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Full text of "Status of Alaska Wetlands"

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Status of 



Wetlands 



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U/janik liinnd, Alaska Peniusitln and Southwest Islands 

PALUSTRINE OPEN WATER 



THE AUTHORS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Jonathan V. Hall coordinates the National 
Wetlands Inventor)' in the Alaska Region of the 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Ser\'ice. 

W. E. Prayer is Dean ot the School of ForestiT 
and Wood Products at Michigan technological 
University. He specializes in natural resources 
suney design and analysis. 

Bill (). VVilen is Project Leader of the National 
Wetlands InventoiA' for the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Sen-ice. 

DESIGN 

Gale Gonimunications; St. Paul, MN 

Cover photo: Cai'ihoii, Arctic Coastal Plain 

PAEUSIRINE EMERtiENT EEOOHEl) 

BP EXPLORATION (ALASKA) INC 

Back cover photo: Yellow pond lily. 
Cook Inlet - Susitna Lowland 



This report is the result of extensive effort. Special 
appreciation is extended to U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Sen'ice personnel including Don Woodard, Becky 
Stanlev, Tom Dahl, Norm Mangrum, and Rene 
Whitehead of the National Wetlands ln\entoiy 
Group, St. Petersburg, Florida; Charles Storrs of 
the Division of Habitat (-onsenation, Atlanta, 
Georgia; and Da\id Dall of the National Wetlands 
InwntoiT, Washington, D. C. 

Manv indi\iduals from Geonex Inc. were respon- 
sible for photo interpretation and map produc- 
tion. Principal among these are Keith Patterson, 
Sheila Ricardi, Marsha Martin, Todd 
Neurminger, Barbara Schuster, Jim Dick, and 
Da\e Fink. Their work is greatly appreciated. 

Funding support from the U. S. Arm\' Corps ot 
Engineers and the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration's National ALirinc 
Pollution Program Office is gratefully acknowl- 
edged. Glen Yankus of the 11. S. Department of 
Interior's Minerals Management Sen ice afso 
a.ssisted in the studw 



U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Alaska Region 
Anchorage, Alaska 



Status of 



Alaska 
Wfetlands 



by Jonathan V. Hall, W. E. Prayer and Bill O. Wilen 



1994 



■VKHJ DOCUMENT? 

i^eOSITORY ITFM 

OCT 1 1 1994 
CLFMSON 




Arctic Coastal Plain 

PALUSTRINE OPEN WATER AND EMERGENT - FLOODED 



BP EXPLORATION (ALASKA) INC 




Pintails, Tni;i)ii Flats 
PALL'STRINK HMERGKNT - FI.OODHD 



Highlights 



/Vlaska encompasses an area of 403,247,700 
acres, including offshore areas involved in this 
study. Total acreage of wetlands is 174,683,900 
acres. This is 43.3 percent of Alaska's surface 
area. In the lower 48 states, wetlands only occupy 
5.2 percent of the surface area. 

Deepwater habitats cover an aciditional 
29,870,400 acres, or 7.4 percent of Alaska's 
surface area. 

Over 88 percent ( 154,917,300 acres) of Alaska 
wetlands are under public management. 



Palustrine scrub/shrub wetlands are extensive. 
They cover 1 14,510,100 acres, which is almost 
two-thirds of Alaska's wetlands. 

Areas other than wetlands and deepwater habitats 
account for 198,693,400 acres, less than half of 
Alaska's area. 



Brooks Range 

PAI.USTRINK SCRUB/SHRUB - SATURATED 




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Contents 

Highlights 3 

Introduction 7 

Overview 9 

Classification System 11 

Survey Procedure 15 

Results 17 

In Conclusion 29 

Literature Cited 31 

Appendix 32 



left: Safety Harbor, Western Coastal Zone 

ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL VEGETATED 

J HALL 



Mountain cranberry, Kuskokwim Highlands 

PALUSTRINE SCRUB/SHRUB - SATURATED 




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CHAPTER ONE 



Introduction 



J. he United States Fish and Wildlife Sendee has 
major responsibility for the protection and man- 
agement of migrator)' and endangered fish and 
wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern 
are wetlands and associated deepwater habitats. 
Since 1974 the Fish and Wildlife Sers'ice, through 
its National Wetlands Inventoiy Project, has 
inventoried the nation's wetlands. The purpose is 
to de\'elop and disseminate comprehensive data 
concerning the characteristics and extent of wet- 
lands. 

Results of a National Wetlands Inventoiy study 
of wetland gains and losses in the lower 48 states 
between the 1950's and 1970\s were published 
by Frayer et al. (1983) and Tiner ( 1984). Of the 
wetlands at the time of settlement in the area 
now comprising the 48 contiguous states, only 
46 percent remained in the mid-1970's. Between 
the mid-1950''s and mid-1970's, there was a loss 
of about 11 million acres of wetlands. During the 
same period, approximately two million acres of 
wetlands were created. This 20-year net loss of 
nine million acres equates to an average annual 
net loss of 458,000 acres of wetlands. An update 
of this report for the nine-year period between 
1974 and 1983 showed the wetland loss rate was 
down to an average annual net loss of 290,200 
acres (Dahl et al. 1991; Frayer 1991). 



left: Oil pipeline, Arctic Coastal Plain 

PALUSTWNE EMERGENT - FLOODED 

J HALL 



The statistical design used in the trend study for 
the lower 48 states can be used with intensified 
sampling to obtain reliable estimates for individ- 
ual states or other selected geographical areas. 
For example, this approach was used to evaluate 
wetland trends in the Central Vallev of California 
(Fraver and Peters 1990) and Florida (Fraver and 
Hefner 1992). 

This report presents results of a study on the sta- 
tus of wetlands and deepwater habitats in Alaska. 
This is the first report for Alaska. While it pro- 
vides estimates of current status of Alaska wet- 
lands and deepwater habitats, it does not provide 
information on their trends and qualitv. It does, 
howe\ er, proxide information on the amounts of 
these areas managed by several federal agencies, 
the State of Alaska, Natives and others. 



ri£iht: Shaw Creek Flats, 
Tanana-Kiiskokwim Lowland 

PALUSTRINE SCRUB/SHRUB 
AND EMERGENT - FLOODED 




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CHAPTER TWO 



Overview 



Wetlands in Alaska include types commonly 
referred to as bogs, muskegs, wet and moist tun- 
dra, fens, marshes, swamps, mud flats, and salt 
marshes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Semce esti- 
mates that during the 200-year period between 
1780 and 1980, approximately '/lo of a percent of 
the original wetland acreage in Alaska was lost 
(Dahl 1990). 

Common terms used for Alaska's deepwater 
habitats include lakes, bays, sounds, fjords, 
lagoons, and inlets. The two largest lakes in 
Alaska are Lake lliamna (1,000 square miles) and 
Becharof Lake (458 square miles). Large coastal 
deepwater habitats include Kotzebue Sound, 
Norton Sound, Bristol Bay, Cook Inlet, and the 
labyrinth of fjords, inlets, and straits in the 
Alexander Archipelago (southeast Alaska). 
Lagoons formed behind barrier islands are com- 
mon in northwest Alaska along the Chukchi Sea 
and Bering Strait coasts. 

