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Full text of "The statue erected by the state of New Hampshire in honor of General John Stark; a sketch of its inception, erection and dedication"

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Gen. John Stark 



■■■■■8 



l^J 



us •^SS'IAO.'S 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




THE BEQUEST OF 
EVERT JANSEN WENDELL 

(CLAU OF 1§S2) 

OF NEW YORK 



r 



THE STATUE 



ERECTED 



BY THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE 



IN HONOR OF 



General John Stark 



A SKETCH OF ITS INCEPTION, ERECTION 

AND DEDICATION 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVERNOR AND COUNCIL 






MANCHESTER 

JOHN B. CLARKE, PUBLIC PRINTER 

1890 



XtS h 5" 5-.^ . ( o . ^ 



ri;SV*HD en iit LiHRARY 

THE SEQUCST OF 
IVIRT MNKH WINDILL 
1018 



SKETCH OF ITS INCEPTION. 



The artistic development of a people rarely keeps pace with 
its material progress. The mad rush for financial and commer- 
cial aggrandizement that so often follows the solution of the 
problems of self-government leaves no time for the cultivation 
of the aesthetic side of human nature, and the outward evi- 
dences of a new nation's growth are, in the main, crude and in- 
artistic. Architecture is the handmaid of commerce, and the 
fine arts are relegated to positions humiliating in the extreme. 

True artistic growth, like true mental development, can come 
only with age. Culture is the offspring of time, and, isolated 
examples to the contrary notwithstanding, cannot flourish under 
the noisy and bustling circumstances of the struggles of a new 
community for physical, geographical, and financial importance. 
Hence it is not surprising that the first century of our national 
existence should have developed no remarkable artistic tenden- 
cies among us ; for it cannot be denied that the beautiful has 
almost always been subordinated to the practical in all the en- 
deavors to present to the world any monumental evidence of our 
national importance. 

Now, however, the evolution of history and the progress of 
time have brought us to that point where the crystallizing tenden- 
cies of an artistic impulse must seek public expression. The 
canons of architecture are no longer thrust aside by the para- 



4 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

mount claims of commercial law, and the practical and the beau- 
tiful have been found compatible elements in the construction of 
public works. 

Nor is this expression of public taste confined wholly to 
architectural circles. The celebration of our national centen- 
nial and the recurrence of similar local anniversaries have served 
to concentrate the mind of the community upon the central 
figures of our early history, and the feeling of common grati- 
tude must seek expression in public praise. Hence we find, on 
every hand, almost numberless monuments and public works 
that are at once patriotic in their tone, elevating in their tenden- 
cies, and artistic in their conception. 

And who may say that each of these works does not convey 
its own lesson ? Why may not our youth, by beholding the in- 
spiring works of an inspired artist, receive a lesson of greater 
patriotic import than any that may be inculcated in the schools ? 
The Greeks, by constantly keeping before their eyes the purest 
models of a merely physical existence, were enabled to produce 
a race whose equal has never yet been seen and whose influence 
even now permeates and colors our whole national existence in 
its philosophical, literary, and economic development. 

The admiration of force is so common a characteristic, and 
the feeling of personal attachment to such force is so natural a 
result, that the birth of a community with all the endowments of 
freedom and self-government may be likened to a chemical pro- 
cess, as crystallizing around a common center. Hence a strong, 
commsmding figure in any stage of a nation's development will 
make itself a permanent factor in all periods of that commu- 
nity's progress. 

The nature of the early history of this country was such as to 
bring into prominence men of character and vigor, and served 



SKETCH OF ITS INCEPTION. 5 

also to develop those qualities where they were latent. The 
dangers and crises of our colonial history demanded men of 
force, and they were not lacking in any exigency of the occasion. 

Such a man pre-eminently was General John Stark. A vig- 
orous line of Scotchrlrish ancestry had suffused him with a 
patriotic fervor of mind and an overweening vigor of body in a 
combination well nigh irresistible in its power. The appeal of 
his country fell upon his ear already strained to catch the first 
murmur of an oppressed and outraged people. His inflammable 
nature thrust him at once into the very thick of the conflict, and 
his remarkable achievements were the marvel of his compeers 
and the admiration of his soldiery. In another place his ser- 
vices to his country are dilated upon and only the merest refer- 
ence to his military career is necessary at this point. The de- 
cline of his life was peaceful and uneventful, and death claimed 
him only after he had lived to see himself the last surviving 
member of that brilliant coterie of military leaders who had 
fought for freedom in the land they loved. 

Who does not honor such a man ? The only wonder is that 
gratitude has been so tardy in its recognition of his worth. The 
tendencies of the age demanded it, and the conscience of a 
grateful citizenship urged it, yet it was not until June i6, 1889, 
that public mention was made of the unpaid debt of New 
Hampshire to her hero's memory. On that date Professor Tay- 
lor, of the Andover Theological Seminary, in the progress of a 
sermon at the South Church, Concord, said : " I am not well 
enough informed of your affairs to know whether your State has 
erected a statue to General Stark, but it ought to if it has not, 
for Stark at Bunker Hill with his men from New Hampshire 
behind a rail fence saved Prescott's detachment from annihila- 
tion.*' The following day the New Hampshire Society of the 



6 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

Sons of the Revolution was formed, and its president, Hon. 
Charles R. Morrison, of Concord, at once acted upon the sug- 
gestion made by Dr. Taylor, and the society appointed the follow- 
ing committee to induce favorable action of the Legislature for 
the erection of a statue to General Stark : Charles R. Morri- 
son, of Concord ; Joshua G. Hall, of Dover ; James A. Edgerly, of 
Great Falls ; William W. Bailey, of Nashua ; George C. Gilmore, 
of Manchester ; John M. Hill, of Concord ; Thomas Cogswell, 
of Gilmanton ; and Henry O. Kent, of Lancaster. 

A memorial on the subject was prepared and presented to 
the Legislature and was referred by the House of Representa- 
tives to a special committee. After a hearing had been held, 
the committee reported ofifering a resolution providing for the 
erection of a statue.* This resolution passed the House of 
Representatives August 13, 1889, and was immediately sent to 
the Senate, where, under a suspension of the rules, it was passed 
the following day, August 14, 1889. On the same day it re- 
ceived the executive signature. 

A beginning had now been definitely made and the Gov- 
ernor and Council took full charge of the proceedings. The 
following extracts from the records of that body will be suffi- 
cient to show the successive steps taken in the progress of the 
work : 

October 4, 1889. 
Councilors Edward C. Shirley and Frank C. Churchill were appointed a 
committee to confer with sculptors in relation to the proposed monument to 
General John Stark. 

[This committee was placed in full charge of the execution 
of the provisions of the legislative resolution and was organized 
with Councilor Shirley as chairman and Councilor Churchill as 
secretary.] 

* See Appendix A. 



SKETCH OF ITS INCEPTION. 7 

November 7, 1889. 
Votedt That the committee on Stark monument be instructed to procure 
models for the same as soon as practicable and report cost of monument 
complete above stone foundation. 

January 17, 1890, 
The special committee on the Stark monument reported that they had 

received models from the following sculptors, viz. : H. H. Kitson, Boston ; 

Carl Conrads, Hartford; John Rogers, New York; George E. Bissell, 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. ; J. I. Langley, Manchester; Taft, Chicago; 

J. G. C. Hamilton, Cleveland ; C. H. Nichaus, New York (two models) ; 

Alexander Doyle, New York. 

The committee further reported that they had employed Mr. R. Austin 

Robertson, of the American Art Association of New York city, to assist 

them in selecting a model, and they recommended the passage of the follow" 

ing resolution: 

Resolved, That the Conrads model, presented by the New England 
Granite Works, be accepted, said company agreeing to set up the statue 
complete for the sum of $8,000, and that the attorney-general be requested 
to prepare a contract with said company, which shall require a statue accord- 
ing to the model presented by them to be erected in the State House yard, 
ready to be unveiled on or before the first day of October next. 

April 10, 1890. 
Votedf That the committee on Stark monument be authorized to sign 
the contract for making and setting up the monument. 

July i, 1890. 
The Governor nominated Hon. James W. Patterson, of Hanover, to be 
the orator on the occasion of the unveiling of the statue of Gen. John Stark, 
and the Council unanimously concurred therein. 

Voted, To invite the Amoskeag Veterans of Manchester, the officers of 
the Grand Army of the Republic, Department of New Hampshire, the New 
Hampshire Sons of the Revolution, and the New Hampshire Historical 
Society to be present and participate in the ceremonies of unveiling the Stark 
statue. 

July 31, 1890. 

Voted, That the following named persons, Mrs. Mary Jane Tenney, Lon- 



8 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

donderry, N. H., Mrs. Sarah Pinkerton Graves, Ipswich, Mass., and Mrs. 
Charlotte Stark Campbell, North Reading, Mass., grand-daughters of Gen. 
John Stark, and all other known descendants be invited to be present as 
guests of the State on the occasion of the unveiling of the Stark monument ; 
that John G. Whittier be invited to write a poem for that occasion, and that 
Professor Churchill, of Andover, Mass., be invited to read it; that Allen 
Eastman Cross, of Manchester, also be invited to deliver a poem on that 
occasion. 

August 27, 1890. 
Voted, That the date for the unveiling of the Stark statue, and all the 
necessary arrangements in connection with the same, be left to the statue 
committee. Councilors Shirley and Churchill, with full power. 

October 9, 1890. 
Voted, That the services of the unveiling of the Stark statue take place 
at II A. M., on Thursday, the 23d of October. 

This concludes the legislative history of the statue. The 
committee, in making the final arrangements for the ceremonies 
of dedication, selected Miss Florence S. Shirley, of Goffstown, 
to unveil the statue. Mr. Whittier was compelled to decline the 
invitation extended to him, and that feature was eliminated from 
the program. Hon. Moody Currier, LL. D., of Manchester, 
was chosen president of the day ; Hon. Harry Bingham, LL. 
D., of Littleton, and Oliver E. Branch, Esq., of Weare, were 
selected as vice-presidents ; and Hon. E. B. S. Sanborn, of 
Franklin, and Mr. P. B. Cogswell, of Concord, as secre- 
taries. Col. Charles C. Danforth, of Concord, was chosen 
marshal, and his assistants were designated as follows : Andrew 
Bunton, of Manchester ; Col. W. H. D. Cochrane, of Nashua ; 
Chauncey H. Greene, of Littleton ; and Cornelius E. Clififord, 
Esq., of Concord. 

The statue was dedicated Thursday, October 23, and a full 
account of the proceedings is given in another part of this work. 



The S 



TATUE. 



THE STATUE. 



The figure is of bronze, eight feet in height, and was cast 
from a design made by Carl Conrads, the artist of the New 
England Granite Works, of Hartford, Conn., to whom the com- 
plete contract for both statue and pedestal was awarded. 

The casting was done by the Ames Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Chicopee, Mass., and was completed October i, 1890. 
The statue surmounts a pedestal made from a design furnished 
by Architect John A. Fox, of Boston. It is made from selected 
Concord granite, and is cut in four pieces. The bottom base is 
eight feet square by one foot six inches rise from the ground 
line. The second base is six feet square by two feet eleven 
inches rise from the ground, and is finely molded. Next is the 
die, four feet square by two feet nine inches rise. On the front 
of this, in six-inch raised and polished letters, is cut the name 

GEN. STARK. 

The other three sides of the die are ornamented by finely 
executed bronze tablets sunk three fourths of an inch into the 
granite. One of the tablets is inscribed 

Bunker Hill, 

and the opposite one 

Bennington, 



12 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

while on the other side is the following inscription : 

Maj. Gen. John Stark. 

BORN 
IN LONDONDERRY, N. H., AUGUST 28, 1 728. 

DIED 
IN MANCHESTER, N. H., MAY 8, 1 822. 

erected by 
The State of New Hampshire. 

A. D. 1890. 

Both the lettering and the tablets are notably fine pieces of 
work. The die is surmounted by a capstone four feet one inch 
square, and having two feet three inches rise. This stone is 
elaborately mounted by a projecting mold and fillets. Upon 
this stone rests the statue. 

