(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Statistical yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service [microform]"

BOSTON 

PUBLIC 

LIBRARY 




U.S. Department of Justice 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 



1997 

Statistical Yearbook 

of the 

Immigration and 

Naturalization 

Service 



««T!lllkUlb^ 



M-367 



U.S. Department of Justice 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 



1997 

Statistical Yearbook 

of the 

Immigration and 

Naturalization 

Service 




SUPERINTENDENT OF OOmere 
DEPOSITORY 

FEB 5 2000 
BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

S™S££Mi!WTSOEPflRTMENT 



Issued October 1999 




IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE 



October 1999 



Copies of each Statistical Yearbook from 1965 to 1997 (entitled Annual Report prior to 1978) can be purchased 
from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Phone: 
1-800-553-6847. The NTIS order number for this report is PB 99-127821. 



The Statistical Yearbook is available on the Statistics Page of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Internet 
Website: http://www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/aboutins/statistics/index.html 



Library of Congress 

National Serials Program 

International Standard Serial number: 

(ISSN) 0743-538X 



Suggested Citation 



U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration 
and Naturalization Service, 1997, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C., 1999 



1997 Statistical Yearbook 
of the immigration and 
Naturalization 
Service 



Contents 



General Information Page 

Notice of Special Geographic Definitions 10 

Introduction 12 

I. Immigrants 14 

U.S. Immigration Program 14 

Worldwide immigration subject to numerical limits 14 

Preference immigrants 14 

Diversity Program 16 

Immigration exempt from worldwide numerical limits 16 

Data Overview 16 

Highlights 16 

Pending adjustment of status applications 16 

Carryover provisions of immigration law 18 

Demographic characteristics of legal immigrants 20 

Class of admission 20 

Region and country of birth 20 

State and metropolitan area of intended residence 21 

Age, gender, and occupation 21 

Understanding the Data 22 

Data Collection 22 

Limitations of Data 22 

n. Refugees 70 

U.S. Refugee Program 70 

Admission ceilings 70 

Criteria for refugee status 71 

Special program for applicants from the former Soviet Union 71 

Data Overview 72 

Applications 72 

Approvals 73 

Dependents 73 

Arrivals 73 

Adjustments to permanent resident status 73 

Understanding the Data 74 

Data Collection 74 

Limitations of Data 74 

in. Asylees 75 

U.S. Asylum Program 75 

Filing of claims 75 

Adjudication of claims 75 

Data Overview 76 

Trends in asylum applications 76 

Cases filed 76 



General Information — Continued 

Page 

Cases completed 77 

Coercive population-control procedures 77 

Adjustment to permanent resident status 77 

Understanding the Data 78 

Data Collection 78 

Limitations of Data 78 

rV. Temporary Admissions 101 

Nonimmigrants 101 

U.S. Nonimmigrant Program 101 

Nonimmigrant categories 102 

Admission policy 103 

Employment, family members 103 

Visa Waiver Pilot Program 103 

Guam Visa Waiver Pilot Program 104 

North American Free- Trade Agreement 104 

Data Overview 104 

Recent trends in admission 104 

Class of admission 104 

Country of citizenship 104 

Port of entry 106 

Month of admission 106 

Parolees 106 

Authority to grant parole 106 

U.S. Parole Program 107 

Categories of parole 107 

Country of citizenship 107 

Country of citizenship for humanitarian parole 108 

Understanding the Data 108 

Data Collection 108 

Other temporary visitors 109 

Temporary visitor information not collected 109 

Limitations of Data 110 

Missing information Ill 

V. Naturalizations 134 

U.S. Naturalization Program 134 

Data Overview 134 

Region and country of birth 135 

Immigration Reform and Control Act 136 

Years in immigrant status 136 

Understanding the Data 137 

Data Collection 137 

Limitations of Data 137 

Naturalization Rates 138 

Data Overview 138 

Limitations of Linked-Records Method 140 

VI. Enforcement 163 

Enforcement of Immigration Laws 163 

Border Patrol 163 

Investigations Program 163 

Removals 163 

Voluntary departure 164 



General Information — Continued 

Page 

Data Overview: Apprehensions 164 

Southwest border apprehensions 165 

Border Operations 165 

Nationality 165 

Data Overview: Investigations 165 

Criminal 165 

Worksite enforcement 165 

Fraud investigations 166 

Anti-smuggling activities 166 

Data Overview: Removals 166 

Withdrawal 166 

Voluntary departure 166 

Formal removal 166 

Country of citizenship 167 

Criminal activity 167 

Administrative reason for removal 167 

Immigration status at entry to the United States 167 

Aliens removed from the interior 167 

Gender and age 168 

Understanding the Data 168 

Data Collection 168 

Apprehension and voluntary departure 168 

Voluntary departure (interior) 168 

Individuals removed 168 

Other data 168 

Limitations of Data 168 

Case tracking 168 

Time lags in data entry 168 

Changes in definitions 169 

Tracking systems for worksite 169 

VII. Estimates 198 

Emigration 198 

Illegal Immigrants 199 

Data Overview 199 

National estimates 200 

State of residence 200 

Country of origin 201 

Estimation Procedure 201 

Methodology 201 

Primary sets of data 201 

Construction of the estimates 202 

Estimates by state of residence 202 

Limitations of Data 202 

Inspections 203 

Charts, Text Tables 

Charts 

A. Immigrants admitted by region of birth: selected fiscal years 1955-97 13 

B. Immigrants admitted to the United States from top five countries of last residence: 1821 to 1997 15 

C. Immigrants admitted: fiscal years 1900-97 17 

4 



Charts — Continued 

Page 

D. Immigrants admitted by admission category: fiscal years 1988-97 18 

E. Percent age and sex distribution of U.S. population and immigrants admitted in fiscal year 1997 22 

F. Refugee and asylee initial admissions and adjustments to lawful permanent resident status: fiscal years 1946-97. 71 

G. Asylum applications filed with the INS: fiscal years 1973-97 76 

H. Noninmiigrants admitted by region of last residence: selected fiscal years 1955-96 101 

I. Nonimmigrants admitted: fiscal years 1975-96 104 

J. Nonimmigrants admitted as temporary workers, intracompany transferees, and exchange visitors from top 

twenty countries of citizenship: fiscal year 1996 105 

K. Nonimmigrants admitted as students and their families for top ten countries of citizenship: fiscal year 1996 106 

L. Nonimmigrants admitted by selected class of admission from top ten countries of citizenship: fiscal year 1996 .. 107 

M. Nonimmigrants admitted by month and selected class of admission: calendar years 1993-96 108 

N. Persons naturalized: fiscal years 1908-97 135 

0. Persons naturalized by decade and selected region of birth: fiscal years 1961-97 136 

P. Cumulative naturalization rates through fiscal year 1997 of immigrants admitted in fiscal years 1977 and 1982 .. 138 

Q. Years between immigration and naturalization of immigrants admitted in fiscal year 1977 and 1982 139 

R. Aliens apprehended: fiscal years 1951-97 164 

Text Tables 

A. Immigrants admitted by major category of admission: fiscal years 1995-97 19 

B. Percentof immigrants admitted by region and period: fiscal years 1955-97 20 

C. Immigrants admitted from top twenty countries of birth: fiscal years 1996-97 21 

D. Refugee status applications filed and approved, and refugees admitted, by selected nationality: fiscal year 1997 . 72 

E. Asylum applications filed with the INS by Central Americans: fiscal years 1991-97 77 

F. Nonimmigrants admitted under the Visa Waiver Pilot Program by country of citizenship: fiscal years 1995-96 102 

G. Parolees admitted by selected class of admission from top five countries of citizenship: fiscal years 1992-96 109 

H. Parolees admitted by selected category of humanitarian parole from selected countries of citizenship: 

fiscal years 1992-96 110 

1. Median years of residence by year of naturalization and region of birth: selected fiscal years 1965-97 137 

J. Naturalization rates through fiscal year 1997 of immigrants admitted in fiscal years 1977 and 1982 by year 139 

K. Naturalization rates through fiscal year 1997 of immigrants admitted in fiscal year 1977 by selected country 

of birth 140 

L. Naturalization rates through fiscal year 1997 of immigrants admitted in fiscal year 1982 by selected country 

of birth 141 

M. Immigration and emigration by decade: 1901-90 198 

N. Estimated illegal immigrant population for top twenty countnes of origin and top twenty states of residence: October 1996 .. 200 

5 



Detailed Tables 

Immigrants 

Page 

1. Immigration to the United States: fiscal years 1820-1997 23 

2. Immigration by region and selected country of last residence: fiscal years 1820-1997 24 

3. Immigrants admitted by region and country of birth: fiscal years 1987-97 28 

4. Immigrantsadmittedby type and selected class of admission: fiscal years 1990-97 32 

5. Immigrants admitted by region of birth and type and class of admission: fiscal year 1997 33 

6. Immigrants admitted by class of admission and region and selected foreign state of chargeability under 

the preference categories: fiscal year 1997 40 

7. Immigrants admitted by type of admission and region and selected country of birth: fiscal year 1997 42 

8. Immigrants admitted by selected class of admission and region and selected country of birth: fiscal year 1997 ... 44 

9. Immigrants admitted by selected class of admission and region and selected country of last permanent residence: 

fiscal year 1997 46 

10. Immigrants admitted who were adjusted to permanent resident status by selected status at entry and region and 

selected country of birth: fiscal year 1997 48 

11. Immigrants admitted in fiscal year 1997, by calendar year of entry, type of admission, and region and selected 

country of birth 50 

12. Immigrants admitted by age and sex: fiscal years 1987-97 52 

13. Immigrants admitted by selected country of birth, age, and sex: fiscal year 1997 53 

14. Immigrants admitted by marital status, age, and sex: fiscal year 1997 56 

15. Immigrant-orphans adopted by U.S. citizens by sex, age, and region and selected country of birth: 

fiscal year 1997 57 

16. Immigrant new arrivals admitted by selected port of entry and region and selected country of birth: 

fiscal year 1997 58 

17. Immigrants admitted by selected country of birth and state of intended residence: fiscal year 1997 60 

18. Immigrants admitted by state of intended residence: fiscal years 1989-97 63 

19. Immigrants admitted by selected country of birth and selected metropolitan statistical area of intended residence: 

fiscal year 1997 64 

20. Immigrant beneficiaries of occupational preferences admitted by type of admission and occupation: 

fiscal year 1997 67 

21. Immigrants admitted by major occupation group and region and selected country of birth: fiscal year 1997 68 



Tables — Continued 

Refugees, Asylees 

Page 

22. Refugee-status applications: fiscal years 1980-97 80 

23. Refugee-status applications by geographic area and selected country of chargeability: fiscal year 1997 81 

24. Refugee approvals and arrivals by geographic area of chargeability: fiscal years 1990-97 82 

25. Refugee arrivals into the United States by selected country of chargeability: fiscal years 1991-97 83 

26. Refugees granted lawful permanent resident status in fiscal year 1997 by calendar year of entry and region and 

selected country of birth °^ 

27 . Asylum cases filed with INS District Directors and Asylum Officers : fiscal years 1 973-97 85 

28. Number of individuals granted asylum by INS District Directors and Asylum Officers by selected nationality: 

fiscal years 1991-97 86 

29. Asylum cases filed with INS Asylum Officers by selected nationality: fiscal year 1997 88 

30. Asylum cases filed with INS Asylum Officers by asylum office and state of residence: fiscal year 1997 90 

31. Refugees and asylees granted lawful permanent resident status by enactment: fiscal years 1946-97 92 

32. Refugees and asylees granted lawful permanent resident status by region and selected country of birth: fiscal 

years 1946-97 ^^ 

33. Refugees and asylees granted lawful permanent resident status by age and sex: fiscal years 1990-97 94 

34. Refugees and asylees granted lawful permanent resident status by region and selected country of birth: fiscal 

years 1988-97 ^^ 

35. Refugees and asylees granted lawful permanent resident status by selected country of birth and selected 

metropolitan statistical area of residence: fiscal year 1997 98 

36. Refugees and asylees granted lawful permanent resident status by state of residence: fiscal years 1988-97 100 

Temporary Admissions 

37. Nonimmigrants admitted by selected class of admission and region and selected country of last residence: 

selected fiscal years 1981-96 112 

38. Nonimmigrants admitted by selected class of admission and region and selected country of citizenship: fiscal 

year 1996 ^^"^ 

39. Nonimmigrants admitted by class of admission: selected fiscal years 1981-96 118 

40. Nonimmigrants admitted as temporary workers, exchange visitors, and intracompany transferees by region and 

selected counU7 of citizenship: fiscal year 1996 120 

41 . Nonimmigrants admitted by selected port of entry and region and selected country of citizenship: 

fiscal year 1996 126 

42. Nonimmigrants admitted by age and region and selected country of citizenship: fiscal year 1996 130 

43. Nonimmigrants admitted by selected class of admission and state of intended residence: fiscal year 1996 132 



Tables — Continued 

Naturalizations 

Page 

44. Petitions for naturalizations filed, persons naturalized, and petitions for naturalizations denied- fiscal 

years 1907-97 J42 

45. Persons naturalized by general and special naturalization provisions: fiscal years 1992-97 143 

46. Persons naturalized by selected naturalization provisions and region and selected country of former allegiance: 

fiscal year 1997 1^4 

47. Persons naturalized by region and country of former allegiance: fiscal years 1988-97 146 

48. Persons naturalized by sex, marital status, and major occupation group: fiscal years 1992-97 150 

49. Persons naturalized by state of residence: fiscal years 1988-97 151 

50. Persons naturalized by selected country of former allegiance and state of residence: fiscal year 1997 152 

51. Persons naturalized by selected country of former allegiance and selected metropolitan statistical area of 

residence: fiscal year 1997 I54 

52. Persons naturalized by major occupation group and region and selected country of former allegiance: 

fiscal year 1997 j5g 

53. Persons naturalized in fiscal year 1997 by calendar year of entry and region and selected country of birth 158 

54. Persons naturalized by selected country of former allegiance, age, and sex: fiscal year 1997 160 

55. Persons naturalized by age and sex: fiscal years 1988-97 162 

Enforcement 

56. Deportable aliens located: fiscal years 1892-1997 17j 

57. Deportable aliens located by status at entry and region and selected country of nationality: fiscal year 1997 172 

58. Deportable aliens located by Program and Border Patrol Sector: fiscal years 1991-97 173 

59. Principal activities and accomplishments of the Border Patrol: fiscal years 1991-97 I74 

60. Principal activities and accomplishments of the INS investigations program: fiscal years 1991-97 175 

61 Aliens expelled: fiscal years 1892-1997 J76 

62. Aliens expelled by Region and District Office: fiscal year 1997 I77 

63. Aliens removed by administrative reason for removal: fiscal years 1991-97 178 

64. Aliens removed by type of removal and region and selected country of nationality: fiscal year 1997 179 

65. Aliens removed by criminal status and region and selected country of nationality: fiscal years 1993-97 180 

66. Aliens excluded by administrative reason for exclusion: fiscal years 1892-1990 186 

67. Aliens deported by administrative reason for removal: fiscal years 1908-80 187 

68. Aliens deported by administrative reason for removal: fiscal years 1981-90 187 



Tables — Continued 

Enforcement 

Page 

69. Aliens under docket control required to depart by criminal status and region and selected country of 

nationality: fiscal years 1993-97 188 

70. Service participation in the control of marijuana, narcotics, and dangerous drug traffic: fiscal years 1986-97 194 

Litigation, Legal Activity 

71. Prosecutions, fines, and imprisonment for immigration and nationality violations: fiscal years 1991-97 195 

72. Convictions for immigration and nationality violations: fiscal years 1991-97 195 

73. Writs of habeas corpus, judicial review of orders of deportation, and declaratory judgements in exclusion and 

deportation cases: fiscal years 1991-97 196 

Legislation 

74. Private immigration and nationality bills introduced and laws enacted: 77th through 105th Congress 197 



Appendixes 

1. Immigration and Naturalization Legislation A. 1-1 

2. Immigration Limits: Fiscal Year 1997 A.2-2 

3. Glossary A.3-2 

4. Data Sources A.4-1 

5. Table Genealogy A.5-2 



NOTICE OF SPECIAL 
GEOGRAPHIC DEFINITIONS 



Changes in the political and geographical definitions of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Ethiopia 
have led to inconsistencies in the reporting of data. Information for these republics and the independent states 
emerging from them are presented in this edition of the INS Statistical Yearbook as follows: 

Soviet Union — On January 1, 1992, the United States formally recognized 12 independent republics within the 
former Soviet Union: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Moldova; Russia; Tajikistan; 
Turkmenistan; Ukraine; and Uzbekistan. The Soviet Union has officially dissolved as an independent state. 
Nationality codes have been established for the independent republics in the various INS data bases. However, a code 
has been retained for the Soviet Union because, while data for fiscal years 1992-97 are generally available for the 
separate republics, they are not available for all data series. In these cases, data are aggregated and presented for the 
former Soviet Union and for available republics. 

Yugoslavia — On April 7, 1992, the United States formally recognized three independent states within the Socialist 
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia. On February 9, 1994, Macedonia was 
recognized as an independent state. Montenegro and Serbia have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but 
this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by the United States. In the view of the United States, the 
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has officially dissolved and no successor state represents its continuation. 
However, for purposes of statistical reporting, Yugoslavia will be shown to include the four independent states, as well 
as Montenegro and Serbia, unless otherwise indicated. Nationality codes have been established for the four independent 
states in the various INS data bases. However, a code has been retained for Yugoslavia because, while data for fiscal 
years 1993-97 are generally available for the separate states, they are not available for all data series. In these cases, 
data are aggregated and presented for the former Yugoslavia and for available independent states. 

Czechoslovakia — On January 1, 1993, the United States formally recognized two independent republics within the 
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR, or Czechoslovakia): the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic (Slovakia). 
Czechoslovakia has officially dissolved as an independent republic; however, for purposes of statistical reporting, it 
will be shown to include the two independent republics unless otherwise indicated. Nationality codes have been 
established for the two independent republics in the various INS data bases. However, a code has been retained for 
Czechoslovakia because, while data for fiscal years 1994-97 are generally available for the separate republics, they are 
not available for all data series. In these cases, data are aggregated and presented for the former Czechoslovakia and for 
available independent republics. 

Ethiopia / Eritrea — On April 27, 1993, the United States formally recognized Eritrea as a sovereign country, 
independent of Ethiopia. Data for Ethiopia exclude Eritrea unless otherwise indicated. 



10 



Name changes for the following countries are reflected in this edition of the INS Statistical Yearbook: 

Zaire — On May 30, 1997, Zaire was formally recognized as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This country is 
shown as Congo, Democratic Republic. 

Congo — The conventional long form name for the Congo is the Republic of the Congo. With the change of Zaire to 
the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the long form names are used for both countries. Congo is shown as Congo, 
Republic. 

Hong Kong — On December 19, 1984, the United Kingdom and China signed a joint declaration on the question of 
sovereignty over Hong Kong. Under that declaration, China resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong on 
July 1, 1997. Since the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region government enjoys a high degree of political and 
economic autonomy, Hong Kong continues to be shown separately. 

Western Samoa — On August 4, 1997, Western Samoa was formally recognized as Samoa. This country is shown as 
Samoa. 

In addition, there are known cross-reporting problems for certain pairs of countries with similar names or historical 
associations. These pairs of countries are: the People's Republic of China and Taiwan; the Dominican Republic and 
Dominica; Nigeria and Niger; Australia and Austria; Netheriands and Netherlands Antilles; and Mauritania and 
Mauritius. For each pair, persons from one country may be reported as being from the other country. 



11 



INTRODUCTION 




This edition of the Yearbook provides immigration data for 
1997 along with related historical information. The major areas 
covered include: immigrants admitted for legal permanent 
residence; refugees approved and admitted; asylee cases filed 
and approved; nonimmigrant admissions (e.g., tourists, 
students, efc.)— available only for 1996; aliens naturalized; and 
deportable aliens located and removed. 

The statistics for 1997 reflect decreases in several areas: 
immigration; refugee arrivals; asylum cases received; persons 
naturalized; and deportable aliens located. 

Highlights for 1997 include: 

* Legal immigration in 1997 (798,378) was lower than 
in 1996 (915,900) due primarily to an increase in 
pending adjustment of status applications. 

* Thirty-nine percent of all immigrants were bom in 
North America (18 percent in Mexico) and 
33 percent were bom in Asia. 

* More than two-thirds of all immigrants intended to 
reside in six states: California, New York, Florida, 
Texas, New Jersey, and Illinois. 

* More than one of five immigrants intended to reside in 
New York City or Los Angeles. 

* The republics of the former Soviet Union surpassed 
all other countries for refugee arrivals with 27,072 
(39.1 percent); Bosnia-Herzegovina accounted for 
21,357 (30.8 percent). 

Naturalizations decreased to less than 600,000 in 1997 due to an increase in applications 
pending a decision. 

Thirty-nine percent of persons naturalizing during the 1991-97 period were bom in Asia and 
38 percent were bom in North America. 

Califomia showed the highest number of naturalizations in 1997, with 187,432 (31.3 percent); 
New York was second with 95,595 (16.0 percent). The New York City and Los Angeles-Long 
Beach metropolitan areas accounted for more than a quarter of the total. 

The number of deportable aliens located decreased to 1.5 million — nearly 7 percent fewer 
than for 1996. 

More than 51,000 criminal aliens were removed during 1997; Mexico lead all countries of 
nationality, with more than 39,000 (76.5 percent). 



12 



Chart A. Immigrants Admitted by Region of Birth; 
Selected Fiscal Years 1 955-97 



Thousands 
1,600 



1,400 



1,200 



1,000 



800 



I I North America 

Asia 
^ Europe 

Fj South America 

1 Other 



600 



400 



200 - 








1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1997 



Source: 1980-97, Table 3; 1955-75, previous Yearbooks. See Glossa.^ for fiscal year definitions. 



13 



I. IMMIGRANTS 



This section presents information on ttie number and characteristics of persons 
who come to the United States for permanent residence, including 
persons arriving with that status and those adjusting 
to permanent residence status after entry. 



/mmigrants, as defined by U.S. immigration law, are 
persons lawfully admitted for permanent residence 
in the United States. Other terms used in INS reports to 
refer to immigrants include: aliens who are granted legal 
permanent residence; aliens admitted for legal permanent 
residence; immigrants admitted; and admissions. (See 
Appendix 3.) 

Aliens wishing to become legal immigrants follow one of 
two paths depending on their residence at the time of 
application. Aliens living abroad apply for an immigrant 
visa at a consular office of the Department of State. Once 
issued a visa, they may enter the United States and become 
legal immigrants when they pass through the port of entry. 
Aliens already living in the United States, including 
certain undocumented immigrants, temporary workers, 
foreign students, and refugees, file an application for 
adjustment of status (to legal permanent residence) with 
INS. At the time they apply for adjustment of status, they 
may also apply for work permits. Adjustment of status 
applicants are granted legal permanent residence at the 
time their applications are approved. New legal 
immigrants are automatically authorized to work and 
should receive alien registration cards ("green cards") soon 
after becoming legal permanent residents. 

U.S. Immigration Program 

U.S. law gives preferential immigration status to persons 
with a close family relationship with a U.S. citizen or legal 
permanent resident, persons with needed job skills, or 
persons who qualify as refugees. Immigrants in other 
categories usually account for relatively few admissions. 
An exception occurred during 1989-92 when over 2.6 
million former illegal aliens gained permanent resident 
status through the legalization provisions of the 
Immigration and Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 
(see Appendix 1, p. A. 1-19). 

Worldwide immigration subject to numerical 
limits 

The Immigration Act of 1990 (sec Appendix 1, p. A. 1-20) 
specified a worldwide level of immigration for certain 
categories of immigrants with an annual limit that could 



range between 421,000 and 675,000 depending on 
admissions in the previous year. These categories and their 
limits (in parentheses) include family-sponsored 
preferences (226,000 to 480,000), employment-based 
preferences (140,000) and diversity immigrants (55,000). 
The family preference limit is equal to the larger of either 
226,000 or a calculation consisting of 480,000 minus the 
previous year's total of immediate relatives of U.S. citizens 
and two numerically small categories of children plus any 
unused employment preferences from the previous year 
(see Appendix 2). The employment preference limit can 
be higher than 140,000 if family preferences go unused in 
the previous year. 

Other categories of immigrants, for example, asylees, are 
also subject to some form of numerical or time bound 
limitation. However, these categories typically involve 
small numbers of aliens and are covered under other 
sections of immigration law. 

Preference immigrants 

Family sponsored preferences consist of four categories: 
unmarried sons and daughters of U.S. citizens and their 
children; spouses, children, and unmarried sons and 
daughters of legal permanent residents; married sons and 
daughters of U.S. citizens and their spouses and children; 
and brothers and sisters, including spouses and children, of 
U.S. citizens ages 21 and over. The employment-based 
preferences consist of five categories: priority workers; 
professionals with advanced degrees or aliens of 
exceptional ability; skilled workers, professionals (without 
advanced degrees), and needed unskilled workers; special 
immigrants (e.g., ministers, religious workers, and 
employees of the U.S. government abroad); and 
employment creation immigrants or "investors". Spouses 
and children are also included in the employment 
preference limit. The 1997 limits are shown in Appendix 2. 

The Department of State is responsible for determining the 
annual limits and visa allocation for preference 
immigration. A per-country limit is also calculated 
annually and is limited to 7 percent of the annual total; the 
limit for dependent areas is 2 percent of the annual total. 
The maximum number of visas allowed under the 



14 



Chart B. Immigrants Admitted to the United States from the 
Top Five Countries of Last Residence: 1821 to 1997 

Thousands 

16,000 n 



14,000 



12,000 



10,000 - 



8,000 



6,000 



4,000 



Ireland 

Germany 

United 
Kingdom 

France 



Germany 

United 
Kingdom 

Ireland 

Canada 

Norway/ 
Sweden 

Other 



2,000 









Other 




Ireland 

Germany 

United 
Kingdom 

Other 























Gemiany 



United 
Kingdom 



Ireland 



Italy 



Austria/ 
Hungary 



Soviet 
Union 





Mexico 


Mexico 




Canada 
Cuba 


Philip- 
pines 


Philippines 


China ' 


United 
Kingdom 


Dominican 
Republic 


Other 


India 



Canada 

Germany 

Italy 

Mexico 

United 
Kingdom 

Other 




1941- 

1960 



1961- 
1980 



1981- 
1997^ 



' Includes People's Republic of China and Taiwan. Seventeen-year period. Source: Table 2. See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 

15 



preference system in 1997 was 366,000—226,000 for 
family-sponsored immigrants and 140,000 for 
employment-based immigrants. Within these overall 
limits, no more than 25,620 preference visas could be 
issued to persons born in any independent country and no 
more than 7,320 to natives of a dependent area. 

Diversity Program 

A total of 55,000 visas are available annually to nationals 
of certain countries under the Diversity Program. 
Nationals of countries with more than 50,000 numerically 
limited admissions during the preceding 5 years are 
excluded from participating in the Diversity Program. 
Each of the eligible countries is assigned to one of 6 
regions and limits are determined by the INS for each 
region. The limits are calculated annually using a formula 
based on immigrant admissions during the preceding 5 
years and the population total of the region. The 
maximum visa limit per country is 3,850. 

Immigration exempt from worldwide numerical 
limits 

Immigration usually totals much more than the annual 
worldwide limit for preference and diversity immigrants 
because some major categories are exempt from the limits. 
These categories include: 

♦ Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens; 

♦ Refugee and asylee adjustments; 

♦ Certain parolees from the Soviet Union and 
Indochina; 

♦ Suspension of deportation, which for the most part, 
was replaced by cancellation of removal during 
1997; and 

♦ Aliens who applied for adjustment of status after 
having unlawfully resided in the United States since 
January 1, 1982 and certain special agricultural 
workers. (The application period ended on 
November 30, 1988; most recipients of this status 
gained permanent resident status in fiscal years 
1989-92.) 

Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens are not subject to any 
numerical limitation. This has been the single largest 
category of immigrants since 1986 excluding aliens 
granted legal permanent residence under IRCA. 

Refugees are eligible to adjust to legal permanent residence 
after 1 year of residence in the U.S. without regard to 
numerical limit. The number of aliens admitted as refugees 
to the U.S. each year, however, is established by the 
President in consultation with Congress (see Refugee 
section). Recent ceilings on refugee admissions were 
112,000 in 1995, 90,000 in 1996, and 78,000 in 1997. 



Asylees also must wait 1 year after they are granted 
asylum to apply for legal permanent residence. Until 
1992, there was a limit of 5,0(K) adjustments per year. The 
Immigration Act of 1990 increased the limit to 10,000. 

Data Overview 

The number of immigrants admitted for legal permanent 
residence in the United States in 1997 was 798,378 (see 
Chart C). Included in this total were 380,719 aliens 
previously living abroad who obtained immigrant visas 
through the U.S. Department of State (DOS) and became 
legal permanent residents upon entry into the United 
States. The remaining 417,659 legal immigrants, including 
former undocumented immigrants, refugees and asylees, 
had been living in the United States an average of tliree 
years and adjusted status through the INS. Not included in 
1997 legal immigration figures are aliens whose 
adjustment of status applications were pending a decision 
at INS at the end of the year (see Pending Adjustment of 
Status Applications section). 



Nearly 800,000 immigrants were 

granted legal permanent resident 

status during 1997. 



Highlights 

♦ The number of aliens granted legal permanent 
residence was 13 percent lower in 1997 (798,378) 
than in 1996 (915,900). The decrease was due 
primarily to an increase in the number of adjustment 
of status applications pending a decision, not to a 
decline in the demand to immigrate. 

♦ A reduction in the family preference limit from 
31 1,819 to 226,000 also contributed to the decline in 
legal immigration between 1996 and 1997. The 
1996 limit was unusually high because of increases 
in adjustment of status applications pending a 
decision in 1995 and the operation of the carryover 
provisions of immigration law. 

♦ Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens increased both 
in number (from 302,090 to 322,440) and as a 
proportion of all immigrants (from 33.0 percent to 
40.4 percent). There were few other major changes 
in the demographic composition of legal immigrants 
from 1996 to 1997. 

Pending adjustment of status applications 

Legal immigration during 1997, as well as in 1995 and 
1996, was affected by an increase in adjustment of status 



16 



Chart C 
Immigrants Admitted: Fiscal Years 1900-97 




1900 



1910 



1920 



1930 



1940 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1980 



1990 1997 



Source; Table 1. See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 



applications pending a decision at INS. Prior to 1995, 
applications pending had averaged about 120,000 each 
year. With the implementation of the Section 245(i) 
provision of immigration law in 1995, however, 
applications pending jumped to 321,000. They continued 
to increase and reached 699,000 by the end of 1997. 
Section 245(i) allowed illegal aliens who were living in 
the United States and eligible for legal permanent 
residence to pay a penalty fee and apply for adjustment of 
status at an INS office. 

Previously, most illegal aliens were required to leave the 
country and obtain a visa abroad from the DOS. With 
Section 245(i) in effect, the immigrant application 
workload shifted toward INS. Adjustment of status 
applications received by INS nearly doubled between 1994 
and 1995 and continued to increase in 1996 and 1997. 
However, the number of applications approved failed to 
keep pace with the number received, thereby increasing the 
pending caseload. 

It is difficult to estimate how much higher legal 
immigration would have been during 1995-97 had 
adjustment of status applications pending not increased. 



The total increase in pending applications between the end 
of 1994 (121,000) and the end of 1997 (699,000) was 
578,000. The potential increase in legal immigration 
depends on factors including the date of application, the 
class of admission, and whether or not the application is 
approved. This information is not available in automated 
form for pending applicants. INS considers estimates for 
the individual years too imprecise. However, for the entire 
three-year period, 1995-97, it is estimated that 
approximately 350,000-450,000 out of the total 578,000 
increase in pending caseload would have been included in 
the legal immigration numbers. 

The upper bound estimate of 450,000 is based on the 
assumption that about 7 percent of applications would 
have been denied (the historical denial rate) and that 15 
percent were family preference applicants (the proportion 
of all adjustment of status legal immigrants during 1995- 
97), norie of whom contributed to the increase in pending 
caseload. Family preference adjustment of status 
applications pending do not necessarily decrease legal 
immigration because the DOS, which regulates 
immigration under the preference system to match the 
annual limits as closely as possible, compensates by 



17 



Chart D 
Immigrants Admitted by Admission Category: Fiscal Years 1988-97 



Thousands 
1800 -I 




1988 



1989 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Source: Table 4. 



issuing visas to aliens abroad on a waiting list of 
applicants. The lower bound estimate of 350,000 takes 
into account the increase in the family preference limit in 
1996 attributable to pending adjustment of status 
applications in 1995 (see Carryover Provisions section 
below). 

These calculations suggest that legal immigration during 
1995-97 would have been about 120,000-150,000 higher 
on average per year without any increase in the pending 
caseload beyond the pre-Section 245(i) level. However, 
the average conceals some known sources of annual 
variation. Pending adjustment of status applications 
increased more during year 1995 and year 1997 than 1996 
when the increase in the family preference limit offset 
most of the loss from pending applications. Without 
pending adjustment of status applications, legal 
immigration in 1995 and 1997 might have been much 



higher and immigration in 1996 marginally so, if higher at 
all. As a result, the annual trend in legal immigration 
during this period might have been one of modest or small 
increases rather than the fluctuations shown in the official 
statistics (804,416 in 1994; 720,461 in 1995; 915,900 in 
1996; and 798,378 in 1997). 

Carryover provisions of immigration law 

The annual limits on family and employment preferences 
may fluctuate from year to year because the previous year's 
total of preference immigrants, immediate relatives of U.S. 
citizens, and other small categories of immigrants affects 
the current year's limits (see Appendix 2). In 1996, the 
family preference limit was set at 311,819 because in 1995, 
the number of immediate relatives of U.S. citizens and 
employment preferences was much lower than expected 
due to increases in adjustment of status applications 
pending a decision. In 1997, the family preference limit 



18 



Table A 
Immigrants Admitted by Major Category of Admission: Fiscal Years 1995-97 



Category of admission 



1997 1996 1995 

Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 



All categories 

New arrivals 

Adjustments of status 

Categories related to world-wide numerical 
limits ' 

Family-sponsored immigrants 

Family-sponsored preferences 

Unmarried sons/daughters of U.S. 

citizens 

Spouses and children of alien residents .. 
Married sons/daughters of U.S. citizens . 
Siblings of U.S. citizens 

Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens ' 

Spouses 

Parents 

Children 

Children bom abroad to alien residents .. 

Legalization dependents 

Employment-based preferences 

Priority worlcers 

Professionals with advanced degree or of 

exceptional ability 

Slcilled, professionals, unskilled 

Chinese Student Protection Act 

Needed unsldlled worlcers 

Other skilled workers, professionals 

Special immigrants 

Investors 

Diversity programs 

Permanent 

Transition 

Other categories 

Amerasians 

Parolees, Soviet and Indochinese 

Refugees and asylees 

Refugee adjustments 

Asylee adjustments 

Suspension of deportation ' 

Total, raCA legalization 

Residents since 1982 

Special Agricultural Workers 

Other 



798378 

380,719 
417,659 



675,816 



100.0 

47.7 
52.3 



84.6 



915,900 

421,405 
494,495 



772,737 



100.0 

46.0 
54.0 



84.4 



720,461 

380,291 
340,170 



593,234 



100.0 

52.8 
47.2 



82.3 



535,771 


67.1 


596,264 


65.1 


460376 


63.9 


213331 


26.7 


294,174 


32.1 


238,122 


33.1 


22,536 


2.8 


20,909 


2.3 


15,182 


2.1 


113,681 


14.2 


182,834 


20.0 


144.535 


20.1 


21,943 


2.7 


25,452 


2.8 


20,876 


2.9 


55,171 


6.9 


64,979 


7.1 


57,529 


8.0 


322,440 


40.4 


302,090 


33.0 


222,254 


30.8 


170,263 


21.3 


169,760 


18.5 


123,238 


17.1 


74,114 


9.3 


66,699 


7.3 


48,382 


6.7 


76,631 


9.6 


63,971 


7.0 


48,740 


6.8 


1,432 


.2 


1,660 


.2 


1,894 


.3 


64 


Z 


184 


Z 


277 


Z 


90,607 


113 


117,499 


12.8 


85,336 


11.8 


21,810 


2.7 


27,501 


3.0 


17339 


2.4 


17,059 


2.1 


18,462 


2.0 


10,475 


1,5 


42,596 


5.3 


62,756 


6.9 


50,245 


7.0 


142 


Z 


401 


Z 


4,213 


.6 


8,702 


1.1 


11,849 


1.3 


7,884 


1.1 


33,752 


4.2 


50,506 


5.5 


38,148 


5.3 


7,781 


1.0 


7,844 


.9 


6,737 


.9 


1,361 


.2 


936 


.1 


540 


.1 


49374 


6.2 


58,790 


6.4 


47,245 


6.6 


49,360 


6.2 


58,245 


6.4 


40,301 


5.6 


14 


Z 


545 


.1 


6,944 


1.0 


122362 


15.4 


143,163 


15.6 


127,227 


17.7 


738 


.1 


956 


.1 


939 


.1 


1,844 


.2 


2,269 


.2 


3,086 


.4 


112,158 


14.0 


128365 


14.0 


114,664 


15.9 


102,052 


12.8 


118,528 


12.9 


106,827 


14.8 


10,106 


1.3 


10,037 


1.1 


7,837 


1.1 


4,628 


.6 


5,812 


.6 


3,168 


.4 


2348 


3 


4,635 


.5 


4,267 


.6 


1,439 


.2 


3,286 


.4 


3,124 


.4 


1,109 


.1 


1,349 


.1 


1,143 


.2 



646 



.1 



926 



1,103 



' Includes family-sponsored preferences, legalization dependents, employment-based preferences, and diversity programs. ■ May enter without 
limitation; the number admitted may affect the limit on family-sponsored preference immigrants in the following year. ' Became cancellation of removal 
effective April 1, 1997 with the implementation of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (see Appendix 1, p. A. 1-23). 

Z Rounds to less than .05 percent. 



19 



was lowered to 226,000 because the large number of 
immediate relative immigrants in 1996 offset the unused 
employment preferences that year by more than 254,000. 

Demographic characteristics of legal immigrants 

Adjustment of status applications pending also may have 
affected the demographic composition of the legal 
immigrant population admitted in 1997. As a result, 
caution should be exercised in drawing inferences about 
recent trends in immigrant characteristics. 

Class of admission (Tables 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) 

The increase between 1996 and 1997 in the largest 
admission category, immediate relatives of U.S. citizens, 
was due to increases in parents (from 66,699 to 74,114) 
and children (63,971 to 76,631) categories (See Chart D 
and Table A). Spouses, however, still accounted for the 
majority (170,263 or 52.8 percent) of immediate relatives 
of U.S. citizens admitted in 1997. 

The number of family-sponsored preference immigrants 
decreased from 294,174 in 1996 to 213,331 in 1997 due 
for the most part to the decrease in the annual limit in the 
second preference (spouses and children of legal 
permanent residents) to 114,200 from 200,019. 

Family-sponsored immigrants (family preference 
immigrants and immediate relatives of U.S. citizens) 
accounted for two-thirds (66.9 percent) of all legal 
immigrants in 1997. This represents an increase of nearly 
10 percentage points since 1994 (57.6 percent). 



The number of employment-based preference immigrants 
decreased to 90,607 in 1997 due to a decline of 20,160, or 
32.1 percent, in third preference admissions. As of 1997, 
employment-based immigration (excluding third 
preference admissions under the Chinese Student 
Protection Act; see Appendix 1, p. A. 1-21) had not 
reached the annual limit of 140,000 set in 1992. 

The number of legal immigrants in the two other major 
categories of admission — refugee adjustments of status 
and diversity immigrants — decreased between 1996 and 
1997. Although the number of Cuban refugee adjustments 
increased, total refugee adjustments of status decreased to 
102,052 due to recent declines in the annual admission 
ceilings. The decrease in diversity immigration to 49,374 
was consistent with the overall decline in legal 
immigration between 1996 and 1997. 

Region and country of birth (Tables 3, 7,8, 10, 11, 15, 
16, 17, 19, 21) 

The leading regions and countries of birth for legal 
immigrants were the same in 1996 and 1997 (See 
Chart A, Table B, and Table C). North America was the 
leading region of birth of 38.5 percent of legal 
inmiigrants in 1997, followed by Asia (33.3 percent) and 
Europe (15.0 percent). The top five sending countries 
did not change between 1996 and 1997. They include 
Mexico, which was the country of birth of 18.4 percent 
of all legal immigrants in 1997, followed by the 
Philippines, China, Vietnam, and India. These five 
sending countries were the birthplace of 39.3 percent of 



Table B 
Percent of Immigrants Admitted by Region and Period: Fiscal Years 1955-97 



Region 



1955-64 



1965-74 



1975-84 



1985-94 



1995-97 



All regions 

Europe 

Asia 

Africa 

Oceania 

North America 

Caribbean 

Central America 

Other North America 

South America 

Source; 1981-97, Table 3; 1955-80, previous Yearbooks. 



100.0 

50.2 

7.7 

.7 

.4 

35.9 
7.0 
2.4 

26.4 

5.1 



100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


29.8 


13.4 


11.0 


16.2 


22.4 


43.3 


32.2 


34.6 


1.5 


2.4 


2.6 


5.9 


.7 


.8 


.5 


.6 


39.6 


33.6 


48.0 


36.1 


18.0 


15.1 


11.0 


13.1 


2.5 


3.7 


6.6 


4.9 


19.0 


14.8 


30.5 


18.1 



6.0 



6.6 



5.7 



6.6 



20 



Table C 
Immigrants Admitted from Top Twenty Countries of Birth: Fiscal Years 1995-97 



Country of birth 



1997 


1996 


1995 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


798,378 


100.0 


915,900 


100.0 


720,461 


100.0 


146,865 


18.4 


163,572 


17.9 


89,932 


12.5 


49,117 


6.2 


55,876 


6.1 


50,984 


7.1 


41,147 


5.2 


41,728 


4.6 


35,463 


4.9 


38,519 


4.8 


42,067 


4.6 


41,752 


5.8 


38,071 


4.8 


44,859 


4.9 


34,748 


4.8 


33,587 


4.2 


26,466 


2.9 


17,937 


2.5 


27,053 


3.4 


39,604 


4.3 


38,512 


5.3 


17,969 


2.3 


17,903 


2.0 


11,744 


1.6 


17,840 


2.2 


19,089 


2.1 


16,398 


2.3 


16,632 


2.1 


19,668 


2.1 


14,560 


2.0 


15,696 


2.0 


21,079 


2.3 


17,432 


2.4 


15,057 


1.9 


18,386 


2.0 


14,021 


1.9 


14,239 


1.8 


18,185 


2.0 


16,047 


2.2 


13,004 


1.6 


14,283 


1.6 


10,838 


1.5 


12,967 


1.6 


12,519 


1.4 


9,774 


1.4 


12,038 


1.5 


15,772 


1.7 


13,824 


1.9 


11,609 


1.5 


15,825 


1.7 


12,932 


1.8 


10,853 


1.4 


12,871 


1.4 


8,066 


1.1 


10,708 


1.3 


13,624 


1.5 


12,427 


1.7 


9,642 


1.2 


11,084 


1.2 


9,201 


1.3 


552,613 


69.2 


624,460 


68.2 


476,592 


66.2 


245,765 


30.8 


291,440 


31.8 


243,869 


33.8 



All countries 

1. Mexico 

2. Philippines 

3. China 

4. Vietnam 

5. India 

6. Cuba 

7. Dominican Republic 

8. El Salvador 

9. Jamaica 

10. Russia 

11. Ukraine 

12. HaiU 

13. Korea 

14. Colombia 

15. Pakistan 

16. Poland 

17. Canada 

18. Peru 

19. United Kingdom 

20. Iran 

Subtotal 

Other 



legal immigrants in 1997. Cuba was the only sending 
country among the top 20 with a substantial increase in 
legal immigration between 1996 and 1997, due to an 
increase in Cuban refugee adjustments of status. 

State and metropolitan area of intended residence 

(Tables 17, 18, 19) 

The leading states and metropolitan areas of intended 
residence of legal immigrants in 1997 were the same as 
those in 1994-96. California was the intended state of 
residence of one-quarter (25.5 percent) of legal immigrants 
in 1997, followed by New York (15.5 percent), Florida 
(10.3 percent), Texas (7.3 percent), and New Jersey (5.2 
percent). These five states were the intended residence of 
more than 5 out of 8 legal immigrants in 1997. California 
and Florida were the only leading states to show increases 
in legal immigration between 1996 and 1997. New York, 
NY was the top metropolitan area of intended residence of 
legal immigrants in 1997, followed by Los Angeles, CA, 
Miami, FL, Chicago, IL and Washington, DC-MD-VA. 



One in three legal immigrants in 1997, about the same 
proportion as in 1996, intended to live in one of these five 
metropolitan areas. An increase in Cuban refugee 
adjustments between 1996 and 1997 accounted for most of 
the increase in legal immigration in Miami. 

Age, gender, and occupation (Tables 12, 13, 14, 20, 

21) 

The age, gender, and occupational composition of legal 

immigrants in 1997 were about the same as in 1994-96. In 

1997, the majority (54.2 percent) were female. Median 

age was 28 years. 

Less than one-half (46.7 percent) of legal immigrants ages 
16-64 reported an occupation in 1997. Consistent with 
Census data on the foreign born population, the 
occupations most frequently mentioned by legal 
immigrants in 1997 were: machine operators, fabricators 
and laborers; professional, specialty and technical 
occupations; and service occupations. 



21 



Chart E 
Percent Age and Sex Distribution of U.S. Population and Immigrants Admitted 

in Fiscal Year 1997 



Age 

80 plus 
75 to 79 
70 to 74 
65 to 69 
60 to 64 
55 to 59 
50 to 54 
45 to 49 
40 to 44 
35 to 39 
30 to 34 
25 to 29 
20 to 24 
15 to 19 
10to14 
5 to 9 
0to4 




Females 



■ Immigrants, FY 1997 
n U.S. Population 




64 2024 68 10 



Percent of total 



Source; U.S. population data are estimates for July 1, 1997 published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Annual Population 
Estimates by Age Group and Sex, Selected Years from 1990 to 1999, June 4, 1999; inunigrants. Table 12. 



Understanding the Data 
Data Collection 

Aliens arriving from outside the United States (new 
arrivals) generally must have a valid immigrant visa 
issued by the U.S. Department of State to be admitted for 
legal permanent residence. Aliens already in the United 
States in a temporary status who are eligible to become 
legal permanent residents (adjustments) are granted 
immigrant status by the U.S. Immigration and 
Naturalization Service. The source of information on new 
arrivals is the immigrant visa (OF- 1 55, Immigrant Visa 
and Alien Registration, U.S. Department of State), and the 
source of information on adjustments is the form granting 
legal permanent resident status (1-181, Memorandum of 
Creation of Record of Lawful Permanent Residence, U.S. 
Immigration and Naturalization Service). After the 
immigrant is admitted, the immigrant visa and adjustment 
forms are forwarded to the INS Immigrant Data Capture 
(IMDAC) facility. During 1997, INS began to transition 
immigrant application processing from the IMDAC 
facility to the Computer Linked Application Information 
Management System (CLAIMS) at the regional Service 
Centers. The IMDAC facility and the Service Centers 
generated the records that are the source of the statistics on 
immigrants presented in this report. Variables collected 



include: port of admission; type (or class) of admission; 
country of birth, last residence, and nationality; age, 
gender, and marital status; occupation; original year of 
entry and class of entry for those adjusting from temporary 
to permanent residence; and the state and zip code of the 
immigrant's intended residence. 

Limitations of Data 

The number of immigrants admitted for legal permanent 
residence in a year is not the same as the number of net 
migrants who entered the United States in that year. The 
reasons for the difference in counts are: 

1) Immigrant adjustments are reported in the year the 
aliens adjust their status to lawful permanent residence 
and not in the year they migrate to the United States in a 
temporary or other (refugee or asylee) status. 

2) Some migrants (such as parolees, refugees, and asylees) 
may never be counted as lawful permanent residents even 
though they reside permanently in the United States (they 
are not required to adjust to permanent resident status). 

3) Information on emigration (aliens permanently 
departing the United States) and information on net illegal 
irnmigration is not available (see Data Gaps section). 



22 



TABLE 1. IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES: FISCAL YEARS 1820 - 1997 



Year 


Number 


Year 


Number 


Year 


Number 


Year 


Number 


1820 - 1997 

1820 


63,938,605 

8.385 

143,439 

9,127 

6,911 

6,354 

7,912 

10.199 

10.837 

18.875 

27.382 

22,520 

23.322 

599,125 

22.633 
60,482 
58.640 
65.365 
45,374 
76.242 
79.340 
38.914 
68.069 
84.066 

1,713,251 

80.289 
104.565 
52.496 
78.615 
114.371 
154,416 
234.968 
226,527 
297.024 
369,980 

2,598^14 

379.466 
371.603 
368.645 
427.833 
200,877 
200,436 
251,306 
123,126 
121,282 
153,640 

2314,824 

91,918 
91.985 
176,282 
193,418 
248,120 
318,568 
315.722 
138.840 
352.768 
387.203 


1871-80 


2,812,191 

321,350 
404,806 
459,803 
313,339 
227,498 
169,986 
141,857 
138,469 
177,826 
457,257 

5,246,613 

669,431 
788,992 
603,322 
518,592 
395,346 
334,203 
490,109 
546,889 
444,427 
455.302 

3,687,564 

560,319 
579,663 
439,730 
285,631 
258,536 
343,267 
230,832 
229,299 
311,715 
448,572 

8,795386 

487,918 

648,743 

857,046 

812,870 

1,026,499 

1,100,735 

1,285,349 

782.870 

751,786 

1.041.570 

5,735,811 

878.587 
838.172 
1,197,892 
1,218,480 
326,700 
298,826 
295,403 
110.618 
141.132 
430.001 


1921-30 


4,107,209 

805.228 
309,556 
522.919 
706.896 
294.314 
304.488 
335.175 
307.255 
279.678 
241.700 

528,431 

97,139 
35,576 
23,068 
29,470 
34,956 
36,329 
50,244 
67,895 
82,998 
70,756 

1,035,039 

51,776 

28,781 

23,725 

28,551 

38,119 

108,721 

147,292 

170,570 

188,317 

249,187 

2,515,479 

205,717 
265,520 
170,434 
208,177 
237,790 
321,625 
326,867 
253,265 
260,686 
265,398 

3321,677 
271.344 
283.763 
306.260 
292,248 
296,697 
323,040 
361,972 
454,448 
358,579 
373,326 


1971-80 




1821-30 


4,493314 

370 478 


1821 


1871 


1921 


1971 


1822 


1872 


1922 

1923 


1972 

1973 

1974 


384.685 
400 063 


1823 


1873 

1874 


1824 


1924 

1925.. 


394 861 


1825 


1875 


1975 


386 194 


1826 


1876 

1877 

1878 


1926 

1927 ... 


1976 


398 613 


1827 


1976, TQ 

1977 


103 676 


1828 


1928 


462 315 


1829 

1830 


1879 

1880 


1929 

1930 


1978 

1979 


601,442 
460 348 




1881-90 „. 


1931-40 


1980 


530,639 


1831-40 


1981-90 




1831 


1881 


1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 


7338,062 


1832 


1882 

1883 


1981 


596,600 


1833 


1982 

1983 


594,131 


1834 


1884 

1885 

1886 

1887 


559.763 


1835 


1984 


543 903 


1836 


1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

1940 

1941-50 


1985 


570 009 


1837 


1986 


601.708 


1838 


1888 


1987 


601.516 


1839 


1889 


1988 


643.025 


1840 


1890 


1989 


1 090 924 




1891-1900 


1990 


1.536,483 




1991-97 




1841 


1891 


1941 


6,944,591 


1842 


1892 

1893 


1942 

1943 

1944 

1945 

1946 


1991 


1,827,167 


1843 


1992 


973.977 


1844 


1894 

1895 


1993 


904 292 


1845 


1994 


804.416 


1846 


1896 . .. 


1995 


720.461 


1847 .. .. 


1897 


1947 

1948 

1949 

1950 

1951-60 


1996 


915.900 


1848 


1898 

1899 


1997 


798.378 


1849 






1850 


1900 




1851-60 


1901-10 




1851 


1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 


1951 




1852 


1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

1958 

1959 

1960 

1961-70 




1853 




1854 




1855 


1905 




1856 


1906 




1857 


1907 




1858 


1908 




1859 


1909 




1860 


1910 




1861-70 


1911-20 




1861 


1911 


1961 




1862 


1912 


1962 




1863 


1913 


1963 




1864 


1914 


1964 




1865 


1915 


1965 




1866 


1916 


1966 




1867 


1917 


1967 




1868 


1918 


1968 




1869 


1919 


1969 




1870 


1920 


1970 













NOTE: The numbers shown are as follows: from 1820-67, figures represent alien passengers arrived at seaports; from 1868-92 and 1895-97, immigrant aliens 
arrived; from 1892-94 and 1898-1997, immigrant aliens admitted for permanent residence. From 1892-1903, aliens entering by cabin class were not counted as 
immigrants. Land arrivals were not completely enumerated until 1908. See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 



23 



TABLE 2. IMMIGRATION BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF LAST RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEARS 1820 - 1997 



Region and country of 
last residence ' 



1820 



1821 - 30 



1831 -40 



1841 -50 



1851 -60 



1861-70 



1871 -80 



All countries 

Europe 

Austria-Hungary 

Austria 

Hungary 

Belgium 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Ireland' 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Norway-Sweden 

Norway 

Sweden 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union 

Spain 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom ' ' 

Yugoslavia 

Other Europe 

Asia 

China'" 

Hong Kong 

India 

Iran 

Israel 

Japan 

Korea 

Philippines 

Turkey 

Vietnam 

Other Asia 

America 

Canada & Newfoundland " " 

Mexico " 

Caribbean 

Cuba 

Dominican Republic 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Other Caribbean 

Central America 

El Salvador 

Other Central America .. 
South America 

Argentina 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Other South America .... 
Other America 

Africa 

Oceania 

Not specified " 

See footnotes at end of table. 



8^85 
7,690 



20 
371 
968 

3,614 

30 

49 

3 



5 

35 

7 

14 

139 

31 

2,410 



1 

II 
3 

387 

209 

1 

164 



164 
2 

10 

2 
11 



143,439 
98,797 



27 

4 

169 
8,497 
6,761 

20 

50,724 

409 

1,078 

91 



16 

145 

7 

75 

2,477 

3,226 

25,079 



30 

2 



1 
1 

300 



20 



11,564 

2,277 
4,817 
3,834 



3,834 
105 

20 

105 
531 



531 

22 

16 

2 

33,030 



599,125 
495,681 



22 

4 

1,063 

45,575 

152,454 

49 

207,381 

2,253 

1,412 

1,201 



369 
829 

7 

277 

2,125 

4,821 

75,810 

9 

40 
55 



39 



7 
ii 
1 

33,424 

13,624 

6,599 

12301 



12,301 
44 

20 

44 
856 



856 

32 

54 
9 

69,902 



1,713,251 
1,597,442 



5,074 

4 

539 

77,262 

434,626 

16 

780,719 

1,870 

8,251 

13,903 



105 
550 

7 

551 

2,209 

4,644 

267,044 

9 

79 

141 

35 

II 

36 



59 



11 



62,469 

41,723 

3,271 

13,528 



13,528 
368 

20 

368 
3,579 



3,579 

22 

55 

29 

53,115 



2,598^14 

2,452,577 



4,738 

4 

3,749 

76,358 

951,667 

31 

914,119 

9,231 

10,789 

20,931 



1,164 
1,055 

7 

457 

9,298 

25,011 

423,974 



41,538 

41,397 

11 

43 



83 
11 
15 

74,720 

59,309 

3,078 

10,660 



10,660 
449 

20 

449 
1,224 



1,224 

22 

210 

158 

29,01 1 



2,314,824 

2,065,141 

7,800 
7,124' 
484' 
6,734 

4 

17,094 

35,986 

787,468 

72 

435,778 

11,725 

9,102 

109,298 



2,027 
2,658 

7 

2,512 

6,697 

23,286 

606,896 



64,759 

64,301 
II 

69 



186 

15 
16 

131 

II 

72 

166,607 

153,878 
2,191 
9,046 



9,046 
95 

20 

95 
1397 



1,397 

22 

312 
214 

17,791 



2,812,191 

2,271,925 

72,969 

63,009 

9,960 

7,221 

4 

31,771 
72,206 

718,182 
210 

436,871 
55,759 
16,541 

211,245 
95,323 

115,922 
12,970 
14,082 

11' 
39,284 
5,266 
28,293 

548,043 

9 

1,001 

124,160 

123,201 

II 

163 



149 



404 

II 
243 

404,044 

383,640 

5,162 

13,957 



13,957 
157 

20 

157 
1,128 



1,128 

22 

358 
10,914 

790 



24 



TABLE 2. IMMIGRATION BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF LAST RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEARS 1820 - 1997— Continued 



Region and country of 
last residence ' 



1891 - 1900 



1901- 10 



1911 -20 



1921-30 



1931-40 



1941-50 



1951-60 



1961 - 70 



All countries 

Europe .™ — 

Austria-Hungary 

Austria 

Hungary 

Belgium 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

France 

Gennany 

Greece 

Ireland' 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Norway-Sweden 

Norway 

Sweden 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union 

Spain 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom ' ' 

Yugoslavia 

Other Europe 

Asia „....„ 

China'" 

Hong Kong 

India 

Iran 

Israel 

Japan 

Korea 

Philippines 

Turkey 

Vietnam 

Other Asia 

America 

Canada & Newfoundland " " 

Mexico " 

Caribbean 

Cuba 

Dominican Republic 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Other Caribbean 

Central America 

El Salvador 

Other Central America .. 
South America 

Argentina 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Other South America .... 
Other America 

Africa 

Oceania 

Not specified " 

See footnotes at end of table. 



3,687^64 

3^55352 

592.707 " 

234.081 ' 

181.288' 

18.167 

4 

50.231 
30.770 

505.152'' 
15.979 

388.416 

651.893 
26.758 

321.281 
95,015 

226,266 
96,720 "" 
27,508 
12,750 

505,290 "" 

8,731 

31,179 

271,538 

9 

282 

74,862 
14,799 

II 

68 



25.942 

IS 
16 

30,425 
II 

3,628 

38,972 
3,311 
971 " 
33,066 



33,066 
549 

20 

549 
1,075 



1.075 

22 

350 
3,965 

14.063 



8,795386 

8,056,040 

2.145,266" 
668,209 ' 
808,511 ' 

41,635 

4 

65,285 

73,379 

341,498" 

167,519 

339,065 

2,045,877 

48.262 

440.039 

190.505 

249.534 

23 

69,149 
53,008 
1,597,306" 
27,935 
34,922 
525,950 

9 

39,945 

323,543 

20,605 

II 

4,713 



129.797 



157.369 

II 

11,059 

361,888 

179,226 

49,642 

107,548 



107,548 
8,192 

20 

8.192 
17,280 



17.280 

7368 
13,024 

33.523 '' 



5,735,811 

4321,887 

896,342 ' 

453,649 

442,693 

33,746 

3,426 ' 

41,983 

61,897 

143,945 ' 

184,201 

146,181 

1,109,524 

43,718 

161,469 

66,395 

95,074 

4,813' 

89,732 

13,311 

921,201 ' 

68,611 

23,091 

341,408 

1,888' 

31.400 

247,236 

21.278 

II 

2,082 

12 
13 

83.837 



134,066 

11 

5,973 

1,143,671 

742,185 
219,004 
123,424 



123,424 
17,159 

20 

17.159 
41,899 



41.899 

22 

8.443 
13,427 

1,147 



4,10739 

2,463,194 

63,548 
32,868 
30,680 
15,846 

102.194 
32.430 
49.610 

412,202 
51,084 

211,234 

455,315 
26,948 

165,780 
68,531 
97,249 

227,734 
29,994 
67,646 
61,742 
28,958 
29,676 

339,570 
49,064 
42,619 

112,059 

29,907 

II 

1,886 
241 ' 

13 

33,462 



33,824 

II 

12,739 

1,516,716 

924,515 
459,287 
74,899 
15,901 ' 



58,998 
15,769 

20 

15,769 
42,215 



42,215 
31 = 

6,286 

8,726 

228 



528,431 

347^66 

11,424 
3,563 " 
7,861 
4,817 

14,393 
2.559 

12.623 

114,058" 

9.119 

10.973 

68.028 
7.150 
8.700 
4,740 
3,960 

17,026 
3,329 
3,871 
1,370 
3,258 
5,512 

31,572 
5,835 

11,949 

16,595 

4,928 

II 

496 

195 

13 

1,948 

15 

528" 

1,065 

II 
7,435 

160,037 

108,527 

22,319 

15,502 

9,571 

1.150'° 

191'° 

21 

4.590 
5,861 

673'° 
5,188 
7,803 

1,349'° 
1,223'° 
337'° 
4.894 

25 

1,750 
2,483 



1,035,039 

621,147 

28,329 

24,860 ' 

3.469 

12,189 

8.347 

5.393 

38.809 

226.578 ' 

8.973 

19.789 

57.661 

14,860 

20,765 

10,100 

10,665 

7,571 

7,423 

1,076 

571 

2,898 

10,547 

139,306 

1,576 

8,486 

37,028 

16,709 

11 

1,761 
1,380 

476' 
1,555 

107' 
4,691 

798 

II 

9,551 

354,804 

171,718 
60,589 
49,725 
26,313 
5,627 
911 

21 

16,874 
21,665 

5,132 

16,533 

21,831 

3,338 

3,858 

2.417 

12,218 

29,276 

7367 

14351 

142 



2,515,479 

1325,727 

103,743 

67,106 

36,637 

18,575 

918 

10,984 

51,121 

477,765 

47,608 

48,362 

185,491 

52,277 

44.632 

22.935 

21.697 

9.985 

19.588 

1.039 

671 

7,894 

17,675 

202,824 

8,225 

16,350 

153,249 

9,657 
15,541 " 

1,973 

3,388 
25,476 
46,250 

6,231 
19,307 

3,519 
335" 
21,572 

996,944 

377.952 

299.811 

123,091 

78.948 

9,897 

4,442 

8,869 " 

20,935 " 

44,751 

5.895 

38.856 

91,628 

19,486 

18,048 

9,841 

44,253 

59,711 

14,092 

12,976 

12,491 



3321,677 

1,123,492 

26,022 

20,621 

5,401 

9,192 

3,273 

9,201 

45,237 

190,796 

85.969 

32.966 

214.111 

30.606 

32.600 

15.484 

17,116 

53,539 

76,065 

2,531 

2,465 

44,659 

18,453 

213,822 

20,381 

11,604 

427,642 
34,764 
75,007 
27,189 
10,339 
29,602 
39,988 
34,526 
98,376 
10,142 
4,340 
63,369 

1,716374 

413,310 

453,937 

470,213 

208.536 

93.292 

34.499 

74.906 

58.980 

101330 

14.992 

86.338 

257,940 

49,721 

72,028 

36,780 

99,411 

19,644 

28,954 

25,122 
93 



25 



TABLE 2. IMMIGRATION BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF LAST RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEARS 1820 - 1997— Continued 



Region and country of 
last residence ' 



1971 -80 



1981 -90 



1991 -93 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Total 
178 years, 
1820-1997 



All countries 

Europe 

Austria-Hungary 

Austria 

Hungary 

Belgium 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Ireland' 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Norway-Sweden 

Norway 

Sweden 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union 

Spain 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom ' ' 

Yugoslavia 

Other Europe 

Asia 

China'" 

Hong Kong 

India 

Iran 

Israel 

Japan 

Korea 

Philippines 

Turkey 

Vietnam 

Other Asia 

America 

Canada & Newfoundland " 

Mexico " 

Caribbean 

Cuba 

Dominican Republic .... 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Other Caribbean 

Central America 

El Salvador 

Other Central America . 
South America 

Argentina 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Other South America ... 
Other America 

Africa 

Oceania , 

Not specified " 

See footnotes at end of table. 



4,493^14 

800^68 

16,028 

9,478 

6,550 

5,329 

6,023 

4,439 

25,069 

74,414 

92,369 

11,490 

129,368 

10,492 

10,472 

3,941 

6,531 

37,234 

101,710 

12,393 

38,961 

39,141 

8,235 

137,374 

30,540 

9,287 

1^88,178 

124,326 

113,467 

164,134 

45,136 

37,713 

49,775 

267,638 

354,987 

13,399 

172,820 

244,783 

1,982,735 

169,939 

640,294 

741,126 

264,863 

148,135 

56,335 

137,577 

134,216 

134,640 

34,436 

100,204 

295,741 

29,897 

77,347 

50,077 

138.420 

995 

80,779 

41,242 

12 



7338,062 

761,550 

24.885 

18,340 

6,545 

7,066 

7,227 

5,370 

32,353 

91,961 

38,377 

31,969 

67,254 

12,238 

15,182 

4,164 

11,018 

83,252 

40,431 

30,857 

57,677 

20,433 

8,849 

159,173 

18,762 

8,234 

2,738,157 
346,747 

98,215 
250,786 
116,172 

44,273 

47,085 
333,746 
548,764 

23,233 
280,782 
648,354 

3,615,225 

156,938 
1,655,843 
872,051 
144,578 
252,035 
138,379 
208,148 
128,911 
468,088 
213,539 
254,549 
461,847 

27,327 
122,849 

56,315 

255,356 

458 

176,893 

45,205 

1.032 



3,705,436 

465,642 

11,303 
8,286 
3,017 
2,434 
2,291 
2,160 

12,429 

33,727 
7,557 

30,039 

46,177 
4,532 
6.345 
2.057 
4.288 

68.885 
9.425 

16.210 

128.575 

6.495 

3.569 

59,114 
8.324 
6.051 

1,032,384 

111.324 
46.723 

116.201 
25.830 
16.270 
25,008 
61,484 

195,634 
10.156 
77.913 

345.841 

2,104,250 

65,370 
1,288,693 

332,721 
33.340 

128.834 
67.701 
58.018 
44,828 

227,335 
99,794 

127,541 

190,110 
11.286 
44,754 
24,684 

109,386 
21 

83,781 

19,199 

180 



804,416 

166,279 

2,123 

1.314 

809 

621 

759 

639 

3.592 

8.940 

2.539 

16.525 

2.664 

1.359 

1,804 

515 

1,289 

27,597 

2,163 

2,932 

64,502 

1,756 

1,183 

17,666 

3,183 

3,732 

282,449 

58,867 

11,953 

33,173 

6,998 

3,982 

6,974 

15,417 

52,832 

3,880 

32.387 

55.986 

325,173 

22.243 

111.415 

103,750 

14.216 

51.221 

13,166 

13.909 

11.238 

40,256 

17,669 

22,587 

47,505 

2,474 

10,653 

5,943 

28,435 

4 

24,864 

5,647 



720,461 

132,914 

2,190 
1,340 

850 

694 
1,057 

588 
3,178 
7,896 
2,404 
4,851 
2,594 
1,284 
1,607 

465 

1,142 

13,570 

2,611 

4,565 

54,133 

1.664 

1.119 

14.207 

7.828 

4.874 

259,984 

41.112 

10.699 

33,060 

5.646 

3,188 

5,556 

15,053 

49,696 

4,806 

37,764 

53,404 

282,270 

18,117 
90,045 
96,021 
17.661 
38.493 
13.872 
16.061 

9.934 
32,020 
11.670 
20,350 
46,063 

2,239 
10.641 

6.453 

26.730 

4 

39,818 

5,472 



915,900 

151,898 

2.325 
1.182 
1,143 
802 
1,299 
795 
3,896 
8,365 
2,394 
1,611 
2,755 
1,553 
2,015 
552 
1,463 

15,504 
3,024 
5.449 

61.895 
1.970 
1.344 

15,564 

10.755 
8.583 

300,574 

50.981 

11.319 

42.819 

7.299 

4.029 

6.617 

17,380 

54,588 

5,573 

39,922 

60.047 

407,813 

21.751 

163.743 

115,991 

26.166 

36.284 

18.185 

18.732 

16.624 

44336 

17.847 

26,489 

61,990 

2,878 

14,078 

8,348 

36,686 

2 

49,605 

6,008 

2 



798378 

122358 

1,964 
1,044 

920 

633 
1,169 

507 
3,007 
6,941 
1,483 

932 
2,190 
1,197 
1,517 

391 

1,126 

11,729 

1,690 

5.276 

48.238 

1.607 

1.302 

11.950 

9,913 

9.113 

258,561 

44.356 

7.974 

36.092 

6.291 

2.951 

5,640 

13,626 

47,842 

4,596 

37,121 

52,072 

359,619 

15,788 

146,680 

101,095 

29,913 

24,966 

14,941 

17,585 

13,690 

43,451 

17.741 

25.710 

52,600 

2,055 

12,795 

7,763 

29,987 

5 

44,668 

4,855 

8,317 



63,938,605 

38,140,151 

4,362,687 

1,842,112' 

1,674,499' 
215,740 
152,376 
375,101 
813,689 

7,149334 
720,281 

4,779,091 

5,429,488 
384,157 

2,159,242 
757.699' 

1.256.116' 
743.621 
520.174 
239.273 

3.801.049 
298.640 
367.956 

5,237,651 
176,274 
214,327 

8,153,132 

1.221.016 
390.898 ' 
717.061 
228.915' 
167.960' 
512.039' 
765.208 ' 

1,427,245' 
441,338 
683,384' 

1,598,068 

16,546,673 

4,438.854 
5.689.305 
3,452,755 
870.006 ' 
789.934" 
362.622' 
553.805 ' 
876.388 
1,207,026 
439388' 
767,638 
1,648357 
152.050' 
388.274* 
208.958 ' 
899.275 
110.176 

576,881 

245,803 

275,965 



26 



TABLE 2. IMMIGRATION BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF LAST RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEARS 1820 - 1997— Continued 

' Data for years prior to 1906 relate to country whence alien came; data from 1906-79 and 1984-96 are for country of last permanent residence; and data 
for 1980-83 refer to country of birth. Because of changes in boundaries, changes in lists of countries, and lack of data for specified countries for 
various periods, data for certain countries, especially for the total period 1820-1996, are not comparable throughout. Data for specified countries are 
included with countries to which they belonged prior to Worid War I. 

^ Data for Austria and Hungary not reported until 1861. 

' Data for Austria and Hungary not reported separately for all years during the period. 

■* No data available for Czechoslovakia until 1920. 

' Prior to 1926, data for Northern Ireland included in Ireland. 

' Data for Norway and Sweden not reported separately until 1 87 1 . 

' No data available for Romania until 1 880. 

' Since 1925, data for United Kingdom refer to England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. 

' In 1920, a separate enumeration was made for the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Since 1922, the Serb, Croat, and Slovene Kingdom recorded 
as Yugoslavia. 

'" Beginning in 1957, China includes Taiwan. As of January I, 1979, the United States has recognized the People's Republic of China. 

" Data not reported separately until 1952. 

'^ Data not reported separately until 1925. 

" Data not reported separately until 1949. 

'■* No data available for Japan until 1 86 1 . 

'* Data not reported separately until 1948. 

" Prior to 1934, Philippines recorded as insular travel. 

" Prior to 1920, Canada and Newfoundland recorded as British North America. From 1820-98, figiues include all British North America possessions. 

'* Land arrivals not completely enumerated until 1908. 

" No data available for Mexico from 1886-94. 

^ Data not reported separately imtil 1932. 

^' Data for Jamaica not collected until 1953. In prior years, consolidated under British West Indies, which is included in "Other Caribbean." 

^ Included in countries "Not specified" until 1925. 

^ From 1899-1919, data for Poland included in Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Soviet Union. 

" From 1938-45, data for Austria included in Germany. 

" Includes 32,897 persons returning in 1906 to their homes in the United States. 

NOTE: From 1820-67, figures represent alien passengers arrived at seaports; from 1868-91 and 1895-97, immigrant aliens arrived; fiom 1892-94 and 
1898-1997, immigrant aliens admitted for permanent residence. From 1892-1903, aliens entering by cabin class were not counted as immigrants. Land 
arrivals were not completely enumerated until 1908. For recent changes in geographic definitions for Hong Kong, and the former Czechoslovakia, Soviet 
Union, and Yugoslavia, see Notice of Special Geographic Definitions, p. 10. 

See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. For this table, fiscal year 1843 covers 9 months ending September 1843; fiscal years 1832 and 1850 cover 15 
months ending December 31 of the respective years; and fiscal year 1868 covers 6 months ending June 30, 1868. 

- Represents zero. 



27 



TABLE 3. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION AND COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEARS 1987-97 



Region and country 
of birth 



1987 



1988 



1989 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



All countries 



Europe 

Albania 

Andorra 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, fnw. 

Czech Republic .. 

Slovak Republic . 

Unknown rep 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Germany, East 

Germany, West .... 

Gibraltar 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland •. 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Liechtenstein 

Lithuania 

Luxembourg 

Malta 

Monaco 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

San Marino 

Soviet Union, fmr. 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Georgia 

Kazakhstan 

Kyrgyzstan 

Moldova 

Russia 

Tajikistan 

Turkmenistan 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom .. 
Yugoslavia, former 

Bosnia- 
Herzegovina 

Croatia 

Macedonia 

Slovenia 

Unknown 



Asia 

Afghanistan . 
Bahrain 



601,516 

61,174 

62 

483 

636 

205 

1,357 

X 

X 

X 

537 

15 

331 

2,513 

X 

108 

7,210 

4 

2,653 

994 

88 

3,060 

2,784 

23 

4 

37 

26 

113 

4 

1,230 

326 

7,519 

3,912 

3,837 

1 

2,384 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1,578 

1.057 

759 

13,497 

1,827 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

257,684 

2,424 

46 



643,025 

64,797 

82 

514 

581 

217 

1,482 

X 

X 

X 

558 

11 

390 

2,524 

X 

110 

6,645 

1 

2,458 

1,227 

92 

5,058 

2,949 

31 

1 

47 

28 

112 

4 

1,187 

397 

9,507 

3,199 

3,875 

2 

2.949 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1.483 

1.156 

751 

13.228 

1.941 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

264,465 

2.873 
45 



1,090,924 

82,891 

71 

4 

501 

548 

265 

992 

X 

X 

X 

593 

14 

325 

2,598 

X 

137 

6,708 

2 

2,491 

1,193 

124 

6,961 

2,910 

57 

4 

63 

16 

74 

3 

1,193 

482 

15,101 

3,758 

4,573 

11,128 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1,550 

1.078 

788 

14.090 

2,496 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

312,149 

3.232 

47 



1,536,483 

112,401 

78 

5 

675 

682 

428 

1,412 

X 

X 

X 

666 

20 

369 

2.849 

X 

105 

7.388 

1 

2,742 

1,655 

107 

10,333 

3,287 

45 

3 

67 

31 

77 

2 

1,424 

524 

20,537 

4,035 

4,647 

25,524 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1,886 

1,196 

845 

15,928 

2.828 

X 
X 
X 
X 

X 

338,581 

3.187 
58 



1,827,167 

135,234 

142 

1 

589 

525 

623 

1,156 

X 

X 

X 

601 

23 

333 

2.450 

6.509 

X 

X 

1 

2.079 

1.534 

117 

4.767 

2.619 

86 

3 

157 

21 

83 

5 

1.283 

486 

19,199 

4,524 

8.096 

1 

56.980 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1,849 

1.080 

696 

13.903 

2.713 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

358,533 

2,879 
58 



973,977 

145392 

682 

2 

701 

780 

1,049 

1,181 

X 

X 

X 

764 

194 

525 

3.288 

9.888 

X 

X 

4 

1.858 

1.304 

156 

12.226 

2.592 

419 

1 

353 

25 

85 

4 

1,586 

665 

25,504 

2,748 

6,500 

43.614 

6.145 

1.640 

3.233 

426 

506 

134 

1,705 

8,857 

186 

34 

14.383 

1,712 

4,653 

1.631 

1.463 

1.023 

19,973 

2.604 

15 

77 

8 
2,504 

356,955 

2,685 



904,292 

158,254 

1,400 

2 

549 

657 

1,029 

1,000 

10 

990 

735 

191 

544 

2,864 

7,312 

X 

X 

5 

1,884 

1,091 

164 

13,590 

2,487 

668 

3 

529 

14 

52 

1,430 

608 

27,846 

2,081 

5,601 

2 

58,571 

6,287 

2,943 

4,702 

429 

628 

124 

2,646 

12.079 

336 

48 

18.316 

2.664 

7.369 

1.388 

1.393 

972 

18.783 

2,809 

159 

370 

50 
2,230 

358,047 

2,964 

93 



804,416 

160,916 

1,489 

2 

499 

516 

981 

874 

11 

221 

642 

606 

272 

471 

2,715 

6,992 

X 

X 

6 

1,440 

880 

140 

17,256 

2,305 

762 

663 

24 

75 

3 

1,239 

459 

28,048 

2,169 

3,444 

63,420 

3,984 

2,844 

5,420 

652 

750 

226 

2,260 

15,249 

568 

68 

21,010 

3,435 

6,954 

1,418 

1,140 

877 

16,326 

3,405 

521 

412 

367 

67 

2.038 

292,589 

2.344 
87 



720,461 

128,185 

1.420 

518 

569 

1.797 

1.174 

72 

503 

599 

551 

205 

476 

2.505 

6.237 

X 

X 

7 

1.309 

900 

125 

5,315 

2,231 

651 

2 

767 

15 

72 

5 

1.196 

420 

13.824 

2.615 

4,871 

2 

54,494 

1,992 

1,885 

3.791 

710 

840 

209 

1.856 

14.560 

706 

84 

17.432 

3.645 

6.784 

1.321 

976 

881 

12.427 

8,307 

4,061 

608 

666 

65 

2.907 

267,931 

1.424 
78 



915,900 

147,581 

4.007 

5 

554 

651 

2,066 

1,389 

165 

663 

561 

608 

280 

602 

3,079 

6,748 

X 

X 

6 

1,452 

1.183 

182 

1.731 

2,501 

736 

1 

1,080 

32 

52 

4 

1,423 

478 

15,772 

2,984 

5,801 

3 

62,777 

2,441 

1,991 

4,268 

1,157 

1,089 

280 

1,849 

19.668 

634 

121 

21.079 

4.687 

3.513 

1,659 

1,251 

1,006 

13.624 

11.854 

6.499 

810 

863 

77 

3.605 

307,807 

1.263 
76 



See footnotes at end of table. 



28 



TABLE 3. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION AND COUNTRY OF BIRTH 
FISCAL YEARS 1987-97— Continued 



Region and country 
























of birth 


1987 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 


1994 


1995 


1996 


1997 


Bangladesh 


1,649 


1.325 


2.180 


4,252 


10.676 


3.740 


3.291 


3,434 


6.072 


8.221 


8,681 


Bhutan 


- 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


8 


6 


Brunei 


12 


12 


16 


16 


15 


17 


26 


14 


14 


20 


6 


Bunna 


941 


803 


1.170 


1,120 


946 


816 


849 


938 


1.233 


1,320 


1,085 


Cambodia 


12,460 


9.629 


6.076 


5.179 


3.251 


2.573 


1.639 


1,404 


1.492 


1,568 


1,638 


China, People's Rep. 


25,841 


28.717 


32.272 


31.815 


33.025 


38.907 


65.578 


53,985 


35.463 


41,728 


41,147 


Cyprus 


331 


286 


284 


316 


243 


262 


229 


204 


188 


187 


148 


Hone Kone 


4,706 


8.546 


9.740 


9.393 


10.427 


10452 


9,161 


7,731 


7.249 


7,834 


5.577 


India 


27,803 


26.268 


31.175 


30.667 


45.064 


36.755 


40,121 


34,921 


34.748 


44,859 


38.071 


Indonesia 


1,254 


1.342 


I.5I3 


3.498 


2.223 


2.916 


1,767 


1,367 


1.020 


1,084 


906 


Iran 


14,426 


15.246 


21.243 


24.977 


19.569 


13.233 


14,841 


11,422 


9,201 


11,084 


9.642 


Iraq 


1,072 


1.022 


1,516 


1.756 


1.494 


4.111 


4,072 


6,025 


5,596 


5,481 


3,244 


Israel 


3,699 


3.640 


4,244 


4.664 


4.181 


5,104 


4,494 


3,425 


2,523 


3,126 


2,448 


Japan 


4,174 


4,512 


4,849 


5.734 


5.049 


11,028 


6,908 


6,093 


4,837 


6,011 


5,097 


Jordan 


3,125 


3,232 


3,921 


4.449 


4.259 


4,036 


4,741 


3,990 


3,649 


4,445 


4,171 


Korea 


35,849 


34,703 


34,222 


32,301 


26.518 


19,359 


18,026 


16,011 


16,047 


18,185 


14,239 


Kuwait 


507 


599 


710 


691 


861 


989 


1,129 


1.065 


961 


1,202 


837 


Laos 


6.828 


10,667 


12,524 


10.446 


9.950 


8,696 


7,285 


5.089 


3,936 


2.847 


1,935 


Lebanon 


4,367 


4,910 


5,716 


5,634 


6.009 


5,838 


5,465 


4.319 


3,884 


4.382 


3,568 


Macau 


254 


183 


246 


301 


267 


320 


334 


287 


373 


453 


277 


Malaysia 


1,016 


1,250 


1,506 


1,867 


1.860 


2,235 


2,026 


1.480 


1,223 


1.414 


1,051 


Maldives 


- 


- 




. 


1 


- 


2 


- 


1 


1 


1 


Mongolia 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


6 


8 


21 


17 


17 


22 


Nepal 


78 


106 


134 


184 


174 


212 


257 


257 


312 


431 


447 


Oman 


11 


7 


18 


9 


5 


24 


21 


32 


31 


25 


36 


Pakistan 


6,319 


5,438 


8,000 


9.729 


20,355 


10,214 


8,927 


8.698 


9.774 


12.519 


12,967 


Philippines 


50,060 


50.697 


57,034 


63.756 


63,596 


61,022 


63,457 


53,535 


50,984 


55.876 


49,117 


Qatar 


30 


39 


49 


33 


56 


59 


88 


51 


60 


79 


70 


Saudi Arabia 


294 


338 


381 


518 


552 


584 


616 


668 


788 


1.164 


815 


Singapore 


469 


492 


566 


620 


535 


774 


798 


542 


399 


561 


460 


Sri Lanka 


630 
1,669 


634 
2.183 


757 
2,675 


976 
2.972 


1,377 
2,837 


1,081 
2,940 


1,109 
2,933 


989 
2,426 


960 

2,362 


1.277 
3.072 


1,128 


Syria 


2,269 


Taiwan 


11,931 


9,670 


13,974 


15.151 


13,274 


16,344 


14,329 


10,032 


9.377 


13,401 


6,745 


Thailand 


6,733 


6,888 


9,332 


8,914 


7.397 


7,090 


6.654 


5,489 


5.136 


4,310 


3,094 


Turkey 


1,596 


1,642 


2,007 


2,468 


2.528 


2,488 


2.204 


1,840 


2.947 


3,657 


3,145 


United Arab 
























Emirates 


122 


111 


114 


192 


164 


172 


196 


286 


317 


343 


329 


Vietnam 


24,231 


25,789 


37,739 


48,792 


55.307 


77,735 


59,614 


41.345 


41,752 


42,067 


38,519 


Yemen 


X 


X 


X 


X 


1.547 


2,056 


1,793 


741 


1,501 


2,209 


1,663 


Yemen (Aden) 


150 


259 


135 


218 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Yemen (Sanaa) .... 


577 


360 


831 


1,727 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Africa 


17,724 


18,882 


25,166 


35,893 


36,179 


27,086 


27,783 


26,712 


42,456 


52,889 


47,791 


Algeria 


172 


199 


230 


302 


269 


407 


360 


364 


650 


1,059 


717 


Angola 


146 


110 


143 


141 


132 


107 


92 


75 


81 


125 


75 


Benin 


9 


15 


16 


27 


24 


10 


21 


18 


23 


38 


48 


Botswana 


15 


24 


10 


21 


3 


19 


13 


13 


16 


21 


18 


Burkina Faso 


4 


6 


11 


8 


8 


16 


11 


16 


17 


17 


13 


Burundi 


I 


9 


9 


5 


16 


11 


13 


14 


26 


36 


59 


Cameroon 


132 


157 


187 


380 


452 


236 


262 


305 


506 


803 


898 


Cape Verde 


657 


921 


1,118 


907 


973 


757 


936 


810 


968 


1,012 


920 


Cen. African Rep. 


3 


1 


1 


14 


8 


8 


15 


7 


2 


27 


10 


Chad 


1 


2 


4 


8 


9 


4 


3 


9 


11 


13 


18 


Comoros 




1 


- 


- 


- 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


3 


Congo, Republic ' 


12 


4 


10 


9 


22 


9 


10 


11 


11 


23 


31 


Congo, Dem. Rep. ' 


102 


139 


140 


256 


238 


196 


233 


237 


355 


433 


414 


Coted'lvoire 


63 


78 


98 


184 


347 


259 


250 


268 


289 


432 


430 


Djibouti 


7 


8 


8 


22 


21 


14 


14 


10 


25 


19 


18 


Egypt 


3,377 


3,016 


3,717 


4,117 


5.602 


3,576 


3,556 


3.392 


5,648 


6,186 


5,031 


Equatorial Guinea 


- 


I 


2 


5 


5 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


Eritrea 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


85 


468 


992 


828 


948 


Ethiopia 


2,156 


2,571 


3,389 


4,336 


5.127 


4,602 


5,191 


3.887 


5,960 


6,086 


5,904 


French Southern & 
























Antarctic Lands ... 


4 


4 


34 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Gabon 


5 


3 


7 


H 


11 


9 


5 


11 


13 


29 


24 


Gambia, The 


37 


55 


71 


170 


159 


93 


76 


93 


153 


207 


176 



See foouiotes at end of table. 



29 



TABLE 3. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION AND COUNTRY OF BIRTH 
FISCAL YEARS 1987-97— Continued 



Region and country 
























of birth 


1987 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 


1994 


1995 


1996 


1997 


Ghana 


1,120 


1,239 


2,045 


4,466 


3,330 


1,867 


1,604 


1,458 


3,152 


6,606 


5,105 


Guinea 


26 


33 


45 


67 


84 


104 


102 


97 


152 


220 


158 


Guinea-Bissau 


- 


2 


9 


8 


14 


8 


1 


- 


2 


3 


24 


Kenya 


698 


773 


910 


1,297 


1,185 


953 


1,065 


1,017 


1,419 


1.666 


1,387 


Lesotho 


7 


7 


8 


16 


4 


15 


5 


8 


10 


11 


6 


Liberia 


622 


769 


1,175 


2,004 


1,292 


999 


1,050 


1,762 


1,929 


2.206 


2,216 


Libya 


183 


198 


210 


268 


314 


286 


343 


166 


216 


250 


171 


Madagascar 


21 


24 


23 


37 


23 


41 


32 


27 


42 


43 


33 


Malawi 


49 


53 


84 


48 


68 


72 


53 


55 


56 


58 


72 


Mali 


13 


20 


18 


34 


63 


55 


51 


55 


94 


124 


97 


Mauritania 


7 


2 


9 


3 


9 


2 


9 


10 


22 


26 


51 


Mauritius 


36 


47 


56 


67 


64 


61 


83 


65 


67 


84 


44 


Morocco 


635 


715 


984 


1,200 


1,601 


1,316 


1,176 


1,074 


1,726 


1.783 


2.359 


Mozambique 


74 


68 


81 


100 


74 


54 


56 


44 


50 


59 


48 


Namibia 


10 


25 


26 


23 


14 


29 


37 


24 


35 


30 


22 


Niger 


15 


3 


7 


3 


1 


2 


4 


8 


10 


102 


837 


Nigeria 


3,278 


3,343 


5,213 


8,843 


7,912 


4,551 


4,448 


3,950 


6,818 


10.221 


7,038 


Reunion 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


3 


- 


2 


3 


1 


Rwanda 


3 


5 


7 


6 


12 


10 


25 


16 


41 


118 


170 


Sao Tome & 
























Principe 


3 


2 


7 


1 


4 


7 


- 


1 


6 


4 


2 


Senegal 


92 


130 


141 


537 


869 


337 


178 


213 


506 


641 


435 


Seychelles 


28 


38 


13 


21 


32 


30 


23 


22 


18 


16 


15 


Sierra Leone 


453 


571 


939 


1,290 


951 


693 


690 


698 


919 


1,918 


1.884 


Somalia 


197 


183 


228 


277 


458 


500 


1,088 


1,737 


3,487 


2,170 


4.005 


South Africa 


1,741 


1,832 


1,899 


1,990 


1,854 


2,516 


2,197 


2.144 


2,560 


2,966 


2.093 


St. Helena 


6 
198 


3 
217 


1 
272 


1 
306 


2 
679 


1 
675 


4 
714 


651 


3 
1,645 


1 
2,172 


_ 


Sudan 


2,030 


Swaziland 


12 


6 


7 


11 


5 


8 


10 


7 


20 


16 


11 


Tanzania 


385 


388 


507 


635 


500 


352 


426 


357 


524 


553 


399 


Togo 


19 


22 


29 


30 


33 


45 


41 


52 


83 


157 


222 


Tunisia 


120 


98 


125 


226 


275 


216 


167 


149 


189 


228 


163 


Uganda 


357 


343 


393 


674 


538 


437 


415 


391 


383 


422 


400 


Western Sahara ... 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


Zambia 


161 


182 


259 


209 


228 


210 


225 


198 


222 


226 


262 


Zimbabwe 


252 


216 


230 


272 


261 


296 


308 


246 


299 


385 


274 


Oceania 


3,993 


3,839 


4^60 


6,182 


6,236 


5,169 


4,902 


4,592 


4,695 


5,309 


4,344 


American Samoa 


1 


- 


1 


2 


2 


- 


1 


- 


I 


2 


- 


Australia 


1,253 


1,356 


1,546 


1.754 


1,678 


2,238 


2,320 


2,049 


1.751 


1,950 


1.630 


Christmas Island .. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




2 


. 


- 


- 


1 


Cocos Islands 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


Cook Islands 


- 


1 


7 


5 


8 


6 


4 


2 


2 


5 


4 


Fiji 


1,205 


1,028 


968 


1,353 


1.349 


807 


854 


1,007 


1,491 


1,847 


1.549 


French Polynesia 


34 


32 


22 


29 


31 


24 


28 


19 


25 


15 


21 


Kiribati 


6 


3 


4 


5 


13 


15 


4 


4 


5 


6 


5 


Marshall Islands .. 


- 


- 


5 


3 


2 


4 


2 


I 


5 


3 


3 


Micronesia, 
























Federated States 


- 


- 


8 


7 


6 


11 


11 


7 


7 


5 


2 


Nauru 


4 


. 


7 


6 


1 


2 


1 


3 


2 


2 


. 


New Caledonia .... 


11 


4 


7 


8 


3 


8 


2 


7 


3 


11 




New Zealand 


591 


668 


789 


829 


793 


967 


1,052 


918 


727 


800 


655 


Niue 


- 


1 


- 


. 


1 


. 


1 


2 


1 


. 


3 


Northern Mariana 
























Islands 


- 


- 


2 


5 


6 


3 


3 


- 


4 


4 


3 


Pacific Islands, 
























Trust Territories 


120 


66 


2 


22 






. 


- 


- 




- 


Palau 




- 


34 


62 


70 


47 


42 


21 


9 


9 


8 


Papua New 
























Guinea 


15 


18 


9 


14 


20 


17 


15 


22 


13 


17 


15 


Samoa ^ 


202 


221 


295 


690 


561 


314 


200 


227 


237 


215 


138 


Solomon Islands .. 


2 


3 


4 


7 


2 


1 


3 


5 


2 


2 


1 


Tonga 


545 


434 


646 


1,375 


1.685 


703 


348 


293 


403 


416 


303 


Tuvalu 


2 


2 


2 


4 


- 




3 


- 


2 


. 


. 


Vanuatu 


2 


2 


2 


2 


5 


1 


. 




1 


. 


1 


Wallis & Futuna Is. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


I 


6 


5 


4 


- 


1 



See footnotes at end of table. 

30 



TABLE 3. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION AND COUNTRY OF BIRTH 
FISCAL YEARS 1987-97— Continued 



Region and country 
























of birth 


1987 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 


1994 


1995 


1996 


1997 


North America 


216^50 


250,009 


607^98 


957,558 


1,210,981 


384,047 


301,380 


272,226 


231,526 


340,540 


307,488 


Canada 


11.876 


11.783 


12.151 


16,812 


13,504 


15,205 


17.156 


16.068 


12.932 


15.825 


11,609 


Greenland 


1 


1 


1 


3 


8 


2 


3 


I 


2 


2 


1 


Mexico 


72.351 


95.039 


405.172 


679,068 


946,167 


213,802 


126.561 


111.398 


89.932 


163.572 


146,865 


St. Pierre & 
























Miquelon 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Unknown 


127 


114 


108 


122 


70 


66 


60 


47 


57 


51 


38 


Caribbean 


102,899 


112,357 


88,932 


115,351 


140,139 


97,413 


99,438 


104,804 


96,788 


116,801 


105,299 


Anguilla 


21 


36 


43 


41 


56 


46 


23 


31 


26 


36 


19 


Antigua-Barbuda 


874 


837 


979 


1,319 


944 


619 


554 


438 


374 


406 


393 


Aruba 


75 


47 


73 


83 


56 


62 


36 


24 


27 


28 


26 


Bahamas. The .... 


556 


1,283 


861 


1,378 


1,062 


641 


686 


589 


585 


768 


641 


Barbados 


1,665 


1,455 


1.616 


1.745 


1,460 


1,091 


1.184 


897 


734 


1.043 


829 


Bermuda 


154 


166 


182 


203 


146 


153 


156 


118 


111 


103 


75 


British Virgin 
























Islands 


296 


395 


258 


105 


137 


174 


166 


137 


98 


87 


93 


Cayman Islands 


25 


26 


48 


53 


23 


40 


16 


30 


26 


24 


35 


Cuba 


28,916 


17,558 


10.046 


10.645 


10,349 


11,791 


13,666 


14.727 


17,937 


26.466 


33,587 


Dominica 


740 


611 


748 


963 


982 


809 


683 


507 


591 


797 


746 


Dominican Rep. 


24.858 


27,189 


26.723 


42,195 


41,405 


41,969 


45,420 


51.189 


38,512 


39.604 


27,053 


Grenada 


1.098 


842 


1.046 


1,294 


979 


848 


827 


595 


583 


787 


755 


Guadeloupe 


37 


54 


38 


54 


34 


50 


49 


41 


48 


52 


52 


Haiti 


14,819 


34,806 


13.658 


20,324 


47.527 


11,002 


10,094 


13,333 


14,021 


18.386 


15,057 


Jamaica 


23.148 


20,966 


24.523 


25,013 


23,828 


18,915 


17.241 


14,349 


16,398 


19.089 


17,840 


Martinique 


34 


25 


30 


32 


25 


25 


17 


20 


It 


23 


20 


Montserrat 


104 


104 


124 


172 


143 


104 


102 


69 


83 


99 


99 


Netherlands 
























Antilles 


81 


62 


65 


80 


40 


37 


65 


48 


58 


76 


43 


St. Kitts-Nevis ... 


589 


660 


795 


896 


830 


626 


544 


370 


360 


357 


377 


St. Lucia 


496 


606 


709 


833 


766 


654 


634 


449 


403 


582 


531 


St. Vincent & the 
























Grenadines 


746 


634 


892 


973 


808 


687 


657 


524 


349 


606 


581 


Trinidad & 
























Tobago 


3,543 


3,947 


5,394 


6,740 


8,407 


7,008 


6.577 


6,292 


5,424 


7.344 


6,409 


Turks & Caicos 
























Islands 


21 


47 


78 


206 


121 


59 


39 


26 


27 


35 


37 


Unknown 


3 


1 


3 


4 


11 


3 


2 


1 


2 


3 


1 


Central America 


29,296 


30,715 


101,034 


146,202 


111,093 


57,558 


58,162 


39,908 


31,814 


44,289 


43,676 


Belize 


1.354 


1,497 


2,217 


3,867 


2,377 


1,020 


1,035 


772 


644 


786 


664 


Costa Rica 


1,391 


1,351 


1,985 


2,840 


2,341 


1,480 


1,368 


1,205 


1,062 


1,504 


1,330 


El Salvador 


10,693 


12,045 


57,878 


80,173 


47,351 


26,191 


26,818 


17,644 


11,744 


17,903 


17,969 


Guatemala 


5,729 


5.723 


19.049 


32.303 


25,527 


10,521 


11,870 


7.389 


6,213 


8.763 


7,785 


Honduras 


4,751 


4,302 


7.593 


12,024 


11,451 


6,552 


7,306 


5.265 


5,496 


5.870 


7,616 


Nicaragua 


3,294 


3,311 


8,830 


11,562 


17,842 


8,949 


7.086 


5,255 


4,408 


6.903 


6.331 


Panama 


2,084 


2,486 


3,482 


3,433 


4,204 


2,845 


2,679 


2,378 


2,247 


2,560 


1.981 


South America 


44,385 


41,007 


58,926 


85,819 


79,934 


55,308 


53,921 


47377 


45,666 


61,769 


52,877 


Argentina 


2,106 


2,371 


3,301 


5,437 


3,889 


3,877 


2.824 


2,318 


1.762 


2.456 


1.964 


Bolivia 


1,170 


1,038 


1,805 


2.843 


3,006 


1,510 


1,545 


1,404 


1,332 


1,913 


1.734 


Brazil 


2,505 


2,699 


3,332 


4.191 


8,133 


4,755 


4.604 


4,491 


4,558 


5,891 


4,583 


Chile 


2,140 


2,137 


3,037 


4.049 


2,842 


1,937 


1,778 


1,640 


1,534 


1,706 


1,443 


Colombia 


11,700 


10,322 


15,214 


24,189 


19,702 


13,201 


12,819 


10.847 


10,838 


14,283 


13,004 


Ecuador 


4,641 


4,716 


7,532 


12,476 


9,958 


7,286 


7,324 


5.906 


6,397 


8,321 


7,780 


Falkland Islands .. 


- 


I 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


French Guiana 


_ 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


6 


10 


4 


5 


6 


Guyana 


11,384 


8,747 


10,789 


11,362 


11,666 


9,064 


8.384 


7.662 


7,362 


9,489 


7,257 


Paraguay 


291 


483 


529 


704 


538 


514 


668 


789 


559 


615 


304 


Peru 


5,901 


5,936 


10,175 


15,726 


16,237 


9,868 


10.447 


9.177 


8,066 


12,871 


10,853 


Suriname 


144 


151 


163 


240 


178 


238 


211 


190 


213 


211 


191 


Uruguay 


709 


612 


948 


1,457 


1,161 


716 


568 


516 


414 


540 


429 


Venezuela 


1,694 


1,791 


2,099 


3,142 


2,622 


2,340 


2.743 


2.427 


2,627 


3,468 


3,328 


Bom on board ship 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 




Unknown or not 
























reported 


6 


23 


34 


49 


70 


18 


5 


4 


2 


5 


197 



' In May 1997 Zaire was fomially recognized as the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the Congo Is referred to by its conventional name, the Republic of the 
Congo. ' In August 1997 Westem Samoa was formally recognized as Samoa (Independent Stale). 
- Represents zero. X Not applicable. 



TABLE 4. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY TYPE A^fD SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

FISCAL YEARS 1990-97 



Type and class of admission 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Total, all immigrants 

New arrivals 

Adjustments 

ToUl, IRCA legalization 

Residents since 1982 

Special Agricultural Workers 

Total, non-legalization 

Preference immigrants 

Family-sponsored immigrants 

Unmarried sons/daughters of U.S. citizens ' 

Spouses of alien residents ' 

Married sons/daughters of U.S. citizens ' 

Siblings of U.S. citizens ' 

Employment-based immigrants ' ' 

Priority workers 

Professionals with advanced degrees or aliens of 

exceptional ability 

Skilled workers, professionals, other workers 

Special immigrants 

Employment creation 

Pre-1992 

Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens ' 

Spouses 

Children' 

Orphans 

Parents 

Refugees and asylees 

Refugee adjustments 

Asylee adjustments 

Other immigrants 

Amerasians (P.L. 100-202) 

Children bom abroad to alien residents 

Cuban/Haitian entrants (P.L. 99-603) 

Diversity 

Diversity transition 

Legalization dependents 

Nationals of adversely affected countries (P.L. 99-603) 
Natives of underrepresented countries (P.L. 100-658) .. 

Parolees, Polish/Hunganan (PL. 104-208) 

Parolees, Soviet Union or Indochina (P.L. 101-267) 

Registered nurses and their families (P.L. 101-238) 

Registry, entry prior to 1/1/72 

Suspension of deportation ' 

Other 



1,536,483 

435,729 
1,100,754 

880^72 

823,704 
56,668 

656,111 

272,742 

214,550 

15,861 

107,686 

26,751 

64,252 

58,192 

X 

X 

X 

4,463 

X 

53,729 

231,680 

125,426 

46,065 

7,088 

60,189 

97,364 

92,427 
4,937 

54,325 

13,059 

2,410 

710 

X 

X 

X 

20,371 

8,790 

X 

X 

2.954 

4,633 

889 

509 



1,827,167 

443,107 
1,384,060 

1,123,162 

214,003 
909,159 

704,005 

275,613 
216,088 

15,385 

110,126 

27,115 

63,462 

59,525 

X 

X 

X 

4,576 

X 

54,949 

237,103 

125,397 

48,130 

9,008 

63,576 

139,079 

116,415 
22,664 

52,210 

16,010 

2,224 

213 

X 

X 

X 

12,268 

9,802 

X 

4,998 

3,069 

2,282 

782 

562 



973,977 
511,769 
462,208 

163342 

46,962 
116,380 

810,635 

329321 
213,123 

12,486 
118,247 

22,195 

60,195 

116,198 

5,456 

58,401 

47,568 

4,063 

59 

651 

235,484 

128,396 

42,324 

6,536 

64,764 

117,037 

106,379 
10,658 

128,793 

17,253 

2,116 

99 

X 

33,911 

52,272 

1,557 

880 

X 

13,661 

3,572 

1,293 

1,013 

1,166 



904,292 

536,294 
367,998 

24,278 

18,717 

5,561 

880,014 

373,788 
226,776 

12,819 
128,308 
23,385 
62,264 
147,012 
21,114 
29,468 

87,689 

8,158 

583 

X 

255,059 

145,843 

46,788 

7,348 

62,428 

127343 

115,539 
11,804 

123,824 

11,116 

2,030 

62 

X 

33,468 

55,344 

10 

2 

X 

15,772 

2,178 

938 

1,468 

1,436 



804,416 

490,429 
313,987 

6,022 

4,436 
1,586 

798394 

335,252 
211,961 

13,181 
115,000 
22,191 
61,589 
123,291 
21,053 
14,432 

76,956 

10,406 

444 

X 

249,764 

145,247 

48,147 

8,200 

56,370 

121,434 

115,451 
5,983 

91,944 

2,822 

1,883 

47 

X 

41,056 

34,074 

X 

X 

X 

8,253 

304 

671 

2,220 

614 



720,461 

380,291 
340,170 

4,267 

3,124 
1,143 

716,194 

323,458 
238,122 

15,182 
144,535 
20,876 
57,529 
85336 
17339 
10,475 

50,245 

6,737 

540 

X 

220360 

123,238 

48,740 

9,384 

48,382 

114,664 

106,827 
7,837 

57,712 

939 

1,894 

42 

40,301 

6,944 

277 

X 

X 

X 

3,086 

69 

469 

3,168 

523 



915,900 

421,405 
494,495 

4,635 

3,286 
1,349 

911,265 

411,673 
294,174 

20,909 
182,834 
25,452 
64,979 
117,499 
27,501 
18,462 

62,756 

7,844 

936 

X 

300,430 

169,760 
63,971 
11,316 
66,699 

128365 

118,528 
10,037 

70397 

956 

1,660 

29 

58,245 

545 

184 

X 

X 

X 

2,269 

16 

368 

5,812 

513 



798378 

380,719 
417,659 

2348 

1,439 
1,109 

795,830 

303,938 
213331 

22,536 
113,681 
21,943 
55,171 
90,607 
21,810 
17,059 

42,596 

7,781 

1,361 

X 

321,008 

170,263 
76,631 
12,596 
74,114 

112,158 

102,052 
10,106 

58,726 

738 

1,432 

10 

49,360 

14 

64 

X 

X 

20 

1,844 

1 

195 

4,628 

420 



' Includes children. 
' Includes spouses and children. 

' Includes immigrants issued third preference, sixth preference, and special immigrant visas prior to fiscal year 1992. 

* Effective in fiscal year 1992, under the Immigration Act of 1990, children bom abroad to alien residents are included with immediate relatives of U.S. citizens for 
calculating the annual limit of family-sponsored preference immigrants. 
' Includes orphans. 

' Became cancellation of removal effective April I, 1997 with the implementation of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act GIRIRA) of 
1996. 

X Not applicable. 



32 



TABLE 5. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION OF BIRTH AND TYPE AND CLASS OF ADMISSION 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Type and class of admission 



Total 



Europe 



Asia 



Africa 



Oceania 



North 
America 



South 
America 



Unknown 



Total, all immigrants 

Total, subject to world-wide numerical limits '...... 

New arrivals 

Adjustments 

Total, not subject to world-wide numerical limits ' 

New arrivals 

Adjustments 

Adjustments, IRCA legalization 



798378 

353376 

216,203 
137,173 

445,002 

164,516 

277,938 

2,548 



119,871 

44,575 
26,228 
18,347 

75,296 

16,868 
58,401 

27 



265,812 

129,400 

85,667 
43,733 

136,412 

74,302 

62,024 

86 



47,791 

23,501 

18,000 
5,501 

24,290 

8,537 

15,708 

45 



4342 

2,136 

1,386 
750 

2,206 

939 

1,257 

10 



307,488 

132,648 

72,779 
59,869 

174,840 

50,820 

121,699 

2,321 



52,877 

21,021 

12,114 
8,907 

31,856 

13,036 

18,761 

59 



Total, subject to world-wide numerical limits ' 

Family-sponsored preferences 

Legalization dependents 

Employment-based preferences 

Diversity 

Diversity transition 

Total, family-sponsored preferences ................................. 

Total, family 1st preference „.,.„„„,..,„,.„„,......„.. 

1st preference, unmarried sons/daughters of U.S. citizens 

New arrivals (Fl 1, Al I) 

Adjustments (F16, A16, B16) 

1st preference, children of F11,F16, All, A16 

New arrivals (F12, A12) 

Adjustments (F17, A17) 

Total, family 2nd preference „.».«.. 

Total, subject to country limitations 

Total, exempt from country limitations 

2nd preference, spouses of alien residents 

Subject to country limitations 

New arrivals (F2I) 

New arrivals, conditional (C21) 

Adjustments CF26) 

Adjustments, conditional (C26) 

Adjustments, conditional (B26) 

Exempt from country limitations 

New arrivals (BXl) 

New arrivals (FXl) 

Adjustments (FX6) 

Adjustments, conditional (CX6) 

Adjustments, self petition (8X6) 

2nd preference, children of alien residents 

Subject to country limitations 

New arrivals (F22) 

Adjustments (B27) 

Adjustments (F27) 

Adjustments, conditional (C27) 

Exempt from country limitations 

New arrivals (FXl) 

Adjustments (FX7) 

Adjustments, conditional (CX7) 

Adjustments, conditional (BX7) 



353376 

213,331 

64 

90,607 

49,360 

14 

213331 

22336 

17,711 

12,046 

5,665 

4,825 

4,294 

531 

113,681 
65,153 

48328 

31,578 

16,313 

5,633 

2 

10,656 

7 

15 

15,265 

1 

8,139 

7,119 

2 

4 

50,110 

18,458 

6,288 

2 

12,165 

3 

31,652 

20,953 

10,696 

1 

2 



44375 
7,671 

15,121 

21,771 

12 

7,671 

1,163 

941 
590 
351 
222 
180 
42 

1375 

U28 

147 

507 
452 
196 

1 
253 

2 

55 

20 
35 



420 
344 
226 

118 

76 
31 

45 



129,400 

73,197 
4 

47,945 

8,252 

2 

73,197 

5,688 

4,663 
3,699 

964 
1,025 

937 
88 

17,700 

16,161 

1,539 

4,176 
3,556 
2,524 
1 
1,031 



620 

428 
192 



3,245 
2,536 
2,015 

521 

709 
585 
124 



23301 

3,610 

2 

3,665 

16,224 

3,610 

935 

863 

685 

178 

72 

64 

8 

1,294 

1,158 

136 

350 
297 
143 

153 

1 

53 

20 

32 

1 
409 
350 
262 

88 

59 
42 
17 



2,136 

811 

656 
669 

811 

48 

39 

21 

18 

9 

4 

5 

108 

90 

18 

37 
26 
10 

16 



1 
10 



39 

34 
24 

10 

5 
2 
3 



132,648 

1 14,403 

51 

16,807 

1,387 

114,403 

11303 

8,920 
5,486 
3,434 
2,583 
2,301 
282 

87,768 

41,645 

46,123 

25,146 

10,847 

2,244 

8,585 

5 

13 

14,299 

7,585 

6,709 

2 

3 

44,945 

14,336 

3,293 

2 

11,040 

1 

30,609 

20,213 

10,393 

I 

2 



21,021 

13,613 

7 

6,355 

1,046 

13,613 

3,194 

2,282 
1,564 
718 
912 
808 
104 

5,429 

4,864 

565 

1,357 

1,130 

511 

618 

1 

227 

1 

85 

141 



1,050 
856 
467 

387 

2 

194 

80 

114 



See footnotes at end of table. 



33 



TABLE 5. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION OF BIRTH AND TYPE AND CLASS OF ADMISSION 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Type and class of admission 



Total 



Europe 



Asia 



Africa 



Oceania 



North 
America 



South 
America 



Unknown 



2nd pref , children of 2nd. pref. spouse or child 

Subject to country Hmitations 

New arrivals (F23) 

Adjustments (F28) 

Exempt from country limitations 

New arrivals (FX3) 

Adjustments (BX8) 

Adjustments (FX8) 

Adjustments, conditional (CX8) 

2nd preference, unmarried sons and daughters of alien residents ' 

New arrivals (F24) 

Adjustments (F29) 

Adjustments, conditional (C29) 

2nd preference, children of F24. F29, C24, C29 ' 

New arrivals (F25) 

Adjustments (F20) 

Total, family 3rd preference 

3rd preference, married sons/daughters of U.S. citizens 

New arrivals (F31, A31) 

New arrivals, conditional (C31) 

Adjustments (F36, A36) 

3rd preference, spouses of F31,F36, A31, A36, C31,C36 

New arrivals (F32, A32) 

New arrivals, conditional (C32) 

Adjustments (F37, A37) 

Adjustments, conditional (C37) 

3rd preference, children of F31, F36, A31, A36, C31, C36 

New arrivals (F33, A33) 

New arrivals, conditional (C33) 

Adjustments (F38, A38) 

Total, family 4tli preference 

4th preference, brothers or sisters of U.S. citizens 

New arrivals (F41) 

Adjustments, (F46) 

4th preference, spouses of F41 and F46 

New arrivals (F42) 

Adjustments, (F47) 

4th preference, children of F41 and F46 

New arrivals (F43) 

Adjustments (F48) 

Total, legalization dependents 

Spouses of aliens granted legalization 

New arrivals (LBl) 

Adjustments (LB6) 

Children of aliens granted legalization 

New arrivals (LB2) 

Adjustments (LB7) 

Total, employment-based preferences 

Total, employment 1st preference 

1st preference, aliens with extraordinary ability 

New arrivals (Ell) 

Adjustments (E16) 



5,287 

3,676 

3,605 

71 

1,611 

1,568 

1 

40 

2 

20,660 

15,948 

4,710 

2 

6,046 

5,775 

271 

21,943 

5,943 

5,351 

2 

590 

5,277 

4,864 

2 

409 

2 

10,723 

10,138 

1 

584 

55,171 

18,490 
17,054 
1,436 
13,104 
12,512 

592 
23,577 
22,709 

868 

64 

24 
1 

23 

40 
2 

38 

90,607 

21,810 

1,717 

359 

1,358 



56 

40 
38 
2 
16 
16 



330 

208 

121 

1 

62 

53 

9 

3,171 

769 

699 

2 

68 

806 

741 

2 

63 

1,596 

1,522 

1 

73 

1,962 

555 
477 

78 
402 
365 

37 

1,005 

949 

56 



15,121 

6,749 

648 
130 
518 



1,491 

1,281 

1,267 

14 

210 

206 



7,395 
6,386 
1,009 

1,393 
1,360 

33 

12,814 

3,463 
3,299 

164 
3,063 
2,946 

117 

6,288 
6,134 

154 

36,995 

11,951 

11,408 

543 

9,332 

9,121 

211 

15,712 

15,398 

314 

4 

1 



47,945 

9,261 

728 
142 
586 



80 
56 

55 

1 

24 

24 



365 

271 

94 

90 

84 

6 

264 

86 
67 

19 
74 
63 



104 
93 



1,117 

444 
420 

24 
289 
273 

16 
384 
367 

17 

2 

2 



3,665 

738 
80 
25 
55 



25 

21 

4 

2 
2 



72 
14 
11 

3 
19 
15 



39 
36 



583 

158 
144 

14 
130 
123 
7 
295 
285 

10 



656 

334 

30 

9 

21 



3,102 

1,887 

1,837 

50 

1,215 

1,179 

1 

33 

2 

10,879 

7,802 

3,076 

1 

3,696 

3,509 

187 

3,875 

1,084 

841 

243 
881 
730 

149 

2 

1,910 

1,637 

273 

11,257 

4,177 
3,535 

642 
2,229 
1,973 

256 
4,851 
4,440 

411 

51 

18 

18 

33 

1 

32 

16,807 

3,516 

153 

32 

121 



553 
409 
405 
4 
144 
141 



1,666 

1,260 

406 

803 

767 

36 

1,746 

527 
434 

93 
434 
369 

65 

785 
715 

70 

3,244 

1,205 

1,070 

135 

722 

657 

65 

1,317 

1,257 

60 

7 
2 
I 
1 
5 
1 
4 

6,355 

1,192 

77 
21 
56 



See fooUiotes at end of table. 



34 



TABLE 5. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION OF BIRTH AND TYPE AND CLASS OF ADMISSION 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Type and class of admission 



1st pteference, outstanding professors or researchers 

New arrivals (E12) 

Adjustments (El 7) 

1st preference, multinational executives or managers 

New arrivals (E13) 

Adjustments (El 8) 

1st preference, spouses of El 1, E16, E12, E17, E13, E18 ... 

New arrivals (E14) 

Adjustments (El 9) 

1st preference, children of El I, E16, E12, E17, E13. E18 .. 

New arrivals (E15) 

Adjustments (ElO) 

Total, employment 2nd preference 

2nd preference, professionals holding advanced degrees .... 

New arrivals (E21) 

New arrivals (ESI) 

Adjustments (E26) 

Adjustments (ES6) 

2nd preference, spouses of E21, E26 

New arrivals (E22) 

Adjustments (E27) 

2nd preference, children of E2I, E26 

New arrivals (E23) 

Adjustments CE28) 

Total, employment 3rd preference 

Total, skilled workers, professionals, and their families . 

3rd preference, skilled workers 

New arrivals (E31) 

Adjustments (E36) 

3rd preference, professionals with a baccalaureate degree . 

New arrivals (E32) 

Adjustments (E37) 

3rd preference, spouses of E31, E36, E32, E37 

New arrivals (E34) 

Adjustments (E39) 

3rd preference, children of E3I, E36, E32, E37 

New arrivals (E35) 

Adjustments (E30) 

3rd preference, Chinese Student Protection Act 

Principals, adjustments (EC6) 

Spouses, adjustments (EC7) 

Children, adjustments (ECS) 

Total, unskilled workers and their families 

3rd preference, needed unskilled workers 

New arrivals (EW3) 

Adjustments (EW8) 

3rd preference, spouses of EW3, EW8 

New arrivals (EW4) 

Adjustments (EW9) 

3rd preference, children of EW3, EW8 

New arrivals (EW5) 

Adjustmenu (EWO) 



Total 



2,097 

60 

2,037 

5,325 

784 
4,541 
6,212 

987 
5,225 
6,459 
1,269 
5,190 

17,059 

8,393 

333 

1 

8,036 
23 

5,727 
294 

5,433 

2.939 
415 

2,524 

42,596 

33,894 

10,564 

1,387 

9,177 

3,972 

232 

3,740 

8,830 

2,415 

6.415 

10.386 

5,158 

5,228 

142 

132 

2 

8 

8,702 

4,036 
412 
3,624 
1,811 
486 
1,325 
2,855 
1,570 
1,285 



Europe 



597 
27 

570 
1,748 

275 
1,473 
1,836 

310 
1,526 
1,920 

320 
1,600 

2^48 

1,074 

89 

1 

961 

23 
625 

64 
561 
649 

91 
558 

5,017 

4,741 

1,639 
358 

1,281 

561 

62 

499 

1,204 
336 
868 

1,337 
644 
693 



276 

153 
15 

138 
64 
15 
49 
59 
26 
33 



Asia 



1,233 

20 

1,213 

2,058 

281 

1,777 

2,864 

437 

2,427 

2,378 

558 

1,820 

12,337 

6,307 
128 

6.179 

4,494 
143 

4,351 

1,536 
167 

1,369 

21,946 

19,902 

5,528 

687 

4,841 

2,718 

109 

2,609 

5,409 

1,756 

3.653 

6,106 

3,505 

2,601 

141 

132 

2 

7 

2,044 

798 
263 
535 
523 
283 
240 
723 
522 
201 



Africa 



81 

2 

79 
167 

25 
142 
189 

42 
147 
221 

66 
155 

656 

322 
30 

292 

169 
20 

149 

165 
32 

133 

1,640 

1,495 

473 

91 

382 

212 

33 

179 

335 

89 

246 

475 

206 

269 



145 

81 
9 
72 
24 
3 
21 
40 
19 
21 



Oceania 



28 

28 
91 
14 
77 
88 
11 
77 
97 
13 
84 

55 

31 

2 

29 

10 

10 
14 

14 

204 

200 

79 
26 
53 
32 

6 
26 
39 

7 

32 
50 
19 
31 



North 
America 



100 

5 
95 
933 
163 
770 
905 
154 
751 

1,425 
261 

1.164 

1,202 

430 
76 

354 

287 
61 
226 
485 
120 
365 

9,772 

4,865 

1.897 

149 
1,748 

315 
18 

297 
1,160 

128 
1,032 
1,493 

449 
1,044 



4,907 

2,406 
85 

2,321 
911 
134 
777 

1,590 
778 
812 



South 
America 



56 
6 

50 
319 

26 
293 
325 

33 
292 
415 

51 
364 

448 

221 
8 

213 

139 

6 

133 

88 

5 

83 

3,998 

2,673 

942 

76 

866 

130 

3 

127 

679 

98 

581 

921 

335 

586 

1 



1325 

597 
39 
558 
288 
51 
237 
440 
222 
218 



Unknown 



See footnotes at end of table. 



35 



TABLE 5. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION OF BIRTH AND TYPE AND CLASS OF ADMISSION 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Type and class of admission 



Total 



Europe 



Asia 



Africa 



Oceania 



North 
America 



South 
America 



Unknown 



Total, employment 4th preference, special immigrants 

Total, ministers, spouses, and children 

Ministers 

New arrivals (SDl) 

Adjustments (SD6) 

Spouses of ministers 

New arrivals (SD2) 

Adjustments (SD7) 

Children of ministers 

New arrivals (SD3) 

Adjustments (SD8) 

Total, employees of U.S. gov. abroad, spouses & children 

Employees of U.S. government abroad 

New arrivals (SEl) 

Spouses of employees of U.S. government abroad 

New arrivals (SE2) 

Children of employees of U.S. government abroad 

New arrivals (SE3) 

Adjustments (SE8) 

Totol, Panama Canal Act (P.L. 96-70) 

Accompanying spouses or children of SFl and SF6 (certain 
former employees of the PC Company and CZ government) 

New arrivals (SF2) 

Adjustments (SF7) 

Certain former employees of U.S. government in Panama CZ ... 