Most regions of Alaska have a land surface that 
includes extensive areas of wetlands. Treeless 
expanses of moist and wet timdra underlain by 
permafrost occur in the northern and western 
portions. Interior Alaska contains millions of 
acres of black spruce muskeg and floodplain 
wetlands dominated by deciduous shrubs and 
emergents. Shrub and herbaceous bogs are a con- 
spicuous feature of the landscape in south central 
and southeast Alaska. Even in mountainous areas 
such as the Brooks Range, wetlands have devel- 
oped in drainages and on vegetated slopes. Some 
of the nation's most extensive complexes of salt 
marshes and mud flats occur along the coasts of 
the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea and 
the Gulf of Alaska. 



left: Blyinj Sound, South Central Coastal Zone 

MARINE INTERTIDAL 

J HALL 



Wetlands are abundant in the valleys and basins 
associated with large ri\'er systems including the 
Yukon, Kuskokwim, Porcupine, Tanana, and 
Koyukuk Rivers. Significant wetland areas also 
occur on the major rixer deltas in Alaska. The 
Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, one of the world's 
largest coastal deltaic formations, supports a vari- 
ety of wetland types including wet tundra, grassy 
sloughs, shrub swamps, ponds and brackish 
marsh. Other major deltas in Alaska that are pre- 
dominantly wetland are the Cohille River Delta 
on the Beaufort Sea coast, the Copper River 
Delta in south central Alaska, and the Stikine 
River Delta in the southeast region. 

Many wetlands in northern portions of Alaska are 
underlain and maintained by permafrost, or 
perennially frozen ground Wetland conditions 
often occur because the frozen laver traps water 
at or near the soil surface. Other wetlands are 
maintained by heav)' rainfall, glacial melt water, 
river flooding, beaver activity, snow melt, springs, 
and the ebb and flow of tides. 

Wetlands in Alaska range in elevation from tidal 
systems at sea level to moist tundra areas in high 
alpine zones. Wetlands are as common on slopes 
as they are in lowland sites and depressions. 
While north-facing slopes are frequently wetland 
due to the presence of permafrost, south-facing 
slopes in the same area often support non-wet- 
land plant communities on well-drained soils. 
Hillside wetlands are common in southern por- 
tions of Alaska due to abundant precipitation and 
shallow depths to bedrock. 

Alaska's wetlands provide many benefits includ- 
ing: food and habitat for wildlife, fish and shell- 
fish species, natural products for human use and 
subsistence, shoreline erosion and sediment con- 
trol, flood protection, and opportunities for 
recreation and aesthetic appreciation. Not all 
wetlands perform all these functions, but most 
wetlands contribute to one or more in vatying 
degrees. 






Snow^ecse over Arctic Coastal Plain 

PALUSTRINE EMERGENT - SATURATED 

A BRACKNEY 



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Tundra wetlands in northern and western Alaska 
are prime breeding grounds for many shorebirds 
(sandpipers, plovers, and their relatives). 
Waterfowl species dependent on Alaska wetlands 
include more than 70 thousand swans, one mil- 
lion geese, and 12 million ducks (King and 
Lensink 1971). These include more than half the 
continental populations of tundra and trumpeter 
swans and all or most of the continental popula- 
tions of eight species or subspecies of geese. In 
recent years, Alaska wetlands ha\'e on average 
supported 30 percent of the continental popula- 
tions of northern pintails, 24 percent of American 
wigeons, 19 percent of scaup, 18 percent of can- 
\'asback, and 13 percent of green-winged teal 
(Lensink and Derksen 1986). The importance of 
Alaska wetlands to these and other species 
increases significantly during years when drought 
occurs in prairie states and provinces. 

During migration, huge flocks of waterfowl and 
shorebirds stop at specific wetland areas for rest- 
ing and feeding. These critical wetlands provide 
concentrated food resources necessan' to fuel the 
journey to nesting areas in the spring or southern 
destinations in the fall. Nearly all of the Pacific 
Flyway black brant feed on rich eelgrass beds at 
Izembek Lagoon on the Alaska Peninsula during 
tall migration (Fish and Wildlife Senice 1985). " 

Man\' mammals in Alaska use specific wetland 
t)'pes and areas. Some species, such as bea\ er and 
muskrat, spend most of their lives in wetlands. 
Other mammals use wetlands primarily as feeding 
areas or resting areas. Moose commonly feed on 
submerged vegetation in deep marshes and shal- 
low ponds. The two largest herds of caribou, 
both in northern Alaska, gather into huge aggre- 
gations and migrate from upland areas to coastal 
wetland areas in the summer. Uninterrupted 



moist tundra wetlands in the North Slope coastal 
plain are used by these animals for cahing and 
feeding. Nonvegetated wetlanci r\'pes such as 
gravel bars and coastal beaches are used to escape 
insect harassment. 

The \'alue of wetlands for fish is well established 
for Alaska's coastal wetlands along rixers and 
streams. Many fish species feed in wetlands or on 
food produced by wetlands. Coastal wetlands and 
stream side marshes are used as nurserx' grounds. 
Other wetland t}'pes adjacent to rivers maintain 
and regulate stream flow in channels used b\' fish. 
Species (e. g., salmon) that move between fresh 
water and saltwater are dependent on both 
coastal and riparian wetlands. Ajinuallv, the 
salmon industr\' in Alaska emplovs approximatelv 
22,000 people (Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game 
1992). The annual value of this fisher\' to com- 
mercial hanesters is $600 million (Alaska Dept. 
of Education 1991). 

Man)' wetlands serxe to temporarily store flood 
waters, thereby protecting downstream properties 
frcjm flood damage. The flood storage fimction 
also helps to slow the velocir\' of water, which 
reduces the water's erosive potential. This func- 
tion of wetlands becomes increasingly important 
in Alaska's towns and cities, where de\'elopment 
has increased the rate and volume of surface- 
water runoff and the potential for flood damage. 
Where permafrost is common, the abilit)' of wet- 
lancHs to store flood waters is reduced. 

Subsistence use of wetland resources in Alaska is 
extensive. In most areas, wetland habitats provide 
resources upon which Nati\'e village economies 
are based. A major portion of hunting, fishing, 
trapping, and gathering acti\ities occurs in wet- 
lands areas (Ellanna and Wheeler 1986). Fish and 
wildlife resources hanested for subsistence use 
and dependent on wetlands include five species of 
salmon, shellfish, ducks, geese, beaver, and otter. 
Plant materials frec]ucntly collected from wet- 
lands include blueberries, cranberries, labrador 
tea, and wtIIow. 

The di\ersir\' of plant and animal life in wetlands 
makes them a valuable resource for nonconsump- 
tivc recreation such as wildlife viewing andpho- 
tographv. Wetlands, particularlv in urban areas, 
are valuable in providing other passive recreation 
opportunities including education, open space, 
and aesthetic enjoyment. In addition, waterfowl 
hunting in the LInited States depends on contin- 
ued productivit\' of Alaska's wetlands. 



