(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Successful farming [microform] : a ready reference on all phases of agriculture for farmers of the United States and Canada : including soils, manures ..."

Author: Gardner, Frank D 
Title: Successful farming 



Place of Publication: 



Copyright Date: 1916 

Master Negative Storage Number: MNS# PSt SNPaAg042.3 



<1021888> * *OCLC* Form:mono 2 lnput:KAP Edit:FMD 

008 ENT: 980125 TYP: s DT1: 1916 DT2: LAN: eng 

035 (OCoLC)38088644 

037 PSt SNPaAg042.3 $bPreservation Office, The Pennsylvania State 

University, Pattee Library, University Park, PA 16802-1805 
090 10 630 $bG17s $cax*6386368 

090 20 IVIicrofilm D344 reel 42.3 $cmc+(service copy, print master, archival 

master) 
090 00 S501 $b.G3 $cpn*1 0478561 
100 1 Gardner, Frank D. $qFrank Duane $d 1864-1 963 
245 10 Successful farming $ba ready reference on all phases of agriculture for 

farmers of the United States and Canada : including soils, manures ... 

$cby Frank D. Gardner ; with special chapters written expressly for 

this book by the following authorities Agee ... [et al.] 
260 [S.I. $bs.n. ;$cc1916] 

300 1 108 p., [1] folded leaf of plates $bill. (some col.), map $c24 cm. 
500 Includes bibliographical references and index 
533 Microfilm $bUniversity Park, Pa. : $cPennsylvania State University 

$d1997. $e1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. $f(USAIN state and local literature 

preservation project. Pennsylvania) $f(Pennsylvania agricultural 

literature on microfilm). 
590 Archival master stored at National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 

: print master stored at remote facility. 
590 This item is temporarily out of the library during the filming process. 

If you wish to be notified when it returns, please fill out a Personal 

Reserve slip. The slips are available in the Rare Books Room, in the 

Microforms Room, and at the Circulation desk. 
650 Agriculture. 

830 USAIN state and local literature preservation project. $pPennsylvania. 
830 Pennsylvania agricultural literature on microfilm. 



:m^$m 



• • • 




• • • , • 

« « • » • 

• • • • 

• M • * • 



• • • 



• • 



•• • 



Plan for a Farmstead. 



1— Residence 2— Poiiltiy-house. 3— Milk-house. 4— Silo. 5— Dairy-barn. 
6-Horse-barn T-Stora^e for crops. 8-Farm machinery. 9-Shop and garage. 
10— Corn crib. Orchard on left, garden to right. 






Successful 




A Ready Reference on all Phases of Agriculture for-r|trn5i;^ijs^;^ 

of the United States and Canada 



•- « 



• tl !>•• ••• 



• It 



• 4 



Including 

Soils, Manures, Fertilizers, Lime, Drainage, Irrigation, Tillage, Field 
Crops, Crop Rotations, Plant Improvement, Meadows and Pastures, Weeds- 
Vegetables, Vegetable Forcing, Mushroom Culture, Medicinal Plants- 
Orcharding, Small Fruits, Nut Culture, Farm Woodlot, Floriculture- 
Livestock, Dairying, Feeds and Feeding, Animal Diseases—Farm Manage- 
ment, Records and Accounts, Markets and Marketing, Land Rental, 
Labor— Farm Buildings, Fences, Engines, Tractors, Machinery, Sanita- 
tion— Plant Diseases, Insects, Fungicides, Insecticides— Domestic Economy, 
Housing, Clothing, Education, Information— Useful Tables, Composition 
of Products, Feeding Standards, Weights, Measures. 

By FRANK D. GARDNER 

Professor of Ajlronomy, Pennsylvania State College and Experiment Station 

With Special chapters written expressly for this book 

by the following authorities 



AGEE. ALVA. Director Agricultural Extension. N. J. 

ANTHONY E. L.. Instructor in Dairying. Pa. 

BAKER. MRS. CHARLOTTE G.. Textile Special- 
ist. III. . . 

BLASINGAME. R. U.. Professor of Agricultural 
Engineering. Ala. 

BUCKLEY. SAMUEL. Professor Veterinary Science. 
Md. 

CAUTHENE. E. F.. Associate in Agronomy. Ala. 

COCHEL. W A.. Professor of Animal Husbandry. 
Kansas. 

COOK. M. T.. Plant Pathologist. N. J. 

CORBETT. L. C. Horticulturist, U. S. Department 
Agriculture. 

COWELL. A. W.. Professor of Landscape Gardenmg. 

Pa. 
DARST. W. H.. Assistant Professor of Agronomy. Pa. 

EVVARD, J. M.. Swine Specialist, la. 

GARMAN. H.. Entomologist and Zoologist. Ky. 

GRINDLEY. H. S.. Professor Animal Nutrition. III. 

GOLDTHWAITE. MISS NELLIE E.. Dean of 

Women. N. H. 
HUGHES. E. H.. Assistant Professor of Animal 

Husbandry. Wis. 
HUMPHREY. GEpRGE C. Professor of Animal 

Husbandry. Wis. 



KAINS. M. G.. Professor of Horticulture. Pa. 
KILPATRJCK. M. C. Instructor in Poultry 

Husbandry, Ohio. 
LARSON. C. W.. Professor of Dairying. Pa. 
McNElSS. G. T., Tobacco Ejtpert, Texas. 
MOON. F. F.. Professor of Forestry. N. Y. 
NOLL. C. F.. Associate in Agronomy. Pa 
PUTNEY. F. S . Assistant Professor of Dairying. Pa. 
REED. C. A.. Nut Culturist. U. S. Department 

Agriculture. 
SEIARS. F. C, Pomologist. Mass. 
STEWART, J. P.. Pomologist. Pa. 
STOCKBERGER. W. W . Plant Physiologist. U. S. 

Department Agriculture. 
STONE. T. C. Instructor in Animal Husbandry. 0. 
TOMHAVE. W. H.. Professor of Animal Husbandry 

Pa. 
WAID. C. W.. Extension Specialist. Mich. 
WARE. H. M.. Mushroom Specialist. Del. 
WATTS. R. L . Dean and Director. Pa. 
WEBBER. H. J.. Dean and Director. Tropica! 

Agriculture. Cal. 
WOOD. W. B.. Assistant Entomologist. U. S. 

Department Agriculture 
WORK. PAUL. Superintendent of Vegetable 

Gardening. N. Y. 



PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED WITH EXCLUSIVE 
DRAWINGS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 

\ 0^ \^ 



AilfJ, 



Jt'^tt^i' 






.\: ' 



A-t.' 



'^S. 



?^'/\|)^*^'"" '' 



:a: 






•^^.^^-^^^ 



■-Li.iV-k^^X 



:^^)<^ 



'-''mmi 













UJ 



'" UJ ^ 



cc 



CO 



UJ 
O 

CO 




§ 



» 



w 






K^ y 



Q> y 8 

»j .V. 



.2 



«W <=> 



^ O 



^.5 



V CO 



U ^ 









tt! K 



^ 5 «. 











m 









«o 



^ *** M ttl 



a!^ -<: 












t: 



O *«>M 



«o «> 



«o 






^ 3 



^VSm 



Q V 






Q 5 



5W S 



8.5> 



S?5 



oO »> 



.^ -^ "^ 



'^ Vt:^ U3 ^ 43 



5 w K. .2 






•^>> "^.^ 



O SO 






«•= K 



?o 









^11^ 



•A .- 



'u 



Li: 




'mp"^'%/i 


















,SKt.'«;2 



■ y '•' xs 





















International Institute 

Department of Agriculture 



CONDITIONS OF MEMBERSHIP 

Regularly enrolled members of the Department of 
Agriculture of the International Institute are entitled : 

To receive free of charge, upon application, expert advice 
on all questions arising in connection with the manage- 
ment of the farm, including advice upon Soil Management, 
Manures, Fertilizers, Lime, Drainage, Irrigation, Field 
Crops, Crop Rotations, Plant Improvement, Meadows 
and Pastures, Vegetable Growing and Forcing, Mushroom 
Culture, Fruit Growing, Nut Culture, Floriculture- 
Livestock, Dairying, Feeds and Feeding, Animal Dis- 
eases—Farm Management, Records and Accounts- 
Markets and Marketing— Farm Buildings, Fences, 
Engines, Tractors, Machinery, Sanitation— Plant Diseases, 
Insects, Fungicides, Insecticides— Domestic Economy, 
etc., etc. 

It is mutually imderstood and agreed : 

A. That this certificate covers the above-mentioned service for a period 
of one year only. 

That not more than four questions shall be sent in at any one time 
or during any one month. 

That no attention will be paid to inquiries unless certificate number 
is given, and the inquiry is accompanied by a self-addressed stamped 
return envelope. Do not send the certificate, merely give number of 
same which is printed in red on the reverse side. 

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE 

1008 ARCH STREET PHILADELPHIA. PA. 

Note.— It will increase the interest and profit to be derived from the work of 
the International Institute if the members in any particular neighborhood will 
form a club and meet at regular periods to propose questions of general interest 
and to discuss replies received from the Institute. 



B. 



C. 



PREFACE 



This book is written for farmers. It makes a popular appeal to all 
men engaged in farming. It will also be of interest to the student of agri- 
culture and the prospective farmer. It is designed to be a handy reference 
on the whole range of agriculture in the United States and Canada. Tech- 
nical terms and lengthy discussions have been avoided. 

Ages of farm experience and a few generations of agricultural research 
have given us a vast store of practical knowledge on tilling the soil and 
raising crops and animals. This knowledge is scattered through many 
volumes on different phases of the subject, in experiment station bulletins, 
agricultural journals and encyclopedias. The important facts on which 
the most successful farming is based are here brought together in orderly 
and readable form. Not only are directions given for the management of 
the soil and the raising of crops and livestock, but the business of farming 
is fully discussed, showing why some achieve success and why others fail. 

The subject-matter is arranged in ten parts of a number of chapters 
each, and by referring to the Table of Contents any subject may be 
quickly found. References are freely given at the close of each chapter. 
Each chapter has been prepared by a specialist in the subject presented. 
The name of the author appears at the beginning of each chapter. Those 
unacknowledged have been prepared by myself. 

The illustrations have been secured from many sources. Due credit 
has been given these. 

Special acknowledgment is due the publishers of this volume for its 
conception, and for many helpful suggestions in the presentation of its 
subject-matter. 

Acknowledgment is also due Professor E. L. Worthen and Professor 
R. S. Smith, both of The Pennsylvania State College, for helpful suggestions 
and criticisms on soils and crop rotations. I wish also to especially acknowl- 
edge the valuable editorial assistance of my wife in the preparation of the 

manuscript. 

Frank D. Gardner. 



(3) 



rv. 



/ 



U'!, 



International Institute 

Department of Agriculture 
CONDITIONS OF MEMBERSHIP 

Regularly enrolled members of the Department of 
Agriciilture of the International Institute are entitled : 

To receive free of charge, upon application, expert advice 
on all questions arising in connection with the manage- 
ment of the farm, including adviceupon SoU Management, 
Manures, FertiUzers, Lime, Drainage, Irrigation, Field 
^ Crops, Crop Rotations, Plant Improvement, Meadows 
and Pastures, Vegetable Growing and Forcing, Mushroom 
Culture, Fruit Growing, Nut Culture, Floriculture- 
Livestock, Dairying, Feeds and Feeding, Animal Dis- 
eases-Farm Management, Records and Accounts- 
Markets and Marketing— Farm Buildings, Fences, 
Engines, Tractors, Machinery, Sanitation— Plant Diseases, 
Insects, Fungicides, Insecticides— Domestic Economy, 
etc., etc. 
It is mutually understood and agreed: 

A. That this certificate covers the above-mentioned service for a period 
of one year only. 

That not more than four questions shaU be sent in at any one time 
or during any one month. 

That no attention will be paid to inquiries unless certificate number 
is given, and the inquiry is accompanied by a self-addressed stamped 
return envelope. Do not send the certificate, merely give number of 
same which is printed in red on the reverse side. 

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE 

1008 ARCH STREET PHILADELPmA, PA. 

Note.— It wiU increase the interest and profit to be derived from the work of 
the International Institute if the members in any particular neighborhood will 
form a club and meet at regular periods to propose questions of general mterest 
and to discuss replies received from the Institute. 



B. 



C. 



PREFACE 



This book is written for farmers. It makes a popular appeal to all 
men engaged in farming. It will also be of interest to the student of agri- 
culture and the prospective farmer. It is designed to be a handy reference 
on the whole range of agriculture in the United States and Canada. Tech- 
nical terms and lengthy discussions have been avoided. 

Ages of farm experience and a few generations of agricultural research 
have given us a vast store of practical knowledge on tilling the soil and 
raising crops and animals. This knowledge is scattered through many 
volumes on different phases of the subject, in experiment station bulletins, 
agricultural journals and encyclopedias. The important facts on which 
the most successful farming is based are here brought together in orderly 
and readable form. Not only are directions given for the management of 
the soil and the raising of crops and livestock, but the business of farming 
is fully discussed, showing why some achieve success and why others fail. 

The subject-matter is arranged in ten parts of a number of chapters 
each, and by referring to the Table of Contents any subject may be 
quickly found. References are freely given at the close of each chapter. 
Each chapter has been prepared by a specialist in the subject presented. 
The name of the author appears at the beginning of each chapter. Those 
unacknowledged have been prepared by myself. 

The illustrations have been secured from many sources. Due credit 
has been given these. 

Special acknowledgment is due the publishers of this volume for its 
conception, and for many helpful suggestions in the presentation of its 
subject-matter. 

Acknowledgment is also due Professor E. L. Worthen and Professor 
R. S. Smith, both of The Pennsylvania State College, for helpful suggestions 
and criticisms on soils and crop rotations. I wish also to especially acknowl- 
edge the valuable editorial assistance of my wife in the preparation of the 

manuscript. 

Frank D. Gardner. 

(3) 



/ 



INTENTION AB SECOND EXPOSURE 



CONTENTS 



HI 



BOOK L SOILS AND SOIL MANAGEMENT 

Chapter 1. SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND CROP^ADAPTATION 33 

Soils are permanent — What farmers should know — The science of the soil — How 
soils are formed — Weathering and disintegration — Decomposition — What is the 
soil — The soil solids — The soil fluid — Gases of the soil — Soil classification-y-Soil 
surveys— Soils of the United States — Classification by texture — Crop adaptation — 
Summary of soil adaptedness — ^Eastern soils not worn out — Soil adaptation of six- 
teen crops common to Northeastern States — Soil adaptation of the leading crops 
of the North Central Region, South Central and South Atlantic Coast Region, 
Plains and Mountain Region, Pacific Coast Region — Aids to the solution of soil 
problems. 

Chapter 2. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES 51 

Texture of soil — Water-holding capacity of soils — Water movement in soil — ^Absorp- 
tion of fertilizers — Plasticity and ease of cultivation — Texture affects crop adapta- 
tion — ^Texture affects tillage—Structure of the soil — Granular structure— Granula- 
tion improved by organic matter — Good tilth important — Solubility of soil 
minerals — Rate of solubility depends on texture and kind of minerals — Soil bacteria 
increase solubility — Rapid solubility results in loss of fertiUty — Chemical composi- 
tion of soils — ^Availability important — Elements essential to plants — Soil bacteria- 
Bacteria make plant food available — Nitrogen increased by bacteria — Bacteria 
abundant near surface. 

Chapter 3. FERTILITY AND HOW TO MAINTAIN 62 

Fertility defined — Vegetation an index to fertility — Drainage reflected in character 
of vegetation — Lime content and acidity related to plants — Vegetation and alkali — 
Color of soil related to fertility — Maintenance of fertility — Fertility lost by plant 
removal — Loss by erosion — Preventing soil erosion — Farming systems that main- 
tain fertility — Deep plowing advisable — Tillage is manure — Rotations are helpful — 
Rotations reduce diseases— <^over crops prevent loss of fertility — Legumes increase 
soil nitrogen — Drainage increases fertility — Manure is the best fertilizer — Commer- 
cial fertilizers add plant food only— The limiting factor— Fertility an economic 
problem. 

Chapter 4. COMMERCUL FERTILIZERS 72 

Object and use of commercial fertilizers — What are commercial fertilizers— Where 
are fertilizers secured— Carriers of nitrogen — Phosphorus — Potassium — Forms of 
fertilizer materials — Relative value of fertilizer ingredients — The composition of 
fertiUzers — What analyses of fertilizers show — Commercial vs. agricultural value of 
manures — Mechanical condition — High-grade vs. low-grade fertilizers — Use of 
fertilizers — Value of crop determines rate of fertilization — Valuable products 
justify heavy fertiUzation— Character of fertilizer related to soil— What the farmer 
should know — How to determine needs of soil— Effect modified by soil and crop — 
Which is the best fertilizer to use— Needs of different soils— Crop requirements- 
Fertilizers for cereals and grasses — Legumes require no nitrogen — Available forms 
best for roots — Slow-acting fertilizers suited to orchards and small fruits— Nitrogen 
needed for vegetables — Fertilizers for cotton — Miscellaneous fertilizer facts — Effect 
of fertilizers on proportion of straw to grain — Principles governing profitable use of 
fertilizers — When to apply fertilizers — Methods of application — Purchase of fertili- 
zers — Home mixing of fertilizers. 

(5) 



6 



CONTENTS 



Chapter 5. BARNYARD, STABLE AND GREEN MANURES 94 

Manure an important farm asset — As a source of plant food — Physical effect of 
manures — Biological effect of manure — ^The value of manure — Horse manure — 
Cattle manure— Hog manure — Sheep manure— Poultry manure— Miscellaneous 
farm manures — ^Value of manure influenced by quahty of feed — Amount and char- 
acter of bedding affects value of manure— Methods of storing and handling— Losses 
of manure — Experimental results — How to prevent loss — Absorbents vs. cisterns — 
Sterilization — Reinforcing of manures — Economical use of mamiro — To what crops 
should manure be applied — To what soils should manure be applied — Climate 
affects decomposition — Eroded soils most in need of manure — Rate of ai)plication — 
Methods of applying manure — Top dressing vs. plowing under — The parking 
system — Distribution of benefits. 

Green Manures. 
WTien is green manuring advisable — Objections to green manuring — Principal 
green-manuring crops. 

Chapter 6. LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 115 

Soils need lime — Lime content of soils — How soils lose lime — Lime requirements of 
soils— -Crops require lime — Tolerance to acidity — Lime as affecting growth of plants 
— Sources of lime — Forms of lime. 

Functions of Lime. 
Lime as plant food — Chemical action of lime — Physical effect of lime — ^Lime affects 
soil bacteria — Lime corrects soil acidity — Sanitary effect of lime — Injurious effect of 
lime — Rate of application — Time of applying — Frequency of application — Methods 
of applying — Relative values of different forms of lime — Mixing with manure and 
fertilizers — Experimental results — Spreading lime — Slaking lime — Crushing vs. 
burning lime. 

Chapter 7. SOIL WATER, ITS FUNCTIONS AND CONTROL 130 

Amount and distribution of rain — Amount of water necessary to produce crops — 
Transpiration by plants — Forms of soil water — Capillary water — Gravitational 
^rat(»r — Hygroscopic water — Water affects temperature of soil — Water storage 
capacity of soils — Moisture conservation — Removing excess of water. 

Land Drainage. 
Drainage increases warmth and fertility of soil — Improves health conditions — Open 
vs. underground drains— Quality of tile — Cost of tile and excavating— Depth and 
frequency of drains — Grades, silt basins and junctions — The outlet — Size of tile . 

Chapters. GENERAL METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 142 

Objects of tillage — Plowing — Time of plowing — Depth of plowing — Subsoiling— 
Disking — Harrowing — Planking or dragging — Rolling — Character of seed-bed- 
Cultivation and hoeing — Control of weeds — Soil mulches — Soil erosion — Soil 
injury — Time and intensity of tillage are economic factors. 

BOOK 11. FARM CROPS 

Chapter 9. CROP IMPROVEMENT 157 

Plant selection — Kinds of variation — Hybridization — Choice of varieties. 

Com. 
The ear-row method — Ideals in selection of corn. 

Wheat, Oats and Barley. 
First year — Second year — Third year— Fourth year — Fifth and succeeding years 
—Crossing of varieties in small grain breeding. 

Potatoes. 
Production of seedlings — Hill and tuber selection — Opportunities in crop improve- 
ment. 






CONTENTS 



Chapter 10. THE ROTATION OF CROPS 166 

Rotations defined — Purpose of rotations — Maintain good physical condition of 
soil— Conserve organic matter and nitrogen — Provide for extermination of weeds 
— Lessen insect depredations — Reduce plant diseases — Improve environment of 
crops — Rotations insure returns — Prevent reduced crop yields — Rotations 
systematize farming — Rotations distribute labor — Essentials of a good rotation 
— Sequence of crops — Length of rotations — What crops to grow — When to apply 
manure and fertilizers— Some suggested rotations — Methods of planning and 
recording rotations. 

Chapter 11. CORN (ZEA MAIZE) 177 

Classification of corn — Varieties of com — The chief corn-growing states — Soil 
and climatic adaptation — Crop rotation for com — Plowing for com — Manures 
and fertilizers for corn — Time and method of planting — Rate of planting — Depth 
of planting — Preparation of seed for planting — Cultivation of corn — Methods 
of harvestings-Storing corn — Shrinkage of corn — Market gratdes of com — 
Composition and feeding value of corn. 

Com Improvement. 

Securing seed — Selecting seed — Care of seed — Germination test — Germinating 
box — Improvement by selection and breeding. 

Chapter 12. WHEAT (WINTER AND SPRING) 197 

Wheat production in the United States — Climatic and soil adaptation — ^Rotations 
— Preparation of the seed-bed — Fertilizers for wheat — Time of seeding — Rate 
of seeding — Grain drills — Winter killing — Wheat districts — District No. 1 — Dis- 
trict No. 2 — District No. 3 — District, No. 4 — District No. 5 — Wheat improvement — 
Harvesting — Cost of producing wheat — Enemies of wheat: Weeds — Insects — 
Fungous cliseases — Treatment. 

Chapter 13. OATS, BARLEY AND RYE 210 

Oats. 

Soil and climatic adaptation — Classes and varieties — Seed oats and their prepara- 
tion for seeding — Preparation of the seed-bed — Fertilizers and manures for oats 
— Time, rate and manner of seeding — Oats as a nurse crop — Harvesting, shock- 
ing and threshing — Storing and marketing — Composition and feeding value — 
Value of oats for hay and soiling purposes— Oat straw and its utilization — Cost of 
producing oats — Oat improvement. 

Barley. 

Soil and climatic adaptation — Classes and varieties — Preparation of land and 
seeding — Harvesting and use — Use of by-products. 

Rye. 

Adaptation and culture — Uses of rye. 

Chapter 14. BUCKWHEAT, RICE, FLAX, EMMER, KAFFIR CORN AND 

SUNFLOWER 220 

Buckwheat. 

Soil and climatic adaptation — Varieties — Preparation of soil and seeding — 
Fertihzers and rotations — Harvesting and threshing — Uses of buckwheat. 

Rice. 

Soil and climatic adaptation — Preparation of land and seeding — Flooding or 
irrigation — Harvesting and threshing — Yields and value. 

Flax. 

Soil and climatic adaptation— Preparation of land and seeding— Harvesting and 
threshing — Yield and value of crop — Utilization — Diseases of flax. 



8 



CONTENTS 



Regions of production- 



Kaffir Com. 
■Value and uses — Varieties- 

Emmer. 
Sunflowers. 



-Production and harvesting. 



Chapter 15. MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 230 

Importance and value of grasses — Regions of production — Principal grasses of 
North America — Valuable characteristics — Choice of grasses — Seed and seeding 
— Harvesting. 

Timothy. 

Soil and climatic adaptation — Advantages of timothy — Seed and seeding — 
Fertilizers and manures — Mixing timothy with other grasses and clovers — 
Harvesting — Pasturing— Seed production — Composition and feeding value — 
Improvement of timothy — Marketing the hay. 

Blue Grass. 

Soil and climatic adaptation — Importance of blue grass — Methods of establishing 
— Pasture and maintenance. 

Redtop. 
Importance of redtop — Culture — Yields and uses. 

Orchard Grass. 

Importance — Culture — Yields and uses. 

Brome grass — Tall oat grass — The fescues — Rye grasses — Sudan grass — ^Bermuda 

grass — Johnson grass — Para grass — Guinea grass. 

Chapter 16. THE CLOVERS 247 

Characteristics of clovers — Uses of clovers — Inoculation — Composition and feed- 
ing value — Harvesting methods. 

Red Clover. 

Soil and climatic adaptation — Endurance of red clover — Securing clover seed — 
Preparation of seed-bed — Time, manner, rate and depth of seeding — Nurse crops 
for clover — Fertilizers for clover — After treatment of clover — Harvesting of 
clover — Clover seed production — Red clover troubles. 

Alsike clover — White clover — Ladino clover — Crimson clover — Sweet clover — 
Lespedeza or Japan clover — Bur clover — Hop clover. 

Chapter 17. ALFALFA 259 

Distribution of alfalfa — Soil and climatic adaptation — ^Essentials for success — 
Varieties of alfalfa — Sources of seed — Need for fertilizers and hme — Preparation 
of seed-bed — Time^ rate, depth and manner of seeding — Inoculation — ^After treat- 
ment — Making alfalfa hay — Number of cuttings and yield — Other uses of alfalfa — ■ 
Composition and feeding value — Irrigation of alfalfa-— -Seed production. 

Chapter 18. MEADOWS AND PASTURES 270 

Extent, value and importance — Essential qualities of meadows and pastures — 
Advantages of meadows and pastures — Soil and climatic requirements — Forma- 
tion of meadows and pastures — Preparation of soil — Meadow and pasture seed 
mixtures — Seeding grasses and clovers — Treatment of meadows ana pastiu*es — 
Care of meadows and pastures — Improvement of meadows and pastures — Manur- 
ing, fertilizing and liming — Utilizing aftermath — Capacity of pastures — Compo- 
sition and palat ability of pasture grass and hay — Temporary pastures. 

Chapter 19. MISCELLANEOUS ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS.... 282 

Cowpeas. 

Varieties — Time, manner, rate and depth of seeding — Seeding with other crops 
— Fertilizers, tillage and rotations — Time and method of harvesting — Feeding 
value and utilization. 






CONTENTS 



9 



Soy Beans. 

Varieties — Time, method, rate and depth of seeding — Inoculation, tillage and 

fertilizers-^Time and method of harvesting — Composition, feeding value and 

utilization. 

Vetches — Canada field peas — Harvesting — Other annual legumes — Sorghums — 

Millet — Rai>e — Catch crops for pasture and hay. 

Chapter 20. ANNUAL LEGUMES, GROWN PRINCIPALLY FOR SEEDS.. 294 

Field bean — Time, rate, manner and depth of seeding — Harvesting — Threshing 
and cleaning — Yield — Field peas — Cowpeas — Soy beans — Castor bean — Vetch 
— <^rimson clover. 

Peanuts. 

Soil and climatic conditions — Fertilizers and lime required— Time, rate, depth 
and manner of planting — Seed selection and preparation — Varieties — Cultivation, 
harvesting and curing — Preparing for market — Yields. 

Chapter 21. ROOTS AND TUBERS FOR FORAGE 305 

Relation to other crops — Utilization and feeding value — Sugar beets — Mangels — 
Turnips and rutabagas — Carrots — Parsnip — Cabbage — Kale — Artichokes — Cas- 
sava— Chuf a — Taro — Yout ia. 

Chapter 22. THE POTATO 311 

The soil — Crop rotation — Soil preparation — The seed — Fertilization — ^The plant- 
ing — Cultivation — Diseases — Insect pests — Harvesting the crop. 

Chapter 23. SUGAR CROPS (CANE, BEET AND MAPLE SUGAR, AND 

SORGHUM) 318 

Sugar Beets. 
Adaptation — Preparation of land — Fertilization — Seeding and cultivation — 
Harvesting — Seed production — Manufacture of beet sugar — By-products of beet 
farming. 

Cane Sugar. 
Description and mode of reproduction — Soils — Varieties of cane — Rotation and 
preparation of the land — Fertilizers — Cultivation — Harvesting — Cane sugar 
manufacture. 
Maple Sugar — Sugar making — Sorghum. 

Chapter 24. COTTON PRODUCTION 329 

Species— Characteristics of the plant— Seed— Varieties of upland cotton grouped 
-Cluster group— Semi-cluster group— Peterkin group— King groui>— Big-boU 
gro^ip — Long-staple upland group — Desired qualities of a variety — Selection — 
Soils adapted to cotton — Special types of soils. 

Fertilizer and Cultivation. 
Plant food removed by cotton— Need of humus— Need of nitrogen— Need of 
phosphoric acid— Need of potash— Commercial fertilizers profitable— Three-year 
rotation suggested— Preparation of land— Time of plowing— Seed-bed— Plantmg 
—Tillage. 

Harvesting and Marketing. 

Picking — Ginning — Cotton seed — Storing — Grades of cotton. 

Chapter 25. TOBACCO '••."'\y'^^^ 

Tvpes and their commercial uses— Principal tobacco districts— Soils— Prepara- 
tion and care of seed-beds— Preparation of the soil— Fertilizers— Transplanting 
and cultivation— Methods of harvesting— Barn curing— Preparation for market- 
Methods of selling. 



10 



CONTENTS 



CONTENTS 



11 



Chapter 26. WEEDS AND THEIR ERADICATION 353 

Damage done by weeds — Weeds reduce crop yields — How introduced and spread 
— Classification of weeds — Weed habitats — Principles governing control — Canada 
1 histle — Quack grass — Foxtail — Dodders — Buckhorn — Plantain — Pigweed — 
Lamb's-Quarters — Wild mustard or charlock — Shepherd's-purse — Peppergrass — 
Cocklebur — Field bindweed or wild morning glory — Hedge bindweed — Fifty 
worst weeds. 



BOOK HI. HORTICULTURE, FORESTRY AND FLORICULTURE 

Chapter 27. THE PRINCIPLES OF VEGETABLE GARDENING 377 

Soils and locations — Tillage and tools — Stable manures — Cover crops — Com- 
mercial fertilizers — The use of lime — Seeds and seed sowing — Transplanting — 
Starting early plants. 

Chapter 28. VEGETABLES AND THEIR CULTURE 383 

Asparagus — Bean — Beet — Brussel's sprouts — Cabbage — Carrot — Cauliflower 

— Celery — Cucumbers — Eggplant — Horseradish — Kale — Kohl-rabi — Leek 

— Lettuce — Muskmelon — Onion — Parsley — Parsnip — Pea — Pepper — Radish — 
Rhubarb — Salsify — Spinach — Squash — Sweet corn — Sweet potatoes — Tomato — 
Turnips — Watermelon. 

Chapter 29. THE FARM VEGETABLE GARDEN 403 

Choosing a site — The garden plan — Fertility — Tillage — Garden seed — Growing 
early plants — Seed sowing — Transplanting — Cultivation — Irrigation — Pest control 
— QuaUty of vegetables— ?>torage of vegetables — Literature. 

Chapter 30. VEGETABLE FORCING 413 

Cold-frames — Hotbeds — The greenhouse — Growing plants under glass. 

Chapter 31. MUSHROOM CULTURE 417 

Houses — Preparation of the compost — Filling the beds — Spawning — Casing the 
beds — Temperature — Water — Ventilation — Picking and marketing — Mushroom 
enemies — Yield and returns. 

Chapter 32. MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS 424 

Requirements for medicinal plants — ^Anise — Belladonna — Caraway — Coriander — 
Digitalis or foxglove — Common sage plant — Ginsc^ig — Peppermint — Spearmint — 
Tansy — Wormwood — American wormseed — Addit ional equipment. 

Chapter 33. PRINCIPLES OF FRUIT PRODUCTION, WITH SPECIAL 

REFERENCE TO THE HOME PLANTATION 429 

The main factors to consider — Moisture — Soil — Subsoil — The parasite — Site — 
Aspect — Wind-breaks — Nursery stock — Southern vs. Northern grown nursery trees 
— Time to plant — To heel-in trees — Marking out th(; field — Mixed plantings — The 
operation of planting — First pruning — How fruit buds are borne — Pruning for 
fruit — Pruning older trees — Tillage — Fertilizing — Thinning — Spraying — Harvest- 
ing and marketing — The value and importance of the home fruit garden — Quality 
first for the home. 

Chapter 34. SMALL FRUITS 438 

The Strawberry. 

Selection of soil — Preparation of the soil — Fertilizers — Selecting and preparing the 
plants — Perfect and imperfect flowered plants — When to set the plants — How to 
set the plants — Depth to set the plants — Planting in hills — Renewing old beds — 
Cultivation— Objects of mulching — Materials for mulch — Harvesting and shipping 
— ^When to apply the mulch — Receptacles. 



The Raspberry. Red raspberries — Selection and preparation of soil — Planting — 
Cultivation — Fertilizers — Prunmg — Harvesting the fruit — Black raspberries or 
blackcaps — Propagation — Character of the soil — Preparation of the soil — Cultiva- 
tion — Winter protection — ^Fertihzers — Pruning — Harvesting. 
The Blackberry. Soil-7Propagation — Planting, tillage and fertilizers— Pruning 
and training — Harvesting. 

The Currant. Soil requirements — Culture and fertiUzation — ^Enemies and dis- 
eases — Harvesting the fruit. 

The Gooseberry. Soil — Preparation of land— Plants for setting — Planting — 
Cultivation — Fertilizers — Pruning — Harvesting. 

The Cranberry. 

Chapter 34a. GRAPES AND GRAPE CULTURE 455a 

goil — Preparation of the soil — ^Fertilizers — Choice of varieties to plant — Propa- 
gation — Planting, plowing and cultivating — Pruning — Diseases and insects — 
Picking. 

Chapter 35. THE POME FRUITS 456 

The Apple. 
Origin — Cultural range — Propagation— Location and soil for the orchard— Varieties 
—Purchase and handling of nursery stock— Laying out the orchard— Plantmg 
the trees— Forming the heads— Later pruning— Soil management— Fertilization- 
Protecting the trees— Spraying during the growing season— Thinmng—1< ruit 
picking and storage. 

The Pear. 
Origin— Propagation— Cultural range— Varieties— Location, soil and culture- 
Trees, planting and pruning— Protection and spraying— Picking the fruit. 

The Quince. 
Cultural range and varieties— Soil and cultural methods— Pruning— Enemies. 

Chapter 36. STONE FRUITS ^72 

Sites and soils — Nursery stock — Varieties — Planting — Soil majiagement — Fer- 
tilizers— Pruning— Diseases, insects and spraying— Thinmng the frmt— Harvesting 
and marketing. 

Chapter 37. CITRUS FRUITS AND THEIR CULTIVATION 484 

History— Citrus species and varieties— The sweet orange— The sour orange— The 
lemon— The pomelo or grapefruit— The hme— The mandarin orange^The citron- 
Citrus regions and their production— Propagation of citrus varieties— Orange 
seedhngs— The orange nursery— Budding the nursery stock—Care of the nursery 
stock— Planting the orchard— Cultivation-Irrigation— Fertihzation-Prumng- 
Frost protection— Diseases— Insects— Picking, packing and marketing of fruit. 

Chapter 38. NUTS AND NUT CULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES 499 

The Principal Nuts. 
The peanut— The pinon {jyin-yon)— The Persian walnut— The pecan— The almond 
— Nuts of minor importance. 

Chapter 39. MISCELLANEOUS TROPICAL FRUITS ;••;;••.•. ^^^ 

The pineapple-Propagation-Soil-Preparation of s<>il-Z^^l*.i::**^^^^ 
Marketing— The avocado— The mango— The banana— The fig— The guava. 

Chapter 40. THE FARM WOODLOT ^21 

Need of forestry— Value of the woodlot— Managing the woodlot— Improvement 
cuUings - Reproduction cuttings - Pruning - Plantmg - Financial results - 
Summary. 



12 



CONTENTS 



CONTENTS 



13 



Chapter 41. BEAUTIFYING HOME GROUNDS 531 

The survey — Planning for convenience — Formal ornamentation — Informal orna- 
mentation — Lawn planting — ^Use of flowers — Suggested materials. 

Chapter 42. WINDOW GARDENING 539 

Drainage — Soil and exposure — Method of potting— Watering — Feeding plants — 
Ferns and foliage plants — Flowering plants — Plant hce. 

BOOK IV. LIVESTOCK FARMING (ANIMAL HUSBANDRY) 

Chapter 43. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF KEEPING LIVE- 
STOCK 547 

Value and importance of livestock. 

Advantages of Livestock. 

Animals furnish food, labor and clothing — ^Animals make use of land otherwise 
unproductive — ^Animals utilize crops that would be wholly or partly wasted — 
Animals transform coarse, bulky products into concentrated form—Animals 
return fertility to the soil — Livestock facilitate good crop rotations — Capital more 
fully used— Livestock call for higher skill — More land may be farmed with the 
same labor. 

Disadvantages of Livestock. 
Animals require larger capital — Capital of perishable nature — Products cannot 
be indefinitely held— Crop failures may cause loss on livestock. 

Chapter 44., BREEDING, CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF FARM ANIMALS. . 553 

Breeding of Livestock. 
History of animal breeding — Lines of breeding — Selection of a breed — Pedigree — 
Gestation period. 

Care of Livestock. 

Preparation of feeds — Feeding condimental stock feeds — Care of the breeding 
herd — Care of work animals — ^Assist animals at time of giving birth to their young. 

Management of Livestock. 
Open sheds — Arrangement of labor — The kind of farm animals — Regularity in 
feeding and watering— Observing individuals — Keep up records — Preparation 
and shipping livestock. 

Chapter 45. FEEDS AND FEEDING 562 

Introduction — Chemical composition of feeding-stuffs — Water — Mineral matter — 
Crude protein-— Carbohydrates — The fats — Digestion of the nutrients — The 
nutritive ratio — The energy value of feeding-stuffs — Feeding-stuffs — Concen- 
trates — Roughages — The requirements of farm animals — The balanced ration — 
The Wolff-I^hmann standards — The Armsby standards — The Haecker standard 
for dairy cows. 

Chapter 46. HORSES AND MULES 573 

Development of type — The light horse — Draft type — The mule — Market require- 
ments — The age of the horse — Horse feedings — Feeds for the horse — Grain — 
Roughages — ^Watering — The work horse — The foal — The orphan foal — The brood 
mare — The stallion. 

Standard Rations. 
Foals — Work horses — ^Brood mare — Grooming. 

Chapter 47. BEEF CATTLE 584 

Sources of profit — Breeding pure-bred cattle — Producing stockers and feeders — 
Grazing cattle — Fattening cattle — Fitting show animals. 



The Selection of Cattle for the Feedlot. 
Methods of feeding— Characteristics of good feeders— Kind of feed related to class 
of cattle— Calves and yearlings— Time to market. 

The Deficiency m the Meat Supply. 
Tenant farming unfavorable to beef production— Breeding cattle require 
capital. 

Chapter 48. SWINE '":":" V^' I' \: V- ^^^ 

Personal preference— Feeds available— Location and cUmat^e— Distribution— 
Markets— Breeds of swine— Grading up the herd— Age of breedmg stock— Hous- 
ing-Feeds for swine-Preparation of feeds-Hand vs. self-feeding-Feed for the 
brood sows— Feeding the pigs— Suggested successful rations. 

Chapter 49. SHEEP AND GOATS.... '^^VVr^ ^^J 

Early importance of sheep— The sheep of Spain— The sheep of England— Breeds 

of sheep. ^^ , -r^ -, 

Long Wool Breeds. 

Leicester — Cotswold — Lincoln. 

Medium Wool Breeds. 
Southdown— Shropshire— Oxfords— Hampshires— Dorset horn— Cheviot. 
F?ne wool or merino sheep-Establishing a flock-Essentials^ to success-The 
breeding season-Period of gestation-Care of ram during breeding sea.son- 
™e? care of ewes-Care of young lambs-Marketing the lambs-Shearing the 
flock — Dipping the flock. 

Chapter 50. THE FARM FLOCK (POULTRY) .; -. 618 

Tinnortance of the farm flock— The size of the farm flock— Sources of income— 
Adv^intaees of piirVbred poultry-Grading up a farm flock-The choice of a variety 

• ^Xtion o the breeding stock-Housing the breeding stock-Selection o^ eggs 
f^hatching-Care of eggs for hatching-Natural or artificial incubation-Hatch- 
ng with hens— Hatching with incubators. 

Brooding. 
Tmnortance of the brooder— Qualifications of a good brooder— Management of the 
bZder-Ration for chick^The care of growing chicks-The care of the pullets 
—Feeding mature fowls— The care of market eggs. 

Chapter 5L BEES *. ,****** r • 

Breeds of bees-Personnel and activity of colony-Size and location of ap'arj- 
ShSc and ventUation-Stocking the apiary-lntroduang a new queen-Uniting 
„„^fr«n,ferrinB colonies— General methods of handling— Swarming— How to 
prevent "wSg-Wb^^^^^ of bees-Bee feeding-Hives-Foundat.on combs- 
Handling and marketing— Diseases of bees. 

BOOK V. DAIRY FARMING (DAIRY HUSBANDRY) 

Chanter 52 THE DAIRY HERD; ITS SELECTION AND IMPROVEMENT. . . 643 

Open stables for heifers. 

Chapter S3. DAIRY HERD MANAGEMENT ......... .651 

Aee to breed-Gestation period-Regularity-Care of cow at ^alymg time-Re 
Age lo ortiu V^ , ' . . — Exercise — Groommg — Milkmg — Ditticult 
milklng^Zus^^KrTd^SS^^'abUng-Flie^^ the cow-Dehorn- 

ing — Care of the bull. 



I 



14 



CONTENTS 



CONTENTS 



15 



Chapter 54. DAIRY BREEDS OF CATTLE • . 658 

Dairy breeds essential — Dairy type common to all dairy breeds— Recognized 
dairy breeds of America. 

Ayrshire Cattle. 
Origin and development — Characteristics of Ayrshire cattle. 

Brown Swiss Cattle. 
Origin and development — Characteristics of Brown Swiss cattle. 

Guernsey Cattle. 
Origin and development — Characteristics of Guernsey cattle. 

Holstein-Friesian. 
Origin and development — Characteristics of Holstein-Friesian cattle. 

Jersey Cattle. 
Origin and^development — Characteristics of Jersey cattle. 

Other Dairy Breeds. 
Dairy Breed Organization in America. 

Chapter 55. CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION 672 

Classes of Milk. 
Sanitary milk — Guaranteed milk — Standardized milk — Certified milk — Inspected 
milk — Pasteurized milk — Modified milk. 

Equipment and Methods. 

Clean, healthy cows — Stables — Milkers — Small top milk pails — Clean tinware — 
Strainers — Handling the milk — Coolers — Suggestions for improvement. 

Chapter 56. DAIRY BUTTER-MAKING 679 

Adaptation — The need for dairy farming — The types of dairy farming — Market 
milk — Farm cheese making — Farm butter making — Control of products — Cleanli- 
ness necessary — Percentage of fat in cream — Thin cream undesirable — Methods 
of ripening cream — Amount of acid to develop, or degree of ripening — The use of 
starters — Natural starter — The amount of starter to use — Churning temperatures 
— Variations in churning temperature — Care of the churn — Length of time to 
churn — Washing butter — Temperature of wash water — Preparation of working 
board — Salting — Working of butter — Wrapping of butter — Value of standard 
product — Care of the farm churn — Dairy apparatus — Care of other dairy apparatus 
— Churns — Buckets and tinware — Wooden apparatus. 

BOOK VI. FARM BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT 



Chapter 57. FARM BUILDINGS, FENCES AND GATES 

The Farm Residence. 



693 



Bams. 

Bank barns — Dairy barns — Storage capacity — Floor space and arrangement — 
Stable floors — Lighting — Ventilation — Conveniences — Silos. 

Out Buildings. 
The implement house — Corn cribs — Hog houses — Poultry houses — Milk houses 
— Ice houses — Roofing — Use of concrete — Lightning rods — Fences and gates. 

Chapter 58. FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS 715 

Advantages of farm machinery — Tillage machinery — Cultivators — Seeding 
machines — Corn planters. 



Harvesting Machinery. 
Mowing machines — Self-rake reaper — Self-binder — Corn harvesters — Threshing 
machines — Corn shelters — Silage cutters — Manure spreader — Milking machines 
—Spraying machines — Tractors — Farm vehicles — Hand implements — Tools — 
Handy conveniences — Machinery for the house — Buying farm machinery — Care 
of machinery — Condition of niachinery — Utilizing machinery — Cost of farm 
machinery — Duty of farm machinery 

Chapter 59. ENGINES, MOTORS AND TRACTORS FOR THE FARM 743 

The Real Power for the Farm. 
Gas engine principles — Vertical and horizontal engines— Ignition— Cooling system 
—Lubrication — Gas engine parts— Governors — Gas engine troubles. 

Transmission of Power. 

Shafting— Speed of shafting— The size of pulleys— Kind of pulleys— Straight and 
crown faces — Covering steel pulleys — Pulley fasteners. 

Belts and Belting. 
Advantages of belts— Disadvantages— Essentials of a belt— Leather belts— Rubber 
belts — Belt slipping. 

Water Motors. 
Overshot wheels— Undershot wheels— Breast wheels— Impulse water motors- 
Turbine wheels — The hydraulic ram. 

The Farm Tractor. 
The size of tractors— Tractor efficiency — Type of tractor. 



758 



Chapter 60. FARM SANITATION 

Lighting. 
Kerosene lamps— Gasoline lamps— Acetylene gas— Electrical lighting. 
Heating— Ventilation— Water supply— Sewage disposal 

Chapter 61. FARM DRAINAGE AND IRRIGATION 765 

Land Drainage. 
Co-operation— Tile drains— Running the levels— EstabUshing the grades— Small 
ditching machines — Size of tile. 

Irrigation. 

Water rights-Co-operation— Sources of water— Dams and reservoirs—Methods 
of trinsmission— Losses in transmission— Head gates— Prepanng land for irriga- 
lL-Fa?rdHches-Distributaries-Dist the water-The check system- 

Duty of water— When to irrigate— Irrigation waters— Alkah troubles. 



BOOK VII. FARM MANAGEMENT 

Chapter 62 FARMING COMPARED WITH OTHER OCCUPATIONS 781 

The farmer as a naturalist— The farmer as a mechanic— The farmer as a laborer— 
The farmer as a business man-Personal traits of the farmer-Farm expenence- 
The farm hand-Farm ownership-The occupation of the farmer-Independence 
of farming occupation-It furnishes employment for ^hildren-Health^lness of 
the country-The farm as a home enterprise-The farm as a home-What the 
famisiS of living on farms-Uncertainties m farming-Preparation 

forfyming-Back to the farm-Back to the village movement-The farm manager 
—The farmer's labor income— Profits in farming. 






16 



CONTENTS 



Chapter 63. FACTORS THAT DETERMINE BEST TYPE OF FARMING. . . 792 

The man — Climate — Soil — Topography — Location — Neighbors — Markets — 
Transportation — Supply and demand — Animals — Labor — Competing types — 
Natural enemies— Land values— Capital— Changing type of farnung— Successful 
types of farming. 

Chapter 64. COST OF PRODUCTION 800 

Cost depends on yields — Product per animal — Labor of men and teams — Equipment 
—Land values — Taxes, insurance and depreciation — Intensity — Size of business — 
Character of feed — Class of labor — Utilization— Amount of waste — Fertility of 
land — Weather conditions — Weeds, insects and diseases — Efficiency — Reducing 
expenses. 

Chapter 65. INTENSIVE AND EXTENSIVE FARMING 809 

Intensity depends on available land — Economizing land — Economizing labor — 
Increasing, stationary and diminishing returns — Danger of under-production for 
growing population — Profits per acre vs. profits per man — Intensive and extensive 
enterprises — Relation of intensity to land values — Relation of intensity to labor — 
Relation of intensity to t>^e of farming — The most profitable yield — Crop yields 
on successful farms — Intensity in dairying — Receipts per cow and profits — Relation 
of cows to size of farm — Acres of each crop-^The soiling system — Proper balance 
of intensity — Intensity related to citizenship. 

Chapter 66. SIZE AND DIVERSITY OF FARM RELATED TO EFFICIENCY. . 822 

Diversified Farming. 
Advantages of special farming — Advantages of diversified farming. 

Size of Farm. 

Size depends on t^-pe of farming — Bonanza farms — Medium size farms superior — 
The family size — The economical unit — Size economizes on buildings and fences — 
Size economizes on equipment — Size economizes on man and horse labor — Size 
related to crop yields — Advantages of buying and selling — Size of fields — Size 
related to capital — Size related to dairying — Size of farms in the United States — 
Size helps prevent the boys leaving farms — Small farms. 

Chapter 67. CROPPING AND FEEDING SYSTEMS 833 

The farm scheme — Crops related to farm management — Animals related to farm 
management— Cropping and feeding systems are related — Adaptation of cropping 
and feeding systems — Cropping systems related to food — Crop rotations — Crops 
for cash or for feed — Crops related to feed requirements — Changing cropping system 
— Two rotations on the same farm — Combining fields — Fixed rotations with 
irregular areas — Feeding systems — Feeding system depends on type of farming — 
Feeding system related to cost of production — Feed units — Profits from cheap 
crop products — Livestock gains in relation to feed — Corn silage as base for ration 
— Balanced rations. 

Chapter 68. PLANNING THE FARM AND FARMSTEAD 844 

Location of the farmstead — Size of farmstead — Arrangement of orchard, garden 
and lots — Grouping the buildings — Water supply — Relation of buildings to farm 
— Sightliness and healthfulness — Size, shape and number of fields — Distance to 
fields — Rotation groups — Farm lanes, roads and fences — Rearranging farms — 
Crop ledger plan. 

Chapter 69. LAND RENTAL AND FARM TENANTRY 857 

Is tenantry desirable? — Relation to progress — Classes of land owners — Farming 
with small capital — Starting as a tenant — Basis of rental — Systems of rental — 
Cash rental — Advantages of share rental — Personal element — Legislation — What 
the lease should contain — Time of lease — Profits under difTerent methods of 
renting. 



CONTENTS 



17 



Chapter 70. FARM LABOR .• 864 

Social relation of farm labor— Why is farm labor scarce— Extent of employment 
—Solution of farm labor problem— Demand for labor— Hours of work— Wage of 
farm labor— Housing farm labor— Interesting the farm hand— Skilled and unskilled 
labor — Permanency of employment — Management of men — Productive and 
unproductive work— Doing work on time— Winter work— Work for stormy days 
—Economizing time— Workman's attitude — Saving horse labor. 

Chapter 7L THE FARMER'S CAPITAL 875 

How to secure capital— Cash transactions— Agricultural credit— The Raiffeisen 
bank— Borrowing money— Farm mortgages— Extent of debt pernussible— Relation 
of banker to farmer— Working capital— Distribution of capital— Capital related 
to area— Capital related to labor income— Capital related to type of farming- 
Farming with small capital— Purchasing a farm— Land as an investment. 

Chapter 72. FARM RECORDS AND ACCOUNTS 884 

Object of keeping accounts— Essential records— Blank forms and books necessary 
—How to keep accounts— Time required to keep accounts— Best tune to start 
ac(^ounts— Annual inventory— Values to use— Receipts and expenditures— Accounts 
with farm enterprises— Work records— Abbreviated .accounts— Classifacation ot 
troublesome items— Plan of farm and cropping system— Closing the accounts- 
Outline of accounts — Interpretation of results. 

Chapter 73. MARKETS, MARKETING AND CO-OPERATION 909 

Cost of distribution— Middlemen— The consumer— The producer's share— Legisla- 
tive regulations of commission business— Advertising— Marketing the farm products 
—Trend of prices— Selling directly to consumer— The motor truck m marketing— 
Co-operation— In what can farmers co-operate— Exchanging help— Cow testing 
associations— Marketing dairy products— Marketing livestock— Marketing eggs- 
Marketing vegetables— Marketing fruit— Some successful co-operative associations 
— Importance of able management — Supervision of co-operation. 



BOOK VIII. PLANT AND ANIMAL DISEASES, INSECT ENEMIES 

AND THEIR CONTROL 

Chapter 74. DISEASES OF ANIMALS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 929 

The essentials to health— Knowledge of disease should precede treatment-^^eneral 
rules for maintaining health— Comfort— Exercise— General management— Nursing 
—Disease— Examination of sick animals— Rational measures for treatment. 

Chapter 75. DISEASES OF FARM, GARDEN AND ORCHARD CROPS, 

AND THEIR REMEDIES ^^^ 

Apple. Bitter rot or ripe rot— Black rot— Brown rot— Storage rot^s—Scah-Blotch 
—Rust— Fire blight-Other foliage spots and twig cankers— Mildew— Crown gall 

and hairy root. , -r i. . t» x r^ ii 

Pear. Blight— Rust— Scab— Leaf spot— Rots— Crown gall. 

Quince. Rust— Blight— Leaf— Rots— Crown gall— Spray table for apples, pears 

Pelch."Xown rot-Scab or freckles-Leaf curl-Shot holes-Crown gall-MHdew 

—Yellows— Little peach— Peach rosette— Spray table for peach. 

Plum. Black knot— Leaf spot— Mildew— Yellows— Brown rot— Crown gall— 

cSy!''^^liaf spoT-Black knot— Crown gall-Brown rot— Powdery mildew- 
Spray table for sweet cherries. , . j , r\4.u ^+o 
Citrus Fruits. Brown rot— Black rot— Stem end rot and melanose— Other rots- 
Sooty mould— Black ])it of the lemon— Anthracnose or wither tip— fecab— Canker. 
Fig. Rust — Cankers — Fruit rots. 
Pineapple — Mango — Avocado. 



18 



CONTENTS 



CONTENTS 



19 



SbeS^^e^^^^^ and Raspberry. Crown gall-Leaf spot-Anthracnose- 

Orange rust— Double blossom— Cane blight— Yellows. 

Strawberry. Leaf spot. 

Cranberry. Scald or blast— Rot— Anthracnose. 

Gooseberry. Powdery mildew. 

G^^^' Bta'^ck Tot— Bird's-eye or anthracnose— Bitter rot or ripe rot— Downy 

mildew — Powdery mildew — Necrosis — Crown gall. 

AsDaraeus. Rust. _ ., , ▼ r x 

Bean. Anthracnose— Rust— Blight— Downy mildew— Leaf spot. 

Pea. Spot. 

Beets. Leaf spot — Root rot — Scab. j- «„c^ 

Cabbage, Cauliflower, Turnips, etc. Black rot-Club root or finger and toe disease. 
Canteloupes and Melons. Leaf blight-Downy niildow-Anthracnose~W^^^^^ 
Cucumber. Downy mildew— Anthracnose— Leaf blight and fruit spot— Wilt. 

Celery. Leaf spot. 

Onion. Smut— Downy mildew or blight. 

P^atSf^Late blight or downy mildew— Early blight— Wilt, stem rot and dry rot 
—Black leg— Scab— Little potato, rosette, stem rot, scurf— Bacterial wilt- 
Tomato!* Early blight— Leaf blight— Fusarium wilt— Bacterial wilt— Blossom-end 
rot or point rot — Anthracnose — Fruit rot. 
Eggplant — Pepper. 
Lettuce. jMildew — Drop or wilt. 
Sweet Potato. Soft rot— Black rot— Stem rot. 

Tobacco. Granville tobacco wilt— Mosaic, calico or mottle top— Leaf spots- 
Root rots. 

Com. Smut. ^ . , . i ^ 

Wheat. Rusts— Loose smut — Stinking smut or bunt. 

Oats. Rust — Smut. 

Sugar Cane. Red rot— Rind disease— The pineapple disease— Other diseases. 

Cotton. Anthracnose— Damping off— Sore shin— Seeding rot. 

Flax. Wilt. 

Chapter 76. INSECT PESTS AND THEIR CONTROL 967 

General Crop Insects. 
Caterpillars (leaf-eating)— Cutworms— Grasshoppers or locusts— Leaf beetles- 
Plant hce — White grubs— Wire worms. 

Field Crop Insects. 
The army worm— The alfalfa loaf weevil— The chinch bug— Clover mite— Clover 
root borer — Corn ear worm — The corn root aphis — Cotton boll worm — Cotton 
^vorm- The cotton red spider— The fall army worm— The green bug or spring grain 
aphis— The Hessian flv— Mexican cotton bollweevil— Spring grain aphis— Southern 
corn root worm or i)ud worm— Tobacco flea beetle— Tobacco worms or horn 
worms— Western corn root worm— Wheat joint worm— Wheat straw worm. 

Truck Crop Insects. 
The asparagus beetle— Bean aphis— Bean weevil, the common— Other bean wee- 
vils—The beet army worm— Beet leaf beetle, the larger— The beet leaf hopper- 
Blister beetles— The cabbage looper— The cabbage maggot— The Colorado potato 
beetle — Flea beetles — Harlequin cabbage bug — The hop aphis — The hop plant 
^orer — The imported cabbage web worm — The imported cabbage worm — The 
melon aphis— The potato tuber moth— The squash bug— Squash vine borer— The 
striped cucumber beetle — Sugar beet web worm. 

Fruit Insects. 
Apple maggot or raih-oad worm— Apple-tree tent caterpillar— The browTi-tail molh 
—Canker worm, the spring— And the fall— The cherry fruit flies— The codhngmoth 



or apple worm— Currant worm, the imported— The flat-headed apple-tree borer— 
The fruit tree bark beetle— The gipsy moth— The grape berry moth— Grape leaf 
hopper— The grape-vine flea beetle— The lesser apple worm— i he peach tree borer 
—Pear leaf bhster mite— Plant hce— Plum curculio— The rose chafer— Round- 
headed apple-tree borer— The San Jose scale. 

Chapter 77. INSECTICIDES AND FUNGICIDES 1005 

Insecticides. 

Paris ereen- Arsinate of lead— Arsenate of zinc— London purple— White arsenic- 
Sulphur— Lime-sulphur wash— Tobacco extracts— Pyre thrum— White he lebore— 
Coal oil— Crude oils— Soaps— Coal tar— Borax— Other insecticides— Bisulphide of 
carbon— Carbon tetrachlorid—Para-dichlorobenzene— Hydrocyanic acid gas. 

Fungicides. 
Copper sulphate— Bordeaux mixture— Copperas or iron sulphate— Formalin or 
formaldehyde— Bichloride of mercury— Lime-sulphur wash. 

Combined Insecticides and Fungicides. 

Literature. 

BOOK IX. HOME ECONOMICS AND AGRICULTURAL 

EDUCATION 

Chapter 78. FOOD MATERIALS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS 1023 

Elements of the body-Description of body elements-Body compounds-Body 
oxidation products, or final metabolic products-Need of food-E ements needed 
Tn food-Nature's preparation of food materials-Man's selection of food materials 
-Foodstuffs, their composition and functions-Proportions of oodstuffs in food 
matSs-Discussion of Table I-Fuel value of foodstuffs-Fuel value P<^r pound 
S food material-Discussion of Table II-Amount of food needed for twenty-four 
hours-Reasons for cooking food materials-Effects of heat on foodstuffs-Cooking 
of combinations of foodstuffs. 

Chapter 79. HOUSING AND CLOTHING ^. ; 1037 

House plan essentials-The basement-The kitchen— The pantry-Dinmg room- 
W^ish room-The living room-The office-The hall-Sleeping rooms-Bathroom 
-interi^^^^^ ^^^ decoration-Household appli- 

ances — Ventilation. 

Clothing. 
To the farm woman— Bodily protection— Under garments— Character of material 
-Amount of clothing-The outer garments-Extremes of fashion-Footwear- 
Children's dress— Economy in clothing. 

Chapter 80 EDUCATION AND INFORMATION FOR THE FARMER .... 1047 

Agriculture in secondary schools— Agricultural c?olleges— Agricultural experiment 
stS io" arm^^ institutes-Agricultural fairs-Agricultural «ocieties-Ex^^^^ 
8ion work-Extension representatives-Agricultural pubhcations-Libraries- 
Boys' and girls' clubs. 

BOOK X. TABLES OF WEIGHTS, MEASURES AND 

AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS 

V^^^^ ^71>Ifc^n^Le^of "total dry matter and digestible nutrients in feeding-stuffs. 
Table U. Dry matt^^^^^^ protein, and net energy per 100 pounds of feed. 

(Armsby.) 



20 



CONTENTS 



Table 111. Wolff-Lehinann feeding standards. (Showing amounts of nutrients 

per day per 1()00 pounds live weight.) 
Table IV. Armsby feeding standards. 
Table V. Haecker's standard for milk production. 

Table VI. Percentage composition of agricultural products. 
Table VII. Fertihty in farm produce. , ^^ -^ ^ c. . 

T\BLE VIII. Composition of various extensive type soils of tnited btates. 
Table IX. Weight per bushel, seeding rate per acre, number of seeds per pound 

and depth to cover farm seeds. 
Table X. Water requirements of various standard crops. 

Table XL Cost per acre, producing crops. 
Table XII. Cost of farm horse power. 

Table XIII. Work capacity of farm machines. , ,. vrr x i • i r 

Table XIV. Composition and amounts of manure i)roduced by different kinds of 

farm animals. , i r- 

Table XV. Prices of farm products. Average hvm\ value per head, hve-year 

periods, United States. . - ^ -.onn 

Table XVI. Average farm prices for the United States. Five-year periods, 18bb- 

1915. 
Table XVII. Capacity of round silos in tons. 
Table XVIII. Spouting velocity of water, in feet per second, m heads of trom 5 to 

1000 feet. 
Table XIX. Weights and measures. • xi. tt •. i 

Table XX. List of agricultural colleges and experiment stations in the Lnitecl 

States. . 

Table XXJ. How to estimate amount of grain in bins and hay in mow or stack. 

SOURCES OF INFORMATION lO^'' 

GLOSSARY ^^^^ 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plan for a Farmstead {Color Plate) FrontUfdece 

PAGE 

Rock Weatherin(j and the Process of Soil Formation 34 

The Soil Provinces and Soil Regions of the United States (Color Map) . 38 

The Soil Separates as Made by Mechanical Analysis 39 

Inspecting and Sampling the Soil 40 

A Soil Augur 50 

Rate and Height of Capillary Rise of Water in Soils of Different Texture 52 

The Ease of Seed-bed Preparation Depends on Condition of Soil 55 

Soil Fertility Barrel 68 

Soil Fertility Plats 70 

Effect of Top Dressing Meadows with Commercial Fertilizer 82 

Effect of Fertilizers on the Growth of Sweet Clover 83 

Effect of Commercial Fertilizer on Wheat on a Poor Soil 85 

Soil Fertility Plats 88 

Modern Convenience for Conveying Manure 101 

Piles of Manure Stored Under Eaves of Barn 103 

Spreading Manure from Wagon, Old Way 106 

The Modern Manure Spreader HO 

Rye Turned Under for Soil Improvement 113 

The Growth of Red Clover on an Acid Soil as Affected by Lime 117 

Beets Grown With and Without Lime 119 

The Old Way of Spreading Lime 125 

A Modern Lime Spreader in Operation 120 

A Lime Crushing Outfit Suitable for the Farmer 127 

Details of Construction of a Farm Limekiln — 128 

Map Showing Mean Annual Rainfall for All Parts of the United States 130 

Effect of Little, Medium, and Much Water on Wheat 133 

Orchard Well Cultivated to Prevent Evaporation 13(") 

Water Issuing from an Underground Drain 1^<) 

A Deep Tilling Double-Disk Plow 143 

A Badly Eroded Field : ^^^^ 

Details of a Good Seed Bed ^^^ 

Terracing as a Means of Preventin(j Erosion 150 

Another Way to Stop Erosion 1^1 

Variations in Timothy ^^^ 

Note the Variation in the Second Generation Hybrids (Wheat) 159 

The Ear-to-Row Test Plat with Corn Husked 101 

Variations in Yield of Potatoes from Selected Tubers 164 

Dangers of Continuous Cropping 1^^ 

The Height of Stalks and Positions of Ears (Corn) 176 

Types and Varieties of Corn (Color Plate) 178 

Corn Acreage by States 

(21) 



22 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Corn Yield Follows the Amount of Rainfall (Chart) 180 

Time and Method of Planting Corn 183, 184, 185 

Right and Wrong Way of Cultivating Corn 187 

Several Forms of Husking Pegs 188 

High and Low Ears ^^^ 

Good and Poor Types of Kernels 194 

A Good Germination Box Seven Days after Planting 195 

Effect of Time of Preparing Seed Bed 199 

Approximate Date of Seeding Winter Wheat (Map) 201 

Wheat Districts of the United States (Map) 204 

A Profitable Yield of Wheat 205 

I^Iap of the United States Showinc; Approximately the Areas to which 

Certain Types of Oats are Adapted 211 

Two Types of Oat Heads 212 

A Field of Good Oats being Harvested with a Modern Self-Binder 215 

A Field of \\'inter Barley Seeded aj^er Corn 218 

A Field of Flax in Bloom 224 

Heads of Four Varieties of Kaffir 226 

Emmer • 22^ 

Map Showing Region of Grass Production in the United States (Map) . . 231 

Side Delivery Rake 233 

Combined Sweep Rake and Stacker 234 

A Field of Good Grass (Timothy) 235 

The Hay Loader in Operation 236 

Rows OF Timothy 237 

Field of Timothy Plants for Selection 239 

Variations in Timothy 240 

Sudan Grass, a New Acquisition 245 

A Clover Field in Blossom 248 

Map Showing the Acreage of Red Clover in the United States and Canada 250 

A Clover Buncher Attached to a Mowing Machine 254 

Red Clover on Limed and Umimed Land 255 

Pasturing Sweet Clover in Kansas 257 

Map of the United States and Canada, Showing Acreage of Alfalfa. . 259 

Alfalfa Out-yields Other Hay Crops 262 

A Standing Field of Alfalfa 264 

Curing Alfalfa Hay in Shocks 266 

Comparison of Hogs Fed on Corn and ox Alfalfa 267 

A Well-Set Cluster of Alfalfa Pods 269 

Sheep Pasturing on Hilly Land (Co/or Pialc) 270 

Live Stock on Pastire 271 

Hay Making Scene (MiUct) 276 

Good Pasture Land 279 

Field of Iron Cowpeas Planted ix One -fifth Rows and Cultivated Three 

Times 2815 

Hairy Vetch and Rye Growincj Tocjether 288 

Millet Makes an Excellent Catch Crop 2tK) 

Making Hogs of Themselves 292 

Harvesting Field Beans with a Harvester 295 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



23 



* -J 



PAGE 

Soy Beans 297 

Crimson Clover 298 

A Peanut Plant 300 

Harvesting and Curing Peanuts 303 

Root Crops (Map) 305 

A Load of Mangels 306 

Cross Section of an Easily Constructed Pit for Roots 308 

The Potato Crop 311 

The Condition of Seed Potatoes Depends on Character of Storage 314 

A Potato Planter 315 

Agricultural Progress in the United States and Germany (Chart) 319 

Sugar Beet 320 

A Good Stand and Vigorous Growth of Sugar Beets 322 

A Field of Sugar Cane 326 

A Good Cotton Plant, Showing Good Base Limbs 330 

Cotton Grown by Single Stalk Method 333 

Turning Under Crimson Clover for Cotton 336 

A Field of Cotton • 338 

Field of Virginia Heavy Tobacco 342 

Field of Cigar Leaf Tobacco 343 

Tobacco Plant-bed 344 

A Plant Ready to Set in Field 348 

Fire-curing Barn 350 

Flue-curing Barn 351 

The Manner in which Canada Thistles Spread by Underground Root- 
stocks 356 

The Canada Thistle 358 

Green Foxtail 359 

Quack Grass 359 

Field Dodder 360 

Flax Dodder 360 

Alfalfa Dodder 360 

BucKHORN OR Narrow-leaved Plantain 361 

Common or Broad-leaved Plantain ." 362 

Pigweed 363 

Lamb's Quarters or Smooth Pigweed 364 

Wild Mustard 365 

Shepherd's Purse 366 

cocklebur 368 

Field Bindweed 369 

Necessary Garden Tools 377 

One of the Many Good Types of Seed Drills 380 

A Dibble 381 

Bunching Asparagus Ready for Market 384 

Four Strains of Jersey Wakefield Cabbage 387 

A Plant Transferred with Plenty of Earth is not Checked in Growth 388 

Strain Tests of Cabbage 389 

Celery Under Irrigation, Skinner System 391 

Good Celery Well Prepared for Market 392 



24 LIST O F ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

395 
Onions Under Skinner System of Irrigation ^^^ 

Some Commercial Types of Sweet Potatoes • • ^^ 

Tomatoes Supported by Stakes. ■ - 

A Farm Garden Laid Out for Convenience in AN okkinu ^^ 

Transplanting Board and Dibble in Use . 406 

Planting the Seedlings ^^g 

Sowing Seed Package or Envelope ^^^ 

Wheel Cultivator and Attachments ^^^ 

A Double Sash Steam-heated Hotbed ^^^ 

A Greenhouse Suitable for Forcing Plants - 

i ?r BED or MUSHROOMS Grown prom Shawn of P.re-c^lture Oricin. . 418 

Turning the Compost ^20 

A Typical Range of Mushroom Houses ^^^^ 

Sifting the Casing Dirt ^2i 

Types of Fancy Packages ^,^^^ 

Good Nursery Stock ^.^^ 

Before and After Pruning ..^j. 

Picking Apples in the Rogue River Valley, Oregon ^^^ 

Chesapeake Strawberry {Color Plate) ^^^ 

A Spray of Good Strawberries ^^ 

Planting a Strawberry Runner 

American Quart Boxes of Well-Graded Strawberries. ■"-■■•; HZ 

LrrTH^T WILL Produce Good Farm Crops will Produce Bush Iruits... 445 

A Young Planting Cane of Raspberry, Showing Jibrous Roots 44b 

Currants Should Find a Place in Every Home Garden ^^i 

Well-set Branch of Gooseberries ^^^ 

Well Located Apple Orchard ^^^ 

A Properly Pruned Young Apple Tree ^^^^ 

Apple Orchard Favored by Type of Soil •_ 

Tools for U«e in Removing Roi;ndheaded Apple Tree Borer from Burrows 4^ 

A Power Sprayer Adapted to Large Trees 

A Good Cluster of Apples, but with Some Scab Showing ^^ 

Picking and Packing Apples ^^ 

Pear Tree in Blossom ^^g 

Good Specimens of Winter Nelis ^^^ 

A Typical Peach Orchard Site ^^^ 

Typical Sweet Cherries • '^^'^ ,-^ 

Block of Young Peach Trees with Strawberries as an Inter-crop 47b 

Peach Tree with Well-Formed Framework Heavily Cut Back for R^^newal ^^^ 

Purposes _ *^ j^^o 

Peach Twig, Showing Arrangement of Leaf and Blossom Buds 4/» 

A Properly Pruned Peach Tree ^^^ 

Pruning Tools • ^^2 

Picking Peaches ^g^ 

Ever-bearing Orange Tree ^^^ 

Good Orange Seedlings ^^^ 

Shield Budding with Angular Wood ^^^ 

Shield or Eye Budding " ^ ^^ 

Shield or Eye Buds 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



25 



page 

Pruning and Root Trimming of Citrus Tree at Time of Planting 494 

Picking and Packing Oranges 497 

Schley Pecan Tree ^^ 

Franquette Walnut Orchard, near Santa Rosa, Cal 502 

Major, Burkett, Warrick, Havens and Owens Pecans 504 

The Pineapple Plant in Fruit ^8 

Pineapples Planted in an Orange Grove 510 

The Taft Avocado Fruit ^12 

Method of Budding the Avocado '^1^ 

Fruit of the Mango ^^^ 

A Top-worked Mango Tree in Fruit 517 

A Well Protected Farm Homestead 523 

Field and Woodlot ^^"^ 

A Woodlot after Thinning 525 

Good Work in Piling Brush 527 

A Convenient and Attractive Farmstead 532 

An Example of Good Informal Ornamentation 534 

A Desirable Method of Planting Daffodils 535 

Hyacinth Bed ^^^ 

Removing the Plant from Old Pot 540 

A Well Proportioned Fern 541 

A Large Boston Fern ^'*'^ 

Bulbs Grown in Water-tight Receptacle 543 

Utilizing Woodland for Pasture 549 

Livestock and the Silo Increase the Profits on High Priced Land 550 

Two Pure-bred Bulls. Polled Angus on the Left, Shorthorn on the 

Right ^^^ 

Pure-bred Shorthorn Bull 555 

Open Sheds for Steer Feeding 559 

The Digestive Tract of a Cow 564 

The Respiration Calorimeter in Use for an Experiment 566 

Morgan Stallion, '^General Gates" 573 

A High-grade Work Horse of Fine Quality and Good Conformation .... 574 

Percheron Stallion ^ ' ^ 

Team of Percherons (Color Plate) 576 

English Shire Stallion ^ ' ' 

Photographs Showing Teeth at Various Stages 579, 580 

Pure-bred Hereford Bull 

The Principal Cuts of Beef ^^^ 

Chester White Boar ^^^ 

Poland-China Boar ^ 

Poland-China Sow ^X. 

Duroc-Jersey Boar ^^ ^ 

Duroc-Jersey Sow 

Chester White Sows ^^ 

Hampshire Boar 

Hampshire Sow 

Yorkshire Boar 

Yorkshire Sow 



26 LIST OF I LLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

598 

Tamworth Boar 

Tamworth Sow ' ' 

Berkshire Boar 

Berkshire Sow 

A Typical Cotswold Ewe 

A Typical Lincoln Ewe 

A Typical Shropshire 

A Typical Cheviot 

A Typical Merino 

A Typical Flock of Sheep in Pasture ^|^ 

A Good Flock of Sheep 

An Angora Buck 

A Typical Farm Flock 

_ ^ 620 

Buff Orpingtons 

White Plymouth Rocks ^ 

Single Comb Rhode Island Reds 

White Wyandottes 

A Brooder Heated by Oil Lamp ^ 

Shipping Cases for Eggs 

The Honey Bee 

General View of an Apiary ^^^ 

A Modern Bee Hive 

^ ^ 637 

Queen Cells 

A Typical Cow, Marked to Show Points in Judging o45 

A Good Dairy Herd 

An Open Stable for Heifers ^ 

A Good Cow Stable 

^ 656 

Leading a Bull 

A Typical Ayrshire Cow 

A Brown Swiss Cow 

. ^ T^ 662 

A Guernsey Bull 

A Typical Guernsey Cow 

A Typical Holstein Cow 

A Holstein-Friesian Bull 

Holstein-Friesian Bull and Cows {Color Plate) "^b 

A Jersey Cow 

Milk Pails of Best Design 

A Clean Milker in a Clean Stable at Milking Time ^77 

A Good Type of Dairy House ^^^ 

A Good Type of Cream Separator y/^ 

Farm Butter-making Apparatus ^ 

Butter Printer 

Butter Ready for Market ^^^ 

T "89 

Wooden Ladle 

An Attractive Farm House 

Plans of a Farm House * 

A Good Type of Barn ^'^ 

Interior of a Cow Stable ^ 

Economical and Practical Manure Shed ^y» 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



27 



page 

Plans for a Circular Barn 699 

Cross Section Showing Ventilation and Stable Floor of Concrete 700 

Ensilage Cutter and Filler 701 

A Good Implement Shed 703 

Plan of Concrete Foundation of Corn ( 'rib 704 

Interior of Double Corn Crib 705 

Two Views of Iowa Gable Roof Hog House 707 

A Concrete Block Ice House 708 

How to Construct a Concrete Water Tank 709 

A ''T" Connection for Heavy Wire Lightning Rods 710 

A Good Type of Farm Fence 713 

A Good Type of Walking Plow 715 

One Type of Sulky Plow 716 

An Adjustable Smoothing Harrow 717 

Spring Toothed Harrow 717 

Double Disk Harrow 718 

A Corrugated Roller 719 

A Home-made Planker 720 

A Much Used Form of Corn Cultivator 721 

A Wheelbarrow Seeder in Operation 722 

The Usual Type of Grain Drill with Single Disk Furrow Openers 723 

A Good Corn Planter 724 

Corn Harvester with Bundle Elevator 726 

A Mowing Machine with Pea Vine Attachmeitt 727 

An Up-to-date Threshing Machine 729 

Four-hole Mounted Belt Corn Sheller with Rkjht Angle Belt Attach- 
ment 730 

Milking Machine in Operation 732 

A Power Sprayer Routing Orchard Pests 733 

A Collection of Useful Hand Implements 734 

Interior of a Workshop with a $25 Outfit of Tools 735 

Home-made Barrel Cart for Hauling Liquid Feed 736 

Home-made Dump Cart to Make Stable Work Eamer 737 

A Washing Machine Saves Much Hard Work for the Housewife 738 

Where do You Prefer to Keep Your Implements? Under the Sky? 739 

Sectional View of a Four-Cycle Vertical Gas Engine 742 

Sectional View of a Two-Cycle Engine 744 

Sectional View of a Four-Cycle Horizontal Gas Engine 745 

Three H. P. Gas Engine Operating Binder 747 

Engine Operating Pump Jack 749 

Pelton Water Wheel 753 

Turbine Water Wheel 753 

Three-Plow Tractor in Operation 754 

Hackney Auto-Plow '^^ 

Plowing on a Large Scale {Color Plate) 756 

Creeping Grip Tractor '^" 

MoR-LiTE Electric Plant 758 

Electric Lighting Plant for Farm House 759 

Modified King System of Ventilation 760 



28 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

A Pneumatic Water Tank [s^ 

Fairbanks-Morse Water System for Farms and Suburban Homes 76^ 

The Kaustine Closet ^ _ 

Grading the Ditch and Laying Tile ' ^ 

A Low Priced Tile Ditcher ^^ 

The Ditcher in Operation l^ 

Delivery Gate to Farm Lateral V^ 

The V-Crowder is Excellent for Making the Farm Ditches 772 

Canvas Dam to Check Water ^^^ 

Orchard Irrigation by Furrow Method ''4 

Celery Under Irrigation, Skinner System 775 

A Good Rural Scene, Showing an Attractive Farming Country 784 

A Well-Planned and Neat Farmstead 787 

Typical Corn Land ^^^ 

The Utilization of Land too Steep to Plow 794 

Intensive Farming on a Large Scale 

An Efficient Team ""*' 

An Example of Cheap Labor 

Economizing Land 

Rape Seeded in Standing Corn at Last Cultivation 814 

Rye and Winter Vetch Make an Excellent Early Soiling Combination for 

Cows l^ 

Onions as a Specialty " 

General View of Specialized Wheat Farming in Canada 823 

General View of a Good Diversified Farm 824 

A Small Farm Under Glass ^^y 

Utilizinc; Stony and Bottom Land ^'^- 

HoGGiNG Down Corn ^'^ 

Buildings on a Dairy Farm "^^ 

The Scale is a Necessary Adjunct to Profitable Feeding 841 

Sketch of a Farmstead that is too Large 845 

The Farmstead Rearranged for Economy 846 

General View of a Well-arranged Farmstead 847 

A Farm Over-capitalized with Buildings 849 

Adequate but not Over-capitalized °^' 

A 100-AcRE Farm Poorly Arranged ^^2 

The Farm Rearranged for Economy 853 

A Good Farm Fence ^^ 

The Farm Sketch that is Useful for Recording 855 

Typical Farm Improvements in a Farm Community where Tenantry Prevails 857 

The Home of a Negro Tenant in the South 859 

Insufficient Labor and Equipment ^^" 

The Harrow Cart Lightens the Work of Harrowing 868 

The Troubles of a Tenant ^^^ 

This Form of Grain Rack Saves Labor 873 

A Farmers' Retail Curb Market ^^^ 

The Farm Bulletin Board Brings Business 913 

The Motor Truck in Marketing ^1^ 

Threshing Scene Showing Co-operation 91^ 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



29 



page 

A Full Load Reduces Cost of Hauling 919 

Shipping Vegetables by Water 921 

Apple Scab. ' 940 

Apple Tree with Typical Collar Blkjht 941 

Young Apple Tree from Nursery 942 

Peaches Entirely Destroyed by Brown Rot 944 

Black Knot on the Cherry 946 

Anthracnose of Bean 953 

Enlarged Roots of Cabbage Caused by Nematodes 955 

Enlarged Roots of Cauliflower Caused by the Club-root Organism .... 956 

Potato Affected with Russet Scab 959 

Smut of Corn 962 

Loose Smut of Wheat 963 

Smut of Oats 964 

Young Cotton Plant Affected by COtton Wilt 965 

Chinch Bug 970 

The Clover Mite 971 

Clover Root Borer 972 

The Cotton Worm 973 

Fall Army Worm 974 

Hessian Fly : 974 

Green Bug or Spring Grain Aphis 975 

Southern Corn Root Worm 976 

Cotton Boll Weevil 976 

Tobacco Flea Beetle 976 

Southern Tobacco. Horn Worm 977 

Western Corn Root Worm 978 

Wheat Joint Worm 978 

Larva of Isosoma Grande in Wheat Straw 979 

Spray of Asparagus, with Common Asparagus Beetle in Different Stages. 980 

The Broad Bean Weevil 981 

Blister Beetle 981 

Leaf Hoppers and their Work 982 

Harleqxtin Cabbage Bug 983 

Colorado Potato Beetle 984 

Hop Plant Borer 984 

Wingless Progeny of Wincjed Hop Aphids from Alternate Host 985 

Imported Cabbage Web Worm 986 

Potato Tuber Moth 986 

Work of the Potato Tuber Moth 986 

Imported Cabbage Worm 987 

Squash Vine Borer 988 

Striped Cucumber Beetle 988 

Sugar-Beet Web Worm 988 

Cantaloupe Leaves 989 

Nest and Larv^ of Apple Tree Tent Caterpillar 990 

Apple Maggot, or Railroad Worm 991 

Stages and Work of Spring Canker- Worm 992 

Brown-Tail Moth 993 









30 LIST OF ILL USTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Cherry Fruit Fly ^^^ 

Fruit Tree Bark Beetle ^^^ 

An Imported Currant Worm 994 

, The Grape Berry Moth 996 

Injury to Grapes by Larv^ of Second Brood of Grape Berry Moth .... 997 

Grape Leaf Hopper 998 

Lesser Apple Worm 998 

Peach Tree Borer 999 

Adult Male and Female Roundheaded Apple Tree Borer 1000 

Castings of Roundheaded Apple Tree Borer at Base of Young Apple 

Tree 1^00 

The Rose Chafer ^^^ 

1 nn9 
San Jos6 Scale ^^- 

A Lime Sulphur Cooking Outfit • 1008 

Making Preparations to Fumigate with Hydrocyanic Gas 1012 

Fumigating with Hydrocyanic Gas 1013 

Efficiency of Bordeaux Mixture on Potatoes 1015 

Treating Grain with Formalin for Smut 1016 

Window Box for Storage of Food 1034 

A Model Kitchen {Color Plate) 1038 

A Conveniently Arranged Kitchen 1038 

A Cheerful Living Room 1040 

A Power Washing Machine 1041 

School Wagons Returning Pupils to their Homes 1048 

Exhibit of Corn and Vegetables Grown by Members of a Boys' Club 1054 
Members of a Boys' Corn Club at Tyler, Texas 1056 



BOOK I 
SOILS AND SOIL MANAGEMENT 



< . 



(31) 



CHAPTER 1 



» I 



t 1 

i 



! I 



SOIL Classification and Crop Adaptation 

The thin layer of the earth's surface kll^^'^.r, as the ''soil and subsoil" 
supports all vegetation and makes it possible for ttie ^o^.h to sustain a 
highly developed life. The prosperity and degree of civilize**.: ^^ ^f ^ 
people depend in a large measure on the productivity and utilization v,c 
this thin surface layer of the earth's crust. From it come the food supply 
and the materials for clothing and to a considerable extent the materials 
for housing of mankind. 

Soils are Permanent. — The soil is indestructible, and according to the 
great laws of nature, it should be capable of supporting generation after 
generation of men each living on a slightly higher plane than the pre- 
ceding. This necessitates a system of agriculture that is permanent, 
and one that will foster and maintain the productivity of the soil. Each 
man who owns and cultivates land owes it to his fellow-men to so cultivate 
and fertilize the soil that it will be left to his successor in as good or even 
better condition than it was during his occupation. In return, his fellow- 
men should make it possible for him to secure a living without resorting 
to soil robbery. A faulty system of soil management that permits a 
decline in soil productivity will ultimately be just as injurious to the men 
indirectly dependent upon the soil as it is to those actually living on the 

land. - 

The soils of the United States and Canada are a great asset, and 
one over which man has relatively large control. Intimately associated 
with this great asset are two other resources, namely, the atmosphere 
that envelops the earth and the sunshine that reaches it. Little can 
be done, however, to control these assets, but with the surface of the earth 
man can do much as he pleases. 

What Farmers Should Know.— Every farmer should have a thorough 
knowledge of the soil on his own farm. In this and following chapters, 
the soil and its properties as related to the business of farming will be 
discussed chiefly from the standpoint of the farmer. The practical farmer 
expects cash compensation for the intelligent care he gives to his land. 
He should be able to distinguish between the essentials and non-essentials 
in the science of the soil. He should know that all soils may be made 
productive, but this cannot always be done at a profit. Soils on which 
men, by the exercise of intelligence and reasonable industry, cannot 
make more than a meager living, should not be cultivated. They should 
revert to nature or be devoted to forestry. There is some land that has 
been cleared of its virgin growth and come under the plow that should 
8 (33) 



» I 



SUCCESSFUL FA RMING 



34 — 

been robbed of fertility and neg^f f u^^^^^ S^ ,n some localities, 
occupation. There are also ^ome types ot y economic con- 

once^rofitable, that are ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^uLs that call for a fuller 
ditions. These are some of t^^^";;;^^^^^^^^^ possessed. The foUowmg 
SS^rtrBot itlS:^^^^^^^^^ a non-technical manner. 



SOIL CLASSIFICATION 



35 




EOCK WEATHERINa AND THE PROCESS OP SolL FORMATION.* 



It is hoped it may all be profitable reading for any one engaged in the 
^""tS Scleras the Soil-In recent years science has been directed 

towJr t^s^Sl in ^^^r..o,^,^Zr::T.Jt^^^^^ 

tillage crop rotatior^s use ''i^^'^l'^^^^^^^f^,^ and mapped. Crop 

things have been explained ^o^ J ^'^"J^'^^^'^^ts with fertilizers and cul- 

S m^Jho J a?r?ei^^^^^^^^^^ in every state in the Union, 

tural methods ^[^^ l?^'"! J^ ^^^y^ egress has been made and we now 

h:v: ^olul u h^^^^^^^^^ 'o th^ soil. The subject is reco^zed 

as vitaUo successful farming everywhere, because the soil is the founda- 
tion of all agriculture. 



I 



►11 Ui ail t*5iiv/v*Av^x^.. 
iCourtesyof E. P. Dutton & Co. . N. Y. From " The Soil." by HaU. 



