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Qftoler 4. 





Ecclefiafticai Hiftory 


FRAN 'C : 'E. 

From the firft Plantation of CHRISTIANITY 

there, unto this Time : Defcribing the moft notable CHURCH- 
MATTERS: the fe-veral Councils holden in FRANCA with 
their principal CANONS: The moft Famoas Men, and moft 
LEARNED WRITERS, and the Books they have written, 
with many Eminent French Popes Cardinals,Prclates, Paftours, and Law- 
yers. A defcription of their UNIVERSITIES with their 
FOUNDERS. An impartial account of the State of the Reformed 
C H U R C H E S in F K A N C E i and the Civil Wars there for Re- 
ligion : With an exa& fucceffion of the F E NC H K I N G S. 

By the Antbour of the late Hijiery of t]x Church of 

Wjlori* eft hmtn Veritatis, vita Ant i quit at is. 


Printed for -ilona TafingcrK. the Three Bibles on London* 

"Bridget and"j^/^^f/Y/&attheSigaof the Bible uh* 

der d-.-/ jazz*et the Royal ExchaHgcin 

Cornhill. 1676. 




Am^liffimis y & Admodwn Keverendis in 
Cbnfto Patribusac Doming HENRICO, 
Providentia Divina Epifeopo Londinenfi: 
& Joanni eadem Provideritia Efijcofo 
Roffenfi ) necnon Decano W^fLrnonafterr- 
enfi., Salutem in Chrifto femgitemam, 

Venerandi Fat res, & Domini Cokndffimi ! 

A, qua par eft, fubmiffione, Hiftoricum 
hocce K&^KIOV, ex antiquis &: rccenci* 
bus AuthoribusGolledum 5 vobis of- 
fero, nuncupo, dedico : ut fplendore 
clarorum veftrorum nominuin lux a- 
liqua opufculo huic per viamafFulgeret,omnifquc 
finiftra obmurmurantium fcaeva propitio veftro fa- 
voreproctil amoveatur. 

Flofculus eft, quem Ego pauperculus, humilif- 
queGhrifti Hortulanus vobis prcefento : non il!e 
quidem Leftiffimus, fed is tamen qui in veftris pri- 



Epiftola Dedicatoria. 

mum facratis manibus cupiat fua qualiacunque folia 
explicare.Carpent ilium e veftris manibus alii quo- 
que, & delibabunt. Si enim veftro olfa&ui faga 
dffiino non ingratus fuerit ; fi veiir* gratiz calo- 
rcm/ fcnferit V non diibito, quin Piis omnibus bo- 
iium ' piiblicae aedificationis odorem captantibus , 

Hoc mihi folamcn eft, qiiod viri praeftantifllmi, 
&Honore& Doflrina proecelfcntcs, non tarn mu- 
neris oblati dignitatem, quam gratum offerentis 
animum perpendere foleanc. Sihunclibrum ac- 
ciperc, & diligenter perlegere dignemrni, hon'efta- 
tior & gra tia meis laboribus optima refcretur . DC 
Materia& MethodohujusHiftoriae^odum an fa- 
tis fervarim, Vos pro veftris accrrimis Judiciis ae- 
fiimabitis. lllam fiquando forte infpexcritis , & 
in ea aliquid obfervabitis, de quo me admonendum 
putabitis, illud rogo fignificetis : & quicquid ege- 
ritis, meam non modo voluntatem, fed etiam fen- 
tentiam cum veftraconjungam: hoc etiam Bent- 
ficium, & quidem fuuimumaccipiatri, qo ifhWripff 
& melior 8c doclior eyadam. Deus Amplitudil 
nemveftrarft, in Ecclefix fux> noftrasque 

u'tjlitatem, quamdiutiflimefervet incolume 

' i ' ' 

frfoA Reverenti* 



.W* '. ' ' 



T O T H E 

RT* A TT\ T* TT : 
tL A JJ H K. 

e D*/Zg o/ this Treatife is to fit 
forth the? Slate of the Galilean 
Chnrches^both of the Popifh, and the 
Keformed. At to the Popifli Church 
in France, it it holder* to be the heft 
Privileged of all the Churches in Chriftendom nn+ 
der the Pope. 

As touching their fon>cr\ the Galilean Clergy 
ftands more jtontly to their Natnral Rights againft 
the Encroachments and 'Usurpations of the See of 
Rome, than any other that livetb under the Pope's 
Authority , which they acknowledge fofar only, as is 
conjiftent with their own Privileges, and the Rights 
of their Soveraign : for it was long ere they could 
fnbmit to the Decrees of the Council of TRENT, 
nor have they yet admitted of the Inquifition. 

'the Do&ors of the Sorbon, are accounted toge- 
ther with the Parliament of Paris, the principal 
PiUars of the French Liberty ^ whereof they are ex* 
ceedtngjealoHf)aswett in matters Ecclefiaflical as 
Civil. When 

The Preface 

When Gcrfon Chancellour of Paris , had publi- 
feed a Boek^ in approbation of the Council of Con- 
ftance , where it was Enabled that the Authority of 
the Council wot greater than that of the Pope, the 
Sorbon Do&ors declared that alfo to be their Do- 
Brine. For John Gerfon in his defence of the Decree 
of that Council, fpeatyng of the Adverfaries faith , 
Perniciofos efle admodum adulatores,qui Tyranni- 
dcra iftam in Ecclefianvmvexcre, quafi nullis Re- 
gum teneatur vinculis : quafi iieque parere debea t 
Conctlio Pontifex, nee abeo judicari queat. 

The Kings them f elves alfo befriend their Clergy, 
in the caufe, and therefore tmt only protefted againft 
the Council of Trent, wherein the SpiritttalTyran- 
ny wo* generally confented to by the Fopifh faction \ 
but Henry the fecond King of France, would not 
acknowledge them to he a Council, calling it in his- 
Letters by no other name than Conventus Tridenti- 
i\u$An indignity which the Fathers took^grievoufly. 
Moreover, when King Lewes X/. to gratifie Pope 
Pius the fecond,pnrpo.fedto abolijh the jPragmatick 
Sanflion, the Sorbonnifts in behalf of the Church 
Gallican, and the Vniverfity of Paris, Magnis ob- 
fiftcbaot aniinis (faith Sleidan in his Commentary) 
& a Papa proyocabant ad Concilium. The Council 
unto which they appealed > was that of Bafil , where 
that San&ion war made : fo that by this Appeal 
they verified their former/Thcfis^ that the Council 
was above, the Pope. 

And before the Pragmatick Sanction was ordain- . 
ed y the Pope htd yearly drained the State of a Mil- 


to the Reader. 

lion of Crowns, at the Court of Parliament manifeft* 
ed to King Lewes the eleventh. 

Since which time the Kings of France have fome* 
times omitted the vigour of the Sanction, and fome- 
times alfo exaSled it ^according as their affairs with 
the Pope flood : therefore it was called Froenum 

And in the Year 1613. -caf natty meeting with a 
written by Becanus, entituled Controverfia 
Anglicana de poteftate Regis & Papaej the French 
catted an Affembly^ and condemned it. For , al- 
though the Main of it was apainft the Power and Su~ 
fremacy of the King of England, yet did it reflect 
alfo on the Authority of the Pope ovtr the Chriftians 
by the By 5 which occafionedthe Sentence. So jealous 1 
are they of the leafl circumftances^ in which any of 
their immunities may be endangered* 

The Pope hath no power in France to pardon cri- LeRefcrfpt? 
titittals. The very faculties of the Legates hereto- 9 de P r<> 
fore fent into that Kingdom-) make not any mention fl/f 
it) but of the Remiffion of Sins proceeding fromcw.2$. 
crimes. And though there jhould be any fuch thing) 
yet they are jtitt curbed in with this Bridle. 

To ufe it in fuch things as are not contrary^ dero- 
gatory, nor prejudicial to the Rights and Preroga- 
tives of the King and Kingdom, nor againjl the fa- 
cred Councils ) the Laws of the 'Univerfities , the 
Liberties of the Galilean Church^ and the Ordinan- 
ces Royal. 

The Clergy of France do not hold their Eccleji- 
n of the Pope, but of the King 
(a) a. 

The Preface 

Bellarm. a lone, hdwfoever the Jefuits teach the contrary, when 
(pntrov.V *b e y d not H f e ^ as they oti^ht : when they connive 
li.4-ca.24. at-.the punijbment of crimes, whereof they, have the 
Cognisance, the Courts of Parliaments may inter- 
pofe by means of an Appeal, as from Abufe* , efpe- 
f tally considering, it is it that grants them Jurifdi- 
8ion over Spirituals. And if the Queflion be of 
granting par den to a Prieft , or other Ecclefiaftick^, 
not only inapriviledgedcafe,bnta If 9 in a common 
crime by him committed, it belongs to the King only 
to grant it, not to the Pope, nor the Eifhop. And fo it 
hath been always accnflomed to be done in France. 

Moreover, the Pope cannot there reftore Clergy- 
P& men to *h e * r f arm er State , fo as to free them from 

15. & 16. the infamy which they have incurred', nor Lay-men 
Hnlefiit beto receive them into Orders, Offices , and 
' Ecdefiaftical ARs, not othetwife* As alfo that with- 
in this Realm, he carinot pardoner remit the Hauo- 
rary Amends, adjndgedby a Layman, albeit the con- 
demnation wtrc paffedby anEcclefiattical Judge, and 
that againSl a Clerk^, at making fuch Honorary con- 
demnation a part of the civil fatiffa&tQn. 

The Pope cannot makg any ^Unions-) or annexations 
of the livings in France, during the life of the In- 
cumbents, nor at other times : but he may grant out 
Writs of Delegation concerning unions , which *4 
conccivedto be done, according to the form prefcri- 
bed in the Council of 'Gonftance, and with the con- 
fent of the Patron, and not otherwife. 

The Kings of France have always refetved this 
authority and prerogative t& thtwfelvesjo determine 


to the Reader. 

of tie Refidence of Bijh&pt^ to compel them to feed 
their Flock^^and wait upon their Churches when need 
required^and that by felling upon theirTemporalsyo 
call them from Rome to return /f 0France 5 f difpenfe 
with them-) and approve the caufef of their abfence. 

The Pope, cannot in France difpenfe for any caufe 
whatfoeveri with that which it of the Law of Cod 
or Nature, or with that wherein the Councils' do not 
allow him to difpenfe. And the Ordinances of the 
French Kings do exprefly forbid all the Judges of 
the Land to have any regard to difpenfations grant- 
ed contrary to the facred Decrees and Councils, 
upon pain of lofing their places : And declare fur- 
thermore, That &ch as procure the faid Provifo's 
and difpenfations, fliall not make ufe of them , un- 
lefs they get leave and permiflion from his Majefty. 

The Gallican (Church is alfo more free from pay- 
ments to the Pope than the Church of Spain , as alfo 
to the King. 'the Clergy ef France pay only the 
Difme , whereas in Spain the King hath his Terti- 
a's, Subfidio, Pyla, Eicufado ; in att a moiety of the 

As to the French Churches feparatingfrom Com- 
munion with the Church of Rome, they have often 
been brought very low by the Popifli party. 

Sad was the condition of the Church of Merin- 
dol, which was cruelly rooted out by vertue of an Ar* 
rett of the Parliament of htKjAenjyomen andChil- 
dren being destroyed. And yet (I doubt not} but 
fome fmaU remainder of them was preferred. For 
fo the ftory faith exprefly, pauci quidem profugi Ge- 
( a 2 ) nevam 

The Preface 

ofiand.Ec- ne vam & alia loca Vicinia pervenerunt. Some few 
of them efcaped by flight to Geneva , and other 
Neighbouring places. 

What Perfections did the Waldcnfes^r Albigen- 
fcsfufer, when the Pope fent about hit Fry an in 
Ft&nce(itfeeweth^to preach Crjtfado's,vh.1hatwho- 
fiever would tafy the Badge of the Crofi upon his 
Garment , and ferve the Pope forty days in his Wars 
againfl thofe Chriftians who denyed him obedience^ 
and oppofed his Pride and Tyranny , Jhould have full 
pardon of all his fins , and if be dyt din the Wars 
Jlouldprefently go to Heaven^ and efcape the flames 
of Purgatory: and by this means (as I re member) he 
had at one time about an hundredthojifandof the filly 
-people in Arms, whom he ufed againft the mo$t faith- 
fnlChriflians/feek^g utterly to extirpate them^and 
by this means mnch Blood was Jbed. Itwafeafie for 
. him in thofe times ofdarfyefs to draw multitudes of 
poor blind Souls to DeftrH&ion* And Reimond, Earl 
of Tholoufe, a, great Prince, and Peer of France, 
wa* ruined, the Pope f citing on his Eftate and hold- 
ing it unto this day. 

A French Hiftorian fpeafyng of the bloody mtffa- 
Tiiuan.Hift. re in t fa R e jg n ^Charles 7X faith, that many wife, 
men that were Papifls them] "elves, did thinly that in. 
*]l Antiquity there could not be found an example of 
lil(e cruelty. But even then remarkable was God's* 
Providence towards thofe of the Reformed Religion 
in France. In the timeof that cruel maffacre at Paris 
thef toizfants being iv great fear /lifted far them- 
fflves here and there. Among the reft many of them 


to the Reader. 

fledt+V certain honourable Lady for protetion y wh& 
being near of kin to the King, was the more bold: but 
being a faithful Chriftian^fbe was alfo milling to re~ 

Hereof complaint being made, the King in great 
difpleafure commands her to difmifi them ally which 
fie could not withftand : fo that in one day about 300 
Waggons (for the M oft part filled with Women and 
young Children) were conftrained to diflodge^ and 
without a guard to go. to a ftrong Town for the fafe- 
ty of their lives. In this Journey they were to paft' 
through their bloody enemies flragling up and down 
in Armes, and ready to fei%e on fuch a booty. But 
by the fpecial providence of God, a certain Troop of 
Armed Gentlemen on Horfe-back^ hapned to meet 
them-who foon perceiving and pitying their d&nger, 
conduced them along in faftty y and often rtpulfed 
their enemies that were ready to affail them. < And 
though the French Kings (have all of them) pro* 
feffedthe Roman Religion, yet the Lord hath had 
many Instruments^ who with the hazard of their* 
lives -, and outward Eftates, have flood for the de~ 
fence of his Church^ divers Princes of the Blood*, 
Nobles, Gentlemen and others ^ and did ftrangely raifer 
his Church again after that horrid maffacre^ by. 
which it feemed to havebeen\extinguifhed< 

And King James of happy Memory ^fpeafyth thu& 
tf'thofe worthy Patriots whom God raifed up farther 
defence of his Church at that time> in his bool^ of the. 
defence of the right of Kings JL never fyaewyet( faith? 
ie) that the French Proteftaats toaj^ Arms: againfti 


The Preface 

their King. In the firft troubles they flood *nly on 
their defence. Before they took drrns they were burnt 
and ma jf acred every where. And the quarrel did not 
begin for Religion : but becaufe when King Francis 
the fecond was under Age^ they had been the Refuge 
of the Princes of the Blood expelled f row the Court, 
even of the Grandfather of the King now reigning^ 
and of that of the Prince tf Conde , who knew not 
where to taty San&uary, it jhall not be found that 
they made any other War. Nay is it not trne(asa lear- 
ned Divine of ours hath well obferved) that King 
Henry lll.fent Armies againft them to deflroy them, 
and yet they ran to hit help as foon as they faw him 
in danger** Is it not true^ that they faved his Life 
&t Tours ; and delivered him from extream danger ? 
And in the Tear 1617. they had the 'tefttmony of 
their fidelity from their own King Lewes X///. 
written to their Deputies ajjembled in a Synod at 
Vitre in thefe terms .We have received with good fa- 
tisfa&ion the new affurances and proteftations which 
yon have made unto us of your fidelity &* obedience^ 
in the which if yoHperfift^atye ought , and as ye have 
done before^ yon may alfo'be ajfiired, that we (ball al- 
ways have a care to maintain and preferve yon in all 
the advantages which have been granted unto you. 

A Reverend Divine on the Revelation, fpeal\ing 
of the French Churches faithy God hath made the 
Church of France a wonder (to me) in his proceed- 
ing toward them front firft to loft, and therefore to 
me great and f pec ial honour- would feem to be refer* 
vedfor them yrt-at the laft. For the-frft light of the 


to the Reader. 

Coffel, thefirft andftcond Angels preaching, (Rev. 
14.) which laid the Foundation ofAntichritysruine^ 
was from them, namely thofe of Lyons , and other 
places in France : and they bare the heat of perfecu* 
tion y which was of great a* any fince^ if not greater; 
Moreover) the Churches of France have ever ftnce 
had M great a (bare in perfections , yea greater than 
any of the Protefbnt Churches. And although it be 
well nigh five hundred years fence they began to fe- 
parate firft from Antickrift, yet they never had the 
great honour andpriviledge (which other Churches 
have been fo bleft withy w to have a fupream Magi- 
flrate-) profejfing their Religion, except one^ who alfo 
continued not therein. 

Pareus in his Commentary on the Revelation 5 ?r/- 
ttng concerning the deftru&ion p^Rome, inserts a Pam.Com, 
Prophecy, tafynout of an Antient Mannfcript found vif. 7 <j 
in the houfe of Salezhnbsyitf d a little be fore' his wri- 
ting on that Chapter fent unto /;/;;/, which if as fol- 

ExNationelHuftrifllmi Lilii orictur Rexqui- 
dam v ^^. there Jball arife a King out of the Nation - 
<?f th-e mofl iUuftriotrt Lily (vi^. France) having a 
long for iheadjngh brows } $reat eyes-> and an 'Eagles' 
mfe. He JbaU gather a great Army-> and destroy alt 
the Jy rants of his Kingdom > and flay all that fl^and 
hide themf elves in the Mountains and Caves from'' 
his face. For Rigbteoufnefi Jlall be joy ned unto him 
of the Bridegroom to the Bride : with them He /ball 
wage War, even to the forty eth year , bringing into 
n the Iflanders ; Spaniards, and Italians:.- 


The Preface, 

Rome and Florence he (ball deftroy and burn with 
jf re 5 fa as fait may be fowed on that Land. The 
greateft Clergy who have invaded St, Peter's feat^he 
fkall pntto death, and in the fame year obtain a don~ 
ble Crown: and at laft going over Sea with a great 
Army^hefball enter Greece, <W<? named King of 
the Greeks. The Turks and Barbarians hejballfnb- 
due, making an Edify That every one /hall dye the 
death, that worfliippeth not the Crucified one: 
dndnone Jhall be found able to refifthim, becanfe an 
holy Arm from the Lord (ball always be with him, 
and He jball poffefs the Dominion of the Earth. 
Thefe things being done^ he fhall be called^ The reSi 
of Holy Chriftians. Thus far the Prophecy^ which 
every one may credit fo far as it litres him y faith my 

There if another common Prophecy , viz. That 
from the Carolingiattf^ that is, of the race of Char^ 
lemaigne^ and Blood^Royal , fliall arife an Empe- 
rour of France-* by name Charles^ who fhall be a 
great Monarch, and fhall reform the Church and 
State. He that if cartons to fee this Prophecy > may 
find it among the vulgar Revelations. Whether 
this Prophecy hath any height in it, 1 refer my felf 
to other Mens Judgements : When God hath ap- 
pointed it to be done 3 he will touch their hearts 
that ft all do it. 

. JP.G. 





O F 


Century I. 

Eing about to write theHiftory of the GatiicanCburcb, ^ pa ft 
I (ball begin with the firft Plantation of the Gofpel chriftiinogr. 

Some Writers tell us, that Philip the Apoftle, of 
the City of Betbfaida, firft preached the Gofpel in 
France j and having afterwards preached in Tbry- 
gia, he was honourably buried with his Daughters 
at Hierapolis. Others fay, that the Chriftian Faith was firft planted Heylin'* cof- 
among the Gauls by fome of St. Peter's Difciples, fent thither by him mogr< Li6il * 
at his firft coming to Rome, Xyftw^ Front 0, and Julianus, the firft Pa- 
itors of Rbemes, Peregort and Matttz, being faid to be of his Ordaining 
in the Marty rologies. 

The like may be affirmed, (but on furer grounds) of frapbimut, faid 
to be the firft paftor, or Bithop of Aries. For, afterwards in a con- 
troverfie betwixt the Ar.chbi(hops of Vienna in France and Aries -, for 
the Dignity of Metropolitan, in the time of Pope Leo the firft, it was 
thus pleaded in behalf of the Bi(hop of Arles^ i&od prim* inter Gal- 

B /; 

_j! 3$c cccieftaftfcai ^ifto?? Cent, i. 

//jf , &c. That Aries of all rhe Cities of Gattl^ did firft obtain the hap- 
pinefs of having *frofbimus ordained BiOiop thereof by the hands of 
St. Peter. Tropbimus was a partaker with St. Paul in all his afflictions, 
and his daily companion. Zofimus writeth, that out of his Spiritual 
Fountain all the Rivers and Brooks of France were filled. Neither is 
St. Paul to be denied the honour of fending feme of his Djfciples thi- 
ther alfo to preach th^ Gofpel. 

Eufeb. Ecdcf. Crefiens, a companion of St. Paul, mentioned by him in his fecond 

Hift.Lib.j.cap.4. Epjftk unto ?j Mot ljy^ isfaid to have departed into Galatia^ 2 lim. 4. 

10- which Eufebius faith was France. That he was the firft Bifhep of 

Vienna forementioned, not only the Martyrologies, but alfo Ado Vi- 

ennenfu^ an ancient \Vritcr of that Church doth exprefly fay. And 

that it was into this Countrey that he fent Crefiens at that time, and 

not into Galatia'm Afi* Minor^ the teftimonies of Epiphanim and 7'be- 

Doroth. de LXX odoret, which affirm the fame, may fufficiently confirm. Dorotheas faith, 

that- Crefcens preached the Gofpel in France, and was there martyred 

and buried in the time of Trajan the Emperour. 

In the Hiirory of Lazims and Maximtnus^ we find, that they with 
friary Magdalen, and her fifter Martha came to Marfeitief. Maximinus 
was-oncot" the feveiity Difciples- of Chrilt, as divers Authors tell us. 
The French Antiquities tell us, That after the Afcenfion of our Lord, 
Anno 14. the Jews raifed fo horrible a pcifecution againii theChriitians, 
that the moft part fled whither they could : That Maximinur accom- 
panied with Laoaws^ tool^ Mary Mogdalen^ Martba^ Marcelia her hand- 
maid, and fome others, and committing themfelves to the Sea to avoid 
the fury of the Jews, they arrive at Marfeilles^ where the Prince of Mar- 
feilles was baptized. Lazarus became firft Paftor of.M<*r/>;'V/, and 
Maximinus of Aqttens. They were ordained to thofe Churches in the 
Year of.Chtift, 46. in which Year thefe Authors tell u$, that Simon 
the Leper (whom our Saviour cured of th^finrirrDity) was Ordained 
to be Miridcr of Mentz, Cc rtowanenfrtm in the Latin. 

IL the Year following, Martial was fcnt into France^ who Cwivert- 
ed divers Provinces and people, as the Annals of France do plainly te- 

In the Year of Chrift 48. Apberdifatf, by birth an Egyptian , and 
Governcur of all E^t, at the time when our Saviour being driven 
hue Egypt* tlie Idols of the Temples thert fell down, being the Difci- 
ple of St. Peter at A)ttich, was Conftituted Paftor of Ecttrges in France, 
Alter he had preached there fix years he died, and Vrpnus (whom 
feme call Natbanael) fucceeded him 

Anno Cbrilh 54. faxlus Sergius _ was alfo Conftituted Pafior of the 
Chuich of Narhon. 

Anton, dfr MO- A'bcut this time Clement Sir named Flavins, with Celeftuf 2nd Felix, 

charez. ub. 2. c'e and ouxC.QUDttty man Minfitetus^ camealio into France^ and preached 

the Gofpel there : b did Amator'vtith others, Eifingre- 

Cent 2. Of PRANCE. .3 

'Eifmgrfniitr out of divers Authors proveth- that S.*vitu*tius, or Sa- 
tiwtt.j oiie of the LXXII D'ifciples of Chrift, was by St. F<?*er the Apo- 
iile Tent into Fr <*;?<*, and" was Bifhop of Sew, when Claudius w.js Em* 
perour, AmtoCbrijli 54. and that unto him fucceeded in the Year 74. 
'^ who afterwards was an Holy Martyr. 

IN the fecond Century under the Empire of Marcus Anrelius, about Suipit. Sever, 
the Year of our Lord, id8. Chriftian'Religion began to fpread in J r ; Sacr * 
France, and then firft began .Jttjtttyrtrorr,*; as Sttlpititts Severn's 
faith, who was a Gtf#/, and'lived tfezff about that time. Under /4- 
rffotf Son of Antorimiu (faith he) the fifth Perfecutibn was moved, and 
then firft Martyrdoms were feen in France, the Religion of God having 
paft very late over the Atyes, being feriouily received, and fircerely en- 
tertained there. 

Many Chrirtians there'foffered Martyrdom by die Empcrovifs Cruel 
Edidts, among whom the Martyrs at LTOHS znd-Viekn* '(by bbthVUrch 
Cities thcRiver-K/^^^w doth run) were the mo'ft eminent. 

The Holy Churches there, fent a Letter touching their Martyrs'iinto 
the Churches throughout A$k and Pbrygfa, the Title of which Epiftle ^| 
thus beginneth s T^ke Servant^ 'Cbrift inhabiting Vienna' ar.d Lions, 
Cities of France, unto tb'f Br&mrtt tbrtwgb'ottt Afia and 'Phr^gia, ofttaik- 
/f with us the fame Faith and H"+>e of Tledtrnption, Ffatf. Grace and 
Glory from Cod the father^ arid Chriji Jefuf-otiP Lord^ b( nwlttylys'd. 

Having premifed certain things by way of preamble, they proceed 
in thefe words. Thegreatnefs of this our Tribulation, the furious rage 
of tke Gentiles againft-the Saints, and what things the bJefled Martyrs 
naive differed, we are able exactly neither to exprefs by word, r.orccni- 
pyehend- in writing, &c. Then "they (hew, how (he^fec manfully all 
fuch Vexations as the cluttered multitude laid upon them, viz. Excla- 
mations, Scourgings, Draggings, Spoyling, Fettering, Stoning, Impri- 
fonn-jnt, and that being brought before the Prefident, who had exer- 
cifcd all kind 'of extreme cruelty againft them, Vegctius Epagatbut, a 
young Noble Man, being full of fervent Zeal for God, \vith vehement 
motion required that Audience might be given him to plead for the 
Brethren, affirming, that they had committed no impiety : Which was 
denied him i the Prefident demanding whether he were a Chriftian, he 

B 2 con felled 

Ct)c ccciefiafttcai %ifto?? Gent. 2. 

confefled it with a loud voice, and fo was received into the fellowfhip 
of the Martyrs, and called the Advocate of the Chriftians. Then they 
declare, that Ten weak Chriftians, not able to bear the burden of fo 
weighty a combate fell in time of Perfecution, to their great heavinefs, 
and forrowful lamentation. They add, that out of both thefe Churches 
as many as ruled ancPbare the greateft fway, were taken and executed. 
Great was the whole rage both of Pretident, People, and Soldiers a- 
gainft Santtus^ Deacon of the Church of Vienna^ and againft Maturut, 
lately Baptized, yet a notable warriour, and againft Attains a man of 
Tergamus, who was a Pillar of the Faith, and againft filandina, who 
at the time of her anfwer warfo replenished with Grace from Above, 
that the Executioners which tormented her by turns from morning to 
night, fainted for wearinefs, and ceafed, confeffing themfelves over- 
come, marvelling that as yet (he drew breath, having her whole body 
rent in pieces, and the wounds open , they confeffing withal^ that one 
of thefe Torments was of force fufficient to coft Her her life, much 
more fo many and fo great -fufferings : But this Blefled Woman like a 
Noble Wreftler, was renewed at her Confeffion > for as oft as (he pro- 
nounced, I am a Chilian, neither have we committed any evil : She 
was refrefhed, and felt no pain of her punifament. And fuch was the 
conftancy of SanSw, that in the rnidft of his Torments, he uttered 
neither his own Name, neither his Kindred, nor the Countrey whence 
he was, but unto every Queftion he anfwered in the Roman Tongue, 
lam a Chriftian : Thus confefled he often, neither could the Gentiles 
get any other Language of him. When the wicked Tormentors a few 
dayes after had brought him to the place of Torment, and well hoped, 
that if they punifhed him now (having his whole body pufft up with 
fwellingand feftered wounds, fo fore that it might not be touched, no 
not with the leaft ringer) they (hould d(fccpme. him, or that if he diedlti 
torment, they (hould terrific the reft j none of all thefe happened unto 
him, but beyond all mens expectation, his body was releafed of the 
pain, recovered it's former fhape, and the members were reftored to . 
their former ufe. 

Then Bi/ir, a Woman, was grievoufly tormented, who in the midft 
of her Torments, cryed out unto the Tormentors, and faid, How could 
they devour Infants, which were not fuffered to fuck the blood of 
brute Beafts ? Then She confeffing her felf a Chriftian, was brought 
to Execution. 

They (hew, that P&0f/^Bi(hop of Lions after great Torments was 
caft into prifon, being about ninety years old, being weak of body, 
fcarce able to draw breath, creeping on apace, and being ftrengthened 
in Spirit for the conceived joy of Martyrdom which he defired : He 
was carried by the Soldiers, and laid before the Tribunal- Seat, accom- 
panied with the Potentates of the City, and. the whole Multitudei and 


Cent. a. Of FRANCE. 

being demanded of the Prefident, who is the God of the Chriftians > 
Anfwered, If thou become worthy thou (halt underftand : After this 
Anfwer, fuch as were neareft to him pricked at him with "the hand, 
and fpurned him with the foot, reverencing his years nothing at all > 
and thofe that flood afar off threw at his head whatfoever they had in 
their hands : He almoft breathlefs is thrown into prifon, where after 
two dayes he departed this Life. 

Maturuf^ Santtw, Elandina and Attalus , were led unto the brute 
beafts in the publick fpe&acle of the Heathens. Matum and SanUus 
were diverfly Tormented with all kinds of punimmcnts, as if they had 
fuffered nothing before : At length, after they had endured this grie- 
vous Tryal, they were beheaded. Tttandina was hanged in chains on a 
Gibbet fo low, that the wild beafts might reach her : after that (he had 
hung a long while, and no Beaft touched her, (he was taken down, caft 
into prifon, and referved for further Torment.- 

Attalut alfo a Famous Man, and notably exercifed in the Chriftian 
Profeffion, was led within compafs of the Theatre with a Scroll be* 
fore him, wherein was written in the Roman Tongue, This K Attains 
the Ckriftiatf* The Prefident knowing that he was a Roman, com- 
manded him to be imprifoned, and clofely kept with the other prifo* 
ners, concerning whom he had written unto C<efar> and expedied an 
, Anfwer. 

Alexander, a Phrygian born, and a Phyfician, having dwelt in France 
many years, a man well known for his great Zeal towards God, and 
boldnefs of fpeech, flood hard by the Tribunal-Seat, and comforted 
and encouraged many Martyrs at their Examination ; When the peo- 
ple that flood by took in evil part that they which before had recant- 
ed, did now confefs Chrift, with one confent they cry out againft Alex- 
ander as Author thereof : Then the Prefident demanding of him what 
he was, he Anfwered, I am a Chriftian > for which Anfwer he was al* 
lotted to be torn in pieces by the wild Eeafts. 

Attains was fryed to death in a fcalding Iron Chair, fo that the fa- 
vour of his broiled body filled their noflrils i who being demanded 
what Name God. had, Anfwered, Cod is not called after the manner 
of Mett. 

Blandina, together with Ponticus (a youth of fifteen years of Age) 
was brought forth, whom they would have compelled to fwear by 
their Idol's Name : But they contemning their Idol, the multitude 
were enraged againft them, tormenting them with all manner of pu- 
ni(hments, Pontictts being comforted and confirmed "by Blandina in 
piefence of the Pagans, after he had fuffered moft exquifite -Torments 
yielded up the Ghoft. . Laft of all, Blandixa like a noble Mother, hav- 
ing,exhbrted her Children, and fent them before as Conquerours unto 
the King,; pondering with herfelf allthe punifliments of -her Children, 


6 %$t CCClefiaftiCai ^tftOJP Cent. a. 

bartered after them, joying and triumphing at her end,, as if (he had 
been invited, and going to a wedding dinner : After fcourging, after 
combating with wild Beafts, after the broiling cf her body as it were in 
a frying-pan, at length (he was wrapped in a Net, and tumbled before 
a wild Bull, which fanned and tolled her on his horns to and fro, yet 
had (he no feeling thereof, in the end (he was beheaded , the Pagans 
themfelves pronouncing, That never any Wcman among them \Vas 
heard to have fuffered io many, and fo great Torments. 

As many as were choked with the noifom flench of theprifon, were 
thrown to be devoured of Dogs, the Pagans keeping a watch day and 
night, that none of them might be buried by their Friends. To be 
(hort, after that the bodies of the blotted Saints had been every kind of 
way fpitefully and fcornfully entreated, lying fix whole dayes uribu- 
ried, at length they were burned to afnes, the ames alfo they gather- 
ed to'gethcr, and fcattered in the River T\bod*nus which patted by, fo 
that no jot or relique thereof (hc'uld any longer remain upon the earth. 
This they did, that there might (as they faid; be no further hope of 
their Refurre&ion, 

Irenus f after Thotixus) was Bifhop of Liont, he floflfifhed in the 
dayes of the Emperour Commodity his meek difpofition, and peaceable 
carriage, anfwefed to his Name 'Efgsflw', -that is, -Peaceable, and 
made his Name to be in great account among Chriftians. 

a/&. Eccicf. The Martyrs forementioned did highly cc Irentus unto E- 

Hift.Lib. 4 . lextlwrius Bithop of 'Rome, as their own words do declare in man- 
ners Father Eleutherius, voe n>ijhyo* health in all thingf, and alwayet 
in God. We have requeued Irenaeus cur Brother and Fellow-labourer, to 
deliver yo:t thffe Letters, rvhom we pray you to accept ef, as a zealotis 
follower of the WiU tf C/;r/jf. For if rye underload that any mam degree 
yielded forth, and delivered 'Kighteaufnef -unto the. Graduate, namely, M 
being biinifter of the Church which this matt if, roe would have chiefly 
commended this in him. 

iren Lib.? cap.?. 'E-nfibiuf hath fet down out of Irentw a Catalogue of the Roman Bi- 
' (hips unto his time. 

iren.Lib.a.cap. IrenUf '(heweth, how unto his time Miracles were wrought by the 
faithful : fome (faith he) do foundly and truly caft out Devils, others 
have the foreknowledge of things to come, they fee Divine Dreams, 
and Prophetical Viiions i others cure the difeafed, and reftore them to 
health by their laying on of hands. The dead were raifed to life (faith 
he) and lived together with us many years. Again, in another place, 
Iren.ens thus writcth, We have heard of many Brethren in the Church 
which had the gift of prophefying, which were able through the Holy 

irea. Lib. 5. Ghoft to fpeak with fundry Tongues, which could re veil the fecrets 

of men where it fo behoved, and expound the dark myfteries of God. 

Then arofe a Controverfie about the keeping of Eajlcr j for the 


Cent. 2. Of F R A N C E. 

Church of the Weft, and part of that of the Eaft did Celebrate the 
Feaft of Eafier upon the Lord's day : but part of the Church of the 
Eaft did Celebrate it upon the fourteenth day of the Moon of March-, 
not looking for the Lord's day. Towards the end of this fecond Cen- 
tury, Vifttfr^ the fucceflbur of Eleutberius Bifnop of Rome took that bu- 
fincfs in hand with eagernefs, and for thatcaufe feparated the Oriental 
Churches from his Communion. Polycrates BUhop of Epbefies refitted 
him > ViUvr being ir.cenfed with that refinance, excommunicateth all 
the Eaftern Churches. Eufebiuf faith, That this did not pleafe all the 
Bilhops, wherefore alfo they made him a contrary Command, that he 
(hould keep Peace, Union and Charity with his Neighbours. Among 
other Examples he brings forth theEpiftle of Irentus toViftor -, where- 
by he accufeth him to have violated Charity, and to have departed 
from the Example of his Anceft ors. Rxjfinus relateth the fame. 

Eufebiuf makes mention of what Irenxus wrote concerning the Holy 
Canonical Scriptures, and the tranflation of the Septuagint. Ireneus 
wrote divers Epiftles to confute fuch as at Rome corrupted the iincere 
Rites of the Church : He wrote one to Blaftus of Schifm, another to 
Florinus of Monarchy, or (hewing that God is not the Author of Evil, 
which Opinion Florintts feemed to be of, but afterwards he was fedu- 
ced with the Errour of Valeminus. ' Irevtus in his Epiftle to Florinus; 
Reporteth, that he had converfed with Polycarpus^ fo that he remem- 
bred the place where Polycarpttf fate when he taught, his courfe of Life, 
the figure and proportion of his body, the Sermons he made unto the 
Multitude, the report he made of his Converfation with St. John the 
Apoftle, and others which faw the Lord '> how he remernbred their 
fayings, and what he heard out of their mouths touching the Lord, of 
his Power and Dodhine. Thefe things (faith he) I diligently marked 
and printed them in my heart : And I am able to teftifie, if that Holy 
and Apoftolick Elder had. heard any fuch thing, he would have 
prefently flopped his ears, and reclaimed it. To be ftort, this may be 
reported for true oat of the Epiftles which he wrote for the Confirma- 
tion of the bordering Churches, or out of the Epitiles which he wrote 
to certain Brethren for Admonition or Exhortation- fake. Thus far 

There are but few of the Fathers but have fome particular Opinion 
which the Church of Rome difalloweth as well as we. The Learned 
Dr. P 'Moulin mcnti^neth many of the Ancieiits, and among them 
Irentus^ who faiih, tr:t Jefus Cbrift Taught until the Age of forty or contr 
rifty years. Fevardent, who hath Commented upon the Book hath L2 *? 
written in the Margin, Nivitf fie <etate Chrifti ; it is a fault of Jren&uf 
about the Age of Chitft. the fame Father alfo Teacheth, that the 
Souls fepaiated frjom the bodies have a bodily (hape, and keep the cha- 
ra&er or forn) of the body to which they were joyned. The fame Ire- 


8 3Cecrtefiafttcaiffto Cent. 

iren. Lib. 4. cap. f ^ ew/ f a }th, That the Law was not given to the Fathers that lived before 
the Law, becaufe they were Righteous, and there was no need they 
fhould be warned by Reprehenfions : but that this Righteoufnefs be- 
ing given in Egypt, God then had given his Law. The fame Father 
in the Fifth Book, Chap. 33 and 3 4 brings in bodily Feafts after the 
Refurre&ion, becaufe Chrift faid. He (hould drink of the New Fruit 
of the Vine in the Kingdom of his Father. The fame Father oppofeth 
them as Hereticks, that hold that the Souls of the Faithful departed do 
enjoy the Heavenly Glory. His Opinion was, that at their going out 
of the Body, they go down into an invifible place where they expect 
the RefurredHon. 

Befides thofe Epiftles of Irentus forementioned, there is extant an- 
other very learned and neceiTary Book of his againft the Gentiles, En- 
tituled A Eook^of Science, or, Knowledge : Another unto Marcianuf his 
Brother, Entituled, A Declaration of the Apoftles Trenching : And an- 
other Book of divers Trtds, where he makes mention of the Epiftle 
to the Hebrews, and the Book of IVifdom, called Solomon's. 

, Ex PUtin , ia In the time of the Emperour Commodus, Peregrinus flourifhed, who 
\iu S'uti. had been fent before by Xiftns Biihop of Rome into the parts of France , 
to fupply there the room of a Bifhop and Teacher : Becaufe of the 
horrible ^ Perfections thereabout, thofe places were left defolate and 
deftitute of Minifters and Inftrudtors , where after he had Preached 
with much fuccefs among the Flock of Chrift, and had eftablifhed the 
Congregation there, returning to Rome he there finished his Martyr- 
dom. Six feveral Synods were held about the Obfervation of Eafter, 
and the fourth was held in f ranee, in which Irentus was Chief. 

Century III. 

AFterihe Death of the Emperour Commodus, Reigned Pertrnax 
but few months,after whom fucceeded Septimius S events Bunder 
whom was raifed a notable Perfecution againft the Ghriftians. 
Great Perfecution was ftirred up on every fide, whereby an infinite 
number of Martyrs were (lain, as Eufebius reporteth. 
Lib. n. Vincent Jus fpeaketh of one Andocltts, whom Polycarptfs before had 
^ ent i nto France i which Andoclus, becaufe he fprcad there the Do- 
.ftrine of Chrift,was apprehended of Seventf,znd firft beaten with ftaves, 
and after was beheaded. 


Cent. 5. Of FRANCE. 

About the fame time died Iren**/. Henry of Erford, Ado, and other 
Martyr* writers do hold, That he was martyred with many more for the 
Confeffiou and Doctrine of Chrift, about the fourth or fifth year of Sf- 
verus. This Irewut, as he was a great Writer, fo was he greatly com- 
mended of Tertutiian for his Learning, whom he calleth, Omnium do- 
Srinarum cttriofiffimum exploratorem, a great fearcber of all kjnd of learn- 
ing. In the time of this Irentus, the ftate of the Church was much 
troubled, net only for the outward perfecution of the foreign enemy, 
bat alfo for divers Stds and Errours then flirting, againft which he di- 
ligently laboured, and wrote much, although but tew Books be now 

Calixtus fucceeded Zepberinus Btthop of Rome, and after him Vr- 
banus, which both (as fome Writers affirm) did fuffer under the Em- 
perour Alexander Severus : This Calixtus in his two decretal Epiftles 
written to Benedifitts, and to the Bifhops of France, giveth forth divers 
Ordinances concerning the Bithops and Minifters of the Church. Vin- 
tentius affirmeth, that Calixtttf was tied to a great itonc, and fo out 
of a window was thrown into a ditch. 

Under the Emperour Vecius Cas Gregory of Tours obferveth ) Gra~ Gregor. turo- 
tian came to lours to preach the Gofpel among the Pagans, Anno Cbri- nenf. HHl. Lfc.?. 
Jri 252. Saturninus preached at Iboloufe, and was the tirft Bifhop of 
that place. Dionyfius alfo came to Paris, where he was Bifhop, and 
fuffered Martyrdom : This is he who is falfly named Vionyfius^ or Ve~ 
m the Areopagite. Saturninus alfo was thrown down from the Ca- 
pitol of Ibolonfe : RujUcus and Eleutberius alfo there furTered Mar- 

The Author of St. Oner's Life relateth, that Fufdanus and Viftori- 
ntif the Companions of Vionyftus preached at the fame time the Faitf\ 
of Chrift. That St. Ijhtintin did the fame among the Ambianianf 9 
and furTered Martyrdom. 

Aurelius Probus being inverted with the Empire, Anno 276. went 
into France where he regained fixty Towns out of the Barbarians 
hands, and killed of them near feventy thoufand. Having quieted all 
things in France, he went into Sclavonia^ and overcame the Nations in 
Scytbia : And being gone thence into the Eaft, he gave battcl to the 
Perfians, and having overcome them, and taken fome of their Cities, 
as he was returning to Italy, paffing through Sclavonia, he was killed 
at Sirmium by the Soldiers, ^^282. 

A/. Aurelius Cams , born at Narbon in Trance, fucceeded Trolus^ 
who foon after Created his Sons Carinus and Numerianus Ca?fars : And 
having fent Carinus into France, to keep it in peace, he with his Son 
Numerianus went againft the Perfians i there, having overcome Mefo- 
fotamia, he was ftrucken dead by a Thunderbolt. Numerianus was flain 
by the confpiracy of Aj>er hjs Father in Law. Car'mus was flain by a 

C Tribunej 

10 %\yt eceieftaftf&tl $tfto;p 

Tribune, whofe Wife he had defloured : Viocltfian fucceedcd him. 

T)hdefian upon his Eftablilhment, aflfociatcd unto him M*ximianttt 
Hercules in the Government of the Empire, and they both chofe Con- 
ftant'ms Chlortts and Cdlemis to be their Colleagues, and they were 
Created Ctfars. 

In the time before the Tenth Perfecution, the Church of Chrift hav- 
ing had above forty years of outward reft and peace through the con- 
nivance and indulgence of fome Emperours (viz. from the death of 
Valerian until the nineteenth year of Dioclefiati) this profperity being 
abufed by the Clergy, and other Chriftians unto idknefs, contentions, 
&c. moved the Lord to fcourge them , whereupon followed that fharp 
and cruel Perfecution under Dicclefian : Maximianxs in the Weft, and 
T>i?clefian"m the Eaft bent all their Forces to root out the profellion i of 
Chriftian Religion i Vioclefian endeavoured to den'roy all the Churches 
and Temples of the Chriftians, that they might not Aflfemble together 
to Pray, and to ufe Divine Service j he <burnt all the Books he could 
get ot the Holy Scripture, an4 would not permit any man if he were a 
Chriftian to hold any Office or Magillracy : The Soldiers being Chri- 
ftiar.s, which would not renounce their Faith, hecamiered, and depri- 
ved of all military honour, and fome of their lives. Many of the Bi- 
(hops were plundered, (lain and martyred. Great Cruelties were exer- 
cifed.a^ainft the Chriftians in Egy/tf, Syria, Pbrygia, and in other parts, 
v!nnt in^ spe- Vincen^us faith, That at2>/>r/ (which is a City fituated by the River 
cui. ub. 12. frfafella) onsfiJetionariuf exercifed fo great cruelty^ that the River was 
red with the blord of the Chriftians that were flain. In France like- 
wife he fcnt Pofts up and down hither and thither with Decrees, and 
exprcfs Commulions to this end, that in whatfoever place any Chri- 
ftian was found, heihould prefently be put todeath. 

But thefe two bloody Emperours, fceiqg the number of the Chri- 
ftians rather to encreafe thaivto diminith, notwithstanding all the cru- 
elty that they could (hew, and having now (as it were) their fill of 
blood, they ceafed at laft of their own accord to put any more Chri- 
ftians to death i and finding themfelves not able to deftroy the Church^ 
they gave over the Empire, and became privafe men. 

CoHjiantius Cbloms^ and t&ax'nniiws Galenus fuccceded in the Em- 
pire. Conftantiur parted the Empire with Galeriut^ and would Rule 
but in P-r!tain J Spain and France. cl-ofe to him his two Sons, 
MaxirainHs and S events , and Conftantius took Coiti-antir.e his Son .Ce- 
far under him. Cottftantittf was a great fupporter of tl.c ( hriftians -, 
And when in the other Jurifdi&ions of the Empire the Congregations 
of the Chriitians weremolefted with Pcrfecutions, Cvqlantius gave li- 
berty to the Chriftians. 

C L N T. IV, 

Cent. . Of FRANCE, 

Century IV. 

COnftatititts dying at fork^ Conflowing his Son fucceeded him in ANNO J0 &- 
the Empire : Covftantiw who Ruled France, did not only ab- 
Itain from (bedding Chriftian blood, but alfo had the Chri- 
(tians in great eftcem : Nazarius and Patera were elieemed rare Ora- 
tours in France, living at that time. 

The Hiftories of thole Times make mention of one Sebaftian a Mar- FOX Act. ft MO-. 
tyr, he being barn in that part of Trance called GaVia Narbonenfif, was nu 
a Chriftian^ and a Lieutenant General in the Army of Vieclefian, who 
alfo encouraged many Martyrs of rhrilt by his Exhortations unto Con- 
fiancy, ar.d kept them in the Faith He being therefore accufed to 
Diockfian, was apprehended, and brought into the open field, where 
of his own Soldiers he was thruft through the body with innumerable 
arrows, and after that his body was thrown into a jakes or fink. 
St. Ambrofe makes mention of this Sebajlian the Martyr in his Com- 
mentary upon the u 8. Pfalm. 

Conftant'me reftored Peace unto the Church, Anno 311. he Reigned 
thirty and two years j great Tnnquility enjoyed the Church under this 
good Emperour. Before he had fubdued Lichiins, he fet forth many 
Ed ids for the reftitution of the Goods of the- Church, for the revo- 
king the Chriftians out of Exile, for taking away the Diffemions of 
the Dodors out of the Church, for the fetting of them free from pub- 
lick charges : A Copy of his ConfHtutions may be feerun Eufibiut his 
Ecclefiaftical Hiltory, in his tenth Book and-fifth Chapter. 

In the fourteenth Year of Cottftantinf there was hoklefi a Council at 
Nice, for the debating of the Controverfie about the Feaft of.Ealler, 
and for the rooting out the Herefie of Arm. There was like wife a 
Council holden at Aries under CoKftantine's Reign. 

Cori,iantine left three Sons, whom he had by F*(?<*, Maximian's 
Daughter, Heirs of the Empire, who alfo divided the Empire among 
thetmfelves. A fudden' Sedition after their Father's -death embroiled 
them all in blood and wars, by the commotion and diffimulation of the 
Errperour Conftatttiitf. 

In his Time the Arr/an Herefie, which for fear of Co(lantine had 
been fupprcifcd, began now again to lift up it's head, for Conftantitff 
propagates that Herefie. 

Hilary BHhc.p of Peitiiers in France, lived under the Reign of Con- 
ilawiut, a man in Religion conftant, in Manners meek and courteous \ 
he wrote fliarply againft ihe-Arians \ he was banilhed immediately af- Knffin.ub. T. 

C s ter csp ' 51 * 

Ccclcfiamcal %ttto?p Cent. 4. 

ter the Council of Milan into Tbrygia, as fome fuppofe. Among di- 
vers others, he dedicated his Book, t>e Synodis fidei Catholic* contra 
Arianos, to the Bithops of the Provinces of Britain, during his Exile 
for the Orthodox Faith, commending them for their conftancy in the 
profertion of that Faith. 

Theodor.Lib. 3. Tbeodoret writeth, 'that he was banifhed to TfbebaiJa, and recalled 
cap. 4. from Exile again under Julian : But k is more apparent that he re- 

mained in Pbrygia until the Council of Seleucia, unto which Council 
he was brought from banimment i not by any fpecial Commandment 
from the Emperour, but by a general command given to his Deputy 
JJJ' Ma * 3 *; Leonis, to aflemble together the Bifhops of the Eatt, under pretence of 
t0 ' executing the command of the Emperour, Hillary being banifhed in 
the Eaft, was brought to the Council of Seleucia i from thence he went 
to Conjlatttinople : The Emperour refufed to hear him difpute with the 
Arians in matters of Faith, but gave him liberty to return to his own 
Countrey again. He took great pains to purge the Countrey of France 
from the Arian Herefie v and he prevailed fo far , that Jerome com- 
pares him to DeucAlicon, who both faw the flood of waters overflow- 
ing Ibeflal'a, and the abating of them alfo i even fo Hillary faw both 
Hilar. Lib. 10. tne growth and decay of Arianifm in France. Yet even this Father 
dc Trink. had his Errours, for in his Tenth Book of the 'trinity, and upon P/Ii/ 
138, and 53, he maintaineth, That Jcfus Chrift in his death fuftered 
no pain, but that only he would make us believe that he fuffered, and 
that the blows did not give him any pain, no more than if an arrow 
pierced the water, or prickt the fire, or hurt the air, and that the vh> 
tue of the body of Chrift received the violence of pains without feel- 
ing : The fame Father faith, That Chrift did eat and drink, not out 
of any neceffity, but to comply with Cuftom, for which Opinion he 
Du Moulin cent. ' s re P rove< ^ by Claudiw Bifhop of Vienna, in the Book of the State of 
Perron Lib. i. the Soul. That Errour fo grofs, hath brought him to another, that in 
thefe words of the Lord [Father, let this Cup pafi from me. ] Jefus 
Chrift defired his Father, that his Difciples alfo might fuffer in the like 
manner : fo that by his account St. Teter fclt no pain in fuflfering mar* 
tyrdom. It is alfo one of his Opinions, that Souls are Corporal. Re- 
lived fix years after his return from baniftiment, and died under the 
Reign of Valentinian. Stepbanus Pafchafas hath thefe Verfes of him 
in his Icones^ 

Et ms exbilarM Hilari fanttijfime Trtfitl, 
Et monitis vifta eft Arria feQa ttds. 

Jerome, although he was born in a Town of Dalmalla called Stri- 
don, and was intruded in rudiments of Learning at Rome j yet from 
Rome he went into France. ot purpofe to increafe his Knowledge, and 
to divers other places* 

Cent. 4 - Of FRANCE. 

Conllantiw being cfead, Julian his Coufin German alone governed 
the Empire, Anno 361. having before obtained of Confrantitts the Ti- 
tle of C<efar, and been Entitled Augujlus by the Soldiers in the City of 

In the Year 57 5. St. Martin was made Bifliop of7r/ttin Frame ; 
Exuptrius was Bi(hop of Th'alottfe i Simpliciw of Vienna i Amandm of 
Eottrdeaux, Maurice of Anjoti, Pbilaftrius of BJYHJC , thefe were all ac- 
counted Bifliops of great fame. 

About this time fprung up the Seel: of the Vonatijls, who were fo F " r ' s prd " 
called from a double Donattts (as one faith) whereof the one planted 
the Sect, the other watered it, and the Devil, by God's permiilion, gave 
the encreafe. The elder Vottatus raifed a Schifm in Carthage againft 
good Cecilian the Bifliop there, whom he loaded unjuftly with many 
crimes, which he was not able to prove-, and vexed with this dif~ Auguftad quod- 
grace, he thought to right his credit by wronging Rcligior, and fo be- vullDeu:at 
gan the Heretic of the Vonatijls : His moft Dominative Tenet was, that 
the Church was perUhed from the face of the earth, the icliques there- 
of only remaining in his party. 

There were two principal fides of them '> firft, the Kogxtiftf, focal- 
led from Rcgatus their Teacher, to whom St. Augufiiite beareth wit- 
nefs, That they had zeal^ but not according to knowledge. Thefe were 
people of good lives, hating bloody practices, though erroneous in theif 
Doctrine. But there was another fort whom they called Clrcttmcel- 
lions^ though as little Reafon can be given of their Names as of their 

Their number in fhort time grew to be confiderable : Their Te- 
net was plaufible and winning, and that Faith is eafily wrought that 
tcacheth men to think well of themfelves.- From Numidia, where Q?od a^d !tn 
they began, they overfpread Africa^ Spain^ France^ Italy , and Rome it foium juftida 
felf : Their greateft increafe was under Julian the Emperour. This Sj^JSj!* 
Apoftate, next to no Religion, loved the worft Religion belli they 
fled to this Bramble for fuccour, extolling him for fuch a Godly man, 
with whom alone juftice did remain i and he reftored them their 
Churches again, and armed them with many privileges againft Chri- 
(Hans : Hereupon they killed many men in the very Churches, mur- 
thering Women and Infants, and raviftiing Virgins, &c. The Donatijh 
were oppofed by the Learned Writings of private Fathers, Oftatef 
Milevitanus, and St. Angu^ine^ and by two Councils, one at Casthage, v ;j. Auft,- 
another at Aries in France. Pope Miltiadet was by the Emperour E ? ift> 1 ^ 2 
made Judge between the Catholicks and Donatifis, and after him the 
Bifhcp of Arler. This Herefie continued till about the iix hundrcth 
year of Chrid i and that which put a period to this Herefie, was part- 
Jy their cwndiflentions: but chiefly, they were fupprefTedby the Civil 
MagilUatc : for H?//0r/#; ; the Emperour i>y punilhmintS;, inixt ivith 

Inftru&ions ; 

I 4 %ty CCCleftalif Cal $tftO# Cent. 5. 

viJeBJron ^n i lis 'from the Church, converted and reclaimed very many. 

nai. LI inn'o ' He caufed the Patent of Privilege which Julian granted the J)on^tiftf 9 
'- >;U:P "* Pub'licvi locis aff.gendum in ludibr'nim^ *t& be affixed to fublick^places for 
a reproach unto them, 

Julian was ilain in battel againft the Yerfiarts^ having governed the 
Empire after the death of Conftantittt one year, and feven months. Then 
Jovian was faluted Emperour, who being a profeiTorof the Chriilian 
Faith, rejeded theArians , but he died of a furfeit in the eighth month 
of his Reign. Then Valentinian was Elected Emperour, a man con- 
tiant in the Chriftian Faith -, but he died of an Apoplexy in the twelfth 
year of his Government, leaving his Son Gratian to fucceed him in the 
Empire =, who after the death of Vale,u his Uncle, had the Govern- 
ment both of feaft and Weft : his Brother Valentin* an was his Col- 
league in the Government of the Weft. Gratian in the beginning of 
his Reign reduced from banifhment thofe BiOiops whom Valens that 
Arian Perfecutor had baniflicd : Gratian was ilain by Andragathius^ 
Captain of the Army of Maximits , who ufurped the Empire of the 
Weft, by fraud and treachery near Lions in Trance^ where he made his 
abode. Rutlheodojius^ a man of Noble Parentage in Spain, to whom 
Gratian had committed the Government of theEaft, being mindful of 
the kindnefs of Gratian toward him, led an Army againft Maximus : 
The Captains of Mjxm//'s Army hereupon delivered him bound to 
ybeodofius, who put him to death : Avdragathiuf.,' \vhoflcw Cratian, 
feeing no way to efcape threw himfelf head-long into the Sea, and fo 

Not long after, T.ugeniut by the Power of the Earl Arbogaftes^ U- 
furped the Government, Anno 35?!. And the year following, the faid 
Arbogaftes flew Valentinian at Vienna in Traxce : 'Epifhanixs faith, he 
was ftrangled in his Palace. 

Century V. 

IN the Year 401. died St. Martin, Bifhop of 7W/X who following 
Hillary into France from his banifhment, having there lived an 
auftere and retired life, was Created Bilnop ot T'ttrin, almoft at 
that time that St. Ambrofewzs cllablilhed Biuicp of Mitan^ viz. in the 
Year 375. A man to be admired above all his PredecefTdrs for Piety, 
whom the Emperours thcmfelvcs have had in great efteem , and a- 


Cent.?. 0f FRANCE. 15 

meng the reft Maximw^ who feafted him Anno 386. in a fcaft that his 
Wife the Emprefs had prepared, who ftipplyed the place of a Waiter 
and Attendant at the Table herfelf. Sttlpitius Sfvetus in the life of 
St. Martin meweth, that when he was to be chofen Bifliop, one of the 
people "having taken the Pfalter in the place of the Reader then abfenr, 
began to read the eighth Pfalm, where there was, Vt Jejlrttas inim\~ 
cum & 1 dcfenfirrm > at which word $efenforf>m. ) the people cryed out 
againft one Vefenfor, who oppcfcd Martin's Eledion to the Epifcopa- 
cy. About this time the Monafiical Profeilion came into Europe, to 
which Jerome at Rome, and. St. Martin in France did much contribute. 

In the Year 446. the Pelagian Her ell e having fpread over all Bri- 
tain^ the Wni\\) Churches bring infedted therewith, King Vonigern 
Cent for Germtwu Bi(bop of Attxtrret, and Lupus Bifliop of Tiroyes in 
Champagne out of France, men eminent for their Counfd and Doctrine, 
who confuting the Pelagians, gained to themfelves great efteem among 
the Britafts. 

After the return of Germatms and Lupus into their own Countrey, 
Pelagianifm began to fprout forth again in Britain : But after three 
years, Germanus returning back again into Britiin, brought with him 
Severn* , and the Pelagian Herefie was again condemned in a fecond 
Synod. "Britain being thus fettled in good order, Cermanm went again 
into France, and died foon after his return. 

In this Century flourifhcd other worthy Biftops and Preachers in 
Frame :, Eucberiw Bifiiop of Lions \vas then eminent, fome of whofe 
writings arc yet extant. About this time Baroniia fpeaks of a Synod Baron. . 
of Anjou, which faith, Let none be Ordained Priefts or Deacons, but 453 * 
fuch as have one Wife only, who married Virgins. 

Hillary firft Bilhop of Aries, and afterward (as appeareth) vlVienna^ 
flouriftiecl about the year 45.8. he oppofed himfelf directly to Leo Bi- 
ihop of Rome, and would acknowledge no Jurifdidlion nor Domina- 
tion of the Bifhop of. Row? over the. Churches of France. Hilary cal- 
led himfdf Primate of the Churches of Gauls fubjecl: to the Roman 
Empire, thai is, of Pro-.-ence and, Ttaxlphine : for the refi of the Gauh 
was then held by the Vifigotbs and by the Franckj. The quarrel was, 
that Hilary, conferred the degree of Bifnop in his Diocefs, not expect- 
ing the conf.nt ?.nd approbation of the Bifhop of l\om? : but Leo 
\vruld oblige him- t,; j-jqusir.t ti'e Roman See .with it,' and to get his 

l - -Upon that J*<t . ys to t!., Bifhops of Paulpbbie, where af- 

tex he butli in fwe'ilL^ v. C'ignity of the Roman See i 

he ad fo.frottkkdM iV-ifc of i^ Church, and tbe Concord ^^^ 

f'f I -i,-l" fot'o fill)- Vienneofen pr 


4pojil&P<teiii'*kjlltn&ing : ' ';? Churches in 

Gauls. But 

Xt)c ecdtfiaftical $<fto?p Cent. 5 . 

But Hilary came to K0mf, not regarding the Anathemai*sof Leo, and 

to his face affirmed, that neither did Chrift appoint Peter to be Head 
of the reft of the Apoftles, neither had the Bifhop of Rome a Sove- 
reignty over the Churches of France. 

In that ftrife, Leo according to his cuftom had his recourfeto Valex- 
tinian, who prefently without hearing what Hilary could fay for him- 
felf, gave fentence for Leo, and made a Law which is extant in the 
T'heodoftan Code among the Novel Conftitutions, in the 24 th Title i 
the Law runs in thefe words, Whereas the merit of Peter, who is the 
"Prince of the Epifcepal Society, and the Dignity of the Roman City, and 
Authority of the Sacred Synod., have eflabli[bed the Primacy of the Apo- 
ftolick^ See, let not prefumptien attempt any lawful thing againft the Au- 
thority of that See ^ for then Jhall the peace of the Churches he main" 
tained- tvtry where, if the Vniverfality do acknowledge their Governour : 
in which words we may obferve by fhe way, that Valentinian doth 
jiot ground the Popes Primacy upon the Word of God : He addeth, 
We. Decree by a perpetual Ordinance, That it be not lawful, either to the 
"Bishops of Gauls, or to thofe other Provinces to attempt any thing againli 
the venerable Pope,&c. but that to them and to all, whatfoever the Au- 
thority of the Apoftolicl^ See hath decreed, or (hall decree, may be a Law, 
fo that what Bijhop foever being evocated to the judgement of the Roman 
Prelate, Jhall neglett to appear, he be conftrained by the Governour of th$ 
Yrovinse to makg his appearance. 

But Valentinian being deprived of Africa by the Vandals of Africa, 
and of Spain, and Guienne by the Gothes, and of moft part of Gauls 
by the Franks, nothing remaining to him but Italy, Sicily, Provence 
and Daulphine, all the Eaft being in the power of Jheodofms, that Law 
was but of little force. 

How much that Law was defpifed in the Empire of the Eaft it is 
eafie to fee i for in the Yeax 47 2. that is, about 22 or 23 years after 
that Law of Valentinian, a contrary Law was eftablifhed by the Em- 
perour Leo, which is the i <5 th Law in the Code, De Sacrofanttit EC- 
cleft* : The words of the Law are thefe, Whereby the Emperour de- 
creeth, that the Church of Conftantinople be tbefirft'ofall Churches, and 
the Bifhop of Constantinople he the firft of all Bijhops : We judge and 
decree, that the moft holy Church of this Town, which is Mother of our 
Piety, and of all Chrifiians of the Orthodox Religion, and the mo(i holy 
See of the fame weft Religious City, have all the privileges and honours 
concerning the Creation of Bifhops, and the right of fitting before others, 
6cc. Baroniu* declaimeth againft that Law of Leo, and faith, It pro- 
ceeded from him who is the Head over all the Sons of pride. 

Then lived Sid&nius Apollinaris , Bifhop of Clermont in Auvergn, 
whofe Epiftles are extant, great part of which are written to the Bi- 
fhops of France his Colleagues but in none of them is there any trace 


Cent. 5. Of FRANCE. 

of fubje&ion to the Roman See, or of communication with the Biftiop 
of Rome. The fame Sidonius calls Lupus Bifhop of 'froyes Bi(hop of 
Biihops, and the ririt Bilhop of the world, and faith, That he is fitting 
in the Apoftolick^See. This Man wrote all his Epiftles in Latin, and 
Preached alfo in Latin : In the tenth Epiftle of the fecond Book, he 
complaineth, That in his time among the Vulgar, the purity and pro- 
perty of the Latin Tongue decayed, and degenerated into barbarouf- 
nefs. And in the Epiltle to Pope Perpetuus (for then all the BKhops 
that were a little more refpeded than the ordinary Bifnops, were cal- 
led Popes) there is a Latin Sermon made by the faid Sidonius unto the 
people of Bourges, a certain proof that the people of Bourges under- 
ftood Latin. 

About this time flouriflied Pro/per of Aquitain , fo called from his 
Countrey, not the place of his Biflioprick, as Baronius faith : He wrote 
De Vita Contemplating Of a Contemplative Life : In his Hrft Book, Chap. 
23. he prefcribeth, That the Preacher's Language be fimple and plain, 
though it be not very good Latin, yet that it be orderly and grave, Britan. 
that it may hinder no body (though ignorant) to unclerltand it. He 
wrote a Book De Ingratis, by which name he alway marketh out the 
Pelagians that fprung out of theaflies of that Arch-HeretickFe7<*g/'/. 
He wrote many excellent things in defence of the Grace of Chritt a- fcopum fuiifc re- 
gainft the Pelagians, and (heweth himklf to be a Difciple, and vehe- S r r a C nt. C Tn 
ment defender of St. Ateguiiine^ faith Eellarmine. 

Salvianus Bifhop of Marfeities lived then when the Nation of the 
Goths oppreffed France , and many began to doubt of the Providence r , ia 

i , /--tiiii i Cat 

of God, in regard that thole wicked wretches had got the upper hand, 
and profpered fo much in the world i therefore he wrote an excellent 
Treatife, De Judicio & Providentia Dei, to Salonius Bi(hop of Vienna ; 
One entitleleth him, Gallic* Gentis Epifioporum Magijirum, Ihe Majler 
of the B/Jhops of the French Nation. 

Salonius wrote upon the Books of the Proverbs and Ecclefiaftes. 

Claudianus Mammertus Biftiop of Vienna is praifed by Sidonius with Patr. SymH E<> 
exceffive commendations, as if all the Graces of Jerome^ Auguftine^ tlef Hift< 
Bafil, Nazianzen, and many other Fathers had been incorporated irt 
him. He wrote three Books De S tat ft Anim^ Of the State of the Soul^ 
to the fame Sidonius, with two Epiftles. How much the Popith Bifhops 
differ from thofe Famous Bimops that flouriQSed in thofe dayes, the 
Reader may underftand by this following Epitaph of Claudianus Mam- 
merttts made by 

Hoc dat cefyite membra Claudianus^ 
triplex Bibliotheca quo Magijiro 
Romana, Attica^ Chriftiana fulfit : 
Quam totam Monacbw virente in &vo 

D Secret* 

%tfto?p Cent. 5 

Secret* bibit tnftruftione, 
Orator. Dialettictts, Poeta, 
yra&ator, Geometry Mufic^ 
Dotiw Cohere vincla qurfionum, 
Et verbi gladio fecare feftas, 
Vi qit Catbolicam fidem laceffunt. 

Tandem Concludit : 

At ttt quifqtM doles, amice leQdr, 

De tanto quaji viro nihil fuperfit, 
"Undvt parcegettis rigare m armor : 

Mem & gloria non qucnnt bumari. 

PauUttut lived about this time, he was BUhop of No/*, born in 
France, a man of a great wit, and an excellent Orator and Poet. 
Of both Teftaments he writeth thus to Severn i 

Paulin. Epift. ad Nam qttia latorem dtto "feft amenta per unum 

Patta Deum in Chrifto copulat una fides. 

Lex anliqua, novam firmat, veterem nova complet i 
In veteri ftes e^ in novitate fides, 

Sed vetus atque novttm conjttngit gratia Cbrifti. 

And upon the Supper of the Lord, I will add thefe myftical Verfes 
out of the fame Epiftle, 

In crttce pxa caro eft, quit pafcor, de cruet fangtus 
lUe fluit, vitam quo bibo, arda lavo. 

Came tua vivet, turn illi pocula fanguvs 
Preheat, in verbo vivat agatque ttto, 

The next I (hall mention is John Caflian, the Scholar of Cbryfcftome, 
and made Deacon by him at CoHftantinople, afterwards he was a Pref- 
byter of the Church of Marfeiues* 

Vincentitts Lirinenfa a French man, fpent the firft part of his life in 
Secular and Military employments, but afterwards he led a folitary 
and contemplative life, and became a Presbyter, as the Catalogue of 
Gennadius relateth -, he wrote againft the felagiaw ard Ncliurians^ and 
againft prophane novelties. 

In the Year of Chrift 485. Chi-it the firft of that Name, and the 
fifth King of France, began his Reign, being about the Age of fifteen 
years i a Prince of fingular Hope, born for the eftabliftment of the 
French Monarchy ; He had the. honou* to be the faft Chriftian King 

Cent. 5. Of FRANCE. 

of France. Although Clow was a Pagan before by Profeflion, yet was 

he no enemy to the Chrftians, fitting himfelf to the humour of the 

G**/s, who generally followed the Chriftian Religion. He fuffered his 

Wife likewife to Baptize her Children. Clotilda defired nothing more caufins Holy 

than the Converfion of her Husband, which happened in this fort: Courl p ""' a ' 

The Suevi, a people of Germany, pafled the Rhine with great Forces, 

Commanded by many Kings, who were personally in the Army, and 

came to ru(h on the Ganls, with intentions to cleftroy the bt. innings 

of the French Monarchy : Clovtt fpeedily oppofeth them with good 

Troops, for he likewife had drawn together to his Aid the Riharoh, . 

people near bordering on the Rhine, who were Allied to the French, 

and had firft of all given notice of the Enterprize of the Suevi, who 

in a near degree threatned them. 

The encounter of the two Armies was near Colen, which was one 
of the moft defperate that we rind in Hiitories. The King undertook 
the Conduct of the Cavalry, and had given unto Prince Sigebert his 
Kinfman, the Infantry : There was nothing but fire, tempeits, deaths, 
and (laughters, fo great was the refiftance on either fide : In the end 
Sigebert valiantly fighting, was wounded with an arrow, and born all 
bloody out of the battel by his Son. The Infantry (through the ab- 
fcnce of their Colonel) was defeated and put to rout. All the burden 
of the battel fell upon the Cavalry, which did great exploits, righting 
before the eyes of their King > but in the end, the fhock of their ene- 
mies was fo impetuous , that it brake through and fcattered them. 
Clovis covered with blood and duft, performed the duty both of a great 
Captain and valiant Soldier > but notwithstanding all his endeavours, 
terrour had fo feized on thefe flying men, that his affairs grew defpe- 
rate : Hereupon Awelianm, the Kings great Favourite, perfwadeth 
him to make a vow unto God to be Baptized, if he returned victori- 
ous from this battel , which he did, calling aloud upon the God of his 
Wife, and promifing an abfolute Converfion to the Chriftian Faith. 

The word was no fooner fpoken, but that his Troops rallied them- 
felves up, made head againft their enemies, purfued them, ran through 
and routed them with fo great a maffacre, that the fields were all co- 
vered with dead bodies : The difcomfiture fo terrified them on the o- 
ther fide of the Rhine, that the Almavs which furvived yielded them- 
felves tributaries to his Majefty. 

Clotilda hearing the news of this victory, and of the King's pious 
Refolution, went out to meet him as far as Champagne, accompanied 
with Rfmigiw Biftiop of Rhemes, a man of great Piety and Eloquence 
to inftrud: him in the true Do&rine, wherein he was very ignorant. De Serm HIft ^ 
It was necelTary he (hould be inftructed by a difcreet man, that in invit. clodw* 
leaving the vanity of Pagans, he might not be infected wirh the Arian 
Herefie, which then was difperfed in divers places > and even his own 
Sifter Lantielde was infected therewith. D 2 The 

CDe ecflefia&ical $tfto# cent. ?. 

The preaching of Remigius was effectual with Clovif, and the Ex- 
ample of Clovi* with his men of war : When he came to the Church 
of Rhemes to be Baptized, Remigius' fpake to hina thefe words, Bend 
thy necl{, to the ynkg in mildnefl, worship that which thou haft burnt, and 
': burn that which thou hail worshipped : He Anfwered , J worjhip the 
true God, which u the Father, Son and Holy Ghof, the Creator of He a- 
^ ven and Earth. The King being Baptized, exhorted his men to the 
fame belief^ they cry all joyntly, We leave our Mortal Gods, and are 
ready to follow the Immortal. So Clow was baptized at Rhemes by Re- 
tnigius, and with him three thoufand of his Soldiers, to the incredi- 
dible joy of the Gauls, greatly affected to Chriftian Religion and 
this perfected the union betwixt them and the French, making their 
yoke eafie, and them tractable. 

The firft War he undertook after his Baptifm, was againft Gombaut 
King of Burgundy, who being vanquiftied became Tributary to Clovif 
Gombaut was an Arian, and this his Herefie drew upon him the ven- 
geance of God. Afterwards Clovvs encountred with the Forces of Al<*~ 
ricus in Aquitain, difcomfiteth them, and kills Alaricus. The hand of 
God thundred and lightened at that time upon many Diadems of He- 
retical Kings, viz. Gombaut, Godemar , Chilperic, Godegijilw , Alari- 
cus, and in the end on Iheodorick^ himfelf. 

Remigius was a man of moft holy Converfation, and befides his ad- 
mirable fanctity, acknowledged throughout all France, he had the re- 
putation to be one of the moft able and eloquent men of his time* 
witnefs Sidoniuf Apollinarim, who fpeaking of his eloquence with ad^- 
miration, faith, He thought there was not a man living upon the face 
of the earth, whom Remigiut furpaffeth not, without any elaborate 
ftudy at all, through the experience he had acquired of well- fpeaking: 
his conceptions were unimitable, his language fo fweet and polite, that 
it refembled a very fmooth piece of ice, whereon nothing might be 
feen unequal : His fentences were full of weight, his arguments forci- 
ble, and his words glided along like a river, and ever bare in them 
(bme flafties of lightning at the end of his periods : He was a very 
learned man, as by the Commentaries which he wrote upon the Old 
and New Teftament evidently appeareth. Among the Collections of Aventinus, there is an Epiftle with this 
rit. ' Title, The Epiftle of the Bijhops of Germany and France to Pope Anafta* 

Gus :. This was written in the time of King Clovif. 

Leporius a French Monk made a flourifh of the Nejiorian Hcrefie, but 
being refuted by Attgii\line, he asked pardon of his Errour. 

Fauftuf of an Abbot was made Bifliop of. Rhegium in France, ^as 
Gennadiits writeth in his Catalogue : He wrote againft the Pelagians 
and Epicureans. A contention arofe in France about the Doctrine of 
IfrfdelUnation which had it's rife out of the B^oks of St, Attgujline, 


Cent. 6. Of FRANCE. 3-1 

being ill underftood, Lttcidus made oppofition, Fattens chaftifed him, 
and brought him to his Opinion : Eleven Bifhops fubfcribed to the E- 
piftje of Fauftus in the Council of Aries i by which FaMJlus himfelf af- 
tirmeth, that an hard piece of work was put upon him, of difputing 
concerning Grace and Free-Will. About the fame time alfo was fo 
lemnized at Lions an. AfTembly of twenty feven Biftiops. 

Vittarinits of Aquitain, at the requeft of Hillary fet forth an Eaftei- 
Circle of 532 years, in the year 563. 

Century VI. 

THe Province of Narbon, which was called the firft Province of 
France, remained in the Gotbs fubjedion, and thence it began 
to be called Gotbia-i for Amalarictts (his Father Alaricw be* 
ing dead) haftily flying into Spain, he retained under his Power Sp*ht 3 
with that part of France, which we have mentioned before. 

The Divine Providence gave to Clsws , above all other Princes in the 
world, fuch happy fuccefs, as oftentimes his wars were miraculoufly 
confirmed to be guided of God > among which is that remarkable 
thing, That haftening againft Alarictts-, having encamped near the Ri- 
ver Vigenna^ he found a (hallow place by the diredion of an Hind that 
patted over the River before him, through which he tranfported his 
Army to the other fide '> and after this victory, preparing to befiege 
Angoulefm^ the walls of the City falling down of their own accord, 
gave him an eafie entrance into the City : Which things being known, 
the Emperour Anaflafms-the year following the victory of Vodes fen-t 
a Standard to Cblodoveus or Clow : And he went in Proceffion in St. 
Martin's Church at 7r/#, with his Belt, his Purple-gown, and his 
Diadem-, then coming to Paris ^ there he eftabli(hed his Throne Anm 
507, with fo happy fuccefles. 

Proeopiia faith, that the Franks made a League oifenfive with King 
ybeodorick^ againft the ~Burgundians^ and that the Goths delaying the 
time purpofely, at length arrived when the fight was ended '> and fo 
without receiving any lofs, they divided the fpoil with the Franckj^ 
equally (baring the Kingdom, which it is like came to pafs about the 
year 508, it being after the Vifyotbt great defeat, although at that time 
the Btergundian Kingdom was not utterly extinct in France i for Gun* 
debaut being. defeated, and dead, Sigifmond his Son kept ftill what re- 

31 eccrteftafttcaitfto Cent. 6. 

mained, who barkening to Avitus BHhop of Vienna, changed his Aria* 
Hercfie into the Orthodox Faith. 

After this Clodoveus raging againft his neareft Friends, put them al- 
moft all to death, and at laft, in the year 511. died in Paris. Cloiit 
convoked the firft Synod at Orleans. 

Then flourimed in France Ctfarius Bifhop of Aries (whom we read 
to have been one of the Council of Agatbm, held in the year of Chrift 
505.) and lived unto the time of Vigilm^ of whom he received a Let- 
ter, Anno 538. 

Alfo Avitiu Biftiop of Vienna, by whom the ~Burgundians received 
the Chriftian Faith. 

Remigius Biftiop of Rbeme /, called the Apoftleof the Franckj, died 
Anno 534. 

In the fame Year was held a Council at Avergnes, wherein was Flo- 
vius Bifhop of Rbemes : Then are Hincmarus and Fhdoardus miftaken, 
in faying, that he officiated in the Biftioprick 74 years, and lived $6 

In France Lattnomarm of Chartres, and Maximinas of Orleans were 
renowned Friars, Maximw builded the Micians Monaftery near unto 
the City, he was Nephew to Eufticius. Clovif, as he went n"rft to Or- 
leans, brought them both thither along with him. Si^ebert calleth 
that Monaftery of the Micians Maximus's Monaftery , alfo Avittu and 
Carilefw, Maximtts's Difciples : But Clovi* being dead, his four Sons 
divide the Realm into four Kingdoms. Cbildebert was King of Parif t 
and under this Realm was comprehended the Provinces of Poittou y 
Main, lourain, Cbampaigne , Anjou^ Guyenne^ and Atfvergne , Clotaire 
was King of SoiJJons> and the dependance of this Realm were Ver- 
mandois^ ficardy, F launders and Normandy. Clodamir was King of Or- 
leans, and the JEftates of this Realm were all the Dutchy of Orleans , 
"Burgundy, Lionevs, Daulphine and Provence. Ihierri was King of Metz, 
and to his Realm was fubjecT: the Country of Lorain, and all the Coun- 
tries from Rhewes unto the Ttbine, and beyond it all Germany, which 
De Sews in vit. W as the Ancient Patrimony of the Kings of France : He was received 
in this Royal Partition with his Brethren, though he were a Baftard, 
the which hath been likewife pradtifed by others in thefirfl Line : And 
as every one of thefe four Kings called themfelves Kings of France, fo 
they alfo added the name of their Principal City, where they held their 

But there was a Civil DifTention betwixt the Brethren, thev Leavy 
Forces with intent to ruine one another : They Reigned fort\ .J two 
years together as Kings of France, yet with a particular T ; under 
this general, as hath been faid : But in the end Clotaire rem .,cd King 

At this time were frequent meetings of Bifhops in Aurtlia, or Or- 

leans , 

Cent, 6. Of FRANCE. 23 

Jean/i many fuperftitious Conftitutions were hatched among them, symfcn's church 
efpecially about prohibition of marriage, for this Do&rine had now got Ji'JSit/^ *" 
the upper hand in the Weft. 

In the fecond Council Simony is condemned, and the receiving of 
money for the admitting' a tnan to a Spiritual Office is condemned. 

In the third Council Perjury is abhorred in a man having a Spiritual 
Calling, but foftly punifhed by two years, excluding him from the 

In the fourth Council it is Ordained, That in the offering of the T j ieB ; ffiopsmrt . 
Holy Chalice, nothing (hall be prefentcd but Wine only unmixed with in the synod at 
water, becaufe it is a facrilegious thing to tranfgrefs the holy mandate ^eiritttcJs^us 
and inftitution of our Saviour Chrift. to the King, T O 

In the fifth Council it is condefcended, that no man (hall be Or- SftJ&Hw 
dained Biftop without confent of King, Clergy and People, according King c//r, the 
to the Ancient Constitution of the Church, and that no Spiritual Of- JhoiSchSh,. 
n'ce (hall be bought by money. an the clergy 

There was an heap of Conftitutions about the keeping of Lent and manedtocomc 
Eafter, about the prohibition of Marriage betwixt Chriftians and un- JJjJ 1 ^* 8 Coun ' 
converted Jews, abeut Servants not to be admitted to Ecclefiaftical Andit'isfiid in- 
Orders > about Aflemblies to be (at the leaft) yearly Convocated by 
Btthops, about Ecclefiaftical Rents not to be dilapidated. 

Under the Reign of Theodebert King of Lorattt, burgundy and ?u- 
finge, the Fathers who were prefent at the Councils of Orleans^ con- command our 
vened alfo in the Council of Overnie, and ordained, that no man (hould Jj^^fJiJ 1 *' 
arrive to the Office of a Biftiop by the favour of men in Authority, eit*of0rfeoi% 
but by the merits of an honeft and unreprovable life. 

That the dead body of aBifhopin time of his Funeral, (hould not 
be covered with the Pall (otherwife called Opertorium Dominid cor- 
poris) left the honour done to the body, ftiould be a polluting of the 
Altar, with many other Conftitutions. 

Under the Reign of Cberebert King of France, a Council was Aflem- 
bled at Tomt. In this Council it was Ordained, that the Clergy and 
People in every Congregation (hould provide relief for their own poor, 
and not permit them to wander up and down. 

It was alfo Ordained, that a Bithop {hould count his Wife as his Si- 
fter, and that he {hould no manner of way company with her, and fo 
this caufe fhould have Presby ters and Deacons fo familiarly converfant 
with him, that they might bear teftimony of his honeft behaviour, 
w'. that he nevr i companied with his Wife. The Papifts themfelves 
could not overpafs this Canon without a cenfure. 

Moreover it was Ordained, That no Prieft or Monk (hould receive 
hi bed with Mm another Prieft or Monk, to the end they might be fo 
unreprovable, that the y would abftain from all appearance of evil. 

In this Council were fet down very ft rift prohibitions, that no man 


24 3CDceccieftafticai$ffto# Cent. 6. 

(hould opprefs the Church, and convert to his ownufe any thing duly 
.belonging to them, left he incurr the malediction of /<#, who was a 
Thief, and kept the bag, and converted to his own ufe a part of that 
mony which belonged to the poor. 

A Council likewife was holden at P<*w, wherein order was taken 
concerning admitting of Bifhops to their Offices, That no man (hould 
be admitted Bi(hop without the full confent of Clergy and People, 
and that no man (hould prefume by favour of Princes only, without 
the confents aforefaid, to become Bifhop in any place. 

Now Clotaire remained alone King of France, his Brethren being 
dead, their Children alfo were dead, and Cbildebert the eldeft died 
without Iflue. The Reign of Clotaire was (hort and wretched ; He 
fought to extort the thirds of all EcclefialUcal Things to his private 
Affairs : but the Clergy oppofed theiufelves againft him, fo as threats 
prevailed not. He dies Anno 5^7. 

Before that he Rules as King alone, he Erected the little Realm of 
Yvetot upon this occafion. Upon good Fryday he flew Gawter of Tve- 
tot his Servant in the Chappel where he heard Service. It is faid, that 
the King had raviftied his Wife lodging in his houfe, fo as he that was 
beaten faifered the puntthment. Pope Eugenius difpleafed with this 
infamous murther, condemned him to repair the fault upon pain of 
Excommunication : Clotaire for fatisfadion Ordaineth, That from 
thenceforth the Lords of Yvet&t (hould be tree from all homage, fer- 
vice, and obedience to the King for the Land of Tvett in the Countrey 
of Normandy : And fo this fmall feigneury hath continued long with 
the Title and Prerogative of a Realm, until that this Title of a Realm 
was changed into a Principality, the which the houfe of Belay doth 
now enjoy. Clotairt had by two Wives five Sons and one Daughter i 
four furvived him, viz. Cherebert, Cbilperic y Sigebert , Gontbran and 
Clofindehis Daughter. 

Cberebert was King of France, Chilperic King of Soiflons, Gontbran 
King of Orleans, Sigibert King of Metz or Lorain, although each of 
them called himfelf King of France, and commanded absolutely over 
the Countries under their obedience : All of them Reigned together 
Hfteen years. 

The fecond Council otMatifcan was convened in the twenty fourth 
year of King Guntbran : In it complaint was made, that Baptifm ufu- 
ally was miniftred on every holy day, infomuch that upon Eafter day 
fcarce were two or three found to be prefented to Baptifm : This they 
Ordained to be amended, and that no man (except upon occafion of 
infirmity) prefume to prefent his Child to Baptifm, but to attend up- 
on the B'eftival dayes prefcribed of old, that is, Eafter and Whitfunday. 
Alfo it was Appointed and Ordained, that the Sacrament of the Al- 
tar (hould be Adminiilred before any of the Communicants had tafted 
of meat or drink. That 

Cent,*?. Of FRANCE. 05 

That no pcrfon who fleeth to the Church, as to a City of Refuge, 
flhould be drawn back again by violence from the bofome of the Church, 
or be harmed in that holy place. 

That a Btthop (hall not be attached before a Sectilar Judge. 
That the Houfes of Bi(hops (hall be kept holy with exercifes of 
piayer and fmging of Pfalms, and (hall not be defiled with the bark- 
ing of dogs, and muting of Hawks. 

Tint Secular men (hall do reverence to thofe of the Clergy, even 
uatc trie lowed degree of them i in fuch fort, that if the Secular Man 
do meet any of the Clergy walking on foot, he (hall honour him by 
uncovering his head : But if the Secular man be riding on horfeback, 
and the Clergy- man on foot, then the Secular man (hall light down 
from his horfe, and (hall do reverence to the Church-man. 

In the third Council at Matifion, we read of nothing but a conten- 
tious difputation between two BHhops, Palladia and 'Bertram ,. and 
foolHh queftions fcarce fit to be difputed in Grammar- Schools. 

Chilperic, a crafty man, feizeth on his Father's Treafure, and labour- 
eth to become Mafter of the City of Parts, but was not able to ef- 
feft it. 

Cberebert having caft off his Lawful Wife, and being Excommuni- 
cated by German Bi(hop of Paris , dieth at Blavia in SanQen in the 
ninth year of his Kingdom about the year 570, whofe Kingdom his 
Brothers divide among themfelves. 

Chilperic and Sigebert waged War one againft the other : Cbilperic 
enters the Countrey of Sigebert , and takes from him the City oiRbemes: 
Hereupon Sigebert purfues his Revenge, and takes from Cbilperic Soif- , 
/*/, the Capital City of his Realm, with his Son Ibeodobert^ forcing 
him to retire to Tournay. Sigebert comes a Conquerour to Paris, where 
he is received by common confent j and fo all the Cities belonging un- 
to Cberebert yield him obedience. But as he thought himfelf fettled, 
tehold two young foldiers Cfuborned by Yredegund an harlot of Cbil- 
perifs) came to his Court, enter freely into his Hall, and getting near 
unto him, each of them ftabs him with his dagger, and he falls down 
dead in the place : Thefe murtherers were fuddcnly torn in pieces, 
foas they could not be known, nor declare by whofe inftigation they 
had committed this murther : Yet was it generally thought, it was the 
practice pf Tredegttnd to free Cbilperic, and to make her way the more 
fmooth by the death of Sigebert who croiTed her moft. Now is Cbil- 
peric received King of France in the place of his elder Brother, Anrto 
578. and Reigned fourteen years at Paris and SoiQius, while that 
Cbildebtrt the Son of Sigebert Reigned in Auftrapa or Lorain, and Gon- 
tbran at Orleans and Burgongne. He found Brttnbanlt the widow of Si- 
gebert at P*w, a fubtil and audacious woman, whom he confined to 
whither be likewife fent his Son Merovee to take polfelfion o 
E the* 

CCClCftaftlCal ^tftOJ Cent. 6. 

the City but there he was furprifed by the beauty of Emnebanlt : She 
fo infinuated into the Bifaop, that he allowed of this Marriage, al- 
though (he was his Aunt : Cbilperic moved herewith came tn Roven^ 
degraded and bani(hed the Bifhop, and puts Merovee into a Cloyfter. 
Merovee fleeing, is purfued, taken, and flain by his Father's command j 
and left Audovere his. Mother, (a virtuous Princefs) and Clovis her o- 
ther Son, (hould feek means of revenge, he rejects his Wife, and cau- 
feth Clovit his other Son to be ilain. 

For thefe diforders the Nobility complain againft Fredegunde > here- 
upon Cbilperic takes Galfonde to Wife, the Daughter of Athanagild 
King of Spain j but by the inftigation of Fredegonde Cbilperic ftran- 
gleth his fecond Wife, and publickly marrieth Fredegonde. 

Cbilperic when he had feen Clotbarius born to him of Fredegonde^ 
the fourth moneth after, a little before night, returning from hunting, 
is by privy murtherers killed Anno 584. That murther was hatched 
by Fredegonde^ and committed by LMbfertft^ftH Adulterer of hers : 
thus died this deteftable Chilperic. Hiftorians make him guilty of im- 
piety, as well as of -execrable wickednefs > for he denied the truth of 
the three perfons in one Deity, and the Incarnation of the Son of 
Godv-.: .:> 

' Guntbran dieth in the year of Clirift 593. having left a good me- 
morial behind him of Piety and other Virtues, the which being com- 
mitted to Church- Tables, is repeated every year on the 28 th of March. 
His Kingdom came to Childebert. 

Cbildebert^ Anno 596. is taken away by poifon, together with his 
-Wife, whom Hheodoric and 'fbeodebert his Sons fucceed , under the 
tuition of their Grandmother Bruaebault. They fight againft Clotba- 
riut, and being overcome in battel, they force him to part with the 
greateft part of his Kingdom. 

Sagittarius BUhop of Ebreduna, and Salonius Bithop of Vopinga in 
France^ for their wickednefTes, and alfo becaufe being armed they 
fought in manner of foldiers, in the Aflembly of Lions were before this 
deprived of their Epifcopacy in the fixth year of Guntbran i but they 
appealing to Pope Jobn^ were reftored by his command. At laft, be- 
caufe they continued in hainous offences, they were again by the Ca+ 
bitionian Council deprived of all Dignity. 

At Attguftoritiim died Radegund , Anno 587. in whofe Monaftery 
were fome Virgins fprung from a Royal Stock, who being lifted up in 
pride againft Leubovera , the Governefs of the Nunnery, firft of all 
depaifed from her : The Guardians beirg fent into the Monaftery, and 
all things taken away, they drew out Leubovera by force from thence. 
At length by the command of Cbildebert a Council of Bifhops being 
gathered together in Viftavia^ they were ExcomdsUnicated, and Lett- 
bovera r-eftof ed unto her former place,^ 


Cent. 6. 0f F R AN C E. K _ 27 

About the year 5^0. Serenus Bi(bop ofMarfeilles feeing his people fal- 
ling to the adoration of Statues, brake them, and caft them out of the 
Church : About which Pope Gregory the firft reproveth him in two 
Epiftles, faying, That Images indeed ought not to be worfiipped, but 
that they ought not te be broken neither^ becattfe they are injtead ofBookj 
unto the ignorant. 

But it was not long before the Popes became the great Patrons of 
the adoratio'n of Images, and made it a means of their rifing-, for when 
the Greek Emperours fell to the breaking of Images, Gregory the fe- 
cond took thence occafion to (hake off the yoke of the Emperours, as 
enemies of the Saints, and made Rome and part of Italy to revolt.from sigon. Lib. j.dt 
the Obedience of their Soveraign : And he made himfelf a Temporal regnoitai. 
Prince, under colour of defending Images, as Sigonius relateth. 

Venantius^ Honorius, Clementianw, Fortunatus, by Nation an Italian, 
came into France , feating himfelf firft at T0rr, afterwards at Poittiers j 
he was firft made a Presbyter, then he became BHhop of that place. 
He is reported to have reduced the French to a more gentle kind of 
life, by his writings and example. 

IllyricM make's mention of one Alcimw, of the Ancient Family of cataL Teft. ve 
the Aviti, whofe Great Grandfather, Grandfather, Father, Uncle, Bro- rit> Ltb * 6 ' 
ther, were famous and eminent for Ecclefiaftical Dignities : His Fa- 
ther fucceeded Mammertus in the Bifhoprick ofVienna^AIcimM fucceed- 
ed his Father : Many excellent Verfes of his are extant unto this day. 

Concerning the rirft fin of Man, and the Grace of Chrift, you may 
read what he faith in thefe following Verfes : 

vor'ri evenittitt hutnana in gente 
Vnde brevem capiunt mortalia tempora vitam : 
Vel quod potiuti vitiantur origine mores, 
<j>uos aliena premttnt prifcorum fata Parentttm : 
Addatur quanqttam noftra. de parte reattts^ 
Quodqtte etiam amijjo dudum peccatur honere, 
Adfcribam tibi, prime Pater : qui femine morfk 
Tollis fuccidtt* vitalia germina proli. 
Et licet hoc totnm Chrijiu* perjoherit in fe, 
Contraxit quantum percujfa in ftirpe propago : 
Attamen Auttoris vitio, qtti debita lethi 
Inftituit, morbofque fax ac funera .tnifit. 
Vivit peccati moribunda in carne cicatrix. 

And fpeaking unto Chrift, he addeth, 

NuKttm aliitd^ prater te mum, folamen habemiu* 

E 2 Then 

Cent. 6. 

Then fpeakingof Chrift the Mediator, whofe Figure was that Bow in 
the Heaven after the flood, and of the klvation of thofe that believe 
in him, he faith, 

Nttnc qttifqtw fetnel aliatam fervare falittem 
OptM, fignatum potiks figno injpice Chrijlum : 
Verw enim atque unut firmati federvs arcus 
JHe dettm atque homines inter, qtti virgine carne 
Virgineo ex utero fttmpta^ jam munere facet 
Mttltiplici in ctlo Varm, fed fnlgidiu omni- y 
Vitalem menftrat facrati pignorit < arcum, 
Hunc coram ajpicies^ quifquw baptifmate tin&w 
Ad cxlum liber culpis pereuntibw ibif. 

And of the water flowing out of the Rock, he thus fpeakethj 

Nee portentific* aepit me eblivio virg^ 
Quo ftgno fummus percufia rape facerdof, 
Protttlit irriguos poculif fitientibus hauftus. 
InfinuaHf Cbrijlttm Jlabilem confijiere petrant, 
Percttflitf jacttlo larg<x qui pr<ebuit undti^ 
Pvrrexitqite futs facro de vtdnere pot urn. 

before his death called a Synod j made up of the Gal. 
tican Bilhops at Prennacttm upon this occafion. The Earl Lettdaftef 
applyed himfelf to Riculphus a Presbyter, a perverfe man, and rebel- 
lious againft Gregory Bifhop of TWx, his own Bi(hop j thefe two re- 
ported to the K-ing, as if Gregory had faid, that Queen Fredegund had 
carnally lain with Bertram Bifhop of Bwdeaux i hereupon Bertram ac-? 
cufeth Gregory before the Synod, Chilperic being prcfent, Gregory con- 
ftantly denieth it : But the KingafTcrteth, that he could convince Gre- 
gory of this calumny by witnefTes i yet firft of all he propoundeth it to 
be debated by the Synod, whether witnefTes ought to be admitted a- 
gainft a Bifhop, or whether the bare aflertion ofthe Biftioponly ought 
to be believed : The Synod pronounceth, That they could not fafely 
give credit to an inferiour perfon bearing witnefs againft a Biftiop: 
Yet they require Gregory to fay MalTes at three Altars, and that he 
purge himfelf by Oath : which being done by Gregory , he was ab- 

But the Synod excommunicated his Accufer, and certified olher 
Bifhops by Letters concerning the abfolution of Gregory. 

In this Century Rttpertus Bi(hop of the Franckj, with twelve other . 
Divines came into the Country of the Be//, and there RupertHt, by 
{^caching the .Gofpel, converted Tbeodonthe Prince of tbc.Countrey, 


Cent. 6. Of F R A.N C E. 09 

with his Son, from Heathenifli Idolatry unto Chrift, and baptized them 
both at Ratiibon : Many others alfo were converted by him. 

In this Age flouriflied German BUhop of Paris forementioned. when 
he was an Abbot, in a dream he fa w the Keys of the Gates of Paw 
delivered to him> and demanding the caufe of it, he was anfwered, 
That he thould, as Paftor, feed the Lords Flock belonging to that 
Church. Not long after the Btthop of Paris dying, he was Conftitu- 
ted Bithop thereby King Cbildebert. with fingular zeal he provoked 
the People to Godlinefs j great was his gravity in preaching, and his 
words were weighty and powerful j he was liberal towards the poor, 
and redeemed many. Captives. King Cbilperic after his death (who 
was wont to deride and contemn other Minifters) wrote this honour* 
able Epitaph upon him, which I thought fit to fet down : 

Ecclefa fieculum, patri* vigor , ara reorttm : 

Et pater^ & medicat, pajior amorque gregit, 
Germanus virtute, fide, corde, ore beatus, 

Came tenet turnulum, mentis bonore pvlttm. 

The Hiftories of this Age make mention of one Etitts Arch-Deacon 
of the Church of Paris, who when he underftood that Innocent Pr*~ 
textatuf Bifhopof ~R.bothomagttm (accufed of Treafon againft the King) 
was in danger to be condemned in a Synod at P<m*, he with great bold- 
ncfs entred into the Synod, and admoniQied the-Bifliops and AffelTours, 
to beware of having an hand in the condemning of an Innocent per- 
fon, he told them they ought rather to reprove King Cbilperic for his 

In the Reign of this King many Jews were baptized in France, but 
many of them returned to their vomit, and perfidioufly renounced the 
Chriftian Religion. 

In thofe dayes there were great inundations of waters, which did 
much hurt in many places, efpecially at Lions , where part of the walls 
of that City were thrown down. Horrible earthquakes made great 
concuilions in part of France^ and overturned fome mountains toward 
Spain, which overwhelmed many men and beafts. A fire falling fronv 
Heaven confumed the City of Orleans, and the ftreets of Bourtteaux^ 
together with the fruits of the earth. Other places were forely afflict- 
ed with a grievous hail. There followed almoft through all France a 
malignant Cough and bloody Flux, which deftroyed very many men 
and women i by which difeafe that wicked Auftigildit, wife of King 
Guntbran perifhed. The caufe of thefe evils was faid to be the diiTen* 
tions, civil wars, and horrible impieties of thofe three Brothers fore- 
mentioned, Sigebert, Cbilperic^ and Gunthran, Kings of France , and* 
their Counfellouis and Minifters, who provoked them to thofe i 

30 %%t ecdeftafticai i?tfto?p Cent. 6. 

! . , >. - 

ties ; who were punifhed of God for their flagitious pra&ices with moft 
grievous judgements. 

Here I {hall make mention of the various fortune of Tbeodorw Bi- 
fhop of Marfeilles in the Reign of Cbildebert^ Divamm (a moft wicked 
man) being Governour of that Province : This man hated Tbeodoruf, 
and Jaid divers fnares to entrap him. And when Tbeodoru* was going 
to King Cbildebert to implore his help, he was feized on by "Divamius 
in the midft of the City of MarfeiUes^ and injurioufly dealt with, and 
fo clifmifTed. In his journey Theodora, by the inftigation of I>ivamiuf s 
is taken by Guntbran King of Orleans : then the Clergy of Marfeilles 
being no better than D'rvamm^ being very joyful at the news of it, do 
immediately invade and plunder all the fubftance and treafures of the 
Church, and load Theodoras with divers calumnies. King Chilperic fet- 
teth Theodoras at liberty, and fendeth him back with Gundulpbus the 
Governour to Marfeiles, that there he might be reftored to his former 
dignity. At the coming of GundtttyhiK and Theodoras, "Divamius and 
the Clergy do (hut the gates, and drive them back reproachfully. But 
Gundxlpbus by Art getting into the City with his Soldiers, foon brake 
the power of Divamitts , and fharply rebuked himi yet Gundulphut 
being appeafed with deprecations and gifts, Divamius having taken an 
oath that he would reftore Tbeodorut to his Bifhoprick, and for the fu- 
ture be faithful to the King, he returned to his houfe. 

But Divamius defpifmg his Oath, fignifieth the reftitution of They- 
dorus to King GuntbraH, adding, That while Theodoras held his Go- 
vernment , King Guntbran could never enjoy the City of MarfeiUes. 
Guntbran being angry fendeth Soldiers to take Ibeodortts^ who feizing 
upon the Bifliop unexpectedly, they carry him on horfeback bound 
with chains moft ignominioufly to their King : But King Guntbran 
knowing the innocency of Theodorus , without doing him any harm 
fufFers him to return to his charge, beftowing many gifts upon him. 
Upon this occafion great enmity grew between King Guntbran and 
Cbildeben : Many other calumnies, and grievous indignities did this 
innocent BUhop fuffer from other of his wicked and malicious ene- 
mies. About that time Mmttkricus, Epifcopus Ternoderenfis^ being by 
force taken away from his Church, is thruft into a clofe and ftrong 
Tower built upon the bank of the River Rbodanus, and there was 
detained almoft two years, and moft grievoufly handled. 

Under the Jurifdi&ion of Gregory Biflhop of Tours, there was a cer- 
tain Presbyter who denied the Refurredion of the Body. The fore- 
faid (jn?g<?rydifputed againft him, which difputation you may read at 
large in the Hctgdeburgenfan Hiftory. The difputation being ended, 
the Presbyter promifed, that he would afterward believe the Refurre- 
chiw!iUg? ft ' ^ ion of the dead - Tbis Gregory hath put out thefe works, Hijl Fran- 
caf. Jo. ' corttm \ dff Gloria Martyrttm > de Gloria Confefforum , de viw quorundam 


Cent. 7. Of FRANCE. 31 

Tatrum. I find him by a certain Writer thus ftiled , Antiqttif- ofiand. Cent. 6. 
fimut & fideliflimxf Francorum fcriptor. He wrote fharply again ft the ' 4< "*' * 7 ' 
jfemr and Ariant \ yet there are divers errours found in his writings, 
which are mentioned by Ofiander. He was very intimate with Gregory 
the Great, Bifhop of Rome, flourUhing at that time. 

Century VII. 

THe Author of the Book, called the Catbolick.. 'tradition^ firft 
in French, and then Tranflated into Englifh, fearcheth the dif- 
ference of all Churches, and except in Rites or Ceremonies 
hath not marked any great difference of the Aby fines and Jacobites, 
from our Reformed Churches. And in his Preface, he faith , They 
pretend to have their name \_Jacobites~\ from Jacob the Old Patriarch, 
and the name \_Cophtes~] becaufe they are circumcifed i and in git. 5. 
he faith, They call themfelves Chriftians of the firft Converfion. 

PbocM^ a mean Captain in "fbracia, in a fedition of the people did 
kill his Soveraign Mauritius the Emperour, ufurped the Crown, and 
held the Empire feven years. He gave unto Pope Boniface the Title of 
Univerfal Bifhop, which Title Gregory his PredecefFour had difclaim- 

Gregory devifed many new Rites, yet tied not others to follow them : 
For when Auguftine (whom he fent into Britain) demanded of him, 
feeing the Faith is one, why are the cuftomes of the Church divers > 
and why is one fort of Mafs in R0rae, and another in France ? Gregory 
anfvvereth , Thy Brotherhood knows the cuftome of the Roman 
Church, in which thou haft been nourifned but it pleafeth me, whe- 
ther in the Church of Rome, or of France, or in any other, thou haft 
feen any thing that may pleafe the Almighty God, that thou diligent- 
ly follow it. 

In France the two Sons of Cbildebert , T^eodorick^ and Ibeodebert 
(their Grandmother Erunehault working that thing) reigned with per- 
petual difagreement among themfelves> and with Clotbaritts. Ibeo- 
debert being overcome by his Brother in Battel, Anno 612. is ilain 
by his own Soldiers at Colonia : T^heodoric]^ dieth the year following t. 
Brunebault being hated of the French^ Anno 613. Clotbarius having 
obtained the whole Kingdom of tfc Frencb^ bound ftmnebault with 
a Cable rope 5 M her about with wild Horfes, and tare her to pieces. 


3 a 5O)e cecieftaftical $tfto# Cent. 7 . 

Thus by God's judgement She died mod juftly, who had cruelly caufed 
many others to die. Thus died Brunebault, only commended in Hi- 
ftories to have built many Temples, and given great revenues for the 

DC Serres Hift. maintenance thereof, whilft (he wallowed in her pleafures. St. Gre- 
gory hath fet down certain Letters of his to Brunehault^ wherein he 
commends her highly (though bafely flattering her) for her Piety and 
fingular Wifdom. 

Chtbaritu feeing himfelf King of fo great a Monarchy, after a long 
and horrible confufion of inteftine wars, ufed all diligence to pacific 
the Realm. He augmented the great Authority of the Maires of the 
Palace, who controlled Kings, and in the end ufutped the Royalty, 
whereas they were before but Controllers of the King's Houfe, not 
of the Realm. He had one only Son, whofe name was Vagobert : He 
committed him to Armtlfb Bifhop of Metz t a learned and good man 
to 'be intruded by him. 

'Petries church- Agreftin who had been Clerk to King Ibeodoricl^ entred the Abby 

Hift. laCent. 7. Lexoviett with all his wealth,, but he foon became weary of the fuper- 
fUtious Rites, and left the Abby :, Then went-heto Aquileia^ (which 
then was not under the Romilh yoke) and from thence he wrote unto 
JLujlafittf Abbot of Lexovien againft the Rites of the Monks, exhort- 
ing him to reje& thofe Rites. Euftafw and his Convent exclude him 
out of their Society. For removing this Controverfie was AfTembled 
the fourth Council at Matifcon in Burgundy -, there Agreftin accufeth 
Euftafmt of many fuperftitious Ceremonies, contrary to Canonical In- 
ftitution, viz. That they did ufe to lick a Cockle marked with a Crofs, 
Teft. ve- and ufed Hallowings when they went in or out of an houfe > they 
fttf multiplied Prayers and Collects in the Mafs > they ridiculoufly cut off 

Abb. their hair, and abftained from the company of men : but the Bimops 

.condemned Agreftin. Hence we fee, that fome perfons did not allow 
the Rites creeping in, and thelnventers of them were but private per- 
fons, and the Abetters were pleafed with the leaft ihadow of Reafon. 

Clotharius dieth in the year 631. having Governed 44 years from 
his cradle, and patted happily through many perillous difficulties : He 
left his Son Vagobert for his Succeflbur. 

Ttagoben at his coming to the Crown found great difficulties among 
his Subje&s, being bred up without Juftice, under the long licentioui- 
ntfs of Civil Wars, and the lenity of Clotbaire , whereto he provided 
wifely, reducing Ju-ftice, fortifying it by his Authority, with fo good 
a moderation, as no man was offended at his feverity, neither durft any 
man attempt any thing againft the Laws, feeing both the reign and the 
rod in the hands of their Lawful Prince : To this good Order he pro- 
feffed to love holy things i and the better to confirm this Opinion in 
the minds of his Subjects, he builj and enriched many Temples, efpe- 
cialy that of St. Venti, the which hath fince been theSqpulchre of the 
French Kings. This 

Cent. 7- Of FRANCE. 

This King was much ruled by the forenamcd Arnulpb Bifhop of 
, and by Pepin Major of the King's Palace : This Pepin was 
Grandfather to that Pepin, who was the firft King of the fecond Race 
of the French Kings, and began to deal abfolutely in the Government Fabian's chron. 
of the Realm. Vagobert and all his Realm were in great honour and ran -s* 
tranquillity, till the death of Arnulpb, after which the King began to 
change his conditions to the hurt of his whole Realm. 

There were at this time great numbers of Jews in Frame, the which 
were hurtful to the Realm : Vagobert banifhed them by a perpetual 
Edift out of the Territories under his obedience. But this Zeal of Re- 
ligion was blemilhed with the foul Wot of Adultery, which made him 
infamous both to his Subjects and to Strangers. Amandut BUhop of 
Paris reproved him for his fault i but Vagobert impatient thereof ba- 
nifhed him : Yet by the earned perfwafion of Pepin, he yielded to 
Reafon, and having difmiffed many of his lewd followers, he calleth 
home Amandm again from banimment. Amandw was a man famous 
for Holinefs in thofe dayes. At that time Auftregefil was Bifhop of Bi- 
tures, Lttput Bithop of Sent, Bavo was converted from a robber by 
Amandus. Columban likewife being much vexed by Brttnebattlt, lived 
under Clotbariut, and his Scholar Galuf. 

Projetius was a Martyr in Aquitain, he was fucceflbur to Serenw Bi- 
fhop of MarfeiEes. 

Vagobert having Affembled the Eftates of France in great folemnity 
at Bygttage, he made his Tefiament, and Ordained, that he made his 
younger Son Clovis King of France, and his elder Son Sigebert King of Fabian's chro- 
Ateftrafia or Lorain. His Teftamen.t he had caufed before to be written nic - 
in ifour fundry skins, endented to be read, and then lealed with cer- 
tain feals i whereof the one he willed to be kept in the Treafury of 
St. Denis , the fecond in the Treafury of the City of Lions ; the third 
in the Treafury of Me tz, in Lorain i and the fourth in the Kings Trea- 
fury. Vagobert died having Reigned fourteen years, and was buried in 
the forefaid Monaftery. 

To maintain the invocation of Saints, the Papifts fay, that at that 
time the foul of Vagobert King of France was delivered out of the 
hands of the Devil by Vionyfm and Maurice Martyrs, and Martin jhc 
Confeflbr, whom Vagobert had Adored. 

A Council was Aflembled in a Town of France, called in Latin Al- Symfon'schurch- 
tijidormn, vulgarly Aitxerre, in which were met a number of Abbots fc^*' 4> 
and Presbyter's, w^h one Bi(hop, and three Deacons. 

In this Council they condemned Sorcery, and the confulting with 
Sorcerers, in the firft, third, fourth and fifth Canons, whereby it ap- 
peareth, that Sorcery hath been in frequent ufe in France. 

Many fuperftitious Conftitutions were fct down in this Synod con- 
cerning the number of Maffcs j prohibition of tafting meat before Mais, 

F concerning 

34 %De ccciefiaftical ^tfto?v cent. 7. 

concerning burial -, prohibition of Baptifm before the Fetfivity of Ea- 
fter, except upon neceffity, and fear .of approaching death ; prohibiti- 
on of Matrimonial copulation with their own Wives to Presbyters and 
Deacons after their Blelfing and ConfecratioiK, with prohibition of 
Marriage alfo to the Widows of the defundV Presbyters, Deacons, or. 
Sub-deacons Brothers and Sifters Children are forbidden to marry. 

They Ordained, that it is not lawful for a Presbyter to fit in judge- 
ment, when any man is condemned to death. 

That it is not lawful for a Clergy- man to cite another of the Cler- 
gy before a Secular Judge. 

That it is not lawful for a Woman with a naked hand to touch the 
Holy Eucharift. 

That it is not lawful to take refrefhment of meat with an excom- 
municate perfon. 

If any of the Clergy receive an excommunicate perfon, without the 
knowledge of him who did excommunicate him, he (hall receive the 
like fentence, that is, he (hall be likewifc excommunicated. 

That it is not lawful for a Presbyter in Banquetting-time to fing or 

Many Canons, to the number of 45^ were concluded in this Coun- 
cil : But I (hall not trouble you with an heap of unprofitable, unne- 
ceflary and fuperftitious Canons. 

Another Council was afterwards called at Cabition, vulgarly called 
Cb'alon, which is a Town in Burgundy , not far diftant from Matifcon. 
In this Town, by the Commandment of Clovif King of France, con- 
vened 44 Bifhops : Gandericus Bi(hop of Lions was Prefident , and 
Laudilenus Bithop of Vienna, fbeodomi Bi(hop of Aries, becaufe he 
refufcd to appear before the Council, was fufpended from his Office 
until the next Council. 

In this Synod the Canons of the Council of Nice had great allow- 
ance. . It was forbidden that two Bi(hops (hould be Ordained in one 
Town > that no man {hould fell a Chriftian Servant to a Jew and . 
that two Abbots (hould not be chofen to govern one Monaftery. 

That no labouring of the ground, or other fecular work (hall be 
done on the Lord's day i with many other Canons coincident with the 
Canons of other Councils. 

Clovif the fecond married a Gentlewoman of Saxony , named Baudour, 
a Lady of good life, and much given to Devotion, as the Abby otSbel* 
les, St. Baudour^ with other Foundations do witnefe. Whilft (he bu 
fied her fell in her Devotion , and to build Monafteries, Clwis ad- 
dicted himfelfto fenfuality : Yet one memorable thing is recorded of 
him, In a time of great dearth, to relieve the poor people, he fuffered 
them to take the Silver wherewith the Temple of St, Pfw* had been 
covered by. Dageberti 


Cent. 7- Of FRANCE. 35 

Aimo faith, that two years after, a famous AiTembly of Bifliops be- 
ing had, he appointed the Monaftery of T>ionyfiuf^ which his Father 
had built nigh unto the City, to be free from the Jurifdi&iorrof all 
Bifliops , Landeric^ the Chief Ruler of Paris agreeing to it. Cloivt 
died Anno 660. of his Reign 17. At the fame time Ercbenwald Ma- 
jor of the Palace dying, Ebruin fucceedeth him : From which time 
the French Kings being let loofe into floth and riot, the Government 
of the Affairs of State came to the Majors of the Palace : The Kings 
being contented only, with the Name or Title, contained themfelves in 
their Palace, neither came they but once every year (viz. in the Ka- 
lends of May) into open view of the r^bple. 

Clotbarius^ the ddeft Son of Clow fucceeded his Father, but hav- 
ing Reigned four years he died, Anno 66^ 

Ibeodonc]^ his Brother for. a (hort fpace was Chief \ but the French 
being weary of this man, (hut up Theodorick^'m a Monaftery, being 
(haven at St. Dems in Paris^ and Ebruin at Luxovien : Then Cbilde- 
r/'d^ was made King, who after three years Reign was flain by fiodil'e 
a Noble French man, whom he had commanded, being bound to the 
(lump of a tree, to be whipped with rods. His Queen alfo being great 
with Child, was killed by the fame Bodille. 

Ebruin fecretly breaking out of the Monaftery , again invadeth the Petav.Hift 
Lieutenantthip of the Palace, and killeth Leudefms the Son of Erchen- Llb ' *' 
wald Major of the Palace, and Leodegar Chief Ruler of Augttj}odunum t 
whom after he had been tortured with divers torments, and in an 
AfTembly of Bifhops fpoiled of his Dignity, he commanded to be fmit- 
ten with a fword. 

In thofe times there were many in France flourifhing in Holinefs, 
among whom Eligius Bifliop of Noviomutn, and Audoentts Bi(hop of 
Roven are mentioned. Eligittt died in the feventieth year of his Age. 
Audoenus died being ninety years old, in the 44 year of his BHhoprick. 
Private perfons alfo graced France with an exact holinefs of Life, viz. 
Furfeus, FoftatMs^ Vltan^ who having come out of Ireland built Mo* 
nafteries in France. 

Thierri the firft is now made King of France, a King in ftew, who is 
a fpe&ator of divers Tragedies. Ibierri dieth having reigned 19 years. 

Ebrttin in the third year after the death of Leodegar was thruft tho- 
row by Hermenfrid j then Pepin governeth the Kingdom. 

Clovis the third, the eldeft Son of Tbierri reigned four years, an<J 
dieth without Children : His Brother Children the fecond fucceed- 
eth him. 

F 2 : CEf4T. VIII, 

ecdefiattteal $tftO# Cent. 8 . 

Century VIII. 


Hildebert Reigned 17 years, and died Anno 711. having left 
two Sons, Dagobert and Clothaire. 

Pepin made great (hew oflove to Religion, and for thiscaufe 
makes war againft Rohod Duke of Frifia, .a Pagan, whom he conquer-, 
ed, and forced to receive the ^hriftian Religion, with all his Subjects. 
He reftored Lambert Bifhop of Iraift to his Dignity, being expelled 
by Ebrnin, and confined unto a Monaftery -, and one of his chiefeft 
cares was, to advance them that^had charge over "the Church : He 
commanded abfolutely, being-armed with the Authority of his Sove- 
faign, neither was there any. appeal from him to the King. 

Yet ??/>//;, befides his Lawful Wife called Plettrtide^ held a woman 
named Alptid, for the which the forenamed Lambert reproved him. 
Of this Alfaid he had a Son whom he named Charles j which Charles 
was after firnamed Martel^ and was very profitable to the Realm of 
France. Alfa id can fed Bifhop Lambert to be flain by her Brother P0- 
dm, who foon after felt the pumthment of this blood > for being djf- 
eafed with Worms, not able to endure his own ftench, he caft hirafelf 
headlong into the River Meuze. 

Pepinupou his death- bed Ordained Charles his Baftard to fucceed 
him in the Government of the Realm. But Plettrude after the death 
of Pepin caufeth Charles to be imprifoned at Colen, and advanceth 7l&/- 
1 katild to the Government, although in effecl: She under. his Name go- 
verned all the Affairs of State. T>agobert dying at this time, the French 
took a Prince of the blcod, called !><*/?/, out of a Cloyfter : Him they 
called King, under the Name of Cbilperic the fecond } and they give 
him a Noble Man of France, called Raivfroy to be his Major, who 
DC Serm hift. having lea vied an Army, defeated Ihibauld^ and his Grandmother Pie* 
Srude in battel. But Charles Martel getting out of prifon aflifteth Pie- 
nrude, gathereth Forces, and overcpmeth the new King and Krf/'- 

Charles is now received and inftalled -Major of Frifttce, and having 
afCurcd himfelf of the Children of King Dagobert^ he caufcd them to 
he gently brought up in a Monattery. . 

At Coleu he feizeth on Pleftrude and Ihibauld, and infli&s no o- 
ther punimment upon them, but enjoyns thenj to live quiet, and to 
attempt nothing without his liking. He pardons Rahifioy, and gives 
him the Government of Anji^u. He tiegradcth Cbilperic^ being ad- 
vanced againft Law, and caufeth theddeft Son of . Dagobe rt to be cho- 


Cent. 8. Of FRANCE. 


fen King, named Cbilperic- the third. Cbilperic dies having reigneck 
five years, and in his place his Brother Tbierri was crowned King : He 
reigned ten years, and dying left his Son Cbilderick^ the laft King of 
ihis firft race of t\\e$erwtgiens. 

Charles Martd from Major of the Palace, is chofen Duke or Prince 
of the French. 

Eudo, Prince of the Gafcoigns, to whom Rainfroy -joyned himfelf, 
called in the Saracens with their King Abdiram out of Spain, Anno 
725. whom Charles met, and killed them with an univerfal llaughter: 
there were (lain in one day three hundred feventy and five thoufand,and 
of the Frencb fifteen hundred, among which were many of the Nobi- 
lity and men of Note. And having recovered Burgundy and Lions, in 
the year following Eudo dying^ he invaded Aquitain, and overthrew 
the S-aracens in great numbers invading France in the year 731, and 
regained Avignon taken by them, and forceth them to abandon Narbon, 
and the whole Country to his mercy. At that time divers devout 
Monks lived in France, viz. Vandegrifil of Fontinel, a builder of Mo- 
nafteries, of whom Sigebert makes mention : Vrfmar of Lobia, a 
Founder of a Monaftery : Bertine, Abbot of Sithiena, and holy JLgi- 

Childeric was King in (hew nine years, five under the Authority of Anno 744. Agra 
Charles MarteL and four under Pepin the Son of Charles whodifpof* . thc ' i , m , c , of 

* King Childenc, 

ICfledhim.. called a Council 

Charles Martel having governed the Kingdom five and twenty years "^^affifted 
dieth : He had four Sons, Carloman, Pepin, Giles and Grypbo : Giles in pcrfon, rogc* 
was made Bifhop of Rbotomaum, and lift his Government affigned g h r e, t Tft Pwrs of 
hicn by his Father unto Carloman and Pepiit, and they two divide the the Land; 
Kingdom, and Govern each one his own part under the Title of their 
Father, as is apparent by the firft words of the Council under Carlo- 
man : In the Name of our Lord Jefus Chrifi^ I Carloman, P% and 
Prince of the French, in the year from the inoarnation of Cbrijl 742, on 
the i i th of the Kalends of March, by the advice of the fervants of God, 
and of my Nobes, I have Aflembled the Ei/hops in -my Kingdom, &c. 
Within (even years after this Synod, he laid allde his Princely Autho-r 
rity, faith BeVarmine, and entred into a Clnyfter, becomes a-Monk, and 
fo dieth at Vienna^ and. then all the Authority was in Pepix alone. 
Grypbo had rebelled again ft Carloman., but at laft F/wrtook him in 
Italy, and caufed him to- be beheaded. Atino 753. Pepin having the 
Government alone aimed at an higher Title.. 

'Bhndus and others, who have written .the Ads of the French^ fay, 
that the Nobility and Ccmmonult^ of th-c Nation, duly confidering 
the worthintfs of Tepin, and fottifbneG of Childeric, confulted with 
Zacbary Bi(hop of Koff v whether :thcy Ou-uld tolerate fo foolifh a 
King any longer, and defraud Pepin of his dtlcrvcd Princely honour. 

3 8 3D&e ecclefiaftical $itto# Cent. 8. 

'And when the Pope anfwered,That he was moft worthy to bcaKing, 
Hift Je ?c >ardl " W ^ C U '^ ^ eft ^(charge the Office of a King, the French, with the 
publick confent of the whole Nation, did pronounce Pepin for their 
King, and Childeric^ was fhaven, and made a Monk. Then the Pope 
wrote unto Boniface Bifhop of Mentz to Anoint Pepin King of France, 
and declare all his Subjeds free from their Oath of Allegiance unto 
their lazy Soveraign. The Pope was chiefly moved hereunto, with 
JauvoSS. " hope to draw help from P?/>/' againft the Lumbards, his mortal ene- 
mies. Pepin, Anno 755. called almort all the G*//ic<i.Bi(hops to meet 
at the Council of Vernes the Palace. 

