mai, 
we have only the dates of their accessions and deaths. Bat Bodh Mai, who is 
said to have succeeded in 1564, is also said to have been arrested by Akbar for 
default of revenue. He was sent to Dehli, converted to Muhammadanism and 
called Muhammad Salim. On his return the R&ni refused to allow him into the 
Majhauli castle. He therefore settled at the town of Nagar, on the opposite 
bank of the Little Gandak, and founded the town of Salempur; while the r&ni 
managed the r&j during the minority of her son Bhawani Mai. As it goes on 
the chronicle has nothing of interest. Bhawani Mai was succeeded by his 
brother Laohhmi Mai, whose grandson, Partap Mai, became rfija of Bh&galpur. a 
Then followed Bhim Mai and Shiu Mai. On the latter's death the estate was 
managed by his mother, Bachana Eunwari. Ajit flial was r&ja from 1753 to 1805. 
During his time the British took over the district. His wife, Dilr&j Eunwari, 
had a daughter who married the r6ja of Rewah. Dilr&j Eunwari adminis- 
tered the raj till 1815. Then followed Tej Mai from 1815 to 1843, when the 
present r£ja, Ddai Nar&yan Mai, succeeded. By a career of extravagance and 
bad management he ruined his estate. Finally it was in 1870 put under the 
Court of Wards, in whose charge it still remains. 

" Among the Oorakhpur Bisons the chief families are those of Narharpur 
rn parganah Chilliipar 3 and of Baikunthpur, Dharmner and M abend in 
Salempur. In the parganah last named the Misrs of Piyasi in tappa Bhitni 
of Dogari in tappa Donr, and of Rew&li in tappa Ballia, all claim kinship with 
the family through Nagseni, wife of Maytir Bhat. Connected with them are 
the Misrs of Ghainpur and Charnadih in Azamgarh. Similarly, through Mayur 
Bh&t's Eurmin concubine the Eurmis of Madhoban and Lakhnaur in Azam- 
garh assert their relationship with the Bisens. But while accepting the Br&h- 
raan connection, the Majhauli family disclaim any kindred with the Eurmis. 
They admit their cousinhood with the Oudh R6jas of R&mpur Bhinga and 

1 Ondh Gazetteer, II., «3-5, 318-19, 499. » The title is now extinct. ' The 

title of rija, once held by this branch of the tribe, was forfeited for rebellion. 



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GORAKHPUR. 519 

M&nikpur, but assert that these houses were all founded by cadets of the Majhauli 
family. 

" They assert that their territory was originally bounded by the Gh&gra, 

the R&pti, and the Narayani or Great Gandak rivers. If so, very little is now 

left ef their former greatness. They have generation after generation 

proved improvident and bad administrators. They have never produced a 

single man of any note. Still they have made good marriages with the Sarnets 

of B&nsi, Rudarpur, and Anaula; with the S 6 raj bans families of Mahtili in 

Basti; with the Kausiks of Barhiap&r and Gopalpur ; with the Hayobans of 

Hardi in Ballia ; with the Gaharw&rs of M4nda in Allahabad and Bijaipur 

in Mirz&pur ; with the Baghels of Rewah, and with the Chandels of Agori- 

Barhar and Bijaigarh in Mirz&pur." 

u The Majhauli castle or hot is a block of commonplace brick building 
on a sandy bluff overlooking the Little Gandak river. All the present struc- 
tures are modern in date and of no military strength. The castle occupies 
however a position wbioh in resolute hands, and particularly in ihe rainy 
season, would be capable of defence. But the Majhauli Bisens never seem to 
have been a fighting race. In their great contest with the Sat&si r&j they 
lost parganah Silhat ; and since then proprietary rights have been oonferred 
oa the Br&hman birtiyas in many of their best villages." 

Mans<$ rganj, a village containing a third-class police station and an 
imperial post-office, lies in tappa Padkhori of parganah Haveli, 18 miles 
north-east-by-east of Gorakhpur. It had in 1872 a population of 675. What " 
was known as the Mansurganj jurisdiction at the time of Buchanan's 
survey contained a great part of parganahs Haveli and Sh&hjah&npur. The 
tahstli itself was at Mansurganj, and the building which housed it is now 
used as the police-station. Broken up about 1870, the tahsil was distributed 
between the Head-quarters and H&ta jurisdictions. The tahsil offices were then 
removed to Mah&r&jganj. 

MotirIm k£ Ddda or Adda Motir&m is a police outpost on the Deo- 
riya road, 8 miles south-east of Gorakhpur. It is also known as Chdh 
ihikasta, or the broken well, the well in question being a large masonry 
structure in the forest hard by. The outpost, which lies amidst dense sdl 
woods, was established here to watch the road and protect travellers from the 
gangs of Doms and other robbers who formerly infested the neighbourhood. • 
They have long since been dispersed and the road is now as safe as any other 
in the district. The climate of the place is very feverish in the rains. It 



j 



L 



520 GORAKHPUR. 

contains a few huts only and its population is not separately shown. In the 
forest around it are found leopards, deer, and pigs. 

Muskla or Miusela, a village on the unmetalled road from Gorakh- 
pnr to Ltkrh, lies 46 wiles south-east of the former, in tappas Khakhundu and 
Puraina of parganah Salempur. The village consists of Little Mnsela in the 
former and Qreat Musela in the latter tappa. It had in 1872 a population of 
153 souls only ; but has a district post-office. 

Niohlaval, an ancient market village of tappa KMs and parganah 
Tilpur, stands on the meeting of several unmetalled roads and cross-country 
tracks, 51 miles north-east by north of Gorakhpur. The principal road is that 
from Gorakbpur itself. Nichlaval had in 1872 a population of 1,098 inhabi- 
tants, and is the principal mart in the north of the district. 1 It is, moreover, 
the site of a third-class police-station and a district post-office. Not many 
miles distant stand the ruins of a castle which is said to have been the scene 
of a sharp fight during the Nepdlese campaign. 8 

Padrauna or Parauna, the head-quarters of the tahsil so named, 
is a cluster of five villages in tappas Pakri-Gangr&ni and Barg&on of par- 
ganah Sidhua-Jobna. It stands on the banks of the B&nri watercourse and 
the junction of several unmetalled roads, 49 miles east-by-north of Gorakhpur. 
Its population amounted in 1872 to 5,092 souls. The villages composing the 
town stand on a forest-grant 3 whose population was by former censuses lumped 
together with that of the town itself. And to this day the town is called 
Jangal Padrauna, or Padrauna. forest. 

The B&nri watercourse which passes through the site of Padrauna was 
Unhealthinesa of once probably a bed or branch of the Great Gandak. This 
sit0 - idea is suggested not only by its appearance and direction, 

but from the fact that in making during the late scarcity (1877-78) a tank 
near his house, the chief (rdi) of Padrauna unearthed a large boat The B&nri 
is now, however, a running stream in the rainy season only. Even then it can- 
not be called a river, as its course ends in a succession of large pools which 
have no defined outlet Hence perhaps the name of B&nri or " tail-less." The 
overflow of these pools, and the succession of stagnant puddles to which the 
watercourse is reduced in summer, are accused of rendering Padrauna mala- 
rious. But malaria is not its only malady. Goitre (ghtgra) is very common 
in the neighbourhood, and there are an unusual number of the partially dumb- 
idiots called baug y who in trying to make themselves understood go through 
most unpleasant facial contortions. 

1 Supra pp. 414*15. * P. 454, ad fin. * See pp. 286-38, 350-51. 



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GOBAKHPUB. 521 

The chief of Padrauna, popularly bat wrongly styled its r&ja, 1 is a Kurmi ; 
and to this and other low castes most of the population belong. Padrauna is 
not, therefore, what the high-caste Hindu is willing to consider a nice place; 
and he has expressed his contempt for it in the following couplets :— 

" Marne chdho, mdr na khde, 
Chalo, chaio, Parauna jde" 
" Should you want to die, don'i kill yonrseli j but go, go to Padrauna." 
" Kurmi rdja, mama an, Bdnri nodi, khaird ban ; 
Rtya praja ekhi rang, ghar ghar ndcke m&sal chond." 
" The raja is but a Kurmi, the grain is but marua millet, the river is bat the Banri, the 
forest is but of catechu acacias. 

* * Raja and retainers are just alike; from house to house the only thing that dances is the 
pestle in the mortar." 

By omitting negatives and other means the inhabitants have ingeniously 
attempted to pervert these proverbs into expressions of admiration. But their 
readings meet with little support ; and whatever the reading, it is still deemed 
an insult to recite one of these couplets to a Padrauna man. 

Padrauna proper stands in tappa Pakri-Gangr&ni ; but the other im- 
, . portant components of the town, Chh&oni and S£hibganj, 

are parts of tappa Barg&on. Chh&oni is so called because 
it was a cantonment of the Oudh Naw&b's forces ; SAhibganj is so called be- 
cause founded by an English indigo-factor, Finch Sdhib. The former is the 
market-place ; the latter is the head-quarters of a colony of very enterprising 
M&rw&ri merchants, who deal in cloth and trade with Nep&l. It is also the site 
of a Government schoolhouse, an excise godown, and an indigo factory, which is 
unoccupied partly on account of its unhealthiness. Padrauna has besides these 
buildings a small though strong tahsfli, a first-class police-station, and an 
imperial post-office. In the north of the township are two temples called Shy 4m- 
dh&m and R&mdhara. The former was built about 65 years ago by Ishwari 
Prat&p, chief of Padrauna ; and the latter about 25 years ago by his son, the 
present rai. Near these temples is a grove whose trees were brought from a 
saored plantation at Mathura; and between them has been made a reservoir filled 
by the Bdnri. This reservoir is called Bhiip's Ocean (Bhdp sagdr), after Bhiip 
Singh, a reputed ancestor of the Padrauna family. That family, writes Mf. 
Crooke, " have always been devotees ; and the collection of modern temples 
erected by them is probably the finest in the district. The present chiefs 
house is an imposing cluster of buildings. " 

1 No such title finds its way into the official list of rajas and oawabs for the North- West- 
ern Provinces. 



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522 GORAKHPUR. 

The Chaukidari Act (XX. of 1856) is in force at Padrauna ; and daring 
1877-78 the house-tax thereby imposed, added to a balance of 
Rs. 79 from the preceding year, gave a total income of 
Rs. 829. The expenditure, which w,as chiefly on police (Rs. 382), conservancy, 
and public works amounted to Rs. 626. Of the 821 houses in the town 322 
were assessed with the tax, the incidence being Rs. 2-5-3 per house assessed 
and Re. 0-2-5 per head of population. 

In Chhaoni, which lies south of Padrauna proper, is a large mound 
Antiquities. covered with broken brick and surmounted by a few statues, 
Buddhist. Two hundred and twenty feet in length from west to east, it in 
120 feet broad, and at its western end rises 14 feet above the surrounding fields. 
A long trench on this higher or western side looks as if it had once formed the 
matrix of a wall since dug out for the sake of its bricks. 1 Bricks sufficient for 
two houses had in 1861-62 been already excavated from a parallel wall whose 
traces were still visible on the eastern side. Oeneral Cunningham 3 concludes, 
therefore, that the mound must have been the site of a conventual Buddhist 
courtyard, about 100 feet square, with cells on each side for the accommodation 
of the monks. In the centre of the yard, whose entrance was seemingly on the 
eastern side, stood probably a stupa or relic-temple. We know that on the 
cremation of Buddha's corpse the people of Padrauna or Pawa obtained one- 
eighth of the relics ; and General Cunningham's excavations discovered wedge- 
shaped bricks of two sizes, such as the circular Buddhist stupas were always 
built of. Besides these traces of two relic-temples was unearthed the base of a 
grey sandstone pillar. And pillars of Asoka or some other Buddhist ruler are 
generally found in association with stupss-. 

In a small roofless brick building a short distance north of these remains 
are a few old statues. The temple is dedicated to Hathi 
Bhaw&ni, or the Bhawani of elephant*, that », perhaps to 
the goddess as mother of Ganesha. Rude votive figures of elephants in baked 
clay lie scattered about. But the idol from which the temple derived its name 
was not that of a Hindu goddess, but of some naked Jain saint squatting under 
a triple umbrella. Since this statue was sketched by Bnchanan," about 1835, it 
has disappeared. Its pedestal has been broken into three portions, each con- 
taining a more or leas perfect figure. Two represent seated Buddhas, and the 
third a naked female nursing a baby. These fragments are still visible on the 
mound, and the remainder of the pedestal is preserved in the village. Buchanaa 

1 Buchaotn tells ns that the trench was actually made M in search of materials for build- 
ing" by a tahsildfcr named Sakbat-ul-lah (cire. 1815). * Archmologicdl Survey Report*, 

1 , 74. ' Eastern India, plate L, fig. 2, 



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GORAKHPUK. 5Z3 

tells tis that when the big Jam statue was set" up to represent a Hindu 
goddess, a devotee attached to the Oudh forces then at Padrauna indignantly 
smote off a part of its face with his sword. 

About four miles east of Padrauna is the tomb of Burhan the martyr 
(shahld). At this, which is said to be of great antiquity, 
flowers, oil, coppers, and bannocks (chapdti) are still offered. 
A few votaries seem to gather for the purpose of worshipping it every Thursday 
night. This Burhan was perhaps a comrade of the almost mythical S&l&r-i- 
Masaud. The tomb of a martyr so called is still shown at Budaun, 1 where he 
is said to have been one cf Salar's principal officers. 

General Cunningham identifies Padrauna with P£wa, a place which the 
Buddhist P&li annals mention as exactly the same distance 
away from Kusinagara or Kasia. The old name of Padra- 
vana, he says, might easily have been corrupted into Padar-ban, Parban, Pawan, 
and Pawa. If Padrauna is the same as Pawa, it must be at least 2,430 years 
old, for the latter place is mentioned in connection with Buddha's death. In the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, when the neighbourhood was ruled by 
Madan Sen, his family priest, Rasa Musahar, is said to have worshipped at a 
temple on the old mound. 2 But the buildings of the existing Padrauna are 
modern. The place seems to have been refounded about 90 years ago by 
Gopal, first chief of Padrauna ; and its* Sfihibganj quarter is some 40 years 
younger. ' 

Padrauna, a tahsfl with court and treasury at the palace just mentioned, 
will be described in the article on its one parganah, Sidhua-Jobna, wherewith it 
is co-extensive and identical. 

Paikauli, 3 a large village in tappa Surauli of parganah Salempur, stands 
about 7 miles south-west of Deoriya, and had in 1872 a population of 1,596 inha- 
bitants. It belongs to a family of Chaubaria Rajputs. 4 The place is remarkable 
for a large math or monastery occupied by Vaisbnava Bairagis, 5 whose prior or 
maliant is known as the Panhari ji. The title is said to be derived from Phal 
Ahdriy because he oats fruits only, rejecting grain and meat. Greatly respected 
by natives, he spends his time wandering about this and the Sdran districts. 
The shrine or monastery has been established in Paikauli for 52 years, and there 
are branch establishments at Ajudhia of Faizabad, Barhalganj, and Baikuntbpun. 

1 See Gazr., V., 90,157. * Eatteru India, II., 355-56 ; and supra p. 437. * Thia 

article has been kindly contributed by Mr. Crooke. * See article on Surauli. *£os 

tome account of the Biir&gis tee Gazr., V., 591. 

67 



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524 



GOBAKHPUB. 



The prior presides at several religious fairs, of which the following are 
the principal :— 



District. 




Gorakbpur 

Saran 
Ghazipur... 



Baiktmthpur 
Dohari Barhalganj 
Sohanag ... 
Sirkarpur ... 
Dadri Cbatthar 



Time. 



Aghaa (November-December), bright half 5th. 
Asarh (June-July), bright half 3rd. 
Baixakh (April-May), bright half 3rd. 
Karttik (October-Noyember), bright half 10th. 
.Ditto ditto full moon. 



The late mahant Siya Ram D&s died last year (1879), and has been succeeded 
by Ajudhia Parshad Tiwari of Mahu&in in parganah Kopamau of Azamgarh. 
The monastery is supported by contributions of grain and other offerings pre- 
sented by worshippers. The prior has refused to accept landed property. His 
disciples give vivid accounts of the dangers his predecessor experienced in 
carrying on his pilgrimages during the mutiny. There are no fine buildings 
at Paikauli ; but the Th&kurdwara and some extensive sheds for the accomoda- 
tion of the ascetics deserve notice. 

Faina, a town in tappa Baipur of parganah Balempur, stands on the 
unmetalled Barhaj and Larh road, near the left bank of the Ghagra and 44 
miles south-east-by-south of Gorakhpur. It in 1872 had 5,331 inhabitants. 

The name is locally derived from paina, a stick or goad for plough-cattle. 
It is said that on coming to the Gh&gra to perform some religious austerities 
a devotee begged and obtained from the prince of the time a stick's length of 
land. On this narrow space he lived for many years ; on it when he died was 
built a shrine, and around the shrine sprung up a village. That village still 
contains two temples of Shiva. It has, moreover, a Government school, where 
Urdu and Hindi are taught. 

Many of the inhabitants are boatmen (malldh), who live by conveying traffic 
up and down the Gh&gra, between Barhaj and Patna. But the chief castes 
of the village are the R&jput and herdsman (Ahir). In the mutiny the land- 
holders plundered and obstructed the Government commissariat trains. To 
punish them a small force under Mr. Collector Bird occupied the village, 
which was afterwards confiscated and bestowed on the loyal r&ja of Majhauli. 
It is said that the occupying levies carried off some of the R&jput women ; 
and none of the neighbouring R&jput families will even yet give their daughters 
in marriage to the thus disgraced Paina Chhatris, 



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GORAKHPUR. 525 

Paistya, Pi&siya, or Naikot, 1 a village on the Nep&l border, stands in 
tappa Mirchw&r of parganah Bin&yakpur, 40 miles in a direct line north of 
Gorakhpur. It had in 1872 a population of 397, and is the site of a 
third-class police-station and district post-office. The village is situated near a 
large marsh called the Ainjar Tdl, which is fed by the overflow of the neigh- 
bouring Ghfinghi river. The staple crop of the neighbourhood is Aghani or 
winter rice. In the rains the flooded condition of the neighbourhood renders 
approach to the village very difficult. 

Panera or Kamasin, a village of tappa Banki and parganah Haveli, stands 
on the unmetalled Captainganj and K&rmainigh&t road, 24 miles in a direct line 
north-by-east of Gorakhpur. It in 1872 had 1,588 inhabitants. The sur- 
rounding country has been lately cleared, but there still survives a consider- 
able space of forest. Panera has a third class police-station and district post- 
office. The proprietors are Ahirs. There is nothing of any interest in the 
neighbourhood. 

PiPRArcH, a small market and post town in tappa Pattra of parganah 
Haveli, stands on the Pharend river and unmetalled Padrauna road, 13 miles 
east north-east of Gorakhpur. The population of 1872 was 2,208. 

The market flanks either side of the road as it passes through the town. 
A short distance west of that town the Pharend or Phren is crossed by a rude 
wooden bridge. The market is held weekly; there is a fair local trade in 
grain, cloth, and metal vessels ; a good deal of sugar is refined ; and Pipraich 
may be considered the head-quarters of the sugar trade in its own part of 
Haveli. But it is not a thriving place. With some adjoining estates it is 
included in the untaxed domain of the Gorakhpur Mian Sahib. 2 

The progress of the market has been checked by competition with the 
neighbouring and rival mart of Sidhfiwa, the property of Government treasurer 
Sarju Parsh&d. The only buildings are a new third-class police-station, an 
imperial post-office, a Government elementary (kalkabandi) school, and a temple 
of Mah&deo on the banks of the Phren. 

The school will shortly be housed in a new structure which the Mi &rt 
S&hib has promised to erect near the police-station. In the same locality is 
one of the old round towers built in more disorderly times for the safe custody 
of treasure on its way to head-quarters. The Chaukidiri Act (XX. of 1856) 
is in force at Pipraich ; and during 1877-78 the house-tax thereby imposed, 
added to a balance of Rs. 75 from the preceding year, gave a total income of 
Bs. 525. The expenditure, which was chiefly on police (Rs. 1 92), conservancy, 
1 This and the three following articles are* from the pen of Mr Crook e. * Supra p. 40 >. 



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S2£ OOEAKHPUR. 

and public works, amounted to Rs. 405. Of the 431 houses in the town 120 
ty^re assessed with the tax, the incidence being Rs. 3-12-0 per house assessed 
and Be. 0-3-3 per head of population. 

IUmkola, a large agricultural village held by Rdjput proprietors, lies in 
tappa P&pur of parganah Sidhua-Jobna. Through it passes the unmetalled 
road from Padrauna to Gorakhpur, and its distance east north-east of the latter 
is 38 miles. The population amounted iu 1872 to 2,058 persons. 

Kdmkola has a third-class police-station, a district post-office, and a tahsili 
school. The last-named institution is sparsely attended, and its removal to the 
S&hibganj market-place of Padrauna is contemplated. 

Rampur-Kh£npub, a village in tappa Patna of parganah ShAjahanpur, 
had in 1872 a population of 2,308 inhabitants. Its distance east south-east of 
Gorakhpur by road is 38 miles. 

Here the Chaukidari Act (XX. of 1856) is in force. In 1877-78, the house- 
tax thereby imposed, added to a balance of Rs. 323 from the preceding year, 
gave a total income of Rs. 1,209. The expenditure, which was chiefly on police 
(Rs. 306) conservancy and public works, amouuted to Rs. 687. Of the 630 
houses in the village 108 were assessed with the tax, whose incidence was 
Rs. 8-3-3 per house assessed and Re. 0-6-2 per head of population. 

RXnighAt is a village on the Little Gandak river in tappa Gh&ti of par- 
ganah Salempur. Lying 46 miles in a direct line south-east of Gorakhpur, it 
had in 1872 a population of 206 souls. Here, on the banks of the river, are 
the remains of a very large fort, concerning which nothing is accurately 
known. It was probably one of the strongholds raised to guard the passage 
of the river by the early Rijput invaders. 

Rigauli, a Tillage in the tappa so called of parganah Haveli, is the site 
of a third-class police-station and an imperial post-office. Built near the junc- 
tion of the R&pti and Dhamela rivers, and the point where the Captainganj and 
K&rmaini-gh&t road meets their united stream, it lies 20 miles in a direct line 
north-by-west of Gorakhpur. The population amounted in 1872 to 667. Near 
Rigauli is the K&rmaini-gh&t ferry over the R&pti. The adjoining country is 
very much cut up by old channels of that river, the Dhamela, and their numer- 
ous affluents. It is also liable to inundation from lagoons. 

There is a small market-place ; and a colony of Manih&rs or Ch&rihfii* 
carry on the manufacture of glass or lac bracelets (churi). 

Kudarpur, 1 next to Gorakhpur the largest town in the district, lies in 
parganah Nagw&n Tikar of parganah Silhat, 27 miles south-east-by-south of 

* This article has betn compiled mainly from a note by Mr. T. Stoker, C.S. But further 
aid baa been derived from the memoranda of Messrs. Alexander and Crook© ; from Mr, 
Planck's sanitary report for 1870 j and from Buchanan's Eastern India. 



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GORAKHPUR. 527 

Gorakhpur. An unmetalled road from that city to Barhoj is here met by 
two similar highways from H&fca and Deo ria respectively. The population 
amounted in 1872 to 6,491 ; but if adjacent hamlets were included in the esti- 
mate, would perhaps amount to about 9,000. 

This Rudrapur or Budarpur must not be oonfused with the village so 
named in parganah Anola. To prevent such confusion it has long been the 
local practice to spell the former Budarpur and the latter Rudrapur. But the 
distinction is not always as clear to outsiders as it might be, and it is a pity 
that the two places were not different rated in the sa me manner as the two 
Fatehganjes of Bareilly ; the Budarpur of Silhat being called Budarpur East 
and the Budarpur of Anola Budarpur West. 

Budarpur is an isolated country-town situated in the midst of a wild 
much-broken landscape, the watershed of the Majhna and 
Kurna rivers. The Majhna sometimes takes the name of its 
affluent, the Pharend; but is here most often called the Bathua. Bunning close 
by the town, on the west, a deep though narrow stream, it is in the rains navig- 
able by boats which ascend from the Bapti. The Kurna, dry in summer, passes 
Budarpur on the south-east. The town itself occupies a fairly raised and well- 
drained site on the Majhna slope of the watershed. But during the monsoon, 
when the flow of the neighbouring rivers is blocked back by the flooded R&pti, 
a good deal of water accumulates around it In the same season a good deal 
of dirt and refuse is washed down to stagnate in the many excavations of the 
town. For though largely built of ancient brick, Budarpur has many a hut 
constructed of mud quarried on the spot 

West of the town, almost as far as the B&pti, extends a great but 
uncultivated plain. On the north the land was but lately reclaimed from forest, 
and is still held as a forest-grant. 1 The only traces of forest now left 
are a few stunted sdl clumps, and many mahua trees, which on account 
of their vinous flowers have been allowed to remain in the fields. On 
the east a large tract of rather uneven waste stretches towards Deoria. 
On the south is the junction of the two rivers. As the surrounding country 
affords great facilities for grazing, many cattle are herded in the town 
at night Budarpur is then said to contain more bullocks than human beings. 
Cowsheds are numerous in or about the many unmade spaces sometimes called 
roads ; and a considerable number of pigs is kept. It may therefore be gathered 
that the inhabitants are chiefly low-caste Hindus ; and this is indeed the case. 
The Khatik pig-breeders live in the north-east, the Cham&r ourriers in the east 
of the town. In the midst of the Cham&rtola quarter, occupied by the latter, 

1 Supra pp. 886-88. 



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528 GOfiAKBPUR. 

Mr. Planck once observed a gigantic manure-heap which was " quite a con* 
siderable hillock. " The abundance of manure renders the outskirts of the 
town particularly fertile. The market-gardens, fenced in with prickly pear or 
other hedges, produce especially fine tobacco. Water lies some 25 feet from 
the surface, and there are many large wells, of which not a few furnish water as 
good for drinking as for irrigation. 

Since Mr. Planck's visit (1870) the sanitation of the town has been mnch 
improved and several roads have been made. Its principal place of business is 
the Gola or grain-market on the banks of the Majhna. This market is of 
moderate size, and the landing-slope which connects it with the river is steep. 
It consists of two open but shady spaces, on which three roads concentrate. 
Both the spaces and the roads are flanked by some good shops. From the former 
a short and tortuous watercourse passes down to the river. The road ascend- 
ing northwards from the Gola hns a cluster of well-built brick houses belong- 
ing chiefly to Baniyas ; but beside it stand the imperial post-office and branch 
dispensary. The last-named institution was built and mainly supported by the 
late r&ni of SaUisi ; l and since her death its chances of permanence have 
become small. Her representatives have already announced their intention of 
discontinuing the subscription with which she was wont to enrich the Govern- 
ment elementary school. That school is housed in one of the old buildings 
forfeited for the rebellion of the late r&ja. The only Government establishment 
remaining to be noticed is the first-class police-station. Perhaps the tidiest part 
of the town is the large quarter inhabited by fortune-tellers (Bhenduria). On 
the whole Rudarpur has a prosperous, if somewhat neglected and decayed 
appearance. 

It is still a rich place. Amongst inhabitants are a large number of saltpetre- 
workers and metallurgists. The Gola has a very thriving 
aspect, and is the entrepdt whence the grain and gter syrup 
of the neighbourhood are exported by river. Some of this trade is said to reach 
Calcutta. But except by river the trade is purely local. It is prevented from 
developing by the cordon of quagmires which, created in the rains, at most 
seasons opposes wheeled communication with the rest of the district The 
Chaukidari Act (XX of 1856) is in force at Rudarpur ; and 
in 1877-78, the house-tax thereby imposed, added to a 
balance of Rs. 283 from the preceding year, gave a total income of Rs. 1,983. 
The expenditure, which was chiefly on police (Rs. 738), conservancy, and public 
works, amounted to Rs. 1,420. Of the 1,427 houses in the town 196 were assessed 
1 See last paragraph of this article. 



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GORARHPUR. 529 

with the tax '; the incidence being Bs. 8-2-8 per house assessed and Be. 0-3-1 1 
per head of population. 

Bat it is for its antiquities that Budarpur is chiefly remarkabla Out- 
Antiquities and s ^ e ** on ^ e north-east is the rained fort named after its 
^t ^- traditional founder S&han's or Sfiuh's castle (Sdhankot or 

Sdnhkot). But S&han's claim to the honour of its foundation is not undis- 
puted. It has been above 1 mentioned that the old name of Budarpur was 
Hansakshetra or Gosfield ; and that after the second destruction of Ajudhya, 
about 512 B.C., a B&jput prince named Vasishta Singh fled hither and founded 
a stronghold called New K&shi, that is New Benares. When Vasishta had 
completed 999 out of the 1,000 temples with which he had intended to adorn 
his fortress, he was overwhelmed by the Bhars and other " impure" tribes. 
The new masters of Budarpur were probably Buddhists; and Mr. Carlleyle 8 
believes that S&hankot was once a castle of the Maurya kings. It was per- 
haps held by the same masters as the similar Sahankot at Upadaulia of B&j- 
dh&ni, about 12 miles distant. Buchanan adds that the goose from whom 
Hansakshetra or Hansatirtha derives its name was the emblem of Brahma, 
and that Brahma was the same as the Mah& Muni of the Buddhists. But. the 
present ruins are undoubtedly the remains of a castle built on the old site by 
Budra or Radar Singh Sarnet, B&ja of Satdsi. He flourished towards the close 
of the seventeenth century, and from him Budarpur derives its name. The 
etymology which connects the town with the god Budra or Shiva is worthless. 

The castle is now a quadrangle about 350 yards square, enclosed by a 
great mound of brick which rises some 40 feet above the surrounding country. 
In Buchanan's time there seem to have existed traces of a wall six feet thick ; 
and from the debris of this wall the mound is of course formed. Around it 
runs a moat which in places has been filled up ; and along its eastern side, 
about 200 yards from its base, runs the Majhna. On the south-eastern oorner 
are remains of strong outworks, built perhaps to cover the ford of that river. 
In one of these fortifications Mr. Stoker discovered two large blocks, of hewn 
lime-stone, which seemed to have been intended, but never used, for a gateway. 
Behind the fort, and defending the north or north-western side of the town, 
he found a long ridge of clay and rubble briok. With fragments of brick 
and stone the country all round Budarpur is strewn, and from this great arti- 
ficial quarry the inhabitants draw material for any building of the better order. 
Another ancient monument of Budarpur is the Dfidhn&th temple. To 

this is attached a convent of Bharati Atiths« presided over 
Efidhnath temple. , " 

by a prior or mahant. The temple itself occupies a site which 

1 P. 429. * Of the Archaeological Survey. 



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530 OORAKHPUR. 

bears traces of some far more ancient building. It is a small and rode brfck 
structure surmounted by a pyramidal roof and surrounded by a flat-roofed 
cloister or gallery. "The image of Shiva," writes Buchanan, "to whom a 
temple of such celebrity is dedicated, of course came to its place without human 
aid, and in the most remote ages of the world ; but according to the priests it 
was not discovered until after the authority of the pure R&jputs was established. 
A cow, as usual, pouring her milk (dtidh) on the ground, an opening was made 
and the god brought to light It is on this account that the image is called 
Diidhnath." A little south of the temple have been several other figures, 
including one of Buddha. Additions were made to the temple by raja Bodhmal 
Bisen of Majhauli, who, as already 1 mentioned, was converted to Islam about 
1570. Whether this act of generosity took place before or after his con-r 
version is uncertain; but the Dudhn&th shrine is as popular amongst the 
less educated Muslims as amongst the Hindus themselves. Beside it, on 
the Sbivarattri festival, is held a twelve-day fair of the usual half-religious and 
wholly profane character. And pilgrims sprinkle the phallic emblem of the 
god with Ganges- water brought from distant Hardw&r and Pray&g (Allaha- 
bad). 

From the time of raja Rudar Singh to that of the great rebellion Rudar- 
pur was the head-quarters of the Satfoi family. In the latter revolt the last 
rfija joined. He was not a very energetic rebel, and for that reason perhaps- 
escaped the penalty of death; but he has since died in transportation at the 
Andamans. His extensive palace, adjoining the Sahankot, is now in ruins. 
All his estates, except those which he had mortgaged to his daughter-in-law's 
Madrasi father, were forfeited. But on the confiscation the right of the 
daughter-in-law to the encumbered land was recognized. This lady, Bankat 
Narsaiya, alias Mangal Kunwari, lately (1879) died at Benares. She was gene- 
rally called r&ni of Satasi ; but as her father-in-law was attainted, and as her 
husband could not therefore succeed him as r&ja, she had no right to the title. 
From her husband, with whom she did not agree, she was separated. She 
made him a small allowance, which he eked out with alms from his father's 
old retainers. And she is understood to have left most of her property for reli- 
gious purposes. 

Rodrapur, a village of tappa Haveli and parganah Anola, stands on the 
meeting of two unmetalled roads, 10 miles south-west of Gorakhpur. It had 
in 1872 but 490 inhabitants, and is remarkable only as the site of a third-class 
police-station and elementary (halkabandi) school. 

1 See article on Majhauli and Salempur. 



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GOBAKHPOR, 531 

Sahiya, in tappa Balia of Salempur, is one of the several once Buddhist 
villages fonnd in the south and centre of that parganah. It stands about three 
miles east of Bhfigalpur (q. v.) 9 and had in 1872 a population of 415 persons. 

Here is a temple said to have been founded by Prat&p Mai Bisen, first 
r£ja of Bhigalpur, who seems to have flourished about 1700. Aflat-roofed 
quadrangular building, it stands on a heap of bricks which are probably Bud- 
dhist remains. From these remains its idol was confessedly recovered ; and its 
idol is a Buddhist statue. The image rests its left foot on the figure of a Bud- 
dha, and resembles one formerly visible in the subterraneous temple of the 
Allahabad fort. It is called, according to the taste of the worshipper, Th&kur 
Chatarbhuji-Nar&yani, or Chaturbhuja Vishnu. 

Sahnjanua or Sahjanua is the site of a third-class police-station and 
district post-office in tappa Gahasfiud of parganah Maghar. Situated on the 
metalled road from Qorakhpur to Basti, it is 10 miles west of the former, and 
the first stage on the route to Fyzabad of Oudh. The population amounted 
in 1872 to 344. 

In the village are a good encamping-ground, a small bungalow belong- 
ing to the Public Works Department, a Government arboricultural nursery, 
and a temple sacred to Shiva. 

Salempur or Salempur-Majhauli, a parganah coinciding with the Deoria 
tahsil, is bounded on the east by the Saran district ; on the north-east by 
S&ran and parganah Sidhua- Jobna ; on the north north-east by parganah Sh&h- 
jahanpur ; on the north-west by parganah Silhai ; on the south-west by the 
B&pti, which severs it from parganah Chillupdr ; on the south south-west by 
the Gh&gra, which divides it from the Azamgarh district ; and on the south- 
east again by S&ran. Other rivers besides the Gh&gra and R&pti form in 
places the boundary. Thus the Little Gandak is for short distances the fron- 
tier-line with Sh&hjabanpur and S&ran ; the Kh£nna and Jh&rahi with S&ran 
only ; and the Kurna for a long distance with Silhat. Parganah Salempur had 
in 1878 an area of 375,881 acres and a land-revenue of Rs. 2,96,886. It is 
divided into 23 tappas — Samogar, Nai-Gajhari, R&ipura, Bairauna, Surauli, 
Deoria, Gnbr&in, Kachn&r, Satiy&on, Khakhundu, Purafna, Mail, Balia, Donr, 
Salempur, B a rsip&r, Gh&ti, Bhitni, Haveli, Gautm&n, Sohanpur, Balw&n, and 
Kaparwir. It contains 1,453 of the revenue divisions known as villages 
(mauza). 

According to the census of 1872 it possessed 1,262 inhabited sites, of 

which 763 had less than 200 inhabitants; 359 between 
Population. 20Q ^ 50() . 99 between 5Q0 and j 000 . 35 between 1,000 

68 



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532 G0BAKHPT7R. 

and 2,000 ; two between 2,000 and 3,000 ; and two between 3,000 and 5,000. 
The only towns with more than 5,000 inhabitants were Gaura and Paina. 

The population numbered 318,648 souls (147,944 females), giving 540 
to the square mile. Classified according to religion there were 293,412 
Hindfis, of whom 136,367 werefemales ; 25,227 Musalmans (11,572 females), 
and 9 Christians. Distributing the Hindu population among the four great 
classes, the census shows 43,254 Br&hmans (20,154 females); 21,937 R&jputs 
(9,984 females) ; and 8,948 Baniyas (4,218 females) : whilst the great mass 
of the population is included in the " other castes," which show a total of 
219,273 souls (102,011 females). The principal Brahman sub-division found 
in this parganah is the Kanaujiya (40,572). The chief Rajput clans are the 
Bais (3,482), Ponw&r, Chandel, Sakarw&l, Eausik, and Ohauh&n. The Baniyas 
belong to the K&ndu (5,161), Agarwil, Baranwar, and Unai sub-divisions. 
The most numerous among the other castes are the Ahir (43,684), Cham&r 
(22,875), Kori (18,343), Koeri (17,593), Gond (11,266), Teli (9,164), Bhar 
(8,971), Loh&r (8,176,) Kalw&r (7,754), Nuniya (7,453), Dos&dh (6,530), 
Mall&h (6,451), Hajj&m (4,761), Kam&ngar (4,263), Satw&r (3,763), Dhobi 
(3,810), Kah&r (3,976), Kurmi (5,458), K&yath (4,168), Bair&gi (2,252), Barhai 
(2,027), Sondr (1,779), Gadariya (1,875), Bind (1,532), and Bari (1,054). 
The tribes comprising less than one thousand members each are the Musahar, 
R&jbhar, Kahar, Dom, Bhat, Pasi, Thathera, Mali, B&nsphor, Bair&gi, Atith, 
Khatik, Khakrob, Kisan, Halwai, Kadera, and Bharbhiinja. The Musalmins 
are Shaikhs (19,897), Sayyids (110), Mughals (37), PatWns (1,530), and 
unspecified. 

In general fertility Salempur perhaps excels any other parganah of the 
Physical and agri- district. Of its total area 257,593 acres were at assess- 
cultural features. ment ( 1863 ) re t arne d as cultivated ; and tillage must since 
then have made still further inroads on the 40,508 acres which were unculti- 
vated though cultivable. The parganah is studded with a host of fine mango- 
groves, but, except in a few villages of tappa Deoria, no traces of forest survive. 
Salempur bears, in fact, all the appearance of a long-settled country. Its hus- 
bandmen, especially the Kurmis of Deoria, are laborious and skilful agricul- 
turists. But beyond the charm of verdant cultivation, almost uninterrupted 
save by shady groves, the landscape has few attractions. Though in the north 
a slight ridge or two may be sighted, the parganah as a whole is wofully flat. 
Its surface is drained by several rivers flowing southwards to swell the 
Gh&gra. Besides those already mentioned are some of a smaller order, such 
as the Easli and Kuura. Of many lagoons, the chief are those named the 



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QOBAKHPTTB. 533 

Takis, Danrara, and Gurer. Sach streams and lagoons between thera provide 
ample means of irrigation. Bat as water lies near the surface wells also can 
be dag at a small expense. 

