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Full text of "Typewriting and Computer Operation (StdXI - English Medium)"

TYPEWRITING 

AND 

COMPUTER OPERATION 

[OFFICE SECRETARYSHIP - OSS] 




^^■fTAMIUNADUJ 




SlBOOKlCORPORATilON 





TYPEWRITING 

AND 

COMPUTER OPERATION 

[OFFICE SECRETARYSHIP - OSS] 



VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 
HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR 



r 



v 



A publication under 

Government of Tamilnadu 

Distribution of Free Textbook Programme 

(NOT FOR SALE) 



A 



Untouchability is a sin 
Untouchability is a crime 
Untouchability is inhuman 




''^umi^ 



TAMILNADU 

TEXTBOOK CORPORATION 

College Road, Chennai 600 006. 



© Government of Tamilnadu 
First Edition - 2010 



CHAIRPERSON 
A.Sonny Lionel 

Sr. Vocational Teacher 

Voorhees Hr. Sec. School, 

Vellore-632001 

REVIEWER 
V.Parimala Devi 

Vocational Teacher, 

Government Boys Hr. Sec. School, 

Alangayam -635 701 

Vellore District 



AUTHORS 



J.Shyamala 

Computer Instructor, 
St.Ursula's A.I.H.S. School 
Church Park, 
Chennai -600 006 



D. Kumar 

Vocational Teacher, 
Government Hr. Sec. School, 
Kaveripakkam-632 508 
Vellore District. 



Freeda Joseph 

Vocational Teacher, 
St.Ursula's A.I.H.S. School, 
Church Park, 
Chennai -600 006 



P.R. Balaji 

Vocational Teacher, 
Islamiah Hr.Sec. School, 
Pernambut - 635 810. 
Vellore District. 



This book has been prepared by The Directorate of School 
Education on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu 



This book has been printed on 60 GSM Paper 



Printed by web offset at: 



CONTENTS 



Unit Title Page 

PART- A 

1 Typewriting and Computer Operation 

- An Introduction (vi) 

2 Typewriter - Key Board 1 

3 Fingering Chart & Budget Book (Lessons I to VII) 2 

4 Typing Practice: 

(a) From Sentences - Lesson VIII 9 

(b) From Paragraphs - Lesson IX 10 

(c) From Script - Lesson X 11 

5 Speed Practice - First Paper 19 

PART - B 



2. 



3. 



Short Notes on the Topics 
Abbreviations & Symbols 


37 
41 


Statements: 




42 


(i) Invoices 




51 


(ii) Credit Notes 




58 


(iii) Debit Notes 




64 


(iv) Account sales 




70 


Letters: 

(a) Application 

(b) Business letter 

(c) Professional letter 

(d) Official Letter (One authority to another) 


76 

84 

92 

100 



4. Government Order 107 



(iii) 



Unit Title Page 

PART - C 
1. MECHANISM : 

1. Typewriter and its parts 115 

2. History of the Typewriter - Kinds of 116 
Typewriter- Advantages of Typewriter - 
Identification of Typewriter. 

3. Key Board: Character keys - Non-Character 117 
keys and their uses: Shift keys, Shift Lock, 

Marginal Releaser, Back Spacer, Tabulator, 
Ribbon Position Indicator, Key Releaser, Space 
Bar and Shift systems. 

4. Carriage: Size of Carriage Cylinder- 120 
Thumb knobs -Ratchet Wheel - Detent Roller - 

Detent Release Lever - Variable line spacer - 
Line space pawl - Line space Gauge - Line 
Space Knob - Reed Rollers - Marginal stops - 
Typewriter Scales - Paper Table - Rubber feet - 
Method of typing - Eraser. 

5. Machine: Mainspring Drum - Draw cord 124 
Type Guide- Type faces/Type heads Ribbon 

Ribbon movement. 

6. Cleaning & Oiling: Cleaning Materials - 127 
care taking of Typewriter - Upkeep and 

Maintenance - Packing care. 

7. Envelope Addressing: Block Method - Indent 129 
Method - Advantages - Pin Code Number. 

8. Respectable Terms.... 131 

9. Question & Answers 132 



(Iv) 



Unit Title Page 

II. COMPUTER OPERATION : 

Knowing About Computer 135 

The following 2 Chapters: 

(a) Introduction to Windows XP and 

(b) Windows Explorer can be learnt from The Text 
Book - "Computer Science, Higher Secondary 
First Year, Volume- II Practice" Published by 
Tamilnadu Text Book Corporation, Chennai-600 006. 

CHAPTER: I Introduction to Window XP 151 

What is Windows XP Evolution of the Windows 

Operating System The mouse Logging in Log 

Off is at the Bottom Of the Start menu Working 

with the Windows XP The Desktop The Start 

menu Starting an Application Windows 

Windows Dialog Boxes Help and support centre 

Customizing Windows XP The Control Panel 

Applications Using Applications in Windows 

Working With multiple Applications 

CHAPTER: II Windows Explorer 154 

Files Date organization- Windows Explorer 
Working with Folders Changing the View Creating 
a New Folder Selecting Files and Folders Moving and 
Copying files and Folders Renaming Files and Folders 
Deleting Files and Folders Creating Short Cuts 
Search The run Command What is new in Windows XP 
Guarding against Viruses. 

IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED: 163 

III INTERNAL EXAMINATION MARKS : 50 170 

PRACTICAL I (TYPEWRITING) 
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT - 25 MARKS 

PRACTICAL II (COMPUTER OPERATION) 
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT - 25MARKS 

IV. Model Question Paper: 171 

(V) 



PART -A 

TYPEWRITING AND COMPUTER OPERATION 
AN INTRODUCTION 

Our Tamilnadu Government has designed a New Educational System 
in Vocational Scheme, for Vocational students in the Higher Secondary 
level especially for 'Typewriting' learning pupils under Office 
Secretaryship (OSS) Group. This book has been brought in a simple way 
and easy to understand by the students. 

Typewriter is a device for writing with neater letters; for doing 
quicker and better work; for taking more copies and for reading the typed 
matters easily. It is a gift for us, and one of the Developments in ' Science 
and Technology' world. In ancient times, people used 'Palm leaves' and 
then papers for their writing purposes. But, in handwriting, the letters 
are not legible and understandable to read by others, which seem to be as 
scribbled. By using the machine (Typewriter), we can get the work neatly 
and accurately; with less strain, time saving and economy in stationery 

For the welfare of our students, Pictures have been given for 
explanation and they can easily understand to operate the Keyboard and 
learn its mechanism ; 'Fingering' practice can also be developed. This 
book contains 'hand-written scripts' for practicing and to understand 
other various handwritings. 

When we learn Typewriting/Computer Operation, more attention 
must be given to sitting posture to avoid body pain, and strain to the spinal 
cord. The Table for keeping Typewriter/ Computer should have the 
height of 2 \ ' andacomfortablestool/chair,(18"-6"). 

This book 'Typewriting and Computer Operation' brings 
enthusiasm and stimulate the students to enter into 'Vocational 
Education' especially to type-wring and computer operation. Lucid style 

(Vi) 



and simple diction combined with pictures and apt illustrations make this 
book interesting and attractive, It is aimed to improve and inspire the 
exiting knowledge of Typewriting and Computer. 

Students are the Pillars of our future Nation. This ' Vocational Education' 
creates self-confidence to the children. By learning this course, the 
future students can avoid to see the 'No vacancy' board; but they can 
create their own employment under 'Self Employment Scheme' and 
boldly face the unemployment problems. 

'Vocational Education' stands first in the developed countries of 
this World. We should also give more important to 'Vocational 
Education' to become a self-sufficient Country and be a 'Super Nation 
Power'. 

At the end of this book, a model question paper and some ' important 
points to be remembered' are given for Typewriting and Computer 
Operation. Students can utilize these, and prepare for the examination. 

Names and places, in this book, are all fictions. Some models, scripts 
and pictures have been taken from DOTE-question papers and other 
public publications for the welfare of our students' practice and we thank 
the respective departments. 

Finally, I thank my collogues who co-operated with me to bring out 
this much successfully. On behalf of the Vocational students, Teachers 
and my team I thank Our Tamilnadu Government especially the 
Educational Department for publishing a special Text Book through 
'Tamilnadu Textbook Corporation' for Vocational Education under newly 
framed syllabusfor 'Typewriting and Computer Operation' . 

- Author 



(Vii) 



2. KEY BOARD 



E 




i 



TABULATOR BAR 



TAB 
CLR 



E 



eIgj 



BEB'SSBELIjEBBQB 



EBBBEBEBEBBG 



BBBBBBBG] 



BDBB 




f* 




Ra. 



■shift 



3. FINGERING CHART 



1st Row 


1 


2 


3 


4 5 


6 


7 


8 


9 





2nd Row 


Q 


W 


E 


R T 


Y 


U 


I 


O 


P 


3rd Row 


A 


s 


D 


F G 


H 


J 


K 


L 


j 


4th Row 




z 


X 


C V 


B 


N 


M 


i 


• 





LEARNING PRACTICES : BUDGET BOOK 



FIRST EXERCISE 


LESSON I : 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 


SEND ON EXERCISE 


- LESSON H : 


awerqfa 


;oiupj; 


THIRD EXERCISE 


LESSON m 


: gftfrf 


hjyjuj 


FORTH EXERCISE 


- LESSON TV: 


azxcvfa 


Ikmnbj 


F1F1H EXERCISE 


- LESSON V : 


abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 
Zyxviitsrqpoimilkjihgfcdcba 


SIXTH EXERCISE 


LESSON VI 


: NUMBERS -(123454 098767) 


SEVENTH EXERCISE 
(LEFT & RIGHT) 


- LESSON vn 


: USING THE SHIFT KEYS 


EIGHTH EXERCISE 


LESSON VIII: 


PRACTICING TN SENTENCE F 



4. FIRST EXERCISE - LESSON - 1 



asdfgf ;lkjhj asdfgf ;lkjhj asdfgf ;lkjhj asdfgf ;lkjhj 



H K 



\||/ %T U/> 



A and ; 

s and 1 

d and k 

f and j 

g and h 



- by using little fingers (left and right respectively) 

- by using ring fingers 

- by using middle fingers 

- by using forefingers 

- by using forefingers 



( > 


< > 


i 1 


< > 


< > 




r v v .. v v \ 


A 


S 


D 


F 


G 




H 


J 


K 


L 


■ 
9 


^ } 


•* ' 


** ; 


>■ } 


* ' 




^* ; 


^ ' 


•* ' 


>* ; 


^ '■ 



TYPE THE FOLLOWING AND PRACTICE AS PER THE 
INSTRUCTION OF THE TEACHER: 







asdfgf ;lkjhj 


asdfgf ;lkjhj 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 






asdfgf ;lkjhj 


asdfgf ;lkjhj 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 






asdfgf ;lkjhj 


asdfgf ;lkjhj 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 






asdfgf ;lkjhj 


asdfgf ;lkjhj 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 






asdfgf ;lkjhj 


asdfgf ;lkjhj 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 


asdfgf 


;lkjhj 


ask 


fad 


alsas 


shad 


lads 




flags 


flask 


jag 


fag 


fall 


hash 


glad 




galls 


salad 


jak 


had 


gaff 


dash 


gall 




flash 


slash 


sad 


lad 


adds 


lash 


hall 




lakhs 


dhalls 


dad 


asks 


alas 


dall 

3 


fall 




glass 


shall 



SECOND EXERCISE - LESSON - II 



awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; 




a 


and 


j 


- by using little fingers (left and right respectively) 


w 


and 





- by using ring fingers 


e 


and 


i 


- by using middle fingers 


r 


and 


u 


- by using forefingers 


q 


and 


P 


- by using forefingers 


f 


and 


J 


- by using forefingers 



Q 



W 



U 



n 



TYPE THE FOLLOWING AS PER THE INSTRUCTION 
OF THE TEACHER: 

awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; 
awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; 
awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; 
awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; awerqfa ;oiupj; 



TYPE THE FOLLOWING WORDS EACH 5 LINES: 



fish 


dirks 


oldest 


apple 


grade 


falls Kodak 


rails 


jaded 


dead 


usual 


sales 


filed 


legal 


lease lakes 


agile 


isles 


ahead 


larks 


roses 


hedge 


forks 


skill rupee 


grass 


would 


alpine 


jaded 


liked 


equip 


quail 


jokes asked 


walks 


fiddle 


saddle 


larger 


require 


defiles 


drawls 


refresh 







THIRD EXERCISE - LESSON - III 

gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj 




gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj 



g 


and 


f 


Fore finger 


t 


and 


f 


Fore finger 


r 


and 


f 


Fore finger 


h 


and 


J 


Fore finger 


y 


and 


J 


Fore finger 


u 


and 


J 


Fore Finger 



y\ 



u 



^ 



H 



v 



if\ 



TYPE THE FOLLOWING AND PRACTICE AS PER THE 
INSTRUCTION OF THE TEACHER: 

gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj 
gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj 
gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj 
gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj gftfrf hjyjuj 



TYPE THE FOLLOWING WORDS EACH 5 LINES: 


lawyers desired 


prepare 


feathery 


repeated 


etiquette yesterday 


desire 


waggish 


typist 


kettle further 


quoted 


ledger 


outdoor 


pleased theatre 


tortuous 


gallery 


opposed 


outflow priority 


freehold 


thorough 


dearly 


assisted adopt 


allowed 

5 


ploughed 


typewriter 



FOURTH EXERCISE - LESSON - IV 

azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkjmnbj 




z and 1 

x, k and m 

c, v and f 

n, b and j 



V 




Little finger 

Ring finger (left & right) 

Middle finger 

Fore fingers 

Fore fingers 



B 



N 



^ if \ ^v 



M 



TYPE THE FOLLOWING AND PRACTICE AS THE 
INSTRUCTION OF YOUR TEACHER: 



azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj 

azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj 

azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj 

azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj 

azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj azxcvf lkmnbj 



azxcvf 
azxcvf 
azxcvf 
azxcvf 
azxcvf 



TYPE THE FOLLOWING WORDS EACH 5 TIMES: 



lkmnbj 
lkmnbj 
lkmnbj 
lkmnbj 
lkmnbj 



cat 

not 

met 

men 

bent 

king 

zeal 

zero 



jack 

have 

wind 

verb 

joint 

carry 

night 

tonic 



colour 

joints 

nerves 

verbal 

jackets 

jumbled 

booklet 

cutting 



neither 

calling 

enlarge 

someone 

examine 

examined 

gracious 

becoming 



enemy 

voted 

money 

marry 

thousand 

struggle 

grizzled 

zodiacal 



boat 

very 

move 

give 

cylinder 
possible 
frequent 

exponent 



Calcutta 

vineyard 

material 

sterling 

assessment 

beginning 

meanings 

doubtless 



FIFTH EXERCISE - LESSON - V 



TYPE THE FOLLOWING ALPHABETS FOR FINGERING PRACTICE: 



abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz., 
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz., 
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz., 
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz., 
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz., 
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz., 
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz., 
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz., 
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz., 
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz., 



,.zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfdcba 
,.zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfdcba 
,.zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfdcba 
,.zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfdcba 
,.zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfdcba 
,.zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfdcba 
,.zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfdcba 
,.zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfdcba 
,.zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfdcba 
,.Zyxwvutsrqponmlkj ihgfdcba 



TYPE THE FOLLOWING WORDS EACH 5 TIMES: 



Cosmo instant youthful personnel 

Quota zigzags up-board witnessed 

necy., morning hitherto pessimism 

etc., brevity emphasis peasantry 

viz., written impulses tolerance 

doz., endorse judgment elevation 



correspond 

fulfilling 

technology 

indulgence 

privileges 

rejuvenate 



xanthophylls 
contemplate 
distributor 
formulating 
controversy 
sacrificing 



TYPE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES EACH FIVE TIMES: 



1. Lost time is never regained. 

2. Get- up early and do your work. 

3. To-day's youth and to-morrow's old. 

4. Age is a virtue when wisdom is with it. 

5. Measure your word before it goes out of you. 

6. My steps are measured. 

7. A friend in need is a friend indeed. 

8. Children are innocent and should be guided rightly. 

9. Our Land has great sages who knew the eternal truth. 

10. Truth never fails. 



SIXTH EXERCISE - LESSON VI 

LEARNING NUMERICALS: TYPE THE FOLLOWING NUMBERS 
AS PER THE INSTRUCTION OF YOUR TEACHER: 

123454 098767 123454 098767 123454 098767 

123454 098767 123454 098767 123454 098767 

123454 098767 123454 098767 123454 098767 

123454 098767 123454 098767 123454 098767 

123454 098767 123454 098767 123454 098767 

TYPE THE FOLLOWING NUMBERS EACH 5 TIMES: 



153 


4586 


48766 


1298 


96842 


67,492 


9,18,17,615 


765 


9539 


97530 


6541 


78646 


65,431 


10,87,43,111 


187 


7654 


65431 


2244 


98761 


78654 


4,16,22,44,882 


786 


1009 


28761 


7755 


87652 


97531 


9,34,53,05,090 


440 


5599 


76542 


4174 


9442 


805515 


9,89,45,82,990 



SEVENTH EXERCISE - LESSON VII 

(USING OF SHIFT KEYS - LEFT & RIGHT ) 

TYPE THE FOLLOWING WORDS USING SHIFT KEY: 
EACH 5 TIMES: 



January 


February 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


August 


September 


October 


November 


December 


Tamil 


English 


Tamilnadu 


Andhra 


Karnataka 


Orissa 


Maharastra 


Delhi 


Himalaya 


Simla 


India 


Srilanka 


America 


Calcutta 


Kolcatta 


Tailand 


England 


Kuwait 


West Indies 


Africa 


German 


Russia 


Rome 


Kerala 


Parthiban 


Dikshaya 


Anandan 


Vidiya 


Vijayanthi 


Glory 


Trinita 


Feeba 


Glory 


Kumar 


Balaji 


Shyamala 


Freeda 


Joel 


Royston 


Rajini 


Kamal 


Sivaji 


Superintendent Confidential Government 


Schedule 


Notification 


Secretary 


Proceedings Reference 


Subject 


Enclosure 



5. TYPING PRACTICE : LESSON VIII 

(A). TYPE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES EACH TEN TIMES 

1. Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs. 

2. A quick brown fox slowly jumped over the lay dogs. 

3. Five prizes were quickly distributed by the judge to examiners. 

4. Handy Jack's quixotic laziness may grow to be far expensive. 

5. Gay men with extra pluck and zeal would often have quiet job. 

6. Black market fugitive should be quickly expelled with zeal. 

7. May we have Jack squires fix the big lamps for Andy Ziegler? 

8. Have you seen my brother-in-Law Jayavendan? 

9. The partition of India affected more than 506 of our people. 

10. Balaji worked with zeal and vigour. 

11. Joel & Subashini took their child on 2nd January 2005 for Kuwait. 

12. Messers Parthiban & Co., Ltd were great toy makers. 

13. The son got % and the daughter Dikshaya % of their shares. 

14. The French Revolution war was in the year 1709 

15 Received 5 sets of Typist's Tables (2'-5") & chairs (18" 6" ) 

16 Now the cost of gold is very high. (One gram=Rs. 1,500/=) 

17 Every Indian should say "No Partition". 

18 Leave 2 spaces after (.) and (?) 

19 Punctuation should be marked carefully. 

20 Character builds a good family. 

21. Service to the Community is humanity. 

22. Anandan got cent percent result in his subject. 

23. We must be proud of our Nation. 

24. Untouchability is a sin. Untouchability is a crime and also inhuman. 

25. Time and tide wait for none. So, make use of the time. All the best. 



TYPING PRACTICE : LESSON IX 

(B). Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degree: 

Type the following paragraphs each five times: 

Our National Flag has bite Ashok Chakra on it. This wheel is symbol of 
DHARMA. It we always do the right things, we follow DHARMA. The twenty four 
spokes in the wheel show the differences between our-people. A small circle 
connects these spokes. It shows that we are one. The wheel also shows that we 
are going forward. 

Our flag is a tri-colour. Saffron is the symbol of sacrifice and a strong mind. 
White is the symbol of purity, love and peace. Green is the symbol of plenty and 
joy. We hoist and salute our flag. We are ready to make sacrifices for our 
country. We want peace and progress. We want to be pure. 

Our 'National Anthem' is a song of the great poet Tagore. It was his prayer song. 
He sings about the people, mountains, rivers and seas of India. He says that God 
is the master of all these and everyone and everything in India praise him. We 
sing this song in colours with respect. 

All of us salute our National Flag and sing our National Anthem. This shows that 
we are one nation. We also promise to love and respect our country, our parents, 
elders, teachers and all others in India. 

SOME ADVANTAGES OF HIGH SELF-ESTEEM 

There is a direct relationship between people's feelings and their productivity. 
High self-esteem is evident in respect for one's self, others, property, law, parents 
and one's country. The reverse is also true. 

LOW SELF ESTEEM 

How do we recognize poor self-esteem? What are the behavior patterns of a 
person with poor self-esteem? The following is a brief list, which is not all 
inclusive but is indicative. 



10 



TYPING PRACTICE : LESSON X 

(C). ^ar'ipti ±o be Pvo^fci<^ad fcjt, -f^> tn< < fue. 
<^jJo^Y^l^^ ~^~~ ^ " -~ ^_H_ _ 

) ■ A )<Ze3Ljats> ieAt<eJcJs AncX&s>t X-^cel 

l~<ezzcLt> d*.*->A JLoreb ttis. <entive world 1 . 

At U±* %°&* <f&^ ^> U ° *""<*"* ^f" 

,« . ^^ <* *£^ ;^^ • fro- ■ 

£i-g_ C-er»Tm ,£_ C\/v^CS'>r , y .y& v ro^v^; GKt^fiJL^j <=0&-ft > S 

PJt>Ov4S-o^ W^ ^OtK.^ U^^CcvL <^=W ><**jtf*_ ^-J^v - 



11 



6. SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees: 



Education and training in 
cosmetology takes you straight to the 
world of glamour and excitement and 
allows you to explore the opportunity to 
work with hair, skin or mails depending 
upon your choice. The different 
combinations of chemicals allow to 
create the right type of product for hair, 
skinormails. Thoughtthe possibilities 
in the field of cosmetology are endless, 
you do require education or training in 
this field to be able to find the right path 
for yourself. The aim of a make-up 
artistes to brining out beauty without 
making it look like a disguise. Make-up 
artists apply cosmetics to enhance a 
client's appearance as also create any 
image a particular job calls for. The 
artist should be inclined artistically 
like blending, shading or creating. 

A make-up artist can establish 
himself in a salon with a private 
clientele, become make-up directorfor 
a prestigious department store, 
represent a line of cosmetics, work in 
Television and Movie production, find 
a position with a fashion magazine or 
work behind the scenes in theatre 
production. Operating as an 
independent free lancer allows you to 
create your own schedule or find 
employment with one company. The 
make-up artists should concentrate on 
chemistry and anatomy if they want to 
make it to the top. Theatre 
experience, especially a study of stage 
lighting can be really helpful. Six 
months to one year work experience in 
agoodsalonisimportantaftertraining. 



Volunteering your services to 
community theatres, fashion shows 
etc., will not only provide experience 
but also help in establishing contact 
with people who may be important to 
your career. Star Campbell Place a 
master of make-up artistry, says that 
achieving delicate effects takes years 
of concrete training. The more time 
you invest in preparing for this career 
the longer your career will be and the 
more you will get out of it. It allows you 
to be independent mobile and 
employable. You can begin by 
developing a portfolio that can be 
presented to a potential client. The 
portfolio can include before and after 
photograph so make-over you have 
performed, along with any awards or 
certificates you may have earned . 

The job of Skin Care Specialist 
(Aesthetician) here is to offer 
treatments to perfect the look and 
health of the skin. The aesthetician 
can work in a salon, teach, travel giving 
demonstrations or become a 
consultant to a cosmetic company. 
The training for this job should be in a 
beauty salon which specializes in or 
emphasizes on facial treatments. 
These training courses are always 
short so he should make the best use 
of them. The specialist must read as 
much as possible about skin care so 
that there is a touch of authority in what 
he says. 



12 



SPEED PRACTICE 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



The invention of paper is 
closely-linkedwith the history of 
human civilization. Although the 
modern printing industry is generally 
considered to have bon out of the 
invention of movable types of Johan 
Gutenberg in 1455, the Chinese had 
been printing on paper many hundreds 
of years earlier. Paper was first 
produced in China in about 105 AD 
when papyrus and parchment were 
being used in Mediterranean 
countries. Tortoise shell, bone metals, 
stones, bamboo slips, wooden tables 
and silkwere used as writing materials 
in China before the invention of paper. 
It took centuries to perfect the 
technology of producing vegetable 
fibre paper. Initially, the raw materials 
used was hemp, rope ends, rags and 
worn out fishing nets etc. The oldest 
sample of paper from Wester Han 
Dynasty wasdiscoveredin1957 in 
Shaanxi ProvinceofChina. 