About this time Apon'iM a French man wrote feveral Books. 
In the Council called by Carloman (of which I hinted before) he 
beginneth thus, 7 Carloman, &c. have Affembled the BKhops which 
are in my Kingdom, with the Priefts into a Council and Synod, Thefe 
are, Boniface Arch-Bifliop of Mentz, Bttrchard of Wirtzburg, Regin- 
frid, Gunibar'iM, with the reft of the Bifhops and their Priefts : That 
they fhould give me Counfel how the Law of God, and Religion of 
the Church may be reftored, which in the dayes of former Princes hath 
been (hattered and fallen \ and how Chriftian People may attain the 
falvation of their fouls, and not perifli, being deceived by falfe Priefts : 
And by the advice of my Priefts and Nobles, We have Ordained Bi- 
fhops through Cities, and fet over them the Arch-BHhop Boniface^ who 
' is the Legate of St. Peter. And we have Ordained that Synods (nould 
cwti. Tom, 2. be called every year, that in our prefence the Decrees of Canons, Rites 
Edit. crab. and Laws of the Church may be reftored. And wereftore unto the 
Churches the Monies that Wave been taken from them. We have alfo 
difcharged all the Servants of God from hunting and wandring in 
woods with Dogs, and that they have no Hawks nor Faulcons. We 
have alfo Decreed according to the Holy Canons, That each Presbyter 
dwelling in a Parifh be fubjed unto the BHhop where he dwelleth > 
and that alwayes in Lent he give an account of his Miniftry, whether 
of Baptifm, or Catholick Faith, and prayers and order of Maffes. Then 
he forbiddeth facrirtce to the dead, and other profane Rites of the Hea- 
then. He appointeth punifhments againft the Fornications and Adul- 
teries of Monks. It was alfo decreed, that Monks and Nuns fhould 
live within their Abbies and Cloyfters, according to the Rule of their 
Father Benedict. 

Pope Stephen confirmed Pepin and his Heirs for Kings of France, 
and of him asked aid to withftand the Power of Aijittlphus then King 
of Lontbardy, who then had exadted Tribute from certain Lands be- 
longing to the-BHhop of Rome, and becaufe it was refufed, took up 
Arms. The Pope wrote a Letter, direfted to the Kings of France, and 
to all Biihpps, Abbots, Priefts and Monks, and to the Glorious Dukes 
and Counts, and unto the whole Army of the Kingdom of France : 


Cent. 8. Of FRANCE. 39 

Stephen, Tope, and all the "Bijkofs, Pr ie ft s and T)e aeons, T)ukf.s, Counts , 
"People and Army of the Romans, all being in aaguijh, with how doleful 
and bitter grief we are entompajfed OH every fide , with how great per- 
plexity and doxbtfulnefi we are drjirejfed, and bow many tears our eyes do 
foed, becaufe of the continual troubles which are multiplyed upon us, we 
tbink^ that the fmaHeft part of all the elements do declare : for who be* 
holding our tribulations will not mourn? who bearing of our calamities 
wiUnot lament? Ajfli&ion is on every fide, and we know not what to do ! 
Oye Chriftians ! behold the dayes of trouble, the dayes of mourning and 
bitternefS are come upon w i It is come (as we feared) from the Lombards, 
fir we are afflifted, diftrejjed, and befieged on every fide by their moft un- 
godly King Aiftulph, and that Nation : Iherefore with the Prophet, we 
pray the Lord^ faying, Help uf God of our Salvation, and for the bo- 
nmr of thy Name deliver us, &c. And now becaufe Aiftulphus with an 
Army hath pitched his "Tents, and encamped againji M, and hath often faid 
^tnto us, Open unto me the Gate of Salaria, that I may enter into your 
City, and give me your High Prieft, and I will foew Clemency unto you : 
If not, beware, left when I have battered down your walls, I kjttyou al- 
together with the fword \ and let me fee, who can deliver you out of mine 
hand : Wherefore our Beloved, I befeech you, and (of if I were prefent) 
I adjure you by the tnyfteries before the true and living God, and before 
St. Peter the- Prince of the Apoftles, that with great freed you help us, left 
we perijh feeing tinder God roc have committed all our lives into your- 
hands, forfake us not. 

After this the Pope fent another Letter in the Name of St. Peter, A Letter nt fa 
as if it had been written from Heaven, which beginneth thus : Peter the njroe of St. ^ 
called an Apoftle, Grace, Peace, and Power, to deliver the Holy Church 
of God, and the People of Rome committed to me from the hands of 
their enemies, be fully given from the Lord God unto you moft ex- 
cellent men Pepin, &c. and to the moft holy Bifliops, Abbots, Presby- 
ters, and all Religious Monks, &c. I Peter, the Apofle of God, who 
have yon my adopted Children, to deliver from the enemies band tbii Ro~ 
man City, and the people committed of God unto me , provoking ati your 
Love, do exhort, and protecting do admonijhyou to deliver the Church j>f 
God, which by Divine Power is commended to me, feeing they fujfer very 
great ajfliftions and oppreflion by the moft wicked Nation of the Lombards. 
"Ibink^ not otherwife, but certainly believe it, that I my felf am ftanding 
alive m the flefh before you i and our Lady, the Mother ef God, the Vir- 
gin Mary , with w, doth adjure you with the greateft Obligations , and 
Prote(ietb,Admonifheth,andCommandetb,8cc. Behold, herewith what 
fooleries and impieties they would bewitch the world. 

But Pcpin did not leavy an Army until Pope Stephen came into 
France : And when he took his journey, he commended himfelf to 
St. M*ry, and his flock unto St. Peter : Pepin hearing of his coming, 


40 3CDe cccleftattical $ffio?p Cent. 8 . 

fcnt his Son Charles an hundred miles to meet him, and when he came 
within three leagues of Carifiac, Pepin went forth unto him, and re- 
turned on foot, and the Pope on horfeback : Then Pepin was crown- 
ed again by the Pope for the greater pomp. Pepin went into Italy t 
and forceth Aiftulpb to give hoftages to render unto the Pope all due 
Right : But after the return of Pepin into France., Aiftulph with new 
Forces doth more mifchief to Rowf. Then Pope Stephen wrote ano- 
ther Supplication to Pepin, who made no delay, but forceth Aiftulph 
to perform the former conditions, and to give unto the Pope the ex- 
archate of Ravenna. Within a year Aifiulph dieth, then a divifion 
arifeth between Racbu and Vefideriitf for the Kingdom. Then Ste- 
phen wrote his fourth Epiftle unto Pepin, giving him thanks for his 
aid, wifl^ing many bleflings unto him, and (hewing, that Aijiulph was 
ftricken by the hand of God, and drowned in the bottom of Hell, and 
that by the hands of Peter Prince of the Apoftles, and by thy moft 
powerful arm [fpeaking unto Pepin~\ Defiderittf, a moft mild man, was 
Ordained King of the Lombards, who had fworn to reftore unto St. 
Peter the Cities, Faventia, Infitbres and Ferrara, with all their Terri- 
tories i and alfo Aufimo, Aucona, Humana, Eona, with all their Terri- 
tories i and he had fworn to keep peace with the Church of St. Peter , 
and to be Loyal unto the Crown of France, and entreated Pepin to ap- 
prove the Coronation of Defiderixf upon thefe conditions. Henceforth 
the Pope began to lift up his head, and having large Territories given 
unto him, will not reft until he be Monarch of the world. When 
Stephen had peace he began to repair the Churches which Aiflulpb had 
caufed to be thrown down 3 and died in the fixth year of his Pa- 

SJ'J' 8 Chronl ' Tlien Ga 'f er Duke of Gttienne impofed a Tribute upon the Lands of 
the Clergy in his Dukedom without their cnnfent > wherefore the Bi- 
{hops for a redrefs complained unto King Pepin thereof i Pep'm repro- 
ved tl> Duke for it : but the Duke not regarding the Kings Admoni- 
tion, Pepin foon after with an Army entred the Territory of Guienne, 
wafting and fpoiling the Countrey. Hereupon the Duke hearkened to 
him, and bound himfelf to reftore unto the Clergy what he had ex- 
torted from them. But the. King being returned into France, the Duke 
gathering Forces together, fent them to the City of Chahurs in Bar- 
gundy, and did much hurt to that Town and Countrey. 

The King being forely difcontented at it, returned with his People 
into Gttien, and therein beat down many ftrong holds and Caftles, and 
took or won Burbon, Cancarvile and Cleremont, and wafted the Coun- 
try with fire and fword till he came to Limoger. The winter coming 
on, the King having ftrengthened the forefaid Cities, Towns and 
ftjrong Holds that he had won, and then rode to a place called Cans, there 
kept his Chriftmafs and Eafter. In the next Spring he re-entred the 


Cent. 8. flf FRANCE, 41 

forefaid Dutchy, and took by force the Cities of Bourges and 

The People of that Countrcy confidering the obftinacy of their 
Duke, murthered thefaid Duke, and after yielded themfelves and their 
Country to the King, with all fuch Treafure and Jewels as to the faid 
Duke belonged i whereof King Pepin offered a great part unto St. De- 
MS. Then this victorious Prince was vexed with grievous ficknefs i 
wherefore in all haft hefped him to St. Martin's^ where he made cer- 
tain Prayers and Oblations : And from thence (his ficknefs increafing) 
he was conveyed unto P*ra, where he (hortly after died, when he had 
reigned as King there by the fpace of eighteen years. 

After the death of Pepiu the Eftates of France Aflemble, and by their 
confents Charles and Carloman his Sons divide the Realm between 
them by equal portions. Charles was Crowned at Wormes^ Carloman. 
at SoiJJoHS : But by the death of Carloman the whole Realm came to 
Charles within three years after the death of his Father. 

Charles was endued with fingular gifts both of body and mind i he 
had the inftrudHons of a virtuous Converfation, and was bred up in 
Learning and Arms : He was Religious, and reverenced the Churches 
and Paftors , he was a great Juftitiary, a reliever of the poor, and 
kept his Faith both to friend and foe i he was a lover of Learning and 
learned men : Paul of Pifa inftru&ed him in the Greek and Latin 
Tongues, and Aimon in Philofophy and the Mathematickes : He de- 
lighted in Poetry, but efpecially in Hiftory, in which he was well read. 
The Univerfity of Paris built (or enriched) by him, doth witnefs the 
love and honour he bare to learning. A valiant man, none command- 
ed with more obedience, nor performed any thing with greater for- 
tune, nor ufed his Victories with more mildnefs and judgement. Ne- 
ver did King reign with more Authority, nor was more reverently 
obeyed than Charlemagne, 

About the Year 7^6 Charles King of France made a league with 
Archaius King of Scots : Arcbaius fent unto him Albinu^ or Aku'inw^ 
John Melrofe (fo named from the Abby Melrofe) Claudiuf^ Clemens and 
Anthony, all very devout and learned men. 

John Melrofe became Abbot of the Auguftinians at 'ficino^ and Clax- Btleincv&r. >* 
dins was Bithop of Attxerre-: They wrote fcveral works, as John Bale , 

Alcuinus had good knowledge of the Latin and Greek Languages : BibHoth.rfeia . 
Charles calleth him his Mafter, in an Epiftle written unto him, T>eSe~ Bi e ne > 7 ' 7 
ptuagef. & Sexagef. He hath many excellent things in divers of his 
Books and Writings. 

T)efideriM began to make War firft againft the City of Ravenna^ and 
the Marches thereof, and took the Cities of Ferrara , Faventia^ and 
other Towns. The Pope fent to Charles the Great for aid, who came 
into Italy with great Forces : "Deftderius fled to P*via 9 and was there 

G befieged : 

ccrttftaftical $tfto?p Cent. 8. 

befieged : Charles leaving an Unkk of his at the fiege of Pavia, went 
againlt Verona, which he took without any great difficulty : From 
thence he went to Rome to kifs the Pope's Foot, and to hold the Feafr 
of Eafter, where he was received with great Solemnity. 

After this his .coming thither, he confirmed to the Church and Popes 
of Rome, the Donation which his Father Pepin-hzd made of Ravenna, 
and other Lands, and made another of many other places, among 
which is reckoned the Ifle of Corfica, and all the Coaft of Genoua, with 
the Cities of Parma, Ancona, Vrbin, and many other Towns, befides 
Rome and the Territories thereof, which the Popes had already in pof- 
fellion i fo as to the Emperours remained only that part of Italy, which 
is part of Calabria, and of Pnglia, and a great part of that which now 
is the Kingdom of Naples 

Charles having been eight dayes in Rome, returned againft T>e- 
jideriw, who after fix moneths befieging in Pavia, yielded upon compe- 
tition, and Charles carried him with him, and banifhed both him and 
his Sons into a certain Illand, and then took Milan, and all the other 
Cities in Lombardy, which is the Ancient Galiia Cifatyina, where he 
placed French men for Dukes and Governours : So Italy remained in 
his Obedience, excepting thofe Lands and Provinces which were left 
to the Church of Rome : fo ended the Kingdom of the Lombards, 
which had continued 204 years in Italy. 

In the Year 787, Charles being departed from Rome to come into 
France, as foon as he was arrived at Wormet (faith Rhegno) he called 
a Synod, and declared the Reafons of his journey to the Clergy and 
Princes of his Realm. 

We find the French Synods in thofe dayes oftentimes to have con- 
lifted both of Lay-men and Clergy-men, joyntly to determine of mat* 
ters, as well Ecclefiaftical as Civil. 

Charles the Great did the like in the Council of Franckford, where 
he difcourfed points $f Faith, and made them deliver their Opinions 
upon fuch as himfdf ; propofed. The Canons and Decrees alfo run in 
hi* Name, the Emperour (faith he) hath Ordained with the confent 
of the Synod, &c. 

In the Year 794 Charles Affembled this Council at Franckford, 
partly in regard of the Heretick Fcelix, who called Chrift, The Adoptive 
Son of God in humane nature, and was condemned in a Council AfTem- 
bled at Ratisbon. But he was returned to his vomit again, and there- 
fore was now again condemned as a notable Heretick in the Coun- 
cil of Franckfor d i partly alfo in refpeftof the great contention which 
arofe every where concerning the worshipping of Images, difallowed 
in the Council of CoHjlantmtfle, and allowed in the fecond Council of 

Rfiegno. Sub. 
AnnHm 787. 

Vide AftaCon- 
cil. Francf. in 
libcllo facro. 
T t . ;., 

Not only the Bifnops of f ranee , but alfo of Germany and Lombardy 


Cent. 8. Of FRANCE. 43 f 

(as Provinces fubjed: to the King of France) were prefent at this Coun- 
cil : The Pope fent his AmbaflTadors, Iheopbilatt and Stephanus to the 
Council, King Charlet himfelf alfo was prefent thereat. 

Alcninw wrote again ft the Heretic of Foelix, and Elipandrus BKhop Akuin. contr. 
of Toledo, and in his fecond Book faith, Shew us any Nation, Town Fc 
or Church, either Roman or Confiantinopolitan, or of Jerufalem (which 
was Dedicated by the prefence of the Lord himfelO or of Antiocb, 
where firft the Name of Chriftianity is read to have been, or of Alex- 
andria, or of any other Church, either in Italy, or Germany^ or in 
France, or in Aquitain, or in 'Britain, which agreeth with you in your 
aflertion. Here he acknowledgeth all thefe to be true Churches at that 
time, and diftinguiiheth them one from another. 

Fcelix continued in his errour till Alcumw wrote againft him, and 
then he became Zealous of the Truth, and wrote a Recantation unto 
the Presbyters and Deacons of his Church, That as he had been a 
fcandal unto them, fo by his means they may be brought again from 
Errour unto the Truth, as he himfelf writeth : And this Recantati- 
on is printed among the Works of Alcuimts. But Eli f ant Arch-Bifhop 
of Toledo, having read the feven Books of Alcuinw, wrote very fliarp- 
ly for maintaining the fame Errour. 

ft. Hoveden writeth, that Charles the Great fent over into England R.Hovwfcnfh 
the Ads of a Synod fent him from Constantinople, for the Adoration of co 
Images : Againft this Adoration (faith he) Akuinws wrote an Epiftle 
well-grounded on Divine Scriptuies, and carried it with fome Sy no- 
dical Ads in the names of the Englijh Princes and Biftiops to the King 
of France. 

All Italy being now in peace under the protection of King Charles, 
two Cardinal Priefts of great account, called Pafcal and Capulw, con- 
fpired againft Pope Leo, who with their complices apprehended him 
on a day as he was going in Proceffion : Some fay they put out his 
eyes, and cut out his tongue, committing him prifoner to the Mona- 
ftery of St. TLrafnm, publifting abroad, that they did it for the crimes 
by him committed, and the Errours by him maintained. Some Au- 
thors affirm, that he was miraculoufly reftored to his light and fpeech. 
Hereupon King Charles cometh to 'Rome , accompanied with many 
great Dukes, and other Princes, his Subjects : To him came out of 
Italy, and from many other parts, many Bifhops and Prelates. After 
eight dayes abode there, he commanded all the Princes and Prelates 
which then were in the City to be AfTembled ', and the Pope himfelf, 
and all the reft being together, there were fome that accufed the Pope 
to the Emperour. Then the Emperour openly asked every mans opi- 
nion concerning thofe accufations i all anfwered, That no man ought 
to judge the Head of the Church : which the King obferving, he ask- 
ed no more queftions. 

G 2 The 

44 3Efle ccrlcfiattical %tfto?y Cent. 8. 

The next day all being Re-afTembled, the Pope went up into the 
Eulpit, and taking i Book of the Holy Evangelifts in his hands, faid 
with a loud voice, That he fwareby God, and thofe Holy Evangelifts, 
That all that which his Adverfaries had laid to his charge, was falfe 
and untrue i and that he had neither committed, nor thought any fuclv 
matter as they objected j but that they had of malice and envy flan- 
dered himi and that he therefore publickly made this Proteftation, 
and confirmed it by his Oath, feeing that to them all the manner of hi* 
Life and Government was well known. 

His Oath was allowed, and himfelf commended, and the King com- 
manded his Accufers, Pafcal and Capulus to be fought out, and put to 
death : But the Pope was content their lives (hould be (pared, fo as* 
they might be committed to prifon, and thence be condemned to per- 
petual exile. 

Eight dayes after, the Pope having confidered, firft, how much the- 
Greek Emperours envied his Greatnefs, together with the fmall affe- 
ction they bare to the wor(hipping of Images, and other points, where- 
in they were oppofite to the Church of Rome j and then how requi- 
iite it was to have an Emperour which might maintain the Provinces 
of Italy in peace, which were often difturbed i but chiefly to (hew 
himfelf grateful for the benefits, which he and the Church of Rome 
had received from him and the Houfe of France : But above all, for ac- 
cepting his Proteftation in his own defence, for a proof of his Inte- 
grity, he refolved to make Charles the Great Emperour, and to Tran- 
flate the Head of the Empire into the Weft. And having ruminated 
hereupon, againft the day of the Nativity of Chrift, he commanded . 
all the Prieits, Cardinals, and all the other Prelates to come to a Mafs, 
whither Charles was alfo invited, and came j together with all the o- 
ther Princes, and fo about the midft of the. Mats, the Pope then fay- 
ing it, he turned about from the Altar to the People, and with a loud 
voice faid, That he did there Ele&, Create and publifli Charles the, 
Great, the moft Mighty and Victorious King of Italy , of the Germans^ 
and of the Frenchmen^ Emperour and ever Atfgttjlus. Which being. 
done, he fet the Imperial Crown upon his head, and all thofe which 
were prefent confented thereunto, with acclamations and applaufes, . 
faying, 70 the moji Godly , ever Auguft us, Great and moft Viftorigus Em~ 
perottr Charles, God grant long life and vittory. 

This acclamation being ended, the Pope anointed him, and then . 
and there alfo. anointed and entituled his Son. Pepin (with the good' 
liking and content of his Father) King of Italy. Which Coronations 
were penformed with great Feaftings and Solemnity, upon Chriftmafs . 
day, Anno 800. 

So Charles remained Emperour ? and the Empire was tranfported .: 
from the Greekj to the Germans* 

Cent. 9. Of FRANCE. 

Pope Adrian with his whole Synod (which confifted of one hun- 
dred tifty three Biftiops, Abbots, and Religious perfons) had given bi- 
fore the right and power of Electing the Pope unto Charles the Great, 
and further Ordained, That the Arch-BHhops and Btthops of all the 
Provinces (hould receive their inveftiture from him, in fuch fort as- 
no BUhop can be Confecrated by any man, unlefs he be approved and 
inverted by the King, pronouncing, an Anathema againft fuch as fhall 
do otherwife, 

Century IX. 

CHarles having left his Son Pepin in Italy, vifiteth Germany, fub~ 
dueth the Saxons^ and reduceth them to the Chriftian Faith. 
He had Wars with them for the fpace of thirty years > he of- 
tentimes fubdued them, and gave them their Liberty upon condition- 
they would embrace the Chriftian Religion : but on every occafion 
their Duke Wedekjnd caft off both Loyalty and Chriftianity. At feveral - 
times when Charles had obtained a Victory he erected a new Bifhop- 
rick : He founded feven Epifcopal Cities in that Province, giving ..*** 
them Princely Power, becaufe he judged that thofe fierce people might 
be tamed by Religion rather than by Arms. Thefe were Bremen, Ver- 
da, Minda, Padeburn, Ofnaburg, Hildefiein, Halberjladt. The Hiftorian 
(aith, Although Charles gave unto the Bifhops power of Governing,. 
yet the Nobles did not altogether lofe their Power : whence it came 
to pafs, that when the War was ended, the Secular Power beyond the 
Vefer, was acknowledged by them all to belong unto him. At laft, 
becaufe the Saxons had fo often revolted, he removed ten thoufand of - 
them, with their Wives and Children into Brabant and Flanders, and 
fent and fettled fome French in that Province, and left his Son Charles. 
there with an Army to keep them in obedience. 

Charles understood that the Latin Tranflation of the Bible was much Baro* Annit. 
corrupted through the of Writers, and gave it in charge Tc $ 9> ad "''"" 
unto Alcuiwt* to amend the Tranflation i who did Correct both the-* 
Old and New Teftameat, as 'Baronm teftifieth. . 

Alcuinus was Governour of the Monaftery of St. Martin at fourf j . 
yet was he neither a Monk, nor a Prieft, but contented himfelf with 
the Order of a Deacon : He died on Whitfunday, Anno 804. 

Pfpin King of Italy and Charles, two Sons of Charles the Great died 
before him, . when- 

46 3C|)e ttlefta(Hcai$tftoM? cent. 9. 

When Charles the Emperour was now Aged, and faw many abufes 
in the Church, he endeavoured by all means poffible to procure Refor- 
mation of the lewd manners of Churchmen : therefore he appointed 
Symfon'schurch- at onetime, (namely in the year 813.) five National Councils, to be 
Hift. CM, 9, Convened in divers places for the Reformation of the Clergy and Peo- 
ple- : One was Convened at Mentz, a fecond at 'Rkemer, the third at 
7W/, the fourth at Cabition or Cbalon, and the fifth at Arks. In all 
thefe Councils no oppofition was made to the Council of Frankjord; 
neither was the adoration of Images avowed in any of the Councils : 
So available is the Authority of a Prince for fnppreffing of falfe Do- 
drine and Herefie. 

In the Council of Mentz were Aflembled thirty Bifhops, twenty five 
Abbots, with a great number of Priefts, Monks and Judges. After 
three dayes abftinence and failing, joyned with Litanies, publick pray- 
e*s, and imploring Gods affiftance, they divided themfelves into three 

fn the firft were the Bifhops with fome Scribes, reading the Hiftory 
of theGofpel, and the EpHHes, and Ads of the Apoftles , together 
with the Canons and Works of the Ancients, and the Paftoral Book 
of Gregory, to the end, that by the Precepts contained in thofe Books, 
the enormity of mens lives might be corrected. 

In the fecond Company were Abbots and Monks, reading the Rules 
of St. Eenedift) for the reformation of the lives of Monks. 

In the third Company were Lords and Judges, pondering the caufes 
of all men, who came to complain that wrong was done unto them. 

The firft, fecond and third Canons of this Council , entreat con- 
cerning Faith, Hope and Charity. 

The fourth concerning the Sacraments to be miniftred, chiefly at 
Eafterand Whitfunday, &c. 

The fifth, that unity and concord (hall be kept in the Church, be- 
caufe we have one common Father in Heaven, one Mother, viz. the 
Church on Earth, one Faith, one Baptifm, and one Celeftial inheri- 
tance prepared for us, &c. 

The fixth and feventh Canons entreat of Orphanes and poor Peo- 
ple, whofe weaknefs is to be fupported. 

The eighth Canon recommendeth unity to be kept betwixt men in 
fpiritual Offices, and Civil Judges. 

The ninth and tenth Canons prefcribe to the Clergy Precepts of a 
modeft and fober life, with abftinence from the delicate pleafures of 
the world, from theatrical fpe&acles, from pomps and unhoneft ban- 
quets : Ufury, Avarice and Ambition, Deceit and Conjurations, and 
many other fins were alfo reftrained. 

I'pafs by the Precepts concerning the behaviour of Monks and 
Nuns, and the fabrick of their dwelling places. 


Cent. 9. Of FRANCE. 47 

* In the 32 Canon, the difference bet ween TUTSCV^OC and 
is fet down. 

In the 33 th , the great Litany, or Rogations to be obferved three 
dayes by all Chriftians, with fafting, fack cloth, a(hes, walking bare- 
footed, and all kind of humble carriage. 

In the 34, 35, and 3x5, publick faftings, anetkeeping of feftival dayes 
is commanded. 

In the 37, That the Sabbath-day be "kept holy, that in it no Mer- 
chants wares be fold, and no criminal caufe be judged. 

In 38 and 39, That Tithes be precifely paid, and men fleeing to 
Churches for fafeguard, are not to be violently drawn out from thence. 

In the 40, In Churches and the porches thereof, let no fecular judge- 
ment be exercifed. 

In the 41, That no Ancient Church be fpoiled of Tithes andPof- 
fe/Iions for the building of new Oratories. 

In the 42 concerning Church-rents beftowed for reparation and up- 
holding of Churches. 

In 44, That no Prieft fay Mafs himfelf alone, for if he have none 
but himfelf, how can he fay, T>ominus vobifcum^ or, furfum corda, or 
other fuch paflages ? All frequent offering of the facrifice of the Mafs, 
and prefenting of the Paxe is recommended to Chriftian people. 

In 45, That every perfon be acquainted with the Creed, and the 
Lord's Prayer > and that every one (at leaft) learn them in their own 
vulgar language. 

In 4$, That they who continue in drunkennefs be excommunica- 

In 47, That Godfathers (hall fee that their Tpiritual Children be 
brought up in the true Faith. 

In 48, That lafcivious fongs be not fung in Churches. 

In 4$>, The cohabitation with Women is forbidden to all the Cler- 


In 50, That all Bifhops, Abbots -and Church-men, have fuch Agents 
in their affairs, who are men that fear God, and hate all unrighteous- 

In 51, That the dead bodies bf the Saints be not tranfported from 
place to place, without the advice of the Prince of the Countrey^ or 
the Bifhop and Synod. 

In 52, That no dead body (hall be buried within the Church, ex? 
cept the body of a Bi&op, or of an Abbot, or of a worthy Presbyter, 
or of a faithful Laick perfon. 

In 53, That inceftuous perfons be Separated from the fellowfhip of 
the Church, except they be penitent,. 

In 54, 55 and 56, Marriage in the fourth degree of confanguinity is 
forbidden v and that no man (hall marry his God-daughter., nor fpiri- 


3CDeeceleftafticai$io# Cent. 9. 

tual Sifter , neither the Woman, whofe Son or Daughter he hath led to 
the Sacrament of confirmation : And in cafe they be found to be mar- 
ried, they (hall be feparated again. And no man (hall take in marriage 
his Wives Sifter j neither (hall a woman marry her Husband's Brother. 

-Of the Cornell of Rhemes. 

A Council was alfo AlTembled at TUoemes, by the Commandment of 
Charles the Great, Anno 813. In this Council Wulfarius the Arch- 
Biftiop was Prefident : forty four Canons are rehearfed in the fecond 
*jLome of Councils, made in this Council. 

In the i. Canon it was concluded, That every man (hould diligent- 
ly acquaint himldf with the Articles of his Faith. 

2. That he learn the Lords Prayer, and underftand the meaning of 

3. That every man in holy Orders (hall walk worthily according to 
his Calling. 

4. The Epiftles of St. faul were read to give inftru&ions to S*b- 
"Deacohs, how they (hould behave themfelves. 

5. The Gofpel was read to give inftru&ion to Deacons, to Minifter 
worthily in their Office. 

6. Ignorant Piiefts are inftru&ed to celebrate the Service with un- 

7. They are alfo inftru&ed how to prepare the Catecbumeni to the 
Sacrament of Baptifm. 

8. The holy Canons were read out of the Decretal of Innocent vw, for 
ordering the lives of Cbanont. 

9. The Rule of St. 'Benedin was read to reduce Abbots and their 
Convents to a remembrance of their Order. 

10. The Paftoral Book of Gregory was read, to admonith Paftors of 
their Duty. 

1 1. Divers Sentences of the Ancients were read, to admonifli both 
Prelates and People to a holy life. 

12. Then they fet down a form of receiving confeffions, and pre- 
fcribing of penance, according to the Canonical inftitutions. 

13. They reafoned about the eight principal vices, that everyone 
might know what vices to efchew, and teach others to beware of the 

14. That BKhops (hould take heed to the reading of the Books of 
Canonical Scripture, and the Books of Fathers, and (hould attend up-, 
on the preaching of the Word of God, 

1 5. That Bithops (hould preach the Sermons and Homilies of the 
Holy Fathers, fo as the People might underftand them. 

itf. The fixteenth Canon is coincident with the twelfth. 

17, That 

Cent. 9. Of FRANCE. 49 

17. That Bifhops and Abbots permit no man to folace the compa- 
ny with filthy jefting in their prefence : but that the poor be refrefted 
at their Tables with Ledures of Divine Scripture, and praifing of God. 

1 8. In the i8 th Gluttony and Drunkennefs is forbidden to the Mi- 
nifters of God. 

i p. That no Bifhop judge raftly in things fecret, which are to be 
referred to the judgement of God. 

20. Presbyters (hall cot tranfport themfelves from a low place to a 

si. Whofoever by giving money procureth a preferment in the 
Church, (hall be depofed. 

22. No Church- man (hall cohabit with a Woman, except it be with 
his Mother or Sifter, or fuch like perfon, by whofe company no fufpi- 
cion of uncleannefs can arife. 

35. That the Sabbath-day be kept holy, and no fervile work be 
done in it. 

36. That no man beftow upon the Church that thing which he hath 
fraudulently taken from others. 

37. Nor yet by lies and deceit withdraw any thing duly belonging 
to the Church. 

38. That Tithes be precifely paid. 

3 ?. That no man receive rewards for his Decree and Sentence. 

40. That Prayers be made for the Emperour and his Noble Race. 

41. In the 41 Canon mention is made of a certain Rent left by 
King Pepin, which they wifh the Emperour Charles mould not alter, 
nor transfer into another fumm, left many perjuries and falfe teftimo- 
nies might enfue. 

42. That no man (hould be removed from his Manfion, to whom 
the Emperour's Almes is diftributed. 

43. That the Statute may be confirmed by his Highnefs's allowance, 
whereby all contentions are Ordained to have an end. 

44. That the Statute made in 'Bononia concerning falfe witnefles may 
be ratified ; with augmentation if need require, for cfchewing of per- 
juries, falfe teftimonies, and many other inconveniences. 

Of the Council of Tours. 

In the fame Year 813, at the Commandment of the Emperour 
Charles the Great, a Council of many Bifhops and Abbots was AfTen> 
bled there about eftablKhing Ecclefiaftical Difcipline. 

1. In the firft Canon, all men are admoniftied to be obedient to the 
Emperour Charles, and to keep the Oath of Allegiance made unto him, 
and to make prayers for his profperity. 

2. All Birfiops (hall frequently read all the Books of holy Scripture, 

H together 

50 %ty ecrtefiaftfcftl $ftQ? Cent. 9 . 

together with the Books of Ancient Fathers written thereupon. 

3. It is not lawful for any Bifhop to be ignorant of the Canons of 
the Church, and of the Paftoral Book of Gregory, 

4. Let every Bifhop feed the Flock committed to him, not only 
with Doctrine, but alfo with an holy Example. 

5. That a Biftopbe content with a moderate diet, that holy Le- 
&ures be read at his Table, rather than the idle words of Parafites. 

6. Let (hangers and poor people be at Bifhops Tables, whom they 
may refrefh both with corporal and fpiritual repaft. 

7. That the delicate pleafure of the eye and ear be efchewed, left the 
mind be enchanted therewith. 

8. Let not the Lords Servants delight in vain jefting, rtor in hunt' 
fng and hawking. 

p.. Let Presbyters and Deacons follow the footfieps of their Biftiops 
in leading a pious life. 

10. Let Bifhops take care of the poor, and faithfully difpenfe 

11. That Bifhops may, with confent of Presbyters and Deacons, be- 
ftow fomewhat out of the Church-treafure to fupport needy people of 
that fame Church. 

12. A Presbyter is not to be Ordained till he is thirty years old. 

13. Let the Bifhop fee, that in his own Parifh Church, no Presbyter 
coming from any other parts do Service in his Church without Letters 
of Recommendation. 

1 4. Let a Presbyter leaving a low place,and prefuming to an higher, 
incurr that fame punifhrrient which a Bifhop taken in the like fault 
fliould incurr. 

15. A Presbyter who gettetha Church, by giving money for it, kt 
him be depofed. 

1 6. Let Tithes beftowed upon Churches by advice of Bifhops, be 
faithfully difhibuted to the poor by the Presbyters. 

17. The Families of the Bifhops fhall be inftru&ed in the fumm of 
the true Faith, in the knowledge of the retribution to be given to good 
men, and the condemnation of evil people, and of the refurre&ion and - 
laft judgement, eh:. 

1 8. That the Bifliop inftrinU his Presbyters concerning the Sacra- 
ment of Baptifm, what it is they (hould deftre thebaptned people to 

19. That Presbyters when they fay Mafs,- and do communicate, do 
not diftribute the Lord's body indifcreetly, to children, and to all per- 
fons who happen to be prefent, &c. Then Reader, take notice, that 
private Mattes had no place in thofe dayes, but they who were duly 
prepared did communicate with the Pritft. 

20. Presbyters (hall not fufftr the holy Chrifm to be touched by any 

2-i, Presbyteis 

Cent. p. Of FRANCE. 

21. Presbyters (hall not haunt Taverns. 

22. BHhops and Presbyters (hall prefcribe to finners, who have con- 
feffed their fins, penance difcreetly according to the nature of their 

23. Chanons, who dwell in one City (hall eat in one Cloyfkr, and 
fleep under one roof, that they may be ready to Celebrate their Cauo 
meal hours. 

24. From the 24 to the 32 Canon, are Constitutions concerning 
Monks and Nuns, which I overpafs with filence. 

32. AllChrii*!ins are exhorted to peace and concord. 

33. Lords and Judges (hould hearken to the good admonitions or* 
their Bifhops i and Biftiops on the other fide {hould reverently regard 

34. Lords and Judges are not to admit vile perfons to bear witnefs 
in their Judicatories. 

35. Let no man for his Decree receive a reward. 

3 6. Let every one be careful to fupport indigent perfons of his own 

37. That Chriftians do bow their knees in prayer, except upon the 
Lord's Day, and other Solemn dayes, on the which the Univerfal 
Church keepeth a memorial of the Lord's Refurredion. At fuch times 
they ufe to ftand and pray. 

38. That none enter into the Church with noife and tumult , and 
irt time of prayer and celebration of the Mafs not to be bufied in vain 
confabulations j but even to abftain from idle thoughts. 

39. Let not the Confiftories of Secular Judges be in the Church, or 
porches thereof in any time to come, becaufe the Houfe of God (hould 
be an houfe of prayer. 

40. That Merchandize be forbidden on the Lord's Day : that the 
whole day be fpent in God's fervice. 

41. That paricides, murtherers, and incefmous perfons 
to Order, by the difcipline of the fecular power. 

42. That all people abftain from Magical Arts, which are the deceit- 
full fnares of the Devil. 

43. A frequent cuftom of fwearing is forbidden. 

44. That the caufes of many Free Subjects, brought to poverty by 
oppreffion, be examined by the Emperour. 

45. That falfe weights and meafures are an abomination to the 

46. The 46 Canon bewaileth, that Tithes were not duly paid to the 
Church, (hewing the ill effects thereof. 

47. When general Faftings are appointed for any impendent Cala- 
mity, let no man negledfc the fellowthip of the humble Church, &c. 

48. Drunkennefs and furfeiting are forbidden, &c, 

H 2 4p. Lords 

ccrteftattteal $tftotf _Cem. 9 . 

4p. Lords and Matters are to be admonifhed, not to deal cruelly 
with their fubjects j yea, and not to feek that which is due unto them- 
felves, with excellive rigour. 

50. Let Laick people communicate at leaft thrice in a year, unlefs 
they be hindered by feme great fins committed by them. 

51. In the laft Canon mention is made, that they diligently exa- 
mined the caufe of them who complained to the Emperour, that they 
were dif-inherited by the donation of Lands, which their Fathers and 
Friends had beftowed on the Church \ and in their bounds they found 
no man who did complain : yet in that matter, if any thing was done 

*amifs, they humbly (ubmitted themfelves to be corrected by their So- 
veraign Lord and King. 

Of the Council of Chalons. 

This Council was Convened in the fame year of our Lord 813, by 
the Commandment of Chirks the Great, for the Reformation of the 
Ecclefiaft'ical Eftate. 

Many of the Canons of this Council are co-incident with the Ca- 
nons of the former, which I (hall overpafs, and mention only fome of 
the other. 

Can. 3. LetBUhops Conftitute Schools, wherein Learning may be 
encreafcd, and men brought up in them, that may be the fait of the 
earth, to feafon the corrupt manners of the people, and to flop the 
mouths of Hereticks. 

4. Let Church- men (hew humility, in word, deed, habit and coun- 

5. Let Priefts be unreproveable, adorned with good manners, and 
not given to filthy lucre. 

7. Bifhops and Abbots" who have circumvented fimple men, and 

*en their heads, and by fuch means do poflfefs their goods, let them 
abjed: to Canonical or Regular Repentance. 

8. If Church- men lay up provitlon of Corn in Victualling- ho ufes., 
let it not be to keep them to a dearth, but therewith to fupport the 
poor in a time of need. 

it. The Bifhop or Abbot muft not refort to Civil Judicatures to 
plead their own Caufe, except it be to fupport the poor and opprelTed. 
Presbyters, Deacons and Monks having obtained Licence from the Bi- 
fliops may appear in Civil Judgement-feats, accompanied with theLt 

1 2. Let no Presbyters, Deacons or Monks be Farmers or Tillers of 
the ground. 

13. An Oath ufed by feme in the time of Ordination inhibited.. 

1 4. Bifcops in vifiting of their Pariftoners, not to be chargeable 
unto them. 15. This 

Cent. 9. Of FRANCE. 53 

1 5. This Canon was againft the Tyranny of Arch-Deacons. 

1 6. That BUhops provide Balm and Chrifm for the Lights of the 
- Church. 

17. That Presbyters pay no Tribute to the Bimop. 

18. Againft.. taking of pawns from inceftuous perfons, and from 
thofe who pay not their Tithes, and from negligent Presbyters. 

i p. Let people give their Tithes to thofe Churches wherein their 
Children are baptized, and whereto they refort all the year long to hear 
Church- fervice. 

23. The Ordination of Presbyters and Deacons is to be made at cer- 
tain prefcribed times. 

24. Concerning Presbyters, Deacons and Monks, who (hall happen 
to be (lain, let the Emperour determine to whom the fatisfa&ion of 
blood (hall belong. 

25. That the Emperour be entreated, that the Ancient Difcipline 
may be reftored again, and they who fin publickly, may be brought to 
publick repentance j and every man according as he deferveth, may 
either be excommunicated or reconciled. 

27. Neither the Sacrament of Baptifm, nor the Sacrament of Con- 
firmation (hould be re-iterated. 

28. Concerning the aegrces of Affinity, and in what degree Marri- 
age may be bound up, every one is to go to the Canons of the Church 
to be refolved. 

30. Rules concerning the Marriage of Servants. 

31. That fuch Women as either-negligently, or fraud ulentfy prefent 
their own.Children to Confirmation, fhallbe forced to do penance all 
the dayes of their life > neither (hall they be feparated from their Hus- 

32. Let a finner confefs unto his Father- CbnfefTor, alt his fins which 
he hath committed either in thought, word or deed. 

34. In prefcribing of" penance, let favour and hatred of any perfon 
~be laid afide, and let the In junctions be given according to the Rule of 
Holy Scripture, and according to the Canons and Cuftoms of the 

3<5. Let no man fin of purpofe, to the end he may abolifh his fins By 
Alms-deeds > for that is all one, as if a man (hould hire God to grant 
unto him a liberty to fin. 

37. That fuch Canons of Councils are efpecially to be read, as ap- 
pertain unto Faith, and reformation of Manners. 

38. Books called Libelli Poemtentiales, are to be aboli(hed. 

3P. In the Solemnities of the Mafs, prayers are to be made for the 
Souls of them who are departed, as well as for them who are alive. 

40. Degraded Presbyters, lemaining impenitent, are to Be excom- 

41, No 

$ 4 %ty ecrteftaftical ^ttto?p Cent. p. 

- 41. No Presbyters to be admitted in ftrange places, without the te- 
ftimony of the Biftiop, and other fufficient witnefles. 

42. Let no Church be committed to a Presbyter without content of 
the Bifhop. 

43. In fome places are found Scotch men, who call themfelves Bi- 
{hops, and they Ordain Presbyters and Deacons, whofe Ordination 
we difallow. 

45. Againft the going of the Clergy and Laicks to holy places, fuch 
as Rowe, 7n?, &c. men imagining, that by the fight of thefe places 
their fins are remitted. 

46 and 47, That the receiving the Sacrament be not long deferred i 
and none to come to it without due preparation : That when the Sa- 
crament is to be univerfally received in one day, none do neglect to 
receive it , except fome grievous crime do hinder him from receiv- 
ing it. 

48. According to the Precept of St. James , that weak perfons 
fhould be anointed with oyl by the Elders, which oyl is bleffed by the 

From Canon 52 unto the 66 are contained Precepts of chaft and 
honeft living prefadbed to PriorefTes and Nuns. 

Of the Council of Aries. 

The Canons of this Council were in number 26. 

i . They fet down a confeilion of their Faith. 

The five following Canons are fome of thofe mentioned in the for- 
mer Councils. 

The 7 and 8 Canons belong to the ordering of Monks and Nuns. 

The p 1 * 1 pertaineth to the payment of Tithes, and Firft-fruits. 

10. That Presbyters (hall preach the Word of God, not only in 
Cities, but alfo in every Pari(h. From thence to the 17 th are fome of 
the Canons of the other Councils. 

17. Let every BUhop Vifit his Bounds once every year, and fupport 
the oppreffed. 

18. Let Presbyters keep the Chrifm, and give it to no man under 
pretenfe of Medicine. 

ip. Parents and WitnefTes {hall bring up baptized Children in the 
knowledge of God. 

20. Ancient Churches (hall not be deprived of Tithes, nor of any 
other pofleflion. 

21. That the Conftitution of the Ancients (hall be kept concerning 
burial in Churches. 

22. That Civil Judgement-feats (hall not be in Churches. 

23. If goods belonging to the poor be bought, let it be done open- 


Cent. p. Of FRANCE. 55 

ly in fight of the Nobles and Judges of the City. 

24. Let fugitive Church-men be fought out, and fent back again 
unto the BiShop. 

25. He who hath a Benefice beftowed upon him, for helping the fa- 
brick of Churches, let him fupport the building of them. 

2d. They who fin publickty, let them make their publick repen* 
ranee according to the Canons. 

AH thefe Canons were prefented unto the Emperour, to be correct- 
ed by the wifdom of his Highnefs. 

Charles at the requeft of Pope Adrian, i. Banimed the Ambrofian 
Service out of his Kingdom, and againft the will of the French Cler- 
gy, by force eftablilhed the Gregorian or Reman Office. By this change 
the Latin Tongue in the Publick Service was fully eftabliShed. 

Here I mall make mention of one notable paflage written in the Life 
of Charles the Great, namely when he made war againft the Saracens 
of Spain. Agoiland one of the Saracen Kings made Shew of friend- 
ship with Charlemagne, and open hatred of the other Saracen Kings, 
with whom notwithstanding he had a moft ftrict correfpondence j to 
betray Charles, Agoiland feemed to encline to peace ; After many Mef- 
fengers fent on either part, they refolve to parley : So upon Charle- 
tnagnfs Faith, Agoiland cometh to the Camp of the French. - 

Charles told the Pagan he Should have his Friendship, if he would 
be baptized, and become a Chriftian : Agoiland anfwered, That he 
was not yet fo Abject, nor his Forces fo weak as to refufe the battel : 
But becaufe it would be an infinite lofs to hazzard fo many men, he 
defired to make tryal of the Right by fome Troops j and he that van- 
quished Should have the Right, and True Religion on his fide, prote- 
ftingtoyield'to that Religion which {hould appear to be the beft by 
that Tryal. The condition was accepted by Charlemagne : The Corn- 
bate being made, the Chriftian Troop vanquished the Saracen. 

Now Agoiland protefteth openly to be a Chriftian, but in heart ht 
meant otherwife, and takes this occafion to break the Treaty. One 
day he finds Charlemagne at Table, well acccompanied with his Chief 
Followers, (for then it was the cuftom of the French Kings not to 
eat alone) and feeth twelve poor men ill- apparel led, fitting by upon 
the ground near to the Table of the Noblemen : He demanded what 
thofe poor miferable Creatures were that did feed .apart : One anfwer- 
ed, They were the MefTengers and Servants of God : He then faid, 
Their God was of fmall account, feeing his Meflengers and Servants 
were fo miferable and contemptible, and thereupon retired himfelf > 
having by tiiis Treaty qualified the Force of Charles, viewed his Train, 
and made Shew of his Courage, even without an Ambafladour. 

let Refulv^d to avenge this affront of the.*r*ce#, He raifeth 


Cent. 9 . 

an Army of an hundred and thirty thoufand men, He returneth into 
Sfain^ at the firft encounter he defeated Agoiland's Army near to Pom- 
pelona, and for a feal of his Vi&ory carrieth away the Head of Agoi~ 
land, flain by the hand of Arnold of 'Belange^ a Noble and Valiant 

Charles wrote divers Books : He began a Grammar of the German 
Language, but ended it not. He changed the names of the Winds 
and Months from the Heathenifh manner. In the Epiftle to Alcuinus 
before his Books DeDivims Officw, he faith, when (thrift was at fup- 
per with his Difciples, he brake the bread, anjd gave the cup to them 
in figure of his body and blood, and left a great Sacrament, which is 
profitable unto us- 

L:.-.t He faith dfewhere, The Miracles which they fay have appeared in 
Images, if they did not appear truly (as no Authentick Hiftory (hew- 
eth) were but lies. If by fome imaginary over-(hadowing they did 
appear to deceive mens minds, it is moft dangerous, left that Old Ene- 
my by his fubtilty, through (hew of wonders perfwade to do unlaw- 
full things. But if thefe things did verily appear, we (hould under- 
ftand, that when many wondrous things are done at the pleafure of 

Lib. j, cap. 25. God by fome Creatures, or in whatfoever Creatures they be done, yet 
thefe things are not to be worfhipped, by which, or in which thefe 
wonders are made i becaufe God, who (heweth many figns unto men 
by vifibleand palpable things, to mollifie the hardnefs of mens hearts 
by thefe vifible things, worketh not thefe (jgns to confirm the worthip 
of any Creature for he hath commanded to worfhip himfelf alone. 
Becaufe. God fpake out of a bu(h to Mofes, fnould the bu(h therefore 
be worshipped > Becaufe a Woman was healed by touching the hem 
of Chrift's garment, {hould hems, therefore be worfliipped ? The Ca- 
tholick Church profefleth to ferve God, not by Images, -not by men, 
nor ethereal powers, but by Chrift our Lord. 

Charier the Emperoui made many Laws and Ecclefiaftical Conftitu- 
tions, which Angifw, Abbot of Lobien^ and then Arch-Bilhopof Se- 
non gathered together, with the Conftitutions of his Son Lmif, and 
divided them into feven Books. Sinderus teftifieth, that they were 
in the Abby of St. Gattitt , and were not long fince printed at Pa- 

Aicui.n. cont. Alcuinus faith thus of him, Ckarlet was a King in Power, a Catho- 

EUpant. iick in Faith, an High-Prieft in Teaching, a Judge in Equity, a Phi- 

lofopher in Liberal Studies, famous in Manners, and excellent in all 
Honefty. He was never ferved at Table with more than four dirties 
at once j his Recreations were hunting, and reading of Hiftories. He 

Pedro Mexia died in February , Anno 814, .and was interred at Aix la CbapeVf, 
where he was born, and his Memory honoured with a goodly Epi 
taph. The greatnefs of his Monarchy is admirable , for he quietly 


Cent. p. Of FRANCE. 57 

enjoyed all France, Germany, and the greateft part of Hungary, all Ita- 
ly, and a part of Spain. He left his Son Lewes fole Heir of his great 
Kingdoms, who was the weakeft of all his Sons. 

The French Monarchy being come to the height of it's Greatnefs, 
not long after the death of Charlemagne it began to decline. The 
fooli(h lenity of Lewes was the beginning, the which was continued 
by the difordered confufions of his SucceiTors, who (in fpite one to 
another) haftened the ruine of their Houfe, making way thereunto by 
their Vices and Misfortunes. Lewes (more fit to be a Monk than a 
King) was fo given to Devotion, and of fo foft a fpirit, that he made 
his Authority contemptible both within and without the Realm : 
This made divers Nations fubjedt to the Crown, to fall from their obe- 
dience. .. v 

Bernard King of Italy, an ambitious your/"* nan, was perfwaded by 
the Bithops of Orleans and Milan, to feize upon the Realm of France. 
But being in field to go into France againft his Unckle,with an ima- 
ginary favour of the French to be proclaimed King, both he and all his 
Counfellours were taken by Leaves his Subjects. 

Lewes having both his Nephew and Counfellors in his Power, de- 
fpoils him of all his Realm of Italy, confines him to perpetual prifon, 
and puts out his eyes : the like he doth to all the Biftiops and Noble 
Men he could get, and after a few dayes caufeth them to be beheaded. 
This ad from Lewes, and committed againft fuch perfons, began to 
breed a general diflike, the which was aggravated by a domeftical dif- 

After the death of Bernard, Lewes gave Italy to his eldeft Son Lo- 
tloariM, and atfbciattd him in the Empire. To his Son Pepin he gave 
Aquitain, to Lewes Bavaria, and would have them all bear the name 
of Kings. 

Lewes had a Son by Judith his fecond Wife, an ambitious Woman, 
called Charles. This Woman play'd the Emprefs and Queen over all, 
which caufed Lewes to be hated and contemned. His Sons, Lothario*, 
Pepiu and Lewes, by the Advice of the Bifliops (who were incenfed a- 
gainft the Emperour by reafon of the death of thofe Church-men) re- 
folve to feize upon their Father.Mother, and younger Brother,to dif- 
poflefs them of all Authority , and then to govern the States after 
their own wills, wherein they muft ufe force, and a publick confent. 

Lotbarius lieves a great Army, and calleth a National Council of the 
French Church at Lions, fuppofing fooner to fupprefs Lewes by this 
means than by a Parliament. Lewes appeareth, and yieldeth to the cen- 
fure of the Prelates, which was to retire himfelf into a Monaftery, 
there to attend his Devotion, and to reiign the Empire and the Realm 
to his Children. So Lewes was conveyed to Soijjons, to the Monaftery 
of St. Medard\ his Wife and her Son Charles were committed to other 

I places. 

5 8 3D&e ctrteftafttcal $ifto?p Cent. 9. 

places, and the whole Government committed to Lotbarius and his 
Brethren. And the greateft of the Church- men were guilty of this 
Out-rage, feeking to maintain their Decrees. Lewes continued in pri- 
fon five years > viz,, from the year 829, unto the year 834. 

Then Lotbarm being forced to yield to his Father, goes to field, 
fakes him prifoner again, ad leads him back to the Convent at Soif- 
fws, where he flayed net long, for the French did bandy openly a- 
gainlt Lotharios, and his Brethren abandoned him, ib as he was forced 
to yield unto his Father,and to crave pardon. Then Lewes gives por- 
tions to his Children, to Lotbarius he leaves the Realm of Attjirafa, 
from the River of Metis unto Hungary, with the Title of Emperour i 
unto Lewes Bavaria, and unto Cbmrles Trance \ Vefin enjoyed Aq*i- 
tain without contradiction. 

Lewes not content with Bavaria, levies an Army, and palTeth the 
Rhine. The miferable Father prepares an Army to go againft him, 
tut he falls fick and dieth, Anno 840. 

There was a Council held at Paris by the Command of Lewes^ and 
his Son Lutbariw^ Anno 829, and three others at the fame time in o- 
ther places, as is collected from the Preface. It was Ordained, that 
Synods ihould then be Aflembled in four feveral places of their Em- 

In bis Reign, in France was ufed of Priefts and Church- men preci- 
ous and (hining Veftures, and golden and rich flaring Girdles, with 
Fab^s chron. Rings and other Ornaments of Gold : \\herefore the faid Lewes pro- 
cured of the Pope a correction for all fuch as ufed fuch ftrange apparel, 
caufing them to wear brown and fad colours. 

After the death of the Emperour Lewes^ Lotbarius his eldeft Son, 
and Emperour by his Fathers Teftament, would force his Brethren to 
a new divifion. He quarrelleth with Cbjrles King of France ,and Lewes 
Duke of Bavaria > but the two Brethren unite together, and joyn their 
Forces to oppofe Lotbarius. 

Lotbarius finding himfelf the ihonger, refufeth t'ne Conditions of 
Peace offered by his Brethren : Then Lewes and Charles charging the 
Army of l.vtbartus, overthrew it with a notable (laughter. Lotbarius 
atkr this defeat changeth his humour with his eftatei he enjoyed the 
titulary mask or the Empirt with s'ui'trafia, y;t much curtailed and di- 
vided to his three Sons, LewesjCbarles and Lotbarins. Then Lotbariuf 
having remorfe of Cor.lcience for attempting againft his Father and 
Brethren, profcifcth hh felt a Mor.k in the Ai>by of Pluviers t and dies 
a Monk in the Year ^5. 

Charles and Len>es after the Vid r^l the Biftops to take their 
Advice upon Occurrents, who beinf, 1 ten :, , ^nt them 

to Concord ; They hearken to the, 1 , . n ih< d ccme to 

<he dividing of their parts. Charles i\imixu- . ^i I'rance. 


Cent. p. Of FRANCE. 

Daulphine and Provence were left to Lewes in his partage, for the com- 
modity of Italy which was given him, notwith (landing the prctenfions 
of 'Bernard^ Children : But he died foon after without any Iflue-male, 
leaving one only Daughter, called Hermingradff, Heir of all his great 

Charles married his Neece Hermingrade to Bcfon Earl of Ardennes, concn. Mef<fen 
brother to his W ife Ricbilde, who called himfelf King of Aries. c 't> 1*- r M - * 

At the Council at Meaux held about this time, it was Decreed, that 
the Capitular Laws concerning the Church, made by Charlemagne, and 
his Son Lt>f/,(hould be ftridtly obferved. The fame Council entreats 
King Charles the Younger, to grant the BKhops a freer liberty for the 
execution of their Minifteries in their Parifhes. 

Charles called the Bald, began his Reign, Anno 841. He caufed 
himfelf to be proclaimed Emperour after the death of Lewes, who fur- council 
vived Lothariuf, without contradiction : He went to Rome, and Was ^iljin 
Crowned Emperour by the Pope, with the Imperial Diadem i then 
railing his Spirit .very high, after the cuftomofthe Grecians, he walk- 
eth with a Surplice. name. 

This King Charles the Bald, relying on the Popes help, favoured 
the Pope with all his Power, and brought the French Clergy to the 
fubje&ion of the Roman See, as much as he could : Then began the 
Popes Legates to come to the Councils of France, and there to pre- 
iide. Then alfo the French Kings began to tremble under the thun- 
derbolts of the Vatican, and to fear the Excommunications of the 

The firft Pope that made tryal of his Excommunications againft 
them was Pope Nicholas the firft, who threatned Lethary to Excom- 
municate him , unlefs he recalled Tietberga his Wife, whom he had 
put away, to take Waldrada whom he loved, which alfo this Pope 
did Excommunicate : whereupon there was great 'murmuring of the 
Prelates and People of France againft the Pope, being difpleafed both 
at the Pope's Ufurpations, and the pufillanimity of their Kings. Thefc 
things happened from the Year 863 to %66. 

After that Nicholas, came Adrian the fecond, who favouring Lewes, D U Moulin tont. 
Grand-child to L?a>et the Gentle,againft Charles the Bald his Unckle, c 
fent peremptory Letters into France, whereby he declared, That if any 
prefumed to make an enterpriie upon the Kingdom of Lewes, not only . 
he would make void by his Authority all that he (hould do i but alfo s. 
that fuch a man being bound with the bonds of Anathema, and dc- initedcoant 
prived of the name of Chriftian, {hould be lodged altogether with the count ^"Lr, 

Devil. and fome other* 

* This is feen in the Epiftle which Hincmarw ArchBifhop tfRbemes n^w^\S" 

Italy, came in- 

toFre.4m>87o, where he called a Synod at Trojet, eonfifting of the Biflwpi of that Kingdom, to defire the'U 
Confeuttothit Excommunication j wWcb they accordingly granted him, 

I 2 writes 

6o 3D0e eedeftattical ^ttto?? Cent. 9 . 

writes to the faid Adrian upon the faid fubjed:, where he faith, That 
both Ecclefiaftical and Secular men being AlTembled at Rhemes^ would 
fay in a reproachful way, That never any fuch Mandate was fent from 
that See to any of the Kings PredeceiTors : Adding, That the Bifhops 
of Rome had never withdrawn themfelves from the obedience of He- 
retical Emperours : Wherefore (faid they) we will not believe, that 
we cannot otherwife attain to the Kingdom of Heaven, but by receiv- 
ing him for a Temporal King, whom this Apotf olical Lord recom- 
rnendeth to us. 

It was in this ninth Age, that the Decretals were forged by Rzcttlpbiu 
Biftiop of Metz, as is fuppofed, who published them under a falfe 
Title. And at that time, and a long time after the Arch-Bi(hops of 
Mentz were the rirft promoters of Papal Authority in Germany. And 
nothing hath helped more to the eftablimment of the Papal Empire, 
than thefe Epiftles, which have for a long time been held for Ora- 
cles in the Weft , by them the Father ot lies hath wrought very pow- 

Thefe Decretals were forged under the Reign of Charlemagne, and 
of his Son Lewes the Gentle, being unknown before, and never men- 
tioned in all Antiquity, bearing on the front the name of Ifidorus Tec- 
eator j and in fome Copies Ifidorw Mercator, a man unknown, and a 
name forged at will. 

That Collt&ion of Decretals began to go about in France in the be- 
ginning of the Reign of Charles the Bald. The firft that ufed them,' 
was Hincfynar Bi(hop of Laon upon this occation : Hinctynar Arch- 
Bifhopof Rbemes had promoted to the Bifhoprick of Laon another 
Hinctynar his Nephew, who having excommunicated his Clergy, and 
hindered the Divine Service, and the Baptifm of Children in his own 
BUhoprick, and committed divers crimes and exceffes, was cited to 
appear before his Unckle, who was his Metropolitan : But he would 
not obey nor appear. Upon that Hinckjnar of Rbemet difanulled all 
the A&s of Hinc^nar of Laon, and would fynodically proceed againft 

Hereupon Cbarlet the Bald Convocated a Council in France at Ac- 
ciitiacum, confifting of ten Bimops i the Bifhops of lions ^ Vafon and' 
'friers were Chief Prefidents in the Council. HtnckptarM Bithop of 
Rbemes propofed unto the Council fifty Canons, which he defired to 
be read in the Synod. Hwcfynar of Laen to defend himfelf brought 
forth the Collection of the Decretals, of the ancient Popes made by 
Ifidorw, where by the Popes Decrees fuch caufes are re&rved to the 
Apoftolick See. 

Hinck>nar of Rhemts being not learned enough to know the forgery - 
of the Author of thefe Decretals, and not-daring to rejed them open- 
ly, brought divers things to invalid their. Authority, He faid, that 

Gent, . Of FRANCE. 

of Laon was miftaken, if he thought that he was the only 
man that had thofe Epiftles -, that the Countrcy was full of them, and 
that Riculfa Bifhop of Mentz had publHhed the Book of Epiftles col- 
Je&ed by Ifidorur^ which was brought to him out of Spain. 

Hinckmar alfo (to defend himfelf againft thofe EpiiUesj faid, that 
they had been good in their time, but that the Fathers AfTembled in 
Council had altered thofe things, and made Qanons of greater Autho- 
rity, which are to remain perpetually > and that thofe Decretals were 
never put in among the Canons of the Church. That ftrife between 
the two Hinckmars happened Anno 870. 

The Synod forenamed, accufed Hincfyiar Bifhop of Laon o( petu- 
lancy, and compelled him to fubfcribe obedience to King Charles, and 
to his Metropolitan : He was alfo deprived of his Office, and both his 
eyes wer^e thruft out. But Pope John IX, under the Reign of Charles Hift. 
the Grofs, reftored him to his Office again, being the more affeclion- Ce 
ed to him, becaufe he had appealed from his own Bifliop, and 
from a Decree of a Synod in his own Countrey to be judged by the 
Chair of "Rome. 

Pope Nicholas beftirred himfelf with violence againft Hinckmarof 
Rbemes, complaining that he defpifed the Decretals collected by Z/I- 
dorut. Hinckjnar refifted him ftifly, neither did he ever fuffer the caufes 
which he had judged to be revifed at Rome, nor any man that had 
been depofed by the Synods of France^ to be reftored by the Pope. And 
all his life time he maintained with great conftancy fo much liberty as 
remained to the GaUican Church, which liberty fuffered by his death 
a great diminution. The Popes durft not touch him becaufe he was 
the King's Unckle. - 

Baronius writing of this Hincfynar of Rb'emes, notably abufeth him, 
for he faith, That upon the teftimony of Fredoard, Hinckjnar had ob- 
tained of Pope Leo IV,by the mediation of the|Emperour Lothary^ Pal- 
littm^ or Archiepifcopal Cloak, with a privilege to ufe it every day. 
But Hinckjnar himfelf in the Book of the fifty five Chapters, faith the 
contrary, fpeaking in this manner, Leo IV, and Benedittw did confer 
upon me fome privileges, which I did not ask for. For the privileges 
which are conferred upon every Metropolitan by the facred Canons, 
are fufficient for me. It was a generous part of H/#efywr, to declare 
that he had no need of the Pope's privileges, and that he held. his dig- 
nity from the Canons, not from the 'Roman Prelate. 

As for the writings of this Hincfyn*?, there are his Opufiula &Epi- 
floU : Admonitio de poteftate Regia & Pontificia. We find this chara- 
cter given of him : Fuit vir dottw, & pietatij fludiofur ftib Carolo fe* 
cundo Ludot'ici pii flio circa 870 , 'Domini annum > tametfi & 'magni 
Caroli tempora adolefcens Is dum corrigere vitia morbofque Cle- 
olefiarum a ^erdiu -vitae C/w, eorttrnqxe ' 

<5i 3E3)eecciefiafttcai$tao?p cent. 9. 

ad Papatn appelJationibttf, imo & a Pafe ifftftijiinuit, Illyr. Catal. Tcft. 

In this Century Claudius Bifliop of Twin, was defamed as an He- 

Petrie* church- retick by Tbeodomire an Abbot, who did accufe him unto the Pope. 

Hift. CM. 9. jj e wrote his own Apology, that it might appear wherefore he was 

accuted, and to (hew how Godly men have been traduced from time 

to time. 

Agobard Bifliop of Lions took part with Lotbariuf againft Lewes his 
Father,and therefore was depofed : after their reconciliation he was re- 
ftored,and being a man of wifdom and knowledge, was employed about 
the great Affairs of the Kingdom. His Works were printed at Paw, 
Anno 1605. from which ImpreiHon thefe paflfages are extradred, fag. 
52. There is one immovable Foundation, one Rock of Faith, which 
Peter confefleth, 7hou art the Son of the Living God. And fag. 128, 
The uncleannefs of our time deferves a fountain of tears, when fo un- 
godly a cuftom is become fo frequent, that there is none almoft afpi- 
ring to temporal honour, who hath not a Prieft at home, not whom 
he obeyeth, but of whom he exa&eth all manner of obedience incef- 
fently, not in Divine, but in worldly things > fo that many of them do 
fcrve at Table, or mix wine, and lead dogs, feed horfes, or attend Hu 
bandry j neither regard they what manner of Clerks thefe be, but only 
that they may have Priefts of their own \ and fo they leave Churches 
and Sermons, and publick Service : it is clear, that they feek them, 
not for honour of Religion, becaufe they have them not in honour, 
and fpeak difdainfully of them. He is large againft the worthip of 

Bettarm. dc Cri- ~Betiarmine faith, that jfojur , and other Bifhops of Fr ace in that Age, 
jtorib. EccieH were overt aken with Agob ard's errour. By the Jefuites confeffioji then 

many Bifhops of France^ were againft the prefent errours of Rome. 
.catai. Teft. vc- Then Angelom^ a Monk of Luxovia^ a man of great reading, at the 
<it. Lib. ro. entreat y O f D ro g ^ wr ote many Books. Drtttbmarw of Aqttittin wrote 
fome things upon the Evangelifts. 

Then Raban MagHeutiitf^ otherwife firnamed Maurus, was famous 
Trithcm catal ' n t ^ ie Un i ver fi f y ^ Pdr ^ f r Poelic, Rhetorick, Aftron(;my, Philo- 
iiluftr. viror. ' fophy and Theology, unto whom neither Germany nor Italy brought 
forth an equal, faith Tritbemius. He became Abbot of Fulda^ where 
he was born, and there he wrote Commentaries on all the Books of the 
Bible. He was fometime Scholar to Alcuinus. His Monks were offend- 
ed, that he did fo much ftudy the Scriptures, and did no better at- 
tend their Re venues i therefore after 24 years he left the Abbyi they 
befought him to return > but he would not : He abode with Letves the 
Emperour, until Orgar Biihop vtMentz died, and then fucceeded. 2&*- 
mx Wilde* in the Ads of Pope Martin V. reckoned him, and Here- 
bald, or Reginbald^ BHhop of Awene, among Hereticks, becaufe they 
favoured Bertram. At 

Cent. <?. Of FRANCE. <$ 5 

r ' _____ ^ 

At that time there was much debate about the Do&rine of Prede- Avcnt - Llb .- * 
ftination. Cottefcha!k^(by birth a Franck^ or Belgic^ as Aventmw call- Al 
eth him) was Ordained a Prieft by RigbuldChorepifiopw, in the vacan- 
cy of the See ot Rhemfs. The forenamed Hinctynar writeth, that he 
held thefe five Articles : 

1. God did before all Ages, and e're he made anything, predefti- Hinckmar. tn 
nate unto falvation whom he would, and alfo unto deftrudiion whom Lugd"ui d Iede ^' 
he would. 

2. That they who are predeftinated onto deftru&ion cannot be fa- 

J. That whereas the Apoftle faith, God willeth that all men be fa- 
, he meaneth, only all them who (hall be favcd. 

4. That Chrift came not to fave all men, nor did he furTer for all 
men, but only for them who (hall be faved by the myftery of his paf- 

5. Since the firft man fell of his Free-will, none of us can ufe Free- 
will to do good, but only to do evil. 

Remigins BUViop of Liow, in the name of the Church of Lions de- 
fended thefe five Articles s whereupon Hinctyiar wrote unto Pope Ni- 
cbolM agairift Gottefchalk^ and calleth thefe Articles, the herefie of the 
Predeftinarians, which was overthrown in ^/ncJ^, and afterwards in 
France, by Authority of Pope Celefline. When Gottefchalk. returned 
from Italy^ Ttaban Biftop of Mtntz fummoned him to a Synod, and 
when he could not perfwade him to change his mind, he wrote unto 
Hinctynar and others. Hinckyiar fummoned Gottefcbalf^ unto a Sy- 
nod of twelve Biftiops, and fome Priefts and Abbots in Carifiac on 
Ifara, where four Articles were ena&ed againft him. He was con- 
demned of Herefie and contumacy > he was whipt with rods, and call vid.pctries C6* 
into priibn. The Church of Lions after fight of thefe four Articles,>, 
fent forth their cenfure of them. 

Remiziut, was a man of a moft holy Converfation, and very learn- 
ed, as appearcth by the Comments which he wrote upon the Old and 
New fertaments. 

At this time was publifhed a Commentary on the thirteen Epiftles 
of the Apoftle St. P*K/, which was lately printed at Rome^ under the 
name of Rtmigiw of Rhtmef. 

Ln;>&, Abbot of the Monaftery of Ferraria^ by the water Lupa run- 
ning into S*, at the fame time wrote fcveral Epiftlcs unto King Lew- 
e;, ar.d ro HiHctynar, which were primed <. Pari*^ Anno \ 588. He 
cpnifortcth his Mafter Einbard after the dea^ of his wife : Hefpeaks 
honourably ot" Marriage, and c,nioitabl\ ft of the Godly 

after tb,is life, without any mcncion 01 pu .tor) . ox Mai$ ior thede- , 

At the fame time alfo was a <jueftion o.t the prei . . i. c of Chriil's body 


.11 flier's Anlw. to 
the Jefuites 

-Ridl. Pref. at 
< coen, Pom. 

3Cl)e eccieftaftical tlo?p Cent. 9. 

in the Sacrament. Charles the Bald King of France, commanded Ber- 
tram, a Prieft at Corbey, to (earch and write what was the Doctrine 
of the Fathers, and Ancient Church in this Article. Trithemius faith, 
"Bertram was fingularly learned, of an excellent eloquence and utter- 
ance, pregnant in judgement, and no lefs famous for holinefs of life, 
and wrote many excellent Treaties. In obedience unto King Charles 
he compiled a Treatife, De corpore & fanguine Domini, which is all 
inferted in Catal. left, verit. lib. 10. This Book was forbidden to be 
read by order from the Roman Inquifition, confirmed afterward by the 
Council of Trent. The Divines of Doway perceiving that the forbid- 
ding of that Book did not keep men from reading it, but gave them 
rather occafion to fcek more earneftly after it, thought it better Ber- 
*f*w (hould be fuffered to go abroad, but handled in fuch fort, aso- 
ther ancient Waiters that made againft them were wont to be. Bi- 
fliop Ridley highly commends this Bertram. 

Pafchafjfa Rathbert, Abbot of Corbey at the fame time wrote a Book 
of the Eucharift. Remigins Bifhop of Auxerre flourtthecl about the 
year 8 So } he wrote many Books : He was called Doctor Senten- 

Chtrles the Bald died at Mantua, Anno 879, being poifoned by Se- 
decias the Jew, whom he employed for one of his Phydcians, leaving 
the Realm to his Son Lewes the fecond, called the Stuttering. 

Lewes King of Germany had vowed that he would take both Em- 
pire and Kingdom from Charles the Bald, but was arrefted with fick- 
nefs at Franl^ford. There He divided his Kingdom among his three 
Sons, to Lewes he gave Saxony, luringia , Fripa, and the Provinces 
within them, with the Title of Eaft-France : to Carloman he gave Bo- 
jaria, Auftria, Bohemia,, and Moravia, with the Title of King of Ba- 
varia : To Charles 'Ins third Son he gave Suevia , Franconia, with 
fome parts of Lorain (which he had taken after the death of Lotha- 
rios) with the Title of King of Germany. 

Charles the Fat King of Germany ftrove for the Empire, and was 
Crowned by the Romans. Pope John would not confent, and there- 
fore was imprifoned i he efcaping goes into France, and confirmeth 
Lewes the Stutterer. He was courteoufly received by Lewes, ftays in 
France a whole year, and there holds a Council at Troyes in Cham" 

The Pope was Scarce gone but Lewes dieth, having reigned only 
two years. He had no lawful Children, but two Baftards : he left his 
W 7 ife with Child. The Queen was afterward delivered of a 'Son, which 
was falut-ed King, and called Charles. 

-During the minority of Charles, Lewes and Carloman Brothers, the 
two Baftards of Lewes the Stutterer, are chofen by the States to Go- 
vern* the Realm of France, Lewes was defeated by the Nor mans, and 


Cent. 10. Of F R A N C E. 

dies for grief. Soon after his Death it is faid, that Carloman fell down 
and brake his neck. Another Le rves fuccecdeth to thefe two Brethren, 
but he quickly dyed. Then the States called Charles the Graft , King 
of Bavaria, to this high Dignity. He began his reign, Anno 885, and 
reigned nine years. His entrance was goodly, but his end Tragical. 
He was crowned King with promife to reftore the Crown to the law- 
ful Heir, and to govern according to the will of the States. He was 
Son to Leaves called Germanicw, Son to Lewes the Gentle : Being de- 
feated by the Normans, he yieldeth to a prejudicial peace, and is much 
hated of the French. At length the French and the Grrmans refolve 
to difpoffefs him. 

The Germans made choice for their Emperour odrnttlph Son to Car- 
loman, the Son of Lewes the Gentle. The French likewife reject this 
miferable CW/f/ from the Regency of the Realm, and call Eudes of 
Odon, Duke of Angers, named by the will of Levees the Stutterer. 

So this poor Prince is caft out both from Realm and Empire, and re- 
mains naked without an houfe to throwd himfelf in from this difgracej 
being bani(hed from Court, and driven into a poor Village of Suevia^ 
where he lived fome days in extreme want, without any means of his 
own, or relief from any Man > in the end he dyed, neither pitied nor 
lamented of any, in a corner unknown, but to have been the Theatre 
of fo extraordinary a Tragedy, that one of the greateft Monarchs in 
the World, mould dye without Houfe,without Bread, without Mourn- 
ing, and without Memory, but the note of this end fo prodigioufly me* 

Century X. 

CHarles the Third , called the Simple , was Crowned in the 
Year po2. Eudes governing with him eight Years from his 
Coronation. Charles remaining alone after the Death of his 
Regent, Reigned 2 7 Years. His Reign was miferable through- 
out. Now begins a notable league againft the King. Robert Duke 
of Anjou becomes the Head of this League, accompanied with many 
great Men of France. This Robert- was Govtrnour by the Death of 
his Brother Ettdet. 

K They 


They caufed Charles to quit the Crown, difcharging him with the 
name of tlmple or foolifh , and declaring him incapable of fo great 
a charge. "Robert arms boldly againft Charles^ to difpoflefs him of his 
Eftate. Charles flees to Henry the third Emperour, and laboureth to 
calm this ftorm. 

At the approach of their Armies , Robert (to have fome Title to 
make a War) caufeth himfelf to be Crowned King at Rhemes , by 
Have the Arch Bifhop, who died three days alter this unlawful 

As the Armies approach near Soiflons^ ftriving (in the view of Paris) 
they joyn, the combate is cruel , but Robert fighting in the Front is 
flain, leaving for that time the vi&ory to King Charles , who feeks a 
Treaty of Peace, out of an unfeafonable fear. Hebert , Earl of Ve r* 
mandois , Son-in-law' to Robert, befeecheth Charles to come to St. 
gxintins to confer together. Charles cometfi thither without Hofta- 
ges. Hebert there takes him Prifoner, and conveys him to SoiJJotu^ 
where he had aflembled the chief of the Realm, chofen after his own 
humour, where he makes him to refign the Crown to Raoul his 
God-fon, the firft Prince of the Blood by his Mother Hermingrade,. 
Daughter to Letves^ and Wife of Bofon King of Burgundy. So this 
poor Prince is led from Prifon to Prifon for rive years and dyeth of a< 
languiflning melancholy. 

He had by his Wife Ogin a the Daughter of Edward King of Eng- 
land^z Son named Lewes. She takes her Son Lewes , and flees into 
JLngland^ to her Brother Atbeljlan who then Reigned. 

But the Reign of Raoul was unfortunate, who Reigned thirteen 
years during Charleslns imprifonment, and after his Death. 

But Raoul after many broils dyeth at Compiegne ^ Anno 936* Now 
are great confutions in France^ there is nothing facred i all is violated 
for Rule, all refpedt is laid afide, every one plays the King within him- 
felf i for one King there are many i and where there are many Ma- 
fters, there are none at all. In this confuiion there were many Kings, 
Dukes and Earls, although thefe Titles were but temporary , having 
no other Title butthe Sword.. There was no Governour of any 
Province throughout the Realm, which held not proper to himfelf 
and his Heirs, thofe things which were given to them but as Offices. 
From hence fprang fo many Dukedoms, Earldoms, Baronies, and 
Seignories, which for the molt part are returned to their begin-nings. 
Italy ("given to an Infant of France ) was now poffefled by divers 
Princes. Germany (withdrawn from the Crown) was banded into 
divers fadions, fo as the Empire of the Weft, confirmed in the perfon 
of Charlemaigne^ continued fcarceone hundred years in his Race : for 
Lewes the Son of Arnulpb^ was the laft Emperour of this Blood. In 
his place the Gfm*/ erefted Ccwnwfc , Duk&of Eaft Franconia t Anm 


Cent. 10. Of FRANCE. 

.920. the Empire being then very weak. After Conrade was chofen 
Henry tbefotvler, Duke of Saxony ', and after him his Son Otbo, Princes 
adorned with fmgular virtues fit for the time to preferve the Weft. 
For the Emperoursof theEaftdid run headlong to their ruine, who 
were men either of no valour , or altogether wicked , attending the 
laft blow by the hand of the Mabttmftansjwhcfe power they ftrength- 
ned by their vitious lives, until they had lodged them upon their own 

In thefe confufions of State the power of the Pope of Rome en- 
creafed daily, by the ruines of the Empire. Thedefign of the Popes 
was to ere& a Monarchy in the Church , by Power and Authority, 
Seignories, civil Diflentions,, Arms, Revenues, and Treafon : And foon 
after they grew to that greatnefs, as they fought to prefcribe Laws to 
Emperours and Kings, who refufing it , and dlfputing this primacy, 
many d iffentions arofe, and were difperfed among the people. 

After the Death of Raottl , Atheljian King of England ( having 
.drawn unto him William Duke of Normandy} fends an honourable 
AmbafTage to the States of France, entreating them to reftore his Ne- 
phew Lewes , to his lawful and Hereditary Dignity. The French 
.content to it ^ So Levees^ the Son of Charley is called home by the E- 
ftates of France, being accompanied with a great Troop of Englifh-mtn 
and Normans. 

Lewes hegan to Reign, Anna?^, and Reigned 27 years. 
About this time, Ambrofe Ansbert, a French-man, wrote Commen- 
taries on the Pfalms and Canticles, and part of the Revelation. 

In this tenth Century there was little ftudy of liberal Sciences , the 
Schools were few, and empty of Languages. The Popifh Priefts and 
Clergy (having forfaken their old Difcipline) were given to filthy lu- 
cre, nor were they refpeded by their flocks i only Monks were noted 
to have fome Eloquence. And fuch was the corruption of the times, 
that none durft fcarce fpeak of the Corruptions, Idolatries, Superftiti- 
ons,and wickedneffes of that Age,whrch at that time were fo luxuriant. 
Divers Signs were feen in Heaven : and great changes happened almoft 
in every Kingdom, The Hungarians opprefs Italy and Germany , bc- 
fides many other broils in both thofe Nations. France will (hortly 
have another Race of Kings:great were the Wars in Spain between the 
Moors and the old Inhabitants, and the Saracens fuffered neither Greece 
nor Afi* to reft in peace. 

Bellarmine fpeaking of this Century, faith, Behold an unhappy Age, 
in which are no famous Writers, few or no Councils, bad Emperours, 
and no good Popes. 

Baroninf on the beginning of this Century, faith, Anew Age be- f Q r 's?*. ? 
ginneth, which for rudenefs, and barrennefs of goodnefs may be called 
fhe Iron Age ^ and for deformity of evil abounding, Ibc Leaden 

K 2 Age, 

68 3EDe ccdefiawcai $tfto# cent. .10 . . 

Age, and for, want of Writers is calkd , The DarJ^ Age. 

Under the Reign of Charles the .Simple, King of France, a Council 
was called at Rhemes, for correcting the abufe of Church- rents : for 
Noble-men in. Court, fuch as Hugo, and his Brother Robert, Matter of 
the King'/ Horfes, and Vincmariw with divers others , under pretence 
of fuftaining the King'/ Honourable Eftate, and paying wages to 
Souldicrs, had converted to their own ufe a great part of Church- 
rents, efpecially belonging to Abbeys. Fulco, Arch-BKhopof Rheme? 
uttered his mind freely in the Council. Vincmarius one of the nota- 
ble oppreffours in the Court, defiled the Council with Blood, and kil=- 
led Fttlco Bi(hop of Rhemes. The Fathers of the Council returned- 
unto their own Churches with great feai: .for the like of this was 
not heard fince the fecond Council of Ephcfus , in which Flavians 
Bifhop of Constantinople was flain. 

Da. Hainan in A Council alfo was held in France, in which it was permitted Priefts* 
to marry Virgins. 

At this time there was a great 'Famine in France. 

The People had been much given to Gluttony and Drunkennefs,and 
God punithed them with penury and fcarcity of Viduals. 

Lewes dyeth Annop^'y.atRbemes, hated of the French $ leaving- 
to Lotbair, his Son, a Crown near the ruine, and to Charles the young- 
eft, the favour of his eldeft Brother. 

La*6<i/>detefted of :all men, died Anno 964. .leaving behind him an 
execrable memory of his adions, and Lewet, his Son, for a final con- 
clufidn of ..his.race, as an out-caft of great Charlemagne. 

Lewes V. reigned one year only, and dyed without Heir , leaving 
his place void in troubles of State, and confufion of times horribly 
corrupted, untotheHQufeof Hugh le grand^acA of Parti^ God had' 
prepared the means,- both for the Father to lay the foundation, and for. 
his Son Hugh Capet ^ (appointed for the Regal Dignity ) to finifli thi& 
goodly building. . 

Now cometh in the third race of the Kings of France > called Capets y 
of the name of Hugh Capet. 

Charles Duke of Lorrain^ was firft Prince of the Blood- royal, he 
was Son to Lewes IV. Brother to Lotbair, Unckle to Levees V. the laft 
King, to whom the fundamental Laws of France did adjudge the 
Crown. But Hugh Capet was chofen King by the French aflembled in 
Parliament, and Charles Duke ofLorrain was rejected from- the Crown* 

This change happened in Jttly,Anno #87. This new King ..was fir- 
named Capet^ or Capitofa, either for that he had a great Head,, or that 
(being young) he wasaccuftomed to catch at his Companions caps , as 
a prelate of that he (hould do unto Kings, Otho and Henry two other 
Sons of Hugh le grand^ were Dukes of Burgundy , one after another * 
his other Sons were advanced to. Ecckfiaftical DigniticSjtheone 

Cent. io. Of FRANCE. 

BUhop of fholoufe, the other of R0p<*#,and another dyed young. 

Charles of Lorrain gathered an Army, and cntring France came to 
the City of Laon, within which City he by the Treafon of Anfilm the 
Bilhop of that City, was- taken and delivered with his Wife and Chil- 
dren into the hands of his Enemies. 

Hugh being crowned King, caufeth his Son Robert to be crowned 
King at Rhemes, Anno $$o. three years after his Father's election. Hugh ' 
decreeth, that the elder Son (hould reign alone among his Brethren : - 
and fuppreffeth the Majors of the Palace. 

He likewife decreed, that hereafter Baftards (hould not be only re- 
jected from the Crown, but alfo from the fir-name of France, the : 
which before was allowed them. To him likewife are due the good- 
ly Ordinances of Juftice. arit was the chief place of Hughes red-' 
dence , which City was greatly augmented and beautified in his' 

Amttlpb, Baftard to Lothair, was* the only Man which had favoured 
Charles of Lorrain, againft Hngb Capet* This Man was both perverfe 
and dilloyal, having deceived both Charles of Lorrain, and Hugh Ca-- 
pet, who had given him the Arch-bi(hoprick of Rovan, in recompence- 
of theiervicehe promifed him againft Charles, to whom (notwith- 
ftandingj contrary to his Faith, he gave means to feize upon the Cities 
of Rbemes,Laon and SoiJJons. Hugh therefore refolves to fupprefs- 
Arnttlph: but refpeding his quality, he aflembled a National Council 
of the French Church in the City of Rhemes. This Aflfembly depofed- 
Arttttlph, as guilty of Treachery, and a troubler of the publick qukti' 
and they fubftitute Gilbert in his place, who had been School-matter- 
unto Robert. Afterwards Hugh confines him to Orleans \vithCharler^ 
of Lorrain, there to end his days in reft. 

The Prelates of France in this Synod, made a Declaration, that the- 
Popes have nothing to do to ufurp the power and authority of Kings. 1 
Arnalt, Bifhopof 0/-/v*/*.f,maintained in that Synod, that the Popes 
have no power at all over the Bimops of France, fo as to have any cog- 
nizance of Cafes belonging to them: and he declaimed moft ftoutly 
againft the avarice and corruption of the Court of Rome. 

Segttin, Arch-Bi(hopof Sent, was fent alfo to Orleans ^ to be im~ 
prifoned,^becaufe he confented not freely to thedepofition of Arnttlph. - 

Pope John 12.. being difpleafed with Hugh, fox that he had not ap-' 
pealed to him for his confirmation in this new Royalty , difanulledv 
this Decree of the Council of Rhemes , excommunicates the Biftiops- 
which had-aflifted, reftores Arnttlph, and deprives Gilbert of the Arch-- 
biihoprick of Rovan, and to temper 'this (harp and rough pro- 
ceeding with fome lenity , he doth invert G//*r*"with che Arch- 
bifhoprick of Ravenna* And this was a means to raife him to the dig^i 
nityofpope. . 


70 3Ee ecceaa $to# Cent. 10. 

The A&s of this Council of Rbemes under Hg& C*/**, have thefe 

words ' Poor Kome ! what clear H & hts of F at "s haft thou brought 
forth in the time of our Predeceflbrs > What horrible darknefs haft 
thou poured out upon our times, which will redound to our (hame 
and dimonour in future Ages > 

The Pope threatens his curfe againft Hitgh , and his Son Hole rt^ 
The King returned Anfwer,that he had done nothing in contempt, but 
that he was willingto juftifie what He or his Bifliops had done,if it plea- 
fed the Pope to meet him at Gratianople, on the Frontiers of Italy and 
France, or, if rather he would come into France, he promifed to receive 
him with the higheft honour. The Pope fent his Legates into France. 
Gerebert, Arch-Bi(hop of Rbemes, fent an Epiftle unto Stguin fore- 
Morn. inMyft. mentioned (who was faid to favour the depofed Arnulpb) the tenour 
feiqu. whereof is. It became your worthinefs , to efchew the craftinefs of 

deceitful men, and to hear the voice of the Lord, faying, Herew 
-flirt. Magdeb. in C/f , or there if Cbrifl, follow not. -One is faid to be in Rome , who 
Aftit Synod?, juftifieth thofe things which ye condemn, and condemneth thofe things 
which ye think juft. God faith, If thy Brother of end againft tbee , go 
aHdrtbukfbim. How then fay fome , that in the deposition of Ar- 
wflph, we (hould have waited the determination of the 'R.omijb Bifhop? 
can they fay, that the Judgement of the Bifliop of Rome is greater 
than the Judgement of God > But the Prince of the Apoftles faith, 
We muft obey Cod rather than Man. St. Paul alfo cryeth , If any Matt 
Preach unto you otberteife than what you have received: although bt 
were an Angel from Heaven^ let him be accurfed. Becaufe Pope Marcel- 
linus offered Incenfe unto Idols, (hould therefore all Bifhops offer In- 
cenfe ? I fay boldly, that if the Biftopof Rome himfelf fin againft a 
Brother, and being often admonilhed will not hear the Church j even 
theRoman Bifhop according to the command of Chrift, (hould be 
cfteemed as an Heathen and a Publican, for the higheft rife hath the 
j loweftfall. And if he think us unworthy of him, becaufe none of us 

affenteth to him, when he judgeth contrary to the Gofpel , he cannot 
therefore feparate us from the Communion of Chrift , feeing even a 
"Presbyter, unlefs he confefe, or be convift, (hould not be removed from 
his Office, &c. The Priviledges of St. Peter (faith Leo the Great) are 
not, where Judgement is not exercifed according to Righteoufnefs. 
Wherefore occafion (hould not be given unto thefe our envyers , that 
the Priefthood, which is one every where, as theCatholick Church is 
one, (hould be fubjed unto one Man, that if he be corrupt with Mo- 
ney, favour, fear or ignorance, none can be a Prieft, except whom thefe 
virtues recommend unto him. Let the Law of the Catholick Church 
be common. Farewel, and fufpend not your felves from the facred 

Pope Jobn had intelligence of this Letter, and fummoned the Bi- 

Cent. ic. Of FRANCE. 71 

(hops of frame unto a Synod, rirft at Rowf, then at Akfn. The Bi- 
(hops anfwered , They were not obliged to go out of their own 
Country. At laft he named Mttnfon on the borders of France: where 
only Gerebert appeared, and boldly maintained the caufe of the French 
Church : fo that the Legate Leo could do nothing without new in- 
(tru&ions from the Pope, fave only that he appoiatcd another Synod 
at Rhemef) and in the mean time he fufpends Gerebert , who wrote 
the Apology of the French Church, as his Epiftle unto Wilderodon Bi- 
fhop of Argentine, tefUfieth. 

Gerebert excelled in Learning , and came afterward to the Roman 
Chair, and called by the name of Sihe\\er the fecond : he was promoted 
to that dignity by the EmperourO/^. 

tittgb Capet having reigned peaceably nine years , died Novemb. 22. 
996. leaving his Son Robert his fucceflbur > a Prince wife , refolute, 
peaceable and continent : he is faid to have been Learned , a lover of 
Divinity and humanity. They fing Hymns of his Invention, the 
which thus beginneth. Conftznti* Martyrum mirabilv , the which 
bearing refemblance with the name of his Wife Conjlance, he was won- 
derfully pleafed with the humour (he had to be honoured with his wri- 
tings, being then greatly efteemed throughout the World. 

He preferred virtue before the prerogative of primogeniture , and 
caufed Henry, his younger Son, to be Crowned in his life time, decree- 
ing by his Will that his eldcft Son JLobf n (hould content himfelf with 
the Dutchy of burgundy , doing homage for it to the Crown of 

Century XI. 

IN the beginning of this Century, Ar nold Earl of Sens , ufed great 
Tyranny among the Bi(hops and Minifters of theChurch. Here- 
upon LeofrictK^ Bifhop of that See, -through the ad vice and aid of 
Keg/tf^Bifliopof P^w,put out the faid Arnold , and delivered^ 
the City unto King Rekrf. But the Brother of the faid Arnold , with 
divers of his Knights, fled to the Caftle, and held it by force. Then 
the King befieged the faid Caftle, and took both it and Dromond , the 


7 Clje CCCleftattical $fftO?y Cent. 1 1. 

Brother of Arnold, and fent him to Orleans, where being imprifoned 
,he dyed (hortly after. 

This Robert builded the Caftle of Mwntfort : He founded alfo di- 
f < vers Monasteries and Temples, at Orleans the Temple of St. Avian, at 
Stamps a Church dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and many other in di- 
vers places of his Realm. And he endowed the Church of St. Dealt 
with many great- pi iviledges, and had fpecial devotion to St. Hypolite, 
above all other Saints. 

At this time flouri{hedF/&frf, Bifliopof Cbartre/^ a very learned 
Man : Sundry Sermons and Treatifes that are amongft the works of 
St. Auftin are faid to be his. He wrote an Epiftle to Adeodatus, where- 
in he firft reproveth a grofs opinion of fome Men, who held that Bap- 
tifm and the Eucharift were naked figns. Then he proveth that thefe 
mould not be confidered as nicer and outward figns , but by Faith ac- 
cording to the invifiblevertue of Myfteries. The Myftery of Faith 
.it is, called,, faith he, becaufe it mould be efteemed by Faith , and -not 
by fight, to be looked into fpiritually, not corporally > the fight of 
Faith only beholdeth this powerful Myftery, &c. Then he illuftrates 
the fame by comparifon of a baptized Man, who albeit outwardly he 
r.-~- be the fame he was before, yet inwardly he is another, being made 

greater than himfelf, by encreafe of invisible quantity , that is , of fa- 
ring grace, #*c. Here is no word of fubftantial change of the Ele- 
ments , ftill Bread : But we rind two other changes , the 
Faithful are tranfpofed into the body of Chrift , and Chrift is infufed 
into the habitation of a faithful Soul , yet fo, that ChriftV body xe- 
maineth in the Heavens ; and by the Revelation of the Spirit faith be- 
:$5briotb.j>art Je holdeth Chrift prefect, or lying in his Mothei'/ bofom, and dying, ri- 
<blgn * Tom ' 3 'fing, and afcending : andheentreth into the gratious habitation of a 
faithful Communicant, and many waies refrefheth him. Heie alfo 
we fee, that the fubftance cf Bread remaineih, as the fubftance of 
him who is Baptized remaineth, albeit inwardly he be another. 

Some fay, that F.ulbert compofed many Songs in praife of the Virgin 
M*ry j and that he built a Temple and dedicated it unto her. 
Hiftorians alfo do feign, that Fulbert being fick was vifited by the 
'?w ?J agdeb ' Virgin Mary , and that the cherifhed him with her own Milk. 
O impudent forgers of lies ! O foolHh Mortals , who gave credit to 
fuch palpable lies. 

King 'Robert dyed Anno 1031. His Son Henry fucceeded him; and 
reigned 33 years. In his time the Realm of Burgundy had an end in 
the pofterity of Bo/0,and theEmperours of Germany challenged the 
right and title of it. 

Robert Duke.of Normandy, had maintained the Hereditary love of 
his Father with King Henry , greatly relying upon his friendthip. 
Having refolved upon a long and dangerous Voyage to the Holy- land, 


Cent, ii. Of FRANCE. 75 

he intreated him to take the protection of William his Baftard Son, 
whom he had made his Heir, excluding his lawful Children. Robert 
fettled his Eftate before his departure, appointing him good Gover- 
nours, and putting the ftrongeft holds, and treafure into their hands. 
Robert dyed in this long Voyage beyond the Seas, at the City of Bythi. 
w* > having before his departure commanded the Lords of Norman- 
dy, and fworn them, and Robert Arch-Bifhop of "Rovatt , to perform 
their Allegiance unto his Son William, and to take him for their Lord 
and Duke, if he return not again. 

When King Henry had fettled his Land in quietnefs, he then builded 
the Monaftery of St. Martin, called Des Champs, betides Paris, and fet 
therein fecular Priefts. King Henry after he had reigned 3 1 years dy- 
ed, and was buried at St. Dems. 

Anno 1046. Gregory VI. created Odilo Abbot of Clmy, Arch-Bifhop 
of Lyont, fending him the Pall and the Ring, which he received , yet 
without accepting the dignity, faying, he would referve it for him that 
fhould be chofen Arch-Biftiop. 

'Berengariw a French-man, Deacon of St. Maurice in Anjon , was the 
Difciple of Fulbert. He was the firft that was accounted an Heretick 
for denying of Tranfubftantiation,and troubled for the fame. In his 
days it was broached, that the Bread of the Eucharift was the very 
body of Chrift , and the Wine his Blood, fubftantially or properly. 
~Berengariw on the contrary , taught that the Body of Chrift is 
only in the Heavens, and thefe Elements are the Sacraments of his 
Body and Blood. 

Adelman BUhop of Brixia wrote unto him. In the beginning he 
faluteth him as his holy and beloved Brother, and Con-difciple under 
Fulbert Bifhop of Cbartre s. Then he(heweth,he heard it reported, 
that Berengariw did teach, that the Body and Blood of Chrift , which 
are offered upon the Altar throughout the Earth , are not the very 
Body and Blood of Chrift , but only a figure or certain fimilitude, 
howbeit indeed Eerengarius had faid nothing fo. To the intent Adel- 
man may bring his Brother from this opinion, he entreateth him not to 
depart from the Dodhine of their Mailer Fulbert, and of the Catholick 
Church. Then he appealed! to the teftimony of Ambroje , Augulfine 
andHierome [who never taught the Doctrine of Tranfubfiantiation.] 
He writeth alfo, that the very Flefti and Blood of Chrift, was given 
unto the Apoftles at the firft Inftitution , and are ftill given unto 
faithful Communicants. Adelman enlarged much on this fubjeft. 

W hat anfwer "Berengarw did return to him, we find not. But he 
wrote anEpiftle to Lanfran^ declaring the abufes of the Sacrament, 
and commending the Book of John Scctw upon thatqueftion. And 
he wrote exprefly, that the Body of Chrift is not in the Sacrament, 
but as in a fign, figure or myftery. He fpake alfo in his Preachings a* 

L gainft 

74 f& ccciefiafttcai $ffto# Gent. 1 1 . 

t- ; = . 

gainft the Romi/h Church in the Dodrine of Marriage , and neceffity 
of Baptifm. And Eellarmine witnefleth, that "Berengariw called the 
Church of Rome the malignant Church, the Council of vanity, and the 
feat of Satan* and he called the Pope, not PoKtrpctm, vflEpifcopum^fed 
pompificem, & Tulpificem. 

It happened, that 'Lanfranl^ was -not at home, and the Convent o- 
pened the Letter of "Beren^arins ^ and fent it with a Clerk of Rbemes^ 
unto Pope Leo IX. The Popefummoned a Synod at Vercdet. Eeren- 
gar'iw wasadvifed not to go himfelf to the Synod, but fend fomc 
Clerks in his name to anfwer for him. The two Clerks were clapt in 
Prifon. 5c0*Mrwas condemned 200 years after his death, and the 
Dodtrineof EerengariM was condemned, yet nothing done againft his 
Perfon at that time, becaufe many favoured him. Lanfrank^ pleaded 
for him: but he was commanded by the Pope to anfwer him , under 
Pttfies. ch.Hift. no lefs pain than to be reputed as great an Herettck as he. Lattfranl^,. following the fway of the World ( for afterwards he was made 
Arch-Bithop of Canterbury by Wltiliam the Conquerour) performed 
the charge. 

Guitmnndt Bimop of Averfa, wrote more bitterly, and lefs truly, 
againft Berengariw. 

Neverthelefs Eerengar'w abode conftant, and was in great efteem 
both with the Nobility and People : And therefore Pope ViSor the . 
fecond, gave direction to the Bifhops of France ^ to take order with 
him* The Pope's Arabafladours were prefent at the Council, and B*- 
rtHgariiK anfwered, that he adhered to no particular opinion of his 
own, but he followed the common Dodrine of the Univerfal Church, 
that is, faith he, as the Fathers, Primitive Church, and Scriptures have . 
taught. This gentle anfwer mitigated the fury of his Adverfaries : 
yet he perfifted in his own opinion i and for this caufe Lanfranl^ obje&- 
ed againft him, that he deluded the Council of 'fours with general 
and doubtful words. 

Dn Moot con- Afterwards, Pope Nicholas the fceond hearing that he was honour-^ 

tr/Pcrronii.1. . ed of many, aflembled a great Council againft him at Rome, of 115 

Eiftops, where it was declared and pronounced, That the Bread 

and Wine which is put upon the Altar, after the Confecration is not 

only the Sacrament, but alfo the true Body of our Lord Jcfus Chrift, 

* it'feems they And that not only the Sacrament, but the Body of the Lord is * fenfu- 

mcantfenubiy. a]ly and in truth? handled by the hands of the Prieft, broken and brui- 

fcd by the teeth of the faithful. 

When Eerengarm with many Arguments defended, that the Sacra- 
ment Cto fpeak properly) was the figure of ChriftV body, and CardK 
nal AlbertctU;Vi}\Q was nominated to difpute againft him,could not by 
g . , voice reiift him \ and neither of the two would yield unto the other, 

taki!. ?. rei " -^%'^K fought the fpace of feyen days to anfwer in writing. And 

at; tf BRANCH. 75 

y--.^._J. ,- . - - - -.'j^ 

at laft when difputation could not prevail againft him , he was com- 
manded to recant, or elfe he muft exped to be burnt. They prefcri- _ 

it r r f* r i I 111- --i OrJtun aC C0n j 

bed to him a form ot Recantation of his errour as they called it. The fecrau dift. 2. 
Recantation was penned by Cardinal Humbert, and is regiftred by 
Gratian. Neverthelefs the words of the Recantation are far from 

Thefe are the words fo far as they concern our prefent purpofe, Maffons Annrf.*. 
faithfully tranflated. / Berengarius, do confent to the Apoftolick^ and Fl 
Reman See, and with my Mouth and Heart confefi, that tie Bread and 
Wine laid OH the Altar , after the Ccnfecration , are not only the Sacra- 
ment^ but the very body and blood of our Lord Jefus^ andfenfibly, not only 
in Sacrament but in truth, are handled with the hands of the Priefi, 
broken and chewed with the hands and Teeth of the faithful. 

JohnSemeca, the deflator of the Decrees, exprefly condemneth 
the words of this Recantation, and faith, If thou underftandeft not the 
words of Berengarius foundly , thou (halt fall into a greater 
Herefie than he did ; for we break not Chrift'-r body into pieces, 
nifi in fpeciebuf. ufler dc focctflf, 

Eerengarius returning home, returned alfo to his former Doftrine, Ecclef * 
and wrote in defence of it. Some have written, that Berengariitr de- 
nyed the Baptifm of Infants : But Arch-BHhop Vfhcr faith, that in fo 
many Synods held againft him, we never find any fuch thing laid to 
his charge. 

ItiyricM gives this Character of him , Tempore Leonis noni , circa 
lO4p. Berengarius, Vir pietate&eruditione Clartif, Andegavenfis Eccle- 
fa Viaconw^ qunm videret Fontificios Do&ores quam plttrimof ingenti faftu 
ftanfubjiantiationu fundament a fternere, quod mentem Augujlini & alio- 
rumVeterum non inteHigerent , fed Sacrament ales & Hyper bolicas non- vid.Thwrtvfw 
ttitUas locutiones ad novum fenfum inducendttm detorquerent , veram fen- \^ c ^^ 
tentiam ex Orthodoxo confenfu repetitam his corrupted fppofuit , & verbo 
DeiTeftimottiifqtVeterHmTheologorttMrefeVereconatiu ejl , fcr/ptw etiam 
& evnlgatit libris^ ut fii in vera Voftrina confrmarentur. Catal. Teji. 

'Berengarius dyed (holding his firft Doctrine) at 7or/, in the Ide 
of St. Cofina^ and was buried at St. Martins^ where his Tomb was 
reared : and Hildebert Bilhop of Cwomxn^ and then of Tours , and 
made his Epitaph, which William of Malmesbury hath fet down. And 
this is a part of it. 

>ue m tnodb mlratttr^ femper mirabitttr orbh, 

Ille Berengarius non obiturus obit. Gull. 

Quern facr* fidti-ve{ligia fumma tenentem, 

Httic jam qttinta dies abllulit^ an fa nefai. 
lla diesdamnofa dies, &j>erfda mundo, 
>ua dolor & mum fumma ruina fittt y 
L 2 

Cent. 11. 

?latn. io vit. 
loaoa. 15. 

Angler. Math- 


Sigeb; Gcmblac. 


Thuan. Hift. in 
Epift. Dedicat. 

tlfttr ca. 3. 

3710 jotuo,. 

tatus Ecclefit, qua fpet t qua gloria Cltri, 
Quo. cultor j*ris, jure ruente rttit. 
foft obttum fecttmvfaam, precor ac requiefcam^ 
Nee fiat meliar fort mtd farte ftta. 

TIatina callcth "BerengxriM^ famous for learning and holinefs. He 
was a great friend to learning, and bred many Studeatsof Divinity at 
his proper charge , and by means of them his Do&rine was fowed 
through all France , and the Countries adjacent. This was matter 
unto his adverfaries to envy him the more. Arbeit he did waver as 
Peter did > and although his Dodrine was fo often condemned by the 
Popes, yet it could not be rooted out of the minds of men : for Mat- 
then? Paris writeth, that all France was affe&ed with this Doctrine, 
and Matthew of Weftminfter at the fame time faith, That the Doctrine 
ofBerengariuf had corrupted all the Englifajtalian and French Nations: 
So that the Eerengarianr, that is, the Preachers of the true Faith, 
(which the Romanics call HerefieJ againft the rifing errours did not 
lurk in a Corner. 

And Sigebert in his Chronicle faith, that there mere many difputati- 
ons among diversperfons, both for him and againft him, both by 
word and by writing. 

Thttanus alfo hath noted, that in Germany were many of the fame 
Doctrine > and that "Bruno Bifhop of Tivpfrx, baniflied them all out 
of his Diocefs, but fparing their Blood. And John 'tojington a Fran- 
cifcan, in his confellion fet forth Anno 1380. faith thus. The Heretical 
fcntence which is raifed of the dreams of Berengarius affirmeth openly, 
that all the Fathers of the Church, and Do&ors of the fecond thou- 
fand years (as they fpeak) that is, who have been within 380 years 
have been after the loofmg of Satan, and the Doctrine which we (faith 
he) hold to be the Faith of the Church s concerning the blefled Eu 
charift, they fay it is not right, but an errour and herelie , and the tares 
of Satan being let looe. 

To defend the words of the former Recantation, which was given 
in the Synod at La-teran unto Bf rtfg<jr/w, thefe flattereis of the Romijh 
Idol have devifed a new diftin&ion of oral manducation, viz. That 
oral eating is either vifiblc or invifible. And they called the opinion 
of eating Chrift'/ fleth vifibly, the errour of the Capernaitef^ and they 
faid, the eating of Chrift V fie(h with the. mouth invifibly , was the 
explication of Chrift. 1 But the Fathers of higher antiquity condemn- 
ed all oral eating as Capernaitifm ; neither were the Capernaites fo 
fubtle, as to make fuch diftin&ions : yea furely Chrift would- have 
made his corrfi&ion according to their errour. Mark what St. Ati" 
gufi ine faith, who abideth not in Chrift, and in whom Chrift abideth 

not, without all doubt, he neither, fpiritualJy eateth Chrift'-f ftelh , nor 

Cent. ii. Of FRANCE. 77 

drinketh his blood, albeit carnally and vifibly he with his teeth do prefs 
the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Chrift. And 7nff.2S. What is 
it ? They are Spirit and Life, they are fpiritually to be underftood : tin- 
derftandeft thou them fpiritually ? they are Spirit and Life. Underftan- 
deft thou them carnally ? fo alib they arc Spirit and Life , but not to 
tfaee. They underftanding fpiritual things carnally, were fcandalized. 

Here St. Augu^ine oppofeth carnal eating unto fpiritual eating , and 
he faith, that carnally men eat not the flefti of Chrift, but the Sacra- 
ment cf his flefti. 

Philip the firft, fucceeded his Father Henry. This Henry had cau- 
fcd his Son Philip to be crowned King being but feven years old, and 
gave him "Baldwin Earl of Glanders , for Tutor and Regent of the 
Realm. He lived but a little time after his Son'/ Coronation. The 
King'/ Minority paflfed quietly by the wife government of 'Baldwin^ 
who having accompanied his Pupil to the Age of 1 5 years, dyeth, ani 
leaveth him his Realm in peace. 'Baldwin left two Sons,B0/*/B>/ and 
Robert with their Mother Richilde. Then their Unckle Robert the 
Frifon, pretended the Inheritance to belong to him , and fupplanting 
his Nephews, feizeth on the Earldom of Flanders : and King Philip 
forfakes Baldwin's Children at their need, forgetting the good Offices 
he had received from their Father. 

Now Wftiam Duke of Normandy is received King of England., and 
Crowned in afolemn AlTembly of the Englifh 3 and homage is done 
unto him as their lawful Lord, Anno 1066. He had encountred King- 
Harold and overcome his Hoft, in that place where afterward was buil- 
ded the Abbey of Battle in Suffex. 

The day after the Battle very early in the morning, Odo Bifhop of 
IBaiettx fung Mafs for thofe that were departed, being flain in the Battle. 

Before this time Priefts were forbidden to marry , but could not be 
re/trained from their liberty. 

In the Year 1074. Pope Gregory VII. otherwife Hildebrand in a Sy- 
Eod at Rome, condemned all married Priefts as Nicolaitans. He di 
reded his Bulls (as they called them) to Bifhops , Dukes , and other 
Powers, declaring every one to be no Prieft , that had a Wife. His 
Bull was fent into Italy and Germany. This Decree being proclaimed 
through all /* */y, he fent many Letters unto the French Bifhops , com- 
manding that they (hould upon pain of an everlafting curfe, put away 
all the Women from the Houfes of Priefts. But the refidue of 
the Clergy ftoutjy withftood the Pope'/ decree, and would not agree 

Then there arofe fuch a Schifm in the Church , that the people 
would not fend their Priefts unto the Bi(hops> but did elecl: them a* 
tnongthemfelves, and put them in Office without the knowledge of 
the Bifhops, And ^*^{|w&ith, that both Jfriefts and people did 


Cent, 1 1. 

oppofe the PopeV decree, and that not only in Germany, but in France 
alfe. Yea Gebuiler, a late Papift, teftifieth, that hi thofe times 24 Bi- 
(hops in Germany and Franc*, with their Clergy, did conftantly main- 
tain the- liberty of Priefts marriage. If other Nations had followed 
the like concord and conftancy of thefe German and French Minifters, 
the devilifh decree of this Hildebrandhzd been avoided. 

About this time at Nantes , a Letter was prefented unto a Clerk , as 
directed from Hell ; in it Satan and all that fry, gave thanks unto all 
Math Paris Hift- tne PP^ Clergy, becaufe they were not wanting to do their wills 
' and pleafures, and becaufe by negligence of preaching they had fent fo 
many fouls to Hell, as no Age preceding had fceri fo many. 
\ After the death of Hildebrattd, ViUor the third, Abbot of Cafla, was 

made Pope, not by the Election of the Romans or Cardinals, but was 
thruft in by the aid of his Harlot Mathilda, and the Normans that were 
of his faction. 

He being eftablUhed, began to defend Gregorie's pranks, againft the 
Emperour and others. But the haftinefs of his death , (hortned his 

When Gregory and Vi8or were dead, the Bifhops of Germany and 
Fnitfce, conlidering the calamities of the Church, by that unhappy 
fchifm, met at Gurftung, to end the controverfie. There Conrade Bi 
jucntAn (hop of fctowfc* made a long Oration in the Aflembly. The Papal 
party had chofen Gebhard Bithop of Salisburgk, to fpeak in their jiame, 
but. when he heard the Oration of Cvnrade , he would not open his 
mouth to fpeak on the contrary. : 

At length a Synod was convocated at Mentz , whither came the 
Emperour, the Electors, and many Dukes, Peter BHhop of Portua. 
and Legate of Clemens , and many Bifliops of Germany and raticc y 
There the faftion of Hildcbrand by common fuffrage was condemned, 
as contrary unto Chriftian piety, and a decree was publifiSed , that all 
Chrifiians (hould (hun the company of thofe accurfed pcrfons. 

Hildebert Arch-Bilhop of Tours, lived under Philip the firft King 

of France. At that time the Kings of France furnifhed the Churches 

with Paftors after the death of the Incumbent. Then Hildebert ap- 

proved the prefentation made by the King to a certain BUhoprick of 

his Realm, commending him in this manner. 1 congratulate with ver* 

Review of the 9tte * *^ at ^ at ^ ^ er ren>ar ^ under our King. He hath found that the 

COUIK. of Trent power of a King Jhines more bright by gifts and liberality, than by the 

p>a ' 5 ' Scepter, and that it is not fxfficient for a Prince to flir up his Sftbje&s, 

to well-doing by Examples, unlefithey be alfo provoked by rewards. Hence 

it is, that your good manners were honoured by a great Pricfthood. 

The difpofition of the King was found and prudent, confidering, 

it could not better provide for the Church than by placing you 

in it. 


Cent. M. Of FRANCE. 79 

At this time Iw Arch-BUhopof Cha rtres in France , after he was 
elected by the Clergy, wasprefented to the fame KingP^////? the firrt, 
and received his'Inveftiture, and paftoral ftaff from him , upon the 
refufal of the Arch-Biftopof Sw, he was confecrated by the Pope i 
whereat the faid Arch-BKhop was highly offended, infomuch that He 
with othet Bifhops at the Synod of Eftampes^ were upon the point of 
revoking the faid con'fecration made by the Pope, as prejudicial to the 
Ring'/ Authority. Sec here what the fame Bithopfaith of it in a Let- 
ter unto Pope Urban. Moreover,! give your Holinejs to wit , that the 
Arch-1>i(hop of Sens being infatuated by the Counfel of the %ijbop of 
Paris, having fitmmonedthe faid'Bijbop of Paris, and two others of the 
fame humour (viz. be of Meaux and He of Troycs) did very indiscreetly 
accufe me this prefent Year, becaufe of the confecration which I had re- 
ceived from you > faying that I had offended againfl the King's Majefty^ 
by attempting to receive my confecration from the See Apcftolick^ .. 

This Urban the fecond , forbade the Bifhops of France to Crown ivaEpifti IH. 
King ?&////>, whom he had excommunicated : but they were readier 
to obey their King'/ commands, than his prohibition. In the Council of 
C/ermont'm France (faith Matthew Paris) held Anno 10^4. Pope Urban wSihz!" 1 * * 
excommunicated Philip Ring of France. 

And another Englijh Authour faith, In this Council the Pope ex- will. Malmsb, ' 
communicated Ring Philip of Trance^ and all fuch as (hould call him It4 ' 
their King or their Lord, and which mould obey him , or fpeak unto 
him. In like manner Ivo Bifliop of Chartres fpeaks of them botho 
By reafonof this accufation King Philip was excommunicated by 
VoycVrbatt at the Council of Clermont , and having refumed the 
fame Wife after he was divorfed from her, he was afterwards ex- 
communicated at the Council of Poiftiers by the two Cardinals. 
John and Rennet. Notwithftanding which Excommunication he 
was Crowned by the Arch-Bimop of 'tours in a full Affembly of o- 
ther Bifliops. . 

Know you therefore (faith the fame Bilhop of Ghartres in a Letter ivoEpift.a&al 
of his to Pope Urban) that contrary to the prohibition of your Legate^ Urban, fecund, 
the drch-Bifhop of Tours hath fet the Crown upon the Head of the 
King. He fpeaks afterwards of the Election of a Bifliop, made at 
the fame time by thofe who were aflembled with the faid Arch- 

In another Epiftle written to the fame Vrban, he (heweth him how 
Philip had fent Ambafladours unto him with prayers in one hand, 
and threats in the other, fuch as thefe, that the King and Kingdom would 
relinquijh their obedience to him, unlefske did reftore the King unto hit 
Crown^ and abfelve him from the fentence of Excommunication. And 
attecwardshe advertifeth him, How the Arch-BiJbop o/Rhemes, Sens 
and Tours, had by injunction, from the King ? a fflJHt f 4. i^^ r f u ff ra g a * t ' 

8o gOjc Ccclcfiaaical %rttoa? Cent. a. 

Troyes, the firjl Sunday after All-Saints day , after be 
Jho*ld have returned his Attfiver. 

Whence we colled two things, i. That the BHhops of Franctdld 
not ceafe to acknowledge their King, nor to obey him , and commu- 
nicate with him, notwkhftanding the prohibition from the Council of 
Clermont. 2. That they were very ready to put in Execution thole 
threats which the Ambafladours went to make unto the Pope, in cafe 
he did not condefcend unto the King's pleafure. 

The fame ho complains of the Pope's Legate , becaufe he had 
chofen the City of Phyes, there to decide the caufe of the Clergy of 
Chartres, who could not repair thither with fafety by reafon of the 
populoufnefs of that City. 

The fame Bifhop having a controverfie with forne of his Clergy, 
depending before the Arch-Biftiop of Sens, his Metropolitan, intreats 
him to appoint a place for Judgement, whither they might go and 
come in fafety. 

The Legate fore-mentioned, having appointed a Council 5 confifting 

of French Bifhopsto meet at Sens, for the abfolution of King Philip 

s' the iirft, from the Excommunication which was darted out againft 

him by the Pope, by reafon of his unlawful marriage , he gives him 

notice that he might have done better, to have proceeded to 

jvo Epiit. r*6. that abfolution in another place than Sens^ that fo every one might 

have had means to fpeak his opinion freely. 

The fame Bi(hop of Chartres continuing his devotion to Pope Vrban^ 
km.Ep.ft.ii6. uponl heEledioiiof an Arch-Bi(hop of Rhemes , affureth the Pope 
that one was chofen, who was very zealous for the See Apoftofick, ad- 
ding afterwards, Nowkow neceffary is it for the Church of Rome , to 
place in that See a Minifter, which is devout and affeftionate unto her , it 
is not for me to inform your IPifdom, which kpows very well ^ that this See 
wears the Royal Diadem, and fervesfor a pattern to ati other Churches ef 
France, either of Ruine or Refitrre&ion. 

This Ivo of Chartres^ although he had received his Invefiiture from 
ViingPhilipi yet inasmuch as he had gotten his confirmation from 
Pope Urban, he was always affectionate to him , and the Roman See, 
even to the prejudice of the King and Kingdom , as may be collected 
from fome of his Epiftles. 

tu E ift c ^ n tne c ntrar y becaufe Lupw had gotten the Abbey of St. Peter ds 
Ferriers in the Diocefs of Sens^ by the donation of Charles the bald, he 
was always loyal, and even brags of it in one of his Epiftles. 

It happened, that there came a French Pilgrim tojerufalem, called 

Tho.Fuiier.Hift. ?eter an Hermit, born at Amiens in Trance ; one of a contemptible 

of the holy war pcrfon, yet a man of a quick apprehenfion, and eloquent Tongue, and 

hl>. t . ca. 8. one t k at was countec j ver y Religious. With him Simon the Patriarch 

of Jerufajem often treated , concerning the prefent miferies of the 


Cent. ii. Of FRANCE. 81 

Chriftians under the Turks, what hope of amendment, and how the 
matter might be fecretly contrived, that the Princes in Europe might 
aflift and relieve them. Peter moved with the Patriarch'/ perfwaii- 
ons, the equity and honourablenefs of the caufe , and chkfly with a 
Vifion(as they fay) from Heaven, took the whole bufinefs upon him, 
and travelled to R0we, to confult with Pope Urban the fecond , about 
the advancing fo pious a defign. 

Some think, that the Pope firft fecretly employed this Hermit to be 
his Fador, and to go to Jerujalem to fet on foot fo beneficial a Trade 
for the Church of Rome , becaufe the Pope alone was the gainer by 
this great adventure, and all other Princes of Europe came off 

Pope Urban had called the Council of Clermont in France foremen- 
tioned, where met many Princes and Prelates to - whom he made a 
long oration : which was to this effed. Firft, he bemoaned the mi- 
feries of the Chriftians in Afia, and the vaftation of thofe holy places. 
Next, he encouraged the Princes in the Council to take Arms againft T)ruisli.i,c,i$. 
thofe Infidels', and to break their bonds in fundcr, and to caft their 
cords far from them (as it is Written) to caft ottt the Handmaid and 
her Children. 

Otherwife,if they would not help to quench their neighbours hou- 
fes, they muft expert the fpeedy burning of their own, and that thefe 
barbarous Nations would quickly over-run all Europe. 

Now to fet an edge to their courage, he promifed to all that went 
this Voyage, a full remiflion of their fins, and pennances here, and the 
enjoying Heaven hereafter. Laftly , he thus concluded , Gird your 
Swords to your Thighs, O ye men of might: It is our parts to 
pray, yours to fight : ours with Mofes to hold up unwearied hands 
to God, yours to ftretch forth the Sword againft thefe Children of 
Atnaleck; Amen. 

This motion wasmoft chearfully entertained, fo that the whole 
Affembly cryed out , God rvfteth it : A fpeech which was afterward ^ e ||- An - 9 
ufed as a fortunate Watch- word in their moft dangerous detigns. 

Then many took a crofs of red cloth on their right (boulder , as a 
badge of their devotion : And to gain the favourable affiftance of the 
Virgin Mary to make this War the more happy, her Office was inftitu- 
ted, containing certain prayers, which at Canonical hours were to be 
made unto her. 

On eobferveth, that it is enough to make it fufpicious, that there 
were fome finifter ends in this War , becaufe Gregory VII. otherwife racr t beS 
called Hildebrand (and by Luther in his Chronology , Larva Diaboli.} 
the worft of all that fate in the Papal Chair, firft began it : but death 
preventing him, Vrban the fecond fwhom Cardinal Benno called Tr- 
&w, for troubling the whole world) effected it. 

M Now 

Si 3U)eeccleftafticai$ifto# 

Now a great controverfie was in Chriftendom about the iuvefti- 
ture of Biihops, whether the right lay in the Pope, or in fecular 

Now the Pope diverted this queftion out of Princes Heads, by 
opening an i(Tue another way, and gave vent to the a&ivity of their 
fpirits in this Martial employment , and in the mean time quietly 
went away without any corrival. concluding the controverfie for his 
own profit. 

Moreover, he got a Mafs of Money by it. He had the office to 
bear the bag, and what was put into it, as contributed to this action 
from pious people, and expended but fome few drops of the (howers 
he received. 

As the Pope, fo moft of the Clergy improved their Eftates by this 
W^*' For the fecular Princes who went this Voyage, fold or morga- 
ged moft of their Eftates (idling for Gold, to purchafe with Steel and 
Iron) and the Clergy were generally their Chapmen. Godfrey Duke 
of Bowlto,fold that Dukedom to the Bi(hop of Liege , and the Caftle 
of Sartenfy and Monfa to the Bilhop of Verdun. Baldwin his Brother 
Daniel in HCH- fold him the City of Verdun. Yea by thefe Tales the third part of 
the Feoffs in France^ came to be poflcffed by the Clergy, who made, 
good bargains for themfelves, and had the confcience to buy Earth 
cheap, and Heaven dear. 

Many Prelates and Fryarsleft their paftoral Charges and Covents to, 
follow this bufinefs. 

The total fum of thofe pilgrim Souldiers amounted to three hun- 
dred thoufand. The French^ Utttcb^ Italian and Englijk, were the four 
Elemental Nations , whereof this Army was compounded. But 
France contributed more Souldiers to this Army than all Chriftendom 
befides. The (ignal men were Hugh, firnamed le Grand , Brother to 
the King of France. Godfrey Duke of 'BoviHon , Baldwin and Euftace 
his younger Brochers i Stephen Earl of Bloys^ Father to Stephen after- 
wards King of England, j Keymund Earl of Iholoufr* Robert Earl of 
Flanders , Hugh Earl of St. Paul , ~B*ldvem de Burge^ with many more : . 
befides of the Clergy Aimar Bifhop of Ptty^ and Legate to the Pope, 
and WiHiam Bilhop of Orange. 

Out of the fartheft parts of Italy , Boemund Prince of farentHm, and 
Ttancred his Nephew, (both of the Norman feed, though growing on 
the^tt/wtffoylj led an Army of twelve thoufand Men. Many 
Souldiers alfo went out of Lombardy. 

England alfo (the Pope's pack-horfe in that Age) fcnt many brave 
wen under Robert Duke of Normandy^ Brother to WftiamTOifto (now 
King of England after the Death of his Father, as Stattcbatnp and o- 
thers whofe names are loft. 

All thefe Princes being called ap by Pope Z^<w, g.'theied together 


Cent.n. Of FRANCE. 8| 

great Armies at divers times and places unto that War. After many 
difficulties, and the lofs of many men they arrived in Pa/f/?*e, and Je- 
rttfalem was won by the Chriftians, and twenty thoufand XrJy there- 
in (lain on July 1 5. Anno 109$. 

Robert the Npr;**;* refafeth the Kingdom of Jtrufalem^ and God- 
frey of Bouillon is chofen King. In this choice, that they might know 
th* nature of the Princes the better, their Servants were examined on 
Oath to confefs their Matter'/ faults. The Servants of Godfrey pro- 
tefted their Mafter'/ only fault was this, That when Mattens were 
done, he would ftay fo long in the Church, to know of the Prieft 
the meaning of every Image and picture , that Dinner at home was 
fpoiled by his long tarrying : All admired hereat , and unanimoufly 
chofe him their King. 

In the latter end of this Century, "Bruno , Chanon of the 
Church of Colen and Rbemes , bare the praife of Learning and 
Holinefs , and was Mafter of the Schools , by whom the order of 
the Caribttfianf was begun. 