Its wealth of irrigation, indeed, almost secures the parganah from the 
visitations of famine. Floods, and not droughts, are the natural calamities 
which here are most to be dreaded. Inundations from the Ghagra sometimes 
sweep off the autumn rice (bhadui) and interrupt the sowings for the spring 
harvest. By herbivorous marauders cultivation is seldom troubled. The 
parganah is markedly devoid of game. The waterfowl and the snipe which 
haunt the margins of lagoons furnish the only sport obtainable. In spite of 
the abundant moisture the climate is fairly healthy. But in the rainy season 
fever prevails, and at all seasons the inhabitants of some villages suffer from 
goitre (ghegh). The soil is in most parts the light loam known as doras ; bat 
there are also a few patches of the sand (bulua) and clay (mattiydr), whereof 
that loam is a mixture. The calcareous bhdt or chauridr bhdt present them-, 
selves as usual in the neighbourhood of the Rapti, where surgarcane is widely 
grown. 

This and poppy are the parganah's most valuable products. Like 
potatoes and other vegetables, the latter is most success- 
fully grown by the Deoria Kurmis. The clay patches 
along the brinks of streams or lagoons are utilized for the growth of fine 
winter rice (Aghani). Tappa Rhakhundu is famous for its splendid fields of 
arhar pulse. Cotton cultivation is little understood, and therefore little 
practised. The name of bdjra millet is unknown. But as elsewhere, the 
principal staples of the spring harvest are barley and wheat. 

The manufactures of Salempur are insignificant ; but those which are 
Trade and comma- mos ^ important have been mentioned in the article on 
nicatioDi. j t8 principal mart, Barhaj. The most noticeable centres 

of trade, next to Barhaj, are L&rh, Majhauli, Salempur, aod Bhingari of 
tappa Haveli. In the last class may be placed such mere market-villages 
as Bhigalpur, Rajpur, Kaparw£r, Paina, Khanap&r, Karaundi, Samogar, Bal- 
wan, and Khakhundu. At Bhdgalpur, Baikunthpur, and Sohan&g are held 
great yearly fairs described in the article on each. The roads which connect all 
these places with one another and with surrounding parganahs are unmetalled 
fair-weather lines, four of the second and three of the third class. But the Gh&- 
gra, the Rapti, aud the Little Gand^k may be deemed the chief trade-routes. 
The two first are navigable for the whole, and the last for two-thirds of the 
year. 



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534 GORAKHPUR. 

" The chief proprietors," writes Mr. Crooke, 1 "are Br£hmans and Raj- 
puts. The leading Rajput families are the great Bisen house of Majhauli, 
with offshoots at Baikunthpur, Dharamner, Bhingari, 
Khanap&r, Bairauna, Karanndi, and Kaparwar. Among the 
Brahmans the most important families are the Misrs of Piyasi, Dogari, and 
Rewali, and the Tiwaris of Pinri. The Chaubaria Rajputs are mentioned in 
the notes on Majbauli and Surauli. 

" There are several remains of considerable antiquity, such as the Bud- 
dhistic pillars at Bhagalpur and Kahaon ; the Jain or 
Antiquities. i 

Brahmanical temples at Khakhundu and Bharauli (tappa 

Deoria) ; the forts, at Bhagalpur, Surauli, and Nai ; the shrine at Sohanag ; 
ruins of various kinds at Sahiya, R&nighat, Baryarpar (tappa Kachnar), 
Bairauna, Khonda (tappa Raipura) and Bamhni (tappa Deoria) ; besides 
innumerable dihs or village mounds, all over the parganah attributed by 
popular rumour to Bhars and Tharfis." 

In these Bhars or Th&rus, who were perhaps Buddhists or Jainas, tradi- 
tion discovers the earliest inhabitants of the parganah. 
The first Aryan colony seems to have been founded about 
1700 by Bissu Sen Bisen, first raja of Majhauli ; but in the article on 
that place will be found all that need be said of him and his descendants. At 
the end of the sixteenth century the parganah formed part of Dehwapara 
Kuhana, which included also Sidhua-Jobna and Sh&hjahaupur. In the middle 
of the eighteenth, the power of its raja saved Salempur from the ravages of the 
Banjaras. The year 1801 saw it ceded to the British and included in its present 
district The land-tax demands since then assessed on the parganah have been 
Es. 67,035 in 1803; Rs. 67,737 in 1806 ; Rs. 82,158 in 1809; Rs. 88,141 
in 1813; Rs. 2,23,709 in 1840 ; and Rs. 2,90,740 in 1863. 

Semra or Simara, an agricultural village in tappa Lehra of parganah 
Haveli, stands not far east of the unmetalled road from Gorakhpur to Lautan, 
36 miles north-by-west of the former. It contained in 1872 but 515 inhabi- 
tants, and is remarkable only as the site of a first-class police-station. 

Semra Hardeo is the site of a district post-office in tappa BargAon- 
Chaura of parganah Sidhua-Jobna. Adjoining the Ghamparan frontier, it lies 
48 miles in a direct line east-by-north of Gorakhpur. It in 1872 had 2,096 
inhabitants. 

SHAujAHiNPUB, a parganah of the Hata tahsil, is bounded on south-east 
and north-east by parganah Sidhua-Jobna'; on north north-east by parganah 

' FroDi whose notes and from (he settlement report of Babu Piari Mohan this article ha* 
been chiefly compiled. 



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OORAKHPUB* 535 

Haveli ; on west south-west by a short length of Haveli and a long length of 

parganah Silhat ; on south south-west by parganah Salempur. The whole 

of the boundary with Silhat is furnished by the Dur&nchi ; a small part of 

that with Salempur by the same river ; small parts of those with Salempur aud 

Haveli by the Little Gandak ; a great part of that with Haveli by the Mohan ; 

and a great part of that with Sidhua-Jobna by the Eh&nua. The parganah 

had in 1878 an area of 88,432 acres and a land-revenue of Rs. 78,454. It is 

divided into nine tappas, named Bachauli, Bhatni, Chakdiya, Nag* a, Pari&par, 

Fatnan, Bhainsfriabar, Majhua, and Tarakulwa. And it contains 258 of the 

revenue divisions called villages (mama). 

According to the census of 1872 it had 246 inhabited sites, whereof 83 

hadless than 200 inhabitants ; 118 between 200 and 500 ; 38 
Population* 

between 500 and 1,000 ; 6 between 1,000 and 2,000 ; and 

one between 2,000 and 3,000. 

The population numbered 81,562 souls (38,272 females), giving 591 to 
the square mile. Classified according to religion there were 70,850 Hindus, 
(33,207 females) ; 10,711 Musalmtas (5,065 females), and one Christian. Dis- 
tributing the Hindu population among the four great classes, the census shows 
5,224 Brahmans (2,445 females) ; 2,961 B&jputs (1,392 females) ; and 2,330 
Baniyas (1,031 females) ; whilst the great mass of the population is included 
in the " other castes," which show a total of 60,335 souls (28,339 females). 
The principal Br&hman sub-division found in this parganah is the Eanaujiya 
(5,138). The chief BAjput clans are the Ponw&r (666), Chandel, Sakarwal, 
Bais, Eausik,and Chauhan. The Baniyas belong to the Kandu (1,882), Agarw&I, 
Baranwa, and Easaundhan sub-divisions. The most numerous among the 
other castes are the Dos&dh (2,020), Gound 1 (2,024), Teli (2,645), Ahir (9,207), 
lobar (1,738^, Hajjam (1,179), Chamar (7,529), Dhobi (1,282), Kahar (1,548), 
Kurmi (9,885), Bhar (2,515), Mallah (1,003), Nuniya (1,757), Kalwar (2,118), 
and Eamangar (1,018). The following clans comprise less than one thousand 
members each : — Bind, Sonar, Kahar, Dom, Barayi, Pasi, Mali, BJnsphor, 
Bair&gi, Ban, Atith, Khakrob, Kisan, Halwai, Khadera, Beldar, Kumdr, 
Baheliya, and Jaiswar. TheMusalm&ns are Shaikhs (8,598), Sayyids (10), 
Mughals (44), Path&ns (1,369), and unspecified. 

ShahjahAnpur is a flat and well-cultivated tract which, adjoining as it 

Physical and agri- ^ oe8 Salempur, can hardly be called very fertile. Bucha- 

cultaral features. nan (1835) mentions it as consisting chiefly of waste land 

covered by long dismal grass and stunted trees ; but tillage has since then 

advanoed across it with rapid strides. Of the total area 61,220 acres were at 

1 See article on parganah Bhaudpdr, footnote concerning this caste. 



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536 GORAKHPUB, 

assessment (1862) returned as cultivated and 15,113 as culturable. In tappa 
Pariapdr the general monotony of level is relieved by a few sandhills from 10 
to 30 feet high, which form the continuation of a ridge which divides part of 
Silhat from part of this parganah. But the only difference of elevation else- 
where is the Blight difference between the watersheds (bAngar) and the basins 
(kachhdr) of the Duranchi, the Mohan, and the Little Gandak. All these rivers 
in the rainy season overflow their banks ; and in winter, when the floods have 
subsided, their basins are cultivated* The Little Gandak winds from north to 
south through the whole length of the parganah. The abrupt ascent from its 
low banks to the uplands is gnawed into many ravines by the drainage 
descending to the river. The soils of the watersheds are loam (doras) and clay 
(mattiyar and kurail). The calcareous bhdt soil is found along the edges of 
streams ; and the sandy balua is found in spots where, as in the part of Pariap&r 
just mentioned, the west-wind has driven it across from Silhat. The crops 
produced by these soils are just the same as described in the article on parganah 
Salempur. 

Those crops are the parganah's only important product. As before noticed, 
Trade and comma- Sh£hjah&npur has only one village with over 2,000. inhabi- 
nic*tions. tants, and it cannot therefore be expected to possess any 

manufactures worthy of mention. At Hetimpur, indeed, are a small dying 
business and a few sugar factories. But trade is on the whole minute, and 
communications are therefore scarce. Through the parganah, near the northern 
border, runs the unmetalled Gorakhpur and Easia road. On this the villages 
of Hata and Hetimpur are situate ; and from this two other unmetalled lines 
pass south south-westwards into Silhat and Salempur. On one of them stands 
Tarakulwa. 

In the beginning of the fifteenth century Sh&hjah&npur and part of the 
neighbouring Sidhua-Jobna were seized, probably from 
the aboriginal Bhars, by the Rajput Medhan Singh. Also 
called Madan Sen, he was perhaps the same raja of Saran and Champa ran as 
gave the Muhammadan governors of those tracts so much trouble. It is not 
unlikely that his descendants acknowledged themselves tributary to the Afghan 
princes of Bengal ; for when towards the close of the sixteenth century Akbar 
crushed those princes, the r&ja of Majhauli was allowed to annex this parganah. 
Medhan Singh's family wore extirpated, and their lands parcelled out amongst 
the victorious Bisens. Towards the close of the same reign (1596) Shabja* 
h&npur formed part of the great Dehwap&ra-Kuhana parganah, in the Gorakh- 
pur division of the Oudh province. 1 

1 Bat see also p. 274. 



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GOBAKHPUR. 537 

Its present name is derived from a still existing village within its limits ; 
and that village, again, was perhaps called after the emperor Sh&hjahan 
(1628-58). The parganahwas ceded by Oudh to the British in 1801, and 
since then has been assessed with the following land-revenues : — Rs. 15,734 
in 1802 ; Rs. 10,645 in 1806 ; Rs. 11,242 in 1809 ; Rs. 12,406 in 1813 ; Rs. 
39,445 in 1840 ; and Rs. 77,070 in 1862. 

Sidhua-Jobna, a parganah coinciding with the Kasia sub-division and 
Padrauna tahsil, marches on north-east-by-east with the Champ&ran district, 
the Great Gandak river and one of its former beds affording in places a bound- 
ary. On west north-west the frontier is supplied by parganas Tilpur and 
Haveli , on west south-west by parganahs Haveli, Shuhjah&npur, and Salempur ; 
and on south-by-east by the S&ran district. The border with Tilpur is formed 
by the Little Gandak, and with part of Sh&hjabanpur by the Kh&nua branch 
of that river. Parganah Sidhua-Jobna had in 1878 an area of 593,990 acres 
and a land-revenue of Rs. 3,37,202. It is divided into 22 tappas, m*., Batsara 
or Batesara, Nagwan or Naugawfin, Pfipur, Ddnd6pur, Bdnsi-Chiriagora, 
Bargdon-Chaura, Pakri-Gangrani, S&ndi, Parw&rp&r, Mainpur-Sabakhor, 
Bhalua, Rfimpur-Ragha, R&nipur-Dhdb, Pirthipur, Dhuria-Bijaipur, Sipahji- 
Euchia, Jhankaul-G&ngi-tikar, Eh&n, Malsil-Sareini, Badur&on-Bhasni, Haveli, 
and Bank-Jogni. The. parganah contains 1,295 of the revenue divisions known 
jis villages (mauza). 

According to the census of 1872 it possessed 1,251 inhabited sites, of 

_ , . which 544 had less than 200 inhabitants; 487 between 

Population. 

200 and 500 ; 159 between 500 and 1,000 ; 52 between 

1,000 and 2,000 ; 6 between 2,000 and 3,000 ; and 1 between 3,000 and 5,000. 

The only towns containing more than 5,000 inhabitants were Padrauna and 

Xmwa. 

The population in 1872 numbered 417,641 souls (194,086 females), 
giving 799 to the square mile. Classified according to religion, there were 
356,377 Hindtis (165,646 females) and 61,264 Musalmfins (28,440 females). 
Distributing the Hindu population among the four great classes the census 
Aows 28,480 Br&hmans (13,228 females); 13,616 R&jputs (6,195 females), 
and 11,643 Baniyas (5,429 females) : whilst the great mass of the population 
is included in the " other castes " of the census returns, which show a total 
of 302,638 souls (140,794 females). The principal Br&hman sub-division found 
in this parganah is the Eanaujiya (28,089). The chief Rajput clans are the 
Bais (1,727;, Chandel, Ponw&r, Kausik, Solankhi, and Chauh&n. The Baniyas 
belong to the Kdndu (8,375), Agarw&l, Baranw&r, Unai, and Easaundhaa 



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538 "~ GORAKHPUR. 

sub-divisions. The most numerous among the other castes are the Ahir (41,088) 
Kori (40,236), Chamar (37,477), Gound 1 (13,401), Teli (13,107), Lobar (7,481), 
Hajjam (5,354), Dhobi (5,752), Bind (2,915), and Kabfir (2,090). Besides these, 
the following tribes comprising less than one thousand members each are found 
in the parganah: — Satw&r, Gadariya, Eurmi, Bhar, Mall&h, Noniya, K&yath, 
Musahar, Kalw&r, R&jbhar, Sondr, Kam&ngar, Kah&r, Dom, Barhai, Bar&yi, 
Bh6t, PAsi, Tbathera, Mali, B&nsphor, Bair&gi, Jogi, BAri, Atith, Khatik, 
Ehdkrob, Kisan, Halw&i, Khadera, Bharbh6nja, Beld&r, Kum£r, Baheliya, 
and Jaiswar. The Musalm&ns are Shaikhs (33,897), Sayyids (163), Mugbals 
(64), Path&ns (2,551;, and unspecified. 

An extensive tract straggling from the wild and marshy Tar&i to the 
verge of the fertile S&ran, Sidhna-Jobna presents a great 

Physical and agri- variety of physical and agricultural features. The distinc- 
tions of surface are, however, chiefly due to the presence 
or absence of forest, and to the nearness or distance of the Great Gandak 
river. Northwards, in tappa Batsara, there is still some woodland left ; and 
another fringe of trees extends along the bank of the Little Gandak into 
tappa Nagwan. Like most streams rising in the lower Him&laya, the Great 
Gandak is at first most fickle in its choice o f a plains bed. Swollen by fresh- 
ets, it almost yearly cuts some new course through the light argillaceous 
soil. It still more often overflows, and the deposits left by its floods are far 
from fertilizing. "The knowledge," writes Mr. Lumsden, " that what is 
now a rich sheet of paddy (rice) cultivation may next year become the bed of 
a new channel must needs affect the state of cultivation and the pursuits of 
the inhabitants. A disinclination to expend capital in carrying out improve- 
ments and extending cultivation, an inferior kind of agriculture, and the 
preponderance of shepherds and herdsmen amongst the inhabitants ; these 
and many other like peculiarities are all to be traced, directly or indirectly, 
to the Great Gandak and its numerous branches." Below tappa Rampur 
Dh&b, however, the river becomes less capricious and adopts one regular and 
well-defined channel. Unlike its major namesake, the Little Gandak is a steady 
river, seldom guilty of inundations. The only other streams which need be 
mentioned are the Jhar&hi and Bauri, both rising in the parganah itself ; and 
the Kh&nua, which crosses its south-western corner. 

But if the parganah differs from place to place, it has also some features' 
which are common to its whole area. Such are the numerous shallow lagoons, 
connected by watercourses, and the smaller ponds, natural and artificial. Such 

1 See speculation on the identity of this caste in one of the footnotes to the article on par* 
ganah Bkautpfr. 



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GORAKHPUR. 539 

are the large mango-groves and bambu clumps everywhere sighted, and 
such are the village homesteads whose neat and often tiled mud huts crown 
every convenient eminence. . 

It must not from the last expression be inferred that Sidhua-Jobna 
shows any sudden or striking inequalities of level. In its centre and south 
the country is described as undulating slightly ; and between the watersheds 
and basins of rivers some trifling difference of elevation is of course visible. 
But like most of the district the parganah may be defined as a plain sloping 
gently south south-eastwards. On the watersheds the soils are chiefly loam 
(doras) and sand (baltta or dhusi) ; in the river basins chiefly the chalky- looking 
clay called bkdt. The latter, which occupies nearly two-thirds of the whole 
cultivated area, does not require irrigation. And here it may be mentioned 
that of that cultivated area 35 per cent, was at assessment (1865) returned 
as watered, chiefly from lagoons, ponds, and streams. 

The cultivated area was itself returned as 347,968 acres. But to this 
figure must be added a good deal of the unsurveyed waste-land grants (63,518 
acres) ; and tillage must since then have spread over much of the 128,041 
acres returned as cultivable. All the ordinary crops of the spring and autumn 
harvests are produced in fair quantity aud quality. Sugar- 
cane has within the past 40 years become the staple growth 
of the parganah. There are at least half a hundred native sugar factories, whose 
produce has under the name of bagalia gained an established plaee in the Calcutta 
market. Besides the usual kinds of rice is grown one called clienawc or sengar, 
which is almost peculiar to Sidhua-Jobna. 1 Neither indigo nor poppy is exten- 
sively cultivated. On the watersheds the chief autumn growths are rices, pulses, 
and maize ; on the bhat lands, rices, turmeric, capsicums, ginger, and cotton. 
The chief spring crops of the watersheds are wheat, barley, and the pulses 
gram and arliar; of the bhat lands, wheat, barley, and oil-plants. 

Several other products besides the crops require some brief notice. 
Small particles of gold are found mixed with the sands of 
the Great Gandak ; and those sands are sometimes washed 
to find the precious metal. But the particles are far fewer than higher up- 
stream, in the Nepal Tarai ; and Mr. Lumsden reckons that to recover Rs. 10 
worth of gold must cost the sand-washers of Sidhua-Jobna almost double that 
amount in time and labour. In the south aud south-east of the parganah 
flourishes a fair trade in saltpetre. In 1865 there were as many as 168 
factories and four refineries of this mineral. The luxuriant pasturage aloug 

1 Supra p. 324. 

69 



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540 GOHAKHPUR. 

the banks of the Gandak, and the remains of forest in the north, encourage a 
considerable business in hides, which are exported half-cured to D&napur or 
Calcutta. Hemp matting and sacking is extensively manufactured in the 
south -east ; and in the west is woven a strong but dirty-looking cloth called 
hokti. 

For the loeal produce 42 market towns and villages provide a sale. 
The most important emporia are Tiwfcrfpatti and Sihibganj, 
both on a branch of the Great Qandak ; another S&hibganj, 
on the waste-land grant of the late Mr. Sym 1 ; and Ragarganj on the Little 
Qandak. Other placos which are noteworthy for less commerical reasons are 
Padrauna, Kasia, Tamkiihi, Kutahi, Kohrauliya, Dh&nipatti, Bishanpura, 
Bampur-Borah&n, B&nsg&on, Arawa, Taria-Suj&n, Ramkola, and Serara- 
Hardeo. About eight highways, all unraetalled, connect these places with each 
other and surrounding parganahs. 

The principal road-centres, that is the places where the largest number 
of the best roads meet, are Padrauna and Kr*sia. The lines which meet or 
cross at other places are not regularly bridged, and this defect, with the floods 
which often cover the country, causes the suspension of all wheeled traffic 
during the rains. But trade-routes are provided also by the Great Gandak, 
Pro ject for a Little its navigable branches, and its minor namesake. In the 
Gandak canal. monsoon small boats ply the Little Gandak as far north as 

Ragarganj. It was many years ago proposed by means of locks to convert 
this river into a navigation canaL The levels were so far as ascertained 
favorable, and the canal would have proved a great boon to the parganah. 
But the project has been almost forgotten. 

As shown by the remains at Padrauna and Kasia, Sidhua-Jobna is a 

tract of ancient civilization. Of its Buddhist history, 
History. J 

# however, nothing is known ; and we pass to the Hindu 

epoch. With as little truth probably as in most Hindu etymologies, the name 
of Sidhua is derived from the legend that it was a wilderness where holy men 
or siddJuu came to perform austerities. But about the beginning of the 
fifteenth century the south of the parganah was annexed and colonized by 
Medhan Singh, of whom something was said in the last article. When bis 
descendants succumbed to the Bisens, about 1580, the victors divided their 
conquest into several petty talukas or baronies. Such were Bansgaon, 
R&mkola, Parw&rp&r, Sikhoni, and Sankhopar. At the end of the same six- 
teenth century the pargauah formed part of the great parganah of Dehwip&ra- 
l See article on I'adrauna, of which this Sauibganj>is a suburb. 



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GORAKHPUR. 541 

Kuhina, which included also Shahjah&npur and Salempur. A sub-division of 
the Gorakhpur Government and Oudh province, DehwapSra bad a State rental 
of Rs. 17,9 4 1. 1 The smalluess of this sum as compared with that paid by a 
smaller parganah like Dhuri&p&r shows how much of the tract must at this 
time have been under forest. 

The Bisens gradually spread northwards, and about 1750 we find their 
chief, the rdja of Majhauli, granting Padrauna and other villages to a Kurmi 
retainer. How these villages become the nucleus of a great domain has been 
told above. 8 From their original grantee is descended the r&i of Padrauna. 
About 1765, on the cession of Bih&r to the British, a Bhtiinhar chief, who was 
unwilling to acknowledge the new power, migrated from S&ran into this par- 
ganah. Before his death he had accumulated the large tract of villages known 
as the Bank-Jogni taluka ; and from him the r/ija of Tanikfihi is descended. 3 
Tbe Padrauna and Tamkubi families may bo considered the leading families 
of tbe parganah. 

That parganah was ceded by Oudh to the Company in 1801 ; but until 
the settlement of the current revenue, in 1865, the Bank-Jogni and Padrauna 
talukas were always assessed separately. If we include them in the general 
reckoning, the following have been the demands imposed since cession on 
Bidhua-Jobna : — At the first settlement ( 1802;, Lis. 96,949 ; at the second (1806), 
Rs. 87,195 ; at the third (1809;, Rs. 80,361 ; at tbe fourth (1813), Bs. 83,668; 
at the fifth (1840), Rs. 2,24,477 ; and at the current, Hs. 3,18,934. 

Silbat, a parganah of the Hata talml, is bounded on east-by-north by the 
Dur&nchi river, which severs it from parganah Silhat ; on north-by-west and 
on west north-west by parganah Haveli, the river Majhna supplying in places 
a boundary ; on west and south south-west by the ttapti, which divides it from 
parganahs Bhau&p&r and Chillupar ; and on south-east by parganah Salempur, 
a long part of the frontier being provided by the Kurna river. Silhat had 
in 1878 an area of 179,170 acres and a land revenue of Its. 1,15,987. 
It is divided into 17 tappas, viz., Banchara, Singhpur, Nar&yanpur- 
Chiurha, Kataura, Bakhira, Bin6yak, Chiriaon, Pah&rpur, Idrikpur, 
Donth, Barnai, Gaura, DhatiirA, Sirijam, Indupur, NagwAn-Tikar, and 
Madanpur. The parganah contains 477 of the revenue divisions known as 
villages (mama). 

According to the census of 1872 it possessed 441 inhabited sites, where- 
of 219 had less than 200 inhabitants; 155 between 200 
and 500 ; 50 between 500 and 1,000 ; 14 between 1,000 

1 7,17,010 dim. Bat see also p. 274 a Pp. 39H, 450-01. * Pfr 401, 450. 



Population. 



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542 GOBAKHPUR. 

and 2,000 ; 1 between 2,000 and 3,000 ; and 1 between 3,000 and 5,000. The 
only town containing more than 5,000 inhabitants was Rudarpur. 

The population numbered 135,847 souls (62,742 females), giving 485 to 
the square mile. Classified according to religion there were 126,500 Hindus 
(58,535 females) and 9,347 Musalmfins (4,207 females). Distributing the 
Hindu population among the four great classes, the census shows 11,629 
Br&hmans (5,543 females); 6,452 Rajputs (3,071 females); and 3,252 Bani- 
yas (1,503 females); whilst the great mass of the population is included in 
the "other castes," which show a total of 105,167 souls (48,418 females). 
The principal Br&hman sub-division found in this pargana is the Kanaujiya 
(11,335). The chief Rajput clans are the Ponwdr (1,441), Sarnet, Sakarwal, 
Bais, Solankhi, and Ghauhan. The Baniyas belong to the K&ndu (1,523), 
Agarwfil, Baranw&r, and Kasaundhan sub-divisions. The most numerous 
among the other castes are the Bind (1,341), Dosadh (1,342), Gound (1,91 1), 1 
Teli (3,918), Koeri (3,249), Ahir (17,950), Loh&r (2,783), Hajjam (1,756), 
Chamar (1,368), Dhobi (1,637), Kah&r (2,736), Satwar (7,832), Kurmi (1,891), 
Bhar (4,956), Malldh (14,909), and Nuniya (5,426). Besides these, the follow- 
ing tribes comprising less than one thousand members each are found in the 
parganah : — Kalwar, R&jbhar, Son&r, Kamfingar, Kahar, Dom,Barhai, Bar&yi, 
Bhdt, Pasi, Thathera, Mali, Bansphor, B£ri, Atlth, Khatik, Kis&n, Halw&i, 
Bharbhunja, Kori, Baheliya, and Jaiswdr. The Musalmans are Shaikhs 
(7,676), Sayyids (53), Mughals (76), Pathdns (948), and unspecified. 

Except where broken by an occasional sand ridge, the surface of Silhat 
Physical and agri- * 8 level. The general features of the landscape are almost 
cultural features. fa e game as j n the neighbouring Salempur. But in this 

parganah there is much more forest. Though a large fringe of woodland, 
which a quarter of a century ago shaded the west and south, has given way 
to cultivation, a wilderness of stunted trees still stretches along the banks of 
the Majhna to join the Eusmahi jungle 2 in parganah Haveli. After forming, 
as already noted, the frontier with that parganah, the Majhna crosses this 
from north to south ; and it is joined within Silhat by the Kurna. Along its 
banks and those of the R&pti the soil is the swampy and chalky-looking clay 
known as chaur bhdt. In the north occur the ridges of sand (dkdsi ) lately 
mentioned. But the bulk of the mould is loam (doras). Of the cultivated 
area 98,258 acres were at assessment (1,863) returned as cultivated and 23,984 
acres as cultivable. Though the gram and urd pulses are more extensively 
grown here than in Salempur, the crops are mainly those described in the 
article on that parganah (q. v.) 

1 See article on pargana Bhauapar, population section, note. * Sttpra p. 391. 



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GOBAKHrUR. 543 

Beyond the business in agricultural raw produce, Silhat has little 
Trade and commn- trade ; but what little exists has been noticed under the 
nicatioos. head of its chief town, Rudarpur. The parganah has 

many less important market villages, suoh as Madanpur, Sirijam, R>impur, 
Sohiauna, Gauri, Mathia, Patharhat, Dharha, Parri, and Bakhira. T*o 
unmetalled roads of the second and three of the third class tap the principal 
places, and additional routes are provided by the Rapti and Majhna, both navi- 
gable when the roads are waterlogged. 

Remains at Rudarpur render it probable that the parganah was once a 

... stronghold of Buddhists. In those days the terms Bud- 

History. , 

dhist and Bhar are likely to have been identical ;* and we 

may suppose that, as elsewhere in the district, the earliest inhabitants were 

Bhars. If so their peace was roughly disturbed about the middle of the 

fourteenth century, when the parganah became a bone of contention between 

the lately founded Sarnet dynasty of Sat&si and the older Bisen house of Maj- 

hauli. The war continued with brief intervals of peace for about a hundred 

years, and ended in the victory of the Bisens, who annexed the disputed tract. 

In the end of the sixteenth century Silhat was a part of parganah Haveli 
Gorakhpnr. From this it was severed about 1680, when Rudar, r&ja of Satisi, 
was ejected from Gorakhpur and made Rudarpur his capital. Through the 
remainder of the Dehli rule, through the whole of the Oudh supremacy, and 
from the beginning of the British occupation until the great rebellion, the 
SatAsi r&jas continued to flourish in Silhat , 

The progress of the parganah since its cession to the British (1801) may 
be proved by the steadily increasing demands imposed at successive settlements 
of land-revenue. These were: — At the first settlements 1803), Rs. 8,516; at the 
second (1806), Rs. 9,283; at the third (1809), Rs. 12,657; at the fourth 
(1813), Rs. 16,461 ; at the fifth (1840), Rs. 54,300; and at the sixth (1863), 
Rs. 1,02,621. The sixth settlement is still current, but its demand has, as 
above shown, risen. 

Siswa-bA*z£r, a village in tappa Old Earhi of parganah Tilpur, lies 43 
miles north-east of Gorakhpur. It had in 1872 but 1,732 inhabitants ; and its 
only claims to notice are a parganah school and a house-tax. For the Cbauki- 
d&ri Act (XX. of 1856) is in force within its limits. During 1877-78 the 
house-tax thereby imposed, with a trifling balance from the preceding year, 
gave a total income of Rs. 184. The expenditure, which was solely on police, 
amounted to Rs. 144. Of the 385 houses in the village 142 wore assessed 

1 Pp. 431-32. 



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544 GORAKHPUfi. 

with the tax, (he incidence being Re. 1-3*0 per house assessed, and Be. 0-1-7 
per head of population. 

So HAN ag, 1 a hamlet in tappa M&il and parganah Salempur, stands about 
S miles south-west of Salempur and about 50 south-east of Gorakhpur. It in 
1872 had but 29 inhabitants. 

The hamlet is remarkable as containing an ancient tank and a large mass 
of ruins and sculptures apparently dating from the later Buddhistic epoch. 
The tank itself lies, like all ancient excavations of the kind, in a due north 
and souih direction. It is 146 lattda? long and 77 broad, containing an area 
of 27 J Mghas? West of it and extending along its entire length rises a mound 
varying in height and breadth. The extreme elevation is about 50 feet and 
the breadth in the widest part about 100. This mound is formed chiefly of 
the large broad bricks characterestic of ancient buildings. It seems never to 
have been excavated, and it is impossible to say accurately what buildings it 
contained. But the highest part was probably a stupa erected over some 
Buddhistic relics; and the lower portion (which shows traces of a quadrangular 
building) a Buddhist monastery and apartments for ascetics. 

The ancient name of Sohanag is said to have been Nagpur ; and it is 
believed to be midway between Ajudbia and Janakpur in the MuzaS'arpur 
district, the capital of Janaka, king of Mithila and father of Sfta. At Mithila 
or Janakpur was held the assembly of kings at which raja Janaka promised 
his daughter Sita to the prince who could bend the bow of Shiva. Now with 
this bow, which was then in charge of Janaka, Shiva had conquered the gods 
in the sacrifice of Daksha. Rdma succeeded in the task ; and the Farasu Hama 
succumbed to the superior power of the Rama Chandra incarnation of Vishnu. 
He returned to Sohanag, and there did penance to recover his divinity. After 
this the shrine became ruined and the images were lost. Many years afterwards, 
a king of Nep&l named Sohan, who was grievously smitten with leprosy, 
set forth to die at K&shi (Benares). On his way he halted at Sohanag, and 
using the water of the tank was miraculously cured. In gratitude he restored 
the shrines. Some accounts say that Soban was a Bisen Rajput ; but others 
deny, this. At any rate some claim seems to have been made by the Bisens of 
Majhauli to connect themselves in some way with the worship at Sohan&g. 
The natural inference from the story is that on the revival of Br&hmans the 
ancient Buddhistic rites were revived. An exactly analogous case is the restora- 
tion and re-identification of the Ajudhia holy places by king Yikramaditya of 
Ujjain. 

1 The whole of this article is by Mr. Crooke. * The tatta or lalha equals 8 feet 7| 

inches. * I.e., about 18jj acres, according to the proportion between bigha and acre 

prevalent in this parganah. 



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GOBAKHPUR. 545 

The chief remains visible at Sohan&g are now as follows. There is a small 
ruined brick enclosure containing a modern Hindu temple of the common type. 
In this shrine are four images, all doubtless Buddhistic. They are known as 
Chatarbhuj Nar&yan (the four-armed Vishnu), Parasiiramji, Kuber Bhand&ri 
(Ruber the storekeeper), and Ranchhor Tikam. The images of Parasurdm and 
Kuber are engraved in Buchanan's Eastern India (II., 363). 

But Buchanan never saw the place himself, and depended on the very im- 
perfect description of his pandit. In the same enclosure are some ruined 
ascetic's cells and the remains of a small Mah&deo temple with a round black 
stone phallus, known as Maha Budra Nath. The temple containing the chief 
images is said to have been built by Niwaz Singh, chakldddr or commissioner 
under the rule of Oudh. It may perhaps be nearly a hundred years old, and 
probably dates from a period not long before our occupation of the district. 
On the highest point of the mound is a semi-ruinous temple, containing a small 
black stone image representing a man with a woman in his lap. This is known 
as Gauri-shankar or Mah&deo and P&rvati. At the base of the mound, near the 
edge of the tank, is a small ruined temple containing a phallus and two black 
stone images in excellent preservation. They are said to represent Parasfi- 
r&ma's parents, — Jamadagni, son of Richika of the race of Bhrigu ; and 
Renuka, daughter of raja Prasenajft. 

But both these statues are certainly Buddhistic, and have been appropriated 
by the Br&hmanical cultus. The phallus in this shrine is called the Jharkandi 
M ah&deo. On the edge of the tank are some remains of an ancient landing 
staircase ; and under an adjoining pipal tree is a small Bnddhistic figure known 
as Laukus, 1 that son of Ramchandrawho was miraculously formed out of a 
handful of holy husa grass. In addition to the occasional visits of devotees to the 
shrine of Parasur&m there is an annual fair held on the 3rd, bright half, Bais&kh 
(April-May). At this gathering attend on an average 20,000 people. 
Thoreal priests (pujdri) of the shrine are the Atitbs of Karwaniya in tappa 
Ballia of parganah Salempur, whoso present representative is prior (mahant) 
Gfiydpuri-Ji. The place is, however, practically in charge of a family 
of Bhdts, who own two-thirds of the village of Sohan&g. Deokinandan 
L&l, a lawyer of Gorakhpur, whose family live in the adjoining vil- 
lage of Pilauli, has succeeded in procuring a decree in the civil court for the 
tank and the ground on which the fair is held. 

Adjoining this ancient site is a modern shrine occupied by a body of 
Bamanandis. They have a Th&kurdw&ra with images of Lachhman and 

1 The name stems, howerer, to ha?e been compounded from those of both Boma's sons, Lara 
aadKusha. 



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546 GORAKHPUH. 

Janki and several ammonite fossils (Sdligrdm), The founder of this con- 
vent was Dharni-das, who was succeeded by the noted ascetic Jiwa Ramji. 
The latter disappeared on a pilgrimage, leaving behind him a stone cnp 
(kundi) which he announced would fall to pieces on the day of his death. 
The cup broke twelve years after his departure ; but no one knows where he 
died. It is said that he could appear simultaneously at Sohan&g and Mathurf. 
The succession of prion? since My tim& has been Tikaram, Ganesh-das, 
Narayan-d&s, Jankf-das, Parasuram-das, Rameshwar*dfr&> R&mparshad-das, 
and Kamsaran-dos, who at present occupies the cushion. The tomb (lamddh) of 
Jiwa Rdm-das, 1 with bis broken cup, is greatly venerated. 

On the whole Sohanag is a very interesting place and offers a good 
field for archaeological exploration. It seems to be one of a line of Buddhist 
shrines extending from Bhagalpur ghat on the Gbagra to Easia or Kusana- 
gara, the scene of Buddha's death. The intermediate stages were perhaps 
Kahaon, Sohanag, and Khakhundn, in all of which Buddhist remains exist. 

Surauli, a large village in the lappa so named of parganah Salempur, 
lies about five miles south south-west of Deoria. Its population amounted 
in 1872 to 424 persons. 

Here are the remains of an extensive fort, covering an area of about 
22 acres. The site is overgrown with scrub, but clearly defined by the still 
visible traces of a surrounding ditch. Within are three large masonry wells, 
and the remains of a fourth with steps descending into its shaft. The village 
is held by Chaubaria Rajputs, who are said to take their name from parga- 
nah Chaubar in Saran. Legend asserts that they were settled here by a r&ja 
of Majhauli, who wished them to watch his frontier ; and that the fort was built 
about 10 generations ago by one Dambar Sahi. It was destroyed shortly 
before the British occupation v 180l) by one of the Oudh nawab's deputies. 
There is a superstition that any one attempting to plough within the fort 
immediately dies. , 

TAMKtJHi or Tamakhoi, a village of tappa Haveli and parganah 
Sidhua-Jobna, stands on the unmetalled road from Samiir to Tudari patti, 55 
miles east-by-south of Gorakhpur. It had in 1872 but 708 inhabitants ; 
and is here noticed solely as the site of an imperial post-office and the seat 
of the Tamkiihi raja. 8 

Tarakulwa, a village of the tappa so named in parganah Shahjah&n- 
pur, stands on the unmetalled Easia and Barhaj road, 40 miles south south- 
east of Gorakhpur. Its population amounted in 1872 to 1,020 persons. 
1 As no one knows where he died, this tomb is probably a cenotaph. * Supra, p. 401. 



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GORAKHPUR. 547 

Tarakulwa is situated on a great mound of sand, and its climate is considered 
good. It has a district post-office and a first-class police-station, with cattle- 
pound attached. 

Taria Sujan is the site of a third-class police-station and district 
post-office in tappa Haveli of parganah Sidhua-Jobna. It lies at a considera- 
ble distance from any road, 56 miles east-by-south of Gorakhpur ; and in 
1872 had 2,101 inhabitants. 