The entire height of the pedestal is nine feet five inches 
and the statue is eight feet high. The entire weight of the 
statue and pedestal is about twenty-five tons. 



i 



The Dedication, 



\ 



THE DEDICATION. 



The dedication of the statue occurred Thursday, October 
23, 1890, in the presence of a large concourse of people. Early 
in the day the streets presented an animated appearance from 
the throngs of people who had come into the city for the occa- 
sion. A stand for the accommodation of the officers of the day 
and the invited guests had been erected immediately in the rear 
of the statue, which was itself draped with the national colors. 

At 1 1 o'clock the Amoskeag Veterans arrived from Man- 
chester and, led by the First Regiment Band, marched to the New 
Eagle Hotel. Here the officials and invited guests assembled, 
and while the band played " Hail to the Chief " the procession 
was formed, marching from the hotel some distance down Main 
street. By this time the State House yard was thronged with 
people, there being probably about 3,000 present. 

At 11.30 o'clock the procession started, filing through the 
front entrance of the State House yard and marching directly to 
the platform. The procession was made up as follows : 

Col. C. C. Danforth, Concord, Marshal ; and Aids, Andrew 
Bunton, Manchester, Col. W. H. D. Cochrane, Nashua, 
Chauncey H. Greene, Littleton, Cornelius E. Clif- 
ford, Concord. 

First Regiment Band, Manchester, F. D. Record, Leader. 



1 6 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

Amoskeag Veterans, Manchester, Major Charles H. Bartlett, 

commanding. 

Governor Goodell and Staff. 

Executive Council. 

Ex-Governors and State Officials. 

Congressional Delegation. 

Justices of the Supreme Court. 

Hon. Moody Currier, President of the Day. 

First Vice-President and Poet. 

Second Vice-President and Chaplain. 

Secretaries. 

Descendants of General Stark. 

Invited Guests. 

Society of the Sons of the Revolution, Hon. Charles R. Morri- 
son, President. 

New Hampshire Historical Society, Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, 

President. 

Concord City Government. 

Immediately upon arriving at the stand the band rendered a 
selection, after which the marshal of the day commanded silence, 
and prayer was offered by Rev. John Mason Dutton, of Great 
Falls. 

PRAYER. 

Unto thee, our Father who art in Heaven, we come this day. In thee 
we live. In thy mercy we rejoice. In thy strength we triumph. Thou re- 
vealest thyself in man, in institutions ministering to human need, in prog- 



THE DEDICATION. 1/ 

ress by growth, conversion, and conflict. We see thee in nature, in nations, 
and in man. We thank thee for the lessons and inspirations of this day. 
We remember that no man liveth to himself alone and no man dieth to him- 
self alone. In this day let us realize that we are inheritors of past ages. 
We thank thee for that heritage of worthy names, manly spirit, and sublime 
courage. The dead speak to us, and their works do praise them. The hero- 
ism and self-sacrifice of others have secured to us unnumbered blessings. In 
thy providence, we are the reapers of a blessed harvest for which others 
sowed the seed. 

We give thanks for that current of power and knowledge' and pur- 
pose seen in the realizations of the present. Teach us the measure of our in- 
debtedness and of our responsibility towards all who may share in the re- 
wards of our living. Let thy mercy shine forth as the light in love to man. 
Let the power of Him who spoke and it was done, be girded abont this com- 
monwealth, in all her institutions of learning, mercy, and religion. Speak 
into the living present heroic purpose, loyalty to truth, and love to God. We 
seek to become that people whose God is the Lord, that righteousness may 
abide among us, that His law may be our law, that human purpose, begotten 
of truth, may be discharged in a loyalty as heroic as that of those whose 
debtors we are. We give thanks for the increasing power of that spirit that 
binds together successive ages, making us citizens of all nations, sharers in 
all trial, and victors in all triumph. 

May the blessings of God rest upon us, as we recall the life and deeds of 
one whose name is crowned with the honor given to those we love, whose 
heroism caused a light to shine in the darkness, and gave direction to forces 
that are living in us. We thank thee for the strength of manhood and 
womanhood that has crowned the years. May the blessings of freedom re- 
main among us to the latest generations, and we gather up, in years to come, 
the rewards of heroic service and self-sacrifice. Let blessings rest upon us 
in all the rites of this day, to perpetuate the fiiemory of him whose life aided 
in making possible the freedom and independence and power wherein we are 
blessed. We worship, praise, and pray in the name of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost, now and evermore. Amen. 

Following the prayer, His Excellency the Governor arose 
and introduced the officers of the day with these words : 



iS THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 



GOVERNOR GOODELUS REMARKS. 

FMn^f-Cifh^Ns : Tlio Lejjislature of 1889 enacted a law requiring the 
Governor and Council to erect a statue of Gen. John Stark in the State House 
yard. The work is doni\ and we are now ready to proceed to the ceremony 
of dedication. The following gentlemen have been selected as officers of 
the day: IVesiilcnt. Hon. Moody Currier, LL. D. ; vice-presidents, Hon. 
Harry lUn<;ham, l)liver K. Hranch, Esq. ; secretaries, Parsons B. Cogswell, 
E. H. S. Sanborn; m.irsh.d. C. C. Danforth; aids, Andrew Bunton, Col. 
W. H. I). Cochrane, Chauncev H. Greene, Cornelius E. Clifford. 1 now 

w 

present to you cx-Govcrnor Currier, president of the day. 

TRESIDENT CURRIERS ADDRESS. 

)onr KtiM-Mi'v it Ml/ /'MKC'Ctfhi'MS : The earliest records of the 
luunan race arc written in stone. The first traces of civilization are gathered 
iVon\ the tablets and tombstones found in the mounds and drifting sands of 
K>;ypt!an and Assyrian deserts. Antiquity has intrusted to marble and 
bvon/e the koepiuj; of the s;icred forms and features of its gods and men. 
Thus the j;roat events of the world, enshrined in imperishable forms by the 
skill of the painter and .sculptor, become the permanent foundations of his- 
tory, and the civili/.eil nations of the earth have ever considered it a sacred 
duty to erect statues and memorial monuments in honor of their heroes and 
benefactors, and to inscribe upon bra.ss and upon stone the names and noble 
deeds of" the men who have given their lives and fortunes to humanity. 
Those who have battled for liberty and human rights are justly entitled to the 
everlasting gratitude of mankind. The divine instincts in man alone are im- 
mortal. lM\ilanthropy, patriotism, and justice can never die; but the living 
countenance and distinguishing features of the great and the good may 
perish and be forgotten. The men of the Revolution have departed from our 
sight ; their venerable forms no longer walk among us; but the memory of 
their heroic lives and public virtues still lingers in the minds of this genera- 
tion. We owe it to ourselves, to those who shall live after us, and to 
the lovers of liberty throughout the world, to perpetuate the renown and val- 
iant deeds of the heroes of the American Revolution. Monuments of 
bron/.e and of granite should lift their proud heads towards heaven in honor 
of their heroism and their victories, and their effigies should stand in our streets 



THE DEDICATION. IQ 

and in our public grounds, where, like the trophies of Miltiades, they will be 
a perpetual inspiration to the young men of our own and of all succeeding 
generations. 

Near the falls at Amoskeag, on the eastern banks of the Merrimack, 
was the home of Molly Stark. There her distinguished husband swung the 
scythe and turned the furrow; there he sowed in spring and reaped in 
autumn. In peace he retired to his rest at night, and in peace he arose to 
his labors in the morning. But when the sound of battle rolled up the valley 
from the plains of Concord and Lexington, the oxen were unyoked in the field 
and the plow stood still in its course ; and when the war-whoop of the sav- 
age or the roar of the British cannon was heard in the land, Molly Stark was 
left alone to till the fields and gather the harvest for winter. Within those 
historic grounds, upon a slight elevation, stands a slender shaft of granite, 
seldom seen by the stranger as he hurries by upon the iron rail. Beneath 
that humble stone lies the sacred dust of John Stark, the hero of Bunker 
Hill and of Bennington. Monuments have been erected to commemorate these 
great battles upon the fields where they were fought. The glory and renown 
of American arms have been engraved in letters of gold upon these imperish- 
able foundations. But the ashes of the great commander whose heroic valor 
achieved for us these most important victories now lie beneath that ob- 
scure shaft on the banks of the Merrimack ; but the fame of John Stark does 
not grow dim with years. His brilliant achievements at Bunker Hill, Trenton, 
Princeton, and Bennington are recorded upon the pages of our country's his- 
tory, and his name shines among the brightest stars in that glorious galaxy of 
immortal men whose heroism and statesmanship gave to our country inde- 
pendence and liberty. 

His renown as a warrior passed beyond the sea. His daring and suc- 
cessfiil exploits in the battle of Bennington filled our enemies abroad with 
fear and apprehension, while the victory he won inspired our desponding 
armies with fresh hopes and great expectations. It was a source of much 
satisfaction and rejoicing to Washington, and proved to be the turning point 
of the Revolution. 

The people of New Hampshire have not forgotten the hero of that great 
battle ; he still lives in their memories; he is still dear to their hearts. Here 
in these consecrated grounds, by the side of our great statesman, Daniel 
Webster, upon a foundation of granite-they have placed an image of bronze 
representing the material form and outward features of our great soldier. 



20 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

Though its iron tongue may be dumb and its limbs motionless, its silent 
voice will ever say that the people of New Hampshire honor and revere the 
name of John Stark. And, fellow-citizens, may we not hope the day will yet 
come when many more historic forms of heroes, patriots, and statesmen shall 
gather beneath the shadows of this capitol, until these venerable groves shall 
become the sacred Pantheon of New Hampshire's most illustrious sons? 
From these silent memorials of human greatness our legislators may learn 
wisdom, and our people be inspired with a love of liberty, justice, and 
humanity. 

At this point Miss Shirley, to whom had been delegated the 
duty of unveiling the statue, performed her office in a very 
graceful and pleasing manner. As the folds of bunting fell 
aside, revealing the sturdy, yet artistic, outlines of the bronze, 
the cheers of the audience were mingled with the music of the 
band. 

Hon. James Willis Patterson, the orator of the day, was then 
introduced and delivered the oration as follows : 

ORATION BY HON. JAMES W. PATTERSON, LL. D. 

Here, to-day, in the presence of this vast concourse of her people, theState 
discharges with appropriate military and civic honors a tardy but grateful 
duty to her earliest and greatest soldier. In dedicating to Gen. John Stark, 
here within the shadow of the capitol of his native State, this splendid statue, 
in which art has blended with an easy grace the natural dignity and slum- 
bering force of the great original, we pay but a just tribute to the memory of 
one second only to George Washington among the great commanders of our 
Revolutionary period. No duty more sacred or responsible devolves upon 
the living than to perpetuate by appropriate symbols the noble deeds of a 
great life. We shall soon join the forgotten dead, but this silent form will 
tell to other generations, when our history shall have become dim in the 
lapse of time, the thrilling story of an imperishable name. 

The Scotch-Irish contingent of the emigrants who settled in this country 
early in the eighteenth century were a people of extraordinary physical and 
intellectual vigor. Their long struggles for more than two centuries with 




THE DEDICATION. 21 

religious bigotry and political oppression imparted to them an alertness and 
force of character which, transmitted to successive generations of their de- 
scendants, furnished both to England and America from this people more 
than their relative number of eminent patriots, statesmen, and men of 
letters. 

The Starks were of this lineage. Archibald, the father of General Stark, 
was a native of Glasgow, and was educated at its ancient university. Early 
in life, however, he removed to Londonderry, in Ireland, where he married 
and became closely identified with the heroic people of that famous old city. 
They were of the same race and creed with himself, and he partook of their 
trials and aspirations for better conditions. The men who had fought in the 
siege of Derry could not submit to oppression from any government or 
church, and in the spirit of heroic adventure accepted the hardships of the 
sea and the cruelties of the wilderness in the hope of larger liberty and a 
more generous expansion for their children. 