The Ciftercian Order was begun Anno i o$>8. by Robert , Abbot of 
^ as Sigcbert faith. 

Godfrey of Bovillon d*yed , having reigned one year , wanting five 
days. After his death, the Chriftians with a joynt confent fent to 
"Baldwin his Brother, Count of Edejfa , ( a City in Arabia , the Lord 
whereof had adopted this 'Baldrvin to be his Heir) and entreated him 
to accept of the Kingdom, which honourable offer he courteoufly em- 
braced, Anno noo. 

He was a Prince of the largeft file, higher by the Head than his 
Subjects i Bred he was a Scholar, entred into Orders , anal was Pre- 
bendary in the Churches of Rbemes, Liege, and Cambray , but after- 
wards turned fecular Prince, but Baldwin put not off his Scholar-lhip 
with his habit, but made good ufe thereof in his Reign. 

M 2 Cent 1 2. 

ccrteftaftical $tfto# 

Century XII. 

A Nno 1107. Pope Tafcal the fecond, gathered a Council at 
Iroyes in France, to throw out of the hands of the Empe- 
rour Henry V. the right of Inveftiture of Bifliops. 

In the beginning of this Century, Great Hugh of France 

was buried at larfus in Cilkia, Duke Guelpbo at Paphos in Cyprus. 

Diemo the Arch-Bi(hopof Saltzbttrgbfavrhis own Heart cut out, and 

Martyred by theTr^/at Cborazin, fo many thoufand Souldiers were 

confumed with Plague, Famine and the Sword, that Conrade^ Abbot of 

10 8 Vrfpurg, who went and wrote this Voyage, faith, God manifefted by- 

' the event, that this War was not pleafing to him. 

Rabbi Solomon Jarchi^ a learned French Jew, who hath commented 
on the whole Bible, to whom Lyra is beholden for the Hebrew , dyed 
Anno 1105. 

Philip King of France having refigned his Crown to his Son 
Lewes at Orleans , and caufed him to be Crowned King, dyeth at 
Melun, Anno 1 1 op. 

Calixttts the fecond, before called Guido of Burgundy, defcended of 
the Kings of England and France^ fucceeded Pope Gelafw. He was 
chofen Pope at Clugny in France by a few Cardinals, whom Gflafiw had 
brought with him, yet was Pope Gregory alive , whom the Emperour 
himfelf had created. 

Calixtits betiegeth Satrium, a Town where Gregory was, and 
having taken the Town, and his fellow Pope, he caufed feimto be fet 
upon a Camel, with his Face to the Camel's Tail , fo he was brought 
through the ftreets of Rome, holding the Tail in his hand inftead of 
a Bridle: and afterwards being (horn he was thruft into a Mo- 

This Pope Calixtw was the firft that eftablifhed the decrees of the 
Papal See, againft the Emperour. He held a general Council at Rhemes, 
and decreed that Priefts, Deacons and Sub-Deacons fhould put away 
their Concubines and Wives : and whofoever was found to keep his 
Wife r (houTd be deprived of Benefice, and all other Ecclefiaftical li- 
ving , whereupon a certain English Writer made thefe Verfes 

Cent. il. Of FRANCE. 8* 

btne Calixte, nunc omnis Clem odit te, * 

Quondam Presbyteri poterant Vxoribw ttti. 
Hoc defirnxifti, pojiquam tu Papa fuifti, 
Ergo titum merit nomen habent odio. 

He fate five years, and ten months. "Honoring the fecond fucceeded 
him. In the time of this Honoriw , Armtlpb a fingular preacher of 
Chriftian Religion flouriflied. Hugo , Platina and Sabellicuf by , he 
was Bifnop of Lions in France. Trithemius faith he was a Prieft, 
whofe Hiftory I will briefly fet down. Arnulph, was a devout , and 
zealous Man, a worthy preacher; Coming to Row?, he rebuked in his- 
preaching the diflblutenefs, incontinency , avarice , and pride of the 
fiomijk Clergy, provoking all to follow Chrirt and his Apoftles , rather 
in their poverty and purenefs of Life : by reafon whereof this man 
was well accepted and liked of the Nobility of Row?, for a true Di 
fciple of Chrift : but of the Cardinals and Clergy he was no lefs ha- 
ted, than favoured of the other -, infomuch that privily in the night 
feafon they took him and deftroyed him. This his Martyrdom Cfaith 
hejl was revealed unto him before by an Angel, he being in the defert " 
when he was fent forth to preach. ' Whereupon he thus fpake unto 
them publickly. I know (faith he) ye feek my Life, and will deftroy 
me privily, bccaufe I preach to you the truth, and blame your pride, 
avarice, incontinency, with your unfatiable greedinefs in getting and 
heaping up riches, therefore you are difpleafed with me. 

I take here Heaven and Earth to witnefs, that I have preached un- 
to you that which I was commanded of the Lord, but you contemn 
me and your Creator, who by his only Son hath redeemed youi And 
no marvel, if you feek my death, being a finful man preaching to you 
the truth, whereas if St. Peter were here this day, and rebuked your 
vices, which do fo multiply above meafure, you would not fpare him 
neither. And as he was faying this with a load voice, he added, for 
my part I am not afraid to fuffer death for the truth's fake,but this I fay 
unto you, that God will look upon your iniquities, and be avenged df 
you. You being full of all impurity , play the blind guides to the 
people committed to you, leading them the way to Hell. Thus the 
hatred of the Popifh Clergy being incehfed againfthim for psyching, 
they confpired againft him and killed him. Sabellicus and Platina fay, Fox Aft 
that they hanged him, and others that they drowned him. All num. ada 
.the Clergy were defamed for. his death the Pope took it ill, but he U3 '*' 
revenged it not. 

H&^t forementioned, Arch*Bi(hop of Iwrs, about this time 
wrote many Epiftles : in one unto an Earl going in Pilgrimage , he 
eoHdemneth Pilgrims fot vifittng. of Monuments. And fpeaking of 


s<5 e^cdefiatttcattfto cent. 

the Romtnijts, he faith their bnfinefs is in eafe, their prey is in peace > 
their fighting is in fleeing, and vi&ory in cups : they regard no man, 
nor order, nor time : they are in Judgement Scythians, in Chamber vi- 
pers, at Feafts peafants-, in undemanding ftones , in refpedfc of anger 
tire, to forgive iron, in difcretion pratling Daws > in friendship Pan- 
thers, in deceit Foxes, in pride Bulls , to devour Minorants. He 
wrote to HonoriiK II. refuting appellations to Rome , becaufe it was a 
novelty contrary to the Scripture, and very hurtful to the Church. He 
fheweth the condition of Rome briefly in two Verfes. 

Morn, in Myft. - ^^ f x a x ^ fi ve l Vomim urbs ilia care ret, 

Ve I Vomin'tf effet turpe carere fide. 

He was apprehended, and imprifoned at Rome. 

King Lewes called a Council of the Lords and Bifhops of ^France, 
at the City of Orleans , where, of the BUhop of the fame place, he was 
folemnly anointed and Crowned, but not without the grudging of the 
Arch-BUhop of Rhemes. The French begin to fall from their obedi- 
ence, and rebellions are kindled in divers places of his Realm : 
and the places near unto Paris began theie firft revolts ; his Reign 
was very troublefome. 

He had crowned his eldeft Son Philip, who going to take the Air on 
Horfe-back, an Hog patted under the Belly of his Horfe, which being 
feared threw him down, and bruifed him fo, that within few days after 
he dyed. Then King Lerves marrieth his Son Lewes to the Heir of 
Cuienne. He made Henry, his third Son, Bimop ofBeavois, another 
Philip Arch- Deacon of P<w*, Peter Earl of Courtney , Robert Earl of 
I>reux t and married his only Daughter Conjlance to Reimund Earl of 
'fbohufe and St. Giles. Letves the grofs having thus fettled his Chil- 
dren, dyed Anno 1137. 

His Son Lewes VII. fucceeded him , and reigned three and forty 
years, his long reign was nothing happy, and contains in it nothing 
that was memorable, but that the foundation was laid for a long cala- 
ipaity for France. 

After the death of Baldwitt, King of Jerufalem, ''Baldwin de Bttrgo 
his Kinfman, was chofen King. 

This Baldwin was a proper Perfonage, and of able body, born nigh 
Rhemes in France^ Son to Httgb Count of Rojler. He was very charita- 
ble to the poor, and pious toward God i witnefs the brawn on his 
hands and knees made with continual praying , valiant alfo, and ex- 
cellently well feen in martial affairs. 

After the death of Arntilfb^ Patriarch of Jgrufalem, Gttarimond born 
in France fucceeded him. 

About this time the two great orders of Tonplefs and Teutonics 


Cent. 12. Of FRANCE. 87 

appeared in the World, The former under Hugh de Paganif, and G*- 
fred of St. Ome r their nrft Founders. They agreed in profefiion with 
the Hofpitallers, and performed it alike, vowing poverty , chaftity and 
obedience, and to defend Pilgrims coming to the Sepulchre. It is 
falfly fathered on St. 'Bernard , that he appointed them their rule, 
who prefcribeth not what they (hould do, but only defcribeth what- 
they did. 

At the fame time began the 'teutonic]^ Order, confifting only of 
Dutch-men well defcended, living at Jerufalem in an houfe, which 
one of that Nation bequeathed to his Country- men that came thither 
on Pilgrimage. 

King Baldwin was afterwards taken prifoner , and Euflace Gremer^ 
chofen Vice-Roy while the King was in durance, ftoutly defended the 
Gountrey. Baldwins, little before his death renounced the World , and 
took on him a religious habit. He dyed not long after, viz, in the 
thirteenth year of his Reign, and was buried with his predeceffours in. 
the Temple of the Sepulchre. 

Fw/co, Earl of I'ours^ Mam and Anjou^ coming fome three years be* 
fore on Pilgrimage to Jernfalem, there married the KingV Daughter, 
he was chofen the fourth King of Jerufalem. 

He was well nigh do years old. By his firft Wife he had a Son, 
Geoffery of flantagenet, Earl of Anjon, to whom he left his Lands in 
France^znd from whom our Kings of England are defcended. 

Fulco having reigned eleven years with.much care and induftry, was Tyrius 
flain as he followed hisfport-in hunting. Thomas Fuller brings him in ca< ulr% 
thus fpeaking his Epitaph. 

A Hare Ibtinted, and Death bunted me. 

The more my fpeed vpat^.tvas tbe worfe my fpeed : 
For as weH-mounted I away did flee^ 
J)f4tb caught andkjIPd me falling from my Steed. 
let this, mijhap an happy mifs I count \ 
That fill frm Horfe^ that I to Heaven might 

fucceeded hisFather. He was well learned , e- 
fpeciallyin Hi iiory, liberal, witty and facetious. His mother Mitie- 
fent continued a Widow, and as for Children's- fake fhe married 
once, fo for her Children's-fake (he married no more. St. Bernard 
and (he often converfed together by Letters : H extolled her (ingle 

This St. Bernard Abbot of Clarevaux, or Clareval, was famous in 
thai time. He often complains of the defection of the Church. 

He (harply rebuked the vitious lives of BiQiops and Abbots. Yea, 
-he did not fpare the Popes, as appeareth partly by what he wrote 


ss 3CJ)t ccciefiaftieal ^tftojp Cent. it. 

unto Pope Eugeniiif, and unto Innocent the fecond. And for his liberty 

Epift.i78. ADO. in fpeaking againft the errours of his time, he was reproached, fo that 

A b g ba t dWllIerm 'he was conftrained to publi(h Apologies, where he faith, that they 

called him the moft miferable of Men , one who prefumed to judge 

the World, and by the (hadowof his bafcnefs infult over the lights of 

the World. 

And he faith there, that he was like to be killed every day, and was 
judged as a Iheep for the (laughter i yet neverthelefs he was not afraid 
to fpeak of their vices, becaufe (faid hej meliw e(l ut fcandalunt oria 
#r, quam veritaf relinquatttr : It is better that a fcandal Jkould arrfe^ 
than truth* faottld be relinquifbed. who at the beginning when the 
order of Monks began (faith he.) could think that Monks would be- 
come fo naughty ? Oh how unlike are we to thpfe in the days of An- 
thony > did Macariw live in fuch a manner ? did Bafil teach fo > did 
Anthony ordain fo ? did the Fathers in Egypt carry themfelves fo > how 
is the light of the World become darknefs? how is the fait of the 
Earth become unfavoury ? I am a Lyar C faith he) if I have not feen an 
Abbot having above fixty horfes in his train: when ye faw them 
riding, ye might fay, Thefe were not Fathers of Monafteries,but Lords 
of Gaftles > not feeders pf Souls,' bur Princes of Provinces. 

They have carried after them their Table-Cloths, Cups, Bafons, 
Candle^icks, and Portmantua's fluffed not with ftraw , but ornaments 
of Beds, fcarce will any of them go four miles from his houfe , but 
f he'muft have all things with him, as if he were going into a leaguer, 
or through a Wildernefs, where neceflaries- could not be had. O va^ 
nityof vanities ! the walls of Churches are glorious, and poor* folks 
are in neceffity. 

Yet may it befaid, that 'Bernard was a follower of the Popes. I an- 
fwer, ycsi he gave them "all the Titles that others gave them : , but fee 
what blows he gave them, as appeareth by what he wrote to Innocen- 
*/*, and Eugennu^ he lays on them the blame of all the wickednefs in 
the Church, In rites he was carried with the fway of the times , but 
hisppjdhine was far different from the Tenets of the Church of .Rome. 
Bern. Epift. 91. In one of his ^piftles he writes thus. I would be in that Council, 
co^rcg. 1 " ' :f$ where the Traditions of Men are not obftinately defended, nor fuper- 
ftitioufly obferved, but where they fearch diligently and humbly, what 
is the good, perfect and acceptable will of God : thither am I carried 
with all my dearer and there would I abide devoutly. 

in prz- And elfewhere he faith, many things were devifed and ordainedi 
tpt.&Difptnf. not becaufe they might not be otherwife, but becaufe it was fo expe- 
dient, and certainly but for confer ving charity: therefore fo long as 
the things do ferve charity , let them ftand without change ; nor 
can they be changed without offence, no not by the Rulers. 

But contrarily, if they be contrary unto charity, in the judgement 


Cent. il. Of FRANCE. 89 

of fuch only unto whom it is granted to overfee, is it not clearly moft 
juft,that what things were devifed for charity, (hould alfo be omitted, 
or intermitted for charity, when it is fo expedient? or (at leaft) that 
they be another thing more expedient : as on the other 
tide, certainly it were unjuft, if thefe things that were ordained for 
charity, be held againft charity. Let them therefore hold faft that 
which is immoveable. 

The fame Bernard informs us , that then was held a Council at Bern< de conft- 
Rhemes, wherein the Pope was prefident. And faith he , Brethren I <fcr. ad i 
tell you of another Synod, where the Lord God will fit in Judgement, umlM> 
where we muft aHftand, and there will God judge all the World. 
Here (on earth) unrighteoufnefs is (hut up in a bag i but in that 
Judgement God will judge righteoufly : and there we muft all appear 
whether he be a Pope, or a Cardinal, or an Arch- Bifhop, or a Bifhop, 
or poorer rich, or learned or unlearned, that evy one may receive 
according to what he hath done in the body, whether good or ill. 

Moreover, he faid unto the Council , that the Impefthume -was 
fpread through all the body of the Church, from the fole of the Foot 
to the Head, the Bride was fpoiled,and even they that were called the 
Bridegrooms of the Church, were not the friends of the Bridegroom? 
And the Council fe far took with this rebuke , that fome A&s were 
made for Reformation, though no reformation followed. 

About that time had been ftarted that opinion concerning the Vir- 
gin Mary,viz. of Univerfal freedom from original fin : which opinion 
had been in the minds only of fome private per/ons, but yet was not 
come among the ceremonies of the Church, nor into the minds of the 
learned. About the year 1135. the Chanons of Lyons durft firft bring 
it into the fervice of the Church. St. Eernard flourifhing at that time 
for piety and learning, before all the Divines of that Agei and fo im- 
moderate in the praifes of the bleffed Virgin, that he calleth her, the 
neck^of the Church > as if by her all Grace did flow from the Head i 
neverthelefs he (harply writeth againft thefe Chanons , that without 
reafon, and without example of former times, they had brought in 
fo dangerous a novelty. He confefleth, that they had matter enough 
to commend the bleffed Virgin > but fuch ambitious novelty (which is 
the mother of fondnefs, the fifter of fuperftition , and daughter of 
levity ) he faith, could notpleafe her. Receniiifimui eft 

Em/W dyed in the 63. year of his Age, Anno 1153. From erring vixUqu'e "Joft* 
Bernard that frequent proverb of writers erring drew it's Original, fi r " E; 

T> i -I- i i r * a -n j P'""P ! Romani 

Eernaraus non ndit otonia : neither is it a wonder, iceing he nounihed Tyra.ini.fcm. 
in the darkeft midnight (as it were) of Popery. He is much commen- po a n ^' ecum * 
ded by divers learned Proteftants : as by Btthop M0rfo,Bi(hop Carleton, Car!er Confeni; 
Voffivs and others. He hath folidly difputed concerng the chief Heads E ccicf OMT. * 
of Faith, of the Scriptures of the Church, of the mifery of man , of Jfj^jj 6 ' 1L 

N free ca'.i'j. 

90 %\)t CcrlctoRlCilt %tftO# Cent. Vi.. 

free juftification, of grace , of new obedience, with the Catholick 
Church againft the Tridentine Fables, to that nothing can be found 
more foiid. 

In the Council of: Rbemef forementioned (where were aflembled 434 
Prelats) thefe five principal adts were concluded. 

1. That no Man (hould, or fell any Biftopikk, Abbot- 
(hip, Deanry, Arch- Deaconfhip, Priefthooxl , Prebendftip, Altar, or 

ou any Ecclefiaftical promotion, or Benefice, Orders, Confecratfon, 

Church-hallowing, Seat or Stall within the Q^ire , or any Office 
Ecclefiaftical, under pain of Excommunication, if he did perfift. 

2. That no Lay-perfon (hould give Inveftiture, or any Ecclefiaftical; 
poiTeflion^nd that no fpiritual man {hould receive any any Lay* 
man's hand under pain of deprivation. 

3. That no man (hould invade, take away, or detain the goods or 
pofleflions of the.Church, but that they Ihould remain firm and perpe- 
tual, under pain of perpetual curfe. 

4. That no Bi(hop or Prieft (hould have any Ecclefiaftical Dignity 
or benefice to any, by way of inheritance. Adding moreover, that for 
Baptifm, Chrifm, Anointing, Burial, no Money mould be exacted. 

5. Item, That all Priefts, Deacons, and Sub-Deacons, mould be ut- 
terly debarred and fequeftred from company of* their wives and 
Concubines , .under pain of excluding from , all Chriftian Com- 

The A&s thus determined were fent foon after to.Hettry the Empe- 
rour, to try (before t|ie breaking up of the Council) whether he 
would agree to the Canonical Elections, free confecration,and invert- 
ing of fpiritual perfons j and to other Ads of the faidCouncil. The 
Emperour maketh anfwer, that he would lofe nothing of that Anti- 
ent Cuitom, which his Progenitors had given him : Yet becaufe of 
the authority of the general Council, he was content to confent to the 
refidue,fave only the inverting of Ecclefiaftical function to be taken 
from him, unto that he would never agree. Upon this, at the next 
return of the Pope to the Council, Henry the Emperour was excom- 

In the Year 1142. Pope Enrgwu'iircame to. P<w*f, where that he 
might ufurp the right of inveftiture, and deprive the King of it, he 
gave the Arch-Bifhoprick of Bourges, to his Chancellour of the Apo- 
itolical Chancery, named Peter Atmery without the confent of King 
Lewes, a Prince very much given to obedience unto the Pjapal See. 
Yet the King was (b angry at it, that he fvvore upon the Holy Re- 
licks, that never fo' long as he lived, Aimery mould, : fet his foot in 

But the Pope ki owing the King's timerous nature, excommunica- 
ted him , put his ^erfon in iat^vli^, and gave oxdcr that in. France., in 


Cent, i ^ eFRANGF 

all ph'^s where the King came, divine Service (hould ceafe > and all 
his Court were deprived of the Communion. 

This lafted three whole years till St. Bernard came to the King, and 
perfwaded him to receive the faid Arch-Bifhop. 

But becaufe by fo doing, the King brake his Oath made upon the 
HcJy Relicks,,he was enjoyned for fatisfa&ion to take a Journey to the 
Holy Sepulchre .in Syria t to fight againft the Saracens. In which 
Journey the King loft the flower of the French Nobility, and re- 
turned affli&ed and full of confufion , as you (hall fee more 

Peter Biihop of Clnqny was in great account with Pope Eugeniut. 

Bernard wrote many JELpiftks to him : in one EpiiJle he calleth him 
a Veffel of Honour, full of Grace and Truth, and endued with marty 

Thelofsof Edeffa (wherein Chrifi&anity had flourifhed ever fince 
the Apoftles times) moved Conrade Emperour of the Weft, and Levees 
VII. fir- named the young, King of France, to undertake a Voyage to 
the Holy Land. 

Pope Eugeniw III. beftirred himfelf in the matter , and made St. 
"Bernard ftis folicitour to advance the defign. The Emperour's Army 
contained two hundred thoufand foot, befides fifty thoufand Horfe : 
nor was the Army of King Lerve s much inferiour in number. In Plul ^ mi , . 
France they fent a Diftaff and a Spindle to all thofe that went not 
with them, as upbraiding their effeminatenefs. But by the way, the 
Grecian Emperour did them all poffible mifchief, by mingling lime 
with their meal, by killing of ftraglers, by holding intelligence with 
the "furkf their enemies, by corrupting his Coyn , fo that the Dutch 
fold good Wares for bad NAoney, and bought bad Wares with good 
Money, by giving them falfe conductors, which trained them 
into danger, fo that there was more fear of the guides than of the 

The King of France followed after the Emperoui, and drank of the 
fame Cup at the Grecians hands, though cot fo deeply, till at laft, find- 
ing that thofe who marched through the Continent, met with an O- 
cean of mifery, he thought better to truft the wind and the Sea than 
the Greekj) and taking (hipping, fafely arrived in ? airline , where he 
was welcomed by Reimitnd Prince of Antiocb. Some weeks were 
fpent in entertainment, and vifiting holy pb.ccs, till at laft, Elianor The.Fuiicr holy 
"Wife to the King of France, who accompanied her Husband , made War - ubt 2 ' 
Religion her Pander, and plaid Bankrupt ot her honour,under pretence 
of Pilgrimage, keeping company with a baic Saracen- Jefter, whom (he 
preferred before a King. 

The Emperour and the French Kingbehege Vamafius : but feme of 
the Chriftiaiis corrupted with Zr'/$fc Money., perfwadedthe King of 

N 2 franco 

France to remove his Camp to aftronger part of the Walls > which 
they long beficged in vain, and returned home at laft, leaving the Ci- 
ty and their honours behind t'hem. The French Proverb was verified 
of this Voyage : Much brnit, and little fruit. Many thoufand Chrifti* 
ans perifhed in this adventure. 

The French King coming homeward , was taken prffoner by the 
Fleet of the Grecian Emperour, and refcued again by Gregory, Admiral 
to 'Roger King of Sicily, when he was arrived in France, his Wife 
was in open Parliament divorfed from him. He gave her back again 
all the Lands in France which he had received with her in portion. 
Herein he did nobly, but not politickly, to part with the Dukedoms of 
Peifiott and Aqttitain, which he enjoyed in her right : for hereby he 
difmembred his own Kingdom, and gave a torch into the hands of 
Henry II. King of England ( who afterwards married her) to fet Franc* 
on tire. St. Bernard was condemned among the vulgar fort for the 
murtherer of thofe that went this Voyage , and it was an heavy 
Brn. de confi- affliction for his aged back, to bear the reproach of many people. In 
' *' "' '* his book of Confederation he maketh a modeft defence of himfelf, whr- 
ther we refer the Reader. Upon the departure of the Emperour 
Conrade , and King Lewes, Noradine the 'fttrl^ much prevailed in 

Peter de Brms, a'prieft at Tholottje, preached in fundry places againft 
the Popes, and the Doctrine of Rome, calling the Pope the Prince of 
Sodom,ar\d 'Rome he called Babylon , the mother of whoredoms and 
confufion. He preached againft the corporal pretence of Chrift in the 
Worn. myft. *- Sg eramen t 5 againft the facrifice of the Mate, he condemned the worfhip 
of Images, prayers to Saintsi fmgle life of priefts, pilgrimages, multi- 
tude of Holy-days, &o. 

The fore- named Peter, Abbot of Clugny wrote againft him. This 
Peter de Bruif began to preach about the year 1126. 

After him, his Difciple Henry, a Monk, continued preaching the 
fame Dodhine. Gttilerm, an Abbot, writing the life of St. Bernard 
faith of this Henry, That he denied the grace of Baptifm unte Infants*, 
he defpifcd the prayers and oblations for the Dead j the excommuni* 
cation of Priefts s the pilgrimage of Believers i the fumptuous buil- 
dings of Churches s the idknefs of Feftival-days j the confecration 
of chrifm and oyl, and all the ordinances of the Church. He (heweth 
them that the people fent for Bernard to come againft him, but he 
refufed until Albericitf Bifhop of Oiiia was fent Legate againft him, 
and he pcrfwadcth Bernard to go with him to 'Iboloufe. And then 
Bernard wrote his 240. Epiftle unto Hildefonfw, Count of St. Giles a- 
gainft this Henry. Certain it is (as the proverb is) Bernard faw not ^U 
things, and howbeit he wrote bitterly againft him, yet he commendeth 
him as a learned, man , and he was fo reverenced, that the people did 


Cent. il. Of F R A N C E> 93 

follow him. ~E>e EraV was burnt at Iholoufe , and Albericut canied 
Henry into Jf*/y. Their Books were burnt. 

In Paleftine King Baldwin was poifoned by a Jeveify Phyficjan. 
And /#wm'cJ^Brother to King Baldwin, fucceeded t6 the Crowe. In 
the Church of Jerufalcjtn one Almericl^. was Patriarch, a French-man 
born, though little fit for the place. 

King Almerick^ againft his promifeinvadeth Egypt, but his perjury 
was punifhed with the future ruine of the Kingdom of Jerufalem, and 
himfelf dies of a bloody- rlux. 

Baldwin his Son, the fourth bf that name, fucceedeth. This Bald- 
iJV. had excellent Education under William Arch-Bi(hop of Tyn?, 
a pious man, and excellent Scholar, skilled in all the Oriental Tongues, 
betides the Dutch, and the French his Native Language, a moderate Tho> Fdlers 
and faithful Writer : Fo-r in the la,ttter part of his Hiftory of the holy Hift.*Hoi y wan- 
War, his eye guided tys hand, till at laft the taking of the City of Je~ u< 3tC8 ' &- 
rtffalem fo (hook his hand that he wrote no more. 

Treafurerhe was of all the Money's contributed to the holy Wary 
Chancellour of this Kingdom, employed in feveral Embaffies in the 
IPeft-y pretent at the Later an Council, the A&s whereof he did record. 
Cardinal he might have been but refuted it. 

Le tvej the French King caufed his Son fJnltp to be crowned at 
Rhemes, at the Age of 14 years, Anno 1 179. He betroth ed him to Ifa- 
bel the Daughter of Baldwin Earl of Henault. King Le wes having 
thus difpofed of his aifairs, died Anno 1 180. 

The Title of Attguftus. was given to Philip his Son and fucce(Tour> 
In the beginning of his Reign he purged the corruptions that were 
then prevalent among the people, viz. Blafphemies, Plays, Dicing- 
houfes, publick diflblutenefs in infamous places, Taverns and Tipling- 
houfes. He expelled the Jews (ditperfed throughout his Kingdom, 
and given to griping ufury ) and albeit they obtained a return for 
Money , yet in the end he baniuhed them out of all the Territories of 

The Patriarch of Jerufalem being arrived in France, Anno 1184*- 
with the Prior ef the Hofpital of Outremer, and the Grand Matter of Rigordas d^- 
the templars, to demand fuccour of King Philip AvgrftM ag_ainft the 
Saracens, he fent out a Mandamus to call a general. Council of all 
the Arch- Bifliops, Bi(hops, and Princes of the Realm, which was 
holden in the City of Paris. Philip alfo calls a Parliament at Paw : 
they difwade him from the Voyage, but he fighteth againit all difficult- 
ties. Great charges were impofed upon fuch as went not the Voyage, 
to pay the tenth of all their revenues, both Temporal and Spiritual, 
called for this occafion, *fo Saladines Tenths. 

Richard I. King of England,, and King Philip of France, laying afide. 
their private diilentions, unite their forces a&ainft the Turk/-, 


94 % CCCleCaP^tO?V Cerit. 

v accompanied with Fi/^iu'Arch-Bifhop of < 
terbury, HK&T* BKhop of S*w#m3',KcrKtL2il6f Leicejhr , Ralph etc 
il^ late Chief- Juftice of England^ Ricksrd de Clare , Walter de 

famej&c. His Navy he Cent about by Sfw . and with a competent 
number took his own Journey through Franc?. ' 

Roger Hovedon At fours he took his Pilgrim's Staff and Scrip from the Aich- 
URkard.i. Biftop. His Staff at 'the fame time' cafually brake in pieces', which 
Come conftrued a token of ill Tuccefs. L ikewife when He and the 
Trench King parted over the Bridge of.Lyon /, oh the fall of the Bridge 
this conceit was built, That there would be a falling out betwixt thefe 
two Kings, which accordingly came to pafs. 

A< Vyons, thefe two Kings parted their Trains ,' and went. feveral 
ways irifo Sicify. ktMefTana'm Sicily, thefe two 'Kings meet again, 
where King Richard beheld his Navy fafely arrived. Tankred , a 
Baftard born, was at this time King of Sicily, who fecrdtly applyeth 
himfelf to the French, which King Richard eafily difcov'ered. Mean 
time the Citizens of M^i^did theEngli/h much wrong: wherefore 
King Rrcbardtook Mfffanaky sftault, ieized on moft Forts in the I- 
-ftand. Tanked gave to our King what rich conditions foever he de- 
manded, to pacirie him. 

Worfe diicords daily encreafed betwixt the Kings of England and 
france^ King , Richard (lighting the King of France his Sifter , whom 
he had promifed to marry. King Philip hafted prefently to Ptolemav, 
Richard followed with more leifure, and took Cyprus in his way. Cur- 
fdc reigned then in Cy/>r/,who killed the Englijh that landed there. 
But King Richardfyeedily over- ran the I (land , bound Curfac with 
filver fetters. The Ifland he pawned to the Templars for ready 
money -, and there took to Wife his beloved Lady 'Beringaria^ Daugh- 
ter to the King of Nararr. 

The City of Ph.'emais was taken, the Houfes which were left, with 
the fpoil and Prifoners , were equally divided betwixt Philip and 
Richard. Here the Englijh caft down the Enfigns of Leopold Duke of 
Aufiria, who had fought fo longin affaulting this City , till his Ar- 
motir was all over gore- blood, (ave the place covered with his belt. 
Bat King Richard afterward paid dearly for it. King Richard cau- 
fed feven thonfand of his Tirrlg/B; Prifoners to be put to death , and 
Saladinc in revenge, put as many of our Captives to death. But the 
French King refer ving his Prifoners alive, exchanged then, to ranfom. 
fo many Chriftians. 

Philip the French King , Qfo Duke of Rurgtti-.Jy Duke Leonid ; 
ITK ft of the Dutch , all the Genoans and Templars > fide wnh King 
Conrade. . King Richard, Henry Count tf Cbatr^ai^f^ the ?.? -.& : talers 9 
Venetians^ and Pifa/ts, take part with King <Sv.' But Kir,g Ccnrade's 
fide was much weaknedby the departure of tfo French King. 


i*. Of FRANCE. T 

About that time Conrade King of Jernjalem was murdered in the 
Market, place of tyre. 

Now King Guy exchanged his Kingdom of Jerusalem for the I* 
Hand of Cyprus, which he had redeemed from the Templar /, foghorn 
he had pawned it. Bs.nry of Champaign was cholen King by fhe 
procurement of Kii}g Richard^ who after many notable exploits done 
in Palejline, and a peace made, with Saladine , in his return paffrng 
through Germany -in a difguife, was taken Prifoner in Attflria, fold and 
fent by Duke Leopold to Henry the -Emperour. At laft he was ranfo- 
med for an hundred and forty thoutand marks, a fum fo vaft in that 
Age, that to raife it in England^ they were forced to fell their Church- 
plate to their very Chalices. 

After this Mone.y, Peter of Blots made an Apoftrophe to the Duk& 
orEmperour, fending jhis good prayer. 

Bike nmc Avaritia, 
Dum pttteof Argent eos y 

Sit in peraitionem. 

now tbott bafift Avarice, 
*Hl thy Belly burft -, 
England poms, large, filver (howerfj 
T'o fatiaie thy Tibiift. 
And this VPS pray, Iby Money -may, 
And tbott be likf accurfl. 

King Richard after eighteen Months imprifonment returned into - 
England. And inAitftria the Duke with his Money built the Walls 
of Vienna. But God punHhed the .Dominions of Leopold > with fire 
and water , and by famine > for the Ears of Wheat turned into 
Worms : A Gangreen feized on the Duke's body , who cut off his ^ 
Leg with his own hand, and dyed thereof : who by his Will ciufed 
fome thoufand Crowns to be reftored again to King Richard. Soon 
after* Henry King of Jerpfalem, as he was walkingin his Palace, fell 
down out of a Window, an4 broke his peck. 

Roger HoveJett tells us, that near about this time , there was in the. 
(Eity of Tbolattfe agjreat number. of Men and Women whom the Pope's - 
Conimillioncrs,(wx. Peter Cardinal of St. Chryfogon , and the Pope's 
Legate, with the Arch- BiHiops of Nsrban^ and Biturium , Reginald 
Bifhopoif Bathe, ^)i&Buhop .oi" -fffiai-ia , Henry Al^bpt of -Ctareval, 
c^c.)-jdid -pcifecute and'condemn for Hcrakks : of. whom fome were, 
fcourgcd naked, fome chaicd awayj (bme, compelled to abjure, . 


33)e emeftaftfcal $ffi$? Cent. n. 

Now fprang up the Do&rine and name of them, which were then 
called Panperfs de Lugduno^ which of one Waldur^ a chief Senator in 
lyont^ were named IValdenfis i they were alfo called Lcomjlt, & In- 
fabbatati^ about the year of our Lord 1 170. 

It happened on a day as divers of the principal men of the City 
afTembled together, conful ted upon divers matters, that one of the 
company' fell down and dyed fuddenly, the reft of the company look- 
ing on. This Walditt being terrified at the fight of it, was converted, 
and prefently reformed his Life. He miniftred of his Goods large 
Alms to the Poor, he purchafed a Bible, ftudied the Scriptures,inftru&- 
ed himfelf, and his Family with the true knowledge of God's word. 
He admoniflied all that reforted to him to repentance and amendment 
of Life. He gave out to them that were ready to learn certain rudi- 
ments of the Scripture, which himfelf had tranflated into the French 
Tongue, for he was both Wealthy and Learned. 

The Popijh Prelates threatned to excommunicate him : but he neg- 
le&ing their threatnings,faid,G0^w/f/><?0%tt/ rather than Man. At 
length they drave both Waldus , and all his adherents out of the 
City. The Articles of the Waldenfet , I find in oider and number 
to be thefe. 

1. That only the Holy Scripture is to be believed , in matters per- 
taining to Salvation, #<:. 

2. All things to be contained in Holy Scripture neceflary to 

3. That there is one only Mediator , that other Saints are in no wife 
to be made Mediators, or to be invocated. 

<f. They rejected purgatory, aflerting that all men, either by Chrift 
are juftified to Life, or without Chrift be condemned, and befides thefe 
two, neither any third or fourth place to be. 

5. That all Mafles, viz. fuch as befungfor the dead , be' wicked, 
and are to be abrogate. 

6. That all Mens Traditions are to be rejected, at leaft not to be 
reputed as heceflary to Salvation, ew That conftrained Fafts , diffe- 
rence of Meats, fuch variety of degrees and orders of Priefts , Fryars, 
Monks and Nuns, fuperfluOus Holy-days, fomany fundry benedicti- 
ons, and hallowing of Creatures -, vows, peregrinations, with all the 
Rabblement of Rites and Ceremonies to be abolifhed. 

7. The fupremacy of the Pope ufurping above ill Churches , And 
efpecially above all politick Realms, and Governments , not to be 
acknowledged i neither that any degree is to be received in the 
Church, but only Bimops, Priefts and Deacons. 

3. The Communion under both kinds to be neceflary to all people, 
according to the Indication of Chrift, 

. That 

Cent,i2. Of FRANCE. 97 

p. That the Church of Rome, is Baby Ion fpoken of in the Revelation, 
and the Pope is Antichrift. 

10. They reject the Pope's pardons and indulgences. 

11. They hold the Marriage of Priefts and Ecclellaftical perfons to 
be pious, and neceflary in the Church. 

12. Thatfuch as hear the Word of God, and have a right Faith, 
are the true Church of Chrift. 

John Arch-Biihop of Lyons, excommunicated Waldo* and all his 
followers, They were difperfed into divers places , of wliom many 
remained long in Bohemia, who writing to their King Illadiflaut to 
purge themfel ves againft the llanderous accufations of one Doctor Au- 
ftin, gave up their confeflion, with an Apology for their Chriftian pro- 
feffion , defending with ftrong and learned Arguments, the tame 
which is now received in molt reformed Churches , concerning 
Grace, Faith, Hope, Charity, Repentance, and Works of Mercy. 

Reynertut) an Italian InquHitor , under Pcpe Innocent the third, 
writes of them thus. A mong all the Ses that ever were, or now 
are, none is fo hurtful to the Church, as thefe poor men of Lyons , 
for three caufes. 

1. Becaufc it continucth longeft : for fome fay, it hath been 
v from the days of Pope Syivefter I. and others fay from the days of 

the Apoftles. 

2. Becaufe it is moft general, feeing there is no Nation where it 
fpreadeth net. 

3. Whereas all other are conjoyned with blafphemy againft God, 
this Seel: of the Leowfts hath a great (hew of Godlinefs: for they 
live juftly before men , and believe all things concerning God, 
and all the Articles of the Creed : only they reproaeh and hate 
the Roman Church-, and the multitude is ready to accept fuch 

Reyneriut faith, there were accounted forty Churches defiled with 
this Heretic, as he callefh it : and inoneParilh they had ten Schools. Verner in Fa r c}k 
So He. Vernerus faith, there were fome moft fubtil perfons among i. Temper, 
them, who endeavoured to maintain their opinions. And James de 
Rebiria faith, Becaufe they who were called Priefts and Biftops at 
that time, were ignorant almoft of all things , it was eafie unto the 
Waldenfes, being learned, to gain the rirft place among the people, catj. Tdt. YC- 
Someof them difputedfo accurately, that the Priefts permitted them "' 
to preach publickly. 

As for the continuance of this Seel: in following times, one having 
inferted the Confeffion of Faith, which they fent to the King of Hun- 
gary, Anno 1 508. faith, It differeth not much from thofe things that 
are now taught by Some, meaning Luther. And he addeth , that the 

O Waldt-A- 

98 5O)e eccieftafticai$ttto# cent. n. 

# , , ___^_ 

Waldexfcs may be better known from that confeffion, than by the Ca- 
talogue of Hereticks, fet forth by Bernard of Lutzenburgb. 

Nauclertti faith, that the Hujites followed the Se& of the Walden- 
Thuan Rift, ad fej. And Thuxnuf faith, that Teter Waldus leaving his Countrey went 
Ann. 1508. . flto ji e igi um an( j pjctrdy^ rind ing many followers-, he pafled thence 
into Germany, abiding a longfpace in the Cities of Vandalia, and laft- 
ly he fettled in Bohemia^ where to this day (faith he) they who em- 
brace that Dodlrine, are called Picards. 

His Companion Arnold went into Aquitain , and abode in Albium, 

whence the followers of him were called Albigei, or Albigenfes. Their 

liberty of Speech, wherewith they ufed to blame the vices and diffo- 

Mift" n av S lutenefs of the Princes ofFn*/*ceand the Clergy, yea to tax the vices 

Auguft. and actions of the Popes, this was the principal thing that brought 

them into Univerfaliiatred, and which charged them with more evil 

opinions than they had. 

Philip Augujius intending to declare his Son "Philip, his fucceifour in 
M. Joan. DI. the Realm, called a general Council at P*ri/, of all the Arch-Ei(hops, 
! ro.S>fcM. en Bimops, Abbots, together with the principal Lords of his Kingdom.. 
In this Council they treated of all things Temporal and Spiritual. 
Whence that appears to be true, which a learned French, manhzth writ- 
ten long ago, 7 hat antiently the affairs of France, were managed by the 
Clergy^ and Lay-men joyntly. 

King Pbiltp had put away Qaeen Ifebel his Wife, and married Alix 
the Daughter of the King of Hungary^ who lived not long with him. 
She being dead, he took Jxgerberga, Sitter to the King of T)enmar^ 
whom likewife he put away , and in her place married Mary the 
Daughter of the Duke of Moravia, yet after a long and bitter contro- 
verfie upon the repudiation of Jugerberga, he received her again , and 
ended his days with her. The King of Denmark^ vehemently purfued 
Philip in the Court of Rome^Pbiiip prepares his Advocates to (hew 
thereafons why he had put her away. The caufe was to be pleaded 
before the Pope's Legate,in the great Hall of the Bifliop's Palace at 
oe. SerrHi(V Parif, faith , de Serres. In this great Aflembly Thilip's Advocates 
AugSl I>hiUp> pltadcd well for him againft his Wife, but HO Man appeared for her. 
As the Crycr had demanded thrice, if there were any to fpeak for Ju- 
gerbcrga^ and that lilence (hould beheld fora confent, loe , a young 
man unknown, fleps forth ot the prefle, and demands audience, it 
was granted him with great attention. 

Every man's cars were open to hear this Advocate , but efpecially 
Philip's, who was fo touch't and ravitVt, with the free and plain dif- 
courfe of this ycung Advocate , that they might perceive him to 
charge his countenance. This Advocate having ended his difcourfe, 
returns into the prcflfe again, and v^s never feen more, neither could 
they learn what he was, who fent him, nor whence he came. The 

Judges Of FRANCE. 99 

Judges wereamaied, and the caufe was remitted to the Council. Phi- 
lip prefently takes Horfe, and rides to Boil de Vincennts , whither he 
had confined Jugerberga : having embraced her , he receives her 
into favour , and paffeth the reft of his days with her in Nuptial 

An antient Hiftorian faith , that there was a Council holden at Ripord. degft. 
Soiffons, in which King Philip was affiftent, with the Arch Bifhops, Phi!ip< Auguft * 
Bilhops, and chief Lords of his Realm, where the point of the di- 
vorcc or confirmation of the King's Marriage with Jugerberga was 

After the death of King Richard I. of England, Philip Auguftns ha- 
ving fome difference with King J^hn of England , concerning the 
Dukedom of Guyen, and Earldom ofPoiciiers, which Philip fuppofed 
to belong to him, becaufe homage was not done for them > and con- 
cerning the Dukedom of Britain, which was conrifcated unto him by 
the murther of Arthur, King John's Nephew, whom he had killed* 
he was fummoned to Rome by Innocent III. upon the information 
made by John, fuppofing that the Pope ought to have the determi- 
ning of their controvertie, by reafon of an Oath upon the fettling of 
the Lands formerly made between the two Kings , and the violation 
thereof: concerning which, he writ at large to the Bifhops of France, 
that they would approve of his proceedings, which was fo well 
liked by his Succeffours, that they Canonized his Decretal , which 
neverthelefs hath been difliked by fome Divines. And for the Cam- 
//Ps, fome of them have faid, that the protection which he makes 75. 
at the beginning of it, contradicts the A&itfelf-, inasmuch as he de- 
clares he will not meddle with the jurifdiftion of France , which ne- 
verthelefs he did : for the feudal differences being determined by the 
Peers of France, betwixt Philip the Lord, and John the VafTal, yet the 
Pope would have his Legates to take cognizance of them : fur heark- 
en how he fpeaks. That Philip would patiently fuffer the Abbot-of 
Cafemar, and the Arch-Bifhop of Bottrges,to have the full hearing, 
whether the complaint put up againft him be juft, or his exception 
legal. See what learned Cujaciw obferveth upon that Chapter. He 
protefteth ( faith he) doing one thing, and pretending another , not to 
intermeddle, nor ufurp the cognizance of the Feoffs belonging to the 
King, which he knoweth to appertain to the King and the Peers of 
France, but only to have the cognizance of the perjury. And he 
afterwards adds. All this he wrote to appeafe the Peers of France, "!, 
and bear them in hand that he proceeded juftly againft their King, and extr. 
put all his Kingdom into an Interdict upon this occcafion, yet for all 
that he gained nothing by it. 

In this Century, William Arch-Btthop of Senon , wrote unto the 
Pope thus. Let your Excellency , moft Holy Father^ hear patiently what 

6 2 nt 

too 3CUe eccieftatttcai $tao# Cent. u. 

* f<*y,forourS9ttl it in bitternefs , and fo if your devoted Son , f&? 
AJej/f Chriftian King of France, how all the Church of France w troubled 
with fcandali flowing in time of your Apojlle-Jhip , from the Apoftelical 
See; feeing (<w our Nat/on faith) Sat an is let loofe there to the mine of 
all the Church j there Chrift is Crucified again, and manifeftly facrilegiou* 
per fans and murtherers go free. 

Peter, a Monk of Paris, being of great Age , dyed Anno 1167. he 
commendeth God's Word, and taxeth the idlenefs and impieties of 
Priefts , the curiofity of School- men , the multitude and abufes of 
Mattes, the multitude of Men's Traditions, whereby the precepts o 
God are made void : He calkth Indulgences a godly deceit. 

Bernard, a Monk of Clugny about that time wrote a large Satyr^ 
not fparing the Pope nor Cardinals , of which here are fome 

Pontificalia corde carentiacorde probavit^ 
Pontificalia cor da pecuttia contenebravit , 
Pontificttm jiatttt ante fuit ratus, integer ante 
llle+ftatum dabat, ordine, nunc lab at tile lab ante. 
^ui ftiper hoc mare debtterat dare fe qttafi poutem* 
In Sion,omnibM eft via plebibttf in Phlegetontem, 
Stat fibi gloria, pompa, fitperbia divitiarttm. 
Hoc prope. tempore nemo Studeus fore pans animarumi 
tei flat in agmine primus in ordine Presbyteratus, 
Eftvitio levis, ojficio brevi* , inguine fraQus t 

"Ehcn of the Eopifli-Prelats and Ckrgy, he faith. 

Vosvolo credere quod volo dice re , Pfendoprophetaf t 
Nnlla feracius ac mtmerofaf hac tulit cetas. 
Hi* facra nomina, facraque tegmina, cor da fuperba^ 
Agnus eis patet in tunica^ latet anguis in Herba \ 
Ghtilibet improbrts extat Epifcopvs : Abba creatur 
Vi, precio, prece : Dignxs homo nece fceptra lucratar. 
NnUus ei timor, baudque fui memor, eft aliarum 
Non fine Simone, fed fine Canone dttx animarum. 

Divers others he hath of this Nature, which I mall pafs by. 

T.eter Abai lard [poke and wrote againft the Holy Trinity, and a- 
gainft the Office of Chrift. In the Doctrine of the Trinity he was an 
Ar tan \ of Grace, a Pelagian^ the perfon of Chrift, zNeftorian. He 
was fummoned to anfwer in a Council at Soiffons, where he did appear 
but would not, anfwe-r, but only did appeal unto the Court of Kowf, 
and did. glory that his books had found acceptance there. The Biftcps 


Gent. 12, Of FRANCE. 101 

did note and condemn his Errour,and the fentence againft his perfon 
they did refer unto Pope Innocent. 

Peter Cantor flourilhed about this time, he was of Parti. He wrote 
a Book dc verbo abbreviate. 

In that Book, he not only taxeth the loofelife of the Clergy, and 
the negled: of their Office, but alfo many other abufes of the Pope and 
his Mafs-Priefts. John de Vefalia in his Book againll Indulgences, 
writeth that this Cantor faid, that Indulgences are pious frauds. A~ 
mong other things he (harply taxeth many abufes of the Mafs , efpe<- 
cially the too-frequent multiplication , and prophanation of it : he 
reprchendeth the heap and impiety of Fopifh Traditions , faying, 
that for the Commandements of Men, they made void the Com- 
mandementsof God. 

Hugo de Sto. Viciore, was by Nation a Saxon , but Abbot of St. 
Vi&or at Paris. His Works are extant in three Volumns, and many of 
them mentioned in Oxford Catalogue. 

Richard of St. Victor, flourilhed at the (?rne time with Hugo afore- 
mentioned, and lived in the fame Monalle *vith him. His Work/ are 
extant in two Volumns. In that he was -fteemed for a very learned- catai. rtft.-v}- 
Man, and was Religious in his outward converfation, he wrote many rtc>ll{> ' ** 
things, of which much is loft. 

Peter Lombard Bimop of Paris, at this time followed the footfteps 
of his Brother Gratian, arrd gathered the fum of Divinity into four 
Books of Sentences, out of the writings of the Fathers, and he :is cal- 
led, T'hs. Majler of the Sentences. Gratian compiled the Pope's xJeciees, 
or the Canon- Law. 

Thefe two Brethren were the greateft doers in finding out, and efta- 
blifhing the blind opinion of the Sacrament, that the only fimilitude of 
Bread and Wine remained, but not the fubftance of them, and this they 
call die fpiritualunderftanding of the myftery. 

Lombard's Sentences were authorized as the Text in all Schools, 
and to the end that no man from thenceforth fhould fearch antiquity 
and truth any more from Fathers or Councils, under no lefs danger 
thanguiltinefs of Herefie. 

Hear what Cornelius Agrippa faith of this Scholaftick Theology. It 
is (faith hejof the kind ot Centattres, a two-fold Discipline blown .up 
by the Sorbw of Taris^ with a kind of mixture of Divine Oracles, de vanit, 
and Philofophical reafon ings, written aft era new form, and far diffe- "' 97 ' 
rent from the Antient Cuftoms, by queftions and fly fyllogifmes, with- 
out all ornament of Language, &c. He addeth that the faculty of 
Scholaftick Divinity is not free from errour and wickednefs. Thefe 
curfed Hypocrites and Igold Sophifts have brought in fo many Here- 
fies, which preach Chrift,not of good will (as St. Paul faith } but of 
c-cntention > .fo that thereds more agreement among Philofophers than 


io i %ty ccciefiaortaa %tfto?g Cent, i $. 

among thefe Divines, who have extinguifhed antient Divinity with 
humane opinions, and new errours. 

Bartholomew Graviw, a Printer at Lovain^ in his Preface before his 
Edition of thefe Sentences telleth us, that he had a purpofe to re- 
duce all the Teftimonies unto the firft Fountains fincerely : but to his 
great admiration he was told by the Mafters there it could not be fo i 
becaufealbeit in their Editions, innumerable places were corrected, 
yet many errours were as yet remaining and thefe not little ones. And 
not a few things in the Edition at Paris were changed : not according 
to the truth of the old Books, but in conjecture -, yea, and oft-times 
the old words were corrupted through an immoderate dcfire of a- 
mending, and in many places the worfe was put for the better, &c. 
And feeing thefe Books have been fo often changed, little credit 
can be given to any of their late Editions , and that even the 
Mafter himfelf had not written foundly according to the Fathers 
which he citeth. 

Century XIII. 

ALegat came into France^ and commanded King Philip upon 
pain of Interdiction , to deliver one Peter out of Prifon, 
that was Elected to a Biflhoprrck , and thereupon he was 

In the Year 1203. John King of England, loft all his holds and pof- 
feflions in Normandy through the force of the Trench King. 

The Pope had Excommunicated King j^tf,not only tor the pari- 
cideof his Nephew Arthur , but alfo for the ill ufage of his Clergy. 
King John fends confiding men in all haft to Pope Innocent IV. be- 
feeching him, to protect him againft the King of France , promifing 
thereupon to bind the Realm of England, and Seigniory of Ireland^ 
to hold of him and his fucceffours, and in iign of obedience to pay 
him a yearly tribute of a thoufand marks of filver. Innocent fends his 
Legal prefently to abfolve him, to pafs the contract , and receive the 
homages of Fealty, as well of himtelf as of his Subjects. John is ab- 
folved,and having laid down his Crown, Scepter, Cloak, Sword and 


Cent, i J. Of F R A N C E. 103 

Ring, at the Legats feet, he doth him homage for the Realm of Eng- 
land^ kifling his Feet as his Tributary, and binds the Englijb to the like 
duty by afolemnOath. He was willing alfo to difcharge what he had 
taken from his Clergy. This was done, Anno 1215. 

Then the Legat returning into France, requireth Philip in the Pope's 
name, that he fnould fuffer John to enjoy his Realm of England in 
peace, and freely to poflefs the Lands which he held by homage of the 
Crown of France. Moreover that he mould fatisHe the great com- 
plahus which the Clergy of his Realm had made againft him,reftoring 
that which he had exaded from them during the Wars, upon pain of 
Excommunication if he did not obey prefently. Philip promifeth to 
fubmit himfelfi and before the Legat's departure, he frees the 
Clergy of his Realm of the Tenths which he had exacted for the 
charge of the Wars, according to the decree of a National Council 
held at Soiffbnr. 

King John being freed by the Pope, and prefled by him to perform 
his command , opprefleth his Subjects by extraordinary impotiti- 
ons ; and Tyrannical exactions. The Engli(h Nobility there- 
fore rejedt John , and offer the Realm to King Philip , who fendeth 
his Son Levees , giving him a train fit for his perfon in fo great an 

Le w s having taken Hoftages of the Englijh, for affurance of their 
Faith, paffeth into England^ and fo to London^ where he is joyfully Mitfc.Weftnj.ifc. 
received. In the mean time complaints come to Philip from Pope *.fi* " 1215. 
Innocent^ who in a general Council held at Rome\ did Ex- 
communicate Levees the eldeft Son of Philip Auguftus with all his 

King jMwdyeth, and the English receive Henry the Son of Jobnjm&. 
difmifs Lewes of France. 

King Philip inftituted the Provoft of Merchants, and the Sheriffs at 
P<m*forthe politick Government thereof : hecaufed the City to be 
paved, being before very noifome by reafon of the mire and dirt: he 
built the Halls and the Louvre. He Walled in Bois de Vimennes , and 
rcpleniflicd it with Dear and other wild Beafts : he finimed that 
fumptuous building of our Ladies Church. In his Teftament he or- 
dained many notable things : he left towards the winning the City of 
Jernfalem III. C. M. pounds of Pans Money to the Hofpital in 
A/0#f/0rf , one C. M. pounds > and to be diftributed among the poor 
Commons of his Land he gave XX. M. pounds. But a pound of 
Paris Money was'then but two (hillings fix pence fterling. King Phi- 
lip dyed and was buried with great pomp in the Monaftery of St. 
'Dennis^ Anno 1 223. and Lem's VIII. his Son fucceeded him , who was 
crowned at Rhemes. 

Pope Innocent III, havii gathered together an Army of one hun- 

104 3CDeccleftaft<caWflo# Cent. 15. 

dred thoufand pilgrims, fet forward for the final extirpation oFthe 
poor Albigenfes, The bed Champions for the Pope herein were the 
Duke of 'Burgundy, the Earls of Nevers, St. Paul,A!txfrre-,Geneva, Poi- 
tf/w, with Simon Earl of Mwtfort. Of the Clergy, Mih the Pope's 
Legat, the Arch-BHhops of Sens and Rovan, the Bifhcps of Clermont, 
Nevers, Lyfieux, Bayeux, Chartres, with divers others : every Biftiop 
with the Pilgrims of his jurisdi&iom to whom the Pope promifed 
Paradice in Heaven, but not one penny on Earth. 

Their work was to defroy the Albigenfis , which were in great 
num ^ ers in V**tyhine> Provence, Narbott, Tholoufe, and other parts of 
France. Their commiilion alfo extended to the rooting out of all 
their friends and favourers, whether deteded, or only fufpe&ed > fuch 
as were Reimttud Earl of ybvloufe, Keymund Earl of Foix, the Vice- 
Count of Beficrs, Gajlon Lord of Bern> the Earl of Bigorre , the Lady 
of la Vaur, with divers others- 

The firft piece of fervice thefe Souldiers performed, was in facking 
the City of Befiers, and Burronghof Carcaffbhe, in which many of the 
Papiftf dwelt, and promifcuoully were flain with the Albigenfet. Yea, 
Priefts themfelves were cut in pieces in their Prieftly Ornaments , and 
under the banner- of theCrof?. 

As for the City of Carcajfine, which was not far from the Burrough, 
whilft the City was befieged , they efcaped out by the benefit of a 
Vault under-ground, and fo (hifted abroad for themfelves. Hitherto 
this War was managed by the Pope's Legat. 

Simon Earl'of Montfort is now chofen Captain of this Army, who 
fwears to vex the Lord's enemies. 

After he was ieized of the Vice- County of Befierf, he took many 
other Caftles and Cities. 

When the Quarantine, or forty days fervice of this Army was ex- 
pired (the time the Pope fet them to merit Paradice in) they would not 
Hayany longer^but ran away. And though the Bifhops perfwaded 
fome few to (lay, yet could they little prevail, which was no fmall ad- 
vantage to the Albigeafes. 

The Earls of Tholottfe, Foix, zndCftntninge^ and Prince of Bern, (hel- 
tred themielves under Peur King of Arragon, whofe homagers they 
were, receiving inveftiture from him, though their Dominions lay on 
this iide the Pyrenean Hills. 

This King fufpecl:ed the greatnefs of the Earl of Montfort, therefore 
lie fomented a fadJion in them againft the Holy Army : he charged Earl 
Simon for feizing on the Lands of good Catholicks, for fuppofed He- 
reticks, and complained that the Vice-Cpunt of Befiers, who lived and 
.dyed firm in the Rornijb Faith,was lately' trained into the Legat's hand, 
and againft Oaths and promifes of his fafe return,was kept Prifoner till 
his death, and his Lands feized on by Earl Simon, 


Cent. 1 3. Of FRANCE. 105 

Apitcht Battle was fought near the Caftle of Motet ^ where the 
King of Arragon being wounded to death fell from his Horfe , and 
immediately his Army ran all away. Simon purfued them to the 
Gates of T&0/0K/?, and killed many thoufands. The Fryars imputed 
this Victory to the Bifliop's Benedi&ion, and adoring a piece of the 
Crofs, together with the fervency of the Clergyes prayers, that remain- 
ed behind in the Caftle of Moret. 

Yet within few years, the face of this War began to alter, for young 
Tteimitnd^ Earl of "iholoufe^ exceed ing his Father in valour and fuc- 
cefs, fo teftirred himfelf, that in few months he regained what Earl 
Simon was many years in getting. And at laft, Earl- Simon befieging 
yfbolotife, with a ftone which a Woman kt fly out of an Engine , had 
his Head parted from his body : Some conceived, they faw God's rin- 
ger in the Womans hand, that becaufe the greater part of his cruelty 
lighted on the weaker Sex (for he had buried the Lady La Vaur alive, 
refpeding neither her Sex nor Nobility) a Woman was chofen out to 
be his Executioner. He dyed even then when the Pope and three 
Councils, of Vaur^Lateran^znAMontpelier^ had pronounced him Son, 
Servant, favourite of the Faith, the invincible defender thereof. A- 
mong other of his (Hies, he was Earl of Leicester in England^ and Fa- 
ther to Simon Moutfort the Cataline of this Kingdom, who under pre- s Camdcn 
tence of curing this Land of fome grievances, had killed it with his aife iJ 
Phyfick, had he not been killed himfelf in the battle of Evefiam in the "-(hire. 
Reign of King Henry the third. 

Here ended the ftorraof open War againft the Albigenfes , though 
fome great drops fell afterward. And the Pope grew fenfible of ma- 
ny mifehiefs in profecuting this people with the Holy War. Three P [J J%**' 
hundred thoufand of thefe croifed Pilgrims loft their lives in this ex- 8 
pedition within the fpace of fifteen years , fo that there was neither 
City, nor Village in France^ but by reafon hereof had Widows and 
Orphans, curfing this expedition. The Pope therefore now refolves 
upon a privater way, namely to profecute them by way of Inquifition. 
The chief promoter of that War was Dominic^ the Authour of the 
Order of the Dominicans. 

His Mother being with child of him, dreamed , that (he had a dog 
vomiting fire in her Womb. This ignivomus Cur (as one calleth him) Du> Molll Corp; 
did bark at and deeply bite the poor Albigenfes^ who put above two tr. Perron, i. j* 
hundred thoufand of them to death. 

Almerick^ for his lazinefs was depofed by the Pope , and John Bren 
was made King of Jerufalem. In the beginning of his Reign, this 
accident fell out : In Fr<*#ce a Boy for his years went about finging in 
his own Tongue. 

io5 3CJ)eccleftafttcai$ift0# cent. 


efits Lord >rt fair ourlofs, 
eftore to w thy Holy Croft. 

Numberlefs Children ran after him, and followed the fame tune 
their Captain and chanter did fet them. 

No bolts, no bars, no fear of Fathers, nor love of Mothers could 
hold them back, but they would to the Holy Land to work wonders 
there, but this merry mufick had a fad clofe, all either periling on 
Land, or being drown'd by Sea. Matkew fans faith, it was done by 
the inftincl of the Devil. 

King Levees VIII. having compounded with Almery , the Son of 
Simon Earl of Montfort^ for Langucdoc^ refolves to unite this rich Pro* 
vince to the Crown. 

' To this end he levies a great Army, fortified with cruel Edifts a- 
gainft the Albigenfis as Here ticks, and Rebels. Count Rcymimd fub- 
mits himfelf to Pope Honorius^ and yieldeth to Lerver, and perf wades 
the Earl of Cominges to the like obedience. Thus both of them a- 
bandon the people, and go to Rome, leaving the poor Albigenfes to the 
mercy of Lewes, who prefently fubdues all Lengucdoc and Provence. 
TheHoufe of Monthr, one of the greateft in the County of Vivaret^ 
having followed the Albigenfes party makes his peace, by means of the 
Town ofArgetttiere, given to the Biftiop of Vivien^ who enjoyeth it 
to this day. Many Families were made defolate : Thefe poor mifera- 
ble people were difperfed here and there > and fuch as remained in the 
Country were forced to acknowledge the Pope's Authority. Letvef 
ordered the Marlhal Foy, of the houfe of Mirepois to command his 
Forces, leaving the Lord of BeaHJetf, for Governour and Lieutenant- 
General of Languedcc. 

All this mifchief was contrived by the Pope, who had ftnt his Le- 
Foi. A-a.& mo- gat into Yrance^ to fummon a Council at Eitttre , whither the King 
* urav 1 ' 1 ' with fix Arch-Biftops, and the BUhopsand Suffragans of nine Pro- 
vinces repaired, to the number of an hundred, befides the Abbots, 
Priors, and Pro&ors of all the Covents of France . Having difpatch'd 
t thebufinefs of Earl Ryt** y ind the Albigenfes , the- event whereof 
hath been before declared i Romans the Pope's Legate gave leave to 
all Prodtors of Covents, and Chapters t return home, only retaining 
with him the Arch-Bi(hops, Bi(hops, Abbots, to whom he opened a- 
nother part of his Commiilion s which was to obtain 01 every Cathe- 
dral Church two Prebend- (hips one fcr the Biflicp, tbe other for the 
Chapter. And in Monattaies alfo after the like fort , where the Ab* 
bot and Covent had divers and feveral portions, to require two Chur- 
ches, one for the Abbot, the other for the Covent, keeping this pro- 
portion, that how much (hould fuftkc for the living of one Monk, 


Gent. 13. Of FRANCE. 107 

fo much the whole Covent (hould find for their part, and as much the 
Abbot for his likewife. 

The Clergy of France anfwerech, that the thing he enterprized could 
not be brought to cfFed without great offence taken, and incftimable 
damage to the Church of Frauce. 

Inconclulion, whe_n the matter came to debating with the Legat, 
the objections of the inferiour Clergy were thefe following. 

1. They Pledged the great damages and expences, which they were ,. p .,, 
like to fuftain thereby, by reafon of the continual procurators of 

the Pope, which in every Diocefs muft live, not of their own, 
but muft be (uftained upon the charges of the Cathredral Churches, 
and other Churches alfo i and many times they being but procurators 
will be found as Legats. 

2. By that means (they faid) great perturbations might enfue to 
the Covents and Chapters of Cathedral Churches in their elections : 
Forafmuch as the Pope's Agents and Fa&ors, being in every Cathe* 
dral Church and Chapter- houfe, perchance the Pope would command 
him in his perfon to be prefent at their elections, and fo might trouble 
the fame by delaying and deferring , till it might fall to the Court 
of Rome to give , and fo mould be placed more of the Pope's Clien- 
tele in the Churches of France , than of the proper Inhabitants of the 

3. By this means they affirmed, that all they in the Court of <?/<, 
(hould be richer and receive more for their proportion, than the King 
of the Realm : by means whereof the Court of Rome would delay 
and drive off great fuits, and would fcarce take any pains with fmall 
caufes. Thus would Juftice be turned afide, and poor fuitors (hould 
dye at the gates cf Rome : and for the better fpeeding of their caufes, 
they thought, feeing it was meet they (hould have friends in the Court 
of Rome, by keeping them needy, their gifts might be the fweeter, 
and their caufes fooner difpatched. 

4. Seeing it is impoffible that the Fouutain of greedy defires 
(hould be flopped , it was to be feared , that either they would 
do that by others , which they were wont to do by them* 
felves , or elfe they mould be enforced to give greater rewards 
than before, for foiall gifts with great Rich Men are little 

5. Whereas the removing away the (lander was alledged which go- 
cth on the Court of Rome i by this means rather the contrary were 
to be feared, wherein that fentence was aliedged. 

P 2 

cent. 13. 

gubd virtus red Jit nan copia 

Et Honpatfpertas, fed menti* hiatus egentem. 

'That great riches flop not the taking of much, but a mind contented 
n>itfi a little. 

6. They added, that great riches would caufe fadions among the 
<<*/,. and taking of fides and parties, fo that by great pofleffions fe- 
dition might follow to the ruine of the City. 

7. That though they would oblige themfelves to that contributi- 
on, yet- their fo bound, nor yet ratifie that 
bond'of theiis. 

8. They defired the Legat, that the zeal of the Univerfal Church, 
and of the Church of Rome would move him : for if this oppreflion 
of the Church (hould be Univerfal, it were to be doubted , left an UnK 
verfal departing might follow from the Church of Rome, which God 
forbid ffaid they) (hould happen. 

The Legat hereat excufed himfelf, that he being in the Court never 
agreed to thisexadion > and that the Letters came not to him before 
he was in France^ and as for him foe would ftir no more- in the mat- 
ter, before it were proved what other Countries would fay and do 

Ring Le rves pafling with a great Hoft by Eourger and Nhw/ 5 march- 
ed to Lyons; and from Lyons to Avignon^ which for difobedience to the 
Church of Rome hadftood accurfed by the Pope for feven years; 
The Citizens of Avignon , (hut their gates againft the King and his 
Army, not furTering them to come within the City. Wherefore the 
Ring a jt; au ] te a the City, and loft there many of his Men, among which 
Guy Earl of St, P*/, and the Bi(hopof Lcmeric^ and others to the 
number of two and twenty thoufand there were flain. In the end 
they fuhmitting to the King's pleafure, and the correction of the 
Pope, an agreement was made i and the King and his Army were 
received'into the City, and the Citizens received abfolution from the 
Pope's Legate. 

King Lewes to avoid the peftilence that was in his Camp, went into 
an Abbey not far off, where fhortly after, he dyed, and was carried to 
JR<*m, where he was interred, Anno 1226. 

Near unto this time , Gulielmw de Aha. Petra , Bifliop of P^rff, 
wrote a Book de Clero, wherein he thus fpeakerh of the Clergy of his 
time. No god linefs or -Learning is feen in them, but rather all devilifh 
filthinefs, and monftrous vices i they are not the Church, but Babylon < 
and Ey/*, and Sodom : the Popifh Prelats build not the Church but 
deftroyif, they.mockGod, and they and their Priefts do prophane 
** the. 

Cent, i $. Of F R A N C E. 109 

the body of Chrift > they lift up to the Heavens with all manner of 
Ecclefiaftical honour the limbs of the Devil: in a word i they bring 
Lucifer into the Church of Chrift. He taught alfo that there is no 
Law belonging to the falvation of man, buttheGofpelof Chrifb 

King Lewes Ix. Galled St. Lewes ^ fucceedeth his Father in the King<- 
dom of France, being but twelve years old, and was Crowned at 

There is extant a coeiftitution of this King Lewes, bearing date, Ann& 
1228, jul>. lit. de'falM, wherein he regrateth the Avarice of Pope?, 
faying, that cxadHons, and grievous burthens of Moneys are laid on 
the Churches of our Kingdorus by the Court of Rome , whereby the 
Kingdom is miferably exhauftcd. We will therefore , that thefe be 
levied upon no condition, nor gathered, except only for a reafonable, 
pious , and moft urgent neceflity , and by our exprefs and willing 
confent , and with the conf<?nt of the Church it felf of our 

At that time the Senate of P*w, did prefent unto John Santromav, 
the King's Advocate, the Pope's Bull to be read and anfwered. He 
icplyed, faying, The greateft oonfufion of all things would arife upon 
the acceptingof that Bull: for by authority of fuch in former times; 
the French people had in great numbers gone out of the Kingdom to 
Row?, of whom fome became flaves or clients to the Cardinals j and 
fome living more liberally, had idly wafted their Patrimony: and o- 
thers in the City, or by the way had periled with the badnefs of the 
Air, and frequent peftilence: and fo Franc? was exhaufted of Sub- 
jefts, efpecially of Learned men. He (heweth alfo, how vaft fums of 
Moneys were carried away for vacancies, ad Ad vouzons of Btfhopricks 
and Abbeys, and other Titles in the Churchy fo that fometimes ten ct 
twelve Bulls were fold for one Piiefthood. And if this cuftom (hall 
continue (faith he) it (hall come to pafs,. that who hath any ftore of 
Moneys, will fend to Row*, and buy a Priefthood unto his Son or 
Coufin. The Re&orof the Univerfity of Parit^ fpake to the fams> 
purpofe > and having protefted at length againft the Bull, he appeakth > 
from the iniquity thereof to the next CounciL 

The Pope's Legate having raifed an immenfe fam of Money in 
Trance^ Lewes prohibited that tlie Money ( which was yet in Frame) 
mould be delivered to the Pope's Afligns, or traufported out of the 

King John Ere refigneth the Kingdom of Jemfalem to Fre derk\ , 
thefecond Emperour. There was alfo a Peace with the Turkj con- 
cluded for eight years. 

John got now more in a twelve- month than in feven- years before, P. ' 
going from Country to Country. In France^ befides rich gifts left phiu 2> 
so himfelfjhe had the managing, of toy thoufand Cjowns, the^ Le- 


gacy which Philip Attgttftus the King on his Death- bed bequeathed to 

the Templars, and the Holy War. In 'Eatfand he received many pre- 

fents from King HexryllL though afterward he proved but unthank- 

Math. Paris, p. ful for them. In SpJ i he got a rich Wife, marrying Berijjgari* , the 

^7. Daughter of the King of Cajtile : In Italy he tafted largely of the 

Pope's bounty v but at]aft perfidicu%:iaifed rebellions againft Frf</f- 

r/c, his Son-in-Law,by the Pope's inftigation. It is conceived that 

the Pope provided that match for Frederick^ to employ him inPaleftint, 

whilft he at home might play his game at pleafure. 

Frederick^ recovereth all Palejiineznd Jerufalem without expence of 
time or blood : and concluded a ten years truce with the Sultan with- 
out the Pope's confent. And on Eajier-dzy tryumphantly entring 
Jerufalem crowned himfelf King with his own hands. For Gerard 
Patriarch of Jerufalem^ and Oliver Matter of the letnplarf , with all 
the Clergy abfented themfelves : neither was there any Mafs fung in 
the City, fo long as the Emperour being excommunicated remained 
there. In the Interim, the Chriftians every where build and repair 
the Cities of Paleftine , being now refigned into their hands: Jopp* 
and Nazareth they ftrongly fortified i the Walls of Jerufalem were 
repaired, the Churches adorned. But (hort were the fmiles of this 
City, which groaning under God's old curfe , little joyed her felf in 
this her new bravery. 

About the year 1132. the Greely recover their Empire from the 
Latines^ who had made an hard fhift to hold Coxjiaxtinoplf almoft fixty 
years under rive fucceeding Empcrours. i. Balda>it\\e firft, Earl of 
flattders. 2. Henry his Brother. 3. Peter, Count of Attxerre in 
France, Henry's Son- in- Law. 4, Robert. *. Baldwin the fifth and 

At this time the Tartarian* over-rim the North of djia, and many 
Nations fled from their own Countries for fear of them. Among 
other, the Corafmfs, a fierce and Warlike people, were forced to for- 
fake their Land. 

Being thus unkennelled, they have recourfe to the Sultan of Baby. 
Ion, who beftows on them all the Lands the Chriftians held in Paleflie. 
They march to Jerufalem, and take it without refinance. Soon after 
the Corafwes elated herewith, fell out with the Suit a n himfelf , who in 
anger rooted out their Nation, fo thatnone remained. 

The French-men make War againft Jx.<?>w7/^,Earl of Iholottfa and 
think to enclofe him in his Gallic of Saracene: but the Earl lying in 
A mbum for them in Woods, flew many of them, and 500 ot the 
French Souldiers were taken i and of their Servitors to the number 
of 2co men in armour were taken , or whom foine loft their eyes, 
fome their ears, fome their tegs, and fo were fent hctr.c : the reft were 
carried away Pijfoncrs into the Caftle. Thrice that Summer were 


Gent, 1 3. Of FRANCE. in 

the French-men difcosnfited by the aforefaid Reymunel. 

King 2>v.rputsa flop to the persecution of the Albigenfes, faying, 
that they muft perfwade them by reafon, and not conftrain them by 
force, whereby many Families were preferved in thofe Provinces. 

In thofe times lived Gulidmw de fantto amore, a Doftor of Parti r 
and Chanon of "Beattvois^ exclaiming againft the abufes of the Church- 
of Rome. He wrote againft the Fryars and their hypocrifie, but efpe- 
cially againft the begging Fryars, 

In his days there was a moft deteftable and blafphemous book fet 
forth by the Fryars, which they called , Evangelium JEternttm^ or E- 
oangelium fpiriths fanfti \ Ibe EverlaitingGoffel, or,1bf Gofpel of the- 
Holy Gbof. Wherein it is faid, That the Gofpel of Chrift Was not to 1 
be compared to it,nomore than darknefs to light, That the Gofpel 
of Chrift (hould be preached but fifty years, -and then this everlafting 
Gofpel (hould ruk the Church. 

He mightily impugned this peftiferous Book. He was by the Pope Fox Aa 
condemned for an Heretick, exiled, and his Books were burnt. His Monum. 
ftory and Arguments may be read in Mr. Faxhis firft Volumn. Pope 
Alexander armed Ib&ntM Aqulms^ and 'BenAventitre ( men of violent 
fpirits) againft him, but he was too hard forthefe reprovers : his fol- 
lowers were called Amor#i. 

Pope Gregory fucceedeth Innocent, and is a great Enemy to Frederic!^ 
theEmperour, who had entred Italy with a great Army. After his 
Eledrton he fends his Nuncio intoFr^w, to exhort Lewes to fuccour 
him. The Pope comes into France, and calls a Council at Lyons^ 
whither he cites Frederick^ ^ but yet upon fo mort a warning as he-. 
could not appear. Frederick^ (having fent his AmbafTadours to re- 
quire a lawful time, and to advertifethe Pope of his coming^) begins' 
his Journey to perform his promife. Being arrived at T^b^rin , he 
hath intelligence given him, that the Pope had condemned him as ; 
Contnma'x, excommunicated him, and degraded him' of the Empire.- 
But this was not without the confent of the Princes Electors of the; 
Empire, who after mature deliberation proceeded to anew Eledion.- 
Thcy chufeHipwy Landgrave of 'fhuring for.Emperour > but he befie- 
gingeheCkyof'^/wpj-, was-wounded with an Arrow whereof he: 
dyed Qiortly after. 

Fm&T/c writes toiheFrencb King,againft thefentence againft him-, 
at Lyons. 

Then the Electors chofe flfilliam, Earl of Holland for Empejour^ 
In all the chief Cities, theGttetptfs Faction was the ftronger, .through 
the Authority of the Council of Lyons. Frederic^ with- 
giief, dycth, leaving Italy and Germany in great combuftion. 

The'Pope having Canonized Edntond Arch-Bi(hop of Ctnterbury, 
foon after .Blanv, Queen Regent ofFHWcrj came, into England to 

5Cl)e CCCltftafttCal . $1&0?? Cent. 13. 

worfliip that Saint, reprefenting to him, that he had found refuge for 
his Exile in France^ and befeeching him not to be ungrateful. She 
faid, my Lord, moft Holy Father, confirm the Kingdom of Franc f 
in a peaceable folidity, and remember what we have done to tbee. 

Now Lewes IX. came to affift the Chriftians in Paleftine. His no- 
hility difwaded from that defign. Lewes takes up the Crofs, and 
voweth to eat no Bread, until he was recognized with the Pilgrim's 
Badge. Their went along with him, his two Brothers, Charles Earl 
of Anjou, Robert Earl of. Artois , his own Queen, and their Ladies, 
Odo the Pope's Legat, Hugh Duke of Burgundy, WilliamEzr] of Flan* 
ders, Hugh Earl of St. P<*/, and William Longspatb Earl of Sar'wbury^ 
with a band of valiant Englifi-men, 

The Pope gave to this King Lewes for his charges, the tenth of the 
Clergy's re venues through France for three years , and the King em- 
ployed the Pope's Collectors to gather it j whereupon the Eftates of 
the Clergy were (haven as bare as their crowns ; and a poor Prie(t,who 
had but twenty (hillings annual penfion, was forced to pay .two yearly 
to the King. Having at Lyons took hisleavt of the Pope, and a blef- 
Cng from him, he marched toward Avignon* Where fome of the city 
wronged his Souldiers, efpecially with foul Language. 

His Nobles delired him to befiege the city , the rather , becaufe it 
was fufpe&ed, that therein his Father was poifoncd. To whom Levees 
moft chriftianly faid, I come not out of France to revenge mine own 
quarrels, or thofe of my Father, or Mother, but injuries offered to Je- 
fusChrift. Hence he went without delay to his Navy, and fo com- 
mitted himfclf to the Sea. 

Levees arrives in Cyprus > where the peftilence raging , two hundred 
and forty Gentlemen of note dyed of the infection. Hither came the 
AmbafTadours from a great Tartarian prince , invited by the fame of 
King Levee s his piety, profefiing to him, that he had renounced his Pa 
ganifm, and embraced Chriftianity, and that he intended to fend Mef- 
(engcrs to the Pope to be further inftru&ed in his Religion: but fome 
Chriftians which were in Tartary difwaded him from going to Rome. 
King Lewes received thefe AmbalTadours cuurteoufly, difmifling them 
with .bounteous gifts. And by them he fent to their Matter a Tent, 
wherein the Hiftory of the Bible was as richly, as curioufly depicted in 
Needle- work, hoping thus to catch his Eyes, and both in his prefenti 
pictures then being accounted Lay-mens books. 

The French land in Egypt , and Vamiata is taken by them. Difcords 
grew bet ween the Fr^c^and Engli(h, the caufe was, for that the Earl 
of Sarisbury in facking a Fort got more fpoil therein than the Englifh. 
Then dyed Meladine, the Egyptian King. Robert Earl o(Artois, Bro- 
ther to King Levees^ righting with the Egyptians, contrary to the 
Counfel of the T.C mplars } is overthrown. In his flight he cryed to 


Cent. ij. Of FRANCE. 113 


the Earl of Saritbnry^ flee, flee, for God fighteth againft us. To whom 
our Earl, God forbid my Father's Son fhould flee from the face of a 
Saracen. The other feeding to fave himfelf by the fwiftnefs of his 
Horfe, and eroding the River was drowned. The Earl of Sariibury 
flew many a 7W^, arid though unhorfed and wounded in his Legs, 
flood on his Honour, when he could not fland on his Feet i and refu- 
fingall quarter, upon his knees laid about him like a defperate man. 
He fought till at laft he breathed forth his Soul in the mid ft of his E- 
nemies. Of all the Chriftians there efcaped no more than two 'tem- 
plars, one Hofpitaller, and one common Souldier , the Meflengers of 
this heavy news. The Plague fwept away many thoufands of the French ; 
daily. Mean time King Lewes lent many of the weakeft of the peo- 
ple down the River to Damiata, Melechfala King of Egypt ^ meeting 
them by the way, either burned or drowned them all , fave one Eng- 
Itjh-man^ Alexander Giffard (whofe antient Family flourifheth to this 
day at Cbcllington in Staferd-fhice) who wounded in hve places of his 
body, efcaped to the French , and reported what had happened to the 
reft. Melecbfala came upon the reft with an infinite multitude, and 
put them all ("being few and feeble J to the Sword, taking King Lewet ( 
with his two Brethren, Alpkonfe and Charles prifoners. Then was 
there a general Lamentation over all Chriftendom , chiefly in France, 
where all were forrowful. ; 

Melechfala is ilain by 'fargwminuf, a fturdy Mattwtaittkf , who fuc- 
ceeded him in the Egyptian Kingdom. Leaves at laft was reftored to 
his Liberty upon condition, that the Chrifrians (hould furrender Ua- 
miata, and healfo pay back to the Turkj many thoufand pounds, both 
for ranfom of Chriftian Captives, and in fatisfa&ion of the vaftatipns 
they had committed in Egypt. 

Lewes for the fecurity of this Money pawned to the TurJ^, the 
Pyx and Hoft Cthat is the body of Chrift Tranfubftantiated in the Eu- 
charift; as his chicfeft Jewel , which he (hould be moft careful to re- pu. srw Hifc 
deem. Hence in perpetual memory of this conqueft, we may fee a in Ludt ' 
Wafer- cake and a box, always wrought in the borders of that Tape- 
dry which is brought out of Egypt. 

Hence Leaves failed to Ttolema'u^ being forfaken of the Pope,Fricnds, 
Subjects, Brothers. Alpbonfe and Charles, though fent into France to 
(blicite his fuit, and to advance his ranfom withfpeed, yet being arri- 
ved forgot the affliction of Jofepb. Blanch, the King's Mother, ha- 
ving gathered a considerable fum of money, and (hipped it for Palejiine, 
a Tempeft in a moment caft that away, which her care and thrift was 
many months in getting. His Queen Margaret was with him, which 
foanewhat mitigated' his grief. Here the bore him a child , which be- 
caufe another "Benoni, or (on of forrow, was called T'riftram. 

King Lewet being an excellent Antiquary, and Critick on facred 


Monuments, much employed himfelf in redeeming of old facred pla- 
ces from the tyranny of Time and Oblivion. 

Mean- time, in his Kingdom of France., hapned this ftrange accident. 
An Hungarian Peafant, who is faid to bean Apoftate to Mahomet^ and 
well learned, gathered together many thoufands of people v pretending 
they had intelligence from Heaven to march to the Holy Land. Thefe 
took on them the name and habit of Paparetii, poor Shepherds, in i- 
mitation be like, of thofe in the Gofpel, who were warned by Angels 
in a Vifion to go to Bethlehem. 

Being to (hape their courfe into Paleftine , they went into France. 
. cent. They pillaged and killed the poor Jews as they went. But at laft 
j.cai'tf.coi. r ear 'Bardemtx ilxty thoufand of them were (lain, and the reft difper- 
fed. A Rhimer of that Age made this Epitaph on them. 

M. femel, & bi*C. L. I. Conjttngere difce^ 
t)ttxit Pajforum fxva Megtra Chorum. 

Learn to pttt together 

What MC C L 1. do fpeV. 
When fome Dei'ilty Fiend in France, 

Did teach the Shepherds how to dance. 

Anno 1254. Lewes returneth into France^ being loaden with Debts- 
to his !*//'* Creditors. He made an ordinance for the banifliment 
of common Whores out of all Cities and Towns, to be done by his 
Judges and Officers, and their goods to be feized by them. 

After fourteen years Interregnum Pope Vrban IV. appointed Charles. 
Duke of An]n, younger Brother to King Lewes of France > King of 
Sicily and Je mfalem. Charles fubdued Mattfrid , and Conradin his 
Nephew, and poffefled Sicily, but for the gaining of Jerufalem, he ne- 
ver regarded it, nor came thither at all. Hugh King of Cyprus 9 was 
crowned King of Jernfalem. 

In the Year 1253. was great contention between the Matters of 
SorboH in Paris, and the preaching Fryars , who were fo increafed in 
number and honour, becoming the Confefforsand counfellors of Kingv 
that they would not be- fubje<ft unto the former Laws and Cuitoms. 
The School-men convened, and were 'content to want fomewhat of 
their weekly portion to fatif fie the Court of Rome , from which the 
Fryars had obtained their priviledges. 

-About this time or a little before, arofe a ftrife between the gray 
Fryars, and Prelates, and Dolors of Paris } about nine corclufion% 
condemned of the Pielates to be erroneous. 

Gent. 13. Of FRANCE. 115 

1. Concerning the divine offence , that it cannot be feen of the 
Angels or men glorified. 

2. Concerning the Eflence of the Holy Ghoft. 

5. Touching the proceeding of the Holy Ghoft, as he is love. 

4. Whether men gloritied (hall be in cosh ewpyreo : or , in. cxh 

5. That the evil Angel at his firft Creation was evil, andt u never 

6. That there have been many verities from the beginning , which 
were not of God. 

7. That an Angel in one infiant may be in divers places. . 

8. That the evil Angel never had whereby he might ftand i no 
more had Adam in his ftate of Innocence. 

9. That he which hath more perfect ftrength of nature working in 
him, (hall have more full meafure of neceflity to obtain Grace and 
Glory. To which Articles the Prelates anfwering, did excommuni- 
cate the fame as erroneous. 

The Abbot of St. Denis having extorted great fums of Money 
out of his Abbey, to prefent unto the Pope as others did, in hopes Math. Paris. 
one day to be made an Arch-Bi(hop, King Lervcs , as Patron of 
that Abbey , compelled him to re-pay the faid fum out of his 
own purfe. 

whilft this King was gone to the Holy War, the Nobles of France, 
finding themfelves vexed by the Pope, made a league, and fet forth 
a Declaration, againft him, where they fay (among other things ) that 
the Clergy (pointing at the Pope) fwallow up and fruftrate the ju- 
rifdidion of Secular princes , fo as by their Laws , the children of 
Haves, pafs judgement upon Free-men and their children , whereas by 
thefecular Laws of our Kings and Princes, they ought rather to be 
judged by us. 

Another piece of their Declaration runs in this manner. All we, 
the prime Men of the Kingdom, perceiving out of our deep judge- Matfi.Paris H;& 
menti That the Kingdom was not got by Law written, nor by the iS, w c 7 ft,ii.?. 
Ambition of Clergy-men, but by the fweat of War, do Enaft and 
Ordain by this prefent Decree, and by joynt Oath, that no Cicrk nor 
Lay-man (hall fue one another before the Ordinary, or Ecclefiaftical 
Judge, unlefs it be in cafe of Herefie, Marriages, and Ufury, upon pain 
of confifcating all their goods, and the lofs of a limb to the tranf- 
greffbrs thereof-, for which, certain Executioners (hall be appointed, 
that fo our jurisdiction being refufcitated may revive again : and 
thofe who have enriched themfelves by our poverty Camong whom 
God for their pride hath raifed up prophane contentions ) may be redu- 
ced to the State of the primitive t hurch , and living in contempla- 


1 16 23)e ecrteftaftfcai $ifto# Cent. ij. 

tion may (hew us thofe miracles, which are fled out of the World 
long ago i and we in the mean time lead an active life as it is fitting. 
TheHiftorian adds, the Pope having heard thefe things, tighed with a 
troubled mind, and defiring to appeafe their hearts , and break their 
courage, after he had admonifhed them, he frighted them with threats 
but he did no good for all that. 

Tho. Fullers ho- The Chriftians were now plagued with Bendocdar^ the Mammalttke 
ly War, i. 4. p r j nce m Epypt^ who fucceeded Melechem^ and every where raging a- 
gainft them, either killed or forced them to forfwear their Religion. 
The City of Joppa he took, and burnt, and then won Antiocb, flaying 
therein twenty thoufand, and carrying away captive an hundred 
thoufand Chriftians. Thefe woful tidings brought into Europe^ 
fo wrought on the good difpofition of Lewes King of France, 
that he refolved to make a fecond Voyage into Yale(line to fuccour the 

And to that end heprovideth his Navy , and is accompanied with 
Philip and Trijiram his Sons , Theobald King of Navarr , his Son-in- 
Law, Alpbonfe his Brother, and Guido Earl of Flanders : there went 
alfo Edward, eldeft Son to Henry \\\. King of England. 

Lewes having now hoifed up fail, it was concluded , that to fecure 
and clear the Chriftians paffage to Palejlive from Pirates , they (hould 
firft take the City of Carthage in Africa by the way. 

This Carthage long wreftled with Rome for the Soveraignty , till 
Sciph crufhed out her bowels with one deadly fall. Yet long after 
the City ftood, before utterly demolilhed : at laft by the counfel of 
Catoit was quite deftroyed, it being within a days Sail from Kotne. 
Out of the mines of this famous City, Tttnis arofe, which was not then 
confiderablc in bignefs, great only in mifchief, being feated betwixt 
Europe i Aa, and Africa , and fo became a worfe annoyance to 
Chrittian Traffick , than a whole Countrey of Saracens elfe^ 

Thefiege of Tunis being begun, the Plague feized on -the Chriftian 
HU^a?'^?^ 1 Army, whereof thoufandsdyed,among others Tr//?rj/, King Lewes 
ea,3*. parl ' his Son: and he himfelf of a Flux followed after. Many good Laws 
he made for his Kingdom : that not the worft , He fir ft retrenched 
his Barons power to fuifer parties to try their Titles to Land by duels. 
He feverely puni(hed Blafphemers, fearing their Lips with an hot Iron, 
And bccaufe by his command it was executed upon a rich Citizen of 
Taris^ fome faid he was a Tyrant. He hearing it, faid before many, I 
would, to God that with fearing my own Lips^ I could banijh out of my 
Realm all abufes of Oaths. He loved more to hear Sermons than to 
be at Mafs, yet was he fomewhat fuperftitious , as appeareth by fome 

For. about the yea* 12 40t "Bddwn keeping by force the. Empire of 

13. Of FRANCE. 117 

CoHJlantinople, which the Trench, and other pilgrims of tyri* had fur- 
prized, and held it by right of conveniency, being in great want of 
Money, writ to King Levees IX. that the Holy Crown of Thorns of 
our Saviour was found, and if he would help him with a fum of 
Money, he would fend it to him. This King being of eafie belief trea- 
ted with the faid Emperour for a great fum of Money, and bought 
that crown, which was put in the holy Chappel of Paris with great 

Shortly after theVenetians having bought a piece of the true crofs 
(as they faidjfor two thoufand and five hundred pounds, fold it again 
to the fame King Lewes for double the price. The King himfelf car- 
ried it bare- headed and bare- foot to our Lady of Paris: and the Pope 
gave to it fourty days of pardon. 

His body was carried into France there to be buried , and was mod 
miferably toiTed. He was Sainted after his Death by Pope Boniface 
VIII, and the 25^. day of Auguft (on which day in his firft Voy- 
age to Palelline he went on Shipboard) is confecrated to his Me- 
mory. Tunis was furrendred on conditions i the French return 
home , whilft Prince Edward valiantly fetteth forward for Ptf- 

Philip the third, called the bold, or the Hardy, fucceedeth to the 
Kingdom of France. At the return of Philip, Queen Jfabel his Wife Annoia7i- 
dies in Sicily. And his Unckle Alpbonfe with his Wife the Countefs 
of Tfholoufe^ dye foon after at Bologne, without any children , fo as ac- 
cording to the contract of the Marriage , the Earldom of Iholoufa 
(hould be incorporate to the Crown. ^ 

Richard Son to Henry King of Evgland, is traiteroufly flain by Guy 
of Montfort^ the Son ot Simon (of whom we havefpokqp) walking in 
St. Laurences Church at Viterbo^ a City of the Pope's. 

Pope Clement \V. (\xnnin-Langtttdoc) being dead, the Cardinals dif- 
agree about the Election of a new Pope, and continued in this conten- 
tion two years, nine months, and one day, as Platina reporteth. 

Thecaufesof fo long a diflention are variouity reported by feveral 
Hiftoriographers. But the chief were as foHoif . 

The tiril and moft forcible of all, was the contrariety in the Na- 
tures of the Cardinals which woreprefent at the Election at Viterbv^ 
who were eighteen in number i all obftinate and untractable, and 
had ftvorn each of them never to yeild to his companion in -the^ 

All of them believed themfelves worthy of the Papacy , and every 
one negotiated for himfelf, without fpeaking a word-of other preten- 
ders, fo that it was not poifible among eighteen feveral competitors, to 
come to any refolution. But that impediment being removed, in 
which. the Cardinals continued obftiaate for above ten Months, there 


atofe another which lafted a{x>ve a year, and was the fecond occafion 
<>f the tedioufncfs of the Election, and that is, that the Cardinals 
were divided into two Factions, one of them Italians the other French. 
Thefe wouk* Have a Pope of their own Natio* , and the Ltaliant 
.would have him of theirs > neither of ttern complying with the o- 
ther, and the number of the French being equal tc the Italians , there 
being no way to gain the two thirds of their Votes, they remained 
divers weeks obftinate } and doing nothing but the heaping diflention 
-upon diflention. 

The other reafon was, that this delay growing tedious to the Prin- 
ces, and particular to Philip King of France , and Charles King of Si- 
ci/y, thefe two Princes refolved to come in p erfon to Viterbo, and foli- 
cite the Cardinals to expedite the creation of the Pope. Upon this 
occafion the Cardinals which were adherents to thefe two Crowns, 
having notice of their Refolutions, would do nothing till they were 
.arrived : who when they did come, ferved for nothing but to protract 
the election, though their defire was to haften it > each of them re- 
'Cominending different perfons. The Princes finding all their inter- 
"Ceffions ineffectual, returned as they came, leaving the whole bufinefs 
to the Cardinals. 

In the firft affembly after the Kings were departed, John Cardinaljof 
Porto, obferving the pertinacity of the Cardinals, whilft they were to- 
gether invocating the Holy Ghoft, cryed out publickly , and with a 
loud voice. My Lords ! let tts uncover the Roof of this Chamber, per- 
Jjaps the Holy Spirit will not come where we are thorow fo many Roofs. 
It would be neceffary t Jupe a Holy Ghofi for every one , feeing there 
is no two witt agree : T^bttloly Ghoft descended upon the Apoftles, becaufe 
they were met together rvith one mind: . but bow can we expect him that 
are fo firangely divided ? 

At length the Cardinals being weary of going up and -down to the 
places jof their Aflemblies, and doubting by their delay to bring in 
fome new fchifm into the Church, two thirds of the Cardinals agreed 
in the Election, of libaldo Vtfconte^ a Milanefe^ Arch-Deacon of Lodi^ 
who was called Gregory the tenth, not yet return'd from his Voyage 
into Afitj whither he wasfent by Innocent IV. upon whofe Election, 
Cardinal Giovanni del Porto made thefe Verfes. 

PapatUs muriKS tulit Archidiaconw unus, 
<jhtem Patrem Patrum fecit d/fcordia fratrwn, 

The Cardinals at odds, and out of hope, 
Arch-T>eacon Tibald was created Pope. 

Gregory endeavouring to make peace between the Gcnoanr, and 


Cent.!?. gf FRANCE. 

Venetians^ who had been at Wars one with . another for feveral. years 
together, went into France in the year 1 2^3. where he gave beginnirJg 
to the Council of Lyons; Philip King of France was prefect at that 
Council, with an infinite number of Noble and Learned perfons, -both 
French and JLnglijh. He called four Bifhops from Germany , fou from 
England, four from France, two from Spain: from S/cz/y:, from the 
Kingdom of the Church, Hungary, Dacia^ Eabemia, Poland, Sweden^ 
Norway and Scotland^ from each of thefe one. There were two Pa- Hift.of CB 
triarchs, fifteen Cardinals, five hundred Biftiops , and one thoufand. Sc< 
mitred Prelates, befides the King of France^ the Emperour of Greece^ 
and many other Princes. 


1. In this Council the firft propofition was fortheHoly War, and 
for it they decree, that a tenth part of all Benefices in Chriftendorfi- 
(the priviledged Churches not excepted) mould be paid for fix years. 
That all Penitentiaries, or Confeflbrs {hould urge offenders to afliit 
that holy bufinefs with their wealth and' riches: and that every Chrifti- 
an, without exception of Sex or Quality, (hould pay a penny yearly 
during that fpace, under pain of Excommunication. 

2. For remedying abufes in the Church, it was ordained, i. That 
no procurations to Bi(hops,rior Arch- Deacons mould be paid , unlefs H 
they do vifit the Churches in their own perfons. 2. No Church- man 
(hould poffefs more Benefices than one, and (hould refideatthe Church 
he retair.eth. 3. None of the Clergy (hall without the Pope's licenfe, 
anfwer the impofitions which (hall he laid upon them by any Prince or 
State. 4. The mendicant Fryars (hall be reduced to four Orders, the 
Minor ites^ Predicant /, Carnftlites, and Hermit escf St. Augu\\ine, who 
(hall continue in their prefent Eftate, until the Pope (hail otherwife. 
think good. 5. A prohibition was made, to admit or advife any new 
order, beiides thefe named. Here alfo was decreed the Union of the 
Greek and Latin Church, and the peace betwixt the Princes of ChrU 

But many of thefe Statutes in a fhort time turned into fmoak , pli** 
ralltks being of new difpenfed, with the claufe of nou objlante , whicft 
then hift came in ufe. The Orders of Fryars and Monks were reftored 
one by one. ICheCJftertiaHs redeemed their liberty, by payment of 
5occco Marks. 

The Bcrnardinet paid 600000 Crowns, and other Orders made: 
their compofitiori.. appeareth, that the Statutes which 
were enacled, were only deviied to raife fums of Money , and not of- 
any purpofe to redrefs their abufes. This Pope advanced the Ddminr* 
cans highly, even to the wearing of red hats. 

fa that .Council of JM/J Canons were jpade for. the manner of; 


i 20 3U)c Cccleftafticai $ffto# Cent. 1 3. 

ele&ing the Pope : for from Sylvetie r's time, unto this Gregory's Pope- 
dom, they were not ufed to be (hut up in a conclave ; but if they were 
ia Row?, the Electors met, either in tlfe Church of St. John Latera* t 
or of St. Prt*r, or in fome other place as occafion offered : if they 
were out of Rome, they met in the Cathedral of the place where they 
were, or in fome other Church more convenient. But the Electors 
!ft.ofcdlnals man Y times regarded not expedition in their Elections of the Pope, 
whilft they had liberty to command, to go and come as they thought 
fit, therefore the invention of the conclave by Gregory , was rationally 
thought very good and neceffary. 

There were like wife eftabliihed by the faid Gregory, feveral Laws 
and Orders for the conclave, which were afterwards by feveral Popes 
reduced into better form, till that in procefs of time they were redu- 
ced into that which I (hall infert in this place. 

The principal Larvt which are ufitally obferved in the 
Creation of the Pope. 

1. That the Election be made in a proper and convenient place, 
and ordinarily there where the laft Pope dyed. If that cannot com- 
modioufly be done, let it be made in that City, to whofe jurisdiction 
that place doth belong, provided it be not under interdiction : for in 
that cafe they are to chue another City in the fame Diocefs, or at leaft 
not far off, &c. 

2. That after the death of the Pope, there (lull be no difcourfe of 
the Election of a SuccefTour, till ten days be patt, in which time the 
abfent Cardinals are to be expededv and the"r.ine days obfequies for the 
deceafed Pope be celebrated with due refpeft, by all the Cardinals that 
are prefentin the place. 

3. That no abfent Cardinal (hall fend his Vote in any manner what- 
foever : by which it is intended, they (hall be deprived of their Voice 
as often as they are abfent from the Election. 

4. That the nine days ceremony for the death of the Pope being 
over, the Mafs T)ello Spirits fanto folemnly faid , and the prayer de 
eligendo Pontiftce recited, let all the Cardinals which are prefent in the 
palace, which (hall be called, the Conclave^ (which is to be in afecure 
place, clofe in all parts, and well guarded) be (hut in, with two or 
three fervants only, for their neceilities. Let it net be lawful for 
any to enter after the conclave is (hut up, nor for any to come forth, 
except in the cafe of infirmity. And if any be obliged to go in or 
out, let it be by confent of the whole Colledge. Nor is this conclave 
to have any Wall or partition , to diftinguifti one chamber from 
another : but let there be certain traverfes of Linnen or cloath, 
to divide their Lodgings, and they to be given to the Cardi- 

Cent. ij. Of FRANCE. 

nals by lot , to prevent all controverfies for place. 

5. That it be not only unlawful to Elect thofe that are abfent, but 
that it be not permitted to the Cardinals to chufe any but one 
out of their own Order, and of thofe that are prefent in the 

6. If the Election be made in Rome, the place, tke Gates and Doors 
of the conclave (hall be well guarded. The firft Guards are to be 
kept by the Souldiers of the Pope's ordinary guards. After them by 
the Barons of Rome, and the Ambafladours of Princes, who are all to 
be fworn in the conclave it felf before it be (hut up, That they will 
keep the faid guards faithfully and diligently and laft of all in the 
neareft places to the door of the conclave, by the Bifliops and Confer- 
vators of the City. If the Election be made out of Rotne^ the guard 
of the conclave is to be made by the Temporal Lords of that place, 
with the fame formality and Oath as in Rome. The Guards are to pre- 
rent any violence (hall be offered to the freedom of the Cardinals 
Votes > to obferve what provifions come in , that there be no Letters 
conveyed in them : and if any fuch be found, leathern be confign'd to 
the Marihal, to be kept till the conclave be finiflied. That they take 
care that the Cardinals be not incommoded , that they be all ready at 
their beck > and in cafe of delay, that they force them ftirft with 
entreaties, and afterwards with threats) to haften the Election. Thofe 
who are appointed to guard the conclave, are to preferve it from all 
violence and disturbance. 

7. That the Cardinals may not go out of the conclave , or ad- 
journ their Afferably to any other place for any perfon whatfoever, 
the Election being ended, then they may go forth \ if otherwife they 
(hould go out, let them be forced back again by the guards of the 

8. That thofe Cardinals who come after the conclave is (hut, and 
before the Election of the Pope, may enter and give their Voices 
as the reft. And that no Cardinal can upon any occafion or pretence 
whatfoever (although he be excommunicated ) avoid being prefent at 
the Election, and giving his vote. But all this is to be done by the 
eonfent of the whole Colledge , and not of the Governour of the 
conclave only. 

p. That three days being paft after their entrance into the conclave, 
if in that time the Pope be not chofen , the Prelates and Barons of 
Rome, and fuch others as are deputed guards to the conclave, may re- 
quire an account of the Cardinals tranfadtions within,and reftrain them 
of their variety of difhes, reducing and lefTening them by degrees, ao> 
cording as they find the Election delayed. 

10. That in the time of the Election, no perfon whatfoever, 
whether Secular or Ecclefiaftick, is to give, promife, or en- 

R treat, 

i ^z 3C|ie ectfeftafttcai ^tflo?p Cent. i$. 

tteat, thereby to encline the hearts of the Cardinals to their priva te 
defires, under pain of the Pope's Excommunication,^. 

n. That noperfon be declared or elected Pope, if he hath not 
firft two whole parts in three of the Voices of the Cardinals which 
are prefent in the conclave, which Votes are to be given in fecret, and 
after wards read publickly, that all perfons may take notice who is 

12. That after the death .ef the Pope all Magiftrates and Ecclefi- 
aftical Offices are te ceafe, except fuch as are in the perfons of the 
Cardinals, which are perpetual. Which Offices are to remain unexe- 
cuted > all but the Office of the chief Penitentiary , and the Cham* 

13. That there be a Governour of the conclave, thatiie be a wor- 
thy perfon, and of good qualifications > that he be chofen by the body 
of the Cardinals before they enter into the conclaves whofc Office rt 
(hal! be to give feafonable orders, that things may go within as they 
ought to do , and that the Cardinals may not want any thing con- 
venient.. "iio? 

14. That an Oath be given to the Cardinals, to keep fecret all the 
tranfa&ions and argumentations of the conclave, relating to the E- 
kdion i that it be not permitted to any body to bear Arms in fo fa- 
cred a place, nor to revenge any injury whatsoever, either with words 
or deeds, but that they bear all things patiently , and endeavour to a- 
void that mifchief. 

Thus Gregory being pleafed with the Introduction of this form into 
the conclave, difmiffed the Council of Lyons. Then he began his 
journey, in order to his journey into Italy: and refufing to pafs by 
Florence (left he mould be obliged to take off the interdiction ) he 
took his way towards Ares&zo^ in which place he arrived y fell fick 3 and 
dyed,/4o 1276. 

Afterwards when the Emperour Paleologufdyed, the Grecian Priefts 
would not that he mould be buried in any confecrated pVice , becaufe 
he had confenfed in the Council ef Lyont,tom Union of the Greek 
and Latin Churches. 

de We read in an ordinance made by King Thilip the thitdj Ams 1 274, 
a n rt that if one Lay-man fell unto another. Lay-man, the Tythes which he 
c a de hath bought of a Clerk, and there arife a fuk about the price, the 
Eifincs ait 9- cognifance thereof doth not belong ro the Ecclefiaftical Judge. And 
ft is one of thepriviledgesof the C-a- 'can Church, that the Pope 
cannot by any Prop's about Bone ttccs orothcrwife, derogate from, 
or prejudice Lay- foundations^ and the Rights of the' Lay*patrons of 
the Realm. 

There is alfo a decree of this fciiig P/^% dated Amo 1 274, which 


Cent. 13. Of FRANCE. 12} 

prohibits a BKhop the granting the feizure of the moveable goods of 
a certain Clerk, condemned in a perfonal A&ion , confidering that 
thofe Goods were not within his Epifcopal Jurifdi&ion. There is alfo 
a prohibition to Ecclefiaftical Judges to caufe any execution to be 
made of the immoveable goods of any Clerk condemn'd in a perfo- 
nal A&ion, becaufe the immoveable goods are out of his Epifcopal 
jurifcli&ion. According hereunto a certain Bilhop of Parti was decla- 
red not to be admitted into the Court, in apretenciure which he made 
of the power of arrefting certain Moneys belonging 10 a Clerk inhabi- 
ting in certain Lands, fubje& to the jurifdi&ion Royal , and he was 
caft for attempting it by an Arreft of Parif. 

Lewv-r , the eldelt Sonof King P&/7//> dyeth, with apparent figns of 
poyfon. Queen Mary , his Mother-in-Law, and Peter de la Broche 
Cchief Chamberlain to the King, and his Treafurer, being the Queens 
favourite) is accufed for this Fa& : and being imprifoned he confeffeth 
the crime, and accufeth the Queen, as having poifoned Lewes by her 
command. La troche alfo is found guilty of Treafon, by his Letters 
having given Intelligence to the King of Caftile of the Eftate of 
f 'ranee , being then no friend to the Crown: for which he was 

Mary denies the Fad by Oath. The King tor want of proof fends 
a Bi(hop and an Abbot to a Witch in Holland. They at their return 
abfolve the Queen by her report, but they free her not from the jealou> 
fie of the French, nor in the King's conceit. 

Thornx AquinM and Bonaventure , two learned School- men , dyed 
Anno 1274. Levee /, Bithop of T'holottfe , Son to Charles the fecond, 
King of Sicily, and Apttlia, dyed alfo. 

After the death of Pope Gregory X. the firft conclave was in Arexzo^ 
where the Pope dyed. The Guards lafted but one night : for the fame 
night the Cardinals entred, they agreed to chufe Pietro Farantapo (a 
Bttrgttndian and Dominican FryarJ Pope , who took upon him the 
name of Innocent V. Innocent was crown'd in Rome forty days after 
his Election. 

After the death of Innocent, which happened in the year 1276. fix 
months exactly after his Eledion, Alexander V. who fucceeded him, 
being created in Rome, with all the formalites of the conclave , revo- 
ked the order eftablKhed by Gregory, concerning the affairs of the con- 
clave, though in due form it had the approbation of a general Council. 
Divers other fucceed ing Popes were all created according to the order 
obferved before the time of Gregory X. 

King Philip the third dysth, having reigned fifteen years, and lived 
forty, of his tirft Wife Ifabel, he had Philip and Charles remaining. 
Thtlip, his eldeft Son was King of France after him. Charles was 
Earl of Valw^ pf Alanfon * and of Pe rche , Father to that Philip 

R 2 Of 

if^ who in his courfe (hall fuccced to the Crown; 
Fryar John of Paw, a DoSor in Divinity, of the Order of pre- 
dicants, wrote about the year 1280. 
joann. Paris in In his Tra<3 of the Royal and Papal power, he faith, I am of opini- 

i'& paa n * on > tnat trut ^ lt ^ hath mac * e a m *A* um nere namely , that it is 

ig& papa 

in pro. ' not utterly impoflible, that Clergy-men have Dominion and JurisdidH* 

on in Temporal matters i but yet it belongs not unto them by reafon 
of their profeflion, and as Chrift's Vicars, and the Apoftles fucceflbrs, 
but is convenient for them to have it by the grant and permiilion of 
Princes, if fo be they have beftowed it upon them out of devotion, or 
if they have got it by other means. And in the eighth Chapter he 
fets down this conclufion. 

"Whence it appears, that feeing Chrift as Man, had no power nor 
jurifdidrion in Temporal matters, the Prieft (" be what he will) hath 
not received any power over them from Chrift i inasmuch as he did 
not give unto them what he had not in himfelf. 

Philip the fair, now King of France was advifed by the Princes and 
French Barons, not to fuffer the Pope to make any Ordinances belong- 
* n 8 unto his Kingdom, without the Council of him and his, nor any 
egHfe new and unwonted thing to be brought in thither. So faith Mr. John 
caiiicane p- 5. du TiUet in his advice concerning the Liberties of the Gallican Church. 
And it is the very counfel which EttdtM Duke of 'Burgundy gave him, 
which is yet to be feen in the Treafury of Chartres. 

This King loved Juftice and Learning, wherein he was well irr- 
ftru&ed for that Age. His Wife Joan buildedin her name that good- 
ly Colledge of Navarr. 

Peter Moronezn Hermit, was chofen Pope , and affumed the name 
of Ccl((iine V. a Pope little praftifed in politick or Ecclefiaftick 

The Cardinals in fhort time (by reafon of the many errours that he 
fell into by his infuffictency for the Popedom) made feveral Inftances to 
him, that he would fpontaneoufly be pleafed to renounce the Papacy, 
and-not cxpofe the Church to fc many perils. 

Hereunto th^y were ftirred up by the inftigation of Benedetto Gaeta- 
no (who was afterwards 'Boniface VIII.J Who wasa Cardinal of great 
Learning and Experience, but fo extrearnly ambitious of the Papacy, 
that he left no Stone unturn'd tocompafs his defigns. And becaufe 
he faw he might eafily bring it about, if Celeftine would renounce, he 
perU-aded Celejline to reiign, laying it to him as a fcruple of confci- 
cncc, telling him, that at the day of Judgement it would be imputed 
to him, if any ill did happen to the Church. Gaetano like wife fuborn- 
ed ibme of Celejline's friends, to make an hole , correfponding with 
that pait of the chamber in wh ; ch the Pope's bed ftood , from whence 
they crycd all i ; ht long with a mod difmal voice , as if it had been 


Cent. 13. Of FRANCE. 135 

the Judgement of Heaven , Celeftine, Celeftine, lay down the Popedom 
for it is a charge too great for your abilities. Celeftine hereupon re- 
figneth the Papacy in the fixth Month after his creation, and returned 
to the Cell from whence he came. 

The fame day in which Celeftine renounced, the Cardinals without 
the form of the conclave, chofe the faid Gaetan with open Votes. He 
being dcchred Pope, and having affumed the name of Boniface VIII. 
began his Reign with fo much infolence and Tyranny, that in a (horc 
time he gain'd the Title of Nero II. 

A great Aflembly meet in the City of Gramont, Anno 1296. where 
^//>HheEmperour,E^a><WKingof England,^ Duke of Auftri*, 
John Duke of Brabant, tke Earl of Jaliers, and his Son i John Earl of 
Holland and Henaault, Robert Earl of Nevers , William , Henry , and 
Guy of Flanders , unanimoufly refolve to make War againft King, 
Philip. The colour was to maintain Guy Earl of Flanders , unjuftly 
afflicted by P&/%who had violently taken and ftoll'n away hfs Daugh 
ter, and detained her againft the right of Nations, refufing to reftore 
her to her Father, It was decreed, that Guy (hould begin by force,. 
and be well feconded by the Emperour, and the Englifi. 

But before they come to Arms, Pope Boniface, (hould make the firft 
point by the luftre of his Authority. This Pope commandeth Philip 
by his Nuncio to reftore to the Englijk and Flemmings what they de- 
manded, and for not obeying, he cites him to appear at Rome upon 
pain of Excommunication. Philip fends an honourable Embaf&ge 
to Rome, by the Arch-Bifhop of Rhemef, anji the Earl of St. Paul to 
lay open his right againft the Deputies of the King of England, ancf 
the Earl of Flanders, who were then at Rome to complain , as being- 

All parties being heard, Boniface decreeth , that Philip (hould 
yield unto Edward, and to Guy all they demanded both in Guienne 
and Flanders, charging the Arch-Bi(hop of Rhemes , to fignifie 
this Bull unto the King upon pain of Excommunication for not 

Philip being undaunted, prepares to defend himfelf, invades Fla 
ders and defeats the F lemmings fi'nah upon all F landers ^nd the Earl 
of Flanders is forfaken by his confederates. Gtty with his children 1 
and followers are imprifoned in fundry places in France under fure 1 
guards. Philip getting Flanders , and uniting it to the Crown of 
France. He comes to Gaunt , where he is received as their So- 
veraign , appointing James of Chaftillan Lord of Leufe , and' 
Conde , for Governour and Lieutenant- General , and fo returneth 
to Paris. 

The people of Flanders being oppreffed , revolt from Pbilip. All 
the Cities (Ganttl excepttd ) make an oflfcnlive and defenfive League 



againft Ring Philip , and for their Earl's delivery : At Bruges the 
French are flain by their Hofts. .The Nobility joyn with the 

Philip prepares an Army of 40000 Men, but even at his entry into 
JlAnders, returns again. His fuddea retreat incenfed this mutinous 
people more, and gave courage to their Commanders. Philip feeing 
hisErrour, raifeth another Army of 40000 men, and puts them 
under the command of Robert Earl of Artois , accompanied wkh 
the Conftable of France, and many other great Perfonages. 

Century XIV. 

THe Armies forementioned meet near unto the Town of Court- 
ray, in a place called Crooning. The French were defeated. 
Of this great Army there hardly efcaped three hundred: 
not one Commander efcaped , and very few Noble-men. 
There were taken Robert arl of Artoit , General of the Army , the 
Conftable of France , James of Chaflillon , Governour of Flanders, 
Job* King of Majorca, Godfrey of Brabant, and his Son the Lord of 
Viezon, the Earls of Eweja March, Damartin, Anmale,Attge, Tanfyr- 
//>,and many other great Perfonages. Twelve hundred Gentlemen 
were flain by this enraged Multitude. All Flanders now revolted 
from the French. This happened in the Year, 1302. on July n. 
John of N amour is their Governour in the abfence of their impri- 
foned Earl. 

All the threats of the King of England, and the Emperour now va- 
nifecd away: only Pope Boniface had. Excommunicated KingP&/7/p, 
and interdi&ed his Realm in the hotteft of thefe Flftnmifh arTairs,upon 
this occafion. 

TheChriftiansEftate was lamentable in the Eafi , the T'artarianf 
encreafed daily. The Pope, Anno 1301 fent Boniface Bilhop of Apa- 
mt a unto King Philip, requiring him to go into the Holy Land. When 
theBifhop faw no appearance of obedience, he threatned the King, 
that the Pope would deprive him of his Kingdom. 

Whereupon the Biihop being charged of Anogancy and Treafop, 


Cent. 14. Of FRANCE. 

and caft into Prifon, the Pope fends to him again one Pettr , a Roman 
born fArch Bilhop of Narbon) commanding him to let the Bifliop 
at liberty, and to take a Voyage againft the Infidels, and not to med- 
dle with the Tenths of the Clergy. P hit if> anfwered , his troubles at 
home hindred him from going into the^,and cetaftrained him to 
impofe a Subfidy upon the Clergy : and he Was willing to difmifs the 

The Arch- Bifhop replyed,thathe was ignorant of the Pope's As* 
thority, who was not only the Father of Chriftian Souls, but alfo So* 
veraign Lord in Temporal things. 

And therefore by that Authority he did excommunicate him , de- 
claring him unworthy to reign, and his Realm forfeited to the Pope, 
to invert whom he pleafed. 

Moreover, he brought another Bull directed to the Prelates aftdi NO- 
blemen of France^ whereby he acquitted all French-men , and difpen- 
fed with them as to their Oath of Allegiance to Philip. And cited aft 
the Prelates and Divines of the French Church to appear before him at 
S.owe,difanullingaU indulgences and priviledges granted to the Ytevdk 
by any Popes his pcedeceflburs. 

The Earl of Artois difdaining this affront, takes the Bull and cafts it 
into the fire. Philip was fo born out by the Peers of France, that 
when he demanded their ad vice, how he {hould demean himfelf, and 
whether he (hould put up that wrong i they anfwered, That they 
were ready not only to fpend their goods (which they there wholly 
offered unto him for thaf end,) but alfo to expofe their perfons evert 
to death for him, not refuting any torments. Adding further, and 
that more plainly by word of mouth, That if the King ( which God 
forbid 3 would fuffer it,or connive at it, yet for their parts they would 
never endure it. 

Mr. JohnliVet BUhop of Taw -(peaking of this Fad: in his French 
Chronicle, The impudence of C faith he of Boniface) wafe 
wonderful, who durft affirm, that the Realm of Frartce was a Benefice 
of the Papal Majefty. But I think them (faith hej) the greater fools 
who difpute the point, whether the Pope hath this power or no : he 
put our France under an Interdift for the time, bfut the Bifliops took, 
the King's part. 

King Philip appealed from the ufurpationsand infolencies of B0#*- 
f*ce.V}\\\ to the c Apoftolick then vacant '(as he faidj and to a fu- 
ture Council as , it fain his Life. The States of Frame difa- 

mulled B<wf//V: cxc< irmunication. Bomface'by a glofing Letter of ftc.8 
his written inno thcBi(hop5.endeavoureth ro make them approve his 
unjuft proceed ingsagainO i\ing Philip : where he faith among othefc 
things-, Thofcw-ho <K*iv* '-vat Temporal matters are not fubjed to 
%irkualj do not iijey ^abcuttomake two 'Princes^ He complains 


28 3E$e eccieftaftical $ifto?p Cent. 14. 

alfo of the Parliament holdcn at Paris, where it was ena&ed Cfaith he) 
by under- hand and begged voices, that none mould appear before him 
upon the fummons of the See Apoftolick ? 

Maft.Weftm. ? He complains alfo of the Report which was made to that Aflembly 
it a. fub. Aan. fey Mr. P^- F/<7e, whom he calleth Belial , half blind in body , and 
quite in uoderftanding. This was the man, who being fent in Embaf- 
fage to him by King Philip, to that faying of his , [we have both the 
on* power and the othfr~] made this reply in behalf of his Mafter^owrx 
is verbal, but ours is real. 

This Pope will have it neceiTary to falvation, to believe that all the 
-faithful people of Chrift are fubje& to the Pope of Rome : and that 
iie hath both the fwords, and that he judgeth all men, and is judged 
of none. This Boniface was the Authour of the fixth book of the 

King Philip fends back the Pope's two Nuncio's to Rome , and for- 
fcids the Prelates of France to g,or fend any Money to Rome. This 
-being done, Philip raifeth new forces, to return into Flanders, and fub- 
dueth the Flemmings, but by the inftance of John Duke of Brabant, he 
makes peace with them upon ftri& conditions. During this Treaty 
Guy Earl of Flanders, and his Daughter do both dye. Robert, Willi- 
am, and Guy, Brethren, the Sons of the Earl Guy of Flanders were 
freed with all the Prifoners. Ifabei the Daughter of Philip is married 
to Edward the fecond, King of England. 

This War of Flanders had wafted above thjee hundred thou- 
fand Frencb-men in eleven years, during the which it continued! 

Adalph was depofed from the Empire by a Decree of the Electors, 
and Albert of Aujiria was feated in his place , who purfuing him 
with War, flew him with his own hand in an encounter near unto 

Albert being chofen and inftalled Emperour , Boniface prefently 
ieeks to win him againft King Philip. He proclaims him Emperour, 
andinvefts him King of the Realm of France , giving him both the 
Title and Arms , and taking occafion to fow divifion in the 
heart of the Realm by means of the Clergy, who by reafon of their 
Revenues had great power in the State. He alfo wrote Letters to 
Philip in this manner. 

Boniface Bi(hop, Servant of the Servants of God., to Philip King of 
Trench-men. Fear God, and obferve his Comrnandmens. We Will 
tbee to ttnderfland, that thou art fub]eft unto its both in Spiritual things, 
and in Temporal i and that it be longeth not to Iheeto give any Prebend 
er Benefice. If thou haft the keeping of any of them being vacant , tboie 
mttft referve the profits of them to tbt Succejfours. If Ikou baft given 
* n y> we judge thy gift to be void, and do revoke, all. that bqh been done. 


Cent. 14. Of FRANCE. 

rvbofoevtr believeth other wife , ZPV 7^g' *^J Heretickj. Given 
at Lateran, the fourth of the Now/ of December, in the fixth year of 
our Popedom. 

Unto this Letter of the Pope, King Philip makes Anfwer 
in manner as followeth. 

Philip, by the Grace of God, King of France , to Boniface , calling 
him/elf the Soveraign Bifhsp , little or no health. Let thy foolijhnefc 
know, that in temporal things we are fubjeR to no Man , and that the 
Gifts of Prebends and Benefices made, and to be made by Vs , mere and 
{ball be good, both in time pop and to come : and that We will defend 
manfully the pojjeffbur of the faid Benefices, and We thinly them that be- 
Hfve or think^ otherwife, fools and mad-men. Given at Paw the Wed- 
nefday after Candlemas, Anno 1301. 

After thefe and other Writings had pafled to and fro , between the 
Trench King and the Pope, within a year and an half after , the King 
fummoneth a Parliament, fending down his Letters to his Sheriffs and 
other Officers, tofummon the Prelates and Barons of the Realm unto 
the faid Court of Parliament according to the Tenour of the King's 
Letters Patents. 

Then William Nagaretta, Knight and profeflbur of the Laws, made vid Fox 
a large Declaration and appeal againtt Pope Boni/ace VIII. at Paris be- Monum. Tom.i. 
fore the King and his Council. p>4+8> 

He taxeth Boniface to bean Intruder into the Papacy, that entring 
not in at the door, he is to be judged a Thief and a Robber. He de- 
clares him to be guilty of many Heretics, and to be an horrible Sirno*- 
niack. He chargeth him with curfing and b1afphemy,a blood-thirfty 
man,adeftroyerof the Churches, one that is very greedy after gold, 
and rooted in all fins, that he is the Abomination of Vefolation^ de- 
fcribed by Daniel the Prophet. 

