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Entered accordiug to Act of Congress, in the year ISoO, by 


In tlie Clcik's oCicc cf the District C<iurt of the United States for the District of 






In writing the *' Statistical and Historical account of the County of Addison," 
it has not been my intention to interfere with the histories of the several towns, 
which may be published ; nor state any facts or Statistics, exeept such as have 
some reference to the County generally. I should have been gratified to notioo 
some of the distinguished citizens in the several towns, especially such as have been 
in office in the county ; also the Academies and other High Schools, which have 
been established in several towns. But I was unwilling to take these out of the hands 
of the historians of the several towns, which they will be much better qualified to 
describe, and which are more properly within their province. 

This work was written, when the materials were collected, in 1855. Since that 
some changes of a public character have taken place, and some information ha« 
been received, which I have inserted in the text or notes ; but most of the chapters 
remain aa they were written, — no new materials have been collected. 



(county of ADDISON.) 



Territory — Face of the Country — Soil — Original Forests — Lime — Marble — 

Streams ■ 5 


County Seats — County Buildings— Courts— Clianges of the JuJiciary Id 


Indians — Indian Relics '2\) 


French Settlement in Addison County — Conquered by the Britisli and their 
Retreat— Grants of Land by the French -14 


New Hampshire Charters— Controversy with New Tork 51 

' 'pposition West of the Mountain — Negotiations with the Inhabitants of Ben- 
nington — AfKxir at Walloomsic — Capture and trial of Hough — Col. Reed's 
Claim — Captain Wooster's Grant — Dunmore's Grant oO 

Effects of the War and the Declaration of Independence on tlie Controversy — 

Conclusion of the Controversy 7i) 


Incidents of tlie War in the County of Addison 80 

Agriculture— Wheat — Transition from Grain to Stock— Sheep 0-i 

(.'attle— Horses lOfi 

Agricultural Society— Medical Society 113 

Population — Character — Advantages — Dangers 121 


No. I.— Chief .Judges of tlie County Court — Assistant Judges of County Court 
— County Cleiks— StateV Attorneys— Slieritl's — High Bailifife— Judges of 
Probate District of Addison, — District of New Haven 125 

No. II. — Statement of Agriculture, Farm^ and Imiilements, Stocks, Products 
&c., taken from Census of 1850 IGO 

No. Ill — A Table showing the population of the several towns in tlio Couniy 
of Addison, at each United States Ceusus, since Veriuout was admitted into 
the Union l?'l 




Soon after the organization of the Historical Society of Middle- 
bury, the importance of procuring, as early as possible, histories of 
the several towns in the County became a subject of consideration. 
Already nearly all the men Avho had shared in the occurrences 
and toils of the first settlement had passed away ; and their imme- 
diate descendants, who are the next best witnesses, will soon follow 
them. It is known to all, who have any knowledge of the subject, 
that no histories are so interesting to residents, especially descend- 
ants of the early inhabitants, as the history of the perils and hard- 
ships of the first settlement in their respective towns. Yet this 
subject had been everywhere too much neglected, and was likely to 
be neglected, unless some exterior influence should be brought to 
bear upon it. The subject was, therefore, brought more distinctly 
before the Society, at their annual meeting on the 29th day of De- 
cember, 1846. At this time a committee was appointed to consider 
the subject and make report at the next meeting. At a subsequent 
meeting, on the 23d of February, Professor Stoddard, one of the 
committee, made a report, which was accepted, and the plan recom- 
mended was adopted, and a committee appointed to carry it into 
effect. This committee appointed competent agents in the several 
towns, and sent to them circulars, embracing the plan recoiamended 


by the society. But the committee have found it a more difficult 
task than they had anticipated to accomplish so desirable an object. 
Some of the agents declined the undertaking, and others, who had 
given encouragement, neglected the task so long that all hope from 
them was given up. In many of the towns new agents were ap- 
pointed, and requested to perform the service. In two of the most 
important towns, gentlemen, fully competent to the undertaking, 
had collected materials, and made progress in the work ; but in the 
midst of their labors, one of them was arrested by death and the 
other removed from the State. Notwithstanding the faithful exer- 
tions of Philip Battell, Esq., Secretary of the society and one 
of the committee, a few only of the histories have been completed. 
But it was thought best to delay the publication no longer. On 
examination and inquiry, however, no person could be found willing 
to undertake the publication of the whole together, as was proposed, 
or separately, on account of the limited sale which must attend the 
work. Since the passage of the act of the Legislature at their ses- 
sion in 1858, it is proposed to commence the publication of the his- 
tory of each town separately, as fast as they are written, and the 
towns shall furnish the requisite encouragement. The histories are 
obtained through the agency and published under the direction of 
the society. But it is to be understood that the society take to 
themselves none of the credit or responsibility of the composition. 
These belong exclusively to the several authors. 

As the plan is designed to embrace the histories of all the towns 
in the County of Addison, it is thought proper to introduce them 
■with some general account of that territory as a whole. The County 
properly has no history. It has its geography and its geology ; but 
it has no active independent existence ; no acts or laws of its own 
to be recorded. It is a field rather, in which the State operates by 
its acts and laws. It has its courts, but they are established by the 
State ; and it has its officers, but they are appointed or commissioned 
by the State. Its history is only the history of a part of the State, 
and the history of the State is its history. This fact may justify 
the record we make of incidents, which properly belong to the hia- 
lory of th« ?tnt9. In doing so W9 have relied on original docu- 


ments, and do not design to give any general history, but to confine 
ourselves chiefly to such incidents as are not contained in our present 
State histories, and thus perhaps correct some views and facts stated 
by them. 

The County of Addison is situated on the west line of the State 
and nearly in the centre north and south; between 43° 50' and 
44° 10' north latitude. It is bounded on the west by Lake Cham- 
plain, the western boundary of the State ; on the north by the towns 
of Charlotte, Hinesburgh and a part of Huntington, in the County 
of Chittenden ; on the north-east by a part of Huntington, and by 
Fayston, Warren and Roxbury, in the County of Washington ; on 
the south-east by Braintree, in the County of Orange, and Roches- 
ter, in the County of Windsor ; and on the south by Benson, Sud- 
bury, Brandon and Chittenden, in the County of Rutland. It em- 
braces at the present time the following towns : 
Addison, Granville, New Haven, Starksborough, 
Bridport, Hancock, Orwell, Vergennes, 

Bristol, Leicester, Panton, Waltham, 

Cornwall, Lincoln, Ripton, Weybridge, 

FerrisburgHjMiddlebury, Salisbury, Whiting. 
Goshen, Monkton, Shoreham, 

The County formerly embraced an unincorporated tract of land 
known by the name of Avery's Gore ; the east part of which, by 
act of the Legislature passed November 6, 1833, was added to the 
town of Kingston, now Granville, and the north part was added to 
Lincoln, by act of November 12, 1849. 

This County was estabhshed by act of the Legislature October 
18, 1785, and the territory which it contained is described in the 
act as follows: "Beginning at the northwest corner of Orwell, 
then running eastwardly on the north line of Orwell, Sudbury, 
Brandon and Philadelphia, and then so far east as to intersect the 
west line of the first town, that is bounded in its charter, or some 
town or towns, which are dependent for their original bounds on 
Connecticut River as aforesaid, to the south line of the Province of 
Quebec, which is the north line of this State ; then westwardly in 
said line through Missisque Bay, &c., to the ceutre of the deepest 


channel of Lake Champlain ; then southTvardly in the deepest chan- 
nel of said lake till it intersects the -west line from the. northwest 
corner of said Orwell ; then east to the bounds begun at ; which 
territory of land shall be known by the name of the County of Ad- 
dison; and the east line of said County of Addison shall be the 
west line of the counties of Windsor and Orange, so far as they join." 

The County by this act embraced the territory to the north line 
of the State, so far east as to include a large part of the Counties of 
Washington and Orleans. The town of Kingston, now Granville, 
not included in the original boundaries, was set off from Orange 
County to this, by act of the 19th of October, 1787. The act es- 
tablishing the County of Chittenden was passed on the 22d of Octo- 
ber, 1787, making the north lino of this County the same as at 
present, except that it embraced the town of Starksboro, which af- 
terwards by the act of 1797 was included in this County. The 
town of Warren, which was included in this County, by act of the 
Legislature in 1829, was annexed to the County of Washington ; 
and the town of Orwell, then in the County of Rutland, was, on 
the 13th November, 1847, annexed to this County. These 
constitute all the changes made in the territory of the County since 
its first establishment, leaving in it the towns above enumerated. 

The eastern part of the County extends over the first range of the 
Green Mountains ; and five of the towns are situated on, or among 
the mountains, and others extend their eastern borders up the west- 
ern slope. About a quarter of the county is mountainous, or has 
a soil of similar characteristics. The soil of this tract is generally 
loam of variable compactness, and some is gravelly or sandy. Some 
of the hills are so stony or steep as to be better suited for pasture 
than for tilling. But large portions are not too stony or steep to be 
excellent tilling lands, and are quite productive of many valuable 
crops. When opened for a season to the influence of the sun, they 
produce good crops of corn, spring wheat and other grains, and they 
are especially valuable for grazing. The alluvial lands on the 
branches of White River in the eastern towns, and on other streams, 
are especially valuable for these purposes. The towns west of the 
mountains are in part very level, and in part, what may be called 


rolling, with a few hills too prominent to bear that designation. 
Among -which is Snake Mountain, a long ridge of moderately ele- 
vated land, lying on the borders of each of the towns of Addison, 
Weybridge and Bridport. In these towns, the prevailing soil is 
clay, of different degrees of stiffness, with some loam, gravelly and 
sandy land, on the more elevated portions, which rise above Avhat is 
said by geologists, to been once covered with water. 

On the borders of Lake Champlain, especially in the towns of 
Addison, Panton and Ferrisburgh, are very extensive flat lands, 
composed of clay, with a mixture of vegetable substances, which 
were obviously once the bottom of the lake. These lands, when 
cleared are remarkably productive of grass ; but for other crops are 
too stiff for easy cultivation, and are liable to suffer when the season 
is too wet or too dry. In this tract are several sluggish streams. 
One of which especially, being of greater extent than the others, 
bears the name of Dead Creek. It rises in Bridport, and runs 
northerly, through Addison and Panton and empties into Otter 
Creek in Ferrisburgh. This, as well as the others, is supplied to a 
moderate extent, from small springs at the bottom of the channel, 
but principally by rain water and melted snow, collected from an 
extensive surface in small ravines. The stream being nearly on a 
level with Otter Creek, the Water is increased or diminished by the 
rise or fall of the latter stream, whose waters set up into it. An- 
other called Ward's Creek, also rises in Bridport, and runs through 
a -corner of Addison and empties into the lake about a mile south of 
Crown Point, and another called Hospital Creek empties into the 
lake a short distance north of Chimney Point. The quantity of 
water in these depends on the height of the water in the lake. 
These sluggish streams afford water for cattle in their neighborhood, 
through the summer, except in the driest seasons. 

Lemon Fair rises in Orwell and runs through the eastern part of 
Shoreham, southeast part of Bridport, and northwest part of Corn- 
wall, and empties into Otter Creek in Weybridge. In Shoreham 
there is a considerable water power on this stream, but below that it 
is very sluggish, and its quantity of water depends much on the 
height of the water in Otter Creek, in the spring aad other freshets. 


On the borders of this creek are also extensive flat lands, which 
have no superior for the production of grass. 

On the borders of Otter Creek are also extensive flats, vrhich in 
the spring and other high freshets are overflowed by the waters of 
the creek. A part of the tract, especially in Cornwall and Whiting 
on the west side, and Middlebury and Salisbury on the east side, is 
so low as to be called a swamp, and, except small patches called 
islands, consists of vegetable substances to the depth, in some places, 
of ten feet. These lands when cleared and thoroughly drained be- 
come very productive. 

The natural growth timber on the fiat lands last mentioned, was 
pine, cedar, tamarack, soft maple, black ash and elm, with an occa- 
sional mixture of other trees. And similar timber was the growth 
of a similar swamp in New Haven, and another in Shoreham. On 
the flat lands on the border of the lake, the original timber was 
pine, oak, soft maple, black ash, and some other trees in smaller 
numbers. On the western slope of the mountain were a few patches 
of pine, and in other parts of the mountainous region were fine 
groves of maple, beach, birch, black cherry and hemlock, and a very 
handsome growth of spruce, which has become an important article 
for building and for exportation. In other parts west of the moun- 
tains were considerable tracts of pine and oak. Besides these the 
principal trees were maple, beach, ash, basswood, butternut, walnut 
and hemlock. The large quantities of pine and oak have been so 
freely used for building and for exportation, that they have already 
become scarce and high in price. 

In the western part of the County, the lands on the borders of the 
lake, especially in the towns of Bridport, Addison and Panton, are 
greatly deficient in water. There are no considerable running 
streams, except the dead streams we have mentioned. The living 
water from springs is very limited ; and some of these are so strongly 
impregnated with Epsom Salts, that the inhabitants have evaporated 
the water to procure the salts for medicine. It is said that cattle 
are fond of the water, and that the springs were much visited by 
the deer before the settlement of the country. In some parts the 
inhabitants are obliged to resort, to a great extent, to rain water for 


family use ; and farmers, who live at a distance from the lake and 
creeks, are much troubled in dry seasons to obtain water for their 
cattle. Except the limited water power on Lemon Fair in Shore- 
ham, there is none in that town or either of the towns above men- 
tioned of much value. And yet these towns are among the most 
wealthy agricultural towns in the County. 

The range of granular lime stone, which enters this State from 
Berkshire County, Mass., at Pownal, and passes through the Coun- 
ties of Bennington and Rutland, passes also through this County. 
The lime produced from it is of a very superior quality, and is 
thought, by those acquainted with it, to be much superior to the lime 
from Maine, which is common in the Boston market. Considerable 
establishments, — one especially, near the Whiting Railroad Station, 
built by L. P. White, Esq. — have been formed for manufacturing 
it ; and large quantities are already exported by the railroad to the 
eastern towns ; and the demand is such as to authorize an extensive 
enlargement of the business, where the requisite fuel is not too ex- 

From this range large quantities of marble are taken out and 
manufactured in Bennington and Rutland Counties, and exported to 
every part of the United States. The marble improves, in its fine- 
ness and compactness, as it advances north, and it is believed that 
the best in the whole range is to be found in Addison County. It 
is of a finer quality than any which has been discovered, unless it 
be the quarry in Sudbury near the south line of this County. It is 
pronounced by competent judges to be superior to the Italian marble 
for statuary, and the only doubt is, whether large blocks can be ob- 
tained sufficiently sound. No sufficient exploration has been made 
to settle that question. No persons have been able and willing to 
invest a sufficient capital for that purpose. Some injudicious ex- 
penditure was made on a quarry about a mile east of the village of 
Middlebury. But it has been in hands not yet able to maka a thor- 
ough exploration. Another quarry, on which there has been some 
expenditure, is at Belden's Falls, two miles north of the village of 
Middlebury. It was purchased, together with the water power, by 
the late Cd. Perkins, of Boston, and Perkins Nichols, of New 


Tork, both too far advanced in life to engage personally in ths 
business. Under a contract made "with them, a company of men 
undertook to make an examination of the quarry, under the super- 
intendence of a scientific gentleman, Professor Foster. The ex- 
amination was continued for several weeks, and a considerable num- 
ber of blocks were taken out, and the Professor, to the very last, 
expressed entire confidence that the marble was sound, and that a 
large establishment would soon be made for the purpose of working 
it. But the work Avas suddenly stopped without any reason known 
to us. 

Doct. Eben W. Judd, of Middlebury, was the first person who 
wrought marble by water power in this State. He and his son-in- 
law, Lebbeus Harris, carried on the business extensively for sev- 
eral years ; but both dying, the business was closed. They wrought 
principally the blue and clouded marble in their neighborhood, as 
more easily obtained. They in the meantime purchased the quarry 
of beautiful black marble on the lake shore in Shoreham, lai'ge 
quantities of which they wrought at their works in INIiddlebury. It 
was used principally for chimney pieces ; for which purpose we think 
there is none superior. Doct. N. Harris, who afterwards owned 
the quarry, in company with one or two associates, got out consid- 
erable quantities of the marble, and, in unwrought blocks, put it on 
board boats and sent it to New York, where it is understood there 
was a large demand for it. We believe the quarries in Addison 
County Avill yet be a source of wealth, as well from the lime as the 
marble to be obtained from them. 

There are also, in several places, valuable quarries of limestone 
suitable for building purposes. The most important are in Panton 
and neighborhood, from which are taken the beautiful building stone 
much used in Vergennes ; and a quarry of excellent dark blue stone 
in the south part of Cornwall, in convenient layers for building, 
with a handsome natural fiice. which was used for the front of the 
College Chapel,and for underpinning of many other buildings in Mid- 
dlebury. In "VYeybridge and some other towns is found valuable 
building stone. 

The County does not abound in metallic ores. " Iron ore is found 


in the eouth part of Monkton in large quantities. This ore makes 
excellent iron," and has been extensively manufactured at Vergen- 
nes, Bristol and other places. But it is said, that it is not rich^ 
and is therefore usually mixed with ore from Crown Point, and other 
places west of the lake, in order to manufacture it economically. 

About a mile north of the ore bed, on the east side of a ridge 
running north and south, is an extensive bed of kaolin. It is white, 
sometimes grayish white, dry to the touch and absorbs water with 
rapidity. It is said, " It might be manufactured into the best China 
ware." Under this conviction a factory for the manufacture of por- 
celain ware, from this material, was many years ago established at 
Middlebury, on the bank of the creek about a mile south of the 
village. But it did not succeed, cither through a defect in the ma- 
terial, or the inexperience of the manufacturer. But it has been 
extensively used for the manufacture of stone ware, and fire brick. 

Notwithstanding the deficiency of water in some of the western 
towns, we are not acquainted with any equal extent of country, 
which furnishes a more abundant supply of water power than the 
eastern and northern parts of the County. Otter Creek is one of 
the largest rivers in the State. It enters the County from the south 
in Leicester, through a part of which it passes, and is in part the 
boundary between that town and Whiting ; runs between the towns 
of Salisbury and Cornwall ; through the west part of JMiddlebury, 
between the towns of New Haven and "Weybridge, and the towns of 
Waltham and Panton, and through Vergennes into Ferrisburgh, 
where it empties into Lako Champlain. There are few rivers, of no 
larger size, which afford, in the same distance, so much safe water 
power. From the head of the falls in Middlebury, to the foot of 
the falls in Vergennes, there is a descent of about three hundred 
feet, in a distance of about thirteen miles, divided into six or seven 
falls convenient for mills. In some of these, the water has a per- 
pendicular descent, in others it falls over precipitous rocks, and in 
some the fall is sufficient to allow the use of the water several times. 
Mills on none of them are endangered by sudden and violent fresh- 
ets. For twenty-five miles above the falls of Middlebury, the banks 

are low, and very extensive level flats adjoin them through the whole 


distance. In a violent rush of ^Yaters from the mountains, from 
melting snows or heavy rains, the water in the creek, instead of 
rushing in a swollen current down its channel, rises but little before 
it spreads over an immense extent of country, and is not wholly 
drawn oflf until the stream is reduced nearly to its common level. 
This of course is a protection to all the falls below. Similar flats 
above the falls at Vergenncs, extending far up the Lemon Fair, 
furnish a similar security to that power. The waters on some of 
these falls are but partially used, and on several not at all. 

At Middlebury, there is on the cast side a cotton factory in full 
operation, and a large grist or flouring mill. On the west arc a 
woollen factory, a grist mill, saw mill, pail factory, a plaining ma- 
chine and other machinery for working wood, besides another wool- 
len factory not now in operation. At the Paper Mill falls, three 
quarters of a mile farther down there are on the east side, a paper 
mill, oil mill, saw mill, carding machine and trip hammer shop : 
and on the east side a furnace and machine shop. Belden's falls a 
mile and a half further north, is a very valuable water power, on 
which there are no works. A mile or two further, and four miles 
from Middlebury, is Painter's falls in a similar condition. One or 
two miles further down the stream is the Quaker Village falls, 
where are a grist mill, two saw mills and some other works, and on 
the rapids, just above, there was, if not now, a saw mill. 

Philip C. Tucker, Esq., at our request, has obligingly furnished 
us the following account of the falls at Vergennes and the works on 
it. " The falls of Great Otter Creek at Vergennes, are divided by 
two islands into three separate parts. The width of their head is 
about three hundred and ten feet. The height of the fall is thirty 
seven feet. The creek furnishes an ample supply of water through 
the year. On the westerly shore is an iron foundery, a forge with 
four fires, and saw mill owned by the Vergennes Iron Company, 
and carried on by William H. White, Esq., There is also a 
machine shop carried on by Mr. William Ross. On the west 
island, there is a large grist and flouring mill, with five runs of 
stones, and a plaster mill owned and carried on by Capt. Charles 
W. Bradbury. On the east island there is one saw mill and a 


manufactory of hames. The property on this island is owned by 
Gen. Samuel P. Strong. The hame factory is carried on by Wil- 
liam R. BiXBY, Esq., On the easterly shore, is a large building 
erected in 1854 for manufacturing purposes, and a saw mill. The 
manufacturing building is one hundred and thirty-five feet long, 
thirty eight wide, and four and a half stories high on the water 
side, and three and a half stories on the land side. A portion of 
this building is now used for the manufacture of Sampson's patent 
scales, a new article lately patented. The saw mill is sixty-four 
feet long, thirty feet wide, and fitted for a gang of twenty-four saws. 
These buildings are the property of Green, Roberts and Willard, 
but the scale business is carried on by a stock company in connec- 
tion with the patentee." 

A large amount of power is also furnished by the tributaries of 
Otter Creek, which come down from the mountain on the east. The 
first in order from the south is Leicester River, which issues from 
Lake Dunmore, runs through Salisbury village, and five or six 
miles from the lake empties into the creek in Leicester. From the 
lake to the foot of the falls below the village, about a mile and a 
half, is a fall of 150 or 200 feet, available for mills, almost the 
whole distance. The stream, although not large, has some advan- 
tages peculiar to itself. The water, like that of the lake, from which 
it issues is very -pure, and being furnished by springs under the 
lake or in its neighborhood, is so warm, that it does not freeze in 
winter, and obstruct the wheels by ice, as is common in other 
streams. Besides, when the water is raised by freshets from the 
mountain, it spreads over the whole surface of the lake, and does 
not rush in sudden and violent torrents into the stream ; and it can 
be controlled by a dam and gate at the outlet, so as to let into it only 
what is needed, reserving the surplus for future necessity. There 
is now on the stream a saw mill near the outlet. About half a 
mile further down, on a fall of 15 or 20 feet, are a forge and shingle 
machine. Less than half a mile below this is a large woollen fac- 
tory, with a fall of about 20 feet. At the first fall at the village 
of about 15 feet, is a large mill pond, on which are a saw mill, trip 
hammer shop and a woollen factory. Lnmediately below this, 


with a fall of 25 or 30 feet is a grist mill, and immediately below 
the last mentioned, with a fall of 20 feet is a saw mill, and below 
this at the bottom of the descent, is a fall of seven or eight feet, on 
which a forge formerly stood, but is not now in operation. 

JMiddlebury River rises in the mountain east of Middlebury, in 
two branches ; the principal of which rises within the limits of 
Hancock. These unite in Ripton, and the stream descending the 
west slope of the mountain, empties into the creek near the south 
line of Middlebury. At the village of East Middlebury, at the 
foot of the mountain, is a series of falls, which furnish several val- 
uable sites for mills. On these are now a forge, two saw mills, a 
grist mill, tannery, two shops with machinery for boring, sawing 
and turning timber for waggons, a machine for sawing shingles, a 
sash factory and a factory for sawing and fitting barrel staves for 
the Boston market. For two or three miles on each branch in Eip- 
ton, are convenient mill sites nearly the whole distance ; and there 
are now, on the main branch four saw mills, two shingle machines 
and a grist mill ; and on the north branch three saw mills. 

New Haven River rises in the northeast part of Ripton, and runs 
northwesterly through Lincoln, Bristol and New Haven, and emp- 
ties into Otter Creek at Brooksville, in the southeast corner of New 
Haven. In its course it receives several streams, on all of which 
are mills or forges ; one in Lincoln, called Downing Brook, which 
rises in the northeast part of Starksborough, one in Bristol, called 
Baldwin Creek, and another in the south part of Bristol, called 
0' Brian Brook. On this stream and its tributaries, are now in Bris- 
tol, seven saw mills, two grist mills, one trip hammer, one sash and 
door factory, one chair fictory, one carding and clothing factory and 
two forges. In Lincoln, there are six saw mills, one shingle and 
one clapboard machine, and two forges. At East Mills in New 
Haven, are a grist mill, saw mill and woollen factory. At the lower 
falls at Brooksville, is a very extensive axe factory, established and 
owned by Brooks Brothers, which, from time to time, from small 
beginnings, has been greatly enlarged by its enterprising proprie- 
tors. On the same falls is a saw mill. Along the whole line of 
Ihis river, is a large amount of water power yet unemployed. 


To these streams may be added Little Otter Creek, which has 
considerable water power and a number of mills in Ferrisburgh ; 
and Lewis Creek, which rises in Starksborough, and after running 
a considerable distance, through Hinesburgh and Charlotte in Chit- 
tenden County, returns into this County in Ferrisburgh. On this 
latter stream in Starksborough, are a saw mill, grist mill, carding 
machine, works for dressing cloth and a furnace, which is employed 
principally for casting plough shares. In Ferrisburgh also, there 
are several mills. Both these streams empty into Lake Champlain 
near each other in Ferrisburgh. 

The Brook Trout is the most common and nearly the only fish 
found in the streams, which come down from the mountains and 
hills. In the early settlement they were found in great abundance, 
often weighing two or three pounds. But being a favorite fish for 
the table, great havoc has been made of them by the fishermen, and 
the number and size have greatly diminished. It is rare to take one 
weighing half a pound, and they are generally much smaller. In 
Lake Dunmore, the source of Leicester River, at an early day, 
were found large quantities of Lake Trout. The water being pure 
and clear, like that of Lake George, the fish were of the same qual- 
ity and size. They were frequently caught weighing fifteen or 
twenty pounds, and it has been said sometimes twenty-five pounds. 
It has been said also, that formerly some trout were found in Otter 
Creek. But'we are not aware that they have been found for many 
years past. The principal fish found, until lately, in this Creek or 
Lemon Fair, are bull-heads, suckers, rock-bass and eels. The fol- 
lowing communication from our friend. Dr. Russell, will give some 
idea of the fish, which now prevail in both these streams. 

" Hon Samuel Swift — Sir : — Agreeable to your request, I herewith communi- 
cate the facts, connected with the introduction of Pickerel into Otter Creek; In tho 
spring of 1819, Hon. Daniel Chipman and others, induced the formation of com- 
mittees in the towns of Middlebury, Salisbury, Leicester, and Whiting, to visit 
Lake Champlain to pi'ocure fish for the purpose of putting them into Otter Creek. 
The arrangement was successfully carried out ; and at that time large quantities of 
tho diiferent Yarieties of fish usually taken in Lake Champlain vrcre placed in Otter 
Creek, From the diary of our deceased townsman, Eeen W. Jubd and others, I 
Icarn, that the committee for Middlebury, coi:s:sting of Jajies Satteslt, iiAuvET 


WiLLSON, Daniel L. Potteb, Gborob CHiPMAif and Chauncet W. Fuller, on the 
12th of May visited Lake Champlain, and fished -with seines at Chimney Point. 
The party camped out the night of the 13th, and did not reach Middlcbury, on 
their return, until the middle of the next night. The fish taken were transported 
in water, which was frequently changed on the passage. They were placed in Ot- 
ter Creek above Middlebury Falls, the same night. Of the many varieties, brought 
from the lake, all have disappeared, except the Pickerel. They have greatly in- 
creased, both in size and quantity. Some weighing over twenty weight, — notwith- 
standing, the large quantity annually taken from the creek. They are found through 
the creek, the whole length, from Sutherland's Falls to the Vergennes Falls, and 
the whole length of Lemon Fair. They are as much improved in quality as in size. 
It is said that those taken above the Great Falls at Vergennes, are greatly superior 
in quality to those taken below, which come up from the lake. 

Too much praise cannot be rendered those far seeing and disinterested men, who 
exerted themselves so successfully for our benefit, and placed within the reach of 
every resident of the valley of Otter Creek and Lemon Fair, a luxury not to be 
exceeded from any other water. Respectfully your friend, 





The act incorporating the County in 1785, established the towns 
of " Addison and Colchester to be half shires," " for the time being," 
and directed " that the times and places for holding County Courts, 
or Courts of Common Pleas annually, be as follows, viz., at Addi- 
son aforesaid, the first Tuesday of March, and at Colchester the 
second Tuesday of November, and that the Supreme Court be held 
on the second Tuesday of August^ alternately at Addison and Col- 
chester." The Governor and Council were authorized " to appoint 
€ounty Officers and commissionate them for the time being." The 
Judges of the County Court, appointed under this provision " for 
the time being," were John Strong of Addison, Chief Judge, and 
Gamaliel Painter of Middlebury, and Ira Allen of Colchester, 
side or Assistant Judges, and Noah Chittenden Sheriff. 

The first term of the Court was held at Addison, on the first 
Tuesday of March 1786. An act passed in February 1781, had 
provided that the freemen should elect four Assistant Judges of the 
County Court ; and before the next term of the Court, the freemen 
of the County had elected William Brush, Hiland Hall, Sam- 
uel Lane and Abel Thompson, Assistant Judges, and the Court 
was held by them " at Captain Thomas Butterfield's in Colches- 
ter," on the second Tuesday of November 1786. The March term 
1787 was held according to the act at Addison ; and the County of 
Chittenden, which included Colchester, being established before No- 
vember, that term was also held at Addison. The Judges chosen 
by the freemen in 1786, held the court in 1787 ; and since that 
time, only two Assistant Judges have been appointed. Until the 
alteration of the constitution, in 1850, t^iese with other Couniy Offi- 


cers "were appointed by the Legislature. The Court continued to be 
held at Addison until the September term 1792. At their October 
session in 1791, the Legislature passed an act removing the Court 
to Middleburj, but providing that it should not take effect until 
'•April next," and of course the March term 1792 was held at 
Addison. Since that time the Courts have been uniformly held at 

There were no County buildings in Addison, and the Court held 
its sessions at the houses of Benjamin Paine at Chimney Point, 
of Zadock EvEiiasT, Esq., of Jonah Case, and of his widow after 
his decease, all on the shore of Lake Champlain. The Courts were 
also held for some time at public houses in Middlebury ; in the 
years 1792 and 1793 at the public house of John Deming, which 
stood on the ground now occupied by the Congregational Church; 
and afterwards until the Court House Avas completed, at the public 
house of Samuel Mattocks. The first Court House was com- 
menced in Middlebury in 1796, but was not occupied by the Court 
until 1798. It was built by subscription of the citizens of Middle- 
bury and vicinity. The jail had been previously built. 