New arrivals (SGI) 

Accompanying spouses or children of SGI and SG6 

New arrivals (SG2) 

Certain employees of PC Co. or CZ government on 4/1/79 

Adjustments (SH6) 

Total, retired employees of international organizations 

and their families 

Retired employees of international organizations 

New arrivals (SKI) 

Adjustments (SK6) 

Accompanying spouses of SKI orSK6 

New arrivals (SK2) 

Adjustments (SK7) 

Unmarried children of SKI or SK6 

New arrivals (SK3) 

Adjustments (SK8) 

Surviving spouses of employees of international organizations .. 

Adjustments (SK9) 

Total, juvenile court dependents 

Adjustments (SL6) 

Total, aliens serving in U.S. Armed Forces, spouses, & children 

Served in U.S. Armed Forces for 12 years (elig. after 10/1/91) .. 

New arrivals (SMI) 

Adjustments (SM6) 

Spouses of SMI or SM6 

New arrivals (SM2) 

Adjustments (SM7) 

Children of SMI orSM6 

New arrivals (SM3) 

Adjustments (SMS) 



7,781 

1,555 

621 
155 
466 
355 
136 
219 
579 
244 
335 

638 

191 
191 
148 
148 
299 
296 
3 

42 

2 

I 

1 

16 

16 

23 

23 

1 



334 
111 

6 

105 

25 

1 

24 

197 

5 
192 

1 

1 

430 

430 

77 
19 

9 
10 
20 

9 
11 
22 
19 

3 



939 

154 

70 
23 
47 
33 
15 
18 
51 
33 
18 

26 

7 
7 
6 
6 
13 
13 



67 

18 
2 

16 
6 
I 
5 

42 
1 

41 
1 
1 

11 

11 



3,159 

712 

296 

83 

213 

163 

74 

89 

253 

126 

127 

421 

120 
120 
103 
103 
198 
196 
2 



117 

40 

1 

39 

11 

11 
66 

2 
64 



17 

17 

75 
19 

9 
10 
19 

8 
11 
21 
18 

3 



627 

177 
70 

7 
63 
40 

6 

34 
67 
15 
52 

55 

15 
15 



32 

31 

1 



61 

20 
2 

18 
3 

3 
38 

38 



63 

13 

7 
3 
4 
3 
1 
2 
3 
3 



2,296 

366 

131 
31 

100 
88 
35 
53 

147 
54 
93 

123 

46 
46 
28 
28 
49 
49 



41 



691 

128 

47 
8 
39 
27 
5 
22 
54 
12 
42 

4 

2 
2 
2 
2 



2 


- 


1 


_ 


15 


1 


15 


1 


23 




23 


- 


1 


- 


I 


- 


29 


59 


11 


21 


11 


20 


1 


4 


1 


4 


17 


34 


16 


33 


384 


9 


384 


9 



See footnotes at end of table. 



36 



TABLE 5. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION OF BIRTH AND TYPE AND CLASS OF ADMISSION 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Type and class of admission 



Served in U.S. Armed Forces for 12 years (elig. before 10/1/91) 

New arrivals (SM4) 

Adjustments (SM9) 

Spouses or children of SM4 or SM9 

New arrivals (SMS) 

Adjustments (SMO) 

Total, religious workers and their families 

Religious workers 

New arrivals (SRI) 

Adjustments (SR6) 

Spouses of SR 1 or SR6 

New arrivals (SR2) 

Adjustments (SR7) 

Children of SRI orSR6 

New arrivals (SR3) 

Adjustments (SR8) 

Total, employment 5th preference 

5th preference, employment creation, not in targeted area 

New arrivals, conditional (C51) 

Adjustments, conditional (C56) 

Adjustments, conditional (R56) 

5th preference, spouses of C51, C56, R56 

New arrivals, conditional (C52) 

New arrivals, conditional (R52) 

Adjustments, conditional (C57) 

5th preference, children of C51, C56, R56 

New arrivals, conditional (C53) 

New arrivals, conditional (R53) 

Adjustments, conditional (C58) 

5th preference, employment creation, targeted area 

New arrivals, conditional (151) 

New arrivals, conditional (T51) 

Adjustments, conditional (156) 

Adjustments, conditional (T56) 

5th preference, spouses of T51, T56 

New arrivals, conditional (152) 

New arrivals, conditional (T52) 

Adjustments, conditional (157) 

Adjustments, conditional (T57) 

5th preference, children of T51, T56 

New arrivals, conditional (153) 

New arrivals, conditional (T53) 

Adjustments, conditional (158) 

Adjustments, conditional (T58) 

Total, diversity 

Principals 

New arrivals (DVl) 

Adjustments (DV6) 

Spouses of DVl, DV6 

New arrivals (DV2) 

Adjustments (DV7) 

Children of DVl, DV6 

New arrivals (DV3) 

Adjustments (DV8) 

Total, diversity transition 



Total 



5 
2 
3 
11 
5 
6 

4,705 

2,258 
202 

2,056 
974 
162 
812 

1,473 
356 

1,117 

1,361 

129 

53 

75 

1 

87 

38 

1 

48 

124 

62 

1 

61 

315 

5 

248 

3 

59 

227 

1 

192 

3 

31 

479 

4 

416 

3 

56 

49,360 

24.185 
18,407 

5,778 
11.672 

9,659 

2,013 
13,503 
12,067 

1,436 

14 



Europe 



680 

356 

54 

302 

153 

41 

112 

171 

62 

109 

68 

22 
4 
18 

7 
1 

6 

7 



5 

3 

2 
13 

4 

9 

21,771 
10.057 
7,043 
3.014 
5.358 
4,230 
1,128 
6,356 
5,586 
770 

12 



Asia 



5 
2 
3 
II 
5 
6 

1,817 

885 
81 
804 
379 
52 
327 
553 
110 
443 

1,242 

97 

47 

49 

1 

72 

36 

1 

35 

107 

62 

1 

44 

295 

5 

242 

I 

47 

217 

1 

188 

1 

27 

454 

4 

409 

1 

40 

8,252 
4,270 
3,419 

851 
1,781 
1.511 

270 
2,201 
2,035 

166 



Africa 



325 

184 

7 

177 

61 

12 

49 

80 

15 

65 

4 
1 



Oceania 



16,224 

8,509 
7,174 
1,335 
3,804 
3,430 

374 
3,911 
3,653 

258 



39 

21 
4 

17 
8 
4 
4 

10 
3 
7 



669 

279 
208 

71 
143 
120 

23 
247 
215 

32 



North 
America 



1353 
606 

38 
568 
259 

40 
219 
488 
132 
356 

21 

6 

2 
4 

5 
1 

4 
3 



South 
America 



Unknown 



490 

205 

18 

187 

114 

13 

101 

171 

34 

137 

26 

3 

3 

2 



2 


- 


- 


2 


4 


8 


3 


_ 


I 


1 


- 


7 


1,387 


1,046 


570 


493 


386 


173 


184 


320 


342 


242 


274 


93 


68 


149 


475 


311 


401 


177 


74 


134 



See footnotes at end of table. 



37 



TABLE 5. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION OF BIRTH AND TYPE AND CLASS OF ADMISSION 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Type and class of admission 



Total 



Europe 



Asia 



Africa 



Oceania 



North 
America 



South 
America 



Unknown 



Natives of certain foreign states 

New arrivals (AAl) 

Adjustments (AA6) 

Spouses of AAl, AA6 

New arrivals (AA2) 

Children of AAl, AA6 

New arrivals (AA3) 

Total, not subject to world-wide numerical limits ' 

Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens 

Children bom abroad to alien residents 

Amerasians (P.L. 100-202) 

Employees of U.S. businesses in Hong Kong and their families .... 

IRCA legalization adjustments 

Refugee and asylee adjustments 

Other adjustments 

Other new arrivals 

Total, immediate relatives of U.S. citizens ' 

Total, spouses of U.S. citizens 

New arrivals (IBl) 

New arrivals (IRl) 

New arrivals, conditional (CRl) 

New arrivals, widow or widower (IWl) 

Adjustments (IR6) 

Adjustments (IB6) 

Adjustments, conditional (CR6) 

Adjustments, entered as a fiance(e) (IFl) 

Adjustments, entered as a fiance(e), conditional (CFl) 

Adjustments, widow or widower (rW6) 

Total, children of U.S. citizens 

New arrivals (1R2, ARl) 

New arrivals, conditional (CR2) 

New arrivals, entered as child or widow(er) (IW2) 

Adjustments (IR7, AR6) 

Adjustments (1B7) 

Adjustments, child of IBl orIB6 (IB8) 

Adjustments, conditional (CR7) 

Adjustments, entered as child of a fiance(e) (IF2) 

Adjustments, entered as child of a fiance(e), conditional (CF2) 

Adjustments, entered as child or widow(er) (1W7) 

Total, orphans 

Orphans adopted abroad 

New arrivals (1R3) 

Adjustments (1R8) 

Orphans to be adopted 

New arrivals (IR4) 

Adjustments (1R9) 

Total, parents of adult U.S. citizens 

New arrivals (1R5) 

Adjustments (IRO) 

Children bom abroad to alien residents (NA3) 

Total, Amerasians (P.L. 100-202) 

Amerasians, bom in Vietnam from 1/1/62-1/1/76 

New arrivals (AMI) 

Spouses or children of AMI or AM6 

New arrivals (AM2) 

Mothers, guardians, or next-of-kin of AMI or AM6 

New arrivals (AM3) 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1 
3 
3 
2 
2 

445,002 

321,008 

1,432 

738 

42 

2,548 

112,158 

6,712 

364 

321,008 

170,263 

3 

21,593 

29,988 

55 

45,249 

155 

67,330 

95 

5,711 

84 

76,631 

33,406 

6,691 

22 

19,163 

19 

8 

4,161 

19 

529 

17 

12,596 

8,569 

8,544 

25 

4,027 

4,020 

7 

74,114 

57,618 

16,496 

1,432 

738 
197 
197 
335 
335 
206 
206 



8 
8 

2 
2 
2 
2 

75,296 

33,463 
319 



27 

39,795 

1,661 

31 
33,463 
21,634 

2,922 

4,668 

6 

2,932 

21 

9,848 

II 

1,219 

7 

8,527 

1,352 

865 

732 



467 

4 

190 

4,916 

4,198 

4,195 

3 

718 

716 

2 

3302 

1,794 

1,508 

319 



136,412 

103,058 

498 

738 

41 

86 

30,835 

1,109 

47 

103,058 

46,907 

8,955 

15,284 

28 

6,305 

31 

13,235 

64 

2,992 

13 

21,024 

11,027 

1,537 

12 

1,940 

2 

3 

416 

12 

174 

5,901 

3,340 

3,335 

5 

2,561 

2,558 

3 

35,127 

30,242 

4,885 

498 
738 
197 
197 
335 
335 
206 
206 



24,290 

16,293 
64 



45 

7,651 

224 

13 

16,293 

9,715 

1 

1,100 

2,105 

1 

1,826 

11 

4,315 

6 

345 

5 

3,590 

2,646 

256 

472 



71 
9 

136 

87 
86 
1 
49 
49 

2,988 

2,216 

772 

64 



2,206 

2,088 
19 

1 

10 

59 

28 

1 

2,088 

1,647 

273 
397 

1 
258 

1 
650 

1 
66 

234 

93 

32 

80 



22 
4 

3 

2 
2 

1 

1 

207 

119 
88 
19 



174,840 

135,541 

454 



2,321 

32,898 

3,358 

268 

135,541 

72,725 

2 

6,901 

4,857 

15 

30,216 

71 

29,809 

8 

796 

50 

35,825 

15,348 

2,538 

10 

14,486 

14 

4 

2,163 

2 

106 

15 

1,139 

491 

480 

11 

648 

646 

2 

26,991 

19,301 

7,690 

454 



31,856 

30,496 
78 



59 

890 

329 

4 

30,496 

17,582 

1,434 
2,675 

4 

3,703 

20 

9,439 

5 
293 

9 
7,426 
2,938 
1,463 

1,453 
2 
1 

1,019 

1 

46 

2 

501 

451 

446 

5 

50 

50 

5,488 

3,944 
1,544 

78 



38 



TABLE 5. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY REGION OF BIRTH AND TYPE AND CLASS OF ADMISSION 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Type and class of admission 



Total 



Europe 



Asia 



Africa 



Oceania 



North 
America 



South 
America 



Unknown 



Total, employees of VS. businesses in Hong Kong and their families 

Employees of U.S. businesses in Hong Kong 

New arrivals (HKI) 

Spouses of HKI, HK6 

New arrivals (HK2) 

Children of HKI. HK6 

New arrivals (HK3) 



Total, IRCA legalization adjustments 

Entered without inspection before 1/1/82 (W16) 

Entered as nonimmigrant and overstayed before 1/1/82 (W26) .... 

Blanket EVD group (W36) 

Special Agricultural Workers (SAW), working in 1984-86 (SI 6) 
Special Agricultural Workers (SAW), working in 1986 (S26) 



Total, refugee and asylee adjustments 

Total, Cuban refugees (P.L. 89-732) 

Cuban refugees (CU6) 

Non-Cuban spouses or children of Cuban refugees (CU7) 

Total, Indochinese refugees (P.L. 95-145) „.. 

Indochinese refugees (1C6) 

Refugee parolees (P.L. 95-412) (R86) 



Total, refugees (PX. 96-212) 

Refugees (RE6) 

Spouses of refugees (RE7) 

Children of refugees (RE8) 

Other persons deriving refugee status (RE9) , 



Total, asylees (P.L. 96-212) . 

Asylees(AS6) 

Spouses of asylees (AS7) .... 
Children of asylees (ASS) ... 



Total, other adjustments 

Cuban/Haitian entrants (PL. 99-603) (CH6) 

Individuals bom under diplomatic status in U.S. (DSI) 

ToUl, foimer H-1 nurses (P.L. 101-238) 

Accompanying spouse or child of RN6 (nurses) (RN7) 

Parolees. Polish/Hungarian (PH6) 

Parolees. Soviet Union or Indochina (LA6) 

Presumed admitted for lawful permanent residence (XB3) 

Section 13 (P.L. 85-316) (Z83) 

Section 249, entered before 7/1/24 (Z33) 

Section 249, entered 7/1/24-6/28/40 (Z03) 

Section 249. entered 6/29/40-1/1/72 (Z66) 

Suspension of deportation — other than crewman, Section 244 (Z13) ' 

Total, other new arrivals 

American Indians bom in Canada (S13) 

Total, children bom subsequent to issuance of visa 

Parent's visa type is unknown (XA3) 

Parent's visa type is family-sponsored preference (XF3) 

Parent's visa type is employment-based preference (XE3) 

Parent's visa type is immediate relative (XR3) 

Parent's visa type is not family-sponsored, employment-based or 
immediate relative (XN3) 



42 
19 
19 
II 
11 
12 
12 

2,548 

1.166 

258 

15 

23 
1,086 

112,158 
27,967 

27,349 
618 

3 

3 



74,079 

42,262 

11,327 

20,386 

104 

10,106 

6,501 
1,231 

2,374 

6,712 

10 

10 

1 

1 

20 

1,844 

3 

1 

2 

1 

192 

4,628 

364 
250 
114 

1 

28 

7 

30 

48 



27 
2 

20 
5 



39,795 
64 

22 
42 



37,866 

20,315 

7,146 

10,341 

64 

1,863 

1,160 
291 
412 

1,661 



20 
1,329 



21 
290 

31 

1 

30 

4 
1 



17 



41 

19 
19 

II 
II 
II 
II 

86 

8 
50 

2 
26 

30,835 
9 

6 
3 

3 

3 

I 

27,944 

16,125 

3,737 

8,056 

26 

2,878 
1,656 

402 
820 

1,109 

1 
1 

I 

512 
3 



28 
564 

47 

47 
1 

12 
5 

12 

17 



45 

2 
29 
10 

1 
3 

7,651 
4 

I 
3 



5,262 

3,320 

261 

1,679 

2 

2385 

1,689 

245 

451 

224 



11 
213 

13 

13 

I 

4 



10 

2 

4 



59 



59 

24 
10 
25 

28 



2 
26 

1 
1 



2321 

1,127 

133 

20 
1,041 

32,898 
27,549 

27,284 
265 



2,995 

2,494 

183 

306 

12 

2,354 

1,660 

199 

495 

3358 

10 

9 



I 

I 

I 

119 

3,217 

268 

249 

19 



59 

25 

22 



12 

890 

319 

14 
305 



562 

307 

84 

171 

329 



11 
318 



' World-wide numerical limits include family-sponsored preferences, legalization dependents, employment-based preferences, and diversity programs. 
' Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens in previous editions of the Statistical Yearbook are included with admissions not subject to a numerical cap. Immediate relatives 
may immigrate without limit but the number affects the limit set for family-sponsored preference immigrants. ' Subject to countfy limitations. * Became 
cancellation of removal effective April 1, 1997 with the implementation of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) of 1996. 
NOTE: Symbol enclosed in parentheses is the visa or adjustment code. - Represents zero. 



TABLE 6. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY CLASS OF ADMISSION AND REGION AND SELECTED 
FOREIGN STATE OF CHARGEABELITY UNDER THE PREFERENCE CATEGORIES 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Region and 




Family-sponsored preferences 


Employment-based preferences 


























foreign state 


Total 




1st 


2nd 


3rd 


4th 




1st 


2nd 


3rd 


4th 


5th 


of chargeability 




Total 


pref. 


pref. 


pief. 


pref 


Total 


pref. 


pref. 


pref 


pref 


pref. 


All countries 


303,938 


213,331 


22,536 


113,681 


21,943 


55,171 


90,607 


21,810 


17,059 


42,596 


7,781 


1361 


Europe 


22,055 


7,666 


1,189 


1,258 


3,172 


2,047 


1439 


6,290 


2,193 


4,876 


958 


72 


Albania 


484 


464 


21 


1 


440 


2 


20 


9 


- 


10 


1 


- 


Bulgaria 


323 


32 


12 


9 


7 


4 


291 


123 


61 


99 


8 


- 


Czechoslovakia, 


























former 


183 


46 


10 


12 


20 


4 


137 


52 


39 


42 


3 


1 


Czech Republic 


11 


3 


1 


2 


- 


- 


8 


4 


1 


3 


- 


- 


Slovak Republic 


74 


24 


5 


4 


15 


- 


50 


16 


10 


23 


I 


- 


Unknown rep. .. 


98 


19 


4 


6 


5 


4 


79 


32 


28 


16 


2 


1 


France 


833 


147 


29 


37 


30 


51 


686 


369 


100 


183 


30 


4 


Germany 


1,137 


133 


28 


24 


51 


30 


1.004 


579 


136 


225 


60 


4 


Hungary 


231 


37 


14 


5 


5 


13 


194 


100 


49 


35 


10 


- 


Ireland 


206 


38 


8 


6 


11 


13 


168 


73 


15 


54 


26 


- 


Italy 


584 


159 


19 


33 


31 


76 


425 


176 


53 


166 


30 


- 


Netherlands 


375 


68 


18 


18 


15 


17 


307 


148 


45 


98 


16 


- 


Poland 


5,122 


3,525 


535 


616 


2,024 


350 


1,597 


125 


126 


1.099 


247 


- 


Portugal 


1,053 


690 


18 


86 


11 


575 


363 


27 


7 


319 


7 


3 


Portugal 


936 


586 


17 


73 


9 


487 


350 


23 


6 


314 


7 


- 


Macau 


117 


104 


1 


13 


2 


88 


13 


4 


1 


5 


- 


3 


Romania 


817 


347 


64 


23 


138 


122 


470 


54 


97 


222 


97 


- 


Soviet Union, fmr. 


3,180 


235 


92 


63 


70 


10 


2.945 


1.256 


775 


723 


155 


36 


Armenia 


291 


37 


14 


13 


8 


2 


254 


45 


16 


189 


4 


- 


Azerbaijan 


49 


5 


4 


- 


1 


- 


44 


16 


9 


19 


- 


- 


Belarus 


65 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


63 


24 


15 


17 


7 


- 


Georgia 


65 


5 


2 


2 


- 


1 


60 


31 


17 


7 


5 


- 


Russia 


1,854 


103 


42 


26 


29 


6 


1.751 


842 


535 


292 


54 


28 


Ukraine 


453 


65 


22 


19 


23 


1 


388 


130 


78 


112 


68 


- 


Uzbekistan 


35 


7 


1 


1 


5 


- 


28 


8 


5 


9 


6 


- 


Other republics 


HO 


7 


3 


- 


4 


- 


103 


50 


20 


23 


6 


4 


Unknown rep. .. 


258 


4 


2 


2 


- 


- 


254 


110 


80 


55 


5 


4 


Switzerland 


299 


34 


10 


9 


5 


10 


265 


169 


18 


62 


11 


5 


United Kingdom 


4,878 


900 


222 


171 


135 


372 


3.978 


2,304 


401 


1.107 


153 


13 


Yugoslavia, former 


815 


438 


31 


76 


112 


219 


377 


89 


98 


148 


42 


- 


Bosnia- 


























Herzegovina 


45 


25 


2 


2 


7 


14 


20 


7 


4 


5 


4 


- 


Other, unknown 


770 


413 


29 


74 


105 


205 


357 


82 


94 


143 


38 


- 


Other Europe 


1,535 


373 


58 


69 


67 


179 


1,162 


637 


173 


284 


62 


6 


Asia 


11733 


7130 


5,658 


16,107 


12,806 


36,809 


45,923 


8,756 


11,482 


2130 


3,099 


1,236 


Bangladesh 


2,063 


1.579 


105 


762 


112 


600 


484 


57 


136 


230 


61 


- 


Burma 


580 


521 


28 


90 


49 


354 


59 


6 


19 


18 


16 


- 


China, People's Rep. 


24,711 


11,201 


542 


2,791 


1,513 


6.355 


13,510 


3,489 


4,471 


5,036 


88 


426 


Hong Kong 


3,193 


2,257 


141 


438 


212 


1.466 


936 


235 


120 


466 


31 


84 


India 


22,648 


13.903 


664 


2,601 


1.445 


9,193 


8.745 


1,515 


3.842 


2.984 


386 


18 


Indonesia 


302 


162 


20 


43 


19 


80 


140 


28 


17 


53 


27 


15 


Iran 


2,684 


1.742 


161 


633 


118 


830 


942 


91 


153 


663 


24 


It 


Iraq 


610 


481 


57 


72 


126 


226 


129 


21 


42 


60 


6 


- 


Israel 


997 


264 


44 


63 


47 


110 


733 


199 


83 


331 


116 


4 


Japan 


1,761 


158 


19 


72 


27 


40 


1,603 


927 


90 


474 


101 


II 


Jordan 


1,382 


1,142 


81 


302 


228 


531 


240 


36 


88 


84 


29 


3 


Korea 


8,589 


3,973 


239 


885 


283 


2,566 


4,616 


597 


116 


2,447 


1.193 


263 


Lebanon 


1,537 


1,172 


149 


426 


184 


413 


365 


31 


75 


241 


13 


5 


Malaysia 


453 


144 


7 


44 


11 


82 


309 


51 


47 


195 


13 


3 


Pakistan 


5,611 


4,108 


297 


1.325 


338 


2.148 


1.503 


177 


586 


588 


142 


10 


Philippines 


22.894 


16.030 


1,642 


3.791 


6,335 


4.262 


6.864 


224 


420 


5,645 


570 


5 


Sri Lanka 


492 
923 


189 
622 


18 
34 


37 
176 


26 
109 


108 
303 


303 
301 


28 
13 


79 
143 


176 
114 


20 
31 


_ 


Syria 


- 


Taiwan 


4.517 


1,829 


219 


428 


93 


1.089 


2,688 


731 


732 


789 


69 


367 



See footnotes at end of table. 



40 



TABLE 6. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY CLASS OF ADMISSION AND REGION AND SELECTED 
FOREIGN STATE OF CHARGEABILITY UNDER THE PREFERENCE CATEGORIES 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 









Family-s 


ponsored preferences 






Employment-based preferences 




Region and 
foreign stale 


























Total 
























of chargeability 




Total 


1st 
pref. 


2nd 
pref. 


3rd 
pref. 


4th 
pref 


Total 


1st 
pref. 


2nd 
pref 


3rd 
pref 


4th 
pref 


5th 
pref. 


Thailand 


562 


340 


40 


136 


26 


138 


222 


10 


12 


156 


44 


. 


Turkey 


617 


166 


13 


82 


16 


55 


451 


136 


62 


225 


27 


1 


Vietnam 


8,078 


7,978 


822 


627 


1,056 


5,473 


100 


7 


16 


56 


21 


- 


Yemen 


372 


361 


118 


55 


164 


24 


11 


2 


4 


4 


1 


- 


Other Asia 


1,727 


1,058 


198 


228 


269 


363 


669 


145 


129 


315 


70 


10 


Africa ...„ 


7,072 


3,601 


941 


1,155 


257 


1,248 


3,471 


652 


632 


1387 


596 


4 


Algeria 


71 


15 


2 


4 


5 


4 


56 


15 


17 


21 


3 


- 


Cameroon 


89 


27 


13 


11 


1 


2 


62 


9 


15 


26 


12 


. 


Cape Verde 


337 


320 


25 


201 


3 


91 


17 


2 


I 


12 


2 


- 


Egypt 


1,370 


861 


50 


154 


101 


556 


509 


105 


101 


237 


66 


- 


Eritrea 


36 


25 


13 


10 


- 


2 


11 


2 


I 


5 


3 


- 


Ethiopia 


267 


170 


67 


85 


10 


8 


97 


9 


14 


42 


32 


- 


Ghana 


798 


583 


350 


170 


32 


31 


215 


17 


51 


83 


64 


- 


Kenya 


326 


199 


10 


27 


11 


151 


127 


30 


38 


36 


23 


. 


Liberia 


312 


224 


144 


59 


12 


9 


88 


9 


7 


35 


37 


- 


Morroco 


183 


80 


7 


46 


5 


22 


103 


20 


17 


56 


10 


- 


Nigeria 


935 


326 


104 


197 


16 


9 


609 


79 


137 


273 


120 


- 


Sierra Leone 


209 


141 


92 


42 


3 


4 


68 


2 


14 


45 


7 


- 


South Africa 


986 


160 


13 


19 


24 


104 


826 


226 


81 


442 


73 


4 


Sudan 


59 


18 


3 


8 


1 


6 


41 


13 


17 


11 


- 


- 


Other Africa 


1,094 


452 


48 


122 


33 


249 


642 


114 


121 


263 


144 


- 


Oceania 


1,427 


792 


51 


91 


68 


582 


635 


309 


51 


208 


67 


. 


Australia 


505 


39 


13 


14 


10 


2 


466 


249 


39 


144 


34 


- 


Hji 


653 


631 


16 


40 


37 


538 


22 


4 


3 


4 


11 


- 


Other Oceania 


269 


122 


22 


37 


21 


42 


147 


56 


9 


60 


22 


- 


North America .... 


84^15 


67,957 


11,422 


41,473 


3,859 


11,203 


16358 


3312 


1,154 


9,646 


2,232 


14 


Canada 


6,206 


910 


212 


138 


212 


348 


5,296 


2,818 


967 


1,310 


192 


9 


Mexico 


30,734 


27,694 


2,441 


18,599 


1,709 


4,945 


3,040 


343 


56 


2,044 


592 


5 


Caribbean 


31,530 


28,154 


6,818 


15,108 


1,452 


4,776 


3376 


86 


102 


2,208 


980 


- 


Barbados 


383 


274 


103 


85 


36 


50 


109 


2 


2 


91 


14 


- 


Cuba 


1,169 


1,119 


781 


74 


136 


128 


50 


3 


3 


6 


38 


- 


Dominican Rep. 


11,249 


11,026 


1,193 


7,883 


417 


1,533 


223 


24 


14 


67 


118 


- 


Haiti 


5,714 


5,418 


1,011 


3,621 


121 


665 


296 


- 


8 


114 


174 


- 


Jamaica 


8,254 


7,305 


2,626 


2,591 


368 


1,720 


949 


22 


18 


564 


345 


- 


Trinidad & 


























Tobago 


2,982 


1,660 


596 


382 


306 


376 


1,322 


20 


41 


1,035 


226 


- 


Other Caribbean 


1,779 


1,352 


508 


472 


68 


304 


427 


15 


16 


331 


65 


- 


Central America 


15345 


11,199 


1,951 


7,628 


486 


1,134 


4,646 


65 


29 


4,084 


468 


- 


El Salvador 


8,115 


5,363 


708 


4,246 


82 


327 


2,752 


9 


7 


2,636 


100 


- 


Guatemala 


3,067 


2,188 


252 


1,628 


64 


244 


879 


14 


1 


760 


104 


- 


Honduras 


2,218 


1,881 


476 


1,027 


155 


223 


337 


11 


2 


272 


52 


- 


Nicaragua 


1,321 


965 


274 


462 


75 


154 


356 


9 


- 


293 


54 


- 


Panama 


512 


336 


131 


93 


41 


71 


176 


5 


8 


50 


113 


- 


Other C. America 


612 


466 


110 


172 


69 


115 


146 


17 


11 


73 


45 


- 


South America .... 


19,045 


13,001 


3,179 


4,847 


1,739 


3,236 


6,044 


1,075 


428 


3,859 


658 


24 


Argentina 


821 


237 


54 


68 


34 


81 


584 


149 


86 


268 


76 


5 


Bolivia 


725 


245 


54 


133 


8 


50 


480 


23 


11 


438 


8 


- 


Brazil 


1,546 


385 


80 


213 


38 


54 


1,161 


421 


67 


527 


139 


7 


Chile 


449 


224 


40 


74 


44 


66 


225 


43 


14 


139 


25 


4 


Colombia 


3,667 


2,839 


835 


927 


314 


763 


828 


97 


62 


557 


108 


4 


Ecuador 


2,865 


2,204 


358 


1,243 


199 


404 


661 


20 


18 


585 


35 


3 


Guyana 


4,650 


4.134 


1,103 


1,035 


825 


1,171 


516 


23 


10 


383 


100 


- 


Peru 


3,206 


2,352 


541 


1,012 


227 


572 


854 


50 


85 


644 


74 


1 


Venezuela 


784 


244 


89 


83 


39 


33 


540 


228 


53 


187 


72 


- 


Other S. America 


332 


137 


25 


59 


11 


42 


195 


21 


22 


131 


21 


- 


No country limitation 


48,520 


48,520 


- 


48,520 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Unknown 


4,201 


414 


96 


230 


42 


46 


3,787 


1,416 


1,119 


1.070 


171 


11 



• Represents zero. 



41 



TABLE 7. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY TYPE OF ADMISSION AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

nSCAL YEAR 1997 





Immigrants admitted 


New arrivals 


Adjustments 


Region and country 




Subject to 


Not subject 




Subject to 


Not subject 




Subject to 


Not subject 


of birth 


Total 


worldwide 


to woridwide 


Total 


worldwide 


to worldwide 


Total 


woridwide 


to woridwide 






limits ' 


limits ' 




limits ' 


limits ' 




limits ' 


limits' 




798378 


353376 


445,002 


380,719 


216,203 


164316 


417,659 


137,173 


280,486 


Europe 


119,871 


44375 


75,296 


43,096 


26,228 


16,868 


76,775 


18347 


58,428 


Albania 


4,375 


3.954 


421 


4,159 


3,895 


264 


216 


59 


157 


Bulgaria 


2,774 


2.181 


593 


2,042 


1,715 


327 


732 


466 


266 


France 


2,568 


1.151 


1,417 


767 


324 


443 


1,801 


827 


974 


Germany 


5,723 


2,252 


3,471 


2,817 


1.083 


1,734 


2,906 


1,169 


1,737 


Greece 


1,049 


402 


647 


510 


210 


300 


539 


192 


347 


Hungary 


949 


397 


552 


388 


135 


253 


561 


262 


299 


Ireland 


1,001 


614 


387 


519 


371 


148 


482 


243 


239 


Italy 


1,982 


822 


1,160 


631 


292 


339 


1,351 


530 


821 


Lithuania 


812 


448 


364 


436 


283 


153 


376 


165 


211 


Netherlands 


1,059 


489 


570 


327 


116 


211 


732 


373 


359 


Poland 


12,038 


8,640 


3,398 


7,320 


5.949 


1,371 


4,718 


2,691 


2,027 


Portugal 


1,665 


1.122 


543 


825 


609 


216 


840 


513 


327 


Romania 


5,545 


3.214 


2,331 


3,877 


2.571 


1,306 


1,668 


643 


1,025 


Soviet Union, former ... 


49,071 


8.659 


40,412 


9,955 


4,570 


5,385 


39,116 


4.089 


35.027 


Armenia 


2,094 


1,189 


905 


995 


898 


97 


1,099 


291 


808 


Azerbaijan 


1,450 


209 


1,241 


171 


130 


41 


1,279 


79 


1,200 


Belarus 


3,062 


306 


2,756 


294 


174 


120 


2,768 


132 


2.636 


Georgia 


812 


243 


569 


189 


128 


61 


623 


115 


508 


Russia 


16,632 


3,588 


13,044 


5,761 


1,400 


4,361 


10,871 


2.188 


8.683 


Ukraine 


15,696 


2,216 


13,480 


1,847 


1,390 


457 


13.849 


826 


13.023 


Uzbekistan 


3,312 


235 


3.077 


207 


157 


50 


3.105 


78 


3,027 


Other repubhcs 


3,069 


484 


2,585 


489 


292 


197 


2.580 


192 


2,388 


Unknown republic 


2,944 


189 


2,755 


2 


1 


1 


2.942 


188 


2,754 


Spain 


1,241 


360 


881 


436 


106 


330 


805 


254 


551 


Sweden 


958 


371 


587 


447 


172 


275 


511 


199 


312 


Switzerland 


1,063 


634 


429 


572 


363 


209 


491 


271 


220 


United Kingdom 


10,708 


5,394 


5,314 


3,385 


1,698 


1.687 


7.323 


3.696 


3,627 


Yugoslavia, former 


10,750 


1,510 


9,240 


1.761 


869 


892 


8.989 


641 


8,348 


Bosnia-Herzegovina .. 


6,392 


90 


6,302 


132 


62 


70 


6,260 


28 


6,232 


Other & unknown 


4,358 


1,420 


2,938 


1,629 


807 


822 


2,729 


613 


2,116 


Other Europe 


4,540 


1,961 


2,579 


1,922 


897 


1,025 


2,618 


1.064 


1,554 


Asia 


265,812 


129,400 


136,412 


159,969 


85,667 


74302 


105,843 


43,733 


62,110 


Afghanistan 


1,129 


251 


878 


570 


186 


384 


559 


65 


494 


Bangladesh 


8,681 


5,186 


3,495 


7,266 


4,350 


2,916 


1,415 


836 


579 


Burma 


1,085 


744 


341 


831 


644 


187 


254 


100 


154 


Cambodia 


1,638 


262 


1,376 


1,166 


189 


977 


472 


73 


399 


China, People's Rep 


41,147 


24.623 


16,524 


27,852 


14,972 


12,880 


13,295 


9,651 


3,644 


Hong Kong 


5,577 


4.321 


1,256 


4,069 


3,497 


572 


1,508 


824 


684 


India 


38,071 


23,548 


14,523 


25,160 


14,526 


10,634 


12,911 


9,022 


3,889 


Indonesia 


906 


411 


495 


439 


208 


231 


467 


203 


264 


Iran 


9,642 


3,109 


6,533 


5,406 


1,916 


3,490 


4,236 


1,193 


3,043 


Iraq 


3,244 


668 


2,576 


1,165 


529 


636 


2,079 


139 


1,940 


Israel 


2,448 


1,078 


1,370 


842 


334 


508 


1,606 


744 


862 


Japan 


5,097 


2,146 


2,951 


1,882 


626 


1,256 


3,215 


1.520 


1,695 


Jordan 


4,171 


1,477 


2,694 


3,139 


1,182 


1,957 


1,032 


295 


737 


Korea 


14,239 


8,802 


5,437 


7.541 


4,478 


3,063 


6,698 


4.324 


2,374 


Kuwait 


837 


413 


424 


446 


253 


193 


391 


160 


231 


Laos 


1,935 


147 


1,788 


276 


91 


185 


1,659 


56 


1,603 


Lebanon 


3,568 


1,593 


1.975 


2,274 


1,091 


1,183 


1.294 


502 


792 


Malaysia 


1,051 


514 


537 


334 


158 


176 


717 


356 


361 


Pakistan 


12,967 


7,266 


5,701 


8,918 


5,470 


3.448 


4,049 


1,796 


2.253 


Philippines 


49,117 


23.289 


25,828 


35,580 


16.945 


18.635 


13,537 


6,344 


7,193 


Saudi Arabia 


815 
1,128 
2,269 


478 
788 
957 


337 

340 

1,312 


454 

627 

1,362 


354 
476 
622 


100 
151 
740 


361 
501 
907 


124 
312 
335 


237 


Sri Lanka 


189 


Syria 


572 


Taiwan 


6.745 


4.794 


1,951 


2,554 


1,854 


700 


4,191 


2,940 


1,251 


Thailand 


3,094 


642 


2,452 


1,051 


370 


681 


2,043 


272 


1,771 


Turkey 


3,145 


2.011 


1,134 


2,086 


1,484 


602 


1,059 


527 


532 


Vietnam 


38,519 


8.270 


30,249 


14,108 


7,719 


6,389 


24,411 


551 


23,860 


Yemen 


1,663 


404 


1,259 


1,484 


360 


1,124 


179 


44 


135 


Other Asia 


1.884 


1,208 


676 


1,087 


783 


304 


797 


425 


372 







See foolnoles al end of table. 



42 



TABLE 7. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY TYPE OF ADMISSION AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Region and country 
of birth 



Immigrants admitted 



Total 



Subject to 

worldwide 

limits ' 



Not subject 

to worldwide 

limits ' 



New arrivals 



Total 



Subject to 

worldwide 

limits ' 



Not subject 

to worldwide 

limits' 



Adjustments 



Total 



Subject to 

worldwide 

limits ' 



Not subject 

to worldwide 

limits" 



Africa 

Algeria 

Caineroon 

Cape Verde ... 

Egypi 

Ethiopia 

Ghana 

Kenya 

Liberia 

Morocco 

Niger 

Nigeria 

Siena Leone . 

Somalia 

South Aftica . 

Sudan 

Other Africa . 



Oceania 

Australia 

Fiji 

New Zealand .. 
Other Oceania 



North America 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean ....„ 

Barbados 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Republic . 

Grenada 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Trinidad & Tobago ... 

Other Caribbean 

Central America „ 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other North America . 



South America 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Peru 

Venezuela 

Other South America ... 
Unknown or not reported 



47,791 

717 
898 
920 
5.031 
6,852 
5,105 
1,387 
2.216 
2.359 
837 
7,038 
1.884 
4.005 
2.093 
2,030 
4,419 

4342 

1,630 

1,549 

655 

508 

307,488 

11,609 

146,865 

105,299 

829 

33,587 

746 

27,053 

755 

15,057 

17,840 

6,409 

3,023 

43,676 

664 

1,330 

17.969 

7.785 

7.616 

6,331 

1,981 

39 

52,877 
1,964 
1,734 
4.583 
1.443 

13.004 
7.780 
7.257 

10.853 

3.328 

931 

197 



23,501 

442 

521 

388 

3,018 

3,743 

3,212 

687 

851 

1,282 

237 

3,568 

1,108 

220 

1,447 

711 

2,066 

2,136 

652 

1,075 

243 

166 

132,648 

6,592 

72,124 

35358 

388 

2,004 

313 

11,824 

389 

7,870 

8,480 

3,198 

1,392 

18,068 

330 

341 

9,281 

3,462 

2,576 

1,531 

547 

6 

21,021 

989 

799 
1,858 

498 
3,850 
3,255 
4,710 
3,659 
1,004 

399 
95 



24,290 

275 

377 

532 
2,013 
3,109 
1,893 

700 
1,365 
1,077 

600 
3,470 

776 
3,785 

646 
1,319 
2,353 

2,206 

978 

474 
412 
342 

174,840 

5,017 

74,741 

69,441 

441 

31,583 

433 

15,229 

366 

7,187 

9,360 

3.211 

1.631 

25,608 

334 

989 

8.688 

4,323 

5,040 

4,800 

1,434 

33 

31,856 

975 

935 

2,725 

945 

9,154 

4,525 

2,547 

7,194 

2,324 

532 

102 



26,537 

384 

507 

710 

3,542 

4,724 

3,703 

599 

1,070 

1,534 

5 

4,835 

1,288 

312 

901 

719 

1,704 

2,325 
656 

1,205 
278 
186 

123,599 

3,191 

52,419 

48,730 

356 

2,355 

390 

20,191 

360 

9,304 

11,575 

2,813 

1,386 

19,250 

326 

549 

8,699 

3,091 

4,036 

1,291 

1,258 

9 

25,150 

453 

559 

1,021 

479 

6,037 

4,692 

5,510 

5,234 

823 

342 

43 



18,000 

319 

401 

348 

2,303 

3,446 

2,708 

454 

630 

1,078 

2 

2.908 

913 

198 

645 

601 

1,046 

1386 

213 

972 

98 

103 

72,779 

1,857 

33,581 

29,241 

228 

1,755 

231 

11,143 

208 

6,319 

6,943 

1.586 

828 

8,096 

200 

152 

4,048 

1,279 

1,605 

444 

368 

4 

12,114 

233 

211 

384 

175 

2,271 

2,349 

3,933 

2,125 

286 

147 

29 



8337 

65 

106 

362 

1,239 

1,278 
995 
145 
440 
456 
3 

1,927 
375 
114 
256 
118 
658 

939 

443 

233 

180 

83 

50,820 

1,334 

18,838 

19,489 

128 

600 

159 

9,048 

152 

2,985 

4,632 

1,227 

558 

11,154 

126 

397 

4,651 

1,812 

2,431 

847 

890 

5 

13,036 

220 

348 

637 

304 

3,766 

2,343 

1,577 

3,109 

537 

195 

14 



2U54 

333 

391 

210 

1,489 

2,128 

1,402 

788 

1,146 

825 

832 

2,203 

596 

3,693 

1,192 

1,311 

2,715 

2,017 

974 

344 
377 
322 

183,889 

8,418 

94,446 

56469 

473 

31,232 

356 

6,862 

395 

5,753 

6,265 

3,596 

1,637 

24,426 

338 

781 

9,270 

4,694 

3,580 

5,040 

723 

30 

27,727 

1.511 

1,175 

3,562 

964 

6,967 

3,088 

1,747 

5,619 

2,505 

589 

154 



5301 

123 
120 

40 
715 
297 
504 
233 
221 
204 
235 
660 
195 

22 

802 

110 

1,020 

750 

439 
103 
145 
63 

59,869 

4,735 

38,543 

6,617 

160 

249 

82 

681 

181 

1,551 

1,537 

1,612 

564 

9,972 

130 

189 

5,233 

2,183 

971 

1,087 

179 

2 

8,907 

756 
588 

1,474 
323 

1,579 
906 
777 

1,534 

718 

252 

66 



15,753 

210 
271 
170 
774 

1,831 
898 
555 
925 
621 
597 

1,543 
401 

3,671 
390 

1,201 

1,695 

1,267 

535 
241 
232 
259 

124,020 

3,683 

55,903 

49,952 

313 

30,983 

274 

6,181 

214 

4,202 

4,728 

1,984 

1,073 

14,454 

208 

592 

4,037 

2,511 

2,609 

3,953 

544 

28 

18,820 

755 

587 
2,088 

641 
5,388 
2,182 

970 
4,085 
1,787 

337 



' World-wide numerical limits include family-sponsored preferences, legalization dependents, employment-based preferences, and diversity programs. 
' Inunediate relatives of U.S. citizens in previous editions of the Statistical Yearbook are included with admissions not subject to a numerical cap. Immediate relatives 
may immigrate widiout limit but the number affects the limit set for family-sponsored preference immigrants. 

43 



TABLE 8. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Region and 
country of birth 



Total 



Family- 


Employ 


spon- 


ment- 


sored 


based 


prefer- 


prefer- 


ences 


ences 



Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens 



Total 



Spouses 



Children 



Parents 



Refugee 
and 
asylee 
adjust- 
ments 



Diversity 
program 



IRCA 
legaliza- 
tion 



Suspen- 
sion of 
depor- 
tation 



All countries . 



Europe 

Albania 

Bulgaria 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Lithuania 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet U., former . 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Georgia 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Other republics . 

Unknown rep. ... 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom .. 
Yugoslavia, former 

Bosnia- 
Herzegovina ... 

Other, unknown 
Other Europe 



Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Rep. 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Thailand 

Turkey 



798378 

119,871 

4,375 

2,774 

2,568 

5,723 

1,049 

949 

1,001 

1,982 

812 

1,059 

12,038 

1,665 

5,545 

49,071 

2,094 

1,450 

3,062 

812 

16,632 

15,696 

3,312 

3,069 

2,944 

1,241 

958 

1,063 

10,708 

10,750 

6,392 
4,358 
4,540 

265,812 

1,129 
8,681 
1,085 
1,638 

41,147 
5,577 

38,071 
906 
9,642 
3,244 
2,448 
5,097 
4,171 

14,239 

837 

1,935 

3,568 

1,051 

12,967 

49,117 
815 
1,128 
2,269 
6,745 
3,094 
3,145 



213,331 

7,671 

460 

36 

146 

164 

168 

39 

40 

172 

12 

56 

3,573 

621 

350 

232 

34 

9 

5 

4 

92 

69 

8 

9 

2 

69 

30 

32 

865 

443 

24 
419 
163 

73,197 
167 

1,614 

500 

230 

10,643 

2,885 

14,229 

171 

1,815 
486 
230 
161 

1,217 

4,086 
247 
129 

1,169 
151 

4,392 

16,196 

199 

196 

611 

1,928 
369 
171 



90,607 

15,121 

20 

302 

727 

1,098 

145 

196 

175 

439 

47 

323 

1,649 

351 

486 

3,068 

254 

66 

78 

75 

1,749 

487 

50 

134 

175 

201 

212 

263 

4,208 

397 

19 

378 
814 

47,945 

27 

490 

64 

27 

13,939 

1,096 

9,204 
147 
979 
134 
756 

1,704 
231 

4.710 

123 

16 

379 

329 

1,576 

7,075 
150 
324 
313 

2,854 
236 
455 



321,008 

33,463 

340 

517 

1,364 

3,344 

629 

516 

360 

1,126 

274 

557 

3,103 

519 

1,994 

8,207 

277 

102 

242 

125 

5,780 

1,107 

123 

355 

96 

839 

575 

421 

5,176 

1,494 

94 
1,400 
2,108 

103,058 

516 
3,373 

256 

1,192 

15,781 

1,151 

13,926 

473 
4,875 

789 
1,306 
2,911 
2,611 
5,381 

370 

405 
1,848 

500 

5,326 

25,506 

181 

285 
1,131 
1,889 
1,304 
1,088 



170,263 

21,634 

219 
260 

1,188 

2,830 
467 
338 
306 
895 
133 
493 

1,724 
367 
936 

2,920 

204 

61 

121 

66 

1,488 
646 
74 
191 
69 
695 
519 
374 

4,396 
881 

59 

822 

1,693 

46,907 

355 

1,383 
113 
786 

4,586 
757 

5,590 
361 

1,528 
333 
927 

2,586 

1,362 

2,506 
329 
245 

1,077 
396 

2,758 

10,733 

131 

168 

610 

1,051 
850 
707 



76,631 

8,527 
51 

190 

126 

359 
69 

118 
41 
87 

110 
37 

699 
57 

743 

4,689 

37 

9 

74 

39 

4,069 

294 
27 

133 

7 

79 

37 

36 

506 

182 

7 
175 
311 

21,024 

38 
686 

20 

212 

4,108 

149 

1,550 

42 
178 

29 

116 

209 

338 

2,006 

38 

51 
183 

41 
1,299 
6,770 

50 

28 

63 
235 
312 
138 



74,114 

3,302 

70 

67 

50 

155 

93 

60 

13 

144 

31 

27 

680 

95 

315 

598 

36 

32 

47 

20 

223 

167 

22 

31 

20 

65 

19 

II 

274 

431 

28 
403 
104 

35,127 
123 

1,304 
123 
194 

7,087 
245 

6,786 
70 

3,169 
427 
263 
116 
911 
869 
3 
109 
588 
63 

1,269 

8,003 

89 
458 
603 
142 
243 



112,158 

39,795 

76 
69 
18 
79 
11 
24 

14 

85 

3 

143 

1 

322 

30,880 

213 

1,000 

2,486 

425 

6,985 

12,137 

2,885 

2,160 

2,589 

29 

1 

4 

12 

7,597 

6,205 
1,392 

427 

30,835 

356 

91 

82 

163 

692 

19 

462 

8 

1,447 

1.774 

25 



46 

3 

46 

1,363 

68 

16 

280 

68 

135 

46 

146 

1 

1,112 

35 



49374 

21,783 

3,474 

1,843 

278 

990 

89 

162 

399 

211 

389 

110 

3,418 

150 

2,378 

5,359 

901 

134 

223 

164 

1,747 

1,660 

177 

341 

12 

90 

129 

339 

321 

670 

47 
623 
984 

8,254 

57 

3,080 

180 

5 

41 

340 

115 

93 

314 

48 

92 

281 

29 

6 

43 

2 

45 

34 

1,297 

18 

129 

268 

33 

12 

37 

1,385 



2,548 



27 



3 
2 

86 

2 

3 



1 
10 

21 
1 

5 

3 



1 

I 

7 

23 

1 
1 
2 
2 
1 



4,628 

290 

1 

4 
11 
7 
1 
9 
1 
5 

1 

51 
6 
5 

17 
4 



19 

142 

3 

139 

4 

564 

4 

6 

3 

5 

23 

6 

34 

3 

83 

12 

22 

3 

16 

6 

5 

II 

38 

8 

26 

163 

5 

7 

11 

36 

6 

1 



See footnotes at end of table. 



44 



TABLE 8. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Region and 
country of birth 



Total 



Family- 
spon- 
sored 

prefer- 
ences 



Employ- 
ment- 
based 
prefer- 
ences 



Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens 



Total 



Spouses 



Children 



Parents 



Refugee 

and 
asylee 
adjust- 
ments 



Diversity 
program 



IRCA 
legaliza- 
tion 



Suspen- 
sion of 
depor- 
tation 



Vietnam .... 

Yemen 

Other Asia 



Africa 

Algeria 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde ... 

Egypt 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Ghana 

Kenya 

Liberia 

Morocco 

Niger 

Nigeria 

Sierra Leone 

Somaha 

South Africa 

Sudan 

Other Africa 



Oceania 

Australia 

Fiji 

Other Oceania 

North America 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Barbados 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Rep. 

Grenada 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Trinidad & 
Tobago 

Other Caribbean 
Central America 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other N. America 

South America 

Argentina 

BoUvia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Peru 

Venezuela 

Other S. America . 

Unknown or not rep. 



38,519 
1.663 
1,884 

47,791 

717 

898 

920 

5,031 

948 

5,904 

5.105 

1.387 

2.216 

2.359 

837 

7.038 

1.884 

4.005 

2.093 

2,030 

4,419 

4342 
1.630 
1.549 
1.163 

307,488 

11.609 

146.865 

105,299 

829 
33.587 

746 
27.053 

755 
15.057 
17.840 

6.409 
3.023 

43,676 

664 

1.330 

17.969 
7.785 
7.616 
6,331 
1.981 
39 

52,877 
1,964 
1,734 
4.583 
1.443 

13.004 
7.780 
7.257 

10.853 

3,328 

931 

197 



8,171 
362 

472 

3,610 

14 

29 
307 
858 

29 
171 
621 
156 
235 

75 

21 
352 
138 

29 
157 

26 
392 

811 

55 
619 
137 

114,403 

931 
68,996 
31,340 

275 
1,134 

254 
11,581 

262 
7,522 
7,512 

1,747 

1,053 

13,134 

280 

221 

6,501 

2,475 

2,196 

1,103 

358 

2 

13,613 

263 

264 

424 

237 

2,956 

2,362 

4,146 

2.494 

301 

166 

26 



98 

13 

496 

3,665 

57 

63 

17 

507 

11 

99 

234 

138 

94 

114 

169 

611 

69 

10 

914 

43 

515 

656 

474 

23 

159 

16,807 

5.516 

3,081 

3,504 

106 

54 

54 

238 

121 

297 

962 

1,355 

317 

4,702 

45 
110 
2.774 
894 
345 
355 
179 
4 

6355 

634 
491 
1,243 
236 
881 
681 
529 
880 
572 
208 

58 



6,834 

1,240 

610 

16^93 

226 
273 
530 

1.903 
308 

1,647 

1,807 
393 
819 

1,072 
552 

3,339 
688 
172 
609 
198 

1,757 

2,088 

956 
400 

732 

135341 

4,677 

71.293 

37,478 

431 

1.063 

432 

15.098 

362 

6,009 

9,294 

3,194 

1,595 

22,079 

320 
948 
8,220 
3,747 
4,814 
2,630 
1,400 
14 

30,496 

924 

908 
2.655 

892 
8.882 
4,469 
2,529 
6,590 
2,123 

524 

69 



3,824 
420 
435 

9,715 

184 
193 
157 

1,209 
159 
869 
988 
268 
271 
855 
435 

1,855 

284 

78 

455 

129 

1.326 

1,647 

838 
223 
586 

72,725 

3,816 

38,887 

19,783 

282 

581 

263 

8,383 

204 

2,747 

4,680 

1,759 

884 

10,231 

151 

637 

3,063 

1,688 

2,407 

1,412 

873 

8 

17382 

651 

482 

1,970 

611 

5,116 

2,434 

1,161 

3,491 

1.325 

341 

53 



1,230 
785 
120 

3390 

8 
36 

225 

259 

65 

455 

672 

83 

394 

34 

54 

651 

277 

28 

32 

27 

280 

234 

103 
41 
90 

35,825 

709 

16,237 

12,470 

101 

277 

110 

4.987 

108 

1.948 

3.383 

1.064 

492 

6,408 

111 

242 

1,806 

1,497 

1,727 

654 

371 

I 

7,426 
118 

277 

502 

180 

2,273 

1,168 

580 

1,607 

602 

119 



1,780 
35 
55 

2,988 

34 

44 
148 
435 

84 
313 
147 

42 
154 
183 

63 
833 
127 

66 
122 

42 
151 

207 
15 

136 
56 

26,991 

152 

16.169 

5,225 

48 

205 

59 

1,728 

50 

1,314 

1,231 

371 

219 

5,440 

58 

69 

3,351 

562 

680 

564 

156 

5 

5,488 

155 
149 
183 
101 

1,493 
867 
788 

1,492 

196 

64 

II 



22.297 
19 
35 

7,651 

46 

89 

1 

71 

45 

1.056 

67 

291 

505 

I 

27 

80 

78 

3.607 

7 

1,119 

561 

59 

59 



32,898 
12 
60 

31,479 

30,377 

26 

1,074 



2 
1339 

20 
198 
327 
109 
666 

19 
8 

890 

12 

10 

16 

14 

154 

10 

7 

489 

173 

5 

30 



1 

29 

240 

16,224 

371 

429 

64 

1,652 
552 

2.881 

2.357 
393 
522 

1,093 
46 

2,605 
901 
181 
376 
642 

1,159 

669 

123 
433 
113 

1387 

145 

9 

1,009 

7 
816 
5 
3 
6 

50 
6 

94 

22 

224 

5 
10 

2 
91 
35 
71 
10 

1,046 

92 
44 

189 
25 
10 

212 
34 

284 

131 
25 

II 



1 

45 



10 

2 



2321 

5 

2,039 

66 

1 
3 
1 

14 
2 
17 
13 

3 

12 

211 

6 
4 
97 
67 
20 
12 
5 

59 

10 
4 
2 
2 

22 
7 

7 
4 
1 



13 

8 

213 

I 
II 

1 
15 

3 
41 

7 

9 
29 

1 
20 
32 



22 

26 

7 

12 

7 

3,217 

3 

1,039 

253 

125 

9 
I 

78 
21 

6 

13 

1,920 

2 

10 

155 

170 

93 

1,489 

1 

2 

318 

17 
10 
36 
36 
79 
22 

7 
94 
15 

2 



' Includes persons entering under the Amerasian, former H-1 registered nurse. Cuban/Haitian enwant, Soviet and Indochinese parolee, and 1972 Registry provisions. 
- Represents zero. 

45 



TABLE 9. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION AND REGION 

AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF LAST PERMANENT RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 







Family- 


Employ- 


Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens 


Refugee 










Region and 




spon- 
sored 
















IRCA 


Suspen- 




country of last 


Total 


based 










asylee 


Diversity 


legaliza- 


sion of 


Other' 


permanent 
residence 




prefer- 
ences 


prefer- 
ences 


Total 


Spouses 


Children 


Parents 


adjust- 
ments 


program 


tion 


depor- 
tation 




All countries 


798^78 


213,331 


90,607 


321,008 


170,263 


76,631 


74,114 


112,158 


49,374 


2,548 


4,628 


4,724 




122^58 


8,622 


15,017 


34,125 


22,013 


8,560 


3,552 


40,714 


21,765 


30 


313 


1,772 


Albania 


4,267 


444 


20 


317 


202 


48 


67 


67 


3,414 




1 


4 


Austria 


1,044 


49 


99 


302 


239 


26 


37 


498 


83 


- 


4 


9 


Bulgaria 


2,662 


36 


279 


491 


241 


188 


62 


63 


1,787 


- 


4 


2 


France 


3,007 


261 


789 


1.559 


1.328 


126 


105 


25 


332 


5 


18 


18 


Germany 


6,941 


393 


1,217 


3.872 


3.142 


389 


341 


281 


1,126 


1 


10 


41 


Greece 


1,483 


187 


144 


678 


500 


75 


103 


302 


166 


1 


1 


4 


Hungary 


920 


41 


164 


510 


342 


117 


51 


33 


160 




9 


3 


Ireland 


932 


35 


158 


338 


287 


40 


11 


2 


371 


- 


2 


26 


Italy 


2,190 


178 


416 


1.201 


970 


92 


139 


141 


233 


2 


4 


15 


Lithuania 


755 


10 


36 


251 


130 


108 


13 


65 


388 


- 


- 


5 


Netherlands 


1,197 


92 


325 


598 


521 


46 


31 


39 


132 


1 


1 


9 


Poland 


11,729 


3,545 


1,566 


3.000 


1.641 


708 


651 


101 


3,374 


6 


50 


87 


Portugal 


1,690 


635 


339 


544 


381 


65 


98 


- 


149 


1 


6 


16 


Romania 


5,276 


340 


423 


1,917 


882 


750 


285 


303 


2,279 


- 


4 


10 


Soviet U., former . 


48,238 


204 


2,831 


7.871 


2.764 


4,659 


448 


31,059 


4,884 


- 


15 


1,374 


Armenia 


1,989 


29 


254 


288 


198 


28 


62 


189 


922 


- 


5 


302 


Belarus 


1,441 


2 


61 


172 


82 


72 


18 


1,014 


172 


- 


1 


19 


Kazakhstan 


523 


1 


53 


85 


65 


18 


2 


254 


121 


- 


- 


9 


Moldova 


779 


2 


23 


80 


37 


39 


4 


568 


89 


- 


- 


17 


Russia 


14,669 


95 


1,718 


5,753 


1.431 


4.140 


182 


5,117 


1,629 


- 


4 


353 


Ukraine 


10,609 


55 


357 


989 


586 


281 


122 


7,451 


1,573 


- 


2 


182 


Uzbekistan 


885 


2 


18 


65 


37 


19 


9 


646 


121 


- 


- 


33 


Other republics . 


1,059 


10 


95 


145 


94 


32 


19 


507 


231 


- 


- 


71 


Unknown rep. ... 


16,284 


8 


252 


294 


234 


30 


30 


15,313 


26 


- 


3 


388 


Spain 


1,607 


100 


205 


883 


738 


75 


70 


322 


84 


- 


8 


5 


Sweden 


1,126 


64 


249 


636 


556 


45 


35 


6 


160 


1 


- 


10 


Switzerland 


1,302 


70 


341 


498 


437 


40 


21 


9 


378 


- 


2 


4 


United Kingdom .. 


11,950 


1,340 


4,359 


5,385 


4.426 


495 


464 


34 


695 


9 


29 


99 


Yugoslavia, former 


9,913 


430 


350 


1.430 


827 


181 


422 


6,924 


633 


2 


141 


3 


Bosnia- 


























Herzegovina ... 


3,737 


15 


13 


61 


37 


6 


18 


3,615 


30 


- 


3 


- 


Other, unknown 


6,176 


415 


337 


1.369 


790 


175 


404 


3,309 


603 


2 


138 


3 


Other Europe 


4,129 


168 


707 


1.844 


1.459 


287 


98 


440 


937 


1 


4 


28 


Asia 


258,561 


71,527 


44,970 


101,190 


45,763 


20,961 


34,466 


29,843 


8,631 


80 


543 


1,777 


Bangladesh 


8,492 


1,604 


451 


3.328 


1.351 


685 


1.292 


90 


2,986 


3 


6 


24 


Burma 


863 


377 


54 


218 


100 


19 


99 


58 


153 


- 


3 


- 


Cambodia 


1,416 


174 


12 


1.117 


735 


208 


174 


94 


3 


- 


3 


13 


China, People's Rep. 


33,526 


7.417 


12.309 


13.076 


4.257 


4.034 


4.785 


663 


21 


- 


22 


18 




7,974 


3.841 


1.320 


2.328 


985 


168 


1.175 


43 


347 


. 


6 


89 


India 


36,092 


13,637 


8.353 


13.374 


5.400 


1.558 


6.416 


459 


138 


9 


31 


91 


Indonesia 


825 


154 


123 


427 


335 


41 


51 


19 


88 


- 


3 


11 


Iran 


6,291 


1,137 


724 


3,417 


1,142 


133 


2,142 


674 


202 


18 


74 


45 


Iraq 


1,721 
2,951 
5,640 


364 
248 
178 


85 

885 

1.787 


645 
1,396 
3,335 


249 
1,044 
2,859 


28 
123 
315 


368 
229 
161 


584 

29 

9 


30 
352 
294 


1 

4 


12 

23 
3 


_ 


Israel 


18 


Japan 


30 


Jordan 


4,650 


1.349 


265 


2,858 


1.568 


354 


936 


109 


32 


- 


15 


22 


Korea 


13,626 


4,013 


4.284 


5,267 


2.422 


1.996 


849 


3 


5 


3 


6 


45 


Kuwait 


704 

888 

3,070 

991 


166 

92 

922 

134 


113 

11 

334 

288 


274 

364 

1,669 

468 


199 
216 
913 
367 


29 

53 

155 

40 


46 

95 

601 

61 


52 

409 

61 

49 


91 

29 
31 


1 
I 


5 

8 

37 

8 


3 


Laos 


4 


Lebanon 


17 


Malaysia 


12 


Pakistan 


n,081 


4,392 


1.454 


5.600 


2.878 


1.318 


1,404 


304 


1,233 


7 


27 


64 


Philippines 


47,842 


16,025 


6.800 


24.651 


10.069 


6.638 


7.944 


99 


13 


23 


161 


70 


Saudi Arabia 


2,344 


367 


305 


456 


302 


52 


102 


867 


330 




6 


13 


Sri Lanka 


981 
2,126 


157 
568 


262 
272 


256 
1.059 


146 
554 


26 
61 


84 

444 


46 
179 


251 

22 


1 
1 


7 
10 


1 


Syria 


15 


Taiwan 


10,830 


4 236 


3 130 


3,386 


1.183 


294 


1,909 


1 


14 


2 


37 


24 


Thailand 


4,623 


382 


234 


1,299 


824 


313 


162 


2,619 


41 


2 


6 


40 


Turkey 


4,596 


524 


445 


1,947 


857 


168 


922 


247 


1,425 


1 


1 


6 











See footnotes at end of table. 



46 



TABLE 9. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION AND REGION 

AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF LAST PERMANENT RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Region and 

country of last 

permanent 

residence 



Total 



Fanuly- 
spon- 
sored 
prefer- 
ences 



Employ- 
ment- 
based 
prefer- 
ences 



Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens 



Total 



Spouses 



Children 



Parents 



Refugee 

and 
asylee 
adjust- 
ments 



Diversity 
program 



IRCA 
legaliza- 
tion 



Suspen- 
sion of 
depor- 
tation 



United Arab 

Emirates 

Viemam 

Yemen 

Other Asia 

Africa ...„ 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde 

Egypt 

Ethiopia 

Ghana 

Kenya 

Liberia 

Morocco 

Nigeria 

Sierra Leone 

Somalia 

South A&ica 

Sudan 

Other Africa 

Oceania _ 

Australia 

Fiji 

New Zealand 

Other Oceania .... 

North America ..... 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Barbados 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Rep. 

Grenada 

Haiti 

Januuca 

Trinidad & 
Tobago 

Other Caribbean 
Central America 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other C. America 
Other N. America 

South America ..... 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Peru 

Venezuela 

Other S. America 

Unknown or not rep. 



793 

37,121 

1,683 

2,820 

44,668 

791 
909 
4,940 
6,116 
5,062 
4,189 
1,887 
2,225 
6,879 
1,767 
1,226 
2,081 
1,107 
5,489 

4,855 

2,084 

1,537 

710 

524 

307,019 

15,788 
146,680 
101,095 

839 

29,913 

2,769 

24,966 

733 
14,941 
17,585 

6,321 

3,028 

43,451 

1.379 

17,741 

7,717 

7,592 

6,226 

2,109 

687 

5 

52,600 

2,055 
1,695 
4,575 
1,402 

12,795 
7,763 
6,867 

10,726 

3,724 

998 

8,317 



317 

7,774 

348 

630 

3343 

25 
300 
833 
177 
632 
101 
204 

64 
353 
133 

II 
183 

19 
308 

955 

182 

602 

62 

109 

115,101 

1,890 
68,981 
31,152 

281 

1,073 

1,361 

10,477 

248 
7,491 
7,422 

1,749 

1,050 

13,076 

234 

6,437 

2.462 

2,197 

1,087 

368 

291 

2 

13,535 

295 

261 

452 

237 

2,923 

2.368 

3,941 

2,484 

387 

187 

248 



133 
53 
13 

471 

3,221 

54 

17 
433 

90 
199 
113 

86 

66 
589 

58 

1 

874 

31 
610 

748 

566 
23 

141 
18 

17,926 

6,848 
3,061 
3,391 

102 
46 
62 
237 
116 
281 
936 

1,300 

311 

4,626 

117 
2,715 
878 
340 
335 
197 
44 

6384 

696 
476 
1,231 
223 
846 
687 
494 
850 
634 
247 

2,341 



196 
6,489 
1,226 
1,063 

15385 

243 

525 

1.932 

1,662 

1,802 

419 

675 

1,015 

3,263 

652 

58 

606 

146 

2,387 

2321 

1,151 
404 
427 
339 

136,181 

5,925 

71,122 

37,133 

439 

1,009 

1,337 

14,113 

359 

5,964 

9,152 

3,157 

1,603 

21,998 

966 
8,131 
3,716 
4,796 
2,589 
1,473 

327 
3 

30030 

914 

893 
2,633 

870 
8,745 
4,449 
2,389 
6,508 
2,296 

533 

1,576 



113 

3,543 

410 

742 

8,924 

165 
156 

1,223 
828 
937 
255 
229 
796 

1,788 

254 

32 

431 

104 

1,726 

1,811 

989 
219 

375 
228 

73,133 

4,694 

38,772 

19327 

281 

553 

556 

8,025 
199 

2,701 

4,581 

1,716 

915 

10,139 

652 

2,988 

1,667 

2,382 

1,386 

911 

153 

1 

17307 

638 

472 
1,928 

590 
5,002 
2,414 
1,081 
3,425 
1,424 

333 

1312 



26 

1,213 

785 

128 

3,569 

34 
226 
283 
513 
725 

92 
312 

39 

646 

270 

8 

34 

19 
368 

247 
110 
42 
28 
67 

35,793 

738 
16,198 
12,451 

107 

274 

556 

4,534 

118 

1,960 

3,373 

1,055 

474 

6,405 

238 

1,801 

1,488 

1,728 

648 

393 

109 

1 

7376 
110 
275 
496 
182 

2,277 

1,166 
571 

1,601 
574 
124 

125 



57 

1,733 

31 

193 

2,892 

44 
143 
426 
321 
140 

72 
134 
180 
829 
128 

18 
141 

23 
293 

263 

52 
143 
24 
44 

27,255 

493 

16,152 

5,155 

51 

182 

225 

1,554 

42 

1,303 

1,198 

386 

214 

5,454 

76 

3,342 

561 

686 

555 

169 

65 

1 

5,547 

166 

146 

209 

98 

1,466 
869 
737 

1,482 

298 

76 

139 



18 

21,715 

21 

322 

7343 

67 

1 

111 

1,101 

84 

3,137 

438 

1 

88 

57 

1,123 

6 

502 

627 

75 
14 
59 



29349 
26 
71 

27,939 

26,851 

27 

1,056 



I 

4 
1313 

26 
185 
317 
106 

648 
29 

2 

928 

10 

7 

17 

13 

151 

12 

7 

485 

221 

5 

3,906 



117 

75 
308 

15,025 

388 

65 

1,592 

3,035 

2,327 

401 

441 

1,075 

2,534 

856 

27 

382 

404 

1,498 

695 

147 

433 

73 

42 

2,014 

759 

18 

1,007 

6 

805 

8 

5 

6 

44 

10 

95 

28 

230 

12 

1 

91 

35 

72 

10 

9 

1,044 

100 

41 
186 

21 

8 

204 

25 
283 
154 

22 

200 



43 

2 



6 

4 
3 

10 
1 
8 
2 
1 



2327 

10 

2,043 

65 

2 

1 

1 

14 

2 

17 

13 

3 

12 

209 

5 
94 
68 
20 
11 
5 
6 

59 

10 
4 
2 
2 

21 
6 

7 
5 
2 



4 
9 

10 

210 

10 
1 

15 

42 
7 
9 

30 
1 

33 
7 
5 
8 
1 

41 

27 

7 
13 

3 
4 

3,215 

7 

1,037 

239 

112 

9 
1 

78 
21 

6 

12 

1,932 

12 

156 

171 

94 

1,479 

18 

2 

319 

17 
10 
36 
35 
81 
20 

7 
94 
17 

2 

1 



' Includes persons entering under the Amerasian. former H-1 registered nurse. Cuban/Haitian enlranl. Soviet and Indochinese parolee, and 1972 Registry provisions. 
■ Represents zero. 

47 



TABLE 10. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED WHO WERE ADJUSTED TO PERMANENT RESIDENT STATUS 
BY SELECTED STATUS AT ENTRY AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Region and country 
of birth 



Total 



Visitors 
for busi- 
ness 



Visitors 
for plea- 
sure 



Stu- 
dents ' 



Tempo- 
rary 
workers ' 



Ex- 
change 
visitors ' 



Fiances- 

(ees) ' 



Intracom- 
pany trans- 
ferees ' 



Refugees 

and 
parolees 



Entered 

without 

inspection 



All countries . 



Europe 

Albania 

Bulgaria 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Lithuania 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Georgia 

Russia 

Ulcraine 

Uzbekistan 

Other republics 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former . 

Bosnia-Herzegovina 

Other & unknown 
Other Europe 



Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Rep. 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Thailand 

Turkey 



417,659 

76,775 

216 

732 

1,801 

2,906 

539 

561 

482 

1,351 

376 

732 

4,718 

840 

1,668 

39,116 

1,099 

1,279 

2,768 

623 

10,871 

13,849 

3,105 

2,580 

2,942 

805 

511 

491 

7,323 

8,989 

6,260 

2,729 

2,618 

105,843 

559 

1,415 

254 

472 

13,295 

1,508 

12,911 

467 

4,236 

2,079 

1,606 

3,215 

1,032 

6,698 

391 

1,659 

1,294 

717 

4,049 

13,537 

361 

501 

907 

4,191 

2,043 

1,059 



3,997 

639 

3 

18 

15 

32 

11 

3 

4 

26 

5 

6 

31 

2 

40 

294 

21 

11 

12 

11 

151 

50 

6 

26 

6 

9 

4 

6 

95 

8 

I 

7 

27 

1,622 

5 

9 

9 

3 

397 

28 

162 

7 

42 

5 

26 

20 

15 

181 

2 

2 

27 

18 

55 

358 

4 

15 

17 

138 

21 

18 



93,548 

14,557 

59 
268 
443 
778 
212 
270 
164 
479 
196 
147 
3,226 
436 
795 
3,239 
326 

81 
128 

98 
1,332 
893 
112 
167 
102 
286 
117 
132 
1,819 
660 

61 
599 
831 

21,530 

94 

341 

89 

125 

1,784 
509 

2,284 
206 

1,373 
131 
807 
439 
484 

2,787 
138 
180 
548 
267 

1,116 

4,606 

73 

133 

357 

1,348 
415 
353 



15,993 

2,244 

10 
93 

168 

194 
95 
36 
22 
96 
17 
53 

141 
22 
96 

422 

13 

7 

14 

17 

264 

77 

2 

23 

5 

112 
84 
47 

216 

130 
II 

119 

190 

9,337 

12 
138 

26 
4 
2,757 
334 
751 
105 
410 

31 

155 

721 

184 

1,180 

89 
9 
167 
130 
277 
179 

56 

65 

71 
853 
151 
240 



27,805 

4,843 

10 

111 

255 

415 

74 

105 

49 

99 

18 

136 

253 

10 

168 

1,177 

49 

19 

41 

28 

723 

188 

10 

35 

84 

91 

52 

84 

1,238 

182 

II 

171 

316 

18,689 

4 

198 

27 

4 

3,725 

282 

6,274 

32 

203 

57 

182 

374 

72 

364 

48 

1 

114 

155 

530 

4,383 

52 

118 

106 

1,028 

41 

118 



4^73 

1,420 

5 

52 
82 
113 
21 
29 
16 
32 

6 
26 
59 

1 

37 

546 

13 

9 

10 

25 

349 

80 

6 
15 
39 
20 
18 
17 
210 
48 

6 
42 
82 

2,155 

2 
20 

4 

2 
914 

4 
348 

5 
29 

7 

66 
30 
32 
38 

9 

40 

6 

254 

145 

13 

23 

51 

43 

4 

32 



6377 

1,406 

11 
11 

43 
105 
18 
15 
19 
24 
14 
41 
84 
13 
59 
546 

2 

4 
20 

5 
351 
112 

2 
42 

8 
20 
27 

5 

256 

25 

2 
23 
70 

3,278 

30 

2 

7 

54 

421 

22 

273 

15 

127 

51 

14 

178 

34 

118 

5 

60 

63 

18 

53 

1,118 

2 

7 

38 
16 
96 
12 



9,953 

3,174 

6 

236 

324 

7 

16 

64 

99 

4 

105 

29 

16 

14 

298 

8 

4 

3 

3 

210 

34 

6 

20 

10 

39 

88 

86 

1.503 

31 

1 

30 

209 

3,151 

1 

9 

5 

1 

1,326 

129 

350 

21 

38 

11 

80 

271 

26 

236 

4 

10 

29 

53 

170 

3 

3 

2 

267 

13 

32 



101,566 

38,607 

64 

44 

38 

147 

16 

27 

8 

29 

82 

21 

198 

16 

220 

30,369 

617 

1,084 

2,366 

397 

6,818 

11,657 

2,792 

2.129 

2,509 

22 

12 

9 

137 

6,725 

5,597 

1,128 

423 

30,773 

251 

75 

53 

216 

537 

28 

343 

11 

1,387 

1.675 

44 

61 

46 

44 

32 

1,263 

80 

22 

238 

272 

125 

22 

117 

24 

1.041 

48 



102,549 

1,261 

33 

32 

27 

36 

29 

3 

9 

25 

1 

6 

322 

214 

52 

102 

26 

2 

10 

8 

27 

19 

3 

6 

1 

16 

4 

2 

69 

254 

5 

249 

25 

4,482 
83 

412 
5 
5 

466 
31 

979 
8 

132 
22 
49 
38 
22 

482 
17 
12 
79 
11 

809 

579 
4 
18 
32 
51 
20 
58 



See footnotes at end of table. 



48 



TABLE 10. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED WHO WERE ADJUSTED TO PERMANENT RESIDENT STATUS 
BY SELECTED STATUS AT ENTRY AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 







Visitors 


Visitors 




Tempo- 


Ex- 




Intracom- 


Refugees 


Entered 


Other 


Region and country 
of birth 


Total 


for busi- 


for plea- 


Stu- 


rary 


change 


Fiances- 


pany trans- 


and 


without 


and 




ness 


sure 


dents' 


workers ' 


visitors ' 


lees)' 


ferees ' 


parolees 


inspection 


unknown 


Vietnam 


24,41 1 


11 


257 


40 


22 


10 


427 


4 


22,681 


31 


928 


Yemen 


179 


5 


86 


26 


7 


- 


1 


1 


9 


11 


33 


Other Asia 


797 
21^54 


22 
404 


200 
5,466 


176 
1,787 


168 
1313 


24 
323 


16 
354 


56 
333 


28 
6,700 


16 
1,240 


91 


Africa 


3334 


Algeria 


333 


11 


156 


25 


21 


7 


8 


5 


25 


18 


57 


Cameroon 


391 


4 


65 


100 


18 


13 


6 


- 


54 


18 


113 


Cape Verde 


210 


. 


160 


3 


_ 


. 


8 


, 


_ 


3 


36 


Egypt 


1,489 


32 


754 


81 


198 


30 


14 


24 


52 


80 


224 


Eritrea 


191 


4 


75 


13 


7 


1 


2 


- 


40 


4 


44 


Ethiopia 


1,937 


24 


502 


203 


32 


18 


8 


7 


691 


18 


434 


Ghana 


1,402 


29 


327 


82 


62 


33 


33 


1 


70 


467 


298 


Kenya 


788 


9 


139 


155 


53 


20 


11 


20 


284 


8 


89 


Liberia 


1,146 


15 


382 


59 


14 


5 


8 


2 


361 


29 


271 


Morocco 


825 


27 


353 


129 


32 


47 


19 


9 


17 


23 


169 


Niger 


832 


25 


293 


71 


94 


16 


49 


1 


22 


139 


122 


Nigeria 


2,203 


84 


754 


247 


177 


33 


109 


24 


71 


295 


409 




596 
3,693 


13 

2 


280 
43 


43 
9 


11 
6 


9 

1 


9 
6 


1 


56 
3,503 


10 
11 


164 


Somaha 


112 


South Africa 


1,192 
1,311 


25 
11 


302 
103 


89 

54 


407 
17 


7 
12 


12 


172 
5 


16 
1,025 


8 

5 


154 


Sudan 


79 


Other Africa 


2,715 
2,017 


89 
40 


777 
904 


424 
113 


164 
242 


71 
35 


52 
74 


62 
206 


413 
69 


104 
56 


559 


Oceania 


278 


Austraha 


974 


21 


350 


47 


185 


25 


43 


158 


13 


14 


118 


Fiji 


344 


2 


205 


22 


4 


- 


7 


4 


49 


20 


31 


Other Oceama 


699 


17 


349 


44 


53 


10 


24 


44 


7 


22 


129 


North America 


183,889 


809 


37,613 


1,417 


1,674 


177 


912 


2333 


24,909 


88,965 


25,080 


Canada 


8,418 


52 


1,783 


376 


914 


91 


365 


1,955 


311 


101 


2,470 


Mexico 


94,446 


245 


15,202 


252 


234 


19 


245 


254 


987 


67,943 


9,065 


Caribbean 


56,569 


388 


15,566 


603 


428 


47 


201 


80 


22,810 


6,627 


9,819 


Barbados 


473 


6 


385 


16 


11 


1 


2 


4 


1 


8 


39 


Cuba 


31,232 


49 


1,633 


11 


13 


2 


56 


7 


21,885 


807 


6,769 


Dominica 


356 


9 


178 


16 


15 




5 


- 


4 


71 


58 


Dominican Rep. .. 


6,862 


97 


2,404 


49 


55 


16 


53 


15 


44 


3,543 


586 


Grenada 


395 


4 


303 


14 


5 


- 


2 


1 


1 


28 


37 


Haiti 


5,753 


33 


2,542 


48 


9 


5 


18 


1 


790 


1,217 


1,090 


Jamaica 


6,265 


101 


4,187 


214 


181 


14 


53 


13 


44 


732 


726 


Trinidad & 
























Tobago 


3,596 


56 


2,780 


131 


100 


9 


8 


33 


21 


120 


338 


Other Caribbean .. 


1,637 


33 


1,154 


104 


39 




4 


6 


20 


101 


176 


Central America .. 


24,426 


124 


5,060 


186 


96 


20 


100 


44 


796 


14,293 


3,707 


Belize 


338 


7 


205 


6 


3 


- 


2 


- 


5 


83 


27 


Costa Rica 


781 
9,270 
4,694 


18 
19 

23 


516 
583 
855 


28 
21 
21 


18 
10 

27 


3 
4 
6 


12 
17 

4 


15 
8 
8 


12 
218 
213 


91 
6,661 
3,024 


68 




1,729 


Guatemala 


513 


Honduras 


3.580 


19 


944 


36 


13 


2 


36 


4 


74 


1,867 


585 


Nicaragua 


5,040 


25 


1,487 


27 


6 


2 


3 


7 


257 


2,521 


705 


Panama 


723 


13 


470 


47 


19 


3 


26 


2 


17 


46 


80 


Other N. America .. 


30 


- 


2 


- 


2 


- 


1 


- 


5 


1 


19 


South America 


27,727 


480 


13,450 


1,082 


1,025 


161 


353 


744 


488 


6,537 


3,407 


Argentina 


1,511 


34 


771 


83 


173 


43 


8 


97 


12 


89 


201 


Bolivia 


1,175 


21 


364 


37 


25 


7 


6 


9 


13 


311 


382 


Brazil 


3,562 


57 


1,950 


208 


195 


36 


66 


319 


54 


262 


415 


Chile 


964 


26 


556 


47 


52 


4 


16 


35 


10 


83 


135 


Colombia 


6,967 


125 


3,598 


228 


170 


20 


134 


64 


99 


1,816 


713 


Ecuador 


3,088 


29 


1,152 


47 


41 


7 


19 


22 


19 


1,499 


253 


Guyana 


1,747 


30 


847 


52 


33 


8 


22 


14 


16 


537 


188 


Peru 


5,619 


94 


2,353 


123 


130 


9 


55 


23 


212 


1,791 


829 


Venezuela 


2,505 


59 


1,572 


233 


166 


15 


16 


150 


49 


43 


202 


Other S. America ... 


589 


5 


287 


24 


40 


12 


11 


11 


4 


106 


89 


Unknown or not rep .. 


154 


3 


28 


13 


19 


2 




12 


20 


8 


49 



' Includes spouses and children. ' Includes children. - Represents zero. 



49 



TABLE 11. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED IN FISCAL YEAR 1997, BY CALENDAR YEAR OF ENTRY, 
TYPE OF ADMISSION, AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 



Region and country 
ofbiith 



Total 



New 
arrivals 
1996-97 



Adjustments 



1996-97 



1995 



1994 



1993 



1992 



1991 



1990 



1989 



1988 



1987 



Before 
1987 



All countries 



Europe 

Albania 

Bulgaria 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Lithuania 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former . 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Georgia 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Other repubUcs 

Unknown republic ... 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former ... 

Bosnia-Herzegovina 

Other & unknown ... 
Other Europe 

Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Rep. . 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Thailand 

Turkey 

Vietnam 

Yemen 

Other Asia 



798378 

119,871 

4,375 

2,774 

2,568 

5,723 

1,049 

949 

1,001 

1,982 

812 

1,059 

12,038 

1,665 

5,545 

49,071 

2,094 

1,450 

3,062 

812 

16,632 

15,696 

3,312 

3,069 

2,944 

1,241 

958 

1,063 

10,708 

10,750 

6,392 

4,358 

4,540 

265,812 

1,129 
8,681 
1,085 
1,638 

41,147 
5,577 

38,071 
906 
9,642 
3,244 
2,448 
5,097 
4,171 

14,239 

837 

1,935 

3,568 

1,051 

12,967 

49,117 
815 
1,128 
2,269 
6,745 
3,094 
3,145 

38,519 
1,663 
1.884 



380,719 

43,096 

4,159 

2,042 

767 

2,817 

510 

388 

519 

631 

436 

327 

7,320 

825 

3,877 

9,955 

995 

171 

294 

189 

5,761 

1,847 

207 

489 

2 

436 

447 

572 

3,385 

1,761 

132 

1,629 

1,922 

159,969 

570 
7,266 

831 

1,166 

27,852 

4,069 

25,160 

439 
5,406 
1,165 

842 
1,882 
3,139 
7,541 

446 

276 
2,274 

334 

8,918 

35,580 

454 

627 
1,362 
2,554 
1,051 
2,086 
14,108 
1,484 
1,087 



89,051 

19,598 

42 

197 

876 

1,486 

169 

212 

235 

607 

89 

411 

690 

142 

371 

6,471 

108 

200 

440 

95 

2,494 

2,070 

246 

397 

421 

372 

245 

269 

3,699 

1,954 

1,399 

555 

1,061 

28,581 

79 

346 

67 

100 

5,345 

506 

5,024 

125 

1,230 

371 

487 

1,569 

213 

1,620 

76 

80 

332 

207 

1,041 

3,226 

75 

142 

221 

1,518 

241 

317 

3,677 

33 

313 



106,793 

30,599 

47 

128 

375 

661 

135 

113 

95 

296 

117 

139 

485 

81 

259 

19,990 

170 

653 

1,581 

254 

4,914 

7,592 

1,908 

1,328 

1,590 

194 

124 

108 

1,462 

5,085 

4,212 

873 

705 

30,033 

99 
194 

41 

71 

2,005 

292 

2,668 

72 
724 
1,090 
310 
706 
145 
956 

41 
324 
153 
110 
555 
1,965 
122 

71 

99 

740 

345 

189 

15,794 

29 
123 



41,179 

10,770 

38 

91 

128 

204 

58 

72 

40 

106 

48 

40 

334 

41 

205 

7,732 

313 

269 

523 

153 

1,811 

2,786 

676 

595 

606 

50 

45 

37 

513 

733 

465 

268 

255 

12,405 

66 

151 

28 

65 

1,265 

111 

1,414 

42 

370 

371 

144 

267 

62 

644 

31 

539 

84 

50 

368 

1,780 

42 

36 

70 

354 

572 

118 

3,265 

20 

76 



22,682 

3319 

41 

69 

60 

82 

24 

34 

10 

46 

23 

19 

282 

30 

144 

1,800 

159 

71 

84 

40 

476 

587 

156 

114 

113 

23 

18 

13 

268 

207 

82 

125 

126 

6,294 

58 
130 

22 

11 
1,056 

89 
842 

30 
212 

66 
113 
139 

86 
540 

32 
249 

62 

35 

241 

1,129 

30 

32 

49 
230 
267 

57 
417 

10 

60 



19,619 

2,506 

17 
29 
38 
57 
13 
22 
7 

33 
25 
13 

380 
39 

161 
1,158 

154 
40 
49 
39 

378 

334 
38 
59 
67 
18 
12 
10 

186 

209 
40 

169 
79 

5,252 
53 

103 
11 
34 

968 
87 

594 
35 

159 
33 
72 
95 
67 

500 
30 

121 
96 
43 

229 

831 
II 
25 

145 

210 

134 
46 

448 
28 
44 



19,035 

2,051 

11 

65 

35 

45 

24 

21 

6 

21 

29 

7 

399 

42 

171 

808 

105 

17 

40 

16 

345 

176 

32 

39 

38 

16 

9 

8 

123 

153 

17 

136 

58 

4388 

35 
84 
11 
30 
1,074 
87 

436 
17 

136 
16 
65 
50 
61 

510 
12 
64 
39 
44 

274 

635 

8 

23 

39 

159 
91 
72 

270 
17 
29 



18,905 

1380 

3 
73 
13 
26 
15 
17 

8 
20 

9 

5 

587 

81 

161 

330 

42 

12 

16 

7 

123 

86 

7 
14 
23 
12 

7 

1 
84 
74 

7 
67 
54 

3352 
45 
38 
22 
11 

617 
52 

336 
17 

135 
46 
85 
42 

103 

432 
44 
79 
58 
41 

302 

596 

8 

23 

43 

166 
55 
46 
88 
7 
15 



17,521 
921 

8 
17 
15 

9 
11 



15 

7 

6 

397 

95 

29 

99 

20 

1 

2 

1 

21 

39 

7 

2 

6 

8 

1 

2 
76 
95 
9 
86 
23 

2,191 

16 
56 
25 
27 
99 
43 

232 
26 

126 

9 

57 

21 

69 

256 
25 
62 
92 
30 

127 

425 

7 

33 

47 

120 
54 
42 
45 
4 
16 



15,717 

658 

2 

4 

17 

13 

8 

17 

10 

6 

271 

83 

6 

60 

13 

1 

3 

6 

8 

15 

7 

4 

3 

4 

2 

4 

70 

64 

2 

62 

17 

1,783 

17 
28 

3 
18 
53 
27 
211 
20 
125 

8 

44 

16 

40 

167 

17 

22 

83 

32 

104 

466 

8 

16 
50 
82 
54 
24 
26 

3 
19 



7,767 
422 

2 
10 
16 
12 
5 
1 
14 



5 

213 

36 

8 

10 
1 



1 
41 
39 

2 

37 

4 

1,161 

3 
27 

4 

7 

28 

29 

134 

15 

108 

4 
35 
11 
22 
101 
13 
16 
51 
24 
66 
289 
10 

8 
15 
44 
40 
19 
23 

1 
14 



30,052 

1,129 

1 

7 

49 

53 

30 

7 

10 

21 

5 

11 

401 

100 

20 

72 

2 

7 

6 

3 

17 

21 

8 

3 

5 

32 

6 

3 

155 

122 

1 

121 

24 

4,492 

27 

85 

8 

60 

132 

102 

268 
38 

613 
41 
94 
51 
56 

406 
25 
56 

114 
53 

270 

1,224 

12 

34 

48 

368 
97 
43 

133 

3 

31 



See footnotes at end of table. 



50 



TABLE 11. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED IN FISCAL YEAR 1997, BY CALENDAR YEAR OF ENTRY, 
TYPE OF ADMISSION, AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH— Continued 



Region and country 
of birth 



Total 



New 
arrivals 
1996-97 



Adjustments 



1996-97 



1995 



1994 



1993 



1992 



1991 



1990 



1989 



1988 



1987 



Before 

1987 



Un- 
known 



Africa 

Algeria 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde 

Egypt 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Ghana 

Kenya 

Liberia 

Morocco 

Niger 

Nigeria 

Sierra Leone 

Somalia 

South Africa 

Sudan 

Other Afiica 

Oceania 

Australia 

Fiji 

Other Oceania 

North America 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Barbados 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Republic 

Grenada 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Trinidad & Tobago .. 

Other Caribbean 

Central America 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other North America .. 

South America 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Peru 

Venezuela 

Other South America .. 

Unknown or not reported 



47,791 

717 

898 

920 

5,031 

948 

5,904 

5,105 

1,387 

2,216 

2,359 

837 

7,038 

1,884 

4,005 

2,093 

2,030 

4,419 

4342 

1,630 
1,549 
1,163 

307,488 

11,609 

146,865 

105,299 

829 

33.587 

746 

27,053 

755 

15,057 

17,840 

6.409 

3,023 

43,676 

664 

1,330 

17,969 

7,785 

7,616 

6,331 

1,981 

39 

52,877 
1,964 
1,734 
4,583 
1,443 

13,004 
7,780 
7,257 

10,853 

3,328 

931 

197 



26,537 

384 

507 

710 

3,542 

757 

3,967 

3,703 

599 

1,070 

1,534 

5 

4,835 

1,288 

312 

901 

719 

1,704 

2325 
656 

1,205 
464 

123399 

3.191 

52,419 

48,730 

356 

2,355 

390 

20,191 

360 

9,304 

11,575 

2,813 

1,386 

19,250 

326 

549 

8,699 

3,091 

4,036 

1,291 

1,258 

9 

25,150 

453 

559 

1,021 

479 

6,037 

4,692 

5,510 

5,234 

823 

342 

43 



5,820 

77 

85 

21 

371 

56 

346 

325 

247 

198 

194 

177 

614 

135 

1,553 

567 

178 

676 

802 

484 

74 

244 

28,500 

4,709 

15,064 

4,780 

66 

1,308 

72 

906 

39 

644 

1,004 

485 

256 

3,937 

38 

208 

1,350 

527 

450 

1,209 

155 

10 

5,691 

454 
199 

1,060 
187 

1,315 
402 
250 
876 
818 
130 

59 



5,028 

43 

60 

11 

245 

49 

430 

192 

187 

161 

147 

119 

228 

75 

1,595 

212 

790 

484 

368 

225 
45 
98 

37,360 

1,691 

7,539 

26,654 

45 

23,640 

51 

1.158 

21 

476 

767 

316 

180 

1,469 

23 

110 

389 

274 

264 

301 

108 

7 

3384 

293 
98 
566 
116 
769 
256 
153 
509 
561 
63 

21 



1,879 

59 

49 

16 

159 

13 

178 

117 

75 

131 

97 

73 

169 

27 

179 

125 

130 

282 

160 

76 
30 

54 

13,542 

531 
5,447 
6344 

32 
3,805 

45 
1,132 

28 
545 
584 
262 
HI 
1,020 

21 

74 
259 
198 
246 
167 

55 

2,420 

105 

42 

302 

82 

577 

351 

131 

473 

321 

36 



1,287 

39 

21 

4 

114 
5 

143 

105 
35 
53 
46 
69 

133 
12 

188 
92 
30 

198 

89 

36 
12 

41 

9,654 

231 
5,098 
3,213 

37 
1.195 

24 
869 

27 
294 
492 
181 

94 
1,112 

15 

59 
311 
238 
248 
201 

40 

2,039 

72 

54 
212 

66 
483 
263 
128 
579 
146 

36 



1,053 

25 

16 

1 

91 

3 

147 

105 
33 
36 
47 
48 

137 
40 
80 
45 
29 

170 

90 

32 
32 
26 

8,969 

89 
5,720 
2,154 

38 
275 

18 
616 

28 
499 
429 
165 

86 
1,004 

14 

41 
284 
263 
229 
127 

46 
2 

1,748 

57 

51 
215 

66 
473 
234 
132 
390 
108 

22 

1 



940 

19 

15 

5 

111 
8 
97 
94 
27 

101 
36 
49 
97 
79 
16 
14 
31 

141 

59 

18 
22 
19 

9,930 

61 
7,007 
1,718 

32 
111 

17 
484 

27 
358 
447 
161 

81 
1,143 

15 

63 
334 
281 
284 
129 

37 
1 

1,666 

61 
61 

207 

53 

490 

222 

127 

344 

69 

32 

1 



752 

9 

17 

5 

66 

6 

94 

62 

29 

93 

24 

36 

113 

25 

14 

16 

19 

124 

63 

13 

25 
25 

11,199 

56 

7.751 

1,897 

35 

48 

18 

426 

33 

356 

544 

343 

94 

1,495 

23 

50 

690 

308 

291 

99 

34 

1,759 

87 

47 
191 

68 
516 
238 
105 
353 
103 

51 



622 

4 

7 
44 
59 

5 
86 
37 
28 
26 
48 
33 
85 
30 

7 

10 
21 
92 

46 

5 
28 
13 

12,079 

25 
8,299 
1,899 

37 

56 

16 

314 

48 

403 

402 

497 

126 

1,856 

20 

25 

741 

441 

307 

268 

54 

1,662 

56 

89 

175 

52 

406 

236 

116 

432 

63 

37 



460 

9 

10 
37 
32 

39 
46 
II 
32 
38 
30 
66 
18 
6 
17 
13 
56 

46 

9 
19 

18 

11,437 

24 

7,950 

1322 

39 

83 

14 

196 

56 

227 

277 

498 

132 

1,941 

43 

15 

722 

384 

253 

478 

46 

1333 

57 

46 

136 

72 

341 

233 

142 

238 

39 

29 



355 

3 

13 

18 

27 

5 

26 

26 

17 

42 

14 

25 

56 

8 

4 

13 

9 

49 

27 
2 

16 
9 

4,979 

10 

3,211 

878 

28 

63 

16 

78 

26 

159 

202 

217 

89 

880 

22 

12 

305 

175 

89 

254 

23 

822 

34 

36 

82 

27 

248 

83 

107 

162 

27 

16 



937 

4 
38 
16 
88 
2 
78 
75 
41 

117 
19 
71 

205 

35 

7 

20 

16 

105 

121 

20 
13 
88 

20,696 

91 

12,528 

2386 

49 

374 

19 

230 

37 

832 

570 

217 

258 

5,490 

84 

64 

2.518 

1,159 

425 

1,178 

62 

1 

2,676 

139 

128 

142 

94 

805 

365 

219 

606 

99 

79 

I 



2,121 

42 

60 

32 

126 

39 

273 

218 

58 

156 

115 

102 

300 

112 

44 

61 

45 

338 

146 

54 
28 
64 

15344 

900 

8,832 

2,724 

35 

274 

46 

453 

25 

960 

547 

254 

130 

3,079 

20 

60 

1,367 

446 

494 

629 

63 

9 

2327 

96 

324 

274 

81 

544 

205 

137 

657 

151 

58 

67 



■ 

NOTE: The year of entry for new arrivals is the year entering as an immigrant. The year of entry for adjustments is the latest year of entry as a nonimmigrant or the 
latest year of entry in another temporary status. 

- Represents zero. 



51 



TABLE 12. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY AGE AND SEX 
FISCAL YEARS 1987-97 



Age and sex 


1987 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 


1994 


1995 


1996 


1997 


ToUl 


601^16 


643,025 


1,090,924 


1,536,483 


1,827,167 


973,977 


904,292 


804,416 


720,461 


915,900 


798378 


Under 5 years 


32,733 


31,063 


31,577 


33,520 


36,669 


37,487 


39,111 


36.085 


37,323 


40,710 


36.439 


5-9 years 


37,501 


38,186 


46,775 


51,922 


49,609 


58,445 


62,949 


57,194 


52.326 


60,193 


49,458 


10-14 years 


43,939 


44,531 


85,332 


95,453 


66,237 


73,619 


78,157 


71,716 


67.676 


85,459 


71,192 


15-19 years 


57,439 


57,859 


98,911 


125,516 


109,261 


94,374 


95,514 


82,796 


72.919 


93,935 


79,841 


20-24 years 


77,620 


77,938 


112,002 


181,258 


354,747 


116,280 


96,237 


85.538 


71.596 


89.538 


76,214 


25-29 years 


94,481 


96,188 


167,117 


274.035 


380,682 


150,783 


122,787 


103.588 


92.870 


121.382 


108,128 


30-34 years 


72,734 


79,439 


169,195 


251,589 


276,464 


124,603 


108,815 


92.563 


80.995 


108.981 


95,184 


35-39 years 


49,541 


58,525 


122,958 


173.723 


182,200 


88,564 


78,887 


67.830 


59.398 


78.756 


66,981 


40-44 years 


33,175 


41,720 


79,955 


112.988 


120,980 


61,663 


56,100 


50.030 


45,445 


59.086 


50,772 


45-49 years 


24,383 


29,708 


51,918 


71.425 


78,393 


43,275 


41,378 


38,756 


36,065 


47,016 


39,971 


50-54 years 


20,195 


23,888 


38,937 


51.949 


57,023 


34,230 


31,484 


29,041 


26,141 


33,246 


31,390 


55-59 years 


18,515 


20,887 


30,042 


39.776 


41,330 


28.368 


28,246 


26.402 


23,888 


30,532 


28.809 


60-64 years 


15,931 


17,549 


22,700 


30.329 


30,856 


24.537 


24.758 


23.103 


19,769 


25,186 


24,753 


65-69 years 


11,348 


12,359 


16,786 


21.338 


21,616 


18,604 


19.400 


18.832 


15,850 


19.993 


18,885 


70-74 years 


6,542 


6,827 


8,824 


11,021 


11,109 


10,202 


11.131 


11,232 


9,639 


11.830 


11,101 


75-79 years 


3,363 


3,836 


4,904 


6,369 


5,938 


5,222 


5,347 


5,438 


4,637 


5,692 


5,275 


80 years and over . 


2,006 


2,497 


2,841 


4,082 


3,680 


3,586 


3,888 


4,201 


3,867 


4,265 


3,809 


Unknown age 


70 


25 


150 


190 


373 


135 


103 


71 


57 


100 


176 


Male 


300^38 


324,521 


550,176 


818,443 


1,213,767 


496,724 


424,475 


372,691 


333,859 


422,740 


365,484 


Under 5 years 


16,058 


15,334 


16,027 


17,082 


18,580 


19,020 


19,550 


17,939 


17,891 


19,240 


16,960 


5-9 years 


19,184 


19,553 


23,968 


26,651 


25,228 


29,817 


32,092 


29,136 


26,779 


30,728 


25,269 


10-14 years 


22,727 


22,993 


43,667 


48,697 


34,112 


38,195 


40,286 


36,762 


34,824 


44,137 


36,777 


15-19 years 


29,219 


29,760 


50,379 


63,426 


64,888 


48,493 


48,672 


41,942 


36,888 


47,990 


40,327 


20-24 years 


36,963 


37,514 


53,691 


95,684 


263,149 


60,715 


41,829 


37.702 


31,631 


40,412 


33,440 


25-29 years 


49,125 


49,749 


86,229 


155,719 


268,701 


79,622 


54,859 


45.425 


40,751 


53,472 


47,075 


30-34 years 


38,344 


42,000 


87,875 


139,578 


188,466 


65,641 


51,845 


42.793 


37,756 


49,879 


43,758 


35-39 years 


25,699 


31,070 


63.936 


95,153 


122,263 


46,142 


37,413 


30.898 


26,757 


35,209 


29.914 


40-44 years 


16.969 


22.049 


41,265 


61,368 


80,507 


31,392 


25,560 


22.339 


20,011 


25,333 


21,893 


45-49 years 


12,045 


15,194 


26,432 


38,598 


52,509 


21,845 


19,388 


17,695 


16,053 


20,780 


17,447 


50-54 years 


9,091 


11.310 


18,746 


26,394 


35,955 


16,121 


13,889 


12,751 


11,445 


14,437 


13.241 


55-59 years 


7,738 


9.245 


13,583 


18.904 


23,893 


12,496 


11,916 


10,999 


10,044 


12,607 


11,658 


60-64 years 


6,691 


7.482 


9,917 


13.275 


15,741 


10.767 


10,318 


9,668 


8,486 


10,549 


10.339 


65-69 years 


5,148 


5.665 


7.445 


9.180 


10,331 


8.150 


8,110 


7,983 


7,046 


8,769 


8.466 


70-74 years 


2,888 


2.956 


3.826 


4,639 


5,047 


4,559 


4,841 


4,753 


4.110 


5,068 


5,001 


75-79 years 


1,434 


1.608 


2.019 


2,518 


2,611 


2,206 


2,284 


2,202 


1,912 


2,430 


2,374 


80 years and over . 


873 


1.027 


1,095 


1,467 


1,507 


1,451 


1,565 


1,659 


1,445 


1,645 


1,460 


Unknown age 


42 


12 


76 


110 


279 


92 


58 


45 


30 


55 


85 


Female 


301^78 


318,504 


540,661 


717,764 


613,166 


477,062 


479,771 


431,684 


386,582 


493,142 


432,699 


Under 5 years 


16,675 


15,729 


15,542 


16,423 


18,086 


18.460 


19,561 


18.142 


19.428 


21,465 


19.476 


5-9 years 


18,317 


18,633 


22,803 


25,260 


24,370 


28.614 


30,855 


28,054 


25.546 


29,463 


24.170 


10-14 years 


21,212 


21,538 


41,657 


46,736 


32,112 


35.416 


37,866 


34.951 


32.850 


41,321 


34.404 


15-19 years 


28,220 


28,099 


48,523 


62,077 


44,357 


45.868 


46,838 


40.852 


36.028 


45,943 


39.504 


20-24 years 


40,657 


40,424 


58,307 


85.552 


91,576 


55.548 


54,403 


47.835 


39.964 


49,125 


42,758 


25-29 years 


45,356 


46,439 


80,880 


118,271 


111,944 


71.129 


67,922 


58.158 


52.118 


67,907 


61,016 


30-34 years 


34,390 


37,439 


81.305 


111,959 


87,968 


58,925 


56,962 


49.760 


43.238 


59,100 


51,399 


35-39 years 


23,842 


27,455 


59.012 


78,546 


59,910 


42,406 


41,472 


36.927 


32.639 


43,546 


37,048 


40-44 years 


16,206 


19,671 


38.684 


51,606 


40,452 


30,258 


30,534 


27.689 


25.433 


33,752 


28,864 


45-49 years 


12,338 


14.514 


25,481 


32,816 


25,870 


21,423 


21,986 


21.061 


20,012 


26,236 


22,515 


50-54 years 


11,104 


12.578 


20,189 


25,545 


21,058 


18,105 


17.594 


16.289 


14,695 


18,809 


18.141 


55-59 years 


10.777 


11,642 


16.455 


20,867 


17,432 


15,867 


16.330 


15.400 


13,843 


17,925 


17.144 


60-64 years 


9,240 


10,067 


12.783 


17,042 


15,109 


13,764 


14.438 


13.434 


11,282 


14,637 


14,408 


65-69 years 


6,200 


6,694 


9.340 


12,149 


11,278 


10,449 


11.290 


10.849 


8,804 


11,224 


10.415 


70-74 years 


3,654 


3,871 


4.997 


6,375 


6,053 


5,639 


6.289 


6.479 


5,529 


6,762 


6,100 


75-79 years 


1,929 


2,228 


2.883 


3,846 


3,325 


3,016 


3.063 


3.236 


2,724 


3,262 


2,901 


80 years and over . 


1,133 


1,470 


1,746 


2,614 


2,172 


2,132 


2.323 


2.542 


2,422 


2,620 


2,349 


Unknown age 


28 


13 


74 


80 


94 


43 


45 


26 


27 


45 


87 


Unknown sex 


- 


- 


87 


276 


234 


191 


46 


41 


20 


18 


195 


Percent distribution 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Male 


49.9 


50.5 


50.4 


53.3 


66.4 


51.0 


46.9 


46.3 


46.3 


46.2 


45.8 


Female 


50.1 


49.5 


49.6 


46.7 


33.6 


49.0 


53.1 


53.7 


53.7 


53.8 


54.2 


Median age 


28 


29 


30 


30 


29 


29 


29 


28 


28 


28 


28 


Male 


28 


29 


30 


30 


29 


28 


29 


28 


27 


27 


28 


Female 


28 


29 


30 


30 


29 


29 


29 


29 


29 


29 


29 



Represents zero. 



52 



TABLE 13. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH, AGE, AND SEX 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Age and sex 



All 
countries 



Bangdalesh 



Canada 



China, 
People's 
Republic 



Colombia 



Cuba 



Domin- 
ican 
Republic 



Ecuador 



El 
Salvador 



Guatemala 



Total „.„..... 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over . 
Unlcnown age 

Male 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over . 
Unknown age 



Female 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over . 
Unknown age 

Unknown sex 



Percent distribution , 

Male 

Female 

Median age 

Male 

Female 



798378 

36.439 

49,458 

71,192 

79,841 

76,214 

108,128 

95,184 

66,981 

50,772 

39,971 

31,390 

28,809 

24,753 

18,885 

11,101 

5,275 

3,809 

176 

365,484 

16,960 

25,269 

36,777 

40,327 

33,440 

47,075 

43,758 

29,914 

21,893 

17,447 

13,241 

11,658 

10,339 

8,466 

5,001 

2,374 

1,460 

85 

432,699 

19,476 

24,170 

34,404 

39,504 

42,758 

61,016 

51,399 

37,048 

28,864 

22,515 

18,141 

17,144 

14,408 

10,415 

6,100 

2,901 

2,349 

87 

195 

100.0 

45.8 
54.2 

28 

28 
29 



8,681 

641 
506 

547 

722 

1,343 

1,335 

927 

589 

410 

327 

339 

363 

301 

190 

88 

38 

12 

3 

4,365 

332 

262 

309 

361 

518 

688 

557 

347 

241 

152 

120 

146 

148 

99 

50 

26 

7 

2 

4315 

309 

244 

238 

361 

824 

647 

370 

242 

169 

175 

219 

217 

153 

91 

38 

12 

5 

1 

1 

100.0 

50.3 
49.7 

27 
28 
26 



11,609 

723 

1,070 

906 

856 

927 

1,601 

1,650 

1,396 

960 

679 

406 

181 

100 

60 

38 

29 

21 

6 

5,544 

380 

567 

440 

428 

367 

677 

768 

730 

442 

331 

207 

91 

49 

28 

20 

10 

7 

2 

6,048 

342 

500 

466 

428 

560 

919 

881 

666 

515 

346 

199 

90 

49 

32 

18 

19 

14 

4 

17 

100.0 

47.8 
52.1 

29 

29 
29 



41,147 

3.861 

1.889 

2.796 

2.608 

1.763 

3.752 

5.428 

3.357 

3.418 

2.722 

1.928 

1.854 

2.236 

1.757 

996 

543 

231 

8 

17,226 

402 

1.001 

1.537 

1.343 

475 

1,148 

2,493 

1,467 

1,480 

1,260 

880 

790 

1,048 

907 

552 

312 

130 

I 

23,900 

3,459 

883 

1,259 

1,265 

1,288 

2,601 

2,929 

1,885 

1,937 

1,462 

1,048 

1.064 

1.188 

849 

444 

231 

101 

7 

21 

100.0 

41.9 
58.1 

33 

35 
32 



13,004 

484 

650 

1.081 

1,287 

945 

1.568 

1.937 

1.496 

972 

633 

492 

475 

387 

312 

171 

76 

36 

2 

5,424 

248 
330 
562 
670 
383 
658 
786 
587 
337 
215 
160 
144 
123 
114 
60 
32 
15 

7,574 

236 

319 

519 

617 

562 

909 

1,151 

909 

633 

417 

331 

331 

264 

198 

111 

44 

21 

2 



100.0 

41.7 
58.2 

31 

29 

32 



33,587 

707 

1,988 

1,851 

1,644 

3,227 

5,032 

5,916 

3,519 

2,610 

2,264 

1,754 

1,081 

714 

497 

361 

214 

202 

6 

19319 

365 

1,020 

983 

826 

1,767 

3,069 

3,840 

2,199 

1,606 

1,324 

1,002 

601 

342 

245 

174 

86 

67 

3 

14,059 

342 

967 

867 

818 

1,457 

1.961 

2.076 

1,320 

1,004 

939 

752 

479 

372 

252 

187 

128 

135 

3 



100.0 

58.1 
41.9 

31 

32 
31 



27,053 

921 

1.905 

2.201 

3.854 

2.653 

4.027 

3.736 

2.371 

1.677 

1.172 

872 

700 

444 

274 

141 

63 

40 

2 

12,657 

448 

906 

1,100 

1.863 

1,163 

1.919 

1,805 

1,124 

798 

496 

341 

263 

178 

124 

73 

31 

24 

1 

14395 

473 

999 

1.101 

1,991 

1,490 

2,107 

1,931 

1.247 

879 

676 

531 

437 

266 

150 

68 

32 

16 

1 

1 

100.0 

46.8 
53.2 

27 
27 
27 



7,780 
308 
480 

753 

891 

776 

1.084 

975 

691 

438 

297 

252 

252 

215 

171 

106 

56 

31 

4 

3,682 

161 

235 

386 

444 

387 

574 

490 

309 

175 

123 

85 

98 

73 

67 

38 

24 

10 

3 

4,098 

147 

245 

367 

447 

389 

510 

485 

382 

263 

174 

167 

154 

142 

104 

68 

32 

21 

1 



100.0 

47.3 
52.7 

28 

27 
29 



17,969 

419 

621 

1,430 

2.617 

1.785 

2.887 

2,079 

1,219 

775 

514 

466 

653 

842 

752 

472 

259 

175 

4 

7,722 
222 
320 
723 

1,339 
870 

1,402 

883 

441 

299 

163 

114 

162 

211 

232 

158 

92 

87 

4 

10,247 

197 

301 

707 

1,278 

915 

1.485 

1,196 

778 

476 

351 

352 

491 

631 

520 

314 

167 

88 



100.0 

43.0 
57.0 

28 

26 
30 



7,785 

836 

294 

701 

969 

788 

1,212 

982 

617 

391 

267 

180 

161 

134 

129 

74 

31 

18 

I 

3,688 

411 

156 

353 

529 

434 

626 

470 

248 

146 

93 

55 

48 

42 

39 

21 

12 

5 

4,096 

425 

138 

348 

440 

354 

585 

512 

369 

245 

174 

125 

113 

92 

90 

53 

19 

13 

1 

1 

100.0 

47.4 
52.6 

26 

24 
27 



See foomotes at end of table. 



53 



TABLE 13. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH, AGE, AND SEX 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Age and sex 



Guyana 



Haiti 



Honduras 



India 



Iran 



Jamaica 



Korea 



Mexico 



Nigeria 



ToUl 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over . 
Unknown age 



Male 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over . 
Unknown age 

Female 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over . 
Unknown age 



Unknown sex 

Percent distribution , 

Male 

Female 



Median age 

Male 

Female 



7^57 
325 
501 
647 
903 
508 
712 
733 
715 
602 
499 
357 
310 
188 
132 
85 
21 
19 

3366 

169 

243 

314 

423 

213 

328 

358 

303 

286 

225 

170 

139 

81 

59 

36 

8 

11 

3,890 

156 

258 

333 

480 

295 

384 

375 

412 

316 

273 

187 

171 

107 

73 

49 

13 

8 

1 

100.0 

46.4 
53.6 

30 

29 
30 



15,057 

659 

995 

1,557 

2,559 

1,677 

1,713 

1,581 

1,145 

832 

470 

363 

353 

341 

321 

282 

109 

98 

2 

6,935 
331 

486 

755 

1,281 

812 

831 

771 

523 

340 

202 

133 

108 

96 

90 

97 

48 

30 

1 

8,122 

328 

509 

802 

1,278 

865 

882 

810 

622 

492 

268 

230 

245 

245 

231 

185 

61 

68 

1 



100.0 

46.1 
53.9 

25 
23 

26 



7,616 

189 

513 

918 

1,086 

799 

1,117 

908 

663 

370 

255 

178 

163 

161 

157 

88 

34 

15 

2 

3,270 
90 

227 

449 

555 

368 

528 

388 

235 

118 

101 

50 

48 

38 

35 

22 

14 

4 

4346 

99 

286 

469 

531 

431 

589 

520 

428 

252 

154 

128 

115 

123 

122 

66 

20 

11 

2 



100.0 

42.9 
57.1 

26 

24 
28 



38,071 

1,254 

1,497 

2,250 

2,718 

3,117 

6,051 

4,666 

2,769 

2,528 

2,375 

2,166 

2,251 

1,902 

1,330 

710 

322 

153 

12 

18,503 

616 

794 

1,194 

1,363 

889 

2,754 

2,800 

1,425 

1,213 

1,120 

973 

1,050 

951 

726 

364 

180 

86 

5 

19,560 

638 

703 

1,056 

1,355 

2,228 

3,297 

1,862 

1,341 

1,315 

1,255 

1,192 

1,201 

951 

604 

346 

142 

67 

7 



100.0 

48.6 
51.4 

31 

32 
31 



9,642 

171 
234 
488 
493 
445 
968 
1,022 
795 
623 
535 
580 
681 
850 
748 
624 
251 
132 
2 

4,271 
94 
129 
227 
263 
144 
368 
453 
374 
304 
248 
193 
212 
353 
360 
344 
145 
60 

5371 
77 
105 
261 
230 
301 
600 
569 
421 
319 
287 
387 
469 
497 
388 
280 
106 
72 
2 



100.0 

44.3 
55.7 

41 

41 
41 



17,840 

647 

1,416 

2,134 

2,586 

1,404 

1,825 

2,018 

1,630 

1,318 

928 

676 

482 

338 

202 

118 

58 

47 

13 

8,085 

298 

695 

1,104 

1,216 

657 

862 

975 

708 

519 

364 

274 

174 

97 

66 

35 

14 

18 

9 

9,755 

349 

721 

1,030 

1,370 

747 

963 

1,043 

922 

799 

564 

402 

308 

241 

136 

83 

44 

29 

4 



100.0 

45.3 
54.7 

27 
25 

28 



14,239 

1,730 

523 

1,163 

1,597 

649 

1,521 

1,306 

1,471 

1,486 

974 

617 

423 

306 

210 

127 

81 

49 

6 

6,439 

925 

259 

627 

874 

251 

426 

516 

602 

628 

498 

316 

197 

125 

77 

57 

41 

16 

4 

7,796 

805 

262 

536 

723 

398 

1,094 

789 

869 

858 

476 

301 

226 

181 

133 

70 

40 

33 

2 



100.0 

45.2 
54.8 

29 

28 

30 



146,865 

4,582 

11,270 

19,793 

19,069 

17,652 

22,247 

14,381 

8,387 

5,870 

4,562 

4,566 

4,551 

4,134 

2,862 

1,652 

792 

473 

22 

61,498 

2,305 

5,805 

10,231 

9,829 

9,008 

9,007 

4,156 

2,068 

1,283 

1,082 

1,163 

1,390 

1,514 

1,202 

792 

417 

236 

10 

85351 

2,276 

5,464 

9,561 

9,238 

8,644 

13,238 

10,223 

6,319 

4,587 

3,479 

3,400 

3,160 

2,620 

1,659 

860 

375 

237 

11 

16 

lOO.O 

41.9 
58.1 

25 
20 

27 



7,038 

360 

321 

519 

528 

600 

1,069 

1,187 

883 

399 

287 

236 

219 

198 

149 

60 

17 

4 

2 

3389 

197 

163 

292 

285 

238 

453 

582 

520 

246 

137 

104 

52 

42 

45 

17 

11 

3 

2 

3,648 

163 
158 
227 
243 
362 
615 
605 
363 
153 
150 
132 
167 
156 
104 
43 
6 
1 

1 

100.0 

48.2 
51.8 

30 

30 
30 



See footnotes at end of table. 



54 



TABLE 13. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH, AGE, AND SEX 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Age and sex 



Peru 



Philippines 



Poland 



Russia 



Taiwan 



Ukraine 



United 
Kingdom 



Vietnam 



Other 



ToUl „ 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over ... 
Unknown age 

Male 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 yean 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over ... 
Unknown age 

Female 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over ... 
Unknown age 

Unknown sex 

Percent distribution 

Male 

Female 

Median age 

Male 

Female 

- Represents zero. 



