This is a digital copy of a book lhal w;ls preserved for general ions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as pari of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.
Il has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one thai was never subject
to copy right or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often dillicull lo discover.
Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher lo a library and linally lo you.
Google is proud lo partner with libraries lo digili/e public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial panics, including placing Icchnical restrictions on automated querying.
We also ask that you:
+ Make n on -commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request thai you use these files for
personal, non -commercial purposes.
+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort lo Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.
+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each lile is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.
+ Keep it legal Whatever your use. remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is slill in copyright varies from country lo country, and we can'l offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.
About Google Book Search
Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through I lie lull lexl of 1 1 us book on I lie web
al |_-.:. :.-.-:: / / books . qooqle . com/|
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
.JtLA.. ih. &ttt>
(ZtaJ,. ?*&: /3. '<^6
. ! »
STATUE OF COLONEL
CEREMONIES AT THE UNVEILING
PRESS OF THE CASE, LOCKWOOD & BRAINARD COMPANY
Ceremonies of Unveiling.
Invocation . . . Rev. Joseph H. Twichell
Presentation . . Charles Dudley Warner
Acceptance . . Governor O. Vincent Coffin
Historical Address . . P, Henry Woodward
The Sculptor and His Work . Charles Noel Flagg
Organization of the Knowlton Association
Resolved by tW$ Assembly, That the Commission of Sculp-
ture be and is hereby authorized to have prepared and
constructed a suitable memorial consisting of a companion
piece to the statue of Nathan Hale, or other suitable '
memorial, to be placed in the Capitol or erected upon
the Capitol grounds, to commemorate the gallant service
and heroic death, in the war of the Revolution, of Col.
Thomas Knowlton of Ashford ; provided, that the expense
therefor shall not exceed seven thousand five hundred
dollars ; and the sums expended by said Commission under
this resolution shall be paid by the Comptroller upon the
presentation of proper vouchers therefor.
Approved, June 14, 1893.
THE ceremonies were held in the Hall of the
. House of Representatives in Hartford, Nov. 13,
1 895, the chairman of the Commission of Sculpture*
in the chair, in the presence of a very large and
distinguished audience, the Governor and his staff,
the State officers, the descendants of Colonel
Knowlton, representatives of the Historical Socie-
ties of Connecticut and of New Haven, and other
invited guests. After the invocation of the Divine
Blessing by the Rev. Joseph H. Twichell of
Hartford, followed the
PRESENTATION BY CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER
Ladies and Gentlemen, Governor Coffin : —
THE Legislature of 1893 appropriated the sum of
seven thousand five hundred dollars for the
erection of a bronze statue of Colonel Thomas Knowl-
ton. The suggestion of this act of justice to one
of the heroes of the Revolution of whom the state
has most reason to be proud came from the descend-
ants of Colonel Knowlton. The execution of this
mandate fell to the Commission of Sculpture* under
the law creating that body. The Commission asked
*The members are Charles Dudley Warner, chairman; Alfred
E. Burr, Henry W. Farnam, Francis Goodwin, Kirk H. Leavens,
and J. Q. A. Stone.
Mr. E. S. Woods of Hartford to prepare a model for
the statue, and when this was made to their satisfac-
tion a contract was given to him for the statue and
pedestal. The bronze was cast by Mr. M. H.
Mosman of Chicopee, Mass., and the granite pedestal,
designed by Mr. Henry Bryant, was made by the
New*England Granite Company. It is a beautiful
piece of work.
The statue is eight feet in height, the plinth four
inches, and the pedestal eight feet, making the mon-
ument sixteen feet four inches high. Upon the
pedestal is a bronze tablet, reciting, without eulogy,
the deeds which justify the erection of the statue by
the state. The monument has been placed at the
southeast corner of the Capitol, in a position to show
it to advantage from most points of view, without
dwarfing it by contrast with the building.
The object has been to present within the allow-
able limits of art an historic figure, representative of
the time and of the soldier who died in action. The
only authority for the likeness is in Trumbull's
portrait of Knowlton in his famous picture of the
battle of Bunker Hill. In the judgment of the Com-
mission the statue is worthy of the hero and of the
conspicuous position it occupies.
I have said that the tablet records his deeds.
The character and genius of the man will be un-
folded in the historical address by Mr. P. H. Wood-
ward, who by birth and study is especially fitted for
the work. Colonel Knowlton was a great man.
Judged by what he did and by what his rare talents
promised, I doubt if the state has produced a greater
military genius or a more unselfish patriot. The
official recognition of his services and his great
qualities comes late, but his fame is permanent and it
will increase, for it is of the sort of heroism that
the people take to heart long after the flags are
folded and the drums are silent.
I am authorized to extend to the descendants of
Colonel Knowlton a cordial welcome to these cere-
monies, and to assure them that in honoring the
memory of Colonel Knowlton the state is conscious
that one of the best legacies of an honorable name
is a worthy and patriotic posterity.
With the unveiling, the labor of the Commission
ceases, and they commit the statue of Colonel
Thomas Knowlton to the keeping of the state, whose
chief treasure is its great citizens.
ACCEPTANCE BY GOVERNOR O. VINCENT COFFIN
Mr. Chairman and Friends : —
THE state is under many and great obligations
to you and the other members of the Commis-
sion of Sculpture for the faithful and painstaking
way in which the duties of the commissioners have
been hitherto discharged. In no one of the many
instances in which your services have been required
have you had a more interesting or more important
work placed under your care than when you were
charged with the duty of obtaining the statue we
It affords me great pleasure to add that in no
other case have your efforts been more gratif yingly
successful. Doubtless you may have thought at times
that there has not been manifested that general and
responsive interest you desire in the results of your
attempts to have this splendid capitol and its beauti-
ful grounds adorned in a manner appropriate to
their merits and befitting the dignity and history of
the state. But in these days of the renaissance of
popular interest in the heroes of our earlier times,
especially those of the Revolutionary period, you
are certain to have widely extended and grateful
appreciation of the excellent judgment and patriotic
purpose evidenced by the notable and singularly
timely addition to our art treasures which you now
As the years go on there is to be, I am sure, a
rapidly increasing interest in our early history and
in the men and women whose words and deeds have
covered its pages with glory.
We do well, then, to place in conspicuous position
upon these grounds this statue of the brave and
patriotic Knowlton, and I accept it with great pleas-
ure in behalf of the people of the state.
By P. Henry Woodward.
BETWEEN the lives of Col. Thomas Knowlton
and of his grand-nephew Gen'l Nathaniel Lyon
may be traced a close parallel. Born of a common
stock and reared in the same neighborhood, both
entered the military service in boyhood, one as a
volunteer in the Old French and Indian war, and the
other as a cadet at West Point ; both were brave and
skillful soldiers; both fell in battle early in the
struggles undertaken respectively to establish and
to preserve the republic ; and both were borne onward
to heroic deeds by an ardent belief in the ideas for
which they died.
A deep interest in Col. Knowlton, joined to a
tender regard for his memory, falls as an inheritance
to the speaker. Among the papers of my father*
* Dr. Ashbel Woodward, late of Franklin, Conn., from boyhood took
great delight in genealogical and antiquarian research. Among his
early comrades were Capt. Miner Knowlton, a graduate of and professor
at West Point, Danford Knowlton, brother of Miner, both grand-nephews
of Col. Thomas Knowlton, and William W. Marcy, who married the only
daughter of Thomas Knowlton, Jr. They were untiring in efforts to
collect facts in regard to Col. Knowlton and his associates. Nearly forty
years ago the papers were all turned over to Doctor Woodward. He
published a memoir of Col. Knowlton in the New England Historical and
Genealogical Register for January 1861, and a genealogy of the family
in the number for the following October.
This coterie of inquirers felt that scant justice had been done to one
of the bravest and ablest soldiers of the Revolution, and impressed their
convictions upon the youth who listened to their talk. In 1893 the
j j , j j j j ;
were statements, taken from the lips of soldiers who
shared in the fight, of the part performed by Col.
Knowlton and his command at the battle of Bunker
Hill. Though too young to grasp the drift of the
talk I was present at various interviews with survi-
vors of the Revolution, and listened as if to echoes
from a remote or unreal world. In these papers, too,
are outlined marches through frontier solitudes
where, as hostile forces collide, the stillness of the
forest is cruelly broken by the shrieks of savages
and the crash of musketry.
John Knowlton, the ancestor of Col. Thomas of
the sixth generation, is found in Ipswich, Mass., as
early as 1639. About the middle of the century
a branch of the family moved to Ashford, Conn.,
from West Boxford, Mass., where Thomas was born
in November, 1740. William, the emigrant, brought
with him a large family. He bought a farm not
far from the village church, the first recorded deed
bearing date 1748.
time to ask for recognition seemed to have come. At the January
session of the Connecticut legislature Hon. Edward S. Cleveland, Senator
from Hartford, a native of Windham County, was chairman of the joint
select committee on Capitol Furniture and Grounds. His uncle, ex-
Governor Chauncey F. Cleveland, and others had often expressed in his
presence an ardent admiration for Col. Knowlton. Hence when the
matter was brought to his attention the senator, already convinced of
the justice of the proposal, earnestly approved and advocated the
resolution providing for a statue. A number of veterans from the
Connecticut Historical Society appeared before the committee to urge
the passage of the measure.
• ; • •
ADVENTURES IN FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS.
In the last French and Indian war, at the age
of sixteen, Thomas enlisted as a private under
Captain Durkee, serving till the conquest of Canada
brought peace. In August, 1758, he took part in
the battle of Wood Creek. Here this lad, not yet
eighteen, met with a succession of bloody encounters
and hair-breadth escapes, which, as told around the
winter firesides of Windham County, often formed
part of the evening entertainment for children who
long since grew old and passed away.
A detachment of five or six hundred men under
Majors Putnam and Rogers were scouring the
country east of Lake George. Coming upon a camp
which bore marks of recent occupancy, and finding
sundry utensils secreted near by, they held the
ground to await the expected return of the enemy.