Hon. Gamaliel Painter, who owned a large tract of land on 
the cast side of Middlebury Falls, on the second day of May 1791, 
and previous to the removal of the Courts to that place, executed to 
" John Willard, Benjamin Gorton and Jabez Rogers, together 
with all the rest of the mhabitants of the County of Addison, and 
to their successors forever," a quit claim deed of the following tract 
of land in Middlebury, " viz., beginning at the southeast corner of 
a half acre lot of land, that he the said Gamaliel sold to Samuel 
Miller, Esq., and is the same lot Avhere the said Miller now 
liveth ; thence south 30 minutes east, eight chains and ten links to 
a stake standing on the east side of a road ; thence east one chain 
and six Imks to a stake ; thence north 30 minutes west eight chains 
and ten links to the south line of Miller's lot ; thence west one 
chain and six links to the bounds begun at," "for the only expressed 
purpose and use of a Common never to be divided, or put to any 
other use." This tract is in the form of a parallelogram, about 
four and a quarter rods wide, extending from the house lot owned 


by the lato Edward D. Barber, Esq., in front of Mr. Warner's 
lot and the Addison House, to the house lot owned by the late Ru- 
FUS Wainwrigiit, and now occupied by his widoTV. 

On the 22d of May 1794, Judge Painter executed another deed 
to " Jabez Rogers, Joseph Cook and Eleazer Claghorn, to- 
gether with all other inhabitants of the County of Addison," of a 
tract of land in l^Iiddlebury, " bounded as follows, beginning at a 
heap of stones at the southwest corner of an acre lot of land, which 
said Painter formerly sold to Simeon Dudley ; thence running 
south, 80 minutes east, on the east line of a certain piece of land 
said Painter formerly gave to the people of said County, three 
chains and seventy-eight links to a stake ; thence east 80 minutes 
north three chains and seventy-three links to a stake ; thence north 
80 minutes west three chains and seventy-eight links to a stake, 
standing in the south line of said Dudley's lot ; thence a straight 
lino to the bounds begun at, containing one acre and sixty-five rods," 
"for the express use and purpose of erecting a court house and 
jail thereon, and as a common, never to be divided or put to any 
other use." This lot lies cast of, and adjoining, the lot first men- 
tioned ; and on this lot the court house and jail were erected. The 
Dudley'' lot, which forms the northern boundary, is that on which 
Samuel MattgcivS built his public house, and on vv'hich the Ad- 
dison House now stands ; and it is understood that in erecting the 
present house, it was extended south several feet beyond ihe limits 
of the lot, on the land of the County. 

The court house was built on the brow of the hill five or six 
rods north of, and nearly in a line v.-ith, the house occupied by Mrs. 
Wainwrigiit. The jail house had been previously built of wood 
on the same line, and within a rod or tvi'o of the south line of the 
Dudley'' lot. It contained a tenement for the family of the jailor, 
as well as a dungeon and other rooms for prisoners. This jail was 
built by a ''tax of two pence on the pound" on the list of the 
County for the year 1T93, granted by the Legislature in November 
1792, and payable into the County Treasury by the first day of 
December 1794." •' Ele.azer Claghorn, G.amaliel Painter, 
SjiMurL MiLj-.ER. Jabtiz Roger.-^. Josepii Cooic, Samuel Jewett 



and Elijah Foot were appointed a committee to receive and lay 
out the money." 

Tlie legislature at that time being in the practice of removing 
their annual sessions from one principal town to another, the court 
house was built with reference to their use. One high room arched 
overhead, with long windows, and seats rising towards the rear, and 
a gallery over the entrance at the west end, constituted the whole 
interior of the building. The General Assembly held its session in 
it in the years 1800 and 1806. The inhabitants of the town having 
contributed towards its erection, it was used also as a town room. 
And until the completion of the new church, in 1809, it was occu- 
pied by the Congregational Society as a place of worship, and for 
all meetings of the society. There being no other suitable room in 
the village, it was used for public meetings of every character. 

By the arrangement of the roads in the vicinity and the busi- 
ness, which centered there, these buildings were left in an exposed 
condition, without enclosures, and the v>-hole grounds around them 
became a tliorouc;hfare for teams and other modes of travel. The 
jail, especially, came to be regarded as too unsafe and uncomfort- 
able for the purpose for whieli it Avas designed. Accordingly, in 
November 1809, the legislature passed an act assessing a tax of 
one cent on a dollar on the lists of the several towns in the County 
(except the city of Vergennes, which maintained a Jail of its own) 
for the purpose of erecting a jail in Middlebury, to be paid into the 
treasury of the County, by the first day of February 1811, and 
authorized the Judges of the County Court to appoint an agent to 
superintend the erection. They appointed Hon. Daniel Chipmak, 
who proceeded to procure a siiitable lot for its site, and in Decem- 
ber 1810, received a deed from Artemas Nixon, of a vacant lot 
on the corner made by the road leading east from the Court House, 
and another leading thence north. On this he erected a jail house 
of stone, at a cost of about four thousand dollars. After the com- 
pletion of this building, the old jail house was sold to Capt. Jus- 
tus Foot, and by him was removed to the lot east of the hotel, 
repaired, fitted up and occupied by his family for a dwelling house. 
It is now owned l>y Calvin Hill. Esq. 


111 1814 the Court House, in its exposed condition, came to be 
regarded as a nuisance, rather than an ornament, and was removed 
to the place where it now stands. On the first of January, 181G, 
and after the Court House was removed. Judge Painter deeded to 
the County a tract of hind, *' being that piece or parcel of land, on 
which the Court House now stands in Middlebury, together with a 
free and open passage on the whole front of the same to the Center 
Turnpike road, so called, with a passage around the said Court 
House on the north, east and south sides of the same, for the pur- 
pose of repairing or fitting up the said House, or for the erection of 
a new Court House on the premises at all times," '' for the express 
purpose of erecting, keeping and having a Court House for the 
County of Addison aforesaid, on the said premises, where the same 
is now erected, so long as the premises shall be used for the purpose 
aforesaid, and no longer," with a quit claim of the right to erect 
buildings on the neighboring lands within certain distances. The 
width of the " free passage ar(Mnd " the House was fixed by a deed 
from the Corporation of Middlebury College, who received the land 
by will from Judge Painter to R. and J. Wainwright, at one rod. 

The Court House having so high a room for the sessions of the 
Courts, having been much racked by the removal, and being other- 
wise out of repair, was found to be not only inconvenient, but so 
cold that it could not be kept comfortable in the cold weather in 
winter, when most of the Courts were held ; and for that reason the 
Supreme Court held its sessions, for several winters, at the public 
houses. The County Court therefore, in the year 1829, ordered 
Samuel Swift the Clerk, and Seymour Sellick the Sheriff, to 
divide the building into two stories. The Agents accomplished this 
purpose during that season, finishing the upper story for the ses- 
sions of the Courts, with one room adjoining for a consultation room, 
and three rooms below for Jury rooms and other uses, in the style 
in which it still remains. When finished, the Court Eoom was said 
to be the best room for the purpose in the State. The expense of 
the alteration Avas $1250,11. The town of Middlebury paid toward 
this expense ,f 250, in consideration that they were to have the use 
of the large room in the lower story for a town room, and a sub- 


scription yvas made by tho citizens to the amount of $113,50. Tho 
balance was paid from the funds of the County, received for licen- 
ses, v/ithout any tax, and a large share was advanced by the clerk 
in anticipation of future receipts.. 

In the year 184-1 the belfry and roof -were found to need repair, 
and other parts of the exterior were regarded nearly as offensive, 
on account of its stylo, as the interior had been ; and the court or- 
dered the clerk to make the requisite repairs and alterations. This 
■was accomplished the same season at an expense of $822,70, of 
which the town paid ^137. The balance was paid from the County 
funds, as in the case of former alterations. By means of these al- 
terations nothing remains of the first Court House but the frame. 

In the meantime the stone jail built in 1811 was found, like the 
old one, unsafe and entirely uncomfortable and oppressive to pris- 
oners confined in it, and not in accordance with the philanthropic 
views, which prevailed ; and it had heen many times indicted by the 
grand jury. The legislature, in October 1844 therefore granted a 
tax of six cents on a dollar of the lists of the several towns in the 
County except the city of Vergennes, for the purpose of erecting a 
new jail, provided the inhabitants of Middlebury would, before the 
first day of February 1845, procure conveyed to the County of Ad- 
dison a suitable piece of land, to the acceptance of Silas II. Jeni- 
SON, HiRVEY MuNSiLL and Silas Pond, and appointed Samuel 
Swift and Austin Johnson Agents, to superintend the erection. 
The lot now occupied for that purpose was purchased and paid for 
by the citizens of INIiddlebury, and accepted by the above mentioned 
commissioners. The agents believing that, as the population and 
business of the County should increase, and a more speedy commu- 
nication by rail roads should be opened, the number of criminals 
would increase ; and desiring to erect a prison, which would be ad- 
equate to such an emergency, and not require to be soon replaced, 
adopted a plan larger than present circumstances required. They 
accordingly erected a large brick building, the front of which was 
designed for the residence of the Sheriff's family, with an office for 
the sheriff. Through this room is the only communication with 
the prison from the outside. The prison is in the rear of the build- 


ing, in which are twelve cells for securing each prisoner by himself 
in the night, six in the lower and six in the upper range, with a large, 
well lighted and ventilated room in front of them, for the occupation 
of the prisoners in the day time. The prisoners in this room are, 
at all times, subject to inspection, by means of a grated opening, 
from the rooms occupied by the family. By the same means the 
least disturbance or noise, by night as well as by day, may be heard. 
The expense of the cells was much larger than Avas anticipated. The 
iron work alone cost about $1500 ; and slabs of strong stone were 
purchased and hauled from Brandon, for the floors, caps and sides 
of the cells, from six to eight inches thick, and of tl\e size of the 
length, width and height of the cells. When the legislature as- 
sembled in October 1846, the tax had been expeuded, the agents 
were largely in debt and the jail not completed. Application was 
therefore made for a further tax. The representatives from the 
County, to whom the application is by law referred, consented to 
, another tax of five cents on a dollar, — wholly inadequate for the 
purpose, — on condition that the town or village or citizens of Mid- 
dlebury would give a bond to the satisfaction of the judges of the 
County Court, to secure the payment of all the debts, and the com- 
pletion of the Jail, and by the act, Rufus Wainwkight was ap- 
pointed an additional agent. To him the other agents committed 
the whole management of the business. A subscription was raised 
among the citizens, the debts were paid and the prison completed, 
but the plan was not carried out to its full extent. The whole ex- 
pense was about fSOOO. After tlie completion of this building, the 
old stone jail house was sold to Mr. Oliver Wellington, who, 
after great alterations and at great expense, has since occupied it as 
a dwelling house. 

From the year 1787 to the year 1825, the County Court consis- 
ted of a chief judge, and two assistant judges, appointed expressly 
to those offices, and was independent of the Supreme Court. In 
November 1824, the Legislature passed an act reorganizing the 
Supreme and County Courts, and providing, that the Supreme Court 
should consist of a chief judge, and three assistant judges, and 
that the County Court, "from and after the third Thursday of Oc- 


tober tliennext," should consist of a chief judge, who should be one 
of the judges of the Supreme Court, for each circuit, and two as- 
sistant judges, appointed as before required by law. And the Stato 
was for that purpose divided into four circuits. The number of 
Judges of the Supreme Courts and of the circuits was afterwards 
increased to five. To the County Courts, by this act was given 
"original and exclusive jurisdiction of all original civil actions, 
except such as are cognizable before Justices of the Peace," "and 
appellate jurisdiction of all causes civil and criminal appealable to 
such Court," and " original jurisdiction of all prosecutions for crim- 
inal offences, except such as are hj law made cognizable by justices 
of the peace •" and in such cases the jurisdiction of the Supreme 
Court extended only to questions of law, arising out of the trial in 
the County Court. The clerk, to be appointed by the County 
Court, was to be also clerk of the Supreme Court. 

At the session in October 1849, the Legislature made a further 
alteration in the organization of the judiciary system. The act 
passed at that session provided, that the State should be divided into 
four judicial circuits, and that, one circuit judge should be appointed 
for each circuit, and these judges were constituted chief judges of 
the County Court in each County, and chancellors in their re- 
spective circuits. These were distinct from the Judges of the 
Supreme Court, and, with the two assistant judges, constituted the 
County Court. The first circuit was composed of the Counties of 
Bennington, Rutland and Addison. 

The Legislature at their session in October 1857, repealed the 
law last mentioned, and provided that the Supreme Court shall con- 
sist of one chief judge and five assistant judges. These judges 
are constituted chief judges of the County Court and Chancel- 
lors in the several Counties ; and for this purpose it is made the 
duty of the Supreme Court to assign one of the judges to each 
County. This act substantially restores the system adopted in 1824. 

By the first constitution of the State, adopted in 1777, it was 
provided " that the General Assembly when legally formed, shall 
appoint times and places for County elections, and at such times 
and places the freemen in each County respectively, shall have the 

lUrfTUilY OF AUDIri'j:> CjUxNTY. Zi 

liberty of choosing the judges of the Inferior Court, or Court of 
Common Pleas, Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace and Judges of Pro- 
bate, commissioned by the Governor and Council, during good be- 
havior, removable by the General xissembly upon proof of malad- 
ministration." By the amended constitution, adopted by the con- 
vention in 1786, it was provided, that the above mentioned officers 
should be annually elected by the General Assembly, '• in conjunc- 
tion Tvith the council." And they continued to be thus elected, 
until the amendment of the constitution adopted in 1850. Until 
this time no provision was made in the constitution for the election 
of a state's attorney or high b.iiliff. An act passed in February 
1779, provided " that in each County there shall be one State's 
Attorney, and that they be appointed by the respective County 
Courts." Col. Setii Storks, then residing in Addison, was ap- 
pointed by the Court in 1787, the first State's Attorney of Addison 
County. Afterwards the State's Attorney, as well as the High 
Bailiff, was appointed in the same manner as other officers. 

At the time of the election of the Council of Censors in 1848, 
the evils of the then existing mode of electing County Officers by 
the legislature, had become more and more apparent for several 
years, and had come to be condemned generally by the people. The 
nomination, according to practice, being made by the County mem- 
bers had become a subject of trafic between the parlies interested, 
and was. subjected to an influence, which could not be made to bear 
upon the mass of the people. It also occasioned much delay of th« 
appropriate business of the Legislature. Accordingly the conven- 
tion, which was held in 1850, in pursuance of the recommendation 
of the Council of Censors, adopted the amendment now in force. 
This provides, that the assistant judges of the County Court, 
Sheriffs, High Bailiffs and State's Attorneys, shall be elected by the 
freemen of the Counties, the Judges of Probate by the freemen of 
their respective districts, and Justices of the Peace by the freemen 
of the several towns. The votes are to be given at the freemen's 
meeting on the first Tuesday of September, to be sent to the next 
session of the Legislature, and there canvassed by a joint committee 
of the Senate and House of Beprescntativcs. The officers chosen 


arc commissioned by the Governor, and hold their offices for one 
year from the finst day of December following. 

By an act of the legislature in February 1787, the County of 
Addison was constituted a Probate District, and Probate Courts 
were established in it, add until the year 1824, the whole constitu- 
ted but one Probate District. The Legislature, at their October 
session in that year, divided the County into two Districts, by the 
names of Addison and New Haven. The District of New Haven 
embraces the towns of Addison, Panton, Vergenncs, "Waltham, Now 
Haven, Bristol, Lincoln, Starksborough, Monkton and Ferrisburgh. 
The remainder of the County constitutes the District of Addison.* 

* Sco Appendix No. 1 . ftr list of Couaty Officers. 




In what we iiarc to saj of the Intlians, the original inhabitants of 
the County of Addison, it is not our purpose to enter into any 
learned dissertation on their character, customs or history. Such 
treatises may be found elsewlicrc. We regard it as belonging to 
our province to speak only of their residence in the County, and of 
their depredations so far only as they affect the County and its set- 
tlement, and that not in detail. It is but a very short time since 
we commenced any inquiries on the subject. But from the accounts 
we have obtained, during our short examination, we find satisfactory 
evidence, in the Indian relics found in different towns, that the 
County of Addison was the established residence of a large popula- 
tion of Indians, and had been for an indefinite period. The borders 
of Lake Champlain, Otter Creek, Lemon Fair and other streams, 
furnished a convenient location for that purpose.* 

Previous to the discovery of Lake Champlain, in IGOO, the 
Iroquois, or Five Nations, which together formed a powerful Indian 
tribe, claimed and occupied an extensive country south of Lakes 
Erie and Ontario, and. the River St. Lawrence, and extending to 
and inclilding Lalce Champlain and Western Vermont, and previously 
had been undoubtedly settled in this County. It is supposed by 
nrany, that their settlement extended as far north as the River 
Sorcl, which forms the outlet of Lake Champlain, and that the 

*In a conversation, which Philip Battell, Esq., had. several years ago, with 
an iatelligent Indian vromaii, she stated that the Indian names of all tie streams 
and waters in this region were familiar'y known among the Indians, and that the 
old Indian, who died at Bristol, as mentioned elsewhere, could have given the names. 
She said the name of Otter Cicek, was Wunageequ'tuc, which the French called 
La Kivierc aux Loutrcs, both which mean The River of Otters. The name of Lake 
Dunmorn, she said, was Moosalamoo. Salmon Trout Lake. 


river was called the Iroquois for that reason, and Cliamplain so rep- 
resents it. But others suppose, that it was called by that name, 
because it came from the country of the Iroquois. When Samuel 
Champlain, the French leader, came up the lake on his tour of 
discovery, in 1609, the Iroquois had withdrawn from the islands in 
the north part of the lake, which now constitute the County of 
Grand Isle, and which the Indians, with Champlain, represented, 
had been inhabited by them. He says, in his account of this excur- 
sion : "I saw four beautiful islands, ten, twelve and fifteen leagues 
in length, formerly inhabited, as icell as the Iroquois River, by 
Indians, but abandoned, since they have been at war, the one with 
the other." " They retire from the rivers as far as possible, deep 
into the country, in order not to be soon discovered." And again 
he says* " Continuing our route along the west side of the lake, I 
saw, on the east side, very high mountains capped with snow. I 
asked the Indians, if those parts were inhabited. They answered, 
yes ; and that they were Iro(iuois, and that there were in those parts 
beautiful vallics, and fields fertile in corn, as good as I had ever 
eaten in the country." In anticipation of this expedition, Cham- 
plain, had entered into a treaty with the Algonquins, who dwelt 
along the north bank of the St. Lawrence, between Quebec and 
IMontreal, in Avhich " they promised to assist the stranger, in his 
attempt to traverse tlie country of the Iroquois, on condition, that 
he should aid them in a war against that fierce people ;" and he and 
the two Frenchmen with him, came armed for the conflict, with 
muskets. The Indians described the place, where they expected to 
meet their enemies, and they, as well as the Frencli in Canada, 
spoke of this as the country of the Iroquois. On the border of the 
lake, near Crown Point,* as they expected, they met a war party 

* Historians generally represent that tins battle took jjlace at Lake George. The 
editor of the Documcntiiry History of New York, says in a note, " The reference in 
Champlain's map locates this engagement hctween Lake George and Crov.n Pont, 
probably in what is now the town of Ticondcroga, Essex County." We find no 
authority, in Champlain's account for cither of these opinions. Ho says they 
met theii* enemies, "at a point of a capo, which jets into the lake on the west 
fide." We know of no ether point, which better answers the dcsci'iption than the 


of the Iroquois, who defied them. But, when Champlain, at a 
single fire of his arquebus, killed two chiefs and mortally wounded 
another, and another Frenchman fired from another quarter, they 
fled in alarm, at the new and unheard of Aveapons of war, and were 

Previous to this, incessant wars Averc carried on between the Al- 
gonquins, aided by the Ilurons, a powerful tribe, occupying an 
extensive country in Canada, extending as far Avest as the lake from 
Avhich they derived their name, on one side, and the Iroquois on the 
other. For many years subsequently, the latter had no aid from 
European Colonics or European arms. When the Dutch had pos- 
session of New York, they Avere too much engaged in commerce, 
and traffic Vr'ith the Indians, to take part in their wars. But the 
Avars still continued with great fury, betAveen the French colonists 
and Indians, and the Iro([uois unaided and Avithout fire arms. The 
latter were particularly hostile to the French, because they had fur- 
nished their enemies Avith their new and deadly Aveapons. After 
the English in 1G64, obtained possession of New York, they enlisted 
in the Avars, Avhich were still continued between the French colo- 
nists and their Indians on the north, and the English colonies and 
their Indians on the south, until the conquest of Canada in 1T60. 
The Iroquois still claimed this territory, and fheir claim Avas ac- 
knowledged by the government of New Y'^ork. But it does not 
appear, that after the discovery of the lake and their retreat on 
that occasion, they ever had any permanent settlement here. The 
Mohawks and the other confederate tribes seem to have occupied the 

eape, whicli runs up between the lake and Bulwaggy Bay, at Crown Point. Hon. 
John W. Strong, thinks the place of this battle was " on Sandy Point, being the 
extreme north- w*tern terminus of Crown Point, and the entrance of Bulwaggy 
Bay." In one of his numbers in the Vergennes Citizen on "Local History," 
after describing the place as such " as would be chosen by the Indians for defence," 
and giving other reasons for his belief, he says : " The writer, in passing this place, 
several years ago, was surprised at the number of arrow heads, that lay on the 
shore and in the water, and on examining closely he found several pistol and mus • 
ket balls, two French military buttons, a copper coin of the fifteenth century and 
two clumsev musket flints." 


region of the Mohawk liivcr, aiul the tcnitory south of Lakes Eric 
and Ontario.* 

In the mean time, Lake Champlain and its ncifjhborhood was a 
thoroughfare, through which the hostile parties made their excur- 
sions in their alternate depredations on each other. In the latter 
part of the 17th century and the fore part of the 18th, many of 
these incursions took place. In 1689, while the French and Indi- 
ans wore making fruitless arrangements to invade the settlements in 
New York, ut Albany, and its neighborhood, the Iroquois fitted out 
an expedition, invaded Canada, plundered and ])urnt Montreal and 
destroyed other settlements in the neighborhood. The next year, 

1690, tlie French and Indians fitted out two expeditions. One pro- 
ceeded into ]!^w Hampshire, destroyed the fort at Salmon Falls, 
killed many of the inhabitants and took many prisoners ; the other 
proceeded by the way of Lake Champlain, attacked and burnt Sche- 
nectady, and killed and captured many of the inhabitants. In 

1691, the English and Iroquois made an excursion into Canada, 
tlirough the lake, and made a successful attack on the settlements 
on the River Richelieu, and killed many of the settlers. In 1695, 
the French and Indians invaded the territory of the Iroquois, and, 
aft(;i' several battles, in which the latter were aided by the English, 
under Col. Sciiuyler, they were driven back. In 1704, the Eng- 
lish settlements on Connecticut River, having extended as far as 
Deerfield, the French and Indians, coming up the lake to the mouth 
of Onion River, and following up that river, invaded and destroyed 
that place, and killed and took captive many of the inhabitants. 

In the meantime the English had come to the conclusion, that 
there Avould be no security from the ravages of the Indians, but by 

* It is universally admitted, that the Iroquis claimed the whole of this territory, 
\Tc think also that their claim extended, along the R ver Richelieu, as far as the 
St Lawrence, and that they had a permanent residence here. No histoi-y pretends 
that any other tribe settled here. But it is not improbable, that on account of the 
wars, which had for some time been carried on between them and the Algoiujuins, 
they had been induced to remove their residence further from the neigliborhood of 
their enemies, at least, from the borders of the lake, before Ciiajiplain's discovery 
of it. They had at least left the islands at the noi'th part of the lake before that, 
and Champlain's party did not meet any enemy until they reached Crown Point. 


conquering the French, as well as the savages. In 1709 and sev- 
eral following years, attempts were made, through the lake, to in- 
vade and concjuer Canada. And while the EiTglish and French gov- 
ernments were at peace^ for some years previous to 1725, wars Avero 
still carried on by the Indians, aided occasionally hj the English 
and French colonies. In 1746, while the French were in posses- 
sion of Crown Point, an expedition from that place was fitted out 
by the French and Indians, v/ho captured Fort Iloosick, which be- 
fore that had been I'uilt at Willianistown, Massachusetts, near the 
southv/est corner of Vermont. 

During all these expeditions and until the French were driven 
from Crown Point in 1759, this territory, including the whole of 
Western Vermont, was exposed to the depredations of the Indians, 
and settlements in it were wholly unsafe. Even the proprietors of 
Bennington, who had obtained a charter in 1749, did not venture 
to commence a settlement of that tov/n until 1701, after the conquest 
of Canada. 

In' the short time, in which our attention has been directed to the 
subject, we have collected such information as vre have been able, 
respecting the Indian relics found in the County, as the best evi- 
dence of the extent of Indian settlements. Our inquiries have not 
extended to all parts of the County. . They have generally been 
made of those farmers and others, whom we have incidentally met. 
And now the printers threaten to tie id upon our heels, and v/e are 
compelled to stop our inquiries. But such facts as we have obtained, 
we present below, and we trust the reader Vv'ill find in them satis- 
factory evidence, that the Indians once had a permanent settlement 
here. But the permanent settlement, wo think, must have closed 
with the discovery of Lake Champlain, by the French leader, Sam- 
uel CiiAMPLAiN, two hundred and fifty years ago, and the manu- 
facture of the implements ayo describe, of course ended then. 
There may have been a temporary residence of some tribes, while 
the French had possession of Crown Point, or during the Revolu- 
tionary war, while the British had the control of the lake. But 
we have, we think, the testimony of history, that after the Iroquois 
were first overcome oif by the fire ciriiis, which were used by CnAM- 


PLAIN and his Frcnclimen, they never returned to occupy this region 
by a permanent settlement. Besides, after the Indians were fur- 
nished by Europeans ivith fire-arms and other needed implements, 
they had no occasion to manufacture them. 

The main object of our inquries has been to find evidence of the 
extent of Indian settlements in the County. But, if our time had 
permitted, we might have presented some other vieAvs of the subject. 
The want of time also has prevented our giving illustrations of some 
of the less common manufactures, as we intended. The following 
are the results of our inqurics, and the sources of our information : 

Professor Hall, in his account of Middlebury, in 1820, states 
that on the farm in the south part of the town, on which Judge 
Painter first settled, noAv owned by William F. Goodrich, on an 
alluvial tract, near Middlebury River, — and his statement is con- 
firmed to us by Mr. Goodrich, — "are found numerous articles of 
Indian manufacture, such as arrows, hammers, &c., some being of 
flint, others of jasper. A pot, composed of sand and clay, of curious 
workmanship, and holding about twenty quarts, has recently been 
dug up here nearly entire." 

Almon W. Pinney, states, that in an old channel of the same 
river, on the old Smalley farm, and not far from the same place, 
the Avater had Avashed away the bank and uncovered parts of a 
broken " camp-kettle," as he called it, holding about a pailful and 
a half, of the same material as the aboA'e, curiously ornamented by 
flowers or leaves wrought on the sides. There were also found 
there half a bushel of perfect and imperfect arrow heads, one of 
Avhich Avas four inches long. 

^Nocn Deavey, states, that on his farm, in Middlebury, on Avhich 
his father Avas an early settler, two miles southeast from the village, 
and Avest of his house, on dry land near a brook betAveen the hills, 
he has ploughed up on tAVO separate spots, chippings, or fragments 
of stone, obviously made in manufacturing arrow heads and other 
implements, together with a bushel or more of perfect and imperfect 
arroAY heads all of grey flint. 

On the house lot of the writer, in the village of Middlebury, 
several years ago, Avas ploughed up an Indian pestle of hard grey 


Stone, made round and smooth, and rounded at the ends, about fif- 
teen inches long and tvf o and a half inches in diameter. 

Mr. RuFUS Mead, editor of the Middleburj Register^ states, 
that on the farm on vrhich his father lived, and his grandfather was 
an early settler, in the west part of Cornwall, have been found 
large numbers of arrow and spear heads, from two to five inches in 
length, and, among them, stone chips, worked off in the construc- 
tion of arrow heads, and many imperfect arrow heads, apparently 
made by unskilful artists, or spoiled in the manufl\cture ; that at 
every ploughing for many years, these relics have been ploughed 
up. This locality is near a spring, and on ground sloping to 
Lem.on Fair Flats. On this slope for some distance, tlie land is 
springy, and on several of the neighboring farms, similar relics are 
found. In that neighborhood Avas also found a stone gouge, in the 
regular shape of that tool, six or eight inches long, and two and a 
half inches wide. This tool Mr. Mb:AD thinks, v.'as used for dia- 
ging out their canoes, the wood being first burnt and charred by 
fire. The arrows, he says, were of flint, partly light and partly 
black ; and he is confident they Avere made of materials which are 
not found in this countr3^ Otter Creek, and Lemon Fair, Avhich 
empties into it, are navigable for boats from the head of the falls at 
Vergennes to this place. 

Deacon Warner states, that on his farm in Cormvall, first set- 
tled by Benjamix HamlIxV, were found, at an early day, a great 
variety of Indian relics, arrow heads, spear heads, and other imple- 
ments of Avhich he does not know the use : also chippings and frag- 
ments of stone, made in the construction of the articles, and defect- 
ive and broken implements. Some of the articles were made of 
flint stone, and some, designed for ornament, of slate. This locality 
is on a rise of ground near a Beaver Brook and Beaver Meadow. 
The brook empties into Lemon Fair, and is navigable for boats from 
that stream, except in dry weather. 

About three quarters of a mile from the above, on the same 
Beaver Brook, and on the farm of Ira IIajilin, is found similar 
evidence of the manufacture of Indian relics, anions; other thinirs, 
gouges, chisels and arrows, of three or four different kinds of stone. 

30 nrsTOUY or ad^iso^ c:iuxTr. 

This statement was rececivccl from Mr. IIa?.iltx, and communicated 
to us, with specimens of the manufacture, by Rurus Mead, Esq.. 
•who was also personally acf[uainteJ with the locality, and generally 
with the ficts. 

