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STEAM ENGINEERING 



ON 



SUGAR PLANTATIONS, 

STEAMSHIPS, 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINHSr 



B7 JAMES STEWART. 



EUSSBLL'S AMBMOAN STEAM PRINTINa HOUSE, 
Nofl. 28, 80 and 82 CENTBE STBBET. 

18 6 7. 



; : : \ . : Ibik)?^ aocordlxig to Act of Oongress, in the year 1867, 

"^^ *-'•'" ' By JAMES STEWART, 

.^ihe CLarft'st>&lcCof the District Court of the United States for the Southern 
''■■-' " District of New York. 




TO 

JAMES BOGAEDUS, Esq., 

S^e Eminent ^tdfrnmim, 

OBIOINATOB Ain> CONBTBUOTOB OF IBON BX7ZU>INOS; 

THB DONOB, TO SCIXNOB AXD ABT, OF MAKT VALUABLE IMPBOVEMBKTS; 

THB VBIEND OF XEOHASIOS JJXD WOBKINOlfXN; 

Qliis Soo^ '^^ respectfully dedicated, 

AB A XXtarnilOKIAL PF THE HIOH B8TEE1C 
jg WBICEL HE IB HELD BY 



oo]srTE:isrT8 



-^^^^^/\^— 



SUGAR MANUFACTURINQ. 



8 TE A MSHIP 8. 



I=*-AuI=l.T III. 
XiOCOMOTIVE ISNaiNE8. 



I=>-AuI=l.T I-V^. 
ERECTING ENGINES. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



In the arrangement of this book, the au- 
thor is guided by his own experience as 
a practical engineer. 

In ^selecting sugar manufacturing in con- 
nection with engineering, the reader will 
be able to qualify himself for a position in 
a sugar-growing country ; and the descrip- 
tion given of Engines and Boilers on sugar 
plantations will answer for the same ma- 
chinery that may be used on land for any 
other purpose. ' 

A steamship engineer has to work him- 
self up* from an inferior position, although 
he may be a good engineer and machinist 
on land, and, as he sets out on his first 
voyage, it is a great advantage to have an 
idea of the work to be done at sea. 



6 PREFACE. 

This book contains enough for all practi- 
cal purposes, and being written in the style 
of language used by mechanics at their 
work, it will be easily understood by an 
intelligent man ; and there is no need of 
engravings to show the various parts, as 
the actual machine is the best illustration. 



PAKT I. 




Pj^-^ 



SUG-AB HANUTAOTUBINO. 

ooontries are Louisi- 
ihe Bast Indies, Ma- 
te five 
of the 
jr them 
i^i^T IT ^. ? . ^. _ ire laid 

ofii.e 11 x..: •-^, .. ""^ • ''^ .-^- -, . ) pieces 

'id with 

eds and 

. CaiiQ 

planted in gooa lai^v* . )\vn and 

send to the mill in one year after it is pi**... .J. 

« The cane is cut about one foot above the surface 

of the ground, and the roots are left to grow up again 

for the next year. 

The second year's cane, from the same roots, will 
be better than the first. 

There are some plantations, in the islands of Cuba 
and Porto Eico, where the cane grows fifteen feet high 
and over two inches thick. 

When the cane is ready for grinding, it is cut down^ 
the leaves are taken off, \ki^ Vy^ ^^jXiSs^ ^^i^» '^'S. ^^^nss^* 



8 SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 

one foot from the end ; these pieces that are cut off, 
and also the leaves, axe used for fodder for the cattle ; 
the canes are then cut in about four feet lengths and 
carted to the mill. 

The fields are divided off into sections, and spaces 
are left, at convenient distances, for carts to get in to 
take the cane away. 

In good land the cane does not require to be re- 
planted for four or five years. 

There are various kinds of cane : the red cane has 
a red hard skin, the white cane has a soft skin, the 
crystalline cane has a light skin, and appears to have 
a coat of varnish on it. There is a kind called Tam- 
pico cane. Each kind of cane is planted in the 
ground that is best suited for it. 

The cultivator distinguishes three kinds of cane : 
the Batavian cane, with dense foliage and covered 
with purple stripes ; the Creole cane, with dark green 
leaves and a thin and knotty stem ; the Otaheite cane, 
which is very juicy and yields much sugar. 

Good land, in Cuba and Porto Eico, will produce 
four hogsheads of sugar to the acre, while poor land 
will not produce more than from one and a half to 
three hogsheads of sugar. The hogsheads contain 
one thousand and seven hundred pounds average; 
the hogsheads in Louisiana are not so Inrge, they 
average one thousand one hundred pounds. 

The cane harvest in Louisiana is gathered sooner 
than it is in the West Indies, on account of frost, 
and the cane does not get time to grow so large. 
The cane in Louisiana is all ground up before the 



SUOAB MANUFACTURING. 9 

montli of December is out, and in the West Indies 
the cane grinding does not commence until about the 
end of December, and is not finished until the first 
day of May — the time intervening is occupied in cul- 
tivating and preparing for next crop. 

THE CANE MILL ENGINE. 

The steam engines in common use in the West In- 
dies and Louisiana for driving cane mills, are mostly 
of the high pressure, walking beam kind. A com- 
mon size is about eighteen inch diameter of cylinder, 
and four feet stroke. In the West Indies and Louisi- 
ana the climate is damp, and in the dead season, as 
it is termed, or the montbswhen the crops are grow- 
ing, after the former crop has been finished and 
made into sugar, the engine is dismantled, the bright 
work is taken off, and cleaned and packed into boxes 
filled with hot lime ; the inside of the cylinder is 
served with a coating of white lead and tallow mixed, 
and the beam centers and crank shaft and crank pin, 
and the rollers of the mill, and all the parts of the 
machinery that cannot be taken down and packed in 
lime, are served with a coating of this mixture of 
white lead and tallow. 

Therefore, before erecting the engine, all these parts 
must be carefully cleaned. 

Examine if every piece is ready to go in its place 
■—see if all the parts are level. 

Examine the timbers and brick work of the founda- 
tions ; these foundations often settle, on account of the 
^xeavy rains that fall in the dead season. 

1* . 



10 8UGAB MANUFACTURING. 

Plumb and level the cylinder and bed plate, the 
beam at the main centre also; adjust the valves; 
this is an important matter at the beginning of a long 
crop. 

HOW TO SET THE VALVES. 

First find out the way which the engine is required 
to turn ; that will be easily seen by tracing the wheels 
from the crank shaft to the rollers of the mUl. The 
piston may be put in the cylinder ; but do not put in 
the packing rings, as it will be lighter to turn the 
wheel without them. Turn the wheel around until 
the crank is on the top centre ; and to find out when 
the engine is on the dead centre, turn the fly wheel 
slowly — ^always turning the same way the engine is 
required to go ; when the piston stops moving, make 
a slight mark, with the point of a knife or a scriber, on 
the piston rod or slides ; make a trammel out of a 
piece of three-eighths of an inch iron rod ; sharpen 
both ends to a point ; bend the rod so that the points 
will be at right angles with each other ; make a cen- 
tre mark with a punch in the frame, in front of the 
fly wheel ; put one of the points of the trammel in 
the centre mark, and make a mark on the face of the 
fly wheel with the other point of the trammel ; turn 
the fly wheel slowly until the piston rod or slides 
begin to move, visible from the mark made on the 
piston rod or slides ; mark another line on the face of 
the fly wheel with the trammel ; then the centre be- 
tween the two marks that have been made on the fly 
wheel with the trammel is the true oentye. It ia best 



SUGAB XAirUFACTUBING. 11 

to find the centre in this way, as there are some en- 
gines that the wheel will turn about two feet when 
the crank is on the centre, and the piston will not 
travel any. 

Make a centre punch mark in the centre, between 
the two lines drawn on the face of the fly wheel, with 
the trammel, and let the centre punch mark remain 
in the fly wheel ; keep the trammel, so that the cen- 
tre can be found at any time when required ; in like 
manner, turn the wheel and do the same with the 
crank on the low centre; having found the centre, 
proceed to set the valve. 

The valve may be a long slide valve, that is, hav- 
ing a steam and exhaust port at each end of the cyl- 
inder ; that is the kind in most common use in this 
class of engines. 

Connect all the valve gear, eccentric rod, &c. ; turn 
the fly wheel until it comes to one of the centre marks, 
so that the trammel will match into it. By turning 
the fly wheel the same way the engine is intended to 
run, the lost motion of all the connections from the ec- 
centric wheel to the valve is taken up, and if the wheel 
should overrun the mark by the trammel, when set- 
ting the valves, the wheel must be turned back some 
distance, and then brought up slowly to the mark by 
turning again slowly the way the engine runs. Hav- 
ing got the wheel to the right position with the crank 
on the top centre, and the trammel in the centre punch 
mark on the face of the fly wheel, then the port at 
the bottom of the cylinder must be open about one- 
tenth of an inch, to admit steam ; if the valve is not 



12 SUGAB MANUFACTUBINa. 

in that position, slack the screws in the eccentric 
wheel, and turn the eccentric wheel until the valve 
comes right ; then tighten up the screws again, and 
turn the fly wheel until the engine is on the low cen- 
tre by the trammel, and see that the valve is in the 
same position at the ports of the cylinder as it was 
on the other end of the cylinder; if the valve is too 
far over, or not enough, then the eccentric rod must 
be lengthened or shortened, as the case may require; 
the eccentric rod is furnished with screw and check 
nuts, to regulate the length of the rod 

The one-tenth of an inch that the valve is open 
before the engine is over the centre, is given for the 
purpose of filling the ports, and having the steam 
ready up to the piston as soon as it begins to travel 
on the other stroke, and also to act as a cushion 
against which the piston may strike as it turns the 
centre ; this is termed the lead of the valve, and 
when the engine travels fast, as a locomotive engine 
does, the valve requires more lead. 

BBG-ULATING THE PISTON. 

The piston packing mostly in use for sugar mill 
engines, is double rings with springs. These springs 
are furnished with screws to set them up when the 
piston is slack. 

Take a piece of stout wire ; make it the right 
length to measure from four points from the inside of 
the cylinder to the piston rod. Tighten the screws 
up gently until the rod is in the centre of the cyl- 
inder. 



SUGAB MANUFACTURING. 18 

This wire measure is used to ascertain if the piston 
rod is in the centre of the cylinder, and the springs 
set up with equal pressure all around. 

Screw down the follower bolts as tight as possible ; 
screw down' the cylinder cover, then pack all the 
glands with packing yam, plaited either square or 
with three strand flat ; there is prepared packing with 
rubber and canvas ; the packing should fit the space 
that is to be packed ; drive the packing in the space 
with a piece of hard wood and a hammer ; if the 
rods or spindles are much worn and uneven, it will 
be well to cut a ring out of soft rubber, leaving space 
enough to wrap it around with hemp or cotton ; cut 
the one side open, so that it will go over the rod or 
spindle ; put two of these rings in first at the bottom 
of the space ; let the one be put on the top of the 
other, with the joints crossed; that is, put the cut 
side of one ring against the whole side of the other ; 
then pack on the top of those rings until the gland is 
full in the space ; tighten the gland down regular, so 
as to keep the rod in the centre of the gland ; soak 
the packing in oil or melted tallow before it is put in. 

TEE STEAM BOILERS. 

The steam boilers in common use for those places 
that make open kettle sugar, are boilers with two 
flues inside and built into brick work — ^the fire passing 
under the bottom of the boier and returning through 
the. two flues inside the boiler, and thence to the 
chimney. These boilers are the same as most that 
are in common use in any iactoc^ ^\iKt^ ^Ss^^^j^ '^a* 
plenty of room. 



14 SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 

The engineer must examine the brick work of bis 
boilers ; in the dead season the brick work gets damp 
and crmnbles away ; the engineer should go into the 
furnace and examine the built work ; see that the bridge 
walls are high enough up, or near enough to the bot- 
toms of the boilers ; in the event of their being too far 
away from the bottoms of the boilers, the flame will pass 
through under the boilers without having the desired 
effect ; the fire may have burned or the damp might 
have crumbled the top of the bridge walls ; let that 
be looked to, and build them up until the tops of the 
walls are about seven or eight inches from the bot- 
toms of the boilers ; or, in other words, there should 
be a space of seven or eight inches between the tops 
of the bridge walls and the bottoms of the boilers, 
to let the flame pass through with good effect. 

Care should be taken that the brick work is 
gathered in, or built up close to the boiler (to the out- 
side of the boiler), three or four inches under the 
water line. Some boilers may have the brick work 
so damaged as to leave a space between the brick 
work and the boiler, so that the flame will pass up 
above the water space and damage the boiler. It is 
always safe to have the gauge cocks or water guages 
sufficiently high so as to have the water five or six 
inches above the flues, that is, to have the flues covered 
with water about five or six inches deep at the lowest 
'gauge cock, as the engineer has to sleep, and then the 
engine and boilers are left to the care of the inex- 
perienced. This kind of boilers make more steam 
when the water is kept high. A number of these 



SUGAR MANUPAOTURING. 15 

boilers in the West Indies have their gauges placed 
too low for that country ; so that if the engineer finds 
that his lowest gauge is too near tJie top of the flues, 
let him put another above the highest ; that will then 
be the steam indicator — ^the other three below will in- 
dicate water. 

The engineer should go inside the boilers and ex- 
amine every plate ; sound all along the boiler with a 
hammer, to find out if there is any flaw or weak part 
in the plates ; if any part sounds sofl;, or if he finds 
a thin part, have a patch put on by cutting out the 
bad piece and riveting on a new piece of plate; or if 
he cannot get at the place to work at it in that way, 
then let him put on a soft patch, by drilling holes all 
around the Ht)ad place and bolting on a piece of plate, 
fitted to the place and screwed on tight, with a mix- 
ture of white lead, red lead and cast iron turnings, 
fine sifted, and mixed into a stiff putty, and put be- 
tween the boiler and the plate. The mixture will 
force its way into the bolt holes around the bolts and 
make a strong sound place of it. 

The boilers should be crusted inside — all the scale 
taken clean off; there are hammers made for that 
purpose ; these hammers are shaped at the face like 
cold chisels. The men who hammer off the scale 
should strike lightly, not to damage the iron. The 
water used for boilers in the West Indies creates a 
scale, and it should be cleaned off so as to get steam, 
and also to prevent the fire fi:om burning the plates. 
These boilers are provided with braces riveted on to 
the shell of the boiler, aud^^^m^^ wv.^^'^'^Ni^*^^^ 



16 SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 

boiler head, where they are secured to eyes with pins 
and lock pins. These pins should be taken out and 
examined, and, if they are eaten away with rust, they 
should be replaced with new ones. These braces are 
intended to prevent the boiler head from blowing out, 
and if the pins are so corroded that they are loose, 
and do not fill the hole, that will prevent the stay 
from bearing part of the strain when the pressure of 
steam comes on the inside of the boiler head. 



PIPES AND CONNECTIONS. 

Having examined his boilers and furnaces, the en- 
gineer will next look to his pipes and connections. 
The feed pipes should be disconnected at the joints, 
and new rubber joints put in ; see that the feed pipes 
are not obstructed by sediment from the bad water, 
the check valve at the boiler should be ground in with 
fine emery or sand; fill the chamber with water, 
to prove if the valve is tight, after grinding it in, and 
be sure that the valve or clack, as it is termed, lifts 
and falls easy, and care must be taken that the valve 
does not lift too high. 

These valves or clacks are cast with a piece, or pin, 
on the back, to prevent them from lifting too high up 
— when they are lifted up by the force of the water 
passing from the pump into the boiler ; if that pin is 
worn down, a screw can be put through the cover of 
the chamber for the valve to strike against ; in the 
event of the clack lifting clear above the passage or 
opening in the pipe, it might become gagged and 
stay there, the hot water from the boiler would then 
come back on the pump and pxeveiiXi \\. itoxxi ^i^Mva.^, 



SUGAB MANUFACTURING. 17 

HSATEB FOB FEED WATEB. 

The heater must be examined to see if all the pipes 
are sound and the joints good ; find out if the tubes 
need cleaning ; if a coil of pipe is used as a heater, it 
will be well to have it taken out and attached to a 
steam pipe from the boiler, and blow it througL 

Some boilers are provided with an arrangement for 
the purpose of blowing obstructions out of pipes; 
the pipe, or heater, or whatever it is, after being at- 
tached to the nozzle on the boiler, the screw valve is 
opened, and a jet of hot water and steam blows 
through the pipe, which cleans all the obstructions out. 

Examine the safety valve ; grind it in, if required, 
and see that it works loose and easy ; have the gauge 
cocks and all the brass work about the boilers cleaned 
and polished bright, and kept bright ; examine the 
damper in the chimney or flues — see that it works 
free, and regulate the length of the chain, so that it 
will be convenient. 



THE CANE MILL. 

The mill for crushing the cane, to express the juice, 
has the hardest strain to bear, and is most liable to 
break down, and it must be carefully attended to. 

The mill is furnished with three rollers ; common 
size of rollers, two feet six inches in diameter, and 
six feet long ; there are two rollers below and one on 
the top, between the two. The rollers are set in a 
strong frame of iron, and the whole mass rests upon 
two large square timbers ; these timbers are set upon 
a solid foundation. The m\\\ ^o^ ^o^^ \si^i^sxasi:^ 
about one tarn for fifteen turxia oi \)aa vi\i^^^* 



18 SUGAR MANUPACTUBING. 

On the engine shaft there is a pinion about eighteen 
inches in diameter, which drives a spur wheel about 
eighteen feet in diameter. This spur wheel is con- 
nected on the shaft that turns the top roller of the 
mill, and on the end of each roller there is a crown 
wheel ; each of these wheels gear into the other, so 
that the whole three rollers move around at a little 
over two turns per minute. The two low rollers lay- 
level in their journals. The top roller is held down 
by four large screws, that pass down through the 
frames and through the square timbers or spring 
beams below ; there is a key through each bolt, and 
a plate of iron under the spring beams for the keys 
to bear against ; these bolts are screwed down very 
hard with a long wrench. 

The rollers must be level, and when the vertical 
screws are screwed down there should be about one- 
tenth of an inch of space left open between the bot- 
tom of the top roller and the top of the last roller, 
or bagasse roller, as it is termed. It is best to have 
an iron gauge to put between the rollers, and screw 
down until the rollers touch the gauge. At the ftont 
of the mill, where the cane enters, there should be' a 
space of half an inch or more between the rollers. 
There are two horizontal screws at the front of the 
mill that act directly on the bearings of the first low 
roller ; these must be screwed up and secured, to pre- 
vent them from working loose when the mill is in mo- 
tion. These screws keep the roller up to the pressure, 
and regulate the roller, to keep it in a parallel line 
HTJth the other rollers. There are two acrewa on the 



SUGAB MANUFACTURING. 19 

other side of the mill that answer the same purpose 
for the other roller. These rollers must be kept par- 
allel to each other. In the event of their being out 
of line, the teeth of the crown wheels will not bear 
on each other fair, but they will touch at each end 
only ; that wiU break the teeth out. 

The mill has to be attended to every day — the 
screws tightened up, as may be required; there being a 
heavy strain on the mill, it is continually getting out 
of order, and must be regulated to crush the cane 
hard enough and make the bagasse fine and dry. 
There is a knife or scraper that is placed below the 
top roller, and is fastened through both sides of the 
frame of the mill. This knife is put there to keep 
the cane from passing down and to guide it through 
the mill. It is made of cast iron, although some are 
made of boiler plate, bolted on a square timber. 
The sharp side of this scraper must be kept close up 
to and scraping the face of the first roller ; and, as 
the roller sometimes springs back, with the unequal 
pressure of the cane, as it passes through, the scraper 
must be wedged in its place, so that it will spring back, 
and follow the roller, and always be close up. K the 
scraper stands still, when the roller springs back, 
there will be a space left, and the leaves and trash 
will get in and choke the mill, and may cause a break- 
down. Wedge the knife into its place, so that the 
bolts that hold it down will strain and spring it down 
to the face of the roller when the roller springs back; 
but it must not be strained too hard, or it will wear 
slwslj the knife. 



20 SUGAR MANUPAOTUBING. 

It is of great importance to have this knife set 
right 

CANE GABBIER. 

The conductor or cane carrier is an arrangement 
to convey the cane from the yard up into the mill 
It is constructed of two endless chains— one at each 
side, and boards or slats fastened on the chains. The 
sides of the conductor are made of planks built on 
uprights, and the sides are stationary. The chains 
pass over and around a drum in the yard, and they 
also pass around a drum at the mouth of the mill, 
where the cane falls in as the conductor revolves 
around. There is a coupling, or clutch, at the mouth 
of the mill, with a lever to ship and unship it, as the 
mill requires to be fed. When there is too much 
cane in the mill the clutch is unshipped, and the con- 
ductor is stopped for a few moments, until the mill 
is relieved of some of the cane; the clutch is then 
shipped again, and the conductor travels on. 

The conductor must be kept in oil, and the drum 
in the yard must be watched to see that no cane gets 
inside of it to jam the slats, and keep the conductor 
from working. 

The sides between which the conductor slides along 
are about one foot high ; that space is nearly filled 
with cane, and is a good gauge to regulate the quantity 
of cane to be passed along to the mill. There is also 
a conductor at the other side of the mill, that conveys 
the bagasse up to a point high enough up for a cart 
to get under, to receive it as \t comei«> o\i\.\ \!k^ Sa 
tie bagasse carrier. 



SUGAB MANUFACTUBING. 21 

BAISINa STEAM. 

In raising steam, to prove the engine and ma- 
chinery, the safety valve being gauged up to let out 
the air, put in a slow fire at first, in order to dry all 
the brick work about the furnace. When every part 
gets warm, and when the steam begins to blow of^ 
put down the safety valve, and put the weight out to 
the proper notch on the lever ; then go around and 
tighten up all the joints, the man head, the pipe con- 
nections also ; let a little steam into the cylinder ; 
tighten up all the joints around the engine, when 
they are warm ; the bolts will screw up some, after 
the heat gets around them, although they have been 
hard screwed up when cold — ^butcare must be taken 
not to strain hard upon any nuts, or tighten them 
up when there is a pressure of steam on the joints ; 
accidents have happened in that way, by bolts break- 
ing. 