10,853 

232 

572 

882 

1,179 

952 

1,357 

1,269 

1,072 

811 

562 

456 

423 

364 

345 

207 

100 

68 

2 

4,892 

105 

322 

477 

607 

407 

606 

555 

434 

363 

246 

179 

156 

132 

145 

82 

44 

31 

1 

5,960 

127 
249 
405 
572 
545 
751 
714 
638 
448 
316 
277 
267 
232 
200 
125 
56 
37 
1 

1 

100.0 

45.1 
54.9 

30 

29 
32 



49,117 

1,475 
2,549 
4,020 
5,996 
3,241 
5,321 
4,743 
3,759 
3,263 
3,107 
2,771 
2,879 
2,524 
1,847 
1,028 
406 
184 
4 

20359 

759 

1,296 

2,102 

3,090 

1,231 

1,485 

1,791 

1,447 

1,254 

1,292 

1,155 

1,134 

996 

755 

384 

123 

63 

2 

28,750 

716 

1,252 

1,916 

2,906 

2,010 

3,835 

2,949 

2,311 

2,009 

1,815 

1,616 

1,745 

1,528 

1,092 

644 

283 

121 

2 



100.0 

41.5 
58.5 

32 

30 
32 



12,038 

452 

602 

1,025 

1,342 

1,106 

1,354 

1,234 

1,178 

1,070 

927 

614 

441 

308 

203 

108 

39 

30 

5 

5,450 

230 
294 
515 
672 
481 
563 
569 
532 
476 
416 
258 
184 
125 
73 
38 
14 



6,584 

222 

308 

509 

669 

625 

791 

665 

645 

593 

511 

356 

257 

183 

130 

70 

25 

22 

3 



100.0 

45.3 
54.7 

30 

29 
31 



16,632 

3,268 

1,684 

1,319 

993 

929 

1,212 

1,255 

1,318 

1,048 

759 

636 

680 

459 

450 

303 

142 

176 

1 

7,422 
1,674 
815 
680 
478 
348 
453 
528 
567 
445 
324 
273 
258 
187 
185 
100 
52 
55 

9^07 

1,594 
869 
639 
514 
581 
759 
727 
750 
602 
435 
363 
422 
272 
265 
203 
90 
121 
1 



100.0 

44.6 
55.4 

25 
20 
27 



6,745 

115 

259 

497 

641 

295 

774 

1,223 

856 

712 

512 

162 

192 

189 

199 

75 

25 

17 

2 

2,923 

50 

132 

260 

312 

130 

253 

503 

395 

293 

234 

72 

63 

68 

97 

42 

13 

6 

3,820 

65 

127 

237 

329 

165 

521 

719 

461 

419 

278 

90 

129 

121 

102 

33 

12 

11 

1 



100.0 

43.3 
56.6 

33 

33 

33 



15,696 

655 

1,246 

1,276 

1,082 

1,115 

1,294 

1,214 

1,297 

1,008 

886 

487 

942 

852 

813 

642 

340 

546 

1 

7,381 
353 
641 
627 
548 
482 
624 
577 
629 
490 
417 
220 
411 
412 
416 
266 
114 
153 
1 

8308 

302 
605 
647 
534 
633 
668 
637 
668 
516 
469 
267 
530 
440 
397 
376 
226 
393 

7 

100.0 

47.0 
52.9 

34 

33 
35 



10,708 

461 

695 

640 

601 

763 

1,822 

2,011 

1,318 

794 

585 

431 

249 

136 

65 

47 

41 

42 

7 

5,583 

224 

341 

318 

328 

301 

865 

1,089 

753 

452 

342 

258 

148 

70 

39 

20 

20 

14 

1 

5,120 

237 

354 

322 

273 

462 

957 

921 

563 

342 

243 

172 

101 

66 

26 

27 

21 

28 

5 



100.0 

52.1 
47.8 

30 

31 
29 



38,519 

1,292 

2,388 

3,811 

2,923 

5,391 

4,791 

2,679 

1,982 

2,442 

3,014 

2,574 

2,031 

1,441 

1,066 

440 

174 

76 

4 

17,720 

664 

1,214 

1,911 

1,452 

2.315 

2,005 

1,033 

653 

859 

1,295 

1,434 

1,116 

802 

618 

241 

86 

19 

3 

20,788 

628 

1,172 

1,900 

1,470 

3,075 

2,782 

1,645 

1,329 

1,582 

1,719 

1,140 

914 

639 

448 

199 

88 

57 

1 

11 

100.0 

46.0 
54.0 

28 

27 
28 



192,863 

8,627 

11,888 

14,802 

16,949 

20,105 

28,751 

26,493 

19,427 

13,156 

9,360 

6,399 

5,403 

4,277 

3,402 

1,928 

961 

886 

49 

91,725 

4,392 

6,132 

7,664 

8,354 

8,310 

13,074 

13,102 

9,770 

6,422 

4,498 

2,872 

2,295 

1,839 

1,492 

830 

378 

275 

26 

101,073 

4,234 

5,754 

7,134 

8,591 

11,784 

15,665 

13,384 

9,651 

6,730 

4,859 

3,525 

3,105 

2,434 

1,908 

1,098 

583 

611 

23 

65 

100.0 

47.6 
52.4 

29 

29 
29 



55 



TABLE 14. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY MARITAL STATUS, AGE, AND SEX 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Age and sex 



Total 



Single 



Married 



Widowed 



Divorced 



Separated 



Total 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over 
Unknown age 

Male 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over , 
Unknown age 



Female , 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over ... 
Unknown age 

Unknown sex 

Percent distribution . 

Male 

Female 

Unknown 

Median age 

Male 

Female 



798378 

36,439 

49,458 

71,192 

79,841 

76,214 

108,128 

95,184 

66,981 

50,772 

39,971 

31,390 

28,809 

24,753 

18,885 

11,101 

5,275 

3,809 

176 

365,484 

16,960 

25,269 

36,777 

40,327 

33,440 

47,075 

43,758 

29,914 

21,893 

17,447 

13,241 

11,658 

10,339 

8,466 

5,001 

2,374 

1,460 

85 

432,699 

19,476 

24,170 

34,404 

39,504 

42,758 

61,016 

51,399 

37,048 

28,864 

22,515 

18,141 

17,144 

14,408 

10,415 

6,100 

2,901 

2,349 

87 

195 

100.0 

45.8 

54.2 

Z 

28 

28 
29 



339,108 

36,439 

49,458 

71,192 

75,978 

35,675 

28,028 

18,091 

8,791 

4,502 

2,707 

1,954 

1,738 

1,563 

1,283 

847 

429 

349 

84 

176,675 

16,960 

25,269 

36,777 

39,544 

20,004 

16,804 

11,151 

4,977 

2,132 

1,056 

624 

408 

296 

281 

167 

109 

67 

49 

162374 

19,476 

24,170 

34,404 

36,428 

15,664 

11,217 

6,937 

3,813 

2,370 

1,650 

1,330 

1,330 

1,267 

1,002 

680 

320 

282 

34 

59 

100.0 

52.1 

47.9 

Z 

15 

16 
15 



423,173 



3.485 

39,834 

78,462 

74,665 

55,657 

43,711 

34,444 

26,321 

23,284 

18,895 

13,358 

6,850 

2,813 

1,339 

55 

179,463 



608 

13,095 

29,505 

31,428 

23,875 

18,824 

15,545 

11,921 

10,602 

9,415 

7,513 

4,242 

1,888 

978 

24 

243,621 



2,877 

26,733 

48,935 

43,218 

31,767 

24,878 

18,894 

14,397 

12,679 

9,474 

5,845 

2,608 

925 

361 

30 

89 

100.0 

42.4 

57.6 

Z 

36 

37 
35 



18,972 



21 

63 

134 

197 

332 

700 

1,362 

2,299 

3,283 

3,593 

3,087 

1,911 

1,989 

1 

2,519 



4 

12 

32 

30 

39 

89 

115 

199 

335 

461 

481 

344 

378 

16,452 



17 

51 

102 

167 

293 

611 

1,247 

2,100 

2,948 

3,131 

2,606 

1,567 

1,611 

1 

1 

100.0 

13.3 

86.7 

Z 

66 

69 
66 



12343 



36 

204 

825 

1,584 

1,733 

1,746 

1,741 

1,490 

1,233 

820 

513 

247 

92 

75 

4 

4,575 



8 

73 

374 

778 

740 

676 

583 

474 

349 

226 

165 

83 

27 

19 

7,765 



28 

130 

451 

806 

993 

1,070 

1,156 

1,016 

884 

594 

348 

164 

65 

56 

4 

3 

100.0 

37.1 

62.9 

Z 

45 

42 
46 



895 



5 

17 

61 

87 

116 

112 

123 

87 

113 

78 

57 

28 

7 

4 

320 



4 

4 

23 

41 

39 

44 

44 

25 

38 

15 

24 

14 

2 

3 

575 



1 
13 
38 
46 
77 
68 
79 
62 
75 
63 
33 
14 
5 
1 



100.0 

35.8 

64.2 

Z 

46 

45 
48 



- Represents zero. Z Rounds to less than .05 percent. 



56 



TABLE 15. IMMIGRANT-ORPHANS ADOPTED BY U.S. CITIZENS BY SEX, 

AGE, AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Region and country 
of birth 



Total 



Sex 



Male 



Female 



Age 



Under 1 
year 



1-4 years 



5-9 years 



Over 9 

years 



Unknown 



All countries ..„ 

Europe _ _ 

Albania 

Bulgaria 

Estonia 

Hungary 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Poland 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Other republics 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Other Europe 

Asia «.......< 

Cambodia 

China, People's Republic 

Hong Kong 

India 

Iran 

Japan 

Korea 

Lebanon 

Nepal 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Thailand 

Vietnam 

Other Asia 

Africa ».».«.-.«.».»«.. 

Ethiopia 

Ghana 

Liberia 

Nigeria 

Other Africa 

Oceania 

North America 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Dominican Republic .... 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Other Caribbean 

Central America 

Behze 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other North America 

South America 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

ChUe 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Other South America 



12^96 

4,916 

13 

137 

II 

63 

97 

75 

60 

558 

3,867 

3,626 

65 

176 

II 

15 

9 

5,901 

64 

3,295 

13 

311 

9 

42 

1,506 

13 

16 

15 

155 

60 

369 

33 

136 

51 
8 

39 
10 
28 



1,139 

142 

186 
18 

130 

30 

8 

808 

3 

21 

10 

725 

24 

12 

13 

3 

501 

71 
81 
41 
212 
41 
30 
U 
14 



4,594 

2,406 

5 

74 

5 

29 

53 

36 

31 

263 

1,893 

1,783 

33 

77 

8 

5 

4 

1341 

26 

70 
5 

83 
5 

26 

800 

8 

5 

6 

90 

38 
164 

15 

57 
20 

3 
18 

5 
II 



530 

67 

76 

6 

53 

13 

4 

385 

2 

14 

4 

349 

II 

3 

2 

2 

259 

28 

42 

20 

119 

24 

15 

7 

4 



8,002 

2,510 

8 

63 

6 

34 

44 

39 

29 

295 

1,974 

1,843 

32 

99 

3 

10 
5 

4,560 

38 

3,225 

8 

228 

4 

16 

706 

5 

II 

9 

65 

22 

205 

18 

79 

31 
5 

21 
5 

17 



609 

75 

110 

12 

77 

17 

4 

423 

1 

7 

6 

376 

13 

9 

11 



242 

43 
39 
21 
93 
17 
15 
4 
10 



5,868 
1,109 



8 

14 

5 

3 

17 

1,057 

1,003 

10 

44 



3,843 

28 

1,978 

6 

98 

1 

24 

1,408 

13 

9 

8 

24 

1 

229 

16 

12 

5 
2 
1 
1 
3 

1 

677 

62 

52 

11 

36 

3 

2 

563 

2 

3 

1 

546 

3 

4 

4 



226 

30 

10 

7 

160 

15 

1 

3 



5,164 

2,784 

10 

103 

3 

38 

51 

42 

28 

473 

2,015 

1,866 

44 

105 

7 



1,821 

29 

1,262 

6 

169 

1 

15 

89 

5 
7 

85 

45 

102 

6 

51 

17 
2 

17 
4 

11 

1 

308 

40 
69 

3 

54 
9 
3 

199 
1 
7 
5 

153 

18 

7 



199 

33 
35 
34 
32 
22 
29 
9 
5 



1,179 

845 
1 

32 

4 

14 

23 

24 

20 

63 

657 

628 

8 

21 

2 

2 

3 

155 

2 
49 

32 
1 
2 
3 



19 

13 

28 

4 

43 

19 
3 

12 
1 
8 



89 

24 

34 
3 

25 
4 
2 

31 

6 

1 

21 

3 



47 
6 

20 

17 
3 
1 



379 

176 

2 
2 
4 
3 
9 
4 
9 
5 
137 
128 
3 
6 
1 



81 

5 
5 
1 

12 
6 
1 
6 



27 

1 

10 

7 

30 

10 
1 
9 
4 
6 



62 
15 
30 

1 
15 
13 

1 
15 

5 
3 
5 

1 

1 
2 

29 

2 
16 

3 
1 

1 
6 



• Represents zero. 



57 



TABLE 16. IMMIGRANT NEW ARRIVALS ADMITTED BY SELECTED PORT OF ENTRY 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

nSCAL YEAR 1997 



Region and country 
of birth 



All 
ports 



Chicago 



El Paso 



Los 
Angeles 



Miami 



Newark 



New 
York 



San 
Francisco 



Washington, 
DC 



All countries 



Europe 

Albania 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic .. 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former ... 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Moldova 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Other republics 

Unknown republic .. 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Bosnia-Herzegovina 

Other & unknown ... 
Other Europe 



Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Rep. 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Nepal 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 



380,719 

43,096 

4,159 
189 
214 

2,042 
587 
168 
380 
39 
767 

2,817 
510 
388 
519 
631 
218 
436 
327 

7,320 
825 

3,877 

9,955 
995 
171 
294 
171 

5,761 

1,847 
207 
507 
2 
436 
447 
572 

3,385 

1,761 
132 

1,629 
714 

159,969 

570 

7,266 

831 

1,166 

27,852 

4,069 

25,160 

439 

5,406 

1,165 

842 

1,882 

3,139 

7,541 

446 

276 

2,274 

334 

246 

8,918 

35,580 

454 

148 

627 

1,362 



21,195 

8366 

808 
14 
15 

585 
74 
20 
53 
1 
50 

225 
48 
21 
42 
58 
27 

219 

14 

3,251 

2 

899 
1,247 
16 
19 
60 
17 

701 

360 
10 
64 

14 
79 
37 

254 
333 
32 
301 
. 50 

10318 

13 

62 

14 

6 

907 

164 

3,791 

5 

356 

174 

91 

90 

883 

392 

114 

4 

461 

3 

8 

711 

1,347 

52 

2 

18 

225 



49,007 

10 

1 



18 

I 
6 
3 

1 
1 

2 



51,586 

2,968 

56 
18 
24 
145 
27 
15 

9 

3 

83 
164 
30 
47 
20 
41 

7 

9 
26 
59 

6 

301 

1,343 

796 

34 

18 

9 

305 

94 

19 

67 

1 
11 
36 
65 
329 
78 

6 
72 
43 

39,228 

105 

415 

288 

848 

7,025 

944 

2,528 

208 

1,455 

110 

66 

569 

203 

1,966 

33 
183 
307 
118 

69 

514 

12,005 

33 

40 
190 
264 



28,141 

1,039 

142 
11 
12 

22 
14 
7 
7 

63 
141 

7 
19 

6 
41 

4 

5 
15 
35 

7 
53 
84 

1 



59 

14 

3 

6 

60 
27 
24 
179 
35 
2 
33 
33 

829 

2 
108 



50 

7 
168 

3 
86 

8 
12 

5 
45 
30 
19 

3 
55 

3 

119 
13 
12 

3 
24 



13,184 

3,992 

549 

5 

7 

271 

240 

29 

206 

5 

42 

208 

11 

11 

22 

36 

28 

13 

6 

1,090 

226 

168 

446 

7 

4 

23 

13 

222 

150 

6 

21 

38 

69 

22 

256 

154 

23 

131 

74 

3304 

9 

152 

27 

1 

373 

28 

708 

2 

164 

21 

42 

5 

69 

142 

19 

1 

193 

12 

2 

124 

765 

18 

4 

50 

34 



92,768 

11,701 

1,525 

42 

43 

504 

53 

23 

25 

5 

138 

278 

231 

127 

248 

214 

64 

87 

41 

1,831 

143 

926 

3,669 

74 

62 

127 

53 

2,383 

683 

111 

176 

102 
53 
132 
493 
608 
21 
587 
149 

36341 

231 

4,573 

143 

88 

6,613 

502 

8,908 

31 
841 
150 
361 
130 
988 
817 
127 

15 
413 

58 

50 

4,822 

1,722 

165 

15 
118 
346 



25,936 

1,123 

3 

10 

6 

63 

16 

6 

7 

3 

55 

90 

9 

16 

34 

16 

8 

3 

25 

34 

9 

112 

264 

16 

9 

9 

5 

145 

49 

4 

26 

1 

14 

24 

15 

208 

48 

5 

43 

41 

23,445 

51 

53 

224 

88 

6,267 

1,145 

2,138 

62 

457 

38 

21 

214 

91 

761 

9 

32 

27 

58 

27 

329 

8,009 

8 

48 

46 

28 



9,225 

1387 

50 

6 

18 

37 

15 

7 

7 

1 

51 

192 

12 

26 

13 

22 

23 

15 

36 

20 

11 

71 

416 

14 

11 

9 

5 

312 

26 

1 

38 

14 
16 
48 
193 
49 
2 
47 
33 

3,483 

41 

233 

12 

8 
72 

3 
1,052 

5 
448 
33 
12 
12 
77 
494 
12 

8 
81 

2 

6 

479 

23 

39 

2 

56 
54 



See footnotes at end of table. 



58 



TABLE 16. IMMIGRANT NEW ARRIVALS ADMITTED BY SELECTED PORT OF ENTRY 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Region and country 
of birth 


All 
ports 


Chicago 


El Paso 


Los 
Angeles 


Miami 


Newark 


New 
York 


San 
Francisco 


Washington, 
DC 


Other 


Taiwan 


2.554 


33 


. 


1.090 


5 


98 


202 


448 


1 


677 


Thailand 


1,051 


64 


. 


519 


- 


15 


62 


97 


57 


237 


Turkey 


2,086 


109 


- 


131 


38 


38 


1,051 


26 


94 


599 


Vietnam 


14,108 


87 


- 


6.877 


3 


75 


1,791 


2,512 


44 


2,719 


Yemen 


1,484 


73 


- 


20 


3 


95 


851 


53 


7 


382 


Other Asia 


693 
26,537 


59 
2,143 


1 


105 
U02 


5 
469 


18 
943 


157 
11,469 


78 
460 


16 
2,588 


254 


Africa 


7,163 


Algeria 


384 


17 


- 


21 


8 


11 


182 


17 


16 


112 


Cameroon 


507 


67 


. 


12 


6 


21 


103 


8 


154 


136 


Cape Verde 


710 










3 


535 




2 


170 


Egypt 


3,542 


116 


- 


303 


101 


39 


2,122 


19 


68 


774 


Eritrea 


757 


163 


- 


71 


8 


63 


51 


41 


133 


227 


Ethiopia 


3,967 


824 


. 


316 


42 


273 


373 


136 


956 


1,047 


Ghana 


3,703 


130 


. 


42 


10 


43 


2,551 


8 


232 


687 


Kenya 


599 


54 


- 


33 


17 


41 


130 


34 


44 


246 


Liberia 


1,070 


28 


. 


1 


- 


64 


705 


4 


21 


247 


Morocco 


1,534 


23 


- 


32 


11 


13 


1,161 


4 


9 


281 


Nigeria 


4,835 


398 


- 


228 


44 


210 


1,413 


102 


503 


1,937 


Sierra Leone 


1.288 
312 


49 
20 


- 


12 
1 


3 
1 


12 
20 


765 
128 


12 
6 


134 

45 


301 


Somalia 


91 


South AMca 


901 
719 


55 
49 


- 


105 
19 


179 
6 


45 
18 


243 
337 


17 
9 


30 
131 


227 


Sudan 


150 


Other Africa 


1,709 
2,325 


150 
18 


- 


106 
1,865 


33 
9 


67 
2 


670 
49 


43 
104 


110 
11 


530 


Oceania 


267 


Australia 


656 


15 


- 


398 


6 


1 


41 


87 


10 


98 


Fiji 


1,205 


1 


- 


1,163 




- 


- 


7 


- 


34 


New Zealand 


278 
186 

123,599 


2 
301 


48,964 


200 
104 

5,082 


3 
18,014 


1 
2351 


4 
4 

23,168 


7 
3 

769 


1 
1,684 


60 


Other Oceania 


75 




23,266 


Canada 


3,191 


54 


1 


54 


32 


12 


441 


29 


11 


2,557 


Mexico 


52.419 


68 


48.924 


34 


41 


26 


31 


41 


10 


3,244 


Caribbean „ 


48,730 


109 


12 


49 


13,253 


2,212 


20,607 


6 


15 


12,467 


Bahamas, The 


117 


. 


- 


- 


93 


- 


7 


1 


2 


14 


Barbados 


356 


- 


- 


. 


57 


- 


192 


- 


- 


107 


Cuba 


2,355 


5 


6 


7 


2.260 


9 


16 


2 


1 


49 


Dominica 


390 


- 


- 


- 


28 


1 


18 


- 


- 


343 


Dominican Republic 


20.191 


4 


1 


2 


1.812 


1,709 


10,695 


- 


2 


5,966 


Grenada 


360 


- 


- 


- 


27 


- 


97 


- 


6 


230 


Haiti 


9,304 


8 


5 


- 


5,051 


3 


3.305 


- 




932 


Jamaica 


11,575 


91 


- 


36 


2,879 


482 


4.711 


1 


3 


3,372 


St. Lucia 


301 


- 


- 


- 


38 


- 


29 


- 


- 


234 


St. Vincent & 




Grenadines 


282 




- 


1 


26 


- 


100 


- 


- 


155 


Trinidad & Tobago . 


2,813 


1 


- 


- 


928 


4 


1,329 


2 


1 


548 


Other Caribbean 


686 


- 


- 


3 


54 


4 


108 


- 


- 


517 


Central America 


19,250 


70 


27 


4,944 


4,688 


101 


2,085 


692 


1,648 


4,995 


Belize 


326 


. 


. 


48 


148 


- 


3 


- 


- 


127 


Costa Rica 


549 
8,699 


1 


2 
8 


74 
3,270 


255 
588 


2 


50 
897 


12 
530 


16 
1,436 


137 


El Salvador 


1,970 


Guatemala 


3.091 


54 


13 


1,007 


656 


4 


287 


48 


152 


870 


Honduras 


4.036 


. 


. 


338 


1,565 


6 


791 


17 


32 


1.287 


Nicaragua 


1.291 


- 


4 


165 


744 


2 


21 


80 


9 


266 


Panama 


1.258 


15 


- 


42 


732 


87 


36 


5 


3 


338 


Other North America .. 


9 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


4 


1 


- 


3 


South America 


25,150 

453 


49 


15 

1 


1,141 

94 


7,781 
191 


2,592 
3 


10,040 

113 


35 

1 


72 


3,425 


Argentina 


50 


Bolivia 


559 


1 


1 


3 


537 


3 


5 


- 


- 


9 


Brazil 


1.021 


9 


4 


101 


324 


13 


321 


5 


55 


189 


Chile 


479 


4 


- 


70 


227 


4 


105 


2 


- 


67 


Colombia 


6,037 


9 


3 


237 


2,626 


971 


1,685 


3 


6 


497 


Ecuador 


4,692 


9 


1 


80 


1.137 


330 


2,451 


8 


- 


676 


Guyana 


5.510 


3 


- 


5 


438 


4 


3,936 


1 


3 


1.120 


Peru 


5.234 


6 


2 


531 


1.632 


1,246 


1,116 


14 


2 


685 


Venezuela 


823 


1 


3 


3 


544 


16 


173 


1 


3 


79 


Other South America .. 


342 


7 


- 


17 


125 


2 


135 


- 


3 


53 


Unknown or not 






















reported 


43 






- 


- 


" 


- 


- 


- 


43 



■ Represents zero. 



59 



TABLE 17. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH AND 

STATE OF INTENDED RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



State of intended 
residence 



All 
countries 



Bangladesh 



Canada 



China, 
People's 
Republic 



Colombia 



Cuba 



Dominican 
Republic 



Ecuador 



El 
Salvador 



Total 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 
Florida 



Georgia .... 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky . 
Louisiana . 
Maine 



Maryland 

Massachusetts ... 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina .. 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina .. 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia .... 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



U.S. territories and 
possessions 

Guam 

Northern Mariana Is. .. 

Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands 

Armed Services Posts 

Other or unknown 



798378 

1,613 
1,060 
8,632 
1,428 
203,305 
7,506 
9,528 
1,148 
3,373 
82,318 

12,623 
6,867 
1,447 

38,128 
3,892 
2,766 
2,829 
1,939 
3,319 
817 

19,090 

17,317 

14,727 

8,233 

1,118 

4,190 

375 

2,270 

6,541 

1,143 



41,184 

2,610 

123,716 

5,935 

535 

8,189 

3,157 

7,699 

14,553 

2,543 

2,446 

490 

4.357 

57,897 

2,840 

627 

19,277 

18,656 

418 

3,175 

252 



2,083 

103 

4,884 

1,110 

93 



8,681 



40 

2 

485 

16 
143 

10 

48 
300 

147 
2 

92 
16 
14 
19 
15 
21 

160 
86 

305 
34 
14 
19 



64 

7 

478 

5 

4,909 

20 

4 

57 

27 

14 

158 

3 



31 

505 

2 

345 
31 
II 



11,609 

52 

36 

312 

47 

1,339 

155 

211 

68 

32 

1,396 

254 

70 

46 

353 

169 

50 

67 

121 

118 

105 

138 

303 

799 

178 

45 

99 

80 

24 

103 

85 

280 

34 
890 
291 

70 
256 

53 
205 
320 

24 

114 

25 

221 

742 

109 

94 

235 

657 

14 

87 

19 



41,147 

145 

55 

303 

79 

13,058 

371 

405 

105 

117 

726 

477 
479 

77 
1,280 
269 
111 
131 
137 
182 

59 

1,145 

1,270 

685 

265 

51 
336 

30 

80 
175 

57 

1,700 
125 

9,689 
340 
12 
666 
136 
460 

1,064 
91 

128 

19 

224 

1,520 

160 

36 
787 
937 

38 
225 

19 



55 
II 
41 



13,004 

13 
15 
32 
15 

737 
47 

417 

19 

16 

3,702 

124 

12 

3 

236 
21 
13 
16 
17 
51 



198 

271 

67 

75 

9 

26 

9 

2 

42 

30 

2,004 

10 

3,350 

53 

2 

61 

26 

27 

198 

205 

93 

4 

23 

385 

19 

2 
170 
42 

4 
22 

2 



55 
2 
2 



33,587 

9 
1 

38 

5 

379 

48 

151 

5 

II 

28,433 

122 

1 

II 

159 

10 

1 

9 

101 

145 
6 

106 
48 

121 
31 
56 

100 

I 

50 

371 
1 

1,142 

114 

497 

110 

11 

25 

7 

133 

154 

6 

12 

6 

119 

336 

4 

173 
35 



165 



27,053 

I 

23 
7 

57 
15 
265 
15 
64 
1,663 

26 

1 

79 
5 

6 
9 



180 

1,285 

51 

6 

5 

12 

I 

22 
33 

3,240 

14,537 
28 

29 

4 

4 

239 

507 

10 

II 

83 
9 
I 

67 
I 
3 

II 
I 



4,162 
264 



7,780 

6 
1 
9 
4 

436 
9 

220 
4 
9 

718 

38 
3 

12 
319 

12 
4 
4 
6 

23 
2 

96 
45 
19 
29 
4 
7 

2 

13 

6 

1,390 

4 

3,935 

23 

14 

8 

II 

61 

25 



95 
15 

93 
10 



17,969 

5 

10 

70 

33 

7,380 

43 

61 

1 

562 

498 

117 

3 

6 

170 

21 

32 

32 

13 

42 

2 

1,516 

220 

18 

34 

2 

12 

I 

33 

235 



594 

8 

1.782 

52 

13 
20 
57 
47 
18 



13 

2,296 

49 

2 

1.747 

75 

II 



II 



See footnotes at end of table. 



60 



TABLE 17. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH AND 

STATE OF INTENDED RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



State of intended 
residence 



Guyana 



Haiti 



Honduras 



India 



Iran 



Jamaica 



Korea 



Mexico 



Nigeria 



Pakistan 



Total 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 
Rorida 



Georgia ... 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana .... 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky , 
Louisiana 
Maine 



Maryland 

Massachusetts ... 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina .. 
North Dakota .... 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina .. 
South Dakota .... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin , 

Wyoming 



U.S. territories and 
possessions 

Guam 

Northern Mariana Is. .. 

Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands 

Armed Services Posts 

Other or unknown 



7^7 

8 

3 

7 

2 

109 

6 

82 

10 

30 

497 

79 
3 

18 
7 
3 
6 
3 

15 
3 

234 

43 

9 

71 

4 

2 

3 
2 

559 

5,203 
13 

26 

3 

35 

1 

14 

6 

53 

1 
36 
22 

3 



3 
19 



15,057 

2 

15 

1 

45 

9 

388 

59 

26 

7,262 

54 

1 

3 

140 

13 
2 
5 

10 

16 
3 

175 

1,123 

59 

19 

13 
4 
5 
8 

15 

1,256 

3,884 

13 

1 

19 

2 

20 

186 

72 



12 

22 



27 

35 

1 

8 



5 

12 

1 



7,616 

20 
3 

34 

9 

1,030 

45 

69 
4 

18 
1,959 

64 

4 

5 

184 

40 

12 

15 

8 

328 

3 

142 
156 
34 
14 
14 
27 

18 
43 

6 

609 

11 

1,444 

47 

1 

24 

31 

11 

71 

8 

24 

15 
710 

26 

2 

189 

43 

19 
2 



38,071 

159 

9 

250 

75 

7,989 

150 

533 

117 

51 

1,239 

857 

24 

21 

3,311 

271 

110 

174 

152 

208 

16 

1,280 

856 

1,241 

305 

135 

241 

13 

74 

98 

66 

4,757 

98 

4,833 

493 

12 

809 

245 

169 

1,303 

42 

227 

8 

356 

2,569 

44 

11 

1,257 

501 

53 

232 

4 



9 
12 



9,642 

55 

4 

109 

14 

4,794 

82 

60 

9 

32 

283 

220 

5 

17 

190 
55 
17 
58 
44 
26 
2 

439 

169 

135 

98 

16 

64 

4 

9 

55 

7 

160 

6 

427 

88 

115 
89 
88 

145 
5 

29 

1 

72 

606 

39 

8 

469 

173 

10 

39 

1 



17,840 

20 

3 

9 

5 

260 

21 

941 

54 

87 

5,246 

231 
2 
2 

169 

24 

4 
12 
17 

6 

610 

331 

98 

32 

7 

24 

4 
12 
11 

1,185 

9 

7,461 

36 

1 

71 

4 

10 

427 

31 

15 

13 

117 

5 

5 

123 

14 

3 

32 



6 
30 



14^9 

45 

68 

85 

29 

4,016 

179 

103 

53 

18 

211 

383 

287 

12 

588 

79 

79 

48 

58 

29 

7 

817 

197 

266 

180 

14 

95 

8 

37 

61 

32 

1,079 

22 

1,832 

155 

1 

140 

93 

188 

458 

11 

41 

17 

73 

501 

39 

14 

709 

577 

11 

60 

4 



118 

3 

8 
1 



146,865 

160 

HI 
4,764 

487 

68,450 

2,542 

192 
95 

40 
3,131 

1,545 

83 

747 

10,466 

791 

548 

974 

145 

98 

5 

329 

70 
994 
516 

56 
311 

20 

736 

3,002 

27 

655 
1,567 
1,774 

466 
11 

304 
1,120 
2,145 

655 
54 

237 

41 

347 

30,862 

878 

6 

528 

3,124 

10 

530 

79 



35 
1 



7,038 

42 

2 

28 

8 

584 

42 

57 

28 

154 

233 

323 
1 

328 
44 
13 
16 
22 
39 
1 

941 
207 
177 
112 
26 
64 



526 

5 

1,222 

125 

103 
57 
15 

160 

77 

25 

1 

68 

951 

14 

1 

100 

29 

8 
32 

2 



12,967 

46 
5 

56 

17 

1,739 

52 

220 
30 
35 

609 

219 

5 

6 

951 

85 

16 

58 

40 

66 

4 

489 

169 

316 

47 

28 

67 

5 

18 

43 

8 

1,026 

13 

3,451 

113 

6 

146 

50 

19 

251 

18 

24 

65 

1,207 

36 

6 

900 

103 

15 

59 

2 



See footnotes at end of table. 



61 



TABLE 17. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH AND 

STATE OF INTENDED RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



State of intended 
residence 



Peru 



Philippines 



Poland 



Russia 



Taiwan 



Ukraine 



United 
Kingdom 



Vietnam 



Totol 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia .. 
Horida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

U.S. territories and 
possessions 

Guam 

Northern Mariana Is. . 

Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands 

Armed Services Posts 

Other or unknown 

- Represents zero. 



10,853 

13 
13 
35 
14 

1,660 

75 

329 

16 

65 

2,183 

87 

7 

14 

170 

17 

6 
17 

8 
31 

6 

327 

111 

35 

29 

7 

14 

2 

6 

44 

3 

2,025 

9 

2,089 

32 

3 

37 

51 

22 

107 

15 

22 

1 

25 

233 

76 

623 
83 

14 



32 
I 



49,117 

67 
379 
293 

41 

21,827 

247 

310 

54 

82 
1,495 

276 

4,266 

57 

2,757 

200 

52 

104 

69 

157 

36 

875 

214 

581 

182 

128 

210 

33 

54 

799 

47 

2,392 

59 

2,614 

241 

21 

309 

105 

292 

463 

63 

147 

20 

150 

1,519 

84 

18 

1,155 

1,514 

33 

127 

17 



1,739 

86 

2 

6 

47 



12,038 

14 

8 

40 

27 

382 

81 

695 

7 

4 

312 

34 

7 

7 

4,372 

54 
6 
2 
8 

12 

12 

53 
300 

403 
34 

2 
23 

4 
15 
20 
13 

1,485 

4 

2,829 

23 

1 

77 

10 

20 

283 

28 

II 

3 

19 

118 

11 

4 
34 
70 

3 
52 

1 



16,632 

44 
50 

115 

37 

2,798 

287 

207 
22 
52 

352 

287 
19 
20 
755 
116 
73 
64 
62 
38 
32 

504 

783 

409 

334 

22 

183 

16 

46 

36 

38 

614 

47 

3,833 

177 

10 
569 

61 
382 
669 

51 

90 

21 

127 

551 

90 

18 

352 

974 

20 

156 

14 



6,745 

7 

1 

47 

11 

3,439 

58 

35 

8 

12 
129 

68 
57 

4 

108 

25 

20 

20 

2 
29 

1 

195 

102 

91 

21 

9 

57 

4 

3 

35 
12 

364 

8 

550 

49 

71 
23 
47 
105 
2 

29 

5 

24 

427 

42 

2 
133 
193 

8 
28 

4 



20 
I 



15,696 

13 
7 

38 

13 

3,196 

141 

112 

9 

8 

185 

185 

3 

8 

1,037 

60 

21 

24 

30 

6 

18 

228 

538 

233 

154 

1 

41 

6 

12 

11 

21 

427 

5 

5,037 

55 

3 

414 

6 

567 

798 

31 

22 

38 

72 

143 

35 

1 

78 

1,503 

100 
2 



10,708 

69 

20 

160 

38 

2,263 

174 

236 

45 

58 

1.152 

392 
28 
25 

317 
77 
36 
76 
45 
90 
26 

285 
331 
309 
83 
39 
75 
11 
25 
63 
68 

467 

34 
942 
180 

16 
194 

52 
121 
417 

41 

140 

II 

115 

612 

49 

31 

345 

225 

10 

58 

10 



4 
13 

3 



38,519 

95 

17 

222 

120 

15,697 

628 

224 

4 

243 

954 

2,210 
214 
47 
727 
158 
516 
401 
157 
611 
39 

438 
976 
445 
684 
127 
402 
6 
542 
110 
113 

459 

97 

702 

499 

45 

343 

206 

781 

784 

25 

179 

23 

383 

3,123 

160 

73 

919 

2,508 

3 

52 

3 



22 



62 



TABLE 18. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY STATE OF INTENDED RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEARS 1989-97 



State of intended 
residence 



Total - 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

U.S. territories and 
possessions 

Guam 

Northern Mariana Islands 

Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands 

Other or unknown 



1989 



1,090,924 

1,792 
1.013 

11,238 
1,074 
457,417 
7,101 
8,430 
708 
4,759 

48,474 

8,093 
7,292 
1,875 
69,263 
2,580 
1,760 
3,842 
1,396 
3,925 
795 

14,258 

20,990 

9,552 

5,704 

845 
3,320 

376 
1,120 
5,242 
1,140 

42,187 

7,210 

134,766 

4,634 

323 

7,185 

4,366 

4,773 

12,895 

3,134 

1,787 

265 

2,763 

112,927 

2,926 

436 

15,690 

13,630 

500 

4,210 

461 



1,775 

140 

4,691 

1,767 



1990 



109 



1,536,483 

1,775 

1,207 
23.737 

1,245 
682.979 

9.125 

10.678 

868 

5.467 
71,603 

10,431 
8,441 
1,815 

83.858 
3.392 
2.252 
3,925 
1,365 
4,024 
883 

17,106 

25.338 

10.990 

6.627 

931 

3.820 

484 

1,573 

8,270 

1,191 

52,670 

8,840 

189.589 

5.387 

448 

7.419 

5.274 

7.880 

14.757 

3,683 

2.130 

287 

2,893 

174,132 

3,335 

614 
19.005 
15,129 

552 
5.293 

542 



1.851 

105 

7.138 

1.733 

397 



1991 



1,827,167 

2.706 

1.525 

40.642 

2.559 

732.735 

13,782 

12,365 

1,937 

5,510 

141,068 

23,556 
8,659 
7,088 

73,388 
4,512 
3.331 
5,620 
1,753 
4.917 
1.155 

17.470 

27,020 

16,090 

7.461 

1,254 

4,470 

826 

3,020 

10,470 

1,421 

56,164 

13,519 

188,104 

16,772 

565 

8,632 

6,403 

24,575 

20,033 

3.644 

3,836 

519 

3,828 

212,600 

5,737 

709 

24,942 

33.826 

763 

5,888 

566 



2.113 

114 

10,353 

2.083 

2.569 



1992 



973,977 

2,109 
1,165 

15,792 

1,039 

336.663 

6.553 

10,345 
1.034 
4.275 

61.127 

11.243 
8.199 
1.186 

43.532 
3,115 
2,228 
2,924 
2,119 
4.230 
847 

15,408 

22,231 

14,268 

6,851 

842 

4,250 

493 

1,486 

5,086 

1,250 

48.314 

3.907 

149,399 

6.425 

513 

10.194 
3.147 
6.275 

16.213 
2.920 

2,118 

522 

2,995 

75,533 

2,744 

668 

17.739 

15.861 

723 

4.261 

281 



2,464 

67 

6,347 

1,754 

703 



1993 



904,292 

2.298 

1.286 

9.778 

1.312 

260.090 

6,650 

10,966 

1,132 

3,608 

61,423 

10,213 
8,528 
1,270 

46,744 
4.539 
2.626 
3.225 
2.182 
3.725 
838 

16,899 

25,011 

14,913 

7,438 

906 

4.644 

509 

1.980 

4.045 

1,263 

50,285 

3,409 

151,209 

6,892 

601 

10,703 
2,942 
7.250 

16.964 
3,168 

2,195 

543 

4,287 

67,380 

3.266 

709 

16,451 

17.147 

689 

5.168 

263 



3.072 

158 

7.614 

1,610 

276 



1994 



804,416 

1,837 

1,129 

9,141 

1,031 

208,498 

6,825 

9,537 

984 

3,204 

58,093 

10,032 
7,746 
1.559 

42.400 
3.725 
2.163 
2,902 
2,036 
3,366 
829 

15,937 

22,882 

12,728 

7.098 

815 

4.362 

447 

1,595 

4,051 

1,144 

44,083 

2,936 

144,354 

6,204 

635 

9,184 

2,728 

6,784 

15,971 

2,907 

2,110 

570 

3.608 

56.158 

2,951 

658 

15,342 

18,180 

663 

5,328 

217 



2,531 

120 

10,463 

1,426 

209 



1995 



720,461 

1,900 

1.049 

7.700 

934 

166,482 

7,713 

9,240 

1,051 

3,047 

62,023 

12,381 
7,537 
1,612 

33,898 
3,590 
2,260 
2,434 
1,857 
3,000 
814 

15,055 

20,523 

14,135 

8,111 

757 

3,990 

409 

1,831 

4,306 

1.186 

39.729 
2.758 
128,406 
5,617 
483 
8,585 
2,792 
4,923 
15,065 
2.609 

2,165 

495 

3,392 

49,963 

2,831 

535 

16.319 

15.862 

540 

4,919 

252 



2,419 

171 

7,160 

1,511 

135 



1996 



915,900 

1,782 

1,280 

8,900 

1,494 

201,529 

8,895 

10,874 

1,377 

3,784 

79,461 

12,608 
8,436 
1,825 

42,517 
4,692 
3,037 
4,303 
2,019 
4,092 
1,028 

20.732 

23.085 

17.253 

8.977 

1.073 

5.690 

449 

2.150 

5,874 

1,512 

63,303 

5,780 

154,095 

7,011 

606 

10,237 
3,511 
7,554 

16,938 
3,098 

2,151 

519 

4,343 

83.385 

4,250 

654 

21.375 

18.833 

583 

3.607 

280 



2.820 

176 

8.560 

1.384 

119 



1997 



798378 

1.613 
1.060 
8.632 
1.428 
203.305 
7,506 
9,528 
1. 148 
3,373 
82,318 

12,623 
6.867 
1.447 

38,128 
3,892 
2,766 
2.829 
1.939 
3.319 
817 

19,090 

17,317 

14,727 

8,233 

1,118 

4,190 

375 

2,270 

6,541 

1,143 

41,184 

2,610 

123,716 

5,935 

535 

8,189 

3,157 

7,699 

14,553 

2,543 

2,446 

490 

4,357 

57.897 

2.840 

627 

19.277 

18.656 

418 

3,175 

252 



2,083 

103 

4,884 

1,110 

100 



■ Represents zero. X Not applicable. 



63 



TABLE 19. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH AND SELECTED 
METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA OF INTENDED RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Metropolitan statistical area ' 



All 
countries 



Bangla- 
desh 



Canada 



China, 
People's 
Republic 



Colom- 
bia 



Cuba 



Domi- 
nican 
Republic 



Ecuador 



El 
Salvador 



Total 

New York, NY 

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA 

Miami, FL 

Chicago, IL 

Washington, DC-MD-VA 

Orange County, CA 

Houston, TX 

San Jose, CA 

San Francisco, CA 

Oakland, CA 

San Diego, CA 

Boston-Lawrence-Lowell-Brockton, MA 

Dallas, TX 

Philadelphia, PA-NJ 

Newark, NJ 

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Detroit, Ml 

Atlanta, GA 

Bergen-Passaic, NJ 

Riverside-San Bernardino, CA 

Nassau-Suffolk, NY 

Sacramento, CA 

Jersey City, NJ 

Minneapohs-St. Paul, MN-Wl 

Portland-Vancouver. OR-WA 

Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ 

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, FL 

Orlando, FL 

Honolulu, HI 

Fresno, CA 

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 

Phoenix-Mesa, AZ 

Denver, CO 

Baltimore, MD 

Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 

Las Vegas, NV 

Bridgepod-Stamford-Norwalk-Danbury, CT 

El Paso, TX 

Ventura, CA 

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 

Hartford, CT 

San Juan, PR 

San Antonio, TX 

Cleveland-Lorain-EIyria, OH 

Salinas, CA 

Bakersfield, CA 

Stockton-Lodi, CA 

St. Louis, MO-IL 

Providence-Warwick-Pawtucket, RI 

Other MSA 

Non-MSA 

Unknown 

See foouiotes at end of table. 



798^78 

107,434 
62,314 
45,707 
35,386 
31,444 
18,190 
17,439 
17,374 
16,892 
15,723 

14,758 
13,937 
11,061 
10,858 
10,801 
10,692 
10,646 
10,019 
9,823 
9,788 

9,518 
9,167 
7,654 
7,529 
6,859 
6,320 
6,081 
5,858 
5,374 
5,326 

5,161 
5,057 
5,022 
4,634 
4,591 
4,344 
4,101 
3,850 
3,821 
3,298 

3,264 
3,135 
2,979 
2,825 
2,821 
2,749 
2,747 
2,725 
2,490 
2,470 

121,547 

54,674 

101 



8,681 

4,661 
295 
33 
82 
457 
32 
84 
41 
17 
17 

16 

83 

96 

190 

46 

26 

72 

279 

141 

162 

40 
168 

7 
46 

7 
12 
38 
91 
61 

2 



12 

32 

13 

33 

257 

14 

43 

1 

4 

59 

9 
9 



11 
3 

650 

229 



11,609 

412 
338 
151 
289 
198 
136 
181 
190 
127 
149 

110 

240 
184 
144 

68 
273 
329 
492 
192 

57 

55 

61 

27 

28 

103 

147 

56 

130 

135 

43 

18 

221 

248 

80 

58 

83 

73 

116 

8 

20 

11 

52 

4 

47 

52 

9 

25 

6 

63 

24 

3,672 

1,070 



41,147 

8,683 

4,203 

161 

1,117 

1,367 

498 

709 

1,564 

3,178 

1,751 

549 
1,061 
396 
832 
337 
743 
134 
357 
348 
311 

185 
500 
249 
191 
209 
336 
441 
68 
75 
464 

56 

89 
193 
200 
353 

96 
110 

93 
6 

60 

5 

136 

18 

45 

186 

22 

32 

54 

218 

88 

6,150 

1.916 



13,004 

2,833 

313 

2,095 

221 

290 

83 

219 

38 

43 

60 

49 
235 

65 
139 
693 

21 
749 

38 
100 
599 

54 
401 

13 
462 

59 

18 

112 

247 

270 

9 

2 

129 

26 

27 

35 

15 

26 

246 

1 

4 

5 

87 

26 

25 

16 

2 

8 

9 

13 

205 

1,117 

450 

2 



33,587 

250 

187 

24,682 

155 

86 

24 

90 

13 

45 

15 

47 
41 

107 
45 

263 
14 

720 
28 
60 
71 

16 

26 

6 

729 

20 
125 

29 
773 
350 



2 

997 

33 

28 

55 

28 

365 

39 

5 

1 

2 

81 

76 

44 

4 

1 

2 

25 

6 

1,838 

938 



27,053 

13,867 

15 

1,104 

69 

274 

8 

46 

4 

3 

5 

3 

1,201 

6 

248 

498 

1 

173 

12 

22 

1,137 

11 

527 

2 

813 

5 

1 

493 

53 

176 



1 
76 

6 
12 
18 

4 

21 

150 



5 

43 

2,687 

6 

11 



2 
506 

898 

1,822 



7,780 

3,655 

289 

390 

310 

170 

28 

42 

9 

15 

15 

9 
26 
17 
34 

534 
6 

125 
12 
33 

185 

32 
240 

3 

522 

27 

5 
71 
30 
68 

3 

2 
35 

9 

4 
12 
II 
10 
124 

2 
II 

1 
19 
3 
1 
5 
1 

2 

3 

25 

438 

155 

2 



17,969 

860 

4,834 

261 

165 

3,601 

284 

1,625 

135 

834 

374 

65 
189 
407 

27 
163 

23 

78 

6 

100 

93 

260 
870 
54 
240 
20 
20 
38 
35 
50 



103 
19 
55 
32 
60 
48 

136 

34 

6 

64 

8 
12 

3 
27 

5 

34 
66 

9 

3 
18 

987 

529 



64 



TABLE 19. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH AND SELECTED 

METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA OF INTENDED RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Metropolitan statistical area ' 



Guyana 



Haiti 



Honduras 



India 



Iran 



Jamaica 



Korea 



Mexico 



Nigeria 



Pakistan 



Total „ 

New York, NY 

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA 

Miami, FL 

Chicago. IL 

Washington, DC-MD-VA 

Orange County, CA 

Houston. TX 

San Jose, CA 

San Francisco, CA 

Oakland, CA 

San Diego, CA 

Boston-Lawrence-Lowell-Brockton, MA 

Dallas, TX 

Philadelphia, PA-NJ 

Newark, NJ 

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Detroit, Ml 

Atlanta, GA 

Bergen-Passaic, NJ 

Riverside-San Bernardino, CA 

Nassau-Suffolk, NY 

Sacramento, CA 

Jersey City, NJ 

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-W! 

Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA 

Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ 

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, FL 

Orlando. FL 

Honolulu, HI 

Fresno, CA 

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 

Phoenix-Mesa, AZ 

Denver, CO 

Baltimore, MD 

Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 

Las Vegas, NV 

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk-Danbury, CT 

El Paso, TX 

Ventura, CA 

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 

Hartford. CT 

San Juan. PR 

San Antonio, TX 

Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH 

Salinas, CA 

Bakersfield, CA 

Stockton-Lodi, CA 

St. Louis, MO-IL 

Providence-Warwick-Pawtucket, RI 

Other MSA 

Non-MSA 

Unknown 

See footnotes at end of table. 



7^7 

4,922 

46 

142 

18 

262 

5 

30 

5 

2 

16 

S 
24 
13 
30 

286 
10 

125 

8 

62 

62 

18 
227 

3 

112 

71 

2 
74 
18 
99 

3 

1 
41 
7 
I 
21 
3 
2 
9 



44 



10 



1 
1 

312 

100 



15,057 

3,475 
21 

3,048 
126 
166 

14 

9 

2 

2 

1,097 

2 

160 

910 

22 

1,476 

7 

45 

39 

5 
346 

55 

9 

19 

22 

1,566 

481 



70 
9 
4 

15 



346 



15 
I 

4 
1 



2 
72 

1,046 

337 
1 



7,616 

1,239 

644 

1,402 

160 

287 

43 

413 

52 

67 

29 

41 

132 

97 

34 

117 

16 

179 

9 

50 
47 

45 
118 

18 

265 

9 

16 

71 
115 

59 
4 

12 
83 
21 
18 
25 
23 
40 
48 
6 
15 

13 

12 
2 

30 
8 
3 

II 
1 
8 
8 

1,094 

356 
1 



38,071 

3,587 
1,318 

153 
3,133 
1,772 

508 
1,057 
1,835 

371 
1,315 

126 
694 
698 
1,015 
801 
392 
184 
931 
627 
850 

256 
665 
353 
720 
276 
131 
1,565 

90 
180 

24 

389 
266 
162 

81 
376 
169 

49 
221 

28 
101 

13 

171 

8 

97 
243 

47 
125 
148 
170 

39 

7,502 

2,038 

1 



9,642 

231 
2,477 
48 
175 
748 
512 
259 
496 
226 
297 

253 

115 

168 

92 

51 

150 

43 

73 

193 

41 

79 

122 

110 

15 

95 

71 

24 

27 

65 

3 

22 
46 
90 
63 
105 
43 
40 
26 
3 
33 

1 

15 

41 
33 

3 
14 
II 
27 

4 

1,370 
393 



17,840 

6,707 

147 

1,590 

167 

601 

13 

65 

3 

6 

34 

18 
260 

15 

373 

482 

8 

2,148 

75 
206 
367 

8 

470 

It 

48 

27 

7 

50 

654 

308 

1 

I 

143 

8 

14 

142 

13 

11 

308 



523 

2 

4 

35 

1 

II 
31 

1,292 

426 



14,239 

1,535 
2,211 
16 
521 
922 
497 
122 
267 
166 
152 

116 
165 
208 
412 
103 
324 
34 
130 
286 
648 

112 

153 

78 

39 

136 

138 

98 

14 

29 

264 

19 
41 
52 
118 
351 
39 
56 
41 
19 
35 

2 
36 

2 
12 
35 
34 
20 
14 
49 
10 

2,149 

1,201 



146,865 

1,498 
17,470 

507 
9,585 

538 
5,988 
6,036 
2,164 
1,720 
3,099 

5,994 
60 

4,409 
433 
96 
597 
166 
426 
775 
179 

5,263 

127 

1,389 

87 
319 
879 

80 
241 
311 

30 

3,687 

480 

2,304 

1,424 

92 

1,559 

1,538 

90 

3,556 

2,004 

3,033 

30 

5 

1,867 

58 

2,080 

1,861 

1,476 

97 

53 

29,413 

19,692 



7,038 

1,081 
223 

68 
307 
907 

21 
480 

24 

21 
128 

31 
191 

272 

156 

299 

21 

30 

132 

291 

33 

40 
77 
43 
35 
108 
13 
80 
5 

39 
1 

12 

39 

25 

32 

236 

74 

4 

3 

3 



2 
27 

II 
15 



5 

39 
74 

1,074 

198 



12,967 

2,836 
411 
161 
911 

1,086 
159 
646 
187 
84 
272 

39 
134 
230 
227 
194 

90 
136 
208 
178 
124 

92 

347 

112 

197 

45 

14 

221 

36 

117 

5 

26 

54 

33 

44 

178 

139 

32 

58 

6 

II 



87 

22 
34 
3 
13 
130 
30 
10 

1,895 

662 

1 



65 



TABLE 19. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH AND SELECTED 

METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA OF INTENDED RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Metropolitan statistical area ' 



Peru 



PhiUp- 
pines 



Poland 



Russia 



Taiwan 



Trinidad 



Ukraine 



United 
Kingdom 



Vietnam 



Total. 



New York, NY 

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA 

Miami, Fl. 

Chicago, [L 

Washington, DC-MD-VA 

Orange County, CA 

Houston, TX 

San Jose, CA 

San Francisco, CA 

Oakland, CA 



San Diego, CA 

Boston-Lawrence-Lowell-Brockton, 

Dallas, TX 

Philadelphia, PA-NJ 

Newark, NJ 

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Detroit, MI 

Atlanta, GA 

Bergen-Passaic, NJ 



MA 



Riverside-San Bernardino, CA 

Nassau-Suffolk, NY 

Sacramento, CA 

Jersey City, NJ 

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI 

Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA 

Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ . 
West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, FL ... 

Orlando, FL 

Honolulu, HI 



Fresno, CA 

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 

Phoenix-Mesa, AZ 

Denver, CO 

Baltimore, MD 

Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 

Las Vegas, NV 

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk-Danbury, CT 

El Paso, TX 

Ventura, CA 



McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 

Hartford, CT 

San Juan. PR 

San Antonio, TX 

Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH 

Salinas, CA 

Bakersfield, CA 

Stockton-Lodi, CA 

St. Louis, MO-IL 

Providence- Warwick-Pawtucket, RI . 

Other MSA 



Non-MSA . 
Unknown .. 



10,853 

1,675 
650 

1,325 
156 
902 
151 
101 
121 
226 
190 

51 
88 
69 
45 

476 
56 

457 

5 

63 

795 

76 

319 

28 

432 
24 
14 

213 
71 

132 
5 

12 
89 
26 
46 
38 
15 
30 
87 
5 
32 

2 
172 

18 
7 

10 
2 
8 
3 
9 

15 

978 
333 



49,117 

2,111 

6,281 

223 

2,553 

1,228 

944 

505 

2,076 

2,685 

2,519 

2,784 
149 
206 
414 
463 

1,021 
140 
366 
143 
502 

874 
313 
503 
607 
129 
230 
358 
96 
215 
3,126 

177 

161 

201 

138 

217 

65 

580 

87 

43 

373 

93 

71 

2 

105 

92 
249 
296 
335 
110 

60 

6,453 

5,397 

48 



12,038 

2,390 
100 
42 

4,314 
48 
35 
34 
46 
36 
47 

37 
121 

24 
227 
332 

63 

66 
355 

25 
593 

8 

297 

28 

162 

32 

8 

155 

34 

19 

4 

1 
59 
33 
46 
28 
28 
16 
159 



1 
390 

12 

47 
2 



21 

27 

1.162 
316 



16,632 

3,309 
710 

93 
680 
518 

80 
163 
325 
520 
197 

176 
605 
154 
398 
130 
444 
44 
261 
243 
186 

47 

186 

364 

31 

299 

535 

100 

45 

32 

12 

28 

34 

62 

205 

226 

81 

24 

70 

3 

20 

64 

I 

11 

260 

9 

13 

133 
45 

3,429 

1,026 

1 



6,745 

435 

1,439 

23 

99 

236 

241 

200 

714 

262 

367 

96 

85 

124 

66 

108 

178 

21 

44 

56 

74 

83 
75 
29 
16 
20 
39 
87 
7 
29 
53 

13 
14 
28 
32 
46 
28 
33 
17 
4 
18 



3 
12 

4 

6 
12 
42 

2 

769 

348 



6,409 

3,239 

64 

247 

20 

392 

3 

83 
8 
5 
6 

12 

136 

13 

157 

182 

3 

346 

19 

50 

62 

7 
242 

1 
63 
12 

1 

38 

69 

101 

2 



75 
2 
6 
140 
4 
4 

21 



19 
2 
4 
5 



9 

386 
145 



15,696 

4,757 

920 

49 

1,024 

113 

33 

30 

169 

753 

114 

125 
354 

71 
623 
130 
920 

27 
188 
157 

77 

19 

78 

906 

40 

147 

733 

61 

21 

12 

2 

2 

21 

15 

114 

162 

22 

8 

21 



60 

3 

268 

4 

2 
31 
31 

1,918 

358 



10,708 

680 
554 
155 
271 
372 
176 
244 
431 
269 
186 

150 
258 
150 
280 
155 
135 
227 
191 
249 
78 

71 
97 
82 
25 
60 
89 
90 
109 
162 
20 

20 

150 

98 

78 

111 

33 

49 

126 

1 

47 

5 
47 

1 
35 
34 
13 
13 
30 
45 
29 

2,720 

1,004 

3 



38,519 

409 

2,094 

24 

620 
1,266 
5,274 
1,359 
3,458 

513 
1,020 

817 
718 
706 
629 

68 
1,537 

57 

115 

2,059 

30 

468 

73 

596 

38 

547 

794 

41 

40 

323 

209 

29 
297 
130 
529 
109 
557 

63 

81 
1 

73 

4 
99 

65 
93 
44 
13 
122 
207 
24 

7,918 

2,159 



Ranked by the number of immigrants. See Glossary for defmition of metropolitan statistical area. - Represents zero. 



66 



TABLE 20. IMMIGRANT BENEFICIARIES OF OCCUPATIONAL PREFERENCES ADMITTED 

BY TYPE OF ADMISSION AND OCCUPATION 
FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Occupation 



Total 



Employment-based principals 



Total 



Isl pref. 



2nd pref. 



3rd pref. 
(skilled 

worker or 
profes- 
sional) 



3rd pref. 

(other 

workers) 



4th pref. 



5th pref. 



All other 
immi- 
grants 



All occupations „ ~ 

Professional specialty and technical occupations 

Architects 

Engineers, surveyors, and mapping scientists .. 

Mathematical and computer scientists 

Natural scientists 

Health diagnosticians ..................................... 

Doctors 

Others 

Health assessment and treating personnel ... 

Nurses 

Others 

Teachers (postsecondary) 

Teachers (except postsecondary) 

Counselors (educational and vocational) 

Librarians, archivists, and curators 

Social scientists and urban planners 

Social, recreation, and religious workers 

Lawyers and judges 

Writers, artists, entertainers, and athletes 

Technologists and technicians (health) 

Technologists and technicians (except 

health) 

Executive, administrative, and managerial 

occupations 

Sales occupations 

Administrative support occupations (including 

clerical) 

Precision production, craft, and repair occupations 

Operator, fabricator, and laborer occupations 

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations 

Service occupations 

No occupation 

Homemaker 

Unemployed or retired 

Students and/or children under age 16 

Unknown or not reported 

- Represents zero. 



798378 

62,674 

555 

10.387 

2,612 

3,546 

6,182 

5,387 

795 

9,089 

6,187 

2,902 

3,430 

7,882 

263 

128 

726 

3,557 

903 

5,239 

1,478 

6,697 

26,353 
14,291 

18,345 

20,460 

71,718 

13,402 

53,301 

479,939 

124,352 

104,613 

250,974 

37,895 



40332 

20,510 

73 

3,825 

1,525 

2,357 

1,876 

1,713 

163 

3,673 

2,798 

875 

1,164 

465 

44 

11 

130 

2,658 

40 

1,063 

433 

1,173 

8,641 
313 

664 
1,772 
1,040 

139 
5,682 

656 
27 

266 

363 

915 



9,139 

3,163 

7 

392 

222 

1,035 

204 

183 

21 

50 

5 

45 

505 

91 

7 

2 

43 

4 

5 

596 



5,658 



1 
317 



8393 

7,108 

25 

2,213 

606 

1,224 

1,534 

1,439 

95 

160 

40 

120 

523 

114 

16 

7 

74 
19 
23 
88 
168 

314 

872 
23 

88 
47 

3 
56 



196 



14,668 

7,346 

40 

1,211 

696 

97 

114 

70 

44 

3,443 

2,739 

704 

106 

170 

18 

2 

11 

27 

10 

327 

254 

820 

1,713 
238 

460 
1,466 

473 

106 

2,553 

35 

1 

20 

14 

278 



4,036 

74 



2 
1 

5 

3 
2 
8 
7 
1 
2 
16 



I 

3 

14 



14 

50 
43 

65 

226 

537 

28 

2,961 



52 



3,652 

2,779 



1 
3 

2 
1 
5 
4 
1 
23 
71 
3 

1 

2,605 

1 

36 

2 

24 

31 
3 

34 

31 

29 

1 

110 

577 

5 

238 

334 

57 



444 

40 
1 

3 



16 

16 

7 
3 
4 
5 
3 



317 
6 

17 
2 
1 
1 
2 

43 

21 
8 

14 

15 



758,046 

42,164 
482 
6,562 
1,087 
1,189 
4306 
3,674 
632 

5y416 

3,389 

2,027 

2,266 

7,417 

219 

117 

596 

899 

863 

4,176 

1,045 

5,524 

17,712 
13,978 

17,681 

18,688 

70,678 

13,263 

47,619 

479,283 

124,325 

104,347 

250,611 

36,980 



67 



TABLE 21. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP AND REGION 

AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 
FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Region and country 
of birth 



Total 



Occupation 



Total 



Profes- 
sional 
specialty 
and tech- 
nical 



Executive, 
admini- 
strative, 

and man- 
agerial 



Sales 



Admini- 
strative 
support 



Precision 
produc- 
tion, craft, 
and repair 



Operator, 

fabricator, 

and 

laborer 



Fanning, 
forestry, 

and 
fishing 



Service 



All countries 

Europe 

Albania 

Bulgaria 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Moldova 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Other republics 

Unknown republic . 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former . 

Bosnia-Herzegovina 

Other & unknown 
Other Europe 

Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Rep. 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Thailand 

Turkey 



798378 

119,871 

4,375 

2,774 

2,568 

5,723 

1,049 

949 

1,001 

1,982 

1,059 

12,038 

1,665 

5,545 

49,071 

2,094 

1,450 

3,062 

1,347 

16,632 

15,696 

3,312 

2,534 

2,944 

1,241 

958 

1,063 

10,708 

10,750 

6,392 

4,358 

5,352 

265,812 

1,129 
8,681 
1,085 
1,638 

41,147 
5,577 

38,071 
906 
9,642 
3,244 
2,448 
5,097 
4,171 

14,239 
1,935 
3,568 
1,051 

12,967 

49,117 
1,128 
2,269 
6,745 
3,094 
3,145 



280,544 

43,957 

1,486 

1,361 

1,167 

2,795 

438 

365 

605 

838 

512 

6,000 

586 

2,321 

12,223 

688 

421 

741 

315 

4,054 

4,096 

534 

727 

647 

511 

387 

509 

5,102 

4,615 

2,882 

1,733 

2,136 

93,425 

307 
2,235 

392 

624 

17,040 

2,463 

13,859 

314 
3,016 
1,045 

931 
1,504 
1,092 
3,657 

373 
1,168 

524 

3,535 

18,127 

513 

660 
2,772 

709 
1,400 



62,674 

15,032 

674 
711 
434 

1,021 
150 
171 
215 
244 
200 

1,831 
40 

1,099 

4,345 

299 

115 

212 

86 

1,771 

1,293 
140 
257 
172 
228 
149 
205 

1,827 
660 
187 
473 
828 

29,124 

89 

465 

119 

46 

5,879 
586 

6,776 
86 

1,037 
184 
344 
409 
312 

1,340 

26 

377 

192 

1,214 

6,184 
219 
301 

1,157 
159 
500 



26353 

5,016 

55 

110 

311 

543 

61 

44 

90 

180 

149 

214 

34 

110 

735 

23 

22 

26 

12 

338 

191 

32 

62 

29 

71 

97 

114 

1,604 

129 

30 

99 

365 

13,742 

29 
132 

42 

15 

3,203 

773 

2,065 

76 
536 

46 
164 
549 
154 
697 
5 
188 
124 
611 
2,515 

88 

82 
911 

85 
196 



14,291 

1,874 

55 
57 
61 

200 
33 
13 
19 
24 
19 

215 
17 
93 

504 
45 
19 
25 
10 

153 

175 
30 
28 
19 
24 
26 
26 

220 

143 
80 
63 

125 

5312 

37 

361 

49 

214 

385 

156 

703 

22 

300 

36 

94 

59 

97 

168 

3 

97 

19 

207 

650 

26 

47 

134 

108 

63 



18345 

3315 

58 

107 

82 

403 

19 

32 

78 

49 

39 

412 

29 

193 

848 

51 

25 

54 

23 

333 

257 

40 

38 

27 

45 

36 

73 

436 

192 

106 

86 

184 

6398 

10 
82 
41 
17 
1,510 

503 

819 
41 

227 
24 
73 

145 
80 

326 
12 
86 
49 

151 

1,293 

55 

33 

279 
76 

106 



20,460 

3,716 

252 

64 

34 

132 

37 

22 

36 

35 

17 

1,200 

139 

197 

820 

63 

22 

62 

27 

195 

295 

52 

48 

56 

26 

10 

22 

171 

342 

194 

148 

160 

5,578 

20 

66 

42 

112 

339 

104 

293 

7 

261 

50 

49 

31 

76 

227 

33 

128 

23 

97 

835 

16 

58 

30 

49 

151 



71,718 

7,009 

118 

69 

43 

138 

53 

29 

51 

82 

33 

841 

113 

235 

2,674 

76 

119 

199 

96 

618 

1,114 

103 

137 

212 

54 

26 

16 

295 

1,966 

1,522 

444 

173 

12,968 

22 

117 

31 

86 

1,829 

101 

401 

22 

214 

487 

86 

27 

164 

290 

191 

105 

19 

227 

1,483 

13 

39 

46 

44 

94 



13,402 

631 

69 
13 

7 

7 

14 

1 

9 

3 

7 

303 

46 

21 

26 

2 

1 

1 

5 

13 

1 

1 

2 

3 

4 

3 

27 

58 

8 

50 

10 

7,026 

1 

80 

61 

2,734 

2 

1,558 

24 
4 
6 
5 

39 

27 

46 

15 

2 

174 

1,400 

1 

21 

23 

26 

17 



53301 

7364 

205 

230 

195 

351 

71 

53 

107 

221 

48 

984 

168 

373 

2,271 

129 

99 

162 

60 

641 

758 

136 

156 

130 

60 

39 

50 

522 

1,125 

755 

370 

291 

13,277 

99 

932 

68 

73 

1,161 

238 

1,244 

60 

417 

214 

115 

279 

170 

582 

57 

172 

96 

854 

3.767 

95 

79 

192 

162 

273 



See foolnoles at end of table. 



68 



TABLE 21. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP AND REGION 

AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 
FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 







Occupation 








Profes- 


Executive 














No occu- 


Region and country 
ofbiith 


Total 


Total 


sional 
specialty 


admini- 
strative. 


Sales 


Admini- 
strative 


Precision 
produc- 
tion, craft. 


Operator, 

fabricator, 

and 


Fanmng, 

forestry, 

and 


Service 


pation or 
not re- 








and tech- 
nical 


and man- 
agerial 




support 


and repair 


laborer 


fishing 




ported' 


Vietnam 


38.519 


13,879 


766 


253 


1,199 


263 


2,447 


6,509 


731 


1.711 


24,640 


Yemen 


1,663 


400 


25 


10 


24 


7 


2 


280 


25 


27 


1,263 




3,536 
47,791 


886 
18323 


332 
5,923 


193 
1,697 


54 
1,455 


90 
1,923 


32 
1,168 


41 
2,077 


4 
166 


140 
3,914 


2,650 


Africa 


29,468 


Cape Verde 


920 


153 


20 


3 


6 


3 


24 


57 


9 


31 


767 


Egypt 


5,031 


2,107 


919 


390 


124 


186 


75 


133 


8 


272 


2.924 


Eritrea 


948 


268 


75 


13 


14 


47 


19 


38 


3 


59 


680 


Ethiopia 


5,904 


1,902 


393 


97 


221 


303 


91 


180 


8 


609 


4,002 


Ghana 


5,105 


2,117 


581 


75 


141 


213 


456 


149 


42 


460 


2,988 


Kenya 


1,387 


474 


172 


75 


39 


56 


12 


34 


2 


84 


913 


Liberia 


2,216 


741 


238 


79 


38 


96 


25 


66 


13 


186 


1,475 


Morocco 


2,359 


933 


216 


88 


90 


102 


98 


85 


10 


244 


1,426 


Nigeria 


7,038 


3,251 


1,435 


186 


397 


360 


89 


162 


49 


573 


3,787 


Sierra Leone 


1,884 


713 


191 


49 


49 


114 


43 


56 


2 


209 


1,171 


Somalia 


4,005 


891 


52 


26 


33 


30 


27 


494 


2 


227 


3,114 


South Africa 


2,093 


893 


423 


215 


45 


84 


32 


31 


3 


60 


1,200 


Sudan 


2,030 


870 


167 


57 


48 


67 


15 


319 


4 


193 


1,160 


Other Africa 


6,871 
4342 


3,010 
1,923 


1,041 
637 


344 
314 


210 
112 


262 
197 


162 
130 


273 
181 


11 
63 


707 
289 


3,861 


Oceania „ 


2,419 


Australia 


1,630 


848 


360 


192 


44 


70 


31 


56 


5 


90 


782 


Fiji 


1,549 


583 


102 


54 


50 


92 


58 


56 


29 


142 


966 


Other Oceania 


1,163 


492 


175 


68 


18 


35 


41 


69 


29 


57 


671 


North America 


307,488 


102,935 


8,662 


3,991 


4302 


5,090 


8,199 


43377 


5,157 


24357 


204,553 


Canada 


11,609 


4,742 


2,112 


1,390 


196 


275 


117 


313 


30 


309 


6,867 


Mexico 


146,865 


39,293 


945 


624 


994 


1,057 


1,961 


22,208 


3,566 


7,938 


107,572 


Caribbean 


105,299 


4238 


4,565 


U60 


2,403 


2,757 


4,911 


14,409 


1396 


10,587 


63,011 


Cuba 


33,587 


16,750 


1,198 


347 


1,156 


673 


2,243 


8,272 


165 


2,696 


16,837 


Dominican Rep. 


27,053 


8,845 


1,271 


401 


387 


672 


1,099 


3,227 


462 


1,326 


18,208 


Haiti 


15,057 


4,537 


494 


150 


387 


218 


795 


1,288 


370 


835 


10,520 


Jamaica 


17,840 


7,453 


895 


200 


255 


775 


310 


936 


251 


3,831 


10,387 


Trinidad & 
























Tobago 


6,409 


2,379 


383 


137 


110 


261 


257 


361 


10 


860 


4,030 


Other Caribbean 


5,353 


2,324 


324 


125 


108 


158 


207 


325 


38 


1,039 


3,029 


Central America 


43,676 


16,598 


1,037 


613 


709 


1,000 


1310 


6344 


265 


5,420 


27,078 


Costa Rica . . 


1,330 
17,969 


439 
7,155 


65 
215 


37 
142 


12 
320 


20 
287 


31 
501 


206 
2,351 


3 
161 


65 
3,178 


891 


El Salvador 


10.814 




7,785 


2,889 


171 


102 


107 


204 


240 


1,073 


46 


946 


4,896 


Honduras 


7,616 


2,444 


219 


141 


105 


142 


261 


986 


36 


554 


5,172 


Nicaragua 


6,331 


2,874 


221 


134 


127 


176 


120 


1,591 


14 


491 


3,457 


Panama 


1,981 


602 


119 


37 


32 


149 


38 


102 


1 


124 


1,379 


Other C. America 


664 


195 


27 


20 


6 


22 


19 


35 


4 


62 


469 


Other N. America . 


39 


14 


3 


4 


- 


1 


- 


3 


- 


3 


25 


South America 


52,877 


19,898 


3^67 


1^78 


1331 


1,416 


1,662 


6,194 


359 


4,191 


32,979 


Argentina 


1,964 


823 


274 


110 


54 


71 


43 


158 


4 


109 


1,141 


BoliWa 


1,734 


628 


84 


38 


24 


46 


71 


101 


7 


257 


1,106 


Brazil 


4,583 


1,765 


440 


322 


81 


109 


83 


354 


6 


370 


2,818 


Chile 


1,443 


604 


127 


59 


46 


46 


53 


161 


3 


109 


839 


Colombia 


13,004 


4,916 


710 


304 


177 


220 


253 


2,393 


20 


839 


8,088 


Ecuador 


7,780 


3,011 


302 


132 


281 


270 


450 


843 


92 


641 


4,769 


Guyana 


7.257 


2,422 


389 


161 


141 


238 


426 


413 


195 


459 


4,835 


Peru 


10,853 


4,264 


558 


232 


343 


316 


225 


1.411 


21 


1,158 


6,589 


Venezuela 


3,328 


1,094 


297 


190 


63 


70 


30 


286 


2 


156 


2,234 


Other S. America .. 


931 


371 


86 


30 


21 


30 


28 


74 


9 


93 


560 


Unknown or not rep. 


197 


83 


29 


15 


5 


6 


7 


12 




9 


114 



Includes homemakers, students, unemployed or retired persons, and others not reporting or with an unknown occupation. 
■ Represents zero. 



69 



II. 



This section presents information on persons wlio are admitted to ttie United States 
because of persecution abroad, including ttie number and cliaracteristics 
of persons applying, approved, arriving, and adjusting to lawful 
permanent resident status. 



A refugee is an alien outside the United States who 
is unable or unwilling to return to his or her 
country of nationality because of persecution or a well- 
founded fear of persecution. (See Appendix 3, p. A.3-9.) 
Claims of persecution must be based on race, religion, 
nationality, membership in a particular social group, or 
political opinion.' Persons within their country of 
nationality may be treated as refugees, provided that the 
President, after consultation with Congress, declares that 
they are of special humanitarian concern to the United 
States. The definition of refugee set forth in the 
Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended by the 
Refugee Act of 1980, (see Appendix 1, p. A. 1-18) 
conforms to the 1967 United Nations Protocol on 
Refugees. 

U.S. Refugee Program 

The United States first recognized refugees for entry into 
the country in fiscal year 1946. After that time many 
different refugee programs were enacted on an ad hoc 
basis, including the Displaced Persons Act (see Appendix 
1, p. A. 1-10) and the Cuban and Indochinese Refugee 
Adjustment Acts. During the first decade of refugee 
programs, virtually all refugees entered the United States 
as immigrants. Since 1957, most refugees either have been 
paroled into the United States under special authority 
granted to the Attorney General by the Immigration and 
Nationality Act, or have entered in a statutory refugee 
status, to be adjusted to lawful permanent resident status at 
a later date. 

Chart F depicts initial refugee admissions and adjustments 
to lawful permanent resident status for the period 1946-97. 
This graph demonstrates the time lag between initial 
admission and adjustment to immigrant status. At the 



The Illegal Immigration Refonn and Individual Responsibility Act of 
1996, enacted September 30, 1996, Sec. 601, stipulates that a person 
qualifies as a refugee or asylee persecuted for political opinion if forced 
to undergo, has a well-founded fear of being compelled to undergo, or 
resists a coercive population-control procedure. Also, the Act set a 
combined annual ceiling of 1 ,000 persons who may be granted refugee or 
asylee status under this provision. 



onset of parole programs there generally were no 
mechanisms for adjustment to permanent status, thus 
creating a recurring need for special legislation. The 
Refugee Act of 1980 addressed this situation by providing 
for routine adjustment of status by refugees one year after 
arrival. 

Admission ceilings 

At the beginning of each fiscal year, the President, after 
consultation with Congress to review the worldwide 
refugee situation, determines the number of refugees in 
need of resettlement who are of special humanitarian 
concern to the United States. The President then 
establishes the authorized number of admissions for that 
fiscal year. During the year, changes in the need for 
resettlement may require revisions in the overall limit on 
refugee admissions or reallocation among areas of the 
world. The admission ceiling of 78,000 for 1997 was 
established and later reallocated among geographic 
regions as follows: 



Geographic region of origin 



Initial 
ceiling 



Final 
ceiling 



78,000 

7,000 

10,000 

52,500 

4,000 

4,500 



Total 78,000 

Africa 7,000 

East Asia 10,000 

Eastern Europe / Soviet Union (fmr) 48,000 

Latin America / Caribbean 4,000 

Near East / South Asia 4,000 

Unallocated, funded 5,000 

- Represents zero. 



The authorized admission levels set the maximum number 
of refugees allowed to enter the United States in a fiscal 
year from each of the geographic areas of chargeability. 
The authorized ceiling was lowered ft^om 90,000 in 1996 
to 78,000 in 1997, continuing a downward trend since the 
peak of 142,000 in 1992. An unallocated funded reserve 
of 5,0(X) was placed in the 1997 ceiling to allow for small 
increases in one or more areas as needed without 
subtracting refugee numbers from other areas. 



70 



Chart F 
Refugee and Asylee Initial Admissions and Adjustments to Lawful Permanent 

Resident Status: Fiscal Years 1946-97 

Thousands 
350 n 



300- 
250- 
200- 
150- 
100- 
50- 



Initial admissions 

Adjustments to lawful permanent 
resident status 




u-| 


1 1 

1946 1950 


1955 


T 

1960 


1 1 I - 
1965 1970 1975 

Major refugee programs 


1 1 1 1 

1980 1985 1990 1997 


1949-53 

1954-57 

11/56-7/58 

1959 

1966-80 


Displaced Persons Act 
Refugee Relief Act 
Hungarians paroled 
Hungarian adjustments began 
Refugee conditional entrants 




1978-84 Indochinese Refugee 

Adjustment Act 
2/70-3/80 Refugee-Parolees admitted 
1/59-3/80 Cubans paroled 
1967 Cuban adjustments began 


3/75-3/80 Indochinese refugees paroled 

1980 Refugee-Parolee adjustments began 
4/80 Refugee Act admissions began 

1981 Refugee Act adj ustments began 
4/80-10/80 Marielboatlift 












1985-87 Mariel adjustments 



NOTE: For the period 1946-56, admissions to lawful permanent resident status and initial admissions were the same. See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 
Source: Tables 24, 28, and 32. 



The ceiling for East Asia includes certain Vietnamese 
Amerasians, who enter the United States with immigrant 
visas. Although these aliens are immigrants rather than 
refugees, they are included in the refugee ceiling since they 
are eligible for refugee benefits in the United States. Only 
809 Amerasians, including their family members, entered 
the United States in 1997. They are included in the 
immigrant rather than the refugee tables in the Statistical 
Yearbook. The Amerasian program is ending, since most 
of the eligible persons have already been identified and 
entered the United States. 

Criteria for refugee status 

During 1997, refugees were interviewed and approved for 
admission to the United States by officers in ten of the 
Service's thirty-nine overseas offices. To qualify for 
admission to the United States as a refugee, each applicant 



must meet all of the following criteria: be a refugee as set 
forth in the Refugee Act of 1980; be among the types of 
refugees determined to be of special humanitarian concern 
to the United States; be admissible under the Immigration 
and Nationality Act; and not be firmly resettled in any 
foreign country. Spouses and minor children of qualifying 
refugees also enter the United States as refugees, either 
accompanying or following to join the principal refugee. 
Occasionally these family members gain refugee status 
after arriving in the United States; this was the case with 
196 people in 1997. 

Special program for applicants from the former 
Soviet Union (Table 22) 

Beginning in 1990, the administrative processing of 
refugee applicants residing in the Soviet Union was shifted 
to the United States. The resulting change in the 



71 



Table D 
Refugee Status Applications Filed and Approved, and Refugees Admitted, by Selected 
Nationality: Fiscal Year 1 997 

Nationalitv Refugee applications Refugee applications „ ^ 
^ filed approved Reftigee amvals 

Total 122,741 77,600 69,276 

Yugoslavia 39,561 28,730 21,360 

Bosnia-Herzegovina 38,381 27,840 21357 

Croatia 1,170 'g84 ' _ 

Other & unknown 10 6 ■? 

Soviet Union, former 35,329 27,623 27 072 

Viet"^'" 19,552 6^522 6660 

<^"*'^ 9,102 1,860 2 911 

Somalia 6,510 5,599 4974 

^^1 4,573 3,289 2^679 

Congo, Democratic Republic ' . 2,664 651 45 

^3" 2,244 1,234 1 305 

Liberia 1,620 893 231 

Sudan 602 393 277 

Q^^^^ 984 797 1,762 

In May 1997 Zaire was formally recognized as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
- Represents zero. Source: Tables 23 and 25. 

application procedure created discontinuity with prior INS former Soviet Union. During fiscal year 1997 the WPC 

data on refugee applications. Applicants from the former received 25,416 questionnaires and scheduled 53 436 

Soviet Union are now required to submit an initial persons for Moscow interviews. About 19 percent of these 

questionnaire to the State Department's Washington potential applicants did not appear for their interviews 

Processing Center (WPC) in Rosslyn, Virginia. The WPC Applicants from the former Soviet Union who were in 

establishes interview priority for applications based on other countries at the start of fiscal year 1990 are still 

information supplied on the initial questionnaires and allowed to submit applications for refugee status directly to 

schedules interviews in Moscow. On the day of their other INS refugee processing posts. Only 49 Soviet 

interview, applicants submit completed refugee applications were filed outside of Moscow in 1997 

applications to Service officers in Moscow. Since 1990, including 18 spouses and children who received refugee 

those applications have been counted as filed on the status in the United States 
interview date. The 45,825 applications pending in 
Moscow at the end of fiscal year 1989 were 

administratively closed and forwarded to the WPC to Data Overview 

receive a priority and an interview date; therefore, the Applications (Tables D 22 23) 

count of pending applications declined by this number The number of applications for refugee status filed with 

between 1989 and 1990. The 45,825 applications were INS decreased by 21 percent from 1996 (155 868) to 1997 

added to the pool of initial questionnaires submitted to the (122,741) (Table 22). The leading countries of 

WPC beginnmg in 1990 (Table 22). chargeability of the applicants were Bosnia-Herzegovina 

rp. , c ■ ■ ■ , ^'"^ ^^ percent of the applications, the former Soviet 

The number of initial questionnaires received at the WPC Union (29), Vietnam (16), Cuba (7), and Somalia (5) 

provides only a rough indication of the potential number of (Table D and Table 23). Among those countries of 

applications, because a questionnaire may include more chargeability from which at least 600 applications were 

HnnL'T ^T"' ' '°o ' P"''"''" '^PP"'^^"'^ ^"bmit filed in 1997, the largest percentage increases over 1996 

,^^'l''l.'^''''f^^^^ were in applications filed by nationals from the 

milh texceeS tr/T' f"" h"' "'"'"'u' ''""'' "'^ Dcmocr.Uc Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) (from 

might exceed the yearly admissions allocated for the 65 to 2,664), Liberia (310 to 1,620), and Bosnia- 



72 



Herzegovina (19,242 to 38,381); the largest percentage 
decreases were in applications filed by nationals of 
Vietnam (from 69,802 to 19,552) and Somalia (14,383 to 
6,510). The large increase in number of applications filed 
by nationals of Cuba (from 1,566 to 9,102) was due to a 
reporting procedural change that took place in the INS 
Mexico City district. Beginning in 1997, offices in 
Mexico City district adopted a reporting guideline that was 
consistent with all other overseas offices and reported their 
refugee processing workload in terms of number of 
individuals instead of cases processed. 

Approvals (Tables D, 22, 23, 24) 
The number of refugees approved for admission to the 
United States increased from 74,491 in 1996 to 77,600 in 
1997 (Table 24). The leading countries of chargeability 
were Bosnia-Herzegovina with 27,840 approvals, the 
former Soviet Union (27,632), Vietnam (6,522), Somalia 
(5,599), and Iraq (3,289) (Table D and Table 23). These 
five countries accounted for 9 1 percent of all approvals in 
1997. The number approved from the former Soviet 
Union dropped for the fifth straight year, reflecting the 
downward trend in applications. The number of refugees 
approved from Vietnam declined by 24 percent and from 
the East Asia geographic region declined by 43 percent in 
1997, reflecting a substantial drop in the proportion of 
successful applications. All Vietnamese refugee processing 
centers outside Vietnam were closed by the end of 1997. 
Residents of former refugee camps were asked to return to 
Vietnam. Their cases are processed through a special 
program called the Resettlement of Vietnamese Returnees 
(ROVR) in Vietnam. The ROVR program adjudicated 607 
cases and approved 565 cases in 1997. 



More than 69,000 refugees arrived 
in the United States during 1997. 

Herzegovina increased significantly (78 percent) against 
an overall declining trend. The former Soviet Union, 
former Yugoslavia, Vietnam, and Somalia were the leading 
countries for refugee arrivals in 1997, comprising 87 
percent of the total. The time lag between approval of a 
refugee application and the refugee's arrival in the United 
States may be several months or more. After approval, 
refugees must undergo health and security clearances, have 
sponsorship and placement arranged, and in some cases go 
through orientation and English language training. This 
time lag accounts for the discrepancies between approval 
and arrival figures in any given year. 

Adjustment to permanent resident status 

(Tables 5, 26, 35, 36) 

Under the Refugee Act of 1980, refugees are eligible to 
adjust to lawful permanent resident status, exempt from 
any limit, after 1 year of residence in the United States. 
When they adjust status, their date of admission is 
recorded as their date of entry as refugees, so that the 
length of time spent in refugee status is counted toward the 
residency requirement for naturalization. For all refugees 
who adjusted status in 1997, the median length of 
residence in the United States was about 2 years. This 
analysis and others indicate that refugees tend to adjust 
soon after they become eligible. Nearly 79 percent of the 
1997 refugee-adjustment cohort entered the United States 
in 1995-96. 



Dependents 

Refugee figures include spouses and children who are 
cleared to join principal refugees already in the United 
States, and they count against the annual ceiling. Because 
of these family reunification cases, the data continue to 
show refugees being approved and arriving for some time 
after active refugee processing has ended for nationals of 
certain countries. Most of the refugee flow from Eastern 
Europe in fiscal year 1997, other than from the former 
Yugoslavia, was family reunification cases. Most of the 
caseload from Afghanistan and Ethiopia also fell into this 
category. Overall, 3.1 percent of the applications and 3.6 
percent of the approvals were family reunification cases. 

Arrivals (Tables 24, 25) 

Refugee arrivals into the United States declined to 69,276 
in 1997 from 74,791 in 1996 (Tables 24 and 25).^ The 
decline was largely attributed to the decrease in 
Vietnamese refugee arrivals. Arrivals from Bosnia- 



The number of refugees adjusting to lawful permanent 
resident status decreased by 14 percent from 1996 
(118,528) to 1997 (102,052) (Table 5). The leading 
countries of birth for these refugees were: the former 
Soviet Union (30,101), the majority of whom were from 
the republics of the Ukraine (11,930), Russia (6,671), 
Uzbekistan (2,845), and Belarus (2,452); Cuba (30,039); 
Vietnam (22,291); the former Yugoslavia (6,951), most of 
whom were from Bosnia-Herzegovina (6,013); and 
Somalia (3,428). These countries accounted for 91 percent 
of all refugee adjustments. The number of refugees 
adjusting status from both Somalia and Cuba increased 
significantly from 1996, 119 percent and 36 percent, 
respectively. Adjustments decreased significantly for 
refugees from the former Soviet Union (27 percent) and 
Vietnam (25 percent). 



Refugee arrival data are from the Bureau for Refugee Programs, 
Department of Slate. See Data Collection section. 



73 



The leading states of residence for refugees (and asylees) 
adjusting status in 1997 were Florida (28,672), California 
(23,046), New York (13,638), and Washington (6,305) 
(Table 36). These four states accounted for 64 percent of 
all refugee and asylee adjustments. Nearly 26 percent of 
all refugees and asylees who adjusted status in 1997 live in 
Florida and about 21 percent in California. The leading 
metropolitan areas of residence for these refugees and 
asylees were Miami, FL (23,857), New York, NY 
(12,613), and Orange County, CA (4,306) (Table 35). 

Understanding the Data 
Data Collection 

The Immigration and Naturalization Service collects data 
on refugees at three points during processing: when they 
apply for refugee status abroad; when they are admitted to 
the United States; and when they adjust to lawful 
permanent resident status. The INS overseas offices 
collect data on applicants for refugee status. Each office 
completes INS Form G-319, Report of Applicants for 
Refugee Status under Section 207, which reports refugee 
casework by the country to which each applicant is 
chargeable. 

Since 1987, the INS's Nonimmigrant Information System 
has collected data on refugee arrivals. The system 
compiles refugee arrival data by country of citizenship on 
a monthly basis from INS Form 1-94, Arrival/Departure 
Record (see Nonimmigrants section). Since it records 
each entry of a person with nonimmigrant status, a refugee 
traveling abroad and returning to the United States may be 
counted more than once during a fiscal year. 

Both the Bureau for Refugee Programs (Department of 
State) and the Office of Refugee Resettlement 
(Department of Health and Human Services) collect data 



on refugees admitted to the United States. The Bureau for 
Refugee Programs collects data through the 
Intergovernmental Organization for Migration, which is 
the agency responsible for arranging the transportation of 
refugees to the United States. The Office of Refugee 
Resettlement, responsible for the disbursement of funds 
for refugee benefits, collects detailed data on the 
characteristics of refugees at the time they are initially 
admitted to the United States. 

The Immigration and Naturalization Service collects data 
on refugees adjusting to lawful permanent resident status 
as part of its immigrant data series gathered by the 
Computer Linked Application Information Management 
Systems (CLAIMS). The data collected include 
demographic variables as well as immigration-oriented 
variables (see Immigrants section). This is the only stage 
in the refugee process where the INS collects detailed 
information about the characteristics of refugees. 

Limitations of Data 

Prior to the 1996 edition, refugee arrival data presented in the 
Statistical Yearbook were derived from the INS's 
Nonimmigrant Information System (NIIS). However, since 
this system records each entry of a person with nonimmigrant 
status, a refugee traveling abroad and returning to the United 
States may be counted more than once during a fiscal year. 
After careful consideration of the reporting requirements and 
limitations of data collected in the NHS, it was decided that 
the Yearbook would present refugee arrival statistics from the 
Bureau for Refugee Programs, Department of State. This 
source counts the actual number of refugees arriving in the 
United States in each fiscal year. Therefore, any comparison 
of refugee arrival data from the 1995 or earlier editions of the 
Yearbook to 1996 or later editions must be made with 
caution. 



Refugee detailed tables are located at the end of the Asylees text section 



74 



III. 



This section presents information on persons who come to the United States to seek 
asylum from persecution abroad, including the number and characteristics 
of persons who filed, were granted asylum, and adjusted to 
lawful permanent resident status. 



An asylee is an alien in the United States who is 
unable or unwilling to return to his or her country 
of nationality because of persecution or a well-founded 
fear of persecution. (See Appendix 3, p. A.3-2.) An asylee 
must meet the same criteria as a refugee; the only difference 
is the location of the person upon application — the potential 
asylee is in the United States or applying for admission at a 
port of entry, and the potential refugee is outside the United 
States. The Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended by 
the Refugee Act of 1980, regulates U.S. asylum policy as 
well as governing refugee procedures. The Act, for the first 
time, established a statutory basis for granting asylum in the 
United States consistent with the 1967 United Nations 
Protocol on Refugees. 

U.S. Asylum Program 

Filing of claims 

Any alien physically present in the United States or at a port 
of entry may request asylum in the United States. 
According to the Refugee Act, current immigration status, 
whether legal or illegal, is not relevant to an applicant's 
asylum claim. Aliens may apply for asylum in one of two 
ways: with an INS asylum officer; or, if apprehended, with 
an immigration judge as part of a deportation or exclusion 
hearing. Traditionally, aliens who appear at ports of entry 
without proper documents and request asylum were referred 
for exclusion hearings; however, the Illegal Immigration 
Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA) 
(see Appendix 1, p. A. 1-23) made major revisions to the 
procedure, that became effective on April 1, 1997. Under 
the new law, such aliens are referred to asylum officers for 
credible fear interviews. These interviews are not formal 
asylum hearings. The purpose of the interviews is to 
determine whether aliens might have credible fear of 
persecution and thus be eligible to apply for asylum before 
an immigration judge. In credible fear interviews, aliens 
only need to show that there is a significant possibility that 
they might qualify for asylum. To be granted asylum, aliens 
must show convincing evidence of a well-founded fear of 
persecution. Those who fail to demonsU^ate that they have a 
significant possibility for establishing eligibility for asylum 
are placed in expedited removal proceedings. However, 
upon the alien's request, an immigration judge may review 



the outcome of the interview. The data reported in this 
section pertain only to asylum cases filed with INS asylum 
officers. Aliens denied asylum by the INS may renew 
asylum claims with an innmigration judge. 

Adjudication of claims 

On April 2, 1991, the Asylum Officer Corps (AOC) 
assumed responsibility within INS for the adjudication of 
asylum claims that were filed with the INS. Before that 
date, such claims had been heard by examiners in INS 
district offices. During fiscal year 1997, asylum officers 
worked from eight sites in the United States — Arlington, 
VA, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York 
City, Newark, NJ, and San Francisco. Applicants who did 
not live near these locations were interviewed by asylum 
officers who traveled to other INS offices. 

In March 1994, the INS published proposed regulations 
designed to streamline the asylum decision process, 
discourage the filing of frivolous claims, and integrate the 
work of asylum officers with the work of the immigration 
judges in the Executive Office of Immigration Review 
(EOIR, an independent Justice Department agency) in the 
case of claims that do not appear to meet the standards for 
granting asylum. The final asylum reform regulations 
were published in December 1994, and took effect on 
January 4, 1995. 

Under asylum reform the INS standard is to conduct the 
asylum interview within 60 days after the claim is filed, 
and to identify and grant in a timely fashion those cases 
that have merit. If the INS asylum officer does not find 
the claim to be grantable at the interview, the applicant is 
referred immediately for deportation proceedings before 
EOIR (unless a nonimmigrant status is still valid). The 
immigration judge may grant the claim or may issue a 
denial and an order of deportation. Under this system INS 
asylum officers issue relatively few denials, but an 
interview followed by a referral to EOIR represents the 
asylum officer's judgment that the application is not 
readily grantable. An applicant who fails without good 
cause to keep a scheduled appointment for an asylum 
interview is referred immediately to EOIR for deportation; 
this is considered to be one type of case closure. 



75 



Starting in 1997, the AOC also began conducting credible 
fear interviews as required by IIRIRA, and interviewing 
applicants for refugee status at the INS overseas locations. 
During fiscal year 1997, asylum officers interviewed 
refugee applicants at seven overseas locations — Croatia, 
Cuba, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, and Vietnam. 



Nearly 86,000 asylum 

applications were filed In the 

United States during 1997. 



Data Overview 

Trends in asylum applications (Chart G, Tables E, 27) 
The annual number of asylum appHcations filed with the 
INS has fluctuated greatly since the effective date of the 
Refugee Act of 1980 (see Appendix 1, p. A. 1-18), as 
shown in Chart G. In fiscal year 1997, 85,866 asylum 
cases were filed or reopened. This represents a 33 percent 
decrease from the 128,190 cases filed in 1996 (Table 27). 
The sharp decline in 1997 was due largely to a significant 
decrease in claims filed or reopened under the terms of the 
American Baptist Churches (ABC) v. Thornburgh 
settlement (see discussion below) because of the 
termination of the ABC filing period. As a result. Central 
Americans accounted for about 16 percent of the new 
claims and 25 percent of total applications compared with 
about 67 percent of both categories in 1996. The trend in 
claims from Central America is shown in Table E. 

In the past few years, the trend in asylum claims filed by 
persons from Central America has been driven in large part 
by ABC cases. Under the terms of this 1991 class action 
lawsuit settlement, many nationals of El Salvador and 
Guatemala were allowed to file or renew their claims for 
asylum. Nationals of Guatemala had a filing deadline of 
March 31, 1992, which was the peak year for claims from 
this country. The 187,000 Salvadorans who had registered 
for Temporary Protected Status (TPS) in 1991 became 
eligible to file for asylum at the expiration of their TPS 
period in 1992. They were later granted additional time 
under deferred enforced departure periods which extended 
until December 1994, and they ultimately had until January 
31, 1996 to apply for asylum under the ABC agreement. 
The number of ABC claims filed by Salvadorans surged 
during fiscal year 1996 before the filing deadline. These 
claims are heard under the pre-reform regulations. 
Applications filed after the ABC filing deadline were 
processed as reform filings, except those ABC cases that 
were closed by the EOIR or federal courts and were not 
previously filed with the INS. Under the settlement, once 



Chart G 

Asylum Applications Filed with the INS: 

Fiscal Years 1973-97 

Thousands 



175 



150- 



125 



100 



75 



50- 



25- 



A 



A 





A 







1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 

NOTE: See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. Source: Table 27. 



the latter cases are identified by the INS, they are treated as 
ABC filings instead of reform filings. During 1997, 3,128 
cases were identified as either filed or reopened as ABC 
cases. 

Cases filed (Tables 28, 29) 

Nearly 13,700 new claims were filed by Mexicans, with 
more than 4,700 by Salvadorans. Haiti, with 4,310 new 
claims, ranked third, followed by India (3,776), 
Guatemala (2,386), the People's Republic of China 
(2,377), and Iraq (2,328) (Table 28). Excluding the 3,128 
claims filed or reopened under the terms of the ABC 
settlement, more than 82,700 applications were received 
during 1997, an increase of nearly 17 percent from fiscal 
year 1996. 

More than 33,600 asylum cases were reopened in 1997, 
which accounted for 39 percent of the applications 
received and represents a 60 percent increase over the 
number of cases reopened in 1996 (Tabic 29). The number 
of reopened cases has increased significantly since May 
1995. This is due to an automatic function which triggers 
the reopening of cases that were administratively closed 
when aliens apply for renewal of their employment 
authorization. Those cases were administratively closed 
due to a failure to appear for the asylum interview or for an 



76 



Table E 
Asylum Applications Filed with the INS by Central Americans: Fiscal Years 1991-97 



Area of citizenship 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



Central America 28,114 

Nicaragua 2,219 

El Salvador 10,244 

Guatemala 14,774 

Honduras g08 

Other 69 



1996 



1997 



53,966 


54,898 


62,310 


104,228 


83,410 


21,599 


2,075 


3,180 


4,682 


1,908 


2,034 


1,674 


6,781 


14,616 


18,600 


75,860 


65,588 


8,156 


43,915 


34,198 


34,433 


23,202 


13,892 


9,811 


1,127 


2,805 


4,385 


3,163 


1,836 


1,851 


68 


99 


209 


95 


60 


107 



Source: Table 29; applications received and reopened during year. 



invalid mailing address. This function also automatically 
reschedules an interview. Under the new regulation, those 
who do not appear for the scheduled interview can be 
placed in removal proceedings immediately. Some of these 
reopened cases may qualify for ABC treatment. 

Cases completed (Table 27) 

During fiscal year 1997, the Asylum Officer Corps 
completed work on 129,716 claims, an increase of more 
than 4 percent from the 123,706 cases completed in fiscal 
year 1996. As of April 1, 1997, a procedural change 
occurred which affected asylum case completions. The 
IIRIRA requires that a case cannot be granted until identity 
and record checks have been finalized. Applicants can be 
recommended for approval; however, the final decision can 
not be issued by the AOC until FBI fingerprint clearance 
has been received. Under previous procedure, these cases 
went directly to final approval, and were, therefore, 
included as case completions. As a result of the procedural 
change, case completions declined while interviewed cases 
moved through the processing pipeline to final decision. 
However, late in 1997 final approvals increased and have 
continued to increase in fiscal year 1998. The number of 
cases granted in 1997 was 10,129, representing 19 percent 
of the cases adjudicated. These cases encompassed 15,896 
persons given asylum. In fiscal year 1996, 13,532 asylum 
cases were granted, which was 22 percent of the 
adjudicated cases. 

The Asylum Program undertook a project to identify active 
cases from the pre-reform non-ABC backlog, in fiscal year 
1997. Notices were sent to about 90,000 applicants in the 
backlog to determine their continued interest in pursuing 
their asylum requests. Applicants no longer interested in 
pursuing an asylum claim could request withdrawal of the 
application, cases without good addresses would be 
administratively closed, and the remaining caseload would 
be scheduled for interview as slots became available. 



Largely due to this project, about 62,900 cases were closed, 
a 24 percent increase over 1996. 

Coercive population-control procedures 

Section 601 of the IIRIRA stipulates that a person qualifies 
as a refugee or asylee persecuted for political opinion if 
forced to undergo, has a well founded fear of being 
compelled to undergo, or resists a coercive population- 
control procedure. It sets a combined annual ceiling of 
1 ,000 persons who may be granted refugee or asylee status 
under this provision. In fiscal year 1997, the INS and the 
Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR) granted 
asylum status to 606 aliens based on coercive population 
control methods. The INS AOC made 147 grants. 
Immigration Judges made 340 grants, and the Board of 
Immigration Appeals (BIA) made 119 grants. China was 
the country of origin of all grants. No one was granted 
refugee status in fiscal year 1997 based on coercive 
population control measures. 

Adjustment to permanent resident status (Table 5) 
No limits are set by law on the number of individuals who 
may be granted asylum in the United States. Under 
immigration law, an approved asylee must reside in the 
United States for 1 year following his or her approval to be 
eligible to apply for adjustment to lawful permanent 
resident status. One year of the asylee's residence prior to 
adjustment is counted toward the naturalization residency 
requirement. Although asylee adjustments are exempt 
from the worldwide annual limitation on immigrants, the 
law places a ceiling on the number of asylees who may 
adjust each year. The Immigration Act of 1990 (see 
Appendix 1, p. A. 1-20) increased the ceiling from 5,000 to 
10,000 per year, effective in fiscal year 1991. It also 
waived the annual ceiling beginning in fiscal year 1991 for 
those asylees who had met the required 1-year waiting 
period and filed for adjustment of status on or before June 
1, 1990. 



77 



In 1997, 10,106 asylees adjusted to lawful permanent 
resident status (Table 5). The backlog of registered asylees 
waiting to adjust status was gone by the end of fiscal year 
1993, and the ceiling of 10,000 was sufficient to 
accommodate all who applied during 1996 and 1997. 
Because more than 10,000 persons have received asylum 
each year since fiscal year 1994, a potential backlog is 
building again. The largest groups of asylees who adjusted 
status in 1997 included 811 Ethiopians, 779 persons from 
the former Soviet Union, 775 Haitians, 663 Chinese, 646 
persons from the former Yugoslavia, and 605 Nicaraguans. 
No other nationality adjusting status accounted for as many 
as 600 asylees. 

Approximately 145,900 individuals have been granted 
asylum by the INS under the provisions of the Refugee Act 
from 1980 through 1997. During the same period, 122,744 
asylees have adjusted to permanent resident status. At 
times the total number of asylees adjusting status might 
exceed the number granted asylum by the INS because 
immigration judges and the Board of Immigration Appeals 
also grant asylum. In addition, persons whose asylum 
applications are successful can apply for their spouses and 
children to join them from abroad, and these relatives also 
adjust status as asylees. 

Understanding the Data 

Tables 29 and 30 contain a column showing the number of 
applications that were reopened during the year. Most of 
these are cases that had been closed earlier without a decision. 
The number of asylum applications filed is defined here as the 
sum of new applications received and applications reopened 
during the year. The tabulations also contain columns 
showing the number of cases referred to immigration judges, 
with and without an interview. A referral due to failure to 
keep an appointment for an interview without good cause is 
considered comparable, for statistical purposes, to a closed 
case. The approval rate is calculated as the number of cases 
approved, divided by the number of cases adjudicated, which 
is defined as the cases approved, denied, and referred to EOIR 
following an interview. 

Data Collection 

Prior to April 1, 1991, data on asylum applicants reflect 
cases filed with INS district directors and, subsequently, 
cases filed with INS asylum officers on Form 1-589 (Request 
for Asylum in the United States). A centralized, automated 
data system (Refugee, Asylum, and Parole System — RAPS) 
has been developed to support the processing of the existing 
caseload and new asylum applications. The system is 
designed to support case tracking, schedule and control 
interviews, and generate management and statistical reports. 
The system is capable of reporting asylum casework by 
nationality and other characteristics of asylum applicants. 



Data can be reported by case or by the number of persons J 
covered, since a case may include more than one person. i 
Data on asylum applicants have been collected by the INS 
for selected nationalities since July 1980, and for all 
nationalities since June 1983. 

As with refugees, the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service collects data on asylees adjusting to lawful 
permanent resident status in the Computer Linked 
Application Information Management Systems (CLAIMS) 
(see Immigrants section). Adjustment to immigrant status 
has been the only point at which detailed characteristics of 
asylees were collected in past years. The RAPS system is 
now able to provide data on selected characteristics of 
asylees at an earlier time. 

Limitations of Data 

The figures shown here for fiscal year 1997 differ slightly 
from preliminary statistics that were released by the 
Asylum Division in November 1997. The data presented 
here were tabulated from the RAPS system three months 
after the close of the fiscal year and incorporate late 
additions and corrections to the database. Cases that were 
entered into the RAPS system during fiscal year 1997 
showing filing dates in previous fiscal years were treated as 
new cases in these tabulations. Other corrections resulted 
in a decrease from 453,580 to 452,246 in the pending 
caseload as reported in the 1996 Statistical Yearbook and at 
the beginning of fiscal year 1997 in this edition. Another 
change between 1996 and 1997 concerns the identification 
of applicants from the former Soviet Union whose records 
are being recorded to one of the succeeding republics. 
Therefore, the pending number of cases from "Unknown 
republic" decreased, and the numbers for Armenia, Russia, 
Ukraine, and other republics increased. 

It is possible for an asylum case to have more than one 
acUon during a year, particularly if the claimant fails to 
pursue a claim and later reopens it. Therefore, some claims 
may be double-counted as received and reopened, or closed 
and denied or granted. For this reason, and due to recent 
growth in the number of reopened claims, the pending 
caseload at the end of the year can no longer be calculated 
by taking the pending caseload at the beginning of the year, 
adding claims filed, and subtracting claims completed. 

Data on applicants for asylum collected by the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service historically have 
covered only cases filed with the INS. Information has 
not been available on cases filed by apprehended aliens 
or cases denied or referred by the INS and renewed with 
immigration judges in the Executive Office for 
Immigration Review. The two agencies are working to 
integrate their data systems to provide these data in the 



78 



future. Principal applicants whose asylum applications 
are successful can apply for their spouses and minor 
children, whether they are in the United States or abroad, 
and these relatives also receive status as asylees. The 
RAPS system collects information on the spouses and 
children of asylum applicants only if they are included on 
the principal's application. Information regarding 
relatives whose principals petition for them after 



receiving asylum is collected by the CLAIMS and is not 
included in any calculation in this publication. The data 
collected by the INS at the time asylees adjust to 
permanent resident status include all aliens who adjust 
regardless of whether they were granted asylum by the 
INS, immigration judges, or the BIA. Adjustment data 
also include spouses and children of persons granted 
asylum. 



79 





TABLE 22. REFUGEE-STATUS APPLICATIONS: FISCAL YEARS 1980-97 






Applications 


Applications 


Applications 


Applications 


Applications 


Applications ■ 
pending 1 


Year 


pending 


filed during 


approved 


denied during 


otherwise closed 




beginning of year 


year 


during year 


year 


during year 


end of year 


1980 (April-Sept.).. 


16,642 


95,241 


89,580 


6,149 


1,197 


14,957 


1981 


14,957 


178,273 


155,291 


15,322 


3,998 


18,619 


1982 


18,619 


76,150 


61,527 


14,943 


6,631 


11,668 


1983 


11,668 


92,522 


73,645 


20,255 


2,489 


7,801 


1984 


7,801 


99,636 


77.932 


16,220 


604 


12,681 


1985 


12,681 


80,734 


59,436 


18,430 


1,842 


13,707 


1986 


13,707 


67,310 


52,081 


9,679 


3,362 


15,895 


1987 


15,895 


85,823 


61,529 


13,911 


6,126 


20,152 


1988 


20,152 


105,024 


80,282 


11.821 


5,632 


27,441 


1989 


27,441 


190,597 


95,505 


33,179 


4,005 


85,349 


1990 


39,524 


135,251 


99,697 


29,805 


24,904 


20,369 


1991 


20,369 


123,492 


107,962 


12,644 


5,700 


17,555 


1992 


18,238 


133,786 


115,330 


14,886 


6.780 


15,028 


1993 


15,028 


127,676 


106,026 


20,280 


5,107 


11,291 


1994 


15,582 


142,068 


105,137 


20,557 


19,485 


12,471 


1995 


12,471 


143,223 


78,936 


32,412 


34,251 


10,095 


1996 


10,095 
5,566 


155,868 
122,741 


74,491 
77,600 


26,317 

22,725 


59,589 
17,270 


5,566 


1997 


10,712 



NOTE: The Refugee Act of 1980 went into effect April 1. 1980. Because of an administrative processing change, 45,825 apphcations pending in Moscow at the 
end of fiscal year 1989 were administratively closed and added to the pool of initial questionnaires submitted to the Washington Processing Center (WPC) beginning 
in 1990. Changes in the number of applications pending from 1991 to 1992 and 1993 to 1994 are due to revisions in the data from reporting offices. 



80 



TABLE 23. REFUGEE-STATUS APPLICATIONS BY GEOGRAPHIC AREA AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CHARGEABILITY 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Geographic area 
and country of 
chargeability 



Applications 

pending 

beginning of year 



Applications 

filed during 

year 



Applications 

approved 

during year 



Applications 

denied during 

year 



Applications 

otherwise closed 

during year 



Applications 

pending 
end of year 



All countries. 



Africa .. 

Congo. Democratic 

Republic ' 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Liberia 

Nigeria 

Rwanda 

Sierra Leone 

Somalia 

Sudan 

Uganda 

Other Africa 



E^t Asia „ 

Burma 

Laos 

Vietnam 

Other East Asia . 



Eastern Europe and 
Soviet Union 

Albania 

Poland 

Romania 

Soviet Union, finr. .. 
Yugoslavia, fmr 

Bosnia- 
Herzegovina ... 

Croatia 

Unknown 

Other Eastern 

Europe 



Latin America 

Cuba 



Near East 

Afghanistan 

Iran 

Iraq 

Other Near East 

Not reported 



5,566 
788 

83 
2 

48 

44 
1 
3 
4 
484 
103 
2 

14 

23 

23 



3,538 

38 

12 

24 

6 

3,456 

3,455 
1 
2 

6 

6 

1,211 

7 
396 
808 



122,741 
11,796 

2,664 

15 

210 

1,620 
69 
34 
17 

6,510 

602 

17 

38 

19,905 

236 

109 

19,552 



74,927 

27 

5 

5 

35,329 

39,561 

38,381 

1,170 

10 



9,102 

9,102 

6,853 

30 

2,244 

4,573 

6 

158 



77,600 
7,854 

651 
13 

195 

893 

51 

28 

15 

5,599 

393 

I 

15 

6,810 

210 

71 

6,522 

7 



56,379 
9 
6 

2 
27,632 
28,730 

27,840 

884 

6 



1,860 

1,860 

4439 

10 

1,234 

3,289 

6 

158 



22,725 
1,828 

274 

4 

674 

16 

2 
736 
108 



2,731 
26 
38 

2,667 



10371 

18 



7,681 
2,672 

2,642 
30 



5,902 

5,902 

1,893 

571 
1,322 



17,270 

2^69 

1,746 

1 

9 

66 



1 

355 

82 

1 

8 

10,383 



10,382 
1 



2,752 
3 

3 

5 

2,741 

2,736 
3 
2 



1346 

1,346 

520 

4 
221 
295 



10,712 
633 

76 
3 

50 

31 
3 
9 
3 
304 
122 
6 

26 



8,963 

35 
11 
24 
17 

8,874 

8,618 

253 

3 



1,112 

23 

614 

475 



' In May 1997 Zaire was formally recognized as the Democratic Republic of (he Congo. 
■ Represents zero. 



81 



TABLE 24. REFUGEE APPROVALS AND ARRIVALS BY GEOGRAPHIC AREA OF CHARGEABILITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1990-97 



Geographic area of chargeability 



Authorized admissions 

Africa 

East Asia 

Eastern Europe & Soviet Union (fmr.) 

Latin America & Caribbean 

Near East 

Unallocated Reserve 

Approvals 

Africa 

East Asia 

Eastern Europe & Soviet Union (fmr.) 

Latin America & Caribbean 

Near East 

Not reported 

Arrivals ' 

Africa 

East Asia 

Eastern Europe & Soviet Union (fmr.) 

Latin America & Caribbean 

Near East 



1990 



111,000 

3,500 
36,800 
58,300 
2,400 
6,000 
4,000 

99,697 

3,318 

30,613 

58,951 

1,863 

4,952 



109,078 

3,493 

38,370 

56,912 

5,312 

4,991 



1991 



116,000 

4,900 

38,500 

53,500 

3,100 

6,000 

10,000 

107,962 

4,430 

33,560 

62,582 

2,263 

5,127 



96,587 

4,424 

37,262 

45,516 

4,026 

5,359 



1992 



123,500 

6,000 

33,500 

64,000 

3,000 

6,000 

11,000 

115330 

5,667 

31,751 

68,131 

4,121 

5,660 



114,498 

5,491 

34,202 

64,184 

3,777 

6,844 



1993 



116,000 

7,000 

36,000 

51,500 

3,500 

7,000 

11,000 

106,026 

6,813 

38,314 

52,090 

3,991 

4,818 



107,926 

6,969 

38,302 

51,278 

4,377 

7,000 



1994 



117,500 

7,000 
41,500 
55,000 
4,000 
6,000 
4,000 

105,137 

5,748 

40,639 

48,963 

2,513 

7,229 

45 

109493 

5,856 

40,601 

50,838 

6,437 

5,861 



1995 



111,000 

7,000 
39,000 
48,000 
8,000 
5,000 
4,000 

78,936 

4,895 

23,023 

45,900 

1,933 

3,068 

117 

98,520 

4,779 
35,956 
45,703 

7,618 

4,464 



1996 



90,000 

7,000 
25,000 
45,000 
6,000 
4,000 
3,000 

74,491 

9,681 

11,891 

47,611 

982 

4,246 

80 

74,791 

7,502 

18,343 

41,617 

3,541 

3,788 



1997 



78,000 

7,000 
10,000 
48,000 
4,000 
4,000 
5,000 

77,600 

7,854 
6,810 
56,379 
1,860 
4,539 
158 

69,276 

6,069 
7,781 
48,450 
2,986 
3,990 



' In editions of the Statistical Yearbook prior to 1996, refugee arrival data were derived from the Nonimmigrant Information System of the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service. However, beginning with the 1996 edition, arrival data are from the Bureau for Refugee Programs, Department of State. Any comparison of 
refugee arrival data between this and any pre-1996 editions of the Yearbook must be made with caution (see Refugees section. Data Overview and Data Collection). 
Arrivals may be higher than approvals because of the arrival of persons approved in previous years. 

NOTE: The authorized admission levels for 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 were 125,000, 131,000, 142,000, 132,000, 121,000, and 1 12,000, respectively, 
including 15,000 Amerasians in both 1990 and 1991, 18,500 in 1992, 16,000 in 1993, 3,500 in 1994, and 1,000 in 1995. Since Amerasians enter the United States on 
immigrant visas, they are not included as refugee admissions. As a result, the authorized admission levels for 1990 through 1995 for East Asia have been reduced 
accordingly. Beginning in fiscal year 1996, there is no specific allocation for Amerasisns in authorized admissions. 
- Represents zero. 



82 



TABLE 25. REFUGEE ARRIVALS INTO THE UNITED STATES 

BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF CHARGEABILITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1991-97 



Country of 
chargeability 

All countries 

Afghanistan 

Albania 

Bulgaria 

Cambodia 

China, People's Republic 

Congo. Democratic Republic 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia, former 

El Salvador 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia ' 

Ghana 

Haiti 

Hungary 

Iran 

Iraq 

Laos 

Liberia 

Nicaragua 

Poland 

Romania 

Somalia 

South Africa 

Soviet Union, former 

Sudan 

Uganda 

Vietnam 

Yugoslavia, former ' 

Bosnia-Herzegovina 

Unknown 

Other 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



96,587 

1,480 

1,363 

585 

38 

4 

73 

3,933 

158 

6 



3,948 



7 

2,692 

842 

9,249 

1 

87 

290 

4,452 

192 

19 

38,661 

24 

125 

27,957 



401 



114,498 

1,452 

1,108 

126 

141 

I 

76 

3,720 

18 

2 



2,972 

54 

1 

1,949 

3,442 

7,315 

637 

1 

134 

1,499 

1,570 

15 

61,298 

113 

93 

26,690 



71 



107,926 

1,233 

458 

34 

22 

199 

3,065 

3 

1 



2,765 

2 

1,307 

1.161 

4,605 

6,967 

961 

1 

54 

215 

2,753 

8 

48,627 

244 

24 

31,219 

1,887 

1,887 

111 



109^93 

21 

171 

5 

6 

92 

2,670 

5 



328 

5 

3.766 

1 

851 

4.984 

6.272 

610 

1 

31 

67 
3,555 

43,470 

1,220 

2 

34,248 
7,088 
7,088 

118 



98,520 

4 

51 

3 

1 

85 
6,133 



239 

9 

1,485 

978 

3,482 

3,675 

52 

39 

24 
2,506 

35,716 

1,705 

10 

32,244 
9,870 
9,870 

209 



74,791 



23 



1 

38 

3,498 

1 

14 

194 

I 

39 

1,256 
2.528 
2,201 

46 
2 

II 

16 

6.436 

1 

29,536 

575 

10 

16.130 

12.030 

12.030 

204 



69,276 



45 
2.911 



197 
4 

75 

1,305 

2,679 

939 

231 



3 

4,974 

1 

27.072 

277 

9 

6,660 

21,360 

21,357 

3 

512 



' In May 1997 Zaire was formally recognized as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ^ Data for Eritrea are not available separately from Ethiopia prior to fiscal 
year 1994; beginning in 1994. data for Ethiopia exclude Eritrea (see Notice page). ' Data for Bosnia-Herzegovina are not available separately from Yugoslavia prior 
to fiscal year 1993. Yugoslavia was officially dissolved as an independent republic in 1992 (see Notice page). 

NOTE: In editions of the Statistical Yearbook prior to 1996. refugee arrival data were derived from the Nonimmigrant Information System of the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service. However, beginning with the 1996 edition, arrival data are from the Bureau for Refugee Programs. Department of State. Any comparison of 
refugee arrival data between this and any pre- 1996 editions of die Yearbook must be made with caution (see Refugees section. Data Overview and Data Collection). 
Arrivals may be higher than approvals because of the arrival of persons approved in previous years. 

- Represents zero. 



83 



TABLE 26. REFUGEES GRANTED LAWFUL PERMANENT RESffiENT STATUS IN FISCAL YEAR 1997 
BY CALENDAR YEAR OF ENTRY AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 



Region and country 
of birth 



Total 



1996 



1995 



1994 



1993 



1992 



1991 



1990 



Before 
1990 



Unknown 

ornot 

reported 



All countries 

Europe 

Estonia 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Poland 

Romania 

Soviet Union, fonner . 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Georgia 

Kazakhstan 

Kyrgyzstan 

Moldova 

Russia 

Tajikistan 

Turkmenistan 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Unknown republic .. 
Yugoslavia, former .... 