In 1720 the elder Stark and his family embarked with a company of 
Scotch- Presbyterians purposing to join their brethren who, the year before, 
had located at a place in this State named Londonderry in kindly remem- 
brance of the home they had regretfully abandoned. The small-pox broke 
out upon the crowded vessel and added its horrors to the other discomforts 
of the emigrants. All the children of Archibald Stark died, and the stricken 
voyagers were forced into quarantine for a year upon the then desolate 
coast of Maine before reaching their destination in New Hampshire. Here 
the Scotch exile from two homes reared a family of sons and daughters, 
and, though fitted by education for civil life, volunteered for the defence 
of the frontiers against the cruelties of savage warfare. The blood of 
heroes was in his veins and he could not resist the military instinct, which 
he transmitted to his four sons, all of whom at length held commissions in 
the service of the king. William, the oldest of the sons, a brave and accom- 
plished officer who had fought at Louisburg and Quebec with signal distinc- 
tion, hearing the guns of Bunker Hill in his home at Dunbarton, hastened 
to Cambridge and offered his services to his country-, but he was rejected 
for the promotion of inferior men. Maddened by what he deemed an insult 
and a wrong, in a moment of folly he accepted a colonel's commission in the 
royal army, and was killed by a fall from his horse in 1776. 

John Stark, the second son, whose great services and extraordinary life 
we have met to recall and honor, was born in Londonderry in 1728. When but 
eight years of age his father moved to Harrytown, a strip of unincorporated 



22 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

land upon the banks of the Merrimack, which, with portions of Chester and 
Londonderry, composed the town of Derrj'field under the charter of 1751. 
By an act of the Legislature the name was changed to Manchester in 1810. 

There, listening to the ceaseless roar of the falls of Amoskeag and hunt- 
ing wild game with the Indians upon the frontier, the boy toughened into 
manhood by the incessant labors of the farm and the forest and became 
quick of apprehension, fearless in danger, decisive in action, and tireless in 
endurance. The father, preoccupied by work and military service, could 
give no systematic instruction to his children, and they grew up with only 
the rudiments of education snatched from intervals of toil. 

In the boyhood of General Stark, the now wealthy and populous city of 
Manchester was upon the extreme northern frontier, and the hardy yeo- 
manry who guarded this outpost of civilization were dependent largely 
upon their skill as hunters for financial income. In 1752 John and William 
Stark, with two companions, in one of their annual excursions had pene- 
trated the forest as far north as the present site of Rumney, and there, 
upon a tributary of the Pemigewasset, were successfully engaged in secur- 
ing pelts when they were surprised by ten hostile Indians from Canada. 
John Stark and Amos Eastman were taken into captivity and David 
Simpson was shot, but William Stark escaped through the cool intre- 
pidity of his younger brother, who warned him to flee and knocked up 
the guns of his brutal captors when in the act of shooting. On reaching St. 
Francis, the prisoners, in accordance with a custom of the tribe, were forced 
to run the gauntlet between a double row of young braves armed with rods. 
Eastman suffered a severe beating, but when Stark's turn came he seized a 
club from the first in the line and laid it about him with such force as to 
drive his assailants from the field, greatly to the amusement of the old war- 
riors who were sitting by as spectators. He was next put to hoeing com, 
but he cut up the corn and hoed the weeds and finally threw his hoe into the 
river, declaring that this was the work of squaws. The strength and bravery 
of the young athlete so pleased the men of the tribe that he was adopted by 
the sachem and honored with the title of '* young chief." He was treated with 
great kindness while in captivity, and studied with care the customs and 
character of the Indian, and especially his methods in war. The whole ad- 
venture seems like a providential part of his preparation for future life. He 
was finally ransomed for I103, which he paid with the fruits of a hunt upon 
the Androscoggin the following season. 



\ 



THE DEDICATION. 23 

His remarkable faculty of quick and accurate observation gave the 
youthful captive on this enforced march through the lower and upper Coos a 
knowledge of the northern portions of the colony which necessitated his ap- 
pointment as guide to the military and other expeditions organized by the 
provincial authorities after his return. The sleepless activity in eluding the 
cunning or in repelling the attacks of a treacherous and relentless foe was a 
ceaseless discipline of the faculties during the minority of our hero. By 
such providential training this gifted son of the frontier, far removed from 
military schools and the technique of war, was signally fitted at the age of 
twenty-six for leadership in a campaign for which the science and experi- 
ence of European battles gave but slight preparation. 

The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle established the status quo ante bellum 
between England and France, and the jurisdiction of each was nominally 
restored to its limits before the war which closed in 1748, but the boundaries 
between their possessions on this continent were left to be determined by 
commissioners to be mutually chosen. The commissioners, when selected, 
met in Paris, and after a heated conference adjourned without reaching a 
decision. From that moment the struggle began between these ancient and 
powerful enemies for the possession of the continent. The English claimed 
the valleys of the Ohio and the Mississippi by the right of royal charters, 
which extended their grants westward to the Pacific Ocean; the French, 
by the plausible plea of prior exploration and settlement, and as the 
natural union of their possessions in Canada and Louisiana. They would 
limit British power to the narrow strip between the Alleghanies and the 
sea, and stretch their own over the vast and fertile plains of the interior 
with open sea-gates north and south. There was genius in the conception 
and unlimited cunning and cruelty in the struggle for its realization. France 
stretched a chain of sixty forts between Montreal and New Orleans; built 
strong ships upon the lakes ; established trading and missionary posts at in- 
tervals through the interior ; made treaties of friendship with savage tribes 
and incited them to a system of inhuman warfare along the defenceless bor- 
ders. Fire, pillage, and murder marked their steps, and the expenses of the 
war were defrayed by the ransom of innocent women and children, driven 
into captivity by their brutal allies of the forest ; but savage subtlety and 
French activity were baffled, and British supremacy established by English 
statesmanship and provincial courage. 

After the conflict had actually begun, but before the declaration of war, 
a civil movement was inaugurated of great political significance. The British 



24 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

ministry, foreseeing that war was inevitable, advised the colonists to secure 
the friendship of " the six nations " and to unite in a plan for general defence. 
On the 19th of June, 1754, a convention of delegates from seven of the colo- 
nies met in Albany, and on the fourth of July adopted a form of confedera- 
tion, drawn by Dr. Franklin, which foreshadowed substantially our federal 
constitution. The instrument was rejected by the colonial assemblies be- 
cause it gave too much power to the crown, and by the royal board of trade 
because it gave too much power to the colonies. 

The ministry started a second proposition, which involved the right of 
Parliament to tax the colonies, but it was soon abandoned as impracticable, 
and royal troops were sent over to prosecute the war. The ministry conde- 
scended to employ the provincial militia as rangers, guards, and laborers, 
but thought them unfit for the more serious business of war ; but the govern- 
ment had planted an idea of colonial union which would not " down at its 
bidding," and it was soon to learn that subalterns who fought for their 
homes and altars were superior in all soldierly qualities to the trained men 
cenaries of arbitrary power. 

The philosophic student cannot fail to recognize through all these seven 
years of gloom and sufEering a divine purpose evolving the principles and 
the instruments of another seven years of more glorious battle in which an 
independent and free republic was to be born into the family of nations. 
The first struggle emancipated the people from French license and Indian 
savagery ; the second, from British arrogance and oppression. 

In 1754 the endeavor of the Ohio company to erect a fort at the junction 
of the Alleghany and Monongahela had led to actual hostility, and a force 
raised by Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, and, under the command of Major 
Washington, had been obliged to capitulate after an obstinate fight at Fort 
Necessity. In the beginning of the following year the war became interna- 
tional. General Braddock, a distinguished Irish officer, was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the British and colonial forces. An eastern expedition 
against the peaceful inhabitants of Acadia was executed by Colonel Monck- 
ton with a heartless refinement of cruelty that is a stain upon the record of 
the war and a dishonor to the civilization of the age. Fortunately it is an 
exception to the military history of the time. 

Braddock's plan of the campaign of 1755 consisted of three independent 
movements, — one against Fort du Quesne, led by the commander-in-chief, 
and whose fatal issue needs no recital, a second under Governor Shirley 
against Niagara and Frontenac, which was as fruitless but less unfortunate 



THE DEDICATION. 2$ 

than the first, and a third, led by General William Johnson, against 
Crown Point. The New Hampshire forces, commanded by Colonel Blan- 
chard, were assigned to this expedition. A corps of rangers, recruited by 
the famous Robert Rogers, was attached to this command. These men 
were rugged foresters, experienced in hardships and dangers, and, as marks- 
men, their aim was deadly. Of this number John Stark, though yet a youth, 
was a man of mark and commissioned as second lieutenant. The com- 
mand was first to go to the Coos and erect a fort, but before reaching their 
destination a second order directed them to join their regiment by way of 
Number Four. They arrived at Fort Edward in season for the triple battle 
with the enemy under Baron Dieskau. The third fight of the day, in which 
the enemy was completely routed, was fought by New Hampshire troops 
alone. At the close of the year the forces were disbanded and Colonel 
Stark returned to his home. 

But as reconciliation was now seen to be impossible, both belligerents 
made a formal declaration of war in the spring of 1756. General Abercrom- 
bie took command of the English forces as lieutenant of the incompetent 
Lord Loudon, whom the king had appointed to the chief command, and the 
Baron Dieskau was succeeded by the Marquis de Montcalm. The military 
genius of Montcalm quickly brought success to the French arms, and the 
year closed in gloom for British ascendency in America. But the unpre- 
cedented character of the war made the New Hampshire rangers an indis- 
pensable arm of the service, and at the request of Lord Loudon their 
number was doubled. They were divided into three companies, one of 
which was placed under the command of John Stark, at the time a 
man of twenty-eight. These companies were in almost continual service 
as scouts, ranging the country for information and fighting detached par- 
ties of the enemy. Stark^s knowledge of Indian character and habits 
made him a power in this kind of warfare. The course of the English 
commanders during this and the succeeding year might be characterized 
as masterly inactivity. They made great plans but did little execution. 
While the English commander was hazarding the loss of a continent by 
indecision and procrastination, Montcalm had captured Oswego, taken 
Fort William Henry, and threatened the conquest of the entire Northwest. 

The only relief to the disgraceful failures of Loudon and Abercrombie 
during the years of 1756 and 1757 was the splendid conduct of the New 
Hampshire rangers in their numerous and hazardous encounters with the 
enemy. In January, 1757, the rangers were dispatched on a perilous expe- 



28 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

This international war gave an empire to the crown but predestined it to 
independence. The iron nucleus of the Revolutionary army was fashioned 
and tempered in the heated furnace of these earlier battles. The idea of 
separation and self-government was forced upon the colonists by the hard- 
ships and insults they suffered from their insular masters. British selfish- 
ness, as historic as Punic faith, was unendurable to their English blood. 

With the return of peace, Parliament, in violation of constitutional 
rights, attempted arbitrarily to tax the colonies, to dictate the kinds and extent 
of their industries, to limit and control their commerce, to strangle their enter- 
prise and reduce the people to serfs, who should simply feed England and 
purchase her goods, and so glut the avarice of her manufacturers and mer- 
chants. But I need not rehearse the familiar catalogue of wrongs which 
preceded the long and glorious struggle in which the nation was born. Our 
fathers had come forth unshamed from the test of manhood, fighting side by 
side with the best troops of Europe, and would not submit to the surren- 
der of birthrights to men whom they had ceased to fear if not to respect. 
They were of the best stock of men which the race had produced ; they had 
been ennobled by communion with the old prophets and by the constant 
contemplation of the sublime truths of revelation, and their physical and 
moral powers had been disciplined by Herculean trials and dangers. As a 
people, they had become singularly familiar with the rights of men by reflec- 
tion and by close study of the best political works of their day. Their 
fathers, self -governed for five generations, had transmitted their spirit, and 
hence vassalage was an impossible conception to the men of Revolutionary 
times. They demanded a voice in the levying of taxes, and protested 
against the limitation of colonial industries and the monopoly of American 
commerce by English merchants. 