Some of our people fishing in a canoe met two French
boats, when both parties hurried in opposite directions
to sound the alarm. Breaking camp the English
started again through the forest. The position of
the next encampment was disclosed by the incautious
conduct of two officers who engaged in target practice.
Near by was hovering the French partisan Molang
with a force of equal strength and with superior
knowledge of the ground. The following day, as
the provincials in single file were picking their way
through the thick growth of underwood, the whiz
of bullets and the warwhoop suddenly betrayed the
nearness of the enemy. Ever on the alert for such
emergencies, from the shelter of trees and brush they
opened fire in return. Soon the lines became en-
tangled with each other and the fight drifted into a
succession of duels between persons and squads.
Early in the contest Knowlton espied an Indian
creeping stealthily through the brakes. He shot
the savage, reloaded and started to secure his scalp
for a trophy. All at once he found himself surround-
ed. Armed men seemed to spring up out of the
earth. Perhaps from fear of hitting friends the
warriors did not fire, but beckoned to him to surren-
der. Casting a swift glance along the circle, he shot
one of the group, and plunging into the thicket,
Later Knowlton met in a small opening a stalwart
Frenchman. The muskets of both missed. They
grappled in a trial of personal strength. The youth
was overpowered and thrown. At this juncture a
comrade rushed to his supp6rt when the Frenchman
begged for quarter. The old and not always trusty
flint lock was reprimed, and as they were moving
away the prisoner made a sudden break for liberty,
when a shot from Knowlton ended his flight and life
AT THE SIEGE OF HAVANA.
In July, 1759, Knowlton shared in the capture
of Ticonderoga. In 1762 under Gen'l Lyman he
joined the expedition for the reduction of Havana.
August 1 3th the city surrendered, but tropical diseases
had so wasted the ranks of the provincials that but
a sorry fragment of the contingent from Connecti-
cut was spared to return to their native hills. On
the homeward voyage an English officer whose
insolence while in liquor* Knowlton had resented,
invited him to settle the difficulty by duel, but, either
from consciousness of wrong or from prudence,
withdrew the challenge with an apology before
coming to land. Greatly to the disgust of the
colonies, the next year the crown restored to Spain
its costly conquests in Cuba.
In March, 1760, Knowlton was appointed ensign
of the 3d company, 1st regiment, Connecticut forces ;
in March, '61, ensign of the 10th company, Robert
Durkee, Captain ; and in March, '62, second lieutenant
of the 10th company, Hugh Ledlie, Captain.
Returning home at the close of summer campaigns,
the youthful soldiers of the period did not permit
the alarms of war to exclude love-making and matri-
mony. April 5, 1759, Knowlton married Anna,
daughter of Sampson Keyes of Ashford, but did
not settle into domestic repose till after the siege of
Havana. He then returned to the plow and the
spade, drifting tranquilly with the tide till the blood
of Lexington opened a new era in the progress of
CHANGE OF FEELING TOWARD ENGLAND.
During the dozen years of peaceful sowing and
reaping a great change had been wrought in the
temper of the colonies toward Great Britain, due, from
the colonial point of view, in part to odious fiscal
regulations and in part to the arrogance of English
officers on duty in America.
The preliminary duel was fought with Massachu-
setts. In that colony the tyranny of the Stuarts had
evoked a chronic habit of non-compliance with the
wishes of the crown. Her people, called as the elect
from the morning of time to bear the ark which none
but Israel might touch, and ever waspish toward
aggression, presented a sharp, active, and acrid sting
to the measures proposed for their amendment by
a succession of royal rulers. The retaliatory acts of
the ministry led up to the Boston Tea Party and the
night march to Concord.
In the light of her history it is hard to see why
Connecticut adopted so ardently the contention of
her neighbor. From the outset she had studiously
avoided controversy with the crown. Valuing things
above words, she never dropped the substance to
clutch at the shadow. Eluding observation while
pursuing with resolute purpose a well-defined policy,
she pushed ahead vigorously in periods of calm, and
when kings grew meddlesome waited silently in
serene patience for a change in the royal temper. By
the prudence of her leaders she became from the start
a self-governing republic, as free almost under the
Georges as she is to-day. Her internal condition was,
perhaps, more changed by the constitution of 1818
than by the revolution of 1 776.
After 1760 a gradual change took place in the
subjects which engrossed popular attention. Deduc-
tions respecting the moral government of the uni-
verse, drawn with merciless logic from premises ac-
cepted with no apparent hesitation — subtleties on
which in the absence of science and a varied literature
the intellect of New England had long been sharp-
ened, gave way to the study of the British constitu-
tion and of natural rights. Arguments winged with
the eloquence of an Otis and a Henry both convinced
and inflamed a willing people, preparing the way
for the entry of a new nation so soon as the conflict
should move onward from the platform to the bat-
On leaving the army in 1762, Colonel Knowlton
lived in Ashford on his farm of four hundred acres,
where eight children were born to him. At the age
of thirty-three he was elected selectman, and it was
deemed a notable occurrence that one so young
should be honored by his fellow citizens with this
distinguished mark of confidence. "Old men for
council/ ' was the maxim of our prudent fathers. He
is described at this time as about six feet tall, slender
but sinewy, of dark hair, blue eyes and fair complex-
ion, erect and handsome, affable and courteous, with a
winsomeness that drew friends and a constancy that
Scrupulous in conduct, he had little sympathy with
the prevalent intolerance. It is related that, attracted
on one occasion by the crowd around the village
whipping post — then an instrument of grace — he
noticed the omission from the sentence of the usual
clause requiring the lash to be applied to the bare
back, and threw his own overcoat over the shoulders
of the delinquent to lighten the pain.
September i, 1774, General Gage seized and re-
moved a quantity of powder stored by the provincials
at Cambridge. Amid the excitement and wrath pro-
voked by the act, a report was started that the British
had fired upon our people. Flying by word of mouth,
as rumors do, the story reached General Putnam at
Pomfret the morning of the 3d. This he first re-
duced to writing and sent on with his initials
attached. Through Norwich, New London, New
Haven, New York, Philadelphia, and the regions be-
yond, the story sped onward. Within a few hours
thousands of men in Connecticut alone were ready to
march under arms to avenge the supposed wrong.
Everywhere the news called forth similar proofs of
patriotism. Putnam with four comrades hurried on
horseback toward Boston and reached Douglass before
learning that the alarm was false. Galloping home-
ward and sending out couriers to convey counter
tidings he thus stopped several detachments already
well advanced on the road. Whether the story was
started through mistake, or intentionally to test the
public temper, the response afforded convincing proof
that the masses were ready for armed resistance.
Shortly after on the 9th of September a conven-
tion of delegates from New London and Windham
counties met at Norwich. It voted a number of rec-
ommendations with the view of putting the militia of
Eastern Connecticut on an effective war footing. At
the October session the General Assembly enacted
that prior to the ensuing May each military company
in the colony shall be exercised twelve half days in
the use of arms. The several towns were ordered to
provide double the quantities of powder, balls, and
flints before required by law. In the swelling flood
of enthusiasm resolves of conventions and acts of leg-
islatures served but to give a more solemn sanction to
the spontaneous movements of the hour.
WINDHAM COUNTY IN ARMS.
On Wednesday, April 19, 1775, occurred the fight
at Lexington. At ten o'clock a.m. a post was dis-
patched from Watertown, Mass., to Worcester, to con-
vey tidings of the expedition and to alarm the people.
Early the next morning the news crossed the Connec-
ticut line and before night had spread over Windham
county. Work was dropped. Friday was given up to
new but intense activities. Officers rode hither and
thither to call out their men and make ready for the
coming march. Wives and daughters ran bullets and
Knowlton hastened to the rendezvous of the Ash-
ford Company on the eastern border of the town and,
though long out of service, was chosen by acclamation
to the vacant* office of captain. The place sought the
* Lieut. Reuben Marcy, a man of high character and held in high
esteem for personal virtues, was acting commander before the election of
Knowlton. His father, Edward Marcy, had been a lieutenant and later a
captain in the French and Indian wars, but.the son had seen no service.
After the return from Cambridge he resigned. The next year he raised
and commanded the Fourth company of Colonel Chester's regiment, tak-
man because in soldierly qualities and gifts of leader-
ship he stood pre-eminent. His wife, who preferred
peace with her husband to aught that war could win
without him, for once found his heart hardened
against entreaties and tears.
Without delay the command hurried over the hills
to Pomfret, where the Fifth Regiment, Jedediah
Elderkin, Colonel, had been ordered to rendezvous.
Sunday morning other companies arrived from Mans-
field, Coventry, and Windham. Early in the after-
noon the officers held a council. Embarrassed most
by the size of the sudden outpour, they voted to take
one-fifth from the ten companies present and to send
the other four-fifths home to await future orders. For
special fitness the Ashford Company was selected
entire and to that extent the draft upon the others
was reduced. So quickly were arrangements pushed
that by five o'clock the same afternoon the detach-
ment under Major Thomas Brown and Captain
Knowlton set out for Cambridge, Lieutenant-Colonel
Experience Storrs accompanying them as far as Dud-
ley. This was the first organized body of troops from
beyond her borders to join the Massachusetts forces
Levies collected at an hour s notice were not pre-
pared to enter upon a long campaign. Accordingly,
after a few days the Connecticut troops returned
ing part in the campaign of 1776 around New York city. It is a curious
fact that Daniel Knowlton, a brother of Colonel Thomas, and a fearless
and famous scout, joined the company of Captain Marcy, of which he was
ensign. In August Daniel was detached with others to make up Knowl-
ton's Rangers. Captain Marcy died January 14, 1806.
home to arrange their affairs for the serious business
BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL.