Then he thus fpeaks to King Philip, I befeech yott,my Lord and King, 
that you would declare thus much to the Prelates , Doftors , People and 
Princes, your Brethren in Cbrift) and chiefly to the Cardinals and all Pre- 
lates, and call a Council. In the which, when the aforefaid Boniface vs 
condemned by the worthy Cardinals , the Church may be provided of A 
Pajlor. And I befeech and require the faid Cardinals by you , and Ire- 
quire them and the Church of God, that this voiced Man being put in 
prifon, the Church of Rome may be provided of a Vicar, which may mi- 
nifter thofe things that frail appertain, until the Church of God be pro- 
vided of a Bijhop, utterly to takg away all occapon of Scbifm. 

After this proteftation of Nagaretta^ immediately enfued the Ap- 

S peal 

30 3D&e eccieftafttcal ttfto?? cent. 1 4 . 

peal ef the King, pronounced and publiftied againft the faid Boniface. 
The manner and form is fet down at large by Mr. Fox, Aft & Monum. 
lorn. 1.^.449.450. This was done, Anno. 1303. 

Inditii one f>rima, June 13. on the 14^- day of the fame Month of 
June^ the aforefaid King Philip being prefent , and alfo the Lords, 
Arch-Bi(hops, Bithops, Abbots, Priors, and many witnefles .being pre- 
fent, William of Plefiano Knight, objected, propounded, affirmed, and 
read out of a certain paper which he held in his hand divers Articles 
againft Pope Eoniface^ to the number of thirty , charging him with 
denying the immortality of the Soul, with averting that whore- 
dom is no fin, charging him with Witch-craft, Simony , Sodomy, 
Murther, Oppreffion, Bribery, Adultery , -and many other deteftable 

Thefe things being thus read and done, King Philip anfwered, and 
his Appeal isasfolloweth. 

We Philip by the Grace of God^hearivg and undemanding the Objecri- 
QMS propounded by our beloved and faithful /C?i/^6/,W.o/Nagaretta<zg^/'/f 
Boniface, having now the Regiment of the Romifli Church , &c. We 
earneftly hefeech and require, in the Bowels ef Jejus Chriji^ you Arch-fti- 
fyops, and other Prelates here prefent , as Children of the Church' , and 
pillars of the Faith , that you would labour the calling and affemlling 
of tt Council^ in which We intend to be perf anally prefent, &C. 

Then the Arch- Bi(hops,Bi(hops, Abbots, and Priors, anfwered the 
pi cn-iiTcs. provoked and Appealed, &c. And made an Appellation, 
Agreement, and proteftation , as was contained in a certain paper, 
there openly and plainly read, in Tenour and Form folio wing. 

We Arch "Bifiops of Nicofen, Remen, Senorem. Narbon , 
of Landvircn,Be1naccn, Carolacen, Amitidote, Meldimen, Nurmcn, 
Cliartres, Orleans, Anjou, Cor.ltance, with many others. And rve Ab- 
bot? of Clugny, Proemorrflrator of the greater Mtotafiery of the Court 
ef St. Denis in France , St. Vi&or , 5^rGenovcue, St. Martin, &c., 
and Fryar Hugh, F//r/cr if the II ttfes of the Order of Knibts of St. John 
of Jerufalem in France, and the lather Trier cf St. Mai fir in thepeldt^ 
&c. Hearing tbcfe things which were faid^ propounded-, and , hj t acd yeft- 
erday. axdtoday by you- the Lords, Earh^ and \\ ii. ,i{r.\ftid , ag&injt. 
Pop-' Boniface VIII. frc. We anfeer you, our lord -.>,d you, 

our Lords, Earls, and William, thai (the Hmtur aud . *f the 

lloly Romifli Cburcb faked in al! points) we agree /,; yj;-r due Fequefi 
?* //?;'/ behalf for the calling of the Ccnncil^ and a >fi} to the 

callnig together ef the faid Council y according to tbfTecrcer rf'ibe Ho- 
ly Fathers, and to the lawful Orders ofil. ding by 


Cent. 14. Of FRANCE. 

any menus to make parties of tbit matter, not to Jlic^ to any that maketh 
parties. And left we (hould be kindred by Any means by the faid Boni- 
face, by "Excommunication, fufpenpon, interdiction, depofing 9 deprivation^ 
occ. And that we may fit in the fame Council to judge and do all other 
things that belong to the Office of Prelates j tbat We , our friends, our 
fubjefts^arifh'Cburches^&c. may remain fafe. We provokg , and Ap- 
peal in Writing to the afore faid Council that is to be gathered, and to him 
that foallbe the true and lawful higbeji Bijhop , and to him or them to 
whom of right we Jhould Appeal, and do earnestly require our Appellati- 
ons: committing us, our Parijh-Cburcbes, and them that flick,. to M > our 
ftate and theirs, &c. to the godly defense of the afore faid Council, and of 
him that Jhall be true and lawful bigbejl Bifhop. And we proteft to renew 
this Appellation , where , when , and before whom it frail be thought 

This was done at Parit, at Lupara, in the Chamber of the King, 
many Lords, and Earls, Knights and Clerks, and others being 

After thefe things thus in the Parliament decreed, and agreed the 
Prelates confulting with themfelves what to do in fo doubtful a mat- 
ter, and dreading the Pope's difpleafure for what was now done, to 
clear themfelves to the Pope, partly to ccrtitie him what was done, and 
partly alfo to admonifh him what he (hculd do, fent this enfuing Let- 
ter to him, thus directed. 

To their moft Holy Father, and deareft beloved Lord, Boniface, 
the chief BKhop of the Holy Romijb Church , and the Univerfal 
Church : his humble and devout Arch-Bifhops , Abbots, Priors, 
Conventuals , Deans, Provofts, Chapters, Covents, and Col- 
ledges, of the Cathedral and Collegiat Churches , Regular and 
Secular, of all the Realm of France, being gathered together, do 
offer moft devout kiffings of your blefTed Feet. 

We are compelled with f arrow to fignifie unto your Holinefs , tbat our 
tnoft dear Lord Philip by the Grace of God the noble King of France, when F 
vee faw the Letters fealed and fent to him of late on your behalf by the num. Tom. up. 
Cardinal of Nzibo, your Notary, and by him were presented to him, and 4 > >4 5 4 * 
certain others of his Barons, upon the perufing of theje bloody Letters^ 

being'read unto them fitting by him, both our Lord the King, and the 
Barons were highly incenfed. 'then the King commanded to be c tiled be- 
fore him the other Barons then abfent, and w alf& to appear perfonaHy, 
&c. Being all thus called, and come together, we flood before the King 
this Wednefday being the tenth of this prefent April , in St. Mary V 
Cbttrch in Paris. Ibere our Lord the King told us ^ that it WM fignified 

S 2 to 


to him ( among othe r things) by the aforefaid Cardinal and Letters, that 
for bu Kingdom (which be and bit Anceftors hitherto do acknowledge they 
bold of God only) now ought in 'temporal things to be fuhjeft unto you, 
and hold of you. 

And ye baie called to appear before you the Prelates and Clergy of the 
faid Realm, for the correQing of fuch ' wrongs 07 ye pretend to be done 
to Ecclefiaftical perfons, both Regular and Secular abiding within the 
Realm andelfewhere, &c. 

Te are charged alfo for referving, and wilful ordering of Arch -Bi" 
(hoprickj, Bijbopricks,andbsflowing of great Benefices of the Realm upon 
Strangers, whereby the decay of God's Worfoip hath enfued, the pious wills 
of the godly Founders, are defrauded of their godly pttrpofe , the poor of 
tb'x Realm are without their accuftomed Alms^ the Realm v impoverished, 
and the Church M in danger of Ruine , the Churches being unferved^ 
wbiljl the Prophets are ta^en away, the fruits of thofe that ferve them 
being given unto grangers. 

Alfo He complained of new 'taxes laid upon the Churches^ with utp- 
meafurable exactions, by which the general State of the Church vt chan- 
ged, &c. 

Tiber e fore he re quired us all, both Prelates and Barons to ordain whole- 
fame things, for the eafmg of the aforejaid grievances , and for redreflini 
the Realm and the French Church : and therefore we Jhould regard to be 
ready with counfel to help in feafon (as we are bound by the duty of fide- 
lity) in thefe things. 

Then the Barons having debated together on thefe matters , coming to 
ur Lord the King, and thanking him for his laudable purpofe 9 anfaered 
with one voice, that for thofe things they were not only ready to offer to 
fpend their goods, but al fo to yield their perfons unto death: adding, that 
if the King would fuffer thefe things, yet they would not. 

Ihen our anfwer being demanded, we faid , that we would not offend 
againft the liberty of the Realm, nor by any means innovate things con- 
trary to the King's honour in that behalf. 

We exhorted him to keep the bond of Unity, which hath continued until 
now, betwixt the Holy Romifh Church, and his predeceffours , but when 
we were told, that if any Man were of a contrary mind , from thenceforth 
Ixflould be manifeftly counted an Enemy of the King and the Realm } we 
anfwered, that we would help our Lord the King with due counfel and Aid, 
for the preferving of hit per/on, and of the Laws and Liberties of the 
faid Realm, like as we are (certain of us} by the duty of Allegiance 
bound to him, which hold of him Dukedoms , Earldoms, Baronies, Fees, 
&c. by the form of the Oath as all others do. let we requeued the King 
that feeingwe were bound to obey your Holinefs, he would fuffer us to go 
according to the Tsnour of your aforejaid calling. Then it was anfwered 
on the behalf of tbeKittg and Barons, that in m cafe they, would fuffer w 
to go ont of the Realm. 

Cent. 14. Of FRANCE. 133 

then we considering of fo great an anger, and trouble fo jeopardow: and 
olfo what things are attempted againft Churches and Church- men, to fpoil 
their Goods and Riches^ with jeopardy of ltf&> feeing that the Laity do now 
abhor the obedience of Clerkf^ and have takfn courage to condemn the EC- 
clefiajiical cenfitrc andprocefs^ Sec- V/e thought good in th'n point of great" 
eft neceflity to run with figbs and tears to the Wisdom of your Holinefs^ 
befeeching your fatherly mildnefs, that fame wholefome remedy may be 
provided in the premiffes, by which the found profitable agreement , and 
mutual love^ which hath continued fo long a time betwixt the Church , the 
King and the Realm,, may be maintained in that old fjyeet Concord , the 
State of the French Church may continue in godly and quiet peace , and 
that ye would vouchfafe toforefeehowtowithflandthe dangers and offen- 
ces aforefaid^tbat we and our States may be provided for by the afore- 
faid Commandement of your calling , by the jlttdy of your Apoftolical 
Wifdom^and fatherly Love, 'fbs Almighty preferve yottr Holinefl to 
bis Holy Church a long time. 

In the next year, viz. 1304. about the Nativity of our Lady, 
came a number of Hamefled Souldiers well appointed, fent partly 
by the Trench King, partly by the Cardinals of Columna f whom the 
Pope before had depofedj unto the Gates of Arvagium, or Anagni^ 
where the Pope had hid himfelf There Sciarra Colonna^ Brother to the 
aforefaid Cardinals, after many affronts done to his perfon and thofe 
that were about him, and the plundering him of all his Wealth and 
Riches,. carryed him to Rome, where at the end of 3 5 days he dyed of 
Anger,in the ninth year of his Pontificate : fo that Ibme took occation 
to fay, he entred like a Fox, governed like a Lyon., and dyed like a 
Dog, he dyed 0ffofr u. 

The Cardinals went into the conclave the 21 of the fame Month, 
and the next morning, they eleded the Cardinal d* Oftia , called Fra. 
Nicholas di Trevifo, of the order of the preachers, who took upon him 
the name of Benedict l\. but he dyed in Perttgia, in the eighth month 
of his Pontificate, in which City the whole Court being at that time, 
it was refolved a new Pope (hould be chofen: but they trifled away 
their time in difputes and clamours for two months. 

The reafon was, the Cardinals were divided into three factions: one 
ftuck clofe to Charles King of Naples^ who would have a Pope accor- 
ding to his way : another was for the principal Barons of Rome , and 
a third flood firm to the intereft of Philip King of France, who had 
fent no fmall fums of Money and other prefents to Cardinal Pietra 
Colonna^ to the end, that with James his Uncle,a Cardinal of the fame 
name, they might keep up the intereft of France. 

At length Cardinal P^r-corrupted fuch with his gold, as he knew 
were covetous of it; feeding them on with pxomifes befides, fo that 


ij 4 ffifre ecciefiattical foifto?? c e . 14. 

_. . . ; 

part of the Cardinals being faft in thofe Chains, and part of them in- 
titriidated with the threats of the Verugians now in Arms, Cardinal 
Colonna propofing the Bifhop of Ettrdeaax^ho was a great lover of 
the King of France, he was chofen by common confent, and a Courier 
fentporttohim (who was then at his Bifhoprick ) to know what 
name he would carry : he replyed, he would not change the name he 
was baptized with, which was Clement, and fo he was published accor- 
dingly to the people, and called Clement the fifth. 

After publication in the ufual place, the Cardinals difpatched feve- 
ral meflengersto the new Pope, to entreat him to hafkn his Journey 
into Italy. 

But the Pope being intruded by the King of Frame , made anfwer, 
that the Flock was to follow the Shepherd, and not the Shepherd the 
Flock, commanding the Cardinals immediately to repair to him 
in Frame, and particularly in the City of foifliers, as they alfo 

This Clemext was thefirft of feven French Popes , which held the 
See one after another, untoVrban VI. under whom the Italians recove- 
red it again with much trouble. Thefe feven Popes were Clement V. 
John XXII. Senedift XII. Clement VI. Innocent VI. Vrban V. 
Gregory XI. 

Clement V. being chofen Pope, he came to Lyons, where King Philip 
received him, accompanied with the Kings of England and Arragon 
in great pomp. 

The Pope was on Horfeback, and the King with his two Brethren 
on Foot, holding the Reigns of his Horfe. He was crowned in the 
Temple of St. Juftw, where they had built a great Theatre for fo 
goodly a fpedhcle. Buttheprefs of people was fo great , that the 
Scaffold brake , fo that the multitude fell one upon another. The 
Popei King, Princes and Noble men were all on an heap, and the Scaf- 
fold faflned to an old Wall pulled it down. The King was hurt in 
the Head, the Pope in the Foot, and the Duke of Britain flain, with 
many Noble- men, and 'multitudes of the common people, that were 
(mothered under thefe ruines. The Pope's Crown fell from his 
Head into the prefs, where he loft a Carbuncle, valued at fix thoufand 
florins of Gold. 

Thus thisfeaft gave no cajfeof joy , but was famous to pofterity 
by this notable accident , and by th tranflation of the Pope's feat 
from Rome to Avignon, Anno 1 305. unto the year 137^. under Vrban 
VL viz. the fpace of fcventy four years. 

This unlucky pomp being ended , Clement created many French 
Cardinals (and not one Italian) and removed the Court prefently to 
Avignon. He avouched openly to keep a Concubine, the Daughter of 
Tuxa-, he fent three Cardinals with Senatorial power 


Cent.14. Of FRANCE. 13$ 

to govern Rome and Italy. He ordained , that none fhould ufe 
the Title, or exercife the power of Emperour, until he were confirmed 
by the Pope. 

In the year 1307. a Parliament was fummoned againft Pope Clement 
by King Philip, touching temporal jurifdiction belonging to Princes,. 
and Ecclefiatfical belonging to the Church. Forafmuch , as Pope 
Clement V. extolled himfeU above all Princes, as in other Countries, 
fo alfo in France he extended his ufurped jurifdidion above the 
Princely Authority of the King, claiming to himfelf full government 
of both the. States, as well Secular as Ecckfiaftical '> the King there- 
fore diredteth his Letters mandatory to the Prelates and Barons of the 
Realm of France, to alfcmblethemfelves together at Paris in the Year 
afore- mentioned in the beginning of December. 

At the day fpecified in thofe Letters the Prelates and Clergy aflem- ^^^ 
bled themfelves before the King at his palace in Paris, where after due "JlVa. 
reverence done unto the King, there fitting in his own perfon with his 
Barons and Council about him, a certain wife and noble Lord , Teter 
de Cugtie r//V, one of the King's Council, (lands up, and makes an Ora- 
tion before the Parliament in the King's behalf. His Oration is divi- 
ded into two parts. i, He (heweth, that obedience and reverence is 
due unto the King. 2. That there ought to be a difference betwixt 
the jurifdiclion of the Clergy and Laity , fo that fpiritual matters 
(hould be defined and ordered by the Prelates and fpiritual men , and 
Temporal caufes ruled and determined by the King, his Barons , and 
Temporal men. 

All which he proved by many reafons,bothof Fad and Law. His Ar tfci 
Oration being ended, he repeated certain words in the Trench Tongue, the clergy of 
which imported, that the King's Will and pleafure was in feme points Fr 
to renew the Temporal State and jurifdi&ion : and therewith he exhi- 
bited a certain Bill in French, whereof alfo he gave a Copy to the 
Prelates, containing fixty five Articles, which may be read at large in 
Mr. Fox his Acts qnd Monument s^Vol. i. p. 462. 463. 464. 465. 

After he had fpoken, the Prelates required to have time to anfwer 
thereunto : whereupon the Friday next enfuing was appointed for the 
fame, on the which day the Eiftiop E^itf#,and the Arch-Bi;r.op of Se 
non Eleft, in the name of the whole Clergy, anfwercd for them all be- 
before the King, holding his Parliament on that day at Vkenis. They 
endeavour to prove, that both the Temporal apd Spiritual jurisdi&ions- 
are compatible, notwithfianding the diftindion of them one from the 
other. Then they proceed, to prove that a perfon Ecclellaftical, which 
hat':, J.'rifoiction Spiritual, may alfo have Temporal juriuiicrion , and 
that the Jurifdidtton Temporal may be in an Ecckfiaftical perfon, they- 

nllcdgc for this the example of hfelchifedec}^, who was both King and 
l?rieft i .and of. S0muel,\vhQ was both Pxidt and Picghet, and for a 


Cent. H- 

long time appointed Judge over the people in Temporal matters. 
They affert alfo that Chrift by his humane nature had both powers, 
(hewing that he was a Prieft after the order of Melchifedeck^: and 
that he had both in hisvefture, and on his Thigh written, Khtg of 
Kings , and Lord of Lords. Many other places they cite out of the 
new Teftament. 

Then they offer to prove it by the Civil Law, and by reafon , and 
many places in the Canon LAW : they {hew, what priviledges of this 
nature Had been granted to the Clergy by Charles the Great , King of 
Trance , by Lewes fhefecond,and by other Kings of France , which 
priviledges they offered to (hew. Moreover they affert, that whatfo- 
ever things be offered up to the Church, and are converted to the do- 
minion and property of the fame, be God's, and appertain unto him, 
forasmuch as they be faid to be dedicated and fandih'ed by him. But 
this jurifdi6Hon which is diverfly converted to the Dominion and pro- 
perty of the French Church, is God's , and therefore to be referved 
to and for him. 

They urge the King to confider, that at what time he was crowned 
htfware only thefe things following. 

i. That he would defend and maintain the Canonical Law, privi- 
ledge and Juftice granted to the Biftiops, and the Church, and (as much 
as in him layj to enlarge and amplifie the fame. 2. Alfo that by his 
Arbitriment all Chriftian people at all times (hould keep the true 
peace of God and his Church. 3. That he (hould forbid to all Na- 
tions, all kinds of facriledges, fppilings and iniquities, and that in all 
kind f Judgements he (hould will and command equity and mercy. 
4. That throughout his whole Territory and jurifdi&ion, he (hould 
labour to exterminate and cut off from the Church 3 the noted 

They argue alfo, that by the poffeflions of the Church , many Bre- 
thren and Kinfmen of the French Nobility be maintained : Ergo, fuch 
poffeflions are not to be grudged at. 

And becaufe a Bill of many Articles was exhibited, whereof part did 
infringe the whole Ecclefiaftical jurifdidion, to the defence thereof 
f they faidj they would ftand to the death. 

On the next Friday following, being Decemb. 29. the Prelates 
affembled themfelves again together at the King's Palace in P#w, 
where the Lord Peter TSertrand, Biftiop of Eduen, fpake openly before 
the King, fitting with his Counfellours, and Barons about him. In 
his fpeech he extolled the King's perfon, and his miraculous attaining 
to the Crown of France, adding, that he ought to be the Champion 
and Defender of the Faith, all which he proved in few words by many 


Cent. 14. Of F R A N C E. 137 

reafons and Authorities. Afterwards he touched thofe proportions 
which were propounded by theaforefaid Lord, Peter de Gugneriif. 

He befought the King for his Souls health to maintain the rights 
and liberties of the Church i defiring him to confidef what commo- 
dities he daily received! by the Church: and that his Church never 
failed him yet when he had need of the Laity i (hewing the dangers 
and examples of them who did to 'the contrary. Further, he en- 
treated the King, to weigh how entirely his Lord the Pope doth love 
his perfon and Realm. 

After this, in the faid Seffion, the aforefaid Bifhop of ILdven, an- 
fwered particularly to the Articles exhibited by the Lord Peter in 
writing, to the King and Parliament. Which becaufe they touch ^ 
more the fubtilty of the Law, and ftiles of the Courts, than are ne- 
cdfary to this our Hiftory : and becaufe I would not burthen this 
Treatife with them, little profit being contained in them, I have here 
purpofely for brevities fake omitted them. 

The next Friday after thisj the Prelates affembled at Vicenas before 
the King to hear their anfwer : Where the aforefaid Peter de Cug- 
ner'M (being Prolucutor for the King) faid that their King was to keep 
the rights of the Church and Prelates, which they had by Law , and 
by good and reafonable cuftom : ' where between the firft and fecond 
conclufion he went about to prove, that the cognition of civil caufes 
ought not to appertain to the Church '> for that fuch things were 
Temporal, and ought to pertain to the Temporally, as Spiritual things 
to the Spiritualty. And befides his other reafons, he alledged the 8tf. 
Dijlinft. declaring, that for this intent, the Clerks Crowns were firit 
{haven, in fign that they (hould be free from all worldlinefs, and for- 
fake all Temporal things. He added, that their Lord and King was 
ready to hear them, who would iatirudr him of any cuftom, and thofe 
cuftoms which were good and reafonable he would obferve. 

The Bimop Edven anfwered for all the Prelates , faying that the 
words of the Lord Peter engendred darknefsand obfcurity, and might 
give occafion to the Temporal Lords to break and infringe the Rites 
and Cuftoms of the Church. As to that which was fpoken , con- 
cerning the (having of the crown, it was anfwered, that the crown did 
betoken rule and excellency i and the (having did lignifie, that they 
ought not to heap up Temporal things -, fo as to apply their hearts 
thereunto i but that the Temporal things ought to be fubjecl: to them, 
and not they to the Temporalty. After divers other fpeeches, the 
faid Bimop concluded, and befought the King, that it would pleafe his 
Grace to give them a more plain and comfortable Anfwer , and that 
they might not go away fad and peniiveout of his prefence , whexeby 
occafion might be given to the Laity to impugn the Rites and Liberties 
of the Church. In the end it was anfwered to them in the behalf of 

T the 

Cent. 14. 

the King, that his mind and intent was not to impugn the Cuftoms of 
the Church. 

The Sunday folio wing theBifhopsaflenri bled themfelves again before 
the King at Vkenas, where the Bid) op of Senon in the name of all 
the Prelates gave humble thanks for it : and he befought that fueh Pro- 
clamations as were made to the prejudice of the Ecclefiaftical jurif- 
didion might be revoked and repealed. Hereunto the King himfelf 
anfvvered with his own mouth, that they were not publifted at his 
commandement, neither did he know of them, nor ratifie them. 

Moreover, the Bifhop propofed, that thofeabufes which the Tem- 
porally complained of, fhould be fo ordered and reformed, that every 
man (hould be content therewith. Finally he befought the King, that 
he would give them a fuller and more comfortable anfwer. Then 
anfwered the Lord Peter in the name of the King. That if the Pre- 
lates and Biftiops would fee reformation of thofe things which were 
to be amended Cabout which he would take refpite betwixt this and 
Chriftm.x next following^) his Majefty would innovate nothing in the 
mean time. And if in the aforefaid fpace they would not correct and 
reform what was amifs,his Majefty would appoint fuch order and re- 
medy, that fnould be acceptable both to God and his Subjefts. Then 
the Prelates had leave of the King to depart and went home. 

A brief recapitulation of Bifliop Edvetfs anfwer, with certain notes 
in anfwer to his Popijk reafons, may be read in the A5s and -Monument* 
of the Church, p. 476. 477. 

The Ecclefiaftical Judges have (ince that time attempted to ufurp 
this jurifdiftipn over the Laity in cafe of Adultery , &c. but the 
complaint which was made of it by Peter de Cngnenv , on the behalf 
f the King's Judges f which we may read at this day extant) did put 

later, an end to that trouble. And always whatfoever the Clergy attempted 

to meddle in fuch matters, they have been prohibited by the Parlia- 
ments upon Appeals, as from abufes, which have been put in againft 
their decrees. 

Pope Clement had promifed unto King Philip to abolifti the memory 
of PopeBo//^VIII. and to anull all his Ads, but by advice of 
Cardinal Pratenfis, he delayed unto a general Council , and this he 

Saucier, p. 872. fummoned to be held at Vienna in France , where the King required 
from the Pope the performance of his promife. The Council did ac- 
knowledge Boniface to have been a lawful Pope: but they did de- 
clare all his A#s againft the King to have been unjuft, and that none of 
them mould be prejudicial to the King, or to his Succeflburs. In this 
Council the Pope propounded the aid of the ChrifHans in Syria, the 
punifhment of the Templar* , and the reformation of the Church: 
Wars were proclaimed, and Indulgences were offered in thefe words. 
We Will^ that the pHttijhment of Hell, beno-tray laidnpon him , who 

Cent. 14. Of FRANCE. 

fynrd with the Crofs, grant ing alfo unto every fyned person power to ptill 
three or four Souls out of Purgatory at their pleafure. Hereat the Di- 
vines of Paw were offended, becaufe it waswritten in the fame Bull, 
We command the Angels to carry the abfifoed Soul into Paradife. It. 
was then a received Article, that th^Pop'e may command the Angels 
as his Serjeants. Pope Clement granted great Indulgences to fuch as 
could not go, but cpuld find Money for that ufe i ib as he that gave a Out of tn oia 
penny, was to have one year's pardon: he that gave twelve pence trench chront- 
twelve year's pardon : and he that would give as much as would cle * 
maintain a man going over Seas, a plenary pardon for all. The Pope 
appointed certain men whom he put in truft for the receiving of this 
Money. Unfpeakable were the fums of Money that were given for 
the purchafing thefe pardons for five years together. ' At the end 
whereof, when the good men were ready to go, and perform what 
they had promifed and vowed, the bufinefs was broke off, but the Pope 
kept the Money, the Marquefs his Nephew had a (hare of it, and King 
Philip the fair, and his three Sons, who had taken up the crofs to go 
thither in perfon, E^w<W King of England, and other noble perfons 
ftayed at home. 

In this Council it was ordained, that the feaft of Corpw Cbrifti {hould 
be kept, with many Indulgences granted unto them who (hould ce- 
lebrate this Feaft. 

In the fame Council Pope Clement V. fet forth a Book of Papal de- fon Eedeti 
crees, called Liber Clementiarum^ which was received, allowed and ra- Hift. inCeM* 
lifted by this Council. Nauclerus faith, that Clement before his death 
repented the fettingout of this Book, and commanded it to be burnt. 
Yet notwithftanding the fucceeding Popes , and particularly John 
XXII. confirmed and Authorized the faid Book again , together with 
the Decretals of -Gregory and 'Boniface^ becaufe thefe Books highly ad- 
vanced the See of Rome, exempting the Bifliop of Rome from fab- 
jeclion to general Councils, and attributing power to him to receive 
or reject the Emperour after hje is chofen, comparing the Pope to the 
SUB, and the Emperour to the Moon. Finally, counting it a thing 
neceffary unto Eternal Life, that every perfonbe fubjecl: totheBithop 
of Rome. 

It was alfo ordained, that Schools (hould be erected , and foreign 
Tongues (hould be learned, namely, the Hebrew^ Chaldaick^ and Arabic^ 
Languages. It was alfo ordained , that the name and remembrance olf 
the templars ftiould be rooted out : which decree was put in execution 
by all Chriftian Princes. 

Know then, that about nineteen years after the Chriftians had loft all Tho. Fuller ftp- 
in Palefline , by the cruel deed of Pope Clement V. and toul Fad: of ?!? Hift. 
Philip the fair. King of France, the ^mplars were finally extirpated bc 
. out of all Chriftendom, 

T 2 Pope 

MO gcjjc ecclefiafticai $ffio*? Cent. 14. 

having long fojourned in Fraxce^had received many 
great courtefies from King "Philip \ yea he owed little lefs than himfelf 
to him. At laft Philip requefted of him a boon, great enough (faith 
my Authour) for a King to asft,and a Pope to grant, namely , all the 
Lands of the Knights templars in France, forfeited by reafon of their 
horrible Herefies, and licentious living. The Pope was willing to 
f . gratitie him in feme" good proportion for his favours received, and 

being thus long the King's Gueft, he gave him the Templars Lands, 
and Goods to pay for his entertainment. 

On a fudden all the Templars in France are clapt in prifon , damna- 
ble fins wefe laid to their charge > as facrificing of Men to an Idol 
they worftipped > reading of a Templars Baftard , ard drinking his 
Blood, fpitting upon the crofs of Chrift, confpiring with Turkj and 
Saracens againft Chriftianity,they were charged with Sodomy, Beftia- 
lity, with many other Villanies out of the Road of humane corruption, 
and as far from Man's Nature as God's Law. 

The fole witnefs againft them was one of their own Order, a noto- 
rious Malefa<ror, who at the fame time being in prifon, and to fuffer 
for his own offences, condemned by the Matter of their Order , fought 
> to prove his Innocency, by charging all his own Order to be guilty. 

And he fwore moft heartily to whatfoever was objected againft their 
Order. Befides, many of the Templars being brought upon the rack, 
confeflfed theaccufations to be true, wherewith they were charged. 
Hereupon all the Templars were moft cruelly burned to death 
at a ftake through all France , with James, the Grand- Mafter of 
their Order. * 

Many men accounted not the Templars Malefactors, but Martyrs. 
Firft,becaufc the witnefs was unfufficient , a Malefaftor againft his 
Judge-, and Secondly, they bring tortured men againft themfelves. 
And a confcllion extorted upon the Rack ( fay fome ) is of no 

But being burned at the ftake, they denycd it at their death,though 
formerly they had confefled it. 

A> Templar being to be burned at "Bordeaux, and feeing the Pope and orig. King fhilip looking out of a Window, cryed unto them, Clement thou 
Monarh. ca. 18, cruel Tyrant, feeing there is no other among mortal men, to whom I 
(hould appeal for my unjuft Death, I cite Thee together with King 
* Philip to the Tribunal of Chrift, the juft Judge who redeemed me, 
there both to appear within one year and a <ky, where I will lay open 
my caufe,and Jufticeftiallbe done without any by refped". In like 
manner, James Grand-Mafter of the Templars, though by piece-meal 
he was tortured to death, craved pardon of God, and thofe of his or- 
der, That forced by. extremity of pain upon the rack, and allured 
with hope of life, he had accufed them of fuch damnable fin* where- 


Cent. 14. Of FRANCE. 141 

of they were innocent. True it is, they were generally cryed up for 

But Pope Clement and King Philip, were within the time prefixed 
fummoned by death to anfwer to God for what they had done. Be- 
fides , King Philip miffed of his expe&ation , and the morfel fell 
befides his Mouth, the Lands of the Templars which were firft 
granted to him as a portion for his youngeft Son, being after- 
wards by the Council of Vienne beftowed on the Knights-Hof- 

William Vurand Bifhop of MenJa in Lanytedoc , being fummoned 
by Clement V. to the general Council at Vievne, to come and fee what 
was fitting to be reformed in the Church , made a Book de ConfiHf^ 
toward the beginning whereof he faith. It feemeth to be a thing con- 
fiderable, and it is mo(i expedient and neceffary, that before any thing elfe 
voe foould proceed to the correction and reformation of fitch things as ought 
to be corrected and reformed in the Church of God,Mrve11in the head as 
the Members. And in the firft Chapterof the third Book. Verify, as 
concerning the "Reformation of the Catholic^ Church, to bring it about 
profitably and ejfefiualy, it feems expedient that it begin at the Head, 
that is, at the Holy Church of Rome, which is the Head of all others, 
Then he fets down in particular, fuch things as ftood in rieed of refor- 
mation, notably reprefenting many abufes of the See of Rome that de- 
ferved to be corredred. But for all his learned difeourfe there was 
nothing done therein in that Council, Witnefs the BHhop of Paxor- 
mo in his advice touching the Council of Bafil. This decree concern- 
eth the general Eftate of the Church j and the matters belong to a 
general Reformation, which may be hindred by a diflblution, as it was 
by the diflblution of the Council of Vienne. 

Dnrand further faid in that Council, that the Court of Rome, and the 
Colledge of Cardinals, together with the Pope, woukl have a certain 
allowance of all Bifhops that are preferred there \ it feems very re- 
quifite that this were taken order with. For this errour doth much 
corrupt the Catholick Church, and the common people: and the 
remedies which have been apply ed hitherto are quite difregarded, inas- 
much as the contrary is ufually pradrifed in the Court of Rome, as if it 
were no fin at all to commit Simony, or as if it were not all one to 
give firft, and then take, as firft to take, and then to give. 

The thing was taken into confederation at the Council of Vienne, fo 
as they were once ad vifed, to allow the twentyeth part of all livings j oann Andr H , 
in ChriftendomtothePopeand his Cardinals : but at lait it was (hif- ca. inter < 
ted off, without refolving upon any thing. A.Do&orof the Canon offie< ' dinar - 
Law faith, it was better for thatj becaufe their covetottfmfs is fo unfatia* 
hie, that if that had been refolved upon, they would have takfn both; 
This Biftjop of .Mend* mentioned another abufe fit to be. reformed. 

4J %ty eccieftatucal $tffcw Cent. 14. 

.For, after he had faid. that every BUhop's jurisdi&ion ought to be pre- 
ferved entire to himfelf, he addeth, Ibat Ecclepajlical Benefices , which 
belong to the collation and difpofal of Bi/hops, are beftowed by the See Apo~ 
polic^ and others, tven before they be void ; and that not only in tht 
Court of Rome, but out of it -, howbeit^ the Bijhops mttft give account of 
the cure, and of tbofe that execute them y whofe Conferences they are ut- 
terly ignorant of, inasmuch as they are none of their preferring. He 
would never have demanded the reformation hereof, unlefs the abufe 
~ had been notorious. 

Vurand alfo perfwaded the abolition of Fraternities ^ for two rea- 

fons, for their diiTolutenefs, and for their confpiracy againfl fuperiours. 

Durand de mo. It would be alfo ufefiil (faith he,) that Fraternities, wherein both Clergy 

lif C a?*'S nci " au d Laity d& nothing but pamper themfelves with d<licates, live in dijjo- 

' lutenefs and drunkgnnefs, and bufie themfehes in divers plots againjl their 

fuperiours were abolifyed. 

Thenfpeaking of difpenfations, he faith , Ibat the very Nerve/ of 
Donnd de mo- *^ Canans and decrees are broken by the difpenfatiout which are made ac- 
dp cdcbr. con- cording to the (lile of the Court of Rome, that they areagainft the common 
.^^ And citing the Authority of St. Hierom writing to Rufticits 
Bifliop of Narbon, he faith, Since Avarice is increafed in Churches as 
well as in the Roman Empire^ the Law is departed from the Priefls , and 
feeing from the Prophets. 

He gives us the definition of a difpenfation accord ing to the Law- 
yers, which he (kith, if a provident relaxation of the general Law counter- 
vailed by commodity or neceflity: that if it be otherwife ufcdjt it not a dif- 
pcHfction but a diflipationjkat the quejiion is new about theftaining of the 
jiatc of the Church \ that thofe who difpenfe upn unnfcejfary cav/es , do 
err. Laftly, for matter of difpenfation he would have that obferved 
which Pope Leo faid, viz. That there are fame things which cannot be 
altered ttpon any occafwn : others which may be tempered in regard ef the 
neceffity of the times, or confederation of Mens Ages , but always with 
this Refoltttion , when there is any doubt or obfcurity , to follow 
that which it not contrary to the Gofpel, nor repugnant to the "Decrees of 
Holy Fathers. 

Concerning Exemptions, he further declareth in that Council, That 
thty give occafjonto the perfons exempted to live mere d/JJ'olutely^ and more 
at their liberty. That they take away the reverence and obedience which 
the exempted owe unto their Prelates and Ordinaries , a--i makf them 
general. Tit. 5 thinJ^ themfelve s a s good men as theBifhopf, and other i- i* fuperiours. 
'that the correction and punishing of faults and excejjes is ivreby hindred 
and brought to nothing* 1h at they are prejudicial to f/;< whole Church 
CathMcl^ inasmuch as the exempted cannot be judged b*t by tL Pope* 
and he cannot do it by reafin of his remctenefs from them j 1h at t'-- v rob 
men of the means of doing many good works in Religion j 7 hat they are 

Cent.14- Of FRANCE. 

eanfe of many feandals. Ihat thofe to whom they are granted abufe their 
priviledges : fbat they draw after them the mine of Monasteries , being 
rather * burthen than an houftter or profit to them, 

The fame Dttrand maintaineth, that the Tote bath no power to grant 
fuch exemptions, confideringthat they overthrow the general order of the 
Catholick^Church, which proceeds from God, the Apojlles, the Hdly Father f, 
and general Councils, and which was approved and confirmed by Popes. 
'Ihat by this order , all the Monasteries, Religious places, Abbots, Abbeffe/, 
Monkj and Nuns, and all other Religious and Ecclefiaftical perfons are 
immediately fubjett to th* government and guidance of Bijkops within their 
Cities and Uioceffes, as unto their Superiours, the Apples Succejfburs,and 
fuch as have power and Authority over them. 

Pafqttier faith, there were thefe remarkable excellencies in William 
Vterand : he was a great Divine, a great Lawyer, and an excelleA Po ^ r ?af 
et. He put out a Book entiruled Speculum Juris, divided into three 9' js 
great Tomes. As Lttmbard among Divines is not ufually quoted by 
his own name, but by that of Mafter of the Sentences i fo among the 
Lawyers he is not quoted by the name of William Pur and , but he is 
ftiled Speculator. Hfi delivered this Sentence about the Sacra- 
ment. Verbum attdimuf^ modwn Sfntimitf^ modttm Jiefcimw , pr<efenti* 
am credimus. 

I rind this given as his Chara&er. Gulielmw 'Dttrandus^ ornnh ~Di- 
vitti Humanique juris Confultifiimus, Natione Vafio, GaVw Epifcopitt Mi- 
mat enfis. Scripft Speculum juris , unde fpeculator e\\ dittns. Mult a 
profetib utilia author tnonuit, &prcipue de Reformatioxe Pap& & Clfri. 
Illyr.Catal.Teft. verit.lib. 16. 

Lewes Hutin*) called Lewes X. began to reign over France, Anno 
1315. and dyed Anno 1 3 1 6. He left his Wife with child , who was 
delivered of a Son, which lived but eight days. Lewes left one Daugh- 
ter named Jane, which was Queen of Navarr, and Countefs Palatine 
of Erie and Champagn. 

Philip V. called the long, fucceeded his Brother Lewes, Anno 13 id. 
He dyed in the iixth year of his P\eign, wz. Anno 1322* 

Pope Clementv. dyed, Anno 1314. after whofe death the Papacy 
flood void two years and three months. The Cardinals at laft did 
yield all their furTrages unto Jacob dt Offa Cardurcenfis, who afterwards 
went up into the Papal Chair, and faid, lam Pope. This was John 
XXII. He was a Coercion Monk, he fate in that feat eighteen 

This John believed, that the Souk do not enjoy the prefence of 
God before the day of Judgement- Hefenttwo Preachers to Paris, 
the one a T>ominican, the other a Yrancifcau, toafTert ajod maintain the- 
fame Herefie, 

But one "Ibma^ an Egf$r Preaches, withfiocd thePope^ and the 

144 1O)eecciefiaftitai$tfto# Cent. 14. 

pope threw him into prifon. Hereup m the French King fummoned a 
Council unto his palace in Vintiana Sy ha, the whole Aflembly fub- 
fcribed againli the Pope. Immediately the King fent to Pope 
John to reform his errour, and to fet the Preacher at liberty, 
which he did. Seme fay, that the Divines of Parit made him to re- 
cant his errour publickly. This John XXII. ereded the Church of Jholoufe in France to an 

jMnri n 'fub Arch-Bithoprick, divided the Diocefs of Iholeuje into fix Bithopricks, 

'Ana! 1 * 317. U ' the Bifaops whereof (hould be fuffragans to the Arch- Bifhop of Tbo- 

ioufe* and turned fix Villages into Cities , viz. Montauban , Riettx, 

Lornbez Abbey, St. Papoxl, Lavnur^ and Mirepoix. He created two 

Bifaopricksi within the Arch Bifaoprick of Narbon : the rirft at Li 

mottx whofe Seat he tranflated to Alet not long after : the fecond in 

the A%ey of St. Pans, fetting out their Diocefles. He divided alfo 

the Btthoprick of Alby into two, and created one at Caftres. 

He ere&ed divers others befides, which are reckoned up in parti- 
cular by the Authour of the continuation to Martinw Polonitf. 

Clement V. predeceffour to this Pope, had ordained, that Emperours 
by the German Princes eleded, might be called Kings of the Romans, 
but might not enjoy the Title or right of the Empire to be nomina* 
ted Emperours, without their confirmation given by the Pope. 
Wherefore becaufe Levees of Bavaria being chofen Emperour ufed 
the Imperial dignity in Italy, before he was authorized by the Pope, 
the faid Pope John therefore Excommunicated the Emperour, who 
ofteadefiredof him a Treaty of peace , which the Pope refufed to 
hearken to. At the fame time divers learned Men difallowed the do- 
ings of the Pope, as William Ocham , whofe tranfa&ions were after- 
ward condemned by the Pope for writing againft that See : and Marfi- 
lius PativiniK, who wrote the Book entituled , Vefeufor fads , whieh 
was put into the hands of the faid Emperour i wherein the controvcr- 
fie of the Pope's unlawful jurifdicltion in things Temporal is largely 
difputed,and the ufurped Authority of that See is fet forth to the 
uttermoft. Some Writers fay, that a great caufe of the variance was, 
for that one of the Emperour 's Secretaries (unknown to the Empe- 
rour) had likened in fdivers of his LettersJ the Papal See to the Beaft 
rifing out of the Sea in the Apocalypfe. At length when the Empe- 
rour, after much fuit made to the Pope at Avignon , could not obtain 
his Coronation from him, he went to Rome, where he was receired 
with great honour , and both he and his Wife were botk crowned by 
the confent of all the Lords and Cardinals there i and another Pope 
was there fet up, called Nicholas V. 

Not long after Pope John dyeth at Avignon, after whom fucceedeth 
Zenedift-xiLAnno 1335. 

This Man was as uncourteous to the Emperour as John had been, 


Cent. t4. Of F R A N C E. 145 

lie renewed the curfes againft him, bereft him of all Regal Dignity, 
and by his fentence deprived him of the Dukedom of Bavaria. Here- 
upon the Emperour cometh into Germany , and aflembleth the Prin- 
ces, Dukes, Nobles 5 Biftiops , and other learned men in a Council at 
Franck^ford, where he caufed an injun&ion to be difpatched , wherein 
he affirmed the fentence pronounced againft him un juft , and that his 
Excommunication did no way bind him. 

Wherefore he commanded upon great penalties, that no man 
fhould obey his cenfures and interdictions in that behalf, which in- 
junction caufed great alterations in Germany , efpecially among 
the Clergy , fome holding with the Emperour , others with the 

Dantes, a man of profound Learning, at that time wrote a Book, 
called , the Monarchy, wherein he favoured the Emperour j for which 
he was afterward condemned, and his Book held for Herefie. And 
other great men wrote Books and Treatifes, defending the Pope's fu- 
pream Authority. 

Charles IV. Brother to Philip the long, fucceeded in the Kingdom 
of France, being the laft Son of Philip the Fair. He dyed Anno 1328. 
having reigned fix years> leaving the Crown to the fecond royal Bnnch 
of Capet /, whereunto the order of the fundamental Law did lawfully 
call them. 

Philip the Hardy had left two Sons, Philip the fair, and Charles Earl 
of Valoif j of whom it is faid, that he was the Son of a King, Brother 
to a King, Unckle to a King, Father to a King, and yet no King. Pfo- 
lip the Son of Charles oiValois is faluted and proclaimed King of 
France, and anointed and crowned at KJbemes according to the ufual 

Near the beginning of his Reign, the Courts of Parliament and all pe Serro HI 
the Sovereign Judges (aflembled from all the Provinces) made a gene- |j a j^ s 
ral complaint againft the Ckrgy of France, accufing them of fundry 
abufes,and namely that againft the right of their charges they inter- 
meddled with the politick jurifdi&ion. The fuit was vehement , and 
famous for the greatnefs of the par ties. The King to reconcile this 
quarrel, calls a general Aflembly of his whole Realm at Paris. The 
caufe was pleaded before him with great liberty by Peter de Cugneriii 
(this is He whom in derinon they call M. Peter Cttgnet, who is in the 
great Temple in Par//, noted with a little Monkey's head , placed be- 
twixt two pillars to put out the Candles , being odious by reafoa of 
his pleading) and as coldly defended by Peter Eertrand , both famous 
Advocates in thofe times. The iffue was doubtful , and Philip feri- 
oufly exhorted the Prelates to reform themfelves i and in reforming 
the abufe to avoid thefe popular complaints, refering the matter to a 
further hearing, 

V This 


This Pope Beneditt took from the Emperour. the Senatourfhip of 
Rome : he firft took upon him to ufurp the preferments of all Bi- 
fliopricks. He abridged many unlearned men of Priefthood : He re- 
formed many Seds of Monks : He commanded that all his Chap- 
lains (hould lye in one Dormitory together, and {hould have no other 
Revenues than for Dyet and Apparel : He publiftied certain Ads a- 
gainft the Dominicans \ he kept divers Concubines. And leaving great 
(lore of Treafure to the Church, he dyed -Anna 1 3 4.2 . of whom theft 
verfes were made. 

Jjk fuit vtroJLaicit mors,vipera Clero, 
TJeviw a vero, turba Rep I eta mero. 

in Lcmonia, by profeffion a T>enedi8ine , called be- 
fore Peter Rogert, being Abbot of Fifca, fuccecded Benedift at Avigntn. 
This-Man Excommunicated all the Princes, Lords , and Bifhops that 
confented to the doings of Lewes the Emperour. He made -Avignon 
part of St. Peters patrimony. He ordained, that the Jubilee {hould 
be kept every fifty^th year, after the manner of the Jews , and fo it 
was kept at Rome, Anm j 3 50. 

Now there were great Wars in France^ between Edward HI. King 
of Ewjg/<W, and the King of frame. 

Robert a French-man by name and Nation, a Francifcau 'by profeili- 
on, the longer he was in that Order, he loved the Fryars the 
worfe. A Treatife in his name is Printed with the Prophecies df 

Pope Clement VI. fent a Letter to the King of England .'m behalf of 
(he French-men^ whilft he lay at the fiege of Calai* , which fiege he 
continued from the third of September^ Anno 1 346. till the third t!ay 
of Axguft next cnfuing, upon which day it was yielded up to the 
faid King Edward^ and fubdued unto the Grown of England. 

The King of England returneth an anfwer to theaforefaid Letter of 
the Pope. Then by the interceilion of two Cardinals, Ambaldw and 
Stephanas, a Truce was concluded betwixt Eg/Wand France for a 

In the year j 3 50. dyed Tbilip King of France-, after whom fuc- 
ceeded his Son John in the Kingdom. 

At this time flourished Francis Petrarch, ^Florentine , Arch-Deacon 
-.^ Parma ^ a f cnte ntious Poet and Oratour. Hccalleth Rome the^whorc 
o f Robylon, the School and Mother of Errour, the Temple of Herefie, 
trtf : neft of Treacheiy, and feemeth plainly to affirm, that rhe Pope 
?- 11 b S 'i P E" was Antienr ^9 declaring that npigieater evil could happen to. any 
4!" " Man than to be made Pppe,, In one of his Epiftles he dire6teth his 
Speech to Vtbylon in France 9 that is tp Avignon, thus, Shall Itzli tihtt 

Cent. 14. Of FRANCE; 147 

a famous or infamous Whore, who haft plaid the Harlot with the Kings 
of the Earth ? Indeed thou art the fame that the Evangelift faw in the- 
Spirit fitting upon many Waters : the people and the Nations are the 
Waters upon which thou fitteft. Whore, know thy habit i a Woman 
cloathed in purple and Scarlet , and Gold a nd pre t ions Stones , having a 
Golden Cup in her hand full of abomination and uncleannefs of Fornica- 
tion : Doft thou not know thy fclf Babylon > unlefs that deceive thee 
which is written in her Fore-head, Great Babylon, and thou art little 
Babylon : little indeed in compafs of Wails, but in vices and compafs 
of infinite luftsand paffions, and multitude of all evils thou art great- 
eft. And what followeth, agreeth unto thce and no of her,Bty/<w*, the- 
Mother of Fornications, and abominations of the Earth. If thou wilt 
yet difletnble, mark what followeth. And I favt> the Woman drunken 
nith the Bhod of the Saints, and with the Blood of the Witness of Je- 
fa. Why art thou iilent? either (hew another drunken with this 
Blood, or deny that thou art drunken, if thou canft for the Vifion 
muft be true. The life of Petrarch is written by Tapiriw Maffbnuf, 
Many reforted to him from France, and all Italy. 

About this time Hayabad a Francifcan, preached in Avignon before 
pope Clement, that he was commanded by God to declare , that the. ^V *** '* 
Church of Rome is the whore of Babylon, and that the Pope and 
his Cardinals are the very Antichrift, and that his predeceflburs Bent- ' 
ditt and John are condemned. When the'Pope challenged him,he faid he 
was commanded in a Villon to fpeak fo, and therefore he durft not 
fail to fpeak it. 

John Rochet alada , another Francifcan , preached the fame , and 
is (aid to be one of them who were burnt at Avignon. Anno 

J 353- 

At the fame time Gregory de Arimino oppofed the Doctors in the 
Articles of ]uftification by works, and of free will. At Paris he taught 
that man hath free will to do evil, but no good without fpecial 
grace : and that we are juftified by Faith only. And he faid the 
Schoolmen deferve to be called Setnipelagians. Andreas de Callro, 
and John Buridan , two famous Men at that time , agreed with 

Then ILudo Duke of 'Burgundy, perfwaded the French King that he 
(hould not receive into his Realm the new Decretals and Extravagants. 
His fage advice is extant among the Records of France. 

A new War arofe between King John of Frame, and Edward the 
third, King of England. ThePope fent the Cardinal of teregort^ 
to thefe two Princes (being ready to fight) to calm this ftorm. John 
being the ftronger, demanded that Edward (hould give him four He- 
(hges i and as one vanquithed, (hould remain at his mercy and dif- 
crction. Edward was content to yield up all that he had taken from 

V 2 him 

148 3Cpc ccflefiaOfra! %ffto?i? Cent. 14. 

hi m, but without any blemifh to his honour. Edward encourageth 
lymfelf, and prepares to fight the French , and vanquifheth them at 
Poiftiers. King John is taken prifoner, and his Son Philip, by Edward: 
the Black Prince, Son to Edward the third , King of England , they 
are brought to Eurdeaux, and from thence fent into England , where 
they are lodged in the City of London, in the Duke of Lattcajier's houfe, 
under a fure Guard. Many others of the Nobles of France were 
alfo taken Captive. 1700 Gentlemen were flain in this Battle, a- 
mong which were 52 Lords. King jfotacontinued five years a pri- 
foner, for he was taken in September^ Anno 1 3 56. and delivered in May, 
Ann* 1361. 

There hapned in France a certain contention, between the French 
Prelates, and the Fryars of Part*. The French Prelates aflembling in 
the City of Paris , caufed by the Bedles to be called together all the 
Students, Matters and Batchellors of every faculty , with the chief 
heads of all the Religious Houfes andFryars of the Univerfity of Pa- 
- rjf. Who being all congregated in the Bifhop of Paris his* houfe, 
where there were prefent four Arch-BUhops , and twenty Bifhops, 
the Biftiop of "Bitterc preached to the Students of Paris againft the 

He told them that true charity would compel them to provide for 
their flocks, to withfland errours ; that they were bound to give their 
lives for the flock committed to their charge. 

That 'no Man ought tobufie himfelf with what belonged not to 
his Office. For thereby (faith hej all Ecclefiaftical Order is difTolved. 
He (hewed how the Dominican and Francifean Fryars did ufurp what 
belonged to the Prelates. They charged the Fryars for preaching 
againfl their wills throughout all their DiocefTes , and for hearing 
confcilions , faying, that they have the Pope's priviledge to bear them, 
out therein. 

Then flood up another in the publick place , and read the privi- 
ledges of both the orders, and afterwards read the conflitution of Pope 
Innocent III. written in the fifth of the Decretals, which conftitution 
was repugnant and contrary to the aforefaid priviledges. Then rofe 
up the Bifhopof Ambian^ a great Lawyer, who difcourfmgfrom Ar- 
ticle to Article, there proved by good Law, that the faid conftitution 
flood in it's full force and vigour,and ought not to be infringed by the 
Fryars priviledges in any part : and therefore by vertuc of that con- 
flitution, the Fryars ought not fo miforderly to hear confeffions , en- 
joynpennance,and preach in Churches without fpecial licence of the 
Bifhop of the Diocefs, and leave from the Curate of the Parifti : unto 
whofe words none of the Fryars replyed at that time. So the Bifhop 
proceeding to the conclufion,defired the Univerfity to affift them in 
that cafe, wherein they were all determined to ftand firmly to the (hed- 

Cent. 14- Of FRANCE. 149 

ding of their blood in refiiUng that intrufion of the Fryars. This 
hapned on Vecemb. 6. 

The next day being Sunday, one of the Order of the Minoriter , or 
Frawifcans, went to the Church of the Majorites, or preaching Fryars, 
where he made a Sermon (which was never feen before, for the one 
Order to come and refort to the other) beginning in the aforefaid mat- 
ter to reply, and to expound in order through every Article , adding 
moreover, that they went not fo far in their priviledges as they law- 
fully might. And faid, that when they obtained thofc priviledges in 
Rome, the BUhopof Ambianwas there prefent himfelf, refitting the 
fame with all his power : yea all the Prelates of France fent and wrote 
up to the Court againft the fame, and yet did not prevail. For when 
the Fryars there declared to the Pope how far they had ufed their pri- 
viledges, the Pope at the fame time faid, Placet, mewing that he agreed 
uato the fame. 

And now (faith he^) the Prelates demand of us to fend up our pri- 
viledges fo the Court, which were great folly in us > for in fo doing 
we mould give way to the revoking the Authority which is given into 
our hands already. Moreover, our Warden and Matter, is now lately 
dead, and the Matter of the Dominican Fryars here is not now prefent : 
wherefore we dare not determine in fo weighty a caufe (touching the 
priviledges of eur order) without the prefenceof them. And therefore 
we defire you of the Univerfity to hold us excufed, who are not the 
worft part of the Univerfity. 

The next day being the eighth of the fame month it was determi- 
ned that one of the 'Dominic}^ Fryars mould preach Jn the Church 
of the Francifcan, or Gray- Fryars, and fohe did, going the fame way 
as the other Fryar had done before in the other Church. 

All the Heads of the Univerfity met together on the Vigil of St.- 
'fbomas^s day in St. Bernard's Church at the fame time. 

A Sermon was preached by a Divine of the Univerfity, wherein he 
with many words and great Authorities , argued againft them that 
would not be obedient to their Prelates. The Bimop of Ambian 
Cthe Sermon being ended) profecuted the fame Argument. And 
in conclufion the Fryars priviledges were in difputation confuted at 

Certain Articles had formerly been given out againft the Fryars 
by the Students of Paw , why they fhould not be admitted to their 

r, Say they, our Society ought not to be Co-a&ive, but free and vo-^ 

2. Becaufe we have often proved their community many ways to 
be hurtful and incornodious,, 

, Seeing 

3. Seeing they are of a diverfe profeflion from us f for they are cal- 
led Regular, and not Scholajlical) we ought not therefore to aflbciate 
together in one Scholaftical Office. 

4. Becaufe they work difTentions and offences, therefore we ought 
to avoid them. 

5. Becaufe they devour Mens houfes , fearching and facking 
the Ethtes and Confciences of all perfons , circumventing thofe 
whom they find eatie to be fed need, and leading them from the Couu- 
fel of their Prelates. 

6. They faggeft , that the Fryars are falfe Prophets , who being 
neither Bithops, nor Parifli-priefis, nor yet their Vicars, nor fent by 
them, yet they preach (not fent) againft the mind of the Apoftle 
Rom. 10. 

7. Becaufe they are fo curious in fearching and enquiring out' 
other Mens doings and fpiritual demeanour : Wherefore feeing them 
in no order, we are by the fentence of the Apoftle commanded to a- 
void them. 

Befides thefe Articles above rehearfed , certain propofitions were 
propofed in the Schools of Paris, folemnly to be difputed and defen- 
ded againft the Fryars, which were thefe. 

1. That the begging Fryars were not in a ftate of Salvation. 

2. That they were bound to labour with their hands that could, 
and not to beg. 

3. That they ought not to preach, or hear the confeflions of any, 
although they be Licenfed thereunto by the Pope, or by the Dioceflan, 
forasmuch as the fame is prejudicial to the Minifters and Priefts of 
the Parishes. 

All thofe aforefaid Articles and conclufions, Pope Alexander IV. 
had condemned to be abolifhed and burnt, writing his precepts to the 
Trench King, and the Univerfity of Paris in favour of the Fryars, com- 
maadingall Liberties and priviledgesto be reftored tothefaid Fryars. 
Another priviledge was given to the Fryars by Pope Clement IV. who 
fucceeded Alexander IV. Anno 1263. 

But in the year 1281. Pope Martin IV. renewed again the Canon in 
behalf of the Curates againft the Fryars. 

In the year I2p4. Eomfacc VIII. granted to the Fryars , that with- 
out licence of Vicars of Churches , they (hall firft prefent jthemfelves 
to the Prelates to be admitted i by whom if they be refufed the fecond 
time, then they upon fpecial Authority of this Pope (ball be privi- 
ledged without either Bilhop or Curate, to preach, to bury, and to 
hear confeffions from any that (hall come unto them ; fo revoking all 


Cent. 14- Of FRANCE. 

that was decreed by his predeceffoursto the contrary. 

Anno 1303. Pope Benedift II. revoked the conftitution of Boniface 
his predeceffour. Then followed Pope Clement V. who in his gene- 
ral Council holden -at View* revoked the confutation of Be- 
nedict his predeceffour, and renewed again the former, decree of Bo,- 

Upon this variable diverfity of the Popes (one diffenting from and 
repugning another) arofe among the Divines and Schoolmen in Vlni- 
verfities great matter of contention , in the Univerfities of Oxford 
and Paris about the begging Fryars, fome holding one way fome a- 

Five principal opinions be noted of learned men, who then difpu- 
ting againft the Fryars, were condemned for Hereticks, and their affer- 
tions reproved. 

The firft was the opinion of them which defended that the Fryars* 
might not by the licence of the Pope and of the Prelates , preach in 
Parishes, and hear confellion. 

Ot this opinion vtttWilliam de fanfto amore with his fellows, who 
had been condemned. 

Thefecond opinion was, that Fryars, although not by their own au- 
thority, yet by priviledgeof the Pope, and of the Bifhop, might preach 
and hearconfeflions in Pari(hes,but yet not without licence of the Pa- 
riuVpriefts. Of this opinion was*St. Bernard. 

The third opinion was, that Fryars might preach and hear confeili- 
ons without Licence of the ParifiVprieftS ', but yet the faid Parifbio- 
nersnotwitnftanding were bound by the Canon [omnit ntritefgtte fex- 
ttr~] to repeat the fame fins again, if they had no other to their own 
proper Curate. And of this opinion were many,as Godfr. de familus: 
Henr. de Gandavo, Joannes, Monacb. Cardin. Joannes de Poliaco. Pope 
John. XXII. caused John de Poliaco, openly io retradt in Paris. The 
Affertions which he held were thefe. 

The firft was, they which were confeffed to. JFryars, -al* . . 
though having a general Licence to hear eonfafitbds, were Mo num . 
bound again to confefs their iins to their own #ari(h- prieft 
by the aforenamed Canon. 

The fecond was, that the fakl Canon, ftanding in force, 
ParKhioners were bound once, in a year to confefs their 
fins to their Prieft. . For the doing other wife importeth a 
contiadi&ion in it (elf. 

The third was, that the Pope could not give general 
licence to hear confeilions fo, but, that the Pariihoncr fo 
confeffed was bound to reiterate the fame a>nfcifiori made 


152 2$e Cccitftafttcai $ifto# Cent. 14. 

unto his own Curate. Which he proved by divers places 
of the Canon Law. 

The fourth opinion was, that the Fryars by the Licence of the Pope 
and of the Bifhops, might lawfully hear confeffions, and the people 
might be of them confefled and abfolved. But yet notwithstanding 
it was juft, neft, and profitable, that once in the year they mould be 
confefled to the Curates (although confefled before to the Fryars,) be- 
caufe of the admininiftration of the Sacraments, efpecially at Eafter, of 
which opinion was Wiliam de monte Landutto* 

The fifth opinion was. that albeit the Fryars might at all times, and 
at Eafler alfo hear confeilions, as the Curates did, yet it was fafer at 
the time of Eafier to contefs to the Curates than to the Fryars. And 
of this opinion was Richard of Armagh, Arch- Biftiop and Primate of 

In the time of PopeClement Vl. John King of France , invented 
Eccfcf. the Sect and Order of thofe Monks, which are called Stetiati , whofe 
fift. P, 391. manner is always to wear a ftar upon their Breaft , fignifying thereby, 
that there is nothing in them but the light of perfection, and the clear 
(hining of good works : yea , that they themfelves are the light 
of the World. Iff w, That they (hall rife again at the laft day all (hi- 
ning and gliftering, as the moft clear and pleafant ftars , according as 
it is written, Dan. 12.3. *fbey that turn many unto Rigbteoufitefs 5 jhafl 
be M the ftars for ever and ever. 

After the death of Pope Clement VI. fucceeded Innocent Vl. before 
whom the aforefaid Richard of Armagh publifhed nine Articles againft 
the begging Fryars. This Pope builded Walls about Avignon^ 
and founded an houfe of Carthttfian Monks without the City. 

Popel/rban v. fucceeded him, Anno 1364. Nicholas Orem made a 
Sermon before the Pope and his Cardinals on Cbriftmas-evcn, in which 
he rebuketh the Prelates and Priefts of his lime , declaring their de- 
ftru&ion not to be far off, by certain figns taken of their wicked and 
corrupt life. He proveth the Popijb Clergy to be fo much worfe than 
the old Sjiflagogue of the Jeu>s,by how much it is worfe to fell the 
Church/ ahd Sacraments-: than to fuffer Doves to be fold in the 

In the year 1370. Peter Kclfort of Lemottfm, who took the name of 
Gregory XI. was created likewife at Avignon , who thought good to 
transfer the Apoftolical Chair from Avignon back again to Rome , a 
thing almoft incredible: for fo many French Popes fucceeding one 
another,thcy had fo weakned the Italian party, that these were fcarce 
any Italian Cardinals among them all, and of the French there were 
more than twenty. 


Cent. 14. Of F R A N C E. 

Several reafons are alledged to have moved Gregory to this refoluti* 
on, but particularly thefe following. The firft was, that he faw all 
Italy in Arms, not only by the Wars betwixt Venice and Genoa , but by 
a refolution feveral Cities had taken to (hake off the yoke of their 
fervicude , and re-eftablKh themfelves in a fiate of Liberty, which 
he believing to be occafioned by the abfence of the pilot 
from the Veffel of Rome^ he began to think of refettling his pontifical 
refidence in Italy. The fecond was, That one day reprehending a cer- 
tain Bi(hop Chis familiar) that he left the BHhoprick to follow the 
Court, the BUhop confidently replyed. And you who are Pope of Rome, 
why are you in France ? Why are you fo long from the place where 
your Church doth lye? Others will have it, that a Letter from St. 
Bridget, (whom the Pope lookt upon as a true Saint^) contributed 
much,in which {he advifed him as from God,to return to Rome.He gave 
order for twenty Galleys to be ready in the Rhone, pretending to go 
fomewhither elfe with them,becaufe he fufpec1:ed,tnat the French(who 
had fo much advantage by the refidence of his Court in France) would 
obftrudt it,if they had the leaft notice of his removing the See to Rome. 

But indeed they took not the leaft Alarum at all the preparations 
which were made, as not imagining, that a French Pope would put 
fuch an affront upon his Nation. So that they had no notiee of it till 
the Pope was at Sea, being pafTed as far as Genoa, and from Genoa to 
C&rnetto, where, being weary of his Galleys, he made the reft of his 
Voyage by Land: and being arrived at Rome, he began to apply fit 
Medicines and fpecifical to the maladies of Italy. But he dyed Anno t 
1280. of a great diftemper in his Bladder, after he had fate iix years 
in France, and five in Italy. 

It is reported, that at the hour of this Pope's Death, the palace of 
the Pope at Avignon wasfct on fire, and could not be quenched, till Bale's Pa 
the greateft part thereof was burnt. Afterwards enfued the greatcft o 
fchifm and divifion that ever hapned in the Popedom. 

King John dyed, Anno 1364. to whom fucceeded his Son Charley 
the fifth of that name. King John dyed in England : for the Trench 
King had an earneft defire to fee the King of Eg/*Wagain, becaufe he 
had fo honourably entertained him whilft he was his prifoner. So 
he went, and was entertained very Royally. But (hortly after , he 
fellfick, and dyed at London. His Body was conveyed over into 
France, and buried in the Town of St. Denis, the King of Cyprus being 
prefent at his Funerals. 

Charles V. called the Wife, was crowned at Rhemes , together with 
his Wife, the Daughter of Peter Duke of Bourbon. He made his youn- 
ger Brother Philip, Duke of Burgundy, who had been prifoner with his 
Father in England. 

Many Lords in Gafcoign revolted from Prince Edrvard 
X unto 

unto the French King. Prince Edward after his great victories , had 
carried himfelf roughly toward the Noble-men his Subje&s. But 
the French King beiides his excellent Wifdom , was alfo gentle and 
courteous, infinuating himfelf into the affections of all men. 

The Duke of Arijou marching with his forces from Iholoufe , eafily 
recovered all the Towns and holds that were pertaining to the EngHJh 
in thofe quarters. The King of England loft all his whole Seignc- 
ry of Gafcoign, the people partly rebelling--, and partly yielding them- 
felves willingly to his enemy. PoiSiers alfo yieldeth to the French. 
The men of Rochet yield alfo unto the French. 

King Charles dyed of poifon taken long before. He was a Prince 
chro- fo wife and politick, that fitting in his Gown at Paris in eafe and 
quietnefs, he recovered many things by counfel and policy, which 
his predeceffours had loft in the field to their Enemies. And among 
other vexations which hapned to King Edward at his laft Voyage that 
he intended into 'Britain for the refcue of his men befieged, when he 
\vasforcedbackbytheextremity of weather: this one thing trou- 
bled him above the reft, that he muft make war with fuch an enemy 
as never bare Arms} nor came into the field i it is reported that he faid, 
he never dealt with any enemy, which ufedfp little armour, and put 
himtofo much trouble. For King Charles , after he came to the 
Crown, never put on Armour himfelf, but managing all his affairs 
by Wifdom and policy , committed the execution thereof to his 

In the time of Charles V. a Book was written in France, called, Ihe 
T ^ tr S srs Dream, firft in Latin, then tranflated in French by his command, 
In the feventh and eighth Chapter whereof the Clergy- man and 
the Knight confer together on this wife. I call (faith the Clerk ) and 
account the Decrees and Decretals of the Holy Fathers of Rome to be 
good Law, which oblige every true Chriftian at a. Subject and Son of a 
Holy Church our Mother. To whom the Knight replyeth, If the terms 
cf Rome he Decrees, or Decret als, Ordinals, or Conftitutions touching the 
Temporal affairs of Kings, Princes, or other Secular Lords , you Clerkj a*> 
mong your felves jhaH caV and account them Law , if you pleafe. But 
the truth is, That uo Man can eftablifh, or ordain any thing where 
he hath no power nor Authority. So as the King of France hath no 
power to make a Law or Ordinance to bind or tye the Empire i fo 
neither can the Laws of the Emperour bind the King of France and. 
his Subjects. And a little after. I hold it therefore a frivolous thing^ 
and very ridiculous, that the Holy Father (hoxld makf any Decree ^Decretal^ 
or constitution about Temporal matters. 

In the thirteenth years .of the aforefaid Charles V. Charles IV. Em- 
perc'jrof Germany came into France by Cambray- 9 to do certain pil- 
grimages at St. Vemi t and elfewhere , arsdfo was conveyed with ho- 
nour a-. 

Cent. 14. Of FRANCE, 

nourable men unto St. Quintin, and from thence to Parif. 

Matbijs, a Bohemian, abode a long time in Paris, and was called Pa- 
rienfts, he wrote a large Treatife of Antichrift, in which he proveth that 
the Pope is the Antichrift. He inveigheth againft the Clergy for neg- 
ligence in their callings, and calleth them the Locufts mentioned in 
the Revelation. He complains'that every City, and almoft each man 
had his proper Saint or Saviour, befides Chrift : the Images and Re- 
liques that are fet up in Churches to be adored, he calleth the Inventi- 
on of Antichrift. He faith, the worfhip of God is not tyed to per- 
fons, places, nor times i he rebuketh the Cloyfterers for contemning 
the Lay-men, and calling themfelves the only Religious^ he refuteth the 
merit of works, and calleth them the caufe of falvation , ftne qua non. 
In the end he prophefied, That God will once again fend Godly prea- a t taUTeft ' r * 
chers , who in the zeal of Elias, will openly difclofe Antichrift unto 
the eyes of all the world. 

After the death of Pope Gregory, the Church began to be miferably 
torn with new fcmlmes, which began to arife betwixt the Fwwfcand 
Italian Cardinals, each Nation choofing it's own Pope, and in it's own 
manner. The French not able to digeft the affront they received from 
Gregory, in tranfporting the See from France into Italy, departing pri- 
vately from Rome, they removed to Fondi; and being arrived there 
theyufed many inveftives aud Satyrs againft Vrban VI. whom they 
had already with the Italian Cardinals eleded in Rome. They pre- 
tended, that they were forced to it by the people of Rome, otherwife it 
was never their intention to make an Italian Pope. 


For thefe reafons, the Chair (in their Judgements) being vacant 
e favour of Joan Queen of Sicily, who was their friend, they c 


, , chofe 

another Pope, one Robert*, a Cardinal, with the Title of the Hoiy A- 
poftles. He was of Geneva, and particularly of theAntient Family of 
the Centi : in that City he took upon him the name of Clement VII 
From Fondi, Clement removed with his Cardinals to Avignon where he 
was obeyed by the Frm&and Spaniard.Thek difputes lafted long , the 
Legitimate Pope at Rome, and and the Anti-Pope at Avignon firing 
their Bulls upon one another, and fending them forth into all parts of 
the World. The adherents of both fides fet forth feveral fefittna- 
tory Libels, calling one another Scbifmatiek^ Heretic^ lyrant Ibief 
?rayt 6 r,Wi c ^ed,Son>er f Sediticn,SonofVelial, and fuch like Stuff: 
of which there are two Treatifes extant at this day i one of them 
written by Dr. John de Ligni , in favour of Vrban againft Clement 
and the other by the Abbot of St. Vajl in favour of Clement asainli 

Whilft Clement was contriving which way to remove the Pope 
who refided in Rome , he dyed, Anno 12. and was buried in 

X 2 He 

3C|)e cccleftafttcal $tfto# cent. 14. 

He being dead Bsniface IX. who was Pope at that time in 
writ a Fatherly Letter to the French Cardinals exhorting them to de 
fift from their Schifm, and return to their obedience to the Holy Mo- 
ther the Church, of which he was (he faid) the lawful Head. But 
theFrench laughing (as it were) at fuch perfwafions, chofe a focceflbur 
to Clement, which was Pietro delta Luna, who took the name of Bexe- 
di3 XIII. who had argued very much in Clement's juftification > and 
that was the principal point upon which he was chofen by the 
Cardinals , who concluded, that he who defended another's caufe 
with fuch ardour , would doubtlefs more vehemently defend his 

Whilft this Ami- Pope had his refidence in Catalonia, in the Caftle 
of Panifiola, adminiftring the Sacramentss, and conferring of digni* 
ties, He was condemned together with the Cardinals which ele&ed 
him by the Authority of a general Council. 

After wards he afTembled a Council at Perpignan, where he created 
feveral Cardinals, and commanded them after his death to follow his 
orders, which were to choofe another Pope without lofing of time, 
which they did. For this Anti- Pope being dead at Panifcola -, the 
Cardinals chofe one Giles Mungot , a Chanon of Barcelona , in his 
place, calling him Clemently, who at the Inftance of King Alpbonfo 
created Cardinals forthwith, and began to Acl: in every thing as the 
true Popes ufe to do.. 

But afterwards upon Pope Martin the fifth's accomodation with 
King Alphonfo, Giles (being commanded ) renounced the rights of the 
Papacy, and was declared Bi(hop of Majorca : and the Cardinals which 
he had created, were likewife forced to renounce their Cardinalitiai 

Charles VI. fucceeded his Father in the Kingdom of France at the 
Age of 12 years, he was crowned in the year 1380. married in 13-84. he. 
falls into a Phren fie, Anno 1393. and dyes, Anno 1422. 

Charles the Wife, left two Sons , viz. this Charles VI. and Lever- 
Duke of Orleans. And Charles VI. had three Sons, Levees, John and- 
Charles, ,and one Daughter named Katherine. Thefe three Sons were 
T>a*lphins one after another in their Father's Life. And Katherine 
was married to Hemy V. afterwards King of England, a mournful gage 
of an horrible confution for this Kealm, 

Cent i . 

Of FRANCE. 157 

Century XV. 

CUarles VI. having called a Council at Paris to confult about 
the fchifm which then was in the Popedom, would not fuffer 
the Arch- Bithops and Bifliopsof Rbemes, Rboan,Se*s^ Paris, 
Beauvis, and fome others, to affift there , becaufe 1 they were 
'Benedicts partizans, by reafon of the great courtefies they had received 
either from him or hispredecefTour. 

In a Decree made February 1 8. 1 406. we find a complaint by Charier 
VI. They take occasion to referve the Firjl-fruits in the vacancies , anil 
to extort great fums of Money , whereby the Kingdom is exbaufted i andfo 
thruft tbemfelves upon the Popedom, for to enrich both them and theirs. 
And when there is any queftion (faith he) of preferring men to elective 
dignities, they never ufedthofe ways which ought to be obferved, and which 
are appointed to examine and try them. Whence it comes topafs , that it 
being not poflible that the Pope Qiould tytow all Men , and the ft ate of the' 
Churches, he admit! divers into thofe dignities who are unworthy of them^ 
and fotnetimes fitch as are unknown to him hut by their money. He ad- 
deth, They infert divers claufes in their BuVs, which are fometimes inex- 
tricable : they make divers Rules befides the Law , or elfe quite agaiaft 
Law^ which they revokf at their pleafure j infomuch that the tnoft clear~ 
fjghted cannot difcern who hath beft right among divers pretenders. 
Hence arife infinite Suits in Law, which they mujl profecute out of the 
Kingdom with great expeuce and charges. 

In another Decree, made the fame year , he accounts this among 
other extortions, Impofing 'tenths, and other Subsidies at their pleafure^ 
without ever confulting the reft of the Eijhops about it , in the raifing 
whereof there vs no mean obferved either of Justice or equity : It was then 
ordained, that none (hould pay Tythes to Popes nor Cardinals. 

And in another Decree made in March , Anno 1408. mention is 
made of certain prefidents by Charles VI. eftabliflied at a Council at 

Not long Ago ffaith he)i* was propofed and demanded by our Attor- 
ney-General at a Council holdea at Paris , confining of the Bifkops and 
Clergy, of the Churches within our Kingdom, and T>aulphiny , where our 
Coufin Lewes, King of Sicily j our eldeft Son Vukfof Aquitain and Vi- 
ennoisi the T>ttkg of Bourges ourVncfy by the Father's fide -, the T>ukf 
ef Burgundy. ourCoufin^ and the Z5% o/Burbon our Vncty by the 




fide, for f, that the. Pope's exattions and other grie- 
vances formerly rehearfed might be utterly abolijked. 

We read of another Decree made afterwards, wherein complaint is 
made by the fame King Charles VI. that an infinite deal of Gold and 
Silver^ and Rents were transported out of the Kingdom and the Province 
of Daulphine^ to the prejudice of the antient Cuftoms^ and the undoing of 
the Realm j to the irreparable lofs and damage of the Common- wealth 
and the miferable defolation of the Churches^ as well fttcb as were of Roy- 
al Foundation as others. And elfewherehe complaineth,^^cfr^ 
Coflefiors, and other the Tope of Rome'/ Officers particularly for bvs Mo- 
neys have of late oppreffed the C.hmch and Chnrch-men of our Realm and 
"Province of Dattlphine, by an infijferable flavery , in feizing upon the 
Goods of the Bifoops and Clergy-men^ both Regulars and Seculars , prefent- 
ly upon their T>e ce afe j AnEdi&was made difcharging the payment 
of Annates. 

Pope Vrban VI. being dead in Rome after he had managed the 
Popedomfor eleven years, with little fttisfadtion either to the people 
or Clergy, the Cardinals created Boniface the ninth, in the 33. 
year of his Age, who (he wed much prudence in the whole courfe 
*>f his Papacy. He fate fourteen years, and nine months , and dyed 
Anno 1405. 

Koubri- - Kj ng Charles VI. beftirred himfelf to remove the fchifin which was 
' between RenediS XIII. and Boniface IX. and to difpofe all the Princes 
of Chriftendom for the fame defign, according to the Teftimony of 
an English Hiftorian. He heard with patience (faith he) the Legates of 
either Pope: but by the advice of his Divines be would not fubmit him- 
felf^ neither to the one^ nor to the other. He rather thought on * means 
whereby he might relieve the Church^ by removing out of her all matter 
of diffention. Having therefore fent his Ambaffadours to the Emperour^ 
as alfo to the Kings of England, Bohemia, and Hungary , he conjured 
them not to be wanting to the public}^ good and tranquillity. He perfwa- 
ded Wenceflam the Emperour to come to Rfomes , where a general 
Council was held on that occafion. 

I find another Ordinance of the fame King Charles VI. made by 
tne c ounfel and affiftance of the Lords and Clergy of France , wherein 
p. 15, he faith, 'that the Royal power is ordained of God fer the prefervation of 
the Church^ and that the Kingdom of Heai'en increafeth by means of the 
Earthly Kingdom, when th&fe which dejlroy the Church are crushed by the 
rigour of Princes, "fhat the /acred Canons will have recourfe to be made 
unto Princes , when fucb things are committed by great men in the 
Church^ and that according to the opinion of Holy T)o8ours the Popf 
ought net-to be obeyed in fucb things wherein the Jlate of the Church if 
notoriety dijlnrbed. And in another Ordinance of April 17. 1410. 
Theft things being covfidered that it belongs unto ttf who are the Guardi- 

Cent. 1 5. Of FRANCE. 

an, Protector^ and Defender of the Churches of our Kingdom , and of 
T)aulpbirie, an&whi have ratified and approved the Statutes and Ordinan- 
ces aforefaid^ made in the Council afore faid^ to caufe all this, and all that 
followeth upon it to be kjpt invidlable^ &c. 

There is an Arrcft of the Parliament of Par'u toward the latter end 
of this King's Reign, wherein it is faid , that Pope Benedict and his 
Officers fhould from thenceforth give over and abftain from the ex- 
action of Annates in* the Kingdom of France , and the County of 

ThefameC^r/f/VI. being excommunicated by Benedict the XIIL * 
put the bearers of his Bulls to the * Honourable Amends^ making them mire : so 
to be carried in Tumbrels, apparelled in painted Coats, with paper' 
Mitres upon their heads , ami the Pope's Bull reprefented in their 
hands, and his Arms reverfed. All which was done by the advice of 
his Princes, Lords, and the Prelates and other Ecclefiafticks of his 
Kingdom, together with the Parliament and Univerfity of Paris , as 
appeareth by the A&s publifhed concerning this particular. 

After the death of Pope Boxiface IX. the Cardinals created Cofmo di 
Sulmona Pope, who took the name of Innocent VII. he lived but two 
years after , and dyed ia a time when all Italy was in an ill 

Whilft this fchifm continued, Three Princes in France ("who by 
reafon of the King's indifpofition did then govern that Kingdom) 
viz. the Dukes of Berry , of Burgundy , and of Orleans , went all of 
them together to Pietro di Luna (who was called Beneditl XIII.) to A' 
vignon, bcfeeching him to provide againft this diforder, by renouncing 
the Papacy j urging, that it was much better to have the publick inte- 
reft take place than the private > and the rather becaufe he had promi- 
fed in his Election to lay down, whenfoever things mould be adjufted 
with Rome. 

They alfo promifed him, That that Pope, which fliould be marie in 
Rome after Innocent fhould do the like, every one believing , that if 
thefe two favourites (one of France, the other of Italy) were difpoiTefT- 
ed of the power of the Keys, which they both exercifed at that time, 
a third ought to be created, who fhould be the certain and undoubted 

Beneeltft replyed, that he could not without offending God, confent 
to the counfels propofed for his renouncing the Church, and abando- 
ning the flock pfChrift, which by the common confent of fo many 
good and worthy perfons andEledrors, was committed to his cuftody, 
being unwilling to brjng a thing in quelHon which he had fo legally ob- 
tained.. And tor what refpedied the taking away the. fcjiifm, and re- 
fioring concord to the Church,it pleafed him very well, and he would 
ondefcnd to it with all his heart, provided a fecure place were cho- 


160 23)eeccieftafticai$tfto?p Cent. 15. 

fen, in which every one might fpeak his mind freely. For his own 
part he fwore, that in cafe the fchifm could not be taken away by any 
other means, that he would renounce the Papacy upon condition the 
other at Rome would do the fame j other wife it was to no purpofe to 
folicite it. 

The Princes underftood Benedict's mind, and how little he was dif- 
pofed to anaccomodation, and among themfelves confulted of fome 
way to bring him over to their defires. Benedift fearing fome violence, 
fortified himfelf in his palace, and wasbefieged there the fpace of five 
or fix months. 

But being weary of fo long and clofe a confinement, he imbarked 
in the Rhone upon certain Galleys ( which he had caufed to be put 
in order for fuch an enterprize , whilft be was befieged in his pa- 
lace) and in them he efcaped into Catalonia , which was his own 

Some fay , that thefe three Princes difcourfed in this manner 
with Benedict at the importunity of the Trench Cardinals, who 
hated the faid Benedict , becaufe he was a Cataknian^ not a 

The Italian. Cardinals, and the Cardinals of other Nations which 
were prefent in Rome , after the death of Innocent , being entred into 
the conclave, in a place near St. Peters, they fwore all of them folemnly 
upon the Holy Evangelifts, which their Dean held in his hand , that 
they would every one renounce the Papacy if they were chofen , fo 
that the French or Catalonian Anti-Pope renounced his Anti-Papacy 

The caufe of this Refolution was to fatisfie the Trench^ who having 
introduced the cuftom of creating of Popes according to their own 
mode, it feemed impofiible to turn them out of that way with reputa- 
tion, unlefs the Italians refolved to do the famei and the rather, be- 
c&uk'&enedift declared, it would be in vain to think of a remedy for 
the fcandal of the Church, without a renunciation of both the Popes i 
whereas if they renounced , another would be chofen out of the 
whole College of Cardinals , that would be true and undoubted Pope, 
whom the Princes and people would readily obey. 

Angela Corraro^^Venetian^^s chofen in Rome i he was Cardinal of 
St. Markka and aflumed the Name of Gregory XII. Before he came 
out of the conclave, they made him promife under the hand of the 
Notary in writing, to obferve what he had promifed and fubfcribed 
with his own hand j and at laft gave him an Oath. But the place 
where thefe two Popes were to meet being in difpute , and they not 
like to come to an agreement j both Gregory and Bencdift alledging a 
thoufand difficulties, the French Cardinals refolved to abandon Beue- 
&&> ad the Italians Gregory, and to declare them breakers of their 
Faith, The 

Cent. if. Of FRANCE. 161 

The Cardinals both of Avignon and Ro/wf, being met at Pi fa , did 
by common confent deprive Gregory and Eenedift ^ all the reft of the 
Nations concurring with them, except Catalonia^ and the hither part 
of Spain,the King of Scotf, and the Count of Armignac , who wer,e 
favourers of fienedift. 

But in defpight of their contradictions, they chofe Pie tro F Hards, a 
Fryar Miser, and Arch- Bifhop of Milan, who took upon him the 
name of Alexander V, a name fuitable to his A&ions, for which reafon 
it was pleafantly faid by himfelf, that he was a rich Eijhop, a poor Car- 
dinal^ and a beggarly Pope. 

Gregory hearing that Alexander was created Pope^ and understanding 
what fentence the Cardinals had pafTed againft him and Benedict , fled 
towards Romagna, urging and infifting ( wherefoever he came) upon a 
general Council. He flayed at Rimini fora time, where he was mag- 
nificently entertained by Carlo Malatefte. 

Beneditt having held a Couucil in thc.City of Perpignan^ by the in- 
tervention of his own friends , retireth again for his greater fecu- 
rity into his Caftle of Panifcola , where he had been long before. 

But though thefe two Anti- Popes had been deprived by the Coun- 
cil of P//i,yet they defifted not from their Papal, and Ecclellaftical 

They created Cardinals , and particularly Gabriel Cendolmtro was 
created Cardinal, who was afterwards Eugenia* IV. 

Alexander lived not above eight months Pope, he dyed in 'Bologna-* 
Then the Cardinals chofe Baltaftr Cofla fa Neapolitan) Pope, who 
would be called John XXIII. 

Chriftendom being weary to fee fo many fchifms on foot, was con- 
triving which way to put an end to it. Therefore by the orders of ali 
Nations, John was cited to appear at a general Council. 

Hefcnttwo Cardinals immediately to negotiate with the Princes of 
Germany and of France, about the choice of a fit pla<:e for the .celebra- 
tion of a Council. At kngth Conjiance was pitch t upon as the moft 
convenient City of all. At the time appointed, they met, and John 
among the reft, who carried along with him certain men very Learn- 
ed, with whom he held fhe Germans for a long time in variety of 

But the Emperour S/^//^W arriving at the fame time many great 
delinquencies were objected againft Jobn^ who being confcious of their 
truth, and fearing corporal punishment, as well as to be deprived of the 
Papacy, fled out of Conjl*nce 3 in the difguife of a Foot-man,and retired 
toSbajfafen^ City belonging to Frederic^ Duke of Auftria , whkhcr 
divers Cardinals of his creation fled alfo. 

John being recited by the Council, fled to Friburg , to be under the 
protection of the Duke of Ettrgundy. But he was taken, and by order 

Y of 

<5a P(C ecclefmftfeai $OtO Cent, j . 

of the Council imprifoned in the We of St. Mark^ near Conflance. 
Above fourty Articles were proved againft him ; and a!! the Fathers 
concurring in the fentence, John was legally depofed, and the fentence 
fent to .him to fubfcribe, which he willingly did. 

Then was he delivered unto Ljtdovico Ea^aro , to be kept in fafe. 
cuftody. Three years he continued a prifoner in thecaftlc of Haldel- 
ber<r. In this Council a Decree was publiihe-d, that a general Coun- 
cil lawfully affembled was above the Pope. 

Gregory came not to the Council, but fent by Carlo Malatefta-. to the 
Council to let them underftand his willingnefs to renounce. Gregory 
was hereupon declared Legate T>eV* M*rca, and went to his charge, 
but he dyed foon after at Ricznati of difcontenr. John and Gregory 
being removed-, there remained a third ftill, which was Berifditl XIII. 
who declared that he would never renounce. Hereupon Sigifmund 
the Empercur went in perfon to the Kings of Frame and of England, 
to advife with them about forcing "Benedict to a renouncing alfo: Si-, 
gifmttnd having received afatisfa&oryanfwcr from thefe two Princes, 
he went toNarhon, and difcourfedperfonally with Ferdinand King of 
Arraffon, whole Subjedh paid obedience to' Bined:3. 

Bnt Venedici frill alledged, that he was the true Vicar of Chrift, fay- 
ing, that Coxftance was not a place convenient for the liberty of an Ec- 
cletiaitical Council, feeing that JjhH'hzd been condemned and depofed 
from the Papacy, by thofe very perfons who had been formerly his 
FTiends,and received him to the Pontihcal dignity. 

The Princes of Spain obferving-the pertinacity of Bmofiflp, con- 
curred with the opinion of the Council, which was managed by five 
feveral Nations, viz, Italy, Germany^ England , France , and Spain. 
What thefe Nations had done was approved, and publimed by a Trum- 
pet, or a publick Notary. Then fynedffi's caufe being difcuffed , he 
was at laiidepofed, and declared void of the Papacy, no reckoning be- 
ing made of theabfent Scots ju\d Count d' Armignttc, who continued 
their rbcdience to him. About this time JobnHufs , arid Jerome of 
Prague , his Difciple , were condemned and burnt for He- 

On Novemb,%.Annj 1417. thirty two Cardiqalsentred the conclave, 
with thirty otherjfor the feveral Nations, which is fix a piece, and on 
the i !.'* of the fame Month, which was the Feaft of St. Martin, about 
three in the Morning, Cardinal di fanGregorio fcalled Oddo Colonna 
beforej was created Pope, with great fat*sfadion to the people. The 
Empcrour prefently went into the cor.chve, and having thanked the 
Cardinals, kitted the Pope's Feet. The Pope embraced him, and 
thanked him for his great induftry in that affair. This Pope would 
reeds be called Martin, beca^fe his Election hapned on that Saint's day. 
Then all the French Cardinals left Pfa^/tf, and came in unto Martin* 


Cent. i$. Of FRANCE. 163 

the Scots, and <sP Armignac did the fame, and all Chriitendom except 
Panifcola which remained divided. 

Martin being defirous to put an end to the Council, Anno 1418. he 
made a publick Aflembly, after which by common confent, but eipe- 
cially of Sigifmund, Ibaldo Cardinal of St. Vito , by order trom the 
Pope, pronounced thefe words of difmiilion, Domini ite in pace, and fo 
all had liberty to depart. 

Then Martin hattned toRome, travelling by Milan as the ncarcft 
way. He fate fourteen years, and dyed of an Apoplexy, Febr, 20. 
Anno, 1 43 1 . 

When Benedict had fate thirty years, and was dead , his Cardinals 
chofe Pope Clement VIII. but he compounded withMtfm;^ and fo the 
fchifm was ended. 

Henry V. King of England had invaded France, and foon after at the 
Battle of Agin-Court ten thoufand French-men were flain. Anthony 
Duke of Brabant, with his Brother Philip Earl of Never s , were alfo 
llain by the Englijh Bow-men. Thefe were Brethren to John Duke of 
'Burgundy. Charles Duke of Orleans , and Lewes of Bttrbon : - the Earls 
of Richemont,Ett>,zndVendofme (the (trongeft pillars of the Orleans 
faction) with many other Noble-men and Gentlemen were taken pri- 
foners, and carried into England. Lerves the Uaalphindyeth foon af- 
ter this defeat. 

The Emperour Sigifmttnd cometh into France , making fhew of 
the great defire he had to make a peace betwixt the French and the 
English. - 

The English take all Normandy, and Taiwan is belieged and taken, and 
allthelfleof France yield eth to King Henry , even to the Gates of 

France was now ftrangely divided into divers factions. The King's 
Authority were for the Queen and the Ettrgnndian. Yiccardy^ "Bttrgun- 
dy, and many other Towns in ry, Champagne, and Beauffe , obeyed 
them abfolutely after the great maflacres that had been lately done in 
Paris. Only Sens adhered to the Vaittphin Charles. 

The Prince of Orange (of the Bttrgttnrlian Fadion) makes War in 
Dattlphine and Languedoc, to crofs the affairs of Charles, who notwith- 
ftanding had the greateft part of the Countrey at his devotion , with 
the friendfhip of Avigmn^ and the fcarldpm of Veriefi. The JLnglijh 
poiTefTcd all Normandy, and-a great part of Gitjenne. But Rochet, Poi- 
tiers, St. John de Angela, Angonlefm^ Fontenay, and fome other Towns 
acknowledged' the T>anlphin, 

fi\\Anjo?t was his, Avergne, Berry, Bttrboncis, Forreft and Lionou o- 
beyed him. He likewife took upon him the Name of Regent. 

The Djuke of Britain leaves the Englifo, and joyns with the Daxl- 
phin. The people grow in diflike with the Duke of Burgundy , and 

Y 2 the 

Gem, 15. 

the Parifians mutiny againft the Bttrguxdiay. fa&ion ,. and kill hi* 

At length a peace is made betwixt the Uaulpbin and the Ettrgundiax, 
Anno 1 41 p. but foon after the Uaulphin caufeth John Duke of *>v 
#^ to be murthered in his prefence. This John had flain Charles. 
Duke of Orleans traiteroufly, and now, he is treacheroufly flain by 
Charles the Vaulfbin. 

Philip Son to John Duke of Burgundy, furs up great troubles againft 
Charles the Dautybin in revenge of his Father 5 / death. By his means- 
Jfabel^ an uskind Mother, makes War againft Charles her Son , and 
peace with H*nry V. King of England^ then a Capital Enemy to the 
State. She gives him bier Daughter Katherine in Marriage,and procures 
King Charles VI. her Husband to declare Henryhis lawful Heir, and 
todifmherit his only Son Charles, from the Realm of France. 

But in the midft of thefe occurrences, Henry V. dyeth,in the vigour* 
of his age and fpirit on the laft day of AxgH^Anno 1422. and Charles 
VI. the French King, dyed fifty days after , on the 2 2. of .Otfober the 
fame year. 

After his Funerals, Henry VI. an Infant, Son to Henry V, is proclai- 
med King of Fr<j*cf,and after is crowned King at Paris. 

Charier VII. after the deceafe of his Father Charles VI.. took upon 
him the name of King of France, notwithstanding the pretenfion of 
the English: He was 2 1 years old when he began to reign, and reigned 
3P years. The beginning of his reign was troublefome, till he was 
inftalled King, and thereby acknowledged of all the French. 

Afterwards he reduced the Cities fubdued by the English to his o- 
bediencf, beginning with the City .of Parti , and fo proceeding to the 
reft of the Realm, expelling the Englijh from all, except Calais. In 
the clofe of his Reign he had many Domeftical difcontcnts, 
, which hafkned his Grave, after the happy events of all his 

At this time flouruhed JobnGerfon^z divine of Paris, he was pre-r 
fent at the Council of Confiance, and in feme written Treatifes highly 
commendeth the decree, that the Bilhop of Kowrfhould be fubjed to 
l ^ c ^ ounc ^ : an d faith, 'fbe thiug is worthy to be written in all places for 
a perpetual memory. He was the molt learned Man of his time , and 
-the only Doftorand Leader of jfrz Council of Con\}ance> He was 
counted a fubtle difputer, and profound School-Doctor. One calleth 
iiim the learned and devout Chancellour of Farts. 

He was much acquainted with Temptations, and wrote a Book de 
variiStDiabeli tentationibw. He was lirnamed Dottor Cbriftianifitmnt. 
His works are Printed in four Volumes ; hi$ French works are mcntior 
d? c?c- ^d by Antoine du Verdier in hisBibliotbeque. , 

viro--. LC- la his Treatife fa. defefttt i-irornm &de$$Wtiwt) he fets down fuch 


Gent. 15. Of FRANCE. 

things as oughtto be reformed in the Church, and among others, men- 
tions this, 'that known Mett^ and fuch as are mop fitting, be Elefted out 
of the fame Countrey : that grangers in manners^ language, and educati* 
on, be not fent and Jet oner Churches. 

And in his Book of Ecclefiaftical power, after he hath fpoken of the Gerfon lib . dfr . 
divers abufes of the Popes, he addeth, IVhat foall wetbink^ if to be faid cdC pote*. 
of an infinite number offucb likf things that are done , cafling afide all- 
care and regar-dof all Spiritual and Divine matters, which concern the 
Chrijlian Faith and Religion ? What thinly yon ? What fid! we fay 
for tbeprcfent f that fa eafie a difpenfatiott M they fyeaf^ of, granted by 
the Pope and the Prelates over lawful Oaths , reafonable Vows , for tbe 
exceflite plurality of Benefices , tbe general non obftantes of Councils, tbe 
privileges <wd exemptions againjl common right ? Who can number all tbe 
ways whereby tbe force of Ecclefiaftical (yea of Evangelical) T>ifcifline j*- 
enfeebled, confamed, and quite annihilated ? 

He addetb tbe cunning and glazing flattery of Vp-ftarts^bifperingthe 
Clergy^ but efpecially the P^pe in the Ear. Ob bow great vs tbe btigbt of 
your Ecclefiajiical power ! f acred Clergy ! all fecular Authority is bttt 

in comparifon of tbine, feeing that M all power is given to Cbrift, 
both in Heaven and Earth, jo Cbriji bath bequeathed all to St. Peter,' 
and bis Sttccejjours t 

Soth at Confantine gave nothing to Pope Silvefter, which was not eri* 
ginally hit own > but only reftoredunto him what he ttnjuftly detained 
from him. Again^ as there tf no power but if of God y fo there is nothing 
Temporal or Spiritual, Imperial or Regal, which is not of tbe Pope, upon 
whofe Ibigh God bath Writ, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. S* 
as todifputehis power it a kind of Sacrilege. 

20 whom- no Man may fay, why do you fo? Although be foottld ex-* 
change, purloin, or fell all the 'temporals, the Goods, Lands and Lordjhips 
ef tbe Church. Let me be a Lyar if allthefe things be not written by 
fuch as feem to be wife men in their eyes j and if they have not been be* 
lieved alfo by fame Topes. 

Sttpbanw fafckafais in his Icones hath thefe Verfes of Gerfon, - 

Quid potuit Sorbona, daces meritiflime Gerfo-j - 
Itt magni Geifoluxque^eatfque Chart. . 

At the famttimeflourUhed Nicholas de ClemangM, a Mafter of P^ 1 - 
rk,and Arch-Deacon of Baton, a man pious and Learned, one calls 
him one of themoft Lcarr : and Eloquent Divines of his time. He 
wrote a Book of the mine art I reparation of the Church. Of which 1 detain. "&"" 
(hall fet down fome paiTagcs in general terms.- Firft, (faith he , let KS p 
fpeak.ofthe Head, upon -whom all the reft depends. He afterwards 
addcthjfor the (upream Biihops y who by. haw -much they fee - thenv 

felves > 

166 3i)e cccleftaftical ^ifto?p Cent. 15. 

felves ranked above others in greatnefs, and -Authority , by fo much 
they labour the more to overthrow them, out of a domineering hu- 
mour for the enlarging of their primacy and fupreme power, confide- 
ring that the commodities of the Bifcoprick of Rome, which is very 
large, and above any Kingdom (though it hath been fufficiently cur- 
tail'd by their negligence; can noway fuffice to maintain- the great- 
nefs of their State, which they have purpofed to rajfe high .enough 
above all the Kingsand Emperours in the World , have caft them- 
felves into thofe flocks of others that abound in breeding , in Wool 

de and Milk. He afterwards fpecities the loofenefs, the luxury, vanities, 

.fapS& e reparat! worldlinefs, rapines, vexations, ufurpations, oppreffions , and other 

juft't. P- i. f uc j 1 like abufes and vices of the Popes and their Courts. In another 

Book of his he (heweth, that the Court o(Rome hath infefted France, 

' by coming there, fpecifying all the vices and blemifhes that are com* 
tnunicated unto it, and thofe not a few. 

There was a time ( faith he) when the Apoftolick Bimop, being vex- 
ed with the Tyranny of the Italians, made choice of France for his 
feat, and for all the Court of Rome, fuppofing he could not find afTu- 
red refuge elfe- where : to whom I could with (faith ht) the ftrength 
of Francs had not proved a Staff of a Reed, as it was a long time be- 
fore fore-told that itmould. what was it elfe that brought France 
upon the fudden into thefe miferies, making her fall away from emi- 
nent glory which made her flourifa above all other Nations , but that 
degenerating from thofe Ancient vertues which adorned her with fuch 
an excellency of Honour, (he is changed from Valour to cowardife, 
from diligence to iloath, from honefty to ignominy, from gravity to a 
wanton lightnefs v from temperance to luxury i from courage to pre- 
fumption from liberality to covetoufnefs, and unrefirained fpoiling, 
from order to confufion, from zeal of the publick good to private 
gains, from corre&ion and difcipline to a general impunity and 
licenfe of all wickednefs and mif-demeanours, and from Juftice to all 

And elfewhere he complaineth thus, So ike Church which Chrifi hath 
Traa. dc prz- takgn for hit Spoufe without blemijh disfigured by this horrible 
fd. p. 66 villany, if now the (hop of all Pride, of all grading , filching and jlealin& 
where the Sacraments are httng out for a fhcw, and all the orders , even 
the Priefthood it felf: where favours are fold for fifoer difpenfathns 
for not preaching licences for non-refidence : Where a 0;j CCT and Bene~ 
fees, yea even fins are bought and fold: LaiHy, where M-iJJes, and Admi- 
niftration of the Lord's body are fet to fale. Would any Man have a 
'Bifljopricl^? let him provide hit Money, and that no fa. ill fum , but a 
great one for fo great a litle : and let him not ftand apon emptying his 
pftrfe, for the pztrcbafe of fitch a Dignity, feeing he will qvickly fill it a- 
gain, and that more fiundly than he could do by many fortf of hlerebaft- 


Cent. 1 5. Of FRANCE. \6j 

Doth any defire a Prebend, a Provofi*s place, or fame ether dignity ? 
it is no matter for \nowing his deferts, his Life and Conversation \ but fo 
many Cravens as he hath in fa Cbeji, fitch hopes may be conceive of com* 
pfjfiag bit deftre. For what fooztld I Jpeak^ of poor folks , who are ac- 
counted unprofitable in ali things , and unworthy of all charge or govern" 
nient, and rvbo have m other hopes but to rvax old, and pine away in mi- 
fery difrefpetied and defpifed ? What Jbould a poor Man go to Market 
for with an empty pouch , when he hath nothing t9 buy the JFares 
with ? 

And in another place fpeaking of the Popes, he faith , They have ar- 
x rotated unto themselves the right of difpofing of all Churches, in all places 
as farts the Chrijlian Religion reacbcth, of all Bifocprickj a nd Dignities^ 
which are conferred by election, voiding and difanulling the Decrees for- 
merly made by the Holy Fathers, with fo much care and commodity , that 
Co they may by ihitmeam fill their oven 'Budgets the better. And fines 
this cujiom was ufed, there have been none but Dunces, Worldlings , Mo- 
ney-men, and fi-tch ar rvere raifed to thofe Dignities by .Simony. And a- 
gain, To the end that the Rivers of Gold derived from all parts , may flaw 
nnto them in a fuller fireamftbcy have taken away the power of prefenta* 
tions, and th; liberty of becoming and difpofing of Benefices, by any means 
rvhaifoever^ fforriaU Diocefans , and lawful Matrons, forbidding them 
upon pain of Anathema, rajhly to prefit me (for fo their Writs run) to in* 
jiitute any perfon into a Benefice within their jurifdi&ion, till fuch time 
as fame one be prefented to />, to whom by their Authority they have 
granted it. 

And again f faith he) What gree dim fs is this (fpeaking of the Car- 
dinals) to hold fuch a number of repugnant and incompatible Benefices ? 
Ihey are hlnnkf and Cbanons, Regulars and Seculars. Under the fame 
habit they enjoy the Rights^ Degrees, Offices^ and 'Benefices of all Religi- 
ons^ ef all Orders, of all Frofeffiotts j not two er three^ but ten^ twenty^ 
an hundred, two hundred, yea fometimes five hundred , and upwards : 
and th ife no petty ones, nor contemptible, but of the bef and fattejL And 
bow great a number foever they have of them , they are never content, 
but dill would have more. Ihey are daily ftting for new Graces^ 
new Grants. T.hus they catch up all the Vacancies s and go away 
with all. 

Charles Vll. now King of France, was fo diftreffed, that he had only 
twoentire Provinces kit him^viz. Gafcoign and Languedoc , and his 
enemies were about them : and all the reft was poffefTed by the Englifa 
who f hcfidcs; had bcfieged the City of Orleans, and brought it to that 
pafs, that the higheft hopes of thofe therein , was to yield on good 
terms. Three French Noble- men conclude to fet up a Virgin , called 
Joaxof Arc^ to make her pretend that (he had a Revelation from Hea- 
ven, to drive all the Englijh out of France, 


i <58 5C|)e Cccleftaftical $f(lojp Gent. i$ 

- jr 

By the mediation of the Lord of Eaudricourt,Q\c is brought to the 
prefence of King Charles, whom (he inftantly knew,though never feen 
before, and at that time of fetpurpofedifgaifed. To the King (he 
faith boldly, That this was the time wherein the fins of the Englijh, 
and the fuflfcringscf theErencb , were come to the height,, and (he 
appointed by the God of Heaven, to be the French Leader to conquer 
the Englijh. 

Ever after (he went in Man's cloaths, being armed Cap~a-pf, and 

mounted on a brave fteed. Nofword would pleafe her , but one ta- 

Poiid virgil in ^ e " out ^ theChurch of St. Katherine at Fireboir in Tourain. Her 

Henr.'vi.p.47i. firft fervicc was in twice victualling of Orleans, whilft iheEngli/h made 

no reiiftance. 

Under her conduct, the French drive away the Englijh from Orleans. 
Hence (lie marched on into other Countries, which intfantly revolted 
to the French Crown. The Englijh in many skirmifnes were worfted 
and defeated with few numbers. The French folio wing their blow in 
one twelve- month recovered the greateft part of that the Englijh did 
poflefs. This was done, Anno 142^. 

But this Joan of Arc after the Coronation of King Charles at Rbemes, 
feeking to fur prize St. Honories Ditch, near the City of St. Dents , (he 
was not only wounded her felf, but alfo loft a Troop of her ftouteft 
Souldiers, and not long after, nigh the City of Compiegne , was taken 
prifoner by the Baftard of Vendofme, who fold her to the Duke of Bed- 
ford, and by him (he was kept a prifoner a twelve-month, and burnt in 
Rhoan, being condemned by the Englijh for a Witch. 

The pragmatick Sanction of KmgCharles VII. was made in a Sy- 
nod aiTembled at 'Bonryes, confiding of Arch-Bi(hops, BHhops, Chap* 
ters, Abbots, Deans, Provofts, and other Ecclefiaftical perfons , toge- 
ther with Doctors of Law, Divine and humane , and other Learned 
Men of the Realm, and alfo of the chief Lords of France, and others 
of the King's Council, about receiving the Councils of Conflance and 
Bajil. The Sandion hath this complaint i The Prelates , and other 
ordinary difpenfers, as alfo the Patrons, are deprived of their right, the 
Hierarchy of the Church is confounded, and many other things are 
committed contrary to the Laws of God and Man, to the lofs of SouJs 
and the oppretlion of the Churches of our Realm. The Council of 
Eafil did provide a remedy againft this abufe, and the pragmatick after 
it, but foas the Popes have caft off the yoke of it, having difanulled 
jalmoit all the Decrees of that Council. 

The Popes for a long time branded all the French for Hereticks , by 
reafon of that pragmatick Sanction. 
P. J7- Pope Miwf/V. dyed, Anno 1431. whom EugemtttW. fucceded, 

who was depofed by the Council of *///, aflfdiobled by himfelf to 
reform the Church. IB the place of Eugenins 9 the Council chofe A- 


Cent.i?. Of FRANCE, 169 

*f*cfc/ Duke of Savoy i who called himfelf Felix. But Ettgeniw 
brought againft Eafjl the T>aMlpb'm of France^ who was afterward Le&e t 
XI. who in all things oppofed his Father Charles VII. and his confe- 
derates. He brought four thoufand horfe againft Eafil to break the 
Council , which yet he could not have effe&ed, had not the peftiknce 
within Bafjl, forced the Fathers of the Council to feparatethemfelves, 
after they had condemned Eugeniw as an Heretick,and unworthy to* 
govern the Church. 

But Eugeniw took Arms, and being held up by Princes , maintained 
himfelf againft the Anti- Pope Fe //#, who after he had been five years 
Pope, retired to K/^/tV, a pleafant houfe in Savoy, there to lead a pri- 
vate Life. So the Popedom remained in the hands of a Man depo- 
fed by a Council affembled by the Pope himfelf, where Bifhops met 
out of all parts of the Roman Church. Note, that after this dcpofiti- 
on, he created many Cardinals and Bifhops, whofe Office was null, 
fmce they were created by an Usurper, who had by force maintained' 
himfelf in the Office of a Pope after his depofition. And yet thofe 
very Cardinals, created by this llfurper of the Popedom,are thofe very 
men that ele&ed the Succeflburs of Engenius, Nicholas and Tint the 
fecond, from \\hom isdefcended the fucceilion of the ' Popes of our 
time, as the learned Dr. P-M<?/mhath well obferved. 

The Arch-'Bifhop of Lyons in the Council of Bafil did declare that 
rn the time of Pope Martin, there came out of France to the Court of Fos> Aftand 
Rome, nine millions of Gold, which was gathered of the Bilhops and ^^"^ 
Prelates, befides innumerable fums of the poor Clergy, which daily 
without number ran unto the Court of fame, carrying with them 
all their whole fubftance. The Arch- Bifhop of furemte faid alfo at 
Btf/J/, that three millions of Gold came unto Rome in his time , within 
the fpace of fourteen years, from the Prelates and prelacies , whereof 
no account could be made, befides the poor Clergy, which daily ran to 
that Court. 

The Emperour Sigifmttnd required Peter de Aliaco, Chancellour of 
P*w,and Cardinal of Cambray, to put in form fome Articles con- 
cerning the Reformation of the Church, that might be propounded to 
the Council of Conftance aforementioned , which he did. In that 
Bopkheinfiftethonfour things, i. He propounded, that general 
and Provincial Councils be kept, efpecially General, for amending all 
perfons and eftates. 2. That for Reformation of the Roman Court, it 
Blufhcient that there be but one Cardinal out of every Province, be- 
caufe the Cardinals are the caufes of Schifms. 3. That Prelates be 
not chofen young, imprudent, nor ignorant. 4. He requireth the 
reformation of Monks, fpeaking againft their multitude and diverfity 
he taxeth the Romifh Court, that they defpife Divines, and advance on* 
ly fuchas can bring them in gain. He complaineth alfo of Pagan 

* abufes, 

7 ^CDetfcdetacai^iOfl? Cent. 15. 

. ; ' 7 . 

abufes, and Diabolical fuperftitions at Rome. But (faith he) 'as there 
were feven thoufand who never bowed to Baal, fo we may be confi- 
dent , that there are fome who are defirous of the Churches Re- 

Alanus otCbartres, Secretary to King Charles VII. wrote a Book in 
French, entituled the Courtier, in which he extolleth the fmgle life of 

This King Charles VII. in the Ordinance made , Anns 1 422. thus 

Ette'f. GalS complaineth. T>i; ers of our Subjetts, and others by -venue of refynati- 

fcju/mate. p. 75- ons, or Apoftolic^ Bulls, da takf, and receive, and endeavour to get and ob- 
tain Benefices within this Realm, and take poffeffion of them, and labour 
to fummon, or caufe to be fummoned, our Liege-Subjects unto the Court 
of Rome, or before fome Commifiioners or Delegates appointed by our 
Holy Father, which is down-right to oppofe the Church and Clergy. 
The Council which was begun ^Ferrara, Anno 1438. and conti- 

Panormit. in nued at Florence, was never received and approved of in France. The 
B ^P f ?WMM-fiftb" the King of France did exprefly forbid upon 
great penalties, that any of his Dominions Oiould go to Ferrara, to ce- 
lebrate the oecumenical Council. Charles VII. tells fome Cardinals 
down-right fo, who were fent AmbafTadours from Ez/g<?#/w, and were 
come to Bourges to get him to accept of it , and among others to pre- 
fent him with this Article. 7bat.fuice fuch time as it was tranflated 
to Ferrara, the King fiould reje a the Council of Bafil , and receive the 
Council of Ferrara vtitb the A8s thereof. 

Whereto he made Anfwer, after fix days deliberation with his Pre- 
lates, and others affembled at Bourges.Thzt he had received the Council, 
ofjfo/z/for a Council indeed that he fent his Amba0adoursthither> 
that many things were there wifely determined, concerning Faith and 
Manners, and fuch as he liked well of: but for that of ferrar* , he. 
never did, and never would take it for a Council. .This Charles fa- 
voured Pope Eugenia*, but fo as that he profefleth he will ftand to the 
Decrees of the Council of Bafil. 

James de Paradifo^ of Cbartres, who wrote a little after the Council 

Jrob de Paradi- of B^j?/, faith. Seeing rvehald it pnfibleto proceed to a Reformation as 
"^ ? ^ ye Hetdas of the Member s^ by fuch as have Authority and Pre- 
fdency both Spiritual and'femporal^ it mxft be either by one Man or more, 
lhat it foould be by. one Man is againji all re afin , hpn> eminent foever he 
be for bit virtues, his Knowledge } /;/'/ worth, although he be renowned for 
his miracles, nay in my opinion not by the Pope bimfelf alone. For there 
are fa many Canons, Decretals and Conftitutions made by them already y 
at Jure good for nought but up Parchment to no parpofi ', witbwt- 
working any Reformation. Bdides, feeing it u evident^ th'at k'u own 
Court ftands in great need of Reformat isn^ as hath been well kflorvn by 
'!>;[ Common cries of the la$ General Councils j which Court of Hi if he 


Cent. 15. Of FRANCE. 17 1 

either cannot or will not reform, which he covers under his Wing, bow /> 
it credible that be fhottld reform the Church , which is of fa large an ex- 
tent ? Befides, it may beobje&ed to him, Apply the falve to your own 
fores firft as being the Bead j for when that if cured , yon may with lefs. 
difficulty cure the Members > wherefore Phyfician heal thy jelf. Vnfa- 
voury fait is not good for feafoning. Wherefore ( by the juft judgement 
of God) his "Decrees are fcarce well received yet, nor ever will be titt he 
have reformed himfelf and hit Dependents. And verily I think^the chief 
caufe of the deformation in the Chujrch is the wound in the Head , which 
hath need to bs cured in the firft place. 

And anon after, IVTocrefore it feemeth to me an incredible thing , that 
the Cathulick^ Church foottld be reformed, unlefs firft the Court of Rome 
be fo, but as the World goes worn, we may fee ryhat an hard thing that 
is. T'hofe who have the Presidency in Councils on the fope^s behalf, when 
they fee that matters in the Council ma!$e againft tJyeirlyfofters and them, 
what can be expefied from them, but that they will withftand the Decrees 
of fitch Councils with might and main, either by diffolving them., or /owing 
d/jfentions in them ; and fo the thing Jhall remain uttperfecfed, and we dri 
ven to return to the old WildernefS of Errour and Ignorance : Every body 
knows th'v to be true, unleft it be fome one haply who is not experienced 
in time paft. The 'tragedy which was attedin our Age at the Council of 
Bafil dvth fujficiently prove it, as they k$ew well who have laid down the 
fiory before our eyes. 

At this time flourished the Panormitan Abbot, the moft famous of 
all the Canonifts. In the Council of Bafil forenamed, Amadeas, Arch- 
Biftiop of Lyons, and Primate of all France, a Man of great Authori- 
ty, being toucht with the zeal of Faith, which he faw there to be fup- 
prefled, faid, Moft Reverend Fathers, I do fee here a new fort of Prelates 
come in, rvhich unto this prefent have kept filence, and now begin to Jj^ea^. 
Is not this. like to a Miracle ? I would to God they came to defend the truth, 
and not to impugn Juftice. 

The Cardinal of Aries required that the Concordat of the twelve 
men (hould be read > and many whifpered him in the Ear that he 
fliould go forward. Then Panormitan as foon as the Concordat began 
to be read, rifing up with his companions and other Arragons , cryed 
out with a loud voice, faying : Tnu Fathers do contemn our Requejis, 
you contemn Kings and princes anddefpife Prelates. It is net for yon to 
conclude: We are the major part of the Prelates , wemakg the Council, 
and it if our part to conclude, And I in the Name of all other Prelates 
do conclude that is to be deferred. Then there was fuch a rumour in 
the Council, as is wont to be in Battles with the found of Trumpets, 
and noife of Horfcmen, When two Armies joyn i fome cuffing that 
which Panormitan went about, others allowing thefame. 

Then Nicholts Amici^ a Divine of Paris, faid i Panormitan , I ap- 

2 2 peal 

;a Cent. 

peal from this your conclufion to the judgement of the Council here 
prefenti neither do I affirm any thing to be ratified which you have 
done, as I am ready to p,rove, if it (hall feem good. Many grave and 
Antient men exhorted Panormitan to give over his concluiion. But 
'neither the Fathers of the Council were determined to depart without 
a conclufion, neither was Yanormitan minded to alter his intent and 

Then T'bomas Rbedon^ a French Carmelite^ was a famous Preacher ; 
he preached in England^ France and Italy \ and in his Sermons faid, 
"Rome is the mother of Abomination*: the Church hath great need 
of -reformation i Prelates mould leave their pride and luxury, and fol- 
low the example of Chrifland his Apoftles. 

For fuch preaching he was burnt at Rome by the command of Pope 

Mantuan d< vit. E*gwiw. Baptifta Mantuan fpeaking of this man's Death, faith, 

beat. ca. ult. Ab mad envy, what doeft thott ? Thou baft not kjHedbim^ for bis Soul can- 

not dye : but by hurting bis Earthy body^be is the faanfr partakgr of E- 

ternal Life. , 

Stephen Brttlifer^ a Dodtor of Sorbon, and a Francifcan, taught in his 
Le&ures, and maintained in difputes, that neither the Pope nor Coun- 
Tafcicut. rerum cil can make any Statute or Article to bind the Confcience of a 
e*pet. .,164. Chriftiani that all their Authority confifts in urging of obedience un- 
to God's word, .in preaching it, and adminiftring the Sacraments. 
which he hath inftituted,fo that they bring nothing without his com- 
mand. He called juftification by merits a devilifa Dodrine fince the 
Lamb of God was facrificed T and hath fatisfied God's Juftice for us. 
The Doctors of Sorbon would not furTer him among them. But. 
he went to. T>iether Bifhop of Mentz, which had beendepofed for 
fpeaking againft the Avarice of Rome, and was rertored, 

Antonius de Rofettif, was a famous Reader of the Laws at that time, 
and writ feveral Treatifes againit the Pope. 

About this time lived alfo lyeffelus Gantsfort^ a Mafter innthc Univer- 

Pctries. church fityof Ftfm r who,for his free fpeaking and writing was forced tore- 

'' l *' turn to Groning, his Native Countrey. Then he lived in the Mona- 

fkry of St. Agnes Hill near Stvol, where he taught many young men, 

and had correfpondence with fundry Learned men. 

Charles VII. dyed July 2i>Anno 1461. Lfwe/XI. his eldeft Son fuc- 
ceedeth him in the Kingdom. / 

The late King Cb tries willing to follow the Council of Bafl^ had 
fummoned a Parliament at Bitures, where by the full confent of alt 
the States in France both Spiritual and Temporal, a certain conftituti-' 
on was decreed and published, called the Pragmatic^ Santtion, wherein 
was comprehended, briefly the pith of all the Canons and Decrees 
concluded in the Council of -B*///, of which conftitution I hinted be* 
lore. , -The fame the faid.KiBg.C&tfr/f/ commanded to be obferved 


Cent. 15. Of FRANCE. 173 

and ratified inviolably throughout all his Realm, for the honour and 
increafe ofChriftian Religion for ever. Now King Lewes XI. fuc- 
ceflbur to Charles, had promifed before (being "Dattlphin) unto Pope 
F/W the fecond (called before JEtteas Sylviu*} that if ever he came to 
the Crown, the aforcfaid Pra<rmatic Sajittion fliould be abolifhed. 
Pope Pita hearing him to be crowned, fent unto him John 'Balvew a 
Cardinal with his Letters Patent, willing him to be mindful of his 
former promife. The King hereupon dire&ed the Pope's Letters 
Patent with the faid Cardinal to the Council of Paris, requiring- them 
to confult upon the caufe. 

The. matter being propofed in the Parliament- houfe, the King's 
Attorney named Joannes Romaniu,* learned and eloquent Man, pro* 
ved the faid Sandfrioa to be profitable, good, and neceflary for the 
wealth of the Realm, and in no cafe ta be abolilhed. Unto whofe 
fentencethe Univerfity of Paris adjoyning their confent , did appeal ^J* a< jJJ^ p j^J 
from the attempts of the Pope to the next general Council. The Car- libcnezder Eg-.. 
dinal fretting thereat, returned to the King, his purpofe being not ob- lifc e nic - 
tained. And the fame King Lewes , Anno 1463. to fecure himfelf 
.-from the cenfures of the faid Pope, with the advice of his Parliament^ 
ordained an Arreft, that the Cardinal of Conftancc (hould be puni(hed, 
hecaufe he had refifted the Rights and Authorities of .the King, faith ' 
Mr. John dttlillet. 

King Lewes XI. caufed a Council of the Gatiican Church, and aH 
the Univeriities to be aflembled in the City of Orleans, to be more 
fully informed in the bufmefs of the Pragmatic^ Sanction* at 
which, Peter Duke of Burboa , Lord of Beavietv, prefided inftead 
of the King. 

And the Court of Parliament in thofe Remonftrances which they 
made unto King Lewes, among other inconveniences, which they ur- 
ged would follow upon the abrogation of the Pragmatic!^ SanCnoft^ , 
fay, By this means Strangers would be preferred by the Pope , and not 
the Natives of the Countrey, wherein the Benefices lye > not of the . 
fame qualities and conditions with the . Countrey : Whereupon 
would enfue queftions and controverfies betwixt the Church-men or 
Seculars, to the great hinderance of falvation of Souls, and irreverence - 
of the blefled Sacraments. 

The Parliament of Paris in the Remonftrance made .by Lewes XI, - 
touching the defence of the Pragmatick^SaqQion^ hath inferted this : 
Article j Item, It belongeth to our Sovereign Lord the King, wb is the 
principal Founder, Guardian, Proteftor of the Liberties of the Gallican 
Church, when Jhe fttffers in her Liberties, to affemble and call together the couTTe 
PreUtes, and other Clergy- tnen as well within this "Realm ., as of Daul- 
phine, and in the fame Affembly and Congregation of the Galliean 
Church fy called together,, there to prefide, and provide, a remedy agai.tyi 


174 $%* CCCleftafttiCal $lftO?l> Cent, i J. 

fuch attempts at miy be prejudicial to the faid Liberties. 

"We find an Ordinance made, (relating to Abbeys, BiftHopricks and 
Benefices,) by the fame King, Anno 1464. which runs in this ftrain. 
Howbeit that by Priviledges Exprefs, and Ordinances Royal, no Man can 
have any Elective Benefice within our faid Kingdom, and Daulphine , it 
concerns us much, that the Bijkoprickj, Abbeys and other "Dignities , and e- 
leaive benefices, be fttrnifoed with able and kjto&n Men, fttch M witi com- 
ply with ut, and be frm and fure for w , efpecially fucb us bold the faid 
Benefices, and by reafoxof tbemdiiers places and Fortrejfes , for which 
divers duties and fervices belong unto us from them : Yet notwitbjlanding 
our late picas Father granted the faid favour and Patents fo plentifully, 
and to aUmannerofPerfonsof what Nation, Kingdom, or 'Religion feever 
they were, without diliiticiion i that many under fcadow and pretence of 
thefe Licences and Patents, have insinuated and intruded tbe;r'ph'es into 
the faid Dignities , and e leCiive Bf nefices of o.vr faid King'l>m 9 and do 
hold them -, Howbe it many of them are Strangers W&JWH^ and nat 
to be trulledby tK > and fttch as neither can nor oxgbt to perform thofe 
Dttties and Services, which they are bound to dottnto w by reafcn of tht 
faid Benefices. 