TfLPUR, a parganah of the Mah&r&jganj tahsi!, is bounded on north 
north-east by the Champ&ran district and Nepal, the border with the former 
being provided by the Great Gandak river ; on north-west by the Jharrei river, 
which severs it from parganahs Binayakpur and Haveli ; on its concave south- 
western frontier by the latter parganah ; on. east south-east by parganah 
Sidhua-Jobna, and again for a short distance by the Great Gandak and Cham- 
pfiran. Tilpur had in 1878 an area of 183,764 acres and a land-revenue of 
Bs. 48,575. It is divided into seven tappas, called Old Karhi, New Karhi, 
Bharatkand, Domakand khfis, Sukarhari, and Son&ri. It contains 339 of the 
revenue divisions known as villages (mauza). 

According to the census of 1872 it possessed 251 inhabited sites, where- 
of 155 had less than 200 inhabitants; 79 between 200 
Population. ^ d 50()5 lg betwQen 50Q and ^ 0()0 . and 4 betweea 

1,000 and 2,000. 

The population numbered 57,021 souls (26,859 females), giving 199 to 
the square mile. Classified according to the religion, there were 50,164 Hin- 
dus (23,590 females) ; 6,853 Musalm&ns (3,267 females), and 4 Christians. 
Distributing the Hindu population among the four great classes, the census 
shows 3,370 Br&hmans (1,617 females) ; 772 R&jputs (373 females) ; and 1,841 
Baniyas, (821 females) ; whilst the great mass of the population is included in 
the " other castes," which show a total of 44,179 souls (20,779 females). The 
principal Brahman sub-division found in this parganah is the Eanaujiya 
(3,145). The chief Rajput clans are the Sarnet (152) and Chauh&n. The Bani- 
yas belong to the Kandu (1,224), Agarahri, Barauna, 1 Unai, and Kasaundhan 
sub-divisions. The most numerous amongst the other castes are the Teli 
(1,832), Koeri (1,535), Ahir (6,225), Chamar (6,077), Dhobi (1,050), Kahar 
(1496), Kurmi (1,714), Mall&h (1,450), Nuniya (3,047), and Musahar (2,444). 
Besides these, the following tribes comprising less than one thousand members 
each are found in the parganah :— Bind, Dosadh, Gound, 2 Loh&r, Hajy&m, Satwar, 

1 See article on parganah Dfturidpdr, population section, note. * Article on parganah 

Bhaudptir, population section, note. 

70 



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548 GORAKHPUB. 

Gadariya, K&yath, Kalw&r, Rajbhar, Son&r, Kam&ngar, Dom, Barhai, Bar&yi, 
Bh&t, Pasi, Thathera, Mali, B&nsphor, Jogi, Bairiigi, Bari, Khatik, Khakrob, 
Kis&n, Halwai, Kum&r, Kori, Baheliya, Gosain, and Jaiswfir. The Masai- 
m&ns are Shaikhs (6,436), Sayyids (27), Mugfaals (18), Pathans (311), and 

unspecified. 

The parganah may be divided into two portions. Its larger or northern 
Physical and agri- division may be deemed a part of the Tarfii, while its 
cultural features. southern is an open and fairly cultivated plain resembling 
the bulk of the district. In the former tract must be placed tappas Sonari, 
Sukarh&ri, Domakand, Bharatkand, and the northern half of tappa Kh&s. These 
are regions of reserved forest, large grass prairies, patchy and slovenly cul- 
tivation, poor hamlets, and morass. In the southern tract are included the 
other half of Kh&s and tappas New and Old Karhi, Here, as already men- 
tioned, are found freedom from forest and a fairly extensive cultivation. 

Of the total area 59,175 acres were at the land-assessment of 1865 returned 
as cultivated. But this estimate excludes the cultivation of waste-land grants ; 
and since it was framed tillage must have made still further annexations 
amongst the 46,386 acres which were returned as cultivable, though fallow. 
The soil consists chiefly of the sandy loam called doras ; but there is a good 
deal of clay (mattiydr) and a small amount of the almost pure sand named 
balua. So great is the natural moisture of the earth that the ordinary crops 
can be produced in abundance without artificial irrigation. Water, indeed, lies at 
an average depth of but 8 feet from the surface ; and of the total cultivation 
not quite 20 per cent, is recorded as watered. Wells are used, not for fields, 
but for the purposes of human life. The usual sources of what little irrigation 
exists are not wells, but streams and lagoons. 

Chief of the former are the Little Gandak watering the eastern, and the 
Malawa the western tappas. But there are many minor water-courses, such as 
Chandan, the Khekara, the Hirna, the Soleh, and the Ghorburwa. Most if not 
all of these rise in the parganah itself. The lagoons are of the usual type — 
«reedy swamps which with the approach of summer gradually dry. But the 
form of some shows that they were once bends in the beds of rivers. Like its 
neighbour parganahs Tilpur is subject to extensive inundations. But owing 
to the sandy nature of the soil these rapidly disappear. 

As usual in watery tracts, autumn rice is the staple of the parganah. 

Products, trade, For the spring harvest are grown a large quantity of wheat 

aod communications. and a smaller quantity of c hi c k-pea, (chana) barley, lentils, 

(mcwtir), and mustard (Idhi.) Fruit is 'supplied by 1,500 acres of grove or 



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GOBAKHPUB. 549 

orchard. The wild hemp {bhang\ which provides an intoxicating drug, grows 
like a weed in the fields. Catechu is tapped from innumerable khair acacias. 
But except in the vegetable kingdom, Tilpur has no products worthy of 
mention. Its trade is extremely limited, and its markets are of the agricultural 
order. Such are Nichlaval, Siswa, and Mithaura, with their minor rivals, Rudra- 
pur, Harilapur, Bilahikpur, Barhia, Chatia, Madanpura, and Chauk. Ttitibh&ri 
and Kotibh&r are importaut on other than commercial grounds. The southern 
part of the parganah is fairly provided with communications. Four name- 
tailed roads run northwards to meet and end at Nichlaval, whilst a fifth 
crosses three of them in a westerly direction. 

In the fourteenth century the principality of Bfitwal, with its capital at 

„. the foot of the Nepal hills, was founded by an adventurer 

History. . . . „,; „,, J 

of uncertain origin. This Makhund Singh, or his des- 
cendants, gradually seized the whole of Biniyakpur and Tilpur from the Tha- 
rfis. It is probable that before the end of the sixteenth century Tilpur had 
been separated from the rest of this petty kingdom, as a fief for younger sons. 
The parganah is at all events mentioned as a distinct sub-division in Akbar's 
Institutes (1596), which adds that there is a brick castle at Tilpur ; but no town 
or village thus called remains. The name of Tilak was perhaps common in the 
Butwal family. For after a prince so named Tilpur is said to have been called ; 
and with another prince so named the parganah is connected in the beginning 
of the eighteenth century. This Tilak II. had held Tilpur as a fief from his 
cousin, the raja of Bfitwal ; but resenting another's suzerainty, he declared 
himself an independent raja. Calling in the aid of the warlike hucksters known 
as Banjaras, he for long resisted the power of Bfitwal* But the internecine 
conflict led probably to arrears of revenue. About 1750 the naw&b of Oudh, the 
nominal ruler of the district, sent a large force to realize the land-tax. That 
force first defeated Tilak Sen's son, and afterwards came to terms with the 
Butwal raja. In accordance with those terms, or by right of the sword, the 
latter re-annexed Tilpur. 

Ceded to the English in 1801, Tilpur was a few years afterwards annexed 
by the Nepalese, who, having defeated the rija of Butwal, chose to consider it 
asstill a part of his domains. The Nepalese war followed, and theNepalese 
themselves disappeared. In the course of the campaign, however, Nichlaval and 
other places suffered from their incursions. After the great rebellion (1857- 
58) a northern strip of the parganah was granted to their descendants in 
reward for friendly services against the rebels. Amongst those rebels was the rdja 
of Bfitwal, whose family had for two generations been settled at Nichlaval. 



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550 GORAKHPUB. 

Bis estates were confiscated and his title attainted. Since it became a British 
possession Tilpur has been assessed with the following land-revenues :— Rs. 9,803 
in 1803 ;Rs. 9,821 in 1806; Rs 7,646 in 1809; Rs. 11,470 in 1813; 
Rs. 41,501 in 1840 ; and Rs. 41,888 in 1865. The increase which has taken 
place since the last date is chiefly dne to the fact that the demands then 
assessed were in many cases progressive. 

TtfTlBH^nr, a village in the extreme northern corner of the parganah 
just described, adjoins the frontiers of Nep&l and parganah Bin&yakpur. Situ- 
ated on the banks of the Jharrei river in tappa Sukarhari, it lies 57 miles north 
north-east of Gorakhpur. It is far distant from any road, and its population 
was in 1872 limited to 1,468 persons. But Tiitibhari is noticeable as the 
site of a third-class police-station and district post-office. 



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STATISTICAL, 



DESCRIPTIVE, AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT . 



OF THB 



BASTI DISTRICT. 



COMPILED 

Bt 

H. 0. CONYBBARE, B.C.S., 

AND 1DITEP BT 

B. T. ATKINSON, BA., B.C.S., 

Fellow of the Boyal Geographical Society. 




ALLAHABAD 



NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES AND OUDH GO V EBH MB K I f BESS 

"'• 18 81*. 



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I 






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1 



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/®&*^fr 



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STATISTICAL, DESCRIPTIVE, AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 

OF THE 

NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES. 



BASTI DISTRICT. 



CONTENTS. 



Part I.— Geographical and Descriptive. 

page. 

Boundaries, area, &c. .♦. ... 558 

Administrative sub-divisions ... ... 16. 

Tahsfls and parganas ... ... 553 

Tappas ... ..» ... ... 565 

District staff ... ... ... 556 

Physical geography and scenery ... ib. 

Woodlands ... ... ... ... 557 

The three tracts of the district ••• 658 

Soils ... ... ... ... ib. 

Saline efflorescence, ravines ... ... 560 

Water-level ... ••• ... ... ib. 

Rivers. Systems of the Rapti, Kuana, 

and Ghagra ... ... ... 56] 

Adjustment of riparian disputes ... 567 

The rivers as irrigators ... ... ib. 

Lakes and swamps , .. ... ... 668 

Communications ... ... ... 669 

Table of distances ... ... ... 571 

Meteorology and climate ... ... ib. 

Part II— Products, Animal, Vbob- 

TABLB, AND MlNBRAL. 

Fauna ... ... ... ... 574 

Domestic animals,ponies,horned cattle,&c. i 6. 

Cattle disease, ... 576 

Wild animals ... ... ... ib. 

Reptiles ... ... ... ... 577 

Birds and bird trade .♦• ••• ... 578 

Fishes and fisheries ... ... ... 579 

Price of timber ... ... ... 586 

Crops ... ... ... ... 587 

Rice and other growths ~. ... 588 

Outturn ... ... ... ... 591 

Agricultural processes, ploughing ... 592 

Irrigation ... ... ... ... 694 

Manuring ... ... ... ... 596 

Other agricultural processes ... ... 598 

Nomenclature of fields ... ... 599 

Vegetable products of the wood and la- 
goons ... ... ... ... 600 

Droughts ... ... ... ... 602 

Minerals, nodular limestone and lime ... 608 

Bricks, brick-dust and tiles ... ... 609 



Part III.— Inhabitants, Institutions, 
,asd History. 

Page. 

Population ... ... ... 610 

btatistics ... ... ... 614 

Castes and tribes ... ... ... ib. 

Occupations ... ... ... 639 

Emigration ... ... ... 641 

Towns and villages ... ... ib. 

Dwellings and religious buildings ... ib. 

Clothing... ... ... ... 6 #3 

Food ... ... ... ... 646 

Marriage Customs... ... .. 648 

Religion Christianity and Muhammad- 

an ism ... ... „ ... 650 

Literature and language ... ... 657 

Education ... ... ... 658 

Post-office ... ... ... 659 

Police ... ... ... ... 660 

Infanticide ... ... ... 661 

Jail ... ... ... ... 666 

Fiscal history ... ... ... 667 

Revenue collections and instalments, 668 

Proprietary tenures ... ... 669 

Leading landed families ... ... 672 

Alienations ... ... ... 683 

Cultivators, their castes „» ... 383 

Average size of holdings ... ... 686 

Halbandi or plough tenures M . ib. 

Rents and enhancements of rent ... 687-683 

Manorial cesses ... ... ... 688 

Condition of the agricultural classes, 689 

Serf ploughmen ... ... ... 691 

Wages and prices ... M . ... 692 to 694 

Loans and interest ... ... 694 

Manufactures and trade *-. ... 695-696 

Internal trade : Markets and fairs ... 705 

Weights and measures ... ... 706 

District receipts and expenditure ... 708 

House-tax, towns ... ... ... 709 

Income and license taxes ... ... ib. 

Excise and stamps ... ... 710 

Registration receipts ... ... 711 

Judicial charges ... ... ... ib m 

Medical charges and sanitary statistics ib. 

Native medicine ... ... -, 713 

History ... ... „, .„ 794 



Gazlttrbr or thk district, page 
71 



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552 BOUNDARIES, AREA, &0. 

Basti, 1 a district of the Benares Division, is for 38 miles on the north- 

. . . north-east bounded by the kingdom of Nepal 5 for 98 miles 

Boundaries, area, &c. J ° r 

on the west-north-west by the Gonda district ; for 62 miles 
on the sonth-sonth-west by the Ghagra river, which severs it from the district 
of Faizabad ; and for 95 miles on the east by the Gorakhpur district. For east 
might, perhaps, be written east by south ; but for purposes of simplicity wo 
need hardly recognize more than sixteen points of the compass. The British 
tahsils which march with Basti are Utraula and Begamganj of Gonda ; Faiza- 
bad and Akbarpur of Faizabad ; and Bdnsgaon, Gorakhpur, and Mahar&jganj 
of Gorakhpur. 

The district extends from 26° 23' 0* to 27° 30' 0* north latitude, and 
from 82° 17' 0" to 83° 19' 30* east longitude. Its total area by the latest 
official statement 2 was 1,784,049 acres, or something over 2,787£ square 
miles. Basti is, therefore, over 1 3 square miles larger than Lincolnshire. 
Its length from north to south varies between 52 and 68, with a mean 
of 60 miles ; its breadth from east to west between 28 and 52 miles, with a 
mean of 40. The number of villages is returned as 7,524. The population, 
1,416,90$ in 1865, had in 1872 risen to 1,472,994, or about 528 persons to 
the square mile. But of both area and population further details will be given 
in part III. of this notice. 

For purposes of administration, general and fiscal, Basti is divided into 3 
Administrative tahsils or sub-collectorates, over which are distributed 8 par- 
Bttb-dimions. ganas or baronies. Here, as in Gorakhpur, we note the un- 
usual feature of parganahs lying partly in one and partly in another tahsil. 
But though possessing separate records the parganahs are as administrative units 
almost obsolete. The divisions of civil and criminal justice are respectively the 
petty judgeship ( munsifi ) and the police-circle ( thdna ). Of the former there aro 
3, whereof one, B£nsg6on, is shared with the Gorakhpur district ; of tho 
latter there are 26. 3 But the following synopsis will show at a glance tho 
various divisions, their equivalents at the close of the sixteenth century, and 
their modern land-revenue, area, and population* 

1 The principal materials for this notice hare been the settlement reports of Messrs. IT. 
leP. Wynne, as., H.Wilson, o s., and P. J White, 1861-65; Martin's (Buchanan's) Easter* 
India, 1838 ; and the notes of Messrs. P. Wigram, o. s., and J. B. Thomson, c. s. Bat besides 
these should be mentioned the census reports of 1872 and former years ; the annual reports of 
the various Government Departments ; the records of the Board of Revenue, and brief memo- 
randa by different officers now or formerly posted in tbo district. References to other autho- 
rities, such as Elliot's Races and Historians, or Sherring's Caste*, will be found in the text or foot- 
notes. The British districts which surround Basti on three sides have all been described In the 
Gazetteers of Oudh and the North-Wcstern Provinces. From one of those districts, Gorakh- 
pur, Basti was severed in 1865 only. It follows, therefore, that the scope of this notice is con- 
siderably lessened, and that the Basti monograph will, in many respects, be little more than an 
appendix to that of Gorakhpur. ^Government Circular No. 70A., dated 4th July, 187a. 

'This estimate excludes three outposts or stations of the fourth class. But it includes 
two which, before the end of the current financial year (1880-81), will be raised from the fourth 
Class to the third. - 



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• 


BASTI. 










553 


i 








Included 


Land 
revenue 


At pa in 


1878. 


Total 


In the 
















Tahsfl, 


Parganah. 


by Akbar'a 


(exclud- 


Square 




popula- 


police ju- 


[a the mun- 








Institutes 


ing ces- 


miles. 


Acres. 


tion in 


risdiction 


sifi of— 










( 1569) in— 


ses) in 
1878-79. 






1872. 


of— 














Ba. 
















Doraaria- 


1. Bas (xlpur 


Basfil- 


1,68,191 


330 


75 


164,101 


Domar i 6- 


1 






g»uj. 


Ghaua, 


pur Qhau8. 










ganj and 
Chhapia. 


i 






ft ... 


2. Batanpnr 
B4nsi I. 
(western por- 
tion). 


Batan p u r- 
Magha r 
and Ka- 
tahla. 


1,12,155 


251 


90 


94,946 


Dhebarua, 
Misrauli, 
and Ti- 
lokpur. 


i 

1 
r BansL 






Bansi 


Batanpnr Bansi 


Ditto ... 


2,26,076 


560 


467 


266,658 


Ch i I ia, 


i 








II., (eastern 












Bansi, 








portion). 












tfeka,and 
Bankata. 


1 






o ••• 


3. Binayakpur, 


Biniy a k- 
pur. 


17,470 


48 


844 


21,023 


Lautan ... 


J 






IIaraia(late 


4. Amorha ... 


Amorha or 


1,62,070 


267 


576 


174,709 


Captain. 


1 






Captain • 




Amodh. 










Mnj, 








ganj), 














Paikaulia, 
Chhaoni, 
and Pa- 
rasr a m- 
pur. 








>» 


5. Auranpabad 
Nagar I. 
(western por- 
tion). 

6. Mansurnagar 


Bihlapara,- 


54,341 


115 


172 


66,110 


Cap t a i n- 








>> 


Mandwa... 


56,792 


112 


268 


64,403 


Paikaulia, 










Basti I., 














• Basti. 








(western por- 






















tion). 




















Basti ... 


Auranga bad- 
Nag aril, 
(eastern por- 
tion). 


Bihlapara, 


56,401 


94 


592 


58,372 


KalwSri (at 
present a 
mere out 
post.) ... 








» ••• 


Mansfirnag a r, 
Basti II. 
(eastern por- 
tion). 


Mandwa... 


98,185 


171 


1 


101,490 


Basti and 
Sonaha... 








»» ... 


7. Mahanli I. 
(western por- 
tion). 

8. Has an pur 


Mahanli ... 


74,763 


170 


691 


93,140 


Gaeghat ... 


J 






>» ••• 


Ratanp u r- 


53,989 


109 


685 


57,325 


Budbaul i, 


Basti and 








Magbar I. 


Maghar. 










Buddha - 


Bansi. 1 








(western por- 












band. 






\ 




tion). 




















Kbalilabad 


M a h a o 1 i II. 
(eastern por- 
tion). 


Mahauli .- 


93,859 


212 


52 


111,709 


Mahauli ... 


Basti and 
Bansgaon 1 




\ 


t) ••• 


Hasan pur-Mag- 
har II. (raid* 
die portion). 


Batan pur 
Magbar. 


1,60,779 


342 


386 


196,008 


Dbanghat - 
to, Du- 

dh&ra, 


Basti and 
Bansi. 8 




1 

\ 
















Menh d a- 
wal, and 
Khalila- 










Total ... 


... 


18,19,470 






bad. 

thoRnnai mi 


inftifl.&llthe 






2,787 


8C9'1,472,994 





udSKX to the B4n 8 gfcm instil; the rem»ind« .to the ' »-*« «««J 
»Tappa» Menbdawal, Bakhir., Gopalpur, Majaora, Sakra and Belhar belong to the Uan« 
mansifi, the rest to the munsifi uf Basti. 



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554 , ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISIONS. 

By dropping the suffixes and prefixes with which a passion for long 
names has adorned so many parganahs, we shall save both type &nd confusion. 
Throughout this notice, therefore, let Basulpur-Gbans appear as Basfilpur 
simply ; Batan pur-Ban si as B&nsi ; Aurangabad-Nagar as Nagar ; Mansnr- 
nagar-Basti as Basti ; and Hasanpur-Maghar as Maghar. Here, as in Gorakh- 
pur, the parganah divisions often coincide roughly with the limits of ancient 
principalities like Amorha, B&nsi, and Nagar. But of this enough will be said 
in the Gazetteer articles on the parganahs themselves. Before quitting the 
second column of the table we need only mention that eastern portions of 
Binayakpur and Maghar will be found in the Gorakhpnr district. 

On the compilation of Akbar*8 Institutes ( 1596 ) Basti formed part of the 
Gorakhpur and Avadh divisions ( sarkdr ) of the Oudh or Avadh province 
( suba ). In the Gorakhpur di\ ision and district ( dasMr ) were included parganahs 
Rasiilpur-Ghaus, Katahla, Bin&yakpur, Bihlapara, Mahauli, Mandwa and 
Batanpur-Maghar ; in the Haveli Avadh district of the Avadh division par- 
ganah Amorha. Katahla was B&nsi north of the R6pti. The old name became 
extinct when the Sarnet Baja of Bfinsi defeated, and slew the Bhar or Polankhi 1 
Raja of Katahla. B&nsi south of the R6pti was called Ratanpur, and included, 
as above shown, in the same parganah as Maghar. So far we hare been dealing 
with certainties. But whether Rihlapara and Nagar are identical is doubtful. 
The identification was suggested by Mr. Reade, 2 who may have been quite as 
wrong as when he made Amorha coincide with a lost sixteenth century parganah 
called Mandla. All the copies of the Institutes inspected by Sir Henry Elliot 
give Kihlapara, and Mr. Reade seems to have been the first who substituted an 
R for the K. 

When ceded by Oudh to the British ( 1801 ) all these parganahs were 
included in the Gorakhpur district; and in Gorakhpur they remained until 1864- 
65, when severed to constitute the existing district of Basti. Some account of 
their vicissitudes during the interval will be found in the Gorakhpur notice ; 3 
but since their separation they have undergone no important changes of area. 
Nor have they discarded those ancient tappa sub-divisions whose multitude was 
the geographical peculiarity of the united district. 

Above 3 have been given some of Mr. E. B. Alexander's speculations as 
to the origin of tappas. He suggests that these tracts represent the subordi- 
nate fiefs into which the old Hindu raj or principality was divided. But 
whether Hindu or not in origin, in name they are probably Muslim. In Persia 
tappa means a small hill ; but the word is found also in Afghanist&n and other 
1 Buchanan thinks that this prince belonged to the former tribe; some informants of Mr. 
Wynne placed hiin in the latter. * Mr. K. A. Reade, C. B., was successively Collector 

of Gorakhpur-Ba ti, Commissioner of Gorakhpur, and Senior Member of the Board of 
Revenue. He is the author of a work on the Inferior Casta of the Nortli-W esttrn Provinces, 
* Supra, pp. 874-76. 'pp. 277-78. 



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BASTI. 



555 



parts of Central Asia. x It is easy to imagine that the hill gave its name to 
the village stronghold which crowned it, and the village stronghold to the sur- 
rounding lands. But it is only fair to add that to the Persian of India — the 
French of Stratford-atte-Bowe — the word is unknown. Both Wilson and 
Forbes class it as Hindi. In Basti there are 130 tappas, distributed as 
follows over the different parganahs and tabsils :— 



Tahstt. 


Parganak 


DomabiI- 

OAWJ. 


Rasulpur. 


99 


» 


9i 


»> 


99 


!• 


99 


» 


99 


»t 


91 


>» 


99 
99 


Bans*. 


99 


j» 


99 


*» 


>» 


># 


91 


»9 


99 


>» 


99 


91 


99 


»9 


ft 


99 


>t 


99 


99 

Bivsi. 


99 

91 


» 


99 


» 


99 


» 


99 


99 


91 


>» 


91 


tf 


99 


99 


99 


» 


99 


w 


99 


>» 


99 


j» 


99 


» 


91 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 
it 


•9 


f> 


99 


9» 


t» 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


n 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


91 


99 


99 


t* 



Tappa. 


TahsiL 


Parganak. 




Tappa. 


1. Awainia. 


Banni (con- 


Binayakpur. 


4C. 


Bhatiopar. 




cluded.) 


99 


50. 


Nitwal or Nctwar. 


?. Karhi. 


Ha bah. 


Amorba. 


61. 


Bangawau. 


3. Halaur. 


9» 


9« 


52. 


Belwa. 


4 Sagara. 


9> 


99 


53. 


Dubaulia. 


5. Chhapia. 


9) 


99 


54. 


Purena. 


6. A dam pur. 


99 


9» 


55. 


Ramgarh. 


7. Bhanpur. 


99 


91 


56. 


Sikandarpur. 


8. Sehari. 


99 


Nagar. 


67. 


Ganeshpur. 


9. Dhebarua. 


91 


99 


58. 


Khnriar. 


10. Ehaialuii. 


99 


99 


59. 


Manwarpara. 


11. Dewaichpar. 


99 


99 


60. 


Nawai. 


13. Khankot. 


99 


99 


61. 


U'ii. 


18. Kop. 


»» 


Basti. 


62. 


Hardi. 


14. Budhi. 


99 


99 


63. 


Katanpur. 


15. Hir. 


9* 


99 


64. 


Shiupur. 


16. Kot. 


99 


9 


65. 


Atroh 


17. Khuniaon. 


Basti. 


Nagar. 


66. 


Dubaktira. 


18. Kbira 


tt 


99 


67. 


Haveli-Nagar. 


19. Barikpar. 


99 


9» 


68. 


Kanaila. 


20. Banjaraha 


99 


99 


69. 


Kalwtri. 


21. Birdpuror Ghos. 


99 


99 


70. 


Eurba. 


22. Aikhin. 


)9 


99 


71. 


filai. 


23. Barhon. 


19 


t» 


72. 


Pipra. 


24. Dabra. 


>» 


Baati 


73. 


Deoraon. 


25. Siriraot. 


99 


99 


74. 


Haveli. 


26. Nandapar. 


99 


99 


75. 


Eotbila. 


27. Tharauli. 


tf 


99 


76. 


Karar. 


28. Gharwaspar. 


•> 


99 


77. 


Umra, 


29. Bargadoa. 


9» 


99 


78. 


Pandia. 


SO. Sottas. 


99 


MabauH. 


79. 


B-irg4on-(or Badg- 


31. Suhila. 








aon) Pagar. 


39. tfntapar. 


9f 


99 


80. 


Cbarkaila. 


33. Nagwa. 


99 


>9 


81. 


Kapri-Mahsoo. 


34. Naksauli. 


99 


99 


8*. 


Dihi. 


35. Kondri. 


99 


99 


83. 


Jagannatbpur. 


36. Hata. 


99 


99 


64. 


Kudarhu, 


37. pachahr. 


99 


19 


85. 


Koraon. 


38. Chaur. 


99 


99 


86. 


Kabra. 


39. Chhattfei. 


99 


99 


87. 


Mahtauli. 


40. Beson or Biaogaon 


99 


9» 


88. 


Subakhri. 


41. BMr. 


99 


Maghar. 


89. 


Banskhor. 


42. Fatharhat. 


99 


99 


90. 


Gusiari. 


43. Patna-Hasanpur. 


99 


99 


91. 


Rudhauli 


44. Gulaur. 


KfULfLA- 


99 


92. 


Amanabai. 


45. Khesraha. 


BAO. 








46. Kudaran. 


99 


99 


93. 


Belhar. 


47. A soar. 


99 


99 


94. 


Bakucbi, 


48. Masna. 


99 


99 


95. 


Bakhira. 



1 More than one place bearing this suffix has acquired notoriety during the late Russo-Tnrkuman 
campaign. Such is Geuk-Tepe (Gauk-tappa), which may, perhaps, be translated Blue-hill. 



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556 



DISTRICT STAFF. 



Tahstl. 


Parpanah. 


KoALtLA- 
BAD. 

(continued). 


Maghar 
(continued). 


>? 


it 


»» 


•» 


» 


»» 


>> 


»• 


» 


•» 


>» 


»» 


» 


l» 


i» 


l» 


tt 


»» 


n 


l» 


i» 


•I 




Mahauli. 


»» 


•» 


» 


. »» 


•» 


»f 



Tappa. 



96. Churaib. 



97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
101. 
103. 
104. 
104. 
106. 
107. 
108, 
109. 
100. 

111. 
112. 



Dewapar. 
South Haveli. 
G opal pur. 
Kaiiba or Maghar. 
Menhdftwal. 
Majanra. 
Ujiar. 
IJn. 

Phulethn. 
Rampur-Paili. 
Sakra or Sagra. 
UtrawaL 
Ajson. 

Bargaon. (or 
B-idgaon) East. 
Bankat 
Aoradanr. 



Tahiti. 


Farganah. 


Khalila- 

BAD — 

(concluded,) 


Mahaoli 
(concluded) 


»» 


it 


»i 


F» 


»» 


H 


»» 


w 


»» 


» 


»i 


» 


n 


»» 


*9 


»• 


>» 


M 


l> 


»l 


II 


»» 


»• 


» 


n 


>» 


n 


1' 


n 


M 


»» 


>» 


ti 


l» 



Tappa. 



IIS. Busurgwar. 



114. Chandraoti. 

116. DeokallL 

116. Pidfiipnr. 

117. Kuchri. 

118. Karri. 

119. Karsand. 
190. Mindar. 
121. Mahthf. 
12*2. Muhabra. 

123. Mar ad pur. 

124. Naudaor. 
1«5. Simrf. 
126. Strsi. 

127 Sathara. 

128 Tama. 

1*29. Taraf-Belghatia 

130. Taryapar. 



District staff. 



Having now shown the revenue, criminal, and civil jurisdictions into 
which the district is divided, let us briefly notice the staff 
hy which those jurisdictions are worked. The revenue and 
criminal courts are those of the magistrate-collector, his two covenanted 
subalterns, his deputy, and his five tahsildars. An European honorary 
magistrate has oriminal powers in tahsil Khalilabad. The only civil courts 
are those of the three munsifs. The judge of Gorakhpur tries cases on com- 
mittal from the magistrates, and on appeal from both magistrates and munsifs. 
The principal district officials remaining to be mentioned are the civil surgeon, 
the district engineer, 1 the district superintendent of police, the sub-deputy opium 
a<rent and his two assistants, the deputy-inspector of schools, and the postmaster. 
It may be noted that the "deputy opium agent" is the magistrate-collector, the 
prefect of the district. But from interference with the " sub-deputy " he in 
practice abstains. 

Basti may be defined as a well-watered and well-wooded alluvial plain, 
Physical geogra- doping almost imperceptibly towards the south-east Hills 
phy and scenery. ^ has none. Though some 450 miles distant from the 
nearest breakers of the Bengal Bay, it has a mean height above the sea of 326 
feet only. The elevations of the dozen Great Trigonometrical Survey stations 
Vary from but 353 to 302 feet The district then is flat, so flat that its many 
streams and lakes cannot be seen from any distance. But of the Basti scenery 
as of most sceneries, it may be said that it is at times not without a beauty of its 

1 The Gorakhpur engineer is at present (1880-81) in charge of the district. Bat Haiti had 
until quite Lately an engineer of its own, and is not likely to remain much longer without one. 



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BASTI. 



557 



Woodlands. 



own. There is a loveliness of colour as well as of form ; and under the cloud- 
flecked sunlight of a day in the rains the gaze is refreshed by a verdure of many 
tints. At the close of the rains, again, the untrodden snows of the Himalaya 
somtimes lend a grand background to a northward view. But these aro 
mere transient beauties, which vanish when the crops are cut and the haze of 
summer fills the air. It is perhaps in the many clumps of timber that the 
landscape finds its one stable element of the picturesque. Large groves of the 
evergreen mango abound all over the district. Feathery 
bambus may be seen growing round most of tho villages. 
Mahua trees, with their mouse-odoured white flowers, are plentiful ; but most 
plentiful on the banks of the Kuftnaand the Xmi, in the middle of the district. 
Here they are clearly the survivors of the forest which once almost covered Basti. 
Their liquor-yielding virtues saved them when the ground was reclaimed for 
Cultivation. In the north may be found a few other remnants of ancient 
woodland; but no valuable timber has been left. During the past fifty years 
forest and waste land have been cleared to an enormous extent. No less than 
100,153 acres have been bestowed or leased under the jungle-grant rules ; l and 
of this area the bulk has been reclaimed. No waste-land now remains at the 
disposal of Government. And this statement implies also that there are no forests 
reserved by Government itself. 

The following table shows the more important statistics concerning the 
more important jungle-grants, those, that is, which have an area of over 3,000 
acres: — 



Parganah. 


Name 

of 
grant. 


Area in To whom 


When 


By whom now 


At what term 


acres. 


granted. 


granted 


held. 


expiring. 


Binsi, tnppa 
Ghos 


AUdapur 


9,852 


Mr. T. Dickens, 


1838 


Mr. J. Bridgman, 


50 years. 


Ditto 


Birdpar 


29,316 


Messrs. W. Gib- 
bon & J. Clock. 


1840 


Mr.W. Peppe and 
others. 


Ditto. 


Ditto 


Neora 


10,309 


Mr. T. Dickens, 


Ditto 


Mr. J. Bridgman, 
( 


Ditto. 
No deeds 


Do., tappa Barik- 


Katahla 


3,156 


Mr. J. H. Forbes, 


Ditto 


Mr. C. Wallace < 


forthcoming 


par. 










i 


to show. 


i J>o. t tappa Unta- 


Sarauli 


5,189 


Mrs. S.A.Bridg. 


Ditto 


Mr. J. Bridgman 


60 years. 


1 par. 






man. 








Do., tappa Sohas 


Sohas 


3,079 


Manulal 


1839 


Balgovind Lai, 


Ditto. 


Binayakpur, tap- 


Dtilha 


3,619 


Messrs. W. and H. 


1840 


Mr. W. Gibbon, 


Ditto. 


pa Bhatinpar. 






Gibbon. 








Basti, tappa Hardi 


Basti 


13,024 


Mr. C. Hamilton, 


Ditto 


Heirs of Mr W. 
Cooke (his widow 


Ditto. 










and others). 








Si 


*pra, pp. 286-288, 









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558 THE THREE TRACTS OF BASTI. 

Though homogeneous in its flatness and its general moisture, the district is 

The district is really com P osed of three rather heterogeneous belts. The 
divided into three first is that extending southwards from the Nepal frontier to 
the RApti. About twenty miles north of that frontier runs 
the first range of the lower Himalaya ; and this tract is an integral part of the 
great sub-montane marsh called the Tar&i. In Basti it is about a score miles 
broad. Being exposed to a heavy rainfall, and flooded by the freshets of hill- 
streams, it is well-adapted to the cultivation of rice. This, indeed, is its staple crop. 
Much of it is too swampy to produce any other growth, and much was but lately 
cleared of jungle. The appearance of the inhabitants is sallow and aguish. 

But when once it reaches the great catchwater drain of the R£pti, the 
swampiness perforce ends. The second or central belt, between that river and 
the Ku&na, is far less paludinous. The rainfall is smaller, the inundations are 
less frequent and serious. Moisture escapes by the Xini and other streams, 
besides those which bound the tract Health improves. Rice is still the prin- 
cipal growth ; but wheat and other cereals are fairly plentiful. The breadth of 
this belt varies from 12 miles on the west to 24 on the east 

The third or southern belt, that bounded by the Ku&na and Ghagra, differs 
much from both its northern parallels. Parts of this also are marshy ; this also 
is traversed by many small streams. But by those streams the rainfall escapes 
more rapidly ; exoept in the south eastern corner, where the Kudna is joined by 
a channel of the Ghagra, inundations are rare ; and the soil is much sandier, 
much drier. Rice is no longer the chief crop ; and for the ordinary cereals 
irrigation is required. The tract ranges in breadth from 28 miles on the west 
to 12 on the east. 

What strata underlie the deep alluvial crust of the district is unknown ; 
but it is consoling to know that the question is one of little 
present importance. The surface itself seems a fluviatile or 
estuarine formation of comparatively modern origin. Its soils are much the 
same as those described in the Gorakhpur notice. 1 The same soil may bear 
different names according as its ingredients or its situation is considered ; and 
while revenue records adopt the nomenclature by composition, the people prefer 
that by position. 

By composition soils are doras or loamy ; mattiydr or clayey ; balua or 

Classed according to sandy ; and bhdt or limey clay. Owing to the rather disoon- 

natural composition. nec ted nature of the Gorakhpur-Basti land-assessment, no 

general estimate of the space filled by each of these varieties is forthcoming. 3 

But it is believed that they have here been named in the order of predominance. 

1 Pp. 284-85. * In three parganahs only, Rasulpur, Nagar and Basti, did the settlement 

report* attempt any classification of soils. And even in these the classification was not uniform. 



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, THB THREE TBAOTS OP EASTI. 559 

Doras or loam is a compound of sand and clay, chiefly the former. It is 
Doras, mattiydr, the d&rnat, rausli y and siwdi of other traots in these pro- 
batua, and bhdt. vinces ; and owing to its absorbent power and softness, is 

considered the best of soils. On it are grown all crops except rice. Mattiydr, 
on the other hand, produces fine rice, while its outturn of spring crops is inferior 
in quantity and quality. In this soil the clay easily predominates over the 
sand ; in balua, elsewhere called Wltir, the predominance of the sand is equally 
unmistakeable. Even with the aid of manure and irrigation balua yields but 
poor crops of the poorer grains. Bhdt is found in the low basins of rivers, and 
chiefly of northern rivers. Plentiful in parganah Rasfilpur, it is still commoner 
in parganahs Binayakpnr and Bansi. Its favourite localities are, in fact, the 
banks of the R&pti and of its numerous discarded channels, as, fur instance, in 
tappas Awainia, Bh&tinp&r, Nitwal, Kundri, Chhattisi, Bbir, and Patharhat. It 
produces th« most luxuriant wheat and other spring 1 crops, which are raised 
with the least possible outlay ; for, being generally subject to flooding in the 
rains, bhdt requires no irrigation. Though for the same reason it bears no 
autumn crop, it is deemed of greater value than lands which return two har- 
vests yearly. 

The distinction between doras and inattiyar is often very doubtful. In 

_ . Rasulpur Mr. Wynne found that if specimens of both soils 

Distinction be- , . , , . . , i ,.«. 

tweeu the first tiro were dried, pulverized, and again moistened, the differenco 
some uies ou u. between them was "absolutely inappreciable." The fact 
seems to be that the settlement surveyors here classed as mattiyir lands cropped 
in autumn, and as doras lands cropped in spring. Such a distinction 
would of course depend, not on the intrinsic constitution of the soils, but on 
their greater elevation and depression ; on their capacity, that is, for retaining 
a smaller or larger proportion of moisture. The land classed as doras, and 
therefore as of the best quality, was often of the worst He had never, he 
added, heard the natives use the terms doras and mattiyar except in connection 
with the Government demand. 

To tho people, indeed, the only familiar classification is that by position. 

Soils classed by Soils are distinguished according to their relative situa- 

positiun. j.j on w i ta re g arc i to village sites or the beds of rivers. 