10 



CHAPTER THREE 



Classification System 



J. he definitions, classifications and categories of 
wetlands and deepwater habitats used are those 
described by Cowardin et al. (1979). In general 
terms, wetland is land where saturation with 
water is the dominant factor determining the 
nature of soil development and the types of plant 
and animal communities living in the soil and on 
its surface. Technically, wetlands are lands transi- 
tional between terrestrial and aquatic systems 
where the water table is usually at or near the sur- 
face or the land is covered by shallow water. 
Wetlands must also have one or more of the fol- 
lowing three attributes: 1) at least periodically, 
the land supports predominantly hydrophytes; 
2) the substrate is predominantly undrained 
hydric soil; and 3) the substrate is nonsoil and is 
saturated with water or covered by shallow water 
at some time during the growing season of each 
year. 

Deepwater habitats consist of certain permanent- 
ly flooded lands. In salt\\'ater areas, the separation 
between wetland and deepwater habitat coincides 
with the elevation of the extreme low water of 
spring tide. In other areas, the separation is at a 
depth of two meters (6.6 feet) below low water. 
This is the maximum depth in which emergent 
plants normally grow. 

Within the hierarchical structure of classification, 
wetlands and deepwater habitats are grouped 
according to systems. A system consists of envi- 
ronments of similar hydrological, geomorpholog- 
ical, chemical, and biological influences. Each 



system is further divided by the driving ecological 
force, such as ebb and flow of tide, and by sub- 
strate material and flooding regimes, or on vege- 
tation life form. Groupings of categories were 
made to accommodate special interests of the 
study, and to facilitate comparison of results with 
those of similar studies conducted in other 
regions of the United States. 



Color-infrared aerial photograph showing 
Kantishna River, Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowland 




11 



The marine system extends from the outer edge 
of the continental shelf shoreward to the extreme 
high water of spring tides or to the boundary' of 
other systems as defined later. Marine snbtidal 
includes that portion that is continuously sub- 
merged. This habitat is beyond the scope of the 
study and was therefore not included. Marine 
intertidal includes areas in which the substrate is 
exposed and flooded by tides, including the asso- 
ciated splash zone. 

The cstuarine system consists of deepwater tidal 
habitats and adjacent tidal wetlands which are 
usually semi-enclosed by land, but have open, 
partially obstructed, or sporadic access to the 
open ocean and in which ocean water is at least 
occasionally diluted by fresh water runoff from 
the land. Estiinrine snbtidal \s that portion that is 
continuously submerged (considered deepwater 
habitat), while estuarine intertidal is the portion 
exposed and flooded by tides, including the 
splash zone. For the purposes of this study, estu- 
arine intertidal wetlands were separated into the 
following groups: Nonvepietated^ which includes 
unconsolidated shore (e.g. mud flats) and aquatic 
beds (e.g. seagrasses or algal beds); and vcjjctated^ 



which is primarily emergent. Emergent vegetation 
consists of erect, rooted herbaceous plants typi- 
cally found in wet en\'ironments. 

The lacustrine system includes wetlands (littoral) 
and deepwater habitats (limnetic) situated in 
topographic depressions or dammed river chan- 
nels. Each area must exceed 20 acres or be deep- 
er than two meters (6.6 feet) or ha\'e an active 
wave-formed or bedrock shoreline feature. 
Lacustrine areas are treated as tieepwater 
habitats in this study. 

The palustrine system includes all nontidal wet- 
lands not included within any of the other four 
systems and does not include any deepwater 
habitats. For this study, palustrine wetlands are 
cHivideci into the following groups: unconsolidated 
shore, open ii'afcr (primarily ponds), aquatic beds 
(e.g. pondlilies and pondweeds), emergent, 
scrub/shrub, und forested. Emerjjent \s defined the 
same as for estuarine wetlancis. Forested is charac- 
terized by the presence of trees, and scrub/shrub 
includes areas dominated by shrubs and small or 
stunted trees. 

Tukoti -Kuskok ]vim Delta 

PALUSTRINE EMERGENT - ELOODED .\ND OPEN WATER 




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Palustrine vegetated wetlands were further sepa- 
rated into categories o^ saturated And flooded. 
Saturated wetlands seldom have surface water, 
but the substrate is saturated for extended peri- 
ods during the growing season. Wetlands with 
organic soils, such as bogs, typically are saturated. 
Other examples of saturated wetlands include 
moist tundra and black spruce muskegs with 
permafrost occurring at a shallow depth. 
Flooded wetlands range from temporarily flooded 
to permanently flooded. In temporarily flooded 
wetlands, surface water is present for brief periods 
during the growing season. Flooded wetlands in 
Alaska include marshes, wet tundra, riparian wet- 
lands, and shrub swamps. 



In summar}', the 14 wetland and deepwater 
habitat categories used in this study are: 



Category 

Marine intertidal 
Esluarine subtidal 
Estuarine intertidal nonvegetated 
Estuarine intertidal vegetated 
Palustrine unconsolidated stiore 
Palustrine open water 
Palustrine aquatic beds 
Palustrine emergent - saturated 
Palustrine emergent -flooded 
Palustrine scrub/shrub - saturated 
Palustrine scrub/shrub - flooded 
Palustrine forested - saturated 
Palustrine forested - flooded 
Lacustrine 



Common Examples 

Ocean stioreline 

Open water of bays/inlets 

Mud and sand flats/beacties 

Salt marsh 

Pond flats/beacties 

Open water ponds 

Floating and submerged aquatic vegetation 

Moist tussocl< tundra and sedge bogs 

Wet sedge/grass tundra and marsfies 

Moist sfirub tundra and sfirub bogs/muskegs 

Shrub swamps 

Forested bogs/muskegs 

Forested swamps 

Lakes 



Near Naknek, Bristol Bay Coastal Plain 

PALUSTRINE EMERGENT - FLOODED 




All remaining surface area (area not classed as 
wetland or deepwater habitat) corresponds to 
classes of agriculture^ urban, and other used by 
Anderson et al. (1976) at their Classification 
Level I. Of/;n' includes Anderson's Level I classes 
of forest land, rangeland, and barren land, as well 
as lands that had been cleared of vegetation but 
had not been put to identifiable lise. 

The type of ownership of wetlands was also 
determined in the study. For federal ownership, 
five categories were selected based on the man- 
agement agency involved. These include the 
Bureau of Land Manajjement, Fish and Wildlife 
Service, National Park Service, Forest Service, and 
other federal Sigencies. Additional ownership cate- 



gories are Native, State and other. The results for 
individual categories are accurate for only one 
point in time. After transfers of federal land to 
Native anci State ownership are completed, the 
samples involved in this study could be reclassi- 
fied by ownership for timely results. 

This briefly describes the classification used in 
this study. It is difficult to differentiate the cate- 
gories further without introducing highly techni- 
cal terms. More detailed discussions, exact defini- 
tions, and fi.iller descriptions are provided by 
Cowardin et al. (1979). 