Of these men John Stark was a prominent and typical representative. 
At the close of the French and Indian war he retired from public life and de- 
voted himself with his accustomed force and concentration to somewhat ex- 
tended landed and lumbering interests. Living upon the northern frontier, 
he came rarely into association with the men about Exeter and Portsmouth 
who managed the public affairs of the colony ; but he was a delegate to the 
county congress in January, 1775, ^^^ *^ active and vigilant member of the 
committee of safety of his town, and watched with a patriot's eye the de* 
velopment of events, waiting for the struggle which he saw was inevitable. 
When swift messengers brought the tidings that the storm had burst at 
Lexington, shutting down the gate of his mill and rushing to his home, he 



THE DEDICATION. 29 

seized his gun, leaped upon his horse, and in ten minutes was on his way to 
the scene of action, calling, as he rode, to his neighbors and former compan- 
ions to follow him to Medford. In a few hours he and twelve hundred vol- 
unteers from the hills of New Hampshire offered themselves for the defence 
of their country. Others soon followed, and they were organized into two 
regiments under the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, " until New 
Hampshire should act." 

Capt. John Stark was unanimously elected colonel of one regiment of 
fourteen companies, and Capt. James Reed of another. Less than a month 
later, on the 17th of May, the New Hampshire convention met at Exeter, 
and on the 20th voted to raise a brigade of two thousand men organized in 
three regiments. Capt. Nathaniel Folsom, a soldier of some experience and 
success in the French and Indian war, was made colonel of one of the regi- 
ments and brigadier-general of all the New Hampshire forces. Later the con- 
vention also voted to adopt the two New Hampshire regiments then in the 
field, and finally, after some misunderstanding, appointed Captain Reed and 
Enoch Poor colonels of two of the regiments. But Colonel Stark, whose large 
experience and great military achievements had enabled him to enlist eight 
hundred men '* at the tap of the drum," feeling indignant that he had been 
superseded by a captain whose war record, though good, was less brilliant 
than his own, remained with his command at Medford, and when ordered by 
General Folsom to report his regiment, ignored the order as not being under 
his authority. 

It must be remembered that in this transitional period civil affairs were 
in great confusion. The royal authority had been repudiated, but no colonial 
government established to maintain order and command obedience. A con- 
vention had been held at Exeter in which parts of the colony were not rep- 
resented. The people in the northern and western sections, fearing lest 
the influence of the Governor and his friends might induce the patriots who 
controlled the convention to temporize and hesitate to repel force by force, 
held county congresses at Amherst, Keene, and Concord, which, like the 
convention at Exeter, had no legal authority but the will of the people. 
Nevertheless they acted promptly and wisely for the protection of society 
against disorganization and disorder, and when the war cloud burst upon 
them, the men represented in these county assemblies did not stand upon 
the order of their going, but at their own sweet will hastened to the place of 
danger without asking leave of any convention. Old Derryfield, the home 
of Stark, was not represented in the Exeter convention, for every male citi- 



30 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

zen but two fit to bear arms, including town officers, was at the front with 
his leader, waiting for the great opening battle of the war. There was 
nobody left to elect and nobody to be elected. Possibly these facts and the 
independent action of Stark, coupled with his great personal popularity, un- 
consciously influenced the action of the noble and patriotic men who com- 
posed the New Hampshire convention ; but they had yet something more to 
learn of the character and power of the man whom they would suppress. 

On his failure to recognize the officer by whose elevation he felt humili- 
ated, he was ordered to report to the convention in person. He obeyed the 
summons and appeared in the assembly, where he was kept waiting for some 
hours wasted on trifles. At length he rose, and addressing the speaker said, 
if they had any business with him it must be attended to at once, as his reg- 
iment required his attention at Cambridge. The speaker, assuming to have 
forgotten about it, replied : " We have agreed to raise three regiments, and 
have appointed Folsom to command the first, and appoint him brigadier- 
general, Poor his lieutenant-colonel, and you to command the second." 
Stark coolly inquired "if they had any way of making a child that was born 
to-day older than one that was born six weeks ago," and stalked proudly 
out of the convention. A committee was sent to recall him, but he refused 
saying to the committee " if they could not arrange the business, he would 
bring a committee in three days that would do it effectually." He was made 
colonel of the first regiment and returned to Cambridge, but never recog- 
nized Folsom as commander of the brigade. 

This question was soon settled, however, as General Folsom was elected 
to Congress and General Sullivan appointed to the command of the New 
Hampshire troops as a part of the Continental army. 

When the English veterans inaugurated civil war by spreading their ban- 
ners and marching to Concord for the destruction of a few supplies, and had 
been chased into Boston by the maddened farmers whom they affected to 
despise, it will be remembered that an allied army of volunteers from all the 
New England States gathered about the city in a semi-circle extending from 
Dorchester to Charlestown, and held them impounded in the town. The 
New Hampshire regiments were located at Medford and Charlestown neck, 
on the extreme left of this unorganized force of patriots. At length, when 
the British army had been largely re-enforced bythe arrival of troops from 
Ireland, and the committee of safety had learned that General Gage pro- 
posed to break through their lines on the left and devastate the country be- 
hind them, they recommended to the council of war that Bunker Hill should 



THE DEDICATION. 3 1 

be put in a state of defence. A council of war was held, and as a result 
Colonel Prescott, with about a thousand m en, marched on the night of the 
1 6th of June to the heights, threw up a redoubt on Breed's Hill, and 
strengthened it by a breastwork running about twenty rods northerly from 
the northeast angle of the redoubt. On the morning of the 17th the inade- 
quate force of Colonel Prescott was materially reduced by the return to 
Cambridge of many of his undisciplined forces. To satisfy the demand of 
the hungry, weary men who remained, two hundred men under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Wyman were ordered to their support from the regiment of Colonel 
Stark. These, added to the company of Captain Dow in Prescott's regiment, 
and to the volunteers from our State in other regiments, that were ordered up 
with Prescott, made more than three hundred New Hampshire soldiers then 
at the front. A little later Colonel Stark, accompanied by Major McClary, 
rode on to the hill. Running his experienced eye over the field and study- 
ing its possibilities for a brief period, with the prescience of military genius 
he foresaw the struggle that was to come, and putting spurs to his steed 
hastened back to Medford, called out his regiment, distributed to each man 
a portion of the ammunition captured at the reduction of Fort William and 
Mary, and waited for the call which he knew must come. From morning 
till noon the war vessels which encircled the peninsular and the battery on 
Copp's Hill thundered upon the heights where the undaunted Prescott and 
his devoted men waited in anxious silence the gathering storm. 

From one till three the British forces, three thousand strong, and proud 
of the honor of invincibility won on many a field of victory, were gathering at 
Moulton's and at other points along the shore, for the shock of battle. Wy- 
man, with his two hundred men from New Hampshire and a few companies 
of Massachusetts, was withdrawn from Charlestown and placed upon the 
right of the redoubt. As the enemy began to advance Colonel Prescott or- 
dered three several detachments to oppose their right wing, retaining, as he 
wrote John Adams, only about one hundred and fifty with him in the re- 
doubt. It is reasonable to suppose that a large number of these were his 
devoted friends from Hollis and other towns in the vicinity of Pepperell. 
We should infer this also from the number of the New Hampshire men 
killed and wounded in this regiment. At two o'clock Colonel Stark received 
an order from General Ward tore-enforce the command of Colonel Prescott. 
Reed being encamped near the neck was already upon the heights, and had 
ranged his regiment of over five hundred men to the left of Captain Knowl- 
ton, who held the extreme right of the rail fence. 



32 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

Colonel Stark, whose military instincts had been disciplined by the 
severest experience, saw that a great battle, without plan or preparation, 
and with no presiding genius to direct its progress, had been forced upon 
the best soldiers of Europe, and realized the peril of the situation. But at 
his best in the extremity of danger, calm and reflective as always under the 
greatest responsibilities, he moved deliberately from Medford to Charles- 
town that the seven hundred veterans and hunters whom he was consciously 
leading to their first obstinate grapple of civil war might not be infected 
with the general panic and confusion, and that he might inspire them with 
something of the cool courage of his own lion heart. He knew that the 
impending battle could be no running of the gauntlet of blood as at Lex- 
ington, but a steady test of the manhood and patriotic convictions of 
the men who fought. On reaching the neck his regiment was arrested 
by a rabble of volunteers who could not be forced through the storm 
of grape and canister which raked the narrow passage, and Major McClary, 
the pride and hope of the regiment, marching now to his first and last 
battle, rode forward and requested the commanders to advance or open 
and let them pass. They opened and Colonel Stark led his men with 
measured step across the dangerous pass. Captain Dearborn, afterwards 
so greatly prominent in the civil and military history of the country, march- 
ing at the side of the colonel, suggested that they should quicken their 
movement. Turning with a look of preternatural calmness and exaltation, 
he said, " Dearborn, one fresh man in action is worth ten fatigued ones," 
and moved slowly on. Arriving at the summit a little in advance of the bat- 
tle, he made a patriotic address to his men, and directing them to give three 
cheers, led them to the left of the line. There his regiment, co-operating 
with the heroic men upon their right, strengthened their defences by doub- 
ling the rail fence in front and stuffing the intervening space with new-mown 
hay. Glancing over the field, Stark divined the purpose of Lord Howe to 
out-flank our left wing by way of the Mystic and to crush our forces by a sim- 
ultaneous attack in front and rear. With the quick resource of genius he 
ordered the removal and re-erecting of a low stone wall between the rail fence 
and the waters of the river, and behind this, posted Capt John Moore and 
his men from Amoskeag, the quality of whose courage he knew was as un- 
yielding as the wall itself. He then forbade any man to fire till the col- 
umn of infantry should come within eight rods of the wall, and the men at 
the rail fence he directed to lie quiet till they could see the half-gaiters of 
the grenadiers. " Fire low and aim at their waistbands," rang out the clear 



THE DEDICATION. 33 

voice of McClary. The men behind the fence and the wall were trained marks- 
men and their aim was deadly. They wasted no ammunition that day. Un- 
der an incessant fire from the artillery, the column of infantry moved 
slowly along the sandy beach, and the heavy grenadiers, led by Lord Howe 
in person, advanced with a confident assurance that the frightened rebels 
would run at their approach. 

As there was no officer who had the right of supreme command of all 
colonial forces in the battle of Bunker Hill, the duty fell upon the highest 
officer of each colony to fight the men under his immediate control. As 
General Folsom did not arrive until after the battle, the command of all the 
forces between the breastwork and the river, except one hundred and 
twenty from Connecticut and two squads under Lieutenant-Colonel Robin- 
son and Major Wood, fell upon Stark as senior colonel. To his experienced 
eye it was early apparent that the supreme shock of battle was to be upon 
his command, with the intent of breaking through the line by an over- 
whelming assault and crushing the patriot force between an upper and 
nether millstone of English power. The enemy, deployed in line of battle 
and defiantly Haunting their banners, advanced with a ceaseless roll of mus- 
ketry. But it was as still as the grave behind the rail fence till the fatal 
line was reached ; then at the word of command a sheet of fiame blazed 
along the line and death swept down the ranks of the proud oppressor as 
with the blast of a sirocco. Decimated and bleeding, they turned and fled 
to the shore. These proud and valiant men of Britain, stunned but not 
conquered, re-formed and hurled themselves again against the " party of 
Hampshire, half-organized and wretchedly equipped," whom it has been the 
habit to " damn with faint praise," but again they were dashed back like 
waves from a rock in the sea. A third time they repelled their assailants. 
But the third attack was less serious than the former, for Clinton had come 
over with re-enforcements and the plan of battle was changed. In this Lord 
Howe, as has been said, made a third onset upon the forces of Stark and 
was driven back as before with great slaughter, but the more fierce and 
obstinate charge was now made by Clinton and Pigot upon the redoubt. 
Here Prescott and his immortal band fought with a heroism that would 
have added new honors to the three hundred at Thermopylae, and it was 
only when their ammunition was exhausted and they could no longer repel 
with clubbed muskets the foe that swarmed into the intrenchments, that 
they cut their way through the maddened crowd and began the retreat. 



34 THE STATUE OF GEXERAi JOHX STARK. 

The left wing that had annihilated the far-^med light infeLntiy npoo the 
pebbly beach of the Mystic, broken the speD of British invincibility, and 
covered themselves with a gloiy that can never fade, seeing that the redoabt 
had been carried, in the absence of bayonets or powder, clubbed their mus- 
kets and followed their dauntless leaders without haste and without disor- 
der, covering the broken remnant of the redoubt and the skulking re-enforce- 
ment on Bunker Hill, who like spectators in the amphitheatre had gazed up- 
on the bloody struggle in the arena below, furnishing neither the aid nor the 
supplies that would have given victory to the American arms. Fortunately 
for history, some of these suffered in the retreat and ' thencefortii claimed 
for their regiments the honors of the battle. 