Thus, every village is theoretically circled into three concentric belts, the 

goend y gwaind or il near," surrounding the homestead; the miydna 1 or u middle," 

surrounding the gcend ; and the pallu or " distant," surrounding the miydna. « 

Here, as in the Diiab, where the same system prevails under a different nomencla- 

*In the records of the earlier British assessments this iniyina zone is sometimes called autaU 

72 



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660 BASTI. 

ture, an obvious reason can be given for the oblivion of natural differences. 
The inherent character of the soil has been lost in its artificial advantages. 
The most highly cultivated land is the best, irrespective of its original nature. 
The goend is the most manured, the miy&na is the slightly manured zone. 
The pallu, perhaps, is never manured at all ; but often contains some of those 
much-prized clay lands which are fit for the growth of winter rice (jarhan ). 

When its position with regard to the bed of a river is considered, 
the soil may be either upland ( hangar ) or lowland ( kach&r, khddir). The up- 
lands are the sandy ridges of watersheds ; and wheu irrigated Will produce 
spring crops. The lowlands occupy the river basins, and consist of late alia • 
vial deposits. The munjha or sandy deposits of the Ghigra are fit for little 
but the growth of thatching grass and tamarisk (jhau ) ; but the silt left by 
the Hapti often consists of the fine moist bhat above described. The banks 
of some of the smaller streams present long stretches of hard impracticable 
soil, which is often completely sterilized by saline efflorescence ( reh ). Such 
tracts and the occasional but rare patches of eimilar ground inland are call- 
ed dhiis when simply hard and impracticable; when subject to saline efflores- 
Saline efflorescence scence, rihdi ( reh-hai ) or faar. Such efflorescence is in 
and ravines. Basti, however, a rather uncommon phenomenon. Even in 

the Domariiganj and B6nsi tahsils, where it seems to be commonest, no tisar 
plain of any size could be discovered. The efflorescing salt is collected by 
washermen and makers of glass ornaments. Under the name of salt-earth 
flowers ( rehar matti ka pMl ) it was in Buchanan's time exported somewhat 
largely to the east. % A few ravines may be found on the edges of rivers ; but 

no large area is rendered barren by a net-work of such 
Cultivable area. . * ~c ., . . , »«jj -i 

erosions. \jt the total area, 2,344 square miles are return- 
ed as cultivable, and of these but 516 are uncultivated. 1 

Water is of course nearer the surface in the lowlands than in the 
uplands ; but for any generalization as to its average depth 
throughout the district, statistics are unluckily wanting. 
The distance from the surface must be slightest in the moist north-Rfipti coun- 
try ; but the settlement reports and Mr. S win ton's Manual confine their 
figures to the central and southern parganahs. Let us first examine tha 
returns of the former essays. The total depth of a well in Rasiilpur is given 
as from 18 to 19 J feet ; and allowance being made for at least a j*ard of water, 
the distance from the surface must here be between 15 and 16£ feet. In 
1 N.-W. P. and Oudh Administration Report, 1878-79. 



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soils. 561 

Basti the average depth of wells is 14£ feet, and the distance from the water 
to the mouth 9g. The corresponding figures, for Maghar are 19 J 2 and 13J 
respectively ; for Nagar 25 T V 8 and 21}£. At Rudhauli in Maghar Mr. Swin- 
ton discovered a well whose water lay hut 5£ feet from the surface. The only 
parganah, however, in which his statistics have not been superseded by those of 
the settlement reports is Amorha. Sounding individual wells in those villages, 
he found the distance from the mouth at Datnagar 8, at Amorha 9, and at 
Captainganj 12 feet. By striking a rough average for the central and south- 
ern parganahs, Mr. J. B. Thomson obtains a water-level of 18 feet from the 

surface. 

i 

The more important of the Basti streams have already received passing 

mention : but the time has come to describe in detail both 
Rivers. 

these and the rest. The drainage line of course follows 

what has been mentioned as the general slope of the country ; and lies there- 
fore from north-west to south-east. The drainage systems may be reduced to 
three — those of the RApti, of the KuAna,and of that Qhagra which in Gorakh- 
pur receives both. 

Like the great river of Burma, the Btipti derives its name from that 

„ . Iriivati to whom legend assigns its formation. Iravati, or the 
System of the Rapti. XTr , , , , , , T , 

Watery, was the cloud elephant on which rode Indra, god 

of thunder. But the Rapti is not, like the Irawaddy, a snow-fed stream. 
Bising in the Nepalese lower ranges, flowing westwards, and afterwards dou- 
bling back through Bahraich and Gonda, it touches this district at Singarjot 
in Rasulpur ( latitude 27° 18' north, longitude 82° 32' east). After running 
in a southerly direction for about ten miles, and forming so far the western 
boundary of Basti, it turns and wit?ds east-south-eastwards across the whole 
district, leaving.it at Karmaiui-gh6t in Maghar (latitude 27° 1' north, longi- 
tude 83° lfe f east). Thence it enters Gorakhpur, in which it finally joins 
the Gh&gra. A peculiarity of this river is that throughout Basti it has two dis- 
tinct channels, both full during the rains, but one almost dry at other seasons. 1 
The old channel, or Budhi R&pti, enters the district about seven miles north of 
the modern bed. The distance between them increases to about ten miles before 
they once more approach each other. They were formerly about four miles 

1 By a mistake io addition, or a clerical error, the settlement report makes this figure 6 
yards 1 foot 10 inches, or 19 * feet. * 26 J feet in settlement report, whose arithmetic or 

printing is, however, at fault. s Thus Mr. Wigram. But the two channels are now 

more distinct than the Burhpanga and the Ganges. The one is not an offshoot of the other, 
t hough it may | erbaps flow in that other's discarded bed. 



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562 BASTI. 

apart at B&nsi, re-uniting close to Karmaini-ghat. Such, at least, was the 
case when the district was surveyed in 1837-3<5. But since then a fresh 
change has occurred. At Bansi the R&pti forced its way north, and following 
a depression, which was probably another ancient channel, joined the Budhi 
B&pti. From this point, therefore, the southern branch is now almost dry. But 
in the courses of the rivers which traverse the sub-Hi m&lay an belt of the N.- 
W. provinces frequent changes are inevitable. Like the Po and the Mis- 
sissipi, these streams in places gradually raise their beds above the level of the 
surrounding -country. In times of flood the Ramganga and the R&pti 
"spill" over into the nearest depression, carving therein a fresh channel. The 
length of the H&pti in this district is 84 miles ; but the distance in a straight 
line is only 48. Its two channels form a great catchwater drain which 
intercepts all streams from the north. The principal of these in eastward 
order are the following : — 

The Xrra, which issues from the hills, divides the Nep&lese from the 
Oudh Tar&i, forms for about seven miles the boundary 
between this district and Gonda, and at length joins the 
the Budhi R&pti. 

The Awinda, the Sarohi, the Satohi, and other tributaries of the Budhi 
Rapti, which rise in the Nepftlese Tar&i, and traverse the north of Basti for dis- 
tances varying from six to nine miles. 

The Banganga or Arrow-river, a hill stream which, after a course of about 
18 miles in this district, joins the Budhi Rapti at Kakrahi-gbat, some 5 miles 
north-east of B&nsi. 

The Masdi, the Jamw&r, the Siswa, the Marti and the TilAr, all, save 
the last, Tar£i streams, which uniting after a course in British territory of 
about 20 miles, form one river called the Kfira. 

The Kura itself, which six miles further on falls into the Budhi Rfipti, 
and thence to Karmaini-ghat is called the Dhamela. 

And the Ghiinghi, a mountain-stream which joins the Dhamela after 
forming for many miles the boundary with Oorakhpur. 

From the right or southern bank, in Basti itself, no large brooks 

The Ami reinforce the Rapti. But the Xmi, which joins it in Gorakh- 

pur, is an important affluent on this side. Rising on the 

western frontier of the^district, in latitude 27° 7' north, longitude 82°43' east, 

near the Basti- Domariaganj road, the Ami flows south-eastwards ; and after a 

course of about 44 miles quits Basti to join the Rapti in Gorakhpur. 



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RIVERS. 563 

The principal places on the the banks of the Rapti are the tahsil capitals 
Domariaganj and Bansi, and the grain marts Bitharia, Gaora, and 
Tikar. Flowing through a sandy or other soft alluvial soil, this rirer is 
somewhat capricious in its choice of a bed. The two existing channels 
are by no means the only channels visible. "For a long distance on 
either side of the river are depressions through which it once flowed ; 
and villages which tradition places on its banks are often found many 
miles from it. South of Bansi may be seen distinct traces of two old 
channels ; whereas the Rapti now runs north of Bansi. But since the 
change already mentioned — since the main stream cut across the lowlands 
near that town, and reverted to the bed of the Budhi Kdpti — the course has 
altered little. The earth of which the banks are composed is, as a rule, too 
friable to admit of steepness. In the dry season the river is a series of long 
shallow reaches, studded with dry stretches of sand and enclosed between 
shelving declivities. Here and there, however, where the earth is firm and 
the current strong, steep cliffs may be seen overhanging darkling pools. During 
• the rains the river is full to overflowing ; and, where- the 
banks are lower than usual, escapes to flood afar the sur- 
rounding country. By such inundations are formed many large swamps and 
lagoons. At Biinsi^ where B&nganga approaches Kapti, the whole tract between 
them is sometimes overlaid with water for six miles. 

But the B&nganga is not the only flood-spreading affluent of the R&pti. 

Those of the latter's tributaries which do not rise in the hills have their source 

in low marshy spots, suoh as ricefields. At length is reached a series of 

hollows in which the water seems to stand ; and a defined channel soon after begins 

to make its appearance. The bushy banks at last become steep. But in the 

monsoon they are quite unable to contain the stream, which sometimes floods 

the neighbourhood for days. The amount of silt thus de- 
Their deposits. . , ' . . . 

posited is m any single year inappreciable ; but during a 

long course of years has in places had a marked effect in raising the level of 

the country. After an experience of more than two decades in the district, 

the planter Mr. Pepp^ noticed that many parts of his estate had acquired 

a much higher surface. Land which had of yore been flooded deeply every 

year was now high and dry enough to yield a wheat crop. The fertility of 

the soil is indeed more often improved than spoilt by the deposits of the BApti's 

tributaries. Of Mich streams the steadiest is the Xmi ; for after crossing the 

Basti- Bansi road this runs between steep banks which in ordinary years it 



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564 BASTI. 

never overflows. TLe Xnii and the Jamwar are amongst the few Basti rivers 
for which any statistics of velocity or depth are forth- 
city of Ami and coming. Where crossed by the Basti-Menhddvval road the 
® mmM ° Xmi varies in depth from seven feet during the dry to 27 

during the rainy season. In the latter its flood velocity is ten feet per second. 
The corresponding figures for the Jamwar, taken on the Ban si- Nepal road, 
are depth, 4" to *2 feet; velocity, 5. 

The Rapti is throughout its course in Basti navigable by boats of 100 

maunds. 1 During the rains vessels of the same burden 
Navigation. 

ply on the Banganga, which at other seasons is useless for 

navigation. The Kiira and its continuation, the Dhamela, would in flooded 
months bear country boats of any size ; but in such months there is little 
traffic. On the right bank of the Klin*, and the lands of several villages, 
stands the large grain mart of Uska, which collects and distributes the rice of 
the surrounding country and the Nep&lese Tarai. This and other grains are 
in winter sent down the river to its junction with the Kapti, in boats of 100 
maunds ; and, reshipped in larger vessels, pass through Gorakhpur to the 
Gh£gra. No other affluents of the Rfipti are navigable. 

Across the Rapti there are many private ferries, of which the two prin- 
cipal, at Domaringanj and Bansi respectively, belong to the 
Crossing on the /.'„,. ' & , . , , r . J , . 

Rlptt and its afflu- raja of Bansi. ror these in the dry season are substituted 

en Bm bridges of boats. Other ferries, the property of the same 

owner, convey the Domariaganj-Nepal road across the Budhi R&pti and the 
Arra. The Bansi-Nepal road passes the Banganga and Budhi R&pti just 
below their confluence, by the r&ja's ferry in the rains and by ford ih the dry 
season. The Jamwar it span3 on a bridge. A branch which leaves this high- 
way for Lautan crosses the Kura at Sohds, by bridge of boats in the dry and 
ferry in the flooded months. Another branch passes through Rehra-b&z&r 
to cross the Kfira by ferry. The Xmi is bridged by roads from Basti to 
Domari&ganj, Bdnsi, and Gorakhpur ; while on that from Khalilabad to 
Menhd&wal it is crossed by a ferry. The other streams of the Rapti system 
are fordable in the dry weather. In the rains the country is so flooded that 
traffic ceases to cross them. 

We come now to a far less important system, that of the Kuana. Rising 

System of the * n Gonda, near Balra\mpur, the Kuana after a course of 

Kuina. 28 miles reaches the western corner of parganah Rastilpur 

1 i.e. of between 3 and 4 tons. 



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SYSTEMS OF THE RAPT! AND THE KUXNA. 565 

Hong. 82° 30' E., lat. 27 Q 9' N.). Between this and Gonda it forms the 
boundary for some 16 miles. Flowing next for about 54 through parganahs 
Basti and Mahauli, it enters Gorakhpur ; and some 20 miles lower falls into 
the Ghagra. Its depth near Basti varies from 13 feet in the shrunken to 40 
in the flooded season ; and its highest recorded velocity during the latter is 7 
feet per second. The Kuana receives in Basti many tributaries, bnt none of 
any great size. The principal are the Katnehia from the north and the Rawai 
and Man war or Manarama from the south. The Man war, again, is replenished 
on its right or southern bank by a small stream known as the Ramrekha. 

The Kuana is in Basti noted for the firmness of its banks, which in the 

upper part of its course, as far as the neighbourhood of the district capital,, are 

steep and high. For twenty miles every bend marked in the revenue survey 

map of 1837-38 still exists. But when the river has been reinfo/ced at Lalganj 

by the Manwar, its bed becomes more shiftily sandy and its banks more sloping. 

On those banks scrubwood at tho same time gives plaee to grass. The Manwar 

itself has shelving sides. Rising in Gonda. it passes 
Its affluents. » 

through parganahs Amorha and Nagar, draining the 

south of the district. Its low-water depth on the Basti and Tanda road 

is 7 feet, its flood depth 22 ; and its velocity when swollen by heavy 

rain is 6 feet a second. The other southern tributary, tho Rawai, is a 

small stream with steep banks. The Katnehia and its affluent, the Garehia, 

are mere channels in the centre of a broad depression. Their sources are 

swamps crossed by the B.isti-Bansi road. In the dry season they contain very 

little water ; but what remains is carefully embanked for irrigation. Herein 

these streams differ from the Rawai, which becomes too dry to furnish the 

spring orops with water. 

The only noteworthy villages on the banks of the Kuana are the marts 

of Mansurnagar, Deorfion, Lnlgani. and Mukhlispur. The 
Navigation and . . h \ ' tt . J ' l 

river is throughout the district navigable. In the dry 

season, however, navigation is above Deoraon obstructed not only by occasional 

shoals, which prevent boits with a draught of over three feet from passing, 

but also by rude bridges on piles, constructed for local and temporary use. 

Snags, too, are not uncommon. But below Deoraon the river is used all 

the year round by boats of 100 maunds. For vessels of the same burden 

the Manwar is in the rains navigable as high as Haraia. Being, however, 

narrow and sinuous, it is little navigated, and its banks can boast no large 

marts. 



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566 BASTI. 

v The Kuana is crossed near Basti by a bridge, and at Manstirnagar, Lal- 

Croisings on the ganj and Mukhlis P ur by ferries. The Manwar and Bfitn- 

Kuana and its af- rekha are bridged on the road from Basti to Faizabad ; the 

former on that from Basti to Tanda. Except in the rains 

the Rawai is fordable. The Katnehia and Garehia are bridged on the Basti- 

Gorakhpar road. Soon after their junction they are met by that from Basti 

to Menhdawal, which crosses them on a pile-bridge. 

The third and last river system is that of the Ghigra or Sarju. The name 

Sjstem of theGhagra. Ghi S ra > or more P ro P er, y Gbighra, is a corruption of the 
Sanskrit onomatopoBia Gharghara. It may, therefore, for 
want of some more high-9ounding English equivalent, be translated Gurgle. 
The river so-called bounds the whole south-south-western length of the district 
from Ajudhya-ghat on the Faizabid to Bel-gh&t on the Gorakhpur frontier. 
But of the district drainage this river directly receives almost nothing. Except 
in the immediate neighbourhood of its banks, all surplus water is intercepted 
by the Manwar or the Kn&na. When the Gh&gra indeed is in flood, it is less 
a receiver than a giver of drainage. By overflowing its banks and drowning 
the adjoining lowlands, it often does serious damage. In 1870 some unu- 
sually heavy floods on the Manwar were explaiued by the fact that the Ghfigra 
had from opposite Ajudhya spilt across country into that river. Next year 
the Ghagra flooded much land, and destroyed the crops in the south of parga- 
nah Mahauli. In one instance, near Sonhan in parganah Mahauli, has been 
formed for four miles a deep channel through which some of the Sarju's surplus 
waters yearly pass into the Ku£na, making the latter navigable for country 
boats of all sizes. This channel now bears the name of the Malda. 

The river wanders through a broad sandy bed which shifts from year to 
year. The width of the basin between the high firm banks is fully four miles ; 
and of this three or four are sometimes occupied by a flooded rapid stream. 
In dry weather the river is a mixture of water and sand-banks, the resort of 
the u cruel, crafty crocodile." It is then fringed by broad tracts of light sandy 
soil> here barren, there bearing a spontaneous crop of tamarisk (jhdo) lushes, 
and elsewhere, where a little good silt has settled, cultivated. 

Once, though so long since that the date is forgotten, the stream ran on 
the norther^ side of the basin. This is clearly shown by the old boats that are 
sometimes unearthed there. But the great river changed its course and forced 
its way to the extreme south, where it ate into the bank till stopped by the 
firmness of the soil. For some years past again the process has been reversed. 



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SYSTEM OF THE GHAGRA. 567 

Year by year more of the iuhabited lowland which has formed on the northern 
side is being cut away. The stream, too, is changing its course, and the deep 
current edging northwards. 

Schemes for strengthening the northern bank, opposite Ajudhya or 
elsewhere, have been considered ; bat such schemes usually end in the 
prudent resolve to avoid the costly and dangerous process of playing with 
water. 

The Ghagra is navigable by country boats of all tonnages. The sand- 
Navigation and banks already mentioned are especially numerous in tho 
. crossings. western part of its course, from Ajudhya to T&nda ; but 

oppose no serious obstacle to navigation. On the northern or Basti side of 
the river are situated no large marts. There are ferries at the Rajgh&t or 
Royal Landing of Ajudhya, at Teora, Bilahari, Marna, Dalpatpur, Begam- 
ganj, Sherwa, Salona, Mahripur, the Rajgh&tof Tanda, Mubarakpur, Phulpur, 
Nau rah ni, Main li, Ch ihora, Mansiirginj, and Chandipur. All these crossings, 
except that at the Raj ghat of Ajudhya, are managed by the Collector of Basti. 
On none of them is a bridge of boats at any season maintained. 

On the banks of the Ghagra the rule for the adjustment of boundary dis- 
putes between riparian proprietors differs from that in force elsewhere. Here 
it has been decided that the deep stream alone shall be the boundary; that 
Adjustment of ri it alone shall determine to which district and to which 
Parian disputes. village the disputed land belongs. In other parts of Basti 

the more general rule prevails. In these too the deep stream is ordinarily the 
boundary ; and land gradually thrown up by a river belongs to the estate 
whereto it has accrued. But land, severed by a sudden change of channel and 
still capable of recognition, belongs to the estate from which it has been 
divided. 

None of the larger rivers is used for irrigation. In the dry season, when 
The rivers as irri- water is most required, their beds are too far below the level 
gators * of the country to compete with wells or lagoons. But it 

has been already noted that some of the Kuana's affluents are dammed to sup- 
ply the fields with water ; and the same may be said of all the smaller streams. 
Even the Xmi is in the upper part of its course no exception to this rule. The 
dams are mere earthen banks some three feet high ; and being unable to with- 
stand a flow of any volume, offer no real obstruction to a stream in the rains. 
But in the north-east of Bdnsi may be seen conspicuous examples of more solid 
embankments. By substantially _ damming the Jamw&r and the Siswa, two 

73 



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569 BASTI. 

English grantees of waste-land have provided irrigation for the whole of 
their estates. Basti has no Government canals ; and whether it. needs any is 
doubtful. 

Lakes and swampy lagoons of many sizes are almost innumerable 1 

Large tracts being subject to inundation iu the rains, and 
Lakes and swamps. • . 

the whole country being very flat, the surface drainnge 

lodges in every slight hollow. Near the Rapti such hollows are often, as may 

be seen from their serpentine form, discarded channels of that river. By its 

overflow are filled the Bakhira and Pathra lakes ( tal ), the largest sheets of 

water in the district* 

The Bakhira or Badanch Tal, sometimes called the Motijhfl, lies on the 

,„, _ eastern frontier of the district, between Bakhira and Menh- 

The Bakhira lake. 

dawal of parganah Maghar. The much-travelled Buchanan 

describes it as the " finest piece of fresh water " that he had seen in India. 

It holds water all the year round, the eastern or llapti end being closed by 

an embankment. The lake thus formed in its deepest parts seldom outdepths 

four or five feet ; but it covers a space of nearly five miles by two. On the 

western and southern sides, where the banks slope regularly down, the fringe 

of marsh is slight. But on the other sides no inhabited villages can be seen 

for miles ; and the land is in the rains so constantly flooded that except for 

pasturage it is almost useless. To the north this flooded tract extends for fully 

three miles, dividing the swampy ground and rice fields on the edge of the 

lake from the villages on the higher banks of the R&pti. To the east there 

is a low fen stretching for about two miles to the edge of that river. Over 

this the floods spread every year to fill the lake ; and over it the water would 

escape if not detained by embankment. 

The Pathra T&l, which lies on the right bank of the B4pti between Domarii- 
Tbe Pathra and g an j aQ d Bansi, is three miles long and from one to two broad. 
Chaur Tala. j^ gh a p e [ s highly irregular. In olden times it must have 

been a fine lake, but its waters are now allowed to return at the close of the rains 
to the river. The proprietors through whose lands tho outlet passes refuse to let 
the rdja of Bansi, who owns the lake, build an embankment iu their boundaries. 
Tho Chaur Tal, the property of the same owner, is wedged within the conflu- 
ence of Banganga and R&pti, not tar north of Bansi. In the rains the space 
between the rivers is, as already mentioned, extensively flooded; and the subsid- 
ing floods leave the Chaur Tal about two miles long by three-quarters of a mile 

1 A list for tahsil Haraia alone shows 37 considerable sheela of water. Yet tahsil Ilaraia 
lies iu the least swampy belt of the district. 



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LAGOONS. 5G9 

in width. It should bo noted that in Basti, as in Norfolk, chaur or 

" broad " is a generic term for a stream-fed lake. The Chaur T&l ,is not 

the only chaur of the district, but merely the chaur, par excellence, in a 

certain part of the district The wildfowl shooting on this and on the 

Pathra Tal is preserved by the rAja. One of the sonthern parganahs, Nagar, 

„,._.... is graced by another large lake called the Chandu T&l. 
The Cu&ndu iakg. 

This is fully two and a-half miles long and one broad. 

Except at the eastern end, where the water escapes to finally join the 
Man war, the Chandu has regularly slopiug sides. All these lakes or lagoons are 
more or less used for irrigation. All in winter offer more or less employment 
to the fowling-piece. The whole country is so moist that they have no particu- 
lar effect on the general health. But to the almost ubiquitous swamps and 
marshes must be attributed the fever, ague, and spleen diseases which ravage 
the district. 

Until lately Basti enjoyed the evil reputation of complete division from 
Communications the rest of the world. Now, however, its county town is 

Kal1, within what, in this country of long distances, might be 

called easy reach of a railway. The Oudh and Rohilkhand line passes through 
the neighbouring district of Faizabad ; and within a radius of 38 miles from 
Basti are the stations of Malipur,. Akbarpur, Gosainganj, Nara, Ajudhya, and 
Faizabad. Of these the most easily accessible are Akbarpur and Faizabad, 
which lie respectively about 30 and 40 miles distant by road. But between 
the district and the railway the Gh&gra fixes in the rains a great gulf. 

The threo southern tahsils are traversed by one great metalled road, that 

_ from Gorakhpur to Faizabad vid Basti. This has within 

Road. 

the district itself a length of 61 miles. But by the Public 

Works Department it is divided into two separate highways, one of 28 miles 
from Basti to Gorakhpur, the other of 33 from Basti to Faizabad. Connect- 
ing the cantonments of Faizabad with those of Gorakhpur, the road is of some 
military importance ; and it is flanked by encamping grounds at Khaljlabad, 
Marirwa, Basti, Tilokpur, Manghat, and Khaliyanpur. As a trade route the 
road is chiefly valuable between Faizabad and Basti. On it are situated 
three tahsil capitals, Khali lab ad, Basti, and Haraia. 

Of the remaining roads, all unmetalled, the chief are those from Basti 
to Nep&I, vid the tahsil capital of Bdnsi ; from Basti to Nepal, vid the tahsil 
capital of Domariaganj ; from Basti to Karmaini-gh&t, vid Menhdawal ; 
from Basti to Tanda, vid R&jghat ; and from Bikramjot on the Faizabad to 
Bhinpur on the Bansi line. But the following list will show at a glanoe all 



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570 BASTI. 

roads, divided into class I., metalled, raised and bridged ; class II., raised and 
bridged bat not metalled ; and class III., occasionally bridged, but neither 
metalled nor raised : — 

First-class roadi. Mileage within district. 

Basti and Gorakhpur ,„ ... ... ... ... ?8 

„ „ Faizabad ... ... ... ... .. 33 

Total ... 61 

Second-class roads. Mileage within district 

Basti to Tanda ... ... ... ... ... 16 

„ „ Nej al, vi4 Domariaganj ... ... ... ... 50 

„ „ Bans! and Naugarh ... ... ... ... 60 

» »» Pipra ... ... ... ... ... 3 

„ „ Karmaini-ghat ... ... ... ... ... 35 

Ubka to Naugarh, Birdpur and N<-pal frontier ... ... 24 

Total ... 178 

Third-class roads. Mileage within district 

Bikramjot to Bhfnpur ... ... ... ... 30 

Gorakhpur to Biskohar ... ... ... w 65 

Dumdumwa to Dhakeri ... ... ... ... 36 

J ham a to Nepal frontier ... ... ... ... 3 

Gorakhpur frontier to to Birdpur, vid Uska ... ... 22 

Udaipur, Dumdumwa and Lautau ... ... ... 20 

Birdpur to Intwa ... ... ... ... ... 28 

Alidapur to Nepal frontier ... ... ... ,„ 8 

Misrauli to Dhebarua ... ... ... „. 10 

Binsi, Domariaganj and Biskohar ... ,„ ... ... 34 

Bhanpur to Nandaur ... ... ... ... 26 

Bakhira to Chhapra-ghat ... ... ... ... 36 

Murerwa to Gae-ghat ... ... ... ... ... 18 

Baati to Lilganj ,,. ... ... ... ... 12 

Kuana-bridge, near Baati, to junction with last ... ... >.. 6 

Basti to Kothila ... ... ... ... „. 14 

Gorakhpur and Gonda frontiers ... ... ... ... 65 

Lautan to Nepal frontier ... ... ... ... 7 

Chaodradip-ghat, via Bitharia, to Man k aura ... ... ... 13 

Total „. 441 

Grand Total, all classes ... 680 

On the downfall of the rains traffic north of-the Rapti comes to an 
almost complete standstill. The roads are either lost under a sea of water, or, 
being unmetalled, are converted into long lines of mire. None is thoroughly 



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BOADS. 



571 



bridged, in the sense of possessing bridges wherever required ; and in such a 
tract and season nnbridged roads are useless. Bat here it may be noted that 
the district is nowhere rich in bridges. The largest is the iron girder 
structure over the Kuana near Basti ; and even this is but 1 65 feet long. 
The manner in which the principal roads cross the principal streams has been 
told under the heading of rivers. 

Thus may be shown the distances from the capital to the other principal 
places of the district. But the figures in every case repre- 
sent mileage by road, and not distance as the crow flies. 
Paikaulia, for instance, is 37 mites distant by road, and is entered as such ; but 
by cross-country cart-tracks the 37 miles could perhaps be reduced to 20 : — 



Table of distances 



Place. 


Distance in miles 
from Basti. 


Place. 


Distance in miles 
from Basti. 


Amorha 




S3 


Domarioganj 


32 


Bangion and t arasrfimi 


ur 


No road. 


Dudhara 


16 


Bankata ... 


... 


32 


Gaeghat 


16 


Ban»i ... 


••• 


33 


Haraia 


17 


Barakfini 


... 


24 


Hariharpar 


No road. 


Birdpur ... 


... 


67 


Intwa ... 


42 


BUkohar 


... 


60 


Kalwiri 


12 


Boddhaband ... 


... 


13 


Khalilabad 


22| 


Belwa-bizar ... 


... 


28 


Kothila and Sonaha ... 


92 


Bakhira 


... 


26 


Lautan ... 


66 


CaptAiDganj ... 


... 


8 


Magbar 


27 


Clib&oni 


... 


22 


Mahauli 


No road. 


Obhapia ... 


••• 


26 


Menhdawal 


27 


Cbhapra-gh&t ... 


... 


46 


Misraalla 


61 


Cbilia 


• a. 


60 


Mahson 


7 


Dhebarua 


.. 


69 


Paikaulia ... 


37 


Dubaulia 


• •• 


23 


Rudhauli 


19 


Daldalba 


••• 


33 


Tilokpui 


No road. 


Dbangbata 


... 


40 


Uska 


60 



Bang&ou and Parasrampnr may be considered as respectively 34 and 30, 
Hariharpur as 25*, Mahauli as 22, and Tilokpur as 47 miles distant across 
country. 

In climate Basti somewhat resembles North Rohilkhand, which indeed lies 
in the same submontane tract. The characteristics of the 
weather in that tract are dampness, moderate heat, and 
partial immunity from the violent simooms and dust-storms which make summer 
hideous elsewhere. Here the dry west wind begins blowing in March, about 
the time of the vernal equinox. Towards the close of April it gives place 
to the prevailing breeze of the year— that from the east ; but may still be 
sometimes felt breathing faintly after midday, when the east wind often drops. 



Climate. 



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572 



BASTf. 



Summer has now set in ; the crops have been harvested ; the fields are 
brown and bare. Owing, however, to the nearness of the Himalaya, and the 
slight depth of water from the surface, the temperature is probably less than 
in districts south of the Ghagra. In May cooling showers, known as " the 
little rains, " sometimes slake the heat, and the grateful scent of moist earth 
refreshes the nostrils. But the relief is only too fleeting ; and the thermometer 
steadily rises till the end of June, when the crash of thunder heralds the 
descent of the regular rains. 

In Basti these are far heavier than in the more western districts of the 
provinces. But the fall varies greatly from place to place, and in the two 
northern tabsils is several inches heavier than in the three southern. The 
mean for the whole district and a series of years is about 43 inches yearly ; but 
the following table l gives ample details :— 



Months. 


1876. 


1876. 


1877. 
3 54 


1878. 


1879. 


Mean. 


January ... 


0*62 


0-48 


128 




1-18 


February ... 


0-48 


... 


1 18 


074 


04 


049 


March -. 


... 


016 


0*?>4 


0?4 


... 


13 


April 


0J8 


0-60 


8C 


1-16 


... 


0-66 


May 


2 88 


OT.6 


84 


218 


66 


1 44 


Jane ... 


ft 44 


2-S8 


1-86 


134 


9 2» 


4 68 


July 


11 12 


12 24 


6 66 


7 24 


22 78 


11 81 


August ... ... 


1782 


9-98 


2-l8 


9 24 


13 98 


1>» 62 


September... 


6 40 


9*18 


1-68 


1454 


11-30 


8-43 


October 


... 


9 10 


4 81 


10 


9 10 


3 43 


November ... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




December ... 


0*16 


... 


1)2 


... 


0'26 


29 


Total 


4716 


38*98 


23*80 


3806 


67*32 


4306 



The yearly mean for the six years ending with June, 1872,866018 to have 
been much heavier, amounting to 51 4 inches. 

The rains generally cease in the beginning of October ; and with them 
their cloudy days and chromatic sunsets. But the dampness long continues. 
The drying of the waterlogged earth is a feverish and unhealthy process. 
Very seldom, and even then for a few days only, is felt the dry bracing cold 
which marks the winter of more western districts. In some parts of Basti, 
especially its eastern and northern parts, dense fogs obscure the morning ; and 
at evening each village lies hidden under its own low pall of smoke. But at 
the beginning and close of the clearer days may be seen the snows of the great 
1 Kindly supplied by Mr. S. A. Hill, B. Sc., the Meteorological Reporter for these Provinces. 



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CLIMATE AND RAINFALL. 



573 



White Mountain ( Dbvalagiri ) and its lesser sisters, same 50 leagues distant on 
the north. In January, but never with any great punctuality, fall the slight 
winter rains ; and somewhat later, in rare years, hailstorms make the farmer 
tremble for his rising spring crop. Buchanan mentions that in winter, when 
the west winds have blown strongly for some days, water is readily converted 
into ice. The conversion can, of course, take place only at the very witching 
hour of night or during the small hours which succeed it. Pit-ice, that is ice 
naturally frozen in pits, is at such times procured in districts which lie much 
further south than Basti. But at Basti no pit-ice is made. Liquor is cooled 
with saltpetre, or by ice frozen in small private machines. 

The following mean monthly thprraometrical and barometrical readings 
for nearly three years were taken by Mr. Percy Wigram, then magistrate-col- 
lector of the district. The thermometer was in the shade; the barometer was 
a small aneroid, whose figures were taken at 10 a. m. daily. But this aneroid 
seems to have shown, as might be expected, considerable deviations from the 
mercurial instrument in the Gorakhpur observatory. And as the climatic condi- 
tions of Gorakhpur and Basti are much the same, the reader would do well to 
compare. the thermoinetrical readings also with those already given for the 
former district : — l 







Thkkmomktbb. 
























Barombteb 






Maximum. 


Minimum 






Month. 




















870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


January 


75 


75 


71 


45 


42 


17 


2958 


29M9 


29*27 


.February 


81 


bl 


77 


49 


49 


66 


29-51 


2926 


2S14 


March 


90 


91 


93 


58 


5* 


69 


29*41 


29-21 


2900 


April 


97 


99 


99 


65 


60 


67 


29-32 


29*08 


2902 


May 


105 


95 


103 


73 


71 


73 


29 06 


28'89 


2992 


June 


98 


94 


99 


78 


77 


78 


28*93 


2880 


28*81 


July 


89 


89 


£.9 


77 


76 


76 


28*85 


28 79 


2875 


Auguwt 


89 


88 


... 


75 


76 


,. 


28 91 


28 84 


••• 


September 


90 


88 


■•• 


75 


73 




2902 


28*90 


••• 


October 


88 


91 


• •• 


67 


67 


... 


29 12 


29 03 


... 


November ... 


82 


84 


••• 


52 


66 


••• 


29*36 


29' 15 


••• 


December 


76 


76 


... 


42 


44 


••« 


29*43 


29'24 


••• 



The thermometer of the Jail Hospital is examined twioe daily, at sunrise 
and i p. in -, but the practice has hitherto been too spasmodic to afford results 
of value. Returns for five years are before us; but for two only, 1877 and 
1879, are those returns complete iu every month. The maximum temperature 

1 Supra, p. 313. 



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57:1 BASTI. 

of the former year, 101°, was registered in June ; the minimum, 51°, in Feb- 
ruary, la 1879 the observations ranged from a maximum of 100° in May 
to a minimum of 52° in December. 

PART II. 
Animal, vegetable, and mineral products. 

To any peculiarity of fauna Basti can lay no claim. Its beasts, birds, 
and fishes are all found elsewhere in theplains of the North* 
Western Provinces, and have all been named in the intro- 
duction to the fourth volume of this series. 1 But a few local particulars 
regarding the more remarkable creatures may yet be profitably given. Let 
precedence be assigned to the domestic animals. 

A few elephants and camels are kept by the few who can afford to keep 
Domestic animals; them ; but for camels the climate is said to be too moist. 
P° nie8 - Horses are seldom used and still more seldom bred. Those 

who want them must seek the fairs of Sonpur in Saran, Devipatan in Gonda, 
or even Batesar in Agra. But the ordinary couutry pony ( tattu ) is common 
enough. On this rather fragile beast the landholder and the corn dealer take their 
lazy rides or lade their grain for market. Ponies cost from lis. 7 to 25 each, and 
are extensively bred ; but in more than one place they are sometimes found wild, 
the descendants of domesticated ancestors. Several specimens haunt unmolested 
the Gh&gra basin in Eastern and Western Chhapra of parganah Mahauli. A few 
again may be seen on the banks of the Tehri watercourse, which from a lagoon in 
Oudh flows to join the Gh&gra near Belwa. When captured such wild animals 
sell for about tts. 20 each ; but they are reported to be rather vicious than 
otherwise. 

Of horned cattle there are no purely local breeds. But "Mahauli for bnl- 

„ ... locks or men " ( Mahauli kd bard yd mard ) is a proverbial 

Horned cattle. v j ' r 

boast of that parganah. The Mahauli bullocks are rather 

below the average size of those elsewhere used for agricultural purposes, but 

are specially sturdy and muscular. 

Their price and that of agricultural bullocks generally may be said to 

„„ _ , range from Rs. 15 to 40 the pair. A rather better class 

Bullocks and cows. . r 

of animal is employed to carry grain sacks or other burdens; 
but the best class of all is that kept for purposes of draught by landholders. 
Whether the breed of cattle has really deteriorated with decreasing pasturage 
1 Gazetteer IV., pp. VI. et seqq. 



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FAUNA, 575 

is doubtful. In 1812, when the grazing-grounds wore still ample, the collector 
reports that there are " no cattle in the district fit to draw a treasure tumbril." 1 
Bullocks are fed on chaff, bran, and the straw of various cereals. When well- 
fed a single animal may cost as much as 3 annas daily. Ordinary cows vary 
in price from Rs. 5 to 20 each ; but the best yields perhaps not much more 
than 21bs. a of milk a day. The clarified butter (gh{) made from that milk 
is reserved, as a rule, for medicinal or ceremonial purposes. A few wild kine 
are found on the banks of the Kuana, where that river bounds Domari&ganj; 
but the herds which formerly haunted tappa Atrawal of Maghar have disap- 
peared with the clearance of the forest. 