How Soils are Formed. — Many agents are active in the formation 
of soils. Among these may be mentioned changes in temperature, the 
mechanical action of wind and water, the solvent action of water, and 
the action of bacteria, fungi and the higher forms of plants. 

The manner of formation gives rise to two general classes of soil 
known as (1) residual soils and (2) transported soils. Residual soils are 
those fojrmed from rocks like those on which they rest, while transported 
soils are those carried some distance either by tne «^vement of glaciers, 
or by moving water in the form of streams and tides, or by ^^-iia action of 

the wind. 

Weathering and Disintegration.— Rocks absorb more or less water .^ 
Low temperatures cause a freezing of the water, which exerts a pressure 
approximating one ton per square inch. This ruptures the rocks, and the 
process repeated many times every year gradually reduces the portion 
subjected to these changes in temperature to fragments. Little by little 
rocks are thus reduced to soil. On the immediate surface the change in 
temperature between night and day causes expansion and contraction 
which also tends to sliver off particles of rock. The movement of soil 
particles as the result of wind and rain also tends to wear down the surface 
and break off minute particles that contribute to the process of weather- 
ing and disintegration. 

In addition to this the vegetation which gradually secures a foothold 
develops into larger plants, the roots of which penetrate the crevices, 
exerting a pressure which still further moves and often ruptures the already 
weakened rocks or fragments thereof. In this way, through generations, 
the soils are gradually formed and become incorporated with the decom- 
posed vegetation that gradually accumulates on and near the surface. 
As a further aid .to the process of weathering and disintegration we find 
numerous worms and insects that burrow into the soil, living on the organic 
matter and living plants. These not only move particles of soil from 
place to place but carry the organic matter down into the soil. 

The rain which falls upon the soil is also a factor in soil formation. 
When thoroughly wet the soils expand and when quite dry they contract 
and little fissures open in the surface. A succeeding rain washes the fine 
surface particles and organic matter into the fissures and causes a gradual 
mixture of these two essential parts of the soil solids. 

Decomposition.— The processes of weathering and disintegration 
result in a change in the physical properties of the soil without necessarily 
changing the character of the compounds. Decomposition, on the other 
hand, generally results in the formation of new compounds. The proc- 
esses of decomposition are technical and we will not undertake to discuss 

them. 

What is the Soil?— The soil consists of three principal parts, namely, 
solids, a liquid and gases. The solids consist of the minerals and the 
organic matter mingled with them. The liquid is the soil water in which 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



* 



36 

is dissolved small quantities of various soil solids. The gases con^st 
lefly oHhe air intermingled with various quantities of other compounds, 

<uoh fls oarbon dioxide, marsh gas, etc. , • i. i 4. 

Se SOU and subsoil include all material to the depth to which plant 
roots distribute themselves. It, .therefore, constitutes a wide range of 
mtLial, both in depth and character. It may be deep or shalb^^^^^^^ 
or compact, wet or dry, coarse or fine m texture, havmg all degrees ot 
.roT-io+irTn in H«i nbj-^^ii^ chcmical and biological properties, 
variation ^^^^l^jj^g _The solid part of the soil consists of the minerals 
J organic matter. In practically all soils the minerals form ninety-five 
per cent or more of the solids. The exception to this would be the peat 
and muck soils, which may contain as much as eighty per cent or more 
of organic matter. The mineral matter of the soil consists chiefly of the 
minute particles or fragments of the mother rock from which the soil has 
been derived. In case of residual soils this will correspond in a large 
degree to the rock formation generally found beneath the soil and subsoil 
at varjdng depths. In transported soils the mineral particles, having been 
transported either by water, glaciers, or wind, may have come from dif- 
ferent sources, and will generally show a greater diversity m character. 
It is significant, however, that the minerals of all soils contain all the 
essential mineral elements for plant growth, although these may vary 
widely in their relative proportions. 

The minerals of the soil are sparingly soluble in the soil water and the 
solubility is influenced by a number of factors that will be discussed in a 
subsequent chapter. It is fortunate that this solubility takes place very 
slowly, otherwise soils would be dissolved and disappear in the drainage 
waters too rapidly, and the waters of the earth would become too saline 
to be used by plant and animal life. Loss of the mineral constituents 
takes place by leaching. The drainage waters from land always contain 
a very small quantity of many of the elements of which the soil is coni- 
posed. Nitrogen, the most valuable decomposition product of the organic 
matter of the soil, is most rapidly leached away in the form of nitrates. 
Likewise, lime slowly disappears from the body of the soil. Limestone 
soils, formed from the disintegration and decomposition of limestone 
rocks, sometimes ninety per cent or more carbonate of lime, generally 
contain not more than one-half of one per cent o£ carbonate of lime. The 
rate of leaching corresponds in a large measure to the rainfall of the region. 
In regions of sparse rainfall very little leaching takes place, and the soil 
solution frequently becomes so concentrated that the soils are known as 
alkali soils. Such soils are either bare of vegetation or produce only crops 
that are tolerant of alkali. The soils of arid regions are as a rule very 
productive when placed under irrigation. 

The Soil Fluid. — This consists of water in which is dissolved minute 
quantities of the different minerals of the soil together with organic prod- 
ucts and gases. The soil solution moves through the soil by virtue of 



I 



SOIL CLASSIFICATION 



37 



■ J, 



gravity and capillarity. The water from rain passes downward by gravity. 
The rate of downward movement depends on the size of the little passage- 
ways through the soil. In fine-textured, compact soils it is often very 
slow. The depth to which it penetrates depends upon the character of 
the subsoil or underlying strata. It is frequently intercepted by impervi- 
ous layers, and consequently in times of excessive rainfall the soil becomes 
saturated and water accumulates on the surface. It then seeks an escape 
by passage over the surface and often carries with it portions of the soil, 
thus becoming a destructive agent in soil formation. In dry periods the 
surface of the soil loses its water through direct evaporation and through 
the consumption of water by the plants growing in the soil. This should 
be replaced by the water in the subsoil which returns to the surface by 
capillarity. The distance through which capillary water will rise is 
measured by a few feet. The height of rise is greatest in case of fine- 
textured soils, but in this type of soil the rate of movement is slowest. 
The rate of movement in sandy soils is much more rapid, but the height 
of rise is much less. 

Gases of the Soil. — The soil atmosphere consists of air and the gases 
resulting from decomposition of the organic solids in the soil. The domi- 
nant gas is carbon dioxide, which, dissolved in water, increases the solvent 
action of the water and helps to increase the available plant food. The 
movement of the gases in the soil is affected by changes in temperature 
which cause an expansion and contraction of their volume. It is also 
affected by the movements of soil water. As the water table in the soil 
is lowered air enters and fills up all spaces not occupied by water. The 
movement is also facilitated by changes in barometric pressure and by 
the movement of the air over the surface of the soil. Just as a strong wind 
blowing over the top of a chimney causes a strong draft in the chimney, 
so does such a wind cause a ventilation of the soil and increases the cir- 
culation of the air within the soil. 

The roots of most economic plants require oxygen and this is secured 
in properly drained and well aerated soils from the soil atmosphere. When 
soils are filled with water the plant roots have diflficulty in getting the 
required supply of oxygen and the growth of the plant is retarded. A 
proper aeration of the soil is necessary to the development of microscopic 
organisms that live in great numbers in the soil and play an important 
part in making available the mineral constituents necessary for the higher 
forms of plants. It is essential that farmers understand the movement 
of water and air in the soil in order that they may do their part in bringing 
about that degree of movement that is essential to the highest productivity 
of the soil. Drainage, cultivation and the judicious selection of the crops 
grown are some of the means of influencing the movement of water and 
air in the soil. 

Soil Classification. — Science is classified knowledge. In order that 
there may be a science of the soil it becomes necessary to classify soils. 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



38 

Such a classification should meet the needs of an enlightened agriculture. 
The first cassification of the soils of the United States and Canada to be 
put into extensive use was that devised by the Bureau of Sods of he 
United States Department of Agriculture, and used extensively m the 
soil survey of the United States during the past sixteen years. This 
iificTon is based upon factors that can be -^^^^ m \^^^ ,^^f 

his for its ultimate aim the crop adaptation and management ot the sou. 
Soi^^sLeys.-"A soil survey exists for the purpose of defining^ 
mapSng classifying, correlating and describing soils The results ob- 
Sed are valuable \k many ways and to men of many kinds of occupation 
andtteresi To the farmer it gives an interpretation of the appearance 
ond behlvior of his soils, and enables him to compare his farm with other 
Farms Tthe same and of different soils. The soil survey report shows 
Sm he moaning of the comparison and furnishes a basis for workmg out 
a Tvstem o management that will be profitable and at the same time 
consfrv^the fertility of his soil. To the investor, banker, real estate 
dealer or railway official it furnishes a basis for the determmation of land 
va£ To the scientific investigator it furnishes a foundation knowledge 
If the soil on which can be based plans for its improvement and further 
inve.tigalion by experiment. To the colonist it furnishes a reliable 

'"Tons" ?'tie'u"niied States.-"For the purposes of soil classification 
the United States has been divided into thirteen subdivisions, seven of 
which ytg east of the Great Plains, are called soil provmces and six, 
hacluding the Great Plains and the country west of them, are known as 

''''^°" A soil province is an area having the same general physiographic 
expression in which the soils have been produced by the same forces or 
^oup™ forces and throughout which each rock or soil material yields 

*° '""^t IXe^r dSffrom a soil province in being more inclusive. 
It embraces an area, the several parts of which may on further study 
resolve themselves into soil provinces. „+,„„, »* 

"Soil provinces and soil regions are essentially geographic features 
The soils in a province are separated into groups. Each group constitutes 
a ser e A soil series is divided finally into types. The type is deter- 
m ned by texture. The texture may range from loose sands down to the 
heaviest of clays. All types in a soil region or province that are closely 
related in reference to color, drainage, character of subsoil and topog- 
raphy and are of a common origin, constitute a group or senes of soils 
A sou type is, therefore, the unit in soil classification. " It is Imiited to a 
«ino-lp r>lft^9 a ^inele series and a single province. 

, J . ^ *-^« T»,orVfl is auoted from U. S. Bureau of Soils Bulletin No. 96, 

* That which is enclosed in quotation marks is quotea iroiu 

•• Soils of the United States." 



SOIL CLASSIFICATION 



39 



based on soil texture and is determined in the laboratory by separating 
a sample into seven portions, or grades. Each portion contains soil 
particles ranging in diameter between fixed limits. This process consti- 
tutes a mechanical analysis. In such an analysis the groups and their 
diameters are as follows: 



Groups. 



1. Fine gravel. . . 

2. Coarse sand. . . 

3. Medium sand . 

4. Fine sand 

5. Very fine sand 

6. Silt 

7. Clay 



Diameter in mm. 



2.000-1.000 
1.000-0.500 
. 500-0 . 250 
0.250-0.100 
0.100-0.050 
0.050-0.005 
0.005-0.000 



Number of Par- 
ticles in 1 Gram. 



252 

1,723 

13,500 

132,600 

1,687,000 

65,100,000 

45,500,000,000 



Fifteen types of soil are possible within any soil series. The relative 
proportions of the several soil separates, given in the table above, de- 
termine the type. The twelve most important of these are known as 



Per Cent of Gravel, Sand, Silt. and Clay In 20 Grams of Subsoil 



Grave) 



I 03 



Coaric 
sand 



3.26 



I -.5 

mm. 



Medium 
sand 



9.92 



Fine 
sand 



22.62 



.25-1 

mm. 



Very fine 
sand 



45.47 



A/ 



.I-.05 
mm. 



Silt 



10.41 



•OS-.OI 
mm. 



Fine 
silt 



1.36 



.OhOOS 
m m. 



Clay 



2.32 



.005-.000I 
mm. 



DIAMETER OF THE GRAINS IN MILLIMETERS. 



The Soil Separates as Made by Mechanical Analysis, 
Showing the Makeup of a Typical Soil.^ 

coarse sand, medium sand, fine sand, coarse sandy loam, medium sandy 
loam, fine sandy loam, loam, silt loam, clay loam, sandy clay, silt clay and 
clay. They range from light to heavy in the order named, and, except 

» Courtesy o( Orange Judd Company. From "Soils and Crops," by Hunt and Burkctt, 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



40 

as influeuced by presence of organic matter, tlf^^*^'-;^^!'^!,"^^ 
varies directly with the increase in fineness of texture, the sand having 
rsmS water-holding capacity and the silty clays and ^^^y^^^^l^^^^^' 

In classifying soils in the figld the soil expert deteranines the type by 
the appearance and feel of the soil. He takes numerous samples which 
are senUo the laboratory where they are subjected to a mechamcal analysis 
in order to verify his judgment and field classification 

The accompanying map shows the extent and location of the several 

soil provinces and regions in the United States. „„j:t:«n« 

Crop Adaptation.-That certain soils under defimte climatic conditions 

are best adapted to certain plants is obvious to anyone who has studied 




Inspecting and Sampling the Soil. 

different soils under field conditions. The marked variation in the char- 
acter of vegetation is often made use of in defining the boundaries of soil 
types and soil series. Adaptation is also manifest in the behavior of 
cultivated crops. Among our well-known crops tobacco is the most 
susceptible to changes in character of soil, and we find that a specific 
type of tobacco can be grown to perfection only on a certain type of soil, 
while a very different type of tobacco demands an entirely different type 
of soil for its satisfactory growth. The red soils of the Orangeburg series 
in Texas will produce an excellent quality of tobacco, whereas the Norfolk 
series with gray surface soil and yellow subsoil, occurring in the same 
general locality, gives very unsatisfactory results with the same variety ot 
tobacco. This difference in the tobacco is not due to the texture of the 
soil, since soil of the same texture can readily be selected m both of these 
series The most casual observer cannot fail to distinguish the difference 
between the Norfolk and Orangeburg soils, as mamfested chiefly m their 
color. 



1 






'^SS/&{r%& 



125" fJl' 

I Juan de Fuc'a^ L r*;-. / 




Great Basin Soi 

Region Arid Region 



Rocky Mountain Great Plains 
Region Region 



trr ':lt4 




River Atlantic and Gulf 
Flood Plains Coastal Plains 



CNS CO., Nt* YjHK 



IVIap Showing the Soil Provinces and Soil Regions of the United States.^ 



» From Farmers' Bulletin 91, 1913, U. tf. Dcpt. of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils. 









C. Flatter!} /^\J3 «? f^UiJ>. I 




Great Basin Southwest 

Region /\rid Region ^ Yo'j^ 

r — 1 1 — n c^ 



Rocky Mountain Great Plains 
Region Region 



Map Sho\vin(; the Soil Provinces and Soil Regions of the United States.^ 



> l-rom Fanners' liullotinyi, 1913, U. S. Dcpt. of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils. 






/ » »» m 






1 



ill 



It ) 



• *•• ••, 

• • • »• 



•• • ! • • 

• • • •* •• 



SOIL CLASSIFICA T:IjO N-* : '. ."'. : * 



41 



The question of crop adaptation, ih|ff foVe, Ji^oixies 'exceiedittglj 
important, and success with a crop in which qus?Uty plays* ah 'impcfrt tot 
part will be determined to a large extent by whejkber. pr. not i^ie -Pirotiiaced 
on the soil to which it is by nature best adapted;^ .*, ; •,,•., •*.. '***' -• 

Variety tests of wheat afford further illustration of crop adaptation. 
In Illinois the wheat giving the highest yield on the black prairie soil of 
the central and northern part of the state is Turkey Red, but this variety 
when grown on the light-colored soil in the southern part of the state 
yielded five bushels per acre less than the variety Harvest King. It is 
evident, therefore, that if Turkey Red, which was demonstrated to be 
the best variety at the experiment station, had been planted over the 
wheat-growing region of the southern part of the state, farmers of that 
region would have suffered a considerable loss. In Pennsylvania and 
North Carolina Turkey Red has been grown in variety tests, and found 
to be one of the lowest yielding varieties. For example, the yield in North 
Carolina, as an average of four years, was only 8.4 bushels per acre as 
compared with 13.5 bushels for Dawson^s Golden Chaff. At the Pennsyl- 
vania Station the yield for two years was 26.5 bushels per acre for Turkey 
Red and 37.5 bushels for Dawson's Golden Chaff. 

Similar observations have been made relative to varieties of cotton 
and varieties of apples. There is no doubt but that the question of varie- 
tal adaptation, with reference to all of the principal crops, is important, 
and it should be the business of farmers in their community to ascertam 
the varieties of the crops grown which are best adapted to local conditions. 
Dr. J. A. Bonsteel, born and reared on a New York farm, and for 
fifteen years a soil expert in the U. S. Bureau of Soils, prepared for the 
Tribune Farmer in the early part of 1913 a series of articles on '^Fittmg 
Crops to Soils.'' The following is a portion of his summary and is a 
concise statement of the soil adaptation of the fifteen leading crops m the 
northeastern part of the United States. ^i r + 

"Summary of SoU Adaptedness.— Summarizing, briefly, the tacts 
stated in the articles and derived from a large number of field observations 
made in all parts of the northeastern portion of the United States, we see: 
^^First .— Clay soils are best suited to the production of. grass, ^hey 
are suited to the growing of wheat when well drained and of cabbages 
under favorable local conditions of drainage and market. Oats may be 
grown, but thrive better upon more friable soils. • ^ ^ . 

'^ Second —Clay loam soils are especially well suited to the growing 
of grass, wheat, beans and cabbages, the latter two only when well drained 
"Third— Silt loam soils produce wheat, oats, buckwheat, late 
potatoes, corn, onions and celery. The last two ^P^^ J^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Stention to drainage and moisture supply to be well suited to silt loam 

'''"''-Fourth.-Loam soils, which are the most e^ensively developed of 
any group in the Northeastern states, are also suited to the widest range of 






. (It 



I 






I • • • 

'. ^ • « 

t .' t » • 
■ • < 



• « 



• * « 



.i'SV.C'CESSFUL FARMING 



42 V 

crpps. . These are wheat,; oats/com, buckwheat, late potatoes, barley, rye, 

""^''S^^^.^^ \o^ soils ar; best suited for the growing of 
barley, rye, beans, early potatoes, and, under special conditions of loca- 
+;^T^ r^oor +n w«tpr level of onions and celery. 

'Z^.^ZdrsL are best adapted to the early potatoes grown 

o« market warden or truck crops, and to rye. , . , r .^ 

"Ths summary takes into consideration only the texture of the 
soil and Its adaptations under fair conditions of drainage, orgamc matter 

content and average skill in treatment. „^^„;„ ntbpr 

"Yet the articles have called special attention to certam other 
features than those of soil texture. Otherwise, the specific nammg of the 
different loam soils would not have been given. 

"The noteworthy lime content of the soils of the Dunkirk Ontario, 
Cazenovia, Dover and Hagerstown loams has been made evident as a 
basTs for the profitable growing of alfalfa, since the p ant is known to be 
particularly sensitive to the amount of lime contained in the sou. 

"Similarly the production of the late or staple potato crop has been 
noted upon soils which are particularly well supplied with orgamc matter 
as in the case of the Caribou loam and the Volusia loam. Other loams 
and silt loams produce good crops of potatoes upon individual farms 
where there is an unusually good supply of organic matter in the soil, 
but not on portions of the other t>T>es not so well supplied. Good organic 
matter content is rather a general characteristic of a good potato soil and 

is found on the types named. , ,.« x •, it +v^ 

"Beans may be grown upon a large number of different soils if the 
farmer is satisfied with average crops. But the best bean crops are secured 
from soils which are well supplied both with organic matter and with lime. 
Hence, the Clyde loam and clay loam and the soils of the Dunkirk series 
are among the best bean soils. , ^i. .•«• + 

" It is still impossible to state precisely what varieties of the difierent 
crops are best suited to a particular soil, yet I hope to see the time when 
there will be special breeding of staple crops to meet the different con- 
ditions which prevail upon different soils. Some time there will be strains 
of wheat, of corn, of oats, of alfalfa and of other field crops which have 
been developed for generations upon a specific type of soil and which 
excel all other strains of the crop for that soil. This is inevitable in time, 
since the characteristics of plants may be fixed by growing them under 
the same conditions of soil and climate for many plant generations. 

"There are certain broad generalizations in crop adaptation which 
are very generally known, but may profitably be stated again. 

"The friable loam is the great soil texture of the temperate, humid 
regions, possessing the broadest crop adaptations, and usually the most 
permanent natural fertility of all soils. 

"As any departure is made from the loam texture there is a restriction 



SOIL CLASSIFICATION 



43 



in the number of the different crops which may be grown upon this type, 

and frequently in the yields of the common crops, which may be expected 

Se crop mnge in number of kinds best grown usually decreases in both 

Sections beSmiiig decidedly limited at a rapid rate m the case of more 
directions becoming , ^^ ^^^ j^^^^ ^^^ ^j^y^ 

?ht'eS e^sTs mo5t^^^^ I* ^^ ^-^ more difficult to control 

SstureTn the sandy soils than in the clay loams and clays. Irr.gat on 
rihe answer to the difficulty with the sands, and drainage with the 

'^^^'■'Leguminous crops of all descriptions are particularly favored by 
^^^esS;TstSieTwS\Tgar^^^^^ atone for some other soil 

'^'^i-StpactS*^^^^^^^^ beneath the surface soil are un- 

favorable t'octp production. This apples to compacted subsoil, due to 
shallow plowing, as well as to actual 'hard-pan. 

"Good soil management always increases the range ot crops wnicn 
may b^grtrls we/as the amounts harvested. Man's ingenmty may 
K^ ,i=oH nrofitablv to overcome nature s defaciencies. 
be ^««f P;«™|j3Not WoniOut.-Finally,I wish to state as a result 
of years ofXe^atn under widely varying circumstances of soil study 

and oy«4 1^ ^f the Northeastern states are in nowise 'worn out' 
or seriouSy deplete'cl of anything essential to good crop production with 

^^^ X -StZi^S^SS^S^SL states are capable 

11. mat tne majm j , jf gjven fair treatment, especially 

;'h^rtT^;TlVKe'S.t:-%he «,« „« ....a .or plant- 

'"•' ''4rZ'"o"ch have been ealled ■™,„ ouf have t«qu.„.ly 

''^'?i; That the h..—<*o^ -P^^^^^^^^ 

Tde-'SneSf in^S ^p^uSn™ .h-n double the tot.r«oppin. 

and will continue to become more and "»- favorable «^ the 'rte™,™ 
use ot land and to the man who use« each acre for the crop or gr p 
crops best suited U> his soil and climate. , , . 

"To the voung farmers who are U> carry on the great work of redeem- 
ing W :^ ^t tee^ rtJ„t-jrueT: ST^thl UnS StlS 
the fundamental principles, which are true in Asm oi 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



4 



4 4 

true today and for the centuries to come; true for all crops and for all 
seasons. The details of modifying these principles of agriculture, ex- 
perience alone can teach you." 

Soil Adaptation of Fibteen Crops Commonjco^Northeastern States. 



Crops. 



Wheat. 



Oats. 



Rye. 



Barlev. 



Buck- 
wheat. 



Potatoes. 



Corn. 



Beang. 



Apples. 



I 



Soils Best Suited To. 



Ways op Modifying Soils 
TO Fit Crops. 



Clay and silt loams containing 
considerable lime. Surface soil 
friable. Subsoils of same nature, 
but heavier and more compacted. 



Use manure liberally. Practice 
rotation with leguminous crops. 
Apply moderate amounts of lime. 



Clover 

and 
Timothy 

Hay. 



Alfalfa. 



Wide adaptation. I^ams or 
heavy loams rather fine in texture 
best. Avoid dry sands. Plenty 
of humus desirable. 



Apply manure to crop preced- 
ing. Turn under green manure. 
Plow only moderately deep. Seed 
early in spring. Prepare land 
thoroughly. 



Fertillsers to Apply. 



Principally phosphatic fertilizers 
containing small amounts of nitro- 
gen and potash. 



Always use some form of phos- 
phate, preferably acid phosphate 
or basic slag. Use small amounts 
of potash, usually muriate. 



Well-drained, sandy loams give 
the longest, brightest straw and 
largest crops of grain. Will do 
fairly well on lighter and poorer 
upland soils. 



Smaller amounts of humus ne- 
cessary. Will grow on more acid 
soils than wheat or oats. Fine 
general utility crop. 



About same as wheat, 
lime needed. 



Little 



Well-drained fertile loam. Inter- 
mediate between rye and oat soils. 
Heavy loams give best yields. 
Sandy loams give brighter p-ain. 
Avoid clay on account of lodging 
and too Ught sand because of 
drought. 



Requires moderate amount of 
humus. Avoid too rich soils on 
account of lodging. Good drainage 
essential. 



About same as oats. 



Moderately friable loam, under- 
lain by compacted but well-drained 
loamy subsoils. 



Sandy or sandy loam preferably 
for early crop. Silt loam or loam 
best for late. Avoid clay and clay 
loams. 



Will do well on rather poor, thin 
hill lands, because of power to 
loosen pulverized soil. Prepare 
land thoroughly, providing organic 
matter. Good drainage necessary. 



Complete fertilizer. 



Thorough drainage essential. 
Abundant organic matter needed. 
Grow in rotation and turn under 
green manures. 



Loam or silt loam, with heavier 
subsoil at least ten inches below 
surface. Where seasons are short, 
sandy or gravelly loams give larger 
yields, because of earlier maturity. 



Loam or clay loam best. Heavy 
soils retain mobture best. Avoid 
too compacted clays or hardpans. 
Timothy: Loam or well-drained 
clay loam or clay. 



Well-drained, moisture-holding 
lands. Turn under good grass sod 
or preferably clover sod. Apply 
barnyard manure to previous crop 
if possible. 



Apply large amounts of fertilizer 
high in potash. Small amounts 
of nitrogen for late crops. More 
on sandy soils. Avoid liming im- 
mediately ahead of potatoes. 

Use 200 to 500 lbs. of fertilizer 
containing 3 to 4 per cent of nitro- 
gen, 8 to 12 per cent phosphoric 
acid, 3 to 4 per cent potash. 



Very fertile, well-drained, alka- 
line soils. Strong loams contain- 
ing limestone best. Avoid shallow 
soils and hardpans near surface. 



Wide range of soils. Best re- 
sults on types not more coarse 
grained than sandy loam or more 
compacted than clay loam. Lime- 
bearing soils best. 

Fairly deep, well-drained loams 
and clay and silt loams with fair 
proportion of sand in surface soil. 
A heavy subsoil retentive of mois- 
ture, but net impervious to water. 



Use stable manure on preceding 
crop. Apply lime in mcst cases. 
See that both surface and subsoil 
are well drained. Prepare land 
very thoroughly for seeding. 



Stable manure best fertilizer; 
100 to 300 lbs. an acre of complete 
fertilizer. High in nitrogen (8 to 
10 per cent). Gives good results. 



Drain soil thoroughly. Stand- 
ing water fatal to alfalfa. Apply 
lime liberally. Inoculate soil. 



Must be well drained and well 
suppUed with organic matter. If 
soils do not contain limestone give 
moderate application of lime. 



Top dress with stable manure or 
with 300 to 400 lbs. of acid phos- 
phate or 400 to 600 lbs. basic slag, 
or 200 lbs. or more of steamed bone 
meal an acre. 



See that soils are thoroughly 
drained. Apply moderate amounts 
of manure. Pl6w under legumin- 
ous cover crop. In general give 
thorough cultivation in early part 
of the season. 



Fertilize with 200 to 300 lbs. an 
acre of mixture containing 2 per 
cent nitrogen, 8 to 12 per cent 
phosphoric acid, 4 to 6 per cent 
potash. Use. stable manure. 



Depends on soils and variety. 
On heavier soils none may be needed 
except stable manure, which is al- 
ways best. Experiment with com- 
mercial fertilizers. 



SOIL CLASSIFICATION 



46 



nmarvKtiam 



Soil Adaptation of 



Fifteen Crops Common to Northeastern States {CorUinued), 



Crops. 



Cabbage. 



Soils Best Suited To. 



Celery. 



Heavy loam or silt loam, with 
retentive subsoils. Muck soils 
generally" well suited if not too 
loose. 



Ways of Modifying Soils 
to Fit Crops. 



Fertilizers to Apply 



Onioa«'. 



Tobacco. 



Muck soils best adapted. Silty 
river flood plains and silty or fine 
silty uplands, high in organic mat- 
ter, will do. 

Sandy loam just above water 
level, protected from overflow and 
well supplied with moLsture. 
Strong, well-drained muck land 
tilled two or three years. 



See that soil is well supplied 
with organic matter. Apply lime 
liberally to surface of soil. Grow 
crop in rotation. 



Soil must be moist, but well 
drained and well supplied with or- 
ganic matter. Lime and salt both 
affect celery favorably. 



Apply complete fertilizer, high in 
potash' and moderately high in 
nitrogen, in liberal amounts. 



Must be well drained. Large 
amounts of organic matter neces- 
sary. Lime gives good results. 
Crop rotation or alternation desu-- 
able. 



Many grades of soil from light 
silt to heavy loams suitable, de- 
pending- on grade of leaf desired. 



Must be well drained. High in 
organic #iatter. Very thoroughly 
prepared soil and constant cultiva- 
tion necessary. 



Fertilize heavily with stable man- 
ure where ix)ssible. Large amounts 
of commercial fertilizer, rich in 
nitrogen, can be applied profitably. 

Stable tnanure and high grade 
commercial fertilizers must be abun- 
dantly supplied for continued large 
yields. 



Depends on kind of soil and type 
of leaf being grown. Usually re- 
quires large amounts of potash de- 
rived from sulphate. Liming 
usually thickens leaf and makes 
it harsh. 



Following the plan of Dr. Bonsteel, the author has gone carefully 
through the soil literature of the United States and «"«»'";^"^*^\*he crop 
adaptations, the means of modifying soils and the.fertilizers to apply 
to them This is given for the leading crops by regions as follows (1 
The North Central region, covered mostly by the Glacial -*^^ ^kcm 
Inke soils Iving between Pennsylvania and the Dakotas, and north of the 
OWo and Souri Rivers; (2) the South Central and South Atlanic 
Coast region, comprising Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia 
Kentuckv and the Cotton Belt; (3) the Plains and Mountain region west 
SeiTih meridian of longitude; and (4) the Pacific Coast region, in- 
cluding the three coast states and most of Nevada. . , 
The following is a summary of the leading crops adapted to soils of 

^'^ W'-S>td fof Tery early truck and smah iruits; fair for sugar 
beets a::5 poor for small grains. May be kept in grass to P-en^^^driftmg 
Sandy Loam.-Good for tobacco, truck, apples, beans, root crops, 
fruit, and fair for hay, small grains and corn. 

T^ajn —Good for general crops, truck and Iruit. , .^ , , 

Silt Loam.-Vmest corn soil; good for small. grains, hay, frmt, tobacco 

'''' SCl'-Belt XS sX good for com. oats, rye, barley, grass. 

^'"Tiaf^^'c^^ortay, small grains, export tobacco, some fruit and 
small fruit. (For continuation see next page.) 

The following is a summary of the leading crops adapted to soils of 
the South Central and South Atlantic Coast region: . 

S -Adapted to earliest vegetables, some fruits and some varieties 
of grapes.' Small grains may be grown, but do better on heavier soils. 



i 



46 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Soil Adaptation of the Leading Crops of the Nobth Central Region. 



Crops. 



Corn. 



Soils Best Suited To. 



Loam or silt loam, 
with heavy subsoil, 
season, sandy loam. 



Deep soil 
For short 



Wheat. 



Clay or silt loam. Deep soil 
well supplied with humus. Sub- 
soil, heavier clay. 



Oats. 



Rye. 



Any soil but light sand. Loam 
or silt loam best. Good supply 
of humus desirable. 



Ways of MoDirYiNG Soils 
TO Fit Crops. 



Well -drained moisture -holding 
lands. Turn under good grass or 
clover sod. Apply barnyard man- 
ure. 



Rotate with legumes and hoed 
crops. Add organic matter as 
manure or green 
available. 



manure when 



Fertiuzbrs to Apply. 



Phosphoric acid and legumes. 
Use lime on sour soils. 



Should follow hoed crops, usu- 
ally corn. Prepare seed bed by 
^disking, seed early, driUing prefer- 
able. 



Sandy loam or loam; must be 
well drained. 



Barley. 



Loam to clay loam. Clay causes 
lodging. Heavy soils give larger 
yields; light soils brighter straw. 



Small to moderate amounts of 
fertihzers high in phosphoric acid, 
and with small amounts of nitrogen 
and potash. For western portion, 
phosphoric acid only. 



Manure or fertilizer should be 
appUed to preceding crop. On 
poor soils, small amounts of phos- 
phorus and nitrogen may be used. 



Good crop for poor land; 
stand considerable acid. 



will 



Buck- 
wneat. 



Loam with well-drained loamy 
subsoil. 



Potatoes. 



Hay. 

Clover, 

Timothy. 



Alfalfa. 



Moderate amounts of humus. 
Must be well drained. Too rich 
soils will cause lodging. 



Good pulverizer, hence will do 
well on rather poor soil. Good 
drainage essential. Add organic 
matter. 



About same as wheat, 
need much lime. 



Does not 



About same as oats. 



Sandy loam or loam; avoid 
heavy soils. 



Wide variety of soils. Loam to 
clay loam best. 



Beans. 



Apples. 



Heavy 

Truck- 
Cabbage, 
Celery, etc. 



Rather heavv soil but must be 
deep and well dmned. 



Fall plow; use winter coyer crop 
and turn under. Grow in rota- 
tion. Thorough drainage needed. 



A minor crop, seldom fertilized. 
Sinall amounts of complete f«- 
tilizer advised for poor soils. 



Drain land, top dress with man- 
ure; small applications spread 
uniformly. 



Sandy loam and clay loam best. 



Plow deep and inoculate soil. 



Do not lime immediately before 
potatoes. Apply fertilizer high in 
potassium. 



Top dress beginning of second 
year with small amounts of com- 
plete fertiUzer high in nitrogen. 



Use good supply mineral fertilizer 
and lime. 



Loamy soil best; must be quite 
deep and well droned. Avoid 
poor air drainage. 



Other 

Truck- 
Lettuce, 
Radishes, 
etc. 



Heavy loams or muck soils, high 
in organic matter. 



Apply manure and dndn. 



Sow to cover crop, preferably 
to legume in fall; plow under in 
spring and cultivate clean during 
early summer. 



Moderate amounts complete fer- 
tiUzer high in phosphoric acid and 
potash. Apply Ume. 



Depends on soil. On good soils, 
none needed for several years. Ex- 
periment. 



Use plenty of stable manure. 



Tobacco. 



Plums, 
Cherries, 
Small 
Fruits. 



Light soils, sandy for verv early 
markets; sandy loam and loam 
for later crops. 



Must be prepared to irrigate 
sand. Apply lots of manure. 
Rotation desirable 



For "bright" cigarette tobacco, 
sand; for wrapper, sandy loam; 
for filler and export grade, heavier 
soils. 



Sand and sandy loam. Provide 
for good air drainage in order to 
avoid danger from frost. 



Prepare soil thoroughly and cul- 
tivate frequently. Must have high 
organic content and be well drained 
for best results. 



Complete fertilizer high in nitro- 
gen. Also lime. 



High grade complete fertilizer. 
High nitrogen content for leaf 
crops, as lettuce. 



Use leguminous cover crops for 
winter. Clean cultivation in sum- 
mer. 



Avoid lime, as it thickens leaf. 
Kind of fertilizer depends on the 
soil. Usually large amounts of 
potassium sulphate. 



Varies with soil and location. 
Experiment. 



Sandy Loam— "Bright" tobacco, mid-season truck, peanuts, forage 
crops and cotton and small grains to some extent. 

Loam.— Cotton, tobacco, main crop truck, com, small grams, sugar 



SOIL classification 



47 



carte, fruit and small fruit, legumes for hay or cover crops, rice and nursery 

' ^^ Silt Loam— Cotton, tobacco, truck for canning, corn, small grains, 
hay and pasturage, tree and small fruits. 

Clay Loam.— Cotton, export tobacco, corn, small grams, very good 
for grazing, fruit, rice, flax, hemp, etc. 

Clay— Rice, sugar cane, export tobacco, forage crops, hay and fruit. 

Soil Adaptation of the Leading Crops of the South Central and South Atlantic 
- Coast Region. 



Crops. 



Cotton. 



Soils Best Suited To. 



Loam or silt loam. 



Ways or Modifying Soils 
TO Fit Crops. 



Fall plow, cultivate frequently, 
rotate with legumes. 



Fertilizers to Apply. 



Corn. 



Tobacco. 



Any soil but very light sand and 
heavy clay. Best on loam. 



Sugar 



)Ugar 
Cane. 



Varies with kind of tobacco 
grown. (See North Central Re- 
gion.) 



Plow deep and rotate. 



Frequent, careful cultivation and 
cover crop in winter to prevent 
erosion. Rotate with legume. 



Add manure and other forms of 
organic matter. Complete fertilizer. 



Complete fertilizer high in phos- 
phoric acid. Also plenty of organic 
matter. Add Ume. 



Do not hme light tobacco. Avoid 
muriate of potash in fertilizer. 



Loam to clay; best on clay 
loam. Soil must be rich. 



Truck. 



Rice. 



Sand for extra early, loam for 
main crop. 



Drain when needed; add or- 
ganic matter. 



Heavy complete fertilizer. 



Clay or clay loam; heavy sub- 
soil essential. 



Must be well drwned and have 
abundant supply of humus. j 

Must be able to flood at proper i 
time and drain at proper time^ 



High grade complete fertilizer. 



Plow deep and add lime. 



Peaches, 
Plums, 
Cherries, 
Small 
Fruits. 



Forage 

Crops — 
Millet, 
Sorghum, 
etc. 



Sand or sandy loam. 



Use cover crops to prevent 
washing, legumes best. 



Varies with location, climate and 
crop. Experiment. 



Grapes. 



Clay loam or clay. 



Peanuts. 



Varies with variety from sand 
to clay. 



Plow deep, use winter cover [Complete fertilizer and miinure, 
P^p or green manure. 



Add organic matter. 



Annual 

Legumes, 
Cowpeas, 
Soy Beans, 
etc. 



Sandy loam. 



Sandy loam to clays. 



Varies with soil. Experiment. 



Organic matter and fall plowing. 



Plow deep, give good cultiva- 
tion. Good for interplanting with 
cotton or com. 



Mineral fertilizers. 



Mineral fertilizers and lime. 



Plains and Mountain Region.-Most of this region is semi-arid to 
arid and used largely as pasture, but ^^ere transportation a^d^^^^ 
available very good crops may be grown by the aid of irrigation, i he 
Swing ila summary of the leading crops adapted to soils of the Plains 

'^' S-S STredominathig soil and care must be tak- to prevent 
Its drifting. It gives fair crops of truck, fruit, cotton, KafRr, sorghum, 
wheat, oats and hay, 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



48 ^^__ 

It also gives good pasturage. ^ ,„^,. „ „„ji it is good for broom- 
Loam.-Is about the most productive soi " ^ 

corn, sorghum, milo, truck, «ugf ;>^«t«/".J' ^ \nd ^tl- No^^^ ^^eat, 
Central States small grams and forage crops, and m 

''"''' mL:l"^'noi quite so good as loam, but is used for about the 

''" a^Loam-Is very hard to handle and not very productive. It is 

"^^'^/-V;t3 to t^ntVotern^p^^^^^^^^ It is used to some 
extent for general crops, but chiefly for grazmg. 

T .V,-. p«..P« OP THE Plains and Mountain 
Soil Adaptation of the Leadino^Crop^ ot thk 



Crops. 



Soils Best Suited To. 



Ways op Modipyinq Soils 
TO Fit Crops. 



Fertilizers to Apply. 



Cotton. 



Loam. 



Irrigate. 



Manure and complete fertilizer. 



Com. 



Loam to clay loam. 



Small 
Grains 



Silt loam. 



Plant with lister. Manure, 
cultivate frequently. 



Add organic matter. 



Fertilizer seldom used. 



Fertilizer seldom used. 



Pa8turar,e water. 



Sugar 
Beets. 



Forage 

Crops — 
Kaffir, 
Sorghum, 
Millet. 

Alfalfa. 



Sandy loam and loam. 



Loam best, but will grow in wide 
range of soils. 



Irrigate, plow deeply and give 
clean cultivation. 



Plow deeply, give thorough cul- 
tivation. Do not plant too early. 



Complete fertilizer. 



Sandy loam to clay. 



Plow deeply; irrigate. Seed and 
light crops of hay produced with- 
out irrigation. 



•D^rifir roflst Region —This region is in most places almost arid. 
With 1 aid of rigX^^^^ becomes'one of the garden spots of the coun- 
Ty The Mowing is a summaiy of the leading crops adapted to soils of 

*'' S-uSd fofTariy truck, figs, stone fruits, citrus fruits and some 
of the small fruits. It 'requires large amounts of water and frequent 

cultivation to conserve moisture. . , 

Sandy Loam.-Used for most of the fruits grown in this region also 
grapes, small fruits, alfalfa and, to some extent, general crops. This soil 
is auite light and requires much the same care as sand. 

Loam -Used for fruit, late truck, small fruit, grapes, hops, hay and 

general crops. 



SOIL CLASSIFICATION 



49 



'silt Loam.— Used for fruit (including citrus fruit), small fruit, heavy 

truck English walnuts. . 

kav Loam.-Used for fruit, small fruit, truck for cannmg, and general 
crops. This soil is much used in southern California for citrus groves and 

lima beans. , , j x ^ •+ 

Clay.-^ra.\ns and hay, some heavy truck and tree truit. 



Soil Adaptation of the Leading Crops of th e Pacific Coast Region. 

Crops. 



Truck. 
Fruit. 



Soils Best Suited To. 



Ways of Modifying Soils 
TO Fit Crops. 



Fertilizers to Apply. 



Sandy loam for early; silt or | Add lots of organic matter, 
clay loam for late. ^_ 

Any soil; loam or silt loam best 
for most fruits. 



Depends on crop and soil. 



Practice clean cultivation to pre- | Varies with kind of fruit, 
vent evaporation. Add organic 
matter. 



Grapes. 

Small 
Fruit. 

English 
Walnut. 



General 

Crops- 
Grains, 
Hay. 



Sandv loam or loam. 



Same as for fruit. 



Sandy loam to silt loam. 



Silt loam. 



Same as for fruit. 



Complete fertilizer. 
Experiment. 



Any of the heavier soils. 



Cultivate clean in dry season, 
but grow cover crop in ramy sea- 
son, and plow under. 



Give soil thorough preparation 
before planting and cultivate wher- 
ever possible. 



Complete fertilizer. 



Ai^« to Solution of Sou Problems.-The soil survey conducted by 

Aids to ==ol"7'^ f ,/; ,T„Ued States Department of Agriculture, in 

the Bureau ^^ .^»'^,f .^i^^'X^^^^^ of agriculture or agri- 

co-operation with the various si ^^^ j^^o many counties in every 

cultural experiment stations, is now exituu ^^ ^^^ 

state. Two kinds of surveys ^^^^ ^.T^ Ipp ig i ' ^ undertaken 
reconnoissance soil survey, m 7^"=^ d^*^^^^^^^^^^^ (f) a detailed county 

(it consists chiefly in mappmg the ««^;;"f ^ ' ^^"^\ [ The results 

Lvey showing the '^^ ^j^tf re^ '^ "^^5 

of this work are issued as g«^«^^^\"; ^ ^^, ^oils are fully described 
maps outlimng the sen s^ In these i^ep ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

and their crop adaptations statea. i ^irements are also given, 

to agricultural conditions f '"^f .^^^^ J^^^^ the districts in which 

These reports are -j'^^^'^^^'l^^ZJ^^^ either through the local 
the surveys ^re made They may ^^^ ^^^.^^^^ Department of 

senator or representative, o^ d^'^^te experiment station or state depart- 
Aericulture In some cases the state e^P^' 

mfnt of agriculture will be able ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^, m such an area to 
The detailed county surveys will ^^aWe any .^ ^^.^ ^^^.^_ 

ascertain the types of soil on his ff™;JXH samples of his soil to his 
ular on the part of the ^ ^™,^\ J^ JX^threxact location of his farm, 
state experiment f^^f -^ ^^^^^^^ to advise him not only as to the 

the authorities at the station wui ^ 



il 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



50 

adaptation and the treatment "^^t dv rm °™n, the field from which 

Sample., ot soil should "CJ"'* r^ u o?plo«in« in not less than 

taken. ^-P^f »;'%^,,r„''™ n, 'p„X.t^^^^^^ ''oronghly mixed. 

'7 •■";:,:' S; S sS *i3" "fT ^bsoll. H there is 
desirable also to senoa i ^^^^ experiment 

ItSS and ;l! .« iitruction on eollecting and send- 

'"" Tte'soil auger is most convenient for taking soil 
sam Je^ I coSts of an ordinary IH-inch J-^.^m 
St the *-;-f„XE^i*'crrS:e wTk ^a 
S'mrtrThtactZpan^g figure shows a three-foot 
iTger ':rgas pipe h.wll. For a f^ie,^ use the w»d™ 
handle will serve {"J "^J* /i. ™ ^well for ..king 
't;rS^tt tTtt* thof pJing having one 

''^' B^S'ot tt' diffiel*o« the part of the experiment 
o station a "thorities in giving definite advice at long ijnge 

ASon.Aeo.1.. „me of these institutions ^'>^ '"'V^ZuMl^r^eiZt 

aliout the state, inspect farms and consult «'* 'a™"» «'" 

tive to their soil problems as well as^ther P»*-„t,<^^ .Tcan^'e 
such inspection tliese men are al)le to advise more aeiu y 

done by letter. . , . , Upnofit of the farmers 

In the last few years another mnovation for the beneht ot t 

has been introduced, namely, the ^^^-^^^l^^^^ZTlcZesiarnil^^r 
:Z^, rsS-bJTmsr'SfT^oS-Srcern his business. 

REFERENCES 
-Soils- How to Handle and Improve Them." Fletcher. 
''Soils." Lyon and Fippm. ^^ 

■ . .. -n^Pr. NY From "How to ChQosc a Farm/* by Hunt, 

1 Courtesy of The Macmillan Co.. N.Y. i^rom « 



^1 



I ifl 



i\ 



CHAPTER 2 

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES 

Texture of SoU.— Texture pertains to the size of the mineral particles 
that make up the body of the soil. In the laboratory, texture is deter- 
mined by a mechanical analysis. This is described m Chapter 1. The 
clav portion of a soil will range anywhere from a fraction of one per cent 
to as high as fifty per cent of the body of the soil. The particles of clay 
are so small that they can be seen only by the use of a high-power micro- 
scooe When clay is thoroughly mixed with water the particles will 
renLin in suspension for several days. It is this clay that is chiefly re- 
sDonsible for the turbid condition of the streams of water flowing from 
the^nd after heavy rains. Clay, when thoroughly wet and rubbed 
between the thumb and finger, has a smooth, greasy feel. 

The silt may also range from a very small percentage to sixty per 
cent or more of the body of the soil. It forms the group of particles next 
Ser than clay. It produces practically no perceptibly gritty eel when 
w3 and rubbed between the thumb and finger. Silt particles will remain 
Tsuspe-^Son in water for only a short time, seldom more than one-half 

^''"'"The various grades of sand consist of particles very nauch larger than 
tho,e of either clay or silt, and can be seen with the naked eye. The per- 
ceSage of tndTn soils like that of clay and silt varies between wide 

S diS ^^< -^ ri:ntx;:oJ»s^^ 

water **o*°^f ^^ r / j degree the water-holdmg capacity 
important and determines in a large ucg r . , -j ^^ 

SS£i^5Efoirsi^i::^a>srt 

"'^^^helarX^teTroP^^^^^^ of fine particles, such as clay and silt, the 
greater is thfsurf ace .L of these particles in a unit volmne of oil. u 
fweS-drained soil all gravitational water P-f ^^-^X ^jf^S/oTwS 
water is retained. This capillary water consists 0^,;;'^^ *2/thT n such 
adhering to the surface of the soil particles f ^^^ su"0"nding ^^^'J >^ \^j^^ 
a way L to make a continuous film of ^^^ f^ '^ ^.'^^^^^^^ the 

continuity of the film, water moves by capillarity from a point w 

(51) 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL 



53 



52 

films are thickest to a point where they are thinner tending always to 
turns are inii-K.est f equality in the thickness of the 



i 



LIMIT 



,195 »^Y8- - — 




usa. 



AUuviai 

Soil 
QilalUver 



Sill 
Soil 



Adobe 

Soil 

^lauitcla Co, 



film, but gradually becoming thin- 
ner as the distance from the 
source of water increases. 

It is evident, therefore, that 
the fine-textured soil will hold 
much more water than the one 
consisting largely of sand. Such a 
soil can supply crops with more 
water than a sandy soil, and such 
a soil is adapted to grass, wheat 
and other plants having fibrous 
roots that do not penetrate to 

great depths. 

If a glass tumbler is filled 
with water and emptied, a thin 
film of the liquid adheres to the 
surface. This will equal only a 
fraction of one per cent of the 
weight of the tumbler. If the 
tumbler can be pulverized into a 
very fine powder and the particles 
saturated with water and allowed 
to drain, they may hold water to 
the extent of ten to fifteen per 
cent of the weight of the glass. 
This change in the water-holding 
power is the result of pulveriza- 
tion and especially of the increase 
of the exposed surface which is 
brought in contact with the liquid. 
The finer the degree of pulveri- 
zation the larger the percentage 
of water the glass particles will 
retain. So we find that soils of 
very fine texture will sometimes 
hold as much as forty per cent 



Sandy 
Soil 
Btanislaiis Co. QilalUver Ventura 

I ' ' T, ' of their weight of water, while 

Rate and Height of Capillary Rise of ° „r.ar«o snnHv soils 

Watfu IN Soils OF Different Texture.' some of the coarse, sandy sons 

will not hold more than four or 
five per cent of their weight of water. This water-holding capacity of 
the soil is also modified by its content of organic matter. Organic matter 



■ Courtesy of The MacmiUan Company. N. Y. From " Soils." by Hilyard. 



will absorb from two to four times its own weight of water. The sponge 
best illustrates the capacity of organic matter to absorb and hold water. 
Water Movement in Soil. — The movement of water in the soil is 
influenced chiefly by soil texture. In soils of coarse texture the water 
moves very freely. Drainage is rapid and the soils dry soon after rains 
so that tillage operations may soon be resumed. On such soils there is 
generally little loss of time during the period when they need tillage. 
On very heavy soils, that is, on those consisting chiefly of clay and silt 
particles, the movement of water within the body of the soil is exceedingly 
slow Drainage is difficult, and where the land is level and the sub- 
stratum is dense, underdrainage is often required in order to make the 
soils productive. In sandy soils the rainfall penetrates and descends 
rapidly through the soil body. In this kind of soil leaching is rather 
rapid Rain penetrates heavy soils very slowly, and if the rainfall is rapid, 
its passing from the surface of the soil causes severe erosion. Further- 
more a large proportion of the rainfall is thus lost and in no way benefits 
the Rowing plants. • On the part of the farmer it therefore becomes 
essential so to plow and cultivate the fine-textured, heavy soil as to in- 
crease its penetrability and facilitate the movement of air and water and 
the penetration of roots as much as possible. In case of the very sandy 
soil It is often advisable to do just the reverse. Applications of lime 
which tend to cement the particles together, and of organic matter to fail 
up the interspaces, and compacting the soil by rolling to reduce the spaces 
are often resorted to. Where land has a high value it may even pay to add 
clay to a sandy soil in order to improve its physical properties. On the 
other hand, it may sometimes pay to add sand to a very heavy, clay sofl 
Such practice, however, is justifiable only m case of land of high value 
when used for intensive cropping. 

Absorption of Fertilizers.-The absorptive power of the soil is also 
proportLSl to the surface area of the particles withm a unit volume^ 
S o7 fine texture are, therefore, capable of absorbing and hold-g much 
larger amounts of fertilizers than those that are f "d^- J^Wis alS 
important in connection with the apphcation of fertihzers. It is also 
t^e that the soil absorption is much stronger for some ^^bst^n-s^th^^^^^ 
is for others and this will often determine the time of application of fertU- 
le^ The absorptive power of the soil is less marked for nitrogen, either 
asTrnmlnfaor niLtes'than it is for either potash or Phospho^s. Con- 
seauentlv nitrogenous fertilizers should be used in quantities just sulfa 
cSto meet the needs of the crop, and applied just WV:^ll^:JZ 
at which the crop most needs it. In view of his ^'^^t, surface applications 
of nitrogen are often effective, since the downward movemejit of the 
material in the soil soon brings it into the ^^gion of root act mty 

Potash and phosphorus are, however, absorbed ^^d held much more 
tenaciously by the soil particles, and are not subject to jeve^^ Jj^^y 
leaching. Liberal applications of potash apphed to the surface of the 



4i 




SUCCESSFUL FARM^^ 



PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL 



55 



1! 



^ . — ■ ' ,. 1 1 irrieation were found 

l^il^^:^^^^^^^^^^^' tZ'7nwll^n!trXJ^ in the course of 
Z have penetrated to a deptV^^l'^suchTertili.ers should be distributed 
as many months. This suggests tbat sucni .^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

S Xat^-ne of the. soil where root aetm^^^ is m ^^^ 

Iti'^u^n^htS^^^^^^^^^ w-^ -^^^ ^^ ^^--^^^ ^^ ^ ^"'- • 

--SlS^nd Ease o. 0^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ T^VZ 

plastic when wet, and f ^ ;^^,^j jJ^^VtTe feet of animals. Such soils 
tural implements, wheels of vehicles ana i. ^t of the soil par- 

!hould not be tilled when they are wet. The m^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^ l,ddy 
tides upon one another when ^n t^^^^^^J^^^^^ j^^^ ^se to what is known 
and hard when they dry ^f- \lf^lZ^^^ water and air through 
as puddUng, and prevents t^^^ fre^ m^J ,„^d in the spring when wagons 
the soil. This is well »f^fj^[ f^ '^l ^et condition. These ruts will 
nass over it and form ruts while ^t ?« m jijv evaporation, none 

Kn become filled with water, -f ^>;,. ^C. C finerxtured soils 
of it finding its way ^.^^l^^f j^^^ maUer, tend to rmi together and 
when not well supplied ^th o'^gf ^^^ Cultivate. This condition can be 
become very compact and f "^ j° „^^^^^^^^^^ when too wet, 

alleviated to a certam extent by ^void'"!^" ^ ■/^i,^ form of manure or 
Ld also by the apphcatioji. « Jf n J^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ a by the 

green manuring crops, ^ikewi^e, ^h^^^^^^^^^^ that 

•rS;rth1ii1:'gtht?nrU^^^^^^^^^^^ with .rger spaces between 

^%rsSdy soils and those -tainin. a^^^^^^^^^ 

less affected by rains, are more e^^^ f ^^l^^^^e^ tvet do not adhere to 
great precautions in ^^eir til age. Such sml^^^^^^^ ^^.,^^ ^^^ the 

irlrrSVr^oS :;Sodt Stter immediately after rains 

than they are when in a d^-^ ^"^.^'^^'^''l.Heavv clay soils and those con- 
Texture Affects ''^?l^^^fX^,,,fS71vied to the grasses such 
taining large amounts of silt are generally ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

as timothy, blue grass, orchard grass and J^^^P; ^^.^ as cabbage, 

what is commonly known as tl^heavy^mck-p^^^ 
tomatoes and asparagus The soils ^^^^^ ^^^^ buckwheat, 

texture, are better adapted to such crops ^ com , ^^^^^ 

peas, beans, clover and potatoes. The soils otiig ^^^^ ^^^ 

Le sand and sandy loams, are -^« ^^^^^y uSdVr the early truck 
all tuber and root crops, and ^'•^^^^/^Xs early peas, etc. Some of 
crops, such as spinach, lettuce, ^^X^dTceZl^rtsoi Florida, are 
the very lightest sands such as ^re j ound in cma V ^^^ ^^^^ 

especially adapted to ^^^.f ^^^Ta,?^'^^^^^^ on fairly heavy soils, 
ceous fruits, such as apples and pears, win 



while the stone fruits, such as peaches, cherries and plums, succeed better 
on soils that are lighter in texture and l)etter drained. In fact, peaches 
will often succeed admirably on shaly ridges and mountains in the Pied- 
mont Plateau. 

Texture Affects Tillage. — Soil texture so influences the cost of tillage 
that it often determines the crop to be grown. Crops that require a great 
deal of tillage and hand work, such as sugar beets, are more economically 




The Ease of Seed-bed Preparation Depends on Condition of Soil.' 



grown on soils of light texture, because of the greater ease of weeding and 
tillage. Even though these light soils under intensive cultivation niay 
require considerable expenditure for fertilizers, the additional cost thus 
entailed is generally more than offset by the saving m labor. 

Structure of the Soil.— The structure of the soil pertains to the 
arrangement of the soil particles within the body of the soil m much the 
same way that the arrangement of the bricks in a bmlding determines 
the style of architecture. In all soils of fine texture it is good soil manage- 
ment to strive to obtain a granular structure. This consists of a grouping 
of the soil particles into small groups or granules. A good illustration ot 

rS^;;;;;,)' of DouWeday, Page & Co., Garden City. N. Y. From "Soib," by Hetcher. 






l- 



Al 



SUCCESSFULFARBONG 



PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL 



57 



t 



the circulation of the ^'V rC Vof cu tivation. . , , 

plant roots and lessen, ^he difficulty o^cu ^^ .^ ^ by 

^ Granular Structure.- 1 he granular ^t j ^.^^^^ ^^ harrowed, 

f iUaee Every time the soil is P^^^^f ' .^ """^ach formed of a larger or 
ffs pulverized and broken up into P^f "'l^^'J^f^i.o improved by good 
smaller number of grains. Gr^^^^^f f ^^^^^^^^^^^ completely filled with 
dminage. When the body of t^e «oil is f^^^^^^^^ ,„d tend to arrange 
tTter the soil particles move j^th hUk res^^ .^ ^^^^^ ^^^ , 

themselves into a compact mass. V. rPturned to the excavation water 
fimng excavations, and when the sod - -^^ j^, ,« that when on.e 
is turned into it in order that it may sett f ^^^^ ^^^ thoroughly 

filled no depression will occur at the ™^- ^^ ,„ that there is no 
undtrSrained seldom, if ^-^^^l^^^TtteUe. in this compact 

opportunity for the soil Pf f^^^. *^ JrS wh«« ^"^'^ ^^^''^'^ ^'^ ?k "^ 
mass Consequently, a soil of this character w ^^iti^^tion, together 

Assumes the granular f-^^^-^.^^thtptrand the work of insects and 
with the penetration of the roots of the P^^" i^ ,i,yi„g of the soil in 

worms. This is further fac litated by tn . „ 

neriods of prolonged drought. . „ ^„ , thawing also has an influence 

^ The process of alternate ^^f »"g ^f '^JSes it expands and causes 
on structure. As the water -\^^j:''^^% it thaws and the water 

also rmproved by the ^^f on f orgamc^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^.^ „,tter 

yard manure or the residues o^^^^P^ *™t ^^uld otherwise be occupied 
Lorporated with the soil ^^^"PJXKcTit leaves small cavities which 
by soil particles, and upon its g^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^oots are also influential 

separate small groups of soil particl^- i-i ^^^^^^ ^^^-^^ ^f the 

in improving the structure of the soi , hrst y ^^^. ^^^ 

soil particles due to the enlargement of the J^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^1^ 

. second, by the 6^^^"^! ^?.^%l*d X fi^^^ free passage. Earthworms 
%^£^:rf^ZX^^ also incorporate in the soil the 

a good or poor tilth. A soil m good t It h '» ^ -^ ^he best pos- 

condition, or that it has a granular ^tmcture ttot m ^^ ^^^^^_ 

me home for the plants *« .^^^^^^J^^^Se' extent by the character 

S^^tS^ir^latr^'a^ demanding a rather open 



soil call for a loose seed-bed in which granular structure is accentuated. 
Wheat rye, clover and the grasses, on the other hand, demand a rather 
compact, fine-grained seed-bed, and, therefore, do not demand an equal 

Hpsree of granulation. , . , r j i , 

SolubiUty of Sou Minerals.-Plants take their mineral food only 
when it is in solution. This necessitates a degree of solubility of the 
essential plant food minerals that will meet the maximum needs of the 
SSs The solubility of the soil particles depends upon a number of 
factor; and is a rather complex process. In pure water the solubihty is 
very sUght, but as the water of the soil becomes impregnated with car- 
Sc acid gas, organic compounds and mineral compounds, these a 1 
San Influence ol the degree of solubility of other --ral ^st^^^^^^^^^^ 
Solubility is also markedly influenced by temperature. This fact is well 
recognized by the housewife, who by heating dissolves sugar m water 
3it becomes a syrup; so the solubility of the soil minerals is increased 

bv a rise in soil temperature. . rr- a ^t tuts^omU —The 

Rate of SolubiUty Depends on Texture and Kmd of Minerals. 1 he 

of the more extensive use of ferti i.ers on BM.dy «*. It .sateo toe that 
r^hl^^'r^S/S* than - .-^-^. ,—Cn 'Z- 

sjs-ofth*, "pSLniT^t ^i^ - -To^'ri 

S^ jr=l tl ;^aSv- texS? -fi' J the ..-era. of 
the soil are exhausted through Plantremoval. ^^^ ^^^^ 

Soil Bacteria I^"«^«^Solubihty^The ba^^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

instrumental in increasmg the solubility ot the sou ^^^h 

their greatest activity, bact^-J^q-re P -Pe --itary c^ ^^^.^ ^ .^^^ .^ 

as aeration, a neutral soil medium ^"^^ ^^^^ , numbers of bacteria, 

will be seen that fertile soils encourage^ncrea ed^n^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^.^^ ^^^ 

which in turn make for increased J'^^^^^y- . "^'^^rs wMch enter into 
the tiller of the soil to understand ^^e ^"ou™^^^ development 

soil productivity, and to ^f^^^il^^Jn^STlu^^ may be de- 
of those which are beneficial and discouragu g 

structive. . , , T?--+;iitw The rate of the solution 

Rapid Solubility Results in Loss of Fer^i^y. Jh^jat ^^^^ 

of soil minerals should not ^^r ^'^S^*^'^ tCgh leaching and the cou- 
tbere be an unnecessary loss of plant food througn ^ 




SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL 



59 



58 -___ 

sequent hastening of the -^Pp-ffSX^lft^^^^^^ 

^ ^^^^S:i^^S^^^- ve. little dange. 

problem for the chemist Many years of resejc^^^^^^^ composition 

Ldeavor to determine through chemical ana^^^^^^^^ not omy J^ ^^^ 

of the soil but its power t^ P-duce ^ ^^^^^^^ ^ute amounts of the 
chemist has little difficulty in deteraaining ^ j^ ^^ther 

essential plant food co-t'*-';^^^^^^^^^^^^^ indicate 

long, tedious '.nd««^*y,iff,^eir^^^^^ „, comparatively little a« 

the relative fertility of different soils, ana x endeavored 

to the present fertihzer needs o them Thy^^e amounts of avail- 
to devise methods of f "^ly^'^ ^J^* ^^ £ "« used different solvents 
able plant food present in the soil. J^"^ J' ''^ T^^ ^^e plant in its ex- 
of varying concentrations m ^^^.^^^^eavor to imita^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

traction of the elements from the «' ; J^J^/'^f J^ .^'erefore, obliged 
have met with comparatively J^tt^^^^^^^^^^^^^ the oil is of very little 
to conclude that, as a rule, a chemical analysis o jj ^^e 

help to the farmer. This f ^^^^iX^S 1^^^^^^^^ >« ^«^ 

analyst finds that the ^^^ :^^l; ^^^f^Z mmediately in need of 
small, it at once indicates ^^at t^s soil is e ^^^^ 

the deficient element or soon wi *^«°"^^ ''';. /LJinafre satisfactory and 
the physical -nditions of the soU a- ^^^^^^^ thTsoils 

Z'tV:;':^"'J^i:SS^^ without the addition of plant 
knowledge of soils. ;^^u^r of oiK^t-^ it is important 

:Z^.f^,^t£oi Mrare „,te„%»«v. of the preface or 



J^l 



absence of particular elements. The first essential to profitable crops is 
the production of a healthy and vigorous plant. Added to this is a high 
degree of fruitfulness. A deficiency in phosphorus may not prevent a 
satisfactory development of the plant, but may seriously curtail the pro- 
duction of seed. This is often illustrated in the case of wheat which 
makes a rank growth of straw and a comparatively small yield of wheat. 
The absence of available nitrogen is often indicated by the yellow color 

of the foliage. 

The form in which the elements are combined may influence the 
quality of the product. This is illustrated in tobacco when the applica- 
tion of muriate of potash causes a poor burning quality of the leaf that is 
to be used for cigars. Better results with a cigar tobacco, are secured 
when the potash is applied in the form of sulphate or carbonate. Further- 
more, the essential plant food constituents dominate in the development 
of certain parts of the plant or in the performance of certam vegetative 
functions. For example, potash is believed to be largely instrumental 
in the development of starch, and fertilizers for starch-producing plants 
such as potatoes, generally contain a high percentage «f P^t^^j^ f^J 
beheved also that the color of fruits is controlled to a certain extent by 
the presence or absence of certain essential elements, such as potash or iron 
Hements Essential to Plants.-The essential elements of plant food 
mav be grouped as follows: First, those obtained from air and water, 
SstLg'^of 'oxygen, hydrogen and carbon; -^^ \h-e c^^^^^^^^^^^ 
that are frequently deficient in soils and are ^^P^^^"* ^^/^^ *^^^^^^ 
commercial fertilizers, namely, nitrogen, Pbo-pho^^^ «"f P^^^J^^^^^ 
third CTouD is not likely to be deficient as elements of plant food, inese 
fonsisHrcaTcium, ma^esium, sulphur and iron. I- this group c^^^^^^^^^ 
and maenesium in the carbonate form may become so deficient that sous 
SomroZTn which case the practice of applyin^^^^^^^ is ad-sab^^ 
The five other elements commonly present and fitting into a fourth group 

-' '^:^s:^::^l:^^^'^^^ - compo-d 

^^^h^ r:^gSaSnin£Se: tl t^^ 
ZJXtSl.^{SZ one id one-hajf "lill^ns br^ught^o- 

gether in a mass in ^fer^^^J^^^ ^Si Ihons'upon millions of 
plants are omnipresent, ^^^^'^^f \*^^3 ikthe water of the lakes and 
them. They are present '^ ^^^^''jf^^ ^^,ZiL the foods we eat. 
rivers, and occur on all vegetation and ^'^^'^r^^^ power microscope 
These minute organisms were unknown until t^^ high Power m ^^ 

was invented a comparatively short time ago. The^ pl^^^J^^^Sa have 
part in all life processes. More than a thousand spec.es «* ^acte^ 
already been identified and described, and new species are bemg 

""Bacteria Make Plant Food AvaUable.-The bacteria of the soil are 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL 



61 



60 .^ 

constituents of the soil. It is essential lor u multiplication of 

the bacterial flora of the soil is -P;^-^ ^^ ^ is al" will to know 
these bacteria is generally to ^e encourage"- 

that there are two i^-^j'--;^, ^^^^^^^^ and 

in the presence of pl^nty «f '^'[A ,X^ir and even in the total absence 
second, ^^osei^:^i^^:^^fj^l^^ bacteria, 

of oxygen These^^^/^f^f;^'^, ^^^^ ^.^j^ pl^^^y of air, 

respectively. The "f ^'f!' J^^jj^j^i f^rms, and these dominate in the 
are made up generally ^^^e Whcial^ ^ ^^^ multipUca- 

So'odtntXm of oTgSXr. although many forms live directly 

Sbsrsoiftmi^s ioT^r:l-r^^^^^^ 

funct^onTn soirthan the conversion of organic nitrogen into ammonia 

nitr t s?and finally nitrates, thus making the -^^^^J^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
nlnnts Nitrogen is the most expensive element that farmers nave to 
Sase in a Smercial form. It costs about twenty cents per pound, o 
Zeelimes as much as granulated sugar. Nitrogen is present m the air 
Tgreat quantities, and' it is chiefly through various forms of bacteria 
that the higher plants are able to secure the necessary supply. Among 
the bacterid instrumental in this process are the ^unierous species «^^^ 
are found in the nodules on the roots of the various leguminous crops. 
For agTs le^mes, such as clovers, have been recognized as beneficial to 
the SOU asThowA by the increased growth of the non-leguminous crops 
hat follow Not until the discovery of these bacteria m the nodules on 
the roots of legumes (about one-fourth century ago) was it understood 

whv leeumes were beneficial. ± r ^^^ 

Th^ species of bacteria that occur in the nodules on the roots of one 
leguminous crop is generally different from that occurring on a different 
leguminous crop, although there are a few exceptions to th s rule ihe 
same species of bacteria occur on the roots- of both alfalfa and sweet 
cCr'but a different species is characteristic of red clover, and one species 
cannoi be successfully substituted for another. It is, therefore essen^a 
to use the right species when attempting to inoculate soil artificiaUy for 
a particular leguminous crop. The different species of bacteria for the 
leguminous crops will be discussed under each of those crops m chapters 

which follow. . , ., . , „,i^n+ 

There are also species of bacteria living in the soil, not dependent 

directly upon legumes, which have the power of abstracting free nitrogen 

from the air and converting it into forms available for general farm crops. 



Bacteria Abundant Near Surface.— The soil bacteria are most abun- 
dant in the plowed portion of the soil. Their numbers greatly diminish 
as the depth increases, and disappear entirely at a depth of a few feet. 
It is generally believed that direct sunshine is destructive to practically 
all forms of bacteria. Consequently, we find few living bacteria immedi- 
ately at the surface of a dry soil. In tlje practice of inoculatmg soils, 
therefore, it is recommended that the bacteria be distributed on a cloudy 
day or in the morning or evening when there is little sunshine, and that 
the inoculation be at once thoroughly mixed with the soil, by disking or 

harrowing. . , j- . x • a 

Barnyard manures are always teeming with myriads of bacteria, and 
the practice of applying such manure adds many bacteria to the soil. 
Bacteria are most active during the warmer portions of the year, and most 
of them are dormant when the temperature of the soil falls below the 
freezing point. Those instrumental in nitrification are very inactive 
when the soil is cold and wet and become exceedingly active m mid-sum- 
mer when the temperature of the soil is comparatively high, when plant 
growth in general is most active and when nitrogen is most needed by 
growing crops. This is a fortunate coincidence, since it enab es the higher 
plants to utilize the nitrates made available at that particular season by 
bacteria. If nitrification through the bacteria were equally rapid during 
periods when farm crops made little growth, a great loss of nitrogen would 
occur through leaching of the soil. The freezing of the soil does not destroy 
bacteria, as a rule, but simply causes them to be temporarily dormant. 



REFERENCE 



"The Soil." UaU. 









ii 



i|! 



CHAPTER 3 

FERXaiTY AND HOW TO MAINTAIN 

TT-rHHtv Defined -The fertility of a soil is measured by its capacity 
Fertility Delrnea. i"« ^ ^ j^j jj t^e soil and climate 

to produce an abundant growth ^^^^^^ dependent upon a single factor, 
of the region are adapted. J^'^'^^l^^^^^^ ^f a number of factors acting 
but requires the presence -f ^^^^^^J^^r' ^^^^ dependent, first, upon 
S "^"'" oe of\ sSfenf suppy of he necessary plant-food elements 
the Pr^^e'^f «^,^^!^*';fr„dTr^^ an adequate water supply to convey 
in an available form, secona, upon au * m , . .. • ^ upofi suf- 
these elements in solution to the r^o^ of ^^^ f ^*^^^\^;f of 

ficient warmth to promote plant f^^^' .^.^'^Xn A fertile soil 
^tSLZ:""^^^ ol tt jXS^oTf erals reduced t. 

of the character and value oi ine bun. xi & ninnlp hickory 

Lh, basswood, black walnut, burr oak, ^^'^f^^Pf/.^'^jf.^^^^^^^^^ 

oak predominates the soil may be considered fairly g«« J ^ut i beech 
predLinates it may be looked upon with suspicion, and will probably 

^^%:ir pi:nt m the same manner are a .ood indicat^^^^^ 
fprtilitv of the soil. For example, in regions where alfalfa, Canada thistle, 
SndwJerd'e; corn, cockle'-burr, Kentucky ^^^l^^^^ SS. 
ragweed and wheat grow well, the soils are generally f«3*«, f^/™ 
On the other hand, the predominance of b^^^wheat Canada blue gra^^ 
the daisy, five-finger, oats, paint-brush, potatoes, redtop, rye, sorrel and 
wild carrot, indicate soils relatively poor. ^r xl^ „;i*1 

In general, legumes indicate a good soil, although in case of the w^W 
legumes there are some exceptions to this. Soils on which the grasses 
predominate are generally better than those given over largely to the 
growth of sedges. The sedges in general indicate wet soils Golden-rod 
Ta common weed having a wide habitat. It grows on both poor and 

(62) 



i<4 



•^r,^ 



FERTILITY AND HOW TO MAINTAIN 



63 



good soils. The character of growth of this plant will suggest whether 
or not the soil is good or poor. On good soil it will have a rank and 
vigorous growth. The same may be true with other plants, but where 
nature is allowed to run her course and the law of 'Hhe survival of the 
fittest'' has free sway, those plants naturally best adapted to the region 
are the ones which will ultimately predominate. 

It should not be understood that any one species of plant should be 
relied upon to indicate whether or not a soil is good or poor, but when 
one takes into consideration all the vegetation present, one can then judge 
quite aQcurately as to the relative strength or fertility of the soil, i 

Drainage Reflected in Character of Vegetation.— The condition of 
the soil with reference to drainage is, of course, a modifying factor. Swamp 
soils, for example, are adapted only to those plants that can grow in the 
presence of an excess of moisture. So long as soils are in a- swanapy con- 
dition they are unsuited to agricultural crops, and in that condition may 
be considered unproductive. A good system of artificial drainage may 
change the whole aspect and cause them to be transformed into highly 
productive farm soils. Indeed, the establishment of a drainage system 
under such conditions would ultimately cause the disappearance of the 
native vegetation and encourage the encroachment of an entirely dif- 
ferent set of plants. Then, again, climate is a modifying factor, and 
certain plants are found in regions of continuous warm climate that are 
not found where cold winters prevail. 

Lime Content and Acidity Related to Plants.— The predonunance of 
chestnut trees as above indicated suggests a poor soil and one low in lime 
content. Chestnut trees are not found on limestone soils, and the lime- 
stone soils in general are considered among the most fertile. Such plants 
as the huckleberry, blueberry, cranberry and wintergreen are seldom found 
on soils well supplied with lime. Redtop, while often indicative of a poor 
soil, will grow luxuriantly on a fertile soil. It is also very tolerant of soil 
acidity and an excess of moisture. It has a wide adaptation and is often 
grown as a hay crop on poor soils. 

The presence of an abundance of sorrel, plantain and moss in culti- 
vated fields is indicative of the condition of the soil, although it may have 
no relation to the soluble plant food present. Such plants generally indi- 
cate an acid soil, and call for the application of lime to encourage the 
growth of clover. Sorrel, like clover, is generally benefited by lime, but 
iit is more tolerant of soil acidity than clover, and on an acid soil the clover 
disappears and the sorrel takes its place. Red clover is less tolerant of 
boil acidity than alsike clover. Many farmers make it a practice to mix 
[these two species of clover. On neutral soils the red clover will always 
lominate and the alsike will scarcely be noticeable. But if the acidity 
)f the soil approaches the limit for red clover, then the alsike will pre- 
lominate, and this predomination is very noticeable when the crop comes 
into blossom. 



lili 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



FERTILITY AND HOW TO MAINTAIN 



65 




1 



""" T. T7^^M-ln the irrigation districts of the semi-arid 

Vegetation and Alkali, ^n im img, ^ vpcetation often enables 
regions of the United States the character o^ J^JJ^'^ «\^^ ^^i^aline for 
one to determine at a glance ^"^^^^^^^^^ of and serves 
the production of staple crops. This f acU. ^U^^ ^^^^ ^^^ p^^, 

color is indicative of fertility o^ otherwise DU ^^ ^^ 

paratively consistent '"el^tf^^^ip between coM gr ^^^ ^^ 

Nearly all black soils are i'^'^^'^^^'^^'il^Z^ the 

have a yellowish cast - ^-^'yj^^^J^^: ,,,,, f,My fertile^ . The 

jiTr'^welf rthe s^oif ^x^rt. soon learns that color is a good index 

^n^r^e,twe?er, to look further than -rely - t^^^ 
the soil or the character of the vegetat o- S^^^^^^^^ J^ J ^.j .^ 

in connection with fertility. Th«[^^. J^^^Sath ilof a hght-colored, tena- 
black and where the ^-"^'^^'^^Ztttl^^^^^ productive for any con- 

^SA:^^:^^1^^^!^^^ ks serious fault 

'^""KeSuTLoS^W Plant Removal.-Loss of soil fertility by plant 
Fertdity Lost by in ultimately be replaced, either by 

removal is ^^^^f^.^^'^Z 'Zv^ thus removed in the form of unused 
the return of the ^^f^ff ' J\J™Pxcreta of the animals that consume the 
portions or by-products and the excreta o commercial fer- 

Sops. or by the P^''^^^^^;^ /ftmt! th^ plant food through 

tiUzers. In rationa ^f te^s ^^ a« ^^^ undesirable, and such removal 
the removal of crops is not to be consiae replaced at a 

should result in sufficien P-^^^^JVi^^^ grown. In the pre- 

cost less than the f "^ts receivexi t g elements potassium and phos- 
ceding chap - we fouM t^^^^^^^ td exhaustedTo such a degree as 
phorus are the only ones liKeiy t ^^^^^^ .^ ,^^g^ 

to necessitate replacement ^s a matter ot a P^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ j^^^^j^ 

quantities in most ^^/J^' ^"f ^'^^S brL '^^^^^ its availability. Many 

* • 



time the supply will be so nearly exhausted as to necessitate the return of 
this element to the soil in some commercial forni. In some soils it is 
•ilready necessary for most profitable crop production. 

^ Loss by Erosion.— The loss of soil fertility by erosion is more serious 
than the loss by plant removal. In this way there is not only a loss of 
pllnt food but a loss of a portion of the soil body itself. The millions of 
tons of finest soil particles and organic matter carried annually to the 
ocean by the rivers of the United States are a monument to careless soil 
management. This waste may be witnessed everywhere. The removal 
of the most fertile part of the soil is not only a loss to the soil, but is often 
a menace to navigable streams which are filled up with this material. An 
enormous expenditure on the part of our national government is necessary 
in dredging them out and making them again navigable. This erosion 
also becomes a menace to our great city water supplies, necessitating ex- 
pensive filter plants to remove the suspended matter and purify the water. 
It also frequently does damage to other land subject to overflow, and on 

which the deposits may be left. , . i • xu x 

The great problem, therefore, seems to be the control of the rain that 
falls upon the land. A portion of this may pass over the surface, carrying 
with it small amounts of the surface, which in the course of time has been 
largely exhausted of plant-food elements. This loss should be accom- 
panied by a renewal of the soil from below. The addition of new soil 
below should keep pace with the removal from the surface if permanent 
soil fertility is to be maintained. The remainder of the rainfall should 
find its way into the soil. A portion of this may pass off into the dramage 
waters removing certain soluble material that without such drainage 
might accumulate in the course of centuries to the detriment of plant 
growth Another portion should return to the surface, bringing with it 
the soluble constituents of the soil and leaving them near the surface for 

the use of growing plants. , -i i_ c 

Preventing Soil Erosion.— Water escaping from the soil by means ot 
underdrainage never carries with it any of the soil material other than 
the shght portions that are soluble. It is, therefore, essential to establish 
systems of farming that will enable a large proportion of the rainfall to 
penetrate the soil; and to remove the excess of water by underdramage 
when nature fails to provide such a system. Erosion may be largely pre- 
vented on most farms by deep plowing and by keeping the soil covered 
as much as possible with growing crops or their remains. Deep plowing 
encourages an increased penetration of the rainfall and, therefore, reduces 
the amount passing over the surface of the soil. The presence of growing 
plants retards the movement of surface water and holds back the soil 
particles. An abundance of roots in the soil helps to hold it together and 
prevent erosion. The application of barnyard and green manures 
also retards erosion. In some places terracing the soil to Prevent 
erosion becomes necessary, but it is a costly and cumbersome method 



I* 






I 



66 SUCC ESSFUL FARMING ' 

and not to be recommended where other and cheaper metliods can be 

"''"^Lands that are steep and subject to erosion should be kept covered 
with vegetation as fully as possible. Such lands should not be plowed 
in the fall and allowed to lie bare through the winter. 

Farming Systems that Maintain FertiUty.— Systems of farming which 
provide for a return of the largest possible proportion of the plant-food 
constituents removed in crops are those that most easily mamtam the 
fertility of the soil. It is, therefore, evident that livestock farming m 
general is least exhaustive of soil fertility, provided the excreta of the 
animals are carefully saved and returned to the soil In the rearing of 
animals for meat, about ninety per cent of the plant food consumed by 
the animals is voided in the liquid and soUd excreta. If this is carefully 
saved and returned to the soil, depletion of soil fertility will be exceed- 

inglv slow. , , , 

In dairy farming, where the milk is sold, a somewhat larger propor- 
tion of the plant food elements is sold from the farm. Even here the 
total amount is relatively small, and may be offset by the plant food in 
concentrates purchased for the dairy. If the milk is fed to pigs and 
calves and only the butter is sold, the exhaustion m the long run will be 
no greater than in meat production. It is, therefore evident that the 
type of farming is closely related to the maintenance of soil fertility, and 
those types which permit a maximum sale of cash crops cause the largest 
direct removal of plant food from the farm. All types of livestock farm- 
ing therefore, come closest to maintaining permanent fertility. 

' In new countries it is not an uncommon practice for farmers to dunip 
the manure from stables into a nearby stream in order to get rid of it. 
It is also a common practice to burn stacks of straw and the stubble of 
the field in order that the soil may be freed of rubbish and easily plowed 
and cultivated. Such practices are to be condemned, for in the long run 
they encourage soil depletion. Where land is cheap and fertUe and labor 
expensive, the immediate returns from applying manure may not justify 
the cost of its application, but in a long term of years it will prove profit- 
able A farmer should be far-sighted enough to calculate what the result 
will be in the course of a lifetime. There should be more profit m the 
removal of fifty crops in as many years where fertility has been main- 
tained or increased, and where the crop yields have increased, than there 
is in the removal of fifty crops with a constantly decreasing yield. In the 
first case the land is left in good condition for the succeeding generation; 
in the second case, in bad condition. 

Deep Plowing Advisable.— Fertility of the soil is generally improved 
by increasing the depth of plowing. It is a common observation that in 
regions of good farming where farmers are prosperous, the soil is generally 
plowed to a depth of seven to ten inches. In many portions of the South 
we find the one-mule plow that barely skims the surface of the soil, and 



FERTILITY AND HOW TO MAINTAIN 



67 



accompanying this we have the unsuccessful farmer. Plowing is an expen- 
sive operation. It is estimated that the power required annually to plow 
the farm land of the United States exceeds that used in the operation of 
all the mills and factories in the country. 

There is a Umit to the profitable depth of plowing, and numerous 
experiments indicate that it is seldom profitable to plow deeixir than 
eight to ten inches. There doubtless are some exceptions to this found in 
case of the production of intensive crops or the occasional deep plowing 
for the preparation of a deep-rooted crop like trees or alfalfa. Deep plow- 
ing increases fertility by increasing the area of pulverized soil in which 
the roots of the plants find pasturage. Such plowing increases the aera- 
tion of the soil, encourages the multiplication of bacteria to a greater depth 
in the soil, and results in increased availability of plant food. Deep plow-_ 
ing also incorporates the organic matter applied as manure or as the stubble 
of the preceding crop in a deeper stratum of soil, thus increasing its water- 
holding capacity. Deep plowing also increases the penetration of rainfall 
and provides for greater storage of it. This provides a larger water supply 
for the growing crops in periods of drought. . „ ,, • ^ 

TiUage is Manure.— Cultivation of the soil, and especially the inter- 
tillage of crops, such as corn, potatoes and truck crops, aids in mamtammg 
fertility: first, by conserving soil moisture; second, by more thorough 
aeration of the soil; third, by a fuller incorporation and distribution of 
the organic matter with the mineral matter; and fourth, by the destruc- 
tion of weeds which consume plant food and water to the detriment of 

the crop grown. , , , ■ . • e _i-ri,. 

Rotations are Helpful.— Crop rotations also help to maintain fertility. 

By means of rotating crops the soil may be occupied for longer periods of 
time than when one crop is planted year after year on the same soil. The 
roots of different crops, having very different habits, occupy somewhat 
different zones in the soil. A shallow-rooted crop may be advantageously 
followed by a deep-rooted one. One takes the major portion of its plant 
food from near the surface and the other from a somewhat lower stratum. 
All crops do not use mineral constituents in the same proportion. One 
which demands large amounts of nitrogen may appropriately follow one 
which has the power of gathering nitrogen from the air For example, 
corn appropriately follows clover, the corn benefiting by the mtrogen left 
in the soil by the roots and stubble of the clover crop. 

Rotations Reduce Diseases.— Rotations also make for fertility by 
checking the epidemics of plant diseases and the depredations of insects 
As a rule, a plant disease is common only to one crop and where that 
one crop is grown year after year on the same soil the disease increases 
until finally the crop must be abandoned. Many of the insect pests of crops 
either live permanently in the soil or have but little power of migration. 
These likewise prey upon certain crops and do not bother others, and the 
rotation of crops prevents serious injury by them. While these do not 



1 



■■( 



i 



gg S U CCE^SFUX_FA^M£NG 

___-_-__^^^ growth of crops, 

be grown greatly to the benf J ^e ^oU^ ^,,p j, not in pos- 

suitable plants occupying ^J^ ^"l^^lf i reason of the year, take up 
session. They make growth durmg the cool s ^^^^^ .^ ^^^ 

plant food as it is made ^^^^1^^^''' ^f ,„,„ jf Xwed under. In this way 
bo returned to the soil when such a crop is plowe^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

soil fertility by direct 
soil leaching and con- 
verts mineral plant 
food into an organic 
form which upon decay 
is more readily avail- 
able than it previously 
was. Such a crop also 
adds organic matter to 
the soil, increasing its 
power for holding water 
and being generally 
beneficial. Good ex- 
amples of cover-crops 
are crimson clover or a 
mixture of rye and 
winter vetch seeded in 
corn late in the sum- 
_ mer and occupying the 

• +„, q,u.h rroDS do not at all interfere with the 
soil during the winter, ^^^j^^^^^^^^^^^^ „,ost of their growth in the 

growth and maturity of the corn, ^^ey ^^^^_ 

Ste fall and early spring and n^^y be Plowed '^^der m aje^^^ P^ ^^^ 

ing a crop the following y^J' .f^^f J^^J^^g orthe soil is sUght, while 
South, where the winter, a^e mikl and eez>ng_^^ _^ ^^^^^^ 

^^i:^e^::^Z::.^^y ^ -d^^ after the removal of a truck 

^^°'^' T -...^oc* ^oil Nitroeen.— Of all the crops instrumental in 

Legumes In ease SoU N^^«f »' f^, ^^ese alone have the 

increasing «°;1 ^^f^^'^^^^^^^^^ of bacterid residing in the nodules 

power, through the instrumenta^^^^^ ^.^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^p^ 

on their roots, to ^"f'^^^l^^l^XmraeH, yet at the same time they leave 
are richer in protein than th^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^.^^ .^ ^^^i,,ble 

in the roots and stubble a arg ^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 
t^Xo^fTp evety foTr or five years is decidedly faulty. 