Yukoft -Kttskokwim Delta 

PALUSTRINE UNCONSOLIDATED SHORE 




14 



CHAPTER FOUR 



Survey Procedure 



J. he objective of the study was to develop statis- 
tical estimates of the areal extent of wetland and 
deepwater habitat categories and ownership class- 
es for Alaska. 

A stratified random sampling design was used 
with 2 1 inland strata formed by modification of 
the land resource areas described by Rieger et al. 
(1979). The study also used four coastal strata 
encompassing areas in the marine and estuarine 
systems. The 25 strata and Alaska's four major 
regions are shown in the map on page 16. 

Sample units were allocated to strata in propor- 
tion to expected amounts of wetlands and deep- 
water habitats as estimated by Fish and Wildlife 
Service personnel. A pilot study with 500 sample 
units was conducted to estimate the total number 
of sample units required for the statewide study. 



Kisaralik Lake, Kiiskokwim Highlands 

LACUSTRINE 



The total number of sample units used statewide 
was 2,566. 

Each sample unit is a four-square mile area, two 
miles on each side. The units were plotted on 
U.S. Geological Suney topographic maps and 
on aerial photographs. The 1:60,000 scale color- 
infrared aerial photography was obtained for the 
most recent date available. The average date of 
this photograph)' was 1980, with 90 percent of 
the photos within three years of the average. 

The photography was interpreted and annotated 
in accordance with the classification system 
described earlier and with procedures developed 
by the Fish and Wildlife Sendee's National 
Wetlands Inventor)' Project. A minimum map- 
ping size of one -half acre was used. Land owner- 
ship/management determinations were made 
from land information records maintained by the 
Bureau of Land Management. 




15 



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CHAPTER FIVE 



Results 



J. he intent of this study was to quantifv' areal 
coverage of wetlands and deepwater habitats for 
Alaska. Results for all categories discussed in the 
classification system section are given in the 
Appentiix. Several of the individual categories 
were grouped based on physical, chemical, anci 
biological similarities and are shown as subtotals. 
These groupings include the following: 

Wetlands and deepwater habitats includes all 
marine, estuarine, palustrine, and lacustrine clas- 
sifications. 

Wetlands mcXudcs marine, estuarine, and palus- 
trine wetlands. 

Estuarine wetlands mdudc's, all estuarine cate- 
gories except estuarine subtidal (a deepwater 
habitat). 

Palustrine wetlands mdudcs all palustrine cate- 
gories. 

Palustrine nonvejjetatcd wetlands includes the 
unconsolidated shore, open water, and ac]uatic 
bed categories. 

Palustrine vegetated wetlands includes all emer- 
gent, scrub/shrub, and forested categories. 

Palustrine emergent wetlands, palustrine 
scrub/shrub wetlands, and palustrine forested wet- 
lands indude the saturated and flooded cate- 
gories. 

Deepwater habitats includes estuarine subtidal 
and lacustrine habitats. 



Results presented in the remainder of this section 
are based on information found in the Appendix 
and other supplementan' data. 



Alaska Range 

PALUSTRINE SCRUB/SHRUB - SATURATED 



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17 



WETLANDS AND 
DEEPWATER HABITATS 

The estimate of wetlands and deepwater habitats 
is 204,554,300 acres (See figure 1). This repre- 
sents 50.7 percent of Alaska's surface area. In the 
lower 48 states, wetlands and deepwater habitats 
only occupy 9.3 percent of the surface area. 



WETLANDS 

The estimate of wetlands is 174,683,900 acres. 
The lower 48 states contain an estimated 
103,343,600 acres of wetlands (See figures 2, 3) 
Figure 4 shows the distribution of Alaska wet- 
lands by region. 



Suckling! Hills, South Central Alaska Mountains 

PALUSTRINE EMERGENT - SATURATED AND OPEN WATER 




18 



Figure 1 

Alaska Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats 




OTHER WETLANDS 

198,693,400 acres 174.683.900 acres 
49.3% 43.3% 




DEEPWATER 
HABITATS 

29,870,400 acres 

7.4% 



Figures 2. 3 

Surface Area of Alaska and Lower 48 States 



ALL SURFACE AREA 



WETLANDS 



NON-WETLANDS 

2,108,718,600 acres 
88.4% 




^^^^^ 

WETLANDS 

278,027,500 acres 
11.6% 




ALASKA WETLANDS LOWER 48 

174,683,900 acres WETLANDS 

62.8% 103,343,600 acrji 

37.2% 




Figure 4 

Distribution of Alaska Wetlands by Region 



INTERIOR 

70,665,700 acres 
40.4% 



^^^^ 




SOUTHERN 

9.051,200 acres 
5.2% 

COASTAL ZONE 

2,190,600 acres 
1.3% 



4D WESTERN 

92,776,400 acres 
53.1% 




19 




Arctic Foothills 

PALUSTRINE EMERGENT - SATUIUTED 



The 25 physical subdivisions and four regions 
appearing in the map on page 16 are shown 



below with their respecti\ e total acreages and 
wetland areas. 



ALASKA PHYSICAL SUBDIVISIONS 



PHYSICAL SUBDIVISION 

Southeast Alaska Mountains 
Southeast Alaska Lowlands 
South Central Alaska Mountains 
Cook Inlet -Susitna Lowland 
Alaska Peninsula & Southwest Islands 



TOTAL WETLAND WETLAND 
ACRES ACRES PERCENT 

(IN THOUSANDS OF ACRES) 



7,023,9 
11,128,4 
26,375,7 

9,442,0 
15,748.6 



84,4 

3,835,5 

739,4 

2,644,5 

1,747.4 



Total - Interior Alaska 



1.2 
34.5 

2.8 
28.0 
11.1 



Total - Southern Alaska 


69,718.6 


9,051.2 


13.0 


Copper River Plateau 


8,367.4 


3,056.9 


365 


Alaska Range 


18,197.4 


1.339.5 


7.4 


Koyukuk-lnnoko Lowland 


10,161.0 


7,223.0 


71.1 


Kanuti Flats 


1,339.0 


1,023.7 


76.5 


Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowland 


13,550.9 


8,256.1 


60.9 


Yukon Flats 


9,679.2 


3,681.6 


38.0 


Kuskokwim Highlands 


44,182.5 


24,462.4 


55.4 


Interior Alaska Highlands 


55,223.7 


21,622.5 


39.2 



160,701.1 70,665.7 44.0 



PHYSICAL SUBDIVISION 

Norton Sound Highlands 
Selawik-Kobuk Delta 
Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta 
Bristol Bay Coastal Plain 
Bering Sea Islands 
Brooks Range 
Arctic Foothills 
Arctic Coastal Plain 



Total - Arctic & Western Alaska 

Southeast Coastal Zone 
South Central Coastal Zone 
Western Coastal Zone 
Northern Coastal Zone 



TOTAL 


WETLAND 


WETLAND 


ACRES 


ACRES 


PERCENT 


(IN THOUSANDS OF ACRES) 




34,652.3 


18,320.1 


52.9 


3,149.6 


2,384.0 


75,7 


15,860.3 


12,477.0 


78,7 


6,067.5 


3,331.8 


54,9 


2,8981 


2,194.5 


75,7 


32,406.5 


7,182.3 


222 


36,390.6 


30,271.1 


832 


20,031.5 


16,615.6 


82.9 


151,456.4 


92,776.4 


61.3 


7,456.8 


236.0 


32 


6,567.7 


694.1 


10.6 


3,754.8 


1,106.3 


29.5 


3,592.3 


154.2 


4.3 



Total - Coastal Zone^ 



21,371.6 2,190.6 10.3 



Total - Alaska 



403,247.7 174,683.9 43.3 



Coaslal Zone acreage is primarily estuarine sutitidal, a deepwater tiabital 



20 



Marine Intertidal Wetlands 

The estimate of marine intertidal wetlands is 
48,600 acres. 