Male buffaloes, which are little used except as beasts of burden, fetch 

„ _, , from Rs. 5 to 15 each ; but females, on the other hand, 

Buffaloes. ' 

sell from Rs. 9 to 35. The reason of their greater value 

is their milk, from which are made the curds and clarified butter in ordinary 
use. R&jput8 and Ahirs are the principal owners of buffaloes ; but goats 
and sheep are kept by the lower castes alone, Ahirs, Garariyas, Cham&rs, 
Khatiks and Jul&has. Goats are* bought by butchers or slaughtered at 
Hindu sacrifices. They are valued, however, chiefly on account of their skins, 
from which are constructed drums ( dhol, tdsa) and other articles. Whilst a 
she-goat is worth Re. I and a he-goat Be. 1£, a good goatskin sells from 
Re. 1 to Rs. 2. Of the castes last-named the Garariyas, as their name shows, 1 
devote themselves chiefly to the breeding of sheep. The price of these 
animals has within the last few years risen from Re. 1 to Rs. 2 per head. 
They are not generally used as an article of food, and themselves there- 
fore obtain no food but grass. Their use is to supply the peasantry with 
skins, wool, and manure. The skins are sold by butchers to shoemakers 
at the rate of Rs. 20 to 25 the hundred. Of the wool are made blankets. 
Between Sawan (July- August) and KArttik (October-November) sheep aro 
allowed to wander about such fields as are reserved for the next spring crop ; 
and in consideration of the manuring thus obtained their owners receive a 
small payment in kind. Government in 1863 attempted to improve the stock 
by the importation of two fine rams from Hiss&r ; but one died next year, 
and the progeny of the other never survived their lambhood. Numerous cat- 
tle of all sorts are yearly driven into the Nepalese Tardi for pasture. Depart* 
ing about Aghan (November-December), they return in Jeth (May- June) or 
Asarh (June July\ 

1 Letter in Board's records, Jany. 81st, 181?. * In India milk is measured by weight. 
8 Garariya or Gadariya is derived from Hindi gdiar y a sheep. 

74 



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576 BASTI. 

In the summer months rinderpest is often epidemic. It bears the same 

name (mdta) as human small-pox, to which the natives deenr 
Cattle disease. . r 7 

it analogous. It is highly contagious and very fatal, the 

rate of mortality amounting to about 80 per cent, of the cattle attacked. The 
most prominent symptoms are loss of appetite, constipation of the bowels, ex- 
cessive thirst, quick respiration, grinding of teeth, and great heat of skin. To 
these in a day or two succeed profuse mucous discharge from mouth and nostrils, 
inflammation of mouth and gums, purging, great prostration, and eruptions which 
from groin and udder extend over the whole body. Foot and mouth disease 
{khdng) appears also in summer, but not in sufficient force to be deemed 
epidemic. The same remark applies likewise to diarrhoea. 

The district is no longer rich in large game. Tigers, leopards, and bears 

w . ta . , are now unknown. But in Buchanan's time the first 

Wild am id ale. _ 

named beasts molested the police of Dhuliyabandar 1 and 

had lately been numerous around Lautan. The following is a list of the more 
important wild mammals, both common and uncommon : — Wolf, jackal, fox, 
boar, buffalo (arna, Bubalus ar/ii), blue-bull (nilg&e, Portax pictws), hyaena, 
spotted-door (chital, Axis misulatus), antelope, cat (banbilar, Felis chaus\ por- 
cupine, fox, hare, monkeys of kinds (langur, Presbytia entellus ; bandar, 
Inuus rhesus), mungoose (nowal, Ilerpestes Alalaccensis), otter, and porpoise 
(suns, Platanisla Gangetica) % But some of these are seen very rarely indeed. 
The wild buffalo, for instance, can only bo regarded as a visitor who sometimes 
loses his way from the Nepiilcso Tarfii. Much the "same may be said of the 
spotted deer ; but t\ ild-pig, the antelope and the blue-bull, wolves and jackals, are 
common. The wolves are especially numerous in the mdnjha, the tract of tall 
thick grass along the banks of the Ghagra. For the slaughter of a female wolf 
Government offers Ks. 5 ; for that of a male wolf, Rs. 4 ; and for that of a male 
or female cub, annas 8. But, although an occasional attempt is made to pass off 
the cub of a jaokal for that of a wolf, wolves are seldom killed. The jackal is 
said to suffer from hydrophobia which he sometimes communicates to men. The 
people imagine that the disease lies dormant until the first thunder after the 
victim has been bitten, and then makes its appearance. They also distinguish 
a species of jackal called murdakhor, or corpse-eater, who preys on Muham* 
madan corpses ; but such ghoul-like repasts are, when obtainable, relished by 
all jackals. Another quaint superstition was once entertained with regard to 
antelopes. In 1813, when those beasts were " the pest of the country " when 

1 Dhuliyabandar was a police jurisdiction lying between the Jam war and Tiiir rivers. 
Fart of it now lies in parganah Bansi, while part ba* apparently been ceded to Nepal. 



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WILD BBASTS AND REPTILES. 577 

the low-caste huntsman, with his poisoned arrows, might sight a thousand 
head a day, their multitude was thus explained : " Formerly, the whole country 
being covered with long harsh grass swarming with muskitoes, the antelope 
bred only once in two years ; but, since much has been cleared, and the 
number of muskitoes reduced, they breed every year." 1 From the porpoise 
is extracted an oil which is medicinally applied to burns and bruises. 

Like wolves, reptiles are responsible for a good many deaths. In kind- 

Ro UI ly supplying the following list of snakes Mr. Thomson 

makes occasional reference to the pages of Fayrer'a Tha- 

mtophidia:—A}gar or python, 3 atibaran, ddhsar, andhawa, has do, bhamani, 

paniha, long paniha, chikor % dukla, dudh'njfi cobra (page 7), doma, dundha y 

dhusar, dhdmin (page 66;, karait, blue karait (page 11), katkhor (page 55), 

ghor karait, kodaili, kh'dkatdi, sohdmin, m ihar, siyar, majgidwa, ndgin (p. 6), 

8onkdtar (p. 8), sugtca, eontar, suskdr, and phitar. The paniha and chakor y 

although locally believed to be poisonous, are in reality harmless. So are the 

long-nosed crocodile fghariy&l, Gamalis Gangeticus), and the turtle (kachhua, 

Trinnyx G angelic us), reptile* of other orders. But the ordinary crocodile (nak 

or nakra, Crocodilus biporcatus) is a voracious and dangerous saurian. 

Ghariyals are said to be commonest in the Ghagra, naks in the Rapti 
and the Bakhira lagoon ; but both are more or less numerous in all the larger 
channels and sheets of water. The flesh of the n&k is sometimes eaten by fishermen, 
while his oil is used for medicinal purposes or burning. How he is cap- 
tured may be shown by the following extract from the writer last quoted : — 

. " The fishermen in pursuit of the crocodile look for him in shallow parts where some spots of 
the land project with channels of water running between. In such places they find the cro'io. 
dile basking on the land. On the approach of the can >e he retires into the water, but goes 
only to a very little distance, and by paddlin* slowly on and carefully observing the motion of 
the weeds and air bubbles that escape from his lung*, they soon discover where he is They 
then fix loosely, on the handle of a long paddle, a strong barbed harpoon iron, which is joined 
by a rope to the paddle, and putting the harpoon gently down, find where the animal is. He is 
very sluggish, and does not move when they touch his side, so that they draw up the instru- 
ment, and thrust it into his back without any dexterity. The animal flounces a good deal, but 
never attacks the canoe, which one stroke of his tail could instantly send to the bottom. He 
often, however, shakes out the harpoon, after which he neither seems to have an increase of 
ferocity nor shyness, but allows himself, as in the instance I saw, to be struck a second and a 
third time until he is secured and dragged on shore. He there flounces and snaps with his 
horrid jaws in a violent and dangerous manner, but, a large bamboo being thrust into Irs 
mouth, he bites with such violence that he cannot readily disengage his teeth, and gives the 
people time to secure the gag by tying a rope round his jaws. He is then helpless. In the one 

1 Eastern India, IL, 503-504. * Python moluras, Linn Sometimes called r jck-snake. 

1 Supra, p. 816. 



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578 BASTI. 

which I saw caught a ball fired through his head from a small fowling-piece instantly 
deprived him of motion, nor did he show almost any sign of sensation when immediately after- 
wards the harpoon was torn from his back. On the whole the crocodile, seems to be a stupid 
animal, and to make but a poor resistance, considering his great power, and the tremendous 
force of tail, jaws, and teeth, with which he is provided. The hardness usually attributed to 
his skin will appear from the above account to have been very much exaggerated. I have seen 
the crocodile, however, move with very great velocity, and have no doubt that in the pursuit 
of fish it uses great exertions of this kind ; nor does it seem to be entirely destitute of cunning, 
as crocodiles have been repeatedly found lurking in the fords of rivers through which high 
roads pass. Of this indeed I saw one instance, and am assured that it is not uncommon. " 

The average number of persons killed by wolves or reptiles during Four 
Deaths from wolves recent years was 2215 yearly, the figures being 158 in 
and rcptiiea. 1874j 2 63 in 1875, 22G in 1876, and 239 in 1878. 1 

In an available native list of " flying things (parindaf the only remark- 

. , able point is the classification. Birds and bats are group- 

Birds. , , ■ , . n ill 

ed together, but winged insects 'are for some doubtless 
vali I reason excluded. It is, however, amongst the birds alone that the Basti 
sportsman will find sufficient food for his powder. The wildfowl shooting on 
the Chandu, Chaur, Pathra, and Sikaudarpnr lagoons is uncommonly good, 
and on the Bakhira Tal may be called excellent. The Imperial Gazetteer men- 
tions pochard, pintail, mallard, spot-bill, grey duck, grey goose, brown goose, 
bean goose, cotton teal, blue-winged teal, grebe, coots, and water hens as com- 
mon. But these wild fowl are mostly birds of passage, descending from the 
Himalaya at the beginning of winter, and revisiting the cool hills as summer 
approaches. Snipe, too, are mere cold-weather tourists. Small game of other 
descriptions is as scarce as elsewhere in a country whore cover is rare and pre- 
servation almost unknown. A few partridges, quails, ortolans or pigeons are 
all that could be got in a morning's shooting. Peacocks are encountered, but 
there is the usual prejudice against their destruction. Falcons and tiercelets of 
kinds are obtainable, but falconry is little practised. Buchanan gives the 
following brief account of fowling on the Bakhira t&l :— • 

" On dark nights a wide long net is stretched vertically between two canoes, with its lower 
edge turned up, so as to form a bag near the water. Other canoes go, and disturb the birds in 
distant parts of the lake, driving them towards the nets— for several are usually placed in a 
row. Whole flocks are cnatngled at once, dropping into the bag ; and are immediately secured 
by loweting the upper side of the net. 

" The coot, which does not seem to differ from the kind that Mr. Latham calls common, 
is taken in broad day. It is a tame bird, and allows a canoe paddled slowly to approach near, 
and usually, to save the trouble of rising, which it does with difficulty, it dives to allow the 
canoe to pass. Three or four canoes therefore paddle towards a coot, and when it dives, stop 

1 The Sanitary Commissioner's report for 1877 leaves the Basti columns blank. 



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BIRDS. 579 

oyer the place, the people looking round, until they see it rise, on which they immediately set 
up a shout. The bird terrified at this, dives again immediately, and remains until it is much 
exhausted, so that, when it rises, it is neither able to fly nor to dire immediately. The 
people indeed give it no time to recover, for, by carefully observing, they perceive some air 
bubbles escape from the poor animal, just before it rises, and are prepared to seize its head as 
it reaches the surface. Such haste is not however absolutely necessary, as one, which they 
caught in my presence, was net able to move for several minutes after it was taken into the 
canoe. When it had revived, I threw it into the lake ; and with the utmost stupidity it 
immediately dived, and remained again below until quite exhausted, but, as we had removed to 
a distance, it recovered, and then took wing." 

In birds and plumage the trade is insignificant. There are of course a 
Trade in birds and ^ ew fowlers, belonging mostly to the Baheliya and F&si 
plumage. castes. Netting is their favourite method of capture; and 

from netting, indeed, the latter tribe derives its name. 1 The birds thus cap- 
tured, chiefly waterfowl and pigeons, sell for from 9 pies to I anna each, and 
are eaten by both Hindus and Muslims. Pet birds from the hills, such as 
the ehakor partridge and the mimicking black rnaina, are brought down from 
Butwal by the Kepalese. The same merchants import also a small quantity of 
deer-horns and yaks' tails. A ehakor can be bought for Re. 1, and a good 
maina for from Rs. 3 to 5. Other feathered pets, such as lots and shamdns* 
are procurable in the district itself. The l&ls are sold for from Rs. 5 to 8 the 
hundred. Peacocks' feathers are sold for fans. A few fanciers from the 
great towns of Murshidabad, Patna and Sh&habad in Bengal visit the district 
to return with the gorgeous plumage of the " blue-breast (ntlkanth) " and other 
birds. 

In a watery district like Basti fish and fisheries are subjects of the liveliest 

and most general interest. Before the close of the rains the 
Fish and fisheries. no- i_ xi x p ,. 

overflow of nvers has converted great tracts of country into 

one gigantic fish-pond. The piscium genus haunts the bush nota qua sedes 

juerat columbis. And the people take most successful precautions that as few as 

. possible of the finny invaders shall retire with the retiring waters. 

Almost all the fish mentioned in the Gorakhpur list 3 appear also in that 
for Basti. The only three exceptions are the khuria, surji, and pengna, which 
in this district perhaps bear other names. Such aliases are certainly borne by 
the parni and patharchalar y which are here known as parhini * and pat/iarjit. 
It is indeed the great variety of local names which renders the scientific identi- 
fication of most species by any but the practised ichthyologist impossible. The 
nomenclature adopted by text-books, such as Captain Beavan's Fresh Water 
» Sanskrit pd$ha, a net. f S*pr°> P- 31 *- * Swra > * 3,820i * r( ? P or/m *. 



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580 BASTI. 

Fishes of India, often differs greatly from that of remote districts in the North- 
Western Provinces. In the following supplement to the Qorakhpur list all 
attempt at scientific terminology has been discarded : — Argi, bacilli, baigasa, 
bajjaki, bakahi, bhdglad, bilangra, bulla, chandsa, c/iengu, dhansaJiar, dhaur, 
dhawi, dlvtimi, darhi, hansi, janam, kandya, kawa, khaswa, khuntra, kojailu, kiita, 
lapchi, mollis, makhui, malga, masddhar, parchallt, patdsi, patra, phdnsi, photha 
or bhotaha, rdgho, saur, and siitnaya. 

The phansi is so called because there is a ring or noose (phdnsi) on its 
neck. Of the m&sadhar's large scales small playing-cards (ganjtfa) are some- 
times made. Oil is extracted in small quantities from the rohu, bhakura, moi, 
and other fish; but it is merely made to moet the domestic requirements of 
the fishermen themselves, and no regular oil industry exists. The favourite 
time for the manufacture is the winter, when the fish are in the best condition. 
Small sun-dried or smoked fish are exported in a more or less putrescent state 
to Nepal, where they sell from Rs. 2 to 3 per maund ; and for a fresh fish the 
Nepalese are said to pay twice its weight in grain. In the district itself the 
price of the latter commodity varies from season to season ; but, on the whole, 
may be quoted at from 1 to 2 annas per ser for the choicer, and from J to 1 
anna for the coarser varieties. Except Bhagats, S&dhus, and others, who are 
prevented by their religious vows, all classes eat fish. But that food is the 
staple diet only of low Hindu castes, such as Beldars or Kahars, and of the 
fishermen themselves. The fishermen are chiefly Mallahs and Chains, tribes of 
boatmen ; Khewats, Goria Kah&rs, and Turhas, classes of porters and labourers ; 
and the Siwarias, who, as sellers of grass and wood, may perhaps be called lum- 
berers. Fishing is not, however, confined to these castes. It is the subsidiary 
occupation of many others. Every cultivator follows more or less, according 
to his leisure and opportunities, the trade of St. Peter. 

The methods of capture are most varied. Hardly any form of fishing 
known in other countries is unknown here. Even poison- 
ing is practised, although practised rarely. A given part of 
a river or lagoon is enclosed in a framework of bambus, and within the enclo- 
sure are scattered pieces of wild fig-bark. 1 This process has the effect of 
poisoning the fish, who one by one rise dead to the surface. Nets of all sizes 
and shapes are used. The mesh is often so small as hardly to admit of a finger 
pa&siug through it. The destruction of small fry may, without exaggeration, 
therefore, be called vast. But of all creatures fisb, perhaps, increase most 
greatly in excess of the means of subsistence. The three principal rivers of 
1 Elsewhere the bark of seferal other trees is employed for this purpose. 



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METHODS OF FISHING. 581 

the district afford a comparatively secure and hitherto inexhaustible nursery. 
And it would be difficult to put in execution any restrictions as to the closeness 
of the nets used. 

The larger nets are, as a rule, employed during the rainy season and 
the smaller after its conclusion. The gdnja, korhel or 
karihil, jhinguri, and tapahn or tdpa have been described in 
the Qorakhpur notice. 1 The chdtur and batdo resemble the tapa, and the pelua 
the jhinguri. The seine is here named batwan. Three other nets, called gdghi f 
kanhudy and till, are sometimes used. The rod and line (Iialuka) or line simply 
(shittht) are familiar spectacles on the banks of rivers ; but comparatively few 
fish are caught by those means. The principal fisheries are those of the great 
rivers and lagoons mentioned in part I. ; and these are fished all the year round, 
without thought of a close season. But the bulk of the fishing is done in 
winter, on the smaller sheets of water left by the yearly rains. 

When the water is shallow and expected to dry up soon the process is 
simple. Across the orificos of the pool or rice-field are thrown mud dams 
Qjdndli). In the one exit loft is fixed a grass or reed screen (patulca, chaundhi, 
or chilwania) ; so that while the water escapes, not a fish can escape with it. 
As that water subsides the work of destruction proceeds. First, the fish are 
taken in the extinguisher-like tapa. Then, as the shallowness increases, men 
may be seen wading in all directions with cone-shaped baskets. Having 
thrust the wider ends down into the mud, they can remove at their leisure, 
through the smaller ends, any fish that have been thus imprisoned. When the 
water has almost disappeared, what little remains is baled out, and the fish are 
left flapping helpless in the mud. 

Much the same system is adopted even on those lakes which never run 
dry. These are fed, as a rule, by a-flood channel from some river, and at the 
end of the monsoon that channel is embanked. The dispute which prevents the 
embankment of the Pathra Tal has been glanced at above. The fishermen of 
the neighbourhood bitterly complain that at the close of the rains the finest 
fish now return from the lake to the Rapti. But they can still afford to rent 
the piscatory rights for soma Rs. 150 yearly. The rftja of Bansi, one of the 
parties to the dispute just mentioned, duly embanks the outlet of his own pre- 
serve at B&nsi. His practice of netting a few fish only when required is an 
honourable exception to the rule which seeks to destroy yearly all the life in a 
lake. 

1 Supra, p. 320. 



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582 



BASTI. 



Bat the various methods of fishing largo sheets of water are most per- 
fectly exemplified on the Bakhira Tal. Iu the outlets of the dam which embanks 
its escape channel are fixed screens which entangle many a fish. All round 
its edges may be seen t&pas, which are ready for use in its shallower parts 
whenever the cultivators find time to become fishermen. But the form of cap- 
ture here most extensively adopted is spearing. The bottom is too weedy 
to be netted with much success, and the shore is in few places so clear as to 
admit of the drawing of a seine. But the water, being clear and nowhere 
very deep, is a very favourable field for the harpooner. The spear or harpoon 
(bdnsa) is an ordinary bambu staff, split into 15 or 20 pieces, each tipped 
with iron. These are again bound together, and the central piece being 
thickened by coils of string, the whole forms a bundle of spears some eight or 
ten inches in diameter. The harpooners are sufficiently expert to make almost 
certain of striking a fish some twelve or fifteen feet distant. The water is 
regularly beaten by a line of five or six canoes, each containing a spearman at 
the prow and a punter or paddler at the stern. 

But enough has been said of the animal, and we pass to the vegetable 
Vegetable king- kingdom. Though somewhat empirical, the division into 
dom. Trees. ^rees an( j cr0 p S w m serV e our purpose sufficiently well. The 

following list shows the principal trees of the district : — 

Kachla (Stri/chnoa n«r vomica). 



Aghfi (DUlenia penlagyna). 

Akol (Alangium Lamar c kit). 

Am, mango (Mangifera Indica), 

A rarfit, guava (Psidium guava). 

A onla ( Phylla n thus emblica ), 

Arjun (Terminalia arjuna) 

Asidh (Lagtratrcemia parv\florct)> 

Asna (Terminalia tomentoaa). 

Asog (Saraca Indica). 

Babul (Acacia Arabica). 

Bfthera (Terminalia bell erica). 

Bair, jujube (Zizyphua jujuba). 

Wild do., jharberi (Zizyphua nummular ia). 

Baisa (Salix tctrasperma). 

Bakain (Melia azedarach). 

Bans, bambu (Bambuaa. several species). 

Bar or bargad. banyan (Ficua BengaUnaia). 

Barbal (Ariocarpua tjkoo*.ha). 

Bel (Aegle marmelos). 

Bent, mttan (Calamus rotang). 

Bhurkur i Hymenodictyon excels urn). 

Bfjasal (Pterocarpua maraupium). 
Ganiar (Premna ivtegrifolia). 
Gular, wild flg (Ficua glomerata), 
Harra ( Terminalia chebula). 
Harsingar {Nyctanthe* arbor triatia). 
Imli, tamarind ( Tamar Indus Indica), 
Jait (Seabania JEgyptiaca). 
Jamua or jaman (Eugenia jambolana). 
Jbigana (Odina Wodier). 



Kachnar (Bauhinia variegata). 

Kaith (Feronia elrphantum). 

Kambbar (Gmelina arborea). 

Ksranj ( Pongamta glabra). 

Karaunda (Cariaaa caranda*). 

Karma ( Stephegyne parvi/olia). 

Karri ( Saccnpetatum tomeniosum). 

Katbal, jack fruit (Artocarpua inUgrifolin). 

Kela, plantain (Mma aapientum). 

Khair (Acacia catechu). 

Khaja (Briedelia retusa). 

Khajur, wild date (Phoenix aylvtatria). 

Kusum (Schhichera trijuga). 

Lasora (Cordia myxa). 

Modar {Calotropia gigantea), 

Mahua (Baasia latifolin) 

Mainphal (Randia dumetorum), 

Mulsari (Mimuaopa Elcngi). 

Nfm (Melia Indica). 

Pakar or pilkhan (Picua cordifolia). 

Pin am or sandhan (Dalbergia Ouaeinensia). 

Pindar or padal (Stereoapermum auaveolena). 

Panyar ( Barringtonia acutangula). 

Paras or dhak ( Butea frondoea). 

Patju (I'utranjiva Boxburghii). 

Pindar or panar (Randia uliginosa). 

Pi pal C Ficua religioaa). 
Piyar (Buchanan ia latifolia). 
Bauna or rohna (MaUitus Philippine****). 



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Benr, castor-oil plant (Ricinw communis). 
Sain j an (Aforinga pterygosperma). 
Sakhu or sal (Shorea robusia). 
Sagun or teak (Tectona grandis). 
Semal (Bombax Malabaricutn), 
Sharifa, custard-apple (Anona squamosa). 



TBEES. 583 

Shisham, slasoo (Dalbergia sissoo). 

Siras {Albizzia lebbek). 

Tar, palmyra (Borassus flabelliformti). 

Tendu, ebony {Diospyro* ebenum). 

Tun (Cedrela toona). 

Warga or amaltas {Cassia fistula). 

As already mentioned, the district is well and almost densely wooded with 
clumps of mango, bambu, and inahua. The flower of the last-named tree is 
eaten, or distilled into whiskey-like liquor ; and from its seeds (koendi) is 
extracted an oil. Mahuas are common around the district capitals, and 
in a single tappa of Nagar are numbered at 10,000. The name of this tappa, 
Pipra, is derived from the sacred and ubiquitous pfpal. In valuable timber 
trees Basti is less rich. Here, as elsewhere in unafforested India, a tree has 
little chance of surviving to maturity unless it is a fruit tree. The sakhus 
of the district are few and small. But it is not intended to repeat what has so 
often been said of these more familiar trees. In the Budaun, Bijnor, and 
Qorakhpur notices will be found quite enough matter concerning the appear- 
ance or uses of the mango, guava, aonla, asna, babul, bakain, bambu, bel, 
barhal, ganniar, gular, harra, tamarind, jamun, kachnar, jack-fruit, plantain, 
khair, jhigna or jhingan, wild date, kusam, mahua, mm, pakar, panan, paras, 
pfpal, sakhu, semal, custard-apple, shisham, siras, palmyra, ebony, tun, and 
warga. The instant elimination of these well-known species will lighten the 
task of both writer and reader. 

The aghdi has a hard wood not easily worked, but apt to warp and crack. 
Its leaves are used as plates and laid under grass thatching, 
while its buds and fruit are eaten. The timber of the 

akol 9 on the other hand, is readily manipulated ; and though well adapted for 
more ornamental purposes, furnishes a material for the 
stilts of ploughs. The sweet but somewhat astringen 

fruit is edible, and the aromatic root is used in native medicine. Various mediciua 
uses, too, has the greenish- white bark of the arjun. Its 
r}nn ' wood is in some demand for fuel and coarser carpentry, but 

is difficult to work. The dsidh, a biggish tree with ashy bark and white 
fragrant flower has a tough timber extensively used for 
rafters, furniture, and agricultural implements. It may 

be mentioned that of this material are sometimes made the shafts of European 

buggies. The sweet gum is eaten, while the bark and leaves are largely 
employed in tanning. The red or yellow flowers of the 
asog may be seen in gardens and near Hindu temples ; but 

its timber, when used at all, is used as fuel. 

75 



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584 BASTI. 

The large bahera yields the common myrobalans used in dyeing. 

From its fruit are made ink and medicinal vinegar, and from the kernels 

thereof oil. Its wood furnishes scabbards, fishing floats, and other articles 

whose object is lightness rather than durability. The jharberi or wild 

jujube is here a mere bramble bush, used chiefly for 

hedging ; but its leaves are eaten by cattle, while its 

rufous and bullet-like berries are in times of scarcity an important food 

for men. These berries are probably identical with the famous fruit of 

the Lotos-eaters. 1 The baisa is a kind of willow which 
Baiia. 

grows in watery places and supplies a firewood. Like 

other willows it has romantic associations. As Majniin and Laila were 

famous oriental lovers, and as the weeping willow is called after the 

former, the baisa sometimes bears the name of the latter. The thorny bent 

or rattan is found in small brakes along the edges of 
Bent. ft . G 

shallow streams. The wood of the bhurkur is used for 

boxes, toys, scabbards, and the stocks of firelocks ; its bark as a febrifuge and in 

tanning; and its leaf as cattle fodder. In Basti the timber 
Bhurkur. * \ 

of the bij'isdl or " bastard teak " is more familiar than 

the tree itself. The scantlings here used are small, and are worked up into 
drums, furniture, and other pieces of carpentry. .The 
harsingdr is a large shrub or small tree which derives 

its generic name (nyctanthea) from the fact that its fragrant flowers, like 

_ evening primroses, open at nightfall to drop at sunrise. 

Harsingar. « , « . . i \ » 

From these flowers is sometimes extracted a line but 

transient buir or orange cloth-dye ; the leaves may be used in polishing wood ; 

but the timber of the tree itself is used only as fuel. 

The jait is a soft-wooded tree of short stature and short duration. It is 

chiefly useful as a source of firewood ; but rope can be 

made of its bark and cattle-fodder of its leaves. It is said 

that when a widow of low caste is remarried, this tree sometimes represents 

her in the marriage ceremony. The bridegroom, that is, goes through the 

form of being wedded to the tree. The kachla is a small evergreen with smooth 

ash-coloured bark and berries which in colour and size 
Kachla. 

resemble oranges. In the bark, and to a greater extent 

in the seeds of the berries, is found a small quantity of the frightful poisons 

. strychnine and Brucine (the latter familiar to readers of 

Monte Cristo). The wood of the kaith is used in a great 

* Herodotus IV., quoted in Sir H. Elliot's Supplemental Glo&ary. 



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TREES. 585 

variety of carpentry and as fuel. The acid pulp of its fruit furnishes the people 

with a kind of jelly or pickle. The bark is medicinal, and the gum contributes 

with that of other trees to supply the East Indian gum-arabic of commerce. 

The fruit, root and bark of the kambhdr are used in native 

medicine. Its wood is highly esteemed for its durability 

under water ; but furnishes also a material for furniture, drums, toys and all 

kinds of ornamental work. The pods (karanj kaldn) of the 

karanj are familiar to native druggists, but it may be 

doubted whether the tree itself is at all familiar to other inhabitants of the 

district. The karaunda is a large evergreen shrub whose 

wood makes an excellent fuel. But it is cultivated on 

account of its fruit, which when half ripe is made into tarts, jellies, or pickles, 

and when wholly ripe is eaten raw. 

The yellow wood of the karri furnishes good rafters, but is apt to crack in 
Karri. seasoning. The leaves can be used as fodder for cattle. 

Khaja. So can those of the khdja, which affords good timber to 

the carpenter and builder, an astringent bark to the tanner, and a sweetish 
fruit to the peasant. Though used for roofing, planks, and boxes, the wood 
of the karma is not very durable. Than the white-bloomed 
lasora few tree9 could be more variously useful. Its soft 
timber here serves chiefly as fuel ; but can be worked into gun-stocks, well- 
curbs, and agricultural implements. Of its bark may be 
Lasora. 

made ropes ; and with the fibre of that bark boats are 

sometimes caulked. The leaves are used as plates, and in Pegu as the covering 
leaf of the Burma cheroots. The fruit is edible, and when young is often pickled. 
The viscid pulp thereof serves as birdlime, and the juice supplies a transient 
marking for cotton goods. A large shrub with thick branches, growing in 
dry places, the maddr supplies from its juice a medicinal 
drug and from its inner bark a strong silky flax. The 
latter was formerly woven into fine cloth, but is now the material of bow- 
strings, fishing-lines, and nets. The wood of the mainphal 
Mainpbal. . 

is used for agricultural tools, fences, and fuel. Its bark 

and fruit are medicinal ; and when unripe the latter is sometimes roasted for 

eating. The leaves are given as food to cattle. The maulsari is a large 

evergreen tree which is cultivated chiefly on account of 
Maulsari. . 

its white, star-shaped and fragrant flowers. Its fruit is 

eaten, from its seeds is expressed oil, and its bark is used medicinally. But 

its timber is almost worthless. 



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586 BA8TI. 

The wood of the pdndar is burnt and makes excellent charcoal ; bat 
when large enough can be used also in building. The root 
and bark find their place in the native pharmacopoeia. 
The panydr grows in moist places, such as the edges of 
swamps; and hence perhaps its name (pdni, water). 

Though used elsewhere for various kinds of carpentry, the wood is here good 
enough for fuel only. The patju is a middle-sized evergreen 
tree whose nuts are strung into rosaries and the amulet 

necklaces of children. From this latter use it derived its original name of 
putranjiva, or " child's life." The wood of the pinddr or 
paniha is burnt, and its fruit cooked for eating. The kernels 
(ehiraunji) of the piydr'a fruit are edible, and taste some- 
thing like pistachio nuts. From them is extracted oil. The 

bark of the tree is used in tanning, while its leaves are a substitute for platters. 

Of the rauna also the bark is not unknown to the tanner. 
Banna. 

But the most important product of this large shrub is the 

powder which covers the ripe fruit (kamala). Used in dyeing silk, this is also 

a purgative and anthelmintic. But the rauna has other medicinal qualities. 

Its leaves and fruit are applied externally with honey against the bite of 

poisonous animals* The seeds, too, are elsewhere sold as drugs ; but the 

wood is of service only as fuel. The castor-oil plant or 

Falma Christi is a small soft-wooded tree cultivated in and 

around villages on account of its oleaginous virtues. Of other virtues it has 

none. Teaks are sparsely planted in gardens for the sake 

rather of ornament than of timber ; and none indeed of 

those planted is as yet large enough to furnish valuable scantlings. The 

. . sainjna is sometimes called "the horse-radish tree,*' because 

Europeans use the bark of its root as a substitute for 

horse-radish. But the tree is cultivated mainly on account of its pods, which 

are eaten as vegetables or pickled ; its flowers and leaves are also considered 

edible. The latter and the twigs are lopped for cattle-fodder ; but the wood 

is fit only for the fire. 

And here it may be mentioned that the average price of wood 

_ . _ Al _ fuel, when cut and stacked for use, is from Rs. 10 to 

Price of timber. 7 7 

Rs. 12 per 100 maunds. The timbers chiefly used in 
construction, mahua, j&inan, and mango, fetch when sold in the log about eight 
annas the oubic foot ; and when hewn into scantlings, from 12 annas to Re. 1. 
Mahua trees sell for from Rs. 7 to Rs. 15 each, j&man trees from Rs. 3 to 



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CROPS. 



587 



Bs. 10, and mango trees from Rs. 5 to Rs. 10. Bat the woods of all three 
are much liable to decay through the dampness of the climate and the ravages 
of the so-called white ants* It is therefore to be regretted that the more dur- 
able sal timber is so rare and so expensive. The Cbitia forest in tahsil B&usi 
is, perhaps, the only spot where good sal logs may be locally procured. Such 
timber is usually brought when required from Gorakhpur or Bahr&m-ghdt of 
Oudh. A tree of moderate size sells for from Rs. 20 to Rs. 25 ; but s&l wood 
is most often bought in beams (silli), or in blocks (latta) containing four beams 
each. These beams and blocks are not, however, definite measures ; their 
dimensions vary, and with those dimensions the prices of beams vary from 
Rs. 5 to Rs, 20, and of blocks from Rs. 20 to Rs. 80. When hewn and sold by 
the cubic foot, sal timber fetches from Rs. 3 \ to Rs 4. Large bambusmay be 
bought for Rs. 20, and small for from Rs. 12 to Rs. 15 the hundred. 

For further information regarding the trees mentioned in the above list 
the reader is referred to Dr. Brandis' Forest Flora of North- 
West and Central India. 1 "W e must now quit the grove for 
the field. The following statement shows in hundreds of acres the area under 
the principal cultivated crops, and has been re-arranged from Mr. Buck's Answers 
to Chapter 1. of the Famine Commission's Questions. 2 



Crops. 



CfiOPS OF TUB AUTUMN HARVEST (KHABIF). 


Chops of the spring habyebt (Rabi). 


Ordinary name. 


Botanical 
name. 


Area (hun- 
dreds of 
acres). 


Ordinary name. 


Botanical 
name. 


Area (hun- 
dreds of 
acres). 


Jodr or jondari 

millet. 
JBdjra ditto „• 

Arhar •pulse ... 

Mixed arhar and 
joar. 

Mixed arhar and 
bajra. 

BiceCrfAdit 1 ) ... 

Maize or Indian- 
corn (makka). . 


Holcus sor- 
ghum. 
Penicilla ria 

spicata. 
Cajanus Jla- 
vu». 
••• 

••■ 

Oryza sativa, 
Zea mays ... 


874 
3 

298 

8 

1 

5,832 
234 


Wheat (gehun) ... 

Mixed wheat and 
gram (gochna). 

Mixed wheat and 
barley (gojdi). 

Barley (jau) ... 

Mixed barley and 
gram (jauchni). 
Gram (chana) 


Triticum vul- 
gar*. 

••• 

Hordeum hex- 
astiehon. 

Cieer arieti- 
num. 


1,430 
2 
710 
750 
510 
810 







1 London : Wm. H. Allen and Co., 1874. * Answers to Questions put by the Pamine Com- 

mission in terms oj the Resolution of the Government of the North- Western Provinces and Oudh, 
letter No. l9Q0A.of 6th July, 187d. Chapter I; E. C. Buck, Esq., Member, Local Famine Com- 
mittee. * The term dhdn is here applied also to many small autumn millets, such as 
kodou, maruOf sdwdn, and kdkum 



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588 



BASTI. 



Crops of the autcmw harvest (Khabif). 


CflOFS OF THH SPRING HARTO8T (RABi). 


Ordinary name. 


Botanical 
name. 


Area (hun- 
dreds of 
acres). 


Ordinary name. 


Botanical 
name. 


Area (hun- 
dreds of 
acres). 


Cotton (kapdi) ... 

Mixed cotton and 

arhar. 
Indigo (nil) 

Sugarcane (Hkh) ... 

Garden crops 
Miscellaneous do., 


Oos sypium 
herbaceum. 

Jmdl g oft r a 
tinctoria. 

Saccha rum 
offictnarum. 


1 
55 

1 

253 

10 
490 


Peas {kirdQ and 
mattar). 
Potatoes (dlu) ... 

Opium (post or 

a flat). 
Tobacco (tambdku). 

Garden crops 
Miscellaneous do., 

« f Food crops ... 
i \ Other do. ... 

H V Grand 


Fisum sati- 
vum. 

Solan urn tube- 
rosum. 

Papaver som- 
niferum, 

/Vrc otiana 
tabacum. 

••■ 


790 
3 

318 

S 

10 
600 


j [ Food crops, 
►j 1 Other do., 


7,290 
770 


4,660 
780 


£ (Grand ... 


8,060 


6,440 



The total area of both harvests is then about 1,350,000 acres; whereof 
1,195,000 are sown with food-grains and 155,000 with other crops. Priority 
has been assigned to the autumn crops, because here, as elsewhere, the agri- 
cultural year begins on the 1st of July. By that time the rains have usually 
fallen, the earth awakes from its long summer sleep, and the operations of 
tillage are renewed with vigour. For the autumn harvest are tilled some three- 
quarters of the arable area north of the R&pti ; but south of that river the 
proportion is reversed, and about the same fraction of the total cultivation 
devoted to the spring harvest. 

Though the above are the principal crops of the district, there are many 
minor growths which have probably fallen under the mis- 
cellaneous headings. Such are hemp (san or sanei, Cannabis 
sativa), patwa or patsan (Hibisous cannabinus), the millets kodon (Paspalum 
frumentaceum^y marua (Eleusine coracana), sawan (Oplis- 
menus colonus), kakun (Panicum Italicum), and chen (Pani- 
cum miliaceum), the pulses urd or mash (Pkaseolus radiatus), moth (Phaseolus 
aconitifolius), and mung (Phaseolus mungo), miinj grass (Saccharummunja), and 
til or sesamum, called in South Indian reports jingelly (Sesamum orientate). 
These are all products of the autumn harvest. The minor growths of spring 
are oats ( jai, Avena sativa), linseed (tisi or alsi, IAnum 
usitatissimum), mustard (lahi, rai, or sarson, Brassica cam- 
pestris), masiir pulse or lentils (Ervum lens), safflower (kusum, Carthamus 



of the autumn 



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bices. 589 

tinctorius), and vegetables. All the ordinary English vegetables can be 
raised in winter ; and to them we must add several plants grown at other 
seasons, such as ginger, melons, and gourds of kinds, coriander, pepper, 
betel-leaf, turmeric, cowach, and aniseed (ajwdiri). 

But we can here spare space only for a few details concerning the most 
important crop. Rice is the staple growth of the autumnal 
harvest, and the autumnal is, as already mentioned, the staple 
harvest of the north of the district. Rice is therefore the staple crop of the 
north of the district; but it is also, from the surpassing area which it occupies, 
the staple crop of the district at large. Here, as in Gorakhpur, dhdn may be 
divided into three broad classes: (1) the coarse early rice named ausani or Bha- 
dui; (2) the finer late rice called jarhan or Aghani ; and (3; the comparatively 
scarce summer rice styled boro. 