STABTING THE ENGINE. 

Before starting, the journals must be all keyed up. 
Strike the keys in with a copper hammer, or an iron 
hammer with a piece of sheet copper held on the 
head of the key ; then give them a slight tap on the 
point back, to ease the journal, by driving the keys 
tight in; the shake is all taken up; then the tap 
back will ease the journal and keep it from heating. 
Tighten up all the set screws, so that the keys will 
not work out ; see that every journal is properly 
oiled, but only put a few drops on each; put the 
covers down on all the oil cvrps, ^xi^LNk^o'efe'^^^^^ia?^^ 



22 SUGAR MANUPAOTURINO. 

no covers, put wooden plugs in the oil holes, to keep 
out dust from the journals. Open the regulator 
valve, to let steam into the steam chest ; the eccentric 
hook being out of gear, take the starting bar and 
lift up the valve. The engine will move ; but, before 
the crank gets on the centre, reverse the valve by the 
starting bar, and the engine will move back. After 
having done this a few times, until the cylinder and ' 
pipes are warm — the cylinder cocks being open to 
let the water from the condensed steam pass out, 
then let the crank pass the centre before reversing 
the valve ; then reverse and hook the eccentric rod in 
gear, and unship the starting bar, and the engine will 
go along. After the engine has gone a few strokes, 
and all the water is out of the cylinder, shut the cyl- 
inder cocks, and oil the inside of the cylinder. There 
is an oil cup on the steam chest, and some engines 
have them on the cylinder also. 

The oil cups are constructed with three cocksy 
mostly ; in giving oil^ shut the low cock, open the 
centre one, to let the steam out that has collected in 
the chamber; pour the oil into the cup; open the 
top cock, to let it down into the chamber ; shut the 
top cock, and the small one in the chamber ; then 
open the lower one, and leave it open, and the oil 
will find its way into the valve, and through the pis- 
ton in the cylinder. It will be well to open all three 
cocks, at times, to blow the passages clear, as they 
sometimes get choked up. It is best to oU the cyl- 
inder often, and only put in a little at a time — once 
eyeTj hour will be plenty. Thei^ ia daxi^ex of tha 



SUGAB MANUFACTURING. 23 

cylinder being cut by the piston, if the oil is neg- 
lected. 

When the engine is running, the safety valve 
should be lifted up at times, to see that it works 
loose. K any of the journals get hot, put a little 
powdered sulphur around the heated part ; but if it 
Btill gets warmer, then the engine must be stopped, 
and slack the keys or bolts in the journal, and cool 
it down with water, and begin, fresh oiled and cool. 
The engine must not be stopped with cane in the 
mill. Before stopping the engine, unship the clutch, 
and stop the cane carrier, and let all the cane that is 
in the mill pass through — ^then stop the engine. J£ 
the engine is stopped when the mill is full of cane, 
there will be danger of breaking something in start- 
ing again. 

K the mill gets choked with cane, and the engine 
stops, then stop the carrier and take the bagasse 
away from the last roller, and back the engine slowly, 
by the starting bar. Only a little steam must be 
given when backing, and if the mill is so hard 
choked that the engine will not back, the mill must 
be slacked up a little. This will not happen, unless 
the steam is low ; or if the conductor has been neg- 
lected, and too much cane allowed to pass through 
into the null, or if the knife or scraper is out of 
order. 

The furnaces for the steam boilers are fired up with 
wood, and on some plantations, where wood is scarce, 
coal is used. When the clarifiers, or tanks for hold- 
ing the cane juice, are all £u\i, l\i^ ^x\^\i^ Sa. ^Xss^^^'^^ 



24 SUGAB MANUFACTUBING. 

until more cane juice is wanted in the boiling house. 
The fire must be regulated, so that the steam will not 
blow off when the engine is standing still. When 
the tanks are nearly full, feed up the boilers — let the 
fire burnout, then shut the damper some. The steam 
will hold in the boilers, at a lower pressure, and it 
will be easily raised, when the engine is required to 
be started again. 

When the engineer thinks proper to stop the en- 
gine, to examine the piston — ^to set up the packing, 
if required, after it has run some time, the best 
way to take up the cylinder cover is to lift it by the 
steam. 

Unscrew the cylinder-cover bolts about one-tenth 
of an inch ; then let a little steam slowly under the 
cylinder cover. The pressure of steam will lift the 
cover, and the bolts will prevent the cover from fly- 
ing off — the nuts being loose only one-tenth of an 
inch ; this will break the cover away from the joint at 
the cylinder top. Then shut the steam off, and un- 
screw all the nuts, and take the bolts out Screw 
two eye-bolts into the cylinder cover, and make a 
rope fast around the cross-head, and through the eyes 
in the eye-bolts ; the piston then being at the bottom 
of the cylinder, let a little steam under the piston, 
and it will rise up slowly, and as the cross-head as- 
cends, it will take up the cylinder cover with 
it. Then when the piston is clear up to the top of 
the cylinder, it will be in the right position to slack 
the bolts in the piston. 

The engine is stopped every two weeks, to clean 



SUGAR MANUPAOTURINO. 25 

boilers, and to haul a stock of cane, to give a good 
start ; and at these times the piston should be ex- 
amined, and also the straps, and brasses, and bear- 
ings ; and covers should be taken off and cleaned, 
and the oil-holes cleared. The engine should be 
wiped down once a day at least, and freshly oiled 
every time before it is started, and kept cool and 
oiled while running. 



CRUSHING- CANE. 

Cane grinding is a pleasant part of the engineer's 
duty, when everything goes right, and very disa- 
greeable when he is troubled with breaking down. 
If every part is well cared for, a break down will 
seldom happen. 

Keep the engine running steady — not too fiist nor 
too slow. The way to do that best, is by keeping 
the steam always nearly at the same rate of pressure. 
If the steam is likely to rise too high, take that 
chance to feed up the boilers ; do not let any steam 
blow off, if possible, to prevent it from rising. When 
the steam begins to fall, stop the feed water — ^keep 
the fires regular — ^keep always the same quantity of 
cane on the carrier ; the sides of the conductor will 
always be a good guide. 

See that the cane is laid on the carrier equal and 
regular, and not in bunches. The engine then will 
run steady. 

When grinding cane that is hard — such as red or 
crystalline cane — there will have to be a lighter feed 
2 



26 SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 

on the carrier. It will be easily seen, if the feed is 
right, by taking notice if the engine is not burdened 
or running too light or irregular, and also if the ba- 
gasse is coming out fine enough, and the caneis get- 
ting properly crushed. 

The crown wheels must be watched when the mill 
works. Paint the teeth with tar and tallow, mixed ; 
paint them with a brush as they revolve, or have a 
box below the wheels, so that they dip among the tar 
as they turn — the box being half filled with this tar 
and tallow mixture. 

The mill must be washed down, with water from 
a hose, or buckets, once a day ; and clean the canal 
that conveys the juice from the mill. If the mill is 
not kept clean, the juice, while running down, gets 
soured, and spoils the sugar. 

The rollers, by constant wear, get smooth and 
slip around without taking the cane in. This is lia- 
ble to loosen the keya When the rollers slip in that 
way, the engine must be slowed down for a minute,- 
until the cane takes again. The conductor must be 
stopped at the same time. 



BREAKING DOWN. 

The parts most likely to breakdown are the crown 
wheels, the spur wheel, and the shaft in the top 
roller. 

There should always be on hand one spare shaft 

for the top roller, one set of crown wheels, some 

segments fox the spur w\ieeAa, oti^ ^mVovi Cox the 



SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 27 

crank shaft, and it would be well to have a spare 
roller complete, with the shaft keyed in it splace. If 
a shaft should break, at the time when there is a great 
stock of cane in the yard, the cane would be spoiled 
by the heat of the sun before a new shaft could be 
ordered and made. 

The cane mill rollers become less in diameter, by 
the friction of the cane passing through them. The 
crown wheels are then too large in diameter, and have 
to get the points of the teeth cut, or turned off, to 
allow the rollers to be screwed close together ; there- 
fore, the engineer must look to the set of spare crown 
wheels, and have the teeth cut to the right depth, 
so that there will be no delay in the case of a break- 
down. If the top roller shaft should break, the en- 
gineer must put up a derrick, or some means of lift- 
ing out the roller. Blocks and tackle are kept on 
most of the sugar plantations. When the roller is 
got out of its place, take it out in the yard ; block it 
up at each end of the shaft — about one foot clear of 
the ground ; put clay all around the keys and the 
shaft ; pile a fire of wood around the "roller : take 
care that the fire is kept regular, and also watch the 
opportunity when the weather is favorable ; place the 
roller in the right position for the wind to blow the 
fire regular all around it ; one part of the roller must 
not be heated higher than the other; see that the 
roller is protected from rain, when it is warm ; when 
the heat has expanded thp outside of the roller so 
that the keys are loose, then take a lon^ sd<ik oC 
wood and strike the end of tVie ^aSt^ ^tA ^'^ ^as&» 



28 SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 

and keys, and all will slack and drive out When 
the shaft is out, and the roller cool enough, clean up 
all the key beds and the keys, and hang the roller 
true on the new shaft. Some rollers work loose on 
the shaft, while the mill is running, and they move 
on end, or travel along the shaft, taking keys and all 
along. This is dangerous, as the flanges on the other 
rollers generally get broken oflEJ as the roller travels 
on end, and bears hard on to them. If the engineer - 
has not time to spare to take out the roller, and take 
out the shaft that is in the roller, and fit the keys 
over anew, he can prevent the roller fix)m going any 
farther, in the following manner : fit a key, in a square 
of the shaft, at each end of the roller ; make the key 
with a gib head ; fit the gib head close up against the 
end of the roller ; cut a recess in the shaft, at an 
angle from the roller ; warm the head of the key and 
drive it into its place, and set the head part down 
into the recess that has been cut in the shaft ; then 
the end of the head of the key being firm in the re- 
cess, and bearing against the square end of the re- 
cess, it is prevented from moving, and the roller 
bearing against the gib head, the roller is prevented 
jfrom moving on end any fiirther. 

If a chain of the conductor should break, stop the 
conductor, and haul the two broken ends of the 
chain together, and put in a connecting link. The 
engineer should have some spare links made for that 
purpose, so that he can open the end of the link, 
and connect it again to the chain, by closing the ends 
with a hammer. A small block and tackle is a good 



8UOAB HAKUFACTUBIKG. 29 

thing to haul the two ends of the chains together 
with ; or, if the engineer has not a tackle, he can use 
a rope, and twist it with a short lever, and keep the 
rope fer enough away from the ends of the chain, in 
order to give room to connect the link. 

When the rollers are worn smooth, they should 
be turned off. This is generally done before com- 
mencing the crop. A temporary rest may be bolted 
across the frame of the mill, and fastened with 
cramps and bolts at each end. A stick of hard wood 
will answer for a rest. Holes must be bored in this 
rest, to hold the turning tool ; the tool may be made 
one and a half inches wide at the cutting edge, and 
the edge made like a chaser, or comb, for cutting 
screws ; that is, the tool will have teeth like a saw, 
at the cutting edge. In this way ridges may be cut 
in the roller, by running the engine slow, and the 
tool will cut as the roller turns around. The tool can 
be fed up by a temporary screw. After the ridges 
are cut deep enough — about one-eighth of an inch 
deep, and three-sixteenths apart — but not sharp at the 
top, then put the tool farther along into the next hole 
in the rest, and turn away, untU the whole length of 
the roller is marked with ridges. If the first roller 
is ridged in this way, the cane will go through with- 
out slipping, and there will be no necessity of mak- 
ing ridges in the top roller, or bagasse roller. 

This way of fixing up a temporary rest can be 
done to turn off the rollers when they get uneven, 
and also to turn off the teeth of the crown wheels, 
and to turn down the ends of the rollers, to take 



80 SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 

off wrought iron flanges, when they get brofcen. 
When this happens, which is caused by the roller 
moving on endways on the shaft, then the engineer 
must turn the ends down with a little taper inside ; ' 
that is, the recess will be smaller in diameter — ^about 
one-sixteenth of an inch inside — than what it is at 
the outside of the roller ; a wrought iron flange must 
be made, with taper, to fit the recess ; but make it 
one-tenth of an inch smaller than the turned part on 
the roller ; then warm the flange, and let it shrink on 
its place, on the end of the roller ; when cold, it 
will hug the recess tight, and the taper that is on it 
will prevent it from coming off. The flange must 
not be cooled with water, but left to cool by the air. 

PROCESS OF SUGAR MAKING. 

As the cane juice falls from under the rollers, into 
a pan under the mill, it runs down through a canal, 
and passes through a strainer of fine wire cloth, to 
dean it ; it is then received into a large tank. 

THE SACCHAROMETSR. 

This is an instrument for testing the density of the 
cane juice. The saccharometer is a glass tube, about 
ten inches long and half an inch in diameter. It is 
closed at both ends. The bottom end is formed in 
the shape of a globe, about one inch in diameter, and 
is filled with shot to make it heavy, so that it will 
sink and leave the small end on the top. There is a 
slip of paper on the tube, with figures to indicate the 



8UGAB MANUFACTURING. 81 

diflferent degrees. If the instrument is inserted in 
pure water, it will sink until the top of the tube is 
level with the water. When it is inserted in cane 
juice, it only sinks as fiu: as the density of the juice 
will allow it Some canes produce j uices that indicate 
ten, eleven, and twelve degrees. By this the sugar 
maker can ascertain what quantity of saccharine 
matter the juice contains. 

THE CLABIFIEBS. 

There is a row of six or eight oblong shaped tanks, 
that hold about seven hundred gallons each. The 
juice is let into these tanks, or clarifiers, out from the 
tank, with the strainer in it ; the clarifiers are placed 
on the top of the flues that lead from the furnaces of 
the trains, and in some places they are provided, with 
steam pipes to heat them. When a clarifier is about 
to be charged with juice, there is a quantity of hot 
lime put into it ; the gate is then opened to let the 
juice run in; the clarifier is filled up to within a few 
inches of the top ; the juice is kept there until it 
comes to the boiling point, and no more. The impuri- 
ties accumulate on the top; in som3 places the sugar 
maker skims the top off, and in other places the top 
is not broken, but the juice is let run off from below, 
and when it is all out, the clarifier is washed out at 
the bottom ; but this is done only when the clarifiers 
are heated with steam pipes, as the steam can be shut 
off when washing out; but when they have fire 
under the bottom, the top is skimmed of; the lime is 
used to dean the juice of impurities; the juice is 
then ready to be boiled. 



82 SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 

THE TRAINS. 

There are from one to six or more trains in a sugar 
boiling hoase, according to the amount of business 
done. Each train consists of four round bottom 
open top kettles, placed in a line, and built into brick 
work. The kettle that receives the juice first, as it 
runs from the clarifiers, is the largest; the others 
diminish in size to the end of the train. The last 
kettle is the one in which the sugar is made ; it is 
the smallest kettle. The juice, as it boils, is laved 
up from one kettle to the other, until it is boiled up 
and finished in the last kettle. When the sugar is 
ready for drawing, it is scooped up out of the kettle 
and put into coolers ; it is left there until it grains 
or granulates, as it is termed ; that is, when it gets 
hard and takes the form of particles. The sugar is 
then taken from the coolers and put into hogsheads ; 
the hogsheads are perforated in the bottoms with 
small holes, and placed in the purging house — ^that is 
a large room with beams across the floor, on which 
the hogsheads are set — ^the molasses drips out of the 
holes in the bottoms of the hogsheads into the cellar 
below. The cellar has a cement floor ; by this means 
the molasses is kept clean. The molasses is pumped 
up out of the cellar into casks, ready for the market, 
and the sugar in the hogsheads gets dry as it gets 
purged of the molassess, and it also gets ready for 
sale. 

BAGASSE. 

The fuel used for the furnaces under these trains 
of kettles, is the bagasse. This bagasse is that part 



SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 83 

of the cane that is left after it has been crushed and 
gone through the mill, and the juice has been all 
pressed out of it. It is spread in the sun, in a wide 
space of ground ; the sun bakes it, and it then is like 
finechips from a carpenter's shop ; it burns furiously, 
and makes a very hot fire. The furnace mouth of 
the train is under the smallest kettle ; that brings 
the greatest heat under the kettle that the sugar is 
finished in. The flame passes along under all the 
kettles of the train, and passes out through flues, 
Tinder the clarifiers, to give heat to them, and from 
there into the chimney. The furnaces are built so 
that the flame will fly all around the bottoms of 
these kettles in the trains, and the flues are provided 
with dampers to regulate the heat under the clarifiers. 



BAGASSE BURNER. 

In Louisiana the bagasse cannot be dried in the 
sun, as it is in the West Indies, because the heat of 
the sun is not strong enough. 

The bagasse carrier conducts the bagasse direct 
from the mill up into a furnace, built high up. At 
the top of the furnace there is a square chamber, into 
which the bagasse drops ; there are two doors in this 
chamber, one above the other. These doors are 
made of iron, and have iron bars, one through the 
length of each door ; the doors are hung on these 
bars. There is a weight and lever fastened on the 
end of each bar, outside of the chamber ; this is for 
the purpose of keeping them shut The bagasse 
carrier is provided with a drum at the to\3 of tha 
2* 



84 SUGAB KANUFAOTURING. 

chamber, around whicli the carrier revolves. As the 
carrier travels around, it empties the bagasse into 
this chamber. The weight of bagasse counteracts 
the weight and lever, and the door opens and empties 
the contents of the chamber down on the other door. 
As soon as the bagasse is emptied, and the door is 
relieved of the weight of the bagasse, the door shuts ; 
the other door receives its weight, and gets clear of 
it as quick as the top door, and by this means the 
flame from the furnace is prevented from flying out. 
The bagasse falls down on the top of an arch in the 
furnace — a skeleton arch, built of fire brick. The 
bagasse gets dried as fast as the next lot falls down. 
When the doors open again, the wet bagasse that 
falls down displaces the dried bagasse, and it falls into 
the furnace below from off the top of this skeleton 
arch, and the flames pass under the steam boilers. 
The furnace is provided with air flues from the top 
to carry all the damp up the chimney. This ftirnace 
requires a great current of air, else the bagasse can- 
not be burned. 

If the bagasse gets collected on the top of the arch, 
it must be displaced by the use of a long pole, and a 
few sticks of wood must be put in the furnace below, 
at the doors, to burn out the bagasse that has collected 
on the arch. 

Steam is raised by firing up with wood, in by the 
low furnace doors, before the mill has started; and 
when the mill is going, the bagasse is fuel enough. 
The furnace must be heated up good before the 
bagasse will burn well. In starting with a damp 



SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 85 

furnace, at the commenoement of the crop, a light 
feed of cane must be kept on the carrier, and some 
wood must be used, and the skeleton arch must be 
watched so that the bagasse does not collect on the 
top of it 

REFINED SUGAR PROCESS. 

Making refined sugar from the cane juice requires 
a great deal more machinery than the Muscovado or 
open train sugar. The juice and syrup are boiled in 
evaporating and vacuum pans, and before proceeding 
further it will be necessary to explain what is meant 
by a vacuum. 

A VACUUM. 

A vacuum means an empty space. The atmo- 
sphere that surrounds the earth exerts a pressure of 
nearly fifteen pounds on every square inch of surface 
of every thing that it comes in contact with. There- 
fore, in order to form a vacuum, in any vessel, it is 
necessary, first, to force out the air, by steam, or 
draw it out by pumps. 

If a jet of steam, of greater force than the atmo- 
spheric air, is let into a vessel — the vessel being fur- 
nished with a valve to let the air escape, the air 
having been all blown out by the greater force of 
the steam — the steam has taken the place of the air. 
Let a jet of cold water on the steam in the vessel; 
that will condense the steam that is inside of the 
vessel; there will then be neither air nor steam in- 
side, but there will be what is termed a vacuum 
fbrnied inside the vessel. 



86 SUGAB MAKUFACTUBIKG. 

THE VACUUM PAN. 

The vacuum pan is a large globe-fonned boiler, 
and flat on the bottom; there are several rows of 
brass tubes, and also a coil of copper pipe, all inside 
and at the bottom of the pan; these pipes are filled 
with steam when the pan is boiling. There is a large 
pipe, the mouth of which is set high up to the top, 
inside of the pan; this is the suction pipe, and is set 
high up, in order to prevent the sugar from getting 
into it. This suction pipe is connected with a con- 
denser and two large brass-lined punjps, worked by 
the engine. The condenser is a vessel that has a jet 
of cold water rushing through it; the pumps draw 
the water from the condenser, and as the heat of the 
eteam pipes inside of the pan boils the syrup, the 
vapor from the pan rushes into this condenser, the 
water condenses the vapor, and the pumps draw the 
contents out of the condenser and discharge them in 
the street. 

This method of boiling is superior to boiling in 
open pans, because the syrup is relieved of the pres- 
sure of the atmosphere, and for that reason it boils 
with a less degree of heat, and the pumps draw off 
all the noxious vapor from the syrup ; the sugar also 
granulates in the vacuum pan, whereas the open 
train sugar does not granulate until it is in the 
coolers for some time. The vacuum process is much 
quicker done. White sugar may be ready for the 
market, made in eighteen hours from the time the 
cane is put through the mill. 

By the usq of evaporating apparatus, vacuum pan, 



SUGAB MANUFACTUBING. 87 

and centrifugal machines for drying, the kettle sugar 
would require three weeks for the same process, as 
the hogsheads require to stand a long time, to purge 
the molasses out of the sugar that is in them. 

EVAPORATINa VACUUM PANS. 