Estuarine Wetlands 

The estimate of estuarine wetlands is 2,131,900 
acres. This is smaller than the estimated 
5,472,700 acres of estuarine wetlands in the 
lower 48 states (See figure 5). As shown in 
figures 6 and 7, the majorit)' of estuarine wetlands 
in Alaska are nonvegetated; the vast majorit)' of 
estuarine wetlands in the lower 48 states are 
vegetated. Figure 8 shows the distribution of 
Alaska estuarine wetlands by coastal subdivisions. 



Figure 5 

Estuarine Wetlands in Alaska 
and the Lower 48 States 



ALASKA 


LOWER 48 


ESTUARINE 


ESTUARINE 


WETLANDS 


WETLANDS 


2,1 31 ,900 acres 


5,472,700 acres 


28.0% 


72.0% 



Figure 6 

Estuarine Wetlands in Alaska 



Figure 7 

Estuarine Wetlands in the Lower 48 States 



NONVEGETATED 

1,771,700 acres 
83.1% 



VEGETATED 

360,200 acres 
16.9% 



NONVEGETATED 

689,800 acres 
12.6% 



VEGETATED 

4,782,900 acres 
87.4% 



Figure 8 

Distribution of Alaska Estuarine Wetlands 
by Coastal Subdivisions 




21 



Palustrine Wetlands 

The estimate of palustrine wetlands is 
172,503,400 acres. This represents 98.8 percent 
of the wetlands in Alaska. 

Palustrine Nonve^etated Wetlands 

The estimate of palustrine nonvegetated wetlands 
in Alaska is 2,670,200 acres. The lower 48 states 
have 6,141,300 acres of palustrine nonvegetated 
wetlands. In both cases, most of the area is open 
water ponds. However, in the mid-lPSO's, there 
was only an estimated 2,704,400 acres of palus- 
trine nonvegetated wetlands in the lower 48 
states. Most of the increase is due to pond 
construction. 



Palustrine Vegetated Wetlands 

The estimate of palustrine vegetated wetlands is 
169,833,200 acres. This is much larger than the 
91,625,300 acres in the lower 48 states (See 
figure 9). The distribution is quite different for 
the two areas. In Alaska, the vast majorir\' of 
palustrine vegetated \\'etlands are scrub/shrub 
wetlands, and the smallest amount is forested 
wetlands (See figure 10); in the lower 48 states, 
the majority of palustrine vegetated wetlands are 
forested wetlands, and the smallest amount is 
scrub/shrub wetlands (See figure 11). The distri- 
bution of palustrine vegetated wetlands in 
Alaska's Southern, Interior, and Arctic and 
Western regions is shown in figures 12, 13, and 
14, respectively. 



Cariboti herd, Arctic Coastal Plain 

PALUSTRINE EMERGENT - FLOODED 




22 



BP EXPLORATION (ALASKA) INC 



Figure 9 

Palustrine Vegetated Wetlands in Alaska 
and the Lower 48 States 



ALASKA LOWER 48 

169,833,200 acres 91 ,625,300 acres 
65.0% 35.0% 



Figure 10 

Palustrine Vegetated Wetlands in Alaska 



FORESTED 

3,322,300 acres 
7.9% 




SCRUB/SHRUB 

114,510,100 acres 
67.4% 




EMERGENT 

. 42,000,800 acres 
24.7% 



Figure 11 

Palustrine Vegetated Wetlands in the Lower 48 States 



SCRUB/SHRUB 




15,344,500 acres 




16.7% 


FORESTED 




51,747,800 acres 




56.5% 


EMERGENT 




24,533.000 acres i 




26.8% i 





Figures 12. 13, 14 

Palustrine Vegetated Wetlands by Region 



SOUTHERN 



INTERIOR 



ARCTIC & WESTERN 



SCRUB/SHRUB 

3,709,600 acres 
42.0% 



EMERGENT 

1,842,700 acres 

20 8% A FORESTED 
13,290,600 acres 
7.2% 





SCRUB/SHRUB 

58,752,900 acres 
64.6% 




31,184,700 acres 
34.3% 



FORESTED 

1,042,400 acres 
1.1% 



23 



Palustrine Emergent Wetlands 
(Figures 15, 16) 

The estimate of palustrine emergent wetlands is 
42,000,800 acres. The amounts of saturated and 
flooded wetlands are approximately equal. 
Palustrine emergent wetlands are most common 
in Arctic and Western Alaska, where three - 
fourths of this type of wetland is found. Over 14 
million acres of palustrine emergent \\'etlands are 
found in the Arctic Coastal Plain, the only physi- 
cal subdi\ision in Alaska with the majority of its 
surface area in this single t)'pe. Oyer ti\'e million 
acres of palustrine emergent wetlands are found 
in the Yukon TCuskokwim Delta and also in the 
Arctic Foothills. 

Palustrine Scrttb/Shrub Wetlands 
(Figures 17, 18) 

The estimate of palustrine scrub/shrub wetlands 
is 114,510,100 acres. Only 5.8 percent of these 
wetlands are classified as flooded. Flooded palus- 
trine scrub/shrub wetlands are most common in 
the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, where about one- 



fourth of the palustrine scrub/shrub wetlands are 
flooded. Almost 97 percent of the palustrine 
scrub/shrub wetlands are found in Interior 
Alaska and Arctic and Western Alaska. 
Subdi\'isions ha\'ing the most palustrine 
scrub/shrub wetlands are the Arctic Foothills in 
Ai-ctic and Western Alaska, with 24,548,300 
acres; and, the Kuskokwim Highlands and the 
Interior Alaska Highlands in Interior Alaska 
with 18,858,900 aires and 16,348,900 acres, 
respectiyely. 

Palustrine Forested Wetlands 
(Figures 19, 20) 

The estimate of palustrine forested wetlands is 
13,322,300 acres. Only 204,300 acres are classi- 
fied as flooded. As shown earlier, palustrine 
forested wetlands coxer relatively little area in 
Alaska compared to the lower 48 states, where it 
is the most abundant type of wetland. 