Major OiuN FtELD, of Cornwall, states, that on his farm, on the 
road leading south from the Congregational Church, scattered arrow 
heads have been frequently found, and Judge Tilden says, that on 
his farm, not far distant, similar discoveries have been made. Major 
Field also says, that on the same farm, then owned by Bexjamix 
Stevens, he Avas sliOAvn by Mr. Stevexs, in 1807, what was re- 
garded as the loundation of an Indian wigwam or hut. It was n. 
ridge of earth, about six inches high, in a square shape, the sides 
of which Averc eight or twelve feet long, the ridge running all around 
except at the east end Avas a A-acant space, apparently designed for a 
door Avay. The earth was throAvn up, to form the ridge on the out- 
side. The ridges have noAv disappeared. 

Major Field also says, that on the farm of his father, on which 
his grandfather Avas an early settler, in a burying ground on sandy 
land, in digging a graA-e in 1802, there were thrown up three Indian 
relics, of the same size and shape and in the form of a heart, about 
fiA'C inches long and three wide at the top. A smooth and straight 
hole, one-half inch in diameter, Avas bored through the length, the 
exterior surface being swollen to accommodate the hole. The sides 
Avere worked to an edge. 

AusTix Daxa, Esq., of Corn Avail states, that on his farm, Avhich 
adjoins Lemon Fair, he has often ploughed up large numbers of 
points, from one and a half to scA'cn inches long, all which he 
thinks Avere dcsi2:ncd for arroAv heads, intended for shootinfj; animals 
of diiTerent sizes, together Avith some Avhich AA-erc broken, and a stone 
gouge eight or ten inches long,in the proper shape of that instrument. 
Pieces of the arroAV heads he has often used for gun flints. He has 
also found, at three different springs on his farm, as many different 
paA'cments of stone, designed and used for fires in their huts, Avhich 
have evident marks of the effects of fire. They are made of cob- 
ble stones, pounded down and made level and solid, like a pave- 
ment, six or scATU feet in diameter. He says also, that on several 

niSTOIlY 0? Ai)L>I;iON COUA'TY. " . 87 

farms lying north of liis, lie lias seen hearths formed in the san^e 
waj, and obviously for the same purpose. These arc ahvays on the 
border of the Fair, or of brooks running from the hills into it. 

Jesse Ellsworth, of Cornwall, states, that on his farm, near 
Lemon Eair, on lov/ ground, ho has found arrow and spear heads 
often, and a pestle. Some of the spear and arrow heads are grey, 
and others black. 

On the farm of the late Joseph SzvIITII, in Salisbury, and other 
farms in the neighborhood, have been found also similar relics scat- 
tered over tlic land. But we do not regard it necessary to mention 
further cases of this kind. Almost every farmer of whom we have 
inquired, has found them, more or less, scattered over his farm. 

Deacon Samcel James, whose farm is in the south part of Wey- 
bridge, and whose house is at the cast foot of a ridge of land, about 
two miles vrest of the village of Middlebury, states that on the cast 
side of the road, which passes by his house, on a dry sandy hill, 
near a Eeaver Brook and meadow, are found many arrow heads, 
many of them imperfect, together with chippings and fragments of 
stone, which furnish evidence, that it had been a place for the man- 
ufacture of Indian implements. On the hill west of his house, was 
found a. rounded relic, two inches in diameter, about a foot long, 
rounded at one end, and the other end made in the foi'm of a gouge, 
two and a ha,lf inches wide, but not wrought to an edge.' 

Philo Jewett, Esq., of Weybridge, gave us a particular account 
of his discovery of Indian relics, but unfortunately our memoran- 
dum of his statement has been mislaid. He stated however, that on 
his farm, in the neighborhood of Lemon Fair, and at a place near a 
large spring, at every ploughing, he has ploughed up large quanti- 
ties of arrow and spear heads, and fragments of the materials of 
vrhich they were made, and some broken and imperfect articles ; on 
the whole, furnishing evidence of one of the most extensive manu- 
factories. He says also, that he has often used pieces of the stone, 
of which the articles were made, for gun flints. 

Columbus J. Bowdisii, Esq., of Weybridge, states, that on his 
farm, next north of Mr. Jewett' s, and also on Lemon Fair, and near 
a spring, he has often ploughed up arrow and spear heads, and chip- 


pings and fragments of the materials of -vvliich tlicy were composed 
furnishing satisfactory evidence, that that was a place -where the 
relics "were manufactured. He says also, that in ploughing at one 
time, his plough hit a stone, at the bottom of the furrow, which 
he dug up, and found to be a stone gouge, about a foot long. He 
also states,, that ho has found on his farm, and in the locality of the 
arrow heads, places designed for fires in the Indian huts, which 
showed the effects of fire. These resemble those described by 
Austin Dana, except that they arc made of ledge stone, and raised 
a little above the level of the ground. 

Mr. Sajiuel Wriuiit, resides on the farm in Weybridge, between 
Otter Creek and Lemon Fair, and at their junction, on which his 
father Capt. Silas Wright, formerly lived, and on which his 
brother Hon. Silas Wright, Jun.,* was brought up from his in- 
fancy. It is the same farm, on which Thomas Sakford was the 
first settler, in 1775, and on which he was captured and carried to 
Canada, and imprisoned. ]Mr. Wright says, that he has often 
found, and ploughed up on the farm, Indian arrow and spear heads, 
some of which were broken, also pestles and other implements. He 
ploughed up, in one place, where they had been buried, a collection 
of them, consisting of fifteen or twenty articles, some of which he 
presented to us. And he says, similar relics arc found on all the 
neighboring farms. We have a perfect spear head picked up on 
the farm of his neighbor, Jehiel Wright, T/ho says that other 
relics have often been ploughed up there. He says also, that on the 
narrow strip of hard land, on the border of the streams, formed by 
the overflowing of the water, he has seen evidence of tillage, such 
as corn hills and potato hills, and that on the neighboring lands are 
heaps of stone, which show evidence of being burnt by fire kindled 
about them. These he supposes were built for their fire in the huts, 
to secure them from being burnt. lie states also, that he learned 
from Mr. Sanford, that sugar was made by the Indians, in an ex- 
tensive forest of maples there, and that their sap troughs were made 

*In the largo open ground, in the centre of Weybridge, in front of the CVi-gre- 
gational church, the friends of L'ou. Silas Wright, have erected a very handsome 
marble monument 5 and surrounded it by an iron fence. 


of bircli bark. If there is no mistake in this, the sugar, at least, 
mupt have been made on a temporary residence of Indians, during 
the Revolutionary war, or while the French were in possession of 
Crown Point. All signs of sugar making, bj the original inhabi- 
tants, must have disappeared. 

lion. IJarvey Munsill, of Bristol, at our rec[ucst has sent us 
the following communication : 

" Bristol, April 22d, 1859. 
•■' IIo.v. Samuel Swift — Dear Sir : — As it regards the Indians ever having mdde 
Brstol their permanent place of residence, for any length of time, I cannot say ; 
but there is strong presumptive evidence tending to show, that it has been, al least, 
temporarily their residence land hunting ground. For traces of their presence are 
marked by their having scattei'ed pi'omiscously over the country many of their 
Indian relics, such as the stone axe, grooved gouge, chisel, spear and arrow points, 
and some others, the names and uses to us unknown. A stone resembling a rolling- 
pin, was found several years ago at the loutherly part of the town ; and a very " 
perfect grooved gouge was found by my father,- in his life time, and since my re- 
membrance, which, according to the b£st of my recollection, was about fifteen 
inches in length, which was deposited by him in the museum in Hartford, Connec- 
ticut. Somo twelve ox fourteen of the specimens, tliat I left with you, a short 
time since, — some perfect and some partly made, — were picked uj) b\' me, on my 
own premises in Uri-iul vi'Uige, within a short distance of each other, that is, 
within twenty or twenty-five feet of each otlier, and from the chips, and broken 
fragments of the same kind of stone, I have come to the conclusion, that they 
were made on the spot. I have found many others, within a short distance from 
this location, when ploughing, which I have from time to time given away. About 
twenty years ago, there were two or three families of Indians, that came from Can- 
ada, and stopped a few weeks in the woods, a little north of Bristol village, between 
the road leading out of the village north to Monkton.. and the mountain east, and 
among them was a very old man, who called himself about ninety-eight j'cars of 
age, and who was quite intelligent, and could speak our language so as to make 
himself well understooi While they were stopping near our village, Capt. Noble 
Mu^'SON, and AnRAriAM Gaige, two of my nearest neighbors, and myself, visited 
them for the purpose of making some inquiries respecting the Indian habits and 
customs ; and among other inquiries, how- the stone spear and arrow points were 
made, and where the stone, from which they wci'c made, was obtained. To these 
■ inquiries, he said he could give us no information, for he had no knowledge on tiie 
subject. He also informed us that he had himself used a steel arrow point, made 
in the same shape of the stone arrow points, when he was quite young. He said 
it had often been a subject of conversation among their people, how the arrow and 
spear points were made, but he had never seen any one. who could give any infor- 
mation on that subject, not even that which was traditionary. The stone, which I 
left with you, which some call an axe, he said was used for sk'nning deer and other 


game. The oli m.m died \-ery suilJenjy, ■while stopping near us, and was buried in 
our bui-yiug ground ; the Rev. Fuancis VViiit.n'ky preached a funeral sermon, and 
all the Indians attended. Ilcspcctfully yours, 


The stone left ^vitl^ us and called by some an axe, is about five 
inches long, two wide, and three iburths of an inch thick, and re- 
duced to an edge on one end. We have several instruments of 
the kind, but generallj of smaller size, and thinner. The relic 
•which Judge Munsill describes " as resembling a rolling pin," 
■would well serve the use of that household implement, and we might 
judge it to be designed for that purpose, if we could suppose the Indi- 
ans made much use of " pie crust."' As their history now is un- 
derstood, it has generally been called a pestle. It is a smooth round 
stone, tAvcnty inches in length, two and a quarter inches in diame- 
ter in the centre, and tapering slightly toAvavd the ends, winch arc 
rounded. It is now in the possession of the Historical Society of 

While commencing our inquines on the subject of Indian relics, 
we saw in the possession of Justus Cobb, Esq., of the late firm of 
CoBC and Mead, an instrument ingeniously wrought, in the shape 
of a double hatchet, but the edges on each side were only worked 
down to the eighth of an inch. It is five inches long and two wide. 
In the centre is a smooth hole obviously designed for a handle, three 
fourths of an inch in diameter, and of about the same depth, the 
surface of the stone around the hole being swollen accordingly. It 
might have been intended to bore the hole through, or perhaps to 
fasten the hanellc Avitli thong,?. This relic, we understood, was 
found at the mouth of Otter Creek. KnoAving that our friend, 
Philip C. Tucker, Esq., is much devoted to similar inquiries, and 
believing him to be acquainted with all the discoveries in that neigh- 
borhood, we wrote to him for such information as he might have. 
His letter in answer to our request, is dated March 24, 1859, and 
encloses a letter from ^Ir. J.mmes Cr.\ne, who calls it a '• battle axe," 
and says it was picked up by his brother, George F. Crane, at Fort 
Cassin, mouth of Otter Creek, '' on the embankment thrown up 
during the last war, to prevent the British fleet from ascending to 
Vergennes;" that he left it in the hands of Mr. Cobb, and he 


adds, "I have picked up many Indian relics at Fort Cassin, and at 
other points on Otter Creek, in the vicinity of the Lower Falls, many 
of which are no^Y in possession of P. C, Tucker, Esq." 

Tlie first part of Mr. Tucker's letter, relates to the same subject, 
lie then adds : — 

" Tills point ajipeavs to have been a place loug occupied by tlic native inhabitants 
of this region. Many arrow heads and some ppcar heads have been found tlicve, 
and wlioncver the ground is ploughed, even to this day, it is not uncommon to find 
some things of that kind. Indian implements have been found in Addison, Panton, 
Fcrrisburgh, Waltham and Vergenues. I have stone arrow heads, spear heads, a 
hatchet, a gouge, and some other articles, ■which I cannot give names to, from t]io?o 
dillerent towns. Some of the latter, I showed to tlie celebrated Ojlbway chief, Avho 
■was hei"e several years since, in the hope, that he could enlighten n e as to their 
intended uses. After exarftining thorn carefullj-, he observed, that he had never 
seen any article like them among the Indians, and could not imagine ■\vhat tlioy 
■were designed for. 

xVmong other relics, I have a roughly formed arro-w head, made of copper. TJicro 
s no appearance of any vielallic tool having been employed in its formation, and 
it. appears to have been pounded into form with stone. I think it an undoubted an- 
tique, and that it was made before the discovery of the continent by Europeans. 
It was ploughed up in Ferrisburgh.not more tlian one and a half miles from hsiic, 
some eighteen or twenty years ago. As no known locality of copper exists in tliis 
region, it seems difficult to make even a rational guess, as to where the material 
for this arrow head came from. I have sometimes made a visit to dream hmd, on 
this matter, and fancied, that it oi'ig'.uated at Lake Supcii r, from the mines of 
•vvhich I have a specimen of native copper, which any one could readily jjound even 
■with a stone, into this or any other plain form." 

" From the mouth of Great Otter Creek, through Fcrrisburgh, Panton and Vcr- 
gennes, to V/althani, say thirteen or fourteen miles, Ir.dian relics gxist upon both 
banks, and have often been discovered. I doubt not they extend much further, 
probably as far towards the head waters as comfortable canoe navigation extended. 
Jlany years ago, I think in 1829 or 1830, I had quite a favorable opportunity to 
examine one of these localities. At the arsenal ground in this place, some forty 
rods below the s'cam boat wharf, there is a bluff of land on the bank of the creek, 
a portion of which was ploughed up at the time referred to, for the purpose of 
using the earth to fill the arsenal wharf. While it "ivas loose from the eirects of the 
plough, a very heavy rain fell, and thoroughly drenched it, disclosing quite a large 
number of arrow heads, and a great amount of chippings, or frag^ments, establish- 
ing beyond a question, that one manufactory of arro^vv heads, at least, ■\Tas upon 
this identical spot. And a most lovely spot it must have been too. ■w'len that man- 
ufacture was going on." 

" Perhaps it would not be inappropriate to say a few words about the material 
U3ed for arrow and spear heads, and other relics. The larger portion of tlie arro'.v 
heads in my poeseasion, arc made of that kind of boulder, coininon upon cur lands. 


wliich the f irmers dignify ■with tlic name of " hard lieads," and which is a Aery 
liard silicious rock. Others arc made from what I call black jafpcr, which is not 
aa uncommoQ boulder I'ock in t'.iis region. I have one, which I am inclined to call 
chlnrite ilale, and several which, with my limited knowledge of mineralogy, I do 
not assume to name My best spear head, is of a light colored stone, and is seven 
inches long. iVIy hatchet appsars to be a very fine grained clay slate stone, and i.s 
five inches long My gouge is a fine one, thirteen inches long, and over two inches 
•wide, at the cutting end. and much like chlorite as any other rock." 

' To Avhat uses the hatchets, gouge? and spear heads were put. it is very difficult 
to siy. Certainly the furnicr could have done nothing eilectually with wood, and 
tradition, I think, has not told us, that the Indians ever u.sed the spear as a weapon 
of My own rough impression is, that the spear heads meant Jisk and not 

At tlic time of our first application to Mr. Tl'CKER, a request 
was published in the Yergcnnes Cilizen, that any persons liavinf^ 
information of Indian relics, would communicate it to him. On the 
26th of April, 1859, he wrote us again on the subject, and among 
other things sajs : " The notice in the Citizen^ had no other results 
than bringing in a few additional arrow heads. One piece of in- 
formation however, grew out of it, which I believe to be true, that 
my copper arrow head, has another of the same metal to match it, 
and a far better one." It Vv'as ploughed up a few years ago, in 
Ferrisburgh ; and, although lie has not been able to see it, he says, 
" I have no doubt of its existence." In speaking of the Indian 
relics in Bristol, which Judge Munsill has described, he says, " I 
have very reliable information as to the existence of similar relics 
in Monkton, and particularly in the region of the pond. Some 
thirty years ago, an Indian burying ground Avas disclosed in that 
vicinity, and some four or five skeletons discovered, which were 
much talked about at the time, and which I quite well recollect." 
Mr. Tucker, states also, that about thirty-five years ago, he was 
shown on the farm of NoRMAX Munson, Esq., in Panton, what was 
called an " old Indian fire place," which he thinks ''showed evi- 
dence of fire," and he thinks it could not have been made by any 
body but Indians. 

In the possession of the Historical Society, are a mortar and 
pestle, found several years ago, on the farm owned by the late Col. 
John' IIackett, on White River, in Hancock. The pestle is twelve 
inches long and two inches in diameter, and undoubtedly of Indian 


manufacture. The mortar consists of a stone, eight inches square, 
and eight and a half inches deep. In the top is a round smooth 
cavitj, Avhich constitutes it a mortar, five and a half inches in di- 
ameter, and three and a half inches deep. This hollow Avas prob- 
ably wrought bj the Indians, but the shaping of the stone shows 
rather evidence of civilized manufacture. We do not mention either 
of these as evidence of a permanent and ancient residence. They 
were probably left by the Indians in some of their excursions against 
the settlers at the east. The White Hiver Avould form a commodi- 
ous route for that purpose. 

We have indeed little confidence in any thing, except the articles 
composed of stone, and those obviously made on the ground, as evi- 
dence of such residence. The forests must have covered and oblit- 
erated, and time wasted all other satisfactory evidence. 

Anticipating the very natural inquiry, of Avhat materials these 
relics were composed, and where the Indians found them, we 
wished, in addition to the information given by Mr. Tucker, relating 
to those in his possession, to furnish satisfactory testimony respect- 
ing those in our possession. We accordingly requested Rev. C. F. 
Muzzy, who has made mineralogy, for many years, a prominent 
subject of examination and study, to examine the specimens, and give 
us the requisite information. Mr. MuzzY', was graduated at ]\Iiddle- 
bury College in 1833, has since been a missionary in Southern In- 
dia, and is noAV on a visit to this country for his health. The fol- 
lowing is his reply : 

" Hon. S. Swift — Mi/ Dear Sir : — The slight examinatiou I have been able to 
make, of those arrow heads and other curiosities, iu your possession, has convinced 
me, that they are composed of Quartz Rock, Flint or Horn-stone, sometimes called 
Corneus Limestone, Chlorite ISlatc, and a species of Feklspathic, or Gianitie Kock, 
and that they are found in this vicinity, either in situ, or as eratic bowlders. Of 
most, if not all of them, I have found specimens in this town. 

Believe me yours, very respectfully. 

C. F. MUZZY." 

44 History of addison county. 



The first scttlomciit hy Europeans in the County of Addison, "v^t.s 
made hy the French, on the east shore of Lake Chumplain, opposite 
Crown Point, in pursuance of their plan to extend their settlements, 
and foi'tifications, and set limits to those of the English.' In the 
year 1730, a fe^v individuals or families, came up the lake from 
Canada, and estahlislied themselves at Chimney Point, in Addison, 
and built a block house and -wiudmill, on the point -where the tav- 
ern house now stands. The next ^'car troops were sent out and 
erected Fort Frederic, on the west side of the lake, now known as 
Crown Point. They afterwards in 1756, built a fort at Ticondor- 
o^^a. Other settlers followed in the train of the army, and prob- 
ably most of tliem were in some way attached to the garrison. Eoth 
the French and English, regarded the control of this lake of great 
importance, as one of the most convenient lines of communication 
into each other's territory, in the iioithcrn part of America. The 
British, in the early })art of that century, planned several expedi- 
tions through the waters of the lake to Canada, for the purpose of 
subduing that province to the crown of England, but they uni- 
formly failed. After th.e treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, a season of 
peace prevailed, between the English and French, which gave the 
French in Canada, an opportunity to improve their condition ; and 
when wars afterwards succeeded, they were confined to other dis- 
puted territories, on this continent, by which the French were ena- 
bled to extend themselves in this direction without opposition. But 
durin^r the French and Indian war, which commenced in 1755, one 
of the principal objects of the British, was to make an effective de- 
scent upon Canada, and for that purpose an expedition was set on 


foot every year from the coriimencement of tlie war, to proceed with 
a large force through the lal^e. A disgraceful failure attended them 
all, until the expedition under General Amherst, in 1759. These 
failures occurred through the ignorance and indiscretion of ministers 
at home, or the imbecility of the oiTicors entrusted with the com- 
mand of the troops. In the year 1T58, more elSciency was given 
to the war by the appointment of Mr. Pitt to the ministry. General 
Ai5ERcr>,0MBiE was that year appointed to command the expedition 
against the French forts on Lake Champlain, and prosecuted the 
enterprise with more vigor than his predecessors. He advanced as far 
as Ticonderoga, and made a violent assault on the fort ; but meet- 
ing Avith unexpected obstacles, he retreated without taking the place, 
lu the year 1T59. General Amtieust, commander in chief of the 
i^ritish fjrces in America, took command of the expedition, reached 
Ticonderoga, and without much opposition captured the fort there 
on the 27th of July, and before he reached Crown Point, the French 
garrison had burnt their fort;i on both sides and abandoned them. 
The settlers also in the neighborhood retreated with the army, and 
thus ended the French settlem>ent in the County of Addison. 

The French settlers had cleared off the timber along the 
shore of the lake, throe or four miles north of Chim.ney Point. 
Most of it probably had been used in erecting the forts and other 
buildings connected with them, and the cabins of the settlers, and 
by the garrisons and families in the neighborhood. This was piob- 
ably tb.e extent of the settlement, although the population was 
rather thickly crowded together. The cellars and other remains of 
numerous huts v\-ere found aftervrards by the English settlers, scat- 
tered over the whole tract, and many of them are still seen there. 
On the Stroxg farm were four, on the Vallanoe farm three or 
four, and on others two or three. The buildings of the French set- 
tlers were burnt the next year after "their retreat, by the Mohawks. 
K ALMER, the author of an early history, which Hon. John \Y. 
Sroxg found in Montreal, gives an account of his visit to the place 
in 1749. He says, '• I found quite a settlement, a stone Avindmill 
and fort, with five or six small cannon mounted, the V\hole inclosed 
by embankments." The remains of these embankments, surround- 


ing Chimney Point, wc have seen witliin a few years, and they arc 
l^robably still to be seen. Kalmer further says, that, within the 
enclosure, they had a neat little church, and through the settlement 
well cultivated gardens, and good fruit, such as apples, plums and 
currants. Old apple trees and plum trees, planted by them are 
still standing. 

The first permanent settlement by the English in this County, 
was on that tract. This clearing and its beautiful location on the 
borders of the lake, were the occasion that a prosperous neighbor- 
hood was found here earlier than elsewhere, and it was for some 
time considered the most eligible place for holding the courts, when 
the County was first organized. In the spring of 1765, ZadoCK 
Everest, David Vallaxce and one other person came from Con- 
necticut, and commenced a clearing on their respective farms, on 
which they lived and died, about three miles north of Chimney 
Point. They put in some crops and remained until full. In Sep- 
tember, of the same year, John Strong and Benjamin Kellogg, 
came on by the lake to Crown Point, then in possession of the Brit- 
ish. After stopping a day or two, they extended their explorations 
east and south, and went as far east as Middlebury Falls. "While 
on this expedition, they were delayed by a violent storm and swollen 
streams for several days, until their provisions were exhausted, and 
they were tvro days without food. When they returned to the lake, 
Strong concluded to settle on the farm on Avhich he resided until 
his death, and which is still in the possession of his grandson. Judge 
Strong. With the aid of the settlers, Strong erected a log house 
around an old French chimney, near the lake. Vall.-\nce, in a 
similar manner, converted the remains of another French hut into 
a tenement, which he afterwards occupied, for some years, with his 
family. In the fall they all returned to Connecticut. In February 
following. Strong came on witlf his fomily, and was the first Eng- 
lish settler, it is said, in W^estern Vermont, north of ]Manche£ter, 
and his fourth son, John Strong, Jun., in June 1705, Avasthe first 
English child born north of that place. Everkst and Kellogg, 
who were married during the winter, came on with their wives in 
tlie spring, and Yallante also returned with his family the same 


season. From John W. Strong, mentioned above, we have obtained 
many of the above details. His father's family resided in the house 
■with his grandfather, and he learned the facts from his grand- 
poi-ents, and especially from his grand-mother, who lived to a great 
aire, and often amused him in his childhood with the stories of their 
early history. 

The result of Amherst's expedition was, that on the opening of 
the campaign of 1760, Montreal was surrendered to him ; and Que- 
bec and every other French post in Canada having been conquered 
and captured, the whole province, by the treaty which followed on 
the 10th day of February 1763, was surrendered tO the British 

The French, having had uninterrupted possession of Lake Cham- 
plain for nearly thirty years, not only claimed the control of its 
waters, but the right to the lands on both sides of it, and made 
grants of seigniories to favorite nobles and officers, and of smaller 
tracts to others. The grants in the County of Addison Avere less 
numerous than at the north part of the lake. As early as the year 
1732, a grant had been made to one Contre Couer, Jun., lying on 
both sides and including the mouth of Otter Creek. On the 7th 
day of October 1743, a grant was made to " Sieur Hocquart In- 
tendant of New France," of a tract " about one league in front by 
five leagues in depth, opposite Fort St. Frederic, now Crown Point, 
bounded on the west by the lake, east by unconceded lands," north 
and south the lines running east and west. And on the first of 
April 1745, another grant was made to Hocquart, lying north of 
and adjoining the other tract, three leagues in front on Lake Cham- 
plain, by five leagues in depth. Both these, making four leagues 
on the lake, and five leagues east and west, constituted the '■' Seign- 
iory Hocquart," which extended from Willow Point, near the south 
line of Addison, north, and included the whole of the towns of Ad- 
dison and Panton, and is represented on an old English map, as ex- 
tending, as it must, some distance beyond Otter Creek, and inclu- 
ded Middlebury and other lands east of that stream. Soon after 
the execution of the treaty, by which the French government sur- 
rendered Canada to the British, on the_7th of April 1763, Hoc- 

48 • iir.vruRY of addison couxty. 

QUART conveyed liis seigniory to Michel CuiUTiEii LoxBiNiERE. 
As the inhabitants of Canada, by tlic treaty, became the subjects of 
the British government, it was claimed that the grants by the French 
government were valid, and should be confirsned by the British 
government, and Lotbiniekb prosecuted his claim perseveringly 
before the latter goveenment, from the time of his purchase until 
the year 17TG, before it was settled. 

LoTBiNiERE claimed, as evidence of his title, the "frequent 
clearances," and " various settlements," on these lands, which the 
war had not wholly obliterated ; although it is probable that none of 
them were made under the authority of this grant. It is stated by 
Governor Tkyon' of New York, in a letter to Lord Dartmouth, 
president of the board of trade and plantations, "that when the 
French, on the approach of Sir Jeffhey Ar.iriERST, in 1T59, aban- 
doned Crown Point, there were found no ancient possessions, nor 
any improvements worthy of consideration, on either side of the 
lake. The chief were in the environs of the fort, and seemed in- 
tended mostly for the accommodation of the garrisons." 

The lines between the provinces of Quebec and New York, had 
been settled by the British government on the 20th of July 1764, 
at the latitude of 45'^ on the lake. It was finally decided, that as 
the territory south of the River St. Lawrence, including the lands 
on Lake Champlain, was owned by the Iroquois, or Five Nations, 
and that these tribes, by treaty, had submitted to the sovereignty 
and protection of Great Britain, and had been considered sul)jects, 
all the possessions of the French on Lake Champlain, including the 
erection of the forts at Crown Point and Ticonderoga, were an in- 
trusion and trespass, and of course that government had no right to 
make grants there, and therefore the British government denied 
the claim of Lotbiniere, as they did all others, for lands south of 
latitute 45*^, but consented to give him lands in Canada. 

In the meantime, all the lands, which had been gi'anted by the 
French government east of Lake Champlain, had been granted 
anew by the governor of New Hampshire, in the name of the Brit- 
ish crown, and the governor and council of New York liad spread 
their grants to the reduced officers and soldiers of the army, which 


had been disbanded after the conquest of Canada, on the top of 
the New Harapshh-e grants. 

And previous to all these, and many years even before the settle- 
ment of the French, in 1696, Godfrey Dellius purchased of the 
Moha>Yks, who claimed the whole of this territory, a large tract of 
land extending from Saratoga along both sides of Hudson RiA'cr and 
Wood Creek, and on the east side of Lake Champlain, to twenty 
miles north of Crown Point, and the purchase was confirmed under 
the great seal of New York; but in 1699, the grant was repealed 
by the legislature, " as an extravagant favor to one subject." 

The Mohawks also, on the first day of February 1732, sold to 
Col. John Henry Lydius, a large tract of land embracing most of 
the Counties of Addison and Rutland. There is a map of tliis tract 
in the possession of Henry Stevens, Esq., President of the State 
Historical Society, of which we have a copy, laid out into thirty- 
five townships, with the name of each. The southeast corner is at 
the sources of Otter Creek, and the northwest at its mouth, and the 
territory embraces the whole length of that stream, running diago- 
nally through it. The west line — and the east is parallel with it — 
is marked as running from the north, south 16 degrees west 58 
miles 20 chains. On the back of the map is the following certifi- 
cate. "Feb. 2. 1763. A plan of a large tract of land, situated 
on Otter Creek, which empties itself into Lake Champlain, in 
North America, easterly from and near Crown Point, purchased by 
Col. John Henry Lydius, of the Mohawk Indians, by deed dated 
Feb. 1732, and patented auTl confirmed by his Excellency Wil- 
liam Sl'iIRLEy, Esq., Governor of the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, August 31, 1744, divided into townships, and sold by the said 
Lydius, to upwards of two thousand British subjects, chiefly be- 
longing to the Colony of Connecticut." 

The New York town of Durham, and probably other towns in 
Rutland County, were originally settled under this grant. Tv/o of 
the citizens, Jeremiah Spencer and Oliver Colvin, belonging to 
that town, in their petition to the General Assembly of New York, 
dated October 17, 1778, say, " That the township of Durham was 
originally settled by the late inhabitants, under Col. John Lydius: 


That discovering the imperfection of their title, they applied to and 
obtained letters patent under New York. That many of the inhab- 
itants (of Avhich your petitioners are) have since been compelled to 
purchase the New Hampshire title to their lands, under a penalty 
of being turned out of their possessions by a mob.'' 