—T^;;;^ot the WUcoasm Agricultural Experiment StaUon. 



FERTILITY AND HOW TO MAINTAIN 



69 




Soil Febtiuty BarkklJ 
Illustrating the limiting factor in crop production. 



Drainage Increases FertiUty.-Fertility is increased by drainage, 

n^findprdrainaee which lowers the water table, increases aeration 
especially ^'^ f J^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^^ ^f pj^^t 

'""■ Manure is tbe Best Fertilizer.-Manures increase fertility by the 
J- . ^r+tni ofnlant food and by increasing the organic matter of the 
^T Srstc ea!e the waterLlding capacity of the soil, improve 
?ts phyS cTnltion! introduce various forms of bacteria and encourage 

^'^ ToSJS F:^Sr: Md ^^^^^^ Only.-Commercial fertilizers 

te more fully tousled under the »veral chapters pertammg to them, 
"""illfLtaittog F.ctor.-There is always a limiting factor in crop prc^ 

r wS tr s.»s^^^ ;-^^A^^ rt ai^ 

may be an excess. If water is the "m™ S capacity of the soil, 

rainfall during the crop season and the low ^^"^f^Xuld endeavor to 
The farmer has no control over the ^amff I, but he jhould « 
increase the water storage capa-ty^o^^^^^^ of tglnirmatTer! thorough 

i r^an-cet ^f t:Sr-Su; P^JjS' ^ >- 
the case, it is important that the larmer k „hosphatic fertilizer. 

ps;i:xrr gSr/ s^nt ^^^, ---' - r 

cropped with a four-year rotation of ^^o™, oats ^v^^^t ^^^ "u^ ^^ 

and timothy, will show a ^^^-^y declme m ^op^y^^^^^ ^^.^ ^^^ 

fertilizers are applied. Experiments with fertilizers on i 
for the crops mentioned show that when '^^^^^^J^'^'^^^^.^^or^s 
no effect. Potash applied alone is l^kewis^neffective. When p^ P^^^^^ 
is applied there is a marked increase in t^e yield of crops, ^ho p ^_, 
however, will not fully maintain the fertility of the soil. y 



SUCCESSFUL FARMIN^ 



70 



■^^ ■ r. • „r^„iiprl When the need 

for phosphorus is met, then f*^'^ !'^'°"'' ction with phosphorus with 
applicatfons of potash may ^e y-d;\co^^^^^^ ^ ^ limiting factor m 

p?oWle returns. I-^tm^^Sd ascertain the limiting factors^- 
crop production. ihe l^rmti economically, tie may 

his^crop production, and f;^- ^^^^^^^^^ that these will vary from 
find that there are several limiting lacw , 






FERTILITY AND HOW TO MAINTAIN 



71 



"Soils and Soil FertiUty." Whitson and Wakton. 

Expt. Station Relative to Soil Fertility. 
Farmers' BuUetins, U. S. Dept of Apiculture: 
342. '' Conservation of Soil Resources. 
406*. ''Soil Conservation." . ^ .^ „ 
421. "The Control of Blowing Soils. 
446 "The Choice of Crops for Alkali Land. 






.^♦'?S .v«<S, ;V^'/- 



'^0mi',f* 



~m-^ 



v:^^ 



{ 



I i 'I 



I 



i 



,■ to time- » the problem ot soil teriillty ta . »ever-,„dmg problem 
time to time, so tuc p , u„ve to contend. , , 

with which the farmer w^ ^l^^^^^^l^^i fertility is a problem of far- 
FertiUty an Econonuc Problem, ^ol ^ ^ .^ ^^^^^^j 

reaching economic i«;i^^^?^;„ J^dTorses equipment, seeds and land 
crop production are labor of men and h«rse q p ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

renL. These cost no -°- ^^^^e soUs are generally plowed and 
productivity. In fact, ^^e produ^ti ^^ ^^^ productivity. 

^yt^ntwl S Pdut oTe; ?hat required to meet the cost of 

production is profit. 

REFERENCES 

' ^ Soil Management/' King. „ ^^ 

* ' First Principles of Soil I er tiuty . > 









'J*-. 







COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



73 



I 



CHAPTER 4 

COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 

A fnl «f uflv of the condition of farming in the United States shows 

TZ 'alp:^ -'«.r.Hhough the amount required ia eo„,u„c.,o„ 

with nLral manures may be ""-PrJ":^!? '"^ „.„„ t„ms and the 

It is desirable to use ^i"""?!!,, dSe S is but natural, 

"■" ObS«d n.eoTconun.rci.1 Fer.iUzers.-The object of manuring 
the 2 wheThtr with stable manure, i.-« -■'- l^ZT^It 
''^-r rherurn:in:"St'p™durm':.st t m*'thai suffi^eient 
Kt^Ste ^^oTI^s or g^e^^PjJW^^^^^^^^^^ 

"b:'rr*tt rrtrrcS«: ts shou,d ,.. » net 

''%Z j:?t:£lX'utT«,m:e"S<ertili»,, in the United Staje, 

was ^nmf TXt ,L th»e w^ J^-J^thTiS "^ F^'m 
was followed the suceeedmg year by twenty t™es M / ^^j 

that date the ™[»*"°°J^.tllne ES era 1^^^^^^ «' ""T' 

its maximum and began to aecune oeij ^^^ 

Other '"'^'■'-\'"''\:iZlrv^^^^''^«o These, tocher with 
from Germany, have taken *»« f'"^?' " ^| ^ „[ cottonseed meal and 
the development of ""'Phosphate mines^the use continually 

the utiUsation «' /fshter-houj by-pr«tet.j^ ha^^^ ^^^^^.__^ 

increasing demand " «XesS *^^ i» '"» «« ^'*' 
?unTthe'pSTou*:S^Sng years have been a, follows: 

Value. 
Year. ' $28,500,000.00 

1879 38,500,000.00 

1889 54,750,000.00 

1899 112,000,000 .00 

1909 

4r u^ iHflP doubt but that this rate of increase in the 
^ oTSiSrwm lunt t'sle time to come. The subject . one 

^ (72) 



^ 

of much economic importance to farmers, and one which has received 
much time and attention on the part of investigators in the agricultural 
experiment stations of all the older agricultural states. Agricultural 
literature now contains a vast amount of data setting forth the results of 
experiments with fertilizers on different types of soil and for different 
crops, but there is still much to be learned relative to the subject. We 
will always have an acute fertilizer problem. This is due to the constantly 
changing conditions of the soil, resulting primarily from changed agri- 
cultural practices and especially from the treatment of the soil, which 
will gradually change its relationship to crops. 

What are Commercial Fertilizers?— In discussing the subject of 
fertilizers the terms manures, complete and incomplete manures, fertil- 
izers, chemical fertilizers, commercial fertilizers, natural fertilizers, arti- 
ficial fertilizers, indirect fertilizers, superphosphates, etc., are used, and 
there is often misunderstanding of the meaning of some of these terms. 
Fertilizers are first divided into natural and artificial. The former in- 
clude all the solid and liquid excrement of animals and gi-een manuring crops 
when plowed under for the benefit of the soil. . Artificial fertilizers include 
all commercial forms of fertilizers. These are sometimes called prepared 
fertilizers and chemical fertilizers, but are becoming more generally known 
as commercial fertilizers. A complete fertilizer contains the three essential 
plant-food constituents, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. An in- 
complete fertilizer contains only one or two of these. All animal manures 
are complete fertilizers. Green manures are likewise complete. 

A fertilizer is said to be indirect when it contains none of the essential 
plant-food elements, but in some way acts on the soil so as to increase the 
availability of plant food in the soil or increase crop growth. Lime, 
gypsum, salt and numerous other substances have been found to have 
this action and would be classed as indirect fertilizers. 

The terms high-grade and low-grade are also applied to fertihzers. 
These terms, however, are not well defined. High-grade fertilizers gen- 
erally contain large amounts of plant food per ton, while low-grade fer- 
tilizers contain relatively small amounts. Another distinction that is 
sometimes made is that fertilizers manufactured out of high-grade con- 
stituents, such as nitrate of soda, acid phosphate and muriate or sulphate 
of potash, are considered high-grade fertilizers regardless of the percentage 
of the elements. A high-grade fertilizer always costs more per ton than 
a low-grade one, but it is generally true that the elements in such a ferti - 
izer come cheaper to the farmer than they do in a low-grade material 
Whether it is more economical to purchase high-grade or low-grade ma.terial 
is an important question, but the answer is not difficult. AH fertihzers 
should be bought on the basis of their content of available plant food, and 
it is merely a problem in arithmetic to calculate the relative cost ot the 
elements in different grades of fertilizer. 

Where are Fertilizers Secured?— Fertilizer materials are to a large 



im\ 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



i J 



I 



*°« 'TrCT.™ ?„rtunXthe fertilizing element most needed 

secured chiefly trom extensive ucp t, supply is 

L-S^SJrto-i^e = f -r<?iv^r5::'h 

from the slaughter-houses of the country; also by basic slag, oy 

^ntloSTtfa^sLred almost exclusively ffom th- t^^^^^^^^^^ 
notash mfnes in Germany. Potash salts come to us m differen^ forms^ 
Sost of Tem have been manipulated and more - le- P^f ^^^^^^ 
one most exten jvely used is kno n ---W p^^^^^^^^^^ 

ICaTmeSless'r^r t Addition to these we have -e^of «;e 
crude PO-h s^ts suc^^^^^^^^^^^ dw^ 

TeXre^C^ovtt the Pacific Ocean off the coast of the Umted 
States and Canada' As yet these have not been extensively used as a 

""SltrirLtil'at'^^^^^^^ in the form of nitrate of soda, which 
Nitrogen IS avau^ y sulphate of ammonia, an extensive by- 

^;iur^m"cot o:Ltn°;rm th^e manufacture of a^fici. gy. As 

ih are cotrLeed meal, dried blood, tankage, fish scrap guano, casto 
^omte together with small amounts of horn, hair, feathers and wool 

""^^Carriers of Nitrogen.-Nitrate of soda (NaNO,) contains 15 per 
oent oSrogen Ris readily soluble in water, and nitrogen m this form 
LlmedSy available for plants. It should be applied in small quan- 
tViS^nd not long prior to the time plants most need their nitrogen supply. 
Subhate o^ammonia (NH,)m contains 20 per cent of nitrogen. 
Like nitrate of soda, it is quick acting, but for most crops the ammonia 
nJ,.^ fSt be converted into the nitrate form before it can be utilized. 
Tme SSls however can utilize ammonia as such. Sulphate o ammonia 
fs no^leaSed fToTt'he soil quite as rapidly as nitrate of soda, but never- 
tUt it should not be applied in larger Amounts than are necessary, 
nor far in advance of the needs of the crop. 

CoItoSeed meal is another source of nitrogen which is extensively 
.^.HtoTn the cotton belt. It contains from 3 to 8 per cent of nitrogen, 
S ^n average ofa^^ut 6.8 per cent. It is not wholly a nitrogenous 
Mizer Sit also contains an average of 2.9 per cent phoBphonc 
add and 18 per cent potash. The nitrogen in cottonseed meal bemg n 
^organic £, is rather slowly available. Availability is gradually 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



75 



brought about through decomposition. The nitrogen thus resulting is, 
therefore, distributed through a considerable period of time. It is often 
used as a part of the nitrogen supply for crops with a long growing season. 
Dried blood is also an organic source of nitrogen, containing on an 
average 10 per cent of this element. It is easily decomposed and some- 
what more available than nitrogen in cottonseed meal. 

Tankage contains nitrogen in variable quantities, ranging from 5 to 
12 per cent. It may also contain from 7 to 20 per cent of phosphoric 
acid. The nitrogen in tankage is slowly available. 

Forms of nitrogen that have more recently found their way into the 
market are cyanamide and hme nitrate. These are manufactured prod- 
ucts in which the nitrogen is secured directly from the air through certain 
chemical and electrical processes. The nitrogen in these forms is not 
so available as that in nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia, although 
it is considered more readily available than most of the organic forms. 

Phosphorus.— This constituent is available in the form of acid 
phosphate, which contains 14 to 16 per cent of phosphoric acid or 6 to 7 
per cent of phosphorus. Most of the phosphorus is in an available form 
Acid phosphate is made by treating a given bulk of finely pulverized 
phosphate rock with an equal weight of crude commercial sulphuric acid. 
The reaction that takes place makes the phosphorus available. It is 
this material that is chiefly used in the manufacture of complete com- 
mercial fertilizers. Phosphoric acid costs from four to five cents per 
pound in acid phosphate, depending on location and size of purchases. 
(As this goes to press, prices have advanced 25 to 30 per cent. Ihis 
advance is probably temporary.) , ,. , r xu 

There is now an increased tendency to make direct use of the raw 
rock phosphate in a finely pulverized form. Such rock contains the 
equivalent of 28 to 35 per cent of phosphoric acid, but it is m an insoluble 
form and can be economically used only on soils that are well supplied 
with organic matter or in conjunction with barnyard or stable manure 
and green manure crops. The general use of raw rock phosphate has not 
been advisable on the soils of the eastern and southern part of the Lnited 
States. On the other hand, the raw rock phosphate has given good results 
on the prairie soils of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and some other states. 
The cost of phosphoric acid in this form is equivalent to two cents per 

pound or a little less. , , . i j * 

Basic slag, sometimes known as Thomas Phosphate, is a by-product 

of steel mills which is finely ground and used as a source of phosphorus. 

It is similar to raw rock phosphate, slightly more available and contains 

the equivalent of 15 to 18 per cent of phosphoric acid. 

There are two types of bone meal on the market, raw bone and 

steamed bone. The raw bone is fresh bone which has been finely ground 

Raw bone contains about 20 per cent of phosphoric acid and 4 per cent 

of nitrogen. Bone which has the fat and gelatin removed by extracting 



i ^1 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



77 



1 



i 



I ii' 



76 

with stea. contains only ^^^^^J^:! :'':Z\:^ '^IT^^ 
r r^ltS'S i th^LfaTgelatin are removed it decon^posj 
t^:^::^pidly and - ^ttS^ToTbo^tS^^^^^^^^ 

''^toSssiul^^lMuriate of potash (KCl) the ch-f -urce of potas^ 
nontnins the equivalent of about 50 per cent of potash (K^O). It is the 
mSt common r^^^^^^ potash salt, consisting chiefly of potassium chloride^ 
T r« r^r satisfactory source of potash for all crops exceptmg tobacco 
lU^VaToL ThtlL, on accoLt of its -tents oj^^™' ^ 
t noor burn in tobacco used for smoking purposes. The chlorine is sup 
nosed to be sHghtly detrimental to starch formation, and for this reason 
The stlphate an^^ cibonate of potash - considered superior for ^^^^^^^^ 

Potassium sulphate also contains the equ valen of 50 per cent o 
potash (K,0). Kainite a low-grade material contains about 12 per 

''"*Woodies are a.so a source of potash. They contain about 6 per 
.pnt of this constituent, together with about 2 per cent of phosphoric 
S aL a Lge ~t'of Le. The availability of the potash m ashes 

'' "lorSsTf" Fertilizer Materials.-It is the common experience of 
farmers and investigators that the different carriers of nitrogen, phcs- 
DhOTUS and potassium behave differently on different soils, in different 
seasons and wfth different crops. Most fruit and tobacco growers 
recognize the difference in the different forms of potash although it is 
not clearly understood why these differences occur. 

Under present fertiUzer regulations dealers are required to st^te 
only the per^centage of the plant-food constituents - t^e fei^'^ J they 
offer for sale. It would be a wise provision if m addition to this they 
were required to state the source of the constituents as well as the per- 
centage This is especially important as relates to nitrogen, which varies 
Sy in its availability, depending on its source. Many mate ml 
containing essential elements are nearly worthless as sources of plant 
Sod because the form is not right. Plants are unable to make use of 
these materials because they are unavailable. Materials that do not 
show ^de variation in composition and in which the constituents are 
practically uniform in their action, may be regarded as standard m the 
Lnse that they can be depended upon to furnish practically the same 
amount and form of a constituent wherever secured. Among such standard 
materials may be considered nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, acid 
phosphate, muriate of potash, sulphate of potash and carbonate of potash. 
Relative Value of FertiUzer Ingredients.— A practical point, and one 
of importance to the farmer, is a reliable estimate of the relative value 
and usefulness of the various products that enter into commercial fertil- 



izers The relative rate of availability of a constituent in one carriCT as 
compared with its availability in another is the point at issue This 
determines the advantage or disadvantage of purchasing one or the other 
at ruling market prices. As yet definite relative values for all fertilizing 
materials have not been worked out. Furthermore, it is recognized that 
thev never can be worked out for conditions in general, because of the 
wide latitude in the conditions which affect availability. This problem 
is attacked by what is known as vegetative tests; that is, tests which 
. show the actual amounts of the constituents taken up from vanous sub- 
stances by plants when grown under identical conditions With nitrog- 
enous fertilizers, for example, the. results so far obtained indf ?*« Jl^at 
when nitrogen in nitrate of soda is rated at 100 per cent, that in blood 
and cottonseed meal are equal to about 70 per cent, that m dried and 
ground fish and hoof meal at 65 per cent, that in bone and tankage at 60 
per cent, and for leather and wool waste may range from as low as 2 per 

cent to as high as 30 per cent. • , • j f„^ii;,«r« 

The Composition of Fertilizers.— In the purchase of mixed fertihzers 
consumers should demand that they be accompanied by a guarantee 
This is essential because the purchaser is unable to determine the kind 
and proportion of the different materials entering into the mixture, either 

bv its appearance, weight or smell. . . , i j.- 

At present most of the states have on their statutes, laws regulating 
the manufacture and sale of commercial fertilizers. These require Jhat 
, the composition be plainly stated on the original packages o^ ™er 
The law also provides for the analysis of samples collected at any point 
and the publication of these analyses either by the state departments or 
by the state experiment stations. Such publications set forth the name 
oJ the brand of fertilizer and the name of the dealer or manufacturer, 
together ^th a statement of the analysis as given by the manufacturer 
^compared with that found by the official analysis InfringemenW 
the law relative to its provisions call for punishment ge";;;"^^^^^^^^ 
Under such a system of regulation there is now little danger of the farmer 
Sng cheatedTn the purchase of fertilizers so far as their composition is 

''"'"'mal' Analyses of FertiUzers Show.-The difference between a gocxl 
and inferior fertilizer is shown by a chemical analysis projidin^^^^^^ 
carried far enough to show both the amount and f orm o th^ <=onstitue^^^^ 
present. An analysis of a fertilizer which s^^^^/t^^,^ .'"^^ ^'e 
present chiefly as nitrates, the phosphorus as acid phosphate and the 
^tash as muriate of potash at once stamps such ^/^ft^h-^..^^^^^^^^ 
made up of high-grade materials. On the other hand, if the mtrogfi^ is 
Sund Kly in anorganic form and the phosphorus n an m-lubk ^rn, 
it is evident that the materials used are low-grade forms, and result m 
a slow-acting and sometimes unsatisfactory fertilizer. . , . 

Commercial vs. Agricultural Value of Manures.-Agricultural value 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 




i 



i 



1 



i 



78 

and commercial value as applied to fertilizers are not synonymous and 
should not be confused. The agricultural value is measured by the value 
of the increase in crops secured through the use of the fertil^er. The 
commercial value is determined by the trade conditions. It is based 
upon the composition of the fertilizer and the price per pound of the 
different forms of the several constituents that enter into it. Commercial 
value is merely a matter of arithmetic. Agricultural value vanes greatly 
and depends upon a number of factors, among which the knowledge of 

the farmer plays no small part. 

Mechanical Condition.— The mechanical condition of a commercial 
fertilizer deserves consideration by the farmer. The degree of pulveriza- 
tion controls the rate of solubility to no small extent. The finer the 
pulverization the more thorough can be the distribution made in the soil. 
The greater the number of points at which there are particles of fertilizer 
in the soil, the more rapid will be the solution and the diffusion of the 
plant-food material. Mechanical condition is also important from the 
standpoint of distribution through fertilizer drills. The material should 
be in what is known as a drillable condition. It should not only be 
thoroughly pulverized, but also should be sufficiently dry to feed through 
the mechanism of the drill at a uniform rate. Wet, sticky material clogs 
up the drill and causes faulty distribution. 

High-Grade vs. Low-Grade Fertilizers.— Thousands of tons of low- 
grade fertilizer are bought by farmers because the price is low, when, as 
a matter of fact, the same money invested m a lesser amount of high- 
grade fertilizer would have given them better results. Low-grade fertil- 
izers, as a rule, contain varying amounts of filler or inert matter. This 
sometimes constitutes as much as one-half the weight of the fertilizer. 
It costs just as much to provide bags and handle this material as it does 
the more active portion. Furthermore, the farmer pays for the bags 
and freight on this worthless material. At the same time, he hauls it 
from the railway station to his farm, unloads it and afterwards applies 
it to his fields with much more expenditure of time and effort than would 
be required for a smaller amount of high-grade material containing equally 

as much plant food. " • i * _x-i 

Use of Fertilizers.— The most economical use of commercial fertil- 
izers is secured only when a systematic crop rotation is practiced and 
the soil is maintained in good physical condition and well supplied with 
organic matter and moisture. The soil should contain sufficient lune to 
prevent the accumulation of acids, so that legumes such as clover will 
thrive. Every crop rotation should have a suitable legume occurring 
once every third to fifth year. The presence of legumes will lessen the 
necessity for nitrogen in the fertilizer. It is estimated that nitrogen can 
be secured through the growing of legumes at a cost of approximately 
four cents per pound, whereas it costs fifteen to twenty cents when pur- 
chased in a commercial form. 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



79 



Value of Crop Determines Rate of Fertilization.-Crops are divided 
• +« twrclasses w^th reference to the use of commercial fertilizers. The 
Sst cC Sudes thoTe crops having a comparatively low money value 
sich as hay and the general grain crops. Because of the low money value 

Hs TossMe to appfy only small amounts of f^^^'-^ P-^/^J app^^^^^ 
^ko necessary that the crops use as large a proportion of the appnea 
iXsTossible. The.Lpping system ^^-1^^ be arran^^^^^^^^ 

17 »uthcm part /the United State, c„wl»a,, »>y bea™, ^« P»<','fJ 

TJTo, th?»il1or ^i^XrUnarily it will be g™«n «vera, yea,. 
" "JSbte Products Justiiy Heavy Fertilizatio..-The Kcond cte 

Sr.:"'- ar t'ieVentage i-7- jj«ir ^^^tx 

when fertiU^era are applied to erop, of '»" 7^'J,™'';„rtion ct ti.e 
earl, truek crops, espeeially » "•" «'::^^;'2^™ekScr who ea„ get 
Atlantic seaboard or in the '"''"«™ ~,'rM k the one who receives 
Ws product in,« ^StXrS forp^-i of high quality, and 
the fancy prices. Such in.irKcts cdu o i growth. In such 

quality in many cases is determined ^^yJ^^^^ amU^nderness of the 
crops as lettuce, ^ff^^^^ Sgether with earliness, are often 
product are essential. Thchc qu^""^^' ^'^f , ,, character of soil on 
determined not only by the time «f P^^^'Xttlro^S^ used. 

which the crops are ^^f krm rf us£ f e^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ««'^^'^ 

We, therefore, find such farmers using iti u ^ ^ accelerate 

and well -PP^ ^* T * .Sfto fT^S^^''- » " f 

vegetative growth and to give qua j ^^ ^ 

nn'usuM to find truck 'ajme- appW — ^ ^ .^m^rLively small 
high-grade fertilizer. The «'»P J^ This calls tor a rotation of crops on 

and be benefited by the residual effect of the^fertiter^ ^^^^ .^ 



[ 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



81 



\ 



I 



price of a crop is m some <^^f^^J;*'™of the South that reach northern 
L early strawberries ^^j^^f ^^P^^e ^ J ten times as much per unit as 
markets very early are ^^^en wortt^ nve x ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

are the late strawberries and late potatoes grown . 

distance from markets. ^ . .. +„ c^n _in eeneral, fertilizers that 

Character of Fertilizer R^^^^ed \Sod. In ge^^ .^ ^^ ^.^^^ ,^^^^ 

stimulate the production o se^^ an^^^^^^^^^^^^ h combined with 

On poor land the elements that ^^^^^^ J^f \^ ^^ phosphates in a readily 
those that mature fruit may be used^ H^ghja^^^^^^ P ^^ ^^^ 

available form hasten maturity and increase P^ 

This is well illustrated ^n the fertil^ej- P^^^^^* ^^e ^^ 

Experiment Stations. As J^e oats and j i p ^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^.^^ ^^ 

these plats the visitor is -* "f^J^^'S Icid phosphate. Nitrogen 
ripening of those grown on P»f *« ^^f^f ;^^^^^^^ retards maturity. The 

tends to ^-J^ttTtaTeTw th^l^^^^^^^^^^ «/ f-^^" "^^*"^^^ 

r::ek^\tCslaSthanonthep^^^^^^^ , ,,,, ,„. 

In the use of ^^iTncr ai" a,'a^^^^^ be determined chiefly 
crease of crop and a profitable »««^^^^^' ; j ^here will be an increase m 
by the value of the crop grown J"^" J^j fertiUzer u.ed, but it 
yield accompanying an mcrease i^.the amount o ^^^^^^^ 

la fact that the first unit of apphcatum that is the h ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

composition of the fertihzer and ^J ™f j^^^^^ ^^^ application are 
xnechanical condition the economy of t^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^1,^ j,, 

portion to their content of «"/^ con tituents whe^^^^^^ ^^^ 

Siade that it meets the needs of he soil ^^^/JJ ^^ Jy^^^^^^ ohem- 

aKricultural value of these constituents ««P^"7^'3J„,^ ^j ^-ell-defined 



should also know the requirements of the plants with which he deals 
He may secure these facts in a general way from the state experiment 
StSn but the details can best be ascertained by actual field tests by 
fhP armer himself on his own farm. Such tests do not necessitate carefully 
tfd ouT Pll of a definite size. Farmers, as a rule, do not have the time 
Ind mtience to do much experimenting, neither do they have the train- 
f.?. exSence and facilities for such work; but any farmer may make 
rtir^omparTson of two or more kinds of fertilizers, or he may test the 
effic ency of any fertilizer ingredient, such as nitrogen potash or phos- 
T^^r on his soil This can be done by applying a different character 
KSizer through his fertihzer drill, whether it be attached to the corn 
Inter the potato planter or to the grain drill, to a definite number of 
^wf running clear through the field. This, if marked at one end of he 
7u hv Sakes is easily and readily compared at harvest time with the 
rows on Sther 's de t^ated with thJusual fertilizers or in the usual way 
Much can often be determined by observation, but more definite results 
Much can ""TV"^ • ^^e product of a certain number of rows 

:^Iu; t^a5 rSp^^ »£ » ^^ „».„,« .diacent treated ia 

*' TrapTd'Lwth and a <la,k-g«en color ot foliage indicate the preface 

upon those that have given him best results rse . ^ j 

mixtures should be tried «%\l"^f" ^^^^^fb^t er and r^^^^^^^^ 
r \i:iroSrX Z^ Z^lr^ Jaced upon the 
Tm^rtatTof itSinatl^- f 'ertil.e- Th. - ^e -omphshed 

through a definite cropping system '^"^^^ if-f^^'^eX needs of the 
and fertilizing worked out in such a way as be«t ^^ mee^^^^^^^^^^^ utilization 
soil and crops. It should take into account t>^ fullest posa 

of the home and local suppHes of f^^^^^^'-J^'^^^^^^^^ in a 

the general farm crops in Pennsylvania are most ^^'Jj'y g 
rotation consisting of corn, oats, wheat and two yea oj ^nix^d ^^ 
and timothy hay. On li-stone -Is ^^^^ crops calMor^^^^^^^^ ^^ 
treatment about as follows: lor the corn, o w 

acre should be applied and f PP^^^^'^^lH^Sr exce^i^^^^ soil is 
phate; to the oats ^f^Zl£i:Zs'^,^^:S^S^^^^^ -^ ^ 
S;ltfwSt.'350%rndrp:r ac^re of acid phosphate, 100 pounds 



i 



{»;^j¥^.)?(?;^Jai!i^>^;-^ 






l^''^'-i>'t^H>'v 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



83 



y 



82 

the clover following t^^J.^ i^n Jass may^^^^^^^^^ 

during the second year the land is f" ^^^ J^ [ ^^^^ phosphate, 150 

a complete fertilizer ^^J^^^^^^^f ^S^^ broad- 

tSSStS^^^^ tttXnhere it will be most fully 
"^^^"tt: ther^f rrfJment will be found to fit various localities 




Effect of Top Dressing Meadows with CoMMERaAL Fertiuzee. 
. On left, av<Ta«e y-^, 20M poun.U cuml hay pc^a^^^^ 

S^ai^on' ?r.1 WlrdTe^X^^^^^^^^^^ 350 pounds pet aere of 7-7-7 

fertUizer. Average of four consecutive years. 

. „ w = Thp details will be determined by local conditions, and 

ZX^^'^''^^^' irrilJed on the best practice Tor 
'■'' 'how to Dotormino Heeds of Soa.-The tertitor need, of a^ll are 
.cstSf 1 b. ap^.n. to t^ »« and fon e -P- ^^^^^ 

f°^ ""on 3 r^^^JivelS aSwe. by their powth and condition, 
to the soil, and »« «"!» f ' . „„„ practicable and satis- 

?:trr;ir„;:i';'tisirt:iid. a chcn,i^ ana,,sis of th. »»,, 



is thought by many to enable the farmer or the soil expert to judge as to 
the character of the fertilizer needed. This, however, is not the case, 
and such chemical analyses are as a rule of very little help in this respect. 
The chief difficulty with this method lies in the fact that such analyses 
do not determine the availability of the plant food present. Another 
method which is fairly satisfactory is to make pot tests with the soil in 
question and for the crops to be grown. Such tests may frequently be 
completed in a shorter period of time than can field tests. They are not, 
however, so satisfactory as field tests because the crops are not grown 
under field conditions. 




Effect of FuRTiuzEas on the Growth of Sweet Clover. 

Soil from virgin cut-over land in Pennsylvania. 
Ca— Lime. N— Nitrogen. P— Phosphorus. K— I otasli. 

Effect Modified by Soil and Crop.-The fertilizer to be used is deter- 
mined both by the needs of the soil and the crop grown. A commercial 
fertilizer is beneficial chiefly because of the plant-food elements it supp les. 
Its best action is accomplished when the soil is in good physical condition 
and when there is a good supply of moisture and organic matter The 
effect of a fertilizer under one set of soil conditions may be reversed when 
the conditions are materially changed. Under favoraUe conditions 
for example, nitrification in the soil might proceed with sufficient activity 
to supply a certain crop with all the nitrogen needed for normal growth 
The following season being cold and accompanied by an excess of moisture 
might result in slow nitrification, and this might materially din^mish the 
growth of the crop. In one case nitrogen m a readily available form 



^#-,. 






v<£ 


















.^M^ 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



83 



the clover following ^he ^^^'^^ "f ' J?l " *^^^ 

during the second year the land IS m^ass may ^^^^^^ y^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

a complete fertilizer «""^f ^"^jf,^if ^Lte of potash, applied broad- 
pounds nitrate of soda and 50 P^^^d^s^unate o p ^ ^^^^^^ 

cast early in the spring just as th f^^^J^^^^ '^J'^^^ ^^^rage farm and 
of treatment makes a place for f ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^ will be most fully 
provides for the application ot the leniuze 

^^^^'it£ the^S tfeXLt will be found to fit various localities 




EpPEc-r OK Top Duessinc. Mkadows with Commekcia. Fehtilizeb. 
. On loft, uvoa^o yi'll''/-^"'"! >';r;,!a:"um!''fi^tri- , , , 7 

ferliUzer Average of lour consecutive years. 
• u , f .= The details will be determined by local conditions, and 

best determmed by applying question directly 

kinds and ^-^^l^^f^ZjltZ-er^ their growSi and condition, 
to the soil and ^^ 7PXrVhave proven more practicable and satis- 
t:L^i^l'rX:^^^ deviled. A chemical analysis of the 3oil 



is thought by many to enable the farmer or the soil expert to judge as to 
the character of the fertilizer needed. This, however, is not the case, 
and such chemical analyses are as a rule of very little help in this respect. 
The chief difficulty with this method lies in the fact that such analyses 
do not determine the availability of the plant food present. Another 
method which is fairly satisfactory is to make pot tests with the soil in 
question and for "the crops to be grown. Such tests may frequently be 
completed in a shorter period of time than can field tests. They are not, 
however, so satisfactory as field tests because the crops are not grown 
under field conditions. 




Effect of Fkktiuzers on the Growth op Sweet Clover. 

Soil from virgin cut-over land in Pennsylvania. 
Ca— Lime. N— Nitrogen. P— Phosphoru.s. K— 1 o(a.sli. 

Effect Modified by Soil and Crop.-The fertilizer to be used is deter- 
mined both by the needs of the soil and the crop grown. A commercial 
fertilizer is beneficial chiefly because of the plant-food elements it supplies. 
Its best action is accomplished when the soil is in good physica condition 
and when there is a good supply of moisture and organic matter The 
effect of a fertilizer under one set of soil conditions may be reversed when 
the conditions are materially changed. Under favoraUe conditions 
for example, nitrification in the soil might proceed with sufficient activity 
to supply a certain crop with all the nitrogen needed for normal growth 
The following season being cold and accompanied by an excess of mpisture 
might result in slow nitrification, and this might materially dimmish the 
growth of the crop. In one case nitrogen in a readily available form 



mi^:. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



-i^Pf^ 













■-^>^, p.jL-.'-.\iJii'-i .. . .i. ... '■' 



'. ir .•ii>' ■- ■ '.V<J 







COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



85 




* 



fl 



« 



I 



g4 — . 

would be much more beneficial than i;; f ^f J^ic Jted^V^^^^^ Scl^t 
results obtained on ^-^ .'^^^^.^^^^jt^S --d type, difference in 

^^"-^rirt^Best Fertilizer -^^^1^^^^:^^^^ 
one, and is often asked by P^^^^^^™^^^^ ^Lwer it by tests such a. 
be given. The consumer of ^^''^^'f ^^^^^^f^" „„er the consumer should 
above suggested. In ^r^^lfn the llrgeS' amount of plant food 
select those fertilizers which ''^^f »^,,*f'^, j„Tmoney. Until a rational 
L suitable and available forms fo^^^he W ^^^^^ i^ safest to depend 
scheme of fertilizer t^e-^ment has beej^^esta^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^_^^^^^ 
UTXjn high-grade fertihzers used m rather urnii ^^^ 

Tteriafs aSi elements i:^^^^^::^^^:J,:^.rZ^er risk, especially 

results. „ ., cs- „ +V.O fpr+ilizer is determined by both 

Needs of Different Soils.-Smce the f^rtiUzeris^ ^ ^^^^^^^ 

soil and crop, the needs of the sod ^^^^TZttw hold under all - 
general way. There is no f f^f . ^*^*;"^^;*iity may be greatly bene- 

likely to need potash and mtrogen, while ^^JfJ f "" , j ^^^ 

uppUed with pish. There are ™ -cef m^^ ^^ow that soils vary 
Experiments at various experiment statioi^s^ ho ^^^ ^ 

widely in their fertilizer ^X^rsSs Vespond^t^^^^^^^^ of lime and 

inappUcable in another. Acid soils responu ''^ j u t^ose con- 

genmlly to available phosphates. Marshy soi^e^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

fisting chiefly of muck or peat, ^'■7;^^ ^^^^^/^^^^^^^^^ I a rule deficient 
times phosphoric acid '^'^^T; thISsSi e pho phates are economically 

This diBere-ce i. to to the P"n«« <" """f *« ^ ^ ftTpe-W of 

length of '•'I'^^lZZS'^t^^-^^'^L.^^^iLoi the 
the season when it makes its cniei 8 ' ^ ^ ^ systems. Plants 



form Those which grow slowly and take a long time to mature can 
utilize the more difficultly available forms of plant food. These facts 
explain why plants differ in their requirements. 

FertiUzers for Cereals and Grasses.— The cereals and grasses (Indian 
corn excepted) are similar in habits of growth and are distinguished by 
having extensive, fibrous root systems. They require comparatively 
long periods of gfowth, and this enables them to extract mineral food 
from comparatively insoluble sources. As a rule however these crops 
make the major portion of their vegetative growth during the cool part 
of the growing season. During this period nitrification is comparatively 
slow- consequently, such crops need readily available nitrogen and respond 
to Te'rtmzers containing some nitrogen. This demands the application 

















• 






j 






^ 












i 


















mk^Mk. A^ 












.. 






J 


.i^mm * '"".'■I!"' 


..«'->■ ♦!(•''« ■■ 


vf' • :- 




!*■ 






...V^JOK-!^*-*- 


A %-i 




.': ■'*"! 




. . -xj^v^ • 








M 




I^^^^H HN^.^S 


.':*V-r 






' " ' . • 


t; 


■«. 


<m 




%• 1 


« 



x,;«^ 1^. 









'■^:t^:. 



,-.5n:i-*r- <S^*^.- 



r,r.-- . »-• 



Effect of Commercial Fertiuzeb on Wheat on a Poor Soil. 
A complete fertilizer on the left, no fertilizer in center. 

Of nitrogen in a readily available form, preferably just at the beginning 

"'T^l;rRil'JJrKgen.-The clovers, peas, beans, vetches 
and fnfaTneariyTthe crops that belong to the family of legumes have 

Srowefunler proper .oil 'conditions *«. ;«l-^^-JSe?'"Th ; 
air- conseauently, such crops require no nitrogen in the fertilizer, iney 
use reLTvermSe potash than most other forage crops; consequent y 
th mLeial f'ertilizers'with a rather high Vro^^r^on^/^U^ ^^^^^Z 
most beneficial. Corn is a rather gross feeder, ^^^'''Tj\r'£^^^^^ 

major portion of its vegetative growth in t^^^T" JJ^'^^ "i to £pTy 
ing seLn when nitrification is e^Pecially.active it seldom pays t^^^^^^ 
much nitrogen to it. Furthermore, corn is able to make use of relatively 
insoluble phosphorus and potash. 



Br-'fx^-:^:. 









COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



85 



i 



04 — - 

— TTTT-i •„ ti.o other In the same way the 

would be much more ^^-f'^'-^'^T.'l^XX^c.ied on the adjacent 
results obtained on ^^f . ^'^7\ " '^ f jtrmati^^^ and type, difference in 

^'^-X^rSr Best Fertilizer -^^^1^::^^^:^^^^^ 
one, and is often asked by ^^^^^^he^ answer it by tests sux,h a. 
be given. The consumer of ^'■''^'^'^^1^^,^^^^, the consumer should 

a W suggested. In a ^^r^^. X'^the ITges ' amount of plant food 
select those fertilizers which ^ontam the larg ^ ^^^.^^^j 

n suitable and available forms ^^^ the kas^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^ 

scheme of fertilizer treatment ^^ J^^/'^j;^^^^^^^ amounts. Low-grade 
upon high-grade fertilizers used m rather limite ^ ^^^ 

S^riafs aLl elements ^-^^^^f ^i^^^^^^^ risk, especially 

results. „ ., c!- „„ +v.«. fertilizer is determined by both 

Needs of Different Soils.-^mce the fertilizer ^ ^^^^^^ 

soil and crop, the needs of t^ie^sm «- ^^/^f ™:^ hold under all ^ 
general way. There is no .f fi^'^S^^^^'^^i^^a^^^^ ^ay be greatly bene- 

Ukely to need potash ^^l^f^^f^;J,,^,,^tdns to this rule, 
supplied with potash. Ihere are som^ ^^ntions show that soils vary 
Experiments at various '^^V^'l'^'''^''f^ll^^r.e\ocaUymayhe 
widely in their fertilizer requirement.^ m^^^ ^^ ^.^^ ,„d 

inapplicable in another. Acid soils i^^P"" ' especially those con- 

generally to available phosphates. M^/^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^? tash and some- 
fisting chiefly of ^-^^ Z^^t''''TT^^^oSL L a rule deficient 
times phosphoric acid '^"^^'™*:- . 'j^oluble phosphates are economically 
in phosphorus, and on such ^^^^ ^^X^^^t^j;^^ the failure of clover 

used. The need for hme is ^^^^^^^^.^^^^^ is likely to be 

and the.encroachn.nt of^^^^^^^^^ ,,,pped, especially if 

needed m soils that nave oii^ ^^^ 

hay and straw have been -« fro'n^he ^^ SeTrertiH-^ requirement. 

Crop R^^l^^^T^f-Tu^Xote for which the crop is grown, to the 
This difference is due to the PU'^PO^^;*!'/ , and to the period of 

length of ^^l^'^r^ ^.TS SfoXloZZ composition of the 
the season when it makes its chief ^owtn pj^^^^ 



form Those which grow slowly and take a long time to mature can 
utilize the more difficultly available forms of plant food. These facts 
explain why plants differ in their requirements. 

FertiUzers for Cereals and Grasses.— The cereals and grasses (Indian 
corn excepted) are similar in habits of growth and are distinguished by 
having extensive, fibrous root systems. They require comparatively 
long periods of growth, and this enables them to extract mineral food 
from comparatively insoluble sources. As a rule, however these crops 
make the major portion of their vegetative growth during the cool part 
of the growing season. During this period nitrification is comparatively 
slow; consequently, such crops need readily available nitrogen and respond 
Jo fertilizers containing some nitrogen. This demands the application 




Effect of Commercial Fertilizer on Wheat on a Poor Soil. 
A complete fertilizer on the left, no fertilizer in center. 

Of nitrogen in a readily available form, preferably just at the beginning 

"^Tgt;?CV:N:Sen.-The clovers, peas, beans, vetches 
.nd in facT nearly all the crops that belong to the fanuly of legumes have 
the rowefun'der proper .oil'conditions to utilize ^^ jt^gen -^^^^^^ 
air- conseauently, such crops require no nitrogen in the fertihzer. iney 
use reLtTvek mSe potash than most other forage crops; consequent y, 
t itil tSrs^with a rather high proportion of Pjt-h are g^^^^^^^^^^^ 
most beneficial. Corn is a rather gross feeder, ^^;^ since it .^^^^^^^ 
maior portion of its vegetative growth in the warmer portion of the grow 
major PO"ion »' ^Hrifirntion is especially active, it seldom pays to apply 
ing season when nitrincation is ehpeuiciiij a.v , , -pi.ij^oiv 

much nitrogen to it. Furthermore, corn is able to make use of relatively 
insoluble phosphorus and potash. 






.m 





i! 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



87 




gg S U CCESSFUL_FARMING_ 

regarded as a class that, because of thei; ^ab^*^^^^^ Seir profitable growth 

Orchard trees are as a rule slow f^^^^^^^^^^^Zleled it may, 
fertUizers. In old orchards ^^at je laye and^^^^ P ^^ ^^^ -^ 

however, be good Practice to use the eachl^ ^c^hib ^^^ ^^^^^^^ -^ ^^^^^^ 

order that it may be ^J^f,4f,;*^'Xre orchards are manured from the 
wth the zones of root activity. "' "^^^n , illed barnyard manure and 
beginning, and especially where they are^n^^^^^ ^^^ 

the more difficultly soluble forms of fertih^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^j 

The fertilizer '•equ^ements of smalMruits ^^^^^_ ^^^_ 

^^ "Stogen Needed for ^i^^^^S;^^^^^^^^ 
especially those grown for ^^^^^J^^^^^^^^? her the value of the crop 
applications of Z'tXrZZe t^^^W^^on. of nitrogen that may 
per unvt of weight the J^'-g^J ^^^^^^^^ Jl^^^ eabbage, beets, peas, etc., 
be used economically. In sucn c^op^ remunerative 

^^JS>^:' -S S:rr Ja-To. av.,.Me .... . 

experiment, with terti.i.;r,^l.- ~ ^n- Co«o„ - P'»„„, (.^i,,^,; 

promptly and profitably to J«""™"» ^| ^nj, ^ increase the 

should hasten «>e rt""* "l^'wrown. In recent year, it has be- 
climatic area m which cotton "'»>' =* S'"" ,,|, j^e cotton boll weevil, 
come of great importance '" ""X'uhes.aLon its numbers becoming 

This ins«* ->*1^ --* Setl* ItTeeds on the cotton b* 
very great in the latter Par^ " ^ j j g numerous at that 

When the bolls are matured '.^^l' y^^^^^^J^ ^^ than when they 

season, a larger proportion of ^^f^^^^"^^^^^^^^^ nitrogen, soluble phos- 

mature late. The ^^^^^''^'ZZMJ^iermLrior Jion has not been 
phoric acid and potash m a ^^^P^'tl^^Xr Georgia are nitrogen 1, 
determined with entire accuracy Jh-e^^or^.^^^ J^^^^^^ ^ ^^ 

Pf "'. * '• t"S and for^genemruse nitrogen 1, potash 1, phosphoric 
£& SUI I^rhTpt approximate reasonable accuracy. 



The amount of fertilizer which may be profitably used varies widely 
with the season, nature of soil and other circumstances. On an average 
the maximum amounts indicated for Georgia are nitrogen 20 pounds, 
potash 20 pounds, phosphoric acid 70 pounds; those for South Caroling, 
nitrogen 20 pounds, potash 15 pounds, phosphoric acid 50 pounds. 

Miscellaneous Fertilizer Facts. — Wheat, to which a moderate 
amount of manure has been applied, will not need additional nitrogen. 
In most cases the manure can be profitably supplemented with phos- 
phoric acid, and on some soils a small amount of potash may be included. 
When the wheat field is seeded to clover and grass which is to be left 
down for hay, the phosphoric acid and potash in the fertilizer should be 

increased somewhat. 

Oats as a rule receive no commercial fertilizer. On soils low in fertil- 
ity small applications of readily soluble nitrogen and phosphoric acid 
applied at seeding time are advisable. Winter oats, grown mostly in the 
South, are generally fertiUzed with light applications of phosphorus and 
potash when seeded in the fall, and are top dressed with nitrate of soda 

in the spring. 

For tobacco, barnyard manure occupies a leading position as a fer- 
tilizer, both because of its cheapness and effectiveness. When manure 
is not available in sufficient quantities commercial fertilizers are frequently 
resorted to. In fact, the manure is often supplemented with commercial 
fertilizers. This crop generally requires a complete fertilizer. Cotton- 
seed meal is frequently used as a source of nitrogen for tobacco. How- 
ever, manure is not used for bright tobacco and only very small amounts 
of cottonseed meal are used. 

When nitrogen is required by a crop having a long growing season 
it is generally advisable to combine it in two forms, one readily available 
as nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia, the other in an organic form, 
as dried blood or cottonseed meal. Where nitrate of soda is depended 
upon entirely, two or more applications may be given during the growing 
season. This is applicable to open, leachy soils, but is not essential on 

heavy soils. , 

Effect of Fertilizers on Proportion of Straw to Gram.— i he pro- 
portion of straw to grain is influenced by season, soil and character of 
fertilizer At the Pennsylvania Experiment Station, in a test extending 
through many years, it was found that for twenty-four different fertilizers 
applied there were produced 52 pounds of stover for each 70 pounds of 
ear corn. The average proportion for seven complete fertilizers was 55.4 
pounds stover to 70 pounds corn. Barnyard manure gave 47.6 pounds 
stover to 70 pounds corn, while a complete fertilizer containing dried 
blood gave 58 pounds stover to 70 pounds corn. In case of oats, the 
largest relative yield of straw was from barnyard manure. The average 
for twenty-four different fertilizers was 45 pounds straw per bushel of 
oats. The average for seven complete fertilizers was 42 pounds straw 



Ai 




SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



It 



I 



88 . , 

' — TTi „^;^r, nf «traw will be increased 

of both oats and wheat There is oiten ^^^^^ matunty. 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



89 




Sox. Fehtxutv Plats, Peknsvlvanxx AcKicr.^^HM. Expekxment Stxtxok. 



On left, 320 pounds land plaster. 
KhraSd bone-black, containing 48 pounds phosphoric acid and muriate 
of potash 200 pounds. 

the kernel,. A P'«P-* "-"ttSr^'theS'; T^nlS."' 
Principles Lrovenmi^ fprtilizer for soils or crops cannot be 

s*iJ^, r "trif cef t;^Si^^:'i:^, 
i;-r;r;;:*:T":, rro;;%i? of .he a«p ^ «„*, *« 



f 

I 



■^int of fertilizer that can be profitably used. This principle is well 
Strated in an experiment with fertilizers used in different amounts on 

Hon at the Georgia Experiment Station. In this experiment a fertihzer 
vS at aW $20 per\on was applied in amounts valued at $ $8 

?«i9ner acre respectively. As an average of three years with these 
iSns the incSe m lint and seed, respectively resulting from the 
app icat ons lo ^^^ ^21.17, the percentage of 

^£^^ZS:e::X tl fertiliz;rs being 153, 96 and 76 for the three 

,int^ resoectivelv These results coincide with the principle above 

amount- respectively^ experiment the increase in yield of seed cotton for 

Soounds of fertihzer was 281 pounds. The increase for 800 pounds 
400 pounds ot ler. ^^ ^3^ ^^^^^ ^he 

rn^a^e for 1200 poinds wi: not three Umes 281, which would equal ^3 
ncrease lor i^u 1 smallest amount of fertilizer produced 

the Cstttum orth^^^^^^^^^ in fertihzer, although the larg^t 

r 1 J il^^ Inhnr and every expense connected with the cost 01 cuiti 
of land, seed, abor ana every y ^^^^^ jj 

vation and V^f^^^.^^^'^f'f^^l^l^rii^^^^ $150, or lOf 

his profit without fert.hzer IS g^PJ/^^S^y.^e aWe experiment and 

-Jh^e rmfci^j" r; -^|ll he be Justified in reducing his acre- 
age in order to purchase fertilizers? 
By inspection we find : 



Acres. 



50.... 
43.75 
38.9. 
35... 



Cost of 

Growing 

One Acre. 



$28.00 

32.00 
36.00 
40.00 




$1,400.00 
1,400.00 
1,400.00 
1,400.00 



Profit 
per Acre 



$3.00 

9.11 

10.69 

12.17 




Per Cent 

on 

Investment. 



$150.00 
398 . 56 
415.84 
425.00 



10.7 
28.4 
29.7 
30.3 



The increased cost per acre repre^nts the a d. K,n o fe^ iz^^^^^^^^ the 
amount of ^f^'^^^'^^rt^l^^^^^^ -res well fertilized, 
Z"r.C\^o^^ol :a;r investe'dfs 30| instead of 10| where no 

fertilizer was to be "sed. j^^ ^^ ly commercial 

When to Apply Fertilizers, i ne nine c. fert hzer, 

fertilizer will be determined by the needs of the crop, kind 






SUCCESSFUL FARMIN_G___ 



; JTv^ronortimTof straw will be increased 

iTS-rcr ir^r:^uc&«on c .* «... ^ ^...^ 

by liberal supplies of phosphoric ''^"^- . , in,portance in the growing 

This is a matter of <'^!^^,^^:X^J^a tendency for these 
of both oats and wheat. Thtre is oiien ^^^^^^^ maturity, 

crops to produce vegetative growth ^ at t^e^ raw ^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^^ 

This makes harvesting of the crops ^^h machinery ^^^^.^^ 

out the clover and grasses that ^^JJ^f J^^fgrain and maturing of 
also prevents satisfactory filhng of. the heaas ox y 

=r. 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



89 




Sox. FKKTXUTV P..TS, PeNNSV.VAKX. Ac.KXCt™... EXPKHXMEKT ST.TXOK. 



On left, 320 pounds land plaster. 

8rShrdSKbo„e.blaek, containing 48 poun<l« phosphoric acid and n.ur.ate 
of potash 200 pounds. 

*e kernels. A P-P^* ""f^ tht'^ " theS: TrS."' 

available constituents m *| »■' '» '"'i!! rf pertSers.-Definite rules 

Principles Goverrung P'»f'f!« "»;.,» f^Z^o, crops cannot be 

«ve to -"-■;^^»"^„^''„^S ; i efillrthM should aj.s be taken 
laid down, but there are cei taui i i fpvtiUzers. In general, 

into consideration in e"™" !<•" "f *' 7J aS^ S^^^ ter- 

the higher the acre vsjue of ''''J™""™ ^riS that will hold even 

*in^tr';Lip.ew^^^^^^^ 

Si^rtr;Nri*rn:n;%l?o. the a«p the smaller the 



■"TTTXrtilizer that can be profitably used. This prxnciple is well 
Sid in afeieriment with fertilizers used in different amounts on 
illustratea in an . ^ ^^^^^^^^ i^ this experiment a fertilizer 

cotton^ at the Georgia ^xpe ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ 

""^.12 pef at respStiveir^ an average of three years with these 
ications the incre^ase in iLt and seed, respectively resulting from the 
app heat ons xa ^^^ ^21.17, the percentage of 

''''^ro.r?^ inveJtm"^^ t fertiUz;rs being 153, 96 and 76 for the three 
"^ Lu esx>eXelv These results coincide with the principle above 
amounts ^esP^f ^^^^^^^^ experiment the increase in yield of seed cotton for 

S pound^ of fSer wa. 281 pounds. The increase for 800 pounds 
4UU Po^nus ^^^ ^^j 43(j pounds. The 

was not. f;;^;J^^^ ™^^^^^ three imes 281, which would equal 843 
that it might nave uet^ii p although the percentage 

of land, seed, abor ana every t i ^^ ^^^^^ j^ 

ShS ^e^T.:? V"::*- Jh f S Sc llSeS . reduLg k. acre- 
age in order to purchase fertilizers? 
By inspection we find : 



Acres. 



50.... 
43.75 
38.9. 
35... 



Cost of 

Growing 

Oue Acre. 



Total 
Cost. 



$28.00 
32.00 
36.00 
40.00 



$1,400.00 
1,400.00 
1,400.00 
1,400.00 



Profit 
per Acre. 



$3.00 

9.11 

10.69 

12.17 



Total 
Profit. 



$150.00 

398 . 56 
415.84 
425.00 



Per Cent 

on 

Investment. 


10.7 

28.4 
29.7 
30.3 



The incre^ cost per acre .pre.nts the add, ,o„ o ert .». Jo tke 
amount of H « »"' , ^^^J % grling t a'cres well fertihsed, 
risTrnt^^Pr^hfon JaplStvestc^d fs 30| instead o. lOJ where no 

fertilizer was to be used. , . , ^ ]„ commercial 

When to Apply FertiUzer^.-The tune a which to pp^y^^ ^^^.^.^^^^ 

fertilizer will bo determined by the needs of the croj , 






INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



91 



successful/farming 



90 ^ :; T; TITI^^ce of the farmer 

S the economy to «>*'* . ,! ;f™d Fertitois that are read* 

planting and »"?, T, *« P"P»" *'*"*'''° °' *M Ci » 

Su"X. U ae ~r,Sr«^in t* ee7 of the »eds, they «.» Ij 
seeds equals the concentration witwn in germination and 

!Zble to absorb water from the soil. Th s m"! P . ^„ ply large 

S*ti: seed to rot. /" 4^« "S^ioL '!"""' ^r"!'?! m« 
annlicalions in this way. """f .PL , „der that the tertihiers rnay 
?toe?n advance of seeding or .P'*"','"* " °",be soil. Another nicthod 
t,™ e ^me uniformly disseminated througn' j ^^^ ,t „,th 

:»— use is to ^~^-^lP:ri°tl.» aP^Ued through the^^-^ 
+V.P ^oil bv harrowing. Ihe remaiuu previously noted, solupie 

tr ichment of the -eding machme Y As^P-.^^ ^ 
nhrates may be advantageously appledjus especially applicable 

t^^J. in n^ of a™ * ™^°„, ,1^ , eoncemed, the potash 

Readily soluble fert.te- "« S" hi the spring, iust as the grass i. 
land and should be applied ve^ early m » ^ ^ee^^ge the growth 
Tarting to grow.. J^L'^Jn iSali. heluse'^the fert^r must be 
tZ^tl SfsoU brrafn^ -order to be brought into contact with 

'"''organic fertili.rs and 5-»i;^.r"«Td.»-^«oSrtS 
r ;°setSteriSrst^^Pord:.%e.^hou,d have time . disappear 

before the crop is started ^ j i^g fertilizer depends 

Methods of AppUcation.-The mann p j^rtilizer, the amount 

on a number of conditions f^P^f^^^^yJ^^^^^^ of its tillage. It is 
Z be used, the character of the ^l^^^^";;^^^^^,,,, acid in that portion 
a good practice to distribute the potash an p i .^ ^^^ abundant. 

hh ii^MiS Cstf ^S £s"ct r »cs; 

:lS:a«Xr'er;jH J'lUrr.ts are destroyed. At other 



Vo5 



cp«,ons it is likely to be so dry that roots cannot grow in it. Plant food 
d^sTttfe good so long as it remains at the surface. It is not so e^entia 
to put the soluble nitrates in this lower zone because there is a great 
tpndencv for them to pass downward in the soil. , ^ j • w« 

Where very small applications are used it is often thought advisaUe 
to deposit the fertilizer with the seed or plant in order that it may have 
„n abundance of plant food at the very outset. This method stimulates 
trXtTn its early stages of growth. It is probably more apphcaWe 
to c?ops that are seeded or planted very early when the ground is cold 

'^' tl^^^^Zre are two methods of applying fertUizers 
Fxoer^ments at the Georgia Experiment Station have shown that the 
f^lTJnown as "bedding on the fertilizer" has given better results 
ri applying the feSzer 'through the fertilizer drill at time of seedmg 
.oUon In the first method the fertilizer is distributed over the bottom 

S= L^ettfdetSr a?^tn- spmlf M 

"'^Sif rFSi;ers.-The concentrated high-grade fertilizer 
„.ateS ;Sesstily command a higher price than low-grade materia^, 
and those containing small amounts of Pl-t fo^^^^^^^^ A^ a nx the h g^^ 

he amount'^or form of plant-food eonstituen^ they con^n H^ hould 
bear in mind that he is not buying ^^^.^^^^^f *' ^j\tt fSzTrs that 
one or more of the plant-food ''"^^^^"^"^y'tLe^^^^^ at the 

are richest in Pl^^V^ThTs is'obXus from what haL been previously 
lowest cost per unit. This is «''^;°"^, J'"'' . ...dling and shipping fer- 
said relative to the costs of '".^""^^f^™; ~ ret^l versus 

tilizers. It is well also to '^^"f -^^^/^.^nJ^^a e^^^^^^ passes through 
wholesale rates on fertihzers. J^^^^'^'^XTthe consumer Each dealer 
the greater will be its cost ^^en it reaches th^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

must of necessity ^^^^^^^^^ ^itZtS^^eLna additional labor 
and small consignments call for '"g'ler [eig increased 

in making out bills and collecting accounts, ihese allien 

expense. . t„ndpnpv on the part of farmers to co- 

There is now an ^^'''.^f,^^^'''Z Tml the character of fertilizer 
operate in the purchase of fertilizers. J^« ^ , j j^^ ^u jn general 
that best meets the needs of a farmer ^'^ ^ J^^^ \^^^^^^^^ to com- 

be a good fertilizer for his neighbors. I* »« j^^^^^^^^^^^^ f^om the manu- 
bine and purchase their ferti hzers ^'^. .«^f °i'«*'d ^^^^^^ freight 

facturer. saving the profit of the ->J^ ^man and ge^^^^^^^^ ^^.^ 

rates which will very materially reduce the cost o 

« 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



>it 



'l| 



1 



92 

down at their railway stations. Such co-operation in buying will gen- 
eraTly iVad to a discussion of the merits of the different brands of fertihzers 
and in this way the purchase is generally based upon the combined 
judgment of the co-operating farmers instead of on an individual farmer 
if by chance a diverlty of crops and soils of the neighborhood is such 
that different brands are required, there will be no difficulty m havmg 
several brands shipped in the same car. 

It is also wise to purchase early and avoid the rush which often 
causes a delay in shipments in the rush season T^en *oo, ,^[ ^ °';^,73 
enable the farmer to plan more definitely relative *« ^^^^ff"^ '^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
and give more careful consideration to the brand most likely to meet h s 
needs In this way he is enabled to receive and haul his fertilizer to h s 
?arm at a time when the field work does not demand the time of himself 

^"^ ItT^also well to consider the relative advantages of buying mixed 
fertilizers as compared with the unmixed goods. In the n^t"J« f ^^'^g 
the manufacturer with his well-equipped p ant should be able to mix 
fertihzers more thoroughly and economically than the Earner i his 
however, is not always done, since the farmer can frequentlj-^tihze labor for 
mixing fertilizers when it would otherwise be unemployed. The advantages 
of buying unmixed goods are that the farmer can make the mixture 
that in his judgment will best meet his needs^ He may not be able to 
secure- on the market just such a mixture. Furthermore, it will enable 
him to make different mixtures and try them on his soil and for his crops 
with the view of gaining information relative to the character of fertilizer 
that will best meet his future needs. , 

Home Mixing of Fertilizers.— The home mixmg of fertilizers demands 
on the part of the farmer a fair knowledge of fertilizers and the needs of 
soils and crops. Without this, he had probably best depend upon ready 
mbced goods such a.s are recommended for his conditions. Furthermore, 
much will depend upon whether or not he can purchase a fertilizer the 
composition of which, in his judgment, is what he should have, arid also 
whether or not there would be much saving in buying unmixed goods 
when the additional labor of mixing is taken into account. Such a practice 
is likely to be economical only when the fertilizers are used rather exten- 
sively Where only a few hundred pounds are used by the farmer it will 
generally not be advisable for him to attempt to mix his own fertilizer. 

So far as the mechanical process is concerned, fertilizers can be 
mixed by the farmer on the farm very satisfactorily. It does not require 
a mechanical mixer, although this may be economical when it is done on 
a large scale. When the unmixed goods are in good mechanical condition, 
as they should be, definite weights or measures of the different constitu- 
ents may be placed on a tight barn floor and shoveled over a number of 
times until the mixture takes on a uniform color. It is advisable to empty 
not more than 400 to 600 pounds at one time. It can be more thoroughly 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 



93 



mixed in small quantities. A hoe and square-pointed shovel are best 
suited for the mixing. A broom and an ordinary 2 by 6 foot sand screen 
with three meshes to the inch are all that are necessary. This assumes 
that the fertilizer comes in bags of definite weight, and that by putting 
in one bag of one ingredient and two or three of another, etc., a proper 
proportion can be secured. Greater exactness can, of course, be obtained 
by using platform scales and weighing roughly the amounts of the different 
kinds that are brought together. It is suggested that the most bulky 
ingredient be placed at the bottom of the pile and the least bulky on top. 
After it is mixed with a shovel and hoe it should be thrown through the 
screen. This removes all lumps and perfects the mixing. The lumps, 
should there be any, should be crushed before they are allowed to go 
into the next mixing batch. After thorough mixing the material will be 
ready to return to the bags. It can be hauled to the field when needed. 
It is well to remember that most fertilizers absorb moisture, increase 
in weight and later on dry out and become hard. It is, therefore, wise 
to keep them in a building which is fairly dry. 

The following list of fertilizer materials, together with the per- 
centage of the several ingredients which they contain, is given as an aid 
to those making home mixtures of fertilizers: 



List of Materials Used in Home-Mixing of Fertilizers.* 




Nitrate of soda 

Sulphate of ammonia 

Dried blood 

Tankage (meat) 

Tankage (bone) 

Ground bone 

Acid phosphate, 14 per cent. . . 
Acid phosphate, 12 per cent. . 

Dissolved bone-black 

Basic slag 

Rock phosphate 

Muriate of potash 

High-grade sulphate of potash 

Kainite 

Wood-ashes 



Nitrogen, 
per cent. 



Phosphoric 

Acid, 

per cent. 



Potash, 
per cent. 



15 





20 





10 





7.4 


10 


5 


15 


2.5 


23 





11 





12 





15 





15 





18-30 























2 























50 

50 

12 

6 



Availability. 



Very quick 

Quick 

Medium 

Slow 

Slow 

Slow 

Quick 

Quick 

Medium 

Slow 

Very slow 

Quick 

Quick 

Quick 

Medium 



REFERENCES 

'* Manures and Fertilizers." Wheeler. 
''Fertilizers." Voorhees. 

K'S ET^Iffi* B^uSS., «F.;5Uj.r Ff* to, th. T^' 

Farmers' BuUetins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

388 '' Incompatibles m Fertilizer Mixtures.^^ 
398. "Commercial Fertilizers in the South. 

* From the Farmers* Cyclopedia. 






f ! 



B 



ii 



CHAPTER 5 

BARNYARD. STABLE AND GREEN MANURES 

mulaW or been kept or some '-;'»^P^-, "/^^"Ti^ days old. 
when brought <^^^'''\'^J^°Tr!4£Znm> ot torn animaU i» 

ZlledT^^^^ nitrogen eighteen cents a pound, phosphoric acid 
four cents a pound, potash five cents a pound. 

AVERAGE Yield and Yearly Value of Fresh Manure of Farm Animals, 
AVERAu*. XI Exclusive of Bedding. 



Kind of Livestock. 



Amount 

of 
Manure 
Yearly, 
|K}unds. 



Pounds of Ingredients Yearly. 



Nitrogen. 



Phosphoric 
Acid. 



Cow . . . 
Horse. . 
Pig.... 
Sheep . . 
Poultry, 



28,000 

15,000 

3,000 

1,140 

30 



Potash. 



124. 
96. 
14.4 
11.02 
.414 



50. 

42. 
9.54 
4.75 
.15 



132. 

81. 
11.4 
9.88 
.123 



Yearly 
Value. 



$30.92 

23.01 
3.54 
2.67 
.087 



The following table gives the numbers of the different classes of farm 
animlfs in K States according to the census of 1910, together with 
^cSlted value of manure for each class, the calculations bemg based 
uporrhe ^^^^^^^^ of manure given in the preceding table. In case of 
cS the valuation has been reduced, the reduction being based on the 

(94) 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 95 



relative numbers and values of milch cows as compared with all other 
cattle. 



~mJ<" 



Animals in the United States in 1910 and Estimated Value of 

their Manure. 



Class. 



Horses 

Cattle (all kinds) 

Swine 

Sheep and goats. 
Poultry 



Number of 
Animals. 



Total value 



27,618,242 
63,682,648 
59,473,636 
55,868,543 
295,880,000 



Value of Manure. 



Per Head. 



$23.00 
23.00* 
3.54 
2.67 
.087 



Total. 



$635,219,566.00 

1,464,700,904.00 

210,536,671.00 

149,169,010.00 

25,741,560.00 

32,485,367,711.00 



Manure is valuable because: (1) it contains the three essential ele- 
ments of plant food, namely, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; (2) 
it furnishes organic matter which is converted into humus in the soil and 
materially improves the physical condition, water-holding capacity and 
chemical and bacterial activities in the soil; (3) it introduces beneficial 
forms of bacteria in the soil and these multiply and become increasingly 
beneficial as their numbers increase. 

As a Source of Plant Food. — The composition of manure varies with 
the kind of animals producing it, the age of animals and the amount 
and quality of the feed they consume. The manure consists of the solid 
excrements and the liquids or urine. These differ in their composition. 
The urine is the most valuable part of the excreta of animals. The aver- 
age mixed stable and barnyard manure contains approximately ten pounds 
nitrogen, six pounds phosphoric acid and eight pounds potash in each ton 
of manure. The solid portions consist chiefly of the undigested portions 
of the food consumed, together with the straw or bedding that has been 
used in the stables. The solid portions contain approximately one-third 
of the total nitrogen, one-fifth of the total potash and nearly all of the 
phosphoric acid voided by animals. The urine contains about two-thirds 
of the total nitrogen, four-fifths of the potash and very little of the phos- 
phoric acid. The elements found in the urine are insoluble. They are 
not immediately available as food for plants, but become so more quickly 
than the constituents in the solid portions. 

Of the nitrogen in barnyard manure, that in the urine will be most 
readily available; that in the finely divided matter of the feces will be 
more slowly available; and that in the bedding will be most slowly avail- 
able. For this reason the availability of the nitrogen in manure when 
applied to the soil is distributed throughout a comparatively long period. 
Availability will vary greatly with the nature and treatment of the manure. 

* Estimated value based on relative numbers and values of milch cows andaU other kinds of cattle. 







SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



I 

I'- 



ll 



* I 



96 

Experiments at several experiment stations show that tlie nitrogen in 
manure is much less readily available than that m either nitrate of soda or 
sulphate of ammonia. Because of this fact, barnyard manure when used 
for certain truck crops is sometimes supplemented with available forms of 
nitroj^en. In such cases it is not advisable to mix the chemical forms of 
nitrogen with the manure. Such mixture is likely to result ma loss of 
available nitrogen through denitrification in the manure pile It is best, 
therefore, to apply the chemical form of nitrogen by itself, preferably 
some time after the manure has been applied. 

Physical Effect of Manures.— Barnyard and stable manure improves 
the physical condition of heavy soils by increasing their tilth and making 
them easier to cultivate. It improves loose, sandy soils by holding the 
particles together and increasing the water-holding capacity. It, there- 
fore, has the reverse effect on these two extremes of soil. . ^ ^ . 

Manure tends to equalize the supply and distribution of water in 
the soil and renders the soil less subject to erosion and injury by winds. 
Experiments conducted by Professor King at the Wisconsin Experiment 
Station show that manured land contained eighteen tons more water per 
acre in the upper foot of soil than similar land unmanured, and thirty- 
four tons more in the soil to a depth of three feet. . ^ ^v 

Biological Effect of Manure.— Farm manures introduce into the 
soil a variety of bacteria and ferments. These help increase the supply 
of available plant food. Barnyard manure sometimes causes denitrih- 
cation in the soil. By this process, nitrogen is set free in a gaseous form 
and may escape. This is likely to be most serious as a result of changing 
nitrates in the soil into other forms and therefore reducing the available 
nitrogen supply. Experiments show that this occurs only in exceptional 
cases and generally when unusually large applications of manure have 
been made. On the other hand, experiments in considerable number indi- 
cate that applications of manure may actually favor nitrification and aid 
in the formation of nitrates. At the Delaware Experiment Station it 
was found that soil liberally manured and producing hay at the rate of 
six tons per acre contained several times as many bacteria as were found 
in the same soil which had but little manure and was producing hay at 
the rate of about one ton per acre. 

The Value of Manure. — The value of manure depends: (1) upon 
the class of animals by which it is produced; (2) upon the age of the 
animals producing it; and (3) upon the character of feed from which 
produced. Animals that are used for breeding purposes or for the pro- 
duction of milk or wool retain a larger proportion of the plant-food con- 
stituents of the food they consume. This will be found in their products, 
whether it be the young animals to which they give birth or the milk or 
wool produced by the cow and sheep respectively. Young animals that 
are making rapid growth use a portion of the plant-food constituents, 
and this is built into the tissues and bones of such animals. Old animals 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 97 



that have ceased to grow and animals that are being fattened void prac- 
tically all of the plant-food constituents in their excrements. For this 
reason the manure from different classes of animals varies considerably 
in its plant-food constituents. 

Mature animals, neither gaining nor losing in weight, excrete prac- 
tically all of the fertilizer constituents in the food consumed. Growing 
animals may excrete as little as 50 per cent of such constituents. Milch 
cows excrete 65 to 85 per cent; fattening and working animals 85 to 95 
per cent. As regards the value of equal weights of manure under average 
farm conditions, farm animals stand in the following order: poultry, sheep, 
pirrs, horses, cows. At the Mississippi Experiment Station young fatten- 
ing steers excreted on an average 84 per cent of the nitrogen, 86 per cent 
of the phosphoric acid and 92 per cent of the potash in the food consumed. 
At the Pennsylvania Experiment Station, cows in milk excreted 83 per cent 
of nitrogen, 75 per cent of phosphoric acid and 92 per cent of the potash 
of their food. The amount of manure produced per thousand pounds of 
live weight of animals also varies with the class of animals, as w^ell as 
with the method of feeding and the character of the feed consumed. Sheep 
and hogs produce the smallest amount of manure, but yield manure of 
the greatest value per ton. Cows stand first in the amount of manure 
produced, but rank lowest in the quality of manure. 

Horse Manure. — Horse manure is more variable in its composition 
than that of any other class of farm animals. This is due to the fluctua- 
tion in the amount and character of the feed given to the horse, depend- 
ing on whether he is doing hea\^ or light work, or whether he is idle. 
Horse manure is drier than that from cattle, and generally contains more 
fibrous material. It ferments easily, and is, therefore, considered a hot, 
quick manure. When placed in piles by itself it ferments rapidly and 
soon loses a large part of its nitrogen in the form of ammonia. Because 
of its dry condition and rapid fermentation the temperature of the ma- 
nure pile becomes very high, causing it to dry out quickly. This results in 
what is commonly called fire-fanging. To prevent this, horse manure 
should be mixed with cold, heavy cow or pig manure, or the piles of horse 
manure should be compacted and kept constantly wet in order to reduce 
the presence of air and consequent rapid fermentation. The quality of 
horse manure makes it especially valuable for use in hotbeds, for the 
growing of mushrooms and for application to cold, wet soils. Horse 
manure is more bulky than that of any other class of farm animals and 
weighs less per cubic foot. 

Cattle Manure. — Cow and steer manure contains more water than 
that from other domestic animals. It is ranked as a cold manure, and 
has the lowest value, both from the standpoint of its plant-food con- 
stituents and its fertilizing value. The average cow produces 40 to 50 
pounds of dung or solid manure, and 20 to 30 pounds of urine per day. 

Hog Manure. — The manure from hogs is fairly uniform in its com- 



^b 






> I 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING^ 



gg ^ - 

. " — ; 7\ X rr^QTinrp It ferments slowly. 

position, and is considered a cokl wet mj^u^^-^^^^^ ^,i,y, ,„d the 

Hogs of average size P-l^^^Xn that from the preceding classes of ani^^^^ 
manure is somewhat "cher than that irom p ^.^^eentrated foods. 

chiefly because swine are ^^^^^^l^'fl^ and richer than that from 

Sheep Manure.-Sheep "^^^^f J, ,^™ ^ ferments easily and acts 

any of the domestic ammals except poultry, i ^ ^^ accumulate 

quickly in the soil. It keeP^^f^^i^J'tS animals. It is especially 
I pens where it is t^^rouf ly J ^P^^^^ ^^^^^ q^jek action 

Jf^^j""' Z Ze^'l^t^rJ:^^. aU four to five pounds of 

"^-^^i^^Manure,-Poultry r^^^^^)^ ^S:^ 

It is especially rich i" f ''^f "'J^^;^^;^' ^th the solid excrements. It 
secretions are semi-solul and are voided wn .^ ^^.^^ ^^^_ 

ferments easily, giving rise to ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ maintained in a fairly 
ing when placed in the soU- ^^^^^f ^^^^^^^^^ absorbent or presei^ative. 

nitrogen. , ovenee total production of solid and 

The following table ^^.^'J'^^^^^^^^^^^ ^i animals, together with 
liquid excrements per year ^^^^Jf'^^^^^,-,, ,eid and potash, 
their percentage of water, nitrogen, pno. i ^ 



Dung— Solid Excrements. 



Excreted 

per Year, 

pounds. 



Water, 
per cent. 



Composition. 



Nitrogen, 
per cent. 



Phosphoric 

Acid, 

per cent. 



Potash, 
per cent. 



r. . . 1 20,000 

S^w« 12,000 

Horse 




Pigs 

Sheep 

Hen 



Urine— Liquid Excrements. 



Cows. 
Horse . 
Pigs . . 
Sheep 



Excreted 

per Year, 

pounds. 



8,000 

3,000 

1,200 

380 



Water, 
per cent. 



92.0 
89.0 
97.5 
86.5 



Nitrogen, 
per cent. 



0.80 
1.20 
0.30 
1.40 



Phosphoric 

Acid, 

per cent. 



Trace 

Trace 

0.12 

0.05 



Potash, 
per cent. 



14 
15 
0.2 
2.0 



* This table taken from Volume Five, 



Farmers' Cyclopedia. 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 99 

Miscellaneous Farm Manures. — In addition to the manure from farm 
animals there is a variety of materials that may be available as manure 
on many farms. It is well to utilize these as far as possible. Among 
those most commonly met with are night-soil, leaf-mould and muck or 
peat. Night-soil is best used when mixed with some good absorbent, 
such as loam, muck or peat, and composted. Muck and peat are terms 
used to designate accumulations of vegetable matter that are frequently 
found in marshes, swamps and small ponds. Such material varies greatly 
in its composition, and is especially valuable for its content of nitrogen, 
and for its physical effect upon the soil. Leaf-mould pertains to decayed 
accumulations of leaves frequently found in considerable quantities in 
forested areas. It is especially valuable for some classes of garden truck 
and flowers, but is ordinarily too costly because of the difficulty of gather- 
ing it in any considerable quantities. 

Value of Manure Influenced by Quality of Feed. — The plant-food 
content of manure is almost directly in proportion to the plant-food 
constituents contained in the feeds from which it comes. Thus, con- 
centrated feeds high in protein, such as cottonseed meal, wheat bran 
and oil cake, produce manure of the highest value. Ranking next 
to these are such feeds as alfalfa and clover hay and other legumes. 
The cereals, including corn and oats together with hay made from 
grasses, rank third, while manure from roots is the lowest in plant- 
food constituents and fertilizing value. Not only will the plant- 
food constituents be most abundant in the manure from the concen- 
trates, but it is likely also to be more readily available than that produced 
from roughage. 

These facts are important in connection with the selling of cash 
crops and purchasing such concentrates as cottonseed meal and bran. 
One who buys cottonseed meal as a fertilizer gets only its fertilizing value. 
If it is purchased for feeding purposes, one may secure both its feeding 
value and practically all of its manurial value. The relative price, there- 
fore, of cash crops and purchased concentrates as feed is only one phase 
of the exchange problem. Such concentrates produce manure having a 
much higher value than that from the cash crops. This should be con- 
sidered in connection with the exchange. 

The table on next page shows the pounds of fertilizer constituents 
in one ton of different agricultural products. It indicates the exchanges 
which might, therefore, be effected with advantage. 

The feeding value of a ton of wheat bran does not differ materially 
from that of a ton of shelled corn. The difference in its feeding value 
affects the nutritive ratio rather than the energy value. By exchanging 
one ton of corn for an equal weight of wheat bran, there would be a gain 
to the farm of 21 pounds of nitrogen, 46 pounds phosphoric acid and 24 
pounds of potash, as shown by the above table. At usual prices for the 
fertilizer constituents, this gain would amount to not less than $6 worth 



ii 



I 

I 



1 



111 



li 




» 



ii 



SUCCESSFULFARMING 



Irr — T ^Ti^iilk^rpotatoes for similar con- 

Tthl way the plant-food '^^f^ZXZ^fs:^Uecor.e..n absorb- 

soil from whence th^^ ^"^^"f"^^ ruidfin the manure. Straw utU.zed 
ent and prevents the loss of ^he hquids ^^ .^ ^^^j^^^ ^^.^.tly 

in this way is probably more -luabl^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^_^^ 

■ Manurial Constituents. 



Farm Product. 



Nitrogen, 
pounds. 



Phosphoric 

Acid, 
pounds. 



Potash, 
pounds. 



Timothy hay 

Clover hay 

Alfalfa hay 

Cowpea hay... •• • 

Corn fodder, field cured 

Corn silage 

Wheat straw 

Rye straw 

Oat straw 

Wheat 

Rye 

Oats • 

Corn 

Barley 

Wheat bran 

Linseed meal.. 

Cottonseed meal 

Potatoes 

Milk 

Cheese 

Live cattle 



19.2 
39.4 
53.2 
49.6 
17.2 
8.4 
8.6 
10.0 
13.0 
34.6 
32.4 
36.2 
29.6 
39.6 
51.2 
108.6 
142.8 
7.0 
10.2 
90.6 
53.2 




•t • ;r.+orminfflpd with the soUd and 

as such to the soil. In.tho — ^ ,^h^^^^^^^^^^^^ '" ^^^ ^'^T •'' 
linuid excrement, and mocula,ted ^^lth tne contams 

Sals, which facilitates its decompos^^^^^^^^ t- ^^^^^ .^ ^n 

less plant food than an ex,ual veight ot y ^^ ^^^^^ 

abundance of straw ther^^^re, jsed ^J'^ f j^,,,ever, is not a logical 
nure and slightly reduce its value P^r ton^ . ' -^^^ become so on the 

objection to its use on the l^'^^'^^^^^^^^^^ 

paitof the farmer who is ^^^^^^^^^^^ ,^ ^,,e in accordance 

St?;onc:ntration or ^^^^^.^J^Zt. for bedding their ani- 
Some farmers use a great abundance oi ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ f. 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 101 

A superabundance of bedding gives rise to a bulky, strawy manure that 
must be used in large quantities in order to be effective, and frequently 
results at the outset in denitrification and unsatisfactory results." 




Modern Convenience for Conveying Manure from Stalls to Manure Spreader.* 

In a general way, it is estimated that the amount of bedding used 
for animals should equal approximately one-third of the dry matter con- 

Absorbent Capacity of 100 Pounds of Different Materials when Air Dry 



Nature of Absorbent. 



Wheat straw 

Oat straw 

Rye straw 

Sawdust 

Partly decomposed oak leaves 

Leaf Takings 

Peat 

Peat moss 



Liquid Absorbed, 
pounds. 



220 
285 
300 
350 
160 
400 
500 
1,300 



» Courtesy of The Pennsylvania Farmer. 



I( 




SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 101 



tSL tht .a^ would be stm^^^^ ,, Manure.-Straw 

Amount and Character of B«^*^."^J^^^tiii,ed as bedding for animals, 
is a by-product on most farms, ''^^.'^^^^^^^f J'^^^^ only all returned to the 
In thL way the plant-food c^n^t^u^f J'^^e ^^J ^^^^^,, ,, ,bsorb- 
soil from whence they o^g^^yrj^^^Xin the manure. Straw utihzed 
ent and prevents the loss of th^ bqui<^s ^^ .^ ^^^j^^^ ^^.^.tiy 

in this way is probably more ^^^^^^^ ^T.o. o. V..o.s .... r.o..c.. 

,, :„i r'/-.«Hfituonts. 




Timothy hay 

Clover hay 

Alfalfa hay 

Cowpca hay.. • •• • 

Corn fodder, field cured 

Corn silage 

Wheat straw 

Rye straw 

Oat straw 

Wheat 

Rye ^ 

Oats * 

Corn 

Barley 

Wheat bran 

Linseed meal.. 

Cottonseed meal 
Potatoes 

Milk 

Cheese 

Live cattle 

•. •. in+ormindod with the solid and 
as such to the soil. ^}^lZ:^V^C^^ - the voidings.o 
linuid excrement, nnd moculatcd ^^'^'^ ^ , j, ^traw contams 

Sals, which facilitates ^^J^^^f^^ \ltter in manure An 
less plant food than an equal ^u kM ot Y ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 
abundance of straw thorf re ^^ d asj,e R ^^^^^^^^^^ .^ ^^^ ^ , , 

nure and slightly reduce '^^^^f'^'J'lXugh it might become so on the 
objection to its use on the /;^™';"ia manure from outside sources, 

^^'^°!>':^Xy:^StrinS in pnce is made in accordance 

SteU'-tration or «on o^^^^^^^^^ ,^^ ,,,,,„, their ani- 

Some farmers use a great '-^''^"j^^^"'^^^^^^^^ to use more than is suf- 



A superabundance of bedding gives rise to a bulky, strawy manure that 
must be used in large quantities in order to be effective, and frequently 
results at the outset in denitrification and unsatisfactory results/ 




Modern Convenience for Conveying Manure from Stalls to Mantjre Spreader.* 

In a general way, it is estimated that the amount of bedding used 
for animals should equal approximately one-third of the dry matter con- 

Absorbent Capacity of 100 Pounds of Different Materials when Air Dry 



Nature of Absorbent. 



Wheat straw 

Oat straw 

Rye straw 

Sawdust 

Partly decomposed oak leaves 

Leaf rakings 

Peat 

Peat moss 



Liquid Absorbed, 
pounds. 



220 
285 
300 
350 
160 
400 
500 
1,300 



» Courtesy of The Pennsylvania Farmer. 












102 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



sumed. This, however, will vary greatly, depending on the absorbent 
power of the bedding used and the character of the feed the animals 
receive. It will also depend on whether or not the absorbent material 
is thoroughly dry when used. When bedded with ordinary oat and wheat 
straw, it is estimated generally that cows should each have about 9 
pounds of bedding, horses 6§ pounds and sheep f pound. The table on 
preceding page shows the approximate absorbent capacity ot various 

materials used as bedding. 

The figures in the table are only approximate, and will vary con- 
siderably under different conditions. They are supposed to represent 
the amount of liquid that will be held by 100 pounds of the substances 
mentioned, after twenty-four hours of contact. _ ^ 

Aside from the absorbent power of l)edding, its composition is also 
of some importance, and the following table gives the average fertilizer 
constituents in 2000 pounds of different kinds of straw. 

Fertilizer Constituents in 2000 Pounds of Various Kinds of Dry Straw. 



Wheat 

Wheat chaff 

Oats 

Rye 

Barley 

Barley chaff .... 
Buckwheat hulls 



Nitrogen, 
per cent. 



11.8 
15.8 
12.4 

9.2 
26.2 
20.2 

9.8 



Phosphoric Acid, 
per cent. 



2.4 
14.0 
4.0 
5.6 
6.0 
5.4 
1.4 



Potash, 
per cent. 






10.2 

8.4 
24.8 
15.8 
41.8 
19.8 
10.4 



t; 



Methods of Storing and Handling.— The value of manure is also 
determined by the manner in which it is stored, the length of time it 
remains in storage and its manipulation in the storage heap. Manure 
is a very bulky material of a comparatively low money value per ton. 
Its economical use, therefore, demands that the consequent labor be 
reduced to the minimum, especially in those regions w^here labor is high- 
priced. Where manure is to be protected from the elements, it calls for 
comparatively inexpensive structures for the purpose. 