The ancient Egyptians used 
papyrus as writing materials, which is 
derived from th plant Cypenus 
papyrus. The Papyrus was long 
cultivated in the Nile delta region in 
Egypt and was collected for its stalk or 
stem, whose central pith was cut into 
thin strips, pressed together and dried 
to form a smooth thin writing surface. 
Papyrus is a grasslike aquatic plant 
that has woody, blunt triangular stems 
and grows up to 4.6 cm high in quietly 
flowing water. The triangular stem can 



grow to a width of 6 cm. TheEgyptians 
used the stem of the pyrus plant to 
make sails, cloth, mat, cords and 
above all paper. It was adopted by the 
Greeks and was used extensively in 
the Roman Empire 

It was used for the production of legal 
documents. Pliny the Elder, gave an 
account of the manufacture of paper 
from papyrus. The fibrous layers 
within the stem of the plant were 
removed and a number of these 
longitudinal strips were placed side by 
side and then crossed at right angles 
with another set of strips. The two 
layers formed a sheet, which was then 
dampened and pressed. Upon drying 
the glue-likesap of the plant acted as 
an adhesive and cemented the layers 
together. The sheet was finally 
hammered and dried in the sun. A 
number of these sheets were then 
joined togetherwith paste to form a roll, 
with usually not more than 20 sheets 
to a roll. As time passed, other fibrous 
plants started replacing papyrus. 

By the turn of 3rd Century A.D 
papyrus had already begun to be 
replaced by less expensive velum or 
parchment in Europe. Parchment is 
said to have been invited in the 2nd 
Century. B.C., The name apparently 
derived from the ancient Greek city of 
Pergamum. It is the processed skin of 
certain animals mainly sheep. 



13 



SPEED PRACTICE 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees: 



In 1452, Christopher Columbus 
ignored advice that the Earth was flat 
and tried to reach India by sailing west 
rather than east. He may have 
muddled his continents, but he didn't 
fall off the edge, the Earth's surface is 
of course curved. A similar question 
has been bothering cosmologist for 
nearly a century is the universe flat 
Researchers now announce that the 
answer is yes. Common sense tells us 
that flying through space in a straight 
tells us that flying through space in a 
straight line gets you further and 
further away from your starting point. 
But common sense and cosmology 
(the study of the universe) have little in 
common. Researchers have no 
difficulty accepting a universe in which 
space itself is curved. Fly for long 
enough in curved space and you could 
find yourself back where you started 
But the curvature of a universe does 
not just bend the brain, it also has a far 
more worrying conclusion. 

A universe that contains enough 
mass to give it a positive curvature is 
doomed to a fiery end. It will gradually 
stop expanding and begin to shrink, 
ultimately imploding in a cataclysmic 
big crunch. A universe, with zero 
curvature, a flat universe, escapes this 
demise. Conditions in the young 
believed to have been rather like being 
rather like being inside the sun. 
Super-hot protons and electrons were 
densely packed, too excited to form 
any stable structures. Radiation was 
trapped, endlessly bouncing around, 
in this seething sea of particles. As this 



proto universe grew, it gradually 
cooled. When it was about 3,00,000 
years old, things finally settled down 
enough for atoms to form. 

The radiation that had been 
trapped finally escaped, an era known 
asdecoupling. Since then, it has been 
racing through the cosmos largely 
keeping itself t itself. Over billions of 
years, it too has cooled with the 
expanding universe and what must 
originally have been energetic ultra- 
violet rays now reach us as feeble 
microwaves at just a few degrees 
above absolute zero. Known as the 
Cosmic Microwave Background 
Radiation or CMB this radiation hold 
important clues about the early 
universe, Tiny differences in density of 
the baby universe caused tiny 
differences in the temperature of the 
escaping radiation. These density 
fluctuations have grown into the 
clusters of galaxies we see to day 

Because of the relative 
simplicity of the early universe, 
physicists believe they have a good 
understanding of its mechanisms. 
Armed with reliable measurements of 
the CMB they would be able to wind 
back the clock and calculate the state 
of the universe at decoupling and 
hence work out its density and 
curvature. Researchers finally got the 
date they needed just few months ago 
when an experiment known as 
Boomerang. 



14 



SPEED PRACTICE 

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The word virus is too familiar to 
us and everybody would like to avoid 
coming in contact with a virus. This is 
because viruses cause diseases not 
only in human beings but also in 
animals and plants. Virus is a Latin 
word meaning slimy liquid or poison. 
The list of diseases caused by viruses 
is a long one. Perhaps the most 
dreaded disease caused by viruses in 
human beings is Acquired Immune 
Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Some of 
the other diseases caused by viruses 
in human beings are infantile 
paralysis, dengue, hepatitis B, 
influenza, common cold herpes yellow 
fever and small pox. Viruses are 
parasites. They need a living cell host 
for reproduction. Some viruses in fact 
bacteria only and they are known as 
bacteria-eaters. 

The biological nature of virus was 
first indicated by a Russian scientist 
Dimitry. Ivanovsky and a Dutch 
scientist Martinus W.Beijedrinck in the 
last decade of the nineteenth century. 
All viruses contain nucleic acid either 
DNA or RNA and protein . it may be 
noted that living cells contain both RNA 
and DNA but a virus has only one of the 
two. Based on the type of nucleic acid 
that a virus contains, it is classified as 
DNAorRNAvirus. The size and shape 
of virus are determined by the amount 
and arrangement of nucleic acids and 
proteins. They vary in diameter from 
20 nanometres to 400 nanometres 



(one nanometer is one billionth of a 
metre). Viruses are too small to be 
seen with naked eyes. With a few 
exceptions they cannot be seen even 
with ordinary oroptical microscope. 

The vaccinia virus can be visualized 

under a powerful optical microscope. 

Viruses come in various shapesrods, 

threads, spheroids, polyhedrons and 

tadpole-like structure. Some viruses 

come in combined shapes, for 

example, a virus may have a 

polyhedral head attached to a rod-like 

tail. The infective part of a virus, when 

it is outside the host ell is called the 

virion. It contains atleast one protein 

synthesized by a specific gene of the 

nucleic acid of the virus. All viruses 

have a protein coat called a capsid 

around the nucleic acid. Some virus 

like disease causing organisms which 

have only nucleic acid and no 

structural proteins are known as 

viriods. It protects the nucleic acid of 

the virus from digestion by enzymes 

called necklaces. 

It help the virion to penetrate 

through the cell surface membrane or 

in some cases to inject the infectious 

nucleic acid into the interior of the host 

cell. It provided sites on its surface 

which recognize the receptors on the 

surface of the host cells for attaching 

the iron. Virus is host specific, that is. A 

virus may not harm one type of host but 

canseverelydamageanother. 



15 



SPEED PRACTICE 

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Land and Labour in modern 
economic parlance are the basic 
factors of creation on this planet. 
Between the two, labour is supreme, 
for it is he who makes conscious and 
deliberate efforts to unravel the laws 
and mysteries of land and makes use 
of them for his own development. 
Indeed, his own development is the be- 
all and end-all of his entire conscious 
effort. Looked at in this light, human 
development has been the objective of 
human Endeavour ever since Adam 
and Eve first appeared on this earth. 
Yes in the beginning, the thrust of 
human Endeavourwas in the direction 
of spiritual development, but now it is in 
the direction of material development. 

In the earlier years, it was 
primarily the responsibility of an 
individual to develop himself, but now 
it has become the responsibility of the 
State to arrange for all round 
development of human beings. This 
has put human beings in new light. The 
shift in emphasis from individual effort 
and spiritual development to State 
planning and material development 
has turned human into a factor of 
production an economic. Resource to 
be brought up developed and used for 
material development of the country as 
a whole. Population growth at an 
alarming rate comes in the way of 
these social objectives in a big way. 
Rapid growth of population, therefore, 
has rightly been cause of concern in 
jour country since the early fifty's. 



However, popular perception in this 
regard has undergone a sea change 
over the last couple of years. 

In early fiftys, socio-economic 
implications of population growth were 
a matter of concern largely in the 
context of the argument that rapid 
population growth is an obstacle to 
development. But now it is 
increasingly recognized that the 
relationship between population 
growth and development is not that 
simple it is rather much more complex. 
In 1994, it has been forcefully argued 
and accepted that rapid population 
growth itself is in many ways the result 
of a lack of development. In course of 
time many other dimensions have 
been added to this relationship which 
was once viewed to be unidirectional. 
After the ICPD Conference population 
issue is placed in a much large context 
of sustainable development. Over the 
years, the concept of development 
little has undergone a change. 

In the context of people- 
centered development, many 
dimensions like gender equity, 
women's empowerment, 
environmental degradation, uplift of 
the weaker sections and human 
resource development have assumed 
considerable significance. From this 
point of view, it is essential to look in to 
the implicationsof population. 



16 



SPEED PRACTICE 



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There are different forms of 
governments in the world like, 
monarchy, democracy and 
dictatorship. Every government 
should have a good administrative 
system or machinery to levy and 
collect taxes, maintain law and order, 
to administer justice and to implement 
various schemes, for effective 
administrative machinery was felt, in 
the ancient days also. There were 
excellent administrative set up even at 
the village level, in India in the ancient 
days. Similarly the Romans gad ab 
excellent administrative set up, 
similarly also the British, french and 
the Greeks. However the nature of 
recruitment and appointment to the 
various posts, were more on 
hereditary ;basis than on any other 
consideration, inthosedays 

The duties of the Governments in 
the ancient days were limited to the 
extent of providing security to the 
people, and defending the country 
from foreign invasion. A small and 
selected administrative machinery 
was sufficient in those days but the 
science and technology have changed 
the entire set up of the society. The 
living conditions of the people have 
improved considerably. The 
provisions of hospitals, educational 
institution, accommodation, highways 
and transport etc. Have became the 
primary duty of any modern 
government. As a result, the 
administrative machinery has not only 
to be geared up to meet the demand 
but also transformed to suit the 
modern conditions. 



The administrative machinery 
has therefore been divided into a 
number of departments like civil 
administration, police, education, 
health, engineering and judiciary etc. 
Inthepresentdays. Thequalifications 
have been prescribed for every one of 
the posts each department along with 
the procedure for recruitment and 
appointment to those posts. The 
service commissions recruiting 
boards have been constituted in all the 
countries, to recruit the persons, for 
the various posts in the different 
departments. They have been 
accorded status free from 
governmental interference and 
security of tenure to the members 
forming the board with a view to ensure 
that the recruitment is made 
impartially without fear or favour. 
These bodies conduct examinations, 
interviews and select the suitable 
candidates to the various posts 
grades. 

The modern administrative system 
has become much more important in 
these days of the decorative 
governments. The representatives 
elected by the people need not 
necessarily have neither 
administrative experience nor talent. 
The representative so elected , 
therefore have to depend mainly on 
the administrative machinery to 
discharge their duties, in their elected 
offices as ministers. 



17 



SPEED PRACTICE 



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Edward Janner was a doctor in 
England. He became world-famous 
through his vaccination for Small Pox. 
Janner was born on 1 7th of May, 1 749 
in Berkely at Glon Cestershire, 
England. His father was a clergy. 
Janner was sent to a local school for 
elementary education when he 
showed keener interest in the study of 
medicine. Studying for medicine in 
those days was an ordeal: one had to 
get one-self trained under an eminent 
surgeon. Later, he had to study in a 
medical college for a period of 2 years. 
In a small village called Sedbury, near 
Bristol, Janner underwent training in 
surgery under an able surgeon. At the 
age of 21, he went to St. George 
hospital in London, where he had to 
study further and work. After his 
graduation in medicine, Janner went 
back to his native home to practice 
medicine. 

During his training period a 
milkmaid approached her trainee 
surgeon to get herself treated for 
Cowpox. Cow Pox was a mild 
sickness common to prevail among 
mosfc of the milk-vendors. However 
Janner momentously thought of 
conducting investigations on Cow Pox. 
By this time, his training was getting 
over and Janner could take up the 
issue more vigorously. After many 
years of practice in his native home 
and occasional investigation into the 
cow pox that had afflicted his milk- 
maid. Janner trailed to achieve any 
type of success. He also started 
working on Small pox with the cases 
that had come to his clinic and at last it 



was possible for him "to succeed in 
getting it solved and treated. 

He published his work in 1796 
after having studied 27 cases. He 
noticed that in the people who had cow 
pox they did not contact small pox, 
after they were inoculated the fluids of 
cox pox. This led him to undertake a 
high risk of inoculating an eight year 
old Jimmy Phipps with cox pox virus 
which he extracted from the fingers of 
the milkmaid who had cow pox. The 
boy contacted cox pox. After seven 
weeks, he inoculated small pox virus 
into the same boy, which he extracted 
from the patient of small pox. But the 
boy did not now contact small pox. 
Now, he inoculated the same virus into 
another healthy person, he contacted 
small pox. The he proved beyond 
doubts that people suffering from cox 
pox would not contact small pox and 
they contacted cox poxfrom the cows. 

In those days, people believed that 
one a person had small pox and 
recovered from it is he would never get 
small pox again. This was for truth in 
most of the cases. In other wards, 
people and had believed that cox pox 
and small pox are two different 
infections while he proved that people 
will not be affected in case they are 
inoculated with the attenuated viruses 
of cox pox. 



18 



SPEED PRACTICE 



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Indian scientists deserve kudos for 
having developed an appropriate 
technology in order to meet the fuel 
requirements of the rural folk by 
recycling locally available organic 
resources. Rapid changes and 
modifications have taken place since 
1950 when the floating dome model 
with counter weights was developed 
by the Indian Agricultural Research 
Institute. It provides centre guide 
system for smooth movement of gas 
holder and supply of gas at constant 
pressure/ This applied technology 
was looked upon as only of academic 
interest of in the early forties but has 
turned out to be of immense 
importance since the last decade due 
to spiraling prizes of petroleum 
products, chemical fertilizers and 
othersources of energy. 

This technology gained importance 
also on account of the ever-rising 
demand for petroleum products which 
can only be met by enhanced imports 
leading to a further drain on our 
meagre foreign exchange resources. 
The recycling of indigenous resources 
has at least met a fraction of our 
demands and acted as a deterrent on 
this count. The gas plant is a boon to 
the Indian farmers. The two main 
products of the project from which 
material gains accrue are enriched 
compost manure and Methane gas 
made from local resources available in 
the villages. Whereas compost 



manure helps to meet the fertilizer 
requirements of the farmers in a more 
economical and efficient manner and 
thereby boost agricultural production, 
biogas is used for cooking and lighting 
purposes. It is also used in case of 
larger plants, as motive power for 
driving small engines. In fact the wide 
scale utilization of Gobar the most 
appropriate answer to solve three 
national inter-connected major 
problems with which the country is 
faced today food, fertilizer and fuel. 
The anaerobic decomposition of 
organic wastes leads to the production 
of methane, which can be readily used 
as an energy sources. The mixture of 
methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen 
and nitrogen produced in this manner 
is called biogas. The complex organic 
molecules present in the organise 
wastes are first broken down to 
simpler compounds such as acetate, 
hydrogen oxygen, etc. By the action of 
a number of different micro organisms. 

The simple compounds so 
produced are utilised by methogenic 
bacteria to produce methane. 
Methogenic bacteria can hydrogen 
and carbon dioxide for methane 
production. There are two major 
advantages of this type of energy 
source, which are the production of 
gasandtheresidual manure. 



19 



SPEED PRACTICE 

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Indian planning has shifted its 
emphasis from self-sufficiency in food- 
grains to rural development through 
agricultural development. Though it 
continues to be the traditional sector, 
progress has become rapid on the 
agricultural front. A continuous flow of 
technology is coming out of the 
research stations. To get the best out 
of it, information about its implication 
on decision behaviour and policy 
should be made available to the 
farmers without time lag. Policies and 
programmes in various sectors and 
levels and their justification depend for 
effectiveness on dependable 
knowledge. Operational research in 
agriculture an rural development must 
observe conditions which are 
changing rapidly due to technological 
break-through the data on these are 
not available from the existing 
sources. 

Information has to be updated 
frequently foe an effective information 
system for agricultural development. 
The centre for agricultural and rural 
development studies of the Tamil Nadu 
Agricultural university established a 
rural observatory in support of its 
developmental research with the 
specific objectives of carrying out the 
survey of resources, production, 
employment and organisational 
pattern. Tamil Nadu was divided into 

eight regions based on agro-economic 
Conditions. To have rural and urban 
contents, one municipality, one town 
panchayat and one village panchayat 
were selected in each of the above 



three regions. These centres formed 
the observation centres forthe study. 

The data were collected and village 
level information showed that 
irrespective of the size of the 
observation center, the distribution of 
population among male 

and female is almost; equal. The 
percentage of weaker section 
depends on the nature of the center. 
The prosperity of a region depends on 
industrial development also industrial 
were concentrated in the 
municipalities and not in rural areas. 
The availability of infrastructural 
facilities resulted in the location of 
industries in urban centres. The length 
of road and the number of vehicles 
operating is directly related to the 
degree of urbanisation. The bullock 
cart formed the major mode of 
transport in town and village 
panchayats. Regulated markets, co- 
operative marketing societies and 
even commission mandies are 
operating with urban base only. This 
shows the need for dispersal of 
purchase and sale centres to help the 
villagers. 

The detailed household survey 
showed that while more than forty 
percent of the houses were thatched 
ones about sixty percent were tiled 
houses. As the degree of urbanisation 
increased, the percentage of living in 
owned housesdecreased. 



20 



SPEED PRACTICE 

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The major objectives of 
nationalisation of commercial banks 
as set out by the prime minister may be 
summarised that removing the control 
over commercial banks by few large 
industrial houses. Providing adequate 
credit to the hitherto neglected sectors 
such as agriculture, small business, 
small scale and professional. To 
introduce professional management in 
commercial banking. To provide 
adequate training and reasonable 
service conditions for bank 
employees. The banks have really 
lived up to the expectations of 
parliament and the prime minister 

The commercial banks have 
become powerful institutions 
contributing for agricultural and rural 
developmental and also the upliftment 
of weaker sections of the rural 
community. Some of the significant 
achievements are rapid branch 
expansion expansion, of rural credit, 
strengthening of the co-operative 
sector and support to village and rural 
industries. The commercial banks in 
India had organised themselves along 
the lines and patterns of British banks. 
They are more comfortable with trade 
and large industrial houses than with 
the agriculture sector and small 
industries. A number of changes has 
taken place in mral areas after 
commencement of the planning era. 
The concept of rural developmental 
has nether been concise consistent. 



Gandhiji's ideas are different from 
those of jawaharlal Nehru and they are 
again different from the ideas of indira 
gandhi. 

These three dominant 
personalities, who played a significant 
role in the economic development of 
the country, have left their imprints. 
Tumultuous and far reaching changes 
have taken place after the 
nationalisation of commercial banks. 
Even before 1969, agriculture and 
allied activities were experiencing 
rapid growth under suggested five 
year plans. The national credit council 
pointed out a large credit gap in the 
rural economy. It has suggested 
measures to improve and monitor the 
flow of credit to the rural sector and 
also recommended a multi agency 
approach instead of depending on the 
co-operativecredit societies alone. 
While the banks priorto nationalisation 
were reluctant to enter rural areas and 
lend for rural acitvities in support of 
various governmental programmes. 

Even during the British rule, the 
Government had recognised the 
importance of agriculture and 
developed the co-operative 
organisations to take care of 
agricultural credit. At that point of time 
and perhaps up to 1975, rural 
development was seen merely as 
agricultural development. 



21 



SPEED PRACTICE 

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Classica dance in India adheres to a 
rigorous code, though some minor 
improvisations have been attempted 
and accepted in recent times. 
According to the Hindu mythology, 
when Lord Sive shook a hand drem, 
the world beatits first rhythm. And as 
he moved his body in tune with its beat, 
the universe came into being. The 
dancing Siva is known as Nataraja and 
all classical dancers invoke Nataraja 
as the symbol of cosmic energy. In 
India, the e\aesthetic theory is that 
dance, music and drama are 
inseparable, This principle was first 
enunciated in Bharatas treatise Natya 
Sastra, written in the 3rd century; 
B.C.Indian dance essentially tells a 
story poetically, with movements of 
hand mudras and foot and gesture of 
eye and row abhinaya, all this is 
supplemented and complemented by 
a set pattern of music. 

A characteristic feature of the 
classical dance is the intricate 
footwork, tala which is emphasized by 
the jingling of ankle-bells by thedancer 
as well as the rhythm maintained by the 
drummer. Therearefourmain schools 
of Indian traditional dance. By far the 
oldest of the classical styles is Bharata 
Natyam, which follows the ancient 
treatises more closely than any other 
style. With its roots in Tamilnadu, this 
dance, which has retained its purest 
form is usually performed solo and 
comprises movements of pure rhythm, 
reamatic rendering of a story or 
depiction of a mood Bharata Natyam 



was once part of therites of worship in 
temples and was performed by 

dancing girls attached to temple. 

Kathakali frkom kerela is a 
spectacular and powerful dance- 
drama, in which the artists don an 
elaborate make-up and enact tales 
from the epics. Kathak began as a 
religious performance and under 
Mughal Ipatronage in the 16th and 17th 
centuries evolved as a court-dance. 
The Manipuri style of Manipur in 
eastern India, revolves round the 
pranks of Krishna when he was young. 
Some of the other schools of Indian 
dance are the Kuchipudi of Andhra 
Pradesh, Odissii of Orissa, Mohini 
Attam of Kerala and the Yakshagana of 
Karnataka. For variety, colour and 
drichness of emotion, the Inian dance 
forms have pdractically no parallel in 
any other part of the world. In fact, 
Indian classical dances have traveled 
oout of the country to influehelp the art 
forms of neighbouring Sri Lanka, 
Indonesia, Thailand and even Japan 
andAmerica. 

India has also a variety of Tribal and 
Folk dances. To the tribals and village 
folk, dance seems to be the most 
natural medium of expression. 
Occasions like marriages. Births, 
festivals, fairs, harvests and hunts are 
all marked by dancing. The more 
popular of the folk dances are the 
Bhangra (Rajasthan), Ghumer and 
Gibba (Punjab), Garba (Gajarat), 
Kolattam (Tamilnadu and Karnataka) 
and Kaikottikali(Kerala). 



22 



SPEED PRACTICE 

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During the period 1895 1905, 
many path breaking discoveries were 
made which not only ushered in 
revolutions in several disciplines of 
science but also changed our very 
understanding of some of the 
prevailing concepts in science. The 
discovery of electron by Joseph John 
Thomson in 1897 was one such 
discovery. In fact, the discovery of 
electron is one of the greatest 
discoveries of modern physics. The 
electron was the first of fundamental 
constituents of all matter to be 
proposed and in the last hundred 
years. It has withstood all the tests of 
elementarily. 

The discovery of electron has 
not only revolutionized scientific 
thought but also our ways of life. Once 
electron was proposed as a 
fundamental constituent of matter, the 
scientists started building models of 
atomic structure. Atoms in their 
normal states are not electrically 
charged. So, as the electrons are 
negatively charged, it became obvious 
that the atoms also dairy a charge of 
positive electricity to counterbalance 
the negative charge. Gradually, the 
physicists built up an idea how these 
charges were arranged in an atom. 
Among these models, the Rutherford 
model had the most lasting influence. 
Rutherford discovered that the atom 
consisted of a heavy positively 



charged coresurroundedbyelectrons. 
The existence of proton was 
recognized in 1914. 

In 1931, neutron was 
discovered by James Chadwick and 
the number of elementary particles 
rose to three i.e. electron, proton and 
neutron. However, with the advent of 
particle accelerators, hundreds of so 
called elementary particles were 
discussed. To scientists, it was a real 
shock. They were not prepared to face 
so many elementary particles. From 
the very beginning of human 
civilization, the idea of fewer basic 
constituents of nature has fascinated 
man. To over come this complexity, a 
new model viz. quark model was 
proposed. According to this model, all 
the particles experiencing strong 
interactions are made of quarks was 
experimentally supported in 1969. 
Today the elementary particles and 
interaction between them are 
described the Standard Model. 