By special order of the Governor the General As-
sembly of Connecticut met April 26th. That body
voted to organize one-fourth part of the militia of the
colony into six regiments for its special defense and
As reconstructed the Ashford company, consisting
of 100* men, recruited in a town of 2,228 white
inhabitants, formed a part of regiment No. 3, Israel
Putnam, Colonel. On reaching the field it was sta-
tioned at Cambridge, near the headquarters of Gen'l
♦Captain, Thomas Knowlton; Lieutenants, John Keyes, Daniel
Allen ; Ensign, Squire Hill ; Sergeants, Daniel Eldridge, Obadiah Parry ;
Timothy Dimmick, Amos Woodward, and Joseph Snow ; Corporals,
David Allen, Daniel Squire, Christopher Bowen, Jedediah Ammidown ;
Clerk, Samuel Moseley ; Drummer, Nathaniel Hayward ; Fifer, Ben-
jamin Russell ; Privates, Philip Abbot, Jonathan Avery, William Allen,
George Anderson, Stephen Anderson, Thomas Anderson, Isaac Abbe,
Amos Bugbee, Joseph Barney, Thomas Bragg (Thomas Bragg taken from
a separate roll), Abiel Bugbee, John Broughton, Asaph Burley, Jacob
Burley, Thaddeus Brown, Jonathan Badger, Daniel Bosworth, Jonathan
Bowen, Joseph Bowen, Lemuel Bowles, Jonathan Chaffee, Jeremiah
Connel, Jonathan Crane, Christopher Chapman, Thomas Chapman,
William Curtis, William Cheney, Benjamin Dimmick, Thomas Davidson,
Asa Davidson, Isaac Dimmick, Amos Dowset, Jonathan Dowset, Timothy
Eastman, Josiah Eaton, Daniel Fitts, Stephen Foster, James Grant,
Hamilton Grant, Samuel Hale, Caleb Hendee, Benjamin Henfield,
Jonathan Holmes, Silas Holt, Josiah Holt, Robert Hale, Charles Kimball,
Stephen Knowlton, Zachariah Keyes, Edward Keyes, Fred Knowlton,
Asahel Lyon, Amariah Lyon, Jonathan Laflin, Abraham Laflin, Alexander
McNall, William Moore, Adin Marcy, Daniel Owen, Jonathan Potter,
Robert Patterson, Benjamin Pitts, Zera Preston, Benjamin Russ, Reuben
Simmons; James Shepherd, Daniel Smith, Richard Smith, Stephen
Scarbrough, Thomas Southworth, Salvanus Snow, Abijah Smith, Josiah
Smith, Ebenezer Wales, William Waters, William Watkins, Aaron
Wales, Nathaniel Ward, Nathaniel Watkins, Samuel Walker, Eleazer
Wales, James Walker, Daniel Ward, Jonathan Woodward, William
The troops soon wearied of inaction. As weeks
wore away with no battle, or skirmish, or achieve-
ment of any kind to break the monotony, our people
wondered why the gallant generals and colonels,
whom they had sent to war amid flaming enthusiasm,
should so delay about driving the redcoats into the
sea. Though the army was still undisciplined and
scantily supplied with munitions, something must be
done to quiet the restlessness in camp and at home.
Eighty-six years later similar impatience voiced in
the cry, "On to Richmond," forced Gen'l Scott to
throw his raw levies against the batteries at Bull
If not the originator, Putnam was a strenuous
advocate, of the plan of fortifying a position on the
peninsula of Charlestown. At the private quarters
of Knowlton he unfolded in detail his reasons for
the step. But his trusted captain took a different
view, arguing that under cover of floating batteries
the enemy could land troops at the neck, thus cutting
off the garrison from reinforcements and supplies,
that the approaches and flanks could be enfiladed
from the shipping, and that if successful in throwing
up intrenchments the Americans had neither cannon
nor ammunition for inflicting any serious injury upon
the British. He further contended that by judicious
disposal of the land and naval forces at his com-
mand GenT Gage without bloodshed could speedily
starve the expedition into surrender. The sentinel
at the door, Edward Keyes, a lad of seventeen, over-
heard and in after years often repeated the con-
A conviction that active measures alone could
hush the popular clamor led the Committee of Safety
to approve the scheme. If the counselors of boldness
counted upon the rashness of the enemy as a factor
in the problem, their prescience was justified by
PART TAKEN BY THE CONNECTICUT TROOPS.
Two hundred* Connecticut troops selected from
six companies and commanded by Knowlton marched
with Col. Prescott on the night of June 16th over
Bunker's Hill to Breed's Hill, an elevation nearer to
the city but not so high. Almost directly east was
Moulton's Point, the end of the peninsula. On the
south lay the village of Charlestown, resting on the
river Charles. On the north at the distance of four
hundred yards flowed the Mystic. By daybreak a
redoubt about eight rods square had been partially
* The detachment was composed of one hundred and twenty men,
drafted from the first, second, fourth, and fifth companies of Putnam's
regiment; two officers and thirty privates from the company of Capt.
Chester ; and sixteen men from that of Solomon Willes, both of the
Second or Spencer's regiment. Others went with them as volunteers.
The number "200" must be treated merely as an estimate.
The orderly book of Capt. Willes, now in possession of Mr. Charles
J. Hoadly, under date of June 16th, says :
•Ordered .... "that 16 men parade at 6 o'clock P. M., so as to
be ready to march from the parade at half past six where they shall be
ordered, the men for fatigue to dress as suits their convenience, all others
for guard to dress clean and neat with breeches, stockings and shoes,
the men to be very punctual at the time for parading." '
The orderly book of Capt. William Coit, published by the Connecti-
cut Historical Society in 1894 makes it clear that his company did not
furnish a detail for the night march, as has often been erronepusly
constructed. Then the men-of-war in the harbor
and the battery on Copp's Hill opened upon it. Still
with pick and spade the men toiled on. North of the
redoubt in face of a heavy fire the line was extended
about twenty rods toward a slough at the foot of
In the gray of dawn Putnam galloped into
Cambridge to urge upon Genl Ward the necessity
of hurrying forward supplies and reinforcements.
Fearing, however, that his own position was to be
attacked, the commander-in-chief was too dazed for
prompt and effective action.
When in the early afternoon the British began to
disembark on the southeastern shore of the peninsula,
Col. Prescott ordered the Connecticut troops in the
redoubt under Knowlton, supported by two field-
pieces, to oppose the landing. The cannon were
nearly useless, as through some blunder the balls
brought to the field did not fit. Had he obeyed the
order a handful of infantry would have marched forth
to sure destruction. At this juncture Knowlton in-
ferred from the movements of Genl Howe that it
was his purpose, by advancing along the borders of
the Mystic, to gain the rear of the redoubt and cut
off the retreat of the garrison. Seeing intuitively
the danger and the remedy, he hurried to the critical
point and brought cpnfusion to the plan. Dropping
back about 190 yards to the low ground on the left,
he found a stone fence, surmounted by two rails,
stretching across the fields toward the river. Paral-
lel with this a second rail fence was hastily thrown
up and the interval packed with freshly mown hay.
Here the detachment was soon joined by a body of
two hundred fresh troops from New Hampshire.
About one o'clock two thousand regulars under
Gen'l Howe landed near Moulton's Point, the eastern
extremity of the peninsula, where he lost two hours
of precious time in waiting for reinforcements. At
this juncture the force in the redoubt by details and
desertions had been reduced below three hundred.
On the plain behind the fence were four hundred more.
It looked as if they had been deliberately abandoned.
Messenger after messenger sent for food and succor
had failed to bring relief. Hungry, thirsty, thirty
hours without sleep, worn by severe toil under a hot
sun and a still hotter fire of shot and shell, the little
band saw the preparations of an army outnumbering
them three to one, splendidly equipped, admirably
disciplined, hardened by long service and accustomed
to victory even when matched against veterans.
During the interval of suspense which followed
the landing of the British, a part of Col. Reed's
regiment from New Hampshire marched across the
negk and took position on the left of Knowlton.
Shortly before three o'clock Col. Stark reached the
field, when his command filled the gap on the extreme
left between Reed and the Mystic. They hastily
extended and strengthened the breastwork begun by
Knowlton, and threw up a stone wall across the
sandy beach from the river bank to the water. Except
a few unorganized volunteers who had come to the
front from an impulse of personal enthusiasm,
these New Hampshire regiments, composed of the
best raw material but undisciplined and wretchedly
equipped, were the only fresh troops on the field when
the action began. The fence line extended about
nine hundred feet from the northern slope of Breed's
Hill to the Mystic and was defended by about one
thousand men. Opposite the north face of the
redoubt the hill was skirted by a slough which termin-
ated seventy yards in front of the position held by
While General Pigot with a single column made a
demonstration against the redoubt General Howe led
twp columns along the beach and across the fields that
skirted the Mystic with the view of flanking the gar-
rison and cutting off its retreat. He anticipated little
resistance from the rustics behind the fence.
Our troops had no powder to spare. Waiting for
the approach of the enemy within easy range, and
taking deliberate aim, they poured a broad stream of
lead into the advancing column. In a few minutes
the ground was strewn with the slain, and the broken
ranks fell back beyond reach of our guns. A second
time they were brought to the charge and a second
time were driven back along the whole line from the
redoubt to the Mystic. Knowlton, while cheering
his men, repeatedly fired his musket till it was
knocked into a semicircle by a cannon-ball. He was
stunned by the blow and reported killed, but quickly
recovered. For a long time the relic was preserved in
the family, but like countless other such treasures
finally disappeared .
General Clinton, who had thus far watched the en-
gagement from Copp's Hill, saw that from the few
ness of its defenders the redoubt, though seemingly
the strongest, was in reality the most vulnerable part
of the American lines. Crossing the river he held a
hurried consultation with General Howe. No record
has been preserved of what passed between the two
men at that eventful moment. Yet it needs no super-
natural gift to divine the essential facts. Around
them lay the fragments of a shattered and disheart-
ened army. The day was lost. It might yet be won.
Clinton pointed out the way. Hope revived, for does
not the courage of the race, on both sides of the At-
lantic, rise from direst perils to supremest efforts?