There are various kinds of these pans, but the fol- 
lowing description will answer for those in common 
use. The cane mill engine is the same kind used in 
the open train process, with the exception of a 
weighted valve on the exhaust pipe. This valve has 
a weight of about ten or twelve pounds on the square 
inch. The steam, as it escapes from the cylinder, is 
prevented from blowing out of the exhaust pipe, and 
is forced under the pans, to heat the pipes, for boiling 
purposes. The cane j nice runs f lom the mill, through 
fine wire cloth, into the clarifiers. 



STEAK CLARIFIERS. 

These clarifiers are eight in number, and about the 
capacity of four hundred gallons each. There is a 
double row of steam pipes placed in the bottom of 
each clarifier ; the pipes are hung by a joint, at one 
side of the rows, so that the joint can be slackened 
np at any time, and the pipes swung up, in a vertical 
position, for the purpose of having them cleaned ; 
they require cleaning often, as the lime that is used 
for clarifying gets cemented on them. There is a 
screw valve to each clarifier, so that the stt^m can 
be let on or shut off, as it may be required. When 



88 SUGAB MANUPACTURING, 

a clarifier is about to be charged with juice, it is let 
run in until it covers the pipes in the bottom ; the 
steam is then turned on, and the lime is put in ; the 
quantity of lime used must be regulated by the kind 
of juice that is coming from the mill, and is best 
known by experience. Some cane juice requires 
about twenty cubic inches of lime to three hundred 
gallons of juice. The engineer must have the pipes 
in the bottom of the clarifiers kept clean. The 
water from the condensed steam, that comes from the 
heating pipes in the clarifiers, runs into a cistern, 
which receives all the water from condensed steam 
from the pipes in the heating apparatus, and of all the 
pans as well. This cistern is connected with the 
force pumps, and the water is all forced back into the 
steam boilers, to feed them up. 

This condense box is furnished with a small self- 
acting valve, to let out the steam that collects in it. 
If the steam is not let off, the pumps will not get the 
water to force it into the boilers. 



THE DEFECATORS. 

When the clarifier is full of juice, and after it has 
stood long enough to come to the boiling point, it is 
let run into the defecators. These are tanks similar 
to the clarifiers, but larger, about double the capacity 
of the clarifiers, and fewer in number. The defeca- 
tors have steam pipes in the bottoms for heating, the 
same as the clarifiers. The pipes must be scraped, 
and kept clean. The impurities on the top of the 
juice, in the defecators, are skimmed ofl^ and the j uice, 



SUGAR MAKUPAOTUBIKG. 89 

v/hen it is defecated properly, is run down through 
the filters. 

THE FILTERS. 

These filters are cylindrical tanks, about five feet 
in diameter, and eight feet deep. They are eight in 
number. Each filter is provided with a cross, which 
fits into it, near the bottom. There is a woolen cloth 
covered over this cross. There is another woolen 
cloth covered over the top of the filter. The space 
that intervenes, between the two woolen cloths, is 
filled up with bone black. The juice, hot from the 
defecators, runs on this woolen cloth, and finds its 
way through the body of bone black, and through 
the other woolen cloth, and runs out by a cock at 
the bottom of the filter. The juice runs out at the 
bottom of the filter in a pure clear form, and is col- 
lected below, ready to be taken into the apparatus, for 
evaporating and boiling into syrup. 



BONE BLACK. 

This bone black, that is used in the filters, for puri- 
fying the cane juice, is made of the bones of animala 
The bones are burned black, and ground up into 
small pieces, about as fine as rice. The dust, is all 
sifted or blown out of the bone black, and only the 
particles are used. After the bone black has been in 
the filters for some time, it has to be taken out and 
washed ; and, after a little longer use, it has to be 
taken out and re-burned, and cleaned again. While 



40 SUGAB HANUFACTUBING. 

five filters are in use, the other three are in process of 
renovation. The juice is now ready to be made into 
syrup. It is pumped up into the apparatus. 



THE APPARATUS. 

This arrangement consists of two oblong-shaped 
pans, which are worked in the manner of vacuum pans, 
having pipes inside, for steam to circulate through, 
for heating purposea One of these pans is provided 
with a suction pipe and condenser, that are attached 
to the vacuum pumps, the same as a vacuum pan. 
The two pans that constitute the apparatus are joined 
together by a pipe from below. This pipe conveys 
the juice from the first to the second pan, as it gets 
boiled. The first pan (or the pan that receives the 
juice from the tank below, after it has left the filters) 
is not connected to the vacuum pumps, but is 
furnished with a small pump, detached from the 
others, and not in connection with the condensers. 
This pump is continually drawing off the vapor 
from the first pan, as it boils. This vapor is carried 
through pipes, under the second pan. This is for the 
purpose of giving the heat of the vapor to the second 
pan, to assist the boiling process. By the time the 
vapor has reached the suction pump, it has been con- 
densed into water, by coming in contact with so many 
cold surfaces. The vapor reaches the pump in the 
form of very noxious smelling water. The pump 
discharges this water into a ditch outside. 

These pans are provided with bull's eyes ; these 



SUGAR MANUFACTURING, 41 

bull's eyes are thick pieces of glass set into a recess — 
one in each end of the pan. They give light inside 
of the pans, so that the man who tends the pans can 
look in and see if the boiling is going on right. 
When he wants more juice in the first pan, to cover 
the tubes, or if he wishes the juice to pass from the 
first to the second pan, he has screw valves that he 
regulates that with. 

There is an arrangement for drawing off the syrup, 
as it gets boiled enough ; it is pumped out of the 
second pan and discharged into a cistern. The syrup 
is tested by inserting the saccharometer. When it 
indicates twenty -seven degrees, it is ready to be boiled 
into sugar, in the vacuum pan. These pans are all 
furnished with valves, to admit steam direct from the 
boilers, when the exhaust steam from the engine is not 
strong enough. There are pipes connected to these 
pans, to convey the water made from the condensed 
steam into the tank that feeds the boilers. It is the 
duty of the engineer to attend to these pipes and 
valves, and stop all leak^ and keep the joints in 
order. 

SUGAR BOILINa IN VACUUM PAN. 

The next process is the boiling of the syrup in the 
vacuum pan, until it granulates and turns to sugar. 
When there is plenty syrup collected in the tank 
below, to make a strike of sugar, as it is termed, 
the suction pipe valve is opened to the pumps, 
and the pumps exhaust the air out of the pan. The 
valve is opened to the syrup tank, and the syrup 



42 SUGAB HANUFACTUBING. 

rushes into the pan ; the steam is let on the pipes, 
and the boiling begins. There are bull's eyes to look 
through inside; the pan is also furnished with a 
small nozzle into which a rod is inserted. When the 
sugar master wishes to test the sugar, to ascertain if 
it is ready to be drawn, the proof rod is put in through 
this nozzle into the pan, and turned around and 
drawn out with a little of the sugar sticking to the 
point of it ; the nozzle is arranged so that the air 
cannot get into the pan to spoil the vacuum, when 
the proof stick is being used. 

Some vacuum pans boU up twelve hogsheads of 
sugar in four to five hours. When the sugar is 
ready to be drawn, the valve is opened, to let air into 
the pan, to spoil the vacuum. The steam is shut off 
the pan, and, if not regulated, will get strong in the 
boilers, and blow off out of the safety valve. When 
the pan is done boiling, and the steam shut off sud- 
denly, the steam can be used to boil molasses, as there 
is an arrangement, termed a blow-up, for boiling mo- 
lasses, that is not used regularly, but at times only. 
The surplus steam can be used at that time, or the 
furnace doors may be kept open, to damp the fires. 
There is a large wagon brought directly under the 
pan, and a gate is opened to let the sugar run out of 
the pan into the wagon. There is a small screw valve 
for letting steam into the pan, after the sugar has all 
run out. This steam cleans off all the sugar from 
the pipes and from the sides of the pan. 

The wagon, with the strike of sugar, is moved into 
the purging house, and the sugar is dried by the use 
of the 



SUGAB HANUFACTUBII^G. 43 

CENTRIFUGAL MACHINES. 

There are ten or twelve of these machines. The 
centiifugaL machine is an open moiith cylinder, with 
an upright shaft in the centre, by which the machine 
is turned with great velocity. The outside of this cyl- 
inder is covered with fine brass wire doth. Outside 
of the cylinder there is a casing of iron, and there is 
a space left between the cylinder and the outside 
casing. The sugar is put into this cylinder, about 
seventy or eighty pounds at a time ; the machine is 
put in motion, and the force with which the machine 
flies around causes the sugar to mount up and adhere 
to the sides of the cylinder. By the centrifugal force 
created, the molasses that is in the sugar flies out 
through the wire cloth into the space between the 
outside casing and the cylinder, and runs into a tank. 
The sugar gets dried by getting clear of the molas- 
ses, and also by the current of air rushing on it, 
caused by the velocity. If the sugar is wanted very 
white, there is a watering can used to sprinkle water 
or syrup on the sugar, as it flies around in the ma- 
chine. This watering can is similar to those used for 
watering flowers. It has a nozzle perforated with 
small holes. As the water is sprinkled on the sugar, 
it flies out into the space amongst the molasses, and 
carries the molasses through the sugar with it If 
too much water is used, the quantity of sugar will be 
reduced, and more molasses will be made. It de- 
pends upon the quality of the sugar required, whether 
much water should be used. If the sugar is wanted 
pure white, then plenty of water must be used ; and 



44 SUGAR HANUFACTURING. 

although it makes more molasses, still the loss is not 
great. The molasses may be boiled up and made into 
good brown sugar, which is often done on these plan- 
tations. 

This process of drying is very quick, and is con- 
venient for the planters, who sell their sugar by sam- 
ple, as it can be manufactured to a sample at 
eighteen hours' notice — ^that is, from the time the 
canC' enters the mill until the sugar is taken out of 
these centrifugal machines. 

From five to eight minutes is plenty of time for the 
sugar to purge and dry in the centrifugal machine. 
The time required depends upon the speed of the 
machine — the quicker the machine runs, the sooner 
the sugar will be purged and dried. 

The engineer must keep a close watch on these 
centrifugal machines. There is a steel step at the 
bottom of the shaft; that step supports the shaft, 
and is liable to get hot, on account of the great speed 
with which it turns. The oil tube is liable to get 
stopped up with sugar. These machines must be ex- 
amined often. They are easily taken apart. They 
are driven by friction cones, made of pieces of leather 
bolted together. The engineer should have some of 
these pieces of leather cut and ready, and some spare 
pieces of hardened steel, for the bottoms of the steps, 
and also some pieces of wire doth for the cylinders. 



SUGAR MOULDS. 

There is a process of purging and drying sugar, by 
keeping it in moulds for some time. These moulds 



SUGAB HANUFACTURIN G. 45 

are made of sheet iron ; they are wide at the mouth 
and taper to a point ; they are filled with sugar, when 
it is soft, from the coolers; the small ends of the 
moulds are placed down, and into steady seats, to 
keep them from falling ; there is a small hole in the 
lower end of the mould, through which the molasses 
drips into a tank. There is some syrup poured' on 
the top of each mould, to purge the sugar. After the 
sugar has been kept in the moulds for over two weeks, 
the loaf is taken from the mould, and cut in two 
pieces — the top part of the loaf is white, the lower 
part is brown. These pieces of the loaf are ground 
up into two kinds of sugar, the white and the brown. 
The sugar is spread out and dried in the sun, and 
packed in boxes. Some places have ovens for dry- 
ing the loaves. 

THE VACUUM ENGINE. 

On plantations where refined sugar is made, there 
is a separate engine for the pumps alone. The en- 
gine is a beam engine, and has the air pumps placed 
one under each end of the beam, but not under the 
extreme end. The cylinder is placed at one end, as 
in other engines, and a crank and fly wheel at the 
other end. The air pumps are placed, one between 
the cylinder and main centre, the other between the 
crank and main centre, so as to balance. The pumps 
are about twenty inches diameter, and eighteen inches 
stroke. They are lined inside with brass ; the pump 
buckets and valves are made of brass, and the pump 
rods are iron, covered with brass. It is necessary to 



46 SUGAB MANUFACTURING. 

have these things made of brass, as the. acid from the 
sugar would eat the iron away. The pump bucket 
fits the chamber of the pump. The bucket is fur- 
nished with two valves, that work on a rod, like a 
hinge. The valves open with the down stroke of the 
pump, and shut as the bucket ascends ; the water 
is drawn out of the condenser in that way. There 
is a hinge valve, between the condenser and the air 
pump, that opens with the up stroke of the pump^ 
and shuts with the down stroke. This is the foot 
valve, and it prevents the water from returning back 
to the condenser at every stroke the bucket makes 
down. There is another valve, just like the foot 
valve. It is placed above the air pump bucket, and 
opens to admit the water that the bucket brings up, 
and shuts when the bucket begins to descend, and 
prevents the water from going back with the down 
stroke of the bucket. This is the delivery valve ; it is 
placed at the entrance of the hot well. This hot well 
is a cistern that receives the water at every up stroke 
of the pump. There is a discharge pipe on the hot 
well, where the water escapes into the street or into a 
ditch. These pump buckets are packed with gaskets, 
made of plaited spun yarn, or packing yarn as it is 
termed. The gasket is plaited square or flat, and is 
made the size of the space between the body of the 
pump bucket and the chamber of the pump. The 
gasket is soaked in melted tallow, and coiled into the 
space, and driven in with a piece of hard wood and 
a hammer. It is best to cut the gasket, and put in a 
turn above a turn, always crossing the jomts\ where 



aUGAB MANUFAOTUBINO. 47 

tte ends of the first turn meet, put the ends of the 
next turn ferther around. When the space is full, the 
follower or junk ring is screwed down. This ring is 
bolted down with six or eight bolts. In order to 
have a good vacuum, these pumps must be kept well 
packed. After the pumps have been working a day 
or two, the pump covers should be lifted up and the 
follower unscrewed, and another turn of packing put 
in, if the space will admit of it; then screw down 
the ring again tight, but do not strain down the pack- 
ing too much, as it might cut the pump chamber or 
burden the engine. The foot valve and delivery 
valve must be looked at before the commencement 
of the crop. 

The injection water should be got to come to the 
condensers as clean as possible, and as cold as it can 
be got. The injection water is that stream or jet 
that flows through the condenser, to condense the 
vapor that rushes into it, from the boiling syrup in 
the vacuum pan. There is a strainer at the mouth 
of the pipe, in the pond, where the injection water 
enters. This strainer must be kept clear of trash, 
and a good supply of cold water always there. If 
the water is mixed with sand and trash, the pumps 
•will get cut and the packing will wear out quick. 

There are other pumps that are worked by the 
vacuum engine. There is the juice pump, that 
pumps the cane juice into the first pan of the ap- 
paratus; the hot water pumps, that pump all the 
hot water made from the condensed steam from 
the cistern into the steam boilers \ the ijumij that 



48 SUGAR MANUFACTURING. 

draws that noxious vapor from the first pan of the 
apparatus ; a pump for drawing the syrup flpom the 
second pan, after it is sufficiently boiled All these 
pumps, and their connections, must be traced by 
the engineer, so that he may become familiar with 
them, and be able to get at them, without delay, in 
the event of anything getting out of order. 



TRACING CONNECTIONS. 

The steam pipes may be traced from the boilers 
down to the cylinder of the engine. The throttle 
valve lets the steam into the steam chest ; the slide 
valve admits the steam to the cylinder, and the steam 
escapes through the recess inside of the valve, thence 
to the exhaust pipe. If the sugar is refined, or if the 
juice is clarified by steam, there is a valve with 
weights to prevent the steam from escaping, and it 
is forced under the clarifiers. There is a pipe that 
runs along the front of the clarifiers, and there are 
screw valves to let on or shut off the steam from each 
clarifier, as it is wanted. There is a branch of the 
exhaust pipe that leads the steam to the evaporating 
and vacuum pans. There is a steam pipe that leads 
from the boiler direct to the vacuum engine, and a 
branch to the evaporating vacuum pans; there are 
small pipes to convey the water from these clarifiers 
and pans, and these pipes lead into the condense box, 
where the feed water is taken to the force pumps ; 
the suction pipes from the vacuum pans lead 
through condensers and into the air pumpa The 
water is discharged through the pumps and delivery 



SUGAB HANUFACTUBING. 49 

▼alves into the ditch ; the sjrup is drawn fix>in the 
pan th«>ugh a pipe and discharged into a cistern ; 
the juice is drawn from a tank and forced through a 
pipe in to the first pan. The water pipes lead from 
the condense box to the force pumps, and pipes lead 
into the bottoms of the boilers, where check valves 
are placed to prevent the water from coming back on 
the pumps ; the cold water pumps are furnished with 
pipes from a well or reservoir, and the discharge pipes 
lead into tanks. The steam pipes may be traced from 
the boilers to the centrifugal machines. The pipes 
that convey the cane juice from the mill to the clari- 
fiers and defecators and filters into the tanks, are 
easily traced. 



PAKT II. 

mTBODUCTOBY BS3IABKS. 

An engineer at sea has some duties to perform that 
are not required of engineers on land, and some pecu- 
liarities about his engines and boilers, and the work- 
ing of them, that do not occur to engineers for ma- 
chinery on land. 

The engines of a steamship are influenced in their 
motions by the weather. The boilers are fed with 
salt w^ter, in some ships, and in others the boilers are 
fed by the water from the condensed steam; but 
these steamship boilers require some salt water to 
keep up the waste. 

Steamship engines are low pressure, or condensing 
engines. All these things must be considered by the 
engineer. 

There are a great many different kinds of engines 
in steamships ; but the principle is the same. The 
power is got by the pressure of the steam on the pis- 
ton of the cylinder, and the forming of the vacuum 
on the opposite side of the piston. It matters not 
whether the engines are horizontal or upright en- 
gines, beam engines or oscillating engines, or engines 
with long stroke, or engines witli short stroke. There 
is no power got but by the force of the steam, and 



STEAMSHIPS. 61 

tlie vacuum. K an engine has a short stroke, it will 
make a greater number of them, and use the steam ; 
and in using the steam, the force has been used. An 
engine with a long stroke makes a less number of 
strokes, and does not use any more steam than the 
short stroke engine, and, therefore, does not exert 
any more force. K the pistons are the same size, and 
travel with the same speed, there may be a little loss 
by turning the centres often in a short stroke engine, 
but it does not amount to much. 

The plan of an engine, and the length of the stroke, 
are regulated to suit convenience, and sometimes to 
suit the fancy. 

The engines of a propeller ship require to turn 
quicker than those of a side-wheel ship, as the pro- 
peller must turn quick to be of service. The engines 
of a side- wheel ship do not require to turn quick, as 
the wheels are large in diameter ; but still, it takes a 
great force to turn the wheels. The propeller ship, 
with engines of shorter stroke, may have made three 
strokes while the side-wheel ship made one, and both 
ships sailing at the same speed, and both using the 
same amount of steam and fuel. 



PBOFELLEB SHIP. 

Some propeller ships are furnished with one engine 
and a surface condenser. It is best to have two en- 
gines in a ship, as the one helps the other over the 
centre ; but a great number of ships have a single 
engine, and the engineer has no choice but to go to 
work at bis engines and boilera ^a \^ feA«» ^^\si. 



52 STEAMSHIPS. 

The propeller engine is commonly constmcted 
with an inverted cylinder ; that is, with the cylinder 
bottom end up. 

Some of them are furnished with two piston rods 
attached to the cross head and the connecting rod in 
the centre, between and leading down to the crank. 

Some engines are furnished with gear wheels, 
which intervene between the crank and propeller 
shaft, for the purpose of giving greater speed to the 
propeller, and allowing the engines to run slower. 
The propeller shaft is laid through a tunnel, and sup- 
ported on bearings, clear to the stern of the ship, and 
then through a stuffing box packed with hemp pack- 
ing, and made water tight ; and outside in the sea, 
the propeller is keyed on the end of the shaft. 

The cylinder is the same as other steam cylinders, 
with piston packing that requires to be set up and 
kept tight. The valve is a slide valve, with link mo- 
tion, worked by two eccentrics, from the shaft below. 



SURFACE CONDENSER. 

The surface condenser is a large iron box. Inside 
of this box there are placed a great number of tubes, 
The water of the sea circulates through among these 
tubes ; and the steam, as it exhausts from the cylin- 
der, passes through inside of the tubes. Some sur- 
face condensers are ftirnished with two air pumps — 
one to circulate the sea water through amongst the 
tubes, and force it out into the sea again, and the 
other air pump to draw out the fresh water from the 
compartment in the condenser, that communicates 



ST,£AMSHIPS. 63 

with the insides of the tubes — that being the chamber 
where the steam circulates and where the vacuum is 
formed by the steam getting condensed. This second 
air pump forces the water (which is made from the 
condensed steam) into a hot well, inside of the con- 
denser, where it is led to the feed pumps by a pipe. 
Some surface condensers are famished with one trunk 
pump only, which answers the same purpose as the 
two air pumps. 

There is a large valve that opens to let the sea 
water to the circulating pump ; this is termed the in- 
jection valve. This valve is shut, if any accident 
happens to the pump, or when the ship is in port, it 
is kept shut. 

There is a discharge valve, at the top of the con- 
denser, where the water is discharged into the sea, 
after it has passed all through the condenser, by the 
force of the circulating pump. The water at that 
discharge valve is warm — having become heated ia 
passing through the condenser. 

In a separate compartment, in the condenser, the 
exhaust steam of the cylinder enters. The conden- 
ser is arranged so that the steam that exhausts into 
the condenser, and the cold water that circulates 
through the condenser, are kept separate — the steam 
being on one side of the tubes and the water on 
the other side, the steam coming in contact with 
the cold surfaces of the tubes, made cold by the 
sea water circulating through amongst them. By 
this means the steam is condensed, and a vacuum is 
formed; and the valves of l\i© e;\i^vji^ \^^si% ^^ s^^ 



54 STEAMSHIPS. 

open to the vacuum, on the side of the piston oppo- 
site to that which is receiving steam, there is then 
always a vacuum on the one side of the piston, when 
the steam is pressing on the other side. 