According to this model, 
elementary particles are classified as 
leptons i.e. these particles interact 
with electro magnetic and 
gravitational fields but beyond that 
they interact only through weak 
interactions, hadrons and gauge 
bosons. Le[tons and hadrons interact 
byexchanging gauge Bosons 



23 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees :- 



Many illnesses are caused by 
irregular meals or from the habit of 
eating whatever catches the fancy or 
happens to come in handy. Such 
"carelessness" results in decreased 
efficiency too. You are what you eat. 
Hence, eating good means on time is 
very important. Scientific meal 
planning is knot too difficult. It may 
appear complicated to a beginner 
when he or she is told that a complete 
and balanced diet is essential to meet 
the needs of the individual. The needs 
of a person depend on his or her age, 
sex, body size type, temperament, 
nature of work, the climate and the it 
ate of health of his or her mind and 
body. The term daily diet means all the 
food a person eaters during the day. 
Die ; may refer to either food ordinarily 
eaten orthat selected with reference to 
a particular state of health. A few 
simple rules combine all the 
requirements, and a little practice 
makes direct meal planning second 
nature. 

Nutritionists define good meals 
as those which supply nutrition to meet 
body needs, protect the body against 
disease and are enjoyable to eat. With 
the knowledge of nutrition, one can 
easily choose food to fulfill the first two 
requirements; yet how much one 
enjoys one's food depends on one's 
taste and attitude in eating. You can 
train yourself to enjoy all essential 
foods. It is not clearly understood why 

24 



some children seem to dislike certain 
foods. But experience shows that a 
persistent effort I overcoming most 
dislikes is rewarding. 

Researchers have discovered 
that the custom of three meals a day is 
based on convenience and not on 
biological needs. Tests show that 
blood sugar concentration and 
muscular efficiency are lowest before 
breakfast and remain at this level until 
a meal is taken. After eating, blood 
sugar rises sharply and efficiency 
increases but the two fall again to a low 
level within two-and-a-half to four 
hours unless another meal is taken. 
From these facts, it appears that a high 
level of energy can be maintained by 
eating every two and a half to three 
hours throughout the day. 
Experiments on factory workers have 
proved this to be true. Today, many 
factories, offices and schools have 
incorporated in their schedules a 
"nutrition" or "snack" period mid- 
forenoon and mid-afternoon, 

The bed time snack is a matter 
of individual preference. Top avoid 
interfering with sleep, it should either 
be omitted or be very light and contain 
lightfood such as milkorfruit. An over 
weight person and the elderly should 
avoid food before retiring. It is 
unfortunate that breakfast is so often 
slight. People who stay in bed. Late, 
rush with dressing and eat on the run. 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



Rene Descartes was born on 
March 31, 1596, in France. His father 
was a member of the nobility. He lost 
his mother a year after his birth. He 
was raised by his maternal 
grandmother and by a nurse to whom 
he was devoted. In 1606, he entered a 
Jesuit College that was established 
for the education of the young nobility 
and completed in 1614 the eight-year 
course of studies. His studies left him 
with a felling of dissatisfaction at the 
extent of his own ignorance. But he left 
behind a mark of extreme brilliance. 
He spent the period from 1 61 8 to 1 626, 
divided between participation in many 
campaigns of the Thirty Years War in 
D8tch. He never married. He was 
doing military service without salary, 
Descartes spent most of his time in the 
study of mathematics. By the age of 
22, he began to develop his analytical 
geometry underthe title 'La Geometric' 
by which the mathematicians still 
affectionately referto it. 

It set forth the idea that a pair of 
numbers can determine a apposition 
on a surface; one number x as a 
distance measured horizontally, the 
other y as a distance measured 
vertically. In the concept of co- 
ordinates, he gave a method 



commented to be 'the greatest single 
step ever made in the progress of exact 
sciences'. He started, in 1619, work 
on his magnum opus Discourse on the 
method of Rightly Conducting the 
Reason, which stamped him 
immediately as one of the great 
thinkers of his age. He postulated his 
notion of the unity of all science which 
was a revolutionary concept which 
contradicted the notion of Aristotle. 

The book contained three minor 
appendices on the behaviourof lenses 
meteors and geometry. A 106 page 
foot note outlined analytical geometry, 
which he did it is an endless wavy line, 
the exact graphic equivalent of the 
pulsating ebb and flow of electric 
current in a power cable, which has 
practical application in electrical 
engineering. 

Descartes showed, for 
instance, that all quadratic equations, 
when graphed as connected points, 
becomestraightlines, circles, ellipses, 
parabolas or hyperbolas. Going 
beyond the quadratic, he established 
that each class of equations of higher 
degree brings into being a whole new 
tribe figure of eight, hearts, hummocks 
and petal shapes. 



25 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



Science affects the average man 
and woman in two ways already. He or 
she benefits by its applications, driving 
a motor car or omnibus instead of a 
horse-drawn vehicle, being treated for 
disease by a doctor or surgeon rather 
than a priestora witch, and being killed 
with an automatic pistol or shell in 
place of a dagger or a battle-awe. It 
also affects his or her opinion. Almost 
everyone believes that the earth is 
round and the heavens nearly empty 
instead of solid. And we are beginning 
to believe in our animal ancestry and 
the possibility of vast improvements in 
human nature by biological methods. 
But science can do something far 
bigger for the human mind than the 
substitution of one set of beliefs for 
another, of inculcation of skepticism 
regarding accepted opinions. It was 
gradually spread among humanity asa 
whole the point of view that prevails 
among research workers and has 
enabled a few thousand men and a 
few dozen women to create the 
science on which modern civilization 
rests. 

For if we are to control our own 
and one another's actions as we are 
learning to control nature, the scientific 
point of view must come out of the 
laboratory and be applied to the events 
of daily life. It is foolish to think that the 
outlook which has already 
revolutionized industry, agriculture, 
war and medicine will prove useless 
when applied to the family, the nation 
or the human race. Unfortunately, the 



growing realization of this fact is 

opening the door to in numerable false 
prophets who are advertising theirown 

pet theories in sociology as scientific 

Science is continually telling us 
through their mouths that we are 
doomed unless we give up smocking, 
adopt or abolish birth control and so 
forth. Now it is not my object to support 
any scientific theory, but merely the 
scientific standpoint. What are the 
characteristics of that standpoint? In 
the first place, it attempts to be truthful 
and therefore impartial. And it carries 
impartiality a great deal further than 
does the legal point of view. A good 
scientist will be impartial between Mr. 
Smith a tapeworm and the solar 
system. He will leave behind him his 
natural revulsion of the tapeworm, 
which would lead him to throw it away 
instead of studying it as carefully as a 
statue or a symphony and his awe for 
the solar system, which led his 
predecessors either to worship its 
constituents or at least to regard them 
as inscrutable servants of the 
Almighty, to exalted for human 
comprehension. 

Such an attitude leads the 
scientist to a curious mixture of pride 
and humility. The solar system turns 
out to be a group of bodies rather small 
in comparison with many of their 
neighbors and executing the 
movements according to simple and 
easily intelligible laws. 



26 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees: 



The brain is the essential organ 
of mind. As the chief focus of the 
nervous system the brain, with its vast 
number of cells closely inter-linked, is 
related to all the tissues and organs of 
the body by means of nerves. The 
reception by the brain cells of 
messages from the various sense 
organs arouses what is called 
sensation and consciousness, which 
from a physiological point of view, is 
simply awareness of sensation. All 
mind functioning is therefore primarily 
dependent on efficient sense organs 
and healthy nerves to transmit 
impulses when these sense organs 
arestimulated. 

In turn, consciousness depends 
upon the integrity of the brain cells 
and should these cells be injured, as in 
concussion from a blow or damaged by 
the poisons of alcohol ordisease, then 
consciousness may be reduced or 
completely suspended. All forms of 
mental activity use up energy in then 
ever cells and this need is met with by 
an increased flow of blood containing 
nutriment to the brain triples between 
birth and adulthood- reaching a final 
weight of about 1 kilogram fro men and 
1.3 kilogram for women. By the age of 
50 though, it shrinks slightly, losing 
about 30 grams. There is no 
correlation between brain size and 
intelligence. A man's brain is usually 
slightly larger than a women's but in 
both sexes the brain makes up a 



similar proportion of total body weight. 
Two writers hold opposite records for 
brain size. The writers hold opposite 
records for brain size. The brain of the 
Russian author Ivan Turgenev 
weighed 2.012 kilogram. 

The brain of the French writer 
Anatole France (1844-1924) weighed 
little more than half that figure, 1 .017 
kilogram. The grain is divided into two 
hemispheres, each a mirror image of 
the other. The right hemisphere 
controls the muscles of are receives 
information from the left half of body. 
The left hemisphere monitors are 
controls the right half of the body. In 
right handed people, the majority, the 
left side the brain is concerned with 
such skills reading, writing and talking. 
The right hemisphere deals with 
artistic activity and the workings of the 
imagination. In left handed people the 
functions the two hemispheres many 
be reversed. The average brain 
contains about ten thousand million 
neurons-microscopic nerve cells. 

Each cell has a slender 
projection call an axon which links if to 
other parts of the central nervous 
system. Some axons stretch the 
length of the spinal cord making them 
more than a meter (23.3 ft) long and 
the longest cells in the body. Each 
neuron is also linked to neighboring 
neurons by upto 50,000 connections 
knows as dendrites. 



27 



SPEED PRACTICE 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees: 



A morning walk is the best 
exercise which can keep all of us fit 
fresh for the whole day. This is an 
exercise which is suitable for all 
sections of society whether young or 
old. A walk in the morning time 
refreshes the mind and body and 
improves the health. Of course, it is a 
light exercise and highly beneficial for 
physical and mental fitness. The lungs 
are provided with fresh air which is 
very essential for the body. It is for this 
reason that the doctors always 
recommend the patients for having 
morning walk. Many great men like 
Gandhiji have succeed stressed its 
importance. Gandhiji himself also 
used to go out for a morning walk every 
daywithoutfail. 

There is no doubt that it is not very 
easy for some persons to get up early 
in the morning, particularly in the 
winter season. But, for those who 
have formed and cultivated a regular 
habit of rising early, a walk in the 
morning is a must. If they miss it even 
for one day, they feel very lazy and 
miss something for the whole of the 
day later on. Generally in small 
towns, people go out of for a walk in the 
fields which are quite near. In certain 
towns where there are canals, people 
en enjoy their walking along their 
banks. On the other hand, in big cities 



like Bombay and Calcutta people 
cannot have the opportunity to go into 
the fields for a walk every day. They 
can either have it on the roads in the 
early morning or they can go to the 
public parks where they can enjoy 
fresh air. Thus a morning walk is 
different in a small town and a big city. 
But, on the other hand, walking in the 
morning is a must for all the city 
dwellers. This is the only time when 
they can hope to breathe in fresh air. 

While walking through the fields in 
small towns early in the morning. One 
can Enjoy the beautiful scenery of 
nature. A cool breeze is blowing at this 
time and one feels very pleasant. The 
birds which rise early in the morning 
are chirping in the business and on the 
branches of the trees. Some farmers 
are also ploughing the fields while 
others are busy reaping the standing 
crops. In the villages side one can also 
see the working of the persian wheels 
for drawing water out of the wells. In 
the cities where the people generally 
go to the public parks for a walk, one 
can see many old men, walking or 
doing light exercises. We can many 
also find some persons doing yogic 
exercises on the green grass. 



28 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



Business is part of society. In fact, it 
exists only at the sufferance of society. 
No business can exist without its 
corresponding customer. Therefore, 
the primary duty of business is to 
satisfy the desires and aspirations of 
society. Retailers are part of any 
business and even the most 
uneducated among them will realize 
that in their own interests, they have to 
safeguard the interests of the 
consumer. They are primarily 
engaged in selling goods and services 
to the ultimate customers or 
consumers. So, they are of utmost 
importance in the distribution of 
consumer goods. Let us briefly 
analyse what is meant by retailing. It is 
an important and final act from which it 
derives social significance. It 
contributes to the fulfillment of the 
marketing process in which the various 
functions of the seller are 
accomplished. It is final marketing 
process which is an integral part of the 
productive process in the sense that it 
adds value to the goods supplied or 
services rendered through creation of 
time, placeand possession utilizes. 

No doubt, a retailer is an 
intermediary. Nevertheless in the 
scheme of things, he is very necessary 
as he serves a vital purpose as the last 



link in the distribution channel whose 
services cannot be ignored or 
undermined, especially in the fast- 
moving business world of to-day. 
Whether a producer of manufacture 
produces it is the ultimate customer 
who has to consume it. It is here the 
retailer plays a vital and important role 
by creating and also stimulating a 
demand for the goods manufactured 
by the producers. He has thus a key 
roletoplayin marketingthegoods. 

It is the job of retailerto be always in 
touch with the consumer, assess his 
requirements, find out his choice for 
particular goods and procure them 
from the respective manufactures and 
supply them to him at competitive 
prices. He is acting as a purchasing 
agent oftheconsumerand atthesame 
time the selling agent of the producer. 
He can best co-ordinate the product 
development and product 
consumption. He is called upon to 
match the requirements and aspiration 
of the consumer to the ability of the 
producer to meet those aspirations. It 
is un uphill task. But, a resourceful 
retailer will be able to stock a wide 
range of goods and meet the demands 
of the consumer from time to time. 



29 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



A strong foundation exist in the 
State both by way of manpower and 
infrastructure for launching a concentrate 
effort for accelerated economic growth. 
Government of India is planning to create a 
favourable investment climate and the 
State government propose to take full 
advantage of this to reap the maximum 
benefits for the State. Economic growth 
has also to be balanced with justice in 
providing avenues for the percolation of 
these benefits of the common man. One of 
the major problems in the State is large 
scale unemployment and the industrial 
policy of the State has to consider a 
balanced development not only in high 
technology sectors or in large scale and 
medium industries but also in the 
traditionally high employment oriented 
areas like handlooms, cottage and village 
industries and small scale sector, both 
organized and unorganized. Over 
contribution to the State and this sector 
would also require support and 
strengthening. With these objectives in 
view certain measures are proposed to be 
introduced from the current year. 

The major incentives provided by the 
State, in addition to infrastructure support, 
to large and medium industries have been 



capital subsides and Interest free sales tax 
loans. It is proposed to streamline these 
incentive packages in such a way as to 
direct their focus to backward areas and 
also to specific categories of industries 
which need to be attracted to the State. The 
power sector has already been provided 
high priority in our plan programmes and 
the endeavour of the state would be to 
overcome the deficit in power by the end of 
the Seventh Plan. The government are 
also considering power generation to be 
taken up through independent 
corporations in collaboration with private 
sector, with external aid or commercial 
credit so that the process of augmenting 
generation capacity can be speeded up . 

The textile policy which has been 
announced does not provide adequate 
support of the handloom sector. It is very 
essential not only to modernize the sector 
but also to provide suitable incentives and 
financial inputs in order to increase their 
marketing competence so that increased 
output can be sustained and the large 
employment provided by such output is 
not affected. Unlike the Central 
government, the States lack advantage of 
directly tapping resources like internal 
assistance or domestic borrowing. 



30 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



The Central Government has on July 24, 
1991 announced in the Parliament an open 
and liberalized industrial policy lifting all 
forms of controls, abolishing MRTP limit 
and compulsory licensing, allowing direct 
foreign investment up to 5 1 per cent equity 
and fresh look at public sector, barring 
eight core areas. The 1991 industrial 
policy tabled in Parliament unshackles the 
Indian industry from unnecessary 
administration and legal controls and 
complements series of measures taken by 
the new Congress Government in trade 
policy, exchange rate, and overall macro- 
economic and fiscal management. In a 
dramatic move, the Government has 
abolished industrial licensing for all 
projects excepting for eighteen industries 
related to security, strategic and other 
considerations. 



of to attract NRI and other foreign 
investments, the Governments has thrown 
open thirty four areas including 
metallurgy, food processing, hotel and 
tourism industries. Now onwards, 
approval would be given for direct 
investment up to fifty one per cent equity 
in high priority industries. This change in 
expressed to go a long way in making 
Indian policy on foreign investment 
attractive. 

The policy stipulates that dividends to 
be expatriated; by companies with foreign 
equity will have to be met through export 
earnings over a period of time. Foreign 
equity proposals need not necessarily be 
accompanied by foreign technology 
agreements. 



The policy is demanded by the Indian 
industry sought to amend the MRTP Act to 
remove the threshold limit of assets of 
Rupees one hundred crore in MRTP 
companies and dominant undertakings. 
The amendment would eliminate the need 
for prior approval of Central Government 
for establishment of new undertakings, 
expansion, merger, amalgamation, take- 
over and appointment of directors. In a bid 



The policy says that there shall be no 
bottlenecks of any kind in clearance of 
proposals for foreign equity participation. 
The companies with foreign equity up to 
fifty one per cent will be encouraged to act 
as trading houses, primarily engaged in 
export activities. This will generate 
greater passage of Indian goods to export 
Markets. 



31 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees: 



The proper and timely implementation 
of plans has great importance in the 
planning process. It is facilitated, if the 
necessary individual are taken at the stage 
of formulation itself. The investments in 
the plans is devoted to large individual 
investment projects and development 
programmes and schemes. There are a 
number of steps common to both these 
areas. In addition, for each of the two 
broad areas, there are specific tasks to be 
undertaken for ensuring effective 
implementation. For example, pre 
investment planning should be carefully 
undertaken before taking up large 
individual projects. This involves an 
analysis of resources potential which 
should be followed by feasibility studies 
covering aspects such as cost estimates, 
profitability and assessment of national 
economic benefits. The projects could 
then be selected on the basis of technical 
and economic criteria. 



After the project formulation stage, 
attention has to be paid to efficiency and 
economy in the construction of projects. 
Apart from the use of improved techniques 
of planning steps must be taken to improve 
the systems of reporting on progress and 
short-comings in implementation. There 
should be a better co-ordination of the 



efforts of the different agencies engaged in 
construction work to ensure the 
completion of the projects according to 
schedules. During the operation stage also 
efforts are required for education of costs 
and improvement of efficiency and 
productivity. The plan is concerned not 
only with creation of new production 
facilities but also with getting maximum 
results from existing facilities. 
Application of improved managing 
systems can go a long way in yielding 
better results in this regard. 

Continuous appraisal of progress is of 
vital importance for ensuring 
implementation. Suitable information 
and reporting systems and will have to be 
devised so that those responsible for that 
implementation can anticipate difficult 
and short comings and take appropriate 
corrective measures then and there. 
Efforts should also be taken at this stage to 
reduce costs and also to ensure optimum 
utilization of scarce materials at the 
national level and also avoid their wastage. 
Each year every large project should 
undertake forward planning both in 
physical and financial terms for a further 
period of five years. 



32 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



Discipline is a comprehensive 
term. It may refer to the mental and 
moraltraining oftheyoung. Itmayalso 
refer to the body of rules, the 
observance of which is very necessary 
to attain the objectives of a group. 
Viewed from the point of view of the 
individual it consists of a set of rules 
written or unwritten which must be 
obeyed. Viewed from the point of 
authority controlling a group, it is a 
system y which the mass at the bottom 
is made to behave in the way wanted by 
the authority. The average man goes 
through almost from the cradle to the 
grave. His life is shaped into a mould 
by the parents, the school, the religion, 
elders and superiors. It is exercised in 
various ways by ethical laws, legal 
codes and customs. 



Theforemost value of discipline is, it 
conditions the raw man and fits him to 
be a useful member of the society. The 
various rules and regulations are 
evolved out of past experience by 
others and a man going though them is 
saved all the trouble by following the 
course appointed for him. The training 
beings from his childhood and by the 
time he becomes a mature youth he 
has gone through a safe road. It is not 
something impossible for a man to 
observe, and often carries the grace of 
appreciation and even prizes. 
Thusforinstance, the child observing it 



is liked by parents and teachers. In 
fact in any walk of life, the observance 
of it is enjoined by law, social customs, 
religion or education or be it just a 
behaivour of what is expected of him, 
has a direct value. Such a value may 
mean marks forthe child, a higher rank 
for the army man, or higher order for 
the man of religion a promotion for the 
ma n in an office success for the 
professional man and definite profit of 
forthe business man. 

The subjective value of discipline to 
the individual is not of less value either. 
Man is subject to a good manyfailings. 
Great man are characterized by their 
self-control and sense of duty which 
was all acquired only through a life of it. 
Hence to be pure and to be strong in 
heart ultimately the man must be 
thought a course of discipline. 
Discipline rules are the result of a 
number of factors. When a boy joins 
his school, or a young man nhis 
regiment, the new recruit is faced with 
a curriculum a drill to which the he must 
outwardly conform whether he likes it 
or not. Only the authority has a clear 
idea of the meaning and value of the 
whole set of arrangements. 



33 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



The travel and tourism industry is a 
service industry with employment 
opportunities in both the public and 
private sectors and its scope is 
worldwide rather than provincial. 
Today, tourism is the worlds fastest 
growing industry. This industry 
provides both monetary gains and 
social benefits. It is probably the rare 
instance of an industry earning foreign 
exchange without exporting national 
wealth. The development and 
promoting of tourism in all its aspects is 
a highly competitive field and also an 
extremely challenging pursuit. 

Tourists can be a capricious lot, so 
their demands are ever changing and 
they are always on the lookout for 
something new, different and unique. 
Tourism is a field where there is no 
ultimate strategy or foolproof formula 
for excellence. You must by young, full 
of enthusiasm, like people, love your 
country, have interest and experience 
of traveling be proud of your heritage 
and should like people from your own 
country and abroad to discover and 
understand the fascinating aspects of 
India. You should have the ability to 
handle people, organize them, deal 
with them and communicate with them. 
Once you are sure that you would like 
to make a career for yourself in this 
industry, you should be aware of the 
areas of productive employment, the 



organization in this sector and the 
courses or subjects which would 
qualify you for a job in this fast growing 
industry. 

The work opportunities in the 
Department of Tourism at the Union 
and State levels range wide with 
openings for those with just basic 
degrees as also for those who have 
professional qualification. The 
Tourism Department and Directorates 
at the state and union level have the 
responsibility of promoting and 
publicizing travel and tourism within 
the country, especially the tourism 
spots in that state, for the domestic 
tourists whowishtodiscovertheirown 
country. There are openings for 
information Assistants at the office 
counters of the Tourism department 
where you have to supply answer to 
queries of tourists, help them to plan 
their itinerary in India. You could also 
be at the Welcome to India desk of the 
Government of India Tourist 
Information Offices at the international 
and domestic airports. 

Here your job would be to greet 
tourists on arrival and help them sort 
out their arrangements, solve there 
problems, guide them on where to go, 
how to reach there, what to do and so 
on. 



34 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



Leprosy occupies a special 
position among communicable diseases 
because of the long duration of the disease, 
the frequency of disabilities and the social 
and economic consequences it engenders. 
From an economic point of view, leprosy's 
primarily a disease of the nerves. Although 
the modem medical technology has 
succeeded in changing the disease coursed 
of leprosy patient, he is still not assured of 
freedom from deformity and disability. 
The physical deformity in leprosy which is 
permanent and often progressive, results 
in both reduced employment opportunities 
for the patients and economic loss to the 
family. The consequences of these are 
much more pronounced due to the added 
effects of social stigma attached to the 
disease . Leprosy is considered to be the 
major cause of blindness in the South East 
Asia Region. 

Through the increasingly 
widespread distribution of Multidurg 
Therapy land its effectiveness, the 
prevalence of leprosy, as measured by 
numbers of registered cases has been 
reduced from 5.4 million cases in 1 994 the 
reduction in prevalence of registered 
casers to one per ten thousand people in 
each endemic country by the year 2000 AD 
The largest total number of untreated 
registered cases are to be found in India 
and Brazil. 



estimated actual number of cases. This 
number of undetected cases is believed to 
be the highest in India and Bangladesh. Of 
all the diseases known to India, leprosy has 
the longest history and greatest number of 
victims who are deprived of human dignity 
and love. The exact number of victims 
living in the country is unknown. 
According to world health organization 
statistics, India accounts for nearly 50% of 
the total number of leprosy cases in the 
world. While this is so in India, the State of 
Tamil Nadu is known for the highest 
endemicity. Numbers alone do not 
adequately describe the problems posed 
by the disease Millions of leprosy patients 
in India are living in sorrowful conditions 
and are struggling through out their lives 
against deformities, disfigurement and 
disabilities. The deformed leprosy 
patients are living an isolated miserable 
life. 

They are hated because of their 
physical ugly appearance. In India, a great 
majority of leprosy patients arte living in 
remote villages where the chances success 
to appropriate medical care in leprosy are 
limited. Though majority of the patients 
and their relatives are aware of the 
availability of appropriate medical care. 
They are not prepared to utilize it because 
of the social stigma. 