Bosnia-Herzegovina 

Croatia 

Other 

Unknown 

Other Europe 

Asia , 

Cambodia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Laos 

Saudi Arabia 

Thailand 

Vietnam 

Other Asia 

Africa 

Ethiopia 

Kenya 

Liberia 

Rwanda 

Somalia 

Sudan 

Other Africa 

North America 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Cuba 

Haiti 

Other Caribbean 

Central America 

Other North America . 

South America 

Venezuela 

Other South America . 
Unknown 

- Represents zero. 

84 



102,052 

37,932 

84 

260 

74 

113 

96 

30,101 

198 

970 

2,452 

361 

597 

196 

1,033 

6,671 

230 

60 

11,930 

2,845 

2,558 

6,951 

6,013 

226 

24 

688 

253 

27,957 

141 

1,139 

1,647 

1,319 

111 

1,109 

22,291 

200 

5,266 

245 
276 
129 
73 
3,428 
910 
205 

30,544 

10 

26 

30,363 

30,039 

299 

25 

139 

6 

328 

161 
167 

25 



12,637 

5,617 

12 

39 

10 

5 

4 

3.939 

34 

136 

357 

28 

98 

27 

133 

1,045 

7 

12 

1,602 

205 

255 

1,577 

1,375 

51 

6 

145 

31 

3,980 

9 

517 

267 

8 

8 

7 

3,138 

26 

1,831 

38 

128 

8 

19 

1,501 

101 

36 

1,123 

2 

8 

1,077 

1,057 

16 

4 

35 

1 

83 

21 

62 

3 



67,615 

23,167 

52 

167 

52 

31 

22 

18,247 

80 

582 

1,523 

211 

368 

130 

579 

4,032 

119 

26 

7,218 

1,848 

1,531 

4,471 

4,160 

151 

16 

444 

125 

17,650 

25 

366 

1,020 

281 

81 

228 

15,570 

79 

2,724 

127 

119 

60 

33 

1,529 

720 

136 

23,621 

4 

II 

23,552 

23,493 

50 

9 

49 

5 

133 

79 

54 
20 



15,968 

6,988 

13 

40 

9 

21 

9 

6,296 

59 

190 

466 

105 

117 

32 

257 

1,312 

79 

19 

2,470 

632 

558 

554 

435 

23 

2 

94 

46 

4,566 

15 
117 
314 
523 

20 

473 

3,087 

17 

354 

21 
20 
40 
21 
155 
80 
17 

3,977 
4 
5 

3,936 

3,702 

225 

9 

32 



82 

52 

30 

1 



3,127 

983 

2 
10 

2 

7 

9 
899 

1 
33 
46 

9 
11 

2 
36 
166 
22 

1 
358 
124 
90 
37 
33 

1 

3 
17 

731 

I 

39 

31 

234 

2 

206 

202 

16 

237 

29 

7 

16 

172 
8 
5 

1,164 

1 
1,153 

1,145 

6 

2 

10 



12 

4 



1,030 

387 

1 

6 

12 

355 

8 

24 

31 

6 

1 

4 

15 

55 

1 

1 

150 

22 

37 

5 

5 



291 

9 

20 
10 
97 

73 
69 
13 

89 

13 
1 

5 

66 

4 
253 



248 

247 

1 
5 



10 

4 
6 



414 
151 

1 

2 

3 

140 

4 
18 



1 
7 

30 
2 

47 

8 

22 



150 

2 
21 

50 

44 
29 

4 

10 

6 



2 
101 



101 

101 



269 

96 

4 
2 

3 
12 
69 

3 

6 
1 
1 

3 
16 

1 
21 

2 
15 

I 



127 

6 

14 

39 

12 
46 
10 

8 

3 



2 
1 
2 

37 



35 
35 



885 

173 

1 

I 

38 

25 

90 

13 

1 

5 

I 



2 
12 



45 
3 
8 
3 
I 



15 

453 

74 

44 

5 

86 

66 
144 

34 

12 

7 
1 



I 

3 
241 

I 

234 

234 



107 

70 



TABLE 27. ASYLUM CASES FILED WITH INS DISTRICT DIRECTORS AND ASYLUM OFFICERS 

FISCAL YEARS 1973-97 



Year 



Cases 
received ' 



Cases 
completed ' 



Cases 
approved 



Cases 
denied 



Cases 
adjudicated ' 



Percent 
approved ' 



1973-97 

1973.... 

1974 ... 

1975 ... 



1976-80 „ 

1976 

1976, TQ ' 

1977 

1978 

1979 

1980 



1981-85 

1981 ... 

1982 ... 

1983 ... 

1984 ... 

1985 ... 



1986-90 . 

1986 ... 

1987 ... 

1988 .... 

1989 .... 

1990 .... 



1991-95 

1991 ... 

1992 ... 

1993 ... 

1994 ... 

1995 ... 



1996, 
1997, 



1311482 

1,913 
2,716 
2,432 

42,173 

2.733 
896 
2,529 
3,702 
5,801 
26.512 

161,872 

61,568 
33,296 
26,091 
24.295 
16,622 

281,048 

18,889 
26,107 
60,736 
101,679 
73,637 

605372 

56,310 
103,964 
144,166 
146.468 
154,464 

128.190 
85.866 



938,642 

1.510 
2.769 
1.664 

10,847 

1,914 
370 
1.939 
2.312 
2.312 
2,000 

124,142 

4,521 
11,326 
25,447 
54,320 
28,528 

310,071 

45,792 
44,785 
68,357 
102,795 
48,342 

234,217 
16,552 
21,996 
34,228 
53,399 

108,042 

123,706 
129,716 



110,740 

380 
294 
562 

4,990 

590 
97 

754 
1,218 
1,227 
1,104 

25,162 

1,175 
3,909 
7,215 
8,278 
4,585 

24,067 

3,359 
4,062 
5,531 
6,942 
4,173 

31,624 

2,108 
3,919 
5,012 
8,131 
12,454 

13,532 
10,129 



236,686 

1,130 

2,475 
1,102 

5,857 
1,324 

273 
1,185 
1,094 
1,085 

896 

73,928 

3,346 

7,255 

16,811 

32,344 

14.172 

75,621 

7,882 

3,454 

8,582 

31,547 

24,156 

71,635 

4,167 

6,506 

17,979 

28,892 

14,091 

2,504 
2,434 



469373 

1,510 
2,769 
1,664 

10,847 

1,914 
370 
1,939 
2,312 
2,312 
2,000 

99,090 

4,521 
11,164 
24,026 
40,622 
18,757 

99,688 

11,241 
7,516 
14,113 
38,489 
28,329 

138,891 

6,275 
10,425 
22,991 
37,023 
62,177 

61.983 
52.931 



23.6 

25.2 
10.6 
33.8 

46.0 

30.8 
26.2 
38.9 
52.7 
53.1 
55.2 

25.4 

26.0 
35.0 
30.0 
20.4 
24.4 

24.1 

29.9 
54.0 
39.2 
18.0 
14.7 

22.8 
33.6 
37.6 
21.8 
22.0 
20.0 

21.8 
19.1 



' Beginning in 1992, includes cases newly filed and cases reopened. ' Includes approvals, denials, and cases otherwise closed. Beginning in 1995, also includes 
cases referred to an immigration judge (interviewed and not interviewed). Cases otherwise closed are those in which the applicant withdrew the case from 
consideration, never acknowledged the request for an interview with the INS, or died. ' Includes approvals and denials. Beginning in 1995, includes cases referred 
to an immigration judge following an interview. ' Cases approved divided by cases adjudicated. ' The three-month period — July 1 through September 30, 
1976 — between fiscal year 1976 and fiscal year 1977. At that time, the fiscal year definition shifted from July 1-June 30 to October 1-September 30. 

NOTE: The Refugee Act of 1980 went into effect April I, 1980. Data for fiscal years 1982 and 1983 have been estimated due to changes in the reporting 
procedures during those two periods. Since April 1, 1991, authority to decide most asylum claims has resided with the INS Asylum Officer Corps. See Glossary for 
fiscal year definitions. 



85 



TABLE 28. NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS GRANTED ASYLUM BY EMS DISTRICT DIRECTORS 

AND ASYLUM OFFICERS BY SELECTED NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1991-97 



Nationality 



1991 



1992' 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



All nationalities 

Afghanistan 

Albania 

Bangladesh 

Bulgaria 

Burma 

Burundi 

Cameroon 

China, People's Republic 

Colombia 

Congo, Democratic Republic ' 
Cuba 

Czechoslovakia, former 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

Egypt 

El Salvador 

Eritrea 

Estonia 

Ethiopia 

Fiji 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Hungary 

India 

Iran 

Iraq 

Jordan 

Laos 

Latvia 

Lebanon 

Liberia 

Libya 

Lithuania 

Mauritania 

Mexico 

Nicaragua 

Pakistan 

Panama 

Peru 

Philippines 

Poland 

Romania 

Rwanda 

Sierra Leone 

Somalia 

Soviet Union, former ' 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Georgia 

Kazakhstan 



2,908 

46 

1 

22 

7 

4 

348 

4 

7 

124 

2 
X 
X 

2 

1 

185 



405 
4 

49 
I 
5 
5 

13 
232 

26 
6 

36 



67 

53 

6 

1 

2 

703 

11 

3 

20 

1 

6 

50 



117 
142 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



3,959 

90 
23 
2 
44 
22 

19 

277 
16 
22 

214 



II 

110 

7 

347 
18 

94 

120 

19 

1 

78 

231 

70 

31 

56 

5 

81 
209 

14 
1 
I 

341 

83 

3 

113 

16 

2 

156 

2 
122 
442 

2 



7,464 

70 
30 
33 
75 
42 

26 

336 

36 

45 

319 



2 

28 

74 

2 

352 
70 

172 

636 

32 

2 

357 

347 

101 

35 

79 

5 

65 

247 

22 

5 

10 

291 

176 

6 

241 

58 

58 

258 

13 

22 

121 

923 

28 

4 

I 

5 

3 



11,764 

159 
47 
87 
40 
87 
19 
74 

414 
69 
93 

494 



2 

54 

187 

2 

5 

667 

29 

373 

1,060 

92 

13 

584 

638 

214 

38 

85 

15 

91 

305 

20 

5 

17 

9 

520 

219 

1 

470 

76 

3 

184 

43 

48 

150 

1,175 

75 

25 

2 

36 
1 



See footnotes at end of (able. 



17,493 

335 
147 
349 

59 
215 

98 
160 
535 
104 
214 
524 



4 

2 

196 

237 

2 

12 

1,096 

51 

1,065 

749 

194 

27 

1,108 

785 

204 

55 

33 

7 

91 
615 

20 

6 

275 

83 

484 

512 

2 

688 

54 
10 

181 

148 
71 

286 
1,556 

409 
78 
14 
81 
17 



18,556 

216 
433 
247 

45 
151 

91 

95 
433 

92 
137 
634 

1 



136 
195 

34 

818 

35 

889 
1,491 

140 

13 

1,709 

607 

918 
20 
17 
18 

76 

694 

6 

407 

43 

418 

442 

7 

464 

37 

13 

80 

69 

59 

529 

1,440 

334 

127 

10 

70 

15 



86 



TABLE 28. NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS GRANTED ASYLUM BY INS DISTRICT DIRECTORS 

AND ASYLUM OFFICERS BY SELECTED NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1991-97— Continued 



Nationality 



1991 



1992' 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Kyrgyzstan 

Moldova 

Russia 

Tajikistan 

Tuikmenistan 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Unknown republic .. 

Sri Lanka 

Sudan 

Syria 

Yugoslavia, fonner'.... 

Bosnia-Herzegovina 

Croatia 

Macedonia 

Slovenia 

Unknown 

Other 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
142 

4 

31 

9 

3 



3 
146 



51 



381 

44 
73 
16 

72 



72 
241 



3 

233 

1 

54 

3 

588 

16 
133 
638 
521 

15 
9 

1 
496 

334 



8 

565 

7 

1 

191 

22 

242 

62 

248 

1.032 

906 

164 

52 

6 
684 

539 



6 

15 

578 

10 

218 
62 
68 

69 

397 

680 

1,414 

289 

59 

II 

1,055 
1,284 



5 

12 

477 

11 

3 

215 

43 

118 

32 

343 

304 

2,470 

192 

62 

10 

1 

2,205 

1,008 



12 

6 

371 

6 

17 

190 

39 

50 

45 
266 
35 
629 
40 
47 
33 

509 
718 



' The 3,959 individuals known to have been granted asylum were in the 2,740 cases in the data system. An additional 1,179 cases were granted asylum, but the 
number of individuals covered and their nationalities are unlcnown. ' In May 1997 Zaire was formally recognized as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
' Beginning in 1992, some claims filed by persons from the former Soviet Union were receded under the separate former Soviet republics. ' Data for the 
independent states of the former Yugoslavia are not available separately from Yugoslavia prior to fiscal year 1993. Yugoslavia was officially dissolved as an 
independent republic in 1992 (see Notice page). 

- Represents zero. X Not applicable. 



87 



TABLE 29. ASYLUM CASES FILED WITH INS ASYLUM OFFICERS BY SELECTED NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 





Cases pending 


Cases filed 


Cases 


Cases 




Individuals 


Nationality 


beginning 


during 


reopened 


granted 


approved ^ 


granted asylum 




of year ' 


year 


during year 


during year 


during year 


All nationalities 


452^6 


52^17 


33,649 


10,129 


19.1 


15,896 


Afghanistan 


491 


219 


33 


151 


72.9 


262 


Albania 


316 


952 


55 


262 


42.5 


378 


Algeria 


286 


139 


40 


59 


51.3 


81 


Bangladesh 


4,686 


260 


902 


73 


6.9 


118 


Brazil 


1,382 


71 


69 


4 


5.6 


4 


Bulgaria 


992 


145 


74 


46 


20.8 


64 


Burma 


239 


300 


47 


159 


62.1 


176 


Cameroon 


236 


219 


45 


67 


47.2 


77 


China, People's Rep. .. 


15,068 


2.377 


3,276 


404 


5.8 


497 


Colombia 


2,132 


251 


285 


27 


11.9 


48 


Congo, Dem. Rep. ' 


193 


346 


29 


103 


41.7 


141 


Cote d'lvoire 


433 
4,791 


41 
481 


100 
157 


9 

245 


8.7 
52.8 


15 


Cuba 


312 


Ecuador 


1,662 


255 


401 


- 


Z 


- 


Egypt 


596 


180 


101 


73 


33.5 


126 


El Salvador 


190,428 


4,706 


3,450 


131 


3.5 


172 


Ethiopia 


1,752 


961 


126 


390 


50.5 


444 


Fiji 


831 


53 


7 


6 


9.8 


8 


Gambia, The 


402 


164 


167 


44 


21.1 


56 


Ghana 


1,597 


43 


211 


15 


4.6 


19 


Guatemala 


118,232 


2,386 


7,425 


280 


6.9 


344 


Guinea 


281 


105 


29 


13 


12.3 


13 


Haiti 


17,736 


4,310 


1,068 


586 


15.3 


694 


Honduras 


3,475 


473 


1,378 


39 


4.6 


52 


India 


6,801 


3,776 


1,150 


790 


26.0 


886 


Iran 


1,172 


811 


155 


282 


50.5 


408 


Iraq 


256 


2,328 


23 


2,180 


94.7 


5,540 


Jamaica 


790 


75 


97 


3 


2.8 


7 


Jordan 


517 


68 


68 


8 


7.8 


19 


Laos 


1,310 


29 


36 


9 


12.7 


15 


Lebanon 


1,006 


70 


131 


26 


14.9 


37 


Liberia 


3,526 


707 


191 


388 


44.4 


471 


Mauritania 


254 


1,355 


55 


101 


9.2 


101 


Mexico 


5,005 


13,663 


5,157 


20 


.3 


34 


Nicaragua 


20,946 


658 


1,016 


72 


6.5 


129 


Niger 


537 


123 


51 


57 


55.9 


88 


Nigeria 


2,223 


288 


244 


76 


14.9 


101 


Pakistan 


5,428 


548 


893 


174 


20.0 


264 


Peru 


3,074 


416 


559 


119 


18.8 


243 


Philippines 


3,047 


437 


952 


10 


2.5 


15 


Poland 


1,979 


30 


236 


1 


.6 


1 


Romania 


2,906 
406 


HI 
43 


212 
92 


40 
7 


10.0 

8.2 


55 


Senegal 


7 




284 
713 


122 
1,861 


72 
58 


15 
664 


21.4 
50.6 


25 


Somalia 


708 


Soviet Union, former * 


8.783 


1,817 


914 


740 


27.5 


1,108 


Armenia 


300 


420 


254 


150 


40.0 


241 


Russia 


3,320 


554 


322 


251 


23.1 


371 


Ukraine 


1,250 


366 


124 


141 


21.7 


190 


Other republics 


576 


475 


88 


186 


33.1 


256 




3,337 


2 


126 


12 


70.6 


50 


Sri Lanka 


282 


73 


42 


28 


31.1 


45 


Sudan 


312 


533 


51 


207 


59.8 


266 


Syria 


376 


31 


116 


24 


38.7 


35 


Yemen 


489 


78 


59 


19 


17.9 


28 


Yugoslavia, former 


2,773 


707 


195 


462 


42.9 


629 


Bosnia-Herzegovina 


87 


57 


4 


27 


46.6 


40 


Other & unknown .. 


2.686 


650 


191 


435 


42.7 


589 


Stateless 


816 
7,998 


99 
1,923 


67 
1,282 


41 
380 


25.8 
18.8 


53 


Other 


477 







See footnotes at end of table. 



88 



TABLE 29. ASYLUM CASES FILED WITH INS ASYLUM OFFICERS BY SELECTED NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 





Cases 


Individuals 


Cases 


Cases to 


Cases to 


Cases 


Nationality 


denied 


denied asylum 


otherwise closed 


immigration judge. 


immigration judge. 


pending 




during year 


during year 


during year 


not interviewed 


interviewed 


end of year 


All nationalities 


2,434 


3^02 


62,857 


13,928 


40,368 


399,826 


Afghanistan 


8 


13 


110 


5 


48 


409 


Albania 


22 


30 


100 


16 


332 


568 


Algeria 


7 


9 


87 


13 


49 


232 


Bangladesh 


45 


53 


1,976 


49 


947 


2,432 


Brazil 


2 


2 


389 


17 


66 


1,020 


Bulgaria 


38 


43 


272 


4 


137 


700 


Bunna 


7 


9 


45 


4 


90 


262 


Cameroon 


8 


10 


64 


2 


67 


278 


China. People's Rep. .. 


156 


186 


5,509 


328 


6,449 


6.681 


Colombia 


9 


17 


848 


161 


191 


1.339 


Congo. Dem. Rep. ' 


15 


29 


51 


11 


129 


242 


Cote d'lvoirc 


6 
7 


7 
8 


206 
976 


12 

40 


89 

212 


233 


Cuba 


3,891 


Ecuador 


1 


1 


1,022 


283 


147 


733 


Egypt 


10 


19 


177 


12 


135 


449 


El Salvador 


407 


508 


5,861 


2,081 


3,210 


185.914 


Ethiopia 


44 


50 


269 


32 


339 


1,731 


Fiji 


19 


32 


27 


6 


36 


796 


Gambia, The 


5 


7 


196 


20 


160 


278 


Ghana 


8 


8 


713 


21 


303 


751 


Guatemala 


284 


329 


9,607 


1,475 


3,475 


111,957 


Guinea 


5 


5 


106 


8 


88 


189 


Haiti 


368 


419 


3,134 


388 


2,867 


15.270 


Honduras 


10 


12 


1,562 


225 


792 


2,546 


India 


67 


83 


2,407 


616 


2,182 


5,358 


Iran 


24 


38 


278 


30 


252 


1,237 


Iraq 


4 


7 


55 


1 


117 


242 


Jamaica 


1 


3 


418 


12 


104 


395 


Jordan 


8 


12 


192 


8 


86 


341 


Laos 


11 


14 


77 


4 


51 


1,218 


Lebanon 


17 


23 


369 


8 


132 


635 


Liberia 


53 


70 


951 


23 


432 


2,491 


Mauritania 


2 


2 


30 


55 


995 


437 


Mexico 


21 


50 


3,363 


6,781 


7.330 


4,731 


Nicaragua 


230 


351 


4,689 


97 


804 


16,534 


Niger 


5 


5 


242 


7 


40 


343 


Nigeria 


13 


19 


973 


20 


422 


1,166 


Pakistan 


42 


46 


2,603 


87 


654 


3,103 


Peru 


20 


47 


931 


86 


493 


2,329 


Philippines 


13 


26 


1,227 


326 


371 


2,352 


Poland 


35 


43 


1,160 


12 


137 


832 


Romaiua 


54 


81 


888 


10 


306 


1,875 


Senegal 


4 


4 


172 


13 


74 


252 


Sierra Leone 


1 

4 


1 
4 


119 
94 


3 
77 


54 
643 


280 


Somalia 


1,106 


Soviet Union, fonner ' 


142 


212 


3.154 


82 


1,808 


5.283 


Armenia 


22 


33 


195 


19 


203 


354 


Russia 


53 


71 


1.165 


35 


781 


1,786 


Ukraine 


34 


55 


384 


16 


476 


641 


Other republics 


33 


52 


140 


12 


343 


384 


Unknown republic . 


- 


1 


1,270 


- 


5 


2,118 


Sri Lanka 


5 
17 


12 

24 


96 
90 


4 
14 


57 
122 


191 


Sudan 


426 


Syria 


4 


4 


181 


- 


34 


230 


Yemen 


7 


7 


166 


9 


80 


324 


Yugoslavia, former 


47 


71 


916 


30 


567 


1,575 


Bosnia-Herzegovina 


7 


8 


20 


5 


24 


62 


Other & unknown .. 


40 


63 


896 


25 


543 


1,513 


Stateless 


2 
90 


3 
134 


406 
3,303 


3 

297 


116 

1.547 


383 


Other 


5,256 







' The total number of cases pending at the beginning of fiscal year 1997 is lower than the 453,580 reported at the end of fiscal year 1 996 because of corrections to 

the data base. ' The number of cases granted divided by the sum of: cases granted; denied; and referred to an immigration judge following an interview. See 

Asylum section of text ' In May 1997 Zaire was formally recognized as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ' Some pending cases filed by persons from the 

former Soviet Union were receded under the separate fonner Soviet republics. 

- Represents zero. Z Rounds to less than .05 percent go 



TABLE 30. ASYLUM CASES FILED WITH INS ASYLUM OFFICERS BY 

ASYLUM OFFICE AND STATE OF RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Asylum office and 

state 

of residence 



Cases pending 
beginning 
of year ' 



Cases filed 

during 

year 



Cases 

reopened 

during year 



Cases 

granted 

during year 



Percent 
approved ' 



Total 

Asylum office: 

Arlington 

Chicago 

Houston 

Los Angeles 

Miami 

New York 

Newark 

San Francisco 

State: 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 
norida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Unknown 

Guam 

Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands 



452^46 



45,897 
13,387 
21,734 
160,573 
61,748 
57,751 
57,405 
33,751 



946 

358 

1,811 

1,073 

182,145 

1,486 

1,853 

1,327 

6,408 

60,898 

6,953 
256 
192 

2,383 
427 
988 

1,131 
469 
237 
144 

12,289 

12,962 

2,242 

1,523 

80 

537 

10 

2,440 

3,144 

145 

15,464 

111 

77,558 

2,925 

6 

1,332 

278 

2,924 

2,549 

3,158 

367 

148 

871 

17,410 

642 

71 

16,659 

2,402 

28 

193 

16 

2 

94 

80 

101 



52^17 



4,434 
2,232 
2,245 

16,612 
6,908 
6,121 
3,630 

10.035 



55 

16 
458 

57 

22,610 

295 

174 

27 

522 

6,767 

919 
13 
43 

677 
92 
85 
86 

170 
73 
26 

1,232 
551 
467 
313 

8 
150 

3 

165 

676 

33 

840 

19 

7,876 

361 

51 

342 

42 

239 

328 

122 

68 

11 

634 

1,660 

109 

7 

1.668 

582 

3 

98 

1 

217 

32 

144 



33,649 



3,030 

844 

538 

13,768 

4,409 

5,281 

5,192 

587 



79 

14 
184 

44 
13,709 

85 

135 

192 

226 

4,262 

704 

6 

11 

211 
51 
44 
56 
27 
13 
9 

641 

237 

214 

71 

9 

30 

1 

108 

205 

8 

1,259 

8,368 

550 

2 

83 

12 

46 

198 

44 

37 

7 

96 

280 

33 

7 

868 

64 

3 
18 

3 

1 

18 
66 



10,129 



933 
421 
356 

1,283 
938 

1,821 
801 

3,576 



16 

2 
143 

2,555 

114 

83 

7 

190 

971 

247 

6 

15 

240 
39 
12 
16 
48 
26 

291 
111 
168 
72 
2 
105 

44 
34 
25 

206 

9 

2,192 

51 

52 

51 

13 

133 

173 

21 

16 

6 

257 

460 

69 

3 

528 

241 

2 

30 



26 
4 
3 



19.1 



33.1 
20.7 
16.2 
10.3 
17.9 
17.9 
7.7 
46.5 



25.0 

8.7 

30.2 

Z 

15.6 

35.4 

21.4 

4.3 

57.1 

18.9 

32.9 
33.3 
55.6 
33.2 
40.2 
16.4 
47.1 
44.9 
28.6 
Z 

36.6 
22.0 
25.7 
43.4 
10.0 
80.2 
Z 
30.6 
4.8 
71.4 

10.8 
50.0 
13.0 
25.9 
98.1 
23.3 
32.5 
56.6 
25.1 
26.9 

30.2 
42.9 
40.5 
30.8 
45.4 
42.9 
48.5 
62.3 
100.0 
28.3 
25.0 
Z 

48.1 
19.0 

2.3 



See footnotes at end of table. 



90 



TABLE 30, ASYLUM CASES FILED WITH INS ASYLUM OFFICERS BY 

ASYLUM OFFICE AND STATE OF RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Asylum office and 

state 

of residence 



Total 

Asylum office: 

Arlington 

Chicago 

Houston 

Los Angeles 

Miami 

New York 

Newark 

San Francisco 

State: 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 
Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Unknown 

Guam 

Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands 



Cases 

denied 

during year 



2,434 



108 
254 
132 
662 
415 
199 
502 
162 



I 
I 

7 

3 

783 

4 

22 

25 

5 

417 

14 

1 

2 

119 

13 
5 
1 
3 
8 

38 
13 
55 
13 
I 
5 

6 

20 

2 

149 

444 
g 
1 
18 
3 
4 
36 
2 



5 

111 

2 

39 
13 



Individuals 

denied asylum 

during year 



3,202 



151 

335 
207 
906 
505 
256 
603 
239 



1 

I 

7 

6 

1,093 

4 

22 

27 

5 

510 

22 

1 

2 

151 

15 

10 
1 
3 

17 

43 
17 
75 
19 
1 
5 

7 

26 
2 

184 

552 
18 

1 
26 

4 

6 
46 

2 



12 
163 

5 

52 
16 

16 



Cases 

otherwise closed 

during year 



62,857 



3,448 

1,831 

586 

14,112 

11,704 

16,968 

13,572 

636 



59 

10 

87 

23 

14,359 

79 

389 

290 

340 

11,576 

636 
10 
13 

338 
52 
44 
42 
45 
25 
5 

893 

896 

917 

158 

21 

29 

4 

104 

152 

19 

3,614 

1 

24,528 

430 

2 

158 

12 

54 

607 

109 

46 
10 
70 
340 
39 

8 

1,093 

33 

3 
23 

2 

2 
3I 

27 



Cases to 

immigration judge, 

not interviewed 



13,928 



1,156 

129 

404 

7,204 

2,010 

1,300 

639 

1.086 



42 

3 

62 

15 

8,063 
13 
19 
12 
83 

1,960 

403 
3 
2 

37 
9 
2 

16 
2 
5 
2 

192 
78 
19 
9 
2 
6 

19 
79 

293 

1 

1,511 

194 

23 

14 

32 

6 

32 

2 

37 

330 

4 

220 
34 



6 

29 



Cases to 

immigration judge, 

interviewed 



40368 



1,775 
1,357 
1,711 
10,475 
3,876 
8,142 
9,079 
3,953 



47 

20 

324 

84 

13,056 

204 

283 

129 

138 

3,742 

490 
11 
10 

363 
45 
56 
17 
56 
57 
4 

466 

380 

431 

81 

17 

21 

1 

94 

659 

8 

1,549 

9 

14,250 

138 

150 
24 
98 

481 
55 

35 

8 

372 

923 

81 

4 

521 

133 

69 

3 

28 

14 

129 



Cases 

pending 

end of year 



399,826 



45,423 
12,182 
21,188 
155,032 
52,836 
38,361 
40,049 
34,755 



898 

351 

1,753 

1,044 

177,436 

1,435 

1,326 

1,034 

6,355 

52,000 

6,644 
241 
201 

2,088 
401 
987 

1,172 
503 
200 
166 

12,152 

12,189 

1,264 

1,549 

54 

541 

9 

2,423 

3,026 

127 

11.436 

110 

47,505 

2,961 

4 

1,324 

279 

2,898 

1,684 

3,115 

336 

138 

844 

17,091 

583 

69 

16,654 

2,581 

29 

167 

13 

2 

255 
69 
110 



' The total number of cases pending at the beginning of fiscal year 1997 is lower than the 453,580 reported at the end of fiscal year 1996 because of corrections to 
the data base. ' The number of cases granted divided by the sum of: cases granted; denied; and referred to an immigration judge following an interview. See 
Asylum section of text - Represents zero. Z Rounds to less than .05 percent. 9 1 



TABLE 31. REFUGEES AND ASYLEES GRANTED LAWFUL PERMANENT 

RESIDENT STATUS BY ENACTMENT 

FISCAL YEARS 1946-97 



Enactment 



Total 



1946-50 



1951-60 



1961-70 



1971-80 



1981-90 



1991-97 



Total 

Presidential Directive of 12/22/45 

Displaced Persons Act of 6/25/48 

Orphan Act of 7/29/53 

Refugee Relief Act of 8/7/53 

Refugee-Escapee Act of 9/11/57 

Hungarian Refugee Act of 7/25/58 

Azores & Netherlands Refugee Act of 

7/25/58 

Refugee Relatives Act of 9/22/59 

Fair Share Refugee Act of 7/14/60 

Refugee Conditional Entrants Act of 10/3/65 

Cuban Refugee Act of 1 1/2/66 

Indochinese Refugee Act of 10/28/77 

Refugee Parolee Act of 10/5/78 

Refugee Act of 1980, 3/17/80 

Refugees 

Asylees 



3331,914 

40,324 

409,696 

466 

189,025 

29,468 

30,752 

22,213 

1,820 

19,800 

142,103 

577,784 

175,165 

139,287 

1,554,011 

1,431,267 

122,744 



213347 

40,324 

173,023 

X 

X 

X 



X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



492371 

X 

236,669 

466 

188,993 

24,263 

30,491 

10,057 

1,432 

X 

X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



212,843 

X 

4 

X 

28 

5,199 

258 

12,156 

388 

19,714 

39,149 

135,947 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



539,447 

X 
X 
X 

2 
X 



X 
X 

82 
102,625 

252,119 

137,309 

46,058 

1,250 

X 

1,250 



1,013,620 

X 
X 
X 
2 
X 

1 

X 
X 

3 
329 

105,898 

37,752 

92,971 

776,664 

734,259 

42,405 



860,286 



83,820 

104 

258 

776,097 

697,008 

79,089 



NOTE: See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. Data for fiscal years 1987-88 have been adjusted. The data no longer include Cuban/Haitian entrants granted 
immigrant status. 
- Represents zero. X Not applicable. 



92 



TABLE 32. REFUGEES AND ASYLEES GRANTED LAWFUL PERMANENT RESIDENT STATUS 

BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEARS 1946-97 



Region and country 
of birth 



Total 



1946-50 



1951-60 



1961-70 



1971-80' 



1981-90' 



1991-95 



1996 



1997 



All countries , 

Europe „... 

Albania 



Austria 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia 

Estonia 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Italy 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Portugal 

RotJiania 

Soviet Union, former 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Other republics 

Unknown republic .. 

Spain 

Yugoslavia 

Other Europe 

Asia _ 

Afghanistan 

Cambodia 

China = 

Hong Kong 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Japan 

Korea 

Laos 

Syria 

Thailand 

Turkey 

Vietnam 

Other Asia 



Africa .„.„.™_. 

Egypt 

Ethiopia 

Other Africa 

Oceania 



North America 

Cuba 

El Salvador 

Nicaragua 

Other North America .. 

South America 

Chile 

Colombia 

Pern 

Venezuela 

Other South America 

Unknown or not reported 



3331,908 

1303344 

7,227 

17,480 

7,099 

37,968 

12,024 

101,856 
31,517 
76,425 
63,629 
40,746 
28,441 
17,641 

210,173 

5,078 

75,466 

443,684 
51,352 
93,400 
17,523 
54,620 

226,789 
10,760 

105,359 
10,771 

1^94,158 

32,910 

128,054 

45,113 

9,142 
17,700 
69,078 
30,878 

4,544 

4,634 
199,718 

5,096 
51,963 

7,103 

666,585 

21,640 

74,289 

8,965 
37,289 
28,035 

407 

652,177 

603,194 

5,250 

27,549 

16,184 

7374 
1,080 
1,192 
2,157 
1,474 
1,471 

159 



213347 

211,983 

29 

4,801 

139 

8,449 

7,143 

36,633 

124 

6,086 

642 

21,422 

18,694 

129 

78,529 

12 

4,180 

14,072 

X 

X 

X 

X 

14,072 

1 

9,816 

1,082 

1,106 



319 

118 
3 

4 
603 

59 

20 

8 

12 
7 

163 

3 

1 

159 

32 

NA 

NA 

NA 

32 

36 



492371 

456,146 

1,409 

11,487 

1,138 

10,719 

4,103 

62,860 

28,568 

55,740 

60,657 

16,783 

8,569 

14,336 

81,323 

3,650 

12,057 

30,059 

X 

X 

X 

X 

30,059 

246 

44,755 

7,687 

33,422 

1 

12,008 
1,076 
8,253 
192 
130 
3,803 
3,116 

119 

15 

1,427 

2 

3,280 

1,768 

1,354 

61 

353 

75 

831 

6 

1 

824 

74 

5 

NA 

NA 

NA 

69 

55 



212,843 

55,235 

1,952 

233 

1,799 

5,709 

16 

665 

586 

4,044 

1,198 

49 

72 

3,134 

3,197 

1,361 

7,158 

871 

X 

X 

X 

X 

871 

4,114 

18,299 

778 

19,895 



5,308 

2,128 

7,658 

58 

119 

554 

1,316 

383 

13 

1,489 

7 

862 

5,486 

5,396 

2 

88 

21 

132,068 

131,557 

1 

3 

507 

123 

4 
NA 
NA 
NA 
119 

15 



539,447 

71,858 

395 

185 

1,238 

3,646 

2 

143 

478 

4,358 

346 

16 

23 

8 

5,882 

21 

6,812 

31,309 

X 

X 

X 

X 

31,309 

5,317 

11,297 

382 

210,683 

542 

7,739 

13,760 

3,468 

222 

364 

6,851 

56 

65 

21,690 

1,336 

1,241 

1,193 

150,266 

1,890 

2,991 

1,473 

1,307 

211 

37 

252,633 

251,514 

45 

36 

1,038 

1,244 

415 
217 
132 
83 
397 

1 



1,013,620 

155312 

353 

424 

1,197 

8,204 

25 

851 

1,408 

4,942 

394 

48 

37 

14 

33,889 

21 

29,798 

72,306 

X 

X 

X 

X 

72,306 

736 

324 

541 

712,092 

22,946 

1 14,064 

7,928 

1,916 

1.385 

46,773 

7,540 

110 

120 

142,964 

2,145 

30,259 

1,896 

324,453 

7,593 

22,149 

426 

18,542 

3,181 

22 

121,840 

113,367 
1,383 
5,590 
1,500 

1,986 

532 
350 
251 
407 
446 

19 



619,557 

260,838 

2,859 

315 

1,419 

1,176 

548 

535 

309 

1,191 

361 

1,797 

825 

17 

7,027 

11 

14,692 

221,831 

34,622 

64,627 

10,494 

39,808 

72,280 

271 

5,451 

203 

244,049 

8,696 

5,878 

4,252 

488 

144 

18,914 

10,662 

18 

10 

31,546 

755 

17,383 

418 

139,860 

5,025 

28,760 

171 
15,311 
13,278 

130 

83,674 

53,828 
3,361 

20,486 
5,999 

2,103 

89 
355 
717 
661 
281 



128,565 

51,977 

154 

15 

100 

25 

98 

90 

33 

40 

17 

359 

136 

183 

1 

447 

42,356 

9,745 

16,636 

4,144 

8,528 

3,303 

46 

7,820 

57 

42,076 

369 

210 

847 

47 

30 

1,212 

3,802 

4 

2,155 

208 

1,940 

42 

29,700 

1,510 

5,464 

66 

1,053 

4,345 

56 

28,070 

22,542 

262 

766 

4,500 

922 

21 
116 
568 
150 

67 



112,158 

39,795 

76 

20 

69 

40 

89 

79 

11 

24 

14 

272 

85 

3 

143 

1 

322 

30,880 

6,985 

12,137 

2,885 

6,284 

2,589 

29 

7,597 

41 

30,835 

356 

163 

693 

19 

8 

1,447 

1,774 

3 

1,363 

146 

1,112 

35 

22,297 

1,419 

7,651 

71 
1,056 
6,524 

59 

32,898 

30,377 

198 

666 

1,657 

890 

14 
154 
489 
173 

60 

30 



' Data for fiscal years 197 1-90 have been adjusted. ^ Includes People's Republic of China and Taiwan, 
no longer include Cuban/Haitian entrants granted immigrant status. 

■ Represents zero. NA Not available. X Not applicable. 



NOTE: See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. The data 



93 



TABLE 33. REFUGEES AND ASYLEES GRANTED LAWFUL PERMANENT RESffiENT STATUS BY AGE AND SEX 

FISCAL YEARS 1990-97 



Age and sex 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



Total 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over 
Unknown age 

Male 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over , 
Unknown age 

Female 

Under 5 years 

5-9 years 

10-14 years 

15-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over 
Unknown age 

Unknown sex 



Percent distribution . 

Male 

Female 

Unknown 

Median age 

Male 

Female 



97^64 

5,315 

9,662 

8,839 

10,237 

10,067 

10,831 

10,250 

8,764 

6,527 

4,032 

3,360 

2,611 

2,309 

2,090 

1,144 

734 

569 

23 

51,843 

2.794 

5,057 

4,718 

5,835 

5,748 

5,884 

5,281 

4,629 

3,507 

2,213 

1,787 

1,382 

1,043 

929 

492 

304 

232 

8 

45,475 

2,514 

4,599 

4,118 

4,398 

4,313 

4,945 

4,962 

4,132 

3,019 

1,816 

1,571 

1,228 

1,265 

1,161 

652 

430 

337 

15 

46 

100.0 

53.2 

46.7 

Z 

27 
27 
28 



139,079 

6,721 

13,578 

12,494 

13,270 

12,859 

14,522 

15,044 

13,275 

10,790 

5,871 

5,148 

3,689 

3,780 

3,782 

2,023 

1,266 

938 

29 

72,189 

3,549 

6,972 

6,595 

7,417 

6,841 

7,690 

7,870 

6,971 

5,714 

3,249 

2,711 

1,814 

1,594 

1,545 

828 

478 

338 

13 

66,825 

3,169 
6,597 
5,891 
5,843 
6,011 
6,827 
7,170 
6,303 
5,066 
2,619 
2,437 
1,874 
2,186 
2,235 
1,193 
788 
600 
16 

65 

100.0 

51.9 

48.0 

Z 

29 

28 
29 



117,037 

5,760 

11,304 

9,250 

12,224 

13,280 

11,895 

10,738 

9,170 

8,078 

6,130 

5,207 

4,008 

3,481 

3,002 

1,655 

991 

819 

45 

60,583 

3,062 

5,766 

4,913 

6,724 

7,131 

6,381 

5,487 

4,640 

4,079 

3,293 

2,726 

2,037 

1,630 

1.295 

702 

395 

297 

25 

56,415 

2,698 

5,534 

4,336 

5,496 

6,145 

5,506 

5,244 

4,528 

3,998 

2,834 

2,479 

1,970 

1,849 

1,707 

953 

596 

522 

20 

39 

100.0 

51.8 
48.2 

28 

27 
29 



127,343 

5,563 

11,496 

9,971 

11,654 

13,869 

12,094 

10,703 

9,151 

9,068 

7,949 

6,294 

5,491 

4,747 

4,281 

2,443 

1,305 

1,223 

41 

64,885 

2,836 
5,910 
5,122 
6,170 
7,337 
6,518 
5,481 
4,544 
4,280 
4,248 
3,383 
2,699 
2,344 
1,924 
1,072 
535 
457 
25 

62,448 

2,727 
5,584 
4,847 
5,483 
6,531 
5,576 
5,222 
4,606 
4,787 
3,699 
2,911 
2,792 
2,403 
2,357 
1,371 
770 
766 
16 

10 

100.0 

51.0 
49.0 

30 

29 
31 



121,434 

5,181 

10,198 

9,451 

9,596 

13,115 

11,148 

9,978 

8,420 

8,031 

7,827 

5,969 

6,064 

5,053 

4,945 

3,143 

1,649 

1,641 

25 

61,790 

2,660 
5,259 
4,841 
5,067 
6,987 
6,290 
5,415 
4,176 
3,748 
4,019 
3,168 
2,860 
2,421 
2,306 
1,321 
644 
592 
16 

59,633 

2,519 
4,937 
4,608 
4,527 
6,128 
4,857 
4,563 
4,243 
4,282 
3,808 
2,801 
3,204 
2,632 
2,639 
1,822 
1,005 
1,049 
9 

11 

100.0 

50.9 
49.1 

31 

30 
32 



114,664 

4,509 
9,163 
9,287 
8,076 
13,199 
11,491 
9,433 
7,860 
7,546 
7,707 
5,574 
5,862 
4,594 
4,267 
2,905 
1,502 
1,676 
13 

59,023 

2,279 
4,776 
4,835 
4,282 
7,190 
6,457 
5,274 
3,901 
3,582 
3,816 
3,034 
2,839 
2,289 
2,112 
1,209 
575 
569 
4 

55,638 

2,230 
4,387 
4,452 
3,794 
6,009 
5,034 
4,159 
3,958 
3,964 
3,891 
2,540 
3,023 
2,304 
2,155 
1,696 
926 
1,107 
9 



100.0 

51.5 
48.5 

31 

30 

32 



128,565 

4,303 

9,525 

10,737 

8,153 

14,210 

14,009 

11,897 

9,226 

8,620 

9,078 

6,467 

6,663 

4,846 

4,587 

3,062 

1,494 

1,674 

14 

67386 

2,198 
4,950 
5,619 
4,342 
7.590 
8.196 
6,832 
4,867 
4,135 
4,538 
3,575 
3,325 
2,375 
2,313 
1,305 
626 
591 
9 

61,178 

2,105 
4,574 
5,118 
3,811 
6,620 
5,813 
5,065 
4,359 
4,485 
4,540 
2,892 
3,338 
2,471 
2,274 
1,757 
868 
1,083 
5 

1 

100.0 

52.4 
47.6 

31 

31 
33 



- Represents zero. Z Rounds to less than .05 percent. 



94 



TABLE 34. REFUGEES AND ASYLEES GRANTED LAWFUL PERMANENT RESIDENT STATUS 

BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEARS 1988-97 



Region and country of biith 



1988 



1989 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



AU countries 

Europe .» 

Albania 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former .. 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Germany, East 

Germany, West 

Greece 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Liechtenstein 

Lithuania 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Georgia 

Kazakhstan 

Kyrgyzstan 

Moldova 

Russia 

Tajikistan 

Turkmenistan 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Bosnia-Herzegovina .... 

Croatia 

Macedonia 

Slovenia 

Unknown 

Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bahrain 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Republic 
Cyprus 



81,719 

11,418 

66 

39 

4 

129 

1,164 

X 

X 

1,164 

1 

19 
X 
28 
94 
54 
738 
2 

26 
9 



4,242 
I 

3,028 

1,642 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

1,642 
75 

5 
16 
26 
X 
X 
X 
X 
26 

56,006 

2,597 
1 
3 
I 

9,255 

588 

7 



84,288 

18348 

55 

26 

3 

126 

640 

X 

X 

640 



1 

36 

X 

8 

100 

185 

588 

44 



3,842 

3,338 
9,264 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
9,264 

37 
1 
1 

17 

23 
X 
X 
X 
X 

23 

56,751 

2,606 



3 

5,648 

500 

11 



97364 

33,111 

64 

84 

1 

178 

883 

X 

X 

883 

1 

5 

3 

34 

X 

4 

150 

315 

868 

86 
6 

11 

4 

1 

3,903 

2 

3,186 

23,186 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

23,186 

84 

1 

5 

23 

23 

X 

X 

X 

X 

23 

51,867 

2,144 



2 

4,719 

330 



139,079 

62,946 

75 

131 

1 

311 

659 

X 

X 

659 

3 

9 

2 

34 

214 

X 

X 

127 

817 

1 

206 

34 

I 

75 

5 

I 

4,205 

2 

4,276 

51,551 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

51,551 

96 

10 
34 
66 
X 
X 
X 
X 
66 

49,762 

2,100 

2 

15 

16 

2,550 

620 

4 



117,037 

42,721 

539 

90 

1 

562 

319 

X 

X 

319 

155 

2 

13 

94 

X 

X 

28 

229 

2 

105 

315 

157 
2 

1,512 

4,971 

33,504 

479 

1,551 

3,008 

255 

460 

123 

1,588 

7,122 

167 

30 

13,347 

1,550 

3,824 

50 

2 

4 

7 

58 

X 

X 

X 

X 

58 

53,422 

2,082 

2 

10 

19 

1,695 

884 



127343 

53,195 

1.198 

54 

2 

303 

119 



119 
1 

125 
3 
15 
82 
X 
X 
39 
80 

32 
493 

228 
7 

731 

4 

3,654 

45,900 

329 

2,790 

4,480 

213 

544 

114 

2,546 

8,965 

301 

40 

16,977 

2,475 

6,126 

37 

1 

3 

7 

77 



75 

51,783 

2,233 

7 

78 

808 

1,153 



121,434 

54,978 

733 

25 

2 

138 
41 



41 

176 

10 
84 
X 
X 

65 
37 

II 

568 

214 
3 

334 

2 

1,199 

50,756 

342 

2,668 

5,156 

392 

595 

210 

2,154 

10,359 

534 

50 

19,366 

3,211 

5,719 

55 



17 
506 
337 

11 
4 

154 

45,768 

1,665 

19 
114 

557 

774 

3 



114,664 

46,998 

314 
15 

105 
38 

2 

36 

2 

83 

2 

7 

61 

X 

X 

50 

28 

7 
387 

151 

1 

245 

3 

592 

40,120 

214 

1,594 

3,421 

383 

600 

155 

1,597 

8,176 

654 

71 

14,937 

3,258 

5,060 

33 

1 
9 

4744 

3,818 

117 

20 

11 

778 

43314 
616 

36 

136 

268 

803 

2 



128,565 

51,977 

154 

15 

3 

100 

25 

4 
21 

9 
98 

24 
90 
X 
X 

33 

40 

2 

17 

359 

136 

2 

183 

1 

447 

42,356 

182 

1,446 

3,480 

591 

624 

177 

1,415 

9,745 

535 

78 

16,636 

4,144 

3,303 

46 

3 

3 

11 

7820 

6,246 

236 

20 

17 

1,301 

42,076 
369 

50 
101 
210 
845 



112,158 

39,795 

76 
20 
4 
69 
40 

9 
31 

1 
89 

18 
79 
X 
X 

11 
24 

14 

272 

85 

3 

1 

143 

1 

322 

30,880 

213 

1,000 

2,486 

425 

612 

200 

1,043 

6,985 

239 

66 

12,137 

2,885 

2,589 

29 

1 

4 

12 

7,597 

6,205 

287 

19 

18 

1,068 

30,835 

356 

1 

91 

82 

163 

692 



See footnoies at end of table. 



95 



TABLE 34. REFUGEES AND ASYLEES GRANTED LAWFUL PERMANENT RESIDENT STATUS 

BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEARS 1988-97— Continued 



Region and country of birth 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 


1994 


1995 


1996 


1997 


Hong Kong 


147 


66 


30 


75 


193 


90 


82 


48 


47 


19 


India 


35 


27 


14 


47 


34 


103 


133 


323 


485 


462 


Indonesia 


81 


77 


28 


12 


13 


16 


41 


62 


30 


8 


Iran 


6.895 


8,167 


8,649 


8,515 


3,093 


3,875 


2,186 


1,245 


1,212 


1,447 


Iraq 


268 


191 


141 


193 


365 


1,856 


4,400 


3,848 


3,802 


1,774 


Israel 


10 


8 


16 


10 


10 


20 


29 


34 


32 


25 


Japan 


2 


4 


1 


4 


5 


3 


4 


2 


- 


- 


Jordan 


4 


9 


17 


15 


15 


42 


48 


64 


58 


46 


Korea 


7 


4 


2 


1 


- 


1 


3 


5 


4 


3 


Kuwait 


4 


4 


4 


11 


13 


114 


94 


63 


74 


46 


I-aos 


10,348 


12,033 


9,824 


9,127 


8,026 


6,547 


4,482 


3.364 


2,155 


1,363 


Lebanon 


29 


116 


118 


318 


140 


204 


88 


48 


77 


68 


Malaysia 


68 


72 


59 


93 


88 


37 


49 


44 


15 


16 


Maldives 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 




- 


Mongolia 


- 


- 


- 


2 


3 


4 


4 


2 


3 


7 




- 








- 


3 


- 


5 


7 


12 


Pakistan 


101 


142 


157 


166 


129 


185 


181 


197 


194 


280 


Philippines 


429 


361 


290 


249 


221 


122 


103 


80 


80 


68 


Qatar 


1 


1 


- 




6 


2 


5 


3 


1 


- 




4 
2 


13 
4 


15 
3 


33 
2 


19 

2 


24 


75 

1 


126 
1 


280 

1 


135 


Singapore 


5 




1 

67 


2 
273 


6 
393 


59 

252 


22 
96 


62 
115 


33 
34 


30 
258 


42 
208 


46 


Syria 


146 


Taiwan 


11 


2 


3 


5 


10 


1 


- 


2 


2 


1 


Thailand 


3,587 


4,347 


4,077 


3,603 


4,048 


3,724 


3,076 


2,932 


1.940 


1,112 


Turkey 


33 


175 


276 


109 


16 


79 


156 


58 


42 


35 


United Arab Emirates .. 


2 
21,407 


2 
21,883 


1 
20,537 


6 
21,543 


2 
32,155 


15 
30,249 


7 
27,318 


9 

28,595 


4 
29.700 


9 


Vietnam 


22,297 


Yemen 


11 


- 


3 


5 


5 


9 


4 


4 


6 


19 


Other Asia 


2,121 


2,269 


2,212 


4,731 


1 
4,480 


5,944 


6,078 


1 
7,527 


5,464 


1 


Africa 


7,651 


Algeria 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


2 


3 


3 


16 


46 


Angola 


22 


19 


14 


22 


25 


13 


7 


4 


11 


4 


Benin 




. 


. 


9 


1 


- 




- 


1 


1 


Burundi 


1 


3 


- 


4 


5 


4 


6 


4 


17 


41 


Cameroon 


. 


- 


- 


3 


. 


12 


14 


33 


68 


89 


Cape Verde 






1 


5 


. 


. 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


Central African Republic 


- 


. 


. 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


Chad 


- 


. 


. 


1 


1 


3 


2 


3 


4 


2 


Congo, Democratic Republic ' 


23 


20 


14 


57 


72 


109 


113 


130 


175 


146 










6 


1 




. 


2 


. 


4 


Cote d'lvoire 


1 




4 


2 
1 


2 


3 
3 


15 
6 


19 


24 


19 


Djibouti 




Egypt 


25 


49 


69 


52 


18 


35 


37 


29 


66 


71 


Eritrea 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


43 


200 


204 


68 


45 


Ethiopia 


1.723 


1,784 


1,682 


3,582 


3,268 


3,682 


2,530 


1.802 


985 


1,056 


Gabon 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 




1 


3 


Gambia, The 


_ 


, 


. 


_ 


. 


1 


. 


- 


2 


10 


Ghana 


13 


21 


59 


64 


16 


35 


37 


54 


56 


67 


Guinea 


4 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


7 


7 


21 


10 


Kenya 


18 


17 


31 


32 


42 


42 


98 


165 


171 


291 


Lesotho 


3 


3 


5 


- 


9 


- 


- 




- 


- 


Liberia 


6 


7 


26 


42 


25 


239 


851 


855 


700 


505 


Libya 


54 


71 


84 


175 


143 


172 


27 


28 


24 


13 




5 


. 


3 


9 


3 


- 


4 


2 


- 


2 


Mali 


. 


- 


. 


. 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


4 


Mauritania 


. 


- 


- 


. 


1 


7 


4 


10 


10 


35 


Mauritius 


. 


. 


- 


. 


2 


1 


3 


1 


5 


4 




1 


1 


1 


4 


1 


3 


3 


1 


5 


1 


Mozambique 


8 


7 


8 


3 


9 


16 


3 


. 


. 


_ 


Namibia 


13 


8 


5 


6 


6 


17 


5 


. 


- 


- 


Nigeria 


- 


2 


1 


20 


9 


14 


21 


26 


40 


80 



See footnotes at end of table. 

96 



TABLE 34. REFUGEES AND ASYLEES GRANTED LAWFUL PERMANENT RESmENT STATUS 

BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 

FISCAL YEARS 1988-97— Continued 



Region and country of birth 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 


1994 


1995 


1996 


1997 


Rwanda 


1 


. 


1 




1 


4 


8 


13 


84 


140 


Senegal 


- 


- 


- 


2 


2 


2 


- 


1 


7 


9 


Seychelles 


3 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


Sierra Leone 


10 
20 


33 


38 


4 

282 


3 
330 


2 
885 


4 
1,572 


25 

3,095 


44 
1,700 


78 


Somalia 


3,607 


South Africa 


38 


80 


35 


77 


33 


37 


6 


23 


9 


7 


Sudan 


80 


97 


60 


184 


369 


443 


402 


935 


1,089 


1,119 


Swaziland 


- 


- 


- 


. 


. 




. 


- 


1 


- 


Tanzania 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


1 


- 


1 


3 


3 


Togo 




- 




- 


1 


2 


5 


8 


17 


52 


Tunisia 


1 


- 


1 


2 


1 


2 


- 


1 


1 


- 


Uganda 


31 


29 


54 


54 


64 


87 


79 


36 


24 


46 


Zambia 


3 


9 


. 


17 


4 


10 


3 


7 


6 


3 


Zimbabwe 


- 


3 


6 


3 


4 


6 


2 


- 


9 


5 


Other Africa 


13 
1 


5 
1 


6 


1 


5 
9 


3 
34 


1 
23 


63 


56 


31 


Oceania „ .„ 


59 


Austraha 


. 


1 


- 


1 


. 


2 


1 


- 


2 


- 


Fiji 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


31 


22 


61 


54 


59 


New Zealand .... 


1 
11,912 


6,740 


9,910 


21317 


1 

15,962 

5 


1 

15,926 

8 


14,204 

10 


- 
2 

16,265 

5 


28,070 

3 




Other Oceania 






32,898 
12 


Canada 


12 


6 


5 


14 


Mexico 


28 


46 


60 


74 


29 


29 


15 


37 


47 


60 


Caribbean 


10,907 


5,272 


7,700 


8,005 


9,969 


11,700 


12,672 


14,888 


26,597 


31,479 


Bahamas, The 


1 




1 


3 


2 


4 




1 


2 


1 


Cuba 


10,846 


5,245 


7,668 


7,953 


9,919 


11,603 


11,998 


12,355 


22,542 


30,377 


Dominica 


5 


3 


4 


1 


- 


4 


- 


. 


1 


- 


Domimcan Republic 


16 


10 


20 


14 


27 


18 


8 


22 


19 


26 


Grenada 


- 


- 


- 1 


- 


- 


- 


- 




1 


- 


Haiti 


39 


11 


- 


31 


16 


68 


664 


2,502 


4,028 


1,074 


Jamaica 


- 


2 


5 


2 


1 


3 


1 


4 


3 


- 


St. Vincent & the Grenadines 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


I 


- 


■ 


- 


Trinidad & Tobago 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


- 


Other Caribbean 


964 


1,416 


1 
2,143 


I 
13^21 


4 
5,959 


4,188 


1,507 


2 
135 


1,422 


1 


Central America 


1339 


Belize 


. 


8 


- 


- 






1 


2 


2 


- 


Costa Rica 


24 

170 

37 


22 

198 

33 


37 

245 

58 


64 

1,249 

296 


31 
743 
169 


29 
811 
210 


20 

275 
131 


8 
283 
158 


18 
262 
234 


20 


El Salvador 


198 


Guatemala 


327 


Honduras 


71 


58 


66 


133 


105 


165 


81 


119 


119 


109 


Nicaragua 


645 


1,075 


1,694 


11,233 


4,668 


2.892 


966 


727 


766 


666 


Panama 


17 


22 


43 


246 


243 


81 


33 


38 


21 


19 


Other North America 


1 
260 


175 


2 
264 


3 
320 


442 


I 
461 


383 


497 


1 
922 


8 


South America 


890 


Argentina 


19 


8 


21 


8 


15 


4 


9 


11 


13 


12 


Bolivia 


5 


2 


10 


6 


3 


6 


10 


9 


17 


10 


Brazil 


8 


7 


6 


10 


7 


11 


9 


10 


18 


16 


ChUc 


25 


19 


20 


38 


16 


17 


8 


10 


21 


14 


Colombia 


66 


38 


63 


46 


74 


63 


70 


102 


116 


154 


Ecuador 


15 


9 


17 


14 


6 


25 


25 


11 


15 


10 


Guyana 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


4 


3 


3 


. 


7 


Paraguay 


- 




1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


1 


Peru 


59 


29 


35 


73 


74 


176 


153 


241 


568 


489 


Suriname 


- 


- 


1 


2 


27 


16 


2 


4 


3 


1 


Uruguay 


5 


1 


3 


2 


- 


4 


2 


1 


- 


3 


Venezuela 


58 


62 


87 


120 


220 


135 


91 


95 


150 


173 


Unknown or not reported 


1 


4 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


30 



' On May 30, 1997, Zaire was formally recognized as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. With this change of Zaire, the Congo is shown in the long 
form. Republic of the Congo. NOTE: Data for fiscal years 1987-88 have been adjusted. The data no longer include Cuban/Haitian entrants granted 

immigrant status. - Represents zero. X Not applicable. 

97 



TABLE 35. REFUGEES AND ASYLEES GRANTED LAWFUL PERMANENT RESmENT STATUS BY SELECTED 
COUNTRY OF BIRTH AND SELECTED METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA OF RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Metropolitan statistical area ' 



All 
countries 



Bosnia- 
Herze- 
govina 



Belarus 



Cuba 



Haiti 



Iran 



Iraq 



Laos 



Russia 



Total „ 

Miami, FL 

New York, NY 

Orange County, CA 

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA 

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA 

Chicago, IL 

Sacramento, CA 

Washington, DC-MD-VA 

Atlanta, GA 

San Jose, CA 

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI 

Portland- Vancouver, OR-WA 

San Francisco, CA 

San Diego, CA 

Boston-Lawrence-Lowell-Brockton, MA ... 

Oakland, CA 

Philadelphia, PA-NJ 

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater. FL 

Detroit. Ml 

Dallas, TX 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Denver, CO 

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, FL 

Houston, TX 

Tacoma, WA 

Jersey City, NJ 

St. Louis, MO-IL 

Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH 

Orlando, FL 

Nashville, TN 

Des Moines, lA 

Baltimore, MD 

Las Vegas, NV 

Newark, NJ 

Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 

Riverside-San Bernardino, CA 

Yolo, CA 

Lincoln, NE 

Kansas City, MO-KS 

Springfield, MA 

Memphis, TN-AR-MS 

Spokane, WA 

Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC 

Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC 

Bergen-Passaic, NJ 

Louisville, KY 

Columbus, OH 

Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle. PA 

Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI 

Utica-Rome, NY 

Other MSA 

Non-MSA 

See footnotes at end of table. 



112,158 

23,857 
12,613 
4,306 
3,988 
3,793 
3,608 
3,267 
2,992 
2,985 
2,971 

2,795 
2,604 
2,175 
2,035 
1,875 
1,514 
1,361 
1,108 
1,048 
1,011 

957 
918 

886 
830 
757 
749 
724 
698 
690 
672 

627 
591 
525 
517 
503 
441 
410 
405 
353 
343 

318 
310 
281 
281 
259 
256 
249 
249 
234 
235 

11,247 

3.737 



6,205 

3 

128 

42 

152 

199 

833 

34 

90 

316 

213 

47 

180 

185 

66 

174 

34 

29 

42 

93 

128 

2 

102 

10 

51 

5 

387 

71 

59 

45 

338 
28 
53 
26 
34 
4 
1 
20 
13 
12 

13 
32 
27 
25 
10 
56 
6 
21 
27 
107 

1,329 

303 



2,486 

5 
908 

12 
116 

47 

210 

167 

8 

19 

23 

87 
29 
90 
11 
76 
39 
38 

22 
12 

4 
65 

3 
II 

26 

70 

1 



1 
26 



18 
I 

I 
41 

212 

35 



30377 

22,445 

191 

19 

III 

12 

124 

6 

65 

48 

9 

19 
123 
38 
44 
35 
10 
40 
922 
27 
99 

627 

24 

718 

72 

1 

642 

24 

4 

322 

64 



53 

350 

219 

22 

II 

1 

67 

I 

49 
13 
48 
40 
58 
81 
12 
28 
30 
8 

1,567 

834 



1,074 

244 
117 



15 
19 

21 
9 



15 

5 

29 

6 
15 



136 

90 
3 

4 
1 

82 
I 

1 

5 

26 



174 
21 



1,447 

5 
52 
18 
892 
13 
26 
16 
75 
25 
34 

9 
4 

14 

34 
3 

18 
3 
I 
1 

14 



2 

2 

10 



12 
7 



85 
35 



1,774 



26 
11 

137 
191 
2 
60 
40 
15 

15 

7 

32 

235 

26 



398 
68 

12 

6 
3 

11 

13 

1 

46 

3 
3 
I 



55 
13 

18 



12 

16 

8 



224 
36 



1363 
I 

8 

8 
21 

1 
317 

7 
12 



393 

7 

1 

16 

2 

25 

15 

12 
4 



3 

2 

23 



19 
I 
1 



378 
56 



6,985 

18 
2,037 

11 
326 
295 
338 
294 

54 

97 
168 

148 
426 
316 

86 
314 

92 

166 

1 

77 

31 

15 
133 

14 
66 

7 

30 
133 



4 
94 

2 
35 

19 

113 

19 

8 

57 

1 
62 

2 

2 
50 

5 
35 

3 

9 
588 
178 



98 



TABLE 35. REFUGEES AND ASYLEES GRANTED LAWFUL PERMANENT RESmENT STATUS BY SELECTED 
COUNTRY OF BIRTH AND SELECTED METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA OF RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Metropolitan statistical area ' 



Somalia 



Soviet 
Union ' 



Sudan 



Thailand 



Ukraine 



Uzbeki- 
stan 



Vietnam 



Yugo- 
slavia ' 



Other 



Total 

Miami, FL 

New York, NY 

Orange County, CA 

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA 

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA 

Chicago, IL 

Sacramento, CA 

Washington, DC-MD-VA 

Atlanta, GA 

San Jose, CA 

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI 

Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA 

San Francisco, CA 

San Diego, CA 

Boston-Lawrence-Lowell-Brockton, MA 

Oakland. CA 

Philadelphia, PA-NJ 

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Qearwater, FL 

Detroit, Ml 

Dallas, TX 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Denver, CO 

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, FL 

Houston, TX 

Tacoma, WA 

Jersey City, NJ 

St. Louis, MO-IL 

Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH 

Orlando, FL 

Nashville, TN 

Des Moines, lA 

Baltimore, MD 

Las Vegas, NV 

Newark, NJ 

Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 

Riverside-San Bernardino, CA 

Yolo,CA 

Lincoln, NE 

Kansas City, MO-KS 

Springfield, MA 

Memphis, TN-AR-MS 

Spokane, WA 

Charlone-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC 

Greensboro-Winston-Salera-High Point, NC 

Bergen-Passaic, NJ 

LouisvUle, KY 

Columbus, OH 

Harrisburg-Lebanon-Cariisle, PA 

Grand Rapids-Muskegon-HoUand, Ml 

Utica-Rome, NY 

Other MSA 

Non-MSA 



3,607 

4 
7 

33 

305 

24 

6 

454 

204 

24 

808 

9 

5 

604 

216 

11 

5 

16 
35 

3 
13 



1 

45 
1 

145 
11 

23 



14 

53 

54 
10 

42 
1 
5 

301 
106 



2,589 

7 
795 

5 
198 
238 
146 
345 

7 

5 
28 

68 
178 
39 
1 
65 
19 
73 

18 
4 

1 



3 
36 



18 



1 
30 

2 
1 

4 
39 



10 
4 
2 
1 

125 

55 



1,119 

3 
2 
2 

22 

6 

2 

126 

21 
1 

93 
9 
6 

97 
6 

13 
4 



26 

24 
9 



8 
1 

127 

124 
I 
6 

16 



2 

41 

3 

16 



244 
56 



1,112 



6 
19 
10 

226 
2 
1 

2 

358 
4 

4 

9 

21 

I 

15 
2 



15 
7 



361 

34 



12,137 

13 
3,852 

22 
723 
870 
704 
861 

40 
133 
134 

110 

676 

667 

101 

288 

97 

439 

1 

89 

52 

10 
91 
12 

7 

104 

12 

20 

225 

6 

8 

3 

119 

3 

54 

16 

74 

1 

15 
147 

18 
67 
14 

I 
20 
17 
37 
14 

1 
25 

926 

198 



2,885 

10 

2,076 

1 

99 

52 

35 

82 

5 

53 

22 

11 
37 
34 
12 
9 
21 
16 

7 
10 

2 
3 



2 

34 
3 



21 
6 

80 

6 
8 



73 

34 



22,297 

1 
158 

3,998 
655 

1,104 
366 
425 
592 

1,777 

2,072 

224 
515 
192 
439 
403 
641 
279 
108 
36 
360 

19 
328 

17 
513 
473 

14 
109 

32 
168 
148 

114 

45 

15 

22 

335 

314 

285 
99 
39 

118 
51 

101 

170 

2 

61 

15 

93 

134 
25 

2,793 

1,300 



1,068 

3 
202 

4 
16 
47 
81 

5 
19 

8 
11 

87 

26 

9 

8 

19 

7 

6 

4 

66 

10 



13 

1 
5 



3 
8 
6 

3 
1 
9 
18 
4 



1 
7 

4 
3 
4 
8 
23 



41 
16 

194 
50 



13,633 

1,102 
2,090 
125 
627 
406 
504 
479 
1,367 
217 
214 

318 
359 
542 
277 
201 
466 
232 
14 
171 
156 

130 
86 
36 

123 
59 
57 
58 
84 
38 
78 

38 
146 
71 
100 
43 
56 
57 
21 
35 
67 

20 
41 
24 
23 
79 
13 
50 
23 
12 
19 

1,673 

406 



' Ranked by the number of refugees and asylees. See Glossary for definition of metfopolilan statistical area, 
independent republics. See Notice of Special Geographic Definitions. 

- Represents zero. 



Data are for unknown republic; exclude 



99 



TABLE 36. REFUGEES AND ASYLEES GRANTED LAWFUL PERMANENT RESffiENT STATUS 

BY STATE OF RESIDENCE 
FISCAL YEARS 1988-97 



State of residence 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 


1994 


1995 


1996 


1997 


Total 


81,719 


84,288 


97,364 


139,079 


117,037 


127343 


121,434 


114,664 


128,565 


112,158 


Alabama 


230 


182 


127 


136 


94 


118 


106 


67 


95 


56 


Alaska 


33 


41 


27 


72 


56 


62 


47 


20 


72 


28 


Arizona 


593 


655 


682 


890 


608 


973 


708 


628 


333 


289 


Arkansas 


194 


190 


76 


122 


99 


150 


111 


91 


96 


94 


California 


27,423 


36,136 


38,507 


45,594 


38,261 


39,516 


29,284 


26,104 


20,233 


23.046 


Colorado 


591 


705 


578 


1,342 


1,114 


1,106 


1,186 


1,296 


1,416 


1,102 


Connecticut 


933 


788 


1,162 


1,767 


1,111 


1,116 


904 


956 


864 


552 


Delaware 


39 


28 


48 


107 


39 


47 


51 


37 


59 


17 




169 
11,257 


225 
5,750 


295 
9,145 


508 
15,064 


408 
14,035 


355 

14,344 


413 

14,108 


445 
14,527 


506 

23,535 


457 


Florida 


28,672 


Georgia 


1,047 


787 


989 


1,777 


1,467 


1,765 


2,287 


2,672 


2,645 


3,206 


Hawaii 


449 


320 


255 


261 


245 


241 


239 


240 


208 


70 


Idaho 


159 


125 


114 


139 


169 


146 


217 


190 


387 


126 


Illinois 


2,366 


3,231 


3,419 


5,679 


4,411 


3,906 


4,122 


5,060 


5,040 


3,798 


Indiana 


229 


113 


130 


433 


248 


457 


463 


424 


585 


410 


Iowa 


534 


331 


467 


544 


445 


654 


467 


733 


851 


1,020 


Kansas 


530 


991 


291 


508 


691 


623 


655 


473 


755 


359 


Kentucky 


210 


129 


66 


84 


348 


286 


267 


430 


486 


394 


Louisiana 


928 


706 


470 


898 


938 


660 


614 


376 


909 


577 


Maine 


119 


137 


165 


281 


141 


131 


127 


135 


257 


219 


Maryland 


1,062 


1,062 


1,242 


2,148 


2,275 


1,497 


2,774 


2,244 


2.136 


1,716 


Massachusetts 


4,169 


3,758 


4,724 


5,289 


3,461 


4,303 


3,824 


3,639 


3.445 


2,496 


Michigan 


1,071 


1,164 


1,221 


2,384 


1,916 


2,596 


2,594 


2,979 


3,001 


1,597 


Minnesota 


1,594 


2,251 


2,656 


3,027 


2.338 


2,678 


2,989 


3,635 


3,787 


3,210 


Mississippi 


191 


121 


124 


80 


120 


66 


75 


38 


116 


130 


Missouri 


684 


510 


534 


908 


692 


1,029 


1,338 


1,303 


1,733 


1,027 


Montana 


43 


23 


9 


131 


61 


61 


42 


15 


48 


19 


Nebraska 


137 


104 


175 


221 


143 


663 


490 


574 


362 


726 


Nevada 


243 


248 


358 


464 


377 


400 


297 


411 


444 


572 


New Hampshire 


113 


120 


139 


189 


227 


155 


144 


185 


257 


236 


New Jersey 


1,632 


2,335 


1,339 


3,141 


2,603 


3,188 


2,680 


2,058 


3,665 


2,068 




151 

6,259 

666 

40 

776 


133 
6,289 

470 

26 

1,164 


26 

12,871 

337 

70 
770 


142 

22,105 

649 

42 

1,375 


166 

14,097 

684 

49 

2,734 


215 

16,986 

887 

180 

2,378 


196 

20,846 

1,162 

311 

2,254 


179 

19,721 

863 

138 

1,791 


282 

24,625 

884 

271 

1,668 


195 


New York 


13,638 




764 


North Dakota 


281 


Ohio 


1,362 


Oklahoma 


307 


247 


214 


204 


404 


258 


419 


418 


487 


133 


Oregon 


881 


912 


1,315 


2,624 


1,746 


2,619 


1,935 


766 


1,813 


1,958 


Pennsylvania 


2,466 


2,343 


2,983 


3,953 


3,827 


3,748 


3,313 


3,125 


2,712 


2,261 


Rhode Island 


476 

124 

59 

591 


469 

62 

67 

512 


395 

67 

52 
448 


635 

130 
196 

525 


488 

74 
176 
668 


385 

150 
213 
869 


321 

120 
326 

942 


287 

154 

279 

1,152 


284 

142 

200 

1,030 


91 




173 


South Dakota 


130 


Tennessee 


1,140 


Texas 


3,495 


2,703 


2,866 


4,911 


3,957 


4,862 


4,576 


4,272 


6,415 


2,749 


Utah 


492 


306 


364 


513 


363 


441 


500 


414 


650 


135 


Vermont 


81 


29 


85 


139 


68 


67 


70 


112 


177 


183 


Virginia 


2,052 


1,808 


1,692 


2.403 


1,891 


1,766 


2,258 


2,054 


2,544 


1,914 


Washington 


2,722 


2,161 


1,605 


2,194 


5,063 


6,018 


6,330 


4,793 


5,271 


6,305 


West Virginia 


9 


8 


5 


31 


- 


6 


3 


6 


10 


2 




989 


1,251 


1,578 


2,011 


1,302 


1,868 


1,814 


2,052 


561 


329 


Wyoming 


2 




6 


4 


3 


1 


4 


1 


4 


4 


U.S. territories and possessions 






















Guam 


14 


- 


4 


6 


16 


1 


- 


13 


14 


7 


Puerto Rico 


95 


62 


77 


97 

2 


120 


133 


109 


84 
5 


194 

1 


114 


Virgin Islands 


1 


Other 


- 


- 






- 




2 













NOTE: Data for fiscal years 1987-88 have been adjusted. The data no longer include Cuban/Haitian entrants granted immigrant status. 

100 



• Represents zero. 



IV. TEMPORARY ADMISSIONS 



The fiscal year 1997 nonimmigrant data were not available at the time of publication. 



This section presents information on tfie number and ctiaracteristics of persons 
wtio come to ttie United States on a temporary basis (nonimmigrants), 
including parolees— persons allowed temporary entrance 
under special circumstances. 



Nonimmigrants 

A nonimmigrant is an alien admitted to the United 
States for a specified purpose and temporary 
period but not for permanent residence. 

(See Appendix 3, p. A.3-7.) 

Although the typical nonimmigrant is a tourist who visits 
for a few days to several months, there are numerous 
classes of nonimmigrant admission, ranging from students 
to ambassadors. A total of 24.8 million nonimmigrant 



admissions were counted during fiscal year 1996 — the 
largest number of nonimmigrant admissions to the United 
States in any year. This represents an increase of more 
than 2.2 million (9.7 percent) over 1995 — the largest 
annual increase in the past several years. 

U.S. Nonimmigrant Program 

Nonimmigrants were first defined in the Immigration Act 
of 1819, but the Act of 1855 was the first to require the 
reporting of "temporary arrivals" separately. The Act of 



Chart H 
Nonimmigrants Admitted by Region of Last Residence: Selected Fiscal Years 1955-96 

Milhons 




1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



1981 



1985 



1990 



1996 



' No data available for 1980. NOTE: See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 
Source: 1981, 1985, 1990, and 1996, Table 37; 1955-75, previous Yearbooks. 



101 



1924 defined several classes of admission that have been 
expanded in subsequent legislation. Though "tourists" 
(temporary visitors for pleasure) have consistently been by 
far the most numerous nonimmigrant class of admission to 
the United States, a wide variety of temporary visitors now 
fall within the nonimmigrant classification. Second in 
volume to tourists are business people coming to the United 
States to engage in commercial transactions (though not for 
employment in this country). 



Nonimmigrant categories (Tables 37, 38, 39, 40, 

43) 

Other categories of admission make up a much smaller 
share of the nonimmigrant total, such as foreign students 
and temporary workers. Temporary workers are admitted 
to the United States to perform services of an exceptional 
nature (such as artists, athletes, or entertainers) or to 
perform temporary services or labor when persons 
capable of performing such services or labor cannot be 



Table F 
Nonimmigrants Admitted Under the Visa Waiver Pilot Program by Country of Citizenship: 

Fiscal Years 1995-96 



Country of citizenship 



1996 



Visitors for pleasure 



1995 



Change 



Number Percent 



1996 



Visitors for business 



1995 



Change 



Number Percent 



All countries 11,192,978 9,407,254 1,785,678 19.0 1,370,452 942,538 427,909 45.4 

Japan 3,957,102 3,771,807 185,295 4.9 269,298 215,583 53,715 24.9 

United Kingdom 2,339,930 1,779,268 560,662 31.5 363,418 240,060 123,358 51.4 

Germany 1,511,551 1,226,169 285,382 23.3 176,506 115,469 61,037 52.9 

France 820,824 688,899 131,925 19.2 138,319 99,432 38,887 39.1 

Italy 487,578 403,018 84,560 21.0 73,225 51,426 21,799 42.4 

Netherlands 361,507 294,452 67,055 22.8 79,876 58,094 21,782 37.5 

Switzerland 260,581 210,099 50,482 24.0 25,480 18,360 7,120 38.8 

Spain 258,763 210,184 48,579 23.1 29,698 20,757 8,941 43.1 

Sweden 156,479 114,811 41,668 36.3 52,687 36,183 16,504 45.6 

Belgium 155,183 121,351 33,832 27.9 33,377 22,271 11,106 49.9 

Austria 140,646 109,172 31,474 28.8 13,482 9,431 4,051 43.0 

Ireland' 125,953 50,142 75,811 151.2 13,259 3,547 9,712 273.8 

New Zealand 102,926 73,445 29,481 40.1 12,877 8,380 4,497 53.7 

Denmark 80,998 58,868 22,130 37.6 22,046 14,280 7,766 54.4 

Norway 70,364 50,847 19,517 38.4 20,777 12,593 8,184 65.0 

Finland 48,189 37,818 10,371 27.4 15,091 10,526 4,565 43.4 

Australia^ 25,922 X XX 4,818 X XX 

Argentina^ 25,877 X XX 1,515 X XX 

Iceland 11,664 7,494 4,170 55.6 1,541 856 685 80.0 

Luxembourg 10,338 7,686 2.652 34.5 793 541 252 46.6 

Liechtenstein 950 706 244 34.6 67 56 11 19.6 

Brunei 606 465 141 30.3 120 74 46 62.2 

Andorra 531 461 70 15.2 44 40 4 10.0 

Monaco 478 389 89 22.9 23 14 9 64.3 

San Marino 364 252 112 44.4 36 13 23 176.9 

Unknown 237,582 189,451 48,177 25.4 21,978 4,552 17,431 382.9 

' Admitted April 1, 1995. ' Admitted July 1, 1996. NOTE; Data include entries under the Guam Visa Waiver Program. Slovenia was 

added to the program on September 30, 1997; entries began during fiscal year 1998. X Not applicable. 

102 



found in this country (such as agricultural laborers). 
Others who are granted authorization to work temporarily 
in the United States include: exchange visitors who enter 
to study, teach, or conduct research; intracompany 
transferees, to render managerial or executive services in 
the United States to international firms or corporations; 
and industrial trainees. Though not strictly considered as 
employed in the United States, treaty traders and treaty 
investors enter temporarily to conduct trade or to invest 
substantially in enterprises under the provisions of treaties 
of commerce and navigation between the United States 
and foreign states. 

Nonimmigrants also include several types of temporary 
visitors who are connected in some way with a foreign 
government or who represent an international 
organization. Ambassadors, public ministers, diplomats, 
and consular officers serve temporarily in this country, 
bringing with them members of their immediate families 
as well as personal employees, attendants, and servants. 
Officers and employees of international organizations such 
as the United Nations add to the list of nonimmigrant 
visitors entering the United States each year. The 
Glossary contains a detailed definition of nonimmigrants, 
a listing of each of the nonimmigrant classes of admission, 
and a detailed definition of each class. 

Admission policy 

The U.S. government has an "open door" policy for most 
nonimmigrant classes of admission. There are no 
restrictions on the total number of admissions each year; 
indeed, tourists (the majority of nonimmigrants) are 
encouraged to visit as a boon to the U.S. economy. 
Regulations govern such areas as the grounds for 
nonimmigrant admission, length and extension of stay, 
employment in the United States, accompaniment by family 
members, travel restrictions within the United States, and 
change of admission status. For example, ambassadors are 
allowed to remain in the United States for the duration of 
their service, students to complete their studies, visitors for 
business for a maximum of 6 months (plus 6-month 
extensions), and aliens in transit through the United States 
for not more than 29 days (with no extensions). 

Employment (Tables 38, 39, 40. 43) 
family members 

Most types of nonimmigrants are not allowed employment 
while in the United States, though exceptions may be 
granted, for example to students and to family members of 
international representatives. On the other hand, temporary 
workers come to the United States expressly for purposes of 
employment. Most nonimmigrant aliens may bring 
immediate family members with them; the exception is 
transit aliens other than foreign government officials. 
Transit aliens and fiance(e)s coming to the United States to 



marry U.S. citizens are the only nonimmigrants who are 
prohibited from changing to another nonimmigrant 
category while in this country. 

Visa Waiver Pilot Program (Table 39) 
The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 
1986 (see Appendix 1, p. A. 1-19) authorized the 
establishment of a pilot program that permitted certain 
nonimmigrants from qualified countries to enter the 
United States on a temporary basis without nonimmigrant 
visas. The Visa Waiver Pilot Program (see Appendix 3, p. 
A. 3-12) was originally extended only to approved 
countries that offered a reciprocal waiver of visas to U.S. 
citizens. The program is limited to admissions in the 
visitor for pleasure and for business classes of admission, 
with admission not to exceed 90 days. The Immigration 
Act of 1990 (see Appendix 1, p. A. 1-20-21) revised the 
Visa Waiver Pilot Program and extended it through fiscal 
year 1994; subsequent legislation has further extended the 
program through fiscal year 2000. To date, 26 countries 
are members of the Visa Waiver Pilot Program.' Entries 
for fiscal year 1995 and 1996 are shown in Table F for 
current participant countries. 



Slovenia was added to the program on September 30, 1997; entries 
began during fiscal year 1998. 



Country of 
citizenship 



Visitors to Guam, FY 1996 
For pleasure For business 



Total 

Korea 

Taiwan 

United Kingdom ' ... 

Japan 

Australia 

Nauru 

Indonesia 

Singapore 

New Zealand 

Malaysia 

Western Samoa 

Papua New Guinea . 

Burma 

Solomon Islands 

Brunei 

Vanuatu 

Unknown 

' Includes Hong Kong. 



160,413 

138,743 

13,589 

4,745 

1,128 

965 

382 

124 

65 

75 

63 

5 
9 
8 
8 

4 



500 



1,819 

1,390 

97 

98 

6 



2 
11 

5 
17 

1 
1 



95 



Represents zero. 



103 



Guam Visa Waiver Pilot Program 

Under the Visa Waiver Pilot Program, certain visitors from 
designated countries may visit Guam for up to 15 days 
without first having to obtain nonimmigrant visitor visas. 
The table above shows the countries participating in this 
program and entries for fiscal year 1996. 

North American Free-Trade Agreement 

(Tables 38, 39, 40, 43) 

In December 1992, the Presidents of the United States and 
Mexico and the Prime Minister of Canada signed an 
agreement, enacted in December 1993, known as the North 
American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (see Appendix 
1, p. A. 1-22). This law superseded the United States- 
Canada Free-Trade Agreement, establishing a special, 
reciprocal trading relationship among the United States, 
Canada, and Mexico. This agreement extended to the 
citizens of Mexico (with certain stipulations) and Canada 
the nonimmigrant class of admission exclusively for 
business people entering the United States to engage in 
activities at a "professional" level. Additionally, the 
agreement facilitates entry for Mexican as well as Canadian 
citizens seeking temporary entry as visitors for business, 
treaty traders and investors, and intracompany transferees. 

Entries under NAFTA began in February 1994. Data for 
fiscal year 1996 are shown for both NAFTA and the 
United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement in Table 39. 



A record 24.8 million 

nonimmigrants were admitted to 

the United States during 1996. 

Data Overview 

Recent trends in admission (Tables 37, 39) 
As noted, the 1996 total of more than 24.8 million 
nonimmigrant arrivals represents an increase of more than 
2.2 million (9.7 percent) from the previous fiscal year. 
Total nonimmigrant admissions numbered about 6.3 
million during 1975 and steadily increased to about 11.8 
million in both 1981 and 1982. The number stabilized at 
about 9.5 million from 1983 to 1985 (recording a low in 
1984) then began a steady increase that continued from 
1985 to 1996 (Chart I). 

Class of admission (Tables 37, 38, 39, 40, 43) 

Of the more than 24.8 million nonimmigrants who arrived 
in fiscal year 1996, a large majority (76.9 percent) entered 
as visitors for pleasure (tourists), with the next highest 
class of admission, temporary visitors for business, 
accounting for 15.2 percent. More than 215,000 persons 



Chart I 
Nonimmigrants Admitted: Fiscal Years 1975-96 



m 


A 

ill 


i 


ill! 




ii 


inn 


^1 



Millions 

25 -\ 

23 

21 

19 

17 

15 i 

13 

11 

9 

7 



1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 

NOTE: Data estimated for last quarter of 1979 and no data available for 
1980. See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 
Source: Table 37 and previous Yearbooks. 



entered as exchange visitors to study, teach, or conduct 
research in the United States, bringing with them more than 
41,000 spouses and children (Chart J). About 427,000 
foreign students entered the United States to pursue a full 
course of study (predominantly in academic institutions) 
accompanied by more than 32,000 spouses and children 
(Chart K). 

Nearly 209,000 representatives of foreign governments 
(less than 1 percent of total entries) entered the United 
States as nonimmigrants in 1996. This figure consists of 
more than 118,000 foreign government officials, family 
members, and attendants (including ambassadors, public 
ministers, career diplomats, and consular officers), nearly 
80,000 foreign representatives to international organizations 
(including families and attendants), and nearly 11,000 
officials serving the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
(NATO) (including family members). 

Country of citizenship (Tables 38, 40, 41, 42) 

About 45 percent of all nonimmigrants arriving in 1996 
were citizens of one of four countries: Japan (18.2 percent), 
the United Kingdom (13.6), Germany (8.2), and Mexico 



104 



Chart J 
Nonimmigrants Admitted as Temporary Workers, Intracompany 
Transferees, and Exchange Visitors from Top Twenty Countries 

of Citizenship: Fiscal Year 1996 



United Kingdom 




Thousands 



5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 



NOTE; China includes People's Republic of China and Taiwan. "Temporary workers and trainees" includes admission classes H, O, P, Q, 
and R (see Nonimmigrant Admission section of text and Table 40). Also, see Glossary for definitions of nonimmigrant classes of admission. 
Source: Table 40. 



105 



Chart K 
Nonimmigrants Admitted as Students and Their Families for Top Ten Countries of 

Citizenship: Fiscal Year 1 996 




20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 



NOTE: China includes People's Republic of China and Taiwan. Source: Table 38. 



(5.2). Tourists far outnumbered other classes of entry for 
almost every country of citizenship (Chart L). Nearly 89 
percent of Japanese nonimmigrants were tourists (visitors 
for pleasure), compared to less than 80 percent of citizens 
of France, and only about 58 percent of Chinese (People's 
Republic of China and Taiwan) 

Port of entry (Table 41) 

Just as four countries dominated nonimmigrant admissions 
to the United States in 1996, so did four ports of entry. 
Miami (15.7 percent), New York (15.5), Los Angeles 
(11.5), and Honolulu (7.6) together accounted for half of 
all entrants. The Miami, New York, and Los Angeles 
ports maintained their share in 1996, while Honolulu 
decreased slightly from 1995. 

Month of admission 

Admissions have a high degree of seasonality, with most 
nonimmigrants arriving in the United States in the summer 
months (peaking in July); there is a lesser but noticeable 
secondary peak in December. The trends for 1993 through 
1996 are illustrated in Chart M. 



Parolees 

A parolee is an alien, appearing to be inadmissible to the 
inspecting officer, allowed to enter the United States 
under urgent humanitarian reasons or when that alien's 
entry is determined to be for significant public benefit. 

(See Appendix 3, p. A.3-8.) 

Parole does not constitute a formal admission to the 
United States and confers temporary admission status 
only, requiring parolees to leave when the conditions 
supporting their parole cease to exist. 

Authority to grant parole 

The Attorney General has the authority to allow the 
temporary admission of an alien on a case-by-case basis 
who may appear inadmissible but who enters the United 
States under urgent humanitarian reasons or when that 
alien's entry is determined to be for significant public 
benefit. Parole does not constitute formal admission to 
the United States. It confers only temporary status, and 
parolees are required to leave when the conditions 
supporting their admission are ended. 



106 



Chart L 
Nonimmigrants Admitted by Selected Class of Admission from Top Ten Countries of 

Citizenship: Fiscal Year 1996 




Thousands 



500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 



NOTE: China includes People's Republic of China and Taiwan. Source: Table 38. 



U.S. Parole Program 

Parolees are processed as nonimmigrants, but their 
numbers are not reported in the nonimmigrant admission 
data (Tables 37-43). They are usually classified into three 
main categories: deferred inspections, port-of- 
entry/district advance parolees, and humanitarian/public 
interest parolees. In recent years, more than 100,000 
parole admissions have been authorized annually. 

Categories of parole 

Deferred inspection is used when an alien does not appear 
to be clearly admissible. The parole is issued and an 
appointment is made for the alien to appear at another INS 
office, where more information is available and the 
inspection can be completed. These cases are usually 
resolved within 2 weeks, and the alien is admitted in the 
appropriate category. Deferred inspection has also been 
used to admit people in special situations. For example, in 
fiscal year 1993 and 1994 more than 12,000 nationals of El 
Salvador were given deferred inspection. Many of them 
were members of the ABC class (see Asylum section) 
admitted to file or renew claims for asylum. 

Parole may also be granted by advance arrangement with an 
INS District Office or, more commonly, at a port of entry. 
About half of all parole admissions are of this type. These 



cases are most common at the land border ports and often 
involve the reentry of permanent resident aliens who are not 
carrying their documents. Again, these cases are typically 
resolved rapidly when the documents are produced. 

Within the broad category of humanitarian parole, people 
may be admitted to receive medical treatment, to take part 
in legal proceedings as witnesses or defendants, or as part 
of a special overseas program. The latter category is the 
only one that may constitute a long-term admission to the 
United States. 



Nearly 134,000 parolees were admitted 
to the United States during 1996. 



Country of citizenship 

Table G displays the total number of parolees admitted 
from fiscal year 1992 through fiscal year 1996 by the three 
major categories of parole. Within each category, the five 
countries accounting for the largest number of parole 
admissions are shown. Our neighboring countries, Canada 
and Mexico, account for the most parolees in the deferred 
inspections and port-of-entry/district advance categories. 



107 



Chart M 
Nonimmigrants Admitted by IVIonth and Selected Class of Admission: Calendar Years 1993-96 



Thousands 
2,400 -1 

2,200 

2,000 

1,800 

1,600 

1,400 

1,200 

1,000 
800 - 
600 - 
400 - 
200 - 




Visitors for pleasure 



f 



Other 



Visitors for business 




Jan. 



July 
1993 



— r- 
Jan. 



— I — 

July 
1994 



Jan. 



July 
1995 



Jan. 



— I — 

July 
1996 



Jan. 



Parolees from the United Kingdom and the Philippines 
also appear frequently in those categories. 

Country of citizenship for humanitarian parole 

Table H presents more detail for the same years regarding 
admissions under the humanitarian parole categories. The 
annual numbers admitted have fluctuated according to the 
operations of the special overseas programs that account 
for the majority of admissions in this category. In 1994 
and especially 1995 and 1996, most of the overseas 
parolees were Cubans under the 1994 migration agreement 
with Cuba. In 1992 and 1993, a total of about 11,000 
Haitians were admitted to file claims for asylum. Most of 
the parolees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and the former 
Soviet Union arrived under special legislation after being 
denied refugee status. ^ These persons are allowed to 
adjust to immigrant status after one year of residence in the 
United States. As the declining numbers from these 
countries show, these admissions are waning. 



The Foreign Operations Act of November 21, 1989 (sec Appendix 1, p. 
A.1-20). This provision is commonly known as the Laulenberg Amendm: i.. 



About half of the 10,000 humanitarian parolees admitted 
annually for medical and related reasons are from Canada 
and Mexico. The rest come in small numbers from many 
other countries. Likewise, most of the several thousand 
annual admissions under public interest parole for legal 
and related reasons are from Canada and Mexico. 

Understanding the Data 

Data Collection 

The Nonimmigrant Information System (NIIS) is designed 
to provide for each nonimmigrant a record of legal 
admission and departure. The system also produces 
statistics for such variables as age, country of citizenship, 
class of admission, visa-issuing post, port of entry, and 
destination in the United States. Many nonimmigrants 
enter and leave the United States more than once each year 
and the NIIS system records each entry separately. 

A description of the principal steps in the process of 
nonimmigrant admission to the United States is useful for 



108 



Table G 
Parolees Admitted by Selected Class of Admission from Top Five Countries of Citizenship: 

Fiscal Years 1992-96 



Class of admission/ 
Country of citizenship 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



All parolees 137,478 123,490 

Deferred inspections 18,970 27,819 

Mexico 5,568 6,340 

United Kingdom 661 686 

Canada 1,046 1,017 

El Salvador 548 7,893 

Philippines 546 641 

Other 10,601 11,242 

Port-of-entry & district advance parolees 70,937 63,348 

Mexico 12,244 11,548 

Canada 3,412 3,288 

United Kingdom 2,403 2,195 

Philippines 8,078 4,916 

Cuba 1,617 1,402 

Other 43,183 39,999 

Humanitarian, public interest, and 

overseas parolees 47,571 32,323 

Cuba 1,600 3,220 

Mexico 4,585 5,068 

Canada 1,700 1,677 

Soviet Union (former) 5,426 2,270 

Vietnam 16,998 7,585 

Other 17,262 12,503 



11,403 


113,542 


23,742 


9,311 


6,255 


1,742 


555 


404 


884 


670 


4,893 


656 


524 


349 


10,631 


5,490 


58,824 


61,019 


11,761 


15,182 


2,754 


3,695 


1,918 


2,456 


3,664 


3,118 


3,998 


3,016 


34,729 


33,552 


28,837 


43,212 


9,149 


28,139 


4,974 


3,454 


1,807 


2,039 


1,909 


1,697 


4,824 


1,477 


6,174 


6,406 



133,503 

7,952 
1,630 
463 
452 
233 
228 
4,946 

95,415 
21,488 
6,406 
5,371 
2,964 
2,200 
56,986 

30,136 

17,463 
2,539 
1,972 
1,143 
270 
6,749 



understanding the data produced by the NIIS system. 
First, a nonimmigrant visa is secured at a U.S. Consulate 
abroad (except for those entering under the Visa Waiver 
Pilot Program — see Nonimmigrant Admission section). 
TTiese visas may be valid for multiple visits to the United 
States. Prior to departing for the United States, 
nonimmigrants are screened initially by the transportation 
company to insure that their documents arc in order. 
During the trip, fNS Form 1-94 is distributed to non-U.S. 
citizens. 

At the port of entry, each arriving nonimmigrant presents a 
visa, which is usually stamped in the passport, and a 
completed Form 1-94 to an immigration inspector. Among 
other actions, the inspector checks the form for 
completeness, determines the length of admission, and 
stamps the class of admission and port of entry on the 
form. The arrival portion is torn off and sent to a central 
data processing facility. Tlie matching departure section 
of the form, usually stapled into the passport, is the 
nonimmigrant's proof of legal admission to the United 
States. This section of Form 1-94, collected at departure. 



is also sent to the data processing facility where it is 
processed and matched electronically to the arrival section 
of the form. 

Other temporary visitors 

The Nonimmigrant Information System also includes 
information on parolees {e.g., entering for humanitarian, 
medical, or legal reasons), withdrawals, stowaways, 
deferred inspections (allowed to enter to appear at an INS 
office where formal inspection can be completed), and 
refugees. Data for these classes of admission are not 
shown in the nonimmigrant tables but are included in 
summary form in footnotes to the appropriate tables. 
Additionally, refugee data are shown in the Refugee 
section and parolee data in the Parolee section of the text 
and tables. 

Temporary visitor information not collected 

The Nonimmigrant Information System also does not 
include data for permanent resident aliens returning after 
short .'isits abroad or for most of the millions of citizens of 
Canada and Mexico who cross the border for brief periods 



109 



Table H 

Parolees Admitted by Selected Category of Humanitarian Parole from Selected 

Countries of Citizenship: Fiscal Years 1992-96 



Class of admission/ 
Country of citizenship 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



All humanitarian parolees 47,571 32,323 28,837 43,212 

Overseas parolees & special programs ' 34,378 16,901 16,471 32,262 

Cuba 1,600 3,220 9,149 28,139 

Soviet Union (former) 5,426 2,270 1,909 1,697 

Vietnam 16,998 7,585 4,824 1,477 

Haiti 9,199 3,005 212 415 

Cambodia 998 726 94 57 

Other 157 95 283 477 

Humanitarian parolees (medical and 

related reasons) 10,680 10,128 10,335 8,878 

Land border countries: 

Mexico 3,542 4,265 4,290 2,922 

Canada 1,337 1,177 1,295 1,369 

Other countries: 

Pakistan 81 218 472 433 

India 167 209 344 259 

China, People's Republic 257 287 381 256 

Bangladesh 53 65 190 249 

United Kingdom 288 216 132 198 

Philippines 683 294 210 185 

Other 4,272 3,397 3,021 3,007 

Public interest parolees (legal and 

related reasons) 2,513 5,294 2,031 2,072 

Land border countries: 

Mexico 1,035 796 628 489 

Canada 359 499 482 612 

Other countries 1,119 3,999 921 971 

' Includes parole authorized by an INS overseas office and persons from the same countries with other humanitarian parole codes. 



30,136 

19,081 

17,463 

1,143 

270 

96 

25 

184 

8,836 

2,184 
1,377 

516 
276 
325 
184 
226 
147 
3,601 

2,119 

338 

588 

1,193 



of time. Most aliens entering the United States from 
Canada or Mexico do not require documentation in the 
NIIS system. Canadians may travel for business or 
pleasure without travel restrictions for a period of 6 months 
without obtaining nonimmigrant visas. Mexicans crossing 
the border frequently may apply for border crossing cards 
which can be used for admission to the United States for 
business or pleasure within 25 miles of the Southwestern 
border for a period not to exceed 72 hours. 

Limitations of Data 

A new data system was developed, and put into place in 
mid- 1996. While the new system introduced needed 
improvements in many of the data processing functions, 
start-up difficulties have led to less complete capture of 
some data items for fiscal year 1 996, such as port of entry 



and state of intended residence. The detailed tables have 
been appropriately footnoted, citing "processing errors" 
for the increased number of "unknown" for certain 
variables. While the total number of nonimmigrant 
admissions has not been affected, caution must be 
exercised in interpreting the data. As noted, data for fiscal 
year 1997 do not appear in this edition due to data 
inconsistencies resulting from the reengineering of both 
the data entry and data base management components of 
the Nonimmigrant Information System. 

AS mentioned, the data system records arrivals via 
collection of INS Form 1-94; thus, data represent each 
arrival event during the year rather than the actual number 
of individuals admitted. Nonimmigrants in several classes 
of admission, especially students, intracompany 



110 



transferees, and visitors for business, often enter (and 
leave) many tiities in any given year. 

Also, changes in the procedures for processing student 
records, whereby certain records were prematurely moved 
off-line and subsequently not included in annual totals, 
resulted in a substantial underreporting in the number of 
student arrivals for 1991 through 1993. These procedures 
have been revised and new student arrival figures developed 
for these years. Table 39 reflecst revised student arrival 



counts as well as minor differences in numbers for other 
classes of admission and country of last residence. 

Missing information 

Finally, there are gaps in the historical nonimmigrant data 
series due to the unavailability of arrival and departure 
records for July to September 1979, all of 1980, and for most 
characteristics for 1981 and 1982. Country of last residence 
and class of admission are the only variables available for 
1981 and 1982. No reliable data are available for 1997. 



(^ 



111 



TABLE 37. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF LAST RESIDENCE 

SELECTED FISCAL YEARS 1981-96 



Region and country of 


All classes ' (in thousands) 




Visitors for 


pleasure (in 


thousands) 




last residence 


1981 


1985 


1990' 


1995 = 


1996' 


1981 


1985 


1990' 


1995' 


1996' 


All countries 


11,757 
4,537 


9,540 
3,129 


17,574 
6,875 


22,641 


24,843 
9387 


9,515 


6,609 


13,418 


17,612 


19,110 


Europe 


8,777 


3,601 


2,048 


5383 


7,012 


7,478 


Austria 


58 


48 


108 


170 


184 


49 


34 


87 


146 


158 


Belgium 


118 


67 


137 


203 


224 


91 


39 


95 


153 


170 


Bulgaria 


1 


2 


7 


9 


10 


1 


1 


5 


4 


4 


Czechoslovakia 


5 


6 


16 


53 


59 


3 


4 


12 


36 


41 


Czech Republic 


X 


X 


X 


18 


29 


X 


X 


X 


12 


21 


Slovak Republic 


X 


X 


X 


17 


16 


X 


X 


X 


11 


10 


Unknown republic 


5 


6 


16 


18 


14 


3 


4 


12 


13 


11 


Denmark 


62 


59 


105 


111 


125 


45 


36 


75 


78 


89 


Finland 


42 


37 


107 


70 


79 


31 


24 


83 


47 


53 


France 


441 


358 


742 


919 


962 


341 


226 


566 


738 


767 


Germany ' 


754 


3 


3 


1,818 


1,917 


618 


3 


3 


1,550 


1,624 


Germany, East 


3 


5 


7 


J 


3 


3 


3 


5 


3 




Germany, West 


3 


537 


1,186 


J 






373 


969 






Greece 


66 


51 


61 


62 


62 


37 


34 


43 


44 


43 


Hungary 


13 


13 


23 


41 


46 


10 


10 


15 


29 


32 




11 


8 


14 


17 


20 


9 


5 


10 


14 


16 


Ireland 


102 


73 


108 


154 


185 


88 


55 


81 


126 


151 


Italy 


264 


240 


402 


527 


542 


189 


155 


308 


427 


437 


Luxembourg 


5 


5 


10 


17 


19 


4 


3 


8 


15 


17 




217 


139 


291 


400 


423 


165 


82 


214 


308 


325 


Norway 


84 


71 


114 


105 


118 


50 


41 


80 


71 


80 


Poland 


41 


46 


72 


54 


67 


34 


40 


55 


36 


45 


Portugal 


33 


26 


40 


52 


56 


23 


18 


30 


40 


43 


Romania 


6 


5 


15 


15 


21 


3 


3 


10 


8 


11 


Soviet Union, former 


10 


6 


86 


162 


183 


4 


2 


53 


54 


71 


Armenia 


X 


X 


X 


5 


4 


X 


X 


X 


4 


2 


Azerbaijan 


X 


X 


X 


1 


1 


X 


X 


X 


1 


1 


Belarus 


X 


X 


X 


3 


4 


X 


X 


X 


2 


2 


Georgia 


X 


X 


X 


2 


3 


X 


X 


X 


1 


1 


Kazakhstan 


X 


X 


X 


4 


5 


X 


X 


X 


1 


2 


Moldova 


X 


X 


X 


1 


2 


X 


X 


X 


Z 


1 


Russia 


X 


X 


X 


116 


134 


X 


X 


X 


33 


49 


Ukraine 


X 


X 


X 


22 


25 


X 


X 


X 


10 


12 


Uzbekistan 


X 


X 


X 


2 


3 


X 


X 


X 


1 


1 


Other republics 


X 


X 


X 


1 


2 


X 


X 


X 


Z 


Z 


Unknown republic 


10 


6 


86 


3 


1 


4 


2 


53 


I 


1 


Spain 


144 


103 


245 


305 


324 


109 


64 


183 


248 


262 


Sweden 


174 


121 


299 


216 


248 


135 


71 


230 


142 


165 


Switzerland 


183 


155 


296 


386 


405 


150 


110 


236 


321 


337 


United Kingdom 


1,669 


923 


2,338 


2,857 


3,041 


1,388 


598 


1,899 


2,342 


2,495 


Yugoslavia 


29 


22 


36 


24 


28 


21 


15 


23 


14 


17 


Bosnia-Herzegovina 


X 


X 


X 


1 


1 


X 


X 


X 


Z 


Z 


Croatia 


X 


X 


X 


10 


12 


X 


X 


X 


5 


5 




X 


X 


X 


2 


3 


X 


X 


X 


1 


2 


Slovenia 


X 


X 


X 


2 


1 


X 


X 


X 


1 


1 




X 


X 


X 


9 


11 


X 


X 


X 


7 


8 


Other Europe 


6 


6 


10 


30 


36 


4 


1 


3 


19 


24 


Asia 


2,290 


2,627 


4,937 


7,000 


6,913 


1,704 


1,866 


3,830 


5,666 


5,445 


Bangladesh 


4 


4 


6 


13 


13 


2 


2 


4 


8 


9 


China' 


111 


183 


329 


614 


618 


53 


83 


187 


378 


363 


Hong Kong 


75 


101 


176 


223 


236 


54 


64 


111 


162 


174 


India 


88 
21 


85 
32 


125 
47 


155 

74 


176 
79 


57 
11 


52 
19 


75 
28 


75 
44 


84 


Indonesia 


46 


Iran 


17 


40 


18 


11 


9 


12 


33 


16 


9 


8 


Israel 


131 


115 


175 


215 


245 


102 


80 


128 


160 


186 


Japan 


1,372 


1,555 


3,298 


4,380 


4,049 


1,155 


1,277 


2,846 


3,986 


3,621 


Jordan 


17 


14 


19 


13 


16 


8 


7 


13 


8 


10 


Korea 


77 


91 


235 


612 


737 


29 


26 


120 


427 


513 


Kuwait 


15 


22 


18 


21 


24 


8 


10 


12 


13 


15 


Lebanon 


26 


19 


13 


10 


11 


16 


12 


10 


7 


7 


Malaysia 


33 
28 


40 
28 


44 
41 


67 
40 


79 
38 


21 
18 


19 
17 


27 
27 


40 
27 


48 




24 


Philippines 


100 


107 


143 


171 


166 


60 


59 


76 


85 


86 




57 
27 


60 
37 


53 
54 


68 
97 


67 
114 


27 
19 


31 
23 


33 
32 


45 
61 


42 


Singapore 


72 


Thailand 


21 


28 


45 


94 


96 


12 


15 


25 


59 


56 


Turkey 


18 


16 


34 


46 


54 


11 


9 


20 


27 


31 


United Arab Emirates 


6 
35 


11 

24 


12 
31 


23 

52 


27 
59 


3 

18 


6 

14 


7 
15 


14 
31 


16 


Other Asia 


34 







See footnotes at end of table. 



112 



TABLE 37. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF LAST RESIDENCE 

SELECTED FISCAL YEARS 1981-96— Continued 



Region and country of 


All classes ' (in thousands) 




Visitors for pleasure (in 


thousands) 




last residence 


1981 


1985 


1990 = 


1995 = 


1996 = 


1981 


1985 


1990 = 


1995 = 


1996 = 


Africa ...™.„ - 


225 


177 


186 


228 


258 


130 


101 


105 


137 


157 


Egypt 


34 


27 


27 


30 


34 


21 


16 


16 


16 


19 


Kenya 


6 


6 


8 


11 


12 


4 


3 


4 


6 


6 


Liberia 


6 


6 


5 


2 


1 


4 


4 


4 


1 


1 


Morocco 


8 


7 


11 


12 


14 


5 


4 


7 


8 


9 


Nigeria 


54 


44 


22 


17 


20 


25 


25 


11 


10 


12 


Senegal 


3 


3 


5 


6 


6 


1 


1 


2 


3 


3 


South Africa 


61 

52 

379 


40 
45 

365 


40 
67 

679 


85 
66 

611 


99 
73 

651 


45 
23 

315 


26 

22 

282 


26 
34 

562 


59 

35 

478 


70 


Other Africa 


38 


Oceania 


512 


Australia 


230 


255 


466 


428 


448 


188 


195 


380 


327 


342 


Fiji 


5 


6 


6 


6 


5 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


New Zealand ' 


109 

34 

2,817 

135 


90 
14 

2,189 


177 
31 

3,245 


139 

37 

3,091 


152 
45 

3,187 


95 

27 

2,480 


74 
9 

1,664 


153 

25 

2,463 


115 

31 

2,240 


127 




38 




2,314 


Canada 


154 


216 


252 


225 


75 


79 


119 


127 


121 




1,768 


945 


1,348 


1,214 


1,275 


1,634 


773 


1,061 


893 


908 


Caribbean .... ..„_._.- 


614 


774 


1,231 


1,088 


1,154 


526 


584 


963 


831 


907 


Antigua-Barbuda 


9 


12 


25 


22 


22 


7 


9 


16 


15 


14 


Aruba 


Z 


Z 


14 


24 


23 


Z 


Z 


10 


19 


19 


Bahamas The 


172 
19 


231 

24 


345 
47 


266 
49 


310 
51 


163 
15 


211 
17 


332 
34 


234 
36 


292 


Barbados 


37 


British Virgin Islands 


4 


5 


16 


15 


19 


3 


4 


8 


9 


10 


Cayman Islands 


5 


24 


38 


38 


43 


4 


18 


31 


31 


34 


Cuba 


7 


10 


34 


10 


6 


5 


8 


33 


8 


3 


Dominica 


19 


6 


16 


17 


16 


16 


4 


11 


12 


11 


Dominican Republic 


78 


87 


189 


186 


185 


65 


57 


137 


138 


140 


Guadeloupe 


9 


5 


8 


11 


12 


8 


4 


6 


9 


11 


Haiti 


43 


79 


72 


56 


52 


30 


56 


57 


43 


39 


Jamaica 


112 


126 


213 


201 


215 


93 


74 


132 


130 


144 


Netherlands Antilles 


27 
4 


38 

4 


48 
11 


40 
12 


34 
14 


23 
3 


27 
2 


31 

7 


32 
8 


27 


St. Lucia 


9 




81 


90 


99 


82 


90 


70 


71 


81 


64 


70 




4 

16 

300 


6 

16 

316 


9 

33 
449 


9 

50 

536 


12 

52 

531 


3 

12 
245 


4 

12 

228 


7 

20 

320 


8 

35 

387 


9 




36 


Central America ................... 


376 


Belize 


11 


11 


18 


21 


22 


8 


8 


12 


15 


16 


Costa Rica 


43 
39 
83 


58 
50 
71 


86 
66 

124 


123 

87 

135 


122 

86 

131 


36 
33 
74 


41 
38 
53 


62 
46 
91 


91 
63 
99 


87 


El Salvador 


62 


Guatemala 


97 


Honduras 


47 


55 


80 


60 


61 


32 


37 


52 


37 


36 


Nicaragua 


25 


17 


16 


38 


35 


20 


14 


13 


28 


25 


Panama 


52 


54 


59 


73 


75 


42 


38 


43 


54 


54 


Other North America 


1 

1,449 

227 


Z 

832 

89 


Z 

1343 

175 


1 

2,481 

383 


1 

2,539 

413 


Z 

1,256 

206 


Z 

606 

66 


Z 

1,016 

136 


1 

1,978 

320 


1 




2,000 


Argentina 


339 


BoUvia 


23 


17 


21 


25 


26 


18 


10 


14 


16 


17 


Brazil 


201 


200 


393 


847 


867 


164 


148 


300 


710 


723 


Chile 


62 


40 


75 


154 


164 


48 


28 


54 


117 


121 


Colombia 


206 


164 


164 


238 


257 


173 


123 


122 


174 


187 


Ecuador 


82 


53 


75 


100 


103 


71 


42 


57 


77 


78 


Guyana 


11 


11 


10 


14 


16 


8 


7 


6 


9 


11 


Paraguay 


8 


6 


9 


19 


21 


6 


3 


6 


14 


16 


Peru 


72 


59 


124 


145 


151 


60 


44 


97 


98 


101 


Uruguay 


21 


10 


21 


46 


51 


17 


7 


16 


37 


40 


Venezuela 


530 


173 


264 


500 


462 


481 


122 


199 


400 


362 


Other South America 


Z 

60 


Z 

221 


Z 

308 


Z 

453 


8 
1,908 


Z 

30 


Z 

40 


Z 

60 


Z 

101 


5 


Unknown ' 


1,204 



' Excludes classes of admission processed in the Nonimmigrant Information System in the following years: for all countries — 1985 - 64,487 parolees, 3,239 
withdrawals and stowaways, and 68,044 refugees; 1990 - 90,265 parolees, 19,984 withdrawals and stowaways, and 110,197 refugees; 1995 - 113,542 parolees, 
21,567 withdrawals and stowaways, and 95,576 refugees; 1996 - 133,504 parolees, 17,653 withdrawals and stowaways, and 66,966 refugees. = Includes admissions 
under the Visa Waiver Pilot Program. See Nonimmigrant section of text. ' Prior to fiscal year 1982 and after fiscal year 1990, data for East and West Germany are 
included in Germany. ' Includes People's Republic of China and Taiwan. ' Prior to fiscal year 1985, data for Niue are included in New Zealand. ' Due to 
processing errors, the number of unknown is significantly higher for fiscal year 1996. 
NOTE; Totals may not add due to rounding. X Not applicable. Z Less than 500 admissions. 



113 



TABLE 38. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996 



Region and country of 
citizenship 



All 
classes ' 



Foreign 
govern- 
ment 
officials ^ 



Temporary 

visitors 

for 

business ' 



Temporary 
visitors 

for 
pleasure ' 



Transit 
aliens'* 



Treaty 

traders 

and 

investors ' 



Students 



Spouses 


Tempo- 


and 


rary 


children 


workers 


of 


and 


students 


trainees ' 



All countries 

Europe 

Austria 

Belgium 

Czechoslovakia, former 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

Elenmark 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Luxembourg 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former ... 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Other republics 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Croatia 

Other republics 

Unknown republic 

Other Europe 

Asia 

Bangladesh 

China' 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Arab Emirates .. 
Other Asia 

Africa 

Egypt 

Morocco 



24,842,503 

10,418,936 

207,841 

222,753 

63,947 

31,613 

18,083 

14,251 

142,799 

90,567 

1,083,229 

2,034,744 

70,666 

48,947 

22,336 

229,026 

655,819 

15,353 

526,649 

130,484 

74,449 

75,217 

23,611 

198,941 

145,536 

26,610 

24,683 

2,112 

373,351 

274,307 

395.904 

3,375,618 

38,243 

15,068 

7,337 

15,838 

44,135 

7,684,952 

15,542 

721,724 

154,784 

234,527 

87,641 

20,461 

261,161 

4,521,152 

22,117 

849,581 

20,999 

18,230 

95,786 

49,879 

204,983 

55,828 

101.898 

104,807 

64,351 

15,734 

63,767 

284342 
39,617 
16.430 



118,157 

35,845 

494 

664 

557 

264 

223 

70 

414 

628 

4,054 

3,442 

632 

475 

67 

347 

1,615 

102 

760 

732 

652 

435 

542 

4,372 

2,608 

631 

1,100 

33 

1.396 

674 

1.239 

9.960 

687 

234 

346 

107 

905 

41,700 

329 

1.043 

20 

1,017 

1,555 

2 

4.361 

12.459 

1.126 

3.951 

1.326 

195 
1,037 
1,644 
1,643 
3,217 
2,050 
1,269 

991 

470 
1.995 

7,866 

2.598 
870 



3,770326 

1,591,089 

24,466 

43,359 

11,659 

5,950 

3,636 

2,073 

33,101 

22,332 

159,791 

239,446 

10,161 

8,407 

3,025 

31,435 

96,432 

1,505 

101,456 

30,590 

12,567 

11,961 

5,314 

68,879 

55,131 

7,011 

6,201 

536 

45,895 

72,898 

45,229 

497,346 

5,664 

2,569 

1,208 

1,887 

8,171 

923,109 

1,747 

197,289 

24,379 

44,147 

15,003 

1,477 

45,894 

286,691 

3,723 
155,950 

2,361 

3,508 
23,565 

6,156 
30,477 

6,824 
26,716 
22,547 
12.008 

1.988 
10.659 

65,464 

8,801 
2,353 



19,110,004 

8,193,113 

174,808 

168,408 

44,711 

22,145 

11,463 

11,103 

98,371 

58,813 

859,762 

1,700,994 

48,039 

34,101 

17,574 

182,938 

528,049 

13.308 

399.583 

85.583 

49.992 

56.852 

12,639 

76,891 

53,034 

12,336 

10,465 

1,056 

298,545 

178,727 

330,808 

2,724,605 

22.804 

7.376 

4.349 

11.079 

26.208 

5,987,630 

10.014 

421.750 

115,900 

106,967 

51,187 

17,116 

193,319 

4,005,967 

13.882 

584.954 

12.930 

11.663 

56.365 

30.361 

108.944 

35,112 

66,657 

62,823 

36,162 

9,416 

36,141 

164383 

22,330 
10,769 



325,538 

59,174 

490 

286 

471 

165 

174 

132 

1,392 

357 

1,713 

3.696 

5.309 

900 

50 

415 

3,857 

20 

2,447 

2,794 

3,807 

2,847 

1,997 

7,881 

6,020 

1,413 

292 

156 

1,153 

1,161 

324 

10,928 

3,084 

2,618 

81 

385 

1,795 

128,098 

182 

20,615 

5,616 

8,589 

6,259 

114 

615 

7,395 

131 

24,674 

39 

167 

1,687 

690 

45,208 

678 

723 

2,143 

1.278 

12 

1.283 

5,281 

744 
203 



138,568 

51,932 

808 

1.010 

35 

5 

27 

3 

1,084 

624 

5,289 

12,558 

31 

6 

1 

271 

4,188 

27 

2,121 

1.223 

31 

9 

15 

59 

35 

24 

1,701 

1,304 

1,991 

17,398 

124 

53 

61 

10 

24 

77,679 

3 

3,890 

24 

35 

20 

38 

3,802 

60,723 

4 

7,370 

2 

5 

10 

503 

726 

18 

31 

247 

218 

3 

7 

91 

13 
17 



426,903 

90,690 

1,506 

1,227 

1,355 

612 

529 

214 

1,270 

1,081 

8,698 

13.191 

3.280 

1,062 

496 

913 

5,549 

88 

2,886 

2,758 

1,402 

836 

887 

6,617 

4,557 

882 

1,094 

84 

8,563 

5,556 

6.648 

10.224 

2.397 

799 

538 

1.060 

2.200 

246,227 

1.720 

39.225 

6.139 

17.354 

10.579 

405 

2.762 

66.699 

1.625 

45,413 

3,009 

855 

8,580 

3,732 

1,524 

4,816 

3,259 

12,259 

7.257 

3,096 

5,919 

12,072 

1,286 
1,031 



32,485 

2,995 

48 
55 
57 
33 
15 
9 
40 
62 

264 

296 
50 
49 

141 
22 

130 

72 

87 

54 

39 

141 

506 

379 

64 

61 

2 

133 

65 

187 

310 

61 

15 

10 

36 

126 

23,875 

207 

5,657 

70 

1,004 

379 

77 

254 

2,733 

100 

7,156 

933 

17 

554 

207 

81 

2,791 

154 

135 

231 

595 

540 

784 

188 

19 



227,440 

75,966 

1,129 

1,311 

615 

344 

186 

85 

1,020 

804 

8,201 

8,373 

884 

645 

203 

2,282 

3,645 

83 

3,482 

1,136 

1,231 

359 

363 

6,208 

4,882 

806 

474 

46 

3.847 

1.907 

1.556 

25,198 

726 

290 

68 

368 

758 

70,248 

423 

6,181 

1,111 

31,417 

397 

170 

2,417 

10,634 

325 

3,127 

30 

660 

1,040 

1,883 

7,014 

82 

628 

442 

1,128 

8 

1,131 

4,996 

630 

243 



See footnotes at end of table. 