General Howe now reversed his plan of battle, mak-
ing a feint toward the fence to detain its defenders,
while an attack from the remnants of his army was
concentrated from three sides on the redoubt. One
hundred and fifty men, according to the estimate of
Colonel Prescott, with little ammunition and fifty bay-
onets met the onset with unavailing heroism. For a
moment before the deadly aim of our marksmen the
regulars wavered, and then, as the firing died away
from lack of powder, rushed forward with fixed bayo-
nets. Prescott ordered a retreat, his men defending
themselves with stones and clubbed muskets as they
The abandonment of the fort at once rendered un-
tenable the position behind the fence. The gill of
powder and fifteen bullets doled out to each member
of Stark's regiment that morning at Medford, were
expended. Few had a single charge left. Knowlton's
command tool^ to the field forty-eight rounds of am-
munition, a part of the home outfit, and were still well
supplied. The Connecticut companies of Captains
Chester, Coit, and Clark, passing several regiments on
the road, came upon the field a few minutes before
the break, and took position behind the fence.
The retreat was not a rout. The Connecticut
troops, now increased to four hundred, were well dis-
ciplined, well drilled, and relatively well equipped.
As a consequence they could be held in order in the
presence of disaster. They now formed the rear
guard of the Americans, and by a renewal of mus-
ketry firing checked the advance of the enemy. To
this fact at least a dozen members of the Ashford
company who were living as late as 1830, uniformly
bore witness. From its detail of thirty, William
Cheney, Asahel Lyon, and Benjamin Russ were
killed. Another member, Robert Hale, slipping from
the ranks in the final whirl, discharged with 'terrible
effect into the crowd of pursuers a cannon loaded
with all sorts of missiles, and escaped unharmed.
The British lost in killed and wounded 1 ,054 ; the
Americans 449. With timely reinforcements a rash
venture might have ended in a signal victory.
In this incomplete account of the battle we have
aimed simply to record the deeds of Knowlton and his
command. They labored on the redoubt till the walls
were finished. After midday they extemporized the
breastwork of rails and hay which was extended later
to the Mystic by the troops from New Hampshire.
In the plan of General Howe this was the main point
of attack, and against repeated assaults by the flower
of the English army, the position was held immov-
ably till made untenable by the withdrawal of Pres-
cott. With ammunition still unexpended they cov-
ered the retreat, suffering at this time the chief cas-
ualties of the day.
The battle was remarkable for the utter disregard
by both sides of plain dictates of prudence, for the
obstinate valor of the combatants, and for its moral
effect at home and abroad. Till then, with here and
there an exception, aggrieved Americans hoped that
in some way the colonies would so adjust their differ-
ences with the crown as to remain integral parts of
the British empire. Independence, before the dream
of a few, now became the resolve of ever growing
numbers till proclaimed with practical unanimity in
the immortal declaration of July 4th, 1776.
In recognition of his services, an admirer in Bos-
ton gave Captain Knowlton a gold-laced hat, a gorget,*
and a sash.
As the season advanced, Knowlton's company, now
brought to a high standard of military discipline,
served by common consent as a sort of body guard to
Washington, "with whom he was an especial
* The gorget, handsomely engraved, now belongs to a descendant,
George T. Chaffee of Rutland, Vt. The sash is still in existence, but has
passed out of the family.
NIGHT MARCH TO CHARLESTOWN.
Early in January a deserter reported that several
English officers were quartered in Charlestown, in
houses that had escapee} the fire of June 17th.
Knowlton was ordered to capture them and destroy
the buildings. Having previously reconnoitered the
ground, on the evening of January 8th he led two
hundred men across the old mill dam from the penin-
sula to the main — the only way of ingress or egress,
as the neck was strongly garrisoned. Arriving at the
guardhouse, he struck down the sentinel before he
could sound an alarm. Its occupants were captured.
A plan had been arranged to fire the most distant
buildings first — a plan reversed in execution through
the excitement of some of the party. As the flames
shot upward, cannon began to blaze from the British
fort on Bunker Hill. With five prisoners our column
retraced its steps across the dam, without injury to a
man, and without discharging a gun.
The adventure had a comic side. At the theatre
in the city a play called the " Blockade of Boston "
was entertaining a crowded audience. As the charac-
ter burlesquing Washington strutted across the stage,
attended by a ragged orderly, a real sergeant inter-
rupted the fun with the shout, " The Yankees are at-
tacking Bunker Hill ! " This was thought to be a part
of the play till General Howe gave the order, " Offi-
cers, to your alarm posts ! " The show closed abruptly
in wild confusion.
Early in 1776 the 20th regiment of the line was
organized and recruited largely from the old Connecti-
cut 3d. Benedict Arnold, then absent on the expedi-
tion against Quebec, was appointed colonel, but never
served. January 1 , 1 776, John Durkee was appointed
lieutenant-colonel, and Thomas Knowlton major. An
order from the commander-in-chief, dated Cambridge,
February 28, 1776, and directed to James Warren,
Esq., Paymaster-General of the Army of the United
Colonies, runs thus : .... " pay Major Thomas
Knowlton Five Hundred dollars equal to one hundred
and fifty pounds lawful money, for the purpose of pur-
chasing arms for the use of the 20th regiment of foot
under his command in the service of the United Colo-
nies and this shall be your sufficient warrant. M
Knowlton was then in actual command of the regi-
ment. His book of accounts shows that he also acted
CAMPAIGN AROUND NEW YORK.
Howe evacuated Boston March 17, 1776. Soon
after the Connecticut troops started for New York.
On the way Knowlton saw his home, his wife, and
young children for the last time.
Washington directed the continental forces to ren-
dezvous around New York city, rightly surmising that
this would be the next point of attack. June 25th
Howe arrived off Sandy Hook. His effective force
was soon swollen by reinforcements to 24,000 men,
supported by a powerful fleet.
In July one Ephraim Anderson obtained the sanc-
tion of Congress to a scheme of his contrivance for
the destruction by fire ships of the British fleet
moored tinder Staten Island. Simultaneously the
camp on the island was to be attacked by detachments
under Mercer and Knowlton. The ideas of Anderson
did not materialize in season to be tested. However,
Knowlton, then stationed at Bergen, and Mercer twice
attempted to surprise the enemy at night. Once they
were prevented by a storm, and once by lack of boats.
August 12, 1776, Knowlton was appointed lieuten-
ant-colonel of the 20th regiment. Just ten days later
the British landed on Long Island. On the 26th, with
one hundred picked men from his own regiment, he
crossed over from Bergen, and was sent forward the
same night to the outposts at Flatbush. General
Washington's force in and around the defenses of
Brooklyn numbered about seven thousand, and General
Howe's twenty-one thousand. By a circuitous night
march, strong flanking columns of the enemy, passing
through the remote and unguarded pass at Jamaica,
gained on the morning of the 27th the flank and rear
of our forces stationed at the lower passes. While the
move was nearing completion our lines were occupied
by an attack in front, designed to be sufficiently seri-
ous to prevent retreat. Knowlton was sent to rein-
force Lord Sterling on the extreme right. • Suddenly
the firing in that direction ceased. Rightly inferring
that Sterling had surrendered, he at once ordered a
retreat, and thus saved his command. Our army was
surprised, beaten, and driven behind the defenses of
Brooklyn. In killed and wounded the opposing forces
suffered about equally, but the Americans lost heavily
On the night of the 29th, with masterly prevision
and skill, Washington withdrew his entire army from
A few days later was completed the organization
of a corps known as the Connecticut, or " Knowlton's
Rangers." It was made tip of volunteers from five
Connecticut, one Rhode Island, and two Massachusetts
regiments. The scheme probably originated with
General Washington, as the command took orders
directly from him, and was closely attached to his per-
son. It was known in advance that the corps was in-
tended for both dangerous and delicate work, and
Hence it attracted only resolute and adventurous spir-
its. Among the captains were Stephen Brown * of
Woodstock, brave, generous, and loving; Thomas
Grosvenor of Pomfret, who fought with Knowlton be-
hind the rail fence at Bunker Hill ; and Nathan Hale
of Coventry, whose name, for Americans at least, will
shine high up and forever on the roll of martyrs.
After the withdrawal from Brooklyn the com-
mander-in-chief desired information that could be
gained only within the lines of the enemy. The
selection of a suitable agent was entrusted to Colonel
Knowlton. No ordinary soldier would answer. Men of
culture, on the other hand, recoil from the work of a
spy. Hence, when Knowlton presented the case to
* Stephen Brown, born May 10, 1749, son of Stephen Brown, Senior, and
of Mary (Lyon) Brown of Ashford, was probably the Captain Brown of
the chiefs of his more than Spartan band, it is not
strange that silence was at first broken only by fresh
entreaties from his own lips. At length Hale volun-
teered, reluctantly, sadly, in the spirit of self-abnega-
tion that now and then through the crust of hard en-
vironment reveals the divinity in man and exalts him
to the skies. Through all time our youth will be lifted
to higher aims by the story of the martyr who, amid
frowns and jeers, with a rope around his neck, met
death regretting that he had but one life to give for
BRITISH OCCUPY NEW YORK CITY.
With overwhelming resources Sir William Howe
now laid plans with impressive deliberations to throt-
tle the nascent republic.
Sunday, September 1 5th, under a heavy cannonade
from five men-of-war, the enemy landed above New
York city on East River, near Kip's Bay, our militia
abandoning their works in a panic. After the ter-
rible punishment inflicted upon him by our left at
Bunker Hill, Howe became notably dilatory in follow-
ing up success. On more than one occasion the habit
saved the American cause from disasters which seemed
inevitable. When he and his officers reached the
mansion of Robert Murray on the hill which bears the
family name, Mrs. Murray invited the party to lunch,
and, while they were merrily feasting, General Putnam,
with 3,500 men, escaped from the net about to close
around them, and, hurrying northward along the
Bloomingdale road, within a mile of the gay company,
effected a junction with the main body at Harlem
As darkness closed the operations of the day the
British lines extended from Horen's Hook, opposite
Hell Gate, across the peninsula two miles to the North
River, with both flanks protected by men-of-war.