K this engine acted like a high pressure engine, 
having no condenser, but blowing the steam out of 
the exhaust into the open air, at every stroke of the 
engine, the steam thus blown out of the exhaust 
pipe would have to blow against the pressure of the 
atmosphere ; and, as the atmosphere exerts a pressure 
of nearly fifteen pounds on every square inch of 
surface that it comes in contact with, therefore, by 
exhausting the steam in the open air, the piston 
would be subjected to a force against it of nearly 
fifteen pounds on every square inch of its area; 
but by exhausting into the condenser, there is a 
vacuum formed, and the piston is relieved of this 
pressure. K the vacuum gauge shows twenty-six 
inches of mercury, which is a very good vacuum, 
that will be thirteen pounds of pressure saved on 
every square inch of the piston. 



PEED PUMPS. 

The water made by the condensed steam is drawn 
by two feed pumps from the hot well, at the tempera- 
ture of one hundred degrees, and heated to a higher 
temperature, then forced into the boilers again. 

When all the tubes in the condenser are sound, the 
water is fresh; but if any of the tabes leak, the salt 
water will get in and taint the fresh water. If 
the tubes are all sound, tbexe Yfiii xio\. \i^ ^Ti:^ othar 



STEAMSHIPS. 55 

water required to keep the boilers going, except to 
make good that which is wasted — such as blowing 
off steam from the safety valve, or the whistle, or 
any joints that leak steam, about the engine or boil- 
ers. That is all lost, as it blows in the open air; 
therefore, to supply the deficiency of water in the 
boilers, there is a valve, termed the salt water feed, 
which must be opened to let the warm salt water 
from the condenser to the pumps. 

BILG-E PUMPS. 

Besides the feed pumps for forcing water into the 
boilers, and the large circulating pumps for the con- 
denser, there are two bilge pumps. These pumps 
are worked by the engine, and their duty is to pump 
the water out of the bilge of the ship, and discharge 
it into the sea. All the water that comes in through 
the bottom of the ship, by leakage, and all water 
spilt below, runs into die bilge, and is pumped out 
by the constant working of the pumps. 

There are two iron or copper boxes perforated with 
small holes. These boxes are placed in a low place 
in the bilge. The suction pipes from the bilge pumps 
are placed in these boxes. The holes in the boxes 
are intended to let in the water to the pipes and to 
act as strainers, to keep out trash, chips and any- 
thing that would be likely to choke the pumps. 
These strainers must be kept clean and clear in the 
holes ; the pumps are furnished with pet cocks, which, 
when opened, will indicate if the pumps are drawiu^ 
water. If the pumps are worVwig^ \N^\et ^'^ ^"j ^^^ 



66 STEAMSHIPS. 

at the pet cocks. There are holes under all cross 
timbers to let the water run through to the strainers 
in the bilge ; these holes must be kept free. 



BILOB EJECTOR. 

The bilge ejector is an arrangement for forcing the 
bilge water out of the ship into the sea, by means of 
a jet of steam, without the aid of a pump. There 
is a pipe attached to the steam drum of the boiler ; 
this pipe leads down into the bilge, and has a small 
nozzle on the end of it 

There is a coupling that screws on to the end of the 
pipe ; this coupling is large enough to leave a space 
all around the small nozzle. There is a suction pipe, 
that is put down into the water in the bilge, and 
the top end of it is screwed into the coupling. There 
is a discharge pipe screwed on to the coupling in a 
line leading from the small nozzle. There is a screw 
valve on the steam pipe at the boiler ; when this valve 
is opened, the steam rushes down the pipe and through 
the small nozzle, out through the discharge pipe. 
The steam forcing out of the small nozzle creates a 
partial vacuum in the space in the coupling; the 
water from the suction pipe rushes up into the space 
and is forced by the jet of steam from the nozzle, 
through the discharge pipe up into the sea. There is 
a cock on the discharge pipe that may be shut to blow 
the steam into the bilge, to clear the suction pipe of 
small coal or any obstruction that will choke it. 



STEAMSHIPS. 67 

BIL&B INJECTION. 

All sea going ships are furnished with the bilge 
injection arrangement, which is only used if the ship 
springs a leak, and the bilge pumps and donkey 
pump are not sufficient to keep the water down. 
"When this happens, the injection valve that lets the 
sea water to the condenser is shut, and the bilge in- 
jection valve is opened — ^that is a valve fixed on a 
pipe that is carried down into the bilge. The bilge 
water is used instead of sea water ; it rushes into the 
compartment in the condenser, and is discharged into 
the sea by the air pumps or circulating pump. The 
strainer at the end of the bilge injection pipe must be 
kept clear, when using this arrangement, as there is a 
great suction from the condenser, and the strainer is 
liable to get choked ; and as this arrangement is sel- 
dom needed, care must be taken that the valve is 
kept in order, so that it can be opened at a moment's 
notice, and the strainer and everything connected with 
it working perfect. It is sometimes necessary to 
work the bilge pumps, the donkey bilge, and the bilge 
injection, to keep a ship from sinking, when the leak- 
ing is on a grand scale. 



THE DONKEY ENGHNE. 

This is a small engine, getting steam from the 
boilers. Some donkey engines are furnished with a 
separate boiler ; then steam can be got up at any time, 
and when the other boilers are not making steam, 
^hen the ship is in port. The donkey is arranged so 
as to act as a fire engine, in case oi &c^ ^iXiwa^^^cix^^ 
3* 



68 STEAMSHIPS. 

or if the feed pumps give out, and water is wanted in 
the boilers, or in the event of the ship springing a 
leak. The engineer should trace all pipes leading 
from and to the donkey. 

There is the steam pipe, and exhaust pipe. 

There is a suction pipe leading to, or connected 
with the bilge. A suction pipe &om the sea, and a 
branch pipe to get the water from the hot well, if it is 
wanted, as the feed pump may give out The de- 
livery pipes lead, one into the sea, and one into the 
boilers, and one on deck, connected with the fire hose. 
All the valves connected with the donkey should be 
kept shut when it is not working, then the engineer 
will know at once where to begin, which valves to 
open, and which valves to keep shut. 

K the feed pumps worked by the large engines 
give out, and the warm water from the hot well can- 
not be got into the boilers, the donkey must have 
steam turned on to it, and set in motion ; then open 
the valve that is connected with the suction to the 
donkey, open the discharge pipe valve connected to 
the feed pipes of the boilers — all other connections 
being shut, the water will be forced into the boilers 
If the ship spring a leak, open the suction to the bilge ; 
open the discharge that leads overboard to the sea; 
all other connections being shut, the water from the 
bilge will pass through the pump into the sea. 

K a fire break out aboard ship, open the suction 
from the sea, open the discharge that leads on deck 
to the fire hose ; all other connections being shut, the 
water from the sea will pass through the pump, and 



STEAMSHIPS. 59 

be forced up on deck to the hose. The hose should 
be kept in readiness, and in good order. See that 
the couplings are sound, and not damaged in the 
screw. Every thing connected with the fire depart- 
ment should be kept in good order. The donkey 
should not be used for pumping out bilge water, 
except when the bilge pumps are out of order, or 
-when the vessel arrives in port, and the engine is not 
working. Before blowing the water out of the boilers, 
it may be necessary to pump out the bilge water with 
the donkey ; then, after the bilge water is out, shut 
the suction to the bilge, and open the suction to the 
sea, and pump some sea water, and let it discharge 
overboard. The sea water passing through, will 
cleanse and purify the pump of the effects of the 
bilge water. 

When that is done, the valves must be all shut 
and left shut. 



THE aOVERNOR. 

The governor used on propeller ships is the same 
kind of governor used on engines on land, with an 
arrangement which prevents the motion of the ship 
from throwing the spindle (that carries the balls) 
out of plumb. The spindle is stepped in a bracket 
with a universal joint, and the spindle and balls 
always hang plumb, however much the ship may list. 
The governor is driven with pulleys and belts from 
the propeller shaft, and is used only when the sea is 
rough, the vessel rolling and the engine running 
irregular. The rod from the goveruot ia ^4»^\\a<l^ 
the throttle valve lever. 



60 STEAMSHIPS. 

When the governor is used the engine must not 
be cutting off steam, because, if the engine should 
slow down suddenly, the balls would fall and open 
the throttle valve ; but if the slide valve, on the fece 
of the cylinder, was in the position cut off and shut, 
the steam could not get to the piston to force it on, 
and the engine would stop. 

STEAM Q-AUG-B. 

There is a steam gauge placed in the engine room : 
this gauge has a dial, with a finger pointing to the 
figures that are marked around the fece of it These 
figures indicate the pressure which the steam exerts 
on every square inch of surface that it comes in 
contact with. If the finger points to fifteen or twenty, 
or whatever number it points to, that number in- 
dicates the amount of pressure per square inch. 
There is a small tube leading from the gauge to the 
steam dome of the boilers, and a cock to shut steam 
off the gauge when required, and another cock close 
to the gauge, to let off the water that collects from 
condensed steam. When the boilers are cold, not 
having steam on, the finger will be down, pointing 
to the cipher on the dial. 

The boilers are tested, and calculated to stand a 
certain amount of pressure with safety ; and when 
the steam gets to the limited amount it will lift up 
the safety valve and escape into the open air. If the 
boilers are allowed to carry twenty pounds on the 
square inch, when the steam gauge indicates twenty, 
and just when the finger points a little above twenty, 
the steam will be blowing out of the safetv valve, 



STEAMSHIPS. 61 

THB SAFETY VALVE. 

This valve is situated on the top of the boilers, 
and is a circular conical valve, with its seat in a cast- 
iron chamber. The valve stem stands out above the 
chamber, and there is a lever and weight that bears 
on the valve stem and keeps the valve down. The 
weight is calculated so that when the steam reaches 
the pressure that the boilers are allowed to carry, the 
safety valVfe lifts up by the force of the steam from 
the inside, and the steam blows off and escapes. 
There is a chain or rod leading from the safety valve 
lever into the engine room. The engineer can lift 
the safety valve by pulling this chain. It is neces- 
sary to lift the safety valve at times, to see if it is not 
stuck; or when the engine is stopped with great fires 
in the furnace, then the safety valve lever is hooked 
up, and the steam escapes &ee. 

THE DAMPER. 

There is another chain or rod that leads into the 
engine room, which is attached to a damper in the 
chimney. This is a flat plate of iron, made to fill up 
the space in the chimney. There is a rod fastened 
through the centre of the damper ; on the end of the 
rod a lever is keyed on the outside of the chimney ; 
the chaiQ that leads into the engine room is attached 
to this lever; by the lever being lifted up or let 
down, the damper is shut or opened. When the fires 
are strong, and too much steam on, the damper is 
shut to prevent the air from rushing through the 
chimney, or to stop the draft. This keeps the steam 



62 Steamships. 

down. Care must be taken not to have the damper 
too close shut up when there are strong fires in the 
furnaces, as there will be danger of the heat of the 
fires striking down and melting the grate bars, and 
letting all the fire in the furnaces fall down into the 
ash pits. This would be a bad position to get into, 
but it has happened in many instances. 

THE VACUUM aAU&E. 

The vacuum gauges in common use resemble the 
steam gauge. There is a pipe leading into the con- 
denser, and the strength of the vacuum is indicated 
by figures on the dial of the gauge, and a finger 
pointing to the figures and rising or falling according 
as the vacuum is strong or weak. Some steamships 
are furnished with mercury gauges. Two inches of 
mercury counts one pound pressure; if the gauge 
indicates twenty-four inches, that will be twelve 
pounds of pressure. 

The vacuum is affected by the quantity of steam 
that enters the condenser from the cylinder. If the 
steam is strong, and the engine is not cutting ofl^ and 
a great force of steam entering the condenser — if the 
condenser is not a very large one, the vacuum will 
not be so good. It may not indicate more than 
twenty inches — ten pounds ; so that it will be seen 
that there is no advantage gained in raising too 
much steam in the boilers and exhausting it into the 
condenser, as the force gained by the strong steam 
will be lost by the spoiling of the vacuum, and there 
will be a loss of fuel. If the fires were kept lighter, 



STEAMSHIPS. 63 

and less coal consumed and less steam raised, the 
power would be the same gained, as the vacuum 
would be better. 

THE BEQISTEB. 

This is an arrangement for counting the number of 
twma the engine makes. There are six or seven 
small rollers, with figures marked around the outside 
of them ; they are set in a dial, in a row, and they 
revolve independent of each other. They get their 
motion from a connection to the cross head or valve 
stem ; every turn the crank makes, the first roller 
turns up one figure; the next turns up one figure 
every time the engine turns ten ; the next, one to a 
hundred; the next, one to a thousand; the next, 
tens of thousands ; the next, hundreds of thousands. 
Thus, an engine making forty -five turns per minute, 
will indicate on the register two thousand seven hun- 
dred per hour, sixty -four thousand eight hundred per 
day, and six hundred and forty-eight thousand in a 
trip of ten days. 

The rollers or cylinders are set with the cyphers 
all shown when the ship starts on her voyage. 

THE SALINOMETEB. 

The salinometer is an instrument used for the pur- 
pose of testing the saltness or density of the water 
in the boilers. Although these engines are furnished 
with surface condensers, and all the fresh water from 
condensed steam is forced back into the boilers, still 
there is a deficiency of water in the boilers, caused by 



64 STEAMSHIPS. 

that whicli is wasted (as has been explained in anotHer 
page) ; therefore, the salt feed must be used. This salt 
feed taints the water in the boilers, and on a long 
voyage the water in the boilers will become quite 
salt ; and when it is as salt, or more so, than the sea 
water, it will be necessary to blow out some and feed 
up from the sea water. 

The saliuometer is the same kind of instrument as 
the saccharometer. It is a tube half an inch in di- 
ameter, closed at both ends, and ten inches long. 
The lower end is a globe, filled with shot, to make it 
sink. The tube is marked 190, under this ^ is 
marked ; a little below this there is ^, and a little 
lower ^ is marked. Turn tl^e tube around, and the 
same figures will be seen, but a little higher up on the 
tube, and 200 marked on the top of the column. 
Turn the instrument around a little farther still, and 
the same figures will be seen with 210 marked at the 
head of the column— the figures being a little higher 
up on the tube than the others. 

Sea water is said to contain ^d of its weight in salt ; 
the salinometer is marked accordingly, and between 
the figures ^ and ^ there is marked the limit — 
that is, blow out some water from the boilers, and 
feed up firom the sea water. The way the salinome- 
ter is used to test the salt water is to draw some 
water from the boilers into brine pots, that ai'e fixed 
up near the boilers or in the engine room. There is 
a small pipe, with a cock to open from the boiler ; 
the hot water runs into the brine pot and fills it up ; 
there is a pipe and cock at the bottom of the brine 



STEAMSHIPS. 65 

pot, to let the water run out ; this cock is left open to 
let the water run out, until the brine pot gets heated ; 
then shut both cocks, and put the salinometer in 
the hot water in the pot ; put in a thermometer also, 
to ascertain the temperature of the water. If the ther- 
mometer pdicates 190, then see how fer the salinome- 
ter has sunk on the column 190 ; if the thermometer 
shows 200, then the column under 200, on the sali- 
nometer, is the guide to go by. If the thermometer 
shows above the 200, then the 210 column is the one 
to go by. The salinometer is marked at three differ- 
ent degrees of heat, and whatever is marked on the 
salinometer, at the surface of the water, that is the 
mark to go by. 

Some salinometers are arranged for water at sixty 
degrees only. 

THE INDICATOR. 

The indicator is an instrument for testing the 
force that is exerted on the piston, inside of the cyl- 
inder. It shows the exact force of the steam and the 
vacuum at all parts of the stroke, and shows any de- 
fect in the working of the valves. 

The instrument is constructed with a small brass 
tube, about one inch in diameter. This tube has a 
piston that fits steam tight inside of it. The tube is 
arranged so as to screw on to a small nozzle on the 
steam cylinder of the engine. The nozzle is fur- 
nished with a cock that opens the communication 
between the steam cylinder and the small piston in 
the tube ; the tube is open at the top end, where there 
is a spring, against which the smsW ^\^\ia^\k^^fic^-^ 



66 STEAMSHIPS. 

there is a barrel placed around the outside of the 
tube; a piece of paper is fixed on this barrel ; there 
is a lead pencil put in motion by the small piston 
in the tube ; the barrel is put in motion by a small 
rod with levers worked from the cross head ; when 
the cock is opened to the steam cylinder, the small 
piston in the tube moves by the force of the steam 
from the cylinder or the force of the vacuum and the 
small spring on the other side ; the barrel revolves 
at the same time, as it receives its motion from the 
cross head of the engine. The pencil is arranged 
with a joint, so that it may be placed in the position 
to make a mark on the paper; as the small piston 
moves up or down, the barrel revolves at the same 
time, and the paper has an irregular line drawn on 
the face of it. 

The cock that opens the communication from the 
steam cylinder to the small tube of the instrument, 
is arranged so as to let air in at the bottom of the 
tube ; when the cock is shut off from the steam cyl- 
inder, the small piston in the tube then stands still — 
there being air admitted at each end of the tube — ^the 
barrel alone works, and the pencil draws a straight 
line along the paper ; this is the atmospheric line or 
zero ; from this line the pressure is marked off on the 
paper — to the one side for vacuum, and to the other 
side of zero for steam ; by this means the exact force 
on the piston is ascertained, so that the power of the 
engine can be calculated ; the engineer can also tell 
by the shape of the lines drawn on the paper, if the 
valves are in good working order. Some skill is re- 



STEAMSHIPS. 67 

quired in using the indicator, and that must be learned 
by practice. 

THE STEAM BOILERS. 

These single engine propeller ships are commonly 
furnished with two boilers, and three furnaces in each 
boiler. These boilers are square, with arch tops, and 
a steam pipe above that connects them both together. 
There is a branch of the feed pipe that leads from 
the pumps into each boiler separate. The fire from 
the furnaces strikes on the water spaces, and the 
flame passes through flues that are situated so that 
the flame has to pass and return back before the 
smoke enters the chimney. 

Some boilers are constructed with small flues or 
tubes, as well as the common flues. The fire box is 
arch-shaped at the top ; the fire strikes on this arch 
^and passes jthrough the flues, then returns through a 
series of small tubes that are placed above the top of 
the fire boxes. These tubes are placed close together, 
the fire passes through them; the spaces between 
the tubes being small, the water that is in them is 
easily heated. There are doors or man heads in the 
spaces above the tubes, for the purpose of getting 
inside to clean ofi^ the scale when the ship is in port. 
There are large doors that open in the front of the 
boilers, opposite the ends of the tubes ; these doors, 
or flue connections, are arranged so as to open when 
the tubes want brushing or sweeping inside ; these 
doors are also opened at times, to stop the draft and 
keep down the steam. There are two iron tunnels 



68 STEAMSHIPS. 

that lead from the fire room up on the upper deck, 
where there are bell mouth-pieces on each tunnel 
that swing around to let the air down into the fire 
room. In these tunnels the ashes are hoisted up on 
the main deck to be thrown overboard. 

WATER QAUGES. 

Each boiler is furnished with three gauge cocks — 
two indicate water, and the top one steam. There is 
also a gauge cock on each boiler, out towards the 
ship's side. This cock is placed near the top of the 
flues, and is used for trying the water when the 
others may be doubtful, and when the ship is listed 
over very much. 

The gauge cocks are opened, at regTilar intervals, 
to see if the water is high enough in the boilers. 
The top gauge is steam ; the other three are water. 
It is best to open the lower gauge cocks, as well as 
the top one and the second ; at least they should be 
opened sometimes, to keep them from getting salted 
up. There are pipes fastened temporarily under the 
gauge cocks, to convey the water from the gauges 
down into the ash pits; this keeps the water from 
corroding the boilers. 

GLASS GAUG-E. 

There is a glass gauge on each boiler, placed near 
the gauge cocks. There is a hole pierced in the 
boiler, at the low water gauge mark, and another at 
the steam space above the water. In these holes 
there are plugs, fitted with cocks to shut or open. 



STEAMSHIPS. 69 

These plugs are arranged so as to admit a glass tube 
that is fastened at the top and bottom plugs, with 
small rubber joints and nuts to tighten the joints up, 
to make them steam tight. When the cocks are 
opened, the water in the boiler will rise in the tube 
up to the level ; the height of the water in the boilers 
can always be seen. 

It is necessary to open the cocks in the glass gauges 
at times to let the water blow out and change the 
water in the tube. If a glass tube should break, the 
steam and water will fly out. The cocks must be shut, 
the nuts unscrewed, and a new tube inserted, with 
a rubber ring cut to fit the tube at each end. The 
rubber rings are put on the ends of the tube, and it 
is put in and the nuts screwed up gently. The tube 
must not bear against the side of the nut, or it will 
break. Keep the tube in the centre, and clear of the 
nut, the rubber joint only pressing the tube. There 
are always plenty spare tubes carried in steamships, 
as the glass tubes are often broken. 



THE CHECK VALVES. 

These valves are placed on the boiler low down, 
and in the pipes that convey the water from the 
feed pumps into the boiler. Their use is to prevent 
the water from the boilers getting back upon the 
pumps. 

The check valves are circular conical valves placed 
in chambers, and the pressure of the steam that is in 
the boilers bears against the tops of the valves and 



70 STEAMSHIPS. 

keeps them shut. The water from the pumps enters 
under the valves, and by every down stroke of the 
pump the water is forced into the boiler, against the 
force of the steam on the top ; and as the plunger of 
the pump returns on the up stroke, the steam on the 
back of the valve shuts it There should be a screw 
valve or cock between the boiler and the check valve, 
to shut, if anything goes wrong with the check valve. 
If the valve gets stuck and stops acting, then the 
screw valve must be shut, the feed water shut off first, 
the cover taken off the check valve, and the valve 
fixed. 