BENNixa Wextworth was appointed governor of New Hamp- 
shire, in 1741, with authority from the King to issue patents of 
unoccupied lands within his province. Claiming that that province 
extended the same distance west as the provinces of Connecticut and 
Massachusetts, that is, to within twenty miles of Hudson RiVcr, on 
the third day of January 1749, he granted the charter of Benning- 
ton, on that line, to which he claimed the province extended, and 
six miles north of the line of Massachusetts. This grant occasioned 
a correspondence and mutual remonstrances between the governors 
of New York and New Hampshire, in relation to the rights of their 
respective provinces. The governor of New York claimed and con- 
tended, that the grant to the Duke of York in the year 1663, which 
was confirmed to him in the year 1674, after the conquest of the 
Dutch in 1673, and extended to the west bank of Connecticut 
River, settled the claim of New York.* 

Notwithstanding the controversy between the govei iiors of these 
two provinces, and the opposition made by New York, to the issuing 
of grants by New Hampshire, Governor '.VtNi worth continued to 
grant charters of townships, as applications were made for them. 
During the following five years, from 17£0to I7o4 inclusive, sixteen 
townships were chartered, principally on the east side of the moun- 
tains. From that time to the year 1761, during the prosecution of 
the JJ'rench war, the territory became a thoroughfare for the excur- 
sions of French and Indian scouting parties, and was, on that ac- 

* Nearly the whole h'story, which we have given of the controversy between the 
governors of New Hampshire and i>ew York, and subsequently, between the latter 
and the Green Mountain Boys, is taken from original documents, m the Doci me ;- 
taiy History of New York. 


count, ill SO disturbed a state, that no grants were made or asked 
for. After the conquest of Canada, in the year 1760, and after quiet 
and security had been restored to the territory, numerous applications 
were made, and in the year 17Gi no less than sixty towns v.cre char- 
tered. In that year, all the towns in the County of Addison were 
chartered, except as follows : Ferrisburgh, Monkton and Pocock, 
now Bristol, were chartered in 1762, OrY»'cil, and Whiting, in 
August 17G3. and Panton, was re-chartered on the 3d of Kovcmber 
176J:. And this was the last charter granted by the governor of New 
Hampshire, wiiliin the territory. The whole number of charters 
of towns granted by hira in this State, is one hundred and thirty- 
one, besides several others to individuals. 

Lieut Governor Coloen' of New York, disturbed and alarmed by 
the great number of grants made by New Hampshire, issued his 
proclamation on the 28th day of December 17G3, warning all per- 
sons against purchasing lands under those grants, and requiring all 
civil oiBccrs ' to continue to exercise jurisdiction in their respective 
functions, as far as to the banks of Connecticut River,'' and enjoin- 
ing the sheriff of Albany to rctur n to him " tbe names of all and 
every person or persons, who under the grants of New Hampshire, 
<lo or shall hold possession of any lands westward of Connecticut 
River, that they may be proceeded against according to law." 

On the 19th of March, 1764, the governor of New Hampshire, 
issued a counter proclamation, in which he contends, '• that the 
patent to the Duke of York is obsolete, and cannot convey an^'- cer- 
tain boundaiy to New York, that can be claimed as a boundarj'-, as 
plainly appears by the several boundary lines of the Jerseys on the 
west, and the colony of Connecticut on the east," and encourages 
the grantees under New Hampshire, '• to be industrious in clearing 
and cultivating their lands," and commands " all civil officers to 
continue and be diligent in exercising jurisdiction in their respective 
offices, as far westward as grants of land have been made by this 
government, and to deal Aviih any person or persons that may pre- 
sume to interrupt the inhabitants or settlers on said lands, as to law 
and justice doth appertain." 

At an carlv ivoriod of the controversy, and soon after the first 


grant was made by New Hampshire, it was agreed bj the gover- 
nors of the two provinces, to refer the question in dispute to the 
king; but no decision had yet been made. The king had, on the 7th 
of October 1763, issued a prochimation in behalf of the reduced 
officers and privates of the hitely disbanded army, directing bounty 
lands to be granted them. In view of this order, and the great 
number of grants made by New Hampshire, in the disputed terri- 
tory. Governor Golden, about the time of issuing his proclamation, 
above mentioned, wrote several pressing letters to the board of trade 
in England, insisting on the grant to the Duke of York, as conclu- 
sive of the right of New York, and urging a speedy decision of the 
question. In his letter of the 6th of February 1764, he represents, 
that great numbers of the officers and soldiers had applied to him 
for grants ; and in his letter of the 12th of April, of the same year, 
he says, " about four hundred reduced officers and disbanded sol- 
diers, have already applied to me for lands, pursuant to his Majesty's 
proclamation, which at this time are to be surveyed for them in that 
part claimed by New Hampshire. Your lordships vt^ill perceive the 
necessity of determining the claim of New Hampshire speedily." 
It was charged also, at the time by the claimants under New Hamp- 
shire, and stated by historians of that period, — on what authority 
we know not, — that a petition, with forged signatures of many of 
the New Hampshire settlers, was sent with the governor's letters to 
England, requesting that the territo]^ should be annexed to New 
York. In the public remonstrances of the New Hampshire claim- 
ants, conjectures were expressed, that there were " more or less 
wrong representations made to his majesty to obtain the jurisdiction," 
and that his " majesty and ministers of State had been egregiously 
misinformed." However that may be, in pursuance of the urgent 
solicitations of Governor Golden, the king in council, on the 20tli 
day of July, 1764, without notice to the opposite party, adopted an 
order, settling the west bank of Gonnecticut River as the boundary 
of the two provinces. 

The only charter of which v>'e have knowledge, as being issued, 
by the governor of Noav Hampshire, after the king's order, was that 

of Panton. as herefore mentioned, dated November 3. 1764, which 
8 ' 


was before notice of the order had been received in this country, 
that not arriving until the following spring. On the receipt of the 
order, Governor Wcntworth, .is well as the governor of New 
York, issued his proclamation, giving notice to all persons concerned, 
of the decision of the King in council, fixing the boundary. And 
in all Iiis subsenuent transactions, he seems to have acquiesced in 
the decision, and recognized the jurisdiction of New York over the 
territory. The claimants under New Hampshire expressed^no op- 
position to that jurisdiction at the time, not suspecting that the titles, 
which they had derived from the British government through one 
agent, and had paid for, would be superceded by grants from t}>e 
same authority, through another agent, and that, under these cir- 
cumstances, they should be compelled to re-purchase their lands, 
under much more oppressive conditions, in order to hold them. 

And such would seem to liavc been the views of the British gov- 
ernment at home. The order in council settling the boundary does 
not seem to be a decision, as to what had been or legally Avas the 
boundary, but it says, the King " doth hereby order and declare 
the western banks of the river Connecticut," " to be the boundary 
lino between the said t^vo provinens." On the 11th of April 17G7, 
Lord SiiELBURNE, president of the board of trade, wrote to Gover- 
nor MooiiE, of New York, reciting that U\o petitions had been pre- 
sented to the King, " one by the Society for the Propagation of tlie 
Gospel, and the other by Samuel Robinson, in behalf of himself 
and more than one thousand other grantees," says, •' In my letter 
of the 11th of December, I was very explicit upon point of former 
grants ; you are therein directed to take care, that the inhabitants 
lying westward of the L'nc, reported by the Lords of Trade, as the 
boundaries of the two provinces, be not molested, on account of ter- 
ritorial differencee, or disputed jurisdiction ; for whatever province 
the settlers may belong to, it should make no diiTercnce in their 
I)ropcrty, provided their titles to their lands should be found good 
in other respects, or that they have been long in uninterrupted pos- 
session of them." And he adds, " the unreasonableness of oblif^inn- a 
very large tract of country to pay a second time the immense sum 
of thirty three thoufiand pounds in foe>A. according to the allegation 


of this petition, for no other reason than its being found necessary 
to settle the line of boundary between the colonies in question, is so 
unjustifiable, that his majesty is not only determined to have the 
strictest inquiry made into the circumstances of the charge, but 
expects the clearest and fullest answer to every part of it." 

On the 24th of July 1767, the King in council, adopted an order 
on the subject. This order, after reciting at length the report " of 
the committee of council for plantation affairs," says " His Majesty, 
with the advice of his privy council, doth hereby strictly charge, 
require and command, that the governor of jSTev*' York, for the time 
being, do not (upon pain of His Majesty's highest displeasure) pre- 
sume to make any grant Avhatever, of any part of the lands de- 
scribed in said report, until His Majesty's further pleasure shall be 
known concerning the same." 

While the controversy was pending between the two governments, 
and before the King's order settling the boundary was known, a 
collision arose out of it in Pownal. But the facts in the case pre- 
sented a different question from that, which so extensively prevailed 
afterwards among other patents granted by New York. One called 
the Hoosick patent was granted as early as 1688. The charter of 
Pownal, when granted by New Hampshire, included part of this 
patent ; and the New Hampshire grantees claimed possession of 
certain lands, on Avhich several Dutch families had settled under the 
Hoosick patent. In August 1764, the sheriff of Albany, in pur- 
suance of the proclamation of Governor Golden, before mentioned, 
hearing that the New Hampshire claimants had dispossessed several 
of the Dutch families, and were about to drive off others, went in 
pursuit, taking with him " two of the justices and a few other good 
people," and arrested '' Samuel Ashley, who called himself a 
deputy, Samuel Robinson, a justice of the peace," and others, 
■who claimed the land, and committed them to the jail in Albany. 
But they were afterwards bailed and not further prosecuted. Gov- 
ernor Wentworth being informed of this transaction, wrote to 
Governor Golden, remonstrating against it, and requesting him to 
release the prisoners. To which the governor, with the advice of 
the council, replied, that as the offence was committed " wdthin the 


undoubted jurisdiction of Xew York, he could do no further therein, 
than to recommend that the bail be moderate," and added that the 
controversy respecting the boundary "already lies with His Majesty." 

As soon as the boundary was settled by the king's order, a large 
number of grants were made by the governor of New York, to re- 
duced officers and disbanded soldiers, and others, who made appli- 
cation for them, and soon extended over nearly the whole territory 
chartered by New Hampshire. The valleys of Lake Champlain 
and Otter Creek, were 'granted principally to reduced officers, and 
a large territory, north of Addison County, was reserved for non- 
commissioned officers and soldiers. A small tract was also reserved 
for them in the County of Addison, near the bend of the creek in 
Weybridge and New Haven, and perhaps some contiguous territory. 

At first the governor and council of New York, seemed desirous 
to encourage actual settlers under the New Hampshire grants to 
take out new charters under New York, in confirmation of their 
former titles. On the 22d of May 1765, the following order was 
adopted : 

'' The council taking into consideration the case of those persons, 
who are actually settled on the grants of the governor of New 
Hampshire, and that the dispossessing of such persons might be 
ruinous to themselves and their families, is of opinion, and it is ac- 
cordingly ordered by his Honor, the Lieutenant Governor, with the 
advice of the council, that the surveyor general do not, until fur- 
ther order made, return on any warrant of survey, already or which 
may hereafter come to his hands, of any lands so actually possessed 
under such grants, unless for the persons in actual possession thereof 
as aforesaid." 

Another order was adopted, July 11, 17GG, by which it was 
ordered, that all persons holding or claiming lands under " the New 
Hampshire grants, do as soon as may be, appear by themselves or 
their attorneys, and produce the same, together with all deeds, con- 
veyances, or other instruments, by which they derive any title or 
claim to said lands, before his Excellency in council, and the claim 
of such person or persons, which shall not appear as aforesaid, with- 
in the space of three months from the date hereof be rejected." 


In pursuance of tliese orders, several individuals in the towns 
west of the mountains, made application for a confirmation of their 
New Hampshire titles ; but much larger numbers, and nearly all 
in some towns east of the mountains, took confirmations of their 
titles from New York. We have no documents which enable us to 
ascertain the number or dates of the grants made, from the time of 
the order establishing the boundary to that which forbid further 
grants. It seems there was some delay on account of the stamp act 
then in force, the governor being "determined not to issue any 
papers except such as were stamped," and " the people refusing to 
take them on that condition ;" "of course the ofiices were shut up," 
as represented by Governor Moore, in his letter of the 9th of June 
1767, in answer to Lord Shelburne's letter above mentioned. But 
he adds, " No sooner was the stamp act repealed and the ofSces 
opened again, but petitions were preferred, by many of the inhabi- 
tants here for grants of land lying on Connecticut River." Again, 
refering to the order limiting the time for making application, he 
says, " This had the desired effect, and in a fcAV months, petitions, 
memorials, &c., were lodged by persons sent up from thence, setting 
up claims to ninety-six townships." 

Petitions had been sent up from the towns east of the mountains, 
for establishing one or more counties in the territory, and on the 
22d 'of October 1765, the committee made a report to the governor 
and council, that, on account of the state of the country, it was in- 
expedient to establish counties, but they recommended to the gover- 
nor to "appoint a competent number of fit persons for conservation 
of the peace and administration of justice in that part of the prov- 
ince." And on the 11th day of July 1766, an ordinance Avas 
adopted," for establishing a court of common pleas and a court of 
general sessions of the peace," and judges and other officers were 
appointed. On the 19th of March 1768 " a large tract of land 
containing forty townships," was by letters patent " erected into 
a County by the name of the County of Cumberland." This 
County was bounded east by Connecticut River, south by Massa- 
chusetts, west by the highest part of the Green Mountain, and 
north by the same, or nearly the same, line which divides the present 


Counties of Windsor and Orange. On tlie 2Cdof December 1772, 
it was ordered, that writs issue for the election of t^Yo representa- 
tives to the general assembly from that County. 

On the IGth of March 1770, all the territory east of the moun^ 
tains, and north of the County of Cumberland, was formed into a 
County, by the name of Gloucester, and the usual county officers 
were appointed. Soon after the territory west of the mountains, 
and north of the north lines of the towns of Sunderland and Arling- 
ton, and embracing considerable territory also west of the lake, was 
established as a County by the name of Charlotte : and the re- 
mainder of the New Hampshire Grants embraced in the County 
of Albany. Previous to this division into counties, the whole terri- 
tory was regarded as belonging to the County of Albany, and jus- 
tices of the peace, and other officers of that County, exercised 
authority in that territory. By order of the governor and council, 
September 8, 1773, an ordiance was issued establishing courts, to 
be held in the County of Charlotte annually, '• at the house of 
Patrick Smith, Esq., near Fort Edward." 

The order of the king in council, staying further grants of land, 
seems not to have been very satisfactory to Governor Moore, but 
he and his successors professed to regulate their proceedings by it, 
and applications were frequently made by succeeding governors to 
the board of trade, urging that the order might be rescinded. But 
the board of trade, instead of rescinding it, complain that the gov- 
ernor of New York " had taken upon him," contrary to the instruc- 
tions, " to pass patents of confirmation of several of the townships," 
and had " also made other grants of lands within the same." 




wooster's grant — dunmore's GR\NT. 

While <i considerable portion of the settlers on the east side of 
the mountain, sceined thus inclined to submit to the claims of New 
York, and accept eonfu'mations of their charters, nearly all on the 
west side refused to take such confirmations under the governors 
proclamation, with ''a quit rent of half a crown or two and sixpence 
sterling," for each hundred acres, and with the exhorbitant fees of 
the governor and other officers concerned in completing the titles, 
Avhich it is said, amounted to one or two thousand dollars for each 
charter. And the controversy Avith New York v/as transferred from 
the governor of New Hampshire, to the claimants under his grants. 
These chose, rather than submit to the terms required, and pay for 
their charters a second time, under less favorable conditions, to de- 
feud the titles they had in such way as they must; and accordingly 
made their preparations for that purpose. They proceeded to 
organize the several towns and appointed the requisite officers, and so 
far as their circumstances allowed, adopted the laws of New Hamp- 
shire : but, being without any established government or law, where 
their peculiar circumstances required, they became " a law unto 
themselves.'' To be the better prepared for the impending cricis, 
the several towns west of the mountains appointed committees of 
safety, and these occasionally met in convention, to consult for the 
general defence. For this purpose they organized a military force, 
" of which Ethan Allen was appointed Colonel Commandant, and 
Setii Warner, Remembrance Baker, Robert Cockran and 
others vrero appointed cnptains." Under these leaders every able 

60 nrsTORY of Al)DIS0^ county. 

* bodied man stood ready, ■when called on, to enter the service. Thus 
organized they waged an exterminating war against all settlers, 
under a New York title, on lands which were claimed under a 
New Hampshire grant, and against all persons acting officially with- 
in the territory, under the laws of the former State. All rights 
and powers, claimed under the authority of that State were denied 
and resisted. If surveyors were sent to survey lands granted under 
that authority, they were met by a competent force and expelled 
from the territory. If justices of the peace, or constables living in 
the territory, who had taken office under the government of New 
York, attempted to discharge their several duties, or otherwise in- 
terested thcmselveg in fivor of that government, the leaders with a 
competent force visited and arrested them, and having administered 
sufficient punishment, l)anishcd them from the territory. If any 
man, claiming title under that State settled himself down in his hut 
on lands claimed 1)y the " Green Mountain Boys," they appeared 
on the ground, and, if he hesitated to relinquish his claim, leveled 
his cabin to the ground, desolated his land and crops, and left him 
and liis family, houseless and destitute, to seek a shelter where else 
he might. No sheriif or other officer was permitted to serve process 
from the courts of Albany. If by any means writs of ejectment 
had been served, as was the case in the early state of the contest, 
and judgments obtained in the courts at Albany, or if any of the 
active agents, in defence of their claims, had been indicted as riot- 
ers, and the sheriff had been sent, Avith the posse comUalus, to ex- 
ecute the writs of possession, or arrest the rioters, he was set at 
defiance by a superior force and prevented from serving his process. 
The inhabitants called out from the neighboring towns in New Y'^ork, 
to constitute a posse, were too little inclined to use force against the 
Green Mountain Boys, to be relied on, and generally fled before 
they came to close quarters, and left the sheriff, with his few friends 
from Allxany to fight the battles. At a general meeting of the 
committees at Arlington, in March 1774, it was, among other things, 
resolved, " That as a country, we will stand by and defend our 
friends and neighbors so indicted, (as rioters) at the expense of our 
^ivcs and fortunes."' 


The claimants lindcr New Ilampsliire, were not permitted, in 
the Courts of New York, to give their grants in evidence in defence 
of their cLxims. The Green Mountain Boys therefore, decided to 
make no further defence there, but to defend themselves, as they 
might, bj force. Whenever the leaders chose to give their proceed- 
ings the forms of law, they established a court among themselves, 
and constituted themselves the triers, as well as complainants and 
executive officers, and passed and executed their own sentence. 

While these proceedings were going on in the " New Hampshire 
Grants," the friends of New York were constantly plying the gov- 
ernor and council and legislature of that State for relief by com- 
plaints, petitions and remonstrances, accompanied with affidavits to 
sustain them, while the government looked on with amazement and 
were puzzled to find means adequate for a remedy. The "Ben- 
nington Mob," as they were called, had not only inspired the 
"Yorkers" in the territory with terror and dismay, but satisfied 
the New York government, that the means within their control 
were insufficient to meet the force brought against them. On the 
19th of May, 1772, Governor Tryon of New York wrote a letter 
to Rev. WiLLTAM Dewey, minister of Bennington, and other in- 
habitants of that place and vicinity, inviting them to lay before the 
government "the causes of their illegal proceedings," and request- 
ing them to appoint Mr. Dewey and certain others, as agents to 
lay their grievances before the governor and council, and giving 
assurance of "full protection to any persons they should choose," 
" except RoEERT Cociieant, as also Allkn, Baker and Sevil, men- 
tioned in his proclamation of the 9th of December last, and Shtii 
Warner, whose audacious behavior to a civil magistrate has sub- 
jected him to the penalties of the laws of his country." 

Stepiiisn Fay and his-son Dr. Jonas Fay were appointed agents, 

and by them was sent a general answer to Go^'. Tryon's letter, dated 

June 5, 1772, explaining the grounds of their grievances, signed 

by Mr. Dewey and others ; and of the same date a more detailed 

reply, in explanation of their proceedings, signed by ErHA::^ Allen, 

Ssra Warner,, Rsmembuance Bakkr and Rdbsrt CociiuAN". 

These letters were laid by the governor before the council and refer- 


red to a committeo, who rccommanded that the governor '"should 
afford the inhabitants of those townships all the relief in his power, 
by suspending, until his Majesty's pleasure should be known, all 
prosecutions in behalf of the crown, on account of the crimes with 
which they stand charged by the depositions before us, and to re- 
commend to the owners of the contested lands, under grants of this 
province, to put a stop during the same period to all civil suits con- 
cerning the lands in question." This recommendation was adopted 
by the council, and when communicated, through the agents, to 
the people of Bennington and vicinity, was received with enthusi- 
asm and accepted by them as entirely satisfactory. But this prom- 
ise of peace was soon disturbed and the controversy Avas renewed 

and prosecuted as fiercely as ever. 

The governor of New York, with the advice of the council, 

issued one proclamation after another, offering large rewards for the 
apprehension of Allen', Baker, Warner, Coceran, and other riot- 
ers to no purpose. To as little purpose the legislature passed severe 
resolutions; and on the 0th of March, 1774, a law, which, for its 
Bavageness, has no superior in the legislation of any civilized com- 
munity. Referring to the riots which had taken place in the 
counties of Albany and Charlotte, by certain of the leaders, naming 
Ethan Allen and others, it enacts, among other provisions, that 
" as often as either of the above named persons, or any other person 
shall be indicted in either of the counties aforesaid, for any offence 
perpetrated after the passing of this act, made capital by this or 
any other law," the governor is authorized "to make his order in 
council, requiring and commanding such offender or offenders to 
surrender themselves respectively, within the space of seventy days 
next after the first publication thereof," "to one of his Majesty's 
justices of the peace for either of said counties respectively, who 
are hereby required to commit them without bail or mainprize," 
to the jail in New York or Albany. "And in case the said offend- 
ers shall not respectively surrender themselves pursuant to such 
order," "he or they shall from the day to be appointed for his or 
their surrendry, as aforesaid, be adjudged and deemed to be con- 
victed and attainted of felony, by verdict and judgment without 
benefit of clergy." 


Oovernor Tuton bad before tbat, ontbe 81st of August, 1773, 
called on Gen. IIaldimand, commander of tbe British forces, for 
a suiBcient number of regular troops to quell the riots, and after- 
Avai'ds, September 1, 1771, a similar application was made to Gen. 
Gage, both of which were declined. Application was also made to 
the home government for regular troops and declined. 

The iirst open and forcible collision, arising out of this contro- 
vorsv", subserpient to the occurrence of the Hoosick patent, as men- 
tioned above, occurred on the Walloomsic patent. This patent was 
granted to James Dslancy, Ge rap.dus Stuyvesaxt and others, 
July 15, 1739, about ten years previous to the first charter granted 
by New Hampshire, and was the field on which Bennington battle 
was fought, August 16, 1777. The charters of Bennington and 
Shaftsbury covered a part of this tract, and the fiirm of James 
Breckenridge was laid on this interfering territory. "Commis- 
sioners and a surveyor were appointed to make partition of certain 
lots," on this tract, "for the more effectual collecting of his Majes- 
ty's quit rents." Lieut. Governor CoLDExin his proclamation of 
December 12, 1769, states that " the said commissioners, bemg 
employed in surveying the said lots, were on the 19th day of 
October last past, interrupted and opposed by a number of armed 
men, tumultuously and riotously assembled for the declared pur- 
pose of preventing the said partition, who by open force compelled 
the commissioners and surveyor to desist from their survey, and 
by insults and menaces, so intimidated tho said commissioners, 
that, apprehensive for the safety of their persons, they found it 
necessary to relinquish any further attempt to perform their trust," 
and represents "that James Breckexridge, Jedidiah Due, 
Samuel RoBriVSON and three others were among" the principal authors 
and actors in the said riot," and commands and requires the sheriS" 
of Albany to apprehend and commit " the before named rioters 
and offenders," and if necessary to take the posse comitatiis. 
BaECKENRiDGE and EoBlXSON, in their affidavit, deny that they 
resisted the surveyor, but say " a few more people assembled, a 
few of which had guns ;" ,that they "forbid their running, for we 
held our lands by our New Hampshire charters," "and if they run, 


they must run it as cliLAputetl lands.'" Wiiatcvcv the facts were, the 
commissioners and survo3'or quit tbc premises. 

Actions of ejectment were soon after commenced against Bkeck- 
ENRiDGi'] and eight others, -whose land had been granted to reduced 
officers and othei's, and at the succeeding term of the circuit court 
at Albany, judgments Averc obtained against him and three others. 
It is said '• that Bri-ckexridgk made no defence, being within 
twenty miles of Hudson's River;" 1)ut more probably because his 
land was included in the Walloomsic patent, granted prior to tho 
charter of Bennington. 

From the result of these legal proceedings, '• It was hoped that 
the riotous spirit would subside," and commissioners were again 
sent to make partition of tho patent, who made complaint, that "on 
the 20th of September they were again opposed and prevented 
from eifecting said partition by a riotous and tumultuous body of 
men," '-among whom was SiLAS RoBissoN," and three others 
named. And thereupon Governor Duxmore issued anew proclama- 
tion for the apprehension of the rioters. The sheriff afterwards 
reported, that in obedience to tiie proclamation, he had arrested 
Silas Robixson, one of the rioters; and thereupon the governor 
and council made an order directing the attorney general to prose- 
cute him. He was afterwards bailed but never tried. 

The following case, among numerous others which Ave might re- 
cord, will illustrate the character of the proceedings of the '• Green 
Mountain Boys," or at least show how they Avere regarded and 
represented by the " Yorkers." Benjamin Hough, who repre- 
Bented himself as an " Anabaptist preacher of the gospel," resided 
in Socialborough, a New York town on Otter Creek, embracing 
the whole or a part of each of the towns of Clarendon and Rut- 
land, had accepted a commission of justice of the peace, and was 
an active friend of New York. In March, 1T75, he preferred his 
petition to Governor Tryox, stating his sufferings, and praying for 
relief, accompanied by bis own affidavit, and those of other per- 
sons to sustain his petition. In his own affidavit he states, among 
other things, '' that he was attacked by about thirty persons, a 
number of vrhom vrere armed Avith foelocks, swords and hatche ts, 


was S2iz2(i and carried a prisoner to Sunderland," -wbero he v/.n 
kept in custody until they sent to Bennington " for Ethan Ai.lh.v 
and Setii Warner ;" that on the 30th day of January 1775, 
" the rioters appointed a court for the trial of this deponent, which 
consisted of the following persons, to wit : Ethan Allex, Robep.t 
Cochran" and four others, " and they being seated, ordered this 
doponont to 03 brought before them ;" "that Ethan Allen laid 
the three following accusations to the charge of this deponent, to 
wit : 1. This deponent had complained to the government of Kcv/ 
York of their (the rioters) mobbing and injuring Benjamin' Spex- 
CE?v and others: 2. That the deponent had dissuaded and discoura- 
ged tlie people from joining the mob in their proceedings ; and 
Srdly, That the deponent had taken a commission of the rieaco un- 
der the government of New York, and exorcised his office, as a 
magistrate in the County of Charlotte, alledging tliiit this deponent 
well knevr, that they (the mob) did not allovr of any magistrate 
there:" that the judges having consulted together for some time, 
Ethan Allkn pronounced the following sentence, which ho read 
from a paper, which he held in his hand, to wit: " That he should 
be tied up to a tree and receive two hundred lashes, on the naked 
back, and then, as soon as ho should be able, shoujd depart the New 
Hampshire Grants, and not return again, upon pain of live hundred 
lashes." After the execution of this sentence, Allen and Waiine;; 
gave a certificate, that he had '• received a full punishment for his 
crimes," and the inhabitants Avere directed to give him " a free and 
unmolested passport toward the city of New York," "he behaving 
as becometh." 

Bat not to trespass further upon the province of State history, 
in detailing the incidents of this controversy, we add only a few, 
which occurred within the limits of the County. 

Colonel Reid, of a Royal Highland regiment, had received from 
the government of New York a grant of land, as a reduced, or half 
pay officer, on Otter Creek, including the falls at Vergennes, whose 
tenants had been dispossessed, in August 1772, by IiiA Allen and 
others. This 033urred, while the agents, who had been appointed 
by the inliabitanta of Bennington, at the reo[ue3t of Governor Tuyon, 


as stated in a former page, •\vcrc in a negotiation v,"itli the governor 
and council, whicli resulted in the conciliatory measure by them 
adopted. This proceeding, ^vhen it came to the knowledge of Gov- 
ernor TiiYQX, so irritated him that he wrote a severe letter to the 
" inhabitants of Bennington and the adjacent country," charging 
them with a '■ breach of fiith and honor, made by a body of your 
people in dispossessing several settlers on Otter Crock,'' at the very 
time the negotiations were going on, and requiring tlicir " assistance 
in putting forthwith those families, who liavc Ijcen dispossessed, 
into re-possession of the lands and tenements."' 

The follov/ing is the substance of the answer of the committees 
of '• Bennington, and the adjacent country " to this letter, signed 
by Ethax Allex, clerk, on the S.Sth of August 1772, in explana- 
tion of the proceedings complained of The people, having noticed, 
that " Mr. Cockburx, a noted surveyor," had taken " a tour to the 
northerly parts of the New Hampshire Grants," (on Onion River) 
'•to survey and make locations on lands," which had been granted 
b}'- New Hampshire, " rallied a sm.all party and pursued and over- 
t )ok him and his party, and in their pursuit, passed the towns of 
Panton and New Haven, near the mouth of Otter Creek, dispos- 
sessed Col. Reid of a saw mill in said Panton, which by force," 
and without right, " he had taken from the original owners more 
than three years before, and did, at the same time, extend his 
force, terrors and threats into the town of New Haven," '' who so 
terrified the inhabitants, (which were about twelve in number) that 
they left their possessions and farms to the conquerers^ and escaped 
with the skin of their teeth." " Col. Reid, at the same time, and 
■with the same force, did take possession of one hundred and thirty 
saw logs, and fourteen thousand feet of pine boards," and converted 
them to their own use. In 1769, a man by the name of Pang- 
born, built there a saAv mill, and a few claimants under the New 
Hampshire grant, were in possession of the lands in that year. 
After they were driven off, R kid's men built a grist mill. The 
committees also deny, that there was any breach of faith, as the 
result of the negotiations between Governor Tryon and the dele- 
gates from Bennington was not known at the tim.e, and the agents 


ivere not autborizeu to complete any arrangements, so as to be bind- 
ing on the people of the Grants, until ratified bj them. Thej also 
promptly refused to obey the governor's requisition to afford assis- 
tance in restoring Col. Raid's men to the possession of the lands. 
And thus ended the result of the negotiations for conciliatory meas- 
ures between the parties in 1772. 