In this Century flourifhed Stephen Pafquier , a learned reuck*maH t 
cu d r? ftript?a! a notable moral Philofopher, a Man well skilled in the Creek,, and Latin 
.biion, , _'. . Tongues, and in all the liberal Sciences. He hath publiftied alfo Icones, 
Epigrams, and Epitaphs, and feveral other works. He hath writ- 
ten an excellent Treatife in French, ftikd , La Recherche de la 

After the death of Pope Nicholas V. which happned in the year, 
1455. the Cardinals entring into the conclave made four factions, e- 
leven of them pretend ing to the Papacy themfelves , and yet there 
were but XV. for any one. After this there began ftrong practices in 
the behalf of Cardinal Eeffariou, zGrecian,o CoMftantinople, an oppo- 
fite to the Latin Church. He had difputed much againft purgatory 
unleavened bread, and againft the very perfon f the Holy Ghoft,who 
C he affertedj proceeded from the Father alone , and not from the 
Father and Son. 

Cardinal Eettone, Arch-Bifhopof Avignon, laboured tofruftrate that 
enterpriie, who thus exprefled himfelf. 

Moft iVuftriouf Lords, {hall we prefer a Grecian to the Latin Church, 
fl caribuiif-no. < eftablijb a Neophite in the bigheft place of the Vatican ? Who can 
part. j. lib. i. a jfure uf his converfwn is true ? Heterodox opinions in matter of ReL 

though renounced and altered with the'f ongae , do yet lejve a m*ddh:fs 
and difturbance upon the heart. Shall we give the Kf)S cf Heaven to 
$im,who for fo many years, and with fo many Arguments denyed that 
there was a purgatory ? Shall we maty him Bead cfthe CatholickjCbttrcb 
wbooppofeditwitbjomuckboldnefs? Is the Church of Rome fo poor 


Cent. if. Of FRANCE. 175 

and indigent^ that -there cannot be one perfon found out who was born in 
her bofom, and is worthy of the Government of the flock^ of Chrift ? What 
will the reft of the Nations fay, to fee us go up and down begging our 
Topes of this Ccuntrey^ and of that ? Roitze up your fehes moll noble 
Companions, and permit not a thing fo fiandalow in the Church of Cbril. 
1 am fure of this, He which is a Friend to Cbriftianity , will not give hit 
vsice for fitch a Pope. 

Thefe words being fpoken with great energy, had fuch an effecl: 
upen the Cardinals, that they chofe Cardinal Alphonfo Borgia , of the 
City of Vatenz* in Spaitt t who took the name of Calixtw III. 

He lived three years, and dyed Auguft 6. 1458. and on the 20 th * of 
the fame Month, Cardinal Mneas ficcolomini of Siena , was created 
Pope by 1 8. Cardinals which were prefent in the conclave , in which 
there were but two competitors for the Papacy, viz. Cardinal Rotema.- 
genps and JEneas aforefaid : fo that for the four days time in which it 
was debated in the conclave, they had no other difficulty but to make 
choice of the one or the other of thefe two. 

It was ftrangetofee each of thefe two perfons driving on his owii 
promotion, magnifying his own virtues, and debating the qualificati- 
ons of his Adverfary. 

Rotomagenfis in this manner went from one Cardinal to another, 
faying, \vhat have ye to do with J.neas > How can ye think him wor- 
thy of the Papacy ? What pallion blinds you, fo as to confer an office 
of that import upon a gouty Beggar > where is his Knowledge > 
Where is his Learning ? -will ye make him a Popebecaufe he is a Poet ? 
It is not long fince he came out of Germany, and may he not be like- 
ly to transfer the See into Germany ? Iftiouldnot have ambition'd it, 
had I not feen a perfon ftand for it of much weaker parts than my felh 
Befides, I am the Ancienter Cardinal of the two. And I believe you 
think I have parts and Learning enough to govern the Church of 
Chrift. Moreover, I am of Royal extraction, and have weakh, friends, 
and faculties wherewithall to accommodate and alleviate theneceflities 
of the Church : and upon my Election , the many Benefices I hold 
will be divided among you. 

The Cardinal of Avignon purfued the intereft of Wftiam F,otoma* 
?#///, not fo much as he was a French-man^ as becaufe upon the pro- 
motion the Church of thefaid Wttiam, he hoped, with his Palace and 
Chancery would fall to him. He aiTembled therefore certain Cardi- 
nals in an houfe of Office, as in a fecret place in the night, and agreed 
with them about the way how William fiiould be chofen. 
The Cardinal of Bologna difcovered the bufinefs to JEncas after 

In the mornirg early JEneas went to Cardinal RWmgo, a Spaniard, 
and one of the confpirators for Rotomagenfo) who had received a pro- 



mife in writing from the faid William^ and the Cardinal of Avignon^ 
that the Chancellour(hip (hould not be taken from him. 

He excufed himfelf to JEneas that he had concurred , becaufe he 
certainly believed he would be chofen, and he was unwilling to hang 
off, and lofe his Chanccllours place. Mneat anfwered, will you then 
fell your Vote, and by Simony run your felf into the difpleafurc of 
God > Do you take fo little care then to obtrude a youth upon the 
Vatican, and one that is arc enemy to your Nation? Know that the 
Chancellourfhip which ispromifed to you, is promifed like wife , and 
confirmed to the Cardinal of Avignon : and can you think that a 
French Pope will do more for a Spaniard^ than far one of his own Na- 
tion. ^But Roderigo Borgia gave him not a word. 

So #,neat departing found out the Cardinal of Pavia, who was one 
of the confpirators like wife, and accofted him in this manner. I hear 
you refol veto choofeRoftmugraftj Pope.: you ought to be alhamed to 
degenerate fo much from Cardinal "Brando your Uncle , who with fo 
much labour and fweat tyred himfelf out , to transfer the Pontifical 
court from Germany to Rome: and you that are his Nephew would 
tranfport it from Italy into France. Surely Rotomagexps will never give 
the Italians the precedence before the French y and yet you an Italian 
will confederate fooner with France than with your own Coun- 
trey. Can you have the heart to fee your felf a flave to the French, 
when it is in your power to make the French obedient to our 
Nation ? 

Cardinal Tavin replyed, that he did not believe that the French had 
any thoughts againft the profit of the Church, they having given with 
fo much generolity moftof the Provinces it pofleffed, and they would 
not probably take away that which they had fo lately given. To which 
JEneas replyed thus. 

But fuppofe that (hould be, ought it not to ftir up your heart againft 
Rotomagenfis^to confiderthe infamy of his manners, who is given to 
all lafcivioufnefs. You have often told me, you would fooner dye, 
than give your voice for Rotomagenfis. What is the reafon of fo 
great a change ? Is he in the twinkling of an eye become an Angel of 
a Devil > Or are you become a Devil of an Angel > 

Pavia was aftonifhed at thefe words, and wept, replying , All that 
you fay JEneas is true : But I have part my word to make Rotomagenfif 
Pope, and if I do not, I (hall be held infamous , and a Traytor. To 
which jEneas anfwered. Things ftand fo, that which way foever you 
turn you, you cannot avoid the blemifh of a Traytor : It is in. your 
power whether you will betray Italy and your Countrey, or betray him, 
and be faithful to your Countrey and Italy. 

With thefe words Pavia was overcome , and refol ves to betray 
Rotogamenfis. Then meeting with Cardinal Pittro di Santa Maria 


Cent.!?. Of F R A N C E. 177 

nova, and other Italian Cardinals in the Cardinal of Genoa's chamber, 
they all refolved to prefer JEneas before any body elfe. 

Rdtomagenfis fearing things would not happen as he expected, feeing 
JE.neas going to ward the Schedule, he faid to him with an humble 
voice, Aneas^ I recommend my felf to thee : remember me 1 befeech 
thee, and have companion on me. JEneaf anfwered him only thus, 
Poor Worm, thote miftakfft in recommending thy felf to me. The Scruti- 
.ny being publiflned, it appeared, that ./Eneas had three voices more 
than RotomagenjjSj but they could not obtain their two thirds, this a- 
.ftonifhed the French Cardinals. 

The Cardinals Roderigo and Santa dnaftafia declared JEneas with a 
loud voice, which Cardinal Profper Colonna obferving, beingembitious 
to have the honour of making the Pope (Torasmuch as there wanted 
but one voice) arofe, took his way toward A'MSM^ and though he was 
reftrained by Cardinal Niceno^nd Rotomagenfis he cryed aloud, I joyn 
my felf to Cardinal JEneasjxnA do make him Pope.This being heard by 
the reft of the Cardinals, they all threw themfelvesdown ntJEneas's 
feet, faluted him Pope, and confirmed the election afterwards with 
the ufual fuffrages. Then Cardinal "Beffarinn apologized for himielf 
to the new Pope, and for all the reft of the Cardinals who had fa- 
voured Rotomagejtfir. 

To whom JH.neas , I allure you, you (hall be-all equally dear to me* 
for I acknowledge my Election, not from this perfon, or from that, 
but from God, and the whole body of the Colledge infpir'd by the 
Holy Ghoft, from whence all perfection cometh. 

The States affembled in the City of lows , in a bill which they 
prefented to King Lewes XL among other things, fay, That if the King 
do not undertake to defend them , confidering the quality of their 
perfons, the power and Authority of the Holy See Apoftolick , they 
(hall not be able to refift the ufurpations and impeachments which 
any Sub je& of the Realm, and others ambitious of preferment, will 
make againft the Electors, which have the right of Election, or ordi- 
nary Donation by Apoftolick cenfures. And by this means all this 
Kingdom (which is already at a low ebb, and very poor) (hall be ftrip- 
ped and difpoiled of that little Money which remains of the former 

In one Ordinance of this King Lewes we find thefe words. It it 
a grange thing ( faith hej that the unjuft exaSiom of the Conn of 
Rome Jhould be fnffered ; fitch as their expettative Bulls, and other 10$ 
tytackf) their Money for vacancies , which vt levied contrary to the holy 
Canons and Decrees , and contrary to the determination ef the Catholic^ 
Church , and facred Councils^ that what is fo gotten may be employed 
iu pttrchafmg of Earldoms and Lordfhips , to bejlow upon people ef 
mean condition , and to prefer them without any precedent merit, with- 

Aa out 

178 5CDeecclefiafttcaiiWfto?p cent. 15. 

out any fervice or ttfe which they can do to the Church, or for the defence 
of the Faith. 

At this time lived Philip de Commutes Knight, he was born ^t 'Corn- 
mines a Town in Flanders. In his youth he fer ved Charles Duke of 
Burgundy, and afterwards Levee s XI. King of France , who employed 
him in his moft fecret and weightyeft affairs. He hath written the 
Hiftory of France, under Lewes XI. and Charles VIII. his Son. He 
wrote fo plainly of the greateft affairs of State, that Queen Katherine 
de Medjces ufed to fay, that he had made as many Hereticks in State- po- 
licy, as Luther had done in Religion. Stephanas Pafcbajitu hath this. 
Epitaph of him. 

Galloruw, & nojlr Laus una & gloria gent is, 

Hie Commote jaces, ft modo forte jaces, 
Hiftoriz zitam potuifti reddere -vivM, 
Extintlo vitam reddidit Hiftoria. 

recueii. des We find certain provifo's made by King Letves'Xl. taken out of TI 


Lewes by the Grace of God King of France, to our welbeloved 
and faithful Counfellour the Bifliop of Limoges, and to our 
Trufty and welbeloved the Deaa and Chapter of Limoges afore- 
iaid, and to every one of you, as well joyntly as feverally, fendeth 

Whereas, our Trttjiy and beloved, the Cba*ceVottrf, Presents, Maft'.rs 
of Ordinary Requtps for our Houfiold, Counfellottrt, Refers, Notaries 
together with our Advocates , and Atttorney. General for our Conn of 
Parliament, evtryMan in his place and Office are appointed and ordained to 
wait continually upon the employment and administration of our faid Court, 
and the adminijlrjtion of Jujiice Supream and Capital for our faid Realm* 
which it a zery laudable thing , commendable and necejj'ary for uf , our 
Subjects, and the whole Common-wealth of ibis our Kingdom, in which 
our Court, the Rights and Liberties of the Church of France, whereof we 
ate the Guardian and Proteilor, are preferred. 

And far this reafon oar f*id Court doth cottfifl in part of CounfeVours 
awl Oficers, which are Clergy, men, and Ecclefiaftical Perfons. And in 
confideration of the great, and laudable fervices of the faid Cbancehur 
Presents, Makers of Requejis, Counfehrs, Regijlers, Notaries , Adio. 
caies and Attorney, they or others by their nomination, by means of the in- 
terceffion of our fr^deceffars to the Prelates, and other Patrons and eon- 
ferrers cf Eezejices, have been preferred unto , and generally provided of 
-Livings , which the faid Prelates, or others the Patrons , or beftow- 


Cent, 15. Of F R A N C E. 179 

ers of the fame, have freely conferred upon them, or have prefented them 
unto the faid Patrons in favour and conjideration of w, and their own 
great and commendable fenices as aforefaid. Which faid Cbancelloitr, 
President , Mafter of Requefls, &c. face our coming f the Crown, nor a 
long time before, have not had any fuch preferment upon our entreaty and 
requejl to the faid Prelates, Patrons, and Collatonrs, as they were wont to 
have. And for this Reafon the faid Court hath with our leave and Li- 
cence, made a cer tain RoV, wherein every one of them are prefented and 
nominated, or have prefented and nominated others in their ftead, each one 
to fome other preferment belonging to you, or other the Collators and 
Patrons of the Benefices of our faid Realm. 

And whereas our Irufty and Welbeloved Counfellour, Mr. German l 
Chartclier, hath nominated hit Son*unto one of your Collations, and pre- 
fentations, We intreat and require yon, to give, prefect, and beftew upon 
the faid Mr. German Chartelier, the firft 'Benefice that /hall be void with- 
in your "Difpofal, Collation, or Prefentation, as our faid Connfel ! our fiall 
require, or canfe you to be required thereunto , hoping tb&t you will not 
make any denyal of this sur Reqaell, which 'w maft juft and reasonable, but 
will obey it : efpecially considering, that our faid Chancellour , Presidents, 
MaftersofRequefts, &c. are employed daily, and in continual trouble a- 
bout the maintenance and defence of the Rights and priviledges of the 
Churches of our faid Realm , and the adminiftration of Jullice to cur 
faid Subjefts : fignifying unto you, tbxt yon /hall herein do us fuch an 
acceptable favour, as nothing more, by means whereof we take you and 
your affairs into fpecial recommendation. Given at Mtfcon , Angx(l \ 8. 
in the fixth year of our Reign, thus fubfcribed. Bj the King. In the 
prefence of my Lord Cardinal D' Amboife Legat in France , and 
others. Robert et. Sealed with yellow Wax, with the King's broad 

There is in the fame Book an exemplification of the privy Letters, 
which the Court of Parliament writ to the Prelates about thefe no- 
minations, the Tenour whereof is this. 

Reverend father in God, We fend greeting to you, 

// hath pleafed the King to grant unto the Prefjdents, Connfellours and 
other Officers of this Court, hit Letters and nomination to fome Renefices, 
which are in the hands nf fome Collatours and Patrons of this Realm, 
and 'among others to our Brother , fuch a Coufellour of vur faid Scve- 
raign in thit Court, to the Benefices which are in your gift and difpofal. 
Wherefore we earnestly befeecb you, that in obedience to the faid Letters, 
and in consideration of the defertt of our faid Brother, you would befiow 
upon him the prjl Benefice that falls in your gift, being by him required 

A a 2 the re* 

i8o U3)e Cccleffettfcal $tfto# Cent. 15, 

thereunto. And in fo doing yon (hall do us a moft acceptable couttefie, 
for which roe (hall takf your affairs into fpecial Recommendation. Re- 
W rend Father in God, we befeecb the bleffed Sen of Godto grant you your. 
defvre. Written at Paris in the Parliament, under the Seafthereof, 
Septemb, 7. The Men celebrating the Parliament. And this Annotatioa 
is written in the Margin. Antiquities fiebant aliter. 

voyez k recueii The laid King Lewes XI. in an Ordinance of January 8. 1475.; 
Du Fontan. ics makes this Narration. When any Queftions or differences come upon 
ces. D Tom.4.Tit". *? as we ^ concerning the ftatc of the Church of our Kingdom , as other, 
our affairs, we that ought to have recourfi to them, cannot he aflijied, aid- 
td,or advifed therein by reafon of their abfence, where we and the Com- 
mNi~wealth are oftentimes much inter fjfed... 
Then after this Jie ordains in this manner. 

W'eiFiti, Ordain^ and declare by tbefe Prefents, that all Arcb-BiJhfpi r 
T&jhops, Abbots, Prelates ) and other s^that bold any Dignities within our 
Kingdom, and do re fide mt of the bounds thereof , and out of our Ohedi- 
ence: T>o Retttnt and Repair within five months after the publication of 
thefe Prefents^ unto their Benefices within our fald Realm , or unto fome 
one of them if they have any more, and there makf continual TLefidence, 
there to celebrate and continue divine Service as belongs unto them , antL 
af they are bound to do. As alfa to the end that they may ferve and ajfiji 
us in our Councils, and otherwife to the behoof of M , and the Common- 
wealth of our faid Kingdom when need foall be. And, tb'x upon- pain of 
being deprived. of the Temporals of their faid Benefices. 

dirqni. ^' n & Lewes falling into a long and and grievous ficknefs, gave much 
' Alms : and in the Church of St. JobnBaptift in Paris, he founded 
certain Prieftstofmg MalTes for him perpetually, for whofe mainte- 
nance he gave of yearly Rent athoufand pounds of Paris Money : So 
he remained in, a languifhing condition three years before he 
dyed. , 

He dyed Auguft^o. 1483. and his Son, Charlet VIII. fucceeded him. 
in the Kingdom,C/^r/?/ being crowned at B-hemes, was from thence 
with pomp brought to Paris. A general Parliament was held at 
Tours, where the Pragmatic^ Sanftion was reftored to ufe it as they ,- 
had accuftomed. 

In the year, 14514. jhis King Charles VIII. carried an Army of 
fifty thoufand of Foot and Horfe out of France into Italy , and in 
two months fpacc, he became Lord of the whole Kingdom of Na- 
plet, except fome little/Towns on the Sea-iide, which held for King_ 

The Pope feejng the fuccefs of King Charles , makes a League with 
ttje .Emperour frlaximilian, and IhsFfWlitntt Into this League, alfc 

entred : 

Cent if. Of FRANCE. i8r 

cntred Lewes Duke of Milan, notwithstanding that by his procure- 
ment King Charles took occailon to come into Italy. King Charier 
having Intelligence of this League, refolves to leave fwch forces in the 
Kingdom of Naples, as might be fufficient for the defence thereof, and 
with the reft of his Army to return into France j and marching to- 
ward Rome, he gave the Pope to underhand, that he came to do his 
duty to his Holinefs. Pope Alexander-Hot daring to abide his coming- 
departed from Rome, wherein, and in other of the Pope's Towns, the 
King's Troops did much harm. 

The Fnrc/;?King departing from Rome, continueth his journey to- 
ward France. Coming near to Parma , paffing the River T'arro, he 
met a great Army of his Enemies, whereof Francti Gonzaga, Marquefs 
of Manttt* was General, with whom they came to a Battle, in which 
there dyed a thoufand Men of both fides, Anno 140-5. But after 
fome Treaties between the two Armies, the French in a night went 
toward Afle, where the King remained certain days, and a Peace was 
concluded between him and the Duke of Milan > and Lewes E)uke of 
Orleans rendring Novarra, King Charles returned into France, and Per* 
di'nand King of Naples recovered that Kingdom. 

Concerning theabufesof the Court of Rome, among the Statutes 
of this King Charles VIII. I find in a Statute of February 18. I4ptf. 
this complaint. " Some years ago the Popes of Rome, in defpight and 
''-contempt of the Decrees of Antient Fathers and General Councils, 
1 have brought all Ecclefiaftical Dignities, Cathedral and Collegiate' 
1 under their difpofal, and all other of greateft value next after Bi- cou 

* ftiopricks : they have granted Livings in reverfions upon the Vacan- !'. *ca.$. 
*'"cy to any that would fue for them , which hath been the occafion- 

1 for one to third after the death of another. They have invented 

* abundance of tricks , whereby they have utterly annihilated the- 
4 power and Authority of the Bi(hops, Chapters and Colledges,' 

tc infomuch that there is none now , that hath the power to prefect' 
" to a living. 

In the Year, 1498. King Charles VIM. dyed of an Apoplexy at Am- 
boife. In him failed the dire& Line of the Kings of France , defcen- 
ded from Philip of Valois, and the Crown fell to the collateral Line, of 
the which the neareft Prince of the Blood was Lewes Duke of Orleans' 
and Valois, who fucceedcd in the Kingdom of France. He was an- 
excellent Prince, of a liberal Nature, affable, temperate, and of great, 
moderation, and was happy in his Reign. Who fubdued under his 
obedience, Milan , with Lombardy, m&Genoa with her two Rivers, 1 
Raft and Weft, together with the Illands of Corfica and Chio , re-- 
conquered and divided the Realm of Naples; with the King of' 
Spain ^ but in the end loft it by his Treachery , fupprelTed the^ 
Pope's infolency , and defeated the Venetians. - Be was crowned- 


i8a e ccclefialtfcal ifto Cent. 

in the Abbey ot Saint T*erivs in France , on the firft of July 
- following, and on the next day made his triumphant entry 
into Pant. 

Century XVI. 


Ewes XII. after he had worthily performed the Funerals of his 
Predeceflbur, he firft purchafed the love of the Noble-men of 
his Court, maintaining every man in his State and Dignity, 
and the Magiftrates in their Office. He fought to cut off the 
tedioufnefs of Suits i he freed his Subjects from the third part of the 
Subfidies which oppreffed them : he put the Men at Arms into Garri- 
fons, reducing them to the Antient Difcipline of War. He made ma- 
ny good Laws againft the abufive charges in the purfuit of Juftice : 
neither did he ever publiflh any Edict before it was confirmed by the 
Judgement of Soveraign Courts. 

pe Serres Hi/t. His Decrees contained fome limitation of the priviledges granted in 
in^t. Ludovki. ]j t - me to univerfities, the which they abufed to the oppretlion of 
the people. Thellniverfity of Paris oppofeth againft the publicati- 
on thereof, and many infamous Libels were publifhed againft the King 
and theChancellourof Rocbefirt. The Scholars flock together, re- 
folding to abandon both ftudy and the exercife of Learning. John 
Cave being Rcdor , 'forbids the Regents to read any more, and the 
Preachers to preach, until the Univerlity had recovered her Antient 
priviledges. The King hereupon draws many Men at Arms into 
Paris, and in Parliament confirms the abovenamed ordinances by an 

The Rector fearing a check, keeps all the Scholars within their 
Lodgings, and revokes the commancteent he had given. John 
SfWo^aDoctorof Divinity, one of 'he chief of the Fadion,was 
banilhed the Realm. Ibomas Warnet of Cambray (who in preaching 
had railed againft the King's Authority ; banifhed himfelf. All things 
being thus fettled, Lewes takes upon him the Title of Duke of Milan. 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 183 

He puts a way Joan his Wife, and marries with Ann 5 the \Viddow of 
the late King Charles. 

Our Ladies Bridge at Paris fell , threefcore houfes were ruined 
with it, and a great number of perfons were fwallowed up in the 

As touching the priviledges of the Kings of France, we find, when 
the Parliament of Paris gave their opinion, and all the Chambers met 
together about receiving the Cardinal of Ambo'ife , and the qualificati- 
ons that (hould be put to his faculties (which was on Decemb. u. 
1501.) the Laws of the Land and the Liberties of the Gallican Church 
were reprefented at large, among which this was one , That the King 
of France cannot be excommunicated , that his Kingdom can- 
not be put under an Interdict , as is collected out of the Antient, 

In the beginning of this Century , Mr. John le Maire one of the 
French Hittorians wrote his Book of Schifm, and therein gives us to 
underftand, that there were endeavours then for the Reformation of 
the Church. Every good Chriftian (faith he) ought to pray to God, 
that the two laft Councils of the Gallican Church, may engender one 
great, Univerfal, and general Council of all the Latin Church , to re- 
form that Church, as well in the Head as the Members -, fo as the ge- 
neral Councils ufe to do. And that if it be not kept at Lyons, it may- 
be kept in fome other place moft expedient and neceflary for the pub- 
lick good : which may be very well done at this prefent, confidering 
the great peace, amity and union which is betwixt the two greateft 
Potentates in Chrhkndom, the Emperour and the King, together with 
a third confederate in the League, the Catholick King Ferdinand of,. 
Arragon, who ought altogether to reform the abufes of the Church of 
Rome, \vhich Reformation muft of neceflity be made. 

Thus he fpeaks of the aforementioned Pragmatic!^ SanSion. Foras- 
much (faith he) as the Pope's are not content , that the Tragmatick^ 
Saj&ion be in force, although it be founded upon the Holy Canons, 
and Authorized by the Council of Bafil, but it derogates from the 
unfatiable covetoufnefs of the Court of Rome, therefore they fay it is 
a pure Heretic. 

In the time of this King Letve s XII. lived Robert Gsgrvin, who 
wrote the French Hitfory. Erafintt* his intimate Friend, calls him a 
rnoft difcreet Hiftoriographer : he compares him to Salitji and Livy, Au-ertf M 
for purity of fpeechand competition of his Hiftory. He was alfo a E 'e-Belg; 
good Poet, and an excellent Oratour,and a Man well skilled in all po* 
lite Learning. He was fent AmhafTadour by.,the King of France in- . 
to England, Italy, zr\& Germany. 

About this time flourished Jacabus Faber, skilled in all Learning, 
and efpecially in Divinity. Farel and Calvin were his. Scholars. 

Sleida* , 

184 5C|)C CCCUftaftical $to# Cent. 1 6. 

Sleidan faith, he differed great perfecution for the truth , from the 
Matters at P*ri*. 

He was very low, of a modeft countenance, and a fweetdifpofition 
his mind wholly eftranged from all injaftice. I find him thus cha- 
racterized. Celebcrrimw nojhi feculi Philofopbw^ Eelg. quinine & to- 
tiufGafli* unum deem. Przmuf apud ^Gdlos (ut Cicero apud RomanosJ 
Pbilofopbiamrudem& impolitamcttm eloquentiajttnxit. Eft in dicendo 
fublimif, in fenteat'ris gravis, in attentions exquifitus^ in compofitionf di- 
ligent ac cHfiofus.T' Viris.Illutirib. 

Jodoctts Clicbtovetts, a moft learned Man of Paris , was contempo- 
.rary with Jacobus Faber. 

serm Hift. King Lftves and the Emperour being at variance, a Treaty was a- 

vit. Ludov. greed on, and for this Treaty the Cardinal of Amboife^ Lieutenant- 

* General for his Ma jefty at Milan, went to the Emperour to 'frent^ 

where firft they Treated of the marriage of Charles the eldeft Son to 

the Arch-Duke Philip of Aitftria, with Clattde^the, only Daughter of 

Lewfff XII. then about the calling a General Council to reform the 

Church, not only in the members, but even in the Head doubtlefs 

there is (mail aflurance in the friend (hip of Princes, who thirft after 

nothing but their own greatnefs. 

Moreover, feldom (hall we fee any thing fucceed well with them, 
who have coloured their paffions with the name of the Church , and 
the Reformation thereof, which they did not really intend. And 
likewife all the malitious practices, and School-tricks of a Cardinal, 
Cwhofe ambitious fpirit gaped after the Popedom.) what could they 
produce butfmoak for France , and combuftion for Italy > 
. The Arch- Duke Philip with his Wife, Daughter to Ferdinand King 
of Arragon^ and Ifabe I Queen of Caftile, paffcd through Paris Novemb. 
2 5. and from thence to B/o;/, where the King and Queen remained, 
where they concluded the marriage of their children. But Man pttrpo-. 
Jetb^and God difpofetb. 

The Duke of Milan was foon after made Prifoner by the Treachery 
of the Suffers : Cardinal Afcanitts leaves Milan abandoned , but he is 
betraid, and led prifoner to Venice: but the French King fent for him 
to Venice^ and not only the perfon of the Cardinal was delivered to 
him, but alfo all thofe of Milan that were taken with him. The 
City of Milan 9 which had revolted from the Frtncb 3 fent fpcedy Am- 
bafladours to the Cardinal D 5 Amboife to folicit Cor pardon. He re- 
ceived them into grace, and pardoned the Rebellion in the name of the 
King, but under this bond, to pay three hundred thoufand Ducats, of 
* the which the King afterwards difcharged them in a great part. He 
pardoned alfo other Towns that had rebelled , which he taxed ac- 
cording to their Quality, making the Vi&ory profitable, and the tranf- 
greffions of the Offenders an increafe of the King's Treafure. 


Cental Of FRANCE. 

Ludovicus S/orza Duke of Milan was carried to Lyons , where the 
King was at that time : and entring the Town at noon- day, multi- G ? icci ? rd!n ' 
tudes of people flocked to fee a Prince who from fuch greatnefs and Hlft ' U ' 4 ' 
Majefty was fallen into fo great a mifery. And not obtaining leave 
to be brought into the King's prefence, which he much defired, he 
was conveyed within two days after to the Tower of Locbes, wherein 
he remained prifoner ten years, even to the end of his Life. The Car- 
dinal Afcanius followed him a little after , but he was both received 
with more honour and humanity, and gratioufly vifited by the Cardi- 
nal P' Amboife, by whofe interceflion he was fent to the great Tower 
at Eourges^ a prifon more honourable, wherein the King that ftnt him 
had before been reft rained two years in captivity. 

Pope Alexander VI. being dead, Anno 1503. Pi*f HI. was chofen, 
but he dyed within 27. days. Then was Julius II. chofen , a Man 
froward, cruel, factious and turbulent. 

Anno 1 506. the French King, albeit the year before he was much dif- 
contented with the Pope, for that he had difpofed and inducted the 
Benefices which were void by the death of Cardinal Afianius, and o- 
thersin the Dutchy of Milan , without his participation: and for 
that alfoin the creation of other Cardinals, he had rcfufcd to call the 
Bi(hopof Acbz, Nephew to the Cardinal D' Amboife-y and the Bifliop 
of Baietex, Nephew to Monfieur Irimovil'e ^ being earneftly folicited 
by the King, who in thofe regards had caufed to be fequeftred the fruits 
of the Benefices, which the Cardinal S. P. adVincula , and others of 
the Pope's Amity pofTcfled in the State of MiUn. Yet the King on 
the other fide judged it ncceflary to re-enter into reconcilement with 
the Pope, to whom after he had rdeafedall the fcqucftrations, he fent 
the Biihop of Stfteron, the Pope's Nuncio, to negotiate with him many 
plots againft the Venetians, to whom he knew the Pope could not but 
continue to bear an ill will, for the defire he had to recover the towns 
of Romania. 

TheBifhopof Sifter on being received and heard with gladnefs a- 
greeable to the nature of his deiire, was difpatched , and fent back a- 
gain with diligence, to folicit between them a re-union and amity: 
wherein the better to difpofe the mind of the King, and the Cardinal 
>' Amboife^ he promiftd by writ (which the faid Nuncio carried with 
him) the Dignity of Cardinal to the BUhops of Acbz and Kaieux. 
Yet notwithstanding in fo great an heat of torwardnefs, he entred of- 
tentimes into many doubts and difficulties, either, for a certain hate he 
had conceived againft the French King, at fuch time as himfelf fled 
into France to avoid the trains laid for him by Pope Alexander i or 
for that it much difcontented him to be as it were drawn by compul- 
fion by the power and importunity of the French King, to transfer to 
the Cardinal P' Amboife the Legation of the Kingdom of Frame : or 

Bb lirtly,. 

8 ffije eCdCfiafflCal %tftp?p Cent. 1 6. 

laftly, for that he fufpeded left the faid Cardinal (who afpired to the 
PopedomJ not having patience to tarry for his Death, would feek to 
climb up to it by ways finifter and extraordinary. Thefe things 
made him often to waver in his Refolutions, determining not wholly 
to joyn with the French King > and yet without his conjunction , he 
knew it was impoffible, that at that time any thing of confcqucuce 
ftiould fucceed with him. 

Pope Ja/wrefolves to recover "Bblognia by force of Arms, for a 
hatred newly kindled againft John 'Bentivoglo , becaufe in the time of 
hisadvertity, when he durftnot abide in Rome\ and feeking fafety in 
Cento^ a Town of his Biftioprick in Bolognia^ he was driven to flee away 
by night, hearing a bruit publi(hed that he fhouldbe apprehended pri- 
fener at the inftance of Pope Alexander. 

The Pope tcok Cefena and Forolivfa, fiomCxfar Borgia^ the Son of 
Pope Alexander VI. He expelled the Family of Eentivogli out of 
'Bononia: he excommunicated the Venetians^ and gave their Lands to 
the tirft that could take them. King Lewes XII. overthrew the 
Venetians at Abdita: and albeit he gave the greateft part of his pur- 
chafe unto Julius , yet he envyeth the profperity of Lerves, 
and combined again with the Venetians , to expell him out of 

Anno 1510. died the Cardinal P* Atnboife , Uncle to the Lord of 
O)^ a man of a great fpirit, and well experienced in affairs : but 
With thefervice of his Matter, he did not forget the content of his own 
private ambition. 

The Pope reneweth the War againft thofe of Ferrara , and feeing, 
himfelf unable to prevail with his Temporal Forces, he excom- 
municafes Alfiimfo of Efle , and all thofe who were or (hould come 
to his fuccour, namely Charles of Amboifc^ with all the chief of the 
Trench Army. 

rrcsH ift. This tuiious courfe made King Lewes toafTemble all the Prelates 
' "cf his Realm ntTW/, with the moft famous Doctors of all his Uni- 
vcrlities, as we!! in Divinity, as in the Civil and Canon Laws, who 
refolveupon eight notable conclufions againft the Pope. 

Ei ht concinfi- ? ^ at ^ was not lawful for the Pope to aiTail any Temporal 
ons by the Princes by force in their Territories not belonging to rhe Church. 
Se^Poj^'at/ 2 - That it was lawful for any fuch Prince, for the defence of his 
*w*. Subjedsand Countrey, not only to repel this in jury by force , butalfo 

to invade the Territories of the Church poffeiTed by any fuch Pope, 
n t with an intent to hold them, but to the end (the Pope being difpof- 
ftiTcd thereof J he thould have no more means to moleft his Elh;r> fee- 
ing the Pope had ihrough the aid of the faid prince Recovered the fame 
panels ufurpcd before by certain Tyrants,. 

3. That: 

Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 187 

g. That forfo manifeft a wrong and unjuft attempt, any fuch 
Prince might withdraw himfelf from the Pope's obedience, 
for the defence of his Temporal Eftate , feeing he had ftirred up 
many other Princes and Common-weals to invade the Domi- 
nions of the faid Prince, who deferved reward and love from the A- 
poftolical See. 

4. That this fubftra&ion being made, they (hould obfcrve in France 
the common and Antient Law, and the Fragwatick^ SanSion enadred at 
the Council of KafiL 

5. That any fuch Prince might by force defend another Prince , his 
confederate, and of whom he had lawfully taken the protection for 
thofe Seigneuries which he had long enjoyed with a juft Title , feeing 
this confederacy had been made with the confent of the faid Pope, who 
fas the chief J was comprehended therein : and that this Prince al- 
lyed according to the form of the League, had given aid for the reco- 
very of the patrimony of St. Peter. 

6. That the Pope pretending any thing due for any Rights belong- 
ing to the Church of Rome, and the Prince on the other fide challenged 
to hold of the Empire, and (hould refer this controverfie to the cen- 
fure of indifferent Judges, as Equity required', that in this cafe it was 
not lawful for the Pope without further knowledge of the caufe, to 
make War againft any fuch Prince, which if he did, the faid Prince 
might oppofe his Forces with other Princes his confederates , fo as 
that right had not been poffefled by the Roman Church within an 
hundred years. 

7. That if the Pope would not accept this honed and lawful offer, 
but contrary to order and right (hould give fentence againft any fuch 
Prince, maintaining his right not to depend upon the Church i neither 
he nor any other by oppoting (hould incur the cenfure of that fentence, 
feeing that Prince had no free accefs, neither to go nor fend to Rome 
to defend his Rights. 

8. That if the Popeunjuftly (the due courfe of Law not ob- 
fervedj (hould by main force pronounce any cenfures againft any 
fuch Princes, their Allyes and Subjects, refifting in fuch a cafe, 
the fentence were of no force , neither could it be by any means 

The King hereupon fent Ambafladours to Pope Julius in the name 
of the French Church, to admonim him, that leaving his defigns , he 
fhould attend to peace, and reconcile himfelf with the aforefaid Prin- 
ces, and upon refufal they (hould fummon him to call a Council ac- 
cording to the Decrees of the Holy Council of Eafil. But the Pope 

Then the Emperour's and the King of France his Deputies, affiftcd 

B b 2 by 

i88 , 3Cl)e CCCleflafftCai $lftO# Cent. 16. 

by the Cardinals of St. Crowe, St. Mah, Eaieux, Colenfe, Albret, and ma- 
ny others on May ip. i 5 1 1. publifli a general Council to be held at 
Pifa for the firft of September following, the which City was lately 
returned to the bedience of the Florentines. 

To crofs this Council, the Pope (following the ad vice ofAntbony dc 
Mont of St. Sanfovin, one of the eight- Cardinals newly created at 
Ravenna) appointed a general Council on May j. at St. Jobnde Late- 
ran'm Rome. And to keep the King's forces quiet, he colourably 
gave ear to a 'peace, which the Bifhopof livoli his Nuncio , and the 
King of Scof-r Ambafladour treated for him with the Ring, and the 
Cardinals of Nantes and Strigonium with the Pope. 

But Julius having been tick, and being freed from the fears of 
death, he makes a new League with the Senate of Venice , and the 
King of Arragnn againft the French : to maintain fas he faid ) the union 
of the Church, to defend it from apparent Schifm, and to recover all 
fuch places as depended either mediately or immediately upon the 

The firft day of September being come, the Cardinals Attorneys in 
their names do celebrate the A&s appertaining to the opening of the 
Council at Pifa. 

The Pope being wroth, declared Florence and Pifa fubjedfr to the 
Etclefiaftical cenfure, by vertue of the Bull of the Council which he 
had caufed to be publifted : and he pronounced the aboveaamed Car- 
dinals void of the Dignity of Cardinals, and fubje<3 to the puniflvments 
of .Hereticks and Schifmaticks. 

The Florentines and Pifans appeal from this curfe to the Holy 
Council of the Univerfal Church. At the firft Seffion the Cardinals 
call the Clergy to affift in the Cathedral Church : but not one appear- 
eth : the Priefts deny their Ornaments to the Cardinals offering to ce- 
lebrate the Mafs, and fnut the Church doors*, fo that the Cardinals 
fearing they (hould not remain fafe in Pifa, decreed to have the Coun- 
cil tranfported to Milan. 

They found the like d ifficulties at Milan. The Clergy abftain from 
fay ing Service, as before accurfed perfons', the Commons curfe them 
s and openly deride them, efpecially the Cardinal of St. Creix , chofen 
Prefidcnt of the Council. This dealing of the Milanois, made them to 
tranfport the Council to Lyons, where Julius was fufpendcd from his 
Popedom : and prohibitions were made throughout all France^ not to 
fend any Money to Rome, nor to bring any Bulls from thence. Here- 
upon Pope Julius did not only excommunicate all the French, but al- 
fo granted Bulls of pardon to any one that (hould kill a Icrencb-man, 
giving the Realm of France, and that of Navarr (in hatred of John of 
Albret, allyed to the King, and at the perfwafion of Fm//?/WKing of 
Anagon) in prey to the iarft conquerour. 


Cent. \ 6. Of FRANCE. 189 

But King Lewes XII. beat the Pope in a Battle near Ravenua, 
which beating wrought this efTe&, that the King was fued to, and re- 
ceived with as many fpiritual graces as he was pleafed to have, and the Lewes in. fol. 
Kingdom of France was reconciled unto his Holinefs. But foon af- 
ter by Treachery the French King lofeth the whole Eftate of Milan. 
Maximilian, Grand- child to Lewes Sforza , is reftored , and named 
Duke of Milan. And Navar is ufurped by the King of Arragou. Pope 
Julius dyeth, February 2 1 . Anno 1513. and John Cardinal of Medick 
fucceeded him, who was called Leo the tenth. The fame year dyed 
Ann the French Queen, and the next year Lewes King of France mai> 
rieth the Lady Mary, fitter to Henry VIII. King of England. 

But as Lewes pleafed himfelf exceedingly in the excellent beau- 
ty of his new Spoufe , behold a Fever accompanied with a flux 
of blood frees him fjom the cares and troubles of this World. 
So Lewes dyed, on January i. 1514. greatly lamented of all his 

Francis, the firft of that name, fucceeded him in the Kingdom : he 
was before Duke of Valo'vs, and Earl of Angnlefin, Son to John Earl of 
Angolefm, who was the youngeft Son of Lewes Duke of Orleans^ 
(murthered by the Enrgundian at Paris, in the time of Charles VI. 1 ) 
who was alfo the youngeft Son of King Charles V. He was anointed 
at Rhemes being 22. years old. 

Wi^iam Budeus, born at Paris , was Secretary to King Francis the 
firft, and keeper of his Library, and afterwards his Counfelleur, and 
Mafter of Requefts. His Commentaries upon the Greek Tongue, his 
Epiftles, Philology, his Commentaries upon the Pandeds, and other of 
his works, (hew his great knowledge in the Greek and Latin Tongues. 
In thofe things which, he wrote before the preaching of Luther , he ' 
doth (harply and largely accufe the Pope, Prelates , and Popifli priefts, 
efpecially in his Book de AQe which was publifhed , Anno 1513. He Montacut . Anai - 
thusdefcribeth the State of the Church at that time \ faying,T^C/?r- i e a. cxercit. 5,. 
ay are worfe than the worft of the people in all kind ef Vice and wanton- $*&*. 
nefi : Prelates are ignorant^ and enemies of Learning , having no refpett 
to the filiation of Souls^bitt rather thrttjiing them down to Hell by their 
falfe ^teaching, and wicked example. . 

He was a Man of great Learning, and worthy to be had in perpetual 
memory: for this caufe efpecially, that He and Cardinal E<%, o^Sgln^d 
Bi(hop of P<m*, did counfel and perfwade this King Francis to Learning.i.3. c .8. 
do a moft noble Ad, that is,to appoint great (Upends for (he Readers of 
Tongues and good Arts in Paris. Buchanan hath this diftich of him. 

GaVia quod Grtca eft, quod Grtcia Barbara non ffti i Buehan. li. 2, - 

< Vtraqtte Budto debet utrttwque fiw . . 

30&e cccleftaftfcal $ffi$? Cent. 16. 

Stephanas Pafcbafwmhis Icones hath thefe Vcrfes cf him. 

Et Lati* nobti debent Gra'wqne Camett : 
Laudetn utram qutras, magnm utraque //*. 

He dyed at Paris, Ann* 1539. 

The feveral courfes King Francis took for the lettering of Learn- 
ing in France^ Antoin du Verdier mentions in his learned preface to his 
Bibliotheque : and in his Book he faith, he was xkferveclJy called, 2& 
father of Learning, becaufe he founded Colleges in Ptf/^/for the in- 
ftru&ingof youth in the Hebrew^ Creek, and Latin Tongues , and ga- 
thered together Learned men of good life out of all parts of the 
World, to read publickly in the Univeifity of Tarit. Ihevet and Po- 
fteVus travelled into the Eaft , to procure him rare Books for his Li- 

Through long ufe and cuftom he had acquired much knowledge: 
for Dining and Supping, his talk was commonly of Learning , and 
that moft eagerly, uling many years for the famepurpofe James Coline, 
a Learned man, and in the vulgar Tongue moft eloquent : and after 
bimPeter Cafielan. Of thefe two he had learned whatfoever was 
written in the Books of Poets, Historiographers, and Cofmographers. 
Moreover , he attained to a perfect knowledge of whatfoever Arifrotle, 
te* ii oFRellg. 'fbeophraftus^PliHy, and fuch other like, have written of the nature of 
andLearn. ' '* Plants, Herbs, Beafts, Mettals, pretious Stones , and by daily ufe and 
hearing, did remember them. He ufed alfo to confer much of the 
Mathematical Sciences, and often to reafon out of the Scriptures. In 
his own Tongue he was always accounted right grave and eloquent. 
SWd.Comment. Throughout Greece and Jtaly, he had thofe that fought and copied out 
- Qr fa m t } 1 works of old Writers, and he made a great Library , the 
keeper whereof was CajieUan. 

William BeVay was a man of much honour and vertue , and a 
fpecial Ornament of the French Nobility , by reafon of his nota- 
ble Learning , Eloquence, Experience, and fingular Dexterity in all 

Andrew Ihevet was Cofmographer to the King of France. He hath 
written an Univerfal Cofmography in French in two Tomes, in Royal 
paper, in which he doth not only rehcarfe what he learned from the 
Books of others, but what himfelf had feen by travelling almoft over 
the World, and by viewing all the Seas : fo that fome think there is no 
thing more learned, and more orderly difpofed. He hath alfo written, 
Let lies des hommes ilittllres, the lives of llluftrious men in French, in a 
great Folio with their pourtraidh. -at. Wili&m Poftel w was a good Linguift, but he was little better than 
niad jfor he held that Adanfs Soul was in him, with many other grofs 


Cent. 1 6. Of FRANCE. 191 

^ . . . . - 

opinions. ~Bibliander makes honourable mention of him,becaufe he was 
thefirftChriftian man that publiflied the rudiments of the Arabic^ 
Grammar There are thefe works of his : 

De Littjruarum 1 2 Different mm Alpktb. 

Clavis abfconditorum tern veritatis. 

T>e fbtmcum Lit. 

De Or bis Terr* Concordid. 

De Etruri<e Origins. 

Pete r CallellaH was Biihop of Orleans , a Man highly efteemed in 
France at this time for his excellent Learning. He hath written four 
Books de efu carmum. 

Marguerite^ Queen of "Navarr^ was Sifter to Francis the firft. There 
are her Memoires. In the Epiftle to the Reader are thefe words, gwe 
Rome vantff taut qtt* il lay plaira les Comment Aires de fan premier Ew- 
pereur, La France a maintenant lerMcmoires d* une grand e Roine qui tie 
lew cedeni en riev. Her poetical works are joyned together. 

Claudius Efterietttf, a Doctor of Sorbon flouri(hed at this time. 
bfone of the Divines of Par is had a greater concourfe of all Degrees 
and was more ad mired for his frequent Sermons to the people than He. 
There are many queftions concerning Religion jdifcuflfed by him in La* 
tin and French with great fub'ilty. 

He was very eloquent. His Commentaries upon Timothy and Tf/ar/j . 
ate well approved, In his Comment on 2//rhe proves by many good 
Authorities that Clergy- men are fubjed to Secular Princes, and owe 
all honour unto them as to their Lords. 

On the fame Epiftle he fets down a Lift of the many tricks and de- 
vices of the Court and Chancery of Rome , invented meerly for 
catching of Monty > where he puts in among t he reft expe&ative gra- 
ces or reverfions, fecret reservations, beftowing of Benefices upon the 
firft comer, uniting of many Benefices to one Chappel , Prebend , or 
other Benefice, Mandates, preventions, propinations, fmall or ordina- 
ry favices, conditional resignations, detaining of all the revenue in 
lieu of penfion,anda : number of fuch like things which were not 
heard of for a long time in the Church , and which would be 
Grange news to Peter andP'<i/, if they, ttiould cdrae into the World 

This learned Divine hath fpoken much of thefe things. 

Ai <! thefe that defire further to be informed herein, 1 will refer to 
,. ok entitled, faxa CanceVarj* Aptfdic* , Printed at Paris by 
is, Anno 1520. 

And yet this is nothing in cotnparifon of the Penitentiary 7**, 
Printed with the fame book, where every iin, every crime, hew hai- 

'92 5O)e cccieftafttcal ^tftojtp Cent. i<$, 

*-- _ , . , ! 

nous foeyer, hath it's price fet > fo that to have a Licenfe and impu- 
nity for finning, there needs no more but to be' rich i to have a paf- 
porttoParadife,bothforaman'sfelf, and for his mifdeeds. 

But that which might make Rome Wtifti Cif there were any (hame 
in her brow) is, that pardons and indulgences are denyed to the poor 
and indigent, who are not of means Efficient to raife thefe criminal 
and incelluous impositions. 

It may fecm that the Bull of Pope Leo X. added at the end of the 
Concordat , and confirmed by the Letters of King Francis I. hath dero- 
gated from the Pragmatic^ Sanction. But that Bull was never recei- 
ptp. Rebuff in vcd and approved in France, as Mr. Peter Rebuffus doth teftifie. fbir 
fric^'mwdat. fi Kfti*u**o*-> (faith he) as being about a money-mater, was never received 
'.Apdftol. by the Inhabitants of tbir Kingdom. Nor if it comprehended within the 

CoHcordate , nor the King's Declaration concerning it verified in the 
Court of Parliament. 

In the year, i *> itf. Pope Leo X. under pretext of collecfring mo- 
ney to wage" War againft the TwrJ^ fent Indulgences through all Chri- 
tfendom, granting pardon of fins both for guilt and punishment unto 
all which would give Money, 'fecelius expofeth thefe Indulgences to 
>(ale in Germany, and Luther writeth againft the abufes of them , fome 
write againft Luther, md others defend him. 

Luther proceedeth, and writeth againft other corruptions of the 
Church of Rome, and many are enlightned by him. Charles V. being 
JEmperour, calleth a Dyet at IVormes, and thither is Luther fummoned 
AnHoi$2i. who ftoutly defendeth his Dodtrine, and many Priefts 
.began to preach, and even in Wormes after they had feen the conftan- 
cyof Luther, they receive the preachers of the Gofpeh and becaufe 
they could not have the liberty of the Churches, they fet up a portable 
pulpit, and heard the preachers in many places of the Town until the 
year 1525. The Gofpel was preached in Saxony, and embraced there, 
as alfo at Halberjiat, Hamburgh, Pomerania-> Liveland^ and many other 

Charles Duke of Savoy was defirous of truth and purity , Luther 
understanding it by Annemund Coot a French Knight, writes unto him 
a confelfion of Faith to confirm him in the zeal of piety. In the 
clofure he faith, IVetil Illusions Prince, ftir up that fpark^ which hath 
begun to kindle in tbee, and let fire come from the houfe of Savoy, M 
from the houfe of Jofeph, and let all France be kindhd by thee i yea, let 
that Holy fire burn and encreafe, that at lajl France m ay be truly ' called 
for the Goffers fake the mo\\ Chrijiian Kingdom. 

In the year 1 523. the Gofpel began to be openly preached in France 
at Gratianople in the Dsulphinatc by Peter Sebevilla. Zuingliw by wri- 
ting encouraged him to lift up his voice like a Trumpet , and found 
forth the Gofpel in France. 


Cent,i& Of FRANCE. 193 

At the fame time in Meld* about ten miles from P<*w, was Bifhop 
WtVitm Brifonnet i he was a Lover of Truth and Light, he pafleth by 
the Monks, and fought learned Men to teach the Gofpel. So from 
Par//, he calleth Jacobus Faber, William Farel, Arnold, and Gerard Ked^ 
who did moll fervently inftrudt the people in the truth. 

But the Bi(hop' courage was fcon abated by terrible menaces of the 
Sorbonnifts, neverthekfs the word of God was planted in the hearts 
of many, and by the wondrous counfcl of God from the perfccution 
of that one Church many Churches through France were planted, for 
both the Teachers and hearers were fpread abroad. 

After Martin Luther had opened the way in Germany , John Calvin 
born at Noyon [R Piccardy, a Man of a great wit,marvellouily eloquent, 
and generally Learned , departing from the Faith then generally 
held, propofed in his Books which he publifced in Print, and in 
his Sermons which he preached in divers places in France^ one hun- 
dred twenty eight axiomes (fo he called them ) difagrccing from the 
Roman Church. 

The French Wits, curious by Nature, and defirous of Novelties, 
began at firft rather for paftime than through choice to read his wri- 
tings, and frequent his Sermons. But as Di*i>//tf,aPapirt , obfcrveth 
in his Hiftory of the civil Wars of France, as in all bufinefs of the 
World it ufeth often to fallout, that things beginning injeft, end in ear- 
nef, fo thefe opinions fowed in God's Church, fo crept up (faith he) Davila Hiftt ^ 
that they were greedily embraced and firmly believed by a great num- the civil war* 
ber of people and perfons of all qualities, infomuch that Calvin came of FrMee llb * r * 
to be reverenced of many in a (hort time, and believed for a new mira- 
culous Interpreter of Scripture, and (faith my Authourj as it were a 
certain infallible Teacher of the true Faith. 

The foundation ot this Dodrine was in the City of Geneva , fcitu- 
ate upon the Lake Antiently called Lacm Lemawts , upon the confines 
of Savoy \ which having rejected the Government of the Duke and 
Bimop, to whom formerly it paid obedience under the name of terra. 
Franca^ under pretext of liberty of confcience , reduced it felf into 
the form of a Common- wealth. From thence books coming out 
daily in print, and men furnifhed with Wit and eloquence infinua- 
ting themfelves into the Neighbour Provinces, who fecretly fowed the 
feeds of this new Doctrine, in progrefs of time, all the Cities and Pro- 
vinces of the Kingdom of France were filled with it , though fo 
covertly, that there appeared openly only fome few marks and conje- 
&ure.s of it. 

This began in the time of King Fn*<:/j thefirft, who though fome- 
times he made fevere refolutions againft the preachers and profeflTdbrs 
of this Doctrine, yetnotwithftanding being contiaually bufied in For- 
reign Wars took little notice thereof. 

C c feter 

194 3O)tecrtdtafttcai$ifto?i? cent. 1 6 

Teter Viret was an eloquent French Divine , whom Cj/Wtf defired 
for his Col league. His French Books are mentioned by Attoine d* 
Verdier'm his Bibliotheque. 

William Farel was alfo a learned Divine cf Geneva. He hath writ- 
ten ~De Vraj V/age de la Croix, and other Books. 

Upond/ww, F*r*7 3 and F/Vtf, there is this -Epigram of Beza. 

GaVica mirata etl Calvinttm Ecclefia nuper y 

Quo ntmodocuit doftiHS. 
Ejl quoque te nup:r mirata, Yartllejonantem, 

Quo nemo tenuit fortijtf. 
Et mtratur adhuc fundentem mel'a Virettem, 

Quo nemo fatur dulcriis. 
Scilicet ant tribuf his firvabere tejitbw olim^ 

Ant interibis Gallia. 

Stephoi Pafqu/er a French Writer and a Papift, doth much extol Cal- 
vlifs piety, wit, and learning. Recherch. de la France, li. 8. ca. 55. 

JobnClerk^ was apprehended at Meldenin Fra-nc* , Anno 1523. for 
fctting up upon the Church-door a certain Bill againft the Pope's par- 
dons lately Cent thither from Romf\ in which Bill he named the Pope 
to be Antichrift. For which he was three feveral days whipped , and 
afterwards had a mark imprinted in his Forehead, as a note of infamy. 
His mother being a good Chrifiian- woman fthough her Husband was- 
an Adverfary) when (he beheld her Son thus grievoufly fcourged, and 
ignominioully deformed in the face , did boldly encourage her 
Son, crying with a loud Voice, Elejftdbe Chriji, and welcome be tbefe 
prints and markj. 

After this execution and puni(hment fuftained, the faid John de- 
parted that Town, and went to Rofte in Br/>, and from thence to Metz^ 
where he was taken for calling down Images : and there his hand was 
hrftcutorf from his right Arm: then his Nofe with (harp pincers was 
violently pulled from his Face after that both his Arms and his paps 
were likewife pluckt and drawn with the fame Inthument. He qui- 
etly endured thefe Torments, in a manner tinging the Verfes of the 
1 1 5 Pfalm, Their Idols be Silver twd Gold, the rr>ork^ only of Man's 
band: The reft of his body was committed to the fire, and therewith 

Anno I'ji'j.Do&oic JohnCafteVaH, after he was called to the know- 
ledge of God, he became a true preacher of his word in France at Ear- 
lednc^ alfo at Vitte ry inPartorfe,at Cbahu in Champagne, and in the 
Tfcwn of Vifa which is the Epifcopal Seat of the Bi&op of Metz in 
Lorrain. After he had 'laid-fome foundation of the Doctrine of the 
Gofpel in Mttz, in returning from thence he was taken prifoner by 


Cent. i<5. Of FRANCE. 195 

the Cardinal of terrain's fervants, and carried to the Caftle of Norn- 
menie : from thence he was carried to the Town and Caftle of Vikf, 
alwaysconflantly perfevering , in the fame Doctrine. He was degra- 
ded by the Bifhop of Nicopolu^ and condemned to be burnt quick : 
which Death he (uttered, jfo*ry 12. 1525. with that conftancy, that 
not only many ignorant people were thereby drawn to the knowledge 
of the truth, butalfo multitudes which had tafted thereof in fome 
meafure already were greatly confirmed by his conftancy in his 

Then Wolfgangus Scbucb, coming to a certain Town in Lorrain^ 
called St. Bippolitus^ and being received in the Town for their Patlor, 
laboured by all means to root out of the hearts of the people Idola- 
try and fuperftition. Hereupon Duke Anthony Prince of Lorra'm^ 
threatens the Town of St. Wppolittts. Wolfgang humbly wrote to 
the Duke in defence both of his Doctrine and Miniftry , and of the 
whole caufe of the Gofpel : and having confuted the Fryars in dif- 
.putation, he was condemned to be burnt. Shortly after his death, 
the Commendator of St. Anthony of Vienna, , who fate as fpiritual 
Judge over him, and gave fentence of his condemnation, fell down 
fuddenly and dyed. In like manner his Fellow , which was Abbot of 
Clarilocus, fuddenly at the coming of the Dutchefs of Venmarkjnto the 
City of Nancy, being ftricken with fudden fear at the noife of Guns, 
fell down and dyed. 

In the beginning of the year, 1525. was the Battle of Tavia, where 
Francis I. the Drench King was taken Prifoner, and carried to Madrid in 
Spzin, but after many Months confinement he is enlarged, and retnrn- 
eth into France. 

The Pope underftanding the King was fet at Liberty , fent to con- 
gratulate with him, and to make a confederation againft the Empe- 
rour. The which being ratified in Cttgvac, May 22. 1526. between 
Him, that King, and the Princes of Italy, under the name of the raoft 
Holy League, the Pope abfolveth the French King from the Oath taken 
in Spain, fat the obfervation of the things agreed upon. 

Now followetb a Table of French 

J .- -. f 


Fox, M\ and 

i. VAtnes Pavane, School mafter at Paris, Anno 1524. being 
J taken by the Bi(hop of Meattx, was compelled by Dr. Ma 



to recant. Afterwards returning again to his confeiiion, he was burnt 
at Varis^ Anno 1525. 

2. "Dionysus de Rieux at Meld*, or Meaux , was burned at UeHa^ 

Cc 2 for 

96 %\)t Crrlcftaffical %ifloa> Cent, 

for faying that the Mafs is aplaindenyal of the Death and Paflion 
of Chrift, Anno 1528. He had often in his mouth thefe words 
of Ghrift. He that denytth me before M!r, him rviU I alfo deny before 
my father. 

3. Joannes de Cadttrco, Batchellourof the Civil Law, for making 
an exhortation to his Countreymen of Limofin, was accufed , . taken, 
degraded, and burnt. 

4. JohnBurges Merchant, the receiver of Nantes, THarthohmew My- 
lenz lame Cripple, Henry Poiile of Cottberon, CateHa a School-Miftrefs, 
Stephen de la Fogge Merchant, were condemned and burned in Parit, 
.^tftfj 1 533. Henry of Couberon had his Tongue bored through, and. 
with an Iron wire tyed faft to one of his cheeks , and fo was burned 
with the other, as is aforefaid. 

5. Alexander Canus a Prieft for the confeflion of the true Religion, 
was alfo burnt at Paris, Anno \ 533. 

6. John Pointer, a Chyrurgeon, becaufe he would not do homage 
to a certain Idol at the commandment of a Fryar that came to con- 
fefs him , his Tongue was cut off, and then he was burned at 

^. PettrGauJet, a Knight fometimeof Rhodes, after long torments 
was burnt for the defence of the Gofpel, Anna 1533. 

8, gstttoqtiflaed was burnt for the Tellimony of Chrift's Gofpel at. 
"Bizanfon in Burgundy, Anna 1534. 

p. Nicholas Scrivener, John de Poix, Stephen Bttrlet, were burnt on 
the fame account in the City of Arras, Anno 1 534. 

10. Mary Eecaudella was burnt at Fountains, for finding fault 
with the Dodrine of a Grey Fryar, in the City of Rachel , Anno 

i r. JohnCornon, an Husband- man of Mafcon, one of fuch wifdom T 
that he confounded his Judges 3 was condemned by them , and burnt, 
Anno 1535. 

12. Martin Gonin in Dautyh lne\ being taken fora Spie in the &oi^ 
dersof France towards the Alpes, was committed to prifon. In his 
going out , his Gaoler cfpyed about him Letters of FareUut and 
Viret. \vherefore being examined of the King's procurator, 
and the Inquidtor touching his Faith, after he had rendred 
a fufficient reafon thereof , he was caft into the River and 

13. Claudius Painttr,* Goldfmithat Parit, going about to convert 
his Kinsfolks^ was by the Parliament of Paris condemned to have his 
Tongue to be cut out, and then to beJDurned, Anno 1 540. 

14. Stephen Brttne, an Husbandman at Rutiers, was condemned to be 
burnt at Planvol, where the wind arofe,and blew the fire fo from him, 
as he ftood exhorting the people, that he there continued an hour in a 


CenM6. 0f FRANCE. 197 

manner unharmed i fo that all the Wood being confumed, they re- 
newed the fire with other Faggots, and VefTels of Oyl, and yet could 
he not with all this be burned, but flood fafe. Then the Hangman with 
his pike thruft him through the belly and the guts, and fo threw him. 
down into the fire, and burnt his body to AQres, throwing away bis 
A'fties afterwards into the Wind. 

15. Conftantine, a Citizen of Rhoan, with four others , were con- 
demned to be burnt, and put in a Dung-cart, who rejoyced that they 
were reputed as excrements of this world : but yet their death was a 
fweet odour unto God, Anno 1 542. 

1 6. John dtt Bec1{. Prieft, for the Do&rine of the Gofpel was degra-^ 
ded and burnt at froyts in Champagne^ Anno 1 543. 

17. Aimond de Lavoy + a preacher of the Gofpel in Anjott, after- 
nine months imprifoncnent at Bourdeaux., being put to cruel tor* 
ments, he wastirft ftrangled, whofc body was afterwards confumed 
with fire. 

1 8. Francis Bribard , Secretary to Cardinal Bel 'ay , was alfo 
burnt for the defence f the Gofpel, his Tongue being firft cut out,, 
Anno 1544. 

rp. William Huffbn an Apothecary, for fcattering Books concerning, 
Chriitian Dodhine, and the abufe of humane Traditions , had his 
Tongue cut out, and was afterwards burnt at Rboan. Delandaa Car- 
melite Fryar, one of his perfecutors, was afterwards converted , and - 
preached the Gofpel, Anno 1 544. 

20. James Cobard^ a School-mafter in the City of St. Michael in 
Lorrain, was burnt for the Truth, Anno 1 544. 

21. Pfter Clerk^ Brother to John Cler\ aforementioned, and 14.. 
more who dwelt at Mclda^ were burnt, Anno 1 546. 

22. Peter Ckapot was ftrangled and burnt at Paris. Saintinus 
Nivet, and Stephen Polliot were alfo burned at Paris^ Anno 1 545. 

23. John Englifo, was burnt at Sens in Burgundy , being condemned 
by the high Court of Paris, Anno 1 5 47. 

24. Michael Michelot, was burnt at Warden by 1'ourney , Anno 


2 5. Leonard de Prato, going from Diion to Bar in Burgundy with two 
falfe Brethren, and talking about Religion with them, was bewrayed of 
them, and afterwards was burnt, Anno 1 547. 

26. John Taffington, Joan his Wife: Simon Marefchal^Joan his Wife: 
William Micbaut^ James Bottleratt, James Bretany. Thelefeven being 
of the City of Langres^ot the word of Chrift were committed to the 
fire, who dyed comfortably, Anno 1547. 

27. Michael Marcjchal, John CatnM^ Great John Carntts y John Serar- 
phiv were burnt the fame year in Paris. 

28^ Ofavi**-* 

3E$e $edeftaCNcal $ffto?p Cent. 1 6. 

28. O&avian Blundel^ a Merchant of precious Stones at Varis , was 
alfo burnt for his profeffion, Anno 1 548. 

2p. Hubert Burre^ a young Man a Taylor of nineteen years was 
burned for the Gofpel at T>iion. 

30. FlorentVcmte, aPriel't at P<zw, after four years and nine hours 
imprifonment, having endured many torments, at laft when there was 
a great Show in Paris at the King's coming into the City, and divers 
other Martyrs in fundry places of the City were put to death , he ha- 
ving his Tongue cut out, was brought to fee the execution of them 
all > and laft of all was burnt in the place of Maulbert , Anno 

31. Ann Aubeft^ a \\idow at Orleans, Anno 1549. going to Gene* 
va, was taken and brought to P<m>, and by the Council there judged to 
be burnt at Orleans. 

32. A poor Taylo* at ?ari*, dwelling in St. Antbonie's ftreet , who 
boldly defended the Gofpel before the King and his Nobles : he cvas 
burnt in the prefenceof the King, his ftrength and courage in '. De- 
ling did greatly aftonifh the King and others, Anno 1 549. 

33. Claudius Thierry was apprehended coming from Geneva , and 
\?as burned at Orleans, Anna 1 54?. 

34. Leonard Galimard was burnt at Paris the fame year. 
3 5. Maccettt Morcox was burnt in 7r0y, Anno 1 549. 

36. John Godeait , and Gabriet Beraitdinw were burnt at Chaw 

37. Ihomas Sanpaulinufy after cruel wracking was burnt in 

38. Maurice Sfcenate was burnt in Provence, Anno 1551. Joannes de 
teo^ { ir- named Medicus^ was alfo burnt at T/sfz in Prwence the fame 


39. Claudius Monerius was burnt at Lyont, he was meek and learn- 
ed : fome of his Judges wept at his death, while he was in prifon he 
wrote certain Letters, but one efpecially very comfortable to all the 
faithful. He alfo wrote the queftions and interrogatories of the 
official with his anfwers likewife to the fame, which being fumma- 
rily contracted, you may read in Mr. Fox. A8. and Monument. Vol. 2. 

40. Resale Poyet, Son of William Poyet, which was Chancellour of 
France, for the fincere profeffion of the Gofpel, was burnt at the City 
of S attlmure ^ Anno 1552. 

41. John Joyer ^ and a young Man his Servant , were burnt at 

42. Hugh Gravier a Sehool-mafier , and after Minifter of Cortillon, 
was burnt at Burge in Breffe , a days Journey from Lyons. Martiaf 

> Peter Scnba, Bernard Seguine , Charles Faber , Peter Navihere, 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

five Students , -of the Univcrfity of Lattfanna were burnt a* Lyons, 
Anna i 553. feterBergerius, (hortly after fuffered the fame Martyrdom 
at Lyons. Stephen Pelcc/aine, and fijtoMtfifts Ptloqttine Brethren fuffe- 
red at Ville Franche about Lyons in the fame year. 

43. Le n-es Marfacns, Michael Gerard, Stepbe n Granot^ fuffered alfo 
at Lyons, Anno 1553. Mtttbe&Vinttmet Merchant fuffered there alfo. 
At his burnirghe (pake much to the people, and was heard with 
great attention. 

44. William Neele *n AultinFryar, fuffered 'at Eurettx in France. 
Simon Lake at ~Diion. The Executioner called Juftus Silvefter, feeing 
the faith and conftancy of Laloe^ was converted : and he with all his 
Family removed to the Church of Geneva. 

45. Nicholas Ntyle, a Shoo- maker was burnt at Paris, and Peter 
Serre a Prieft, was burnt at 'I.boloufe^Anno 1553. 

46. Stephen King , and Peter VeHecbeus were burnt at Cbartres 

47. Anto'niHS Magnus was burnt at Paris, Anno i 554. 

48. William Alemon, a Bookfeller, and a certain Clothwprker were 
burnt-at blontpeliters, Anno 1554. 

4p. Pjr/V PawVr, a godly Lawyer for conftant profcilio of the 
Gofpel was beheaded at Do/*, /4>/o 1 554, 

50. PfterditVall^ Shoo-makcr, after grievous wrackings was burnt 
at Nifmes^Anno 1554. 

51. John Filieul, Carpenter: Jnlin le ville Point-maker, were 
burnt at Sanferre, Anno i 554. 

52. Vyomfas Vayre, leaving his PopifhPriefthood went to Geneva^. 
where he learnt the Art of Book binding, and many times .brought 
Books into France. Afterwards in the ;Reign of Edtrard VI. King of 
England^ he preached the word in Jfrfey : but after his death , think- 
ing to return again to Geneva, he came with his Bocks into Norman* 
dy unto a Town called F#eitte , where he was taken w,ith hip 
Books, and after the fuffering moft cruel torments was Burnt at 

5 3 . 1'bemas Calbwgn Vtffttttntp was bu rn t, Anno 1554-, 
54. Ri*c^rrf'F*riftf-aGoldfmith, born at ZU><?4>;, after he had been 
in London, where he firft taftcd of the Gofpel , he went to Geneva^ 
where he remained nine or ten years. From' thence returning to tyons t 
he was apprehended, and condemned. Then he appealed to the High 
Court at Parrs*, 'where inthe way as he. was led fo ?arjs, he was met 
by certain whomheknew not, and by them taken from his Keepers, 
and fo fet ac liberty. Anno 1551. 

After that continuing at Gener* for the (pace of three 
years, he came into P<*/^/#<?, and there as he found fault with the 
Graee^faid in L*tin, he was detected 3 . and appithended, The next 


200 %ty eccleftaftical $ffto?p Cent. 16. 

-day hewasfenttothe]uftice,from him totheBKhop: who ridding 
their hands of him, he was brought to the Lieutenant, who fent his 
Advocate with a Notary to him in Prifon to examine him of his Faith: 
for,whichf I (hall refer the Reader to Mr. Fox. Aft. and Monum. Vol. 2. 
"p. 146, 'i 47, 148. He was fent back to the Bifliop's prifon, and from 
thence mortly after to Lyons , where he had his Tongue cut out, and 
then was burnt. 

55. Nicholas du Chefite^ fuffered at Ory near Bizancon, Anno 1554. 

56. JobnBertrand) Keeper of the Forreft of Marchenoir^ was burnt 
at Btoir^ Anno 1556. 

57. Peter Rouleau, after three wrackings, had his Tongue cut out, 
and a ball of Iron put in his mouth. He was drawn upon an Hurdle 
all broken to the fire, where he was lifted up into the Air , and let 
down thrice. And when he was half burnt, the ball fell from his mouth 
and he with a loud voice, called on the name of God, (aying, Jefut 
Cbrift ajjift me : fo he dyed. 

58. Arnold Moniere , and John de Cazes , were burnt at Bourdeaux t 
Anno 1556. 

5p. Philip Cone, James his fellow, Archxmbant Se raphon , Mr. A 7 *- 
tbolas du Roujfeau were burnt at D//0, Anno 1 557. 

60. Philip Hamlin fuffered at Bottrdeaux. 

6\. Nicholas Sartorius^ at Oeft near Piedmont , Anno 1 557. 

62. George Cardiff, with one of 'lours a Broiderer, Nicholas a Shoo- 
tnaker at Jenvile^ fuffered at 'tours, 

I muft now return back to the Reign of King Francis I. 

The Lutherans having prefested a confefficn of their Faith, the 
^" nces f G ernian y being aflembled before the Emperour in a Hall 
(Annoi^v) capable to receive 200 perfons, it was read with a loud 
voice. And the Cities which followed the Dodfrine of Z*/g/7*x, 
prefented apart the oonfeflion of their Faith , not differing from the 
former but only in the point of the Eucbarift. The confeilion of the 
Princes was afterwards from this place called, the Auguftan ConfeflioH. 
The Pope's Legate would not cenfure the confeflion, but gave order 
that a confutation thereof (hould be read , and no Copy 

The Pope was difpleafed with the Emperour, for meddling in Reli- 
gion, but efpecially for promifmg a Council. 

He writes to all Princes, that he would call a Council , though he 
never meant it : and his collufion is difcovered by many. The Vroteft- 
tf//likewife do write to all Princes, praying them not to believe the 
calumnies raifed againft them, and to fufpend their Judgements , until 
thofe that are accufed have place to acquit themfelvcs publickly. And 
therefore they will defire the Emperour, that he will call a godly , and 


Cent.i<S. Of FRANCE. 301 

free Council in Germany, asfoon as might be, and not ufe force until 
the matter be difputed, and lawfully denyed. 

The French King anfwered with very courteous Letters , in fub- 
ftance giving them thanks for communicating unto him a bufmefs of 
fo great weight. 

He (hewed them that he was glad to underftand of their innocen- 
cy, and did approve the inftance they made, that the vices might be a- 
mended, wherein they (hall find his will to concur with theirs > that 
their requiring a Council was juft and holy, yea neceflary , not only 
for the affairs of Germany , but of the whole Church , that it was 
not neceflary to ufe Arms, where the controverfies may be ended with 

The Emperour promifeth the calling of a Council within fix 
months. The pope refolveth to make an Alliance with France to be 
able to withftand the Emperour. 

After the AfTembly of the Proteftants at Smahald, the French King 
Treateth with the Landgrave of Haflia, at the Pope's requeft about 
the Council. The Pope is difpleafed for the propofal of Geneva, for 
the place of the Council. Anno 1534. Pope Clement VII. dyeth, and 
Cardinal Farnefe is created Pope, and named Patel III. He maketh a 
(hew that he defireth a Council : he perfwadeth the Cardinals to re- 
form themfelves. 

The cuftom is, that in the firft days the Cardinals obtain favours 
eafily of the new pope. Therefore the Cardinal of Lorrain, and o- 
ther Fre neb, in the name of the King, defired him to grant to the 
Duke of Lorrain the nomination of the Bifhopricks, and Abbacies of 
his Dominion. The Pope's Anfwer was, that in the Council which 
(hould be called (hortly, it was neceflary to take away the faculty of 
nomination from thofe Princes that already had it : which was 
fome blemi(h to the Popes his predeceflfours , \vho had granted 

A Bull is made for the convocation of the Council at Mantua, May 
27. 1 537. The Pope prayeth the French King, and all other Kings and 
Princes to be there in perfon. 

The Proteftants approve not the Bull of convocation. 

The Duke of Mantua makes a Grant of his City , and afterwards 
recalleth it. The King of England oppofeth the Council by a pub- 
lick manifeft. 

Then the Pope fent out a Bull for the convocation of the Council at 
Vicenza. The Legates went to Ficenza at the time appointed > and 
the Pope to Nizza in Provence at the fame time , to fpeak perfon ally 
with the Emperour and the French King, which he gave out was only 
to make peace between thofe great Princes, though his principal end 
was to draw the Dukedom of Milan, to his own houfe, Anno 1 538. 

Dd The 

30 2 %ty eccleftafttcal $fft#p cent, 

The Council intimated is fufpended during pleaffcre. 
The Emperour gave order for a Dyet to be held in Germ jy,where 
F*ft<H/ thought good, inviting the Protejlaut Princes to be there in 
perfon, and promifing publick (ecurity unto all. Cardinal Farnefe 
hearing of thisconclufion made without his knowledge, went imme- 
diately away : and paffing by Paris, obtained of the French King a 
fevereEdtft againft the Lutherans: which being publi(hed was ex- 
ecuted in that City, and after through all France with much rigour, 
King Francis commanded that all mould be appeached who had 
Books differing from the Church of Rome, that made fecret Conven- 
ticles i that tranfgrefTed the commandments of the Church i and e- 
fpecially that obferved not theDodrine of Meats i or prayed in any 
Tongue but the Latin > and commanded the Sorbonnitfs to be diligent 
Spks againft them. Afterwards underftanding the Emperour's cun- 
ning, who aflayed to incite the Pope againft him, he caufed the L- 
tberans to be really proceeded againft , and commanded that a form 
to difcover and accufe them mould be inftituted in Paris, propofing 
punifhments to the concealers of them , and rewards to the 

Tii is was done, Anno i 542. 

The Emperour gave divers orders to the Prelates of Spain, and 
the Love -Countries, and commanded that the Divines of Lovain mould 
aflemble together, to coniider of the Dodbrines which were to be pro- 
pofed> which they reduced to XX.1I. heads, without confirming them 
by any place of Scripture, but explicating Magifterially the conclufion 

The French King alfo Aflfembled at Mf/;/, the Parifian Divines, to 
confult of the necefTary poiitions of the Chriftian Faith, to be propo- 
fcd in the Council, where there was much contention. For fome de- 
fired to propofe the confirmation of whatfcever was conftituted in Con. 
fiance and Bafil, and the re-eilabli(hment of the Pragmatic}^ Sanfiion 
And others doubting that the King would be offended by de-* 
ftroying the Concordat , made between him and Leo ( which 
would neceflarily follow } gave counfel not to fet that difputation 
on foot. 

And afterwards, becaufe there were divers opinions in that School 
concerning the Sacramentsj unto which fome gave effective Minifte- 
rial vertue , and others not , every one defiring that his opinion 
(houkl be an Article of Faith, nothing could be concluded , but that 
they (hould keep themfelves within compafs of the XXV. heads publi- 
(hed two years before. 

The Council is appointed to be in Trent , and thither the Legates 
arefent. \\hile they meet in Trent to convince Hercfies by a Coun- 
cil, in France they did the iameby force of Arms, againft a fmall 

Cent. 16. > Of F R A N C E. 

remainder of the Waldtnfes, Inhabitants of the/%?jof Provence, who 
fas hath hath been faid before) maintained a feparation from the See 
of Rome, with divers Rites and Doctrine. 

Thefe Men after tfae Reformation of Zitingliiu , enlarged their 
Dodrine by his, and reduced their Rites unto fome form at the fame 
time when Geneva em-braced the Reformation. 

Sentence was pronounced again!! thefe many years before by the 
Parliament of Aix, which had never been executed. The King now 
commanded to execute the Sentence. 

The Prefident muttered together as many Souldiers as he could in 
the places bordering upon them } and in the Pope's State of Avignon, 
and went with an Army againft thcfe poor Creatures, who had nei- 
ther Weapon nor thought, otherwife than by flight to defend them- 
felves, thofe that could. They went not about to teach them , or by 
threats to make them leave their Rites and opinions -, but firft of all 
filling all the Countrey with Rapes, flew as many as ftood to their 
mercy, becaufe they could not fly , without fparing young or old. 
They rather razed the Countries of Carriers in Provence, and of Me- 
rindol in the County of Viinoifin belonging to the Pope, and all other 
places in thofe Precincts. More than 4000. perfons were llain. They 
that fled to the Woods and Mountains, partly were famifned , partly 
otherwife (lain, partly fent to the Galleys: twenty five perfons that- 
fled into a Cave near the Town of Muffy were fmothered to death 
with fmak. 

Certain of the He h etians fued unto the French King to favour the 
Waldenfes,\Mt no entreaty would ferve. But the bloody Tyrant 
Mineriw the Governour of Provence, efcaped not the juft Judgement 
of God : for God fmote him with a terrible Difeafe, and he felt as it 
were a fire burning him from the Navel upward, and the lower parts 
were rotten and confumed away with Vermine,with an extream (link, 
and profufion of Blood wi place of his Urine, and fo with great tor- 
ments he ended his wretched Life. 

Lewes deVaine, Brother-in-law to the faid Mineritu, the Prefident, 
and alfo the Brother , and the Son-in-law to Peter Dttrant, Matter 
Butcher of the Town of Aix, thefe three did flay one another upon a 
certain ftrife that fell between them. And upon the fanae day the 
Judge of Aix , who accompanied Minerins in the fame perfecu- 
tion, as he returned homewards going over the River of Durance was 

By an Ordinance of this King Francis I, dated January 1 5. 1 546. 
the Vifitation of the Hofpitalsand other charitable places, is commit- 
ted to the Judges Royl, Ordinaries of the place where fuch Hofpi- de 
tals are fcituate. All Governours and Admini\lrators of Hofpitals, or o- 
tber charitable Yotmdationfifhall be compelled by our Judges of the pfa- 

Dd 2 ces 

204 3E|)C CCClCfiafttCal %JttO?P Cent, ig. 

- ces next adjoynixg to give up their accounts of the Revenues and Admini- 
Jiration of tbefaidHofpitals, by what title foever they hold them *, tge~ 
ther with the Charters and titles of their Foundation, if they have any^ 
within two months after the publication of thefe prejents. Whom we 
Command^ and exprefy enjoyn^ every one refpeSively within his Precintt* 
and Jttrifdittion, that immediately after the publication of thefe pre- 

Otontius FineiH fents, ity vift the faid Hofpitals and charitable Foundations, to enquire 

was profeflbr of O f t j }e Revenue, Eft ate, and reparation of the places., and the number of. 

!&at I*?* beds, and poer people whom they (ball find there, 

this time. . There were four Stevens, French- men, Henry (he Father , and Robert 

his Son, Henry, Robert's Son i arid Paul the Son of that Henry, all 
learned Men, and Printers. 

Robert Stevens, not only Printed, but made many excellent works 
himfclf. His Thefaurus Lingtt Latin is incomparable. Antoine du 

gelnec B$Ho Verdlef in his Bibliotheque commends him and this Work. Diftiona- 
rium feu Latin* Lingu* Ihefaurttf, non ftngulas- modo, Vifiiones conti- 
nent, fed integras quoque Lrtine & loquendi & fcribetdi formula , ex. 
optimis quibufque Latin* Li ague Scriptoribw. Opus excufum parifiis a- 
pud Authorem, divifum inTomos tref. Anno 1,542. 

He publifhed an Edition of the Latin Bible, wherein he had con- 
ferred the copies that were in ufe at that time with fome old Manu- 
fcripts, and according to them he amended fome errours. The Univer- 
fity took this ill, that he had attempted to change the Tranflation. He. 
defended himfelf that he had changed nothing , but had Printed ac- 
cording to old Copies which he had by him. His anfwer was tolera- 
ble in the Judgement of reafonable men. 

Neverthelefs, they purfue him before the Court of Paris , and do 

Tref on* Rob. Petition that he may be burnt. But their petition was burnt. Then . 
h. ad cento- he printeth the Bible, retaining the corrupt Tranflation: and in the. 
T .' Margin he addeth the words of the Manufcripts with Notes, 
(hewing. the Copies whenceJie had thefe words. Thefe do accufe 
him betore Kin g.Fr ancis and his Council, but were put to fliame and. 
filence. . 

Then he Printed the ten Commandements in great Letters, and. 
in fuch a form, that they might be Hxed upon Walls of Houfes for 
common ufe : and fo did he with a fum of the Bible. This did pro- 
voke them yet more , efpecially becaufe he had Printed the fecond 
C.ommandcmcnt, Ihou (halt not tnakg unto thy fe If any graven Image, 
&c. And they accufe him. But the King gave him a Warrant to re- 
print, both the Ten Commandements, and the fum of the Bible , both'and French. They fummoned him to appear before them,, 
fajing, that his work was worfe than the Teaching of Luther, Fif-. 
teen perfons drd approve him, and added their feals. unto his attefta- 
tiqn. So.the mqft of .them feeing the. King's Warrant, and .that at- 


Cent. 1 6. Of FRANCE. lo? 

reflation, wereafhamed, and their Deputies did aflbil him. 
vewdid firft diftinguifh the Verfes of the Bible with Arithmetical 

Henry Stevens , his 'fhefattri Lingttf Grxct^ and his other works, fhew- 
his great abilities. Scjcvnla Samartbanus in his fecond Book of Epi- 
grams, hath thefe Verfes./a Gellii Noftes Atticas ad H. Stephanum. 

Qitis Stcpbanwn ejfc neget fbxbl de femine cretum ? 
Obfcuris adfert noftibus ille diem . 

Henry Sifvevs^ Roberts Son, macfe alfo the Greek Concordance, 
's Works were Printed in three Tomes at Yarir^AnHo 1545. 

At this time flourished Francis Vatablus, Regius Prefeffir of the He* 
brew Tongue in Paris. King Francis ordered him to expound the 
old Teftamenf out of the Original, and his Hearers did write his ex* 
pofiiion and his Annotations. The King's Printer dealeth with the 
Hearers, and receives from them a new Tranflation, which he printeth- 
with the old Tranflation, and with the Annotations. This work be- 
ing perfected in the year, 1545. he (heweth it unto feme of the IU 
niverfify, entreating them to (hew him, if any part thereof had not 
been rightly obferved. by the Hearers, to the end if there be any thing* 
amifs, he may amend it. They do approve the work, and aflurehim, 
that no evil could proceed from the Ledures of Vatablus. But the 
Books being fold, fome obferved, that the Tranflation and the Anno- 
tations were contrary unto the prefent Doctrine of the Univerfity,and 
therefore the Books (hould not be fold feeing they were Printed with- 
out the knowledge of the Faculty. 

The Printer goeth unto the Court, and (heweth Peter Caflellax Bi- 
fliop of Mafcon, that the Univerfity was offended, and intend to hindei 
the felling of his Boeks. He feeing the BKhop doubtful what advice 
to give, faith, if the Divines will give him their cenfure, he is willing 
to Print it with the Bible, and he will neither be afhamed , nor take 
in ill part, to. advertife the Reader of whatfoever errour is in the 

This overture did pleafe the Bifhcp , and he relates all unto the 
King, who willeth the Birtiop to write in his name unto the Univerfity ,> 
that they fhallrevife the Tranflation and the Annotations , and note 
what doth not pleafe them, and fubjoyn unto every faujt a reafon of 
their Judgement s and deliver their cenfure to be printed either .apart,- 
or with the Bible. 

Caftellan writes fo unto them, and they promife to obey. But they 
were often required to deliver their cenfure : They evade it > and fend : 
unto .the Divines of Lovaut, entreating them to -reckon that . Tranfla- 

3O)e ecdefiaftfcai $ifto?y Cent. it. 

tion among the Heretical and forbidden Books. 

The King was informed of their (hifts, and of that Letter : Where- 
fore he ordereth the Bifhop to require them again. After divers exhor- 
tations to this purpofe, they fend fifteen places which they had 
marked. The Bifhop conferred! with their Deputy Gagneius upon 
thefe Inftanccs, and Writes a large Letter unto them commending 
the Annotations, and (hewing what courfe they fhould obfervem their 

They were the more enraged at that commendation , and would" 
not go on in their cenfure, but would have she Book to be condensed 
which they had declared Heretical. Then the King fent his Letters 
patent, and fealed, charging them to proceed in their cenfure , and to 
deliver it unto his Printer. They do ft ill refufe, and at that time 
King Francis dyeth, viz. on March $ i. Anno 1^47. 

His Son King Henry II. who fucceeded him, fendeth the like charge 
unto them on Augufi 16. 1 547, They return Anfwer , that they (hall 
perfect their cenfure before November i. But then in place of the cen- 
fure they fend a fupplication, craving that the Books may be forbid- 
den, becaufe he is a Sacramentarian, and had written that mens Souls 
art mortal. 

The Printer is informed of it, and addreffeth himfelf to anfwer be- 
fore King and Council. Then they return unto Paris. But he (hews 
how folfe their calumnies were. 

At that time they fent unto the King forty fix Articles which 
they had collected. It was told unto their Deputies that they had 
fpoken of feme thoufands of Errours, and were thefe all turned to 
-forty fix ? They anfwered, the Univerfity had more, but had not as 
yet put them in form. 

The Printer returns to Tarit, chiding fomeof the Divines for ac- 
cufmg him falfly. 

The Printer craves of the King protection from the malice of his 
Enemies. The King grants it under his Seal. This ftorm being o- 
ver, he gathereth fifteen old Manufcripts of the new Teftament in 
Gree^ and printeth it with the divers ledions on the Margin, and 
gives the firft copy unto Caftetian. 

The Pope fends into France Jerome Boccaferrius a Roman, Cardinal of 
St.Gwrg*, in {hew to condole with the King for the death of his Fa- 
ther, and to give him joy of the beginning of his Kingdom, but with 
commillion to make confederation with him. The Pope , gave the 
Legate moft ample power to grant the King all his demands in matter 
of Benefices, without regarding the Decrees of the "frideatine Coun- 
cil : a ftrong Alliance is made between the Pope and the French King, 
and two Cardinals are created at the King's inftance , viz. Charles of 
Guife, Arch-Bimop of Rhemes , and Charles of Vand&fme , of the 
Blocd-RoyaL The 

Cent. i(5. Of F R A N C E. 207 

The Cardinal of (?(/*, made an open difcourfe' in publick confifto- 
ry in the name of the Drench King, (hewing , that King Francis had Hift.condi. 
never fpared any coft or danger to maintain the liber ty of other Tridentt hl J * 

In conformity whereof Henry not degenerating from the vertue of 
his Anceftors, as fcon as he had left to mourn for his Father's death, 
was willing to declare his obfcrvance towards the See of Rome. That 
the merits of the Kings of France were famous , and exceedeth all 
thofe of other Nations. Eut this was above all which the King now 
doth, promifmg all his Forces to preferve the Papal Dignity , now 
when it is fo contemned. He prayed the Pope to receive the King 
for his Son, and to promife to himfelf all affiftance from him , and to 
take care that the Church fliould receive no damage nor (hame, in re- 
gard that from fmall beginnings great factions have rifcn, which 
have brought the Popes into great calamities. He exemplified 
in many Popes afflicted , who were defended and raifed by 
the Kings cf France, concluding , that the prefent King will 
not yield to his Anceftors in prefer ving the Dignity of the Apoftolick 

In the year 154^. The French King making his firft entry into 
Paris, canfed a folemn procefficn to be made, and published an Edict, 
wherein he fignifieth that he received the protection of the Catho- 
lick Religion, and of the See of Rome, and the care of the Ecclefiafti- 
cal Order, and that he abhorred the Novity of Religion , and teilified 
unto all his will to perfevere in the Dodhine of the Church of Rome, 
and to banifh the new Hereticks Cfo he called the Troteftants) out of 
all his Dominions. 

He caufed this Ed ict to be printed mFrencb, and fent it into all 
parts of his Kingdom. He gave leave alfo to his Prelates to make 
a Provincial Affembly to reform the Churches : Which being 
known at Rome, was thought to be a bad example , and might 
be a beginning to make the French Church independent of the Church 
of Rome. 

He caufed alfo many Lutherans to be put to death in Pans, him- 
felf being prefent at the Spectacle : and in the beginning of the 
next year, he renewed the Edict againft them, laying grievous punifh-- 
ments upon the Judges, who were not diligent in detcctiEg and pu- 
nifhing them. 

' PopePrf/IH.dyeth, Anno 1549. the Cardinals were divided into 
three factions about the choice of a new Pope, Imperialifts, Fremb, 
and dependents ori the dead Pope, and by confeqacnce , on his Ne- Hjfr> oF . Ca ^ A 
phews. Thfy made. agreement among themfelves, that nine Cardi- part 3. li. 2. 
rials (hould be named, of tach Faction three : but that the nominati- 
on (hould be made by two only of the Faction of France, and that 


2o8 3c|)c ecrtefiaftfeai $<fto# Cent. 1 6. 

afterwards it (hould be lawful for the Imperialifts to take one of the 
faid nine at their pleafure , and that the reft (hould be obliged to 

Of the French Fadion accordingly were named , the Cardinals of 
Lorrain, T'ortton, and Bellai, 

Of the Imperial Faction T'heatino, Monte , and San. Marcello , and 
three others of the other Fa&ion, S4/z>wf/',RzWj/,i, and T'rani. The 
Imperialifts refufed all the nine perfons which were named, which 
gave great offence to the other two Factions , infomuch that it was 
propofed by the French tb.the Farnefiant, to unite among themfelves, 
and to choofeaPcpeinfpite of the Imperialifts. . But they could not 
agree in the choice of their perfons, becaufe there were feveral Cardi- 
nal 1 ; among the Farnefiant, who were much obliged to the Emperour, 
and much afraid of his difpleafure. 

But after a tedious difcullion of the Cardinals for the fpace of three 
months, during the vacancy of the See,Or/0 Maria del Monte was crea- 
ted Pope on February t Anno 1 550. by the name of Julius the third. 
And now the Fadlion of the Nipotifme was introduced into the con- 
clave, having over- powred the Factions of the Emperour and King 
of France, with no fmall reputation. 

The Council having been tranflated toBolonia, the Emperour ha- 
ving protefted againft it, the Pope deliberates about the remitting of it 
to frent. The French King offered to the Pope whatsoever he was 
able to doforhim,promifed toaffift the Council, and to fend the Pre- 
lates of his Kingdom, and all favour and protection for the mainte- 
nance of the Papal Authority. 

The Book of Francis Dttranem a learned Lawyer, -entituled T>e Sa* 
uris Ecclefix Minifleriis came forth, Anno 1551. 

At this time a War was denounced againft King Henry the fecond by 

the Pope and the Emperour , and that upon an unjuft quarrel. He 

gave fome hopes (faith Onuphrius) of compofing the differences in 

Omiphr. i n Religion, when at the requeft of the Emperour, he declared by his Bull 

in the firft year of his Popedom, that the Council (hould be continu- 

ed at 'frent at the beginning of the next May. And prefently after he 

addeth, he unwittingly put himfelf upon the War of Parma jmd there- 

by fet all Italy, nay all Europe on fire. 

The firft Seffion of the Council on May i. 1551. and the fecond 
upon the firft of September were only for Ladies, for there was nothing 
done. King Henry II. fet forth an Edid at the fame time, dated the 
third day of September the fame year, containing a reftraint of tran- 
U fporting Gold and Silver to Rome : where he fets down at large the 

occafions of the War of Parma, begun by the Pope. And among o- 
ther things he faith. Which holy Father upon a fudden fit of Choler, 
badcaufed a certain company if MenofWar > both Horje and Foot to 


Cent. t6. Dg FRANCE. 

f be Uvied and fet forth : and alfo enticed and perfwaded the Emperour 

(with whom we were in good 'forms of Peace and Amity} to take Arms, 

to aid hit forces in the defign of the recovery of Parma. And after he 

had haraffed and laid waft all things wh at f never he pleafedin the Conn- Edift du Ro 

trey of Parma, he cattfedhis faid forces to march toward the territories ^"p^K 

of Mirandula : which hath for a long time, even during the Life of our 155*. 

latemojl Honoured Lord andFather, been in the known protection of the 

Crown of France, which he beleagured, ufing mo{l incredible and inhumane 

cruelties towards the Inhabitants of the faid territory i yea fuch M bar- 

barians and Infidels would not have ufed the likf : giving the World to 

know very (lout ly tkat he meant them t o #f , who have not deferved any 

fitch things at his hands, or the Holy See. 

There were fix Seflions holden in the time of that War, thoifetwo 
foreroentioned, and four more: in two whereof the mod material 
points of Faith, of Manners and Church Difcipline , were difcufled 
and determined, as thofe of the Sacrament of the Eucharift, Tran- 
fubftantiation, Penance and extreme Undion '> as alfo about the Jurif- 
di&ion of Bifhops, where many blows were ftruck at the Liberties of 
the French Church, and the rights of the Crown. 

Another Edi& of King Henry II. was made at the Camp near Wei- 
^dg^/,Mi)'2i.i552.andPrintedat Taw the fame year. From 
this time till the beginning of the year, 1560. the Council of Trent 
did nothing. What time Pope P/w IV. asfoon as he got into the 
Chair, fent forth a Declaration for the continuation of it againft Eafle r- 
day the next year. 

The French Ring makes preparation for a National Council, and 
protefteth againft the Council then aflembled in Trent. Jacobus Ami- HW. Condi. 
otttf, Abbot of BeUofana appeared in the nameof the Frvc&King, with Trident --4' 
Letters of his Majefty, which he prefented to the Legate, defiring they 
might be read, and his credency heard. The Legate receiving them, 
gave them to the Secretary to be read. 

The Superfcription was, Santtiflimis in Chrijlo Patribus Conventnt 
'fridentmi. Much fault was found with the word Conventns. The 
BUhopof M^w^faid, if they would not receive a Letter from the 
King of France, who called them, Santtijimw Conventuf, how would 
they hearken to the Tr&t eft ants, who called them Convent us Malignant i- 
*m? Then the King's Letter was opened and read. 

The French King difmiffeth the Pope's Nuncio: but fearing that 
by his d indention with the Pope, thofe that defired change of Religion 
would make fome innovation, or that himfelf might come into the 
bad Qpinion of his. people, as if his mind were averfe from the Ca- 
tholick Faith, and perhaps to open a way for reconciliation with K00W, 
he made amoft fevere Edi& againft the Proteftants, confirming all the 
ether which he had publi(hed before , adding greater punifliments, 

E e more 

210 3Cf}e ccclcftaCHral ^tftojp Cent. 16. 

more ways to difc over the guilty, and greater rewards to the promo- 
ters. Hereupon many were apprehended, condemned arc! burnt, as I 
have (hewed before in the Table of French Martyrs, concluding it at 
the year 1557. 

Onthehfth of September, 1557. in Paris, at night about two hun- 
dred perfons were affembled in an houfe to celebrate the Communion, 
which being difcovered by the common people, the houfe was aflault- 
ed, and fomcfTed,but the women and weaker fort were taken , and 
feven were burnt, and the greater part of the others referved for the 
fame pu'nifhment to be inflated when the complices were found out.The 
SttiJJes made interceffion for thefe, and the King gave order that the 
proceeding againft them fhould be moderate 3 but the Pope is angry with 
the French King,forufing any moderation. 

But the number of the Trcte)ants, being now increafed in France, 
their courage increafed alfo. And there being a cultom among the 
people of Paris in the Summer Evecings, to go out of the Subburbs 
of St. German in great multitudes, to take the Frefio , and to folace 
themfelves with divers kinds of fports, thofe of the new Relfgion in- 
ilead of doing fo, began to ling the Pfalras of"Dai'M in French 

.*jfto 15.5?. The multitude firft laughed at the Novity V then leaving the fports 

joyned themfelves unto the lingers. And the Dumber of thefe who 
came to that place began to incrcafe more than ufually. The Pope's 
Nuncio told the King of this Novity, as of a thing pernicious and 
dangerous, becaufe faid he)theMinilteriesof Religion, ufually celebra- 
ted in the Church in the Latin Tongue by Religious men only , were 
put into the mouth of the common people in the vulgar Language, 
which was an indention (faid he ) of the Lutherans , telling him that 
if he did not refifi the beginnings, all Paris would be Lutheran. The 
King gave order that the principal Authours mould be proceeded a- 
gainil, wherein they went not very far, having found Anthony King of 
Navarand his Wife in that number. But for hereafter it was forbid 
upon pain of death. 

The King now under/landing that feme of the Parliament, were 
Troteilantf^ in a Mercurial (fo they call the Judicature inftituted to ex- 
amine and correct the adions of the Counftllours of Parliament , and 
Judges of the King) held in Parit, Jwt 15 1558, where they were- 
to treat of Religion, after the congregation was affembkd, entred. in 
perfon. Ar,d having commanded them to profecute the things begun, 
Claude Vide one of them, fpike n--uch againil the manners of the Court 
of Rome, and the bad cuiioms grown to be-pernicions errours, which 
have caufcd the new Seds. 

Therefore it was necdTary to mitigate the fcvete pnnifhmcr.ts, until 
the diffacnees of Region were rcmeved, and the Ecclcfiattkal' Difci- 

Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. an 

pline amended by Authority of a General Council, the only 4 re- 
mcdy for thefe evils , as the Councils of Canftance and fi'afil 
have judged, commanding that one fhould be celebrated every ten 

His opinion was followed by Lttdwicus F^r,and fome others, Anne 
dn fiourge, did add, that many villanies were committed condemned 
by the Laws, for punifhment whereof, the rope and fire were nor fuffi- 
cient, viz. trequent blafphemies againft God, perjuries , Adulteries, 
not only fecret, but even cherifhed with impudent licenfe i making 
himfelf to be plainly underftood, that -he fpake not only of the Gran- 
dees of the Court, but of the King himfelf alfo : adding that while 
men lived thus dHToIutely , divers Torments were prepared againft 
thofe who were guilty of nothing but of publifliing to the World 
the vices of the Church of Rome, and deliring an amendment of 

In oppofition of all this , -Egielitts Magifttr , the prime Prefident, 
fpake againft the new Sects, concluding that there was no other reme- 
dy, but that which was formerly ufed againft the Albigenfes^ of whom 
Ybilip Augitftus put to death iix hundred in one day, and againft the 
WaldettfeS) who were choaked in the caves, whither they retired to 
hide themfelves. 

All the voices being given, the King faid,hehad now heard with 
"his own Ears, that which before was fold him-, that the contagion of 
the Kingdom doth hence arife : that there are in the Parliament who* 
do defpife the Pope's Authority, and His : that he well knoweth they 
are but few , but the caufe of many evils. Therefore he exhorted 
thofe who are good Subjects to continue in doing their duty : and im- 
mediately gave order that Faber and dn 'Botfrg mould be imprifo- 
ned, and afterwards caufed four more to be apprehended in their 

Butat the fame time fas if there had been no danger at all), the 
Minifters of the Reformed (Tor fo the Protepantt are called in France) 
aflembled in Paris in the Suburbs of St. German, made a Synod, in 
which Francis AiorH/w ,the chief man among them was Prefident, or- 
daining divers conftitutions i of the manner of holding Councils, 
of removing the domination in the Church j of the Election and 
.Offices of Ministers i of cenfures; of Marriages, of Divorces, of de- 
grees of conftnguinity and affinity, that throughout all France they 
might not only have an Uniform Faith, but Difcipline alfo. And 
their courage did increafe, becaufe the fame of the feverity ufcd in 
France coming into Germany ,the three Electors , and other Prot^jut 
Princes, fent Ambafladours to the King to diilwade him from that ri- 
gour againft the profcftburs of their Religion. But the King ("though 
he gave them a courteous Anfwer, yet; remitted nothing cf the k- 

Ec 2 veriry, 


verity , but after the AmbafTadours were gone , he deputed four 
Judges, of the body of the Parliament , in the caufes of the prifo- 
ners , with the Bifhop of Paris ., and the Inquitltor An- 
tbHy df Mocares , commanding them to proceed with all exr 

Nicholas Clinet) one of the Elders of the Church at P^r/V, and TWw* 
GraveVe, a Lawyer, and Advocate in the Court of. Par//, and elder of 
the fame Church, were both burnt at Paris. 

Bartholomew He8or was burnt at 1 burin. Miftrifs Pbjlippa de Lttns 
was ftrangled at Paris ^ Anno 1558. after (he had a little felt the Flame 
with her Feet and Vifage. 

Of the fame company , was alfo Nicbolaf Gene* Phy fician , (Brother 
to Philip Cene above-mentioned and Martyred at Viion) and Peter Ga* 
fort, which two were brought forth to their execution, .08ob f 2. They 
were holden long in the Air, over a fmall fire , and their lower parts 
burnt off, before that the higher parts- were much harmed with the 
v fire.. Neverthelefs thefe Holy Men ceafed not in all thefe torments to 
turn up their eyes to Heaven, and to (hew forth infinite Testimonies of 
their Faith and conftancy.. In the fame fire many Bibles and Tefh- 
Hiems were burn.t^ 

Among divers young Scholars and Students that were in the little 
Caftle with Peter. Gaban^ there were thefe, two, ^iz* Trcderick^Dan- 
vfle, and.FraHcjf Rebeziet, ndthex of them being paft 20 years of 
Age. Haw valiantly .they, behaved themfelves in the caufeof Chrift 
What conflicts they had, difputing with the Do&orsof Sorbonne , what, 
cpnfeffions they made, their own Letters left in writing dp make Re- 
lation : thefe valiantly fuffered Martyrdom. 

Rftte Sfau^ and J1w Almerick^ , were almoft wracked to death m 

t otiii* P r ^ on - > an( ^ afterwards both of therrxdyed in prifon. John Bordel, 

ij|..& Matthew Vermeil^ Peter Bourdon, Andrew defott at the Countrey of 

Brffil^ weje alfo Martyrs. . ViVegaignon, Lieutenant to the Fre neb King, 

btought three of them to the top-, of a Rock., and. there being half 

ftrangled, without any Judgement, threw them into the Sea. The 

fourth, v IK, Andrew de Fott, he caufed by manifold allurements, fomer 

what to incline to hisfayings: fo he efcaped the danger, Hot with- 

out a- great, offence taken of a great part of the Frenchmen in tha,t 


Bent* Rotnain^ a Mercer. a$ Vragttignan. in Provecf y was wracked antf 

Francvi Civattx^ who had been Secretary to the French Acnbafladour 
here in England in Queen Maries time, after being defirous to hear the 
word of God,.wentto.G*H/a.. Alfo he. was placed to be Secre- 
tary to the Senste of Geneva , where, he continued about the 
%3ce of .a year,.. H^ving.then certain, bufinefr , he . came to T>no*, 

where . 

Gent.t& Of FRANCE. 313 

where he was betrayed by a Prieft, apprehended, and carried to 
prifon, and within feven days after was firft ftrangled , and then 

Peter Arondeau of Roche! was burnt quick at the place called St. 
Jcbn in Crete, at Paris. The Heroick conftancy which God gave him 
and wherein he endured victorious unto death, was a mirrour of pati* 
ence to Anne da B0#rg,Counfellour in the Parliament of Parti, and to 
divers other then prifoners, and wa$ to them a preparation toward the 
like death v which fhortly. after they futfered. 

Ihomas Moutard was burnt at Valenciennes, Divers others 
alfo fuffered Martyrdom at Park fox the. profeffion of the 

Philip the fecond, King of Spain, after the death of his Wife, Mary 
Queen of England, was married to Elizabeth eldeft Danghter to King 
Henry II. Pbttibert Emmanuel Duke of Savoy married wich Margqaritc 
the King's only Sifter : and Charles Duke of Lorrain, with Clande^ a : 
younger Daughter of France. 

The King yielded to Philip all that he had taken from him, as well 
on this fide, as beyond the Mountains.' To the. Savoyard he re* 
ilored BreQe , Savoy., and Piedmont: to the Genevan the Ifle of 
Corfe, and about four hundred, places cnore, conquered during the 
late fatal Wars , which had made fo many Provinces defolate, 
ruined fo many Caftles, Towns and Villages , drunk up fo much 
ChritUan blood, and (lain fo many millions of Men of all 
qualities, retaining, nothing but the Territories of . Boulleu and 

The prifons were now full of the Yroteftants : the Marriages of the .: 
King's Daughters and Sifter were folemnized with all the pleafures and 
fports that could be devifed. The Court exceeded in fumptuous - 
Flays, Masks, Dances, and Etonr fires : the people exprefled publicfc 
joy by reafon of the peace, with loud acclamations in thefe ceremo- 
nies. But this pleafant Comedy was "con verted by a fad Cataftrophe, . 
into a mournful Tragedy. The King.on June i o. Anno 1 558^ would i 
be one of the Challengers at the Tilt in St. Antbonie^s .flrect , being fe- 
conded by the Dukes of Guife and Ferrara. And to run his laft courfec 
in favour of the Queen his Wife, he fent a : Lance to the Earl off 
Montgomery. The Earl excufeth himfelf torun againft his Majefly. 
But having a fecond charge from the King to enter.the Lift, he runs, , 
and breaks his Lance upon the King's cuirafs, and with a.fplinter- 
thereof (his Bever being fomewhat open) (hikes him fo deep into the 
eye, as on July io.he dyed at his houfe of fournelles in the . 4? year off 
his Age. 

The King when he caufed paler and Awtedu IBourg, to be imprifo- 
ncd, vowed to fee them burnt within few days if they peififled ID 
opinion, but. he was. prevented by death. . 

3*4 ^e<cte!afltcfti^fto?p cent, i -e* 

The King's death in France, which the Reformed did afcribe to mi- 
racle, increased their courage, though they durft not (hew themfelves 
openly in Paris. For his Son Francis the fecond, the ne.w King, after 
He was confecrated at Jtbemcs^ Septemb. 20. gave order to profecute the 
procefsof theCounfellours who were in prifon, and deputed the pre- 
helent of : St. Andreas^ and the InquiGtpr Anton'm T)eniocares, to difco- 
ver the Proieflaiits. 

The Judges having gained feme of the common fort formerly pro- 
felTours of that Religion, had notice of the places where they fecret- 
ly aflembled. Therefore ir iny bttth nrn a ud women were imprifo- 
ned, and many fled, whofe goods were ronfifcated after a citation by 
three -Edifts. And the example of Prff v the far^e was done in Poytou, 
I'hoiotife, arid Aix of Provetice, by the'inn'gjtioV. of George Cardinal of" 
jArmigJtac, who not to abandon that cntcrnrize , would not go to 
Rome to the eleftion of the Pope, ufing all diligence, that thofe who 
*tvere difcovcred might be apprehended. The profeffours of 'that 
Religion bejngfiirred. up. hereby, and imboldencd, becaufe they knew 
they were many', fent about many writings againft the King and 
Queen', and thofe of Lorrain,( by whom the King was governed) 
Authoursof the perfccution, intermixing fome points of Religion, 
which being willingly read by all , as things compofed by pub- 
lick liberty , did imprint the new Religion in the minds of 

In the end of the procefs againft the Counfellours,after alohgcqnte- 
fration all were abfolved, except Annedit Bourg, who was burnt on the 
eighteenth of December, not fo much by the inclination of the Judges 
as by the rcfolution of the Queen provoked againft him, becaufe the 
-Proieftants did divulge in many writings and Libels fpread abroad, 
that the late King had been wounded hi the eye by the providence of 
God, for a purtifl\mentof his words uJed againft du Euttrg, that he 
would fee him burnt. 

But the death andconftancy of a man fo confpicuous , did mak^ 
many curious to know what Religion that was, for which he had fo 
ccuragioufly endured this punifhment, and made the number 

There was a great confpiracy in many parts of France, into which 
masy were cntred, 'arid the major part for caufe of -Religion, difdain- 
ing to fee poor people drawn every day to be burned at the ftake, 
guilty of nothing but of zeal to worfhip God, and tofave their own 
fouls. To thcfe were joyncd ethers, who thinking the Gui fords to 
be-thdcaufc of all the diforchisof the Kingdom, judged it an Hero* 
ick AcV to deliver it from opprcfiion i>y tailing the publick admini- 
' flration out of their hands. 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE, . 

' Both thefe cloaked themfelves with the cover of Religion, to igairt 
more followers : and the better to confirm their minds, caufcd the 
principal Lawyers of Gfrmany.and France^ and the moft famous Pro* 
tenant Dfvmes to publidi in writing, that without violating the Ma- 
jeity of a Ring, and Dignity of the lawful Magiftr-are , they might 
'oppofe vvith Arms, the violent Domination- of the houfe of Guifa. 
who offended true Religion and lawful Jufiice, and kept the young 
King as it were in prifon.- 

" Great tumults of the people wcreraifedinPrtt'mf.Lattgaft&c, and 
Poitou\ whither the preachers of Genev* were called, and came wil- 
lingly. By whofe Sermons the number of Protdiants did in- 

This general. combination made the Governours of the Kingdom 
refolve, that there was nee<t of an Ecckfiaftical remedy, and that 
very quickly, and a National Synod was propofed by the whole 
Council. The Cardinal of Armi^nac faid, nothing was to 'be dbne 
without the Pope, to which opinion fome few Prelates did adhere, 
But the Bifhopof Valence faid, that France had Prelates of it's 'cwrf 
to regulate the caufesof Religion, who beft knew-rhe wants of the 
Kingdom, that it would be a great abfurdity to fee Paris burn, having 
the Rivers of Some and Marne full 'of Water, and to believe that wa- 
ter mult be brought from libitr to quench 'the 'fire. The rcfblutiori 
of the Council was, that there being need of' a (hong and fucklen 're- 
medy, the Prelates of the Ringdbm (hould affeonble to cttrfider of 
thefe things, a'nd April id. the Synod was intimated for the ! tenth of 

A Currier was difpatcht to Rome, to acquaint tlie Pojpe with this 

King fr'om the National Synod. Tnerefore he difpatched a.wiy A-.I-* 
tomo di lolecto. Prior of Lyons, to pray htrfi not fo -gb^n'-hercih. The 
affaulting of Geneva was propofed. But' this propofitron was net 
well taken in France^ becaufe it would make the -Proiellanfs unite them- 
felves. Bcfides. none going to that War,-but the Cathplicks, the King- 
dom would be left open to the oppcfites. - 

The -'Trench King anfwcrcd 1 . that he Xvoufd not make a National 
Council to fepatate himfclf,but to unite ' to the 'Church rhofe that 
wer/ailray, that a general Council would more pliafe^ and in : 
hood be more profitable,if his urgent cccafions'wouldfufFcrhim toex- 
peel: the time, which mui\ needs be very long*, that the National Coun- 
cil which he defirah, ,hall depend upon the Apoftolrck See", and the 
Pope,w-hicbflia;!l ccafevvhen the 'General ^ ail' bbffcmblicd^ and {IraH 
ii^ rpoiate withit, And 1 tAat his- deeds may airfntr to His words, 


3Qt)e ecrteftattical J?ifto?p Cent. i^. 

he defired the Pope to fend a Legate into France , with power 
to aflemblethe BUhops of the Kingdom., and to fettle the affairs of 

The French King doth not think Trent a. fit place for the Council * 
nor that the Do&rines already difcufled there (hould be maintained 
without re-examination. 

This troubled the Pope, who thought it did not proceed from the 
.King's own motion, but from the Proteftantf. 

The Proteftants were formerly called Hugonots , becaufe the firft 
conventions they had in the City of tows , (where that belief firft 
took ftrength and increafedj were in certain Cellars under-ground, 
rnear Hago's-gate, from whence they are by the vulgar fort called 


Theodore "Bex*, a man of great eloquence, and excellent Learning, 
having by his Sermons drawn many to embrace the Refojmed Re- 
ligion, even many of the chief Nobility and greateft perfons of the 
Kingdom, their Aflemblics and Sermons were then no more celebra- 
ted in Stables and Cellars, as in the Reign of Kingfery fecond, but 
in the Halls and ,Chambers of the beft Gentry , and moft eminent 
Nobility. * 

Be *'s Tranflation of the new Teftament , and his accurate notes 
upon it, have made him famous. 

His French Pfaltery was fo well liked, that it was well Tranflated 
into the German, Bohemian, Englijh, Scottijb, and many Languages : 
and it is both in ufe and.efteem with all the Orthodox Churches, X&- 
anw faith, that Eeza would repeat whole Pfalms in Hebrew, and what- 
ever Chapter one could name out of P*f s Epiftles, he would rehearfe 
it all in Greek^, for the things he had formerly karat , his Judgement 
failed him not. 

He lived eighty fix years, and toward his latter end he began to for- 
get what he had fpoken. His French works are mentioned by Verdier 
in his Eibliotheqtte. His Latin are known. 

News was brought unto the Pope, that his Subjeds of Avignon had 
taken up Arras againft him, accounting his fucceffion unlawfuh becaufe 
that Countrey was not juftly taken from Kaimond, Count of Tboloufei 
.concluding alfo that the Ecclefiafticks cannot .by the commandment of 
Chrift, poflefs any Temporal Dominion. And refolving to rebel by 
the means of Alexander Guilotimits a Lawyer, they put themfelves un- 
der the protection of Charles de Montbrttn, who being in Arms for 
Religion, was much followed in Daulpbine. Charles entring the Ter- 
ritory with three thoufand foot , made himfelf Lord of the whole 
Countrey, with much joy of the Inhabitants. Jamet Maria , Bilhop 
of Viviers, Vice-Legate of Avignon, made oppofition, and very hardly 
kept the City, The Pope therefore fent Cardinal Tarnefe to defend 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

the City. But the danger was moderated, becaufe Cardinal Tomon 
( whofe NeeccCharles had married) made him deiift, and go to Gene- 
va, by promifing reftitution of his Goods confifcated for Rebellions 
and to be recalled (hortly with liberty of Conference, if he would go 
out of France. So the Pope's Territory, deprived of that protedion, 
did remain in fubje&ion, but full of fufpicions, and ready to embrace 
every Novity. 

Davila faith, that Godfrey de la Barre, Situ? de la Renattdy , is made Davila Hift. of 
head of the confpiracy aforementioned, who was one of a defperate * he ' Wart 
fortune, with whom many others joyned themfelves ; fome led by 
Confcience, others thruft on through defire of change i and many alfo 
invited by the natural humour of the French Nation, who cannot en- 
dure to live idly. 

Tothofeof beft quality among thefe he gave feveral charges to 
raife men , and to bring them to a place appointed , dividing to all 
their feveral Provinces. To the Baron of Cajielnaw was committed 
the care of Gaf coign. 

To Captain Mazaresthe charge of Eearn\ To Mefny the Countrey 
of Limoges i To Mirabel Xaintonge : To Coccavfle Piecerdy j To the 
Sieur de St. Mary Normandy, and to Montejan Britany : Men , who as 
they were all of Noble Families, fo were they of known courage, and 
reputed principal leading-men, in feveral Cities, and their own Coun- 
tries where they lived. 

All thefe departing from the Aflemblj at Nantes, a City in Brv- 
**ny , and returning every one with ^reat expedition to the Pro- 
vince allotted him , in a few days working with wonderful fe 
crecy, brought a great number of people of feveral conditions to be at 
their devotion. 

The Confpirators prepared a great multitude, who (hould appear 
before the King without Arms , to demand that the feverity of the 
Judgements might be mitigated, and Liberty of Confcience granted, 
defigning they (hould be followed by Gentlemen , who (hould make 
fupplication againft the government of the Guifardf. 

The Confpiracy was difcovered, and the Court retired from Blois an 
open place to Amboife a ftrong Fortrefs- This troubled the Confpi- 
ratours,who while they were thinking of anewcourfe, fome of them 
who took Arms were beaten and flain, and others taken and fentenced 
to dye : and to appeafe the tumult, pardon was granted by the King's 
Edidl, dated March 18. to all, who fimply moved with zeal of Reli- 
gion, had entred into the conspiracy, fo that they difarmed within 24 

Then the King forbad all Affemblies for Religion, and committed 
to the Biftiops the hearing of the caufes of Heretic. 

Ff ! An 

ai8 3E%e cccleftalhcai $tfto?p Cent. 16. 

An Ordinance was made by the States ziOrltant , Anno 1560. in 
ordonnance de s the (hort Reign of King Francif the fecond, That the Abbots and Cu- 
r^nn I* -io*"* rafes w ^ hold many Benefices by difpenfation, or refide upon one of 
Art. 5. 5 their Benefices requiring adual fervice and refidence, (hall be excufed 
from refidence upon their other livings. Always provided, that they 
depute fufficient Men for their Vicars, of a good lifcand convention: 
to every one of whom they (hall afiign fuch 3 portion of the revenue 
of the Benefice, as may fuffice for their maintenance. Other wife in 
default hereof, we admonifh and enjoyn the Arch- Bimop, or Bifhop 
of the Diocefs to take order for it, andmoft exprefly command our 
Judges and Prodrors to affift them therein : to caufe the Temporalt:>s 
of fuch Abbeys or other Benefices to be feiied upon without diffrna- 
bling, a Month after they (hall have warned and required the Prelates, 
and other Titulars, to refide, or caufe fome to refide upon their Benefi- 
ces, and to fulfill the contents of this prefent Ordinance. 

Another Ordinance was to this effect, That a Prebend, cr the re- 
venues thereof, (hall be afligned for the maintenance of a School- 
mafter, who (hall be bound in the mean time, to teach all the youth of 
the City Gratis^ without any wages, which School- matter (hall be 
chofen by the Arch-Bi(hop, or Bi(hop of the place, calling in the Ca- 
nons of the Church, together with the Mayors, Sheriffs, Counfellours, 
or Capitons of the City, and to be put out by the faid Arch-Bi(hop or 
Ba(hops } with the advice of them ifcre&id. 

Here I will fet down the Indulgences granted to divers Churches, 
Brother-hoods and Hofpitals, granted by divers Popes , and Printed 
about this time at Cbartres, by Philip Hotot. I (hall tranfcribe the 

j . The Statutes and Ordinances of the Worfhipful Fraternity of the 
moil bkflcd Body of our Lord JefusChrift, newly founded and erect- 
ed in the Church of St. Hilary of Cbartres^ together with a fummary 
of the Pardons and Indulgences given and granted by our Holy Fa- 
thers the Popes, and by our Holy Father Pope Paul the third of that 
Name, confirmed to the faid Fraternity, and all others of like denomi- 
nation, as well at KoTif, as out of Rome , erected or to be erected. 
Which Statutes and Ordinances, by vertue of taking out of thofe 
Bulls made thereupon by Authority of Pope Julius III. of that name. 
Given at ROOTP, May 6. 15 50. (hall beobferved , and kept in manner 
and form following. 

The Pardons, Indulgences, and Jubilee, and plenary Remiflions, 
granted to fuch as vifit the Altar , where the blefTed Sacrament and 
precious Body of Jefus Chrilr, is placed in the faid Church of St. H/- 
l&ty- upon the days in the year, and according to the manner and form 


Cent. i 6. Of FRANCE. 

hereafter declared and exprefled, to the end that every Chriftian ddi- 
rous of Ms Salvation, may purchafe and come by them. 

And firftof the Declaration of the Indulgences given and granted 
to the Brethren of the faid Fraternity found in the Church of St. Hilary 
of Cbartres, verified, approved and confirmed for ever 5 but made valid 
by our Holy Father, Pope Jnl'm III. 

The Indulgences granted to the Hofpital of St. James in dugufta. 

The Indulgences granted to the Church of St. John of Florence. 
ttld to the Company and Society of the faid Nation, and of St. Cof- 
m(K, and Vamiawtf of Rome. 

The Indulgences granted to the Sosiety of the Holy Camp of 

The Indulgences granted to the Brethren and Sifters of St. Saviour, 
adSan&a Sanftorum. 

The Indulgences granted to the Company of the Charity of 

The Indulgences of the great Hofpital of the Holy Ghoft in Saxix, 
of the Order of St. Auflin of Rome. 

The Indulgences of our Lady del Popolo of Rome . 

The Catalogue and Declaration of the Indulgences 
aforefaidj and the Names of the Pope t that grant- 
ed them, and the days nf on which they maybe had. 

Firft, our Holy Father Pope Leo, hath granted to all, and every ne 
of the faid Brethren, which (hafl be prefent at proceffions, and other 
Divine Service celebrated upon Corpw Chrifti day, remiffion of all their 
fins, provided they be confeffed and penitent, or have a full refoluti- 
on to confefs themfelves at the times appointed by our Holy Mother 
the Church. 

Plenary Pardon to tbofevf the Brethren that Jball 
name the name of Jefw at the foint of Death. 

Item y He hath granted a plenary Pardon to all fuch of the Brethren 
of the faid Fraternity, as (hall name the name of Jefus at the point of 
Death, and they (hall be partakers of all the good works of the whole 
Church Catholick. 

Xfteeccieftafticai^fto?? Cent. 16. 

Plenary Pardon upon all the Feaft-days of our 
upon All-Souls day 5 and upon St. Philip and 
James day. 