BLOW VALVES. 

These valves are placed low down on the boilers, 
and are used to blow the salt water out of thenu 
When the water in the boilers is too salt, which is 
ascertained by the salinometer, some water is blown 
out — and the blowing must be done when the fires are 
good and there is plenty of steam. The valves must not 
be kept too long open, to let the water too low in the 
boilers. The water will be seen by the glass gauge. 

The valves should be opened and shut slowly, as 
a sudden jerk might break the pipe off. 

Some boilers are furnished with small pipes and 
blow valves that are open, blowing all the time ; but 
these boilers feed all salt water. The pipes are 
placed near the surface of the water in the boilers. 



STEAM. 

Steam is the elastic fluid generated by heating 
water to the boiling point. TTae ioie^ 6i ^\«axxi ^iwvi- 



STEAMSHIPS. 71 

sists in its elastic propertiea Steam makes a con- 
tinuous eflfbrt (so to speak) to enlarge its dimensions 
— ^to burst out of its confinement and fly into the 
open air. 

A cubic inch of wat^, boiled off, makes a cubic 
foot of steam at the pressure of the atmosphere. 

As the steam generates, it collects in the steam 
space above the water in the boilers, and from the 
steam drum it is led bj pipes to the engine. 



SUPERHEATED STEAM. 

In order to give more elasticity to steam, it is 
charged with heat after it is generated. There are 
various methods of superheating the steam. Some 
ships have separate boilers, or superheaters; in other 
ships there is a steam jacket around the chimney ; 
the heat of the chimney gives more heat to the steam. 



THE. SCREW PROPELLER. 

Some propellers are constructed with two blades, 
some with three, and others have four blades. These 
blades are formed as parts of the threads of a screw, 
and as the engine turns, the screw or blades force 
their way into the water and push the ship along. 
The shaft passes through the stern of the ship, and 
the propeller wheel is keyed fast on the out- end of 
the shaft. There is a stuffing box, packed with 
hemp gasket, in the stem of the ship, where the shaft 
runs through. This packing keei^^ llcia ^^Jyet ^^a^sv. 



72 STEAMSHIPS. 

enteriDg iDto the ship at the hole where the shaft 
runs through. 

The screw propeller sometimes works loose, and 
very often gets broken. It is necessary to haul the 
ship on a dry dock to get ayihe propeller, as it is all 
under water. 

If an accident should happen to the screw, and the 
engineer wishes to repair it in a port where there is 
not a dry dock to haul the ship out, a box is made 
and placed under the propeller, around the stem of 
the ship. The ship is ballasted down forward, in 
order to raise the stern out of the water as much as 
convenient This box is made of plank, and is fitted 
to the stern of the ship, as near as possible. There 
are blocks and &lls to brace it up and keep it steady, 
and braces of wood firom the top of the box up to 
and bearing against the stern of the ship, to prevent 
the box from rising up by the force of the water. 
The box is then pumped dry, and kept dry by the 
pump ; the propeller can then be got at to repair it. 

CLEANINa BOILERS. 

The boilers are cleaned before they are filled with 
water. There is a man head port above the tubes in 
the space, to get in to clean off the scale. Scrapers 
in the form of a half circle, with a handle attached, 
are used to scrape off the scale. The tubes are 
cleaned inside by pushing a circular brush through 
them, the brush being a tight fit for the tube. There 
is a spring scraper used sometimes to clean the insides 
of tubes ; this scraper is made in two pieces that form 



STEAMSHIPS. 73 

a circle, but room is left between the pieces to allow 
them to spring. The pieces are welded to a rod that 
is long enough to reach through the length of the 
tubes. The edges of these circular scrapers are sharp, 
and as they are pushed through they spring out, and 
press the cutting edges against the insides of the 
tubes, and the scale is cleaned off. After the boilers 
are cleaned, and the scale and sediment washed out, 
the hand hole joints are made, and the boilers are 
filled with water; these being boilers for engines 
with surface condenser, are filled with fresh water 
at first. 



FIRING- FURNACES. 

The water being high enough in the boilers — 
nearly up to the top gauge — which can be seen by 
the glass gauge, the man head joint is made, and the 
fires are lighted. Hook up the safety valve at first, 
to let out the air that is in the steam space. Shut the 
damper when lighting the fires. Put in a layer of coal 
on the grate bars first, then put in chips, oily waste, 
and wood to kindle with. Some fires may be lighted 
with charcoal and wood, put right on the grate bars, 
without a layer of coal first. If the furnaces are damp, 
and the smoke comes out at the fire doors, then a 
fire of shavings or paper may be kindled in the flues 
to start the draft. Put in coal on the top of the wood 
after it has burned bright, and open the damper some, 
to give draft, let the fires burn slowly, to heat gradu- 
ally. After the fires are burned up bright, then reg- 
ulate the coal in the furnaces, spread the coal over 
4 



74 STEAMSHIPS. 

the grate bars regular, and about seven inches thick 
of coal will be a good fire if the draft is good ; but the 
quality of the coal and the construction of the fur- 
nace have to be considered in firing furnaces. 

Some boilers will steam with a fire' six inchesf, 
while others require twelve inches thick. Take care 
that there are not anj places on the grate bars which 
are not covered with coal ; this will be found out by 
a drumming noise which will be heard proceeding 
from the chimney. When the steam begins to blow 
from the safety valve, shut it down, and put the 
weight out on the lever, to the notch that the boilers 
are calculated for. The furnace doors should not be 
left open but as little as possible. When the engine 
is stopped suddenly, and great fires in the furnaces, 
the fire doors must be opened, and the flue connec- 
tions also, and the safety valve hooked up. 



STARTING THE ENGINE. 

When the steam is raising, the engine is being pre- 
pared for starting ; all the glands having been packed, 
the cups are filled with oil ; there are siphons put in 
the oil cups, to draw down the oil slowly on the jour- 
nal, from the cup ; these siphons are made with wire, 
twisted around woolen threads ; the threads are thrust 
down the oil holes by the wires on to the journals, 
and the ends of the threads are coiled above in the 
oil cup. These engines are commonly furnished with 
slide valve, link motion, and a rack, pinion and hand 
wheel There are two eccentrics, which are con- 
nected bj rods one to each^ii^flL oi NJaft^xJs., 



3TBAMSHIPS. ^ 75 

When the pinion is put down, by turning the hand 
wheel until the pinion is clear to the end of the rack, 
the engine will work full steam and not cut off any. 

When the pinion is traversed to the other end of 
of the rack, the engine will run the other way ; when 
the pinion is traversed to the centre of the rack, that 
will shut the slide valve, and the engine wiU stand 
still ; when the pinion is traversed half the distance 
between the centre and the end of the rack, the en- 
gine will work by cutting off the steam at half stroke. 

The rack is marked with letters, one end forward 
and the other end backward turn. 

There is a handle that connects to a small valve on 
the side of the steam chest ; this valve, when open, 
lets steam into the cylinder, to warm it, and to keep 
the piston up ordpwn, so that the crank will not stop 
on the centre, this valve is used also for letting 
steam in to blow the air put of the passages and pre- 
pare the engine for starting. The handle is worked 
back and forth, until the engine is warnied up ; then, 
when the engine is running, this small valve is not 
used, but kept shut. When the steam is strong 
enough, the engine is started to see if all is right 

The throttle valve is the valve that lets the steam 
from the steam pipe into the steam chest, where the 
slide valve works. The crank being well off the 
centre, to be sure to give the engine a good start, the 
hand wheel is traversed to the forward mark in the 
rack, the throttle is opened, the engine starts to run 
forward. After running foi'ward slowly for a few 
minutes, the throttle is shut some ^udL\!tia\v«xA-^V^^ 



76 STEAMSHIPS. 

traversed to the mark on the backward turn, the 
throttle is opened more, and the engine runs back 
slowly. The injection valve must ^be opened at the 
same time that the throttle is opened; then, when 
the engine has worked long enough to prove that all 
is right, the throttle is shut, the injection valve is 
shut, and the engine is standing still. The engineer 
is then waiting for the signal from the pilot-house. 
Care must be taken that the piston does not creep 
down or up, in the meantime, and get the crank stuck 
on the centre. The small valve must be used to pre- 
vent that, if the piston begins to move. 

If the crank ever gets stuck on the centre, the way 
to get it off is by pinching around the balance wheel 
with a bar. The balance wheel is keyed on the pro- 
peller shaft, and is a wheel with recesses cast all 
around the outside of the rim of the wheel ; the bar 
is put in these recesses, and a heel is provided for the 
bar. There are men stationed at this bar when the 
engine is starting. 

THE SIG-NAL BELLS. 

There is a gong in the engine room, with wires that 
lead up on deck — one wire to the pilot house, and 
others, in some ships, to other positions on the upper 
deck, convenient for the captain. There is not a uni- 
form system of signals, as some captains on the lakes 
adopt a different system to others. The steamers on 
the Mississippi river have a backing and a forward 
bell at each engine. {Copied): The navy regulation 
is: ahead, slow, 1 bell ; feat, 4 \ ^o^ ^^\Ti^\\^c>^^T^ 



8TBAHSHIPS. 77 

1 ; stop, 2 ; back, 8. The custom generally prevail- 
ing in the merchant marine is : ahead, slow, 1 ; fast 
8 ; slow again, 1 ; stop, 1 ; back, 2. 

The engine going full speed, the injection valve is 
opened full, the discharge valve tied up, the regis- 
ter set ; the hand wheel is traversed some distance 
fix)m the end of the rack, in order to work expan- 
sively, or to cut of^ as it is termed. 



CUTTING OFF STEAM. 

This link motion is arranged so as to cut off the 
steam at any part of the stroke, or to work with full 
steam clear up to the end of the stroke. The cutting 
off is regulated according to convenience. 

If there is plenty of steam and good speed wanted, 
then the engine may work full steam. 

If the steam is scarce and cannot be kept up to a 
good pressure, then the steam may be cut off some. 
In rough weather, when the vessel is working irregu- 
lar and unsteady, and the governor is being used, 
then the engine must work full steam. Cutting 
off steam will interfere with the action of the gov- 
ernor. The cutting off the steam is intended for the 
purpose of getting more power out of less fuel, and 
it is of no consequence what kind of a valve is used 
to cut off by, as long as it prevents the steam from 
entering the cylinder and acts quick. K an engine 
with boilers that keep up a pressure of twenty^five 
pounds on the square inch is worked expansively, as 
it is termedj or worked wifti \,\i^ Qi\xX» oS-^ «sA *^^ 



78 8TBAH8HIPS. 

Steam, after being let into the cylinder at ftill pres- 
sure, until the piston has traveled down or up as far 
only as the centre of the cylinder, then the valve 
is shut, the supply of steam cut off; the other half 
that the piston has to travel will be performed by the 
expansive power of the steam that is already in the 
cylinder — ^no more being admitted from the steam 
pipe, the valve being shut — cut off, when the piston 
has reached to the end of the stroke, the steam in- 
side of the cylinder will be a great deal weaker than 
when it entered, as it will have expanded ; but still 
the steam, when it passes out of the cylinder into the 
condenser, will be found to be strong enough for con- 
densing purposes. If the steam had not been cut ofl^ 
but allowed to follow the piston at the fiill pressure, 
clear up to the end of the stroke, after the piston had 
made a few strokes the condenser would get hot^ and 
the vacuum be spoiled, because of so much strong 
steam passing into the condenser ; but by cutting off 
at half stroke, the engine has got all the force of the 
steam at twenty-five pounds on the square inch for 
half the stroke, and the force only diminishes gradu- 
ally from there and enters the condenser at as much 
pressure as the condenser is able to condense it at. 
If the steam was allowed to enter the cylinder at the 
same weak pressure as it leaves the cylinder at, then 
the piston would only have this weak pressure forc- 
ing it on, from the beginning to the end of the stroke, 
and the condenser would have the same quantity of 
steam to condense ; but by the superior force of the 
steam at the beginning of the stroke, the engine gets 



STBAMSHIPS. 79 

more power, and the vacuum is as good as if the 
engine was using weak steam and not cutting off, 
but letting it follow the piston clear to the end of 
the cylinder. 

A VACUUM DESTROYED. 

II the condenser gets hot, and the vacuum is spoiled, 
which will be seen by the vacuum gauge, and also by 
the engine slowing down and stopping, open the 
bilge injection, and keep the sea injection valve open 
also; the steam that is in the condenser will then 
blow out into the bilge, and the condenser will get 
cool again ; then shut the bilge injection. This method 
of cooling a jet condenser when the vacuum is de- 
stroyed, is a speedy remedy, as the contents of the con- 
denser are discharged in the bilge, there being only 
one compartment 

CLEANING- FIRES. 

The watch is divided and changed every four 
hours. The engineers, and firemen and coal passers 
are on duty four hours, and off duty eight hours, 
night and day. The changes of the watch are at 12 
o'clock, 4 o'clock, and 8 o'clock. 

There are two firemen, one to each boiler, and one 
fire in each boiler is cleaned on every watch, and 
when the coal is bad the fires are cleaned oftener. 
When the firemen come on watch, they clean one fire 
each. 

The fires are cleaned by raking all the ashes 
and clinkers clean out of the furnace, and spreading 



80 STEAMSHIPS. 

wliat fire there is left over the grate bars, and firing 
up with fresh coal. 

The hose has to be used to play a stream of water 
on the ashes to cool them, before they are hoisted up 
and thrown overboard. 

The coal is measured every watch, when the coal 
passers bring the coal from the coal bunkers, or the 
compartments where the coal is kept There is an 
iron measure — it is an oval shaped large bucket, open 
at both ends ; the measure is set upon the iron floor 
plates of the fire room, and the coal is filled into it ; 
when the measure is full, it is lifted up, and, having 
no bottom, the coal is left on the floor plates, and the 
measure is put in another place and filled again. 
This is to ascertain the quantity of coal used on the 
watch. 

The ashes are hoisted up and thrown overboard, 
and the number of measures of coal and ashes 
measured on the watch, is entered by the engineer on 
his log slate. 

KEYING UP. 

Melted tallow is put into the cylinder every hour, 
and lamp black if the piston growls. The journals 
and bearings are watched closely, to see if any of 
them get warm. The men on watch feel the work- 
ing parts with their hands, to ascertain if they begin 
to heat. The heating may be caused by too tight 
keying, or too slack keying up, or by sand getting 
on the journals. All the principal bearings are fur- 
nished with water pipes, to let a stream of cold water 



STEAMSHIPS. 81 

run on them if they get hot. K a stream of water 
fails to cool a bearing, the hose can be used on it, and 
if that fails, then the engine must be stopped and the 
bearing slacked up. 

It is best to stop to key up when the steam is low, 
as that will be a chance for the steam to make while 
the engine is not using it. There are copper ham- 
mers used to strike the keys — ^heavy hammers and 
light ones ; the large keys require a heavy blow, and 
the key, after it is driven in, must have a blow on 
the point to ease it back. After the keys are all 
tightened up, and the bearings regulated so that the 
nuts will not slack up or the keys fly out by the work- 
ing of the engine, then the engine is started up again. 



BANKING- FIRES. 

When a steamship has to be detained for a few 
hours, the fires may be banked. This is done by 
cleaning the fires first in the usual way, then pushing 
them back so as to leave an open space on the grate 
bars at the furnace mouth for some distance back. 
The water is kept at the boiling point in that way, 
and the steam can be got up again in a short time, by 
spreading the fire over the grate bars and firing up again. 



ENG-INEEB'S LOG-. 

There is a log book kept by the engineer, and in 
the engine room there is a slate with the proper head- 
ing for each entry ; and each engineer on his watch 
fills out the result of his run : 

The number of revolutions the engine makes per 
4* 



82 8tbah8h:ips. 

minute, the number per hour, and the whole number 
made on the watch, by the register. The pressure of 
steam, by the gauge ; the pressure of vacuum, by the 
gauge ; the density or saltness of the water in the 
boilers, by the salinometer. 

The temperature of the injection or sea water ; the 
temperature of the hoi water for feed pumps ; the 
temperature of the engiue room and fire room — ^all 
by the thermometers as shown. 

The number of measures of coal used on the watch ; 
the number of measures of ashes hoisted up and 
thrown overboard. 

The quantity of tallow and oil used on the watch, 
with remarks if anything has happened out of the 
regular routine, such as stopping to repair or key 
up, &c. 

AlLthis is transferred from the slate to the engi- 
neer's book, together with the result of the card from 
the indicator, when a diagram has been taken. 



WORKING NON-OONDENSINO. 

Some of these engines are furnished with a valve 
on the eduction pipe, which, when opened, lets the 
steam, as it escapes from the cylinder, blow out into 
the open air.' K an accident happens to the air 
pump or condenser, or foot or delivery valves, 
then the engine is changed into a non-condensing 
or high pressure engine, as it is termed. The air 
pump is disconnected, the injection valve and delivery 
valve are shut, and the condensing part of the engine 
being taken away, there is no vacuum, and the 



STEAMSHIPS. 83 

engine works as a higli pressure engine. When 
an engine is not furnished with this valve to lefc 
the steam escape, there are other ways of working 
high pressure ; one is by taking off the foot valve 
cover and fixing a wooden box to let the steam blow 
out, the air pump being disconnected, and the in- 
jection and discharge valves being shut 

FOAMING- OF BOILERS. 

Foaming of the water in boilers will be seen by 
the glass gauge tube. The water boils up and froths 
in the glass tube fiiriously. Foaming is caused some- 
times by lifting the safety valve up suddenly ; it is 
also caused by muddy water entering the boilers 
from the hot well, through the feed pump. Those 
engines which have aje^ condenser, and use all kinds 
of water as it mixes with the steam, are liable to 
foam when entering into fresh water out of the salt 
water ; but whatever causes foaming, it is a dangerous 
state for the water to be in, as the foam might get 
into the steam pipe and fill the cylinder with water, 
and break down the engine, or the water might be 
reduced so quickly in the boilers as to get below the 
flues, and let the fire burn the boilers. When 'the 
water is seen to foam, slow down the engine, by 
shutting the throttle valve and the injection valve 
some ; open the fire doors and shut the damper some, 
to stop the furious boiling. 



84 STEAMSHIPS. 

ARRIVING IN PORT. 

When the ship arrives in port the fires are liauled ; 
the ashes are hoisted up and put on the dock pier ; 
the hose is played on the engine to wash it down ; 
the bilge water is pumped out by the donkey pump ; 
the boilers are blown off; the sea valves, discharge 
valves, and other valves, are shut; the cylinder 
head is taken up to examine the piston ; the oil is 
taken out of all the cups, with the siphons also, and 
the cups wiped clean; the engine is cleaned down, 
and the bright work polished ; the man heads and 
hand hole doors of the boilers are taken off, ready 
for cleaning; all cocks and valves that leak are 
ground in ; the glands are fresh packed ; all bearings 
that have been heating are examined; new rubber 
joints are put in where the old ones have been leak- 
ing ; and everything that has given any trouble on 
the voyage is attended to, if there is time to do it alL 

SIDE WHEEL SHIPS WITH SIDE LEVER ENGINES. 

Side lever engines, with jet condensers or marine 
engines, as they are termed, are the oldest plan of 
steamship engines in use; all the heavy works of 
the engines are placed below in the hold of the ship. 

The bed plates are laid on the keelsons, the cylin- 
ders, condensers, air-pumps, and hot wells, are all in 
a line on the bed plates. Also, the columns (for the 
frame work to support the crank bearings, shafts, 
&c.,) are on the bed plates ; the condensers are cast on 
the bed plates, and the main centers on which the side 
levers vibrate, run through tunnels cast in the con- 



STEAMSHIPS. 85 

densers and keyed fiast there ; the side levers are put 
on the projecting ends of the main centers ; the side 
rods are connected to the ends of the side levers, and 
lead up to and are connected on the crossheads above 
the cylinders ; the piston rods are connected in the 
middle of the crossheads ; the other ends of the side 
levers are connected by cross tails, through which the 
connecting rods are fixed in the middle, and lead up 
to and are connected on the cranks. The hot wells 
are on the top of the condensers ; the valves are 
worked by motions arranged with eccentrics, keyed 
on the shafts ; the cranks stand at right angles to each 
other : when one engine is on the centre the other 
engine is in full power at half stroke ; the engines 
are connected by the intermediate shaft, which is 
placed above the engines, with a crank at each end, 
at right angles ; the paddle wheel shafts are connected 
one at each end of the intermediate shaft, with cranks 
that couple to the others. The paddle wheels are 
keyed on the outer. ends of the paddle shafts. The 
piston rods are guided true in their motions by what 
is termed 

THE PARALLEL MOTION. 

The parallel motion is constructed with a shaft that 
has its bearings on the frame work ; on each end of 
this shaft there is a lever ; these levers'are connected 
by rods down to the side levers of the engines, which 
gives the cross shaft motion ; there are parallel rods 
that connect on the levers at each end of the cross 
shaft; the other ends are formed with jaws that 
grasp the side rods — the side rods being connected to 



86 STEAMSHIPS. 

the cross heads, and the bars being connected on the 
levers of the cross shaflb — ^the cross shaft getting its 
motion from the side levers; these parallel bars 
change their posiiion as the piston rod ascends and 
descends, and, by this means, the piston rod is held . 
in a parallel line as it works. Some beam engines 
are ftimished with parallel motions instead of slides 
and cross heads to guide the piston. 



JET CONDENSERS. 

Those engines have jet condensera Inside of the 
condenser there is a plate perforated with holes, to 
scatter the water as the injection valve lets it rush in 
from the sea. The exhaust steam, as it escapes from 
the cylinder, flies into the cold water in the condenser, 
and becomes condensed ; the steam mingles with 
the sea water, and the air pumps draw the water out 
of the condensers and discharge it into the hot wells, 
and from there through two pipes, one on each side 
of the ship, back into the sea — all, with the excep- 
tion of the water that is required to feed the boilers, 
which is taken from the hot wells by two pipes lead- 
ing to the feed pumps. These condensers and air 
pumps are furnished with foot valves and delivery 
valves and air pump buckets, just like those described 
on page 45, for vacuum engine. 