The latter part of June, or the fore part of July 1773, Col. 
R,E[D, engaged several Scotch immigrants, lately arrived at New 
York, to settle on his lands, of which he had been dispossessed, as 
above mentioned, and went with them to Otter Creek. Onenterinor 
upon the lands, they found several persons settled on them, claiminp- 
title under the New HampshirO charters. One of them was Joshua 
Hyde, who afterwards removed to Middlebury, and settled in the 
south'part of that town. Col. Rkid, in some way, got rid of these 
tenants, and entered into possession of the mill and lands claimed 
by him. The Green Mountain Boys, learning this fact, Allen', 
Warner and Baki^r, wuth a strong force, consisting, as represented 
by the Scotch tenants, of more than one hundred men well armed, 
marched for Otter Creek, and on the 11th day of August, appeared 
on the ground, drove off the Scotchmen, burnt their houses and 
other buildings, tore down the mill, which, it was said, Col. Reid 
had lately built, broke the mill stones in pieces and threw them 
down the falls. John Cameron, one of the Scotch tenants, in his 
affidavit, as to the manner in wdiich they Avent into possession under 
Col. Reid, states, " That the persons" (the tenants in possession) 
" did agree voluntarily, to remove from Col. Reid's land, till the 
King's pleasure should be known, provided Col. Reid would pur- 
chase their whole crops then on the ground, that they might not 
lose their labor, which Col. Reid consented to, and paid them the 
full value for it accordingly." The affidavit also states, "That the de- 
ponent was much surprised to see, among the rioters, Joshua Hyde, 
one of the three men, who had entered into a written obligation 
with Col. Reid, not to return again, and to whom Col. Reid, on 
that account, had paid a sum of money for his crops." * 

* Mr. TnoMPSON, in hia history of Vermont, in stating this transaction, eays 
nothing about, the voluntai-y remoral of the New Hampshire claimants, and a 

68 niSTor.Y or addisqn county. 

A tract of '' three thousand acres of land on the e^ot bank of 
Lake Champlain, -within a mile and a quarter of the fort there," 
■was granted under the great seal of the Province of New York, " to 
David W<o3Ti:r, f of New Haven, in the Colony of Connecticut, 
Esc^uirc. being a captain on half pay, reduced from His Majcst^'-'s 
fiifty-first regiment.-' This tract was in the north part of Addison 
and probably extended into a part of Panton. In his deposition 
laid before the governor and council, dated February 20, 1773, ho 
states, among other things, that " on visiting these lands J he found 
five families, which had then lately settled," " some of them, pre- 
tending to have no right at ;:11, promised to leave said land's. The 
others the deponent then served ejectments on, which issued out of 
the inferior court of common pleas of Albany. Whereupon they 
also submitted, and desired the deponent to give them leases of part 
of said lands, which this deponent consented to ; gave them per- 
mission to remain on the lands, acknowledging him to be their land- 
lord, until it was convenient for him to return and give them leases 
in form." Ho states also, " that in the month of September pre- 
ceding, he went to his lands in order to give leases to the settlers," 
and " that upon the deponent's arrival on his lands, the settlers 
thereon and others, collected together in a body, about thirteen in 
number; when the deponent offered those who had settled on his 

promise not to return on being paid for their crops, but' says, " On their arrival, 
tJie New llnTnipshire settlers were a second time compelled to abandon the place. 
Kev. Dr. Merkh.l, in preparing his history of Mid.llobury, obtained from IIvde's 
family, after his decease, also a dificrent account of the manner in which he was 
dispossessed of his farm. This states, that he was arrested and made his escape, 
and sent back word to Col Reid, that, if he was allowed to depart in peace, he 
would never come back to his land, and soon after sold it, end the purchaser took 
possession. IIvue, on his way to Connecticut after his expulsion, met Allen's 
company at Sudbury and returned with h'm, 

t This Captain David Wooster, at the commencement of the revolutionary war 
was appointed by the legislature of Connecticut a major general of the troops of 
that State. Being at home in New Haven in April, 1777, when the British troops 
came up the sound and burned the town of Daubury, he volunteered and joined 
the troops suddenly raised to oppose them, and while rallying the troops under his 
command, received a mortal wound, of which he soon died. 

t This visit wa» in 17fi7 or 17fi8. 

mSTOKT 0? .'.LL<iS'jN CUUNI7. G9 

lends, leases, wlilch they absolutelj refused to accept, on any terma 
whatever ; but declared that thej would support themselves there 
by force of arms, and that they would spill their blood before they 
would leave the said lands." Whereupon, " being well armed with 
pistols," he "proceeded to serve two declarations in ejectment on 
tvy-o principal ringleaders," "notwithstanding they continued their 
firelocks presented against him during the whole time ; that after 
the deponent had served the said ejectments, they declared with one 
voice, that they would not attend any court in the Province of New 
York, nor would be concluded by any law of New York respecting 
their lands." 

Among other grants by New York, within the present limits of 
Addison county, a considerable tract of land was granted or re- 
served to the Earl of Dunmoro, who was governor of that State in 
1770 and 1771, embracing, as it appears by an ancient map, the 
tov.n of Leicester and at least a part of Salisbury, from Otter 
Creek to the Green Mountains, and including the lake which still 
bears his name. On the borders of this beautiful lake, and in the 
midst of the romantic scenery which surrounds it, a large establish- 
ment has been recently built, as a retreat for the accommodation of 
summer visitors, and for the resort of pleasure parties at other sea- 
sons, by an incorporated association, chiefly under the super intend- 
ance of the late Edward D. Barber, Esq. The establishment 
has since been purchased by a company of southern gentlemen, 
who are still enlarging and ornamenting it, intending to make it a 
summer residence for themselves and a large number of others. 

While the question was pending in 1772, as to the location of 

the public buildings for the county of Charlotte, Lord Dunmore's 

land was proposed for that purpose, especially for the reason that it 

was as central at that time as the state of the population would 

allow, and because it was near Crown Point, where military aid 

could be obtained to quell riots of the disaffected, if necessary. 

Lord DuNMORE offered, that if his lands were fixed on, he would 

" most cheerfully build a court house or other buildings, which 

may bo thought requisite." 

70 lIISTor.Y Of AP]'I.40X COU^'TY. 



It ^Tas well, probably, for the contending parties, that the com- 
nieuccment of the revolutionarj war opened a new field and pre- 
sented a new object for their elforts and anxieties, and checked the 
asperity of the controversy and the violence of the collisions. 
The controversy,, which in the cutset, was sufficiently complicated, 
had become more and more entangled and hopeless of settlement 
by every movement which had been made on either side. 

But, although the commencement and continuance of the war 
changed in some measure the position and operations of the parties, 
it did not change their settled and unwavering determination to 
maintain their several claims. The State of New York had no 
thought of surrendering their claim to jurisdiction over the Kew 
Hampshire Grants. And the inhabitants of the Grants had as 
little thought of ever subinitting to that jurisdiction ; but they 
began more openly and boldly to insist on establishing themselves 
as a separate and independent State. And several circumstances 
at this time occurred to encourage their hopes. They had before 
acknowledged the sovereignty of the British government, and their 
right to dispose of their destiny. By the declaration of indepen- 
dence, that sovereignty was thrust out of the way, and Congress 
had taken its place. They had renounced all allegiance to New 
York, and did not acknowledge that government as having any 
authority over them. And as they had not been received intu the 
Union, in the capacity of a separate State, they denied the au- 
tliority of Congress to exercise any authority over them, until 
thf^y were placed upon the footing of tlie other States,, as a part of 


the coiifoLbracj bj wliich that bodj had been constituted. They 
were of course, in tiieir own view, without a government. 

Until this time the counties of Cumberland and Gloucester had 
•generallj submitted to the government of New York, which had 
established courts and appointed the oSicers of those counties. 
But there were always many individuals opposed to that jurisdiction. 
The idea of establishing a separate government led the inhabitants 
to look around them and consider their state. The condition of 
their land titles was uncertain. Many of them, from various causes 
had failed to obtain a confirmation of their titles, and they began 
to discover that the heavy quit rents and expenses which would be 
iiequired would be an unreasonable burthen, "which," in language 
not very different from that of more modern land reformers " they 
consider an innovation upon the rights of mankind, for whose use 
such lands were given by a bountiful Providence, without reserva- 
tion, and which ought not, in their opinion, to be charged with 
taxes, other than for the general support and defence of the State 
and government." They discovered also that the seat of govern- 
ment was so remote that ' ' the obtaining of justice is rendered labo- 
rious, tedious and expensive," and that the influence of the govern- 
ment is " weak and dissipated," " to the great encouragement of 
the laAvless and wicked." 

It is understood that the excitement which raised the mob in 
March, 1775, to stop the proceedings of the court at Westminster, 
and arrest and imprison the judges and other officers, had no refer- 
ence to the question of land titles, or jurisdiction. But it is not 
improbable, that the scarcity of money, and their inability to pay 
the heavy amount of debts put in suit, which produced that excite- 
ment, might have stimulated an opposition to the government, 
whose courts and sheriff were a terror to the Avhole community. 
Accordingly, '' a meeting of the committees appointed by a large 
body of inhabitants, on the east side of the Green Mountains," was 
held at Westminster, on the 11th day of April, of that year, which 
adopted spirited resokitions against the government of New York. 
In the meantime, agents were sent from the west side of the moun- 
tains to encourage those rising dispositions, and ascertain the pre- 

72 msTuiiT yy Ai'i/i^ux c(;u:aT. 

vailing sentiments of counties, as to tbo cstablisLc-.cnt of 
an independent government. 

Soon after Ethan Alle.v and Setii Warner returned from the 
capture of Ticondcroga and Crown Point, they " set off on a 
journey to the Continental Congress, -with the design of procuring 
pay for the soldiers under them, and soliciting authority to raise a 
new regiment in the New Hampshire Grants. In both these objects 
they Avcre successful." The Congress " recommended to the Pro- 
vincial Congress of New York, that after consulting General 
Schuyler, they should employ, in the army to be raised for the 
defence of America, those called ' Green Mountain Boys,' under 
Buch oSccrs as the said ' Green Mountain Boys' should choose." 
Allen and Warner, notwithstanding their outlawry, repaired with 
the recommendation, to the Congress of New York ; and that body 
with some delay and reluctance, resolved that a regiment of Green 
Mountain Boys should be raised, not exceeding five hundred men, 
and to consist of seven companies ; who were to choose their own 
officers, except the field officers. "A lieutenant colonel was to be 
the highest officer." The committees of several townships assem- 
bled at Dorset, and made choice of ''Setu Warner, lieutenant 
colonel and Samuel Safford for major." 

" Knowing the value of Colonel Allen's experience and activity, 
General Schuyler persuaded him to remain in the army, chiefly 
with a view of acting as a pioneer among the Canadians."* On 
the 24th of September, 1775, in an attempt to capture Montreal, 
with a small body of troops, he was taken prisoner through the 
failure of Major BiiowN to co-operate with him, as agreed between 

By virtue of his election as lieutenant colonel, Warner prompt- 
ly raised his regiment, and joined the forces under General Schuy- 
ler, in the invasion of Canada, and performed very active and 
useful services. But neither he or his officers had received their 
commissions from the government of New York. On the 16 th 
day of September, 1775, General Montgomehy commanding the 

* Spzjik's Memoir of Ethan Ai,: ex. 


forces, wliis'u were bosciging St. John's, '-issued a,n order appoint- 
jiTT- Warner colonel of a reo;iment of Green Mountain Ran-rors, 
re;iuiring that he should be obeyed as such." This, it is presumed, 
"vvas designed only as a temporary appointment, and on the 20th 
day of November following, on account of the destitute condition 
of his troops, General MoNTGOM!:ri,Y discharged them, and they re- 
turned home. But IVarnkr was not long permitted to remain in- 
active. In January, 177G, he received a letter from General 
Yf 003TER, after the defeat of the Americans at Quebec, commend- 
ing him and his " valiant Green Mountain Boys," in vrhich he says, 
" let me beg of you to raise as many men as you can, and have 
them in Canada with the least possible delay, to remain till we can 
have relief from the Colonies. You will see that proper oilicera 
are appointed under you," and promises, that his troops should 
" have the same pay as the Continental troops." Yv^arneu promptly 
complied with the request, and he and his troops were in Canada 
in a very short time, and remained there until the retreat of the 
American army. Through the hostility of the government of 
New Y'ork toward the Green Mountain Boys, or for some other 
culjaable cause, he had received no commission, and he and his 
troops performed those services as volunteers. "Congress, on the 
5th day of July, 1776, resolved to raise a regiment out of the 
troops who had served with so much reputation in Canada, to be 
commanded by a lieutenant colonel. Warner was accordingly 
appointed lieutenant colonel and Samui^l Safford, major." * 

No event had more decided tendency to strengthen the cause of 
the Green ]\Iountain Boys, and encourage them to hope that Con- 
gress would finally recognize their independence, or to exasperate 
the people and government of New York, than the raising of this 
regiment, separate from and independant of that government. Com- 
plaints were made by the Yorkers on the Grants, that this measure 
rendered their condition more uncomfortable and hopeless ; and the 
government of New York sent frequent remonstrances to Congress, 
demanding that the regiment should be disbanded. 

* D. Chip3IA»'3 Memoir of Warkek. 

74 nisTor.Y of alljiso.v couxty. 

Iti tlic raeantims, reports ^vore in circulation, that a considerable 
number of the members of Congress, v>-ere in favor of admitting 
Vermont into the Union, as an independent State. On the 11th 
day of April 1777, Thomas Young, of Pliiladelohia, an ardent 
friend, wrote a letter to the inhabitants, that after learning "the 
minds of several of the leading members," he could assure them, 
that thcj had nothing to do but to choose delegates to a convention, 
who should choose delegates to the General Congress, and form a 
constitution for the State."' And he adiled, as a reason, why noth- 
ing more had been done in their behalf, " until you incorporate, 
and actually announce to Congress your having become a body poli- 
tic, they cannot treat you as a free State '"' 

la the meantime measures had been taken preparatory to a dec- 
laration of independence, and at an adjourned meeting of the con- 
vention, held at Westminster, on the 15th day of January, 1777, 
composed of delegates from all the Counties, a formal declaration 
was adopted, *' that the district of tcrritorj^, known by the name 
and description of the New Hampshire Grants, of right ought to 
1)0, and is hereby, declared forever hereafter, to be considered as a 
free and independent jurisdiction or State, by the name of New Con- 
necticut, alias Vermont." And at a meeting of the convention 
afterwards, on the 4tli day of June following, it Avas resolved that 
the State should be called Vermont. Joxas Fay, Tiior.iAS CiiiT- 
TiiiXDEN, Heman Allex, and RiiUiiEN JoxES were appointed a com- 
mittee to present to congress the above declaration, with the reasons 
which induced it. 

In pursuance of the advice of Mr. Youxg, the delegates who had 
been chosen for that purpose, met at Windsor, on the 2d day of July 
1777, and adopted a constitution, fixed a time for the choice and 
meeting of the legislature under it, and appointed a committee of 
safety to act in the meantime. The session of the convention was 
closed in haste, occasioned by the news of the invasion of the country 
by a formidable force under General Burgoyxe ; and by reason of 
that event and the movements which followed, notice for the election 
and meeting of the legislature was not seasonably given. The con- 
vention was therefore again called together, revised the constitution, 


and appointed i-iic second Thursday of March 1773, for the meeting 
Of the Assembly. Mr. YouNa had recommended the new consti- 
tution of Pennsylvania, providing for a single legislative body, with 
some alteration of the pov/crs of the governor's council. This rec;- 
ommendation was adopted. But the.peoplc of Pennsylvania soon be- 
c<i:me dissatisfied with their constitution, and added a senate to the 
legislature. Ours reinained with little alteration until the year 
I8o0, when it was also amended so as to provide for a senate. 

Against all these proceedings the New York government sent to 
Congress their remonstrances. On the other hand, the Green Moun- 
tain Boys, contiimed to urge their claims to be acknov.'ledged as an 
independent State, and to bo admitted into the Union. They 
claimed, that in declaring their independence, they only imitated 
the example of the Continental Congress ; that the colonies were 
oppressed by the Bi'itish government, and they had been oppressed 
by the New Y^'ork government ; that all the civil and political insti- 
tutions of the country, which had been established under the author- 
ity of the crov>'n of Great Britain, had been dissolved by their sep- 
aration from that government, and so far as the government was 
concerned, all Avere reduced to a state of nature, and were left to 
form such government as they might choose ; and that, in this re- 
spect, the people of Vermont were in the same condition as the 
other territories, and had the same right to establish their own gov- 
ernment. As early as the 15th of May 1776, and before the dec- 
laration of American independence, the Continental Congress, re- 
cognizing the disorganized state of the country, and the propriety 
of a legal organization, before the adoption of such declaration, had 
. " resolved, that it be recommended to the respective assemblies and 
conventions of the United Colonies, where no government, su£cient 
to the exigencies of their affairs, has been hitherto established, to 
adopt such government as shall, in the opinion of the representatives 
of the people, best conduce to the happiness and the safety of their 
constituents in particular, and America in general.*' 

But Congress was placed in an embarrassing and delicate position, 
"between two fires." They saw the danger of irritating either 
party. Their proceedings were therefore vacillating in the extreme. 




Wli:it tbc}'- did at one time was undone at the next ; and no final 
decision -.vas ever adopted by that body. 

In the meantime the Ycrmontcrs continued to adopt measures to 
reduce the government to system and order, in its operations over 
ail parts of the b'tatc. The inhabitants v/ere also becoming, not 
only accustomed to, but satisfied with, its operation. The settle- 
ment of the State and its population were rapidly increasing and 
adding strength to the government, and the claims of New York 
Avcre thereby becoming every year more hopeless, and the condi- 
tion of the friends of that government more uncomfortable. 

Ethan Allen, wlio had been captured in Canada in 1775, and 
lield by the British a prisoner of war, being exchanged and re- 
leased in May, 1778, soon returned Iiomc and resumed his posi- 
tion as leader of all the active operations of the State. 

The government of Vermont did not hesitate to extend its juris- 
diction and authority over the adherents of New York, as well as 
others. There still remained in Brattleborough, Guilford, and other 
towns in "Windham county, in the year 1779, many individuals of 
this class, who endeavored to oppose the proceedings of Vermont. 
These were taxed and drafted into service as others, and " a sum of 
money was assessed on those who were supposed to have done least 
in the war." Some "acquiesced in it rather than contend." 
Among other acts, the Vermont party, in the spring of that year 
"ordered Capt. Jami^s Clay, Lieut. Benjamin Wilson" and 
another, who were militia officers appointed by New Y''ork, "to 
provide a man to go into the service." But they failing to obey the 
order, two of their cows were seized, and ordered to be sold, to pay 
the man hired by the Vermontcrs. On the day appointed for the 
sale. Colonel Patterson, who commanded the regiment of militia 
under New York, with his " field officers and a considerable part 
of the regiment," assembled and rescued the cattle, and delivered 
them to the owners. Within a week or two, Etuan Allen, with 
an armed body of troops, appeared there and arrested and imprisoned 
Colonel Patterson, and nearly all the officers of the regiment. 

The legislature of Vermont, at their session in February, 1781, 
passed " a general act of amnesty in fiivor of such persons," who 


had opposed its authority. Upon which those persons submitted to 
the authority of the State-^and took the oath of allegiance. After- 
wards, the legislature, for the defence of the frontiers, ordered " a 
quota of men to be raised in the several towns throughout the State." 
And thereupon the same "disaffected persons," " in the town and 
vicinage^of Guilford, in the southern part of the County of Wind- 
ham " raised a formidable opposition "to the raising and paying 
of them," and for the of aiding the opposition, the govern- 
ment of New York appointed several of the disaffected persons to 
" civil and military oiiices," who undertook to use the laws of the 
State of New York over the citizens of this State. Upon which 
Ethan Allex, at the head of a military force was sent by order 
of the governor "to assist tlic sheriff of V/indham County, in the 
execution of the laws." TiMOTiiY Phelps, sheriff, Timothy 
CilUKCil, colonel, and more than one hundred civil and military 
officers and privates, were arrested and brought before the courts, 
and five of them were sentenced to banishment, and conilscation of 
property, and others to fines and imprisonment. 

These proceedings wcx'e occasions for new appeals from Governor 
Cli>;ton to Congress for their speedy and eiScient interference. 
On occasion of the latter proceeding, Congress, on the 5th day of 
December, 1782, adopted resolutions, condemning, in severe terms, 
the action of Vermont, and among other things, requiring the peo- 
ple of that State, " without delay to make full and ample restitu- 
tion to Timothy Church, Timothy PiiELrs, Henry Evaxs, 
William Sil^^.ttuck, and such others as have been condemned to 
banishment, or confiscation of estate, or have been otherwise de- 
prived of property," " and that they be not molested in their per- 
sons or properties, on their return to their habitations in the said 

These resolutions Avere answered in a very spirited letter from 
Governor Chittexdent, denying the authority of Congress to in- 
terfere in the internal proceedings of Vermont, containing a very 
able argument in justification of their measures, and promptly re- 
fusing to obey the requirement of Congress. The General Assem- 



blj also adopted a Icttex- to CongresS; einbmcing more concisely the 
same sentiments. 

These ate among the last acts of interference, in the affairs of 
Vermont, on the part of Congress, or the New York government. 
The legislature of that State, on the first day of March, 1786, 
thought proper to make the compensation, which Vermont had re- 
fused, to the last mentioned sufferers ; and granted them a township 
of land in the "county of Chenango, eight miles square, named 
Clinton, now Bainbridge. 

In the u:oantimc the people of Vermont, -with quiet and undis- 
turbed prosperity, continued to press forward in their c:ireer of 
separate tind independent existence, v.'ith increasing indifi(.'rence to 
the hostility or favor of any exterior power. At length on the 15th 
day of July, 1789, the legislature of New York, tired of the 
fruitless controversy'', giving up all hope of reducing the territory 
to her jurisdiction, and desirous, it is said, of increasing the north- 
ern influence in Congress, which Vermont might bring, passed 
an act appointing commissioners, witli full power to acknowledge 
her independence, and settle all existing controversies. On the 
22d of October following, the legislature of Vermont appointed 
commissioners on their part with similar powers.* On the 7th of 
October, 1790, the commissioners agreed upon the boundaries and 
the terms of settlement ; that Vermont should be admitted into tho 
Union, and on such admission all claims to jurisdiction on the part 
of New York, should cease, and as a compensation to those, wh.o 
claimed lands under New York, Vermont should pay thirty thou- 
sand dollars. On the 28th of the same month, the legislature of 
Vermont passed an act, accepting the boundaries and settlement, 
and agreeing to pay $30,000. On the 10th of January, 1791, a 
convention of delegates chosen for the purpose, passed and sub- 
scribed a resolution, '' approving, assenting to and ratifying"' the 

* Tho commissicners appointed on the f>nrt of New York ■were Hobikt YAXts, 
JuiiN L.iNsiNO, Jr., Gl'lien VEiirLANK, SiMKox DkWitt, Egbert Be.nsun, and 
.ViELANCToN Smith, and on t'.ic part of Vermont, Isaac Ticuu:.\or, tTEVKEX K. 
BuADi.ET, KvTiiA.MtL Cjn?M N, Ei.iJAir P ii.vr, Ib\ Ai.T,KN, gTKPMEv Jacob and 
Is^Arr. f^MjTir. 


Constitution of the United States : and on the 18th day of Februa- 
rj of that year. Congress passed an act, 'Hhat on the 4th day of 
March " following, " the State of Vermont shall be received and 
admitted into the Union, as a new and entire member of the United 
States of America." 




The revolutionary war, •whicli bad been ended, some years before 
Vermont Avas admitted to the Union, furnished but few incidents, 
which can properly constitute a part of the history of Addison 
County. Very few permanent settlements had been made in the 
county before its commencement. It is said that James jMcIxtosii, 
a Scotchman, commenced a settlement in territory now in the 
city of Vergennes, in the year 176G ; and other settlements Avere 
made on the creek above the falls in New Haven, now Waltham. as 
early as 1769. Col. JoHX Chipman, in 176G made a small clear- 
ing on his farm in Middlcbury, but did not return to it, Avith his 
family, until 1773 ; and in the latter year several other families 
w^ere settled in that town. And it is said that in the charter limits 
of Middlebury, there were thirteen families, and in that part of 
Cornwall, afterwards annexed to ]\Iiddlebury, eight families, before 
the Avar. Col. Piiilip Stone commenced preparation for a settle- 
ment on the border of the lake in Bridport in 1768, and several 
other families were settled in that town before the Avar. John 
CiiARTiER also commenced some improvements, on the south end 
of Mount Independence in OrAvell some years before the w^ar, 
but no permanent settlements, we believe, were made in that town 
until after the war. As stated on a previous page, John Stkong, 
Zadoc Everest, Daa^d Vallanoe, Bi^njamin Kellogg, and 
probably a fcAV others, had made preparations for a settlement, 
on the borders of the lake in Addison, in 1765, and took posses- 
sion with their families in 1766. The late Squire Firris, of 
Vergennes, in a statement made to Philip C. Tucker, Esq., to 
which we have referred elsewhere, says that his father, Pinter 


FeuuS; cams to and settled on the shore of the lake in Panton, in 
1765. Mr. Feiiuis, and his ^\ife came through the ^voods from 
]Jennington County, on horse back, he carrying his son Squirk 
then two years old in his arms ; and that there were then no settle- 
ments on the lake, and that the nearest, and only neighbors were the 
British garrison at Crown Point. A few other flimilies were settled 
there before the war. The first settlements, by families, in Whiting 
and Leicester, were in 1773, in Cornwall and Monkton in 1774; 
in Weybridge, and in that part of New Haven, since aane.\;ed to 
"Weybridge, in 1775. In no other towns in the County had perma- 
nent settlements been made at tliat time ; and in the towns men- 
tioned, the number of families was small. 

After the retreat of the American troops from the disastrous ex- 
pedition into Canada, in 1770, and especially after General BuR- 
GOYNE, in 1777, with his formidable army, came up the lake, 
sweeping away every resistance before him, a large proportion cf 
the settlers deserted their farms, and removed to places of greater 
safety at the south. The lake and its forts being in possession of 
the British, the whole country lying opposite was exposed to ma- 
rauding and foraging parties of British, Indians and tories, who 
plundered and carried off all such moveable property as was left 
behind and desired by them. And in 1777, while the British 
were in quiet possession of the forts, before the surrender of BuR- 
GOYNE in October of that year, several of the men were taken 
captive ; and such as remained in captivity until the occurrence of 
that event were then released. The family of Col. Stone, living 
on the lake shore, in Bridport, was, among others in that region, 
frequently annoyed by bodies of Indians, who visited them for 
plunder. But as they did not generally, molest the women and 
children, except for plunder, he kept out of the way and remained 
safe for some time. But in October 1777, having been falsely 
charged by a tory, as being concerned in burning his house, a 
British vessel in the lake sent a boat on shore, captured him and 
carried him a prisoner to Ticonderoga, where he was confined about 
three weeks, and until the fort was evacuated after the surrender 



Samuel Blodgett, a son of As.v Bi.ODGfrrx. an early settler in 
Cornwall, now Middleburv. had built him a log house, just over the 
present line between Middieburj^ and Cornwall; where he resided 
many years aftervrards. About the same time, in 1777, a scouting 
party came upon him and took him prisoner, tied him to a tree, and 
threatened to burn him. But being a freemason, he made himself 
known to the British officer commanding the party, who was also a 
mason, and lie Avas released and taken to Tieonderoga, where ho 
was set to' work with a team. 

At the same time James Bextley senior, who had settled in 
Middlebury, and his daughter wore at the house of Blodgett, and 
to escape from the Indians, he crawled into a hollow log, and the 
women threw brush over the entrance and so effectually concealed 
him, that he escaped. 

Tlie following account of the capture of Eldai* Andrews, taken 
in 1777, at the same time as Samuel Blodgett. was furnished by 
Mr. RuFUS Mkad, who obtained it from tliose Avho received it di- 
rectly from Mr. Andrews : 

Eld AD Andrew.^, one of the first three settlers in Cornwall, Avas 
taken by Indians, and carried across the lake. The savages came to 
his house, Avhile he Avas in the field at Avork ; finding Mrs. A. en- 
gaged in making cheese they devoured the curd and everything eat- 
able in the house, without committing any personal violence. LeaA'- 
inf the house, they captured Mr. A. and took him to Ticonderoga. 
He Avas at length released and an Indian deputed to row him across 
the lake. Mr. A. had not gone far before he discovered the Indian 
on his trail, and the conclusion was that the Indian coveted his scalp. 
He made no sign hoAVCA'cr, but armed himself with a heavy club. 
As twilight came on, he passed a deep ravine, in going into which 
he passed over a large fallen tree, and laid down behind it concealed. 
His pursuer Avas soon standing over him on the log. Andrews was 
a man of great physical strength, and did not give the saA'age a long 
time to ascertain his whereabouts, when with a heaA-y blow with his 
club on the side of his head, he leveled the Indian, and marched 
homo without further molestation, and without inquiring the fate 
of his pursuer. 

nisToiiY OF Ai>i.'isu.\ County. 83 

Joshua Guaves and his son Je.ssk Guayes, while hoeing corn 
on the bank of the creek in Salisbury, on the farm since owned by 
the late JxSKPn Smith, on which they were among the earliest set- 
tlers in that town, were captured at the same time by about two 
hundred Indians. The' widow of Joseph Smith was a daughter of 
the younger, and grand-daughter of the elder, Gkavij:.-;; and the 
farm has ever remained in the family. The captives were takeu to 
the settlement of Jehemiah Pahker in Leicester, where he and his 
son, JkremI/MI Parkeh, Jun. were also captured, and all the pris- 
oners were taken to Ticonderoga. The two elder captives v.- ere soon 
released ; but tb.e two younger were detained prisoners, on board a 
vessel, for three weeks, until there was time to send to Canada and 
get a return. 

Asa Blodhett. father of Samuel Blodgett, above mentioned, 
who had settled on the creek in the south part of Cornwall, and re- 
mained after the general retreat of the inhabitants, Avas taken pris- 
oner also by the Indians. His ca[)tor3 placed him on a stump, with 
a rope around his neck, the end of which was thrown over the limb 
of a tree. He remained in this position for some time, expecting 
instant death, with w hich the Indians threatened him ; but he was 
afterwards released. The facts we have stated relating to the cap- 
ture of Asa and Samuel Blodgett, and the escape of Bextlfy, 
were received from the late Acraiia.m Williamson of Cornwall, 
and his wife, who was a dauMiter of Samuel Blodgett. 