I would not abate but enhance rather the fame of Prescott and Knowl- 
ton and the heroic men whom they led, but to the military genius of John 
Stark and the dogged courage and skilled marksmanship of more than 1,400 
New Hampshire veterans and hunters who fought that day, I am confident 
impartial history will award the merit of giving to that defeat all the results 
of a great victory. The suppression of facts and the undue exaltation of 
subordinate parties have perverted the record in the interests of persons and 
States to whom and to which the chief honors of the day do not belong ; but 
the reiteration of assertions that in their origin had no reliaUe authority, 
however decorated by pomp and pageantry and the eloquence of eulogy, 
cannot permanently escape the scrutiny of impartial history. 

The New Hampshire troops, of all which had hastened to the aid of 
Massachusetts, were the only ones other than those of his own State who 
had been put under the immediate command of General Ward, and being on 
the extreme left of the line near Charlestown, and not being needed to repel 
the threatened attack upon Cambridge and Roxbury, it was natural that 
they should have been sent to the aid of Prescott. 

The work of Stark's neighbors from Amoskeag, whom he had placed 
behind the stone wall by the Mystic to baffle Howe's purpose to flank our 
army, was the most deadly of all the carnage of that bloody day, *' ninety- 
six dead bodies being piled on the beach, besides those who were merely 
wounded, of the light infantry who were expected to carry off the laurels of 
victory." A letter from an officer of the royal army sajrs : " As we ap- 
proached, an incessant stream of fire poured from the rebel lines ; it seemed 
a constant sheet of fire for thirty minutes. Our light infantry was served 
up in companies against the grass fence without being able to penetrate; in- 
deed, how could we penetrate? Most of our grenadiers and light infantry 




THE DEDICATION. 3$ 

the moment of presenting themselves lost three fourths and many nine 
tenths of their men. Some had only eight and nine in a company left ; 
some only three, four, and five." 

With such execution it is not surprising that the New Hampshire 
regiments had only eighteen men killed and ninety-three wounded. Our 
unerring marksmen drove the angel of death into the ranks of the enemy by 
their cool intrepidity. 

The royal forces were not in a condition to follow our men beyond the 
neck. The New Hampshire troops retreated to Winter Hill, where they con- 
structed defences of great strength. A writer in Silliman's Journal, speak- 
ing of the defences erected about Boston at this time, says : " Nothing but 
the enthusiasm of liberty could have enabled the men of America to con- 
struct such works. In history they are equaled only by the lines and forts 
raised by Julius Caesar to surround the army of Pompey." 

During the siege between the retreat from Charlestown and the retreat 
from Boston a portion of Stark's officers and men volunteered on the disas- 
trous expedition into Canada under Arnold. Of this number was Captain 
Dearborn,' afterwards a major-general in the war of 1812 and secretary of 
war. But Stark remained and took an active and honorable part in the 
events of that painful period of suspense. 

The second Continental Congress, which had met at Philadelphia in 
May, had before the battle of Bunker Hill voted to raise an army of twenty 
thousand men, and adopted the troops at Boston as a Continental army. 
On the 15th of June George Washington was elected commander-in-chief, 
and subordinate general officers were appointed to assist him to organize the 
forces and prosecute the war. John Sullivan, of New Hampshire, was made 
a brigadier-general and succeeded to the command which General Folsom 
dropped on being elected to Congress. This seemed to be a happy settle- 
ment of the difficulty which had arisen in the colonial organization of the 
New Hampshire troops. 

On the 3d of July General Washington took command of the army at 
Cambridge and began in earnest to reorganize and discipline his forces with 
the intent of forcing the evacuation of Boston. As Washington's forces 
and resources strengthened, he pushed the siege with great vigor and finally 
erected works on Dorchester Heights which put the city at his mercy. A 
storm having frustrated Howe's plans for dislodging the rebels, he came to 
a tacit understanding with Washington that he would evacuate the city on a 
specified day without harm to persons or property if the cannonading ceased. 



36 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

As the time expired without any movement, Washington determined to 
carry the town by assault. He massed a strong force, covered by the bat- 
teries on Dorchester Heights, to enter the city by way of Roxbury Neck, 
and ordered Colonel Stark to transport his forces on rafts and carry the 
battery on Copp*s Hill. Colonel Stark directed his wife Elizabeth, whom 
he facetiously called Molly, and who was on a visit to his camp, to mount a 
horse and if the troops were fired upon to ride into the country and arouse 
the people. She saw her husband lead his troops up the heights and take 
the battery. They found the guns loaded and lighted matches lying beside 
them, but the enemy had fled to their ships. 

Washington led his army over the neck and took possession of the town, 
freed at last from the ravages and tyranny of British hirelings. 

Colonel Stark was then ordered to proceed with two regiments to New 
York and aid in completing the defences of the city. He remained here till 
May, 1776, when he was directed to march to Canada by way of Albany. 
He came up with the army at St. John and proceeded thence to Sorel. 
General Sullivan, in command of the Canadian expedition after the death of 
General Thomas, determined, on the arrival of re-enforcements, to attack the 
enemy at Three Rivers, in the hope of retrieving the fortunes of the cam' 
paign. Stark advised strongly against it in the council of war, but being 
overruled gave to the unfortunate movement his best efforts, in obedience to 
his controlling sense of military duty. Retreat became necessary, and it 
was conducted with great skill. Colonel Stark and his staff were the last to 
leave St. John, just as the vanguard of the enemy entered its smoking ruins. 

The army proceeded to Crown Point, but Colonel Stark*s regiment was 
stationed on the opposite side of the lake. General Schuyler and the gen- 
eral officers decided to evacuate Crown Point and retreat to Ticonderoga, 
but Colonel Stark and the other field officers remonstrated against it in a 
written memorial to the general. The sequel confirmed the judgment of the 
subordinate officers. 

The day after reaching Ticonderoga the declaration of independence 
was read to the army and welcomed with shouts of approve. 

General Gates, on assuming command of the Northern army, gave Col- 
onel Stark the command of a brigade and ordered him to clear and fortify 
a mountain christened Independence in honor of the action of Congress. 

The campaign on the Northern frontier having closed, several regi- 
ments, including Colonel Stark's, were detached to re-enforce General 
Washington, whose small army, smitten by successive defeats, had dwin- 



THE DEDICATION. 3/ 

died to a mere handful and was now slowly retreating before a powerful 
and exultant foe. This was one of the darkest hours of the war. The 
Northern campaign had failed. The forces of Washington had fought with 
desperation against fearful odds, but thousands had fallen in battle or were 
languishing in deadly prison ships in New York harbor. Despairing of 
success, the volunteers whose terms were expiring refused to re-enlist, and 
the regulars deserted. At this gloomy juncture. Stark marched his ill-clad, 
ill-shod force with bleeding feet to the rescue of the little army struggling to 
maintain a foot-hold upon the Delaware, and materially aided in securing 
two victories, which Frederick the Great pronounced the most brilliant of 
any recorded in the annals of military performances. 

On being asked in a council of war before the battle of Trenton to give 
his views. Stark replied : ** You have long been accustomed to place de- 
pendence upon spades and pickaxes for safety, but if you ever mean to es- 
tablish the independence of the United States you must teach them to place 
dependence upon their fire-arms and their courage." **This is what we 
have agreed upon," said Washington. " We are to march to-morrow upon 
Trenton. You are to command the right wing of the advanced guard and 
General Greene the left." " I could not have been assigned to a more accep- 
table station," was the reply of Stark. It was a moment of extreme peril. 
Cornwallis was approaching with a large force of veterans to crush this 
"forlorn hope" of hunted patriots. The cause and the country were at 
stake. The term of enlistment of the New Hampshire regiments had ex- 
pired and their retention was indispensable to success in the issue of the 
approaching battles. Stark appealed to the patriotism of the men from the 
Granite Hills, reminded them of their splendid record at Bunker Hill and 
in Canada, and pledged his private property for the payment of arrears. 
By his great influence and personal popularity every man re-enlisted for 
six weeks. 

Washington realized that the tide of fortune must be turned or all was 
lost, and in all his career the qualities of the great commander never shone 
more brightly than in the conception of the battles of Trenton and Prince- 
ton, and by committing the execution of his skillful plans to his ablest and 
most trusted leaders, he organized victory out of the conditions of despair 
and turned back discomfited a powerful and disdainful foe. The resistless 
charge of the New Hampshire regiments, inspired by the cool heroism of 
their leader, contributed in no small degree to the splendid results. " I must 
not withhold," says a participant in the battle, " due praise to the dauntless 



38 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

Stark, who dealt death wherever he found resistance and broke down all 
opposition before him/' 

The moral effect of these victories was marvelous. Public opinion was 
suddenly revolutionized. Despair gave place to exultant hope, and the 
militia flocked by thousands to the standard of Washington. Stark contin- 
ued with the army till it went into winter quarters, and then returned to New 
Hampshire to recruit a new regiment, as the term of his old one had expired. 
His personal popularity and recognized merits as a commander enabled. him 
to raise a full regiment by March, 1777, which fact he communicated to 
Washington and to the council of New Hampshire and went immediatly to 
Exeter to receive instructions from the authorities of the State. While there 
he learned that a new list of promotions had been made in which his name 
had been omitted and junior officers advanced over him. His proud spirit 
was deeply wounded by a sense of injustice. No man in the army had won 
the right to advancement by more exalted services. No man had served 
the country with a more lofty and constant patriotism. No man had sacri- 
ficed private interests to the public welfare more completely, and few had 
devoted larger gifts to the cause of national freedom, and his unbending 
will would not allow him to be subordinated by political trickery or to be 
humiliated by official influence in Congress or the army, jealous because of 
his exalted character and glorious achievements. In a dignified and manly 
communication to the General Court of New Hampshire he resigned his 
commission in the army, and on receiving the thanks of the assembly, retired 
to the duties and pleasures of private life. While the letter expresses a deep 
and indignant sense of personal wrong, it breathes throughout a spirit of the 
purest and loftiest patriotism. To Generals Sullivan and Poor, who urged 
him to remain in the army, his reply was that " an officer who would not 
maintain his rank was unworthy to serve his country." 

Notwithstanding his withdrawal from active service his interest was so 
deep and controlling that he fitted out all his family and servants who 
could bear arms and sent them to the front. This forced inactivity was of 
short duration. Providence baffled the machinations of the men whose am- 
bition and malice had driven him from the service. His native State, im- 
periled by the approach of a powerful enemy, called for the unerring judg- 
ment, the instinctive sagacity, the military genius, the large experience and 
extraordinary power which he possessed to inspire his command with his 
own resistless force and courage. In battle a handful became a host in the 
command of Stark, and he could not be spared in the unequal contest to 



THE DEDICATION. 39 

which they were driven and in which the Continental army was powerless 
to help. The homes and firesides of New Hampshire and her grants were 
to be rescued from ravage and plunder, and spuming the leaders who had 
wronged and insulted him, he obeyed the call of his own people, whose 
property, liberty, and lives were at stake, and under the sole authority of the 
State, planned and executed a campaign which saved New England and 
the country from annihilation, reversed the action of Congress, and com- 
pelled the bestowal of honors unjustly withheld. 

Parliament, at last awakened to the danger of losing her American col- 
onies, determined to supply forces and means sufficient to crush the rebeU 
lion in the campaign of 1777, and so far as any human eye can see, the pur- 
pose would have been consummated but for Stark and the New Hampshire 
militia at Bennington. Washington was driven from post to post, and his 
troops defeated in every great battle of the season. Congress fled from 
Philadelphia and it was taken by the British army and held as their winter 
quarters. At the North a veteran army of ten thousand men under Bur- 
goyne had driven the Americans from Ticonderoga, and after an obstinate 
resistance had crushed the rear of the flying patriots at Hubbardston, Vt. 