When different kinds of animals are kept, it is advisable to place all 
the manure together so that the moist, cold cow and pig manure may 
become thoroughly mixed with the dry, hot horse and sheep dung. In 
this way each class of manure benefits the other. Where the manure 
is deposited in a barnyard in which the animals run, the swine are fre- 
quently allowed to have free access to the manure pile, from which they 
often get considerable feed which would otherwise be wasted. Such 
feed consists of the undigested concentrates fed to the horses and cattle. 
Swine thoroughly mix the different kinds of manure, and when it is thor- 
oughly compacted by the tramping of the animals, fermentation is reduced 



I 



V * 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 103 



to the minimum. If it is protected from rains and sufficient absorbent 
material has been used in the bedding, loss is comparatively small. 

When horse manure is placed by itself, it ferments very rapidly and 
soon loses its nitrogen. Such fermentation can be materially reduced by 
compacting the manure pile thoroughly and applying sufficient, water to 
keep it constantly wet. This same rapid decomposition and loss of nitro- 
gen will take place in case of mixed manures if they are neither compacted 
nor wet, although loss will not be so rapid. 

The use of covered barnyards for protecting manure has in recent 
years met with much favor in some portions of the country. 

Losses of Maniire. — A practice too common in many sections is to 




Piles of Manure Stoked Under Eaves of Barn, Showing 

How Loss Takes Place. ^ 

throw the manure out of stable doors and windows, and allow it to remain 
for a considera})le length of time beneath the eaves of the barns. This 
not only exposes it to direct rainfall, but also subjects it to additional 
rain collected by the roof of the building. Under these conditions the 
leaching of the manure and the consequent loss is very great. Where 
manure piles remain long under these conditions, it is sometimes doubtful 
whether the depleted manure is worth hauling to the field. Certainly 
this is a practice to be condemned. Both the mineral constituents and 
organic matter are carried off in the leachings. 

Experunental Results. — Experiments at the Cornell Experiment 
Station where manure remained exposed during six summer months 
showed a percentage loss for horse manure as follows: gross weight 57 

» Courtesy of Doublcday. Page & Co.. Garden City, N. Y. From " Soils," by Fletcher. 



I 









102 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



sumed. This, however, will vary greatly, depending on the absorbent 
power of the bedding used and the character of the feed the animals 
receive. It will also depend on whether or not the absorbent material 
is thoroughly dry when used. When bedded with ordinary oat and wheat 
straw, it is estimated generally that cows should each have about 9 
pounds of bedding, horses 6 J pounds and sheep f pound. 1 he table on 
preceding page shows the approximate absorbent capacity of various 

materials used as bedding. 

The figures in the table are only approximate, and will vary con- 
siderably under different conditions. They are supposed to represent 
the amount of liquid that will be held by 100 pounds of the substances 
mentioned, after twenty-four hours of contact. _ ^ 

Aside from the absorbent power of bedding, its composition is also 
of some importance, and the following table gives the average fertilizer 
constituents in 2000 pounds of different kinds of straw. 

Fertilizer Constituents in 2000 Pounds of Various Kinds of Dry Straw. 



Wheat 

Wheat chaff .... 
Oats .... 

Rye 

Barley 

Barley chaff .... 
Buckwheat hulls 



Nitrogen, 
per cent. 



11.8 
In.S 
12.4 

9.2 
20 . 2 
20 . 2 

9.8 



Phosphoric Acid. 




per cent. 




2 


4 




14 







4 







5 


.6 




6 


.0 




5 


.4 




1 


.4 



Potash, 
per cent. 



10.2 
8.4 
24.8 
15.8 
41.8 
19.8 
10.4 



Methods of Storing and Handling.— The value of manure is also 
determined by the manner in which it is stored, the length of time it 
remains in storage and its manipulation in the storage heap. Manure 
is a very bulky material of a comparatively low money value per ton. 
Its economical use, therefore, demands that the consequent labor be 
reduced to the minimum, especially in those regions where lal)or is high- 
priced. Where manure is to be protected from the elements, it calls for 
comparatively inexpensive structures for the purpose. 

When different kinds of animals are kept, it is advisable to place all 
the manure together so that the moist, cold cow and pig manure may 
become thoroughly mixed with the dry, hot horse and she(^p dung. In 
this way each class of manure V)enefits the other. WIktc the manure 
is deposited in a barnyard in which the animals run, the swine are fre- 
quently allowed to have free access to the manure pile, from which they 
often get considerable feed which would otherwise be wasted. Such 
feed consists of the undigested concentrates fed to the horses and cattle. 
Swine thoroughly mix the different kinds of manure, and when it is thor- 
oughly compacted l)y the tramping of the animals, fc^rmentation is reduced 



r»l 



I 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 103 



to the minimum. If it is protected from rains and sufficient absorbent 
material has been used in the bedding, loss is comparatively small. 

When horse manure is placed by itself, it ferments very rapidly and 
soon loses its nitrogen. Such fermentation can be materially reduced by 
compacting the manure pile thoroughly and applying sufficient, water to 
keep it constantly wet. This same rapid decomposition and loss of nitro- 
gen will take place in case of mixed manures if they are neither compacted 
nor wet, although loss will not be so rapid. 

The use of covered barnyards for protecting manure has in recent 
years met with much favor in some portions of the country. 

Losses of Manure. — A practice too common in many sections is to 




Piles of Manure Stoked Uxdeh Eaves of Baun, Showing 

How Loss Takes Place. ^ 

throw the manure out of stable* doors and windows, and allow it to remain 
for a considcra})le length of time Ix^neath the eaves of the barns. This 
not only exix)ses it to direct rainfall, l)ut also subjects it to additional 
rain collected by the roof of the building. Under these conditions the 
leaching of the manure and the consequent loss is very great. Where 
manure piles remain long under these conditions, it is sometimes doubtful 
whether the depleted manure is worth hauling to the field. Certainly 
this is a practice to be condenmed. Both the mineral constituents and 
organic matter arc carried off in the leachings. 

Experimental Results. — rLxperiments at the Cornell Experiment 
Station where manure remained exposed during six sunnner months 
showed a percentage loss for horse manure as follows: gross weight 57 

» Courtesy of Doublrday, Pago & Co.. Garden City, N. Y. From " Soils," by Fletcher. 



TMTRMTTONAT. SRCOND EXPOSURE 









"tS«,-.': ...,Y,- ,:•,■.■<,>,■'( 



H'l 



104 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



I 



P 



per cent, nitrogen 60 per cent, phosphoric acid 47 per cent, potash 76 
per cent; for cow manure the loss was: gross weight 49 per cent, nitro- 
gen 41 per cent, phosphoric acid 19 per cent, potash 8 per cent. The 
rainfall during this period was 28 inches. This shows an average loss 
for the two classes of manure of more than one-half in both weight and 
actual plant-food constituents. 

By similar observations at the Kansas Station, it was found that 
the waste in six months amounted to fully one-half of the gross weight 
of the manure and nearly 40 per cent of its nitrogen. 

The New Jersey Experiment Station found that cow dung exposed 
to the weather for 109 days lost 37.6 per cent of its nitrogen, 52 per cent 
of its phosphoric acid and 47 per cent of its potash. Mixed dung and 
urine lost during the same period of time 51 per cent of its nitrogen, 51 
per cent of phosphoric acid and 61 per cent of potash. Numerous other 
experiments along the same line could be cited, giving essentially the same 
results. These experiments leave no doubt as to the large loss incurred 
in negligent methods in the management of manure, and emphasize the 
importance of better methods of storing manure. 

The estimated annual value of the manure from all animals in the 
United States as given in the table in the first part of this chapter is 
$2,485,367,711. There is no means of ascertaining what proportion of 
all manure is deposited where it can be collected. For present purposes 
we will assume that one-half of it is available for return to the land. 
Assuming that one-third of this is lost because of faulty methods of stor- 
age and handling, the loss from this source would be valued at $414,- 
227,952. The enormous loss sustained by American farmers through 
negligence in the care, management and use of manure emphasizes the 
importance of the subject and the great need of adopting economic methods 
in its utilization. 

How to Prevent Loss. — Some of the methods of preventing loss 
have already been suggested. Under most conditions this is best accom- 
plished by hauling the manure soon after its production directly to the 
field. This has become a common practice in many localities. It is 
economical from a number of viewpoints. It saves labor, obviating the 
extra handling incurred when the manure is first dumped in the yard 
and afterwards loaded on wagons to be taken to the field. It keeps 
the premises about the barns and yards clean at all times; reduces offen- 
sive odors due to decomposition of manure; and reduces in the summer 
time breeding places for flies. The most important saving, however, is 
in the actual value of the manure, which in this way has sustained no loss 
due to decomposition and leaching. 

Absorbents vs. Cisterns. — Losses frequently occur both in the yard 
and stable, due to a direct and immediate loss of the liquid portions of 
the manure. This is overcome either by the use of an ample supply of 
absorbent in the way of bedding or by collecting the liquid manure in a 



BARNYARD, -STABLE, GREEN MANURES 105 

cistern. The cistern method of saving liquid manure is of doubtful econ- 
omy in this country. The expense of cisterns and the trouble of hauling 
and distributing, together with the care which must be exercised to pre- 
vent loss of nitrogen by fermentation of the liquid when it stands long, 
are all valid objections to such provisions. It is possible under intensive 
farming and with cheap l^bor that liquid manure might be thus saved 
and utilized for crops that respond to nitrogenous fertilizers. Best results 
with manure demand that the liquid and solid portions be applied together. 
It is the consensus of opinion that the best general practice is to save the 
liquid by the use of absorbents. 

Since nitrogen frequently escapes as ammonia, certain absorbents 
for gases, such as gypsum, kainite, acid phosphate and ordinary dust, 
have been recommended. As direct absorbents, however, these are of 
doubtful value, although some of them are effective, first, in reducing the 
fermentation, and second, in actually reinforcing the manure by the addi- 
tion of plant-food constituents. 

Sterilization. — Preservatives have also been suggested in the nature 
of substances that will prevent fermentation and thus reduce losses. 
Bisulphide of carbon, caustic lime, sulphuric acid and a number of other 
substances have been tested for this purpose. However, anything that 
will prohibit fermentation destroys the bacteria of the manure, and such 
destruction may more than offset the saving in plant-food constituents. 
Furthermore, most of these materials are rather costly, and the benefits 
derived are not equal to the expense incurred. 

Reinforcing Manures. — A number of substances have been used to 
reinforce manure. The one most beneficial and economical is either acid 
phosphate or rock phosphate. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that 
phosphorus is the element most frequently needed in the soils, and that 
manure is inadequately supplied with it. The following table, showing 
results obtained at the Ohio Experiment Station by reinforcing manure 
with different substances, gives direct evidence as to the relative merits 
of such substances: 

Value of Manure, Average 15 Years. — Rotation: Corn, Wheat, Clover (3 Years). 



Treatment. 


Nothing. 


Gypsum. 


Kainite. 


Floats. 


Acid 
Phosphate. 


Return per ton: 

Yard manure 


3.31 


$3.04 

3.56 


$2 . 93 
3.97 


$3.54 
4.49 


S4.10 


Stall manure 


4.82 







It is evident from the above table that all the materials used have 
more or less increased the value of the manure, as determined by the 
value of increase in crops obtained from each ton when applied once in a 
three years* rotation of corn, wheat and clover. The value per ton of 



i!| 



i- 



•■ 



«• 



i 



106 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



manure is based on the average farm price of the crops produced. It is 
also evident from the table that stall manure gave in every instance a 
larger return per ton than did yard manure, and that floats and acid phos- 
phate proved by all odds the best reinforcing materials. While acid 
phosphate reinforcement gave the largest return per ton of manure, the 
floats proved about equally profitable from the investment standpoint. 

In localities where phosphorus is the dominant soil requirement, the 
reinforcement of manure with acid phosphate at the rate of about forty 
pounds to each ton of manure is a most excellent practice. The manner 
of applying the phosphate may be determined by conditions. It will 
frequently be found convenient to apply this material to the manure in 













"■^1 '■ i 


■Si: ^>A_*-»^^ -^-^.--rWiV .-''f^.i^, .. . 


'>^-y'^;^ 






SV • ---'■• ■• "■'■' -ri'" ■'*■'' ^■'' "^ ""^ '*^. . '^"jtj^-^^ 


. ■■J:^'^^ 








;^^>^^^ >i-?r^^^:'': ^-3^ ^- 



Spreading Manure from \Va(;on, Old Way.^ 

the stalls or stables each day at the rate of about one pound for each 
fully grown cow, horse or steer, and in lesser amounts for the smaller 
animals. There is probably no place in which the raw rock phosphate 
is likely to give better results than when used in this way as a reinforce- 
ment to manure. 

Economical Use of Manure.— The most economical use of manure 
involves a number of factors. It is the opinion of both chemists and 
farmers that manure and urine should be applied to the soil in its fresh- 
est possible condition. If this is true, manure should be hauled from the 
stable or barnyard to the field as soon as it is made. As previously indi- 
cated, this method reduces to the minimum the cost of handling and has 
several additional advantages. Well-rotted manure may be more quickly 
availa ble to plants, less bulky and easier to distribute, and weight for 

1 Courtesy of Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden City, N. Y. From " Soils," by Fletcher. 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 107 



weight may give as much or larger returns than fresh manure. There 
are, however, only a few conditions under which its use can be superior 
to that of using fresh material. The rotted manure may be used for 
intensive crops when availability is important, and especially on land 
where weeds, entailing hand work, become a serious problem. In fresh 
manure the weed-seeds that may have been in the feeds are likely to be 
largely viable, and give rise to trout)le in the fidd. Thorough fermenta- 
tion generally destroys the viability of weed-seeds in manure. 

To Which Crops Should Manure be Applied?— Next to time of haul- 
ing may be considered the crops to which manure can be most advan- 
tageously applied. Direct applications of fresh manure are thought to 
be injurious to the quality of tobacco, to sugar beets and to potatoes. 
It should, therefore, not be applied to these crops directly. It may be 
applied to the crop preceding, or decomposed manure may be used. As 
a rule, manure should be applied directly to the crop in the rotation 
having the longest growing season, or the greatest money value. For 
example, in a rotation of corn, oats, wheat and mixed grasses, corn not 
only has the longest growing season, but also the greatest food and cash 
value. It is, therefore, considered good practice to apply the manure 
directly to the corn. Since the benefits of manure are distributed over 
a number of years, the crops which follow will benefit by its residual 
effect. 

To What Soils Should Manure be Applied? — Character of soil may 
also determine where the manure should be applied. If mechanical con- 
dition is a prime consideration, fresh manure may be applied to heavy, 
clay soils and well-rotted manure to light, sandy soils. On the other 
hand, the sandy soils in a favorable season are more likely to utilize coarse 
manure to advantage than heavy soils. In such soils decomposition will 
proceed more rapidly, thus rendering available the plant-food constituents 
of the manure. On sandy soils manure should be applied only a short 
time before it is likely to be needed, in order to prevent the danger of loss 
by leaching. On heavy, clay soils the benefits from applying fresh manure 
are likely to be rather slight the first year, because of slow decomposition 
of the manure. This, however, is not serious, because in such soils the 
plant food as it becomes available is held by the soil with little or no 
loss. 

Climate Affects Decomposition. — Climate may also be a factor in- 
fluencing the use of fresh manure. In a warm, damp climate it matters 
little whether the manure is fresh or well rotted when applied. Under 
such conditions decomposition in the soil is sufficiently rapid to make 
fresh manure readily available. The character of season may also be a 
factor determining the relative merits of fresh and rotted manure. In 
a very dry season excessive applications of fresh manure show a tendency 
to burn out the soil, and this is more marked in light, sandy soils than in 
the heavy soils. Furthermore, heavy applications of strawy manure 



* 



106 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



> t 



manure is based on the average farm price of the crops produced. It is 
also evident from the table that stall manure gave in every instance a 
larger return per ton than did yard manure, and that floats and acid phos- 
phate proved by all odds the best reinforcing materials. While acid 
phosphate reinforcement gave the largest return per ton of manure, the 
floats proved about equally profitable from the investment standpoint. 

In localities where phosphorus is the dominant soil requirement, the 
reinforcement of manure with acid phosphate at the rate of about forty 
pounds to each ton of manure is a most excellent practice. The manner 
of applying the phosphate may be determined by conditions. It will 
frequently be found convenient to apply this material to the manure in 




Spreadincj Mani re from Wa(J()n, Old Way.^ 



the stalls or stables each day at the rate of about one pound for each 
fully grown cow, horse or steer, and in h^sser amounts for the smaller 
animals. There is i)robably no place in which the raw rock phosphate 
is likely to give better results than when used in this way as a reinforce- 
ment to manure. 

Economical Use of Manure.— The most economical use of manure 
involves a numljer of factors. It is the opinion of both chemists and 
farmers that manure and urine should be applicnl to the soil in its fresh- 
est possible condition. If this is truc^ manure should ])e hauled from the 
stable or barnyard to the field as soon as it is made. As previously indi- 
cated, this method reduces to the mininunn the cost of handling and has 
several additional advantages. Well-rotted manure may be more quickly 
availa ble to plants, less Inilky and easier to distribute, and weight for 

» Courtesy of Doubleday . Page & Co., Garden City, X. Y. From ' ' Soils," by Fletcher. 



¥ 



TMTPMTTrkXT AT 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 107 



weight may give as nmch or larger returns tiian fresh manure. There 
are, however, only a few conditions under which its use can be superior 
to that of using fresh material. The rotted manure may be used for 
intensive crops when availability is important, and especially on land 
where weeds, entailing hand work, become a serious problem. In fresh 
manure the weed-seeds that may have been in the feeds are likely to be 
largely viable, and give rise to trouble in the fi(^ld. Thorough fermenta- 
tion generally destroys the viability of weed-seeds in manure. 

To Which Crops Should Manure be Applied?— Next to thne of haul- 
ing may be considered the crops to which manure can l)e most advan- 
tageously applied. Dinn^t applications of fresh manure are thought to 
be injurious to the quality of to})acco, to sugar beets and to potatoes. 
It should, therefore, not be applied to th(\se crops directly. It may be 
applied to the crop preceding, or decomposed manure may be used. As 
a rule, manure should be applicnl directly to the crop in the rotation 
having the longest growing season, or the greatest money value. For 
example, in a rotation of corn, oats, wheat and mixed grasses, corn not 
only has the longest growing season, but also the greatest food and cash 
value. It is, therefore, considered good practice to apply the manure 
directly to the corn. Since the })enefits of manure are distributed over 
a number of years, the crops which follow will benefit by its residual 
effect. 

To What Soils Should Manure be Applied? — Character of soil may 
also determine where the manure should })e applied. If mechanical con- 
dition is a prime consick^-ation, fresh manun^ may b(* applied to hcnivy, 
clay soils and well-rotted manure to light, sandy soils. On the other 
hand, the sandy soils in a favorable season are more likely to utilize coarse 
manure to advantage than heavy soils. In such soils decomposition will 
proceed more rapidly, thus n^idering available^ the plant-food constituents 
of the manure. On sandy soils manure should be applied only a short 
time before it is likely to be needed, in order to prevent the danger of loss 
by leaching. On heavy, clay soils the benefits from applying fresh manure 
are likely to be rather slight the first year, l^ecause of slow decomposition 
of the manure. This, howcner, is not serious, because in such soils the 
plant food as it becomes availal)le is held by the soil with little or no 
loss. 

Climate Affects Decomposition. — Climate may also be a factor in- 
fluencing the use of frc^sli maiiur(\ In a warm, damp climate it matters 
little whether the manure is fresh or well rotted when applied. Under 
such conditions dec()mj)osition in the soil is sufficiently rapid to make 
fresh manure readily available. The character of season may also be a 
factor determining the relative merits of fresh and rotted manure. In 
a very dry season excessive applications of fresh manure show a tendency 
to burn out the soil, and this is more marked in light, sandy soils than in 
the heavy soils. Furthermore, heavy applications of strawy manure 






l! 



>i I 



li I 
I' 



I 


i< 


) 


1 




: 


^ 


; 




,1 

1 


* 


; 



108 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



plowed under when the soil is dry will destroy the capillary connection 
between the upper and lower soils, thus preventing a rise of the subsoil 
water for the benefit of the newly planted crop. This occasionally results 
in a crop failure and the condemnation of the use of fresh manure. 

Eroded Soil Most in Need of Manure.— In a general way, any kind 
of manure should be applied to those portions of the farm the soil of which 
is most in need of manure. Marked differences in the organic content 
of the soil in different parts of fields are often manifest. This most fre- 
quently is the result of slight erosion on the sloping portions. It is a good 
practice to apply manure to these portions in an effort to restore them 
to their original fertility. Such areas without special attention tend to 
deteriorate rapidly. The addition of manure improves the physical con- 
dition of the soil, increases its absorptive power for rain and lessens 
erosion. In this way, not only is the soil benefited, but deterioration 
through erosion is checked. 

Rate of Application.— The rate of applying manure is also important 
and will determine the returns per ton of manure. Farmers in general 
do not have sufficient manure to apply in large quantities to all of their 
land. This gives rise to the question as to whether or not heavy appli- 
cations shairbe used on restricted areas and for certain crops, or whether 
the manure shall be spread thinly and made to reach as far as possible. 
Some German writers speak of 18 tons per acre as abundant, 14 tons as 

Value of Manure. Average 30 Years. 
Rotation: Corn,* Oats, WTieat,* Clover, Timothy (Four Years). 



Treatment, One Rotation. 



Nothing 

Manure 12 tons 

Manure 16 tons 

Manure 20 tons 

Manure 12 tons and lime 2 tons 



Value of 
Four Crops. 



$60 . 02 
88.91 
89.62 
92.68 
92.22 



Return per Ton 
of Manure. 



$2.41 
1.85 
1.63 
2.68 



Return per Ton 
over 12 i>er Acre. 



.18 
.33 



moderate and 8 tons as light applications. They recommend 10 tons 
per acre for roots, 20 tons per acre for potatoes. In England, at the 
Rothampsted Experiment Station, 14 tons yearly for grain was considered 
heavy. In New Jersey 20 tons per acre for truck is not infrequently 
used. Such applications are, however, unnecessarily large for general 
farm crops and for the average farm. 

At the Pennsylvania Experiment Station the average results for a 
period of thirty years in a four-crop rotation when manure was used at 
the rate of 12, 16 and 20 tons per acre during the rotation, show that the 
largest return per ton of manure was secured with the lightest application. 



* Manure applied to these crops only. 



si 






BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 109 



The manure in this case was applied twice in the rotation; 6, 8 and 10 
tons per acre to the corn, the same amounts to the wheat and none to either 
the oats or grass. 

The returns per ton of manure are based on a valuation of crops 
as follows: Corn 50 cents a bushel, oats 32 cents a bushel, wheat 80 cents 
a bushel, hay $10 a ton, and oat straw, wheat straw and corn stover $2.50 
per ton. 

A similar experiment at the Ohio Experiment Station covering a 
period of eighteen years has also shown the largest return per ton of 
manure in case of the smaller applications. The results are given in the 
following table: 

Value of Manure. Average 18 Years. 
Rotation: Corn,* Oats, Wheat,* Clover, Timothy (Five-year Rotation). 



Treatment, One Rotation. 



Manure 8 tons. . 
Manure 16 tons 



Return per Ton 
of Manure. 



$3.17 
2.41 



Return per Ton 
over 8 per Acre. 



$1.75 



Rotation: Potatoes, Wheat, f Clover (Three Years). 



Treatment, One Rotation. 



Manure 4 tons 
Manure 8 tons 
Manure 16 tons 
Manure 8 tons 



Return per Ton 
of Manure. 



$3.47 
2.58 
2.15 
3.30 



Return per Ton 
over 8 per Acre. 



$1.69 
1.72 



Methods of Applying Manure. — A uniform rate and even distribution 
of manure are essential. This can be most economically effected by the 
use of a manure spreader. It does the work better than it can be done 
with a fork, and at a great saving of labor. While a manure spreader is 
rather an expensive implement, it will be a paying investment on any 
farm where 60 tons or more of manure are to be applied annually. It is 
a common practice in most parts of the country to apply manure to a 
grass sod and plow it under. In many cases manure is also applied to 
corn land and land that has been in small grain, to be followed by other 
or similar crops. While it is the consensus of opinion that the manure 
applied in this way will give best results, there is some question as to 
whether or not more of it should not be applied in the form of a top 

dressing. 

Top Dressing vs. Plowing Under.— At the Maryland Experiment 

* Manure applied to thos'^ crops only. . 

t Manure applied to wheat, except in second 8 tons application, whicb went on potatoes. 



Pll.- ■ - . 






■ ff'. 








ll^ 


t^BS. 


»■"" 


a 


■■■■afi 


Hi 


t'f^- 


'i^fiim 


■ 






':>v;:;!;- 



?m 



!l 



i I 

i 



I 



• r 



t 




's . i ';*i 



■k: 



d 






% « Vfily;!' ' ■'PiZ- 



i'i ••• N- 'it fe #!!,•■; fi '^ '*' 



% v'--^ 






» Courtesy of The International Harvester Company, Chicago. 

(110) 




03 

o 

a 

> 
O 

-4-' 

e 

o 

£ ^ 

W .§ 

b cr 

s >> 
s ^ 

Q OP 
O > 



(4 

5 






2i 

03 

a 

OQ 



& 

0) 

.s 

•g 

a 

TO 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 111 



Station both fresh ^nd rotted manure were applied before and after 
plowing. For fresh manure the average of two crops of corn showed 
a gain of 10.9 bushels per acre in favor of applying after plowing. For the 
wheat which followed the corn the gain was two bushels per acre. Where 
rotted manure was compared in the same way there was practically no 
difference in the yield of corn, and about one bushel gain for wheat in 
favor of applying after plowing. In this experiment the fresh manure 
under both conditions and for both crops gave yields considerably above 
that produced by the rotted manure. 

Another experiment in which the manure was plowed under in the 
spring as compared with plowing under in the fall gave results with corn 
and wheat favorable to plowing under in the spring. This is in harmony 
with the preceding experiment, and suggests that manure applied to the 
surface, and allowed to remain for some time in that position, benefits 
the soil and results in a better growth of crops than when it is plowed 
under immediately. The subject is one worthy of further consideration 
and experimentation. It is not an uncommon opinion, however, among 
practical farmers that top dressing with manure is more beneficial than 
plowing it under, and it is quite a common practice to top dress grass 
lands and wheat ^vith manure. 

In the South, where manure is very scarce, it is frequently applied 
in the hill or furrow at planting time. This entails a good deal of hand 
labor, but it is probably justifiable where labor is as cheap as it is there. 
The manner of applying small applications concentrates the manure in 
the vicinity of the plants and stimulates growth during the early portions 
of the season. 

The Parking System. — The cheapest possible way of getting manure 
on the land is by pasturing the animals, or allowing them to gather their 
own feed. This, of course, is an old and universal practice in case of 
pastures, and is becoming more popular as indicated by the practice of 
hogging off corn, and other annual crops. This is spoken of as the park- 
ing system. It has a disadvantage that in certain classes of animals the 
manure is not uniformly distributed. It is more applicable for sheep and 
swine than it is for the larger animals. 

Distribution of Benefits. — The benefits of manure are distributed 
over a number of years. This often gives rise to difficulty in case of the 
tenant farmer who rents a farm for only one year and without assur- 
ance that he will remain for more than that length of time. He hesi- 
tates to haul and apply the manure, knowing that his successor will receive 
a considerable part of its benefits. Under average conditions it is esti- 
mated that the first crop after manure is applied will receive about 40 
per cent of its benefits; the second crop 30 per cent; the third crop 20 
per cent; and the fourth one the remaining 10 per cent. This distribution 
of the benefits of manure is used in cost accounting in farm crops. The 
accuracy of the distribution is doubtless crude, and would vary greatly 



m' 



ur ■! 




BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 111 



1 Courtesy of The International Harvester Company, Chicago. 

(110) 



station both fresh ^nd rotted manure were applied before and after 
plowing. For fresh manure the average of two crops of corn showed 
a gain of 10.9 bushels per acre in favor of applying after plowing. For the 
wheat which followed the corn the gain was two bushels per acre. Where 
rotted manure was compared in the same way there was practically no 
difference in the yield of corn, and about one bushel gain for wheat in 
favor of applying after plowing. In this experiment the fresh manure 
under both conditions and for both crops gave yields considerably above 
that produced by the rotted manure. 

Another experiment in which the manure was plowed under in the 
spring as compared with plowing under in the fall gave results with corn 
and wheat favorable to plowing under in the spring. This is in harmony 
with the preceding experiment, and suggests that manure applied to the 
surface, and allowed to remain for some time in that position, benefits 
the soil and results in a better growi:h of crops than when it is plowed 
under immediately. The sul^ject is one worthy of further consideration 
and experimentation. It is not an uncommon opinion, however, among 
practical farmers that top dressing with manure is more beneficial than 
plowing it under, and it is quite a common practice to top dress grass 
lands and wheat with manure. 

In the South, where manure is very scarce, it is frequently applied 
in the hill or furrow at planting time. This entails a good deal of hand 
labor, but it is probably justifiable where labor is as cheap as it is there. 
The manner of applying small applications concentrates the manure in 
the vicinity of the i)lants and stinmlates growth during the early portions 
of the season. 

The Parking System. — The cheap(\st possible way of getting manure 
on the land is b}^ i)asturiiig the animals, or allowing them to gather their 
own feed. This, of c()urs(% is an old and universal ])ractice in case of 
pastures, and is ])econiing more poi)ular as indicated by the practice of 
hogging off corn, and other annual crops. This is spoken of as the park- 
ing system. It has a disadvantage that in certain classes of animals the 
manure is not uniformly distributed. It is more applicable for sheep and 
swine than it is for the largcT animals. 

Distribution of Benefits. — The benefits of manure are distributed 
over a number of years. This often gives rise to difficulty in case of the 
tenant farmer who rents a farm for onlv one year and without assur- 
ance that he will remain for more than that length of time. He hesi- 
tates to haul and aj^ply the manure, knowing that his successor will receive 
a considerable j)art of its benefits. Under average conditions it is esti- 
mated that the first crop after manure is api^lied will receive about 40 
per cent of its benefits; the second crop 30 per cent; the third crop 20 
per cent; and the fourth one the remaining 10 per cent. This distribution 
of the benefits of manure is used in cost accoimting in farm crops. The 
accuracy of the distribution is doubtless crude, and would vary greatly 






TMTRMTTnM A T QPmwn PVPOQTTPP 



li 



k 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



112 -^ 

character of the manure and its rate of apphcation. 

GREEN MANURES 
Green manuring consists of plowing under green crops for the benefit 

S^e °„^„eSl cl«.ue„,« from the s„b»il and upon the <iec«y of he 
■>l,nt« leave them in the surface soil in an organic form. Dcep-rootca 
K iraliM beneficial because they improve the physical condition of 
the sub" 11 In general, crops that will furnish the largest amount of 
tr«l nitrogLbejring materiaHor te soil shoul^^^^^^^^ 

When is Green Manurmg Advisable?— The practice oi piowmt, 
urdeTcropB for the benefit of the soil is not justified m systems of live- 
stock farming where the crops can be profitably fed and the manure 
tSm dTo the soil. There are many localities, however where the far^^^ 
ine svstcms are such that but little manure is available to supply the 
needs of he soil. Under such conditions green manuring crops are often 
resorted to with profit. They are especially to be recommended in case 
of sandv soils low in organic matter, and for heavy soils in poor physical 
conditSi In addition to serving the purposes above mentioned, green 

manSg crops, if properly selected, ^-^ /'^^"^l^"Tht"lso 
would otherwise be bare of vegetation and subject to erosion. They ^teo 
prevent the loss of nitrogen by leaching. This is later made available for 
other crons as the green manures decompose in the soil. 

Green manuring is most applicable on fruit and truck farms. is 

quite extensively practiced in orchards during the early life of the trees. 
It iT also economical in the trucking regions where the winters are mild. 

Obiections to Green Manuring.-The objections to green manuring 
lie chiefly in the fact that green manure crops are grown and plowed 
under for the benefit of the soil and no direct immediate return is secured. 
The green manuring crops generally take the place o money crops. 
When it is possible to grow legumes and feed them to livestock with profit 
the stubble and roots of such crops, together with the manure which 
thev will afford, make possible nearly as rapid improvement of the soil 
as is the case when the whole crop is plowed under. Whether or not a 
green manuring crop should be fed or plowed under must be detcTmined 
bv the cost of harvesting and feeding, together with the cost of returning 
the manure, as compared with the returns secured in ammals or animal 
products in feeding it. 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 113 

Principal Green Manuring Crops.— The principal crops grown in 
the United States for green manuring purposes are red clover, alfalfa, 
alsike clover, crimson clover, cowpeas, Canada peas, soy beans, vetch, 
velvet bean, Japan clover, sweet clover and bur clover. In addition to 
these, beggar weed, peanuts and velvet bean are also used in the South. 
These are all legumes, and are decidedly preferable to non-legumes under 
most conditions where green manures can be used. In the North, where 
the winters are severe, rye and occasionally wheat are used for this pur- 
pose. Buckwheat, which is a summer annual, is also sometimes used. 



M "v 






^^i^w-*^- 



'■^■'■'^'^^ :^1.:-^'^-: 






.JV*fc/^v^r 



-W>-»v 






^^:&^<i 



:x:'tr^ r. 



Rye TcnNED Under for Soil Improvement. 

When heavy green manuring crops are turned under allow two weeks or more to 
W nen neavy gri,e ei^pge before planting succeedrng crop. 

The characteristics and the requirements for these crops will be dis- 

rimspd in Book II of this work. , , ,. ^, 

On poor soils lime and the mineral fertilizers may be used wih profit 
in the production of a green manure crop. This will stunulate the crop 
to-a grelr^wth, and when it decays in the soil the elements applied 
will again become available for the crop that is to follow. 

The composition of the legumes used for green manunng varies con- 
siderablv depending upon local conditions, character of soil and the stage 
of maturity when plowed under. The table on next page shows the com- 
tsZonXerJned by the average of a number of analy^s and ^ves 
the fertilizing constituents in pounds per ton of dry matter for both tops 

and roots in the crops indicated. . xu- * ui„ u c^.r.^,^A bp 

In connection with the analyses as shown in this table it should b« 

borne in mind that all of the mineral constituents <^?'^l'^'^J^^^^l: 
and that it is not possible to increase these by the growing of green manur 

8 



p^'-;: 



mm.- 



74^JX^ 



IMifif^M^^ 






^j2 SUCCESSFUL FARMING 

character of the manure and its rate of application. 

GREEN MANURES 
Green manuring consists of plowing under green crops for the benefit 

Lme Jneal consf^^^^^^^ from the subsoil and upon the decay of the 
nTnts leave them in the surface soil in an organic form. Deep-rooted 
Sn ; irdsoXneficial because they improve t^e Ph>-^^^^^^^^ ^j 

the subsoil. In general, crops tha will furni h he argent ^^^^^^^^^ 
humus and nitrogen-bearing material for ^^e «od r^uW ^^^^^^ 

When is Green Manurmg Advisable?— 1 he practice oi Pio^\" fc> 
urderirops for the benefit of the soil is not justified m systems of live- 
stock farming where the crops can be profitably fed and the manure 
1 dTo'he soil. There are many localities^ ''''''%Z:j\:iZlyZo 
inff svstcms are such that but little manure is available to supply tne 
need'of tbe soil. Under such conditions green manuring crops are often 
reported to Jh profit. They are especially to be recommended in case 
S Sndyloiriow in organic matter, and for heavy soils in poor physical 
condition In addition to serving the purposes above mentioned, green 
mTnurg crops, if properly selected, occupy the soil at seasons when it 
™ otherwL be bare of vegetation and subject to erosion. They a so 
prevent the loss of nitrogen by leaching. This is ater made available for 
other crons as the green manures decompose in the soil. 

Green manuring is most applicable on fruit and truck farms. It is 
quite extensively practiced in orchards during the early life of the trees. 
It iTaTso economical in the trucking regions where the winters are mild. 
ObTections to Green Manuring.-The objections to green manurmg 
lie chiefly in the fact that green manure crops are grown and plowed 
mder for the benefit of the soil and no direct immediate return is secured. 
The green manuring crops generally take the place of money crops. 
When it is possible to grow legumes and feed them to livestock with profit 
1 stubbl? and roots of such crops, together with the -anure wh ch 
thev will afford, make possible nearly as rapid improvement of the soil 
asTs the case when the whole crop is plowed under. Whether or not a 
^een manuring crop should be fed or plowed under must be fto-m^^^ 
by the cost of harvesting and feeding, together with the cost of returning 
the manure, as compared with the returns secured in animals or animal 
products in feeding it. 



BARNYARD, STABLE, GREEN MANURES 113 



I 



•^7 



Principal Green Manuring Crops.— The principal crops grown in 
the United States for green manuring purposes are red clover, alfalfa, 
alsike clover, crimson clover, cowpeas, Canada peas, soy beans, vetch, 
velvet bean, Japan clover, sweet clover and bur clover. In addition to 
these, beggar weed, peanuts and velvet bean are also used in the South. 
These are all legumes, and are decidedly preferable to non-legumes under 
most conditions where green manures can be used. In the North, where 
the winters are severe, rye and occasionally wheat are used for this pur- 
pose. Buckwheat, which is a summer annual, is also sometimes used. 




Rye Turned Under for Son. Improvement. 

When heavy green manuring crops are turned un.l.;r allow two ^eeks or more to 
W hen ne.ivj yr^^ elapse before plantmg buececding crop. 

The characteristics an<l the requirements for these crops will be dis- 

"" On'po'irtils Ume'tnd' the mineral fertilizers may be used with profit 
in the pSct^on of a green manure crop. This will sthnulate the crop 
lo-agrelr growth, ami when it decays in the soil the elements applied 
will anain become available for the crop that is to follow. 

S composition of the legumes used for green manurmg varies con- 
siderably Snding upon local conditions, character of soil and the stage 
of matSky L plowed under. The table on next page shows the com- 
^osHion fsVetermined by the average of a number of analyses and^ve 
the fertilizing constituents in pounds per ton of dry matter for both tops 

and roots in the crops indicated. _ cV,nnld be 

In connection with the analyses as shown m this t^ble, it should be 

borne in mind that all of the mineral constituents come from the soil, 

and thlt itTnot possible to increase these by the growing of green manur- 

8 



■'*l*«(^:; 















I -lil.^ilL^-ir;.'^ A*. 




m 



!> 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



114 

ing crops. The only possible benefit in this re^^^^^^^^' ^^ onlj 

fofm that may result as the g-XTrroVorTanfc^l^^^^^^^^ -trogen. 
real additions to the soil will be in the torm 01 orga ^^ 

It is, therefore, essential to select those crops that will giv 

increase in those two constituents. 

Fertilizing Matebia.s in 2000_PouNB^^i^Br_SuBSTANCE. 



Plant and Part. 



Alfalfa, tops. 
Alfalfa, roots, 



Nitrogen, 
per cent. 



Phosphoric Acid, 
per cent. 



Cowpeas, tops. 
Cowpeas, roots 



Crimson clover, tops. 
Crimson clover, roots 



Common vetch, tops. 
Common vetch, roots 



Red clover, tops. 
Red clover, roots 



Soy bean, tops 
Soy bean, roots 



Velvet bean 



46. 
41. 

39.2 
23.6 

42.6 
30. 

59.9 
43.8 

47. 
54.8 

43.6 
21. 

50.2 



10.8 

8.6 

10.2 
11. 

12.4 
9.4 

14.2 
15.8 

11.6 
16.8 

12.5 

6.8 

10.6 



Potash, 
per cent. 



30.4 
9.6 

38.6 
23.2 

27. 
20.4 

53.7 
23.6 

42.8 
16.4 

33.6 
13.4 

76.8 



The cultivated crops, such as corn, potatoes, tobacco, cotton and 
some of t^e heavier truck crops, generally follow a green manunng crop 
trbetter adv^^^ than crops that are broadcasted or drilled and do 
not reTui^^^^^^^ It is good practice to plow under green manur- 

"g coT wo weeks or more in advance of the time of seedmg the crop 
which is to follow. Lime applied to the surface before the jop is t^^^^^^^^^^ 
under will tend to hasten decomposition and neutralize acids which are 
gener^^^^^^^ The more succulent the crop when turned under, the 

greater the tendency to acid formation. 

REFERENCES 

"FertiUzers and Manures." Hall. 

::&L'Xnure,''vaT"and Use." Edward Minus, Dept. of Agriculture. ComeU 

MichYgirES". StaS Sir 25. "Composition and Value «/ Fam Manure/^ „ 
Michigan Expt. Station Circular 26. " Losses and Preservation of Barnyard Manure. 
Ohio Expt. Station Bulletin 246. "Barnyard Manure. 
Purdue Expt. Station Bulletin 49. "Farm Manures. 



CHAPTER 6 

LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 

SoUs Need Lime.— Lime is an essential element of plant food. Many 
plants are injured by an acid condition of the soil. Soil a«^ty;^2?a 
cheaply corrected by one of the several forms of lime The beneficial 
effects of liming have been demonstrated by the agricultural expermient 
stations in a dozen or more of the states. Observations by farmers m all 
of the Eastern and Southern States.and in the Central States as far west 
as the Missouri River, show that on many of the farms soils are sour. 
This sourness of the sdl is due to a deficiency of lime, and often occurs 

in soils originally rich in lime. • • i i:^^ 

Lime Content of SoUs.-Soils vary greatly m their original lime 
content. Some have very little lime to begin with. Others, such as the 
Tmestone soils, are formed from limestone rocks, some o^-^^^-^^^^ 
originally more than 90 per cent carbonate of lime. The 1 me content ot 
soifs is determined by treating them with strong mineral acids. This 
removes all of the lime from the soil, and the content is then determined 
cheSly. The following table shows the lime content of a nmnber of 
typical soils in different parts of the United States: 

Lime Content (CXCO3) per Acre 7 Inches ok Soil in Some Ttpicai, Soii^ 

OF THE United States. 



Production. 




Leonard town loam 

Orangeburg sandy loam 

Orangeburg fine sandy loam 

Cecil clay 

Norfolk loam 

Oswego silt loam 

Hagerstown loam 

Miami sand 

Miami silt loam 

Porters black clay 

Marshal loam 

Podunk fine sandy loam . . . 
Fresno fine sandy loam 



Maryland 

Alabama 

Texas 

North CaroUna 

Maryland 

Kansas 

Tennessee 

Ohio... 

Wisconsin 

Virginia 

Minnesota .... 
Connecticut . . . 
California 



Very low, 
Low 



Lime Content", 
pounds. 



<< 



n 



Medium 



a 



High 



Huston clay.... ^ Alabama 



i( 



<< 
U 



2,500 

3,500 

4,650 

5,000 

8,575 

14,275 

14,275 

34,650 

32,500 

59,250 

66,750 

83,575 

125,250 

,000,750 



Ti^^ Qnnc T ose Lime —The greatest loss of lime from the soil is 
due STact n . "t^Tsio.ly sofuble in the soil solution and i^ carried 
downward by the gravitational movement of the soil water The rate 
ofTsIof limVin this way depends both upon the rate of solubility and 

(115) 



i\ 



LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 117 



w 



1^' 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



116 

'--'^^^^i^^^or. the water generally ^n^^^^ i^ W ^^^^ 
ground drainage channels and few sur^ac^^^ ^^^^^^^e si become 
of it passes over the surface. This explains wny ^^ ^ 

deficient in lime. The presence of an abundance o Humus 
fetain lime in the form of humates, and reduce its^loss ^^^ 

':i:S::lt^^eZ:^^^n non-legume. and, therefore, cause a more 
rapid reduction in^^^^^^^^^ character of vegetation is a good 

index rtXTeTcquremont of soils. When red clover fails or when 
Ite dover does better than red clover, it indicates a sour soil The 

SstctTredtop, ^^^::^:^:^, st ^^^ ^^ 

IZtlLZ^^ofZ'Z^tT^^^^^ P— e of these weeds 

Far^rs wlraU troubled with failure of clover and by the encroach- 
ment "above-mentioned weeds, may feel reasonably sure that their 

It preferably with rain water or water that is not charged with lime 
rlrS the litmus paper brought in contact with the soil and allowed 
t tmah^ for fifteen or thirty minutes will turn red if the soil is sour. 
The «y of the change of color will in a measure indicate the degree 

""^ TpoT"request, most of the state experiment stations will test repre- 
' sentative samples of soil and advise concerning their lime requirements. 
Thetboratory method determines approximately the amount of Imie 
required to neutralize the soil to the usual depth of plowing. 

Crops Require Lime.-Some crops are more tolerant of soil acidity 
than others. Of our staple farm crops, common red clover is^about the 
}^lst tolerant of such a condition. The staple crops that draw most 
het!ilyr the soil for a supply of lime are those first affected by sod 
additv They are also the least tolerant of soil acidity, and are usually 
"^ esponsive to applications of lime. The clovers contmn much more 
lime and magnesia than the cereals and grasses. The following table 
gives the TeSge lime and magnesia content as carbonates m a ton of 



the more general farm crops. Notice the large amounts in clover and 
alfalfa. Common red clover contains more than alsike clover. It is less 
tolerant of soil acidity than the latter. 

Average Lime and Magnesia (Equivalent to CaCOs and MgCOs) in 2000 lbs. 

OF the Following Crops. 
(Calculated from von Wolff's Tables on the Basis of 15 per cent Moisture.) 



Produce. 



Pounds of Carbonates as 



Calcuim 
CaCOa. 



Magnesium 
MgCOs. 



Timothy hay 

Wheat (grain and straw) 

Corn (grain, cobs and stover) 

Oats (grain and straw) 

Clover hay (alsike) 

Clover hay (red) 

Alfalfa hay 



6.00 
6.50 
8.68 
10.40 
49.00 
73.00 
91.00 



2.77 

6.23 

8.66 

9.00 

21.47 

27.01 

13.16 



Total. 



8 .77 
12.73 
17.34 
19.40 
70.47 
100.01 
104 . 16 



Tolerance to Acidity.— Numerous tests at the Pennsylvania Experi- 
ment Station show that when the lime requirement of the soil is 1500 to 
1700 pounds of burnt or caustic lime per acre seven inches of soil, red 




tutra» • 
5200Lb» 
CaCOj 





I No Linif 



The Growth of Red Clover on an Acid Soil as Affected by Lime.i 
A sour soil is unfriendly to clover. Lime will overcome the difficulty. 

clover fails. This is equivalent to from 2700 to 3000 pounds of carbonate 
of lime or crushed limestone. A lime requirement of 500 to 1000 pounds 
per acre does not seriously interfere with the growth of red clover. In 
ordinary farm practice the acidity seldom becomes sufficiently marked to 
affect noticeably the cereals and grasses, although these may be mdirectly 

iCourti»y of The Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. 









LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 117 



M 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



116 , 

i:i.'S'S"i.t TSclS ir4f rSe. wit. wMo. ..ne . lost 

'"■"i*^irL!r„*rSo™ the water .-* fin<^ !« -V i«^,-*f; 
ground drainage channel and tew suri^e ^-- "^n" soi., Iccon. 
IIJ^^Z '^Jpt^^ee oUnTundaneei^t hn.ns in the soil n,ay 
Sn lime in the form of hnmates and re<l„ce , s^.o, .^ ^^.^ 

:~r rr ":'n" no-S:::: *: Se^: can. a^o„ 

rapid reduction in the Hme of the so^^ vegetation is a good 

Lime Requirements of Soils.-The character j g ^^^^ 

index to the lime recjmrem^ trte^^^^S^-^ soil. The 
alsike clover does better than reel ciovcr ,. , goji. In 

presence of redtop, plantmn ^"<1 ^<^^7l^^^^^^ '^Z he Atlantic sea- 

-fK-iiirofrs^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

soils need lime, if these signs leavt uuu 

TheT'nsity ofthe^^^^^^^^^^ color will in a measure indicate the degree 

, ^"^S^r-renues, -^ ^f J^ Xii^ t^T^^^^^ 

yrilorSfml^d d-™l;r r^^^^^^^ |he,.mount of lime 

romiired to neutralize the soil to the usual dept h of plowmg. 

^ Crops Require Lime.-Some crops are more tolerant of soil acid ty 
than others Of our staple farm crops, common red clover is about the 

S Snt of jc- -^^^^^^^ 

'"Ttv "hev ar also th^TeS tolerant of soil acidity, and are usually 
'1 f UoiS^et thcations of lime. The clovers -t^J^-. S 
lime and magnesia than the cereals and grasses. The JoUowmg taDie 
g-l^es the average lime and magnesia content as carbonates in a ton of 



the more general farm crops. Notice the large amounts in clover and 
alfalfa. Common red clover contains more than alsike clover. It is less 
tolerant of soil acidity than the latter. 

Average Lime and Magnesia (Equivalent to CaCOs and MgCOs) in 2000 lbs. 

OF the Following Crops. 
(Calculated from von Wolff's Tables on the Basis of 15 per cent Moisture.) 



Produce. 



Pounds of Carbonates aa 



Timothy hay 

Wheat (grain and straw) 

Corn (grain, cobs and stover) 

Oats (grain and straw) 

Clover hay (alsike) 

Clover hay (red) 

Alfalfa hay 



Calcium 


Magnesium 


CaCOs. 


MgCOs. 


6.00 


2.77 


6.50 


6.23 


8.68 


8.66 


10.40 


9.00 


49.00 


21.47 


73.00 


27.01 


91.00 


13.16 



Total. 



8 .77 
12.73 
17.34 
19.40 
70.47 
100.01 
104 . 16 



Tolerance to Acidity.— Numerous tests at the Pennsylvania Experi- 
ment Station show that when the lime requirement of the soil is 1500 to 
1700 pounds of burnt or caustic lime per acre seven inches of soil, red 




111200 




)#fLbs. • 



i 



520OLbs 



2000 Lbi 






The Growth of Red Clover on an Acid Soil as Affected by Lime.^ 
A sour soil is unfriendly to clover. Lime will overcome the difficulty. 

clover fails. This is equivalent to from 2700 to 3000 pounds of carbonate 
of lime or crushed limestone. A lime requirement of 500 to 1000 pounds 
per acre does not scTiously intc^rfere with the growth of red clover. In 
ordinary farm practice the acidity seldom becomes sufficiently marked to 
affect noticeably th(^ cereals and grasses, although these may be mdirectly 

iCuurtcbTof The Pcunaylvuni.i Agricultural Experiment Station. 






TNTFNTTONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



It ^ 



III >l 



l! ' 



118 

Se crops is in the following order: oats, wheat, corn and red clover, 

- sr^'ri^rrcteiiSion, whee,. haa^^f ,:*-™ 

iS'first, those benefited by lime; second, the- ^u^^^^^^^ benefited 
by lime; third, plants usually or frequently mjured by lime. 

Lime as Affecting Growth of Plants 



Alfalfa 
Asparagus 
Balsam 
Barley 

Beets (all kinds) 
Beans 
Bush 

Golden Wax 
Horticultural Pole 
Red Valentine 
Cabbage 
Cantaloupe 
Cauliflower 
Celery 
Cherry 
Clover 
Red 
. White 
Alsike 
Crimson 
Cucumber 
Currant 
Dandelion 



Plants Benefited hy Liming. 

Eggplant 
Elm, American 
Emmer 
Gooseberry 

Hemp 

Kentucky Bluegrass 

Kohl-rabi 

Lentil 

Lettuce (all kinds) 

Linden, American 

Martynia 

Mignonette * 

Nasturtium 

Oats 

Okra (Gumbo) 

Onion 

Orange 

Pea 

Canada 

Common 

Sweet 
Pansy 
Parsnip 



Peanut 
Pepper 
Plum (Burbank-Japan) 

Pumpkin 

Quince 

Raspberry (Cuthbert) 

Rhubarb 
Salsify 
Salt-bush 
Sorghum 
Spinach 
Squash 
Summer 
Hubbard 
Sweet Alyssum 
Timothy 
Tobacco 
Turnip 
Flat 
Swedish 
Upland Cress 
Wheat 



Bent, Rhode Island 

Carrot 

Chicory 



Plants hut Little Benefited hy Liming, 

Corn, Indian ^Y^ 

Redtop Spurry 

Plants Usually or Frequently Injured hy Liming. 



Apple* 
Azalea t 
Bean 

Velvet 

Castor 
Birch, American White 
Blackberry 
Chestnut f 
Cotton 



Cowpea* 

Cranberry 

Flax 

Grape, Concord* 

Lupine 

Phlox (Drummondi)* 

Peach* 

Pear* 

Radish 



Raspberry 

(Black-cap) 
Rhododendron t 

Sorrel 

Common 

Sheep 
Spruce, Norway 
Tomato* 
Zinnia* 



♦ These under certain conditions are benefited by Hming. 
t These have not been tested at the Rhode Island btation. 



LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 119 

Crops benefited by lime were not only increased in size, but were 
ready for market earlier than where lime was omitted. Tobacco was 
improved in the character of its ash by the use of lime. 

Lime is most beneficial in promoting the growth of legumes. This 
results in building up the nitrogen supply and general fertility of the soil. 

Sources of Lime. — The principal source of lime is in the limestone 
rocks and deposits that occur in great abundance in many sections of the 
country. There are probably no states in which limestone formations 
do not occur, although there are sometimes considerable sections including 
a number of counties in which limestone deposits are not accessible. 

Deposits of marl occur in certain localities. They vary greatly in 
composition and lime 
content. Marl is gen- 
erally in good physical 
condition for applica- 
tion to the soil, and 
some of it contains 
phosphorus and pot- 
ash. 

Oyster shells that 
accumulate in large 
quantities in sea-coast 
localities where oyster 
farming is carried on 
forms another valua- 
ble source of lime. 
Wood-ashes are about 
one-third actual lime. 
Three tons of wood- 
ashes are, therefore, equal to one ton of pure burnt lime. Unleached ashes ' 
contain 5 to 7 per cent of potash, and 1 to 2 per cent of phosphoric acid, 
which materially increases their value for use on land. When ashes are 
leached, most of the potash is lost, but the lime content is somewhat 

increased. 

There are a number of forms of spent lime, which is a by-product of 
different manufacturing establishments that use lime. Among these 
may be mentioned dye-house lime, gas-house lime, lime from tanneries, 
waste lime from soda-ash works, and waste lime from beet-sugar factories. 
The value of these varies widely, and it is impossible to make a definite 
statement concerning their value. They can frequently be secured at no 
cost other than^ the hauling. Whether or not they are worth hauling 
depends upon circumstances. Frequently, they contain much water, 
are in poor physical condition and will be more expensive in the long run 
than to purchase first-class lime in good mechanical condition. Their 

1 Courtesy of International Agricultural Association, Caledonia, N. Y. 




Beets Grown With and Without Lime.^ 




SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



'm 



118 

sulphate has been used, the .-«><^,ty has become^ so marked ^^^^^^^ ^^ 

crops in the rotation are directly ^^^f ^^-^ ^\''^^ 'J^^'^d red clover; the 
these crops is in the following order : oats, wheat, corn and rea cio , 

last being the least tolerant of soil acidity. extensive 

by lime; third, plants usually or frequently injured by lime. 

Lime as Affectincj Growth of Plants 



Alfalfa 
Asparagus 
Balsam 
Barley 

Beets (all kinds) 
Beans 
Bush 

Golden Wax 
Horticultural Pole 
Red Valentine 
Cabbage 
Cantaloupe 
Cauliflower 
Celery 
Cherry 
Clover 
Red 
White 
Alsike 
Crimson 
Cucumber 
Currant 
DandeUon 



Bent, Rhode Island 

Carrot 

Chicory 



Plants Benefited by Liming. 

Eggplant 
Elm, American 
Emmer 
Gooseberry 

Hemp 

Kentucky Bluegrass 

Kohl-rabi 

Lentil 

Lettuce (all kinds) 

Linden, American 

Martynia 

Mignonette 

Nasturtium 

Oats 

Okra (Gumbo) 

Onion 

Orange 

Pea 

Canada 

Common 

Sweet 
Pansy 
Parsnip 



Peanut 
Pepper 
Plum (Burbank-Japan) 

Pumpkin 

Quince 

Raspberry (Cuthbert) 

Rhubarb 

Salsify 

Salt-bush 

Sorghum 

Spinach 

Squash 

Summer 

Hubbard 
Sweet Alyssum 
Timothy 
Tobacco 
Turnip 

Flat 

Swedish 
Upland Cress 
Wheat 



Plants hut Little Benefited hy Liming, 

Corn, Indian ^y^ 

Redtop Spurry 



Apple* 
Azalea t 
Bean 

Velvet 

Castor 
Birch, American White 
Blackberry 
Chestnut t 
Cotton 



Plants Usually or Frequently Injured hy Liming. 

Cowpea* 

Cranberry 

Flax 

Grape, Concord* 

Lupine 

Phlox (Drummondi)* 

Peach* 

Pear* 

Radish 



Raspberry 
(Black-cap) 

Rhododendron t 

Sorrel 
Common 
Sheep 

Spruce, Norway 

Tomato* 

Zinnia* 



♦ These under certain conditions are benefited by Ji^jj^f/ ^ 
t These have not been tested at the Rhode Island Station. 



LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 119 

Crops benefited by lime were not only increased in size, but were 
ready for market earlier than where lime was omitted. Tobacco was 
improved in the character of its ash by the use of lime. 

Lime is most beneficial in promoting the growth of legumes. This 
results in building up the nitrogen supply and general fertility of the soil. 

Sources of Lime. — The principal source of lime is in the limestone 
rocks and deposits that occur in great abundance in many sections of the 
country. There are probably no states in which limestone formations 
do not occur, although there are sometimes considerable sections including 
a number of counties in which limestone deposits are not accessible. 

Deposits of marl occur in certain localities. They vary greatly in 
composition and lime 
content. Marl is gen- 
erally in good physical 
condition for applica- 
tion to the soil, and 
some of it contains 
l)hosphorus and pot- 
ash. 

Oyster shells that 
accumulate in large 
quantities in sea-coast 
localities where oyster 
farming is carried on 
forms another valua- 
ble source of lime. 
Wood-ashes are about 
one-third actual lime. 
Three tons of wood- 
ashes are, therefore, equal to one ton of pure burnt lime. Unleached ashes 
contain 5 to 7 per cent of potash, and 1 to 2 per cent of phosphoric acid, 
which materially increases their value for use on land. When ashes are 
leached, most of the potash is lost, but the lime content is somewhat 

increased. 

There are a number of forms of spent lime, which is a by-product of 
different manufacturing establishments that use lime. Among these 
may be mentioned dye-house lime, gas-house lime, lime from tanneries, 
waste lime from soda-ash works, and waste lime from beet-sugar factories. 
The value of these varies widely, and it is impossible to make a definite 
statement concerning their value. They can frequently be secured at no 
cost other than^ the hauling. W^hether or not they are worth hauling 
depends upon circumstances. Frequently, they contain much water, 
are in poor physical condition and will be more expensive in the long run 
than to i)urchase first-class lime in good mechanical condition. Their 

^Courtesy of International Agricultural Association, Caledonia, N. Y. 




Bkets Grown With and Without Lime.^ 



TTVTT'CXT'T'TrMVT A T 



QTHrriMn FVPn<5TTi?p 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 121 




. I 



M 



I i 






\ i 



120 ^ . , 

-j-— ^j;^^;— ^j;;^^ chemist or by actual 

field test. . , i j ^^ lond, and while it will 

Gypsum or land plaster is 'l^^^^^'^^ZS in correcting soil 
supply calcium as a plant food, it has iitiie 

acidity. , , ^ j TKnmn^! slae used as sources of phosphorus, 

^- '?^:^^^-^:^z SsToo tuXf pieiire-- 

pared by heating limestone (CaCO, ^J^J^^^^^"^ P^^ ^ioi (CO.), 
stone thus heated loses 44 pounds <:! g^^^^^^^^.^^ „,ay be slaked 
and results in 56 pounds o li'"^- , ^^'^ ^V. wnter to make 74 pounds of 

ri rrUmf SS Tl20 pou^ndS pTre li^e T.^uals ulo pounds 
hydrated hme Theretore u p ^^^^ carbonate of Imie or 

of pure hydrated hme, y>^y/i'^^.j J hydrated lime are exposed 
pure pulverized limestone. When lime ana ny ^^^.^ 

winl mT; be used because of the considerable amounts of finely d.vded 

while othercontain much magnesia and are known as dolomite. The 
;' sLfe oTJagn^^^^^ slightly increases the neutralizing power of a given 
weight of lime. 

FUNCTIONS OF LIME 

Lime as Plant Food.-The absence of lime prevents a ^^^l ^^^^^P; 
ment of plants. Lime is, therefore, essential as a plant food Most 
S contafn sufficient lime to meet the food requirements of p Ian s. 
£>me soils, however, may contain so little, or it may be so unavailable, 
that plants that are hungry for lime may suffer from a lack of it. 

Chemical Action of Lime.-The chemical effect of lime on most 

•1 • TSor imoortance It varies somewhat xvnth the form m which 

nt rpp1ic"rtrso[KT;eshV bumt or caustic lime is the most active 



form. It may combine with certain soil elements liberating other elements 
such as potash, and making them available for plants. Lime in the pres- 
ence of soluble phosphates will, readily combine with them, forming 
tricalcium phosphate. This will prevent the phosphates from uniting 
with iron and aluminum, which gives rise to compounds less available to 
plants than the lime phosphates. 

Physical Effect of Lime.— Clay soils are frequently improved in 
physical condition by the liberal application of lime. Freshly burnt lime 
is the most active form for this purpose. Lime causes a flocculation of 
the clay particles and increases the porosity of the soil. Lime, therefore, 
facilitates drainage, makes cultivation easier, causes an aeration of the 
soil and makes possible a deeper penetration by plant roots. On sandy 
soils burnt lime may tend to bind the particles together. This may or 
may not be desirable. When applied for its physical effect it is usually 
best to apply air-slaked lime or finely pulverized limestone to sandy soils, 
and to use freshly burnt lime on heavy, refractory soils well supplied with 

organic matter. . . 

Lime Affects Soil Bacteria.— Certain species of bacteria are instru- 
mental in the change of ammonia and inorganic forms of nitrogen to 
nitrates. This process is known as nitrification, and is promoted by the 
presence of lime in the soil. The process not only makes the nitrogen 
available, but gives rise to the development of carbon dioxide, which in turn 
acts upon inert plant food and makes it more readily available to plants. 
Lime is also beneficial to the several forms of micro-organisms that 
reside in the tubercles on the roots of all legumes. This may explain why 
legumes are generally more benefited by lime than non-legumes. 

Lime Corrects SoU Acidity.— In the vast majority of instances the 
chief function of lime is to correct soil acidity. Lime corrects acidity by 
combining with the acids formed and giving rise to neutral salts It will 
seldom pay to apply lime to the soil for purposes other than this, ihe 
amount of lime to apply is, therefore, determined chiefly by the degree 
of acidity of the soil. ■ In practice it is found advisable to apply more than 
actual lime requirements indicated by chemical methods 1 his is advis- 
able because in practice it is impossible to distribute lime thoroughly 
and uniformly and secure its thorough mixture with the soil Because 
of this lack of uniformity in distribution some of the lime applied will be 
ineffective and portions of the soil will not be brought in contact with 
lime. It is not always necessary to make the soil neutral since most 
crops, even the most sensitive crops, will grow fairly well in the presence 

of small amounts of acids. _„++^, ;„ 

Sanitary Effect of Lime.-The decomposition of organic matter in 
the soil often gives rise to products that are injurious to plant growth. 
While these generally disappear in time, the presence of hme often corrects 
the difficulty at once. It is also believed that plant roots excrete mjurious 
substances. Lime neutralizes these objectionable substances. 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



i\ 



122 

Lime also affects plant diseases It ^^^^J^^:^ ^::^^ 

which is often senous m '^i;'^'^;^'^Zi^^^ rot of sweet potatoes 
plants. It is found to be effective in reducing _o 

and checking the root diseases of f^^f ^^; , ^'^;j^ridfn7thT germ of this 
to favor the development of P°* J*^ ^^Vf ™f ge^^ - 

disea.se is already m f e soU. In thj ca^^^^^^ enc g^ ^.^^ .^ ^^^^^ 

becomes ^^^'l^'^J^f^Z'^^^^ ^m in a crop rotation which contains 
potr:tt irstr::- appl^^ttst after t/e potato crop rather than 

^^nniudicious use of Lirne The ^^^f^^^^ ^;::;S ^ ^^ 
detriment^ Limeys not a ert hz^^^ J^«;^;Pf^p,,, .^s the truth of the 
olfs:;ing ^'LSnetnd^L witU^ manure makes both farm and farmer 

^"""'"Thl excessive use of burnt lime may bring about the availability of 
1 rS thnn can be utilized by crops, and cause a rapid loss of 
rSn Sh cl S Sletln is hastened. It is, therefore, good farm 
nVctice to use r^edium to small quantities at intervals of five or six years 
Sle to bTgaTned by applying more than is sufficient to meet the present 
nmis of the soil from the standpoint of neutralizing its acidity. 

Ra e of AppUcation.-The amount of lime to apply varies with the 
kind of Le the requirements of the soil and the frequency of its apphca- 
tim I a oil is a tenacious clay and physical improvement is desired 
an annl cation of two or three tons of burnt lime per acre may be Profitable 
OrdTna iH^^ is applied to correct acidity and make the soil friendly 
to Iver Ind other p ants. The equivalent of one to one and one-half 
t^s of biS lime per acre applied once in each crop rotation is usual y 
« maxi. u m amount. In some instances 1000 pounds per acre wil 
Lcrrrthe desired result. The equivalent of 1000 pounds of burnt 
SeTs between 1300 and 1350 pounds of slaked Ihne or a little less than 
oTeton o finely pulverized raw limestone. Unusually large apphcations 
have emphasized the wastefulness of such applications so far as the needs 
of the SOU and crops are concerned, through periods of five to six years 
?!arge apphcations may last much longer, but they are more wasteful of 
lime and result in capital being invested without returns. 

Small appHcatiois are advised for sandy soils. On such soils the 
carbonate form is to be preferred. Wood-ashes, because of the form of 
lime and the content of potash, is advised for sandy soils. 

Time of Applying.— Lime in any form may be applied at any time ot 
the vear. In general farm practice it is advisable to apply lime when men 
and teams are available for its hauling and distribution with the mmimum 
interference with other farm work. There are some minor precautions, 
however, in this connection. It is never advisable to apply caustic lime 
in large Amounts just prior to the planting of the crop. At least ten days 



LIME AND OTHE R SOIL AMENDMENTS 123 

or two weeks should intervene between time of application and planting 
of the seed. The caustic effect may injure the young plants. In the soil 
lime is converted to the carbonate form and the caustic properties soon 

disappear. . , x^ • n i. i , 

Lime should usually pave the way for clover. It is well to apply 
lime a year or more before the seeding of clover. If this has not been done, 
it may be put on the land when the seed-bed is being made for the wheat, 
oats or other crop with which clover is to be seeded. The advantages of 
applying a year or two in advance of clover lie in the very thorough 
mixture of lime and soil resulting from the plowing and tilling of the soil. 
Frequency of Application.— The frequency with which lime should be 
applied depends upon the character of the soil, the rate of application, 
the length of the crop rotation and the character of the crops grown 
It may also be affected by climatic conditions and soil drainage. With 
good drainage and heavy rainfall the losses of lime will be large, while 
under reverse conditions they will be comparatively small. In crop 
rotations five years or more in length, one application at an appropriate 
place in each rotation should be sufficient. For shorter rotations one 
application for each two rotations may meet the needs. On soils that are 
extremely acid and where lime is scarce and high-priced, it may be desir- 
able to make small applications at frequent intervals unt 1 the lime require- 
ment of the soil is fully met. Sandy soils call for light applications at 
rather short intervals. On clay soils larger amounts can be used and the 

"^^Mtth^f o;i;plying.-Lime should be applied after the ground is 
plowed and thoroughly mixed with the soil by harrowing or disking 
Thrmore thoroughly it is mixed with the soil the better and quicker the 
results will be. It should never be plowed under, Ij^^^^^J^^ ^^^^^^^^^ 
is to work downward rather than upward in the soil. Apply hme ^^ th 
a spreLer after the ground has been plowed. Do not ^"11 1"- m w^^^^^ 
seeds nor mix it with commercial fertilizer, nor use it m place of fertilizer. 
App ;"to meet the lime requirements of a soil, and when this has been 
I'^e use manure and commercial fertilizers in the ways that have been 
found profitable for the crops which are to be grown, regardless of the 

fact that lime has been applied. t-Ko np„trn1i7inff effect 

Relative Values of Different Forms of Lime.— The neutralizing eneci 
of the dffferent forms of Hme is given under the carriers of lime on a pre- 
cLiT/nai The question of relative money values, however is a matter 
of arfthmetic and involves not only the first cost of unit we.gh s of the 
S fferent f™ ^ lime, but includes freight rates, cost of hau ing and 

will depend largely on the presence or absence of limestone or MJme 



r 



£% 



*' 



it , 

i 

\l\h 



SOCCESsrntFARMING_ 

method for any region. ^ ^ 

1 ton burnt lime at railroad station. ... ... • . • • • • ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; i 00 

Hauling. . . • • •. _J 

Cost of applying ^ ^^ ^ 

Total cost per acre 

The high cost of -ft^f^rw^^^^^ Sptytg tin Xat 

lime before it is apphed, together v^nn 

'""■ 2640 pounds hydrated lime (equivalent to 1 ton burnt Ume), 

at $7.00 per ton. ' " ' 1-^^ 

Hauling, at $1.00 per ton^ .99 

Applying, at 75 cents per ton . . . iHTs 

Total cost per acre 

• ^ih\< form is due to the relatively 

high hrst cost oi ny^ hvdrated lime. 

^ Cct^r^J-nnrr'^e-ifate the .oU„™.: . 

3570 P.U..I. 8"»"J «"«"°™ "O"""*"* "' '°°. . ^ »' " 

at $4.00 per ton. 1 78 

Hauling, at $1.00 per ton. 1.33 

Splyink,-t 75 cents per ton ^-__ 

Total cost per acre 

The above costs are P-^ably consid^^ abo^^^^^ 

most localities where lime - - *««^^^^^^^^^^^ also rather high, 

ground limestone as compared ^i**^ thej^'^™^ .^ ^^^^ the greatest 
^ It is good business to purchase t^f. ^°™ ^^''^^olved, providing the 
amount of active lime for the amount °^ ^j^^f ^^'^^^^^^^^^^ should be 
mechanical condition is satisfactory _ J^ ^^is^^^^ ^.^ to the soil, it 

o! nitrogenous "'temls cau* a te ot n Wn ^ .^^^^ 

}:r Ts-bU: S^l^rrSS £ S advance o. ap*in, te* 



LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 



125 




izers and mix it with the soil by disking or harrowing. In case of manure 
which is plowed under, the application of lime may follow that of manure, 
being applied preferably after plowing. 

The pulverized raw limestone may be applied with manure, or at 
the time of applying fertiUzers, without injurious results. 

Experimental Results.— Experiments with lime at many experiment 
stations and on ^11 kinds of soils show that it makes little difference what 
form is used, so long as it is applied in sufficient quantities to meet the 
lime requirements of the soil, and is thoroughly and uniformly mixed with 
the soil. At the Penn- 
sylvania Experiment 
Station finely crushed 
Umestone in each of 
three field tests ex- 
tending over a num- 
ber of years has 
proven slightly better 
than equivalent 
amounts of burnt 
lime. Extensive pet 
experiments at the 
same experiment sta- 
tion have shown that 
finely pulverized lime- 
stone is equally as 
prompt and effective 
in correcting soil . , ^ ^ f 

acidity and promoting the growth of clover as equivalent amounts of 
caustic lime. While these tests are favorable to pulverized limestone, 
thev are not all sufficiently decisive to justify its use at a dispropor- 
tionate price. If two tons of ground limestone cost much more than 
one ton of burnt lime, one would ordinarily not be justified m usmg the 

^""'"^Where lime must be shipped some distance, the more concentrated 

forms are usually the cheaper. . xu t? + ^ q+o+oo 

Soreadine Lime.— The practice most common in the Eastern btates 
is to place small piles of burnt lump lime at uniform intervals over he 
field, L amount in each pile and the distance between piles determ^^^^^^^ 
the rate of application. If the lime is to be spread promptly, about one- 
talf pill of wTter should be applied to, each pile, and f^^^.^^^^^ 
with earth. This facilitates slaking, and the lime wil be ready for d^- 
Sution in a comparatively short time. In other instances the piles 
a^e allowed to remain without either wettmg or covering w^^^^^^^ 
until weather conditions bring about complete slaking. Long periods ot 

J Courtesy of W. N. Lowry, Student. 



The Old Way of Spreading Lime.^ 

After slaking, the piles are uniformly spread over 

the surface. 



M 



'» ii.,"- 








S0CCESSFDL2^KMIHG_ 

method for any region. ^^ ^^ 

1 ton burnt lime at railroad station . .... • • • • • • • ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; :.•.■.. 1 • 00 

Hauling. ••■••.••• ; _:_ 

Cost of applying ^^ 

Total cost per acre 

The high COS. ot »p*i;f j,°:;rtr«o£'^^^ a^;?,t;'u„ r.. 

lime before it is applied, together ^^nn 

'""■ 2640 pounds hydrated lime (equivalent to 1 ton burnt lime). 

HauitfaWCrton.:::::::::-.::-.-.-;;^ ^-.^^ 

Applyink,at 75 cents per ton ___- 

Total cost per acre 

• „ +k;= form is due to the relatively 

h- h?4'rrofh:;:iS E -r^^^on. »pen. o, h-„. 

high nrst cost oi n.y^i ^ v,vrlrqted hme. 

^^ Ci:l;rJSS:ne't';Clhe .onowing: . 

3570 p.»... e-o-i «"»'«"« <«'""""' " ' '"" '"•"' " »' ■ » 

at $4.00 per ton. 1 .78 

Hauling, at Sl.OO per ton. .^ 1.33 

Applying, at 75 cents per ton ____ 

Total cost per acre 

The above costs are probably ^^l^^^ZJ^^^'^ 
most localities where l^^ J/^^ ,,*^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^ 

ground limestone as compared ^ith the ^"J ^j j^ jjeg the greatest 

^ It is good business to P;;'-^hase thatjo™ w hi^^^ P^^ ^^^.^.^^ ^^^ 

amount of active lime for the amount «^ ^^^^"^^^.tio; it should be 
mechanical condition is satisfactory 1" ^^is^ c« jj^j ^o the soil, it 
borne in mind that no ma ter m ^.^f J^™ jf^^ '^ J^ The advantages 
soon reverts to its o"ginal form of arb°"jte oM ^^ subdivision 

in using slaked burnt hme I- chi Ay - t e xtr^.^^ .^ ^^^ ^^., 
and the possibilities of m«'^7i^°3_„s _Caustic forms of lime should 
Mixing with Manure and f '^'"y';^^^'^%ueh for^ 



LIME AND OTHER S OIL AMENDMENTS 125 

izers, and mix it with the soil by disking or harrowing. In case of manure 
which is plowed under, the application of lime may follow that of manure, 
being applied preferably after plowing. 

The pulverized raw limestone may be applied with manure, or at 
the time of applying fertilizers, without injurious results. 

Experimental Results.— Experiments with lime at many experiment 
stations and on ^11 kinds of soils show that it makes little difference what 
form is used, so long as it is applied in sufficient quantities to meet the 
lime requirements of the soil, and is thoroughly and uniformly mixed with 
the soil. At the Penn- 
sylvania Experiment 
Station finely crushed 
limestone in each of 
three field tests ex- 
tending over a num- 
ber of years has 
proven slightly better 
than equivalent 
amounts of burnt 
lime. Extensive pot 
experiments at the 
same experiment sta- 
tion have shown that 
finely pulverized lime- 
stone is equally as 
prompt and effective 

in correcting soil . i ^ . ^f 

acidity and promoting the growth of clover as equivalent amounts of 
caustic lime. While these tests are favorable to pulverized limestone, 
thev are not all sufficiently decisive to justify its use at a dispropor- 
tionate price. If two tons of ground limestone cost much more than 
one ton of burnt lime, one would ordinarily not be justified in usmg the 

°' Where lime must be shipped some distance, the more concentrated 

forms are usually the cheaper. • xi, t- + «+„+»= 

Soreading Lime— The practice most common in the Eastern btates 
is to place small piles of burnt lump lime at uniform intervals over the 
field, the amount in each pile and the distance between piles determmmg 
the rate of application. If the lime is to be spread promptly, about one- 
half paU of Ser should be applied to.each pile, and then coveTed hghtly 
S earth. This facilitates slaking, and the lime w, 1 be ready for dis- 
tribution in a comparatively short time. In other instances he p.ks 
are aUowed to remain without either wetting or covering with earth 
uSilwelth er conditions bring about complete .laking. Long periods of 

^Courtesy of W. N. Lowry, Student. 




The Old Way of Spreading Lime.^ 

After slaking, the piles are uniformly spread over 

the surface. 




INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



/r^ 



I) 



I 




i 



t 



SUCCESSFUL FAR^N^ 



LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 127 



126 ^ riTiw^rtlielime and causing 

-— ;^^^;;;^^ by puddhng 

it to get into bad physical ^^^^'^;^^- ^ ^^^^ lime in large stacks at the 
Another method is to place the burnt mm^ ^^^^^^ ^ntil air 

end of the field, and allow ^--^Vrhauled either by wagon manure 
slaked. From these ^^^^^s^the toejha ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ 
spreader or hme spreader, ^nd appl ert t .^ distribution. By 

tains lumps the manure ^P^^^^^f./'/J' ader with large capacity may be 
screening,alime spreader oyertihzer^pr^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^l^ ,d be 

used with good results. W^^, ^^t the rate at the minimum 

'^^j^z 1-^r wr ^iiSui^^ 




A MoDEBN Lime Spreadek in Operation.' 



,. eanvas may be attached t the^P^eader^.^^ will reach to the .oun^, 
and by tacking a f ^P/V^.^TuS is Targely overcome. Goggles for the 
tf^r:Z'^^:XtX^l2. 2yU... some of the disagree- 

used, both manure ^P^^^^^^^^^^^j,, ^'m^rfinds that the work is most 

in its distribution. One «"«^^^^«^" Jf "^f' ^^^^^ distributor hitched 

cheaply and effectively done by - "^^^^^^^^^^ Thfhmestone is shoveled 

close behind a wagon loaded with hmestone ^^^^^ 

nto the distributor as the load - drawn jc-^^^^^^^ fn this way there is no 

earth four horses are '•^^^^^'-f J^ «^^^^^^^ i« ««"^P'«*^^ ^ ^^°" "" 

extra handling « ^^f j^^^^Votbe^^^^^^^ good results with the 

L'Lre^reXnttal meTh^ods have been practiced with this machine. 

-7^^;;;;^. r.. WC. Pu.UsM„. Ccp^v. S. Pa.. M... F.o™ -r.. Mana..e. ana C«P 
Rotations." by Parker. 



i 



Some apply the lime and manure together. When the limestone is to be 
applied at the rate of three tons per acre, 600 pounds on each load of 
manure in case of ten loads of manure to the acre, gives the desired amount. 
Another method is to put a layer of straw in the bottom of the manure 
spreader, set the spreader for its minimum rate of distribution, and load 
in the amount of Ume that will give the desired rate of application. For 
distribution at the rate of three tons per acre, this will generally require 

not more than one ton. 

Slaking Lime. — Lime in large quantities may be satisfactorily slaked 
by applying about two and one-half pails of water to each barrel of lime 




A Limb CRUsraNG Outfit Suitable for the Farmer.^ 

as it is unloaded in the field. Eventually the whole stack should be 
covered with soil. In a few days all of the lime will be thoroughly slaked, 
and in a fine, dry condition suitable for spreading. 

Crushing vs. Burning Lime.-The use of finely pulverized raw lime- 
stone has created a demand for machinery for crushing lime rock. There 
are now on the market quite a number of portable machines suitable 
for farm use. In some localities where limestone is easily accessible it 
can be quarried and finely pulverized with these machines at a cost of 
$1 to $L50 per ton. This puts it within the reach of farmers at a mod- 

Lime is burnt in several ways. The simplest way on the farm is 
to make a stack of lime rock with alternating l^y^^-^ ^f.^?"*;,^^*^;^^. 
This is built in a conical form with an intake for air at the bottom and 
an opening at the top for ventilation. The stack is covered with earth 
and the fire lighted. 

. Courtesy of New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N, Y. BuUetin 400. 



I » 



m^mi 










SUCCESSFUL FARMnrG 



— --^^^^^^^ by puddhng 

it to get into bad physical condition .^ ,^^g^ .t^eks at the 

Another method is to place th^/'^™^^";^^ several months until air 
end of the field, and allow «;"- ^^^^^led either by wagon manure 
.laked. From these « -•^'^^l^^J'^i'^d to the field. When the hme con- 
spreader or lime spreader, '-^n^^ .^f' "' \p,t results in distribution. By 
tains lumps the manure ^P'-f ^^^5. f7;',,,.'aer with large capacity may be 




A MODEUN Ln.E Sl-UEADF.R IN OrKUATION.^ 



a canvas may be attached to ^^^^^^l^^^ irl^^J on te 1='', 
and by tacking a strip at^the ^oj^r -^^^ll^^'^l^^^^,^ ^Goggles for the 

:^;ti:t^;re tt -u^^^^^^^ -- of tl. dlsagree. 

used, both n.mure «P-f -^i^^^X^?^^^ that the work is. most 
in its distribution. One ^"c"'*^*''" ^^ ^hort-tongue distributor hitched 
cheaply and effectively done ^Y -mg^ shoit tongu;^^^^^^^^ ,^ ,,,,,„a 

close behind a wagon "^^^^l^V^^J^^'™^^ the field. On loose, plowed 
into the distributor as the loa •^^^^^.'^ J^^^^] j^ this way there is no 
earth four horses are required ^^ ff ^J^Jj^^^f^^ -^ completed as soon as 
extra handling o ^'- l^^^,^^"^ .^J^^^^^^^^^ good'results with the 

. ^ o. P,i,l Minn From "Field ManaRcmcnt and Crop 

r^^iZ^^-f Tho Wobl. PuWishinK Company. St. Paul. Mmn. 

Rotations," by Parlicr. 



I 






LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 127 

Some apply the lime and manure together. When the limestone is to be 
applied at the rate of three tons per acre, 600 pounds on each load of 
manure in case of ten loads of manure to the acre, gives the desired amount. 
Another method is to put a layer of straw in the bottom of the manure 
spreader, set the spreader for its minimum rate of distribution, and load 
in the amount of lime that will give the desired rate of application. For 
distribution at the rate of three tons per acre, this will generally require 

not more than one ton. 

Slaking Lime.— Lime in large quantities may be satisfactorily slaked 
by applying about two and one-half pails of water to each barrel of lime 




A Limb Crushing Outfit Si itable for the Farmer.^ 

as it is unloaded in the fic^d. Eventually the whole stack should be 
covered with soil. In a few days all of the lime will be thoroughly slaked, 
and in a fine, dry condition suitable for spreading. ^ 

Crushing vs. Burning Lime.-The use of finely pulverized raw lime- 
stone has created a demand for machinery for crushing lime rock. 1 here 
are now on the market quite a number of portable machines suitable 
for farm use. In some localities where limestone is easily accessible it 
can be quarried and finely pulverized with these machines at a cost ot 
$1 to $1.50 per ton. This puts it within the reach of farmers at a mod- 

Lime is burnt in several ways. The simplest way on the farm is 
to make a stack of lime rock with alternating laye>-^°V^^«*;,«;;^";;^^ 
This is built in a conical form with an intake for air at the bottom and 
an opening at the top for ventilation. The stack is covered with earth 
and the fire lighted. 

. Courtesy of New York .Agricultural Experiment Station. Geneva, N. Y. BuUetin 100. 



11 



mmm^ 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSTIRF 



4««? 






ti-i 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



. : IZThvburninK limestone in a kiln 

More effective burning is secured bj bur g ^^^ ^^ 

constructed of stone o-^/^f "^.^e pS ' of 1^^^^^ ^^^ *^^ accessibility of 
ing varies with the cost of fuel, the price o 










"iWi^f^^^SiW^ 






.^P»W^5 










LIME AND OTHER SOIL AMENDMENTS 129 

Iowa Expt. Station Bulletin 2. "Bacteriological Effects of Lime." 

New Jersey Expt. Station Bulletin 210. *'Lime as a Fertilizer for Clover and Oats." 

Ohio Expt. Station BuDetin 279. "Lime as a Fertilizer." 

Pennsylvania Expt. Station Bulletin 131. "Use of Lime on Land." 

Rhode Island Expt. Station Bulletin 49. "Methods of Applying Lime." 

Rhode Island Expt. Station Bulletin 58. "Lime with Phosphates on Grass." 

Rhode Island Expt. Station Bulletin 160. "Lime with Nitrogenous FertiUzers on Acid 

Soils." 
Tennessee Expt. Station Bulletin 96. "Effect of Lime on Crop Production." 
Tennessee Expt. Station Bulletin 109. "Lime as a FertiUzer on Tennessee Soils." 
Virginia Expt. Station Bulletin 187. "Lime as a Fertihzer on Virginia Soils." 
Wisconsin Expt. Station Bulletin 230. "Lime as a Fertilizer on Wisconsin Soils." 
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin 261. "Sour Soils and Liming." 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry, Bulletin 101. "Lime Sulphur Wash." 
Farmers' Bulletin, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 435. "Burning Lime on the Farm." 



\ 



'M. 





will cost much more. 

REFERENCES 

—;^T.rm.rs- BuUeUn 435, O. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Id*. .*-7 • 



SOIL WATER 



131 



1 

) 



CHAPTER 7 

SOIL WATER. ITS FUNCTIONS AND CONTROL 

Water is the most -^f^rl'ttTof mSuTe in" s'ouTaTl 
to all forms of life An ^"/^f^^^J^^^^^^^^^^^ bountiful harvest Sixty 

seasons of the plant s f^^^^'^'X consist of water. About forty per 
to ninety per cent o all g^eei^ plants con ^^.^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ ^ 

cent of the dry matter is '"'^de f--^^ J^^J j^ the necessary vehicle which 
form the structure of the plant. Water 



[i 



I 




' Z ^*T T Parts of the UNITED STATES.* 

Map Showing Mean Annual Rainfall for all Parts of the 



carries plant food to ^^^J^^^^^^^^ -^ :iS^ S^^^^ 

S llln? irr nSed^'n rd^lency becLes sufficiently 

melting snows. An acre inch <^[^"£^ ^'\X,:' ZZs at 10 
supply the equivalent of one >°^\f . ~ ^,^e Ten inches of rain- 
cents per ton of water would cost $11.30 per acre. 

-:^Z;^oi Doubledav. Pa«e * Co.. Garden Cit. N. V. I^m "Soil.," by Fletche. 

(130) 



fall at the same rate would cost $113 per acre. From this it can be readily 
understood that artificial means of supplying plants with water must be 
done at a very low cost, otherwise it will not prove profitable. 