^ He hath granted to every one of the faid Brothers and Sifters, 
who upon any of theFeaftsof our Lady, upon AU-Seuls day, and 
* upon Philip and James day, from the Vefpers of the Eves , until the 
Vefpers of the faid days, (hall, being confeflcd and penitent, vifit the 
great Altar of St. Hilary, upon which the moft precious blefled Sacra- 
ment is fet, plenary Pardon of all their fins upon every one of the faid- 

Plenary Pardon upon all the fecond days in June,. 
and upon the fixt tenth of July. 

^ Pope Sixttu, hath given and granted to every Brother and 
Sifter that (hall vifit the faid Altar, upon the fecond day in June, and 
the fixteertfh day of July every ; year, for every of the faid daysa ple- 
nary remiflion of all their fins. 

Plenary Pardon t& the Dead. 

I/*w,Hehath granted to every Brother that (hall give any Alms, 
or offer any facrifice, according to his means and ability, by way of 
fuffrage for the Soul of any one deceafed, that he (hall obtain plenary, 
Pardon for the fins of him fo deceafed, 

Plenary Pardon upon our Ladies day in w/Wr 
which is the, Affumption. 

Item, Pope Gr^gory-hath given and granted to every Brother that 
fball vifit the Altar of the blefled Sacrament in the faid Churth of the 
faid St. Hilary upon, our, Ladies day in mid-^*g/i, &c. plenary remif- 
f\qn : of all hisiins, . 


Cent.itf. Of FRANCE. aal 

Plenary Pardon up on the Feajts of our Lady^ and the- 
Oftaves of them^ &c. 

Tte w, he hath given to all the Feftivals of our Lady, and the 0- 
Saves of them, and to every Feaft of the Apoftles , plenary pardon- of 
all their fins. 

Eajier-day, and eight days following. \ 

Item^ Pope Innocent hath granted to the faid Brothers and Sifters, 
upon E</frr-day, and eight days following, four thoufimd eight 
hundred years of <$>*ar ant tins, and remiflion of the. third part of al! 
their fins. 

Twelfth-day, and the O&aves of that Fejt~ival 9 and 
the Nativity of our Lady. 

Item, He hath granted to Tnt/ft^-day, and the Octaves thereof, five 
thoufand years : to the day of the Nativity of our Lady , and the- 
Q&aves of it thirty thcufand years of true pardon. 

Afcenfion-^5 and the O&aves thereof ^ 

^ Pope Clement V. hath granted to the faid Brothers and Sifters 
upon ^jcew^ow-day, and the Odtaves thereof two thoufand years of true 

PopeBoniface VIII. hath gran ted to the faid Brothers and Sifters 
upon the faid ^/cf/w-day,and theO&aves thereof, two thoufand 
years of true pardon. 

All-Saints Day. 

Item^ Pope Btnne t XII. hath granted to the faid Brothers upon 
'dti-Saints Day, three thoufand eight hundred ^ttarantatns of true>; 


Plenary Pardon upon all the Feftivals of our 
Lady, to thofe that JlalL vifit the Altar upon 
which the bleffed Sacrament ftandeth in the Church 
of St. Hilary. 

^ Pope Stxtus IV. hath granted to the faid Brothers and Sifters 
that (hall vifit the faid Altar in the Church of St. Hilary, on which the 
bfcfled Sacrament of the Altar ftandeth, upon any of the Feftivals of 
our Lady, from the firft Vefpers to the fecond, plenary pardon of all 
their fms A, 

All the Saturdays in Lent. 

Item, He hath granted to the faid Brothers, which (hall vifit the (aid 
Altar an the Saturdays in Lent, for every day a thoufand eight hundred 
years of true pardon. 

in Mid-Lent till Low-Sunday. 

Item, He hath granted to the faid Brothers and Sifters, Vifitingthe 
faid Altar as before, from ThurfdayinMid-LfHf, till Low-Sunday, for 
-tvery day athou&nd eight hundred years, and two thoufand Qtta- 
rantainsot true pardon. 

The day of enfr anc? into the f aid Fraternity. 

Over and above the faii ^ardqjis and Indulgences fo granted as 
abovefaid, our Holy Father Pope Paul III. doth give and grant, as 
appears by his Bull, plenary Indulgence and remiflion of all their fins 
in manner of Jubilee, to every, one that (hall enter into the faid Fra- 
ternity, and (hall be confeffed and penitent for his fins upon the day of 
his entrance, and (hall have received the moft blefled Body of our Lord 
Jefus Chrift. 

Plenary Pardon three times in their Life, 

Item, He giveth and granteth moreover to every one of the faid 
Brothers, and Sifters plenary pardon, and Indulgence of all their (ins 
thrice in their Life, upon what day and hour they pleafe, 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 223 

To all that accompany the Body of our Lord, when it 
is carried to 

Item, He grants an hundred years of pardon to all that {hall accom- 
pany the blefled Sacrament of the Altar, when it (hall be carried to lick 
folks, and as much to thofe who cannot go themfelves, but (hall lend 
one of their Servants with a Candle and to thofe that can neither go 
nor fend, if they fay one ?<*/- Noffor, and an Ave- Maria ^ to every 
one an hundred years of true pardon. 

7*0 thofe that flail vifit the Church of St. Hilary e w 
ry Friday, 

Item, He grants to the faid Brothers and Sifters, which (hall vifit 
the faid Church, and the faid Altar of St. Hilary every Friday , and- 
(hall devoutly fay one Pater-Nofter and an Aye-Maria , in honour of 
the moft bleffed Sacrament of the Altar, ten years , and ten 
uins of true pardon. 


Of cboofmg their ConfeffoHr. 

hath given and doth give to every one of the faid Bro- 
thers and Sifters licence to choofe three times in their life, any Prieft, 
Secular or Regular for their ConfeiTour, who (hall abfolve them from 
all fins, how hainous foever j yea, though they be referved to the Ho- 
ly See, al ways excepted fuch as are contained in the .Bull which is read .- 
at Rome upon Maundy Iburfday. 

F or vifitingthe aforefaid Altar every day in Lent. 

Item, According to the priviledges granted in the Hofpital of the 
Holy Ghoft, and other places particularly mentioned , at which the 
ftations both within the City of Ko/?,and without the Walls of the. 
faid City are appointed to be, our faid Holy Father, doth give unto 
all the faid Brothers and Sifters which (hall vifit the faid Altar , upon 
which the blefled Sacrament of the Altar refteth in the Church of St. . 
Hilary aforefaid, upon the days following. 

Imprimis, The firft day ot Lent, three thoufand years of true pardon^ 
and plenary remiflion of his fins over and above. . 


234 3Epe CCdtfiafttCal %lftO?g Cent. 16. 

'fburfday, Ten thoufand years. Friday, Ten thoufand years. 

The firft Sunday in Lent, eighteen thoufand years of pardon, and 
ttmiffion of all fins to boot. 

Monday, Ten thoufand years, and a plenary Indulgence. 

, Twenty eight thoufand years, and as many Q*arantaint, 
and remiffion of the third part of their fins, and the delivery of one 
*Sbul out of purgatory. 

Wednesday , Twenty eight thoufand years, and as many >uarant*ins 
and remiffion of the third part of their fins. 

Iburfday, Ten thoufand years of true pardon, and remiffion of all 
their fins. 

Friday, Thirteen thoufand years of true pardon,and plenary remiffi- 
on of all their fins. 

Saturday, Twenty eight thoufand years, and as many ^uarantaint^ 
and beiidcs remiffion of all their fins* 

The fecond Sund'ay in Lent, twenty eight thoufand years , and as 

Monday, Ten thoufand years of pardon, and remiffion of the third 
part of their fins. 

lueflay, Ten thoufand years. 

Ten thoufand years. 

'fburfday, Friday, and Saturday , to each day ten thoufand years. 
And befides on Saturday remiffion of all their fins, with the deliye- 
ranee of one foul from the pains of purgatory. 

The third Sunday in Lent, Ten thoufand years, and twenty eight 
Quarantains of true pardon, and deliverance of one foul out of pur- 

Monday, 'fueflay, Wednefdsy, Ihurfday, Friday , on each day ten 
thoufand years. Satmday ten thoufand years, and plenary remiffion 
of all their fins. 


Cent. i<5. Of FRANCE. 225 

The fourth S*^*y,remiffion of all their fins, and deliverance of 
ojie foul from the pains of purgatory. 

Monday, Ten thoufand years, 

, Ten thoufand years, and remiflion of the third part of all 

their fins. 

Wednefday, Ten thoufand years , and remiffion of the third part 
of all their iins. . 

Tiburfday^ Friday^ and Saturday, on each day ten thoufand years. 

The fifth Sunday^ which is thepaffion Sunday of our Saviour, twen- 
ty feven thoufand years, and as many Qttarantains, with remiflion of 
the third part of all their fins : and thefe pardons they may get Uvice 
a day, vifiting the faid Altar as aforefaid. 

Monday^ 'fuefday^ Wediteflay^ and Thurfday ten thoufand years.. 
Friday^ Tlic deliverance of one foul from the pains of purgatory. 

Saturday^ Twelve thoufand years of pardon, and deliverance of 
one foul out of purgatory. 

The fixth Sunday being Palm-Sunday, twenty five thoufand years, 
and forty eight Quarantains of true pardon, and befides remiifion of 
all their fins. Upon this day they may get the faid pardons twice,, as 
was faid of the former Sunday. 

Monday, twenty five thoufand years, ^and remiffion of the fourth 
part of ail their fins, and befides plenary remiifion of all their fins. 

, twenty eight thoufand years, -and plenary pardon of all 
their fins, over and above. 

Wednefday^ Eighteen thoufand years.- 

Thurfday, Twelve thoufand years, and as many Q^ar ant aim , andie? 
million of all their fins. 

Good-Friday^ great number of Pardons and Indulgences, and ple- 
nary remiffion of all their fins. 

Cent. 16. 

Saturday before Eafter, two and twenty thoufand years, and forty 
eight Quarantaittf of pardon, and plenary remiffion of all their fins. 

E<f/for-day twenty eight thoufand years, and as many ^uarataint 
of pardon, and plenary remiilion of all fins. 

Eafter-Menday the fame as on Eajler-dzy. 
Eafter-'fuefday, Ten thoufand years. 

Wednesday , fifteen thoufand years, and as many Qxatantainsju\& the 
deliverance of one foul out of purgatory. 

, Fifteen thoufand years, and plenary remiilion of all fins. 
friday^ Fifteen thoufand years. 

Saturday , Fifteen thoufand years, and plenary remiffion of the third 
part of all their fins. And they may have them twice a day as before. 

Low- Sunday, Fifteen thoufand years, and plenary remiilion of the 
third part of all their fins. And they may get them twice a day. 

To thofe that Jhall affift at Maffes , Services , and 

^ He gives unto all the Brothers and Sifters of the faid Frater- 
nity, that Qiall allift at the Service and procefiions made in the Church 
of St. Hilary in Chartres, in honour of the blefled Sacrament, to every 
one an hundred years of true pardon. 

The Stations after Eafter in the faid Church of St. 
Hilary, doing AS is fet down before, and vifiting 
the faid Altar of the bleffed Sacrament. 

Imprimir, St. M^rJ^'s day,eighteen thoufand years, and as many jtya- 

4/c*/wHiday,twenty eight thoufand years, and as many tguarantaixf. 

Whit fund ay t twenty eight thoufand years, and plenary remiflion of 
all fins. 

Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 227 

Whit fun-Eve, fifteen thoufand years, ehr. 
Wbitfitnday^ Twenty eight thoufand years, d-r. 
irbrtfrtn-MeMday,Ttmiffion of all fins. 
, Twenty three thoufand years. 

Wednefday, Twenty eight thoufand years , and as many 
tainf,znd remidion of the third part of their fins, and the delivery of 
one foul out of purgatory befide. 

The Stations of Advent//? the faid Church of St. 

The fir ft Sunday in Advent, twenty eight thoufand years, and as ma- 
ny ^H ar antains , and remiilion of the third part of all their fins. 

The fecond Sunday, eleven thoufand years, and plenary remiflion of 
all their fins, granted by St. Silvefer. 

The third Sunday, twenty eight thoufand years, and as many *- 
rantains, and plenary remiffion of all fins. 

The fourth Sunday, eleven thoufand years, and plenary remiffion of 
all fins. 

St. Stephen's day, and St. John's day, twenty eight thoufand years,and 
as many Quarantains^nd. full remiffion of all fins. Innocents day, fif- 
teen thoufand years, and as many gtuarantainf^nd remiffion of all iins. 

On New-years day, twenty five thoufand years, and plenary remiffi- 
on of all fins. twelfth- day t twenty eight thoufand yeass , as many 
Quarantatns, and plenary remiflion of all their fins. 

Septttagefima Sunday, eleven thoufand years, and forty eight )ua- 
rantaittf, and the remiilion of the third part of their fins, with the de- 
livery of one foul out of purgatory* 

A Sunday, thirteen thoufand years, and forty feven thou- 
fand Qxarantains^ and remilfion of the third part of their fins. 

a Sunday, twenty eight thoufand years, and as many 

true pardon. G g a And 

2 28 %\yt CCClritafttCal tiftOJt? Cent. 1 6*. 

And the faid Pardons and Indulgences here above-mentioned , are 
granted only to the Brothers and Sifters of the (aid Fraternity which 
thall upcn the days aforefaid every year vifit the faid Altar in the faid 
Church of St. Hilary of Chartres in France, upon" which the blefled 
Sacrament and precious body of Jtfus Chrift is placed. 

MedardThierfatdt, Prieft, Licentiat in the Laws , Chanon of Char- 
tres, Official, and Vicar- General, both in the Spiritualty and Tempo- 
ralty of the Reverend Father in God Monfieur Lewes, by the Grace of 
God.Bi&op of Chartres : To all and fingular, the Parfons and Vicars, 
of the Churches within the City of Chartres , fendeth greeting, &c. 
Pope Paul the third, did heretofore of his own proper motion, for the b*<air> 
of the blefled Sacrament. grant unto the Brothers of the Fraternity of the 
blfffed Body of Jefut Chriti, in the Minerva of Rome , certain Indulges 
ces, plenary remiffion of fins, and other graces, the good devotion, and upon 
petition of the faithful Cbriftian Brothers. Which Indulgences and ple- 
nary rem}$od of Sins, our holy Father Julius HI. Pope, to the end that aU 
Christians might come devoutly, and honour the blefied Sacrament, of 'his 
own Authority hath willed and decreed, that they be of perpetual force and' 
efficacy. And thefe Indulgences and other graces aforefaid, at the inftance 
of the mojl noble Perfonage Mr. Chriftopher de Hcrovard, the Lieutenant 
General of the M<,-i ChriliianKing, within the Eailiw/ck^of Char tres, hath 
granted them to the Er others and S tiers of the Fraternity of the blefled Bo- 
oy f Jefut Cbrtt, heretofore erected and instituted in 'the Church of St. 
Hilary 0/Char.tres : always provided, that like grace and gift wx itotfor* 
merly granted to any other Church of the faid City of Chai tres. And for- 
aftnucb as we have viewed the contents of the faid Indulgence, in the pub- 
//4. Internment out of the Copy of Dominick Eifrop of Hoftia, Cardinal of 
theh,ly Church a/Rome, by Title Traven, Dean of the facred-Apoftoliczl 
College , ProteSottr and Patron of the Fraternity of the blefled Body of our 
Swiour, founded in tbe-Cb:ircb of our Lady of Minerva, / the order of 
Fry art Predicants in the City of Rome, in manner of an exemplifcatiov, 
p:!blifred,drjwn,figned and'fealedby Genefe Bulter Secretary to the faid 
Fraternity. Given at Rome, May 6. 1550. And furthermore, where^ by 
^certain declaration made unto the Court of, by the command an<A 
with the leave of the Reverend Father in God, the Lord Bijhop of Chartres 
and as it fiews to IK truly and lawfully made ^ that '/# certain the lify 
guce-wu never granted to any other Church in the City of Chart res .Where- 
fae we command you to publijh,and caufe to be publijhed in your Churches 
the fa, d Indulgences, and the exemplifications of the Letters aforefaid ac- 
ording to their f,rm and tenure., Giving leave to the faid Chriftopher de 
Herovard, to caufe the. faid graces and Indulgences to be publified within 
the City and Church of Chartres, whether by Siguis's or ctbimfe the fame- 
acrovard fall think, good. Given at Char tres under the feal of the Cham-- 
tor ofilefaidBificpof Chartres, Anno 1 5 50. July^.Snbfcribcd. 

EJeSenewx, Pope: 

Cent. \6. Of FRANCE. 

Pope Pius IV. in his Bull of the publication of the Council of 
Trent, which was forthe continuation of it, bearing date Decoder 30. 
1560. flieweth in effed, that it was begun, continued, and ended among 
the troubles in France and Germany. And ( as Sleidan faith ) as foon skidan. /. 16. 
as new broils were raifed in the neighbouring pans of Germany, and a 
great war was kindled in Italy and France, the Council was afterwards 
fufpended and adjourned. 

After the fupprefiion of the Confpirators forementioned, inafecret 
Council held in the Kings chamber it is refolved to punifti the favou- 
rers of the Confpiracy. And to get the Favourers of the Hugonots in- 
to their power, it was refolved to call an Aficrably of the States, ac 
which among others the Princes of the Blood are to affift. 

But the Queen-Mother and the Guifes doubting more than evr new 
Infurreftions, the Prince of Conde who was as a prifoner is difcharged 
of his Guard, and fet at liberty. He prefently departed from Court, 
and went into Beam to the King of Navarre. The Conftable, the 
Admiral of France, and the reft, were entertained with kind Letters and 
Commiflions and Charges of trull. 

The dhTenfions and iufpicions of the Grandees in France encreafing, 
on thezi.of^ogw/? the King called a very great Afiembly at Foun- The Affembiy 
tainbleau, in which the necerticies of the Kingdom were declared by f^""' 3 '"' 
the Chancellour, which he compared to a man fick of an unknown dif- 
eafe. Afterwards Jajper Coligni gave the King fome Petitions, which 
he faid, were delivered to him by a multitude of people, when he was 
in Normandy. The fumm of them was, That the faithful Chriftians 
difperfed throughout the whole Kingdom did pray his Majefty to look 
on them with a favourable eye: that they defired a moderation of their 
punifhments until their caufe were heard : and that they might make 
publick profeffion of their Religion, to avoid fufpicionby private Aflem- 

Tb?n John Monluc Bifhop of faience fhewed, That the principal re- 
medy ofthefe diftempers was to flieunto God, to aflemble godly men- 
out of the whole Kingdom, to find a way to root out the vices of the 
Clergy, toforbid infamous and immodeft Songs, and inftead of them 
to command the finging of Pfalms and holy hymns in the vulgar 
tongue : and if the common interpretation be not good, to take away 
the errours, fuffering that which is good to be ufed by all. 

Another remedy was, the General Council, alwaies ufed to com- 
pofe fuch differences ; faying, That if a General Council could not be 
obtained , they were to aflemble a National : that they did grievoufly 
err, who troubled the publick quiet with Arms upon pretence of Reli- 
gion : that their errour was as great who condemned to death thofe 
who adhered to the new Doftrine, only for the opinion of piety, who' 
dying conftamly, and contemning the lofs of their goods, ftirup the 

A a a minds 

'S.lyi cccicftaincai iNfto?p Cent. 16. 

minds of the multitude, and make them defirous to know, what Faith 
that is for which they endure fo great punifhment. Charles tstfa- 
rillac, Bifhopof Vienna^ fpake in the fame manner, adding, That the 
difeafe of France was fo fnarp, that there was no time to call a Phy- 
fician from far : therefore they were to call a National Coun- 

Coligni added , that requiring thofe wfio gave him the Petitions, 
tofublcribe them,he was anfwered, That five thoufand men would fub- 
fcribe if there were occafion.. 

Francis of Gttife concerning the point of Religion, faid, he refer- 
red himfelf unto the judgement of learned men \ but protefted, that no 
Council fhould make him decline one jot from the old be- 

The Cardinal of Lorain faid , That the Petitions prefented were 
moft proud, and that to grant the Orators publick Exercife, were to ap-' 
prove their Doctrine : he faid, that the greater part ufed Religion for 
a pretence : and therefore his opinion was, they fhould be proceeded 
againft with more feverity, mitigating the punifhment of thofe who 
aSemble without Arms, only for Religion, inftru&ing and admonifhing 
them : and to this purpofe to caufe the Prelates torefide, hoping that 
by thefe remedies they would need neither National nor General 

A Decree was made the 27. of that month, That there fhould be an Af- 
fembly of the States at Meaux the 10. efjbetcntter : and if the General 
Council fhali not be called fuddenly, the Bifhops fhall afTemble on 
January 13. to treat of celebrating a National : in the mean-while the 
punifhments for caufe of Religion were fufpended, except againft thofe 
who took up Arms. 

The Pope hereupon wrote to Cardinal Townon, to hinder the meet- 
ing of the Bifl :ops , and if he could not, to return to Rome . The Pope 
makes fhewtocall a General Council fuddenly. He received anfwer 
from Tournon^ that having tried all means, he was not able to remove 
the King or any of his Council, nor could hope for any better fuccefs . 
hereafter. The Pope's fecret purpofe was to ayoidthe Council, or 
to defer it, but makes a contrary refolution againft his Will, and is 
much troubled with the occurrences of France. A Currier went in 
hafteto Romt out of France^ with proteftations from the King, that 
if the General Council were not called, he could no longer deter the 
National : adding, that if any place in France were chofen for the 
meeting of the Council, it fhould be moft fecure. 

Then the Convocation of the Council waspublifhed in the Confi- 
ftory, the Bull whereof was entitled, Of the Intimation of the Council of 
Trent : the Latine word, was ludiftionis.. Vergerim wrote a Book 
againft this Bull. 


Cent.i6. Of FRANCE. 

At this time News came to Romt , that the French King had impri- 
foned the Prince of Conde, and feta guard upon the King of Navarre, 
which pleafed the Pope much, as a thing that might hinder the Nati- 
onal Council. Saga fervant to the King of Navarre, is taken at Eftam- 
pes with divers letters about him, and being tortured confefTeth cer- 
tain practices againft the Crown. The Prince of ConAe had attem- 
pted to pofTefs himfelf of Lions, but without fuccefs. The Governour 
of the City condemned many of the Hugomt s to be hanged, and the 
reft he fent alive to the Court, who ferved afterwards to con- 
firm the Dfpofitions of the Prifoners againft the difcontented 

The King departeth wiih his Guard from Fonntainblean and fum- 
moneth the States to meet at Orleans^ where the firft thing that was 
done was to make a profefiiou. of their Faith. Which being fet down 
by the Doctors of the Sorbon, conformable to the belief of the Reman 
Church, and publickly read by the Cardinal of Tonrno#, Prefidentof 
the Ecclcfiaftical order, was by a folemn Oath approved and confirmed 
by every one of the Deputies : becaufe none fliould be admitted into 
that General AfTembly , either unwittingly, or on purpofe, that was not 
a true Catholick. 

Then the High Chancellour in prefence of the King propofed thofe 
things which were necefiary to be confulted of for the reformation of 
the Government. But this was theleaft thing in every mans thought, 
for the minds of all men were in fufpence about the Prince otConde's 
imprifonment , who being interrogated, excepts againft his trial, and 
appeals to the King: but the Appeal is not accepted : and he was de- 
clared to be held as convict, becaufe he had refu.fed toanfwerthe De- 
legates. So they proceeded judicially, until the very hft pronouncing 

The Commiforws having pronounced the fentence againft the 
Prince ofConde, the King one morning being under the Barbers hand, 
was on a fudden taken with an Apoplexy, and laid by his fervajits on his 
>ed, and on Decemb. 5. he died. 

Charles )X. brother to Francu, and fecond Son to the Queen, fuc- 
ceeded to the Crown, being yet but about eleven years old : in .re- 
gard of his Minority the Government fell principally upon the King 
of Navarre as firft Prince of the Blood. Navarre did almoft openly 
favour thenew Religion^ and was wholly governed by the Counfelof 
Jafrer Coligni the old Admiral, who made profeffion of it : fo that 
the Proteftants were more confident to obcafn liberty of Religion, as 
theydefired. They afTemble^d almoft publickly. Hereupon the King;'s 
Mother and the chief of the Council, refolved to hold the States at 
Orleans, and begun to do it on the 13. of December, where the bufi- 
nefs of Religion was debated. The Chancellour (hewed, That there 
Aaa s was 

Cent. 16. 


was need of a Council, which the Pope had promifed : and that in the 
mean time it was not to be tolerated, that every one fhould fhapeout 
his own Religion, and bring in new rites at his pleafure. He faid, 
That it was necefTiry that the names of Lutherans, Httgonots and 
'Papifts (no lefs fadious than thofe of the Guelphs and Gibilints} 
were to be taken away ^ and Arms to be taken againft thofe who co- 
ver their avarice, ambition, and defire of innovation with the cloak of 
Religion. John Angtlo^ Advocate in the Parliament of Burdeaux^ 
fpake much againft the bad manners and difcipline of the Clergy. 
James Earl of Rotchford faid, That all the prefent evils did arife from 
the large donations made by the King and other Grandees to the 
Churches, efpecially of jurifdidions : in the end he gave a Petition in 
the name of the Nobility, demanding to have publick Churches for 
their Religion. 

Jacobus Quintinut) a Bnrguntlian, (pake for the Clergy : he faid, The 
States were aiTembled to provide for the neceffities or the Kingdom, 
not to amend the Church which cannot err , though the Difcipline 
in fome fmall part may fomewhat need reformation. He faid, That 
they that demand Churches apart from the Catholicks , are to be pu- 
niflied as Hereticks -, and that the King ought to force all his Subjeds 
to believe and live according to the form prefcribed to the Church : 
that thofe who have forfaken the Kingdom for Religion, ought not 
to be fuffered to return : that thofe who are infeded with Herefy, 
ought to be proceeded againft Capitally : that the Ecclefiaftical Di- 
fcipline will eafily be reformed , if the Clergy be freed from payment 
of Tenths, &c. In the end he demanded, that all priviledges of 
the Clergy fhould be confirmed, and all grievances removed, 

The King ordained, That the Prelates fhould prepare to go to the 
Council of Trent : commanded , that all that were in prifon for 
Religion fhould be fet at liberty , their offences until that time par- 
doned,. and their goods reftored. The Pope fends a Nando to the 
Queen-Mother , praying her to be careful of the Religion in which fhe 
was born and bred, and not to fuffer Schifm to arife by too much 
licence, nor tofeek remedies elfe-wherefor the prefent and imminent 
evils, but from the Church of Rome, for which end the Council was 


e ofConde was fet at liberty, and by an Edid in the Par- 
liament of Aim abfolved from the imputation laid upon him, and the 
Sentence declared null and irregular, which was pronounced againft him, 
by the Judges Delegates, as incapable of judging the Princes of the 

In Franct^ though the Queen and Prelates did defire to fatisfie the 
Pope in referring the caufesof Religion to the Council, yet a Congre- 
gation of Prelates WAS put in order, at which the Pope is offended^ 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

and fendeth for Legate the Cardinal of Ferrtra into France, giving 
him four particular Commifiions , viz,, to favour the Catholicks, and 
oppofe the Proteftaats : to divert the National Synod, and AfTerably 
of the Prelates : to folicite the going of the Prelates to the Council : 
and to caufe an abrogation of the Conftitutions made in matters 

Afterwards, it was ordained in France that the Bifh ops fhould meet 
in Poify onjfaguft 10. and that theProteftant Minifters fhould have a r/y 
fafe-condud to come thither. At the time prefixed rhe Prelates af- 
fembled in Poify , the Cardinals of Tournon, Lorain> Bourbon^ Ar- -* 
magnate, and Gnife t many Dodors of the Sorbon^ and other Divines fent 
for irom the moft famous Univerfities of the Kingdom. There appear- 
ed for the Proteftants, Theodore Ttezji, Peter Martyr , France de Saint 
Paul, John Rximond^ John Virel, with many other Preachers, which 
came, fome from Geneva^ fome out of Germany and other neighbour- 
ing places, in number fourteen. Thefe gave a Petition to the King, 
which had four parts, i. That the Bifhops might not be Judges in 
that bufinefs. 2. That the King with his Councellours would prefide. 
j. That the Controverfies might- be decided by the word of God. 
4. That whatJhould be agreed on and decreed,, might be written by 
Notaries elecwii by both parties. The Queen would have one of the 
four Secretaries of the King to write, and granted that the King(hould 
prefide, butfo, that this fhould not be committed to writing, alledging 
that it was not fit for them, nor profitable/or. the King, considering the 
preCent times. Before the Parties were called to the combate, the Pre- 
lates made aProceffion, and did all Communicate, except the Cardinal. 
Chaftillon, and five Binhops. The others protefted one to another, 
that they meant not to handle points of Doctrine, nor matters of 
faith.. ' 

The fecond of September they began in prefence of the King VH^. 
Queen, Princes of the blood, and the King's Councellours, together triJei 
with fix Cardinals, and forty Bifhops* The King fpake, defiring 
them to labour tocompofethe differences of the Kingdom^ and not to 
depart till that were done. The Chancellour fpeaks more largely to 
the fame purpofe. The Queen commandeth Bez.a to begin. Who 
bavingnfcjHii4,pn his knee, jind recited the profertion of his Faithj com- 
plained^fea\^ they were ^counted feditious, and pertprbers of the pub- 
lick peace, though they hadnoother end than the glory of God, nor 
defired to afTemble themfelves but to ferve him, and obey the Magi- 
ftrates appointed by him. Then he declared in what the Proteftants 
agree with the Church of Rome, and in what they diflent : he fpake of 
faith,, of good works, of the authority of Councils, of fins, of Eccle* 
fiafticil pifcipline , obedience to Magiftrates, and of the Sacraments : 
and entring inta the muter of the Eucharift, he fpake with fuch heat, 
'/ . ljiat 

%\yt ccclefiaftical $ifto?p Cent. 

that he was commanded to conclude. Arid Having prefentec! the Con- 
fdiion of his Churches, and defiredit might be examined , he made an 
end. Cardinal Tinman dil'JaineJi &t Bez.** fpeech* The . ueen 
anfweredy* thai: nothing was done but by the advice of the Princes 
of the King's Council, and the Parliament of Paris , not to change 
or innovate any thing in Religion , but to compofe the difte- 

The Aflembly oeing diffolvtd , the Bifhops and Divines confulted 
what to do. The Congregation being again aflcmbled the 16. of the 
month, the Cardinal of Lor tin makes a long Oration for ihe Papifts, 
to -whom Bez.a : was willing to anfwer, hut was not fuffered . But on 
the 24; day in- another Aflembly Sez^i (pake of the Church, and of 
the conditions and authority thereof, Shewing they may err, and the 
digniryofthe Scripture. 

Efpcncem anfwered, he had alwaies defired a colloquy in matter of 
Religion; and abhorred the punifhments the Proteftants had endured : 
but he much wondred by what authority ihe Proteftants were called 
into the Ecckiiaftical Miniftery , who had laid hands on them 
to make them ordinary Miniikrs ? ^nd if they pretended an ex- 
traordinary vocation, where - were the miracles to demonftrate it ? 
Then he treated of Traditions, Shewing that many things are believ- 
ed by Tradition only, zstheConfubftantiaiityof the Son, the Baptizing 
oflofents, and the Virginity of the Mother of Chrift after his birch. 
He added, that no 'General Council was ever corrected by another in 
point of Doctrine. Divers Replies and Difputations pafled on both 
fides, fo the Colloquy vftas put offtiJl : ^he riext day. 

In which Bez.a, who began to fpeak, provoked the BiHiops. For 
having juftified his vocation to the Miniftery, he difcourfed of the vo- 
cation of thofe Prelates, fhewing what Simony was committed : and 
pafled from thence to the Article of the Eucharift. The parties not be- 
ing able to agree, aS/wz*/feJefuit having reproached the Proteftants, 
did reprehend the Queerv for meddling in matters which belonged 
not to her, but to the Pope, Cardinals, and Bifhops. Finally, not 
being able to conclude any thing by this manner of parly, it was orde- 
red, that two Bifhops and three Divines oUhe moft moderate, fhould 
confer with five of the Proteftant Minifters, to fee if they could find 
out a way to make an agreement. But this doth as Iktlegood as the 
former : fo an end was put to the Colloquy. 

The Pope was glad to hear that the Colloquy was difToIved without 
doing any thing, and much commended the Cardinal of Lorain, and 
Tournon more. The leal of the Jefuite pleafed him. He faid the Ora- 
tion of the Chancellour was heretical in many parts, and threatened to 
call him into the Inqmfawn. 


Cent. 1 6. Of FRAN CE. 

, The Cardinal of.Ferrara had been received by the King and Qijeen 
with much honour, and acknowledged for Legate of the Apoflolick 
See. But the Parliament having difcovered, that among his Commif- 
fions, one was to defire a! revocation or moderation ( at the leaft ) of the 
things accorded in the States of Orleans concerning the diftribution 
of Benefices, and particularly the paying Rome^ and fend- 
ing money out of the Kingdom to obtain Benefices there, or other 
favours, did immediately publidi the Decrees, which had hot been 
publifhed until .that time, under the date ^September 13. that the Car- 
dinal might not obtain his purpofe, and did refolvenotto give the Le- 
gate lieve to ufe the faculties given him by the Pope. For the cuftom 
of that Kingdom is, that a Legate cannot exercife his office, if his 
faculties be not firft prefented, and examined in Parliament, and re- 
gulated by a Decree thereof, and confirmed in that form by the King's 
Brief : So that when the Bull of the Faculties of the Legation was pre- 
fented to be approved, it was refufed by the ChancelJour and Parlia- 
ment. Befides, Pafquins were made and fpread abroad, concerning 
the loves of Lucretia Bwgia his Mother, and Pope Alexander VI. his 
Grandfather by the Mother's fide, with repetition of iheobfcenities, 
divulged throughout all/ta/y, in the time of that Popedom, which made 
the Cardinal ridiculous to the people. 

The firft thing he undertook, was to hinder the preaching of the 
Reformatift?, who after the .Colloquy did pradife it more freely than 
before. To gain reputation he roade acquaintance with the Nobles of 
the Hugonots, and went to their feafts, and fometimes was prefent at 
their Sermons in the habit of a Gentleman. But this difpleafed the 
Court of Rtrne* 

The Queen-Moiher underftanding that the King of Spain took the 
Colloquy, in, iil parr, fen^eth -an Ambafladour into: Spain- ro ex- 
cufe it. ; . 

After the Colloquy.. was' ertded, and the Proteftants departed, the 
Prelates remained, and treated of the Communion ofrhe Cup the 
Bifhop of yalenw-viiih confent'of the Cardinal ol-Lorain, propofing, 
that if it were allowed, the increafe of the Proteftants would .be inter- 
rupted. But the major part would not confent itfhouldk: done, but 
by grant, orf at lead ) by favour o.f the Pope. 

Lieve is given :to the Legate by, the ;King's Brief, to exfrcitc.his fa- 
culties, which the Chancellour refufeth-to fubfcrfoe, according to the 
ftyle of the Kingdom Yet was -it fubfcribed by the Queen, the King 
of Navarre, and by the principal QfBcersofthe Kingdom. For this 
favour, he begin, to think well of the Comrnunion-of.ibe Cup, and 
to write thereof tvRome-. fn conclufion of the Affembly at Poify, the Pre- 
lates granted power to the King to ftll anthundred thou&nd crowns of the 
yearly rents of the Lands of the Church, fo that the Pope would allow ir, 


The Legate informcth the Pope, that there are but two ways to 
preferve Religion in France. One, to give fatisfadion to the King of 
Navarre, and to inrereft him in the defence of it : the other, to grant 
the people generally the Communion fuh utraque jpecie. And the 
French Ambafladour defireth the Pope to grant ihe Communion of the 
Cup to the French men. The Pope giveth a favourable anfwer, for 
which afterwards he was forry, and at length refolveth not to grant 
the Communion of the Cujx to the French. 

At the fame time when the Petition of the French Prelates was pub- 
lifted in Rome, News cameoutof(7m#*y, that the fame men had fent 
to the Proteftants there to perfwade them to perfevere in their Dodrine, 
promiiing to favour them in the Council of Trent, and to draw other 
Prelates to do the like, for which they are fufpeded in Trent and 

The Nuncio refident in France, returned to Rome, who having re- 
lated the (late of that Kingdom, the Pope wrote to the Legate, that he 
fhould reprefent to the King's Council, that the Council in Trent was 
to be celebrated for France only ^ becaufe neither Italy nor Spain had 
need of it, and Germany did refufe it, and tell them, that therefore it did 
concern them to promote it. 

But the bad conceit which the Court of Rome bad of the French, 
was i ncrea f e 4 by an advice fent from farts, that the Parliament had 
with much folemnity condemned to recant, one John Tancherel, a 
Bachelor of Divinity, becaufe with intelligence of fome Divines he 
bad propofed and defended publick queftions, That the Pope, Vicar of 
Chrift, is Monarch of the Church, and may deprive Princes who dif- 
obey his commands, of their Kingdoms, States and Dignities } who be- 
ing ac^ufed, cited, and having confefled the fad, did flie. And the 
Judges ( as in a Comedy ) caufvd the Bidel of the Univerfity to repre- 
fent his perfon, and to make a publick fatisfadion and recantation, 
forbidding the Divines to difpute fuch queftions hereafter, making 
them go to the King to ask pardon for having fuffered fo important 
a matter to be difputed on, and to promife to oppofe themfelves al- 
wayes againftthat Dodrine. For which the French men are much 
cenfured in Rome. The Pope promifeth a reformation in the Court, and 
hafteneth the opening of the Council. 

John Fernelitu was a learned French man and Phyfician to Henry 
the fecond King of France. Medicinam Vniverfiim dottiflimis & foli- 
tijfimis fcriptif corny lexut eft* Thuan* Hi ft. Tom. i. It. 21. 

About this time alfo flourifhed Andrew Tiraquel, an excellent 
Lawyer. He is ftyled by Conradus Ritterhufius y V'arro tile GalllctM. 
He hath written well upon Alexander ab Alexandro bis Book Gtniali- 
ttm dierum. What Alexander hath written briefly, and without men- 
tion of Authours, he hath illuftrated with his Commentary, and 


Cent id. Of FRANCE. p 

(hewed to whom he was beholden Tor what he had. Tks. tu thus ex- 
tols him. 'Cumvario liter ATHmgemre excttlttu^ rttnt cc'..' rriw^nQ- 
ftri At ate Jurif-confulttts. 

Julius C&far Scaliger died near this time at Agsn ->. */. HP was v >T.inftit. 
thirty years old before he fell to ftudy, yet was,afip.giiL.-. Jofopher, orat>L ' < 4' f ' J ' " 
and an excellent Greekjmd Latin Poei. Voftiu* OKI." hun ur& mi~ 
racnlnm y and faith thus, Vir itle nunqiidw fine landc dicey. vir ad 
unguem fattus. Lipfiw highly admires him. H^ was a. j xcellent 
Hiftorian, and great was his skill in Phyfick, andhisPraA.. erein 
was happy. A Noble and learned pen doih thus commend him. 

Non hunc fefelllt ulla vis recondite swh Eaetim 

Salnbrv herb*, ftltibvfqium uii* 

Ce lat nivofus CancaftM^ feu qu,<Mn$rocttl 

Riphta duro contigit rupes gelu. 

Hie jamquefpe ft antes ad orcum non femel 

j&iimtu reprejfit vittor y & membris fuis 

H&rere facets compulitfcelicibiis, 

Nigriqiie avarat Ditis eltifit manus, 

On Snowy Caucafas there grew no root 
Of fecret Power, but he was privy to't ; 
On cold Riphtan Hills no Simple grew, 
But he the force thereof ahd venue knew. 
Wherewith ( apply'd by his fuccefsful Art ) 
Such fullen Souls as would this world depart, 
He forc't ftill in their bodies to remain, 
And from death's door fetcht others back again. 

His skill in Phyfiognomy was wonderful. But his excellent Parts 
were attended with prodigious Pride. 

His Son Jofeph Scaliger was one of the great lights of France, and 
One faith 

Holland too. One faith thus of him. In antiques Scriptores 
petulant & protcrvus. Mont dent. Exercit. 2. feel. 10. For variety bills nifi Jofe- 
of Learning and Skill in the Oriental Languages ( befides his acutenefs 
in Chronology ) he exceeded his Father. In the firft Volume of the 
Lord of Tlejfis his Letters and Memoir s y Cafaubon relating to him Sea- 
tiger's death, faith, This lofs offo Learned a man, wrought in him an 
incredible grief, and that he for his particular had loft another Father. 
Munfuur flu Plejfis likewife condoles with him in fo great a lofs, and 
faith, That Scaliger indeed made one of the integral parts of the better 
Learning of this Age. Thuans honourably mentions him in his Hiftory, 
and in the firft book of his Commentaries "De vitafna faith,he continued 
in a league of friendlhip with him thirty eight years. And faith alfo,That 

B bb in 


CDe ecdefiafttcai 

Cent. \6. 


in all that while in which he was acquainted with him, he never heard 
him difpute of ihe Controverted points of Religion, or that he was ac- 
cuHomed to write to others about them. 

Adrian Turnebiis was Profefibur of Philofophy and Greek mPa- 
Y is under King Charles IX. ThuaNMS calls \\\mgrande noftrificuli or- 
namentum. He was admirable both in the Greek and Latin Languages, 
and in knowledge of all Antiquity, as his Books entitled Adverfaria 
do evidently teftifie : of which H. Stephanus thus fpeaketh. Vti- 
nam non tanta brevitatc in fa Adverjariorttm librif efftt ufus. Pau- 
lo enim Ittculentior & flenior qnorundam locorum explanatio, & ma- 
jor em tilt operi gratiam laudemqite conciliaflet y & lettori multo magis 
fatitficijfit. Stephens 'Pafchafas in his Iconcs faith thus of 


Qnicquid in arcano condelat at) travel uft at, 
Turnebits tacit is erHtt e latebris. 

He hathredified P Units Preface to hii Natural Hiftoryby Ancient 
Copies, and added Annotations upon it. He hath commented alfo upon 
Horace's firft Book of verfes, and upon his obfcurer places. 

At this time flourished Anthony Sadeel. Anthony Bourbon King of 
Navarre greatly refpefted him, and was wont to hear him Preach. 
His friends in Fr<wtf were cfpecially Eez*a, Hottaman^ Gottlartins t 
Fains and others. 

John Aiiratus ^Regius Profeflbur in Paru for the King of France , was 
much refpeded byCharleslX. and was the chiefeft Poet of his time. 
He was moil skilful in Greek and Latine. Some of his Poems are 

Auratum nemo te die at, ntagne Poet a, 
Aurea namque tibi Muja Lepofyuefuit. 

Antoine de foandieu was a learned French Drvine. Beza highly 
commends his Book of the Marks of the true Church. There are other 
works of his alfo, 'viz.. De I' unique facrifice, Qjntre les traditions. 
Sez.a gives him this character. De la trefare erudition^ fieteentiere, 
diligence incroyable y & dexterite admirable. ez,e Eptftrc an Rey 
decant fon TraikTe Des Marques De I' Eglife C*tholiqHe. 

Andreas duChefnevJisiht King of France his Geographer: he hath 
put out divers French Books. Gilbert Genebrard was a Divine of Pa- 
rity and the King's Profeflbur of Hebrew. He was a moft petulant wri- 
ter. By whom f^ith B. Andr. )it is verified, that much Learning and 
railing may be accidents in one Subjed. 


Cent. id. Of FRANCE. u 

Papyrius Maffonius was fuch a writer of the French Chronicle, as 
Cambden of the English. There are four Books of his Annals. One 
fpeaks thus of him. Non tarn undiquaque Ponttpciits, quin -verb Ton- 
tificttm viti* libere fateatur. sJWortoni caufa Regia, cap. 3 
Se^. 19. 

Jacobus Cujacius was a great light of France. His Life is written by 
Papyri us Maffontut. He is pr ailed by Peter Faber ( whofe Mailer he 
was ) as the greateft Lawyer of his time. Pafanier faith, In many 
Univerfities of Germany , when thofe in the Ghair alledge Cujacius and 
Turnebtu, they put their hands to their hats for the refped and honour 
they bear them. He was thought to be fomewhat inclinable to the 
Proteftant Religion. But when any Theological queftion was askt 
him, he was wont to anfwer, NihilhocadEdittnm Prater is. 

John Pafleratittt was a learned French man, the King's Profeflbur 
of Eloquence in Parity an excellent Oratour and Poet. He hath put 
out Orations and Prefaces, a Commentary on Catullus, Tibuttus and 
Properties, Varia Opufcula. His French Works are mentioned by 
Antoine dit Verdier in his Bibliothcque. 

At the fame time lived Dionyfitu Lambinus, a Learned French man : 
he hath Commented well on Lucretius , Horace, Plant tu. Turne- 
bitf often makes honourable mention of him in his Adverfaria. 

The Queen of Navarre, Prince of Conde, the Admiral, and the 
Dutchefs of Ferrara, having for many Months made requeft that 
places (hould be allowed to the Proteftants for their Sermons and Ce- 
remonies ^ and all thefe, and many more Grandees even in the Court 
it felf making Profeffion thereof, the inferiour Proteftants AfTembled 
themfelves apart : whereupon dangerous Popular tumults were raif- 
ed in many parts of the Kingdom with flaughter on both fides* Two 
divers tumults were raifed by Sermons, one at Dijon, the other in 
Paris. Hereupon the Prefidems of all the Parliaments were called, 
and certain Councellours Eleded to deliberate what was beft to be 
done. All thefe being AfTembled at Saint German, where the Chan- 
cellour told them, That the differences in Religion fhould be referred 
to the Prelates : but when the Peace of the Kingdom is in queftion, 
this could not belong to the Ecclefiafticks, but to thofe whom the King 
would appoint to confult of it. That this Particular was then to be 
confidered of, whether it were good fervice for the King to permit 
or prohibit the Congregations of the Proteftants, wherein they were 
not to difpute which Religion was the better, becaufe they took not in 
hand to frame a Religion, but to put in order a Republick, In the 
end they concluded that the EdidofJ///> was to be remitted in part, 
and the Proteftants tohavelieveto Preach. The Edift contained ma- 
ny Points. That the Proteftants fhould reftore the Churches PofTefii- 
ons, and other Ecdefiaftical goods ufurped. That they fhould for- 
B b b 2 bear 

cttteOaftical %ifto?? cent. 6. 

bear to beat down Crofies, Images and Churches upon pain of death. 
That theyfr.ould not Affemble themfelves to Preach, Pray, orAdmi- 
nifter the Sacraments in publick or in private, by day or by night with, 
in the City. That the Prohibitions and Punifhments of the Edid of 
July, and all o:hers made before, (hould be fufpended. That they (hall 
not be mokfted in their Sermon^ made out of the City, or hindered by 
the Magiftrates. That none (hall fcandalize another for Religion, or 
ufe contumelious words of Faftion. That the Magiftrates and Offi- 
cers may be prefent at the Sermons and Congregations. That they 
fhall not make Synods, Colloquies, or Confiftories, but with lieve, 
and in prefence of the Magiftrate. That they (hall obferve the Laws 
for Feafts, and Degrees prohibited for Marriage. That the Minifters 
fhall be bound to fwear to the Publick Officers, not to offend againft 
this Edid, nor to Preach any Dodrine contrary to the Nicene Council^ 
and the Books of the Old and New Teftament. This was Regiftred 
and published by way of Provifion, with this exprefs Claufe and 
Condition, Until fuch time as the General Council, or the King himfelf 
fhould order it otherwife. 

The Duke* ofGttife, the Conftable, and the Cardinals ( among which 
the Cardinal ofTottrnon was lately dead) with the Marflials of Brifac 
and St. Andre being difcontemed hereat left the Court, contriving how 
they might hinder the execution of the Edid, and oppofe the Prote- 
ftants. But becaufe they faw, that whilft the King of Navarre flood 
united \vith the Regent^ they had no right to intermeddle with the 
Government of the Kingdom, therefore they propofed to themfelves 
todiffolve that Union. Andknqwing, that the Queen intended to con- 
tinue with the fame power till her Son came of Age, they thought it 
tnore eafietogainihe King of Navarre, who was already much averfe 
to the Proteftaius Religion by reafon of the different opinions he found 
among them about: the Points in Controverfie. And now the King of 
Navarre joyns himfelf with the Duke of Guife and the Conftable. 
Thefe three the Hugonots called the Triumvirate. Queen Joan was 
highly difpleafed at this fo unexpected deliberation of her Husband, 
and leaving the Court, carriethwith her Prince Henry, and thePrin- 
cefs K*thtr;ut her Children ( whom fhe brought up in Culvinifm ) 
rto Bcarn^ K j ing determined to feparate her felf from the Counfelsand 
iiarion of h^r Husband. The Queen Regent was alfo terrified 
hei\37!tb, and in oppofition to the Triumvirate joyns wuh the 
Prince of fonde and the Admiral. The Prince otConde takes upon 
him openly to H -i : -.he H-ugGixts^ who ardently. defire to revenge his 
paft affronts up ^fe that were his chief perfecurours. 'His power 
and boldneis w?-- "iorated by the wife Counfcl of the Admiral of 
Chaftilion. -Tb-. ' vity led after them, being of the fame Faith, 
the Prince of/6 , the Count de URoch-foH-caut, Meffieurs de 

Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

Gentif, de Grammont, and Duras , the Count of ^Montgomery, the 
Baron des tsidrets, Mtfieurr de Bouchavane, and Sottbize, and ma- 
ny other the Principal in the Kingdom. Thus upon a fudden the King 
of Navarre went over to the Popifh party, and Queen Katherine 
(though diflfcmblingly ) took upon her the Protection oftheProte- 
fhnts. The King of Navarre flaying in Parit, laboureth to hinder 
the Afftmblies of the Proteftants, to dirainilh their force and credit, and 
finally to take away their -liberty of Religion. 

The Prince of Conde being likewife in Paris, on the contrary en- 
courageth the Preachers , and (as he could) enlargeth their licence and 
liberty. The King <>f Navarre deliberating to drive the Prince of 
Conde out of Paris, for this purpofe fends for the other Popifh Lords 
to Court. The Duke ofGnife makes a journey thither, and palling 
through Vajfy y his Servants heard a noife of Bells and having askt 
what was the reafon of it, anfwer was made, That it was the hour 
wherein the Hugonots ufed to Aflemble at their Sermons. The Pa- 
ges and Lacquies of the Duke that went before the reft of the Company, 
moved with the Novelty of the thing, and a curiofity to fee (for then 
thofe Congregations began firft to be kept in Pubiick ) wirh jefting 
fpeeches and a tumult went towards the place where the Hiiyonots were 
Affembled at their Devotion. Who underfhnding that the Duke of 
Guife, their great Perfecutour, was there, and feeing a great Troop come 
diredly toward them, incofifiderately fell prefently to gather npftones, 
and- began to drive back thofe that advanced firft to the place of. their 
Aflembly. By which injury the Popifh party rafhly betook -ihemfelves 
to Arms. The Duke putting himfelf in the midft of them, was hit 
with a blow of a ftone upon the left cheek, which bled much, which 
caufed him to withdraw from the hurly burly. His followers impa- 
tient of fuch an affront done to their Lord, with their fire-arms pre- 
fently aflaulted the houfe whither the Hngonots retired to fecurethem- 
felves, killed above fixty of them, and grievoufly wounded the Mini- 
fter -, who climbing over the Tyles faved himfelf in fome of the ad- 
joyning houfe?. The tumult being ended, the Duke of Guift called 
for the Officer of the place, fharply reproving him for fuffering fuch 
a pernicious Licence to the prejudice of PafTengers. He excufing him- 
felf as unable to hinder it, by reafon of the Edid of January, which 
tolerated the publick Aflemblies of the Hftgonots, the Duke no lefs 
offended at his anfwer thanst the thing it felr, laying his hand upon his 
Sword, replyed in choler, This fliatt foon cut the Bond of that Edi'd, 
though never fo binding. From which words many afterwards conclu- 
ded, that he was the Authour of the enfuing War. 
' But the Hugonots incenfed by this Chance, now full of rage, ftirred 
up fuch horrible tumults and bloody Seditions, that (befides theflaugh- 
ter of men in many places) the Monafteries were fpoiled, Images 


'%$tttltft%ftit$A%iftQw cent 16. 

thrown down, the Altars broken, and the Churches defiled. The peo- 
ple in all places ran headlong to take Arms ; and the Heads of the 
I adions went about gathering Forces, preparing themfelves forama- 
nifeft War. And now each Fadion defired to draw the King to their 
parry, and to poflefs the Perfons of the King- afid-Queen. But the 
Catholicks prevent the Hugonots, and kad them both to Paris from 
Ponntatnbleau. The Prince of Condt therefore pofTefleth Orleans, and 
prepareth for the War. The Popifh Lords under the King's name 
likewife raife an Army. Many writings are publifhed on each fide, 
and both Armies go into the Field. The Queen-Mother labours for a 
Peace. To this end fhe comes to a parley with the Prince, but with- 
out fuccefs : notwithftandjng fhe continues to Treat of an Agreement, 
which at length is concluded. But the Prince by the perfwafion of the 
reft, again rakes Arms, purpofeth to aflail the King's Camp by night, 
but miflech of hisdefign. Forces come to the King's aid out of Ger- 
many, and many thoufands of Swijfes, whereupon the Prince is forced 
to retire unto the Walls of Orleans, where being unable to keep the 
Army together, he divides it. He fendeth for fuccour horn Germany 
and England, confents to give Havre de Grace to the Englijh, and to 
receive their Garrifons into 1>eipe and Roven y to obtain aid from them. 
The King's Army takes Bloit, 'Poitticrs, Tours, and Bo urges, befieges 
Rouen and takes it, and facks it, where Antlaony King of Navarre 
received a Musket fhot in the left fhoulder -, which breaking the bone, 
and tearing the Nerves, he prefently fell down on the place as dead, and 
died fhortly after. 

Succours come to the Prince of Co nde out of Germany, with which 
being re-inforced he makes hafte toafTault Far it : The King and the 
pueen arrive there with the Army : and the Prince after many attempts 
is neceffitated to depart. Both Armies go into Normandy, and there 
follows the Batte! of Dreux, in which the Prince of Conde is taken 
Prifoneron the one fide, and the Conftable on the other. The Duke 
of Guifc being Vidorious , layes fiege to Orleans, and is ready to take 
it, and is treacheroufly (lain by Poltrot, Sieur de Mertborn, of a No- 
ble Family, near AngwUfmc. He feigns to forfake the Proteftant par- 
ty, leaves Orleans, infmuates himfelf into the Duke of Gttifes Court : 
and whilft the Duke gives order for an afTault, (hoots him in the fhoul- 
der, whereof he dieth. Poltrot aided by thefwiftnefs of his horfe, fa- 
ved himfelf in the neighbouring Woods, and the Duke being carried 
to his Lodging, died three dayes after of his hurr. Poltrot was ta- 
ken , and being taken , was by fentence of Parliament publickly 

After the death of the Duke of Guife an accommodation follow- 
ed : Conditions of Peace wereconluded at Orleans March. 18. 1563. 
viz* That all thofe that were free Lords over the Caftles or Lands 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

that they poffefled , notholdingof any but the Crown, might within 
their jurifdidions freely excrcife the Reformed Religion ^ and that the. 
other Feaudatariesjwho had not fuch dominion, might do the fame in their 
own houfes, for their Families only, provided they lived not in any 
City or Town. That in every Province certain Cities fhall be appoin- 
ted, in the Faux-bourg whereof \hzHugonots might AfTtmble at their 
Devotion. That in all other Cities, Towns andCaftles, in the City 
of Tarts with the jurifdidion thereof, and all places whatfoever where 
the Court refided, the exercife of any other but theRomijh Religion 
(hould be prohibited. Yet every one to live free in his Confcience 
without any trouble or moleftation.That the ProfefTours of the Reformed 
Religion fhould obferve the Holy-dayes in the Roman Calender, and 
in their Marriages the Rites and Constitutions of the Civil Law. That 
all the Lords , Princes, Gentlemen, Souldiers and Captains fhould have 
a full Pardon for all Delinquencies committed during the time of the 
War, and every one to be reftored to his charges, goods, dignities, 
priviledges and prerogatives. That the Germans ftiould be fent away, 
and have fafe-condud out of the Kingdom : and that it (hould be in 
the King's power to recover aU his places, Towns and C aft les from any 
perfon that fhould with-hold them from him. 

This Capitulation being publifhed in the Camp;, and in the Court, 
on May 18, the Prine tiConde and theConftablf came out of Prifon j 
and Anddot delivered the City of Orleans into the Queen's hands : 
and the Kings Army recovereth Havre de Grace from the Englijh. 
The King cometh out of his Minority . The Queen ufeih divers artifices to 
work the difcontented Princes to her will. The King and Queen make 
a general vifitation of the whole Kingdom. And from Beam they 
went to Lions, in which the Hugonots had fo great aparty. Andcon- 
fidering the importance of the place, the neighbourhood of Geneva 
zndGermany, they refolved that a Citadel fliould be built between the 
Rkofne and the Saone ( two great Rivers that run through that Town ) 
whereby to bridle the people, and fecure it from the treachery of its 
neighbours. Which being then begun, was afterwards brought to per- 
fection by the diligence of Monfuur de Lojfe newly put into that Go- 
vernment. From Lions the King being come to faience in T>ol- 
fhine, he caufedthe City to be difmantled, and built there anewFor- 
trefs : that Town having ever been a receptacle for thofe that were 
in Rebellion. 

From Lions they went to the Caftle of Ron/illon t where there was 
an Interview between the King and the Duke of Savoy. From thence 
they went to Avignon^ where the King and Queen gave anfwer to the 
Pope's Arnbafly, Ihewing that they were ready to extirpate Calvinifv, 
and to caufe the Decrees of the Council of Trent to be obferved in their 
Dominions. Then they came to an Inteiview with the Queen of S/w.^ae 

1 6 %ty ecClCfiafttCa! $tftO?p Cent. 16. 

x By an Ordinance of King Charles}^ Anno 1563. it was De- 
creed, That none fhould be admitted to Cue, by venue of the priviledgc 
of his Clergy, to be fent back to the Ecclefiaftical Judge in any Cafe 
whatfoever whetherCv.l ,r Criminal,unlefs he were a Sub-deacon at the 
hft: which is as much as to exclude fimple fhavclings , whether they be 
married or no. 

I find an ordinance of the f?.me King made at M.mte on Sep. 10. 1565. 
which fpcaks of defamatory Libels, placards, pafquils , and fuch like 
things in matter of Religion : and as for the point of jurifdi&ion ordains 
as lollowcih } Commanding all ptobliqite JMagiftrates, Commiffancs of 
the CoHmrey , and other our officers whom it way concern, to have regard 
hereunto ^ charging our Proftors in every place and Advocates to do their 
endevour herein ( all other bufinefs laid alide ) to the finding out and 
f unifying fuch fault s as they fiatt find concerning this particular. And 
afterwards they are commanded to obferve the faid Ordinance punctual- 
ly, and proceed againft the breakers hereot by the punifhments there af- 
figned, peremptorily without obferving the ordinary forms of Juftice. 

For as much as many large Indulgences are moft commonly granted 
to Fraternities, as appears by divers of the Pope's Bulls, King Charles 
IX. required in his demands of the Council of Trent ^ a reformation of 
iheabutes of fuch Fraternities. The Council found nothing to be cor- 
rected in them, but tacitly confirm 'd them, by ordaining, That the Ad- 
miniftrators of them fhall give account of their adminiftration every year 
unto the Ordinary. They were wary enough to touch upon that point, 
feeing it diredly concerns the Pope's authority. By means of thefe 
Indulgences, and the fuperftition which he ufeth in them, he gains milli- 
ons of men unto himfelf, who devote themfelves fo much unto him, 
for the fpecialfavour which they fuppofe they receive by the means of 
thefe Indulgences, that they do not acknowledge any other fuperi- 

The Ambafladours of this King Charles fent to the Council of Trent, 
had fuch Articles as thefe given them in their Inftrudions - y as concern- 
ing the reformation of the Court of Rome, Excommunications, there- 
ftoring of the Cup, marriage of Priefts, Prayers in a known tongue : 
and to demand that Pfalms might be fung, the Sacraments adminiftred, 
and a Catechifm made in the vulgar Tongue. And befides, to affift all 
fuch as fhould require a juft reformation in all other- matters. The 
originals of thefe inftrudions were figned by King Charles , the Queen- 
Nataii* comes Mother, the Chancellour of the Palace, and divers OLhers. Hereupon 
tncKin g * France his Oratour faid, when they propofcd thefe de- 
mands, That they did wonderfully agree with thofe of the Emperour, 
and for that reafon they had deferred the Propofal of them : fuppofing 
that if the other were afTented unto, ihey (hould alfo befausfied. But 
perceiving the lingrings and delays that were ufed in that behalf, and 


Cent. \6. - Of FRANCE. 17 

withal prefled by the Letters of the King their Mafter, they were con- 
ftrained to make a motion of them. They required 1 further, that all 
Mandates of provifiun of Benefices, all Reverfions, Re-aflumptions, 
Refignatfons, holding of Livings in Truft, and Commendams might be 
quite taken away, as contrary to the Decrees, and that refignations in 
Favour might be banifhed the Court of Rome, as forbidden by the Sa- 
cred Canons. That acourfemighc be taken for inftruding the people 
what they ought to believe concerning the Worfhip of Images, and to 
clear it from all fuperftitions and errours, if any were crept into it. 
And the like Eflay to be made about Indulgences, Pilgrimages, Reliques 
of Saints, and Fraternities : that not only the ancient form of publick 
Penance might be reftored in the Church for hainous and publick offen- 
ders, but alfo publick Fafts for the appealing of God's wrath. That 
general Councils might be holden every ten years : that for abroga- 
ting of huts about Benefices, that diftindionof Petitory and Poffefory 
might be taken away : or rather for the utter extinguishing of fuch 
Suits, that Bifhops might be enjoyned to beftow them not upon fuch 
as feek after them, but on thofe that are worthy of them and avoid 
them : and for certain proof of their Merits to make them Preach 
fometimes ; and thofe fuch as have taken fome Degree in the Univerfi- 
ties, upon whom only Livings might be conferred by theconfent of the 
Bi/hop and people. 

Angnftine*JWarlorat, oneoftheMinifters of the Reformed Church 
at Rhoan in France, was taken by the Gni/ians, and hanged upon a Gib- 
bet there before our Ladies Church. He was a man excellently learn- 
ed, and of an unblameable Life, who had the teftimonyeven of the Pa- 
pifts themfelves, that in his Sermons he never uttered ought tending to 
Sedition or Rebellion. He hath written upon Genefis, Jfaiah, and the 
'Pfalms, and an Ecclefiaftical Expofition upon the New Teftament, which 
hath been well efteem'dof. 

Clement Marotw&s a famous French Poet. He turned fifty of Da- p ., rqu> Re _ 
uids Pfalmsinto French Metre, which are read with admiration ot his la 
excellent Wit. He fct them forth at Geneva, for he might not FnI!lc<r >' ; - 7>c 
fafely longer abide in France for fufpicion of Lutheranifm. 

Marctu Antonitu Muretiti was a very eloquent and diligent Wri- 
ter. Scarce hath he paffed by any Latine Authour, either Hiftorian, 
Oratour, or Poet, which he hath not explained, amended, and reftored 
to his purity, either with his Commentaries, Scholia, or Notes, Terence, 
^etroniusy Tibttllns , Catfilhtf, Propertiui, Seneca, Salufl, Tacittu. 
His Book ofdivers readings fheweth how Learned he was. His excel- 
lent Orations (hew his great Eloquence. Gefner mentions his Latine 
works, and Antoine du Verdier his French. Thuanus ftyles him, Mag- 
num non [olum G alii A noftr* , fed ipfius Royta lumen: not only a great 
light of our F r^w^,butalfoof Rome it felf. 

Ccc About 


3it)e ffcclefiafttcai 

cent. 16. 

About this time Father Edwond'm a Book of his Printed tt Paris by 
Sebaftian Nivette, and by him dedicated to King Charles IX. with this 
jie Pedagogue Infcription, The Pedagogue of Arms, to inftrutt a Chriflian Prince to 
tfAr.n,c./.S, Hn ^ rta \^ 4 ^ OQ ^ W ar well, and accomplifi it with fuccef, to bt footer t- 
ous over all the Enemies of his State, and of the Catholick^Church ~^ 
gives fuch Rules as thefe. That Wars have been alwaies accounted not 
only profitable, but neceffary. That the Pope u bound to take Arms 
againfl Heretick*. That to a Monarch undertaking fuch a War, a. 
man cannot urge any of hisformsr Edicts or Ordinances. That no man 
( howPotent foever he be ) can Contract with an Infidel, or one that hath 
revolted from his Confciencf. He gives this reafon. For what King is 
there, how redoubted foever he be, that can ( without falftfy ing his Oath 
made to God} permit and give litve to the Enemies of all truth, and 
condemn d by the general fentence of all the world, to few hcfefus in 
his Countries, and allure fouls ? He adds further, That what conditi~ 
ons tf Peace foever he can grant unto his Rebels in this cafe, will not 
endure long* Rut it will behove him not to awake fuch flrong and Po- 
tent Enemies. That to make a Peace with them at lafl, he mufl refolve 
to make a good War* And anon : As of t as by the Articles of Peace 
licence is granted to every man to adhere to which of the two oppofitc 
Parties he pleafe without being offended at it, it is. all one, in my opini- 
on, M if one fhould cafl a man into the fire, and forbid him to burn 

Jnthe feventh Chapter he faith, If fitch ptrfons were Inf 'dels or here- 
ticks I would never excufethe Monarch, that having ftifficient weans 
in his own hands fhould not affay by all waies, even of fatt, to reclaim 
fuch a Kennel, or drive them far out of his Country, out of the Terri- 
tories of Catholickj' And fo much the more roughly ought he to 
froceed againfl them, as he knows them perverfe in aH rejects, and of 
tamp, which fhould be accounted themoft pernicious, mo ft 
ufhildtrs of lies, that ever rofe up againfl the Church. 
Thus he. 

In this Age flourished Gulielmus Sallnfiiiis B<rrtaffiuj, sn excellent 
French Poet. ISe Poetarum. Gallicorttm Coryph&us SaHuftiHS, Bartba- 
fiiDominus, cujus Poemata apttd exteros ctiam in Limle fiutt. He is 
tranflated into many Languages. He may be read in Latine, French, 
Italian, Englifh, Dutch. Pajcjuier fheweth, that the French Poets 
imitating the Latins, have often equalled and fometimcs exceeded them, 
Antoine du Verdier,w\& Thuanus do commend him. 

Near this time alfo lived Guidode Dres, a holy Martyr. He hath 
written againft the Anabaftifts in French, of the Authority of the Ma- 
giftrate, and the immortality of the Soul. 

Johannes Quiquarboreus was Profeflbur of Hebrew and Chaldee to 
the fjrenck King in Parit*. There, is his Chaldse Paraphrafe with 

"Wafer! COTV- 
rnent. ad Mi- 
thrtil Gciberi. 

Cent. 1 6. Of FRANCE, 19 

Scholia upon Ruth , Lamentations , Hojeti , Joel , Amos, 

FrancifcHS Rabelcefus was a witty, but Atheiftical French writer, and 

Robert Conftantine was Beta's great friend : he was ( faith 7%**- 
nuj) trium lingKtirumperitiffivus, moft skilful in three Languages, 
efpecially in Greek and Latme. He lived till he was a hundred and 
three years old, his Senfes of Body and Mind being perfed, and his Me- 
mory ftrong. Thefe are his Work?. NomencUtor infignium Scn- 
ftornm^ Di&ionarium abftruformv t vocabnlornm , Lexicon Gr<tco- 

John Croy was a learned French Divine. He hath written a Treatife 
entitled, Obfervxtiones Sacr* & Hiftortc* in novum Te ft amentum. 
That Book, and his Specimen conjettttrarHm & obfervationum in qua- 
dAm loca Origenis^ lren<ei, Tertuttiani & Epiphanij, &c, and his 
French Book emitled, Laverite de la Religion Reformee, declare him to 
be a good Linguift, and a General Scholar. He hath written a Book 
againft Morinw, not yet publiflied, but commended and quoted by 
thofe who have perufed it. John Mtfinut was a learned Papift. There 
are his Exercitationes Biblicx de He brao GracoqueTextu. Exercit. - 

In the late Progrefs of King Charles IX. was difcharged all Preaching 
and exercifingof the Reformed Religion in the Towns of France ^ where- 
in it fhould happen the King to be, during the lime of his Pro- 

Many new interpretations of the Edid of March were invented, 
whereby the liberty granted to the Proteftants was utterly in- 

The Prince of foaJe having heard that the Kings of France and s> -AE.\IU: 
Spain had made a League for the rooting out of the Proteftants, addref- 
feth himfelf to the King on the behalf of the Proteftants, complaining, 
that contrary to the Edid: of March they were injured and cruelly 
flain, demanding redrefs for the fore faid in juries, and that they might 
have liberty to enjoy their Religion without moleftation, The King 
hearing of the Prince's coming (being with four hundred Armed men) 
with all expedition and in great fear haftens to Paris, and caufed the Pa- 
rifiansto give thanks to God, as if he had been delivered from a great pe- 
ril and imminent danger. 

After this the fecond War for Religion brake forth. The Prince of 
fandc approached with an Army to Parit, and diftrefled it for w^c of 
food. The Parifians under the Condudt of the Conftable fally out of 
the Town, and come to Saint Denis where the Prince ofConde's Army 
lay. There the Admiral put the Partfian Souldiers to flight, and the 
Conftable was (hot by a Scotijh Souldier, of which wound he died fhort- 
ly after. 

Ccc z After 

Cent ; \6. 

After the Baud the Prince of Conde marched toward Lorain to joyn 
with the Gerrxan Army, which was to be fent for his fuccour from the 
Count Palatine of the Rheine, under the Condud efCtjfirvire's Son. 
This German Army joyned with the Forces of the Prince of Co nde at 
PontamonfoHy a Town in Lorain on the River sJWoJel. Being thus 
eonjoyned, they march to Chartrcs ^nd Ufiege it. The danger of 
Chartres brings on a newTreatife of Peace,which at laft is concluded. The 
Armies are disbanded, and the Towns by him fubdued are delivered in- 
to the King's hand, the German Souldiers were diftnifled, and every 
man returned to his own houfe. But this pacification was but a fubtil 
(hare to entangle the Proteftants withal : for the Proteftants were com- 
pelled to lay down their Armour when they entred into the Towns 
where they dwelt, and ftri&ly commanded to remain in their houfes, 
being not permitted to vifit one another. 

In all the parts of the Country great cruelty was ufed and many cruelly 
butchered, fothat within thefpace of three months moe than three thou- 
{and were/lain by the Sword. All means alfo were fought to intercept the 
Prince otConde^ the Admiral Andelot, and other principal Perfonages. 
The Prince ^ Conde and the ^w;/vz/ rlie with their Wives and young 
children to Rachel. God's Providence fo conducted them, that albeit 
all the Bridges and Paflages were ftridly kept, yet God provided a 
Foord in theRiverZ/ojre near unto Sanfer^ which was unknown before, 
neither was any pal&ge found to he there two daks after. By this way 
they patted fafely to Rochcl. 

The Prince of Co ride had fent letters to the King, greatly complain- 
ing of the Cardinal of Lorain y who abufed the King's Name and Au- 
thority, and fo malicioufly fought the lives of the King's innocent Sub- 
jeds for their Religion, expreflyagainftthe King's Edid of Pacification, 
which had been fealed wich the King's own hand-writ, and ratified with 
his Oath. To thofe Letters no anfwer was given, but all the Country was 
in \rrns, and the Duke of Anjou Brother to the King was made General 
Commander of the Army. 

The Queen of Navarre on the other parr, adjoyned herfelf and 
her Forces to the Prince of Conde -, and from "Britany came Anddot 
and his Forces, who paflcd the Loyre by a certain Foord not known be- 
fore, and unpayable afterwatd ; no lefs miraculoufly than the Prince 
of Conde and his Family had done in another place of the fame River be- 
fore. After whole commgAngolefne was befitged and taken by the Prince 
of ^j^r. Like wife Acitrim brought with him to the Prince cut of Delphi- 
re >H-(,ve nee and L\nguedoc twenty three thoufand men. 

The Duke of AJOU was come with his Army to Potttou, and piuhed 
his Camp at Cafte lie ranltnczr to the R'.ver Vienna. The Prince of Con- 
de and the Admiral daily provoke him to fight, but he politickly de- 
lay tth. The Duke of Anjou receiving ayd from Germany forceth the 


Cent. \6. Of FRANCE. 

Proteftants to fighr. A Battle was fought at Blanfac, wherein the 
Prince of Conde was taken and flain, and two hundred more of the 
Proteftants, and forty taken Prifoners. The Admiral led the reft of the 
Army back to Saint JojuU-Angcli* Soon after Andelot died at Sainetes, 
to the great grief of alhhe Array : his body being opened was found to 
be poifoned. 

The Qijeen of Navarre comfurted the Army of the Proteftantsr. 
And her Son the young King of Navarre, with the Prince of Conetc's 
Son took upon them the Government of the Army, and fent Count 
tJMontgomtry to relieve the Town of Angolefme, which was then 
' befieged by the Duke's forces , at whole coming the fiege was 

Then the Duke of Bipont cometh from Germany to ayd the Pro- 
teftants, and takes the Town of la-Charity in Burgundy, and dieth with- 
in two daies after, having appointed Wolrod Count of Mansfelt to be 
General in his room.* In this Army were feven thoufand and five hun- 
dred horfe-mem, and fix thoufand loot-men, befides two thoufand 
French horfe- men, wh'o came in their company, and ten Enfigns of foot- 
men. The Prince of Orange with his Brothers Lodowick^ and He?iry 
were alfo in this Army. 

In the Country of Poiftoa the Princes had taken many Towns, and 
Peictiers was befiegedby them, but they were forced to raife the fiege. 
^At length -both Armies met and joyned in a Battel near Montcowtre^ 
where the Duke oi<*/fnjou, had the Vidory. Hereupon all the Towns 
which the Proteftants had taken in Poitfou were recovered by their 
Enemies. St. Jan-Dangely was alfo befkged and furrendered. At 
the fiege of this Town AdartiQMSy Governour of Britany, was (lain. 
This Aiartiques perfwaded^/* Afatpinofa to yield the Town to the King: 
and defired the Town to remember the Battel of Momconvire, where- 
in their flrong God had for faken them, and did it was time for them to 
(Ing, Help ta now O God, for it is time. Not long after this proud 
Blafphemer felt that this ftrong God was living, able ^fhelp the weak, 
and confound the proud. 

The Princes' now refolve to make Langucdoc the fear of War, 
becaufe the Town of Nimes was lately, furprized by the Prvtcftanw, 
and many Towns in that Country favoured their Religion. 

This occafioneth a new Edid of Pacification to be fct forth, granting 
liberty of Religion to the Proteftants again, and for their further fecu- 
rity the keeping of four Towns during the fpace of "two years, viz,. Ra- 
chel, Cognack^ A4ontallAnjR& Caritea. Thus was an end put to the third. 
Civil war in France . 

About this time was a notable Suit of thofewho with aprefumptuous 
and partial Title termed themfelves, ffthe focietyofyefw^dd^d in the 
Court of Parliament, StephJ^fquier pleading againft them for thellniver-. 


cent. \6. 

fry tfParis, amoft grave Advocate of fo rare a Caufe, and M. Peter 
Vcrfarif for their Company. Their pleadings are read, and their be- 
ginnings, and firft entry intoFr^w*, their advancement, and all that 
concerns their Se&, is fo learnedly expreffed in an Epiftle of the fourth 
Book of the faid P*/^w>r, and in his pleading, as it is needlefs to infcrr 

Then tffe King offereth his Sifter in Marriage to the King otNavarre, 
and parting to Bloyes fent for the Queen of Navarre, whom be received 
fo courteoufly, that the Queen was fully perfwaded, that this Marriage 
would be a more fure pledge and bond of conftant peace. The Admiral' 
alfo was fent for, and met the King at Bloyes, whom the Kingfeemed 
highly to honour. The Admiral and other Nobles are follicited to be 
prefent at the Marriage. 

The Queen of Navarre, as (he was bufied in making preparation 
for the Marriage, died haftily by the fcent of empoifoned Gloves, which 
fhe received from an Italian the King's tlnguentary. But the Marriage 
was celebrated notwithfta-nding on Anguft 1 8. Anno 1572. 

Soon after, viz,. Auguft 22. the Admiral, as he went from the 
Louvre to hbhoufe,wasihot with two or three bullets in his arm. This 
was taken in ill part by the King of Navarre and the Prince of Conde 9 
defiring liberty to depart from Paris. But the King with lo many at- 
teftations protefted his diflike in that matter , and that he would diligent- 
ly fearch out andfeverely punifhthe Authours of that deed, that in fonie 
part he quieted the minds of the complainers. 

The King b'kewife came to vific the Admiral , pitifully lamenting 
' the chance that was fallen out, affirming the di/honour to be done to 
him, although the Admiral had received the hurt. He would alfo 
have had the Admiral tranfported to the Lewvre for his better fecuri- 
ry, to which the Admiral feemed unwilling. Therefore the King ap- 
pointed fome of his own Guard to attend upon the Admiral's houfe, 
and the Proteftants were required to prepare their Lodgings near to the 
Admiral's houfe, to be a Guard unto him, in cafe any commotion fhould 
happen in the Town. 

The Maffacre of All this was done under deep diflimulation, to put the Proteftants 
7if 24 * n ^ ecur * c yj tnat tne Y fhwiild not once imagine of the Tragedy that was 
to come. The night after was the appointed time for the horrible 
MafTacre of the Proteftants that were in Ptrii. The Duke ofgmfe 
went from Court, with order from the King to find PrefidentC/?<rro 
Trovoft des Mercians, the chief Head of the people of Paris, giving 
him direction to provide 2000. Armed men, who fhould wear every 
one afhirt-fleeve upon their left arm, and white Crofles in their hats, 
which upon notice given were prefendy to execute-the Kings commands. 
That, he fhould caufe to be in readinefs the Sheriffs ( E&hcuins they 
call them) of the feveral Wards, and that upon raging of the Bell of 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

the Palace- clock, lights (hould be put in every window through the 
Town : which things were all prefently performed : the Dukes of 
Montfenjier and Nevcrs^ with many other Lords of the Court took 
Arms, aU the Guards being in Arms at the Gate, and in the Court of the 
Louvre. At die prefixed hour the Dune of (?#*/*, the Duke of An- 
male^ and *J\lonfenr d' Angolefntc, Grand- Prior of France , the King's 
Baft ard- Brother, with other Commanders and Souldiers to the number 
of 300. going to the Admiral's houfe, forcibly entred the gate of the 
Court, kept by a few of the King of Navarre's Halberdiers, and the 
fervants of the houfe, which were all killed without mercy. 

The Lords flayed below in the Court, and one Befme^ a Lorainer, 
and Achilla Petmcci,*. Gentleman of Siena, one of thofe Strangers which 
he maintained, with Colonel SarlttboW) and the other Souldiers, went 
up to the Admiral's chamber. He hearing the noife, got up, and 
kneeling down, leaned againft his Bed, when feeing Cornafon^ one of 
his fervants come frighted in, he asked him what noife ic was - who 
anfwered, My Lord, God calls w to him^ and ran out haftily at ano- 
ther door. They prefently emring, Befwe ran him into the Breaft, 
and the reft whenthey had made an end of killing him with their Dag- 
gers, threw his body out of the window into the Court, and prefently 
it was dragged into a ftable. In the fame Palace were (lain Teligny, 
the Admiral's Son-in-Law, and Guerchy his Lieutenant, who wrap- 
ping his Cloak about him died fighting manfully, Colonel Montau- 
WAY and Raura Son to the Baron des Adrets,. with all the reft that had 
relation to him. 

Then the Colonel of the King's Guards called the Principal Httgo* 
nets that were in theLouvre one by one, who beingcomein the Court, 
were all killed by the Souldiers that ftood in two long Ranks with their 
Arms ready for that purpofe. There died the Count de U Rocb-fox-cant, 
the Marquefs de Rentl , Piles who had gallantly defended Saint Jean 
de Angeli, Pontbreton, Pttlvianlt, Bandine^ FrA'rito*rt Chanceltour 
to the King of Nwivrre^ f P^rdittan^ Lavardin, and others to the dum- 
ber Of 200. 

Then at the ringing the Bell of the Palace-Clock, they fell a killing 
the Hugonots throughout all the Lodgings and houfes where they were 
difperfcd, making an infinite (laughter of them without any diftinction . 
of Age, Sex, or Condition. 

The King of Navarre, and the Prince of Condt, were kept in the 
King's Chamber during the Ma(Tacre, and after are kept Priioner?. 
They are threatened, except they will renounce that Religion which they 
profeffed, they fhall furely die. 

The King of Navarre requeued the King to regard that new bond of 
friendship that was bound up between them, and not to urge him fo ftricl- 
ly to forfake thatRdigion wherein had been trained up from his youth. 


14 3tffi cccleiagfcal %tfto?p cent. \6. 

The Prince of Co W* added, that his life was in the King's hands, to 
difpofe of it as it pleafed him. But as for his Religion he had received 
the knowledge ot it from God, and he would not renounce it for any 
fear or danger of this prefenc life. 

Some of the Proteftants then lodged in the Fobtrs of S. German, as 
Count ^sttor.tgomery, and the Vidarae of Chartres, for intercepting of 
whom the King had given command to the Dean of (?;'/</ of Pans, to 
have in readinefs 1000. Armed Souldiers. But thefe Souldiers were 
not in readinefs ^ fo they efcaped. The Duke ofGuife, the Count of 
Angoltfme t and others, purfued them to tfMontfort, which is eight 
leagues diftant from Parti, but could not overtake them, and fo returned 
back again to Parts. Befides the Nobility, more than ten thoufand per- 
fons were (lain, whofe bodies were laid on heaps upon carts, and caft inta 
the River Seine, which was coloured red with the blood of the flain. 

Peter Ramttf was (lain at this time : he was the King's Profeflbur of 
Eloquence and Philofophy at Paris, in the 36. year of his age. In the 
21. year of his age he publithed a Logick with animadverfions upon 
Anflotle. Being munhered, his body was reproachfully dragged up and 
down the ftreets, and many of his works unperfeded there pcrifhed. 
Jacobus Pafcharius hath thefe Verfes of him. 

fertilior quavis cum ft facer arbor e Ram us -, 
Arbons hie digntu nomine Ramw ertf. 

DionyfiM Lambing, a very learned man, was alfo flain in this Maf- 

John Mercer^ a learned Proteftant, a man well skilled in the Hebrew 
tongue, and Hebrew writers, fucceeded Vatabltts in the Profeilion of 
the Hebrew tongue at Parti. He efcaped at the cruel Maffacre at P<*- 
r#, being thrown into the River, and after put fonh his learned Com- 
mentary on Gencfts. 

Peter *JUtrUn^ a godly and learned French Divine, who. was Be- 
z.0's Scholar, was miraculoufly preferved in that Maffacre. 

In many other Towns there was a general (laughter of Proreftams. 
So that within the fpace of a month more than thirty thoufand were 
reckoned to be flain. To all this Tragedy was added the defection of 
RozAritu, a Preacher at Orleans, by whole Apoftafic , example, and 
perfwafions theKingof Afoz/*rre and the Prince of Co nde were induced 
to renounce the Proteftant Profeffion for a time. Yet afterwards this 
fame &ozj*riiu, being gravely admonifhed of the vilenefs of his Apo- 
ftafie, departed out of France into Germany^ and writ Letters to the 
Prince of Conde, wherein he acknowledged his errour, begged mercy 
of God, for that he had been a fnare and ftumbling block unto him. I 
read in the life of the learned Dr. Peter dn*Moulin the elder, that 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

his Father Joachim dn- Moulin, was called to be Minifter at CcenHret 
near Soiffons, Anno 1570. The Proteftour of that Church was Man- see the Life of 
four Eftree, called fince Marquts deCxm'.res, who then profefTed ^^ tY w ^it 
the Proteftant Religion. But when he heard of jh: great Maflacreof byhhScq." 
Paris, tsfuguft 24.. 1572. and that the like was to be fpeedily exe- 
cuted over all france,\\e prefently forfook the Prctefcant Profeilion, and 
to approve himfelf a true Convert, expelled the faid joachim dtt-M. ;.// 
out of Ccenurcs. 

Then was the good man in great extremity, and in this general MafTa- 
cre the murtherers were feeking for him. And how to difpofe of his 
Wife and four little Children he knew not. At laft this he did, he left 
his Children with a Woman of contrary Religion half a mile from Cce- 
ftures. Himfelf with his Wife fled to tftfuret, a Town belonging to 
the Prince of Conde, and fo to Sedan, with the Duke of Bouillon of the 
houfe ofde U March, who pa/Ted that way flying from the Court. 
The Murtherers that were fent to kill Joachim and his Family ( for 
they fpared neither Age nor Sex) found the Womans houfe where the 
Children were left. Ruffina, the Woman to whom the Children 
were committed , hid the Children in the ftraw of a Bed, the ordinary 
bottom of beds of the lower fort in France, and laid a feather-bed 
and a blanket over them. Scarce had (he laid the blanket, when 
the Murtherers came into the room, and fearched it, but lookt not in 
the Bed, Peter then under four years of age, not liking to be thus laid 
up would cry ; but his Sifter Efther then (even years old, who had 
been made apprehenfive of their danger, ftopt his mouth with her hand, 
whereby flie made him ftruggle, and to make fome noife ^ which to 
drown with another, Ruffina pretending to reach fomething upon a 
fhelf made the Pewter fall, and then took it up again with much ruft- 
ling till the Murtherers were gone. As foon as they were out of doors, 
fhe ran to help the Child, whom fhe found well-nigh fmothered with 
the flopping of his wind : but he foon recovered , and the Children 
were kept fate in her houfe till their Parents fent for them. Thus God 
doth many times preferve the infancy of his fervants from the rage of 
Satan and the world. 

The day before that terrible execution, the King difparchedPofts in- 
to divers parts of the Kingdom, commanding the Governours of Ci- 
ties and Provinces to do the like : but this Commiflion was perform- 
ed with more or lefs feverity according to their feveral inclinations : 
for the fame night at Meanx, and thedaiesenfuingat Orleans, Roven, 
Bfurges, Anglers, Tholoufe, and many other places, but above all at 
Lions, there was a moft bloody (laughter of the Httgonots. On the 
other fide, in thofe places where the Governours were either Depen- 
dants on the Princes, or followers of the family of Mommorancy, the 
Order was but flowly and remifly executed. And in Provence the 
D d d Count 

cent. i<>. 

Count rfTcnde refufed openly 10 obey it, for which caufe being a while 
after at the City of Avignon^ he was fecretly made away, and( as it 
was believed )bytheKing'sCommiffion. 

The third day after the death of the Admiral, the} King accompa- 
nied by all the Princes and Lords olhis Court, went unto the Parliament, 
where he pretended, that he hadmiraculouily difcovered the confpiracy 
of the Admiral and his Complices to take away his life, and not his 
alone, but the lives of the Queen-Mother, and the Dukes ofy&yoHand 
jflan^on his Brothers, and even the King of Navarre's 3.\fo, who be- 
caufe he was alienated from their party, was efteemed no lefs their ene- 
my than all the reft. He gave order it fhould be recorded among the. 
ordinary Ads of that Court, that whatfoever had befallen the Admiral 
and the reft of his faftion, either in Paris or any other part of [he 
Kingdom , was done by his will, order, and exprefs Coramif- 

Then he commanded them to proceed to the examination of Prifoners, 
to defame the memory of the dead by laying open their Rebellions, 
and by inflifting fuch punifhments upon them as the ftridtnefs of the 
Law required. And laftly, he caufed to be publiflied, not only in the 
Parliament, but likewife in all the Streets of Paris, that they ft ould 
defift from further effudon of blood. The Parliament condemned Bri- 
quemald^ CVr/^we/,twoProteftant Noble-men. They laboured by 
corturing them to extort from them a confefiion of the fore-alledged 
Confpiracy. But the Noble-men died conftant in the true Faith, with- 
out any confeflion of fuch Treafon as was alledged. They were pub- 
lickly torn with Pincers, and their bodies quartered. Notwithftanding 
they were not afhamed in their names after their death to publi/h a 
confeffion of horrible Treafon, which they never confeifed whilft they 
were yet alive. 

^ e ^ n commanded alfo a Statue of the Admiral's to be broken 
t was in pieces, and burned, declaring him a Rebel, adifturber of theKiug- 
of Fnr.ce, i it. 5. dom, an Heretick, and an enemy to all good men. The Magistrates 
alfo fenrenced the Hope I de Ckaftitton to be razedtothc very ground, 
and all his Pofterity to be deprived of Nobility, and made incapable of 
bearing any Office or poffefling any goods in the Kingdom of France. 
The King therefore difpatched his Grand-Provoft, with all diligence to 
fcife upon his Wife and Children. But his eldeft Son, with the Widow- 
Lady his Mot her *in- Law, the Wife of Tetigni^ and Monfle ur de la val, 
the Son of Aadelot deceafed, were already fled fecretly to Geneva: 
and the better to avoid their danger, went to live among the 5n?///f -f in 
the Canton of Beam. The younger Children were condemned to death 
in their tender years, coming to {hat end, which in the variety of world- 
ly affairs accompanies the ruine of great Families. 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

At the fame time this execuiion was done in Parii y laCharite, which 
was ftill held by the Pro;eftams, was furprized by the Gens d' Arms of 
the Duke of Never*. 

The Town of Rochel was the Town of greateft importance of afl the 
reft of the Towns, that were yet in the hands of the Proteftanes. The 
King with a mighty Army beheged it by Sea and Land, which fiege be- 
gan in the Month of December, and endured until the Month vijuly 
next following. The marvellous providence of God was feen in this "*' 
fiege, for God fent a number of Fi', caUed Surdonnc^ to the fupport 
of the poor, during the time of the fiege j and at the end of the fiege the 
Fifties were found no more in that coaft. 

Sanferre^ a Proteftant Town, after eight Months fiege was forced 
to lurrender toCaftriw, the King's Lieutenant in thofe parts. 

Upon the ninth day of M<*y 1572. Henry Duke of An\on^ was with 

a general confent chofen Ttingof Poland. Wherefore, he having long 

befieged Rochel, and feeking to come off from that fiege with fuch mode- 

ration, that his reputation might be fafe, and the minds ofhisnewfub- 

jefts not unfatisfied, from whom he endeavoured to remove all fufpici- 

on of his taking away their liberty of Confcience, he proceeded not 

fo violently agairift the Proteftams , who now being quite tyred out, 

defired peace. This was favoured by the Duke, and the City was 

yielded upon chefe conditions : That the King (hould declare the Inha- 

bitants of Rochel, Ntfmes, and Montnuban^ to be his faithful Subjects, 

pardoning all faults what foe ver had been committed by them during the 

Civil War. That in thofe three Cities he fhould allow the free and 

publick exercife of the Reformed Religion, they meeting together in 

fmall numbers, and without Arms, the Officers appointed for that pur- 

pofe being there among them. That in all other outward matters 

(except Baptifm and Matrimony ) they Iftould obferve the Rices and Ho- 

ly-daies obferved and commanded by the Church viRome. That the King 

fhould confirm all the liberties and priviledges of thofe three Towns, not 

permitting them to be in any pan diminiftied^ltered.or violated.That the 

Rochellers (hould receive a Governour of the King's appointment ( but 

without a Garrifon ) who might freely ftay there, inhabit, go, and 

return into the City at his pleafure-. That they fhould be governed by 

the Laws and Cuftoms with which they had been governed under the 

Kings of frame ever fince they were Subjects to that Crown. That 

they fliould not lend any aid to chofe which fhould continue up in Arms, 

though of the fame Religion. That the ufc and exercife of the Ca- 

tholique Religion fhould be reftored in thofe Cities whence it had been 

taken , leaving freely unto the Church-men, not only the Churches, 

Monafteries and Hospitals, but likewifc all the Profits and Revenues be- 

longing to them. That all Lords of free Manours through the King- 

dom might in their ownhoufes lawfully celebrate Baptifm andMatri- 

Ddd 2 mony 

a8 %ty CCCleCafttCal %lttO# Cent. 16. 

mony after the manner of the Proteftants, provided the Aflembly ex- 
ceeded not the number often perfons. That there fhould be no Inqui- 
fiiion upon mens conferences, and that thofe who would not dwell in 
the Kingdom might fell their Eftates and go live where they pleafed, 
provided it were not in places that were enemies to the Crown : 
And that for the observing thefe Articles, thefaid three Cities fhould 
give Hoftages, which fhould be changed every three Months, and 
alwayes fhould follow the Court. When thefe conditions were efta- 
blifhed, and the Hoftages given, which by the Duke were prefemly 
fent to the Court, tJWonfeur dc Byron, the Governour appointed by 
the King, entred Rochclwith one of thepublick Heraulds, tookpoflef- 
fion of the Government,and k caufed the Peace to be Proclaimed. Alter 
which the Duke of An']on \ now King of Poland} having difmifTed the 
Army, went with a Noble Train of Princes, Lords and Gentlemen, 
unto the City of Parts, where afluming the title of his new Kingdom, 
and having received the Polifli AmbaiTadours, he prepared tor his 
journey to go and take pofleffion of the Crown, 

All the Proteftants dwelling in Languedoc, Dolphins and Provence, 
were offered thofe conditions which the Rochetlerrnad embraced. But 
they craved liberty firft to aflemble themfelves together before they 
fliould give their anfwer. Which being granted, and the AfTembly 
convened at Miliald, they craved thefe Conditions, viz.* That in every 
Province of France two Towns might be granted unto the Proteftants for 
their further fecurity, and thofe Towns to be kept by the Guards of 
their own Souldiers, and have all their pay out of the King's Treafury : 
and that liberty fhould be granted to all that were of their Religion, to 
exercife the fame freely , without any exception of places. Alfo 
that all thofe that fhould be found guilty of the horrible Murthers com- 
mitted at Paris Auguftn. fhbuld be feverely punifhed. 

The Queen-Mother when fhe had read the Conditions which were re- 
quired, faid with great indignation, That if the Prince of fonde had 
been in the midft of France with twenty thoufand Horfe-men, and 
fifty thoufand Foot-men, yet would he not have required the half of 
thofe conditions. This great boldnefs of the Proteftants, put the Ene- 
mies in fufpicion that the Nobles of France were confederate with them. 
About the fame time Count Montgomery had returned out of En- 
gland and taken fome Towns in Normandy , but foon after he was befieged 
in Donfront, a Town of 'Normandy, where he is taken and fent to Paris, 
and condemned to death. This is that Noble man who had flain King 
Henry the fecond with a Spear, whom King Henry would not fuffer to 
be harmed for it. But when he came into the hands of this cruel woman 
he muft die. She caufed divers of the Nobility to be imprifoned, and 
fpared not her own Son the Duke of Alan f on. The Prince of Conde 
conveyed away himfelf fecrcjly into Germany. 

, In 

Cent. 1 6. Of FRANCE. 

In November following after the bloody Maflacre a new Star was " 
feen in the Conftellation ofCa/iopcia, which continued full fixteen 
Months, being carried abour with the daily motions of the Heaven. Theo- 
dore Be z*a wittily applyed it to that Star which (hone at the Birth of 
Chrift, and to the murthering of the Infants under Herod, and warn- 
ed Charles IX. King of France, who confefTed himfelf to be the 
Authour of that bloody Maflacre at Part* , to beware , in this 

Tu vero Her odes fanguinolcntc cave. Camld en >s Rift. 

AnA than bloody Herod, lookjbon, to thyfelf. of 3*. EIM. 

And he was not wholly deceived in his belief, for in the fifth Month 
after the vanishing of this Star, King Charles died of a bloody Flix. 
As he had caufed much Proteftant blood to be fried, fo in his ficknefs 
before his death,great ftore of blood iffued out by vomiting, and by other ^ 
paflagesofhis body in the two laft weeks of his ficknefs, and in his bed ^ 5?. 
he could have little reft, but horribly Blafphemed the name of God, 
which he had accuftomed himfelf unto even from his Child-hood. Such 
was his unquietnefs and affrightments in the night, that he endeavoured to 
appeafeitby Mufick. 

.Andrew Melvin hath thefe Verfes to Charles IX. dying withanunufu- 
al Flux of blood. 

Naribttt, ore t oculis y atque auribus uydique & ano, 

Et fene erumpit qui tibi, Carle^ cruor : 
N&n tutu ifle cruor y S*wttorum at cade cruorem 

Quern ferw haitfifti, concoqttere kaud poteraf. 

In thofe Verfes are comprifed both the caufe and manner of his - 
death. He died May 30. 1574. before he was full five and twenty years 

As foon as Henry King of Toland heard of his Brother's death, 
he returned privily and fpeedily , and was Crowned King of 

Michael H/}>:talittt, Chancellour of France under Charles IX. was T,:H*.TM 
removed from the Court, and made a Prifoner as it were, only becaufc '*4* 
he oppofed thofe wicked Counfels againft the Proteftants in the Maflacre 
at Parit. Beza mentions him in his Icones illuftrittm. virorum. And 
Cretins ftilcs him , Vnicnm <evi noftn dectu y the only ornament of oor .ad- 
Age. Thereare thefe of his Works publifhed. Six Books of Epiftles Poem - 
in Latine Verfe. De Caltto expvgnato. Epiftola & carmen cum 
*liit. In the Preface to his Epiftleone faith, it appeared by a moft 
Ancient Coyn, thai he much refsmbled Ariflotlc. Summnm iltitm om- 


eccieftafttcai ^fto? Cent. \6. 

ninm Philofophornm prtnciptm Afiftotelemfa ore toto retulit, ut altertttt 
tx alt era Imago exprejfa videri poflet* 

At this time flounfhcd A/tichnel Afontanut, or sjlftchaei de Aton- 
ta*>7e, Knight of the Noble Order of St. Mtchacl,and one of the Gentle- 
men in Ordinary to the French King [ Henry III. his Chamber. His 
elegant Books of Mifcellanies written in French, are by him modeftly 
ftyled Effayes, or 'tJtforal, Polttic'^znd Mtlitary Dtfcourfes. He 
huh thereby gotten a* great opinion of his Learning and Wif- 
dom, and Rome hath chofen and adopted him for one of her Ci- 

Charles, Cardinal ofL0r*/'/7,dieth December 23. 1574. of a Frenzy 
in the midft of a cruel tempdl, and violent whirl-wind which unco- 
vered the houfes, and loofened the bars of Iron in the Carthufans Covenc 
in the Suburbs of Avignon. 

According to the advice of the Qneen-Mother, the King afTaults the 
Proteftant Towns in Provence, Laugnedoc and 'Dolphins'* Lufgnan 
was befieged, and yielded upon Compofition. Pc//is~befieged, and 
taken : but the Town of Lihtro in Dolfhine.jhau$\ befieged, was not ta- 
ken. In Languedoc^ D'anville, although he was of the Roman Religi- 
on, yet hadjoyned himfelftothe Proteftants, and took AquessJMortes^ 
a Town of great importance in thofe Parts, with many other Towns. 
In Dolphive Mombriin was chief Commander, and had great fuccefs in 
his attempts. But in the end being fore wounded he was taken befide 
Tia a Town in 'Dolphtne, and by the Commandment of the King and 
Queen- Mother was carried to Cjrcnoble, and there was executed in the 
fight of the people. 

The Prince of Conde had required help of Cufmrt the Son of 
Count Palatine^ who had alfo condefcended to fuccour the Proteftants. 
The Conditions they agreed on were thefe. That they ftiquld not 
lay down their Arms until that liberty were obtained to the Prote- 
ftants fully to enjoy their own Religion. And likewife that Cafimirc 
fliould have the Towns of ejtf efts, Tuition, and Verdum\n his hand?, 
befides other Towns in all the Provinces of France^ which the Prote- 
ftants were to require for their further affurance, and as pledges of the 
King's fidelity and faichfulnefs to them. 

The Army of the Germans and French entered into France under the 
Prince of (bade and Cafmire, and came forward to Charoffiam, a Town 
in Bourbon, not far from Molins, where AUncon the King's Brother 
joyned with them : and the whole Army conjoyned, was found to be 
of horfe-men and foot-men thirty thoufar.d. The King of Uavarre 
at the fime time departeth from Court, and returneth into his own 
Country. The Army draws near to Paris, but at length was concluded 
upon certain Conditions. That Caftmire fhould receive from the King 
a great fumm of money inftead of thofe Towns which (hould have been 


Cent 1(5. Of FRANCE. 

put in his hands : and that liberty fhould be granted to the Prore- 
ftants to exercife their own Religion openly and freely without excepti- 
on of places ; the Court and the City of Paris with a few leagues about 
only excepted. They were alfo declared to be capable of places in Par- 
liament, *nd Courts of Juftice: and all Judgements which were made 
againft them for any enrerprize whatfoever, were declared void , the 
cruel day of St. Bartholomew difavowed , and for better afiurance 2nd 
performance of thefe conditions, they had eight Towns delivered unto 
them, with the Conditions of their Governments. Aques Mortes, 
Benecairc, Perigneux, Le mat de Verdun, Ni*ns, Tiffure, L* grand 
tour. The Edid of Pacification was Proclaimed May 10. 1576. 
and an end was put to the fifth Civil War in France for Re- 

By the Bull of Pope Gregory XIII. fent into France Anno 1575. 
we may fee all the Judges Royal both fuperiour and inferiour utterly 
defpoiled of the Cognifance of criminal Caufes. The Sixteenth Arti- 
cle is this, We Excommunicate and anathematize all and every one the 
Mwiftrates, Counfellours, Prefidents, Auditors, and other Judges, by 

i r > I it i I f->i r i " . . 

what name foever they be called, the Chancellours, ^tce-Chancellours, pontif. in fine. 
Notaries, Regifters, and Executors, their fervants and others which f Jj^JjiJJfc mo 
have any thing to do, in what fort or manner foever, with Capital orCri- ruum proprio- 
minal Caufes againft JLcclefiafticaL ferfons, in baniflring or arrcfting rum * p * 5l6 ' 
them, faffing or pronouncing fentence againft them, and flitting them 
in Execution, even Mfider pretence of any yriviledges granted hy the See 
z^4poftolic\t-> upon what caufes, and in what tenoar and form foever, to 
Kings, Dukt f > Princes, Rcfnbliqnes, Monarchies , Cities, and other 
Potentates, by what name and title foever they be called, which we will 
not have to be ufeful to them in any thing,repealing them all from hence- 
forth and declaring them to be nullities. 

The twelfth Article fpeaks on this fort. We Excommunicate all and 
every the Chancettours, Vice-Chancellours, Counfe Hours, Ordinary and 
Extraordinary, of all Kings and Prince s, the Trefidents of Chanceries, 
Councils, and Parliaments, at alfo the A'torneys General of them and 
fthtr Secular Princes, though they be in Dignity Imperial, Royal, 'Du- 
cal, or any other, by what name foever it be catted -, and other 'Judges, 
At well Ordinary, at by Delegation as alfo the Arclabtjliofs, Bijhops, 
^.ybots, ComrKendxtories, fccars, and Officers, who by thtmjehes e/r 
by any other , under pretence of Exemptions , Letters of Grgce, or other 
JApoftolical Letters do fummon before them our Auditors , Commif- 
farics and other Ecclefiaftical Judges, with the caufes Concerning Bf- 
nefices. Tithes, and ether jpir it uxl matters, or fuch at are Annexed to them 
and hinder the conrfe of them by any Lay-authority, andinterfofe them- 
felves 19 take Cognifance of them in the quality of 'judges, 


'ji %ty ccrtefiaftteai $tfto?p cent. 16. 

This is not all, for in the following Article he goes yet further, 
ftriking an heavy blow at ihe Ordinances of the French Kings. Thofc 
alfo Vfhich under pretence of their Office, or at the Inftance of any mart 
whatfoevir, draw before them to their ^Bench, Audience Chancery, Court- 
cil, or Parliament , Ecclefiaftical perfons , Chapters, Covents, and 
Colleges of all Churches ) or caufs them to be brought in qtteftto* before 
them, or procure them direttly or indirectly , under what colour foever, 
beyond the anointment of the Canon Lave : Thofe alfo which ordain and 
fet forth Statutes , Ordinances, Conflitutions, Pragmatiejues, or other 
Decrees whatfoever , in general or in fpecial , for any caufc or 
colour whatfoever y even under pretence of jfpoftolical Letters, not 
now in practice, or repealed - 9 or of any Cuftom or Priviledge, or any 
other manner wbatfoever : or that make ufe of them when they are 
made and ordained, when by them the Ecclefiaftical liberty is abolifhed y 
impaired, depreffed, or retrained in any manner whatfoever, or who do 
any prejudice to our Laws, and thofe of our Sec dircttly or indirectly, 
implicitely or explicit ely. 

See yet another which follows after this. Thofe likewije who do any 
ways hinder the jtrchbifoops, Bifhops, and other Prelates fuperiour 
and inferiour^ and aU other ordinary Ecclefiaftical Judges , in 
the exercife of thetr Ecclefiaftical jurifdiftion again ft any per/on , 
according as the Canons^ the facred Constitutions of the Church, 
the Decretals of General Councils, and principally that of Trent do or- 
dain. There is further in the fame Bull fome Excommunications 
againft thofe which appeal from the Pope's Sentence to General Coun- 
cils : Againft thofe that hinder Clergy or Lay-men from going to plead 
at Rome, which is a remarkable thing. Againft Kings and Princes 
which make the fruits of Ecclefiaftical Livings to be fequeftred upon 
any occafion whatfoever , which concerns the right of the Crown. 
Againft thofe which impofe any Tenths, Subfidies, or other Taxes. All 
this' was levelPd againft tfie rights of the King, and the liberties of the 
Gtllican Church. 

Rebuff, in praxi A Bull had been granted by Pope Alexander VL in the year 1500. union, for theunion of the Parifh-Church of Dow ay, with the Chapter of the 
bcnef. num. aS- Cathedral- Church of the fame place. But the Parliament of Paris 
upon the appeal , as from abufe, exhibited from the Curate oiDoway y 
a. toftopthe Execution of it, difannulled the union by an Arreft of the 
rlrft of May 1575. becaufe there wanted a Writ for Commiffion In 
Partibw. Divers other unions befides have been declared -to be abu- 
five, becaufe they were made without the cenfent of the Lay-Patrons -, 
and the Bulls have been annulled, as well by the Parliaments, as by the 
Grand Council. 

TtingCharles IX. in his demands of the Couicil of Trent, required 
a reformation oftheabufes of Fraternities. That Council found no- 

Cent. 1 6. Of FRANCE. 

thing to be corrected in them, but tacitely confirmed them, by ordain- 
ing, That the Adminiftrators of them (hall give account of their Admt- 
niftration every year unto the Ordinary. We read , that Leagues 
and Monopolies, and Confpiracies againft the State > have been hat- 
ched in fuch Fraternities as thefe, and that diforders and other unlaw- 
ful things have been committed among them. They have been prohi- 
bited in all well policied Kingdoms and Common-wealths and par- 
ticularly in France: where we muft obferve, That as they have been 
Inftruments of trouble anddiflblutenefs , fo they have been judged hurt- 
ful to peace and concord. And for thatreafon they are condemned by 
the Edicts and Declarations of the French Kings, as the Mothers, or 
(at lead ) the Companions of Confpiracies. For they are fo joyn- 
ed together by the fame Ordinances t as in that of King Henry III. 
of September 1577. And all Leagues^ Affociations y and Fraternities, 
made or to be. tnade^ under any pretence whatfoever, to the prejudice 
of this our Editt^ [hall be utterly void and of no effect. And in that of 
the fame Prince given the 20. of December in the fame year. We ex- 
prefly forbid all our faid Subjects, of what quality foever they be, to 
begin, make, or profecure any League, Aflbciation, or Fraternity 
among themfelves , to the prejudice of our faid Edict of Paci- 

The forty fourth Article of the Conference of Flex faith in exprefs 
terms. All -the fore faid ( -m.. Provofts, Majors, Confuls, Sheriffs of 
Towns, &c. mentioned in the former Article ) and other Subjects 
whatsoever of this Realm, of what 'Condition foever, fliall depart from, 
and renounce all Leagues, AiTociations, 'Fraternities and Intelligences, as 
well within the Reahn as withour. 

Duke Cafmire had RO fooner turned his back from France^ but they 
began to find the Peace tobe counterfeit, being made only todifarm 
them, and to divide the Commanders. The Prince ofConde firft felt 
the breach of thefe Promifes. They deny him his Government of 
f Picardy. Peronne is feized upon. Divers enterprizes upon the Princes 
perfon, make him to leave the Duke of Alan^on^ and to retire into Gui- 
ennew the King of Navarre, ( who had before declared himfelf for 
the Proteftants, ) and whom thofe of Rachel received into their Town 
with much honour on June 28. All fudfof his Train as they fufpeded 
were excluded. 

Upon denial of Peronntfhe King granted to the Prince the Town ofS. 
Jean An^eli: but the Inhabitants had a Warchword,and a mutual Oath 
(after the manner of a private League, made by fixty Gentlemen of 
Poitou , who would have no exercife of any Religion but the. Catholick ) 
to maintain one another, and not to give' accefs to any one of what Re- 
ligion foever, to the end their quiet might not any way be di fturbed. 
The Prince-finding this repulfe, caufed fome Captains to enter fecretly, 
Eee and 

lO)e cccleflaflftal tifto?g Cent. 

and fo aflured himfelf of the place. But finding this place too weak for 
the aflurance of his Perfon, in the end of October he takes Brovage, 
a ftrong plaxre near unto Rochel. 

The Proreftants complain unto the King, that in divers places they 
are difturbed in the exercife of their Religion, granted by the EdiL 
That many Preachers move the people to Sedition. That the Cham- 
bers of both Religions are not ercded , and that juftice is denied 
them. That both great and fmall bandy againft them. And they pro- 
duce ample proofs of thefe complaints* 

Now thofe of the houfe of Gttife ftudied to difcover thofe terrible 
Projects which they had long hatched. Their chief defigns were to 
overthrow the fucceilion brought in by Hugh Capet in the full aflem- 
bly of the States, and to caufe the naming of a Succeflbur to be fubjed 
unto the (aid Eftates v to caufe the Princes of the blood that fhould op- 
pofe againft the Decrees of the Eftates, to be declared incapable to 
fucceed unto the Crown. And the refidue, of what qualities foever, 
Noble-men, Gentlemen, and others, to be degraded of their Digni- 
ties v the money growing of their Confifcations to be employed for the 
War, and their Bodies to be executed. To make the Eftates proteft to- 
live and die in the Faith fetdown by the late Council of Trent, to caufe 
it to be figned in the open Parliament. To revoke and difannul all pub- 
lick Edids, in favour of the Proteftants and their Aflbciates, and to 
purfue them to the death that fhould hinder the extirpation of Here- 
fies. To caufe the King to revoke the Promifes made unto the Prote- 
iavit./Jwrj'iii. ftants $ and to prefcribe a certain time unto their Aflbciates, in the 
which they fhould prefent themfelves before the Ecclefiaftical Judges 
to be abfofved , and then to be fent unto the King , to purchafe pardon 
of the Crimes committed againft his Majefty. To caufe the King to 
make the Duke ofGuife his Lieutenant General, a Perfon fit to encoun- 
ter the Rebellion of Princes, that fhould feek to hinder the effect of 
the precedent Articles. To caufe Judges to be appointed to examine 
the crime committed by the Duke of>4/.i } -o, declaring himfelf Chief 
of the Hereticks. To caufe the faid Duke to come to Court, wuh the 
King of Navarre, and the Prince of Conde, and to feize upon the faid 
Duke, King, and Prince, and all their Accomplices. That the Cap- 
tains that fhould be under the Duke of Guife, fhould put all Proreftants 
and adherents to the Sword, both in the Country and in Walled Towns, 
To fubdue the revolted Princes, To be Mafters of the Field : To block 
up the Towns that were oppofite , and to put all to fire and fword that 
(hould make head againft them. Then to take exemplary punifhment 
of the Duke of AUn t on ( now henceforth to be called the Duke ofjtojo/ty) 
and his Complices. Then by the Pope's confent to put the King and 
Queen into a Monaftery, as King Pipin in former time had done Cbilde- 
r/cvand in favour of thzRoman See to abolifh the liberties and priviledges 
ouhe,Fr*w&Church, Thefe 

Cent. id. Of FRANCE. 35 

Thefe high projects were hearkened unto, received and favoured in 
the Court of Rome , The Articles of this Affociation were firft drawn 
ztPeronnein Picardy, but difguifed with goodly (hews to blind them 
that would examine them more exactly : which were , To maintain 
the Law of God y to reftore the holy fervice thereof. To preferve the 
King and* his Succeflours in the Eftate, Dignity , Service, and Obedi- 
ence due unto him by his Subjects. To rejlore unto theEftatesofthe 
Realm their Rights, Preheminencies and Ancient Liberties. And for 
rhe execution ofthefe Articles, a certain form of Oath was propound- 
ed, inflicting pains of eternal damnation to the AfTociates, that for any 
pretext whatfoever fhould withdraw themfelves from this League ; 
and a Bond for fuch fliould be enrolled, to employ therr goods, perfon?, 
and lives, to punifh, and by all means to ruine the enemies and pertur- 
bers thereof, and to punifhthem that fliould fail, or make any delays by 
the Authority of the Head, as he fhould think good. 

This being done, many Pofts went to and fro carrying the news of 
fhefe defigns. They caft many Libels through the Streets in many 
great Towns. They murmure that the Proteftants are too much fup- 
ported by the Edict. And under this plaufibie name of the Church, 
the people give ear to fuch as are ready to thruft them into Mutiny. 
The King was daily advenifed ofthefe things. But on the other fide 
he hated the Proteftants, and fought to ruine them by degrees, but not 
by any Inftruments without his. Authority. His Mother likewife hated 
them to the death. She caufeth the Duke her Son to come to the 
Court, and the King to be reconciled to him. 

The King calls an Aflembly of the States at Bloyes, where Peter d" 
jEy/uV/^cArch-Bifhop of Lions, and the Baron of Seuecey are Speakers, 
the one for the Clergy, the other for the Nobility : and both con- 
clude a publick Exercife of one only Religion in France. Peter Verforif^ 
Advocate in the Court of Parliament in Paris, Oratour for the third 
Eftate, infills on the Union of all the Kings Subjects in one Religion, 
but by mild means and without War. The King feemed to enclineonly 
to alter fome Articles in the laft Edicts of Pacification, and not to 
abolifh it quite. 

But at length the King confenteth to root out all other Religion but the 
Popiilv to banifh allMinifters, Deacons, and Overfeers of the Reform- 
ed Religion, and yet to take all his other Subjects of the faid Religi- 
on into his protection, attending that by better inftructions they might 
be brought into the bofome of the Church. But the King of Navarre, 
the Prince of Conde? the Marflial of tJWontmorency, d y Anville, and 
other Noble-men, both of the one and the other Religion, refufing 
to affift at this prefent Parliament, conclude a nullity of all that was 
Decreed to prejudice the Edict ot Pacification, .protefttng to maintain 
thtmfelves in the Rights, liberties and Freedoms which the laft Edict 

Eees had 

ccclefiaftical %tftD?? cent. 

had granted them. The King of Navarre befeecheth the Eftates by 
the Duke of Montpenfier (" who was fent unto him) not to infringe the 
Edid of Peace^ but to fuffer theProteftants to enjoy that which had been 
fo formerly granted. He defireth time to attend the opinion of an 
AfTembly ofthofe of his Religion, and of the Catholick-Affociates which 
was to be fhortly made at Montaubon. 

The Prince of fonde anfwers more fharply, That he doth not ac- 
knowledge the Aflembly at Bloys for the Eftates of the Realm, but a 
Conventicle ofperfons corrupted by the fworn enemies of the Crown, 
who have follicited the abolition of the Edict to the fubverfion of the 
Realm. That he hath alwaies honoured the Clergy and Nobility, but 
he pities the people, whom this Aflembly at Bloys fought to 

The chief of the Politicks declare, that they adhere not to any other 
Religion than that of their Fathers, but- they are againft the taking fiora 
the Proteftants the publick Exercife which had been fo folemnly allow- 
ed them. The Duke of tJlfontpenfier ( being returned) perfwaded 
to have the Edid confirmed. John Bedin , a man famous for Learn- 
ing and experience in State- affairs, one of the Deputies of the Com- 
mons of Verniandois, fheweth to the Aflembly how ruinous and fa- 
tal the new taking up of Arms would be, repeating from the beginning 
all the dangers and miferies of the late Wars, which made a deep im- 
prefllon on the minds of the third Eftate. But the other Orders being 
byaflfcd and pre-ingaged, it was determined by plurality of voices, thar 
requeft fhould be made unto the King, to eftablifh only the RomijJi 
Religion in the Kingdom, and to exclude for ever all Communion with 
the Hugonots. Neverthelefs Bodin procured certain words to be en- 
tred in the Records of the Order of Commons, to certifie their defire 
of unity in Religion without the noife of Arms, and the neceffity 
of War. 

This jW*was a man eminent as well among Proteftants as Papifts, 
though himfelf profeflfed the Romijb Religion. His Learning and skill 
in Politicks, appears ia his great Book de Republican TloHanus high- 
ly commendeth his writings. To/evinc diflikes his Mctkodiu Hiftori- 
ca, becaufe he makes fuch honourable mention of the Proteftants there. 
Some commend his Theatrum Nature, for a choice piece, a Book 
full of natural curiofities. 

The King gives notice to his Governours, and publifheth by his Let- 
ters Patents, that he is refolved to grant the ftates their requefts 
touching the Exercife of one only Religion. And thus the fixth Civil 
War begins in Cjiiienne. 

During the Parliament the Deputies of the Lew Countries demand 
fuccours of the King, and the Duke of Anjou for Proteftour of their 
Liberties againft the infolencies of the Spaniards. An}on is now decla- 


Cent. 1 6. jrfFRANCE. 

red the King's Lieutenant General. They deliver him a mighty Ar 
my, with which ( contrary to the Oath taken by him in the obfervati- 
on of the accord, and promife pafTd with the Prince of Qmde and Duke 
fafimire ) he befiegeth and taketh La-Charite by Compofuion , and 
Tfoire in Avcrgnc by force, where the blood of the Inhabitants filed 
without pity bythe Duke of Anjou y confirmed the Proteftants in the bad 
opinion they had conceived of him . 

The Duke of Alaye nne fends forth a Navy to Sea under the Com- 
mand of Lanfac, which coming before the Ifle oiRe, retired, feeing 
the Iflanders refolved to fight if they approached. The Rochcllers Arm 
feven Ships, thofeof the lllands five, entreating aid from Holland and 
Zetland, to withftand the force of the Fleet. The Nobility invite all 
others to charge themfelves willingly for the maintenance of this 
Army, sjftfayenne aflaulteth Brovage , a little fquare Town built in 
a Marfh, recovered out of the Sea, fortified during the third Peace: 
and after the RocheUcrs had cut off fix hundred of his men, the Town: 
for want of Victuals entred into Capitulation, and departed A-.tgxft 
28. 1 577-with their Arms and Baggage, leaving the place at the Duke's 
devotion. But a Peace was concluded at Peittters, and was in the end 
of September Proclaimed with great joy of either party. This laft Edt<ft 
cut off fome Articles of ihe former, madena mention of Strangers, left 
their confciences free, yet without exercife of Religion, but in Towns 
and places where then it was publickly ufed : in the houfes of Gen- 
tlemen Feudataries or f as they call themj de Haute juflice, free ad- 
miffion was given to every body : but in the houfes of private Gentle- 
men, not above the number of feven was allowed, and in a prefixed 
place in every jurifdiftion and Baily-wick, except in Paris and ten 
Leagues about it, and two Leagues compafs from the Court, wherefo- 
ever itfhouldbe. 

But the Marfhal D'anvillt (who every day withdrew himfelf fur- 
ther from the Proteftants ) ceafed not to profecute thofe by whom he 
pretended to be injuriedin Langnedoi ;, under colour of reducing the 
places of his Government under his own Command. Nor did the Sieur 
des Diguieres in Dolphinc dare to truft the Peace, nor hazard hira- 
felf upon the King's word , remembring what had befallen Mon- 
lrnn, inwhofe company he had made War, and therefore ftill conti- 
nued Armed for his fecurity. And the Papifts when they -faw the Pro- 
teftants meet at their Sermons, could not fuffer them without mur- 
rcurings and detractions , which occafioned many contentions, and 
fometimes dangerous bloody accidents , whereby a great part of 
France (though the Peace was made) continued ftill in broyls and 
infurreftions. _ 

About that time the King created two Marefchals , men valiant in 
War, and very prudent in Government, viz. Arwwd Sieur de Byron^ 

and : 

c fte <cc!efta{hcai %ifto# Cent. 1 6 

and Jttques Sleur de Afatignon , men free from the Jnterefts of the 
Duke oiGmfe, depending wholly upon the King'swii). And Renato 
di Blrago, the High Chancellour, being made Cardinal, Philip Hu~ 
rauit, fcfcount dt Chivcrny is chofen in his place. 

In the year 1579. the King fhews himfelf in publick for a mirrour of 
Reformation and Piety ; he builds many Monafteries , Chappels, and 
Oratories, undertakes many Pilgrimages on foot, confirms the brother- 
hood of Penitents, creds the Order of Jeronomtes, is daily converfanc 
with the Capuchins and Fucillans, called Jefuites, and by their in- 
ftruftions erttfo many Congregations. He carrieth a Crucifix and 
Beads in Procelfion,' with a Whip at his Girdle. He caufeth many 
Books of Devotion to be Printed : And leads a Life more befitting a 
Cloyfter than a Court. He inftitutes the Order of The Knights of 
the Holy Ghofl, binding them to Conditions which carry a ftrid bond 
to the Church of Rome. 

The Duke of Anjm dies, and now the King of Navarre is by quality 
the firft Prince of the Blood, and firft Peer of France, and mod pare 
of France caft their eyes upon him as upon the Sun rifing. 

Thisamazeth the Duke of Gttife and his adherents, they affemble the 
Heads of their houfe at Sr. Dennis, and endeavour to renew the Caiho* 
lique League, which before was almoft laid afide : for feeing that the 
King ballanced the forces very carefully with thofe of the Hugonot 
Lords, and that he would not fupprefs that piny, which ( as they be- 
lieved ) he might eafily have done, and that under feveral pretences he 
devefted all the dependants of both Factions of their places and ho- 
nours, to beftow them upon fuch as fhould acknowledge them meerly 
from himfelf, they were the more highly incenfed. Nor could it fa- 
lisfie them to fee the King taken up with Religious thoughts, and 
addicted to a quiet unaftive life : for they knowing his nature, where^ 
with they had been converfant from his very Childhood, interpreted that 
courfe of life to fubtil deep difiimulation. 

Wherefore the Duke of Guife^ a man of a very quick infighr, difcern- 
ing judgement, and high thoughts, determined to prevent, and not flay 
to be prevented. In which refolution he was feconded by his Brother 
LOHM the Cardinal, a man of an high fpiritj and great wit, as alfo by 
Henry of Savoy Duke of Nemours, and Charles Marquefs of S.w-Sor- 
iin ( both Sons of Anna, d' Efle, and therefore his Brothers by the 
Mother ) Charles of Lorain Duke of Aumale^ and (lande his Brother, 
a Knight of Jcrufalem, Charles of Lorain Duke d' Elbevf, Emanxd 
Duke de Adercure, and his Brothers, Only Charles Duke of M*y- 
enne proceeded more flowly than the reft, who thinking how dange- 
rous it would be to hazard their fafety by rafh resolutions , advifed 
Uiem to proceed with more patience, and more refpeft toward the 
lawful pofifefibur of the Crown. But the-Duke of (jhifc refolute in 


Cent. 1 6. Of FRANCE ~ ' 39 

his thoughts, by the Authority of his Perfon, Vivacity of his courage,and 
Eloquence of his Language,drew all the reft to hisOpinion^ and excluding 
hi* Brothers advice fetled all his thoughts upon the machinations of the 
League, for the eftablifhment whereof, difTembling his difcontents no 
lefs than his jeoloufies and private interefts, he made (hew of ftirring 
only for the refpeds of Religion, and the general good, making an 
ill interpretation of all the King's actions, and with many arcs and cir- 
cumftances aggravating that danger which he pretended hung over the 
Catholick Religion in France. 