114 



TABLE 38. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



Region and countr>' of 
citizenship 



All 
classes ' 



Foreign 
govern- 
ment 
officials ' 



Temporary 

visitors 

for 

business ' 



Temporary 
visitors 

for 
pleasure' 



Transit 
aliens ' 



Treaty 

traders 

and 

investors ' 



Students 



Spouses 

and 
children 

of 
students 



Tempo- 
rary 

workers 
and 

trainees ' 



Spouses 

and 
children 
of temp, 
workers 

and 



Nigeria 

South Africa 

Other Africa 

Oceania _ 

Australia 

New Zealand 

Pacific Island Tnist Territory 
Other Oceania 

North America .„ 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean .. „... 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Cayman Islands 

Dominica' 

Dominican Republic ' 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Other Caribbean 

Central America „....».... 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other North America 

South America 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

BrazU 

ChUe 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Other South America 

Unknown ' 



25,359 

94,286 

108,650 

667369 

458,100 

165,696 

29,365 

14,208 

2,990316 

97,672 

1,298,885 

1,062,775 

20,199 

296,088 
49,347 
26,373 
12,858 

191,963 
61,397 

222,954 
94,200 
87,396 

530,764 
21,176 

119,053 
90,752 

131,022 

61,185 

37,187 

70,389 

220 

2,616,125 

427,988 

27,341 

882,952 

171,900 

273,396 

105,706 

20,591 

20,051 

166,047 

53,022 

460,457 

6,674 

180,463 



120 

585 

3,693 

4,486 

3,843 

353 

46 

244 

12,406 

445 

2,533 

5,851 

172 

1,009 

631 

I 

62 

567 

1,219 

1,082 

404 

704 

3,577 

166 

310 

664 

803 

558 

150 

926 

14,820 

2,309 

551 

3,424 

1,671 

1,637 

1,125 

119 

318 

990 

584 

2,033 

59 

1,034 



7.214 
20,565 
26,531 

117,760 

91,289 

24,660 

17 

1,794 

620,293 

11,471 
309,141 
184318 

6,664 
10,340 
10,856 

4,930 

3,055 
38,482 
11,214 
59,406 
16,420 
22,951 
115342 

5,141 
27,480 
19,504 
28,230 
13,213 

7,600 

14,174 

21 

410,272 

62,356 

6,068 

102,625 

33,664 

57,800 

18,664 

5,589 

3,447 

27,509 

9,164 

81,792 

1,594 

42,339 



14,464 
64,138 
52,682 

512,086 

339,666 

134,474 

27,983 

9,963 

2,119,438 

7,370 

915,918 

825,003 

12,838 

280,287 

36,204 

20,981 

8,777 

142,242 

45,705 

148,210 

72,075 

57,684 

370,958 

14,683 

84,466 

64,001 

95,350 

35,951 

25,647 

50,860 

189 

2,017,113 

344,065 

16,550 

727,553 

124,736 

192,642 

78,702 

13,298 

14,661 

105,632 

39,868 

355,071 

4,335 

116,241 



206 
1,275 
2,853 

4,650 

2,641 

513 

20 

1,476 

60,637 

646 

13,858 

20,016 

57 

437 

554 

88 

496 

5,462 

1,988 

6,433 

1,781 

2,720 

26,114 

584 

3,584 

4,336 

4,238 

9,367 

2,569 

1,436 

3 

64,778 

4.757 

2,148 

13,213 

5,254 

7,194 

2,776 

856 

548 

24,428 

1,293 

1,913 

398 

2,920 



4 
23 
34 

520 

496 

19 

2 

3 

3,904 

2,620 

980 

85 

2 

8 

1 

5 
14 

1 
22 

5 

27 
219 

1 
86 
21 
14 
60 
12 
25 

2,175 

775 

107 

186 

19 

792 

12 

1 

103 

23 

1 

91 

65 

2,267 



760 
1,109 
7,886 

2,966 

2,092 

654 

4 

216 

37,270 

9,341 

10,887 

11,606 

292 

3,269 

537 

346 

205 

847 

420 

2,384 

1,542 

1,764 

5,435 

335 

899 

575 

822 

807 

349 

1,648 

1 

30,929 

3,101 

677 

11,286 

1,159 

4,412 

1,999 

185 

364 

1,734 

260 

5,661 

91 

6,749 



25 

79 

473 

198 

141 
33 

24 

1,946 

371 

1,027 

361 

13 

116 

12 

5 

7 

31 

3 

81 

37 

56 

187 

4 

57 

19 

35 

29 

16 

27 

2,573 

277 

26 

742 

198 

260 

83 

II 

25 

99 

53 

799 

114 



617 
1,952 
1,554 

6,965 

4330 

1,223 

1,291 

121 

48380 

10,386 

26,536 

9,278 

71 

244 

228 

4 

179 

2,926 

384 

3,795 

979 

468 

2,180 

31 

455 

399 

340 

368 

165 

422 



18326 

2,913 
204 

4,377 
985 

2.666 

538 

136 

75 

1,966 
197 

4,444 
25 

2,359 



238 

1,098 

376 

1,188 

971 
209 



5,037 

2,231 

1.965 

525 

4 

59 

16 

4 

11 

250 

4 

70 

75 

32 

316 

12 

88 

44 

53 

36 

18 

65 

4315 

612 

44 

1,357 

218 

439 

120 

23 

18 

381 

47 

1,249 

7 

298 



See fooUiotes at end of table. 



115 



TABLE 38. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



Region and country of 
citizenship 



International 
represen- 
tatives ' 



Represen- 
tatives of 
foreign 
information 
media ' 



Exchange 
visitors 



Spouses 

and 

children of 

exchange 

visitors 



Fian- 

ces(ees) 
of U.S. 
citizens ' 



Intra- 
company 
transferees 



Spouses 

and 
children of 

intra- 
company 
transferees 



NATO 
officials ' 



Noith 
American 
Free-Trade 
Agreement 
workers ' 



All countries , 

Europe ..........................< 

Austria 

Belgium 

Czechoslovakia, former 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

Denmark 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Luxembourg 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former ... 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Other republics 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Croatia 

Other republics 

Unknown republic 

Other Europe 

Asia 

Bangladesh 

China' 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Arab Emirates .. 
Other Asia 

Africa 

Egypt 

Morocco 



79^28 

29,194 

477 

1,241 

335 

154 

141 

40 

787 

512 

4,650 

2,893 

405 

325 

78 

514 

1,780 

47 

1,644 

626 

413 

371 

256 

3,001 

1,969 

327 

693 

12 

1,177 

1,028 

591 

4,926 

498 

163 

117 

218 

619 

16317 

460 

1,257 

72 

2,855 

518 

411 

472 

1,810 

235 

729 

199 

363 

425 

1,126 

2,402 

245 

155 

325 

580 

47 

1,831 

10,464 

735 
380 



33,596 

19,081 

315 
430 
247 
136 

90 

21 
224 
279 
1,742 
3,889 
209 
183 

14 
276 
968 

13 
708 
253 
265 
167 
139 
511 
407 

27 

76 
1 
863 
615 
565 
5,730 
323 
171 

38 
114 
153 

8,861 

7 

555 

116 

201 

197 

29 

161 

5,476 

26 

1,348 

24 

37 

95 

52 

109 

55 

50 

102 

160 

4 

57 

499 

86 
50 



215,475 

133,849 

1,983 

1,614 

3,320 

1,510 

1,405 

405 

2,545 

2,002 

13,310 

24,517 

1,020 

1,941 

372 

6,797 

4,949 

53 

4,251 

2,481 

2,731 

506 

766 

16,230 

10,682 

2,118 

3,353 

77 

6,463 

4,991 

2.857 

24,575 

1,292 

580 

436 

276 

2,283 

41,697 

171 
6,119 

401 
3,327 

787 

121 

2,473 

10,986 

433 

4,565 

51 

426 
1,129 
1,512 
1,098 

629 

432 

1,998 

2,703 

67 

2,269 

6,659 

1,151 

331 



41,250 

11,916 

188 

232 

256 

118 

103 

35 

316 

300 

1,199 

1,738 

110 

372 

162 

225 

582 

1 

313 

318 

346 

75 

150 

1,775 

1,308 

236 

204 

27 

653 

356 

645 

1,218 

100 

52 

29 

19 

286 

21,485 

71 

3.346 

32 

1.257 

269 

74 

1.480 

6,005 

181 

4.931 

34 

54 

387 

716 

243 

899 

178 

185 

677 

23 

443 

1,239 

457 
55 



10,023 

2,506 

16 

13 

13 

6 

7 

7 
17 
71 
172 
35 
24 
1 
86 
34 

66 
17 

142 

29 

91 

1,049 

733 

228 
70 
18 
40 
33 
13 

422 

37 

9 

7 

21 

78 

4,751 

5 

602 

31 
360 

25 
252 

14 
259 

93 
209 

113 

24 

79 

1,533 

3 

12 

157 

39 

941 

547 
20 
31 



140,457 

66357 

759 

1,478 

80 

53 

10 

17 

1,102 

1,616 

8.088 

10.259 

174 

145 

56 

1,644 

2,336 

51 

3,792 

943 

188 

297 

47 

1,519 

1,296 

116 

97 

10 

1,626 

3,086 

1,981 

24,872 

110 

37 

15 

58 

108 

41,668 

25 

8,281 

521 

2,255 

200 

36 

1,074 

24,284 

70 

2,179 

22 

63 

434 

221 

917 

213 

435 

72 

247 

119 

1,131 

156 
33 



73305 

31,007 

214 

780 

57 

20 

15 

22 

518 

922 

4,806 

4,462 

34 

84 

31 

581 

779 

45 

1,831 

379 

126 

112 

28 

1,074 

863 

86 

114 

II 

640 

1,471 

967 

10,902 

76 

21 

13 

42 

88 

25,823 
16 

3,677 

249 

1,440 

168 

22 

845 

16,124 

38 

1,756 

29 

28 

296 

183 

302 

199 

259 

40 

113 

39 

808 

135 
25 



10,945 

8,243 

7 

392 

12 

5 

3 

4 

354 

6 

92 

3,569 

222 

7 

2 

23 

460 

7 

642 

396 

23 

258 

4 

29 

22 

2 

5 

180 

17 

24 

1.502 

8 

2 

3 

3 

7 

973 

2 

129 

31 

35 

17 

5 

55 
15 

6 
112 

3 

6 
18 
11 
33 
10 
21 
21 
423 

5 
15 

43 

5 

2 



34,681 



See footnotes at end of table. 



116 



TABLE 38. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

nSCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



Region and country of 
citizenship 



International 
represen- 
tatives ' 



Represen- 
tatives of 
foreign 
information 
media' 



Exchange 
visitors 



Spouses 

and 

children of 

exchange 

visitors 



Fian- 

ces(ees) 
ofU.S. 
citizens ' 



Intra- 
company 
transferees 



Spouses 

and 
children of 

intra- 
company 
transferees 



NATO 
officials ' 



North 
American 
Free-Trade 
Agreement 
workers ' 



Unknown 



Nigeria 

South Africa 

Other Africa 

Oceania „ 

Australia 

New Zealand 

Pacific Island Trust Territory 
Other Oceania 

North America 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean _„.._.„...., 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Cayman Islands 

Dominica' 

Dominican Republic ' 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Other Caribbean 

Central Ameiica ....... 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other North America 

South America , 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Other South America 

Unknown ' 



649 

331 

8,369 

1^94 

1,239 

444 

2 

209 

7^03 

1,820 

1,314 

2,193 

58 

88 

164 

2 

7 

283 

261 

394 

421 

515 

1,974 

33 

472 

359 

323 

245 

304 

238 

2 

13,011 

1,935 

636 

2,591 

1,467 

1,698 

502 

283 

174 

1,797 

904 

957 

67 

1,145 



45 
135 
183 

993 

841 
143 



1,100 

144 

534 

307 

1 

21 

11 

1 

1 

61 

18 

31 

8 

154 

115 

2 

26 

42 

16 

6 

7 

16 

2,674 

453 

II 

1,072 

265 

246 

54 
1 

38 
161 

68 
305 

388 



365 
1,733 
3,079 

5,671 

4.168 
1,427 

76 

1231 

3,698 

4,461 

1,583 

18 

63 

72 

4 

18 

348 

107 

676 

149 

128 

2,646 

117 

648 

616 

431 

286 

292 

256 

3 

14,184 

1,555 
222 

6,295 
931 

1,411 
708 
23 
161 
506 
277 

2,073 
22 

1,024 



106 
217 
404 

879 

692 
161 

26 

2,226 
602 

1,142 
176 

30 
12 

3 

47 

10 

32 

34 

8 

306 

6 

84 

13 

107 

41 

17 

38 

3^40 

516 

21 

1,308 

292 

241 

69 

8 

48 

119 

84 

633 

I 

165 



248 

20 

228 

116 

76 
29 

II 

1,442 

478 

395 

398 

I 

5 

4 

13 

107 

27 

112 

27 

102 

171 

6 

18 

28 

18 

49 

7 

45 

584 

20 

3 
95 
30 
242 
28 
31 

8 
90 

4 
32 

I 

77 



171 
579 
192 

4,882 

3,919 
947 

16 

13306 

7,037 

4,759 

631 

3 

41 

20 

2 

12 

165 

19 

157 

159 

53 

878 

41 

271 

100 

160 

122 

28 

156 

1 

10,437 

1,524 

42 

4,175 

590 

1,128 

211 

17 

34 

393 

139 

2,179 

5 

2,676 



122 

432 

94 

2,034 

1,631 
393 

10 

7,319 

4,015 

2,787 

254 

1 

23 

14 

4 
96 

5 

31 

66 

14 

263 

8 

89 
21 
56 
38 

2 
49 



5,729 

754 

25 

2,490 

390 

541 

91 

2 

25 

180 

69 

1,158 

4 



585 



5 
15 
16 

80 

65 

14 

1 

1,078 

547 

258 

190 

4 

48 

11 

5 

3 

35 

12 

38 

18 

16 

83 

6 

20 

10 

26 

9 

4 



447 

66 

6 

162 

29 

43 

23 

7 

4 

32 

10 

65 

81 



34,681 

34,438 
243 



3 
1 

1 

159 

12 

147 



18 



1 



' Excludes the following classes of admission processed in the Nonimmigrant Information System: for all countries — 133,504 parolees; 17,653 withdrawals and 
stowaways; and 66,966 refugees. * Includes admissions under the Visa Waiver Pilot Program. See Nonimmigrant section of text ' Includes spouses and unmarried 
minor (or dependent) children. ' Includes foreign government officials and their spouses and unmarried minor (or dependent) children in ttansit. ' Excludes workers 
(and their spouses and children) under the North American Free-Trade Agreement (shown separately). ' Includes People's Republic of China and Taiwan. A total of 
609,234 nonimmigrant visas were issued in these two counuies in fiscal year 1996: 379.355 to Taiwan and 229,879 to People's Republic of China. (SOURCE: U.S. 
Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Visa Office.) ' Includes minor children of fiances(ees). ' Due to misreporting, reliable counts by country of 
citizenship are not available; therefore, data are given the same distribution as for country of last residence (see page ID). The number of nonimmigrant visas issued in 
fiscal year 1996 for Dominica was I.76I; the Dominican Republic, 72,054. (SOURCE: U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Visa Office.) ' Due to 
processing errors, the number of unknown is significantly higher than in previous Yearbooks. 

NOTE: See Glossary for detailed descriptions of classes of admission. 

- Represents zero. 



117 



TABLE 39. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY CLASS OF ADMISSION 
SELECTED FISCAL YEARS 1981-96 



Class of admission ' 



1981 



1985 



1990 



1993^ 



1994 



1995 



All classes ' 



Foreign government officials and families 

Ambassadors, public ministers, career 
diplomatic or consular officers (Al) 

Other foreign government officials or 
employees (A2) 

Attendants, servants, or personal employees 
of Al and A2 classes (A3) 



Temporary visitors 

For business (Bl) 

Visa Waiver, business 
For pleasure (B2) 

Visa Waiver, pleasure 



Transit aliens 

Aliens in transit (CI) 

Aliens in transit to the U.N. (C2) 

Foreign government officials and families 

in transit (C3) 

Transit without visa (C4) 



Treaty traders and investors and families 

Treaty traders (El) 

Treaty investors (E2 ) 



Students 

Academic students (Fl) 

Vocational students (Ml) 

Spouses and children of students 

Academic students (F2) 

Vocational students (M2) 



Representatives (and families) to 

international organizations 

Principals of recognized foreign 

governments (Gl) 

Other representatives of recognized 

foreign governments (G2) 

Representatives of noiwecognized foreign 

governments (G3) 

International organization officers or 

employees (G4) 

Attendants, servants, or personal 

employees of representatives (G5) 



Temporary workers and trainees ' 

Registered nurses (HIA) ' 

Specialty occupations (HIB) ' 

Performing services unavailable in the 
United States (H2) 

Agricultural workers (H2A) 

Nonagricultural workers (H2B) 

Industrial trainees (H3) 

Workers with extraordinary 

ability/achievement (Ol)' 

Workers accompanying and assisting in 

performance of Ol workers (02) ' 

Internationally recognized athletes or 

entertainers (PI) ' 



11,756,903 
84,710 

NA 
NA 
NA 

10,650,592 

1,135,422 
X 

9,515,170 
X 

214,218 

NA 
NA 

NA 
NA 

80,802 

NA 
NA 

240,805 

NA 

NA 

31,056 

NA 
NA 

54,223 

NA 

NA 

NA 

NA 

NA 

44,770 
X 

NA 

NA 
X 
X 

NA 

X 
X 

X 



9,539,880 
90,190 

21,168 

67,084 

1,938 

8,405,409 
1,796,819 

X 
6,608,590 

X 

236,537 

138,957 
1,804 

7,010 
88,766 

96,489 

65,406 
31,083 

257,069 

251,234 

5,835 

28,427 

27,747 
680 

57,203 

8,316 

6,989 

271 

40,397 

1,230 

74,869 
X 

47,322 

24,544 

X 

X 

3,003 

X 

X 

X 



17,574,055 

96,689 

22,018 

72,511 

2,160 

16,079,666 

2,661,338 

294,065 

13,418,328 

4,528,112 

306,156 

153,801 
1,296 

6,190 
144,869 

147,536 

78,658 
68,878 

326,264 

319,467 

6,797 

28,943 

28,490 
453 

61,449 

8,256 

8,110 

376 

43,104 

1,603 

139,587 
X 

100.446 

35,973 

18,219 

17,754 

3,168 

X 

X 
X 



21,566,404 
102,121 

23,783 

76,393 

1,945 

19,879,443 

2,961,092 

640,397 

16,918,351 

8,624,006 

331,208 

173,149 
796 

7,923 
149,340 

144,644 

65,362 
79,282 

370,620 

362,700 

7,920 

32,652 

32,103 

549 

72,755 

9,032 

8,962 

362 

52,856 
1,543 

162,976 

6,506 
92,795 

29,475 

14,628 

14,847 

3,126 

3,105 

964 

17,109 



22,118,706 
105,299 

24,237 

79,143 

1,919 

20,318,933 

3,164,099 

786,739 

17,154,834 

8,969,404 

330,936 

175,285 
875 

8,359 
146,417 

141,030 

60,196 
80,834 

394,001 

386,157 

7,844 

33,720 

33,071 

649 

74,722 

9,662 

9,344 

352 

53,768 
1,596 

185,988 

6,106 
105,899 

28,872 

13,185 

15,687 

3,075 

5,029 

1,455 

22,500 



22,640,539 
103,606 

23,259 

78,299 

2,048 

20,886,867 

3,275,334 

942,538 

17,611,533 

9,407,254 

320,333 

168,602 
903 

9,099 
141,729 

131,777 

53,557 
78,220 

364,220 

356,585 

7,635 

31,260 

30,849 
411 



71,982 

9,319 

9,497 

290 

51,410 

1,466 

196,760 

6,512 
117,574 

25,587 

11,394 

14,193 

2,787 

5,974 

1,813 

22,397 



See footnotes at end of table. 



118 



TABLE 39. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY CLASS OF ADMISSION 
SELECTED FISCAL YEARS 1981-96— Continued 



Class of admission ' 



1981 



1985 



1990 



1993^ 



1994 



1995 



1996 



Artists or entertainers in reciprocal 
exchange programs (P2) ' 

Artists or entertainers in culmrally unique 
programs (P3) ' 

Workers in international cultural exchange 
programs (Ql) ' 

Workers in religious occupations (Rl) ' .... 

Spouses and children of temporary 

workers and trainees ' „.. 

Spouses and children of HI, H2, and H3 

workers (H4) 

Spouses and children of Ol and 02 

workers (03) ' 

Spouses and children of PI, F*2, and P3 

workers (P4) ' 

Spouses and children of Rl workers (R2) ' 

Representatives (and families) of foreign 
information media (II) 



Exchange visitors (Jl) 

Spouses and children of exchange visitors (J2) 

Fiances(ees) of U.S. citizens (Kl) 

Children of fiances(ees) of U.S. citizens (K2) 

Intracompany transferees (LI) 

Spouses and children of intracompany 

transferees (L2) 



NATO officials and families (Nl-7) . 



Professional workers, U.S. -Canada Free- 
Trade Agreement (TC) ' 

Spouses and children of U.S. -Canada Free- 
Trade Agreement workers (TB) ' 

Professional workers. North American Free- 
Trade Agreement (TN) ' 

Spouses and and children of North American 
Free-Trade Agreement workers (TD) ' 

Other and unknown 



X 

X 

X 
X 

10,110 

10,110 

X 

X 
X 

16,708 

80,230 
27,793 

5,456 

742 

38,595 

26,449 

7,124 

X 

X 
X 
X 

142,520 



X 

X 

X 
X 

12,632 

12,632 

X 

X 
X 

16,753 

1 10,942 
30,271 

6,975 
832 

65,349 

41,533 

8,323 

X 
X 
X 
X 

77 



X 
X 

X 

X 

28,687 

28,687 

X 

X 
X 

20,252 

174,247 
40,397 

6,545 
673 

63,180 

39,375 

8,333 

5,293 

594 

X 

X 

189 



422 

4,036 

994 
4,444 

39,704 

37,833 

322 

498 
1,051 

21,032 

196,782 
42,623 

8,541 
816 

82,606 

49,537 

8,902 

16,610 

2,386 

X 

X 

446 



613 

4,942 

1,546 
5,951 

43,207 

40,490 

549 

562 
1,606 

27,691 

216,610 
42,561 

8,124 
764 

98,189 

56,048 

9,135 

5,031 

498 

19,806 

5,535 
878 



660 

5,315 

1,399 
6,742 

46380 

43,247 

751 

592 
1,790 

24,220 

201,095 
39,269 

7,793 
768 

112,124 

61,621 

8,579 

X 
X 

23,904 

7,202 
779 



1,727 

5,938 

2,056 
8,992 

53,572 
50,106 

877 

667 
1,922 

33,596 

215,475 
41,250 

9,011 
1,012 

140,457 

73,305 

10,945 

X 
X 

26,987 

7,694 

310 



' See Glossary for detailed descriptions of classes of admission. 

Data for fiscal year 1993 differ from data published in previous Yearbooks due to corrections in the underreporting of student entries and more minor adjustments to 
entries for odier classes of nonimmigrant admission. See Nonimmigrant section of text. 

' Excludes classes of admission processed in the Nonimmigrant Information System in the following years: for all countries — 1985 - 64,487 parolees (Rl-3), 3,239 
withdrawals (R4) and stowaways (R5). and 68,044 refugees (RF); 1990 - 90.265 parolees (Rl-3), 19,984 withdrawals (R4) and stowaways (R5), and 1 10,197 refugees 
(RF); 1993 - 123.628 parolees, 26,435 withdrawals (WD) and stowaways (ST), and 113,152 refugees (RE); 1994 - 111.403 parolees, 22,461 withdrawals (WD) and 
stowaways (ST), and 114,471 refugees (RE); 1995 - 113,542 parolees, 21,567 withdrawals (WD) and stowaways (ST), and 95,576 refugees (RE); 1996 - 133,504 
parolees, 17,653 wiUidrawals (WD) and stowaways (ST), and 66,966 refugees (RE). 

Excludes admissions under the US-Canada Free-Trade Agreement and the North American Free-Trade Agreement (shown separately). 
' Admissions began October 1, 1990 (fiscal year 1991). 

Prior to October 1, 1991 (fiscal year 1992), HIB admissions were termed "Distinguished merit or ability." 

Admissions began in April 1992. 

Admissions under the U.S. -Canada Free-Trade Agreement began January 1989 and ended December 31, 1993. Admissions under the North American Free-Trade 
Agreement began January 1, 1994. 

NOTE: "Family," "immediate family," and "spouse and children" are defined as spouse and unmarried minor (or dependent) children. 

NA Not available. X Not applicable. 



119 



TABLE 40. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED AS TEMPORARY WORKERS, EXCHANGE VISITORS, AND 
INTRACOMPANY TRANSFEREES BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996 



Region and country 
of citizenship 



Total 



Registered 
nurses 
(HIA) 



Workers 

with 

specialty 

occupations 

(HIB) 



Other temporary workers 
(H2) 



Agricultural 
(H2A) 



Non- 
agricultural 
(H2B) 



Industrial 

trainees 

(H3) 



Exchange 

visitors 

(Jl) 



All countries 

Europe 

Albania 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former 

Czech Republic 

Slovak RepuWic 

Unknown republic .... 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Luxembourg 

Malta 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Other republics 

Unknown republic .... 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Croatia 

Other republics 

Unknown republic .... 
Other Europe 

Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bahrain 

Bangladesh 

Cambodia 

China' 

Cyprus 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

See footnotes at end of table. 

120 



610,359 

276,172 

360 

3,871 

4,403 

1,065 

4,015 

1,907 

1,601 

507 

4,667 

411 

4,422 

29,599 

43,149 

2,078 

2,731 

631 

10,723 

10,930 

453 

689 

187 

107 

11,525 

4.560 

4,150 

1,162 

1,176 

23,957 

16,860 

3,040 

3,924 

133 

11,936 

9,984 

6,394 

74,645 

2,128 

907 

519 

702 

64 

153,613 

42 

51 

619 

72 

20,581 

767 

2,033 

36,999 

1,384 

327 

138 



2,046 
241 

4 

2 

1 
1 

2 

2 
15 

14 



20 
7 



6 

3 

3 

149 



1,503 



71 
2 



144,458 

52,054 

11 
617 

1,021 

212 

281 

139 

111 

31 

811 

15 

612 

6,076 

6,117 

632 

349 

121 

1,137 

2,558 

47 

67 

73 

2 

2.694 

675 

696 

254 

245 

2.805 

2,190 

338 

254 

23 

2,529 

1,457 

1,126 

18,221 

565 

225 

36 

304 

28 

56,981 

4 

7 

336 

3 

4,377 

122 

821 

29,239 

313 

153 

81 



9,635 
63 



5 
28 



14345 

1,513 

1 

56 

128 

1 
36 

8 
22 

6 
49 

7 

59 

47 

136 

39 

9 

76 
16 
6 

1 

108 

40 

28 

5 

158 

88 

12 

55 

3 

30 

78 

107 

265 

25 

5 

17 

3 

2 

2,668 



436 
1 

2 

29 
4 



2,986 
1,212 

15 
18 

2 
21 

9 
11 

1 
35 

I 

10 

154 

239 

3 
18 

47 
80 



81 

9 

35 

2 

1 

39 

27 

II 

I 

123 

27 

61 

182 

7 

6 

1 



1,252 



1 

1 

94 

13 

54 

12 

2 



215,475 

133,849 

338 

1,983 

1,614 

624 

3,320 

1,510 

1,405 

405 

2,545 

321 

2,002 

13,310 

24.517 

1.020 

1.941 

372 

6.797 

4,949 

369 

541 

53 

72 

4,251 

2.481 

2.731 

506 

766 

16,230 

10,682 

2,118 

3,353 

77 

6,463 

4,991 

2,857 

24.575 

1.292 

580 

436 

276 

18 

41,697 

8 

37 

171 

41 

6,119 

615 

401 

3,327 

787 

121 

II 



TABLE 40. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED AS TEMPORARY WORKERS, EXCHANGE VISITORS, AND 
INTRACOMPANY TRANSFEREES BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



Region and country 
of citizenship 



Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Lebanon 

Macau 

Malaysia 

Nepal 

Oman 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Qatar 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Arab Emirates . 

Vietnam 

Yemen 

Other Asia 



Africa 

Algeria 

Angola 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde ... 
Cote d'lvoire 

Egypt 

Ethiopia 

Gambia, The . 

Ghana 

Guinea 

Kenya 

Mali 

Mauritius 

Morocco 

Nigeria 

Senegal 

Sierra Leone .. 
South Africa .. 

Sudan 

Tanzania 

Tunisia 

Uganda 

Zaire 

Zambia 

Zimbabwe 

Other Africa .. 



Oceania „ „ 

AustraUa 

Fiji 

New Zealand 

Pacific Island Trust Territory 



Total 



5,964 

45,904 

828 

9,871 

103 

1,149 

20 

2,603 

271 

586 

3,616 

9,029 

99 

924 

1,495 

533 

526 

2,512 

4,078 

75 

255 

64 

95 

12,786 

197 

24 
144 

25 

169 

1,937 

245 

38 
516 
176 
542 
115 

59 

607 

1,153 

224 

61 
4,264 

78 
387 
177 
233 
114 
157 
290 
854 

17,518 

12,417 

44 

3.597 

1,291 



See footnotes at end of table. 



Registered 
nurses 
(HI A) 



1 

10 

2 
7 



4 
1,391 

1 

1 



71 



26 

30 
1 



4 
4 

61 

33 

28 



Workers 

with 

specialty 

occupations 

(HIB) 



2.000 

7,401 

310 

1,934 

20 

535 

8 

876 

80 

4 

1,760 

4,173 

3 

70 

553 

342 

173 

183 

1,064 

1 

9 

2 

24 

3,577 

72 

3 

47 

1 

44 

485 

54 

4 

94 

9 

185 

11 

25 

119 

366 

30 

22 

1.648 

37 

44 

40 

40 

27 

13 

77 

80 

4,023 

3.203 

17 

785 



Other temporary workers 
(H2) 



Agricultural 
(H2A) 



112 

32 

80 



Non- 
agricultural 
(H2B) 



6 
937 

2 
259 



13 
I 



971 
1 



33 



24 



1 

2 

250 

183 

I 

66 



Industrial 

trainees 

(H3) 



38 
806 

78 

6 

3 

3 

104 



4 
11 



31 

5 



69 

62 



Exchange 

visitors 

(Jl) 



2.473 

10,986 

433 

4,565 

51 

426 

1 

1.129 

137 

581 

1,512 

1.098 

96 

629 

432 

143 

295 

1,998 

2,703 

67 

204 

58 

42 

6,659 

96 

9 

73 

20 

95 

1,151 

153 

29 

347 

81 

288 

72 

27 

331 

365 

151 

26 

1.733 

32 

330 

123 

144 

32 

83 

160 

708 

5,671 

4,168 
11 

1.427 



Intra- 
company 
trans- 
ferees 
(LI) 



1.074 

24.284 

70 

2,179 

22 

63 

8 

434 

25 

1 

221 

917 

213 

435 

18 

11 

72 

247 

6 

4 

14 

1,131 

7 
11 
4 

4 
156 

21 
I 

13 
2 
6 
1 
5 

33 

171 

8 

11 

579 

4 

8 

12 
1 
9 

20 

11 

33 

4,882 

3,919 

3 

947 



121 



TABLE 40. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED AS TEMPORARY WORKERS, EXCHANGE VISITORS, AND 
INTRACOMPANY TRANSFEREES BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 









Workers 


Other temporary workers 






Intra- 




Total 


Registered 
nurses 


with 
specialty 


(H2) 


Industrial 


Exchange 


company 


Region and country 






trans- 


of citizenship 




(HIA) 


occupations 
(HIB) 


Agricultural 
(H2A) 


Non- 
agricultural 
(H2B) 


trainees 
(H3) 


visitors 
(Jl) 


ferees 
(LI) 


Tonga 


61 


_ 


13 


_ 


_ 


1 


13 


3 




41 
67 

101,064 


141 


2 
3 

12,525 


9,103 


9,406 


261 


4 
48 

1231 


. 




10 


North America 


13,306 


Canada 


47,915 


23 


4,192 


127 


1,738 


74 


3,698 


7,037 


Mexico 


35,949 


73 


5,273 


8,833 


5,539 


141 


4,461 


4,759 


Caribbean 


11,492 


43 


1,846 


137 


2,009 


30 


1,583 


631 


Anguilla 


7 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 


- 




Antigua 


92 


- 


25 


- 


21 


- 


18 


3 


Aruba 


21 


- 


7 


- 


6 


- 


6 


1 


Bahamas, The 


348 


3 


166 


_ 


3 


2 


63 


41 


Barbados 


320 




156 


- 


4 




72 


20 


Bermuda 


121 


- 


78 


- 


11 


- 


3 


13 




5 


. 


1 


_ 




_ 


1 


1 


Cayman Islands 


10 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


4 


2 


Cuba 


218 


- 


15 


- 


4 


- 


29 


- 




209 
3,439 


2 


16 

325 


15 


68 

533 


■ 
10 


18 

348 


12 


Dominican Republic^ 


165 


Grenada 


56 




13 




24 




12 


3 


Haiti 


510 


1 


95 


- 


3 


4 


107 


19 


Jamaica 


4,628 


28 


415 


122 


1,235 


2 


676 


157 


Netherland Antilles 


31 
33 
46 


3 


14 
7 
10 


- 


2 


8 


4 
11 

27 


1 


St Kitts & Nevis 


2 


St. Lucia 


6 




68 

1,287 


6 


15 
474 


- 


88 


4 


13 
149 


23 




159 


Turks & Caicos Islands 


12 




4 


. 




. 


3 


2 




21 
5,704 


2 


1 
1,214 


6 


120 


16 


19 
2,646 


1 


Central America 


878 


Belize 


189 


- 


14 


- 


- 


2 


117 


41 


Costa Rica 


1,374 

1,115 

931 


1 


357 
151 
166 


6 


9 
12 
18 


6 
1 
1 


648 
616 
431 


271 




100 


Guatemala 


160 


Honduras 


776 


- 


161 


- 


43 


5 


286 


122 


Nicaragua 


485 


- 


68 


- 


1 


- 


292 


28 


Panama 


834 


1 


297 


- 


37 


1 


256 


156 


Other North America 


4 
43,147 


23 


13,602 


344 


413 


133 


3 
14,184 


1 


South America 


10,437 


Argentina 


5,992 


2 


2.169 




49 


11 


1,555 


1,524 


Bolivia 


468 


1 


154 


. 


1 


1 


222 


42 


Brazil 


14,847 


4 


3,365 


- 


21 


28 


6,295 


4,175 


Chile 


2,506 


- 


735 


45 


29 


9 


931 


590 


Colombia 


5,205 


3 


1,700 


- 


18 


36 


1,411 


1,128 


Ecuador 


1,457 


3 


391 


- 


- 


3 


708 


211 


Guyana 


176 


- 


58 




1 


3 


23 


17 


Paraguay 


270 


- 


69 


- 


1 


- 


161 


34 


Peru 


2,865 


4 


1,356 


299 


47 


5 


506 


393 


Suriname 


52 


- 


17 


- 


- 


- 


22 


5 


Uruguay 


613 


- 


165 


- 


- 


- 


277 


139 


Venezuela 


8,696 


6 


3,423 


- 


246 


37 


2,073 


2,179 


Unknown ' 


6,059 


6 


1,696 


4 


62 


28 


1,024 


2,676 



See footnotes at end of table. 



122 



TABLE 40. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED AS TEMPORARY WORKERS, EXCHANGE VISITORS, AND 
INTRACOMPANY TRANSFEREES BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



Region and country 
of citizenship 



Workers 


Workers 
accom- 


Inter- 


Artists or 


Artists or 


Workers 




North 


with 


panying and 


nationally 


entertainers 


entertainers 


in inter- 
national 
cultural 
exchange 


Workers in 


American 


extraordinary 


assisting in 


recognized 


in reciprocal 


in culturally 


religious 


Free-Trade 


ability or 


performance 


athletes or 


exchange 


unique 


occupations 


Agreement 


achievement 


ofOl 


entertainers 


programs 


programs 


(Rl) 


workers 


(Ol) 


workers 
(02) 


(PI) 


(P2) 


(P3) 


(Ql) 




(TN) 


7,177 


2,112 


25,968 


1,727 


5,938 


2,056 


8,992 


26,987 


4,628 


961 


9,680 


205 


1,717 


1,559 


2,133 


. 


- 


- 




- 


- 


3 


4 


- 


87 


9 


299 


2 


13 


8 


19 


- 


49 


12 


59 


1 


6 


1 


14 


- 


II 


I 


146 


1 


33 


1 


- 


- 


30 


15 


142 


20 


31 




36 


- 


16 


9 


107 


13 


21 


- 


22 


- 


7 


- 


18 


6 


1 




8 


- 


7 


6 


17 


1 


9 


- 


6 


- 


71 


4 


14 


2 


2 


6 


24 


- 


3 


- 


48 




- 


- 


1 


- 


35 


- 


32 


1 


11 


6 


36 


- 


495 


74 


669 


4 


107 


399 


159 


- 


437 


93 


697 


17 


70 


326 


224 


- 


26 


3 


91 


10 


59 


14 


6 


- 


24 


2 


147 


- 


52 


- 


44 


- 


7 


1 


69 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


97 


52 


526 


21 


127 


5 


166 


- 


370 


31 


175 


4 


67 


136 


201 


- 


2 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


1 


- 


10 


- 


58 


- 


4 


- 


1 


5 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


179 


10 


233 


11 


44 


28 


82 


- 


72 


3 


46 


2 


15 


250 


23 


- 


24 


7 


200 


3 


125 


18 


65 


- 


9 


6 


21 


3 


22 


- 


37 


- 


2 


- 


16 


- 


90 


1 


7 


- 


276 


116 


2,236 


27 


342 


100 


105 


- 


225 


110 


1,775 


23 


291 


98 


53 


- 


29 


5 


352 


- 


29 


2 


27 


- 


14 


1 


98 


4 


22 


- 


24 


- 


8 


. 


11 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


198 


60 


471 


4 


198 


11 


214 


- 


114 


6 


151 


3 


6 


3 


58 


- 


76 


8 


113 


6 


8 


3 


44 


- 


1,900 


439 


3,016 


62 


216 


239 


502 


- 


22 


4 


40 


1 


15 


- 


47 


- 


11 


3 


12 


1 


3 


- 


24 


- 


4 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


7 


1 


21 


- 


12 


- 


20 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


667 


583 


1,484 


116 


2,279 


250 


2,457 


. 


. 


. 


- 


- 


22 


- 


2 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


4 


. 


20 


4 


40 


- 


18 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


24 


- 


70 


49 


401 


31 


413 


117 


186 


- 


5 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


31 


148 


10 


10 


38 


14 


24 


. 


52 


76 


84 


17 


1,195 


1 


599 


- 


5 


1 


4 


2 


41 


- 


13 


- 


2 


2 


1 


- 


6 


- 


4 


_ 


9 


32 


- 


- 


1 


- 


3 


. 


93 


19 


137 


11 


7 


- 


105 


. 


220 


86 


392 


12 


296 


50 


424 


- 



AU countries 

Europe » 

Albania 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former 

Czech Republic 

Slovak RepubUc 

Unknown republic .... 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Luxembourg 

Malta 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Other republics 

Unknown republic .... 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Croatia 

Other republics 

Unknown republic .... 
Other Europe 

Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bahrain 

Bangladesh 

Cambodia 

China' 

Cyprus 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

See footnotes at end of table. 



123 



TABLE 40. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED AS TEMPORARY WORKERS, EXCHANGE VISITORS, AND 
INTRACOMPANY TRANSFEREES BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



Region and country 
of citizenship 



Workers 

with 

extraordinary 

ability or 

achievement 

(01) 



Workers 
accom- 
panying and 
assisting in 
performance 
ofOl 
workers 
<02) 



Inter- 
nationally 
recognized 
athletes or 
entertainers 

(PI) 



Artists or 

entertainers 

in reciprocal 

exchange 

programs 

(P2) 



Artists or 

entertainers 

in culturally 

unique 

programs 

(P3) 



Workers 
in inter- 
national 
cultural 
exchange 
programs 
(Ql) 



Workers in 

reUgious 

occupations 

(Rl) 



Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Lebanon 

Macau 

Malaysia 

Nepal 

Oman 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Qatar 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Arab Emirates 

Vietnam 

Yemen 

Other Asia 

Africa 

Algeria 

Angola 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde 

Cote d'lvoire 

Egypt 

Ethiopia 

Gambia, The 

Ghana 

Guinea 

Kenya 

Mali 

Mauritius 

Morocco 

Nigeria 

Senegal 

Sierra Leone 

South Africa 

Sudan 

Tanzania 

Tunisia 

Uganda 

Zaire 

Zambia 

Zimbabwe 

Other Africa 

Oceania 

Australia 

Fiji 

New 2^aland 

Pacific Island Trust Territory 

Tonga 

Western Samoa 

Other Oceania 



66 
19 

5 



10 
34 

2 
9 
3 
2 
3 
20 



88 



3 
16 



3 
3 
6 

36 



363 

290 

5 

68 



1 

92 

25 
1 

10 

22 

1 
9 

7 

1 



11 



47 
34 

13 



193 

64 
4 



18 
75 

3 
19 

1 
32 

5 
15 

2 

1 



435 
1 



3 

2 

66 

2 

7 
78 
31 

3 

53 
33 
11 

97 



11 



20 



343 

267 

2 

71 



34 



24 



18 

17 



5 
90 



4 
56 



2 
1 
3 

16 
3 

23 

2 

355 
15 



15 

27 

3 

23 

4 

7 

28 

19 
87 
16 

12 

5 



31 

19 

36 

1 

7 

41 

27 

14 



58 
2 



52 



43 
1 



13 

12 



4 

400 

3 

6 

35 
22 

18 
306 

3 
24 
24 

2 

170 

13 

4 

7 

12 

308 

1 

4 
1 
1 

25 
14 

27 

2 

18 



76 

2 

1 

85 



15 
12 

3 

5 

10 

1,625 

170 

5 

90 

1,291 

31 

35 

3 



See footnotes at end of table. 
124 



TABLE 40. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED AS TEMPORARY WORKERS, EXCHANGE VISITORS, AND 
INTRACOMPANY TRANSFEREES BY REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 







Workers 
















Workers 


accom- 


Inter- 


Artists or 


Artists or 


Workers 




North 




with 


panying and 


nationally 


entertainers 


entertainers 


in inter- 
national 
cultural 
exchange 


Workers in 


American 


Region and country 


extraordinary 


assistmg in 


recognized 


in reciprocal 


in culturally 


religious 


Free-Trade 


of citizenship 


ability or 


performance 


athletes or 


exchange 


unique 


occupations 


Agreement 




achievement 


ofOI 


entertainers 


programs 


programs 


(Rl) 


workers 




(Ol) 


workers 
(02) 


(PI) 


(P2) 


(P3) 


(Ql) 




(TN) 


North America 


852 


426 


11,547 


1,267 


1,073 


169 


1,610 


26,987 


Canada 


481 


207 


1,522 


1,125 


253 


49 


595 


26,794 


Mexico 


171 


65 


5,463 


66 


302 


98 


512 


193 


Caribbean „ 


148 


ISO 


4,063 


57 


461 


22 


312 


. 


Anguilla 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


. 


Antigua 


- 


- 


17 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


Aruba 


- 


- 




- 


. 


_ 


1 


_ 


Bahamas, The 


3 


9 


10 


33 


_ 


3 


12 


_ 


Barbados 


1 


- 


63 


- 


_ 


. 


4 


_ 


Bermuda 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16 


_ 


British Virgin Islands 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


. 


Cayman Islands 


















Cuba 


25 


7 


39 


_ 


95 


. 


4 


. 


Dominica' 


10 


1 


85 
1,886 


11 


3 
9 


- 


7 
124 




Dominican Republic ' 


_ 


Grenada 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


_ 


Haiti 


2 


- 


176 


4 


50 


16 


33 


. 


Jamaica 


99 


130 


1,483 


7 


214 


. 


60 


_ 


Netherland Antilles 


- 


1 


2 


- 


7 


; 


2 
3 




St. Kitts & Nevis 




St. Lucia 


_ 


St. Vincent & Grenadines 


2 
4 


1 
1 


8 

288 


2 


83 


3 


6 
26 




Trinidad & Tobago 


_ 


Turks & Caicos Islands 


2 
52 


4 


499 


19 


57 


- 


1 
191 




Other Caribbean 




Central America 


. 


Belize 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


12 


_ 


Costa Rica 


6 

4 
9 


2 


14 
172 
107 


2 
2 
3 


11 

25 

8 


; 


42 
31 
28 




EI Salvador 




Guatemala 


_ 


Honduras 


4 


2 


124 


5 


2 


. 


22 


. 


Nicaragua 


2 


- 


59 


5 


7 


- 


23 


- 


Panama 


27 


- 


23 


2 


1 


- 


33 


_ 


Other North America 


458 

110 


61 

29 


2,197 

400 


75 
15 


437 

2 


7 
2 


776 

124 








Argentina 


_ 


Bolivia 


6 


- 


11 


- 


21 


_ 


9 


_ 


Brazil 


130 


11 


483 


13 


122 


1 


199 


. 


Chile 


19 


3 


77 


15 


2 


2 


49 


_ 


Colombia 


64 


2 


601 


4 


55 


1 


182 


_ 


Ecuador 


2 


- 


19 


7 


83 


- 


30 


_ 


Guyana 


2 


1 


6 


- 


47 


- 


18 


_ 


Paraguay 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


4 


- 


Peru 


25 


5 


71 


4 


87 


- 


63 


_ 


Suriname 


- 


- 




- 


- 


. 


8 


. 


Uruguay 


4 


2 


12 


4 


6 


. 


4 


- 


Venezuela 


96 


8 


517 


12 


12 


1 


86 


- 


Unknown ' 


121 


23 


282 


12 


36 


6 


83 


- 



' Includes People's Republic of China and Taiwan. The number of nonimmigrant visas issued in fiscal year 1996 for People's Republic of China were: 9 HIAs, 
2.321 HlBs, no H2As. 588 H2Bs, 92 H3s, 4,438 Jls, 4,256 Lis. 52 Ols. 14 02. 316 Pis. 4 P2s. 284 P3s. 124 Qls. and 20 Rls. The number of nonimmigrant visas 
issued in fiscal year 1 996 for Taiwan were: no HIAs. 1.120 HlBs, no H2As. 2 H2Bs. 7 H3s, 1,007 Jls. 308 Lis. 9 Ols. 23 02s. 2 Pis. noP2s. 155 P3s. no Qls, and 
42 Rls. (SOURCE: U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Consular Affairs. Visa Office.) ' Due to misreporting. reliable counts by country of citizenship are not 
available; therefore, data were given the same distribution as for country of last residence (see page 10). The number of nonimmigrant visas issued in fiscal year 1996 
for Dominica was 1.761; the Dominican Republic. 72.054. (SOURCE: U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Visa Office.) ' Due to processing 
errors, the number of unknown is significantly higher than in previous Yearbooks. 

NOTE: See Glossary for detailed descriptions of classes of admission. - Represents zero. 

125 



TABLE 41. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED PORT OF ENTRY AND REGION 

AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996 



Region and country 
of citizenship 



All ports 



Agana 



Atlanta 



Boston 



Chicago 



Detroit 



Honolulu 



All countries , 

Europe 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former .. 

Czech RepuWic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

Denmark 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Luxembourg 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Other republics 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Croatia 

Other repubUcs 

Unknown repuWic 

Other Europe 

Asia 

Bangladesh 

China' 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Arab Emirates 

Other Asia 

See fooUiotes al end of table. 



24,842,503 

10,419,084 

207,845 

222,754 

11,923 

63,947 

31,613 

18,083 

14,251 

142,800 

90,570 

1,083,235 

2,034,764 

70,667 

48,952 

22,336 

229,029 

655,824 

15,353 

526,656 

130,485 

74,458 

75,219 

23,614 

198,941 

145,536 

26,610 

24,683 

2,112 

373,355 

274,309 

395,907 

3,375,682 

38,244 

15,069 

7,337 

15,838 

32,215 

7,685,185 

15,546 

721,778 

154,786 

234,609 

87,643 

20,468 

261,164 

4,521,163 

22,120 

849,593 

20,999 

18,238 

95,789 

49,892 

204.998 

55,829 

101,903 

9,802 

104,809 

64,351 

15,734 

53,971 



1,227,442 

8,085 

174 

58 

44 

32 

4 

16 

12 

121 

59 

630 

820 

62 

9 

2 

75 

249 

2 

191 

78 

8 

276 

8 

104 

93 

6 

4 

1 

93 

194 

315 

4,430 

45 

40 

5 
6 

1,189,605 

46 

20,491 

4,537 

311 

797 

5 

40 

982,316 

1 

169,332 



239 

22 

10,507 

9 

531 

44 

200 

14 

1 

154 



582,135 

433,938 

12,248 

15,871 

590 

3,948 

2,056 

1,303 

589 

3,756 

2,879 

29,286 

128,245 

2,209 

4,384 

62 

15,272 

8,519 

405 

19,751 

4,382 

2,103 

890 

1,176 

7,014 

4,662 

1,160 

1,141 

51 

15,621 

7,166 

26,790 

118,012 

2,137 

1,024 

495 

618 

1,222 

68,814 

166 

1,907 
307 

9,076 
436 
743 

2,157 

37,368 

430 

8,181 
312 
321 
359 
748 
386 
560 
235 
148 
334 

3,178 
225 

1,237 



422,397 

368,637 

5,435 

8,398 

272 

1,218 

548 

445 

225 

3,649 

1,997 

28,020 

72,793 

5,241 

942 

1,649 

30,666 

21,511 

547 

15,515 

2,978 

1,253 

6,879 

391 

1,739 

1,040 

255 

413 

31 

5,511 

7,604 

17,361 

124,979 

1.181 

458 

323 

400 

908 

32,090 

304 
761 
364 

7,513 
715 
502 

3.868 

3.266 
693 

1.588 

1.018 

1.199 
800 

1. 129 
532 

1.665 
539 
245 
670 

2.261 
743 

1.715 



1,113,145 

735,714 

11.783 

30.977 

888 

4,355 

2,062 

1,286 

1.007 

13.101 

5,205 

69,998 

166,498 

3,563 

1,775 

98 

11,134 

42,965 

932 

22,156 

8.482 

20.444 

1.351 

3.446 

15.343 

9.790 

3.812 

1,643 

98 

5,975 

50.765 

33.041 

203.824 

4.171 

1.251 

612 

2.308 

3,444 

263,352 

522 

19,987 

4,481 

18,515 

1,925 

1,302 

5.888 

148.464 

3.972 

24,842 

4,263 

1,208 

1,822 

3,077 

6,555 

1,469 

2,722 

533 

4,317 

2.727 

1.486 

3.275 



457,104 

229,617 

4.608 

3.281 

86 

1.506 

831 

377 

298 

2.247 

1.116 

30.736 

88.181 

1.477 

947 

29 

1.334 

7.186 

372 

22.164 

1.842 

1.724 

422 

452 

1.450 

616 

391 

404 

39 

1.461 

4.806 

3,324 

46,508 

1,608 

373 

468 

767 

750 

197,035 

305 

22,083 

3.598 

6.289 

2.804 

892 

966 

86.585 

1.102 

38.523 

330 

1.235 

1.492 

1.055 

16.923 

635 
1,937 

395 
5,641 

774 

566 
2,905 



1,879,942 

63,152 

979 

276 

30 

128 

92 

25 

11 

884 

230 

9,402 

16,065 

57 

55 

20 

731 

1,871 

72 

1,665 

474 

108 

803 

16 

198 

176 

9 

11 

2 

241 

1,191 

2,276 

25,220 

92 

64 

11 

17 

68 

1,720,278 

87 

60,833 

17,097 

935 

11.373 

72 

327 

I.48I.3I4 

15 

112.288 

54 

14 

6.721 

93 

6.995 

98 

14.042 

158 

6.884 

79 

35 

764 



126 



TABLE 41. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED PORT OF ENTRY AND REGION 

AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



Region and country 
of citizenship 

AArica ._ .............. 

Egypt 

Ghana 

Kenya 

Morocco 

Nigeria 

South Africa 

Other Africa 

Oceania „ 

Austraha 

New Zealand 

Pacific Island Trust Territoiy 
Other Oceania 

North America 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean „ 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Cayman Islands 

Dominica^ 

Dominican Republic * 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

St. Kitts & Nevis 

St. Lucia 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Other Caribbean 

Central America 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other North America 

South America 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Other South America 

Unknown ' 



All ports 



Agana 



Atlanta 



Boston 



Chicago 



Detroit 



Honolulu 



Houston 



284356 

39,617 
10,948 
11,033 
16,430 
25,362 
94,289 
86,677 

667391 

458,120 

165,698 

29,365 

14,208 

2^89,799 

97,129 
1,298,885 
1,062,790 

20,199 

296,088 
49,348 
26,373 
12,858 

191,963 
61,397 

222,960 
12,173 
13,856 
94,206 
61,369 

530,775 
21,177 

119,053 
90,753 

131,028 

61,185 

37,188 

70,391 

220 

2,616,158 

427,995 

27,341 

882,957 

171,905 

273,399 

105,706 

20,594 

20.051 

166,050 

53,022 

460,464 

6,674 

180,530 



75 
9 
5 
2 
1 
2 

30 
26 

24,791 

3,405 

731 

19.727 

928 

209 

37 
78 
53 

5 
6 

1 
1 

5 

16 



13 

6 

41 

2 
I 
9 
4 
4 
3 
18 

279 

15 

12 

150 

19 

28 

5 

1 

1 

33 

1 

14 

4,398 



8,205 

896 

262 

784 

181 

1,498 

1,763 

2,821 

2,243 

1,821 

399 

1 

22 

40318 

1,546 

26,41 1 

11,520 

7 

6,218 

48 

223 

7 

46 

33 

3.936 

12 

12 

129 

849 

1,039 

10 

647 

49 

90 

75 

29 

139 

2 

23,663 

758 

40 

20,126 

609 

365 
87 
47 
91 

185 
1.002 

340 
13 

4,754 



7389 

1,116 

248 

710 

203 

873 

1,869 

2,570 

4,146 

3,299 

831 

1 

15 

3,818 

1,932 

767 

858 

3 

70 

31 

12 

9 

110 

121 

91 

13 

8 

73 

317 

247 

27 

46 

35 

33 

37 

12 

57 

14 

2,407 

408 

34 

709 

370 

266 

90 

17 

5 

100 

31 

370 

7 

3,710 



11375 
1.638 

422 

796 

306 

1,372 

3.178 

3.863 

10,172 

7,453 

2,669 

1 

49 

72,290 

4,474 

63,612 

2307 

8 

235 

63 

10 

17 

167 

750 

764 

13 

22 

129 

129 

1,892 

53 

590 

185 

634 

107 

67 

256 

5 

8,796 

1,683 

196 

1.958 

1.689 

905 

307 

26 

51 

895 

326 

750 

10 

11,246 



5,413 

702 

329 

503 

148 

1.105 

1,083 

1.543 

2342 

1,827 

668 

20 

27 

17,199 

8.917 

7.209 

702 

6 

90 

82 

13 

IS 

31 

43 

163 

4 

6 

170 

71 

365 

36 

64 

96 

62 

55 

30 

22 

6 

1,758 

231 

59 

526 

229 

161 

47 

25 

12 

141 

24 

287 

16 

3.540 



485 

27 
15 
21 

12 

18 

308 

84 

86,644 

50,636 

23,197 

8,643 

4,168 

2,182 

572 

1,104 

209 

4 

10 

25 

4 

4 

18 

2 

20 

2 

48 

72 

296 

10 
53 
41 
98 
26 
13 
55 
1 

2,185 

365 

29 

892 

270 

227 

56 

5 

30 

186 

35 

87 

3 

5,016 



5,217 
814 
157 
211 
126 

1,690 
857 

1362 

2,444 

1,879 

542 

3 

20 

225,602 

1,516 

162,714 

920 

1 

46 

7 

312 

1 

85 

18 

90 

1 

1 

75 

283 

60,451 

5,187 

9,068 

12,321 

14,182 

9,669 

3,099 

6,925 

1 

18,990 

898 

148 

819 

639 

11,275 

3,819 

7 

54 

497 

127 

698 

9 

4,632 



See footnotes at end of table. 



127 



TABLE 41. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED PORT OF ENTRY AND REGION 

AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



Region and country 
of citizenship 



Los Angeles 



Miami 



Newark 



New York 



Orlando 



San 
Francisco 



Washington, 
DC 



Other' 



All countries 

Europe 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former .. 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown repubUc 

Denmark 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Luxembourg 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Other repubhcs 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Croatia 

Other republics 

Unknown republic 

Other Europe 

Asia 

Bangladesh 

China' 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Arab Emirates 

Other Asia 

See footnotes at end of table. 



2,860,784 

824,577 

19,594 

12,739 

572 

3,754 

2,110 

939 

705 

12,477 

3,511 

98,084 

189,692 

2,602 

3,193 

177 

10,342 

47,963 

1,418 

42,785 

6,516 

2,575 

2,505 

1,201 

14,529 

9,793 

1,164 

3.317 

255 

9.458 

15,655 

42.561 

276.584 

2,664 

1,013 

315 

1.336 

1.426 

138,964 

1,209 

238,512 

30,201 

16,463 

33,274 

4,527 

13,588 

595,093 

1,253 
163,666 

1,081 

1,909 
46,363 

2,232 
64,097 

3,022 
36,725 

1,573 
40.799 

3.881 

1.547 

7.949 



3,905,505 

1,099,906 

29.457 

15.562 

437 

4,115 

2,222 

1,023 

870 

11,863 

15,721 

124,121 

213,679 

4,870 

2,950 

404 

12,115 

127,244 

1,030 

80,396 

9,617 

2,680 

11,358 

1,145 

8,564 

7.238 

560 

642 

124 

94.087 

20.536 

44,994 

257.516 

2.868 

1.490 

301 

1.077 

2.577 

124,962 

435 

8.681 

1.905 

11.146 

1.366 

550 
17.663 
55.673 

623 
6.771 

859 
1.251 

918 
1,545 
6,195 
1,449 

640 

386 

679 
3,926 

339 
1,962 



770306 

604,845 

5,320 

5,669 

484 

9,820 

3,421 

3,116 

3.283 

21.444 

4,709 

77,621 

84,512 

1,174 

979 

146 

5,999 

57,762 

231 

9,761 

39,521 

8,558 

10,973 

399 

3,361 

1,725 

1,159 

381 

96 

33,254 

56,951 

9,767 

151,531 

2,363 

1,132 

461 

770 

2,536 

91,891 

485 
16,034 

566 
9,172 

687 

649 
27,677 
20,369 

392 
3,133 

196 
1,020 
1,100 
1.785 
1,967 

768 

881 

447 
1.776 
1.009 

697 
1.081 



3,838,619 

2,154,413 

55,742 

59,897 

5,743 

18,444 

10,190 

4,859 

3,395 

28,400 

32,588 

220,031 

388,500 

33,592 

22,158 

5,528 

78,048 

213,102 

4,085 

88,883 

12,238 

22,256 

25,403 

10,710 

86,161 

62,148 

13,157 

10,326 

530 

135,652 

36,040 

90,743 

458,803 

10,618 

3,465 

2,468 

4,685 

11,048 

821,892 

8,939 

48,255 

8,890 

83,626 

7,539 

3,123 

152,488 

244,848 

8,870 

104,672 

7,369 

4.789 

7.776 

27.628 

14.033 

23.024 

8.347 

2.477 

6.701 

31.257 

1.731 

15,510 



1,034,994 

864,325 

4,370 

9,238 

54 

339 

179 

115 

45 

2,033 

704 

4,592 

60,932 

867 

822 

4.171 

14.898 

3.875 

1,603 

24,337 

2,965 

698 

725 

137 

1,033 

864 

49 

104 

16 

2,673 

4,226 

5.138 

712,150 

255 

65 

19 

171 

1,490 

24,157 

46 

316 

502 

1,715 
203 
117 

4,470 

4,317 
193 
249 
983 
168 
566 
282 
435 

6.097 
244 
103 
131 

1.350 
444 

1.226 



1,294,444 

466,626 

11.886 

9.678 

297 

2,285 

1,452 

403 

430 

5,873 

5.510 

70.156 

105.592 

1.149 

1.018 

83 

9.275 

12.840 

990 

22.332 

3.929 

921 

2.276 

437 

11.028 

9.506 

664 

720 

138 

5,311 

9,041 

17,277 

155,517 

1,033 

480 

112 

441 

892 

702,586 

298 

170,953 

44.201 

16.883 

13.393 

1.409 

4.098 

242.466 

458 

102.969 

371 

449 

14.907 

932 

45.546 

731 

22.638 

423 

14.294 

1.290 

407 

3.470 



641,980 

453310 

8.987 

21.893 

674 

2,427 

1,115 

1,004 

308 

3,452 

1,970 

58.123 

94.463 

2.300 

1.940 

42 

3.930 

28.704 

488 

46.338 

2.230 

1.791 

1.084 

962 

15.865 

11,387 

1,523 

2,770 

185 

9,629 

5.274 

31.582 

105.803 

2.117 

978 

484 

655 

1.242 

103,920 

770 
3.705 

355 
12.180 

945 
1.683 
2.003 
39.478 
1.149 
12.216 
1.397 
1,366 

716 
2.191 
1,309 
9,220 

417 

795 
2,590 
3,277 
2,582 
3,576 



4346,933 

1,924,847 

35,390 

24,095 

1,614 

10,903 

4,997 

3,014 

2,892 

31,127 

13,383 

214,880 

405,638 

9,953 

7,331 

9,860 

33,475 

75,921 

3,011 

115,179 

30,587 

8,748 

9,866 

2,728 

29,693 

24,448 

2,294 

2,464 

487 

49,756 

52,117 

67,742 

671,153 

6,373 

2,741 

1,223 

2,409 

4,324 

1,012,843 

1,597 

107,774 

37,664 

36.058 

11.918 

4.376 

25,018 

575,898 

2,393 
100,382 

2,296 

2,743 
11,507 

5,296 
29,082 

5,185 
11,803 

1,933 
19,618 

8.157 

3.963 

8.182 



128 



TABLE 41. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED PORT OF ENTRY AND REGION 

AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



Region and country 
of citizenship 



Los Angeles 



Miami 



Newark 



New York 



Orlando 



San 
Francisco 



Washington, 
DC 



Other' 



Africa „ ....«„..«. 

Egypt 

Ghana 

Kenya 

Morocco 

Nigeria 

South Africa 

Other Africa 

Oceania 

Australia 

New Zealand 

Pacific Island Trust Territoiy 
Other Oceania 

North America ........................ 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Cayman Islands 

Dominica ■ 

Dominican Republic ' 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

St. Kitts & Nevis 

St. Lucia 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Other Caribbean 

Central America ................. 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other North America 

South America 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

ChUe 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Other South America 

Unknown ' 



12,803 

3,021 
289 
548 
424 
956 
4,479 
3,086 

339,103 

228,530 

103,791 

42 

6,740 

256,507 

2,918 

191,474 

1,664 

14 

141 

128 

21 

42 

204 

57 

375 

31 

36 

275 

340 

60,446 

1,988 

9,794 

21,192 

22,732 

1,775 

1.468 

1,497 

5 

101,610 

15,111 

542 

50,420 

8,848 

8,010 

1,683 

59 

639 

13,805 

1,229 

1,188 

76 

17,220 



34,686 

896 
268 
505 
766 
943 
27,162 
4,146 

14,691 

11,306 

3,177 

22 

186 

949,464 

3,571 

141,632 

503,854 

2,148 

148,136 

17,791 

20,477 

4,003 

69,495 

38,826 

125,702 

471 

2,063 

49,234 

25,508 

300,401 

10,314 

68,269 

37,712 

62,706 

40,718 

29,049 

51,633 

6 

1,647,989 

283,953 

22,532 
429,050 
124,012 
199,360 

77,659 
5,759 

14,802 
121,366 

32,241 

332,115 

5,140 

33,807 



10,156 

828 

352 

621 

299 

1,016 

2,936 

4,104 

5,958 

4,374 

1,549 

15 

20 

33,195 

1,466 
16,999 
13,561 

172 
1,051 

59 

12 

347 

7,373 

136 

3,689 

24 

10 

149 

539 

1,151 

57 
155 
220 
372 
119 

56 
172 

18 

18,707 

1,163 

90 

2,335 
656 

7,507 

1,230 

143 

27 

4,514 

283 

732 

27 

5,554 



121,678 

22,423 
6,269 
2,461 

10,959 
9,223 

31,820 

38,523 

31,684 

25,309 

6,078 

17 

280 

257,559 

5,700 

61,222 

174,876 

1,869 

1,280 

13,119 

85 

2,299 

53,577 

13,154 

48,916 

213 

1,562 

34,207 

4,595 

15,736 

200 

4,758 

4,827 

2,866 

1,380 

264 

1,441 

25 

429,097 

77,766 

814 

196,558 

13,160 

21,351 

12,879 

10,605 

1,779 

4,881 

11,407 

77,385 

512 

22,296 



3,921 

477 
34 
192 
111 
257 
2,199 
651 

1,862 

1,448 
399 

15 

53,413 

483 

24,692 

13,971 

9 

9,824 

38 

1,102 

2 

48 

51 

2,600 

5 

11 

93 

188 

14,259 

24 

8,041 

33 

6,053 

37 

30 

41 



84,407 

2,807 

18 

80,143 

299 

192 

86 

66 

21 

75 

61 

609 

30 

2,909 



4,404 

459 

75 

237 

156 

378 

1,565 

1,534 

51,785 

48,109 

3,361 

13 

302 

51,067 

2,616 

41,577 

503 

5 

38 

31 

13 

12 

68 

35 

118 

II 

2 

93 

77 

6370 

170 

1,170 

3,010 

984 

263 

360 

413 

1 

8,066 

1,112 

91 

2,942 

1,518 

490 

240 

27 

65 

752 

195 

584 

50 

9,910 



20,260 

2,167 
1,042 
1,044 
501 
2,434 
1,955 
11,117 

11,258 

8,237 

2,963 

1 

57 

23308 

1,701 

13,929 

935 

9 

369 

42 

8 

3 

43 

77 

121 

7 

8 

100 

148 

6,739 

17 

1,536 

3,304 

1,497 

165 

106 

114 

4 

24,253 

3,010 

160 

14,721 

1,852 

440 

123 

60 

55 

1,030 

1,719 

1,051 

32 

5,671 



37,889 

4,144 
1,181 
2,398 
2,237 
3,597 
13,085 
11,247 

78,068 

60,487 

15,343 

859 

1,379 

1,003,468 

59,680 
545,465 
336,857 

15,939 
128,574 

17,884 
4,075 
6,093 

60,693 
8,094 

36,359 

11,366 

10,115 
9,418 

28,247 

61342 
3,082 

14,861 
7,719 

18.715 

6,755 

2,602 

7,608 

124 

243,951 

38,715 

2,576 

81,608 

17,735 

22,822 

7,395 

3,747 

2,419 

17,590 

4,341 

44,254 

749 

45,867 



' Includes People's Republic of China and Taiwan. A total of 609.234 nonimmigrant visas were issued in these two countries in fiscal year 1996: 379,355 to 
Taiwan and 229,879 to People's Republic of China. (SOURCE: U.S. Department of Slate, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Visa Office.) ' Due to misreporting, reliable 
counts by country of citizenship are not available; therefore, data were given the same disuibution as for counUy of last residence (see page 10). The number of 
nonimmigrant visas issued in fiscal year 1996 for Dominica was 1.761; the Dominican Republic. 72.054. (SOURCE: U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Consular 
Affairs, Visa Office.) ' Includes unknown port of entry. ' Due to processing errors, the number of unknown is significantly higher than in previous Kearfcoofo. 

NOTE: Includes admissions under the Visa Waiver Pilot program. See Nonimmigrant section of text. Excludes the following classes of admission processed in the 
Nonimmigrant Information System: for all countries — 133,504 parolees; 17,653 withdrawals and stowaways; and 66,966 refugees. - Represents zero. 

129 



TABLE 42. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY AGE AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996 



Region and country 
of citizenship 



All 
ages 



Under 15 
years 



15- 19 
years 



20-24 
years 



25-34 
years 



35-44 
years 



45-64 
years 



65 years 
and over 



All countries 

Europe 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Repubhc 

Unknown republic 

Denmark 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Luxembourg 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Roniania 

Soviet Union, former 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Other republics 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Croatia 

Other republics 

Unknown republic 

Other Europe 

Asia 

Bangladesh 

China' 

Cyprus 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Thailand 

Turkey 



24,842^03 

10,419,084 

207,845 

222,754 

11,923 

63,947 

31,613 

18,083 

14,251 

142,800 

90,570 

1,083,235 

2,034,764 

70,667 

48,952 

22.336 

229.029 

655,824 

15.353 

526,656 

130,485 

74,458 

75,219 

23,614 

198,941 

145,536 

26,610 

24,683 

2,112 

373,355 

274,309 

395,907 

3,375,682 

38,244 

15,069 

7.337 

15.838 

32.215 

7,685,185 

15.546 

721,778 
9.776 

154.786 

234.609 
87.643 
20,468 

261,164 

4,521,163 

22,120 

849.593 
20.999 
18,238 
95.789 
49.892 

204.998 
55.829 

101.903 
9.802 
8,512 

104.809 
64.351 



2,030,058 

796,886 

12.386 

14.099 

616 

2.743 

1.291 

785 

667 

8.792 

5,811 

80.079 

118,341 

3.446 

2.634 

2.388 

18.123 

28.672 

1.291 

28.279 

8.035 

4.454 

4.470 

1.002 

14.773 

11.269 

1.317 

2.033 

154 

20,728 

17.561 

25.387 

368.585 

1.899 

625 

415 

859 

2.292 

545322 

1.892 

48,782 

613 

10.786 

15.790 

6.667 

1.957 

23.880 

282,422 

2,150 

71.021 

4.420 

1.148 

8.751 

6,533 

15.936 

12.917 

11.197 

797 

724 

6.720 

3.090 



1,160,818 

502383 

10,275 

11.220 

714 

5.040 

2.209 

1.804 

1.027 

7.231 

4,957 

82,112 

100,250 

2,541 

3.032 

1.184 

10.480 

21,670 

851 

16,806 

6,514 

4,987 

3,292 

907 

14.630 

10.541 

1.633 

2,348 

108 

22,647 

13,891 

15.770 

136.478 

3.202 

1.141 

739 

1.322 

1.702 

275,538 

858 

19,335 

475 

6,280 

6,319 

7.174 

652 

12.664 

160.998 

1.261 

22.469 

1.803 

599 

3.605 

2.921 

7.235 

3.317 

3.543 

261 

355 

5.771 

3.715 



2,160,845 

729,563 

19.746 

16.739 

1.350 

10.430 

5,406 

2.745 

2.279 

14.398 

5.673 

80.633 

133.574 

5.278 

5.877 

2.078 

26.496 

48.642 

937 

33.033 

11,676 

7,674 

5,076 

1.712 

14.824 

10.245 

2.134 

2.307 

138 

30.333 

25,650 

36,090 

183,505 

4,318 

1.941 

820 

1.557 

3.821 

950,870 

1.535 
40.093 

1.934 
14,146 
23,604 
10,652 
862 
24.645 
695.192 

2.036 
60.928 

2.999 

1,406 
12,057 

4,573 
12,430 

5.760 

7.902 

872 

581 

11.271 

7.803 



6323,820 

2,537,236 

54.871 

54.899 

2.729 

14.752 

7.505 

4.053 

3.194 

34.189 

20,476 

246,437 

541,372 

16.368 

11.231 

4,368 

61,167 

216.992 

3.773 

142.493 

28.496 

13,842 

16,856 

5.704 

42.510 

31.234 

5.910 

4.957 

409 

107.985 

61,361 

105,839 

711.369 

8.746 

3.910 

1,599 

3.237 

8.411 

2^25,957 

3.782 

199.772 

2.622 

45.171 

74.140 

20.022 

4.124 

46.892 

1,382,358 

5.581 

231,318 

5,024 

5,117 

25,890 

11,734 

53,492 

14.607 

31.435 

2.488 

2.023 

26.176 

18.978 



5,011333 

2,119,763 

41.634 

50,272 

2,719 

12,534 

5,998 

3,943 

2.593 

27.090 

21.530 

218.744 

396.443 

14.144 

10.042 

4.679 

41.279 

132.457 

3.322 

112,235 

27,244 

14.836 

17.426 

5.064 

49,895 

36,768 

6,547 

6.078 

502 

79.054 

52.076 

73.872 

696.529 

7.703 

3.173 

1.501 

3.029 

6.940 

1398,087 

3.313 
168,401 

1,457 
34,905 
39,103 
17,257 

3.821 

52.214 

693,105 

4.060 
200.147 

3.804 

3.247 
23.141 

9.797 
52,600 
11,838 
26.544 

2.085 

1.523 
23.298 
12.500 



6,675,643 

3,095,889 

58.686 

63.790 

3.146 

15,735 

7.793 

4,200 

3,742 

44,058 

28,268 

307,263 

630,301 

22.024 

13.438 

6.270 

58.291 

175,143 

4,339 

162,769 

41.554 

21.876 

22.602 

7.014 

55.935 

41.100 

7.974 

6.185 

676 

95,971 

90.303 

114.924 

1.034.325 

10.237 

3.736 

1.882 

4.619 

7.627 

1,913,201 

3,710 
197.644 

2.233 
34,109 
61,073 
22,913 

6,152 

81,152 

1,104.515 

6.031 
221.024 

2.655 

5,164 
20,026 
12,449 
50.360 

6.550 
18.849 

2.650 

2.572 
28,298 
15.002 



1386,247 

637355 

10,247 

11,735 

649 

2,713 

1,411 

553 

749 

7.042 

3.855 

67.967 

114,482 

6,865 

2,698 

1,369 

13,190 

32,248 

840 

31,040 

6.966 

6,788 

5,497 

2.211 

6,374 

4,379 

1,095 

775 

125 

16,637 

13.465 

24.025 

244.891 

2.139 

543 

381 

1,215 

1.422 

376,201 

455 

47.750 

442 

9.389 

14.580 

2.958 

2.900 

19.717 

202.569 

1.001 

42,685 

294 

1,557 

2,319 

1,885 

12,945 

839 

2,433 

649 

734 

3,275 

3,263 



See footnotes at end of table. 



130 



TABLE 42. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY AGE AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



Region and country 
of citizenship 



All 
ages 



Under 15 
years 



15-19 
years 



20-24 
years 



25-34 
years 



35-44 
years 



45-64 
years 



65 years 
and over 



Unknown' 



United Arab Emirates 
Other Asia 



Africa 

Egypt 

Ghana 

Kenya 

Morocco 

Nigeria 

South Africa 
Other Africa . 



Oceania 

Australia 

New Zealand 

Pacific Island Trust Territory 
Other Oceania 



North America 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Cayman Islands 

Dominica' 

Dominican Republic ' ... 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

St. Kitts & Nevis 

St. Lucia 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Turks & Caicos Islands 

Other Caribbean 

Central America 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other North America 



South America 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Other South America . 

Unknown ' 



15,734 
35.683 

284356 

39,617 
10,948 
11,033 
16,430 
25,362 
94,289 
86,677 

667^91 

458,120 

165,698 

29,365 

14,208 

2,989,799 

97,129 
1,298,885 
1,062,790 

20,199 

296,088 
49,348 
26,373 
12,858 

191,963 
61,397 

222,960 
12,173 
13,856 
94,206 
8,770 
52,599 

530,775 
21,177 

119,053 
90.753 

131,028 

61,185 

37,188 

70,391 

220 

2,616,158 

427,995 

27,341 

882,957 

171,905 

273,399 

105,706 

20,594 

20,051 

166.050 

53,022 

460,464 

6,674 

180,530 



2.792 
4.337 

24,774 
3.678 
662 
935 
1,254 
2,512 
9,380 
6,353 

57,531 

38,813 

14,036 

3,402 

1,280 

311,835 

8.581 

130.878 

115,790 

1.830 

37.395 
5.650 
3.898 
1,327 

19,057 
4,616 

23,851 
1,010 
1,130 

10,514 
1.080 
4.432 

56,561 
2.850 

13.313 
8.096 

17,298 

5,407 

2,784 

6,813 

25 

287,241 

44.107 

2,754 

98,316 

19,510 

33,773 

13.563 

1.669 

2,140 

13,991 

4,277 

52,496 

645 

6,469 



1,771 
2,157 

12,688 

1,633 
492 
705 
946 
898 
4,126 
3,888 

27,893 

19,216 

5,733 

2,387 

557 

150,176 

4,343 

61,280 

54,250 

899 

15,980 

2,263 

1.659 

640 

10.361 

2,078 

11,431 

567 

555 

4,807 

649 

2,361 

30,254 

1,237 

8.046 

4,091 

7.838 

2.819 

1.722 

4.501 

49 

188,282 

28,367 
2,127 

88,313 
8,576 

16,679 
7,465 
821 
1,912 
7,474 
2,720 

23,527 
301 

3,858 



3,257 
4,332 

23,021 

3,114 
727 
2,060 
1,874 
930 
6,697 
7.619 

55,732 

38.438 

12.928 

3.241 

1.125 

224,974 

10.165 
100.764 

75,808 
1.531 

26.410 

2.938 

2.503 

943 

13,847 
2,397 

12.516 
1.027 
1.208 
5.309 
1.013 
4.166 

38,226 
2,101 
8,482 
6,016 
9,965 
4,453 
2,194 
5.015 
11 

170,753 

29,042 

1,725 

55,620 

9,953 

15,367 

8,102 

963 

1,599 

12,036 

3,068 

32,946 

332 

5,932 



4,145 
9,066 

68,009 

8,605 
2,494 
2,517 
4,613 
6,311 
21,317 
22,152 

151^31 

102,871 

37,875 

7,338 

3,247 

753,583 

32,662 

336,292 

267,368 

5,575 
82,608 
11,297 

6,291 

3,264 
48,008 
11,651 
56,799 

3,288 

4.333 
18.971 

2,517 

12.766 

117,213 

5.490 
27,861 
20,254 
27,272 
14,505 

6,853 

14.978 

48 

570,483 

88.534 

5.590 

183,965 

36,361 

62,266 

21,220 

4,409 

4,650 

39,908 

11,162 

111,115 

1,303 

17,221 



2,118 
7,809 

71,513 
8,607 
3,466 
2,177 
3,222 
7,276 
22,305 
24,460 

136,169 

92,925 

34,078 

5,903 

3,263 

683,598 

22,932 
280,705 
258351 

5,225 
64,245 
12,836 

5,457 

3,153 
45,547 
17,882 
60,571 

3,651 

3,557 
21,970 

1,919 

12,338 

121365 

4,449 
27,723 
21,700 
28,367 
15,682 

9,466 

14,178 

45 

586,229 

88.111 

6.526 

200.606 

41,172 

65.890 

22.684 

6,159 

4,201 

36,462 

11,354 

101,412 

1,652 

15,974 



1,421 
6,649 

72,687 

11,753 
2,875 
2,387 
3,926 
6,603 
25,077 
20,066 

196,968 

136,776 

50,018 

6,199 

3,975 

700,801 

17,267 
310,197 
240346 

4,464 
60,186 
12,260 

5,584 

2,930 
44,926 
17,301 
46,664 

2,273 

2,716 
26,302 

1.372 

13,368 

132,953 

4,092 
27,440 
24.638 
31.287 
15.473 
10.726 
19.297 
38 

668,113 

122,692 

6,995 

214,593 

47,492 

64,104 

26,150 

5,475 

4,654 

44,057 

15,899 

113.921 

2,081 

27,984 



230 
1,332 

11,662 

2,227 

231 

252 

595 

832 
5,387 
2,138 

41,767 

29,081 
11,030 

895 

761 

164,801 

1,179 

78,741 

50,874 

675 

9,262 

2,104 

981 

601 

10,217 

5,472 

11,128 

356 

357 

6,333 

220 

3,168 

34,003 

958 

6,188 

5,958 

9,001 

2,846 

3,443 

5.609 

4 

145,051 

27,141 

1,624 
41,541 

8.840 
15319 

6.522 

1.098 

895 

12.122 

4.542 

25.047 

360 

9,410 93,682 



' Includes People's Republic of China and Taiwan. A total of 609,234 nonimmigrant visas were issued in these two countries in fiscal year 1996: 379,355 to 
Taiwan and 229,879 to People's Republic of China (SOURCE: U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Visa Office.) ' Due to misreporting, reliable 
counts by country of citizenship are not available; therefore, data were given the same disuibution as for country of last residence (see page 10). The number of 
nonimmigrant visas issued in fiscal year 1996 for Dominica was 1 ,76 1 ; the Dominican Republic, 72,054. (SOURCE: U.S. Department of Slate, Bureau of Consular 
Affairs, Visa Office.) ' Due to processing errors, the number of unknown is significantly higher than in previous Yearbooks. 

NOTE: Includes admissions under the Visa Waiver Pilot program. See Nonimmigrant section of text. Excludes the following classes of admission processed in the 
Nonimmigrant Information System: for all countries — 133,504 parolees; 17,653 withdrawals and stowaways; and 66,966 refugees. 

131 



TABLE 43. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

AND STATE OF EXTENDED RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1996 



State of intended 
residence 



All 
classes ' 



Foreign 
govern- 
ment 
officials ' 



Temporary 

visitors 

for 

business ^ 



Temporary 

visitors 

for 

pleasure ^ 



Transit 
aliens' 



Treaty 

traders 

and 

investors ' 



Students 



Spouses 


Tempo- 


and 


rary 


children 


workers 


of 


and 


students 


trainees 



Total 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Guam 

Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands 

Unknown' 

See footnotes at end of table. 



24,842,503 

41,026 

51,710 

155,024 

17,228 

3,303,659 

224,398 

139,196 

20,319 

253,400 

4,472,099 

331,424 

1,689,768 

12,766 

489,661 
74,851 
31,351 
34,293 
40,646 

143,485 
26,825 

173,129 

467,589 

213,388 

101,708 

13,662 

66,340 

13,918 

16,286 

321,937 

34,386 

407,447 

31,596 

2,682,395 

130,631 
6,886 

167,993 
40,354 
74,404 

237,097 
26,796 

63,286 

6,531 

76,551 

705,420 

61,081 

31,654 

202,181 

240,233 

10,125 

77,765 

8,907 

856,001 

162,975 

13,590 

5,545,132 



118,157 

919 
210 
738 
124 

9,328 

511 

322 

101 

19,353 

9,166 

2,619 

2,655 

21 

2,031 

137 

53 

437 

269 

730 

71 

5,731 

1,586 

533 

158 

291 

1,365 

18 

25 

656 

48 

1,038 
336 
12,956 
461 
117 
720 
303 
112 
830 
398 

160 

3 

122 

7,572 

337 

22 

7.750 

1,200 

16 

121 

22 

653 

949 

12 

21,741 



3,770,326 

11,369 
4,269 

36,076 

4,460 

534,033 

43,620 

28,612 
7,888 

76,195 
438,139 

105,859 
37,852 

2,363 

160,765 

22,948 

8,030 

8,942 
13,225 
34,422 

3,320 

30,627 
99,924 
72,551 
31,406 

3,086 
20,627 

1,370 

3,780 
57,189 

7,841 

83,536 

6,467 

390,631 

43,827 

1,009 
56,439 

9,860 
15,724 
68.583 

4,977 

16,825 

821 

22,570 

206,679 

10,641 

2,920 

41,209 

53,599 

2,236 

21,981 

633 

8.416 

37,347 

2,965 

749,643 



19,110,004 

19,792 

43,860 

102,471 

8,040 

2.528,427 

161,980 

82.161 

8,683 

121,708 

3,885,733 

187.202 

1.632.564 

7.562 

274.970 

33,457 

14,204 

16,410 

16,763 

93,135 

19,025 

95,848 

293,441 

95,020 

54,185 

6,848 

30,934 

10,540 

8,405 

259,605 

20,759 

266,734 

20,403 

2,074,01 1 

58,910 

4,440 

76,205 

19,449 

43,299 

124,685 

16,316 

36,438 

4,402 

40,382 

397,608 

42,563 

24,966 

109,487 

150,111 

4,909 

41,471 

7,153 

836,555 

115,935 

9.757 

4.450.083 



325,538 

657 

879 

72 

9 

10.683 
100 
338 
158 
386 

40.534 

747 

3.952 

3 

392 

34 

11 

14 

22 

5.623 

289 

735 

781 

530 

32 

317 

34 

25 

4 

76 

24 

1.542 

6 

7.774 

246 

20 

120 

41 

668 

1.734 

144 

282 

3 

27 

8,610 

17 

9 

769 

4,274 

1 

44 

1 

2,354 

3,364 

286 

225,741 



138,568 

1,391 
623 
882 
175 

24,060 

594 

3.091 

398 

420 

12.369 

4.031 

2.046 

81 

5.552 

1.604 

209 

210 

1.982 

408 

62 

1.251 

1,856 

4,785 

371 

73 

766 

45 

76 

257 

206 

9,706 

116 

19,078 

3,034 
45 

4,318 
189 

1,204 

1,919 
174 

1,655 

38 

1,814 

7,860 

240 

181 

2,638 

2,931 

126 

447 

23 

2,105 

391 

84 

8,378 



426,903 

3,011 

382 

5,755 

1.950 

75.548 

6.707 

6,177 

942 

4,998 

25,469 

7,121 
6,331 
1,077 
13,190 
6,751 
4,319 
4,288 
2,235 
4,058 
1,040 

5,828 

30,864 

10,416 

5,221 

1,426 

5,627 

689 

2,012 

1,261 

2,150 

8,063 
1,192 

38,989 

4,776 

370 

11,231 
6,497 
6,172 

13,802 
2,745 

2,351 

703 

3,914 

20,609 
3,922 
1,475 
8,649 

13,447 

1,576 

5,529 

313 

216 

467 

151 

22,901 



32,485 

257 

28 

529 

142 

3,751 

877 

334 

73 

291 

1,682 

577 
272 

46 
1,483 
702 
405 
336 
242 
371 

39 

503 

1,720 

1,399 

387 

188 

462 

45 

189 

71 

136 

813 
195 

2,588 

507 

35 

1,254 
544 
516 

1,344 
115 

190 

79 

338 

1,898 

378 

26 

1.108 

530 

125 

477 

40 

10 

34 

5 

1,799 



227,440 

604 

329 
1,943 

914 

33,170 

2,551 

3,462 

409 

1,482 

20,477 

4.942 

1.092 

584 

8.354 

1.443 

551 

612 

2.013 

976 

599 

3.369 

8.004 

5,340 

1,725 

299 

1,268 

199 

385 

965 

574 

9,723 

462 

39.868 

7,340 

100 
2,779 

880 
1.152 
4.726 

394 

844 

70 

1.661 

12.939 

906 

286 
6.315 
3.543 

147 
1.070 

185 

2.977 

2,041 

167 

18,230 



132 



TABLE 43. NONIMMIGRANTS ADMITTED BY SELECTED CLASS OF ADMISSION 

AND STATE OF INTENDED RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1996— Continued 



State of intended 
residence 



International 
represen- 
tatives ' 



Represen- 
tatives of 
foreign 
information 
media ' 



Exchange 
visitors 



Spouses 

and 

children of 

exchange 

visitors 



Fian- 
ces(ees) 
of U.S. 
citizens ' 



Intra- 
company 
transferees 



Spouses 

and 
children of 

intra- 
company 
transferees 



NATO 
officials ' 



North 
American 
Free -Trade 
Agreement 
workers ' 



Unknown 



Total 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 
Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Guam 

Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands 

Unknown ' 



79^28 

62 

4 

31 

2 

644 

63 

335 

4 

15.821 

994 

114 

89 

2 

109 

16 

5 

6 

8 

29 

9 

15,382 

282 

60 

28 

I 

68 

2 

5 

28 

16 

1,281 

21 

24,516 

25 

8 
46 

4 
13 
93 
13 

14 
7 

26 

392 

13 

2 

10,401 

144 

1 

20 

3 

23 

63 

7 

8,173 



33,596 

58 

87 

261 

16 

3,693 

125 

231 

10 

2,236 

2,364 

6,133 

643 

28 

447 

55 

43 

26 

66 

116 

32 

687 

492 

233 

82 

14 

31 

23 

11 

416 

23 

421 

59 

6,615 

140 
15 
89 
30 
83 

151 
37 

303 
14 
95 

365 
87 
14 

566 

259 

5 

67 

20 

171 

121 

4 

5,183 



215,475 

1,248 

534 

2,127 

928 

22,261 

3,560 

5,184 

792 

8,933 

6,061 

3,748 
732 
678 
8,156 
3,578 
2,332 
1,496 
1,442 
1,643 
1,767 

7,018 
15,302 

5,984 

4,150 
607 

2,701 
627 
821 
419 

1,590 

6,260 

968 

26,118 

4,102 

414 

6,027 

1,285 

2,655 

9,960 

897 

1,514 

264 
2,514 
8,691 

875 
1,123 
4,610 
3,353 

521 
3,591 

344 

9 

272 

29 

12,660 



41,250 

259 

20 

455 

85 

5,868 

663 

706 

137 

455 

1,091 

629 
165 

46 
1,723 
688 
327 
219 
251 
364 

31 

2,243 

3,669 

1,218 

716 

98 

600 

56 

184 

58 

78 

1,145 
221 

3,733 

880 

42 

1,264 
169 
513 

1,962 
147 

241 

23 

554 

2.391 

205 

79 
933 
800 

73 
511 

34 

4 

30 

1 

2,193 



10,023 

51 
56 

161 

32 

1,898 

144 

132 
25 
41 

569 

184 
212 
29 
399 
99 
72 
66 
39 
60 
38 

210 

313 

332 

190 

19 

97 

43 

33 

77 

35 

341 

60 
646 
161 

18 
230 

62 
160 
229 

46 

66 
7 

84 
657 

79 

31 
309 
377 

13 
119 

10 

80 

23 

8 

551 



140,457 

376 

142 

1,119 

68 

23,027 

959 

3,955 

337 

355 

13,647 

3,555 

514 

71 

5,519 

1,416 
260 
465 

1,061 

501 

91 

1,239 

3.841 

6,720 

1.306 

44 

704 

76 

73 

239 

302 

7,658 

98 

18,616 

2,826 

73 

3,291 

308 

818 

3,023 

127 

1,151 

20 

1,012 

12,028 

231 

186 

2,076 

2.019 

122 

983 

31 

1.614 

1,084 

58 

9,022 



73305 

255 
101 
819 
66 
12,363 
562 

2,451 
189 
107 

5,852 

1,808 

345 

46 

2,970 
909 
150 
269 
598 
374 
41 

727 
1,932 
4,104 

685 
25 

312 
12 
30 

115 

169 

4,602 

81 

7,912 

1,678 

7 

2,115 

203 

545 

1,637 

71 

768 

8 

641 

6,879 

131 

115 

1,191 

1,015 

100 

566 

13 

611 
569 

23 
3,438 



10,945 

335 

17 

166 

12 

681 

151 

21 

12 

328 

664 

169 
67 

2 

106 

14 

9 
89 
54 
22 

7 

232 

159 

48 

14 

44 

52 

2 

7 

106 

11 

116 

574 
352 

98 

6 

132 

123 

10 
150 

41 

12 
1 

10 

1,866 

64 

1 

2,339 

122 

1 

5 

2 

7 

37 

11 

1,264 



34,681 

152 

141 

826 

73 

4,566 

579 

473 

68 

137 

2,763 

711 
107 
80 
1,086 
321 
135 
195 
147 
371 
309 

457 
1,566 
2,036 
427 
165 
212 
116 
103 
280 
242 

984 
210 
2.461 
822 
126 
690 
131 
382 
761 
74 

213 

36 

258 

4,250 

197 

170 

665 

1.400 

56 

309 

48 



14 
10 

1,570 



250 



1 
1 

128 



19 
4 
I 



20 
3 



1 

12 

1 

1 

21 



14 



' Excludes the following classes of admission processed in the Nonimmigranl Information System: for all countries — 133,504 parolees; 17.653 withdrawals and 
stowaways; and 66,966 refugees. ' Includes admissions under the Visa Waiver Pilot program. See Nonimmigrant section of text. ' Includes spouses and unmarried 
minor (or dependent) children. ' Includes foreign government officials and their spouses and unmarried minor (or dependent) children in UansiL ' Excludes workers 
(and their spouses and children) under the North American Free-Trade Agreement (shown separately). ' Includes minor children of fiances(ees). ' Due to 
processing errors, the number of unknown is significantly higher than in previous Yearbooks. 

NOTE: See Glossary for detailed descriptions of classes of admission. - Represents zero. 

133 



V. NATURALIZATIONS 



This section presents information on the number and characteristics of persons who 
naturalize in the United States, including naturalization rates for immigrants 
granted legal permanent residence in 1977 and 1982. 



AT aturalization refers to the conferring of U.S. 
X ▼ citizenship, by any means, upon a person after 
birth. (See Appendix 3, p. A. 3-7.) There are five ways of 
becoming a U.S. citizen: naturalization in a court 
ceremony; naturalization through an administrative 
hearing; derivation through the naturalization of parents; 
acquisition at birth abroad to citizen parents; and 
legislation conferring citizenship upon certain groups of 
persons (see Limitations of Data). As part of the 
naturalization process, applicants pledge an oath of 
allegiance to the United States, thereby renouncing 
allegiance to their former countries of nationality. 

U.S. Naturalization Program 

To naturalize, an immigrant must fulfill certain requirements 
set forth in the Immigration and Nationality Act concerning 
age, lawful admission, and residence in the United States. 
These general naturalization provisions specify that an alien 
must: be at least 18 years of age; have been lawfully 
admitted to the United States for permanent residence; and 
have resided in the country continuously for at least 5 years. 
Additional requirements include the ability to speak, read, 
and write the English language; knowledge of the U.S. 
government and U.S. history; and good moral character. In 
1997, immigrants naturalizing under the general provisions 
accounted for 96 percent of those for whom the nationality 
law provision was reported. (Provision of the law was not 
reported for 1 1 percent of naturalizations.) 

The special provisions of naturalization law exempt aliens 
from one or more of the requirements of the general 
provisions. Spouses and children of U.S. citizens and 
military classes constitute the main categories of special 
naturalization. The majority of people naturalizing as 
spouses of U.S. citizens may do so in 3 years rather than 
the 5 years prescribed under the general provisions. Of all 
new citizens in 1997 with naturalization law provision 
reported, 4 percent naturalized under the special 
provisions. Children who immigrate with their parents 
generally do not apply to naturalize, but derive U.S. 
citizenship through the naturalization of their parents. 
Children adopted by U.S. citizens are eligible for 
administrative naturalization by the INS. These children 
may be naturalized in court ceremonies prior to reaching 



age 18 — there are no residency requirements. Under 
certain conditions, aliens who served honorably during war 
time and other conflicts may naturalize without prior 
admission to permanent resident status. Also, they need 
not have resided in the United States for a particular length 
of time. Aliens with lawful permanent resident status who 
have served honorably in the Armed Forces of the United 
States also are entitled to certain exemptions from the 
general naturalization requirements. 

Every applicant for naturalization (age 18 and over) must 
file an application. Form N-400 Application for 
Naturalization. All aliens filing these applications who 
meet the preliminary documentary requirements must be 
interviewed by INS officers to determine their eligibiUty to 
naturalize. During the interview the officer discerns the 
applicant's knowledge and understanding of the English 
language, as well as of the history and government of the 
United States. Recently, applicants have been allowed to 
take standardized tests that are used to determine 
knowledge and reading and writing capabilities. Those 
applicants found qualified are scheduled for an oath 
ceremony before a judge or district director. 



More than 598,000 people were 
naturalized during 1997. 



Data Overview 

A total of 598,225 persons were naturalized in fiscal year 
1997. This number would have been much higher were it 
not for a backlog of more than one million applications 
pending a decision at the end of 1997. As a consequence, 
caution should be exercised in drawing conclusions from 
these data about recent trends in naturalization and in the 
characteristics of persons naturalizing. 

Despite the backlog, the number of naturalizations in 1997 
was the second highest in U.S. history, following the all- 
time record of 1,044,689 in 1996. Until 1994, the annual 
number of persons naturalizing had never exceeded 
400,000 except during World War II in 1944 (Chart N). 



134 



Chart N 
Persons Naturalized: Fiscal Years 1908-97 



Thousands 
1,200-1 

1,000- 

800- 

600- 




400- 



200- 



1997 



Source: 1987-97, Table 45; 1908-86, previous Yearbooks. 

The increase in naturalizations during the 1990s is 
attributable to a number of factors: 

♦ In fiscal year 1992, the INS initiated a "Green 
Card Replacement Program", which by requiring 
long-term permanent residents to replace their 
permanent resident alien cards with new, more 
counterfeit-resistant cards, led some to naturalize 
instead. 

♦ In 1994, the first of the 2.68 million illegal aliens 
who were granted legal permanent resident status 
under the provisions of the Immigration Reform 
and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 became eligible 
to naturalize. 

♦ During 1994-96, legislation was passed restricting 
public benefits for non-citizens, including 
Proposition 187 in California in 1994, and the 
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity 
Act and the Illegal Immigration Reform and 
Immigrant Responsibility Act in 1996. 

♦ In 1995, the INS implemented the Citizenship 
USA initiative, which was designed to streamline 
the naturalization process and greatly increased 
naturalizations during 1996. 



Region and country of birth (Tables 47 and 53) 
The number of persons naturalizing each year lags behind 
the number immigrating by at least five years due to the 
five-year residency requirement for naturalization for most 
legal immigrants. Until the 1970s, the majority of persons 
naturalizing were bom in Europe because country quotas in 
immigration law favored those countries. The regional 
origin of persons immigrating and naturalizing shifted from 
Europe to Asia following the elimination of the country 
quotas in amendments to the Immigration and Nationality 
Act (IN A) of 1965 and the arrival of Indochinese refugees 
in the 1970s. Asian immigrants also had historically higher 
rates of naturalization than Europeans. Between 1976 and 
1995, Asia was the leading region of birth among persons 
naturalized. 

Increases in legal immigration from North American 
countries, especially from Mexico, following the 
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, eroded 
Asia's share of naturalizations. During the 1991-97 period, 
the proportion of persons naturalizing who were born in 
Asian countries fell to 38.7 percent, while the proportion 
from North America climbed to 38.1 percent (Chart O). 
North America became the leading region of birth of 
persons naturalizing in 1996. In 1997, nearly one-half 



135 



Chart O 
Persons Naturalized by Decade and Selected Region of Birth: Fiscal Years 1961-97 



1961-70 

South America— 2.2% 1 i Other— 1.5% 



North America— 20.9% 




777777, 

Asia— 12.9% 



1971-80 

South America— 5.3% — i i Other— 2.3% 




North America— 28. 1% 



South America — 
6.5% 



1981-90 

Other— 3.1 < 




North America— 26.2% 





1991-97 


South America — 1 


1 Other— 3.9% 


7.8% 





A 


//^■B~Europe— 1 1.5% 



North America— 38.1% 



/'Asia— 38.7%% 




Source: 1997, Table 53; 1961-96, previous Yearbooks. 

(45.8 percent) of new citizens were bom in North America 
compared to 32.4 percent in Asian countries and 11.3 
percent in Europe. 

Mexico was the leading country of birth of persons 
naturalizing in 1997 with 142,569 or 23.8 percent of the 
total. Other major countries of birth for naturalizing 
citizens were Vietnam (36,178), the Philippines (30,898), 
India (21,206), the Dominican Republic (21,092), the 
People's Republic of China (20,947), and Jamaica 
(20,253). 

Immigration Reform and Control Act 

Aliens legalized under IRCA accounted for 136,482 
naturalizations, or 22.8 percent of all naturalized citizens. 



in 1997. The majority of IRCA legalized aliens who 
naturalized (59.1 percent) were born m Mexico. The total 
number of IRCA legalized aliens who had naturalized by 
the end of 1 997 stood at 43 1 ,3 1 1 , or 1 6 percent of the total 
2.68 million. 

Years in immigrant status 

The median number of years of residence in immigrant 
status (years between immigration and naturalization) was 
8 years in 1997, down from 9 years in 1996 and 1995. 
Median years of immigrant residence was 7 years for 
naturalizing citizens bom in Africa, 8 for Asians, 8 for 
Europeans, 9 for South Americans, and 8 years for North 
Americans (Table I). Median years of residence for IRCA 
legalized aliens was 7 years in 1997, the same as in 1996. 



136 



Table I 
Median Years of Residence by Year of Naturalization and Region of Birth: 

Selected Fiscal Years 1965-97 



Region of birth 



1997 



1990 



1985 



1980 



1975 



1970 



1965 



Persons naturalized 

Europe 

Asia 

Africa 

Oceania 

North America ... 
South America ... 



8 


10 


9 


10 


8 


9 


7 


8 


7 


7 


7 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


6 


6 


6 





10 


8 


8 


7 


9 


8 


8 


11 


13 


11 


9 


7 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 


10 


7 


7 



For non-IRCA immigrants, the median years of residence 
before naturalization decreased from 12 years in 1996 to 
10 years in 1997. 

Understanding the Data 
Data Collection 

The INS compiles two types of data on naturalizations: 
workload statistics and demographic statistics on the 
characteristics of persons who naturalize. Workload data 
include the number of naturalization applications received, 
the number of petitions filed, and the number of aliens 
approved for naturalization during a fiscal year. 

Demographic data come from the naturalization 
application and include: date and country of birth, gender, 
marital status, state and metropolitan area of residence, 
occupation, date of admission for permanent residence, and 
section of naturalization law. These data are obtained from 
either an automated case tracking system in operation in 
the larger INS offices, manually coded records from the 
smaller offices, and, if not otherwise available, from the 
Central Index System (CIS) of INS. 

Limitations of Data 

The 1997 naturalization data understate the demand to 
naturalize because of the backlog of applications pending a 
decision. The demographic characteristics of aliens whose 
cases were in the backlog are unknown. 

In addition, the number of cases with missing data was 
higher in 1996 and 1997 than in previous years. This is 
because the Central Index System (CIS), the source of data 



for about 100,000 cases in 1996 and about 60,000 cases in 
1997, does not maintain information on state and 
metropolitan area of intended residence, marital status, 
occupation, provision of naturalization law, country of 
former allegiance, and in some instances, gender. In 
1996, cases with information supplied by the CIS came 
from areas where INS offices use manual coding systems, 
that is primarily states and metropolitan areas with low 
concentrations of immigrants. No single demographic 
characteristic has been associated with the 1997 cases 
from the CIS. 

In general, naturalization data compiled by the INS are 
limited to permanent residents who have naturalized in 
court ceremonies or at administrative hearings. The data 
collected for the Statistical Yearbook are restricted, with 
few exceptions, to persons ages 18 and over who apply for 
naturalization (Form N-400). Included in the totals are 
small numbers of children who derive or acquire 
citizenship through their parents who request a certificate 
of citizenship (Form N-600). Parents are not required to 
apply for the certificate of citizenship, so many of the 
children who derive or acquire citizenship are not in the 
Yearbook data. Children adopted by U.S. citizens may be 
naturalized before age 18 upon parental request for a 
certificate of citizenship in behalf of an adopted child 
(Form N-643) and administration of the oath of 
allegiance. Aliens who become U.S. citizens through the 
legislative process also are not covered in data collected 
by the INS. A recent example of the legislative procedure 
occurred upon the dissolution of the Trust Territory of the 
Pacific through which the Northern Mariana Islands 
became a commonwealth of the United States, making its 
residents U.S. citizens. 



137 



Chart P 

Cumulative Naturalization Rates Through Fiscal Year 1997 of Immigrants 

Admitted in Fiscal Years 1977 and 1982 




1977 



1979 



1981 



1983 



1985 



1987 



1989 



Naturalization Rates 

While every immigrant admitted for legal permanent 
residence to the United States has the right to naturalize 
after fulfilling the requirements, large numbers never 
become citizens. The Immigration and Naturalization 
Service has been following the naturalization experiences 
of two immigration-year cohorts, those of 1977 and 1982, 
in order to calculate their naturalization rates and identify 
some of the factors associated with naturalization. The 
immigrant records for these two cohorts have been 
matched against naturalization records through 1997. 
While the naturalization patterns of the 1977 and 1982 
cohorts may not be representative of all immigrants, they 
provide some insights about the decision to become a U.S. 
citizen. 

The data are restricted to immigrants who were 16 years 
and over in the year they became legal permanent 
residents. The subsequent citizenship of children may not 
be reflected in the data because children under 16 may 
automatically derive U.S. citizenship based on the 
naturalization of their parents without having a record 
created for them at the INS. 



The two cohorts are similar in demographic composition 
by gender, age, marital status, and occupation and differ 



ion 



somewhat by country of birth and class of admission. 
Cuban-born immigrants represent a higher proportion of 
the 1977 than 1982 cohort (16 percent vs. 2 percent) while 
immigrants from Vietnam and other Southeast Asian 
countries of Laos and Cambodia represent a higher 
proportion of the 1982 compared to 1977 cohort (18 
percent vs. 1 percent). In addition, family and 
employment preference immigrants accounted for a 
greater proportion of the 1982 than the 1977 immigrant 
cohort (42 percent vs. 32 percent) because, up until 1978, 
few preference visas were available for Western 
Hemisphere immigrants. 

Data Overview 

As Chart P shows, 53 percent of the 1977 immigrant 
cohort and 48 percent of the 1982 cohort had naturalized 
by the end of 1997. The naturalization rate of the 1982 
cohort exceeded that of the 1977 cohort by an average of 
about 4 percentage points after the fourth year following 
immigration. The upper limit on the cohort naturalization 
rates is unknown because data are not collected on the 
emigration and mortality experience of legal immigrants. 
Emigration alone might reduce the size of each cohort by 
roughly 30 percent (see Emigration section). For both 
cohorts, naturalizations peaked during the 6th year 
following admission for legal permanent residence, one 



138 



Chart Q 
Years between Immigration and Naturalization of Immigrants Admitted in 

Fiscal Years 1977 and 1982 



Immigrants, 1977 
Immigrants, 1982 




year after the maximum residency requirement had been 
met (Chart Q). The annual number of naturalizations 
declined between the 7th and 14th year for 1977 
immigrants and between the 7th and 10th year for 1982 



immigrants, that is until the early 1990s. Subsequent 
increases in annual naturalizations reflect previously 
mentioned factors, including legislative efforts to restrict 
public benefits for non-citizens. 



Table J 
Naturalization Rates Through Fiscal Year 1997 of Immigrants Admitted in 

Fiscal Years 1977 and 1982 by Year 



Characteristics 



1977 



1982 



Characteristics 



1977 



1982 



Total, 16 years and over . 

Percent naturalized 

Age: 

16-34 years 

35-54 years 

55 years and over 

Gender: 

Female 

Male 

Class of admission: 
Family preference/ 
immediate relative of 
U.S. citizen 



352,070 
52.8 

57.8 
56.3 

28.1 

52.2 
53.2 



50.8 



447,766 
48.2 

53.5 
45.1 
23.8 

49.3 
47.4 



42.6 



Employment preference 


64.6 


53.0 


Refugee/Asylee 


62.6 


62.1 


Other 


47.0 


49.4 


Occupation: 






Professional, managerial, 






sales, administrative 






support 


60.4 


54.6 


Precision production, 






machine operators. 






laborers, fabricators 


53.1 


42.8 


Service workers 


52.9 
30.4 
49.2 


48 3 


Other workers 


38 4 


Nonworkers 


47.9 



139 



Table K 

Naturalization Rates Through Fiscal Year 1997 of Immigrants Admitted in 

Fiscal Year 1977 by Selected Country of Birth 



Country of birth 



Immigrants in 1977 



Number 
admitted 



Naturalizations 
through 1997 



Rate' 



Immigrants in 1977 ' 



Country of birth 



Number 
admitted 



Naturalizations 
through 1997 



Rate' 



All countries 352,070 

Cuba 57,023 

Philippines 31,686 



Mexico 
Korea ... 
India .... 



China, People's Rep. 

Canada 

United Kingdom .... 
Dominican Republic 
Jamaica 



30,967 
19,824 
15,033 

14,421 
9,000 
8,981 
8,955 
7,896 



185,742 52.8 

34,932 61.3 Portugal 6,964 2,332 33.5 

20,766 65.5 Greece 6,577 2,371 36.0 

9,982 32.2 Colombia 6,138 3,757 61.2 

12,839 64.8 Italy 5,843 1,272 21.8 

9,713 64.6 Germany 4,899 930 19.0 

9,946 69.0 Soviet Union, former 4,535 3,108 68.5 

1,969 21.9 Trinidad & Tobago 4,516 2,160 47.8 

2,343 26.1 Haiti 4,268 2,235 52.4 

3,415 38.1 Guyana 4,115 2,576 62.6 

4,104 52.0 Ecuador 4,063 1,918 47.2 



Ages 16 and over. ^ Naturalizations through 1997 divided by the number of immigrants admitted. 



The cumulative naturalization rates through 1997 by 
selected characteristics at the time of immigration for 
each cohort are displayed in Table J. The very low 
naturalization rates for older immigrants are probably 
due to mortality and a limited English fluency, which 
makes it difficult to pass the some of the examinations 
for naturalization. In general, younger immigrants may 
be more likely to naturalize than older immigrants 
because of stronger ties to the U.S. through experiences 
in school, the workplace, and with friends. Young 
immigrants may naturalize sooner than older immigrants 
in order to take advantage of the right of citizenship to 
sponsor family members, especially spouses, for 
immigration. 

Refugees and asylees tend to have higher naturalization 
rates than other categories of immigrants because of 
weakened or severed ties to their country of origin. 
Employment preference immigrants, probably because of 
higher levels of education and income, are more likely to 
naturalize than family preference immigrants or immediate 
relatives of U.S. citizens. 

Region and country of birth are also associated with 
differences in naturalization rates. Immigrants from 
distant regions, such as Asia and Africa, or from countries 
with large numbers of refugees, including Eastern Europe 
and Southeast Asia, have tended to have higher 



naturalization rates than immigrants from either Western 
Europe or with adjacent borders (Canada and Mexico). 
Tables K and L display the 20 countries that were the 
largest sources of immigrants aged 16 or older in the 1977 
and 1982 cohorts, respectively, with the corresponding 
numbers who have naturalized through 1997 and their 
naturalization rates. 

For the 1977 cohort (Table K), naturalization rates range 
from a high of 69.0 percent for immigrants from the 
People's Republic of China to a low of 19.0 percent for 
German immigrants. For the 1982 cohort (Table L), all of 
the countries with above average naturalization rates are 
Asian, except for the former Soviet Union and Guyana. 
Among 1982 immigrants, naturalization rates are highest 
for the Taiwanese (73.7 percent) and lowest for Germans 
(12.2 percent). 

Limitations of Linked-Records 
Method 

This analysis is based on a match between immigrant and 
subsequent naturalization records for individuals who 
became legal immigrants in 1977 and 1982. Errors in 
either record may prevent a successful match, so some 
people who did naturalize may be classified as not having 
done so. Record errors may also result in false matches, 
and efforts have been made to eliminate them. 



140 



Table L 

Naturalization Rates Through Fiscal Year 1997 of Immigrants Admitted in 

Fiscal Year 1982 by Selected Country of Birth 



Country of birth 



Immigrants in 1982 



Number 
admitted 



Naturalizations 
through 1997 



Rate' 



Immigrants in 1982 



Country of birth 



Number 
admitted 



Naturalizations 
through 1997 



Rate 



All countries 



447,766 



Vietnam 49,721 

Mexico 41,929 

Philippines 36,015 

China, People's Rep. 23,409 

Korea 



Laos 

India 

Jamaica 

Dominican Republic 
Soviet Union, former 



23,000 

22,480 
17,902 
13,213 
12,951 
11,837 



215,963 

35,331 

9,051 

23,565 

13,470 

9,794 

9,998 
8,890 
5,366 
3,989 
8,291 



48.2 

71.1 
21.6 
65.4 
57.5 
42.6 

44.5 
49.7 
40.6 
30.8 
70.0 



United Kingdom 

Iran 

Cambodia 

Canada 

Taiwan 

Cuba 

Haiti 

Guyana 

Colombia 

Germany 



11,325 
9,231 
8,921 
7,787 
7,304 

6,955 
6,904 
6,800 
6,637 
5,707 



2,248 
5,742 
4,737 
1,226 
5,383 

3,103 
3,082 
4,224 
3,200 
696 



19.8 
62.2 
53.1 
15.7 
73.7 

44.6 
44.6 
62.1 
48.2 
12.2 



Ages 16 and over. Naturalizations through 1997 divided by the number of immigrants admitted. 



141 



TABLE 44. PETITIONS FOR NATURALIZATIONS FILED, PERSONS NATURALIZED, 

AND PETITIONS FOR NATURALIZATIONS DENIED 

FISCAL YEARS 1907-97 



Year 



Petitions filed ' 



Persons naturalized 



Total 



Civilian 



Military 



Not reported 



Petitions denied 



1907-!>7 

1907-10 
1911-20 
1921-30 
1931-40 
1941-50 
1951-60 

1961-70 

1961 .... 

1962 .... 

1963 .... 

1964 .... 

1965 .... 

1966 .... 

1967 .... 

1968 .... 

1969 .... 

1970 .... 



1971-80 .... 

1971 

1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 

1976 

1976, TQ . 

1977 

1978 

1979 

1980 



1981-90 

1981 .... 
1982 

1983 .... 

1984 .... 

1985 .... 



1986 
1987 , 
1988 
1989 
1990 



1991-97 

1991 .... 

1992 .... 

1993 .... 

1994 .... 

1995 .... 



1996 
1997 



18,575,044 

164,036 
1,381,384 
1,884,277 
1,637,113 
1,938,066 
1,230,483 

1,142,985 

138,718 
129,682 
121,170 
113,218 
106,813 

104,853 
108,369 
103,085 
102,317 
114,760 

1,556,307 

109,897 
121,883 
126,929 
136,175 
149,399 

157,932 
41,220 
186,354 
168,854 
165,434 
192,230 

2,375,727 
171,073 
201,507 
187,719 
286.440 
305,981 

290,732 
232,988 
237,752 
227.692 
233,843 

5,264,666 

206,668 
342,269 
522,298 
543.353 
959,963 

1,277,403 
1,412,712 



15,936,733 

111,738 
1,128,972 
1,773,185 
1,518,464 
1,987,028 
1,189,946 

1,120,263 

132,450 
127,307 
124,178 
112,234 
104,299 

103.059 
104,902 
102.726 
98.709 
110.399 

1,464,772 

108.407 
116.215 
120.740 
131.655 
141.537 

142,504 
48,218 
159,873 
173,535 
164,150 
157,938 

2,214,265 

166,317 
173,688 
178,948 
197,023 
244,717 

280,623 
227,008 
242.063 
233.777 
270.101 

3,428,100 

308.058 
240,252 
314,681 
434,107 
488,088 

1,044,689 
598,225 



14,997,551 

111,738 
884,672 
1,716,979 
1,498,573 
1,837,229 
1,148,241 

1,084,195 

130,731 
124,972 
121.618 
109.629 
101.214 

100.498 

102.211 

100.288 

93.251 

99,783 

1397,846 

98,858 
107,740 
112,944 
124,807 
135,323 

136,873 
46,705 
154,568 
168,409 
158,276 
153,343 

2,155,519 

162,227 
170,071 
175,678 
192,113 
238,394 

275,352 
224,100 
239,541 
231,198 
246,845 

3,162,559 

299,373 
222,519 
303,211 
402.050 
474.169 

926.481 
534,756 



669,642 



244,300 
56,206 
19.891 

149.799 
41.705 

36,068 

1.719 
2,335 
2,560 
2,605 
3,085 

2,561 
2,691 
2,438 
5,458 
10,616 

66,926 

9,549 
8,475 
7,796 
6.848 
6,214 

5,631 
1,513 
5,305 
5,126 
5,874 
4,595 

28317 
4,090 
3,617 
3,196 
2,965 
3,266 

2,901 
2,402 
2,296 
1,954 
1,630 

26,430 

1,804 
5,702 
7,069 
6.194 
3,862 

1,261 
538 



269,540 



30,429 



74 
1,945 
3,057 

2,370 

506 

226 

625 

21,626 

239,111 

6,881 
12,031 

4,401 
25,863 
10,057 

1 16,947 
62,931 



1,051,492 

17.702 
118.725 
165.493 
45.792 
64.814 
27.569 

23457 
3,175 
3.557 
2.436 
2.309 
2.059 

2.029 
2.008 
1.962 
2.043 
1.979 

27,978 

2,028 
1.837 
1,708 
2,210 
2,300 

2,231 
568 
2,845 
3,894 
3,987 
4,370 

47,224 
4,316 
3,994 
3,160 

3,373 
3,610 

5,980 
6,771 
4,304 
5,200 
6,516 

512,638 

6,268 
19,293 
39,931 
40,561 
46,067 

229,842 
130,676 



' The numbers of petitions filed do not include estimated applications where the fee has not been receipted or the application has not been entered into automated 
processing systems. 

NOTE: The 'Not reported' category may be large for certain characteristics in 1996 and 1997. For explanation, see Naturalizations section of text on Limitations of 
Data. See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 

- Represents zero. 



142 



TABLE 45. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY GENERAL AND SPECIAL NATURALIZATION PROVISIONS 

FISCAL YEARS 1992-97 



Naturalization provisions 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Total naturalized 

General provisions 

Special provisions ». 

Persons married to U.S. citizens 

Children, including adopted children, of U.S. 

citizen parents 

Military 

Persons who served in the U.S. anned forces 
for 3 years 

Persons who served in the U.S. armed 
forces during World War I, World War II. 
the Korean hostilities, the Vietnam 
hostilities, or the Grenada campaign 

Lodge Act enhstees 

Persons honorably discharged from the U.S. 
armed forces following service in 
World War 11 

Natives of the Philippines who served 
honorably in the Philippine Army during 

World War 11 

Other 

Surviving spouses of citizen members of the 
armed forces of the United States 

Employees of nonprofit organizations engaged 
in disseminating information promoting 
U.S. interests 

Persons who served on certain U.S. vessels 

Nationals but not citizens of the United Slates . 

Philippine citizens who entered the United 
States prior to May 1, 1934. and have 
resided continuously in the United States .... 

Certain inhabitants of the Virgin Islands who 
renounced Danish citizenship 

Former U.S. citizens who lost citizenship by 
inarriage 

Former U.S. citizens who lost citizenship by 
entering the armed forces of foreign 
countries during World War II 

Persons naturalized under private law 

Persons who perform ministerial or priestly 
fiinctions of a religious order in the 
United States 



Not reported 



240^2 

197,559 

30,662 

19,151 

5,743 
5,702 

989 



429 



4,282 
66 



14 
21 



12,031 



314,681 

273.857 

36,423 

22,392 

6,759 
7,069 

1,019 



500 



5,546 
203 

10 



1 
21 
14 



10 



38 



105 



4,401 



434,107 

367,960 

40,284 

25.935 

7.848 
6,194 

1.090 



232 
3 



4,868 
307 



2 
29 
18 



64 



176 

25,863 



488,088 

445,835 

32,196 

23,384 

4,709 
3,862 

926 



377 
1 



2,558 
241 



1 
20 
18 



21 



169 
10,057 



1,044,689 

890.949 

36,793 

28,501 

6,948 
1,261 

633 



427 
1 



200 
83 



21 
20 



22 



15 



116,947 



598,225 

513,139 

22,155 
21139 

439 
538 

358 



159 



19 
39 



1 

10 
3 



20 



62,931 



NOTE: The 'Not reported' category may be large for certain characteristics in 1996 and 1997. For explanation, see Naturalizations section of text on Limitations of 
Data. 