Ausani or Bhadui derives its first name from the Sanskrit root ash, to eat ; l 

its second from the fact that it sometimes occupies the 
Ausani. 

ground until Bh&don (August-September). Its varieties 

are many ; but the difference is in many cases so slight that only the 
practised eye of the rice-grower himself can detect it. The following 
list is long enough, but does not pretend to be exhaustive : — Anjanawa, 
parhni, parhni- surkh, saraya, mdtri, jhdli, madansanki, katauncha, baguri, 
parbMiya, mahiya, sdthi, sokan, ganjkaisar^ bdnsphtil, kapdrchini, phdlgend, 
regan, gandsi, kundiya, jei or jdsu, ndhu, narh, gajgaur, sdtha y tabreni, 
sonkharcha, unniydn, dudhi, regan-jdsu, bedi. nibua, banki, rankajra, and 
kesar. Of these varieties the best and most familiar are perhaps the b&nsphdl, 
kapurchini, and sokan. Little need be added to the description above 2 given 
of the manner in which the Bhadui crop is cultivated. The first ploughings 
seem, however, to take place in February- March, a month later than in 
Gorakhpur. Towards the close of March they are suspended, the season being 
deemed unlucky. The crop is here sown chiefly on uplands not subject 
to inundation. The time of sowing is June-July, and the weight of seed 
sown about 40 local 8ers* to the acre. When the weather is wet and likely 
to continue so, when it is feared that the seed may be chilled and killed by the 
unusual moisture, that seed is often sown a day or two after germination. To 
make it germinate it is first steeped in water for twenty-four hours and 
afterwards placed in a heap covered with grass and blankets. Except when 
the usual rains fail, no irrigation is required after sowing. But of late years 

iFallon'B Hindustdni- Englith Dictionary, art" 4us." * Page 822. » The 

local »ei equipoises loo of the copper coins known as Gorakhpuri pice* 



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590 BASTT. 

one or two weedings have always been considered necessary. 1 The crop is 
generally reaped in September- October, the average outturn being about 16 
mdnis, or 6'4 maunds per acre. Mr. Thomson estimates the cost of produc- 
tion at Rs. 6 per acre including rent ; Mr. Pepp6 places it as high as Rs. 9, 
leaving a profit of Re. 1 to the cultivator. But it has been already 2 shown 
how complicated is the problem of forming such estimates. 

The later Jarhan or Aghani rice is so called because it is reaped in the 
winter (jdra) month of November-December (Aghan). 
The following are some of its often scarcely disting- 
uishable varieties: Baharni, mircha, satdiya, goghdi, patjatta, motisdyar, 
. kusmij rdnthy karangi, mahdjogin, mohanbhog, gola y amma, god, sugdpanki, 
kaitra 9 hansrdj } desi, parjatti, ludra, r&dwa, rdmbliog, Jcetaki, rds, harbilds, 
peMn, ldngi f pauwa 9 Barhmaha y rdtgol, gauriya, dnandi, chaugendwa, 
rdni-kd-jar, latera, madh&kar, gurdih, rdjhdns, motlchdr, hanaksira, mdlda, 
rdmjawain, do 8 an, bhdtin y bagulbdhin, ritiya, bilaur, mansdr, barwi, panya 
and tini Of these the most highly esteemed are the latera, motfcb&r, 
and Barhmaha or Burmese varieties. Like Bhadui, jarhan is usually sown 
in June-July ; but, unlike Bhadui, it is usually sown on the loamy lowlands 
surrounding villages (goenr doras). From its original field it is commonly 
transplanted as described in the Gorakhpur notice 3 ; and the places selected 
for its final home are the flooded hollows called ddbar or soi. Plants which 
cover but one acre in the nursery will cover six in the field of transplanta- 
tion. The quantity of seed sown and the average produce per acre is much 
the same as that of Bhadui rice. But Mr. Peppe fixes the cost at Rs. 9& and 
the profit at Rs. 3. Aghani rice is sometimes attacked by the kapti caterpil- 
lar and sometimes by a disease called toti, which prevents it from 
flowering. 

The boro or summer rice is planted in February-March along 

the edges of lagoons or ponds. In such moist retreats 

it can scorn the daily increasing ardour of the sun, 

and presents a fringe of lovely green when the surrounding fields 

have become a bleak brown playground for the hot-winds. It is reaped 

in May-June. The largest expanse of boro rice may be seen around the 

edge of the Bakhira T&l. The mill or mortar in which rices of all kinds are 

husked is called akhui y and corresponds to the okhli of other districts. 

1 " Weeding," writes Mr. Peppe, " until a few years ago was never thought of. But now, 
unless the fields are well weeded, the grass comes up and chokes the dhd*." 'Plage 

33*. 8 Page 323. 



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rLouaniNo. 



591 



A sufficient account of those remaining crops, which are important by 
reason of their great area or great value, has been given in the Bareilly and 
Gorakhpur notices. 1 Such are jofir, wheat, barley, peas, sugarcane, indigo, 
and opium. According to Mr. Thomson the crop last named is the only one 
whose cultivation may be considered to have increased largely of late years. 
Its tillage has attained the widest development in parganah Amorha. The 
increase here and elsewhere is in no small measure due to the money advances 
which the Imperial Government grants to those who agree to plant poppy. 
The progress of tillage under British rule, before the separation (1865) of 
this district from Gorakhpur, has been elsewhere 2 noted. 

The average outturn per acre of rice, with the average cost and profit 

per acre of its cultivation, has been shown above. Some 
Outturn of van. , , 7 . 

ous crops; and the statistics supplied by the tahsildars enable us to give, for 

their cultivation. ° whatever they may be worth, similar figures for the other 

principal orops. The results may best be thrown into a 

tabular form, thus : — 



Crop. 


Total outturn 
per acre in 
jnaunds. 


Total co*t of cultivation 
per acre in rupees. 


Net profit per acre 
in rupees. 




Maxi- 
mum. 


Miui- 
mum. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Maximum. 


MiDimum. 




Sers. 


Sers. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs, a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Jodr millet 


13 


7 


12 4 


6 2 


1 


5 18 6 


Arhar pulse 


8 


5 


8 14 


4 8 


3 10 


9 


Sugarcane 


804 


10 


34 12 


12 8 


22 13 


6 3 


Wheat 


113 


8 


21 4 


9 11 


8 12 


10 3 


Barley «•• 


13* 


7 


14 8 


6 


6 12 


13 


Mixed wheat and barley, 


ie 


8 


8 8 G 


8 


9 9 


1 5 


Gram 


8 


6 


8 


5 4 


6 8 


10 


Peas white (matter) and 


8J 


7 


9 6 


5 4 


7 8 


15 6 


purple [kirdo). 














Opium ••• •*• 


i 


u 


48 12 


10 13 6 


39 4 


.3 11 


Tobacco ... 


SO 




14 






••• 



The variations between the maxima and minima of the profit columns 
are in every case so great as to be viewed with suspicion. The profit returns of 
tahBil Khalilabad have in most cases indeed been excluded as excessive and 
untrustworthy. But the outturn statistics of tahsil Haraia, which are even 
more open to the same objection, have been altogether rejected. In the case 
of sugarcane it is not stated whether the outturn is in raw juice or in the 

1 Gazr., V., 554-66 ; supra, pp. 324-29. * Pp. 329-31, 

76 



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592 BASTI. 

boiled syrop known as gur ; but if we may judge by the analogy of other 
districts, the former is intended. The tobacco returns are for tahsil Khalil- 
abad only. The statements from which these figures have been selected 
relate chiefly to the minor crops ; but with these last we have not time to 
deal. Wo need prolong our prose georgic only to describe briefly a few of 
the more important agricultural processes and agricultural terms. 

Ploughing is an almost perennial operation. It is perhaps interrupted only 
by the hot weather and by the ill-omened intervals which 
at the ends of March and September succeed the equi- 
noxes. Even in the hot weather the land is often broken up by hoe 
(Jcuddri\ The auspicious date for beginning these preparations for the au- 
tumn crop is the third of the moonlit half of April-May. But in June-July, 
when the first downpour of rain has loosed the baked earth, every plough 
may be seen at work. The implement here used (hal or har) differs slightly 
from all four of those already pictured in notices on Duab districts. 1 It is 
indeed a radical mistake to suppose that the same plough is used all over these 
provinces. The chief peculiarities of the Basti instrument seem to be that its 
boot or sole (kkopi) is much lighter, and its share (phdr) much longer, than 
those used in Farukhabad or Mainpuri. A rough diagram will, however, serve 
our purpose better than any description : — 




1. The muthiya or handle. 2. The jdngha or stilt. 3, The hdri$ or beam. 4. The 
agwdsi und pdtliu, pegs fastening the beam to the stilt. 5. The phdr or hare. 6. The 
harsudha or pachela, a bolt securing the share in its place. 7. The khopi or sole. 

The share is of iron, but all the remaining component parts are wooden. 

The cost of the whole instrument is about Re. 1. The yoke or jiia, which 

1 See Gaz, IV„ 514 (Mainpuri)., and VII., 38-39 (Farukhabad). 



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IBRIGATION. 593 

supports the beam on the necks of the oxen, is composed of just as many pieces. 
" It may bo thus shown : — 







"* iivtu 



7 

1. The handwar or /oke proper, which rests on the bullock's shoulders. 2. Tho 
tarmuchi or lower piece. 3. The two pachas, which join 1 and 2 and divide the necks of tho 
bullocks. 4. The two sails or outer pins, keeping the y»kc straight on those necks. 6. The 
khura or prominent knob round which 6, the thong (ntdha), is looped. This latter secures 
the yoke to the beam of the plough. 7. The two jothas or thongs which fasten the yoke to 
the bullocks. 

The two last are of leather and all the rest of wood, A complete yoke 
may be bought for from 4 to 6 annas. The ploughing apparatus here described 
is, according lo Mr. Wynne, "of the most miserably insufficient character, 
though probably a more efficient instrument could not be drawn by the weak 
ill-fed bullocks employed." 

Whether for the autumn or the spring harvest, every field is ploughed at 
least once in each direction. If the land, for instance, is first ploughed north 
and south, it will afterwards bo ploughed east and west. Such double or cross- 
ploughing is called samra. Fallow fields prepare! for wheat or poppy receive 
8 samras ; those devoted to sugarcane, 6 ; barley-fields which have already 
borne an autumn crop, 5 ; and rice-fields the same. A preliminary ploughing 
for the purpose of breaking up the clods is called gorni ; and a last ploughing, 
for the purpose of weeding out the grass, aohiia. The usual time of ploughing 
is from early morning to noon ; but it is a not uncommon arrangement to 
plough for three hours in the morning and three in the evening, with a rest at 
midday. A man possessing but a single pair of plough-bullocks is called an 
"immature cultivator" (kacha kdshtkdr). The " mature cultivator " (paka 
kdshlkdr), who has two pairs, can with ease plough a local bigha, or 1,775 
square yards, daily. It is probable that in ancient Basti, as all over the Old 
World, tho unit of land measurement was the vague and varying area which 
could be tilled within the year by a two-bullock plough. In some parts of 
Rasiilpur and Bansi the rent is still assessed on the plough, and not ou the bfgha 
or acre. It is a reasonable inference that tho plough-holding was onoo just as 
well recognized a measure of surface as either of tho two latter standards. 



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594 BASTl, 

Plough measurements are still common in the wilder parts of Mirz&pur. We 
have evidence that till the first half of the seventeenth century they were' 
universal in the Dakkhan. The laws of the Manavas show that they once pre- 
vailed in Northern India. Examples of their occurrence in Europe arc afforded 
by the old English oarucato and perhaps by the old English hide. The 
plough-holding of Horatius Codes, as mentioned by Livy, is perhaps not quite 
a case in point ; for he received not as much as two oxen could plough within 
the year, but as much as they could plough within the day. 1 

After ploughing irrigation is perhaps the most important agricultural 
process. For the crops of the rainy autumn no irrigatioa 
is, except in years of drought, required ; but for those of the 
spring harvest it is needed everywhere. As already noted, no canals supply 
water to the fields of the district ; but an ample stock of that element is pro- 
curable from numerous streams, lagoons, reservoirs, and wells. From the first 
three sources the water is lifted by sling-baskets, as described in the Gorakhpur 
notice. 2 When shaped like a boat such baskets are called dogala or beri; 
when shaped like a round shield, don or donri. The ropes or strings by which the 
basket is swung are termed dori, and tho small wooden instrument used in 
opening and shutting tho apertures of the water channels hd'ha. In his Eastern 
India Buchanan calculated that a "gang of ten men, working two pairs of 
baskets, could irrigato some 4,727 square yards, or just under one acre, daily. 
Whether this estimate includes the men standing in the fields and distributing 
the water is uncertain. But Mr. Wynne reckoned that with eight labourers 
to lift and two to distribute, one paha bigha of 3,973 yards could, bo watered 
in tho day. Though, as we shall hereafter see, the most expensive, this is the 
most common anJ popular method of irrigation. The people believe that tho 
water thus raised contains a fertilizing sediment. 

Wells are worked by exactly the same methods as those described in tho 
Budaun notice. 3 Water being near the surface, the commonest arrangement is 
the lever and pot. 4 But tho small winch-wheel (charkhi), with a pot at either 
end of its rope, is also familiar. 6 The rarest method is that of the bul- 
locks and leathern bucket (pur or moth). Part I. of this notice has already 

1 See the compiler's note on the assessment of pargana Dudhf, p. 46. * Svpra, pp. 

340-41. 3 Gnzr., V, 30-31. * The terminology of the lever-well apparatus is as 

follows :— The lever Is called dhenkul \ the upright support or fulcrum on which it workf, 
hhamba; the peg which hinges the first into the second, pdtka ; the rope, bart; the earthen 
pot, kund ; and the little hollow dug for the reception of the water when first emptied beside tho 
well, tjhula. From tho ghula the water finds its way into the fields by little earth-built 
cbanuels. 5 This method of drawing water seems, however confined to certain limited 

portions of the three southern taksils. Of the :J1,(H9 wells iu the district, only 149 are worked 
on the char kid principle. 



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i 



IRRIGATED AREA. 595 

shown what, in various parganahs, is tho distance from the mouth to tho 
water of the well. 

A masonry ( paka ) well usually costs from Rs. 100 to Rs. 130 ; but a 
great deal of this expenditure is purely unnecessary. It in- 
cludes the marriage (jalotsarg) of the well to an ima<*o ; 
and this ceremony may eat up from Rs. 10 to Rs. 50 and more. When the 
wooden frame (jammat ) of the well is deposited in its place, the carpenter 
throws over it a sheet. Into this tho members of tho founder's brotherhood 
cast from 2 pice to 1 rupee each, accord ing to their means and liberality. The 
sum squandered by a leading landlord would hardly fall short of R3. 200. 
" On account of its expense," writes Mr. Wynne, " the ceremony is often 
delayed one or two years, during which time the family of tho builder will 
make no use of the water." About Rs. 20 are spent in providing the villinro 
B rah mans with food, money, and raiment. Similar offerings to the workmen 
employed may of course be considered as wages. But the 100 or 150 men 
collected and despatched for tho work by the proprietors of surrounding villages 
do not deem that work one for which wages may be rightly demanded. The 
construction of a masonry well is a holy deed ; the porridge, coarse sugar, and 
spirits given to the labourers are regarded in the light rather of a marriage 
feast than of remuneration. Tho cost of providing fuel for burning the bricks 
rarely falls upon the founder ; for to assist him in his good work his neighbours 
collect wood. His expenses are further reduced by the fact that for the top 
courses of the masonry mortar is rarely used. A good masonry well, sunk 
through firm clay soil, lasts for about a century. Its area of irrigation varies 
from 10 to 20 acres, but is generally nearer tho latter than the former, 

A masonry well is often built partly of fire-burnt and partly of sun-dried 

bricks. In this case it is called kacha-paka. and mav cost 
Unbricked wells* 

as little as from Rs. 50 to Rs. 30 only. It should last for 

10 or 20 years according to the nature of the soil : for a shorter period in sandy, 
and a longer in clayey earth. But the great majority of wells are mere cylin- 
drical excavations (chonra) unsupported by bricks of any kind. These may be 
dug for small sums descending as low as Rs. 5 or even Rs. 2. They water 
from 3 to 5 acres, and endure usually for some eight months only. The rains 
too often reduce them into mere crater-shaped depressions. 

The average cost of watering by sling-basket may be fixed at Re. \\ per 

acre. Well irrigation with one pair of bullocks and 

unga . ^^ bucket costs about 10 annas. But in the rare cases 



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596 BASTI. 

where more than two buckets are used a well ceases to be the chcapcsf'kind of 
waterer. The cost per acre of working two buckets is Re. l r ^ ; but three will 
raise the expenditure to Re. 1|, and four to Rs. 2J. It will be remembered, 
however, that these are averages. The cost varies of course according to the 
number of waterings which the crop demands. Barley, peas, and the minor 
spring crops are often watered only once, though generally twice ; wheat always 
twice and sometimes oftener ; poppy from three to five times ; and sugarcane 
as often as eight. The first watering of the spring crop is called i>atik. 

The available statistics touching the area under irrigation are not of the 
most convincing kind. According to the provincial an- 
swers to the Famine Commission (1878), about 600,000 
acres, or 48 percent, of the total cultivated area, are irrigable ; while about 
380,000 acres, or 28 per cent, are Actually watered. But these figures must be 
roceived with some caution. The area, 164,000 acres, which they represent as 
watered for the autumn harvest, seems altogether exorbitant ; and irrigation 
from other sources being commonest, 1 that from wells should hardly have been 
credited with 254,000 acres. But the settlement reports, which return the 
watered as exceeding the un watered area in every parganah except Bansi and 
Binayakpur, are perhaps even less satisfactory. If correct, they prove that at 
the beginning (about 1860) of the assessment term now current, irrigated and 
unirrigated cultivation measured 762,079 and 333,822 acres respectively. Bat 
they serve also to show that since the beginning (about 1840; of the last assess- 
ment-term irrigation -had greatly increased. In the five parganahs, 2 whose 
statistics for the earlier period existed, it had extended by 35,806 aores. Several 
causes which formerly impeded its more rapid extension have been recounted 
in the Gtorakhpur notice. 3 Irrigation details for separate parganahs will 
be found in the parganah articles at the end of this notice. 

From irrigation we pass to the less savoury subject of manuring. In 
Basti, as elsewhere in the fertile sub-Himdlayan belt of the 
provinces, this process is comparatively rare. The princi- 
pal source of manure is the muck-heap ; but human excreta and the stalks or 
other refuse of plants may be mentioned as minor fertilizing agencies. Tho 
muck-heap accumulated just outside their premises by every family of cultiva- 
tors contains about 5 tons of miscellaneous refuse. In it tho droppings of cattle 
form a very small ingredient ; for, except during tho rains, when they cannot 
be dried, they arc almost always burnt. It has been ascertained that elsewhere, 
» S * ss» Write8 Mr * """^k^ 8011, * Ras61pur, Bansi, Nagar, Basti, and Mahauli. 



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MINOR AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES. 597 

in the neighbourhood of large towns, far more can bo realized from the sale of 
such droppings as fuel than from the increase of produce which would result 
from their application to the land. Here, however, there is little doubt that 
firing could be more cheaply procured from the neighbouring forests and the 
numerous decayed mango trees. " But as this, " writes Mr. Wynne " would 
involve the necessity of a little enterprise on the part of some, aud a little cash 
expenditure on the part of all, it is considered better that the population should 
content themselves with the home-made article." But though the dung of cattle is 
burnt, its manuring virtues are not completely lost in the process. The ashes are 
added to the muck-heap, and some portion of the ammoniac vapours given 
out in burning must afterwards descend on the soil. When the weather is too 
wet for the preparation of fuel cakes, a fair amount of droppings find their way 
to the muck-heap. But when used as manure they are not used, as in Euro- 
pean countries, with any admixture of straw. For straw and grass aro gener- 
ally burnt. No litter is generally placed in stables and cattle-pens, because 
it attracts snakes and insects. In this warm land, moreover, its fermentation 
is perhaps injurious to the feet and the general health of the cattle. But owing 
to its absence, all the liquid manure of those cattle is lost. 

The second kind of manure is, like both others, almost monopolized by the 
fields which immediately surround the village homestead. These are fertilized 
by the villagers themselves, who in rural India perform certain necessary func- 
tions al fresco. In Basti and Qorakhpur, where villages have more than the 
usual number of outlying hamlets, manure of this sort is of course more evenly 
distributed than elsewhere. 

Manuring with the leaves and stalks of plants is comparatively rare. 
Grain-parchers descend on the fields like locusts, removing all the leaves which 
will serve as fuel for their ovens. Elsewhere, indigo leaves are largely applied 
to the indigo crop ; but in Basti the indigo crop, always a rarity, is now com- 
pletely extinct. The stalks of all the commoner crops are used as fodder, 
roofing, or firing. About 15 inches of the stubble in jarhan rice fields is left 
uncut, with the view of its rotting or being burnt on the field. But the field 
is seldom enriched in either way. The cattle usually enter and browze down 
every stalk. 

Such are the manures of the district. The small available quantity of the 
first and third kinds is often claimed for his home farm by the landlord, and 
surrendered by all but the better and more independent class of tenants. 
Manure is never bought ; and the only cost incurred in manuring is that of 



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598 BASTI. 

carriage. This, however, is slight, for the only fields manured as a rule are 
those which being nearest the village are known as gcend. l On these, indeed, 
are grown all the more paying crops, all the crops which the peasant finds best 
worth manuring. Such are the wheat, poppy, and vegetables grown for the 
spring harvest, and the sugarcano which occupies the ground throughout the 
year. Barley is seldom manured, and the autumn crops never. One of the 
tahsildars thus estimates the cost per acre of manuring the different manured 
crops: — For wheat and poppy, to which are devoted 96 maunds of manure, 
Be. 1£ ; for vegetables (192 maunds), Rs. 3; and for sugarcane (160 maunds), 
Rs. 2J. Though intended probably to show averages, the estimate seems to 
err on the side of excess. If, however, it related only to sandy soils, it might 
not perhaps be deemed exorbitant. It goes without saying that such soils 
require more heavy manuring than loams or clays. The fields are manured in 
the months of September, October and November 2 only. The manure then 
bestowed is considered sufficient for the whole year. 

The minor agricultural processes may be passed over very briefly. 
Other agricultural After being ploughed the field is sometimes harrowed or 
procegses. rather smoothed by a heavy board which the plough bul- 

locks drag across it. This implement, which in up-country districts is called 
patela, here bears the name of henga ; and the ropes which attach it to the yoke 
are known as barha or lardrL Weeding (nirdona) is usually practised twice 
during the growth of the crop, the spud or scraper employed being called 
khurpi. Throwing a field into fallow (banjar ddlna) for any length of time is 
uncommon. The only case in which it ordinarily happens is that of a rice 
field wherein for the next spring harvest but one it is intended to sow wheat. 
As autumn returns such fields are left unoccupied, and called palihdr. The 
general name for other land tilled during autumn in preparation for a spring 
crop is ehaumds, 3 So far indeed from fallowing being common, it is lament- 
Fallowing and a ^y rare ' an( l overcropping is a vice which in some places 
overcropping. seriously threatens the productiveness of the soil. After 

remarking in 1864 that the crops of Basti are still markedly superior to those of 
neighbouring districts, Mr. Wynne continues : " Yet under the ruinous system 
of overcropping now practised the land must deteriorate, unless improved methods 
of ploughing, improved farmyard economy, an improved breed of cattle, and 
a scientific rotation of crops are speedily introduced," 

1 See above, section on Soils. * i. «. in Kafir and Karttik. * The reason being 

that they are fallowed or tilled without bearing a crop during the four months (chau mds) 
of the rainy season. 



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AGRICULTURAL TERMINOLOGY. 599 

To the last clause of this sentence a partial answer may be found 
in the fact that with the principles of rotation the people are not wholly 
unacquainted. Arhar pulse is followed in successive seasons first by 
barley or wheat, afterwards by a rice crop, and ultimately by gram, peas, 
mixed wheat and barley, or linseed. Rarely, indeed, are two 
" white crops" grown successively. Leguminous growths 
are interposed. The burden of such notoriously exhaustive plants as sugarcane, 
poppy, and arbar, is never thrown twice running on the same land. When 
after the reaping of the early rice the soil remains suitably moist, peas, lentils, 
gram or linseed will be sown. But only when that soil has been well and 
vigorously tilled will the rice crop be followed by sugar or wheat. Wheat is 
itself sometimes grown year after year in the same field. But it must be 
remembered that the field lies fallow during the autumn, and that in the long 
interval between the two crops it is well manured. When it is at length 
found that the powers of the land have been overtaxed, it is sometimes allowed 
to lie fallow for a year or so. A year before it is again sown, its clods are 
broken (lahua mdrna). This happens in August-September. . In January- 
February the ground is once more stirred, this time with a hoe ; and in the 
following June-July it is sown with an autumn crop. The same plan 
is pursued when cultivation annexes virgin soil, or when old waste is 
reclaimed. 

Fields bear different names according to the crops and harvests for which 
Nomenclature of they are successively tilled. Those prepared for the spring 
fields# harvest are either palikdr, takrdr, or okhdon. Palihdr lands 

have been already explained as those which, hitherto reserved for an autumn 
crop like rice, are during some autumn left fallow and carefully prepared for 
spring wheat. The wheat is sometimes followed by sugarcane. Takrdr fields 
are rice lands which after the reaping of their rice are ploughed and manured 
to bear, for the spring harvest immediately following, a crop of gram, barley, 
mixed barley and pulses, mixed barley and wheat, or lentils. An okhdon field 
is one ploughed in August-September, manured in the following month, and 
sown with vegetables, poppy, or tobacco. Fields prepared for the autumn 
harvest may be either mair, janewa, or maghar. A rrvair field is one which 
after long lying fallow is broken up in August-September and dug again in- 
January-February or May- June. In June- July it is carefully cleared of grass^ 
manured, and sown with a rice crop. Janewa lands, which have already borne 
a spring crop within the year, are sown with an autumn crop in June-July ; 
and maffhar fields are those which, having borne rice during the preceding. 

77 



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600 BAsTI. 

season, are in the same month ploughed, hoed, and weeded for a fresh rice- 
crop. 

Crops, too, bear different names at different stages of their growth. Be- 
fore their germination, while still imprisoned in the seed, they are known as 
Ua. The husked rice grain (ahun) which has been steeped in water to cause 
germination, is called jharai. Transplanted rice is during its seedling stage 
termed bihan ; when it has grown to some height, ddhi ; and when at its full 
stature, fadl. All cereals and millets, when the grain becomes distinguishable 
in the ear, are called ekonta ; and when nearly ripe, reonra. Ears of barley and 
wheat are when half ripe styled runL Pod-srrains whose flower has fallen 
and pod has formed bear the name of dudha. When the crop is half ripe it is 
termed gudra or gudri. 

Most of the implements which constitute the cultivator's stock-in-trade 
have now been named. Of those remaining to be mentioned, the most important 
are the pharaha or mattock; the paina or ox- goad; the hasua or sickle; the 
gardsi or chopper ; the nachtar or instrument for scraping the opium off the 
incised poppy-heads ; the tabu or rope-muzzle for the oxen who tread out the 
corn ; the pdncha or rake for collecting the grain on the threshing-floor ; and 
the or<f and Jckdneha } baskets. But enough has been written of agriculture. 
Pass we then to the vegetable products of the wilderness and the water. 

In a district where forest has been so extensively cleared as in Basti, 
what are generally known as the " minor forest products" are 

Vegetable pro- f course rara Chief amongst them are the flowers, fruits, 
ducts of the wood ° 7 

and the lagoon. leaves, gum and bark of several trees above enumerated. Such 

are the aonla, dsidh } babiil, bahera, bambu, wild date, harra^ 
wild jujube, lhair, mahua^ mainphal, jxtrda, &n&piydr m The rattan cane issparsely 
encountered iu moist places. Twigs (htsrant) are collected for fuel. Several 
long grasses are used either for the same purpose or for thatching, matting 
screens, basket work, and rope. It will here suffice to mention the species 
known as khar, bankets (Spodiopogon angustifolium), and ktis, with the flag- 
like ndr. Thatching with grass rolls 3 inches thick costs about Re. 1 per 
hundred square feet ; and, on the whole, tiling is a cheaper form of roofing. 
Amongst forest products that are not vegetable let us note honey and lac. 
Wild honeycombs aro occasionally found in trees, whence they are detached 
by Bhars, Musahars, and other men of low degree. The same classes collect a 
trifling quantity of lac, sometimes paying a small cess to the landlord from 
whose trees that commodity is gathered. In places the lac insect (Coccus 
lacca) is regarded less as a boon than as a nuisance. It afflicts the Brfihmana 



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Vegetables. 691 

by frequenting and not unfrequently killing their favourite plpal. " The 
remedy," writes Buchanan, " to which these wiseacres have recourse is to cut 
a branch on which the insect has fixed, to carry it to Prayag (Allahabad) and 
to throw it into the sacred stream. On this all the insects on the tree perish." 
Though a good deal of tasar silk is used in the district, and though &sna trees 
on which to rear the silkworm (Antherea paphia) which produces it are com- 
mon, sericulture is unknown. 

Amongst the products of lagoons and ponds the principal are the seeds 
(makhdna) of the water-lily, wild-rice {tin, Una or tinni), and the water-nut or 
water-caltrop. The seeds of the water-lily (Anneslea spinoaa?) are fried and 
eaten. The wild-rice, which at the end of the rains springs up along the 
edges of the shallow water, corresponds apparently to the pasai of Rohilkhand. 
When its grains ripen they drop off into the wisps of grass with which the 
rice-heads are tied together. But it is in places the custom to sling round the 
neck of the gatherer a narrow canoe-shaped basket, about three feet long, 
which as he advances whisks under the ears and collects the falling seed. 
By a convenient fiction, which denies that this wild-rice is a grain, Hindus 
permit themselves to eat it on fast-days. The water-nut, being widely 
and systematically planted, deserves a wider and more systematic descrip- 
tion. 

The various species of the trapa or water-nut are, or have been, a familiar 
The singhira or water- f°°d * n many parts of Europe and Asia. Quoting the 
nut - authority of Pliny, Captain J. F, Pogson 1 affirms that 

the European species natans supplied bread to the ancient Thracians. It is 
said that specimens of the same variety have been found in a very perfect 
state of preservation amongst the old lake-dwellings of Switzerland. But in 
southern Europe such nuts are still ground into meal. They are known in France 
as water-chestnuts (marron d'eau), and at Venice as Jesuit's nuts. In China 
the " ling " or trapa bicornis is an important article of diet. But we are 
now dealing with the Indian species, bispinosa, which Captain Pogson con- 
siders far superior to the Chinese. The husks of both Chinese und Indian 
species are provided with two horns or spines, from which they derive their 
specific names. It may be added that the vernacular title of the Indian 
variety is derived from a word (sing) meaning horn. This variety seems to be 
most widely cultivated in Kashmir, where, for great part of the year, it 
supplies the bulk of the population with a regularly-eaten food. Here it is 
planted chiefly by Kah&rs, in their character of boatmen and fishermen ; 
1 In a paper read before the Agri* Horticultural Society of Calcutta, 1878. 



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602 BAST!. 

but the Kdndu Bharbhunjas 1 also engage in its cultivation. The time 
of planting is the earlier half of the rains. Before the end 6f that 
season, when the nuts ripen, many a tank is one great floating bed of 
singh&ra leaves. The nuts are eatable either raw or cooked, and remain eatable 
till the end of November. If dried in the sun they will continue edible 
for years. They can, however, be ground down into a material for sweetmeats, 
porridge and bannocks (chapdti). Captain Pogson is for having the water-nut 
planted largely by Qovernment on the great Southern Indian tanks and 
elsewhere. But its fine roots are accused of accumulating mud, and of thereby 
reducing the depth and value of the reservoirs which bear it. If, moreover, 
the crop were more nutritious or remunerative, it would be more generally 
grown by the people themselves. They can well gauge the comparative merits 
of staples wherewith their fathers were familiar. 

From cultivation we pass, as usual, to the droughts which have checked its 

progress. Some account of those which preceded the 

separation (1865) of this district from Gorakhpur will 

be found above. 2 We need here deal only with those of 1868-69, 1873-74, and 

1877-78. 

The visitation of 1868-69 deserves no harsher title than that of a scarcity. 
No relief-works for famished paupers were needed ; no 

Of 1868-OT, 

poorhouses for the old or weak were opened; no land-tax 
was remitted or even suspended. Mr. Henvey is right in saying that from the 
famine of that year " Basti escaped almost entirely." 8 The monsoon broke 
tardily though regularly in the middle of July ; but after a few days of rain 
there succeeded an interval of drought which lasted till near the middle of 
September. The long absence of moisture had meanwhile wrought consider- 
able damage. In the trans-R&pti part of the district it was reckoned that 
three-sixteenths* of the rice had perished. But eight-sixteenths were still 
flourishing, and the remaining five-sixteenths were reported as recoverable in 
the event of opportune rain. South of the R&pti half of the same crop had 
been lost ; but here, as already shown, rice and other autumn growths supply 
some quarter only of the whole yearly outturn. To save their rice the people 
utilized the lift-irrigation which in most years is reserved for the spring crop. 
But after brief storms in September the rain again ceased. By the beginning 
of November and in the north of the district half the rice-crop, both av#ani 

1 Sherring's Castes and Tribes of Benares (1873% p. 309 ; and infra, Baris and Bharbhunjas. 
1 Pp. 342-44. 8 Narrative of the drought and famine in the North- Western Provinces, 

1868-70, p. 59. 4 The rupee containing 1 6 annas'; it is common in Indian reports to imitate 

the natife practice and reckon fractions in sixteenths. 



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distress of 1873-74. 603 

and jarha/ni, 1 had failed. But the minor autumn growths had yielded a fair 
return, and the rising spring grains looked promising. In the south of the 
district little or nothing had been lost since September. The autumn millets 
had returned a fair harvest, and the prospects of the spring crop were good, 
notwithstanding the want of water. The lagoons and ponds had been almost 
emptied to save the rice-crop. In the south-western corner of the district the 
agriculturists manfully supplied the deficiency by the construction of cheap 
earthen wells. But in the south-eastern corner, where the soil is sandy, the 
evil was not so easily remedied. 

The results at the close of the autumn harvest were that while about three* 
fourths of the ausani or early rice had been realized, a still larger fraction of the 
jarhani or later crop had been lost But sufficient grain to serve for seed was 
in most cases garnered ; and the stalks of the wizened crops did duty as fodder for 
cattle. The spring crop had in most places received its first or patik watering. 
Its appearance was so hopeful that there was no fatal rise in prices. The 
market was well stocked with grain. There arose no complaints of distress. 
No emigration took place. Had Government imprudently opened relief-works, 
the cultivators might have been withdrawn from the spring cultivation, which 
demanded all their labour, all their care. 

Some winter rain in January, 1869 still further improved the outlook. In 
February it was anticipated that while the outturn of arhar pulse and sugar- 
cane would be normal, that of wheat, barley, and peas would be some four or 
six-sixteenths below the average. Of gram a half crop only was expected ; 
and the expectation was justified, for gram suffered severely. But in March, 
when the spring crop was garnered, it was found that the harvest was not 
more than 25 per cent, below par. An eighth only of the land usually tilled 
in spring had been left untilled that year. Prices, which had been somewhat 
enhanced by the exportation of grain to less favoured western districts, fell. By 
April they had regained their usual standard. All anxiety was quelled. 

In 1873-74 Basti became the western outskirt of the tract affected by the 
great Bengal famine. This and the neighbouring Go- 
* rakhpur were the only North-Western districts which 

that hungry year smote with any approach to severity. In climate and agri- 
cultural conditions their northern tahsfls closely resemble the Lower Provinces. 
In both rice is the staple crop. And in spite of the contradictory clamour 
which at the time arose from irresponsible quarters, the Bengal famine of 
1873-74 was mainly a rice-famine. 

* Vidaupra sections on rice. 



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604 BASTI. 

The raius of 1873 l^egan a fortnight later and euded somewhat earlier than 
usual. While they fell, they fell with less than the average heaviness. At their 
close the lagoons and other reservoirs of the north-Rapti parganahs were found 
almost empty. An extensive failure of the later rice was deemed inevitable, and 
the result justified the expectation. The scanty spring crops of this tract would 
at best prove a slender staff of life ; but even these were unpromising. The 
twice-cropped fields, on which a vernal crop should have succeeded the rice, 
were little better than earthenware. The winter rains, which make all the 
difference between a good and a bad spring harvest, held off. The advances, 
offered by Government for the construction of wells, offered but a partial 
remedy. In mid-January a frost of uncommon severity nipped the arhar and 
other tender pulse crops. But in the first week of February the long-delayed 
rain fell in moderately heavy showers. At about the same time the exporta- 
tion of grain to Bengal ceased and prices became less inflated. The starvation 
which seemed imminent was averted, and in its place was threatened mere 
hunger. The spring cereals could not, however, be hoped to supply the 
whole population with food. The fasting poor were invited to labour on 
road embankments and other public works of a kind which did not demand 
skilled labour. In March the average daily number of persons thus relieved 
reached 2,200. The Collector was now authorised to propose, where needful, 
remissions or suspensions of revenue. In order to meet betimes the demands 
of the autumn cultivation, advances for the purchase of rice-seed were direct- 
ed. The seed was procured from Nepal; but of the sanctioned Rs. 5,00,000, 
Rs. 43,209 only were disbursed. 

Distress reached its highest point early in April, 1874, when the daily 
muster on the relief-works averaged 28,000. As the harvesting of the spring 
crops began, as the real deficiency of the outturn became clear, prices once 
more rose. But a harvest there was; though grain was dear, the depleted 
market was replenished; and by the end of April dearth was held to be 
declining. The numbers employed on relief-works continued, nevertheless, to 
increase; and at the time just noted reached 84,000. Were the labour and 
discipline sufficient to exclude mere idlers in search of light work and cash 
wages; The question was decided when the Lieutenant-Governor (Sir John 
Strachey) visited the Benares province. 

His inquiries resulted in the conclusion that there was no distress so severe 
as to deserve the name of famine. Hosts flocked to the relief-works, not so 
much because they were hungry as because they there found pleasant employ- 
ment at a season when agricultural labour is always at a standstill. The 



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FAMINE OF 1877-78. 605 

attraction consisted "in the light work, in the liberty of going at night to 
their houses after attending a sort of vast picnic during the day, and in the 
wages earned at a time when ordinarily they had no employment in the fields 
and had to live on their harvest savings." 1 It was found that the labourers 
were buying not only necessaries but luxuries. Orders were therefore passed 
that a larger tale of work should be exacted, while the wages should be 
reduced to the lowest sura needed for subsistence. The rates hitherto paid had 
been for a man 1| anna, for a woman -J-, and for a child •§-. Men's wages were 
now reduced to one anna, and those of the younger children to |th. 

It was in the following month (May) foreseen that with the downpour of 
the rains some change of system would be needed. The congregation of vast 
multitudes at an unhealthy season and on outdoor wt>rk was for sanitary rea- 
sons impossible. There were issued, therefore, the following prospective 
rules : — First, that able-bodied persons of the labouring class should be employ- 
ed on bond fide public works, at the usual rates of pay ; second, that for such 
persons of the same class as were incapable of hard labour easy employment 
should be found on roads or in poorhouses ; third, that for those altogether 
incapable of labour gratuitous relief should be provided ; and fourth, that 
those who on account of caste or other prejudices refused to accept relief on 
the above terms should receive exceptional treatment. The poorhouses were 
to be worked on the principles that relief should be given as a rule in the 
shape of cooked food, and given only to those in actual want; that everyone 
should work who could; and that working paupers should remain the whole 
day within the walls. These preliminaries settled, warning was given that 
the existing relief-works would be closed. And poorhouses were opened at 
B&nsi and Basti. 