But the most serious and extensive depredations, on the inhabit- 
ants of the County were committed in the fall of 1778. In the 
earl}^ part of November in that year, a large British force came up 
the lake in several vessels, and thoroughly scoured the country on 
both sides. Such of the men as had the temerity to remain on their 
farms until that time they took prisoners, plundered, burnt, and de- 
stroyed their property of every description, leaving the women and 
children to take care of themselves as they could, in their houseless 
and destitute condition. Not a town in the County, where any set- 
tlements had been made, escaped their ravages. The only building 
in Middlebury, not wholly destroyed, except two or three in the 
^uthcnst part of the town, which tboy aoem not to have found, was 

S-l }lI."roi;T C)l' AI;I)ISUN caUNTY. 

a barn of Col. John Chipmax, -vvliich had been lately built of green 
timber, which they could not set on fire and v, hieh thcj tried in vain 
■with their imperfect tools to cut down. The marks of their hatchets, 
on the timbers, are still to be seen. 

As there arc no public documents or history, Avithin our know- 
ledge which give any general account of these proceedings, in otl)er 
towns, and all the persons concerned in the transactions are supposed 
to be dead, we have collected information from such sources as were 
in our jiuwer ; and instead of conc1en:>ing it into a continuous narra- 
tive, wo to give it as we have received it from the several 

The following statement was made by Philip C. Tuckkr^ Esq.. 
of A'^ergennes, principally from information obtained by him, at our 
request, from Nathan Gpjswold and Asaph Gia.swo] d, sons of 
Natiiax Or.iJWOLD, one of the captives: 

"' In the month of November 1778, the following persons of the 
north and west portions of Addison County were taken prisoners by 
the British forces, and transported on board British vessels to Can- 
ada : Nathan G uiswold, taken in that part of Nevf Haven which 
is nov,- Yergennes, John Griswold and Adonijae GiaswoLU, iir 
that part of New Haven which is now "Waltham, and David Grd.^- 
"WOLD, of New Haven. These four men were brothers ; Er.i Rob- 
erts and DuRAND Roberts, father and son, were taken at Vcr- 
gennes; PiTCR Ferris and Squire Ferris, father and son, of 
Panton, were taken on the west side of Lake Champlain, while 

hunting ; Joseph Hulcomb, Elijah Grandy and Spaldtni^ 

at Panton, JoHN Bishop at Monkton and Hopkins at New 

Haven. These were part of the captives taken during the fall of 
1778, consisting in all of two hundred and forty-four. They were 
all taken to Quebec and imprisoned. Tradition says, that but forty- 
eight were brought back in June 1782, and exchanged as prisoners 
of war at Whitehall." 

'•Of the thirteen persons above named, all returned but one. 
John Grisavold Jun. enlisted on board a British vessel at Quebec, 
upon a promise, that he should be restored to his liberty, on the ar- 
rival of the vessel in Ireland. He was ne\er heard of afterward. 


All these men are believed to be now dead. The deaths of those 
known are as follows : Nathan Griswold, died at Waltham, 
July 17, 1811, aged 85 years; David GiaswoLD, at New Haven, 
August 11, 1820, in his 60th year; Adonijaii Griswold, at 
Green County, Illinois, in 1847, aged 88 years ; Eli Roberts, at 
Vergennes, in 180G, age unknown; Durand Roberts, at Ferris- 
burgh, in 1817, aged 57 years ; Peter Ferris, at Panton, in 
1811, aged 92 years ; Squirw Ff.hris, at Vergennes, March 12, 
1849, aged 87 years." 

The follovriiig information was communicated by MiLo Stow, 
Esq., of Wcybridge, son of Clark Stow, one of the captives men- 
tioned below, and published in the Middlebury Register, August 
30, 1854. A short memorandum, Avhich we have seen in their 
family records, of their capture, imprisonment, and the death of 
David Stow, in the hand-writing of Clark Stoav, authenticates 
the principal facts. 

'* Noveinbor 8, 1778, a marauding party of British, Indians 
and tories, invaded the fjuiet homes of four families in this vicinity, 
being the only inhabitants in Wcybridge, burned their houses and 
effects, killed their cattle and hogs, and took Thomas Sanford, 
and his son Robert, David Stow^ and his son Clark, Claudius 
Brittel and his son Claudius, and Justus Sturdevant, and car- 
ried them prisoners to Quebec. The four wives and their young 
children, for eight or ten days, occupied an out-door cellar of Mr. 
Sanford, at this place, till our troops from Pittsford came to their 
rescue. David Stow died in prison, December 31st, 1778. 
Thomas Sanfokd, and two others from Vermont, Gifford and 
Smith, esca}]^d from prison, and after wandering through Maino 
and New Hampshire, reached their families. The rest of the 
prisoners, after extreme suffering were discharged in 1782." * 

* A handsome marble monument has recently been erected on the site of the 
out-door cellar, in Avhich the ivomen and children found shelter, in memory of 
the capti-vity of these men. The pedestal, base, die and cap, make the height 
about eight feet. Ihe above is the insci'iption on one side. 

Not fiir from this monument, is a remarkable slide, on the bank of Otter Creek. 
It occurred in the fore part of July, 1819. Ciiaeles Wales, -vrith his family and 
mother resided in a house ou the f^round, and in the course of the dav, tlie house 



The following, in addition to the above, "svc have received dii'cctly 
from Mr. Stow. The prisoners, on their arrival at Quebec, were 
for a time kept on board a prison ship ; but v.ere afterwards re- 
moved to a prison on land. While there thej dug through the 
walls of the prison and escaped, but were retaken and reconuiiitted, 
except Thomas Saneoiid and one or two othci-s frora Vermont, who, 
after wandering a long time through the Avilderncss of Kew Hamp- 
shire and Maine reached their families.* Those Avho were recom- 
mitted dug nearly through the wall a second thne, and a large pro- 
portion of them, in the spring of 1780, were sent ninety miles 
down the St. Lava-encc, and Avcre there set to work. But Clat.k 
Stow beinc; then younir, was selected by a French ladv. and cm- 
ployed by her as a house servant, until he, with the rest, was ex- 
ciiangcd and released in 1782. After his release in October he 
went to Great Barrington, Mass., to which the family had revnoved, 
and in March, 1783, they returned to Y\''cybridge. 

The following account of the capture of some of the inhabitants 
of Bridport, their imprisonment and escape, w"e have abridged from 
the account of Bridport, given by I\Ir. THOMPSON, in the first edi- 

Ecenicd to tremble and crack, for wliich the inmates could not account. But in the 
OYcninj; they bcc:tnic alarmed, and left tiie liouse, but Mr. Wales stood still on the 
ground, ijctwecn nine and ten o'clock in the evening, the land, to the extent of 
nsarly two acres, suddenly sank about eighteen feet perpendicularly, the niau 
going doAvn with it was not hurt, but escaped to the bank. The house went down 
and was shattered to pieces, and the cellar and chimney were never found. The 
bank of the creek rested on a body of blue clay, which was crushed out by the 
incumbent soil and ejected into and across the river, forming a solid and imj"ene- 
trable dam, which staj'ed the whole current of the creek, until nine or trn o'clock 
the next morning. A similar slide of less extent tcok place since^ near by, on the 
farm of B>:xjamin WAi.ra, and near his house. 

* Wo have tlie following story from undoubted authority. AVhca Mr. Saxiord 
was captured he liad two horses and a colt which wci'c left behind without any 
one to take care of them. He returned, as related above, after three 3 cars absence, 
expecting to find his horses dead. But he found them alive, except the colt, which 
the Indians shot. They had lived on the Beaver Meadows, in t!ie neighborhood, 
and were found some distance from wJicre Sanford left them. They had become 
■very Avild; but SA.NFOni) had given each of tlicm a name, and wlicn he called 
them by their names they came to him nw'i were easily taken, tlicy recognizing 
cilli'jr their u:um.s or their mailer's voice. 


tion of Lis Gazetteer. The facts, it is presumed, vrere obtained 
from some of the party, as all but one were then alive. 

NxVTHAN Smith, Marshall Smith and Joiix Ward, who had 
just been married, Avho had ventured to remain on their farms, in 
Bridport, while most of the inhabitants had removed, being together 
on the 4t}i day of November, 1778, were taken by a party of 
British, under Major Carletox. He collected in that vicinity 
thirt\'-nine prisoners, men and boys. They were put on board a, 
vessel in the lake and carried prisoners to Canada. They reached 
Quebec December 6, and were kept in prison sixteen months and 
nineteen days. In the spring of 1780, after two dreary v/inters, 
in Avhich several of the party died, the prisoners had liberty to 
remove thirty leagues down the llivcr St. Lawrence, to Avork. 
About forty went, among whom were the two Smiths and Ward. 
They landed the first of May, on the south side, where the river 
was twenty-seven miles wide. In the night of the 13th, eight of 
the prisoners took a batteau and crossed the river and* landed in v. 
perfect wilderness. They here separated into two parties, Justus 
Stuudevant. of Weybridge joining the three Bridport men. They ^ 
traveled by night, and when in the neighborhood of settlements, 
secreted themselves in the woods by day. They occasionally met 
Frenchmen, who appeared friendly ; but on the 20th, vrhen nearly 
opposite Quebec, they called on tvrq Frenchmen for aid in crossing 
a swollen river. One of them stated that he was an officer, and 
dared not let them pass. lie seized his gun a,nd declared them 
prisoners. The other took up an axe, and both stood against the 
door to prevent their escape. Nathan Smith said to his comrades, 
"wo must go," and seized the man with the gun, and the other 
prisoners laid hold of the other Frenchman, and they thrust them 
aside, and all escaped except Sturdevant, who remained a prisoner 
until the close of the war. Some days after, four Indians, armed 
with guns and knives, came upon them, but they sprang into the 
woods and escaped, and traveled all night until noon the next day, 
when being not flxr from Three Hivcrs, they lay dov/n and slept. 
Bat soon each was awakened by an Indian having fast hold of him. 
They were committed to prison at Three Rivers. Three sides of 


the pridon wove of stone, the otliei* of vrood. After being in 
prison three weeks, tliey began to cut into the v.'ooden wall with a 
jack-knife, and in a week liad cut through it sufficiently to escape into 
an adjoining room. Having drawn a week's provisions, they cut 
up their bed clothes, and lot themselves down, so near the window 
of the room below, that they saw the officers there assembled, and 
were not more than a rotl from the sentinel in his box. Tlience 
they continued to travel by night, and lay by in the day time. 
To supply themselves with food, they took a lamb in one place and 
a turkey and other fowls in others. They kept off from the river 
to avoid the Indians, who they learned were in pursuit of them, 
and had been offered a bounty for their apprehension. They at 
length crossed the St. Lawrence and traveled to the River Sorel, 
and thence through the wilderness, with incredible hardships and 
Buffering, having killed an ox on the way for their sustenance, and 
at length arrived at the house of Asa Hemenavay, in Bridport, 
which alone had survived the desolations of the war. The next 
day they reached the picket fort at Pittsford. From the time of 
their escape, ninety miles below Quebec, including their imprison- 
ment, they had not changed their clothes, and had few left to bo 

The following graphic account of the capture and imprisonment 
of Peter Ferris, and his son Squire Ferris, with some antece- 
dent and accompanying events, is an extract from an article pub- 
lished in the " Vergennes Vermont er^'''' February 2G, 1845, which 
was written by Philip C. Tucker, Esq. The facts contained in 
it were communicated to him by Squire Ferris in his lifetime. 

" In October, 1776, upon the retreat of General Arnold up 
the lake with the American fleet, after the battles fought near Yal- 
cour Island, he run the remaining part of his vessels, four gun 
boats and the galley, " Congress," which Arnold himself com- 
manded, into a small bay, which still bears the name of "Arnold's 
Bay," and the shores of which were upon Mr. Ferris's farm. 
Some of the remains of those vessels are yet visible, though they 
were all partly blown to pieces and sunk when Arnold abandoned 
them. An incident of their destruction, not known to history, is 


related bj Ferris, a son of Mr. Ferris, then in his four- 
tjontli year. Lieutenant Goldsmith of Arnold's galley liad been 
severely wounded in the tliigb by a grape shot in the battle near 
Valcour Island, and lay wholly helpless on the deck, when the or- 
ders were given to blow up the vessels. Arnold had ordered him 
to be removed on shore, but by some oversight he was neglected, and 
was on the the deck of the galley when the gunner set fire to the 
match. lie then begged to be thrown overboard, and the gunner, 
on returning from the galley, told him he vv'ould be dead before slio 
blew up. He remained on deck at the explosion, and his body was 
seen when blown into the air. His remains w^ere taken up arid 
buried on the shore of the lake. To the credit of Arnold, he showed 
the greatest feeling upon the subject, and threatened to run the gun- 
ner through on the spot. The British fleet arrived at the mouth of 
the bay before the explosion of Arnold's vessels, and fired upon 
his men on the shore^ and upon the house of I'.Ir. Ferris, which 
stood near the shore. Some grape shot and several cannon sliot 
struck Mr. Ferris's house. Mr. Ferris and his family returned 
with Arnold to Ticonderoga ; from whence they aficrwards went, 
for a short time for safety, to Schaghticooke in the State of New 
York. All ]Mr. Ferris's moveable property at Panton was either 
taken or destroyed by the British. His cattle, horses and hogs 
were shot, and his other property carried off. His orchard trees 
were cut down, his fences burnt, and nothing left undestroyed, but 
his house and barn." 

" After some weeks had elapsed J\Ir. Ferris returned to the re- 
mains of his property, and endeavored to repair his injuries, so 
far as possible. He had restored his fences to preserve a crop of 
winter grain sowed the previous autumn, and had got in his spring 
crops, when in the month of June following, the army of General 
BuRGOYNE came up the lake. A considerable portion of the army, 
commanded by General Fraser, landed at INIr. Ferris's farm, en- 
camped there for the night, and utterly destroyed them all. Two 
hundred horses were turned into his meadows and grain fields, and 
they were wholly ruined. Gen. Fraser had the civility to promise 
indemnity, but that promise yet waits for its fulfilment. 


'•In the autumn of 1770. Mr. Ferris .lud his sou, Si^uirc Fori-M, 
assisted ia the escape of Joseph Everest iiud l*hincas Spalding from 
the British schooner Maria of sixteen guns, then lying at anchor ofi" 
Arnold's Bay. Tlicse two men -were Americans, who had been 
seized in Panton and Addison, and made prisoners for favoring the 
American cause. Both "ivere taken from the schooner in a dark 
night and conveyed on sliorc in a small canoe. Squire Ferris, the 
son, was also of a small party in the winter of 177G-77, who seized 
upon two Englishmen, supposed to ])c spies, near the nrjuth of Otter 
Creek, and delivered them into the hands of (Jen. St. Clair at Ti- 

"In the year 1778, the British made a generiil capture of all the 
Americans they could reach on tlic shores of Lake Charaplain, who 
were known to be friendly to the revolutionary cause. In Novem- 
ber of that year, i^Ir. Ferris and his son started upon a dc>?r hunt, 
on the west side of ttie lake. When near the mouth of Butnam'.s 
Creek, about six miles south of Crown Point, they were seized by 
a body of British soldiers and tories, conunanded by Colonel Carle- 
ton, and carried on board the schooner j\Iaria. then lying at Crown 
Point, near the mouth of Bulv,;iggy Bay. They were the first 
prisoners taken in the great attempt of the British to sweep the 
shores of the lake of those inhabitants, who were friendly to the re- 
publican cause. On the same night, detachments from this vessel 
burnt nearly all the houses aloiig the lake from Bridport to Ferris- 
burgh, making prisoners of the male inhabitants, and leaving the 
women and children to suiFering and starvation. ]Mr. Ferris's house 
and all his other buildings were burnt. Forty persons were brought 
on board the next day ; and within a few days, the number reckoiied 
two hundred and forty-four ; part of which were put on board the 
schooner Carleton of sixteen guns, which then lay at the mouth of 
Great Otter Creek. The forces, which came out in the ]Maria and 
Carleton, were originally destined for an attack upon Rutland, but 
their object having become known by the escape of an American 
prisoner, Lieut. Benjamin Everest, that project was abandoned, and 
they were employed in desolating the country, and stripping it of 
its inhabitants. The vessels proceeded with their prisoners to St. 


John:?: from tlicnce they were marched to Sorel, and it vras the in- 
tention of the captors to have continued their march down the St. 
Lawrence to Quebec. xVt Sorcl they crossed the St. Lawrence, and 
soon after a heavy snow storm came on, which making it impossible 
to continue the march, trains Averc seized in all directions, and on 
these they were driven to Quebec, lierc they were confined in pris- 
on. Soon after some of them having contrived to escape, they were 
divided, and about one hundred of them wero sent down the river 
one hundred miles and employed in getting out timber for building 
barfacks. ]Mr. Ferris and his son wcj-e sont among this number in 
the month of January j 770. In the spring folloAving nine of thep ri:;- 
oners, among whom were Mr. Ferris and his son, seized a battcau 
in the night, in wliich they crossed to the east side of the river, 
Avherc it was fifLCon miles wide. On landing they set the batteau 
adrift, separated into two parties, and made the best of their way 
up the river. They had brought provisions with them, and avoid- 
ing the settlements, and traveling only in the night, the party, with 
which the two Ferrises remained, arrived opposite the Three Rivers 
on the fourth day. They crossed in the night, but were discovered 
and retaken. The remainder of the ])arty did not get so far, Jiav- 
ing been retaken by a body of Indians in the neighborhood of Que- 
bec. The party of the Ferrises were put into jail at Three Rivers, 
where they remained eighteen months. During this time they made 
one attempt to escape, but were discovered and were then placed in 
a dungeon for sevcnty-tvro days. At this time the father and son 
were separated. 

" Squire Ferris, the son, describes the dungeon where he was 
confined, as an apartment eight feet hy ten, and so low that he 
could not stand up in it. and that the one occupied by his father 
adjoined it, and was of the same character. The only light was 
admitted by a small hole about eight by ten inches in size, which 
vras crossed by iron grates. The hole which admitted this light 
was level with the ground, and the water from the eaves of the jail 
poured through it into the dungeon, whenever it rained. The straw 
given them to sleep on was frequently wet in this way, and the 
confined air. dampness and filth, not to be avoided, made their suffer- 


ini^s of the severest kind. "While they -were confined here, another 
phxce was prepared for them, to -which they Avcre transferred after 
the dungeon suffering of seventy-two days. This place was oppo- 
site the guard room, and upon being removed to it, they were told, 
' you damned rebels, you can't get out of this.' Here the father 
and son were again put together in the same room. " The place was 
not however so impregnable as was supposed, for in about six weeks 
tlie prisoners made an excavation under the wall, in the night, and 
made their escape. There were six prisoners in the room at this 
time. Upon escaping, the parties separated, Mr. Ferris and* his 
son remaining together. They went up the river nearly opposite 
Sorcl, vrhere, two days afterwards, they crossed the St. Lawrence 
in a canoe, and took to the woods. Their design was to reach 
New Hampshire, but having lost their Vi-ay in the woods they 
struck jSIissisque Hiver, down which they went a few miles, and 
Avcre again retaken hy a British guard, who were with a party 
getting out timber, and by them were carried again prisoners to 
St. Johns. They were taken twenty-one days after their escape, 
and had been nineteen days in the woods, during all vfhich time 
they had only a four pound loaf of wheat bread, one pound of salt 
beef and some tea for food. They made their tea in a tin quart 
cup, and produced fire by a flint and the blade of a jack-knife. 
For four days before they were retaken, they had nothing for food 
but tea, and were so weak they could hardly walk. The forces at 
St. Johns were then commanded by Col. St. Legcr, a brutal drunlc- 
ard, who ordered the prisoners to be ironed together, and put them 
in a dungeon for fourteen days. At the end of which time, and 
ironed hand in hand to each other, they were sent to Chamblee, 
and from there by the rivers Sorel and St. Lawrence to Quebec. 
At Quebec they were returned to their old prison, in which they 
remained until June 1782, when they Avere brought from thence to 
Whitehall and there exchanged for British prisoners. From their 
capture to their exchange was three years and eight months. 

After the escape of the Ferrises from below Quebec, the prisoners, 
which remained in prison at Quebec were divided, and a part placed 
on board a prison ship in the river. Soon afterward, camp fever, as 


it vras tlieacalleJ, broke out among tliem, and many of them died. 
Of the two hundred and forty-four prisoners taken in the neighbor- 
hood of Lake Champlain, in November 1778, and carried to 
Canada in the schooners IMaria and Carleton, only forty-eight were 
known to have returned. The elder Ferris died in the year 1811, 
at the age of ninety-two ; and of the other forty-seven. Squire 
Ferris, of Vergennes, his son and fellow prisoner, is supposed to be 
the only survivor. * Several of these prisoners received pensions 
from the general Government, but Squire Ferris, their companion in 
sufierings, though poor and needy, and though an applicant for 
many years, has never received the bounty of his country.'' Besides 
those mentioned above, the following persons, of whose captivity we 
have no definite information, were taken and carried to Quebec at 
the same time : Benjamin Kellogg and Joseph Everest, of Addison. 

I\iajor Orin Field, of Cornwall, has furnished us vath a detailed 
and interesting account of the capture and imprisonment of the 
late Benjamin Stevens, of that town, as he received it from Mr. 
Stevens, a relative, in whose family he resided. He vras captured 
with three others, in U boat on Lake Champlain, near Split Rock, 
in Charlotte, in May, 1779. Being pursued by the tories and 
Indians from the shore, and one of the men, Jonathan Bowley, 
being killed by a shot from the pursuers, they surrendered. Ste- 
vens was then seventeen years old and resided in Rutland County, 
lie not then residing m this County, and therefore not strictly 
within our province, we give only an abstract of Major Field's 
narrative. The prisoners were taken to Chamblee, " thrust into a 
small prison, ironed two together and fed for nine days on no other 
food than dry peas uncooked. From thence they were taken to 
Quebec, where Mr. Stevens spent three Nevf Year's days in one 
room." Twice they made their escape, and after traveling a long 
time in a destitute and suffering condition, ^t one time in the dead of 
winter, and a part of the time living on roots and the bark of trees, 
until one of the party died, they were retaken and recommitted, 
and in June, 1782, were exchanged at Whitehall. Mr. Stevens 
settled in Cornwall in 1792, and died June 16, 1815, aged 53 years. 

* t-dTJiUE Ferris died at Vevgcunes, March 17, 181'.t, aged 87 years. 





The tract of land west of the mountains, embracing the valleys 
of Lake Champlain and Otter Creek, when first cleared up. was as 
celebrated for the production of wheat as Vt'^estern New York Las 
since been. It was the principal staple among the productions of 
the County. The following facts will give some idea of the value 
of this crop. At the close of the last war with Great Britain, the 
people of the County Avere almost hopelessly in debt. At the June 
term of the County Court in 1817, the number of civil causes en- 
tered at that term, amounted to more than five hundred, and nearly 
all for the collection of debts. This pressure of indebtedness was 
wholly relieved by the crops of wheat raised in the County. The 
very cold, dry and unproductive season of 1816, had rather in- 
creased than diminished the pressure. But the following season 
of 1817, brought to the relief of the farmers more luxuriant crops, 
especially of Avheat, than any other within our recollection. The 
excessive drouth of 1816 had prepared the stifiest soils to be 
thoroughly pulverized by tilling. Large fields were sown ; the 
season, with its gentlo and frequent shoAvers and genial sunshine, 
was most favorable, and the crops singularly abundant. The 
winter following, the price of wheat in Troy, the principal market, 
was from two dollars to two dollars and tvrenty-five cents a bushel ; 
the sleighing v»-as excellent, and was fiiithfully and industriously 
improved by the farmers, and the large returns brought great 
relief to them. The favorable crops which followed had, three years 
after, in June, 1820, reduced the whole number of new causes 
entered, to ninety-eight. 

But the insects, rust and frost have, in late years, greatly dimin- 


ishccl the crop and discouraged the farmers. But it is thought the 
farmers might, without much trouble, raise sufficient for the bread 
of the County, if they did not choose to direct their attention to 
more profitable husbandry. Good crops of corn and potatoes, and 
large crops of beets, carrots and other roots for stock are produced, 
and the latter are becoming common among the farmers. Except on 
the hills and rising grounds, the soil is generally too stiff to bo 
advantageously cultivated for these crops. But most farmers have 
patches of land suitable for raising them in sufficient quantities for 
their own use. Oats are produced on almost any of the lands, 
which the farmers have courage to till sulHciently. Bye, barley 
and buckwheat arc also raised to some extent. 

But the soil of the County is best adapted to the production of 
grass and the raising of stock. And no County perhaps, in this or 
any other State can exhibit a finer or more abundant display of 
horses, cattle or sheep. It is the common opinion of farmers, that 
grass, grown on the clay or marl lands of the County, is much 
more nutricious, than that which is grown on lighter soils. The 
editor of the Albany Cultivator^ in the number for July, 1845, 
after visiting Addison County, says: " Judging from appearances, 
it is our opinion, that we have never seen any other land, which is 
capable of sustaining as much stock to the acre."' " Stock of all 
kinds v/ill and do actually fatten on this hay. It is a fact that oxen 
bought in the fall, in only store condition, if properly sheltered and 
fed on this hay, become in the spring fit for slaughter, and are sent to 
Brighton market Avithout any other feeding." For this reason, and 
because of the failure of the wheat crop, the farmers have, for the 
last twenty or thirty years, directed their attention to the raising of 
stock, and especially of sheep. One evil has resulted from this 
change in the agriculture of the County. The business of grazing 
requires large farms to satisfy the ambition of the enterprising ; and 
the large profits have enabled the more wealthy to crowd out the 
smaller land owners and send them to the west. The result has 
been, that, in several of the principal agricultural towns, the 
number of the farmers, and of cours3 of the population has con- 
siderably diminished. 

96 nisTorwT of AV.msoy corxiY. 

Instead of goin;f into a detailed history of the transition from 
the former to the present branch of .agriculture ; or the cause of 
the change, ttg take the liberty to quote several passages from an 
excellent "address delivered at the annual fair of the Addison 
County Agricultural Society, October 1st, 1844," by lion. Silas 
IT. Jenison, late 2;overnor of the State, then a resident of Shore- 
ham, but since deceased. lie was a practical farmer and ■well 
acquainted with the subject. 

Heforring to the earliest history of agriculture in the County he 
says : " Among other products of the soil, it was found as favora- 
ble to the production of wheat as any other section of the country 
then open to the agriculturist. "Wheat consequently early became the 
staple product of the county." '■ Addison County became noted 
for the quantity and qua,lity of the wheat. The whole force of the 
farm was directed to the increase of this crop." " During the 
third period of ten years, extending to 1820, the high price of 
wheat continued to influence the business of the farmer. Many 
fields had been by successive cropping, exhausted of their native 
fertility. Wheat, when sowed to the extent it had been raised 
for years before, became a less profitable crop. Farmers were 
awaking to the importance of manuring their old fields." And 
this conviction. Governor Jenison represents, was a reason that 
the farmers gave more attention to the raising of cattle for the 
purpose of providing manure for their wheat crops, and he adds : 

" The number and quality of our cattle was increased and im- 
proved. With riiany farmers, the raising of cattle for market 
became the leading business. The cattle from the County began to 
be prized in market, and Addison became as noted for the excel- 
lence of its cattle, as for its wheat. The excellent grazing qualities 
of the soil were known and appreciated. Indeed, I have heard it 
remarked, that the butchers of Brighton could distinguish, by the 
appearance and feel, the fat cattle from this part of Vermont, 
from those in market from other places ; and that cattle from this 
part of the State, of the same apparent flesh, had the preference 
with them, opening better, having a greater quantity of tallow and 
beef of superior quality and flavor." 


" A circumstance, referable to this period, has had great influence 
on the subsefjuent pursuits and prosperity of the farming interest 
of the County. Several individuals, awakened to the wants and 
capabilities of the country, by privations and embarrassments expe- 
rienced during the interruption of our commerce with foreign 
countries before and during the war with Great Britain, did, at 
great expense, and incurring the penalty of all innovators — being 
laughed at by their neighbors — introduce into the County the 
Merino sheep. Among the foremost in this beneficent vrork, were 
Refine Weeks, Daniel Chipman, George Cleveland, and Horatio 

"During the next period of ten years, bringing us to ISoO, the 
agriculture of the County appears to have been in a transition 
state." "While some of the farmers had, as a main business of 
the farm, embarked in rearing cattle, and others in increasing their 
sheep, many had not abandoned the idea, that wheat might still 
be a staple product of the County for exportation. They still per- 
sisted in the business, notwithstanding the increasing failures of the 
crop, caused by the exhaustion of the soil, ravages of the Hessian 
fly, spring killing, blight or rust. But in 1827 or 1828, an ene- 
my to the wheat crops appeared, which baffled all the efibrts of the 
farmer to evade. The insect commonly, but improperly, called the 
weevil — that name belonging to an insect that preys on the wheat 
after it is fully ripened and harvested. The insect alluded to is a 
small, orange-colored maggot, and commits its depredations on the 
berry, while in the milky state, leaving the head and almost disap ■ 
pearing from the grain, when ripe. By a late writer in the Cul- 
tivator^ it is called the wheat midge. As early as 1829, its rav- 
ages had increased so that, in some towns, in the County, scarcely a 
field escaped." 

" When the wheat crop failed, those engaged in the business had 
to resort to some other branch of farming. The tenacious quality 
of much of the soil of the County, forbid the cultivation of hoed 
crops, and the raising of pork, as a substitute. I have before 
remarked, that the Merino sheep had been spread through the 
County with wonderful rapidity. Indeed, so rapidly was the char- 


actcr of the flocks changed, that as early as lH2-x. In nisny tovcnSj 
a considerable flook of native sheep could not be found." 