The amount of rain in any region is important in connection with 
crop production. In all regions. where the annual rainfall averages less 
than twenty inches, failures from insufficient moisture in the soil are 
frequent. The distribution of the rain is quite as important as the total 
annual rainfall. That which falls during the crop-growing season is more 
important than that which comes in the non-growing season. Conse- 
quently, there are regions of comparatively low rainfall where the dis- 
tribution is so favorable that crop failures are infrequent. In other 
localities a large part of a good annual rainfall may come in the non- 
crop-growing season, and as a result, crops frequently suffer from drought. 
In moving from one region to another it is well to study the average rain- 
fall and its distribution. 

Amount of Water Necessary to Produce Crops. — In the processes of 
plant growth the amount of water transpired or given off by plants is 
many times greater than that used in the plant tissues. Investigations 
in different parts of the world and at several of the American experiment 
stations show that in plant growth the amount of water required to pro- 
duce a pound of dry matter ranges from 200 to 700 pounds. This amount 
must actually pass through plants. Each ton of dry matter in alfalfa 
takes 700 tons of water. Each ton of dry matter in wheat required about 
400 tons of water; in oats, about 500 tons; and in corn, about 300 tons. 
To produce three tons of alfalfa in one season requires from 16 to 17 
inches of rainfall, all of which must pass through the plants. A 20-bushel 
crop of wheat would require about 6 inches, and 40 bushels of oats 6^; 
while 50 bushels of corn would require about 8^ inches of rainfall. For 
crops of the yields mentioned there should be more rainfall during the 
growing season than above indicated, because of the loss of water by direct 
evaporation from the soil, plus additional amounts that may flow from 
the surface if the rain falls rapidly, together with some that may pass 
through the soil into the underdrainage. 

Transpiration by Plants.— Transpiration, or the amount of water 
that passes through the plant and is evaporated from the surface of the 
leaves, varies greatly in different localities, and is influenced by a num- 
ber of factors. Transpiration takes place most rapidly during the day- 
time and in the presence of plenty of sunshine and warmth. During the 
night-time it is reduced to a very small amount. Transpiration is increased 
with a reduction of the humidity of the air, with rise in temperature and 
with intensity of sunshine. It is also increased with an increase in the 
movement of the air. An increase in plant food tends to decrease it, as 
does also a rapid growth of the plant. Transpiration is more rapid in the 
presence of an abundance of soil moisture than it is when the soil is dry. 

Experiments at the University of Illinois by Dr. Hunt showed an 



fi* i' 







.^..4^ 



--JWWWB^»^!8'<WW 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



SOIL WATER 



133 



132 ^ 

one week in July. On the basis oi req & ^ growing com 

each pound of dry -^ter the conj^^^^^^^^ o^ water by^^^ g ^^^ ^g 

in one week would equal 1.72 inches oi raiu. , amount of 

in rainfall. water -Water exists in the soil in three forms: (1) 

face tension; (3) hyg^scop.c 7>«'^"'J°\~h~,hT«,U becomes 

ifpartfes by which . '^^^^-f^'lh""; taXee in Sit 
^w^rThe ,'S™"an!o:„rof'rthr» fon„» o, water in the soil 

'■'""Tt'arunT rfi^JC" in »ils range, tron, 36 to 60 per cent of 
.1 I ^rTthe soil When there is no undcrdrainagc and a miper- 
IL'dtS 0° rl tUs spj^cmay become fully ocenpied wjth water to 
?W exchSon of air. The soil is then said to be saturat«l. I rains ee,^ 
Itl Sde drabage is establi.h«l, the pavitational water wUl escape by 
and ™<>ff™"»J „|,.„„els. The amount which will escape m this 

Trde^r'mJjrcSerby the texture o, the soil and the Per-.^^ 

nf nore space in it. The larger the pore space, the greater the amount ot 
Iter that win escape in this way; the finer the texture of the soil the 
Targer the amount held by capillarity and the less the amount that will 

""Cmai^'water.-This is the important portion of the soil water 
supply It is the form on which plants wholly depend for their water 
suppy Plants cannot exhaust from the soil a 1 of the cap"*^ water^ 
because a portion of it will be too tenaciously held by the soil particles to 
be removerby the plant root hairs. The optimum or most favorable 
Srcentare of water in the soil for plants, differs for different crops Such 
croDs as com and potatoes do best with a moderate percentage of water 
SThe soil™ hich gives opportunity for plenty of air. Such plants a« 
Lothy redlop and other grasses do best when the percentage of water 
in the soil is somewhat higher. Field experiments have shown that when 



the water content of the soil is increased 25 per cent above the optimum 
percentage, plants begin to suffer as a result of too much moisture, and 
when the moisture falls 25 per cent below the optimum, they suffer from 
drought. 

The amount of capillary water in the soil is determined chiefly by 
its texture. The following table shows the percentage of water held by 
soils ranging in texture from coarse sand to clay, when subjected to a 




Effect op Little, Medium, and Much Water on Wheat.* 

centrifugal force 2940 times that of gravity. A coarse sand held only 
4.6 per cent of moisture, while clay held 46.5 per cent or ten times as 
much. The water held under natural conditions by the several classes 
of soil given in the table would be much larger, but the relative amounts 
would be the same. 

Capillary Moisture in Soil. 



Class. 



Coarse sand 

Medium sandy loam 
Fine sandy loam ... 

Silt 

Silt loam 

Clay loam 

Clay 



Percentage of 
Clay in Soil. 



4.8 
7.3 
12.6 
10.6 
17.7 
26.6 
59.8 



Percentage of Moisture 

Retained against Force 

2940 Times that of 

Gravity. 



4.6 
7.0 
11.8 
12.9 
26.9 
32.4 
46.5 



« 



Capillary water is also influenced to some extent by the structure of 
the soil, and to somewhat greater extent by its content of humus or 



* Courtesy of The Macmillan Company, N, Y. From "Principles of Irrigation Practice," by Widtsoe. 



I i ii< ; 



^% "■■■■■■■• ^^'^ ' 



■■-0--i.t:..T,'."- T. 

f.^;,' ,'i>-i' it^ ".K- 












SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



SOIL WATER 



133 



;132 

-^ iTT^p rirv matte7i7^^i^ir^>m^nting to 1300 pounds in 

increase per acre m theory matter m ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

one week in July. On the basis oi ^^^"^'^ J" . K .u growing corn 
each pound of dry matter the consumption of water by the gro g 

in one week would equal 1.72 >"«hes o fmn- Th ^.^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^, ^f 

in rainfall. water -Water exists in the soil in three forms: (1) 

face tension; (3) hygroscopic ^f^^r, or that .^hich adhere ^ 
rf trrX' wr ; ^ ^^^^^^^^-^ very few of 
JS-ecornS Its re any of the ^^^^^^f::J,^ S^:^ 
as it may rise \^f^^%:^^\:fj^i tnTbS/efit from the 
,t replenishes. It f J^^^ J'^^J^^^^^^^ they arc unable to get it from the 
hygroscopic water of the «f ' b*^;;;^^^^^^^ -^ ^^is form. The capil- 

soil particles by which It IS so tenaciously ;,„ tance in plant 

lary water is, therefore, the ojie form tnat i ^^^ ^^^ 

growth. The relative amounts of the tnree lorms 

"rrdeterninhlSy Tthe texture of the soil and the percentage 
TLretpace in^^^^ The larger the pore space, the greater t^ie amount of 
l?rtl at wiU e cape in this way; the finer the tex;ture of the soil the 
Ilrger the amount hdd by capillarity and the less the amount that will 

'"'Cmai"water.-This is the important portion of the soil water 
suppfy It isThe form on which plants wholly depend for heir water 
sunny Plants cannot exhaust from the soil all of the capillaiy water^ 
becaus; a portion of it vnW be too tenaciously held by the soil particles to 
brreS,ved bTthe plant root hairs. The optimum or most favorable 
nerceXe of water in the soil for plants, differs for different crops Such 
croTs Is corn and potatoes do best with a moderate percentage of water 
rfhe sou which gives opportunity for plenty of air. Such plants as 
Lothv redlop and other grasses do best when the percentage of water 
n the soiHs somewhat higher. Field experiments have shown that when 



the water content of the soil is increased 25 per cent above the optimum 
percentage, plants begin to suffer as a result of too much moisture, and 
when the moisture fails 25 per cent below the optimum, they suffer from 
drought. 

The amount of capillary water in the soil is determined chiefly by 
its texture. The following table shows the percentage of water held by 
soils ranging in texture from coarse sand to clay, when subjected to a 




Effect op Little, Medium, and Much Water on Wheat. ^ 

centrifugal force 2940 times that of gravity. A coarse sand held only 
4.6 per cent of moisture, while clay held 46.5 per cent or ten times as 
much. The water held under natural conditions by the several classes 
of soil given in the table would be much larger, but the relative amounts 
would be the same. 

Capillary Moisture in Soil. 



Class. 



Coarse sand 

Medium sandy loam 
Fine sandy loam . . . , 

Silt 

Silt loam 

Clay loam 

Clay 



Percentage of 
Clay in Soil. 


Percentage of Moisture 

Petained again.st Force 

2940 Times that of 

Gravity. 


4.S 1 


4.6 


7.3 


7.0 


12.6 


11.8 


10. G 


12.9 


17.7 


26.9 


26.6 


32.4 


59.8 


46.5 



Capillary water is also influenced to some extent by the structure of 
the soil, and to somewhat greater extent by its content of humus or 



1 Courtesy of The Macinillan Company, N. Y. From "Principles of Irrigation Practice," by Widtsoe. 




INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



W^i 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



SOIL WATER 



135 



il'i 




134 

: .. <.-, „f fine texture and those having plenty of organic 

^ijr rtS rr .he »»,. panicle. w..«-- ^, '^jirmov^ 

capillary action to replace t*^* „m„vei The^ »'« ot^^P J, „„, 

s 't j-^Lfj^^^arr =:if i^sasr- " --^ 

p,a„S, it becomes a ^enace ;„.*»■- o te. than a be^f^^^ <^^^^^ 
areas of "">P«'a'™'j '7'' "j"^^'; graviJ ional water by n,e.r,s ot 

be ™^^^ determined chiefly by the character of crops to be 

to™leldom is it advisable to place underdrains for this purpose at 
a dlSh of less than three feet. For deep-rooted crops, such as alfalfa 
Ld orchard fruits, four feet and sometimes more l^^^^^^^^^^ ^j^^^ 
While this form of water may be mjurious to upland plants, wnen 
it exSsat a depth of from four to six feet below the surface it docs no 
haranfserw^^^^ a reservoir from which water may be drawn by cap- 
marTtv to Telt the losses above by evaporation and plant removal. 

Xg^oT^^^^^^^^ Water.-The water which is held by the sod when a 
thinTayTis spread out and allowed to become air dry is called hygro- 
sponic moisture When this soil is placed in an oven and heated to the 
teZerrure S'boL water for several hours, it loses its hygroscopic 
waT anrbecomes water free. The amount of this form of water he d 
bHoils varies directly with the texture of the soil and may amount to 
as much as 16.5 per cent in case of clay, while m a muck soil i may be 
as high as 50 per cent. The percentage of hygroscopic water will also be 
influenced by the temperature and humidity of the air with which it comes 

m contact^ ^^^^^ temperature of the Soil.— A requisite degree of warmth 
in the soil is essential to physical, chemical and biological processes that 
make for soil fertility. Warmth is essential to the germmation of seeds 
and growth of plants. The chief source of warmth in the soil is from the 
sun The rapidity with which a soil warms under the influence of the sun 
depends more largely on its water content than on any other factor. 
One pound of water requires four times as much heat to mcrease its tem- 



perature one degree as would be required by an equal weight of soil. An 
excess of water in the soil, therefore, greatly lessens its rate of warming. 
In wet soils much evaporation of water takes place at the surface. It 
requires more than five times as much heat to transform one pound of 
water from liquid to vapor as it does to raise the temperature of an equal 
weight of water from the freezing to the boiling point. In other words, 
the heat consumed in the process of evaporation is sufficient to cause a 
change of 900 degrees in temperature in an equal volume of water. This 
fact emphasizes the importance of removing surplus water by means of 
drainage, instead of allowing it to evaporate from the surface of the soil. 
An amount of evaporation suflicient to maintain a proper soil tempera- 
ture in prolonged heat periods may be desirable, but excessive evaporation 
is undesirable in temperate latitudes, especially during the early grow- 
ing season. Reduced temperature as the result of such evaporation often 
causes disaster during the seeding or planting season and retards the 
early growth of crops. 

Water Storage Capacity of Soils. — Since the rains of summer are 
rarely fully adequate to meet the needs of growing plants, it is essential 
to increase the storage capacity of the soil as far as possible. For this 
purpose, the chief agencies are plowing, methods of tillage and the use 
of organic manures. Deep plowing and the incorporation of organic 
matter to the full depth of plowing will increase very materially the 
capacity of the soil for water. In conjunction with this, the soil should 
be so cultivated that it will receive the rainfall and thus have an oppor- 
tunity for holding it. This means the maintenance of a porous surface 
so that rainfall will not escape over the surface until the soil has become 
filled with water. 

Those crops endowed with the power of deep-root penetration, such 
as alfalfa, can draw their moisture from greater depths in the soil than 
shallow-rooted crops. In regions of low rainfall this amounts to the 
same thing as increasing the storage capacity of the surface portion of 

the soil. 

Moisture Conservation. — The practical conservation of soil moisture 
is effected chiefly by preventing direct evaporation from the surface of 
the soil, and also by exterminating all foreign plants in the nature of 
weeds that tend to rob the crops of their moisture supply. Evaporation 
is most economically reduced to the minimum by surface tillage and the 
establishment of an earth mulch. The earth mulch to the depth of two 
or three inches is formed by periodic cultivation or a stirring of the surface 
of the soil so as to break the capillary action with the soil immediately 
beneath. The efficiency of such mulches depends largely on the perfec- 
tion with which they are made. A surface mulch to be effective should 
consist of rather finely pulverized loose soil. This becomes dry to such 
an extent that the soil moisture film is discontinuous and water ceases to 
rise to the immediate surface. In this condition, any loss that takes place 



h-. 








SOIL WATER 



137 



hi. 



1, 



SUCCESSFUL FAMJ^ 



„.ust result from the escape «^ ^f J^Xhei'mttt rSed t^ 

will take place in this way. Juch mulches ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ 

: ™;siSir uStrirs5 *e i* -^ -*»« cap,,,.. 




OBCH.no Wei.. Cotxivmo xo P».™»T Evak..»t.on.' 



„,«, ,„o„ey crops ""-J;; J^^* C^^^e' ^.^^^^ -P* "> '^« 
LTc^ntr/ir-h': ^ISt-C ™p,o4d poHio„ C the »U. 

— .„ ^ „,„^ N Y From " Principles of Irrigation Practice." by Widtsoe. 

1 Courtesy of The MacmiUan Company. N. Y . 



Removing Excess of Water. — Excess of soil water pertains only to 
that above described as gravitational water. This may be removed by 
deep, open drains and by underdrains. Methods of drainage will be dis- 
cussed in another topic. 

On comparatively levei lands where surface water often accumulates, 
its escape may be encouraged by so plowing the land that it will lie in slight 
ridges and continuous depressions. If the depressions have a continuous 
fall, all of the surface water will slowly escape from the land into natural 
drainage channels and without causing erosion. 

Excess of water is sometimes removed by the use of crops, although 
this does not pertain to gravitational water. In most localities it is desir- 
able to have the growth of orchard trees cease as the season draws to a 
close, in order that the wood may harden and withstand winter freezing. 
.For this purpose orchards are frequently planted with crops that draw 
heavily on the soil moisture for the purpose of so exhausting it that the 
growth of the trees will be checked. This serves not only a good purpose 
with reference to the condition of the orchard, but produces organic 
matter that may be plowed under for the benefit of the soil and the trees. 

LAND DRAINAGE 

A wet soil is cold and late. It can seldom be plowed and tilled at 
the proper time. Most farm crops do not make satisfactory growth in a 
wet soil, and, therefore, it seldom pays to farm such land. 

Wet lands, when drained, are generally above the average in fertility. 
Money invested in drainage seldom fails to bring good returns. In many 
cases the increase in crops, following drainage, has paid for its cost in 
one year. 

Drainage Increases Warmth and Fertility of Soil. — When an excess 
of soil water is removed through underground drains it permits the soil 
to warm up rapidly under the influence of the sun; lengthens the growing 
season; increases the number of days during which the soil is in good 
condition to plow; increases aeration of the soil; encourages the deep 
penetration of the roots of plants, and as a result makes the plants 
resistant to drought. Drainage is, therefore, the first essential to soil 

fertility. 

Improves Health Conditions. — Drainage also improves health con- 
ditions. The drainage of large areas of swampy land in the vicinity of 
populous districts has often been undertaken for this purpose alone and 
without any regard to the increased agricultural value of the land. Large 
portions of the prairie region when first settled were sufficiently wet to 
furnish abundant breeding places for mosquitoes. The great numbers of 
mosquitoes were not only a great annoyance, but were responsible for 
thousands of cases of malaria, which greatly reduced the health and 
efficiency of people living in that region. Tile drainage that has been so 
extensively established in most of that region has practically abolished 



i 






■^T^,-^ '-^^--iM 



^3(. sUCCESSFUL_£ARMiil^ 

..ust result from the escape °^ -f^^lJ^S^rn^'^t rSed tt'^^^^^ 
will take place in this way. Such >^u ^^^ ™ jj ^^^ the rapidity with 
more or less frequent, dependmg ^^ ^^e r^^^^ the absence of rains, 
which the surface --\-}^y ^'^'i^Z'^Cginne. On the other hand, 

'^^^^S^hef oV't^at — and otheror^an^^ 




OucHAUi. Welu Cultivatkd to Prevent Evaporation.' 



^ These are very effective, but are often expensive. Such 
rSieTat Jorcrmrnl. orchards in case of small fruits, straw- 
rrries. and sometimes for potatoes and tomatoes. 

Where green --^^^j^^Tellti^^^^ to plow these 

with money ^^-I^^ ^^^.^^ ^;^^^^^^^^ the moisture supply of the 

^^S^^:^^ ;=tnTunp Jed portion of the soil. 

,, ^ n.nv N Y From "Principles of Irrigation Practice/* by Widteoe. 

1 Courtesy of The MaemiUan Company. N. Y. 



SOIL WATER 



137 



Removing Excess of Water. — Excess of soil water pertains only to 
that above described as gravitational water. This may })e removed })y 
deep, open drains and by underdrains. Methods of drainage will be dis- 
cussed in another topic. 

On comparatively levei lands where surface water often accumulates, 
its escape may be encouraged by so plowing the land that it will lie in slight 
ridges and continuous depressions. If the depressions have a continuous 
fall, all of the surface water will slowly escape from the land into natural 
drainage channels and without causing erosion. 

Excess of water is sometimes removed !)y the use of crops, although 
this does not pertain to gravitational water. In most localities it is desir- 
able to have the growth of orchard trees cease as the season draws to a 
close, in order that the wood may harden and withstand winter freezing. 
For this purpose orchards are frequently planted witli crops that draw 
heavily on the soil moisture for the purjiose of so exhausting it that the 
growth of the trees will be checked. This serves not only a good purpose 
with reference to the condition of the orchard, but produces organic 
matter that may be plowed under for the benefit of the soil and the trees. 

LAND DRAINAGE 

A wet soil is cold and late. It can seldom be plowed and tilled at 
the proper time. Most farm crops do not make satisfactory growth in a 
wet soil, and, therefore, it seldom pays to farm such land. 

Wet lands, when drained, are generally above the average in fertility. 
Money invested in drainage seldom fails to bring good returns. In many 
cases the increase in crops, following drainage, has paid for its cost in 
one year. 

Drainage Increases Warmth and Fertility of Soil. — When an excess 
of soil water is removed through undergi'ound drains it permits the soil 
to warm up rapidly under the influence of the sun; lengthens the growing 
season; increases the num])er of days during which the soil is in good 
condition to plow; increases aeration of the soil; encourages the deep 
l)enetration of the roots of plants, and as a result makes the plants 
resistant to drought. Drainage is, therefore, the first essential to soil 
fertility. 

Improves Health Conditions. — Drainage also improves health con- 
ditions. The drainage of large areas of swampy land in the vicinity of 
populous districts has often been undertaken for this purpose alone and 
without any regard to the increased agricultural value of the land. Large 
portions of the prairie region when first settled were suflficiently wet to 
furnish abundant l^reeding places for mosquitoes. The great numbers of 
mosquitoes were not only a great annoyance, but were responsible for 
thousands of cases of malaria, which greatly reduced the health and 
efficiency of people living in that region. Tile drainage that has been so 
extensively established in most of that region has practically abolished 






TMTFMTTOKrAT f^FrOMD PYPOfJTTRP 



SUCCESSFUL FARmNG^ 



SOIL WATER 



139 



> ' 



I iiv 



Igg ^ - . 

^^^^——-^^^^^^^^^^^ to »* . 

degree that m.l.m » °°»/"S-T™e Flvitational water in the »,1 
Open »s. Underground Drams. 1 "« «" |^, j^e surface by 

„ay be lowered to the depth <>' '™ °'„';^^yX,ffected by the inrtalla- 
open drains, but the same can be more ecouonuc^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

/on ot underground *»™°f"i°'ee interferes with eultural opera- 
SnS^'C^rrr eT,:lnr rmaintain, because of the necess,ty of 

-tr^rnro-J'S. drains a. .ore e^^^^^^^^^ 

rSrwircuU^i^^Srln e^i^gtt 
:r^X[:;^Srrr=er :5>w trenches are excavated 

which are filled as soon as the t|^e J« l" P'^^^- ^ universally used for 

Quality of TUe.-Burned daj Wes ar^ ^im ^^^.^^ 

soil drains. They are made m sections from 1^ to installation 

. an internal diameter '•--^^"f ^'.T ' lleX care should be exercised in 
of underground dramage is to ^^ permanent ^ell-burned 

the selection and purchase f J^e tile W ^ ^j^^j, in color, and 

tile should be used. A ^f '^^^f ^^j^^ ^ light metal. Formerly it wa. 
gives a decided ""g when s^uck ^^^^^ ^ ' ^j^^^ ,„ ^.,ter, but it is now 

riS" he^^^^^^^^^^^^ are ample to admit the water 

Tomte soil as fast as it can reach ^^^^^^^ f^,,,,,,,^ underground 
Cost of TUe and Excavating -The J^* ^Jj J„\ J i^^d, the fre- 
drainage depends on the cost of the tile laia ao ^^^ ^^, 

quency of the underground Ij^^^^J ;^2rt' ^'ogfof digging the trenches 
Lability of the soil to water, togeth^rj^^^^ ^^e^v^ting the' soil. The cost 
as determined by t^^fff, «^. ^mf thrfreTghlchafges and the distance 
tr." t^Sr^^^^^ P- of L tile per 1000 feet F. O. B. 
cars, at the factories, will be as follows: 



Size. 

3 inch 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
10 
12 






Price. 
$10.00-$12.00 
15.00- 20.00 
20.00- 27.00 
27.00- 35.00 
36.00- 50.00 
45.00- 60.00 
GO. 00-110. 00 
90.00-150.00 



The cost of digging the trenches will vary greatly wf ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
and condition of the soil to be ex-vated, thejkiU ^^^^^^^^^^^ Jg ^^^^^.^^^^ 






at the top to accommodate the workman, and the earth in the bottom of 
the trenches is more difficult to remove. Where the soil is free from 
stones and hardpan, trenches are frequently excavated to the depth of 
three feet, and the tiles placed ready for filling the trenches, at a cost of 
thirty cents per linear rod. Below the depth of three feet and up to five 
feet, excavating under similar conditions will cost about one cent per 
inch per rod. 

'Depth and Frequency of Drains. — The depth at which to place the 
tile drains will be determined by the class of crops to be grown and the 
character of the subsoil. Three feet in depth is considered ample for 
most farm crops, but for orchards, alfalfa and especially deep-rooted 
crops, a depth of four feet is preferred. There are many localities, how- 
ever, where the impervious character of the subsoil is such that tiles can 
be placed only twenty-four or thirty inches deep, and permit the water 
to enter. Even under these conditions, tile drainage is generally advisable. 

The distance between lines of drain will depend chiefly on the char- 
acter of the soil, with special reference to its permeability to water. A 
soil and subsoil that is sandy or loamy in character will frequently be 
satisfactorily drained with lines of tile 200 to 300 feet apart. On the 
other hand, a dense clay will sometimes necessita-te the lines of drains 
being placed at intervals of not more than 30 to 40 feet. This, of course, 
makes underdrainage much more expensive than 'in the former case. 
The deeper the tile is placed the farther the lines may be apart. 

Where land to be drained is uniformly wet, the gridiron or regular 
system is to be preferred. The irregular system will answer the purpose 
for the drainage of wet spots or sloughs. The main lines should follow 
approximately the natural depressions or water courses, while the laterals 
may run up and down the slopes. Rather long parallel fines are more 
economical than short ones with numerous branches. 

Grades, Silt Basins and Junctions. — All lines of underdrainage should 
be laid with uniform grades. If the topography of the land necessitates 
a change in the grade, in which the grade in the lower portion of the line 
is less than in the upper portion, a silt basin should be placed at the point 
where the change of grade takes place. When the reverse is true, a silt 
basin is not necessary. Where laterals enter a main or sub-main which 
has a lesser fall than the laterals, silt basins should also be installed. 
Laterals should enter the main above the center of the pipe, rather than 
below it. All junctions should be made at an angle of about forty-five 
degrees up-stream. A fall of one foot in one hundred feet is considered 
a heavy grade. A fall of one inch in one hundred feet will give good 
results, although more fall than this is better. In the level prairie sections 
of the country hundreds of miles of tile are laid with a grade of only one- 
half inch in one hundred feet, and where great care is exercised in laying 
the tile, difficulty has seldom been encountered. 

On level land a fair grade may be obtained by gradually lessening 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



li^ I 



♦* 



140 ' 

the depth of the tile from the lower to the upper end of any branch^ In 
a iSna^^^^^^^ 1200 feet in length a fall of one inch in each hundred fee 
may be obtained by having the lower end of the line 3* feet below the 
surface of the ground, and the upper end 2\ feet below the surface, even 
though the land along this line is absolutely level. 

The Outlet.-The first essential for a satisfactory system of under- 
ground drainage Ib a good outlet. The outlet must be the lowest Fpmt 
in the whole drainage system, and water should seldom, if ever, stand 

above the opening of the tile. . 

The outlet of the main should be protected by a screen m such a way 

that rabbits and other animals cannot enter. At the outlet the tiles are 

subject to freezing more than elsewhere m the 
system, as a result of which they may be 
broken. It is well to provide for this by 
using a wooden box, or an iron pipe as a 
substitute for the earthen tile. This should 
extend back from the opening six or eight 
feet to a position where it will not beccme 

frozen. 

Size of TUe.— The size of the main 
outlet or line is determined by the area to 
be drained, together with the water-shed 
contributary to it. Not only must we 
figure on removing all of the rainfall that 
descends directly on the land to be drained, 
but we must also calculate on the amount 
of water that reaches such land from adjacent higher land, whether 
as surface wash or underground seepage. The maximum amount of 
water necessary to remove from the land in order to effect satisfactory 
drainage will depend chiefly on the rainfall likely to occur m short periods 
of time during the growing season. It will seldom be necessary to provide 
for the removal of more than one-half inch of water in twenty-four hours. 
On this basis a system of tiles flowing at full capacity will remove ram- 
fall at the rate of fifteen inches per month. This is much in excess of the 
usual rainfall in any part of the country. The removal of one-quarter 
inch of rainfall in twenty-four hours will generally provide adequate dram- 
age The size of tile required to accomplish removal of water at the 
above mentioned rate will be determined largely by the grades that it is 
possible to secure. The size of tile required is given in the chapter on 
'^ Drainage and Irrigation.'' 

1 Courtesy of Orange Judd Company. From - Soils and Crops." by Hunt and Burkett. 



SOIL WATER 



141 




Water Issuing from an 
Underground Drain. ^ 



REFERENCES 
**Dry Farming." MacDonald. 
''Dry Farming." Widtsoe. 
"Dry Farming." Shaw. 
Kansas Expt. Station Bulletin 206. "Relation of Moisture to Yield of Wheat in 

Kansas." 
Nebraska Expt. Station Bulletin 114. "Storing Moisture in the Soil." 
Utah Expt. Station Bulletin 104. "Storage of Winter Precipitation in Soils." 









I iiiMJuilii iiiirr 



METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 



143 



m\ 



\ 



l« I 



CHAPTER 8 

General Methods of Soil Management 

The art of soil management consists in so manipulating the two 
million pounds of soil constituting the average plowed portion of each 
acre, that it will give the largest returns without impairing the soil. ^ The 
best chance of attaining success in the art of soil management is in the 
hands of the man who best understands the principles underlying it. 
The art of soil management is the result of more than 4000 years of accumu- 
lated experience, while the science is very much a matter of yesterday. 
It is not to be expected that science will revolutionize the art, but it will 
explain why many operations are performed and will also suggest improve- 
ments in the manner of performing them. There are no definite rules 
relative to methods of soil tillage. The best way of performing a certain 
operation of soil tillage at any particular time and place is generally a 
matter of judgment on the part of the farmer. Accuracy in judgment 
on his part is greatly strengthened through knowledge of the underlying 

principles. 

Objects of Tillage. — The chief objects of tillage are: (1) to improve 
the physical condition of the soil; (2) to turn under plant residues that 
have accumulated at the surface and incorporate them with the soil; (3) 
to destroy weeds; and (4) to provide a suitable seed-bed. 

In recent years great changes have taken place in the methods of 
tillage, due chiefly to the invention and use of labor-saving implements. 
In this connection it is well to know the approximate duty of the cultural 
implements that are available. In a general way the duty of a cultural 
implement is obtained by multiplying the width in feet which it covers in 
passing over the field by 1.4. For example, a 12-inch plow will plow, on 
an average 1.4 acres of land per day. A harrow 6 feet in width would 
harrow 8.4 acres. The duty will vary somewhat with conditions, such 
as speed in process of operation, the length of day and percentage of 
time when not in actual operation. With good fast-walking teams and 
implements of light draft, the acreage covered per day may be somewhat 
increased. On the other hand, if much time is lost, if the teams are slow 
or if implements are of heavy draft, the acreage will be reduced. These 
facts are important in connection with determining the extent of equip- 
ment required to perform satisfactorily the operations on a farm of given 

size. 

Plowing. — Plowing is the most expensive tillage operation in con- 
nection with crop production. For this reason it is important to know 
when it is necessary to plow the land and how deep it should be plowed, 

(142) 



since both depth and frequency of plowing bear directly on the cost of 
the operation. Mold-board and disk plows are used for this purpose. 
Either of these implements turn the soil, pulverize it and cover rubbish. 
The implement to be preferred is determined largely by the character of 
the soil and its condition. Disk plows work best in rather dry soil. Mold- 
board plows are much more extensively used and will work under a wider 
range of soil conditions. The form of the mold-board plow varies con- 
siderably, and different forms are applicable to different purposes and 
different soils. The sod plow has the minimum curvature and inverts 




A Deep Tilling Double-Disk Plow.^ 

the furrow slice with the least pulverization of the soil. The stubble or 
breaking plow has much more curvature of the mold board, and gives 
more thorough pulverization of the soil. The greater the curvature of 
the mold board and the more thorough the pulverization of the soil as a 
result of it, the heavier will be the draft. Sharpness of- the share and 
smoothness of the plow surface tend toward lightness of draft. The 
presence of roots and stones may somewhat increase the draft of plows. 
The texture, structure and physical condition of the soil, especially with 
reference to its water content, greatly influence draft. The soil plows 

» Courtesy of The Spalding Tilling Machine Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 



j,« '!','!•;';'■:;<•'•• 



r':V- 



;-:--.'iM'V,'L 



;'i/:('>''i.Vri, 






METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 



143 



CHAPTER 8 

General Methods of Soil Management 

The art of soil management consists in so manipulating the twc 
million pounds of soil constituting the average plowed portion of each 
acre, that it will give the largest returns without impairing the soil.^ The 
best chance of attaining success in the art of soil management is in the 
hands of the man who best understands the principles underlying it. 
The art of soil management is the result of more than 4000 years of accumu- 
lated experience, while the science is very much a matter of yesterday. 
It is not to be expected that science will revolutionize the art, but it will 
explain why many operations are performed and will also suggest improve- 
ments in the manner of performing them. There are no definite rules 
relative to methods of soil tillage. The best w\ay of performing a certain 
operation of soil tillage at any particular time and place is generally a 
matter of judgment on the part of the farmer. Accuracy in judgment 
on his part is greatly strengthened through knowledge of the underlying 
principles. 

Objects of Tillage. — The chief objects of tillage are: (1) to improve 
the physical condition of the soil; (2) to turn under plant residues that 
have accunuilated at the surface and incorporate them with the soil; (3) 
to destroy weeds; and (4) to provide a suitable seed-bed. 

In recent years great changes have taken place in the methods of 
tillage, due chiefly to the invention and use of labor-saving implements. 
In this connection it is well to know the approximate duty of the cultural 
implements that are available. In a general way the duty of a cultural 
implement is obtained ])y multiplying the width in feet which it covers in 
passing over the fi(4d })y 1.4. For example, a 12-inch plow will plow, on 
an average 1.4 acres of land per day. A harrow G feet in width would 
harrow 8.4 acn^s. The duty will vary somewhat with conditions, such 
as speed in process of operation, the length of day and percentage of 
time when not in actual operation. With good fast-walking teams and 
implements of light draft, the acreage covered per day may be somewhat 
increased. On the other hand, if nmch time is lost, if the teams are slow 
or if implements are of heavy draft, the acreage will be reduced. These 
facts are important in connection with determining the extent of equip- 
ment required to perform satisfactorily the operations on a farm of given 

size. 

Plowing. — Plowing is the most expensive tillage operation in con- 
nection with crop production. For this reason it is important to know 
when it is necessary to plow the land and how deep it should be plowed, 

(142) 



since both depth and frequency of plowing bear directly on the cost of 
the operation. Mold-board and disk plows are used for this purpose. 
Either of these implements turn the soil, pulverize it and cover rubbish. 
The implement to be preferred is determined largely by the character of 
the soil and its condition. Disk plows work best in rather dry soil. Mold- 
board plows are much more extensively used and will work under a wider 
range of soil conditions. The form of the mold-board plow varies con- 
siderably, and different forms are applicable to different purposes and 
different soils. The sod plow has the minimum curvature and inverts 




A Deep Tilling Double-Disk Plow.^ 

the furrow slice with the least pulverization of the soil. The stubble or 
breaking plow has much more curvature of the mold board, and gives 
more thorough pulverization of the soil. The greater the curvature of 
the mold board and the more thorough the pulverization of the soil as a 
result of it, the heavier will be the draft. Sharpness of- the share and 
smoothness of the plow surface tend toward lightness of draft. The 
presence of roots and stones may somewhat increase the draft of plows. 
The texture, structure and physical condition of the soil, especially with 
reference to its water content, greatly influence draft. The soil plows 

» Courtesy of The Spalding Tilling Machine Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND FYPOSITTpp 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



I 

I 



i \ 



■m 



144 

most easily when it is in a fairly moist condition and most easily pulver- 
ized. The draft of the plow will be increased both when the soil is too 

wet and when it is too dry. ^ . n a u 

Coulters and jointers are both attached to plows to influence draft 
and improve the character of plowing. Coulters are for two purposes : 
(1) those which cut the roots separating the furrow slice from the unplowed 
land and (2) those which cut vines and rubbish, preventmg their draggmg 
across the plow standard and clogging the plow. Rolling coulters are 
best for the latter purpose, while standard cutters may. be equally as 
good for cutting the roots in the soil. The chief object of the jointer is 
to push the surface rubbish into the furrow so that it will be more com- 
pletely covered. Sulky plows are often used instead of wa king plows. 
The chief advantage in the sulky plow is in reducing the labor of the 
plowman and in more effective plowing. It is claimed that sulky plows 
reduce the draft of the plow by relieving the friction on the bottom and 
land side of the furrow. Under most favorable conditions there may be 
a slight reduction in draft, but under average conditions the weight ot 
the sulky and the plowman more than offset the reduced friction. 

Plowing at the same depth many years in succession often gives 
rise to a compacted layer just below the depth of plowing, known as plow 
sole or hardpan. This is a fault which may be avoided by changing 
slightly the depth of plowing from year to year. The plowman often 
looks with pride on what may be poor plowing. The furrow slice should 
not be completely inverted like a plank turned the other side up, but one 
furrow slice should lean against the previous one in such a way that the 
rubbish will be distributed from a portion oiF the bottom of the furrow 
nearly to the surface of the plowed ground. At the same time a portion 
- of the furrow slice should be in direct contact with the soil below. This 
permits good capillary connection for a portion of each furrow slice. 
When there is an abundance of rubbish to be turned under, it is often 
wise to disk the land before plowing. This loosens the surface of the soU 
and causes some mixture of it with the rubbish. When plowed under 
in this condition it does not form so continuous a layer to cut off capillary 
water from below. Disking in advance of plowing in case of rather com- 
pact soil also facilitates the pulverization of the furrow slice and results 
in a better pulverized seed-bed. 

Time of Plowing.— The best time to plow depends on many conditions. 
There is no particular season that will be better than other seasons under 
all conditions. The old maxim, ^^Plow when you can,'' is a good one to 
follow. Plowing done in the fall or early winter lessens the rush of work 
in the following spring, and under most conditions fall plowing gives 
better results than spring plowing. Fall plowing in temperate latitudes 
subjects the exposed soil to the elements and results in destruction of 
insects and a thorough pulverization of the soil, due to freezing and thaw- 
ing. Fall plowing should neither be harrowed nor disked, but left m a 



METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 



145 



rough condition in order to collect the rains and snows during the winter. 
This will result in storage of the winter rainfall and prevent erosion, 
unless by chance the land is steep and rains are very heavy. Under the 
latter conditions it may not be wise to practice fall plowing. In warmer 
latitudes plowing may be done during the winter, and when land is plowed 
in the autumn it should be seeded with a cover crop to prevent erosion. 
In the Northern states and Canada fall plowing is generally recommended, 
but in the South spring plowing is considered preferable. Spring plowing, 
unless it be very early, should be harrowed soon afterward in order to 




A Badly Eroded Field.^ 
Damage of this character reflects no credit on American agriculture. 

conserve soil moistures. Generally it will be found good practice to 
harrow towards the close of each day the land that has been plowed during 
the day. If the soil is rather dry and weather conditions very dry, it may 
be better to harrow it each half day. In case of sod and compact soil, 
disking in advance of plowing is advised. 

Depth of Plowing. — The depth of plowing is determined by the 
character of the soil and the kind of crop to be grown. In general, fall 
plowing should be deeper than spring plowing. Deep-rooted crops call 



'Courtesy of United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils. From " Soil Survey of Fair- 
field County i South Carolina." 

10 



-f 



! 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



144 

most easily when it is in a fairly moist condition and most easily pulver- 
ized. The draft of the plow will be increased both when the soil is too 

wet and when it is too dry. j. - n a^^u 

Coulters and jointers are both attached to plows to influence draft 
and improve the character of plowing. Coulters are for two purposes : 
(1) those which cut the roots separating the furrow slice from the unplowed 
land and (2) those which cut vines and rubbish, preventing their draggmg 
across the plow standard and clogging the plow. Rolling coulters are 
best for the latter purpose, while standard cutters may be equally as 
good for cutting the roots in the soil. The chief object of the jointer is 
to push the surface rubbish into the furrow so that it will be more com- 
pletely covered. Sulky plows are often used instead of wa king plows. 
The chief advantage in the sulky plow is in reducing the labor ot the 
plowman and in more effective plowing. It is claimed that sulky plows 
reduce the draft of the plow by relieving the friction on the bottom and 
land side of the furrow. Under most favorable conditions there may be 
a slight reduction in draft, but under average conditions the weight ot 
the sulky and the plowman more than offset the reduced friction. 

Plowing at the same depth many years in succession often gives 
rise to a compacted layer just below the depth of plowing, kno^^^l as plow 
sole or hardpan. This is a fault which may be avoided by changing 
slightly the depth of plowing from year to year. The plowman often 
looks with pride on what may be poor plowing. The furrow slice should 
not be completely inverted like a plank turned the other side up, but one 
furrow slice should lean against the previous one in such a way that the 
rubbish will be distributed from a portion of the bottom of the furrow 
nearly to the surface of the plowed ground. At the same time a portion 
of the furrow slice should be in direct contact with the soil below. This 
permits good capillary connection for a portion of each furrow slice. 
When there is an abundance of rubbish to be turned under, it is often 
wise to disk the land before plowing. This loosens the surface of the soil 
and causes some mixture of it with the ru])bish. Wiien plowed under 
in this condition it does not form so continuous a layer to cut off capillary 
water from below. Disking in advance of plowing in case of rather com- 
pact soil also facilitates the pulverization of the furrow slice and results 
in a better pulverized seed-bed. ^ 

Time of Plowing.— The ])est time to plow depends on many conditions. 
There is no particular season that will be ])etter than other seasons under 
all conditions. The old maxim, ^^Plow when you can," is a good one t<) 
follow. Plowing done in the fall or early winter lessens the rush of work 
in the following spring, and under most conditions fall plowing gives 
better results than spring plowing. Fall plowing in tcunperate latitudes 
subjects the exposed soil to the elements and results in destruction of 
insects and a thorough pulverization of the soil, due to freezing and thaw- 
ing. Fall plowing should neither be harrowed nor disked, but left in a 



METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 



145 



rough condition in order to collect the rains and snows during the winter. 
This will result in storage of the winter rainfall and prevent erosion, 
unless by chance the land is steep and rains are very heavy. Under the 
latter conditions it may not be wise to practice fall plowing. In warmer 
latitudes plowing may be done during the winter, and when land is plowed 
in the autumn it should be seeded with a cover crop to prevent erosion. 
In the Northern states and Canada fall plowing is generally recommended, 
but in the South spring plowing is considered preferable. Spring plowing, 
unless it be very early, should be harrowed soon afterward in order to 




A Badly Eroded Field. ^ 
Damage of this character reflects no credit on American agriculture. 

conserve soil moistures. Cenerally it will be found good practice to 
harrow towards the close of each day the land that has been plowed during 
the day. If the soil is rather dry and weather conditions very dry, it may 
be better to harrow it each half day. In case of sod and compact soil, 
disking in advance of plowing is advised. 

Depth of Plowing. — The depth of plowing is determined by the 
charactc^r of the soil and the kind of crop to be gro\vn. In general, fall 
plowing should be deeper than spring plowing. Deep-rooted crops call 

'CiMirtpsy ff I^nit'^d Statra Dcpartmrnt of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils. From " Soil Survey of Fair- 
field Couiityl South Carolina." 

10 










TNTRNTIONAT. SECOND RXPOSTTRF 












SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 



147 



146 

for deeper plowing than shallow-rooted ones. For ^7' P«*f ^^^^^ 
heaw truck crops, deep plowing is generally advised. For oats, barley, 
flSy^mUlefand 'other s'pring annuals shallow f 7^g^fXl'rr dee" 
good results as deep plowing, and at a less cost. ^^ **^^ j^^A'^' Ises 
plowing for most soils is to be recommended. Deep plowmg ^creases, 
TeXth of soil from which the mass of plant -^^s <l-w mo.tu^^^^^^^ 
plant food; it increases the water-holdmg capacity of the soil, 1* in^or 
porates the organic matter to a greater depth in the soil; it enables the 
soil to receive and hold the rainfall, thus reducing erosion 

Where shallow plowing has been the practice, the depth of plowing 
should be increased gradually, one-half inch to one inch each year untJ 
Se desired depth has been obtained. This gives better results than 
ncreas'g to the full depth at once. On virgin land with deep soil shallow 
p™g during the early years of cuhivaticn may give as good results 
STep plowing. Much depends on the nature of the soil and wherever 
L sou at the depth of six to ten inches is compact, deep plowing and the 
incorporation of organic matter will improve it. , -i i, i +v,o 

Subsoiling.-Subsoiling pertains to loosening the subsoil below the 
usual depth of plowing. Subsoil plows are constructed to run t<) a depth 
of sixteen to eighteen inches, with a view of loosenmg and slightly liftmg the 
subsdllt is neither turned nor brought to the surface. Such a practice 
is even more expensive than plowing and, consequently^ more than doubles 
the cost of the preparation of the land for crops While it may prove 
beneficial, many tests indicate thatjthe practice does not S^^^ally Pay 
for the expense involved. • Doubtless much will depend upon the value 
of the land, the character of subsoil and the nature of the crops to be 
erown On valuable land having impervious subsoil, and for high- 
priced' crops, it may frequently pay. How long the benefits from sub- 
soiling will last is determined by the rapidity with which the soil returns 
to its former compact condition. Heavy rains and thorough saturation 
with water often soon overcomes the benefits of subsoihng. As a genera 
practice, subsoiling is not to be recommended. It might prove beneficial 
in semi-arid regions as a means of increasing the water storage capacity 
of the soil to tide over long periods of drought. In such regions the bene- 
ficial results are likely to be more lasting than where the rainfall is heavy. 
Both in practice and theory deep plowing is preferable to subsoiling. 

Disking.— There are two forms of disk harrows: (1) having a sohd 
disk and (2) having a serrated disk and known as the cutaway disk. 
The' latter is generally lighter than the former, is adapted to stony and 
gravelly soil and for light work. The full disk is more generally used, 
although in double disks both the full disk and the cutaway disk are 
sometimes combined in the same implement. The disk harrow stirs 
the soil to a greater depth than do most other forms of harrows. It is 
especially useful on land that has been plowed for some time and has 
become somewhat compacted. Fall plowing and early spring plowing, 



when being prepared for medium to late planted crops, should generally 
be gone over once or twice with the disk. 

A large portion of the spring oats in the Central States are seeded 
on land prepared by the use of the disk and harrow, and without plowing. 
The disk is the most effective implement in the preparation of the seed- 
bed for oats. ■ This method of preparing the land enables farmers to 
accomplish early seeding on a large scale. Early seeding of oats is impor- 
tant in connection with good yields. 

Harrowing. — There are many forms of harrows varying in style of 
teeth, number of teeth, weight and adjustment. The steel frame harrow 
with levers to adjust the teeth, built in sections that are joined together, 
is generally preferred. The size or width of the harrow is usually deter- 
mined by the number of sections it has. It is an implement of light draft, 
and to be effective should be used in the nick of time. Repeated harrow- 
ing is often advised (1) for the purpose of maintaining a surface mulch 
to conserve moisture, and (2) to destroy weeds just as they start growth. 
The spring-toothed harrow is effective in stony and gravelly soil, and 
tends to loosen the soil more than the spike-toothed harrow. The former 
is best for destroying weeds and loosening the soil, while the latter is 
preferable for soil pulverization and for covering small seeds that are 
broadcasted, such as clovers, grass seeds and the millets. While the 
harrow is generally used just prior to seeding and planting, it is found 
to be a good practice to harrow such crops as corn and potatoes after 
planting, and sometimes even after they are up. Such harrowing is often 
fully as effective in destroying weeds and pulverizing the soil as a good 
cultivation would be. It is much more rapidly and cheaply done than 

cultivating. , . , . 

Planking or Dragging.— The plank drag is a cheap implement con- 
sisting of three or four two-inch planks fastened securely together with 
the edges overlapping. These may be eight to twelve feet in length. 
It is used for pulverizing clods and smoothing the surface of the ground. 
It is an effective implement to use where fine pulverization of the surface 
is desired, and works satisfactorily when the soil is rather dry. 

Rolling. — The roller serves two chief purposes: (1) to compact the 
soil, and (2) to pulverize clods. The weight and size of the roller ar6 
important in this connection. Soil compacting calls for considerable 
weight, while pulverization demands a roller of comparatively small 
diameter. In recent years the corrugated roller with a discontinuous 
surface has come into use and is thought to be superior to the old style. 
It compacts the soil and yet leaves some loose soil at the surface, thus 
lessening direct evaporation. The roller should be used only when the 
soil is in dry condition and when it is desirable to encourage capillary 
rise of water and establish conditions favorable for the germination of 
seeds that lie near the surface of the soil. Rolling is most frequently 
resorted to in preparing the seed-bed for winter wheat. This crop calls 



mf^ 



ps- ■ 


■ . ' ' 






''vHI 




'5^ 






.j,| :,.,,.;,.., 








^^^^^^^^^^^Ivi'i^^ 




4. . jfl 





SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



148 

for a compact and well-pulverized seed-bed. In the winter wheat regbns 
he soils are frequently dry at the time winter wheat ^^0"}^ be^eded 

A roller known as the subsurface packer has come mto use in the 
semi-arid regions. This implement, consisting of a series « heavy disks 
is so constructed as to compact the soil to a considerable ^epth leavmg 
two or three inches of loose soil at the surface. It encourages capillary 
rise of water without encouraging surface evaporation. 



I Mi' 




Details of a Good Seed Bed.^ 

Character of Seed-Bed.— The ideal seed-bed is determined by the 
character of crop to be grown. Wheat, rye, alfalfa, the clovers and most 
small seeds call for a finely pulverized, compact seed-bed. If these con- 
ditions are combined with a good supply of moisture these crops will 
make a prompt and satisfactory growth. Such crops as corn and potatoes 
call for a deep, loose seed-bed, and do not demand the same degree of 
pulverization of the soil as the crops above mentioned. Oats and barley 
do best with a fairly loose and open seed-bed, but demand fairly good 

1 Courtesy of The Carr pbcll Soil Culture Publishir? Co. From "Wheat," by Ten Eyck. 



METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 



149 



pulverization of the soil. As a rule, all small seeds need a seed-bed that 
has been thoroughly well prepared, while larger seeds, and especially 
those of crops that are to be inter-tilled, may be planted with less thorough- 
ness in seed-bed preparation. The after-tillage will often overcome a 
lack of previous preparation. 

An even distribution of seed, especially when it is sown broadcast, 
is essential. This, together with uniformity in germination, makes for 
perfection in stand of plants. The character of seed-bed is important in 
this connection. A well-prepared seed-bed facilitates a good stand, 
while a poorly prepared one often does just the reverse. 

Cixltivation and Hoeing. — Cultivation and hoeing pertain wholly to 
inter-tilled crops, such as corn, potatoes, beets, tomatoes, cabbage and a 
great many other garden crops. As a rule, cultivation should be sufficiently 
frequent during the early stages of growth to maintain a satisfactory 
soil mulch and destroy all weeds. This is best accomplished by cultivating 
or hoeing at just the right time. Weeds are easily destroyed when quite 
small. One cultivation at the right time is more effective than two or 
three cultivations when weeds have become large. As a rule, little is to 
be gained by inter-tillage when there are no weeds and when there is a 
satisfactory soil mulch. The frequency of cultivation is, therefore, largely 
determined by these factors. Ordinarily, nothing is to be gained by 
cultivating deeper than necessary to destroy weeds and maintain a good 
soil mulch. Two to three inches in depth is generally sufficient. Deep 
cultivation frequently destroys roots of the crop cultivated, much to its 
detriment. 

Throughout most of the corn belt shallow and level cultivation is 
practiced. This seems to give better results than deeper cultivation or 
the ridging of the soil by throwing the earth toward the corn plants. 
Ridging the soil causes rain to flow quickly to the depressions midway 
between the rows, and encourages soil erosion. Level cultivation with 
numerous small furrows close together encourages more thorough pene- 
tration of the rain. Level cultivation makes the seeding of oats easy, as 
it generally follows the corn with no other preparation than the disking 
of the land. 

Control of Weeds. — The time of plowing and the frequency and 
character of cultivation are related to the growth and eradication of 
weeds. Weed-seeds turned under to the full depth of plow^ing frequently 
lie dormant until the ground is again plowed and they are brought near 
to the surface. On spring-plowed land it is generally advisable to allow 
time for the weed-seeds to germinate, after which the small weeds may be 
destroyed by harrowing. Then crops may be planted with comparative 
safety so far as weed competition is concerned. In case of late plowing, 
it is advisable to plant or seed very promptly after the land is plowed in 
order that the crops may get ahead of the weeds. 

Weeds are a great menace to crops, and especially to those that do 









r;^.;: 









: I 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 



149 



148 

the soils are frequently dry at the time winter '^''^^ '^'''^^^^^^ 

A roller known as the subsurface packer has come "^/^ ^^^^^^ 
semi-arid regions. This implement, consistmg of !^;™/j^^^^^^^^ 
is so constructed as to compact the soil to a considerable depth, leaving 
Two or three inches of loose soil at the surface. It encourages capillary 
rise of water without encouraging surface evaporation. 




Details of a Good Seed Bed.^ 

Character of Seed-Bed.— The ideal seed-bed is determined by the 
character of crop to be grown. Wheat, rye, alfalfa, the clovers and most 
small seeds call for a finely pulverized, compact seed-bed. If these con- 
ditions are combined with a good supply of moisture these crops will 
make a prompt and satisfactory growth. Such crops as corn and potatoes 
call for a deep, loose seed-bed, and do not demand the same degree ot 
pulverization of the soil as the crops above mentioned. Oat^ and barley 
do best with a fairly loose and open seed-bed, ])ut demand fairly good 

1 Courtesy of The Carr pbell Soil Culture Publishincr Co. From "Wheat," by Ten Eyck. 



pulverization of the soil. As a rule, all small seeds need a seed-bed that 
has been thoroughly well prepared, while larger seeds, and especially 
those of crops that are to be inter-tilled, may be planted with less thorough- 
ness in seed-bed preparation. The after-tillage will often overcome a 
lack of previous preparation. 

An even distribution of seed, especially when it is sown broadcast, 
is essential. This, together with uniformity in germination, makes for 
perfection in stand of plants. The character of seed-Vjed is important in 
this connection. A well-prepared seed-bed facilitates a good stand, 
while a poorly prepared one often does just the reverse. 

Cultivation and Hoeing. — Cultivation and hoeing pertain wholly to 
inter-tilled crops, such as corn, potatoes, beets, tomatoes, cabbage and a 
great many other garden crops. As a rule, cultivation should be sufficiently 
frequent during the early stages of growth to maintain a satisfactory 
soil mulch and destroy all weeds. This is best accomplished by cultivating 
or hoeing at just the right time. Weeds are easily destroyed when quite 
small. One cultivation at the right time is more effective than two or 
three cultivations when weeds have become large. As a rule, little is to 
be gained by inter-tillage when there are no weeds and when there is a 
satisfactory soil mulch. The frequency of cultivation is, therefore, largely 
determined by these factors. Ordinarily, nothing is to be gained by 
cultivating deeper than necessary to destroy weeds and maintain a good 
soil mulch. Two to three inches in depth is generally sufficient. Deep 
cultivation frequently destroys roots of the crop cultivated, much to its 
detriment. 

Throughout most of the corn belt shallow and level cultivation is 
practiced. This seems to give better results than deeper cultivation or 
the ridging of the soil by throwing the earth toward the corn plants. 
Ridging the soil causes rain to flow quickly to the depressions midway 
between the rows, and encourages soil erosion. Level cultivation with 
numerous small furrows close together encourages more thorough pene- 
tration of the rain. Level cultivation makes the seeding of oats easy, as 
it generally follows the corn with no other preparation than the disking 
of the land. 

Control of Weeds. — Tlu* time of plowing and the frequency and 
character of cultivation are related to the growth and eradication of 
weeds. Weed-seeds turned under to the full depth of plowing frequently 
lie dormant until the ground is again plowed* and they are brought near 
to the surface. On spring-plowed land it is generally advisable to allow 
time for the weed-seeds to germinate, after which the small weeds may be 
destroyed by harrowing. Then crops may be planted with comparative 
safety so far as weed competition is concerned. In case of late plowing, 
it is advisable to plant or seed very promptly after the land is plowed in 
order that the crops may get ahead of the weeds. 

Weeds are a great menace to crops, and especially to those that do 



i'^^^' 



INTENTIONAT. SF.rOMn PVPOcttpc 












m 



MSS^^* ■-^ iV.Vi'^r'*^ v>,fj{*;sV- vviJ^Virir'- ? 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 



151 



I 

14' 



ti 



150 

not fully occupy the ground in their early f ™<i« J^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^'^^, 
compete with the farm crop plants for plant food and "moisture wnere 
compete wn." i- r frpnuentlv extermmate the crop 

thev have an equal start, they will irequeiiuj/ ca „„+• „ ,-„ ^n^t 
imlL removed promptly by cultivation. Weed destruction is m^t 




Terracing as a Means op Preventing Erosion.^ 

both to conserve soil moisture and to keep down weeds. They therefore 
obviate the necessity for hoeing and cultivating. Such mulches encourage 
capillary rise of soil moisture to the immediate surface of the ground. 
Furthermore, upon the decay of the mulch, organic matter and plant 
food are added to the soil. Such mulches are applicable only under mten- 
sive systems of farming and where the materials may be secured without 

too great cost. i r u xu • ^ 

Soil Erosion —Soils are eroded by the rapid movement of both wind 

and water. Wind erosion occurs most extensively in the sandy regions 

iFromYear-Book. U, S. Dept. of Agriculturp. 1913. 



of the semi-arid belt, especially in western Kansas and Oklahoma. Such 
soil destruction calls for surface protection, either by a continuous covering 
of plants, or by such methods of cultivation as will prevent the movement 
of the surface soil. In those regions it is recommended that the plow 
furrows be at right angles to the prevailing direction of the wind, and 
that the drill rdws of grain be likewise at right angles to the wind. Mulches 
of straw, especially in the wheat regions where straw is abundant, are also 
recommended. Such straw may be rolled with a subsurface packer to 
prevent its blowing from the soil. Under such conditions the surface 
soil should not be made too fine. 

In the South and in southern Illinois, Iowa and Missouri, soils erode 
badly as result of the movement of rain water. Such erosion often results 




Another Way to Stop Erosion.^ 

in deep and destructive gullies. These cause a direct loss of soil, and are 
barriers to continuous cultivation in the fields in which they occur. Such 
erosion should be prevented by every possible means before it proceeds 
far. Gullies may be stopped by the use of brush, weeds, straw and stone. 
These materials shoukl be anchored in the gullies in such a way as to 
encourage them to fill with soil again. Deep plowing and the use of 
green manures, which encourage penetration of rains, help to overcome 
this erosion. Terracing the soil may be resorted to as a last means of 

preventing erosion. 

Soil Injury.— Soils are frequently injured by plowing and cultivating 
when they are too wet. Heavy soils are more susceptible to such injury 
than those of a sandy nature. Such injury is often difficult to overcome. 
It gives rise to a puddled condition of the soil. When plowed, it turns 

» Courtesy of The Interaational Harvester Company. 



^•i^^:«^', 






^0^mm'^'^: 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 



151 



150 




Terracing as a Means of Preventing Ero^^ion.! 

both to conserve soil moisture and to keep down weeds. They therefore 
obviate the necessity for hoeing and cultivating. Such mulches encourage 
capillary rise of soil moisture to the immediate surface of the ground. 
Furthermore, upon the decay of the mulch, organic matter and plant 
food are added to the soil. Such mulches are applicable only under mten- 
sive systems of farming and where the materials may be secured without 

too great cost. x r i i.u • ^ 

Soil Erosion— Soils are eroded by the rapid movement of both wind 

and water. Wind erosion occurs most extensively in the sandy regions 

xFromYear-Book, U. S. Dept. of Agriciilturo. 1913. 



of the semi-arid belt, especially in western Kansas and Oklahoma. Such 
soil destruction calls for surface protection, either by a continuous covering 
of plants, or by such methods of cultivation as will prevent the movement 
of the surface soil. In those regions it is recommended that the plow 
furrows be at right angles to the prevailing direction of the wind, and 
that the drill ro'ws of grain be likewise at riglit angles to the wind. Mulches 
of straw, especially in the wheat regions where straw is abundant, are also 
recommended. Such straw may be rolled with a subsurface packer to 
prevent its blowing from the soil. Under such conditions the surface 
soil should not be made too fine. 

In the South and in southern Illinois, Iowa and Missouri, soils erode 
badly as result of the movement of rain water. Such erosion often results 




Another Way to Stop P^rosion.^ 

in deep and destructive gullic^s. These cause a direct loss of soil, and are 
barriers to continuous cultivation in the fields in which they occur. Such 
erosion should be prevented by every possible means before it proceeds 
far. Gullies may be stopped l)y the use of brush, weeds, straw and stone. 
These materials should l)e anchonnl in the gullies in such a way as to 
encourage them to fill with soil again. Deep plowing and the use of 
green manures, which encourage penetration of rains, help to overcome 
this erosion. Terracing the soil may be resorted to as a last means of 

preventing erosion. 

Soil Injury.— Soils are frequently injured by plowing and cultivating 
when they are too wet. Heavy soils are more susceptible to such injury 
than those of a sandy nature. Such injury is often difficult to overcome. 
It gives rise to a puddled condition of the soil. When plowed, it turns 

» Courtesy of The International Harvester Company. 



INTENTIONAL SRroMn PVDHtr 



TDT-? 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



M 



, :) 



i^l 



1^ 



152 ^ 

requires more labor to prepare a seed-bed than 1^^^^^ j^ .^ 

Soils are often seriously injured by the 5amping oi 

cultivated. -cr^nnmir Factors.— The time 

Time and Intensity of l^^f^.^^'J^^l eo^eet o" with the 
to plow disk harrow and if^^^.:^^^^;^:^ l^L tillage operations 
cost of the operations. It is essential xo pe . ^j^j enables 

when the soil is in the best possible '"«>^f"'^,;°X^°"(„i„'um amount 
the farmer to accomplish the desired result with ^^^ mmimum am 

Slbor; consequently, ^^ Jorce oi ^^en^^J^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
care for the maximum acreage. . It ^^ easier ana condition 

stir the soil at the right time .^^^ *hus p^^^^^^^^^ A 

than it is to change the bad physical ^^^^^ *^,^/°°^ ^ a finely pul- 
great deal of labor is required o reduce ^ ^ard ^^^^^^^^^^ 

:rwVerd^s;u;tiot-^^^^^^^^ 

amount of kboi. ^^ determined by a number of factors 

TfX as po Sble. This is Accomplished by crop rotations and a succes- 
sion of crops one following another, throughout the growing season so 
tZ at Ttimes plants wHl be occupying the soil and gathenng plant 

'^"\t?a:irannSiU of all the manures produced on the farm 
is essentialln this connection. It is more profitable to grow a full crop 
on five acres than it is to produce one-half a crop on ten acres. 
' S g neral soil utiUza!tion and management call for a tho-ugh under- 
standkig of the underlying principles and the adoption of methods of 
handS that accomplish good results without undue expense. Those 
practS which are injurious and those which do not make for mainte- 
nance of fertility should be avoided. 



METHODS OF SOIL MANAGEMENT 



153 



REFERENCES 

"Principles of Soil Management." Lyon and Pippin. 

"Crops and Methods of Soil Improvement." Agee. 

"Soils." Fletcher. 

"The Soil." HaU. 

"Soils." Burkett. 

Michigan Expt. Station Bulletin 273. "Utilization of Muck Lands." 

Missouri Expt. Station Circular 78. "Control of Soil Washing." 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin 180. "Soil Erosion in the South." 



1^ 




lii 



I'ii 



ii 



BOOK II 
FARM CROPS 



(155) 






Ifil \ 



h - 



rs 



CHAPTER 9 



Crop Improvement 

By C. F. Noll 
Assistant Professor of Agronomy, Pennsylvania State College 

The development of varieties and strains of our farm crops which 
have great productiveness or superior merit in other respects is a matter 
of great interest to all agriculturists. Increase in yield due to natural 
productiveness of a variety results in a gain which is maintained year 
after year without additional cost of fertilizer or expense in culture. 
Such gains are of much economic importance, as shown by the differences 
secured in many variety tests. At the Pennsylvania State College Experi- 
ment Station, where varieties of various crops are tested under the same 
conditions, there are some which outyield others by as much as fifty per 
cent. Here the good yielding varieties are grown with just the same 
expense as the poor ones, except for the slight additional cost of handling 
the increase in crop. Similar results have been secured at experiment 
stations in nearly every state. 

Plant Selection.— Crop improvement or plant breeding is often 
looked upon as a new thing, but ever since man has been growing plants, 
they have gradually been modified by seed selection. All of our culti- 
vated plants come from wild forms, but some of them have been so changed 
that they could not now perpetuate their race if left to shift for them- 
selves. Within the memory of men now living, the fruits of tomatoes 
have been developed from the size of a walnut to several times as large, 
and other changes have been effected which have made them more desir- 
able for table use. Though plant improvement has been thus going on 
for ages, only within the past few decades has there been great general 
interest in this work, and only of late have some of the fundamental 
principles been understood. 

Man originates to a very limited extent desirable changes in the 
plants with which he works. He is dependent chiefly upon changes 
which occur naturally, and all that he does is to take advantage of these 
changes and perpetuate the forms which are the most suitable for his 
purpose. He cannot, for example, make the pole lima beans over into 
the dwarf form, but when dwarf plants are found in a field of lima beans, 
he can save seed of these plants and perpetuate and multiply a race of 
dwarf lima beans. 

Kinds of Variation. — No two plants are exactly alike, but most of 
the variations are of no significance to the plant breeder. They may be 

(157) 



JETf.-^Oft^agif; 




! t 



ll 



li 



H 



k> 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



CROP IMPROVEMENT 



159 



158 ' 

It a hill of com is ^««':;ly ^""f ' 'L' tX tSe bvored hills is not 
than rtere manure is withheld ,''"' *~ '"""'^ell tertifeed. How- 
necessarily any belter than ^^J^/'"" /'™*!„"°;'^„d Xh may he the 
ever, variations may ar^ "^tnThe ^artSsTi^ to the yiel'd or si» 
^^;ar^l^orrot a^L^ish the CU^^^^^ 

;rpr<:^tTr\hn!:sL""^wrtL":tir=''^ -^ i or ,orm. 




Variations in Timothy.^ 



one may have less difficulty in picking out those which could be used to 

develop new strains or varieties ^^^^ ^j ^jj. 

Hybridization -Hybn^^^^ ^^ taking the 

ferent species or different varieties, ii i* i . j^ ^^^ 

— .„ /-. «„ M V From "Plant Breeding," by Bailey. 

1 Courtesy of The MacmiUan Company. N. Y. *rom 



merit, the cross-fertilization is usually easily accomplished, and, on the 
other hand, the varieties produced by crossing are not necessarily of supe- 
rior merit. Crossing of plants for the most part results in new com- 
binations of fjarental characters. By crossing a yellow pear tomato and a 
large red one, one could produce a red pear tomato and a large yellow one. 
If a variety of wheat with bearded heads and white grains is crossed with a 
variety with smooth heads and red grains, there could be produced a bearded 
wheat with red grains and a smooth wheat with white grains. By selection 
and propagation the characters become fixed and give new varieties. 




R€ SUITS or CROSSING WHEAT 











r.-M:' ^fvr/>*7t!><* fiyamo 







Note the Variation in the Second Generation Hybrids.^ 

Choice of Varieties. — In attempting to improve a crop one should 
first endeavor to secure a first-class variety. Because of the great dif- 
ference in varieties, if the poorer yielding ones were chosen and an 
attempt were made to improve them in productiveness, it is not likely 
that they could be made better than varieties already in existence. 

Variety testing is a rather simple matter, but some precautions must 
be observed if the results are to be dependable. The main considerations 
are as follows: 

1. The varieties should be tested on as uniform soil as possible of 
the kind on which the field crops are to be grown. 

1 Courtesy of Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. 



m 



fi 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



CROP IMPROVEMENT 



159 



158 

,f a hill of com is heav'ly °ja„ured fte state a^ ^^^^^^ ^.,,__ .^ ^^^ 

than where manure is withheld, but sef" ""» „ (^rtilized. How- 

necessarily any better than se«l from plaMs not sowe. ^ ^^^ 

ever, variations may an^^ "^tn Se wtSsTre in the yield or si.e 
r-r,::* o~t Lln^ish the *-- ^-- frrS 
rp7o'^rSr^Ss""V!rthen'Sir'.,e -^ «,U.r or ,o™, 




.^ ' ^ 



Variations in Timothy.' 



one may have loss diffieulty in picking out those whieh eould bo used to 

-^?sssss^|;,^^^Ti:tcrSe:;' C^ t 

IttlS ;'i:nSSu1ir/s:erLm' MnT?e*^ WH- "= »- pollen 
Twnth foreign [iillen earried by the »" "XTmany in regard to 
the e™erpli'rn7aC"nl-^S^^h';.bri*^., o. superior 

— .„ r- or,,, \r Y From "Plant Breeding," by BaUey. 

1 Courtesy of The MacmiUan Company, N. Y. t rom 



merit, the cross-fertilization is usually easily accomplished, and, on the 
other hand, the varieties produced by crossing are not necessarily of supe- 
rior merit. Crossing of plants for the most part results in new com- 
binations of parental characters. By crossing a yellow pear tomato and a 
large red one, one could produce a red pear tomato and a large yellow one. 
If a variety of wheat with bearded heads and white grains is crossed with a 
variety with smooth heads and red grains, there could be produced a bearded 
wheat with red grains and a smooth wheat with white grains. By selection 
and propagation the characters become fixed and give new varieties. 




R€ SUITS OrCROSSfNG WHEAT 







fiHf ^f^fflJ^TiyA nr90:o 











Note the Variation in the Second Generation Hybrids.^ 

Choice of Varieties. — In attempting to improve a crop one should 
first endeavor to secure a first-class variety. Because of the great dif- 
ference in varieties, if the poorer yielding ones were chosen and an 
attempt were made to improve them in productiveness, it is not likely 
that they could be made better than varieties already in existence. 

Variety testing is a rather simple matter, but some precautions must 
be observed if the results are to be dependable. The main considerations 
are as follows: 

1. The varieties should be tested on as uniform soil as possible of 
the kind on which the field crops are to be grown. 

^Courtesy of Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. 



■' -..->» 1.,' 



rr"'.;:;\l'U 



INTENTIONAL SECOND RXPOST TR P 









flTi 



Ig; _*> . U'l,^.. >;%.«-. yi-^ir^; ^.K;^>f 4^f*r >;? • ; ^. v!-^- >. • /, 






160 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



'M\ 



H 



m 



! 



! I 



n 



M' ? 



2. The plats should be long and narrow rather than J«^\^^^ ^r«^^^ 
and should extend across inequalities in the land rather than 

3 A C^stlndaSTariety should be planted in every third or 

4 Trii:to J^belXTedX; a number of years and the cho^e 

of a variety based upon the average performance rather than 

upon the results of only one year. + „* „ f«w 

q„ffffestions are given in this chapter for the improvement of a few 

crops The methodsTf procedure with others would be similar depend- 

irchiefly upon how the blossoms are fertilized and upon methods of 

propagation. 

CORN - ' 

« 

Snecial care must be exercised in the purchase of seed-corn This 
crop tends to becZe adapted to local conditions and may not do well 
when removed to different localities. Especially s there likely to be a 
failure to mature- when seed from a locality having a longer season is 
bought On the other hand, a wise selection of seed should enable a 
fT.rmer to adapt his corn better to his own conditions. , , «^,, 

Mos^ of our best known varieties have thus been developed by con- 
sisteSection of seed for a number of years jn the same farm^ The 
well-known Learning variety was developed by J. S. Leammg in i^nnxon 
SLtv Ohio, by continuous selection, from a variety bought ^n Hamilton 
Countv Ohio in 1855. By selection along the same line this variety 
wSmade very uniform. Reid's Yellow Dent, a very popular variety of 
rweSefined type, originated with a cross between two varieties planted^ 
fn the same Vefd by Robert Reid in 1846. The type was fixed m this 
case also by continuous selection. Most farmers could not do better than 
test a number of varieties to find a good one and then by careful selection 

of seed trv to make it better. . . 

The Ear-Row Method.-The most rapid improvment of com is 
accomplished by some ear-row (or ear-to-row) method of breeding- There 
are a number of methods in use which vary in detail. By ^ar-row plant 
'^g ts Tant the planting of each ear to be tested m a row by itse f to 
determine its productiveness and other desiraWe quaM.e^^^ The rows 
should be of such a length that not over half of the seed on ari ear neea 
be p anted If the rov^ are three and one-half feet apart and the hil^ 
thrfe feet apart forty-two hills will comprise approximately one one- 
hundred h of an a re. "^ Five or six grains should be planted in a hiU and 
when h corn is up, it should be thinned to three stalks perhdl. M^ed 
seed of the variety should be planted for a check every sixth row. During 
the^owing seaso"^ the rows should be observed and desirable or undesir- 

able characteristics noted. ^n'oM nf «+ovpr 

Each row should be harvested separately. Since the yield of stover 



CROP IMPROVEMENT 



y' 



V 



) 



161 

is of only minor importance it does not matter whether the plants are 
cut or not, but they must be husked separately and the corn ears weighed. 
After the yields of the ear-rows have been obtained, any one of a number 
of methods for continuing the work may be followed. The simplest wav 
IS to take the remnants of the best ears as shown by the ear-row test, 
shell these together and plant in an isolated seed plat the next year! 
Irom this plat the diseased and weak stalks should be removed before the 
pollen IS shed. Seed should be saved from the best rows in the ear-row 
plat for field planting the next year. The third year there should be an 
ear-row plat like that of the first year and the ears for this should come 
n'r f h ^^}^^j^P^yi^g plat grown the second year. The seed of the main 

nnrf n^'.!. ^iJ"^' "^r!^f^ u^"^" ^'^"^ ^^^ multiplying plat and from the 
part of the field m which the seed from the ear-rows was planted This 




The Ear-to-Row Test Plat with Corn Husked, Showing a Method Used in 
Ascertaining Which Seed Ears Have Yielded Best.i 

method provides for an ear-row plat and a multiplying plat on alternate 
years. 

Ideals in Selection of Corn.— Besides attempting to secure greater 
pFGductiveness in a variety of corn, one who would improve the crop 
should seek to adapt the variety in length of growing season to the local- 
ity in which it is grown. In a general way the best varieties are those 
which require about all of the season for development and yet can be 
depended upon to mature before frost. 

The stalks should be of medium size and able to stand up well. 
The ears should be of medium height from the ground, with a rather short 
shank, and should droop somewhat rather than stand erect. By con- 
tinuous selection for high and low ears for five years at the Ohio Experi- 
ment Station, two strains were developed from one variety with a 

> From Year-Book, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 
11 



■mOisi^imiS'. 









y' 



160 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



I ! 



<i 



h 



I 



2. The plats should be long and narrow rather than J«rt and b^^^^^^^^ 
and should extend across inequalities in the land rather than 

3 A To^tSardTariety should be planted in every third or 

4 Trii^tojfbe'rnSdX; a number of years and the eho^e 

of a variety based upon the average performance rather than 
upon the results of only one year. x „f „ f^w 

Muffcestions are given in this chapter for the improvement o a fej 
Suggestions are give ^^^^^^ ^^ ^.^^,^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

rg':hiefly' upo^ht are fertiUzed and upon methods of 

propagation. 

CORN 

Soeciil care must be exercised in the purchase of seed-corn This 

former to adaot his corn better to his own conditions. 

Sosto our best known varieties have thus been developed by con- 
sistent Section of seed for a number of years jn^the same farm^ The 
well-known Learning variety was developed by J. b. Leaming »" v^iii lo 
Sunty Ohio, by continuous selection, from a variety bought ^ Hamdton 
Countv Ohio in 1855. By selection along the same Ime this variety 
Srmade V ry uniform. Reid's Yellow Dent, a very popular variety of 
a weU-defined type, originated with a cross between two varieties planted 
fn the Tar^e VeW by Robert Reid in 1846. The type was fixed in this 
case also by continuous selection. Most farmers could not do better t^an 
test a number of varieties to find a good one and then by careful selection 

^^ ^%t'UXw^MeSod.-The most rapid improvement of com is 
accompHshed by some ear-row (or ear-to-row) method of breeding. There 
are a number of methods in use which vary in detail. By ear-row plant 
Zl tsTant the planting of each ear to be tested m a row by ^t^^K to 
determine its productiveness and other desirable qualities. The rows 
should be of such a length that not over half of the seed on an ear need 
be p anted If the rows are three and one-half feet apart and the hills 
three feet apart, forty-two hills will comprise approximately one one- 
t loHth of nn acre Five or six grains should be planted in a hill and 
S h conTs up it should be thLed to three stalks per hill. Mixed 
Teed o the variety should be planted for a check every sixth row. During 
the^owing season the rows should be observed and desirable or undesir- 

^'•^E^fstuir^^^^^^ .separately. Since the yield of stover 



CROP IMPROVEMENT 



-^ 



161 

is of only minor importan^^TitToes not matter whether the plants are 
rlrT ; u ^^7,,^^^^* ^^ ^^^«^d separately and the corn ears weighed. 
After the yields of the ear-rows have been obtained, any one of a number 
of methods for continuing the work may be followed. The simplest way 
IS to take the remnants of the best ears as shown by the ear-row test 
shell these together and plant in an isolated seed plat the next year! 
l^rom this plat the diseased and weak stalks should be removed before the 
pol en IS shed. Seed should be saved from the best rows in the ear-row 
plat for field planting the next year. The third year there should be an 
ear-row plat like that of the first year and the ears for this should come 
iZ H ;r"^i^P^^^^\P^^^\g^«^n the second year. The seed of the main 
nor? if 'fh fi if-^' should come from the multiplying plat and from the 
part of the field m which the seed from the ear-rows was planted. This 




The Ear-to-Row Test Plat with Corn Husked, Showing a Method Used in 

ASCERTAININQ WlIlCH SeED EaRS HaVE YiELDED BeST.1 

method provides for an ear-row plat and a multiplying plat on alternate 
years. 

Ideals in Selection of Corn.— Besides attempting to secure greater 
productiveness in a variety of corn, one who would improve the crop 
should s(M»k to adapt the variety in length of growing season to the local- 
ity in which it is grown. In a general way the best varieties are those 
which require about all of the season for development and yet can be 
depcaided upon to mature before frost. 

The stalks should be of medium size and able to stand up well. 
The ears should be of medium height from the ground, with a rather short 
shank, and should droop somewhat rather than stand erect. By con- 
tinuous selection for high and low ears for five years at the Ohio Experi- 
ment Station, two strains were developed from one variety with a 

» From Year- Book, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 
11 



^KHl 




SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



CROP IMPROVEMENT 



I 



H \ 



162 



I^f . ■ — 7~Z TT^^I~hhe low-eared strain 

was the earlier and gave the S^f]^^* f X^ld t^ve medium size cobs, 

The ears should be of f^fjjt^pe of kernel and should be attrac- 

should be fairly uniform m «;;l;y^/ ^^^ %ints of the ears are o less 

tive in appearance. The ^^^fj^Z,! t^^oughi, but corn that looks 

^rSsTrmSX^^^^^^^^ ,, ,e corn is .own 

^°' In the above discussion ^^ ^as W ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ i.^ge, leafy 

primarily for grain. Ensilage -^^'^' ^Zc.^,,, ,,ter in maturmg than 
stalk besides a good ear, and may ue 
varieties for grain. 

WHEAT, OATS AND BARLEY 

. nH b^rlev variations frequently occur 
In the case of wheat oa s «;J ^ark^, ja ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ 

within a variety which make it worth wh e to ^^ ^^^ 

r^ the':!: »~:"?^-'ta!i->.ouiaV P.a„t«l from each head, 

wWih may be twenty-eve or thirty^ ^j^^^y ^ jetermtoed, 

When ripe, the nmnljer ot plants in ea ^^^ 

the rows should be ert ^•P"'^'^ '"^ ^ ^d of each strain should now 
Third Year.-A nun.l>cr of ounces « tc ^^^^^ ^^^„j 

be available. « 100 head-rows has been P'™"" ,,^ ,h„„|d be sown 
Uventy of the best *°" 'l,*",,!""" ^^ iershould be sown for a cheek 

rl Lo rows i;;;|^'--:.XV.?nU.d"£ s^Se by side, for they do 

inches apart, xnf^^ h 

not readily cross-fertihze . ^^^ ^j^ ^e enough seed for a 

Fourth Year.— By the lourtn yi good plan is to 

larger plat which may be sown with a S^^^ -^- J^^^ ^^^ p,^,, 

«hut off the mi<ldle hoe, P"* ,in ^--^ 1^^^^^^^^^^ •^^^^^^^ ^he drill used has 

of four or five drill -^^. -"^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ variety should be sown in 
nine hoes or eleven. As Ixh^re ^'^^^ j^^ .i^^uld be continued. 

every third plat. «"»y.*^%":2r/ If d^sfred the plats may be made 
Fifth and Succeedmg Y«"s.-If Je^'^^^^^^ / ^^ould be the 

S: riy^r^lIlcK it:^ed i:n^;-eme^^ on the parent variety 



/ 



I 



\ 



^^^^ 163 

Crossing of Varieties in Small Grain Breeding.— Different varieties 
may be crossed for new combinations of characters as discussed before 
The first generation from the cross will look like one parent in respect 
to some characters and like the other parent in others. The seed of each 
plant should be kept separate and planted like the head-rows in selection 
work. Usually it will be found that the progeny of these parent plants 
are not uniform. In that case the grain from each plant must be kept 
separate and planted again in separate rows as before and this must be 
kept up until all the plants from a parent are alike in all of their visible 
characters. Those that are uniform should be considered pure strains 
and after this the testing may proceed as with selections from the third 
year on. 

Varieties of these crops should be improved in production first of 
all, but also m resistance to disease and stiffness of straw. In the case 
of wheat, the milling quality of the grain is important, and in oats, from 
the market point of view, the color of grain, white being the preferred 
color. 

Many of the older varieties of these crops owe their origin to selec- 
tions made by farmers and some to crosses. Of the varieties of wheat 
Fultz was originated by Abraham Fultz in 1862 from a selection from 
Lancaster; Gold Coin, which was an accidental seedling variation was 
selected from Deihl Mediterranean; Fulcaster, the well-known' red- 
bearded variety, resulted from a cross between Fultz and Lancaster, made 
by S. M. Schindel, Hagerstown, Md. 

POTATOES 

Production of Seedlings.— New varieties of potatoes originate from 
seedlings. The seeds are produced in the true fruits, which come after 
the blossoms and look like little green tomatoes. These fruits or balls, 
as they are commonly called, are produced very sparingly and in some 
seasons none are seen. The seed should be sown indoors early in the spring 
and the young potato plants handled like tomatoes until they are set out 
in the field. Transplanting to pots increases their vigor. The first year 
few reach full development and most do not for two or more years. The 
seedlings, as a rule, are quite variable and few if any look just like the 
parents. Each should be regarded as a new variety and given a number 
and kept separate as long as grown. 

The work is very interesting and may give varieties better than those 
already on the market, but most seedlings are of inferior merit. 

Hill and Tuber Selection.— Potatoes vary in the hill and it is possible 
to improve a variety by selection of the best hills or the l)est tubers. It 
is a good practice to dig by hand a great many hills and save seed of some 
of the best for a seed plat the next year. This seed plat should be gone 
over and weak and diseased hills removed and the remainder saved for 









SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



#1 



164 

the field planting. Greater progress will be made by keeping the tubers 
from selected hills separate and testing these as new strams Each sliould 
have a number by which it will always be known. The first year ten 
mL o^eaTmight'be planted in rows side by -d-^* ^he parent^-^^^^^ 
every third place. The best only should be saved and the next and sue 
fppflinff vears the plats may be made larger. 

Sr unit selection should start with selected tubers of the same 
size which are desirable in appearance and free from disease. These are 
each cut into four pieces, which are planted in succession, one tuber after 




Variation in Yield of Potatoes from Selected Tubers.^ 

the other, with some space between the hills from the different tubers. 
When mature, the four hills from a tuber are dug together and the future 
selection based upon the yield of tubers and their appearance _ These 
must be designated by numbers as m other selection work. The next 
vear single row plats of ten or more hills each of the most promismg may 
be planted, with the parent variety in every third plat as before. 

Potatoes may be improved in productiveness, disease resistance and 
quality of tubers. There is a difference in susceptibility, especially to 

1 Courtesy of Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. 



CROP IMPROVEMENT 



165 



early and late l)light, and perhaps to other serious diseases. Only strains 
of high market quality should be perpetuated. The tubers should be of 
medium size, smooth in outline, flat oval or flat oblong in shape and have 
shallow eyes. 

Where carefully conducted, these methods of selection have resulted 
in the improvement of the variety. 

Opportunities in Crop Improvement. — There is need in every com- 
munity that at least one farmer make a specialty of producing and sell- 
ing improved farm seeds. Such work is usually very remunerative, besides 
being of value to the whole neighborhood. 

Testing of varieties and the improvement of certain crops may be 
made a matter of community interest, especially where there is some 
farmers' organization. There is also the opportunity of forming clubs or 
associations for crop improvement, which may be quite local or state- 
wide, as in the case of many state crop improvement associations now 
in existence. 

REFERENCES 
''Genetics.'^ Walter. 
"Cereals in America." Hunt. 
''Plant Breeding." Bailey and Gilbert. 
" P^undamentals of Plant Breeding." Coulter. 
Ontario Agricultural College Bulletin 228. ''Farm Crops." 

Farmers' Bulletin 382, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. "Adulteration of Forage Plant 
Seeds." 









inr^ 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



11) 



M« 



III 



ltt)| 



1 



164 ^ 

the field planting. Greater progress will be made by keeping the tubers 
from selected hills separate and testing these as new strains. J^jch .h«uld 
have a number by which it will always be known. The first year ten 
hm'of each might be planted in rows side by side with the parent variety 
every third place. The best only should be saved and the next and suc- 
ceeding years the plats may be made larger. 

Tuber unit selection should start with selected tubers of the same 
size which are desirable in appearance and free from disease. Those are 
each cut into four pieces, which are planted in succession, one tuber after 






,,i«w'*W!* 





Variation in Yield of Potatoes from Selected Tubers.i 

the other, with some space between the hills from the (Hfferent tubers. 
When mature, the four hills from a tuber are dug together and the future 
selection based upon the yield of tubers and their appearance 1 hese 
must be designated by numbers as in other selection work. The next 
year single row plats of ten or more hills each of the most promismg may 
be planted, with the parent variety in every third plat as before. 

Potatoes may be improved in productiveness, dis(^ase resistance and 
quality of tubers. There is a difference in susceptibility, especially to 

1 Courtesy of Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. 



CROP IMPROVEMENT 



165 



early and late blight, and perhaps to other serious diseases. Only strains 
of high market quality should be perpetuated. The tubers should be of 
medium size, smooth in outline, flat oval or flat oblong in shape and have 
shallow eyes. 

Where carefully conducted, these methods of selection have resulted 
in the improvement of the variety. 

Opportunities in Crop Improvement. — There is need in every com- 
munity that at least one farmer make a specialty of producing and sell- 
ing improved farm seeds. Such work is usually very remunerative, besides 
being of value to the whole neighborhood. 

Testing of varieties and the improvement of certain crops may be 
made a matter of community interest, especially where there is some 
farmers' organization. There is also the opportunity of forming clubs or 
associations for crop improvement, which may be quite local or state- 
wide, as in the case of many state crop improvement associations now 
in existence. 