This was the beginning of the end. The labourers on the relief-works 
continued indeed to increase, and in the last week of May numbered 127,000 
daily. But in the same week fell showers ; early in June the regular rains 
set in; and all apprehensions of further dearth vanished. By the end of the 
month last named the last relief-work was closed. The bulk of the able-bodied 
paupers returned to till their fields. The poorhouses for the old and infirm, 
which had opened with an attendance of about 80^, sheltered in August about 
1,800 inmates. But in September the number fell to 1,200, and at the begin- 
ning of October to 550. On the 21st of the latter month all poorhouses wero 
closed. The State expenditure on relief-works for the able-bodied had by this 
time amounted to about. Rs. 4,28,500. The expenses of poorhouses and other 
lAdminUtraiio* Report, N.-W. 1\, 1873-74. 



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606 



BASTX. 



institutions for infirm paupers were deemed "the fitting object of private 
charity. They amounted to Rs. 9,640. But of this sum Government also, in 
contributing to the Central Charitable Belief Fund, had contributed its share. 
The next and last dearth, that of 1877-78, may be called a famine. 
Whether many of its victims died of actual starvation 
is perhaps doubtful ; but directly or indirectly it con- 
siderably raised the death-rate. A comparison of the mortality during five 
corresponding months of the affected year and its predecessor will at once put 
this fact beyond question: — 

Deaths in 



and of 1877-78. 



Norember. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


1876. 


1877. 


1876. 


1877. 


1677. 
1,984 


1878. 


1877. 


1878. 


1877. 


1878. 


9,885 


2,768 


2,514 


4,894 


6,911 


1,79* 


6,639 


4,207 


4,413 

m 



The story of the calamity opens in the usual way. Not much more than 
a fifth of the usual rain fell during the monsoon of 1877. While the average 
fall from June to September inclusive had for five years 1 been 51*9 inches, it 
was this year 11'3 only. Again, the northern rice-crop almost completely 
failed. The minor autumn grains yielded but a fourth of their usual outturn. 
The prices of food climbed high. During the last three months of the year 
the condition of the poorer classes was considered critical. On the 22nd 
October a poorhouse was opened at Basti ; and in January, 1878, similar 
establishments at B&nsi and Menhd&wal. The number of inmates was inconsi- 
derable ; but, before the end of the famine, relief operations had become far 
more extensive than in the whole remainder of the Benares division. 

Till the end of February distress continued to increase. For some five 
weeks from the 19th of that month work for a few able-bodied paupers was 
provided on the Basti and Menhddwal road. Meanwhile, however, the harvest- 
ing of the spring crops had begun to give employment and bring in food. 
The outturn of wheat and barley was fair ; but that of the inferior grains 
was much below the average. On the 21st March the poorhouses at B&nsi and 
Menhdawal were closed. And here perhaps the famine might have been expected 
to cease. But the spring crops were after all insufficient to satisfy the wants 
of a district which had already lost, in rice, its principal means of subsistence* 
In May signs of unusual poverty and hunger appeared. People might be seen 

1 1871-76 iachutaet 



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FAMINE OF 1877-78. 60? 

wandering from village to village in search of employment and food. Some* 
crossed the border for Nep&l and others for Oonda. On the 28th May and 8th 
June, respectively, relief-works were opened on the Rudhauli-Bansi and B&nsi- 
KakrahigMt roads. Towards the end of the latter month distress reached its 
highest point. 

In the beginning of July works on the Belwa dam were opened as a 
measure for the employment of all fully able-bodied persons requiring relief. 
But the number of people who patronised this new venture was small ; and 
after a few days the Gh&gra, swollen by the fall of the rains, flooded out the 
few who had attended. The two works named towards the end of the last 
paragraph were fully manned until towards the close of September. On tbe 
26th of that month employment on the Kakrahighat road Was closed, fot 
with good rains and the rising of the autumn crop suffering and prices had 
abated. By the 26th October, when the Kudhauli and Ban si road-works were* 
closed, the famine was over. But the Basti poorhouse remained open till ad 
late as the 14th of March, 1879. 

" The extent of the distress," writes Mr. C. A. Darnell, 1 "must be gauged by 
the number of recipients of relief iu various forms. A few were foreigners from 
neighbouring districts, but their number amongst so many was inconsiderable 4 . 
In tlie week ending 14th June the daily average was 28,982, or 1*96 per cent, of 
the district population ; in the week ending 21st June, 52,886, or 3*59 per cent. ; 
in the nine days ending 30th June, 63,908, or 4'27 per cent. ; in the week ending 
7th July, 46,243, or 3*13 per cent. ; in the week ending 14th July, 29,685, or 2*01 
per cent. Thence each week showed a decline. The 7th September showed 
0-98 per cent., and the 14th October 019 per cent." It may be added that, of 
tbe principal grains and pulses, rice attained its maximum price (8 sers the 
rupee) in July, 1878 ; jodr millet (10f£ sers) in February of the same year 
wheat (10f sers) in October, 1877 and July, 1878 ; gram (10f sers) in Feb- 
ruary, 187^ ; and barley (11£ sers) in the preceding November. The total cost 
to the State of relief-works, poorhouses, and other famine measures was 
Ks. 1,50,350. In the case of poorhouses the Government grants were supple- 
mented as usual by private subscriptions (Rs. 2,788). In more spontaneous 
charity a conspicuous lead was taken by the Raja of B&nsi, who at stated times 
bestowed a regular dole of food on a certain number of paupers. Dearths as 
severe as that just described do not often afflict a district where water is so 
near the surface and river communication so good as in Basti. 

i Then Officiating Commissioner of the Benares Dirision. See his No. 41 r dated ISth 
March, 1879. 

78 



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608 BASTI. 

At times and places the excess of water is almost as mischievous as its 

want. In Part I. of this notice was said enough of 
Floods and blights. . . . . . 

inundation from rivers ; but such inundation often 

works much mischief. Untimely rain is a fertile source of blight, whether of 
the reddish-yellow kind called rust (garuhi) or of the dirty-black kind called . 
smut (s&hu, ddwa). When showers fall before December-January the wheat 
is almost sure to prove a grand success. But if they descend after that month, 
when the grain has filled out in the ears, more or less of blight is the conse- 
quence. By rain which falls too soon after November- December the poppy 
plant is said to be killed. 

But the crops have also several insect foes. Such is the so-called white- 
ant (termites) ; such a worm named tdngra, which devours the roots of the 
rice. Of the tdba, the khaira, and the gandhi nothing is known except that the 
last attacks grain while in a state of milky unripeness. For all these pests 
the people can find no better cure than the incantationsof BrAhman priests 
(guru) or low-caste magicians (ojha). In days when four-footed marau- 
ders were still extensively mischievous, they adopted the more practical remedy 
of daily sprinkling their crops with an infusion of cowdung and water. Even 
the wild buffalo rejected green food thus treated. It is oddly enough stated 
that in those times neither wild elephants nor deer ever attacked pulses. 

In poverty of minerals Basti resembles most other great alluvial plains. No 

,,. , .. , building-stone is found within it. The nodular lime- 

Mineral kingdom. ° 

„ * . ,. stone named kankar is, however, quarried in several 

Nodular limestone. , 

places. In most of these it is soft, clayey, and fitted 

less for road-metal than for the manufacture of lime. But along the banks of 
the Manarfima, in tappa ManwarpAra of Nagar, it is found in hard and excel- 
lent knobs. The. following varieties of kankar are locally recognized ; but the 
distinctions between them are distinctions of colour rather than composition : — 
Telia or dark ; bichhua or scorpion-shaped ; balua or dhfarehwa, so-called, 
because found in sandy or saline soil ; mfed, dudhia or cMn, that is white, 
milky, or lime-coloured. The price of nodular limestone depends on its solidity, 
but for well-cleaned knobs amounts to about Re. 1-12-0 at the quarry. To this 
must be added from 8 to 12 annas for cartage. Mr. Thomson calculates that the 
cost of metalling with six inches of kankar the one metalled road of the district 
would be Rs. 1,426 a mile. But he allows to the metalling a width of 9 feet only. 
Lime is made from kankar and shells. Burnt with ordinary refuse, kankar 
j iime lime costs about Rs, 10 per hundred cubic feet ; but 

with charcoal or firewood from Rs. 15 to Rs. 16. 



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BUILDING-MATERIAL. 609 

Shell lime is prepared as a rule with the latter kinds of fuel. That of 

lacustrine shells (sip) is employed for the finer varieties of cement and fetches 

about Rs. 3 per maund. But that made from snail (ghonghi) and other shells 

costs about Re. 1 only ; or if burnt with refuse, as little as 12 annas. The 

lacustrine shells are gathered by saltpetre-workers (Lunia) from the sides of 

streams and lagoons. The banks of the rivers Ami, Manardma, Kudna and 

Raw&i, and of the' Bakhira lake, may be mentioned as good localities for their 

collection. As a material for whitewash and other plasters they sell unburnt 

at from 5 to 8 annas the maund. 

Bricks are manufactured by the potters (Kumhdr), who may be found in any 

village of average population. The sun-dried or kacha 

article is of two sizes, the larger called gtima, and the 

smaller, gtimi. The former sells for about 2,000, and the latter for about 4,000 

to the rupee. Kiln-baked or paka bricks made by native methods are of five 

different sizes, the grUnni, g^ma, adhgazi, lakhauri, and ilmdssdhi. The gumi, 

measuring 9" X 4 \" X 5", costs when of the best quality Rs, 8 per mille; the 

gfima, 12* X 6" X 3", Rs. 10 ; the ftdhgazi, 18* X 6" X 2", Rs. 20 ; the lakhauri, 

4£ , 'x3*Xl /r , Rs. 100 per ldkh; 1 and the ilmfc-sahi, 5^x4' , Xl", Rs. 115 per 

I6kh. The brick used by the Public Works Department measures 9* X 4£" X 3*. 

The price of its first class is from Rs. 6 to 9, of its second from Rs. 4 to 

Rs. 5 the thousand. 

The wood burnt in the kiln is generally that of the mango, the tamarind, 

„ t . ^ a or the figs called bargad and pdkar. A kiln contain- 

and brick-dost. e * 

ing a lakh of bricks would require about 2,000 maunds 

weight of firewood ; 25 maunds, that is, for every 1,000 bricks. Brick-dust or 

surkhi, an ingredient in plaster and other builder's messes, is either ground from 

brickbats in a kind of circular mill [chakki) or burnt from kiln-earth. Prepared 

in the former manner it sells from Rs. 9 to 12 and even Rs. 16 per 100 cubic 

feet, according to quality. But when made of kiln-earth burnt with refuse, it 

has a price of Rs. 6 only. 

Like bricks, tiles are made by members of the potter caste. As shown in the 

Gorakhpur notice, flat tiles cost about double the price 

of round ; while in the rains the price of all tiles rises to 

almost double its usual amount. But when 10* long, kiln-burnt, and of the best 

quality, they may be said to fetch on the average Rs. 4 per mille. Tiling with 

such material costs about 8 annas per 100 square feet. The price of building 

1 A lakh «1 00,000. It is probably because sold in lots of that quantity that the brick is 
caUed lakhauri. 



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610 



BASTI. 



wood has been shown under the heading of trees. And the road is now 
clear enough for passing to the most important and engrossing subject of 
this notice — the people themselves. 



PART III. 
Inhabitants, Institutions and History of the District. 
The first attempt to count the people of the district was made about 1818 
by Buchanan, 1 But the requisite agency and the 
requisite knowledge of census methods were wanting ; 
and the attempt can be regarded only as a rather praiseworthy failure. Some 
account of Buchanan's calculations has been given above. 2 Such of hig 
figures as seem to refer to Basii are these: — 



Population. 



Police circle, 


Area in square 
mi let. 


Number of 
families. 


Sanichara 










874 


17,182 


Mahuadabar 


HI 


• •* 






2.2 


10,226 


Khamaria 




• ** 


• ■• 




220 


20.195 


Doraariaganj 


• •• 


... 


• •• 


••• 


326 


15,901 


fasti 




■ •• 


• •• 


§ , 


808 


7,285 


Maghar, part of 




• •• 


*M 


l# 


240 


7,560 


Bakhira 


... 


• •* 




.«• 


46 


2,143 


Bansi 


♦ •» 


• #• 


• •• 




687 


19,654 


Dliuliyabandar 


• •• 


• »« 


••* 


... 


ISO 


3 


Lautan, pait of 


••• 


• •• 


••• 

Total 


... 


103 


2,129 




9,651 


102,478 



If we assume that Buchanan's estimate is correct, and that the family in-f 
eludes about five persons, the total population would, just before the Ncp&lese 
>var, have amounted to 512,390. His Sanichara corresponded pretty closely 
with pargana Mahauli ; his Mqhu&dabar with parganah Nagar; and his 
Khamaria with parganah Amorha. Of Dhuliya-bandar, a tract between the 
Jam war and Til&r rivers, part now lies in Nepal and part in parganah Bdnsi. 
The Mahuadabar which gave its name to the circle sq called was destroyed 
pluring the Mutiny, and must not be confused with the Mahuadabar of parganah 
JSasti. The four circles of Vazfrganj, Nawabganj, Mankapur, and L&lganj, which 
Buchanan enters as parts of the Gorakhpur-Basti district, are now included 
jn Gonda. 

A first regular census was taken in 1847. As, however, Basti then formed 
a portion of Gorakhpur, and as the great Maghar par- 
ganah has since then been divided between the two 
districts, the results can be shown but approximately. One-third of tfrp 
* Eastern India, Vol. II. J J'p, 3*5-46. 



Censuses of 1847, 



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POPULATION. 



611 



Maghar population deducted, the inhabitants of the district numbered 937,771, 
or about 345 to the statute square mile. 1 There were 823,733 Hindus, of 
whom but 194,537 followed occupations unconnected with agriculture, Out of 
116,038 Musalmdns 81,157 were engaged in cultivation. Of the 15,714? 
parishes (mama) in the united district, about 7,382 must have belonged 
to the modern Basti. Of those in Basti, Birdpur 2 alone is returned as possess- 
ing more than 5,000 inhabitants. But being a forest grant, Birdpur is a group 
of villages rather than a single village. The census of 1847 neglected to 
record separately the male and the female population. 

The next, that of 1853, remedied this defect It showed for the district 

as it now stands a total population of about 1,235,720. 

But for the same reasons as in the last case the 
figure is merely approximate. The density of the inhabitants was 453 to the 
square mile. And those inhabitants were thus classified:— 





Agriculturists. 


Non-agricvilurisU. 


Total. 


Grand 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Agricultu- 
rists. 


Non-agri- 
culturists. 

254,982 

55,813 

810,795 


total. 


Hindus 
Musaloians ... 


423,401 
59,724 


385,484 
66,316 


132,793 
29,100 


122,189 
26,713 


808,885 
116,040 


1,063,867 
171,853 


Total ... 


483,125 


441,800 


161,893 


148,902 


924,925 


1,235,720 



It will be seen that in six years the population had increased by 295,949 
persons. The number of parishes may be reckoned at the same figure as 
before. But two only ( Birdpur with 11,715 and Meuhd&wgi with 7,273 ) had 
more than 5,000 inhabitants. 

The penultimate census, that of 1865, showed for the first time details as 
to castes &nd occupations, the proportion of children 
to adults, and other important statistics. The Basti 
figures were still unsevered from those of Gorakhpur; but after the same 
deduction as before, the population may be roughly returned as follows:—* 



1865, 





Agricultural. 


NoNr AGRICULTURAL. 






Males. 


female*. 


Total. 


Males. 


Female*. 


Total. 


Grand 
total. 




Adults. 


Boys. 


Adults. 


Girls. 


Adults 


Boys. 


Adults 

767906 
18,516 


Girls. 




Hindus, 

Musai- 

nians. 


292,359 
45,387 


206,325 
52,794 


277,999 
45,349 


168,782 
27,642 


946,065 
151,172 


81,870 
17,432 


56,154 
12,456 


49,410 
9,861 


264,340 
58,265 


1,210,405 
209,437 


Total. 


338,346 


239,119 


823,348' 196,424 


1,097,287 


99,302 


68,620 


95,422 


69,271 


322,605 


i,419,842 



1 That is, a square mile of 640 acres. Unlike succeeding enumerations, the census of 1847 
employs as its standard of area the larger geographical square mile (847*2 acres). * In 

the report of 1847 the name is misprinted Tirpore. 



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612 



BASTl. 



The only town which in this district contained more than 5,000 inhabitants 
was Menhdawal (7,349). But the Birdpur grant, with its population of 
13,671, is again entered as a single parish. 

The next and last enumeration was that of 1872. As the latest and most 
perfect yet obtained, its statistics deserve greater 
detail than those of its predecessors '> and the follow- 
ing table shows the population for each parganah separately. By adding to 
the totals of that table 41 non- Asiatics ( 17 females ) and three Native Chris- 
tians ( 2 females ), the census shows a gross result of 1,492,994 inhabitants. 



. 


Hindus. 


1 


mobamm1dak8and othkb8 
not Hindus. 




• 

a 










Total 


« 


Tahsil and par- 
ganah. 


Aged less than 
15. 


Adults. 


Aged less than 
15. 


Adults. 




§ 

r 
& 

*3 

3 




6 

3 


•3 

a 


oi 

i 


6 


«5 

"3 
3 


."3 

a 
•a* 


-a 
2 


6 
1 


«5 

-a 
3 


1 


Tahsil Domarid- 
























ganj. 
























Rasulpur ... 
Baosi West 


29,118 
16,484 


22,924 
13,234 


36,048 
21,061 


36,185 
20,873 


8,706 
6,588 


68,71 
4,422 


11,278 

7,049 


10,971 
6,886 


87,150 
50,182 


7*,96! 
44,764 


495 
878 


Tahsil Bdnri. 
























B&nsi Bast ... 
Binayakpor M . 


60,201 
4,177 


40,341 

3,251 


67,007 
5,854 


68,7*1 
5,583 


10,227 
441 


8,464 
380 


13,648 
701 


13,049 
636 


741,033 
11,178 


125.575 
9,850 


476 
429 


Tahrtl Haraia. 
























Amorha 

tf agar West ... 

Basti West ,- 


36,965 
14,102 
13,616 


2",678 
10,f72 
10,728 


50,466 

18,427 
17,463 


47,654 
17,845 
16,904 


2,754 

1,129 
1,346 


2,220 

948 
1,061 


3,559 
1.629 
1,653 


3,423 
1,458 
1,597 


98,784 
35,187 
84,077 


80,975 
30,923 
30,290 


652 

586 
670 


Tahsil Basti. 
























Nagar Fast 
Bssti East 
Mahauli West ... 
Maghar West ... 


1,149 
20,252 
17,835 
10,836 


8,904 
15,949 
14,164 

7,985 


15,782 
29,004 
26,387 
16,389 


15,288 
26,643 
24,974 
14,444 


1,551 
2,8t)7 
2,164 
1,980 


1,361 
9,110 
1,754 
1,566 


2,140 
4,049 
2,979 
2,59* 


2,902 
3,676 
2,883 
2,579 


80,622 
66,112 
49,865 
30,768 


97,750 
48.378 
43,775 
26,664 


614 
611 
548 
621 


Tahsil KkaltU 
abad. 
























Mahanli Bast ... 
Mdghar Bast 


22,248 
33,896 


16,958 
25,661 

218,149 


32,261 
47,580 


99,935 
44,025 


2,213 
10,024 


1,778 
7,987 


8,168 
18,829 


8,158 
18,306 


59,680 
(05,829 


51,899 
90,679 


528 

671 


Total ... 


270,868 


384,679 


868,469 


50,930 


43,919 


68,170 


65.778 


784,647 


688,333 


528 



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CENSUS OF 1872. 613 

In 1872, then, Hindu males numbered 655,547, or 52*9 per cent of the entire 
Hindu population; while the number of Hindu females was 581,618, or 471 
per cent, of that population. In the same manner the Musalm&n males 
amounted to 119,102, or 52'0 per cent., and the Musalman females to 109,685, 
or 480 per cent, of the total Musalman population. Or, taking the whole 
population, we find that there is a centesimal proportion of 53*2 males to 46*8 
females and of 84*7 Hindfis to 153 Musalmftns. In spite of the suspected 
murder of girl babies amongst certain clans, the proportion of females is 
slightly greater than that (46*7 per cent.) for the provinces at large. If the 
figures of this and of the two preceding censuses are to be trusted, from them 
may be obtained two important but perhaps fortuitous results. The first is 
that between 1853 and 1872 the proportion of males to females steadily though 
slightly increased; the second, that the Hindus increased only one-quarter as fast 
as the Musalm&ns. Whether either result is partly or wholly due to the practice 
of female infanticide amongst certain classes of Hindus must remain to be solved 
in some work of more speculative character. The calculations of the results 
themselves will be found in Mr. Tupp's Imperial Gazetteer of the district. 

In 1872 some attempt was for the first time made to collect the statistics of 
bodily infirmities. These statistics tended to show the 
existence within the district of 67 insane persons and 
idiots (18 females), or *194 per 10,000 of the population; 204 deaf and dumb 44 
females), or 1 -4 per 10,000 ; 793 blind (206 females), or 54 per 10,000 ; and 135 
lepers (23 females), or '92 per 10,000. The rate per myriad is in every case below 
the average for the provinces at large. Insanes and idiots are separately shown 
by the census, but have here been lumped together. It is impossible that half- 
educated enumerators could have distinguished between the two classes. What 
Buchanan wrote of the district lepers forty-five years ago is still partly true : 
" Both kinds of leprosy are pretty common ; and the korh or korhi, that in 
which the joints fall off, is said to be on the increase. The people here do not 
separate the diseased from their families ; and some of them continue to live 
with their wives and beget children, who seldom escape the disease. The white 
leprosy would not appear to be hereditary, nor is it beheld with such abhorrence 
as the korh. It is commonly called sufeda and charakh." But it may be doubted 
whether, as in Buchanan's days, many black lepers commit suicide. The korh or 
black leprosy, he explains, is deemed the punishment of sin, and to expiate that 
sin " some go to Ajudhya and more to Prayfig, and throw themselves into the 
holy stream ; while others, to whom a distant journey would be inconvenient, 
throw themselves into a pit filled with fire." 



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614 



BASTI. 



At the satne time as the statistics of infirmities were collected the statistics 

of age. These latter are, for what they may be worth, 

shown in the following table. But it must be repeated 
that Indian rustics rarely know their own ages : — 



Statistics of age. 



Age. 



Vp to 1 year ... 

Between l & 6 years. 

„ 6 & IS .. 

„ 12 & SO 

„ SO & 30 

„ 30 & 40 

„ 40 & 50 

„ 50 & 60 

Above 60 years 



IlindHf. 



9* 



If 



•7,612 

107,823 

114,392 

103,637 

122,36 J 

94,286 

53,735 

27,189 

14,568 



bo 



41 

I6'l 

17-1 

15 5 

18-3 

14 1 

80 

40 

2-1 



-3 

a 



24,007 
96,143 
80,171 
69,108 
119,688 
i) 0,655 
51,272 
30,560 
20,124 



a 

3 
3 

, o 



be n 

c S 

a) a 



41 
16*5 
13*7 
1 1-8 
2fr5 
15 5 
8*8 
5S 
3'4 



Mu&almdni. 



2 



c * 

II 



6,039 
20,179 
20,715 
17,509 
91,489' 
16,829; 

9,426 

5,004! 

2,912 



4-2 

16-9 

178 

14 7 

180 

141 

79 

4-2 

34 



1 



4,359 

16,496 

14,966 

12,769 

21,623 

15,928 

9,148 

6,563 

9,831 



i 






40 

17-8 

14 

!!•• 

20-2 

14 9 

8*5 

52 

85 



total population. 



i 

ae 
3 



3S,C51 

128,003 

135,107 

121,146 

148,841 

111, UK 

63,162 

82,193 

17,4ft 



8g 

o o 

04 



41 
163 
J7S 
16*4 
18-3 
141 

8-0 

4 

22 



28,366 

114,039 

• *>,P7 

81,877 

141,310 

106,584 

60,421 

36,113 

23,950 



9 
3 

2 



9 

& 



41 

*»6 

13*8 

11-9 

205 

154 

87 

52 

34 



Castes. 



The percentages on total population are, as a rule, above the average of the 
provinces. And this fact tends to provB that Basti is not, on the whole, un- 
healthy. 

The facts attaching to the statistics of caste may perhaps prove less revolting 
to the reader. Distributing the Hindu population 
into four conventional classes, the census shows 
173,056 Brihmam (81,220 females) ; 44,274 R&jputs (19,240 females) ; 44,757 
Baniyas ( 20,827 females ) ; and 985,141 persons belonging to "the other 
castes" (460,331 females). 1 

» To avoid overloading our text with statistics, the proportion of each great class to the total 
Hindu population is shown in a note. And that proportion may be compared with the propor- 
tion in the provinces at large, thus :— 

Basti. North- Western Provinces at laryt* 

Brahmans „. 139 per cent 12 2 per cent. 

Kajputs ^ 85 „ 90 „ 

Baniyas ~. « « „ S'9 „ 

Othew ... 790 „• 74-9 „ 



Total 



1000 



100*0 



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BBJtHMANS. 615 

Legend divides Br&hmans into two great nations, of which one, the Gaur, 
colonised Hinddstan. 1 Of the five races into which 
this Gaur nation is again severed four are italicized 
in the following paragraph. 

The census classes the Brdhraans of Basti as u without distinction" 
(73,388), Sarwariyas (68,241), Kanaujiyas (22,150), Gaurs (2,813), and Gau- 
tams (585). Under the heading of u miscellaneous " it mentions also the 
following small tribes : — Sdrasut, Sangaldwipi, Lohma, Gorakhbansi, Kash- 
miri, Niwan, Eaojal, Sank&hdr, Balodra, Maithil, Maharashtra, Pachgoti, and 
San&db. Pachgoti sounds suspiciously like Bachgoti, which is the appellation 
of a Rajput and not of a Brahman clan. The names Pande, Shukul, Tiwari, 
Misra, S&ndel, and Vasisht are added. But the first four are mere honorary 
titles ; the last two are names of tribal subdivisions (gotra) ; and all are 
common to many Br&hman tribes. Such of these miscellaneous or minor 
clans as have not already been noticed 2 must await description in notices on 
districts where they are a little more numerous. Of the major tribes, the 
Sarwariyas are described in the Gorakhpur ; the Kanaujiyas in the Et&wa 
and Farukhabad ; and the Gaurs in the Aligarh and Meerut Gazetteers. 8 
Gautam, again, is rather a subdivisional title of several tribes than the name 
of any one tribe. There are, for instance, Gautam gotras of the Khatkul Ka- 
naujiyas, of the San&dhs, of the Bhuinhars and of the Sarwariyas. It is pro- 
bable that the Gautams of Basti belong mostly to the two last-named tribes. 
Of the Bhuinhars something has been said in the Gorakhpur and more 
remains to be said in the Benares notice. Meanwhile some further account of 
the Sarwariyas, the principal Br&hman clan of the district, will not be out of 
place. 

The Sarwariyas or Sarjiipdris derive their name from Sarwar or Sarjupdr, 
, the country "across the Sarju" or Ghagra. This tract 

included Gorakhpur, Basti, and part, if not all, of Gonda. 
Though belongipg to the great Kanauji'ya race, the tribe must not be confus- 
ed with that portion of the race known as Khatkul Kanaujiyas or Kanaujiyas 
proper. As Kanaujiyas, the Sarjup&ris of course claim Kanauj for their ear- 
liest home. But like tiearly all the Br&hmans of Basti,* they trace a more 
immediate origin to Ajudhya, just across the Ghigra. Ajudhya was the capi- 
tal of the deified Solar Rajput R&ma; and many families of Sarwariyas still 

1 See preceding volume, p. 576 (Bareilly). ' For some account of the Sarasuts see 

Gazetteer, III., 494 (Muzaffarnagar) ; of the Maithils, Gazetteer IV., 540 (Mainpuri) 5 
and of the 8anadha, VII., 64 (Farukhabad). 8 Sec above, p. 852; Gazetteer, IV, 

279 j VII., 63 ; and III., 856, 393. * See note on the castes of the district, Census Beport 

Of 1865, 

79 



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616 BASTI. 

assert that it was he who invited their ancestors to colonize this district. 
Some say that, on the conclusion of his successful campaign against the giant- 
king of Ceylon, he specially requested the original Sarwariyas to migrate from 
Kanauj Another less flattering account relates that by receiving alms some 
Kanaujiya Br&hmans lost caste in their own country ; and that the kindhearted 
Kama provided them with the means of forgetting their disgrace in a new land. 
Certain it is that, except by themselves, the Sarwariya Br&hmans are not re- 
garded as of equal rank with the Kanaujiya -Brahmans proper. 1 If, as Buchanan 8 
says, they assert superiority over the Kanaujiya?, it is merely because they have 
an uneasy knowledge that the Kanaujiyas are their acknowledged betters. 

The Sarwariyas have 1G clans or gotras, bearing respectively the names 
of Garg, Gautam, Sandil, Bharaddhwaj, Vasisht, Vatsa, Kasyap, Kasyap, 
Kausik, Chandrayan, Savaranya, Parasar, Pulasta, Vrigu, Atri, and Angira. 
These names are in several cases, such as those of Vasisht, Kasyap, Kasyap, 
Vrigu, Atri and Angira, derived from the appellations of great Br&bman 
saints. Though locally recognized, the distinction between Kasyap and 
Kasyap is doubtful. But St. Kasyap's son would have been called K&syap, 
and might, like his father, have founded a separate gotra. Each of the various 
clans has its honorary title or titles. Thus the Gargs are called Shukul and 
Pande; the Chandrfyans, Sdvaranyas, Par&sars and Kdsyaps, Pande; the 
Bharaddhwaj es, Diibe; the Vatsas and Gautams, Dube and Misra; the Kas- 
yaps and Kausiks, Misra ; and the Sandils, Tripdthi or Tiw&ri, But it will bo 
at once seen that this list does not account for all the clans ; and other titles, 
such as Ojha, Pathakh, Upadhya and Chaube might be added. Buchanan 
asserts that besides these 16 gotras or <c pangtis " 3 there are three others, which 
derive their names from places. What those names are he does not tell us ; 
and his statement may be doubted, as opposed to more modern authority. 
The three clans of the first rank are the Gargs, Gautams, and S&ndils. 

Amongst the Sarwariyas, but far below the 16 clans just mentioned, are 
sometimes placed others called Jutaha 4 or counterfeit. But these, as shown 
by the Gorakhpur tradition, belong more properly to the class named Sawala- 
khis. 5 The line between the Sarwariya and the Sawalakhi is often difficult 
to draw. But the former is the superior and the latter the inferior. The 
former will become spiritual adviser {guru or purohit) to a family of respect- 
able rank ; the latter will become a temple-priest (panda). But sacerdotal 
appointments of this kind can be obtained by comparatively few of either 

i Suprn, pp. 352-53. Starring \s Castes and Tribes of Benares (187*), P 29. ■ Eastern 

India (i83ti), p. 451. 3 Panthis ? 4 In Eastern India this name is misprinted 

Tutaha. ° Sec p. 353 j and for some account of the Sawalakh'g, pp. 351-52. 



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rXjptjts. 617 

class. u Where the number of Br&hmans is so enormous/' writes Buchanan, 
" only a small proportion could live by deceiving the multitude, which is the 
proper duty of Brahmans." A great many Sarwariyas have condescended to 
practise even that agriculture which they formerly so much despised. The 
number of Brahmans still deserves the epithet of enormous. Except Gorakh- 
pur, Cawnpore, and Allahabad, no district in these provinces has so many of 
that caste as Basti. 

The legendary origin of the Rajput tribes has been mentioned elsewhere. 1 

On the distinction between the Solar. Lunar, and Fire 
Rajput a. 

races it is needless to dwell further. But in tho fol- 
lowing list the names which appear on Tod's roll of the 36 Royal Tribes have 
been italicised. 

The R&jputs are returned as Siirajbami (9,491), Baia (7,212), Ponivdv 
(1,058), Gautam (4,512), Parwar (1,216) ; ChauJidn (1,313), Bhfcraddhwftj 
(4,211), Raghubansi (1,895), " without distinction" (1852), and miscellaneous. 
Under the last heading appear the following sparsely represented tribes : — Ko- 
nohik, Shiiibansi, Rajkum&r, Kulhans, Jaiswar (or Bhatti), Gahrwdr, Bluil 2 (ov 
Bhfila-Sultan), Pundir, Kinwir, Dikshit, Sakarwdr, Sarnet, Bachgoti, Bah- 
mangaur, Rdthoi\ Bisen, Surwar, Kharag, N&gbansi, Orik, Gaur, Arail, Ba- 
ghel, Bhuinh&r, Mabrawar, Sarandwipi, Chavdraband, Bargi'tjar, Bhimla, 
Raikawar, Eatehriya, and Bansi. Bh&raddhwaj is a clan-name common to 
many tribes. The Bhuinh/vrs, who are just as often called Br&hmans as Raj- 
puts, have been mentioned under the former heading. Many of the miscella- 
neous tribes have been described elsewhere ; and those that have not are too 
small to enlarge this notice. A sufficient account of the Bais and Ponwars 
will be found in the Gazetteers of Bareilly and Farukhabad respectively- 8 
The subject of Chauhdns, genuine and spurious, has been exhausted in the 
Mainpuri and Bijnor notices. 4 There remain for description only the Siiraj- 
bansis, Parw&rs, and Raghubansis. 

All Rajputs of the Solar Race might perhaps be called Surajbansi.; but Su- 

„ ., . rajbansi is here the specific name of a tribe Of the 

Surojbansis. ° r m , . 

Solar Race the Basti Surajbansis of course boast 

themselves members. But their standing amongst Rajputs is not remarkably 

high ; and Mr. Sherring suggests that they were at first recruited from the 

degraded scions of many Solar tribes. 5 Such men would naturally have fore- 

1 Gazetteer, V., 676. » This tribe is, according to Sir II. Klliot, idem ion 1 with the 

" Balla" of Tod's list. 3 Gazetteer, IV., 545-57; and V., 286-1*7. * GiiEPftPf r, V., 

2SC-87 ; and VII., 68-69. B Gazr , IV., 545- 57, and V., 286-87. Castes and tribes of Benares, 
p. 225. 



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C13 sasti. 

gathered and intermarried under the common title of Surajbansi or sun-born. 
Both north and south of the Ganges plain, moreover, that title is a favourite 
assumption of highland aborigines who seek a Hindu pedigree. And there is 
some evidence in favour of the theory that the Surajbansis came from the 
northern hills. 

The Solar tribes are so-called because they claim descent from Ikshvaku, 
the grandson of the Sun. This Ikshvaku founded Ajudhya ; and his fifty-eighth 
descendant was the semi-historical R&ma. 1 Unlike the other Solar tribes 
who perhaps without exception trace their lineage to llama's sons, Lava 
and Kusha, the Siirajbansis find an ancestor in his brother Bharat As 
Raima's capital was on the common frontier of Basti and Faizabad, it 
is odd that the tribe should in neither district claim continuous residence 
from the time of his rule. The legend is that Bharat left Ajudhya 
to assist a mountain uncle against some invaders. The realm of this 
uncle was Kekaya, which has been diversely identified as Bhut&n and 
Kashmir. But wherever on the Him&laya this place may have been, on 
the Himalaya Bharat remained. He is said to have founded Srinagar on the 
Alaknanda in Garhwal ; and from the neighbouring Kumiun are said to 
have migrated the Mahauli Sruajbansis. 2 Some of the old kings of KumAuu 
may have styled themselves Surajbansis; for Surajbansi is the tribal name 
borne by the Kashipur r&ja, who claims descent from those princes. 

The Faizabad Surajbansis claim descent from one L&lji Singh, who, quit- 
ting Kum&un about 350 years ago, became servant to a grain -dealer in par- 
ganah Haveli Avadh. The grain-dealer having died childless owing to the 
curse of a hermit, Ldlji took possession of his property and became a great land- 
holder. The Oudh Gazetteer 3 asserts that the Mahauli or Mahson Surajbansis 
belong to the same stock as Lalji's descendants. The former certainly say 
that they came from Kumiiin three centuries ago, when under their chiefs 
Aiakdeo and Tilakdeo they expelled the native Rajbhars and Thdrus. 4 The 
prevailing gotra or clan is the S&varanya or Sftvaran. The rija of Mahauli 
or Mahson is a Surajbansi ; and members of the same tribe have played a 
dominant part in the history of parganah Amorha. But the Surajbansis are 
less influential in this district than in Oudh, whence they have the privilege 
of sending three chiefs to attend the Viceroy's court (darbdr). 

1 Tod's Rdjasfhin, Madras reprint (1873), I. p. 30. According to another legend Ikshrika 
was generated by a sneeze of the Supreme Being. See Grows ^'e Mathurd, 2nd edition, pedigree 
opposite p. 59. * Eastern India, pp. 456-57. * II., 78. The work in qneation is, 

however, mistaken in saying that the raja of Amorha was a Surajbansi. It is mistaken also 
In making Mahauli and Mahson separate principalities. 4 Gorakhpur- Basti settlement 

report, II., 204-05 j lid j as and Nawdbs of the North- Western rrovmces, 50. 



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PARWA'RS AND RAGHUBANSIS. 619 

The Parw&r R£jputs are often called Pal war and PaliwAr. Mr. Sherring 
, suggests that the title is perhaps identical with that 

of the Paliwal Baniyas, who derive their name from 
Palli in Mfirwdr, and are sometimes credited with descent from Bargiijar Kdj- 
puts. In support of this speculation he might have added that the Paliw&Is 
appear in Tod's list of those 84 mercantile classes which are " chiefly of Raj- 
put origin." 1 But, though the Parw&rs really derive their name from a place 
called P£li, they have in truth no connection with the Palwals. The Rajput 
tribe boasts that its ancestors were Sombansis, that is, members of the Lunar 
Race descended from Budh, the grandson of the Moon. As Hastindpur was the 
principal seat of this Budh's descendants, we of course find the Parwars claim- 
ing a north-western origin. They aver that in the 13th century they con- 
quered and took their name from parganah P&li of Hardoi. 2 The Parw&rs 
have ever since been a powerful race in Oudh and in those districts of 
the North- West which adjoin Oudh. Their valour and turbulence gave 
during the Great Rebellion much trouble in Basti, Gorakhpur, and Azara- 
garh. 