Tnnnun-Kitskolnriiii Loivlnud 

PAI.USTRINH SCRUB/SHRUB - HI.OODHn 




24 



Figures 15, 16 
Palustrine Emergent Wetlands 



SATURATED VS. FLOODED 



DISTRIBUTION BY REGION 



INTERIOR 

8,973,400 acres 
21.4% 



SATURATED FLOODED 

21,170,500 acres 20,830,300 acres 
50.4% 49.6% 



ARCTIC AND WESTERN 

31,184,700 acres 
74.2% 



Figures 17, 18 

Palustrine Scrub/Shrub Wetlands 



SOUTHERN 

1,842,700 acres 
4.4% 



SATURATED VS. FLOODED 



DISTRIBUTION BY REGION 




FLOODED 

6,592,200 acres 
5.8% 



INTERIOR 

52,047,600 acres 
45.5% 



ARCTIC AND WESTERN 

58,752,900 acres 
51.3% 



SOUTHERN 

3,709.600 acres 
3.2% 



Figures 19. 20 

Palustrine Forested Wetlands 



SATURATED VS. FLOODED 



DISTRIBUTION BY REGION 




FLOODED 

204,300 acres 
1.5% 




ARCTIC AND WESTERN 

1,042,400 acres 
7.8% 



25 



DEEPWATER HABITATS 

The estimate of deepwater habitats is 29,870,400 
acres. Estuarine subtidal habitats cover approxi- 
mately the same surface area in Alaska as in the 
lower 48 states (See figure 21 ). 7\laska has much 
less acreage in lacustrine deepwater habitats than 
the lower 48 states; howe\'er, about rwo-thirds of 
the lacustrine area in the lower 48 states is in the 
Great Lakes. 

OWNERSHIP 

The detailed ownership information collected 
during the study is presented in the summary 
table in the Appendix. The information should 
be used with caution, because the State of Alaska 
and Nati\'es are continuing to receive lands 
selected from the block of lands managed by the 
Bureau of Land Management. This results in 
major shifts in wetland acreages managed by the 



affected groups. Other shifts have occurred 
between groups due to land trades and acquisi- 
tions, and con\'ersion of State lands to pri\'ate 
ownership through homesteading and agricul- 
tural programs. 

Figure 22 shows the distribution of wetlands 
among ownership/management categories. The 
remaining figures show acreages for wetland cate- 
gories managed by the Fish and Wildlife Semce, 
the National Park Semce, and the Forest Semce. 
Acreages in these groups ha\'e been relati\'ely sta- 
ble over the past several years. As might be 
expected, 1 ) the Fish and Wildlife Ser\'ice is man- 
aging a greater proportion of emergent wetlands 
than the other two agencies, and 2) the most 
pre\'alent wetland categoiy under Forest Ser\'ice 
management is palustrine forested. 



Northwestern Lnjjoon, South Central Coastal Zone 
ESTUARINE SUBTIDAL 




26 



Figure 21 

Estuarine and Lacustrine Deepwater Habitats 
in Alaska and the Lower 48 States 



LOWER 48 
ESTUARINE SUBTIDAL 

18,882,400 acres 
17.7% 



ALASKA 
ESTUARINE SUBTIDAL 

19,152,400 acres 
18.0% 




ALASKA 
LACUSTRINE 

10,718,000 acres 
10.0% 



Figure 23 

Wetlands under Management by Fish and Wildlife Service 



Figure 22 

Distribution of Wetlands by Ownership/Management 



OTHERS 

564,700 acres 
0.3% 

I 




STATE 

1 40,270,200 acres 
23.0% 



NATIVE — 

19,575,000 acres 
11.2% 



FOREST SERVICE — 

3,827,100 acres 
2.2% 




BUREAU OF 
LAND MANAGEMENT 

58,824,900 acres 
33.7% 



^ FISH AND 
WILDLIFE SERVICE 

38.362,300 acres 
22.0% 



NATIONAL 
PARK SERVICE 

13,259,700 acres 
7.6% 



f PALUSTRINE 

SCRUB/SHRUB 

24,151,900 acres 
62.9% 



PALUSTRINE 
EMERGENT 

11,531,800 acres 
30.1% 



, PALUSTRINE 
/ FORESTED 

/ 1,492,900 acres 
3.9% 

^ OTHER 
WETLANDS 

1,185.700 acres 

3.1% 



Figure 24 

Wetlands under Management by National Park Service 



Figure 25 

Wetlands under Management by Forest Service 



PALUSTRINE 
SCRUB/SHRUB 

/ 11,332,900 acres 
85.5% 




, PALUSTRINE 
/ EMERGENT 
1,034,400 acres 
7.8% 

y PALUSTRINE 
FORESTED 

780,500 acres 
5.9% 
\ 
OTHER 

WETLANDS 

11.900 acres 
0.8% 



PALUSTRINE , 
EMERGENT ^ 

370.000 acres 

9.7% 




PALUSTRINE 
SCRUB/SHRUB 

745,600 acres 
19.5% 



OTHER 
WETLANDS 

61 ,800 acres 
1 .6% 



PALUSTRINE 
FORESTED 

2,649,700 acres 
69.2% 




27 






'•-. /\^ Vf 






vsasr- 



•^"^:.. ^, 



%-r'i 



iif^^ 



•,;»^ 



■"'=♦ 



^^ 



r-^ \^j 






^ 


^ 


' 


•'.-r^- 


:'■. •*" 


•^*^ 




1 "•' 


? 

/ 






-i^-^^ 


p 




^. 




v^ 




%" 




\wj%. • 


^ 


'"^^*' 


:«^' 








v"^" " 




k 




# 


-t' !», 



.VAR^- 



'-1i, 



• "■-^. 



CHAPTER SIX 



In Conclusion 



J.his survey provides an estimate of 174,683,900 
acres of wetlands in Alaska, dominated by palus- 
trine vegetated wetlands. Alaska contains 63 per- 
cent of the total wetland acreage in the United 
States (excluding Hawaii). While widespread wet- 
land losses have been relatively low in Alaska, 
specific localities have sustained significant losses 
(Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources 1993). 

Results of this study provide the basis for future 
studies of wetland trends. One of the first trends 
that could be studied is the change in the owner- 
ship/management of wetlands resulting from 
continuing land transfers involving federal agen- 
cies, Natives, and the State of Alaska. The sample 
units used in this study could be reclassified by 
ownership at some future date to provide more 
current information. 



Continual monitoring of surface area use and 
changes in use is needed to provide the basis for 
wise decisions. This report is the result of one 
such method of monitoring initiated by the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Sendee. The results in 
this report provide wetland information similar 
to 1 ) the forest and range information required 
by the Forest and Rangeland Renewable 
Resources Planning Act, and 2) information on 
soil, water, and related resources requireci by the 
Soil and Water Resource Consenation Act. The 
results can be updated in the future on the sched- 
ule required b\' those Acts. 



left: Black spruce, Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowland 

PALUSTRINE FORESTED - SATURATED 

J HALL 

rdghf. Moose, Cook Inlet - Snsitna Lowland 

PALUSTRINE EMERGENT FLOODED 




29 




■^ 



■^ Jh. 





Literature Cited 



Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic 
Development. 1992. Seafood Industiy Sector 
Report. State of Alaska, Dept. of Commerce and 
Econ. Dev., Div. of Business Dev. 181 pp. 