There is always a gap between the 
number of registered cases and the 



35 



SPEED PRACTICE 

Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



For if we are to control our own 

and one another's actions as we are 

learning to control nature, the scientific 

point of view must come out of the 

laboratory and be applied to the events 

of daily life. It is foolish to think that the 

outlook which has already 

revolutionized industry, agriculture, 

war and medicine will prove useless 

when applied to the family, the nation 

or the human race. Unfortunately, the 

growing realization of this fact is 

opening the door to innumerable false 
prophets who are advertising their own 

pet theories in sociology as scientific 

Science is continually telling us 
through their mouths that we are 
doomed unless we give up smocking, 
adopt or abolish birth control and so 
forth . Now it is not my object to support 
any scientific theory, but merely the 
scientific standpoint. What are the 
characteristics of that standpoint? In 
the first place, it attempts to be truthful 
and therefore impartial. And it carries 
impartiality a great deal further than 
does the legal point of view. A good 
scientist will be impartial between Mr. 
Smith a tapeworm and the solar 
system. He will leave behind him his 
natural revulsion of the tapeworm, 
which would lead him to throw it away 
instead of studying it as carefully as a 
statue or a symphony and his awe for 



the solar system, which led his 
predecessors either to worship its 
constituents or at least to regard them 
as inscrutable servants of the 
Almighty, to exalted for human 
comprehension. 

Such an attitude leads the 
scientist to a curious mixture of pride 
and humility. The solar system turns 
out to be a group of bodies rather small 
in comparison with many of their 
neighbors and executing the 
movements according to simple and 
easily intelligible laws. 

After the project formulation 
stage, attention has to be paid to 
efficiency and economy in the 
construction of projects. Apart from 
the use of improved techniques of 
planning steps must be taken to 
improve the systems of reporting on 
progress and short-comings in 
implementation. There should be a 
better co-ordination of the efforts of the 
different agencies engaged in 
construction work to ensure the 
completion of the projects according to 
schedules. During the operation 
stage also efforts are required for 
education of costs and improvement of 
efficiency and productivity. The plan is 
concerned not only with creation of 
new production facilities but also with 
getting maximum results from existing 



36 



37 

PART : B 

SHORT NOTES ON SUBJECT TOPICS 

1. STATISTICAL MATTER: A Tabular Statement giving particulars of certain 
things or achievement, the particulars generally occupying the first column and 
the figures occurring the other columns 

2. (a) INLAND INVOICE: A document giving full details of the price, quality, size 
and quantity of goods sold within a country. 

(b) DEBIT NOTE: A Debit note is a statement sent by the seller to the buyer when 
and undercharge is rectified or when goods sold have not been noted in the 
invoice. 

(c) CREDIT NOTE: ACredit note is a statement sent by the buyer when a portion 
of the goods is returned by the buyer as damaged, etc., orwhen an overcharge 
is corrected. 

(d) ACCOUNT SALES: A statement rendered by an agent to his principal after 
effecting the sales showing the amount realized and the net amount after 
deducting the commission and the expenses connected with the sale 

3. (a) APPLICATION: A requisition by a person seeking a job or asking for a 
benefit such as scholarship, permit, etc. , 

(b) BUSINESS LETTER: A letter from a firm or a company to its customer or to 
another business house. 

(c) PROFESSIONAL LETTER: A letter written by a professional like Engineer, 
Doctor, Lawyer, etc. and in some cases, a businessman. 

(d) OFFICIAL LETTER: (One authority to Another authority): A letter from a 
Government or quasi-Government office to another Government or quasi- 
Government Office orfirmorto an individual. 

4. GOVERNMENTORDER: An Order issued by the Government underthe powers 

delegated by the Governor 

37 



PART - B 

ABBREVIATIONS 



A/C : 


Account 


B.P. : 


Bills Payable 


Authd. : 


Authorised 


BR. : 


Bills Receivable 


Addns. : 


Additions 


Bal. fr.d : 


Balance from 


Accd. 


Accrued 


Br. Govt. : 


British Government 


Acctt. : 


Accountant 


B/f. : 


Brought forward 


Arnt. : 


Amount 


B/d. : 


Brought down 


Addl. : 


Additional 


Bk. of Eng. 


Bank of England 


Annl : 


Annual 


Bindg. : 


Binding 


Accrdg. : 


According 


Bus. : 


Business 


At F.D. : 


At Fixed Deposit 


C.A. : 


Chief Accountant 


Advt. : 


Advertisement 




Chartered Accountant 


App. A/C 


Appropriation 


Cap. 


Capital 




Account 


Curr, 


Current 


Accdg. 


According 


Commn. 


Commission 


Addl. 


Additional 


Chartd. 


Chartered 


Adjt. 


Adjustment 


Constn. 


Construction 


A.G. 


: Accountant General 


Cum. 


. Cummulative 


Alice. 


: Allowance 


C/f. 


: Carried forward 


Agst. 


: Against 


C/d. 


: Carried down 


A.O. 


: Accounts Officer 


Cash at C.A. 


: Cash at Current 


Appln. 


: Application 




Account 


Assn. 


: Association. 


CashatS.B.A/c 


: Cash at Savings 


Asst. 


: Assistant 




Bank Account 


Ann. 


: Attention 


C.S. 


: ■ ChiefSuperintendent 


Bd. 


: Board 




Chief Secretary 


Bk. 


; Book, Bank, Block 


C/o. 


: Carried over 


B/s. 


: Balance Sheet 


C.C. Bk, 


: Co-operative 


Bal. or Bee. 


: Balance 




Central Bank 


Bldgs. 


Buildings 


Contgcy. 


: Contingency 


Depn. 


: Depreciation 


Ind. Bk. 


: Indian Bank 


Dis. 


: Discount 


Ins. 


; Insurance 


Dev. 


: Development 


Instn. 


: Institution 


Dedn. 


: Deduction 


Ind. 


: India or Indian 


Deb. 


: Debenture 


Int. Div. 


: Interim Dividend 


Div. 


Divident 


Infm. 


Information 



38 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Dr. : 


Debtor or Director 


Liby. : 


Library 


Dn. : 


Division of Down 


Lia. or Liaby. : 


Liability 


Disconcn. : 


Disconnection 


Mg. of Mang. : 


Managing 


Dec en. : 


Decision 


Misc. : 


Miscellaneous 


Dept. : 


Department. 


Maintce. _. : 


Maintenance 


Dy. : 


Deputy 


MD. : 


Managing Director 


D/s. : 


Dear Sir (s) 


N.P. " : 


Net Profit 


Expr. : 


Expenditure 


N.L. : 


Net Loss 


Endts. : 


Endorsements 


Natl. Sav. : 


National Savings 


Engr. : 


Engineer 


Nom. Cap, 


Nominal Capital 


Edl. : 


Educational 


Notfn. : 


Notification 


E.g. : 


Example 


O.D. : 


Overdraft 


Estd. : 


Established 


Obtng. : 


Obtaining 


Expln. : 


Explanation 


Obsvn. : 


Observation 


Exps. : 


Expenses 


Orgn. : 


Organisation 


Excdg. 


Exceeding 


Objn. 


Objection 


•Eqty. 


Equity 


P&L. 


Profit and Loss 


Fd. Dep. 


Fixed Deposit 


Prtng. 


Pringint 


F/fly 


Faithfully 


Premm. 


Premium 


Follg. 


Following 


Provdnt. Fd. 


Provident Fund 


G.P. 


Gross Profit 


P.P. 


. Provident Fund 


G.L. 


: Gross Loss 


Provns. 


: Provisions 


Gl. 


: General 


Pendg. 


: Pending 


Govt. 


: Government 


Prely. 


: Preliminary 


Govr. 


Governor 


Possn. 


: Possession 


H.O. 


: Head Office 


P.O. 


: Postal Order 


H.M. 


: Head Master 


P.T.O. 


: Please Turn Over 


H.Q. 


: Head Quarters 


Publn. 


: Publication 


H.R.A. 


: HouseRentAllowences 


Ptn. 


: Printing 


Q!n. 


: Qualification 


Subscrbd. 


: Subscribed 


Qtn. 


: Quotation 


Socy. 


: Society 


Qty. 


: Quantity 


Sectt. 


: Secretariat 


Qn. 


: Question 


Suggn. 


: Suggestion 


Regr. 


: Registrar; Register 


Supt. /Supdt. 


: Superintendent 


Res. 


: Reserve 


Subsdry. 


: Subsidiary 


Regd. 


: Registered 


Transfd. 


: Transferred 



39 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Reqd. 


Required 


Tradg. 


Trading 


Red.X 


Red Cross 


T/w 


Typewriter 


Remn. 


Remuneration 


Tech. 


Technical 


Regn. 


Registration 


Tempy. 


Temporary 


Rly. 


Railway 


U.C. " 


Upper case 


Stt. 


Statement 


Unexpd. 


Unexpected 


S.Crs. 


Sundry Creditors 


Underwrtg. 


Underwriting 


S.Drs. 


Sundry Debtors 


w.e.f. 


with effect from 


Sty. 


Stationary 


w.r.t 


with reference to 


Subscripn. 


Subscription 


W.k. 


Week / Work 


Spl/ spe 


Special 


W.h. 


Which 


Secy. 


Secretary 








PROOF CORRECTION SYMBOLS 


UC 


Upper Case 


Run on -*-^ 


Proceed without break 


Lc 


Lower Case 


CT" 




Cap. 


Capital 


# 


Leave space 


Caps. 


Capitals 


(2> 


Joint together 


All Caps. 


All Capitals 






N.P. 


Next Para New Paras 


/ 


Interest 


F.P. 


Fresh Para 






P.// [ 


Parts 


Rom. fig 


Roman Figure (ii) 





Circle 


In wrds(Words) 


In Figures (2) 


Oces. 


Circumstances 


Letter or word 


In Words (Five) 


Ote. 


Circulate 


Underlined 


Use capital as 


Trs. (Trans) 


Transpose 


Twice Italics 


the case may be. 


\ 


(Change) 






stet 


Let it stand 


Single 


All Capitals with underline 


01 


Delete 


Quotation 


Foot (5') 




(Omit it) 




apostrophe (Ram's) 


Madurai 


Initial capital 




Omission of a letter (I'll) 


•> • 


Therefore 


Double 


Inch (5'6") 


• 


Because 


Quotation 


Ditto (") 


/ 


The 







PUNCTURATION FOR FIGURES: 



9,34,53,050.90 

93,453,050,90 

9,345,30,50.90 

9,345,30,50.90 

9,34,530,50.90 



Ordinary 

Millions , (Population, Tonnes) 

Hundreds 

Thousands 

Lakhs 



40 



PROOF CORRECTION METHODS 



Method of directing correction 
(Symbols and/or abbreviations) 


Explanation 
/Expansion 


Solution 


Raw?^(/£ 


^ 


Apostrophe 


Rama's 


SO. 


/4*At^ 


Arabic numerals 


12 


CtvkCt* 


C&.p 


Capital Letter 


India 


Sf)Ma 


Caf* 


Capital Letters 


INDIA 


^ftA^n fcoinoTOL! 


an c«p* 


All Cap. Letters 


INDIANECONOMY 


Cn tXc^ l£a h 


^ fe»fc 


Caret Mark 


in the book leaf 


ttiQnnpst- 


— \ 


Close up 


inmost 


frW 1 


&i cT & 


Delete 


fulfil 


5U 


/© 


Fullstop 


St. (Saint) 


As 3 QOt 


jG) 


Comma 


As I go, 


3 /*«u* 


/© 


Semicolon 


I saw; 


Co^*»/v^a|-wt 


4" 


Hyphen 


Co-operative 




^ 


Indent 


Purchase 
LESS Returns 


Hwt^ fr've 


Xr. V^S" 4 - 


In figures 


25 


S3 


X-)T> UJCti- 


In words 


twenty three 


**>y /^\<r>oi fO«.HM 


Irai. 


Italic Letters 


my Alma Matter 


In a*>xmucKj«A 


# 


Leave Space 


inasmuch as 


0Tta -mam 


v- ' 


Less Space 


One man 


to *Sf" rrwiKef 


SVi-l- 


Let it stand 


in the market 


geok- 


l.c 


Lower Case 


book 


ttx& tine fe htool . 


p. w.ft 
F-P 


Paragraph 
Next Paragraph 
Fresh Paragraph 


The book was 
sent by post. 

It was fine to 
read. 


^CF l*Ja Ww te 


Run cm 


No Paragraph 


The book was sent 
by post. It was fine to 
read, 


i^^A 


** «* 


Quotation 


"Navy" 


-frfc- 


Ro*n, 


Roman numerals 


XXH orxxii 


^£p*nar£ 


Sp. 


Spelling 


separate 


cx 


Tm>- 


Transpose 


2 


^ 


Tni. 


Transpose 


25 


■ n ■ a. -t 


TnA. 


Transpose in order 


in the book 




2l.£., ljc 


Upper Case 


India 


3 wfirf,-*flo tB<?«hj 




Search, find & insert 
* Asterisk 
©Symbol for 'at' 


I wish to go to 
Mumbai City 



41 



1. STATEMENTS 
(A) LAY-OUT 



2a 



4a 



4b 



4c 



4d 



5(. 



ii 
ii 
iv 



6. 



1 . Title of the Statement (Head lines) 

2. &2a. Heads of the Details 

3. Serial Number 

4. Head of the Particulars 

4a, 4b, 4c & 4d - Sub-Headings (Particulars) 

5 Rupees in (if any) 

6. The word Total' 



42 



(B). MODEL 



STATEMENT 



STATE-WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 

SANCTIONED AND DISBURSED BY THE INDUSTRIAL 

DEVELOPMENT BANK OF INDIA 

// 







1968- 


69 


1969- 


70 


s. 

N. 


State 


Amount 
Sanctioned 


Amount 
disbursed 


Amount 
Sanctioned 


Amount 
disbursed 








// 
(Rupees 

// 


in crores) 




1. 


Andra Pradesh 


154.40 


159.90 


1,773.70 


1,637.20 


2. 


Assam* 






12.40 


24.40 


3. 


Bihar 


159.90 


266.60 


965.20 


441.70 


4. 


Gujarat 


328.80 


301.80 


3,724.60 


3,148.90 


5. 


Haryana 


58.10 


53.60 


262.10 


249.80 


6. 


Kerala 


133.00 


68.30 


440.00 


342.30 


7. 


Madhya Pradesh 


171.30 


143.70 


543.00 


517.90 


8. 


Maharashtra 


2,217.70 


1,100.10 


9,621.20 


8,812.90 


9. 


Mysore 


489.70 


263.60 


1,052.70 


859.70 


10. 


Orissa 


348.60 


46.20 


504.10 


223.40 


11. 


Tamil Nadu and 
Pondicherry 


118.50 


114.50 


1,111.70 


1,134.90 




Total 


4,180.00 


2,518.30 


20,001.70 


17,393.10 


*Pa 


rticulars in respect of 1968 - 


68 are not 6 


ivailable. 



43 



|v/te bha. 4-olloiM'na SlaJjtoe nb awi j-u&.u^:- 







Y 



€Ar 



Scol-oa, 






Sooa^o3 






Aoo3- oh, 



&oo4~3fi°£~ 



<f 



&oo$- 2g&& 



7T\l>uiu2&ae£( 






%^\0 



\&A*5 



b>%% 



N ^°tM^ r Qoty 



t 



6,a33 



I 8/6^ 



&o, 010 









sz>y- 



5<^(II7V 



r$L0? 



/ 






7 



•ye/te 



/s- 



— 4- . 



q^JLB 



10,6*0 /, 



f! 31^ 



44 



Tube, the. fiojjoifiJM <S LffLmnagy b and. yvlc^XApl- 









fvarn-e, of 



\/o£m£> of ProdKxdTtrr^ 



I9$r<r 



l^re 



\<=\r¥ 













CT'n $4kka o£ 'rupees) 



qo3o,m 



$<l<10.60 




31 ££-40 



/4io* °4 






&"?£e . Go 






€"313 (j^Q 






G7&.Q4 



45 



~J\Ah^ the- ^JooUntfj S l^U^yyan^b -cxrdL w^Ll u£.>~ 

fifcSPA . ilMD&L PRITVCIPA-L.' PRODUCT! <!>W 
OF CRop^ 



I 



U 



.c* 



C-RopS 



*aA ^ _ _ _ 

<-poidkiu 

• Co fcte?*v 



/Aveo. 



I^ecc^airear A>€e*" 












3?^ 



pTrodUAefer?Yu 
fjf^ir^KLTonz Ton* 






it -f~ - 



UA I A. 









35^ 



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3#£> 



46 









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3. 



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<Sa?r€£2^ 



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foiA/e^ 



Far fcke. ye^ /> 



. — • r ' ■ ~ 

C3; c-A3 co 




¥p 4 < 2>AoU^> 



5~J £*^L- 






&s%3 




&?33 2oo3f 



t 



}k,iyt>. 



SfiSf 



urn 



To to, 

7&; 



3V-5W 



£1,253 



5-3/4-19 



3%l^j 



47 






Cap^ 



Arte t^Go^" (^i^p^S^ r 



,| cxXjuA 



t^a&u-* 



AckIqucLx 



T 



^ 



M^ASIT? 



O 



u 



o 



thuSaiVft*-* 



CoConju^t 



/t£-,3»* 



2-3^ I * 



3feyS2C> 



2^rtF^ 



3o^oo^ 



MancKi 



4T 



"^lo^^S 



t 









l^^poD 



~£ 









/I 



\^>00-0- 



&XpH% 



48 



yJhGL £Ul -PoliocMV^ Sbxkn>an£ a <rvL W^ u£ 






-pcmgoLr 



CoJpS. 



\/CJ\r 



[Wf-<*e 



$a,nncLaJl 
Treat* 






oiooo^ &QO) 









Flr-e 



4, fe I/W 




afcW# 



(IJU 



I^OO 






3000 



£.300 



49 



fyJfXL- the. -polhirir^ SlgfoyW r ar\& <yxjJU U^:~ 
S TAT£-M £jv r SHokn) rv 6i p/vR-p coupes 



Warrte- of 


pdT tkc pe^ ocL 


/ Comnrr\>odi{^ 


taooo ^ o \ 


3 4~$~£ 


£Loo<si .. 03 


[M a cA/ sn-ev a 


3&V-5- 


13 4-C 


7^1& 


/ l 


s 




S\oc?t 


3oco 


&AG?- 


}&&Q 


pbu*v(s 


1 Sroo 


]S~OQ 
/ 


\po) 


Oife«2f 




33^ 


];SlOO 


ToLs^- 


\3 / < SOrf 


SL y l 2,1 


s^-Hr" 


_ _ _ - _ 




i 


. — _ _. — 



50 



2. INVOICE 
a (LAY-OUT) 



3. 

4. 
6. 



INVOICE 



1.. 

2. 



7. 
8. 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15. 



16. 



17. 



18. 



1. Name of the Company in Capitals 10. Quality 



2. Nature of the Company. 

3. Telephone Number 

4. Telegrams 

5. Post Box Number 

6. Address of the Company. 

7. Invoice Number 
Exempted). 

8. Date of Invoice 

9. To Address 



11. Particulars 

12. Rate 

13. Amount 

14. The word 'Total 

15. Total amount in words 

16. E. & O.E. (Errors and Omissions 

17. For 'Name of Company' in Capitals 

18. Designation of the Authority. 



51 



INVOICE - (b) MODEL 



INVOICE 

// 
MODERN ELECTRICALS LIMITED 

// 
(Dealers in Electrical goods) 



Telephone: 53146 
Telegrams: 'Modern' 

No. 384/74 

// 
Messrs. Pari Anand and Sons, 
Building Contractors, 
Thiruppathur 
// 



Post Box No. 61, 
4 West Mahsi Street, 

// 



,rd 



23 m May 1975. 



// 
E.&O.E. 











Quantity 


Particulars 


Rate 


Amount 


10 dozens 
6 


Switches 
Ceiling Fans 

LESS Discount at 10% 

ADD packing charges 

Total 

(Rupees one thousand eight hundred 
And eighty only) 


Rs. P 

25 00 
300 00 


Rs. P 

250 00 
1,800 00 




2,050 00 
205 00 




1,845 00 
35 00 




1,880 00 







for MODERN ELECTRICAL LIMITED, 

//// 



Sales Manager 



52 



~Typ&- b^a, 4h)jc\A^n^ Xrwg>;c^ &<rui irvSU- ^>\^ 



^ • 35", gb0c«w *st v 



aor, PhJteL Sfc v 



0J9 



&9 <NO*. 






ch&rfe* • 
mrd- -£*$& <pdU0 



$U> 00 

ls-00 
40a 00 



&*■ P. 
^aa do 

9*S~oo 

~<££6~oo 



E> #- o<& 



far Su-^K/ o^J*^± 



53 



4 

T~N\JO)a? 



-j4&S2phor& : 5^1 3-f 



pew*wba&ur- <£<£) £14/ 



3* 1 TAavch 3.0&0. 









CQCSrvjJb a)} Tfntf of 



R*. P 

e?SZ) OO 



A?, itO.£ 



OVvCw ) 



~R4- P. 
&SDO OO 

-73.0 00 



\do 00 /£> 



54 



Yr\&rt&£\z.r 



VC 



Tt^e tka, fyDoitfry ^fWg)^ ci™*. ~>ru£^ u^j~ 



rz, ■ __ 

Ti rxLj^unr^ G3^ (30) 



p d <*fc Sox JVi- ^^ 
4-^ (hanndkj fend, 
Er&<U>- - 63 g oo ! 

^•n^L M,a^ ^004 - 



&SA6\V>\3\*j 



\06 



Pb'Zjtf-CuiA'^ 



"bate' 



ADO) ' P&acjrv^ &- 






),00O oo 

fao oo 
55"~oo 



1,6^ OO 



£* & O , E 



^r IU Steti^ J^f^ 



'Ctyf 



[M^rr^er 



55 



* 

Tfye. fcAc rfbfhvJKj -XfvvofCL- a™L tu£cl tA-jbt- 



kAMALR/vj Stores 









<5lfcy 



1 



PcizStJoula 



~ -t* - 



rJ" 



J 00 ?\0*. 



£° ?<*-<$&> ^votfl, &z*; 



I Vot_. v pTlot 7 p€*v 






Totsdi 



00 \s- 

Goo 
4-soo 






P<Jf. P. 

J.T. 00 

3o 00 

~&c}3 00 
S'^0 

30 \ *0 



i=. tLG, & 



gar VamoSLraA Skznmz /oxftt 



56 



\v\prr&Qev 



\*4ih*z- t&£2- <fii>}}ovJn® iX-r-ivof^-e- orrwL yvJU^ vdb\~ 
Te-fiz^ W*_ * <£<S5B / / 5- Put jQax, ff^o , 5^ 






N/OTrfcK/ ^trcaU T>Cofc v 
63A 003, 



3© J^o^d 

5" " 



,c 



W 



£, &- O £ 






1 

&s-P 
300 00 



&<*. P. 

I £"ZJO 00 

"rf f 4oo 00 



C fijjdlp&46 Sj&j&rv ))r&UG0fnd- ' 



57 



2.(ii) CREDIT NOTE- MODEL 



CREDIT NOTE 

/// 



Telephone: 450 1 6 
Telegrams: 'Saroja' 



No.29/71 

)f 
Messrs. Soori & Company, 
21 Car Street, 
Kancheepuram 63 1 501. 

// 

Cr.by SAROJINI TEXTILES 

// 



Post Box No. 18+ 

35 Purasai High Road, 

Madras 600 007. 
If 

22 nd January 1971. 



Details of Invoice 



Particulars 



Amount 



// 



Invoice No. 110 
18thJanuarvl971 



Invoice No. 102 
19 th January 1971. 



By 50 Petty Coats at Rs. 16/- 
each returned not beine 
the size ordered 

By 5 pairs of silk dhotis at Rs. 400/- 
each pair returned being 
damaged 



(Rupees two thousand and eight 
hundred only) 



Rs. P. 



800 00 



2.000 00 



2.800 00 



if 
for SAROJINI TEXTILES, 

fffl 
Accountant. 



58 



CRlfDxT IAxjTIF 






/^*m^guw _ ^co OSS ■ 









-ote- 



PansijCcM$Jxx$ 






1(T0 JNA*f, Uutr Ua-zcU 



B)j » Stf r\as\ rvc^frV* otb 



I 5QO oo 



|oo oo 



, & rr /Ht? fASHlOrV ttt>LLr& y 



(J-eauzL CJ&LXtL, 



59 



7ty£e tha folhu^r^ CyeJM-" .fvofc : a™L vu&t- tAf l~ 



CJRe&)T KOTi? 






ChaY\ri0j. - £00 <DQ3 . 