- Represents zero. 



143 



TABLE 46. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY SELECTED NATURALIZATION PROVISIONS 
AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Region and country 
of former allegiance 



Total 
naturalized 



General 
provisions 



Special provisions 



Total 



Married to 
U.S. citizens 



Children of 
U.S. parents 



Military 



Other 



All countries 

Europe 

Albania 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former .. 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Armenia 

Belarus 

Moldova 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Other republics 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Croatia 

Macedonia 

Other 

Unknown 

Other Europe 

Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Republic 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

PhiHppines 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Thailand 

Turkey 

Vietnam 

Yemen 

Other Asia 

See footnotes at end of table. 



598^25 

66,850 

399 

288 

372 

16 

33 

323 

1,281 

2,588 

1.645 

488 

1,682 

2,282 

200 

577 

7,553 

3,769 

2,573 

25,965 

4,151 

856 

711 

7,172 

6,415 

329 

476 

5,855 

671 

201 

290 

11,418 

1,640 

222 

214 

56 

1,148 

968 

169,658 

1,724 

3,122 

484 

4,936 

17,552 

18,812 

462 

10,553 

1,519 

1,918 

1,108 

1,795 

13,996 

234 

8,092 

2,796 

377 

6,430 

28,075 

486 

1,370 

6,489 

1,808 

1,341 

33,349 

443 

387 



513,139 

62,188 

359 

227 

323 

15 

28 

280 

1,121 

2,403 

1,545 

431 

1,598 

2,168 

190 

542 

7,059 

3,676 

2,162 

24,369 

4,120 

847 

705 

6,816 

6,305 

323 

461 

4,792 

621 

185 

264 

10,627 

1,447 

194 

202 

48 

1,003 

871 

154,638 

1,589 

2,965 

438 

4,629 

16,106 

17,581 

435 

9,999 

1,369 

1,605 

1,043 

1,290 

13.434 

143 

7,458 

2,345 

316 

5,869 

23,264 

451 

1,161 

5.974 

1.663 

1,1.34 

31,688 

392 

297 



22,155 

2,921 

21 
53 
39 
1 
5 
33 

125 

158 
81 
49 
73 

102 
10 
27 

387 
80 

197 

519 

28 

7 

6 

242 

95 

5 

14 

122 
40 
13 
23 

661 

177 

28 

11 

8 

130 
86 

11,061 

51 
132 

43 

48 
1,257 
1,004 

24 
347 
134 
270 

51 
477 
468 

78 

67 
421 

50 

431 

4.359 

28 
190 
450 

84 
195 
286 

38 

78 



21,139 

2,773 
20 
51 
38 
I 
5 
32 

125 

147 
81 
49 
65 

102 
10 
27 

385 
78 

185 

454 

28 

5 

3 

207 

77 

5 

14 

115 
38 
13 
23 

625 

174 

26 

II 

8 

129 
83 

10,528 

49 
127 

43 

46 

1.201 

971 

21 
341 
134 
265 

48 
472 
443 

75 

62 
415 

49 

418 

4.059 

27 
188 
445 

79 
193 
249 

33 

75 



439 
106 

1 



9 
58 

2 
2 

33 
17 



26 
1 
1 



2 
227 



1 
53 
28 

3 

4 

5 
3 
5 
18 
3 
3 
5 
1 

12 

29 

1 

4 
4 

32 
5 
3 



538 
33 

1 



I 

295 

1 
1 

1 
1 

4 



2 
1 

1 

270 



39 

9 

1 



1 
11 



144 



TABLE 46. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY SELECTED NATURALIZATION PROVISIONS 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Region and country 
of former allegiance 



Total 
naturalized 



General 
provisions 



Special provisions 



Total 



Married to 
U.S. citizens 



Children of 
U.S. parents 



Military 



Other 



Not 
reported 



Africa „„.....„,...„ 

Cape Verde 

Egypt 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Ghana 

Kenya 

Liberia 

Morocco 

Nigeria 

Senegal 

Sierra Leone 

South Africa 

Sudan 

Other Africa 

Oceania „.„.,.,„.„ 

Australia 

Fiji 

New Zealand 

Tonga 

Other Oceania 

North America ..._.......»....». 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Republic 

Grenada 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

St. Kitts & Nevis 

St. Lucia 

St. Vincent & Grenadines 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Central America 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

South America 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Other South America 

Stateless 

Not reported 



13,862 

347 

2.021 

399 

1,813 

1,418 

350 

657 

483 

3,292 

211 

396 

559 

216 

1,700 

1,655 

275 
628 
214 
330 
208 

257,027 

6,094 

134,494 

78^63 

714 

303 

1,873 

12,860 

535 

19,450 

1,136 

15,667 

18,746 

540 

429 

737 

5,273 

38,176 

1,280 

1,488 

17,818 

7,522 

4,022 

4,178 

1,868 

39,475 

2,112 

980 

2,192 

1,291 

10,911 

7,129 

7,008 

5,898 

599 

1,156 

199 

293 

49,405 



11,708 

316 

1,689 

331 

1,524 

1,261 

318 

576 

315 

2,674 

190 

333 

485 

147 

1,399 

1,511 

250 
590 
189 
315 
167 

245,401 

5,583 

127,401 

75,856 

693 

291 

1,818 

12,717 

495 

18,804 

1,106 

15,161 

18,210 

512 

392 

707 

4,950 

36,561 

1,239 

1,412 

17,195 

7,266 

3,801 

3,959 

1,689 

37,078 

2,000 

914 

1,953 

1,212 

10,151 

6,899 

6,796 

5,403 

575 

1,006 

169 

283 

332 



1,505 

28 

303 

17 

66 

85 

25 

44 

158 

383 

20 

31 

62 

55 

228 

94 

22 

25 

22 

4 

21 

4,562 

369 

1,565 

1,757 

12 

12 

46 

80 

21 

543 

24 

201 

467 

19 

28 

25 

279 

871 

25 

63 

239 

104 

161 

128 

151 

1,975 

92 

47 
191 

61 
640 
193 
193 
405 

18 
110 

25 

3 
34 



1,467 

27 

302 

16 

63 

81 

24 

39 

158 

375 

20 

29 

59 

52 

222 

88 

22 
25 
20 

4 
17 

4,323 

336 

1,483 

1,691 

11 

12 

40 

76 

21 

533 

24 

192 

448 

19 

26 

25 

264 

813 

24 

62 

216 

99 

150 

124 

138 

1,929 

90 

44 
190 

59 
624 
188 
190 
394 

18 
108 

24 

3 
28 



18 

1 
1 
I 

3 



69 

11 

29 

8 

1 

3 
I 

I 

1 



1 
21 



11 

7 
1 

2 

14 

2 
1 
1 



19 

4 
5 
2 
2 

1 

5 



I 

157 
22 
49 
52 



16 



12 
34 

1 
1 

10 
5 
4 
3 

10 

31 



2 
12 
5 
3 
7 



3 
13 

4 
6 



1 



649 

3 

29 

1 

123 
72 

7 

37 

10 

235 

1 
32 
12 
14 
73 

50 

3 
13 

3 
11 
20 

7,064 

142 

5,528 

650 

9 

9 

63 

19 

103 

6 

305 

69 

9 

9 

5 

44 

744 

16 

13 

384 

152 

60 

91 

28 

422 

20 
19 
48 
18 
120 
37 
19 
90 

6 
40 

5 

7 
49,039 



NOTE: The 'Not reported' category may be large for certain characteristics. For explanation, see Naturalizations section of text on Limitations of Data. 
- Represents zero. 



145 



TABLE 47. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY REGION AND COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 

FISCAL YEARS 1988-97 



Region and country of 
former allegiance 



1988 



1989 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



All countries 

Europe 

Albania 

Andorra 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former .. 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Germany, East 

Germany, West 

Greece 

Himgary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Liechtenstein 

Lithuania 

Luxembourg 

Malta 

Monaco 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

San Marino 

Soviet Union, former 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Georgia 

Kazakhstan 

Kyrgyzstan 

Moldova 

Russia 

Tajikistan 

Turkmenistan 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Bosnia-Herzegovina ... 

Croatia 

Macedonia 

Slovenia 

Unknown 

See footnotes at end of table. 



242,063 

36,351 

104 

I 

93 

143 

123 

775 

X 

X 

775 

108 

15 

77 

950 

2,363 

244 

2,119 

2,239 

683 

22 

827 

2,852 

46 

1 

53 

10 

76 

1 

449 

90 

4,145 

3,236 

2,060 

2 

5,304 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

5,304 

616 

107 

254 

7,042 

1,484 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1,484 



233,777 

35,079 

143 

II 

71 

131 

137 

949 

X 

X 

949 

109 

19 

61 

940 

2,196 

190 

2,006 

2,768 

580 

26 

787 

2,492 

45 

2 

68 

8 

59 

3 

410 

79 

5,002 

2,698 

2,190 

3 

3,020 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

3,020 

490 

129 

246 

7,865 

1,342 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1,342 



270,101 

37,264 

91 

6 

83 

147 

160 

916 

X 

X 

916 

153 

17 

83 

1,091 

2,395 

187 

2,208 

2,270 

743 

25 

742 

2,453 

55 

1 

71 

6 

72 

2 

410 

115 

5,972 

2,491 

2,914 

4 

2,847 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

2,847 

535 

166 

302 

8.286 

1,640 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1,640 



308,058 

37,808 

80 

3 

113 

170 

225 

843 

X 

X 

843 

177 

33 

85 

1,413 

2,197 

X 

X 

1,820 

814 

23 

746 

1,976 

52 

3 

71 

16 

77 

4 

508 

141 

5,493 

1,848 

3,471 

6 

2,822 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

2,822 

436 

208 

357 

9,935 

1,642 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1,642 



240,252 

30,781 

109 

5 

100 

151 

171 

676 

X 

X 

676 

126 

14 

91 

1,124 

1,901 

X 

X 

1,769 

608 

37 

738 

1,618 

53 

2 

50 

9 

56 

5 

378 

107 

4,681 

1,884 

2,457 

3 

1,648 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

1,648 

462 

186 

310 

7,800 

1,452 



X 

1,452 



314,681 

42,162 

98 
3 
199 
193 
165 
629 



629 

162 

20 

103 

1,239 

2,554 

X 

X 

2,135 

624 

34 

1,079 

3,495 

64 

1 

85 

12 

74 

3 

471 

129 

5,551 

3,978 

2,699 

8 

2,763 

136 

1 
1 

2 

7 

315 

2 

173 

2,126 

615 

228 

393 

10,158 

2,198 

4 

33 

X 

3 

2,158 



434,107 

63,915 

125 

6 

281 

264 

250 

691 

6 

2 

683 

255 

62 

135 

1,758 

3,706 

X 

X 

2,596 

824 

38 

1,659 

5,703 

131 

5 

119 

11 

98 

9 

714 

176 

7,036 

6,106 

3,454 

4 

7,249 

645 

4 

7 

8 

35 

61 

1,240 

1 

1 

793 

10 

4.444 

812 

317 

574 

15,753 

2,994 

25 

144 

52 

8 

2,765 



488,088 

69,005 

122 

5 

284 

223 

240 

613 

5 

21 

587 

225 

63 

137 

1,518 

3,546 

X 

X 

2.114 

844 

38 

1,928 

4,032 

193 

4 

230 

8 

44 

4 

727 

160 

8,030 

3,925 

3,316 

8 

17,406 

1,240 

32 

198 

24 

27 

2 

190 

3,846 

1 

2 

3,375 

62 

8,407 

778 

261 

451 

14,823 

2,705 

31 

242 

197 

23 

2,212 



1,044,689 

108,966 

340 

5 

347 

291 

493 

613 

11 

44 

558 

279 

78 

152 

2,257 

4,245 

X 

X 

2,769 

936 

37 

3,010 

4,617 

371 

2 

273 

19 

113 

3 

1,015 

217 

13,200 

6,173 

4,451 

36,265 

3,524 

233 

657 

94 

32 

3 

520 

8.909 

43 

8 

8,392 

436 

13,414 

1,714 

335 

505 

20,052 

3,789 

47 

496 

329 

22 

2,895 



146 



TABLE 47. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY REC.ION AND COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 

FISCAL YEARS 1988-97— Continued 



Region and country of 
former allegiance 



1988 



1989 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Asia ~ 

Afghanistan 

Bahrain 

Bangladesh 

Bhutan 

Brunei 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Republic 

Cyprus 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Maldives 

Nepal 

Oman 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Qatar 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Arab Emirates 

Vietnam 

Yemen 

Africa 

Algeria 

Angola 

Benin 

Botswana 

Burkina Faso 

Burundi 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde 

Central African Republic 

Chad 

Comoros 

Congo, Democratic Republic ' 

Congo, RepubUc ' 

Cote d'lvoire 

Djibouti 

Egypt 

Equatorial Guinea 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Gabon 

See foouiotes at end of table. 



114,849 

905 

9 

419 

5 

532 

3,132 

10,509 

203 
9,983 

384 
4,970 
1,397 
1,815 
1,041 
1,834 
13,012 

119 
3,480 
2,262 

323 

31 

4 

2,174 

24,580 

6 

30 

137 

230 

1,097 

5,716 

1,308 

1,242 

7 

21,636 

317 

7,122 

66 

49 

6 

1 
2 
5 
25 
204 
5 
3 

45 
4 
10 
4 
1,960 
5 
X 
1,142 



111,488 

1,051 

5 

496 

6 

4 

479 

3,234 

11,664 

229 
9,833 

352 
4,485 
1,387 
1,703 

727 

1,872 

11,301 

198 
3,463 
2,213 

362 

35 

3 

2,443 

24,802 

7 

48 

141 

298 

908 

5,779 

1,167 

1,085 

2 

19,357 

349 

7,209 

86 

48 

3 



4 

33 

223 

11 

3 

36 

4 

10 

3 

1,638 

1 

X 

1,246 

6 



124,675 

1,141 

12 

696 

3 

7 

597 

3,525 

13,563 

185 

11,499 

350 

5,973 

1,855 

2,102 

736 

2,408 

10,500 

247 

3,329 

2,797 

426 

37 

2 

3,330 

25,936 

7 

63 

162 

335 

1,146 

6,895 

1,145 

1,214 

6 

22,027 

419 

8,770 
95 
58 



2 
3 

38 

272 

2 

2 

1 

55 
9 

14 

1 

1,945 

2 

X 

1,370 

1 



160,367 

1,392 

11 

874 

8 

12 

827 

4,786 

16,783 

167 

12,961 

603 

10,411 

1,641 

2,789 

938 

2,493 

12,266 

301 

3,594 

3,570 

477 

1 

56 

2 

3,670 

33,714 

6 

91 

180 

464 

1,480 

10,876 

1,379 

1,349 

2 

29,603 

590 

10,230 

111 

30 

10 

1 

2 

1 

48 

178 

6 

5 

2 

50 

4 

27 

6 

2,644 

4 

X 

1,453 

4 



121,965 

1,047 

12 

967 

6 

12 

454 

2,749 

13,488 

170 

13,413 

309 

6,778 

1,196 

2,376 

621 

2,297 

8,297 

299 

3,052 

2,881 

388 

1 

43 

7 

3,350 

28,579 

15 

94 

145 

333 

1,200 

6,408 

962 

1,124 

7 

18,357 

528 

9,628 

102 

35 

13 

4 

1 

10 

75 

226 

2 

2 

48 
2 

36 
7 
2,098 
2 
X 
1,505 
2 



145318 

1,539 

9 

942 

9 

8 

469 

3,149 

16,851 

188 

16,506 

408 

7,029 

1,522 

2,609 

989 

2,678 

9,611 

344 

3,945 

3,402 

418 

1 

48 

5 

3,777 

33,864 

17 

139 

157 

445 

1,312 

7,384 

1,169 

1,229 

13 

22,427 

706 

11,293 

120 

50 

10 

1 

5 

4 

105 

216 

4 

1 

2 

68 

4 

47 

7 

2,045 

1 

1,858 



186,963 

1,994 

18 

1,175 

10 

11 

757 

4,125 

22,018 

194 

20,886 

532 

10,054 

1,772 

3,241 

1,427 

2,901 

12,313 

426 

5,638 

4,611 

513 

62 

5 

4,539 

40,711 

14 

132 

209 

531 

1,809 

10,757 

1,645 

1,655 

20 

29,486 

772 

15,719 

173 

77 

6 

3 

7 

10 

171 

518 

1 

2 

2 

86 

5 

76 

5 

2,616 

2 

69 

2,359 



182,570 

2,014 

17 

1,291 

7 

7 

780 

3,605 

20,917 

170 

18,331 

569 

11,659 

1,609 

2,821 

1,415 

2,556 

15,445 

350 

4,064 

4,159 

424 

3 

55 

5 

4,883 

37,645 

n 

112 

170 

514 

1,776 

10,007 

1,675 

1,559 

11 

31,432 

502 

17,702 

177 

38 

13 

2 

7 

6 

164 

524 

6 

1 

81 

I 

77 

8 

2,625 

2 

371 

2,558 

1 



267334 

3,936 

21 

5,120 

6 

1,085 

5,077 

30,656 

212 

28,932 

883 

17,326 

2,157 

3,577 

1,803 

3,019 

24,693 

380 

7,845 

4,978 

580 



1 

10,278 

45,210 

17 

119 

237 

756 

2,148 

12,431 

3,399 

1,885 

10 

47,625 

844 

21,842 

208 
57 
9 
5 
9 
4 

195 

457 
4 
2 
1 

131 
4 

139 

5 

3,486 

5 

541 

2,563 

2 



169,658 

1,724 

6 

3,122 

3 

3 

484 

4,936 

17,552 

106 

18,812 

462 

10,553 

1,519 

1,918 

1,108 

1,795 

13,996 

234 

8,092 

2,796 

377 

2 

52 

1 

6,430 

28,075 

7 

79 

123 

486 

1,370 

6,489 

1,808 

1,341 

5 

33,349 

443 

13,862 

138 

55 

4 

5 

6 

5 

129 

347 

1 

2 

60 

2 

89 

3 

2,021 

2 

399 

1,813 

1 



147 



TABLE 47. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY REGION AND COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 

FISCAL YEARS 1988-97— Continued 



Region and country of 
fonner allegiance 



1988 



1989 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



Gambia, The 

Ghana 

Guinea 

Guinea-Bissau 

Kenya 

Lesotho 

Liberia 

Libya 

Madagascar 

Malawi 

Mali 

Mauritania 

Mauritius 

Morocco 

Mozambique 

Namibia 

Niger 

Nigeria 

Rwanda 

Sao Tome & Principe 

Senegal 

Seychelles 

Sierra Leone 

Somalia 

South Africa 

Sudan 

Swaziland 

Tanzania 

Togo 

Tunisia 

Uganda 

Zambia 

Zimbabwe 

Oceania 

Australia 

Fiji 

Kiribati 

Marshall Islands 

Micronesia, Federated States 

Nauru 

New Zealand 

Palau 

Papua New Guinea 

Samoa ' 

Solomon Islands 

Tonga 

Tuvalu 

Vanuatu 

North America 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Republic 

See footnotes at end of table. 



5 

617 

5 

186 

224 

84 

15 

9 

4 

1 

15 

274 

21 

10 

393 

274 

5 

3 

26 

10 

117 

54 

746 

49 

6 

131 

11 

44 

120 

60 

67 

779 

76 

353 

3 



2 

106 

20 

2 

121 

5 

88 

3 



65,096 

2,947 
22,085 
31,110 

550 

87 

896 

11.228 

421 

5,842 



4 

567 

5 

202 
2 
229 
103 
7 
9 
4 
5 

14 

243 

20 

11 

21 

932 

1 

32 

15 
137 

64 
687 

55 

5 

170 

7 

67 
122 

56 

58 

868 

81 

436 

2 

1 

124 

21 

3 

130 

1 

68 

1 

61,954 

2,922 
18,520 
31,952 

490 
98 

931 
9,514 

436 
6,454 



13 

714 

15 

1 

257 

2 

283 

137 

6 

13 

5 

3 

15 

320 

30 

6 

22 

1,415 



58 
20 

163 
90 

697 

68 

3 

187 
13 
55 

124 
65 
92 

881 

110 

374 

1 

2 

2 

116 

23 

2 
150 

I 
100 



64,730 

3,644 

17,564 

34320 

339 

161 

970 

10.291 

399 

5,984 



19 

669 

7 

2 

273 

3 

356 

135 

10 

11 

2 

2 

11 

365 

24 

6 

1,775 
5 

30 

20 

194 

107 

883 

79 

8 

221 

16 

78 

131 

111 

91 

1,045 

116 

477 
I 



1 

191 

23 

3 

142 

2 

89 



71,838 

4,441 

22,066 

34,025 

478 

151 

852 

9,554 

550 

6,368 



II 

692 

7 

3 

237 

3 

359 

147 

15 

16 

5 

2 

13 

396 

22 

7 

1,862 

5 

1 

41 

18 

187 

122 

650 

99 

4 

180 

13 

68 

118 

65 

90 

891 

140 
398 



2 

I 

110 

22 

1 

102 

27 

86 



56,710 

4,067 

12,880 

32,272 

376 

156 

669 

7,763 

308 

8,464 



18 

722 

3 

1 

307 

3 

455 

142 

3 

13 
9 
3 

14 

482 

24 

11 

2,378 
3 

61 

17 

292 

130 

830 

129 

4 

187 

17 

123 

133 

113 

118 

1,208 

230 

544 

1 

3 

4 

178 

15 

3 

131 

II 

86 

2 



87,751 

6,662 
23,630 
47,061 

439 
140 
855 

15,109 
285 

12,274 



26 

1,110 

10 

6 

360 

5 

613 

158 

13 

32 

8 

1 

22 

687 

43 

12 

6 

3,772 

3 

2 

74 

10 

396 

154 

1,145 

138 

2 

227 

23 

85 

172 

110 

106 

1,726 

321 

705 

1 

2 

3 

3 

262 

11 

2 

189 

46 

170 

1 

10 

130,108 

9,128 

46.186 

57,915 

617 

234 

1.423 

16.421 

381 

11.415 



51 

1,557 

8 

3 

335 

6 

728 

196 

12 

29 

17 

6 

18 

653 

22 

8 

211 

4,541 

9 

2 

75 

15 

561 

211 

798 

177 

5 

192 

19 

112 

239 

108 

116 

1,731 

271 

698 
1 
4 
5 
3 

254 
2 
7 

207 
54 

213 

1 

II 

172,513 

7,949 

79,614 

55,515 

658 

208 

1,270 

17,481 

399 

9,934 



82 

2,519 

23 

6 

458 

4 

794 

137 

21 

23 

23 

3 

42 

937 

18 

6 

263 

5,368 

8 

226 

12 

566 

248 

956 

258 

3 

347 

29 

129 

267 

113 

126 

2,676 

454 

1,336 

3 

5 

5 

336 
2 
9 

267 

2 

257 



454,954 

10,324 

217,418 

155,178 

899 

628 

2.394 

62.168 

694 

27.293 



148 



TABLE 47. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY REGION AND COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 

FISCAL YEARS 1988-97— Continued 



Region and country of 
former allegiance 



1988 



1989 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Grenada 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

St. Kitts-Nevis 

St. Lucia 

St. Vincent & the Grenadines 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Central America ..».„.».„....„.. 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 



South America 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Suriname 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 



U.S. possessions 

Stateless or not reported 



360 

2.350 

6.441 

325 

281 

250 

2.079 

8,954 

426 

726 

2.291 

1.358 

1.229 

1.363 

1.561 

16,972 

1.288 

448 

553 

1,040 

5.021 

1,774 

3,535 

137 

2,255 

25 

406 

490 

31 

863 



413 

3,692 

6,455 

405 

249 

263 

2.552 

8,560 

373 

676 

2.001 

1.281 

1,167 

1.271 

1.791 

16,503 

1.246 

424 

564 

887 

4.736 

1,671 

3,654 

127 

2,267 

25 

381 

521 

52 

624 



459 

5,009 

6,762 

265 

204 

279 

3,198 

9,202 

389 

589 

2.410 

1.280 

1.259 

1.520 

1.755 

19,548 

1,466 

471 

674 

866 

5,540 

2,052 

4,306 

127 

2,829 

33 

433 

751 

52 

14,181 



456 

4,436 

6,838 

699 

286 

324 

3,033 

11306 

499 

792 

3,653 

1,832 

1,306 

1,732 

1.492 

20,928 

1.850 

519 

683 

920 

5.513 

2.215 

4.826 

133 

3,088 

34 

400 

747 

53 

5,789 



421 

3,993 

6,765 

307 

194 

254 

2,602 

7,491 

304 

547 

2,056 

1,086 

1,248 

1.100 

1.150 

19,982 

1.237 

423 

679 

713 

6,439 

1,857 

4.717 

138 

2,633 

45 

371 

730 

51 

244 



552 

5,202 

7,976 

372 

236 

328 

3,293 

10398 

381 

672 

3,057 

1.682 

1.713 

1.500 

1.393 

26,464 

1.611 

571 

922 

862 

9,976 

2,703 

4,938 

175 

3,274 

26 

577 

829 

76 

409 



815 

7,997 

12,216 

581 

377 

533 

4,905 

16,879 

636 

1,063 

5,675 

3,001 

2,208 

2,442 

1.854 

34,988 

2,488 
810 

1,342 

1,203 
12,299 

3.951 

6,043 
257 

4,740 

90 

670 

1,095 

105 
583 



722 

7,876 

11,049 

557 

400 

477 

4,484 

29,435 

856 

1,145 

13.667 

5.159 

2.943 

3,930 

1.735 

38,058 

2.700 
1.168 
1.278 
1.295 
12.724 
5,366 
5,584 

236 

5,889 

58 

678 
1.082 

134 

6.375 



1,564 

24,556 

24,270 

539 

549 

1,005 

8.619 
72,034 

1,765 

2.603 
33,240 
13,383 

7,494 
10,614 

2,935 

79,918 

5,040 

2,066 

2,685 

2,775 

26,115 

14,206 

10,618 

420 

12.073 

129 

1.289 

2.502 

136 

108,863 



1,136 

15,667 

18,746 

540 

429 

737 

5,273 

38,176 

1,280 

1,488 

17,818 

7.522 

4,022 

4,178 

1,868 

39,475 

2.112 
980 

2,192 

1,291 
10,911 

7,129 

7,008 
140 

5,898 

59 

599 

1.156 

35 
49,698 



' In May 1997 Zaire was formally recognized as the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the Congo is referred to by its conventional name, the Republic of the 
Congo. ' In August 1997 Western Samoa was formally recognized as Samoa (Independent State). 

NOTE: The 'Stateless or not reported' category may be large for certain characteristics in 1996 and 1997. For explanation, see Naturalizations section of text on 
Limitations of Data. 

- Represents zero. X Not applicable. 



149 



TABLE 48. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY SEX, MARITAL STATUS, AND MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP 

FISCAL YEARS 1992-97 



Sex, marital status, and occupation 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Total , 

Male , 

Single , 

Married 

Widowed 

Divorced 

Separated 

Unknown 

Female , 

Single 

Married 

Widowed 

Divorced 

Separated 

Unknown 

Not reported 

Major occupation group: 

Professional, technical, and kindred workers 
Managers and administrators (except farm) . 

Sales workers 

Clerical 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and laborers 

Farming, forestry, and fishing workers 

Service workers 

Homemakers, children, and others with 
no occupation reported 



240,252 

120,430 

31,596 

75,328 

1,391 

8,251 

236 

3,628 

114,273 

25,029 

72,841 

4,498 

8,153 

250 

3,502 

5,549 



23,456 
13,659 
10,437 
29,759 
11,211 
20,602 
1,316 
21,889 

107,923 



314,681 

155,910 

40,667 

102,320 

2,109 

10,511 

171 

132 

157,980 

34,279 

103,094 

7,817 

12,501 

138 

151 

791 



27,954 
24,047 
15,379 
34,926 
15,353 
27,893 
1,735 
27,749 

139,645 



434,107 

205,671 

51,822 

130,586 

2,346 

13,617 

136 

7,164 

221367 

46,115 

138,276 

10,858 

17,544 

147 

8,427 

7,069 



37,415 
27,949 
17,537 
42,216 
18,467 
48,835 
2,277 
35,114 

204,297 



488,088 

230,754 

56,388 

154,808 

3,025 

14,989 

146 

1,398 

253,698 

52,613 

160,816 

16,736 

21,703 

237 

1,593 

3,636 



42,337 
36,177 
22,261 
55,704 
23,677 
67,327 
2,927 
47,618 

190,060 



1,044,689 



65,315 



505,309 



598,225 



457,273 


257,587 


95,692 


58,362 


305,398 


173,683 


5,867 


3,156 


25,213 


12,732 


262 


124 


24,841 


9,530 


522,101 


303,497 


105,353 


66,901 


307,329 


179,593 


38,507 


21,821 


47,370 


24,905 


547 


319 


22,995 


9,958 



37,141 



60,597 


37,137 


51,878 


31,078 


37,936 


25,907 


10,737 


53,604 


46,848 


30,176 


26,673 


79,936 


6,578 


5,158 


98,133 


71,387 



263,842 



NOTE: The 'Unknown' and 'Not reported' categories may be large for certain characteristics in 1996 and 1997. 
on Limitations of Data. 



For explanation, see Naturalizations section of text 



150 



TABLE 49. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY STATE OF RESmENCE 
FISCAL YEARS 1988-97 



State of residence 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 


1994 


1995 


1996 


1997 


Total „ 


242,063 


233,777 


270,101 


308,058 


240^52 


314,681 


434,107 


488,088 


1,044,689 


598,225 


Alabama 


646 


653 


590 


798 


598 


719 


954 


860 


1,002 


644 


Alaska 


622 


490 


607 


463 


793 


530 


648 


675 


4 


757 


Arizona 


2,136 


2,562 


2,152 


2,090 


3,037 


2,548 


3,894 


4,059 


6,838 


3,767 


Arkansas 


417 


374 


388 


413 


380 


405 


615 


163 


6 


809 


California 


65,397 


50,286 


61,736 


125,661 


52,411 


68,100 


118,567 


171,285 


378,014 


187,432 


Colorado 


2,252 


2,535 


1,414 


2,004 


1,402 


2,732 


3,171 


3,753 


5,168 


3,560 


Connecticut 


3,209 


3,938 


3,895 


4,221 


5,070 


6,125 


5.460 


6,409 


8,122 


8,452 


Delaware 


347 


365 


301 


310 


289 


423 


695 


600 


650 


464 




696 


832 


613 


569 


786 


773 


1,091 


1,496 


1,920 


1,098 


Rorida 


15,589 


14,216 


22,978 


23,281 


21,129 


26,628 


35,186 


31,372 


123,368 


28,768 


Georgia 


2,104 


3.235 


2,952 


3.414 


2,299 


4.185 


5,437 


5,418 


6,603 


5,958 


Hawaii 


3,763 


6,426 


5,077 


3.955 


4,475 


4,960 


4,659 


5,174 


6,090 


3,994 


Idaho 


230 


122 


481 


247 


208 


255 


299 


336 


2 


769 


Illinois 


6,330 


13,761 


19,868 


11,637 


10.891 


17,394 


17,946 


20,694 


48,746 


28.096 


Indiana 


1,148 


806 


1,085 


1,014 


1,323 


1,395 


1,738 


1.430 


678 


2.388 


Iowa 


454 


655 


609 


489 


374 


578 


837 


970 


5 


244 


Kansas 


1,360 


1,119 


899 


681 


911 


1,085 


1,059 


1,131 


7 


1,733 


Kentucky 


438 


572 


514 


338 


567 


534 


775 


677 


10 


1,074 


Louisiana 


2,115 


1,847 


1,882 


1.145 


1,709 


2,016 


1,667 


2,714 


3,247 


2,415 


Maine 


214 


377 


342 


280 


400 


584 


473 


639 


41 


343 


Maryland 


3,578 


3,884 


5,114 


3.663 


4,620 


9,864 


9,572 


11,251 


1,259 


3,691 


Massachusetts 


4,640 


5,928 


5,923 


4.810 


7,381 


6,574 


14,739 


11,803 


14,762 


8,158 


Michigan 


3,764 


2,588 


5,295 


4,282 


2,616 


6,091 


7,798 


8,170 


12,658 


5,766 


Minnesota 


1,107 


2,045 


2,126 


1,862 


1,850 


1,921 


2,528 


760 


6 


3,296 


Mississippi 


259 


423 


301 


300 


315 


426 


385 


393 


410 


442 


Missouri 


1,226 


1,370 


1,267 


890 


1,453 


1,379 


1,236 


1,440 


14 


2,226 


Montana 


127 


45 


197 


87 


127 


165 


81 


117 


1 


165 


Nebraska 


403 


402 


376 


339 


432 


4,411 


4,147 


2,999 


4 


259 


Nevada 


1,228 


1,382 


1,209 


1,026 


1,533 


1,518 


1,937 


2,894 


24 


7,963 


New Hampshire 


253 


399 


300 


303 


357 


387 


926 


559 


489 


430 




23,728 


15,859 


17,969 


15,052 


16,598 


18,495 


24,587 


28.770 


44,351 


32,406 


New Mexico 


930 

38,457 

1,609 

212 

2,853 


924 

41,922 

1,644 

186 

2,651 


820 

44,619 

1,362 

132 

3,037 


386 

44,808 

1,856 

163 

3.184 


495 

43,447 

2,172 

119 

2,669 


665 

55,519 

2,397 

159 

3,382 


697 

67,282 

2,089 

137 

4,432 


643 

68,61 1 

2,073 

192 

3,263 


5 

169,428 

11 

5,106 


511 


New York 


95.595 


North Carolina 


2,873 


North Dakota 


188 


Ohio 


4,447 


Oklahoma 


1,793 


1,300 


1,167 


1.458 


876 


1,092 


1,286 


1,806 


8 


1,168 


Oregon 


1,566 


1,985 


1,736 


1.867 


1,994 


2,146 


2,475 


1,810 


23 


1,464 


Pennsylvania 


5,900 


5,606 


4,218 


4,323 


3,839 


7,236 


9,644 


9,665 


9,652 


7,327 


Rhode Island 


1,219 

1,112 

96 

1,004 


1,025 

1,028 

144 

1,015 


1,970 

761 

87 

1,002 


927 

713 

117 

1,043 


1,043 

670 

62 

979 


1,720 

675 

85 

1.039 


2,302 

1,387 

114 

1,364 


1,535 

1,032 
103 
634 


2 

713 

1 
14 


2,951 


South Carolina 


1,086 




173 


Tennessee 


1,275 


Texas 


18.625 


17,372 


24,529 


16,266 


17,631 


26,403 


25,148 


32,209 


57,970 


39,172 


Utah 


1.152 


787 


866 


585 


649 


950 


1,163 


1,417 


22 


2,850 


Vermont 


233 


115 


175 


200 


219 


221 


369 


523 


9 


321 


Virginia 


5,000 


6,799 


5,606 


5,353 


4,662 


7,141 


7,103 


10,542 


13,724 


6,803 


Washington 


4,915 


4.485 


3,519 


3,289 


4.307 


5.741 


6,878 


11,063 


12.228 


14,668 


West Virginia 


267 


199 


176 


261 


137 


205 


229 


318 


3 


218 


Wisconsin 


1,406 


940 


477 


1,499 


681 


6 


17 


874 


5 


1,371 


Wyoming 


119 


84 


72 


57 


50 


43 


86 


127 


127 


145 


U.S. territories and 






















possessions 






















Guam 


1,297 


1,469 


1.146 


1,318 


987 


1.131 


1,445 


1,464 


1 


1,458 


Northern Mariana Is 


- 


- 


- 


17 


24 


32 


37 


53 


- 


46 


Puerto Rico 


1,705 
738 


1.061 
1,433 


1.054 
180 


853 
1,449 


1.947 
538 


1,852 
752 


1,484 
1,113 


4 
1,204 


3 
2 


368 


Virgin Islands 


914 


Unknown 


75 


107 


2,930 


442 


3,721 


889 


22,719 


7,9! 2 


111,133 


63,266 



NOTE: The 'Unknown' category may be large for certain characteristics in 1996 and 1997. For explanation, see Naturalizations section of text on Limitations of 
Data. 

- Represents zero. 

151 



TABLE 50. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 

AND STATE OF RESIDENCE 
FISCAL YEAR 1997 



State of residence 



All 
countries 



China, 
People's Rep, 



Colombia 



Cuba 



Dominican 
Republic 



El 
Salvador 



Guatemala 



Haiti 



India 



Total 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 
Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

U.S. territories and 
possessions 

Guam 

No. Mariana Islands 

Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands 

Unknown 



598^25 

644 

757 

3,767 

809 

187,432 

3,560 

8,452 

464 

1,098 

28,768 

5,958 
3,994 

769 

28,096 

2,388 

244 
1,733 
1,074 
2,415 

343 

3,691 
8,158 
5,766 
3,296 

442 
2,226 

165 

259 
7,963 

430 

32,406 
511 

95,595 
2,873 
188 
4,447 
1,168 
1,464 
7,327 
2,951 

1,086 

173 

1,275 

39,172 

2,850 

321 

6,803 

14,668 

218 

1,371 

145 



1,458 

46 

368 

914 

63,266 



17,552 

23 
II 

48 

14 

7,452 

83 

152 
12 
32 

104 

105 

260 

14 

542 

74 

6 

26 

33 

34 

21 

122 

470 

155 

73 

15 

88 

6 

1 

124 

17 

433 

6 

4,824 

51 

3 

186 

18 

57 

257 

46 

23 

1 

26 

458 

60 

14 

179 

541 

12 

26 

6 



35 
3 
3 

167 



10,911 

2 
13 
21 

7 

862 

30 

333 

9 

22 

1,792 

173 
10 

2 

262 

19 

1 
15 

9 
35 

3 

50 
168 

25 
18 
12 
12 
3 

74 
14 

2,248 

2 

3,259 

75 

33 

14 

5 

119 

193 

61 
1 

17 
518 

52 

2 

111 

45 
1 

9 
I 



4 
19 

126 



12,860 

1 
6 
6 

3 

924 

8 

38 

1 

6 

9,114 

53 

3 

1 

141 

11 

1 

3 

6 

105 

15 
35 
25 
8 
3 
10 



237 

1,124 

7 

539 

18 
I 

20 
4 
2 

33 

10 



5 
155 

4 

2 

22 

22 



52 
3 

64 



19,450 

1 
34 

5 

1 
46 

6 
177 

6 

41 

705 

43 
9 
1 

47 
3 

2 

5 

24 

2 

45 

405 

16 

8 

6 

6 



21 
15 

2,403 

2 

14,304 

19 

1 

17 
1 

107 
406 



72 
10 

45 
4 
1 
3 
1 



223 
55 



17,818 

2 

10 

60 

43 

10,162 

29 

51 

3 

206 

253 

64 

13 

10 

169 

24 

3 

27 

13 

34 
2 

242 

108 

14 

21 

2 

15 



421 
3 

669 

9 

1,640 

43 
1 
20 
4 
17 
23 
24 

10 

2 

12 

2,320 

74 

1 

407 

119 



7,522 

7 

6 
34 

4 

4,184 

22 

55 

3 

26 

250 

29 

10 

8 

548 

19 
7 
7 
5 

63 
2 

70 
76 
10 
3 
3 
13 

6 

127 

276 

9 

763 

16 

1 

20 

8 

18 

18 

117 

7 

1 

9 

330 

61 

68 

43 

4 
1 



15,667 

1 

3 

1 

71 

1 

478 

15 

19 

4,571 

70 
3 

98 
7 

1 
6 

7 

43 

971 

10 

1 

10 



13 
9 

1,902 

1 

6,707 

18 

6 
1 

157 

57 



5 
25 
5 
1 
28 
8 
2 



1 
1 

403 



154 



3 
8 

321 



18,812 

62 
4 
70 
36 
3,664 
58 

439 
54 
16 

253 

545 

10 

5 

1,951 

203 

5 

78 

83 

146 

13 

262 

321 

421 

120 

62 

141 

4 

6 

99 

29 

2,950 

11 

2,497 

307 
11 

446 
69 
34 

664 
37 

93 

3 

91 

1,238 

33 

12 

423 

311 

40 

75 

13 



1 
11 

280 



See footnotes at end of table. 



152 



TABLE 50. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGLVNCE 

AND STATE OF RESIDENCE 
FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



















United 






State of residence 


Jamaica 


Korea 


Laos 


Mexico 


Philippines 


Poland 


Russia 


Kingdom 


Vietnam 


Other 


Total 


18,746 


13,996 


8,092 


134,494 


28,075 


7,553 


7,172 


11,418 


33349 


204,185 


Alabama 


7 


54 


6 


44 


31 


1 


4 


26 


82 


261 


Alaska 


5 


80 


19 


112 


220 


15 


14 


21 


17 


169 


Arizona 


5 


38 


8 


2,541 


100 


25 


15 


67 


99 


575 


Arkansas 


. 


12 


58 


277 


34 


2 


. 


34 


98 


177 


California 


242 


5,009 


3,694 


73,815 


13,404 


268 


1,395 


3,606 


15,848 


36,117 


Colorado 


10 


123 


122 


1,425 


102 


48 


89 


100 


306 


939 


Connecticut 


1,547 


81 


57 


103 


156 


622 


176 


331 


226 


3,357 


Delaware 


37 


24 


3 


41 


31 


8 


2 


32 


7 


168 


District of Columbia 


68 


2 


- 


18 


21 


5 


3 


22 


32 


544 


Florida 


2,568 


85 


37 


629 


293 


54 


52 


374 


231 


7,282 


Georgia 


237 


366 


93 


803 


143 


16 


42 


173 


472 


2,376 


Hawaii 


13 


390 


81 


91 


1,941 


1 


2 


154 


362 


633 


Idaho 


3 


13 


8 


402 


22 


7 


- 


32 


34 


204 


Illinois 


149 


676 


139 


11,760 


1,101 


3,074 


332 


332 


528 


6,028 


Indiana 


26 


51 


6 


689 


89 


36 


3 


83 


147 


854 


Iowa 


1 


2 


21 


80 


7 


- 


- 


4 


49 


54 


Kansas 


9 


42 


92 


653 


41 


2 


4 


37 


248 


404 


Kentucky 


12 


58 


15 


86 


77 


2 


44 


47 


125 


415 


Louisiana 


16 


23 


21 


92 


62 


6 


7 


59 


738 


915 


Maine 


3 


7 


1 


6 


16 


15 


18 


30 


30 


173 




306 


173 


3 


61 


162 


27 


190 


105 


206 


1,454 


Massachusetts 


172 


93 


53 


55 


103 


124 


178 


328 


642 


3,749 


Michigan 


66 


115 


163 


496 


189 


186 


48 


106 


277 


3,379 


Minnesota 


10 


38 


643 


241 


97 


24 


138 


71 


500 


1,215 


Mississippi 


2 


7 


- 


26 


40 


2 


1 


27 


106 


123 


Missouri 


14 


58 


18 


223 


117 


33 


172 


77 


293 


883 


Montana 


- 


7 


1 


16 


13 


1 


- 


16 


1 


97 


Nebraska 


- 


4 


7 


140 


8 


2 


- 


12 


19 


44 


Nevada 


8 


177 


29 


4,142 


710 


32 


1 


108 


203 


1,333 


New Hampshire 


3 


6 


9 


11 


16 


5 


8 


34 


28 


219 


New Jersey 


1,771 


853 


12 


425 


1,773 


969 


394 


572 


445 


12,994 




2 

10,598 

29 

3 
69 


7 

2,063 

153 

8 

153 


5 

67 

109 

1 

76 


300 

1,056 

251 

13 

155 


9 

1,506 

140 

15 

196 


4 

1,118 

37 

100 


2,657 

8 

6 

270 


16 

1,786 

148 

14 
199 


39 
876 
296 

16 
266 


72 


New York 


38,814 




1,094 


North Dakota 


87 


Ohio 


2,130 


Oklahoma 


2 


28 


20 


364 


35 


6 


2 


40 


218 


283 


Oregon 


I 


55 


80 


420 


54 


7 


45 


38 


221 


374 


Pennsylvania 


361 


386 


72 


127 


206 


147 


247 


244 


822 


3,236 


Rhode Island 


17 
12 

5 


22 

65 

4 
97 


136 

8 

2 

94 


30 

71 

14 

139 


52 

106 
11 

42 


46 

12 
7 
9 


17 

1 

8 

It 


46 

99 

3 

59 


33 

55 

16 

119 


1,647 




429 


South Dakota 


98 


Tennessee 


487 


Texas 


143 


444 


176 


22,372 


756 


85 


95 


468 


2,985 


6,038 


Utah 


_ 


36 


144 


843 


70 


10 




73 


322 


972 


Vermont 


1 


6 


5 


9 


7 


7 


- 


34 


21 


196 


Virginia 


86 


515 


37 


195 


713 


17 


9 


199 


812 


2,707 


Washington 


24 


1,003 


636 


2,669 


1,374 


114 


345 


570 


2,378 


4,248 




2 


5 


1 


2 


27 


- 


3 


17 


6 


88 


Wisconsin 


7 


30 


443 


246 


36 


35 


1 


45 


37 


349 


Wyoming 


- 


1 


- 


61 


10 


- 


1 


13 


I 


34 


U.S. territories and 






















possessions 






















Guam 


4 


132 


1 


7 


1,152 




- 


28 


21 


69 


No. Mariana Islands 


- 


1 


- 


- 


37 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 




1 
7 


1 


- 


7 


2 
1 


- 


- 


2 
111 


- 


52 


Virgin Islands 


717 


Unknown 


62 


114 


560 


5,640 


399 


180 


114 


146 


1,390 


52,824 



NOTE: The 'Unknown' category may be large for certain characteristics. For explanation, see Naturalizations section of text on Limitations of Data. 
- Represents zero. 



153 



TABLE 51. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGLVNCE 
AND SELECTED METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA OF RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Metropolitan statistical area ' 



AU 
countries 



China, 
People's 
Republic 



Colom- 
bia 



Cuba 



Domi- 
nican 
Rep. 



El 
Salvador 



Guate- 
mala 



Haiti 



India 



Total 

New York, NY 

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA 

Chicago, IL 

Miami, FL 

Houston, TX 

San Francisco, CA 

Orange County, CA 

Oakland, CA 

Riverside-San Bernardino, CA 

Newark, NJ 

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA 

San Diego, CA 

San Jose, CA 

Bergen-Passaic, NJ 

Washington, DC-MD-VA 

Nassau-Suffolk, NY 

Boston-Lawrence-Lowell-Brockton, MA 

Philadelphia, PA-NJ 

Jersey City, NJ 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Las Vegas, NV 

Fresno, CA 

Atlanta, GA 

Dallas, TX 

Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ 

Detroit, Ml 

Sacramento, CA 

Honolulu, HI 

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk-Danbury, CT 
Hartford, CT 

Ventura, CA 

San Antonio, TX 

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI 

Providence-Warwick-Pawtucket, RI 

Bakersfield, CA 

Phoenix-Mesa, AZ , 

Denver, CO 

Modesto, CA 

Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT 

Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 

Visalia-Tulare-Porterville, CA 

Reno, NV 

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 

Merced, CA 

Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH 

New Orleans, LA 

Austin-San Marcos, TX 

Stockton-Lodi, CA 

Monmouth-Ocean, NJ 

Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, VA 

Other MSA 

Non-MSA 

Unknown 

See footnotes at end of table. 



598^25 

85,022 
83,482 
27,452 
19.231 
17,559 
14,952 
14,662 
12,183 
10,640 
9,898 

9,280 
8,900 
8,777 
7,707 
7,700 
7,075 
6,792 
6,202 
6,051 
5,822 

5,306 
5,143 
4,819 
4,575 
4,264 
4,102 
3,494 
3,368 
3,358 
3,332 

3,254 
2,937 
2,878 
2,864 
2,431 
2,431 
2,330 
2,234 
2,117 
2,013 

1,908 
1,892 
1,850 
1,838 
1,834 
1,673 
1,536 
1,490 
1,488 
1,483 

57,656 

24,732 

62,208 



17,552 

4,531 

1,858 

532 

37 

295 

3,244 

147 

1,183 

47 

86 

480 

90 

349 

73 

220 

182 

449 

226 

36 

38 

72 

49 

86 

63 

105 

85 

174 

250 

54 

36 

22 
20 
63 
46 
8 

35 
65 
16 
46 
14 

16 

47 

4 
67 
22 
32 
42 
50 
35 

1,255 

413 

157 



10,911 

2,860 

455 

253 

1,186 

366 

56 

112 

30 

60 

745 

34 

37 

24 

730 

127 

343 

149 

87 

480 

417 

60 

8 

154 

35 
157 

10 

11 

9 

206 

81 

14 

36 

14 

193 

6 
18 
18 

3 
38 
18 

10 
3 

13 
28 
15 
2 
52 
26 

817 

195 

110 



12,860 

491 

676 

138 

8,426 

97 

32 

59 

20 

82 

253 

11 

4 

9 

107 

24 

38 

32 

27 

679 

265 

232 

3 

50 

22 

45 

5 

4 

2 

19 

9 

7 
12 
7 
10 
5 
6 
4 
2 
3 
5 

5 
4 



7 
90 

4 

I 
16 

6 

521 

234 

50 



19,450 

13,759 

23 

46 

510 

41 

3 

5 

3 

334 

2 

4 

1 

921 

103 

478 

386 

88 

771 

117 

20 

35 

4 

246 

1 

9 
80 
39 

1 

7 

8 

405 

4 
3 
1 
7 
3 



11 
14 

3 

19 
17 

598 

244 
75 



17,818 

890 
7,452 
165 
171 
1,897 
896 
292 
395 
366 
223 

59 

61 

140 

134 

826 

722 

99 

20 

233 

42 

272 
84 
53 

205 
37 
5 
54 
10 
31 
9 

64 
30 
18 
23 
79 
54 
19 
22 
49 
26 

18 
128 

6 
15 

5 

30 
36 
10 
15 

3 

599 
364 
362 



7,522 

607 
3,218 
539 
182 
195 
212 
157 

85 
222 

84 

20 
32 
27 
42 
152 
133 
71 
12 
80 
39 

73 
25 
23 
54 
23 

2 
12 

6 
39 

5 

48 
19 
3 
116 
27 
28 
19 
II 
46 
17 

11 

51 

3 

5 

14 

60 

11 

4 

8 

4 

344 

161 

141 



15,667 

6,001 

33 

97 

2,717 

11 

15 

1 

7 

6 

1,470 

2 
5 

51 

55 

655 

955 

165 

80 

1,356 

10 

65 

4 

34 

4 



418 

22 

3 
1 
55 
1 
3 
1 



2 
6 
1 

131 
16 

801 

110 

290 



18,812 

1,844 
868 

1,927 
49 
671 
190 
290 
634 
136 
458 

255 
66 
431 
487 
419 
415 
258 
564 
491 
81 

56 
221 
410 
192 
959 
310 
129 
9 
157 
192 

60 
57 
90 
37 
97 
54 
34 
107 
21 
66 

25 

35 
4 

87 
167 

52 
106 

56 
141 

71 

3,245 
820 

211 



154 



TABLE 51. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGUNCE 

AND SELECTED METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA OF RESIDENCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Metropolitan statistical area ' 



Jamaica 



Korea 



Laos 



Mexico 



Philip- 
pines 



Poland 



Russia 



United 
Kingdom 



Vietnam 



Other 



ToUl 



New York. NY 

Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA . 

Chicago, IL 

Miami, FL 

Houston, TX 

San Francisco, CA 

Orange County, CA 

Oakland. CA 

Riverside-San Bernardino, CA 
Newark, NJ 



Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA 

San Diego. CA 

San Jose. CA 

Bergen-Passaic. NJ 

Washington, DC-MD-VA 

Nassau-Suffolk. NY 

Boston-Lawrence-Lowell-Brockton, 

Philadelphia. PA-NJ 

Jersey City. NJ 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 



MA 



Las Vegas. NV 

Fresno, CA 

Atlanta. GA 

Dallas. TX 

Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ 

Detroit, MI 

Sacramento, CA 

Honolulu, HI 

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk-Danbury, CT 
Hartford, CT 



Ventura, CA 

San Antonio, TX 

Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI 

Providence- Warwick-Pawtucket, RI . 

Bakersfield, CA 

Phoenix-Mesa, AZ 

Denver, CO 

Modesto, CA 

Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT 

Fort Worth- Arlington, TX 



Visalia-Tulare-Porterville, CA 

Reno, NV 

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 

Merced, CA 

Cleveland-Lorain-Elyria, OH 

New Orleans, LA 

Austin-San Marcos, TX 

Stocklon-Lodi, CA 

Monmouth-Ocean, NJ 

Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, VA 

Other MSA 

Non-MSA 

Unknown 



18,746 

9,677 

165 

146 

969 

92 

9 

6 

16 

16 

809 

20 

12 

5 

521 

304 

732 

135 

368 

48 

1,440 

7 

1 

218 

19 

168 

52 

5 

13 

429 

977 

3 
9 
15 

2 
5 
5 



35 
5 
9 

71 
35 

974 

142 

49 



13,996 

1,826 

3,124 

670 

15 

147 

256 

580 

254 

149 

96 

648 

67 

176 

494 

449 

163 

80 

369 

56 

27 

141 
16 

265 

100 
94 
74 
77 

383 
21 
36 

49 
38 
35 
18 
31 
21 
89 
7 

28 
19 

3 
31 

1 

5 
40 

7 
31 

1 
25 
55 

1,923 

606 

80 



8,092 

1 

90 

119 

14 

41 

60 

129 

356 

47 

2 

504 

184 

38 

3 

26 

4 

34 

55 



27 

1.116 

80 

44 

81 

406 
80 

25 
23 

3 

614 

136 

3 

6 

96 

118 

117 

72 

201 

2 

471 
7 
1 
2 

131 
1 
1 

1,627 
338 
553 



134,494 

950 

31,943 

11,416 

250 

7,696 

1,747 

5,335 

2,447 

6,954 

61 

473 

4,825 

1,853 

128 

149 

41 

47 

68 

50 

92 

2,572 

2,727 

497 

2,246 

65 

213 

753 

50 

60 

13 

2,085 
2,133 

129 

28 

1,749 

1,469 

844 
1,194 

545 

952 

1,442 

962 

1,800 

1,005 

39 

43 

593 

659 

45 

34 

15,018 
10,581 

5,424 



28,075 

1,249 

4,885 

1,077 

50 

361 
2,011 

576 
1,524 

484 

350 

995 
1,373 
797 
387 
280 
162 

84 
238 
388 

45 

437 

91 

88 

79 

281 

135 

220 

1,537 

62 

33 

258 
87 
77 
46 

184 
78 
57 
28 
51 
29 

53 

242 

8 

18 

75 

33 

30 

189 

146 

488 

2,697 

2,564 

358 



7,553 

887 

107 

3,107 

12 

38 

10 

38 

31 

13 

242 

95 
10 

28 
358 

23 
128 

54 
113 

81 

23 

27 
2 

10 

18 
139 
156 

14 
1 

74 
435 

2 
7 
21 
45 
2 
23 
31 

10 
9 



73 
4 

2 

48 
3 

738 

161 

95 



7,172 

2,564 

755 

332 

22 

38 

250 

28 

61 

5 

141 

270 
58 
87 

122 
96 
45 

159 

159 
21 
16 

1 
9 
38 
24 
77 
35 
86 
2 
67 
57 

5 

10 

132 

15 

7 
10 
81 

1 



143 

5 

12 

12 

917 

82 

107 



11,418 

1,472 
1,118 
298 
114 
228 
861 
171 
465 
130 
134 

439 
123 
224 
102 
159 
143 
298 
178 
40 
127 

80 

33 

135 

61 

131 

68 

76 

141 

133 

106 

86 
39 
56 
35 
24 
51 
41 
20 
52 
41 

6 

25 
3 

10 
78 
29 
32 
9 
67 
57 

1,958 
794 
117 



33349 

497 
3,838 

486 
19 
1,704 
1,244 
3,913 
1,440 

410 
94 

1,764 

646 

2,578 

5 

703 

64 

540 

717 

80 

25 

122 

125 

410 

337 

69 

71 

555 

346 

84 

100 

93 

102 

436 

29 

17 

77 

255 

61 

285 

310 

3 
79 

6 
82 
544 
208 
128 
20 
137 

4,907 
1,247 
1,337 



204,185 

34,641 
18,460 
5,893 
4,452 
3,399 
3,580 
2,323 
2,907 
1,439 
4,288 

3,028 
1,143 
1,649 
2,951 
3,256 
2,412 
2,873 
2,677 
2,426 
1,635 

1,030 

572 

2,068 

971 

1,618 

2,753 

854 

511 

1,368 

1,134 

391 
309 
1,100 
1,598 
179 
450 
625 
553 
745 
379 

124 
235 
21 
211 
952 
691 
359 
252 
597 
475 

17,813 

5,327 

52,488 



' Ranked by number of persons naturalized. See Glossary for definilion of metropolitan statistical area. 

NOTE: The 'Unknown' category may be large for certain characteristics. For explanation, see Naturalizations section of text on Limitations of Data. 

Represents zero. 



155 



TABLE 52. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP 
AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 







Occupation 










Execu- 






Precision 


Opera- 






No occu- 


Region and country of 






Profes- 


tive, 






produc- 


tors, 


Farming, 




pation 
or not 


former allegiance 


Total 


Total 


sional 


admini- 


Sales 


strative 


tion. 


fabri- 


forestry. 


Service 










stration. 






craft. 


cators. 


and 












specialty 


and man- 
agerial 




support 


and 
repair 


and 
laborers 


fishing 




reported ' 


All countries 


598,225 
66,850 


334383 


37,137 


31,078 


25,907 


53,604 


30,176 


79,936 


5,158 


71,387 


263342 


Europe 


34,767 


6,169 


4,313 


2,686 


5,881 


3,330 


6,349 


183 


5,856 


32,083 


Albania 


399 


274 


15 


13 


16 


31 


31 


68 


2 


98 


125 


Bulgaria 


288 


172 


32 


16 


11 


17 


21 


40 


1 


34 


116 


Czechoslovakia, former 


372 


202 


39 


23 


12 


21 


22 


42 


2 


41 


170 


Czech Republic 


16 


12 


1 


5 


1 


2 


2 


1 


- 


- 


4 


Slovak RepuWic 


33 


16 


4 


3 


3 


1 


1 


2 


- 


2 


17 


Unknown republic 


323 


174 


34 


15 


8 


18 


19 


39 


2 


39 


149 


France 


1,281 


807 


181 


158 


79 


134 


35 


90 


6 


124 


474 


Germany 


2,588 


1,432 


238 


234 


131 


278 


106 


240 


4 


201 


1,156 


Greece 


1,645 


861 


84 


157 


72 


96 


112 


151 


1 


188 


784 


Hungary 


488 


305 


63 


25 


20 


44 


46 


46 


2 


59 


183 


Ireland 


1,682 


1,027 


236 


156 


63 


173 


139 


92 


1 


167 


655 


Italy 


2,282 


1,368 


141 


274 


105 


207 


158 


237 


10 


236 


914 


Latvia 


200 


96 


25 


14 


4 


23 


6 


10 


- 


14 


104 


Netherlands 


577 


350 


72 


72 


33 


70 


19 


38 


4 


42 


227 


Poland 


7,553 


3,466 


401 


266 


194 


380 


493 


998 


20 


714 


4,087 


Portugal 


3,769 


2,373 


162 


187 


111 


246 


261 


971 


47 


388 


1,396 


Romania 


2,573 


1,290 


207 


92 


112 


162 


169 


283 


3 


262 


1,283 


Soviet Union, former 


25,965 


11,526 


2,426 


1,018 


869 


2,103 


1,117 


1,953 


28 


2,012 


14,439 


Armenia 


4,151 


1,958 


122 


139 


184 


444 


228 


405 


4 


432 


2,193 


Belarus 


856 


332 


65 


27 


24 


73 


44 


39 


1 


59 


524 


Moldova 


711 


333 


92 


27 


21 


73 


28 


32 


1 


59 


378 


Russia 


7.172 


3,429 


883 


337 


244 


613 


299 


473 


9 


571 


3,743 


Ukraine 


6,415 


2,642 


562 


247 


173 


483 


272 


436 


3 


466 


3,773 


Uzbekistan 


329 


168 


25 


13 


16 


45 


23 


17 


- 


29 


161 


Other republics 


476 


276 


59 


18 


27 


46 


26 


43 


- 


57 


200 


Unknown republic 


5,855 


2,388 


618 


210 


180 


326 


197 


508 


10 


339 


3,467 


Spain 


671 


375 


62 


46 


28 


57 


29 


75 


12 


66 


296 


Sweden 


201 


110 


23 


30 


10 


20 


4 


13 


1 


9 


91 


Switzerland 


290 


183 


41 


45 


13 


34 


8 


23 


3 


16 


107 


United Kingdom 


11,418 


7,030 


1,496 


1,297 


682 


1,589 


370 


692 


24 


880 


4,388 


Yugoslavia, former 


1,640 


977 


92 


97 


66 


111 


147 


226 


5 


233 


663 


Croatia 


222 


130 


9 


12 


8 


21 


24 


32 


- 


24 


92 


Macedonia 


214 


131 


8 


10 


7 


7 


19 


53 


- 


27 


83 


Other 


56 


28 


6 


2 


2 


3 


2 


10 


- 


3 


28 


Unknown 


1,148 


688 


69 


73 


49 


80 


102 


131 


5 


179 


460 


Other Europe 


968 


543 


133 


93 


55 


85 


37 


61 


7 


72 


425 




169,658 

1,724 


92,204 


14,570 


11,626 


9,280 


15,053 


7,126 


17,782 


636 


16,131 


77,454 


Afghanistan 


880 


73 


102 


183 


149 


52 


150 


3 


168 


844 


Bangladesh 


3,122 


2,364 


178 


334 


359 


364 


132 


444 


6 


547 


758 


Burma 


484 


284 


32 


15 


30 


69 


28 


58 


- 


52 


200 


Cambodia 


4,936 


1,914 


143 


96 


130 


250 


199 


741 


17 


338 


3,022 


China, People's Republic 


17,552 


8,901 


1,161 


935 


758 


1,197 


1,224 


1,334 


23 


2,269 


8,651 


India 


18,812 


11,545 


2,910 


2,082 


1,193 


1,763 


468 


2,020 


69 


1,040 


7,267 


Indonesia 


462 


302 


56 


40 


27 


66 


22 


44 


- 


47 


160 


Iran 


10,553 


5,830 


1,246 


1,185 


735 


1,093 


266 


590 


16 


699 


4,723 


Iraq 


1,519 


653 


78 


51 


167 


119 


49 


99 


12 


78 


866 


Israel 


1,918 


1,119 


249 


282 


156 


163 


67 


112 


2 


88 


799 


Japan 


1,108 


607 


103 


129 


58 


129 


16 


68 


4 


100 


501 


Jordan 


1,795 


893 


116 


217 


156 


97 


42 


136 


1 


128 


902 


Korea 


13,996 


6,311 


721 


1,657 


704 


1,034 


393 


778 


23 


1,001 


7,685 


Kuwait 


234 


122 


26 


26 


20 


8 


3 


26 




13 


112 


Laos 


8,092 


3,354 


216 


82 


205 


435 


400 


1,471 


39 


506 


4,738 


Lebanon 


2,796 


1,511 


242 


279 


205 


199 


125 


236 


5 


220 


1,285 


Malaysia 


377 


234 


45 


47 


26 


54 


7 


22 


1 


32 


143 


Pakistan 


6,430 


4,162 


471 


860 


643 


570 


305 


817 


20 


476 


2,268 


Philippines 


28,075 


18,564 


3,869 


1,225 


1,702 


4,136 


1,292 


2,424 


170 


3,746 


9,511 


Sri Lanka 


486 
1,370 


350 
639 


94 
116 


53 
89 


37 
86 


70 
77 


13 
66 


38 
117 


3 
2 


42 
86 


136 


Syria 


731 


Taiwan 


6,489 


3,471 


879 


818 


348 


664 


80 


273 


10 


399 


3,018 


Thailand 


1,808 


1,118 


169 


151 


88 


171 


71 


184 


5 


279 


690 


Turkey 


1,341 


784 


114 


150 


89 


99 


79 


137 


3 


113 


557 


Vietnam 


33,349 


15,776 


1,217 


623 


1,083 


1.978 


1.703 


5,400 


199 


3,573 


17,573 


See foolnotes at end of table. 

























156 



TABLE 52. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGIANCE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 







Occupation 










Execu- 






Precision 


Opera- 






No occu- 


Region and country of 








tive, 






produc- 


tors, 


Farming, 




pation 
or not 


foimer allegiance 


Total 


Total 


sional 


admini- 


Sales 


strative 


tion, 


fabri- 


forestry. 


Service 








specialty 


stration, 
and man- 
agerial 




support 


craft, 

and 

repair 


cators, 

and 
laborers 


and 
fishing 




reported ' 


Yemen 


443 


309 


5 


58 


64 


62 


13 


46 


3 


58 


134 


Other Asia 


387 
13,862 


207 
9,586 


41 
2,073 


40 
1,214 


28 
790 


37 
1,359 


11 
433 


17 
1,635 


24 


33 
2,058 


180 


Africa _.»... — . — _...... 


4,276 


Cape Verde 


347 


207 


31 


1 


5 


9 


11 


115 


- 


35 


140 


Egypt 


2,021 


1,259 


182 


226 


130 


175 


56 


208 


3 


279 


762 


Eritrea 


399 


235 


20 


17 


19 


34 


13 


62 


1 


69 


164 


Ethiopia 


1,813 


1,168 


141 


78 


144 


174 


64 


285 


5 


277 


645 


Ghana 


1,418 


1,094 


218 


75 


71 


144 


64 


182 


2 


338 


324 


Kenya 


350 


209 


55 


42 


14 


45 


7 


23 




23 


141 


Liberia 


657 


481 


89 


41 


27 


92 


29 


54 


1 


148 


176 


Morocco 


483 


323 


29 


61 


34 


31 


11 


71 


2 


84 


160 


Nigeria 


3,292 


2,509 


826 


333 


167 


329 


72 


290 


3 


489 


783 


Senegal 


211 


183 


7 


36 


20 


16 


4 


65 


- 


35 


28 


Sierra Leone 


396 
559 
216 


310 
349 
141 


82 
116 

17 


20 
79 

24 


20 
31 
13 


67 
60 
15 


16 
10 

15 


36 
36 
29 


1 


69 
16 
28 


86 


South Africa 


210 


Sudan 


75 


Other Africa 


1,700 
1,655 


1,118 
1,068 


260 
146 


181 
136 


95 
79 


168 
198 


61 
77 


179 
198 


6 
12 


168 
222 


582 


Oceania . .„._..... 


587 


Australia 


275 


168 


48 


42 


14 


26 


7 


17 


- 


14 


107 


Fiji 


628 


431 


42 


38 


35 


76 


39 


81 


4 


116 


197 


New Zealand 


214 
330 


144 
219 


36 
10 


26 
21 


11 
10 


26 
42 


11 
13 


20 
61 


5 


14 

57 


70 


Tonga 


HI 




208 
257,027 


106 
169,298 


10 
11,509 


9 
11,221 


9 
10,853 


28 
25,774 


7 
16,600 


19 
48^80 


3 
4,208 


21 
40,853 


102 




87,729 


Canada 


6,094 


3,584 


960 


790 


333 


641 


170 


401 


17 


272 


2,510 


Mexico 


134,494 


87,756 


3,483 


5,091 


4,554 


10,701 


9,434 


33,352 


3,832 


17,309 


46,738 


Caribbean — _.„ 


78,263 


51,275 


5,453 


3,470 


4,125 


9,881 


4,537 


8,110 


153 


15,546 


26,988 


Antigua-Barbuda 


714 


542 


62 


35 


57 


125 


82 


36 


3 


142 


172 


Bahamas, The 


303 


223 


30 


16 


31 


60 


10 


16 


2 


58 


80 


Barbados 


1,873 


1,510 


144 


89 


116 


452 


148 


125 


2 


434 


363 


Cuba 


12,860 


5,627 


557 


586 


629 


1,152 


461 


1,058 


26 


1,158 


7,233 


Dominica 


535 


383 


45 


40 


35 


58 


55 


55 


3 


92 


152 


Dominican Republic 


19,450 


10,607 


592 


862 


1,035 


1,718 


986 


2,603 


25 


2,786 


8,843 


Grenada 


1,136 


922 


107 


45 


64 


218 


106 


57 


- 


325 


214 


Haiti 


15,667 


11,265 


1,095 


327 


640 


1,455 


793 


2,426 


56 


4,473 


4,402 


Jamaica 


18,746 


14,873 


2,124 


1,067 


1,077 


3,308 


1,326 


1,265 


20 


4,686 


3,873 


St. Kitts & Nevis 


540 
429 


408 
326 


47 
30 


35 
22 


52 
29 


85 

72 


46 

47 


33 
40 


6 
1 


104 
85 


132 


St. Lucia 


103 


St. Vincent & Grenadines .. 


737 


585 


58 


31 


55 


141 


71 


35 


1 


193 


152 


Trinidad & Tobago 


5,273 


4,004 


562 


315 


305 


1,037 


406 


361 


8 


1,010 


1,269 




38,176 


26,683 


1,613 


1,870 


1,841 


4,551 


2,459 


6,417 


206 


7,726 


11,493 


Belize 


1,280 


848 


108 


65 


51 


235 


64 


114 


. 


211 


432 




1,488 

17,818 

7,522 


957 

13,347 

5,112 


109 
585 
275 


78 
837 
366 


81 
821 
308 


169 

2,003 

808 


97 

1,279 

473 


200 
3,466 
1,403 


8 
130 

42 


215 

4,226 
1,437 


531 


El Salvador 


4,471 


Guatemala 


2,410 


Honduras 


4,022 


2,487 


145 


143 


196 


372 


273 


601 


19 


738 


1,535 


Nicaragua 


4,178 


2,691 


238 


274 


286 


591 


172 


497 


6 


627 


1,487 


Panama 


1,868 


1,241 


153 


107 


98 


373 


101 


136 


1 


272 


627 


South America ...„.« 


39,475 


27,052 


2,587 


2429 


2,173 


5,289 


2,570 


5,614 


93 


6,197 


12,423 


Argentina 


2,112 


1,384 


225 


227 


118 


267 


111 


197 


5 


234 


728 


Bolivia 


980 


679 


82 


67 


58 


113 


66 


102 


1 


190 


301 


Brazil 


2,192 


1,421 


213 


233 


112 


245 


103 


212 


9 


294 


771 


ChUe 


1,291 


888 


134 


101 


80 


155 


82 


147 


4 


185 


403 


Colombia 


10,911 


7,353 


593 


631 


562 


1,184 


673 


1,902 


28 


1,780 


3,558 


Ecuador 


7,129 


4,626 


263 


331 


321 


819 


594 


1,336 


15 


947 


2,503 


Guyana 


7,008 


5,246 


509 


346 


498 


1,457 


499 


516 


9 


1,412 


1,762 


Peru 


5,898 


4,182 


375 


387 


303 


792 


347 


1,037 


17 


924 


1,716 


Uruguay 


599 


415 


38 


67 


26 


80 


48 


72 


3 


81 


184 


Venezuela 


1.156 


726 


142 


119 


84 


158 


27 


75 


1 


120 


430 


Other South America 


199 
293 


132 
172 


13 

48 


20 
18 


11 
10 


19 

23 


20 
14 


18 

30 


1 


30 
29 


67 


Stateless 


121 


Not reported 


49,405 


236 


35 


21 


36 


27 


26 


48 


2 


41 


49,169 



' Includes homemakers, students, unemployed or retired persons, and others not reporting or with an unknown occupation. 
NOTE; The 'Not reported' category may be large for certain characteristics. For explanation, see Naturalizations section of text on Limitations of Data. 
- Represents zero. 



157 



TABLE 53. PERSONS NATURALIZED IN FISCAL YEAR 1997 BY CALENDAR YEAR OF ENTRY 
AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH 



Region and country 
ofbiith 



Total 



1997 
and 
1996 



1995 



1994 



1993 



1992 



1991 



1990 



1989 



1988 



1987 



1986 



1985 



Before 
1985 



All countries 



Europe 

Albania 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, fmr. 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic .... 

Unknown republic . 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Armenia 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Other republics 

Unknown republic . 

Spain 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former ... 

Bosnia-Herzegovina 

Croatia 

Other 

Unknown 

Other Europe 

Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Rep. 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Malaysia 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Thailand 

Turkey 

Vietnam 

Yemen 

Other Asia 



598^25 

67,783 

419 

356 

470 

10 

26 

434 

1,261 

2,946 

1,885 

568 

1,835 

2,445 

475 

8.037 

4,278 

3,043 

28,516 

3,037 

8,200 

5,971 

2,022 

9,286 

756 

329 

6,900 

1,776 

50 

212 

217 

1,297 

1,488 

193,608 

1,839 

3,577 

578 

5,180 

20,947 

4,752 

21,206 

575 

11,434 

1,621 

2,034 

1,283 

1,835 

16,056 

404 

8,630 

3,041 

428 

7,266 

30,898 

547 

1,638 

6,455 

2,287 

1,575 

36,178 

631 

713 



3,874 

1,034 

5 

19 
2 



7 
14 

6 
21 

1 
10 

1 
21 

2 

72 

791 

2 
735 

7 
41 

6 

2 
20 
11 

2 

4 

5 

29 

1,717 

2 
49 

3 

678 

11 

93 

I 

6 

4 

29 

20 

9 

172 

3 

21 

2 

149 

243 

10 
19 
2 
12 
63 
95 
21 



2,799 



149 



1 
1 

7 

1 

1 
2 
3 
13 
2 

32 
53 

41 



1 
10 

2 



1 

1 

12 

941 

1 
35 

1 

1 
278 

4 
100 



3 
11 
6 

206 
7 
1 
6 
2 
70 

118 

7 
7 
1 
2 
30 
37 
2 



2,873 

280 

6 
10 

5 



5 
6 
4 
2 
6 
4 
9 
1 

32 
6 

21 

114 

1 

85 
5 
3 

20 
4 
2 

26 

16 
1 
2 
3 

10 
6 

1,131 

2 

48 

5 

4 

115 

23 

162 

21 

8 
13 
16 
34 
80 
12 

4 
20 

3 

70 

376 

1 

15 
20 

9 
14 
38 

7 
II 



13,189 

1395 

17 
44 
24 

4 
20 
51 
52 
44 
31 
19 
31 
8 

224 
24 

136 

383 
22 

174 
63 
22 

102 
18 
11 

137 
96 
6 
13 
7 
70 
45 

7,314 

28 
139 

27 

23 
922 
182 
768 

12 
181 

96 
152 

23 
282 
231 

73 

18 
303 

30 

360 

2,672 

17 
131 
295 

33 
107 
135 

19 

55 



16,526 

3,561 

48 

24 

22 

2 

1 

19 

68 

60 

36 

22 

67 

41 

10 

439 

23 

162 

2,230 

43 

598 

619 

219 

751 

19 

8 

143 

84 

3 

10 

4 

67 

55 



8,020 

77 

112 

29 

26 

1,166 

241 

746 

16 

224 

117 

150 

36 

185 

242 

56 

31 

221 

27 

321 

2,277 

25 

98 

370 

50 

87 

1,000 

40 

50 



73,158 

16,881 

280 

113 

66 

3 

4 

59 

98 

124 

96 

67 

174 

71 

8 

1,511 

150 

958 

12,209 

901 

3,480 

2,592 

1,134 

4,102 

30 

26 

507 

204 

5 

22 
28 
149 
189 

36,925 

247 

1,289 

155 

94 

4,449 

1,748 

3,620 

90 

1,188 

369 

453 

50 

370 

986 

95 

213 

738 

78 

1,273 

6,047 

171 

361 

2,179 

177 

203 

10,040 

94 

148 



112,245 

8,292 

20 
77 
55 

1 

54 

99 

98 

111 

57 

206 

65 

11 

1,184 

228 

527 

4,883 

600 

1,275 

958 

291 

1,759 

38 

15 

357 

164 

3 

16 
20 
125 
97 

31,896 

277 

1,459 
87 
123 

2,337 
814 

4,132 
103 

1,330 

125 

291 

55 

264 

1,566 

56 

274 

554 

61 

2,930 

5,846 
138 
303 

1,073 
191 
209 

7,088 
109 
101 



86,453 

6,690 

3 

18 

43 

1 

2 

40 

79 

83 

86 

71 

293 

71 

9 

1,227 

140 

287 

3,637 

399 

888 

814 

153 

1,383 

41 

26 

363 

130 

4 

19 

17 

90 

83 

15,813 

183 

145 

51 

134 

1,696 

479 

1,547 

78 

1,848 

75 

175 

49 

111 

1,313 

31 

405 

237 

39 

526 

2,761 

43 

111 

588 

265 

96 

2.700 

68 

59 



29,526 

2,726 

3 

9 

31 

2 

29 

56 

54 

99 

33 

115 

65 

9 

484 

107 

134 

1,179 

436 

173 

159 

37 

374 

18 

10 

209 

75 

5 

8 

14 
48 
36 

10,623 

145 

89 

20 

237 

1,067 

331 

1,204 

28 

1,169 

39 

101 

29 

78 

1,111 

10 

544 

156 

37 

346 

1,811 

32 

105 

348 

146 

78 

1,293 

26 

43 



24,226 

1,613 

1 
I 

26 

1 

3 

22 

50 

61 

65 

35 

73 

55 

7 

344 

120 

91 

330 

122 

59 

44 

4 

101 

17 

10 

243 

48 

1 

3 

8 

36 

36 

8,612 

141 
64 
28 
91 

859 

132 

1,045 

32 

1,025 

36 

82 

48 

57 

1,035 

12 

567 
94 
18 

283 

1,398 

19 

53 

255 

140 
65 

984 
25 
24 



17378 

1,088 
1 

4 
27 



27 

32 

54 

39 

19 

35 

49 

8 

276 

85 

78 

61 

11 

12 

12 

4 

22 

25 

18 

213 

38 

1 

6 

4 

27 

26 

7,002 

142 
37 
22 

123 

624 
90 

862 
18 

701 
16 
72 
22 
36 

910 
7 

626 
58 
20 

156 

1,024 

13 

27 

214 

108 
43 

999 

9 

23 



15,999 
967 

1 

14 

1 

13 
44 
53 
22 
19 
30 
40 
10 
220 
100 
90 
51 

3 

19 
13 

2 
14 

8 

7 
197 
45 

1 

4 
13 
27 
16 

6374 
90 
26 
20 

496 

607 
85 

739 
30 

691 
25 
49 
30 
35 

934 
5 

168 
38 
12 

126 

882 

9 

21 

209 

109 
39 

875 

8 

16 



195362 

22354 

31 

25 

154 

3 

6 

145 

642 

2,250 

1,264 

184 

805 

1,894 

387 

2,019 

3,273 

427 

2,385 

473 

622 

621 

93 

576 

527 

178 

4,416 

851 

18 

107 

93 

633 

842 

55328 

488 

73 

131 

3,764 

6,031 

578 

6,023 

167 

3,000 

705 

360 

881 

356 

7,187 

35 

5,579 

582 

98 

615 

5,022 

77 

395 

849 

1,040 

613 

10,635 

88 

156 



See footnotes at end of lable 



158 



TABLE 53. PERSONS NATURALIZED IN FISCAL YEAR 1997 BY CALENDAR YEAR OF ENTRY 
AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF BIRTH— Continued 



Region and country 
of birth 



Total 



1997 
and 
1996 



1995 



1994 



1993 



1992 



1991 



1990 



1989 



1988 



1987 



1986 



1985 



Before 
1985 



Un- 
known 
or not 

re- 
ported 



Africa „._._.«.. 

Cape Verde 

Egypt 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Ghana 

Kenya 

Liberia 

Morocco 

Nigeria 

Sierra Leone 

South Afirica 

Uganda 

Other Afirica 

Oceania ...~ 

Australia 

Fiji 

Tonga 

Other Oceania 

North America 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Cayman Islands 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Republic 

Grenada 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

St. Kitts & Nevis 

St. Lucia 

St. Vincent & 
Grenadines 

Trinidad & Tobago . 

Other Caribbean 

Central America . 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Other North America 

South America _._ 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Other South America 

Stateless 

Not reported 

- Represents zero. 



154>96 

573 

2,238 

393 

1,994 

1,588 

496 

719 

555 

3,566 

492 

661 

264 

2,457 

1310 

261 
711 
336 
502 

273^54 

6,639 

142,569 

84,834 

886 

337 

1,960 

288 

13,155 
621 

21,092 
1,223 

16,477 

20,253 
714 
638 

827 

5,803 

560 

39385 

1,353 

1,574 

18,273 

7.914 

4,318 

4,409 

2,044 

27 

42,282 

2,247 
1,093 
2,360 
1,427 
11,645 
7,463 
7,544 

248 
6,352 

622 

1,205 

76 

44 
2,748 



95 

24 

7 

18 

2 

3 

16 
4 
2 

19 

12 

2 

10 

766 

98 
410 
134 

1 

1 
1 

11 

24 

1 

48 

25 



1 

19 

2 

124 

3 
7 
21 
44 
21 
8 
20 

244 

4 
16 
33 

4 
80 
16 

6 
40 
29 

2 
14 



36 

1 
11 

6 

1 

2 
5 
1 

9 
4 



319 

27 

167 

62 



1 

22 

19 
12 



8 

63 

1 
8 
39 
8 
3 
4 

116 

3 

1 
10 

4 
39 
14 

7 
20 
11 



1,234 



114 

3 

19 

2 

12 

12 

3 

1 

9 

19 

3 

4 

27 

9 

1 
1 



412 

29 

149 

162 

1 

2 



1 

1 

77 

1 

29 

26 



4 
17 

1 
72 

4 

17 

21 

9 

8 

13 

158 

3 
6 

16 
7 

48 

21 
8 
7 

35 



769 



984 

26 

232 

7 

36 

55 

20 

29 

102 

220 

25 

32 

3 

197 

50 

8 

19 

1 

22 

2,242 
111 
694 
967 

5 

4 

19 

3 

37 

13 

328 

12 

125 

233 

9 

14 

10 

151 

4 

467 

10 

25 

123 

69 

99 

81 

60 

3 

1,190 

54 
34 
96 
35 

382 
98 

110 
23 

272 

14 

63 

9 

14 



875 

21 

127 
10 

107 
51 
16 
44 
68 

194 
20 
25 
10 

182 

53 
8 

19 
5 

21 

2,783 
113 
870 

14O6 

8 
7 

25 

4 

52 

22 

435 

18 

110 

313 

17 

14 

13 

160 

8 

593 

19 
28 

211 
83 

109 

74 

69 

1 

1,207 
65 

34 
104 

25 
383 
129 
185 

15 
206 

13 

44 
4 

2 
25 



2,745 

58 

491 

115 

489 

202 

74 

97 

107 

427 

91 

141 

39 

414 

192 

15 

138 

10 

29 

11,656 

292 
2,638 
6,207 

44 

22 
103 

10 
779 

93 
1,509 

96 
1,219 
1,487 

63 

65 

78 

603 

36 

2,516 

85 

68 

984 

382 
345 
425 
227 
3 

4,647 

231 

116 

230 

116 

1,003 

486 

1,413 

22 

812 

57 

150 

11 

4 
108 



3,829 

46 
574 

82 
453 
444 

94 
152 
102 
1.015 
107 

99 

50 
611 

272 
8 

118 
81 
65 

60,230 

302 

40,120 

11,693 

84 

49 

132 

63 

622 

84 

2,252 

123 

5,098 

2,233 

49 

59 

97 

716 

32 

8,112 

186 

180 

4,007 

1,809 

890 

831 

209 

3 

7,601 

305 
289 
515 
197 

2,114 
987 

1,124 
24 

1,734 

114 

183 

15 

5 
120 



1,967 

43 
129 

42 
300 
274 

57 
124 

25 
533 

74 

75 

34 
257 

145 

10 

37 
55 
43 

56,801 

259 

37,630 

6,523 

100 

44 

125 

86 

372 

56 

1.601 

116 

1,405 

1.929 

57 

64 

104 

425 

39 

12389 

275 

181 
7.134 
2.459 

778 
1.385 

177 

4,955 

251 
165 
181 
181 
1.422 
838 
795 

20 
875 

75 

145 

7 

82 



1,065 

35 

121 
19 
99 

140 
27 
66 
22 

315 
35 
39 
17 

130 

90 

4 
42 
21 
23 

12,520 

163 

5,550 

4,630 

46 

21 

97 

30 

378 

43 

1,316 

69 

888 

1,324 

32 

44 

56 
256 

30 

2,175 

106 

73 
981 
403 
257 
235 
120 
2 

2,457 

129 

50 

163 

60 

626 

374 

534 

8 

386 

42 

79 

6 

2 
43 



736 

25 
82 
20 
91 
91 
31 
44 
13 
163 
29 
42 
16 
89 

104 

8 
61 
15 
20 

10,962 

200 

4.301 

4,486 

70 

19 

108 

18 

174 

38 

1,026 

100 

999 

1,583 

41 

51 

59 

172 

28 

1,974 

114 

79 

910 

355 

243 

190 

83 

1 

2,168 

100 

53 

95 

78 

524 

309 

614 

7 

274 

36 

74 

4 

31 



446 

24 
47 
11 
44 
50 
19 
24 
10 
102 
15 
16 
12 
72 

59 

6 
27 
15 
11 

7,156 

103 

2,169 

3,706 

38 

15 

111 

7 

186 

32 

1,157 

67 

722 

1.132 

27 

31 

43 
126 

12 
1,177 

43 

53 
466 
211 
207 
127 

70 
1 

1,601 

69 
35 
66 

52 

410 

220 

480 

4 

172 

17 

73 

3 

26 



428 

20 
45 
13 
53 
40 
21 
24 

6 
98 
13 
23 

8 
64 

64 

12 
27 
11 
14 

6,686 

133 

1.969 

3,449 

39 

9 

91 

6 

280 

29 

1,091 

59 

584 

1.024 

31 

27 

43 

118 

18 

1,134 

52 

54 

473 

208 

185 

105 

57 

1 

1,462 

49 
33 
76 

54 

442 

224 

352 

7 

146 

23 

52 

4 

4 
14 



2,569 

270 
319 

69 
286 
199 
126 
104 

86 
439 

70 
158 

73 
370 

700 

178 
197 
118 
207 

99,656 

4.401 

45,006 

41,278 

444 

142 

1.144 

60 

10.246 

199 

10,182 

556 

5.151 

8.832 

386 

265 

316 

3.007 

348 

8,960 

451 

815 

2.886 

1.808 

1.158 

925 

917 

11 

14300 

976 

258 

742 

604 

4.133 

3.729 

1.888 

51 

1,375 

227 

304 

13 

26 
229 



107 

1 

17 

3 

11 

12 

5 

7 

3 

20 

5 

5 

2 

16 

56 

1 

25 

4 

26 

1,765 

408 

896 

331 

6 

3 

4 

27 

72 
5 

80 

100 

2 

2 

3 
25 

2 
129 

9 

6 
52 
23 

9 
12 
18 

1 

176 

8 
3 
33 
10 
39 
18 
28 

25 

2 

10 

1 

47 



159 



TABLE 54. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGL\.NCE, AGE, AND SEX 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Age and sex 



All 
countries 



China, 
People's 
Republic 



Colombia 



Cuba 



Dominican 
Republic 



El 
Salvador 



Guatemala 



Haiti 



India 



Total 

Under 18 years 

18-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over 

Not reported 

Male 

Under 18 years 

18-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over 

Female 

Under 18 years 

18-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over 

Unknown sex 

Percent distribution , 

Male 

Female 

Unknown 

Median age 

Male 

Female 

See footnotes at end of table 



598,225 

22,104 
10,903 
45,494 
64,781 
87,657 
90,061 
74,287 
53,640 
38,714 
31,198 
24,634 
19,096 
12,307 
10,909 
12,436 
4 

257,587 

3,467 

3,846 

18,578 

29,479 

42,615 

42,631 

33,849 

23,708 

16,457 

12,853 

10,064 

7,710 

4,801 

3.852 

3,677 

303,497 

3,593 

5,049 

25,020 

33,152 

42,484 

44,868 

38,026 

28,051 

20,670 

17,005 

13,457 

10,514 

6,911 

6,518 

8,179 

37,141 

100.0 

43.1 

50.7 

6.2 

38 

38 
39 



17,552 

109 

432 

1,526 

1,491 

1,864 

1,822 

1,659 

1,266 

979 

838 

983 

1,082 

919 

1,051 

1,531 

7394 

28 
201 
722 
551 
659 
763 
775 
609 
490 
392 
448 
484 
417 
425 
430 

10,147 

80 

231 

803 

939 

1,203 

1,058 

883 

656 

489 

444 

534 

598 

502 

626 

1.101 

II 

100.0 

42.1 

57.8 

.1 

44 

44 
44 



10,911 

32 

148 

603 

815 

1,746 

2,101 

1,711 

1,177 

866 

663 

409 

267 

125 

108 

140 

4,421 

17 

73 

260 

321 

779 

911 

701 

456 

330 

244 

148 

101 

28 

27 

25 

6,487 

14 

75 

343 

494 

966 

1,189 

1,010 

721 

536 

419 

261 

166 

97 

81 

115 



100.0 

40.5 
59.5 

40 

39 

40 



12,860 

29 

135 

658 

676 

962 

989 

781 

792 

900 

1,286 

1,228 

1,109 

708 

892 

1,715 

5,152 

16 
59 
313 
283 
404 
425 
345 
346 
401 
548 
504 
475 
308 
297 
428 

7,706 

13 
76 
345 
392 
558 
564 
436 
446 
499 
738 
724 
633 
400 
595 
1,287 



100.0 

40.1 
59.9 

57 

54 
58 



19,450 

16 

361 

2,179 

2,328 

3,140 

3,042 

2,598 

1,765 

1.123 

1,047 

730 

503 

266 

185 

167 

6,641 

10 

139 

742 

765 

1,006 

1,035 

872 

642 

377 

382 

298 

182 

93 

56 

42 

12,796 

5 

222 

1,437 

1,563 

2,130 

2,006 

1,721 

1,123 

745 

665 

431 

321 

173 

129 

125 

13 

100.0 

34.1 

65.8 

.1 

37 
38 

37 



17,818 

24 

290 

1,384 

1,883 

3,300 

3,791 

2,964 

1,792 

962 

569 

338 

201 

108 

90 

122 

7,608 

13 
95 

527 

854 

1,627 

1,777 

1,233 

694 

365 

195 

95 

58 

25 

24 

26 

10,208 

11 

195 

857 

1,029 

1,673 

2,013 

1,731 

1,098 

597 

373 

243 

143 

83 

66 

96 



100.0 

42.7 
57.3 

37 
36 
38 



7,522 

16 

104 

468 

711 

1,304 

1,476 

1.191 

895 

534 

331 

168 

125 

67 

77 

55 

3341 

8 

51 

172 

317 

651 

730 

521 

373 

207 

137 

67 

38 

21 

29 

19 

4,179 

7 

53 

296 

394 

653 

746 

670 

521 

327 

194 

101 

87 

46 

48 

36 



100.0 

44.4 
55.6 

38 

37 
39 



15,667 

16 

120 

832 

1,238 

2,178 

3,020 

3,004 

1,953 

1,180 

844 

564 

325 

181 

120 

92 

7,164 

4 

41 

298 

482 

1,007 

1,430 

1,396 

952 

587 

435 

263 

138 

73 

42 

16 

8,494 

11 

79 

534 

756 

1,170 

1,590 

1.607 

1.001 

591 

409 

300 

185 

107 

78 

76 



100.0 

45.7 

54.2 

.1 

40 

41 
40 



18,812 

63 

404 

1,717 

1,886 

2,822 

3,038 

2,718 

1.996 

1.329 

921 

685 

468 

271 

261 

233 

10,457 

26 

183 

823 

888 

1,537 

1,902 

1,652 

1,113 

743 

515 

395 

262 

146 

136 

136 

8348 

30 

221 

894 

998 

1,285 

1,136 

1,066 

883 

586 

406 

290 

206 

125 

125 

97 



100.0 

55.6 
44.4 

39 

39 
38 



160 



TABLE 54. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY SELECTED COUNTRY OF FORMER ALLEGL\NCE, AGE, AND SEX 

FISCAL YEAR 1997— Continued 



Age and sex 


Jamaica 


Korea 


Laos 


Mexico 


Philip- 
pines 


Poland 


Russia 


United 
Kingdom 


Vietnam 


Other 


Total 


18,746 


13,996 


8,092 


134,494 


28,075 


7,553 


7,172 


11,418 


33349 


204,185 


Under 18 years 


5 


50 


264 


292 


141 


51 


109 


60 


448 


20,344 


18-19 years 


196 


391 


204 


1,110 


286 


160 


123 


253 


1,077 


4,946 


20-24 years 


1,385 


1,590 


1.130 


7.661 


1,964 


576 


522 


1,050 


5,798 


13,772 


25-29 years 


2,040 


1,572 


1,137 


19,182 


3,332 


657 


473 


951 


5,762 


17,850 


30-34 years 


2,680 


1,260 


1,117 


28,537 


3,812 


696 


602 


1,403 


3,954 


24,982 


35-39 years 


2,890 


1,549 


1,105 


24,546 


4,401 


1,101 


778 


1,542 


2,951 


28,239 


40-44 years 


2,580 


1,545 


845 


17,336 


3,710 


1,251 


845 


1,351 


2,642 


24,028 


45-49 years 


2,151 


1,013 


556 


11,034 


2,397 


1,044 


700 


1,206 


2,446 


18,341 


50-54 years 


1,689 


780 


359 


7,709 


1,656 


636 


502 


1,053 


1,996 


13,659 


55-59 years 


1,184 


873 


387 


5,585 


1,210 


467 


486 


980 


1,884 


11,057 


60-64 years 


830 


823 


330 


4,131 


1,037 


367 


548 


687 


1,430 


8,829 


65-69 years 


539 


672 


232 


2,700 


1,262 


230 


453 


396 


1,187 


6,864 


70-74 years 


262 


565 


129 


1,679 


1,009 


145 


399 


228 


632 


4,255 


75-79 years 


179 


577 


160 


1,430 


1,000 


93 


257 


138 


498 


3,515 


80 years and over 


136 


736 


137 


1,562 


858 


79 


375 


120 


644 


3,500 


Not reported 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. 


_ 


_ 


. 


- 


4 


Male „.„.„.„...._._....„™ 


6,713 


5,745 


3,903 


67,980 


9,953 


3325 


3,113 


4,778 


15,961 


78,499 


Under 18 years 


2 


22 


124 


131 


69 


23 


58 


28 


194 


2,676 




74 
473 


198 
798 


83 
443 


323 
2,627 


124 
844 


85 
263 


48 
245 


119 

505 


473 
2,804 


1,407 


20-24 years 


5,388 


25-29 years 


660 


808 


520 


10,490 


1,179 


321 


209 


438 


2,851 


7,172 


30-34 years 


935 
1,050 


459 
526 


545 
567 


16,741 
13,466 


1,253 
1,484 


274 
462 


247 
329 


611 
648 


1,962 
1,289 


11,315 


35-39 years 


12,946 


40-44 years 


955 


587 


463 


8,654 


1,330 


555 


366 


602 


1,128 


10,830 




820 
654 
431 
320 
197 
71 


409 
359 
374 
331 
270 
185 


311 

200 
183 
170 
107 

77 


5,188 
3,263 
2,415 
1,790 
1,077 
733 


916 
660 
463 
379 
398 
319 


521 
290 
189 
147 
79 
48 


327 
248 
210 
229 
217 
146 


520 
382 
323 
262 
155 
93 


1,018 

1,063 

1,012 

738 

695 

323 


7,895 


50-54 years 


5.418 




4,131 


60-64 years 


3,250 




2,512 


70-74 years 


1,491 


75-79 years 


40 


200 


66 


557 


274 


30 


94 


56 


203 


1,136 


80 years and over 


31 


219 


44 


525 


261 


38 


140 


36 


208 


932 


Female .„...._... 


12,029 


8,248 


4,132 


66,473 


18,102 


4,203 


4,058 


6,637 


17,209 


88,955 


Under 18 years 


3 


25 


110 


151 


59 


19 


51 


31 


192 


2,769 


18-19 years 


122 


193 


115 


786 


162 


71 


75 


134 


590 


1,559 


20-24 years 


911 


792 


684 


5,031 


1,120 


312 


277 


544 


2,976 


6,518 


25-29 years 


1,380 


764 


612 


8,691 


2,152 


336 


264 


513 


2,890 


8,561 


30-34 years 


1,745 


801 


567 


11,793 


2,559 


422 


355 


791 


1,974 


11,146 


35-39 years 


1,839 


1,023 


533 


11,076 


2,914 


638 


449 


894 


1,657 


12,754 


40-44 years 


1,625 


958 


381 


8,679 


2,380 


692 


479 


749 


1,506 


10,811 


45-49 years 


1,330 


604 


244 


5,839 


1,480 


521 


373 


686 


1,415 


8,594 


50-54 years 


1,035 


421 


159 


4,443 


996 


342 


254 


671 


926 


6,674 


55-59 years 


753 


499 


204 


3,170 


746 


278 


276 


657 


867 


5,596 


60-64 years 


509 


492 


159 


2,338 


658 


220 


318 


425 


686 


4,483 


65-69 years 


342 


402 


125 


1,622 


863 


151 


236 


241 


491 


3,486 


70-74 years 


191 


380 


52 


945 


690 


97 


253 


135 


308 


2,173 


75-79 years 


139 


377 


94 


873 


726 


63 


163 


82 


295 


1,840 


80 years and over 


105 


517 


93 


1,036 


597 


41 


235 


84 


436 


1,991 




4 


3 


57 


41 


20 


25 


1 


3 


179 


36,731 


Percent distribution ........... 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Male 


35.8 


41.0 


48.2 


50.5 


35.5 


44.0 


43.4 


41.8 


47.9 


38.4 


Female 


64.2 


58.9 


51.1 


49.4 


64.5 


55.6 


56.6 


58.1 


51.6 


43.6 


Unknown 


- 


- 


.7 


- 


.1 


.3 


- 


- 


.5 


18.0 


Median age ..._. ...„.„.„._ 


40 


41 


35 


36 


40 


42 


45 


41 


34 


38 


Male 


40 


40 


36 


36 


40 


42 


45 


40 


34 


39 




40 


42 


34 


37 


40 


42 


45 


42 


34 


40 



NOTE: The total number of naturalizations by country of former allegiance may be understated because some of the data were obtained from the INS' Central 
Index System, in which this information is not collected. See the Naturalization section of the text for further explanation. 



161 



TABLE 55. PERSONS NATURALIZED BY AGE AND SEX 
FISCAL YEARS 1988-97 



Age and sex 



1988 



1989 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



Total 

Under 18 years 

18-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 year? 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over . 
Not reported 

Male 

Under 18 years 

18-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over . 
Not reported 

Female 

Under 18 years 

18-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-29 years 

30-34 years 

35-39 years 

40-44 years 

45-49 years 

50-54 years 

55-59 years 

60-64 years 

65-69 years 

70-74 years 

75-79 years 

80 years and over 
Not reported 

Unknown sex 



Percent distribution . 

Male 

Female 

Unknown 



Median age , 

Male 

Fenude 



242,063 

6.916 

5.819 

31.885 

39.715 

44,002 

36,381 

24,776 

15,873 

11,521 

8,251 

6,777 

4,667 

2,725 

1,636 

1,118 

1 

120,528 

3,270 

2,700 

15,834 

19,898 

22,164 

18,445 

12,397 

8,045 

5,643 

4,052 

3,196 

2,238 

1,327 

776 

542 

1 

119,599 

3,605 

3,102 

15,829 

19,521 

21,501 

17,613 

12,155 

7,696 

5,759 

4,137 

3,502 

2,383 

1,379 

850 

567 

1,936 

100.0 

49.8 

49.4 

.8 

34 

34 
34 



233,777 

6,336 

5,783 

29,799 

37,723 

42,938 

35,795 

24,710 

15.368 

11,099 

7,863 

6,479 

4,695 

2,610 

1,558 

1,012 

9 

115,825 

3,103 

2,693 

14,591 

18,582 

21,710 

18,276 

12,320 

7,684 

5,405 

3,795 

3,019 

2,203 

1.227 

726 

488 

3 

117,837 

3,232 

3,089 

15,193 

19,121 

21,208 

17,502 

12,379 

7,676 

5,686 

4,065 

3,454 

2,492 

1,381 

831 

523 

5 

115 

100.0 

49.5 

50.4 

Z 

34 

34 
34 



270,101 

6.539 

6.453 

31,778 

40,288 

46,984 

40,927 

27,745 

16,877 

12,785 

9,439 

7.638 

5,522 

2.970 

1.679 

1,231 

11,246 

127,847 

2,969 

2,892 

14,944 

19,088 

22,828 

20,275 

13,288 

7,918 

5,706 

4,197 

3,342 

2,478 

1.334 

762 

561 

5,265 

127,096 

3,018 

3,126 

14.859 

18.805 

21.636 

18.602 

13,050 

8,083 

6,370 

4,724 

3,860 

2,730 

1,455 

829 

624 

5,325 

15,158 

100.0 

47.3 

47.1 

5.6 

35 

35 
36 



308,058 

8,345 

8,529 

36,753 

45,079 

54,872 

48,707 

33,381 

20,622 

15,492 

11,779 

9,596 

7,323 

4,052 

2,049 

1,173 

306 

151,620 

3,900 

3,878 

17,836 

22,059 

28,049 

24,911 

16,568 

10,056 

7,368 

5,496 

4,462 

3.442 

1,916 

1,007 

563 

109 

150,140 

3,747 

4,463 

18,183 

22,104 

25,815 

22,907 

16,196 

10,207 

7,865 

6,106 

4,990 

3,777 

2,061 

1,009 

590 

120 

6,298 

100.0 

49.2 

48.7 

2.0 

35 

35 
35 



240,252 

7,105 

5.751 

25.790 

34.207 

42,074 

36,459 

25,108 

16,155 

11,883 

9,610 

8,738 

8,614 

5,275 

2,376 

1,103 

4 

120,430 

3,499 

2,503 

12,271 

16,836 

21,667 

18,927 

12,447 

7,906 

5,394 

4,298 

4,176 

5,150 

3,337 

1,445 

572 

2 

114,273 

3.240 

3.044 

12.807 

16.600 

19.478 

16,673 

12,091 

7.905 

6.255 

5.138 

4.413 

3.356 

1.859 

896 

516 

2 

5.549 

100.0 

50.1 
47.6 

2.3 

36 

36 
36 



314,681 

8.854 

6.812 

31.357 

37.957 

47,913 

45,436 

33,471 

23,969 

18,854 

17,165 

14,664 

12,979 

8,642 

4,314 

2,273 

21 

155,910 

4.428 

3.244 

15.032 

18.572 

24.405 

23,259 

16,741 

11,483 

8,461 

7,591 

6,783 

7,106 

5,096 

2,566 

1,130 

13 

157,980 

4,228 

3.543 

16,278 

19,334 

23,445 

22,110 

16,643 

12,427 

10,335 

9,537 

7,840 

5,850 

3,529 

1,741 

1,134 

6 

791 

100.0 

49.5 
50.2 

.3 

37 
36 
37 



434,107 

9,814 

8,728 

41,618 

49,404 

61,786 

62,349 

49,136 

37,313 

29,030 

25,678 

20.879 

17.139 

11.763 

5.856 

3.595 

19 

205,671 

4,768 

4,024 

19,342 

23,323 

30,001 

30,638 

23,780 

17,377 

12,761 

11,042 

9,108 

8,594 

6,280 

3.059 

1.567 

7 

221,367 

4.743 

4.428 

21.357 

25.388 

30.886 

30.776 

24,530 

19,334 

15,851 

14,255 

11,471 

8,342 

5.315 

2,714 

1,967 

10 

7,069 

100.0 

47.4 

51.0 

1.6 

38 

37 
38 



488,088 

7,294 

8.864 

41.764 

50,632 

65,856 

70,654 

59,132 

45.120 

33.934 

30,558 

24,666 

20,153 

14.653 

8.408 

6.277 

123 

230,754 

3.369 

4,051 

19,531 

24.029 

32.571 

35.442 

28,961 

21,395 

15,221 

13,318 

10,947 

8,898 

6,708 

3,805 

2,439 

69 

253,698 

3,430 

4,715 

22,031 

26,319 

32,935 

34,823 

29,825 

23.438 

18,433 

16,953 

13,510 

11,072 

7,828 

4.536 

3,798 

52 

3,636 

100.0 

47.3 

52.0 

.7 

39 

38 
39 



1,044,689 

15,159 

14,543 

74,432 

101,607 

140,715 

152,774 

129,105 

97,817 

73,562 

63,648 

53,554 

45,430 

34,408 

20.203 

18.216 

9,516 

457,273 

4,900 

5,745 

30,519 

44,839 

68,239 

73.244 

59,595 

43,716 

30,748 

25,957 

21,880 

17,963 

13,203 

7,290 

5,566 

3,869 

522,101 

5,237 
7,435 
39.255 
50.775 
65,448 
72.136 
63.013 
48.737 
37,853 
33.451 
28.032 
24.373 
18.859 
11,621 
11,582 
4,294 

65,315 

100.0 

43.8 

50.0 

6.2 

40 

39 
40 



- Represents zero. Z Rounds to less than .05 percent. 



162 



VI. ENFORCEMENT 



This section provides information about actions taken by the Immigration and 
Naturalization Sen/ice to prevent illegal entry into the United States and to 
apprehend and remove deportable aliens from the United States. 



Enforcement of Immigration 
Laws 



Dakota; Buffalo in New York; Swanton in Vermont; 
Detroit in Michigan; Ramey in Puerto Rico; and Houlton 
in Maine. 



The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) has the 
initial responsibility for determining who may be admitted 
to the United States. The INS also has the responsibility 
for enforcing immigration laws within the United States 
and on the borders. These responsibilities include locating 
and arresting aliens who are in violation of the 
Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) (see Appendix 1, 
p. A.1-I2), i.e., aliens attempting an illegal entry, aliens 
who successfully complete an illegal entry, and aliens who 
entered the United States legally but have since lost their 
legal status. The arrests are known as apprehensions. 
Almost all of the work involved in locating and arresting 
aliens is done by cither Border Patrol agents or 
Investigations special agents. The custody and processing 
of apprehended aliens is a joint effort involving arresting 
agents, INS attorneys, and detention and deportation 
officers. Aliens refused admission or apprehended may be 
removed from the United States as described below. 

Border Patrol 

The primary mission of the U.S. Border Patrol is to secure 
the 8, OCX) miles of land and water boundaries of the United 
States between ports of entry. The major objectives of the 
Border Patrol are to prevent illegal entry into the United 
States, interdict drug smugglers and other criminals, and 
compel those persons seeking admission to present 
themselves legally at ports of entry for inspection. The 
INS "prevention through deterrence" strategy calls for 
deploying Border Patrol agents along the border to prevent 
and deter illegal entry, rather than apprehending 
undocumented immigrants after they have entered the 
United States. Border Patrol operations are divided into 21 
sectors. The southwest border covers four states 
(California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas) and divides 
into nine sectors: San Diego and El Centro in California; 
Yuma and Tucson in Arizona; El Paso sector covering 
New Mexico and the western-most portion of Texas; and 
Marfa, Del Rio, Laredo, and McAllen in Texas. The 
remaining 12 sectors are: Livermore in California; New 
Orleans in Louisiana; Miami in Florida; Havre in Montana; 
Blaine and Spokane in Washington; Grand Forks in North 



Investigations Program 

The Investigations Program focuses on the enforcement of 
immigration laws within the interior of the United States. 
Special agents plan and conduct investigations of persons 
and events subject to the administrative and criminal 
provisions of the INA. As immigration officers, they must 
not only enforce the INA to bring about administrative or 
criminal punitive actions, but also have an obligation to 
inform, assist, and serve the alien and citizen public 
whenever appropriate. Agents use both traditional and 
modem technological methods, including forensic science, 
to investigate violations of immigration law and aliens 
involved in criminal activities. They often work as team 
members in multi-agency task forces against violent crime, 
document fraud, narcotic trafficking, and various forms of 
organized crime. They also seek to identify aliens who are 
incarcerated and deportable as a result of their criminal 
convictions. In addition. Agents monitor and inspect work 
sites to apprehend unauthorized alien workers and to 
impose sanctions against employers who knowingly 
employ them. Apprehensions at places of employment 
may result in removals from the workplace and also can 
result in removal from the United States. 



More than 51,000 criminal aliens 
were removed during 1997. 

Removals 

Removals proceedings encompass the actions that lead to 
the formal removal of an alien from the United States when 
the presence of that alien is deemed inconsistent with the 
public welfare. The INS has several options in removing an 
alien from the United States. Traditionally, these options 
included deportation, voluntary departure and exclusion; 
however, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant 
Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA, see Appendix 1, p. 
A. 1-23) made major revisions to these procedures that were 
effective on April 1, 1997. Deportation and exclusion 
proceedings were consolidated as removal proceedings 

163 



Thousands 
2,000-1 



Chart R 
Aliens Apprehended: Fiscal Years 1951-97 




1951 1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



1980 



1985 



1990 



1997 



Source: Table 58. See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 

(with voluntary departure continuing as an option at 
government convenience). The most significant change was 
the new authority for expedited removals. 

Most removals proceedings are conducted before an 
immigration judge. Possible outcomes of an immigration 
hearing include removal, adjustment to a legal status, or a 
termination of proceedings. Some aliens abscond before or 
after the hearing. Decisions of the immigration judge can 
be appealed to the Board of Immigration Appeals. 

Under expedited removal an immigration officer may 
determine that an arriving alien is inadmissible because the 
alien engaged in fraud or misrepresentation or because the 
alien lacks valid documents. The officer can order the 
alien removed without further hearing or review unless the 
alien states a fear of persecution or an intention to apply 
for asylum. Officers refer aliens who make such pleas to 
an asylum officer and the case may eventually be argued 
before an immigration judge. 

The penalties associated with formal removal include not 
only the removal but possible fines, imprisonment for up to 
10 years, and a bar to future legal entry for up to 20 years. 
The imposition and extent of these penalties depends upon 
the circumstances of the case. 
164 



Voluntary departure 

In some cases, an apprehended alien may be offered a 
voluntary departure. This procedure is common with non- 
criminal aliens who are apprehended by the Border Patrol 
during an attempted illegal entry. They agree that their 
entry was illegal, waive their right to a hearing, remain in 
custody, and are removed under supervision. Some aliens 
apprehended within the United States agree to voluntarily 
depart and pay the expense of departing. These departures 
may be granted by an immigration judge or, in some 
circumstances, by an INS District Director. Aliens who 
have agreed to a voluntary departure can be legally 
admitted in the future without penalty. Although such 
departures are called "voluntary departures," they are 
required and verified. 

Data Overview: Apprehensions 

(Tables 56, 57, 58, 59) 

Aliens are apprehended under three INS programs — 
Border Patrol, Investigations, and Inspections — the largest 
of these programs by far is the Border Patrol. In fiscal 
year 1997, the INS apprehended 1,536,520 aliens. Of this 
number, the Border Patrol made 1,412,953 apprehensions, 
of which 97 percent were made along the southwest 
border. During the fiscal year 1986-97 period, the Border 
Patrol accounted for between 92 to 97 percent of total 



apprehensions. Investigations for 3 to 8 percent, and 
Examinations for less than 1 percent. The program 
proportions shifted slightly between the Border Patrol and 
Investigations in 1997, with the Border Patrol making 92 
percent of total apprehensions, while 8 percent came from 
Investigations. In 1996 the Border Patrol accounted for 94 
percent of apprehensions and Investigations accounted for 
6 percent. 

Southwest border apprehensions (Table 58) 
Southwest border apprehensions were an all-time record 
1,615,844 in fiscal year 1986 and then decreased 3 
consecutive years immediately following enactment of the 
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRC A) of 1986 (see 
Appendix 1, p. A. 1-19). This legislation allowed 2.7 
million formerly illegal aliens to become legal immigrants, 
established sanctions against employers who hire illegal 
aliens, and an increase in the size of the Border Patrol. 
The number of apprehensions reached a low of 852,506 in 
1989 and has generally increased since then. The only 
years with annual decreases were 1994 and 1997. The 
number of southwest border apprehensions in 1997 was 
1,368,707, a 9 percent decrease compared to fiscal year 
1996. 

Border Operations 

Several major INS operations have had an impact on 
apprehensions over the years. These operations typically 
deploy agents nearer the border at strategic locations in 
order to deter illegal entry. The number of apprehensions 
tend to decrease in the targeted areas and increase in 
surrounding sectors. 

The first initiative was Operation Hold-the-Line, in El 
Paso, beginning in September 1993. The second. 
Operation Gatekeeper, began in San Diego in October 
1994. These two sectors accounted for two out of every 
three apprehensions along the southwest border in fiscal 
year 1993. The percentage dropped to 50 percent of the 
total in 1995, and was approximately 30 percent in fiscal 
year 1997. 

The number of apprehensions in El Centro, CA and 
Tucson, AZ, the sectors east of San Diego, increased 
following introduction of Operation Gatekeeper. The 
number of apprehensions in Tucson increased from 
139,000 in fiscal year 1994 to 272,000 in fiscal year 1997. 
El Centro increased from 28,000 in fiscal year 1994 to 
146,000 in 1997. McAllen surpassed El Paso as the 
leading sector in number of apprehensions in Texas 
following Operation Hold-the-Line in fiscal year 1994, 
going from 124,000 in 1994 to 244,000 in 1997. Reacting 
to the increases, the INS began a new operation in 
McAllen in August 1997 called Operation Rio Grande. 



Nationality (Table 57) 

The INS began collecting and reporting the nationality of 
every apprehended alien in fiscal year 1987. Nationals of 
190 countries were apprehended in 1997 — aliens from 
Mexico predominated in the statistics, accounting for 96.2 
percent of the total. The next largest source countries were 
El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican 
Republic, Canada, Colombia, Jamaica, Cuba, Ecuador, and 
Nicaragua. 

Data Overview: Investigations 

(Table 60) 

Investigations workload is divided among four 

categories — criminal, worksite enforcement, fraud, and 

anti-smuggling. 

Criminal 

Criminal cases have historically represented the largest 
proportion of the total Investigations workload, for 
example, they account for 85 percent of cases completed 
in 1997. These cases have steadily increased over the 
years from 37,062 cases in 1991 to 74,612 in 1997, more 
than doubling. The targets of these investigations include 
large scale organizations engaged in ongoing criminal 
activity in violation of Title 8 or Title 18, U.S.C. or 
similar laws, including those pertaining to narcotics and 
terrorism. Criminal cases also include individual aliens 
convicted of a crime or crimes rendering them subject to 
INS action, aliens arrested for the commission of an 
aggravated felony, aliens involved in activities considered 
contrary to the security of the United States, and .aliens 
included in certain immoral classes. Defendants 
prosecuted in 1997 decreased 2 percent compared to the 
number in 1996, while the number of defendants 
convicted was down 7 percent. 

Worksite enforcement 

The focus of work site enforcement is employers of aliens 
who are not authorized to work. Immigration law prohibits 
the unlawful employment of aliens and provides for 
penalties and fines against employers who hire, recruit, or 
refer aliens to employment for a fee. Employer cases may 
involve criminal or administrative investigations as well as 
general inspections. Employer cases may also originate as 
referrals from the Department of Labor. Total work site 
cases completed dropped annually from 7,403 cases in 
fiscal year 1991 to 5,283 in 1995, and 5,149 cases in 1996, 
then rose to a high of 7,537 in 1997. The number of arrests 
rose significantly from 7,554 in fiscal year 1994 to 17,553 
in 1997, an increase of 132 percent. In addition, the 
number of warnings to employers in 1997 (733) increased 
10 percent compared to the number issued in 1996. 
Notices of intent to fine (862) decreased 15 percent while 
the number of final orders (771) was down by 5 percent. 



165 



Fraud investigations 

Fraud investigations seek to penetrate fraud schemes of all 
sizes and complexity that are used to violate immigration 
and related laws, or to shield the true status of illegal aliens 
in order to obtain entitlement benefits from federal, state, 
or local agencies. Fraud cases completed in fiscal year 
1997 increased 1 1 percent when compared to 1996. Of the 
4,843 fraud cases completed in fiscal year 1997, 70 percent 
pertained to individuals involved in immigration fraud, 2 
percent to large-scale organizations, 21 percent to 
facilitators, .5 percent to entitlement fraud, and the 
remaining 6.5 percent to special projects and civil 
document fraud (INA 274C). The majority of fraud cases 
involved immigration fraud stemming from aliens 
misrepresenting themselves through the misuse or absence 
of documents. 

Anti-smuggling activities 

Anti-smuggling activities of the INS include the detection, 
apprehension, and prosecution of alien smuggling 
operations. The target of these investigations are persons 
or entities who bring, transport, harbor, or smuggle illegal 
aliens into or within the United States. The targets include 
violators with a substantial volume of smuggled aliens or 
revenues from the smuggling activity, e.g., organized 
conspiracies consisting of four or more persons, and 
individuals such as freelance operators who smuggle 
infrequently or independently, or non-professional 
violators who smuggle relatives, household employees, or 
employees of small businesses. The ENS arrested 35,084 
smuggled aliens in fiscal year 1997, a 49 percent decrease 
from the high of 68,203 in 1995. 

Data Overview: Removals 

(Tables 61-69) 

The most complete picture of adverse actions involving 
individual aliens includes aliens who withdraw when 
presented with evidence of their inadmissibility, aliens who 
are allowed to voluntarily depart, and aliens who are 
formally removed with consequent penalties. The following 
table summarizes the activities in fiscal year 1997: 

Number of aliens 
Withdrew application for admission 556,966 

Accepted offer of voluntary departure 1 ,439,983 
Formally removed (with penalties) 1 14,060 

Withdrawal 

An Immigration Inspector makes the decision to grant a 
withdrawal at a port of entry. The Inspector also has the 
authority to put an arriving alien in expedited removal 
proceedings (discussed below). The INS has very little 
automated data on the characteristics of those that are 
granted a withdrawal. The statistics of total withdrawals 



have been significantly revised from previous Yearbooks. 
Current data indicate that there were 595,384 withdrawals 
in fiscal year 1995 and 597,220 in 1996. In 1997, 
Inspectors referred an additional 22,470 aliens to hearings 
before an immigration judge. There were 19,329 such 
refen-als in 1995 and 25,529 in 1996. 

Voluntary departure (Tables 61, 62) 
More than 97 percent of voluntary departures involve 
aliens who are apprehended by the Border Patrol and 
removed quickly. This statistic includes recidivists and 
thus is a measure of events rather than unique individuals. 
The INS does not currently have a centralized automated 
information system with the characteristics of most of 
these aliens. There are, however, characteristics for 
approximately 74,000 aliens who admitted that they had 
been in the United States for longer than 3 days. Of this 
group, approximately 99 percent were aliens from Mexico; 
their median age was 24 years, and 94 percent were male. 
These aliens are probably similar to the rest of the 
voluntary departures but they have been in the United 
States for a longer period; 35 percent had been here longer 
than a year and another 42 percent had been here longer 
than a month but less than one year. One other 
characteristic distinguishes this longer-staying group (but 
not all voluntary departures); the INS located 22 percent of 
these aliens in institutions (generally, county jails). Those 
found in incarceration were granted a witnessed voluntary 
departure because their crimes were minor or local 
authorities declined to prosecute. 