Alaska Department of Education. 1991. Alaska 
Blue Book 1991-1992, Ninth Ed. State of 
Alaska, Dept. of Educ, Div. of State Libraries, 
Archives, and Museums. 369 pp. 

Alaska Department of Natural Resources. 1993. 
Alaska's outdoor legacy: statewide comprehensi\e 
outdoor recreation plan, 1992-1996. State of 
Alaska, Dept. of Natural Resources. 80 pp. 

Anderson, James R., Earnest E. Hardy, John T. 
Roach, and Richard E. Witmer. 1976. A land use 
and cover classification system for use with 
remote sensor data. U. S. Geol. Sun'. Prof Paper 
964. 22 pp. 

Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. 
T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and 
deepwater habitats of the E^nited States. U. S. 
FishWildl. Sen'. 103 pp. 

Dahl, T. E. 1990. Wetland losses in the United 
States, 1780's to 1980's. U. S. Fish Wildl. Sen'. 
21 pp. 

Dahl, T. E., and C. E. Johnson. 1991. Status and 
trends of wetlands in the conterminous United 
States, mid-1970's to mid-1980's. U. S. Fish 
Wildl. Sen'. 28 pp. 

Ellanna, L. J., and P. C. Wheeler. 1986. 
Subsistence use of wetlands in Alaska. 
In: Alaska Regional Wetland Fimctions - 
Proceedings of a Workshop. The En\'ironmental 
Institute, Univ. of Mass. pp 85-103. 



Frayer, W. E., T. J. Monahan, D. C. Bowden, 
and F. A. Graybill. 1983. Status and trends of 
wetlands and deepwater habitats in the contermi- 
nous United States, 1950's to 1970's. Colo. 
State Univ. 32 pp. 

Frayer, W. E., and Dennis Peters. 1989. 
Wetlands of the California Central Vallev: Status 
and trends, 1939 to mid-1980's. U. S. Fish 
Wildl. Sen'. 28 pp. 

Frayer, W. E. 1991. Status and trends of 
wetlands and deepwater habitats in the 
conterminous United States, 1970\s to 1980's. 
Mich. Technological Univ. 32 pp. 

Frayer, W. E., and John Hefner. 1991. Florida 
wetlands: Status and trends, 1970's to 1980's. 
U. S FishWildl. Sen'. 32 pp. 

Iving, J. G., and C. J. Lensink. 1971. An 
evaluation of Alaska habitat for migratoiy birds. 
Unpublished report. Bureau of Sport Fisheries 
and Wildlife, Wash., D. C. 72 pp. 

Lensink, C. J., and D. V. Derksen. 1986. 
Evaluation of Alaska wetlands for waterfowl. 
In: Alaska Regional Wetland Functions - 
Proceedings of a Workshop. The F^n\'ironmental 
Institute, Univ. of Mass. pp. 45-84. 

Rieger, Samuel, Dale B. Schoephorster and 
Clarence E. Furbush. 1979. Exploraton' soil 
sunev of Alaska. U. S. Dept. Agr. Soil Cons. 
Sen'. 213 pp. 

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Senice. 1985. 
Izembek National Wildlife Refuge - comprehen- 
sive consenation plan. U. S. Fish Wildl. Sen., 
Ajichorage, Alaska. 270 pp. 



left: Stikinc River Delta, Southeast Alaska Lowlands 

PALUSTRINE EMERGENT - ELOODED 



31 



Appendix 



Jllystimates produced include acreages with asso- 
ciated standard errors. Many estimates are not 
considered reliable enough to recommend their 
use for making decisions. An indication is given 
of the reliabilit\' of each estimated acreage in the 
summaiy tables included in this appendix. The 
standard error of each entry expressed as a per- 
centage of the entr\' (SE%) is given in parenthe- 
ses. Reliabilit)' can be stated generally as "we are 
68 percent confident that the true value is within 
the inten'al constructed by adding to and sub- 
tracting from the entry the SE%/100 times the 
entr)'." For example, if an entr\' is one million 
acres and the SE% is 20, then we are 68 percent 
confident that the true value is between 800,000 
and 1,200,000 acres. An equivalent statement for 
95 percent confidence can be made by adding 
and subtracting twice the amount to and from 
the entr)'. 

Therefore, a large SE% indicates low rcliabilit}', if 
any, in the estimate. In fact, if the SE% is 100 or 
greater, we cannot e\en sa\' that we are 68 per- 
cent confident that the true value is not zero. 

This discussion on reliability' is meant to aid in 
interpretation of the study results. It was expect- 
ed that only certain estimates would be precise 
enough to be meaningful. However, all entries 
arc included in the summar)' table for additi\'it}' 
and ease of comparison. 



Seaside plantain, 
Anchorage., South Central Coastal Zone 

KSTLIARINK INTKRTIDAI. VKGKTA TKD 



Estimates were produced for categories described 
in Chapter Three. These estimates are summa- 
rized on the next page. Totals for columns are 
estimates of total acreage by ownership/manage- 
ment classification category'. Row totals (the 
extreme right column) are estimates of total 
acreage by surface area category'. Entries are 
interpreted as in the following examples (all from 
the seconci and tenth columns of the table): 

•• 11,531,800 acres classified as palustrine 
emergent are managed by the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Serx'ice. 

•• 42,000,800 acres are classified as palustrine 
emergent. 

• • 24,1 5 1 ,900 acres classified as palustrine 

scrub/shrub are managed by U. S. Fish 
and WildHfe Senice. 

• • The estimate of palustrine forested area is 

13,322,300 acres. 

•• The estimated area of wetlands and 

dccpwater habitats is 204,554,300 acres. 




32 



TABLE 1. Area, in thousands of acres, by surface area classification. 
Sampling error, in percent, is given in parentheses below estimate. 



OWNERSHIP CLASSIFICATION 







FEDERAL 


ALL 
FEDERAL 


NATIVE 


STATE 


OTHER 


ALL 
OWNER- 
SHIPS 




BUREAU 
OF LAND 
MGMT. 


FISH AND 
WILDLIFE 
SERVICE 


NATIONAL 

PARK 
SERVICE 


FOREST 
SERVICE 


OTHER 
FEDERAL 


1 

i A 
L 
L 

W 
E 
T 

[L 
A 
N 

S 


MARINE INTERTIDAL WETLANDS 





2.9 

(42 9) 











2.9 

(42 9) 





45.7 

(31.1) 





48.6 

(29.7) 


ESTUARINE 
INTERTIDAL 


NON-VEGETATED 


0.6 

(75.2) 


58.0 

(44.0) 


5.2 

(72.2) 


0.1 

(55.0) 


1.3 

(93.2) 


65.2 

(39.6) 


7.5 

(532) 


1698.0 

(7,9) 


1.0 

(949) 


1771.7 

(7.6) 


VEGETATED 


5.6 

(45.6) 


52.6 

(36.3) 


0.9 

(54.6) 


23.6 

(46.6) 


4.5 

(87.0) 


87.2 

(25.8) 


17.0 

(37.4) 


255.9 

(18.2) 


0.1 

(95.0) 


360.2 

(14,3) 


ESTUARINE WETLANDS 


6.2 

(419) 