Desirous of resting his men and replenishing his supplies before falling 
upon the depleted forces at Fort Edward, Burgoyne sent a detachment of 
six or seven hundred Germans, Canadians, Indians, and Tories, under Col- 
onel Baum, "to ravage the New Hampshire grants for supplies of cattle, 
horses, and carriages, to test the affections of the country, disconcert the 
councils of the enemy, and fill up the ranks of the Tories." The defences of 
New England had fallen and her soldiers were absent in the field, and hence 
a widespread fear of impending horrors seized upon the people. The danger 
was most imminent to New Hampshire, and though her resources and her 
credit seemed exhausted, John Langdon, the patriot and statesman, after 
making a stirring address to the general assembly, in which he pledged his 
private property for the expenses of the expedition, proposed that they 
should send a brigade of the militia under " our old friend Stark to stop the 
progress of the enemy on our Western frontier." The proposition was 
received with great favor. 

Stark was sent for and accepted the command on the condition that he 
was to have the sole power to direct the expedition according to his own 
judgment, and to be responsible to no authority but that of the State. The 
terms were accepted, and in a few days he proceeded to Charlestown and 
sent forward his men, as they came in, to Colonel Warner, who had com- 



40 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

mand of the troops of the £;rants at Manchester. General Stark soon joined 
his command at this place. General Lincoln appeared at Manchester about 
the same time with an order from General Schuyler to conduct these new 
recruits to Stillwater. Stark peremptorily declined to allow the order to be 
executed, as he held his commission from the State and not from Congress. 
Congress censured him for the refusal, but he regarded the censure with 
supreme indifference. He knew that his course was dictated by a better 
knowledge of the situation and- by sounder views of the military necessities 
of the times than were those of Congress, and he could afford to wait. 

Stark having learned that the enemy were intent on capturing the sup- 
plies stored at Bennington, moved his brigade to that place. On the 13th of 
August, having been informed that the enemy were advancing upon the 
town, Stark hastily collected all the militia in the vicinity and consolidated 
them with his brigade. He also despatched couriers to Manchester for 
Warner's and Emerson's men to move forward. Fortunately, these men, 
being delayed, arrived at a moment of great peril on the day of the battle. 
On the morning of the 14th Stark moved with his entire force to the aid of 
Colonel Gregg, whom he had previously sent out to confront a vanguard of 
Indian scouts. He soon met Gregg retiring before Baum's entire army. 
Stark threw his men into a line of battle and awaited the onset. The enemy 
perceiving that the patriots were intending to fight, halted on a command- 
ing position and began to intrench. As the situation was unfavorable, Stark 
retreated for a mile, hoping to draw the enemy after him ; but as they would 
not move, the day was spent in skirmishing. On the 15th it rained violently 
all day and fighting was impossible, but it gave Baum an opportunity to per- 
fect his defences and to send for re-enforcements. An additional detachment 
of Germans, under Colonel Breyman, was detailed to the assistance of 
Baum, but arrived too late for the first battle. 

At one o'clock on the morning of the i6th the camp was awakened by 
the arrival of the troops from Massachusetts. Those from Pittsfield were 
led by their pastor, Rev. Thomas Allen, a lineal descendant of one of Crom- 
well's Ironsides. He went immediately to headquarters, and addressed the 
general as follows : " The people of Berkshire have often turned out to 
fight the enemy but have not been permitted to do so. We have resolved if 
you do not let us fight now never to come again. " 

" Would you go now, in this dark, rainy night ? " said Stark. 

" No," was the answer. 

" Then go to your people, tell them to rest if they can, and if God sends 



THE DEDICATION. 4I 

US sunshine to-morrow and I do not give you fighting enough I will never 
call upon you to come again.'' 

They could rely on Stark to satisfy their hunger for a fight. 

On the morning of the i6th the bright sun looked down upon some 
seventeen hundred Americans lately mustered from peaceful homes and all 
unused to the shock and carnage of war. Having complied with the order 
to dry and cleanse their arms and take rations, they were carefully reviewed 
by Stark and the brave Warner, who was acting as a staff officer to the gen- 
eral. At midday the patriots were massed, and the general, leaping to the 
top rail of some sliding bars by which he was standing, and steadying him- 
self by a tall post, made this immortal speech : " Now, my men, there are 
the Hessians ; they were bought for seven pounds ten pence a man. Are 
you worth more ? Prove it. To-night the American flag floats over yonder 
hill or Molly Stark sleeps a widow." Then throwing their knapsacks, 
jackets, and baggage into a heap they advanced to the fight. Colonel Her- 
rick, three hundred strong, was ordered to move around the enemy by the 
right flank, and Colonel Nichols, with three hundred and fifty men, by the 
left, and uniting, to hurl their forces upon the rear of the Hessians ; Colonels 
Stickney and Hobert were directed to take two hundred men, with com 
husks in their hats to distinguish them from their antagonists in the grand 
melee, conceal them in a corn-field till the decisive moment, and then fall 
upon the hated Tories. Stark, with the reserve in front, marched several 
times around a hill and consumed the time in other meaningless evolutions 
to divert the attention of the enemy. At length, about three o'clock, Nichols 
and Herrick .united their forces, and the thunder of their guns gave the 
signal of attack. Immediately the Americans advanced, and an incessant 
roll of musketry was heard on all sides for an hour. 

Suddenly a terrific explosion within the redoubt shook the hill and sent 
blinding smoke and flying fragments over the combatants. There was an 
involuntary lull in the battle, but quickly comprehending that the tumbrel of 
the Hessians had exploded, the patriots gave a cheer, and clubbing their 
guns dashed over the parapet like a whirlwind. The heroic Baum fought 
like a lion, but he received a mortal wound and his panic-stricken followers 
fled, but they were met by the reserve and overpowered. The Tories fought 
with desperation, but were defeated and nearly all taken prisoners. The 
German dragoons battled with the courage of veterans, but conquered by 
the sustained grit of the militia were forced to fly with the loss of all their 
artillery and baggage. The victory was overwhelming, but the Americans, 
unaccustomed to discipline, scattered in search of booty. 

6 



42 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

At this moment distant firing was heard on the Cambridge road, and 
soon the tidings spread that a body of Hessians under Breyman were ad- 
vancing to the help of Baum. The fugitive Germans rallied and the battle 
was renewed. The militia who could be rallied fought with unflinching 
courage but without unity of purpose, and were being gradually driven 
back when Warner's and Emerson's men, who did not arrive in season for 
the first struggle, suddenly advanced and plunged into the fight. The con- 
test was bloody and obstinate, but the cannon of Breyman had gradually 
pushed the Americans back toward the redoubt, when Stark and Warner, 
having collected more of their men and brought the captured cannon of 
Baum into use, gathered their forces in hand and made a splendid counter 
charge which turned the tide of battle. The Hessians were forced back, 
but contested every inch of ground. But the militia, swarming into the un- 
dergrowth which skirted the clearing, made their line of retreat a gauntlet 
of musketry. Soon the retreat became a rout and the exultant patriots 
hunted the fugitives till darkness arrested the pursuit. 

Thus two terrific battles were fought and two brilliant victories won in 
one day by the man whom Congress did not deem worthy of promotion, and 
whom it censured for not obeying an unauthorized summons which would 
have defeated the campaign. Stark followed the dictates of the wisest mili- 
tary policy, and his plan was approved by the commander-in-chief as soon as 
it was made known. The results of these victories in prisoners and material 
of war were of great value, but the moral effects were worth infinitely more. 
The country was lifted from deep depression to exultant hope, and recruits 
flocked to the standard of the Northern army in the expectation of a speedy 
triumph. The drift of the war was reversed and Congress hastened to pass 
a vote of thanks to Stark and his men and conferred the commission which 
they had before refused. 

The plan of the battle was conceived with a skill worthy of a Caesar, 
and no Roman legion ever fought with more intense and sustained cour- 
age than these raw recruits under the inspiration of their great leader. 
Stark, on entering the redoubt and gazing upon the ruin his men had 
wrought, remarked that they fought like fiends. Yes, said the dying Baum, 
they fought more like fiends than soldiers. We are not surprised that the 
commander, not given to exaggeration, should have said of this engagement 
that it was " the hottest he had ever known, resembling a continual clap of 
thunder." 



^ 






I 



* THE DEDICATION. 43 

t The policy of Stark removed all cattle and stores of provisions from the 

reach of the enemy, cut off foraging parties, and forced the fatal battle of 
the 19th of September. On returning home Stark was welcomed and hon- 
ored on all sides as the saviour of the people. On joining the army of Gates 

^ at Stillwater he placed his command to the north of the enemy and cut o£E 

his communication with Canada and Lake George. By this policy Bur- 

< goyne was starved into another defeat on the 7th of October, and on the 

4 19th of the same month was compelled to surrender his whole army at Sara- 

toga. This was the logical result of the victory at Bennington, and was the 
beginning of the end. 

A complete revolution had occurred in the opinions of Congress rela- 
tive to the character and abilities of General Stark, and he was selected by 
. that body to conduct a secret and very important expedition into Canada 
during the winter of 1777, but the scheme failed from causes over which the 
general had no control. In the spring of 1778, he was given the command 
of the Northern department, but later in the season was ordered to join 
his friend, General Gates, in Rhode Island. He remained there during this 
and the following year. The next season he joined Washington at Mor- 
ristown and participated in the battle of Springfield in New Jersey. 

During the summer he returned to New England to raise re enforce- 
ments for the army at West Point. Soon after, he was ordered to relieve 
General St. Clair at this place after Arnold's flight, and while there, it be- 
came his painful duty to serve upon the court-martial which convicted 
Major Andre. Gladly would he have let " this cup pass from him," but he 
could not and so followed his duty and not his feelings. He was called upon 
next to conduct a hazardous enterprise preliminary to a project which Wash- 
ington had formed for taking Staten Island. He was eminently successful, 
but the enterprise miscarried. 

During the close of his military career General Stark united in a 
powerful appeal to Congress to relieve the fearful distress of the army, and 
failing in this, an appeal was made to the States, but with no better success. 
In 1 781 General Stark was again assigned to the Northern department, 
and was in command at Saratoga at the time of the surrender of Cornwallis 
at Yorktown. As this was the virtual close of the war, the general dis- 
missed the militia and retired to New England. He did not return to the 
army in 1782 on account of broken health, but at the request of Washington 
visited the headquarters in 1783 and exerted his powerful influence to 
allay the discontent of the army, which threatened the most serious conse- 
quences. 



44 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

This is an epitome of the military career of a great commander. 

On retiring from the army General Stark devoted himself with his ac- 
customed assiduity to his extensive agricultural and lumbering interests, 
and succeeded in amassing an amount of property respectable for that day, 
and which he dispensed in a way appropriate to his high standing and char- 
acter. As he advanced in years he developed that natural love for domestic 
animals which has often been observed as a beautiful characteristic of the 
great. He seems also, notwithstanding the distractions of his military life, 
to have imbibed a taste for literature, especially for Johnson, Goldsmith, 
and the Scotch poets. His integrity and purity were so austere, and his 
democratic instincts so strong, that his private life became as phenomenal 
as his public among those who knew him. Like Washington, he seems to have 
carried a charmed existence. Her passed fourteen years amid the scenes of 
actual war, and was often compelled to lead and hold raw troops in the very 
teeth of terrific battle, and yet was never wounded. In person he was of 
medium height, broad-shouldered, and very athletic. His features were 
prominent, and his eyes, of a greyish blue, flashed from beneath a bold, over- 
hanging brow. His manners were simple, frank, and manly. He knew 
little of the refinements of courts or the subtleties of the schools. His 
career and character were the natural and noble product of extraordinary 
gifts and passions, reared in the dangers and privations of frontier life, 
and brought into action amid the perils and strenuous activities of a great 
revolution of doubtful issues. His natural quickness of perception and clear 
judgment, his military experience and self-control in danger, made his coun- 
sel valuable and his services indispensable during the war. Taking a com- 
prehensive grasp of the whole field, and seeing instantly the proper thing 
to do, he was sometimes impatient of the delays and mistakes of smaller 
men. He scented the approach of danger with a preternatural instinct, 
and yet seems never to have experienced the sense of fear. His mental 
processes were as logical on the front of battle as in the repose of home. 
His will was supreme and master of all his powers, and yet, though always 
self-centered, he would at times, when the frenzy of battle was upon him, 
hurl himself and his forces upon an enemy with the swiftness and force of a 
thunderbolt, and sweep down all impediments. He was remarkable through 
life for his kindness and hospitality, especially to old companions and the 
poor, but had little patience with the indolent and vicious. He was not trac- 
table nor flexible ; never wept, and seldom smiled. He was too proud to 
fawn and too direct and too downright to flatter. 