Formal removal (Table 61) 

In fiscal year 1997 the number of formal removals was up 
dramatically from previous years. This increase is the 
result of increased resources available to the program in 
recent years and the implementation of expedited removal 
procedures after April 1, 1997. The following table 
illustrates the impact of expedited removals (a subset of 
total removals): 



Fiscal year 


Total 
removals 


Expedited 
removals 


1993 

1994 

1995 

1996 

1997 


42,452 
45,524 
50,672 
69,317 
114,060 


X 
X 
X 

X 

23,487 




X Not applicable. 







The INS collects more data on the characteristics of aliens 
with a formal removal than it does for the other categories 
of removal. 



166 



Country of citizenship (Tables 64, 65) 
Aliens with a formal removal came from 164 countries 
in fiscal year 1997; 34 countries had more than 100 
aliens removed from the United States. However, just 8 
countries accounted for almost 92 percent of all formal 
removals. These same 8 countries have been the top 
countries for several years with approximately 88 
percent or more of all formal removals each year since 
1993. 



Crime 



Country 



Number 
removed 



Number of 
criminals 



Mexico 86,208 

El Salvador 3,865 

Honduras 3,820 

Guatemala 3,495 

Dominican 

Republic 2,669 

Colombia 2,014 

Jamaica 1,783 

Canada 696 



39,098 

1,538 

1,101 

811 

1,967 

1,499 

1,222 

393 



Criminal activity (Table 65) 

The passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act 
in 1986 helped the INS focus on the removal of those 
aliens determined to be the greatest threat to society. In 
fiscal year 1986 the INS removed 1,978 aliens for 
criminal violations (4 percent of all removals). The 
removal of criminal aliens has increased greatly since 
then. The 1997 removal of 51,141 criminals is the largest 
total ever, and an increase of 37 percent over 1996. The 
8 countries that account for most of the removals also are 
the countries that accounted for 93 percent of criminals 
the INS removed from the United States in 1997. They 
have been the leading countries in this category for 
several years with 91 percent or more of all criminals 
removed each year since 1993. One significant change 
within the group is that the number of criminal aliens 
from Canada has fallen from 1,065 in 1993 to 393 in 
1997. Since 1986, the INS has devoted an increasing 
proportion of resources to drug interdiction at the border 
and to interagency cooperative task forces designed to 
eliminate trafficking in illegal drugs within the United 
States. The INS also has increased its cooperation with 
other law enforcement agencies to ensure that aliens 
convicted of crimes and incarcerated are placed into 
removal proceedings during or at the end of their prison 
sentence. 

The ten most common categories of crime in fiscal year 
1997 include: 



Dangerous drugs . 

Immigration 

Burglary 

Assault 

Weapon offenses 

Robbery 

Larceny 

Stolen vehicle 

Sexual assault 

Forgery 



Number 


Percent of 


removed 


total crimes 


26,366 


52 


6,786 


13 


2,769 


5 


2,088 


4 


1,526 


3 


1,442 


3 


1,356 


3 


943 


2 


809 


2 


681 


1 



Administrative reason for removal 

(Tables 63, 66, 67, 68) 

The administrative reason for removal is the primary 
charge cited by an immigration judge in the order to 
remove an alien. There are more than 100 charges that 
might form the basis for a removal in 1997, but most fall 
into one of three main categories. Aliens who were present 
in the United States after making an illegal entry account 
for 34 percent of all aliens formally removed. Aliens who 
attempted entry without proper documents, or through 
fraud or misrepresentation, account for 31 percent and 
aliens with criminal charges account for 30 percent (a 
criminal alien as defined in the previous section may not 
have a criminal charge as the reason for removal if, for 
example, the immigration judge did not have appropriate 
documents from the relevant criminal justice system). 
There are striking differences between countries. El 
Salvadorans (66 percent), Hondurans (78), and 
Guatemalans (76) are concentrated in illegal entries. 
Aliens from the Dominican Republic (67 percent), 
Colombia (66), and Jamaica (62) are most likely to have a 
criminal charge. 

Immigration status at entry to the United States 

At least 56 percent of all aliens with a formal removal 
attempted (and perhaps completed) an illegal entry 
between designated ports of entry. Almost 21 percent 
attempted to enter at a port of entry without proper 
documents or through fraud or misrepresentation. The 
remainder made legal entries but then failed to maintain 
status; parolees, tourists, and legal permanent residents are 
the largest groups in this category. 

Aliens removed from the interior 

The INS defines "interior" removals as the removals of 
aliens who had been in the United States for longer than 3 
days. In fiscal year 1997 61,100 formal removals met this 
definition; about 54 percent of all formal removals. In 



167 



addition, as noted above, 73,907 aliens were allowed an 
escorted voluntary departure from the interior. 
Approximately 26,000 aliens with formal removals had 
been in the United States for longer than a year. Aliens 
apprehended in worksite operations and subsequently 
removed from the United States are a subset of aliens 
removed from the interior. There were 736 such aliens 
formally removed in 1997 (an additional 6,481 were 
allowed a voluntary departure). 

Gender and age 

The median age of aliens with a formal removal in fiscal 
year 1997 was 26 years, down slightly from the 27 years 
of age typical of the last several years. That decline is due 
to the increasing proportion of women among aliens 
removed; their median age was 25 years in 1997. Between 
1992 and 1995 the proportion of women was about 6 
percent. In 1996 the proportion rose to 12 percent and 
increased to almost 16 percent in 1997. Most of this 
increase is attributable to women from Mexico who 
attempted entry without proper documents or through 
firaud. In 1996 the special "Port Court" processing at the 
San Diego ports provided the resources necessary to put 
more arriving aliens into proceedings than had been 
possible before. This special processing continued until 
the implementation of expedited removal procedures in 
April 1997. In either case, larger numbers of women were 
intercepted as they attempted entry in the San Diego area. 

Understanding the Data 

Data Collection 

Apprehension and voluntary departure 

Apprehension data are collected on Form 1-213, Record of 
Deportable Alien Located. Much of the data collected 
establishes the identity of the individual and the 
circumstances of the apprehension. Some demographic 
data are available including country of birth, country of 
citizenship, gender, date of birth, and marital status. 
However, the Performance Analysis System (PAS, the 
principal automated data system for a variety of INS 
workload measures) captures only aggregated data on 
country of citizenship, location of apprehension, status at 
entry, length of time in the United States, and limited 
information on employment status. Individual INS offices 
report these data once a month. Statistics on the number 
of voluntary departures are also based on data captured on 
Form 1-213. The data on most voluntary departures arc 
aggregated and reported in PAS. The only data element 
collected is whether the alien was a Mexican national. 

Voluntary departure (interior) 

Data on aliens granted a voluntary departure who had been 
in the United States for longer than 3 days are collected 
from the Form 1-2 13s for those aliens. The data capture for 



this special subset of aliens is not aggregated to the office 
level but rather maintained at the individual alien level. 

Individuals removed 

The data on individuals removed with a formal order of 
removal or given a voluntary departure under docket 
control are more extensive. These data are collected via 
the INS' automated Deportable Alien Control System 
(DACS). The data captured include immigration status, 
type of entry into the United States, reasons for removal, 
history of criminal activity, limited employment 
information, and basic demographic information such as 
date of birth, gender, marital status, country of birth, 
country of citizenship, and country to which deported. In 
general, these data are entered in DACS over a period of 
time that begins with the placing of an apprehended alien 
in docket control. In some INS offices most of the data 
entry is done at the time of case closure (removal, 
adjustment of status, etc.). 

Other data 

Data on drug seizures, accomplishments of the Border 
Patrol, accomplishments of the Investigations program, 
prosecutions, fines, convictions, and judicial activities are 
captured in PAS. As noted above, these are aggregated 
data updated once a month by INS offices. 

Limitations of Data 

Case tracking 

The INS' current data systems cannot link an apprehension 
to its final disposition (removal, adjustment of status, etc.). 
Therefore, analysts should use caution when comparing 
apprehension and removal data. Apprehended aliens who 
choose to use the available appeals procedures will spend 
several months and perhaps several years in the process 
before final disposition of their cases. In other words, 
aliens apprehended in any given fiscal year are quite likely 
to be removed (or adjusted to legal status, etc.) in some 
future fiscal year. In addition, INS statistics on 
apprehensions and removals relate to events, not 
individuals. For example, if an alien has been apprehended 
three times during the fiscal year, that individual will 
appear three times in the apprehension statistics. 

Time lags in data entry 

The data on removals under docket control (formal 
removals) reported in this and other Statistical Yearbooks 
should be used cautiously. One problem is the time lag in 
reporting removals. The data in this Yearbook have been 
adjusted to reflect the actual year of removal. The data for 
each fiscal year require updating and cannot be considered 
complete for at least 4 years. For example, the removals 
reported during fiscal year 1997 that occurred in 1996 
increased the number for fiscal year 1996 by 1 percent. 



168 



Changes in definitions 

Another area of caution involves changes in definitions 
across years. For example, the INS has expanded the 
information about the crimes of aliens removed in recent 
years. This change allows the INS to more accurately 
count the number of criminals that it removes. The 
statistics in this Yearbook reflect these changes and 
update the data on criminals from fiscal year 1990 
onward. 

Changes in definitions and new reporting requirements 
may also explain some of the variations in the data 
concerning Investigations activities. In particular, there 
have been significant changes in the reporting 



requirements for anti-smuggling and worksite enforcement 
activities. 

Tracking system for worksite 

Another historical problem has been the difficulty in 
providing the number of work site apprehensions that have 
resulted in deportation or removal from the United States. 
Until 1997, an adequate tracking system did not exist to 
track the number of aliens removed from the United States 
who were arrested during work-site enforcement 
operations. Currently, the Deportable Alien Control 
System (DACS) and the Voluntary Returns (IVR) systems 
provide data but there have been data collection problems 
associated with the new data entry requirements. 



169 



THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 



170 



TABLE 56. DEPORTABLE ALIENS LOCATED: FISCAL YEARS 1892-1997 



Year 


Deportable aliens located ' 


Year 


Deportable aliens located ' 


1892-1997 

1892-1900 


36324,675 

NA 
NA 

NA 
128,484 

147,457 
1,377,210 
3,598,949 

1,608356 

88,823 
92,758 
88,712 
86,597 
110,371 

138,520 
161,608 
212,057 
283,557 
345,353 

8321,498 

420,126 
505,949 
655.968 
788,145 
766,600 


1976 

1976, TQ' 

1977 

1978 


875,915 
221,824 


1901-10 


1,042,215 
1 057 977 




1979 

1980 




1921-30 


1,076,418 




910,361 


1931-40 


1981-90 




lOdl.Sft 


11,883328 


1951-60 


1981 

1982 

1983 

1984 

1985 

1986 

1987 


975,780 


1961-70 

1961 

1962 

1963 


970,246 
1,251,357 
1,246,981 
1,348,749 


1964 


1,767,400 


1965 


1,190,488 




1988 


1 008 145 


1966 


1989 






954 243 


1967 


1990 

1991-97 




1968 


1,169,939 


1969 


9,459393 

1 197 875 


1970 


1991 


1971-80 „ 


1992 

1993 


1,258,482 
1,327 259 


1971 


1994 


1 094 717 


1972 

1973 


1995 

1996 


1,394,554 


1974 


1 649 986 


1975 


1997 


1 536 520 









' Aliens apprehended were first recorded in 1925. Prior to 1960. data represent total aliens actually apprehended. Since 1960, figures are for total deportable 
aliens located, including nonwillful crewman violators. ' The three-month period — July 1 through September 30, 1976 — between fiscal year 1976 and fiscal year 
1977. 



NOTE: See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 



NA Not available. 



171 



TABLE 57. DEPORTABLE ALIENS LOCATED BY STATUS AT ENTRY 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Region and country 
of nationality 



All 
located 



Visitor 



Crew- 
man 



Student 



Temporary worker 



Agricul- 
ture 



Other 



Inuni- 
grant 



Stow- 
away 



TWOV 



Entry 

without 

inspection 



All countries . 



Europe 

France 

Germany 

Ireland 

Italy 

Poland 

Portugal 

United Kingdom .... 
Yugoslavia, former 
Other Europe 



Asia 

China, People's Republic . 

India 

Iran 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Lebanon 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Vietnam 

Other Asia 



Africa 

Liberia 

Nigeria 

Other Africa 



Oceania . 



North America 

Belize 

Canada 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Dominican Republic . 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Jamaica 

Mexico 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

Trinidad & Tobago ... 
Other North America 



South America 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Peru 

Venezuela 

Other South America 



Unknown or not reported 



1,536,520 

2,988 

115 
205 
46 
137 
325 
168 
482 
110 
1,400 

6,581 

656 
643 
262 
170 
87 
177 
339 
115 
383 
835 
849 
2,065 

2,244 

95 

592 

1,557 

240 

1,518,732 

290 

3,892 

259 

1,498 

4,639 

8,772 

7,437 

962 

8,071 

1,926 

1,478,782 

1,027 

189 

402 

586 

5,723 
124 
439 
2,404 
1,143 
256 
650 
307 
400 

12 



12,162 

1,206 

66 
95 
15 
48 

190 
37 

194 
32 

529 

1,661 

122 

171 

96 

93 

47 

62 

96 

50 

152 

195 

13 

564 

812 

44 
183 
585 

135 

6,821 

51 
990 

90 

15 
369 

66 
129 

96 

157 

461 

3,835 

84 

68 
170 
240 

1,523 

75 
261 
546 
103 

36 
202 
161 
139 



922 
130 

4 

I 

4 

2 

10 

2 

107 

199 

15 

37 

1 

1 

4 
5 

10 
95 

31 

16 

1 



494 

2 
I 

7 

21 

8 

15 

271 

46 

30 

52 

18 

4 

6 

13 

83 

1 
36 

4 

6 

12 

17 

7 



710 

53 

6 



4 
3 
2 
7 

31 

234 

17 
19 

37 

16 
19 
16 
10 
19 
10 

71 

213 

7 
92 
114 

10 

151 

5 
16 

1 

11 

10 

1 

6 

3 

II 

56 

7 

2 

12 

10 

49 

5 
2 
21 
4 
1 
7 
5 
4 



98 



1 
2 

2 

3 

83 

4 



41 

28 



264 
11 



145 

44 
2 



1 
9 

1 
80 

4 
4 



2 
5 

1 

94 

13 

3 
7 
6 
2 
1 
2 
14 
41 
1 
4 



14,063 

594 

15 
63 
10 
56 
38 
79 

127 
25 

181 

1,588 

92 

55 

36 

26 

11 

52 

143 

30 

30 

343 

389 

381 

286 

18 
122 
146 

48 

10,494 

90 
163 

27 
373 
1,441 
403 
148 
217 
116 
836 
6,218 

72 

57 
163 
170 

1,049 

24 
20 

557 
97 

166 
93 
35 
57 



622 
8 
1 

2 



2,934 



1 

2 

12 

3 



539 



4 
6 

85 
4 
1 
4 
7 

16 
396 

6 

7 
3 

56 



50 
4 
1 



1 
2 

2 
1 

I 

1 

2,903 



1 

13 

3 

2,881 



20 



17 

1 

2 



1,499,267 

654 

17 
20 
12 
13 
75 
43 
67 
36 
371 

U80 

291 

292 
59 
43 
4 
31 
48 
19 

142 
56 
32 

363 

532 
14 

133 
385 

25 

1,493,963 

135 
2,592 

122 

328 
2,540 
8,245 
7,116 

248 
7,692 

366 
1,463,573 

834 
35 
27 

110 

2,710 

II 

144 

1,076 

908 

25 

307 

70 

169 



' TWOV represents transit without visa. See Glossary for definition. 
- Represents zero. 



172 



TABLE 58. DEPORTABLE ALIENS LOCATED BY PROGRAM AND BORDER PATROL SECTOR 

FISCAL YEARS 1991-97 



Program and Border Patrol sector 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Program: 

All programs ....-.„.„. 

Border Patrol 

Investigations 

Examinations 

Border Patrol sector: 
All southwest sectors 

San Diego, CA 

Tucson. AZ 

McAllen.TX 

EL Centro. CA 

Laredo. TX 

EL Paso, TX 

Del Rio, TX 

Yuma, AZ 

Marfa,TX 

All other sectors ....... 

Livermore, CA 

New Orleans, LA .... 

Miami. FL 

Havre, MT 

Blaine, WA 

Spokane, WA 

Grand Forks, ND .... 

Buffalo, NY 

Swanton, VT 

Detroit, MI 

Ramey, PR 

Houlton, ME 



1,197,875 

1.132.933 

64,819 

123 



1,077,876 

540.347 
59.728 
87.319 
30,450 
72,293 

211,775 

38,554 

28,646 

8,764 

55,057 
26.061 

4,877 
6,621 
1,220 
3,520 

1,373 

753 
1,892 
3.125 
1.428 
3.399 

788 



U58,481 

1,199,560 

58,317 

604 



1,145,574 

.565,581 
71,036 
85,889 
29.852 
72,449 

248,642 
33,414 
24,892 
13,819 

53,986 

23,184 
5,031 
6,980 
1.277 
4,217 
1.690 

916 
1.715 
3,002 
1,504 
3,551 

919 



1327,261 

1,263,490 

60,761 

3,010 



1,212,886 

531,689 
92,639 

109,048 
30,058 
82,348 

285,781 
42,289 
23,548 
15,486 

50,604 

21,148 
4,919 
6,212 
1,237 
4.473 
1,753 

1,162 
1,483 
2,564 
1,291 
3,587 
775 



1,094,719 

1,031,668 

61,973 

1,078 



979,101 

450,152 

139,473 

124,251 

27,654 

73,142 

79,688 
50,036 
21,211 
13,494 

52,567 

23,282 
4,013 
7,865 
1,298 
3,999 
2,061 

1,237 
1,177 
1,705 
1,214 
4,364 
352 



1394,554 

1,324,202 

69,528 

824 



1,271390 

524,23! 

227,529 

169,101 

37,317 

93,305 

110,971 
76,490 
20,894 
11,552 

52,812 

17,956 
5,389 

11,981 
1,456 
4,067 
1,992 

1,451 
1,634 
1,951 

1,424 

3,218 

293 



1,649,986 

1,549,876 

98,391 

1,719 



1,507,020 

483,815 
305,348 
210,5.53 
66,873 
131,841 

145,929 

121,137 

28,310 

13,214 

42,856 

12,756 
8,642 
8,258 
1,483 
2,224 
1352 

1334 
2,090 
1,712 
1,304 
1,454 
247 



1,536,520 

1,412,953 

121,893 

1,674 



1368,707 

283,889 
272,397 
243,793 
146,210 
141,893 

124,376 

113,280 

30,177 

12,692 

44,246 

10,607 
9,094 
8,305 
2,813 
2,684 
2,331 

1,978 
2,065 
1,664 
1,500 
896 
309 



173 



TABLE 59. PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE BORDER PATROL 

FISCAL YEARS 1991-97 



Activities and 
accomplishments 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Persons processed by the 
Border Patrol ' 



Deportable aliens located by 
the Border Patrol 

Mexican aliens 

Working in agriculture 

Working in trades, crafts, 
industry, and service 

Welfare/seeking employment 

Canadian aliens 

All others 

Smugglers of aliens located 



Aliens located who were 
smuggled into the United States 

Seizures (conveyances) 



Value of seizures (dollars) 

Narcotics 

Other 



1,152,667 

1,132,933 

1,095,122 
4,707 

8,095 

978,807 

6,666 

31,145 

18,826 

64,170 
14,261 

950,199,178 

910,146,141 
40,053,037 



1,221,904 

1,199,560 

1,168,946 
5,488 

7,165 

1,065,159 

6,167 

24,447 

17,237 

69,538 
11,391 

1,247,938,634 

1,216,833,993 
31,104,641 



1,281,721 

1,263,490 

1,230,124 
5.393 

7,403 

1,117,414 

5,249 

28,117 

15,266 

80,835 
10,995 

1382,898,517 

1,337,766,371 
45,132,146 



1,046,576 

1,031,668 

999,890 
5,162 

8,068 

901,826 

3,400 

28,378 

14,143 

92,934 
9,134 

1,598,053,619 

1,555,731.987 
42,321.632 



1336,518 



1324,202 

1,293,508 

4,487 

12,552 

1,185,761 

3,463 

27,231 

12.796 



102.591 
9.327 

2,011,767,972 

1.965,311.238 
46.456.734 



1,561,234 

1349,876 

1,523,141 
2,684 

9,413 

1,405314 

2,746 

23,989 

13,458 

122,233 
11,129 

1,255378,759 

1,208,778,533 
46,600.226 



1,422,829 

1,412,953 

1387,650 
3,521 

10,146 

1,279,923 

2,935 

22,368 

12,523 

124,605 
11,792 

1,094,589,207 

1,046,292.774 
48,296.433 



' Includes deportable aliens located and non-deportable (e.g., U.S. citizens and legal permanent resident aliens). 

NOTE: Data on aliens previously expelled, aliens located with previous criminal records, conveyances examined, and persons questioned shown in previous 
Yearbooks are not available starting in fiscal year 1990. Data for narcotics have been adjusted for fiscal year 1995. 



174 



TABLE 60. PRINCIPAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE DMS INVESTIGATIONS PROGRAM 

FISCAL YEARS 1991-97 



Activities and accomplishments 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



Criminal investigations: ' 

Cases completed 

Defendants prosecuted 

Defendants convicted 

Employer investigations: ' 

Cases completed 

Wamings 

Notice of Intent to Rne 

Fmal orders 

Arrests 

Fraud investigations: ' 

Cases completed 

Defendants prosecuted 

Defendants convicted 

Smuggling investigations: ' 

Cases completed 

Smugglers arrested 

Smuggled aliens arrested 

Defendants prosecuted ' 

Defendants convicted 

Entered without inspection/status violators: 

Cases completed 

Aliens arrested 



37,062 
2,307 
3.210 

7,403 
1,179 
1,274 
946 
7,871 

5,146 
602 
403 

8,164 
13,944 
38,365 

4,352 
NA 

28,884 
7,175 



38,716 
2,027 
1,688 



7.053 
840 
1,461 
1,063 
8,027 



3,428 
532 
494 

7,073 
13,454 
38,498 

3,030 
NA 



24,048 
6,507 



45.291 
2.041 
1,954 

6,237 
758 

1,302 
944 

7,630 

4,416 
525 
421 

6,955 
11,244 
48,017 

2,491 
NA 

23,841 

7,375 



46,236 
2,386 
2,172 

6,169 
683 

1,063 
836 

7,554 

5,800 
308 

225 

4,750 

8,787 

53,078 

2,029 

NA 

19,364 

8,458 



45,619 
1,965 

1,590 

5,283 

550 

1,055 

909 

10,014 

6,455 
389 

257 

5,358 

8,580 

68,203 

2,636 

NA 

23,624 
8,793 



54,065 
1.468 
1.254 

5.149 

668 

1.019 

808 

14.164 

4,369 
613 
339 

2.643 
4.699 
43.243 
3,360 
2,838 



33,138 
15,365 



74,612 
1,436 
1,166 

7,537 

733 

862 

771 

17,552 



4,843 
332 
190 

1,171 
3,381 
35,084 
2,287 
1,910 



33,910 
13,702 



' Criminal alien cases include large-scale organizations engaged in ongoing criminal activity and individual aliens convicted of crimes such as terrorism or drug 
trafGcking. 

' Employer investigations target employers of unauthorized aliens and include criminal investigations, administrative investigations, auxiliary investigations, INS 
Headquarters Investigation Project, and Department of Labor ES A-9 1 . 

' Fraud investigations seek to peneu-ate fraud schemes of all sizes and degrees of complexity which are used to violate immigration and related laws or to shield the 
true stams of illegal aliens in order to obtain entitlement benefits. The fraud schemes may be related to marriage fraud, immigration benefit fraud, employer sanctions 
document fraud, other document fraud, and entitlement fraud. 

' At the start of fiscal year 1996. Performance Analysis System (PAS) Anti-smuggling reporting was merged with PAS Investigations. Smuggling cases involve those 
which target persons or entities who bring, u-ansport, harbor, or smuggle illegal aliens into or within the United Stales. 
' Data for fiscal year 1991 represent principals accepted for prosecution; beginning fiscal year 1992, data represent defendants prosecuted. 

' Includes Entry Without Inspection (EWl), such as stowaways, or landed crewmen who were ordered detained on board, and status violators. The latter category 
pertains to alien apprehensions for violating the terms of admission, e.g., staying longer in the United States than permitted. Frequendy, such aliens are not themselves 
investigative targets, but are located during other investigations. 

NA Not available. 



175 



TABLE 61. ALIENS EXPELLED 
FISCAL YEARS 1892-1997 



Year 


Formal removals ' 


Voluntary departures ' 


1892-1997 


2,082,898 

25,642 


32,829,384 


1892-1900 


NA 


1901-10 


119,769 


NA 


1911-20 


206,021 


NA 


1921-30 


281,464 


72,233 


1931-40 


185,303 


93,330 


1941-50 


141,112 


1,470,925 


1951-60 


150,472 


3,883,660 


1961-70 


101,205 


1,334,528 


1961 


8,181 


52,383 


1962 


8,025 


54,164 


1963 


7,763 


69,392 


1964 


9,167 


73,042 


1965 


10,572 


95,263 


1966 


9,680 


123,683 


1967 


9,728 


142,343 


1968 


9,590 


179,952 


1969 


11,030 


240,958 


1970 


17,469 


303,348 


1971-80 


240,217 


7,246,812 


1971 


18,294 


370,074 


1972 


16,883 


450,927 


1973 


17,346 


568,005 


1974 


19,413 


718,740 


1975 


24,432 


655,814 


1976 


29,226 


765,094 


1976, TQ 


9,245 


190,280 


1977 


31,263 


867,015 


1978 


29,277 


975,515 


1979 


26,825 


966,137 


1980 


18,013 


719,211 


1981-90 


232,830 


9,961,912 


1981 


17,379 


823,875 


1982 


15,216 


812,572 


1983 


19,211 


931,600 


1984 


18,696 


909.833 


1985 


23,105 


1,041,296 


1986 


24,592 


1,586,320 


1987 


24,336 


1,091.203 


1988 


25,829 


911,790 


1989 


34,427 


830,890 


1990 


30,039 


1,022,533 


1991-97 


398,863 


8,765,984 


1991 


33,189 


1,061,105 


1992 


43,649 


1,105,832 


1993 


42,452 


1,243.313 


1994 


45,524 


1,028,966 


1995 


50,672 


1,313,601 


1996 


69,317 


1,573,184 


1997 


1 14,060 


1,439,983 



' Formal removals include deportations, exclusions, and removals. See text for further 
information about the different types of formal removals. 

' Voluntary departures includes aliens under docket control required to depart and 
voluntary departures not under docket control; first recorded in 1927. 

NOTE: See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 

NA Not available. 



176 



TABLE 62. ALIENS EXPELLED BY REGION AND DISTRICT OFFICE 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Region and district office 



Voluntary departures ' 



All regions 

Eastern Region ....... 

Atlanta, GA 

Baltimore, MD 

Boston, MA 

Buffalo, NY 

Cleveland, OH 

Detroit, MI 

Miami, FL 

New Orleans, LA .. 

New York, NY 

Newark, NJ 

Philadelphia, PA ... 

Portland, ME 

San Juan, PR 

Washington, DC ... 

Central Region 

Chicago, IL 

Dallas. TX 

Denver, CO 

El Paso, TX 

Harlingen, TX 

Helena, MT 

Houston, TX 

Kansas City, MO .. 

Omaha, NE 

St. Paul, MN 

San Antonio, TX .. 

Western Region ....... 

Anchorage, AK 

Honolulu, HI 

Los Angeles, CA .. 

Phoenix, AZ 

Portland, OR 

San Diego, CA 

San Francisco, CA 
Seattle, WA 



1,439,983 

12,622 

1,529 

235 

69 

1,814 

338 

1,338 

2,820 

274 

232 

444 

687 

1,197 

1,234 

411 

656,250 

1,539 

10,352 

792 

135,675 

243,518 

1,964 

471 

1,046 

1,233 

1,633 

258,027 

771,111 

93 

221 

13,356 

311,033 

740 

426,829 

15,146 

3,693 



' Formal removals include deportations, exclusions, and removals. See text for further information about the different types of 
formal removals. 
' Voluntary departures include aliens under docket control required to depart and voluntary departures not under docket control. 



177 



TABLE 63. ALIENS REMOVED BY ADMINISTRATIVE REASON FOR REMOVAL 

FISCAL YEARS 1991-97 



Year 


Total 


Attempted entry without 

proper documents or 

through fraud or 

misrepresentation 


Criminal 


Failed to 

maintain 

status 


Previously 

removed, 

ineligible for 

reentry 


1991 

1992 

1993 

1994 

1995 

1996 

1997 


33,189 
43,649 
42,452 
45,524 
50,672 
69,317 
1 14,060 


3,058 
3,597 
3,031 
3,521 
5,802 
15,338 
35,915 


14,475 
20,100 
22,427 
24,542 
25,619 
27,542 
33,951 


1,135 
1,077 
779 
701 
599 
696 
999 


735 
1.008 

929 
1,030 
1,424 
1,962 
3,199 





Present 




Smuggling or 






Year 


without 
authorization ' 


Security 


aiding illegal 
entry 


Other 


Unknown 


1991 


13,347 


7 


28 


191 


213 


1992 


17,418 


32 


169 


93 


155 


1993 


14,971 


54 


207 


30 


24 


1994 


15,413 


57 


216 


28 


16 


1995 


16,957 


34 


196 


35 


6 


1996 


23,407 


36 


271 


62 


3 


1997 


39,047 


30 


378 


529 


12 



' Includes those aliens charged under the statutes previous to April 1, 1997 as "entered without inspection". 

NOTE: The administrative reason for formal removal is the legal basis for removal. Some aliens who are criminals may be removed under a different administrative 
reason (or charge) for the convenience of the government. Removals include those actions known as deportation and exclusion prior to the revision of law that was 
effective April 1, 1997. 



178 



TABLE 64. ALIENS REMOVED BY TYPE OF REMOVAL AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEAR 1997 



Region and country of nationality ' 


Total 


Deportation ' 


Exclusion ' 


Inadmissability ' 


Deportability ' 




114,060 


47,558 


13,670 


39,162 


13,670 


Europe — 


1,616 


834 


170 


307 


305 


Czechoslovakia, former 


77 


13 


3 


24 


37 


France 


72 


36 


7 


11 


18 


Germany 


109 


64 


13 


7 


25 


Italy 


119 


60 


12 


15 


32 


Poland 


147 


66 


22 


52 


7 


Portugal 


68 


50 


7 


8 


3 


Romania 


90 


63 


12 


8 


7 


Soviet Union, former 


158 


85 


17 


42 


14 


Russia 


83 


47 


8 


19 


9 


Other & unknown republic 


75 


38 


9 


23 


5 


Spain 


50 


25 


2 


9 


14 


United Kingdom 


344 


201 


30 


29 


84 


Yugoslavia, former 


78 


41 


9 


11 


17 




304 


130 


36 


91 


47 


Asia 


2384 


934 


658 


600 


192 


Bangladesh 


59 


13 


35 


10 


1 


China, People's Republic 


485 


40 


257 


169 


19 


India 


291 


95 


104 


80 


12 


Iran 


60 


32 


12 


11 


5 


Israel 


130 


69 


14 


41 


6 




93 


61 


5 


5 


22 


Jordan 


105 


71 


9 


20 


5 




124 


61 


9 


30 


24 


Lebanon 


49 


35 


6 


7 


1 




259 


84 


72 


89 


14 


Philippines 


405 


245 


43 


62 


55 




324 

1,174 

51 


128 

532 
23 


92 

339 

7 


76 

248 

20 


28 


Africa 


55 


Egypt 


1 


Ghana 


167 


38 


79 


46 


4 


Nigeria 


392 


210 


109 


51 


22 




564 
150 


261 
94 


144 
8 


131 
17 


28 


Oceania 


31 




104,631 

696 


43,262 

170 


11,751 

174 


36,868 

265 


12,750 




87 


Mexico 


86,208 


31,783 


10,520 


33,368 


10,537 




5,535 


3,412 


772 


954 


397 


Bahamas The 


59 


38 


6 


9 


6 


Baibados 


50 


42 


3 


3 


2 


Cuba 


73 


7 


61 


4 


1 


Dominican Republic 


2,669 


1,847 


208 


386 


228 


Haiti 


480 


206 


156 


94 


24 


Jamaica 


1,783 


985 


305 


387 


106 




250 


165 


13 


54 


18 


Other Caribbean 


171 
12,192 

130 


122 

7,897 

88 


20 

285 

3 


17 
2,281 

23 


12 




1,729 


Behze 


16 




148 
3,865 
3,495 


40 
2,614 
2.157 


17 

68 

116 


75 
590 
749 


16 




593 




473 


Honduras 


3,820 


2,422 


49 


762 


587 


Nicaragua 


596 


477 


20 


66 


33 


Panama 


138 


99 


12 


16 


11 




4,0S1 

67 
152 


1,887 

31 
30 


743 

7 

36 


1,114 

16 

81 


337 




13 


Bolivia 


5 


Brazil 


319 


79 


67 


159 


14 


Chile 


100 


46 


13 


24 


17 


Colombia 


2,014 


1,090 


342 


384 


198 




499 


219 


91 


170 


19 




220 
442 


111 

202 


65 
51 


41 
143 


3 


Peru 


46 


Venezuela 


235 


64 


62 


89 


20 




33 

24 


15 
15 


9 

1 


7 
8 


2 


Stateless or not reported 





' Country is defined as nationality for sovereign stales and counuy of birth for dependencies. 
' Deportations and exclusions are removals charged under provisions of law in effect before April 1. 1997. 
' Inadmissibility and deportability are removals charged under provisions of law in effect after April 1, 1997. 

- Represents zero. 



179 



TABLE 65. ALIENS REMOVED BY CRIMINAL STATUS AND REGION AND 

SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97 



Region and country 
of nationality ' 



1993 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Non- 
criminal 



1994 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Non- 
criminal 



1995 



Total 



Criminal ' 



All countries 

Europe 

Albania 

Andorra 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former .. 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Luxembourg 

Malta 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Georgia 

Kazakhstan 

Moldova 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Bosnia-Herzegovina .... 

Croatia 

Macedonia 

Slovenia 

Unknown 

Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bahrain 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Republic 

Cyprus 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

See foouiotes at end of table. 



42,452 

775 
3 

3 

5 

4 

II 



II 

3 

4 

50 

99 

26 

17 

4 

6 

52 

1 

3 

1 

22 
4 
78 
46 
10 
18 



9 
3 

6 
17 
10 

6 

249 

23 



23 

1,246 

10 

48 
2 

94 

I 

22 

261 

17 

58 

3 

49 

44 

44 

44 



27,818 
331 



4 
1 

3 

15 
44 
13 
10 
I 

4 
25 



8 

3 
8 
39 
3 
7 



1 

5 

10 

2 

2 

115 

6 



357 

5 

I 

2 

22 

17 
22 

6 
35 

I 
24 
10 
21 
20 



14,634 

444 

2 



7 
2 

1 

35 

55 

13 

7 

3 

2 

27 

1 

2 



14 
I 

70 
7 
7 

II 



17 

889 

5 

47 



72 
I 

5 
239 
II 
23 
2 
25 
34 
23 
24 



45,524 

915 

15 

4 

5 

12 

12 

3 

9 

7 

2 

2 

52 

102 

24 

10 

4 

13 

56 

I 

1 

2 
15 

4 
80 

52 
28 

44 
3 



8 


26 


2 


3 


1 


II 


7 


23 


8 


7 


4 


9 


134 


280 


17 


49 



43 

1,641 

10 

I 
43 
10 

2 
449 

1 

18 
215 

7 
61 

4 
39 
55 
37 
58 



31,037 

384 

5 



14 
31 
19 

5 

2 

6 

28 



2 
22 
45 

7 
13 

2 



2 
9 
I 
4 
138 
14 



12 

390 

4 
I 

4 



19 

1 
13 
24 

I 
27 

I 
25 

9 
20 
27 



14,487 

531 

10 



3 

1 
11 



2 

6 

7 

2 

2 

38 

71 

5 

5 

2 

7 

28 

1 

1 

1 

7 

2 
58 

7 
21 
31 

1 



17 
3 

9 

14 

6 

5 

142 

35 



31 

1,251 

6 

39 

10 

2 

430 

5 
191 

6 
34 

3 

14 
46 
17 
31 



50,672 

916 

11 

1 

3 

16 

18 

5 

1 

4 

5 

I 

5 

59 

88 

23 

10 

18 

59 

1 

2 

I 
37 

5 
62 
42 
42 
54 

7 

1 



30 
10 

6 

34 
8 

17 
248 

41 
2 
1 
3 
1 

34 

1322 

17 

43 

2 

14 

307 

12 
164 

7 
50 

2 
39 
31 
29 
50 



32,665 

400 

4 



27 

30 

11 

7 

4 
31 



1 
20 

1 
18 
33 

6 
16 

5 



7 
3 

1 

10 
4 
6 
143 
II 



353 

10 



2 
26 

4 
15 

4 
31 

2 
16 
II 
12 
20 



180 



TABLE 65. ALIENS REMOVED BY CRIMINAL STATUS AND REGION AND 

SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97— Continued 





1993 


1994 


1995 


Region and country 
of nationality ' 


Total 


Criminal ' 


Non- 
criminal 


Total 


Criminal ' 


Non- 
criminal 


Total 


Criminal ' 


Non- 
criminal 


Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Macau 


1 

67 

14 

3 
134 
162 

3 
9 

77 

13 

20 

23 

15 

1 

5 

2 

704 

5 
2 
1 

5 
10 

8 

15 

24 

12 

10 

108 

3 

1 

6 

31 

2 

1 

2 
15 

1 

46 

335 

2 

1 
12 

3 
11 

4 
15 

3 

1 

3 

2 


32 

3 

3 
31 
63 

2 
3 
2 
6 
7 
13 
2 

3 

1 

397 

1 
2 
1 

2 
7 

4 

3 

13 

7 

1 
21 

1 
2 

8 
2 
1 

8 

27 
262 

2 
1 
4 

8 

4 

1 

2 


1 
35 
11 

103 
99 

1 
6 

75 

7 

13 

10 

13 

1 

2 

1 

307 

4 

3 
3 

4 
12 
11 

5 

9 

87 
3 

4 

23 

2 

7 

1 
19 
73 

8 
3 
3 
4 
11 
2 
1 

3 


4 
12 
55 

9 

1 

2 

144 

233 

3 
11 
39 
14 
27 
27 
33 
1 
6 
10 

953 

10 
1 
6 

1 

8 
22 

1 
4 

17 

20 

22 

12 

126 

10 

21 
1 

36 
2 
1 

6 

1 
13 

1 

38 

485 

9 

9 
14 
21 

7 

3 
19 

2 


2 
32 

2 

31 
85 

1 
6 
2 
6 
15 
17 
11 

2 
2 

605 

3 

1 
5 

4 
17 

1 
1 

2 

6 

11 

2 

52 

3 

8 
1 

22 
1 

2 
6 

14 
404 

2 

3 

3 

13 

3 

2 
13 


2 
12 

23 

7 

1 

2 
113 
148 

2 

5 

37 

8 

12 

10 

22 

1 

4 

8 

348 

7 

1 
1 

4 

5 

3 
15 
14 
11 

10 

74 
7 

13 

14 

1 
1 

4 
1 
7 

1 
24 
81 

7 

6 

11 

8 

4 

1 
6 

2 


3 
9 

45 

1 

12 

4 
139 
192 

4 

5 
48 
12 
20 
30 
26 

3 

2 

914 

15 
1 

5 

1 

13 
18 

5 
18 

29 
1 

20 
1 

11 
173 

15 
1 
8 

36 
5 

1 
2 
14 
1 
9 

1 

66 

332 

2 

27 
1 
20 
10 
24 
7 

1 
11 

4 


2 

2 

30 

5 

2 

33 
84 

1 

2 
5 
4 
7 
8 
6 

2 
2 

515 

1 
1 
4 

3 
17 

2 

4 

11 

14 

3 

74 

6 

2 

19 
3 
1 

5 

7 

1 

26 

261 

8 

1 

13 

1 

13 
1 

10 

1 


1 

7 
15 

1 




7 


Maldives 


- 


Nepal 

Pakistan 


2 
106 
108 


Qatar 


- 


Saudi Arabia 


3 




3 


Sri Lanka 


43 




8 


Taiwan 


13 


Thailand 


22 


Turkey 


20 


United Arab Emirates 


- 




1 


Yemen 


- 


Africa 


399 

14 


Angola 


- 


Benin 


1 




- 


Burundi 


1 




10 


Cape Verde 


1 


Central African Renublic 


- 


Chad 


- 


Congo, Democratic Republic ' 

Congo Republic ' 


3 




14 




- 


Egypt 


18 
1 
6 


Gabon 

Gambia, The 


1 
8 


Guinea 

Guinea-Bissau 


99 
9 

1 


Kenya 

Liberia 

Libya 


6 

17 

2 




- 




2 


Mali 


9 


Mauritania 


1 




2 


Mozambique 


- 




- 




40 


Nigeria 


71 




2 


Sao Tome & Principe 


- 




19 


Seychelles 


- 


Sierra Leone 


7 




9 




11 




6 




. 




1 


Tongo 

Tunisia 


1 
3 







See footnotes at end of table. 



181 



TABLE 65. ALIENS REMOVED BY CRIMINAL STATUS AND REGION AND 

SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97— Continued 



Region and country 
of nationality ' 



1993 



Total 



Criminal ^ 



Non- 
criminal 



1994 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Non- 
criminal 



1995 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Uganda 

Zambia 

Zimbabwe 

Oceania 

Australia 

Fiji 

Kiribati 

Marshall Islands 

Micronesia, Federated States ... 

New Zealand 

Palau 

Papua New Guinea 

Polynesia, French 

Samoa* 

Tonga 

North America ........................... 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Anguilla 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Aruba 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Bermuda 

British Virgin Islands 

Cayman Islands 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Republic 

Grenada 

Guadeloupe 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Martinique 

Montserrat 

Netherlands Antilles 

St. Kitts-Nevis 

St. Lucia 

St. Vincent & the Grenadines 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Turks & Caicos Islands 

Central America 

Behze 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

South America 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Suriname 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Unknown and not reported 



87 
16 
9 



2 
16 
2 
4 
11 
13 
14 

37,548 
1,261 

27,094 
3^05 

19 
2 

68 

28 

6 

2 

1 

149 

38 
1,649 

13 

318 
1,039 

1 

4 

14 

14 

6 

133 

I 

5,688 

129 

40 

2,099 

1,365 

1,676 

268 

111 

2,059 

19 

46 

101 

47 

1,303 

133 

124 

4 

210 

5 

18 

49 

33 



33 

4 
2 



1 
3 
2 
1 

3 

7 

10 

25,298 

1,065 

19,576 

2,496 

14 

2 

45 

27 

5 

1 

126 

20 

1,028 

12 

195 
871 

1 

2 

11 

12 

5 

118 

1 

2,161 

83 

21 

1,022 

405 

402 

131 

97 

1388 

9 

23 

14 

27 

1,028 

50 

86 

1 

108 

2 

11 

29 

14 



54 

12 

7 



1 
13 



12,250 

196 
7,518 
1,009 



23 

1 

1 

1 

1 

23 

18 

621 

1 

123 
168 



2 
3 
2 
1 
15 

3,527 

46 

19 

1,077 

960 

1,274 

137 

14 

671 

10 

23 

87 

20 

275 

83 

38 

3 

102 

3 

7 

20 

19 



94 

13 

11 

1 

12 

17 

4 

I 

10 
12 
13 

39,722 

1,160 

30,062 

3,100 

2 

19 

2 

61 

28 

8 

3 

1 

94 

40 

1,540 

9 

153 
977 

1 

2 

8 

13 

10 

127 

2 

5,400 

98 

29 

1,873 

1,270 

1,638 

388 

104 

2,179 

31 

39 

126 

45 

1,420 

122 

107 

4 

190 

2 

19 

74 

20 



50 

3 
6 
1 

9 
5 

4 



28,013 

943 

22,585 

2,283 

2 

13 

2 

53 

28 

7 

3 

77 

21 

968 

7 

125 
849 

1 

2 
5 
8 
9 
103 

2,202 

72 
17 
951 
459 
499 
115 
89 

1,584 

18 
20 
35 
25 
1,178 
81 
76 
2 

88 

1 

12 

48 

n 



44 

10 
5 



3 
12 

1 
4 
4 
5 

11,709 

217 

7,477 

817 



1 

1 

17 
19 

572 
2 

28 
128 



3 

5 

1 

24 

2 

3,198 

26 

12 

922 

811 

1,139 

273 

15 

595 

13 

19 

91 

20 

242 

41 

31 

2 

102 

1 

7 

26 



3 
1 
1 

89 

13 
9 

1 
13 

20 

3 

6 
14 
10 

45,214 

1,072 

34,586 

3,405 

25 

1 

72 

28 

9 

2 

1 

59 

25 

1,611 

12 

1 

326 

1,041 

1 

1 

12 

15 

20 

142 

1 

6,151 

70 

43 

1,910 

1,752 

1,917 

370 

89 

2,213 

28 

48 

93 

59 

1,409 

165 

124 

1 

203 

7 
76 



1 
1 

42 

4 
3 



13 
4 

2 



12 

4 

29,718 

880 

23,851 

2,687 

19 

1 

55 

24 

7 

2 

1 

52 

17 

1,179 

12 

247 
929 

1 

g 

7 

13 

112 

1 

2300 

53 

29 

961 

499 

538 

140 

80 

1,636 

16 
31 
19 
29 
1,220 
84 
70 

106 

6 
55 



See footnotes at end of table. 



182 



TABLE 65. ALIENS REMOVED BY CRIMINAL STATUS AND REGION AND 

SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97— Continued 



Region and country 
of nationality ' 



1996 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Non- 
criminal 



1997 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Non- 
criminal 



All countries 

Europe ».„....„....»....». 

Albania 

Andorra 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former .. 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Luxembourg 

Malta 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Georgia 

Kazakhstan 

Moldova 

Russia 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzeriand 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Bosnia-Herzegovina .... 

Croatia 

Macedonia 

Slovenia 

Unknown 

Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bahrain 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Republic 

Cyprus 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 

Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

See footnotes at end of table. 



69317 

1,036 

13 

10 

9 

26 

14 

1 

13 

5 

1 

3 

55 

114 

21 

11 

2 

20 

69 

2 

5 

1 

34 
2 

80 
43 
34 
77 
10 
1 



37 

11 

2 

14 

42 

15 

8 

277 

43 

2 

5 

2 

34 

1,593 

14 

34 

1 

4 

514 

13 

148 
II 

43 

2 

53 

38 

37 

77 



37,243 

453 
5 

2 
5 
4 
4 



4 

2 

I 

1 

21 

45 

15 

5 

I 

8 

29 

1 

1 

1 

18 
1 

22 

36 
7 

24 
1 
1 

1 

9 

5 

1 

6 

17 

3 

3 

151 

20 



17 

397 

3 



44 

9 

20 
3 
20 
2 
34 
10 
20 
35 



32,074 

583 

8 



4 
22 
10 

1 
9 
3 

2 

34 

69 

6 

6 

1 

12 

40 

1 

4 



16 
1 

58 
7 

27 

53 
9 



28 
6 
1 
8 

25 

12 

5 

126 

23 
2 
2 
2 

17 

1,196 

11 

29 

1 

4 

470 

4 

128 

8 

23 

19 
28 
17 

42 



114,060 

1,616 

48 



4 

5 

42 

77 

3 

12 

62 

9 

5 

1 

72 

109 

38 

29 

I 

41 

119 

2 

8 

1 

31 
11 

147 
68 
90 

158 
12 

5 

5 

1 

83 

39 

13 

50 

18 

10 

344 

78 

2 

17 

7 

1 

51 

2,384 



59 
6 

10 

485 

2 

23 
291 

15 

60 

12 
130 

93 
105 
124 



51,141 

541 

4 



2 
3 
5 
6 

1 

5 

2 

1 

1 

18 

39 

25 

4 

1 

11 

52 

3 
1 

12 

5 

36 

48 

14 

42 

3 



24 
9 

5 

18 

3 

3 

158 

24 

1 

1 

1 

21 

646 

3 

7 
2 

45 
1 

10 

32 
7 

29 

64 
12 
44 
57 



62,919 

1,075 

44 



2 

2 

37 

71 

3 

11 

57 

7 

4 

54 
70 
13 

25 

30 
67 

2 
5 



19 

6 

111 

20 

76 

116 

9 

4 

5 

1 

59 

30 



32 
15 

7 

186 

54 

1 
16 

6 

1 
30 

1,738 

5 

52 

4 

10 

440 

1 

13 

259 

8 

31 

12 

66 

81 

61 

67 



183 



TABLE 65. ALIENS REMOVED BY CRIMINAL STATUS AND REGION AND 

SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97— Continued 



Region and country 
of nationality ' 



1996 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Non- 
criminal 



1997 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Non- 
criminal 



Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Macau 

Malaysia 

Maldives 

Nepal 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Qatar 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Arab Emirates 

Vietnam 

Yemen 

Africa 

Algeria 

Angola 

Benin 

Burkina Faso 

Burundi 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde 

Central African Republic 

Chad 

Congo, Democratic Republic 

Congo, Republic ' 

Cote d'lvoire 

Djibouti 

Egypt 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Gabon 

Gambia, The 

Ghana 

Guinea 

Guinea-Bissau 

Kenya 

Lesotho 

Liberia 

Libya 

Madagascar 

Malawi 

Mali 

Mauritania 

Morocco 

Mozambique 

Namibia 

Niger 

Nigeria 

Rwanda 

Sao Tome & Principe 

Senegal 

Seychelles 

Sierra Leone 

Somalia 

South Africa 

Sudan 

Swaziland 

Tanzania 

Tongo 

Tunisia 



7 
40 



4 
166 
196 

1 

13 
44 
17 
16 
52 
18 



880 

22 
1 
9 
1 
1 

10 
20 



17 

33 
1 
19 
4 
11 
146 
12 

15 
1 

33 
1 
1 

11 
1 

25 

2 

41 

313 

3 

17 
2 

19 
g 

32 
9 

6 
12 

2 



22 



2 
29 
85 

1 

3 
I 
5 
7 
14 



3 
5 

487 

5 
1 
9 
1 
1 
3 
13 



1 
1 

3 

18 

9 

2 

4 

48 

6 

6 
1 

15 
1 



12 

1 

22 

243 

1 

3 
2 
9 
1 

12 
6 

2 
10 

2 



3 

7 

18 

3 

2 
137 
111 



10 
43 
12 
9 
38 
10 

5 
4 

393 

17 



14 

15 
1 

10 
2 
7 

98 
6 



5 
1 

13 

1 
19 
70 

2 

14 

10 
7 

20 
3 

4 
2 



7 
12 
49 

18 

3 
259 
405 

4 
4 
47 
18 
22 
48 
37 
2 
10 
16 

1,174 

20 
3 

12 
I 

2 
14 
24 

2 

21 
4 

26 
1 

51 

40 
2 

30 

167 

20 

21 

42 
3 
1 
3 

17 
2 

41 
3 

46 
392 

3 

41 

24 

22 

22 

18 

I 

6 

11 

5 



3 

2 

26 



61 

171 



2 

9 

12 

15 

12 

1 

3 

5 

504 

4 

1 

10 



4 

20 

1 

6 

5 

16 

17 
1 
8 

43 
3 



20 
1 
1 



16 
1 

27 
252 



6 
2 
10 
8 
1 
I 
3 
3 



4 
10 
23 

10 

2 
198 

234 

2 

4 

45 

9 

10 

33 

25 

1 

7 

11 

670 

16 

2 
2 
1 
2 
10 
4 
1 

15 
4 

21 
1 

35 

23 

1 

22 

124 

17 

15 

22 

2 

3 
15 

2 

25 
2 

19 

140 

3 

39 

18 
20 
12 
10 



See foouiotes at end of table. 



184 



TABLE 65. ALIENS REMOVED BY CRIMINAL STATUS AND REGION AND 

SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97— Continued 





1996 


1997 


Region and country 
of nationality ' 


Total 


Criminal ' 


Non- 
criminal 


Total 


Criminal ' 


Non- 
criminal 


Uganda 

Zambia 

Zimbabwe 


1 

2 
7 


1 
6 


1 
1 
1 


7 

1 
2 


1 

1 

1 


6 

1 


Oceania 

Australia 

Fiji 

Kiribati 

Marshall Islands 


101 

14 

23 

1 
10 
23 

4 

11 
4 
11 


34 

4 
7 

6 

2 
2 

3 
1 
9 


67 
10 
16 

1 

4 

21 

2 

8 
3 

2 


150 

16 
23 

14 
28 
8 
1 
20 
15 
25 


72 
7 
10 

10 
8 

7 

1 
4 
7 
18 


78 

9 

13 


Micronesia, Federated States 


4 


New Zealand 


20 


Palau 

Papua New Guinea 


1 


Polynesia, French 

Samoa * 

Tonga 


16 
8 

7 




63351 

587 

50,813 

3,942 

1 

16 

2 

77 

37 

8 

2 

1 

69 

28 

1,947 

12 

326 

1,184 

2 

3 

3 

12 

12 

12 

187 

1 

8,009 

106 

72 

2,471 

2,095 

2,753 

420 

92 

2346 

31 

53 

124 

61 

1310 

244 

138 

6 

223 

2 

15 

139 

10 


34,288 

441 

28,276 

3,122 

1 

14 

2 

68 

33 

7 

1 

1 

63 

16 

1,476 

12 

218 

1,009 

1 

3 

3 

9 

12 

12 

160 

1 

2,449 

76 

33 

1,040 

490 

588 

141 

81 

1380 

18 
22 
29 
26 
1,113 
101 
75 

112 

11 

73 

4 


29,063 

146 

22,537 

820 

2 

9 

4 
I 

1 

6 

12 

471 

108 

175 

1 

3 

27 

5360 

30 

39 

1,431 

1,605 

2,165 

279 

11 

766 

13 

31 

95 

35 

197 

143 

63 

6 

111 

2 

4 

66 

6 


104,631 

696 

86,208 

5,535 

26 

3 

59 

50 

8 

6 

2 

73 

37 

2,669 

16 

2 

480 

1,783 

1 

3 

21 

21 

23 

250 

2 

12,192 

130 

148 

3,865 

3,495 

3,820 

596 

138 

4,081 

67 

152 

319 

100 

2,014 

499 

220 

9 

442 

8 

16 
235 

24 


47,234 

393 

39,098 

3,896 

18 

3 

48 

43 

5 

3 

2 

66 

23 

1,967 

9 

2 

263 

1,222 

1 

1 

17 

13 

19 

170 

1 

3,847 

92 

35 

1,538 

811 

1,101 

169 

101 

2,141 

27 

21 

34 

45 

1,499 

137 

125 

1 

155 

3 

12 

82 

3 


57397 


Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean .................................... 

Anguilla 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Aruba 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Bermuda 

British Virgin Islands 


303 

47,110 

1,639 

8 

11 
7 
3 
3 


Cayman Islands 




Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Republic 

Grenada 

Guadeloupe 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Martinique 


7 

14 

702 

7 

217 
561 


Netherlands Antilles 


2 


St Kitts-Nevis 


4 


St. Lucia 


8 


St. Vincent & the Grenadines 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Turks & Caicos Islands 


4 

80 

1 


Central America ........••••• 


8345 


Belize 


38 




113 


El Salvador 


2,327 


Guatemala 


2,684 




2,719 


Nicaragua 


427 




37 


South America „ 


1,940 

40 


Bolivia 


131 


Brazil 


285 


Chile 


55 


Colombia 


515 




362 




95 


Paraeuav 


8 


Peru 


287 




5 


Uruguay 


4 




153 


Unknown and not reix)rted 


21 







' Country is defined as nationality for sovereign slates and country of birth for dependencies. ^ Criminal status includes 
those cases in which INS has evidence of a conviction. ' In May 1997 Zaire was formally recognized as the Democratic 
Republic of the Congo; the Congo is referred to by its conventional name, the Republic of the Congo. ' In August 1997 
Western Samoa was formally recognized as Samoa (Independent State). 

- Represents zero. 



185 



TABLE 66. ALIENS EXCLUDED BY ADMINISTRATIVE REASON FOR EXCLUSION 

FISCAL YEARS 1892-1990 



Year 


Total 


Subversive 

or 
anarchist 


Criminal 

or 
narcotics 
violations 


Immoral 


Mental or 

physical 

defect 


Likely to 
become 
public 
charge 


Stowaway 


Attempted 

entry 

without 

inspection 

or without 
proper 

documents 


Contract 
laborer 


Unable to 

read (over 

16 years 

of age) 


Other 


1892-1990 


650^52 

22,515 
108,211 
178,109 
189,307 

68,217 

30,263 

20,585 

4,831 

8,455 

19,759 

659 

698 

979 

1,089 

1,747 

2,278 
1,994 
2,693 
3,893 
3.729 


1,369 

10 

27 
9 

5 

60 

1,098 

128 

32 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 


17,465 

65 
1,681 

4,353 
2,082 

1,261 

1,134 

2,017 

383 

814 

3,675 

152 
183 
205 
160 

297 

270 
426 
482 
712 
788 


839 

89 
1,277 
4,824 
1,281 

253 
80 

361 
24 
20 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 


82,590 

1,309 
24,425 
42,129 
11,044 

1,530 

1,021 

956 

145 

31 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 


219399 

15,070 
63,311 
90,045 
37,175 

12,519 

1,072 

149 

27 

31 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 


16,240 

1,904 
8,447 

2,126 

3,182 

376 

175 

30 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 


204,943 

94,084 

47,858 

22,441 

14,657 

3,706 

7,237 

14,960 

486 
478 
728 
870 
1,351 

1,904 
1,423 
2,043 
2,973 
2,704 


41,941 

5,792 
12,991 
15,417 

6,274 

1,235 

219 

13 


13,679 

5,083 
8,202 

258 

108 

26 

2 


44,417 

190 

4,516 

14,327 

20,709 

1,172 
946 
932 
241 
260 

1,124 

21 
37 
46 
59 
99 

104 
145 
168 
208 
237 


1892-1900 


1901-10 

1911-20 


1921-30 


1931-40 


1941-50 


1951-60 


1961-70 


1971-80 


1981-90 


1981 

1982 

1983 

1984 

1985 

1986 

1987 

1988 

1989 

1990 





NOTE: From 1941-53, figures represent all exclusions at sea and air ports and exclusions of aliens seeking enUy for 30 days or longer at land ports. After 1953, 
includes aliens excluded after formal hearings. See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 

- Represents zero. NA Not available. 



186 



TABLE 67. ALIENS DEPORTED BY ADMINISTRATIVE REASON FOR REMOVAL 

nSCAL YEARS 1908-80 



Year 



1908-80 .. 

1908-10 

1911-20 

1921-30 

1931-40 

1941-50 , 

1951-60 . 

1961-70.. 

1971-80 . 

1971 

1972 

1973 

1974 

1975 



1976 

1976, TQ 

1977 

1978 

1979 

1980 



Total 



812,915 

6.888 

27,912 

92,157 

117,086 

110,849 

129,887 

96,374 

231,762 

17,639 
16,266 
16,842 
18,824 
23,438 

27,998 
8,927 
30,228 
28.371 
25,888 
17,341 



Subver- 
sive or 
anarchist 



1,528 

353 
642 
253 

17 
230 

15 

18 

2 
2 
7 
3 



Criminal 
viola- 
tions 



48330 

236 
1,209 
8,383 
16,597 
8,945 
6,742 
3,694 

2,524 

286 
266 
226 
191 
225 
272 
83 
285 
220 
264 
206 



Immoral 



16,582 

784 
4,324 
4,238 
4,838 

759 
1,175 

397 

67 

9 
7 
7 
7 
4 
8 
2 
6 
4 
9 
4 



Narcotics 
viola- 
tions 



8339 



374 

1,108 

822 

947 

1,462 

3,626 

232 
307 
395 
396 
583 
464 
110 
372 
314 
265 
188 



Mental 

or 

physical 

defect 



27305 

3,228 
6,364 
8,936 
6,301 
1,560 
642 
236 

38 

7 
3 
7 
7 
6 
2 

3 
1 

2 



Previ- 
ously 

excluded 
or 

deported 



41,022 

178 
1,842 
9,729 
17,642 
4,002 
3.601 

4,028 

476 
487 
594 
440 
526 
481 
141 
315 
236 
202 
130 



Failed to 
maintain 
or comply 
with con 
ditions of 
nonim- 
migrant 
status 



124,465 



5,556 
14,669 
13,906 
25,260 
31,334 

33,740 

4,140 
3,966 
3,989 
3,839 
3,649 
3,782 
1,007 
3,150 
2,543 
1,901 
1,774 



Entered 
without 
proper 
docu- 
ments 



154,896 



31,704 
45,480 
14,288 
35,090 
11,831 

16,503 

2,979 

2,710 

2,247 

2,086 

1,896 

1,185 

271 

1,066 

871 

707 

485 



Entered 
without 
inspec- 
tion or 
by false 
state- 
ments 



334,889 

1,106 

4,128 

5,265 

5.159 

50.209 

54.457 

43,561 

171,004 

9,483 

8,486 

9,342 

11,839 

16,529 

21,777 

7,304 

25,012 

24,165 

22,525 

14,542 



Public 
charge 



22,556 

474 

9,086 

10,703 

1,886 

143 

225 

8 

31 

4 
6 
4 
2 
1 
1 
3 
1 
5 
3 
1 



Unable 
to read 
(over 16 
years 
of age) 



16,762 

704 

5,977 

8,329 

1,746 

5 



Other 



16,241 

1,060 
1,566 
8,537 
2,737 

812 
1,112 

235 

182 

21 
26 
24 
14 
19 
24 
6 
15 
12 
10 
11 



NOTE: Deportation statistics by administrative reason for removal were not available prior to fiscal year 1908. See Glossary for fiscal year definitions. 
- Represents zero. 



TABLE 68. ALIENS DEPORTED BY ADMINISTRATIVE REASON FOR REMOVAL 

FISCAL YEARS 1981-90 



Year 


Total 


Convictions 

for criminal 

or narcotics 

violations 


Related to 

criminal or 

narcotics 

violations 


Entered 

without 

inspection 


Violation of 
nonim- 
migrant 
status 


Other 


1981-90 


213,071 

16,720 
14,518 
18,232 
17,607 
21,358 

22,314 
22,342 
23,136 
30,534 
26,310 


30,630 

310 
413 
863 
981 
1,551 

1,708 
4.111 
5.474 
7.036 
8,183 


1,972 

54 
64 
93 
80 
151 

165 

274 
308 
343 
440 


155,405 

13,601 
11,554 
14,318 
14,082 
16,957 

17,812 
15,833 
15,337 
20,706 
15,205 


15,982 

1,959 
1,796 
1,958 
1,702 
1,916 

1,865 
1,273 
996 
1,265 
1,252 


9,082 

796 
691 
1,000 
762 
783 

764 

851 

1,021 

1,184 

1,230 


1981 

1982 

1983 


1984 

1985 

1986 

1987 

1988 

1989 

1990 





NOTE; The definition of which aliens counted as criminal aliens changed in 1990. See Enforcement section of text. 



187 



TABLE 69. ALIENS UNDER DOCKET CONTROL REQUIRED TO DEPART BY CRIMINAL STATUS 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97 



Region and country 
of nationality ' 



1993 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Non- 
criminal 



1994 



Total 



Criminal' 



Non- 
criminal 



1995 



Total 



Criminal ' 



All countries 

Europe 

Albania 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former .. 

Czech RepubUc 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Geimany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Monaco 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Georgia 

Kazakhstan 

Moldova 

Russia 

Tajikistan 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Bosnia-Herzegovina .... 

Croatia 

Macedonia 

Unknown 

Asia , 

Afghanistan 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Republic 

Cyprus 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 



6,453 
479 

1 

2 

30 
17 



17 
9 



19 
25 
10 
13 

17 
18 

10 

6 

2 

129 

9 

38 

26 

I 



11 



11 

6 

1 

2 

63 

26 



26 

799 

1 
5 
1 

119 
I 

16 
63 
13 
56 



451 

17 



1 
24 



6,002 

462 

1 
2 

30 
16 



16 
9 



19 

25 
9 
12 

17 
16 

10 

6 

2 

127 

6 

38 

25 

1 



10 



11 
6 
I 

2 
58 
25 



25 



5,990 
533 



46 
8 

1 

7 

2 

1 

2 

10 

24 

11 

10 

1 

8 

20 

4 

16 

4 

2 

107 

3 

74 

66 



30 



15 
11 
5 
7 
66 
25 



24 



775 


731 


5 


14 


1 


1 


- 


3 


119 


55 


13 


8 


58 


68 


11 


6 


54 


43 



588 
19 



1 
12 



5,402 
514 

46 



1 

7 

2 

1 

2 

10 

20 

10 

10 



19 

4 

16 

4 

2 
105 

3 
72 
65 

8 

5 

1 

30 

7 

14 
10 
5 
7 
61 
24 



23 

719 

1 

14 
1 

3 
54 



68 

6 

41 



4,567 

362 

2 
1 
2 
38 
5 

1 

4 
1 

1 

15 

27 

10 

10 

1 

1 

7 

3 

5 

1 

6 

3 

35 

6 

52 

48 

5 

6 
1 

1 

24 

I 

4 

6 

7 

3 

4 

54 

14 



13 

440 

4 
3 
2 

32 

3 

52 
4 
6 



429 
10 



13 



See footnotes at end of table. 



188 



TABLE 69. ALIENS UNDER DOCKET CONTROL REQUIRED TO DEPART BY CRIMINAL STATUS 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97— Continued 



Region and country 
of nationality ' 



1993 



Total 



Criminal ■ 



Non- 
criminal 



1994 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Non- 
criminal 



1995 



Total 



Criminal ^ 



Non- 
criminal 



Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Macau 

Malaysia 

Maldives 

Nepal 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Arab Emirates 

Vietnam 

Yemen 

Jrica ......................... 

Algeria 

Burundi 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde 

Congo, Democratic Republic ' 

Congo, Republic ' 

Cote d'lvoire 

Egypt 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Gabon 

Gambia, The 

Ghana 

Guinea 

Kenya 

Liberia 

Libya 

Madagascar 

Mali 

Mauritius 

Morocco 

Namibia 

Niger 

Nigeria 

Rwanda 

Senegal 

Sierra Leone 

Somalia 

South Africa 

Sudan 

Tanzania 

Tongo 

Tunisia 

Uganda 

Zambia 

Zimbabwe 



8 
22 
42 
38 
50 

4 
11 
25 

21 

1 

27 

191 

4 

4 

10 

10 

19 

23 

11 

2 
1 

139 

2 
2 

3 
1 



31 

10 

5 
1 

4 
2 



10 

28 

1 

1 

14 
8 
2 
4 

1 
1 

2 
3 



19 

42 
37 
49 
4 
II 
24 

18 

1 

27 

191 

4 

4 

10 

10 

19 

23 

II 



1 

134 

2 
2 

3 
1 



31 

10 

5 
1 

4 
1 



10 

26 

1 

1 

12 
8 

2 
4 

1 
1 

2 
3 



3 
26 
24 
30 
55 
4 
5 

36 
1 

6 
7 

24 
245 

9 

1 
10 

9 
12 

9 



99 

2 



2 
II 

II 
I 

7 
I 
3 
7 
1 

2 

2 

7 

18 

I 

1 

2 
7 
4 

2 

2 

I 

3 



3 

25 

24 

29 

55 

4 

5 

36 

1 

5 

7 

22 
243 

9 

1 
10 

9 
12 

8 
12 

3 



96 

2 



2 
10 

II 
1 

7 
1 
3 
7 
1 

2 

2 

7 
17 
I 
I 
2 
7 
4 



3 
10 
16 
18 
34 

I 
12 

9 



3 

12 

173 

I 

2 

4 

8 

2 

13 

3 

1 

4 



82 

1 



2 
16 



1 
2 

5 
12 



5 

10 
3 

2 



3 

10 
16 
16 
34 

1 
II 



3 

12 
169 
I 
2 
4 
8 
2 
13 
3 
I 
3 



75 
I 



I 
16 



ee footnotes at end of table. 



189 



TABLE 69, ALIENS UNDER DOCKET CONTROL REQUIRED TO DEPART BY CRIMINAL STATUS 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97— Continued 



Region and country 
of nationality ' 



1993 



Total 



Criminal ^ 



Non- 
criminal 



1994 



Total 



Criminal ' 



Non- 
criminal 



1995 



Total 



Criminal' 



Oceania 

American Samoa 

Australia 

Cook Islands 

Fiji 

Kiribati 

Micronesia, Federated States ... 

New Zealand 

Palau 

Polynesia, French 

Samoa ' 

Tonga 

Vanuatu 

North America 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Aruba 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Bermuda 

British Virgin Islands 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Republic 

Grenada 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Montserrat 

Netherlands Antilles 

St. Kitts-Nevis 

St. Lucia 

St. Vincent & the Grenadines 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Turks & Caicos Islands 

Central America 

Belize 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 

South America 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Suriname 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Unknown and not reported 

See fooUiotes at end of table. 



60 

9 

14 

2 
9 

II 

8 
7 



4,600 

98 

2,774 

506 

2 
1 

I 

4 

30 

6 

355 

3 

8 

63 



1 

2 

2 

27 

1 

1,222 

10 

16 

604 

207 

124 

244 

17 

333 

14 
28 
38 
19 
99 
40 
19 
2 
49 



18 
43 



374 

8 

243 

61 

1 



9 

1 

29 

1 

15 



2 
62 



32 
12 

3 
12 

3 

27 

3 
1 

14 
3 
2 



57 

9 

14 

1 
8 

11 
8 
6 



4,226 

90 

2,531 

445 

1 

1 

I 
1 

21 

5 

326 

2 

8 

48 



1 

2 

2 

25 

1 

1,160 

10 

16 

572 

195 

121 

232 

14 

306 

14 
25 
37 
19 
85 
37 
17 
2 
46 

7 
17 



51 

1 

4 

17 

I 
9 
1 
9 
6 
3 



4,224 
69 

2,740 

526 

3 

1 

2 
4 
1 

34 

7 

390 

2 

17 

43 

1 

2 
2 

17 

889 

14 
9 
350 
145 
131 
225 

15 

327 

27 

15 

38 

16 

98 

28 

10 

1 

73 

2 

4 

15 

25 



514 

8 

387 

71 



17 
31 

3 

14 



48 
2 
1 

19 
9 
9 
6 
2 

36 



24 
3 

2 

3 

2 



48 

1 

4 

17 



3,710 
61 

2,353 
455 
3 
1 
2 
2 



17 

7 

359 

2 

14 

29 

I 

2 
1 

14 

841 

12 
8 
331 
136 
122 
219 

13 

291 

27 
14 
38 
16 
74 
25 
8 
1 
70 

4 
14 

24 



34 

1 

10 



3,370 

53 

2,405 

380 

1 



1 

29 

6 

251 

32 
34 



3 

6 

1 

14 

532 
16 
13 
186 
134 
88 
83 
12 

273 
8 
9 

29 

14 
101 

22 
8 
2 

56 
2 
1 

21 



362 
10 

261 
67 



18 

36 

4 
7 



24 
1 



7 
3 

2 
3 

34 



2 
1 
20 
2 
2 
1 
3 



190 



TABLE 69. ALIENS UNDER DOCKET CONTROL REQUIRED TO DEPART BY CRIMINAL STATUS 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97— Continued 



Region and country 
of nationality ' 



AU countries 

Europe „.„....„.~.„. 

Albania 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Czechoslovakia, former .. 

Czech Republic 

Slovak Republic 

Unknown republic 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Ireland 

Italy 

Latvia 

Lithuania 

Monaco 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Romania 

Soviet Union, former 

Armenia 

Azerbaijan 

Belarus 

Georgia 

Kazakhstan 

Moldova 

Russia 

Tajikistan 

Ukraine 

Uzbekistan 

Unknown republic 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia, former 

Bosnia-Herzegovina .... 

Croatia 

Macedonia 

Unknown 

Asia 

Afghanistan 

Bangladesh 

Burma 

Cambodia 

China, People's Republic 

Cyprus 

Hong Kong 

India 

Indonesia 

Iran 



1996 



Total 



4387 

322 
3 
3 
3 
29 
11 
1 

4 
6 



15 
15 
5 
6 
1 
5 
14 
2 
I 

6 
3 

39 
2 
36 
60 
14 



28 

13 
I 

4 
5 
5 
2 

34 

17 
I 
2 
2 

12 

451 

2 
10 



31 
1 

7 
37 

4 
II 



Criminal ' 



436 

8 

1 



14 

I 



Non- 
criminal 



3,951 

314 

3 
2 
3 
29 
11 
1 

4 
6 



15 
15 
5 
6 
I 
5 

13 
2 
1 

6 
3 
39 
1 
36 
59 
14 



27 

13 
1 

4 

5 

4 

2 

31 

17 

1 

2 

2 

12 

437 

1 
10 



29 
1 
7 

36 
4 

11 



1997 



Total 



6,677 

454 

2 

I 

2 

41 

27 

2 

10 

15 

1 



12 

29 

3 

9 

4 

7 

1 

11 



1 

47 

9 

59 

97 

29 

2 

2 

4 

4 

3 

31 

21 

1 

12 
3 
1 
35 
32 
2 
3 

27 

577 

10 

60 

7 
67 
10 
23 



Criminal ■ 



664 
20 

I 



1 
20 



Non- 
criminal 



6,013 

434 

2 
I 
I 

40 
27 

2 
10 
15 

1 



12 

29 

3 

9 

3 
6 
I 

11 



1 

46 

g 

59 

91 

26 

2 

2 

3 

4 

3 

30 

20 

I 

10 
3 
1 
30 
31 
2 
3 

26 

557 
10 

59 

7 
67 
10 

22 



See footnotes at end of table. 



191 



TABLE 69. ALIENS UNDER DOCKET CONTROL REQUIRED TO DEPART BY CRIMINAL STATUS 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97— Continued 



Region and country 
of nationality ' 



1996 



Total 



Criminal • 



Non- 
criminal 



1997 



Total 



Criminal' 



Non- 
criminal 



Iraq 

Israel 

Japan 

Jordan 

Korea 

Kuwait 

Laos 

Lebanon 

Macau 

Malaysia 

Maldives 

Nepal 

Pakistan 

Philippines 

Saudi Arabia 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 

Syria 

Taiwan 

Thailand 

Turkey 

United Arab Emirates 

Vietnam 

Yemen 

Africa 

Algeria 

Burundi 

Cameroon 

Cape Verde 

Congo, Democratic Republic ' 

Congo, Republic ' 

Cote d'lvoite 

Egypt 

Eritrea 

Ethiopia 

Gabon 

Gambia, The 

Ghana 

Guinea 

Kenya 

Liberia 

Libya 

Madagascar 

Mali 

Mauritius 

Morocco 

Namibia 

Niger 

Nigeria 

Rwanda 

Senegal 

Sierra Leone 

Somalia 

South Africa 

Sudan 

Tanzania 

Tongo 

Tunisia 

Uganda 

Zambia 

Zimbabwe 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1 
16 
17 
15 
23 
2 
4 
16 



1 

13 

178 

1 

1 

18 

I 

9 

15 

6 

3 
1 

75 

2 

4 

1 

3 
5 



1 

15 
16 
15 
21 
1 
4 
15 



1 

13 

177 

1 

18 
1 
9 

15 
6 



72 

2 

4 
1 

3 

4 



2 
18 
17 
29 
33 
1 
5 
19 



1 

56 

159 

1 

19 
8 
5 

10 
4 

4 

3 

139 



4 
1 
6 

12 
3 

15 



5 
1 

2 
22 

7 
11 
7 
15 
4 
1 
2 



2 
17 
17 
28 
30 

3 
17 



1 

53 

155 

1 

19 
8 
5 

10 
3 

4 
3 

131 



4 
1 
6 

12 
3 

15 

4 
6 
2 
1 
2 



5 

1 

2 

19 

7 
11 
7 
14 
3 
1 
1 



192 



TABLE 69. ALIENS UNDER DOCKET CONTROL REQUIRED TO DEPART BY CRIMINAL STATUS 

AND REGION AND SELECTED COUNTRY OF NATIONALITY 

FISCAL YEARS 1993-97— Continued 



Region and country 
of nationality ' 



Oceania — ........................... 

American Samoa 

Australia 

Cook Islands 

Fiji 

Kiribati 

Micronesia, Federated States 

New Zealand 

Palau 

Polynesia, French 

Samoa ' 

Tonga 

Vanuatu 



North America »... 

Canada 

Mexico 

Caribbean 

Antigua-Barbuda 

Aniba 

Bahamas, The 

Barbados 

Bermuda 

British Virgin Islands 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Republic 

Grenada 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Montsenat 

Netherlands Antilles 

St. Kitts-Nevis 

St. Lucia 

St. Vincent & the Grenadines . 

Trinidad & Tobago 

Turks & Caicos Islands 

Central America „.., 

BeUze 

Costa Rica 

El Salvador 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Panama 



South America , 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peril 

Suriname 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 



1996 



Total 



Unknown and not reported 



39 

4 
2 
10 
1 
2 
3 

8 
5 
3 
1 

3305 

59 

2,426 

284 

2 

2 
I 



18 

9 

176 

13 
28 

2 
4 
4 
1 

24 

536 

7 

7 

174 

137 

146 

50 

15 

190 

8 

8 
23 

9 
41 
28 

7 

43 
2 
1 

20 



Criminal ' 



395 

1 

318 

51 



11 

19 

2 
15 



25 

1 
6 
6 
7 
I 
4 

13 



Non- 
criminal 



36 

4 
2 
8 
1 
1 
3 



5 
3 
1 

2,910 

58 

2,108 

233 

2 

1 



7 

9 

157 

11 
13 

2 
4 
4 
I 

22 

511 

7 

6 

168 

131 

139 

49 

II 

177 



23 
7 

36 

25 

6 

42 
2 

20 



1997 



Total 



35 
5 



5,109 

60 

3,722 

430 

4 

4 

2 

I 

1 

20 

21 

279 

10 
46 
2 
1 
6 
7 
1 
25 

897 

7 

16 

364 

246 

166 

86 

12 

355 
9 
29 
61 
14 
68 
52 
9 

92 



21 
8 



Criminal ' 



573 

6 

449 

84 

1 

1 



12 

2 
42 

I 

18 
1 



34 

2 



7 
2 
4 

41 



2 
2 
20 
3 
7 



Non- 
criminal 



34 

5 
9 



4336 

54 

3,273 

346 

3 

3 
2 
1 
1 
8 

19 
237 

9 

28 
I 
1 

6 

7 

1 

19 

863 

5 

16 

353 

238 

159 

84 



314 

9 
28 
59 
12 
48 
49 

2 

87 



20 



' Country is defined as nationality for sovereign states and country of birth for dependencies. ' Criminal status includes 
those cases in which INS has evidence of a conviction. ' In May 1997 Zaire was formally recognized as the Democratic 
Republic of the Congo; the Congo is referred to by its conventional name, the Republic of the Congo. * In August 1997 
Western Samoa was formally recognized as Samoa (Independent State). 
NOTE: Ahens under docket control required to depart are a type of voluntary departure. - Represents zero. 



193 



TABLE 70. SERVICE PARTICIPATION IN THE CONTROL OF MARIJUANA, NARCOTICS, 

AND DANGEROUS DRUG TRAFFIC 
FISCAL YEARS 1986-97 



Year and seizure 



Type of contraband 



Marijuana 
Obs.) 



Heroin 
(ozs.) 



Opium 
(ozs.) 



Cocaine 
(ozs.) 



Hashish 
(ozs.) 



Dangerous 

drug pills 

(units) 



Other 



Total 



1986: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1987: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1988: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1989: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1990: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1991: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1992: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1993: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1994: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1995: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1996: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 

1997: 

Number of seizures 

Amount seized 

Estimated value of seizures (dollars) 



2.377 

143,232.8 

91,173,982 

4,(X)3 

225,946.7 

188,351,449 

4,190 

333,790.1 

250,444,625 

5,920 

556,864.7 

442,913,841 

4,759 

441,125.9 

335,137,424 



4,983 

388,104.3 

330,633,986 

6,162 

587,512.5 

552,035,249 

7,846 

683,687.3 

584,183,518 

7,149 

676,409.3 

573,151,772 

6,713 

724,523.7 

623,098,290 

6,843 

752,821.8 

621,459,396 



7,715 

873,193.4 

720,270,279 



71 

990.4 

59,758,294 

83 

1,327.4 

27,261,814 

126 

1,307.0 

40,370,058 

368 

23,767.6 

193,443,462 

577 

6,193.0 

56,229,417 

403 

3,717.3 

31,734,541 

285 

6,859.6 

70,081,917 

269 

5,976.3 

37,977,961 

281 

5,792.0 

22,924,897 

271 

13,205.5 

40,781,651 

230 

32,755.3 

98,118,654 

178 

3,182.5 

15,327,020 



65.1 
1,529,600 

3 

184.1 

103,300 

3 

19.8 

250,800 

13 

231.3 

216,803 

X 
X 

X 

X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 



291 

44,200.5 

111,111,329 

511 

209,259.8 

435,983,013 

676 

236,520.4 

505,038,974 

1,609 

641,487.5 

1,346,492,775 

1,847 

832,419.0 

1,334,308,733 

1,624 

877,419.5 

1,224,947,975 

1,265 

796,681.0 

1,008,758,349 

1,219 

847,745.8 

1,565,789.390 

977 

792,470.5 

1,523,220,862 

924 
1,362,257.8 

2,214,676,534 

767 

574.536.5 

834.304.496 

649 

421,113.8 

637,118,737 



391 

460,7 

182,965 

279 

115.6 

28,312 

259 

107.9 

39,634 

181 

79.0 

101,486 

X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 



X 
X 

X 

X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 



238 
160,392 
267,252 

312 

654,437 

2,525,201 

231 

104,043 
145,194 

224 
6,113,197 
1,896,080 

-164 

73,249 

230,468 

133 
160,431 
380,698 

93 

362,199 

2,763,233 

112 

75,965 

173,414 

116 
104,658 

445,487 

134 
250,970 
228,989 

173 
331,165 
507,961 

142 

1,982,769 

931,830 



no 

X 

180,581 

201 

X 

7,423,275 

339 

X 

7,245,615 

441 

X 

2,870,994 

388 

X 

13,527,003 

289 

X 

5,783,668 

276 

X 

2,215,141 

364 

X 

15,909,284 

412 

X 

34,347,991 

371 

X 

36,550,675 

285 

X 

23,281,958 

338 

X 

31,189,091 



3,481 

X 

264,204,003 

5,392 

X 

661,676,364 

5,824 

X 

803,534,900 

8,756 

X 

1,987,935,441 

7,735 

X 

1,739,433,045 

7,432 

X 

1,593,480,868 

8,081 

X 

1,635,853,889 

9.810 
X 

2,204.033,567 

8,935 
X 

2,154,091,009 

8,413 

X 

2,915,336,139 

8,298 
X 

1,577,672,465 

9,022 

X 

1,404,836,957 



NOTE: Data for fiscal years 1993-96 presented in the last edition of the Yearbook have been updated and coaected. 
seizures is combined with heroin, and hashish is combined with marijuana. X Not applicable. 



Starting in 1990. the reporting of opium 



194 



TABLE 71. PROSECUTIONS, FINES, AND IMPRISONMENT FOR IMMIGRATION 

AND NATIONALITY VIOLATIONS 

FISCAL YEARS 1991-97 



Action taken 



Prosecutions: 
Total disposed of 

Convictions 

Acquittals 

Dismissals ' 



Prosecutions for immigration violations: 
Disposed of 

Convictions 

Acquittals 

Dismissals ' 



Prosecution for nationality violations: 
Disposed of 

Convictions 

Acquittals 

Dismissals ' 



Aggregate fines and imprisonment: 
Fines (dollars) 

Immigration violations 

Nationality violations 

Imprisonment (yean) 

Immigration violations 

Nationality violations 



1991 



18,882 

11.509 

80 

7,293 



18,297 

11,392 

77 

6,828 



585 

117 

3 

465 



2,622,659 

2,508,084 
114,575 

5,748 

5,610 

138 



1992 



14,655 

9,865 

57 

4,733 



14,138 

9,766 

57 

4,315 



517 

99 

418 



1,673,488 

1,670,839 
2,649 

5,592 

5,550 

42 



1993 



14,429 

11,685 

31 

2,713 



14363 

11,619 

31 

2,713 



66 

66 



1,074,717 

1,069,757 
4,960 

6,413 

6,384 
29 



1994 



11,518 

10,210 

16 

1,292 



11,485 

10,178 

15 

1,292 



33 

32 
1 



450,729 

444,909 
5,820 

6,214 

6,198 
16 



1995 



906,675 

894,825 
11,850 

6,834 

6,811 

23 



1996 



13,557 


14,173 


17,081 


12,075 


12,121 


16,184 


72 


54 


12 


1,410 


1,998 


885 


13,519 


14,136 


17,004 


12,038 


12,086 


16,109 


72 


54 


12 


1,409 


1,996 


883 


38 


37 


77 


37 


35 


75 



1,101392 

1,101,292 
300 

6,793 

6,774 
19 



1997 



751,500 

734,261 
17,239 

11,038 

11,014 

24 



' Dismissed or otherwise closed. - Represents zero. 

Note: Data for fiscal years 1993-96 presented in the 1996 edidon of the Statistical Yearbook have been updated and corrected. 

TABLE 72. CONVICTIONS FOR IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY VIOLATIONS 

FISCAL YEARS 1991-97 



Violations 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997 



All violations 



Immigration violations 

Entry of aliens illegally 

Reentries of deported aliens 

Bringing in, transporting, harboring, and 

inducing illegal entry of aliens 

Fraud, misuse of visas, entry permits, 

and other entry documents 

Fraud and false statements or entries 

Ahen registration or alien address 

violations 

Producing, transferring, possessing, 

using, or selling false identification 

documents 

Conspire to defraud U.S 

Producing, processing, selling of a 

controlled substance 

Other violations 



Nationality violations 

False representation as citizens of U.S 

False statements and procurement of 

citizenship or naturalization unlawfully 
Reproduction and sale of citizenship 

and naturalization papers 



11,509 

11392 

7,214 
547 

1,498 

318 
68 

93 

602 
252 

466 
334 

117 

69 

36 
12 



9,865 

9,766 

6,341 
477 

977 

306 
109 

39 



497 
121 

498 
401 

99 

59 

37 

3 



11,685 

11,619 

7,179 
766 



1,008 

293 
116 



802 
699 

742 
7 

66 

56 

3 

7 



10,210 

10,178 

6,607 
803 

732 

306 
40 

15 



672 
462 

523 
18 

32 

24 

3 
5 



12,075 

12,038 

7,430 
1,475 

763 

211 
61 

34 



1,123 

442 

477 
22 

37 

27 

5 
5 



12,121 

12,086 

6,331 
2,331 

1,307 

193 
52 



768 
666 

408 
23 

35 

16 



15 



16,184 

16,109 

9,703 
2,859 

1,185 

161 

77 

11 



1.181 

344 

562 
26 

75 
37 

21 

17 



NA Not available. 
Note: Data for fiscal years 1993-96 presented in the 1996 edition of the Statislicat Yearbook have been updated and corrected. 



195 



TABLE 73. WRITS OF HABEAS CORPUS, JUDICIAL REVIEW OF ORDERS OF DEPORTATION, AND 
DECLARATORY JUDGEMENTS IN EXCLUSION AND DEPORTATION CASES 

FISCAL YEARS 1991-97 



Action taken 



1991 



1992 



1993 



1994 



1995 



1996 



1997' 



Writs of habeas corpus: 

Total disposed of 

Favorable to U.S. government 

Unfavorable to U.S. government 

Withdrawn or otherwise closed 

Total pending end of year 

Judicial review of orders of deportation 
(Section 106. INA): 

Total disposed of 

Favorable to U.S. government 

Unfavorable to U.S. government 

Withdrawn or otherwise closed 

Total pending end of year 

Declaratory judgements: 

Total disposed of 

Favorable to U.S. government 

Unfavorable to U.S. government 

Withdrawn or otherwise closed 

Involving claims of U.S. nationality (8 U.S.C. 1503) 

Favorable to U.S. government 

Unfavorable to U.S. government 

Withdrawn or otherwise closed 

Involving exclusion or deportation 

Favorable to U.S. government 

Unfavorable to U.S. government 

Withdrawn or otherwise closed 



397 

363 
15 
19 

248 



392 

252 

35 

105 

593 



191 

141 
13 
37 



1 

3 

187 

141 
12 
34 



331 

278 
12 
41 

388 



608 

441 

57 

no 

708 



182 

137 
21 

24 

19 

17 
1 
1 

163 

120 
20 
23 



447 

405 
15 
27 

425 



807 

595 

97 

115 

766 



173 

137 
18 
18 

7 
6 

1 

166 

131 

18 
17 



343 

301 
21 

21 
553 



685 

575 
58 
52 

837 



145 

129 

3 

13 

4 

3 

1 

141 

126 

3 
12 



436 

353 
23 
60 

532 



823 

668 
101 

54 
848 



158 

115 
19 

24 

10 

4 
4 

2 

148 

HI 
17 
20 



421 

353 
27 
41 

596 



584 

466 
21 
97 

766 



796 


1^01 


659 


933 


93 


80 


44 


188 


869 


1,405 


143 


184 


114 


104 


14 


16 


15 


64 


5 


15 


5 


7 


. 


1 




7 


138 


169 


109 


97 


14 


15 


15 


57 



' Includes complete counts from the New York District office beginning in fiscal year 1997; in prior years, only actions taken at the Brooklyn Office were reported. 
' Represents zero. 



196 



TABLE 74. PRIVATE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY BILLS 

INTRODUCED AND LAWS ENACTED 

77TH THROUGH 105TH CONGRESS 



Congress 



105th Congress (first session) 

104th Congress 

103rd Congress 

102nd Congress 

101st Congress 

100th Congress 

99th Congress 

98th Congress 

97th Congress 

96th Congress 

95th Congress 

94th Congress 

93rd Congress 

92nd Congress 

91st Congress 

90th Congress 

89th Congress 

88th Congress 

87th Congress 

86th Congress 

85th Congress 

84th Congress 

83rd Congress 

82nd Congress 

81st Congress 

80th Congress 

79th Congress 

78th Congress 

77th Congress 

- Represents zero. 



Bills 


Laws 


introduced 


enacted 


35 


. 


59 


2 


50 


4 


71 


11 


127 


7 


194 


20 


347 


15 


454 


33 


728 


42 


902 


83 


1,024 


138 


1,023 


99 


1,085 

1 KAA 


63 

fi5 



6,266 
7,293 
5,285 
3,647 
3,592 
3,069 
4,364 
4,474 
4,797 
3,669 
2.811 
1,141 
429 
163 
430 



113 

218 

279 

196 

544 

488 

927 

1,227 

753 

729 

505 

121 

14 

12 

22 



197 



VII. ESTIMATES 



This section presents estimates ofttie number of persons wlio leave tlie United States 
to tal<e up residence elsewliere, as well as the number and characteristics 
of persons residing in this country illegally, and describes INS' 
efforts to develop reliable information on the total number 
of persons who enter the United States each year. 



Although a considerable amount of detailed 
information is available about immigrants, temporary 
visitors, and other categories of international migrants to 
the United States, significant gaps remain in our 
knowledge about immigration to the United States. In 
some areas these deficiencies persist because of the 
inherent difficulty in estimating the numbers, as is the case 
for emigration and illegal immigration. As a result, no 
detailed tables on these two categories are included in the 
Statistical Yearbook. 



Emigration 



The collection of statistics on emigration from the United 
States was discontinued in 1957; no direct measure of 
emigration has been available since then. Estimates 
compiled in this country and statistics collected in other 
countries indicate that emigration from the United States 
has increased steadily since the 1950s, exceeding 100,000 
per year from 1970 to 1990, and surpassing 200,000 in the 
1990s. These figures are consistent with U.S. historical 
experience; between 1900 and 1990, approximately 38 



million immigrants were admitted, and an estimated 12 
million foreign-born persons emigrated. ' That is, for every 
100 immigrants admitted, roughly 30 returned home (see 
Table M). 

The U.S. Bureau of the Census currently uses an annual 
emigration figure of 222,000, which includes both citizens 
and aliens, for computing national population estimates. 
Statistics (shown above) on U.S. residents migrating to 
other countries published by the United Nations and the 
Economic Commission for Europe indicate that emigration 
from the United States could be substantially above 
200,000 annually. 

Accurate, detailed, and timely estimates of emigration are 
needed to develop and evaluate U.S. immigration policy, to 
derive accurate national and local population estimates 
(including estimates of illegal immigration), and to 



Wairen, Robert and Ellen Percy Kraly, 1985, The Elusive Exodus: Emigration 
from the United States, Population Trends and Public Policy Occasional Paper 
No. 8, March, Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. 



Table M 
Immigration and Emigration by Decade: 1901-90 

Immigrants Emigrants Net Ratio: 

Period to the U.S. from the U.S. Immigration Emigration/ 

(Thousands) (Thousands) (Thousands) Immigration 

Total, 1901-90 37,869 11,882 25,987 .31 

1981-90 7,338 1,600 5,738 .22 

1971-80 4,493 1,176 3,317 .26 

1961-70 3,322 900 2,422 .27 

1951-60 2,515 425 2,090 .17 

1941-50 1,035 281 754 .27 

1931-40 528 649 -121 1.23 

1921-30 4,107 1,685 2,422 .41 

1911-20 5,736 2,157 3,579 .38 

1901-10 8,795 3,008 5,787 .34 

Source; 1995 Statistical Yearbook. Table 1; Warren, Robert and Ellen Percy Kraly, 1985, The Elusive Exodus: Emigration from the United 
States, Population Trends and Public Policy Occasional Paper No. 8, March, Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. 

198 



Emigration from the United States to 

Top Ten Countries of Destination: 

Selected Years, 1980s 

All countries 241,000 

1. Mexico 55,000 

2. United Kingdom 31,000 

3. Germany 29,000 

4. Canada 20,000 

5. Japan 19,000 

6. Philippines 19,000 

7. Guatemala 13,000 

8. Indonesia 9,000 

9. Australia 8,000 

10. Italy 4,000 

Source; 1989 U.N. Demographic Yearbook. Table 28; Economic 
Commission for Europe, CES/710/Corr. 

measure coverage of the decennial censuses. The sketchy 
data that are available indicate that emigration is a large 
and growing component of U.S. population change. 
However, partly because of inherent methodological 
difficulties, data on emigration from the United States are 
not being collected. 



estimates of the undocumented population have been 
computed for each state of residence and for nearly 100 
countries of origin. 

Data Overview 

About 5.0 million undocumented immigrants were residing 
in the United States in October 1996, with a range of about 
4.6 to 5.4 million. The population was estimated to be 
growing by about 275,000 each year, which is about 
25,000 lower than the annual level of growth estimated by 
the INS in 1994. 

California is the leading state of residence, with 2.0 
million, or 40 percent of the undocumented population. 
The 7 states with the largest estimated numbers of 
undocumented immigrants — California (2.0 million), 
Texas (700,000), New York (540,000), Florida (350,000), 
Illinois (290,000), New Jersey (135,000), and Arizona 
(115,000)— accounted for 83 percent of the total 
population in October 1996. 

The 5.0 million undocumented immigrants made up about 
1.9 percent of the total U.S. population, with the highest 
percentages in California, the District of Columbia, and 
Texas. In the majority of states, undocumented residents 
comprise less than 1 percent of the population. 



Illegal Immigrants ' 

In 1994 the INS released detailed estimates of the 
undocumented immigrant population residing in the 
United States as of October 1992.' Those estimates were 
useful for a variety of purposes, including planning and 
policy development at the national and state level, 
evaluating the effects of proposed legislation, and 
assessing the fiscal impacts of undocumented 
immigration. 

Over the past 2 years, the INS has revised those estimates 
and updated them to October 1996. The estimates 
presented here incorporate new data on the foreign-born 
population collected by the Census Bureau, improvements 
in the methodology recommended by the General 
Accounting Office (GAO), suggestions provided by 
outside reviewers, and further analyses of INS' data 
sources and estimation procedures. Revised and updated 



^ The estimated illegal immigrant population from the Dominican 
Republic shown in Table N was revised from 50,000 (shown in the 1995 
Yearbook) to 75,000 following a review of the estimates for Dominica 
and the Dominican Republic. 

^ Warren, Robert. 1994, Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant 
Population Residing in the United States, by Country of Origin and Stale 
of Residence: October 1992. Unpublished paper, U.S. Immigration and 
Naturalization Service. 



An estimated 5 million 

undocumented immigrants 

were residing in the 

United States in October 1996. 



Mexico is the leading country of origin, with 2.7 million, 
or 54 percent, of the population. The Mexican 
undocumented population has grown at an average annual 
level of just over 150,000 since 1988. The 15 countries 
with 50,000 or more undocumented immigrants in 1996 
accounted for 82 percent of the total population. The large 
majority, over 80 percent, of all undocumented immigrants 
are from countries in the Western Hemisphere. 

About 2.1 million, or 41 percent, of the total 
undocumented population in 1996 are nonimmigrant 
overstays. That is, they entered legally on a temporary 
basis and failed to depart. The proportion of the 
undocumented population who are overstays varies 
considerably by country of origin. About 16 percent of the 
Mexican undocumented population are nonimmigrant 
overstays, compared to 26 percent of those from Central 
America, and 91 percent from all other countries. 



199 



National estimates 

The total number of undocumented immigrants residing in 
the United States in October 1996 is estimated to be 5.0 
million (Table N), with a range of about 4.6 to 5.4 million. 
The estimate for October 1996 is about 1.1 million higher 
than the revised estimate of 3.9 million for October 1992; 
this implies that the population grew by about 275,000 
annually during the 1992-96 period, about the same as the 
annual growth of 281,000 estimated for the previous 
period. The original INS estimates for October 1992 and 
October 1988, released in 1994, showed average annual 
growth of 300,000. 

The undocumented population grows at varying levels 
from year to year, but the data available to make these 
estimates do not permit the derivation of annual figures to 
measure year-to-year changes. However, the similar levels 
of growth for the 1988-92 and 1992-96 periods, 281,000 
and 275,000, respectively, suggest that the overall level of 
growth has been fairly constant over the past decade. This 



also indicates that the rate of growth of the undocumented 
resident population has declined since 1988. 

State of residence 

The estimates for states reflect the well-established pattern 
of geographic concentration of undocumented immigrants 
in the United States. As expected, California was the 
leading state of residence, with 2.0 million, or 40 percent, 
of the total number of undocumented residents in October 
1996. Seven states — California (2.0 million), Texas 
(700,000), New York (540,000), Florida (350,000), Illinois 
(290,000), New Jersey (135,000), and Arizona 
(115,000) — accounted for 83 percent of the population in 
October 1996 (Table N). 

The estimated undocumented population of California has 
grown by an average of about 100,000 annually since the 
end of the IRCA legalization program in 1988. More than 
83 percent of total growth of the undocumented population 
since 1988 has occurred in the top seven states. With the 



Table N 

Estimated Illegal Immigrant Population for Top Twenty Countries 

of Origin and Top Twenty States of Residence: October 1996 



Country of origin 



Population 



State of residence 



Population 



All countries 

I.Mexico 

2. El Salvador..., 

3. Guatemala .... 

4. Canada 

5. Haiti 



6. Philippines 

7. Honduras 

8. Dominican Republic ' 

9. Nicaragua 

10. Poland 



11. Bahamas, The 

12. Colombia 

13. Ecuador 

14. Trinidad & Tobago 

15. Jamaica 



16. Pakistan 

17. India 

18. Ireland .. 

19. Korea.... 

20. Peru 

Other 



5,000,000 

2,700,000 
335,000 
165,000 
120,000 
105,000 

95,000 
90,000 
75,000 
70,000 
70,000 

70,000 
65,000 
55,000 
50,000 
50,000 

41,000 
33,000 
30,000 
30,000 
30,000 
721,000 



All states . 

I.California . 

2. Texas 

3. New York 

4. Florida 

5. Illinois 



6. New Jersey 

7. Arizona 

8. Massachusetts 

9. Virginia 

10. Washington .... 



11. Colorado 

12. Maryland 

13. Michigan 

14. Pennsylvania 

15. New Mexico 



16. Oregon 

17. Georgia 

18. District of Columbia 

19. Connecticut 

20. Nevada 

Other 



5,000,000 

2,000,000 
700,000 
540,000 
350,000 
290,000 

135,000 

115,000 

85,000 

55,000 

52,000 

45,000 
44,000 
37,000 
37,000 
37,000 

33,000 
32,000 
30,000 
29,000 
24,000 
330,000 



The estimated illegal immigrant population from the Dominican Republic was revised from 50,000 (shown in the 1995 Yearbook) to 75,000 following a 
review of the estimates for Dominica and the Dominican Republic. 



200 



exception of Massachusetts (6,000), none of the remaining 
43 states grew by more than 3,000 undocumented 
residents annually. In 27 states, the undocumented 
population grew by an average of 1,000 or less each year. 

Country of origin 

Mexico is the leading source country of undocumented 
immigration to the United States. In October 1996 an 
estimated 2.7 million undocumented immigrants from 
Mexico had established residence here (Table N). Mexican 
undocumented immigrants constituted about 54 percent of 
the total undocumented population. The estimated 
population from Mexico increased by just over 150,000 
annually in both the 1988-92 and 1992-96 periods. 

The estimated number of Mexican undocumented 
immigrants who arrived between 1990 and 1996 is based 
on data on country of birth and year of immigration 
collected by the Census Bureau in the March 1994, 1995, 
and 1996 Current Population Surveys (CPS). 
Demographic analysis of the CPS data indicates that 
approximately 230,000 undocumented Mexican 
immigrants established residence annually between 1990 
and 1996. This is the net annual addition of 
undocumented Mexicans who arrived during the period. 
Note, however, that it does not reflect the average annual 
growth of the Mexican undocumented population. To 
compute average annual growth it is necessary to subtract 
the number of undocumented Mexicans who lived here in 
January 1990 and who emigrated, died, or adjusted to legal 
permanent resident status during the 1990-96 period. This 
last step produces the estimate cited above of just over 
150,000 annual growth of the Mexican undocumented 
population since 1988. 

In October 1996, 15 countries were each the source of 
50,(XX) or more undocumented immigrants (Table N). The 
top five countries are geographically close to the United 
states — Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Canada, and 
Haiti. Of the top 15 countries, only the Philippines and 
Poland are outside the Western Hemisphere. The 
estimated undocumented population from Poland has 
declined by more than 25 percent, from 95,000 to 70,000, 
since 1988, possibly reflecting changed conditions in that 
country over the last several years. 

Although undocumented immigrants come to the United 
States from all countries of the world, relatively few 
countries add substantially to the population. The annual 
growth of the undocumented population can be grouped 
into four disparate categories: 1) Mexico, with more than 
half of the annual growth, adds just over 150,000 
undocumented residents each year; 2) six countries — El 
Salvador, Guatemala, Canada, Haiti, Honduras, and the 
Dominican Republic — each add between 6,(XX) and 1 2,000 



annually; 3) thirteen countries each add about 2,000 to 
4,000 annually; and 4) the remaining approximately 200 
other countries add a total of about 30,0(K) undocumented 
residents each year (Table N). A large majority of the 
additions each year, more than 80 percent, are from 
countries in the Western Hemisphere. 

Estimation Procedure 

Methodology 

The estimates were constructed by combining detailed 
statistics, by year of entry, for each component of change 
that contributes to the undocumented immigrant 
population residing in the United States. For most 
countries of the world, the typical way of entering the 
undocumented population in the United States is to arrive 
as a nonirranigrant and stay beyond the specified period 
of admission. This segment of the population, referred to 
here as "nonimmigrant overstays", constitutes roughly 40 
percent of the undocumented immigrant population 
residing in the United States. The rest of the population, 
more widely publicized, enter surreptitiously across land 
borders, usually between official ports of entry. This part 
of the population, often referred to as EWIs (entry 
without inspection), includes persons from nearly every 
country, but a large majority of them are from Mexico; 
most of the rest are natives of Central American 
countries. 

Primary sets of data 

The figures presented here were constructed from five 
primary sets of data. Each set of data was compiled 
separately for 99 countries and each continent of origin. 

1) Entered before 7952— estimates (as of October 1988) 
of the undocumented immigrant population who 
established residence in the United States before 1982 and 
did not legalize under the Immigration Reform and Control 
Act (IRC A) of 1986. The assumption used to estimate this 
part of the population is based on estimates developed by 
the Census Bureau using data from the June 1988 Current 
Population Survey (CPS). 

2) Net overstays — estimates for 1982 to 1996 of the net 
number of nonimmigrant overstays, for 99 countries of 
origin, derived from INS data bases. Estimates were 
derived by: a) matching INS 1-94 arrival/departure 
records; b) adjusting for the incomplete collection of 
departure forms; and c) subtracting the number of 
nonimmigrant overstays who subsequently either departed 
or adjusted to legal resident status. 

3) Net EWIs — estimates of the number from each country 
who entered without inspection (EWI) and established 
residence here between 1982 and 1996. A very large 
majority of all EWIs are from Mexico. Average annual 
estimates of Mexican EWIs were derived by: a) adjusting 



201 



the CPS count of the Mexican-born population for 
underenumeration; b) subtracting the estimated legally 
resident population counted in the CPS; and c) subtracting 
the estimated number of net overstays. 

4) Mortality — estimates of the annual number of deaths to 
the resident undocumented immigrant population. The 
estimates were derived using an annual crude death rate of 
3.9 per 1,000, which was computed using a modified age 
distribution of IRCA applicants and age-specific death 
rates of the foreign-bom population. 

5) Emigration — estimates of the number of undocumented 
immigrants who resided here at the beginning of a period 
(either October 1988 or October 1992), and who emigrated 
from the United States in the following 4-year period. 
Estimates of emigration are based on statistics published 
by the Census Bureau in Technical Paper No. 9. 

Construction of the estimates 

Estimates of the undocumented immigrant population 
were derived for October 1988, October 1992, and 
October 1996 for 99 individual countries and for each 
continent of origin. The calculations were carried out 
separately for overstays and EWIs. 

Estimates by state of residence 

In the earlier estimates for October 1992, the state 
distribution of the undocumented population was based on 
the U.S. residence pattern of each country's applicants for 
legalization under IRCA; the results were summed to 
obtain state totals. This assumed that, for each country of 
origin, undocumented immigrants who resided in the 
United States in October 1992 had the same U.S. residence 
pattern as IRCA applicants from that country. The revised 
and updated estimates presented here incorporate the same 
assumption for the October 1988 undocumented 
population. However, it was necessary to develop new 
methods of deriving state estimates for October 1992 and 
1996 that would reflect more recent patterns of geographic 
settlement. 

As noted, the estimates of the undocumented population 
were constructed separately for overstays and EWIs. This 
permitted the distribution of the overstay and EWI 
populations to states using data most appropriate for the 
type of population. For overstays, the cohorts that arrived 
in the 1988-92 and 1992-96 periods were distributed to 
state of residence based on annual estimates of overstays 
by state of destination for 1986 to 1989. For EWIs who 
entered during these periods, the totals were distributed to 
state of residence using INS statistics for the early 1990s 
on the destination of the beneficiaries of aliens who 
legalized under IRCA. 



Limitations of Data 

Estimating the size of a hidden population is inherently 
difficult. Overall, the figures presented here generally 
reflect the size, origin, and geographic distribution of the 
undocumented immigrant population residing in the United 
States during the mid-1990s. The estimates probably 
reduce the range of error for the total population to a few 
hundred thousand rather than a few million, which was the 
error range during the late 1970s and into the 1980s. The 
estimates for most countries should be fairly precise 
because they were constructed primarily from data on 
nonimmigrant arrivals, departures, and adjustments of 
status that have relatively small margins of error. 

Although the estimates are based on the most reliable 
information available, they clearly have limitations. For 
example, the estimates make no allowance for students or 
other long-term nonimmigrants, and the estimates for 
some countries could be underestimated because of special 
circumstances {e.g., Dominicans entering illegally via 
Puerto Rico; ships arriving undetected from China). 

The figures for some countries overstate the actual 
undocumented population. In general, the net 
nonimmigrant overstay figures are more likely to be 
overestimates than underestimates because the collection 
of departure forms for long-term overstays who depart 
probably is less complete than for those who depart within 
the first year. 

The estimates include a large number of persons who have 
not been admitted for lawful permanent residence but are 
permitted to remain in the United States pending the 
determination of their status or until conditions improve in 
their country of origin. This category includes many of 
the undocumented immigrants from El Salvador, aliens 
from other countries in a status referred to as "deferred 
enforced departure", and IRCA applicants whose cases 
have not been finally resolved. 

In a few cases, the estimates appear to be too high, but we 
have no basis for making downward adjustments. For 
example, the estimates for the Bahamas appear to be much 
too large because they imply that a relatively large 
proportion of the population is residing illegally in the 
United States, whereas large-scale undocumented 
immigration from the Bahamas has not been observed 
previously. In addition, the estimates shown in the 1995 
Yearbook for Dominica were considerably higher than 
would be expected based on the number of IRCA 
applicants from Dominica. This overstatement could have 
occurred because of processing problems with 1-94 
arrival/departure documents, with the result that overstays 



202 



from Dominica are overestimated and those from the 
Dominican Republic underestimated. The figures shown 
in this edition of the Yearbook have been adjusted to 
account for this anomily in the data used to estimate 
overstays. 

The number of EWIs is the most difficult component to 
estimate with precision, and errors in this component have 
the largest effect on the estimated undocumented 
population from Mexico. In particular, the shortage of 
information about two components — emigration of legally 
resident immigrants and undercount in the CPS — makes it 
difficult to derive acceptable residual estimates of the 
number of undocumented immigrants counted in the CPS. 

The estimates presented here are based on the most 
extensive array of figures ever compiled for the purpose; 
nevertheless, they should be used with caution because of 



the inherent limitations in the data available for estimating 
the undocumented immigrant population. 



Inspections 



The text and table on the estimated number of aliens and 
citizens admitted by state and port of entry are omitted 
from this edition of the Statistical Yearbook. The largest 
component of the admissions is the number of persons 
who enter at land border ports. Information developed 
from survey data indicates that the estimation procedures 
used during the past few years at some land ports have 
resulted in an overstatement of the total number of entries 
into the United States. The methodology used to derive 
estimates of the number of passengers per vehicle and the 
proportion of aliens and U.S. citizens is being evaluated 
and revised. Publication of this data series is expected to 
resume in future years. 



203 



Appendixes 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 
Immigration Limits: Fiscal Year 1997 

Glossary 

Data Sources 

Table Genealogy 



Appendix i 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



The following compilation of federal immigration and naturalization statutes in the United States provides 
an overview of the legislative history of immigration to the United States. It is not exhaustive either for the 
number of bills enacted or for the specific points of law within each bill. This review of the federal legislative 
process fosters a general understanding of the major issues as they developed in the area of immigration and 
naturalization in the United States. The dates of enactment and Statutes-at-Large reference numbers are 
presented in chronological order; they provide a basis for further inquiry for more detailed information. 



Act 



Major Features 



Act of March 26, 1790 

(7 Statutes-at-Large 103) 



The first federal activity in an area previously under the control of the individual 
states, this act established a uniform rule for naturalization by setting the residence 
requirement at two years. 



Act of January 29, 1795 

(7 Statutes-at-Large 414) 



Repealed the 1790 act, raised the residence requirement to five years and required a 
declaration of intention to seek citizenship at least three years before naturalization. 



3. Naturalization Act of June 18, 1798 

(7 Statutes-at-Large 566) 



Provisions: 

a. Clerks of court must furnish information about each record of naturalization 
to the Secretary of State. 

b. Registry of each alien residing in the United States at that time, as well as 
those arriving thereafter. 

c. Raised the residence requirement for naturalization to fourteen years. 



Aliens Act of June 25, 1798 

(7 Statutes-at-Large 570) 



Represented the first Federal law pertinent to immigration rather than 
naturalization. Provisions: 

a. Authorized the President to arrest and/or deport any alien whom he deemed 
dangerous to the United States. 

b. Required the captain of any vessel to report the arrival of aliens on board 
such vessel to the Collector, or other chief officer, of the Customs of the Port. 

This law expired two years after its enactment. 



Alien Enemy Act of July 6, 1798 
(7 Statutes-at-Large 577) 



Provided that in the case of declared war or invasion the President shall have the 
power to restrain or remove alien enemy males of fourteen years and upwards, but 
with due protection of Iheir property rights as stipulated by treaty. 



6. Naturalization Act of April 14, 1802 
(2 Statutes-at-Large 153) 



Provisions: 

a. Reduced the residence period for naturalization from fourteen to five years. 

b. Established basic requirements for naturalization, including good moral 
character, allegiance to the Constitution, a formal declaration of intention, and 
witnesses. 



A.1-1 



lPPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



7. Steerage Act of March 2, 1819 
(5 Statutes-at-Large 488) 



First significant Federal law relating to immigration. Provisions; 

a. Established the continuing reporting of immigration to the United States by 
requiring that passenger lists or manifests of all arriving vessels be delivered to the 
local Collector of Customs, copies transmitted to the Secretary of State, and the 
information reported to Congress. 

b. Set specific sustenance rules for passengers of ships leaving U.S. ports for Europe. 

c. Somewhat restricted the number of passengers on all vessels either coming to 
or leaving the United States. 



Act of May 26, 1824 

(4 Statutes-at-Large 36) 



Facilitated the naturalization of certain aliens who had entered the United States as 
minors, by setting a two-year instead of a three-year interval between declaration of 
intention and admission to citizenship. 



9. Act of February 22, 1847 

(9 Statutes-at-Large 127) 



"Passenger Acts," provided specific regulations to safeguard passengers on 
merchant vessels. Subsequently amended by the Act of March 2, 1847 expanding 
the allowance of passenger space. 



10. Passenger Act of March 3, 1855 

(70 Statutes-at-Large 715) 



Provisions: 

a. Repealed the Passenger Acts (see the 1847 act) and combined their provisions 
in a codified form. 

b. Reaffirmed the duty of the captain of any vessel to report the arrival of alien 
passengers. 

c. Established separate reporting to the Secretary of State distinguishing 
permanent and temporary immigration. 



11. Act of February 19, 1862 

(12 Statutes-at-Large 340) 

12. Act of July 4, 1864 

{13 Statutes-at-Large 385) 



Prohibited the transportation of Chinese "coolies" on American vessels. 



First Congressional attempt to centralize control of immigration. Provisions: 

a. A Commissioner of Immigration was appointed by the President to serve 
under the authority of the Secretary of State. 

b. Authorized immigrant labor contracts whereby would-be immigrants would 
pledge their wages to pay for transportation. 

On March 30, 1868, the Act of July 4, 1864 was repealed. 



13. Naturalization Act of July 14, 1870 

(75 Statutes-at-Large 254) 



Provisions: 

a. Established a system of controls on the naturalization process and penalties 
for fraudulent practices. 

b. Extended the naturalization laws to aliens of African nativity and to persons 
of African descent. 



14. Act of March 3, 1875 

(75 Statutes-at-Large 477) 



Established the policy of direct federal regulation of immigration by prohibiting for 
the first time entry to undesirable immigrants. 
Provisions: 

a. Excluded criminals and prostitutes from admission. 

b. Prohibited the bringing of any Oriental persons without their free and 
voluntary consent; declared the contracting to supply "coolie" labor a felony. 

c. Entrusted the inspection of immigrants to collectors of the ports. 



A.1-2 



Appendix i 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



15. Chinese Exclusion Act of May 6, 1882 
(22 Statutes-at-Large 58) 



Provisions: 

a. Suspended immigration of Chinese laborers to the United States for ten years. 

b. Permitted Chinese laborers already in the United States to remain in the 
country after a temporary absence. 

c. Provided for deportation of Chinese illegally in the United States. 

d. Barred Chinese from naturalization. 

e. Permitted the entry of Chinese students, teachers, merchants, or those 
"proceeding to the United States ... from curiosity." 

On December 17, 1943, the Chinese exclusion laws were repealed. 



16. LvcvnGRATiON Act of August 3, 1882 

(22 Statutes-at-Large 214) 



First general immigration law, established a system of central control of 
immigration through State Boards under the Secretary of the Treasury. Provisions: 

a. Broadened restrictions on immigration by adding to the classes of 
inadmissible aliens, including persons likely to become a public charge. 

b. Introduced a tax of 50 cents on each passenger brought to the United States. 



17. Act of February 26, 1885 

(23 Statutes-at-Large 332) 



The first "Contract Labor Law," made it unlawful to import aliens into the United 
States under contract for the performance of labor or services of any kind. 
Exceptions were for aliens temporarily in the United States engaging other 
foreigners as secretaries, servants, or domestics; actors, artists, lecturers, and 
domestic servants; and skilled aliens working in an industry not yet estabUshed in 
the United States. 



Act of February 23, 1887 

(24 Statutes-at-Large 414) 



Amended the Contract Labor Law to render it enforceable by charging the Secretary 
of the Treasury with enforcement of the act and providing that prohibited persons be 
sent back on arrival. 



19. Act of March 3, 1887 

(24 Statutes-at-Large 476) 



Restricted the ownership of real estate in the United States to American citizens and 
those who have lawfully declared their intentions to become citizens, with certain 
specific exceptions. 



20. Act of October 19, 1888 

(25 Statutes-at-Large 566) 



First measure since the Aliens Act of 1798 to provide for expulsion of aliens — directed 
the return within one year after entry of any immigrant who had landed in violation of 
the contract labor laws (see acts of February 26, 1885 and February 23, 1887). 



21. Imnhgration Act of March 3, 1891 

(26 Statutes-at-Large 1084) 



The first comprehensive law for national control of immigration. Provisions: 

a. Established the Bureau of Immigration under the Treasury Department to 
administer all immigration laws (except the Chinese Exclusion Act). 

b. Further restricted immigration by adding to the inadmissible classes persons 
likely to become public charges, persons suffering from certain contagious disease, 
felons, persons convicted of other crimes or misdemeanors, polygamists, aliens 
assisted by others by payment of passage, and forbade the encouragement of 
immigration by means of advertisement. 

c. Allowed the Secretary of the Treasury to prescribe rules for inspection along 
the borders of Canada, British Columbia, and Mexico so as not to obstruct or 
unnecessarily delay, impede, or annoy passengers in ordinary travel between these 
countries and the United States. 

d. Directed the deportation of any alien who entered the United States unlawfully. 



A.1-3 



.PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



22. Act of March 3, 1893 

(27 Statutes-at-Large 570) 



Provisions: 

a. Added to the reporting requirements regarding alien arrivals to the United 
States such new information as occupation, marital status, ability to read or write, 
amount of money in possession, and facts regarding physical and mental health. 
This information was needed to determine admissibility according to the expanding 
list of grounds for exclusion. 

b. Established boards of special inquiry to decide the admissibility of alien 
arrivals. 



23. Act of April 29, 1902 

(J2 Statutes-at-Large 176) 



Extended the existing Chinese exclusion acts until such time as a new treaty with 
China was negotiated, and extended the application of the exclusion acts to insular 
territories of the United States, including the requirement of a certificate of 
residence, except in Hawaii. 



24. Act of February 14, 1903 

(32 Statutes-at-Large 825) 



Transferred the Bureau of Immigration to the newly-created Department of 
Commerce and Labor, and expanded the authority of the Commissioner-General of 
Immigration in the areas of rulemaking and enforcement of immigration laws. 