Those ships may have four or more boilers, and 
separate superheaters for steam, as the case may re- 
quire. All the pipes may be traced from the boilers 
to the engines, and from the engines to the conden- 
sers, and discharge pipes from hot wells, and feed 



STEAMSHIPS. 87 

water pipes to the pumps, and from the pumps to the 
boilers, and the bilge pipes and pumps and donkey 
connections, and the hand gearing in the engine room 
traced to its connections. There is a little trouble at 
first, in a strange engine room ; but the engineer soon 
becomes accustomed to it, when the connections are 
properly traced by him. 



BEAM ENG-INES. 

Some steamships are furnished with beam engines ; 
most of the river steamers on American waters are 
fitted out with beam engines. The beam is placed 
high up, which leaves plenty of room below to get 
around the works. The beam is built on the skele- 
ton plan, and is light and strong, with long connec- 
tions, which allows the journals to yield and work 
smooth. The bed plate is bolted down to the keel- 
sons ; the condenser is placed at one end, and the air 
pump is placed at the other end of the bed plate — 
the foot valve being placed in the passage below that 
leads from the condenser to the air pump. The cyl- 
inder is placed on the top of the condenser ; the slides 
or guides for the cross head to work in are bolted on 
the top of the cylinder. The steam chest or casing 
is bolted on the front of the cylinder, at each end, and 
the two side pipes connect the casings together. One 
pipe is the steam pipe, the other is the eduction pipe ; 
there are four double valves or eight valves coupled 
in pairs in the four chambers (puppet valves as they 
are termed); these valves are coupled, two on one 
valve stem ; the steam acts on the top of the one 



88 STEAMSHIPS. 

valve and on the bottom of the other, in order to 
balance the pressure of steam ; if the steam acted on 
one side of the valve ooly, it would be too heavy to 
lift. There are four rods in front of the steam chest 
— two that lead up to the top valves and two that 
lead down, and are connected with the lower valves. 
The rock shaft is placed in front of the side pipes, or 
it is two fifeparate rock shafts in one line. There are 
cams fixed on the rock shafts that lift up the' rods by 
coming in contact with toes that are keyed on the 
rods. The two cams on one of the rock shafts have 
a greater throw than the two on the other rock shaft. 
These with the greatest throw are arranged so that 
they lift up the rods and let them fall down quick. 
These valves are for the steam. On the other rock 
shaft the cams are so arranged as to lift up the rods 
and keep them up longer, and not allow them to drop 
until the piston has traveled clear to the end of the 
stroke. This holding up of the valves so long before 
they shut is done for the purpose of keeping the com- 
munication from the exhaust side of the piston open 
with the condenser, to get the benefit of the vacuum, 
while the valves that open to let -steam to the other 
side of the piston are let drop and shut before the 
piston has traveled to the end ; this is to cut oS the 
steam. These rock shafts get their motions from 
eccentrics that are keyed on the paddle wheel shafts, 
and the eccentric rods lead down and are hooked into 
pins on the ends of the levers that are fixed on the 
rock shaft. 

There is a small cross shaft below the rock shaft ; 



STEAMSHIPS. 89 

this small shaft has projections to lift the rods also. 
This is the shaft the starting bar fits into, and is 
used by the engineer to hand the engine when stop- 
ping dr starting. 

The gallows frame is carried from below, high up, 
and the beam centre pillow blocks are placed on the 
top of the frame ; there are braces with turn buckles 
to hold down the gallows frame ; there are two front 
links connected to the end centre of the beam, and to 
the cross head, by straps, bushes and keys, the cross 
head being keyed on the top of the piston rod, this 
gives motion to the beam ; on the other end of the 
beam there is the connecting rod, which leads down 
and is connected to the crank pin ; there are two 
cranks— one on each paddle wheel shaft, and one pin 
connects the two cranks together ; the air pump is 
worked by two rods connected to a centre on the 
beam, and there are two injection valves — one to let 
water from the bottom of the ship, and one through 
the side of the ship ; the low valve is used in deep 
water ; the side valve is used in shoal water ; these 
valves are opened by two wheels that are placed in 
the engine room. 

In starting the engine, the engineer opens the 
throttle valve — opens the injection valve a little, and 
works the valves up and down, by the starting bar, 
always taking care to have the crank past the cen- 
tre before the valve is open. When ordered to hook 
on, the eccentric hook is let drop on to the pin on the 
rock shaft lever. The injection valve is opened full ; 
the throttle valve and damper are opened to suit ; the 



90 STEAMSHIPS. 

starting bar is unshipped, and the engine goes along. 
When ordered to stop, the throttle and injection 
valves are partly shut, to slow down ; then, at the 
next stroke of the gong, the eccentric hook is un- 
shipped, the throttle and injection valves and damper 
are shut, the furnace doors are opened, and the safety 
valve hooked up. Care must be t^en in handling 
a single engine, not to get the crank stuck on the cen- 
tre, although a beam engine is not so liable to stop 
on the centre. 



OSCILLATIXa ENG-INES. 

' The oscillating engine cylinder is hung on trun- 
nions, and there is not any connecting rods or guides 
or parallel motion needed ; as the engine works, the 
cylinder rocks back and forth, and follows the crank 
around. The piston rod is connected on the crank 
pin with a strap and brasses, keyed on the end of 
the piston rod to a socket; the cylinder receives 
steam through the trunnion on one side and the ex- 
haust steam escapes through the other trunnion on 
the opposite side — ^the trunnions being hollow. The 
air pump, condenser, and other details are similar to 
other marine engines. 



DIRECT ACTING- ENGINES. 

The direct acting engine is one that has no 

beams or side levers, but the connecting rod from the 

cross, head is led down diiecl \Ai \Isckfe ^t^TjSs. \i\si. 



STEAMSHIPS. 91 

The trunk engine has no piston rod ; the connect- 
ing rod is coupled on the piston, and there is an 
open tunnel, inside of which the connecting rod 
vibrates. 

The inclined engine has the cylinder laid at an 
angle. The horizontal engine has the cylinder laid 
level. 



PAET III. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENaiNES. 

The locomotive engine is a double cylinder high 
pressure engine, or rather two engines working to- 
gether, on the same shaft, and both receiving their 
steam from one boiler. 

The locomotive engine cannot be constructed on 
the condensing principle, as the condensing engine 
requires a great quantity of cold water to condense 
the steam, and it is not convenient to carry the water, 
nor even could it be discharged on the railroad if it 
were carried. Therefore, the locomotive engine is 
propelled by the force of the steam alone, as no ar- 
rangement can be made to have the vacuum also. 

The space allowed for the boiler and wheels of a 
locomotive engine is very limited — ^it being confined 
to the distance between the rails on the track. 

The body of the boiler is a cylinder with a square 
shaped fire box, with an arch top at one end, and a 
smoke box, with the chimney on top, at the other 
end. The body of the boiler contains a great num- 
ber of tubes or flues ; they are placed in rows, and 
as close together as convenient, and fastened at one 
end in the head plate of the fire box — at the other 
end, in the head plate of the smoke box. The 
smoke box, with the chimney on it, is the front or 
prow of the engine. The olhei end, '^liftTe the fire 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. 93 

lx)x is situated, is the foot plate for the engineer to 
stand on. The fire box is a square or oblong box 
with grate bars in the bottom, and an arch top 
against which the fire strikes before it enters the 
tubes. 

There are spaces between the fire box and the out- 
side of the boiler ; these spaces are filled with water, 
and strongly braced with stays, riveted through both 
plates. 

The fire passes through the tubes into the smoke 
box and enters the chimney. The water fills the 
spaces around the fire box, and also all the spaces 
between the tubes (water spaces). These spaces be- 
tween the tubes are left very small for the purpose of 
distributing the heat, and keeping all the water con- 
tained in the boiler heated to the boiling point. As 
the boiler is small in proportion to the steam and 
power required, every advantage is taken and no 
steam or water space left idle. 

There is a steam space left above the tubes, and a 
pipe that is carried up and into the top inside of a 
dome. This pipe receives the steam as it is made, 
and there is a Valve termed the regulator, which 
is placed in this pipe, which, when opened, lets 
the steam to the cylinder of the engine, which 
is similar to other cylinders of high pressure en- 
gines. 

The engine has slide valves — one to each cylinder. 
They are worked by eccentric wheels keyed on the 
crank shaft that carries the driving wheels. 

These cylinders are fnrnislied ^\\k ^\&\.cyws»^^'N^^^ 



94 LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. 

rods, cross heads— outside of the cylinder covers, 
working into slides to guide the piston and rods, just 
the same as other engines. 

Some locomotive engines are constructed with the 
cylinders inside of the smoke box, and the connect- 
ing rods coupled on to the crank shaft. This shaft 
is forged with cranks, and arranged so that the one 
throw or crank stands at right angles with the other 
throw. The eccentrics are fixed on the shaft with 
screws. The driving wheels are keyed on the out 
ends of the crank shaft; the driving wheels are 
coupled outside of the other wheels by smaller con- 
necting rods. The engines have all the weight of 
the whole machine, with boiler, water and all on the 
rails, which friction is intended to keep the wheels 
from slipping. The axles of these wheels are set on 
springs, in order to allow the wheels to correspond 
to the unevenness of the road. Locomotive engines 
are all furnished with cut off valves of same kind. 
A common plan for locomotives to work expan- 
sively is by the link motion. 

The valve stems are connected to small rock shafts, 
one for each valve stem. There is a lever fixed on 
each rock shaft ; on the end of the lever there is 
placed a pin, with a square or oblong box, that fits 
on it ; this box or bush fits in the space that is in the 
link ; the link forms part of a circle. 

The eccentric rods are connected on this link, one 

at each end of the link ; there is a lever connected 

with a cross shaft, that hangs the weight of the link. 

This cross shaft is worked by a lever on the foot 

plate, where the engineer stands. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. 95 

The reversing lever works in a quadrant or circu- 
lar guide ; on the top of the circle there are notches 
cut at measured distances, so that the handle or lever 
can be rested on these notches, K the reversing 
lever is placed in the position in the centre notch, the 
square block on the end of the rock shaft lever will 
be in the middle of the space in the link ; then the 
valve rod will have but little motion. K the revers- 
ing lever is pushed forward to the farthest notch, 
the engine will go forward and work full steam, and 
not cut off any ; if the reversing lever is put in the 
middle notch, between the centre and the end 
notches, the steam will be cut off at about half stroke; 
and if the lever is put in the position to the notch at 
the extreme end in the opposite direction, the engine 
will run backwards. The quadrant is marked at each 
notch with figures indicating how many inches in the 
length of the stroke of the piston the steam is cut 
off at, and the engineer regulates that according as 
he thinks the speed of the train requires it. If the 
engine has a very heavy load to pull, it may require 
all the steam without cutting off. K it is a light 
train, and a good part of the road, the engine will 
have power enough by cutting off at some part of 
the stroke. 

The links on both engines are operated by one 
reversing lever only. If the regulator valve is 
opened, that lets steam on to the engines ; the revers- 
ing lever moved forward, the engine will start 
forward. If the reversing lever is moved back to 
the last notch in the quadrant, the engine will start 



96 LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. 

and run backward. The engineer has full command 
of the engine by these two levers. 

There are other plans of cutting off steam in 
locomotive engines. Some have two valves in the 
steam chest — the one is the cut off, the other is the 
regular slide valve. The principle of cutting off is 
the same. The end desired is to prevent the steam 
from getting into the cylinders. 

When the steam is low, and the engineer wants to 
blow up his fires, he opens a cock that lets a jet of 
steam rush up the chimney from the boilers. This 
jet of steam, rushing up the chimney through a con- 
tracted pipe, causes a draft through the furnace, and 
blows up the fire and makes steam. 

The engines also exhaust their steam in a pipe in 
the chimney (the blast pipe), and that keeps the fire 
good when the train is in motion. If the steam gets 
too strong when the engine is running, there is a 
handle that is connected to a rod which leads to the 
exhaust pipe, and by reversing this handle the exhaust 
steam is let out, and does not cause any draft. There 
is also a damper to shut or open in the chimney, or 
ash pan, to stop the draft. There are two pipes, 
with cocks to open from the boilers, for letting steam 
into the tank in the tender to heat the water. The 
tender is the carriage that holds the fuel and water, 
and is constantly hauled along with the engine, 
being coupled to it. There are handles, connected 
to rods, leading to the cylinder cocks. These cocks 
require to be opened at times when the engine is 
runniugj and they must be open >N\i^xi xJci^ ^xi^w^ \a 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. 97 

startiDg, for the purpose of letting out the water that 
has collected in the cylinders. There are other 
handles connected on rods that lead to small pet 
cocks in the pumps ; these require to be opened at 
times to see if the pumps are throwing water. There 
are pipes connected to the water tank of the tender 
(suction pipes), leading to the pumps to feed the 
boilers. 

There is a small dome on the centre of the top of 
the boiler ; this dome contains sand, and there is a 
cock that the engineer can open, so that the sand 
will run down pipes that lead on to the rails in front 
of the driving wheels, to prevent the wheels from 
slipping. The sand is required at times when the 
rails are wet. There is also a sand box on the foot 
plate, close to where the engineer stands, to let sand 
down on the rails at the hind wheels. 

The wheels are liable to slip when the engine is 
just starting, and before the train has got under way. 
Some locomotive engine furnaces are fired with wood, 
some with coal, and others with coke. The grate bars 
are fixed so that the fire can be dumped out easy. 

The locomotive engine carries very high pressed 
steam — from one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
pounds on the square inch. Very high pressed 
steam is required, on account of having so much 
work to do for such a small machine. 

There is a blow pipe, placed about the surface of 
the water line, in the boilers, that is for blowing out 
when the boiler gets too full, and when the water 
may be muddy. 
5 



98 LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. 

The locomotive engine is furnished with steam 
gauge, safety valve, gauge cocks, &c., and all the 
arrangements necessary for high pressure engines. 
The firing up the furnaces must be learned by practice. 
The water in the boiler has to be watched closely, 
and the gauge cocks opened often, as the boiler 
carries but little water in proportion to the heating 
surface. The wat.er gets boiled off quick, and the 
steam gets used up as quick, the engine running fast 
and the cylinders being large. 

A knowledge of the road is required. The en- 
gineer must know all the stations, and use his skill 
about stopping his steam at the right time when 
approaching a station, so that the train will stand at 
the right place. The steam must be kept at a uniform 
pressure, and a good fire and plenty of steam when 
approaching a heavy grade. There are plugs carried 
along in the event of a tube flue bursting ; the en- 
gineer must put one in each end, and drive them in, 
to prevent the steam and water fi:om discharging all 
out. 

THE INJECTOR. 

There is a method of feeding boilers, without the 
use of the force pump. This is done by an instru- 
ment termed the injector. This apparatus is small, 
and can be placed in any position — vertical, horizon- 
tal, or otherwise. The injector is in the form of a 
tube, with several nozzles for the connections. It is 
connected to the boiler by two pipes — one leading 
from the steam space, and the other leading into the 



LOCOHOTIYS ENGINES. 99 

water space, as low down as it can be got It works 
well at any pressure of steam, and can be applied to 
any kind of boilers, and will feed marine engine 
boilers from the water out of the hot well. 

The steam pipe conuection is placed highest up on 
the instrument; the water pipe or suction pipe con- 
nection is placed about the centre of the instrument, 
and there is a connection further down, termed the 
overflow ; this pipe lets the water escape when there 
is too much in the instrument. The connection, 
where the water leaves the injector and passes into 
the boiler, is at the bottom of the instrument. There 
is a valve in this last connection (a check valve) to 
prevent the water from coming back from the boiler 
when the injector is not working. There is a cock 
placed in the pipe that gives the steam from the 
boiler to the injector ; another cock in the feed pipe, 
where the water is forced into the boiler ; and one in 
the suction pipe, where the water is supplied from. 

There is a wheel on the top of the injector for 
regulating the water to it ; there is a handle above 
the wheel for regulating the steam to it. 

In setting the injector to work, the wheel is turned 
to let a little water on ; then the cock in the steam 
pipe is opened, the handle on the top is next turned 
to let steam on the injector; the steam coming in 
contact with the water, a vacuum is formed in the 
chamber that opens to the suction pipe. The instru- 
ment must then be regulated by the wheel and 
handle, until the stream of water flowing into the 
boiler is as strong as is required ; and the steam and 



100 LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. 

r 

water must be regulated so that there will oot be any 
overflow, as all the wat^er that runs out of the over- 
flow or waste pipe is so much water lost. It is easily 
seen if the injector is acting, as there is a space left 
open in the passage way through which the water 
has to travel. This space shows the water flow- 
ing through and on its course to the boiler. The 
boiler can be fed with water when the engine is not 
working. 



PAET IV. 



3EHR.E!OTI3Sra- EJ3Sra-I3SrEJS. 



BUILDINa A LOCOMOTIVE ENGhlNB. 

Soke locomotive engines are constructed with the 
cylinders outside of the smoke box, and the crank 
pins are fixed on the driving wheels ; while others 
are built with the cylinders inside the smoke box, 
and the connecting rods are led from the cross heads 
and connected to the cranks on the crank axle. In 
either of these plans the method of erecting the work 
is about the same — the machinery must be set square 
and level to the boilers, 

A mechanic can use his own method. 

In building a locomotive, the boiler is set upon 
blocks of square timber. If there is a crane, or some 
purchase to raise the boiler up at once, and place the 
blocks under, it is easily done ; but if there is nothing 
of that kind, then screw jacks must be used : first 
raise one end of the boiler by the screws, and pack 
it up with blocks; then raise the other end and pack 
up, and keep on until the boiler is high enough up 
to get under to work; keep the blocks out of the 
way, so as to leave room to get inside the fire box, 
and also keep the blocks clear of the lines and the 
parts to be worked at; put some pieces of boiler 
plate above the blocks under the fire box, and some 



102 EBECTING ENGINES. 

under the smoke box too ; enter some iron wedges 
under each end of the boUer, above the blocks. The 
blocks are placed at each end of the boiler under 
the fire box, and under the smoke box ; the shell or 
body of the boiler is all clear to get to work at. 

In order to level the boiler, apply a parallel 
straight edge along the top of the shell or body of 
the boiler. Let the straight edge be made with a 
piece at each end, and one in the middle projecting 
about one inch, to rest on the boiler and to dear the 
rivet heads. Apply the spirit level on the top of the 
straight edge, and at the same time apply the spirit 
level or plumb rule on each side of the fire box ; and 
if the fire box is not quite square, divide the differ- 
ence and wedge up from the blocks with the iron 
wedges, until the boiler sits level along the shell and 
plumb on both sides of the fire box. Then hang two 
plumb lines, one on each side of the shell or body of 
the boiler, at the fire box end, and two more, one at 
each side of the shell at the smoke box end ; take the 
centre between the two plumb lines with a rod across 
the boiler, and make a mark under the shell on the 
smoke box end ; make a mark with a cold chisel and 
do the same at the fire box end ; also measure from 
the outside of the fire box and the smoke box to the 
plumb lines on the shell to see if the sides of the 
fire box and the smoke box project equal on each 
side from the shell. If there is much difference, the 
centre mark will have to be altered some. But the 
boilers are generally well made, and little difference 
will be found. Having made these chisel marksi 



ERECTING ENGINES. 103 

take a plumb rule and draw a line from the chisel 
mark plumb down to the bottom of the fire box, 
and another line from the chisel mark at the smoke 
box end plumb down to the bottom. Then find out 
where the centres of the cylinders should be, and put 
a straight edge across the smoke box, and level it with 
a spirit level, and when level draw a line with a 
scriber across the outside of the smoke box, under 
the shell of the boiler: that will be the level centre 
line for the cylinders. 