Cr- bu Tamea Tbwr LJnX^ // CafiJ . 



5~/*7 J^i. jq^ 









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^000 00 



far Tames Iowa. Unw5 v 



[M. career 



60 



Type- )&~ <folk>{A4*0 CRed/t i^ttf anrA. yvdUwp* 



d&ET»-r fVOTB 



'V&tetg yam t \ °- Coo l_" 

Or. hu 



3^ i^. j^ 



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nevoid* tfs^o, ^J'V- 






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[000 00 



<firr COOL. FATvxS', 



Ma* 



"9 



er 



61 






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c-^ by. Pari a^jd sor^ 



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62 



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63 



fle^}<nj&SL f^Oirya^ 



enr 



2.(iii) DEBIT NOTE- MODEL 





DEBIT NOTE 






III 




Telephone: 443456 




Post Box No.%. 


Telegrams: 'Nathan' 




5 Jones Road, 
Madras 600 015. 
// 


No. 10/72 




31 st March 1972. 


// 






Messrs. Ramalingam & Sons, 






Station Road, 






Madras 600 033. 






// 






Dr. to SWAMINATHAN & SONS 






n 





Details of Invoice 



Invoice No.3 
25 th March 1972 



Invoice No. 8 
28 th March 1972 



Particulars 



To 20 meters of Raymond tweed 
at Rs,37/-per meter mentioned 
in the invoice, which should be 
Rs. 43/- per meter 

To a Diece of long cloth charged 
at Rs.40/- which should be 
Rs.50/- 

Total 



(Rupees one hundred and thirty 
only) 



Amount 



// 



Rs. P. 



120 00 



10 00 



130 00 



If 
for SWAMINATHAN & SONS, 

nn 

Chief Accountant. 



64 



T>¥& u /von? 



~VdL&§yfWN! \ * Kumar''' 



No- I6fl/a^oo. 



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"S 3 ^ "Jurte, (^.ooo 






<J)£JIM&0 Of 3T*KVtffCfl- 






P^yt3cMj2a'»^ 



__ Marcs 

To 10 P*4a*s& 









Jfar kurr^r j^J***j jftop 



R*. P. 



53 oo 



152) OD 



65 



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Cke?aiW~ goo oof . 






SlBrtkr $s*[anr. &000 , 



Pfl'tftl CAAJ^^ca- 



"To (o ^^tru-o of 



^o'^ M^Tf^ <&oso 



73 lo ^'zfu- 0^ 



R*-a 



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^ 



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fair Paq\ Ak#> Co v 



66 



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^/fcr JMfjjY- c^ooo 



Wh ' shd < he. R*. ^ . 

To 3o Ribbzm yv]\& 
aJtr R£ 55/* eaeK/ 






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<9SZ) 00 



<^rr 3/WK^m, fcts£> Co ', 



67 



PA/s- ]3o£m- m Go-, 
Id, \/<Ma£sKnr Sb> 



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'P?\'zftfaAj^-aa f 



lb 






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68 



Tyfie- Iks^ h>\huAnij Debit kot^ Qrx dL yuUv^>\^ 






rarmS't ^SH-fM 



7#~ M^tt I^Cj 






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DelaxJU c?f j:m\oia^ 



ftwkoAJb* 



rjr 






££-Mr peJb, <&**> 



. 



To SeicemeL c&ak, 
"To Co<5fc of (i 



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2^oo eo 




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S~, ooa o o 






%crr- BH-IM B&V1&S , 



fc&loum femir 



69 



2. (Iv) ACCOUNT SALES-MODEL 



Telephone: 82067 
Telegrams: 'Madan' 



Post Box No. 519. 
209 Anna Saiai, 
Madras 600 002. 

. // 
12 th February 1991. 
/// 



ACCOUNT SALES 
// 

Account Sales of 50 eater Filters sold on account and at the risk of Messrs. 
Rub y and Company Limited, Mayiladuthurai. 



Number 


Particulars 


Amount 






Rs. P. 


Rs.P. 


ai5 


50 Water Filters at Rs.80/- each 
LESS Charges 




4,000 00 




Transport 


100 00 






Insurance 


300 00 






Commission at 5% 


20000 






Balance as per Draft enclosed 
(Rupees three thousand and four 


■ 


600 00 




3,400 00 








hundred only) 







E. & O. E. 



for MKADAN MOHAN TRADERS, 



Manager. 



70 






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A/c ^o^k. a-f dL ^o. of 1 Rwe-r <W. 



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^\M.7rm \^eir 



SOO 



JpcA.'tftei QJjQoorz 






uses 



CK^iry 



e& 






Ao^ctiJvtr 



\3<*- P. 



too oo 



^££_ 



c3<3 



?>oo 



ia) 



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oo 



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\5,oo& oo 



1,35® oo 



_ I 

iSfeAfV /VrvD COMPAQ 



71 






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72 






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73 



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ISO 00 



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74 






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75 



3. LETTERS (A) APPLICATION - LAY OUT 



APPLICATION 
1 



5. 



6. 

7. 



TO 






11 






12 


1. 


The word 'From' 




2. 


The 'from address' 




3. 


The word 'To' 




4. 


The 'To address' 




5. 


salutation 




6. 


Subject: 




7. 


Reference 




8. 


Body of the Application 




9. 


Complementary Close 




10. 


. Enclosures if any 




11. 


, Place and 




12. 


, Date 



76 



(B) APPLICATION- MODEL 



From 
// 

Regena Rani, B.Sc, (IT) M.C.A., 
201. N.G.O.A. COLONY, 
Sankarankoil, 

Tirunelveli District. 627 756. 
// 
To 
// 

The Managing Director, 
R.PSoftware Pvt. Ltd., 
Bangalore. 56 
// 

Sir, 
// 

Sub: Application for the Post of Manager - for your esteemed Concern. 

// 
Ref: Your Advertisement in Daily Journal dated 25th January 2009. 
// 



// 

I came to know from the advertisement in the daily journal dated 20th 
March 2009 that there is ka vacancy for the post of Manager in your esteemed 
concern. I beg to submit myself as a candidate for the same. 
// 

I am twenty two years old with a good physique. As for my qualification 
I like to state that I have passed the B.Sc, Information Technology and M.C.A., 
With70% of marks. I have also passed the typewriting English and Tamil Senior 
Grade with first class. If I have a chance to work under your esteemed concern 
I assure that I will discharge my duties to the entire satisfaction of the superiors. 

I am also enclosing herewith my Dio-Data for your kind perusal and 
favourable orders. 
// 
Thanking you, 

Yours faithfully, 
Sankarankoil, //// 

30th January 2009 

(REGENA RANI) 



77 



Ti*P<2.. "ttta ^foliotcXr** PtVPl'i Cation W «. P-ropej*- 
To 

st*y % 






78 






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9vof^-/ 



'to 



-vo rv^ 



T- Tfc-m llx N\ *B -.B £ v 3> -^- Ray Co v 



loVJz. 



-* 



/C ■ 






jO/V 






•■5\ 



/ 



R*{- : /oW AJlJfWv-tU* *v*a"V uK ^ioVt^ 
Boo^ol - &. 3^oli \y p^lpW ^<CU-4 



2_£>- ot - 2- 



oo: 



y ul^VrT y alcove OtTJLM ^ CornA. 4 

Jty\oc6 "^^hf^T^N^A.vje.J c^ V/LC^r^cy Jf-ev J p»<s-f 



79 









80 






^ 



t o 






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81 






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cO-T-4. fA-cnArf c^do^. _>0v^ fox ^/'iflflmfi^i 
o.C cW-eol /#'*" jJXyL ^jboi, , _9 ^f^) -fir / po-^-' 

^.r^ £Wjl *3ooV 



82 



Type. ^A-fUlowiV* JLypAt^eAj^*- w- p^p^/rf^*^ . 

F^^ ^U y F*t.w 77, sW.Uvk^U si-, 

,. ^. ^.. f}/ Jny 4^ S^^ui f^ 

ft cJL, ;• J w J^ * b ^- <^ri^ 



^ 



83 



(B). BUSINESS LETTER - LAY OUT 



BUSINESS LETTER 



1. 

2. 



3 5. 

4 6. 



7. 
9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 
13. 



14(. 
15.. 



1. Name of the Company in Capitals. 

2. Nature of the Company within brackets. 

3. Telephone Number on the left side. 

4. Telegrams 

5. Post Box Number on the right side 

6. Address of the Company. 

7. Reference Number 

8. Date 

9. To address 

10. Salutation 

11. Body of the Business Letter 

12. Complimentary Close 

13. for NAME OF THE COMPANY in Capitals. 

14. Name of the Authority in capitals within brackets. 

15. Designation of the Authority. 



84 



3.(b) BUSINESS LETTER-MODEL 

BUSINESS LETTER 



DEVANATHAN AND COMPANY 
// 
(F ruit Merchants) 



Telephone: 34511 Post Box No.2(h 

Telegrams: 'Devan' 29 Bazaar Road, 

Cuddalore607 001. 
/f 
Ref. No.5/409 15th June 1983. 

ft 

Messrs. Abdul Samad and Company, 
Fruit Mart, 
Madras 600 001. 
ft 

DeV Sirs, 

If 

We are in receipt of your order No. 30, dated 10th June 1983 for the supply of 100 
jaok fruits on or before the 10th of next month. 

ft 
While we thank you for your kind order, we very much regret our inability to 
comply with your order as we are already committed to the supply of a similar 
bulk order about the same time to another party. 

However we can pass on your order, if you so desire us to do, to our sister concern 
here who will be able to supply you jack fruits of the best quality. t 

We assure you of our prompt action at all times. 

// 
Yours faithfully, 
for DEVANATHAN AND COMPANY, 

fUf 

(T.DEVANATHAN) 
Partner. 



85 



Ty-^3C- tfat fiofloiMrvfl QuSfNSSS LjETTBR* }ms fizmper!- 



^ A ■ VjVex. 4l c<? v 
hJ<^eftfat'>na7r) _ SI) OOj . 

-CtT C^tawb^ Uy«. are ^sy/y ^sr / doHoju In de*- 
CLU/are. 0-t-fkST y&Kior^. 

your ordsnr oOmu^ JotwoaA, wJ2< £>e. dL&vpnbckJL to 
CJdn^ fczJciay a-nct hs>j>e- fhs ft^y CA*7U&£ reao/v ycrt^o^y 

Friday , 

A&m<tir>f Uolu io be. aJtr your jerries- o± oM frnx*! 

7Ke?r*uru& y^U.^ 

far £U8>R.£\ MyMVlA/V *#- CerMPAf^, 

^ — ~~j CM . SfswTMiu) 



86 



Tu^e. Iks: &>)k>**ry &us)*ess L^ttt^ ]w 

RAV)j55H TexTJU? LlMITEP 
&0, fodsJL Rpad y 

hot hen. aff-jjce*^ fe-/ fca^^er dU^^-- \<XrxLQu a^rmn^ 

tA/e_ <X6Say^- ^ou~ to" CHA'zr J^eob <y,nrdL Mte^^PisistrJpkr 
£yr ISfwWvj Tejcfc^ Lini lteA J/cstyS 



^r*i 






87 



TeSty raw? : * Ra&u " <3a fc U *™*arv Sty £5 

^ e ^.N0. lo/W ^"^ * Jlir " = - ,<? ^' 

our iflJfet otekflw- ^^ ^fir^JFOcwW 
O-f / Vaw>iw o2xi*» t&f. <?|o°<&> />" O/K. We^dxuS. 

We u^ to <W** Wj,. ^L 
+1* (A of /te <**XJ£> t 

far RA 6iU AfVP Com^ 






<p7r&p&y 



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to.. ,0/43*. P ™^-A^ f 

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IZSd ££*„*■£ ^ g - <**-. 

4^ C^^rrr, ^^ r /Jt _ i„J^™ ? '^ 
0^- <*x$>&J=r yew ^^Mu y^j* 
far r$*rr* :rrv*»A L, W TB3> y 

^- C M . SAtfV^A^iJ) 



89 




7JTV -Wr*. st oses 

"* ^£>fk TuoL ^=^3, 

^A£ Roy fe-roituuLA , 

Log- L».ugl Ytel^u^ (yr- /v. ^>»?<JL^ 

"^ '^U^UM l^oUL Ir^^U UCL^U 1*A 

Sg&^o* Lw*> <u>***-^<= > y^*^tf dX - £ ^ L " a ~ 
(jy. \JASA W3 



90 



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cue. S>dJUcUl ya^L, <S«xnig- emfe^ - 

91 



3.(d) PROFESSIONAL LETTER - LAYOUT 



1 3. 

2 4. 



5 



8. 



9.... 
10(. 



1. Name of the Sender in Capitals. 

2. Designation of the Sender 

3. Telephone Number on the right side 

4. Address of the Sender 

5. Date 

6. To Address 

7. Salutation 

8. Body of the Professional letter. 

9. Complementary Close. 

10. Name of the sender in capitals within brackets. 



92 



PROFESSIONAL LETTER - MODEL 



^APATHY. ItA, Telephone: 336 

Nagapattinam. 

27 th January 1964. 

The Collector of Tanjore, 
Tanjore. 

tf 
Sir, 
If 

I am deeply touched by your appeal for funds for relief of flood victims in Bihar. I have 
collected a large number of blankets and also a sum of Rs. 10,001/-(Rupees ten thousand and 
one only). Kindly let me know to which officer the blankets should be sent 

// 

' The amount collected is being sent to you by a crossed cheque. Please acknowledge the 
receipt. . 

Awaiting your further instructions. 

Yours faithfully, 
//// 
(V.GANAPATHY) 



93 












<$CLcj?XvGd M®uj^ A&24; Mtef Tfo 
'Xn fteL AuJt e^c^DJ^A ffcMJL LOih. ^ou. 

Of \f~^Z^^TJj^n2^^ feu** #&&JL . 






94 



foz, 23-*^ Tju&a j-oc/. fW" M£"+ t*^ *** A £: ot' 

^^ iU- ^^ ^rr sTs ~Jjw 



95 



P'ROFFSSIOMRU. LETTER 

^Kj2A\n#ci. - boo coZf 



>! V 



<T,X r^ol^ *, V ^ -Hue- &IJ^ 



ffU?A 



-*-'** *" ' y^ ^V* 



(_K).t*)> &\&rj \ OzfS . 



96 



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TJo 
■*"*■ H hartn T7 "™* "*, *& fo. Of^nlcr) &. <hL 

in-g ^ eM^^dL fat A u nrt*Mv£L 

KJVr-<£. J* /fc ' -+*«Avu <4V ^ penned o^ ^ ft^ 

^d ******* ^. t£-&^cU r^osio) ^ 



97 






















98 



Professional letter. 

C^U2>rMr*»*=M . boo \t>) . 



QjT\A ~Zbu^SU 2^, 












U 



Pf»«*. to '^jCo "fcT® 9«%«v~*- 



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99 



3.(d). OFFICIAL LETTER -LAY OUT 
(ONE AUTHORITY TO ANOTHER) 



4.... 

6. 



8. 



10. 



1. Name of the Office 

2. 'From' Name & Address of the Authority (Sender) on the Left side. 

3. 'To' Address of the authority (Receiver) on the Right side. 

4. Letter Number and date. 

5. Salutation 

6. Subject 

7. Reference. 

8. Body of the Official Letter. 

9. Complementary Close. 

10. Designation of the Official. 



100 



MODEL 



OFFICIAL LETTER 
(One authority to another authority) 



CHINGLEPUT MUNICIPALITY 

III 



From 

// 

Thiru. R.Dhanasekarn, M.A. 

Commissioner, 

Chingleput Municipality 

Chingleput 603 003 



(To 

( 

( Dr. K.Madhavan, M.Sc.,(Agri) Ph.D. 

( 5, Adams Road, 

( Chingleput- 603 001., 

( 
( 



// 

// 
Sir, 

// 

// 



// 



// 



Letter No. 344/02-6, M.E.P, Dated the 11th September 2002 



Sub: Malaria Programme - Destruction of wild growth around municipal area. 

Ref: (1) From the Director of Public Health, letter No. 554/M 02-6, 
dated the 06th August 2002 

(2) Your letter dated the 09th August 2002 



With reference to your letter second cited, I am to state that the Director of 
public Health hask suggested that wild growth of plants breeding mosquitoes may 
be destroyed. 
// 

2. Insturctions have been issued to the Malaria Eradication party not to disturb 
the herb arrowroot. However, instructions have been issued to spray insecticides 
over the plant to protect the plant and to present the possibility of breeding. 
// 

Yours faithfully, 

//// 
Commissioner. 



101 



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102 



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cMuA /fcx tote ^<m.i9?^. 

^y <£- tk>. S\L&r ^Juh\lsJL <A ffct J?rx-ig*Jn<K) 

toff" -RQjjfl&AjLL S\^em -$&kUr$* f nuA ^rro^o^^X^ 

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106 



4. GOVERNMENT ORDER- LAY-OUT 

GOVERNMENT ORDER 

1 

2 

3 



6. 

7. 



9.. 
10. 



H( ) 

12., 
13. 



14. 
15. 



16 

17 

1. Name of the Government 

2. The word 'Abstract' 

3. Content of the Abstract 

4. Name of the Department 

5. G.O.Ms. Number 

6. Date of the Government Order 

7. The word 'Read the following' 

8. The Content (G.O. Ms. No. Department and date) of 'Read the following'. 

9. ORDER 

10. Body of the Order 

11. 'By order of the Governor' within the bracket. 

12. Name of the 'Secretary to Government' in Capitals 

13. The word 'Secretary to government' 

14. The word 'To' and To Address 

15. 'Copy to ' 

16. Forwarded By order 

17. Section Officer. 



107 



MODEL 

GOVERNMENT ORDER 

GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU 
// 
Abstract 
// 
Indian Medicine - Code of Medical Ethics -Addition to warning notice - 
Approved. 

// 
Health and Family Planning Department 
// 

G.O.Ms. No.1190 Dated the 15th May 1974 

// 
Read the following: 
// 

G.O. Ms. No. 5622, Health, dated the 29th July 1973. 

// 

ORDER: 

// 

The Government direct that the following additions be made to Part III - warning 
notice of the code of Medical Ethics approved in G.O. Read above: 
// 

(i) There is no objection to advertisements of the firm of manufacture or of their 
reputed medicinal preparations. 
// 

(ii) The photographs of the firms may be advertised bay not the photographs of 
patients or clients or the Registered Medical practitioners. 
// 

(By order of the Governor) 
// 

PG.MURTHI, 
Secretary to Government. 
// 
To 

The Director of Indian Medicine, Madras 600 006. 
// 

Copy to 
All Collectors 
// 

Forwarded / By order 
//// 



Section Officer 



108 



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114 



PART-C 



I. MECHANISM 
1. Typewriter and Its Parts 

6 7 8 10 ' 12 




l w *?_«'-« t. p- "S: ^ ^m m. m w 

j W 9. WilW: Iffi S? *S *?© "8! 1R •"f *1S 

pr .«? i? «^ : *i 3s? w ] W w IE •» i* 




21 24 



1 . Handle / Line Space Lever 

2. Plunger Knob 

3. Thumb Wheel 

4. Cylinder Release Lever 

5. Line Space Lever 

6. Carriage Release Lever Right 

7. Left Hand Margin 

8. Margin Scale 

9. Type bar guide 

10. Ribbon Carrier 

1 1 . Segment 

12. Paper bail Roller 



13. Right hand Margin 

14. Cylinder (Platen Roller) 

15. Carriage Release Roller Left 

16. End of the Paper Indicator 

17. Cowl Cover 

18. Carriage 

19. Margin Release Key 

20. Shift Lock 

21. Shift Key 

22. Tabulator Bar 

23. Spacebar 

24. Ribbon Colour Indicator 



115 




2. HISTORY OF THE TYPEWRITER: 

The first typewriter was invented by Mr. HERRY MILL and was later 
developed by Sholes, Glidden, Soule and Yost. The first practical typewriter 
was however, introduced in 1 8 73 and it was brought to India only in 1 8 7 6 . 

Letters are type-written on the paper; hence this machine is called as 
typewriter. The typewriter is most commonly used and best of office machine. 
Typewriter is a device for writing with neater letters, for doing quicker and 
better work, for taking more copies and for reading the typed matter easily. 
There are noiseless, electric and electronic typewriters also. 

KINDS OF TYPEWRITERS 

There are two kinds of Typewriters: 

1 . Standard Typewriter 

2. Portable Typewriter 

Standard Typewriters are most commonly used for office Purpose. 
Portable Typewriters are used for camp purpose and it can be easily taken 
during travel. 

ADVANTAGES OF TYPEWRITER 

1 .Neatness and accuracy . 

2. Less strain. 

3. Greater speed [less time ortime is saved]. 

4. Economy in stationary. 

5 .More number of copies can be taken. 

IDENTIFICATION OF TYPEWRITER 

AType writer can be identified by its make and serial number. 
Question: 

1 .Who invented the typewriter? And when? 

2. How many kinds of typewriter are there? 

3 .What is the advantages of typewriter? 

4. How can a typewriter be identified? 

5 .What is the use of standard model and portable model? 

We can divide the typewriter in 3 main parts ; 

(1) KEY BOARD (2) CARRIAGE (3) MACHINE 

116 



3. KEY BOARD 

f-+\ fan] | TABULATOR BAR | JH] [**\ 

| SPACE BAR | 

The front portion of the machine where all keys are placed is called the 'key board'. 
There are two kinds of key board :(1 ) Universal standard Key Board and (2) Ideal 
Key Board. 

All the modern typewriters have only the Universal Standard Key Board. Ideal 
Key Board is not in use now. 

The Universal Standard Key Board is not arranged in the alphabetical order or 
'abed' order. 

Frequently occurring letters like "e,r,l", are fixed in the middle of the key board to 
be operated by strong fingers. 

According to the strength of the fingers, the other letters are arranged in the Key 
Board. So the Keys are not arranged in the alphabetical order. 

There are 44 character keys in the Key Board, in all Typewriters. Each Key 
represents two letters (upper case and lower case characters) 

There are 9 non- character Keys are also found in the Key Board. They are as 
follows: 

1. Shift Keys 2. Shift lock 3. Margin Releaser 

4. Back spacer 5.Tablulater 6. Ribbon position Indicator 

7. Key releaser 8. Space Bar 9. Personal touch Indicator 



117 



When we operate the character Key, the carriage moves 1 degree towards left 
with making an impression. 

When we operate non-character Key, the carriage moves 1 degree towards left 
but not making any impression. 

Dead Key is a Key which gives an impression but not making the carriage to 
move. It is available only in Tamil type writer . 

'N' and 'IT are called master Keys. These are used to check up the alignment. 

'a' and ';' are called Guide Keys and the two little fingers are called Guide fingers, 
'asdf and ';lkj' are called Home Key. 

NON- CHARACTER KEYS AND THEIR USES : 

1. SHIFT KEYS: There are two shift keys and one shift lock on the Key Board. 
Two shift Keys are placed on the both side of the Key Board. Shift Key is used to type 
the upper case character occasionally but Improper uses of shift key causes Bad 
Alignment. The two shift keys are for the use of easy manipulation. 

2. SHIFT LOCK: The shift lock is used to type the upper case character 
continuously and also to type headings, Boarders and under score in the display work. 
The shift lock Key can be released by using the shift Key. 

3. MARGINAL RELEASER: This is used for typing beyond the set margins It is 
used to complete a word on the right side margin. It is also used on the left side for 
typing marginal notes paragraph numbers and etc. 

4. BACK SPACER : when we operate the back spacer , the carriage moves 
towards right by one degree by leaving blank space . this is used to fill up omissions 
and to make correction. To type combination letters etc. 

5. TABULATOR: Itconsistof 

(1) Tabulator Bar 

(2) Tabulator Set Key 

(3) Tabulator Clear Key 

There are as many number of tabulator stops in the tabulator rack as there are 
degrees in the carriage scale. 



The tabulator bar is used to bring the carriage to any particular position quickly 
towards left. 

The tabulator bar is used to type tabular are columnar statements, specifications 
and indent paragraphs. (giving five spaces for paragraphs) 

6. RIBBON POSIION INDICATOR : Otherwise called ribbon colour 
indicator or ribbon switch or bi-chrome device lever, is fixed at the right side of the 
keyboard. 

The up and down movement of the ribbon is controlled by the ribbon position 
indicator. 

7. KEY RELEASER: It is used for releasing the type bars when 'jam' occurs 
duetomishandling. 

8. SPACE BAR: It is located at the bottom of the key board and operated by the 
right thumb. If we use the space bar the carriage moves 1 degree towards right 
without making impression (1 degree blank space). Also It is used for leaving blank 
space between words. 