25. Immigration Act of March 3, 1903 

(52 Statutes-at-Large 1213) 



An extensive codification of existing immigration law. Provisions: 

a. Added to the list of inadmissible immigrants. 

b. First measure to provide for the exclusion of aliens on the grounds of 
proscribed opinions by excluding "anarchists, or persons who believe in, or 
advocate, the overthrow by force or violence the government of the United States, 
or of all government, or of all forms of law, or the assassination of public officials." 

c. Extended to three years after entry the period during which an alien who was 
inadmissible at the time of entry could be deported. 

d. Provided for the deportation of aliens who became public charges within two 
years after entry from causes existing prior to their landing. 

e. Reaffirmed the contract labor law (see the 1885 act). 



26. Act of April 27, 1904 

(33 Statutes-at-Large 428) 



Reaffirmed and made permanent the Chinese exclusion laws. In addition, clarified 
the territories from which Chinese were to be excluded. 



27. Naturalization Act of June 29, 1906 

(34 Statutes-at-Large 596) 



Provisions: 

a. Combined the immigration and naturalization functions of the federal 
government, changing the Bureau of Immigration to the Bureau of Immigration and 
Naturalization. 

b. Established fundamental procedural safeguards regarding naturalization, such 
as fixed fees and uniform naturalization forms. 

c. Made knowledge of the English language a requirement for naturalization. 



28. Immigration Act of February 20, 1907 

(34 Statutes-at-Large 898) 



A major codifying act that incorporated and consolidated eariier legislation: 

a. Required aliens to declare intention of permanent or temporary stay in the 
United States and officially classified arriving aliens as immigrants and 
nonimmigrants, respectively. 

b. Increased the head tax to $4.(X) (established by the Act of August 3, 1 882 and 
raised subsequently). 

c. Added to the excludable classes imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, persons 



A. 1-4 



.PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



Immigration Act of February 20, 1907 — cent. 



with physical or mental defects which may affect their ability to earn a living, 
persons afflicted with tuberculosis, children unaccompanied by their parents, 
persons who admitted the commission of a crime involving moral turpitude, and 
women coming to the United States for immoral purposes. 

d. Exempted from the provisions of the contract labor law professional actors, 
artists, singers, ministers, professors, and domestic servants. 

e. Extended from two to three years after entry authority to deport an alien who 
had become a public charge from causes which existed before the alien's entry. 

f. Authorized the President to refuse admission to certain persons when he was 
satisfied that their immigration was detrimental to labor conditions in the United 
States. This was aimed mainly at Japanese laborers. 

g. Created a Joint Commission on Immigration to make an investigation of the 
immigration system in the United States. The findings of this Commission were the 
basis for the comprehensive Immigration Act of 1917. 

h. Reaffirmed the requirement for manifesting of aliens arriving by water and 
added a like requirement with regard to departing aliens. 



29. White Slave Trabtic Act of 
June 25, 1910 
{36 Slatutes-at-Large 825) 



The Mann Act, prohibited the importation or interstate transportation of women for 
immoral purposes. 



30. Act of March 4, 1913 

(37 Slatutes-at-Large 737) 



Divided the Department of Commerce and Labor into separate departments and 
transferred the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization to the Department of 
Labor. It further divided the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization into a 
separate Bureau of Immigration and Bureau of Naturalization, each headed by its 
own Commissioner. 



31. iMNflGRATION ACT OF FEBRUARY 5, 1917 

(39 Statutes-at-Large 874) 



Codified all previously enacted exclusion provisions. In addition: 

a. Excluded illiterate aliens from entry. 

b. Expanded the list of aliens excluded for mental health and other reasons. 

c. Further restricted the immigration of Asian persons, creating the "barred 
zone" (known as the Asia-Pacific triangle), natives of which were declared 
inadmissible. 

d. Considerably broadened the classes of aliens deportable from the United States 
and introduced the requirement of deportation without statute of limitation in certain 
more serious cases. 



32. Act of May 22, 1918 

{40 Statutes-at-Large 559) 



"Entry and Departure Controls Act," authorized the President to control the 
departure and entry in times of war or national emergency of any alien whose 
presence was deemed contrary to public safety. 



33. Quota Law of May 19, 1921 

{42 Statutes-at-Large 5) 



The first quantitative immigration law. Provisions: 

a. Limited the number of aliens of any nationality entering the United States to 
three percent of the foreign-bom persons of that nationality who lived in the United 
States in 1910. Approximately 350,000 such aliens were permitted to enter each 
year as quota immigrants, mostly from Northern and Western Europe. 

b. Exempted from this limitation aliens who had resided continuously for at least 
one year immediately preceding their application in one of the independent 
countries of the Western Hemisphere; nonimmigrant aliens such as government 
officials and their households, aliens in transit through the United States, and 



A. 1-5 



.PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



Quota Law of May 19, 1921 — cent. 



temporary visitors for business and pleasure; and aliens whose immigration is 
regulated by immigration treaty. 

c. Actors, artists, lecturers, singers, nurses, ministers, professors, aliens belonging 
to any recognized learned profession, and aliens employed as domestic servants 
were placed on a nonquota basis. 



34. Act of May 11, 1922 

{42 Statutes-at-Large 540) 



Extended the Act of May 19, 1921 for two years, with amendments: 

a. Changed from one year to five-years the residency requirement in a Western 
Hemisphere country. 

b. Authorized fines of transportation companies for transporting an inadmissible 
alien unless it was deemed that inadmissibility was not known to the company and 
could not have been discovered with reasonable diligence. 



35. Immigration Act of May 26, 1924 

{43 Statutes-at-Large 153) 



The first permanent limitation on immigration, established the "national origins 
quota system." In conjunction with the Immigration Act of 1917, governed 
American immigration policy until 1952 (see the Immigration and Nationality Act 
of 1952). 
F*ro visions: 

a. Contained two quota provisions: 

1. In effect until June 30, 1927 — set the annual quota of any quota 
nationality at two percent of the number of foreign-born 
persons of such nationality resident in the continental United States in 
1890 (total quota- 164,667). 

2. From July 1, 1927 (later postponed to July 1, 1929) to December 31, 
1952 — used the national origins quota system: the annual quota for 
any country or nationality had the same relation to 150,000 as the 
number of inhabitants in the continental United States in 1920 having 
that national origin had to the total number of inhabitants in the 
continental United States in 1920. 

Preference quota status was established for: unmarried children under 21; 
parents; spouses of U.S. citizens aged 21 and over; and for quota immigrants aged 
21 and over who are skilled in agriculture, together with their wives and dependent 
children under age 16. 

b. Nonquota status was accorded to: wives and unmarried children under 18 of U.S. 
citizens; natives of Western Hemisphere countries, with their families; nonimmigrants; 
and certain others. Subsequent amendments eliminated certain elements of this law's 
inherent discrimination against women but comprehensive elimination was not achieved 
until 1952 (see the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952). 

c. Established the "consular control system" of immigration by mandating that no 
alien may be permitted entrance to the United States without an unexpired 
immigration visa issued by an American consular officer abroad. Thus, the State 
Department and the Immigration and Naturalization Service shared control of 
immigration. 

d. Introduced the provision that, as a rule, no alien ineligible to become a citizen 
shall be admitted to the United States as an immigrant. This was aimed primarily at 
Japanese aliens. 

e. Imposed fines on transportation companies who landed aliens in violation of 
U.S. Immigration laws. 

f. Defined the term "immigrant" and designated all other alien entries into the 
United States as "nonimmigrant" (temporary visitor). Established classes of 
admission for nonimmigrant entries. 



A. 1-6 



Appendix i 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



36. Act of May 28, 1924 

(43 Statutes-at-Large 240) 

37. Act of March 31, 1928 
{45 Statutes-at-Large 400) 



An appropriations law, provided for the establisliment of the U.S. Border Patrol. 



Provided more time to work out computation of the quotas established by the 
Immigration Act of 1924 by postponing introduction of the quotas until July 1, 
1929. 



38. Act of April 2, 1928 

(45 Statutes-at-Large 401) 



Provided that the Immigration Act of 1924 was not to be construed to limit the right 
of American Indians to cross the border, but with the proviso that the right does not 
extend to members of Indian tribes by adoption. 



39. Registry Act of March 2, 1929 

(45 Statutes-at-Large 1512) 



Amended existing immigration law authorizing the establishment of a record of 
lawful admission for certain aliens not ineligible for citizenship when no record of 
admission for permanent residence could be found and the alien could prove 
entrance to the United States before July 1, 1924 (subsequently amended to June 3, 
1921 by the Act of August 7, 1939 — 53 Statutes-at-Large 1243). Later incorporated 
into the Alien Registration Act of 1940. 



40. Act of March 4, 1929 

(45 Statutes-at-Large 1551) 



Provisions: 

a. Added two deportable classes, consisting of aliens convicted of carrying any 
weapon or bomb and sentenced to any term of six months or more, and aliens 
convicted of violation of the prohibition law for which a sentence of one year or 
more is received. 

b. Made reentry of a previously deported alien a felony punishable by fine or 
imprisonment or both. 

c. Made entry by an alien at other than at a designated place or by fraud to be a 
misdemeanor punishable by fine or imprisonment or both. 

d. Deferred the deportation of an alien sentenced to imprisonment until the 
termination of the imprisonment. 



41 . Act of February 18, 1931 

(46 Statutes-at-Large 1171) 



Provided for the deportation of any alien convicted of violation of U.S. laws 
concerning the importation, exportation, manufacture, or sale of heroin, opium, or 
coca leaves. 



42. Act of March 17, 1932 

(47 Statutes-at-Large 67) 



Provisions: 

a. The contract labor laws were applicable to alien instrumental musicians 
whether coming for permanent residence or temporarily. 

b. Such aliens shall not be considered artists or professional actors under 
the terms of the Immigration Act of 1917, and thereby exempt from the 
contract labor laws, unless they are recognized to be of distinguished ability 
and are coming to fulfill professional engagements corresponding to such 
ability. 

c. If the alien qualifies for exemption under the above proviso, the Secretary of 
Labor later may prescribe such conditions, including bonding, as will insure the 
alien's departure at the end of his engagement. 



43. Act of May 2, 1932 

(47 Statutes-at-Large 145) 



Amended the Immigration Act of 1917, doubling the allocation for enforcement of 
the contract labor laws. 



A. I -7 



lPPENDEX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



44. Act of July 1, 1932 

{47 Statutes-at-Large 524) 



Amended the Immigration Act of 1924, providing that the specified classes of 
nonimmigrant aliens be admitted for a prescribed period of time and under such 
conditions, including bonding where deemed necessary, as would ensure departure 
at the expiration of the prescribed time or upon failure to maintain the status under 
which admitted. 



45. Act of July 11, 1932 

{47 Statutes-at-Large 656) 



Provided exemption from quota limits (i.e., give nonquota status) the husbands of 
American citizens, provided that the marriage occurred prior to issuance of the visa 
and prior to July 1, 1932. Wives of citizens were accorded nonquota status 
regardless of the time of marriage. 



46. Act OF June 15, 1935 

{49 Statutes-at-Large 376) 



Designated as a protection for American seamen, repealed the laws giving privileges of 
citizenship regarding service on and protection by American vessels to aliens having 
their first papers (i.e., having made declaration of intent to become American citizens). 



47. Act of May 14, 1937 

{50 Statutes-at-Large 164) 



Made deportable any alien who at any time after entering the United States: 

a. was found to have secured a visa through fraud by contracting a marriage 
which subsequent to entry into the United States had been judicially annulled 
retroactively to the date of the marriage; or 

b. failed or refused to fulfill his promises for a marital agreement made to 
procure his entry as an immigrant. 



48. Act of June 14, 1940 

{54 Statutes-at-Large 230) 



Presidential Reorganization Plan, transferred the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service from the Department of Labor to the Department of Justice as a national 
security measure. 



49. Alien Registration Act of 
June 28, 1940 

{54 Statutes-at-Large 670) 



Provisions: 

a. Required registration of all aliens and fingerprinting those over 14 years of age. 

b. Established additional deportable classes, including aliens convicted of 
smuggling, or assisting in the illegal entry of, other aliens. 

c. Amended the Act of October 16, 1919, making past membership — in addition 
to present membership — in proscribed organizations and subversive classes of 
aliens grounds for exclusion and deportation. 

d. Amended the Immigration Act of 1917, authorizing, in certain meritorious 
cases, voluntary departure in lieu of deportation, and suspension of deportation. 



50. Act OF July 1,1940 

{54 Statutes-at-Large 711) 



Amended the Immigration Act of 1924, requiring aliens admitted as officials of 
foreign governments to maintain their status or depart. 



5 1 . Nationality Act of October 14, 1940 

(Effective January 13, 1941 as 
54 Statutes-at-Large 1137) 



Codified and revised the naturalization, citizenship, and expatriation laws to 
strengthen the national defense. The naturalization and nationality regulations were 
rewritten and the forms used in naturalization proceedings were revised. 



52. Public Safety Act of June 20, 1941 
{55 Statutes-at-Large 252) 



Directed a consular officer to refuse a visa to any alien seeking to enter the United 
States for the purpose of engaging in activities which would endanger the safety of 
the United Slates. 



A.1-8 



Appendix 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



53. Act of June 21, 1941 

{55 Siatuies-at-Large 252) 



Extended the Act of May 22, 1918 — gave the President power, during a time of 
national emergency or war, to prevent departure from or entry into the United States. 



54. Act of December 8, 1942 

(56 Statutes-at-Large 1044) 



Amended the Immigration Act of 1917, altering the reporting procedure in 
suspension of deportation cases to require the Attorney General to report such 
suspensions to Congress on the first and fifteenth of each month that Congress is in 



55. 



Act of April 29, 1943 

{57 Statutes-at-Large 70) 



Provided for the importation of temporary agricultural laborers to the United States 
from North, South, and Central America to aid agriculture during World War II. 
This program was later extended through 1947, then served as the legal basis of the 
Mexican "Bracero Program," which lasted through 1964. 



56. 



Act of December 17, 1943 

{57 Statutes-at-Large 600) 



Amended the Alien Registration Act of 1940, adding to the classes eligible for 
naturalization Chinese persons or persons of Chinese descent. A quota of 105 per 
year was established (effectively repealing the Chinese Exclusion laws — see the Act 
of May 6, 1882). 



57. Act of February 14, 1944 

{58 Statutes-at-Large U) 



Provided for the importation of temporary workers from countries in the Western 
Hemisphere pursuant to agreements with such countries for employment in 
industries and services essential to the war efforts. Agreements were 
subsequently made with British Honduras, Jamaica, Barbados, and the British 
West Indies. 



58. War Brides Act of 

December 28, 1945 

{59 Statutes-at-Large 659) 



Waived visa requirements and provisions of immigration law excluding physical 
and mental defectives when they concerned members of the American armed forces 
who, during World War II, had married nationals of foreign countries. 



59. G.I. Fiancees Act of June 29, 1946 

{60 Statutes-at-Large 339) 



Facilitated the admission to the United States of fiance(e)s of members of the 
American armed forces. 



60. Act of July 2, 1946 

{60 Statutes-at-Large 416) 



Amended the Immigration Act of 1917, granting the privilege of admission to the 
United States as quota immigrants and eligibility for naturalization races indigenous 
to India and persons of Filipino descent. 



61. 



62. 



Act of August 9, 1946 

{60 Statutes-at-Large 975) 

Act of June 28, 1947 
{61 Statutes-at-Large 190) 



Gave nonquota status to Chinese wives of American citizens. 



Extended by six months the Attorney General's authority to admit alien fiance(e)s 
of veterans as temporary visitors pending marriage. 



63. Act of May 25, 1948 

{62 Statutes-at-Large 268) 



Amended the Act of October 16, 1918, providing for the expulsion and 
exclusion of anarchists and similar classes, and gave the Attorney General 
similar powers to exclude as the Secretary of State had through the refusal of 
immigration visas. 



A. 1-9 



.PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



64. Displaced Persons Act 

OF June 25, 1948 

(62 Statutes-at-Large 1009) 



First expression of U.S. policy for admitting persons fleeing persecution. Permitted 
the admission of up to 205,000 displaced persons during the two-year period 
beginning July 1, 1948 (chargeable against fiiture year's quotas). Aimed at reducing 
the problem created by the presence in Germany, Austria, and Italy of more than one 
million displaced persons. 



65. Act OF July 1,1948 

{62 Statutes-at-Large 1206) 



Amended the Immigration Act of 1917. Provisions: 

a. Made available suspension of deportation to aliens even though they were 
ineligible for naturalization by reason of race. 

b. Set condition for suspension of deportation that an alien shall have proved 
good moral character for the preceding five years, and that the Attorney General 
finds that deportation would result in serious economic detriment to a citizen or 
legal resident and closely related alien, or the alien has resided continuously in the 
United States for seven years or more. 



66. Central Intelligence Agency Act 
OF June 20, 1949 
{63 Statutes-at-Large 208) 



Authorized the admission of a limited number of aliens in the interest of national 
security. Provided that whenever the Director of the Central Intelligence 
Agency, the Attorney General, and the Commissioner of Immigration determine 
that the entry of a particular alien into the United States for permanent residence 
is in the national security or essential to the furtherance of the national 
intelligence mission, such alien and his immediate family may be given entry 
into the United States for permanent residence without regard to their 
admissibility under any laws and regulations or to their failure to comply with 
such laws and regulations pertaining to admissibility. The number was not to 
exceed 100 persons per year. 



67. Agricultural Act of October 31, 1949 

(63 Statutes-at-Large 1051) 



Facilitated the entry of seasonal farm workers to meet labor shortages in the United 
States. Further extension of the Mexican Bracero Program. 



68. Act of June 16, 1950 

{64 Statutes-at-Large 219) 



Amended the Displaced Persons Act of 1948. Provisions: 

a. Extended the act to June 30, 1951 and its application to war orphans and 
German expellees and refugees to July 1 , 1952. 

b. Increased the total of persons who could be admitted under the act to 415,744. 



69. Act of June 30, 1950 

{64 Statutes-at-Large 306) 



Provided relief to the sheepherding industry by authorizing that, during a one-year 
period, 250 special quota immigration visas be issued to skilled sheepherders 
chargeable to oversubscribed quotas. 



70. Act of August 19, 1950 

{64 Statutes-at-Large 464) 



Made spouses and minor children of members of the American armed forces, 
regardless of the alien's race, eligible for immigration and nonquota status if 
marriage occurred before March 19, 1952. 



7 1 . Internal Security Act 

of September 22, 1950 

{64 Statutes-at-Large 987) 



Amended various immigration laws with a view toward strengthening security 
screening in cases of aliens in the United States or applying for entry. 
Provisions: 

a. Present and former membership in the Communist party or any other 
totalitarian party or its affiliates was specifically made a ground for inadmissibility. 



A.1-10 



Appendix 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



Internal Security Act of 
September 22. 1950 — cont. 



b. Aliens in the United States who, at the time of their entry or by reason of 
subsequent actions, would have been inadmissible under the provisions of the 
Internal Security Act, were made deportable regardless of the length of their 
residence in the United States. 

c. The discretion of the Attorney General in admitting otherwise inadmissible 
aliens temporarily, and in some instances permanently, was curtailed or eliminated. 

d. The Attorney General was given authority to exclude and deport without a 
hearing an alien whose admission would be prejudicial to the public interest if the 
Attorney General's finding was based on confidential information the disclosure of 
which would have been prejudicial to the public interest of the United States. 

e. The Attorney General was given authority to supervise deportable aliens 
pending their deportation and also was given greater latitude in selecting the coimtry 
of deportation. However, deportation of an alien was prohibited to any country in 
which the alien would be subject to physical persecution. 

f. Any alien deportable as a subversive criminal, or member of the immoral 
classes who willfully failed to depart from the United States within six months after 
the issuance of the deportation order was made liable to criminal prosecution and 
could be imprisoned for up to ten years. 

g. Every alien residing in the United States subject to alien registration was 
required to notify the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization of his 
address within ten days of each January 1st in which he resided in the United States. 



72. 



Act of March 28, 1951 

(65 Stalutes-at-Large 28) 



Provisions: 

a. Gave the Attorney General authority to amend the record of certain aliens who 
were admitted only temporarily because of affiliations other than Communist. 

b. Interpreted the Act of October 16, 1918 regarding exclusion and expulsion of 
aliens to include only voluntary membership or affiliation with a Communist 
organization and to exclude cases where the person in question was under sixteen 
years of age, or where it was for the purpose of obtaining employment, food rations, 
or other necessities. 



73. 



Act of July 12, 1951 

{65 Statutes-at-Large 119) 



Amended the Agricultural Act of 1949, serving as the basic framework under which 
the Mexican Braccro Program operated until 1962. Provided that: 

a. The U.S. government establish and operate reception centers at or near the 
Mexican border; provide transportation, subsistence, and medical care from the 
Mexican recruiting centers to the U.S. reception centers; and guarantee performance 
by employers in matters relating to transportation and wages, including all forms of 
remuneration. 

b. U.S. employers pay the prevailing wages in the area; guarantee the workers 
employment for three-fourths of the contract period; and provide workers with free 
housing and adequate meals at a reasonable cost. 



74. 



Act of March 20, 1952 

(66 Statutes-at-Large 26) 



Provisions: 

a. Amended the Immigration Act of 1917, making it a felony to bring in or 
willfully induce an alien unlawfully to enter or reside in the United States. 
However, the usual and normal practices incident to employment were not deemed 
to constitute harboring. 

b. Defined further the powers of the Border Patrol, giving officers of the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service authority to have access to private lands, but 
not dwellings, within 25 miles of an external boundary for the purpose of patrolling 
the border to prevent the illegal entry of aliens. 



A.1-11 



.PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



75. Act of April 9, 1952 

(66 Statutes-at-Large 50) 

76. Immigration and Nationality Act 

OF June 27, 1952 (INA) 
{66 Statutes-at-Large 163) 



Added the issuance of 500 immigration visas to sheepherders. 



Brougiit into one comprehensive statute the multiple laws which, before its 
enactment, governed immigration and naturalization in the United States. In 
general, perpetuated the immigration policies from earlier statutes with the 
following significant modifications: 

a. Made all races eligible for naturalization, thus eliminating race as a bar to 
immigration. 

b. Eliminated discrimination between sexes with respect to immigration. 

c. Revised the national origins quota system of the Immigration Act of 1924 by 
changing the national origins quota formula: set the annual quota for an area at 
one-sixth of one percent of the number of inhabitants in the continental United 
States in 1920 whose ancestry or national origin was attributable to that area. All 
countries were allowed a minimum quota of 100, with a ceiling of 2,000 on most 
natives of countries in the Asia-Pacific triangle, which broadly encompassed the 
Asian countries. 

d. Introduced a system of selected immigration by giving a quota preference to 
skilled aliens whose services are urgently needed in the United States and to 
relatives of U.S. citizens and aliens. 

e. Placed a limit on the use of the governing country's quota by natives of 
colonies and dependent areas. 

f. Provided an "escape clause" permitting the immigration of certain former 
voluntary members of proscribed organizations. 

g. Broadened the grounds for exclusion and deportation of aliens. 

h. Provided procedures for the adjustment of status of nonimmigrant aliens to that 
of permanent resident aliens. 

i. Modified and added significantly to the existing classes of nonimmigrant 
admission. 

j. Afforded greater procedural safeguards to aliens subject to deportation. 

k. Introduced the alien address report system whereby all aliens in the Unitedi 
States (including most temporary visitors) were required annually to report their 
current address to the INS. 

1. Established a central index of all aliens in the United States for use by security 
and enforcement agencies. 

m. Repealed the ban on contract labor (sec Act of March 30, 1868) but addedi 
other qualitative exclusions. 



77. Refugee Relief Act of August 7, 1953 
{,67 Statutes-at-Large 400) 



Authorized the issuance of special nonquota visas allowing 214,000 aliens to 
become permanent residents of the United States, in addition to those whose 
admission was authorized by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952. 



78. Act of September 3, 1954 

{68 Statutes-at-Large 1145) 



Provisions: 

a. Made special nonquota immigrant visas available to certain skilledl 
sheepherders for a period of up to one year. 

b. Exempted from inadmissibility to the United States aliens who had committed! 
no more than one petty offense. 



79. Act of September 3, 1954 

{68 Statutes-at-Large 1146) 



Provided for the expatriation of persons convicted of engaging in a conspiracy tot 
overthrow or levy war against the U.S. government. 



A.1-12 



Appendix 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



80. Act of July 24, 1957 
(71 Statutes-at-Large 311) 

8 1 . Act of August 30, 1957 
(71 Statutes-at-Large 518) 



Permitted enlistment of aliens into the regular Army. 



Exempted aliens who were survivors of certain deceased members of the U.S. armed 
forces from provisions of the Social Security Act which prohibited the payment of 
benefits to aliens outside the United States. 



82. 



Refugee-Escapee Act 
OF September 11, 1957 

(77 Statutes-at-Large 639) 



Provisions: 

a. Addressed the problem of quota oversubscription by removing the 
"mortgaging" of immigrant quotas imposed under the Displaced Persons Act of 
1948 and other subsequent acts. 

b. Provided for the granting of nonquota status to ahens qualifying under the 
first three preference groups on whose behalf petitions had been filed by a 
specified date. 

c. Facilitated the admission into the United States of stepchildren, illegitimate 
children, and adopted children. 

d. Conferred first preference status on spouse and children of first preference 
immigrants if following to join the immigrant. 

c. Set an age limit of fourteen for the adoption of orphans to qualify for nonquota 
status and further defined which orphans were eligible under the act. 

f. Gave the Attorney General authority to admit certain aliens formerly 
excludable from the United States. 



83. 



Act of July 25, 1958 

(72 Statutes-at-Large 419) 



Granted admission for permanent residence to Hungarian parolees of at least two 
years' residence in the United States, on condition that the alien was admissible at 
time of entry and still admissible. 



84. 



Act of August 21, 1958 
(72 Statutes-at-Large 699) 



Authorized the Attorney General to adjust nonimmigrant aliens from temporary to 
permanent resident status subject to visa availability. 



35. 



Act of September 22, 1959 

(73 Statutes-at-Large 644) 



Facilitated the entry of fiance(e)s and relatives of alien residents and citizens of the 
United States by reclassifying certain categories of relatives into preference portions 
of the immigration quotas. This was designed to assist in reuniting families both on 
a permanent basis, through the amendments to the Immigration and Nationality Act 
of 1952, and through temporary programs. 



36. 



Act of July 14, 1960 

(74 Statutes-at-Large 504) 



"Fair Share Refugee Act." 
Provisions: 

a. Authorized the Attorney General to parole up to 500 alien refugee-escapees 
and make them eligible for permanent residence. 

b. Amended the Act of September 2, 1958 to extend it to June 30, 1962. 

c. Amended the Act of September 11, 1957, which provided special nonquota 
immigrant visas for adopted or to-be-adopted orphans under 14 years of age, 
extending it to June 30, 1 96 1 . 

d. Amended the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, adding possession of 
marijuana to the sections concerning excludable and deportable offenses. 

e. Made alien seamen ineligible for adjustment from temporary to permanent 
resident status. 



A.1-13 



Appendix 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



87. Act of August 17, 1961 

(75 Statutes-at-Large 364) 



Provided that, in peacetime, no volunteer is to be accepted into the Army or Air 
Force unless the person is a citizen or an alien admitted for permanent residence. 



88. Act of September 26, 1961 

{75 Statutes-at-Large 650) 



Liberalized the quota provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952: 

a. Eliminated the ceiling of 2,000 on the aggregate quota of the Asia-Pacific triangle. 

b. Provided that whenever one or more quota areas have a change of boundaries 
which might lessen their aggregate quota, they were to maintain the quotas they had 
before the change took place. 

c. Codified and made permanent the law for admission of adopted children. 

d. Established a single statutory form of judicial review of orders of deportation. 

e. Insured a minimum quota of 100 for newly independent nations. 

f. Called for the omission of information on race and ethnic origin from the visa 
application. 

g. Strengthened the law against the fraudulent gaining of nonquota status by 
marriage. 

h. Authorized the Public Health Service to determine which diseases are 
dangerous and contagious in constituting grounds for exclusion. 



89. Act of October 24, 1962 

{76 Statutes-at-Large 1247) 



Provisions: 

a. Granted nonquota immigrant visas for certain aliens eligible for fourth 
preference (i.e., brothers, sisters, and children of citizens) and for first preference 
(i.e., aliens with special occupational skills). 

b. Called for a semimonthly report to Congress from the Attorney General of firsi 
preference petitions approved. 

c. Created a record of lawful entry and provided for suspension of deportation foi 
aliens who have been physically present in the United States for at least seven yean 
in some cases and ten years in others. 



90. Act of December 13, 1963 

{77 Statutes-at-Large 363) 

91. Immigration AND Nationality Act 

Amendments of October 3, 1965 

{79 Statutes-at-Large 911) 



Extended the Mexican Bracero Program one additional year to December 31 , 1964. 



Provisions: 

a. Abolished the national origins quota system (see the Immigration Act of 1924 
and the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952), eliminating national origin, race, 
or ancestry as a basis for immigration to the United States. 

b. Established allocation of immigrant visas on a first come, first served basis, 
subject to a seven-category preference system for relatives of U.S. citizens and 
permanent resident aliens (for the reunification of families) and for persons with 
special occupational skills, abilities, or training (needed in the United States). 

c. Established two categories of immigrants not subject to numerical restrictions: 

1. Immediate relatives (spouses, children, parents) of U.S. citizens, and 

2. Special immigrants: certain ministers of religion; certain former 
employees of the U.S. government abroad; certain persons who lost 
citizenship (e.g., by marriage or by service in foreign armed forces); and 
certain foreign medical graduates. 

d. Maintained the principle of numerical restriction, expanding limits to work 
coverage by limiting Eastern Hemisphere immigration to 170,000 and placing 
ceiling on Western Hemisphere immigration (120,(X)0) for the first time. However, 
neither the preference categories nor the 20,000 per-country limit were applied tc 
the Western Hemisphere. 



A.1-14 



lPPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



Immigration and Nationality Act 
Amendments of October 3, 1965 — cont. 



e. Introduced a prerequisite for the issuance of a visa of an affirmative finding by 
the Secretary of Labor that an alien seeking to enter as a worker will not replace a 
worker in the United States nor adversely affect the wages and working conditions 
of similarly employed individuals in the United States. 



Freedom of Information Act 
OF July 4, 1966 

(80 Statutes-at-Large 250) 



Provisions: 

a. Established that the record of every proceeding before the INS in an 
individual's case be made available to the alien or his attorney of record. 

b. Required that public reading rooms be established in each Central and District 
office of the INS, where copies of INS decisions could be made available to the 
public. 

Effective July 4, 1967. 



Act OF November 2, 1966 

{80 Statutes-at-Large 1161) 



Authorized the Attorney General to adjust the status of Cuban refugees to that of 
permanent resident alien, chargeable to the 120,000 annual limit for the Western 
Hemisphere. 



Act of November 6, 1966 

{80 Statutes-at-Large 1322) 



Provisions: 

a. Extended derivative citizenship to children bom on or after December 24, 1952 
of civilian U.S. citizens serving abroad. 

b. Provided that time spent abroad by U.S. citizens (or their dependent children) 
in the employ of the U.S. Government or certain international organizations could be 
treated as physical presence in the United States for the purpose of transmitting U.S. 
citizenship to children bom abroad. 



Act of December 18, 1967 

{81 Statutes-at-Large 661) 



Facilitated the expeditious naturalization of certain noncitizen employees of U.S. 
nonprofit organizations. 



Act of June 19, 1968 

{82 Statutes-at-Large 197) 



Omnibus crimes control and safe streets legislation, declared it illegal for aliens who 
are illegally in the country and for former citizens who have renounced their 
citizenship to receive, possess, or transport a firearm. 



Act of October 24, 1968 
{82 Statutes-at-Large 1343) 



Amended the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, providing for expeditious 
naturalization of noncitizens who have rendered honorable services in the U.S. 
armed forces during the Vietnam conflict, or in other periods of military 
hostilities. 



98. Act of April 7, 1970 

{84 Statutes-at-Large 116) 



Provisions: 

a. Created two new classes of nonimmigrant admission — fiance(e)s of U.S. 
citizens and intracompany transferees. 

b. Modified the HI temporary worker class of nonimmigrant admission (workers of 
distinguished merit and ability). 

c. Altered the provisions of the law regarding the two-year residence 
requirement, making it easier for nonimmigrants who have been in the United 
States as exchange visitors to adjust to a different nonimmigrant status or to 
permanent resident status. 



A.1-15 



lPPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



99. Act of August 10, 1971 

{85 Statutes-at-Large 302) 



Amended the Communications Act of 1934, providing that lawful permanent 
resident aliens be pennitted to operate amateur radio stations in the United States 
and hold licenses for their stations. 



1 00. Act OF September 28, 1971 

{85 Statutes-at-Large 348) 



Amended the Selective Service Act of 1967. Provided that: 

a. Registration for the selective service shall not be applicable to any alien 
admitted to the United States as a nonimmigrant as long as he continues to maintain 
a lawful nonimmigrant status in the United States. 

b. No alien residing in the United States for less than one year shall be inducted 
for training and service into the U.S. armed forces. 



101. Act OF October 27, 1972 

{86 Statutes-at-Large 1289) 



Reduced restrictions concerning residence requirements for retention of U.S. 
citizenship acquired by birth abroad through a U.S. citizen parent and an aUen parent. 



102. Social Security Act Amendments 
OF October 30, 1972 

{86 Statutes-at-Large 1329) 



Amended the Social Security Act, providing that Social Security numbers be 
assigned to aliens at the time of their lawful admission to the United States for 
permanent residence or temporarily to engage in lawful employment. 



1 03 . Act OF October 20, 1974 

{88 Statutes-at-Large 1387) 



Repealed the "Coolie Trade" legislation of 1862. Such legislation, passed to protect 
Chinese and Japanese aliens from exploitation caused by discriminatory treatment 
from immigration laws then in effect, had become virtually inoperative because 
most of the laws singling out oriental peoples had been repealed or modified. 



104. Indochina Migration and Refugee 

Assistance Act of May 23, 1975 

{89 Statutes-at-Large 87) 

105. Act OF June 21, 1976 

{90 Statutes-at-Large 691) 



Established a program of domestic resettlement assistance for refugees who have 
fled from Cambodia and Vietnam. 



Made Laotians eligible for programs established by the Indochina Migration and 
Refugee Assistance Act of 1975. 



106. Act OF October 12, 1976 
{90 Statutes-at-Large 2243) 



Placed restrictions on foreign medical school graduates (both immigrants and 
nonimmigrants) coming to the United States for practice or training in the medical 
profession. Effective January 10, 1977. 



107. Immigration and Nationality Act 
Amendments of October 20, 1976 

{90 Statutes-at-Large 2703) 



1 08. Act of October 20, 1976 

Effective January 1, 1978 
{90 Statutes-at-Large 2706) 



Provisions: 

a. Applied the same 20,000 per-country limit to the Western Hemisphere as 
applied to the Eastern Hemisphere. 

b. Slightly modified the seven-category preference system and applied it to the 
Western Hemisphere. 

c. Amended the 1966 act, providing that Cuban refugees who are adjusted to permanent 
resident status will not be charged to any numerical limitation, provided they were 
physically present in the United States on or before the effective date of these amendments. 

Denied unemployment compensation to aliens not lawfully admitted for permanent 
residence or otherwise permanently residing in the United States under color of law. 



A.1-16 



.PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



109. 



Act of August 1, 1977 
(97 Statutes-at-Large 394) 



Eased restrictions on foreign medical school graduates, e.g., exempted aliens who are 
of national or international renown in the field of medicine, and exempted certain 
alien physicians already in the United States from the examination requirement. (See 
Act of October 12, 1976.) 



110. 



Act of October 28, 1977 
(91 Statutes-at-Large 1223) 



Provisions: 

a. Permitted adjustment to permanent resident status for Indochinese refugees 
who are natives or citizens of Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, were physically present 
in the United States for at least two years, and were admitted or paroled into the 
United States during specified periods of time. 

b. Extended the time limit during which refugee assistance may be provided to 
such refugees. 



111. 



Act of October 5, 1978 

{92 Statutes-at-Large 907) 



Combined the separate ceilings for Eastern and Western Hemisphere immigration 
into one worldwide limit of 290,000. 



112. 



Act of October 5, 1978 
(92 Statutes-at-Large 917) 



Provisions: 

a. Made several changes pertaining to the adoption of alien children, including 
permission for U.S. citizens to petition for the classification of more than two alien 
orphans as immediate relatives. 

b. Eliminated the requirement of continuous residence in the United States for 
two years prior to filing for naturalization. 



113. 



Act of October 7, 1978 

(92 Statutes-at-Large 963) 



Made permanent the President's authority to regulate the entry of aliens and to 
require U.S. citizens to bear valid passports when entering or leaving the United 
States: 

a. Called for unrestricted use of passports to and in any country other than a 
country with which the United States is at war, where armed hostilities are in 
progress, or where there is imminent danger to the public health or the physical 
safety of U.S. travelers. 

b. Declared it the general policy of the United States to impose restrictions on travel 
within the United States by citizens of another country only when the government of 
that country imposes restrictions on travel of U.S. citizens within that country. 



114, 



Act of October 14, 1978 

(92 Statutes-at-Large 1263) 



Required any alien who acquires or transfers any interest in agricultural land to submit 
a report to the Secretary of Agriculture within 90 days after acquisition or transfer. 



115. 



Act of October 30, 1978 

(92 Statutes-at-Large 2065) 



Provided for the exclusion and expulsion of aliens who persecuted others on the 
basis of race, religion, national origin, or political opinion under the direction of the 
Nazi government of Germany or its allies. 



116. 



Act of November 2, 1978 

(92 Statutes-at-Large 2479) 



Provided for the seizure and forfeiture of vessels, vehicles, and aircraft used in 
smuggling aliens or knowingly transporting aliens to the United States illegally. An 
exception was made where the owner or person in control did not consent to the 
illegal act. 



A.1-17 



A 



PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



117. Panama Canal Act of 

September 27, 1979 
(93 Statutes-at-Large 452) 



Allowed admission as permanent residents to certain aliens with employment on or 
before 1977 with the Panama Canal Company, the Canal Zone govermnent, or the 
U.S. government in the Canal Zone, and their families. 



118. Refugee Act of March 17, 1980 

(94 Statutes-at-Large 102) 



Provided the first permanent and systematic procedure for the admission and 
effective resettlement of refugees of special humanitarian concern to the United 
States: 

a. Eliminated refugees as a category of the preference system. 

b. Set the worldwide ceiling of immigration to the United States at 270,000, 
exclusive of refugees. 

c. Established procedures for annual consultation with Congress on numbers and 
allocations of refugees to be admitted in each fiscal year, as well as procedures for 
responding to emergency refugee situations. 

d. Defined the term "refugee" (to conform to the 1967 United Nations Protocol on 
Refugees) and made clear the distinction between refugee and asylee status. 

e. Established a comprehensive program for domestic resettlement of refugees. 

f. Provided for adjustment to permanent resident status of refugees who have 
been physically present in the United States for at least one year and of asylees one 
year after asylum is granted. 



119. Refugee Education Assistance Act 
OF October 10, 1980 

(94 Statutes-at-Large 1799) 



Established a program of formula grants to State education agencies for basic 
education of refugee children. Also provided for services to Cuban and Haitian 
entrants identical to those for refugees under the Refugee Act of 1980. 



120. Act of June 5, 1981 

(95 Statutes-at-Large 14) 



Supplemental appropriations and rescissions bill, reduced previously-appropriated 
funds for migration and refugee assistance, including funds provided for reception 
and processing of Cuban and Haitian entrants. 



121. Act OF August 13, 198 1 

(95 Statutes-at-Large 357) 



122. Immigration and Nationality Act 
Amendments of December 20, 1981 

(95 Statutes-at-Large 1611) 



Federal appropriations bill for fiscal year 1982, also contained items restricting the 
access of aliens to various publicly-funded benefits. Immigration-related provisions: 

a. Precluded the Secretary of HUD from making financial assistance available to 
any alien unless that alien is a resident of the United States by virtue of admission or 
adjustment as a permanent resident alien, refugee or asylee, parolee, conditional 
entrant, or pursuant to withholding of deportation. Alien visitors, tourists, 
diplomats, and students were specifically excluded. 

b. Severely restricted eligibility of aliens to Aid to Families with Dependent 
Children. 



"INS Efficiency Bill," amended the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and 
the Act of November 2, 1978; 

a. Authorized INS to seize vehicles without having to establish whether the 
owner was involved in the illegal activity in question. 

b. Eliminated the requirement that the government bear administrative and 
incidental expenses where an innocent owner is involved. 

c. Eliminated the requirement that the INS satisfy any valid lien or other thin 
party interest in a vehicle without expense to the interest holder. 

d. Eliminated the required annual notification by aliens of their current address. 



A.l-18 



Appendix i 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



123. Act of September 30, 1982 
(96 Statutes-at-Large 1157) 



Allowed admission as permanent residents to certain nonimmigrant aliens residing 
in the Virgin Islands. 



1 24. Act of October 2, 1982 
{96 Statutes-at-Large 1186) 



Greatly limited the categories of aliens to whom the Legal Services Corporation 
may provide legal assistance. 



125. Act of October 22, 1982 
{96 Statutes-at-Large 1716) 



Provided that children bom of U.S. citizen fathers in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, 
Kampuchea, or Thailand after 1950 and before enactment, may come to the United 
States as immediate relatives or as first or fourth preference immigrants. 



126. Lvcvogration Reform and Control 
Act of November 6, 1986 (IRCA) 

UOO Statutes-at-Large 3359) 



Comprehensive immigration legislation: 

a. Authorized legalization (i.e., temporary and then permanent resident status) for 
aliens who had resided in the United States in an unlawful status since January 1, 
1982 (entering illegally or as temporary visitors with authorized stay expiring before 
that date or with the Government's knowledge of their unlawful status before that 
date) and are not excludable. 

b. Created sanctions prohibiting employers from knowingly hiring, recruiting, or 
referring for a fee aliens not authorized to work in the United States. 

c. Increased enforcement at U.S. borders. 

d. Created a new classification of seasonal agricultural worker and provisions for 
the legalization of certain such workers. 

e. Extended the registry date (i.e., the date from which an alien has resided 
illegally and continuously in the United States and thus qualifies for adjustment to 
permanent resident status) from June 30, 1948 to January 1, 1972. 

f. Authorized adjustment to permanent resident status for Cubans and Haitians 
who entered the United States without inspection and had continuously resided in 
country since January 1, 1982. 

g. Increased the numerical limitation for immigrants admitted under the 
preference system for dependent areas from 600 to 5,000 beginning in fiscal year 
1988. 

h. Created a new special immigrant category for certain retired employees of 
international organizations and their families and a new nonimmigrant status for 
parents and children of such immigrants. 

i. Created a nonimmigrant Visa Waiver Pilot program allowing certain aliens to 
visit the United States without applying for a nonimmigrant visa. 

j. Allocated 5,000 nonpreference visas in each of fiscal years 1987 and 1988 for 
aliens bom in countries from which immigration was adversely affected by the 1965 
act. 



127. Immigration Marriage Fraud 
Amendments of November 10, 1986 
(700 Statutes-at-Large 3537) 



F*rovisions: 

a. Stipulated that aliens deriving their immigrant status based on a marriage of 
less than two years are conditional immigrants. To remove conditional status, the 
alien must apply within 90 days after their second-year anniversary of receiving 
conditional status. 

b. Required alien fiance(c)s of U.S. citizens to have met their citizen petitioner in 
person within two years of the date the petition was filed. 



A.1-19 



.PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



128. A^fERASIA^ Homecoming Act 
OF December 22, 1987 

(101 Statutes-at-Large 1329) 



An appropriations law providing for admission of children bom in Vietnam between 
specified dates to Vietnamese mothers and American fathers, together with their 
immediate relatives. They are admitted as nonquota immigrants but receive refugee 
program benefits. 



1 29. Act of September 28, 1988 

(702 Statutes-at-Large 1876) 



United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation Act: 

a. Facilitated temporary entry on a reciprocal basis between the United States and 
Canada. 

b. Established procedures for the temporary entry into the United States of 
Canadian citizen professional business persons to render services for remuneration. 

c. No nonimmigrant visa, prior petition, labor certification, or prior approval 
required, but appropriate documentation must be presented to the inspecting officer 
establishing Canadian citizenship and professional engagement in one of the 
occupations listed in the qualifying occupation schedule. 



1 30. Act of November 15, 1988 

(102 Statutes-at-Large 3908) 

131. Foreign Operations Act 

of November 21, 1989 

(103 Statutes-at-Large 1195) 



Provided for the extension of stay for certain nonimmigrant H-1 nurses. 



An appropriations law, provided for adjustment to permanent resident status for 
Soviet and Indochinese nationals who were paroled into the United States between 
certain dates after denial of refugee status. 



132. Act of December 18, 1989 

(103 Statutes-at-Large 2099) 



The "Immigration Nursing Relief Act of 1989." Provisions: 

a. Adjustment from temporary to permanent resident status, without regard to 
numerical limitation, of certain nonimmigrants who were employed in the United States 
as registered nurses for at least three years and meet established certification standards. 

b. Establishment of a new nonimmigrant category for the temporary admission of 
qualified registered nurses. 



133. Immigration Act of 

November 29, 1990 

(104 Statutes-at-Large 4978) 



A major overhaul of immigration law: 

a. Increased total immigration under an overall flexible cap of 675,000 
immigrants beginning in fiscal year 1995, preceded by a 700,000 level during fiscal 
years 1992 through 1994. The 675,000 level to consist of: 480,000 family- 
sponsored; 140,000 employment-based; and 55,000 "diversity immigrants." 

b. Revised all grounds for exclusion and deportation, significantly rewriting the 
political and ideological grounds. For example, repealed the bar against the 
admission of communists as nonimmigrants and limited the exclusion of aliens on 
foreign policy grounds. 

c. Authorized the Attorney General to grant temporary protected status to 
undocumented alien nationals of designated countries subject to armed conflict or 
natural disasters. 

d. Revised and established new nonimmigrant admission categories: 

1. Redefined the H-l(b) temporary worker category and limited number 
of aliens who may be issued visas or otherwise provided nonimmigrant 
status under this category to 65,000 annually. 

2. Limited number of H-2(b) temporary worker category aliens who may be 
issued visas or otherwise provided nonimmigrant status to 66,000 annually. 



A. 1-20 



Appendix i 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



Immigration Act of 
November 29, 1990 — cont. 



3. Created new temporary worker admission categories (O, P, Q, and R), 
some with annual caps on number of aliens who may be issued visas or 
otherwise provided nonimmigrant status. 

e. Revised, and extended the Visa Waiver Pilot Program through fiscal year 1994. 

f. Revised naturalization authority and requirements: 

1. Transferred the exclusive jurisdiction to naturalize aliens from the 
Federal and State courts to the Attorney General. 

2. Amended the substantive requirements for naturalization: State 
residency requirements revised and reduced to 3 months; added another 
ground for waiving the English language requirement; lifted the 
permanent bar to naturalization for aliens who applied to be relieved from 
U.S. military service on grounds of alienage who previously served in the 
service of the country of the alien's nationaUty. 

g. Revised enforcement activities. For example: 

1. Broadened the definition of "aggravated felony" and imposed new 
legal restrictions on aliens convicted of such crimes. 

2. Revised employer sanctions provisions of the Immigration Reform 
and Control Act of 1986. 

3. Authorized funds to increase Border Patrol personnel by 1,000. 

4. Revised criminal and deportation provisions. 

h. Recodified the 32 grounds for exclusion into nine categories, including 
revising and repealing some of the grounds (especially health grounds). 



134. Armed Forces Immigration 
Adjustment Act of October 1, 1991 

(105 Statutes-al-Large 555) 



Provisions: 

a. Granted special immigrant status to certain types of aliens who honorably 
served in the Armed Forces of the United States for at least 12 years. 

b. Delayed until April 1, 1992 the implementation of provisions relating to O and 
P nonimmigrant visas. (See Act of November 29, 1990.) 



135. Act of December 12, 1991 
(105 Statutes-al-Large 1733) 



Miscellaneous and Technical Immigration and Naturalization Amendments Act, 
amended certain elements of the Immigration Act of 1990. Revised provisions 
regarding the entrance of O and P nonimmigrants, including the repeal of numerical 
limits of visas for the P categories of admission, and made other technical 
corrections. (See Act of November 29, 1990.) 



1 36. Chinese Student Protection 
Act of October 9, 1992 

(106 Statutes-at-Large 1969) 



Provided for adjustment to permanent resident status (as employment-based 
immigrants) by nationals of the People's Republic of China who were in the United 
States after June 4, 1 989 and before April 1 1 , 1 990. 



137. Soviet Scientists Immigration 
Act of October 10, 1992 

(106 Statutes-at-Large 3316) 



Provisions: 

a. Conferred permanent resident status (as employment-based immigrants) on a 
maximum of 750 scientists from the independent states of the former Soviet Union 
and the Baltic states. The limit does not include spouses and children. 

b. Stipulated that employment must be in the biological, chemical, or nuclear 
technical field or work in conjunction with a high technology defense project. 

c. Waived the requirement that workers with expertise in these fields were 
needed by an employer in the United States. 



A.1-21 



.PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



138. North American Free-Trade 
Agreement Implementation Act of 
December 8, 1993 

{107 Statutes-at-Large 2057) 



Supersedes the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Act of September 28, 
1988. Provisions: 

a. Facilitated temporary entry on a reciprocal basis between the United States and 
Canada and Mexico. 

b. Established procedures for the temporary entry into the United States of 
Canadian and Mexican citizen professional business persons to render services for 
remuneration: 

1 . For Canadians, no nonimmigrant visa, prior petition, labor certification, 
or prior approval required, but appropriate documentation must be 
presented to the inspecting officer establishing Canadian citizenship and 
professional engagement in one of the occupations listed in the qualifying 
occupation schedule; 

2. For Mexicans, nonimmigrant visa, prior petition by employer, and 
Department of Labor attestation are required in addition to proof of 
Mexican citizenship and professional engagement in one of the 
occupations listed in the qualifying occupation schedule; 

3. For Canadians, nonimmigrant visas are not required of spouses and minor 
children who possess Canadian citizenship; 

4. For Mexicans, nonimmigrant visas are required of spouses and minor 
children who possess Mexican citizenship; 

5. For Canadians, no limit to number of admissions; 

6. For Mexicans, a limit was set for a transition period for up to ten years at 
5,500 initial petition approvals per year. 



139. Violent Crime Control AND 
Law Enforcement Act of 
September 13, 1994 

{108 Statutes-at-Large 1796) 



Provisions: 

a. Authorized establishment of a criminal alien tracking center. 

b. Established a new nonimmigrant classification for alien witness cooperation 
and counterterrorism information. 

c. Revised deportation procedures for certain criminal aliens who are not 
permanent residents and expanded special deportation proceedings. 

d. Provided for expeditious deportation for denied asylum applicants. 

e. Provided for improved border management through increased resources. 

f. Strengthened penalties for passport and visa offenses. 



140. Antiterrorism and Effective 
Death Penalty Act of April 24, 1996 

(110 Statutes-at-Large 1214) 



Provisions: 

a. Expedited procedures for the removal of alien terrorists. 

b. Established specific measures to exclude members and representatives of 
terrorist organizations: 

1 . Provided for the exclusion of alien terrorists; 

2. Waived authority concerning notice of denial application for visas; 

3. Denied other forms of relief for alien terrorists; 

4. Excluded from process aliens who have not been inspected and admitted. 

c. Modified asylum procedures to improve identification and processing of alien 
terrorists: 

1 . Established mechanisms for denial of asylum to alien terrorists; 

2. Granted authority to inspection officers to both inspect and exclude asylee 
applicants;. 

3. Improved judicial review process to expedite hearings and removal (if 
necessary) of alien terrorists. 

d. Provided for criminal alien procedural improvements: 



A. 1-22 



Appendix i 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



Antiterrorism and Effective Death 
Penalty Act of April 24, 1996 — com. 



1. Provided access to certain confidential immigration and naturalization 
files through court order; 

2. Established a criminal alien identification system; 

3. Established certain alien smuggling-related crimes as RICO-predicate 
offenses; 

4. Granted authority for alien smuggling investigations; 

5. Expanded criteria for deportation for crimes of moral turpitude; 

6. Established an interior repatriation program; 

7. Allowed for deportation of nonviolent offenders prior to completion of 
sentence of imprisonment; 

8. Authorized State and Local law enforcement officials to arrest and detain 
certain illegal aliens; 

9. Expedited process of criminal alien removal; 

10. Limited collateral attacks on underlying deportation order; 

1 1 . Established deportation procedures for certain criminal aliens who are not 
permanent residents. 



141 . Personal Responsibility and 
Work Opportunity Reconciliation 
Act of August 22, 1996 

(110 Statutes-at-Large 2105) 



2. 



3. 



Provisions: 

a. Established restrictions on the eligibility of legal immigrants for means-tested 
public assistance: 

1. Barred legal immigrants (with certain exceptions) from obtaining food 
stamps and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and established 
screening procedures for current recipients of these programs; 
Barred legal immigrants (with certain exceptions) entering the U.S. after 
date of enactment from most federal means-tested programs for 5 years; 
Provided states with broad flexibility in setting public benefit eligibility 
rules for legal immigrants by allowing states to bar current legal 
immigrants from both major federal programs and state programs; 

4. Increased the responsibility of the immigrants' sponsors by making the 
affidavit of support legally enforceable, imposing new requirements on 
sponsors, and expanding sponsor-deeming requirements to more 
programs and by lengthening the deeming period. 

b. Broadened the restrictions on public benefits for illegal aliens and 
nonimmigrants: 

1 . Barred illegal, or "not qualified aliens," from most federal, state, and local 
public benefits; 

2. Required INS to verify immigration status in order for aliens to receive 
most federal public benefits. 



142. Illegal Immigration Reforiw 
AND Immigrant Responsibility 
Act of September 30, 1996 
(110 Statutes-at-Large 3009) 



Division C of the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act, 1997. Provisions: 

a. Established measures to control U.S. borders, protect legal workers through 
worksite enforcement, and remove criminal and other deportable aliens: 

1. Increased border personnel, equipment, and technology as well as 
enforcement personnel at land and air ports of entry; 

2. Authorized improvements in barriers along the Southwest border; 

3. Increased anti-smuggling authority and penalties for alien smuggling; 

4. Increased penalties for illegal entry, passport and visa fraud, and failure to 
depart; 

5. Increased INS investigators for worksite enforcement, alien smuggling, 
and visa overstayers; 



A. 1-23 



.PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



Illegal Immigration Reform 

and Immigrant Responsibility 

Act of September 30, 1996 — com. 



6. Established three voluntary pilot programs to confirm the employment 
eligibility of workers and reduced the number and types of documents 
that may be presented to employers for identity and eligibility to work; 

7. Broadly reformed exclusion and deportation procedures, including 
consolidation into a single removal process, as well as the institution of 
expedited removal to speed deportation and alien exclusion through more 
stringent grounds of admissibility; 

8. Increased detention space for criminal and other deportable aliens; 

9. Instituted 3- and 10-year bars to admissibility for aliens seeking to reenter 
after having been unlawfully present in the United States; 

10. Barred re-entry of individuals who renounced their U.S. citizenship in 
order to avoid U.S. tax obligations, 
b. Placed added restrictions on benefits for aliens: 



c. 



Provided for a pilot program on limiting issuance of driver's hcenses to 
illegal aliens; 

Declared ineligibility of aliens not lawfully present for Social Security 
benefits; 

Established procedures for requiring proof of citizenship for Federal 
public benefits; 

Established limitations on eligibility for preferential treatment of aliens 
not lawfully present on the basis of residence for higher education 
benefits; 

Provided for verification of immigration status for purposes of Social 
Security and higher educational assistance; 

Tightened the requirements for an affidavit of support for sponsored 
immigrants, making the affidavit a legally binding contract to provide 
financial support; 

Provided authority of States and political subdivisions of States to Umit 
assistance to aliens in providing general cash public assistance; 
Increased maximum criminal penalties for forging or counterfeiting the 
seal of a Federal department or agency to facilitate benefit fraud by an 
unlawful alien. 
Miscellaneous provisions: 

1. Recodified existing INS regulations regarding asylum; 

2. Provided that the Attorney General's parole authority may be exercised 
only on a case-by-case basis for urgent humanitarian reasons or 
significant public benefit. 

3. Created new limits on the ability of F-1 students to attend public schools 
without reimbursing those institutions; 

4. Established new mandates for educational institutions to collect 
information on foreign students' status and nationality and provide it to 
INS; 

5. Tightened restrictions regarding foreign physicians' ability to work in the 
United States; 

6. Added new consular processing provisions and revised the visa waiver 
program. 



2. 



4. 



5. 



6. 



7. 



8 



143. Balanced Budget Act of 
August 5, 1997 
(77/ Stalutes-at-Large 270) 



Continued or partially restored to legal aliens eligibility benefits that had been 
restricted by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act 
of 1996. Such restrictions do not apply to "qualified aliens" (legal permanent 
residents, refugees, aliens granted asylum or similar relief, aliens paroled into the 
United States for at least one year, and certain battered family members; plus 



A. 1-24 



Appendix i 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



Balanced Budget Act of 
August 5, 1997 — cont. 



Cuban/Haitian entrants added by the Balanced Budget Act) who meet 10-year work 
requirements; or are veterans or certain active duty personnel, and close family. 
The alienage restrictions do not apply to aliens who become citizens through 
naturalization. Provisions: 

a. Continued eligibility both for aged and for disabled "qualified aliens" 
receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits as of August 26, 1996, as 
well as those disabled after August 22, 1996. SSI recipients remain eligible for 
Medicaid; for others Medicaid is a state option. 

b. Exempted for 7 years the bar against SSI and Medicaid for refugees and 
asylees (including Cuban/Haitian entrants and Amerasians). 

c. Exempted members of Indian Tribes and certain Native Americans bom in 
Canada from the SSI and Medicaid bar on "qualified aliens". 



144. NiCARAGUAN Adjustment AND 
Central American Relief Act 
(NACARA) OF November 19, 1997 
(111 Statutes-at-Large 2193) 



Pertains to certain Central American and other aliens who were long-term illegal 
residents in the United States when hardship relief rules were made more stringent 
by the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA). 
Provisions: 

a. Allowed approximately 150,000 Nicaraguans and 5,000 Cubans adjustment to 
permanent resident status without having to make any hardship showing. 

b. Allowed approximately 200,000 Salvadorans and 50,000 Guatemalans as well 
as certain aliens from the former Soviet Union to seek hardship relief under more 
lenient hardship rules than existed prior to IIRIRA amendments. 



145. Agricultural Research 
Reform Act of February 11, 1998 

(112 Statutes-at-Large 575) 



Continued or partially restored eligibility to legal aliens benefits that had been 
restricted by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act 
of 1996. Such restrictions do not apply to "qualified aliens" (legal permanent 
residents, refugees, aliens granted asylum or similar relief, aliens paroled into the 
United States for at least one year, and certain battered family members; plus 
Cuban/Haitian entrants added by the Balanced Budget Act) who meet 10-year work 
requirements; or are veterans or certain active duty personnel, and close family. 
The alienage restrictions do not apply to aliens who become citizens through 
naturalization. Provisions: 

a. Continued eligibility to receive Food Stamps for "qualified aliens" 65 or over 
by August 22, 1996, subsequently disabled, and/or while under 18. 

b. Exempted for 7 years the bar against Food Stamps for refugees and asylees 
(including Cuban/Haitian entrants and Amerasians). 

c. Exempted members of Indian Tribes and certain Native Americans bom in 
Canada from the Food Stamps bar on "qualified aliens". 



146. Visa Waiver Pilot Program 
Reauthorization Act of April 27, 1998 

(112 Statutes-at-Large 56) 



Extended the Visa Waiver Pilot program through fiscal year 2000, modified the 
qualifications for designation as a Pilot program country, and expanded the data 
reporting requirements. 



147. American Competitiveness and 
Workforce Improvement Act of 
October 21, 1998 
(112 Statutes-at-Large 2681) 



Part of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 1999. Provisions: 

a. Raised the ceiling for the number of aliens who may be issued visas under the 
H-l(b) temporary worker category by 142,500 over 3 years. The ceiling is 1 15,000 
in both fiscal years 1999 and 2000, 107,500 in 2001, and reverts back to 65,000 in 
2002. 

b. Added new attestation requirements for recmitment and lay-off protections, 



A. 1-25 



.PPENDIX 1 



Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



American Competitiveness and 

Workforce Improvement Act of 

October 21, 1998 — cont. 



requiring them only of firms that are "H-l(b) dependent" (generally at least 15 
percent of workforce are H-l(b) workers). 

c. All firms must offer H-l(b) workers benefits as well as wages comparable to 
their U.S. workers. 

d. Education and training for U.S. workers will be funded by a $500 fee paid by 
the employer for each H-l(b) worker hired. 



148. NoN-CmzEN BENEnx Clarification 
Act of October 28, 1998 

(112 Statutes-at-Large 2926) 



Continued or partially restored eligibility to legal aliens benefits that had been 
restricted by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act 
of 1996. Such restrictions do not apply to "qualified aliens" (legal permanent 
residents, refugees, aliens granted asylum or similar relief, aliens paroled into the 
United States for at least one year, and certain battered family members; plus 
Cuban/Haitian entrants added by the Balanced Budget Act) who meet 10-year work 
requirements; or are veterans or certain active duty personnel, and close family. The 
alienage restrictions do not apply to aliens who become citizens through 
naturalization. Provisions: 

a. Continued eligibility both for aged and for disabled non-"qualified aliens" 
receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits as of August 26, 1996. SSI 
recipients remain eligible for Medicaid; others ineligible. 

b. Non-"qualified aliens" are ineligible for Food Stamps. 



A. 1-26 



Appendix i 
Immigration and Naturalization Legislation 



Sources: 

American Council for Nationalities Service, Interpreter Releases, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (weekly). 

Auerbach, Frank L., Immigration Laws of the United States, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., Indianapolis, 1955. 

Gordon, Charles and Ellen Gittel Gordon, Immigration and Nationality Law, Matthew Bender & Company, New York, 1979. 

Histor)' of the Immigration and Naturalization Sen'ice, Report of the Senate Judiciary Committee for the use of the Select Commission 
of Immigration and Refugee Policy, 96th Congress, 2d Session, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980. 

Hutchison, Edward P, Legislative History of American Immigration Policy, I798-I965, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1981. 

United States Statutes at Large, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 

U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Annual Reports, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 

U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, The I & N Reporter (entitled The INS Reporter, starting with Fall 1976 edition), 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (quarterly). 

US. Immigration Law and Policy: 1952-1986, Report of the Senate Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Affairs, Senate Judiciary 
Committee, l(X)th Congress, 1st Session, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988. 

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (Reflecting Amendments through Pub. L. No. 105-139, 111 Stat. 2644 (December 2, 1997), 
Prepared by General Counsel Office, Immigration and Naturalization Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 
1998. 

CRS Report for Congress (numerous editions). Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress, Washington, DC. 



A. 1-27 



Appendix 2 



Preference Immigration Limits: Fiscal Year 1997 



'he Immigration Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-649) restructured the immigrant categories of admission and 
made other modifications to the Immigration and Nationality Act. 

The 1990 Act divided the preference classes into two general categories: family-sponsored and 
employment-based. Limits on the number of visas issued in these two categories are determined 
annually. 

Family-sponsored limits — The worldwide level for family-sponsored preferences is calculated as: 

480,000 

minus the number of aliens who were issued visas or adjusted to legal permanent residence in 

the previous fiscal year as 

1) immediate relatives of U.S. citizens, 

2) children bom subsequent to the issuance of a visa to an accompanying parent, and 

3) children bom abroad to lawful permanent residents on temporary trips abroad, 

plus unused employment preferences in the previous fiscal year. 

The 1990 Act specifies that the family-sponsored limit may not go below a minimum of 226,000 in any 
year. The number of legal permanent residents issued visas or who adjusted in fiscal year 1996 under 
categories 1-3 listed above was 306,489, and 21,173 employment-based visas were unused in 1996. 
The 1997 family-sponsored limit, therefore, was set to 226,000 (480,000 - 306,489 -t- 21,173 = 194,684 
which is below 226,000). The limits for each of the family-sponsored preferences and their descriptions 
are shown below. 

Employment-based limits — The 1990 Act specifies that the worldwide limit on employment-based 
preference immigrants is equal to 140,000 plus unused family-preference visas in the previous year. 
The limit for fiscal year 1997 was set to 140,000 (140,000 + no unused family-preference visas in 1996 
= 140,000). 

Per-country limits — The per-country limit on preference immigration for independent countries is set to 
7 percent of the total family and employment limits (226,000 -i- 140,000 = 366,000), while dependent 
areas are limited to 2 percent of the total. The 1997 limit for independent foreign states is 25,620 
(7 percent of 366,000) and the limit for dependencies is 7,320 (2 percent of 366,000). 

Diversity limits — This classification became effective in fiscal year 1995. The annual limit is set at 
55,000. 



A.2-2 



Appendix 2 



Immigration Limits: Fiscal Year 1997 



Preference 

Family-sponsored 
preferences 

First 
Second 



Third 



Fourth 



Employment-based 
preferences 

First 



Second 



Third 



Fourth 



Fifth 



Diversity immigrants 



Description 



Limit 



Unmarried sons and daughters of U.S. citizens 
and their children. 



226,000 

23,400' 
114,200^ 



Spouses, children, and unmarried sons and daughters 
of permanent resident aliens. 
Spouses and children receive at least 77 percent of the visas 
issued. The remaining visas are issued to unmarried sons and 
daughters (at least 21 years of age). 

Married sons and daughters of U.S. citizens and 
their spouses and children. 

Brothers and sisters of U.S. citizens (at least 21 years 
of age) and their spouses and children. 



23,400^ 
65,000^ 



140,000 

Priority workers and their spouses and children. 40,040' 

Priority workers are (1) persons of extraordinary ability, 
(2) outstanding professors and researchers, and (3) certain 
multinational executives and managers. 

Professionals with advanced degrees or aliens of 

exceptional ability and their spouses and children. 40,040^ 

Skilled workers, professionals (without advanced 
degrees), needed unskilled workers, and 
their spouses and children. 40,040^ 

The number of unskilled workers is limited to 10,000. 

Special immigrants and their spouses and children. 
The number of certain religious workers is 
limited to 5,000. 9,940 

Employment creation ("Investors") and their spouses 

and children. 9,940 

55,000 



' Plus unused family 4th preference visas. ^ Visas not used in higher preferences may be used in these categories, 
unused employment 4th and 5th preference visas. 



Plus 



A.2-3 



Appendix 3 



Glossary 



Acquired Citizenship — Citizenship conferred at birth 
on children bom abroad to a U.S. citizen parent(s). 

Adoption — See Orphan. 

Adjustment to Immigrant Status — Procedure allowing 
certain aliens already in the United States to apply for 
immigrant status. Aliens admitted to the United States in 
a nonimmigrant, refugee, or parolee category may have 
their status changed to that of lawful permanent resident 
if they are eligible to receive an immigrant visa and one is 
inmiediately available. In such cases, the alien is counted 
as an immigrant as of the date of adjustment, even though 
the alien may have been in the United States for an 
extended period of time. Beginning in October 1994, 
Section 245(i) of the INA allowed illegal residents who 
were eligible for immigrant status to remain in the United 
States and adjust to permanent resident status by applying 
at an INS office and paying an additional penalty fee. 
Prior to October 1994, most illegal residents were 
required to leave the United States and acquire a visa 
abroad from the Department of State. 

Agricultural Worker — As a nonimmigrant class of 
admission, an alien coming temporarily to the United 
States to perform agricultural labor or services, as defined 
by the Secretary of Labor. 

Alien — Any person not a citizen or national of the 
United States. 

Amerasian Act — Public Law 97-359 (Act of 10/22/82) 
provides for the immigration to the United States of 
certain Amerasian children. In order to qualify for 
benefits under this law, an alien must have been bom in 
Cambodia, Korea, Laos, Thailand, or Vietnam after 
December 31, 1950 and before October 22, 1982, and 
have been fathered by a U.S. citizen. 

Amerasian (Vietnam) — Immigrant visas are issued to 
Amerasians under Public Law 100-202 (Act of 12/22/87), 
which provides for the admission of aliens born in 
Vietnam between January 1, 1962 and January 1, 1976 if 
the alien was fathered by a U.S. citizen. Spouses, children, 
and parents or guardians may accompany the alien. 

Application Support Centers — INS Offices that 
conduct FBI background fingerprint checks. Some INS 



applications, such as the Application for Naturalization or 
the Application to Register Permanent Residence or 
Adjust Status, require the INS to conduct a FBI 
fingerprint background check on the applicant. Most 
applicants that require a background check will be 
scheduled to appear at a specific Application Support 
Center (ASC) or Designated Law Enforcement Agency 
(DLEA) for fingerprinting. 

Apprehension — The arrest of a removable alien by the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service. Each 
apprehension of the same alien in a fiscal year is counted 
separately. 

Asylee — An alien in the United States or at a port of 
entry who is found to be unable or unwilling to retum to 
his or her country of nationality, or to seek the protection 
of that country because of persecution or a well-founded 
fear of persecution. Persecution or the fear thereof must 
be based on the alien's race, religion, nationality, 
membership in a particular social group, or political 
opinion. For persons with no nationality, the country of 
nationality is considered to be the country in which the 
alien last habitually resided. Asylees are eligible to adjust 
to lawful permanent resident status after one year of 
continuous presence in the United States. These 
immigrants are limited to 10,000 adjustments per fiscal 
year. 

Beneflciaries — Aliens on whose behalf a U.S. citizen, 
legal permanent resident, or employer have been filed for 
such aliens to receive immigration benefits from the U.S. 
Immigration and Naturalization Service. Beneficiaries 
generally receive a lawful status as a result of their 
relationship to a U.S. citizen, lawful permanent resident, 
or U.S. employer. 

Border Crosser — An alien resident of the United 
States reentering the country after an absence of less 
than six months in Canada or Mexico, or a nonresident 
alien entering the United States across the Canadian 
border for stays of no more than six months or across 
the Mexican border for stays of no more than 72 
hours. 

Border Patrol Sector — Any one of 21 geographic areas 
into which the United States is divided for the Immigration 
and Naturalization Service's Border Patrol activities. 



A.3-2 



.PPENDIX 3 



Glossary 



Business Nonimmigrant — An alien coming 
temporarily to the United States to engage in commercial 
transactions which do not involve gainful employment in 
the United States, i.e., engaged in international commerce 
on behalf of a foreign firm, not employed in the U.S. 
labor market, and receives no salary from U.S. sources. 

Cancellation of Removal — A discretionary benefit 
adjusting an alien's status from that of deportable alien to 
one lawfully admitted for permanent residence. 
Application for cancellation of removal is made during 
the course of a hearing before an immigration judge. 

Certificate of Citizenship — Identity document proving 
U.S. citizenship. Certificates of citizenship are issued to 
derivative citizens and to persons who acquired U.S. 
citizenship (see definitions for Acquired and Derivative 
Citizenship). 

Child — Generally, an unmarried person under 21 years 
of age who is: a legitimate child; a stepchild provided 
that the child was under 18 years of age at the time that 
the marriage creating the stepchild status occurred; a 
legitimated child provided that the child was legitimated 
while in the legal custody of the legitimating parent; a 
child adopted while under 16 years of age who has 
resided since adoption in the legal custody of the adopting 
parents for at least 2 years; or an orphan, under 16 years 
of age, who has been adopted abroad by a U.S. citizen or 
has an immediate-relative visa petition submitted in 
his/her behalf and is coming to the United States for 
adoption by a U.S. citizen. 

Country — 

Birth: The country in which a person is bom. 

Chargeability: The independent country to which an 
immigrant entering under the preference system is 
accredited. 

Citizenship: The country in which a person is bom (and 
has not renounced or lost citizenship) or naturalized; and 
to which that person owes allegiance and is entitled to its 
protection. 

Former Allegiance: The previous country of citizenship 
of a naturalized U.S. citizen or of a person who derived 
U.S. citizenship. 



(Last) Residence: The country in which an alien 
habitually resided prior to entering the United States. 

Nationality: The country of a person's citizenship or 
country in which the person is deemed a national. 

Crewman — A foreign national serving in any capacity 
on board a vessel or aircraft. Crewmen are admitted for 
twenty-nine days, with no extensions. Crewmen are 
required to depart on the same vessel on which they 
arrived are classified as D-ls. Crewmen who depart on a 
vessel different than the one on which they arrived are 
classified as D-2s. 

Crewman Technical (or Nonwillful) Violator — Any 

crewman who through no fault of his or her own remains 
in the United States more than 29 days (e.g., a crewman 
hospitalized beyond the 29-day admission period). 

Cuban/Haitian Entrant — Status accorded 1) Cubans 
who entered or were paroled into the United States 
illegally between April 15, 1980 and October 10, 1980 
and 2) Haitians who entered or were paroled into the 
country illegally before January 1, 1981. Cubans and 
Haitians meeting these criteria who have continuously 
resided in the United States since before January 1, 1982, 
and who were known to the INS before that date, may 
adjust to permanent residence under a provision of the 
Immigration Control and Reform Act of 1986. 

Deferred Inspection — See Parolee. 

Departure Under Safeguards — The departure of an 
illegal alien from the United States which is physically 
observed by an Immigration and Naturalization Service 
official. 

Deportable Alien — An alien in the United States 
subject to any grounds of removal specified in the 
Immigration and Nationality Act. This includes any alien 
illegally in the United States, regardless of whether the 
alien entered the country illegally or entered legally but 
subsequently violated the terms of his or her 
nonimmigrant classification or status. 

Deportation — The formal removal of an alien from the 
United States when the alien has been found removable 



A.3-3 



lPPENDIX 3 



Glossary 



for violating immigration laws. Deportation is ordered by 
an immigration judge without any punishment being 
imposed or contemplated. Prior to April 1997 deportation 
and exclusion were separate removal procedures. The 
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility 
Act of 1996 consolidated these procedures. After April 1, 
1997 aliens in and admitted to the United States may be 
subject to removal based on deportability. 

Derivative Citizenship — Citizenship conveyed to 
children through the naturalization of parents or, under 
certain circumstances to foreign-bom children adopted by 
U.S. citizen parents, provided certain conditions are met. 

District — Any one of thirty-three geographic areas into 
which the United States and its territories are divided for 
the Immigration and Naturalization Service's field 
operations or one of three overseas offices located in 
Rome, Bangkok, or Mexico City. Each District Office, 
headed by a District Director, has a specified service area 
that may include part of a state, an entire state, or many 
states. District Offices are where most INS field staff are 
located. District Offices are responsible for providing 
certain immigration services and benefits to people 
resident in their service area, and for enforcing 
immigration laws in that jurisdiction. Certain applications 
are filed directly with District Offices, many kinds of 
interviews are conducted at these Offices, and INS staff is 
available to answer questions, provide forms, etc. 

Diversity Transition — A transition towards the 
permanent diversity program in fiscal year 1995, allocating 
40,000 visas annually during the period 1992-94 to 
nationals of certain countries identified as having been 
"adversely affected" by the Immigration and Nationality 
Act Amendments of 1965 (P.L. 89-236). At least 40 
percent of the visas were reserved for natives of Ireland. 

Diversity — A category of immigrants that are provided 
55,000 visas per year beginning in fiscal year 1995. 
Nationals of countries with more than 50,000 numerically 
limited admissions over the preceding 5 years are 
excluded from receiving the visas. The visas are 
distributed among the remaining countries through a 
lottery, with a limit of 3,850 per country. 

Docket Control — The INS mechanism for tracking the 
case status of potentially removable aliens. 

A.3-4 



Employer Sanctions — The employer sanctions 
provision of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 
1986 prohibits employers from hiring, recruiting, or 
referring for a fee aliens known to be unauthorized to 
work in the United States. Violators of the law are 
subject to a series of civil fines for violations or criminal 
penalties when there is a pattern or practice of violations. 

Exchange Visitor — An alien coming temporarily to the 
United States as a participant in a program approved by 
the Secretary of State for the purpose of teaching, 
instructing or lecturing, studying, observing, conducting 
research, consulting, demonstrating special skills, or 
receiving training. 

Exclusion — Prior to the Illegal Immigration Reform and 
Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, exclusion was the 
formal term for denial of an alien's entry into the United 
States. The decision to exclude an alien was made by an 
immigration judge after an exclusion hearing. Since April 
1, 1997 the process of adjudicating or appealing the 
determination of inadmissibility can take place in either 
an expedited removal process or in removal proceedings 
before an immigration judge. 

Exempt from the Numerical Limit — Those aliens 
accorded lawful permanent residence who are exempt 
from the provisions of the flexible numerical limit of 
675,000 set by the Immigration Act of 1990. Exempt 
categories include immediate relatives of U.S. citizens, 
refugees, asylees, Amerasians, adjustments under the 
legalization provisions of the Immigration Reform and 
Control Act of 1 986, and certain parolees from the former 
Soviet Union and Indochina. 

Expedited removal — The Illegal Immigration Reform 
and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 authorized the 
INS to quickly remove certain inadmissible aliens from 
the United States. The authority covers aliens who are 
inadmissible because they have no entry documents or 
because they have used counterfeit, altered or otherwise 
fraudulent or improper documents. The authority covers 
aliens who arrive in, attempt to enter, or have entered the 
United States without having been admitted or paroled by 
an immigration officer at a port-of-entry. The INS has the 
authority to order the removal and the alien is not referred 
to an immigration judge except under certain 
circumstances after an alien makes a claim to legal status 



.PPENDIX 3 



Glossary 



in the United States or demonstrates a credible fear of 
persecution if returned to their home country. 

Fiance(e)s of U.S. Citizen — A nonimmigrant alien 
coming to the United States to conclude a valid marriage 
with a U.S. citizen within ninety days after entry. 

Files Control Office — An Immigration and 
Naturalization Service field office — either a district 
(including INS overseas offices) or a suboffice of that 
district — where alien case files are maintained and 
controlled. 

Fiscal Year — Currently, the twelve-month period 
beginning October 1 and ending September 30. 
Historically, until 1831 and from 1843-49, the twelve- 
month period ending September 30 of the respective year; 
from 1832-42 and 1850-67, ending December 31 of the 
respective year; from 1868-1976, ending June 30 of the 
respective year. The transition quarter (TQ) for 1976 
covers the three-month period, July- September 1976. 

Foreign Government Official — As a nonimmigrant 
class of admission, an alien coming temporarily to the 
United States who has been accredited by a foreign 
government to function as an ambassador, public 
minister, career diplomatic or consular officer, other 
accredited official, or an attendant, servant or personal 
employee of an accredited official, and all above aliens' 
spouses and unmarried minor (or dependent) children. 

Foreign Information Media Representative — As a 

nonimmigrant class of admission, an alien coming 
temporarily to the United States as a bona fide 
representative of foreign press, radio, film, or other 
foreign information media and the alien's spouse and 
unmarried minor (or dependent) children. 

Foreign State of Chargeability — The independent 
country to which an immigrant entering under the 
preference system is accredited. No more than 7 percent 
of the family-sponsored and employment-based visas 
may be issued to natives of any one independent country 
in a fiscal year. No one dependency of any independent 
countries may receive more than 2 percent of the family- 
sponsored and employment-based visas issued. Since 
these limits are based on visa issuance rather than entries 



into the United States, and immigrant visas are valid for 6 
months, there is not total correspondence between these 
two occurrences. Chargeability is usually determined by 
country of birth. Exceptions are made to prevent the 
separation of family members when the limitation for the 
country of birth has been met. 

General Naturalization Provisions — The basic 
requirements for naturalization that every applicant must 
meet, unless a member of a special class. General 
provisions require an applicant to be at least 18 years of 
age, a lawful permanent resident with five years of 
continuous residence in the United States, have been 
physically present in the country for half that period, and 
to establish good moral character. 

Geographic Area of Chargeability — Any one of five 
regions — Africa, East Asia, Latin America and the 
Caribbean, Near East and South Asia, and the former 
Soviet Union and Eastern Europe — into which the world 
is divided for the initial admission of refugees to the 
United States. Annual consultations between the 
Executive Branch and the Congress determine the ceiling 
on the number of refugees who can be admitted to the 
United States from each area. Beginning in fiscal year 
1987, an unallocated reserve was incorporated into the 
admission ceilings. 

Hemispheric Ceilings — Statutory limits on immigration 
to the United States in effect from 1968 to October 1978. 
Mandated by the Immigration and Nationality Act 
Amendments of 1965, the ceiling on immigration from 
the Eastern Hemisphere was set at 170,000, with a per- 
country limit of 20,000. Immigration from the Western 
Hemisphere was held to 120,000, without a per-country 
limit until January 1, 1977. The Western Hemisphere 
was then made subject to a 20,000 per country limit. 
Effective October 1978, the separate hemisphere limits 
were abolished in favor of a worldwide limit of 290,000. 
This limit was lowered to 280,000 for fiscal year 1980, 
and to 270,000 for fiscal years 1981-91. 

Immediate Relatives — Certain immigrants who because 
of their close relationship to U.S. citizens are exempt from 
the numerical limitations imposed on immigration to the 
United States. Immediate relatives are: spouses of 
citizens, children (under 21 years of age) of citizens, 



A.3-5 



.PPENDIX 3 



Glossary 



parents of citizens 21 years of age or older, and orphans 
adopted by citizens who are at least 21 years of age. 

Immigrant — See Permanent Resident Alien 

Immigration Act of 1990 — Public Law 101-649 (Act of 
November 29, 1990), which increased the limits on legal 
immigration to the United States, revised all grounds for 
exclusion and deportation, authorized temporary 
protected status to aliens of designated countries, revised 
and established new nonimmigrant admission categories; 
revised and extended the Visa Waiver Pilot Program; and 
revised naturalization authority and requirements. 

Immigration Judge — An attorney appointed by the 
Attorney General to act as an administrative judge within 
the Executive Office for Immigration Review. They are 
qualified to conduct specified classes of proceedings, 
including removal proceedings. 

INA — See Inmiigration and Nationality Act 

Immigration and Nationality Act — The Act (INA), 
which along with other immigration laws, treaties, and 
conventions of the United States, relates to the 
immigration, temporary admission, naturalization, and 
removal of aliens. 

Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments of 1986 — 

Public Law 99-639 (Act of 11/10/86), which was passed 
in order to deter immigration-related marriage fraud. Its 
major provision stipulates that aliens deriving their 
immigrant status based on a marriage of less than two 
years are conditional immigrants. To remove their 
conditional status the immigrants must apply at an 
Immigration and Naturalization Service office during the 
90-day period before their second-year anniversary of 
receiving conditional status. If the aliens cannot show 
that the marriage through which the status was obtained 
was and is a valid one, their conditional immigrant status 
may be terminated and they may become deportable. 

Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 

Public Law 99-603 (Act of 1 1/6/86), which was passed in 
order to control and deter illegal immigration to the 
United States. Its major provisions stipulate legalization 



of undocumented aliens, legalization of certain 
agricultural workers, sanctions for employers who 
knowingly hire undocumented workers, and increased 
enforcement at U.S. borders. 

Inadmissible — An alien seeking admission at a port of 
entry who does not meet the criteria in the INA for 
admission. The alien may be placed in removal 
proceedings or, under certain circumstances, allowed to 
withdraw their application for admission. 

Industrial Trainee — See Temporary Worker. 

International Representative — As a nonimmigrant 
class of admission, an alien coming temporarily to the 
United States as a principal or other accredited 
representative of a foreign government (whether officially 
recognized or not recognized by the United States) to an 
international organization, an international organization 
officer or employee, and all above aliens' spouses and 
unmarried minor (or dependent) children. 

Intracompany Transferee — An alien, employed for at 
least one year by an international firm or corporation, 
who seeks to enter the United States temporarily in order 
to continue to work for the same employer, or a 
subsidiary or affiliate, in a capacity that is primarily 
managerial, executive, or involves specialized 
knowledge. 



IRCA 

1986. 



See Immigration Reform and Control Act of 



Labor Certification — Requirement for U.S. employers 
seeking to employ certain persons whose immigration to 
the United States is based on job skills or nonimmigrant 
temporary workers coming to perform services 
unavailable in the United States. Labor certification is 
issued by the Secretary of Labor and contains attestations 
by U.S. employers as to the numbers of U.S. workers 
available to undertake the employment sought by an 
applicant, and the effect of the alien's employment on the 
wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly 
employed. Determination of labor availability in the 
United States is made at the time of a visa application and 
at the location where the applicant wishes to work. 



A.3-6 



Appendix 3 



Glossary 



Legalization Dependents — A maximum of 55,000 
visas were issued to spouses and children of aliens 
legalized under the provisions of the Immigration Reform 
and Control Act of 1986 in each of fiscal years 1992-94. 

Legalized Aliens — Certain illegal aliens who were 
eligible to apply for temporary resident status under the 
legalization provision of the Immigration Reform and 
Control Act of 1986. To be eligible, aliens must have 
continuously resided in the United States in an unlawful 
status since January 1, 1982, not be excludable, and have 
entered the United States either 1) illegally before 
January 1, 1982 or 2) as temporary visitors before 
January 1, 1982, with their authorized stay expiring 
before that date or with the Government's knowledge of 
their unlawful status before that date. Legalization 
consists of two stages — temporary and then permanent 
residency. In order to adjust to permanent status aliens 
must have had continuous residence in the United States, 
be admissible as an immigrant, and demonstrate at least a 
minimal understanding and knowledge of the English 
language and U.S. history and government. 

Medical and Legal Parolee — See Parolee. 

Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) — The general 
concept of an MSA is one of a large population nucleus 
together with adjacent communities which have a high 
degree of social and economic integration with that 
nucleus. Tabulations in the INS Statistical Yearbook 
include MetropoUtan Statistical Areas (MSAs), Primary 
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (PMSAs), and New 
England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMAs). MSAs 
and PSAs are defined by the Office of Management and 
Budget. PMSAs are components of larger metropolitan 
complexes called Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical 
Areas (CMSAs), which are not displayed in the 
Yearbook. 

Migrant — A person who leaves his/her country of 
origin to seek residence in another country. 

NACARA — Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central 
American Relief Act. 

National — A person owing permanent allegiance to a 
state. 



NATO Official — As a nonimmigrant class of 
admission, an alien coming temporarily to the United 
States as a member of the armed forces or as a civilian 
employed by the armed forces on assignment with a 
foreign government signatory to NATO (North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization), and the alien's spouse and 
unmarried minor (or dependent) children. 

Naturalization — The conferring, by any means, of 
citizenship upon a person after birth. 

Naturalization Application — The form used by a 
lawful permanent resident to apply for U.S. citizenship. 
The application is filed with the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service at the Service Center with 
jurisdiction over the applicant's place of residence. 

New Arrival — A lawful permanent resident alien who 
enters the United States at a port of entry. The alien is 
generally required to present an immigrant visa issued 
outside the United States by a consular officer of the 
Department of State. Three classes of immigrants, 
however, need not have an immigrant visa to enter the 
United States — children bom abroad to lawful permanent 
resident aliens, children bom subsequent to the issuance 
of an immigrant visa to accompanying parents, and 
American Indians bom in Canada. 

Nonimmigrant — An alien who seeks temporary entry 
to the United States for a specific purpose. The alien 
must have a permanent residence abroad (for most classes 
of admission) and qualify for the nonimmigrant 
classification sought. The nonimmigrant classifications 
include: foreign government officials, visitors for 
business and for pleasure, aliens in transit through the 
United States, treaty traders and investors, students, 
international representatives, temporary workers and 
trainees, representatives of foreign information media, 
exchange visitors, fiance(e)s of U.S. citizens, 
intracompany transferees, NATO officials, religious 
workers, and some others. Most nonimmigrants can be 
accompanied or joined by spouses and unmarried minor 
(or dependent) children. Although refugees, parolees, 
withdrawals, and stowaways are processed as 
nonimmigrants upon arrival to the United States, these 
classes, as well as crewmen, are not included in 
nonimmigrant admission data. 



A.3-7 



Appendix 3 



Glossary 



Nonpreference Category — Nonpreference visas were 
available to qualified applicants not entitled to one under 
the other preferences until the category was eliminated by 
the Immigration Act of 1990. Nonpreference visas for 
persons not entitled to the other preferences had not been 
available since September 1978 because of high demand 
in the preference categories. An additional 5,000 
nonpreference visas were available in each of fiscal years 
1987 and 1988 under a provision of the Immigration 
Reform and Control Act of 1986. This program was 
extended into 1989, 1990, and 1991 with 15,000 visas 
issued each year. Aliens born in countries from which 
immigradon was adversely affected by the Immigration 
and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 (Public Law 
89-236) were eligible for the special nonpreference visas. 

North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA) — 

Public Law 103-182 (Act of 12/8/93), superseded the 
United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement as of 1/1/94. 
It continues the special, reciprocal trading relationship 
between the United States and Canada (see United States- 
Canada Free-Trade Agreement), and establishes a similar 
relationship with Mexico. 

Nursing Relief Act of 1989 — Public Law 101-238 (Act 
of 12/18/89), provides for the adjustment to permanent 
resident status of certain nonimmigrants who as of 
September 1, 1989, had H-1 nonimmigrant status as 
registered nurses; who had been employed in that 
capacity for at least 3 years; and whose continued nursing 
employment meets certain labor certification 
requirements. It also provides for a 5-year pilot program 
for admission of nonimmigrant nurses under the H-1 A 
category. 

Occupation — For an alien entering the United States or 
adjusting without a labor certification, occupation refers 
to the employment held in the country of last or legal 
residence or in the United States. For an alien with a 
labor certification, occupation is the employment for 
which certification has been issued. 

Orphan — For immigration purposes, a child whose 
parents have died or disappeared, or who has been 
abandoned or otherwise separated from both parents. An 
orphan may also be a child whose sole or surviving parent 
is incapable of providing that child with proper care and 



who has, in writing, irrevocably released the child for 
emigration and adoption. In order to qualify as an II 
immediate relative, the orphan must be under the age of" 
sixteen at the time a petition is filed on his or her behalf 
To enter the United States, an orphan must have been 
adopted abroad by a U.S. citizen (and spouse, if married) 
or be coming to the United States for adoption by a 
citizen. 

Panama Canal Act Immigrants — Three categories of 
special immigrants established by Public Law 96-70 (Act 
of 9/27/79): 1) certain former employees of the Panama 
Canal Company or Canal Zone Government, their 
spouses and children; 2) certain former employees of the 
U.S. Government in the Panama Canal Zone, their 
spouses and children; and 3) certain former employees of 
the Panama Canal Company or Canal Zone Government 
on April 1, 1979, their spouses and children. The Act 
provides for admission of a maximum of 15,000 
immigrants, at a rate of no more than 5,000 each year. 

Parolee — A parolee is an alien, appearing to be 
inadmissible to the inspecting officer, allowed into the 
United States under urgent humanitarian reasons or when 
that alien's entry is determined to be for significant public 
benefit. Parole does not constitute a formal admission to 
the United States and confers temporary status only, 
requiring parolees to leave when the conditions 
supporting their parole cease to exist. Parolees are not 
included in nonimmigrant admission data. Types of 
parolees include: 

1) Deferred inspection: Parole may be granted to an 
alien who appears not to be clearly admissible to the 
inspecting officer. An appointment will be made for the 
alien's appearance at another Service office where more 
information is available and the inspection can be 
completed. 

2) Advance parole: authorized at an INS District office 
in advance of alien's arrival. 



3) Port of entry parole: 
alien's arrival. 



authorized at the port upon 



4) Humanitarian parole: authorized at INS headquarters, 
e.g., granted to an alien who has a serious medical 
condition which would make detention or immediate 
return inappropriate. 



A.3-8 



Appendix 3 



Glossary 



5) Public interest parole: authorized at INS 
headquarters, e.g., granted to an alien who is a witness in 
legal proceedings or is subject to prosecution in the 
United States. 

6) Overseas parole: authorized at an INS District or 
suboffice while the alien is still overseas. 

Per-Country Limit — The maximum number of family- 
sponsored and employment-based preference visas that 
can be issued to any country in a fiscal year. The limits 
are calculated each fiscal year depending on the total 
number of family-sponsored and employment-based visas 
available. No more than 7 percent of the visas may be 
issued to natives of any one independent country in a 
fiscal year; no more than 2 percent may issued to any one 
dependency of any independent country. The per-country 
Umit does not indicate, however, that a country is entitled 
to the maximum number of visas each year, just that it 
cannot receive more than that number. Because of the 
combined workings of the preference system and per- 
country limits, most countries do not reach this level of 
visa issuance. 

Permanent Resident Alien — An alien admitted to the 
United States as a lawful permanent resident. Permanent 
residents are also commonly referred to as immigrants. 
Immigrants are lawfully accorded the privilege of 
residing permanently in the United States. They may be 
issued immigrant visas by the Department of State 
overseas or adjusted to permanent resident status by the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service in the United 
States. 

Port of Entry — Any location in the United States or its 
territories that is designated as a point of entry for aliens 
and U.S. citizens. All district and files control offices are 
also considered ports since they become locations of 
entry for aliens adjusting to immigrant status. 

Pre-inspection — Complete immigration inspection of 
airport passengers before departure from a foreign 
country. No further immigration inspection is required 
upon arrival in the United States other than submission of 
INS Form 1-94 for nonimmigrant aliens. 

Preference System (prior to fiscal year 1992) — The 

six categories among which 270,000 immigrant visa 



numbers were distributed each year during the period 
1981-91. This preference system was amended by the 
Immigration Act of 1990, effective fiscal year 1992. (See 
Preference System (Immigration Act of 1990).) The six 
categories were: unmarried sons and daughters (over 21 
years of age) of U.S. citizens (20 percent); spouses and 
unmarried sons and daughters of aliens lawfully admitted 
for permanent residence (26 percent); members of the 
professions or persons of exceptional ability in the 
sciences and arts (10 percent); married sons and 
daughters of U.S. citizens (10 percent); brothers and 
sisters of U.S. citizens over 21 years of age (24 percent); 
and needed skilled or unskilled workers (10 percent). A 
nonpreference category, historically open to immigrants 
not entitled to a visa number under one of the six 
preferences just listed, had no numbers available 
beginning in September 1978. 

Preference System (Immigration Act of 1990) — The 

nine categories since fiscal year 1992 among which the 
family-sponsored and employment-based immigrant 
preference visas are distributed. The family-sponsored 
preferences are: 1) unmarried sons and daughters of U.S. 
citizens; 2) spouses, children, and unmarried sons and 
daughters of permanent resident aliens; 3) married sons 
and daughters of U.S. citizens; 4) brothers and sisters of 
U.S. citizens. The employment-based preferences are: 1) 
priority workers (persons of extraordinary ability, 
outstanding professors and researchers, and certain 
multinational executives and managers); 2) professionals 
with advanced degrees or aliens with exceptional ability; 
3) skilled workers, professionals (without advanced 
degrees), and needed unskilled workers; 4) special 
immigrants; and 5) employment creation immigrants 
(investors). 

Principal Alien — TTie alien who applies for immigrant 
status and from whom another alien may acquire lawful 
status under immigration law or regulations (usually 
spouses and siblings). 

Refugee — Any person who is outside his or her country 
of nationality who is unable or unwilling to return to that 
country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of 
persecution. Persecution or the fear thereof may be based 
on the alien's race, religion, nationality, membership in a 
particular social group, or political opinion. People with 



A.3-9 



lPPENDIX 3 



Glossary 



no nationality must generally be outside their country of 
last habitual residence to qualify as a refugee. Refugees 
are exempt from numerical limitation (though worldwide 
ceilings by geographic area are set annually by the 
President) and are eligible to adjust to lawful permanent 
residence after one year of continuous presence in the 
United States. Refugees are not included in nonimmigrant 
admission data. 

Refugee Approvals — The number of refugees approved 
for admission to the United States during a fiscal year. 
Immigration and Naturalization Service officers in 
overseas offices make refugee approvals. 

Refugee Arrivals — The number of refugees the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service initially admits to 
the United States through ports of entry during a fiscal 
year. 

Refugee Authorized Admissions — The maximum 
number of refugees allowed to enter the United States in a 
given fiscal year. As set forth in the Refugee Act of 1980 
(Public Law 96-212) the President determines the annual 
figure after consultations with Congress. 

Refugee-Parolee — A qualified applicant for conditional 
entry, between February 1970 and April 1980, whose 
application for admission to the United States could not 
be approved because of inadequate numbers of seventh 
preference visas. As a result, the applicant was paroled 
into the United States under the parole authority granted 
the Attorney General. 

Regional Offices — The three INS Regional Offices that 
supervise the work of INS Districts and Border Patrol 
Sectors. The Regional Directors report to the Executive 
Associate Commissioner for Field Operations in INS 
Headquarters, Washington, DC. The three Regional 
Offices are located in (Eastern Region) Burlington, VT, 
(Central Region) Dallas, TX, and (Western Region) 
Laguna Niguel, CA. 

Registry Date — Aliens who have continuously resided 
in the United States since January 1, 1972, are of good 
moral character, and are not inadmissible, are eligible to 
adjust to legal permanent resident status under the 
registry provision. Before the Immigration Reform and 
Control Act of 1986 amended the date aliens had to have 

A.3-10 



been in the country continuously since June 30, 1948 to 
qualify. 

Removal — The expulsion of an alien from the United 
States. This expulsion may be based on grounds of 
inadmissibility or deportability. 

Required Departure — See voluntary departure. 

Resettlement — Permanent relocation of refugees in a 
place outside their country of origin to allow them to 
establish residence and become productive members of 
society there. Refugee resettlement is accomplished 
with the direct assistance of private voluntary agencies 
working with the Department of Health and Human 
Services office of Refugee Resettlement. 

Safe Haven — Temporary refuge given to migrants who 
have filed their countries of origin to seed protection or 
relief from persecution or other hardships, until they can 
return to their countries safely or, if necessary, until they 
can obtain permanent relief from the conditions they fled. 

Service Centers — Three offices established to handle 
the mail, file, data entry, and adjudication of most 
applications for immigration services and benefits. The 
applications are mailed to INS Service Centers — Service 
Centers are not staffed to receive walk-in applications or 
questions. 

Special Agricultural Workers (SAW) — Aliens who 
performed labor in perishable agricultural commodities 
for a specified period of time and were admitted for 
temporary and then permanent residence under a 
provision of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 
1986. Up to 350,000 aliens who worked at least 90 days 
in each of the 3 years preceding May 1, 1986 were 
eligible for Group I temporary resident status. Eligible 
aliens who qualified under this requirement but applied 
after the 350,(X)0 limit was met and aliens who performed 
labor in perishable agricultural commodities for at least 
90 days during the year ending May 1, 1986 were eligible 
for Group II temporary resident status. Adjustment to 
permanent resident status is essentially automatic for both 
groups; however, aliens in Group I were eligible on 
December 1, 1989 and those in Group II were eligible one 
year later on December 1, 1990. 



Appendix 3 



Glossary 



Special Immigrants — Certain categories of immigrants 
who were exempt from numerical limitation before fiscal 
year 1992 and subject to limitation under the 
employment-based fourth preference beginning in 1992: 
persons who lost citizenship by marriage; persons who 
lost citizenship by serving in foreign armed forces; 
ministers of religion, their spouses and children; certain 
employees and former employees of the U.S. 
Government abroad, their spouses and children; Panama 
Canal Act immigrants; certain foreign medical school 
graduates, their spouses and children; certain retired 
employees of international organizations, their spouses 
and children; juvenile court dependents; certain aliens 
serving in the U.S. Armed Forces, their spouses and 
children; and religious workers, their spouses and 
children. 

Special Naturalization Provisions — Provisions 
covering special classes of persons who may be 
naturalized even though they do not meet all the general 
requirements for naturalization. Such special provisions 
allow: 1) wives or husbands of U.S. citizens to be 
naturahzed in three years instead of the prescribed five 
years; 2) a surviving spouse of a U.S. citizen who served 
in the armed forces to file in any naturalization court 
instead of where he/she resides; 3) children of U.S. 
citizen parents to be naturalized without meeting the 
literacy or civics requirements or taking the oath, if too 
young to understand the meaning. Other classes of 
persons who may qualify for special consideration are 
former U.S. citizens, servicemen, seamen, and employees 
of organizations promoting U.S. interests abroad. 

Stateless — Having no nationality. 

Stowaway — An alien coming to the United States 
surreptitiously on an airplane or vessel without legal 
status of admission. Such an alien is subject to denial of 
formal admission and return to the point of embarkation 
by the transportation carrier. 

Student — As a nonimmigrant class of admission, an 
alien coming temporarily to the United States to pursue a 
full course of study in an approved program in either an 
academic (college, university, seminary, conservatory, 
academic high school, elementary school, other 
institution, or language training program) or a vocational 
or other recognized nonacademic institution. 



Sub Offices — Offices found in some Districts that serve 
a portion of the District's jurisdicfion. A Sub Office, 
headed by an Officer-in-Charge, provides many services 
and enforcement functions. Their locations are 
determined, in part, to increase convenience to INS' 
customers. 

Subject to the Numerical Limit — Categories of legal 
immigrants subject to annual limits under the provisions 
of the flexible numerical limit of 675,000 set by the 
Immigration Act of 1990. The largest categories are: 
family-sponsored preferences; employment-based 
preferences; and diversity immigrants. 

Temporary Protected Status (TPS) — Establishes a 
legislative base to the administrative practice of allowing 
a group of persons temporary refuge in the United States. 
Under a provision of the Immigration Act of 1990, the 
Attorney General may designate nationals of a foreign 
state to be eligible for TPS with a finding that conditions 
in that country pose a danger to personal safety due to 
ongoing armed conflict or an environmental disaster. 
Grants of TPS are initially made for periods of 6 to 18 
months and may be extended depending on the situation. 
Deportation proceedings are suspended against aliens 
while they are in Temporary Protected Status. 

Temporary Resident — See Nonimmigrant. 

Temporary Worker — An alien worker coming to the 
United States to work for a temporary period of time. 
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, the 
Immigration Nursing Relief Act of 1989, and the 
Immigration Act of 1990 revised existing classes and 
created new classes of nonimmigrant admission. 
Nonimmigrant worker classes of admission are as 
follows: 

1) H-IA — registered nurses; 

2) H-IB — workers with "specialty occupations" 
admitted on the basis of professional education, skills, 
and/or equivalent experience; 

3) H-2A — temporary agricultural workers coming to the 
United States to perform agricultural services or labor of 
a temporary or seasonal nature when services are 
unavailable in the United States; 

4) H-2B — temporary non-agricultural workers coming to 
the United States to perform temporary services or labor 



A.3-11 



Appendix 3 



Glossary 






if unemployed persons capable of performing the service 
or labor cannot be found in the United States; 

5) H-3 — aliens coming temporarily to the United States 
as trainees, other than to receive graduate medical 
education or training; 

6) 0-1, 0-2, 0-3 — temporary workers with extra- 
ordinary ability or achievement in the sciences, arts, 
education, business, or athletics; those entering solely for 
the purpose of accompanying and assisting such workers; 
and their spouses and children; 

7) P-1, P-2, P-3, P-4 — athletes and entertainers at an 
internationally recognized level of performance; artists 
and entertainers under a reciprocal exchange program; 
artists and entertainers under a program that is "culturally 
unique"; and their spouses and children; 

8) Q — participants in international cultural exchange 
programs; 

9) R-1, R-2 — temporary workers to perform work in 
religious occupations and their spouses and children. 

Temporary visitors in the Exchange Visitor, 
Intracompany Transferee, and U.S. -Canada or North 
American Free-Trade Agreement classes of 
nonimmigrant admission also are granted authorization to 
work temporarily in the United States. See other sections 
of this Glossary for definitions of these classes. 

Transit Alien — An alien in immediate and continuous 
transit through the United States, with or without a visa, 
including, 1) aliens who qualify as persons entitled to 
pass in transit to and from the United Nations 
Headquarters District and foreign countries and 
2) foreign government officials and their spouses and 
unmarried minor (or dependent) children in transit. 

Transition Quarter — The three-month period — July 1 
through September 30, 1976 — between fiscal year 1976 
and fiscal year 1977. At that time, the fiscal year 
definition shifted from July 1-June 30 to October 1- 
September 30. 

Transit Without Visa (TWOV) — A transit alien 
traveling without a nonimmigrant visa under section 233 
of the immigration law. An alien admitted under 
agreements with a transportation line, which guarantees 
his immediate and continuous passage to a foreign 
destination. (See Transit Alien.) 



Treaty Trader or Investor — As a nonimmigrant class 
of admission, an alien coming temporarily to the United 
States, under the provisions of a treaty of commerce and 
navigation between the United States and the foreign 
state of such alien, to carry on substantial trade or to 
direct the operations of an enterprise in which he has 
invested a substantial amount of capital, and the aUen's 
spouse and unmarried minor children. 

Underrepresented Countries, Natives of — The 

Immigration Amendments of 1988, Public Law 101-658 
(Act of 1 1/5/88) allowed for 10,000 visas to be issued to 
natives of underrepresented countries in each of fiscal 
years 1990 and 1991. Under- represented countries are 
defined as countries that received less than 25 percent of 
the maximum allowed under the country limitations 
(20,000 for independent countries and 5,000 for 
dependencies) in fiscal year 1988. 

United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement — Public 
Law 100-449 (Act of 9/28/88) established a special, 
reciprocal trading relationship between the United States 
and Canada. It provided two new classes of nonimmigrant 
admission for temporary visitors to the United States- 
Canadian citizen business persons and their spouses and 
unmarried minor children. Entry is facilitated for visitors 
seeking classification as visitors for business, treaty traders 
or investors, intracompany transferees, or other business 
people engaging in activities at a professional level. Such 
visitors are not required to obtain nonimmigrant visas, 
prior petitions, labor certifications, or prior approval but 
must satisfy the inspecting officer they are seeking entry to 
engage in activities at a professional level and that they are 
so qualified. The United States-Canada Free-Trade 
Agreement was superseded by the North American Free- 
Trade Agreement (NAFTA) as of 1/1/94. 

Visa Waiver Pilot Program — Allows citizens of 
certain selected countries, traveling temporarily to the 
United States under the nonimmigrant admission classes 
of visitors for pleasure and visitors for business, to enter 
the United States without obtaining nonimmigrant visas. 
Admission is for no more than 90 days. The program 
was instituted by the Immigration Reform and Control 
Act of 1986 (entries began 7/1/88). Under the Guam 
Visa Waiver Pilot Program, certain visitors from 
designated countries may visit Guam for up to 15 days 
without first having to obtain nonimmigrant visitor visas. 



A.3-12 



Appendix 3 



Glossary 



Voluntary Departure — The departure of an alien from 
the United States without an order of removal. The 
departure may or may not have been preceded by a 
hearing before an immigration judge. An alien allowed to 
voluntarily depart concedes removability but does not 
have a bar to seeking admission at a port-of-entry at any 
time. 

Withdrawal — An arriving alien's voluntary retraction 
of an application for admission to the United States in 



lieu of a removal hearing before an immigration judge or 
an expedited removal. Withdrawals are not included in 
nonimmigrant admission data. 

Worldwide Ceiling — The numerical limit imposed on 
immigration visa issuance worldwide beginning in fiscal 
year 1979 and ending in fiscal year 1991. The 1991 
ceiling was 270,000 visa numbers. Prior to enactment of 
Public Law 96-212 on March 17, 1980, the woridwide 
ceiling was 290,000. 



A.3-13 



THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 



Appendix 4 



Data Sources 



Data Series 



Form Number and Title 



Immigrants 

♦ New arrivals (except children born subsequent 
to issuance of immigrant visa to accompanying 
alien parents; children born to lawful permanent 
resident aliens during temporary visits abroad; 
and American Indians bom in Canada) 

♦ Adjustments (and special new arrival cases listed 
above) 



Naturalizations 



Nonimmigrants 

Deportations, Required Departures 
Exclusions 



Performance Analysis 
Refugees 

Asylees 

Apprehensions 



OF-155 — (State Dept.) Immigrant Visa and Alien 

Registration 
OF-230 — (State Dept.) Application for Immigrant 

Visa and Alien Registration 



1-181 — Memorandum of Creation of Record of 
Lawful Permanent Residence 

N-400 — Application to File Petition for Naturalization 
N-402 — Application to File Petition for Naturalization 

in Behalf of Child 
N-405 — Petition for Naturalization 
N-480 — Naturalization Petitions Recommended to 

be Granted 
N-600 — Application for Certificate of Citizenship 
N-643 — Application for Certificate of Citizenship on 

Behalf of an Adopted Child 

1-94 — Arrival / Departure Record 

I-94W — Visa Waiver Arrival / Departure Form 

— Deportable Alien Control System 

1-259 — Notice to Detain, Deport, Remove, or 

Present Aliens 
J.275 — Notice of Withdrawal of Application for 

Admission to the United States 
1-296 — Notice of Alien Ordered Excluded by 

Immigration Judge 

— Deportable Alien Control System 

G-23 — Report of Field Operations 

(3.3J9 — Report of Applicants for Refugee Status 

under Section 207, INA 
1.94 — Arrival/Departure Record 
1-590 — Registration for Classification as Refugee 

1-589 — Request for Asylum in the United States 
1-213 — Record of Deportable Alien 



A.4-1 



lPPENDIX 5 



Table Genealogy 



1997 

Immigrants 

1. Immigration to the United States (historical ') 

2. Immigration by region and country of last residence (historical ') 

3. Immigrants admitted by region and country of birth (historical ') 

4. Immigrants admitted by type and class of admission (historical ') 

5. Immigrants admitted by region of birth and type and class of admission 

6. Immigrants admitted by class of admission and foreign state of chargeability under the preference categories 

7. Iimnigrants admitted by type of admission and country of birth 

8. Immigrants admitted by class of admission and country of birth 

9. Iimnigrants admitted by class of admission and country of last permanent residence 

10. Immigrants adjusted to permanent resident status by status at entry and country of birth 

11. Immigrants admitted in current fiscal year by calendar year of entry, type of admission, and country of birth 

12. Immigrants admitted by age, and sex (historical ') 

13. Immigrants admitted by country of birth, age, and sex 

14. Immigrants admitted by marital status, age, and sex 

15. Immigrant-orphans adopted by U.S. citizens by sex, age, and country of birth 

16. Immigrant new arrivals by port of entry and country of birth 

17. Immigrants admitted by country of birth and state of intended residence 

18. Immigrants admitted by state of intended residence (historical ') 

19. Immigrants admitted by country of birth and metropolitan statistical area of intended residence 

20. Immigrant beneficiaries of occupational preferences admitted by type of admission and occupation 

21. Immigrants admitted by major occupation group and country of birth 

Refugees, Asylees 

22. Refugee-status applications (historical ') 

23. Refugee-status applications by geographic area and country of chargeability 

24. Refugee approvals and arrivals by geographic area of chargeability (historical ') 

25. Refugee arrivals into the United States by country of citizenship (historical ') 

26. Refugees granted permanent resident status in current fiscal year by calendar year of entry and country of birth .... 

27. Asylum cases filed with INS District Directors and Asylum Officers (historical ') 

28. Number of individuals granted asylum by INS District Directors and Asylum Officers by nationality (historical ') 



A.5-2 



.PPENDIX 5 



Table Genealogy 



1996 


1995 


1994 


1993 


1992 


1991 


1990 


1989 


1988 


1987 










Immigrants 










1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


15 


15 


15 


15 


15 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


16 


16 


16 


16 


16 


15 


15 


15 


15 


15 


17 


17 


17 


17 


17 


16 


16 


16 


16 


16 


18 


18 


18 


18 


18 


17 


17 


17 


17 


17 


19 


19 


19 


19 


19 


18 


18 


18 


18 


18 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


19 


19 


19 


19 


19 


21 


21 


21 


21 


21 

Refugees 


20 
!, ASYLEES 


20 


20 


20 


20 


22 


22 


23 


23 


23 


24 


24 


24 


23 


23 


23 


23 


24 


24 


24 


25 


25 


25 


24 


24 


24 


24 


25 


25 


25 


26 


26 


26 


25 


25 


25 


25 


26 


26 


26 


27 


27 


27 


26 


26 


26 


26 


27 


27 


27 


28 


28 


28 


27 


27 


27 


27 


28 


28 


28 


NA 


292 


3P 


30^ 


30^ 


28 


28 


29 


29 


29 


NA 


30^ 


32^ 


3P 


3P 



A.5-3 



Appendix 5 



Table Genealogy 



1997 



Refugees, Asylees 

29. Asylum cases filed with INS Asylum Officers by selected nationality 

30. Asylum cases filed with INS Asylum Officers by asylum office and state of residence 

31. Refugees and asylees granted permanent resident status by enactment (historical ') 

32. Refugees and asylees granted permanent resident status by country of birth (historical ') 

33. Refugees and asylees granted permanent resident status by age and sex (historical ') 

34. Refugees and asylees granted permanent resident status by country of birth (historical ') 

35. Refugees and asylees granted permanent resident status by country of birth and metropolitan statistical area of residence 

36. Refugees and asylees granted permanent resident status by state of residence (historical ') 

Temporary Admissions 

37. Nonimmigrants admitted by class of admission and country of last residence (historical ') 

38. Noninmiigrants admitted by class of admission and country of citizenship 

39. Nonimmigrants admitted by class of admission (historical ') 

40. NoninMnigrants admitted as temporary workers, exchange visitors, and intracompany transferees by country 

of citizenship 

41. Nonimmigrants admitted by port of entry and country of citizenship 

42. Nonimmigrants admitted by age and country of citizenship 

43. Nonimmigrants admitted by class of admission and state of intended residence 

Naturalizations 

44. Petitions for naturalization filed, persons naturalized, and petitions for naturalization denied (historical ') 

45. Persons naturalized by general and special naturalization provisions (historical ') 

46. Persons naturalized by naturalization provisions and country of former allegiance 

47. Persons naturalized by country of former allegiance (historical ') 

48. Persons naturalized by sex, marital status, and major occupation (historical ') 

49. Persons naturalized by state of residence (historical ') 

50. Persons naturalized by country of former allegiance and state of residence 

51. Persons naturalized by country of former allegiance and metropolitan area of residence 

52. Persons naturalized by major occupation group and country of former allegiance 

53. Persons naturalized in current fiscal year by calendar year of entry and country of birth 

54. Persons naturalized by country of former allegiance, age and sex 

55. Persons naturalized by age, and sex (historical ') 

A.5-4 



Appendix 5 



Table Genealogy 



1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 









Refugees 


!, ASYLEES 






29 


30 


30 


30 


NA 


3P 


33^ 


30 


31 


31 


31 


NA 


NA 


NA 


31 


32 


32 


32 


29 


33 


38 


32 


33 


33 


33 


30 


34 


39 


33 


34 


34 


34 


31 


35 


i 


34 


35 


35 


35 


32 


36 


40 


35 


37 


37 


37 


34 


38 


42 


36 


36 


36 


36 


33 


37 


41 








Temporary Admissions 




37 


38 


38 


38 


35 


39 


43 


38 


39 


39 


39 


36 


40 


44 


39 


40 


40 


40 


37 


41 


45 


40 


41 


41 


41 


38 


42 


46 


41 


42 


42 


42 


39 


43 


47 


42 


43 


43 


43 


40 


44 


48 


43 


44 


44 


44 


NA 


NA 


NA 








Naturalizations 






44 


45 


45 


45 


41 


45 


49 


45 


46 


46 


46 


42 


46 


50 


46 


47 


47 


47 


43 


47 


51 


47 


48 


48 


48 


44 


48 


52 


48 


49 


49 


49 


45 


49 


53 


49 


50 


50 


50 


46 


50 


54 


50 


51 


51 


51 


47 


51 


55 


51 


52 


52 


52 


48 


52 


56 


52 


53 


53 


53 


49 


53 


57 


53 


54 


54 


54 


50 


54 


58 


54 


55 


55 


55 


51 


55 


59 


55 


56 


56 


56 


52 


56 


60 



32^ 


32 2 


NA 


NA 


37 


37 


38 


38 


3 


3 


39 


39 


41 


40 


40 


NA 


42 


41 


43 


42 


44 


43 


45 


44 


46 


45 


47 


46 


NA 


NA 


48 


47 


49 


48 


50 


49 


51 


50 


52 


51 


53 


52 


54 


53 


55 


54 


56 


55 


57 


56 


58 


57 


59 


58 




A.5-5 



.PPENDIX 5 



Table Genealogy 



1997 

Enforcement 

56. Deportable aliens located (historical ') 

57. Deportable aliens located by status at entry and region and selected country of nationality 

58. Deportable aliens located by Program and Border Patrol Sector (historical ') 

59. Principal activities and accomplishments of the Border Patrol (historical ') 

60. Principal activities and accomplishments of the INS investigations program (historical ') 

61. Aliens expelled (historical ') 

62. Aliens expelled by Region and District Office 

63. Aliens removed by administrative reason for removal (historical ') 

64. Aliens removed by type of removal and selected country of nationality 

65. Aliens removed by criminal status and region and selected country of nationality (historical ') 

66. Aliens excluded by administrative reason for exclusion (historical ') 

67. Aliens deported by administrative reason for removal (historical ') 

68. Aliens deported by administrative reason for removal (historical ') 

69. Aliens under docket control required to depart by criminal status and region and selected country of nationality 

(historical ') 

70. Service participation in the control of marijuana, narcotics, and dangerous drug traffic (historical ') 

Entries, Litigation, Legal Activity 

71. Prosecutions, fines, and imprisonment for immigration and nationality violations (historical ') 

72. Convictions for immigration and nationality violations (historical ') 

73. Writs of habeas corpus, judicial review of orders of deportation, and declaratory judgements in exclusion and 

deportation cases (historical ') 

74. Private immigration and nationality bills introduced and laws enacted by Congress (historical ') 



A.5-6 



PPENDIX 5 



Table Genealogy 



996 


1995 


1994 


1993 


1992 


1991 


1990 


1989 


1988 


1987 










Enforcement 










58' 


58' 


59' 


59' 


59' 


55' 


57' 


61' 


60' 


59' 


59 


59 


60 


60 


60 


56 


58 


62 


61 


60 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


73 


73 


74 


74 


74 


68 


70 


74 


73 


72 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


58' 


58' 


59' 


59' 


59' 


55' 


57' 


61' 


60' 


59' 


71' 


71' 


72' 


72' 


72' 


66' 


68' 


72' 


71' 


70' 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


60 


60 


61 


61 


61 


57 


59 


63 


62 


61 


65 


65 


66 


66 


66 


61 


63 


67 


66 


65 


66 


66 


67 


67 


67 


61 


63 


67 


66 


65 


63 


63 


64 


64 


64 


59 


61 


65 


64 


63 


72 


72 


73 


73 


73 


67 


69 


73 


72 


71 








Entries, 


Litigation, Legal Activity 








74 


74 


75 


76 


76 


70 


72 


76 


75 


74 


75 


75 


76 


77 


77 


71 


73 


77 


76 


75 


76 


76 


77 


78 


78 


72 


74 


78 


77 


76 


77 


77 


78 


79 


79 


73 


75 


79 


78 


77 



' Historical tables show data for a number of years, which may vary in each edition of the Yearbook. ■ Excludes cases filed with 
isylum Officers; Asylum Offices established for fiscal year 1992. ' Data are shown for asylees only in 1987-88 (34) and 1989 (35). 
)ata are shown for refugees only in 1987-88 (28) and 1989 (29). Data are shown by selected country of birth. ' Deportable aliens 
Jcated are referred to as apprehended prior to 1997. ' Formal removals are defined as aliens deported and excluded prior to 1997. 
JA Not available. 



O U. S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1999-459-543/10726 A. 5-7 



15^ 12 



-•v^;'!;^ 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06351 969 6