REFERENCES 
''Genetics." Walter. 
** Cereals in America." Hunt. 
''Plant Breeding." Bailey and Gilbert. 
"Fundamentals of Plant Breeding." Coulter. 
Ontario Agricultural College Bulletin 228. "P'arm Crops." 

Farmers' Bulletin 382, U. 8. Dept. of Agriculture. ''Adulteration of Forage Plant 
Seeds." 



T 



w 






INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



CHAPTER 10 

THE ROTATION OF CROPS 

In all of the older agricultural districts the rotation of crops is recog- 
nized as an essential to successful farming. With the prevailing price of 
corn, farmers on the best lands in the corn-growing belt have found it 
profitable to grow corn after corn for a number of years. In like manner 
on the best wheat land in Minnesota, the Dakotas and Canada wheat 
grown continuously has proven a profitable enterprise. In that region 
farmers find no good argument in favor of fencing their farms, construct- 
ing farm buildings, feeding cattle and milking cows, when they can make 
as much money or more by a system of farming that occupies their time 
for a little more than one-half the year and allows them leisure during 
the remainder of the year. A single crop system, while successful for a 
time, however, will not prove successful in the long run. 

Successful farming calls not only for the best possible utilization of 
the soil and the maintenance of its fertility, but also demands the fullest 
possible utilization of the labor that is to be employed. The efficiency 
of the labor of men and teams on farms is measured largely by the pro- 
portion of time for which they are profitably employed. In nearly all 
other enterprises labor is fully and continuously employed. In order 
that farming may compete with other enterprises for labor, it must be. 

likewise employed on the farm. 

Rotations Defined.— A crop rotation is a succession of crops grown 
on the same land. A good crop rotation is a systematic succession of the 
three general classes of farm crops, namely, cultivated crops, grain crops 
and grass crops, in such a way as to give large yields and provide pasture 
and forage on the farm at the least expense of labor and soil futility 

The rotation is definite when the crops recur in a fix^ order, and it 
is a fixed rotation when they not only recur in a fixed order but also at 
regular intervals. A rotation consisting of corn, oats, wheat and clover 
and timothy is a definite one, regardless of whether the clover and timothy 
remain for one, two or three years, but it becomes a fixed rotation when 
not only the order of the crops is named, but the length of tune of each 

croD is also specified. . -, e • i. • 

Purpose of Rotations.-A rotation of crops (1) provides for maintain- 
ing the soil in good tilth; (2) supplies organic matter and nitrogen; (3) 
prevents destructive outbreaks of insect pests; (4) reduces plant diseases; 
(5) provides for the economical destruction of weeds; (6) maintains crop 
yields- (7) distributes the labor of men and horses; (8) saves labor m 
cultivkion of land; (9) keeps the soil occupied; (10) provides for a 

(166) 



THE ROTATION OF CROPS 



167 

balanced removal of plant food; (11) systematizes farming; and (12) mav 
control toxic substances. > \ / j 

Maintain Good Physical Condition of Soil.-Deep-rooted plants, 
such as alfalfa and the clovers, improve the physical condition of the 
subsoil as a result of root penetration. The cultivation given to inter- 
tilled crops such as corn, potatoes, beets and the truck crops, improves 
the physical condition of the surface soil. Such frequent cultivation may 
tend to reduce the organic matter of the soil, but this will be largely over- 
come by the stubble and roots of the grasses and clovers that follow the 
grain crops. 

Conserve Organic Matter and Nitrogen.-Extensive rotation expesri- 
ments at the Mmnesota Experiment Station show that standard rotations, 






W ■>. 






^n?*-.;-2^t^^- • 












■''^':-^^r: 



1 


1 

r 

\ 


\".»- ./■■' ■*•" 




fer^- ■ 


\ 





Dangers of Continuous Cropping. ^ 
1 n ^'^ the 1^'f t is corn growing on land that has grown com continuously for 
1 ^'T^f' V/^ ^^'^ ^^^l'^ ^^ ^^'''^ '""^ ^ five-year rotation. Both fields were 
planted on the same day to the same kind of corn. The yield on the field 
to the left IS 27.5 bushels to the acre. The field on the right gives 61 3 
bushels an acre. These are the average yields for ten years. 

which include an inter-tilled crop, small grains and grasses with clover 
all gave net profits. A four-years' rotation of millet, barley, corn and oats 
was no better than four years of continuous growing of wheat. All of 
^ these are classified as exhaustive crops. They cause a reduction in both 
the organic matter and nitrogen supply of the soil. Land cropped 
contmuously to wheat, corn, potatoes or mangels for a period of ten years 
showed a loss of 1100 pounds of nitrogen and 20,000 pounds of carbon 
per acre. In twelve standard rotations covering the same period of time 
there was a gain of 300 pounds of nitrogen per acre, while the carbon and 
humus m the soil was maintained and in some cases increased. In the 
standard rotations eight tons of manure per acre were applied once during: 
the rotation. 

Provide for Extermination of Weeds.— Noxious weeds often cause 
a serious lo ss in farming. Weeds not only rob the crops of plant food and 

iFrom ••Farm Management" by Boss. Courtesy of Lyons and Carnahan, Chicago. 



P- 












r;i'j.-:A, i -.1' t-i^. 



i»*tW!-r i-^fc^'je--'-. 



CHAPTER 10 

THE ROTATION OF CROPS 

In fill of the older agricultural districts the rotation of crops is recog- 
nized as an essential to successful farming. With the prevailing pnce of 
corn, farmers on the best lands in the corn-growmg belt have found it 
profitable to grow corn after corn for a number of years. In like manner 
on the best wheat land in Minnesota, the Dakotas and Canada wheat 
grown continuously has proven a profitable enterprise. In that region 
fvrmers find no good argument in favor of fencing their farms, construct- 
ing farm buildings, feeding cattle and milking cows, when they can make 
as much money or more by a system of farming that occupies their time 
for a little more than one-half the year and allows them leisure during 
the remainder of the year. A single crop system, while successful for a 
time, however, will not prove successful in the long run. 

Successful farming calls not only for the best possible utilization of 
the soil and the maintenance of its fertility but also demands tho u est 
possible utilization of the labor that is to be employed. The efficiencj 
of the labor of men and teams on farms is measured largely by the pro- 
portion of time for which they are profitably employed. In nearly all 
other enterprises lal)or is fully and continuously empOyed. In order 
that farming may compete with other enterprises for labor, it must be 

likewise employed on the farm. • t ^^^ ^^„.„ 

Rotations Defined.— A crop rotation is a succession of crops grown 
on the same land. A good crop rotation is a systematic succession of the 
three general classes of farm crops, namely, cultivated crops, grain crops 
and grass crops, in such a way as to give large yields and provide pasture 
and forage on the farm at the least expense of labor and soil fertility. 

The rotation is definite when the crops recur in a fixed order, and it 
is a fixed rotation when they not only recur in a fixed order but also at 
regular intervals. A rotation consisting of corn, oats, wheat and clover 
and timothy is a definite one, regardless of whether the clover and timothy 
remain for one, two or three years, but it becomes a fixed rotation when 
not only the order of the crops is named, but the length of tmie of each 

croD is also specified. . , r. • ^ • 

Purpose of Rotations.-A rotation of crops (1) provides for maintain- 
ing the soil in good tilth; (2) supplies organic matter and nitrogen; (3) 
prevents destructive outbreaks of insect pests; (4) reduces plant diseases; 
(5) provides for the economical destruction of weeds; (6) maintains crop 
Yields- (7) distributes the labor of men and horses; (8) saves labor in 
cultivation of land; (9) keeps the soil occupied; (10) provides for a 

(166) 



THE ROTATION OF CROPS 



167 

balanced removal of plant food; (11) systematizes farming; and (12) m-iv 
control toxic substances. >- / J' 

Maintain Good Physical Condition of Soil.-Decp-rootcd plants, 
such as alfalfa and the clovers, improve the physical condition of the 
subsoil as a result of root penetration. The cultivation given to inter- 
tilled crops such as corn, potatoes, beets and the truck crops, improves 
the physical condition of the surface soil. Such freciuent cultivation may 
tend to reduce the organic matter of the soil, but this will i)e largeiv over- 
come by the stubble and roots of the grasses and clovers that follow the 
gram crops. 

.^°?fr®,P'^^"'*' ^^"®'' ^"^ Nitrogen.-Extensive rotation exp.-ri- 
ments at the Minnesota Experiment Station show that standard rotations, 




Dangers of Continuous Cropping. ^ 

1 n ^" ^ h« l^-^t is corn growin^r on land t liat has grown corn cont inuously for 
19 years. On the right is corn in a five-year rotation. Both fields were 
planted on the same day to the same kind of corn. The yield on the field 
to the left is 27.5 bushels to the acre. The field on the right gives 61 3 
bushels an acre. 1 hese are the average yields for ten years. 

which iucliido an intor-tilled crop, small grains and grasses with clover 
all gave net profits. A four-years' rotation of millet, barley, corn and oats 
was no better than four years of continuous growing of\vheat. All of 
^ these are classified as exhaustive crops. They cause a reduction in })oth 
the organic matter and nitrogen supply of the soil. Land cropped 
contmuously to wheat, corn, potatoes or mangvis for a period of ten years 
showed a loss of 1100 pounds of nitrogen and 20,000 pounds of carbon 
per acre. In twelve standard rotations covering the same period of time 
there was a gain of 300 pounds of nitrogen i^er acre, while the carbon and 
humus m the soil was maintainc^d and in some cases increased. In the 
standard rotations eight tons of manure per acre were applied once during: 
the rotation. 

Provide for Extermination of Weeds.— Noxious weeds often cause 
a serious lo ss m farming. Weeds not only rob the crops of plant food and 

1 From "Farm Management" by Boss. Courtesy of Lyons and Carnahan. Chicago. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



'jm 



f,^^fin^HH^H 


tmsBssi^^^sasiBm: 




ii 


V^r^- :■.-;'-._ 


■:':;:'v!'?^*>:"~f:M;&.sr'^ 


ps 


$■ 




mmm 









168 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



moisture, thus reducing the yield and sometimes causing absolute failure, 
but they entail additional labor in the process of cultivation. Many 
weeds grow best in certain kinds of crops. For example, mustard is a 
common weed in the small grain crops in the prairie states. The seeds 
ripen a little earlier than the grain, and in the process of harvesting are 
freely shattered and seed the land for the succeeding year. Where small 
grain is grown continuously this weed becomes a serious pest. Its 
extermination calls for an inter-tilled crop following the small grain. 
Pigweed, bindweed, foxtail and crab-grass are common in corn and 
potato fields, but they seldom become serious in small grain fields or in 
grass land; consequently, cultivated crops followed by grasses and small 
grains make for extermination of these weeds. Daisies, wild carrot and 
buckhorn are common weeds in hay fields, and generally grow worse the 
longer the land remains in hay. Such weeds, however, give no trouble 
in cultivated fields devoted to corn, potatoes, etc., and the cultivation 
helps to exterminate them. 

Lessen Insect Depredations. — Most insect pests live upon some 
particular crop or a few closely related crops. A crop or related crops, 
grown continuously on the same land, affords an opportunity for the 
associated insects to multiply and become very numerous. The remedy 
is to plant the infested fields with a crop which will not be injured by the 
pest in question. Unless these insects have the power of migration they 
will* perish for the want of suitable food or for lack of conditions suitable 
for multiplication. 

However efficient the rotation of crops may be in the extermination 
of insects, some rotations may prove not only ineffective but actually 
disastrous. For example, land that has been long in grass sometimes 
becomes so infested with wire-worms as to cause a practical failure when 
devoted to corn. Grass affords conditions favorable to the multiplication 
of wire-worms, and they may live in the soil sufficiently long after the 
grass is plowed up to destroy a crop of corn which follows. Under such 
conditions fall plowing or bare fallow should precede the planting of the 
corn. The bill bug breeds freely in the bulbous roots of timothy, and 
when timothy sod is plowed late in the spring and planted to corn, this 
insect transfers its attention to the corn with disastrous results. Such 
trouble may be avoided by destroying the existing vegetation some time 
in advance of planting the corn. The insect under such conditions will 
either be starved or forced to leave the field before it is planted to corn. 

Cutworms are a great menace to newly planted tobacco and many 
other crops, but their presence depends largely on the preceding crop. 
Cutworms multiply extensively only in grass land where the eggs are laid 
by the moths. Many similar examples could be cited, and success in 
preventing insect depredation by crop rotation calls for a knowledge of 
the life history and habits of the insect pest concerned. (See Chapter 
76: 'insect Pests and Their Control.'^ 



THE ROTATION OF CROPS 



169 



Reduce Plant Diseases. — Plant diseases, like insect pests, are gen- 
erally restricted to a particular crop or small group of closely related 
crops. The potato scab, so far as is known, is confined solely to potatoes. 
Its presence in the soil prevents the continuous growing of potatoes, and 
calls for a rotation in which the interval between successive potato crops 
is sufficiently long to provide for the disappearance of the disease. In a 
similar manner flax wilt or cotton wilt demands a rotation of crops in 
order to prevent the disease becoming disastrous. Bacterial diseases of 
tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, cabbage and numerous other vegetables, 
the rusts and smuts of small grains, and many other diseases accumulate 
in the soil under the one-crop system. These troubles can be largely 
avoided and the crop-producing power of the soil maintained by intelli- 
gent systems of rotation. The most profitable system for any locality or 
type of farming can generally be ascertained from the state experiment 
station. 

Improve Environment of Crop. — Aside from insect pest, plant diseases 
and weeds which flourish under the one-crop system to the disadvantage 
of the crop, there is another factor inimical to best plant growth. This 
consists of excreta given off by the roots of plant.:* that accumulate in the 
soil to their detriment. As a rule, such excreta are not equally injurious 
to a different class of crops, and a rotation, therefore, lessens the injury. 
The excreted substances are organic in nature and are either changed in 
character or entirely disappear with time, so that the crop giving rise to 
them may be returned to the land after a year or more without injury. 

Rotations Insure Returns. — The old adage, ^'Don^t place all your 
eggs in one basket,^' applies with equal force in the production of crops. 
Unfavorable conditions in any locality are seldom such as to cause a failure 
of all kinds of crops, although a complete failure of a particular crop in 
a certain locality is not uncommon. A rotation of crops which includes 
a variety of crops, therefore, avoids complete failure. 

Prevent Reduced Crop Yields. — The tillage given to a cultivated 
crop, such as corn or potatoes, increases the yield of the crop that follows 
by providing a better physical condition of the soil. In like manner 
legumes leave organic matter and nitrogen in the soil which is utilized to 
the advantage of corn or potatoes which may follow. The cultivation 
given crops destroys weeds to the advantage of crops which follow, and 
which do not receive cultivation. 

Rotations Systematize Farming. — A well-planned rotation of crops 
enables the farmer to know definitely what is to be done each year, and 
makes possible an estimation of the general expenses and returns that 
may be expected. It also enables him to plan his work and secure his 
materials, such as seed, fertilizers, etc., in advance of the time they are 
needed. 

Rotations Distribute Labor. — A good rotation of crops will enable 
the farmer to do a larger proportion of his own work than would be possible 






I 



170 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



if the land were devoted to one crop. This enables him to utilize his 
own labor to the fullest possible advantage, and to reduce the expense 
necessary for hired labor. It is important, therefore, in selecting crops 
for a rotation, to select those that will compete with each other for the 
labor of men and teams as little as possible. The common rotation of 
corn, oats, wheat and hay fulfils these requirements fairly well. To 
illustrate, the preparation of land and seeding of oats take place in the 
early spring. Between the seeding time of oats and the time for planting 
corn there is sufficient time to prepare the land for the latter crop. The 
cultivation of corn will precede the harvest of hay and oats. The prep- 
aration of land for winter wheat will take place after the harvest period 
and prior to the harvest of corn. This fully occupies the time of the 
farmer during the growing season. There will sometimes be conflict 
between the harvest of wheat and hay, and the cultivation of corn, necessi- 
tating a little extra labor at that time. 

Essentials of a Good Rotation. — A good crop rotation should contain 
(1) an inter-tilled crop, (2) a cash crop, (3) crops to feed, and (4) a crop 
to supply humus and nitrogen. All crops may be roughly classified 
under three heads, namely: exhaustive, intermediate and restorative. 
All crops, when harvested, remove from the land more or less plant food, 
and in this sense they are exhaustive. No crop restores to the soil any 
considerable amount of plant food unless it is plowed under or allowed 
to decay on the surface of the soil. Notwithstanding these facts, certain 
crops leave land in poorer condition for subsequent crops than it was 
before. These are designated as exhaustive crops, and include wheat, 
oats, rye, barley and millet. Their ill effect upon subsequent crops may 
be due to any one or a combination of a number of factors, among which 
are physical condition of the soil, injurious insects, plant diseases, reduc- 
tion of soil moisture and a failure to supply either organic matter or nitro- 
gen in any appreciable quantity. 

It is wise, therefore, to select as many restorative crops as possible 
and so arrange the crops that these will be followed by the exhaustive 
crops. These two classes of crops should alternate as far as possible. 
In conjunction with this, one should select crops that will yield well 
and for which there is a demand, either for feeding on the farm or as a 
cash crop. The best varieties of the crops entering into the rotation 
should always be used. These will be determined largely by local con- 
ditions. 

Sequence of Crops.— It is a good plan to follow a crop with a long 
growing season by one having a short growing season. This is typified 
when corn is followed by oats. In turn oats or barley is removed from 
the land in ample time for seeding winter wheat, which occupies the land 
for a rather long period. In this connection it is wise to provide in the 
rotation a place where manure may be hauled directly from stables and 
barnyards and applied to the fields. Where there is an abundance of 



THE ROTATION OF CROPS 



171 



manure and corn is extensively and advantageously used as feed for live- 
stock, corn may be grown two years in succession, especially when the 
soil is fertile and manure is available for both the first and second crops. 
It is desirable that crops be arranged in such a way that the improving 
effects of each crop shall be regularly received and the ill effects of the 
exhaustive crops be systematically neutralized by the crop that follows. 
Length of Rotations.— The length of crop rotations will be deter- 
mined by local conditions and the character of crops grown, together 
with the value of land and cost of labor. Crops that are costly to estab- 
lish, such as alfalfa, should occupy the land for two or more years in order 
to minimize the annual cost of production. The length of time that a 
crop remains productive is also a factor. The annual cost of seed and 
the preparation of the land for the crop is one-half or one-third as much 
if the crop is continued for two or three years respectively, as it is if 
allowed to remain only one year. So long as the yield is satisfactory, 
it generally pays to continue the crop. This tends toward a longer crop 
rotation. 

In many localities where general farm crops prevail, a seven-year 
rotation is common, such for example as corn, oats, wheat and mixed 
clover and timothy for four years. Such long rotations with only one 
legume in them do not make for increased soil fertility, unless all the 
crops produced are fed upon the farm and the manure returned to the 
fields. Where cash crops dominate the type of farming, short rotations 
may be better. A rotation of corn, wheat and clover or of potatoes, 
wheat and clover affords the maximum of cash crops, while the frequency 
of clover in the rotation tends to maintain the nitrogen supply of the soil. 
Such short rotations also maintain the soil in good tilth as a result of the 
frequent plowing and abundant tillage. 

What Crops to Grow. — The crops to be grown in a rotation will be 
determined by a number of factors, as soil adaptation, length of growing 
season, market demands, transportation facilities, and the system of 
farming that prevails. Aside from these facts there is another considera- 
tion that must not be overlooked. Usually it is unwise to follow a crop 
like tobacco, which is considered a gross feeder, with another crop such 
as corn having similar feeding habits. Such a practice is permissible 
only on very fertile soil or where the quality of the following crops is to be 
influenced through reduction in organic matter or available plant food. 
For example, coarseness in tobacco might be reduced by having it pre- 
ceded by corn. 

When to Apply Manure and Fertilizers. — It is generally advisable 
to apply barnyard manure to those crops in the rotation that have a long 
growing season or a high money value, or to those that are considered 
gross feeders, such as corn. In the absence of manure, the same rule 
will apply in the applications of commercial fertilizers. When manure is 
supplemented with fertilizers, the fertilizers are best adapted to crops of 



I 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



172 

short growing season or to those influenced in quality by the character 
or form rrparticular fertilizer ingredient. In this connection it shouW 
be bor"et nSnd that the legumes require only -neraHe^j-- ^^ *^^ 
prons that demand much nitrogen should follow the legumes. 

Some Suggested Rotations.-Crops should naturally fol ow each 

other rsuchf way that each crop paves the way for the one that is to 

follow Best results will be secured when plants are not compelled t« do 

h drpart at a disadvantage Wherever f easib e a la^g P-Port- ^^^ ^ 

product of a rotation should be food for livestock. This provides lor tne 

"^nrtTnortW* rt of the United States a rotation of cor. 
oats wheat and hay with various modifications dominates most of the 
Sie'ral and Uvestock types of farming. By omitting oats a three-crop 
fotatTon results, which, if restricted to three years in length makes for 
so iSility liovTde^ a cash crop and at the same time furnished an abun- 
dance olSeSoIk food and bedding. This may be ^^PP^f-^^t^^ m*^ 
Sfa thus increasing the protein supply. On soils poorly adapted to 
'S this crop may he omitted and oats will take its place. In the north- 
wheat this crop n y elevations the acreage of corn will be 

Xed ind ttt of oatt and hay increased. Where market, are favor- 
able and the soil is adapted to potatoes, this crop may be substituted for a 
nortion of the corn, thus increasing the cash crops at the expense of forage. 
"^ Wheat Snera^^^ proves a better crop in which to seed clover and he 
^rrass^s than does oats In most parts of this section of he country the 
SSses !re seeded in the autumn and the clover seeded early in the spnng. 
Further LS, both clover and the grasses may be seeded in the autumn 
ThP fVmr staole crops above mentioned may be arranged into several 
Jotatio'^tSanure and fertilizers applied as suggested in the foUowmg 

tabulation. ^ _ ^^^ ^ 

Method of Fer tilizing Crop Rotations. 

Per Acre. ' 




Corn: 6 to 10 loads of manure and 25 lbs. of phos- 

ComTe to "o loads of manure and 25 lbs. of phos- 
phoric acid. 
Oats: no fertilizer. . .,14. 

Wheat: 50 lbs. each of phosphoric acid and potr 

Clover and timothy : no fertilizer. ^ , . . , 
Timothy: 25 lbs. each of nitrogen, phosphoric acid 

and potash. 1 1 -j 

Timothy: 25 lbs. each of nitrogen, phosphoric acid 

and potash. 



buying 150 pounds nitratp of soda, 175 Po"".™ °' ?"?XwinE prices per pound, which wiU vary accord- 
lid^^^.^:^^^?^^. "^ rerrXXri^^adSr ^ .LI-, anrpotash. 5 cents. 



THE ROTATION OF CROPS 



173 



In the trucking regions of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and 
Virginia, two crops may frequently be secured in one season. Over much 
of this region tojnatoes may be set as late as June 1st. This gives oppor- 
tunity to grow a quick-maturing crop before the land is needed for tomatoes. 
If hay is needed crimson clover may be seeded in the fall and cut for hay 
the next spring, before the land is needed for tomatoes. Where canneries 
are available, early peas may be harvested before time to set tomatoes. 
This gives two crops in one season, both of which provide for the opera- 
tion of the cannery and prolong its season of activity. Crimson clover 
may be seeded in the tomatoes at the last cultivation, and growth turned 
under the following spring for the benefit of a succeeding crop. 

In this district a two-year rotation in which four crops are grown is 
found to be quite successful. Two of these are cash crops and two are 
renovating crops. The cash crops are corn and either potatoes or toma- 
toes. The renovating crops are crimson clover or soy beans or winter 
rye mixed with winter vetch. This makes the purchase of nitrogen in 
fertilizers unnecessary. Acid phosphate and potash are applied in moder- 
ate quantities and generally to the cash crops only. This system, without 
any manure and with the occasional use of lime, maintains the fertility 

of the soil. 

In portions of Ohio and Indiana a three-year rotation of corn, wheat 
and clover is common. One strong point in this rotation is that one plow- 
ing answers for three crops. When the clover sod is plowed for corn in 
the spring the ground breaks up easily and makes an ideal seed-bed for 
corn. The cultivation given the corn provides a good seed-bed for 
wheat with no other preparation than thorough disking and harrowing 
of the corn stubble. This, of course, necessitates a removal of the corn 
stalks sufficiently early to seed wheat. It is not applicable where the 
growing season is too short. This rotation not only economizes m labor 
as above suggested, but makes a good distribution of labor. Further- 
more, it provides for rather continuous occupation of the soil. If the sod 
devoted to corn is not plowed until spring and corn is followed by fall 
seeding of wheat in which grass and clover is seeded, the soil will be subject 
to erosion only during the time it is in corn. Erosion in this case may 
take place in times of heavy rains and on rolling land, by the water run- 
ning down the furrows between the corn rows. This may generally be 
overcome by having the rows and cultivation at right angles to the 

This is a fairly good rotation for the stockman and dairy farmer. 
Corn furnishes the material for the silo, while clover hay supplies the 
protein in which corn is deficient, thus giving a well-balanced ration. 
The wheat straw makes good bedding, while the wheat may be either sold 
or exchanged for concentrates. On farms having no permanent pasture 
the clover and timothy may be left for another year, cut once and pastured 
afterwards, or, if necessary, it may be pastured throughout the fourth 



^i 



174 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



year. If used for this purpose, both timothy and alsike clover should 
be seeded with the red clover. 

The following five- and six-year rotations have been. found successful 



iai4 Timothv 
1915 Corn 
1910 Oats 
1917 Wheat 
191S Clover 



1914 Clover 

1915 Timothy 

1916 Corn 

1917 Oats 

1918 Wheat 



3 1914 Wheat 

1915 Clover 

1916 Timothy 

1917 Corn 

1918 Oats 



1914 Oats 

1915 Wheat 

1916 Clover 

1917 Timothy 

1918 Corn 



Field. 



1—25 A 

2— 

3— 

4— 

5— 



n 
n 
II 
It 



5 1914 Corn 

1915 Oats 

1916 Wheat 

1917 Clover 

1918 Timothv 



. 




li 



A Five- Year Rotation. 



1914. 



Timothy 

Clover 

Wheat 

Oats 

Corn 



1915. 



1916. 



Corn 

Timothy 

Clover 

Wheat 

Oats 



Oats 

Corn 

Timothy 

Clover 

Wheat 



1917. 



Wheat 

Oats 

Corn 

Timothy 

Clover 



1918. 



Clover 

Wheat 

Oats 

Corn 

Timothy 



in the Great Plains area: (1) corn; wheat; brome-grass; brome-grass; 
oats, barley or emmer; (2) corn; wheat; brome-grass; brome-grass; 
brome-grass; oats, barley or emmer. In these rotations the wheat may 



THE ROTATION OF CROPS 



175 



be either winter or spring, and, furthermore, wheat may be substituted 
for any of the last-mentioned crops in either of the rotations. 

Space will not permit the enumeration of all the rotations that are 
possible. With a clear understanding of the underlying principles and a 
knowledge concerning the utilization and market value of the crops to be 
grown, any farmer jnay plan crop rotations best suited to his farm. 

Methods of Planning and Recording Rotations. — It is a principle 
that there should be as many fields as there are years and crops in the 
rotation, unless two crops can be harvested from the land in one year. 
It is also advisable that the fields be as nearly of equal size and produc- 
tivity as possible. This provides for uniformity in distribution of work 
from year to year, as well as in the utilization of the products. Where 
livestock dominates the type of farming, it will often be found advisable 
to adopt two rotations, one known as the major and the other as the 
minor rotation. The former will include the staple crops grown both 
for feed and market, while the latter provide soiling and annual pasture 
crops. In siich a scheme the minor rotation should be located near the 
farmstead where the small fields will be easily accessible. The tabulation 
on preceding page shows how a five-field rotation may be planned, and 
serves as a record of what has been and what will be in every field in any 
particular year. 

REFERENCES 

''Field Crops." W^ilson and War bur ton. 

"Soils and Fertilizers." Snyder, papjes 131-159. 

Minnesota Expt. Station Bulletin 109. ''Rotation of Crops." 

Ohio Experiment Station Bulletin 182. "Maintenance of Fertility." 

Rhode Island Expt. Station Bulletin 135. "Crop Rotations." 






M 










The Height of Stalks and Positions of Ears May be Greatly Changed 

BY Selection of Seed for these Characters.^ 



1 CJourtesy of Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 282, "Corn Experiments." 

(176) 



>->^-?SMWm^ 




'^**"**'*'**'^^^^ 




The Height of Stalks and Positions of Ears May be Greatly Changed 

BY Selection of Seed for these Characters.^ 



1 Courtesy of Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 282, "Corn Experiments." 

(176) 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURF 






o> 







^iJi^iio 



«>■ 



;i;i' 




^^ 



/ 



/ CO 






<o 





to 




"^^ 






•/.":',■;. 






K> 



. ■ »* »fi f I 4 I I » 



..^^1^.. 







CM 



.-/ --■... 



-^ - ♦^ >/■■ >. 






04 








C 





o o>^ 



-^ 



m 

I?: 



c 

-(-5 ^ 

O CO 

«l i 



O CO .*■• 



o 

b* ^ -^ "^ 

2 o 



(M 



A-G 



. C ^ 

=- c > 

* - o 

r^ i< I 

^--' c^ 

c 2-1 "^ S 
Clio 

"^ I 1. ^ 






CHAPTER 11 

Corn (Zea Maize) 

The average acre of corn produces more food value than an equal 
area of any other staple crop except potatoes. Corn has a longer season 
of growth than most other staple crops, and, consequently, it more fully 
utilizes the plant food that is made available by processes going on in 
the soil when reasonably warm and moist. It is adapted to a wide range 
of soil conditions. It fits well into the crop rotations without seriously 
competing with other crops for labor. It has a wide range of uses. The 
tillage which the crop receives leaves the soil in excellent condition for 
the crops which follow. 

Classification of Com.— There are six types of corn: dent, flint, 
sweet, pop, soft and pod. The first four only are of importance in 
America. Fully 90 per cent of the corn grown in North America is of the 
dent type. There are several hundred varieties of dent corn and a score 
or more varieties of flint corn. The types are classified according to color 
and size. Dent corn is divided into three classes with reference to size 
and time of maturity, namely: early, medium and late maturing varieties. 
It is also divided according to color into yellow dent, white dent, white 
cap yellow dent and mixed dent varieties. 

Varieties of Com. — Of the several hundred varieties of dent corn, 
comparatively few are worthy of cultivation in any particular locality; 
and yet one often finds many varieties within a restricted area. Where 
soil conditions are uniform over several counties, one or two varieties 
may be found best suited to the whole of the area. 

Corn is a very minor crop in Canada, the most of it being grown in 
the Province of Ontario. Flint is the prevailing type. In the north- 
eastern part of the United States, including New England, New York, 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey, varieties of flint corn are extensively grown 
on the higher elevations and in the northernmost latitudes. Among the 
best known varieties of this class may be mentioned Longfellow, King 
Phillip, Smut Nose, Stickney^s Yellow, Taylor^s Improved Flint and 
Davis' Eight Rowed Flint. The prevailing varieties of dent corn in this 
section are Pride of the North, Early Huron Dent, Funk's 90 Day, 
Leaming and numerous strains of white cap dent, seldom having local 
names. 

In the typical corn belt of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri 

and eastern Kansas and Nebraska, the leading varieties are Reed's Yellow 

Dent, Funk's Yellow Dent, Leaming, Reilley's Favorite, Clarage, Hogue's 

Yellow Dent, Hildreth's Yellow Dent, Hiawatha Yellow Dent, Boone 

12 (177) 






o> 







Si 




(O 



X 





/ 



00 






<o 




•■■"■'•■■j^M/iii,. 




m 




'^Ai^^:^^ 






K) 



^ 



♦a » < « r ♦ 



• ♦. / "^ > ■. r ■ 



-i"^ 






CM 



I ' ' . 



J 



04 











i. 











I '-'^ 

br ^ 

bCo 

CD 



-^ 



o 
O 

o 

rr. 

a 
•-( 

^^ 

> 

o 



o 
O 

u 

:::2 -^ bO 



^fc.S 



03 



CO 



^'2 

a5 



-^H 



> 
o 

.- o 
>. I Q 



-9 X o 



(M 



O 
Ph 



P^ 



S?i> 



. c ^^ 

c ^ -^ -^ 

C i/ -- 'O 









CHAPTER 11 

Corn (Zea Maize) 

The average acre of corn produces more food value than an equal 
area of any other staple crop except potatoes. Corn has a longer season 
of growth than most other staple crops, and, consequently, it more fully 
utilizes the plant food that is made available by processes going on in 
the soil when reasonably warm and moist. It is adapted to a wide range 
of soil conditions. It fits well into the crop rotations without seriously 
competing with other crops for labor. It has a wide range of uses. The 
tillage which the crop receives leaves the soil in excellent condition for 
the crops which follow. 

Classification of Com.— There are six types of corn: dent, flint, 
sweet, pop, soft and pod. The first four only are of importance in 
America. Fully 90 per cent of the corn grown in North America is of the 
dent type. There are several hundred varieties of dent corn and a score 
or more varieties of flint corn. The types are classified according to color 
and size. Dent corn is divided into three classes with reference to size 
and time of maturity, namely: early, medium and late maturing varieties. 
It is also divided according to color into yellow dent, white dent, white 
cap yellow dent and mixed dent varieties. 

Varieties of Com. — Of the several hundred varieties of dent corn, 
comparatively few are worthy of cultivation in any particular locality; 
and yet one often finds many varieties within a restricted area. Where 
soil conditions are uniform over several counties, one or two varieties 
may be found best suited to the whole of the area. 

Corn is a very minor crop in Canada, the most of it being grown in 
the Province of Ontario. Flint is the prevailing type. In the north- 
eastern part of the United States, including New England, New York, 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey, varieties of flint corn are extensively grown 
on the higher elevations and in the northernmost latitudes. Among the 
best known varieties of this class may be mentioned Longfellow, King 
Phillip, Smut Nose, Stickney^s Yellow, Taylor^s Improved Flint and 
Davis' Eight Rowed Flint. The prevailing varieties of dent corn in this 
section are Pride of the North, Early Huron Dent, Funk's 90 Day, 
I^aming and numerous strains of white cap dent, seldom having local 
names. 

In the typical corn belt of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri 

and eastern Kansas and Nebraska, the leading varieties are Reed's Yellow 

Dent, Funk's Yellow Dent, Leaming, Reilley's Favorite, Clarage, Hogue's 

Yellow Dent, Hildreth's Yellow Dent, Hiawatha Yellow Dent, Boone 

12 - (177) 



8 



'V!as 



COLOR PT.ATF 






r 

I 



[ 






O) 




/ 



CO 





(O 



••» 




CO 






... . #*'#• 



1/ '« H4m 

*fi I * # 1 1 * 

♦f 1. r ' 



. ^..■*»M'■*-^M•-Vl<•^•K» i*r-*« • 



-n. 



i to 



i 



y 



o^ 







!^I T?i!yC" . > i4.»»i-'*' 




/ 









. -ij'^-; 


















O o^ 

t: bc o 

o :3s 
§-§ I 






O CO .^ 



ss 



- .t:; c-i -t-» 



CI 






^ -r •^ O 



X - ^ — 



CHAPTER 11 

Corn (Zea Maize) 

The average acre of corn produces more food value than an equal 
area of any other staple crop except potatoes. Corn has a longer season 
of growth than most other staple crops, and, consequently, it more fully 
utilizes the plant food that is made available by processes going on in 
the soil when reasonably warm and moist. It is adapted to a wide range 
of soil conditions. It fits well into the crop rotations without seriously 
competing with other crops for labor. It has a wide range of uses. The 
tillage which the crop receives leaves the soil in excellent condition for 
the crops which follow. 

Classification of Com.— There are six types of corn: dent, flint, 
sweet, pop, soft and pod. The first four only are of importance in 
America. Fully 90 per cent of the corn grown in North America is of the 
dent type. There are several hundred varieties of dent corn and a score 
or more varieties of flint corn. The types are classified according to color 
and size. Dent corn is divided into three classes with reference to size 
and time of maturity, namely: early, medium and late maturing varieties. 
It is also divided according to color into yellow dent, white dent, white 
cap yellow dent and mixed dent varieties. 

Varieties of Com. — Of the several hundred varieties of dent corn, 
comparatively few are worthy of cultivation in any particular locality; 
and yet one often finds many varieties within a restricted area. Where 
soil conditions are uniform over several counties, one or two varieties 
may be found best suited to the whole of the area. 

Corn is a very minor crop in Canada, the most of it being grown in 
the Province of Ontario. Flint is the prevailing type. In the north- 
eastern part of the United States, including New England, New York, 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey, varieties of flint corn are extensively grown 
on the higher elevations and in the northernmost latitudes. Among the 
best known varieties of this class may be mentioned Longfellow, King 
Phillip, Smut Nose, Stickney^s Yellow, Taylor^s Improved Flint and 
Davis' Eight Rowed Flint. The prevailing varieties of dent corn in this 
section are Pride of the North, Early Huron Dent, Funk's 90 Day, 
Leaming and numerous strains of white cap dent, seldom having local 
names. 

In the typical corn belt of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri 

and eastern Kansas and Nebraska, the leading varieties are Reed's Yellow 

Dent, Funk's Yellow Dent, Leaming, Reilley's Favorite, Clarage, Hogue's 

Yellow Dent, Hildreth's Yellow Dent, Hiawatha Yellow Dent, Boone 

12 (177) 



I 






178 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



CORN 



179 



County White, Johnson County White, Silver Mine, St. Charles White 
and Kansas Sunflower. 

In the Southern states we have among the large-eared varieties: 
Huffman, Excelsior, Chisholm, McMacnin's Gourdseed, St. Charles 
White, Boone County White, Ilockdale, Singleton and Ferguson's Yellow 
Dent. Among the two-eared varieties may be mentioned Lewis' Prolific, 
Hickory King and NeaFs Paymaster. Prolific varieties, producing two 
or more ears to a stalk, are Cocke's, Albemarle, Whatley's, Mosby's, 
Hasting's, Marlborough and Batts'. 

In the northern portion of the corn belt, including the states of 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, the Dakotas and the northern portions 
of Illinois and Iowa, the most common varieties are Silver King, Pride of 
the North, Wisconsin No. 7, Murdock, Wimple's Yellow Dent, Pickett's 
Yellow Dent and Golden Eagle. 

The best variety for any locality can be determined only by local 
variety tests. Such tests have been conducted in many counties through 
the effort of the local organizations in co-operation with the state experi- 
ment stations. The results for such tests for sixteen counties in Iowa for 
the year 1911 are given in the following table: 

Variety Test, 1911. 
Average of Sixteen Counties in Iowa. 



Farmer's variety test. . . . . 
One-tenth highest yielding 
One-tenth lowest yielding. 

Imported seed 

Seed-house seed 



Number 

of 
Samples. 



966 

97 

97 

128 

190 



Yield 

per Acre, 

bushels. 



Standing, 
October, 
per cent. 



Strong, 
per cent. 



Weak, 
per cent. 



54.3 
62 . 
44.5 
53.0 
49.5 



78.0 
81.5 
71.0 
81.5 
72.0 



78.1 
80.5 
73.5 
67.0 
61.5 



r 



14.6 
14.5 
15.0 
27 . 
26.5 



Dead, 
per cent. 



7.3 
5.0 

11.5 
6.0 

12.0 



Barren, 
per cent. 



5.2 
4.4 
6.1 
5.9 
4.6 



Individual Ear Test, 1911. 

Average of Sixteen Counties in Iowa. 



Individual ears 

One-fourth highest yielding 
One-fourth lowest yielding 



Number 

of 
Samples. 



1,440 
360 
360 



Yield j Standing, 
per Acre, October, 



bushels. 



53.5 
62.0 
43.5 



per cent. 



78.5 
83.0 
71.5 



Strong, 
per cent. 



83.5 

85.5 
77.5 



Weak, 
per cent. 



11.5 
11.5 
11.5 



Dead, 
per cent. 



5.0 

3.0 

11.0 



Barren, 
per cent. 



5.7 
4.5 
7.6 



The large number of samples tested and the average results secured 
make conclusions relative to the differences found in yield and other 
qualities rather definite. It will be noted that one-tenth of the samples 
giving highest yields averaged 62 bushels per acre, while one-tenth of 



the samples giving lowest yields average 44.5 bushels per acre, or only 
about two-thirds as much as the best yielding samples. Note also that 
over 100 samples of imported seed averaged less per acre than did nearly 
1000 samples of home-grown seed. Likewise, the 360 ear-to-row tests 
giving the highest yields were no better than the best one-tenth of the 
larger samples tested.* One-fourth of the ear-to-row samples giving the 
lowest yield averaged a little more than two-thirds as much as the one- 
fourth giving the highest yields. The results show wide differences and 
emphasize the importance of the farmer selecting for his soil and locality 
the variety that will do best. Such selection will evidently make a great 
difference in the total yield of corn on a given acreage. 




Corn Acreage by States, 1915, 
(Three ciphers omitted.) 

The Chief Corn-Growing States. — In order of their respective pro- 
duction, they are Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Indiana, Kansas, 
Ohio, Texas, Oklahoma and Kentucky. These ten states produce a little 
more than 70 per cent of all the corn produced in the United States. 
More than 80 per cent of the corn produced in the United States is con- 
sumed within the counties in which it is grown. The great use of corn 
is as a feed for livestock. There are a few counties, especially in the 
State of Illinois, where a considerable portion of the corn is marketed and 
goes outside of the counties in which it is produced. 

North America produces three-quarters of the work^s corn, nearly 
all of which is produced within the borders of the United States. Of the 



180 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



remaining one-quarter of the world^s production, Europe produces about 
two-thirds and South America and Australia the remainder. 

Soil and Climatic Adaptation.— Corn is best adapted to well-dramed 
soils that are deep, loamy and warm. Large yields demand a high-water 
capacity of the soil and this is materially increased by deep dramage, 
deep plowing and organic matter. Corn requires a growmg season rang- 
ing from 100 to 170 days, through which period the temperature should 
be high and accompanied by warm rains. An abundance of ramfal 
properly distributed is essential. In the typical corn belt the rainfall 
during July and August is most important, and the yield of corn is deter- 
mined to a considerable extent by the rain during these two months. 




Chart Showing How Closely Corn Yield Follows Amount op Rainfall. 

The accompanying chart shows the average yield of corn for a period of 
fifteen years, together with the July precipitation for the same years. 
There is a fairly close correlation between July rainfall and the average 

vield of corn. 

It is not profitable to grow corn on very poor land. The nature 
of the corn plant is such that it will not produce grain unless the soil is 
sufficiently rich to afford considerable growth of stalk. In general, the 
richer the soil the heavier will be the yield of grain. Some other crops 
will produce fair yields on soil too poor to produce corn. 

Crop Rotation for Corn. — Corn cannot be grown continuously on the 
same soil without diminished yields. A rotation of crops is, therefore, 
essential. In this rotation should occur at least one leguminous crop. 



CORN 



181 



East of the Mississippi River and north of Mason and Dixon's Line, 
common red clover is best suited for this purpose. Alfalfa, crimson clover 
and alsike clover may be substituted for it under certain conditions. Over 
a considerable portion of this region the most usual rotation is corn, oats, 
wheat, and clover and timothy. This provides for a rotation ranging 
from four to seven years, depending on the length of time the land is 
left in grass and whether or not corn is grown more than one year in the 
rotation. In this rotation the corn should follow the sod on which may 
be scattered the manure prior to plowing. No other crop is better adapted 
to utilize the available nitrogen and mineral constituents that are slowly 
brought into a state of availability through decomposition of the roots, 
stubble and manure. 

On fertile soils in a high state of cultivation corn may be grown two 
years in succession. This will require sufficient manure to apply on the 
corn land two years in succession, or will demand an application of com- 
mercial fertilizers for the second year's crop. 

In the South the crops associated with corn in the rotation are quite 
different. In most cases cotton is the chief money erop; cowpeas and 
soy beans are the chief legumes; and winter oats is the principal small 
grain. The rotation frequently consists of cotton followed by cotton, 
with cowpeas planted between the cotton rows. The third year the land 
is planted in corn and seeded to winter oats after the corn has been removed. 
After the oats are harvested in the fourth year the land is broadcasted with 
cowpeas, and these harvested for hay. This rotation has proven successful 
in many parts of the cotton belt. 

Many of the experiment stations have tested different rotations. 
The following tabulation gives the average results with corn in two rota- 
tions covering a period of more than twenty years at the Ohio Experiment 
Station : 

Continuous vs. Rotation Corn. Twenty Years* Work. 



System. 



Treatment. 



Continuous . . 
Rotation*, . . 

Continuous. . 
Rotation*. . . 



Continuous 
Rotation*. . 



Rotation t 
Rotation! 



None, 
None 



Manure 
Manure 



Com. fert. . . 
Com. fert. . . 



Manure 
None . . 



Application 
per Acre. 



Per Crop. 



Per 5 Years. 



5 tons 
8 tons 

250 lbs. 
320 lbs. 



25 tons 
16 tons 

1250 lbs. 
985 lbs. 



Average Yield per Acre, 
bushels. 



Ist 
Period. 



2d 
Period. 



26.26 16.76 
31.89 30.82 

43.131 40.11 
40.73 49.52 



38.86 
35.78 



39.09 
49.54 



3d 

Period. 



10.43 
31.04 

34.62 
59.75 

28.00 
53.91 



4th 
Period, 



8.44 
20.31 

30.22 
55.83 

26.83 
44.10 



8 tons once in 3 years on corn. 
Average of 8 unfertilized plots. 



Aver- 
age 
Yield 

for 

20 
Years. 



15.47 
28.95 

37.02 
51.81 

33.19 
46.49 

60.20t 
35.19t 



♦ Five-year rotation. t Three-year rotation. t Average for 17 years. 



182 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



CORN 



183 



It will be noted that where corn was grown continuously the yields 
have declined regardless of the character of the manure or fertilizer 
applied, whereas corn grown in a rotation has increased decidedly in yield 
when either manure or fertilizers have been used. 

Plowing for Com.— Plowing for corn may be done either m the fall, 
winter or spring. In many sections of the country fall plowing gives better 
results than spring plowing. The difference, however, is not sufficient to 
justify the advice that fall plowing should be universal. Every acre that 
is plowed in the fall or winter facilitates getting crops in the ground at 
the proper season in the spring. Deep plowing for corn deposits the 
trash and manure to a greater depth and induces the roots to go deeper 
into the soil, thus coming into contact with more plant food and soil 
moisture from which to draw nourishment. Deep plowing enables the 
soil to absorb a larger proportion of the rainfall, thus increasing its capacity 
for water. The further preparation of the seed-bed by disking and har- 
rowing should leave it in a loose, friable condition to a considerable depth. 
Such a seed-bed is in marked contrast to the compact and finely pulver- 
ized one that is essential to wheat. 

Manures and Fertilizers for Com.— The amount and character ot 
fertilizer for corn varies greatly in different localities, depending on the 
character of soil, length of time it has been in cultivation, and the rota- 
tion of crops. No definite formula is applicable to any very large terri- 
tory. As a rule, no crop makes better use of barnyard manure than corn. 
Six to ten tons of stable manure to an acre of grass sod is generally suf- 
ficient. In growing corn, all of the nitrogen needed should be secured 
from the manure and leguminous crops that enter into the rotation. On 
soils not in a high state of fertility, the manure may be supplemented by 
about 200 pounds per acre of acid phosphate. In portions of Indiana, 
Illinois and Iowa, rock phosphate may be advantageously substituted for 
acid phosphate. On sandy soils and on swampy soils some potash may be 

advantageously used. 

In the absence of barnyard manure good corn crops may be secured 
by the liberal use of a complete fertilizer in which phosphoric acid is the 
dominant ingredient. The amount of such fertilizer and its exact com- 
position will depend on the character and condition of the soil in question. 
The average composition of such a fertilizer would be from 2 to 3 per 
cent of nitrogen, 7 to 10 per cent of phosphoric acid and 3 to 6 per cent 
of potash. The amount to use will range from 100 to 500 pounds per 
acre depending on location. The character of fertilizer and the amount 
required can best be ascertained by actual test. In general, applications 
of less than 200 pounds may l)e applied through the fertilizer attachment 
to the corn planter. Where large amounts are used, it is best to distribute 
it throughout the soil before planting the corn. 

Experiments that have been in progress for twenty years at the Ohio 
Experiment Statign emphasize the importance of phosphorus m corn 




Time of Planting, April 29th. ^ 

production. A series of plats which received nothing save 320 pounds of 
acid phosphate per acre during each five-year rotation showed an increase 
in the yield of the several crops valued at $16.52 per acre. The acid 
phosphate cost $2.24, thus leaving a net gain of $14.28. 

The addition of phosphorus to manure also increased the yield very 
materially. 

Time and Method of Planting. — The time of planting com varies 
with the location and character of season. It is never advisable to plant 
until the soil is sufficiently warm to cause a prompt germination of the 




Time op Planting, May 7th. ^ 



1 Ck)urtesy of Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 282, *'Corn Experiments." 






182 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



CORN 



183 



It will be noted that where corn was grown continuously the yields 
have declined regardless of the character of the manure or fertilizer 
appHed, whereas corn grown in a rotation has increased decidedly in yield 
when either manure or fertilizers have been used. 

Plowing for Corn.— Plowing for corn may be done either m the fall, 
winter or spring. In many sections of the country fall plowing gives better 
results than spring plowing. The difference, however, is not sufficient to 
justify the advice that fall plowing should be universal. Every acre that 
is plowed in the fall or winter facilitates getting crops in the ground at 
the proper season in the spring. Deep plowing for corn deposits the 
trash and manure to a greater depth and induces the roots to go deeper 
into the soil, thus coming into contact with more plant food and soil 
moisture from which to draw nourishment. Deep plowing enables the 
soil to absorb a larger proportion of the rainfall, thus increasing its capacity 
for water. The further preparation of the seed-bed by disking and har- 
rowing should leave it in a loose, friable condition to a considerable depth. 
Such a seed-bed is in marked contrast to the compact and finely pulver- 
ized one that is essential to wheat. . n 
Manures and FertUizers for Com.— The amount and character ot 
fertilizer for corn varies greatly in different localities, depending on the 
character of soil, length of time it has been in cultivation, and the rota- 
tion of crops. No definite formula is applicable to any very large terri- 
tory. As a rule, no crop makes better use of barnyard manure than corn. 
Six to ten tons of stable manure to an acre of grass sod is generally suf- 
ficient. In growing corn, all of the nitrogen needed should be secured 
from the manure and leguminous crops that enter into the rotation. On 
soils not in a high state of fertility, the manure may be supplemented by 
about 200 pounds per acre of acid phosphate. In portions of Indiana, 
Illinois and Iowa, rock phosphate may be advantageously substituted for 
acid phosphate. On sandy soils and on swampy soils some potash may be 

advantageously used. 

In the al^sence of barnyard manure good corn crops may be secured 
by the liberal use of a complete fertilizer in which phosphoric acid is the 
dominant ingredient. The amount of such fertilizer and its exact com- 
position will depend on the character and condition of the soil in question. 
The average composition of such a fertilizer would ))e from 2 to 3 per 
cent of nitrogen, 7 to 10 per cent of phosphoric acid and 3 to 6 per cent 
of potash. The amount to use will range from 100 to 500 pounds per 
acre, depending on location. The character of fertilizer and the amount 
required can Ix^st be ascertainc^d ])y actual test. In general, applications 
of less than 200 pounds may ))e applied through the fertilizer attachment 
to the corn planter. WIktc large amounts are used, it is best to distribute 
it throughout the soil before planting the corn. 

Experiments that have been in progress for twenty years at the Ohio 
Experiment Statign emphasize the importance of phosphorus in corn 



\'t 




Time of Planting, April 29th.* 

• 

production. A series of plats which received nothing save 320 pounds of 
acid phosphate per acre during each five-year rotation showed an increase 
in the yield of the several crops valued at $16.52 per acre. The acid 
phosphate cost $2.24, thus leaving a net gain of $14.28. 

The addition of phosphorus to manure also increased the yield very 
materially. 

Time and Method of Planting. — The time of planting corn varies 
with the location and character of season. It is never advisable to plant 
until the soil is sufficiently warm to cause a prompt germination of the 




Time op Planting, May 7th.^ 



1 CJourtesy of Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 282, "Corn Experinaents.' 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 









,*,!;•■». v'v 






micM, 



I 



* 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 




Time of Planting, May 16th.' 

seed The best of seed* will often rot in a cold, wet seed-bed. In the 
United States the corn planting season from the Guf northward ranges 
from the 15th of February until June 1st, a period of three and oi^e-half 
months. In the heart of the typical com belt corn is generally planted 
Seen the 1st and 10th of May, while in the northernmost limit of su - 
cessful corn production, the planting season ranges from the 15th to 31st 
of May In any localiW the best time to plant wil not be far from the 
Jhne when the leaves of the oak trees are the size of a sqmrrel s ear. If 
se^^al conditions retard the work and necessitate planting two weeks 




Time of Planting, May 2ryrH.» 

. Courtesy o "f Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin 282. "Com Experiments. 



CORN 



185 



later than the best time, it will be wise throughout most of the typical 
corn belt, and especially in the northernmost districts, to resort to 
varieties of corn of earlier maturity than those generally grown in the 
locality. In the Southern states the season is so long that there is a 
much wider range in. the planting period. A uniform stand of vigorous 
plants is most easily secured by deferring planting until the soil is in the 
proper moisture and temperature condition. 

Several of the state experiment stations have conducted tests extend- 
ing over a number of years relative to the best time to plant corn. As 
an average of six years' work at the Ohio Experiment Station there was 
little difference in yield in planting any time between the 1st and 20th 
of May. For dates much later than the 20th there was a marked reduc- 
tion in yield. Planting in the last week in April was nearly as good as 




Time of Planting, June 6th.* 

planting between the 1st and 20th of May. It is better to plant too early 
than to plant too late. Failure in case of early planting may be corrected 
by replanting, but there is no remedial measure for a planting that is 

made too late. 

Rate of Planting. — A full stand of corn is essential. The number of 
plants per acre will vary with the fertility of the soil, the kind of corn 
and the purpose for which it is grown. Fertile soils will support more 
plants per acre than poor ones. Small varieties may be more thickly 
planted than large ones, and an abundant moisture supply in the soil 
will mature more plants than when dry. When planted for grain, 10,000 
to 12,000 plants per acre are probably best throughout the greater portion 
of the corn belt. In the South, on thinner soils, fewer plants are often 
desirable. If grown largely for fodder or ensilage, corn may be planted 
one-quarter thicker than when grown for grain. 

I Courtesy of Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station , Bulletin 282, "Com Experiments." 









4 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 




Time of Planting, May IGth.^ 

seed The best of seed' will often rot in a cold, wet seed-bed. In the 
United States the corn planting season from the Guf northward ranges 
from the 15th of February until June 1st, a period of three and one-half 
months. In the heart of the typical corn belt corn is generally plan ed 
between the 1st and 10th of May, while in the northernmost limit of suc- 
cessful corn production, the planting season ranges from the 15th to dlst 
ofMay In any locality the best time to plant wil not be far from the 
time when the leaves of the oak trees are the size of a squirrel s ear. If 
seasonal conditions retard the work and necessitate planting two weeks 




CORN 



185 



later than the best time, it will be wise throughout most of the typical 
corn belt, and especially in the northernmost districts, to resort to 
varieties of corn of earlier maturity than those generally grown in the 
locality. In the Southern states the season is so long that there is a 
much wider range in the planting period. A uniform stand of vigorous 
plants is most easily secured by deferring planting until the soil is in the 
proper moisture and temperature condition. 

Several of the state experiment stations have conducted tests extend- 
ing over a number of years relative to the best time to plant corn. As 
an average of six years' work at the Ohio Experiment Station there was 
little difference in yield in planting any time between the 1st and 20th 
of May. For dates much later than the 20th there was a marked reduc- 
tion in yield. Planting in the last week in April was nearly as good as 




Time of Planting, May 20th.i 

a Courtesy o "( Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin 282. "00™ Experiments. 



Time of Planting, June 6th.* 

planting between the 1st and 20th of May. It is better to plant too early 
than to plant too late. Failure in case of early planting may be corrected 
by replanting, but there is no remedial measure for a planting that is 

made too late. 

Rate of Planting. — A full stand of corn is essential. The number of 
plants per acre will vary with the fertility of the soil, the kind of corn 
and the purpose for which it is grown. Fertile soils will support more 
plants per acre than poor ones. Small varieties may be more thickly 
planted than large ones, and an abundant moisture supply in the soil 
will mature more plants than when dry. When planted for grain, 10,000 
to 12,000 plants per acre are probably best throughout the greater portion 
of the corn belt. In the South, on thinner soils, fewer plants are often 
desirable. If grown largely for fodder or ensilage, corn may be planted 
one-quarter thicker than when grown for grain. 

I Courtesy of Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station , Bulletin 282, "Corn Experiments." 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 






180 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Numerous experiments indicate that there is Uttle difference within 
a reasonable range whether corn is planted in hills or drills. When 
planted in checks three kernels per hill, 3 feet 8 inches apart, an acre will 
contain 9720 plants. When planted in drills with the rows 3 feet 8 inches 
apart and one plant every 14 inches in the rows, an acre will contain 10,180 
plants. Drilling is somewhat easier and safer on small, irregular fields 
and on land that is of uneven topography, and is preferable on most lands 
that are reasonably free of weeds. On badly weed-infested land checkmg 
the corn is recommended, because of the better facilities offered for culti- 
vation and weed extermination. 

On the better lands in the corn belt there has been a tendency m 
recent years to lessen the distance between hills, and in many districts 
40 inches is now the common planting distance. 

At the Ohio Experiment Station the average annual yield per acre 
for a period of ten years when corn was planted at the rate of 1, 2, 3, 4 
and 5 kernels per hill, with hills 42 inches apart, the largest yield was 
secured from 4 kernels. The yields were as follows: 1 kernel, 31.7 bushels; 
2 kernels, 50.8 bushels; 3 kernels, 60.8 bushels; 4 kernels, 64.9 bushels, 
and 5 kernels, 63 bushels per acre. The yield of stover was largest m 
case of 5 kernels per hill. The reduced size of ears ond the increased 
labor in husking are such as to indicate 3 kernels per hill as the best rate 
of planting when grown for grain. 

In regions of abundant rainfall corn is planted on the level, but m 
regions of low rainfall it is frequently planted in furrows by what is 
known as listing. This encourages a deeper rooting of the plants, which 
protects them from severe droughts. 

Depth of Planting.— The depth at which to plant corn will vary 
with the character and condition of the soil and the nature of the season. 
In loose, loamy soils the depth may safely be 3 inches, and in the absence 
of sufficient moisture near the surface 4 inches in depth may be justified. 
On wet, heavy soils H inches to 2 inches will be better than to plant 
deeper. ' No matter at what depth corn is planted, the permanent roots 
start at a point about one inch beneath the surface of the soil. The depth 
of rooting is not influenced by the depth of planting, unless the depth is 

less than one inch. 

Preparation of Seed for Planting.— Before shelling com for planting 
it is important to remove all irregular kernels from the butts and tips of 
ears. Such kernels will not pass through the corn-planter with uniformity. 
Before being shelled the ears should be assorted into two or three lots, 
according to the size of kernels, and the shelled com from each lot kept 
separate so that the planter plates may be adjusted to each size The 
same results may be secured by the use of a seed-corn grader, of which 
there are several kinds on the market. 

The planter should be carefully adjusted to each lot of seed. A 
poorly adjusted machine may offset the advantages derived from the 



■??■ 



CORN 



187 



THE LAST CULTIVATION 
SHOULD BE SHALLOW 



DEEP CULTIVATION 

EARLY IN THE SEASON 
SAVES THE MOISTURE 



SHALLOW CULTIVATION 
LATE IN THE SEASON 
SAVES THE CORN ROOTS 



carefully selected and graded seed. An actual count of the number of 
missing hills or plants on an acre would prove to the grower his loss 
through imperfect planting. Extensive investigations over large areas 
have shown that in certain years farmers secured not more than three- 
quarters of the full stand. If 75 per cent of a full stand produces 40 
bushels to the acre, what will 95 per cent of a full stand produce? 

Cultivation of Cora. — It is a trite saying that the cultivation of corn 
should begin before it is planted. This means that the final preparation 
of the seed-bed should take place just before planting, in order that all 
weeds that have just 
begun to grow will be 
destroyed. In the ab- 
sence of such prepara- 
tion weeds that have 
started will make so 
much growth before 
the corn comes up that 
it will make the first 
cultivation difficult. 
Small corn may be 
harrowed with a slant- 
toothed smoothing 
harrow without in j ury . 
A thorough harrowing 
at such a time will 
destroy many weeds 
that are beginning to 
grow, and is equally 
as effective as one good 
cultivation, and much 
more quickly done. 

The chief objects 
of cultivation are : (1) 

to destroy weeds, (2) . . 

conserve moisture, (3) aerate the soil, and (4) increase the absorption of 
rainfall by keeping the surface loose. Under most conditions level and shal- 
low cultivation is superior to deep cultivation and the ridging of the soil. 
Deep cultivation cuts many of the corn roots, thus reducing the ability 
of the plants to secure both plant food and moisture. In general, the 
first cultivation may be fairly deep, thus inducing a deeper rooting of 
the corn plants, after which shallower cultivation should take place which 
will interfere but little with the roots. One hundred and sixteen tests 
at thirteen experiment stations relative to the depth of cultivation for 










e. 



5-t; 



The Right and Wrong Way of Cultivating Corn.i 



1 Cmirtpay of The International Harvester Company, Agricultural Extension Department, 
pamphlet •'Corn is King." 



From 



\ 



i^M^^iM':^ 



CORN 



189 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



188 ^ 

corn show a difference of more than 15 per cent in yield in favor of shallow 
cultivation. Sixty-one tests of deep cultivation gave an average yield of 
64.9 bushels per acre, while 55 tests of shallow cultivation gave an aver- 
age yield of 74.7 bushels, a difference of nearly 10 bushels per acre. One 
to two inches is considered shallow cultivation and four to five inches 

"^^'SleqlTncy of cultivation will depend chiefly on the surface con- 
dition of the soil and the presence of weeds. In the absence of weeds 
and Uh the surface soil in a loose condition, little is to be gamed by 

*''' Me&ods of Harvesting.-Throughout the typical corn belt a large 
proportion of the corn is harvested from the standing stalks in the field 
and the stalks are pastured or allowed to go to waste. This method 
fails to fully utilize the by-products of corn production, and is wasteful in 




Several Forms op Husking Pegs' 



the extreme. In the eastern part of the United States the whole plant 
sgenerX harvested and utilized. When com is grown for ceding 
daifv cows or steers the fullest utilization of the entire product is attained 
by sS in the silo. For this purpose it should be cut when the kemds 
have beg^n to glaze and the husks and lower leaves are turning brown. 
When S to be used for silage, corn should be put.in shocks at a some- 
what more advanced stage of maturity. Three to four hundred stalks 
make a shock sufficiently large to stand well and cure properly. The com 
Siould be husked in three to six weeks after shocking, the ears stored in 
: ^dl-ventilated crib, and the stover re.hocked. C-e f -Id be exerci^d 
to so stand and slant the stover that the shocks will stand. They should 
V^ securely tied about two feet from the tops with strong ^^'^der twme 
Tt is a wSte of good material to allow the shocks to stand m the field 
until March or April. 



It is wise to feed stover during the winter period. Its feeding value 
may be increased by shredding. This encourages livestock to consume 
a larger proportion of the stalks. Fifty per cent of the feeding value of 
the corn stover lies in the portion of the stalk below the ear. When this 
is neither cut nor shredded very little of it is eaten by livestock. Shred- 
ding or cutting better fits the refuse for bedding purposes and facilitates 
the handling of the manure in which the refuse is finally deposited. 

In storing cut or shredded fodder one should be certain that it does 
not contain too much moisture. It should be reasonably dry when stored 
in large bulk in order to prevent heating and spoiling. It is well, there- 
fore, to shred when weather conditions are fairly dry, and not until the 
corn stover has become thoroughly cured. 

Shrinkage of Corn in Crib by Months. Average 8 Years, 

Iowa Experiment Station. 



Month. 



November 
December. 
January . . . 
February . 
March . . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . . . . 
September 
October . . . 



Total Shrinkage 
to Date, 
per cent. 



5.2 

6.9 

7.5 

7.8 

9.7 

12.8 

14.7 

16.3 

17.3 

17.8 

18.2 

18.2 



Average for 

the Month, 

per cent. 



5.2 

1.7 

.6 

.3 

1.9 

3.1 

1.9 

1.6 

1.0 

.5 

.4 

.0 



The cheapest method of harvesting corn is to pasture with hogs. 
This is known as hogging down corn. The results of a four years' test 
at the Missouri Experiment Station showed that hogging down corn gave 
a return of 324.5 pounds of pork per acre, which, at 6 cents per pound, was 
valued at $19.48. The average number of hogs per acre was 14, and the 
number of days kept in the field was 35. This was on poor land and with 
corn yielding 25 to 30 bushels per acre. 

Storing Com. — The grain of corn is best stored for a time on the ear 
in a well-ventilated crib or building. Corn cribs of slatted sides with 
openings just small enough to prevent ears passing through are almost 
universally used for this purpose. They should be covered with roofs 
projecting some distance beyond the sides, and turn water without leaking. 
Cribs should be on elevated foundations, preferably of masonry or concrete. 
For the ideal crib, see Chapter 57. All precaution must be taken to 
prevent serious loss by rats and mice. Corn should not be put in the 



"i From Farmers' BuUetin 313, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



WT 






CORN 



189 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



188 

corn show a difference of more than 15 per cent in yield in favor of shallow 
cultivation. Sixty-one tests of deep cultivation gave an average yield of 
64 9 bushels per acre, while 55 tests of shallow cultivation gave an aver- 
age 4ld of 74.7 bushels, a difference of nearly 10 bushels per acre. One 
S two inches is considered shallow cultivation and four to five inches 

'^"^'Seque'cy of cultivation will depend chiefly on the surface con- 
dition of the soil and the presence of weeds. In the absence of weeds 
and with the surface soil in a loose condition, little is to be gained by 

'''^* M*eS>ds of Harvesting.-Throughout the typical com belt a large 
proportion of the corn is harvested from the standing f^^^s in the field 
and the stalks are pastured or allowed to g« *« /^^t^' :rhj rneM 
fails to fully utilize the by-products of corn production, and is wasteful in 




Several Forms op Husking Pegs.' 



the extreme. In the eastern part of the United States the whole plant 
generllTy harvested and utilized. When corn is grown for ceding 
dai?v cows or steers the fullest utilization of the entire product is attained 
by stor^g in the silo. For this purpose it should be cut when the kernds 
have begun to glaze and the husks and lower leaves are turning brown. 
When nS to be used for silage, corn should be put in shocks at a some- 
what mo e advanced stage of maturity. Three to four hundred stal^ 
rn.,te n shock sufficiently large to stand well and cure properly. The corn 
Tou d be huske? n thfee to six weeks after shocking, the ears stored in 
a Se 1-ventilated crib, and the stover reshocked. Care f jld be e.erc.^d 
to so stand and slant the stover that the shocks will stand. They should 
£ securely 'S about two feet from the tops with strong binder U.ne 
K isa ie of good material to allow the shocks to stand in the field 
until March or April. 



It is wise to feed stover during the winter period. Its feeding value 
may be increased by shredding. This encourages hvestock to consume 
a larger proportion of the stalks. Fifty per cent of the feeding value of 
the corn stover lies in the portion of the stalk below the ear. When this 
is neither cut nor shredded very little of it is eaten by livestock. Shred- 
ding or cutting better fits the refuse for bedding purposes and facilitates 
the handling of the manure in which the refuse is finally deposited. 

In storing cut or shredded fodder one should be certain that it does 
not contain too much moisture. It should be reasonably dry when stored 
in large bulk in order to prevent heating and spoiling. It is well, there- 
fore, to shred when weather conditions are fairly dry, and not until the 
corn stover has become thoroughly cured. 

Shrinkage of Corn in Crib by Months. Average 8 Years, 

lovvA Experiment Station. 



Month. 



Novcnihor 
Decernhpr. 
January. . . 
February. 
March. . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . . 
September 
October . . . 



Total ShrinkaRe 
to Date, 
per cent. 



Average for 

the Month, 

per cent. 




The cheapest method of harvesting corn is to pasture with hogs. 
This is known as hogging down corn. The results of a four years^ test 
at the Missouri Experiment Station showed that hogging down corn gave 
a return of 324.5 pounds of pork per acre, which, at 6 cents per pound, was 
valued at $19.48. The average number of hogs per acre was 14, and the 
number of days kept in the field was 35. This was on poor land and with 
corn yielding 25 to 30 bushels per acre. 

Storing Com. — The grain of corn is best stored for a time on the ear 
in a well-ventilated crib or building. Corn cribs of slatted sides with 
openings just small enough to prevent ears passing through are almost 
universally used for this purpose. They should be covered with roofs 
projecting some distance beyond the sides, and turn water without leaking. 
Cribs should be on elevated foundations, preferably of masonry or concrete. 
For the ideal crib, see Chapter 57. All precaution must be taken to 
prevent serious loss by rats and mice. Corn should not be put in the 



Ti^^^i^mers' Bulletin 313. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 






INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



190 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



crib until reasonably well cured. If very wet when cribbed it is likely 
to mould and decay. Ear corn at husking time will contain 15 to 40 per 
cent of moisture, depending on conditions. After standing for six months 
or more in the crib, the moisture, under normal conditions, will range 
from 10 to 12 per cent. After this time shrinkage from loss of moisture 

will be slight. , i • i f „ 

Shrinkage of Com.— A knowledge of the average shrinkage of com 
is important in connection with future prices, and should be taken into 
consideration by the farmer in connection with the holding of corn for a 
future market. The table on preceding page shows the average shrink- 
age of corn at the Iowa Experiment Station as determined for eight 

successive years. , c r^ t 

Market Grades of Com.— According to the act of Congress ot 
June 30, 1900, and March 4, 1913, the Secretary of Agriculture has 
fixed the following definite grades of grain, which went into eftect on 
July 1, 1914: 

Standard Grades of Corn and Specifications for Same. 



Grade and 

Cla.ssification: 

Wliito, Yellow 

and Mixed Corn. 



Moisture. 



No. 1 . 
No. 2. 
No. 3. 
No. 4. 
No. 5. 
No. (') 



14.0 
15.5 
17.5 
19.5 
21.5 
23.0 



Maximum 
PtTcentaKO 

of 

DamaRod 

Corn. 






Maximum Percentage 

of Foreign Material, 

Including Dirt, Cob, 

Other Grains, Finely 

Broken Corn, etc. 



to. 5 

tl. 

t3. 



1 

1 
2 
2 
3 
5 



Maximum Percentage 

of "Cracked" Corn, 

not Including Finely 

Broken Corn. (See 

General Rule 9.) 



2 
3 

4 
4 
5 

7 



;'^/;Sllt;:tt;n^^^ ^^l- to exceed the percentage indicated. 

••Sample"— StHj General Uule No. tor eainple grade. 

GENERAL RULES 

1 The corn in c'-a.U's No. 1 to No. .'), in.-lusivo, must, l)c sweet. 

•2 \\liite corn, all Kva.lcs, shall be at least OS ikt cent white. 

■i Y. nw ,.„ri all tirades, shall be at le:ust 05 per (-ent yellow. . .,,.,. 

t InxcX corn,' a K < es shall ineln.le corn of various colors not conuns witlnn the 

limits for color as provided for under white or yeUow corn. 
^ In Zlition to he various limits indicated, No. corn may be musty, sour and 

mav ate. in<- hide corn of inferior quality, such a.s immature and ba<lly W'stered 
fi All corn thitd'H-s not meet the re.iulrement.s of either of the six numerical erad^ 

6. All corn tliat, (KH snou pcroontace of moisture, damaRcd kernels, foreign 

by reason «fj^". ^f„\*^^?, ^ .rn tl. .^ is hot, h<'at-<lan.aged, fin-burnt, infe^sted 
"1 Hve w.:"il or Xrw^s^^^^ .listinctly low quality, shall be cla.s.scd aa 

7. In N^^^fl'amrs^ple gra<lo, reasons for so grading shall be stated on the inspector's 

S FinX* broken corn shall include all broken particles of corn that will pass through 
^- ^'a^rfotat^dTictal sieve with round holes A of an mch in diameter. 



CORN 



191 



9. '^Cracked" corn shall include all coarsely broken pieces of kernels that will pass 
through a perforated metal sieve with round holes \ of an inch in diameter, except 
that the finc^ly broken corn as provided under Rule No. 8 shaU not be considered 



as *'cnicked" corn. 



10 



It is understood tliat the damaged corn, the foreign material, including pieces 
of cob, dirt, finely broken corn, other grains, etc., and the coarsely broken or 
" cracked '[ corn, as provided for under the various grades shall be such as occur 
naturally in corn when handled under good commercial conditions. 
11. Moisture percentages, as provided for in these grade specifications, shall conform 
to results obtained by the standard method and tester as described in Circular 
No. 72, Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture. 

Composition and Feeding Value of Com, — The following is a com- 
pilation of American analyses of the grain of the three principal types 
of corn and the stalks of dent corn, under three conditions: 

Composition of Corn (Maize). 



Number of analyses 

Water 

Ash. . 

Protein (Nitrogen x 6.25) . 

Crude fiber 

Nitrogen-free extract . . . . 
Fat 



Grain. 



Silage. 



All 

Varieties. 



Dent. 



208 


1 


10 


9 


1 


5 


10 


5 


2 


1 


69 


6 


5 


4 



86. 
10.6 

1.5 
10.3 

2.2 
70.4 

5.0 



Flint. 



68 

11 

1 

10 
1 

70 
5 



3 
4 
5 
7 
1 




Sweet. 



Fresh. 



Fodder. 



Field 
Cured. 



26. 
8.8 
1.9 

11.6 

2.8 
66.8 

8.1 



99. 


35. 


79.1 


42.2 


1.4 


2.7 


1.7 


4.5 


6.0 


14.3 


11.1 


34.7 


0.8 


1.6 



Stover. 



Field 
Cured. 



60. 

40.1 
3.4 
3.8 

19.7 

31.9 
1.1 



The following tabulation gives the farm value and feeding value of 
corn per acre as compared with oats, wheat and hay, when grown in a 
four years' rotation on the limestone soil at the Pennsylvania Experiment 
Station: 

The Average Annual Yield Durino 25 Years of 24 Treatments on 36 
Plats on Each of 4 Tiers at the Pennsylvania Station. 



Corn, ears 

Corn, stover 

Oats, grain 

Oats, straw 

Wheat, grain 

Wheat, straw 

Timothy and clover hay 



Average Yield 
per Acre. 


Pounds. 


I 

Bushels. 


3,534 
2,528 


50.5 

• • • • 


1,227 
1,772 
1,192 


38.1 

• • > • 

19.9 


2,099 


• • • • 


3,609 


• • • • 



Price 
per 100 
pounds. 



Farm 

Value 

I>er Acre. 



Digest- 

ible 
Protein, 
pounds. 



Energy 

Value, 

therm.s 

per Acre. 



.75 
.125 

1.00 
.125 

1.33 
.125 
.50 



$26 . 51 


160 


3.16 


40 


12.27 


102 


2.22 


19 


15.85 


106 


2.62 


8 


18.05 


135 



3,198 
671 
813 
370 
985 
348 

1,232 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



J 92 ____^ 

These figures may be condensed into a table that will bring out the 
comparison in a more striking manner, as shown below: 

— /„ro?TSS J="oi;r ^™r./™t .1"" "" 

Years (looii-iytK);. 



Corn . . 
Oats. . . 
Wheat. 
Hay... 



Digestible Protein, 
pounds. 



Energy Value, 
therms. 



Farm Value. 



206 
121 
114 
135 



3,869 
1,189 
1,333 
1,232 



$29.67 
14.49 
18.47 
18.50 



CORN IMPROVEMENT 

STaoXig ^ time intelhgently ,p.nt '- ^"'^ZV^:,'^L .n iS 

», ™p^*„t to „« --^l^-tS'pTesC; ta the't4e°dU„ of both 
of good pedigree The same praic^e PP , ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

plants and animals. Well-bred seea corn r .^ special 

bircs^s rrt-p:xssrai:'«e «. .i. . a 

bushel of good seed. , j ,,^ ^rchased in the ear so the 

Secunng Seed.— beed-corn snoum i uniformity, 

buyer can see if it is as represented m regard to type^^^^^^^^ and u^ J 

It should have been ^-^^^^^^^''l^^.^^^t^^^^^ far away for 
Sr:. Xr=etlat Sr rand have generally been dis- 

^^nrcting Seed.-^election should be made in the fi^M w^^^^^^^^^^^ 

plant and ear can be seen^ ^5?^^ ^^^t 3tuW "of moderate height, 
relative to soil and stand. ^««*? ,f ^"^ f"""" ^ for each node bears a 
Short nodes or joints are P'-fJ^'-^^le to long ones ^r e ^ 

leaf. The more the leaf surface, the greater the power o P^^^ ^^^ 

manufacture the elements of the air ^n^ ?«'"*;'*'? ^e forage. The 

.tae^e^ r^ --™ ^F ^^ -/tVSfes'- 
t-li ^1^^ SlT?of JS £~i;:: win .no 
Objection to having the ears five feet above the ground. 

-Ti^i^TTTBuUeU. No. 116. A^cu,tu«. Experiment Station. The Pennsy.van.a State CoUe^- 






CORN 



193 



is too long it allows the ear to pull the stalk over, and when too short the 
ear is too erect and may be damaged at the tip by allowing water to enter 
the husks. The husks should be moderate in amount and sufficiently 
long to cover the tip of the ear and protect the kernels from insects, birds 
and damage by rain. 

The size of the ear will vary in different districts, but for a medium 
maturing variety a good seed ear should be 8 to 10 inches long. The 
circumference two-fifths the distance from the butt should equal three- 
fourths but not exceed four-fifths of the length. The form should be 
cylindrical or but slightly tapering from butt to tip. The tip and butt 
should be well filled with kernels and the rows, 16 to 20 in number, should 




High and Low Ears.^ 



be straight and carry out well to the butt and tip with kernels of regular 
and uniform shape. 

The depth of kernels should equal one-half the diameter of the cob. 
Kernels five-eighth inch long, three-eighth inch wide and one-sixth inch 
thick are a good size. The tips should be strong and full, for such 
indicates good vitality. The embryo or germ should be large and ex- 
tend well up toward the crown. Large embryos produce vigorous plants 
and indicate high fat and protein content and consequently high feeding 
value. 

Care of Seed. — Seed-corn should be well cared for by storing in a 
dry and well-ventilated room and out of reach of rats- and mice. Corn, 
thoroughly dried, will stand a very low temperature without injury, but 

» Courtesy of Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 282, "Corn Experiments/* 



il, ».,-^«,;,.-.-, 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



192 

These figures may be condensed into a table that will bring out the 
comparison in a more striking manner, as shown below: 

\ears (loo^-iywo;. 



Corn . . 
Oats. . . 
Wheat 
Hay... 



Digestible Protein, 
pounds. 



Energy Value, 
therms. 



Farm Value. 



206 
121 
114 
135 



3,869 
1,189 
1,333 
1,232 



$29 . 67 
14.49 
18.47 
18.50 



CORN IMPROVEMENT 

No crop is more easily and rapidly improved by selection a^d breed^^^ 
than corn No work on the farm will come so near producmg ^ometh^n^^ 
t noTng as time intelligently spent ^^^^^^^ ^^ :Zt, 
as important to use well-bred seed-corn as it is to bje^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 
nf ^ood Dedigree. The same principles apply m the oreeamg 

^? Id animals Well-bred seed-corn has often produced rom five to 
plants and animals, vveii ^^^^ . , . received no special 

'""'"s«LS?s"l-S..<I-oor„ *ouUl l«. pu,cha.«.<l in the car so the 

similar to those surroundmg the P"'^^'^'^^'';^ . ,"^„ generally been dis- 
seed-corn. Many farmers have done so and liave generally u 

''^PPT.Wtin^ Seed -Selection should be made in the field whore both 
Selectmg beea. »eiecuoii ^^^^j conditions 

plant and ear can be seen ^e^^ plants sh^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^.^^^ 

relative to soil and stand. <;«°*? .f,^"*^ '^''";,, for each node bears a 

Short nodes or oints are preferable to long ones lor eac 

leaf The more the leaf surface, the greater the power ot tne p 

attached t^ThJll at a convenient height of ab^^ ^Z^t^s'i^ 

^'^^"^ "^ bTa'S: iSLT ortrge e mii^ron^fhere will be no 
rbiS t hS tTel^ffive feet^bove the ground. When te shank 

.Refer to B ulletin No. 116. Agricultural Experiment Station. The Pennsylvania State College. 



CORN 



193 



is too long it allows the ear to pull the stalk over, and when too short the 
ear is too erect and may be damaged at the tip by allowing water to enter 
the husks. The husks should be moderate in amount and sufficiently 
long to cover the tip of the ear and protect the kernels from insects, birds 
and damage by rain. 

The size of -the ear will vary in different districts, but for a medium 
maturing variety a good seed ear should be 8 to 10 inches long. The 
circumference two-fifths the distance from the butt should equal three- 
fourths but not exceed four-fifths of the length. The form should be 
cylindrical or but slightly tapering from butt to tip. The tip and butt 
should be well filled with kernels and the row.s, IG to 20 in number, should 



■i.*^ . .' 



y^-,^^-:-^ '-^'t^:^-^ ^'^-^^,',^^ ;. •>^--^:^- 





« 


nHH^HilSflBSK 






IHUNHBHI 





V.^,.:^- 






'- ^s*^" 



High and Low Ears.^ 

be straight and carry out well to the butt and tip with kernels of regular 
and uniform shape. 

The depth of kernels should equal one-half the diameter of the cob. 
Kernels five-eighth inch long, three-eighth inch wide and one-sixth inch 
thick are a good size. The tips should be strong and full, for such 
indicates good vitality. The embryo or germ should be large and ex- 
tend well up toward the cro^vn. Large embryos produce vigorous plants 
and indicate high fat and protein content and consequently high feeding 
value. 

Care of Seed. — Seed-com should be well cared for by storing in a 
dry and well-ventilated room and out of reach of rats- and mice. Corn, 
thoroughly dried, will stand a very low temperature without injury, but 



* Courtesy of Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 282, "Corn Experiments. 



t» 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



i^^ 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



194 

if not well dried, a temperature not far below freezing will injure it 
and destroy its vitality or germinating power and make it worthless 

'^'^ ^Gennination Test.— The importance of securing a perfect stand of 
strong plants in the cornfield cannot be overestimated. Aside from held 
conditions favorable to germination and the proper placing of the corn m 
its seed-bed, there are two dominant factors on which perfection of stand 
depends: first, the vitality of the seed; second requisite number ot 
kernels in each hill or regular and uniform spacing if planted m drills. 

A vitality or germination test of seed-corn should always be made. 
It should be made several weeks before corn is required for plantmg 
so that there may be time to secure a new supply m case the seed 

has been injured. There are several 
simple methods of making such tests, 
but in all cases every ear should be 

Germinating Box.— A box about 
18 inches square and 3 inches deep, 
two-thirds full of clean sawdust or 
sand, is most convenient for germi- 
nating corn. The material should be 
thoroughly moistened and smoothed 
to a level in the box. Lay the ears of 
corn on the barn floor, tips to tips in 
double rows. Number every tenth 
ear with a small paper tag stuck 
between the rows. Remove from 
various parts around the ear, and from 
butt to tip, five grains from each ear. 
Now cover the sawdust in the box 
with a piece of white cloth marked off into squares U inches on a side 
v h a lead pencil, preferably an indelible pencil, and numbered consecu- 
tively. In the squares, place the five grains from each ear separately 
exercising care that the grains from each ear are placed m the square 
with the number corresponding. Cover the grains thus placed with 
another cloth of close weave or a fold of the one under the corn, to pre- 
vent the sprouts from coming through, and spread over all a piece ot 
burlap or a gunny sack well soaked in water. The requisites for germma- 
ti^n are air, warmth and moisture. The temperature of the living room or 
Shen is about right, providing it does not fall below f ^^^^^f.^^^^^ 
If the temperature is favorable germination will have taken place m fou^ 
to six days' Any ear failing to give five kernels -gor^^^^^^^^^ 
should be rejected.. A handy man, working systematically, can test hve 
or^x bu^^^^^^ of corn in a day. It is work that should never be neglected 

" 1 Courtesy o f International Har^'e9ter Company. Agricultural Extension Department. 







Good and Poor Types of Kernels.^ 

The top kernels came from an ear 
with too much space at cob, indicating 
low yield, poor feeding vahie, immatur- 
ity. Compare them with the kernels 
in the bottom row. 



CORN 



195 



and will pay for the labor involved many times over in a better stand and 
resulting larger yields of corn. 

Improvement by Selection and Breeding.— The ear row method is 
the most satisfactory way of improving corn along any line. This method 
is based on the principle that like begets like, but fortunately this prin- 
ciple is not rigid. It is the variation in the progeny of any parent plant that 
enables us, through selection, to improve the variety, and it is the tendency 
for like to produce a larger percentage of progeny, differing but slightly 
from the parent that enables us to make progress in plant improvement. 

Corn improvement by selection is easy, because the plant is large 
and its characteristics plainly visible; because the variations are suffi- 
ciently marked and frequent to enable man to select individuals with 




A Good Germination Box Seven Days After Planting.* 

The box is filled with wet sand and marked into checks by means of cord stretched 

^ across the top at even intervals. 

desirable characteristics, and also because of the large number of plants 
that can be secured from the individual and the consequent rapidity of 
multiplication. 

Corn breeding is somewhat difficult because of the natural cross- 
fertilization and the impracticability of keeping the breed pure, and also 
because close and self-fertilization are difficulties that must be guarded 
against. None but the choicest ears selected for desirable qualities of 
both ear and plant should be used in the breeding plat, and any ears that 
do not show a high standard in the germination test should be rejected. 

The selected ears should next be tested for yield and prepotency. 
The ears should be numbered and a portion of each planted in a separate 
row of a test-plat having uniform fertility. The rows should be sufficiently 
long to contain about 200 plants. This will require about one-fourth of 
the kernels of each ear. The rows should bear the same numbers as ears 



» From Farmers' Bulletin 409, U S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



y^^y^-^te;^ 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



194 

if not well dried, a temperature not far below freezing will injure it 
and destroy its vitality or germinating power and make it worthless 

*"' ""Gennination Test.— The importance of securing a perfect stand of 
strong plants in the cornfield cannot be overestimated. Aside from fie d 
conditions favorable to germination and the proper placmg of the com in 
its seed-bed, there are two dominant factors on which perfection of stand 
depends: first, the vitality of the seed; second requisite number ot 
kernels in each hill or regular and uniform spacing if planted m drills. 