Troops had moved over from Long Island in such
numbers that the encampment covered the space be-
tween the fourth and eighth mile stones, with the ad-
vance near McGowan's Pass on the line of 109th
street. A mile and a half northward, around the
Point of Rocks at 127th Street, was the advance post
of the Americans. Between lay Harlem Plains,
skirted by wooded hills. A cold pelting rain beat
upon our unsheltered men, and added physical
discomfort to mental gloom.
BATTLE OF HARLEM HEIGHTS — DEATH OF KNOWLTON.
Before daybreak the next morning, under orders
from Washington, Knowlton with the Rangers set
out to learn the position of the British advance. Pro-
ceeding cautiously through the woods on Blooming-
dale Heights, he halted near the southern end of the
ridge and sent forward two men to reconnoiter, with
explicit instructions to avoid attracting attention.
The scouts discovered a body of the enemy, also early
in motion, and, yielding to a mad impulse, discharged
their muskets and ran back, chased by a large force.
A hot fight followed, the Rangers retreating in an or-
derly manner to the protection of our advance posts,
where a stand was made. While the movement was
in progress, Adjutant-General Joseph Reed, who had
been sent by Washington to obtain information,
joined a party of the Rangers, and, encouraged by
their gallant behavior under the fire of an enemy out-
numbering them three to one, started for headquarters
to ask for reinforcements. On the way he met Wash-
ington riding to the front. Almost at the same mo-
ment the British light infantry came in sight, and
sounded their bugles as if to celebrate the close of a
fox chase. Our officers felt that the insult was too
deadly to be borne.
With the view of cutting off the pursuing party
estimated at three hundred, Washington ordered
Knowlton and his Rangers, supported by three com-
panies from Virginia under Major Leitch, to gain their
rear, while, to hold their attention, a feigned attack
was made in front. Familiar with the ground, Knowl-
ton led his force through the woods on the western
slope of the Bloomingdale Ridge. The Virginians
took another route under the guidance of General
At ten o'clock the demonstration in front was made
with more than the intended vigor. The enemy fell
back 800 feet, and rallied behind a fence, whence they
were speedily driven out of the plain up the hillside.
By the rapidity of the pursuit the plans of the com-
mander-in-chief were deranged, for the force under
Knowlton debouched on the flank instead of the rear
of the British. Our column began the attack with the
utmost intrepidity. Both sides were reinforced and
both fought obstinately till the enemy were driven
back to the vicinity of their own lines. Deeming it
imprudent to venture further, Washington ordered
the recall to be sounded, and the men obeyed, though
reluctantly, for the delight of chasing the redcoats be-
wildered them by its novelty.
The American loss was 17 killed and 53 wounded;
the British 70 killed and 210 wounded. The victory,
the first to break a series of continuous disasters, and
the first of the war won in the open field, largely re-
stored the waning confidence of our troops, but by
the death of Knowlton robbed the country of one of
her most promising soldiers. About noon, while lead-
ing a charge, he was shot through the body. He was
placed tenderly on the horse of General Reed, and
borne from the field, but expired in an hour. His son
Frederick was fighting in the ranks, but reached the
side of his father in time to receive his parting words.
In the general orders of September 1 7th Washing-
ton says : " The gallant and brave Colonel Knowlton,
who was an honor to any country, having fallen yes-
terday, while gallantly fighting," etc. In a letter to
General Schuyler, dated September 20th, he says of •
the action: "Our loss, except in that of Colonel
Knowlton, a most valuable . and gallant officer, is in-
considerable." In similar strain he speaks of him in
his report to the president of Congress.
Writing to his wife September 17th, General Reed,
after describing the heroic conduct of the troops and
the effect of the action in restoring their spirits and
confidence, adds, but " our greatest loss was a brave
officer from Connecticut, whose name and spirit ought
to be immortalized, one Colonel Knowlton. I assisted
him off, and when gasping in the agonies of death all
his inquiry was if we had drove the enemy/'
Captain Stephen Brown of the Rangers, next in
rank to Knowlton, and his immediate successor in
command, wrote : " My poor colonel, in the second
attack, was shot just by my side. The ball entered
the small of his back. I took hold of him, asked him
if he was badly wounded. He told me he was, but,
says he, ' I do not value my life if we do but get the
day/ I then ordered two men to 'carry him off. He
desired me by all means to keep up this flank. He
seemed as unconcerned and calm as though nothing
had happened to him." *
ESTIMATE OF ASSOCIATES.
John Trumbull, the historical painter, served as
aid-de-camp to Washington during the early part of
the siege of Boston, and later as brigade major at
Roxbury. After the evacuation he went with the
army to New York. He showed his estimate of
* After the death of Knowlton the question of continuing the sepa-
rate organization of the Rangers was seriously discussed. Colonel Robert
Magaw of Pennsylvania, then in command at Fort Washington, upon the
withdrawal of the main army, urged that they be assigned to him, as
they were his chief dependence for the security of his outposts. At the
surrender of the fort, November 16, 1776, they were captured with the
rest of the garrison. Many of these brave men underwent dreadful suf-
ferings, and several perished in British prison ships.
Captain Stephen Brown escaped by rejoining his regiment (the 20th
Continental) a few days after the death of his beloved commander. He
was killed by a cannon ball in the defense of Fort Mifflin in 1777. Thomas
Grosvenor served during most of the war, and retired with the rank of
colonel. He graduated at Yale College in 1765, and studied law. He was
elected seven times to the lower and nine times to the upper house of the
General Assembly of Connecticut. He was made chief judge of the
Windham County Court in 1806. He died in 1825.
Knowlton by giving him a central place in his famous
painting, " The Battle of Bunker Hill," * where the
figures are so grouped as to present portraits of most
of the prominent actors.
When the news reached Ashford, the whole town,
it is said, was in tears, so beloved was this generous
man, and such lofty hopes had been reared upon his
genius for arms.
I have a number of manuscript letters written in
1 841-2 by Charles Coffin, who, in 1835, issued a
pamphlet of thirty-six pages on the battle of Breed's
Hill, and who had diligently sought from survivors
information regarding its incidents and actors.
Among the officers quoted respecting the character
and abilities of Colonel Knowlton are General Henry
Dearborn, afterwards Secretary of War, Aaron Burr,
and Captain Trafton, a companion on the night march
across the dam to Charlestown. These and others
speak of Knowlton in the highest terms, both as a
soldier and a man. Several pronounced him the most
promising officer of his grade in the service. Colonel
Burr, who was brought into close relations with him
during the summer of 1776, conceived an ardent
admiration for his military talents, and toward the
close of his brilliant but perverse and darkened life
loved to recur to this intimacy of youth. To him
Knowlton was a hero capable of forming and execut-
ing great designs. He said it was impossible to pro-
mote such a man too rapidly, adding that, "if he had
had the whole control at the battle of Bunker Hill
the result would probably have been more fortunate.'*
* The painting which furnished the model for Mr. Woods, the sculptor,
belongs to the Wadsworth Atheneum of Hartford.
The remark is quoted merely to show the depth of
impression made by the genius of Knowlton upon a
keen and critical mind, that based its conclusions not
on the opinions of others but on personal knowledge
of the man.
Colonel Knowlton was buried with military honors
west of Ninth Avenue, near 143d Street. Over his
grave throb the pulses of a rich and mighty city, but
till November, 1893, not even a tablet marked the
resting place or recalled the services of a hero, who
answered to the first cry of a country yet unborn, and
who thenceforth in crises of supreme peril was ever
found where courage and capacity were most needed.
Washington, in a companionship of nearly fifteen
months, had learned to rely with equal confidence
upon his judgment in council and his valor on the
battlefield. He now sent home Frederick, the eldest
son, a boy under sixteen, to care for the widow and
seven younger children.
In the cemetery at Warrenville, town of Ashford,
a rude cenotaph bears these words: " This monument
is erected in memory of Colonel Thomas Knowlton
and his wife. That brave colonel, in defense of his
country, fell in battle September 16, 1776, at Harlem
Heights, Island of New York, age 36 years. Mrs.
Anna, the amiable consort of Colonel Knowlton, died
May 22, 1808, age 64, and is buried beneath this
Four or five miles from this spot, eighty-five years
after the fall of Knowlton, to a grave bedewed by the
tears of the nation, were borne to burial under the
sorrowing eyes of a great multitude gathered from
near and far, amid the wail of dirges and the roar of
artillery and the pomp of trailing banners, the re-
mains of his grand-nephew, General Nathaniel Lyon.
When the uncle, from whose example the boy drew
the inspiration of patriotism and the ambition for a
military career, passed away, amid disaster and gloom,
his comrades had no time to spare for impressive
ceremonies. These rites the fourth generation now
performs. Through this statue the state proclaims
that the heroism of her sons shall ever be held in
grateful remembrance ; that in the sweep of time the
dearest rewards are held for noble deeds.
THE SCULPTOR AND HIS WORK
[Charles NoSl Flagg in Hartford Courant]
IT is an exceedingly difficult matter to write a sketch of
Enoch S. Woods, because he has that natural reticence
which usually accompanies extreme modesty, and seldom
speaks of himself. The story of his life is simply that of a
mechanic's struggle to better his condition by the self-
development of an inborn artistic genius, and the consequent-
ly inevitable battles with discouragement and poverty. In
one of those rare moments when he speaks of himself he says:
"The changes in my life during the past fifteen years have
been so great that it seems like a dream. At times the fight
has been so hard that I admit that I have sat low in discour-
agement. Again, a strong resolve and belief in myself has
held me to my task ; but even now I am all uncertain as to
whether my life has been worth living or not. "
Mr. Woods was born at Lorneville, a small and at that
time newly-settled town on the coast of Nova Scotia. His
father, an Englishman, and his mother, a Nova Scotian, were
pioneers in this new country, and having a large family of
children were obliged to struggle through all the chapters
of the book of honorable necessity. His mother was a woman
of deep feeling and impressionable character and his father
was skillful in mechanical construction, being able to build
a house or make the family shoes. Thus Mr. Woods inherited
those wholesome attributes so important to a sculptor, appre-
ciation of beauty and the mechanical skill necessary to execu-
tion. From early childhood he was ever making boats and
mills and little images in clay which he dug from a neighbor-
ing stream. It is needless to say, perhaps, that these occupa-
tions were looked upon with disfavor by his father, who, like
the father of many another artist, considered artistic ambition
a presage of an inclination toward a mild form of sin.