He grounded his fears upon the death ofohe Duke of AUn^on, and 
the Queens barrennefs, which in the fpace often years had had no Son, 
whereby the King dying without heirs of the houfe of Valoit, the 
Crown fell to the Princes ofByttrhon, and in the firft place to the King 
o?Nav*rre, whom he termed arelapfed Heretick, and an open enemy 
to the Roman Religion. He urged, that his coming to the Crown, 
would betheuniverfalruine of Religion, andfhe total Converfion of all 
France to theDoftrine and Rites of fitlvin, and therefore (hewed how 
all good Catholicks were obliged to look to it in time, and to prevent 7 ? r>; '{ Hift. 
the terrible blow of that imminent fubverfion. He (hewed, that when ^FmcZ 
fometimes he had been conftrained to make War againft the King of 
Navtrrc, he employed the AfitrefckMl de Byron, who ( though a Ca- 
tholick in outward appearance ) was yet by many former proofs known 
to be a favourer of the Hugonots , and interefled in their Factions, 
that therefore he had lately taken (jeneva into his Proredion, (hewing 
clearly to all the world how little heefteemed the Catholick Religion, 
and how much he was inclined to the enemies of the Bilhop and See of 
Rome. That therefore he had excluded all the Catholick Lords from 
any accefs to the Court, or adm ; niftrarion in the Government ; par- 
ticularly thofe who had fpilt fo much blood for the prefervacion of the 
Kingdom and Religion ; and had brought in a new people that were 
privy to his defigns, and friends to the Houfe of Bourbon. Th.t 
therefore he deprived all the old Servants of the Crown of all 
their Oirkzs and Honours, of the mort Principal Governments, and- 
rnoft fufpeAtd FortrefTes, to put them into the hands of men that were 
Catholicks in (hew, but really partial to Hereticks, and inwardly adhe- 
rents to the King of Navarre. He added, that notwithftanding the 
King's publick (hews of Devotion, yet in his private Lodgings he gave 
himfelf over to the unbridled lulls of the fle(h, and to the pervcrfe 
fatisfying of his loofe depraved appetite. From which things let forth 
with many fpecious reafons, he concluded it was time tounirethemfdves 
for their own defence, and to deftroy thofe deiigns before they were 
brought unto perfection. 

Now the Duke of Gitife by mtans of the Preacher? and Friers in 


Pulpits and other places of Pevotion, labours to infmuate the Catho" 
lick League into the People. 

Among thefe the chief were Cnilliattme de U Rofe, a man of great elo- 
quence, who came afterward to be Bilhop of Senli* ^ Jean Prevoft, 
chief Prieft -of S. Stverin, an eloquent and learned man -, Jehan Bon- 
ch(rby "birth a Partfian, and Curate of S.Benet's Parifh in the fame 
City-, one Ponee t , a Frier in the Abby ofS. Patrick,.** Me Inn -^ Dsn 
Chrijhn oiNiz.zjt t in Provence, and Jehan ftnceftre, all famous Prea- 
chers. And finally, moft part of the Jefuites. And as thefe profecu- 
ted the bufinefs of the League in Paris, the fame was done at Lions by 
Claude M*ttei, a Prieft of the fame Society at Soiffons, by Mat hew de 
Launoy Canon of that Cathedral : at Raven by Father Egide Blovin 
of the Order of the ifrtinims ^ at Orleans by Bourlate a very noted 
Divine at Tboui by Francois de Rofier , ArchrDeacon of that 
Church, and an infinite number of others difper fed through the feve- 
ral places of France^ who by their Credit and Eloquence, fometimes in 
their Pulpits, fometimes in the Congregations of the Penitents, fome- 
times in their fecret conferences at Confeftions ? did allure the 
people, and entice them to enter into that Combination j which it 
is likely very many did, out of a refped to Religion, believing that 
ther eby the Cahinifts would utterly be rooted out, and the Auchori- 
ty of the Church be reftored to its priftine greatnefs. But many 
entred into that League invited by other ends, and drawn to it by diffe- 
rent hopes, orelfe neceflicated by their particular interefts, though all 
ihrouded themfelves under the fame cloak of the prefervation and 
maintenance of Religion. Charles Cardinal of Bourbon, the third Bro- 
ther of Anthony King of Navarre, and Lottys Prince of Conde deceaf- 
ed, and Unkle to //fwrj the prefent King of Navarre, is defired for the 
Head of the League,a man alwaies moft obfervant ofthe-&w*/fc Religion, 
and an open enemy to the Hugonots. Then the Preachers did publick- 
ly in all places term the King a Tyrant, and favourer of Hereticks ; 
the people did applaud them, and from this deadly hatred which they 
had conceived againft the King, his Council and favourites, fprung 
that fury which foon after was difperfed over all the body of 
f 'ranee. 

On July 15. 1582. RerMuldofBeaitne) Archbifhopof Bourges^ and 
Primate of Aqaitain had then fpoken at Fountainbleau in this fort. 
The whole Church Chriftian and Catholick affiftcd by the Legates 
and Ambafladours of the Emperour, of this your Kingdom, and of all 
other Chriftian Princes ; Did cal), aflemble, and celebrate the Coun- 
cil otTrent, where many good and wholefome Conftitutions, ufeful for 
the Government of the Church, were ordained. To which Council 
all the Legates and Ambaffadours did folemnly fwear, in the behalf of 
i:hcii Matters, to obfcrve and keep ; and caufe it to be inviolably kepi by all 


Cenc. 1 6. Of FRANCE. 


their Subjects: yea even the AmbafiaJours of this your Kingdom fo- 
lemnly took that Oaih. Now it is received, and obferved by all Chri- 
ftian Gatholick Kings and Potentates, this Kingdom only excepted, 
which hath hitherto deferred the publication and receiving of it, to the 
great fcandal of the French Nation, and of the Title, MOST CHRI- 
STIAN, wherewith your Majefty and your Predeceflburs have been 
honoured j fo that under colour otfome Articles touching the liberty of 
the Gallican Church, the ftain of Schifm refteth upon your Kingdom 
among other Countries, Wherefore the Clergy doth now moft hum- 
bly befeech your Majefty, that you would be pleafed to hearken to this 
publication , and make an end of all to the glory of God, and the union of 
his Church. 

There was a Nuncio from the Pope who arrived in France in the be- 
ginning of the year 1583. who profecuted this matter with great vehe- 
mency : yet for all this he could not move King Henry III. at all, 
the King of Navarre having written to King He nry III. concerning ir, 
the King of France made him this anfwer. 

Brother, Thofc that told you, that I would caufe the Council o/T rent 
to be published, were not well-informed of my intentions, for J never fo 
much of thought it. Nay, I know well how fuch fublication would he 
prejudicial to my affairs, and I am not a little jealous of theprefervati- 
on of my Authority, the pnv Hedges of the Church of France, and alfo 
of the obfervation of my Editt of Peace. But it was only propofed 
unto me, to cull out fame cert din Art ides about Eccle (iaflical Difcipline y 
for the Reforming of fuch abn[es- a* reign in that State, to the glory of 
God, the edifying of my Sitbje&s,and withal the difchargenf my confci- 
ence : A thing which never toucheth in thofe Rules which I have fit 
down in my Editts for the Peace and tranquillity of my Kingdom, which 
I will have inviolably kept on both fides. 

On October 14. 1 585. the Bifhup and Earl of Noyon in the name of 
the Clergy afTembled in the Abbey of St. German near Paris, prefen- 
ted to the King a Book, written by the advice of the Prelates of the 
Council of Trent. They told him, They brought unto him the 
Book of the Law of God, which they humbly entreated him to 

The Provincial Synod held at Roven made this inftance to the fame 
Prince. After that a good number of Bijhops and Proxies for thcfe th&t 
were abfent, together with Ecclefiaftical Per fen*, from all quarters of 
our Province of Normandy, were met in our ^^Metropolitan Church 
at Roan, they tendered nothing more than earneftly trfollicite the pub- 
liflring and promulgation of the Council of Trent within this Realm* 
Wherefore this otir A ffembly by common confent, have refolvedtoprefeni. 
their humble Petition to our moft Chriftian King in like manner as. 
WM formerly done by the. States of Bloys, and the Clergy conv'^t'Jai 

Fff Melun, 

3C|)e ccclefiafttcai $ifto?p Cent. 16. 

Melun, that he wonldbe pleafedfor proof of his true Piety and Religion, 
to cnjoyn the publication of the fad Council^ w hereby the maintenance 
of the Church is well-provided for ^ vp.hich u obfcrved to be daily im paired 
and abated. 

And the Provincial Council of ^4ix in Trcvence y Anno 1585. Pe- 
tition the King at the beginning of the Afts, That he out of his fin- 
gular Piety, would command the Council of "Trent to be publiflied,which 
had fo exactly provided againft all dangers, wherein the Chriftian Com- 
mon-wealth was then impugned. 

We ruuft not think, that tbefe earneft felicitations which the French 
Ecclefiafticks here made, did proceed fo much from them as from the 
Pope. One argument hereof which may be alledged, is this, that they 
were not now interefTed herein -, formoftof the Decrees which con- 
cerned them, were admitted , and there was no default in the obferva- 
tion of them, unlefs it were on their part : and one company of them 
were inferted inthe Edid ofSloys, the reft in divers oiher Provincial 
Councils holden afterwards in France, the Canons whereof are to be 
feenin Print ^ ztRoven 1581. ttBonrges 1584. ziTeHrs 1585. and at 
Aix in Provence the fame year. 

The better to countenance the League forementioned, it is prefented 
to Pope Gregory XIII, that he might blefs it. The Pope was wcll- 
pleafed they ihould attempt any thing againft the ProLeftants, but he 
did not approve thofe Popular Rebellions which were made againft a 
moft Chriftian King, neither would he be the fire-brand of a War which 
he could not quench j and fo he fent the Deputies back without any 

The King of Navarre caufeih the Deputies of the Proteftants to ak 
femble ttMontauban, to refolve of the means to maintain themfelves , 
if the League (abufing the King's name and authority ) llould feek IQ 
offend them. The Duke oiEfternon goeth alfo to the King of N+tvarre., 
to confer with him privately in the King's name, . 

The chief of the League prefutne, That the King- means to A-rm, and 
10 employ the King of Navarre's Forces againft them. They fend 
forth many Commidions in the King's name, that what they did might 
be thought as done for his Majeftie's fervice. The King in the end of 
March . difavows then), and forbid* all Leavies of men of War. The 
King made no War but by writing, feeking firft by gentle means to 
pacific them, j Hedtdarcs the Zeal he hath alwaies born to the Catho- 
lick Religion, and the necefiity that forced him to a Peace.. Then ha- 
viug promifed to reftore the Church to her beauty, to content the Nu- 
bility, to eafe the people ^ he entreats, conjures, exhorts, and commands 
all Clergy- men, Gendemen, Parliaments, and Towns Corporate, to 
abandon all Leagues and Aflbciations, and to unite them/elves under his 


Cent, 1 6. ' OFF RANG E~ "~4j 

The King ot Navarre likewife fets forth a Declaration : and where- 
as he was accufed of Herefy, he anfwereth, Thar he was born under 
the toleration of two Religions in Frarue : That he will leave that where- 
in he was bred, when by a Lawful Council they (hall (hew him another . 
truth than that which he believeth. He faith, he is notrelapfed, fee- 
ing he was not fallen from his firft Opinion. That he is no enemy to 
the Catholicks, for that when the Edicts had granted Liberty of Con- 
fcience , he prefemly laid down Arms. That in all places he maintains 
his Subjects in the fame Liberty as he found them after the deceafe of 
his Mother. That he harh requefted of the King a prolongation of the 
Towns which he holds for aflurance ofthelaft Edid, and will deliver 
them before the time, fo as the League lay afide Arms, and yield un- 
to the King the places they had feized. That whereas they declare 
him uncapable of the Crown, ittoucheth him very near^ yet doth he 
think leaft of it, hoping that God by his bounty will long preferve the 
King for the good of his Realm, and will give him iflue to the grief of all 
his enemies. 

The Queen-Mother ( accuftomed to fifli in troubled waters ) winkt 
at the Duke of Guife. She was contented the Duke fhould terrific the 
King, to make him abandon the Proteftants, and to force him to banifh 
his new Minions frcm Court, who had brought her in difgrace with 
the King her Son. Her ambition moved her hereunto, rather than 
any defirelhehad to adv-ance the Duke, and to bring diforderand con- 
fufion into the State, and to ftand alone in the midft of the fe furious 

The Heads of the League march with an Army of 12000- men to 
Vtrdun, a City upon the Confines of the Duke of Lorain, which they 
take. And the Duke o^Guije being entred the City, drove out the Go- 
vern our with all his adherents, -and placed Guittald in his place. The 
City ofT/boH/drave out the King's Officers, and freely gave up it felf in- 
to the hands of the League. 

The City of Afirfei lies rifeth in favour of the League, buttheCon- 
fpirators are fupprefled by the reft of the Citizens. They call the Grand- 
Prior of France , Governour of that Province, who was then at Aix, 
at whofe coming (though with but 200 Horfej the Fort deUGxrde 
was taken , and in it the Conful Dories , and Captain Chabanes^ who 
rhe next morning were executed , by which feverity the City was 
kept under the King's obedience. The fame happens at the City of Bur- 

Lion$y Bourges, and many other places in the Kingdom, fide with 
the League. The King laboureth to difunite the League, by drawing 
many particular men from that party, as alfo the City or" Lions: but 
feeing his ckfign fucceedeth not to his mind. he refolves toTrear an agree- 
ment with the confederates. The Queen-Mother goes into Cbjmpagnc 

F f f 2 to 

44 %!)e ccciefiafttcal%itto?? cent. 16. 

to confer about it with the Duke of Guife , and Cardinal of Bourbon. And 
after many Negotiations the Peace is concluded. 

The KingbyhisEdid of July 18. revokes all other Edids in favour 
of the Proteftants, he commands their Minifters to depart the Realm, 
and all his Subjects within fix Months to make profeffion oftheRomijh 
Religion, or to avoid the Country. He approves the Leaguers Arms, 
as Levied for his Service, allows of their pretexts, and by fecret Arti- 
c,les concluded at Nemours, contents them in all maters, only with 
this condition, to leave the League, andinftamly to lay down Arms* 
Yet would they have in their power the Towns of Ch^lon, Verdun^ 
Thoul, S. Dificr, Reims y Sotflons, the Caftle of Dijon, Be*wne y Rue 
in Ticardy^ Dinan and Coneq in Britain. They caufed the King to 
pay onethoufand two hundred and fix crowns, and two third parts for 
the Strangers which they had Levied. They had adifcharge forvaft 
fummes which they had taken upon the General Receipts. They ob- 
tained an hundred thoufand crowns to build a Citadel at Verdun, 
and entertainment for Guards on horfeback for all the Lords of 
the League. This Peace had made a great breach in the King's 

The King of Navarre, feeing this Cloud ready to break upon his 
party, complains that the King hath Armed his enemies with his own 
forces and Authority, againft his Eftate, his blood and himfelf. He 
layes open by a publick Declaration the caufcs which made the League to 
rake Arms, the vanity of their pretexts, the fruit which all France 
may exped by the Treaty of Nemours, &c. He protefteth by a Law- 
" ful and neceffary defence to maintain the fundamental Laws of Fami- 
lies , and the Eftate and liberty of the King and the Queen his 

Gregory XIII. being dead, Pope Sixtw V. his SuccefTcur, cafts 
out his lightning againft the King of Navarre, and the Prince of Con- 
de, he Excommunicates them, degrades them from all Dignities, efpe- 
cially their pretenfions to the Crown of France, expofeth their Perfons 
and Countries as a prey to fuch as fhould firft feize on them.TheCourt of 
Parliament declares the Pope's Bull to be void. The Princes likewife 
proteft againft it, and appeal from it as abufive and kandalous, unto the 
next free and General Council. 

The King of Navarre caufeth the Pope's Bull tobeanfwered, and 
his appeal to be pofted up in Rome it felf on November 6. in the nighr. 
He writes to all the States of the Kingdom of France, exhorting them 
not to fuffer the rights of the Succeffion of the Crown of France to be 
decided in the Confiftory of Rome. Many Volumes were written 
againft and in favour of this Bull by the chiefeft Wits of - 
rope. g 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

King Henry the third caufed fome Orders to be cried down in the 
City ot Paris, becaufe he was certified of the Confpiracies which they 
made againft the State : it being notorioufly known , that the League 
was fworn in Tholoufe by the black Penitents, and that as many of 
thefe Orders as are in France, did all confpire to the like ends. 

The French Exiles, who dwelt at Momyelgan in the Dutchy of 
Wortemberg, &\& in the year 1586. firft follicue the Divines there, and 
then the Duke Frederick^, That there might be a publick Conference 
between the German and French Divines about fome Controverfies 
between them. They aflemble in <sJWarch : the Duke was prefent 
all the time. On the one fide was Jacob Andrewes Chancellour of Tu- 
bing^ Luke Ofander of Wortembtrg, and two Civilians from the Duke. 
And on the other fide were Theodore Bez^a, and Anthony Faius from / anJ - 
Geneva, Abraham Muftidu* , and two Civilians from Bern , and cent! 
Claudius zsflberiu* from Lswfanna. Many were the Hearers. lit - 4 
The Articles of which they were to Difpute, were, i. Of the 
Supper of the Lord. 2. Of the Perfon of Chrift. 3. Of Images, 
Temples, and fuch like things. 4. Concerning Baptifm. 5. OfPre- 

The firft day, viz,, on March 21. Thofe tfWorttmforg gave in wri- 
ting Thefes of the Lord's Supper, fhewing that all do agree that All 
do eat Chrift's flefli, and drink his blood fpiritually : all do condemn 
the renting of Ghrift's rlefh with mens teeth j. as alfo Tranfubftamia- 
cion, and Phyfical or Local prefence.. So that the only Queftion is, 
whether in the Supper the very body and blood of Chrift, be verily 
and fubftantially prefent, and be distributed and received with the 
Bread and Wine by the mouth of all them who receive the Sacrament, . 
whether worthy or unworthy, believers or not believers, yet fo that 
the believers only receive comfort, and the unbelievers do eat to their 
own damnation ? 

We hold the affirmative (fay they - t ) that is, by thofe Words [ In, 
with, and under the Bread, ] we underftand nothing but that they Fetr. 
who eat that Bread, and drink that Wine, do receive Chrift's body and Cent 
blood with the Bread and Wine. 2. By the words [ SubftjtKtiatty, 
Effentiatty, Really, and Orally, j we mean no other but the very eating 
and prefence of his body and blood. 3. They argue from the trurh of 
Chrift's words, \_Thuis-my body, ~] and the Almighty power of 
Chrift, feeing his words declare his will, and by his power he can give 
his body unto all Receivers. 4. The manner how the worthy and un- 
worthy receive Chrift's body, is not exprefTedin Scripture ^. and we 
fay, it is fupernatural and incomprehenfible by the wit of men, and fliould 
not be disputed, nor curiouily fearched. 

Thefe Thefes were given unto Bez^a., as it was appointed, and the 
next day he brought his anfwer and Propositions. The Summ is, 

i. A . 

i. A Sacrament in the ftrift fenfe , is a fenfible thing appointed ( by 
Divine inftitution ) to be feparated from common ufe to fignifie fpiritu- 
al and holy things : and this fignificatron confifts not in a bare repre- 
fentation, whereby the mind is admonirtied to conceive the thing fig- 
nified ( this is the ufe of Pidures ) but on God's part : with the figns is 
alfo a very giving of thufe things which are fignified and offered unto 
our fouls. 2. We teach, that according to Chrift's Inftitution, by 
the Bread is fignified Chrift's body, by the Wine his blood : by break- 
ing of the Bread and pouring cut of the Wine are fignified thofe grie-~ 
vous torments which he fuffc-red for us in his body and foul : by out- 
ward giving the Bread and Wine, the fpiritual giving the things fignifi- 
ed by Chiift unto our fouls : by outward taking the figns is fignified the 
fpiritual receiving of Chrift by Faith Sacramentally and truly. 3. The 
Sacrameiual union of the figns and things fignified confifts in a mutual 
relation , as is now faid : for the verity of Chrift's body ( which is 
local, and circumfcribed both before and after his glorification ) cannot 
confift otherwife. Again, many pafiages of Scripture that (hew the 
true and Phyfical afcending of Chrift from the Earth, and his return- 
ing from Heaven unto judgement, do confute the D -drinc of Confab- 
ftantiation. 4. When the word Sacrament is taken in a more large 
fenfe, it confifts of two things, one Earthly, another Heavenly. We 
teach, That Earthly things are received by Earthly Inftruments, viz.. 
the Hand and Mouth .j but the Heavenly things are apprehended only 
Spiritually by Faith : becaufe albeit Chrift's body is a truly Organical 
body, yet analogy requires, That fuch as the nouriihment and end there- 
of is, fuch alfomuftbe the manner of receiving it. But thenourifh- 
ment and end thereof is fpiritual, that is, they concern our fpiriiual 
union with Chrift, and eternal life through him. Therefore the man- 
ner of receiving thofe muft alfo be fpiritual, by the proper Inftrument of 
the foul, which is Faith. And therefore feeing the bodily receiving of 
the figns, is a pledge of the fpiritual receiving, thefe words, [Eat and 
Drink^\ as they are properly fpoken of receiving the figns, fo are 
they fpoken figuratively of the thing fignified, viz.. by a Sacramental 
Metonymy, whereby that which agreeth unto the figns, is fpoken of 
the things fignified , and fo both thofe receivings cannot be by the 
mouth. Again, if the fubftance of Chrift" s body were received bodily, 
it fhould remain in the faithful at leaft, and they fhould become the 
fubftantial or bodily members of Chrift, and fo the Church were not 
Ins myftical body, but a body verily and fubftantially confiding of the 
fubftance of his body, and of the bodies of afl Believers. 5. The pro- 
per effed of the Supper is the falvation of the worthy Communicants 
by confirming their fpiritual union in Chrift : and another effedufbut 
by accident) is the condemnation of them who come unworthily , that 
i*, ignorant of this myftery, or meerly incredulous and without re- 
pentance j 

Cent. 1 6. Of FRANCE. 47 

pentance - y and this condemnation proceeds not from the Supper, but 
from the unworthy ufing of it. 

Then unto the queftion ( as it was propounded ) %&<* anfwered ne- 
gatively, not denying that the body of Chrift is truly offered unto all 
that come, but to be received by Faith, and not by the Mouth : and al- 
beit the whole Sacrament be tendered unto all that come, yet unbelie- 
vers receive only the figns, and they are guilty of Chrift 's body and 
blood, not which they have received, but which they have con- 
temned. Unto the two arguments he anfwered, we deny not the truth 
of Chrift's words, but we expound them according to the Analogy of 
Faith contained in the Creed, unto which Faith Confubftantiation is 
contrary. And although Ghrift, as he is God, is Almighty, yet his 
Manhood is not Almighty : and as he is God he cannot do what he 
hath not decreed to do, or. what is contrary unto his decree -, not be- 
caufe he is not Almighty, but becaufe to change his Will ( and fo to be 
mutable) is not a power, but an infirmity. But God hath ordained, 
that Chrift's body fhould be local and circumfcribed, &c. On this 
Article the. Difputation continued three daies, the one preiling the 
truth of the words, This u my body : and Btz,a urging the Analogy of 
Faith, and the like phrafe of other Sacraments. Neither of the two 
would yield.. 

Then they pafled unto the Article of the Perfon of Chrift. Thofe 
of Wortemberg agreed that the Son of God hathaflumed the nature of 
man, and became likeunrous in-all things except fin : that he hath af- 
fumed this nature into the unity of his Perfon j and he is one perfon ^ 
fo that the two natures are moft . ftriftly united^ not by confufion or 
commiffion, or abforption, or tranfmutation of either of thefe natures 
before nor after his alcenficn : for unto the perfect Perfon of the Me- 
diatour both natures are required , neither can the properties of the 
one nature be the properties of the other ; for then would follow an 
abolition of one of thefe natures. Alfo the properties of the hu- 
mane nature are the gifts that were given unto him without meafurr , 
by which he excelleth all men and Angels : In the Pcrfon of Chrift 
is a Communication ot properties, whereby the properties of both na- 
tures are fpoken of his perfon ^ and the properties of the one nature are 
given unto the other , by that Doctrine which is called Doftrina. idio- 
matum. So when it is faid, the Son of God communicates his proper- 
ties unto the afiumed nature (viz.. his Omnipotence, or Omnipre fence) 
it is not meajit a? if he poured into the afTumed nature (as a thing is 
poured from one VefTel into another) his properties as if humane na- 
ture by it ftlf , or of it felf, or confidered in abftratto without his per- 
fon, had proper Omnipotency : neither mav we think that his hu- 
mane nature is made an infinite, fubftance, or uncircumfcribed , or ex- 
tended unto ail places, &c. When we fpeakofthe real communica- 
tions . 

tion of properties , vvej mean not that one nature pattern into ano- 
ther, butweoppofe real unto verbal communication, which makes on- 
ly names common unto the natures. 

Then the queftion is, whether for the Perfonal union there be a 
real communication of properties between the two natures in his Per- 
fon -or that the one nature communicates its properties unto the other 
and how far this communication is extended ? We believe ( laid they ] 
that upon the Perfonal union follows Co real a communication of pro- 
perties, whereby the Son of God communicates unto theafTumed na- 
ture his omnipotence , omniprefence, &c. by which communication 
the Gouhead becomes not weaker, but his humane nature is exalted 
and not abohlhed, as is the union of the body and foul, and the fire and 
iron. They faid, that the humane nature is Almighty, becaufe the 
Scripture alcribes to him as he is Man, all Power, & c . They added ' 
This cur Mediatotr is to be adored with all Religious worihip accord- 
ing to both natures, for we have not two Chrifts : but of whole 
Chrift it is faid,JLf t all the slngeh vr or flip him. 

On the morrow JfeuranfweeedtbK, There is ambiguity in the word 
Communication i it fignifies the Perfonal union, and alfo the erTeds of 
It. U e believe f faith he J a real communication, that is, an union 
t natures: in which union both natures remain diftind, both in their 
own properties . and therefore that communication is not fomuch as 
verbal,but is as falfe, as if you would fay,his Humanity is become his Dei- 
& A lthoi] S h . a properties of the Deity may be attributed unto, that is, unto his Perfon even named by his Manhood, or 
*n concrete, as we ( Jy , The Man Chrift is Almighty and eternal ; 
but neither may the natures be fpoken one of another, neither the pro- 
pernes of the one be given to the other. For this is a fure rule, In the 
Perfonal union both natures remain diftinft, and they both diftinftly 
do what is proper unto them. Briefly, as there are two natures in Chrift, 
diftmft in number, and -not feparated one from the another, fo there 
are two wills, and two workings or operations, but one work as there 

I? ^H ^2^-YS profcfs alfo that chrift rci 'g n h now ? * 

bath all Power both in Heaven and in Earth according to both natures 
but not printer in refped of his flefh . for now fas the Apoftle 
faith; we are ftrangers from Chrift, and he defired to be out of the 
body, that Je m,ght be with Chrift. And it is faid, he will come 
again ^bodily, and vifibly. Laftly, in that one adoration of our 
one and only Mediatour according to both natures, we divide not the 
Perfon, but we diftmguifli the natures : for the Word is the true and ab- 
folute object of our adoration, and adoration is due unto God only. 
Bur we exclude not that flefh from our adoration , left ( with Mftori- 
r<) we divide his Perfon . yet fo, that we wor/hip that flcfh not in 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 49 

it felf, but refpe&ively as it is the flefh of the Son of God. They 
difputed on this Article other three daies, but no agreement. 

On March 27. Thofe ofWortemberg gave their Propofitions of Po* 
pifh Churches , Images in Churches, &c. They agreed, That thefe 
are in themfelves indifferent, if theabufesbefhunned. 

Then they gave Thefes of Baptifm, whether Baptifm is the Laver of 
Regeneration in the holy fpirit ? or whether it be only a fign fignifying 
and fealing adoption ? The Wortembergtrs faid, It not only fignificth 
and fealeth adoption, but it is the very Laver of Regeneration. They 
enlarged hereupon. ez,a gave his anfwer in writing, viz.. That the 
Sacraments are not bare figns, but the efficacy of the Holy Ghoft fhould 
be diftinguifhed from the power of the water, as they are diftin- 
guifhed by John Baptift in Matth. 3. And he declares the 
words of the Inftitution, and the effeft of Baptifm. Jacob Andrew* 
held there is but one Baptifm, becaufe St. Paul faith, one Baptifm. 
Bezjt faid, there is an outward and an inward wafhing. And he rebu- 
ked the Wort emhergers, becaufe they did not call the blood of Chrift the 
thing fignified in Baptifm. They asked whether Infants have Faith ? 
Beaa denied, and the other affirmed it. They queftioned whether the 
Eledt being fanftified may lofe faith ? Beza denied. They asked what 
foope may Parents "have of their Baptized Children ? j?fs,dfaid, All 
fhould hope well, but we are not Prophets to fore-tell, that this or that 
Child fhall be a good or bad man. 

Concerning Predeftination, ThokofWortewberg faid, God from afl 
eternity not only forefawthefallofman, but hath alfo foreknown and 
chofen them that (hall be faved, and hath appointed them unto falvati- 
on, that is, that they fhould be faved by Chrift ; for the election was 
made in Chrift. The number of them who fhall be faved is certain 
with God. So the queftion is ( fay they ) whether God hath Predefti- 
nated hisEleft unto life -, fo that he in his hidden and abfolute judge- 
ment hath appointed the moft part'bf men unto eternal damnation, that 
he will not have them to repent, nor be converted and faved ? We be- 
lieve ( fay they ) that fuch Decree cannot be fhewed by Scripture. 
They rejed thofe Propofitions, that Reprobation is the moft wife pur- 
pofe of God, whereby from all eternity he hath conftantly Decreed, 
without all unrighteoufnefs , not to (liew love on them whom he hath 
not loved, that unjuftly condemning them he might declare his wrath 
againft fin, and fhew his glory. The caufe of the Decree of EledHon 
or Reprobation , is his eternal favour toward them who at his pleafure 
are appointed unto falvation, and his eternal hatred of ill, ordaining 
whom he pleafeth unto condemnation. But why he hath appointed 
thefe men rather than thofe unto falvation or damnation, there is no 
other impulfive'caufe but his will, &c. Beza anfwered thus, What ye 
deny, [That the vfjfils of wrath, at well M the V eft Is of mercy, were 

G g g ordaine.4 

5 a ~3O)eeccieGafttcaWfl:o$ cent. 1 6. 

ordained from eternity, ] we do affirm, not only becaufe there is a 
like reafon of contraries, and the very word Election proveth it, but 
alfo it is declared by the exprefs word of God, Rom.$. 1 1 . And this 
is fo far ( faid he) from any ground that man can challenge God ofun- 
righteoufnefs, that he were not unjuft though he had condemned all men, 
feeing we are afl by nature the Children of wrath, and he is debtor to 
none. We fay further, that their Condemnation, who in the eternal 
Decree are left in their corruption, is not rightly attributed unto this 
Decree : for albeit that which God hath Decreed cannot mifs, but 
(hall come to pafs and fo they who perifh do not perifh without this 
Decree: yet the caufeofthe execution or of their condemnation, is not 
that Decree of God, but their natural corruption and the fruits of it, 
from which it pleafed God to exempt them only whom he hath cho- 
fen to falvation . That there ever was, and is a great a number of them 
that perifh, the matter it felf fheweth : and Chrift faith, Few are chofen, 
few do enter in at the ftrait gate. 

Laftly, that God will nothavethem to be converted, and faved, it's 
not to be underftood as if they were willing, and God refifteth their 
defire ; but that they will not be converted, nor can they will, being 
forfaken of God, and left in impenitency. He anfwered alfo to the 
Objections. Then they came to that queftion, whether Chrift died for 
all men ? Jacob held the affirmative, and Bez.a the negative. 

Prince Frederick, now thought it time to clofe, feeing no hope of 

cfMiJ.ciaA.t6. agreement: he exhorted them togive one another the hand of Prater- 

M...;. cay. 33. pj^ anc j to a bft am from bitter writings, until God fhall give them more 

caufe of Peace. Jacob anfwered, feeing they haveaccufed usofgrofs 

Errours, how can we acknowledge them as Brethren ? Lez.a faid, fee- 

ing you refufe togive us the right hand.of Fraternity, neither acknow- 

ledgeus as Brethren, we do not regard your hand of friendfhip. So the 

Conference was ended March 29. 

.Anthony Fain* one of Beta's afliftants in this Conference, was a 
French Divine. He hath written thefe Works, In Epifl. ad Romanes : 
In Prior em ad Timotheum. In Ecclefaftem. Enchiridion Theologi, 
cum. De Vit* & Obitu Thcod. Bez.<e. Emblcmata & Epigrammata 

Abraham Faiu* y his Son, hath put out a Book, entitled, Lingu*. (jal- 
lica & Italic A hortulM amcenifmita :'& horarumfubcifivarttm libridito* 

Now the King begins a War againft the Proteftantsin Guiennc. 
The Caftle of Angiers is fuddenly taken by the Hugonots without much 
difficulty. Angiers is a City fcituace on this fide the Loire^ in afweet 
fertil Countrey, well peopled, famous for the ftudy of the Law, and 
commodioufly ieated to fall into all the Provinces ofCjattia Celtic*^ 
which largely invirons it on every fide. But this Caftle of Angiers 
was recovered by the Catholicks before it was relieved, and the Prince 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

of Conde not knowing what was done, coming to relieve Angitn t was 

The King fets forth divers Armies, one under the Duke ofMiyenne : 
the Marefchal de Byron marcheth with another Army into Xxntonge. 
The King fets forth two other Armies, one under the Duke ofjeyeufc 
in AvergnC) the other under the Duke of Ejpernon in Provence . he 
himfelf goes to Lions, Then the Proteftant Princes of Germany 
raife a mighty Army to relieve the Hugonots. They fend an Embaffis 
before unto the King of France, which encreafeth the difcontents, and 
hafteneth the taking up of Arms. The Kingfeeks toperfwade the 
King of Navarre to turn Catholick, and come to Court : he fends the 
Queen-Mother to Treat with him in Poickon about it. Thofe of the 
League are highly difpleafed and murmure at it. And from that occa- 
fion the union of the c Parifians is fomented, who provide, and Arm 
themfelves fecretly. They plot to furprize Bolougne in Picardy, but the 
bufinefsis difcovered,and the Town is faved. 

The Duke of Guife being up in Arms in Burgundy and Champagne, 
takes Anfonne and Rocroy, and befiegeth Sedan. The Queen-Mother 
returns from the King of Navarre to Taris, but without effeft. The 
King nukes a new Proteftation not to Tolerate the Hugonots any lon- 
ger. He unites himfelf with the Catholick League to oppofe the (jer- 
man Army. He fends the Duke of Joyeufe into Poifivu againft the King 
of Navarre, who coming unexpectedly, cuts off two Regiments of the 
fJugonot Infantry. 

The Duke of Guife draws his Army together to advance againft the 
Germans in Lorain* The King levieth Svpijfcs, and raifeth great For- 
ces for the fame purpofe. The Count of Soijfons, and the Prince of 
Conti go over to the King of Navarre's party. The Duke of Lorain 
united with the Duke of <?//* oppofeth the entry of the Germans into 
his Countrey. They meet at Pont Si. Vincent, but give not Battel. 
The Germans pafs on into France j the Duke of Guife followeth them, 
and the King with his Army advanceth to hinder them from joyning 
with the King of Navarre, who advancing in the mean time to meet 
the Duke of Joyeitfe, pafleth the River Drongne. The Armies face 
one another at fiutrM, and fight with all their Forces, where the Duke 
of Joyeufe loft both the Battel and his life. 

On the other fide the Duke of Gitife fights with the Germans at 
Villemory , and Annean, and makes a great (laughter of them. The 
King fallowing the Victory comes up clofe to the enemies Army. The 
Swijjes yield themfelves unto him, and the remainder of the German* 
disband, and betake themfelves to flight. They are followed and defea- 
ted in many places. The Duke of Bwillon with a few horfe making 
his efcape by the way of Roane and Lionois, after many dangers get- 
teth to (jencva, where he died within a few daies after, leaving his 

G.g g 2 Eft ate 

ccdefiafticat %itto?it Cenc - 

Eftate to his Sifter, whom he recommended to the care of the Duke 
of Montfenficr. The Sieur de [hafillon^ having often fought with the 
Forces of Burgundy and Lionois with great fuccefs and valour, got at 
hft into Languedoc, and retired himfelfinto his wonted Government 
in Vivarez,. T '\\tSieurde Clervant^ hid among the Srvijfes that went 
with a fafe-conduft, efcaped in their company to Bafl. The Prince 
of Conti with a few Horfe, lurking in remote places, got at laft un- 
known to his own houfe : and the other Commanders taking leveral 
ways ran very various fortunes. The Reiters divided themfelves into 
two parts, one with the Baron d y Oeneaw, and Colonel 1)amartin paf- 
fed through Savoy , where being fhrunk to the number of but five hun- 
dred, they were pillaged by the Duke's Forces. The other with the 
Baron de Bouck* parting through Burgundy to the Confines of the 
County of tJMombelUardy was followed by the MarquefsJD#- Poland 
the Duke of I?////*, by whom being overtaken without the Borders of 
France^ they were all cut in pieces in many feveral encounters. Thefe 
Heads of the League alfo facked and burned the Towns and Caftles of 
that Country. The Germans fick with Feavers, and weakened with 
bloody-flix, falling down by the High-wayes, and in the Towns as they 
pafled, were mi ferably (lain by the Country-people. Eighteen of them 
who were left fick in a poor Cottage in Burgundy, had their throats 
cut with a knife by a Woman, in revenge of thofe lofles (he had fu- 

The three thoufand Swijfes which were gone into Daufhine, under 
the Command of the Sieur de Cougy y to joyn with Lefdiguiers^ Thefe 
Sveiffes accompanied with four hundred French Musketiers, as they 
pafled the River Ifare, were aflaulted by Monfieur de la Valette^ Brother 
to the Duke tfEJpernon, with the Cavalry of Provence, and by Colo- 
nel Alfonfo Ornano of the Ifle of Corfica, with the Infantry of Dau- 
phine'y and fo furioufly charged there, that all the reft being flain upon 
the place, only fixty of them efcaped from fo great a (laughter. Where- 
upon alfo the Sieur Lefdiguiers himfelf was forced to feek fecurity 
among the Mountains. 

Then the King returned to ^Paris armed, andentrcd as it were in 
triumph on December 2$. 1587. but the whole glory redounded to the 
Duke of Guife, who being become admired, was celebrated by the 
tongues and pens of all his adherents. 

The Duke of Guife caufeth a writing to be prefented to the King in 
his own name , and the names of the other Heads of the League , 
wherein they demanded in fubftance : That he would unite himfelf tru- 
ly with them, and fmcerely make himfelf Head of the League, to the 
extirpation of the Htigonots, That he (hould put thofe perfons from 
the Court, from his Counfels, and from their Offices, who (hould be 
named by the Catholick Princes as UJ-afFefted to Religion, That he 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

would make theCoundi of TRENT to be received and obfervedThroush " 
the whole Kingdom, only excepting thofe things which did prejudice 
the prviledge of the Gallican Church. That he would grant fome places 
which fliould be thought fir, unto the confederate places for their fecu- 
rity, wherein they might keep Garrifons, and make neceflary Fortifi- 
cations at the expence of the Crown. That he would maintain an Ar- 
my about the Confines of Lorain, under the Command of one of the 
Confederate Princes, to hinder the incurfions of Foreigners. That 
he would caufeall the Eftates of the Hagonots to be confifcate and 
fold, wherewith the expences of the late Wars might be fatif- 

The end of the demand was only to make the King contemptible, fuf- 
pefted to favour the Hugonott, and furnifh the League with an occafi- 
on and pretence to take up Arms, and profecute their begun-defigns, 
while the profperity of their Fortune lafted. The burdens which the 
War, the maintaining of fo many Armies, and his profufe manner of 
fpending, daily increafcd, had loft the hearts of the people to the King. 
ThenoifeoftheDuke ofGmfe's Victories hadobfcured theMajeftyof 
the King's name, hisobftinate favour to his Minions, had alienated the 
minds of his moft ancient and devoted Servants : and the people of 
far is fwayed by the ambition of the Council of Sixteen in that City 
conflicted by the ({!ans , could no longer endure Govern- 

The City was full of infamous Pamphlets, Politick Difcourfes, Satyri- 
cal Verfes, and Fabulous Stories, which for the moft part abufing the 
name of the Duke of -Eftiernon, redounded to the difgrace of the King. 
On the other fide every corner oiParis refounded the praifes of the 
Duke of Guife, celebrated in Verfe and Profe by many Writers, with 
the titles of the new David, the fecond Mofes, the deliverer of the fahy- 
lick^ People, the Prvp and Pillar of the Holy Church. The Preachers 
filled the peoples ears with wonders of this new Gideon, come into the 
world for the defired fafety of the Kingdom. Which things fpread 
from the City of/^n*, diffufed themfelves into all the Provinces, 
which received the fame impreffions, as well to the King's difadvantage, , 
as in favour of the League. 

The King declares the Duke ofEftrerintJ, Admiral of the Kingdom, 
and Governour of Normandy, to the great difcontent of the Duke of 
Cjuife. The Council of Sixteen informs the Duke of Guife, That they 
had twenty thoufand Armed men in the City at their devotion, ready to 
be put upon any enterprize. That they were divided into fixteen 
Squadrons, to every one of which they had appointed a Commander, 
and that the reft of the people would fdoubtiefs; follow the ftream of. 
the Chief men,. 

Henry i, 

54 H:lje (ECClciaatcal ^ftO?g Cenc. \6. 

Henry, Princeo; CondejNis poifcned at St.Jehan d' Angely by his own 
fervants, and .died, under whomthe Proteftants conceived great hopes: 
and his deaih raited the affl.dion of that party to the greateft 

The Duke o'Guifc wrore to the Sixteen to leffen their number, and 
reduce it but into nve quarters , to which they ftiould appoint a place, 
where they fhould meet at the fign that (hould be given, and that they 
fliould difpofe things in fuch a manner, as might breed neither diforder 
nor confufion. He fent them five Commanders to order the five quar- 
ters, viz.. the Count of Bnfa, the Sieur deBois, Dauphin, the Sieur 
de Chamois, the Sic*rd'Efclawlcs t and Colonel Sc.P^/J, to whom 
the Sieur de Mcnevitte was added, who had been a chief Inftrumdnt in 
that bufinefs. Thefe entred openly into Paris, under colour of private 
affairs, and being lodged in thofe quarters of the City which were ap- 
pointed them, frequented the Court, leaving the care to MeneviHe to 
bring the matter to its conclufion. 

The Duke of^ttmale is in readinefs with five hundred Horfetoaf- 
fift the Confpiracy of the Parifians. The Confpirators refolve to make 
ufe of the occafion which the time of Lent would afford them, to feize 
on the King's Perfon then, when with the Duke ofE/pemon heftiould 
be in ProceiTion as he was wonr, in the habit of a Penitent among the 
whipping Friers, neither accompanied by his Guards, nor the ordina- 
ry retinue of the Court, and to fhut him up with ftrong Guards in a 
Monaftery. After which the Duke oftsfftmale's five hundred horfe 
and his. other Forces (hould prefently come in, and take pofieffion of the 
principal places, and keep them guarded till the arrival of the Duke of 

But Nicholas Poulaiftj who was privy to all this Confpiracy, reveals 
the whole Plot to the High Chancellour, and confirms it alfo to the 
King himfelf, who hereupon feigned himfelf not well, and foforbare 
to go to any fpiritual exercife with the Fraternity of the Penitents. 
The King had no Forces fufficient to bridle the Paripans^ whereupon 
the Queen faid in the Italian tongue, Bifogna coprifibene il vifo inan- 
z.i che ftni.z.icare il vefpaio. He that will ftir up a Wafps neft, had 
need to cover his face well j and then means would not be wanting to 
fupprefs the Confpirators. 

But the King to make himfelf fure of the Confpiratours, blocks up 
the paflages about Paris , to keep Victuals from thence. The Coun- 
cil- of fixteen begin to fufped , that their Plot is difcovered, and the 
Heads being difmayed fend for the Duke ofGnifeto Paris: the King 
fends a command unto the Duke ofSoijJo}js y not ro come to Parts, hut 
he comes to Paris at noon on May 9. 1588. followed only with 
eight Gentlemen. He lights at the Queen-Mother's Lodging, and 
goes with her to do his duty unto the King. The people follow him 


Cent.i'6. Of FRANCE. 


by troops wiih great joy, crying, God fa<ve the Guijc, Cod fave the 
Ptllar of the Church. He makes his reverence to the King, layes open 
the caufes of his coming, juftifies his actions as well as he could, and 
fo withdraws till the King had dined. They meet both after dinner at the 
Queen-Mother's Lodging : the King full of fear and jealoufie, the 
Duke with a refolute countenance. The next day the Archbifhop of 
Lions ( the chief Pillar of the League ) arriveth : the Duke's friends and 
fervants enter : The Sixteen bring and carry away fundry intelli- 

The King commands the Afar fad de Byron to draw his Guards of 
Svpifes and French out of the Suburbs into the City, and Lodgeth them 
in divers quarters. The people grow amazed ; the chief of the League 
terrific them with the apprehenfiorr of a fpoil j. they ftiut up their 
fhops , and leaving their traffique betake chemfelves to Arras. 

The Parifians raifed at the Ringing of the Bells, make Barricade's 
crofs the Streets ; and blocking up all the King's Corps de Garde, come 
up to the Louvre, The Svprffes were prefently afTauhed in St. Inno- 
cent's Church-yard, where 36. of them being flain in the firftonfet, the 
reft yielded themfelves without refiftance, and with great violence were 
pillaged by the people- AlJ the other Guards, of the Chaftelet, the lit- 
tle Bridge, the Butchery, and the Town-houfe, were afTaulted at the 
fame time, the Swifles being in the fame manner difarmed, and made 
Prifoners at the peoples difcretion. They made the French Guards to 
put out their matches, and lay down their Arms, and kept them in that 
manner till they had further order. 

The Duke of Cuife feeing the City in his power, and the King (as it 
were ) a Prifoner, ceafeth to profecute the forcing of the Louvre^ and 
appeafeth the people, but gave order that the Barricade's fhould be 
continued,That the people fhould be every where in a readinefs with their 
Arms, that the Guards fhould be kept with great care, expecting fome 
body fhould come from the King (befieged and ftraitnedjto make an 
overture of fome agreement. 

The Queen-Mother goes to the Duke of Cuife in her Sedan, being 
denied paflage in her Coach, confers with him, but brings nothing 
but complaints and exorbitant demands. While the Queen-Mother 
returns totheDukeof Guife, and treats with him, theKingwiihfixteen 
Gentlemen leaves Paris, and retires to Chartres, where the people re- 
ceive him with as much affedron, as the Tarifixns had done the Duke of 
Guife. The King at his departure from the Louvre ( turning at Chxliot DC serres Rift. 
towards T^aw} faid, O difloyal and ingratcfnl City, a fay which J ln -o m - 
have alwaies honoured Vfith myconftant abode -^ which Lhavc more 'en- 
riched than tiny of my PredecifioHrs, I will never enter within -the com~ 
fafiofthy Walls-) but by the ruinc of a great and memorable breachjCurfed 
likfvpifc beyeuall, for vehofe content I have p/tr chafed the hatred of fo 
many.. fhe 

Cent 16. 

The Duke being angry at the news of the King's fudden departure, 
labours to fecure his absolute power in Par it, aad feizethon the Ba- 
fide. The Capuchins are fern in Proceflion unto Chartres to mitigate 
the heat of his fury.The chief of theCity alfo go to befeech him to return 
to Paris. 'Seven demands are made by the League, viz.. the extirpa- 
tion of Herefy by his Majefties Forces, and the holy union : thebanifh- 
ment of the Duke of Efrernon, and of his Brother deU Palette-^ War 
in (juicnne by the King inPerfon, and by the Duke of Msyennem 
i-jirte', Abolition of the tumults of Paris : confirmation of Offi- 
ce^ chofen for Civil Caufes fince the Barricade's : a reftoring of the 
goodly and anci-nt Ordinances of the Realm ^ and an abolition of par- 
ties, gifts , and ajufes brought in by Efycrnon, and la Palette. 

The King determined to give outward fatisfadicn to the Duke of 
Grift and the League, knowing that Peace would never be granted, un- 
lefs he confented to remove irona the Court the Duke oiEjpcrnon. Who 
coming toCourt, being not received by the King with his wonted favour, 
quits his Government in Normandy, and retires to jingoUfme , where 
by a Confpiracy ofthe Cumins his life is in great danger. He was 
accompanied by the Abbot del Bene , who was no lefs perfecuted by 
the League than 'He. This retreat removed all impediments that might 
have hindered Peace. 

Now the conclufion of the Peace was eafie : for on the one fide the 
King granted all that the League asked for, or pretended to. v The con- 
ditions of Peace were almoft the fame that were contained in 
the writing framed at Nancy, with the privity of the Duke of Lorain, 
which had been prefented to the King in the beginning of the year. That 
the King (hould again declare himfelf Head of the Catholick League : 
he promifeth never to make a Peace nor Truce with the Hugonots, nor 
any Edid in their favour. He (hall by apublickEdift oblige all Prin- 
ces, Peers of France, Lords and Officers of the Crown, Towns, Col- 
ledges, Corporations, and the whole people to fwear the fame : and 
bind themfelves with a folemn Oath never to fuffer any one to reign, that 
was not of the Romijh Religion : and that for time to come none (hould 
be admitted to Offices, Places and Dignities in any part of that King- 
dom, but fuch as were Catholicks, and made profeffion of their Faith 
according to the Doftrine of Sorbon, and the Belief pf the Church of 
Rome. That the Council of Trent ftiould be received and obferved 
through the whole Kingdom, upon the conditions and exceptions for- 
merly mentioned ; the priviledges oftbeGaBican Church being within 
three Months to be declared by a Congregation of Prelates, and the 
King's Council jivith divers other Articles. 

The Articles concluded and confirmed, the King prefently fent 
forth his Letters Patents into all Provinces-, and feveral Bailages, to ap- 
point the Aflembly of the States in Ottober following at Blots, a place 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 57 

far from Paris, where the people were at his devotion, far from any 
commerce or intelligence with the League, and near thofe Towns which 
were held bytheHugonots. 

The Duke of Guife goeth with the Queen-Mother to Chartres unco 
the King, and is received by him with great demonstrations of honour 
in appearance. The King caufeth the Edift of the union to be pub- 
liftKd in his Council, and fworn to by every one^ and the War 
againft the Hugonvts to be openly Proclaimed for the profecution 
whereof two feveral Armies were appointed : one in Dauphine un- 
d^r the Duke of Mayenne^ the other in Poittou, under Ludovico 
Gonz*aga Duke of Nevers. The King gives the Duke of Cuife the 
General Command over all the men at Arms, of the Realm. This 
( though not the name arrd title, yet ) in effed was the Office and 
charge of Conftttblc. He makes the Cardinal of Guife Legate of 
Avignon, the which he promifeth to obtain for him of the Pope. He 
determined to give the Sea! unto Peter of Efpinac, Archbiftiop of 
Lions. He declares the Cardinal of Bourbon nrft Prince of the blood. 
And the King's late Counfeflours are difmifled the Courr. 

But two things trouble the League ^ one w, the news of the de- 
feat of the Spanifli jirmado at Sea by the Englifo ; the other is., 
that the King will not return to Parit, hewfoever they importune 

Pope Sixtiu *V. Writes congratulatory Letters to the Duke of Guife ^ 
full ofpraifes, comparing him to thofc holy Macchabees, the Defen- 
ders of the People oflfrael, and exhorting him to continue fuccefsfully, 
and glorioufly to fight for the advancement of the Church, and the 
total extirpation of the Hugonoi^ Which Letters (to encreafe the 
Duke's FameJ were by his dependants caufed to be Printed and di- 
vulged in Paris with as much applaufe in the people, as anger and 
trouble in the King, who could not be plcafed that another fhould 
have more Credit and Authority in his Kingdom than himfelf. 

The AfTembly of the States meet at &loif at the time prefixed. 
viz.. on Ottobcr-i6. After dinner all being met in the great Hafl 
of the Caftle, the King fate down in a Throne rai fed by many ftcps 
from the Earth, and covered wirh a rich cloth of State. The Queens, 
Princes, Cardinals, Peers, and OiHcers of the Crown, fa:e upon 
Seats fitted for that purpofe in two lofigrowe* on the rght hand and 
on the left ; and between them in the inner part of the Theatre fate 
the Deputies according tothc Ancient preheminence of the;'r degre-s : 
and the Duke of Guife as Gr>nnd-M^re with the Staff otO. Tic e in 
lus hand, Hue down upon a Scool at the foot of the State on he 
tight hand ; ard on the left fate the Sifttr de Montbelon^ whorepre- 
ienced the Perfon of the High Chanceilour of the Kingdom. 

<Hhh The 


The King begins the Aflembly with an elegant Oration v wherein 
attefting the earneft defires of the good of his people, and (hewing the 
dangerous condition wherein inteftine difcords had involved the 
Crown, he exhorted every one to lay afiffe their piflions, to forget 
their enmities, to reunite themfelves fincerely under his obedience, 
forfaking all novelties, condemning all Leagues, &c. whicjb had di- 
fturbed both him their Lawful Sovereign, and the peace of the King- 
dom. For as he pardoned all that was paft, Co for the time to come 
he would not endure it, but account in as an Ad of abfolute Treafon. 
That as herefolvtd to perfecute and tread down Herefie, to favour 
thofe that were good, .to reftore the fplendour and force of juftice, 
to advance Religion, to uphold the Nobility, and to disburden the 
Common people '; To he earneftly prayed and conjured every one 
of them, to aiT$ him wiih their good Counfek and fincere inten- 

This fpeech of the King's (lung the Duke of Gmfe to the quick, 
and all thofe of his party. He caufed his Speech to be Printed > which 
ferved much to excufe thofe things which followed afterward. After 
the King's Speech followed the Oratioa of Monthclon, who profe- 
cutes and amplifies the King's Speech.To which the Archbifliop ot.50*r- 
gts anfwered for the Order of the Clergy^the Baron deSenejchayfai^ 
Nobility, and the Prcvoft des Merckands of Paris, for the third Or- 
der of the Commons. The Tuefiay following, the King aniihe States . 
fwear in folemn manner to perform the Edid made before of perfe- 
vering in the Romifi Religion. The Archbi(hop of TZouxgts. (hewed rhe 
States the greamefs and obligation of the Oath which they were to take. 
Jieaiilicu, the new Secretary of State, inrolled an Ad of that Oath, in 
memory of fo folemn an Adion. After it waa.done, they gave thanks to 
God publickly in the Church of S, Saveur* 

The Propoiition of receiving the Council of Trent, made in the Af- 

fembly of the States, is generally rejeded. . The King is requefted to 

declare the King of Navarre incapable of the Crown, and. all others 

fufpeded .to be Hugonots : and after much oppofition he coldly con- 

fents unto it, and gives unto the Deputies a Proteftation which had 

been prefented unto hin^.from the King of Navarre : who, having 

called a Congregation of thofe of bis party & Rachel, had caufcd a 

writing to be printed , wherein he demanded the execution of thofe 

Edids andGrzms which had been fo often made to thofe of his. party : 

the Convocation of a National or univerfal Council, wherein he might 

lawfully be intruded in thoTe things that were comroverted in mar- 

ter of Fauh : and finally, .he protefted to count invalid whatfoe- 

ver ( determined againft him in that Aflembly -at .SAw. To 

which Propofitions of rhe King of Navarre, the French King, added, 

: if juftice requires > no maj? (hould be fentenced or condemned 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

without being fummoned, or without hearing his defence . it was noc 
good to Decree fo heavy a fentence, without giving him warning to 
anfwcr for himfelf, and without hearing his reafons whatfoever 
they were. 

The King feeing the obftinacy of the States, and their refolution 
againft the King of Navarre, procures an abfolution at Rome for the 
Prince of fbnti, and Count Stiffens, of theHoufeof Bourbon) which 
much troubleth the Duke of Guife. 

The King being no longer able to bear the infolencies of the Duke of 
Guife , refolves upon his deftru&ion : and to bring the matter 
the better to pafe, ( feeming ( as it were ) to be ftirred by 
devotion ) determined to remove to a Cell, meaning there to be con- 
fdTed, and receive theSacrament. He called into his Chamber four 
of his Council, fuch as he befttrufted* to whom hedifcovered the 
injuries and indignities he had teceived of the Duke of C/uifc, his er- 
treme ambition . the -danger himfelf ftood in by the Treafons con- 
tinually pradifed by the fakl Duke and his Confederates againft his 
Perfon. He told them he was determined to have the Duke flain as 
a Traytour, which was confented to. The evening of the 22. day of 
December being come, the King commanded Monfuur de Larchant, 
one, of the Captains of his Guard, to double them the next morning, 
and to keep the Hall door, after the Lords of the Council were gone 
in j but that he (hould do it in fuch a manner, as the Duke of Guife 
might not fufpeft any thing, which was done. 

In the morning the King made himfelf ready before day, under D."/.HW. .of 
colour of going Perfonally to the Council , and pretending he fhould O t F^e?* 
ftay there many hoars, difmifled all his Servants : and in his clofet 
there only remained Revol Secretary of State, Colonel 'Alfonfo Cor- 
fo, and Monfeur de la. Baftide, a Gafcon, who were all command- 
ed by him to ftay there. In his Chamber was St* Prtfj one of his 
old Gentlemen-waiters j in the Ward robe the Count de Tcrmes, Great 
Chamberlain, and in the Anti-chamber two Pages, an Ufher that 
waited at the Councit-chamber-door, and LegnaCj with eighc of the 
five and fourty, to whom the King had with very great Promiles. 
fignified his pleafure , and found them moft ready to obey his com- 
mand.At break of day the Counfellours met,and went into theGreatHall. 

The Duke being come into the Council, fitting near the fire , fell 
into a little fwound, but quickly recovered. Secretary Kcvtil came 
into the Council out of the Anti-chamber, and told him the King 
would have him to come unto him in the Clofet. The Dukearofe, 
and entred into the Anti-chamber , which prcfently being locked af- 
ter him, he faw there only eight Gentlemen of the King's Guard 
which were well known unto him : and as he went from thence in- 
to die Clofet, he ftretcht forth his hand to lift up the hanging of the 

H h h 2 door : 

60' ffijC CCCfcltaftiCai friftO?? Cent.. 1 6. 

fiie Duke of door : but at that inftant S. Malin, one -of -the tight, {fobbed- him 
(.utjiSkx. j nto t hg nec k w j t jj a Dagger, and the. reft prefently fell upon. him 
on every fide : and after many wounds given him in the head, be<- 
ingatlait ftruck by Lwnac ( upon whom he had moft violently thrown 
hhpfeh'j he fell down at the door of the Wardrobe, and there ex- - 
pired. The Cardinal of ' <juifc> and Archbifliop of Lions are made 
Prifoners , as alfo ajl the Lords, and other chief adherents of 
the Duke of Gu'iff y with *Annc d' Efte , Duchefs of Nemours^ 
and Mother to the Gni.fes. Pelican, the Duke ofCnife's -Secretary, 
was likewife taken, with all the writings which belonged to his 
Lord : among which they found many Letters, containing divers pra- 
ftices within and without the Kingdom, the, accounts of money which 
he had received from Spaiv, to the fumm of two millions, of Du- 
cats. Many whom the King defircd to get into his hands, efcaped the 
fury of that grefent revenge. The body of the deadDuke being laid t 
up in a green cloth , was carried by the door-keepers into the 
great room beyond the King's Clofet, and. there laid .till, fiyrtkr 

Then the King fent Revol to the Cardinal-Legate- to give him. 
notice of all that had pafled, and to entreat him to meet him at 
Mafs, ihewing how great a defire he had to be excufed to the Pope. 
Then having caufed the doors, to be opened and every one to be admitted, 
into his. Chamber, he faidwith a loud voice, That from thence-for-. 
ward he would have his Subjects learn to know and obey him, that t 
every one therefore from that time fhould forget ftubbornnefs and 
Rebellion: for he would be a King not only in words but indeeds> 
alfo. . So with an angry look, and fowr countenance, he .went down, 
the flairs into his Mothers Lodgings. ., 

The Queen haying .been ill-, lay in her bed when the .Khig came 
unto her, to whonuhe King faid,. This morning I have made myfelf. 
King of Francf, having put to death the King of Tar is. The Queen, 
replyed : You, have made the Duke ofGttifc to be ilain, but God grant, 
you be not now ma4c King of .nothing. Have youforefeen thamif- 
cbiefs that are like to follow,? Two things are neceflary ; , Sptfd and k 
Rejblntiott. So being much afflicted in mind and with the Gout, (he 
held her peace. . And the King went to meet the Legate, that they j 
might go -to Mafs together -, and, before Mafs the Kingdifcotirf<th 
long with the Cardinal off f ftf*rtfoi< about the Duke of Guifes ^^ death, : 
The King feeing that the Legate fhewed no trouble^ at the iniprifon- 
ment of the Cardinals, CoRimandeth that Lews of Lcrain, Cardi-- 
na) of Gitife, be aha put to death. And Du-G.ifi, Captain of the . 
King's Guard caufeth the Cardinal of Gmje to be ilain by four Soul-, 
diers Armed with Partez.Ans* His body was carried to the fame place./ 
the body of thje Djukc his Brother lay. . The King .doybted^. 

that , 

Gent. 1 6. Of FRANCE. 61 

that if their bodies were feen , they might occafion Come tumult : 
and therefore having by the Counfel of his Phyfitian caufed them to 
be buried in quick- lime, within a few hours all their flefh was con- 
fumed, and afterwards the bones w<ere fecretly interred in an unknown 

The Duke of Nemours efcaped out of Prifon on th fourth day, 
Andj&nc d' Efte, .Mother to him and the dead Princes of Lorain^ 
was alfo voluntarily freed by the King, and divers others were fen at 
liberty. The Cardinal of Bourben , the Prince of Janville ( now 
Duke of Gaife ) the Archbifhop oiLions^ and the Duke of Elbeuf, are 
all. put into the Cattle of Amboyfe. The Archbifhop of Lions being 
often examined , would never anfwer , alledging that as Pri- 
mate of all France, be. had no other Sugeriout but the Apoftolick 

Chiles Duke of M^yenne^ third Brother .to the Gmfn^ being ad- 
vertifed of the death of his Brothers, flees from Lions^ untoDijosr, 
a place under his Government. In his valour and wifdom all the 
foundations and hopes of the League were now reduced. TheQ^een*. 
Mother died on January 5. 1589. in the feventieth year of 
her age. 

After the death of the Duke and Cardinal of Guife, the City of Or- 
le.ans rook Arms, fuppreffed the King's Magiftrites, and afTaulted 
the Fortrefs. The Citizens of Chartres- did the fame, though-in the 
late commotions it had been of the King's party. 

At Paris the Council of .the League being cerae together in the 
midft of the City full of tumults, refolved to fendfor Charles Duke 
of Aumale^ who flying from. the. States at Bloys^ out of a certain pre- 
faging fear, had flayed in Parit, and that very day was mired to his 
devotions to the Covent ofCanhxfians hard by the City -, at whofe ar- - 
rival all the multitude ran to his houfe, though late at night, fpending 
the time only in la'nventationi. 

The next day the whole City being in grief, they difpatched di- 
vine fervice quickly, and from the Churches being come to the Town- 
houfe , the fame Council met again there, at which were preknt 
the rooft noted Citizens, and many alfo of the Magiftraces fome 
drawn by an anxious curiofity ^ fome driven by the fear of being torn- 
in pieces by the fury of the multitude -, and fonre came to firxl> reme- 
dy againft "the unbridled rafihnefs ofihe common people. But it was 
aH in vain. Charges of Lorain, Dul<e of Aitmah) being made Go- 
vernour of Ptiris by the- City, Arms the people, and orders them- 
regularly under Commanders. The Preachers from their Pulpits*- 
trumpet out the praifes of the Duke of Guifes -Martyrdom, and -de- 
reflations of that (laughter committed by the King. , Upon December 
2$. the Council of. Sixteen caufed a writing to be prefemed to the ^ 


cent. v6. 

Colkdge of Divines, called the Sorbonnejin 'the name of the Provoft 
and Efchuins of the City, wherein relating how much the Lords of 
Guife deferved of the Catholique Church, and their being murde- 
red by the King as Protectors of the Faith, They demanded whether 
be might not Lawfully be faid to have forfeited his Crown, and 
whether it were not Lawful for his Subjects (notwithftandir.g their Oath 
of Allegiance ) to withdraw their obedience from him, as a Perfecu- 
tor of the holy Church, who had embrued his hands in the blood of a 
Sacred Cardinal. 

The College of Sorlonne, declares Henry III. to have forfeited 
his Right to the Crown , and his Subjects free from their Oath of 
Allegiance. The Kings Arms and Statues are thrown dovfcn ; the Na- 
varrifs and Politicks are ilain : many quiet men left their houfes in 
ihofe tumults to fave their lives. All the Streets were full of Arms, 
ffoifes, and confufions, and the meaneft people raging againft the 
marks of Royalty, committed intolerable infolencies. The Preachers 
aggravated the Parricide committed by the King, and all places were 
full of Libels both in Verfe and Profe, which contained and amplify 
the fame things feveral waies. 

By the advice of the Council of Sixteen all the Counfellours of 
"Parliament and Officers who adhered to the King , are imprifoned 
in the Bxftille. And the Parliament being afterward aflembled to the 
number of i6Q. they with a Publick Declaration aflented to the de* 
pofing of the King, and to the freeing of the City, and fubftituted new 
men in the places of thofe whom they had put out and imprifoned. 
They alfo made a Decree to unite and combine themfelves for the de- 
-fence of Religion, calling that League the Holy union. 

Attheinfurrection of the Parliament and City of Paris, thegreateft 
Cuies and moft Warlike People of France, took Arms likewife, and 
made a General Commotion j fo that the parry of the League, was 
not only grown very great by the conjunction of the principal Cities, 
but was alfo ftrengthened by the abetting of the Nobility, in whom for 
the moft part the Forces of that Crown confift. 

All the Provinces of the Kingdom were divided and difmembred, Ci- 
ties were againft Cities, Caftles againft Caftles, Lords, Gentlemen, 
and meaner perfons againft one another : the taws were trodden 
down, the bond of common Charity broken, the Magiftrates dri- 
ven away from all places , and a moft cruel Civil War with fire, 
(laughter, blood, and rapine, was begun, fo that all commerce being 
broken off, the waies bcfet, the Gentry and Commons Armed, and 
even the very Clergy incompafTed with Guards and weapons, fome- 
Washes rifl|$ $ un der the names of Hngonots and Catholicks,fometimes ofRoy- 
alifts-and Leaguers, fometimes of the holy union and White forces , 
%ietim.s of tfaitfrtf* and Drains, they were as With a fatal 


Cent. 1 6: Of FRANCE. 65 

general Frenzy bent upon the definition of their common Coun- 

The King diiTolved the Aflemblyat Rloys , but many of the Lords, 
as foon 1 as they were departed from Bloys, joyned again to the party 
of the League. Pope Stxtxt V. being toid of the Cardinal of C"//*V 
death, is highly offended, and anfwereth the King's Ambafladours 
very (harply , who come to excufe it to him, and chufeth a Con- 
gregation of Cardinals , who were to confult about the affairs of 

The King writes kind Letters to the Duke of Mayenne, promising 
him very great things : but the faid Duke ( notwithftanding the King's 
promifes) being perfwaded by tJMadam de Montpcrfier, his Sifter, 
makes himfdf Head of the holy union, and gave order to the Siturs 
de Rhofnt, de S. Paul, Chamois, and d' Efchavoles, to recruit their Re- 
giments of French foot, and began to fummon the Nobility and Gentry 
his dependents, and to win the hearts of the people in everyplace. 
On February 15. the Duke came to Paris with 4000. Souldicr?, 
and 500. Gentlemen -, there he is declared Lieutenant General of the 
Crown of f ranee. On February 22. the Duke took poffeftion in the 
Parliament of his extraordinary dignity, having taken apublickOath 
for the defence of the Romift Religion againft every one, to preferve 
entire the State belonging to the Crown of France, to defend the privi- 
ledges of the three Orders, the Clergy, Nobility, and Commons, 
and to caufethe Laws and Constitutions of the Kingdom to be obferved,as 
alfo the authority and power of the Parliamentf.After which Oath many 
Prayers and Proceffions having been made, he chofe and appointed 
the Council of the Union, confifting of forty of the moft eminent per- 
fons of the League, which with hisaififtance, was to treat of, and to con- 
clude all the moft weighty affairs j the Council of Sixteen being ne- 
verthelefs left , and particularly appointed for the fpecial Government 

Now the Duke of his Forces began to form an Army, and in every 
Province he allotted both Forces and Commanders to order the af- 
fairs of the League, and to make war againft tbofewho were of the 
King's party. He difpatcheth Minifters toRowe to confirm the Pope's 
inclination, wh6 afterward publifteth a Monuory againft the King of 
France, and foments the League exceedingly. 

The King being neceffirated to make War, agretth with the King 
of Navarre, and concludes a Truce with him. TheSpariJIi .'.'Atnbaf- 
fadour leaveth the Court, and goeih to refide in c Paru with the Heads 
of the League. The Pope's Legate departeth atfo, and not having been 
able to perfwade the Duke of Afayenne to confent to Pc^cc, goes out 
o the Kingdom. . The War begins furioufly in every place. The 


64 3lje ccclcfiafttcai %ifto?p cent. 16. 

'King of Navarre griws Liberty of Confcience in thofe places he had 
taken , and publi'heth a Afantfejto , offering to take Arms againft 
thofe that rebelled againfl their natural King. The Duke ot'Efternon 
sifter the death of the Cuifes returned to his former greatnefs with the 
King. Captain 'Dti-Cdft^ who killed the Cardinal of Gmfe, treats 
about an accord with thofc of the League by ehe perfwafion of the Arch- 
bifhopof Lions. 

The Truce was concluded by the Kings of France and Navarre 
upon thefe Conditions. That the publick exercife of the Romifo Reli- 
gion fhould be reftored in all places held by the Hugonots, without 
any exception. That the goods of the Clergy fhould be reftored to 
them, wherefoever they were, and that all Prifoners which were , in 
iheir hands {hould be fet at liberty. That the King of Navarre 
fhould be obliged to ferve the King Perfonally with 4000. Foot, and 
1200. Horfe, wherefoever he fhould be Commanded; and that all 
die Cities, Towns and places of his party (hould obferve the Laws and 
Conftinrtions of the Kingdom, obey the Parliament and the King's 
Magiftrates ; and on the other fide that the King of Navarre fhould 
receive the City of Sanmur, and keep it in his power, to have a Paf 
over the River Loire -^ which yet he would be obliged to reftore at the 
King's pleafure without any contradiction. Which Capitulations 
. after they were agreed upon and ratified, Beauliett the Secretary of 
*State delivered up Saumur to the King of Navarre, who gave the 
Government thereof to Sicur du Pleflls Mornay, his old Confident. 
The fame truce was made in Daupkinc between Colonel Atfonfo Cor- 
fo on the King's part, and Monfeur de lejdiguiers, for the King of 
Navarre ; and they united their Forces for their common defence. 
The Proteftams rejoyced exceedingly at this. reconciliation , magni- 
fying their 1 Faith and Obedience toward the King, to the confufion of 
rhofewho till 'then had published and defamed them as tumultuous and 
difobedient Rebels. 

The King receives an aid of mony from the Great Duke QiTttfcany^ 
and fends to the Srviffes and Germans to a/fift him with Forces both 
of Horfe and Foot. Hecalleth all the Prefidems and Counfellours of 
the Parliaments of Paris, Roven, and'Z)*/0, who were fled from the 
popular fury, refolving that the Parliament of Paris fhould refide in 
Tours, that o^Rsven mGaen, in the fame Province 6f Normandy^ 
snd that of .Dijon at Chtloni, and then by a (harp Edid declared 
them all Rebels, who being chofen to the dignity of the Parliaments, 
fliould continue to refide in thofe Cities and places which had with- 
drawn ihemfelves from his obedience , and forbad all men to bave 
any recourfe to them to feekfor juftice, declaring all fentences to be 
void, whifh they fhould pronounce under the name and title ofPar- 
liament. Thelame declaration he made againft tlie Du'.e 

Cent. 16. _ Of FRANCE. 65 

ne, againft the Duke of Aumale^ and others. Then having appointed 
Governours in all Provinces he gave Commiffion to make Levies, to 
draw Souldiers together, and that the War fhould be begun in every 

Th^ Pari/ians at the news of the Truce between the King and the 
Proteftants , befides many publick figns of contempt, forbid the King 
to be prayed for any longer in the Canon of the Mafs. 

The Duke of Montpenfier begins the War againft thofe of the League, 
dcfeateth the (jautiers in Normandy, and the Count of Brifac's Forces, 
who came to divert the fiege of Palais. The Duke of Mayenne takes 
t'endofme, and the Count de Brienne Prifoner. An interview was had 
between the French King and the King of Navarre af the Pare dit Tlcf- 
fis without the Walls of Totirs. eJWayexne afTauits the King's Army 
at Tours, where they fight a long time. The King himfdf orders and 
difpofeth his Souldiers, puts himfelf among thofe that fight. But 
Supplies coming from the King of Navarre, he gives off the en- 

The Duke of Aatnalc befiegeth Senlu : Monfieur de Longuevitle 
go^s with fmall Forces to relieve it, and raiferh the fiege with a great 
Slaughter of the Leaguers. Aumalt fighteth, and lofeth the day wiih 
Ts Artillery, Baggage, and thirty Colours, 

Monfietir de Saucy having raifed great Forces in Switzerland, and 
begun the War with Savoy, marcheth towards Paris againft the Lea- 
guers, whither the King was alfo advancing. But the Count de Soif- 
fans being aiTaulted by the Duke de Mercosur, is taken Prifoner. The 
Sieur de Savenfe going with 400. Horfe to joyn with Mtyenne, is 
routed by the Sicur de Chaftillon, and taken Prifoner. 

The King takes (jergeau and Piviers* But foartres fee open their 
Gates ^ and having driven out the dependents of the League, received 
the King with all his Army. 

The Pope by Monitory declares the King liable to cenfure, if with- 
in {ixty daies hcreleafes not the Prelates, and doth not penance for 
the Cardinal of Guifes death. The King being troubled at ic fafteth 
forty hours : ha faid, he thought it hard, that he who had ever fought 
and laboured for Religion, fhould berafhiy Excommunicated, becaufe 
he would not fuffer his own throat to be cut by the Arms of his Re- 
bellious Subjeds : and that thofe who had facked R^me, and kept the 
Pope himfelf Prifoner, had never been Excommunicated. The King 
of Navarre being prefem anfwered : But they were Victorious : 
Let your Majefty ende.vour to Conquer, and afluredly the cenfures 
(hall be revoked , but if we be overcome, we (hall all die condemned 

The King taking Eftampes, hangs the Magistrates, and gives the 
pillage of the Town to the Souliiers. Montcrcan was alfo taken by 

I i i Storm, 

66 ^ecccledadfcai^tfto^ cent. 16. 

Siorm, and facked. Poiffy yielded ic felf, aad now the King was Ma- 
fter of that fpacious Bridge, which there gives paflage over the Seme. 
Here Afyitfettper joyned with the King's Army. Tointoife was after 
a bloody afiault alfo forced to yield. The next day the forreign Army 
arrived at Poijfy- bridge, there the SKitfcj joyn wiih t eKing. All 
the Bridges being loft, all the neighbouring Towns furrendered, all the - 
pafiages of the River flopped and ihe City ftraimed on all fides, there 
was no. other hope left bur what the prefence of the Duke of Afayenne 
and of the Army afforded, which was all (hut. up within, the Circuit o 
the Suburbs of Paris. 

The City of Paris being much .ftraimed ,and under great terreur 
C a thing well known to the King by the frequency, of thbfe who ran 
every hour.from. the City to his Camp. ; upon thelaftday of July 
he would needs Perfonally view the EnemiesPofts, refolvingon the 2. 
of t<4tig)$ to aflfault their, works on every fide. In his return toward 
S. CUud flopping his Horfe upon an hill, from whence he faw all the 
CitydiftinAly, he brake forth into thefe words. O Paris, thou art 
the be ad of the Kingdom ..bat an Head too great^ and too Capricious it- is 
necefaryby let ting blood to cure thee again. I hapethat within few *4**t 
here fiall be neither walls nor hottf (S> but only the wry fcotftepsof 

But now there was In.Paris one Jaqitcs Ctewevt, a. Frier of the Order 
ofS, Dominicl^, born of mean Parents in a Village called Sorbone, in 
the Territory of the City of Sens, a young man about twenty two years , 
of age, and alwaies thought by his fellow- Friers, and others that knew 
hitn, to be an half-witted fellow, and rather a fubjed of /port, than to 
be feared. This fellow refolves to hazard his life to kill the King-, 
lyhomhe called by the name of Tyrant, and to free that holy City 
(as he faidj from Sennacherib* violeuce^ with which refolution he : 
wftit to Dodror Burgoine Prior of his Covenr, and imparted this dam- 
nable projed to Jiimj to Father Commolet, toother Jefuites, and to 
the Heads of the League, all of them encouraging him to this deviliflr 
dehgn, withpromife of Abbeys and Bifliopricks if he efcaped, and if he 
died in the aftion to be made a Martyr, and have place ia heaven above- 
the Apoftks. 

To that end he goes from Paru having gotten a letter of credit from- 
t|ie Count of Br.ienne^ who having been taken at S.,0z/jw, was ftilJ Fri- 
fpnerinthe City, alluring him, that he was to fpeak- with the King- 
about^ a bufinefs of infinite importance. Upon the fif&ofjtopufl in the 
morning, the Frier being brought in to. the King, gives him^the letter 
from the Count de Brienne, which the King read : and having bid him 
proceed to tell his bufinefs, he feigned to feel for another paper to pre- 
terit it . : and whilft the King flood intentively expeding it, he having 
Ofawn hisknifeocuofhisfleeve, ftruckjmoon_rheleft fideof the nave!,; 


Gene. i<J. Of FRANCE. 

and lefc all the blade buried in the wound. The King feeling the blow, Kin? H CW in. 

drew forth the knife, and in drawing of it made the wound wider, and 

prefently ftruck it hitnfelfup to the haft in the Frier's forehead, who 

at the fame time ( la Guefle running him ihorow with his fword ,) feU 

down dead ; and was no fooner fallen, but Momverat , Lognac, and the 

Marque (s de Mirefoix, Gentlemen of the King s Chamber, who were 

prefent at the fad, threw him out of the window, where by the com* 

mon Souldiers he was torn in pieces, burnt, and his aflies thrown into 

the River. The King was carried toJiis bed, and fending for the King 

of Navarre, he committed to him the care of the Army. He told him, 

ifcuftom of killing Kings fliould grow in ufe, neither fhouldhe be 

long fecure. He exhorted the Nobility to acknowledge the King of 

Navarre to whom the Kingdom of right belonged. His Confeffour 

abfolved him and gave him the Sacrament the fame night. And having 

embraced the King of Navarre, having called his Chaplain, he in the 

prcfence of them all rehearfed the Creed after the ufc of the Roman 

Church : and having eroded himfelf, began the Mfirere, but his fpeech 

failing himinthefe words, Redde ^mthi Utititm .falutis tue, he died., 

having lived 36. years, and Reigned 15. and juft 2. Months. In 

tiis death ended the Line of Kings ot"thehoufcof^/0tf, and the pofte- 

rity of Philip III. Sirnamed the Hardy-, and by vertue of the Salique 

Law the Crown devolved to the Family of Bourbon neareft of the 

blood, and defcended from Robert Count of Clermont, the fecond Son &f 

St. Lewes. 

Here let the Reader be advertised, that when the Jefuites have made 
thoice of an Inftrument for that King-killing fervice, that they intend 
tofethim about- they do not put him upon it till they have firftraifed 
and fitted his fpirit for the Service by this means, Firft they, bring him 
to a very private place in a Chappel, or Oratory, where the knife lies 
wrapt up in a cloth with an Ivory (heath, with divers Characters, and 
Agnut JD"supon it. They draw the knife, and bedew it with holy 
water, and hang upon the haft of it forne Beads confecrated, with this 
Indulgence, that fo many blows as he gives in killing the King, fo ma- 
ny fouls (hall he deliver out of Purgatory. Then they give the knife ta 
him, commending it to himinthefe words, O than chofenSon of God, 
take to theethe Sword 0/Jephte, Sampfon, David, Gideon, Judith, of 
Macchabees, of Julius the fecond, vtho defended himfelf front the Princes 
ky bis fword. :Go, and be wifely cow-agious, and Gcdftrengthen thy 
hand. Then they all fall upon their knees with this prayer : Be prefent, 
Q ye Cherubim* and Serajdjims, be prefect ye Thrones, Powers, holy 
^Angels fillthisfcjfcl witbgtory, .give him'the fiovpn of all the holy Mar- 
tyrs j he ^ no longer ours but your companion. And thou, O GW, 
ftrengthen his arm*, that he may do thy will, give hi m thy he Imtt, and 
f?igt to fie from bit enemies, give him thy comforting beams y \vhiib 
lii Z 

cent. id. 

may joy him in the midft cfhisforrorrs.. Then they bring him to the 
Altar, where is the Pidure ofjayues Clement, who killed King Henry 
III. the Angels protecting him, and then they (hew him a Crown of 
glory, and fay, Lord rejpeft this thy arm and Executioner of thy jn- 
ftice. Then tour Jefuites are appointed privately to talk with him, 
they tell him, that th^y fee a Divine luftre in his face, which moves them 
to fall down and kifs his feet ; and now ( fay they ) he is no more a 
mortal man. They envy his happinefs, every one fighing, and faying, 
Would God I were in your room, that they might efcape Purgatory, 
and go immediately into Paradife. But if they perceive him to fhrink, 
and to ,be troubled, after all this they will fometimes affright him with 
terrible apparitions in the night and fometimes have the Virgin M<ary y 
and the Angels appear, &c. 

After the King's death ihe Image and Portraiture of the traiterous 
Monk who kilkd the King, by the commandment of the chief of the 
League, was raoft artificially framed in brafs, and other painting , 
wherewith they garnifhed both their houfes and their Churches. Then 
was he Canonized, and among the Superfluous prayed unto us as a 
Martyr, whom they called by the name of St. Jaime s Clement. 

Henry King of Navarr* fuceeeded Henry III. in the Kingdom of 
grance. The Dukt of Mayenne ( not daring to take upon him- the title 
of King ) caufed it by publick Proclamation to be given to Charks 
Cardinal of B.ourbon^ then a Prifoner, and coined boch Gold and Sil- 
ver with the Pidure of King Charles X. And difguifing the ufurpati- 
on of bis-authority , he accepted the title which the General Council of 
the union gave him, of Lieutenant (general of the State^ and Crown of 

TheDukeofLtf.vw6* told the new King, that the Princes, Lords, 
and Officers of the Crown, together with the .Cacholick Nobility that 
was in the Army, were ready to acknowledge him King of franc* , to 
fcrve him againft every one, fmce God and nature had called him to 
the Crown by a lawful fucce (lion :.but withal they befoughr him he 
would be pleafed. to turn to the Caiholick Religion, to take away 
.the pretences of his enemies , and the fcruples of his fervants. 

The King gives them thanks , telling them how ready he was to re- 
quite their duty and fidelity, both in publick and in particular ; butd.'- 
iired they would not think it ftrange , if he did not fo prcfemly fatib/K 
their firft requefts, becaufe the quality of the thing-demanded, required 
a convenient time of advice, and the ripenefs of a grounded refolntioiL 
That he fet a greater value upon his Soul and Confidence than upon all 
earthly grearnefs. . That he had been bred, in the Reformed Religion, but 
r.evenhelefs he would not be obftinate. That he was re^dy to fubmits 
hirnfeif -either to a General or National Council, and to the inftrufti- 
c.ns which without palliating ths.tnuh, Ihould be given him by learned 


Cent. id. Of PR A N C E. 6 9 

confcientious perfons. That he had a firm refolution to endeavour the 
fatisfadion of his Subjeds ; but that conjundure was not proper co 
put his good defires in effed, left his adion and declaration fhould 
ieem feigned, and extorted by force, or elfe perfwaded by worldly 
interefts. Wherefore heintreated them to flay till a fit opportunity ; 
and if in the mean time they defired any condition or fecurity for the 
maintenance of the Catholick Religion, he was ready to give them all 
the fatisfadion they could wifti for. 

After their departure the Stenrde la Novf, a Proteftant, tells the 
King, hemuft never think to be King of prance if he turn not Ca- 

At laft it was concluded, that the King taking a prefixed time for 
his turning to the Rotmfj Religion, he IVould fecure the Scare of the Ca- 
tholick Religion, and 'thai upon thofe terms they would receive and 
follow him. And at laft a writing was mutually agreed on between bo:h 
Parties, whereby the Popifo Princes, Lords, and Officers of the 
Crown, Nobility and Souldicry on the one fide, fwear fidelity to the 
King ; and on the other fide the King f\vears to the maintenance of the 
Popifli Religion. The Duke of Ejpcrnon (landing upon precedency, 
will not fign the writing, but departs from Courr. Many Lords, and 
a great part of the Souldiers, following the Duke ofEfpernon's exam- 
ple, leave the Camp, fo that in few daies the Army is decreafed to half 
ihe number. Many of the Proteftants alfo disbanded out of anger and 
.difcontent, and returned in great abundance to the Cine* of their 

The King raifech the fiege frocn ?*rw, and divides his Forces inic 
convenient places. The Cardinal of Boarhr/j'^ taken outofC/w/;0v., 
and removed \.QF,ontenayj aflronger place, where he is kept with ftri- 
cter Guards. 

The Duke of Luxembourg isfent Ambafiadour to the Pope by the 
Catholick Royalhfts : and the Kirrg joints the AfTembJy at Tours 
which is made the Head-quarter-of hS'par:y. The body of King Hen- 
ry III. is laid in the great Church of Compdgn^ with very little .Pomp, 
aod fuch as the necefliry of the times, would permit by King Henry l\\ 
who went towards Normandy with all poiTible fp;ed. The King's 
Army is reduced to but 6000. Poor, and 1400. Horfe, yet hemar- 
.cheth with good fuccefs as far as D/V-^r, where he fortifies his quarter^ 
pofTcffing all places of advantage. 

The DufcetM^greww being come before the King's trenchcs^dra^vs 
its Army in Battalm , but the King's Souldrers coming only toskir- 
mifh, no Battel followetb. They that were in the League making 
figns of coming over to the King's party, are received by them at [he 
Maladery, bur being entred in an hoftile manner full upon them that, 
hid brought them in,, and make themfelves maft^rs of < he pl-icc : where- - 


cccicCaftical %(fto?p ccnt> \6. 

upon both Armies joyn Bated, and the Kingbftng relieved by Monfa&r 
de Chaftrflon, recovereth the trenches, and the Duke of M^tyenm mar- 
cheih homDicpe with his Army. 

The King came to Amiens, ihe chief City of Picardy, where he was 
entertained with very great pomp, being met without the Gates by all 
the Citizens , who prefemed unto him aCanopy of State to be earned 
over him, as the cuftom is to do unto the King, but he refufed ir, gi- 
ving great teftimony of his prudence and moderation by an aft of 
Co great modefty. 

Whtlft he flayed at Amiens, Elizabeth Queen of 'England^ firft 
Tent him twenty thoufand pounds Sterling, with Powder, Munition fot 
War, and certain Ships alfo to ferve at his command : and caufing a 
general Mufter to be taken in mod of the Shires of fLngland, (he fertt 
-4oo. Englifl) Souldiers, and icoo Scots very well appointed, 
and furnilhedr All the money he prefently diftributed among his 
Souldiers. The General of the Evglijl) was the Noble Peregrine *r- 
Ty, Lord Willougkby, which Forces were again recruited with a fup- 
fdy of three thoufand Foot, which were fern into tfritany, under the 
Conduct of that Son of tstfors, Sir John Norris. Thefe joyning with 
the Prince of Dombes, General of that Province, did many worthy ex- 
ploits for the French King. 

The King now marcheth towards Paris, having in Ms Army 20000. 
Toot, 3000. Horfe, and fourteen great Pieces. He afTaults the Sufa- 
yrbs of Waris U^QH All-Saints-day, and taking them gives the Pil- 
lage to the Souldiers. In the afiault above 900- Parifans were flam, 
and more than 400. taken Prifoners, among which Father Edmond 
'Bxrgoine, Prior of the Covent of Jacobin^ who being convicted by 
witnefs to have publickly in the Pulpit praifedthe Murder of Henry 
111. and to have counfelled and inftigated the murderer, comparing him 
alfo in his Sermons after the fad to Judtth, and the dead King to 
Holofernes, and the City delivered to Bethxlia, he was by Judgement 
x>f the Parliament of Tours Sentenced to be drawn in pieces by four 
'Horfes, tits quarters burned, and his aflies fcattered in the wind. 
Which Sentence was feme few months after feverely exe- 

Yet notwithftanding the pillaging of the Suburbs, charge was gi- 
ven roc to violate either Churches, Monafteries or other Sacred pla- 
ces : which was fo exactly obferved v that Mafies were faid that day 
in all Churches, as if there had been no fuch bufinefs , and all the'&- 
vtamjh in the King's Army were prefent at ttem celebrating that Holy- 
day with great rcjoydng. 

But at the arrival of the Duke of Mayenne^ the King leaves the 
Suburbs of Parit, and coming to Eftampes , he caufeth it to be difman- 
Ved. Many fuccefles hapned to the King's party through aft France. 


Cent. \6> Of FRANCE. ?l 

The King takes Vendofac, and gives the piltage to his Soufdiers, con- 
demns the x Governour to death, for his untaithfulnefs : and Father 
Robert^ a Cordelier ^ who had there publickly commended the King V 
murderer, and with his Sermons excited the people. 

At this time flourished Lambtrtut D^nnmt^ a French- Divine of Or- 
leans. Quin & Lamb. D tin* us virfxn: apprime truditm, & de in- 
ftruendu aliis optime merit us ', Phyjtcam fuaw Theolog'tcam, tarn ex Ve- 
teri quam novo codice non in utili labor e exftrxxit. Tych. Brah.Epft. 
Jlftron. lib! I. 

Henry IV. is acknowledged King of France with publiekfolemnity" 
at Tows he defers the AfTemblingof the States : and in (hort time- 
makes himfelf Mafter oi all the Towns and FortrefTes of Nor- 

The Pope refolves to fend aid to the League againft the King. He 
declares Cardinal Henrico Gaetano Legate to the League of France. 
He appointed moreover a feleft number of Prelates to accompany the 
Legate, men of good Learning, and experienced in the matters of 
Government, among whom were Lorenzo TZianchttti, and-Filippo Se- 
ga, who after were Cardinal, Marco Antonio Mocenigo Bifliop of 
fi'neda, a man weil verfedin affairs, and highly efteemed by the Pope, 
Pfancefco Panigarola y Birtiop of -Afli, a renowned Preacher, and Ro* 
ben Bellarmine a learned Jefuite. To the choice of thefe men the' 
Pope added Bills of Exchange to the Merchants of Lions for three 
hundred thoufand crowns, with Commiffion to- the Legate to difpofe 
of them according tooccafion, but particularly to fpend them for the 
infranchifement of the Cardinal o( Bvitrbon, upon which he (hewed his 
mind was fixed more than upon any other thought whatfo- 

But the Pope by letters from the Duke of Luxemburg, found, that 
what the Agents of the League had reprefented to him, Was vain : 
whereupon the Pope gave Orders and Commiffions to his Legate , 
to fhew himfelf no lefs Neutral inthefecular pretenfions of the Prin- 
ces, than moft zealous concerning Religion, and not to value one- 
French-man above another, provided he were obedient to the Church, 
and generally liked by the Kingdom .- and that he fhould not (hew him- 
felf an open enemy to the King of Navarre, fo long as there was any 
hope he might return into the bo fom of the Church. 

But thefe advertifements were very contrary to the principal fcopeof 
the Embaflfy, which was to uphold the Catholick partyofthe League, 
as the foundation of that Religion in France, fo that the fubftance of ; 
the bufinefs changed in the variety of circumftances, did fo difturb the 
Execution, that it was afterwards governed more by the diverfny-ef ac- 
cidents than by any determinate resolution. 

7* - cent. 16. 

The Cardinal-Legate being come into France, required Colonel 
jiljovfo Cor fa, nor only to rcrbear molefting Greitobie 2nd Valence-) 
( which Cities alone held for the League in Dauphine) but alfo that 
as a Catholick and ftranger, he fhould forfake the King's party , and 
joyn with the union. But he anfwered, that he was indeed a Catho- 
lick, and an obedient Son to the See of Rome infpiritual things j bur 
that having nude las Fortune ?,s a Souldie-r, in ihe frrvice of the King 
of France, he could not defift from following him, but was bound to 
do what he could in the affairs of the Prince whom he fcrved. This 
anftver troubled the Legate, and the rather, becaufe being cccie to 
X./0w,.hc found the bulinefs of the League in great difordcr by the 
King's profperous fuccefs. The Count of Brifac, appo ; medac iirftto 
meet ihe Legate, and fecure his paflage ^ was forced to face about, 
and employ himfelf in the affairs of Normandy. The Duke of Nev ers 
invited him to come into his State, where ftanding Neuter, he might 
freely take thofe wayes as might appear mod convenient to him. On 
. the other fide the Duke of ' Mayetmc ceafed not to follicite him to come 
to Ps.ris, (hewing him that without the authority of his name, and 
thofe helps which were hoped, for from him, the League was in dan- 
ger to be diflblved, and fubdued by the King's forces -, and all the 
reft of the Kingdom would remain oppreSed by the fJu' 

The Legate having overcome many difficulties, arrives at 
where hecaufcdthe Pope's Breve of the 15. of Otto\w to be publi- 
fhed, wherein after an honourable commemoration of the merits of 
the Kingdom of 'ranee toward the See oi Rome^ &c. Heattefted, 
t^at hehadchofen Cardinal (jaetatw Legate to the Kingdom of France, 
with power to ufe all means fitting , to protect the Catholick Reli- 
gion, to recal Hereticks into the boforac of the Church -, to reftore 
-the Peace and tranquillity ofth* Kingdom -, and finally, to proeurethat 
under one only good, pious, and truly Catholick King, the people 
of Frame might to the glory of God live in quietnefs and tranquillity, 
after fo many calamities of War. Wherefore he prayed and exhorted all 
the Orders and Degrees of France to perfevere in the Catholick Religi- 
on, andto labour to extinguifh and roocupiheevilofHerefie,to cutoff 
the cccafions of difcord^ and that particular enmities, quarrels, and 
Civil Wars bting laid aiide, they (houW refolve to yield obedience 
to a lawful truly Catholick King, and the Divine worfhip being 
reftored under his fhadow , to life in charitable union and 

Two different Declarations followed upon the publication of this 
Breve v one of the Parliament of Tours, by which all ferfons were for- 
bidden to obey or acknowledge the Legate : the other of the Parlia- 
ment of Parts, by which all were exhorted to receive the Fatherly 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

love of the Apoftolick See, and to give due Reverence to the Legates 
admonitions. After which contrary Declarations, many Learned men 
fight for their Factions with their Pens, as the Souldiers*with their 

Aid being defired by the League from the King of Spain, the Sieur 
de la, Mtfhe refufeth to advance beyond ^he Frontiers of France from 
Flandtrt, unlefs the King of Spain be declared Protedor of the Crown 
of France, with authority to difpofe the chief pm of the Temporal and 
Ecclefiaftical Dignities, which Prerogatives they called, las ffarcatde 
jtiftitia, marks of juftice. 

The Duke of M*yennc will not hearken to an agreement with the 
King. The Archbilhop of Lions^ lately imprifoned at esfmboife^ be- 
ing newly fet at libeny by Captain Du-Cjaft for a great fumm of: 
money, arid come to Parts^ is made High Chancellocr to the Duke 
of Mayenne, and Prefident of the Council. The Pope's Legate grants 
unto Mayenne the three hundred thoufand crowns brought for the en- 
largement of the Cardinal of Bourbon. 

Mayenne bdiegeth MutUn, a fmall place, but feated upon the pafs 
of the River Seine, , at the entr ing into Normandy^ which therefore 
next to Pointoife, hindered the bringing of Victuals to Paris : where 
after 2.5. dayesfiege, news came that the Old Caftle ziRovcn^ was 
feized by fome Seditious perfons, which caufcd him to raife the fiege, 
and march to Rouen to appcafe the trouble?. 

On the other fide the King befiegeth 1)rettXj and the Duke ofM^y- 
enne being joyned with the Spamflj fupplies from Flanders^ marchin'g 
towards Dreux^ refolvethto fight. 

The German Infantry raifed for the King rfFrance, turn for the 
League under the Command of Colonel S. Paul. The Army of 
the League had in it four thoufand five hundred Horfe, and twenty 
thoufand Foor. 

The King's Army was but three thoufand Horfe, and eight thoufand 

The King's Army being refrefhed they marched toward the field of 
T-vry, appointed by the King for the place of Battel. Here the Ar- 
mies joyned, wherein the King obtained a great Vidory. The King 
all Arnu-d on Horfe- back vifits every Divifion with great diligence, 
and exhort? his Souldiers with great vehemency. At laft, ftanding 
ftill at the head of the main Battalion, joyning his hands, and lifting up 
his eyes to Heaven, He faid fo loud, that he was heard by many, O 
Lord) than knoweft the intentions of my heart, and with the eye of thy 
Providence^ than pierce ft into my mo ft ft cret thoughts. If it be tot ft 
for this People that Ifoould attain the Crown y vrhicb belongs to me by 
right, do thou favour and Protect the juflice of my Arms. But */ 
thy \vi/l hath determined the contrary-^ if thou tak?ft Wi*y my Kittg- 

K k.k. dam, 

74 cent. 16. 

fc) /;/<? alfo at the fame time, that I way fied my blood 
fighting At the Head of thofe vpho put themfehes in danger for my 

Jake- * V 

At the end of which words there arofc in the Front of the Battel a 
loud acclamation from thofe that heard him, with an unanimous cry of 
vivf It Ry ' which being taken and redoubled from Squadron to Squa- 
dron through the whole Array, gave anhappy beginning to the Battel. 
The Cav-alry of the League befog defeated, fave themfelves by flight. 
The Swiffis laying down their Colours and Arms upon the ground, 
had quarter given them by Marcfch'al de Biron. ^ht Germans wha 
having been raifed by the King's money, had revolted to the Duke of 
Lorain, were all put to the fword. The French Infantry that yielded, 
had their lives given them. The Duke de Mayenne fled towards 
Dreitx, and having entred the Town, broke up the Bridge before his 
own people were all come, which was the reafon that multitudes of 
them ( the King's Army pur fuing themj were miferably drowned. 
The Reirers of the League fight till they are all deftroyed. There 
died that day above fix thoufand of the League, among which were the 
Duke of Brmifvyick^i the Sicur de la Chaftaigneray, and the Count cT 
JLgmtnt, who was cut in pieces with all his "Landers. Divers Lords, 
with 204. Enfigns and Cornets were taken by the King, with all their 
Canon and Baggage. On the King's fide there were but 500. (lain, 
This Batiel was tought on flfarch 14. 1 590. 

The news of this defeat came the next day to Paris, whereat every 
one was afraid. But on March 16. Father Chriflino dcNizjvitoQk 
an occdion to difcourfe on thofe words Whom I love, J rebuke *nd 
ckaflen. ] And in the Pulpit tells the Parifans of the defeat, and by 
his Eloquence prevails fo on them, that they refolve to endure any 
thing for the Cathclick Religion, without fearing the heavy tryal of a 
future liege, or Famine. The fame didWifftam Rofe^ "Boucher, Pre- 
voftj and allthe other Preachers ; and laft of i\\Franctfco Panigaro- 
ke, who, though he Preached in the Italian Tongue, was much fol- 
lowed by reafon of the fame of his Eloquence. 

After the yielding of other places, Melun is taken by the King's 
Army, a little Town, but well Fortified, feven Leagues diftant from 
Paris, through which run two Currents of the River Seine, and there- 
fore is dividedinto three parts by the ftream, and only joyned together 
by Bridges. 

The Sieur de Vttteroy being come to Melun to treat an agreement 
with the King, perfwades him by manyreafons to turn Catholick, and 
propounds a deflation of Arras. He was fentbythe Duke oft^fay- 
enne unto the King. To which ihe King gave a large anfwer. And as 
to the point of Religion, he faid, he had already contented thofe Ca- 
tholicks that followed him, who were many, of great wildom and 


Cent. 16. Of FRANCE. 

ftrength, and very great extraftion, to whofe determination he thought 
all the reft might accommodate themselves. M<rc Antonio Jtiofeni- 
go, RifhopofCeneda treats with the Marefchalde &ron, and propounds 
a Ce/Tation of Arms, but it is rejeded. 

All hope of Truce tailing, the Part fans prepared for a find: fiege from 
the King's Army. The people was already difpokd by thelongexhor- 
tations ot their Preachers, and follicitations ofthofe that Governed, to 
endure the (iege : being wrought upon by the frequent Decrees of the 
SorboK) and by the Declarations and Proteftations of the Cardinal Le- 
gate, that an agreement could not be treated with theHereticks without 
damnation. Hereby mens minds were fo confirmed, that fome were 
put to death for faying, it was better to make peace with the King, than 
ftarve with hunger* The Duke of Mayenne by many Letters allured 
them that he would relieve the City within a few weeks. 

To encreafe this inclination in the people , a folemn Proceffion was 
made, by Order from the Cardinal Legate, to implore Gods affiftence 
in thofe necefficies : in which Proceffion, the Prelates, Prie/U, and 
Monks of the feveral Religious Orders, walked all in their accuftomed 
habits, but befides them, they were Armed alfo openly with Corikts, 
Guns, Swords, Parteians, and all kind of Arms offenfive and defen- 
five, making at once, both a (hew of devotion, and conftancy of heart 
prepared to defend their lives ; which heightened the courage of the 
common people. 

Af:er this Proceffion, they made another of all the Magiftrates of 
the City ; and among the Ceremonies of it, the Duke of Ntnwws their 
Governour, and other Commanders of the Souldiers, and Magiftrates of 
the people, fwore publickly in the great Church, to defend the City 
to the laft man, and never make an agreement with an Heretick Prince, 
for any danger or calamity whatfoeverfhould befall them. The King 
drew nigh to Paris , and fliuts up the paffages of the River of Seme on 
every fide, and the City is in great fcarcity for want of Victuals, 
Cardinal Gondy, Biftop of Paris, gives v/ay that the Church Plate 
fhould be turned into money, for the relief of the poor : and the Cardi- 
nal Legate diftributed among the poor 30000. crowns extorted from 
the Pope with much ado. The AmbafTadour Adendoz.a promifed (ix- 
fcore crowns a day in Bread. The Dutchefles and ihe richeft Lords 
fold their houfhold fluff, jewels, and Ornaments, to relieve the urgent 
neceftides of the common people. 

During this fiege the Cardinal of Bourbon dies at Fontenay^ which 
produceth no alteration at ail : only the Duke of Mayenne in- 
vites the Deputies of the Provinces to Meaux , to chufe another 

The Duke of sJMayenne having met the Duke of Parmtut Conde, 
obtains of him 1500. Spaniflj Foot, towards the relief of Part*. In 

KJtk a that 

that populous City the Famine was fo fore, that within the fpace of 
three Months moe than an hundred thoufand died in ir. 

The Duke of Parma cometh with an Army to relieve Part* - : at his 
arrival at^w.v, he joyns with the Duke of M^yenne. The Abbot 
del Btne'dies, a man of great abilitie in Scate affairs, at which the 
King is troubled. Upon Auguft 30. the King rifeth from thefiegeof 
Part*. While the two Armies lie ftill obfcrving one another, the Pa- 
rifans furnifh themfelves with forae Provifions. The King fends a 
Trumpet to the Duke of Mayenne . to challenge him to fight. The 
Duke of Parma drawes his Army into Battalia, as if he would give 
Battel, goes away fuddenly to Lagny, and deceives the King. The 
Duke of Parma, takes Lagny before the face of the King's Army, 
whereby the pafTage of the River tjtyfarne being freed, upon Sfptemb* 
6. great (lore of v iduals enter into Paris. 

The King withdraws his Army, and marcheth towards St. Dtnnu. 
He givesaScaladoto the City, which proveth ineffectual. TheDuks 
of Pur ma, takes Corbeil, and fo abfolutely frees Par if from want of 
Provifion?. The Duke of Parma marcheth away into Flander-3 
in good order. The King afiaulteth Clermont^ tabes it andfacks it. 
The Duke of Parma depardng leaves aid of men, and promifcth fup- 
ply of money to the League. The King marcheth toward "Ticardy. 

Grenoble in Da^hint after a long Cege returns to the King's obe- 
dience. The King aflaulteth Corby, and takes it. 

The Parliament of Bordeaux, who with much ado had been brought 
to the King's obedience, make complaints for the King's perfevering 
in falvintfm. The King ftudieth how to conferve the aftedions of 
tbofc of his party, and to keep them in obedience. He recalls the 
Duke of Etyernon to the Army, and other Popifh Lords to reconcile 
them unto him. 

The Vifcount of Turenne obtains of Queen Elizabeth- vi England ^ 
that file fhould fend the King one hundred thoufand crowns. That 
fhe (hould fend 6000. Foot into Bretagne, for the relief of the Prince 
of \Dombfs. That along with him fhe (hould fend Horatio Palavici* 
no a Genovefe ( who for Religion was fled into that Illand ; to per- 
fwade the States of Holland^ and the Princes of Germany, to affift 
the King with men and money on their Part. She promifed likewife, 
that if the Duke of Parmaftiould return again into !Pn*my,fhe would 
afiift Grav c Maurice , and the Hollande rs, to make a ftrong diverfion, 
by entring into Brabant and F Under s. 

Now the party of the League makeadifguft againft the Duke of 
Mayermc, which is fomented by ihe Spaniards. And the Lords of the 
houfe ofLorain grow jealous one of another ; and the Duke ofAV 
lays afide the Government of Paris.. The Duke oi Mayenne 


tent. 1 6. Of FRANCE7 

difpatcheth Prefident Jeannin to the KingofS/w'w, and the Siear des 
Fortes to the Pope to foliciteaid. 

The Chevalier d' Aumale goes to furprize S. Dennis , and without 
r^fiftance enters with all his men : but the Governour with only thir- 
ty Horfe chargeth and routs the Enemy, and d' Aumale being thruft 
through the throat failed down dead. Thofe'that were curious obferv- 
ed, that he fell dead before the door of an Inn, whofe fignwasthe 
Ejfee Roy ale, a Sword embroidered with golden Flower-de-luces, and 
that his Body being laid upon the Bier in the Church of the Friers of 
St. Dennis , his carkafs the night following was all gnawed and mangled 
with Rats. 

Pope Gregory XIV. affigneth fifteen thoufand crowns by the Month 
for the fervice of the League : and Afarfilio Lxndnano, a Aftlanefe, 
is chofen Legate for the Kingdom of France. Chartres is befieged, and 
furrendered to the Baron de Bircn. The Duke oi'Mayenne receives 
Chafleau Thierry with the composition of twenty thoufand 

Then the Popifh Princes and Noblemen following the King did fo- ./<.: 
licite his Majefty to turn to the Romijlj Religion. The Petitions made 
to the King to provide for his dutiful Subjects of both Religions ; to 
prevent the new attemprs of ihe Pope and his adherents, to ihe preju- 
dice of the Crown of France, were the caufe of two Edicts made at 
JM-tntc in the beginning of July. The one confirmed the Edicts of 
Pacification made by the deceafed King upon the troubles of the Realm, 
and disannulled all that paffed in July 1585. and 1588. in favour of 
the League. The oiher (hewed the King's intent to maintain the Ca- 
tholick Religion in France, with the Ancient R'ghts and Priviledgesof 
the French Church. The Court of Parliament of Paris, refident at 
Chalons and To//r.r, having verified thefe Edicts, had di/TannulUd all the 
Bulls of Cardinal ^ae tan's Legation, and other Bulls that came from, 
'Rone on Mtrck i. the Proceedings, Excommunications, and Fulmi- 
mtions, made by Landritno, terming himfclf the Pope's Nuncio, as 
abufwe, fcandalou?, fediticus, full of impoftures , made againft the 
holy Decrees, Canonical Constitutions, approved Councils, and againft 
the Rights and Liberties of the French Church. 

They Decree, that if any had been Excommunicate by vertue of 
the faid proceeding*, they (hould be abfolved ; and the faid Bulls and 
all proceedings by vertue thereof burnt in the Market-place' by the 
Hang-man. That Ltndriano the pretended Nuncio ( come privily 
into the Realm wirhout the King's leave or liking) fhould be appre- 
hended, and put in the King's Prifon. And in cafe he (hould not be 
taken, he (hould be fummoned at' three fhort daies according , to the 
accuftomed manner, ar.d ten thoufand Franks given in reward to 
'him that fhould deliver him to the Magiftrate, Prohibkions -being , 

made : 

? 8 3Cl)e ecctcftaftaal %ttto?g cent. 16. 

madeto a!! men to receive, retain, or lodge the faid pretended Nuncio 
upon pain of death. And to all Clergy-men, not to receive, publifh, 
or caufe to be publifhed any fentences, or proceedings coming from . 
him, upon pain to be punifhed as Traytors. They declared the Cardi- 
nals ( being at Rome ) the Archbifhops , Bifhops, and other Clergy- 
men, which had figned and ratified the faid Bull of Excommunication, 
and approved the moft barbarous and dereftable Parricide, traiteroLfly 
committed upon the Perfon of the hte deceafed King Henry III. to 
be deprived cf fuch Spiritual Livings as they held wiihin the Realm, 
ciufing the King's Prodor General to feife thereon, and to put them 
into his Majeftics hand : forbidding all perfons either to carry or fend 
Gold to Rome, and to provide for the difpofition of Benefices, uniil the 
Kingfhould otherwife Decree. 

DU recueii de l' That of Tours added this claufe to the Decree. They declared 
Hjftpiredcia <]regory^ calling himfelf Pope, the fourteenth of that name, an enemy 
to peace, to the union of the Roman Catholick Church, w the King 
and to his Eftate, adhering to theConfpiracy of Spat??, and a favourer 
cf Rebels, ciilpable of the moft inhumane, and molt deteftable Parri- 
cide committed on the Perfon of the moft Chriftian and Catholick King 
Henry II I. of famous memory. i 

The Parliament of the League did afterwards condemn and caufc 
thofe Decrees to be burnt at Parif t whicHwere made againft the Bulls 
and Minifters of the Romlfo See. So one pulled down what another 
built up. 

The Cardinal of Vendofme begins to raife a third party of Ca- 
tholicks, to make hTmfelfttead of them, and thereby to bring himfelf 
to the Crown. Scipio Balbani is fent to Rome by the Cardinal of Ven- 
dofmt, to treat with the Pope, and to communicate his defign unto biro. 
The Cardinal of Lenoncoun gives the King notice of the defigns of 
the Cardinal rfVcndofme. The High Chancellour thereupon perfwades 
him to turn to the Rowifj Religion. * 

Charles Duke ofCjwfe having been long kept Prifoner at Tours, 
efcapes at noon-day, and fleeth to Bo urges, and then meets with the 
Duke of Mnyenne. The Council of Sixteen falls into an emulation 
with the Parliament of Paris, and with the Council of State chofen 
by the Duke of Mayenne. . Brigard, who had been imprifomd upon 
fufpicion of Plots againft the League, being efcaped, the Judges that 
made his Procefc, are by 'the people in Arms tumuliuoufly putinPri- 
fon, and by the Councn of Sixteen are caufed to be ftrangled in the 
clofe Prifon, and the next day their bodies are hanged at the Greve with 
infamous writings on their Breafts. 

The Duke of Mayenne pofts to Taris to appeafe this tumult, and 
caufeth Loifcbart, Aurcnx, H^melin, and Etnmcnot, four of the chief 
of the Council of Sixteen which were moft guilty, to be ftrangled. 


Cent. \6. Of FRANCE. 

The Kingmarcbeth into Normandy, layes fiege to the City of Rovcn. 
The Duke of /^rw* with the Spawfh Army marcheih to relieve that 
place. They fight at Aumale, the King is wounded, his men rourcd, 
and he is put hard to it to fave himfeif. VilUrs^ the Governour of 
Roven, fallying out enters the trenches, and gains the Artillery. The 
Duke of Parma retiring, the King returns to Roven and reneweth the 
fiege. The Duke of Tarma alfo returns to bring relief: and the 
King's Forces being wafted, he rifeth from the fiege, and marcheth to the 
Banks of the River of Seine. 

Thofe of the League begin to think of a peace. The Catholicks of 
the King's party aredifpleafed, that the peace fhould be treated by the 
Sieur de P lefts, a Hugonot. 

The tJMarejchal de Biron is killed with a Canon fhot before EJper* 
nay. The King wept bitterly at the news of his death. The Baron 
de Biron , to revenge the death of his Father, fcales a great Tower at 
Efternay, and takes it, but is forely wounded; and the Town is deli- 
vered up into the hands ."of the Duke of Nevers, Governour of that - 
Province. Aaguft 9. 1592. 

Now the King defireth a reconciliation with the Catholick Church 
by way of agreement, not by way of pardon. The King takes Dreux, 
and being conftrained by the importunities of his own Catholick par- 
ty, who threaten to forfake him, refolves to change his Religion. 
And being inftruded by the Archbifliop of Bonrges, by fane Benoift 
Curate of 8. Euftache of Paris, and of fome other Doctors, delires to 
be admitted into the bofom of the Romifj Church. And on July 25. 
he went to Mafs at St.'Dcnnif, and made a publick and folemn Pro- 
fcffion to the faid Arbhbifhop, affifted by Qoarlts Cardinal of Bourbon 
Archbifhop of Roven, and Nephew to the deceafed nine Bishops 
with many other Prelates and Religious men v protefting to live and 
die in the Romifi Religion, fwearing to defend it againft all men. 
Having made profeftion of his Faith, he performed all Ceremonies 
requifite info folemn an Aft": and then he received abfoluiion and blcf- 
fing, with wonderful joy and acclamation of the people. 

Prefently after this Ad, the King fern: the Duke ofNevers, the Mar- 
quefs of Pifani, and Henry of Gondy Bifhop of Pttru to the Pope to 
yield obedience by them to the See of Rome, to befeech him to 
allow of his Converfion , and to countenance it with his own blef-- 

Whilft Elizabeth Queen of England, upon account of Religion, 
did with fo great expences relieve the French King, a ftrong rumour 
was fpread in England, that he either would, or had already changed 
his Religion ; hereupon was Thom-M Wilkes fent over in:o Fr.ince to 
underftand the .certainty thereof. But before his arrival the Kir;g had 
made a. publick ProfJfion of the Popi.h Religion at St, Dennis fas 


go *l)t CCClcftaftlCal ^SftCi!? Cent. 16. 

hath been before exprefied) although feme Papifts of Religious Orders 
at that time plotted againft his life. But he ingcnuoully declared unto 
Wilkes thecaufes that moved him to forfake his Religion. And Mor~ 
lantc the French Agent in the mean time telleih the Queen all the very 
fame things, and with fair and fpecious words offereth her all kindnefs 
in the King his Matters behalf. 

The Queen being much troubled and difquisted in mind, fnat- 
chedup her Pen, and a while after fent this Letter to him. ts4laf'. 
fc^hift.of what detp farrow ? what vehement griff ? what fighs h*tvt 
/Kj.ii*tf. J felt at my heart for the things which Morlante hath told we 
c .' A'M I ^ the world come to this pafs ? Was it poffible that any 
VFirldly matter fioiild make you quit the fear of God ? can we ex felt 
any happy ijfue of fuch a faft ? or could you think^that He who b*th 
-hitherto with kti own right hand upholder .and preferved you> would 
now forfake you ? It is a very dangerous thing to do evil that good 
may come cf it : Tet I hope a fiber fp'irit will put you into a bttter 
mind. In the mean time I will not omit to wake it a principal pan 
of my pr-ayers, the recommending you to Cod y befeeching him, that the 
hands of Efau may not life you the blejjlng of Jacob. Whereas you 
do Religioujly andfolemnly offer Meyonrjrienctfliip, I know to my great 
cop, I have well deferved it : neither fiould I repent that, had you 
not changed your Father. Verily , from henceforth I cannot be your 
Sifter by the Father : for the truth is , / fljall ever more dearly love 
and honour my own Father than a falfe and counterfeit one, which God 
kyoweth very well ; who ( I bejeech him ) bring you back, again to A 
better mind. Subfcribed, 

Your Sifter, if it be after the old 
manner : as for the new I have 
nothing to do wiihir. 

; Elizabeth R. 

Yet notwithstanding a Contract was made between him and the 
Queen nMelun in the Month of Angufl^ to make War offenfive and 
defenfive againft \ht Spaniards And the Queen recommended again 
and again the Reformed Religion, and the Profeflours thereof to his 
Care and Protection by Sir Robert Sidney. He promifed, Th-t as he 
had been hitherto their Prote&our, fo he would not for the future 
fail them, though moft of the Nobler fort of them had forfaken 

On Augufl 26. 'Peter Barrier, born at Orleans, was taken Pri- 
foner at Melun y where the King then was, by the difcovery of a Ja- 

Cent. 16. OfFRANCE. 8r 

cobin Florentine, to whom he had confefled himfeff in Lions. He 
confefled, that feduced and perfwaded by a Capuchin of Lions, and af- 
terwards confeflld by <s4nbry Curate of St. Andrews dcs Ails 
at Par is, by his Vicar, and by Father Vtrade a Jefuite, he was come 
thither expreQy to raurther the King. The Prieft revealing this Crime, 
incurs no Ecchfiaftical cenfure. The wretch was found feired of a 
(harp knife with two edges. He was pinched with hot Pincers, his 
right hand burnt off, holding the faid knife, his arms, legs, and 
thighs broken'; and his body burnt to afhes, and caft into the River. 
Upon a general furceafing of Arms the King affembled fome of the 
chief of ths Realm at tJWante, efpecially to hear the complaints of 
fuel) as flood in doubt of the King's change in Religion, and wer* 
grieved at divers contraventions ot his Majefties Edids , whereby 
they fufferid wrongs in all Provinces. For the Partifans of Spain. 
continually exclaimed of the incompatibility of two Religions in 
France, and many were of opinion, That the King ought not to be ad* 
mitted, but he (hould promife exprefly to banifhall fuchas made Pro- 
feffion of any other Religion than that which he did embrace or at 
leaft toaboltfh all publick Profefiion. 'But the King employed all his 
care to unite his people in concord. 

Vitry defiring to be the firft that fhould re-enter under the King's 
obedience, as he had been the firft that hadfeparated from it, brought 
back the City tfMeaux. Aix y Lions , Bourges, and Orleans , furren- 
der to the King. 

On the 22. of March, the Parliament, the Provoft of Merchants, 
and the Sheriffs, having difpofed the City of f Paru, received the King, 
maugre the vain endeavours of fome remnant of the faction of the Six- 
teen. The Duke of Mayenne was gone into Picardy : and Brifac, to 
whom he had committed the Government of Paru for fome Months 
paft, having taken it from the Count of Be Itn, broke i is faith with him, 
believing he ought it rather to the King than to him. 

The Kinghad a little before caufed himfelf to be anointed ztChartres 
with the Cruife of St. Martin of Tours. The City of Rbemes was yet 
in the hands of the League : but he would no longer defer tys Corona- 
tion, becaufe he knew that That Ceremony was abfolutely neceflaryto 
confirm to him theaffedion and refped of his people. .It was won-| 
derful , how that there being four or five thoufand Spaniards engarri- 1 
foned in Parts, and ten or twelve thoufand fadious perfons of the Ca- 
bal of the Sixt een, who all cruelly hated the King, he could neverthe- 
lefs render himfelf Mafter of it without ftriking ftroak, or without 
(bedding blood. His Troops having by intelligence feized on the 
Gates, Ramparts, and publick places, he enrred triumphantly into 
the Cuy by the new Gate, by which Henry III. had unhappily fled 
fix years before^ and went diredly to Noftrcdame to hear Mafs, and 

Lll caufe 

ic 16, 

caufe Tc Deum to be fung. Afterwards be returned to the Louvre^ 
where he found his Officers, and his Dinner ready, as ifhehadalwaie* 
remained there. 

After Dinner, he gave the Spaviflt Garrifon a fafe-condud, and 
good Convoy, to conduft them as far as theirs ofGuife in all 
fccurity, The Garrifon departed about three a clock the fame day of 
his entrance, with twenty or thirty of the raoft obftinate Leaguers, 
who chofe rather to fojlow Srrangeys, than obey their natural 
; P 5 rince. 

The fame day that he entred into *?*w, the Cardinal de Pcleve 
Archbifhop of Sens, a paffionate Leaguer, expired in his Palace of 
Scvs. The Cardinal of Placentia^ Legate from the Pope, had fafe-con- 
dud to mire home, but he died by the way, Brijfac for recompencc 
had tht S;aif of Marefihal, and a place of honourable Counfellour to 
the Parliament. I)'O was replaced in his Government of- Parify 
which be had under Henry III, but he died foon after* 

That par; of the Parliament which was at Tours, was recalled ^ and 
that which was at Tar it re-inabled ( for it had been interdicted ) and both 
re-united conjointly co fe.rve the King. 

By noon of that day in which the King entred Pttris, the City was 
tyery where peaceable.^ the BurgefTes in a moment grew-familiar with 
the Souldiers-, the (hops were opened, and the Artificers wrought in 
diem. And the calm was fo great, that nothing interrupted it but the 
ringing of the Bells, the Bonfires and the Dances which were made 
through the Streets, even till, midnight*. 

^* Balagny with his City.of^wfer^, turns to the King's ^ fide. In like 
manner Aliens, $tauvais t and Peronnc, renounced the League. 
Yea the Duke of Guife compounds with the King, and brings the Ci- 
ties of Rhe me 5^ Vitry^ znd.Mcz.icres y under- his obedience, whetnre- 
compence of it, gave him the Government of Provence, from- which 
he was obliged to withdraw the Dake of Eftcrnon, becaufe the people, 
the. Parliament, and the Nobility, had taken Arms againft him, 
The Duke of Lor tin alfo made his peace with the- King on Nwcm- 
far 26... 

Now the Court of Parliament revokes anddifannuls all other De- 
crees, Orders, or Oaths, given or made fince the 29. of December 
1588. to the prejudice of .the King's Authority and the Laws of the 
Realm. And efpeci ally .they difannulled all that had been dene againft 
t^ie honour of the deceafed King, as well during .his life, as after his 
deceafe, commanding to inform of the dereftable Parricide committed 
on his. Per/on, and ta >( proceed extraordinarily againft fuch as 
fhould be found culpable.. They revoked the Authority given un- 
to ahc Duke otMaycnnc under the Title of Lieutenant General of 
ibe Eftate. and. Crown of fray ft, forbidding alJ men w acknowledjge 

'Gene. 16. Of FRANCE. 

him in that quality, or to yield him any aid or obedience, oponpain 
of High-Treafon. They likewife enjoyned the Duke of Mayenne up- 
on the like pains to acknowledge Henry IV. of that name, for King 
of -France and Navarre, and their King, and to yield him the obe- 
dience of faithful Servants and Subjects. And to aU other Princes, Pre- 
lates, Noblemen, Gentlemen, Towns, Commonalities, and private 
men v to forfake that pretended Faction of the League, whereof the 
Duke of Mayenne had made hirafelfthe Head, and to yield unto the 
King obedience and feahy, upon pain to the faid Princes, Noblemen, 
&c. to be degraded of their Nobility and Gentry ; and they and 
their pofterity declared bafe, with confifcation of Bodies and Goods : 
and the razing of their Towns, Caftles and places, that fliould infringe 
the King's Ordinances and Commandments. Moreover they decreed, 
That the 22. dxyofMtrch fliould be for ever celebrated, and the fame 
day a general ProceiYion fliould be made after the accuftomed man- 
ner, where the faid Court fliould afiift in their Scarlet Robes, as a re- 
membrance to give God thanks for the happy reduction of thisfard City 
to the King's obedience. 