SHIFT SYSTEMS: There are two kinds of shift system: 
(a) Segment Shift System. (b) Carriage Shift System. 

QUESTIONS: 

1 . How many Non-character Keys in their Typewriter?. 

2. How many character Keys in the standard key board? 

3. What is meant by a Dead Key? 

4. What are the Guide Keys and Home Keys ? 

5. What are the Guide fingers? 

6. What is the use of shift Keys and shift Lock? 

7. What is the use of space Bar? 

8. What is the use of Back Spacer? 

9. How many kinds of shift system? 
10. What is the use of margin Releaser? 



119 



4. CARRIAGE 



CARRIAGE : 

Carriage is an important part in a 
typewriter. The carriage can move in 
both the direction. Carriage moves 
towards left whenever the space Bar, 
Tabulator bar or carriage Releaser 
Lever is used. 

Different sizes of carriage can be 
fitted to the Standard Typewriter. 

SIZES OF CARRIAGE: 

1. Foolscap Size 

80 degree to 1 00 degree 

2. Draft Size 

1 1 degree to 1 25 degree. 

3. Brief Size 

1 30 degree to 1 40 degree. 

4. Police Size 180 degree. 

5. Manifest Size 240 degree. 




1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



Carriage and its parts 



Line Space and Carriage Return Lever 

Line Space Pawl 

Line Space Knob 

LineSpaceGauge (1,2,3) 

Left Tumb Wheel 

Variable Line Spacer 

Cylinder Ratchet Wheel 

Cylinder Ratchet Detent Release Lever 

Cylinder otherwise called Planten 

10. Paper Deflector 

11. Frolnt Carriage Scale 

12. Cylinder Lock 




CYLINDER: It is also known as Platen. Cylinder is made of Rubber. The shape 
of the cylinder is round so as to get one impression at a time . It helps to feed the 
paper. 

There are three kinds of Cylinders. 

1. Soft Cylinder 

2. Hard Cylinder 

3. Medium Cylinder 

Thefollowing points will prolong the life of the Cylinder: 

1. By giving lighttouch. 

2. By using backing sheet while typing. 

3. No oil should be used for rubber parts. Use petrol or spirit and 

4. Damaged or slippery cylinder is one of the causes for irregular line 
Spacing. 

5. Punctuation marks should be typed gently in order to avoid injury to the 
Cylinder 



120 



LEFT THUMB WHEEL 



THUMB WHEELS: Otherwise called 
as Cylinder Knobs. There are two thumb 
wheels / Cylinder knobs, each one on 
both the sides. It is used to insert and 
remove the paper from the cylinder. It 
is also used to rotate the Cylinder. 




Variable Line Space Lever 



VARIABLE LINE SPACER : 

1 . To type on the ruled sheets. 

2. To type Chemicals formula and Algebra sings. 

3. To type component letter. 

4. To Give fractional line space. 

LINE SPACE LEVER: It isfitted on the left side of the carriage. It helps to return 
the carriage to the next writing line. So it is also called carriage return level 

PAPER BAIL : It is fixed above the Cylinder and has two rollers. 

It holds the paperfirmly at the top. It prevents the paper from flying in the air. It helps 

to type up to the very bottom of the paper. 

CARDHOLDERS: It helps to hold the paper. To type on cards, envelops and we 
can type at the top of the paper and also to the bottom edges of the paper. It is also 
used to draw vertical ruling. 

CYLINDER RATCHET WHEEL : It is also known as line space ratchet wheel. 

It is a toothed wheel fixed at the left end of the Cylinder. It helps to regulate the line 

spaces (viz. single line space, one and half, two, two and half & 3. Etc). 

Worn-out teeth of the Cylinder ratchet wheel is one of the causes for irregular line 

spacing. 

DETENT ROLLER: It is a small steel roller pressing the tooth of the Cylinder. 
Cylinder rotates tooth by tooth to make space between lines. Worn-out detent roller 



1 . Cylinder Ratchet wheel 

2. Detent Roller 

3. Detent Release Lever 




121 




Is one of the causes for irregular line spacing. 

DETENT RELEASE LEVER: By using this lever we can type mathematical 
symbols and chemical formulae while the current page is being typed 

LINE SPACE PAWL: It is acting on the Cylinder ratchet wheel. It is attached to 
the line space lever. 

LINE SPACE GAUGE : It indicates single, double and treble line spacing. So, It 
is also called Line space Indicator. 

LINE SPACE KNOB and also called LINE SPACE ADJUSTING LEVER or 
LINE SPACE REGULATOR. It acts on the line space gauge and controls the line 
spacing. 

FEED ROLLERS: 

There are 2 sets of feed 
Rollers under the Cylinder. 
These are made of Rubber 
or Cork. When these feed 
rollers are in close contact 
with the Cylinder, they help 
to hold the paperfirmly. 

MARGINAL STOPS: There are two marginal stops. The are on the Marginal 
rack and moved to the desired degree in the marginal scale. 

Left Marginal Stop: 

1. Control the left margin. 

2. Control the movement of the carriage towards Right. 

3. Defective left marginal stop causes irregular left margin. 

Right Marginal Stop: 

1. Control the right margin. 

2. Control the movement of the carriage towards Right. 

3. It causes the ringing of the bell and the bell warns that the line of typing is coming 
toan end. 

4. It locks the key levers. 

TYPEWRITER SCALES: There are four scales in the typewriter. 

1. Marginal scale or PaperTable Scale 

2. Carriage Scale or Paper Bail Scale 

3. LinefinderScale orAlignment Scale 

4. Front Scale or Line Space Adjusting Scale 



122 



PAPER TABLE: It protects the paperfrom the oil parts. 

RUBBER FEET: There are four rubber feet under the Typewriter for the 
protection of the machine. 

METHOD OF TYPING: Two types of typing methods: 

1. Sight Method: More strain, more mistakes-- Not advisable 

2. Blind Method: Without seeing the key-board typing the matter. It increases 
the speed -Advisable. 

Typing with uniform touch and with equal interval between operation of character 
keys is called 'RhythmicTouch'. 

ERASER: The carriage should be brought to either end of the typewriter and 
correct the mistakes with an eraser, to avoid dust falling into the typewriter. 

Questions: 

1 . Mention the various size of the carriage? 

2. How many kinds of Cylinder? 

3. How many scales are there in the typewriter? 

4. How would you preserve the life of Cylinder? 

5. Give the other name of theThumb knobs and mention its uses? 

6. What is the use of Line Space Adjusting Leaver? 

7. What is the use of Card Holder? 

8. How many marginal stops and what are the uses? 

9. What is the use of Variable Line Spacer? 

10. What is the use of Feed Roller? 

11. How many Method of typing? 

12. How to erase the mistake while typing? 

1 3. How many rubberfeet in the typewriter? Mention its uses? 

14. What is the use of Cylinder Ratchet Wheel? 

15. What is the use of Detent Roller? 



123 



5. MACHINE 
MAIN SPRING DRUM: 



Main Spring: Main Spring Drum (Backside) 



Coiled 

Spring 

Kept 

inside 

the 

Drum 




Main Spring «- 

Plain 5pring74i 
Tension Screw] 
Main Spring 
Drum 



It is located at the left back side of 
the Typewriter. In this drum there is 
mainspring with tension. This 
mainspring tension is otherwise 
called Carriage Tension which is 
the most important of the 
Typewriter. The carriage moves 
from right to left due to this 
mainspring tension which is situated on the left side. In Urdu (language) Typewriters 
the mainspring is fixed in right side and so the carriage moves from left to right when 
we type. There is no mainspring in Electric Typewriters. 

1 . Too much main spring tension cause the jerky movement of the Carriage 

2. Too low main spring tension cause the sluggish movement of the carriage. 

There are other two main tensions in the Typewriter: 

1. Key tension. 

2. Touch Regulatortension. 

DRAW CORD: It is also called as Draw Band or Draw Strap. One edge of the 
Draw Cord is hooked with the mainspring drum and the other edge is hooked with 
carriage end. Due to mainspring tension the connected draw cord pulls the 
carriage towards left. If the draw cord is cut off, the carriage will not move. 

TYPE GUIDE or CENTRE GUIDE: It is also known as Common Centre 
Printing Point. It allows only one type bar to enter through and strike against the 
Cylinder while typing. It is cleaned with the Chamois Leather. 

TYPE HEADS: 

The following are the kinds of Type Heads/ Type faces: 



1. 


Pica 


...10 Letters per inch 


2. 


Elite 


...12 Letters per inch 


3. 


Roman 


... 09 Letters per inch 


4. 


Gothic 




5. 


Italics. 




6. 


These typefaces should be cleaned with Petrol. 



124 



RIBBON MOVEMENTS: There are three Ribbon Movements of the carriage. 

1 .Up and down Movement 
2. Lengthwise Movement 
3.Automatic Reverse Movement 

Up and down Movement is used to utilize the full Width of the Ribbon. 

Lengthwise Movement is used to utilize the full length of the Ribbon. 

Automatic Reverse Movement is used to utilize the Ribbon for many times. 



RIBBON MOVEMENT OF THE CARRIAGE 




L-Left 
R - Right 



1 .Charector key 

2. Key Lever 

3. Ribbon Uiversal Bar 

4. L link 

5. Ribbon Feed Pawl 

6. Bevel Gear (or) 

Ribbon Ratchet Wheel 

7. Ribbon Stop Pawl 

8. Ribbon Spool 

9. Ribbon Carrier 
10Ribbon 



125 



RIBBON: 

Ribbon take is made of cotton or silk, dipped in ink. It makes the impression visible 
on the paper. 

There are two kinds of Ribbon: 

1. Record Ribbon: It is used for ordinary purpose 

2. Copying Ribbon: It is used for copying purpose 

Double colour Ribbon is called 'Bi-chrome Ribbon' 

To preserve the Ribbon from moisture or from dryness the typewriter should be 
covered soon after the work is over. Normal length of the ribbon is 8 yards and /4 
inch. Width. 

Questions: 



1 . Where is the Mainspring drum Located? 

2. What is the use of Mainspring? 

3. What is meant by Draw Cord? Mention it's uses? 

4. What is the use of Type guide? 

5. Mention the kinds of Type faces/Type heads? 

6. How many kinds of Ribbon? 

7. Name the three movements of the Ribbon? 

8. How may colourtypes of Ribbon? 

9. Which is called Bi-colour Ribbon? 

10. What is the other name of Type Guide? 



126 



6. CLEANING AND OILING 




CLEANING MATERIALS: 

1. Long handled Brush. 

2. Type Cleaning Brush. 

3. Wire Brush. 

4. Oil Can 

5. Touch Oiler 

6. Petrol or spirit 

7. HatPinorsharppin 

8. Duster Cloth 

9. Chamois Leather or Polishing Cloth 

1 . Long Handled Brush is used to clean the outer parts (External Parts)of the 
Typewriter, (e.g. Carriage, Type bars, type segment and etc.) 

2. Type Cleaning Brush is also known as Hard Brush. It is used to clean the type 
faces by dipping with petrol. 

3. Wire Brush is used to clean the inner parts (Interior parts) such as key 
leavers. 

4. Oil can is used for oiling the outer parts. Only Typewriter Oil or three-in-one 
oil is used for oiling the Typewriter. 

5. Touch Oiler is used for oiling the interior parts (the frictional parts)- (like 
Ribbon gears, pinion wheel, escapement wheel, dogs and etc.) 

6. Petrol or Spirit is used for cleaning the rubber parts (Cylinder, feed rolls, type 
faces, type segment and etc.) 

7. Hat Pin or Sharp Pin is used to clean the dirt and dust which is filled in the 
slots (letters like a,e,o,u,d,g,r,q,andetc.) 

8. Duster Cloth is used for cleaning the base board, metal cover and for wiping- 
out the excess of oil in the carriage way rods. 

9. Chamois Leather or Polishing cloth is used to clean the nickel parts. 

127 



CARE TAKING OF TYPEWRITER: 

1 . Should clean the typewriter daily. 

2. Should clean the typeface/type head fortnightly. 

3. Should oil the typewriter monthly. 

4. Overhauling Should be done once in a year. 

5. Rubber parts, type faces should be cleaned with petrol. 

UPKEEPAND MAINTENANCE: 

1 . Typewriter must be closed or covered when it is not in use. 

2. It should be handled very carefully. 

3. Hard touch must be avoided and lighttouch should be given 

CARE SHOULD BE GIVEN WHILE PACKING: 

1. Bring the carriage to the centre. 

2. Two marginal stops should be brought to the centre 
(Close together) 

3. Space bar must be tied with frame. 

4. Shift Lock should be pressed 

5. Coverthe machinewith metal cover orby good cloth. 



128 



7. ENVELOPE ADDRESSING 



There are two methods of Envelope Addressing: 

1. Block Method 

2. Indent Method or Indentation Method 

In Block Method of envelope addressing, all the lines of the receiver's address should 
be commenced from one and the same degree near the middle-centre of the 
envelope. 

In Indent Method, the first line of the addressee's address is to be commenced near 
the middle centre of the envelope but the other lines should be commenced indenting 
or leaving five spaces after every one of the lines. 

There are two types of envelopes: 

1. Ordinary Envelopes or as Post Covers 

2. Window envelope or Panel Envelope orOutlook Envelope. 



TOP LEFT CONRNER 
BOOK POST 
Urgent, etc. 



LEFT CENTRE 
Despatch Clerk's 
Signature 



TOP CENTRE 
On I.G.S.Only, 
QMS 



TOP RIGHT CONER 
(For affixing stamps), 



BOTTOM LEFT CORNER 
Sender's addres in 
Block Method in single 
line spacing 



MIDDLE CENTRE 
Receiver's Address 



129 



ADVANTAGES: 

1 . Window envelopes generally used by Insurance Companies. 

2. It saves labourand time. 

3. Address need not be typed twice. 

4. Risk of wrongly addressing in the Enveloping can be avoided 

5. It can be visibly seen through glass paper of the window envelope. 

PIN CODE NUMBER must be typed immediately following the name of the Town 
leaving a space after the first three digits. (e.g.Vellore 632 006) 

Questions: 

1 . What are the materials required for cleaning and oiling? 

2. What is meant by Window Envelope? 

3. What are the advantages of Window Envelope? 

4. How do you take care of yourTypewriter? 

5. How do you pack your machine during travel? 

6. How many methods of Envelop addressing? What are they? 

7. Where to type the 'To' address and 'From' address on the 
Envelope? 



130 



8. The following respectable terms are used either before commencing 
the name or the end of the name of the addressee: 



Male (unmarried) 
Female (unmarried) 
Male ( married ) 

Female (married) 

Company(with personal name) 
Company(with impersonal name) 
Before the designation of officials 
Governor or President of India 

Madathipathis Head of Mutts Pope 



Christian Priest / Monks 
- do Nuns 

Judges 



Respectable authorities or persons 
- do ladies 
Physician Males 
Physician - Female 



Master or Selvan, Mr. or Thiru. or Sri 
(Selvan B. Sughanthar Master A. Newton 

Miss or Selvi or Kumari (Miss Vijayanthi, 
Selvi. Raja Rajeswari 

Mr. or Sri or Thiru. or at the 
end Esq. or AvI. (Thiru. K.Anandan, 
Amos Esq.) 

Mrs. or Smt. or Tmt . 
(Tmt. Savithiri Balaji) 

M/s.or Messrs. (M/s. Spencer & Company ) 

.The (The Imperial Industry Ltd.,) 

.The (The Manager ) 

. H.E. (His Excellence) 
His Excellency 
the Government of Tamil Nadu. 

.. H.H. (His Holiness). 

His Holiness Kanchi Kamakodi 
Jaganatha Swamigal 

.. Rev . Father Arul Francis 
Rev. Sister. Daisy Rani 

. Mr. Justice Perumalswamy 
Chief Justice Mr. (name) 



Muslim Males 
Muslim Ladies 



Hon'ble Thiru. or Hon'ble sir 

Hon'ble Tmt . or Hon'ble Smt . 

Dr. Lionel Royston 

Dr. (Mrs.) or Dr.(Kumari) or 

Dr. (Tmt) Or Dr.(Smt) or Dr. (Selvi ) 

Janab S.Hayath Basha Sahib 
Janaba M.A. Zehrajabeen Sahiba 



131 



9. MECHANISM QUESTION & ANSWERS 

1 . What is a typewriter? 

Typewriter is a machine which produces impression like a print. 

2. Who invented the Typewriter and when? 

Sir. John Henry Mill invented the Typewriter in 1714. First Typewriter 
brought to India in 1876. Electronic Typewriters were introduced invented in 1936 
by Muthiah of Ceylon. In 1958 Tamil Nadu Government approved a Standardized 
Tamil Key Board. 

3. What are the various kinds of Typewriter? 

There are two kinds of Typewriters. They are: 

1. Standard Typewriter 2. Portable Typewriter 

Standard Typewriters are used in Offices, Institutes and Schools. 

Portable Typewriters are used for Camp purposes. 

4. How can a typewriter be identified? 

A Typewriter can be identified by its make (Model) and its serial number. 

5. How many keys are there in the Keyboard? 

There are 44 Character Keys and 11 Non-character keys in the Keyboard. 

6. What is meant by a "Dead Key"? 

The Dead Key causes impression but does not causes the carriage to 
move. It shows in the Language Typewriters. 

7. What is Character Key? What is non character key? 

The key which give impression while typing are called Character Keys. 
Keys which do not give impression are called non-character keys. 

8. Mention the Non-Character keys? 

(A) Space Bar, [Shift key], [c] Shift lock, [d] Back Spacer key,[e] Tabulator 
Bar, [f] Tabulator set key, [g] Tabulator clear key, [h] Margin Releaser, [i] Key 
Release key. 

9. What is the use of Space Bar? 

Space Bar is used to give one space between one word to another. The 
carriage moves to left when it is pressed. It is also used to type vertical borders in 
display work. Space Bar is fixed at the bottom of the key Board. This should be 
operated by right thumb. 



132 



10. What is the use of Back Space Key? 

Back space key is used to type (to fill up) the omitted characters. The 
Carriage moves one space to right side when it is press. 

11. What is the use of shift key and shift lock? 

Shift key is used to Type upper case characters (Capital letters) 
occasionally and to release the Shift Lock. Shift lock is used to type upper case 
characters continuously. 

12. What are the Guide Keys? 

Guide keys are 'A' and ';'. 

13. What are Home Keys? Why are they so called? 

'asdf and ';lkj' are called Home keys. Because the respective fingers 
should remain on these keys when not striking the other keys. 

14. Which is the Master Key? What is the use of Master Key? 

Keys with capital letters 'N' and 'H' are called Master keys. It is used to 
check the alignment of other types. 

1 5. What are the various sizes of Typewriter? 

[A] Foolscape 80 -100 degree [b] Brief size 140 degree [c] Policy 180degree 
[d] Manifest 240. 

16. State the different kinds of Typefaces? 

Pica (10 letters for one inch) 

Elite(12 letters for one inch) 

Roman/Large pica ( 8 letters for one inch) 

Madrid pica, Cubic pica, Cheque Writer, Italic, Script etc. 

The Kind types that is most commonly used in pica and Elite. 

17. What are the two kinds of shift systems ? 

a) Carriage shift system b) Segment shift system. Segment shift system is 
advantageous. 

18. What are the uses of Type bar cushion or Rubber bed ? 

Type bar cushion is arranged under the type faces. It reduces the sound 
while typing . It prevents damage to the type bars. 

19. What are the uses of variable Line spacer? 

The Variable Line spacer is used to type on ruled papers, to type chemical 
formula and fractions, to type algebra sings and to type double total lines 

133 



20. What is the link between pinion wheel and the carriage ? 

The carriage Rack is the link between pinion wheel and the carriage. 

21. When the Typewriter is to be taken to distant places, how should the 
marginal stops be placed? 

The two marginal stops should be brought together to the centre place of 
the carriage. The carriage does not move either left or right side. 

22. Why is the carriage always moving from right to left? 

The mainspring which givers the tension to draw the carriage is fixed in; the 
left back side of the typewriter. So the carriage is moving always from right to left, 

23. How many movements of ribbon are there? 

There are three movements: 

a. Step by step movement of Lengthwise movement. 

b. Up and down movement or Breath wise movement. 

c. Automatic reversal movement. 

24. What is meant by alignment? 

Alignment is the forming of letters in a regular line with even space between 
them. 

25. What happens if the Draw Cord snaps? 

The Carriage suddenly dashes to the left side. 

26. What is Mainspring? Describe the function? 

Mainspring is a coiled spring. It is screwed tightly and fixed in the 
Mainspring Drum. Mainspring Drum is fixed in the left backside of the machine. It 
supplies the motive power to draw the carriage towards left through the draw cord. 

27. How Many rubber feet are in the Typewriter? What are the uses of it? 

There are four rubber feet in the typewriter. 

Uses: 1. To reduce the sound and prevent the machine from moving while 
typing. 

2. To prevent damage to the key levers. 

28. How many methods followed in typing? What are they? 

There are two methods of manipulation of the key board 
They are 1 )Touch method or Blind method 
2) Sight method 

29. What is meant by touch system? 

Touch system means mentally locating the position of the keys by sense of 
touch without looking at the key board. 

134 



II. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER OPERATION: 



Knowing About Computer 



What is a Computer? 

We use Typewriter Machines in our daily life. 
Typewriter Machines make our work easy. 
Machines save our time, energy and give us 
comfort. But a Computer is an advanced 
machine found from the basic of the typewriter. 

Computer is also a Machine. It helps us to do our 
work with ease and makes our life easy. 
Computers are used in almost all walks of life. 

Computers work on electricity. They need to be switched ON before we can use 
them. We switch ON rthe Computer using the ON/OFF Switch. When we switch 
ON the Computer, Electricity flows from the Power Plug through the Power Cable 
to the Computer. To check whether a Computer or its part is ON or OFF, we need 
to check the Power-ON I Light . If the light glows it is ON, Or else, It if OFF 
Almost all the Computer parts have Power ON Lights on them. 




Electricity is dangerous . Never touch Plugs or wires when the Computer is 
ON. You can get hurt if you are not careful. 

Early History 

2500 BC- The Abacus 

1614 AD - Napier's Bones 

1633 AD- The Slide Rule 

1642 AD - The Rotating wheel Calculator 

1 822 AD - The Difference Engine 

1890 AD - Generation of Computers 



Generation of computers 

First Generation 
Second Generation 
Third Generation 
Fourth Generation 
Fifth Generation 

Data, Information and Program 



1940 - 1956 : Vacuum Tubes 

1956- 1963 : Transistors 

1964 - 1971 : Integrated Circuits 

1971 - Present : Microprocessors 

Present and Beyond : Artificial Intelligence 



Computer is a tool for solving problems. Computers accept instructions and data, 
perform arithmetic and logical operations and produce information. Hence the 
instructions and data fed into the computer are concerted into information through 
processing. 



135 



Data 



Processing 



Information 



Basically data is a collection of facts from which information may be derived. Data 
is defined as an un- processed Collection; fo raw facts in a manner suitable for 
communication, interpretation or processing. 

Hence data are 

Stored facts 

Inactive 

Technology based 

Gathered from various sources.; 

On the other hand information; is a collection of facts from which conclusions 
may be drawn. Data that has been interested, translated or transformed to reveal the 
underlying meaning. This information can be represented in textual, numerical, graphic, 
Cartographic, narrative, or audiovisual forms. 

Hence information is 
Processed facts 
Active 

Business Based 
Transformed from data 

Algorithm is defined as a step-by-step procedure orformula for solving a problem 
i.e. a a set of instructions or procedures for solving a problem. It is also defined as a 
mathematical procedure that can usually be explicitly encoded in a set of computer 
language instruction that manipulate data. 



A computer program (or set of programs) is designed to systematically solve a 
problem. For example, a problem to calculate the length of a straight line joining any two 
given points. 

The programmer must decide the program requirement develop logic and write 
instructions for the computer in a programming language that the computer can 
translate into machine language an d execute. Hence, problem solving is an act of 
defining a problem understanding the problem and arriving at workable solutions. 

In other words, problem solving is the process of confronting a novel situation, 
formulating connection between the given facts identifying the goal of the problem and 
exploring possible methods for reaching the goal. It requires the programmer to co- 
ordinate previous experience and intuition in order to solve the problem. 

136 



Hardware and Software 
Introduction 

A computer system has two major components, hardware and software. In 
practice, the term hardware refers to all the physical items associated with a computer 
system. Software is a set of instructions, which enables the hardware to perform a 
specific task 

Computer Hardware 

A computer is a machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), and 
process it into useful information (Output). It also stores data for later reuse (storage). 
The processing is performed by the hardware. The computer hardware responsible for 
computing are mainly classified as follows: 



Main 
Memory 



Secondary 
Storage 



Input Devices 



CRU 



Output 
Devices 



Input devices allows the user to enter the program and data and send it to the 
processing unit. The common input devices are keyboard, mouse and scanners. 