A vitality or germination test of seed-corn sliould always be made. 
It should be made several weeks before corn is required for p anting 
so that there may be time to secure a new supply in case the seed 

•^ lias been injured. There are several 

simple methods of making such tests, 
but in all cases every ear should be 

Germinating Box.— A box about 
18 inches square and 3 inches deep, 
two-thirds full of clean sawdust or 
sand, is most convenient for germi- 
natmg corn. The material should be 
thoroughly moistened and smoothed 
to a level in the box. Lay the ears of 
corn on the Imrn floor, tips to tips in 
double rows. Number every tenth 
ear with a small paper tag stuck 
between the rows. Remove from 
various parts around the ear, and from 
butt to tip, five grains from each ear. 
Now cover the sawdust in the box 
with a piece of white cloth marked off into squares H inches on a side 
with a lead pencil, preferably an indelible pencil, and numl)ered consecu- 
tively. In the squares, place the five grains from each ear separately, 
exercising care that the grains from each ear are placed m the square 
with the number corresponding. Cover the grams thus placed with 
another cloth of close weave or a fold of the one under the corn, to pre- 
vent the sprouts from coming through, and spread over all a pie^e ot 
burlap or a gunny sack well soaked in water. The requisites for germma- 
tTon are air, warinth and moisture. The temperature of the livmg room or 
kitchen is about right, providing it does not fall below f degrees at night 
If the temperature is favorable germination will have taken Pl^^^ ^^ J^^^^ 
to six davs Any ear failing to give five kernels vigorously germinated 
sL^d be rejeS A handy man, working systematically, can test five 
or ^bushel; of corn in a day. It is work that should never be neglected 

■ 1 Courtesy o f International Han-ester Company. Agricultural Extension Department. 




Good and Poor Types of Kernels.^ 

The top kernels came from an ear 
with too nuich space at cob, indicating 
low yield, poor feeding vahie, immatur- 
ity. Compare them with the kernels 
in the bottom row. 






CORN 



195 



and will pay for the labor involved many times over in a better stand and 
resulting larger yields of corn. 

Improvement by Selection and Breeding.— The ear row method is 
the most satisfactory way of improving corn along any line. This method 
is based on the principle that like begets like, but fortunately this prin- 
ciple is not rigid. It is the variation in the progeny of any parent plant that 
enables us, through selection, to improve the variety, and it is the tendency 
for like to produce a larger percentage of progeny, differing but slightly 
from the parent that enables us to make progress in plant improvement. 

Corn improvement by selection is easy, because the plant is large 
and its characteristics plainly visible; because the variations are suffi- 
ciently marked and frequent to enable man to select individuals with 




A Good Germination Box Seven Days After Planting.* 

The box is filled with wet sand and marked into checks by means of cord stretched 

across the top at even intervals. 

desirable characteristics, and also ])ecause of the large number of plants 
that can be secured from the individual and the consequent rapidity of 
multiplication. 

Corn breeding is somewhat difficult because of the natural cross- 
fertilization and the impracticability of keeping the breed pure, and also 
because close and self-fertilization are difficulties that must be guarded 
against. None but the choicest ears selected for desirable qualities of 
l)oth ear and plant should be used in the breeding plat, and any ears that 
do not show a high standard in the germination test should be rejected. 

The selected ears should next be tested for yield and prepotency. 
The ears should be numl)ered and a portion of each plantc^d in a separate 
row of a test-plat having uniform fertility. The rows should be sufficiently 
long to contain about 200 plants. This will require about one-fourth of 
the kernels of each ear. The rows should bear the same numbers as ears 



> From Farmers' Bulletin 409, U S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



. . ns™* « •*» ^ ; iirr.-fl: ■ 



196 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



from which planted. The remaining portion of ears, with numbers 
securely fastened, should be saved for next yearns multiplying plat. When 
corn is up, it should be thinned to a uniform stand for all rows. It should 
be frequently observed during growing season for rows that develop 
desirable characters. At harvest time each row should be husked sepa- 
rately and the corn weighed. The remnants of seed ears, from which a 
limited number of the highest yielding rows of best type were planted, 
should be shelled together and planted the following year m a multiplying 
plat which should supply seed for the general crop. From the multiply- 
ing plat should be selected choice ears for another test as above described. 
This method repeated each year makes progress in corn improvement. 

REFERENCES 

"Corn Crops." Montgomery. 

''Book of Corn." Myrick. 

" Manual of Corn Judging." Shamel. 

"Study of Corn." Shoesmith. . „ 

Kansas Expt. Station Bulletin 205. '' Growing Corn in Kansas 

North Dakota Expt. Station Circular 8. "Home Grown Seed Corn. 

Pennsylvania Expt. Station Bulletin 116. ^" Corn Growing in the East. 

U. S. Dept. of Apiculture Bulletin 307. "Tests of Corn Varieties on the Great Plains. 

U S Dept of Agriculture Bulletin 168. "Grades for Commercial Corn. 

Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: ^^ 

313. " Corn— Harvesting and Storing. • r- k " 

317 "Increasing Productiveness;" "Shrinkage of Corn in Cribs. 

400 "A More Profitable Corn Planting Method. 

415. "Seed Corn." 

414. "Corn Cultivation." 

537. " How to Grow an Acre of Corn. , tt- x ^r • • » 

546. "How to Manage a Corn Crop m Kentucky and West Virginia. 

553. "Pop Corn for the Home." 

554. "Pop Corn for the Market.' 



r^ 



'f 



i 



. 



CHAPTER 12 

Wheat (Winter and Spring) 

By W. H. Darst 

Assistant Professor of Agronomy, Pennsylvania State College 

The crop that furnishes the bread material of a country comes a 
little closer to the Uves of the people than any other. In nearly all coun- 
tries of the world wheat holds the first place as a bread crop, and for that 
reason deserves most careful attention. 

The United States, with its rapidly increasing population, especially 
in the cities, and its constantly increasing demand for breadstuffs, may 
very soon find it necessary to import wheat. Under existing conditions 
the price of wheat must increase rather than decrease, and there will be 
more and more inducement for the farmer to increase his production. 

The world's annual production of wheat for the last three years 
(1912-14) has been approximately 3,882,255,000 bushels. The six leading 
countries in production and in average acre yield are as follows: 



Average Annual Produetion, 1912-1914. 



Country. 



United States . . . 
European Russia 

British India 

France 

Austria-Hungary 
Canada 



Bushels. 



794,889,000 
686,512,000 
349,273,0(X) 
325,650,0(K) 
226,732,000 
205,718,(KK) 



Average Acre Yield, 1904-1913. 



Country. 



BusheU. 



United Kingdom 32 . 8 

Germany 30 . 7 

France 20.1 

Austria-Hungary ' 191 

United States.. 14.3 

European Russia 10.0 



It is an interesting fact that the two largest producing countries 
have the lowest acre yields. At one time these European countries had 
average yields very similar to our own. By years of systematic applica- 
tion of best known methods of production, the yields of these countries 

have increased enormously. 

The climatic and soil conditions of some European countries are 
more favorable to the production of wheat than those in the United 
States. In European countries, also, the labor proposition is not so serious 
as it is in this country; consequently, they can afford to spend more time 

on their wheat crop. , ,<. x, i, i. 

Wheat Production in United States.— About one-half the wheat 

crop of the United States is produced in the North Central states west of 

(197) 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



198 

the Mississippi River. This section includes the states of Kansas, Ne- 
l)raska, North and South Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa. Hard winter 
wheat andlhard spring wheat (including Durham) are grown in this section. 
About one-sixth of the crop is produced in the North Central states 
east of the Mississippi River. The wlieat in this section is known as the 

soft or red winter wheat. , ^. . , „, x • 

About one-sixth of the wheat crop of the United States is grown in 
the far West This includes the irrigated districts of the Rockies and the 
Pacific Coast wheat districts. White and red spring, and some winter 
wheat, are grown in this section. 

All other states not in the general districts mentioned produce 
approximately 100,000,000 bushels annually. 

Climatic and Soil Adaptation.— Wheat has a very wide climatic 
adaptation, which makes it a staple crop in many countries of the world. 
Wheat is best adapted, however, to regions having cold winters, especially 
cool weather during the first of the growing season. Cool weather during 
early growth causes wheat to stool more abundantly, which generally 
results in a larger yield. This applies to spring wheat as well as to winter 

^ ^Vlimatic conditions, viz: rainfall, temperature, sunshine and 
humidity, influence the milling quality of wheat to a greater degree tl an 
does the type or fertility of the soil. The map, roughly dividing the 
United States into wheat districts, shows that climatic conditions existing 
in any section determine to a large extent the milling quality of the wheat. 

In the hard spring and hard winter wheat districts, the season is 
comparatively hot and dry during the fruiting period, forcing early ripen- 
ing of the wheat. This results in a hard, flinty k(>rnel, high in protein 
and of good milling quaUty. The fruiting period being shortened, the 
wheat does not have the opportunity to store as large amounts of starch 
in the grain as it would under more favorable climatic conditions. 

Where the fruiting season is longer and more favorable, as in the 
red winter wheat district and along the Pacific Coast, more starch is 
stored in the grain, which results in a starchy, light-colored wheat having 

lower milling quality. , . ., , ^ • ^u • u 

A proper soil for wheat is important in that it determines the yield 
rather than milling quality. A large portion of the wheat in the United 
States is grown on the so-called "glacial drift" soils. These soils vary 
greatly in texture and structure, humus and plant food. The clay or 
clav loam uplands are usually better adapted to wheat than the low- 
lying dark-colored loamy soils. Dark-colored soils, rich in humus, are 
better adapted to corn. Wheat grown on such soil is apt to winter-kill 
and heave badly. The wheat grows tall and rank and may not fall out 

properly. _ . . , . • 

Rotations.— In parts of the Great Plains region, wheat is grown 
in continuous culture with fair returns, because the farming operations 



WHEAT 



199 



are so extensive. Rotations, therefore, are not profitable as yet. Even- 
tually these large farms will be made into smaller ones, and it will be neces- 
sary to properly rotate the crops for profitable yields. 

Continuous culture of wheat not only reduces the fertility of the 
soil, but multiplies the insects and fungous diseases injurious to wheat. 
Rotations are greatly modified in different locaUties by the crop-pro- 
ducing power of the soil and by the crops produced. Wheat is frequently 
grown in a rotation in order to obtain a stand of grass. The value of 





■ 




■ -^^■'- '■■■ 


::f 


I Plowed S0>Ltt^^^^^^^H 


■ .. ..^ •* 

•> •>■.>.: ■■■1 

:.■■..:- , 'J 


f^wea July » 
Thrtt «n.ci«<t? 


H| Plowed July » 
^R Vk>Hl34.»$ 


Br ""'" M'^mm 




^^^^^^^^^^^^B^&div4^^«SMMM3BB^l^P^flK 




^St--'-- ■- t 1 



Effect op Time of Preparing Seed Bed. Yield of Bagged Wheat. ^ 

rotations from the economic standpoint has l)een discussed in a previous 
chapter. 

Preparation of the Seed-Bed. — The method used in preparing a seed- 
bed for wheat is determined by the rotation and kind of wheat grown. 
In winter wheat sections wheat may follow corn, oats, potatoes or tobacco. 
Wheat requires a firm, fine and moist, seed-bed, whether it be sown in the 
fall or spring. When wheat follows corn, potatoes or tobacco, the ground 
should be thoroughly plowed for these crops in the spring of the year, 
and the crop grown should receive thorough and regular cultivation as 
long as possible. After the crop is harvested double disking should put 
the ground in ideal shape for the seeding of wheat. 

When winter wheat follows oats the stubble should be plowed as 
early as possible. The early breaking of oat stubble gives more time 

» Courtesy of Kansaa Agricultural Experiment Station. 



;-\ti.:>^i 









198 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



WHEAT 



199 



the Mississippi River. This section includes the states of Kansas, Ne- 
braska, North and South Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa. Hard winter 
wheat andlhard spring wheat (including Durham) are grown in this section. 
About one-sixth of the crop is produced in the North Central states 
east of the Mississippi River. The wheat in this section is known as the 

soft or red winter wheat. .. . , r. . • 

About one-sixth of the wheat crop of the United States is grown in 
the far West. This includes the irrigated districts of the Rockies and the 
Pacific Coast wheat districts. White and red spring, and some winter 
wheat, are grown in this section. 

All other states not in the general districts mentioned produce 
approximately 100,000,000 bushels annually. 

Climatic and Soil Adaptation.— Wheat has a very wide climatic 
adaptation, which makes it a staple crop in many countries of the world. 
Wheat is best adapted, however, to regions having cold winters, especially 
cool weather during the first of the growing season. Cool weather during 
early gro\Hh causes wheat to stool more abundantly, which generally 
results in a larger yield. This applies to spring wheat as well as to winter 

wheat. 1-1 

Climatic conditions, viz: rainfall, temperature, sunshine and 

humidity, influence the milling quality of wheat to a greater degree tl an 

does the type or fertility of the soil. Tlu^ map, roughly dividing the 

United States into wheat districts, shows that climatic conditions existing 

in any section determine to a large extent the milling quality of the wheat. 

In the hard spring and hard winter wheat districts, the season is 
comparatively hot and dry during the fruiting period, forcing early ripen- 
ing of the wheat. This results in a hard, flinty k(Tn(^l, high in i^rotein 
•md of good milling quality. The fruiting period being shortcaied, the 
wlu^at does not have the opportunity to store as largc^ amounts of starch 
in the grain as it would und(T more favorable climatic conditions. 

Where the fruiting season is hmgvr and more favorabl(% as in the 
red winter wheat district and along the Pacific Coast, morc^ starch is 
stored in the grain, which results in a starchy, light-colored wheat having 

lower milling quality. ^ ,..,,. • ^i • i^ 

A proper soil for wheat is important in that it determiners the yield 
rather than milling quality. A large portion of the wheat in the United 
States is grown on the so-called ^^ glacial drift ^^ soils. These soils vary 
greatly in texture and structure, humus and plant food. The clay or 
clay loam uplands are usually bettcT adapted to wheat than the low- 
lying dark-colored loamy soils. Dark-colored soils, rich m humus, are 
better adapted to corn. Wheat grown on such soil is apt to wmter-kill 
and heave badly. The wheat grows tall and rank and may not fill out 

properly. . . , , . 

Rotations.— In parts of the Great Plains region, wheat is grown 
in continuous culture with fair returns, l)ecause the farming operations 



are so extensive. Rotations, therefore, are not profitable as yet. Even- 
tually these large farms will be made into smaller ones, and it will be neces- 
sary to properly rotate the crops for profitable yields. 

Continuous culture of wheat not only reduces the fertility of the 
soil, but multiplies the insects and fungous diseases injurious to wheat. 
Rotations are greatly modified in different localities by the crop-pro- 
ducing power of the soil and by the crops produced. Wheat is frequently 
grown in a rotation in order to obtain a stand of grass. The value of 




Effect of Timk of Preparing Seed Bed. Yield of Bagged Wheat. ^ 

rotations from the economic standj^oint has b(»en discussed in a previous 
chapter. 

Preparation of the Seed-Bed. — The method used in preparing a seed- 
bed for wheat is determined by the rotation and kind of wheat grown. 
In winter wheat sections wheat may follow corn, oats, potatoes or tobacco. 
Wheat requires a firm, fine and moist, seed-bed, whether it be sown in the 
fall or spring. When wheat follows corn, potatoes or tobacco, the ground 
should be thoroughly i)l()wed for these crops in the spring of the year, 
and the crop grown should receive thorough and regular cultivation as 
long as possible. After the crop is harvested double disking should put 
the ground in ideal shape for the seeding of wheat. 

When winter wheat follows oats the stubble should be plowed as 
early as possible. The early breaking of oat stubble gives more time 

» Courtesy of Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 






200 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



for the preparation of the seed-bed, the firming of the soil and the conserv- 
ing of moisture. 

• If plowing is done late in the season, each day's work should be 
harrowed as soon as finished. Plowed ground that is allowed to remam 
a few days before working is likely to become very dry and cloddy. A 
well prepared seed-bed insures quick germination, a good root system 
and results in less pulling and winter killing. 

The following table taken from Bulletin No. 185 of the Kansas 
Experiment Station, shows that yield of wheat is greatly influenced by 
both the time and method of preparing the seed-bed: 

Methods of Preparing Land for Wheat. Cropped to Wheat Continuously. 



Method of Preparation. 



Disked, not plowed 

Plowed Sept. 15, 3 inches deep 

Plowed Sept. 15, 7 inches deep 

Plowed Aug. 15, 7 inches deep • • • • 

Plowed Aug. 15, 7 inches deep. Not worked 

until Sept. 15 

Plowed July 15, 3 inches deep 

Plowed July 15, 7 inches deep 

Double disked July 15. Plowed Sept. 15 . . 

Double disked July 15. Plowed Aug. 15, 7 inches 

deep 1- ■ ■*■ ■ ■ 

Listed July 15, 5 inches deep. Ridges split Aug. 

15 ••; 

Listed July 15, 5 inches deep. Worked down. . . 



Average 3 Years. 1911-1913. 



Yield per 

A ore, 
bushels. 



6.63 
13.24 
14.15 
22.19 

20.48 
20.77 
27.11 
19.71 

23.40 

22.90 
22.77 



Cost per 

Acre for 

Preparation. 



Vahie of Crop, 
]jVsh Cost of 
Preparation. 



$2.07 
2.83 
3.33 
4.00 

3.33 

4.85 
5.35 
3.93 

4.93 



3 
4 



92 
05 



$3.64 
8.35 
8.60 

16.34 

13.65 
12.25 
16.87 
12.37 

14.30 

14.73 
14.53 



- Karly preparation of the seed-bed gave a profitable increase m yields. 
Early disking of the stubble, and plowing later, also gave very good 
returns. The possible objection to early plowing (July 15th to August 
15th) is the lack of labor and teams at this time. In this case the stubble 
may be disked early and plowed later when work is less pressing. Disking 
a stubble before plowing tends: (1) to conserve moisture, (2) to kill weeds, 
(3) to lessen the draft and cost of plowing the land, (4) to pulverize that 
portion of the seed-bed that eventually will be turned under, and (5} 

to aid in destroying the Hessian fly. , ,. . • r^ a 

In the semi-arid districts of the United States the lister is often used 

in preparing the seed-bed for wheat. The lister leaves the bottom of the 

furrow in ridges, however, and should not be used year after year in tHe 

preparation of the soil. , , 

FertiUzers for Wheat.-A detailed discussion of fertilizers has been 
given in a previous chapter. Two methods of supplying plant food to 



WHEAT 



201 



the wheat crop are: (1) by the application of barnyard manure, and (2) 
by the use of commercial fertilizers. 

Where clover or grass is followed by corn in a rotation, better returns 
are obtained from manure when placed on the sod and plowed under 
for corn. For soils low in plant-food and humus, manure may be applied 
profitably to the wheat crop. Unless the ground is too rolling the manure 




^ 7* r.££^ 



i' ^^y'</ 




^ — > j . — J 




Approximate Date of Seeding Winter Wheat. ^ 

should be applied to the wheat as a top dressing before seeding rather 
than plowed under, or it may be applied after seeding. Soluble plant- 
food from the manure will leach down into the soil and the strawy remains 
will act as a mulch during the winter. 

The needs of the soil upon which the wheat crop is to be grown will 
determine the proportion of different plant-food elements to be used. 
The intelligent use of fertilizers for wheat calls for a knowledge of the 

I Courtesy of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



202 SUCCESS FUL FARMING 

needs of the soil. This may be ascertained partly by knowing the previous 
treatment of the soil and by studying the appearance of the crops now 
growing upon it. More definite information may be secured by the use 
of different fertilizing elements on small plats conducted as a test durmg 
one or more years for the purpose of ascertaining the needs of the soil. 

Phosphorus is the element most often needed on ordinary wheat 
soils of most northern states, and is the one that usually gives the greatest 
increase in yields. In many localities the yield may be further mcreased 
by the addition of small to moderate amounts of potash. In many cases, 
some nitrogen will produce still further increase. However, it is poor 
policy to pay 18 cents a pound for nitrogen that can be produced more 
cheaply on the farm by the use of various leguminous crops in the rotation. 

Time of Seeding.— The time to seed wheat in a given section will be 
determined largely by previous experience. The latitude, season, soil 
conditions and insect enemies all help determine the proper time for 

seeding. -rk 4. 

The chart on preceding page prepared by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture gives the approximate date of seeding winter wheat, 
where the Hessian fly must be considered as a factor. 

Spring wheat should be sown as early as the ground can be prepared 
properly. Early seeding insures cool weather during the early growth 
and permits the crop to ripen before the severe storms of late summer. 
Wheat is generally seeded with a grain drill, although broadcasting is 
still practiced is some parts of the far West. 

Rate of Seeding.— The rate of seeding varies greatly m different 
wheat districts of the United States. East of the Mississippi River two 
bushels of well-cleaned seed will generally give the best results. Results 
by the Ohio Experiment Station, located near the center of the humid 
region, teach a valuable lesson on this point. 

Thick and Thin Seeding of Wheat. Ten Different Varieties Used. 

8ixteen-Yeau Average.* 

3 pecks per acre 20.2C> bushels per acre 

A << 21 .u4 

I a 22.97 

ft a 24.11 

7 a 24.36 

o it 25.01 '' . 

S « 25.46 

In the dry farming area of the West the amount of seed required ranges 
from two to three pecks in the driest sections to six or eight pecks in the 
more humid sections. The rate of seeding for any section should be 
determined by actual tests. 

Wheat should not be covered too deeply. The depth of seeding will 
depend on the type of soil and the preparation of the seed-bed. The 

*Taken from records of the Ohio Experiment Station. 



■msMifeSziir' 



WHEAT 



203 



usual depth of drilling is from two to three inches. To secure ideal con- 
dition for germination the seed should be placed in the drill furrow on 
firm, damp soil, which will supply moisture for rapid germination and the 

development of roots. 

Grain Drills.— For general use a good single-disk drill does very good 
work. On stony, trashy land it does better work than double-disk or shoe 
drills. In the absence of trash and on a well-prepared seed-bed, the shoe 
drill is more readily regulated to a uniform depth of seeding. The press 
drills are preferred for use in light, droughty soils and drier climates. 

Winter Killing.— Winter killing of wheat is a source of great loss 
throughout the winter wheat districts of the United States. Winter 
killing may be due to: (1) alternate freezing and thawing of wet soils, 
which gradually lifts the plants, exposing and breaking the roots; (2) 
weak plants, resulting from late sowing, lack of moisture or freezing in a 
dry, open winter; (3) smothering of the plants under a heavy covering 
of ice and sleet. A heavy growth of early seeded wheat is more apt to 
smother than that sown later. When unfavorable weather conditions 
exist, very little can be done to prevent winter killing. However, pre- 
ventive measures such as the following are advised: (1) Grow a hardy 
variety of wheat ; (2) drain wet spots in the wheat field ; (3) thoroughly 
prepare the seed-bed; (4) sow seed early enough to secure strong, vigorous 
plants; (5) roll wheat that is pulled by freezing and thawing. Rolling 
early in the spring firms the soil about the roots and benefits the wheat 
if the pulling has not progressed too far. 

Wheat Districts.— The United States may be divided into five wheat 
districts according to the color and composition of the grain. These dis- 
tricts are not sharply defined, but a brief outline of them should give the 
reader a better idea of the kind of wheat grown, the leading varieties and 
the milling qualities of the wheat in the different parts of the United States. 
District No. 1.— All wheat east of the Mississippi River is known as 
Red Winter, or soft winter wheat. It varies in color from white to red 
and amber. The quality of this wheat varies from medium in the northern 
part to poor in the southern part of the district. The leacling varieties 
in the northern portion are Fulcaster, Pool, Dawson s Golden Chart, 
Gypsy, Harvest King, Fultz, Rudy and Michigan Amber. In the southern 
portion the leading varieties are Fulcaster, Pool, Purple Straw, Bluestone 

and Mediterranean. ^ ^ - ^ 4. i 

District No. 2.— The hard spring wheat, including Durham, is located 
in the Dakotas, Minnesota and parts of Nebraska, Iowa and Wisconsin. 
The wheat in this district is small and shriveled in kernel, hard and dark 
in color. The milling quality of hard spring wheat is excel ent. ihe 
principal varieties are Bluestem, Velvet Chaff, Fife and Durham (Kur- 

banka and Arnautha). tvt u 1 

District No. 3.— The hard winter district includes Kansas, Nebraska, 
Oklahoma, Iowa- and Missouri. The wheat in this district is red to amber 



K-^%;' 









204 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



WHEAT 



205 



in color. The grain is hard and flinty, but larger and plumper than the 
hard spring. The milUng quality of the wheat is excellent, although 
the quahty of the gluten is not as high as in the hard spring wheat. The 
principal varieties grown are the Turkey and Kharkof . 

District No. 4.— White soft or Pacific Coast wheat, grown mostly 
in California, is soft and starchy, and yellow to red in color. The milling 
quality varies from fair to poor. For bread purposes this wheat must be 
blended with the hard wheats. The wheat in this district is classed as soft 
winter on the market. The leading varieties are White AustraHan, 
Sonora, Club, King's Early and Early Baart. 



'EOlOMli'ARb 





Wheat Districts of the ITnited States. 

District No. 5.— The medium hard spring and winter wheat is grown 
in the extreme Northwest, Washington, Oregon and Idaho. The whejit 
in this section is medium in quality, much of it having a bleached, dull 
appearance. The principal varieties of winter wheat are Forty Fold, 
Red Russian and Jones' Winter Fife. Bluestem is the leadmg sprmg 

Wheat Improvement.— Every wheat grower should ascertain, by 
test or otherwise, the variety best suited to his conditions. The variety 
tests at the nearest experiment station will generally indicate the best 
varieties for similar conditions. For a community located on soil different 
from that of the nearest experiment station, an ideal plan is to organize 
a communitv seed association. A variety test of wheat should be con- 



ducted on some central farm. After the best variety is determined, the 
farmers of that community will find it advantageous if all grow the same 
variety of wheat. The advantages of such a plan will be: (1) larger 
yields for all; (2) better and more uniform quality, resulting in higher 
prices; (3) the production of pure seed, true to name; and (4) the pro- 
viding of a better opportunity to improve the variety. When farmers 
of a commuivity are all interested in one variety of wheat, they will naturally 
be interested in its improvement. 

The so-called "mass selection" will be found both practical and profit- 




A Profitable Yield of Wheat.' 

able in improving a variety of wheat. The procedure is as follows: A 
field of good wheat is examined at harvest time and enough of the choicest 
heads are selected to make a bushel or more of seed. This is threshed by 
hand and carefully stored until seeding time. This selected seed should 
be sown in a marked portion of the general wheat field. At harvest time 
choice heads are again hand selected from this special plat. The remain- 
ing wheat is harvested for seed to be multiplied for the general field wheat. 
By continuing this process of selection each year there will be a tendency 
to improve the variety continually, or at least to eliminate all danger of 
the wheat running out. 

I Courtesy o( Penn State Fanner, State College, Pa. 



al^ 



204 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



WHEAT 



205 



in color. The grain is hard and flinty, but larger and plumper than the 
hard spring. The milling quality of the wheat is excellent, although 
the quaUty of the gluten is not as high as in the hard spring wheat. The 
principal varieties grown are the Turkey and Kharkof . 

District No. 4.— White soft or Pacific Coast wheat, grown mostly 
in California, is soft and starchy, and yellow to red in color. The milling 
quality varies from fair to poor. For bread purposes this wheat must be 
blended with the hard wheats. The wheat in this district is classed as soft 
winter on the market. The leading varieties are White AustraHan, 
Sonora, Club, King's Early and Early Baart. 

/SPRING 5 vyiNTER / f-4--\ ^ "^ 

i 

L 

/"fe Q_ IDIST3, 





% * 



Wheat Districts of the I'nited States. 

District No. 5.— The medium hard spring and winter wheat is grown 
in the extreme Northwest, Washington, Oregon and Idaho. The wheat 
in this section is medium in quality, much of it havmg a bleached, dull 
appearance. The principal varieties of winter wheat are Forty l^old. 
Red Russian and Jones' Winter Fife. Bluestem is the leadmg sprmg 

varietv. , 1 1 ± - u 

Wheat Improvement.— Every wheat grower should ascertam, Dy 

test or otherwise, the variety best suited to his conditions. The variety 

tests at the nearest experiment station will generally indicate the best 

varieties for similar conditions. For a community located on soil different 

from that of the nearest experiment station, an ideal plan is to organize 

a community seed association. A variety test of wheat should be con- 



ducted on some central farm. After the best variety is determined, the 
farmers of that community will find it advantageous if all grow the same 
variety of wheat. The advantages of such a plan will be: (1) larger 
yields for all; (2) better and more uniform quality, resulting in higher 
prices; (3) the production of pure seed, true to name; and (4) the pro- 
viding of a better opportunity to improve the variety. When farmers 
of a community are all interested in one variety of wheat, they will naturally 
be interested in its improvement. 

The so-called '^mass selection'' will be found both practical and profit- 




A Profitable Yield of Wheat.i 

able in improving a variety of wheat. The procedure is as follows: A 
field of good wheat is examined at harvest time and enough of the choicest 
heads are selected to make a bushel or more of seed. This is threshed by 
hand and carefully stored until seeding time. This selectexl seed should 
be sown in a marked portion of the general wheat field. At harvest time 
choice heads are again hand selected from this special plat. The remain- 
ing wheat is harvested for seed to be multiplied for the general field wheat. 
By continuing this process of selection each year there will be a tendency 
to improve the variety continually, or at least to eliminate all danger ot 
the wheat running out. 

* Courtesy of Penn State Farmer, State College, Pa. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



i^ev 



m$y 



206 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Harvesting.— Wheat is generally liarvested as soon as ripe. The 
straw should be yellow in color and the grain in hard dough, before the 
wheat may be safely harvested. In the wlu^at-growing section along 
the Pacific Coast the wheat is allowed to stand a week or two after it is 
ripe, and is then harvested with a combined harvester and thresher. 

Wheat should be shocked the same day it is cut. Considerable 
starch is transferred from the leaves and stems to the grain after the wheat 
is harvested. Immediate shocking of the grain prevents rapid drying 

and aids this action. 

When not to be threshed from the shock, wheat should be hauled 
in and stacked or stored in the barn as soon as possible (a week or ten 
days). Hot sun bleaches wheat rapidly; rainy weather often damages 
and sometimes destroys the crop in the shock. In the eastern United 
States threshing generally takes place in the barn in the late fall. In the 
corn belt section and Great Plains region most of the wheat is threshed 
out of the shock or in the field by a combine. ^ 

Threshed wheat should be stored in tight, clean granaries. When 
it is to remain in storage for some time the granary should be cleaned 
thoroughly to make sure of the removal of grain moths, weevils and fungous 
diseases. If the granary is constructed so as to keep out vermin and 
insects, there is practically no loss of weight in storage. 

Cost of Producing Wheat.— The fixed charges of growing an acre of 
wheat are about the same, whether the yield is 15 bushels or 30 bushels 
per acre A rough estimate of the cost of growing wheat in the United 
States is between $10 and $12 per acre. The United States Department 
of Agriculture has secured from many farmers itemized estimatc^s of the 
cost of producing wheat in all of the states. Those for a few of the widely 
separated states are as follows: 



Plowing 

Seed 

Planting 

Harvesting — 
Threshing . . . . 

Rent 

Fertilizer .... 
Miscellaneous 



1 otal 



Cost per bushel 

Net profit per acre. 
Number of reports 



Pennsyl- 
vania. 



$3 . 80 
1.94 
.60 
1.79 
1.00 
3.50 
2.83 
.62 

$16.68 

.84 

3.42 

131 



South 
Carolina. 



$1 . 46 
1.36 
.89 
1.23 
1.33 
3.03 
2.66 
.35 

$12.31 

.96 

3.85 

40 



North 
Dakota. 



$1.95 

1.31 

.44 

1.03 

1.60 

2.22 

.06 

.38 

$8 . 99 

.62 

4.87 
177 



Illinois. 



$2.01 

1.50 

.35 

1.19 

1.46 

5.33 

.27 

.43 

$12.54 

.64 

6.41 

256 



Kansas. 



$1.81 

1.22 

.41 

1.49 

1.44 

3.41 

.06 

.45 



$10 . 29 

.63 

5 . 66 

309 



The estimated cost in Kansas was based on the reports of 309 farmers 
who, during the year 1909, secured an average yield of 1G.3 bushels per 



WHEAT 



207 



acre. This is representative of Districts 2 and 3 that produce one-half of 
the wheat grown in the United States. The average acre yield in the 
United States is 14.8 bushels. It will be seen that there is little profit 
in raising less than 15 bushels to the acre. 

Enemies of Wheat: Weeds, Insects and Fungous Diseases.— Weeds, 
common in wheat fields, are not, as a rule, difficult to eradicate. Weeds 
damage wheat by reducing the yield and by injuring the milling quality 
of the grain. The weeds most objectionable in wheat are garlic, cockle, 
cheat or chess, wild oats and wild mustard. These are usually controlled 
by proper cleaning of the seed wheat, by carefully preparing the seed-bed 
and by a suitable rotation of crops. , , , , . 

Insects.— The Hessian fly and chinch bug are probably the most 
destructive of wheat insects. The methods of control are preventive for 
the most part. The burning over of stubble land any time from harvest 
to the middle of August will destroy many of the Hessian flies and chinch 
bugs The planting of trap crops also will aid in reducing Hessian fly 
trouble A strip of wheat sown early in August will induce the fly to lay 
effffs This wheat should be carefully plowed down after the first frost 
so as to destroy the fly. Often an early strip of wheat may be plowed 
down in time for proper preparation and reseeding. ^ 

A stinging frost will kill the adult Hessian fly. If the season is not 
too backward it is well to delay seeding of wheat until this time. How- 
ever, wheat should be seeded early enough to become rooted before winter 

A* patch of millet sown early in the spring will attract many of the 
chinch bugs, thus keeping them out of the wheat and corn. 

The common insects of the granary are the granary weevil (CoZan^ra 
granaria) and the Angoumois moth (Sitotroga cerealella). Both these 
insects multiply rapidly and should be attended to at once. 

Used granaries should always be cleaned thoroughly before the new 
wheat is stored. Granaries should be repaired when needed so as to make 
the sides and floor as tight as possible. n.^u^„ 

Fumigation should be resorted to when insects first appear Carbon 
bisulDhide is a very effective chemical to use in a good tight granary. 
One anrone-ha^^ pints to one ton of grain, or 1000 cu. ft. of space, is the 
recommended amoU to use. The liquid should be poured -to shaUow 
pans and placed over the wheat. For the best results fumigation should 
be repeated in two weeks^ time. Hydrocyanic acid gas is used m elevators 
L milis, but would be very dangerous in the ordinary barn where live- 
, I . 1 i 

' "'^ Fungous Diseases.-Riist and smut arc perhaps the most dostructive 
among wheat diseases. There is no known remedy for rust other than 
the growing and breeding of rust-resistant varieties of wheat. Stink ng 
smuf mTy destroy as much as 10 per cent of the total wheat crop of the 
United States. It does not change the general appearance of the wheat 



208 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



head while in the field, but develops within the kernel as the wheat ripens. 
At threshing time the infected kernels may be broken, exposmg a 
black, stinking, greasy mass of smut spores. The handling of smutty 
wheat aids in the infecting of all sound wheat that comes in contact with 
it. The smut spores adhere to the outside of the kernel until it is planted. 
The fungus grows within the wheat plant and finally takes possession of 
the newly formed berry. Stinking smut can be controlled by the formalde- 
hyde treatment. 

Treatment.— One pint of 40 per cent formaldehyde is added to 40 
gallons of water. This is suflftcient to treat 40 bushels of wheat. The 
wheat should be spread on a good tight floor and sprinkled with the 
solution. The wheat should then be shoveled over until the gram is well 
moistened, after which it should be shoveled into a pile or ridge and covered 
with canvas for several hours. The wheat should then be spread out on 
the floor to dry. The kernels will absorb water and become larger. If 
seeding takes place before the wheat is thoroughly dry, one-fifth to one- 
fourth more seed to the acre is sown than when untreated seed is used. 

Loose smut is less injurious to wheat then the hidden or stinking 
smut, but is more diflficult to treat and control. It destroys the head in 
the field, leaving the bare rachis as evidence of its presence. The mature 
spores are scattered by the wind. If they gain entrance to the growing 
berry in the head, they germinate and send mycelium into its tissues to 
await the time when the wheat is sown in the ground. The formahn 
treatment, which simply acts on the outside of the berry, is ineffective. 

The hot-water treatment is recommended for the loose smut of wheat. 
This treatment requires careful and painstaking work, and is not practical 
for large quantities of seed. A small quantity of seed should be treated 
and sown in a separate plot to be used for seed purposes the following 
year, thus eliminating the smut. 

Treatment.— The equipment required for the hot-water treatment is 
as follows: 3 large kettles, 1 tub, several wire baskets holding about 1 
peck of grain, and 1 good thermometer. The seed wheat should be soaked 
several hours in cold water placed in tub. The water in kettle No. 1 is 
heated to 127° F., and in kettle No. 2 to 130° F. This can be done by 
heating water in the extra kettle and regulating to the required tempera- 
ture the water in kettles No. 1 and 2. A wire basket should be filled 
with wheat from the tub of cold water, allowed to dram, and immersed 
in kettle No. 1 for two minutes. It should then be taken out and 
immersed in kettle No. 2 for ten minutes, after which the wheat should be 
spread out to dry. This treatment frequently kills a small percentage 
of the kernels, the amount of which should be determined so as to regulate 
the proper rate of seeding. A germination test is therefore advised before 
seeding. 



WHEAT 



209 



REFERENCES 

"Book of Wheat.'' Donalinger. 

''Wheat." TenEyck. 

Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 
320. ''Quality in Wheat." 
534. "Durum Wheat." 

596. "Winter Wheat Culture in Eastern States." 
616. "Winter Wheat Varieties for Eastern States." 
678 . ' ' Growing Hard Spring Wheat . ' ' 
680. "Varieties of Hard Spring Wheat." 



M 



■■^^^S^^M-- 



CHAPTER 13 

OATS, BARLEY AND RYE 



OATS 

As a farm crop in North America, oats rank fifth in value. It has 
a short season of growth, is easily raised by extensive methods and brmgs 
quick returns. It is, therefore, a popular crop, especially ^ith the tenant 
farmer. The yield and cash value per acre is low compared with the best 
oat-producing countries of Europe, and some question the advisability 
of continuing its cultivation so extensively in this country. 

Oats fit into the general crop rotation and follow corn better than 
most other crops. In the North Central states it is extensively used as 
a crop in which to seed the clovers and grasses. It makes a desirable 
feed for all classes of livestock except swine, and is highly prized tor 
horses. The straw is valuable as roughage and as an absorbent in stables 

and has considerable fertiUzing value. ^ . • ^u tt •+ ^ 

The average acreage, yield, production and value of oats in the United 
States for ten years ending 1914 is given in the following table: 

Average Annual Acreage, Production and Farm Value and Mean Acre 
Yield of Oats in the Ten States of Largest Production for 

the Ten Years from 1905 to 1914. 



Iowa 

Illinois 

Minnesota. . . . 

Wisconsin 

Nebraska 

Ohio 

Indiana 

North Dakota, 

Michigan 

New York . . . . 



Area, 
acres. 



Mean Yield 

per Acre, 

bushels. 



4,581,000 
4,160,000 
2,697,000 
2,337,000 
2,373,000 
1,636,000 
1,719,000 
1,737,000 
1,424,000 
1,268,000 



31.9 

31.2 

30.8 

32 

25 

32 



5 
3 
4 



29.0 
27.7 
30.8 
31.5 



Production, 
bushels. 



146,618,000 
130,09(),000 
84,739,000 
73,386,000 
59,384,000 
53,581,000 
49,887,000 
48,233,000 
43,704,000 
39,973,000 



Farm Value, 
December 1. 



$48,182,000 
46,920,0(K) 
27,526,000 
29,202,000 
19,938,000 
20,881,000 
18,018,000 
15,233,000 
17,327,000 
18,761,000 



Sou and Climatic Adaptation.— In the production of oats, favorable 
climate and cultural conditions are more important than the c^iaracter 
and fertility of the soil. They do best in a cool, moist climate In North 
America oats succeed best in Canada and those states of the Union lying 
next to the Canadian border. The acreage of spring oats below 38 degrees 
north latitude is very small. Oats require an abundance of water and 
loam, and clay loam soils are generally best adapted to them. 

(210) 



6ATS, BARLEY AND RYE 



211 



Classes and Varieties. — Oats are divided into spring and winter oats. 
By far the larger proportion in North America belongs to the former class. 
Spring oats are divided into two classes, namely, those having open pan- 
icles and those with closed panicles. By far the larger number of varieties 
falls into the first class. They are further classified by color into white, 
yellow, black, red and shades of black and red. They are also divided 
according to time of maturity into early, medium and late varieties. The 
time for maturity ranges from 90 days to 140 days. In the Central states 
in favorable seasons early oats should ripen in 90 days from time of seeding. 

The accompanying map shows the three oat districts of the United 
States. 




Map of the United States, Showing Approximately the Areas to which 

Certain Types of Oats are Adapted.^ 

In the unshaded portion rather late maturing, large-grained white oats are 
usuaUy best; in the lightly shaded portion early, small-grained, yellow varieties are 
most important; while in the heavily shaded portion brownish-red or gray varieties, 
which in the warmer sections are sown in the fall, are most certain to succeed. 

In the northern district the medium-maturing and late-maturing 
varieties generally give best results. The leading varieties in this district 
are American Banner, Big 4, Clydesdale, Lincoln, Probstier, Siberian, 
Silver Mine, Swedish Select, Tartarian, Wide Awake and White Russian. 

In the central region the principal varieties are Big 4, Burt, Clydes- 
dale, Kherson, Lincoln, Red Rust Proof, 60-Day, Silver Mine, Siberian 
and Swedish Select. In the southern district the chief varieties are Burt 

i Courtesy of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Farmers* Bulletin 42i, 






212 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



and Red Rust Proof, together with Winter Turf, which is a strictly 
winter variety. Burt and Red Rust Proof may be seeded either in the 

winter or spring. « ^. tx • • ^ ^ +^ 

Seed Oats and Their Preparation for Seeding.— It is important to 

seed only varieties 
that are adapted 
to the conditions 
that prevail, giv- 
ing particular at- 
tention to time of 
maturity as re- 
lated to the pre- 
vailing climatic 
conditions during 
the oat -growing 
period. Seed oats 
should be thor- 
oughly cleaned by 
the use of a good 
fanning mill be- 
fore seeding. The 
screens of the mill 
and the blast of 
air should be such 
as to remove all 
foreign seed, hulls, 
trash and light 
and small oats. 
Frequently one- 
quarter or one- 
third of the oats 
may be removed 
in this way. Such 
thorough cleaning 
makes for a uni- 
form stand of vig- 
orous plant in the 

field. 

If there is 
any trouble from 




Two Types of Oat Heads. ^ 

Spreading, or panioled, oats (on the left); side, or horse- 
mane, oats (on the right). 



smut, seed should be treated with formaldehyde; one pound of 40 pe^ 
cent formaldehyde to 45 gallons of water. This is sufficient for treating 
about 45 bushels of oats. The solution must be brought in contact 
with every berry in order to be thoroughly effective. The oats may be 

1 From Farmers' Bulletin 424, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



mcns^rp^v 




TV^SSIBIBlBUt. 



OATS, BARLEY AND RYE 



213 



spread out in a thin layer on a clean floor and the solution applied with 
a sprinkling can. Several thin layers of oats may be placed one on top 
of another, and each sprinkled in this way, after which the whole pile 
should be thoroughly stirred, shoveled into a compact heap, covered with 
a wet blanket and allowed to remain for twelve hours. The blanket 
should then be removed and the oats spread out and occasionally stirred 
until thoroughly dry. 

Preparation of the Seed-Bed. — A large portion of the oats grown in 
the corn belt are seeded on corn ground without any preparation. The 
ground is disked and harrowed, or sometimes cultivated once or twice 
after seeding the oats. It is much better to double disk and harrow once 
before seeding. The better preparation in this way will usually more 
than pay for the increased expense. In some localities shallow plowing 
for oats may prove to be the best method of preparing the seed-bed. When 
seeded on corn land the stalks should be broken down. This is most 
easily accomplished by dragging a heavy pole or iron rail broadside across 
the field on a frosty morning when the ground is frozen. A mellow, 
loose surface soil with a firm subsoil is best for oats. This character of 
seed-bed is secured on corn land by the methods above described. 

Fertilizers and Manures for Oats. — Over most of the spring oat 
' region oats are grown without the direct application of either manure 
or fertilizers. When soils call for manure or fertilizers it is best to apply 
them to the crop preceding oats. In this way the oats receive only the 
residual effect, but this generally meets the needs of the crop. This avoids 
the danger of too rank a growth of straw that is Hkely to cause oats to 
lodge. Oats that lodge badly are not only difficult to harvest, but generally 
cause a failure of grass and clover seeded with them and give rise to a 
reduced >deld of grain. On soil that is in a low state of fertility, or which 
receives no manure or fertilizer for the preceding crop, rather light 
applications of either manure or a complete fertihzer may be applied for 
oats with profit. Experiments show that phosphorus is the most impor- 
tant ingredient to be applied. Some nitrogen, preferably in an immedi- 
ately available form, is generally advisable. Nitrate of soda at the rate 
of 75 to 100 pounds per acre will generally fully meet the needs for nitrogen. 

The fertility removed by oats is given in Table VII in the appendix. 

Time, Rate and Manner of Seeding.— The time of seeding will vary 
with the season and locality, but generally should be as early in the 
spring as soil conditions will permit the preparation of the seed-bed. 
Throughout a considerable part of the oat region, oats are seeded during 
. April. Those seeded during the first half of this month are found to give 
larger yields than those seeded during the last half. In the southern part 
of the district, seeding in March usually gives good results, and in the 
Southern states seeding may take place much earlier. Oats do best if 
they can make the major portion of their growth during the cool part of 
the season, They are often injured by ^ short hot spell as they near 



212 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



and Red Rust Proof, together with Winter Turf, 
winter variety. Burt and Red Rust Proof may be 
winter or spring. 

Seed Oats and Their Preparation for Seeding. 



which is a strictly 
seeded either in the 

—It is important to 
seed only varieties 
that are adapted 
to the conditions 
that prevail, giv- 
ing particular at- 
tention to time of 
maturity as re- 
lated to the pre- 
vaihng climatic 
conditions during 
the oat -growing 
period. Seed oats 
should be thor- 
oughly cleaned by 
the use of a good 
fanning mill be- 
fore seeding. The 
screens of the mill 
and the blast of 
air should be such 
as to remove all 
foreign seed, hulls, 
trash and light 
and small oats. 
Frequently one- 
quarter or one- 
third of the oats 
may be removed 
in this way. Such 
thorough cl(\aning 
makes for a uni- 
form stand of vig- 
orous plant in the 

field. 

If there is 

any trouble from 

smut, seed should be treated with formaldehyde; one pound "f 40 P^r 
cent formaldehyde to 45 gallons of water. This is sufficient for trea ing 
about 45 bushels of oats. The solution must be brought in contact 
with every berry in order to be thoroughly effective. Ihe oats may be 

iFromKarmera' Bulletin 424, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 




Two Types of Oat Heads.' 

Spreading, or panirled, oats (on the left); side, or horso- 

manc, oats (on the right). 



'iiS^w- 



OATS, BARLEY AND RYE 



213 



spread out in a thin layer on a clean floor and the solution applied with 
a sprinkling can. Several thin layers of oats may be placed one on top 
of another, and each sprinkled in this way, after which the whole pile 
should be thoroughly stirred, shoveled into a compact heap, covered with 
a wet blanket and allowed to remain for twelve hours. The blanket 
should then be removed and the oats spread out and occasionally stirred 
until thoroughly dry. 

Preparation of the Seed-Bed. — A large portion of the oats grown in 
the corn belt are seeded on corn ground without any preparation. The 
ground is disked and harrowed, or sometimes cultivated once or twice 
after seeding the oats. It is much better to double disk and harrow once 
before seeding. The better preparation in this way will usually more 
than pay for the increased expense. In some localities shallow plowing 
for oats may prove to be the best method of preparing the seed-bed. When 
seeded on corn land the stalks should be broken down. This is most 
easily accomplished by dragging a heavy pole or iron rail broadside across 
the field on a frosty morning when the ground is frozen. A mellow, 
loose surface soil with a firm subsoil is best for oats. This character of 
seed-bed is secured on corn land by the methods above described. 

Fertilizers and Manures for Oats. — Over most of the spring oat 
region oats are grown without the direct application of either manure 
or fertilizers. When soils call for manure or fertilizers it is best to apply 
them to the crop preceding oats. In this way the oats receive only the 
residual effect, but this generally meets the needs of the crop. This avoids 
the danger of too rank a growth of straw that is likely to cause oats to 
lodge. Oats that lodge badly are not only diflficult to harvest, but generally 
cause a failure of grass and clover seeded with them and give rise to a 
reduced yield of grain. On soil that is in a low state of fertility, or which 
receives no manure or fertilizer for the preceding crop, rather light 
applications of either manure or a complete fertilizer may be applied for 
oats with profit. Experinunits show that phosphorus is the most impor- 
tant ingredient to be applied. Some nitrogen, preferably in an immedi- 
ately available form, is generally advisable. Nitrate of soda at the rate 
of 75 to 100 pounds per acre will generally fully meet the needs for nitrogen. 

The fertility removed by oats is given in Table VII in the appendix. 

Time, Rate and Manner of Seeding.— The time of seeding will vary 
with the season and locality, but generally should be as early in the 
spring as soil conditions will permit the preparation of the seed-bed. 
Throughout a considerable part of the oat region, oats are seeded during 
. April. Those seeded during the first half of this month are found to give 
larger yields than those seeded during the last half. In the southern part 
of the district, seeding in March usually gives good results, and in the 
Southern states seeding may take place much earlier. Oats do best if 
they can make the major portion of their growth during the cool part of 
the season. They are often injured by a short hot spell as they near 



4 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



OATS, BARLEY AND RYE 



215 



214 ^^ 

~~rZ T7rn.t^ or even hard freezes after they are seeded seldoni do 
maturity. Frohts or even uaiu ;,v,mpHiitelv following seeding 

injury, although prolonged wet weather ™";f ^f^^J^^^ ^ f^ f^^mers 

miy cLuse the seed to rot in the ^^^'^f^'f^''^^^^ t the late fall 

in the Northern states a^e now se^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^.^^^^ 

or early winter o « f Jf ^.^ experimental stage, and farmers 
loiSy !; on^J La hnled scale and in an experimental way until it is 
demonstrated to be satisfactory. „hiracter and condition of the 

the small-grained oats. ^^„„„c from 8 to 12 pecks per acre, 

In general, the rate of «^f ^>f /^"^es ^m ^^ J ^^^^ ^^,i^^.„ 
the smaller amount being used when ^"lled and t e urg 
broadcasted. At -eral ,f^^^^^ :S:'ZTi£ToZ broadcasted under „ 
yielded three to five b^jhel^ P^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^.^^j^, have not been secured" 

rSUTatThasl^;^^^^^^^ 

covering will besatisfactory. frequently used as a nurse crop for 

the clovers and grasses. ^„i,!„_ Ont* should be harvested 

Harvesting, Shocking ^nd Threshmg.-Oats should 

when the grain is in the hard dough stage If -^^^.^^ \^^^ ^^^J^ 
ripe, the ^ain shatters bad^y -J^^^^^^iXve a'higher feeding 
considerable loss. When cut eariy lue «u _:„),.. „(. jn crain that may 

value tha. when ^"^-Vc^utlTetrwilf ^ m" i oLt by the in- 
take place as a result of <=""mg^^^^^^^^^^ .^e straw is not utilized (and 
creased value of straw, in rPgi""" "' „+;„„ «iw,iilfl be carefully t mcd 
there should be no such regions) ^If , '^^'i^,^* "^ -^•ould bo C'^^^^^ y 
in order to secure the largest P«f ^le pe M and yrt ^^^^^ J^ ^^^^ 

When cut rather green or when the ^t^^^ ;« « ^ ^ ^ j^, ^^^n 

r t plaliTnf Xks — ^^^^ r^rCrbeTor siloS 
erally best to allow the "les to^l^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^.,^ ^ ,,p ,heaf 

^'^o t pTefS" Sv; trrs toTac^h shock, exclusive of the cap 
7J, is Thbe'S^ number. The cap sheaf should be broken near the 



band and the heads placed toward the direction of the prevailing wind. 
Where wind storms are very prevalent at this time of the year it is best 
not to use cap sheaves. When oats are green or damp, long shocks, made 
by standing the sheaves in pairs and extending north and south, are to 
be preferred. It pays to have the grain properly shocked, even though 
it is to be threshed in a short time and directly from the field. 

If the grain is to be stacked, stacks should be well built. Rails or 
old straw should be used for the foundation to prevent damage to the first 
layer of sheaves. Stacks may be either round or long. The butts should 




A Field of Good Oats being Harvested with a Modern Self-Binder. 

always be laid toward the outside of the stack, and the outside layer 
should always slope downward so that the stack will turn rain. The 
greatest diameter of the stack at the time of construction should be five 
or six feet above the ground. This form in settling accentuates the slop- 
ing of the outside sheaves in the upper portion of the stack. Whether 
oats are to be threshed from the field or stack will be determined largely 
by the threshing custom of the locality. Where the custom of threshmg 
from the field prevails, it will be difficult to get stacked oats threshed 
until field threshing is completed. Stacking entails some additional work, 
but generally improves the quality of the oats. Oats in the shock are 



^^^■4 

.-a/^// 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



214 ^ 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^"^^^^^^^"^^^^^ 

injury, although prolonged wet ''f «'\",7,r,t^nd A fei fu.n.en, 
may rause the se«il to rot m the 80,1 and f"!"" ,™in« otl» h. the late tall 
in the Northern states ».« now seeding »? ^ ™ °ri 1 not germinate 
" early winter » "^ ttStThe^tme'^Sl^'age. .^ .»n.ers 
^l^'Xlt on^y on a iSd seale and in an experimental way nn„l ,t . 

demonstrated to be satistaetory. .,,,„eter and condition of the 

The rate of seedmg depends "n™" *"""'[ ,,„, ,1^^. „( t],, grains 

soil, the fertility of the soil, *e^»a ■ W f ^^^^^^^^^^ „„,„%„„r 

■r.lteS-Set.Ss^'i'ifler m^ Xn.|;;.^ iTirtel^' ^ 

;:i,r;frs ^:^^^r:l:::s^::1^^ -■■ -' 

"■« ttSr'th:'?* of sealing rang. .3 ^^^^^J;:^ -- 

broadcjUited. At ^;''"' »«""; J „,„„ tl„,„ „ats broade.asted nnder 
yieldcKl three « five I-"* ^ IJ^.^^J™ " , ,„„!,» h.ave not been serared 

t^tillr-trhas^Syl^^-nattf^^^^^^^^ 

;Kin '^. SSrrto:.' - 1' i^a dr,. se.d-lx.d, d„per 

;l:n™X'grSiX\"£'e';^u;»g::'a'g^ ».., „„d .and of 

the clovers caiid grasses. „,u;„„ On+s should be harvested 

Harvesting, Shocking ^nd Threshmg.-Oats should 
.-hen the gram is in the hard dough stage If a«^o.ed ^o b^^^^ ^^^^^^.^y 

ripe, the grain shatters badly "^'^^^^^^o a'iugher feeding 
considerable loss. ^^ hen ciit early the straw . ,^ ^ „, 

value than when ^"XoV^uttg'Xvi^be m'olf t'lfan offset by the in- 
take place as a result of cutting earij ^^lu utilized (and 

creasc-d value of straw. In regions where '^^^ ^ ,J^,,;",\,"!fully lin.ed 
there should be no such regions) the /^fj* "^/*;";';^^^ ^f ^^^ain. 

in order to secure the largest P«f '^'^..^ f^;^;.VSa^ the oats 

A\n...vi niif rMtluT 2Teen or when the straw ih uamp, ^ . r u 

"^^BB^=^i^^ :;^y'ho,rbSr i::s 

orally best to allo^v tne nunu j , ^^ ^^.j^h a cap sheaf 

When the oat. are m a good ^^>X'rea.ch «hock, exclusive of the cap 
Teat t [hf b'lS' num;:r:^ The cap sheaf should be broken near the 



OATS, BARLEY AND RYE 



215 



band and the heads placed toward the direction of the prevailing wind. 
Where wind storms are very prevalent at this time of the year it is best 
not to use cap sheaves. When oats are green or damp, long shocks, made 
by standing the sheaves in pairs and extending north and south, are to 
be preferred. It pays to have the grain properly shocked, even though 
it is to be threshed in a short time and directly from the field. 

If the grain is to be stacked, stacks should be well built. Rails or 
old straw should be used for the foundation to prevent damage to the first 
layer of sheaves. Stacks may be either round or long. The butts should 




A Field op Good Oats being Harvested with a Modern Self-Binder. 

always be laid toward the outside of the stack, and the outside layer 
should always slope downward so that the stack will turn rain. The 
greatest diameter of the stack at the time of construction should be five 
or six feet above the ground. This form in settling accentuates the slop- 
ing of the outside sheaves in the upper portion of the stack. Whether 
oats are to be threshed from the field or stack will be determmed largely 
by the threshing custom of the locality. Where the custom of threshmg 
from the field prevails, it will be difficult to get stacked oats threshed 
until field threshing is completed. Stacking entails some additional work, 
but generally improves the quality of the oats. Oats in the shock are 



. \i ija-'j 



itmM 


«^m 




' 






\^i^¥i^-- 


■ 







SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



216 

often badly damaged and suffer great loss from rains. This is largely 
obviated by stacking as soon as in proper condition. ^diusted 

Tn threshing the concaves of the machine should be so adjusted 
that a^l S^S wifl be separated from the straw, but the adjustment should 
i^luchS not to cause serious hulling of the berries or undue cutting of 
the straw Oats are easily threshed when in a dry condition The straw 
at threshing time should be either carefully stacked or run directly into 
a hay-loft or storage-shed, depending on facilities. 

Storine and Marketing.— The threshed grain should be dry when 
out in b^s aXhould be kept dry by adequate protection from rains or 
Sorpt^^n of moisture from any source. Mustiness owers he feeding 
tue and endangers the health of animals. It also lowers the market 
;:iue of the^ain' Where grain weevils and other insects -"J-ly^ff-* 
Itored grain tight bins which can be fumigated are advisable Under 
?.vorabk conditions oats may be stored for a considerable time with 
'r/Se shrinkage and loss." The highest market P^l^^^^^^' 
,ro;i« Hnrinff the eaVlv part of the year and just prior to the oat harvest. 
""^tmpo'sitionSd leading ValJe.-A large portion of the oats grown 
in America are fed to livestock. Limited quantities are used for the 
Inu^ture of prepared cereals. Oats are high in P^^^- and are^^^^^^^^ 
adaoted for work horses and growing animals. They are especiauy 
Slble because of the hulls which they contain, and which dilute the 
concentrate to about the right extent for healthy digestion They are 
^eSlv feci whole, although not infrequently are they chopped and 
Sixed^h other grains. An average of thirty analyses of oats ^ves 
S 3 nercent protein, 5.6 per cent fat and 67.1 per cent carbohydrates, as 
coinpS with 11.8,' 6.1 and 78.1 per cent for those respective items m 

*''*™ Value of Oats for Hay and Soiling Purposes.-If cut when the grain 
is in the milk oats make a palatable and nutritious hay, -P«7»y T," 
suited for hordes. Oats seeded with Canada peas make a good hay for 
r^Uch cows and other cattle. This mixture is also well suited /or soilmg 
nurnoses and provides an eariy soiling crop. By seeding at different 
CsTheTeason of available soiling crops from ^^^^^^ ^i:Z 
«idprablv orolonged. A common rate of seeding this mixture is 1 Dusnei 
S pSts W bi^^^^^ of oats. This mixture also makes good pasture for 

^*^%:t slawtd its Utilization.-Oat straw has a higher fading value 
and is more palatable than straw from the other grains. It is quite gen 
erallvTsed for feeding horses during the winter, and as a main enance 
roughagrfo cattle and sheep. Its feeding value and ^atabihty are 
S^Ln the grain is harvested fairl^^^^^^^^ an t e s.aw .s ^^^^^^^^^^^ 

and the straw has a fertilizer value of about $3 per ton. 



OATS, BARLEY AND RYE 



217 



Cost of Producing Oats.— The Bureau of Statistics of the United 
States Department of Agriculture secured estimates from about 5000 
farmers in all parts of the country on the cost of producing oats in 1909. 
The estimates show an average cost of $10.91 an acre, or 31 cents a bushel. 
On the same farms for that year the average value of the oat crop was 
$14 08 an acre, or 40 cents a bushel. The average net return from grain 
was estimated at $3.17 an acre, to which was added the value of by- 
product to the amount of $1.42, making an average total profit of $4.59 

^^ Oat Improvement.— The improvement of this crop has received 
much less attention from plant breeders and farmers than has corn and 
wheat There are, however, many varieties of oats, most of which have 
originated through selection and breeding. It is important for the farmer 
to secure a variety well suited to his local conditions, and to improve that 
variety by thorough cleaning and grading of seed. There are oppor- 
tunities however, for improvement by selecting exceptional stools ot 
oats and threshing these by hand and planting each in a separate row 
These should be harvested separately and the best ones retained, threshed 
and used for seeding longer rows the following year. In this way new 
strains are frequently secured that are superior to the general crop. 

BARLEY 

The worid's production of barley is about 1,. -300,000,000 hu«hels, of 
which North America produces one-seventh. Of this the United States 
nroduces 166,000,000 and Canada 48,000,000 bushels. In the United 
Sates California', Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South mf-^-d^ 
in barley production. These five states produce 73 per cent of all the 
barlev erown in the United States. 

SoU^and Climatic Adaptation.-Bariey is adapted to a wide range of 
cUmatic conditions, but it does best in ^he North Temperate Zone^^^^^^ 
somewhat more exacting in its soil requirements than either wheat or 
oX It does best on a well-drained loam that - -^^/^fP '.f J^^^^^ 
organic matter. It is quite resistant on alkali soils, and is, therefore, 
1 dinted to such soils in the irrigated districts. . 

aasses and Varieties.-Barley is divided into two-rowed and six- 
rowed forms, depending on the character of the «Pi«;^';-^^„/S^^^^^^^ 
United States the six-rowed form predominates, f^f ^um and Od^^^^^ 
brucken are the leading varieties of this type. It »« ^^« «™^ 
spring and winter, and bearded and beardless types. The bearded spring 

""SpSon of Land and Seeding.-Barley demands a well-prepared 

seed-be:rand should be seeded in the ^1"^ -,-;-£ .'te^s^ 
freezimr is past. Best results are secured by drilling at the rate ot s^x 
toe'ght peTks per acre. Broadcasting the seed usually gives much 
lower yields than drilling. 






-Mrs o~ 



-v »^», 









218 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Harvesting and Use.— Barley is harvested in the same manner as 
oats. It should be shocked in round shocks with cap sheaves, and in 
threshing the cap sheaves are usually threshed separately m order to secure 
as large a proportion as possible of unstained grain. Barley that is dis- 
colored by rains commands a much lower price than bright, unstained grain. 

More than half of the barley produced in North America finds its 
way into the market, and much of it is used in the manufacture of malt. 
Malt is largely used in the production of beer and other malt liQuors 
Barley for this purpose should be clean and bright in color, and should 




A.FiELD OF Winter Barley Seeded after Corn, Anne Arundel County, Md.i 

be free from foreign seeds and broken grains, and possess a high germi- 
nating power. 1 X ui xu +V. 4^ 
Use of By-Products.— Straw from barley is less palatable than that 

of oats or beardless wheat, and is also somewhat less nutritious It 
makes excellent bedding, although the beards are more or less irritating 

to both man and beast. 

RYE 

Rye IS of minor importance both in the United States and Canada. 
Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota and New York produce 
64 per cent of that grown in the United States, while Ontario produces 
the most in Canada. 

1 From Farmers* Bulletin 518, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



1, 



OATS, BARLEY AND RYE 



219 



Adaptation and Culture. — Rye will grow on rather poor soil, and is 
most extensively grown in districts in the temperate zone where the 
soils are low in fertility. It is more hardy than wheat, and this is one of 
the principal reasons for growing it. The time of seeding and cultural 
methods are the same as those for wheat, although there is a somewhat 
wider range in the time of seeding. It may be seeded late in the summer 
and pastured so as to prevent heading during the autumn. It is quite 
extensively used as a cover crop and for green manure. Its hardiness 
and adaptation on poor soils make it especially valuable for these purposes 
in the temperate zone. 

Rye is frequently broadcasted, although it gives better results when 
seeded with a drill. A well-prepared seed-bed is essential to a good stand 
of plants. Five to six pecks of seed per acre are required. 

Uses of Rye.— Rye is frequently used as a soiling crop and occa- 
sionally cut for hay. When used for hay, it should be cut just before the 
heads are out. If not cut early, the straw hardens and makes a tough, 
unpalatable hay. A large part of the grain of rye in America is used in 
the manufacture of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. The grain is excel- 
lent for feeding stock, but it gives best results when used in small quan- 
tities and combined with other grains. It is best suited for hogs, horses 
and poultry. The grain, being very hard, generally gives best results 
when coarsely ground. 

REFERENCES 
"Small Grains." Carleton. 
''Field Crops." Livingston. 
Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

395. *' Sixty-day and Kherson Oats.' 

420. *'Oats: Distribution and Uses." 

424. ''Oats: Growing the Crop." 

427. ''Barley Culture in the Southern States. 

43G. "Winter Oats for the South." 

443. "Barley: Growing the Crop." 

518. "Winter Barley." 






218 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Harvesting and Use.— Barley is harvested in the same manner as 
oats. It should be shocked in round shocks with cap sheaves, and in 
threshing the cap sheaves are usually threshed separately in order to secure 
as large a proportion as possible of unstained grain. Barley that is dis- 
colored by rains commands a much lower price than bright, unstained grain. 

More than half of the barley produced in North America finds its 
way into the market, and much of it is used in the manufacture of malt. 
Malt is largely used in the production of beer and other malt hquors. 
Barley for this purpose should be clean and bright in color, and should 




A Field of Winter Barley Seeded after Corn, Anne Arundel County, IMd.i 

be free from foreign seeds and broken grains, and possess a high germi- 
nating power. 1 X 1 1 xu XI 4- 
Use of By-Products.— vStraw from barley is less palatable than that 
of oats or beardless wheat, and is also somewhat less nutritious. It 
makes excellent l^edding, although the beards are more or less irritating 

to both man and beast. 

RYE 

Rye is of minor importance both in the Ignited States and Canada. 
Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota and New York produce 
64 per cent of that grown in the United States, while Ontario produces 
the most in Canada. 

1 From Farmers* Bulletin 518, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 



OATS, BARLEY AND RYE 



219 



Adaptation and Culture. — Rye will grow on rather poor soil, and is 
most extensively grown in districts in the temi)erate zone where the 
soils an^ low in fertility. It is more hardy than wheat, and this is one of 
the principal reasons for growing it. The time of seeding and cultural 
methods are the same as those for wheat, although there is a somewhat 
wider range in the time of seeding. It may be seeded late in the summer 
and pastured so as to prevent heading during the autumn. It is quite 
extensively used as a cover crop and for green manure. Its hardiness 
and adaptation on poor soils make it especially valuable for these purposes 
in the temperate zone. 

Rye is frequently broadcasted, although it gives better results when 
seeded with a drill. A well-prepared seed-bed is essential to a good stand 
of plants. Five to six pecks of seed per acre are required. 

Uses of Rye. — Rye is frequently used as a soiling crop and occa- 
sionally cut for hay. When used for hay, it should be cut just before the 
heads are out. If not cut early, the straw hardens and makes a tough, 
unpalatable hay. A large part of the grain of rye in America is used in 
the manufacture of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. The grain is excel- 
lent for feeding stock, but it gives best results when used in small quan- 
tities and combined with other grains. It is best suited for hogs, horses 
and poultry. The grain, being very hard, generally gives best results 
when coarsely ground. 

REFERENCES 

''Small Grains." Carleton. 

"Field Oops." Livin|2;ston. 

Fanners' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Ap;rioultiire : 

395. "Sixty-day and Kherson Oats." 

420. "Oats: Distribution and Uses." 

424. *'Oats: Growing the Crop." 

427. "l^arley Culture in the Southern States. 

436. ''Winter Oats for the South." 

443. "I^arley: Growing the Crop." 

518. "Whiter Barley." 



CHAPTER 14 

BUCKWHEAT. RICE. FLAX. EMMER. KAFFIR CORN AND SUNFLOWER 

BUCKWHEAT 
Buckwheat is a minor crop in most parts of America « «an be 

a number ot years ,u "['"g "{,„iKj gt^^s is about 800,000 seres. 
C" Y^ i™^n„^ylva;ia prJuce about 77 per eent ot the «al 

-ntSteu spoken o, as tbe -I^^^^^^^^JI:^ Stfatld*; 

'-''^^rjLrSt'AT^'t.'Son^BtklC'dtZi in a .oist 

eo„,!,lara„^Tr^*aes S-^^^^^^ 

^ „:^,r=:«;srrer'ot ^Jr^ruUre a Lp o, .rain 

• \^u^ +r. +pn wppks under favorable conditions. 

■° ^'ttratTSap^a to a wide ™n.e «', »;»;^-^ X^^S !» 

tr.S'*' ^r^^::'tSrre'S?rw J^'X= soi. a^ or ..ber ,o„ 

''""{^iie..«.--Tbe varieties «o„^o tbo^Uni^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

To,**S; TeTa^anf . If tbere yrS^ t'^e SSe" anTir 

^^wrvt^jsrxraS?^" -- *«^^ " - -^ -- '- 

"" 'Seiwr.tion of SoU and S«ding.-Early plo™s of the land in order 
to pe^K'wing at h.tervai, of two ^^J' -■> "^J-^Sof^fbH 
'^eX' ^::„"ioTt=ld"S 'i^etra tJS t/of the ^ed->.d 

L"3:i':;iirwth««orb«^^^^^^^^ 

(220) 



BUCKWHEAT, RICE, FLAX, ETC. 



221 



unless the drill hoes are close together. The later buckwheat is sown so as 
to get ripe before frost, the better the yield will be. It is seldom advisable 
to seed earlier than the last week in June, and in some localities it may be 
seeded as late as the second week in July. 

Fertilizers and Rotations. — Buckwheat seeded on poor land responds 
well to a moderate dressing of low-grade fertilizer. On heavy soils where it 
is desired to grow potatoes, buckwheat is recommended as a good crop 
to precede potatoes. The following rotation is recommended for such soils: 
clover, buckwheat, potatoes, oats or wheat seeded with clover. With 
this arrangement the first crop of clover is harvested early and the land 
immediately plowed and seeded to buckwheat. This gives two crops 
during the season preceding potatoes, and leaves the land in excellent 
condition for potatoes. 

Harvesting and Threshing. — The harvesting of buckwheat should be 
delayed until the approach of cold weather, because the plants continue 
to bloom and produce seed until killed by frost. The self-rake reaper is 
well adapted to cutting buckwheat. The machine used should leave the 
buckwheat in compact gavels with as little shattering as possible. The 
self-binder is sometimes used, being set to deliver small bundles loosely 
bound. However it may be harvested, it should be set upright in the field 
so as to prevent the grain lying on the ground. It is customary to haul the 
grain directly from the field to the threshing machine, as it is likely to mould 
when placed in stacks. 

In threshing by machinery, neither the crop nor the day need be 
especially dry. The spiked concave of the thresher is generally replaced 
with a smooth one or a suitable plank. This avoids serious cracking of the 
grain and unnecessary breaking of the straw. 

Buckwheat weighs 48 pounds to the bushel, and 35 bushels per acre is 
considered a good yield,' while 25 bushels is satisfactory^ . The average yield 
of buckwheat in the United States is 18 to 19 bushels per acre. 

Uses of Buckwheat.— Buckwheat is used chiefly in the manufacture 
of pancake flour. In some sections, and especially when the market price 
is low, it is used quite extensively for feeding livestock. It is an excellent 
poultry feed. The straw, being coarse and stiff, is of Uttle value except for 
bedding or to make manure. 

In some localities buckwheat is used as a green manuring crop. It 
serves well for this purpose because it grows quickly, may occupy the land 
after an early crop is removed, and leaves the soil in a loose condition. 
The seed being comparatively inexpensive and requiring only a moderate 
amount, makes it inexpensive from the standpoint of seeding. It is fre- 
quently used as a catch crop, being seeded in fields where other crops fail 

from whatever cause. 

Buckwheat is an excellent bee feed. It blossoms for a considerable 
period of time and affords an abundance of nectar which makes honey of 
good quality. 



222 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



RICE 

Rice is unique in its culture, because it depends upon irrigation It is 
one of the oldest cereals, and is also one of the greatest food crops, being a 
staole article of diet for millions of people in India, China and Japan, ihe 
wtM\ rnnual production is approximately 175,000,000,000 pounds of 
deaned rice, the greater portion of which is grown in India, China and 
Jnmn £;« article of food in the United States it is of minor importance, 
and y^t tTe production in this country falls short of the consumption by 
Ibout 200,000,000 pounds annually. 

Sou and Climatic Adaptation.— Rice is adapted to a moist, warin 
climate, and its production in the United States is confined to the South 
Atlantic and Gulf Coast states. The bulk of the crop is now produced in 
Texas, Louisi ma and Arkansas. Prior to 1890 it was produced mostly 

in the Carolinas and Georgia. . • , , t tv.^ 

Since the lowland forms which constitute the principal source of the 
crop require irrigation, it demands a level soil with a compact subsoil that 
will prevent rapid downward movement of water. Such soils are found 
along the bottom lands of the rivers and on the level prairies of Texas and 

^""preparation of Land and Seeding.-The land is usually plowed in the 
spring and disked and harrowed to provide a good seed-bed Ihe rice is 
seeded at the rate of one or two bushels per acre with a seed drill, usually 
from April 15th to May 15th. Unless water is needed to germinate the 
seed the land is not flooded until the plants arc six to eight inches high. If 
the soil is too dry the land may be flooded immediatelj, after seeding for 
a few days to sprout the seed, after which the water is removed until the 

plants are six to eight inches high. ^ i, j u^ 

Weeds are often a serious menace to rice culture. Such weeds may be 
brought on rice fields in the irrigation water or may find their way there in 
the seed rice. Red rice is a serious pest, and seed should not be used in which 
it occurs. The presence of red rice in milled rice lo^^'ers its grade and 
reduces its price. Red rice, being stronger, hardier and more persistent 
than white rice, soon gets a foothold in the fields unless precautions are 

taken to prevent it. . . , xu 

Fertilizers are seldom used in the production of rice, because the prac- 
tice of irrigation brings to the land some fertility in the water. This is 
especially true when the water is not clear. Furthermore, rice lands, being 
either river bottom land or prairie land, are generally very fertile. In the 
course of time, however, if rice is grown continuously, fertilizers will be 

"^^'^Flooding or Irrigation.-W.ater is let into the rice fi<'ld to a depth of 
three to six inches, and is maintained at this depth until the crop is nearly 
mature Water of a rather high and uniform temperature is preferred. 
Sold water from mountain streams is undesirable. The water is constantly 
renewed to prevent it from becoming stagnant. This necessitates a slow 






BUCKWHEAT, RICE, FLAX, ETC. 



223 



movement of water across the rice field, and for this reason it is not advis- 
able to have the fields too large. Irrigation necessitates the land being 
practically level and surrounded by dikes. ! 

There should be good facilities for draining, since land must be in 
good condition when prepared for seeding and should be fairly dry at the 
time of harvesting. 

Harvesting- and Threshing. — It requires from four to six months to 
mature a crop of rice and the date of harvesting in the United States 
varies from August to October, depending on time of seeding, character of 
season and variety of rice. The crop should be harvested when the grain 
is in the stiff dough stage and the straw somewhat green. The ordinary 
grain binder is used for harvesting the crop, and the methods of shocking, 
stacking and threshing are very similar to those used in wheat production. 

Yields and Value. — Rough rice weighs 45 pounds to the bushel. It 
is generally put into barrels of 162 pounds each, and the yield is spoken of 
in barrels, and ranges from 8 to 30 barrels per acre; 12 barrels is considered 
a good yield. The hulls or chaff constitute 12 to 25 per cent of the weight 
of the rice, depending on variety and condition. In 1910 the total crop in 
the United States was valued at $16,000,000, or about $20 per acre. The 
rice is prepared in mills which remove the husk and cuticle and polish the 
surface of the grain. In this condition it is placed upon the market. 

FLAX 

Flax is grown in Canada and in a few of the Northern states. Nearly 
nine-tenths of the flax of the United States is grown in North and South 

Dakota and in Minnesota. 

Soil and Clhnate Adaptation.— Flax grows best in a cool climate and 
on soils that are not too heavy. Sandy loams are better adapted to the 
crop than clay loams or heavy clays. It is extensively grown on virgin 
prairie soil, and is well adapted for seeding on the rather tough prairie sod 
when plowed for the first time. The roots of flax develop extensively near 
the surface of the soil. It is often considered an exhaustive crop, but the 
actual removal of plant-food constitutents is less than in most other farm 
crops Its shallow, sparse root system and the small amount of stubble 
usually left in the field probably explain why it is considered exhaustive. 

Preparation of Land and Seedmg.— Where grovm on virgin prairie land, 
the sod should be broken about four inches deep and completely inverted 
in order to make a smooth surface for seeding the flax. On newly plowed 
land flax is seeded broadcast at the rate of one-half bushel per acre, and 
covered by harrowing. It is thought better to fall-break sod, and to provide 
a better prepared seed-bed the following spring by thorough disking and 
harrowing. In this process the sod should not be loosened from its place, 
and the roller is frequently used to compact the seed-bed and keep it smooth 
and also level to facilitate the covering of the seed at a uniform depth. 

Where flax is grown on old land it follows corn to good advantage, and 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



BUCKWHEAT, RICE, FLAX, ETC. 



225 



224 

tl!"sS KSr :l ^^ Su>.s. The seed should be »vere<, 

irr^e-r/h 'r rtTSiJSela: Se"; J'^lU .^ deve,«. 




A Field op Flax in Bloom.» 

ment When flax is grown chiefly tor the fiber one and a halt to two 

"^Sf 'Sd'iSilS^'-na. n,ay be harvested either with the 
self^r::^? or *»nder W^^^^^^^ 

e;t^h"1hr^ireS i:;SW*;r. Tho^rawM^^^^^^^^^^ 

Tl^T^sJ^ sr^n^itteTo^' StK'«p^ 

wt iTvirt the binder the bundles should be set in small, loo»! shocks 
rSardryinV'^ie highest quality ot »^ tor market demands 

*"^S.S Sotrli* r o^lTttSS:;^ -^^-e and neeessi. 

. ^. ^ „^ Q, Paul Minn. From "Field Crops." by Wilson and 

T^urtesy of Webb Publishing Company. St. Paul, Mmn. 

Warburton. 



tates having the concaves set fairly close in order to separate all the seed 
from the straw. The seed is small and flat and is but little broken in the 
procpss of threshing. 

The threshed seed is generally placed in strong, closely woven bags 
and securely tied. The seed, being small, flat and exceedingly smooth, will 
run almost like water, and requires exceedingly tight bins for its storage 
and very tight wagon boxes in case it is to be hauled unbagged. 

Yield and Value of Crop. — The yield of flax seed ranges fiom 8 to 20 
bushels per acre. Since most of the flax is produced by extensive methods 
and on new land, the average yield for the United States is about 9 bushels. 
The price generally ranges from $1 to $1.50 per bushel. During the last 
few years a scarcity of flax has caused a somewhat higher price. A bushel 
of flax will produce about twenty pounds of crude linseed oil, and the 
oil cake after the removal of the oil is worth from 1 to 1^ cents per 
pound. The average annual production in the United States for ten 
years ending 1911 was about 24,000,000 bushels, valued at approximately 

$28,000,000. 

UtUization.— Flax is grown chiefly for its seed, from which is made 
linseed oil, extensively used in the manufacture of paints. The meal, after 
the extraction of the oil, finds a ready sale as a nitrogenous stock food, and 
is extensively used as a concentrate for dairy cows. 

The straw is utilized in only a limited way. It makes fair roughage 
for stock, although not as valuable as oat straw. In some localities the 
straw is used in the manufacture of tow, which is used in making rough 

cordage and twine. 

In the old world the plant is extensively used for the manufacture ot 
fiber. This necessitates pulling the plants by hand and requires special 
facilities for treating the straw and separating the fiV)er. Labor is too 
expensive in this country to enable American flax to compete with that ot 
the old world in this respect. Ground flax seed in small amounts is a 
splendid feed for all kinds of stock. It acts as a tonic and has a good 
effect upon the digestive system. 

Diseases of Flax.— Flax is so seriously troubled with a disease 
known as flax wilt that it necessitates the use of treated seed selected 
from wilt-resistant plants. The formalin treatment described for wheat 
serves equally well for the treatment of flax seed. Flax seed will 
require only about one-half gallon of the solution to each bushel of seed. 
It should be thoroughly stirred after sprinkling, covered with canvas 
treated with formalin, and allowed to remain two or three hours and 
then stirred and dried. After thoroughly dry it may be placed in bags 
which have been treated with formalin to prevent the presence of wilt 

^Snce this disease may live in the soil for several years in the absence 
of flax, it is necessary to practice long rotations in which flax will not be 
grown more frequently than once in five to seven years. 

15 



■i^M' 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



BUCKWHEAT, RICE, FLAX, ETC, 



225 



224 

S"." rriVSi wl tStul" The I.. shouU, ^ eovc^d 
from one-hain..cl. to an inch ''"P; „j j^„ ,„te ^nd within 




A Field of Flax in Bloom.^ 

ment When flax is grown chiefly for the fiber one and a half to two 

""^''ta^ler^zZ^TLll^^tn.. may be harvested either with the 
self-rake reap^for self-bin.lor. When harvested with the reaper the gavels 
BhouTd be rolled and set upright. The hea.ls become entangled m such a 
w^y as to hold the rolled gavels together. The straw .s ^^^-^'-^^y^^^^^ 
that it is necessary to cut as close to the ground as possible, and thi.s calls 
r a lever L«t-bod that will facilitate close cutt ng w.h machinery 
When cut vith the binder the bundles should be set in small loose shocks 
rfaci?Hate drying. The highest q^iality of seed or market demands 
threshing from the shock as soon as it can be safely done. 

Threshhig is done with the ordinary threshing machine and necessi- 

— T^^osv of Webb Publishing Company, St. Paul. Minn. Fron. "Field Crops." by Wilson and 
Warburtoa. 



tates having the concaves set fairly close in order to separate all the seed 
from the straw. The seed is small and flat and is but little broken in the 
process of threshing. 

The threshed seed is generally placed in strong, closely woven bags 
and securely tied. The seed, being small, flat and exceedingly smooth, will 
run almost like water, and requires exceedingly tight bins for its storage 
and very tight wagon boxes in case it is to be hauled unbagged. 

Yield and Value of Crop. — The yield of flax seed ranges fioxYi 8 to 20 
bushels per acre. Since most of the flax is produced by extensive methoa:^ 
and on new land, the average yield for the United States is about 9 bushels. 
The price generally ranges from $1 to $1.50 per bushel. During the last 
few years a scarcity of flax has caused a somewhat higher price. A bushel 
of flax will produce al^out twenty pounds of crude linseed oil, and the 
oil cake after the removal of the oil is worth from 1 to 13^ cents per 
pound. The average annual production in the United States for ten 
years ending 1911 was about 24,000,000 bushels, valued at approximately 

$28,000,000. 

Utilization.— Flax is grown chiefly for its seed, froni which is made 
linseed oil, extensively used in the manufacture of paints. The meal, after 
the extraction of the oil, finds a ready sale as a nitrogenous stock food, and 
is extensively used as a concentrate for dairy cows. 

The straw is utilized in only a limited way. It makes fair roughage 
for stock, although not as valuable as oat straw. In some localities the 
straw is used in the manufacture of tow, which is used in making rough 

cordage and twine. 

In the old world the plant is extensively used for the manufacture of 
fiber. This necessitates pulling the plants by hand and requin^s special 
facilities for treating the straw and separating the fi])er. Labor is too 
expensive in this country to enal)le American flax to compete with that of 
the old world in this respect. Ground flax seed in small amounts is a 
splendid fcnnl for all kinds of stock. It acts as a tonic and has a good 
effect upon the digestive system. 

Diseases of Flax.— Flax is so seriously troubled with a disease 
known as flax wilt that it necessitates the use of treated seed selected 
from wilt-resistant plants. The formalin treatment described for wheat 
serves equally well for the treatment of flax seed. Flax seed will 
require only about one-half gallon of the solution to each bushel of seed. 
It should be thoroughly stirred after sprinkling, covered with canvas 
treated with formalin, and allowed to remain two or three hours and 
then stirred and dried. After thoroughly dry it may be placed m bags 
which have been treated with formalin to prevent the presence of wilt 

spores. . 

Since this disease may live in the soil for several years m the absence 
of flax, it is necessary to practice long rotations in which flax will not be 
grown more frequently than once in five to seven years. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



226 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



BUCKWHEAT, RICE, FLAX, ETC. 



227 



KAFFIR CORN 
Kaffir corn is a non-saccharine sorghum. The sorghums are generally 
divided into three classes: (1) those cultivated chiefly for grain, of which 
Kaffir, milo and dura are the best types; (2) those cultivated for the manu- 
facture of brooms; and (3) those grown chiefly for the production of syrup. 
Regions of Production.- -Kaffir corn, milo and dura are grown chiefly 
between the 98th meridian and the Rocky Mountains, and south of 

40 degrees north latitude. 
Tills crop is drought 
resistant and adapted 
especially to the dry 
conditions of the Great 
Plains region. 

Value and Uses.—- 
Kaffir corn is used chiefly 
as a source of stock food. 
The grain is similar in 
composition to ordinary 
corn, and has about the 
same feeding value. In 
composition there is very 
little difi^erence between 
tlie stover of corn and 
Kaffir corn. Any surplus 
of the grain finds a ready 
market, and is in much 
demand for poultry feed. 
The grain may be fed 
either whole or crushed. 
It is somewhat softer 
than the grain of corn 
and the kernels, being 
smaller, can be used for 
poultry without crush- 
ing. It makes excellent 
feed for horses, cattle 
and swine. 

Varieties. — There 
are many varieties in each of the three classes of non-saccharine sorghums. 
The Kaffir corn proper has erect, compact seed heads and the foliage is 
more leafy than that of milo. The seed heads of the latter are usually 
pendant, the stalks are less leafy and the plant is generally earlier in 
maturity. It is, therefore, adapted to the northern portion of the Kaffir com 
region, and to those localities where seed production is most important. 