Now one John Caflel, Son of a Merchant-Draper of Paris, aboui 
the end of the year i$94 having thruft himfelf with the Courtiers 
into the Chamber of the fair Gabrietta, where the King was, would 
have ftruck him with a knife into the belly but the King then bowing 
to falutc fome one , the blow chanced on his face only, piercing his 
upper lip, and breaking a Tooth. It was not known for theprefent 
who had ftruck it : but the Count of Soiffons feeing this young man 
affrighted, ftopt him by the Arm. He impudently confefied that he 
had given the blow, and maintained that he ought to do it. The Par- 
liament condemned him to have his right hand burned, his flefli torn 
off with red hot Pincers, and after to be torn in pieces by four Horfes, 
burnt to alhes, and caftinto the wind. 

The Jeftjitcs, under whom this Mifcreant had ftudied, were accufed 
for exciting him to this Parricide. Among other things he heard the 
Fathers of that Society to fay, That it was lawful to kill the King, 
That he was Excommuncated out of the Church, That he was not to bs 
obeyed nor taken for their King, until fuch time as he was allowed by 
the Pope. 

Therefore the Parliament Decreed, That the Priefts, Scholars, and 
all others, terming themfelves of that Society of Jefus^ ( as corrupters 
of Youth ) fliould depart within three daies after the publication of the 
faid Decree, outofP*r#, and other places where they had Colledges, 
and within fifteen daies out of the Realm, upon pain after the fame 
time to be puniflied as guilty of high Treafon. The houfe of Peter 
Ctfttl, the Father of this Parricide, fhnding before the Palace, was 

Lil 2 razed, 

84 3D[)e eceleaical ^to?? cent. \6. 

razed, and a Pillar ere&ed, containing ( for a perpetual monument ) the 
caufes of that ruine. 

Among the writings of .John Gitignard ofChartres, were found cer- 
tain fcandalous libels againft the King, for which he was executed. . 
AndonejFVvztfctf Jacob, a Scholar of the Jefuites of Boxrges, had lately 
faid he would have killed the King,, but chat he held him for dead, and 
that another had done the deed. 

. . The Duke of Maytnnt and A9f*wafr;yteW unto the King, snd are re- 

ceived unto Grace. The King of France is now admitted to a reconcili- 
ation with the Church of Rome, upon thefe conditions, and in thefe 
words. He fhall abjure all Herefies, and profefsihe Catholick Faith 
infuch form as AaJl be here done by his Ambafladours. He fhall in- 
troduce the Catholick Faith into the Principality of Bearn, and fhall 
nominate Catholick Magiftrares in the faid Province: he fhall pro- 
cure within a year the Prince of Conde out of the hands of the Here- 
ticks, whom he fhall caufe to be inftrufted and. brought up in the Ca- 
tholick Religion. The Decrees of the Council of Trent fhall be pub- 
lifhed and received throughout the whole Kingdom of France. He 
(hall nominate to the vacant Churches and Monafteries fuch as are 
Catholicks, and free from all fufpicion of Herefie. He fhall do his 
bed endeavour y that, the Churches and Clergy be invefted anew in 
their Livings that have been feifed upon without any judicial proceed- 
ing.. In beftowing of Magiflracies and Dignities, he fhall take care 
that Cathoiicks only be preferred, and that Hereticks (as near as may 
be) may be expelled.. The Concordates fhall beobferved, and all 
abufes removed which have crept in contrary to the fame. The ahfo- 
lution in&ancc granted by the Bifhops, fhall be condemned. , He fhall 
write letters to all the Princes of Chriftendom, wherein he fhall give 
notice of his Converfion , and profeilion of the Catholick Faith. The 
Pope granted his Abfoiutionon September 16. by the Negotiation and 
purfuits of d* Offkt, and du Perron., his Procurers in the Court of 
Rome.. Thefe were afterwards upon his recommendation honoured 
with Cardinals Caps. 

After a War bet ween the Fre nch and Spaniards, a Peace was conclu- 
ded between France andS^wV/, Anro 1598- 

Then.the French. King, who had hitherto flourished in Martial glo- 
ry, having now his thoughts wholly fetled upon peace, did To promote 
the welfare of France, ( which had run headlong to ruine for many years 
through theftorms of Civil War) by maintaining and fupporting Re- 
ligion, as well as the Reformed, reviving the Laws, che- 
rifhing Learning, reftoring Trade and Commerce, and beautifying 
the Kingdom with fplendid buildings, that he far. furpaffed all the Kings 
thai were before him. 


Cent. 1 6; 0|F RANGE. 

In the year 1599. the King's Sifter, the Lady Katberintde Bonbon, 
was married to the Duke of Bar, Son to the Duke of Lor am. The 
Reformed Religion, in which fhe had been bred, (he would not change, 
by reafon ( as fhe faid ) of her deceafed Mother Queen Joxne of Na-. 
iwre , whofs life and adions were held worthy to be imitated, as- 
who had preferred fafety of Confcience before aflurance of honours and 
greatnefs, yea, than life it fclf : Being accuftomed ro fay to them on her 
part, that Arms fhould not be laid d0wn, but wiih thefe three Condi- 
tions, either an affured Peace, an abfoliitefittory, or an kont ft 'Death, 
The Marriage was confummate in the King's own Cabinet, by the 
Archbifhopof&?-iwz > at the King's fpecial Command, to avoid greatei 

She cordially affeded that which did concern the Liberty of Con- 
fcience throughout all &rance, often befeeching the King to let her 
fee the afiurances thereof whilft fhe was in France, and not to fufter 
hisEdidsto remain without execution being Proclaimed, and .without. 
a. durable. obfervation being executed. . 

She ufed to be attended in her houfe by the Minifters of Par if, who 
ferved her. by turns every one a quarter of a year. Being then to gc 
into Lorain wJth her Husband, the Church appointed Monftur de 
Aitmtigm an Antient Minift^r, to attend her in that journey. But 
M. Pete r da- M.oulin then coming to Taris^ the Old Gentleman defi- 
red to be excufed. ^ and that the new Minifter, as fitter to travel by. 
ssafon of his age, might be chofen for that fervice. To which moti- 
on the Princefs prefently enclined, having a fpecial likingto Du Moulin. 
He took then that journey, and becauie the Princefs was entertained 
in Biihops Palaces and Abbeys; he did officiate in the Palace of the 
Bifliop of Muwx, in that of the Bifhop of Chalons, and in the Abbey of 

The Harbingers of the Princefs being come to Vttris It Francois, a 
Town of Cbamptgne, addrefTed themfelves to the chief Magiftrate 
of the Town , to prepare quarters for the Princefs and her Court. 
Since Du~}Motilins eftablifhment at- Paris, tilhhedeaih of ihe King's 
Sifter ( which was five years after ; he made a journey into Lo- 
yain every Spring, either with her, or to her : and having ferved 
his quarter at her Court, returned 'toPtrit : there the Princefs wa> 
raoft part of the year. 

Thofe of the Reformed Religion made many and great complaint?, 
that the'King's Edjds were not kept nor obferved ; that they were net 
provided of all things neceflTary for the exercife of their Religion, 
the liberty of their Confciences, and fafety of their perfnns and for- 
tunes. That they were excluded from all charges and Oiiices in the 
State, juftice, treafure, and policie , to the great prejudice of their 
Children, OTT, The end of all their Aflfembiies was to obtain an 

u irije ecefcflafttcai^taiwi? cent. i. 

. T 

Edid from the King , fo clear and plain , as they (hould not be con- 
ftrained to fue for any other. Then the King made an Edid,at Nantes, 
and figned it after he had reduced that Province to his obedience, 
Containing a Declaration of the Edids of Pacification, and of the trou- 
bles grown in France for matter of Religion, the which though gran- 
ted in April 1598. was not allowed in the Court of Parliament of 
'Paris untilthe 25. day of February following, byreafon of the many 
oppofidons and difficulties that were made againft it. The Duchefs 
of Bar, would not go out of Paris before it was confirmed, fuch was 
her zeal and affection in that matter, as in all other affairs of that 

And for the better fatisfadion of the Proteftantsin matters of juftice, 
It pleafed King Henry IV. to ered a Chamber in the Court of Parli- 
ament of Pans purpofely for them. It confifted of one Prefident, and 
Sixteen Counfellours : their Office to take knowledge of all the 
Caufesand Suits of them of the Reformed Religion, as well within the 
jurifdidion of the Parliament of Paris, as alfo in Jtiormandy and Bri* 
tain, till there fhould be a Chamber crcded in either of them. There were 
appointed alfo two Chambers in the Parliament of B nrdeanx andGrr- 
noble , and one at Chaflers for the Parliament of Thobufc. Thefe Cham- 
bers were called les Chambret <k I' Edttt, bccaufe they were eftabliftied 
by a fpecial Edid at Nantes in Sritain. 

The Duke of Joyenfc wallowing in fenfual pleafures, being at Parifl 
after he had taken his leave of the Ladies, and fome other friends, be- 
cometh a Capuchin. The King commended his re folution, and dining 
one day where there was only the Duke of^fayertne^ /' Ef4iguiers 9 
andhimfelf, he faid, That in the world there were men of all conditi- 
ons and qualities to be found, but they fhould hardly find four fo dif- 
ferent as they were, Whereof there was, a Sinner converted, a 
, * Capuchin 4ivtrttJ 9 and a Hugonot perverted. 

Cent. 1 

Cent, 17. Of FRANCE. 8 7 

Century XVH. 

THe Pope preft King Henry to make his Sifter turn Catho* 
lick, and the Kingtopleafe the Pope ufed his utmoft en- 
deavours for it, employing the moft learned and fubtil 
of his Clergy to feducc her, efpecially 1) Perron, then 
Bifhop ofEitreux, and Father fitton. Thefe two had fcveral bicker^ 
ings with the Learned Dn-Moulin y who in his Book entitled, thg No- 
velty of Popery oppofed to -the Antiquity of true Chriflianity, giveth 
an account of an occafional encounter of his with M. Du, Perron. 
But they had another, which was a pitched field. It was at the Court 
before a few, but Grave and Seled affiftants. After fome difpute, when 
Du Perron gave back to the force of an Argument, and was at a lofs, . 
fome body hid behind the hangings cried up One. And when the like 
hapnedto him- thefecond time, the fame voice cried upTW,and (o 
till F ive. Upon which Bu P-erron complaining of interruption broke the 

One Bcatilltu 'Boujn, a young Clergy-man, having got fome Ma- 
nufcripts of Du Perron about the Eucharift, made ufe of them towriit 
againft Du, Moulin, who thereby was provoked to anfwer him, and 
confute him. There are Letters extant, and Printed among Du Per- 
rons Works, wherein he chides that fame Beaulieu BOUJM, both for 
ftealing, and more for ill ufing his meditations, and tells him in fub- 
ftancc , that though he could get his weapon, yet he could not 
wield ir. 

King Henry IV. to fatisfiethe Court offow*, and the French Cler- 
gy of the care he took of his Sifters Conversion, would often defire 
her to hear the Sermons of his Chaplains ; which (he would not yield 
unto, till once being madefenfible how the King's credit was interef- 
fed, that (he fhould once at the leaft , hear one Court Sermon, fhc 
condefcended fo far to the requeft of a King and a Brother, as to pro- 
mife to hear Father fitton , who therefore was appointed to preach be- 
fore the King and her immediately after Du Moulins Sermon j and in 
the fame Room : for thofe two contrary fervices were performed in 
the fame Room, every Lord's day morning j as long as the PriRcefe livedj, 
and was at the Court. 

ThePrincefs, to ftrengtben her felf againft that afiiult^ gave notice 
of it. to I?* Moulin^ and after bis Sermon brought him into a private 


%iftO?P One. 17. 

Room , whence he might hear the Jefuitcs Oratory. His Subject 
was of the dwelling of the Holy-Ghoft in the Soul, and he made 
his entry into that matter after this manner. I vent once ( faith he ) 
to vifit the blofyital of fools, where a grav-. eld man received me 
kindly at the door, and went about with mete hew me the diftraded 
perfons, and inform me about their feveral kinds of folly. Here is 
one ( faid he ) that thinks himfelf made of Snow, and will not come 
near the fire for fear of melting. This thinks himfelf metamorpho- 
fed into an, earthen Pitcher, and will not fufter any to come near him 
for fear of being broken with a knock. Thefe four think themfelves 
cop full with the fpirit of Prophecie : one will be EH*s 3 another Jcre- 
miah, another Daniel, another St. Paul. Buc I that am the Holy- 
Ghoft (faid he ) can allure you Sir, that they are all either Fools or 
Impoftors, for I never lent them. The like folly is to be feen among 
thofe of the pretended Reformed Religion. There you fhall find wife 
and Religious Princefles [_ intimating the King's Sifter 3 Wife and va- 
liant Treafuren intimating the Duke of Sully ] Wife and valiant 
Generals of Armies [[intimating the Duke of BaviUon^ Wife and 
learned Counfellours of State [_ intimating Mr. Du Plejjls Mornay^ 
All wife in all things, but that they think they have the Holy- 
Ghoft, but have it not. The Sermon was fuitable to the Preface, 
and wrought an anfwerable effed in the Hearers, making them all mer- 
ry, but no Converts. 

The worthy Dr. Peter Du Moulin, Son to the faid Du Moulin, tells 
us in his life, that in the end of the year 1601. time and place being 
appointed fora Conference between Du Moulin and Cayer > Ibmetimes 
a Minifter, and then a Doftor of Sorbon y Cayer put off the meeting 
feveral times till the King's Sifter going to Lorain, took Du Moulin 
along with her. In his abfenceC^r put forth a Book with this In- 
fcription, A Conference by Minifters grant cd, and by them refnfed. In 
which Book he accufeth I)H Moulin of deferting his Caufe, and run- 
ing away. But Du Moulin being returned in May to Paris , the chal- 
lenge was renewed on both fides. So they met on May 28. 1602. in 
an houfe next to the King's Sifters houfe. The Conference held a 
fortnight. They had Scribes on bothfides ^ multitudes of hearers, and 
good order kept. 

The Queftions agitated Propounded by Cayer himfelf, were, Of 

the Sacrifice of the Mafi -, of the Adoration of the Pope, and of the 

veneration of holy Images. Cayer was aflifted with two Doctors, Carme- 

lites ..*# Moulin had no afiiftant. Toward the midft of the Confe- 

rence the Faculty of Sorbon grievoufly cenfurcd Cayer for ill defend- 

ing the Catholick caufe, and fuffering the Adverfary to wade too deep 

. -into quefi ions : and the Bifliop of Paris forbad him to fign that which he 

bad indifted to the Scribes. 


: Cenc. 17. Of FRANCE. 

The Dodors of Sorbon perceiving that the more the Conference 
continued, the more their Caufewas difcredited, came in a body to 
the King's Advocate in the Court of Parliament, to complain of that 
Conference, faying, that it was a pernicious thing, tending to Sediti- 
on i. that they had contrived how to break it, and that the effeds of 
it would (riortiy appear. This hindered Dtt Moulin from coming to 
the ordinary place , where he was before Cayer. The Matter of the 
houfe would have kept him out : but Cayer coming foon after , the 
door was opened to him- and the people preffing in after him, T>r^ 
Meulin got in with the Crowd. There they confidered how to get ano- 
ther place for their meeting. But the Conference being difcountenan- 
ced by Authority, no body durft offer his houfe for it. So the parties 
agreed to continue the Conference in writing, and to publifh nothing 
but by mutual confenr. But DH sJWoulin asked two Conditions, up- 
on which Cayer brake. The one that the Conference fhould be limi- 
ted, and that it (hould not be permitted to make replies in infnitu?*, 
but Cayer would have no limitation. The other, that Coyer fhould 
lign the Ads of that Conference till that day, which Cayer utterly re- 
fufed , faying, It was enough that it was fubfcribed by the Scribes. 
When Du Moulin reprefented to him, what difgraceheputupon him- 
felf and his Ciufe, and challenged him ; Cayer anfwered, that he ca- 
red not for the talk of the people, nor for challenge?* And to get 
out of that mire he moved a queftion to 'Dit Moulin, whether he could 
tell afcer what manner of Creation the Angels were created. X> 
Moulin knowing that this was their laft meeting , anfwered, that the 
Queftion in hand was only of fubfcribing the Ads. But Cayer refu- 
(ing turned his back, and faid, you fliall hear of me : and fo went 
away, to the great fcandal of the Romanics there prefent. A Proteftant 
made the company laugh, faying, that Cayer was not yet of Age to 

Thus was the Conference broken, to the great fatisLdionof many 
faithful fouls, and theinftrudion of many ignorant Papifls, who fince 
gave glory to God by an open Profeflion of the truth. 

The Ads of the Conference are extant, publifhed by Archibald 
Adaire a Reverend Bifhop of Scotland. 

The Doctors of the Faculty QiScrbon (lung with the ill fuccefs of this 
Conference, provoked him to another, in which the body of the Uni- 
verfity took intereft. They were to oppofe three dates upon what points 
they thought beft ; and Dh^foulin was to oppofe three daies alfo, 
and choofe what points he pleafed. He was then Refpondent for three 
daies, and found in theDifpute that bleffingof God which never was 
wanting to him in the defence of his truth* After the Difpute of the 
third day, he being returned home, and retired to hisftudy, a man in a 
Prieft's habit came in the dark evening up the ftajrs s andknockt at hisStudy 

M m rn door, 

ccclcfiafttcal %tftoiy 

door. When >// Moulin had opened it, the man ihruft the door wub 
all his ftrength to have ruftit in : and DM Alwlm with all his ftrengtfi 
( in which he was inferiour to few men of his fize ) kept him out, and 
called for help. The man hearing fome ftirring below, ran haftily 
down the flairs, and fo into the Street. It is fuppofed upon probable 
ground, that the man was come to kill him before he prefented himfelf 
to be opponent according to the Covenants of the Conference. But O n 
the next morrow he met with aProhibition from the King to continue that 
Conference any longer. Thefe paflages raifed his reputation very high, 
whereby God was glorifiedjhis Truth confirmed,. and his Church edified 
andincreafed with many Converts. 

The laft ficknefs of the King's Sifter gave a great exercife to his zeal 
and induftry, whereby he did faithfully and confhntly affift her in that 
extremi.y. DuTerron&& his utmoft to pervert her and to fright him 
away. Whenfhe drew near to her end, Du tJJfoulin /landing by her 
Bed fide, Du Perron came, and faid, he was fent by the King, and would 
remove him by plain force. But Du Moulin held fad the Bed-poft. 
And when Du Perron told him he was to take place of him in all 
Companies, Du A&W/Tzanfwered , that his place was before Du Per- 
rons at the Prince/Fes Beds fide, and in thatfervice. He added, that 
he believed not that the King would offer violence to his Sifters Con- 
fcience, appealing to her felf, and befeeching her Highnefs to declare her 
pleafure. She declared that fhe would die in the Reformed Religion, 
and that (he would have Du Moulin to ftay by her. Whereupon DH 
Perron withdrew, and the good Princefs perfevered in God's truth to 
her laft breath. The King wifht (he had died in the Roman Profefr 
fion, and did all he could without violence, to pleafure the Court QiRome 
in that poinr. 

A little beforethere was a Conference between the Bithop of Eureux 
and Thilip de Mornay Lord of Pie (fts Marly, Governour of Saumur, 
in the prefence of the King, Princes , and Officers of his Crown, Coun- 
fellours of State, and other Noblemen of Mark. It was touching a 
Book which Monfieur du Pleffis had publifhed of the Inftiiution of 
the Lords Supper, and againft the Mais, wherein the Bifliop did tax 
him to have falfified many Authorities. Whereupon Du Pleffis pre- 
fented a Petition unto the King, that his Majefty would bepleafedto 
appoint Commifiioners taexamine every paffage of Scripture cited in 
his Book. The King yielded to this Conference,, referring the care 
thereof to his ChanceUour. The Commiffioners appointed for the 
Catholicks were Augufiu* Thuanus, Prefident of the Court of Parlia- 
ment at Paris :. Pithau, Advocate in the Court,, and Eieure y School- 
mafter to the Prince tfConde, inwhofe abfcnce came M.irtin the 
King's Phyfitian. And for the other, the Prefident of Cnugnon^ 
Chancellour of Navarre, in whofe place entred DeFrffncs Gavay^ 


Gene. 17. Of FRANCE. 

Prefident of the Chamber otLangnedoc , and Jfaac Cafitubon, his Ma- 
jefties Reader for the Greek Tongue. All men of great Learning and 
well skilled in the Tongues. 

This Conference began on May 4. in the Hall at Fottntainblean, in De Serre< riift 
the midft whereof was a Table of a reafonablt length. At the one end in Hwr > iv; ^ 
fat the King-, on his right hand theBithop ofEtt/etix, and on the left 
right againft him Dtt Plejfis. Pafquier, Vajfaut, and Mercier^ Secreta- 
ries of the Conference, were at the lower end of the fame Table. Some- 
what higher on the right hand fate the Chancellour and the Commidio- 
ners. Behind the King ftood the Archbifhop of Lions, and the Bi- 
ihops of Nevers, Beauvais, and Chaftrcs. On the King's left hand 
were the four Secretaries of State. Behind them which conferred, were 
the Dukes of Vandemontj of Nemours, of Mercoeur, of Mayenne^ of 
jNevtrty of Elbeuf, of AiguMon y and ofjanville , the Officers of the 
Crown, Counfellours of State, and other Noblemen of quality. 

All were commanded to keep filence. The King faid, that the Di- 
fpute was not betwixt party and party, but particular betwixt the two 
Conferents -, not for any queftion of Right and Doctrine y but for the 
literal truth of fome paflages. He defired they would treat with all 
mildnefs and moderation -, without any bitternefs or paffion , but that 
of the truth : Declaring moreover, that he did not mean that this 
Difpute fhould in any thing alter ordifquiet the peace of his Subjects, 
as the Chanceilour did then Declare unto them at large by the King's 

After the firft daies Conference M. Du Pleffis fell very fick, fo as they 
could proceed no further. The King did write the fame day unto the 
Duke of Effernon what had pad in the Conference, and (hewed by his 
Letter what his judgement was. My friend, the Diocefs tfEureux hath 
vanquifhed that of Saumitr. Wherewith Du Pleffis was difcontented,fo 
that in a Difcourfe Printed foon after touching this Conference, he 
termed this Letter A Jpark.of fire, and faid, That the Bifiop of Eureux 
fly wo* made an Elephant. 

Some Months after, Canay, one of the Commiflioners , and Prefi- 
dent in the Chamber of the Edict at Caftres, a man learned in Phi- 
iofophy and the Tongues, and well read in the Church Hiflory, 
left his Profeffion of the Reformed Religion, and became a Romifh 

Philip Mornay, Lord of Pleffis, his work concerning the truth of 
Chriftian Religion , was written in French againft <js4theifts, Epi- 
cures^ Paynims, Jews^ sJWahnmetifts, and other Infidels, began to be 
translated by S'uPhilip Sidney. m& at his requeft finiuhed by .AnhurCjold- 
ing: He publifhed aTreatife containing the reafons why the Council 
ot Trent could not be admitted in France. He was fent by the King of 
Navarre to the National Synod of foray in BretAgne> where he was 

M m m 2 joy- 

joyfully received by the whole Company. He was likewife prefent in 
the General Aflembly of she Protdtants held at Mantauban by the 
King's permiilion, Jte> 1584, Where he was defired by the Af- 
fembly to draw up the form of their Complaints againft the violation of 
the Edsd for P<ace -, which He together with tfee Count de U r*l 
preferred afterwards to the King at "Zlois. 

When the League of the Houfe of Guifi brake forth, which was 
formed firft againft the King, under pretence of the Defence oftheCa- 
iholick Religion -, and afterwards declared againft ihe King oiNavarrt 
and the Proteftants : That famous Declaration in die name of the 
faid King was Penned by DH Plejjis. In the following Civil Wars 
for Religion , he did many important fervices for the King ofNav^rrt 
and the Proteftants, both with his Sword and Pen, havinganfwereda, 
virulent Book, publifhed by the League againft the King of Navarre, 
called the Englifa Catholtck^ In the year 1590. he built a Church 
for the Proteftants in S/mmur^ and obtained a Grant from the King for 
the in/touting an University there, which was afterwards confirmed by 
a National Synod held in the fame place. Anno 1593. he wrotea large 
Letter to the King, who then had changed his Religion ^ defiringthc 
continuance of his favour to the Proteftants, and withal expoftulating 
that fudden change. Amo 1598. he Primed his Work of the Lords 
Supper. The Jefuites rtBonrdeaux Petitioned the Parliament there that 
it might be burnt. 

Jacobut Auguft* Tbnanit* is a moft faithful Hiftorian.. He wrote 
an Hiftory of things done throughout the whole World from the year 
of Chrift 1545. even to the year 1608. in a moft elegant ftyle. Heis 
highly commended by divers Learned men. Sut &tati* Hifloriam , 
fummo judicio & fide, fine odio & gratia, ad Dei gloriam & pub lie am 

ip/it : O^M & ftyli 

viflimarunt rerttm copia ac ntajejrate cwn quibitfuis five vecerttm y 
recentiiim in eo genere fcripttf eowferendum. Lanf. Orat. pro (jal- 
lia. Inter mnlta qn<t in tf admiratura eft pofteritas, ego ittud unite 
obftupcfcO) unde tibi modo infori arce, mode in fumrna., Rfpublica ver- 
fantt Iptiuw, unde vis indefejfa ammi, ut res tot ac tantas ant fcriben- 
das cognofcercs^ ant cognitat fcriberes. Grot. Epift. 16. Jac. Aug 
Tbnuno. jQucm ego vtrum divinitw datum cenfeofacitlo ifti in cxem- 
flum pietatv, integritatis^ frobitatis. Cafaub. Epift. Append. Vir^ . 
immortali iaude dignw , & HiffioricA t^eritatis Itwev. Mantac. . 
Amidiat. Vir non minus eruditione, quam officij dignitate 
alius, Vtrifiidiofut. Mtfrton. Caufa Regia, 
ift, a fin 

Ifaac fafaubon was a great Linguift, a fingular Grecian , and an 
excellent Philologer. He hath written in twelve Books of his Exer- 
citations, Animadverfions on thofe twelve Tomes of Bttrcnius his 
Annuls,. Scaltger in an Epiftle to Cafanban comoacnds his B.ok de Sa- 

Cent.i/. Of FRANCE. 

tyra and in another his Theophrafttu his Characters. He is thus 
ftyled by Salwafiufj IncomparMis Vir, & fcculifui dectu iwmorta- 
! ,e , IjaacH* Cafattbonus, nunqtt&m fine laude nominandut , nunquam 
fat is laudatm. Salwaf. Prsfat. ad Hift. j4uguft.fcript. . 

The Marriage between the King and Queen tJMxrgarite being pro- 
nounced void, and aContrad paft between him and *JMary of Mcdi- 
ces y the Duke of Florence's Daughter : She being bleflcd of Aidobran- 
dino the Pope's Legate at Florence, went from thence, and arrived at 
ALtrfaSts, from whence (being every where Royally entertained ) 
fhecameto Lions, and there after eight dales ftay met wiih the King, 
where in St. John's Church the Nuptial foleronity was performed to 
this Couple by the Legate. On September 27. 1601. theQjeen was 
delivered of a Son which was named Lewes. The King bleiiinghim, 
put a Sword in his hand, to ufe ic to the glory of God, and the de- 
fence of his Crown and people. The Pope fent prcfently unto the King 
a/id Queen, to congratulate with them of this Birth, and to carry unto 
the young Prince fwadling bands, bearing clothes, and other things bleC- 
fed by his Holinefs. 

Then the Pope granted a Jubilee , and pardons to all the French tlm 
ffaould go vific the Church of St. Croix at Orleans^ doing the works 
of Chriftian Charity. An infinite number of people went thither from 
all parts of France : the King and Queen went thither wirhthe firft, 
and gave means to help to build this Church, which had been ruined du- 
ring the fury of the firft Civil wars. The King laid the firft ilonc of this.- 

Then the King did. forbid the fuperfluous ufe of Gold and Silver in 
Lace, or otherwise upon .garments -.and made an Edict alfo againft Ulu- 
ry -, and another againft Combates , 

Not long after, the Duke of Biron's Confpiracy was difcovered, xvho 
was fometimes heard fay, he would die a Sovereign. Refuting to fub- 
mit himfelf to the King's Clemency, he is feized on at the King's 
Chamber door, and (his Sword being taken from him) is carried 
Prifoner to the Btftillc. There uttered he thofe paffionate words, 
That if they defired to put him to death, they fhould difpatch him ^ that 
they fhould not brag they had made him to fear death ; that they fhould 
fpeedily drink themfelves drunk with the blood which remained of 
thirty five wounds, which he had received for the lerviceof fnzwro . 
The King fcnt his Letters to the Coun of Parliament to make his Pro- 
cefs. In ihe end being found guilty, the Chancellour pronounced the 
fentence of death, which was infli-ded on him in the Baftjlle , which he 
took moft impatiently. 

King James of happy memory, before his coming to the Crown of f 
England , fent exprellions of Royal favour, to the Confiftory of Paris ^ 
whochofc.the forementioned DH.JM&itlin to addrefs their humble 



thanks by Letters to his Majefty. And when his Majefty publiflit 
his Confeffion of Faith, againft which Coeftteau (fince Biihop of M*r- 
fillesj writ an eloquent Book, Du Moulin undertook the defence of 
the King's CwffJJiov, and wrote a French Book with that Title, which 
was molt welcome to the King, and to the Englifi Clergy : and his 
Majefty made Royal and bountiful cxprefiions ot "his acceptance. And 
becaufe other Adverfaries ( befides Coeffeteatt ) had writ againft the 
King, *Z)# Moulin wrote another Book in his defence in Latine, entitu- 
led, De Monarchta Pontifcis Romani, 

The Duke of Bouillon having been accufed by thofe which had been 
examined in Council upon the Confpiracies of the Duke of 'Biron, be- 
ing Cent feu $ refuterh to come to the King : but afterwards in the yeaf 
1606. he made his peace, and came to the King being then at Ditnchc- 
ry on April n. The King with the Queen, Princes of the blood, 
and other Officers of the Crown, entred into Sedan, where he was joy- 
fully received by the Duke being Prince of Sedan, and Protedourof 
the Proteftant Church there. The King promifed that the Church 
of Sedan fhould fuffer no alteration, but enjoy the liberty of their con- 

In the year 1603. tne Duke of Savoy had an cnterprize upon&*tf;* 
va ' his men on fcaling Ladders mounted the Walls undefcried, fur- 
prized the Souldier that ftood Centinel, got the word of him, and flew; 
him, being alfo Mailers of the Streets about two hours. But they 
were difappoinred : thirteen were by the Towns-men taken alive 
( among whom was the Baron of Attigna* ) which were condemned 
to be hanged, whofe heads (with the heads of thofe that were killed, in 
-all feventy feven ) were fet upon the Gallowes, and their bddies thrown 
into the River of Rhofnc,for which deliverance they made a folemn 
thankfgiving to God, concluding a peace with the Duke in July the 
fame year. 

The fame year the King being at e/fefc te , there came unto him 
four Jefuites , to obtain their re-efhblifhment in France. 

In October there was a National Synod held at Sap by thoPe of the 
Reformed Religion, which Treated touching Doftrine, Difciplins, and 
the Government of Churches. 

The King made Monfttur Alexander ( his Baftard Son ) of the Or- 
der of the Knights of Malta. A great number of Commanders and 
Knights being aflembled at Paris, where he was inverted into the Or- 
der in the AHguftinet Church by the Grand-Prior of France, who 
fet>upon his Breaft a Plaftron of black Satten, with a white Crofs : 
So ihe Ceremony ended with great joy and founding of Trumpets. 
The new Knight feafted the Grand- Priors of France and Champagne, 
ty ijh the Commanders ang Knights at the Temple. 


Cent. 17. Of FRANCE. 

The King having promifed to reftore the Jefuites, Father Cotton 
came to Paris by hi* Majefties Command, with Father Armand the 
Provincial, and Father Alexander : and the King grew prefently in-j 
tofuch a liking with Firher Gotten, as he did nothing but he was cal- 
led , and in the end his Majefty granted their return upon certain 
Conditions : and theEdid madefor their eftablifhment, ( notwithftand- 
ing any oppofirions made unto the Cuufc to hinder the confirmation 
thereof) was confirmed in the beginning of the year 1604* and their 
Colledges were reftored at Lions, Raven, "Bonrges^ andD//W. The 
Signeur of Varenne, ( Controller General of the Ports, and now Go- 
vernour of the Town and Caftle of Aigcrs, who loved them of this 
company ), befought the King to build anew Collcdge at LA Fleche 
in AnjoH) with priviledgeslike to the other Univerfities of that Realm, 
the which the King made of a Royal Found ition, and gave them his own 
Houfe with Pen(ions,for the inftrudlion of a good number of young Ger- 
tlemen, whom his Majefty would have bred up, and inftcucled there in 
all Profeffions, Tongues,, and Exercifes. 

But Father Cotton returning, one rugju fomewhat late (about the 
end of February ) and parting by the Street of the new Bridge, to gQ 
unto the Louvre, there were certain Pages and LicquieSj which cal- 
ling for him at the door of ihe Coach, wounded .him with their Rapiers, 
giving him one great wound in the fhoul-d^r going toward the neck and 
throat, whereof he was foon after cured. There was great fearch 
made for this attempt. Some were taken and examined. Cotton re- 
quefted the King to pardon them, yet were they banifhed the Court, 
and forbidden ever to come there upon pain of death. 

In the year 1606. the King made fpecial orders on the behalf of 
thofe of the Reformed Religion, enjoyning them to carry themfelves 
according to the Edid of Nantes , avoiding all occasions of 

About Eafter this year were fuch violent winds and ftorms through- 
out all France^ as the tops of houfes being caft down, many were fliin 
and fore hurt in c Paris. Not long after there was a violent 
Blague in the fame ,. and in the beginning of the. following / 
year. . ' 

In the year 1608. were the Jefuites admitted into Navarre aixl 
Beam, whereat all the Judges and Officers of the Country were dif- 
contented r . as who hated the Jefuites above all Creatures living ^ ani 
had in former times put them to death like, Spies,, if. they found any wuh- 
in their limits. 

The Prelates of France in like manner Petitioned the King once 
again, that the Decrees of the Council, of Trent] might be ob- 

"9*6 ^CCCleCafficaiitrtO?P Gene, 

On Afril 1 1 . Anno 1 609. there was a Conference between Man- 
ficur DH Moulin^ one of the Miniftersof the Reformed Church ofP*- 
ritj and Father Gonticr a Jefuite, being feconded by the Baronefs of 
SitlignAr .- after which ii was bruited abroad, that Cornier had confu- 
ted Du Moulin in divers points which the Proteftams held, Cjontier 
himfelf writing a fpecious Letter to the King to that effeA. 1>u Moulin 
finding his Reputation touched, and the truth mifreportedj was forced to 
publifh a true Difcourfe of the whole Conference. 

In the year 1610. another attempt againft Geneva was difcovered, 
whereof the Authour was Candis> one of their own home-bred and na- 
tive Citizens, a man not meanly reputed of, both for his knowledge 
in Phyfick and the Languages : whereof being found guilty, and of ano- 
ther before, he was condemned, and his body broken, and fo laid half 
dead on a wheel -unbound, he was caft from thence to be burned in a fire 
-under him. 

On May 13. the Queen was folemnly Crowned at St.'Dcnnis by the 
'Cardinal of Joyeufe. On Fridny May 14. the day after the Queens 
Coronation, the King was treacherouily munhered by thecurfed hand of 
a bloody villain. 

The King being advertifed of fome ominous influence and Prediction 
which did threaten him that day, went to fee Mafs with great devotion. 
At his return they brought him fome of his Children, among the reft 
t'le Duke diAn]ou whom he dearly loved : but being then very penfive,h 
commanded theyihould carry him to breakfaft. Then being very fad 
he caft himfelf upon his bed to lleep if he might : but not being able to 
take any reft, he fell upon his knees, and began to pray. Then he lay 
down again, and prayed again, and thus he did three times. In the 
end he went and walked in the Gallery till dinner time. After dinner many 
Noblemen came into his Chamber, and began to tell fome tales to make 
him laugh. Having foiled a little with the reft (being naturally of a 
pleafant difpofition _) in the end he faid, We haveUughed enough for. 
Friday^ vce may well weep on Sunday. Hereupon he caufed fome to go 
to the Arfentl at four of the clock. Whereupon, they fay, that the 
Duke of Vendofme told him, that he had been warned to beware of the 
14. day : yet making no account thereof, he went down into the Court, 
where a man of a mean condition entertained him a quarter of an hour. 
Then he went into his Coach by the Duke of Efterncn ( who fate in the 
tirft place of the Boot on the King's right hand ) *JWoKtbaz.oniht Mar- 
(hal of LAvareHn, U Force and Franlin^ being followed by two Foot- 
men, and one of his Guard on Horfe-back, having commanded Mon- 
fcur de Vitry y and the reft of his Guard to ftay behind. 

Being between the Draw-bridge and the Port, a miferable wretch, 
nci* RaviUac, born at An^oulefm y by Profeflion a Lawyer, watch- 
his opportunity, dre^ near unto the Coach on the right fide, think. 


Cent. 17. Of FRANCE. 


Ing his Majefty had been there j but feeing he was on the left hand, and 
hearing them command the Coach-man to drive on, he went the near- 
eft way by narrow Lanes, and met with the Coach again in the Street 
called ferroniere, near Innocents Church, where flaying to make way 
for a Cart to pafs, the King leaned down on the one fide towards the 
Duke of Eftcrnon, preiling him to read a Letter without Spectacles. 
Montbaz.on with the Mardchal de la Vardin was in one of the Boots, 
who turned toward them and one of the Footmen was bufiein tying 
up his garter on the other fide fo that this Monfter had the opportu- 
nity to ftab the King in the left Pap ; but the wound was not great* 
Whereupon crying out, O my God lam wounded, he gave him a fe- 
cond blow which was mortal -, the knife entring between the Fifth and 
Sixth Rib, it cut afunder the Vein leading to the heart. And the 
wound was fo deep, that it entred into CAVA Vena^ the which was pier- 
ced; wherewith the King did prefently fpk blood, lofing all appre- 
henfion and knowledge for any thing they could perceive who being 
carried back into the Louvre, was laid upon a Couch in his Cabinet, 
where prefently after he gave up the ghoft. After whofe death the 
Queen-Mother was declared Regent in France -, by whofe Command>- 
ment the King's heart was delivered to the Jefuites, to be laid up in their 
'Colledge of la FUche, as the King himfelf had long before refolved. 
The firft Edict at Nantes was alfo confirmed , for the entertainment 
whereof a Declaration was made by Le wes the young ;King. 

The Murtherer being arraigned was put totheRa<rkon Mayl$. 
and on the 27. had the Sentence of death given againft him. His 
execution was after this manner. He was brought out of the Prifon in 
his fhirt, with a Torch of two pound weight lighted in one hand- and 
the knife wherewith he had murthered the King, chained in the other. 
Then was he fet upright in a Tumbrel or dung Cart ; and fo he was 
conducted with a good Guard to our Ladies Church, where he did pe> 
nance. After this lie was accompanied to the place ef -Execution by 
two Doctors of Divinity , who ftill perfwaded him tofave his foul from 
everlafting puniflimcnt by revealing his Aflbciates ^ the which he would 
not. In this manner he was carried to the (jreye, where there was a 
ftrong Scaffold built for his Execution. At his coming up on the 
Scaffold hecrofifed himfelf, in token that he died a Papift. Then was 
he bojjnd toan Engine of wood : which done, his hand with theknife 
chained toit ( wherewith he had flain the King) was put into a Fur- 
nace tjien flaming with Fire and Brimftone, wherein it was in a terri- 
ble manner confumed , and yet he would not confefs any thing, but 
caft forth horrible cries like a foul tormented in Hell. Then the Ex- 
ecutjoners having made Pincers red hot in the fame Furnace, they did 
pttfchhis Paps, the brawns of his arms and thighs, with the calves of 
his legs, and other flefliy parts of his body, pulling out collops of flefli, 

N n n and 

^IjCCCClefmfttcal|tftO^ Cenc 17. 

and burning diem before his face. Then they poured intothofe wounds- 
fralding Oyl , Rozen, Fitch, and Brimftone melted together. Af- 
ter which they fet a hard roundel of Clay upon his Navil, having art- 
hole in the-mkUt, into the which they poured malten Lead , yet he 
revealed nothing , but roared out moft. horribly. Then they caufed 
four ftrong Horfes to be brought to tear his Bftdy in pieces. But thefe 
Horfes could not of-aJong time pull. him afundir (though- another very 
ftrong Horfe was put in the place of one of the four, who drained' but 
faintly ) until they, were conftrained to cut the veins under his arms and 
thighs, by which means his body was the eafier torn in pieces. Then 
the enraged- multitude pulled this difmembred Carkafs out of the Ex- 
ecutioners hand, which they dragged up and- down through the dirt : 
and cutting off the flefh with their knives -, the bones which- remain- 
ed were burnt at the place o execution and the afhes fcattered in 
the wind.. His Father and Mother were commanded to depart the 
I,and,. and never to return again.. His Brethren, Sifters, Uncles, and 
others his Kinsfolk, enjoined to take another Name. His goods were 
declared forfeited to the King, andthehoufe where he had been born 
to be beaten down. 

This wicked Parricide confeffed no other motive of his Crime, but 
the Bpok of Mariana, a Spanifh Jefuite^. Which Book by a Decree 
made by the Colledge of Sor -bonne , and confirmed by a fentence- 
from the Courts of Parliament, was for that caufe by a fentence 
condemned to be publickly. burnt before our Ladies Church in 

After the execution of RwiBaa, there was a foul imputation laid on. 
the Jefuites ; . and many condemned them as Abettors and favou- 
rers of the Murtherers of Princes : for which caufe Father Cot ton em- 
ploys aU his Wit and Eloquence to wipe it off, in whofe behalf the 
Bifhop tiParis wrote, which ( as a Preface ) was prefixt before his De- 
claration, and Printed. 

Bui; the Learned 2)* Moulin put forth thus famous Book, called 
j^jticoton^.m which he proved that the Jtfukes were Authours f 
that horrible Parricide. Though he put not his name to ir, yet the 
Jefuites foon knew that it was his Work, and made an anfwer to 
it directed unto him , becaufe there was in the ^Anticoion an Ana- 
gram. of Father C</W?, which fathered the King's death upon him 


Cent. 17, Of FRANCE. 


They alfo made this Anagram upon DH Moulin s name, 



Petri boftispctrtuChrijii inpdiatur ovili, 
Quo deglnbere, quo dilaniare qucat, 

MoreLupi: &verc Lupus eft, cut. nomen & omen] 
Etmorct infant ingenihmque-Lupi. 

Which Verfes2?0 Moulin anfwcred thus , 

Qmqui* es infttlfo quifundis acuminc verffts, 

HeUefpontiaco vittima digna Deo : 
QuawfrH/tra vacuum ft alffift if ncifitt ? o quos 

RijtM Hybrida vox femilatrlna movet ! 
Dwn tua men* varie turbata element* pererrat, 

t fpargis virtu nomen in innocuum: 
Quin & in hoccafit qu<tdam eft indtiftria^ ditm tu 

In laudent imprudent nomina nojlra trahif. 
Namquc Lttpo cohibemw tqnos, agitator equormn 

Jmfrobioris equi comprimit or a lupo. 
Qui ingyrum cogit,facilique peritttshabcna 

C ompo fit osgre fins agglomerare docet. 
Ergo Input mundo efl^ qnifr<wans or A lupato 

Dura^ per erromm dcvia monflrat itcr 
^Jec minim ft nos^ Papalit verna culine y 

Si cimflo Satan* dixerit effe lupos. 
Cum Chriftum Satanam Pharifaw die at apella, 

Nemo bonw fccum mitihs optet agi. 
ErgoDeifervum vanis latrattbtts urgent y 

tupum appellant defnat effe canit. 

Atthistime flouridied Jacobw Sirmondus, a Learned frcnth Jefuitt, 
he was Confcfibur to King Lewes XIII. 'Dafltta faith he was a moft 
Learned and moft diligent man, Natione Callus* Rettor olim Collegii T^- Bl ^5fji 
ripen/is, vir totitu antiquitatif cttrioftts invcftigator^ & Latinc Grce- 
que impcnfc doftw, & in omni "pene liter arum generc 

Nnn 2 

ioo 3E$eele8aftfcaiJNfi:o$> cent, 17. 

qui humaniores liters theologicas admodum decor e conjunxit, , 
As fur his Works, there are his Euchariflicon fro Adventoria de Re- . 
gionibw & Ecclffa fubtirbrczriis. Cenfurz conjecture Anon. Scri-- 
ftcris de fubHrbicariisRegipnibM & Ecclefiis . PropempticHrn Cl. Sal- 
ntafo adverfiim tjtu Ekcharifticon : and other \Vorksofhis. We 
owe unto him ( faith Dr. DitMojtlin) the Works of FacHndtu an 
African Bifhop, who lived in the time of the Empereur Jufti- 

Claudin* Salmajius was a Learned French Critick. Vir. inco.mpara- 
bilis , maximHt SalmafiHf de primatu Papa, poft quern Hotnerum fyuis 
llixda confer there velit, inutile m labor em Ju/cipiet . Rivet - Grot. 
Diffuf. Dial. Sett. 5; Vir nun^.imfatis laitdatus, nee rtvtere fi- 
ne laudc nominal? dus, fatid. alm<n(ins. fojf. de Orig. & frogreff. 
idol. li. 4. ca. 91 . . Noftri feculi iriritcul^fn^ & antiqKttsitis prawns 
condus. Cut. Rivet. Pr<efat. ad vindic. E'yung. Nan C alii A fu& 
duntaxat ^ fed jam & bujtis B$tavi& ingtns decits^ atquc. adeo .totiuz 
Republic* liter or it fr&pdiHW. Voff. de ana!, li. 3. ca. 46. Clariff, 
SalmaftHS nctis ad ffopifcut*. ubi fvft Gtiil&idinum & Dalecampiunt 
in Vlinium^ AC.. Scaligeri Diatribam adverfus GuildndinHW, pulchrc 
indiilaque aliif-, de hoc diffcrit argument o. f^ojf- de an. Gram, li* 38* Vtr alioqttin ad lite rat fmtmo honor c tratkindaS) & illu- 
firandat natus^ fi modefliam adhibere , & arroganti de fe pcrfHaJ?- 
cfie y ac ergo, aliof inalignitate cxcujfa, mentem animi in its fedulo- 
cccHpare potuiflet. Herald. aninJtdverf. in Salmaf. obf<rvat. Ad jus 

Defderim Heraldus a Learned French man, hath written a Com-. 
ment onAfcrfw/,and the other Books forecited, and other Learned 

francifcus V.itta was a Learned French Mathematician. There are 
his Opera Mzthematica. Vol. 2. Relatio Calendariiwre Gregoriani, , 
cum aliis opufc. Vniverfalium inJpcttionHm a4 Canonem lMntht7nati~ 
cttm lib. fingularis. De-vEquatione, recognition & emendatione. Thu- 
4 anus thus faith of him. Vir ingeniofa & frofunda meditations, cttjusvi , 
nihil illi inaccejfii'm in abftruporibu* fcientiis, nihil quod acuminc men- 
tis poflit confici, difficile confeftusfttit.Thuan.Hift.Ton). < $. 129. . 

Nicholas Vignerim was a Learned F re neb Hiftoriographer. There 
are To. 3. de labibliothe^. Hifl. and other works of his. vid. Teuton. 
Hi ft. Tom.<$ f li. ilj. part. I. 

His Son, Nicholas Vignerws^ was a Learned Divine. He hath pub- 
lifhed an excellent Treatise in Frfnch, RykdTheatrc del' Anticbrifl 
aad a Diflertation inLatine of the Excommunication vihsVtnttiuns^ 
againft Cardinal Baronius. AndThefcs of the fatisfadion of Chrift, 
which Rivet highly commendech, and annexeih unto his ownDifpu- 

Gent, 17. Of FRANCE. 101 

Benedict Turretine wa3 alfo a Learned French man. Thefe Books 
of his are publiflicd in French* Deftnfe dc la fide lite, dcs traditions 
delaS. bible faith; a Geneve. Recheutc duJefititePlaigiaire. Pro- 
fit des Cba fitments. ^ttod adverjus Pctri Cottoni Jefuitt flagiariam 
Genevan, manifeftttm fecit , vir dnt viveret^ doclijpmtts & accuratif- 
Benedittu}Tnrretims Atidr. Rivet. Apologet.yro verapacc. 

The Works of Cardinal 'David Du Perron are in four Volumes in 
Tolio in French. RepliqHC A la Rtfyonfe du Screniflime Roy dclai 
Cjrand Bretagric. LesDiverfes Oevrcs, &TC. Du faintt facreme nt ds 
I' EUchariftie. Les Anbaffades & Negotiations, He is well anfwer- 
ed by Du Moulin^ Rivet and BlondeU 

The Jcfuites feek to be incorporate in the Univerfity of Paris, whom 
the Univerfity oppofed by ail rowans, prefenting a Petition unto the 
Queen Regent againft them, therein laying down at large their dam- 
nable Doftrine, and ftrange Equivocations. Hereupon Factions be- 
gan in Paris, fome (landing for, others fiding againft rhe Jefuites. But 
thefc Clouds were quickly difperfed, and the State preferved , for the 
continuance wheor"Afo/wr Pafquier, one of the Matters of Rrquefts, 
a man of great Learning and Judgement, wrote unto her a Difcourfe of ? 

The Abbot of Sals in his Sermons treating of the Queftton, Whe- 
ther it be Lawful to kill a Tyrant, and refuting Mar tana's Book and 
others, he made an exhortation to the Jefuites, that they fhould here- 
after have a great care, that no Book fhould be publifhed -to the pre- 
judice of France, under the name of their Society, nor with the 
approbation of their Superiour., if they would not willingly expofe 
themfelves to thofe dangers, which all their wifdoms fortified with the 
Authority of their confident friends, could not avoid. For this did 
the Jefuites complain, and informed againft him, who anfwered for 
himfelfboth wifely and difcreetly. . 

OQober 17. the young King was Crow-ned KRhentcs by Cardinal 
Joyettz.e. On November 26. the Great Chamber, the Turnelle^ and 
the Chamber of the Edict being aflembled by a motion made by Mon- 
fieur Servin the King's firft Advocate, againft BeHar mines Book touch- 
ing the Pope's Temporal Power , made a Decree againft the fame, 
whereat the Pope's Nuncio did mightily ftorm. 

On May 27. 1611. .began the AfTembty of the Reformed Churches 
at SaHmur, whereat many Dukes and Noblemen of the Reformed 
Religion were prefent , where Du Tlejfis was chofen Prefident 
Which AfTembly was diflblved September 29. MM fieur de Bullion* 
letting them underftand, that their Majefties had given him in charge 
to fay, that all their juft requefts fhould be favourably anfwertd, and 
whatsoever had been promifed ihould be paid.. 


i o i HHje CCClcfmfttCal %lftOjt? Cent. 17 

The Duke of Effiernon to manifeft his gratitude to King Henry III. 
hre Mailer and Benefactor, begged of the Queen Regent to give him 
leave to perform his Funeral Rices, behaving formerly after the death 
of the faid King, attended his Body to Com^eigne^ where the misfor- 
tunes of War, and the confufions of the times permitted not at that time 
<4,he performance thereof. 

The Queen readily confented to his requeft, fo that the Duke 
with a great company of Lords and Gentlemen, went to fetch the bo- 
dy from Cowytigne, from whence he conveyed ittoSr. Dennis, where 
it wasdepofited in the ancient Sepulchre of the Kings of France. A 
little before his death the Duke caufed a Marble Pillar, one of the 
mod excellent pieces of Architecture of thefe late times, to be carri- 
ed and fet up in the Church of S. Clon y wherein he was fo curious, 
as to make it to be wrought in his own houfe , and almoft in his own 
light his defign being to found a Revenue ef a thoufand Liuvres year- 
ly for the fervice of the Chappel where it was erefted ^ which was 
alfo adorned with Pictures, and paved with Marble at his own charge. 

But fome difficulties arifing about the fettlement of that foundation, 
which could not be cleared before his death, the thing (to his great 
grief ) remained unperfeft. 

In the end of the year 1611. the fuit between the Univerfity of 
I'aris, and the Jefuites was decided , Monfieur Servin concluding for 
the Univerfity againft the Jefuites : to whom thefe four Articles were 
propounded to be by them fubfcribed. 

i . That the General Council was above the Pope. 

2. That the Pope hath no Temporal Power over Kings, and could 
not by Excommunication deprive them of their Realms and 

3. That Clergy-men having heard of any Attempts or Confpiracies 
againft the King or his Realm, or any matter ofTreafon in confeili- 
on, are bound to reveal it to the Magiftrate. 

.4. That Clergy-men are fubjeft to the Prince, or Temporal Magi- 

Anno 1612. by a Decree of the Court of Parliament a certain Book 
written in Latine by Gafpxr Scopptus, entituled Ecdeftajticus, tending 
ro the Rebellion of Subjects againft Sovereign Power, and containing an 
infinite number of execrable blafphemies , and fcandalous afTertions 
againft the glorious memory of the deceafcd King Henry IV. was 
burnt by the Hang-man publickly in the Paiace-yard, 

Near this time Houriflied A>n*ld Offnt a French Cardinal. His, 
arid Cardinal Perron's French Letters are efteemed ufeful, both for 
the underftanding of Ecclefiaftical and State affairs. He was Scholar 
te Peter R<imtu. One gives him this- charafter. Cardinal** OffttHt, 


Gene. IT. Of FRANCE. ,oj 

Fir eruditione, 'prudentiaj integritatc y fMwitate morum tximit confpi- 
CHHS. Gaflend* de vit. Piereski]-, li.-i. 

Whilft M. Dit Moulin lived in Paris, he was invited by many Uni- 
verfities to accept of the Chair of Divinity j. but the Church ot Par- it 
would never part with him. 

The Univerfity of Ley den did moft con ftamly court him, confider- 
ing him ftil) as a member of their Body. They began in the yeari6ir. 
and offered him the place of Armmins then newly dead. And not 
only the Curators by frequent addrefles to the Church of Parti and to 
him, but the States by their Ambaffadours, and the Prince Q{ Orange 
by his Letters did from time to time demand him. 

Before the death of King Henry IV. Du Pleffls dcfired leave ofthat* 
King to retire himfclf, which the King unwillingly granted, withal > 
defiring him to come fometimes to Courr. Being returned ro his Go- 
vernment at Sanmur, he began his work of the Myftcry of Iniquity* 
Anno 1607. which he finilhed in nine Months. 

Then he began to fet OH thofe great Volumes of Btronius, to which 
he intended a Confutation. Dtt Perron was much prefTed by the King 
to anfwer 'DurPlcflis. His Friends told him thai the Adion at F00- 
tainblcan was little to his Credit, and iCDuPlfjps Ihould rfie, it would. 
be then too late to anfwcr him, becaufe men would be ready to fay, 
he dur'ft not do it in his lifetime : wherefore he promifcdand under- 
took the bufinefs : and going to Rome ^ fequeftred himfelf from^other 
bufinefs to perform it, promifing the Eope at his arrival in France to 
Print his anfwer, which he faid was ri fen to a great Volume. Upon- 
his return the King demanded of him when he would Print it ? he told 
his Majefty that he ftayed but for fome Manufcripts from Rome. Which 
anfwer the King ( feeing his delays )ufed as a Proverb to fome under- 
takers , whofe work went not forward, making idle excufes to 
him : Yes, faith the King, I fee you (lay for Manufcriprs from 
Rome too, 

fafiusbon) who was about the Cardinal; wrote to *Jtf<wpeur DH 
PJcjfis concerning this anfwer, telling him that it was finished, and 
that himfelf had feen it. 1)tt Pleffis defired Cafattbon to give him from 
him the farneCounfel which Chrift did to Judo* intheGofpel, What 
tkondofti do quickly. But this Volume of anfwer never appeared ; the 
Cardinal after the King's murther accounting htmCelf to be difengaged 
from his promife. Du Pifjfa turned his Myftery of Iniquity into Latine, , 
which he dilated fo fafl, that -his Amanuenfit had much ado with his 
pen to keep pace with him. 

After ttiehonid Murther oftto King, he took fo good order as to 
keep the people about his Government in quiet : and as Toon as he-had 
received an Edift for the Regency of the Queen-Mother, he admini- 
ftred the Oath of fidelity toall the Clergy and People, within his jurif- 

didtion .ji 

io 4 %\yt CCCleflattical %lftO# Cent. 17. 

di&ion j making a fpeech uruo them, in which he dcfired them to for- 
.gec the diftinguifliing names of Papifi and Proteftant. 

Afterwards a dilTention arofe between Monpeur Du Moulin Minifter 
of the Church at Paris, zndTtlenus, ProfefTour at Sedan, about the 
effects of the union of the natures in Chrift. The making up of this 
difference was by a National Synod held at Tonneinx, referred to Men- 
fieur Du Pltjfis, who proved the happy Authour of a full reconciliation 
between them in the year 1614. Yet had this difference like to have 
bro'^e forth again the year following, by indifcretion Tor malice rather) 
cif fome particular perfons, had not sJWonpcur Du Pleffis in time flop- 
ped itsprogrefs. 

In the year 1615. King James fern by Sir Theodore tjlfayerne to 
invite *!>* Moulin into England, to confer with him about a Method 
of uniting all the Reformed Churches of Chriftendom, to which he 
had been often folicited by Monpeur Du Plcjfis. The ifiue of which 
voyage was, That King James refolved to fend Letters to all Proteftant 
Princes, to invite them to Union ; and defired the Trench Churches 
to frame aConfeffion, gathered out ofallthofe of other Reformed 
Churches, in the which unneceflary Points might be left out, as the 
means of begetting difcord and diflention. 

Two Months before Du Moulin 's coming into England, Du Perron. 
had made an Oration in the States afTembled at Blou; where he had 
maintained, that the Pope had power to depofe Kings, and had ufed 
King James very ill; and having publiflied it in Print, he fent itte> 
hisMajefty.To anfwer that OrationKing James made ufe ofDaMotilin's 
fervice for the French Language ; and it was Printed the firft time in 
French while 2) Moulin was in England in that year 1615, before it 
was Printed in Englijk. The King going to Cambridge, carded 
D Moulin along with him , and made him take the Degree af 

The Do&or at his return into France Landed at Sullen, where 
MffnfteurdeComyagnoles was Goternour for the Duke of EJpcrnan. 
It was the time when the French Princes began to ftir againft Mary the 
Queen-Mother of France. 

And becaufethe Princeof^ff^ was courting the Reformed Chur- 
ches to joyn with him in that defign, the Doftor was fufpefted, as 
having taken that journey to procure help from England im the Prin- 
ces. Wherefore Camyagnoles was charged to arre.ft.hrm at his Land- 
ing, which he did, and committed him to the Guard of two Souldiers, 
icized upon his Trunks and Papers, and fearched them, Bet after two 
daies, he releafed him, defiling. him to tell no man of the wrong he 
had done him. 

The Doftor finding at his return, that the Proteftants began to en- 
gage with the Princes againft the Queen-mother, and in effeft againft 


MCent 17. ""5F FRAN GET 


the King, who was then declared Major by the Parliament, he diflVaded 
them from it (as much as he could; both by Letters and Sermons. 
And unto him the Court was obliged, that all the Proreftant Tows on 
this fide the Loire kept .in the King's obedience. He (hewed, that he 
did it not to ferve the times, but to ferve God. The declaring of the 
Politick AfTembly of the Proteftants for the Prince of Conde in the year 
1616. was the greateft error that ever they committed ^ and they 
(mined for it, as foon as the young King had got more Age and 

In the mean time DuPleffis laboured much in procuring the peace 
of the Proteftam Churches, endeavouring to keep a good correfpon- 
dence between the King and them, which was continually ready to 
be interrup:ed : in which bufinefs he carried himfelf with fo much 
prudence and fidelity in all occurrences between them, that he was 
admired and praifed by all. Yea, even Cardinal Du, Perron himfelf 
(heretofore one of his greaft enemies ) (hewed him great refped in 
the AflVmbly ot Sutes held at Rwcn, Anno 1617. Speaking of him 
in all companies with an excefsof Praifes 'j and telling the King him- 
felf, ihat thole men had done him wrong, who had kept.pff Monfieur 
DM Plejfis from having a greater Power in the management of his af- 
fairs : And that his Religion ought not to render him unprofitable in 
the exercife of thofe graces which God hid given him ; and that .his 
Majefty ought to keep him near his perfon fo long as he fhould 

After the return of Dr. DM tjMoulin out of England, the Jefuite 
Arnonx a Court Preacher, fent a challenge to the Miniftersof /V/V to 
appear before the Queen-Mother to give account of their Religion, 
preacht fire and fword againft them before their Maj.fttes ; and fent 
them a Pamphjf t full of heavy accufations. The Dodor was charged 
by his Colleagues to make an anfwer to it ; which he did, and addref- 
fed it to the King. 

In that anfwer by way of juft recrimination he affirmed, that he-- had 
feeninthe Colledge of the Jefimes at Uflcfbe, a Pidure of the Mar- 
tyrs of their Order - and in that rank fome Traytorswhoh d beeh 
executed for confpiring againft the Life of their Kings. That the 
maxims of the Jefuites were pernicious to Kings, whereas the Do- 
ctrine of the Proteftants maintained their Life, their Authority and 
their States. 

And the Paftours of the Reformed Churches taught their people fi- 
delky and obedience to the King. Then he reprefented the many Pe- 
rils and Combates which the Proteftancs had fuftained tor the defence 
of King Henry IV. till they had brought him to the Crown. Of 
which fervices they that had been the King's enemies received the 
reward. This anfwer of the Minifters was prefented to the. King by 

Ooo the 

Cent. 17. 

the Duke of foJw. This bold addrcfs to the King irritated the great 
jMtK. Qfl^g O f t fc e Crown, of whom not a few, or [heir Fathers, had been of 
the party of theLeague.The Jefuites therefore letting their challenge fall, 
indicted the Miniftersof Treafon,although all the ground they could find 
for it was,that the Minifkrs called the Reformed Churches their people,** 
if they had pretended fome Soveraignty over them. The Minifters 
being fummoned before the Council, the indiftment of Treafon 1 was 
not much urged, as being bur, a Cavil. After grave Admonitions 
and high thrcatnings by Chancellour Brnflart , they difmiflcd' 

Thac challenge of j4rnoux> and <a Pamphlet of his again ft the confeffiqn 
of Faiih of ihe Reformed Churches in franc* , occafioned the Dodor co 
writehis Ruckltr of Faiih. 

A Jefuiiecame to ihe Doftors Study to difpute with him. tx^/0- 
fuur de Mvngivotj a famous Phyfitian, was prefent at the Conference, 
wtfercby he w.-.s converted, and fetout an excellent Book of the rea- 
fons why he. a. jurcd-.Poptry. He had many encounters -, and to relate 
all h ; s Conferences- mighi ful a great Volume. Scarce was he a week 
without one,, while he 1 ved in Paris, and fome of them were very 
long. He was the objcd-of the publick hatred of the Romanifts. 
His. name was. the general Theme of Libels cr^ed : UP in the Street?, 
of railing Sermons. in all Pulpits, and- of the curfes of ignorant 

The Popifli Clergy in the year 1617. being aflembled at the houfe : 
tfa&*iir*Fr?m in Paris ( as every two years they ufed to do ) be- 
ing to take their leaves of the King^ elected the Bifbopof *Aire to be 
their Spokef-man, and to certifie his Majefty of jheir grievances. In 
performing .which bufinefs, the principal thing of which he fpuke was 
to this purpofe, That whereas his Majefty was boundi to give them. 
Fathers, he-gave them Children. That the name of jlbbot fignifies a 
Father, and the Function of a Bifliopwas full of Fatherly authority : 
yet France notwithftanding was now filled with Bill, ops and Abbots,. 
which are yet. in their Nurfes arms, or elfe under their Regents in 
ColUdges, Nay more, that the abufe goerh before the Being, ChiU' 
dren being commonly defign'd to Biflioprkks and Abbacies before they 
weie born. 

He alfo.made another complaint, that the Soveraign Courts by 
their Decrees htd attempted upon the Authority which was Commit- 
ted >to the Clergy^ even in that which concerned meerly Eccleliafti- 
cal. Discipline and Government of the Church. Tt> thefe complaints 
he gave them indeed avery gracious hearing, but it never wenr fur- 
thrthan a hearing, being never followed by redrefs. TheCoLtt.of 
ParlbmentJinew too well 'the ftrength of their own Authority : ani 
she King was Joth .to take fr8m -himfelf tbrefe -excellent advantages of 


Cent. 17. Of F R A N 'CE.' 107 

binding to himfelf his Nobility , by the fpeedy preferring of their 
Children. So the Clergy departed with a great deal of envy, and a lit-, 

In the fame year the States of the United Provinces defired the 
Churches of England, (jermany, France, &c. to fend fome able Di- 
vines to the Synod of T)ort, whereupon the Churches of f 'ranee named 
'four, viz,. Dr. Du Moulin, Chamier, Rivet, and Chaune. But when 
the Dodor was making ready for his journey, he was forbidden by 
a mefienger of the Council of State of France to go out of the Kingdom 
upon pain of death. The like prohibition was made to the three other. v 

'Andrew Rivet was a Godly and Learned French Divine. He hath 
very well expounded Genefis, Exodw, the Prophetical Pfatms and 
Hofea, and wrote Learnedly againft the Papifts in his Catholics Or- 
thodox in, and againft Grotiw. Critictu facer, feu cenfura Patrum, 
'Ifagoge in 'S. Script Hram, Synopps dottrin& de natura & gratia. He 
tiath publifhed other Learned Treatifes \nFrench and Latin. 

WiHtanr Rivet his Brother, hath alfo publifhed a Learned Treatifc 
De fufttfcatione , an exad French Treatife De invocatione & ttdora- 
tione Santtornm defunftorum. Epift. Afologet, 

Daniel Chamier was alfo a Learned French man, who in his Parr- 
firatia fatholic* hath fo Learnedly refuted the Papifts, that none of 
them hath made any anfwer to it. His EpiftoU Jefuiticx, and Cor- 
ptts Theologix alfo mew his great abilities. There is alfo a Work of 
tlis m'French, entitled, La confufion des Difputes Pstpiftes, Tar Dani- 
el Chamier. And another in anfwer to fome queft ions of Cotton the 
Jefuite. He was killed to. tfftontaubon with a Canon Bullet (which 
had a C. on it ) on the Lords day. Being asked by one before, whe- 
ther he Preached on that day ? he faid it was his day of repofe or 
reft : and fo it proved, though he meant it in another fenfe. 

In the year 1618. the Lords States and the Curators of the Uni- 
verfity of Ley'den renewed a former demand of theirs concerning Dr. DM 
Monlin to be their Divinity Reader. The Learned Erpenim was *^ 
fent twice into France on that errand. And when he could not be 
obtained from the Church of Paris, they demanded by the fame Erpe- 
nitu the famous 'Rivet, and had him. 

The Queen-Mother makes an efcape from the place of her confine- 
ment, and is received by the Duke of EJpernon, Anno 1619. And 
'being arrived at Lockes, flie endeavours to juftifie her efcape. 

Cardinal Da Perron died Anno 1618. charging his friends, upon 
Vis death-bed, then about him, to fend a folemn Farewel by him to 
Monpe ur Dtt Pleflis, and tomanifeft his forrowfornot having made a 
ftrider League of friendship wich him, having fo high an efteem of his 
Conference and integrity. 

O o o 2 The 

i o 8 3C!)e CCCUflMtcal%lftO?p Cent 17. _ 

i The Queens affairs having ill fuccefs, all thofe who had engaged in . 
her party, were abandoned to the King's mercy : but as for her felf . 
'(he was permitted to come to Court. The Duke of Efpernonlyyts 
down his Arms } and the Martjuff de VMejte y by the Command of 
tb.e Duke his Father. 

f he Duke of M*ymne refufeth to accept the Peace, and endeavours . 
-to engage the Duke of Efytrnon in hisdifcontents : but he refufeth ^o 

In the yea? 1620. a National Synod of the Proteftancs. being cal- 
led at M*it ia Langnedoc., Dr. DH Moulin was fent Depuiy to V. 
and he made account in his return to go out of the w*y to. fes &- 
chel. A little before he rook that journey, the Lord Herbert qfC^r- 
bury then Ambuffirdour of England in France, urged him iq.wrke W 
the King his Mailer, to exhort him to undertake vigoroufly the de- 
fence of his Son in Law the King of Ti-ohtrnia. So the Doctor writ to 
the King, and delivered his Letters to the Lord Ambafladour's Secre- 
tary : then immediately he went to Alais, where he was chofen Pre- 
fiduit of the Synod. 

In the mean while his Letters to King Jawss were delivered to 
the Council ofStateinFr*w*, how or by whom the Doctor could ne- 
ter learn. Scarce was he in Langttedocy .when it was concluded at 
Prfrtfinthe ouncil of State, that he rtiould be apprehended, andcom.- 
mitted Prifoner, lor exhorting a foreign King to take Arms for the . 
de.ence ofihe Pro: eftant Churches.. And becaufe the Council was iq?. 
formed, that the Dodor would return by Rochtl (a place which then 
gave great jealoufies to the Court) they would not take him before 
he had been there ^ the informers againft him. intending to make his 
going to Rachel an Article of his indidment. 

The affairs of Beam were now of fuch a nature as that the King's 
prefence feemed to be very neceffary there -, therefore he determines 
to move that way, and goes to X^ntonge.^ and from thence paffeth 
over into (jnic.nne. He is magnificently entertained, by the Duke of 
Efpernon two dates at Cadillac, and departs from thence, to go into 
Btarv. He was made believe, that the Council of this little Country 
would fubmit to his Ro\'al pleafure, without obliging him to perform 
that voyage , but the King muft undergo that trouble. He went 
thither, where his prefence produced the fame effcd it had done in 
other places. He over-ran all this little Province, fcizing (as he pafled ) 
on Navarrcns the ftrongeflr place in it, as he did alfo of Ortez., and 
Olleron^ Principal Cities of that Country. He fubverted all iheir 
antient Cuftorne?, reftor'd the Biffiop and other Ecclefiafticks to their 
Eftates and Dignities ^ took away the Adminiflra^ion ofiifairs. of the 
Country from thofe of the Reformed Religion, andre-eftabliihed hjs 
own Authority : but he left the, Government of the Province in the 


Gene. 17. Of FRANCE. 

hands of the Maiquefs deU Force fince Marefchal of Prance who 
impatient to fee his Authority cut fofiiortby ihcfe alterations, could 
hardly forbear till the King was got back to Paris, from reducing 
things again to the fame pofture they were in before. He therefore 
Uboured all the Winter to drive out the Garrifons of Ortez. zn^OIle- 
ran^ fo that excepting Navarrcns, which was kept by the Marquefs 
of- Poianne^ whom the King had left Governour there, he overthrew 
whatever his Majefty had done,fhufHing. all things again into their for- 
mer coni uiion. 

During the Reign of Henry IV. who would not fee it, and the 
troublefora minority of Levee s XIII. who could hot moieft them, the 
Prot eftants had made themfelves Matters of Ninety nine Towns, well 
fortified and enabled for a liege. In the opinion of their Potency they 
call Aflemblies ( Parliaments as it were ) when and as often as they 
pleafed. There they confulted of the Common affairs of Religion, 
made new Laws of Government, removed and exchanged their gene- 
ral Officers, the King's leave all this while never fo much as formally 
asked. . In this licentious calling of Affemblies, theyabufed their Power ; 
intoa negled ; and in not diflblving them at his Ma-jefties command- 
ment, they encreafed their 

The AiTembly which principally caufed the War and their mine, 
was that ot" Roc htl, called by the Proteftants prefently upon the King's 
journey into Seam. This general meeting the King -prohibited by 
his fpecial Edifts, declaring all them to be guilty of Trcafon j which 
notwithftanding they wsuld not hearken unto, but refolutely went on 
in their purpofes. 

Being Affembled , they Tent the King a Remonflrance of their grie- 
vances, to which the Duke L' Efdeguicrs y in a Letter to them writ- 
ten, gives them, a very fair and plaufible anfwcr, wherein alfo he en- 
treats th^rn to obey the King's Edict, and break off the AfTembly. 
Upon the receipt of this Letter thofe ot the AfTembly publiflud a De- . 
claration, wherein they verified the meeting to be Lawful, and their - 
purpofenot to difmifs themfelves till their'defires were granted. . 

This rTront done to the King, made him g -ther together his Forces -^ 
yet at the Duke of Lefdiguier's requeft, he allowt-d them twenty four 
dales refpue before his Army fhould niarch towards them. He offered 
them alfo very fair and reafonable Conditions, fuch almoft as their 
Deputies had foliciied ; but far- better than thofe which they were 
glad toaccepr, when all the Towns were taken from them. In their 
Aflembly iluy made Laws and Orders, that no peace fhould be made 
without the confent of the general Convocation, about paying of the 
Souldiers wages, for the detaining of the Revenues of the King and the 
Clergy 7 and the like, 


The Synod at ./4/d# being ended, Do&or Z># sjtfoulin hearing 
liow the the Proteftants would keep a Politick Afiemb4y at Rochet 
againft the King's will, judged that it was an ill conjuncture of time 
*for him to .go to ~Rochel, and took the way of Lions. In that refoluti- 
on he was guided by a good Providence ; for if he had gone to Rochtl, 
he (hould'have been apprehended not far from that Town after his 
corning out of it. At 'Lions lie received a Letter from Monftenr Dre<* 
lincourt Minifter of Paris., which gave "him notice of his danger. This 
warning mid e him baulk the high-way : yet he went to Parts, and 
entring the City in the night, went diredly to the Lord Herbert, who 
bad him to flie in hafte for his life, which was in danger by the inter- 
ception of his Letters to the King his Matter. That very night with- 
out going lo much as to his own houfe, he went out of Paris, with 
iiis Brother Captain John Du Moulin to Lumigni, a houfe of the 
Count de la Snae, ten Leagues from the City. Thither came two 
Elders of the' Church of Paris to ihim from the Confiftory, to defire 
him to remove himfelf out of the reach of thofe who waited for his 
life. Which he did, and the next night travelled toward Sedan, a 
place "then acknowledging the Old Duke of Bovillon (a Prottftant 
Prince ) for 'Sovereign. To Sedan he came fafe in the beginning of 
the year 1621. and was kindly received by the Duke to his houfe and 

This was hk parting with the Church of Paris, where he had lived 
one and twenty years. And although -great means were made to ap- 
p:afe the Court, and albeit many years after the indictment againft 
him was taken off, and leave was given him to liye in France, yet 
was it with that exception, that he fhould not live in Paris. 

At Sedan he was prefently defired to accept of the place of Minifter 
of that Church, and of the Chair of Divinity, then lately left by Tile- 
nut in difcontent, and by Andrew Mcfain by death. He accepted of 
thefe places, tut conditionally, in cafe, thathecoul'd not obtain his re- 
flitution to Parn. He found at Sedan much love and refpect from the 
Prince and the Academy, as alfo from the Church. 

Daniel Tilenui was a Learned man. He hath written Notes and 

Obfervations upon Bdlarmines Difputation, De 'Chrifto Capite -, And 

on his Book 'De Summo Pontifice., and his Book De Verbo Dei. Other 

.Works there are of his, as, ParAnefis adScetcs. Arnica, collatio 77- 

lent& Cameronis. De gratia ($ volnntxtis \nimam concurfn. Di- 

\ Afitichriflo. Conftderatio fer.t. j ac. Arminii dc Trtdcfti- 

natione, gratia Dei^ & libtro Arbitrio. Syntagma Difputationum in 

Academia Sedanenfi, 

I The Government of the Town and Caftle ofSauwur was continued 
unto 'Du-Pleffis, until this year 1621. whentheKing falling mto dif- 
and fufpicion of the Proteftants, by reafon of rfieir high de- 

Gent. 17. Of FRANCE. 

ponment in the AiTembly at Rochet, difplaced him at firft but for three* 
Months,, with a promife of reftoring him fo foonas affairs fhould bo 
quieted in fome meafure. But-thefe difcontents growing to anopea 
War, he could never procure a re-eftabli(hraent , though it were-con- 
tiaually folicited by him. Wherefore retiring himfelf to his Houfs 
in the Foreft upon Dayure, he continued there till the day of his death^ 
which followed in the year 1623. there applying himfelf to holy me- 
ditations and Exercifes of Patience. 

Dodor Du Moulin having had time and occafion whilft he was 
Prefident of thejSynod tfAlais^ and in his long journey to it and froo 
it, to know the evil pofture of affairs, he found himfelf preftin Spirit? 
to write to the AfTembly of Racket: and becaufe that Epiftle is a piece- 
that giveth-mucb light to the Hiftory of that time, and a good IdTcn- 
to. all that pretend Con fcience and .Religion for their refiftance to their 
Soveraign by force of Arms, I will give fome account of it in this- 
phce. . 


/ do not write to you to four tnyforrows intoyoitv bofom^ or totnttr^ ? f 
tain yon with my private crojfes^ &c. JL more [mar ting care hath ^"JtSs by '' 
moved jns to write to you, and forced me to go beyond my natHre, which 5^n. 
vcaf alwaics.awrfe, from medling with pitblick J hftfine]fes t ' and from 
moving out ofthefch.ere of my prefer calling. For feeing the general 
boldy of the Church in eminent danger , and upon the brink.' of 'a difnml 


Precipice, it was not poffible for me to k^ep ftlence, &c. It 
me not indeed to takg upon me. to give Couvfel to an Affembly of Per 
fons chofen out of the whole Kingdom to bear tht burden of the pnblick^ 
rfffttirs in a time fo full of difficulty : yet I'lhink^it is ufcful for you 
to be truly informed what the fenfe, and what the dtfpofition if. 
of our Churchij^y by perfont that have a particular 
of it. 

The Queftion. then being whether you ought to feparafe your 
fembly to obey- hu.JMtjtJfy, or k? c p . together to give order 
to the affairs ofthf Churches ^ I am obliged totellyott, that the gineral 
defire of our Churches is, that it may pleaje God to continue our pc.icr 
in cur obedience to his Adajefty. And that feeing the King refolvcA 
to make himjelf obeyed by the force of his Asms^ they truft that you- 
wi/l do your be ft to avoid that ftortn, and rather .yield unto^ncceftity*. 
than to engage them in a Wmr^ which m aft -certainly will ruin* gre^t- 
part cfour Churches^ &CC. Ey obeying the- Kit)gyon fliall rake aw*? 
the pretence ujed by thoje that fet on his JMajefty to perfecutt M^ 
And ifw-emnftbe psrfecntedy all that fear (jod defir* tk.rt it may 
be for the. prof clfion of .the (jojfiel, and that our perfecxtxm may 
be the crofiofChr.ift, I Cx.n~.affiireyou.that. thegrw.iefl a?td-bctf 

xije ecclefiaflical %ifto?y cent. 17- 

of our Churches w* fret h for your fcparation, ifittnay i c with the fafe- 
ty of your perfons : yea that many of the Roman Church de fir mg the 
pub'iick. peace ^ are continually about Hi, befecching and exhorting us, 
that we do not by cafttng our felvcs headlong involve them in the fame 
mine. Generally our poor foe kf are frtghted *nd difmaied, cafting 
their eyes upon you as per fans that may procure their reft - % and by 
yielding to the prefent necejfityblow away the form hanging over their 
heads. Many already have for fake n the Land; many have for -fakgn 
their Religion -, whence you may judge what ttiffipxtiosis like tofottow^ 
if this exafperation go on further' No more do I need to recommend un- 
to you to have a tender care of the prefcrvation of our poor Churches, 
knowing that you would chufe death, rather than to draw that reproach 
upon you , that you have haflened the perfection of the Churchy and 
destroyed that which the x,eal of our Father shad pi anted, and put thii 
State in confufion, &c. 

finfider then whether the fubfiftence of your Affembly can heal all 
thefe fores : whether your fitting can give a flicker to our Churches^ 
provide all things neceffaryfor a War, where the parties arefo unequal -, 
raife Forces, and makf a flockof money to pay them ; whether all the 
good that your fitting can produce^ can countervail the difftpation of Jo 
many Churches that lie open to the wrath of their enemies ^ whether 
when they are fallen you can raife them again whether in the evi- 
dent divifion that u among *#, you are able to rally the fcattered 
parts of that divided body ^ which if it were well united, yet would bt 
too weakjoftand upon the defenfive part. 

Pardon me, Gentlemen, if I tell you, that you fidl not find all otrr 
Troteflants enclin'd alike to obey your resolutions-^ andthat the fire be- 
ing kindled all about, you fiall remain helplefi beholders of the ruine 
you have provoked. Neither can it be unknown to you, that many of 
the be ft quality among *#, and beft able to defend ut, do openly blame 
your aftions, prof effing that fuffering for this caufe u not fuferingfor 
the caufe of Cod. Thefe making no refiftance, and opening the Gates 
of their places, or joining their arms with the King' s> you may eafily 
judge what /<?/, and what weakening of the party that will be. How 
many of our Nobility will forfake you, fame out of confidence, fome out 
ff treachery, fame out of weafyefi- / Even they who in an Affcm\>ly art 
moft vehement in their votes, and to ft iw thcmfelves Zealom are alto- 
gether for violent waies, are very often they that fir ft revolt and be- 
tray their Brethren. They bring our diftreffed Churches tothehotteft 
danger and there leave them, going away after they have fet thehoufe 

Jf there be once fghting, or befieging of our Towns, whatfeever may 
the iffne be of the Cotnbatc or the fiege, all that while it will be hard 
the people animated tgainft M from falling *f on oar Churches, 


Cent.>7. Of FRANCE 

that have neither retreat nor defence, And what order foever the Ma- 
giftrates of contrary Religion take about it 9 theyfiall never be able to 
compafi it, 

Certainly M flirring of yours is altogether unfeafonable, and yen 
fet fail again ft wind and tide* If Anything can help, it muft be the 
X,eai of Religion, &c. 

But in this caufe you fjatt fnd that zeal languishing, be caufe mo ft of 
cur people believe, that this evil might have been avoided without any 
breach to our Conscience, &c. 

When I call to mind ortr fever alh/fes, at that of Le&oure, Privas,<ufc4 
Beam, / find that we our felves have contributed to them : and it if 
no wonder that our enemies take *<> car* to remedy cur faults, and join 
witb w to do ut harm. But hence it fellows not, that we mttftfetour 
houfe on fire our felves, becaufe others are refolved to burn i>. or take 
in hand to remedy particular loffesby means too weak, to redrefthem, but 
ftrong and certain to ruine the general. God who hath fo many times 
diverted the Counfels takgn for our ruine, hath neither lof his Tower, 
,fior altcrcd'huWill, w cjhall find him the fame J}iR y if we have the grace 
to wait for his afjiftance, not cajling our /elves headlong by our impati* 
cnce, or fetttng our minds ebftinately upon impojfibilities. Certainly, 
tit hough our enemies feek^ our ruine, yet they wiU never undertake it 
openly without fome pretence, other and better than that of Religion, 
which we mitfl not give them. For if we kffp our [elves in the 
obedience which Subj efts owe to their Sovereign, you fliall fee that whilft 
our Enemies hope in vain that wefiattntaks our felves guilty byjome 
difobedience, Gadwillgive them fome other work^, and afford w occtfans 
to f jew to his Madefy, that we are a Body ufefnl to his State , and put 
him in mind ofthefignal fervicesthat our Churches have done to the 
late Kingof ghriotu memory. But if we are fo unfortunate, that whilft 
we kffp our /fives to our duty, the calumnies of our enemies prevail ^ 
at leaft we Jh^U get fo much, th*t we fall k^ep all the right on 
our fide , and maks ** appear that we love the peace of the 

Not with /landing att this, Gentlemen, you may and ought to tnkf 
rder for the fafety of your perfons. For whereas his Mayfly and 
his Council have [aid often, that if you feparate your felver, he mil 
let our Churches enjoy peace, and the benefit of hti ditts, &c. And 
whenfoever youTetition for your fafe diffoltttion, I truft it will be e*pe 
to obtain it, if you make poffible rcqitefts, andfuch as the miffry of the 
time and the prefent nccefiity can bear. And in the me an time you 
may advife before you part, what jhottla 1 be done, if notwithstanding 
your feparation we jliottld be 9ppreft. That order your prudence may find, 
*nd it it not my part tofuggtft it unto you* 



Jf by propounding theft things twto you, Ikaruf exceeded the limits 
of discretion? / hope you will impute it to my, zsal for the good and pre- 
fervation of the Church. And if this advice of m' ratted > this 
comfort I Jhatthtve, that I have difch/trgcd my Confc tenet : and reti- 
ring wyfelf unto fome foreign Country , there I will end thofe few daics 
I haveyettolive^ lamenting the loft of the Church^ and the dtflruSion 
of the Temple, for the building whereof I have laboured with much mart 
courage And fidelity than Jitccef. The Lord turn away his wratk ., 
from w, dirclk your csfffembty., and yreferve your Perjans^ I; 

From Sedan 

I2 1 02 1 

H.his Thefc men not only, gave Audience to Ambaffadours, and received 
to 206. ^ etters frornforreign Princes, bur alfo importuned his Majtfty to ha. 
a general liberty of going into any other Countries, and affinging in 
their Councils a matter of fpecial importance. And therefore the 
King upon a forefight of the dangers,wifely Prohibited them PO go to any 
AfTemblies without a particular Licence, upon pain to be declared Tray- 
tors.. Since that time growing into greater ftrength, whenfoever they 
bid occafion of bufincls with King Lewes ^ they would never Treat 
with him but by their AmbafTadours, and upon fpecial Articles. AD 
ambition above the, quality ofthofe that profefs themfelves S&rbonets^ 
and the only way, < as De Serres noteth ) to make an Eftate in the 
State, But the anfwers made unto the King by thofe oluilerack and 
tJftfontauban, are pregnant proofs of their intent and meaning in this 
kind.. The firft being fummoned by the King and Array July 2,2.. 
Anno 1621. returned thus, That the King fliould fiaSer them to enjoy 
their Liberties, and leave their fortifications as they were for them for 
their lives, and fo theywould declare themfelves to be his good Sub- 
jeds.. They of Montauban faid, That they were refolved to live and ; 
die in the Union of the Churches ; but faid not for the fervke of the* 

This Union and Confederacy of theirs, King Lent; ufed to call^. 
tfo Cotown-veealthoffachel: for the overthrow of which he alwaias 
protefted, that he had only taken Arms. On the fecondof A}ril before. 
Ire had as yet advanced into the Field, he published a Declaration in fa- 
vour^of all thofe of the Proteftant Religion^ which would contain 
themfelves within duty and obedienc* a And whereas fome of Tours 
at the beginning of ihe Wars had tumultuoufly molefted the Proteihnts, 
at the burial of one of their dead, five of them by the King's fpecial - 
Commandment were openly executed, 


Cenc. 17. Of FRANCE. 

When the War was hotteft abroad^ thofe of the Reformed Religion 
at Parif lived fecurely, and had their accuftomed meetings at Chtrcn- 
ton-, fohadthofealfo of other places. Moreover when tidings came 
to Paris of the Duke otMaycnnes death, (lain before t&fontanb(w y 
and the French according to their hot-headed difpofition breathed out 
nothing but mine to the Hngonots - the Duke of Montbawn, Gp- 
vernour of the City, commanded their Houfcs and the Streets to be fafe- 
ly Guarded* And when this Rabble had burnt down their Temple at 
Charenton, the Court of Parliament on the day following ordained that 
it fhouldbe built up again in a more beautiful manner, and that at the 
King's charge. 

The foreraentioned Letters of Dr. Du Moulin being read in the Af- 
fembly at Rocbcl, raifed much conteftation. In the end the violent 
Party prevaling, it was refolved, i\nx. Monfitur dt U Mtllitiere flrould 
write to Dr. DH Moulin in the name of the Aflembly, to defire him 
that he would not impart the faid Letters unto any, and to tell him that 
his advice was not approved. Yet bis ad vice was fo relifhed byfome 
oftheAffembly, that they arofe, and prcfently left it, and never re- 
turned to it again. 

But the violent men in the Aflembly did good fer vice to the Conr't 
by their violence, and were feed by the Court to thruft their Brethren 
into a precipice, and give to the King the long defired occafion co take 
from the Proteftants the places granted to them by his Father's- Edid. 
The forenamed Millititre was one of thofe violent men, who after- 
wards forfook his party and his Religion and' by his working 
and unhappy wit he hath created much trouble unto the French 

The Duke of Effcrnon now .receives a Commifiion from the King to 
tnarch with an Army to reduce Bearn^ ( which the Marquefs de U 
force had. excited to new Commotions-) to their duty and obedience* 
The Marquefs having intelligence that the Duke was coming againfl 
him, fends to divert the Duke from coming into Beam : but that not 
taking effect, he fends oneC/wr/w, the principal Minifter of Beam unto 
him. Thisperfon in the quality of a Deputy from the Country, was 
fen to reprefent to him the fterility of the Country, the poverty cf 
the inhabitants , and difficulty of the waies, -and the refolution rf 
the people to make a fmar.t refiftancc,. (liould they (who were in a very 
good difpofition at prefent) be urged tothelaft extreains.. But the 
Duke having flatly told him, that the end of his Expedition w.astocaurc 
the King to be obeyed, and to chaftife all thofe that fliould rebel! 
againfl him, he was fent back very much aftonifhed at fo brisk a 

The BtArmls now gave themfelves for loft : their high vaunts but a 
few daies before, that they would defend their Religion and their Coifn- 

Ppp z tries 

soQe ecciefiafttcai 

tries liberty to the laft man, were converted imo a pannick fear ^ fo 
that on a fudden whole Cities were left defolate , men of the beft qua- 
lity among them with their Wives and Children , feeking. their fafety 
in their flight, out of a juft apprehenfion ofaUthepunifhmems an offen- 
ded Prince might reasonably infl'idupon a ftubborn and mutinous peopfr. 
In this general confternation of thcBearnois the Duke drew near to 
Ortez,, the Caftle whereof was very ftrong, and had of late been for- 
tified, and furnifhed with all neceflaries of War, which alfo fhut up 
the pafsof the whole Country, and was of fo advantageous a fcituation, 
as was very eafic to be defended. But thofe wiihin no fooner heard 
that the Duke bud fent for Cannon from Navarrcns to force them, 
but they prefently furrendered without flaying till they could be 
brought up. 

The Marquefs dt U Force having intelligence of the furrender of 
Ortcz,, made hafte to begone : and the Duke immediately advanceth 
from Ortez. to OUeron y where fome Fortifications had lately been made, 
which were alto at his appearing deferted, without the leaft (hew of op- 

At length the fear of the Duke's feverity, that had before frighted 
every one from his habitation, being converted into an abfolute confi- 
dence in his' Clemency and goodnefs, every one retum'd to his own 
home. The Cities which at his coming had been almoft totally defert- 
ed, were on a fudden re-inhabited, infomuch that from thtt time for- 
ward all the Duke had to da, was only to receive the tenders 
teftations of their obedience, and to fet down Rules for their Civil Go- 
vernment, which were ordered with much wiWom and juftice. He 
tookfuch care to reconcile the interefts of Religion, that both parties 
,were fatisfied with the equal fliarei he divided betwixt them in the 
.; publick adminiftration. And all this was performed in lefs than three 
weeks time -, his journey thither, his ftay there, and his return thence, 
being in all not two month '$ expedition. 

The Marquefs de U Force had fled from ?a* in fo great hafte, that 
he had left his Wardrobe, Cabinets, and Papers at random, of all which 
the Duke took care to have an Inventory taken, leaving them fafe, 
feal'dup, in the cuftody of a pcrfon in whom he knew the Marquefs 
repofed an eptire truft. 

Now the Duke retreats out of Beam to St. Jc*n d' AngtU, a Prote- 
ftant Town in France. In this Town, one Mr. Welfi a Scctc h man, 
was Preacher to the Proteftant Church, where his Ministry was blefled 
with mych fuccefe. That Town had been twice bcfieged : and God 
fo ordered things , that the .King did parley with the Town on favou- 
rable terms, and did only himfelf wiih his Court come into the Town 
Without doing any violence. On the following Lord's day fome of 
rtc Proteftaots iiuhat place fearing Mr. Wtfjh his hazard, earneiHy de-' 
i fired 

Cent. 17. Of FRANCE. n 7 

fired him not to Preach, the Court being there : but he adventured to 
Preach the Word unto his people, and on that day had a great Audito- 
ry both of friends and others - t but in Sermon time a Great man of 
the Court, with fome of the King's own Guard, were fent to bring 
him forthwith before the King. Whilft he was entring the Church, 
wherein he found fome difficulty by reafon of the multitude, Mr.WV/Jfr 
turned himfelf towards that entry, and defired the people to give way 
to one of the great Peers of France, who wss coming in. But when 
he drew near the Pulpit to execute his Commifiion, by putting force up- 
on Mr. Wetfoj he did with great authority fpeajc to him before all the 
people, and in the name of his M after Jefut Ckrift charged him not to 
difturb the worfhip of God j whereat the Nobleman was fo ftartled, 
that he fate down and made no further trouble. 

The Sermon being ended, Mr. Weljh with much fubmifiion' went t 
the King, who was then greatly incenfed j and with a threatning coun- 
tenance asked what he was , and how he durft Preach Herefie fo near 
his Perfon, and with fuch contumacy carry himfclf. To which with 
due reverence bowing himfelf, he did aofwer^ I am ( Sir ) the Servant 
and Minifter oijcftu Ckrift, wfcofe Truth I Preached this day -, which 
if your Majefty rightly knew, ye would have judged it yout duty to 
have come and heard. 

And for my Dodrine, I did this day Preach thefe three Truths to 
your people, i . That man is fallen, and by nature in a loft condition - y 
ieaby his own power and abilities is not able to help hirafelf out of 
that eftate. 2. That there is no falvation, or deliverance from wrath 
by our own merits, but by Jefus Chrift and his merit alone. 3 . I did 
alfo Preach this day the juil liberties of the Kingdom of France that 
your Majefty oweth obedience to Chrift only, who is Head of the 
Church- and tha; the Pope , as he is an enemy to Chrift and his Truth, fo 
alfo to the Kings of the Earth, whom he keepeth under flavery to his 
ufurped power. Whereat the King for a time keeping filence, with 
great aftonifhment tamed to fome about him, and faid, Surely thts 
is 4 man of God. Yea, the King did afterwards commune with him, and 
with much refpedt difmifled him. 

The year following, whilft the differences between- the King and the 
Proteftant party did grow, the City was again befieged, taken, and in 
part facked, as Mr. Wcljb hadpublickly foretold-, at which time tie 
King paffed a find order, that none fhould in the teaft wrong Mr- 
FfWffr, or any thing that belonged to him, under higheft pain, ar,d 
did after give a fafe-condu& to him for. traufpoi ting himfelf into 
gUndy where de died. 

The Duke of Ejpernon having now received the Command of the Ar- 
my, fets down before Rochcl attheendof July : but the taking of this 
City was refeived for the King himfelf*. 

Whilft the Duke hy before Rochel, the King had with extraordinary 
vigour presented hisdefigns mCuienne^ where he had compell'dmoft 
of the places polTcfTed by the Protcftants in that Province tofubmitto 
his Power, He had reduced Bergcrac, St.-foy, Fuimirol y Tottrnon % 
Monfljnejuin, with feveral others: befieged and <takenCY-4c, and at 
hft laid liege to Momauban, though herein he had not been fo lucccf- 
ful as in hisother enterprifes : fo that the year ending with this variety 
of accidents, hisMajdly was conftrained to return to Paris, where he 
abode until the cnfuing S^ing, 

The Winter being fcarce over, Monfedr Sonbize having fortified 
birafelf in the Ifleof Ree\ and fome other Iflands of Poitton, thought 
the difficulty of their acccfs would proteft him from the Royal power : 
but the King patted over the mari&es, and gave him fo notable a defeat, 
that he could not of a long time after recover that blow, nor puthim- 
felf again into any tolerable pofture of War. 

In the beginning of the year 1622. the Count of Soiffons had the 
charge of the Array which lay before Rachel, conferred opon him : 
and the Dtike of ^rm?;ns fent to lay fiege to Roy an , which is a lit- 
tle City built upon a very high Rock by the Sea fide, inacceffibk on that 
<(ide toward the water, the height whereof breaking off the impetuofi- 
ty of the winds, at the foot of the Precipice affordeth a very fecurc 
-'harbour to fo many veflels as it could contain. This harbour was-def*^ 
ded by an ancient Caftle rvs'd upon the eminence of the Rock ; and 
tn therpidft of it a little way was levell'd, that led to the harbour by 
one of the Gates of the City, On that fide toward the Land the fcitiP 
ationwas more even, but there alfofo well Fortified, that it was thought 
to be one of the moft tenable places for its Circuit in franct. And it 
was almoft without danger to be defended, forafmuch as after their 
outworks (hould be taken (which could not be till after a long fiege} 
the convenience of the Sea, and the vicinity of Rocbcl, rendered their 
retreat at any time fo eafie and fo fecure that it was to be defended to the 
lad extream. 

But by the Dukes admirable Condud, and the valour of his Souldiers, 
this place was in a few weeks reduced to the King's obedience. 

The King's Army now marcheth into Guicnne, where at .his Ma* 
jefties arrival he found Momaiet taken by the Duke d' Elbauf . and 
'Tkemeins after a long and obftinate refiftancc furreodered to the' fame 
Duke. Le Mom de Mxrfw with feveral other confiderable places 
\vere.alforeduccdtohis obedience by theMarquefs^/* forct^eLtt- 
fgnan, and deCtfelnaudcCbaLofa who had taken them in, 

His Majefry pafTed fpeedily from Cjui cane into Langutdoc. Nigri* 
fobjfe, a little Town of ^MWtlpoa his way, was fo impudent as to 
ftand aiiege ; but it was foon taken by afTauIt , and there the Soul- 
diers flicwed the very rigour of fe verity, which either abarbarous Vidor 



Cent. 17. Of FRANCE. 

could inflid, or a vanquifhed people fuffer : for they fparednfitheTmanT" 
woman, nor child, all equally fubjed to the cruelty of the fword and the 
Conquerour : the Streets paved with dead carkaffes^he channels running 
with the blood of Chriftians ^ no noife in the Streets but of fuch as were 
welcoming death, or, filing for life. And when the Souldiers had made 
the Women the fubjcds of their lufts, they made them after the fubjcds 
of their fury : in this only pitiful to that poor and diftrefTed Sey, that they 
fyfiered them, not to furvivc their honours. Such of them who out o 
fear and faintnefs had made but little refiftance x had the favour to be 
ftabbed : but thofe whofe venue and courage maintain'd their bodies va- 
liantly from the rape of thofe villains-, had the fecrets of nature filled 
with Gun-powder, and fo blown into afhes. St. Antonin having after 
a/iege furrendercd to mercy, the neighbouring places thought it con- 
venient to flie to the King's Clemency,to evade the trial of his victorious 

Then the King befiegeth t&fmtpflier, and after much blood fpilc. 
the Duke of Rohan was glad to make ufe of a jundure wherein his par- 
ty had'fome little advantage, to procure a mo*e favourable peace, which 
was accordingly figned before ' Montpelifr, October 22. 1622. and 
Calonge* furrendred up the place to his Majeftie's hand, who if he 
had by his courage won himfelf a great reputation in the fiege, he ob- 
tained no lefs by his ingenuity in thehandfom manner of his fubmiflioa 
to the King. The King made his entrance into the City, and having 
taken order for the defence of the City, he returned towards Parv : and 
in the year 1623. the Duke ofE/pcrnon arrives at Paris with a nu- 
merous train, where he was received by the King and the Queens with 
great kindnefs. All his accompts, and the other affairs that moft re- 
quired his presence at Paris, were in lefs than four Months difpatched, 
fo that towardihe latter and of April in the year 1624. he began to think 
of his return into Guicitne. 

Cardinal Richlieu was after his departure made Prime Minifter of 
State, who foon (hews himfelf to be oppofite to the Duke. 

The peace that had been concluded before Jldampelicr in the year v;j. Tie x<} > 
16.22. had hitherto continued the affairs of the Kingdom in fome re- r ; " r ' 1 / >Iil 
pofe : and although thofe of the Reformed Religion expre&d fomcpj,,,.". 
difpofcions to a new Commotion, .there was as yet no manifcft breach. 
Soubiz.c y by an attempt made upon the King's Shipping at BUvet^ 
made the firft breach. All the reft of the party broke into Arms at the 
fame time, and the Duke of Rohan, who had long been known to be 
the Head of that party, ftirredthem into infurredion. A promptitude 
in his Partisans fo much the mere to be wondered at , as he com- 
manded a fort of people whofe obedience was only voluntary. 

MantMtban was one of the Cities not only of Cuitnne, but alfoof ' 
the whole Kjngdom, ifeu engaged the deepeft in ihis rsvolr, the Inha- 
bitants - 

no 3O)eeccleflaftteai$tfto?j? Cent. \?. 

bitants whereof by having had afiege raifed from before their Walls* 
and by having baffled a Royal Army, even when animated by the pre- 
fcnce of the King himfeif, began to think themfelves invincible, and their 
City a place not to be t^ken. 

The King therefore fent order to the Duke oi$ernm to take Arm?, 
which he did, and laid wafte the Country about Monttuban. Many 
fmart engagements' there were, with great lofs of men on the fide of 
the bcftegcd , who made a vigorous refinance. Many lamentable ob- 
jeds were every where to be feen i from Picq Hero s (* place famous 
for having been the King's quarter during the fiege vi MontAvbun^ and 
from whence the whole Plain betwixt the Rivers Tarn and Vtiran lay 
open to the view ) fo foon as the obfcurity of the night gave colour to 
the fire that had been kindled by day, one might have feen a thoufand 
fires at once : the Corn, Fruit-trees, Vines and houfes were the aliments 
that nourished this flame. 

Soubiz.c in the mean time endeavours to divert the Duke from his 
emerprize by Landing three thoufand five hundred Foot, and fome 
few Horfe in the lower Cajcony in the Country of iMedoc. This lit- 
tle Country ( which is almoft all the Duke's) environs a great part of 
the Metropolis of Bttrdcaux, extending it felf to the very Gates of the 
City : but Soubiz.e was fharaefully repulfed ; his Forces routed ; the 
fcw that efcaped the Victors hands with much ado recovered their Ships, 
leaving their dead, their Arms, Artillery and Baggage, as infallible tcfti- 
tnonies of a total defeat. 

About the year 1623. the famous Book of Cardinal 1)uTerron 
againft King James of famous memory, came forth. That Book was 
extolled by the Romanics with great brags and praifes. His Majefty be- 
ing efpecially interefTed and provoked by that Book, was pleafed to 
recommend the confutation of it to his old Champion Dr. Du Moulin^ 
who undertook it upon his Majefties Command. And that he might 
attend that work with more help and leifure, his Majefty invited fcim 
to come into England. And together being moved with companion 
by the adverfuies the Doftor had fuffcred for his fake, he offered him a 
refuge in England, promising to take care of him, and to employ him 
in one of his Univerfities. He accepted that Royal favour. He fet out 
of Sedtn in March 1624. and went to Sntxels and Antwcrfy and fo 
to Holland : whence afcer fome daies ftay at the HitgKc with his wor- 
thy Brother in law Dodor Rivet , he took Shipping for England. He 
wasgracioufly received by his Majefty. 

God vifited him with a grievous ficknefs, by an heavy oppreffionin 
his Hypochondries, with an inflammation of black choler,which feldom 
let him fleep, and kept him in perpetual agony. Yet even then he fpenc 
Biuch time in his great work againir Cardinal DM Perron, and preached 
often in the French Church. In the depth of his pain and anguifh he 




was beyond raeafure afflicted with the perfections that ruined the Chur- 
ches of France, and the divifions then increafmg in the Churches of 

There was at London at that time the Marquefs ,d' Effiaf, extraordi- seethe Life of 
nary Ambafladour of 'France, a zealous Papift, who upon a falfe infor- Dr. ^ /"'*' " 
mation of Fijher and other Jefuites that were about him, that Doctor 
DM *JMoulin by his long watchings and other melancholy fumes, 
was decayed in nis Intellectuals, did malitiouily invite him to his houfe, 
to engage him in a Conference, and infult over his weaknefs. After 
dinner the Ambafladour defired him to hear a Scottif) man, who would 
tell him thereafons that made him leave the Proteftant Religion to em- 
brace the Catholick.The Scott iflj man then aflifted by Ft/he r,and others of 
his fort, made an elaborate Difcourfe half an hour long of the Church 
of St. Peter's Primacy, of fucceflion of Chairs, and the like. When 
he had done, the Doctor refumed all his points and allegations in the 
fame order, and anfwered them with his ordinary vigour, and pre- 
fence of wit. And becaufe the principal matter in queftion was about the 
Marks of the true Church, he maintained that the Profeffion of the true 
Doctrine was the Mark of the true Church : and thence took occafion 
to lay open the foulnefs of the errors of Popery with fo much pregnan- 
cy, that the Ambafladour a Cholerick man, rofe from his feat in great 
fury, and gave many foul words to the Doctor, who thereupon went 
out and returned home. 

But the Ambafladour fent his Coach to him the next day, and invited 
him to dinner. And after dinner the ScottiJJi man fpake again of 
the fame points : and when the Doctor in his anfwer had turned his Di- 
fpute againft the grofleft errours of Popery, incompatible with the true 
Church, Fifljc r would have taken the Scottiflt man's part .: but the Am- 
bafladoer's paffion gave him no time to anfwcr,but broke vehemeiulyouc, 
faying, that he could hear no longer that one fliould revile before him 
the Catholick Religion, and maintain to him that he did wilfully 
damn himfelr, his Wife and his Children. Then the Doctor went out of 
his houfe, 

Soon after King James fell fick of the Sicknefs whereof he dice?. 
That death of his Royal Patron, and the Plague raging in London, fooa 
perfwaded the Doctor to return to Sedan* The labour of the journey, 
and the intolerable heat ofthefeafon increafed his ficknefs: which to 
heal, the Phyfitians of Sedan made him drink Sfuw-waters, which 
were brought to him from S^H? to Sedan. Thefe waters brought him 
to a rr.oft violent Feaver, and the Fcaver confunaed all thofe humours 
and winds that oppreft him, and left him in health. So he re- 
turned to his former Function in the Church and Univerfity, ferving 
God with cheartulnefs and afliduity, and blefled with great fuccefs. 
He lived at Sedan thirty and three years from his reiurn mo Engirt 


CCCltftaftitai ^tftOJV Cent. 17* 

umohis death, without any notable change in his condition, but one 
of puhlick concernment by the miferable change of the Duke of Ro- 

Tiiat Dute being. Prince of Sedan, the Protedour of a flourifning 
Proteftant Church, and the refuge of many opprefled Proteftants in 
France^ was perverted by falling in love with a beautiful Lady, a Sub- 
ject born of the Sptwi.iril, and a Papift of the deeptft Jefuitifh dye, 
which feduccd and turned him both to the Romifj Religion, and to the 
Spatiift) Party. Soon after the Duke. declared himfelf a Papift, to the 
incredible lofsofthe Prorefbnt Party. 

Se4*tt was grown by the perfections in France. The greateft num- 
ber and the riche/l foit, confifted of the Pofterity of per Tons that had 
tranfporced their Families and their Eftates to S*dan, during the Wars* 
of Religion^ and that place was a refuge at hand for the Proteftams 
when any trouble arofe in France. This change therefore in the Prince 
wrought a great coniternadon in- the people of Sedan, and a great grief 
in the generality oi all the jFV^c/JProtefhnt?. Which the Duke of Be- 
i>//fcpercc!Ving-,and judg<ng,that as they lived at 5ft&fup.on the account 
of their Religion, they might retire from it upon the lame account, he 
called the Church and the Univerfity, and told them, that he would lend 
them. the fame Protection as before, and innovate nothing. Only where- 
as he gathered theTyihes'oF his Dominions, and therewith gave wages 
to the Minifters, ProfeiTours, and Regents, as alfo Stipends to the Priefts ; 
now the Priefts muft have the Tythes as their ancient right,and he would 
pay to the Minifters, ProfefTours, and Regents, their ordinary Stipends 
eut of his own Eftate. 

Sedan enjoyed that reft for a year or two, till the Duke won by his 
Wife to forfake the Protection which he enjoyed under the King of 
France who paid his Garrifon, agreed with the Spanis.rdto put himfelf 
under his Protection, to turn out the French Garrifon and receive his : 
Which Plot being difcovered by fome o{ Sedan, was made known to 
the French Court, and fuch order was taken, that the Duke's defign 
was prevented, Himfelf, his Lady, and all his Retinue, were turned out 
of Sedan, and are kept out of it to this day, and the place continutih un- 
der the fubje&ion of Fnwct. 

This year the Inhabitants of the Valtoline were much diftreffcd. The 
Valtoline is a Country fcituate at the foot of the sflpes, not unlike a great 
ditch, feparated by the high Mountains from- the Cjrifons, and thofe 
which are on the Coaft of Italy. It is not of very large extent, not 
above twenty Leagues in length, and one in breadth, but is very fertile., 
and of great importance, ferving a> a Gite to the Spaniards and Vcne- 
ttans, to bring Forces out of Germany into Italy, as well to defend as to 
increafe their States. The Venetians were not ignorant of it, when 
fbcy were embroiled with Pope Pwl V. Awo 1603. They madea 


-Cent. 17- Of FRANCE. 

League with the Cjrifonsy who are natural Lords of it, to have free paf- 
fage through it, as their occafions fhould require, though France had 
the only power to difpofeof it, according to the Treaty made with 
them by Lewes XII. and renewed by Henry IV. Anno 1602. du- 
ring the time of his own life, the life of Lewes XIII. and eight years 
after his deceafe. 

Which Alliance with them gives great offence to the Spaniards jn\\\d\ 
ciufed them to make another League with the Cjfifons y w whom the fame 
paflages were aflured for the fafeguard of Milan. But after a long 
Treaty made in the year 161 3.thefe two new Alliances were overthrown, 
and that of France re-fetled, which was not for any long time : for 
from the year 1617. to the year 1621. there were nine infurredions 
among them. Atiaft the Valtolints made a general revolt, and at the 
perfwafion of the Governourof Milan, maflacred all the Proteftants 
they met with. In July 1 620. the Governour of Milan fent them Soul- 
dicrs, and builded them Forts in their Valley. 

The French King then being engaged in re-taking thofe Towns which 
the Hngonots had gotten into their pofleflion, could not fuccour the. 
Grifons with his Armies, but fent the Marfhal de Baffompiere, exrra- 
ordinary Ambafiadour into Spain, in his name to demand that the V"al- 
toline might be reftored, and all things replaced into their former 
ftate. It was obtained , and accordingly it was figned at nJWadrid in 
May 1621. on condition that certain great liberties might be accord- 
ed to the Catholicks there ^ and with a Provifo, that the Cantons of the 
Swiffes and the falto lines ftiould encline theGrifonsio confent, to what 
had been agreed upon. 

But the Spaniards procured the Catholick Cantons to deny their con- 
fents, which being wanting they would put off the execution of the whole 
Treaty -, and moreover made one at Mila*n with the Deputies of the 
Gri/ons, and two others with the fame Grifons and the Arch-Duke Leo- 
pold, by which they got great advantages in thofe Countries,and fo kept 
to themfelves the power of paffing any Forces through that Country. 

France never made any difficulty of according to any thing which 
might contribute to the exercife of the Catholick Religion in the Val- 
taline, or for fecurity of all fuch as nude profeflion thereof. But they 
would never agree to thofe demands which the Spaniards made con- 
cerning thehaving of pafTjges, withfo much peremprorinefs. During 
which time Pope Gregory XV. died, and Vrban VIII. being fet-in 
his place, propofed new Articles of Accommodation, which comprifed 
as much a? could be of advantage for the Church and Catholicks, which 
were readily accepted of by France., but as ftoutly rejected by the 
Spaniards, for that it did not grant to them the enjoyment of the pafla- 
ges. Then Cardinal Richlieu advifed the King not to ftand dallying 
upon the means of a Treaty, as formerly, but forthwith to make ufe 

Q,qq 2 of 

3l)e ccclefiafttcai %ifto?p Cent. \r 

of his Arms to reduce them to terms of jufticc. The King refblves 
to Tend the Marquefs de Coenurts to the Cantons of the Swjfis for the 
Grifons affairs, at the fame time that the Situr de JSethttnt was difpatch- 
ed toward Rome. His inftructions w^rc ; firft to rc-umte all the 
wife Cantons with his Majefty, to difpofe the Catholicks to give 
their aflent to the Treaty of ^iadrid^ andtoefpie, if in this re-unioir 
there might not feme way be found out, for to re-place the Garrifonsinto 
the Soveraigmy of the J^altoline., The fecond was to be kept private 
ifthefirft took effed ; el fe he was commanded to encourage the GW- 
fons to rife, who (hould receive afiiftance from his Majefty, offuch 
Troops as (bould be neceflary, according to fuch orders as ftiould be 

Then the French King, Duke of Savoy y and Common-wealth 
of Venice , made a League for the rcftitution - of the fttlto- 

The Marquefs deCaenurct takes the field: to make hirafelf Mafterof 
the Fons in the Vultoline, which were all taken in tht three firft Months 
of the following. year. New Orders are fent to the Marquefs to pro- 
fecuie his Conquefts there. The Pope feems to the Cardinal de U 
Valette and the Situr de BcthHne, to be very angry that the King fhould- 
attempt upon the Forts in the Vaholine which were in his keeping, and 
fends the Sieur Bernardino .RUry to his Majefty, tateftife to him his 
great difcontent at it ,. 

The King of Sfam. to break the League between the French 'King, the 
Puke ofS<*-z/0y,.andthe Venetians, negotiates another between himfelf 
and the Princes of Italy. The Spaniard fpreads abroad defaming 
Libels againft the League tfFrance y Venice^ and Savoy. 

Thofe great lofTes which the Proteftants had fuftained for fome pre- 
ceding years in Beam and Lmgusdoc.^ alwaies kept them waking, 
efpecially after the Peace of zJMqntyelier . they well perceiving, that 
thofe fmall Routs which they had fuffered,_dui threaten their Party witK 
an utter deftruction. 

The Spaniards therefore laboured very much to get the Situr deSoubiae 
undRohan (who were the only eminent perfonsjto Command their Arm$i 
Their defign took effed. Thefe two Brothers being met at Caftres, re- 
folved to raife thofe of tbeir Party ; the one by Sea at Guicnne, and the 
other in Langued&c,. The attempt upon the Fort of ^/^-yff fotherwife 
Port S. Lewes ) of which we havefpoken before, was an effeft of that 
cefolution, as alfo the endeavours of the Duke and Duchefs vtRokan be* 
gan at the fame time in L&nguedot to draw in more Towns in to their 

But the Marqyefs <& &#y was fent inaU-haik 'wto&Mgue&c with 
certain to .oppofc the fir ft. Commotions . and" to employ 
avany perfons of difcretion to affure himUlf of the Cou&fds of th* 


Cent. \7- Of FRANCE. 

chief Towns, and by this means moft of them kept within their 

Soubizt piiblitht a Manifeft,which founded an Alarm to alltheProtei 
ftant Party, making them to believe that their utter ruine was concluded 
on in the King's Council. That the lofs of their Religion was inevi- 
table, if they did not defend themfelves by Arms : and that the raifing 
of Fort Saint Lews built by Rachel, was a fignof it. He fuggefted 
to- them, that the Catholicks were of opinion in moft or their 
Books, that they were not obliged to keep Faith with He* 

Moft were taken with thefe reafons, becaufe the -Duke of Rohan 
clapt into fome Towns certain Gentlemen and Captains of his own Re- 
ligion, to encourage them, and to ftir up the Popular Minifters, who 
after this looked for nothing but when to rife $ not confidering that 
the infarredions which they, were carried to,were contrived by the Spa- 
niards, who pretended not to make ufe of them, but only to divert and 
draw ofEthe King's Arms from Italy-. 

That fomentation which the Spaniard give to the Hugonots^ wherei 
by, to force the King to draw off his Army from fotValtoline, oblige^ 
the FrenchKing to do the like by the Spaniard in aflaulting theCommon- 
wcalth of Genoa. 

The Pope fends the Cardinal liarburino in the quality of a Legate irr- 
to France, to negotiate the Peace between the French King and the King 
of Spain. 

The Hugonots by the Spaniards inftigatron arm themfelves very 
potently againft the French King. The Duke of Rohan took tlte 
Command upon himfelf of thofe Forces in Langwdoc, Sw^/'&e thofe in 
Poittott* Although Sottbize had been repulfed from before the Port of 
Bktyet, yet by that means he made himfelf matter- of fix great Ships 
whick were the King's, and the Duke's of 'Nemours, which gave huh 
opportunity of doing very confiderable damages. 

He had formerly got together about eleven Ships of War, and ma- 
ny Shallops and fmall Boats, and with thefe roved up and dowa 
the Coafts of JV/tftw-and Guiennc , as hatlv been before hinr- 
ed ar. 

The Duke of Rohan got together about two thoufand men near Cafres u 
He gave out that the Rochcllers had taken Arms, and fworn a League 
with the Churches of his Party, that he might by this prerence get ?. 
like intereft in fome other Towns which he had ~an eye upon. And 
accordingly he went to Puilaurens^ Rkel, Soreae, Sr. Panlf, Leviate, 
and Mriffj&y and made the Confuls fwear to the Confederacy ; after- 
wards he came to the Gates Q Lavaur to furpr'f it, tut his defin 
took -ng, 


The Count of Goverirour of Foix got into Rucl and Sorest, 
after the other had forfaken them, and fo dealt with the Confute, that 
they confefled their faults, and protefted nor to cake part wuh him any 
more. A' Procefs was made in the Parliament of Tholonfe againft him 
and all his Adherents. 

The Marquefs dc Cragny and the Count ofCarmain marched againft 
the Duke ; and whilft thofe who made [he firft Encounter were at it>; 
! the reft got into'P/4, who were however fo clofely purfued by the 
Marshal's Forces, that the Regiment of Normandy was hard at their 
heels, entring into the Town with them. Thus he remained Mafter 
1 of Peyrefqu.-idcj where there were about one hundred and fifty of the 
Rebels Souldiers killed and hurt ; all which the Duke of Rohan beheld 
from a Fort in Wanes where, he then was, from which time forwards 
"tie began to defpair of doing any great matters for the future, efpecial- 
ly fince he faw hirafelffo clofely followed and that the-Cardinal had 
taken fuch a courfe in Languedoc, that the King could have raifed 
'more men in twenty four hours than the Duke in a whole 
' month. 

Sonbize finding little aflurance on the main Land, had fortified 
himfelf in the liles of -Ret and Olleron : it was the more important to 
remove him thence, becaufe otherwise it would be impofiible to reduce 
'Rocket unto its obedience, fo eafily -and abundantly might he recruit 
them with necefiaries from thofe fertile I (lands : but the Duke of Mont- 
morency the King's Admiral made himfelf Matter of the Ifle of Rec' 9 
after a three daiesCombate with a great deal of obftinacy on both parts. 
The Duke of Montmortncy Landed at Olleron^ where he met with no 

Tbe5**r de Soubize having withdrawn himfelf into England, lived 

at aHoufe called Burgate in Hampshire, near the New Foreft, fordi- 

v v:rs years after. The whole Province was now fetledin quiet both by 

Sea and Land, of all which King Levee s was informed, who received 

the news with much joy. 

Cardinal Barbarini Legate from the Pope arrived in France, and 
came to M^feitlt$, where he was received with great honour, as alfo 
at Lions according to the Orders fent by the King. He came to Paris 
on May 21. and entred in great pomp. He is bound by the Laws of 
the Kingdom, before he officiate the Function of a Legate, toprefent 
the Brief which the Pope hath given him for the employment to the 
Parliament of Paris. The Pope having omitted in this Brief to give 
the King the title of King of Navarre, the Parliament refufed to 
acknowledge it, and obliged him not to proceed any further in the bu- 
ilnefs till that were amended. 

The Legate coming to Paris, alighted at St. James de fattt-paj, where 
-the Clergy of the City, thcconcourfeofthe Court, and other Officers 


Cent. 17. Of FRANCE. " u/ 

to the number of twelve thoufand, went to falute him, and receive InV~ 
Benediction, After this the Prelates of Paris came to pay their re. 
fpefts to him. There was a little difpute in what habit they fhculd ap- 
pear before him,the Legate defiring they ftiould be in their Rochets and 
Camail covered over with a Mantlet, as a mark that they had no power 
in his prefence. But the Prelates refufing to ftoop to this Order, ic be- 
ing contrary to the Rules of the French Church, took a middle courfe. 
They went fo habited to falute him, and accordingly accompanied him 
in the Cavalcade to Noftre* Lhime, whither being come, they took off 
their Mantlets : bat all was done under a Provifo, of Giving their ami- 
cnt right! 

He propofed to the King what the Pope had given him in charge,, 
He urged the King in general terms to peace to reftore things in 
the Valtoline to their former date, as they were before the Army of 
the Confederate Princes entred into ir, and defired him to grant a Cefla- 
tion of Arms in Ifaly. 

The King anfwered to the three Propofitions r That he was ever en- 
clin'd to Peace, and that he would ftill be induced to it, provided it 
were for the publick fafety, and honourable for him and his Allies, 
That as to what concern 'd the Faltoline, the late Treaty ^{^(adnd 
had made provifion for all thofe difficulties which have rifen ever fince, 
and that he dcfired the execution of it. As to the CefTaiion of Arms, 
that he could by no means hearken to it, becaufe of the great prejudice 
it would be to himfelr' and his Allies, and the great advantage thofe of 
the adverfe Party might' make out of it. Thereupon the Legate un- 
expededly departeth from the French Court , and goeth toward 

The Hugonofs now begged his Ma jeftie's pardon by their Deputies,' 
whom they fen.t unto him to teftifie^the fenfe they had of their fault, and 
to allure him of iheir future fidelity and obedience. His Majefty was 
well pleafed with it -,- and the Deputies coming to him at Fwntainbfe'an 
about the end of^n^ufl whilft the Legate was there, there was no kind 
of acknowledgements and fubmillions which they did not make, both in 
behalf of themfelves, asalfoofthe Diike of Rohan, and the Sieur de Sou* 
bizji) who fent to Tupplicaie him by their particular Deputies, that he 
would be pleafed to employ them in the War of Italy, that they 
might teftifie by their paftion to ferve him, that there was not any dan- i 
ger by Sea or Land, to which they would not cheerfully expofe them, 
{'elves, to contribute to his glory. Hiting made their fpeeches, they 
prefented the paper of their Complaints, which they faid were ground- 
ed upon feveral Graces which had been conferred upon them by the 
Edift of Nantes, and feveral other grants. The King received it, and 
appointed it to be examined* . 

After the paper of their grievances had been examined, tte-Frertfh King 
-confirmed to ihem whatever had been granted to them by the Edid of 
frantes, granting them free liberty for the exercife of their Religion in 
fjch Towns where they had-Churchesand Church-yards, and anAdof 
Oblivion for any thing done in the War : but he would not confent to^ 
the demolifhing of Fort Le we /, as being of great importance for the 
keeping of foc^/ in awe and obedience. 

Thefe favours w