If the cylinders are set on the level, then the line 
from that last mentioned cylinder centre line will be 
level, clear along to the fire box end, where another 
line will be drawn and marked along the outside of 
the firebox, under the shell ; but if the cylinders lay at 
an angle, and are connected to small driving wheels, 
then the lines must be drawn to suit the angle that 
the cylinders are to be placed at This may be done 
by making a straight edge to reach from the centre 
line of the cylinders to the fire box and nailing a 
piece of wood on the end of the straight edge at the 
fire box end, so that the mark can be put down as 
low as the angle requires ; then the straight edge can 
be leveled with the spirit level, and the mark on the 
piece down on the end of the straight edge will be 
the centre mark, which must be leveled and drawn 
across the fire box. Having got all these lines drawn 
and marked slightly with a sharp cold chisel or cen- 
tre punch, then find out how far apart the centres of 
the cylinders come from the centre mark on the smoke 
box ; then divide them oflf with a trammel or pair of 



104 ERECTING ENGINES. 

compasses, and describe the circles and cut the holes 
in the head plates for the cylinders to be bolted to. 
The cylinders will then be jStted to their places. 
Make two crosses to fit inside tha cylinders, to hold 
the lines ; the crosses may be made of pine board, 
three inches wide and three-quarters of an inch thick ; 
bore a three-quarter inch hole in the centre of each 
cross and put a piece of sheet brass or tin over the 
hole ; fasten the piece with small screws, then make 
a very small hole in the centre of the cross through 
this thin piece of brass or tin, and let that be the 
centre to put the line through. Put the crosses inside 
of the cylinders at the out end, and put the lines 
through the centre holes, and tie knots on the ends of 
the lines to prevent them from drawing through ; 
then stretch the lines through the cylinders and 
fasten the ends of them at the centre mark that is 
made on the fire box ; the lines can be fastened by 
bolting a straight edge across the fire box or fixing a 
piece of iron in some way to hold the lines to the 
centre mark. Then, when the lines are held tight in 
their places, take a piece of stout wire and make it 
the half the diameter of the cylinder; let the wire 
be pointed at each end ; then move the cylinders with 
wedges until the lines come right in the centre of the 
cylinders by this wire measure ; then, when thtj cyl- 
inders are set by the wedges true to the lines, take a 
pair of dividers and set them far enough apart to 
scribe the widest space between the cylinders and 
head plate ; then scribe all around the edges of the 
flanges on the cylinders ; l\ieiL\alk^\!ci^xrio\jL\»^SLd<JiiQ 



EBECTING ENGINES. 105 

and file and fit them up to the head plate by the 
marks that are drawn by the dividers ; then draw 
them up to their places with bolts ; paint the head 
plates with red lead, and that will mark the spots 
which bear the hardest ; then take them out and fit 
with chisels, files and scrapers, until the flanges have 
a solid bearing, and true to the linea Then the mo- 
tion bars or guides for the cross heads are fitted true 
to the lines also, and all the other works are fitted 
square and plumb to these lines. The frame work 
for holding the axle boxes for the crank axle is fitted 
and made square across the engine from the centre 
lines, and all the pieces of framing are made level 
across by the spirit level. When all the parts are 
fitted and the engine is ready to be set on the wheels, 
the chains are put around the body of the boiler to 
sling it and raise it up; the chains must be put 
around the boiler at each end inside between the 
smoke box and firebox, and blocks of wood or pieces 
of plank put between the chain slings and the boiler, 
to prevent the chain from slipping or injuring the 
plates of the boiler when the weight comes on. The 
whole affair is then raised up and the wheels are 
rolled under — each pair of wheels to their respective 
places. The axle boxes are kept straight and the 
boiler, with the works attached, is lowered down 
until the wheels take the weight — the axle boxes 
being supported by springs ; then the engine is rest- 
ing on its wheels. The blocks that the boiler were 
placed on while fitting on the works are removed oat 
pf the way. If there is not an aitx^\i^^\£L<5Ai\»fe>\j&r 
5* ^ 



106 ERECTING ENGINES. 

ing the engine all at once with a crane or hydraulic 
machine, then the screw jacks must be used and one 
end at a time lifted, and, after r511ing in the wheels, 
the weight must be lowered on to this pair of wheels, 
until the other end is raised up and the other wheek 
put under. It is a much better way to lift the whole 
weight at once, as the screw jack process requires 
great care. 

After the wheels are put under, the eccentric rods 
and connecting rods are put on and the valves are set. 
There are four eccentrics for a locomotive engine of 
this kind — two to go ahead and two to back. In set- 
ting the valves of the locomotive engines, the driving 
wheels are raised up clear of the rails and the jack 
screws are kept under the axle boxes, or the axle 
boxes are propped up in some way, to let the driving 
wheels turn around. 

The centres are taken on the driving wheels in the 
same way that the centres are found, and described in 
the article on setting the valves of a cane mill en- 
gine (see page 10.) The four centres are taken on a 
locomotive engine on the driving wheels, and the 
trammel is kept; the valves of a locomotive engine 
are set to give more lead than any other engine, as 
they travel so fest they require more lead. The 
eccentrics are liable to move around on the shaft;, as 
they are commonly fixed on with set screws, and it 
is necessary to have a small trammel, similar to that 
kept for the centres, or the same one might answer. 
After the valve is set and when the engine is on the 
centre, and right by the txammel, maka %i «ajka.l\ Ki^ix- 



KRECTING :KN GINKS. 107 

tre punch mark on the steam chest in firont, and 
another on the valve stem to correspond with the 
tranmiel; then it* can be seen at any time if the 
eccentric has moved, and the valve can be set again 
without taking off the steam chest cover. By block- 
ing up the wheels and taking the centres, and apply- 
ing the trammel to the valve stem, the valves may 
be set without blocking up the driving wheels, as the 
engine may be moved along the rails until the wheel 
rolls around to the right position to suit the centre 
punch naarks to the trammeL 

After an eccentric is set, it is well to make a mark 
on the eccentric wheel and shaft at the same time, 
by grinding a chisel to a point to fit in the corner 
between the shaft and eccentric wheel, and striking 
the chisel a blow, so that it will leave a mark on the 
shaft and eccentric wheel at once. 

BUILDING A HOBIZONTAL ENGINE. 

The cylinder of an engine of this kind is placed 
upon the bed at one end, and rests in a horizontal 
position with the bed plate. The cylinder is fitted 
down level by the spirit level, and the bed is leveled 
both lengthwise and crosswise. The cylinder is 
lined oS, with a cross in one end to hold the line, 
and the other end of the line is made fast at the end 
of the bed plate, with a piece of iron or wood cramped 
or wedged in between the sides of the bed. 

The cylinder is fitted so that it will come in a line 
with the bed all along, and it must correspond with 
the pillow block at the crank. ^\\^ ^xiA^l^"^*^^ 



108 BBEOTIKG ENGINES. 

cross head are leveled and in line with the cylinder; 
the shaft is set level with the bed by the spirit level, 
and square to the bed. When the shaft is put into its 
bearings, the crank is brought around until the centre 
of the bearing of the crank pin touches the line ; the 
line will be in the middle of the pin journal; the 
crank is then reversed around to the other centre, 
and when it touches the line, and the line is in the 
centre of the journal, the shaft is then square to the 
cylinder, and the outside bearing of the shaft may be 
bolted down if the engine is in the place where it is 
intended to remain. All the other parts of the 
engine, such as valves, piston, packing, pumps, &c., 
are regulated as described in the cane mill engine 
(see page 9). 

The horizontal engine is used for all kinds of work, 
and this kind of engine wears longer when it turns 
backwards — that is, if when the engineer stands at 
the cylinder and looks towards the crank, the piston, 
when travelling away from where he is standing, 
along towards the crank shaft, the crank will turn 
down below the top of the bed ; and when the crank 
is at the end of the stroke, the piston is travelling 
again back towards the engineer. The crank will 
rise up above the bed ; all the weight of the cross 
head and connecting rod is on the guides when an 
engine works horizontally ; and if the engine turns 
backwards the steam, as it forces the piston out 
towards the crank shaft, the connecting rod being 
down at an angle from the guides, the resistance that 
the crank gives to the connecting rod tends to lift up 



EBECTIKG ENGINES. 109 

the rod, and relieves the weight from the guides. 
And again, when the piston is returning, the force 
that is required to pull the crank along tends to keep 
back the connecting rod, and the rod laying at an 
angle above the guides, the weight of the rod and 
cross head is taken off the guides ; but if the engine 
turns the other way, the guides get all the weight of 
the rod and cross head, and also all the extra weight 
exerted by the connecting rod, being pressed against 
the cross head at the angle. This should be con- 
sidered when a horizontal engine is put down. If 
the position of the buildings and machinery will 
answer, it is best to run the engine backwards, which 
is done by setting the valves and eccentrics to suit 

BUtLDING BEAM ENGINES. 

The bed plate of a beam engine that is intended 
to work on land, or a stationary engine, as it is 
termed, is set down level. There is a line drawn 
along the bed plate in the centre, from one end to 
the other, the bed plate being wedged up solid so 
that it will not yield; there is a line drawn across 
the bed, right under the main centre, or where the 
main centres of the beam will come ; this cross line 
is drawn at right angles to the line drawn along the 
plate (see erecting a perpendicular, page 131). 

There are cross lines drawn, one on the plate at 
the centre of the cylinder, and one line across the 
plate at the centre of the crank shaft. The bearing 
for the cylinder to rest on is chipped level ; the seats 
for the columns to rest on are chipped level, with a 



110 sbejoting engines. 

straight edge the level being applied along and 
across the plate, with the straight edge on the seats, 
until they are filed level and even with each other. 
All the lines that are drawn on the plate, and also 
the centre marks where the columns rest, are slightly 
cut in with a cold chisel, so that they can be seen. 
The cylinder is set down plumb inside, and the valve 
fiwje square across the plate. There is a straight 
edge put across the top of the cylinder, and parallel 
with the fece ; but in the centre of the bore of the 
cylinder, from each end of this straight edge, a 
plummet is hung ; the points of these plummets will 
be on the cross line of the bed plate. A straight 
edge is put on the top of the cylinder, and plummets 
hung, so that the points strike the line that is drawn 
along the bed plate ; the cylinder is then plumb and 
square with the bed; it is then bolted down. 

The columns are turned on the ends, all of equal 
length ; they are bolted down to their seats, to the 
centre marks that have been made and measured off 
for them. The top frame that rests on the columns 
is faced off at the bearings of each column, the frame 
being put up and bolted on the columns ; the main 
center journal bearings, or pillow blocks, are then 
set level on the top of the frame. 

A straight edge is put in the bearings across, and a 
spirit level applied, and the straight edge is turned 
and a plummet hung from each end, and the pillow 
blocks are fitted until the points of the plummets 
touch the line on and across the bed plate, the 
straight edge being level when aip^\\fcd.\3aa q^<^t 'Wft^y. 



ERECTING ENGINES. Ill 

The bearings are then ready to receive the beam, the . 
middle between the pillow blocks being plumb by 
the plummet point to the centre on the bed plate, 
where the two lines cross each other, and square 
across by the line in the bed, and level across by tbe 
spirit level. There is a cross put in the bottom of 
the cylinder, and a line stretched up to the top frame ; 
the line is set fair to the centre of the cylinder at the 
top, by the wire measure applied from four opposite 
points in the inside of the cylinder to the line ; the 
cross at the bottom end keeps the line right there, 
the line being stretched tight and true to the inside 
of the cylinder. The guides for the cross head to 
work on are set straight with the line; a small 
straight edge is made and notched in at each end, 
until the notches measure the right distance that the 
guides must be set apart The straight edge is 
notched into the half of the thickness of-the working 
part of the guides, and a mark is made in the centre 
of the straight edge for the line ; the guides are set 
and fitted until the centre mark in this straight edge 
touches the line at any part of the guides. The 
guides are then bolted fast, the beam is hoisted up 
into its place, and the connections are put on. If the 
engine is a condensing engine, the air pump and 

■ condenser are put on, by having their places measured , 
and squared, and lined and marked off, the same way 
that the cylinder is marked off and fitted down. If 
it is a high pressure engine, then there is no con- 
denser or air pump wanted. The other details of 
this engine, to finish the ereclAng^ oi \\., V^\ii^\Q>^«i^ 

in tbe article oa the cane miW eng^xi^ ^^^^^^* 



112 ERECTING ENGINES. 

BUILDING A SKELETON BEAM. 

There is some skill required in fitting up a skeleton 
walking beam for an engine. This kind of beam 
has a cast iron skeleton in the centre, with a strong 
wrought iron truss or frame fitted around the outside 
of the skeleton. The frame, or strap, as it is called, 
is dressed out clean at the places where the skeleton 
fits into it ; the skeleton is put on the top of the 
strap, and marked with a scriber, then turned up and 
chipped, and fitted with a little taper, until it fits 
down into the strap ; it is then fastened with keys 
and straps with gibs, and keys are fitted in to keep 
the skeleton and frame together. 

The places to receive the centres are cleaned out 
and key beds are cut in them. The centres are 
made of wrought iron, and turned and planed on the 
key seats. The centres are planed parallel, and the 
taper for the key is allowed in the beam ; j-th inch 
part of taper to one foot in length, is a good propor- 
tion for taper for keys to drive and hold well. The 
main centre is put in first, and if there are to be eight 
* keys put in, then sixteen stake wedges are used to 
hold the centre. The stake wedges, or temporary 
wedges, are driven into the space between the key 
beds, on each side of the beam ; the centre is put in 
its place, as near in the middle as possible. In some 
places there is a pit with two pillow blocks for the 
journals of the main centre to rest in, and the beam 
is turned around on its centres, and trained and 
wedged until it comes true by measure from the side 
of the pit to all parts of the centre of the beam strap ; 



ERECTING ENGINES. 118 

then the keys are fitted in and the wedges slacked 
out ; but if there is no pit, then the beam must be 
placed on edge and propped up plumb, by the plumb 
rule, or spirit level and straight edge. Bring all 
the centres in a line, and level with the spirit level 
and straight edge, from one end of the beam to the 
other ; then put in the main centre, and drive the 
wedges a little to steady it; then take a straight 
edge, with two legs of equal length ; these legs rest 
on the journals of the main centre, and are made 
wide enough to fill the spaces between the collars of 
the journals at each end of the centre, and the legs 
are made long enough to bring the straight edge up 
above the beam strap. The wedges must be slacked 
in one side and tightened up in the other, until the 
straight edge is level on the top by the spirit level ; 
then, to get the centre square the length way of the 
beam, a straight edge is used from the centre that 
reaches to the end of the beam. There is a piece put 
on the straight edge, and fastened and circled to fit 
on the end of the main centre ; a wooden key is fitted 
on behind to fasten this straight edge, so that it will 
form a journal to vibrate on the main centre. Tighten 
Tip the wooden key, and move the straight edge, 
until the end comes opposite the end of the beam, 
and measure from the straight edge to the centre of 
the beam strap ; then reverse around the end of the 
straight edge, and let it revolve on the main centre 
until the end comes opposite the other end g£ the 
beam, and measure to the centre of the beam strap, 
and drive and slack the wedges until the distance is 



114 ERECTING ENGINES. 

the same from the straight edge at the one end of the 
beam as it is when the straight edge is reversed and 
revolved around the centre to the othei" end of the 
beam. The centre is then true, the stake wedges are 
driven in tight to hold the centre firm until the keys 
are fitted in. The keys are fitted in with files, until 
they bear hard and equal on the key beds and main 
centres ; then the keys are all driven home regular — 
first one, then the one opposite, and so on until they 
are all home; a sledge hammer is used; but care 
must be taken not to drive one tighter than the 
other at first, but rather go around driving at three 
or four different times. When the keys are all hoine, 
slack out the stake wedges, and a moulding may be 
run around the heads and points of the keys. 

A piece of wood is turned out inside, so as to form 
a moulding, and fitted in the beam centre, close up to 
the key heads, and wedged against the beam and 
jointed with clay ; then the other side is done the 
same, and the mouldings are run full of molten lead ; 
the lead runs around the keys, and makes a fine 
finish on both sides of the beam, around the main 
centre; the pieces of wood are taken oflf, and the 
lead moulding is filed clean all around on both sides. 

The centres at each end of the beam are keyed in, 
either in the same manner as the main centre, or the 
strap is bored out to receive the centres, which fit in 
tight, and are fastened with one or two keys; the 
other centre for the air pump is keyed, and set like 
the main centre is set, by measuring and leveling. 



EBECTING ENGINES. 116 

lERECTJNQ- MACHINSBY ON FOUNDATIONS. 

When bolting down engines on foundations, the 
brick work is built around the holding down bolts. 
There is a &ame of pine boards made, and the frame 
is put under the bed plate, and the holes for the 
holding down bolts are marked and bored through 
this pine board frame ; the frame is put on the points 
of the bolts with a nut put on the screw to rest the 
firame on ; this frame is put on to steady the bolts and 
keep them right for the hv Jes in the bed while the 
foundation is building around them. There are plates 
and keys under the lower ends of the bolts to keep 
them from drawing out. The frame must be set 
square to the building, as the bolts cannot be moved 
when the brick is built around them. When the 
foundation is built up sufficiently high, the wooden 
frame is taken off from the points of the bolts, the 
nuts are taken off also, and a coating of cement or 
mortar is spread over the top of the brick work, and 
the bed plate is screwed down level on this bed of 
cement while it is soft ; then it is left to dry and get 
hard. The other works of the engine are all put on 
to the marks and level as they have been fitted in 
the shop. Although most engines and machinery 
are built to a drawing or plan, still there are details 
left to the judgment of the engineer, who is sent out 
to erect this machinery— especially if the machinery 
is sent to a foreign country. In sugar growing coun- 
tries, some of the sites selected for heavy machinery 
may be on swampy ground, and it may be necessary 
to drive spiles to get a good fo\viAaX\ow, ^V<^*^\s5s5fc^ 



116 ERECTING ENGINES. 

that lasts long under water or in wet ground must be 
selected. These countries have their own kinds of 
timber. The engineer should be able to judge of the 
quality of the materials to be used — such as brick for 
foundations, fire brick for furnaces, timber, &c. 

In erecting machinery, care should be taken to 
leave every part with an arrangement to get at it 
when it needs repair. Holding down bolts in the 
foundations that are built should have a space left in 
the foundation below at each bolt, so that the key 
can be got out, and the plate also, if required. The 
flues of boilers should have small arch top doors 
under the brick work to get in to repair the brick 
flues and also to clean them. All pipes that are 
carried under ground should be provided with means 
to get at them. Some foundations are built solid 
up, and no arrangement left to get at the works ; 
whereas, if the foundation was arched, and chambers 
left to get handy under the floor to all the parts of 
the works, the foundation would be quite as strong. 

If the foundation is on solid rock, then the holding 
down bolts may be fastened by drilling holes to re- 
ceive the bolts ; the holes may be made larger at the 
bottom and the ends of the bolts upset some, and 
molten lead poured in the hole around the bolt. 
There is a method of festening bolts in rocks by 
drilling the rock the right size to receive a bolt, then 
making a drill that will recess the hole at the bottom. 
This is done by fixing two cutters on the end of an 
iron bar ; the cutters are attached to the end of the 
bar hy a pin through the bai and \lixo\3L^\i t\ie end of 



^ 

V 



EBECTING ENGINES. 117 

>^acli cutter ; the cutters vibrate oti a pin the same as 
a pair of scissors ; the points of the cutters hang 
loose when the bar is lowered down into the hole in 
the rock ; but when the points of the cutters strike the 
bottom of the hole, the cutters spread out and cut all 
outside, and do not cut any deeper ; the hole is made 
larger at the bottom in this way, by striking lightly 
on the top of the bar with a hammer, and turning the 
bar around as is usual in drilling rock. Having got 
the holes recessed, then prepare the bolts by splitting 
them at the ends and entering a wedge into each 
split The wedge is made with a flat head. The 
bolts are lowered down into the holes ; the heads of 
the wedges will land on the bottoms of the holes ; 
then the point of the bolt above is struck with a 
sledge, which will drive the bolt down on to the 
wedge, and the wedge will spread out the end of the 
bolt and fill the recess at the bottom of the hole ; the 
bolt will then be secure and cannot be drawn out, 
A hole can be drilled in a piece of rock and a bolt 
fixed into it in that way, in order to prove if the split 
in the point is long enough, and to show, also, if the 
drill will recess the hole right ; the piece of rock may 
then be broken and the bolt and wedge taken out. 

This is one method of fixing bars of iron in rocks 
underwater. 

When drilling holes in rock, the drill must be 
struck light blows with a hammer, and the drill 
turned around a little at every blow ; if the blows 
are struck too hard, the hole will get spoiled by being 
three cornered, and it will not xaesavrc^ \)cia ^\ijfc*^Cia^ 



118 EBECTIKG SKGilTBS. 

is wanted ; when a hole gets angled in that way, it is 
not easy to make it round again. Drills are made of 
octagon steel; they are made like a chisel, at the 
the cutting edge, and are left large enough to clear 
themselves when working. 



EBSXTTING THE ENQINES IN A SIDE WHEEL SHIP. 

When the engines of a steam ship are being set in 
their places, a spirit level or plumb rule cannot be 
used, as the vessel is afloat ; therefore, fixed lines and 
straight edges and squares must be used. 

There is a line drawn on deck, fore and aft the 
vessel, and as near the centre between the frame of 
the ship as possible ; then a line is stretched across 
the ship, at right angles with the fore and aft line 
that is drawn along the deck ; this cross line will be 
fixed at each end on the two beams that support the 
water wheels. From this cross line or straight edge 
square down with a long wooden square, from the 
centre mark on deck, where the cross line and fore 
and aft line cross each other, then mark at the point 
of the square on the keelson where the square 
touches ; then firom that mark draw a line fore and 
aft in the hold and let it be out of winding with the 
fore and aft line on deck ; then draw a cross line in 
the hold, at right angles with the fore and aft line, 
and out of winding with the cross line on deck. 
Having got these lines drawn, then if there is only 
one engine in the ship, these fore and aft lines will 
be the centre lines of the engine ; but if the ship has 
two engines this will be the centre line of the ship; 



SRSCTINO ENGINES. 119 

and the cylinders will stand at equal distances on each 
side of the lines. 

A long straight edge can be placed perpendicu- 
larly, one at each end of the engine room. 

The straight edge being placed right to the lines 
fronii the hold to the deck of the ship, the straight 
edge is nailed fast; then the plumb of the engine 
can be measured from these straight edges at any time. 
The keelsons are leveled and cut fair on the top sides 
by the carpenter's tools ; the bed plates will be put 
down on the keelsons and bolted fast. The cylinders 
are bolted down to their places on the bed plates; 
they are wedged up plumb by centre lines stretched 
through the cylinders from crosses fixed in the bot- 
toms of the cylinders, and the lines are set out of 
winding with the perpendicular straight edges. Hav- 
ing set the cylinders true, they are jointed down to 
the bed plates, and the centres between the ends of 
each pair of side levers will be the centre of the crank 
shaft— that is, afber allowance has been made for the 
overhang of the side levers or beams. 

What is meant by overhang of side levers or beams, 
is the distance that the beam projects at each end over 
the centre of the cylinder or the centre of the crank. 
Each end of a beam as it moves up and down, or 
vibrates on its centres, describes part of a circle, and 
if the distance between the two end centres of the 
beam was the same as the distance between the cen- 
tre of the cylinder and crank, the beam would be too 
short 

The walking beam or side levers of an engine are 



120 ERECTING ENGINES. 

kept as much longer as the half of the distance be- 
tween the straight line and the circle that the beam 
describes on the length of the stroke of the engine ; 
that is, each end of the beam, when level, overhangs 
thp centre, between the cylinder and crank, the half 
of the difference between a straight line and the circle 
which the beam describes in travelling the length of 
the stroke. 



ERECTING A BEAM ENGINE IN A SHIP. 