The Processor, more formally known as the central processing unit (CPU), has the 
electronic circuitry that manipulate input data into the information as required. The 
central processing unit actually executes computer instructions. 

Memory from which the CPU fetches the instructions and data is called main memory. 
It is also called as primary memory and is volatile in nature. 

Output devices show th processed data - information - the result of processing. The 
devices are normally a monitor and printers. 

Storage usually means secondary storage which stores data and programs. Here the 
data and programs are permanently stored forfuture use. 



137 



The hardware devices attached to the computer are called peripheral 
equipment. Peripheral equipment includes all input, output and secondary storage 
devices. 

Computer software 



Software refers to a program that makes the computer to do something 
meaningful. It is the planned, step-by-step instruction required to turn data into 
information. Software can be classified into two categories: System Software and 
Application Software. 

Computer Software 



1 



System Software 



Application Software 



System software consists of general programs written for a computer. These 
programs provide the environment to run the application programs. System software 
comprises programs, which interact with the hardware at a very basic level. They are 
the basic necessity of a computer system for its proper functioning. System software 
serves as the interface between hardware and the user The operating system 
compilers and utility programs are examples of system software 



Application software 



n 



System software 



H 



H 



Hardware 



The most important type of system software is the operating system. An 
operating system is an integrated act of specialized programs that is used to manage 
the overall operations of a computer.. It acts time an interface between the user, 
computer hardware and software. Every computer must have an operating system to 
run other programs. DoS (Disk Operating System), Unix, Linux and windows are some 
of the common operating systems. 

138 



The comelier software translates the source program user written program) into 
an object program (binary form). Specific compilers are available for computer 
programming languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, C, C++ etc. The utility programs 
support the computer for specific tasks like file copying, sorting, linking a object 
program, etc. 

Source Program 



Compiler 
Object Program 



An Application software consists of programs designed to solve a user problem. 
It is used to accomplish specific tasks rather than just managing a computer system. 
Application; software are in turn, controlled by system software which manages 
hardware devices. 

Some typical examples are : railway reservation system, game programs, work 
processing software, weather forecasting programs. Among the application software 
some are packaged for specific tasks. The commonly used application Software 
packages are word processor, spread sheet, database management system and 
graphics. 

One of the most commonly used software package is word processing 
software. Anyone who has used a computer as a word processor knows that it is far 
more than a fancy typewriter. The great advantage of word processing over a 
typewriter is that you can make changes without retyping the entire document. The 
entire writing process is transformed by this modern word processing software. This 
software lets you create, edit, format, store and print text and graphics. Some of the 
commonly used word processors are Microsoft word, WordStar, WordPerfect, etc. 

Spreadsheet software packages allow the user to manipulate numbers. 
Repetitive numeric calculations, use of related formulae and creation of graphics and 
charts are some of the basic tools. This capability lets business people try different 
combinations of numbers and obtain the results quickly. Lotus1-2-3, Excel, etc. are 
some of the famous spreadsheet applications 



Type of Software 


Functions 


Examples 


Word Processors 


All personal Computers are 
loaded with word processing 
software which has the same 
function as a typewriter for 
writing letters, preparing 
reports and printing 


Microsoft word, 
Word Perfect, 
Word star 


Spreadsheet 


A table containing text and 
figures, which is used to 
Calculations and draw charts 


Microsoft excel, 
Lotus 1-2-3 


Database 

Management 

System 


Used for storing, retrieval and 
Manipulation; of Information 


Microsoft Access, 
Oracle. 



139 



Basic Components of a Digital Computer 
Introduction 



Computers are often compared to human beings since both have the ability to 
accept data, store, work with it, retrieve and provide information. The main difference is 
that human beings have the ability to perform all of these actions independently 
Human being also think and control their own activities. The computer, however, 
requires a program (a predefined set of instructions) to perform an assigned task. 
Human beings receive information in different forms, such as eves, ears, nose, mouth, 
and even sensory nerves. The brain receives or accepts this information, works with it 
in some manner, and then stores in the brain for future use. If information the time 
requires immediate attention, brain directs to respond with actions. Likewise the 
central Processing Unit (CPU) is called th brain of the computer. It reads and executes 
program instructions, performs calculations and makes decisions. 

Components of a Digital Computer 

Computer system is a tool for solving problems. The hardware should be 
designed to operate as fast as possible. The software (system software) should be 
designed to minimize the amount of idle computer time and yet provide flexibility by 
means of controlling the operations. Basically any computer is supposed to carry out 
the following function. 

-Accept the data and program as input 

- store the data and program and retrieve as and when required. 

- Process the data as per instructions given by the program 

- Communicate the information as output 

Based on the functionalities of the computer, the hardware components can be 
classified into four main units, namely 

- Input Unit 

- Output Unit 

- Central Processing Unit 

- Memory Unit 

These units are interconnected by minute electrical wires to permit 
communication between them. This allows the computer to function as a system. The 
block diagram is shown below. 



Input 
Unit 



^> 



Central 
Processing Unit 



^> 



Output 
Unit 




Memory Unit 



140 



Functional Units of a Computer System 



Input Unit 



A Computer uses input devices to accept the data and program. Input devices 
allow communication between the user are the computer. In modern computer 
keyboard, mouse, light pen touch screen etc, are some of the input devices. 

Output Unit 

Similar to input devices, output devices have an interface between the 
computer and the user. These devices take machine coded output results from the 
processor and convert them into a form that can be used by human beings. In modern 
computers, monitors (display screens) and printers are the commonly used output 
devices. 

Central Processing Unit 





Central Processing Unit 






Control Unit 


Arithmetic and 
Logic Unit 




Registers 









Central Processing Unit 

CPU is the brain to any computer system. It is just like the human brain that 
takes all major decision, makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of the 
computer function by activation and controlling the operation. It consists of arithmetic 
and logic units, control unit and internal memory (registers). The control unit of the 
CPU co-ordinates the action of the entire system. Programs(software) provide the 
CPU, a set of instruction to follow and preform a specific task. Between any two 
components of the computer system, there is a pathway called a bus which allows for 
the data transfer between them 

Control unit controls all the hardware operations, , those of input units, output 
units, memory unit and the processor. The arithmetic and logic units in computers are 
capable of performing addition, subtraction, division and multiplication as well as some 
logical operation. The instruction and data are stored in the main memory so that the 
processor can directly fetch and execute them. 



141 



Memory Unit 

In the main memory, the computer stores the program and data that are 
currently being used. In other words since the computers use the stored program 
concept, it is necessary to store the program and data in the main memory before 
processing. 

The main memory holds data and program only temporarily. Hence there is a 
need for storage devices to proved backup storage., They are called secondary 
storage devices or auxiliary memory main memory and is much less expensive. 

Stored Program Concept 

All modern computer use the stored program concept. This concept is known as 
the Von-Neumann concept due to the research paper published by the famous 
mathematician John Von Neuman. The essentials of the stored program concept are 

- the program and data are stored in a primary memory (main memory) 

- once a program is in memory, the computer can execute it automatically 
without manual intervention. 

- the control unit fetches and executes the instructions in sequence one by one. 

- an instruction can modify the contents of any location in the stored program 
concept is the basic operating principle for every computer. 

Central Processing Unit 

Functions of a Central Processing Unit 

The CPU is the brain of the computer system. It performs arithmetic operations 
as well as controls the input, output and storage units. The functions of the CPU are 
mainly classified into two categories : 

- Co - ordinate all computer operations 

- Perform arithmetic and logical operations on data 

The CPU has three major components. 

-Arithmetic and Logic Unit 

- Control Unit 

- Registers ( internal memory) 

They arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) is the part of CPU where actual 
computations take place. It consists of circuits which perform arithmetic operation over 
data received from memory and are capable of comparing two numbers. 

The Control unit directs and controls the activities of the computer system. It 
interprets the instructions fetched from the main memory of the computer, sends the 
control signals to the devices involved in the execution; of the instructions. 



142 



While performing these operations the ALU takes data from the temporary 
storage area inside the CPU named registers. They are high-speed memories which 
hold data for immediate processing and results of the processing. 



Input Unit 



Control Unit 



ALU 



v 



i t 



Internal 
Memory 



1 t I 

i i I x 



Out put 



Control Path 



Data Path 



Main Memory 



Secondary Storage 



Functions of a CPU 

Working with Central Processing Unit 

The CPU is similarto a calculator, but much more powerful. The main function of 
the CPU is to perform arithmetic and logical operations on data taken from main 
memory. The CPU is controlled by a list of software instructions. Software instructions 
are initially stored in secondary memory storage device such as a hard disk, floppy 
disk, Cd - ROM, or magnetic tape, these instructions are then loaded onto the 
computer's main memory. 

When a program is executed, instructions flow from the main memory to the 
CPU through the bus. The instructions are then decoded by a processing unit called 
the instruction decoder that interprets and implements the instructions. The ALU 
performs specific operations such as addition, multiplication, and conditional tests on 



143 



the data in its registers, sending the resulting data back to the main memory or storing it 
in another registerforfurther use. 

To understand the working principles of CPU, let use go through the various 
tasks involved in executing a simple program. This program performs arithmetic 
addition on two numbers. The algorithm of this program is given by 

(1) Input the value of a 

(2) Input the value of b 

(3) Sum = a+b 

(4) Output the value of sum 

This program accept two values from the keyboard, sums it and displays the 
sum on the monitor. The steps are summarized as follows : 

1. The control unit recognizes that the program (Set of instructions) has been 

loaded into the main memory. Then it begins to executes the program 
instructions one by one in a sequential manner. 

2. The control unit signals the input device(say keyboard) to accept the input for 

the variable 'a'. 

3. The user enters the value of 'a' on the keyboard. 

4. The control unit recognizes and enables to route the data (Value of a) to the pre- 

defined memory location (address of 'a'). 

5. The steps 2 to 4 will be repeate4d for the second input 'b' The Value of 'b' is stored 

in the memory location (address of 'b'). 

6. The next instruction is an arithmetic instruction. Before executing the arithmetic 

instruction, the control unit enables to send a copy of the values stored in 
address of 'a' and address of 'b' to the4 internal registers of the ALU and signals 
the ALU to perform the sum operation 

7. The ALU performs the addition. After the computation, the control unit enables to 

send the copy of the result back to the memory (address of 'sum'). 

8. Finally, the result is displayed on the monitor. The control unit enables to send the 

copy of the values of the address of 'sum' to the monitor (buffer) and signals it. 
The monitor displays the result. 

9. Now this program execution is complete. 

The data flow and the control flow of CPU during the execution of this program is given 
as 



144 



Summary 

* Computers are often compared to human beings since both have the ability to 
accept data, store, work with it, retrieve and provide information. 

* A computer system is the integration of physical entities called hardware and non- 
physical entities called software. 

* The hardware components include input devices, processor, storage devices and 
output devices. 

* The software items are programs and operating aids so that the computer can 
process data. 

* A computer uses input devices to accept the data and program. 

* In modern computers, monitors and printers are the commonly used output 
devices. 

* CPU is the brain of any computer system. It consists of arithmetic and logic units 
control unit and internal memory (registers). 

* Control unit controls all the hardware operations, ie, those of input units, output 
unit and the processor. 

* The arithmetic and logic units in computers are capable of performing addition, 
subtraction, division and multiplication as well as some logical operations. 

* In the main memory, the computer stores the program and data that are 
currently being used. 

* All modern computers use the stored program concept. This concept is due to 
John Von Neuman. 

* The smallest unit of information is a single digit called a 'bit' (binary digit), which 
can be either or 1. 

* The Secondary memory is the memory that supplements the main memory. This 
is a long term non-volatile memory. 

* The most common input device is the keyboard. 

* Mouse is an input device that controls the movement of the cursor on the display 
screen. 

* Monitor is a commonly used output device. 

* Some of the commonly used storage devices are hard disks, magnetic tapes, 
floppy disks and CD-ROM. 

145 



Uses of Computers 

Computers are very useful Machines. Unlike many other machines that have 
definite purposes, a Computer can do any number of things. They help us to 
play games, write letters, do calculations, draw and paint pictures, listen to 
music, watch movies, etc. Computers are used in many places. Some of the 
common places are: 

Business places and in Other places: 

Computers are used in business places like shops, Offices, Banks, Homes 
schools Industries, etc. There are many repetitive jobs in business places, 
Computers are used very effectively to handle three types of jobs, since they 
never get bored doing the same thing again and again. 



Features of the Computer* 

A Computer has the following four important qualities. These are what that 
makes a Computer such a special machine. 

1. The Computer works very fast. It can do a number of calculations in a 
second. At best, we can only do one such calculation in ka few seconds. 

2. We might make mistakes, while we work. But the Computer never makes 
mistakes. It always gives results correctly. The Computer never gets tried. 
It can work continuously for many hours. 

3. Computers have a large memory. They can store large amounts of 
information. 

4. Unlike other machines, A Computer can do a verity of Jobs. 



Types of Computers: 

I Micro Computers 

I Mini Computers 

I Main Frame Computers 

I Supercomputers. 

Main parts of the Computers 
are: 

I The System Unit 
I Monitor 
I Key board 
I Mouse 



The System Unit looks like a box. 
All the Other Computer parts (called Peripherals') 

are connected to the System Unit. The System Unit is a very important part of 
the Computer because it contains the 'Central Processing Unit (CPU) The CPU 

146 





is the Computer's most important part because: 

X The CPU does all the work that we give to the Computer. 

X It controls all the activities of the Computer. Hence, it is also called the 
'Brain' of the Computer. 

X The CPU is a single semiconductor chip made of Silicon. It sits inside 
the System Unit. It is fitted on the main circuit board of the Computer 
called the 'Mother Board' 

X In the system, the Input Devices get data and instructions from the user, 
and then place them in the Main Memory (RAM) 

X The CPU takes these (data and instructions) from the Main Memory and 
then processes it. It then sends the results back to the Main Memory. 
The results are then send from the Main Memory to the Output Devices 
for the user. 

A CPU is also known as the 'Microprocessor' 

In early Computers, CPUs were made of Vacuum 
Tubes and were very large. 

The CPU has two main components: 

1. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) 

2. Control Unit. 

The Arithmetic and Logic Unit carries out all the arithmetic (calculations like 
addition subtraction, multiplication and division) and Logic (comparisons like 
A>B) operations of the Computer. The Control Unit controls the activities of 
the ALU, Memory and the other devices. 

A CPU's speed is measured in Mega Hertz (MHz) or Giga Hertz (GHz). 

MONITOR: 

After processing the Input, the Computer presents the results to us through 
the Output devices. The Monitor and the Printer are the most common Output 
Devices of the Computer (but there are many more) 

I Monitor is also called 'Screen' 

I The Monitor is connected to a circuit board called 'Display Adapter Card' 
in side the System Unit. 

A Monitor looks and works like a TV set. It is an Output Device that displays 
information from the Computer (like text, pictures, movies, etc.,) It also 
displays our instructions that we type using the keyboard. There are two 

147 




types of Monitors Monochrome and Colour. Monochrome Monitors display 
information in a single colour whereas Colour Monitors display information 
in various colours. Monitors come in different sizes. Monitor resolution is 
determined by the number of 'Pixels' (which is the short for 'Picture 
Elements') A Monitor with greater number of 
Pixels has a higher resolution and hence can 
display a sharper picture. 

There are various Controls on the Monitor. These 
are used to control the Brightness, Contrast and the 
Position of the picture on the Monitor. 

There is an ON/OFF Switch to turn the Monitor ON 
or OFF. There are also Controls to adjust the 
following: 

Brightness: This helps us to adjust the brightness 

of the picture on the Monitor. 

Contrast: This helps us to adjust the contrast of the picture on the Monitor. 

Apart from these, there are a few other controls to control the position of the 
picture on the Monitor. We will learn about these later. 

KEYBOARD: 




We give the input to the Computer using the Input Dev ices The Keyboard and 
the Mouse are the most common Input Devices of he Computer (but there are 
many more) 



I The Keyboard is an Input Device. 

I It is used to enter information into the Computer. 
101 keys The job of each key is printer on it. 



Most Keyboards have 



A Keyboard has a set of Alphabet Keys, (A to Z are marked) Number keys 
(0 to 9), Function keys (The keys labeled F1 to F12 on the top of the 
keyboard)and some Special keys. 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



Special Keys are located at 
different places on the 
keyboard. 

Some of the Special Keys are: 

Enter Key. 
Spacebar Key. 
Caps Lock Key 
Backspace Key 
Delete Key 

148 




The Enter Key is the big fat Key. It is used to enter instructions into the 
Computer. It is also used to type anew line ink the Computer. We press the 
Enter Key with our right pointing finger. 

The long thin Key at the bottom of the Keyboard is called the Spacebar. This is 
the longest Key on the Keyboard. The spacebar is used to give space between 
words. We press the spacebar with our thumb. 

Caps Lock Key is used to type letters in capitals( upper case). After pressing 
this key once, whatever we type appears in capital letters. After pressing this 
key once again, whatever we type appears in small letters. 

The Backspace Key and the Delete Key are just like Erasers. Both are used to 
correct mistakes while typing. When we press the Back space key, the letter to 
the left of the Insertion Point is erased. Pressing the Del Key deletes a letter to 
its right 

When typing the Keys of the Keyboard of the Computer, the following correct 
sitting posture should be followed always: 

X Sit at the right height 

X Keep the elbow slow and down by your sides. 

X Pull the Keyboard to the edge of the table 

X Hold the hands with curved fingers over the keys. 

X Place your wrist off the table, 

A Put both your feet on the floor (if possible) 

MOUSE 

The Mouse is also an Input Device. It has a 
tail and looks like a real Mouse. It has two buttons 
at the top-left and Right. Some moue comes with 
three buttons (Left, Right and Middle button) A Mouse 
is connected to the Computer with a cable. When we 
switch on the Computer, a Pointer that looks like an arrow 
appears on the Monitor. This is called the 'Mouse Pointer' Mouse allows us to 
move the Mouse Pointer on the Computer Screen. 
We can do the following things using the Mouse: 

X Point X Left- Click X Right click X Double Click 

149 




X Drag and Drop 

The Mouse has a Ball under it. The Mouse moves on this ball. This is called the 
'Tracking Ball' It is similar to the Steering Wheel of a car. It helps us to control 
where the Moue Pointer on the Computer Screen is going. When we move the 
Mouse, The Tracking Ball also moves. This makes the Mouse Pointer also to 
move. 

We should always use a Mouse with a Mouse Pad. Or else, it will get spoilt. 
While working, if the Mouse goes off the edge of he Mouse Pad, e should pick it 
up and place it in the center of the Mouse Pad. 

Trackball: Trackball is a pointing device similar to a Mouse. It also allows us 
to move the Pointer on the Computer screen. It consists of a ball resting on two 
rollers and one or more buttons. If we roll the ball using our finger, the pointer 
moves on the computer screen. Trackballs are usually found in Laptop 
computers. 
Pinter 

Printer is an output device that prints text or images on paper or other media 
(Like transparencies). By printings you create what is known as a "hard copy" There 

Printer 



Impact 



r 



Line 
Printer 



] 



Serial 

Printer 

(Dot matrix 

printer) 



I 



Non-impact 



I T 



Thermal 
(fax) Printer 



Laser 
Printer 



1 



Inkjet 
Printer 



150 



CHAPTER - 1 

AN INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS XP 

What is windows XP? 

Windows XP Professional is a user-friendly operating system designed for 
popular use. The most important advantage of using windows is its GUI (pronounced 
as GOOYEE). It is said that the right side brain is good in processing the pictures and is 
the seat of creative thinking and intuitive ideas whereas the left side brain is good at 
logical thinking. It is believed, before the introduction of GUI, users of OS, mainly used 
their left side brain, keeping their right side brain idle. It is felt, Windows effectively uses 
the left and right side of the brain. Many other operating systems (including MS-DOS) 
use Command Line Interface ( interface lets any one connected with the machine. 
Actually interface is a (virtual) connection between two entities. For example, TV. 
Remote is an interface which connects a user and a TV). In this kind of interface, you 
have to remember cryptic Commands and type them without mistakes. To make things 
worse some operating systems are case-sensitive also (LS, Ls, IS or Is are not same) . 
A simple spelling mistake or missed space will result in an error. Windows displays all 
the information on the screen and all you have to do is to point and select using the 
mouse, with its GUI. A picture is worth a thousand of words, as they say. 

Windows XP Professional combines all the positive aspects of its Microsoft 
predecessors. This satisfies all the users who want to prevent frequent crashing of 
software and want to use easy techniques. 

Mouse 

If you want to extract work from the computer, you have to input data. The input 
can normally be provided by the keyboard and the Mouse. You know the keyboard. It 
you want to move from cone window to another, unless you know the keyboard 
combinations, it will be very difficult to move one window to another by using keyboard. 
But the mouse intuitively provides the idea. 

As you have learnt in the earlier section, windows XP uses GUI. That is, all 
information is displayed on the screen. You can use it by simply pointing to it and 
selecting. To do this you use the mouse. The mouse is an input device that you move 
on a flat surface (usually a mouse pad.) When you move the mouse, a pointer movers 
on the screen. This pointer, called the Mouse Pointer, is used to point to things on the 
screen. The mouse has either two or three buttons on the top. The left button is the 
most often used. Described below are mouse actions that you need to know to use 
window XP effectively. 

Note-Click on and click are used interchangeably for example you can write 
Click on the button or click the button . Both forms are used in this chapter. 

1)Move: Moving the mouse is simply dragging the mouse on the mouse 
pad so that the mouse pointer moves in the direction you want, without touching the 
buttons. This action allows you to point to things on the screen. 

151 



2) Click: Clicking is used to select objects on the windows screen. To click, 
ensure that the mouse is pointing to want you want and press the left button of the 
mouse once and release the button immediately. 

3) Double-click: Double-clic is most often used to start applications. To double- 
click, point to what you want and press the left button of the mouse twice in quick 
succession. You should get used with double-click; because new comers to the 
computerfield find it difficult to cope with double-click in the beginning. 

4) Click and drag: this mouse action is used to move an object from one place 
to another. When you click and drag and object from one place to another. When you 
click and drag an object, the object moves along with the mouse pointer. To click and 
drag, hold the left button of the mouse down and move the mouse to the place wherever 
you want. 

Mouse after right click 

The right click: Right Mouse button gains a lot of significance now-a-days. If 
you right click on an item, you will be provided with a context sensitive menu (context 
sensitive menu changes its contents depending on the situation ) This also called shot- 
cut menu you can experiment with that menu. The context sensitive menu provides 
almost all the facilities offered by menu as well as toolbars. You can change left mouse 
button into right mouse button and vice versa. In this case the left click becomes the 
right click and vice versa. This action may be helpful; to the left handed people. 

Moving the mouse pointer via the Keyboard. 

Again you can create the effect of all the above operations by keyboard 
operations, In the beginning, people are very much attracted by the use of mouse, but 
when they have to write lengthy programs, changing mouse and keyboard frequently is 
irksome. Therefore those people who are experts in typewriting prefer to make use of 
keyboard to bring the effect of mouse click. 

The following keys can duplicate the mouse operations. It you want to use 
your keyboard to do the work of the mouse, you have to follow these steps: 

1 ) Click the Start button 

2) select the Control panel in the menu and click it. 

3) Choose the Accessibility Options in the menu and click it. 

4) It opens a screen, click on Accessibility option under pick a Control 
Panel icon. 

5) Open the Mouse tab 

6) Activate use Mouse Keys check box if it is not already activated. 

Windows XP allows you to move the mouse pointer by using the arrow keys 
on numeric keypad of the keyboard. 
Note 1 : Make sure that you have Num Lock turned on. 

Note 2 : Mouse keys do not work with the separate arrow-key keypads found on most 
modern keyboards. 

152 



Besides the basic arrow movements, you can also use the numeric keypad keys 
outlined here. The following table gives you the equivalent keys for mouse operations. 



Key 


Equivalent Mouse Action 


5 

+ 

/ 
* 


Click 

Double -Click 

Select the left mouse button 

Select both mouse buttons 

Select the right mouse button 



These key can be used as follows: 

To double-click an object, use the arrow keys to move the pointer over the 
object, press the slash key (/) to select the left mouse button, and press the plus sign (+) 
to double-click 

To right-click an object, use the arrow keys to move the pointer over the object, 
press the minus sign (-) to select the right mouse button, and press 5. 