Once established in Pali, they rapidly extended their conquests eastward. 
Their original leader Pirthiriy, Patrdj or Burhdeo, is said to have wrested 
much of Faizabad from the R&jbhars. Like the great Mayyura Misra of 
Gorakhpur 8 he married four wives of different castes. From the first, 
a Rajputin, are descended the class of Parw&rs called Kaur ; from the 
second, an Ahfrin, those named Ahiriniya ; and from the third, a Bharin 
captive of his bow and spear, those known as Bhariniya. The fourth 
was a fair but unhallowed fay Qieokanya or ddin) whom he met in the woods. 
Her descendants are styled Dainiyas or Bantarias. It is said that one day this 
lovely demon was baking cakes. Her first babe, which was lying at some 
little distance, began to cry ; and in order to feed it, without at the same time 
leaving the cakes, she assumed gigantic proportions. At this moment her 
husband returned ; and finding the secret of her supernatural powers discover- 
ed, the lady fled for ever. Few, however, of the Parwars in this district claim 
her as their ancestress. The members of the tribe in Basti, Gorakhpur, and 
Xzamgarh are chiefly Bhariniyas and Ahiriniyas. 4 They boast that on grand 

l Sherring, 851-32; 288-84. Tod, I., 76 and 109. •The Census Report of 1865 

(note on castes of Aaanigarh), and after it Mr. 8herring speaks of Pali as in the neighbour- 
hood of Dehli. But as the former authority prefixes to the name of Pali that of Sandi, there 
was small excuse for this mistake. The several Oudh accounts quoted below leave no doubt 
as to what Pali is meant. 3 Supra pp. 363-64, 369 and 488. * C * rn . e S£ 8 C(Ut " 

and Tribes of Oudh, p. 51 ; Sherring, and Census Report of 1885, as above j 0*dh Gazetteer, 
I., 387-82, and III., 478-81. 



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G20 BASTT. 

occasions they rally from all parts of a circle some eighty miles round. But 
of this enough has been said above. 1 

About the Raghubansis there is less to be said. Their eponymous ances- 
tor, Raghu, king of Ajudhya, was the 55th successor 
Rnghubansis. 

of Ikshvaku and the great-grandfather of Kama, .fbey 

therefore claim to be Solar Rdjputs; and in this part of the country boast a 
continuous* residence from the reign of Raghu himself. It is probable, how- 
ever, that they crossed the Ghagra and entered Basti at a more advanced and 
less mythical date. All over the North-Western Provinces, they of course 
trace their origin to Ajudhya. But in Eta and some other districts they are 
content to forget Raghu and to ascribe their colonization to the leadership of 
Kusha, son of R&ma. In Basti they are fairly numerous, but not of much 
landed importance. Their principal clan or gotra is the Kasyap. 

The census classes Baniyas as Kasaundhan (9,795), Agarahri (9,702), 
Kfindu (29,85G), Agarwdl (2,107), " without distinc- 
tion" (1,977), and miscellaneous. In the last class 
are included the following small tribes : Panwdr, Golapuri, Kasarwuni, Dasa, 
Dhdsar, Bandarwar, Jaiswdr, Ummar, Bahwar, Sandil, Rajab, and Rastogi. 
Panw&r is perhaps a misprint for Palwar or Paliwal. Some account of the 
Kasarw&nfs will be found in the Gazetteers of Cawnpore and Et&wa.* The 
Dasas or half-breeds, as opposed to the Bis&s or thorough-breds, are a division 
of the Agarw&ls. The Agarwdls themselves receive more or less description 
in the Saharanpur, Aligarh, Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Et&wa, and Budaun no- 
tices ;* the Dhiisars in those of Sah&ranpur, Aligarh, and Cawnpore, 4 the 
Ummars in those of Cawnpore and Farukhabad f and the Agarahris in the 
lutter notice. Sandil or S&ndel is a name applied to clans of several Baniya 
tribes. It is noticeable that the Baranwdr, Unai, Kamalpuri, Rauniyar, 
and Baya Baniy&s mentioned by Buchanan have disappeared ; but his Jaun- 
puris, though unmentioned in the census, still exist. Of the four classes at 
present most numerous, the Kasaundhans and Kdndus alone await notice. 
The Kasaundhans belong to that upper rank of Baniyas whose widows do 

„ mm _ not remarry. They are in Jaunpur said to be 

Kasaundhans 

descended from the union of a Kdndu and a Sunar 

woman. 6 Lucknow is sometimes named as the first home of the tribe. But 

the names of its two clans, eastern (Purbiya) and western (Pachhaiyan), point 

1 Supra, p. 486. ' See Gazetteer, IV., 281 ; and supra, p. 64. 8 Gazetteer, II., 

182, 896; III., 859, 497 ; VI. # 280: and V., 45. « Gazetteer, II., ibid ; supra, p. 64. 

9 Supra, p. 64 ; Gazetteer, VII., 72. ° Note on castes of that district, Census lieport 

Of 1865. 



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MISCELLANEOUS CASTES. 



621 



and Hindus. 



to a more ubiquitous origin; and the Kasaundhans of these provinces are 
most numerous in the Hamirpur distiict. 1 Though here considered descend- 
ants of the ancient Vaisyas, the Kandus are in many 
cases mere agriculturists. Allowing the morganatic 
remarriage of widows, they are therefore placed low in the scale of Baniyas. 
They will eat the flesh of the wild boar ; but from intoxicating liquors they, 
in public at least, abstain. According to Buchajian,* Rajputs have no scruple 
in accepting water from their hands. About half the tribe are served by 
Brahman priests ; but the remainder follow the heretical sects 8 which have 
ever been favoured by Baniyas. They, as a rule, call themselves Madhyddesis 
or midlanders, after the geographical division in which ancient Hindu writers 
placed this district. To their other clans are assigned the names of Kanau- 
jiya, Gaur, and Chanch&ra. 

Hitherto wo have been dealing with tribes who claim descent from the 
The " other castes " of "twice-born" races of Manu — with tribes who have 
the census. some pride of pedigree, and supply the district with 

its leading families. We now descend to the lower strata of society, to those 
whom Manu would most probably have classed as Sudras. But though of 
mixed or aboriginal origin, these " other castes " form by far the most nume- 
rous and useful part of the population. Their names are shown in the follow- 
ing compilation from the census. But it should be premised that, though 
classed with Hindus, several of the tribes here mentioned are for the most 
part Muhammadan. The Julaha, the Ghosi, and the Taw&if would have found 
a more appropriate place amongst the Muslim population : — 



Aghori (religious-sectary) ... 
Aheria ... 

Ahfr (cowherd) ... 

Arakh (hunter and fowler) 
Atfth (religious sectary) ?... 
Baheliya (hunter and fowler) 
BahrOpia (mimic and buffoon) 
Bairagi (religious mendicant) 
Baiswar •• ••• 

Bajgi (musician) 
Bangali (native of Bengal) .. 
Banjftra ••• .♦• 

Bansphor (bambu- worker) .., 
Bargihi «~ ••• 

Barhai (carpenter) ..• 

1 Castes and Tribes of Btnares, p. 208. 
"Religion." 



44 

19 

158,184 

3,343 

3,214 

723 

104 

2,250 

474 

22 

6 

21 

5,818 

779 

M,577 



9 Eastern Indie, II., pp. 465-66. 



»/«/. 



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G22 



BA8TI. 



^ 



B*ri (maker of leaf-platters) 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


4,2*8 


Beld&r (navvy) ... ... 


Mft 


•M 


%•• 


••• 


4,145 


Bharbhunja (grain-parcher) 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


8,194 


Bbar... •*. , M 


••• 


— 


••• 


••• 


17,312 


Bh#t (minstrel) 


•M 


... 


••• 


••• 


2,318 


Bhuj... ,„ ... 


••« 


• •• 


*m* 


••• 


661 


Bhutahfr ... .^ 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


1,734 


Bbartia ... .., 


••« 


•M 


••• 


—9 


201 


Bind... ••• ••• 


•M 


— 


••• 


— 


451 


l^nai... «m ••# 


•M 


•M 


••• 


... 


16,989 


Cham&r (carrier) 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


M* 


205,658 


Chhipi (chintz-maker) M , 


• •• 


•M 


*•• 


•«• 


2IS 


Babgar (maker of leathern vessels) 


• •• 


• •ft 


••• 


•*• 


7 


Darzi (tailor) ... «•• 


... 


••• 


••• 


••• 


484 


Bb&nuk (formerly archers) 


• «• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


17 


Dhftdi, more correctly Dbarhi 


•M 


... 


••• 


•M 


1,597 


Dhobi (washerman) ... 


•*• 


••• 


• *• 


M« 


25,360 


Dhuna (cotton-cleaner) 


••• 


• •« 


••• 


••• 


414 


Dom ••• ••• 


••• 


• •• 


... 


•M 


745 


Dusftdh ... M . 


)•• 


••• 


••• 


•M 


425 


Fakir (religions mendicant) 


• •• 


••■ 


••• 


••• 


2*8 


Gadariya (shepherd) 


»•• 


M* 


••• 


••• 


9,140 


Gadhonia ... . M 


M« 


•M 


••% 


••• 


86 


Ghosi (Mnslim cowherd) ... 


••• 


••• 


—m 


••• 


64 


Gond *m ••• 


••• 


ttt 


••• 


••• 


777 


Gositn (religions sectary) ... 


M« 


— 


«•• 


••• 


1,858 


Bajjiin (barber) 


••• 


• •• 


••« 


••• 


19,766 


Halwii (oonfectioner) ••• 


... 


•M 


— 


•«• 


2,266 


Jajak or Jichak ... 


— 


• •• 


••« 


••• 


8 


Jaiswar ... ... 


— 


• •• 


•M 


• •• 


400 


vat ••• ..• .«• 


••« 


M* 


•M 


• •• 


915 


Jogf (religions mendicant) 


*•• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


173 


Jotishi (astrologer) ... 


... 


... 


••• 


••• 


85 


Jul£h6 (Muslim weaver) ... 


«.. 


••• 


••• 


• *. 


64 


Kabar (litter carrier) «•• 


••• 


••• 


•M 


••■ 


34,774 


Kalal or Kalwal (distiller) ... 


m 


••• 


• M 


••• 


10,715 


Eam&ngar (formerly bow-makers) 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


920 


Eanjar (string-seller) M# 


•»• 


••• 


••• 


• M 


866 


Kfnpri ... , M 


»•• 


«•• 


••• 


• •• 


68 


Karwal or Ear it ., ... 


... 


•M 


• •• 


••• 


30 


Easer6 (brazier) 


N« 


••• 


— 


••• 


514 


Eayasth or Kayath (scribe) 


0— 


••• 


— 


• •• 


18,681 


Ehagar 


• •« 


••• 


• •• 


9— 


30 


Ehikrob (sweeper) m . 


•M 


«•• 


•W 


— 


1,154 


Eharw&r 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


•M 


195 


Khatfk (pig and poultry breeder) 


• •• 


• •• 


•M 


••• 


6,302 


Khattri 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


102 


Eisan (cultivator) ,„ 


#•• 


••• 


• •• 


HI 


6 



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MISCELLANEOUS CASTES. 623 

Koeri (cultivator) ... ... m M# ... 24>574 

Koli or Kori (Hindu weaver) ... ^ „. ... 9,887 

Kumbar or Kohar (potter) .. ... .„ ... ... 98,688 

Kurmi or Kuobi ... ... ... _ _ 113,154 

Kuzagar (maker of ornamental pottery) ... ... ... 16 

Lahera (lacquer-worker) ... ... ... ... ... « 2 

Lodh or Lodha, cultivator (formerly huntsman) ... ... ... 19,080 

Lobar (blacksmith) ... ... ... ... ... i; f 644 

Maimar (builder) ... ,., ... ... „ 2 2 

Mali (gardener)... . ... ... M . ... ... 6 l,978 

Maltfh or Khewat (boatman) ... ... ... ... 31,178 

Mina... ... ... ... ... „, ... <j 8 

Murai or Murao (market gardener) ... ... ... U. 12,912 

Muaahar ... ... ... ... ... ^ 630 

Manakshahi (follower of Sikh religion) ... ••• ... 88 

Nat or Nagar (acrobat) ... ... ... .... ... 196 

Nunera or Nunia (saltpetre-worker) ... ... — ^, 17,602 

OrhorRorh ... ... .„ ... ... ... 139 

Palladsr (weighman) ... ... ... w ... is 

Pa's! (fowler and watchman) ... ... ... ... 16,277 

Patwi (necklace-maker) ... ... M . ... M . 901 

ftftin ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 17 

KaVjbhar ... ... ... ... ... M , 6,814 

Ramaia ... . M ... ... ... ... 480 

Rang war ... ... ... „. ... M , 203 

Sanif si (religious mendicant) ... ... ... „, 48 

oeori ... ... ... m. ••• ••• 840 

Sarahia ... ... ... m ... ... 2,499 

Sunar ... m. ... ... ••• ... 8,292 

Tamoli (betel-nut seller) . M ... » M ... ... 2,106 

Taskhar ... ... ••• MV ... ... 101 

Tawaif (prostitute) ... ... ••• ••• ... 109 

Teli (oilman) ... ... ... , M ^ ... 27,194 

Thathera (brazier) ... ... ... ... ... 1,218 

To these must be added 3,683 persons of unspecified caste or occupation. 
The Bang&lis were probably deemed too few to be distinguished otherwise than 
by nationality. It will be noticed that no cobblers (Moohi) or water-carriers. ' 
(Bihishti) appear on the list. The former have been included in the great army 
of Cham&rs, to which by caste they belong ; the latter, being mostly Muham* 
madans, may perhaps be sought in the returns of the Muhammadan Shaikhs. 
For the Kdchhis, so numerous in the Du&b districts, we may search in vain. Their 
place is here taken by Mur&os. An aboriginal race of Bhuiuhdrs is found in 
Chutia Ndgpur ; but the census does not enter the Bhuinhars as aborigines. If, 
on the other hand, they are Aryans, it is hard to see why they were not classed 

80 



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C24 BASTI. 

amongst the Br&hmans or R&jputs. The Ahirs, Arakhs, Baheliyas, Bairdgis, 
B&nsphors, Banj&ras, Barhafs, Bhars, Bh&frs, Ch4is, Chanrirs, Darzis, Dba- 
nuks, Dus&dhs, Jats, Jogfs, Jotiahis, Kam&ngars, Kaseras, Khattris, Koris, 
Kurrais, Lodhs or Lodhas, Nuneras or Lunias, Rains, Rajbhars, Sanifais, Sunars, 
and Thatheras are described in the fourth, fifth, present and seventh volumes 
of this series. The Kharwdrs, Gonds, and Seoris will be mentioned in the Mir- 
z&pur notice. For some reason unknown the census has included the last- 
named class amongst the mendicant and religious orders. Accounts of such 
orders have found or will find more appropriate place in the "religion "sections 
of this and other notices. We here deal with castes only ; and the same reason 
will save us the trouble of describing several classes which are as yet trades 
rather than castes. The Mai mars, Pall&d&rs, Bahrupiyas, B&jgis, Beldars, and 
Koris 1 are recruited by members of several different tribes. Their develop- 
ment into distinct and exclusive brotherhoods may be deemed incomplete. 
The following paragraphs deal briefly with most of the remaining castes. But 
. the occasional absence of material forbids exhaustive treatment. 

The Aheriyas or Abeliyas are a low and destitute caste descended from 
the Dh&nuks. Like the Dh&nuks they practise fowling ; but their chief em- 
ployment in many districts is the capture of snakes, which they eat roasted. 
They have hitherto been uncivilized, almost unclothed, and notoriously bad 

a „ ... characters. 2 But the pursuit of agriculture has in some 
Aheliyas and Bargains. _ _ „.j T , . „ „ 

places begun to mollify their manners. Mr. Sherrihg 

describes the Barg&his as a caste engaged chiefly in the domestic service of 

high-class Hindds. But they are here probably identical with the Bargaha 

Ahirs mentioned in the Gorakhpur notice. 8 The Baris are a caste with but 

«* . j «u 1 1. . one ^n, who stitch or peg large leaves into tempo- 

Bins and Bharbhunjas. r o o t~* 

rary platters and cups. But they are sometimes torch- 
makers, tree-fellers, and even barbers. As servants they enjoy the reputation of 
great fidelity. Mr. Reade quotes a proverb which says that "the Bari dies fight- 
ing for his master." 4 As its reputed ancestors were a barber and a female to- 
bacconist, and as its widows remarry, the caste ranks low in public estimation. 
The same may be said of the Bharbhunjas, who, according to Wilson, are descend- 
ed from a Kah&r and a Siidra woman. Like the Chara&rs and other low castes, 
they profess to be divided into seven clans (ktiri). All of these they can never 
enumerate ; but the names of six, the Kanaujiya, Saksena, Uttarrdha, Kdndu, 
Madhesia, and Jaisw&ra, are ascertainable. A class of Kayaths, belonging to the 
1 According to Mr. Growse (note on castes, Census Report of 1872), the Maimars and Koris arc 



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BHUJES AND OTHERS. 62# 

Mfithurfclan, parch grain, and arc therefore called Bharbhunjas. But with the 
Bharbhunja caste they have no connection. From the Halwais and Kah&rs that 
caste is not so easily distinguished. Some of its members, especially those of the 
Kandu and Kanaujiya clans, make sweetmeats ; and they are therefore mistaken 
for Halwais not only by Bharbhunjas of other clans, but by the Halw&is them- 
selves. The confusion is increased by the fact that the Halwais also have a 
Kanaujiya and a Madhesia clan. The various clans of Bharbhunjas, moreover, 
know little of one another. They neither eat together nor intermarry ; and 
are practically separate castes. Amongst the Kah&r clans, again, we find the 
names of Jaiswira and Kanaujiya. But from both Kah&rs and Halw&is the 
Bharbhunjas are separated by the prohibition of eating or wedding together. 
The Bhiij caste, which the census returns as existing only in this district, 
Gorakhpur, and Jaunpur, is perhaps merely a subdivi- 
sion of the Bharbhunja. Bharbhunjas are variously 
styled Bhunja, Bhorji, Bhar-bhuja, Bhad-bhtija, Barbhunja, Bhujari, and Bhun- 
jari. The basis of all these names is the Hindi verb bhunnd, to parch or fry; 
and the bhar, khad or bar sometimes imposed thereon is nothing more than an 
abbreviation of the Hindi bhdr, an oven. 

Bharti or Bhartiya is the name of both a Kunbi clan and a class of religi- 
ous mendicants. As the census does not include the 
yas * Basti Bhartiyas amongst the latter, we may hazard 

the speculation that the former is intended. But no positive statement can be* 
made on the subject. The caste is mentioned in the returns for this district 
and Sah&ranpur only ; and is not apparently to be confused with the Bharthi 
or wood -splitting tribe of Mirzapur. . 

The Chhipis are a separate caste, although their name simply means cloth- 
printer (chhapna, to print). It is almost needless to 
pw> * say that their claim to be considered Rathor RAjputs 

is frivolous. But they still inhabit in large numbers what was once tho old 
R6thor kingdom of Kanauj. They have given their name to parganah 
Chhibrfimau in that neighbourhood ; and also, perhaps, to Cbhapra in Bihar. 
The origin and nature of the Dh&dis or Dharhis, who are found here, in 

Gorakhpur and in EUwa, have hitherto baffled re- 
»nd Dhfinae. search. The Dhunas, Dhunyas or Kateras, whom the 

bastard official language of the country sometimes prefers to style naddaf, 
card or comb cotton. Musalmdns also engage in this occupation ; but the 
Hindis with whom we are dealing form a distinct caste. " The instrument 
by which the combing and cleaning arc performed," writes Mr. Sherring, " ia 



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626 BJLSTT. 

simply a bow. Squatting on the ground before a quantity of fresh 1 cotton, 
which is ordinarily full of dirt, seeds, bits of stick and so forth, the bow being 
in his left hand and a wooden mallet in his right, the Katera strikes the 
string of the bow and brings it quivering to the surface of the cotton, poitions 
of which adhering to it in light fibres are at once caught up by the string. 
The striking being repeated continuously, all the cotton is by degrees beauti- 
fully combed. And at the same time its foul particles, becoming separated 
from the fibres and being weighty, fall away of themselves/' 

Of the Doms something has been said above. 2 But for a further descrip- 
tion of this interesting gypsy tribe, whose name has 
been plausibly identified with the " Romany " of 
Europe, no apology is needed. That the Dom is an aboriginal, and that his 
abject degradation had its origin in his enslavement by Hindu conquerors, is 
almost beyond doubt. But his present habits amply account for the contempt 
and disgust with which even the lowest castes regard him. He is personified 
pollution. He is the public scavenger, the public executioner. He eats the 
flesh of disease-slaughtered swine, and prepares the pile for the unclean bodies 
of the dead. He is a wine-bibber, a thief, and a vagabond. From the hour that 
he pitches his ragged reed tent on some grassy roadside patch near the village, 
thefts are expected, and expected with justice* 

The seven clans into which he of course divides his tribe are by one list 3 
named Kunwar, Haz&ri, Sanwat, Bhagw&r, Chauhan, Chaudhari,and Balgaiyan. 
Of these the first is highest ; but clan distinctions are less regarded than the 
division into Maghaya Doms and Doms proper. The former, whose name is 
commonly derived from a place called Magh or Magha in the Gaya district, 
are quite irreclaimable. The latter sometimes adopt an honest life and enter 
the ranks of the Bansphors or kindred tribes. For the purposes of thieving 
and begging, the Doms divide the country into circles (ildka or gol). The 
residents of different circles will not, it seems, intermarry. A Dom who com- 
mitted theft in a foreign circle would quickly find himself surrendered to 
justice by his brethren of the poached preserve. So strict indeed are these 
laws of boundary that in some cases the customs of his fraternity would forbid 
him to leave his own circle. Thus in Gorakhpur a Dom of the Mati&rigganj 
tahsil cannot, under paiu of excommunication, pass west of the Robin river. 
Though they sometimes accompany burglars, Doms seldom if ever consent to 
bore the usual hole through the wall of the house attacked. The burglar's 
chisel faab'ii) they never carry. Their specialty in thieving is the use of the 

i i.e , raw. * Pp. 360-861. » That of Mr. W. Crooke, as , who has kindly fui- 

nished an interesting note on the Doms. 



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doms. 627 

rough knife called bdnk, with which they cut through the wicker screens 
sometimes used as doors. This bank is their only weapon. No Dom was 
ever known to use a gun* But on their raids the gangs sometimes carry 
earthen pots filled with burning charcoal ; and these when hard pressed 
they use as hand-grenades. On opening a campaign of larceny they often 
feign themselves Cham&rs or other men of low caste, bound on a pil- 
grimage to Ajudhya. In the connubial season of early summer they are 
particularly active, joining marriage processions with a view of begging or 
theft. Stolen property they barter for grain, the receivers being chiefly 
Chamfirs. When the theft is discovered and the Dom imprisoned, his kins- 
women tie a cloth or string round their heads in token of mourning. At the 
same time an obliging friend undertakes the protection of his wife, restoring 
her only when the convict returns from jail. 

In his relations with the fair sex, indeed, the Dom is somewhat licentious. 
The late Sah&i of Gorakhpur, the principal executioner in this part of the 
provinces, kept when not in prison four mistresses. But the Dom's licence is of 
the insolent rather than the gallant order, and his behaviour towards women 
often brings him into trouble. His marriage is celebrated without religious 
ceremonies, and without the intervention of any caste council (panchdyat). 
The tribe has indeed no regular foremen (chaudhari) to preside over 
assemblies of the latter kind. But the leading man of the circle is called 
master (mdlik), and felons of the Sahai stamp sometimes acquire great 
influence. 

The favourite viand of the tribe, both at marriages and other festivities, is 
pork. For the slaughter of fish or game they have neither net nor spear. 
They have not, like Hindtis, any half-sacred circle (chauka) within which to 
cook their food ; and content themselves with a mere fire-place of clods. 
Spirits, tobacco, and the intoxicating decoction (gdnja) from the wild hemp are 
greedily CQnsumed when obtainable. Drunken brawls are common, and few 
adult Doms are unmarked by knife-scars. But against washing their dirty 
linen in public they have a chivalrous dislike. They never prosecute, never 
appeal an order, and when arraigned never call a witness in defence. In jail 
they are noted for their filthy habits. But on prison diet they rapidly fatten. 
They are indeed a very healthy race. Against small-pox they take no precau- 
tions, even in the way of inoculation. But from fever they protect themselves 
by always encamping in open places. In wet weather they creep into villages 
to shelter themselves in cowsheds or under the eaves of houses. But they 
rarely remain more than three days in one place. When that place has been 



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628 



SASTI. 



thoroughly thieved, or becomes too hot to hold them, their women shoulder 
their few moveables and they decamp. 

The Doms believe greatly in magic (ojhdi). They have no special dance** 
or songs. But, like the Dus^dhs, they at weddings and on other important 
occasions worship a god called Rah a. Marching in a body to some open 
space, they plant in its midst a pair of stout barabns. Between and to these, 
again, they tie cross pieces of iron or wood which are supposed to represent 
swords. On this slender scaffolding they mount and perform a sort of funam- 
bulistic dance. A cock is sacrificed to the god ; a trench is dug ; a fireplace is 
built; while on the last, in an iron pot, are boiled milk, oil and clarified butter. 
The trench is about seven cubits long by one in breadth and depth ; and in it, 
after the acts just described, firewood is burnt to cinders. During this process 
the women sing and beat drums ; while one man pretends to feel the afflatu* 
of the god, and babbles nonsense. After some time he who is called gurud, 
pastor and master, washes his feet in the liquids boiled hard by. He walks 
through the smouldering trench, and is followed by the other men They are 
said to avoid burning their feet by applying thereto the juice of the mad&r 
(Calotropi8 gigantea). But as the man first through receives a present of about 
Rs. 4, it is presumed that the operation is not altogether free from danger. 

Like the Sunars, of whose vocabulary specimens were given above, 1 the 
Doms have a special slang of their own. And with Mr. Crooke's list of their 
more important phrases we may bring our notice of the tribe to a close : — 



English. 


Domani. 


English. 


Domani. 


Stealing ••• 


khinchni. 


To escape when the 


cheifi. 




phcmei. 


owner of the house 






Durei. 


wakes. 






dhajurl. 


To hide inside a house. 


natarja. 


To conceal stolen 


puthi. 


To summon the gang 


ruelfi, kisui, 


goods in the house 




to one place. 


chatarja. 


of another. 




To go away after a 


chilwa. 


Pice or coppers ... 


chobi. 


theft. 






kotiya. 


To call another to join 


bundi. 




WW, 


in a theft 




The arrival of a per- 


kaja. 


A rupee 


ghfimni. 


son at the time of 






dhola. 


committing an 






ghumiyi. 


offence. 




Silver ornaments ... 


chingbin. 


To call a thief from 


ruela* 




giro. 


outside into a house. 




Sold 


gandhan. 


To warn a confederate 


nautela. 


To bring goods outside 


siswd. 


that he has been de- 




a house. 




tected and that he 




Owner of property ^ 


kajw£b. 


should escape. 






mfikhar. 



1 Pp. 363 and 364. 



Digitized by 



I 



DOM VOCABULARY. 



629 



English. 


Domini 


English. 


Domaui. 




Escape to a distance, ' 


doni bbor. 


A petticoat 


dhanga. 




Second 


da war r a. 


A turban 


charath. 




We will stay 


dharab. 


You have committed 


dhamuri kardi. 




A thief 


dimur, nor. 


a theft. 






A dakait or gang-robber 


phiswar. 


You entered the house, 


r6jh ghar meg 


ghus- 


A man »•• 


chamachhi. 




wati. 




A husband ••• 


cbuhmardua. 


The child* is awake ... 


larka chah jagtir 


tama. 


A aife ••• 


chahmihraru. 


Let me sleep ... 


roso turi deso. 




A brother ... 


chah babua. 


A rope ... 


barahi. 




Father 


dada. 


I uni hungry 


chah bhukh laguri. 


Son . M 


bbaiyi. 


A Muhammadan ... 


chu salman. 




Sister-in-law ••• 


chuchki. 


Milk 


nuras. 




brother-in-law ... 


Bar. 


A Hindu 


Chilor. 




Sister's husband ••• 


chah bhantfi. 


A Brahman ... 


Dhaman. 




Woman ... 


buuri. 


A Kajput ... 


Dhachob. 




O woman ... 


chah bfinri. 


A Kurmi ... 


bhuvml 




A white ». 


piyar dhur. 


A Julaha ... 


Khulma, 




The baud «• 


khuug'ri. 


A Dhunia M . 


chah Dhunhi. 




Finger 


chah angurt 


Child 


babua. 




Head 


bsl. 


Beard 


buki. 




Mouth 


dhunkah. 


Moustache 


gouchh. 




(lose ... 


doka. 


Blood 


dhan. 




Eve 

Check ... 


khabin. 


Meat 


dhusan. 




puwa. 


Order 


chahkam. 




Wc are summoned ... 


chah barahat hai. 


An European 


Dharangi. 




Come .. 


chalo. 1 


An Englishman ... 


phangrez. 




There ..« 


aswan. 


Faeces „, 


chah jhara. 




Man ... 


bunra. 


A house , M 


chakari. ' 




He is not a man ... 


chah bunrab nahfn. 


Black 


dhara. 




We will be released «. 


huri nutaiyya. 


A gaghara (round 


koh gar. 




W e will be imprisoned, 


abdhi dhu tawabin. 


earthen pitcher). 






Jail 


mah kathin. 


A lota (round brass 


chimti. 




A bludgeon «. 


chinko. 


vessel). 






A chopper 


dttarasah. 


A thali (platter) ... 


kurpin. 




A sword ••• 


dharwar. 


A district ... 


rasman. 




A gun 


bardu. 


A hukka (native srnok* 


butab. 




A knife or dagger ... 


banki 


ing-pipe.) 






The frame of a door... 


dhuari. 


A washerman 


Quberi. 




Return ... 


ghuiniya deo> 


A Kayath 


Dhayath. 




A cowrie 


dhuri. 


Earth 


chan(i. 




Chest ••• 


lorn a. 


The ground 


dhela. 




Loins ... 


dhainar. 


A mat 


dhari. 




A Dom 


chah bhufc. 


A tatti (screen of 


khurjan. 




A Domin ... 


chali bhuti. 


roots, grass or reeds). 






A hole cut in the wall 


dhen. 


A bambu 


dhio. 




of a house .., 




Urine 


chahsab. 




A burglar's chisel ... 


nabarL 


A bale of cloth ... 


dhaper. 




A wall M . 


chit. 


Cloth 


iipari. 




'J he door ... 


dhuarah. 


Hair ... 


chahkapas. 




F arched grain ... 


chah bbfinja. 


11 read ... 


puti. 




JSattu (porridge) 


bartawa. 


Boiled rice »•• 


matka. . 




Bice 


dhu. a. 


Water 


turni. 




Halting-jflace or camp, 


der khaiyyaii. 


W heat w . 


dhaun. 




An old man 


dhorwa. 


Arhar pulse 


khuri. 




A voung man 


nawan. 


A necklet ... 


tfinri-rdti. 




A village 


dbaon. 


A nose-ring ... 


chapikh. 




A city 


dahar. 




rabakh. 





Mr 



1 In this phrase there seems nothing extraordinary or peculiar j bat it is included in 
' Crooked list. 



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630 



BASTI. 



English. 


Domini. 


Engliaa. 


DomanL 


Earring 


M% 


chipiyfirf. 
chabitara. 


What has become of 


rfi jah bunra ka boa ? 


A bracelet 


»•• 


your husband ? 




An anklet 


• •• 


flhirha, chiri. 


He is in jail ... 


banahath man. 


Arm ornament 


... 


chahbazu, ghumanchi. 


They are awake and 


Cbujgar dhamori nab- 


A woman's »4ri 


or 


dhipari. 


the theft cannot be ; 


hin bhurri, bhagor 


cloak. 






run away. 


pubbi. 


Dal (pnlse) 


••• 


chahdil. 


Mash pulse ••• 


khoro. 


A Gorait, or village 


Nudait. 


Gram pulse ... 


dhama. 


watchman. 






A horse ... 


chah nori. 


Tornn 


... 


kangara. 


An elephant «• 


khoti. 


The bambu frame at a 


nachara. 


A police darogha 


Narogha. 


door. 






Jamadar or sergeant 


nanida. 


To be caught 


••• 


tharu. 


(of police). 




Steal somexhing 


son, 


nori karwdrl bhaiyyft 


A constable „, 


dual an ga, lalangC. 


or h'«w can 


your 


chah mihraru kaisa A chaukidar or watch- 


nokidar, guidha. 


wife live? 




jCwi rahe. 


man. 


i 



Hajjftms. 



As a trade-name the term Hajjim or barber includes both Hindfis and 
Muslims. But the Hindu hair-dressers form a caste 
better known amongst themselves as Nai or Na4. All 
barbers are well employed in a land whose inhabitants are too lazy to shave 
themselves ; but as Hindfis rarely grow beards, the Hindu barber has far more 
work than his Muslim equivalent. The N&i shaves the head and face, pares 
the nails and cleans the ears. But he has also more important functions. 
Barbers are still in India what they have almost ceased to be in Europe, barber- 
chirurgeons. In the former country they are even yet the recognized cuppers 
and bleeders. They play also a considerable part in domestic diplomacy. They 
arrange marriages and superintend marriage-feasts. They are the envoys who 
invite guests to both weddings and funerals. On the seventh day after birth 
the new-born child and its mother are entrusted to the care of the barber's 
wife (naini). Amongst other clans of the caste may be mentioned the Sri- 
Bastak, Kanaujiya, and Bhojpuriya. 

Living simple lives and having healthy appetites, the inhabitants of India 
love sweets. The demand has produced a large supply 
of confectioners ; and such artists belong in Basti 
chiefly to the Halwai caste. The Halwais are divided into the usual seven 
clans, which in their case are named Kanaujiya, Pachpiria, Bauniwala, Gaunr, 
Madhesia, Tihar, and LakhnAwa. In the Lower Dtiab there are other divisions, 
such as the Chailha, Diibe, Bakarra, and Tilbhunja. Though these clans hold 



Halwais. 



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KAH4R3 AND KALJfLS. . 631 

as a rule quite aloof from one another, intermarriage is to some slight extent 
permitted. The Kanaujiyas, for instance, form an occasional alliance with the 
Madhesias. The Pachpirias have miscellaneous tastes in religion. They wor- 
ship five deities of their own ; but they also worship the banner erected in 
honour of the Muslim saint Ghazi Miyan, and the models of Saints Hasan's and 
Husain's tombs. They make pilgrimages to Bahraich, where the crescentading 
martyr, Salar Masaiid Ghazi, 1 was slain. But Gh&zi Miyan and Salar Masafid 
were perhaps, if they ever existed, the same. Buchanan mentions that, although 
keeping widows as concubines, the Halwais are deemed as of almost equal 
rank with the Baniyas. 

The word Eahar is said to be a contraction of Kandh&r, which is in turn 

„ . . derived from kdndha, a shoulder. For the Kahars are 

Kanars. . 

chiefly carriers of palanquins, whose poles rest on the 

shoulders. But here as elsewhere in India, improved modes of conveyance 

and the decline of litter-carrying have forced the Kahar into other pursuits. 

He is a domestic servant, a fisherman, an agriculturist, a grain-roaster, a net 

maker, a stone-breaker and a general labourer. It is probable, however, that 

the three former occupations, though more often adopted than formerly, were 

always to some extent adopted by the tribe. When Anglo-Indians preferred 

native habits and eschewed wheeled vehicles, a large staff of palanquin -bearers 

formed part of almost every establishment. The head or aarddr bearer 

remained as a body-servant when palanquins were discarded and the rest of 

the Kahars dismissed. The names of the Bombay servants hammdl and 

" boy" (bhoi) point to a similar origin. The Kahars assert that they have no 

more than seven clans ; but Mr. Sherting's researches have resulted in the 

discovery of twice that number, viz., Jaiswara, Gonr or Gond, Dhuria, Khar- 

wara, Batma, Rawani, Turha, Dhimar, Gonria, Muriari, Jetans, Kanaujiya, 

Baradiya, and Tonha. The same writer suggests that the Gonds may at first 

have been Hinduized members of the aboriginal tribe so called. The industry 

and respectability of the Kahars have secured them a high position amongst 

the lower castes, notwithstanding the facts that their widows re-marry and 

that some members of the tribe eat pork. 

Though of almost the same rank as Baniyas, Kalals or Kalwars are not 

„ , , , _ . deemed very reputable members of society. Their 

Kalals and Kanjars. j r 

widows do not re-marry j but they themselves too 

often indulge freely in the spirits which it is their trade to distil and sell. It 

is only fair to mention that one of their eight clans, the Bi&hut, neither sells 

1 See Gazr , II., 77, and V., 90. 

81 



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632 BASTI. 

nor drinks intoxicating liquors. Bidhuts, who abstain also from meat, earn their 

living as grain-merchants and bankers. The remaining sub-castes are the Jais- 

waras, who wed as many wives as they please ; the Bhuj-kalauras, descended 

from marriages between Bharbhunjasend Kalw&rs; the Surliis,Sunris or Sirdhis, 

who by eating swine's flesh have placed themselves lowest on the list; the Gurers, 

the Raikalars, the Bhojpurias and the Tanks. A ninth clan, the Rangkis, is 

sometimes added ; but the Rangkis, being Muslims, are not members of the 

Hindu caste. None of the clans intermarries with others. The Kanjars 

are a much lower tribe, who in their gypsy habits resemble the Doms and Nats. 

They twist cotton and hemp into strings, make large brushes for cleaning cotton 

yarn, and weave the screens of aromatic grass-root which are used to cool houses 

during the hot-winds. Some of them are bird-catchers and skewer small birds 

on spiked rods. They have seven clans, called respectively Maraiya, Sankat, 

Bhains, Soda, Lakarhar, Goher, and Dhobi-bans. The first six eat and marry 

together ; but will have nothing to say to the last, whose name implies connection 

with the impure race of washermen. Kanjars eat everything save beef. The 

„ , Karwals or Karils, found here and in DehraDun only, 

Kanrals. 

are probably identical with the Karauls of Benares. 

If so, they are a tribe of fowlers, who assume the Rajput suffix Singh. They 
too count seven clans ; but of these only four, the Haj&ris, Uttariyas, Purbiyas, 
and Koireriyas, are Hindu. The remaining three, including one named 
Turkiya, are Musalm&n. The various clans do not intermarry. 

" The Pandits here insist," writes Buchanan, " that the Kayasths are mere 
Sudras, and that they are lower than the Kindus ; 
butonaccountof their influence they are included among 
the gentry (ashrdf). All who have been long settled in this country live pure 
and are endeavouring all they can to elevate themselves from the dregs of the 
people ; but this has yet failed of success, as many of their kindred from 
other countries, who come here, still adhere to their impurity, and sit on the 
same mat with the pure men of this district. This impurity consists in drink- 
ing spirituous liquors, and in eating meat killed by a butcher. They do not 
keep widows as concubines. The highest Br&hmans will not eat in their house, 
and the sweetmeats which they offer, even to the lower Brahmans, must not pass 
through their hands. But a Brahman admits them without scruple to sit on 
the same mat with him, which he will not do to any individual of a lower 
tribe who does not happen to be r\ch or powerful. None of them here will 
touch the plough, but they have been highly favoured in obtaining their lands, 
the rents having in general been at the disposal of their kinsmen. Almost 



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KHAKROBS. 633 

the whole are of the Sribastav tribe. Perhaps 100 families of these are called 
Khara Sribastav, alleging that the others, who are called simply Sribastava, 
are bastards ; a compliment returned to the Kharas by the multitude. Many 
of the Srfb&stavs, descended of some families who accompanied the Sarnets 
from the west, call themselves Panels, and are generally allowed to be higher 
than the others. There may be 10 families of Ga