In erecting a beam engine, the centre lines of. the 
ship must be squared in the usual manner, and the 
centre of the space between the pillow blocks on the 
gallows frame for the beam to rest on is in the centre 
of the engine. 

The bed is bolted down level, and the cylinder is 
placed so that the line, when stretched from the cross 
in the bottom, is in the centre of the cylinder at the 
top end ; the line is carried up to the beam and fixed 
on the end centre of the beam strap by a yoke ; this 
yoke is a straight edge with two legs ; the legs are of 
equal lengths, and are the right breadth to fit between 
the collars of the end centre ; there are pieces that fit 
on the end of the legs to form joints, with keys to 
tighten them up on the end centre, like the fork end 
of a connecting rod ; the line is fixed on the centre 
of this straight edge, and the yoke can move or 
vibrate around the end centre, so as to bring the line 
in the centre of the cylinder, fore and aft, to allow 
for the overhang of the beam. There is another line 
from the other end of the beam^ attached to a yoke ; 



ERECTING ENGINES. 121 

this line is carried down to the keelson,, and is out of 
winding with the perpendicular straight edges that 
are fixed up at each end of the engine room in the 
hold. 

The air pump is also set plumb on the bed plate, 
and a line from the beam centres, from where it re- 
ceives its motion, is stretched down to a cross in the 
bottom of the air pump, with allowance for the over- 
hang. There is a line stretched fore and aft, made 
fast to the parallel straight edges at each end. This 
line is stretched for the purpose of bringing the shafts 
square to the line of the engine ; the bed plate 
being set level, the frame being level and square to 
the lines and straight edges that have been erected at 
first, the cylinder being plumb, the beam having been 
set true, until the lines from the yokes at each end 
correspond with the centre marks on the keelson and 
bed plate. 

The shafts are put in their places, the wheels are 
turned around until the crank pin at the top centre 
touches the perpendicular line ; the crank pin should 
be in the centre of the line. 

The crank is turned back until the pin touches the 
line on the low centre ; and, if the pin is in the cen- 
tre of the line, the shafts are level with the engine. 
Then slack this perpendicular line away from the yoke, 
and stretch the fore and aft line tight ; then turn the 
crank up to the half stroke — the pin will be in the 
centre of the line ; then turn the crank until the pin 
touches the line on the other half stroke, and if the 
pin is in the centre of the line, \\i^ ^^ Sa ^o^^vxsk 
6 



122 EBEOTING ENGINES. 

across the ship to the line of the engine ; the marks 
on the keelsons and the bed plates are left so that 
they can be seen if the engine needs repair or gets out 
of line ; the lines can be stretched to the yokes and 
through the cylinders, and fore and aft, and the pil- 
low blocks on the top of the gallows frame can be 
wedged and the shafts raised or moved at the outer 
ends until the centre of the crank pin touches the lines 
equally between the collars of the pin, at all fourcentres 
—that is, top centre, bottom centre, half centre forward, 
and half centre back. The engine will then be in 
line. 

ERECTING ENGINES IN PBOPELLEB SHIPS. 

The engines in propeller ships are below, and the 
propeller shaft runs fore and aft the ship, and is in a 
line with the hull, keelsons, &c. 

The cylinders must be set square with the line of 
the shaft, so that the guides and cross head may work 
square to the shaft The cylinders are set either per- 
pendicular to, or at an angle with, the line of the 
shaft. The lines and cross lines, and perpendicular 
lines or straight edges to fix the lines on, are all 
erected in the same way that the lines are erected on 
the hull of a side wheel ship. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



LEATHER AND RUBBER BELTS. 

Some machinery is driven with rubber and some 
with leather belts. New leather belting should be 
stretched before it is used ; the belting is suspended 
from a beam high up, and weights are made fest to the 
lower end of it, and it is allowed to hang for a day or 
two. Small belts can be sewed with a lace and awl, 
but most belts have holes punched for the laces with 
a cutter. The holes should not be too close together, 
or too near the end, but space large enough should 
be left, so that the laces cannot tear out the pieces. 
The two ends ai*e cut square and butt together ; some 
allowance is made for stretching. The lace should 
be sewed straight on the side that goes next the 
pulley, and crossed on the back or outside of the 
belt; the ends should be put through under the 
sewed part, so that it will jam them and keep the 
ends from getting loose. 

In putting on a belt, the engine must be slowed 
down if the speed is quick, and the belt is first put 
on the pulley that is not in motion. K the belt is a 
heavy one, a piece of rope may be passed around the 
rim of the pulley and around the belt, and the pulley 
turned slowly; the rope will keep the belt from 
slipping off the pulley ; then, when the belt is entered 
on the edge of the pulley, the Top^ \a ^"sj^^x^^^^ <^^* 



124 MISCELLANEOUS. 

Large belts that are put on tight must be put on 
with screw cramps ; two pieces of iron are fastened 
with bolts on one end of the belt, and two pieces on 
the other end ; they are kept far enough back from 
the ends to leave room fo lace them ; there are screws 
(with nuts) put through the holes in each end of the 
cramps, and the nuts are tightened up until the two 
ends of the belt come together; the ends are then 
sewed with strong laces, and festened with double 
rows of holes ; the cramps are then taken oflF. 

Iron hooks are sometimes used instead of laces for 
belts. The hooks are made of half round iron wire. 
They are turned or hooked at each end, and a space 
left in the centre at one side ; the hooks are passed, 
one through each opposite hole, in the ends of the 
belt; then the ends are closed in by pressing or 
hammering, 

FIXING TOOLS. 
TO SHARPEN OOLD CHISELS OB DBILLS. 

Heat the chisel or drill a little brighter than blood 
red; hammer it regular, striking it sharp blows at 
first, and lighter blows as it gets colder ; hammer it 
until the color is gone; but it must not be ham- 
mered cold, as that will make it brittle. The tool 
must be dressed as quick as possible, with few heats ; 
it must be hammered lightly on the edge, and not at 
all on the edge when cool. Having got the chisel or 
drill, or whatever it may be, made into the right 
shape, then it is tempered. That is done by heating 
it again to the same color; then dip the point in 



MISCELLANEOUS. 125 

water a few moments ; then take it out and polish it 
a little on sand or sandstone, to see the color ; the 
heat will come down to the point slowly and change 
colors; first, from gray to bright straw color, then 
dark straw to purple, then blue. For cold chisels 
or drills, plunge them in water when the color comes 
to purple ; other tools, such as punches or dies, will 
stand at dark straw color when cooled off. 

Scrapers are made as hard as possible by water. 
The scraper is heated to a cherry red, and plunged 
in water. The best refined ^teel is used to make 
scrapers for scraping surfeces. A scraper -less than 
one inch wide, and the one-sixteenth part of an inch 
thick at the point, hammered well and heated to a 
cherry red, and plunged in water, then ground straight 
and square at the point, and set up on an oil stone, 
will work well, it being thin at the point. It is 
easily set up when blunt. 



WOBEINa STESL. 

Steel must not be heated any higher than a bright 
cherry red. When steel is overheated, it is rendered 
useless. K a tool should get overheated at the point, 
cut the piece off and form a new point. 



TO SOFTEN STEEL. 

Heat the piece, and cover it over with hot coal, 
and let it cool gradually, fire and alL 



126 MISCELLANEOUS. 

TO WELD TWO PIECES OF STEEL TOQETEEB. 

Dip the ends (that are to be welded) in borax, well 
crushed; then heat the pieces in a clean fire, put 
plenty of borax on the ends as they heat, and when 
the borax melts and forms in white spots all over the 
steel, take out the pieces and hammer them together 
on the anvil. Thin delicate pieces of iron are welded 
in this way by a borax heat. 



WELDINO- IRON. 

To weld two pieces of iron together : first heat and 
upset the ends to be welded to make them larger ; 
to allow for waste and hammering, the ends are 
beveled as short as convenient, so as to make the 
weld short ; a long scarf will not make a good weld ; 
clean the fire free of clinkers and ashes ; heat the 
two ends to a welding heat ; the iron will first appear 
to sweat, then it will change to a melting white heat ; 
if any part of the iron begins to melt before the other 
part is ready, which will be seen by the sparks flying 
fi'om that part that is burning, throw a little sand 
on the place where the sparks come from ; then, 
when the ends are hot enough, that is, to a regular 
white heat, lift the two pieces out of the fire; lift 
them straight up, and do not draw them through the 
ashes ; strike the ends a blow on the anvil, to free 
the scarf fi:om dirt and ashes ; then one part is held 
steady on the middle of the anvil, with the bevel side 
of the scarf up ; the other part is put carefully on 
the top, and as quick as poasft>\e-, XJcisa. xJaa yAs^* vg^ 



MISCELLANEOUS. 127 

hammered with sledge hammers, hard, quick blows, 
until the weld is perfect Iron is softened by heating 
it and covering it up with ashes to cool slowly. 

CASE HARDENINO-. 

To case harden, or to make iron as hard as tempered 
steel, put the pieces into an iron box ; put in some 
pieces of leather, bone dust, hoofe and horns; fiisten 
the lid of the box with pins, or tie it with wire ; put 
clay all around the joints, to make them air tight ; 
put the box in a fire or furnace, and heat the box to 
a bright red, and keep it at that heat for an hour; 
then plunge the contents of the box in cold water. 

Another plan of case hardening is to heat the iron 
to a cherry red color ; then rub it in prussiate of pot- 
ash ; put the iron in the fire again, and keep it in for 
some minutes ; then plunge it in cold water. 



TO SOFTEN COPPER OB BRASS. 

Heat the pieces to a dull red, and plunge them in 
cold water. Copper and brass get hard when ham- 
mered much, and may be softened in that way. 



SOLDEBINO-. 

To hard solder iron or copper, first clean the joint 
or the place where the solder is wanted; file the 
joint bright; then tie the pieces together with wire 
or a rivet, at several places ; then put on borax and 
spelter, and hold the joint over a charcoal fire until 
the heat melts the spelter; turn the joint around 
vDtil the spelter has run into t\ie ^eaxaa^'«CL^ \ciM^ 
the pieces solid. 



128 MISCELLANEOUS. 

SOFT SOLDERING. 

This 19 done with a coi^r boU or soldering iron. 
It is heated so that no color will be seen, and filed 
clean at the point; then dipped in rosin, and put 
into the solder, until the solder melts and adheres to 
the bolt ;: the bolt is then applied to the part to be 
soldered/ Jn soldering two pieces of iron, the places 
are cleaned with the file, and some muriatic acid put 
on ; there must be some pieces of zinc put in the 
dish with the acid; the zinc is put in until the acid 
will not melt any more of it; it is then used. 

MAKING JOINTS. 

There are various kinds of steam and water tight 
joints ; first, the surface joint. The surface joint is 
made steam, water or air tight, by making the two 
faces fit together, so that they will be tight without 
any substance between them. If the faces are rough 
castings to begin with, they must be planed or chipped 
and filed first; then they are filed smooth and out 
of winding, which is proved by applying a facing . 
board or face plate. This fiice plate is got up, a 
perfect face scraped, and two handles are screwed 
into the back of the plate to hold it by ; if a face 
plate cannot be got, then a piece of two-inch thick 
pine plank faced up true, with two bars across the 
back to keep it firom warping. This fece board is 
painted over with red lead, and rubbed lightly over 
the face. The high spots will be shown by the red 
lead ; the high places are scraped off; then the two 
surfaces are applied, one on the other, and a little 



MISCEfcLANEOnS. 129 

red lead put on each face; the high spots will always 
show by rubbing the one piece over the other. After 
the joint gets to have a pretty good bearing, which 
will be seen by the hard black spots getting close 
together, then the scraping must be more fine and 
close. A little oil and ground glass may be put on 
the joints, and rub them together — ^this will show the 
hard spots; then the scraping inust continue until 
the surfaces bear all over, when the joint will be 
tight The scrapers must be kept sharp, and held 
low down, and care must be taken not to scrape the 
surface into small ridges. This is done by holding 
the scraper handle too high up, and not keeping the 
scraper sharp. If the surface should get into ridges, 
then the scraping must be done across the ridges 
until the surface is smooth. This kind of joint is 
good for steam, water or air. Slide valves are made 
tight in that way. 

RUST JOINTS. 

The rust j oint is made with cast iron turnings, sifted 
and damped with urine, or water and sal ammoniac — 
a very small portion of sal ammoniac must be used. 
The rust is driven into the space, all around the 
bolts, tight, with caulking irons nearly the thickness 
of the space. There is a margin left inside of the 
joint to prevent the rust from driving through; 
sometimes a ring of iron, about one-eighth of an 
inch thick, .and wrapped around with hemp and 
white and red lead ; then this ring is put between 
^e joint inside, and the bolts screwed hard down 



ISO MISCELLANEOUS. 

until the joint is less than three-eighths of an inch 
thick ; the joint is then driven, foil of rust, hard all 
around the bolts, and butt up against the ring inside. 
When this joint has stood two or three days to dry, 
then it is ready for steam ; and if it is well made, 
steam may be turned on to it at once. If this kind 
of joint is right made, hard and regularly driven, it 
will last and keep steam tight as long as the iron 
flanges between which it is driven. 

RUBBER JOINTS. 

These joints are easily made. The rubber is cut 
to the size of the flange, with holes for the bolts, and 
the bolts squeeze it up steam or water tight 

In making rubber joints, if the flanges are large or 
rough surfaces, it is best to cut the rubber the size of 
the space inside of the bolts ; that will be a rubber 
ring inside of the bolts, instead of a piece the whole 
size of the flange. This ring wUl be made tight with 
less pressure from the bolts than a whole flange 
would require. 

LEAD JOINTS. 

Cold water or air joints may be made by pouring 
molten lead into the space. These joints answer 
very well for water. The pipes are cast with a socket 
at one end, and the small end of the other pipe is put 
into the socket end of the first pipe ; a piece of hemp 
packing is driven into the space first ; this hemp is 
covered over with red and white lead to keep it from 
burning] there is clay put axoxmd tW o\x\ft\4a oC tiva 



MISCELLANEOUS. 181 

socket, to keep the lead in ; if the space is damp, 
some whale oil may be poiured in first; the lead is 
poured in until the space is full; then the lead is 
caulked around with a caulking iron ; the joint will 
then be tight 

GASKET JOINTS. 

These joints are made with plaited spun yam. 
They are used for boiler man heads or hand holes. 
They are plaited three strand flat, and sewed together 
at the two ends; white and red lead is used with 
them when they are screwed up. For a man head 
joint of this kind, it is best to cast a lead ring. Some 
sand is laid down level and smooth, and a wooden 
pattern is pressed into the sand, or the shape of the 
ring is cut out of the sand, as near as possible, and 
the lead is poured in. The ring is then taken out of 
the sand and filed up, or planed with a carpenter's 
plane. After the ring is got up in good shape, and 
about three-eighths of an inch thick, or less, it is 
wrapped around with hemp packing yarn, and white 
and red lead covered over it, when it is screwed up. 

ERECTINO- A PEBPENDICULAB. 

To erect a perpendicular, or to draw a line at right 
angles with another line : 

On each side of the point from which the line is 
to be drawn, take equal distances, and from these 
distances, as centres, describe lines that will cross 
each other at any convenient distoaoa ixQ>\si >&n& ^^q^ 
line. 



182 MISCELLANEOUS. 

The point where the lines cross each other will be 
at right angles, or square, or perpendicular with the 
first drawn or given line. 

AREA. 

Area means the superficial contents of any figure. 
To find the area of a square plate, say ten inches each 
way : multiply the length by the breadth ; the length 
and breadth being equal, ten multipled by ten gives 
one hundred square inches of area. Make this square 
plate circular, by describing a circle around the four 
sides, and cutting off the corners. The plate will 
then have neither length nor breadth — ^it being round 
— but it will have diameter and circumference. 

Circumference means the outside of the circle or 
the line that bounds the circle, or the periphery. 

Diameter means a right line through the centre of 
a circle, dividing it into t\yo equal parts. 

To find the area of a circle, multiply the diameter 
by the diameter. This plate being ten inches in di- 
ameter, ten by ten gives one hundred ; but, the cor- 
ners being cut off, the area is one hundred circular 
inches. This must be brought to square inches by 
multiplying by the decimal of .7854, which will give 
78.5400 square inches. The area is found in this 
way, whatever size the circle may be. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 183 

TO CA1.CULATE THE POWER OF A STEAM ENGhlNE. 

A horse power is equal to 83,000 pounds weight 
raised one foot high in one minute. Therefore, mul- 
tiply the area of the piston in square inches by the 
pressure of the steam and vacuum in pounds (as 
shown by the indicator), and by the number of feet 
the piston travels per minute, and divide by 33,000 ; 
the quotient is the actual horse power of the en- 
gine, after deducting one-tenth for friction, or power 
used in working the engine. 

THE DYNAMOMETER. 

This is an instrument used for the purpose of 
ascertaining the pressure given out by the shaft of a 
screw propeller. It is also used to ascertain the trac- 
tive force of side wheel steamers, and the traction on 
railroads. It is constructed with levers and a spring 
balance weighing machine. A pencil and a piece of 
paper is so arranged that the variation of pressure is 
marked by the pencil on the paper as the shaft re- 
volves. This instrument is not used by engineers — 
only by some constructors of engines, or in dock 
yards, 

THE BOILING POINT. 

In the open air, jfresh water boils at 212® of heat, 
by the thermometer ; salt sea water, at 218°; sugar, at 
236°. Fresh water will boil in a good vacuum, at 
about 90°. Sugar boils in the vacuum pan, at from 
150° to 160°. 



CONCLUSION- 



In order to give satisfection to his employer, an 
engineer must be industrious and carefuL 

All the tools should be kept in their places and in 
order. Wrenches should be made the right size of 
the nuts, so that the corners will not be injured. 
Packing yam and tallow should be kept in clean 
places; lamps ready trimmed; portable forge and 
blacksmith tools kept in readiness, with plenty pieces 
of iron handy for different jobs ; blocks, tackle, and 
slings kept in a dry place, and coiled up ; and all 
parts of machinery kept clean. 

The engineer should be able to rig up a purchase, 
or sling a heavy piece of work, in order to get it out 
quick. 



iisriDEi:x:. 



PAOX 



Air Pump 36,46,52,86 

Area, how to find. 132 

Arriving in Port 84 

Apparatus 40 

Banking Fires 81 

Bagasse 32 

Bagasse Burner 33 

Beam Engines 87 

Beam Engines, Building of 109 

Belting, Leather and Rubber 123 

Breaking Down 26 

Bilge Pumps 66 

Bilge Ejector 66 

Bilge Injection 67 

Bone Black 39 

Boiling Point 133 

Blow Valves 70 

Building a Locomotive Engine 101 

Cane Planting 7 

Cane Mill 17 

Cane Mill Engine. 9 

Cane Crushing 25 

Cane Carrier 20 

Clarifiers 31 

Cleaning Boilers ,. '^'^ 

Cleaning Firea, »** '^'^ 



186 INDEX. 

PAoa 

Case Hardening 127 

Gircumferenoe 132 

Chitting off Steam 77 

Cold Chisels, or Drills, Sharpening of 124 

Concluding Bemarks 134 

Copper or Brass, Softening of. 127 

Centrifugal Machines 43 

Check Valves 69 

Damper 61 

Diameter 132 

Direct-acting Engines. 90 

Defecators 38 

Donkey Engine 57 

Dressing Tools 124 

Dynamometer 133 

Erecting a Perpendicular ^. 131 

Erecting Machinery on I'oundations 115 

Erecting Engines in Side Wheel Ships 118 

Erecting Beam Engines in Ships. 120 

Erecting Engines in Propeller Ships i 122 

Engineer's Log 4 « 81 

Evi^rating Yaonum Pans. • 37 

Foaming of Boilers 83 

Feed Pumps 54 

Filters 39 

Firing Furnaces. v 73 

Fixing Tools 124 

Gasket Joints 131 

Glass Gauge 68 

Governor ^^ 



INDEX. 137 

FAoa 
Heater for Feed Water It 

Horizontal Engines 91 

Horizontal Engines, Building of. 107 

Introductory Remarks. . . . ? 50 

Indicator 66 

Injector 08 

Jet Condensers 36, 86 

Keying Up 80 

Lead Joints 130 

Locomotive Engines 92 

Locomotive Engines, Erecting of. 101 

Making Joints 128 

Oscillating Engines 90 

Packing Glands and Pumps 13, 46 

Parallel Motion 85 

Patching Boilers 15 

Pipes and Connections 16 

Piston, Regulating of. 13 

Process of Sugar Making 30 

Propeller Ships 51 

Power of an Engine, How to Calculate 133 

Raising Steam 21 

Register 63 

Refined Sugar Process 35 

Rust Joints 129 

Rubber Joints 130 

Regelating the Piston 12 

Saccharometer 30 

Salinometer ,,.«%,«.«% ^3^ 

Betting Valvee •^^> ^^^ 



138 INDEX. 

PAOB 

Safety Valve 61 

Steel, to weld together two pieces of. 126 

Side Wheel Ship with Side Lever Engines. 84 

Starting the Engine 21, H 

Steam TO 

Steam, Superheated 71 

Steam Boilers 13, 61 

Steam Gauge 60 

Signal Bells 76 

Screw Propeller 71 

Skeleton Beam, Building of 113 

Soldering 127 

Steel, Softening of. 125 

Surface Condenser. 52 

Surface Joints ^ 128 

Steam Glarifiers ". 37 

Sugar Boiling in Vacuum Pan 41 

Sugar Manufacturing 7 

Sugar Moulds 44 

Tracing Connections 48 

Trains 33 

Vacuum 35 

Vacuum Engine 45 

Vacuum Pan 36 

Vacuum Gauge 62 

Vacuum Destroyed 79 

Water, Boiling Point of 133 

Water Gauges 68 

Working High Pressure ; 82, 92 

Working Non-Condensing 82 

Working Steel V1& 

Welding Iron '^'^'^ 



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