In 1868, being then twenty years of age, Mr. Woods came
to the United States, with^no definite idea as to his future,
except that he must work for a living. He was ambitious,
but so timidly reserved that he did not dare attempt to
cope with any difficulties except those to be met in an humble
occupation. The predominant idea in his mind was work,
and so long as it was honest he was always ready. It is not
necessary to say just what he did at first, but a narrow escape
from accidental death made him change his occupation and
become a mason. In this trade he soon became so proficient
that he was given employment in the ornamental parts of
important buildings. In 1872 he concluded to settle in Hart*
ford. About this time he excited the admiration of his fellow
workmen by his ability as an amateur wood-carver. In his
few leisure moments he worked in a small room which he
had hired for the purpose, and occasionally sold some original
designs which he cast in plaster. In 1877 he finally gave up
the trade of mason and turned his attention to sculpture. His
equipment was very limited, for he had never had the
slightest chance to study in any art school or with any
sculptor. As a workman going to and from his daily labor
he had often carried one of the various bones of the human
figure in his pocket, studying it when he had a chance, and in
this way he acquired that knowledge of anatomy which was
to serve him so well in after life. Occasional trips to New
York and Boston enabled him to see works of art, and looking
at these from his own standpoint, unprejudiced by the dogmas
of any school, he was able to pick out, and profit by the
successes and failures of others. Fond of reading, he helped
himself greatly by those books which his good taste led him
to read. Books on art he never read, as he soon found that
they were of no use except from a literary and historical point
of view ; but by general and well-chosen reading he improved
his capability to see.
To make the statue of Colonel Knowlton was the first
order of any importance that Mr. Woods ever received. With
the awful warning presented by several regiments of soldier
monuments with which the country is encumbered, the
commission having the matter in charge was somewhat
reluctant in engaging a sculptor. Mr. Woods submitted
several studies which did not quite meet with approval, but he
convinced the members of the commission that he was greatly
in earnest and also that he had a fund of ability which
promised success. No statue was ever more conscientiously
constructed than the Knowlton. After modeling it all in
clay, which was no light matter, the figure measuring eight
feet and one inch, he became dissatisfied with his work,
destroyed it and began anew. The second time he vastly
improved the movement, and built the figure muscle by
muscle until it stood the well-drawn, completed statue that it
is to-day. I am not going to criticise this work or make
any great claims for it. If any think too highly or too poorly
of it, time will regulate their opinion, for I am sure that this
statue will permanently stand in the position which has been
chosen for it by the commission, because it is worthy of the
place. How many statues are there in the country of which
this much can be justly said ?
A few years ago, when the statue of Israel Putnam, which
stands in Bushnell Park, was unveiled, a workman, dinner
pail in hand, stopped and eagerly watched, forgetting his
work in his anxiety to profit by the lesson which that statue
might have for him, and as he walked on he dreamed dreams
of other statues, in the making of which he hoped some day
to have a hand. This same workman, a little later, was
employed on the brick work at the southeast corner of the
State Capitol, and laid the interior angle and halfway across
over the eastern entrance from the top of the columns to
the top of the wall. On the 13th of this month the statue
of Colonel Knowlton will be formally presented to the State
of Connecticut and will stand within fifty feet of where
the mason worked at the interior angle. He will be present
at the unveiling and will probably hear himself called a great
sculptor and will receive many of the compliments incident
to such occasions, but I don't think that he will over-estimate
them. He has built a good, honest statue to a Revolutionary
hero, and at the same time a statue to his own industry and
perseverance. That he will in time build greater statues I
am sure, for the habit of industry is strong in him. I am
also sure that in years to come the citizens of .Connecticut,
when looking at this statue, will often give with pride the
story of the workman and his dinner pail in telling that of
the sculptor, Enoch S. Woods.
Charles Noel Flagg.
New York, November 3, 1895.
MEETING OF THE KNOWLTON FAMILY
A FTER the ceremonies of unveiling, members of the Knowl-
**■ ton family allied by blood or marriage met in the Hall of
Representatives. Colonel Julius W. Knowlton of Bridgeport
called the assembly to order. Dr. Thomas Knowlton Marcy
of Windsor was appointed chairman, and William Herrick
Griffith of Albany, N. Y., secretary. It was voted to form a
permanent association, with annual reunions. Descendants
of the three brothers, John, William, and Thomas, who came
to America about 1640, are eligible. The following officers
were elected : Hon. Marcus P. Knowlton of Springfield, Mass.,
President ; Thomas K. Marcy, Vice-President ; and William
H. Griffith, Secretary and Treasurer. Rev. Charles H. W.
Stocking, D.D., of East Orange, N. J., 1 who reported that he
had already collected a large amount of valuable material,
was appointed genealogist and historian. Membership was
made conditional upon the payment of a yearly assessment,
which is to be used for the present in paying expenses in-
curred in collecting matter for the family history. A vote
of thanks was passed to P. H. Woodward for his efforts in
securing the statue and in preparing the history of Colonel
Thomas Knowlton. June 17, 1^96, anniversary of the battle
Of Bunker Hill, was fixed as the date of the first in the series
of reunions. The selection of a place was left to the executive
PATERNAL LINEAGE OF COL. THOMAS
The following genealogy of Col. Thomas Knowlton to the seventh
generation, inclusive; was prepared by Doctor Ashbel Woodward^ and
first published in 1861. A few changes have been made in the order of
the children of William 6 to conform more closely to the order of birth.
Were you to make inquiries among the people of New England
generally concerning their ancestry, in nine cases out of ten they
would tell you that they were descended from one of three brothers
who came over from Old England about the year 16 — ; and in nine
cases out of ten they would be wrong. But it so happens in the Knowl-
ton family that three brothers did actually come to New England and
settle in Ipswich ; John, 1 William, 1 and Deacon Thomas ! ; for both
John l and Thomas ! call William * their brother ; evidence of the most
The second brother, William 1 Knowlton, was a bricklayer. He
married Elizabeth . He died in 1654 or 5. The inventory of
his estate taken July 17, 1655, was ^37 2s. id. His debts were £2j
14s. id. We have his descendants for several generations, but it is
not our present purpose to include his branch of the family in this
The third brother, Deacon Thomas 1 Knowlton, was born in 1622.
He married, first, Susanna . His second wife was Mary Kim-
ball, to whom he was married May 17, 1682. It does not appear that
he had children.
On the 19th of Nov., 1678, Deacon Thomas thus writes : " I gave
a coat to brother William, and his two boys I keept to scool from the
age of 5 to 8 years, and a girl from the age of one & a half years
till she was married." He died April 3, 1692, aged 70 years.
(1) John, 1 though the last to be noticed, was the eldest of the
three brothers. He took the freeman's oath in 1641, was in Ipswich
in 1641, perhaps earlier. He made his will Nov. 29, 1653. He
married Margery , and had John, Abraham, and Elizabeth.
(2) John,* married Sarah . He took the freeman's oath in
1680, and died Oct. 8, 1684. His children were —
(3) I. William, 3 b. . Lived in Wenham, and had wife
Joseph, 3 b. 165 1 ; m. Aug. 14, 1677, Mary Wilson.
Samuel, 3 b. ; m. April, 1669, Mary Wilt or Witt.
Nathaniel, 3 Dea., b. June 29, 1658. He m. May 8,
1682, Deborah Jewett, and d. Sept. 28, 1726; r. Ips-
wich. He was long Town Treasurer, and nine
times a representative.
Deacon Nathaniel * (6) and Deborah had —
(7) I. Nathaniel, 4 b. May 3, 1683; m. Feb., 1702-3, Mary
(8) II. John, 4 d. Dec, 1685.
(9) III. Joseph, 4 b. April, 168-.
(10) IV. Abraham, 4 b. Feb. 27, 1688-9.
(11) V. Elizabeth, 4 b. Sept. 18, 1692.
(12) VI. Thomas, 4 b. Nov. 8, 1702.
(13) VII. David, 4 b. May, 1707 ; m. Feb., 1 731-2, Esther Howard.
David, 6 son of David, 4 d. Dec. 10, 1732.
Nathaniel 4 (7) and Mary had —
(14) I. Mary, 6 b. June 3, 1704.
(15) II. William, 6 b. Feb. 8, 1705-6 ; m. Martha Pinder of
Boxford, to whom he was published Feb. 13, 1728.
He removed to Ashford, Conn., about 1748 ; d. Mar.
(16) III. Nathaniel, 6 b. June 30, 1708.
(17) IV. Jeremiah, 6 b. July 13, 1712 ; and d. young.
(18) V. 2D Jeremiah, 6 b. Aug. 2, 1713.
William 6 (15) and Martha had —
(19) I. Mary, 6 b. ; m. Ezekiel Tiffany of Ashford, Mar.
(20) II. Sarah, 6 b. ; m. Joshua Kendall of Ashford.
(21) III. William, 6 b. Aug. 9, 1733 ; m. Mehitable Eaton of
Ashford ; d. Jan. 9, 1784.
(22) IV. Lucy, 6 b. ; and d. young.
(23) V. Lucy, 6 baptized Feb. 20, 1736; m. Abijah Brooks of
(24) VI. DANIEL, 6 baptized Dec. 31, 1738 ; m. 1st, Elizabeth
Farnham of Ashford, Nov. 3, 1763 ; m. 2d, Rebecca
Fen ton of Willington, April 24, 1788. He served
through the French war and that of the Revolution.