\ 



THE DEDICATION. 4$ 

He gladly accepted the rank of major-general when conferred by Con- 
gress in 1786, but would not sue for favors. I recall no one among the great 
men of our Revolutionary period who was less a politician than General 
Stark. Conscious like Caesar and Napoleon of intrinsic power, he would 
not truckle to inferiors for position. He had sacrificed too much and 
served the public too long and faithfully to be a sycophant, or to ask for 
favors which the spontaneous gratitude of his country might not bestow. 

As he advanced in years Madison, Jefferson, and others of the civil 
founders of the republic recognized his great services and sent him touch- 
ing tributes of fond remembrance. 

Watching the development of the institutions he had helped to plant, 
and pondering the Word of God, his years lengthened into more than four- 
score and ten. At length he fell on sleep, and tender hands laid him to rest 
by his loved Merrimack, and where the field slopes to the setting sun. At 
his obsequies the loving husband, the tender father, the honored citizen, 
and the stainless soldier was laid to rest with the insignia of public sorrow 
by two generations bom in the republic he had helped to found. To-day 
the descendants of John Stark and the fathers of the revolution, the citi- 
zens and soldiery of a fourth generation, and the government of the com- 
monwealth unite to dedicate with appropriate ceremonies this memorial 
statue, that generations yet to be may learn to love and emulate the virtues 
and patriotism of our dead hero. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Patterson's address, which was lis- 
tened to with eager attention, another selection was rendered 
by the band. The exercises were then concluded by the pre- 
sentation of Mr. Allen Eastman Cross, the poet of the day. 

POEM BY ALLEN IgASTMAN CROSS. 

JOHN STARK. 

Upon its field of blue, 
The little flag above our hero's grave 
Had only thirteen stars — but by its side, 
Alt with a growing nation's conscious pride, 
I saw another glorious hanner wave, 

Whose stars were forty-two. 



4^ THE sTATVt O? OZJfZJLi-I. "H^ rTJLLS. 



A aarl^^'i ««a.:iu 'jsut^zi. Oyd't ti=L..:i^ »k:±:i . 
T1.1 ^a.^ a.-.'i icati tie zi:::- 



To tiLve i*r g-/ iea sttrs, 
liice g^jarfOA Morrla, or v:ii Lir^i:-** "u^i : 

The bera^'l ir.^rAtn of her faisrc Siaic 
Who dared w;:i Freed ^oi'i f^riJ: or sv^rd :3 sca^d 
In her dark davs of Tore. 

And ihoald the na::oa mark 
In marble memory these mighty men. 
Or cast in bronze their deeds, or paint their scro!! 
To deck her halls of state, vhat staancher son'. 
More chivalric or daantlesf. hath she then 

Than gallant old John Stark! 

John Stark, the ranger boid ! 
Who, through the pathless wilds by Horicon, 
Hath sped thrice forty miles, *twixt son and son, 
Kre succor from the distant fort is won ; 
And this, for fellow comrades undergone 

Amid the snow and cold ! 

John Stark, the rallier I 
The brave recruiter, who hath left his mill, 
And riding madly, leads the largest share 
f>f those that dare to fight for Country there 
Behind the old rail fence on Banker Hill, 

And all for love of Her I 

John Stark, the volunteer I 
New Hampshire*s general, by Congress shamed, 
Robbed of his rank, who yet hath fought and won 
A nation's crucial fight at Bennington, 
And now is by his rescued Country named 

The nation's brigadier. 



THE DEDICATION. 4/ 

Then, let her shield the fame 
Of him who shielded her in war's alarm ! 
Then, must a nation rear his monument I 
And let her place it where his life was spent — 
Her soldier citizen I upon the farm 

That bears his grave and name. 

Beside the stream that fills 
Our hands with labor and our hearts with joy — 
Which he hath also loved — there let it stand; 
And let its silent majesty command 
Views of the hills he traversed from a boy 

This Hero of the Hills 1 

So were it meet and good 
The nation should his shrine of honor rear, 
A patriot statue o'er a patriot's grave 1 
But, since our ninth fair star he fought to save, 
'Tis well his State should raise his statue here, 

To mark her gratitude. 

Here, at the Capital — 
New Hampshire's heart, whence beats her pulse of power 1 
New Hampshire's brain, where civic lore is laid, 
And laws sustaining civil rights are made 1 
Since civil power and rights are but the dower 

Bequeathed by Stark to all ; 

By Stark and Sullivan, 
McClary, Langdon, Scammel, Poor, and Reed, 
And all that roll of mighty men, bequeathed. 
Whose names are with eternal honors wreathed. 
Whose deeds, like voices of our mountains, plead 

The«liberties of man ; 

Here, at the Capital, 
Before the civic temple of our rights. 
Which is the soldiers' battle shrine as well. 
Within whose hall the martial banners tell 
How men's heroic virtue still delights 

To own their country's call ; 



48 THE STATUE OF •:JEX53LL1 'OHy 5TJLRJL 



Before this shrtoc i£ S^ 
Beside Xev Elxmcshirs's loer rrrral son, 
^ ao hacii iesesced widi aiaiescic word 
Wlut fLLinc Scark iesextieii widi Jiis swr^ri, 
Chir oera weil uaj sand, sacs sicoer one 

Wjs but 1 sword oc are. 

Aye swords witaia G«xf s hand ! 
As men arccinced •!£ :2te Lord :a ward — 
The one. wich ilial eio«^aecce the life 
And hape o€ onioa in its cfric scrife. 
And with a staresman's panopiT ca ^nard 

The fortane of his land ; 

The ocher, to defend 
A natiaa's lite npon an earlier fidd. 
Bidding his stoat heroic heart to lead 
New Hampshire forces to the nation's need. 
And with a coorage, called of God. to shield 

Onr courage to the end. 

For, still oar leader bold, 
Bt blood and faith and inspiration high. 
Commands New Hampshire hearts and leads as on. 
As once he led oar sires at Bennington, 
And once again we raise the battle cry 

And follow as of old. 

Lead on, O gallant heart ! 
New Hampshire follows, as the Scottish men 
Beat back the ^'Infidels,'' when Dooglas cried. 
" Lead on, O heart of Bmce,** and all replied, 
" Fling forth the royal heart ! we follow then 

TUl life by'death depart.- 

And victory crowned their zeal — 
And so it ever crowns the zeal of those 
Who enter on a glorioas crusade. 
Calling diviner spirit to their aid. 
And fighting loyally whate'er oppose 

God and the common weal. 



■> 



THE DEDICATION. 49 

Then, raise the ancient cry t 
The " Infidels*' are pressing I men who hate 
The equal rights for which our hero fought, 
Who would enthrone their wealth, till men be bought 
And sold as Hessian slaves, and all the State 

In golden shackles lie. 

'Gainst such, his heart we need I 
His courage like a flag to lead our eyes, 
His spirit like an armour to equip. 
Granting each heart its silent leadership. 
Till only brave fraternity we prize. 

And follow where it lead. 

Aye, raise the cry once more, 
" Lead on, O heart of Stark I " We rally now 
'Gainst all who dare to make our freedom vain, 
'Gainst all who dare our nation's rights disdain, 
'Gainst plutocrat or anarchist, may thou 

Still lead us as of yore. 

O'er systems, foul or dark. 
O'er plotters, poor or proudly opulent. 
O'er tyrants, from without or from within. 
Come victory I God's sons the fight must win. 
If to the Lord of Hosts our prayer be sent, 

" Lead on, O heart of Stark." 

Immediately upon the conclusion of the poem, the guests 
proceeded to the Eagle Hotel, where a banquet was served. 
There wis no speaking. Music was furnished by Blaisdell's 
Orchestra. 

The Amoskeag Veterans had a lunch served in their quar- 

t 

ters at Chase's Hall. 

The city was tastefully decorated, the State House being very 
elaborately trimmed. The day was clear and bright, and the 



50 THE STATUE OF GENERAL JOHN STARK- 

ceremonies passed off in perfect order, and were wholly in 
keeping with the character of the hero whose plain, rugged per- 
sonality was to be commemorated. It is to be hoped that this 
recognition of the debt so tardily paid may ser\"e as an inspira- 
tion of a patriotic impulse and a noble sentiment that shall serve 
in days of peril to produce another Stark, more heroic, if it can 
be, than his Revolutionary prototype. 




Appendix. 



\ 



APPENDIX A. 



JOINT RESOLUTION FOR THE ERECTION OF A STATUE OF 

GENERAL JOHN STARK. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court con- 
vened : 

That the Governor and Council be hereby directed to cause a statue to 
General John Stark to be erected in an appropriate place to be by them 
selected, in the Stdte House yard, of a similar character, material, and work- 
manship to the Webster statue now standing in said yard ; and that to meet 
the expense thereof the Governor be authorized to draw his warrant upon the 
treasury for a sum not exceeding twelve thousand dollars. 

[Approved August 14, 1889.] 



APPENDIX B. 



A contract made and concluded on this 17th day of June, 1890, between 
the New England Granite Works, located at Hartford, in the State of Con- 
necticut, a corporation existing under the laws of said State, and the State 
of New Hampshire, represented by the Governor and Couacil, as follows, to 
wit : That said Granite Company shall construct, build, and set up in the 
State House yard in Concord, in said State of New Hampshire, at such place 
in said yard as said Governor and Council shall select and designate, a statue 
of General John Stark, together with a foundation and pedestal therefor, 
which foundation and pedestal shall be of materials specified, and con- 
structed as stated in the specifications prepared and signed by John A. Fox, 
architect, and hereto annexed ; that the statue of General Stark shall be of 
bronze, of heroic size, and in design like the model presented to said Gover- 
nor and Council by said Granite Company, and shall be designed by Charles 
Conrads, the designer of said model ; that the material, workmanship, and 
general design shall be like and of as good quality as that of the statue of 
Daniel Webster now in said yard. 

All of said work shall be done according to the plans accepted by said 
Governor and Council, and completed on or before the first day of October, 
1890; and for all of said work, when completed to the satisfaction of said 
Governor and Council, the said Granite Company shall receive the sum of 
eight thousand dollars in payment and satisfaction. 

In testimony whereof the parties aforesaid have set their hands and seals, 
on the day and year firdt before written, to this instrument and to a duplicate 
hereof. 

THE NEW ENGLAND GRANITE WORKS, 

BY J. G. Batteiisox, President. 

THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

BY David A. Tagoart, Acting as Governor, 

E. C. Shirley. 

Frank C. Churchill. 

Attest : 
W. V. Wiohtman, Secretary, 



( Seal ^ 
<N. E. G. > 
(Works. ) 




APPENDIX C. 



Official invitations were issued by the committee to the following 



niS EXCELLENCY DAVID H. GOODELL. 



Hon. Charles H. Horton. 
Hon. Edward C. Shirley. 
Hon. William S. Pillsbury. 



Gen. Elbert Wheeler. 
Gen. Charles O. Hurlbutt. 
Gen. Sylvester Little. 
Gen. Paul Lang. 
Gen. John H. Cutler. 



EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

Hon. Frank C. Churchill. 
Hon. Sherburne R. Merrill. 

governor's staff. 

Col. Fred A. Palmer. 
Col. Stephen S. Jewett. 
Col. Daniel F. Healy. 
Col. Edward M. Gilman. 



new HAMPSHIRE CONGRESSIONAL DELEGATION. 



Hon. Henry W. Blair. 
Hon. William E. Chandler. 



Hon. Alonzo Nute. 
Hon. Orren C. Moore. 



JUDGES. 



Hon. Daniel Clark, 

Judge of United States Dist. Court. 
Chief Justice Charles Doe. 
William H. H. Allen, 

Judge of the Supreme Court. 
Isaac W. Smith, 

Judge of the Supreme Court. 
Lewis W. Clark, 

Judge of the Supreme Court. 