110.6 

(30.3) 


6.1 

(69.4) 


23.7 

(464) 


5.8 

(71.8) 


152.4 

(23.5) 


24.5 

(33.2) 


1953.9 

(7.4) 


1.1 

(94.9) 


2131,9 

(7.1) 


P 
A 


UNCONSOLIDATED 
SHORE 


5.4 

(546) 


15.3 

(83.1) 


0.1 

(81.0) 


<0.1 

(100.0) 





20.8 

(62.8) 


1.0 

(58,1) 


11.2 

(46.3) 





33.0 

(42.5) 


OPEN WATER 


489.8 

(9.4) 


992.6 

(7.4) 


103.3 

(20.3) 


37.6 

(31.0) 


0.4 

(99.5) 


1623.7 

(5.4) 


549.4 

(13.7) 


336.4 

(10.2) 


1.5 

(60.7) 


2511.0 

(4.1) 






AQUATIC BEDS 


13.1 

(30.5) 


64.3 

(22.8) 


2.4 

(59.8) 


0.5 

(55.2) 





80.3 

(18.9) 


24.4 

(24.2) 


20.7 

(24.8) 


0.8 

(99.3) 


126.2 

(13.4) 


L 


NON-VEGETATED 


508.3 

(9.2) 


1072.2 

(7.3) 


105.8 

(20.0) 


38.1 

(30.1) 


0.4 

(99.5) 


1724.8 
(5.4) 


574.8 

(13.3) 


368.3 

(10.0) 


2.3 

(70.3) 


2670.2 

(4.0) 


U 




EMERGENT - 
SATURATED 


8252.2 

(104) 


5956.6 

(115) 


357.1 

(57 7) 


205.9 

(19.6) 


0.1 

(75,7) 


14771.9 

(7,4) 


1909.2 

(16.4) 


4483.0 

(15.5) 


6.4 

(66.4) 


21170.5 

(5.9) 






EMERGENT - 
FLOODED 


6582.4 

(8.1) 


5575.2 

(9.2) 


677.3 

(24.5) 


164.1 

(78.1) 


2.5 

(88.7) 


13001.5 

(5.6) 


3229.4 

(12.2) 


4586.0 

(9.8) 


13.4 

(78.1) 


20830.3 

(3.9) 


s 


EMERGENT 


14834.6 

(7.4) 


11531.8 

(8.0) 


1034.4 

(26.1) 


370.0 

(36.8) 


2.6 

(84.1) 


27773.4 

(5.0) 


5138.6 

(10.8) 


9069.0 

(10.3) 


19.8 

(57,9) 


42000.8 

(3.5) 


T 
R 




SCRUB/SHRUB - 
SATURATED 


38243.3 

(5.4) 


22132.0 

(66) 


10774.9 

(14.3) 


683.7 

(178) 


222.2 

(52.7) 


72056.1 

(3.7) 


12064.3 

(10.4) 


23708.9 

(7.0) 


88.6 

(49.2) 


107917.9 

(2.4) 


SCRUB/SHRUB - 
FLOODED 


1372.3 

(10.9) 


2019.9 

(12.5) 


558.0 

(18,4) 


61.9 

(55.9) 


36.1 

(83.6) 


4048.2 

(7.6) 


955.7 

(20.8) 


1566.3 

(109) 


22.0 

(558) 


6592.2 

(5.9) 




SCRUB/SHRUB 


39615.6 

(5.3) 


24151.9 

(63) 


11332.9 

(140) 


745.6 

(195) 


258.3 

(48 2) 


76104.3 

(36) 


13020.0 

(100) 


25275.2 

(6.8) 


110.6 

(491) 


114510.1 

(2.3) 


1 
N 




FORESTED - 
SATURATED 


3827.9 

(16.2) 


1462.8 

(16.8) 


767.1 

(43.5) 


2631.2 

(11.0) 


103.7 

(65.8) 


8792.7 

(8.9) 


792.3 

(22,1) 


3483.9 

(12,7) 


49.1 

(44.4) 


13118.0 

(6.7) 


FORESTED - 
FLOODED 


32.3 

(38.2) 


30.1 

(62.6) 


13.4 

(62.6) 


18.5 

(42.4) 


2.3 

(99.4) 


96.6 

(26.1) 


24.8 

(58.5) 


74.2 

(58.3) 


8.7 

(76.6) 


204.3 

(25.7) 


E 




FORESTED 


3860.2 

(16.1) 


1492.9 

(16.8) 


780.5 

(42,8) 


2649.7 

(10.9) 


106.0 

(64.5) 


8889.3 

(8.9) 


817.1 

(22.1) 


3558.1 

(12.5) 


57.8 

(42.1) 


13322.3 

(6.6) 


VEGETATED 


58310.4 

(4.3) 


37176.6 

(5.2) 


13147.8 

(13.1) 


3765.3 

(11.3) 


366.9 

(44.9) 


112767.0 

(2,8) 


18975.7 

(8 5) 


37902.3 

(5.7) 


188.2 

(43.3) 


169833.2 

(1.6) 


PALUSTRINE WETLANDS 


58818.7 

(43) 


38248.8 

(5,1) 


13253.6 

(130) 


3803.4 

(112) 


367.3 

(44 9) 


114491.8 

(2,7) 


19550.5 

(85) 


38270.6 

(56) 


190.5 

(435) 


172503.4 

(1.6) 


ALL WETLANDS 


58824.9 

(4.3) 


38362.3 

(5.1) 


13259.7 

(13.0) 


3827.1 

(11.2) 


373.1 

(44.2) 


114647.1 

(2.7) 


19575.0 

(8.5) 


40270.2 

(5.4) 


191.6 
(43.2) 


174683.9 
(1.6) 




ESTUARINE SUBTIDAL 


0.7 

(64.3) 


40.7 

(65.1) 


<0.1 

(95.0) 


<0.1 

(95.7) 


865.2 

(14.4) 


906.6 

(14.0) 


3.9 

(44.1) 


18224.6 
(1.0) 


17.3 
(95.0) 


19152.4 

(0.8) 


LACUSTRINE 


2496.5 

(12.8) 


2733.4 

(12.5) 


179.6 

(281) 


350.4 

(38,5) 





5759.9 

(85) 


1435.3 

(157) 


3519.7 

(179) 


3.1 

(992) 


10718.0 

(7.5) 


DEEPWATER HABITATS 


2497.2 

(12,8) 


2774.1 

(12.3) 


179.6 

(28.1) 


350.4 

(38.5) 


865.2 

(14.4) 


6666.5 

(7.6) 


1439.2 

(15.6) 


21744.3 

(3.0) 


20.4 

(82.0) 


29870.4 

(2.7) 


WETLANDS AND 
DEEPWATER HABITATS 


61322.1 

(4.2) 


41136.4 

(5.0) 


13439.3 

(12,8) 


4177.5 

(10.2) 


1238.3 

(16,7) 


121313.6 

(2.7) 


21014.2 

(7 9) 


62014.5 

(3,5) 


212.0 

(39.9) 


204554.3 

(1.3) 



/