During the last he was commissioned as Lieut.
(25) VII. THOMAS, 6 baptized Nov. 30, 1740 ; m. Anna Keyes
of Ashford, April 5, 1759. Col. Thomas Knowlton
was slain in battle at Harlem Heights, Sept. 16,
1776. Anna, wife of Col. Knowlton, d. May 22, 1808.
(26) VIII. Priscilla, 6 b. .
(27) IX. Nathaniel, 6 baptized Mar. 9, 1745 ; d. July 19, 1749.
Lieut. Daniel 6 (24) and Elizabeth had —
(28) I. Daniel, 7 b. Dec. 7, 1765 ; m. Betsey Burchard. Was
a private from Sept. 8, 1782, to Sept. 8, 1783. He
died Feb., 1834 ; he had 7 children, the fourth of
whom, son Phineas, died a soldier in the army.
(29) II. Elizabeth, T b. March 24, 1768 ; m. Frederick Chaffee
(30) III. Nathaniel, 7 b. Dec. 24, 1770 ; m. Sarah Leach, and
had children : Farnham, Emily A., Hosea, Myron,
William, and Nathaniel.
(31) IV. Manassah, 7 twin brother of Nathaniel, b. Dec. 24,
1770 ; m. 1st, Lydia Burton, and had children :
Oren, Ephraim, Isaac, Orendia, Almira, Maria,
George W. , and Parmelia ; m. 2d, Elizabeth Card ;
m. 3d, Clarissa Cogswell.
(32) V. Ephraim, 7 b. Oct. 3, 1773.
(33) VI. Martha, 7 b. Feb. 24, 1777 ; m. Charles Brandon of
(34) VII. Keziah, 7 b. Feb. 9, 1781 ; m. Jan. 3, 1805, Amasa
Lyon, Esq., of Ashford. She had 9 children, of
whom the seventh was General Nathaniel Lyon,
born July 14, 1818, and was killed at the battle of
Wilson's Creek, Aug. 10, 1861. He graduated at
West Point in 1841, ranking nth in a class of 52 at
time of graduation, and of over 100 at the time of
entry in 1837. Prior to our civil conflict he had
served with distinction in the Seminole and Mexi-
(35) VIII. Hannah, 7 b. April 19, 1738 ; m. Daniel Knowlton,
Esq. , and had sons : Miner, Danford, Edwin, and
daughters : Amanda, Miriam, and Elvira. Their
eldest son, Miner, graduated with honor at West
Point, and subsequently was a professor in that in-
stitution. Unfortunately he became an invalid in
middle life, and hence was unable to take part in
the stirring events that followed. Danford, their
second son, was for many years a prosperous im-
porter in New York city.
By wife Rebecca had —
(36) IX. Erastus Fenton, 7 b. Jan. 29, 1790; m. Waite Wind-
sor of Gloucester, R. I.
(37) X. Marvin, 7 b. Sept. 3, 1794 ; m. Calista Leonard, of
Col. Thomas* (25) and Anna had —
(38) I. Frederick, 1 b. Dec. 4, 1760; d. Oct. 9, 1841. Was
in the Ashford Co. from May 6, 1775, to Dec. 10,
1775. He served in the campaign of 1776, and was
with his father in the battle at Harlem Heights.
(39) II. Sally, 1 b. Nov. 23, 1763 ; m. Samuel Utley, at Ash-
ford, Conn., Dec. 6, 1781; rd. in Ashford, Conn.,
Dalton and Chesterfield, Mass. ; d. March 6, 1852.
(40) III. Thomas, 1 b. July 13, 1765 ; was in the army from
Aug. 9, 1782, to Aug. 9, 1783 ; m. Martha Marcy of
Willington, Conn.,. 1807; rd. in Willington ;
•d. May 2, 1858.
(41) IV. Polly, 1 b. Jan. 11, 1767; m. Stephen Fitts of Ashford,
Conn., Jan. 1, 1793; d. Sept. 27, 1845.
(42) V. Abigail, 1 b. June 20, 1768; m. Thomas Chaffee of
Ashford, Conn., Nov. 21, 1791; rd. in Becket, Mass.;
d. Sept. 18, 1843.
(43) VI. Sampson, 1 b. Feb. 8, 1770; d. Sept. 10, 1777.
(44) VII. Anna, 1 b. June 8, 1771; d. June 4, 1772.
(45) VIII. Anna, 1 b. Mar. 19, 1773; m. Dr. John Kittredge, Jan.
1, 1804; d. June 19, 1817; rd. in Ashford.
(46) IX. Lucinda, 7 b. Nov. 10, 1776; d. Feb. 16,, 1805.
Sally Knowlton 1 (39) and Samuel Utley had —
(47) I. Sally, 8 b. July 18, 1782, in Ashford ; d. young.
(48) II. Polly, 8 b. Feb. 10, 1784, in Ashford; m. Gershom
House of Chesterfield, 1803 ; d. Sept. 13, 1858.
(49) III. Frederick, 8 b. in Dalton (?), April 24, 1787 ; m. Cyn-
thia Ludden, April 25, 1816 ; r. in Chesterfield; d.
in Westfield, Mass., April 5, 1856.
(50) IV. William, 8 b. in Dalton (?) ; r. in Chesterfield ; d. in
Williamsburg, Mass., Dec. 28, 1871, aged 82 years ;
unmarried ; was a soldier in the war of 18 12.
(51) V. Sally, 8 b. in Dalton (?) ; r. in Chesterfield; d. July
12, 1846, aged 54 years ; unmarried.
(52) VI. James, 8 b. in Dalton (?) ; r. in Chesterfield ; d. Dec. 4,
18 1 7, aged 24 years ; unmarried.
(53) VII. Ralph, 8 b. in Dalton (?) ; m. Zeruah Baker ; r. in
Chesterfield and Goshen ; d. Nov. 7, 1862, aged 66
yrs., 7 mos., without children.
(54) VIII. Samuel, 8 b. in Dalton (?), Feb. 19, 1798 ; m. Mary J.
Eastman, April 14, 1834; d. Aug. 20, 1883; clergy-
(55) IX. Thomas Knowlton, 8 b. in Chesterfield, Mar. , 1804 ;
m. Theodocia Knox of Blandford, Mass., Jan. 18,
1834 ; r. in Chesterfield ; d. Nov. 6, 1847.
Polly Utley 8 (48) and Gershom House had (all born in Chester-
field, Mass.) —
(56) I. Almira, 9 b. Feb. 14, 1804; m. Holly Bryant ; r. in
Chesterfield ; d. June 10, 1889.
(57) II. Julia, 9 b. June 15, 1807; m. George E>. Taylor; r.
Feeding Hills, Mass. ; d.
(58) III. Samuel,* b. April 8, 1810 ; m. Clara R. Johnson, June
20, 1838 ; r. Chesterfield and Haydenville, Mass.
(59) IV. Lucinda, 9 b. Nov. 16, 1812 ; m. Levi Clapp, April 15,
1835 ; r. Chatham Centre, Ohio.
(60) V. Benjamin, 9 b. April 25, 181 5 ; m. Frances Warner ; r.
Greenwich, Mass.; d.
(61) VI. Anna K., 9 b. Aug. 14, 1817; m. Lyman Root; r.
Westfield, Mass.; d. Nov. 2, 1882.
(62) VII. James, 9 b. Jan. 11, 1821 ; m. Harriet Northrop; r.
(63) VIII. Amelia, 9 b. April 9, 1823 ; m. Chas. Cushing, May — ,
1850 ; r. San Francisco, Cal.
(64) IX. Maria, 9 b. June 10, 1825; m. George Cook, Dec. 25,
1852 ; r. Oberlin, Ohio.
(65) X. Marietta, 9 b. Feb. 4, 1828 ; m. Oliver Edwards, Jr.;
r. in Chesterfield ; d. Aug. 8, 1864.
Frederick Utley 8 (49) and Cynthia had (all b. in Chesterfield,
(66) I. Sarah, 9 b. July 17, 1817 ; m. Enoch A. Root, May 30,
1839 ; r - i n Westfield, Mass.; d. Feb. 3, 1890.
(67) II. Mary A, 9 b. Aug. 31, 1819 ; m. Charles J. Leonard,
Oct. 26, 1842 ; r. in Springfield, Mass.
(68) III. Amelia, 9 b. Dec. 20, 1821 ; m. Francis S. Eggleston,
May 22, 1845 ; res. in Westfield, Mass.; d. Aug. 15,
(69) IV. James, 9 b. Jan. 26, 1824; d. Sept. 16, 1825.
(70) V. Amanda M., 9 b. Jan. 13, 1828; m. Stephen B. Cook,
Nov. 25, 1849 ; r. in Westfield, Mass.
(71) VI. Zeruah, 9 b. Sept. 9, 1833 ; m. Charles Deuel, Jan. 17,
1854 ; r. in Amherst, Mass.
Samuel Utley 8 (54) and Mary J. had —
(72) I. Sarah Lee, 9 b. at Epping, N. H., Dec. 19, 1835 ; m.
Aug. 10, 1859, Simeon F. Woodin ; r. in Springfield,
(73) II. Julia M., 9 b. at Chesterfield, Mass., Nov. 27, 1837;
m. Aug. 10, 1859, William C. Bailey ; d. in Wash-
ington, D. C, March 21, 1894.
(74) III. James, 9 b, July 13, 1840, in New Marlborough, Mass.;
m. Mar. 26, 1861, Martha F. Dunlap ; r in Taunton
and Newton, Mass.; physician.
(75) IV. Mary J., 9 b. May 27, 1846, in New Marlborough,
Mass.; m. Oct. 14, 1868, J. Wesley Jones; r. in
Chatham, N. Y.
Thomas Knowlton Utley 8 (55) and Theodocia had (all born in
Chesterfield, Mass.) —
(76) I. Elizabeth, 9 b. Mar. 12, 1835 ; m. George Stephenson,
June 14, 1853 ; r. in Goshen and Northampton, Mass.