Of the raising of horses, as a department of agriculture, Gov. 
Jenison has not particularly treated. In ^vhat wo have further to 
say. we propose to speak, separately of sheep, horses and cattle. 
And first of 


In the address from vrhich we have so largely quoted, Governor 
Jenison says, "The increased prices obtained for ayooI, and tho 
avidity with v/hich it was sought in market, after the passage of 
the tariff act of 1828, pointed to that business as more lucrative 
than any other. A majority of tlie farmers eagerly engaged in 
increasing their flocks of sheep. The result has been, that Addi- 
son County had in 184:0, in proportion cither to territory or popula- 
tion, a greater nujubcr of sheep, and produced more wool than 
any other county in the United States. To show the truth of 
this remark, I refer to facts drawn from the statistical tables ac- 
companying the census returns of 1840, and from other sources. 
There arc nine States which had more than one sheep to each in- 
habitant, to-wit : Pennsylvania, Virginia, I^Iaine, Kentucky, Con- 
necticut and Ohio, with a portion more than one : New Hampshire 
and New York had about two and one-fourth, and Vermont had 
five and three-fourths to each inhabitant. Should territory be 
regarded, Vermont will be found to have 185, New York 112, 
and New Hampshire 65 to the square mile." • 

" Addison County, when compared with the other counties in 
the State, will be found to have eleven and six-hundredths, Rut- 
land eight and eighty-five hundredths, Grand Isle seven and four 
hundredths, and Bennington six and nineteen hundredths to each 
inhabitant. If territory be regarded, Addison has three hundred 
and seventy-three, Grand Isle three hundred and thirty-four, 
Rutland tv/o hundred and eighty-three, Windsor two hundred and 
sixty-one, Orange two hundred and forty and Chittenden two hun- 
dred and twenty-one to a square mile." " This array of figures is 
no idle speculation. They represent facts, which show the immense 


stake tho f.irmjr.^ of Addison County possess in tliis branch of 

If -we had the timo and the resolution, wo shouhl like to dravr a 
similar eJoirfparisou^froni tho census of 1850. But avo have neither. 
In order, however, to give as good an idea as "sve arc able, of v/hat 
has been and is tiio amount of transactions in this denartnicnt, we 
have collected from a few of the principal f;irmcrs, who are engaged 
in this business, some facts relating to their operations. The design 
of them all has been to improve their flocks, as well by breeding as 
purchasing, that they ni;iy be able to supply tlie market with the 
bc3t wool and best shecp- 

Rolliu J. Jones, Esq., of Cornwall, having dcciiled in 1844, to 
engage in sheep husbandry, proceeded to malce careful selections 
from several of the best pure blood Spanish Merino flocks in New 
England, in every instance paying for a first choice. In his fost 
purchase, he expended about two thousand dollars. From these 
have been bred his present flock, and those he has sold of that breed. 
And his experience in breeding this class of sheep, has more and 
more confirmed him as to their value. Sales luive been made of 
these in most of the New England, Middle and "Western States. 
In many places, where they have beeu introduced, they have ob- 
tained premiums at State and County fairs over numerous compet- 
itors. In 1849, S. B. Pbockwell, Esq., of the same place, now re- 
siding in Middlebury, became associated with him as a partner. 

Messrs. Jones and Rockwell, since their connection, have been em- 
inently successful. In 1852, owing to repeated applications for 
French Sheep, wdiich had been introduced into the country about 
six years before, they invested in the purchase of these sheep 
^p2,200 ; a part of which included a first choice from the flock of 
Merrill Bingham. These sheep, they say, were the most perfect of 
the kind they had ever seen. In 1853, they purchased of Soloman 
W. Jewett, of Weybridge, one entire shipment of French Sheep, 
imported by him in April of that year. These purchases, with 
some subsequently made, cost $18,000. For several years previous 
to the spring of 1855, when this information was communicated, 
their annual sales vatied from eidit to twelve thousand dollars. For 


the eyliteen months next preceding, tliey amounted to $86,000. 
They have been in the practice, as many of the principal dealers 
have heen, of taking; their sheep for sale to the Western States, es- 
pecially to Ohio. Their flock on hand, at the date above mentioned, 
numbered six hundred, one half imported French Merinos, and their 
descendants. They have a high opinion of the French as well as 
Spanish Merinos, and th'.nk a cross betvfccn these breeds -would ])c 

William R. Sanford, Esq., of Orwell, and Messrs. William S. 
and Edwin Hammond of Middlebury, have, for several years, been 
extensively engaged in breeding and dealing in sheep. For our 
convenience we treat of the operations of these parties together, as 
they have been, to some extent, connected, and much of our infor- 
mation relating to both, has been obtained from Edwin Ilammand. 
Esq. They both breed the pure Spanish Merinos, descendants of 
the flock, which Col. Humphreys, who was at the time American 
Minister to Spain, imported into Connecticut in 1802, or of the 
flocks, which W^illiam Jarvis, Esq., then American Consul in Spain, 
iniported in 1809, 1810 and ISll. These they greatly prefer to 
any more recently imported, or to any other breed. The usual flock 
of Mr. Sanford numbers from 250 to 500. Messrs. Hammond's 
flock, at this time, (1855) numbers 400, including lambs. The 
sales of both have been uniformly made at home. 

In a communication from Mr. Sanford, published in the Albany 
Cultivator^ for September 1844, he says : "In 1829, I purchased 
of Messrs. Grant and Jenison of Walpole, N. II., twenty old full 
blood JJerino ewes, which were purchased by them, when lambs, of 
Hon. Mr. Jarvis, and warranted full blood. These I have kept dis- 
tinct and pure, and from them have reared a flock. The ewes yield 
an average of four pounds and over to the fleece of clean, hand- 
some wool. ]\Iessrs. Grant and Jenison, bought these sheep from 
Mr. Jarvis before the Saxony sheep were introduced into the coun- 
try, and were of course pure ; and since I have had them, I have 
taken a good deal of pains and trouble to keep them so. I have 
purchased three superior bucks from Mr. Jarvis, and by using them 
and my own rearing have kept them jaire.'' Since the above. Mr. 


Sanford has mide several purchases, to a large amount, of descend- 
ants of Col. Humphreys' flock. At the National Exhibition .of 
cattle and horses, at Boston, in October 1855, Mr. Sanford obtained 
the second premium on Spanish Merino bucks, t^ivo years old and 
over ; the first premium on bucks under two years old, and on ewea 
the two first premiums; and at the Vermont State Fair at Rutland, 
in September of that year, the first premium on Spanish Merino 
buck lambs and evre ]aml)s. 

In 1844, Messrs. Hammond, wishing to improve their flock and 
extend their operation?, examined the most important flocks in 
several New England States, and among others, that belonging to 
Stephen Atwood, of WatertoA^n, Conn., and selected and purchased 
from his flock, thirty, and in the next four years several more. 
These Mr. xVtwood had from Col. Humphreys' flock, under such 
circumstances, that he had satisfactory assurance that they were 
pure and free from Saxony and other breeds. From these their 
present flock has been bred. 

Mr. Sanford and the Messrs. Hammond, having, for several yeara 
increased and improved their flocks by breeding '• in and in," were 
desirous of finding other sheep, at least as good as theirs, to cross 
with them, and Mr. Sanford, in behalf of both parties, went to 
Europe for the purpose of examining the best flocks in the different 
countries, and of purchasing the best he could find. He examined 
the most distinguished in Spain and France. In the former country 
he found none which he was willing to import ; in the latter ho 
purchased twenty French Merinos. He went then into Germany, 
and, with the advice and aid of the American Consul, at Stuttgard, 
who had made himself thoroughly informed on the subject, and who 
accompanied him for a fortnight, he examined the most celebrated 
flocks in the different States of Germany, and extended his examina- 
tion as far as Prussia, and there purchased twenty Silesian sheep. 
These and the French sheep he imported. The French are much 
larger than the Spanish Merinos, or their descendants, with fleeces 
in proportion. But Mr. Hammond states, that the wool is not so 
even, varying in different parts of the body. The Silesian sheep 

nre Braaller than the Spanish, but the wool is fine. Thev did not 
14 ' 


regard either of those as an improvement of their flochs and imme- 
diately sold them. 

Mr. Edwin Hammond tliinks the Spanish sheep have improved 
greatly since their importation into this country, and especially in 
this County; and that there are better sheep in the County of Addi- 
son than in any other part of the world. This opinion is founded 
on his own personal examination of many of the best flocks in this 
country, and the examination by Mr. Sanford and others of the 
most celebrated flocks in Europe, lie ofibrcd, he said, to INir. 
Sanford, on his going to Europe, one thousand dollars for a pair of 
imported sheep, as good as his, with a vievr of crossing them witli 
his present flock ; but Mr. Sanford found none such during his tour. 

The price of Mr. Hammond's sheep has increased every year. 
In 1853 their sales amounted to $7,000 ; in 1854 they sold two 
ewes for .*5l200, and six others for 5p200. Their bucks that year 
Avere sold from ;|i;500 down to ^10 — the latter being culls. The 
whole averaged ■^yld, each. They have this year (1855.) sheared 
from two two year old bucks, 22 and 23 pounds; in 1854, from 
one yearling ewe 12, and from one tv*'0 year old ewe 13 pounds. 
The wool was not washed on the sheep, but was clean. 

Solomon AY. Jevrctt, Esq., of Weybridge. had for many years 
boon an extensive dealer in grade sheep. In 1843 he began to 
interest himself in pure blood sheep. He purchased of the de- 
scendants of the Merinos imported by Col. Humphreys, Mr. Jarvis 
and others. Among others he purchased the celebrated buck 
'• Fortune," a descendant of Mr. Jarvis's importation. I*\Ir. Jewett 
raised from that buck al)Out 200 lambs annually, Avliich he sold 
ffom ten to twenty-five dollars, and some as high as iv|;50 each. 
He sold several sheep sired by this buck, to Henry S. Randall, Esq., 
of Cortland Village, N. Y., on which he received the first and 
second premiums at the State Fair at Poughkeepsie in 1844, and 
with which, together with Mr. Jewett's buck, he published a 
challenge for competition to the whole country. 

In 1845, Mr. Jewett imported from England ten Spanish Meri- 
nos from the flock of Lord Weston, of Essex, who was the most 
noted brooder, and had the best flock of Spanish sheep in England. 


Six hundred of these sheep, he states, having been presented, in 
1803, to George III. That king gave Lord Weston the privilege 
of selecting from the flock, when first landed at Plymouth. These 
Mr. Jewett thinks were much inferior to the best flocks in this 
country. From the above, and some other additions, he kept for 
several years a flock of from 500 to GOO blooded sheep. 

In 1851, Mr. Jewett went to Europe, for the purpose of examin- 
ing and purchasing sheep, and has been twice since for the samo 
purpose. In France he purchased, at fifteen or twenty shipmerfts, 
seven hundred French Merinos, which he selected from the three best 
flocks in that country, owned by Messrs. Gilbert, Cugnot and 
Guerin, and a few from the government flock at Rambouillet. These 
sheep, including expenses cost about i>;55,000. He has sold most 
of these at an average of about ^100, each, the sales amounting to 
from 15 to 20,000 dollars annually. He sold one pair, a buck and 
ewe at $600. lie also imported from Spain in 1854, ten sheep, 
through Mr. Haddock, the American Minister to Portugal ; but not 
being such as he wished to keep, he butchered them. 

As to the relative value of the different breeds of sheep, Mr. 
Jewett's opinion is, that, if the farmer's object is to raise mutton, 
as well as wool, the French ]\Ierinos of the first quality are the best ; 
but for wool only, the Spanish. He has had an opportunity, not 
only for a personal examination of the best flocks in this country 
and in Europe, but has examined the published accounts of the 
weight of the fleeces of Spanish sheep in both countries, and his 
opinion is that they have greatly improved in this country since 
their importation. Referring particularly to the flock of the Messrs. 
Hammond of Middlebury, he expressed the opinion, that the fleeces 
of their sheep exceed, by one third or more, the fleeces of the native 
Spanish sheep. Indeed he expresses the decided opinion, that their 
flock is the hest flock in the world. 

Alonzo L. Bingham and Merrill Bingham, brothers of Cornwall, 
have been as long and as extensively engaged in the sheep business as 
any other farmers in the County. They have been not only large 
breeders but large purchasers ; and have sold large numbers for 
many years in the Western, Middle and Southern States. FrOm 


Merrill Bingham personally, v.e liavc hud no information. From 
Alonzo L. Bingbain, ■we learn that he has been engaged in the 
breeding, purchasing and selling sheep for twenty years. He, for 
many years and until 184G, devoted his attention exclusively to 
Spanish Merinos, purchased from different importers. 

In 1846, he commenced breeding French Merino3, and has im- 
ported large numbers through John A. Taintcr, Esq., of Hartford, 
Conn. He now prefers the French sheep, and gives his T.'hole at- 
tention to them. "When his attention was given to the Spanish, ho 
had a flock of twelve hundred, — although not always so many — 
and raised annually from four to five hundred. &ince he com- 
menced with French sheep, his flock has been less ; but he has 
raised from them annually more than he has ewes, — many of them 
having twins. At the State fair in the fall of 1855, he received 
not less than nine premiums on different classes of French sheep. 

In the Vermont Reghter of May 31st, 1854, we find an article 
containing a statement of his sales from September 1st 1853, to 
May 1st, 1854, from which we collect the following summary. 
The sheep were French Merinos, and the amount of sales, during 
the above mentioned eight months, was ^43,302,50. All but the 
amount of §7,033, which were sold by an agent at the west, were 
sold by himself on his farm in Cornwall, to persons living in each 
of the States of Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Illinois, 
New York, Missouri, Connecticut and Vermont. He states also, 
that his sales of sheep for the last year,* have amounted to 
between thirty and forty thousand dollars ; and that the average 
price for which his French sheep have been sold, is ^175. ]\Ir. 
Bingham thinks, that both the Spanish and French sheep are 
greatly improved by being raised in this County. He says it is 
admitted, all over the west, that the sheep of Addison Coiiuty are 
superior to any others ; and that Mr. Tainter, who has been a large 
importer, says, that he found no such Spanish sheep in Europe, as 
in this County, and that French sheep are also greatly improved here. 

* We'wish the reader to bear in miud, that the materials for these chapters were 
obtained in 1855 and the chapters Tvrittea at that time, 


As a specimen of the weight of Mr. Bingham's fleeces, at hh 
f'heep-shearing in 1852, (we have no later information) we give the 
follov.'ing extract from an editorial article in the Midtllcbury Hcg-- of May 26th of that year. "We select the following particu- 
lar instances from those sheared on the first day. 




107 pounds. 

21 pound 


911 " 

20 '• 


134i " 

23i " 


891- "■ 

19^ " 


llli- " 

18 " 

There were thirty-three sheared on that day, " nearly or (juite all 
yearling ewes." 

The agriculturists named, are probably the most extensive deal- 
ers in the County. But there are many othci's, who are largely 
engaged in breeding and in the improvement of their flocks, in every 
part of the County; some of whom arc more or less also employed in 
the trafic. But we are not able to detail iheir operations. The 
raising of wool takes precedence of all other branches of farming in 
almost every town. We should be glad to avail ourselves of any 
means in our power to give a definite statement of the number of 
sheep, and the annual amount of the crop of wool in the County. 
We have spoken of the extenjsive trafio as an historical fact. But 
it is the breeding and improvement of the flocks, which is the more 
appropriate business of the agriculturist. The success which has 
attended this department has induced the trafic, to which vfe have re- 
ferred. The speculations and the extravagant prices and profits, 
which have arisen from this source may to some extent die away, 
when the country is more generally supplied with the best breeds ; 
but while the County sustains the reputation of raising the best 
sheep, there will be a market for them for recruiting aitd improving 
the flocks in less favored regions of the country. 




The standing of Vermont is generally Ktrilcingly sll0^vn by tlio 
reports of the Boston cattle market ; in As'liich the number from this 
State appears, from weclc to week, to be nearly double those of anj 
other New England State. Of these, Addison County, we believe, 
furnishes its full share ; and it is represented, that the exhibitions, 
at the annual County fairs, are not inferior to those of any other 
County. But the f irmers have made fewer eiforts in that depart- 
ment, than in those of sheep and horses. We regret that, with all 
our diligence, we have not been able to ascertain, from those who 
best know, what ciTorts have been made and the success which has 
attended them. At an early day, Thomas Byrd, Esq., of Vergen- 
nes, and soon after General Amos W. Barnum, of the same place, 
introduced into that neighborhood a considerable number of import- 
ed English breeds , and the full blood and cross breed of Ayer- 
shires, Herefords and Durhams, are quite common in the north part 
of the County, and, to some extent, prevail in other parts. Wight- 
man Chapman, Esq., then of Weybridge, kept on his farm, for 
eight or ten years, a very celebrated Ayershire bull, presented to 
him by John P. Cushing, Esq., of Massachusetts, which was es- 
teemed by many the best bull in the country. The editor of the 
Albany Culllvaior, v*'ho had examined him, in the number for 
August 1845, says : " He is a good bull, has a small clean head, 
clean limbs, a well shaped body and mellow skin. With the excep- 
tion of Mr. Archibald's bull, sent to the Poughkeepsie Show from 
Montreal, he is decidedly the best bull we have ever seen." The 
blood of this animal has been extensively diffused through the 
cattle in the central parts of the County. Governor Jenison, in the 

histoi:y of addisun county. 107 

address, frcm ^^llicll we Lave so largely quoted, in referring to the 
" effects and general results of the introduction " of foreign breeds, 
sajs : "I venture tlio asseition, that where a favorite individual is 
found, could the pedigree be traced in most instances, j^ou would 
not go manj removes back before you Avould run against somo 
one of the imported improved breeds of stock." Eut the num- 
l)er of full bloods of any of these breeds is quite limited. Cyrus 
Smith Esq., of Vevn;ennes, has a celebrated Durham bull, which 
took the first premium at the State fair in Rutland, and at the Ad- 
dison County fair at Middlcbury this year, (1355) Alonzo L. Bing- 
ham of Coriiw.iH, obt'iiu^d S3vei'al premium?, at the State fair, 0!i 
Durham, Hereford aud Devon cattle. Horatio Piumley of New 
Haven, has a full blood Durham cow, from which he has raised 
several excellent calves, and obtained, at the County fair, the sec- 
ond premium on a bull, which v.'as one of them. W. R. Sanford, 
Esq., of Orwell, tvro or three years since, imported tv/o cows and 
one calf of the Devonshire breed, has bought a few since, and now 
has eight full bloods, besides two, whichhelately sold to the Messrs. 
Hammond of Middlebury, who from them have raised two calves. 
Mr. Sanford says, that the beef of this breed sells higher in Eng- 
land than any other. At the National Exhibition in Boston, and 
at the Vermont State fair, he received several premiums on Devon 
cattle. At the State fair Messrs. Hammond obtained the first pre- 
mium on bull calves of this breed. 

We are glad to learn that a movement is in contemplation for tho 
improvement of cattle in the County. 


The reputation of the County, and the enthusiasm in the breed- 
ing of horses, among the farmers, do not suQer much in comparison 
with those in regard to sheep. Vermont horses have a reputation 
through the whole country. The original stock consisted of such 
as were common in the States from which the emifrrants came. 
In some of these States, and especially Connecticut, considerable 
efforts had been previously made to improve the stock. In the 
year 1810, Ep. Joiies, Esq., introduced and kept in Middlebury, 
for three or four years, a very beautiful, full-blood Arabian horse, 


called the "Young Dej of Algiers." Ilis dcscendeiits formed a 
very excellent breed. But tlie farmers had not then come to ap- 
presiatc suincicntly the improvement in horses to patronize the high 
prices, ^vhich his services required, and he was removed. Since 
that, at various times, different stallions have been hcpt in the 
County, and among them the " Old Messenger," an imported En- 
glish horse, and his descendants ; from which the stock has been 
from time to time improved. 

The present prevailing stock consists of the different branches of 
the Morgan liorsc. These originated from the horse generally 
known by the name of the "Justin Morgan." This horse was 
])rought, when two years old, by Justin Morgan, from Springfield, 
Mass., from which place he removed to Randolph, Vermont, in 
the year 1795, and was kept by him there until March, 1798, 
wlicn ISlr. jMorgan died. lie was then sold to William Ilice, of 
Woodstock. It docs not appear that ho was much thought of, or 
that much care Avas taken of him, until the excellence of his stock 
was revealed by his colts. His sire was the " True Britain, or 
Beautiful Bay," which was raised by Gen. Delancey, commander 
of the refugee forces on Long Island, and was afterwards kept one 
season by Justin Morgan. The True Britain was sired by the 
Traveller, an imported horse also owned by Gen. Delancey. The 
dam of the Justin Morgan was said to be a descendant of Wild Air, 
imported also by Gen. Delancey. Mr. Josliua Scott, of Vergennes, 
who has been acquainted with the Morgan horses from the first of 
that breed, has a record which traces back the pedigree of the sire 
and dam of the first jMorgan to the Arabian Horse Godolphin, in 
England, which we do not think of importance enough to insert 
liere. iSlr. Scott states that four of the colts of Justin Morgan 
were kept as stallions, and from them were derived the several 
branches of that breed ; to- wit : " Woodbury," owned and kept by 
Mr. Woodbury, at Rochester, Vermont, until twelve years old, and 
afterwards owned successively by Mr. Walker, of Chelsea, and Peter 
Burbank, of Newbury; "Sherman," owned by Mr. Sherman, of 
Barre, and afterwards kept by John Bellows, Esq., of Bellows 
Falls; " Bulrush," raised in Williamstown, and " Revenge," kept 


for a while in this State, and afterwards remaved. The dams of 
the Woodbury and Sherman were of English descent. Mr. Scott 
thinks that three-fourths of the horses now generally known as 
Morgan, are of the "Woodbury branch. Among the colts of the 
Woodbury was the Gifibrd. This was the sire of the Green Moun- 
tain Morgan, whose dam was also of that breed. This horse is or 
was owned by Silas Hale, of Barre, Mass., and, we believe, is the 
most noted of those known as Morgan horses. He was kept two 
seasons, a few years since, in Middlebury, in this County. The Gif- 
ford was also kept by Mr. i^'cott, in 1831, in the same place. The 
liacket dorse, owned and kept by Col. Hacket, in Middlebuiy, for 
several years, was sired by the GifFord, from a Woodury dam. The 
Flying Morgan, sired by the Ilacket horse, and owned by Riley 
Adams, of Burlington, and distinguished for his speed in trotting, v,' as 
for some time kept in this County. Woodbury 2d, raised by Mr. 
Scott, and now eight years old, is still kept by him in Vergennes, 
and is the only real Woodbury horse kept for mares in the County. 

Mr. Weissinger, one of the editors of the Louisville, Ky., Jour- 
nal, who, some ten years ago, made a tour through Vermont, and other 
eastern States, and took pains to examine the best horses of the 
general Morgan breed, as quoted by the CtiUivaior^ says, '■ There 
is no doubt whatever of this, that the breed of the Morgan horso 
was and is now, in the fev/ instances where it can be found, far the 
best breed of horses for general service, tl:at was ever in the United 
States, probably the best in the world; and it is remarkable, 
that this breed was and is now known by many striking peculiari- 
ties, common to ne;irly every individual." 

The old Woodbury Morgan, at twenty years old, was sold for 
^1300. Mr. Hale says, " several stallions, begotten by Green 
Mountain Morgan," of which he was the owner, "have sold as 
high as $1500 ; many have brought prices ranging from $800 to 
$1200; geldings and mares from $300 to $800 ; few less than 
$200. The Woodbury and other breeds generally designated as 
Morgans, are less generally found in this County than in the eastern 
part of the State ; and in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 
having been generally sold and removed. 


The Black Ila-wk and his descentlants arc more generally found 
here. This horse was sired by the Sherman Morgan, then owned 
by John Bellows, Esq., of Bellows Falls, and his dam was a largo 
black mare and fast trotter, and is s.iid to have been a halt-blood 
English, raised in New Brunswick. He was raised by Mr. Twom- 
bly, of Greenland, N. II.. and when four years old, was purchased 
by Benjamin Thurston of Lowell, Mass. In the year 1844, 
David Hill, Esq., of Bridport in this County purchased him of 
Mr. Thurston, and has kept him in that place ever since. Mr. 
Weissinger, from Avhora we have before quoted, says of him, " I 
think he deserves all the praise that has been bestowed on him. 
He is the finest stallion I ever saw. His legs are fiat and broad, 
shoulders well set back, loin and bock bone very strong, length of 
hip beyond anything I ever saw, as quick in breaking as the bullet 
from the rifle, head and neck faultless ; in motion, mouth open, 
crest sublime, legs carried finely under him, square and even, and 
fore legs bending beautifully." We might quote other printed 
descriptions and recommendations of him, but it does not comport 
with our design. 

Nearly all his colts more or less exhibit his traits. In this 
County they have become very common. Almost every farmer 
is anxious to obtain a Black HaAvk colt. He has also a high repu- 
tation in almost every State. Probably the stock of no horse, ever 
kept in this country, lias been so extensively known and so highly 
appreciated. Mr. Hill says, — " It is claimed by many of our best 
judges, that this is a new and permanent variety or breed. By 
this is meant that they possess peculiar points so uniform and dis- 
tinct from the immediate ancestors of Black Hawk, that he is justly 
entitled to be considered the parent or head of a distinct class." 
He says also, " Black HaAvk has sired, I think, fully one hundred 
colts a year, since I owned him. II is colts are now distributed 
throughout nearly all, if not all, the States of the Union, and 
several are in Canada. I know of some owned in every State 
except" five southern and south-western States. He says, "this 
breed of horses have great beauty and symmetry, are h.igh-spirited, 
yet docile and tractable : sre more generally adopted for light and 


rapid driving ; have great courage and endurance : many are adapted 
for the farmer's '' all work " horses, and few or none for the slow 
and heavy coach." 

i\Ir. Hill has furnished us the following information of the prices 
at which some of Black Hawk's colts have been sold. Fifty 
colts, including a few geldings, and mares, sold in Bridport, have 
averaged over ^600 each. Eight, sold by himself, consisting of 
four fillies, one gelding, two three year old and one four year old 
stallions have averaged over $700 each. " The following," ho 
says, "are a few of the most noted of this horse's stock, with prices 
paid or offered for them. Ethan Allen, iS;10,000, Red Leg, a geld- 
ing, ^1,750, Black Hawk Maid, a mare, $1,600. The above 
were all from the same dam, and raised by Joel W. Holcomb, of 
Ticonderoga, N. Y.. Belle of Saratoga, a mare raised by David 
Hill, |4,200; Know Nothing, a gelding, $5^500; David Hill, now 
in California, $10,000; Ticonderoga, $5,000; Hammitt colt, 
$5,000 ; Sherman Black Havfk, $5,000 ; Plato, three years old, 
$3,000 ; Flying Cloud, of Ohio, $-3,000 ; Rip Van Winkle, two 
years old, $2,000." 

Black Hawk * is now (1855) twenty-one years old, and there is 
so great demand for his services, that the price charged for each 
mare the present season is one hundred dollars. 

The Rutland and Burlington Rail Road, from Burlington to 
Bellows Falls, and passing through the whole length of this County, 
which was first opened about the first of January, 1850, has ad- 
vanced the prosperity of agriculture beyond any other influence. 
It has opened a direct and rapid communication with Boston and 
New York, which are adequate markets for all the agricultural 
productions of the County at high prices. The result has been to 
raise the price of all agricultural products. The price of lands in 
the vicinity, by the same means, has also been raised from 25 to 50 
per cent, and in some cases doubled. And if those who have con- 
tributed so liberally for the construction of the road, have lost their 
whole investment, the farmers have gained as much. One obvious 

• Black Hawk has died since the abova was written. 


benefit, resulting from this influence, has been to raise the amount 
and quality of the productions of the dairy. There is now no 
danger of getting any but good butter from any farmer. * 

* fce« Appendix No. 2, for and other products in the County. 




An agricultural society, at an early day, was formed in this 
County, and continued an annual fair for several years ; but soon 
declined for want of legislative encouragement. 

The legislature in 1843, passed an act to give encouragement for 
forming agricultural associations. This act authorizes the formation 
of agricultural societies in each County, which, when organized, 
become legal corporations with the usual powers necessary to accom- 
plish their design, and the object of them is declared ta be " to en- 
courage and promote agriculture, domestic manufactures and tho 
mechanic arts." The treasurer of the State is authorized to pay 
annually to each society a share of two thousand dollars, appropri- 
ated for the whole State, in proportion to the population of the 
County, in which it is established, provided that as large a sum 
shall have been otherwise raised. 

Under this act, a society was formed by a convention held at ]\Iid- 
dlebury, on the 22d of January 1844, by the name of "The Addi- 
son County Agricultural Society." By the constitution adopted on 
that occasion, its object is declared to be " the improvement of agri- 
cultural productions, useful domestic animals, domestic manufac- 
tures and the mechanic arts, so far as they concern the interest of 
agriculture." The payment of one dollar is made the condition of 
annual membership, and the payment of fifteen dollars, the condi- 
tion of life membership. The officers of the society, are to be 
a president, two vice presidents, secretary and treasurer. A board 
of managers is constituted, consisting of the above officers, and one 
member from each town, where ten members reside ; who are author- 
i"'?v; '■' 13 bave & gSEemi superyisioi^ of the ufcira of tb.-? soi^.iety, 


fix upon such productions, experiments, discoveries or attainmcnta 
in agriculture and horticulture, and upon such articles of manufac- 
ture, as shall como in competition for premiums at the agricultural 
fairs, also upon the number and amount of premiums, and the time 
and place of holding fairs." The officers are to be chosen at an 
annual meeting, to be held at Middlebury, on the first Wednesday 
of January, -which was afterwards altered to the fourth Wednesday 
of that month. The first meeting Avas held on tlie same day the 
society was organized, and lion. Silas H. Jenison was elected presi- 
dent, and Harvey Bell, Esq., secretary. 

The first fair was held at the court house and adjoining grounds 
in IMiddlebury, October 1st 1844, and an address was delivered by 
Hon. Silas H. Jenison, which was printed, and from which we have 
already largely quoted. The fairs in 1845 and 1847, were held at 
Vergennes ; at the former of which an eloquent and interesting ad- 
dress was made by Rev. Dr. "Wheeler, President of the University 
of Vermont. Addresses have also been made at other fairs ; of 
which we have not now sufficient information to give a correct state- 
ment. The fair in 1849 was held in Shoreham. All the others have 
been held in Middlebury. At the annual meeting in January 1852, 
the constitution was so altered as to authorize the managers to fix 
on a permanent location for the annual exhiljitions ; and they, at a 
meeting in June of that year, fixed on Middlebury for that purpose, 
provided the citizens should provide suitable grounds and fixtures, 
and pay one hundred dollars annually toward the expenses. Since 
that time the fairs have been held on grounds leased from Gen. 
Nash, in the north part of the village, where temporary fixtures 
were erected. These gronnds have now been sold and appropriated 
to another use. 

Several gentlemen in the County have recently purchased a tract 
of twenty-two acres, south of the court house, which formerly 
belonged to Jonathan Wainwright, including the barns and exten- 
sive sheds, erected for keeping and preparing for market his horses, 
when he was largely engaged in that trafic. Here they design to 
erect permanent fixtures upon a large scale for the accommodation 
of the annual exhibitions. Arrangements are in progress to raise 


tlie requisite funJs to transfer the title to the corporation ; but, until 
this is nccomplishcd the society will pay rent to the proprietors. 