To drag-and-drop an object, use the arrow keys to move the pointer over the 
object, press the slash key (/) to select the left mouse button, press Insert to lock the 
button, use the arrow keys to move the object to its desired destination, and press 
delete to release the button and drop the object. 

To click an object, use the arrow keys to move the pointer over the object, press 
the slash key (/) to select the left mouse button (if it isn't selected already), and press 5 
to click. 

To right-drag-and-drop an object, use the arrow keys to move the pointer over 
the object; press the minus sign(-) to select the right mouse button; press Insert to lock 
button; use the arrow keys to move the object to its destination; and then press Delete 
to release the button to drop the object, and display the context menu. 

Use Mouse Keys when Num Lock is on. These options determine the 
relationship between Mouse Keys and the Num Lock key. When On is activated (this is 
the default), for example, Windows XP will use Mouse Keys whenever you have Num 
Lock is on. If you then turn off Num Lock, you can use the regular arrow keys. 

Show Mouse Key status on screen : When this check box is activated, 
windows XP displays the Mouse Keys icon in the system tray. Double-clicking this icon 
opens the accessibility Properties dialog box. 



153 



CHAPTER: II 
WINDOWS EXPLORER: 

What is new in windows XP? 

1) Easier Installation and Updating 

Roughly speaking, installation means the addition of program files and folder to 
your hard disk. Windows XP includes several features designed to make it easier to 
install and to keep up-to-date, the program files and folders. 

2) Effective Multi-user capabilities 

Windows XP keeps each user's files separate so that no user can see another 
users files unless they have been shared deliberately. It lets multiple users Log on at 
the same time. End users run their applications. 

3) Redesigned start menu 

Windows XP provides a redesigned start menu that is easier and quicker to use. 
The start menu appears as a panel containing two columns. The lower part of the left 
column automatically reconfigures itself to show your most used applications. The 
start Menu can also be customized to the show classic start Menu (Similar to the start 
menu of Window 98 ). 

4) Taskbar changes and enhancements 

These improvements are designed to help beginners. Experienced user may 
switch back to how it was in the earlier versions of windows, if they like. 

Taskbar locking: By default, windows XP Professional locks the Taskbar. This 
prevents taking the taskbar to an inaccessible area. 

Taskbar scrolling : Taskbar locking prevents flexibility. It the taskbar is of a 
fixed size, buttons for the running applications must become very small and 
useless when 10 or more applications run, To tackle the situation windows XP 
provides a scroll bar on the taskbar when required. 

Taskbar Button grouping : Windows XP provides only one button per 
application when there is not enough space to accommodate buttons on the 
taskbar. This too prevents minimizing the size of buttons displayed on the 
taskbar. It shows the name of the current active window along with the number 
of windows and a drop-down arrow. If you click the button, it will show you the 
list of windows by title, you can select any one of them 

154 



5) Notification area 

The status area (system tray) is known as notification area. Notification area 
shows a few icons of the programs which are automatically executed at start up. 

6) better Audio and Video Features 

Windows XP includes a set of new features and improvements for audio and 
video. 

7) CD Burning 

Windows XP provides built-in CD burning capabilities, which reduce the effort 
taken by the user while writing something into the CD. 

8) Search companion 

Windows XP includes Search Companion, an enhanced search feature to 
search forfinding information both on your PC and in the world Wide Web 

9) Enhanced Autoplay Feature 

If you insert a CD and if it starts playing the music from it or installing any 
software it contains, immediately, this facility is called autoplay. This feature is 
enhanced considerably in Windows XP 

10) More Games 

Windows XP includes more games than the previous versions of Windows. 
This may be a welcome move for young people. 

11) Remote desktop Connection 

This improved feature lets you use your computer to access a remote computer 
with less effort. 

12) A more Useful Winkey 

One or two winkeys may be provided in modern keyboards. Normally the key is 
situated between ctrl and Alt keys. This key possesses the windows logo. Windows 
XP includes more functionality for the Winkey. You are provided table with the uses of 
Winkey. 

155 



WINKEY COMBINATIONS 



Winkey Combination 

Winkey 

Winkey+b 

Winkey+Break box 

Winkey+D 

Winkey+E 

Winkey+F 

Winkey+Ctrl+F 

Winkey+F1 

Winkey+L 

Winkey+M 

Winkey+Shift+M 

Winkey+R 

Winkey+Tab 

Winkey+Shift+Tab 

Winkwy+U 



What it does 

Toggles the display of the start menu 

Moves the focus to the notification area 

Displays the System Properties dialog 

Displays the Desktop 

Opens an Explorer window showing My computer 

Opens a search results window and activates search 
Companion. 

Opens a Search results window, activates search 
companion, and starts a Search for Computer. 

Opens a Help and support center window 

Locks the computer 

Issues a Minimize All Windows command 

Issues a Minimize All Windows command 

Displays the Run dialog box 

Moves the focus to the next button in the Taskbar. 

Moves the focus to the previous button in the Taskbar 

Displays Utility Manager. 



13) Improvement for portable computers 

Windows XP includes several improvements for portable computers (such as 
Note book computers). 

14) More Help 

Windows XP delivers more Help-and more different types of Help-than and 
other version of windows. You have already seen some help topics of 
interest. 



156 



15) Network Connectivity 

Windows XP provides various improvements in network connectivity. 

16) Multiple Monitor Support-For Both Desktop and Laptop. 

Windows XP Professional also introduces a new technology called Dual View, 
which offers excellent opportunities to multiple monitor support especially to 
laptops. The above characteristics can apply to both windows XP Professional 
and windows XP Home. 

The following characteristics strictly belong to Windows XP Professional. 

17) Backup and automated system Recovery (ASR) 

Windows XP Professional includes a Backup utility and an ASR feature that can 
be activated from boot up to restore a damaged system. 

18) Offline Files 

Offline files allows you to store copies of files located on network drives on your 
local drive so that you can work with them when your computer is no longer 
connected to the network. 

19) Remote Desktop 

Remote Desktop allows you to access the Desktop of the computer connected 
remotely as if you are accessing the Desktop of y9our own computer. If you 
need to connect to your computer remotely via Remote Desktop connection, 
you need Windows XP Professional rather than windows Home. So far, you 
have seen features that caught your eyes. Now, you are going to see the 
facilities hidden in Windows XP Professional. 

20) Protected Memory Management 

Windows XP offers fully protected memory management. With this facility, 
Windows XP can handle memory errors effortlessly. 

21) System File Protection 

Windows XP offers a feature called system file Protection that protects your 
system files from inadvertent mistakes on your part. 

22) System Restore 

Windows XP provides a system Restore feature. This is more effective than 
System Restore feature found in windows Me. 



157 



You can use System restore to rollback the changes to an earlier point at 
which the system was working properly. 

23) Device driver Rollback 

Windows XP tracks the drivers you install and lets you roll back the 
installation of the driver. In other words, you can revert to the driver you were 
using before. 

24) Compatibility with Windows 9x applications 

Windows XP runs all applications that would run on windows 9X, Windows 
NT and windows 2000. 

Guarding Against Viruses 

The literal meaning of virus is poison. Virus enters into the living things and 
passes its code t the cells of the host. The host cell forgets to undertake its own work, it 
becomes the industry for producing viruses, Computer virus is a mischievous program 
designed to damage the Software, Hardware and / or data. 

The technique of the biological virus is employed by the computer virus also. It 
enters your computers as innocuous software and multiplies many time,. In that 
process, it takes the lion's share of the memory normally, erasing your own useful 
programs. 

Though virus started from the Bell Laboratory in the name of core wars, it 
showed its ugly head to the world by the handiwork of a self taught Software engineer. 
But still the method of creating viruses was kept as a secret. One of the eminent 
computer professionals, while receiving a prestigious award, revealed the secret of 
creating viruses to the audience. The entire computer world was shell-shocked. This 
opened the Pandora box. From then on, the computer world is coursed with many 
viruses. Most of them are created by the students to just show their intelligence to the 
world, thus causing a loss of millions of dollars. The virus designers mainly attack 
windows OS. 

Viruses come in three basic flavours. They are file infectors, Boot sector 
viruses and Trojan horse viruses 



File infectors attach themselves to executable files and spread among other 
files when you run the program 

Boot sector viruses replace the hard disk's master boot record (or the boot 
sector on a floppy disk) with their own twisted version of the bootstrap code. 
This lets them load themselves into memory whenever you boot your system 
(the famous "Michelangelo" virus is one of these boot sector beasts). 



158 



Trojan horse viruses, which appear to be legitimate programs at first glance but 
when loaded, proceed to viciously damage your data: 

Viruses are, by now, an unpleasant fact of computing life, and you just have to 
learn to live with the threat. But somehow in the beginning, the Microsoft chose 
to ignore this ugly threat, but now Microsoft deals with this crime more seriously 
in Windows XR There are vendors who provide antiviral vaccines that will 
protect you from the hazards of this threat. Anti virus is a program to safeguard 
your system from the virus programs. 

There are many such anti viruses, which make the life of the programers 
some what easy. 

Here are two tips to keep your system virus-free: 

1 . The main source of the viruses is the floppy disk. So, one should be very 
careful about the floppies. 

2. Now-a-days, the internet is the major source of producing viruses. One 
should be very careful while downloading files from the Internet. Keep your 
virus utility's virus library up-to-date. By some accounts, more than 100 new 
virus strains are released each month, and they just get nastier and nastier. 
Regular updates will help you keep up-to-date 

The Economical explorer Keyboard 

If you want to have alternative methods for the mouse click, here is the table. 

Alt+Enter Display the properties sheep for the selected objects. 

Alt+F4 Closes explorer ( actually closes the active window ). 

Alt+left arrow Takes you back to a previously displayed folder. 

Alt+right arrow Takes you forward to a previously displayed folder 

Backspace Takes you to the parent folder fo the current 

Ctrl+A Selects all the objects in the current folder. 

Ctrl+C Copies the selected objects to the Clipboard 

Ctrl+V Pastes the most recently cut or copied objects 

Ctrl+X Cuts the selected objects to the clipboard 

Ctrl+Z Reverses the most recent action. 

Delete Sends the currently selected objects to the recycle Bin 

159 



F2 
F3 
F4 
F5 



F6 

Shift+Delete 

Shift+10 
Tab 



It helps to rename the selected object. 

Displays the find dialog box with the current folder 

Opens the Address toolbar's drop-down list. 

Refresh the Explorer window. This is handy if you have 
made changes to a folder via the command line or a DOS 
program and you want to update the Explorer window to 
display the changes 

Cycles the highlight among the all Folders list, the 
Contents list, and the address toolbar. 

Delete the currently selected objects without sending 
them to the Recycle Bin 

Displays the context menu for the selected objects 

Cycles the highlight among the All Folders list, the 
contents list and the address toolbar. F6 does the same 
thing. 



Keys for Moving the Cursor through Text 
Key 



t 



Where it Moves the Cursor 

One character to the right 
One character to the left 
Up one line 
Down one line 



Home 

End 

Ctrl+Home 

Ctrl+End 

Page Up (Page Up) 



Beginning of the line 
End of line 
Top of document 
End of document 
Up a page (or screen) 



160 



Page Down (Page Dn) Down a page (or screen) 

Ctrl+ * One word to the left 

Ctrl+ ^ One word to the right 

t 

Ctrl+ i Up one paragraph 

Ctrl+ ▼ Down one paragraph 

Ctrl+Page Up (PgUp) To top of previous page 

Ctrl+Page down (PgDn) To top of next page 

Summary 

The opening screen is called the Desktop. It contains icons and taskbar. Icons are 
small pictures representing applications. The taskbar has the start button, the quick 
launch toolbar and the System Tray. 

The Start menu acts as a launch pad for most of the applications in the computer. 

You can start application using the icons on the desktop or the start menu. 

The rectangular area on the desktop that is used by an application is called a 
window. 

Every window has a title bar with sizing buttons, menu bar, tool bar and borders. 

A window can be moved, resized or closed. 

Windows XP allows you to customize the desktop and taskbar. 

The Control Panel allows you to install and manage different hardware and software 
components in your computer. 

It is always a good practice to shut down the computer properly before switching the 
power off. 

Files can be of two types -Application and document files. Applications are used to 
create data files 

Command Prompt option on the start menu allows you to use DOS commands and 
run DOS- based programs 

The Clock on the taskbar is used to change the date and time 



161 



The Calculator is like an ordinary calculator. WordPad is a simple word processor 
that is used to enter and store text. Paint is used to draw and colour pictures. 

Windows allows you to use multiple applications at the same time. 

You can switch between applications using the buttons on the taskbar. 

You can also transfer data between two applications. 

The Clipboard is a temporary storage for data being copied or moved. 

All information on disks are stored as files. Every file has an unique file name. 
A collection of files is called a folder 

Windows explorer is an application that allows you to manage your files and 
folders. 

Windows Explorer provides two Bars. They are Explorer Bar, folders Bar. Explorer 
Bar provides easy way to move, copy or delete. 

Using windows explorer, you can, view the files and folders on your disk. 

Create new folders, Copy and move files and folders. Rename files and folders 

Delete files and folders 

Create shortcuts for frequently used files and applications. 

CD-RW can be used as a floppy. 

The Search feature allows you to search for files or folders. 

The Run command provides an alternate way to start applications and open data 
files. 

Viruses are ugly programs that spoil work. One has to be careful about them. 



162 



IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED FOR THE 
1st CHAPTER AN INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS XP 

1. Windows XP is an Operating System. 

2. The opening screen is called the Desktop. It contains icons and Taskbar, 
Icons are small pictures representing applications. The Taskbar has the 
Start button. The Quick Launch toolbar and the Systems Tray. 

3. The Start menu acts as launch pad for most of the applications in the 
computer. 

4. We can start applications using the icons on the desktop or the Start menu. 

5. The rectangular area on the desktop that is used by an application is called 
a Window. 

6. Every window has title bar with sizing buttons, menu ,bar, tool bar and 
boarders. 

7. A Window can be moved, resized or closed. 

8. The Control Panel allows you to install and manage different hardware and 
software components in your computer. 

9. It is always a good practice to shut down the Computer properly before 
switching the power off. 

10. When we move the mouse, a pointer move on the screen. This pointer, 
called the Mouse Pointer. 

11. Turn off the computer by the key combinations of Alt=F4 and the click turn 
off button. 

12. Resource Button: This button is used to restore the window to its original 
size (i.e. to the size before you maximized it.) 



163 



13. Maximize Button: Click on this button enlarges the window to fill the entire 
desktop. 

14. Close Button: This button is used to close a window. 

15. List Box: These boxes display a list of choices, we can select the one we 
want by simply clicking on it. 

16. OK button in a dialog box, Window will accept our choices 

17. Cancel button will make windows ignore the changes and close the dialog 
box. 

18. Blue Underlined Text: Click the blue underline text, it will open the item 
associated with the text. 

19. Green Underlined Text: Click on this term it will provide the definition of the 
term. 

20. Changed View: In order to reclaim more space, we can hide the left pane by 
clicking the Change View button. If we again click Change View button, the 
left pane will appear once again. We can also perform the above action 
manually. We can drag the right pan to the left, so that a right pan may 
occupy the entire screen. 

21. Home: This is the background display that appears on the desk top. 

22. Click on screen saver tap in the display prosperities dialog box 

23. Control panel provides two views to control panel. Namely (i) Category view, 
(ii) Classic view. 

24. The opening screen of Windows XP is called the Desktop. 

25. The two different start menus are usual start menu, and classic start menu. 

26. Control Panel allows you to install and manage different hardware and 
software components in your computers. 

27. When we in are in Welcome Screen Ctrl+Alt+Del Key combinations entering 
in the user name and password dialog box. 

28. Closed button is used to close a Window. 

164 



2ND CHAPTER: WINDOWS EXPLORER: 

1 . All information on disks are stored as Files. 
Each file has an unique file name. 

2. It is a collection of files is known as Folder 
To start Windows explorer click 

3. Start ? All programs ? Accessories ? Window Explores 

1. Windows Explorer is an application that allows us to manage our files and 
folder. 

2. Explorer is divided into three categories, namely 

(l)File and Folder Task (ii) Other places (iii) Details 

3. A small yellow icon represents each folders 

4. Create new folders, copy and move files and folders. Rename files and 
folders. 

5. Create shortcuts for frequently used files and applications. 

6. To Open a new folder: 

Click File ? New ? Folder (A new folder is created temporary) 

7. A plus sign to the left of the folder icon in Folder Bar indicates the presence 
of Subfolders within this folder 

8. + sign to display a list of the subfolder. Sign will hide the details. 

9. If there is no +sign to the left of a folder icon, it means that the 
folder does not have any subfolder. 

10 Views will help us in finding a forgotten file 

11. Windows Explorer provides two Bars. They are explorer Bar, 
Folders Bar, Explorer Bar provides easy way to move, copy or 
delete. 

12. Using Windows, Explorer, we can, View the files and folders on our 
Disk. 

13. Moving and Copying Files and Folders: 

Once the files are selected, we can move or copy them using Cut, 
Copy and Paste in three different ways. 

165 



(i) Click on the Ed 

(ii) Right click on 
short cut menu 

(iii) We can use th 
(Ctrl+c) to copy 

14. Difference between 
folders untouched 
removes the files or 
destination location 

15. CD-RW can be usee 

16. CD-R disk cannot b( 

17. Click File? Rename 

18. Recycle Bin is like tl 

1 9. The Search feature 

20. The Run command | 
applications and op< 

21. To use the Run com 
Run. Type the file r 

22. File name is made u 
(i) main component 

23. The dot (or full stop) 
Extension 

24. Start Paint: Click on 

25. Windows XP allows 
(i) Keyboard shortci 

166 26. Shortcut Method to K 

Paint. To do it, first i 
Accessories/ Paint 

27. What is new in Win< 

(a) Effective mu 

(b) Easier Insta 



(c) Redesigned Start Menu. 

(d) Taskbar changes and Enhancements. 

(e) Notification area. 

(f) Better Audio and Video features 

(g) CD Burning 

(h) Search Companion 

(i) Enhanced Auto play Feature 

(j) More games. 

(k) Remote Desktop connection 

(I) A more useful win key. 

(m) Improvement for portable Computer. 

(n) More Help and Network Connectivity. 

(o) Multiple monitor support for both desktop and laptop 

(p) Backup and Automated system recovery. 

(q) Offline files. 

(r) Remote Desktop 

(s) Protected Memory Management 

(t) System file protection and system Restore. 

(u) Device Driver Rollback. 

(v) Compatibility with windows 9x Applications. 

28. Viruses come in three basic flavours. There are 

(i) File Infectors 

(ii) Boot sector viruses, 

(iii) Trojan horse viruses 

Viruses are very dangerous programs which spoil work. Every 
one should be careful when Operating the System. 



167 



Abbreviations 



ALU 


Arithmetic Logic Unit 


ASCII 


American Standard code for Information Interchange 


ATM 


Automatic Teller Machine 


BIT 


Binary Digit 


CAD 


Computer Aided Design 


CPU 


Central Processing Unit 


CD 


Compact Disk 


Dbase 


Data Base 


DOS 


Disk Operating System 


Dpi 


Dots per Inch 


EEProm 


Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory 


FDDI 


Fiber Distributed Data Interface 


FTP 


File Transfer Protocol 


FIFO 


First in First Out 


GR 


Giga Bytes 


GUI 


Graphical User Interface 


HTTP 


Hypertext Transfer Protocol 


ICChip 


Integrated Circuits Chip 


ICANN 


International Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers 


ICANN 


International Corporation; for Assigned Names and Numbers 


IP 


internet Protocol 


ISP 


Internet Service Provider 


LAN 


Local Area Network 


LSB 


Least Significant Bit 


TCP 


Transmission Control Protocol 


MAN 


Metropolitan Area Network 


MODEM 


Modulator Demodulator 


MSB 


Most Significant Bit 


MB 


Mega Bytes 



MICR 

MSDOS 

NIS 

OSI 

OS 

OCR 

OMR 

Pixel 

PC 

PDA 

PROM 

SJF 

RAM 

ROM 

UTP 

WWW 

WAN 



Magnetic Ink Character Recognition 

Microsoft Disk Operating System 

Network Interface Card 

Open System Interconnection 

Operating System 

Optical Character Recognition Software 

Optical Mark Recongnition 

Picture Element 

Personal Computer 

Personal Digital Assistant 

Programmable Read Only Memory 

Shortest Job First 

Random Access Memory 

Read Only Memory 

Unshielded Twisted Pair 

World Wide Web 

Wide Area Network 



169 



III. INTERNAL EXAMINATION 

PRACTICAL I (TYPEWRITING) 

INTERNAL ASSESSMENT - 25 MARKS 

i) Record work : Preparation of Albums, Names of parts Cleaning & 

Oiling, Envelope addressing, etc., ....5 marks 

ii) Maintenance of files and Note Book & etc., ....5 marks 

iii) Performance in monthly tests & terminal exams ....5 marks 

iv) Attendance & Attitude _....5marks 

v) Typewriter maintenance in the class room 5 marks 

PRACTICAL II (COMPUTER OPERATION) 

INTERNAL ASSESSMENT - 25 MARKS 



MARKS : 50 



i) Record work : Chapter I (Introduction to Windows XP) 

and Chapter II (Windows Explorer) 

ii) Maintenance of files and work Book & etc., 

iii) Performance in monthly tests & terminal exams 

iv) Attendance & Attitude 

v) Computer system maintenance in the class room 



...5 marks 
...5 marks 
...5 marks 
....5 marks 
....5 marks 



170 



IV. Model Question Paper 



XI. Standard 



TYPEWRITING - ( PRACTICAL) 
English 
PART -A 



Time : 15Mts. 
Marks: 50 



(Maximum Marks:150) 



Land and Labour in modern 
economic parlance are the basic 
factors of creation on this planet. 
Between the two, labour is supreme, 
for it is he who makes conscious and 
deliberate efforts to unravel the laws 
and mysteries of land and makes 
use of them for his own 
development. Indeed, his own 
development is the be-all and end- 
all of his entire conscious effort. 
Looked at in this light, human 
development has been the objective 
of human Endeavour ever since 
Adam and Eve first appeared on this 
earth. Yes in the beginning, the 
thrust of human Endeavour was in 
the direction of spiritual 
development, but now it is in the 
direction of material development. 

In the earlier years, it was 
primarily the responsibility of an 
individual to develop himself, but 
now it has become the responsibility 
of the State to arrange for all round 
development of human beings. This 
has put human beings in new light. 
The shift in emphasisfrom individual 
effort and spiritual development to 
State planning and material 
development has turned human into 
a factor of production an economic. 
Resource to be brought up 
developed and used for material 
development of the country as a 
whole. Population growth at an 
alarming rate comes in the way of 
these social objectives in a big way. 



Rapid growth of population, therefore, has 
rightly been cause of concern in jour 
country since the early fifty's. However, 
popular perception in this regard has 
undergone a sea change over the last 
couple of years. 

In early fiftys, socio-economic 
implications of population growth were a 
matter of concern largely in the context of 
the argument that rapid population growth 
is an obstacle to development. But now it 
is increasingly recognized that the 
relationship between population growth 
and development is not that simple it is 
rather much more complex. In 1 994, it has 
been forcefully argued and accepted that 
rapid population growth itself is in many 
ways the result of a lack of development. In 
course of time many other dimensions 
have been added to this relationship which 
was once viewed to be unidirectional. 
After the ICPD Conference population 
issue is placed in a much large context of 
sustainable development. Overthe years, 
the concept of development little has 
undergone a change. 

In the context of people-centered 
development, many dimensions like 
gender equity, women's empowerment, 
environmental degradation, uplift of the 
weaker sections and human resource 
development have assumed considerable 
significance. From this point of view, it is 
essential to look in to the implications of 
population. 



171 



PART : B Question No. 1 



pi 



acnQ 



No- erf 



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PART : C 
Qn.No: 5 Mechanism 10 x 2 = 20 

Answer any ten of the following questions. Each question carries equal 
marks. 



01. Who invented the first Typewriter ? When? 

02. How many kinds of Typewriter there? And what are they? 

03. How will you Identify your Typewriter? 

04. How many thumb wheels are there ? Mention its uses? 

05. How many kinds of Cylinders? And What are they? 

06. Mention any 2 sizes of the Cylinder? 

07. What are the guide fingers? And Which is the guide row? 

08. What will happen when the draw card is cut off? 

09. Mention any 2 Non-Character keys? 

10. How many Character keys are there in the key board? 

11. When cleaning and oiling has to be done? 

12. What are the accessories required for cleaning the typewriter? 

13. What is the use of a wire brush? 

14. Mention the two types of envelope? 

15. How will you clean the nickel parts? 



176