(77) II. Adelaide, 8 b. Jan. 13, 1838; d. Sept. 6, 1856.
(78) III. Mary J., 9 b. Jan. 4, 1841 ; r. in Conway, Mass.
(79) IV. Samuel, 9 b. Sept. 29, 1&43 ; m. Julia M. Martin, Dec.
8, 1875 ; r. in Worcester, Mass.; judge.
(80) V. Thomas Knowlton, 9 b. Sept. 20, 1846 ; m. Octavia
H. Bates, Jan. t, 1868 ; r. in Chesterfield, Mass.
Thomas Knowlton 7 (40) and Martha had —
(81) I. Martha, 8 b. Dec. 14, 181 1 ; m. William W. Marcy,
, 1832; d. Sept. 8, 1884. .
(82) II. Thomas M., 8 b. Sept. 10, 1808; d. July 5, i8n.
Martha Knowlton 8 (81) and William W. Marcy had, born in
Willington, Conn. —
(83) I. Hannah, 9 b. May 3, 1833; m - Darius Starr of Willing-
ton, May 8, 1858; d. March 24, 1893.
(84) II. Thomas Knowlton, 9 b. Jan. 9, 1835 ; m. 1st, Mary G.
Hatheway of Windsor, Conn., May 17, 1865; m. 2d,
Ellen M. Hatheway, June 11, 1884.
(85) III. Martha K., 9 b. June 26, 1841; m. Thomas Chaffee of
Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 24, 1870.
(86) IV. Lucy E., 9 b. Nov. 29, 1848; m. Sidney W. Crof ut of
Brooklyn, N. Y., June 9, 1870.
(87) V. Matthew, 9 b. April — 1855; d. May 3, 1858.
Polly Knowlton 7 (41) and Stephen Fitts had, born in Ashford —
(88) I. Christian, 8 b. Aug. 11, 1794; m. William Loomi9,
Sept. 14, 1817; d. March 13, 1879.
(89) , II. Stephen Jr., 8 b. Oct. 29, 1798; m. Waty Moore, Nov.
24, 1830; d. Oct. 23, 1875.
(90) III. Maria, 8 b. July 18, 1802; m. Selden Moseley, Oct. 11,
1832 ; d. April 29, 1889.
(91) IV. Thomas Knowlton, 8 b. July 11, 1807; d. Feb. 7, 1831,
Christian Fitts 8 (88) and William Loomis had, born in Ashford —
(92) I. Mary Ann, 9 b. Jan. 29, 1820 ; r. in Ashford.
(93) II. Chester, 9 b. Feb. 8, 1822; d. Oct. 1, 1874.
Stephen Fitts, Jr. 8 (89) and Waty had, born in Ashford —
(94) I. Thomas Knowlton, 9 b. Oct. 23, 1831 ; r. in Hartford.
(95) II. John S., 9 b. May 12, 1839; tn. 1st, Josephine M. Chap-
man of Ashford, Nov. 25, 1868; m. 2d, Ellen L.
James of Tolland, Conn., Oct. 3, 1882 ; r. in Ash-
(96) III. George H., 9 b. April 10, 1843.
(97) IV. Mary C., 9 b. Feb. 21, 1845 ; m. Chas. J. Gifford of
Ashford, Sept. 29, 1868; r. in Willimantic, Conn.
Maria Fitts 8 (90) and Selden Mosely had, born in Ashford —
(98) I. Nathan James, 9 b. Aug. 29, 1833; m. Betsey Ames of
New London, Conn., Nov. 29, 1858; r. in New Lon-
Abigail Knowlton ' (42) and Thomas Chaffee had —
Sampson Knowlton, 8 b. Aug. 4, 1792; d. Feb. 19, 1813.
Frederick, 8 b. Nov. 25, 1793; d. Feb. 13, 1816.
Wolcott, 8 b. May 3, 1795; m. Abigail Kingsley, Apr.
22, 1818; d. Nov. 25, 1870.
Newman K., 8 b. Dec. 15, 1796 ; m. 1st, Elizabeth
Phelps, March 15, 1820; m. 2d, Olive Abbott, March
1, 1837; d. in West Becket, Mass., Dec. 15, 1858.
Miner, 8 b. Feb. 6, 1799; m. Lucy Frary, June 9, 1825;
d. Sept. 29, 1880.
Alma, 8 b. Feb. 9, 1801; m. Wm. P. Hamblin, Nov. 8,
1830; d. in Lee, Mass., March 6, 1838.
Anna H., 8 b. Feb. 4, 1803 ; m. Justin M. Ames, Jan.
20, 1824; d. Aug. 17, 1859.
Thomas S., 8 b. March 24, 1805; m. 1st, Betsey Shaw,
Feb. 4, 1829 ; m. 2d, Lucy Culver, Jan. 3, 1832 ; m.
3d, Catharine L. Blair, Nov. 2, 1843; d. Oct. 7, 1874.
Lucinda, 8 b. Jan. 12, 1807 ; m. Kendall Baird of
Becket, Mass., Oct. 10, 1827; d. April 1, 1863.
Prentiss, 8 b. Jan. 1, 1809; m. Betsey Cannon, April
15, 1833; d - April 10, 1892.
Abigail H., 8 b. April 12, 181 1; m. Wm. Clark, Jan. 8,
1833; d. .
Sampson Knowlton, 8 b. July 11, 1814 ; m. Amelia
Shaylor, Jan. 27, 1839; d. Nov. 19. 1891.
Newman K. Chaffee 8 (102) and Elizabeth had —
(in) I. Ebenezer, 9 b. Dec. 12, 1820.
(112) II. Frederick, 9 b. March 17, 1823 ; m - Charlotte Thrall,
Oct. 31, 1850; d. April 21, 1891.
(113) III. Wolcott, 9 b. June 15, 1826; m. Jennette Judd, July
(114) IV. Joseph C. 9 , b. Aug. 19, 1828; m. Caroline L. Phelps,
Nov. 30, 1859.
(115) V. Elizabeth Ann, 9 b. Oct. 5, 1831; m. William Alson
Messenger, Sept. 26, 1852.
By wife Olive had —
(116) VI. Lucretia, 9 b. Dec. 12, 1839.
Miner Chaffee 8 (103) and Lucy had —
(117) I. Henry, 9 b. April 9, 1826 ; m. Charlotte Carter, June
(118) II. Sarah, 9 Feb. 4, 1829 '» m. Jonathan W. Wheeler, Aug.
(iiq) III. Emma, 9 b. Feb. 27, 1833 ; d. June 14, 1892.
(120) IV. Thomas, 9 b. Dec. 31, 1838; m. Martha Knowlton
Marcy, Nov. 24, 1870.
Alma Chaffee 8 (104) and William P. Hamblin had —
(121) I. William H., 9 b. Aug. 30, 1831.
Anna H. Chaffee 8 (105) and Justin M. Ames had —
(122) I. Samantha M., 9 b. Dec. 24, 1826 ; m. Joshua Barnard,
Feb. 1, 1847.
(123) II. Zeruah, 9 b. Oct. 6, 1828 ; m. Joseph Osborn, Mar. 4,
(124) III. Sampson Chaffee, 9 b. July 28, 1830 ; m. Sarah Haw-
kins, Sept. 12, 1 86 1.
(125) IV. George Luther, 9 b. July 16, 1832 ; m. Ellen L.
Tinker, May 16, 1855.
(126) V. Lucy Ann, 9 b. Oct. 6, 1834 ; m. Nelson D. Gibbs, July
(127) VI. Lucinda, 9 b. Mar. 6, 1837; m. Jas. P. Meacham,June
(128) VII. Thomas Miner, 9 b. July 20, 1839 I m * Ist » Emily Rose,
April 18, 1866; m. 2d, Irene Cowen, Mar. 11, 1884;
d. Jan. 13, 1893.
(129) VIII. Wilson, 9 b. April 16, 1841 ; m. Abigail R. Wilcox,
April 28, 1867.
(130) IX. Julia Eliza, 9 b. Mar. 24, 1843.
(131) X, Franklin, 9 b. July 7, 1845 ; m. Emma Cowen, July
.• •! ••! *•• • *
! * t • • * •
Thomas S. Chaffee 8 (106) and Catharine L. had —
(132) I. Sherman B., 9 b. Sept. 2, 1844; m. Alice Williams,
Nov. 20, 1882 ; d. Feb. 29, 1892.
(133) II. Theodore W., 9 b. Jan. 23, 1847 ; m. Harriet P. Stowe,
Aug. 14, 1873.
(134) III. Edward C., 9 b. July 21, 1850; d. Sept. 11, 1852.
(135) IV. Frederick Knowlton, 9 b. May 9, 1855.
Lucinda Chaffee 8 (107) and Kendall Baird had —
(136) I. Abigail E., 9 b. , 1828 ; m. H. C. Wilson ; d. —
(137) II. Prentiss C., 9 b. , 1831 ; d. , 1890.
(138). III. Alma L., 9 b. , 1834 ; m. Nathaniel Kellogg, —
(139) IV. Catharine A., 9 b. , 1838; m. Lloyd Caul, —
(140) V. Frederick Knowlton, 9 b. , 1842 ; m. 1st, Caro-
line Clark, , 1862 ; m. 2d, Jeanette Clark,
(141) VI. George K, 9 b. , 1846 ; m. F. Isabel Hitchcock
Prentiss Chaffee 8 (108) and Betsey had —
(142) I. George L., 9 b. Sept. 30, 1834 ; m. Constance Hender-
son, May 16, 1865.
(143) II. Mary E., 9 b. Mar. 16, 1840 ; m. Joseph Warren, Nov.
Sampson Knowlton Chaffee 8 (iio) and Amelia had —
(144) I. Charles S., 9 b. Dec. 13, 1837 ; m. Martha B. George,
May, — , 1 861 ; d. Jan. 16, 1876.