Isaac N. Blodgett, 

Judge of the Supreme Court. 
Alonzo P. Carpenter, 

Judge of the Supreme Court. 
George A. Bingham, 

Judge of the Supreme Court. 
Hon. Daniel Barnard, 

Attorney-General. 



56 



APPENDIX. 



STATE OFFICERS. 



Hon. David A. Taggart, 

President of the Senate. 
Hon. Hiram D. Upton, 

Speaker House of Representatives. 
Hon. James W. Patterson, 

Superintendent Public Instruction. 
Col. Solon A. Carter, 

State Treasurer. 
Gen. Augustus D. Ayling, 

Adjutant-General . 
Clarence B. Randlett, 

Acting Secretary of State. 
James O. Lyford, 

Bank Commissioner. 
Alpheus W. Baker, 

Bank Commissioner. 
William A. Heard, 

Bank Commissioner. 
Hon. John C. Linehan, 

Insurance Commissioner. 



Henry M. Putney, 

Railroad Commissioner. 
John M. Mitchell, 

Railroad Commissioner. 
Col. John B. Clarke, 

Public Printer. 
Col. George W. Riddle, 

Fish Commissioner. 
Hon. Moses Humphrey, 

Pres. State Board of Agriculture. 
Dr. Granville P. Conn, 

President State Board of Health. 
Dr. Ir\'ing A. Watson, 

Secretary State Board of Health. 
George W. Colbath, 

Warden of the State Prison. 
Hon. Albert S. Batchellor, 

State Historian. 
William H. Kimball, 

State Librarian. 



EX-GOVERNORS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Nathaniel S. Berry. 
Frederick Smyth. 
James A. Weston. 
Person C. Cheney. 
Benjamin F. Prescott. 



Charles H. Bell. 
Samuel W. Hale. 
Moody Currier. 
Charles H. Sawyer. 



GOVERNORS OF OTHER STATES. 



Gov. E. C. Burleigh, of Maine. 
Gov. Carroll S. Page, of Vermont. 
Gov. J. Q. A. Brackett, Massachusetts. 



Gov. John W. Davis, Rhode Island. 
Gov. M. G. Bulkeley, of Connecticut. 




Appendix. 




58 



APPENDIX. 



BENNINGTON BATTLEFIELD ASSOCIATION. 



Hon. W. G. Veazey. 
Hon. S. E. Pingree. 
Hon. Redfield Proctor. 
Hon. W. P. DiUingham. 
Hon. E. J. Phelps. 
Hon. E. J. Ormsbee. 
Hon. U. A. Woodbury. 
Hon. H. G. Reed. 



Hon. A. B. Valentine. 
Hon. L. F. Abbott. 
Hon. Oliver Scott. 
Hon. M. C. Huling. 
Hon. L. K. Fuller. 
Hon. J. G. McCullough. 
Hon. G. G. Benedict. 



ARTISTS AND MECHANICS. 



Carl Conrads, Sculptor. 
James A. Fox, Architect. 
Hon. James G. Batterson, 
President New England Granite 
Works, contractors for the work. 



Hon. Aretas Blood, 
Agent of the Manchester Locomo- 
tive Works, founders of the statue. 
R. Austin Robertson, 

American Art Ass'n, New York. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE DEPARTMENT GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBUC. 



Hon. Thomas Cogswell. 
George E. Hodgdon. 
Everett B. Huse. 
Almon J. Farrar. 
George B. Lane. 
M. M. CoUis. 
James F. Grimes, 
Rev. James K. Ewer. 
O. C. Wyatt 
A. S. Eaton. 



George Farr. 
M. A. Haynes. 
W. H. Trickey. 
D. J. Vaughan. 
A, H. Bixby. 
James E. Larkin. 
Dr. Royal B. Prescott. 
Alvin Burleigh. 
C. R. Parsons. 



OTHER DISTINGUISHED CITIZENS. 



Hon. Jacob H. Gallinger. 
Hon. Hiram A. Tuttle. 
Hon. Luther F. McKinney. 
Hon. Charles H. Amsden. 



Hon. Warren F. Daniell. 

James L. Locke. 

Gen, Luther McCutchins. 




APPENDIX. 



59 



NEW nAMPsnniE society of the sons of the revolution. 



Sylvester Dana. 

Lewis Downing, Jr. 

Moses French. 

Henry M. Fuller. 

Samuel Lankton Gerould. 

George C. Gilmore. 

George W. Hill. 

John Haven Hill. 

John McClary Hill. 

Isaac Weare Hammond. 

Fred Leighton. 

Charles Robert Morrison. 

Leonard Allison Morrison. 

Howard L. Porter. 

Allan H. Robinson. 

Hiram King Slayton. 

Charles Eastman Staniels. 

Thomas Jefferson Weeks. 

Worthen Denct Whittaker. 

Joshua Gilman Hall. 

John S. Kidder. 

Hiram F. Newell. 

Edward F. Smyth. 

Daniel F. Straw. 

John Waldron. 

John Tapley Welch. 

Thomas Wheat. 

Charles Hubbard Wilson. 

Edward C. Aiken. 

William W. Bailey. 

Mrs. Lydia Morrison Bennett. 

Henry H. Buzzcll. 

Ada E. Crosby. 

George H. Davis. 

Reuben C. Danforth. 



Isaac B. Dodge. 

James A. Edgerly. 

George Emerson. 

Freeman A. Garland. 

Frank H. George. 

Henry O. Kent. 

Joel F. Osgood. 

Charles Langdon Tappan. 

Mrs. Adelaide Cilley Waldron. 

Abraham L. Williams. 

Charles F. Iloyt. 

Mrs. Annie M. Parker. 

Charles S. Parker. 

Franklin R. Thurston. 

William S. Briggs. 

George Byron Chandler. 

Thomas Cogswell. 

Francis C. Faulkner. 

Orrin D. Huse. 

J. W. Lamson. 

George Avery Leavitt. 

Albert Judson Nay. 

Christopher C. Shaw. 

John W. Sturtt'vant. 

Joseph B. Walker. 

John Ballard. 

Abraham Emerson. 

James Swan Morrison. 

John Hosley. 

Bradbury Longfellow Cilley. 

Harry Pearle Hammond. 

William B. Stearns. 

Dixi Crosby. 

Josiah C. Eastman. 

George N. Eastman. 




6o 



APPENDIX. 



Daniel Clark. 

Amos Hadley. 

Howard Fremont Hill . 

Mrs. Rosalind Hammond Porter. 

Arthur L. Meserve. 

George F. Danforth. 

James Mitchell. 

John Kimball. 

Eben Otis Garland. 

Mrs. Adelaide C. Hayes Granger. 

Judge Eugene O. Locke. 

Sumner Adams Dow. 

Mrs. Martha A. Safford. 

Mrs. Mary Fitch Adams. 

Mrs. Susan Fitch Morrison. 

Albert Webster. 

David Webster. 

Edson C. Eastman. 

Reuben E. Walker. 

Henry H.Metcalf. 

Hamilton Hutchins. 

Hon. David Cross. 

Allen Eastman Cross . 

Joseph Kidder. 



Mrs. Joseph Kidder. 

Mrs. Angeline Ford Hall. 

Mrs. John S. Kidder. 

Rev. Nathan Franklin Carter. 

Austin T. Fitch. 

Judge Jeremiah Smith. 

Samuel Folsome Patterson. 

Gen. Joab Nelson Patterson. 

Robert Shirley. 

E. S. Nutter. 

J. Frank Hoit. 

Robert Morrison Dow. 

John Chamberlin Ordway. 

Col. Clinton Albert Cilley. 

William H. Straw. 

Mrs. Sara J. Hammond. 

Henry W. Herrick. 
I Elbridge P. Heath. 

MarshaU P. HaU. 

Sophia B. Merrill. 
' Joseph Pinkham. 
I Joseph Barnard. 

James Bartlett Edgerly . 
; Rev. Cassanda Cary Sampson 



NEW HAMPSHIKE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Francis L. Abbott. 

Henry Abbott. 

Clinton S. Averill. 

Rev. F. D. Ayer. 

Hon. George L. Balcom . 

Dr. Jesse P. Bancroft. 

Henry M. Baker. 

Very Rev. John E. Barry. 

James W. Bartlett. 

Mrs. Caroline B. Bartlett. 

E. R. Dow. 



Mrs. Cora K. Bell. 
Hon. John J. Bell. 
Amos J. Blake. 
Hon. Alvin Burleigh. 
Mrs. Julia R. Carpenter. 
Dr. William G. Carter. 
Charles S. Cartland. 
Horace E. Chamberlin. 
Hon. George B. Chandler 
William M. Chase. 
Harvey B. Cilley. 




APPENDIX. 



6l 



Rev. W. R. Cochrane. 
Ira Colby. 
Charles R. Corning. 
George N. Cross. 
Gen. George T. Cruft. 
Hon. Sylvester Dana. 
Isaac B. Dodge. 
Lewis Downing, Jr. 
Hon. Samuel C. Eastman. 
Charles F. Eastman. 
Albert S. Eastman. 
Alfred Elwyn, D. D. 
Charles A. Farr. 
John L. Farwell. 
Francis C. Faulkner. 
WUliam P. Fiske. 
Rev. James A. Fitts. 
J. S. H. Frink. 
John C. French. 
Isaac K. Gage. 
Enoch Gerrish. 
Rev. J. B. Gilman. 
John C. Goodenough. 
S. C. Gould. 
Mrs. M. L. Gove. 
William H. Hackett. 
Wallace Hackett. 
Frank W. Hackett. 
Daniel Hall. 
J. R. Ham. 

Mrs. M. W. Hammond. 
Alma J. Herbert. 
J. C.A.Hill. 
Edson J. Hill. 
Paul R. Holden. 
Chester B. Jordan. 
Samuel S. Kimball. 



Mary E. Kimball. 

B. A. Kimball. 

Mrs. Myra T. Kimball. 

John R. Kimball. 

W. S. Udd. 

S. A. Ladd. 

A. H. Udd. 

Mrs. J. C. Long. 

Mrs. L. F. Lund. 

A. S. Marshall. 

A. O. Mathes. 

J. N. McClintock. 

Hon. W. H. Mitchell. 

Hon. Mortimer L. Morrison. 

Hon. John W. Noyes. 

John P. Nutter. 

Woodbridge Odlin. 

Rev. J. E. Odlin. 

George Olcott. 

John C. Ordway. 

Rev. E. G. Parsons. 

L. W. Peabody. 

John H. Pearson. 

J. E. Pecker. 

John T. Perry. 

Parker Pillsbury. 

Howard L. Porter. 

Mrs. Alice R. Porter. 

Myron J. Pratt. 

A. J. Prescott. 

Dexter Richards. 

Henry Robinson. 

W. H. RoUins. 

Frank W. Rollins. 

Mrs. Louisa J. Sargent. 

D. F. Secomb. 

Mrs. E. P. Schiitz. 




62 



APPENDIX. 






r 



A. W. Silsby. 
John B. Smith. 
Edward Spalding. 
Charles B. Spofford. 
E. S. Stearns. 
Mrs. Frances C. Stevens. 
Mrs. Ellen T. Stevens. 
L. D. Stevens. 
H. W. Stevens. 
W. S. Stevens. 
Joseph A. Stickney. 
Mrs. A. R. Tappan. 
J. C. Thome. 
Titus S. Tredick. 

A. S. Twitchell. 
Mrs. E. L. Walker. 
Dr. C. R. Walker. 
Isaac Walker. 

Dr. B. S. Warren. 
Mark H. Wentworth. 
John A. White. 

B. B. Whittemore. 



1 




G. P. Little. 

W. A. Ferguson. 

Mrs. Anne E. Baer. 

Mrs. Marion Smyth. 

Walter H. Parker. 

A. W. Sulloway. 

Marshall P. Hall. 

Charles T. Means. 

Haven Palmer. 

Joseph Pinkham. 

Charles A. Sanders. 

Henry A. Kimball. 

Nathan Carter. 

Albert E. Bodwell. 

Mrs. Harriet N. Eaton. 

Frank P. Andrews. 

John E. Frye. 

John T. Mahoney. 

John Ballard. 

Mrs. Annette M. R. Cressey. 

J. C. A. Wingate. 



i 



^* 



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