Hitherto the fairs have fully met the expectations of the most 
sanguine. Many of them have been interesting and extensive, and, 
we think, have produced a favorable eifect in stimulating efTorts for 
improvement, and securing advancement in all the departments 
within the province of the society. There have been exhibited an 
extensive variety of the products of agriculture, horticulture, and 
of domestic and otlier manufactures ; and very often of numerous 
and line specimens of painting, drawing and various kinds of orna- 
mental vrork by native artists. After what we have said of the stock 
department of agriculture, none will be disappointed when vfc sa.y, 
that the exhibitions have been large and splendid in cattle, horsea 
and sheep. Wliatcver others may say, the citizens of Addison 
County will not shrink from a comparison with the exhibitions of stock 
of any other County in the State, or perhaps of any other State. 

The following have been the presidents and secretaries of tho 


1844 Harvey Bell, 184T. 

1847 E. W. Blaisdell, Jr. 1850. 
1850 Joseph II. Barrett, 1857. 
1857 Justus Cobb, still in office. 

1857 William R. Sanford, still in office. 


The legislature, at their session in 1813, passed an act author- 
izing several physicians in each county by name, to form themselves 
into County Medical Societies, by the name of the Medical Society 
of the County in which they should be formed. And the societies 
were severally to be corporations with the usual powers, necessary 
for the purposes, for which they were designed ; and were author- 
ized to adopt and alter a corporate seal. They were to have power 
to assess taxes on the members, " for the purpose of procuring a 
library nnd suitable apparatus, nnd for other uses."' provided the 





Silas II. Jenison, 



Elias Bottum, 



Charles L. Smith, 



Harvey Munsill, 



Edwin Hammond, 



tax shall not exceed three dollars. The officers authorized by the 
law are a president, vice president, secretary, treasurer, librarian 
and three or more censors. to hold their offices for one year, or. until 
others are chosen. The several societies were required to " hold 
Bcmi-annual meetings in the shire town in each county, at the time 
of the sitting of the County Court, for the purpose of establishing 
and regulating the libraries of said society, receiving and communi- 
cating medical information, examining students," and any other 
proper business. The act requires that students examined and ap- 
proved by the censors " possess a good moral character," and '• have 
pursued the studies of physic or surgery at least three years ;" and, 
being approved, shall receive a diploma from the president, which 
shall entitle him to all the privileges of a member of the society. 
The same act authorizes the formation of a State Society, to consist 
of three delegates from each County Society. 

The pliysicians named in the act for this County are \Villiam 
Bass^ Edward Tudor, Ebenezer Huntington, Asher Nichols, John 
Wilson, Nicanor Needham, Frederic Ford Jr., John Lyman, 
Frederic Ford, William Guile, John Willard, Luther E. Hall, 
James Day, Dan Stone, Levi Warner, David McCollister, Martin 
Gay, Zenas ShaAv, Josiah W. Hale. 

In pursuance of this act the physicians named mot at Middle- 
bury on the 15th of December, 1813, and organized the Addison 
County Medical Society, and elected the following officers ; Ebene- 
zer Huntington, of Vergcnnes, President, William Bass, of Mid- 
dlebury. Vice President, Luther E. Hall, Vergennes, Secretary, 
Frederic Ford, Cornwall, Treasurer, William Bass, Librarian, Dan 
Stone, Edward Tudor, Frederic Ford, Jr., John Lyman and David 
McCollister, Censors. Luther E. Hall and Dan Stone were ap- 
pointed a Committee to report a code of by-laws. It was further 
voted, that future meetings shall be held at Dr. William Bass's, in 
Middlebury, and that the President deliver an inaugural address, 
before the society, at their next meeting. This meeting was ad- 
journed to the 19th of January, 1814. ^Vt this meeting the Presi- 
dent delivered his inaugural address, and a code of by-laws, reported 
by the committee, was adopted. William Bass and Luther E. 


Hall and Dan Stone were also appointed a committee, to '■ present 
to the Society a device fop a seal and form of diploma." At the 
first meeting a tax of one dollar was assessed, which at the next 
was increased to one dollar and fifty cents ; and at both these meet-, 
ings, candidates were examined and licensed. 

The society thus organized continued in full life and vigor until 
about the year 1824. Dissertations and addresses on medical sub- 
jects, under appointment for that purpose, were read ; difficult and 
uncommon cases of disease and their treatment reported by the 
members ; new members admitted, candidates examined and ap- 
proved by the censors received diplomas, taxes were assessed, 
a library collected and delegates regularly elected to the State 
Society. In 1822, the State Society commenced a series of resolu- 
tions proposing measures for the regulation of the County Societies. 
One rec|uiring the County Societies to make an annual report of 
the "diseases prevalent in the County during the year," " under 
a penalty of five dollars fine on failure ; " one prescribing new 
qualifications for the admission of candidates for license; and 
another afiixing a penalty of five dollars for a neglect of the County 
Society to "send their proceedings to the State Society, annually, 
as required by law ; " also a regulation respecting the dismission 
or withdrawing of members from the County Societies. 

These proceedings were not received vrith much favor by this 
County Society ; and at the annual meeting in December, 1824, 
a committee was appointed to take into consideration the proceed- 
ings of the State Society, and "report some plan of management for 
our Library." At an adjourned meeting, the committee reported, 
recommending a dissolution of their connection with the State 
Society ; and another committee was appointed to confer with the 
other County Societies on the subject. At a meeting in June, 
1825, a resolution was passed instructing the delegates to request 
the State Society to " petition the Legislature so to alter the act of 
incorporation as to render the County Societies independent of the 
State Society." 

The result of the proceedings, so far as appears of record, was 
that, at a meeting in May, 1826. a resolution was adopted to "put 
16 ' 


up our library at auction to tbe members of this Society ;'" anil tbe 
sale took place in June following. In tlie meantime, several mem- 
bers had -withdrawn with the consent of the Society few attended 
the meetings, and the measure above mentioned was adopted, we 
suppose, to close the existence of the Society. The last meeting of 
which there is any record, was in October 182G ; when the whole 
business related to closing the financial affairs of the Society. 
The organization of subsequent societies seem to have been regarded 
iis a revival of this society, formed under the act of 1813, although 
at each of these organizations, new constitutions were adopted. 

Dr. Ebenezer Huntington, the. first president, was continued in 
that office until 1823, when Dr. Luther E. Hall was appointed, 
and continued president until 1826, when Dr. William Bass was 
appointed the last president. Dr. Luther E. Hall was secretary 
from 1813 to 1820, when Dr. Thomas P. Matthews was appointed 
and continued to the cloSe. 

On the 24th of December, 1835, a County Medical Society was 
organized and adopted a Constitution, and on the same day held its 
first meeting. Dr. Jonathan A. Allen was chosen President, Dan'C. 
Stone and E. D. Warner, Vice Presidents, Kalph Gowdey, Secretary, 
and Atherton Hall, Treasurer. About six months after, in June, 
1830, another meeting was held, and this closes its written history. 

."/The Addison County Medical Society " was re-organized by a 
convention held at '^"ergenne3 on the 30th day of June 1842, 
adjourned from a preliminary meeting held at ^liddlebury two 
weeks before. A new Constitution was then formed, by which the 
o])ject of the organization is declared to be, " to promote a knowledge 
of medical and surgical science, and a friendly intercourse among 
the members of the facult^y." The officers of the Society are '"a 
President, Vice President, Se«retary, Treasurer, Librarian, and 
three Censors, together with the President and Vice President, who 
ishall be c.v-ojicio Censors," and they arc elected annnaliy. "Any 
regular practicioner of medicine, a graduate of any legally author- 
ized medical institution, who resides within the State, and shall 
sign the constitution and by-laws, and conform to the objects de- 
bigucd, may be a member of the society : and any person, who sus- 


tains a good moral cliaractor may become a mcmbeVj who shall 
have studied the science of medicine and surgery three years under 
the direction of a regular practicioner, and attended at least one 
cpurse of medical lectures, in some legally established institution, 
and has passed an examination by the censors, and by them recom- 
mended." Any person having passed such satisfactory examination 
'■'may become a member by signing the constitution and by- 
laws, and receive, if he wish, a diploma by paying five dollars." 
According to the by-laws, meetings arc to be held " at Middlebury 
semi-annually, on Thursday of the first week of the County Court." 
The fii'st meeting was held on the day on w hich the Constitution 
was adopted, and Dr. J. A. Allen of Middlebury, was chosen 
President, Dr. Dan C. Stone of Vergennes, Yicc President, and 
Dr. David C. Goodale of Addison, Secretary. 

Since the last organization in 1842, the society has been in 
cffioicnt * and successful operation. The meetings have generally 
been regularly held and atunded ; and we judge many of them 
most interesting and profitable. A member at one meeting was often 
appointed to malio an address or read an essay on som.e important 
subject at the next, and at Al the meetings it was made the duty 
of each member to report such interesting and difficult cases of 
disease as had occurred in his practice, and each case w as discussed 
by the other members of the society. It was one of the rules of 
the society that each person appointed president should make an 
address at the close of the term for w^hich he was elected. At the 
annual meeting in June, 1817, Dr. Jonathan A. Allen, having 
officiated as President the previous year, read an address which 
was published. From this we make a quotation, principally to 
show how he regarded the influence of the organization. He says, 
"It is noAV five years since the Addison County Society was 
organized in its .present form. During this period twenty meetings 
have been held, generally well sustained by the attendance of the 
members. Many facts, highly interesting to the profession, and 
consequently useful to the public, have been presented. Muck 
valuable information has been elicited by our discussions, and we 
have every reason to believe that not a member has failed of adding 



to his general stock of practical knowledge. In addition to these 
advantages, valuable acijuaintances have been formed, generous, 
elevated and kind professional feeling promoted. Many of these 
endearments will reciprocally remain among our members until the 
closing period of their existence. Jealousy, suspicion and want of 
confidence have been almost entirely removed from our ranks. 
Our members meet as friends. Consultations now, in lieu of being 
olijects of bickering, are generally des^ircd, and usually, by the 
mutual and kind expression of opinion, result beneficially to the 
sick." The whole community would feel safer if such an influence 
should prevail generally among the doctors. 

At a subsc(|uent meeting in February, 1848. the death of Dr. 
Allen was announced by Dr. Russel, who stated that '• the princi- 
pal object of the meeting was to adopt measures suitable to the 
occasion" of his death. " Th'e^ President, Dr. Bradford of Ver- 
gennes, read a short but expressive paper concerning his life and 
death;" and appropriate and commendatory resolutions were adopted. 
The Society also appointed Dr. S. P. Lathrop, of Middlebury, to 
prepare a biographical sketch, which was afterwards ordered to be 
published in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 

The following have been the Presidents and Secretaries of the 


1842 Jona'n A. Allen, Middlebury,! 844. 
]844 Joel Rice, Bridport, 1845. 

1843 Dan C. Stone, Vergennes, 1846. 

1846 Jonathan A. Allen, 1847. 

1847 A. Bradford , Vergennes, 1848. 

1848 E. D. Warner, New Haven, 1850. 
1850 Earl Cushman, Orwell, 1856. 
1850 E. D. Warner, still in oiEce. 


1842 David Goodale, Addison, 1844. 

1844 S. Pearl Lathrop, Middlcbury,1846. 
184G W. r. Kussel, '« 1847. 

1847 Charles L. Allen, still in office. . 
Dr. Allen is also Treasurer and Librarian. 




The population of Addision County does not materially differ 
from that of the other Counties in this State, and other New Eng- 
land States. The whole exhibits the influence of the spirit of emi- 
gration and colonization, which has prevailed and increased since 
the first settlement of the country. The character of the whole 
population of the country has been modified and, in many respects, 
we think, improved by this disposition, especially in its spirit of en- 
terprise and individuality. An individual, who has courage to leave 
the place of his birth, and remove three hundred or a thousand miles 
to the outskirts of civilization to better his condition, learns that there 
are other places and people besides those he has left behind, and per- 
haps equal or superior to them. His A'iews are enlarged, and his inqui- 
ries are no longer confined to the limited sphere of his early home, 
and he begins to think there may be still other regions beyond and 
elsewhere. If he has energy to remove once, he has still mor6 to 
remove again, when profit or pleasure tempt him. He learns also 
that there are other countries beyond the oceans, which encircle 
him, and he looks to them as fields for indulging his thirst for spec- 
ulation or his curiosity. "Wherever he locates himself, he finds 
other men and other customs and manners and ideas which are 
new to him, and which he studies, and thus improves his own, and 
shakes ofi" his provincial habits and prejudices. 

Added to this cause, which to some extent is common to all the 
States, the early settlers of Vermont experienced a long course of 
discipline in the hardships and self-denial and energy required for 
their hard contested controversy, in defending themselves and their 
property against the oppressive claims of exterior powers, and 
especi^ly in the contest for their separate independence. 


Although we cannot boast of large numhcrs of learned men, lilie 
some other States, more favorably situated, we do not shrink fioni 
a comparison of the mass of our population, for general intelligence 
and practical energy, with any other. Not a few intelligent men, 
who have long resided in othei New England States and elsewhere, 
have expressed to the writer of this sketch the conviction, that in 
no State is the population of the saine classes, and especially the 
farmers, superior, if equal, to that of Vermont. No State, we 
believe, has sent out more efficient, practical and useful emigrants to 
people the " new countries."- Vermont is an inland State, and 
agriculture is the pursuit of the great body of its inhabitints ; and 
she has no foreign commerce to build up large cities, where great 
wealth is accumulated, and learned men congregate. 

Among the most important influences, which operate in modifying 
the character of our population, are our liberal institutions, placing, 
as they do, every man in the dignity and responsibility • of a man. 
And paramount to all others perhaps is that of town corporations, 
which are common and almost peculiar to New England. They are 
not only pure democracies, but they are schools, in which the prin- 
ciples of democracy are taught ; where all meet on a common plat- 
form, with equal rights and powers, not onlj' as voters, but as can- 
didates for office, fo numerous and extensive are the legislative 
and, administrative powers within their limits, that all have an 
opportunity to become acquainted with our laws and institutions, 
acquire habits of public. business and qualify themselves for higher 
political trusts. 

Our common schools and seminaries of learning for the instruction 
of all classes, and our churches of various denominations, where all 
may meet for public worship and- for instruction in their religions, 
social and civil duties, are means of spreading general intelligence 
and virtue through the community. Besides these every family is 
more or less supplied with books and periodicals, which keep them 
informed of the passing events, and remind them of their duties to 
their country and the world. The writer of this sketch has been as 
long and as advantageously situated as any one to ascertain, the 
ability of all classes of men in this County to write, and he has no 


recollection of more tlian one or two native Americans, residino- in 
the County, who could not write liis own signature ; and these were 
brought up in regions remote from schools. The twentj-five native 
Americans, who .are reported in the census of 1850, in this County^ 
as being unable to read or write, were probably similarly situated 
in the early settlement of the country. 

If the population of Addison County is distinguished from that 
of any other County, it is occasioned by the influence of Middlebury 
College situated among them. This influence is not confined exclu- 
sively to this County ; but no person,* who has been long acquainted 
Avith the history of that institution, has failed to observe its influ- 
ence upon the intelligence of the community in its neighborhood, 
and in raising the stantlard of education in the subordinate institu- 
tions. Few towns, if any, in the country, have afforded a larger 
number of young men for a collegiate education, in proportion to 
their population, than many of the towns in Addison Count3^ 

It may be mentioned as an evidence of the peaceable and orderly 
character, as well as prosperity of the inhabitants, that courts of 
justice have less business 'in this County, in proportion to its popu- 
lation, than in any otlier County. No person has ever been 
convicted of a capital oflence in the County. Four have been 
tried for murder, one in 1815 and one in 1825 ; but both were con- 
victed of only manslaughter. Another was since tried twice, but the 
jury failed irt both cases to ag|'ee on a verdict, and he was dis- 
charged ; and the other was acquitted on account of insanity. 

From the foregoing sketches, it will be seen, that the County of 
Addison has sufiicicnt resources for wealth and material prosperity, 
and that its citizens have sufficient intelligence and enterprise, in 
due time to develope them. It will Ix) seen also, that they have 
the means of intellectual, moral and religious improvement. And 
we may well congratulate ourselves that we live in an agricultural 
district, where there is a general social equality ; where there are 
few so rich as to excite the envy and ill-will of their neighbors, or 
to be free from the necessity of some active occupation or so poor as 
to need charity. We have no large cities with their accumulated 
masses of wealth, poverty and crime. We have no such wealth to 


foster extravagance, luxury and a factitious aristocracy, -with its 
arbitrary conventional ceremonies, as in large cities sets at naught 
the equality, simple manners and sober verities of the country. 
We are not like them, beset on every hand .by temptations to dissi- 
I)ation and debauchery, and we have no such masses of corruption 
to spread a moral pestilence through the atmosphere. We have no 
such large collections of the refuse population of Europe — its 
paupers and criminals — broke loose from the restraints of govern- 
ment and law at home, that they m«y riot here in their imaginary 
freedom from all restraints ; who nightly disturb the peace of the 
community Avith riots and quarrels and murders ; and who are 
ready at the call of designing jwliticians, to control our elections. 
The institution of the family, so important in the country, for its 
restraints and the cultivation of the social afiections, is to a great 
extent obliterated in some of the large towns. There hundreds of 
children have no home but in the streets, and no associates but their 
fellows in the same condition. The crowded population everyAvliere, 
and the artificial conventionalisms of the more wealthy households 
forbid the salutary restraints and separate and undisturbed inter- 
course of the family circle. And thus the young grow up with 
the feeling that they belong rather to the great public than to the 
family in which they were born. These evils are not to be 
charged to the inhabitants generally of larger towns, but are inci- 
dent to, and inseparable from, thiJr position. No more moral, 
pious and philanthropic men are anywhere to be found. And yet 
the evils exist. 

We ought to bear in mind, that there is danger from this source 
to the whole country, and that a serious responsibility rests upon 
the people in the rural and agricultural districts, like the County of 
Addison, in relation to them. The influence of large commercial 
towns is gradually extending itself over the country for evil, as 
well as for good. The evil influence may, and should be counter- 
acted by an influence from the country. A large proportion of the 
teachers and influential professional and business men, and of the 
annual increase of the population, in the large towns, are educated 
in, and are emigrants from the country. There is besides a constant 


iutercoiu'se and mutual influence going on bet^vecn the city and 

country. jFrom the distinguished advantages enjoyed by the rural 

districts, it is, '^ve think, their province to save the rest of the 

country. Our free institutions, as every one understands, will 

depend on the intelligence and virtue of the people. It is therefore 

the first duty of all patriotic citizens of Addison County, as well 

for their own safety as for that of the country, to encourage and 

support all needed educational and religious institutions in efficient 




No. 1.— Chief Jcdqes of toe CotrxTY Court until tue new okgakization of 

TUE Ju01Ci.VUY IN 1825. 

Names. Residence. Appoinfcd. Left. Years in OJfice 

John Strong Addison, 1785 1801 16 

Joel Linslcy, Cornwall, 1801 1807 6 

Henry Olin, Leicester, 1807 1 308 1 

Joel Linsley, Corn^.-all, 1808 1810 2 

Henry Olin Leicester, 1810 1824 14 

Dorastus Wooster, Middlebury, 1824 1825 1 

A.?sisTAKT Judges of County Coukt. 

Gamaliel Painter, M iddlebu vy , 1 785 1 78G 1 

Ira Allen, Colchester, 1785 1786 1 

'VViiUam Brush, Vcrgennes, 1786 1787 1 

Abol Thompson, Panton, 1786 1787 1 

Hibnd Hull, Cornwall, 1786 1789 3 

Samuel Lane, " 1786 1787 1 

Gamaliel Painter, Middlebury, 1787 1795 8 

Abel Thompson, Panton, 1789 1801 12 

Joel Linsley Cornwall, 1795 1801 6 

Abraham Dibble, Veigcuncs, 1801 1805 4 

Henry Olin, Leicester, 18C1 1807 6 

Samuel ?trong, Vergenncs, 1805 1808 3 

Charles Rich Shoreliam, 1807 1813 6 

Henry Olin, Leicester, 1808 1810 2 

Mathcw Phelps, Jun., New Haven, ISlO 1812 2 

Samuel Shepaid, Panton, 1812 1813 1 

Samuel Strong, Vergenncs, 1813 1815 2 

Ezra Ilcyt, New Haven, 1813 1818 5 

Charles Rich, fchoreham, 1815 1816 1 

William Slade, Jr Middlebury, 1816 1 -022 6 

Stephen Haight, Jr Monkton, 181 8 1823 5 

Elisha Bascom, Shoreham, 1822 1824 2 

Ezra Hoyt, New Haven, 1828 1824 1 

John S. Larabee, Shoreham, 1824 1825 1 


Names. Residence. Appointed. 

Daniel Collins, Monkton, 1824 

Borastus Wooster, MiJdlebury, 1825 

Ebon W. Judd, " 1825 

Silas II. Jenison, Slioreham, 1829 

William Myrick, Bridport, 1831 

Samuel H, Holley Bristol, 1833 

Calvin Solace, Bridport, 1835 

Davis Rich Slioreham , 1 838 

Calvin Solace, Bridport, 18 12 

Fordyce Iluntingtou, Vergennes, 1842 

Dorastus Wooster, Middlebury, 1844 

*Jesse Grandey, Pantou, 18 14 

*Ville Laurence, Vergennes. 1815 

George Chipman Eipton, 1846 

Elias Bottum, New Haven, 1847 

Calvin G. Tilden, Cornwall, 1810 

Nathan L. Keese, Ferrisburgh , 1849 

Joseph Haywood, Panton, 1 851 

Roswell Bottum. Jr.; Orwell, 1851 

tDoi'astus Wooster, Middlebury, 1854 

Erastus S .Hinman, New Haven, 1854 

t Samuel Swift, Middlebui'y, 1855 

John W. Strong, Addison, 1856 

M. W. C. Wright Shoreham, 1857 

Harison 0. Smith, Monkton, 1858 


Samuel Chipman, Jr., . . , .Vergennes, 1785 

Boswell Hopkins, " 1786 

Darius Matthews, Middlebury, 1803 

Martin Post, " 1808 

John S. Larabee, " 1810 

Samuel Swift, " 1814 

George S. Swift, " 1846 

John W. Stewart, " 1855 

Dugald Stewart, " 1855 

State's Attoeneys. 

Seth Storrs, Addison, 1 787 

Daniel Chipman, Middlebury, 1707 











































Jan. 1855 































* Judge G RANDY died before June 1st, 1845; Ville LAW.iExcE was appointed 
by the Governor in his place. 

t Died January 1853 . 

t Appointed in place of D. Wooster 

"128 APPii;^'DIX. 

Names. Fe IJcnce. Appointed. 

Loyal Cftsc MidJlebury, ISOl 

David Edmond, Vcrgcnnes, 1S03 

Iftratio Seymour, Middlebury, 1810 

David Edmond Vcrgcnnes, 1813 

Horatio Seymour, Middlebury, 1815 

*David "Edmond, Vo'gcnncs, 1819 

tNoali Hawley ' • 1824 

Enoch D. Woodbridge, .... " 1821 

George Chipman, Jliddlebury, 1?27 

William Slade " 1830 

Ebenezor 2T. Brigg3, Salisbury, 1821 

Ozias Seymour, Middlebury, 1839 

George W. Grandey, Vergennes, 1815 

John Prout, Salisbury, 1818 

John W. Stewart, Middlebury, 1851 

Frederic E. Woodbridge, . . Vergennes, 1854 


Noah Chittenden, Jericho, 1 785 

Gamaliel Painter, Middlebury, 1786 

Samuel Strong, Vergennes, 1787 

John Chipman, Middlebury, 1789 

■William Slade, Corn-wall, 1801 

Jonathan Iloyt, Jua., New Haven, 181 1 

John VYillard Middlebury, 1812 

Samuel Mattocks, " 1813 

Jonathan Hoyt, Jun., New Haven, 1815 

Abel Tomlnison, Vergennes, 1819 

Stephen Haight, Monkton. 1824 

Seymour Sellick, Middlebury, 1828 

Marshall S. Doty Addison, 1831 

Azariah Rood, Middlebury, 1833 

William B. I\Iartin " 1835 

Azariah Rood, " 1836 

EthanSnjith, Monkton, 18S7 

William B. Martin, Middlebmy, 1630 

Adnah Smith, " 1840 

Gaius A, Collamer, Bristol, 1842 

David S. Church, Jliddlebury, 1844 

:{:William Joslin, . . , Vergennes, Jan. 1859 

L''it. i 















5 mo 

























































Jan. 1859 


* Died in spriuj,- of 1S24. 

t Appointed by Court in place of D. Edmond. 

^ Appointed by the Governor on the death of D. B. Church. 


Hiait Bailiffs. 

Names. Raidencc. Appdlnl^d. 

S.imuel Mattocks, Middlebury, 1798 

John Warren " 180G 

Artemas Nixon, '• 1808 

Moses Leonard, " 1810 

James Jewctt, " 1812 

Benjamin Clark, Woybridge , 1813 

Eiiaklm tVeeks, Salisbury, 1811 

Wiglitman Chapman, Weybridge, 1816 

Nathaniel Foster, Middlebury, 182G 

John Ilowden, Bristol, 1829 

Marshall S. Doty, Addison, ISSO 

Myron B ushnell, Starksboro, 1831 

Milo Winslow, M iddlebury, 1833 

Gaius A. Collamer, Bristol, 1835 

Wightman Chapman, Yfeybridge, 1837 

Harry Goodrich, Middlebury, 1839 

Asa Chapman, " 1910 

George C. Chapman, " 1849 

William Joslin, Vcrgenucs, 1850 

O A. Coliamer, Brislol, 1853 

JcDOES OF Probate — District oi", 

John Strong, Addison, 1887 

Darius Mathews, Cornwall, 1801 

Samuel Swift Middlebury, 1819 

Silas H. Jenison Shoreham, 1812 

Horatio Seymour, Middlebury, 1817 

Calvin G. Tildeu, Cornwall, 1855 

District op Neat Ha vex, 

Ezra Hoyt, New Haven, 1824 

Noah Hawley, Vergeaucs, 1829 

Jesse Graadey, .. ,.o Pauton, 1831 

Adin Hall, New Haven, 1833 

Harvey Mun§U, Bristol, 1835 


Left. 1 


























































NO. 2. 

The following statement of "Agriculture, Farms and Implements, Stock, 
product.?," &c., is taken from the census of 1850. 

Addison County. Acres of improved land 243,012, unimproved 11.j,2S7. Cash 
value of farms ^7,799.257. Value of farming implements $2-56.270. Horses 
5,921. Asses and Mules I. Milch Cows 10,691. Working Oxen 2,815, Other 
Cattle 13,248. Sheep 188,! 54. Swine 5.822. Value of Live Stock $1,289,608. 
Value of animals slaughtered $170,856. Wheat, bushels of 103,44. Bushels of 
Rye 20,096. Bushels of Indian Corn 175,478, Bushels of Oats 211 385. Pounds 
oi Wool 622,594. Peas and Beans 26,355. Bushels of Irish Potatoes 318 421. 
Of Barley, 149. Of Buckwheat 15,659. Value of Orchard products ^41,696. 
Gallons of Wine 114. Pounds of Butter, 876,771. Cheese 817,149. Tons of 
Hay 88,793, Bushels of Clover Seed 5. Other Grass Seed 1 ,589. Pounds of 
Hops 5,962. Of Flax 1,232. Bushels of Flax Seed 51. Pounds of Silk Coccoons 
76, Of Maple Sugar 205,263. Gallons of Molasses 050. Beeswax and Honey 
pounas of 40,654. Value of Homo Manufactures ^r9,648. 


NO. 3. 

The following table shows the population of the several towns in the County of 

Addison, at each United States Census, since Vermont was admitted into the Union. 

1731 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 

Addison, 401 73i 1100 1210 1306 1220 1270 

Avery's Gore, 13 29 78 

Bridport, 449 1124 1520 1511 1774 1480 1393 

IJristol, 211 GG5 1179 1051 1274 1233 1344 

Cornwall, 828 1103 1279 1120 1264 11G3 1155 

Ferrisburgh, 481 956 1G47 1581 1822 1755 2075 

Goshen, 4 86 290 555 621 486 

Grandlle, 101 185 324 328 403 545 603 

Hancock,.- 56 149 311 442 472 455 430 

Leicester, 343 522 603 518 633 002 596 

Lincoln, 97 255 278 639 770 1057 

Middlebury 395 1263 2138 2535 3168 3162 3517 

Monktou, 450 880 1248 1152 1384 1310 1240 

New Ilavcn, 723 1135 1688 1566 1834 1503 1663 

Orwell, 778 1386 1849 1730 1598 1504 1470 

Panton, 220 363 520 546 605 670 659 

Pupton, 15 42 278 357 567 

Salisbury, 446 644 709 721 907 942 1027 

Shorehaui, 721 1447 2033 1881 2137 1675 1601 

Starksboro 40 350 726 914 1342 1263 1400 

Vergennes,- 201 510 835 817 999 10] 7 1378 

Waltham, 247 244 264 301 283 270 

Weybridge, 175 502 750 714 850 797 804 

Whiting, 250 404 565 609 653 660 629 

7,267 14,745 21,613 21,870 26,503 25,074 26,549 

132 A1TENL>IX. 


WiiiTHS. Free Colored. 

J\L:les. Ptvia'es. 'i'olal. Males. Females. 7'olal Ag\c^alc. 

Alvlii-oa, C59 G20 1279 1279 

]Jridport 7-3 G33 13D3 1393 

Bristol, GG3 Gil 1312 16 IG 32 1341 

Cornwall, 570 577 11-33 2 2 1155 

Ferrisburgli, lOlG 1023 2063 2 4 6 2075 

Goshcii, 2G1 225 486 48G 

Granville, 314 283 603 603 

Jiancock, 236 19-i 430 430 

Leicester 290 305 595 1 1 5'JG 

Lmeolii, CG4 438 1052 8 2 5 1057 

Middlobury, 1730 17u3 3499 8 10 18 3517 

Monkton, 090 G48 1246 124G 

NewHavon, 825 832 1G57 5 1 G 1G63 

Orwell, 727 742 14G0 1 1 1470 

ranton, 287 267 554 3 2 5 559 

Ripton, 303 2G4 ■ 567 5G7 

Salisbury, 526 501 1027 1027 

Shoreliam..: 822 779 IGOl IGOl 

Starksbcro, 725 075 1400 ' 1400 

Vergcnnes, 653 G94 1347 13 18 81 1378 

•\Valthara, •••• 141 129 270 270 

Vrcybridge, 399 405 804 804 

■\Ji-hit:ng, Sll 317 623 1 1 629 

13,398 13,043 26,-141 54 54 108 26,5.49 


















Written ill tlu' re(iuost of ilu; Historical Society of Middlobuiy, 

1 Vol. 8vo. Cloth 444 Pages. Price, $2. 

ll^Sent by mail free of postage, on receipt of price. 




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