» From Farraera' Bulletin 686, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 




Heads of Four Varieties of Kaffir.^ 

A— WTiite Kaffir; B— Guinea Kaffir (Guinea com 
of the West Indies); C— Blackhull Kaffir; D— Ited 
Kaffir. (About one-fifth natural size.) 



Production and Harvesting. — The preparation of the land, the planting 
and the cultivation of Kaffir corn are similar to those required for com under 
the same conditions. The seed should be drilled in rows sufficiently far 
apart to facilitate cultivation with two-horse cultivators, usually 3| feet 
apart. The seed is drilled at such a rate that the plants in the row will 
stand from 4 to 6 inches apart. For small growing varietips plants may be 
closer than in case of the larger varieties. Planting should not bakp place 
until the soil is quite warm. It is usually best to plant about ten days 
later than the best time for planting field corn. It is advisable to have a 
well-prepared seed-bed free from weeds. The plants as they first appear 
are small and make slow 
growth. 

The crop may be har- 
vested by cutting the whole 
plant and placing in small 
shocks, or the seed heads may 
be removed and stored in nar- 
row, well-ventilated cribs. 
After removing the seed heads 
the stalks may be cut and 
shocked or they may be pas- 
tured as they stand in the 
field. In some localities the 
whole plant is cut and put in 
the silo in the same manner as 
making ensilage of field corn. 
The yield of grain is fully as 
large as that of field corn grain 
under similar conditions, and 
the drought-resistance of the 
crop makes it more certain than corn. Fifty bushels per acre is con- 
sidered a good yield. The seed is separated from the head by means of a 
threshing machine. The weight of threshed grain per bushel is 56 pounds. 

EMMER 

Emmer, also known as spelt, is closely related to wheat, but is distin- 
guished from it by the grain, which remains enclosed in the glumes when 
threshed. There are both spring and winter varieties. The spring varie- 
ties are most extensively grown in the northern portion of the Great Plains 
region. The crop is characterized by its ability to make a satisfactory 
growth on almost any kind of soil All of the varieties are drought resistant, 
and the winter varieties are fairly hardy. It is not attacked by rusts and 
smuts to the same extent as wheat and oats. 




Emmer. 1 
A good substitute for oats and barley. 



^From Farmers' Bulletin 466, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



•.vV- 









226 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



KAFFIR CORN 
Kaffir corn is a non-saccharine sorghum. The sorghums are generally 
divided into three classes: (1) those cultivated chiefly for grain, of which 
Kaffir, milo and dura are the best types; (2) those cultivated for the manu- 
facture of brooms; and (3) those grown chiefly for the production of syrup. 
Regions of Production.- -Kaffir corn, milo and dura are grown chiefly 
between the 98th meridian and the Rocky Mountains, and south of 

40 degrees north latitude. 
This crop is drought 
resistant and adapted 
especially to the dry 
conditions of the Great 
Plains region. 

Value and Uses. — 
Kaffir corn is used chiefly 
as a source of stock food. 
The grain is similar in 
composition to ordinary 
corn, and has about the 
same feeding value. In 
composition there is very 
little difference between 
the stover of corn and 
Kaffir corn. Any surplus 
(»f the grain finds a ready 
market, and is in much 
demand for poultry feed. 
The grain may be fed 
either whole or crushed. 
It is somewhat softer 
than the grain of corn 
and the kernels, being 
smaller, can be used for 
poultry without crush- 
ing. It makes excellent 
feed for horses, cattle 
and swine. 

Varieties. — There 



BUCKWHEAT, RICE, FLAX, ETC. 



227 




Heads of Four Varieties of Kaffir.^ 

A— "VMiite Kaffir; B— Guinea Kaffir (Guinea com 
of the West Indies); C— Blackhull Kaffir; D— R^d 
Kaffir. (About one-fifth natural size.) 



are many varieties in each of the three classes of non-saccharine sorghums. 
The Kaffir corn proper has erect, compact seed heads and the foliage is 
more leafy than that of milo. The seed heads of the latter are usually 
pendant, the stalks are less leafy and the plant is generally earlier in 
maturity. It is, therefore, adapted to the northern portion of the Kaffir com 
region, and to those localities where seed production is most important. 

iFrom Farmers* Bulletin 686, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Production and Harvesting. — The preparation of the land, the planting 
and the cultivation of Kaffir corn are similar to those required for corn under 
the same conditions. The seed should be drilled in rows sufficiently far 
apart to facilitate cultivation with two-horse cultivators, usually 3§ feet 
apart. The seed is drilled at such a rate that the plants in the row will 
stand from 4 to 6 inches apart. For small growing varietips plants may be 
closer than in case of the larger varieties. Planting should not lakp place 
until the soil is quite warm. It is usually best to plant about ten days 
later than the best time for planting field corn. It is advisable to have a 
well-prepared seed-bed free from weeds. The plants as they first appear 
are small and make slow 
growth. 

The crop may be har- 
vested by cutting the whole 
plant and placing in small 
shocks, or the seed heads may 
be removed and stored in nar- 
row, well-ventilated cribs. 
After removing the seed heads 
the stalks may be cut and 
shocked or they may be pas- 
tured as they stand in the 
field. In some localities the 
whole plant is cut and put in 
the silo in the same manner as 
making ensilage of field corn. 
The yield of grain is fully as 
large as that of field corn grain 
under similar conditions, and 
the drought-resistance of the 
crop makes it more certain than corn. Fifty bushels per acre is con- 
sidered a good yield. The seed is separated from the head by means of a 
threshing machine. The weight of threshed grain per bushel is 56 pounds. 

EMMER 

Emmer, also known as spelt, is closely related to wheat, but is distin- 
guished from it by the grain, which remains enclosed in the glumes when 
threshed. There are both spring and winter varieties. The spring varie- 
ties are most extensively grown in the northern portion of the Great Plains 
region. The crop is characterized by its ability to make a satisfactory 
growth on almost any kind of soil. All of the varieties are drought resistant, 
and the winter varieties are fairly hardy. It is not attacked by rusts and 
smuts to the same extent as wheat and oats. 

^From Farmers' Bulletin 466, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 




Emmer. ^ 
A good substitute for oats and barley. 



228 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



BUCKWHEAT, RICE, FLAX, ETC. 



229 



It stands up well in the field and is little damaged by wet weather at 

harvest time. 

The methods used in the seedmg of other spring grams will apply to 
emmer. The seed should be drilled at the rate of about two bushels per 
acre. ' It is important to sow early. The grain will stand a great deal of 

spring frosts. 

Eminor is well adapted to the feeding of stock, and will easily take the 

place of oats, barley or rye. 

A comparative test of emmer as compared with other spring grains 
covering a period of eight years at the North Dakota Experiment Station 
shows comparatively little difference in the yield of grain from the several 
crops. Oats led with 1969 pounds per acre, while emmer was second with 
1945 pounds to the acre. The lowest yield, 1711 pounds per acre, was from 

wheat. 

While this crop is especially adapted to the semi-arid conditions of the 
Northwest, it is suggested that it might prove a profitable substitute for 
oats in those portions of the Central, Southern and Eastern states where 
oats prove unsatisfactory. 

SUNFLOWERS 

Sunflowers are a native of America, and are widely but not extensively 
growTi. The leaves and heads of the plant make good fodder for horses and 
cattle. The seeds are used for bird and poultry food and also for the manu- 
facture of oil. Sunflowers succeed best on rather fertile soil and with warm 
climatic conditions. The requirements are similar to those for corn. The 
seed should be planted in drills sufficiently far apart for cultivation, and 
should be thinned to one plant every 12 to 14 inches in the row. 

When the heads form, it is advisable to remove all but two or three on 

each plant. 

The heads should be harvested before the seed is fully ripe. This 
prevents loss of seed by shattering and damage by birds. The heads 
should be spread out on a barn floor or other suitable place until dry. They 
may then be stored in bulk. Where used on the farm for poultry, there is 
no need for threshing the seed. The cost of growing sunflowers is much the 
same as for corn. The harvesting, however, is much more expensive, 
and until suitable methods for harvesting and threshing and storing are 
devised, the crop is not likely to be extensively grown. 

Yields ranging from 1000 to 2250 pounds of seed per acre are reported. 
The seed weighs 30 pounds per bushel. 



REFERENCES 

''Manual of Flax Culture." 

North Dakota Expt. Station Circular 6. ''Flax. 

North Dakota Expt. Station Circular 7. ''Flax for Seed and Oil. 

Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

274. ''Flax Culture." 

322. "Milo as a Dry Land Grain Crop." 

417. ''Rice Culture." 

448. "Better Grain. Sorghum Crops." 

466. "Winter Emmer." 

652. "Kaffir Corn as a Grain Crop." 

669. "Fiber Flax." 

688. "The Culture of Rice in Calif ornia. 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



231 



CHAPTER IS 

MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 

Meadow and pasture grasses constitute an important and desirable 
part of the roughage for most classes of livestock. Livestock is indis- 
pensable as a part of good agriculture. An old Flemish proverb says, 
''No grass, no cattle; no cattle, no manure; no manure, no crops.'' The 
history of agriculture of many countries shows that where the production 
of grasses has been neglected, agriculture has declined. England neglected 
the grass crops and her yield of wheat fell to less than fifteen bushels per 
acre. She then turned her attention to grasses and the yield increased to 
over thirty bushels per acre. Of her 28,000,000 acres of tilled land, over 
one-half are now in permanent pastures. For the past forty-five years 
permanent pastures of England have increased at about one per cent 
annually. This should convince the American farmer that in order to 
grow grain profitably crops must be rotated, and in this rotation grass 
should find a prominent place. Some far-sighted farmers in North 
America saw this many years ago, and in the corn belt those who have 
grown grass are today husking sixty bushels of corn per acre, while those 
who did not must be content with about thirty bushels. 

Importance and Value of Grasses. — According to the last census the 
hay crop of the United States was 61,000,000 tons, valued at $750,000,000. 
This does not include the annual hay and forage crops and various kinds 
of by-products, such as straw and corn stover. This amount of hay will 
sustain the livestock of the United States about one-fourth of the year, 
and must be supplemented by about 200,000,000 tons of other forms of 
feed. Considerable of this comes from the pastures, for which we have 
no definite statistics. The combined value of hay and pasture grasses 
far exceeds that of any other crop excepting corn. 

Regions of Production. — The perennial hay and pasture grasses 
succeed best in the northeastern one-fourth of the United States and in 
goutheastern Canada. This grass region extends south to the Potomac 
and Ohio rivers and to the southern border of Missouri and Kansas, 
and is limited on the west by about the 96th meridian. The region is 
characterized by a cool, moist climate and moderate to abundant rainfall. 

Principal Grasses of North America.— There are several hundred 
species of grasses, but of these there are less than one dozen that are of 
economic importance in North America. Those of greatest importance 
in the order mentioned are timothy, blue grass, redtop, Bermuda grass, 
orchard grass, smooth brome grass and Johnson grass. There are a 
number of others that are grown on a very limited scale, among which 

(230) 



may be mentioned tall oat grass, meadow fescue, tall fescue, English rye 
grass, Italian rye grass, sheep's fescue, red fescue, Sudan grass and sweet 
vernal grass. 

Valuable Characteristics. — To be valuable under cultivation grasses 
should give satisfactory yields, possess good feeding value, be capable 
of easy reproduction and be reasonably aggressive. To these might be 
added, habit of seeding freely so that seed can be cheaply harvested, 
together with hardiness or ability to withstand adverse climatic conditions. 

Choice of Grasses. — The kind of grass to grow will depend on what 
one wishes to do with it. For pastures a mixture or variety of grasses is 




Map Showing Region of Grass Production in the United States.^ 

desirfible for a number of reasons. In the first place, a variety of grasses 
lends variety to the forage for the pastured animals, and induces them 
to partake of more food and consequently make more growth. A variety 
often prolongs the season of pasturage, some grasses making their growth 
in the early and late portions of the growing season when weather con- 
ditions are cool, and others growing more freely in the warmer portion* of 
the season. Variety also increases the total yield because of the variation 
in habits of growth of both roots and foliage. 

When grown chiefly for hay, the yield, quality and palatability of 
the crop secured are important. The cost of establishing, both in direct 
outlay for seed and in the preparation of the seed-bed, should be considered, 

* Courtesy of The Macmillan Company, N. Y. From "Forage Plants and Their Culture," by Piper. 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



233 



232 

CSy »Uow iS, thus causing a large percentage ot the s^a„ 

irequt^iitij onalitv of the seed used is also a tactor ana 

^^"t.^^Ct largely ^ PU-hase of only first-class seed. 

;tL"t^ 51 fXwin. taV>le gives the rate of seeding, the cost of seed 
per pound and the calculated cost per acre : 

Cost of Seed per Acre, Using Average Amount. "^ 



Plant. 



Rate of 
Seeding, 
pounds. 



Cost of 

Seed per 

Pound. 



Timothy 

Orchard p;rass 

Kedtop 

Brome p-ass 

Kentucky blue jiras 
Italian rye gratis... 
Perennial rye jn*ass 

Tall oat grass 

Tall fescue 

Meadow fescue 

Ked clover 

Alsike clover 

Alfalfa 

Sweet clover 



15 


$0.06^ 


20 


.15 


10 


.10 


20 


.10 


25 


.14 


30 


.05 


30 


.05 


30 


.14 


20 


.18 


20 


.11 


12 


.17 


8 


.20 


20 


.15 


20 


.20 



Cost of 

Seed per 

Acre. 



SO. 975 
3.00 
1.00 
2.00 
3.50 
1.50 
1.50 
4.20 
3.60 
2.20 
2.04 
1.60 
3.00 
4.00 



farmers are advised not only to "f ?J^[^ P^^ , ^^ ^gg ^n abundance 

o good ^^f^^J'r'l^ these precautions becomes greater. The extra 
^'^ '. ?orSa seeLg will pay abundantly in the vast majority of 
^''P^^^^ i,^V deal seed bed is moist and finely pulverized. The slant- 
toThed harrowTs the best implement for making the final preparation. 



Harvesting.— The time of harvesting grasses for hay will be deter- 
mined- (1) by the weather conditions that prevail at the period of 
maturity, (2) the injury to the succeeding crop as determined by time ot 
cutting, (3) the total yield as determined by stage of maturity, (4) the 
amount of digestible nutrients secured, and (5) the digestibility and 
nalatability of the product. These factors will vary somewhat with 
different species of grasses and with the character of animals to wh ch 
they are to be fed. In general, hay cutting should take place from the 
perfod of bloom until seeds are in the dough stage. The total pounds o 
d?y matter will generally increase up to fair maturity. PaktabUity will 
be lessened and digestibility diminished if harvestmg is too long delayed. 
If a large acreage is to be handled and weather conditions are uncertam, 
he harvest period-is likely to be prolonged. It is, therefore, well to begin 




The Side Delivery Rake.^ 



harvesting rather early in order that the harvest may be completed before 

*'' 'S: ScTt' demands "product of timothy hay that is fairly mature 
The market ^^enifnas i ^^^ j^^^ j.^^j^ ^^ ^^^^ 

when harvested. Such hay is more ea^ y .^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

ihe quality oi nay i* u ^ depends to no small degree 

which it is handled and cured. This in turn ^epen"'' _ , . ^^ ^f 
upon weather conditions. Warm weather, ^^''^^Pf^^^^^*'^^^ if 
sLhine and a fairly dry atmosphere, is f^^.^^^^le to hay m^^^^^^^^^^^ 

the grass is fairly mature it may be cut late ^"t^^.^^^Xthe evening, 
the morning, and placed in the windrow «--;^««J,/"nse W-S^^^^ 
Where hay is produced extensively, it is advisable to use up to a 



Courtesy of The International Harvester Company. Chicago. 






I 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



232 
mtuTv L retted to favorable or unfavorable weather. Abundant 

p L^ !w s»i.iy .1,0,0 i» no cop in -'i-is!; 'tT^rr™,!;.:: s 

fiPtorv stand of plants is more common. This is due to a numoer 

Ir ors nmons which may be mentioned the poor preparation of the 

::dJ;d hTLdty covering of the seed and the -Averse conchtions^^a 

requently follow seeding, thus causing a large percentage of thejmaU 

iitquLiit J niialitv of the seed used is also a lactor ana 

plan s to P;;-^- J^^" P^^^^^^^ of only first-class seed. 

;t:pet' it^f^^^^^^^^ ^ives the rate of seeding, the cost of seed 

per pound and the calculated cost per acre: 

Cost of Seed per Acre, Using Average Amo unt.* 



Plant. 



Rato of 
Seeding, 
pounds. 



Cost of Cost of 

Seed per • Socd per 

Pound. Acre. 



Timothy 

Orchard prass 

Kcdtop 

Hromo ^rass 

Kentucky hlue jtrass 

Italian rye prass 

Perennial rye p-ass. . 

Tall oat prass 

Tall feseuc 

Meadow fescue 

l{ed clover 

Alsike clover 

Alfalfa 

Sweet clover 



16 


SO.OCv^ 


20 


.15 


10 


.10 


20 


.10 


25 


.14 


30 


.05 


30 


.05 


30 


.U 


20 


.18 


20 


.11 


12 


.17 


8 


.20 


20 


.15 


20 


.20 



$0,975 
3.00 
1.00 
2.00 
3.50 



1 
1 
4 



50 
.50 
.20 



3.60 
2.20 
2.04 
1.60 
3.00 
4.00 



Since failure to secure a satisfactory stand of grass is so common 
bince laiiure xo h^^ precaution in the preparation 

farmers are -YlteTnd mann^^ also to use an abundance 

1"od slr^ an? the price of product becomes 

I Tr the nccessi rtr these precautions becomes greater The extra 

expense lor j-bed is moist and finely pulverized. 1 he slant 

SSh'ed hl^rrowt tr^^^^^^^^ implement for making the final preparation. 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



233 



Harvesting.— The time of harvesting grasses for hay will be deter- 
mined- (1) by the weather conditions that prevail at the period ot 
maturity, (2) the injury to the succeeding crop as determined by time of 
cutting, (3) the total yield as determined by stage of maturity (4) the 
amount of digestible nutrients secured, and (5) the digestibility and 
palatability of the product. These factors will vary somewhat with 
different species of grasses and with the character of animals to which 
they are to be fed. In general, hay cutting should teke place from the 
period of bloom until seeds are in the dough stage. The total pounds o 
dry matter will generally increase up to fair maturity. Palatability w. 1 
be lessened and digestibility diminished if harvesting is too long delayed. 
If a large acreage is to be handled and weather conditions are uncertain, 
the harvest period-is likely to be prolonged. It is, therefore, well to begin 







The Side Delivery Rake.' 



han-eslmg ,»ther early in ordor (hat the harvest mny Ik. eompleted betom 

"■' ThTr^Tdra^rproduet of ttaothy hay «.at i,^^r.y mature 
.hen harvested. Sueh hay.,™. 

Thp niiqlitv of hav is determined to a large extent by tne manner 
which i iThSlel an'd cured. This in turn depends to no -aU ^^^^^^^ 
upon weather conditions. Warm weather, ^^^^-P^f^^^y £^ i 
sunshine and a fairly dry atmosphere, is ^^ ^^."^^^^^^ ^^^^'^on ^^^^^^^^^^ in 
the grass is fairly mature it may be cut late ^^^^e '.fternoon o^^ 
the morning, and placed in the windrow "'•/^^^.'^./"""^^f ^^^^^^^^ 
Where hay is produced extensively, it is advisable to use up to aa 

^"41 * 



1 Courtesy of The International Harvester Company. Chicago. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 






rjiMif. 










ii#; 



234 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



mowing machines, side-delivery hayrakes, tedders and convenient and 
automatic forks for conveying the hay from wagons to mows or stacks. 
With such an equipment the hay is secured with the minimum of labor 
and the least possible handling and consequent loss of the leaves and 

finer portions. 

It is maintained, however, that hay of better quality is obtained by 
curing it in the field in the shock. Cocking hay so that it will not be 
unduly exposed to rain entails additional labor. Canvas covers are 
advised if weather conditions are uncertain. 

Hay placed in the mow or stack before thoroughly dry goes through 
a sweating process. A certain degree of sweating is deemed desirable, 
but should not proceed sufficiently far to develop moulds or cause dis- 
coloration. The amount of sweating is dependent on the moisture in 
the hay. The amount of moisture in hay as it is hauled from the field 
varies greatly, but ordinarily will not exceed more than 25 to 28 per cent; 

20 to 25 per cent of 
moisture is favorable 
to a good quahty of 
hay, and is better than 
to have it too dry or 
too moist when stored. 
Numerous determi- 
nations of the shrink- 
age of hay in stack or 
mow show a loss in a 
period of six months 
ranging from as low as 
3 per cent to over 30 
per cent. This loss is 
due chiefly to the loss 
of moisture from the 
hay. Where the sweating is intense and the temperature runs high, 
there will also be some loss of organic matter. 

In stacking hay great care should be exercised in the construction 
of the stacks in order that they shed water. The stacks should be built 
of good form, and the central portion should be more thoroughly compacted 
than the outsides. Where hay is valuable, it pays to cover the stacks 
with good canvas covers or to provide a roof of boards. The stack 
should be protected from the earth by a foundation of rails or by a thick 

layer of straw. 

Hay is marketed both baled and unbaled. It is graded according 
to its quality and freedom from weeds and grasses other than that of the 
name under which sold. Market grades can be secured from grain 
dealers' associations, and are generally given in market quotations. 

— ■ • 

> Courtesy of The International Harvester Company. Chicago. 




Combined Sweep Rake and Stacker. ^ 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



235 



TIMOTHY 

Timothy is the most important and the most extensively grown of 
any of the meadow grasses in North America. It is the standard grass 
for hay purposes and finds a ready sale in all of the hay markets. 

Soil and piimatic Adaptation.— Timothy is a northern grass and 
seldom does well in North America south of latitude 36 degrees, excepting 
in high elevations. Cool, moist weather during the early part of the 
growing season is favorable to good yields of hay. It is best adapted to 
loam and clay loam soils. It is not adapted to swampy soil conditions, 
neither does it succeed on sandy or gravelly soils. It is not drought 




A Field of Good Grass (Timothy), College Farm, Pa. 
Yield, five tons per acre field-cured hay. 

resistant, and aoes best on moist, well-drained soils. It calls for a fair 
degree of soil fertility and does not do well on acid soils. 

Advantages of Timothy.-The importance of tunothy hes chiefly m 
its ability to produce good yields of hay that find a ready "^^rket at a 
fair price. The plants seldom lodge and are easily cut and cured and the 
period during which it may be cut is longer than that for most passes 
It seeds abundantly, and seed of a high degree of P^^^y .^^^^^^^^ ^^^ 
germination can be secured at a low cost. It fits well into the crop rota- 
tions, and is adapted to seeding with small grains, such as wheat, oats, 
rye and barley, either in the autumn or m the spring. 

Seed and Seeding.-The low price of timothy seed and its appearance 
make it difficult of adulteration. No grass seed on the market so nearly 



-w. 



■•''■■.••t.rvjtfS 
•'..rV''.^V-' 






234 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



235 



mowing machines, side-delivery hayrakes, tedders and convenient and 
automatic forks for conveying the hay from wagons to mows or stacks. 
With such an equipment the hay is secured with the minimum of labor 
and the least possible handling and consequent loss of the leaves and 

finer portions. 

It is maintained, however, that hay of better quality is obtained by 
curing it in the field in the shock. Cocking hay so that it will not be 
unduly exposed to rain entails additional labor. Canvas covers are 
advised if weather conditions are uncertain. 

Hay placed in the mow or stack before thoroughly dry goes through 
a sweating process. A certain degree of sweating is deemed desirable, 
but should not proceed sufficiently far to develop moulds or cause dis- 
coloration. The amount of sweating is dependent on the moisture in 
the hay. The amount of moisture in hay as it is hauled from the field 
varies greatly, but ordinarily will not exceed more than 25 to 28 per cent; 

20 to 25 per cent of 
moisture is favorable 
to a good quality of 
hay, and is better than 
to have it too dry or 
too moist when stored. 
Numerous determi- 
nations of the shrink- 
age of hay in stack or 
mow show a loss in a 
period of six months 
ranging from as low as 
3 per cent to over 30 
per cent. This loss is 
due chiefly to the loss 
of moisture from the 
hay. Where the sweating is intense and the temperature runs high, 
there will also be some loss of organic matter. 

In stacking hay great care should be exercised in the construction 
of the stacks in order that they shed water. The stacks should be built 
of good form, and the central portion should be more thoroughly compacted 
than the outsides. Where hay is valuable, it pays to cover the stacks 
with good canvas covers or to provide a roof of boards. The stack 
should be protected from the earth by a foundation of rails or by a thick 

layer of straw. 

Hay is marketed both baled and unbaled. It is graded according 
to its quality and freedom from weeds and grasses other than that of the 
name under which sold. Market grades can be secured from grain 
dealers' associations, and are generally given in market quotations. 

> Courtesy of The International Harvester Company. Chicago. 




Combined Sweep Rake and Stacker.^ 



TIMOTHY 

Timothy is the most important and the most extensively grown of 
any of the meadow grasses in North America. It is the standard grass 
for hay purposes and finds a ready sale in all of the hay markets. 

Soil and Climatic Adaptation.— Timothy is a northern grass and 
seldom does well in North America south of latitude 36 degrees, excepting 
in high elevations. Cool, moist weather during the early part of the 
growing season is favorable to good yields of hay. It is best adapted to 
loam and clay loam soils. It is not adapted to swampy soil conditions, 
neither does it succeed on sandy or gravelly soils. It is not drought 




A Field of Good Grass (Timothy), College Farm, Pa. 
Yield, five tons per acre field-cured hay. 

resistant, and aoes best on moist, well-drained soils. It calls for a fair 
degree of soil fertility and does not do well on acid soils. ,• ^ • 

Advantages of Timothy.— The importance of timothy hes chiefly in 
its ability to produce good yields of hay that find a ready market at a 
fair price. The plants seldom lodge and are easily cut and cured, and the 
period during which it may be cut is longer than that for most grasses 
It seeds abundantly, and seed of a high degree of P^nty and of good 
germination can be secured at a low cost. It fits well into the crop rota- 
tions, and is adapted to seeding with small grains, such as wheat, oats, 
rye and barley, either in the autumn or in the spring. 

Seed and Seeding.— The low price of timothy seed and its appearance 
make it difficult of adulteration. No grass seed on the market so nearly 



INTENTIONAir SECOND EXPOSURE 



UA:i{6;r:: 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



236 ^^^ 

approaches absolute purity as timothy seed; consequently, the standard 
of purity is placed at 99 per cent, and that of germination at 98 per cent. 
Timothy seed contains about 1,200,000 seeds to the pound, and weighs 
42 to 48 pounds per bushel. The legal weight is 45 pounds. Four pounds 
of timothy seed furnish 100 seeds to the square foot on an acre. It 
every seed produced a plant there would be a great many more plants 
than are required to make a satisfactory hay crop. The seeds, however, 
are so small, and the conditions for germination and eariy growth often 
so unfavorable, that 12 pounds per acre are usually required, lests at 
several of the experiment stations with different rates of seeding show 
that the largest yield of hay has been secured by using amounts somewhat 
in excess of 15 pounds per acre. 




The Hay Loader in Operation.* 

Under favorable temperature and moisture conditions the seed 
germinates in five to six days. Although a large percentage of seed three 
or four years old will grow, it is safest to use seed that is not more than 
one vear old. New seed is sometimes adulterated with old seed. Old 
seed can generally be detected by its lack of luster, but a germination 
test to determine the quality of the seed is advised. 

The seed is sown broadcast and where seeded with a nurse crop is 
generally applied by means of the grass seed attachment to the grain 
drill There are two methods of distributing the seed by this attachment. 
In some cases the grass seed distributors are turned in front of the drri 
hoes. This provides for considerable covering of the timothy seed, and 

1 Courtesy of The International Harvester Company , Chicago. 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



237 



is applicable only when the soil is of a sandy nature, or in excellent physica 
condition. Otherwise, it is generally best to distribute the seed behind 
the drill hoes, and allow it to become covered by the action of ram. 

The wheelbarrow seeder is also used, and where the seeding by the 
above-mentioned method cannot be entrusted to thoroughly competent 
labor it is better to use the wheelbarrow seeder. In this way the operator 
has only the seeding of grass to look after and will do a better job than is 
likely to be done when the seeding is combined with the distribution ot 
grain and fertilizers all in one operation. 



'M^' 




U« 






ffp, *^-^: 






^m^. 












<:-^fv. v^. 



C'.i**.''!^ 





Rows OP TiMOTHV, Each Propagated by Sups from the Original Seediongs.. 
Each row represents a distinct tv-pe. Note the variation in size and vigor. 

When winter grains are grown, most of the timothy is needed with 
them^i; the\ll. When seeded in this way it -kes '.u lU^^ ZT^ ^ S 
succeeding year, and no hay crop is secured. The second year a luii 
c^oTof haVis s;cured. In some localities timothy is seeded alo- - t^e 
fall This method is applicable in the southern P«f>«^ "^^^^XriS 
region. It involves more labor, but results m a full crop of hay during 

*'^ 'tt:i:^^ grains prevail, timothy is more, ^^^^^^^it^ 
with them in the spring. With this method, no crop is secured the farst 

1 Fanners' BuUetin. 514, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



:.'-W^^ 



*'r*jy2l^ 



■t%"J 






•■ .•^■'Yi.iji..,. 



r -.iiiy ■<>i;S5^; Mm 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



236 

approaches absolute purity as timothy seed; consequently, the standard 
of purity is placed at 99 per cent, and that of germination at 98 per cent. 
Timothy seed contains about 1,200,000 seeds to the pound, and weighs 
42 to 48 pounds per bushel. The legal weight is 45 pounds. Four pounds 
of timothy seed furnish 100 seeds to the square foot on an acre. It 
every seed produced a plant there would be a great many more plants 
than are required to make a satisfactory hay crop. The seeds, however, 
are so small, and the conditions for germination and early growth often 
so unfavorable, that 12 pounds per acre are usually required, lests at 
several of the experiment stations with different rates of seeding show 
that the largest yield of hay has been secured by using amounts somewhat 
in excess of 15 pounds per acre. 




The Hay Loader in Operation.' 

Under favorable temperature and moisture conditions the seed 
germinates in five to six days. Although a large percentage of seed three 
or four years old will grow, it is safest to use seed that is not more than 
one vear old. New seed is sometimes adulterated with old seed. Old 
seed can generally be detected by its lack of luster, but a germination 
test to determine the quality of the seed is advised. 

The seed is sown broadcast and where seeded with a nurse crop is 
generally applied by means of the grass seed attachment to the gram 
drill There are two methods of distributing the seed by this attachment. 
In some cases the grass seed distributors are turned in front of the drri 
hoes. This provides for considerable covering of the timothy seed, and 

1 Courtesy of The International Harvester Company, Chicago. 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 237 

is applicable only when the soil is of a sandy nature, or in excellent physical 
condition. Otherwise, it is generally best to distribute the seed behind 
the drill hoes, and allow it to become covered by the action of ram. 

The wheelbarrow seeder is also used, and where the seeding by the 
above-mentioned method cannot be entrusted to thoroughly competent 
labor it is better to use the wheelbarrow seeder. In this way the operator 
lias only the seeding of grass to look after and will do a better job than is 
likely to be done when the seeding is combined with the distribution ot 
grain and fertilizers all in one operation. 



:.i,iiiitMliiiili^*^ 



;« 





Rows OF Timothy, Each Propagated by Slips from the Original Seedlinos.' 
Each row represents a distinct tj-pc Note the variation in sue and v.gor. 

When winter grains are grown most of ^^e tin^othy is^^^^^^^ 
them in the fall. When seeded in this way it makes but htt e growth the 
succeeding year, and no hay crop is secured. The second year a lull 
c^oTofhaVis secured. In some localities timothy is seeded J^^ne ^n Jhe 
falf This'^method is applicable in the southern P«f ;«^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
region. It involves more labor, but results m a full crop of hay during 

*'' mtrfprgtvvn grains prevail, timothy is -re ^requenj^ ^ tst 
withThem in the'spring^ With this method, no crop is secured the first 

1 Farmers' Bulletin. 514, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 






INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



'J^:;trj -;■»>■,■ I ' 






.'^^^'r^*"!^ 



238 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



season. In the southern portion of the timothy belt spring seeding with- 
out a nurse crop is practiced to a Hmited extent. Such seeding is success- 
ful only on land that is free from weeds and annual grasses. Under such 
conditions a light cutting of hay is secured during the first year. 

Timothy may be seeded on wheat that has been severely winter 
killed. If seeded early and the wheat is not harvested too early, both 
wheat and timothy may be cut for seed at one and the same operation. 
By using a fanning mill with proper sieves the wheat and timothy seed 
are easily separated after threshing. 

Fertilizers and Manures.— Timothy responds abundantly to light 
top dressings of manure. The manure should be applied with a manure 
spreader, and best results will be secured when used at the rate of six 
to* ten loads per acre. It may be applied any time during the autumn or 
winter. ' In the absence of manure, a top dressing with a complete fertil- 
izer early in the spring just as the grass begins to start is very beneficial. 
In several of the states 350 pounds per acre containing about seven per 
cent of each of the three constituents have given excellent results. 

Tests at several of the experiment stations relative to the position of 
the roots of timothy in the soil show that 85 to 90 per cent of the roots are 
found in the first six inches of soil. In one case 63 per cent occurred in 
the upper two inches of soil. This is important in connection with the 
top dressing of timothy and shows that such top dressing is very close 
to the great bulk of the active roots of the crop. 

Mixing Timothy with Other Grasses and Clovers.— If the hay 
product is to be fed on the farm, it is advisable to seed clover with timothy. 
Tn this practice the amount of timothy seed is reduced to eight or ten 
pounds per acre, and may be seeded either in the fall or spring, depending 
on local practice. In the northern part of the timothy region the clover 
can be safely seeded only in the spring. Six to ten pounds of clover seed 
per acre will be required, depending on soil conditions and the kind ot 
clover. The first crop of hay will be largely clover, the second chiefly 

timothy. , , • xi /= x 

Where meadow land is to be used for hay during the first year or 
two and afterwards devoted to pasture, it is well to include redtop, blue 
grass and some other grasses and clovers with it. It is also thought wise 
on very wet lands or on sour soil to include some redtop with the timothy 

for hay purposes. . 

Harvesting.— Many experiments relative to the time of harvesting 
show that the best results are secured only when cut between the time 
of full bloom and the soft dough stage of the seed. Since timothy is 
shallow rooted and much of its vitality depends on the thickened bulb- 
like base of the stem, it is desirable not to cut too closely. Close cutting 
or pasturing closely with stock after cutting, injures the subsequent 
crops by exposure of the bulbs 'and by injury from tramping. Only when 
the aftermath is abundant should pasturing be allowed. In no case is it 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



239 



deemed desirable to pasture with sheep, since they are apt to nip off the 
crown of the plant and thus destroy it. 

Pasturing. — Timothy is distinctly a grass for hay rather than for 
pasturing. It may be used in pasture mixtures to give early grazing, 
and will give way to the more permanent grasses which are slower in 
becoming established. It is a common practice to cut timothy for hay 
purposes for one* or more years and then pasture during the year just 
preceding the devotion of the land to another crop. 



^i^sos^^. 












hJ^i'^1 . ' • 






■iP^^'^f 






P^' 



'■ h ^K 






-V'* -:.-; ■^-. 



::'v-;ts?5- 



'' ..V:'^ 



'\"'W-$^ 






<::>^^>^ 






I 'f. ,VN>:;- 



.- ,.K.^y ^ 



>--*l*C5»^ 



r-^'v? :^' 















,-.^, ,^.% jiSiTp r 



Field of Timothy Plants Grown for Selection, Showing Vabution in Size 

AND Form of Individual Plants. ^ 

Slips and seeds from choice plants are used for propagating new strains. 

Seed Production.— Timothy generally produces between five and 
twelve bushels of seed per acre. It is most conveniently cut with the 
self-binder, and is threshed with the ordinary threshmg machme, usmg 
special sieves to clean and separate the seed. Loss from shattermg will 
be severe if allowed to become over-ripe. If cut promptly the straw has 
considerable feeding value. The principal seed-producmg states are 
lUinois, Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, Kansas and Ohio. 

Composition and Feeding Value.— Timothy hay contains about 6 
per cent of protein, 45 per cent of carbohydrates, 2.5 per cent of fat and 29 
per cent of crude fiber. About one-half of this is digestible. 

iFarmere' Bulletin. 514. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



238 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



season. In the southern portion of the timothy belt spring seeding with- 
out a nurse crop is practiced to a Hmited extent. Such seeding is success- 
ful only on land that is free from weeds and annual grasses. Under such 
conditions a light cutting of hay is secured during the first year. 

Timothy may be seeded on wheat that has been severely winter 
killed. If seeded early and the wheat is not harvested too early, both 
wheat and timothy may be cut for seed at one and the same operation 
By using a fanning mill with proper sieves the wheat and timothy seed 
are easily separated after threshing. 

Fertilizers and Manures.— Timothy responds abundantly to hght 
top dressings of manure. The manure should be applied with a manure 
spreader, and best results will be secured w^hen used at the rate of six 
ta ten loads per acre. It may be appUed any time during the autumn or 
winter. ' In the absence of manure, a top dressing with a complete fertil- 
izer early in the spring just as the grass begins to start is very beneficial. 
In several of the states 350 pounds per acre containing about seven per 
cent of each of the three constituents have given excellent results. 

Tests at several of the experiment stations relative to the position of 
the roots of timothy in the soil show that 85 to 90 per cent of the roots are 
found in the first six inches of soil. In one case 63 per cent occurred in 
the upper two inches of soil. This is important in connection with the 
top dressing of timothy and shows that such top dressing is very close 
to the great bulk of the active roots of the crop. 

Mixing Timothy with Other Grasses and Clovers.— If the hay 
product is to be fed on the farm, it is advisable to seed clover with timothy. 
In this practice the amount of timothy seed is reduced to eight or ten 
pounds per acre, and may be seeded either in the fall or spring, depending 
on local practice. In the northern part of the timothy region the clover 
can be safely seeded only in the spring. Six to ten pounds of clover seed 
per acre will be required, depending on soil conditions and the kind ot 
clover. The first crop of hay will be largely clover, the second chiefly 

timothy. i n . 

Where meadow land is to be used for hay during the first year or 
two and afterwards devoted to pasture, it is well to include redtop, blue 
grass and some other grasses and clovers with it. It is also thought wise 
on very wet lands or on sour soil to include some redtop with the timothy 

for hay purposes. . 

Harvesting.— Many experiments relative to the time of harvesting 
show that the best results are secured only when cut between the time 
of full bloom and the soft dough stage of the seed. Since timothy is 
shallow rooted and much of its vitality depends on the thickened bulb- 
like base of the stem, it is desirable not to cut too closely. Close cutting, 
or pasturing closely with stock after cutting, injures the subsequent 
crops by exposure of the bulbs 'and by injury from tramping. Only when 
the aftermath is abundant should pasturing be allowed. In no case is it 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



239 



deemed desirable to pasture with sheep, since they are apt to nip off the 
crown of the plant and thus destroy it. 

Pasturing. — Timothy is distinctly a grass for hay rather than for 
pasturing. It may be used in pasture mixtures to give early grazing, 
and will give way to the more permanent grasses which are slower in 
becoming established. It is a common practice to cut timothy for hay 
purposes for one* or more years and then pasture during the year just 
preceding the devotion of the land to another crop. 









.^4«^A-'^ 






*^M^^ 



i-.^^.,- 
M?^- 



Sv^ 



^ :U^^ ^' 



.:'^v- 



>»'V4 ^- 






■■•■ '■ >, .i', 



^m%' 






'I- :^>'Xiy 






■'m.L^.m^^: 



m. 



' r^. 






rVi' '','• 



• I V 



■ "<^^^.^ 

^m^'" 



Field of Timothy Plants Grown for Selection, Showing Variation in Size 

AND Form of Individual Plants.^ 

Slips and seeds from choice plants are used for propagating new strains. 

Seed Production.— Timothy generally produces between five and 
twelve bushels of seed per acre. It is most conveniently cut with the 
self-binder, and is threshed with the ordinary threshing machme, usmg 
special sieves to clean and separate the seed. Loss from shattermg will 
be severe if allowed to become over-ripe. If cut promptly the straw has 
considerable feeding value. The principal seed-producing states are 
Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, Kansas and Ohio. 

Composition and Feeding Value.— Timothy hay contains about 6 
per cent of protein, 45 per cent of carbohydrates, 2.5 per cent of fat and 29 
per cent of crude fiber. About one-half of this is digestible. 

iFarmere' Bulletin. 514, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



■sv •. X- 



240_ 

Improvement of Timothy.— Although timothy has been an important 
crop and large quantities of seed are bought and sold, as yet no varieties 
have been developed. Timothy plants show marked variation m size 
vigor, character of foliage and resistance to drought. Improvement ot 
the crop for special purposes can be made by the selection and propagation 
of desirable plants. Several of the experiment stations have jna^e progress 
along this line and have already developed strains of timothy that have 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



241 




Variations in Timothy.' 



outyielded that secured from commercial seed by as much as one ton 

^^"^ M^keting the Hay.-The bulk of timothy hay is placed upon the 
market in bales of about 100 pounds each. The market calls for bright 
clean timothy hay, free from weeds and various grasses. When mixed with 
clover!Tedtop or other grasses, quotations will be somewhat lower than for 
pure timothy. ^^^ ^^^^ 

There ara two chief species of blue grass in North America, namely, 
Kentucky blue grass and Canada blue grass. These grasses spread by 

iCourt^ot The Macmillan Company. N. Y. From "PUnt Breeding." by Baifey. 



means of seed and also by underground root stocks. They give rise to an 
even and continuous turf, and are especially adapted for pasture purposes. 
They are aggressive grasses and tend to take possession of the land and 
crowd out weeds and other grasses. The Kentucky blue grass is superior 
in both quality and yield. Its climatic adaptation is essentially the same 
as that for Canada blue grass, and ranges from Virgima northward into 
Canada, and westward to the central part of Kansas and Nebraska. It 
reaches its highest development in the region of limestone soils. 1 arts ot 
Kentucky, Missouri, Virginia and Tennessee are noted for their blue grass 
regions. It also succeeds well on both the timber and prairie soils ot Ohio, 

Indiana, Illinois and Iowa. . , . 

SoU and Climatic Adaptation.— These two prominent pasture grasses 
are adapted to a cool, moist climate having thirty inches of rainfall and 
unward. They are exceedingly resistant to cold, never freezing out m 
even the most severe winters. These grasses prefer well-drained loams 
or clay loams. They are not adapted to loose, sandy soils. The Kentucky 
blue grass calls for a fair to good degree of fertility, and where these two 
grassfs are seeded together on such soil, the Kentucky blue grass will 
Son take full possession. The Canada blue grass has the abihty to grow 
on poor soils, although it will produce only small crops and poor pasturage 
under such conditions. On poor soils the Canada blue grass will take pos- 
session finally to the exclusion of Kentucky blue grass. , 

Although these two grasses will make hay of fair quality, the yield 
is so low that they are not adapted to hay purposes. 

Importance of Blue Grass.-As pasture grasses these are unexcelled 
for the temperate portions of North America where the rainfall is fairly 
abundant They are not only valuable as summer pasture, but as wm er 
pasture for hor.ses and sheep, have no equal. When desired for wm er 
pasture hey should not be dosely pastured during the summer. Winter 
pasture rom these grasses can often be provided by turning the stock into 
fields from which'^he spring crops have ^oen lu.rvested and on to meadow 
hnd during the late summer and autumn. This permits the blue grass to 
make good growth for winter pasture. Even when covered with snow, 
horses and sheep will paw off the snow and pasture on the grass 

Severe drought during the summer may completely suspend the growth 
of blue ^ass and cause it to appear dead. No matter how long the period 
o drouSfrXs wtll quickly Sivive the grass and it will resume its normal 
ttth'and rdition." It wUl stand a great ^^-^ance of tra«^^^^^ 
serious iniurv The %vriter has seen calves retained in hurdle pens during 
JeTweaS - blue grass until the surface would be thoroughl^^^^^^^^ 
and no grass visible. A few weeks after removing the pens the grass wouW 

be in as thrifty a condition as ever. _ fnnrtpen to 

Methods of Establishing.— Blue grass seed weighs from fourteen to 
twen^!eTght pounds per bushel, the legal weight being fourteen pou^^^s 
The weight is determined chiefly by the presence or absence of the glumes 



16 



W'^m 



■ :.\."^t^%:. 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



240_ 

Improvement of Timothy.— Although timothy has been an important 
crop and large quantities of seed are bought and sold, as yet no varieties 
have been developed. Timothy plants show marked variation m size, 
vigor, character of foliage and resistance to drought. Improvement ot 
the crop for special purposes can be made by the selection and propagation 
of desirable plants. Several of the experiment stations have jnadejjrogress 
along this line and have already developed strains of timothy that have 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



241 



/ 



/ 



t 



I 



1 




r 



f-" 




y/ 



y 



iltitji^' 



mM 



.-m^'t^: 



Variations in Timothy.' 
outyieldcd that secured from commercial seed by as much as one ton 

''"' M^keting the Hay.-Thc bulk of timothy hay is placed upon the 
market in bales of about 100 poiinds each. The "^^^keya^'^^^^^^"^^^^^ 
clean timothy hay, free from weed.s and various grasses. When mixed with 
clover; Sop or other grasses, quotations will be somewhat lower than for 
pure timothy. ^^^ ^^^^ 

There ara two chief species of blue grass in North America, namely, 
Kentucky blue grass and Canada blue grass. These grasses spread by 

"". Courtesy"of The MacmUIan Company. N. Y. From "Plant Breeding." by Bailoy. 



means of seed and also by underground root stocks. They give rise to an 
even and continuous turf, and are especially adapted for pasture purposes. 
They are aggressive grasses and tend to take possession of the land and 
crowd out weeds and other grasses. The Kentucky blue grass is superior 
in both quality and yield. Its cUmatic adaptation is essentially the same 
as that for Canada blue grass, and ranges from Virginia northward into 
Canada, and westward to the central part of Kansas and Nebraska, it 
reaches its highest development in the region of limestone soils. 1 arts ot 
Kentucky, Missouri, Virginia and Tennessee are noted for their blue grass 
regions. It also succeeds well on both the timber and prairie soils of Ohio, 

Indiana, IlUnois and Iowa. . , ^ 

SoU and Climatic Adaptation.— These two prominent pasture grasses 
are adapted to a cool, moist climate having thirty inches of rainfall and 
upward. They are exceedingly resistant to cold, never freezing out in 
even the most severe winters. These grasses prefer well-dramed oams 
or clay loams. They are not adapted to loose, sandy soils. The Kentucky 
blue grass calls for a fair to good degree of fertility, and ^vjere these two 
g assfs are seeded together on such soil, the Kentucky blue grass will 
£on take full possession. The Canada blue grass has the ability to grow 
on poor soils, although it will produce only small crops and poor pasturage 
under such conditions. On poor soils the Canada blue grass will take pos- 
session finally to the exclusion of Kentucky blue grass. , 

Although these two grasses will make hay of fair quality, the yield 
is so low that they are not adapted to hay purposes. 

Importance of Blue Grass.-As pasture grasses these are unexcelled 
for the temperate portions of North America where the rainfall is fairly 
Xmlnt They are not only valuable as summer pasture, but as wm er 
msture for horses and sheep, have no equal. When desired for wm er 
m sure hey should not be closely pastured during the summer. Winter 
^Sure from these grasses can often be provided by t-mng the stoc^^^^^^^ 
the fields fnnn which the spring crops have been harvested =\"f "J ^o m^^^^^^^^^^ 
hmd during the late summer and autumn. This permits the W"^ grass to 
make good growth for winter pasture. Even when covered with snow, 
hOTscs and sheep will paw off the snow and pasture on the grass 

SevereSht during the summer may completely suspend the growth 
of blue CTasslnd cause it to appear dead. No matter how long the period 
o drouSr r^lns will quickly Revive the grass and it will resume its normal 
Jotthind condition.' It will stand a great abundance «[ --^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
serious iniurv The writer has seen calves retained in hurdle pens during 
Je weX'on blue grass until the surface would be thoroughl^^^^^^^^^^ 
and no grass vi.sible. A few weeks after removing the pens the grass would 

be in as thrifty a condition as ever. ■ u r ^r^ fr.„r+PPn to 

Methods of Establishing.-Blue grass seed weighs from fourteen to 

twentySht pounds per bufhel, the legal weight being fo-t-n p^"^^^^^ 

The weight is determined chiefly by the presence or absence of the glumes 

16 




*)!«;' 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



242 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



243 



or hulls that enclose the seed proper. Blue grass seed is frequently of low 
vitality, due to faulty methods of harvesting and curing. It is always well 
to test the seed before seeding as a guide to the amount of seed desirable 
to use Blue grass is very slow in becoming thoroughly established, and 
good pastures can seldom be secured in less than two years from time of 
seeding and in some cases more time is required. It is generally advisable 
to seed with a mixture of grasses and clovers, some of which will give prompt 
pasture. Timothy, orchard grass, and red and alsike clover, are, therefore, 
frequently used. These ultimately give way to the blue grass. Virgin 
grass land and meadow land are frequently converted into blue grass 
pastures by seeding blue grass, which gradually spreads and takes posses- 
sion When used for lawn purposes, the rate of seeding should be three to 
four bushels per acre. As httle as eight to ten pounds per acre may be 
used when seeded with other grasses and when plenty of time is allowed 
for becoming well established. Ordinarily, twenty to twenty-five pounds 
of blue grass should be used when it is the chief grass for the pasture. 

It is difficult to distinguish between seed of Kentucky blue grass and 
Canada blue grass. The latter is sometimes used to adulterate the former, 

since it generally is less costly. 

Pasture Maintenance.— Blue grass, because of its numerous under- 
ground root stocks, tends to form a sod-bound turf. This condition may be 
obviated by seeding blue grass pastures with red or alsike clover every 
three or four years. This can be done by using a disk drill early in the 
spring The use of the disk will also help to overcome sod-bindmg. The 
presence of the clover will enhance the pasture for the time being, and 
especially during the dry period when the blue grass will remain dormant. 
The clover roots tend to loosen up the ground and supply nitrogen to the 
blue grass. White clover is advantageous when seeded with blue grass. 
It re-seeds itself and becomes permanent so long as soil conditions are 
favorable Under favorable conditions and with proper treatment, blue 
grass pastures improve with age, at least for several years/ There are 
many instances of such pastures having been undisturbed for thirty 
or forty years. 

REDTOP 

Redtop is a native grass of North America, and grows naturally in cold, 
wet soils It is a perennial provided with long, creeping underground root 
stems, and spreads both by means of these and seeds. It forms a contin- 
uous and fairly even turf, and is, therefore, well adapted for pasture pur- 
poses It has a wider range of adaptation, both from the soil and chmatic 
standpoint, than any other cultivated grass. It is resistant to cold and 
withstands summer heat much better than timothy. It does not show much 
preference for type of soil, but does best on loams and clay loams. It is 
exceedingly tolerant of soil acidity. It is also fairly drought resistant and 
succeeds better than most grasses on poor, sandy soils. 



Importance of Redtop. — Redtop is the third or fourth most important 
perennial grass in America. It is adapted to both pasture and hay pur- 
poses, although it is not equal to timothy as a hay producer nor to Kentucky 
blue grass for pasture purposes. As a pasture grass it is not so palatable 
as Kentucky blue grass. 

Culture. — Like Kentucky blue grass, redtop is aggressive and fre- 
quently takes-full possession of the land. It is seldom seeded alone, usually 
being included in mixtures. The rate of seeding depends on the quality 
of the seed and the nature of the mixture in which seeded. With re-cleaned 
seed, twelve to fifteen pounds per acre are sufficient when seeded alone. 
Much smaller amounts will meet the requirements in mixtures. The time 
and manner of seeding are similar to those for timothy. 

Yields and Uses. — Redtop has been tested at a number of state experi- 
ment stations and yields of hay ranging from 3000 to 5600 pounds per acre 
are reported. In order to be of good quality redtop should be cut early. 
If allowed to become fairly mature it makes hay that is fibrous and unpala- 
table. Numerous analyses show that redtop hay contains more nutrients 
than timothy hay. 

ORCHARD GRASS 

Orchard grass, a native of Europe, is grown quite generally throughout 
the United States, except in the semi-arid sections and the extreme south. 
It is a rather deep-rooted, coarse grass which grows in tufts or bunches and 
is without creeping root stocks. It does best in a temperate climate, but 
will stand more heat than timothy, and is less resistant to cold. In the 
United States it is cultivated more abundantly southward than northward. 
It begins growth earlier than most grasses, and often produces a second 

cutting of hay. 

Importance. — Orchard grass ranks fouith or fifth in importance among 
the perennial cultivated hay grasses in North America. It is most exten- 
sively grown in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Ken- 
tucky, southern Indiana, Iowa and Oregon. 

Culture.— The seed of orchard grass weighs from fourteen to twenty- 
two pounds per bushel, and when seeded alone requires about thirty-five 
pounds per acre. Germination of the seed is complete in about fourteen 
days. It may be seeded either in the fall or very early spring. When 
seeded in the fall, early seeding is desirable to prevent winter killing. The 
seed, being of an exceedingly chaffy character, does not feed well through 
a seed drill, and is generally sown by hand or with the wheelbarrow or other 

types of seeders. • t • i 

Ordinarily, the grass does not form seed the first season. It is long- 
lived, and individual plants are known to live eight years, and will probably 

live longer. , 

Yields and Uses.— Whether seeded in fall or spring, the first year s 
growth rarely gives a hay crop, but it may be utilized for pasture. When, 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



II 



!' 



244 

used for hay it should be cut as soon as in full bloom. The stems become 
woody ifit stands longer. It is usually about three weeks earlier than 
^othy and is advantageous on lands infested with o---y^^-^y^^-^^^^ 
nnH nthpr weeds that do not ripen seed before time of harvesting it. ii 
vis about afw^^^^ timothy, and yields reported ^-^ f ^^^^' X'" 
ment stations range from three-quarters of a ton to two and one-half tons 

^^^^iT^tntS Sbl^STsoil binder and serves to prevent soil 

™K i^ rtlmSed^aVatStuent of mixed pastures. It is valuable 
in thL respe'rcause of its early growth and its ability to grow dunng coo^ 
weather. It succeeds best under heavy grazing and is admirably adapted 

'- tleC^^SJor ^tt "^^^^A i-oductio. 
It is a loTglved perennial, spreading both by seeds and root stocks It 

rms heTvy clumps, frequently twelve inches in f-^^-^^,"^^^^^^^^^ 
oKimHqntlv these ioin and form a compact sod. It is quite deep rooxea aim 

s^^'^M to :S range ot climatic <»»<!i«»\'»!''J"^,',''LX'3 

'°^The^";t\d',i'L°s^s«?o that tot timothy 

valued for hay during the first two years after seeding. There is then a 
tendency to become sodbound, after which it serves better for pasture. It 
s both palatable and nutritious, whether used as hay or or Pa;^--^ 

Tall ftflt Grass —This grass has a climatic adaptation very siuumi 
. f ? i.n;r it is fairly drought resistant and does poorly on wet 

to noor land It is a perennial and is strictly a bunch grass. 
'" Then used for ha'y it should be cut promptly whUe in bloom A t^ 
this period the stems rapidly become woody. I^' For this reaoniUs 
quality, the hay being somewhat bitter in taste. For this reason 

^^""^l^'eturs-Thr^f dumber of fescues, among which may be 

s:^BsTh-:^^ 

Thev have about the same range of adaptation as timothy. 

sSs fescue is a fine-textured, small-growing species adapted for 
lawn ^as's mixtures. Sheep eat it quite freely, but cattle avoid it if other 

^^Ted'fLr mat; a dense growth unde. favorable -f^^^^^^^^^^ 
attain a height of two feet or more. It ^^^^^J-^f' «^ ''^^> ^"* 

'^V^^ZZl'^^^:^^:'^ a^Xtlived, rapid-growing 
peref^a^^^nfusu '^only twJyefrs on poor land, but somewhat longer 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



245 



under favorable conditions. It is seldom employed except in lawn 
mixtures. 

Italian rye grass is adapted to moist regions with mild winters. It 
succeeds best on loam and sandy loam soils. It is adapted for hay purposes 
and may be cut several times during the season. 

Sudan Grass. — ^A tall annual grass resembling Johnson grass, but 
spreads only by seeds. It has been recently introduced and seems to be 
best adapted to the semi-arid belt. It has been tried in an experimental 
way in many of the states and has generally made a good growth. 




Sudan Grass, a New Acquisition. ^ 

Bermuda Grass.— Bermuda grass is a perennial with numerous 
branched leafy stems, which, under favorable conditions, attain a height of 
twelve to eighteen inches. Ordinarily, it is not so tall. This grass occurs 
chiefly in the southern part of the United States, but extends as far north as 
Pennsylvania and Kansas. It is especially adapted to the cotton belt, and 
is to the South what blue grass is to the North. While it is more particu- 
larly adapted as a pasture grass, it is also quite extensively used as hay. 
It will grow on all types of soil, but does best on rich, moist bottom lands 
that are well drained. It is also used as a lawn grass. Bermuda grass does 
not seed at all freely and most of the seed is imported. It is most easily 
propagated by cutting the culms into short pieces, scattering them on the 

iCourtesyof The. Macmiilan Company. N. Y. From "Forage Plants and Their Culture," by Piper. 



m 






■ 




IS?- 






244 SUCCE SSFUL FARMING 

used for hay it should be cut as soon as in full bloom. The^^ms become 
woodv if it stands longer. It is usually about three weeks earlier than 
rotCandts advantageous on lands infested with ox^ye daisy, flea-bane 
and other weeds that do not ripen seed before t-e f »™*-J t^J 
yields about as well as timothy, and yields r^P«f <^ f om seje^^^^^^^^^ 
ment stations range from three-quarters of a ton to two and one halt tons 

'-' TiJtZSS Sb^ r:-soil binder and serves to prevent soil 

^n is rtSli^nSratSuent of mixed pastures. It is valuable 
in th?s r^spe^t because of its early growth and its ability ^^^-J^™^^^^^^^ 
weather. It succeeds best under heavy grazing, and is admirably adaptea 
(nr cihnflv nasturcs and in orchards that are to be grazed. 

KL iass -Brome grass is of comparatively recent introduction 
It is a loTg-&ed perennial, spreading both by seeds and root stocks. It 
forms heavv clumps, frequently twelve inches in diameter, but when seeded 

Sency to become sodbound, after which it serves better for pasture. It 
I both mlatable and nutritious, whether used as hay or for pasture. 
TaU Oat Grass.-This gra^s has a climatic adaptation very sim.la 
lau yai or<ib & drought resistant and does poorly on wet 

IVd rLrb 'st on r^tSoi dSp loams, and succeeds well on calca- 
eot sSls; also does well on sandy an<l gravelly soi , but is not adapted 
to Door land It is a perennial and is strictly a bunch gi-ass 
'" ^^n en used for h.^ it should be cut promptly while m bloom A t^ 
this period the stems rapidly become woody. ^ /-^J^^;^,^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
quality, the hay being somewhat bitter in taste. For this reason 

^^""Til^F^ufs-Thrrr^^^^^^ of fescues, among which may be 
mentTonernSow fescue, tall fescue, reed fescue, sheep s fescue and red 
SLuT None of These ar^ of much importance in American agriculture. 
They have about the same range of adaptation as timothy. 

Sheen's fescue is a fine-textured, small-growing species adapted tor 
lawn ^2 mSures. Sheep eat it quite freely, but cattle avoid it if other 

^^TedTescr mat; a dense growth under ^-rable -nf t^^^^^^^^^^^ 
attain a height of two feet or more, t makes fair yields of hay, but is 

''^'\^'^^'^:z^r^t:: r^^^^a, rapid-growmg 

pere?ral,^rg u;u.^ronly two'yefrs on poor land, but somewhat longer 



MEADOW AND PASTURE GRASSES 



245 



under favorable conditions. It is seldom employed except in lawn 
mixtures. 

Italian rye grass is adapted to moist regions with mild winters. It 
succeeds best on loam and sandy loam soils. It is adapted for hay purposes 
and may be cut several times during the season. 

Sudan Grass. — ^A tall annual grass resembling Johnson grass, but 
spreads only by seeds. It has been recently introduced and seems to be 
best adapted to the semi-arid belt. It has been tried in an experimental 
way in many of the states and has generally made a good growth. 




Sudan Grass, a New Acquisition. ^ 

Bermuda Grass.— Bermuda grass is a perennial with numerous 
branched leafy stems, which, under favorable conditions, attain a height of 
twelve to eighteen inches. Ordinarily, it is not so tall. This grass occurs 
chiefly in the southern part of the United States, but extends as far north as 
Pennsylvania and Kansas. It is especially adapted to the cotton belt, and 
is to the South what blue grass is to the North. While it is more particu- 
larly adapted as a pasture grass, it is also quite extensively used as hay. 
It will grow on all types of soil, but does best on rich, moist bottom lands 
that are well drained. It is also used as a lawn grass. Bermuda grass does 
not seed at all freely and most of the seed is imported. It is most easily 
propagated by cutting the culms into short pieces, scattering them on the 

1 Courtesy of The :Macmiilan Company. N. Y. From "Forage Plants and Their Culture," by Piper. 



f^j^i>ViS^"'r't-, " 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



246 S U C C E SSFUL FARMING 

field to be seeded and covering them with disk, harrow or other suitable 
implements. These fragments of grass take root and spread rapidly by 
means of nimierous root stocks or creepmg stems. j i. v,^ 

Bermuda grass meadows and P^^tures frequently become sod-Wd 
and fall off in yield. This condition may be alleviated by disking or by 
pbwing and haSowing. After such treatment the growth will become much 

"^""'^Xson Grass.-It is a coarse, large-growing species adapted to the 
whole of the cotton belt. It grows well in the summer as far north as 37 
degrees north latitude, but usually will not withstand wmters m such lati- 
tufe It spreads both by seeds and rhizomes, and when once established 
it is difficult to eradicate. It is utihzed for both hay and pasture. Two 
or three crops per season are frequently harvested. , ^ , ^ . . 

Sa Grass.-This is a rank-growing tropical species adapted to moist 
loams or clay loams. In the United States it is adapted only to F orida, 
and the G^^^^^ southern Texas. This grass is easily propagated by 

c^tti^^^^^^^^ long, prostrate runners in much the same way that Bermuda 
^ass is propagated. It is of value both for pasture and for feeding m the 
frpsh state It is seldom used for making hay. , , , 

Guinea Grass.-This is a long-lived perennial with short, creeping, 
root stocks. It generally grows in immense tufts, f ^f^^^^/^^^^^^^^^ 
four feet in diameter. The culms are large, erect, tall and numerous. 
ItTs adapted to tropical conditions, but may be grown m Florida and abng 
the Gulf Coast of North America. Both this and the precedmg grass may 
te cut severa^^^^^^ each year. Under strictly tropical conditions, cuttmgs 
are frequently made every six or seven weeks. 

REFERENCES 

" A Textbook on Grasses." Hitchcock. 

-Forage Plants and Their Culture." Piper. 

''Forage and Fiber Crops in America. Hunt. 

-GraJes and How to Grow Them " Shaw 

FannSs' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

l^armers ^ .^Wdow Fescue (Its Culture and Uses). ,, 

362. -Conditions Affecting Value of Market Hay^. 

402 ^'Canada Blue Grass (Its Culture and Use). 

502. ''Timothy Production on Irrigate L.ana. 

508. "Market Hay." ^ x. t^ • »» 

509. "Forage Crops for the Cotton iiegion. 



CHAPTER 16 



The Clovers 



Clovers are important on account of their high protein content and 
nutritive ratio. They are especially valuable as forage for all classes of 
livestock. Clovers enrich the soil in nitrogen and organic matter, and 
improve its physical condition through the deep penetration of roots. For 
years farmers have paid out large sums in the purchase of nitrogen for the 
soil and protein for livestock. This can be largely avoided by growing an 
abundance of leguminous crops on the farm. 

Characteristics of Clovers. — The true clovers are herbaceous leafy 
plants having three palmately arranged leaves. The larger growing 
species have deep roots on which occur nodules containing certain species 
of bacteria. These bacteria enable the plants to secure nitrogen from the 
air and use it in their development. For this reason legumes are richer in 
protein than other classes of plants. Of the total nitrogen in the plants 
about two-thirds are in the tops and one-third in the roots. 

Uses of Clovers. — As a rule from one-half to two-thirds of the roughage 
in the ration for milk cows and young stock should consist of legumes, 
among which Hhe clovers as hay are most convenient to use and most 
economical. The larger growing clovers are also quite extensively used for 
soiling purposes, and in some cases have been used for ensilage. The 
clovers are also among the most important crops for green manuring and 

as cover crops. 

Inoculation.— Since all of the legumes contain bacteria in the nodules 
on their roots, it is best to inoculate many of the legumes when grown for 
the first time in any locality. In most of the clover region soils are already 
inoculated for the clovers. If inoculation is advisable, it may be effected 
either by soil transferred or by the use of artificial cultures. In this connec- 
tion it should be borne in mind that as a rule each legume has a particular 
species of bacteria. Three to four hundred pounds of soil transferred from 
a well-established field of any species of clover to a new field will effect 
satisfactory inoculation of the latter. The soil should be taken from the 
zone of most abundant root activity, thoroughly distributed on the new 
field and at once mixed with the soil by disking or harrowing. 

Artificial cultures have now been perfected and can be purchased at 
reasonable prices from many manufacturing firms. The culture is generally 
applied directly to the seed just before it is sown. 

Composition and Feeding Value.— The composition of several species 
of clovers in the green state and in forms of preservation will be found m 
Table VI in the Appendix. Clovers, whether used for ensilage, soiling, hay 

(247) 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



248 

the production o(m,lkb„ter»^^^ and should supplant m 

r^^J^tir^o'l^^'e-reSsU L b„n, oU n,eal. cotton- 

will determine the method of ^'^'^^^f '"^f :, .p_ g„ffieient to meet the day's 
tSt\r:lTi.:^^^tlZr^'Tp<^r.r .»-., and .o 

should be considered. If the acreage to be harvested is large 




A Clover Field in Blossom.' 
process should begin. comparatively slow process of 

lose their structure^ccome brittle and c««i to giv 

^rbTa^Tbe'larg^l^oTfnXlSntorth^'ha;. Uei leaves .« 
Will break and be largely los^ .j^ f^re, to cut in the evening and to 

'i^' lltaVTt winiowTe ;^^^^^^^^^^^ become sufficiently dry to 

place the, h^/;,"^;*'^X best quality of hav is secured by placing in shocks 
'^^oS'o^^el^fS^:^^^ curing to be completed slowly withm 

1 Courtesy of Hoard's Dairyman. 



■'m^m 



W 



m^ 



■"■■'■-■.. • 
< •" •» ■■<■■■ ■■ 



THE CLOVERS 



249 



the shock. This entails much additional work, and if weather conditions 
are favorable a good quality of hay may be secured without resorting to . 

shocking. 

Clover hay may go into the mow or stack with 25 to 30 per cent of 
moisture without injury. Good judgment and prompt and systematic 
work on the part of the haymaker are necessary to secure the best results. 

The hay tedder and side-delivery rake are important adjuncts to 
securing a good quality of clover hay, and may be considered necessities 
where the acreage is sufficiently large to justify their purchase. 

RED CLOVER 

Red clover is a native of western Europe, and has long been cultivated 
in North America. It is now the most important leguminous crop in the 
Northern and North Central states and eastern Canada. While red clover 
is grown to some extent in every state and province of the United States 
and Canada, it is most extensively grown in those states lying north of the 
Ohio River and east of the Missouri River. Kansas and Nebraska, how- 
ever, produce a large acreage. The accompanying map shows the distribu- 
tion of red clover, grown alone and with timothy, by states and provmces 
for the United States and Canada. 

Soil and Climatic Adaptation.— Red clover is quite resistant to cold 
and endures winters well in Nova Scotia, Maine and Minnesota. Northern 
grown seed is, therefore, generally' preferable for seeding in cold latitudes. 
It does not do well in an extremely warm climate, and m the South succeeds 
only when planted in the fall, and usually survives only one year. A 
moderate to abundant rainfall is desirable. , . i ^ ^u 

It is adapted to quite a wide range of soils, but makes its best growth 
on fertile well-drained soil well supplied with lime and organic matter and 
reasonably free from weeds. Any soil that will grow corn successfully 
is well adapted to red clover. It does not do well on poorly drained land. 
On such soil alsike clover succeeds better. ^ 

Endurance of Red Clover.— Red clover is generally considered a 
biennial, the plants dying at the end of their second year. Some plants, 
however, will live over for a third year and a few frequently die at the close 
of their first year. The time of seeding and the treatment durmg the first 
year doubtless influence the fife of clover plants. It is a common belie 
that if clover blooms abundantly toward the close of the first year many of 
the plants will fail to continue their growth the following year. For this 

--'^^^:S^C^^^^ winters by repeated freeing 
and thawing. The plants will be so nearly pulled out of the soil that they 
perish in the spring for want of moisture and plant food. If the ground s 
deeply frozen and the surface only thaws and freezes the taproots are 
broken. This difficulty is best overcome by a thorough drainage of the 
soil and by providing a surface mulch. 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



THE CLOVERS 



249 



248 

or pasture, all possess 1»^|; ^-di-| ^^^^^^^^^^^ 

the production of milk, butter and the g^«;^t^^°;j"'' | ^^^^^^ ^ plant as 
among the most highly nutritious ^^/^^^ P'^^^^^^^^^^^ meal, cotton- 
far as possible the expensive concentrates such as bran, on i e , 

seed meal,- etc. nuroose for which the product is used 

aireCly to the silo with l-t IWe lo^j^o ■.o.tur. ^^ ,^ 

When clovers are cut foi hay, Dotii int ^l" ^ k laree it will be 
should be considered. If the acreage to be harvested is large 




A Clover Field in Rlossom.* 

— r z-r '^ ;:r oU:sr ;;xt it;; r z 

lose their structure, become brittle and cease to give 

there may still be --^ ^f^Vhand inf o7the h^^^ These leaves are 
will break and be largely los - ^^^ ^-^^^f f^.^^ Jthe evening and to 
high in feeding value. .I^^^Xf^re the leaves become sufficiently dry to 
I'^'V'^'J'fZi^'TZtel^X of haTis secured by placing in shocks 
'^^:^-oZ^:fS^:^-^^'^ curing to be completed slowly withm 

1 Courtesy of Hoard's Dairyman. 



the shock. This entails much additional work, and if weather conditions 
are favorable a good quality of hay may be secured without resorting to 

shocking. ^ 

Clover hay may go into the mow or stack with 25 to 30 per cent of 
moisture without injury. Good judgment and prompt and systematic 
work on the part of the haymaker are necessary to secure the best results. 

The hay tedder and side-delivery rake are important adjuncts to 
securing a good quality of clover hay, and may be considered necessities 
where the acreage is sufficiently large to justify their purchase. 

RED CLOVER 

Red clover is a native of western Europe, and has long been cultivated 
in North America. It is now the most important leguminous crop in the 
Northern and North Central states and eastern Canada. While red clover 
is grown to some extent in every state and province of the United States 
and Canada, it is most extensively grown in those states lying north of the 
Ohio River and east of the Missouri River. Kansas and Nebraska, how- 
ever, produce a large acreage. The accompanying map shows the distribu- 
tion of red clover, grown alone and with timothy, by states and provmces 
for the United States and Canada. ^ 

Soil and Climatic Adaptation.— Red clover is quite resistant to cold 
and endures winters well in Nova Scotia, Maine and Minnesota. Northern 
grown seed is, therefore, generally preferable for seeding in cold latitudes. 
It does not do well in an extremely warm climate, and in the South succeeds 
only when planted in the fall, and usually survives only one year. A 
moderate to abundant rainfall is desirable. , .. i x ^u 

It is adapted to quite a wide range of soils, but makes its best growth 
on fertile well-drained soil well supplied with lime and organic matter and 
reasonably free from weeds. Any soil that will grow corn successfully 
is well adapted to red clover. It does not do well on poorly drained land. 
On such soil alsike clover succeeds better. ^ 

Endurance of Red Clover.-Red clover is generally considered a 
biennial, the plants dying at the end of their second year. S^";^^ P^^^^^^^^ 
however, will live over for a third year and a few frequently die at the close 
of their first year. The time of seeding and the treatment during the first 
year doubtless influence the Ufe of clover plants. It is a common belie 
Lt if clover blooms abundantly toward the close o the first year many o 
the plants will fail to continue their growth the followmg year.^ For this 
reason clipping or light pasturing is advised. ^ 

Clover on wet soil may be killed in severe winters by repeated freezing 
and thawing. The plants will be so nearly pulled out of the soil that they 
perish in the spring for want of moisture and plan food. " ^^e f^^^^^^^^^ 
deeply frozen and the surface only thaws and freezes the taproots are 
broken. This difficulty is best overcome by a thorough drainage of the 
soil and by providing a surface mulch. 



250 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Securing Clover Seed.— The intelligent selection of clover seed calls 
for knowledge relative to the characteristics of both good and poor seed. 
Good seed is plump and has a bright luster, and is generally violet to bright 
yellow in color. The proportion of violet to yellow varies considerably 
in different lots of seed. Good seed should be free from noxious weed- 
seeds and adulterants of any kind. The standard of purity should not 
be below 98 per cent and the germination should be about 98 per cent. 
Frequently some of the clover seeds will be so hard that they will not 
germinate promptly. The hardness of the coat prevents absorption of 
moisture. The percentage of hard seeds is largest in new seed. 

Home-grown seed possesses several advantages: (1) it is likely to be 
adapted to local climatic and soil conditions; (2) its use avoids the intro- 




Map Showing the Acreage of Red Clover in the United 
States, 1909, and Canada, 1910. 

duction of obnoxious weeds foreign to the neighborhood. Among the 
most obnoxious weeds are clover dodder, buckhorn, Canada thistle and 
dock. Most weed-seeds may be removed by the use of suitable screens. 
The longevity of clover seed is three years. The deterioration in vitality 
depends largely upon the conditions of storage. Continuous warm, moist 
conditions cause deterioration and make it inadvisable to use seed more 
than two years old. A considerable percentage of the seed as determined 
by numerous tests will retain its vitality for quite a number of years, and 
the hard seeds have been known to germinate after fifteen or twenty years. 

Seed of mammoth clover is «o much like that of red clover that it is 
difficult to distinguish between them. Ordinarily, mammoth clover seed 
is a little larger than that of red. 

Preparation of Seed-Bed.— Red clover is usually seeded in the winter 



THE CLOVERS 



251 



or spring, in which case no special preparation of the seed-bed is necessary. 
When seeded in this way natural covering results from the freezing and 
thawing of the ground and the beating of rains. If conditions for spring 
seeding with wheat necessitate seeding rather late, it is best to harrow 
the wheat, thus covering the clover seed. 

When seeded with spring grain the preparation for the grain is generally 
sufficient for the clover. It will pay, however, to provide a well-prepared 
seed-bed that will fully meet the needs of clover seed, even though equally 
thorough preparation is not necessary for the spring grain. A fair degree 
of compactness and a thorough covering of the seed are desirable. 

Time, Manner, Rate and Depth of Seeding.— In all regions of moderate 
to severe winters, winter or spring seeding is advisable, except when 
clover may be seeded in midsummer without a nurse crop. Further south, 
fall seeding may be practiced without winter injury to the young clover 

plants. 

While clover seed is gencTally broadcasted, recent tests show that better 
results can be secured with less seed by using a grass seed drill. Such 
implements are now available and are so constructed as to drill the rows 
at intervals of four inches. Their adjustment permits of a shallow cover- 
ing of the seed. The rate of seeding when clover is grown alone should be 
ten to twelve pounds of good seed per acre if broadcasted and a somewhat 
smaller amount when drilled. When seeded in mixtures the amount may 
be reduced, depending on the character of the grass seed mixture. Clover 
seed should be covered from one-half to two inches in depth. On very 
loose, dry soils it may be covered as much as three inches deep with fairly 

good results. ^ , ^ ^. ., 

Failure to secure a satisfactory stand of clover frequently results 
from various causes. The condition of newly seeded clover fields immedi- 
ately after the nurse crop is harvested should be observed. It there are 
indications of insufficient plants for a satisfactory stand, it is generally 
advisable to re-seed at once. This re-seeding may take place over those 
portions of the field where the stand is poor, or may cover the entire field 
as conditions require. A disk should be used to loosen the soil before 
seeding, and after seeding it should be harrowed. Disking may injure 
some of the clover present, but not seriously. . -.u + « r.,,rco 

Good results are also secured by seeding m August without a nurse 
crop. Such seeding takes place after the wheat or oat harvest and provides 
?or a f ull clover crop the following year. The chief objection to this method 
is the extra labor of preparing the seed-bed and seeding. 

Nurse Crops for Clover.— Where clover grows without difficulty, it is 
common practice to seed with some nurse crop. In f ^^^^^^^f^XTt 
wheat is grown, this crop is a favored nurse crop for clover Winter wheat 
Ts semrrded before L latter part of September and th- c^o-^^^^^^^^^^ 
sufficient time for clover to make enough growth to protect itself during 
thf Ser As a result the clovers north of latitude 36 should be seeded m 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



I 



252 

the late winter or early spring in the growing wheat. Of the ^-^d^^ 
grains, barley and oats are the best nurse crops for clover. These should 
not be seeded very thick, otherwise the clover may be smothered. The 
™rop should be cut sufficiently high to leave a stubble that will protect 

*'^ SizSor are?-lsT^ no fertilizers or manures are applied 

direc%tr the benefit of the clover. The ^^^^^lf^%^;^,;!SX 
to the croD preceding the clover is generally sufficient. 1 his is especia y 
true when seeded with winter wheat. On soils of low fertility, especially 
vhenThereL little organic matter present, top dressing with manure pre- 
vious to the time of sLding is very beneficial to the clover. No nitrogen 
Tneeded when commercial fertilizer is used. Moderate amounts of phos- 
nhorus and potash applied broadcast will meet the needs. 
^ Ster-T?eatment of Clover.-Clover seeded with a grain crop seldom 
requkes any special treatment during the first year. Under favorable 
conltionsi may make sufficient growth after the harvest of the gra.n to 
produce a cutting of hay. This is thought by some to be injurious to the 
FollSg year's dover crop. It is, therefore, advised to dip the clover 
be ore h comes extensively into bloom, and allow the clipping to lie on the 
fie d If so abundant as to smother the plants it may be removed 
Clipping is also advisable to prevent the ripening of the seeds of ob-™ 
weeds and grasses that are always present to some extent. The clipping 
rould be so timed as to prevent the seeding of the largest possible numbe 
of such plants. If too eariy, seeds may develop after the cljPP^g, and if 
too late some of the seeds may have already matured The ordinary 
mmvSig machine with the bar set rather high is wel suited for this purpose 

S|ht pasturing may be practiced instead of dipping. Pasturing with 
sheep is best, since sheep are fond of many of the weeds and grasses, and 
will eat the seeds in great abundance. , • xt, „„„„„ri 

Since red clover lives only two years, the first crop during the second 

vear is generally cut for hay and the aftermath is either used for a seed crop, 

fs paSurTd or plowed under for the benefit of the soil. If the second crop 

to be used for seed it is wise to cut the first crop early. This encourages 

? letter development of the second crop and -"-f ^^^jf^^f ^^ovS 
The first crop should be cut just as it is coming into bloom If the clover 
is to remain for the third year, seed must be allowed to mature during the 
late summer of the second season, with a view of having the clover re-seed 
iSelfTturally. This is not a very satisfactory method, however, because 

he seSheadf generally fall to the ground ^^^ ^ '^^^^rC'^Zo^!; 
bution of the seed. This, however, may be obviated by thoroughly 
harlowing the field after the seed heads are mostly on the^ ground The 
Sa"S breaks up the heads and distributes the seed. It should be so 
timed as to avoid destruction of clover plants when just starting. 

HSvestog Clover.-R«d dover, harvested for hay, should be cut 
when o^-thW of the blossoms have begun to turn brown. At this time 



THE CLOVERS 



253 



the plants will contain about all the nutrients they ever will have, and the 
product will cure readily and make a palatable, digestible hay. After this 
period the lower leaves begin to fall rather rapidly and the clover is apt to 
lodge so that loss takes place. 

When used for soiling purposes, cutting may begin as soon as the first 
blossoms appear, and continue until the crop is fairly mature. When used 
for silage, the plants should be fully as mature as when cut for hay. If 
cut too green it makes a sloppy, sour silage of poor quality. When used 
for silage, clover gives best results when mixed with non-leguminous crops. 
The second cutting of clover can frequently be used to mix with corn in the 

making of silage. 

The least expensive way of harvesting is to pasture. While red clover 
is not especially well adapted to pasture purixjses, it makes a good quality 
of pasture, and especially when mixed with grasses. It is especially suited 
to cattle, sheep and swine. Sheep and cattle are sometimes subject to 
bloating when allowed to feed on red clover when it is especially succulent 
or when wet with dew or rain. Such trouble occurs only when the animals 
are unaccustomed to it and when they feed too heavily. 

Clover Seed Production.— Red clover seed may be successfully pro- 
duced in practically all areas adapted to the production of clover hay. It 
differs in this respect from alfalfa. ■ 

Seed production is encouraged by retarding somewhat the vegetative 
growth. Conditions that will produce a medium growth of plant usually 
induce the best setting of seed. Good seed crops are seldom secured from 
a rank growth of clover. Under such conditions the heads are few and are 
not well filled. The probable yield of seed and advisabiUty of saving the 
crop for that purpose can be determined by a careful examination of a 
number of seed heads. If the seed heads are fairly abundant and contain 
an average of twenty-five to thirty seeds each, it indicates a yield of one to 
two bushels per acre, and justifies saving for seed purposes. If the average 
number of seeds is not more than twenty it will generally not pay to cut 
for seed This determination must be made fairly early in order to cut the 
crop for hay before it becomes too mature in case it will not pay to save 

TOT* SPPfi 

It is a common belief that seed production calls for a pollination of the 
flowers by insects. The ordinary honey bee cannot reach the nectar of 
the average clover blossom, and is, therefore, not instrumental in the fertili- 
zation of the flowers. Bumble bees, however, are supposed to be the most 
effective agents in this process. There are probably numerous very small 
insects that also produce pollination. However this may be the second 
crop is the one that gives best results for seed purposes. At that time 
insects are more numerous, weather conditions are drier and the plants 
tend to produce seed more abundantly than earlier in the year Occasion- 
ally the first crop will produce plenty of seed. The seed crop should be cut 
when the largest number of heads can be secured. If cut too early, tne 



■■■- - -7wv^-, 






THE CLOVERS 



255 



< i 



8 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



cut too late, the early blossoms ^^^^ ^^ff/b^fX to cutting the seed 
The old-fashioned self-rake reaper is best adapt .efficiently 

crop. It leaves the cut clover mbh^^^^^^^ 

far from the standmg clover «; ^^e tean. ana ^.^^^^^^^ ^^^.^ ^j^ 

swath. These bunches of cut cl?;^^/^^ J^^ "^'^^^ jn the absence of the 
are ready to be hauled to '^'^^^^ZhThZ^er may be substituted, 
self-rake reaper, a mowing ,"1^^ "^.^^^^^^h ^f the team and machine, a 
If the buncher leaves the clover ^^ ^^^ P^^^ ^^d move the bunches, 

man should follow the machine with a b^^^^^^ harvesting the 

Serious shattering in the euttmg process m^^^^ be 
crop in the evening or early JJ /^e momng o ^^^^^^ ^^.^ 

The clover is generally threshed wn ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

should contain two cyhnders. Concaves must ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^j,^ 

clover seed from the 
hulls. The seed being 
valuable, it is advised 
to spread canvas be- 
neath the machine to 
save the clover seed 
which shatters out in 
the threshing process. 
Where threshing is 
done on a barn floor 
canvas will not be 
required. 
^ ^ The seed should 

he thoroughly c.e^. before -|- f^ J^r w^^S^ll "ct t 

TelvrdTyTse of^sSa^e ^^^^^ and Zt 

present of about the same --^1" d s diffi-^ to remove in this 
^11 be difficult to remove, ^"^^^^^ows and the following process 
way. Itisaverytroubl«^^^ Thoroughly wet the 

of removing it from clover seea is ^^ ^llow to stand m 

clover seed with water at about roona t^^^P^^^^^^^^^ -^ ^he temperature 

the water for five -^^--^^^^l^lT^,^::'!^ off and the moist seed 
of the water is low. The water is i ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ 

thoroughly mixed ^'th f awd"st ,^^out 7^^ ^.^^^^^ ^^ .^^ h 

of seed by measure will be ^^J^^^^^; ^^^^ee surface moisture from the 
mixing will cause the ^^^^^f^ome mu^^^^^^^^^ and the sawdust adheres 
seed. The buckhorn seeds ^^""^f^^^J^htwo screens, preferably in a 
rntg mi? ^S'pp^reTorS perforated with round holes 

. .^ t:< «-«' 'RiillAf.in 495. 




A CU,VEH BrNCHBR ArTACHEO TO A MoWIN. MACHINE.' 



T^^;;;;^. V . S. Dept. .C AgHcuHure. F^m Fanae^' BuUetin 405. 



one-fifteenth of an inch in diameter. The lower should be a No. 22 mesh 
wire screen. The buckhorn seeds with sawdust adhering will pass over the 
surface of the upper screen and be removed. The clover seed will pass 
through the openings and be retained by the lower screen, passing off at 
the edge, where it may be collected. The sawdust should be fine and will 
pass through the lower screen. In this way the separation is complete. 

Red Clover Troubles. — The principal enemies of red clover are insects, 
fungous diseases and weeds. Much is heard concerning clover sickness, 
but little is known relative to the nature of the malady. Failure to grow 










'iJ^i? 



■,i ^ 



^' ." ■ " ,;■ ■■' Mt. ■■■■ '. "a — .^' ». ■■- 












-♦^ 



*>>i^ 







'^6 




' *% 


■*(■ 




7*:' 


\, 


*« -^^ 




V 



:J%« 



Mm 



Red Clover on Limed and Unlimed Land.^ 

continuous crops of clover may be due to any one of several causes. Soil 
acidity is probably the most common cause of clover failure. This, as 
previously stated, is overcome by the use of lime. One of the most common 
diseases of clover is anthracnose. In some sections nematodes have also 
been responsible for clover failure. These difficulties will be mentioned 
under special chapters covering plant diseases, insect enemies and weeds. 
Alsike Clover.— Is a perennial plant intermediate between red and 
white clover in size and appearance. It is adapted to ground that is too 
wet for red clover, and is also more tolerant of acidity. 

^Courtesy of The Macmfllan Company. N. Y. From "Crops and Methods for SoH Improve- 
ment," by Agee. 



SUCCESSFUL FARMH^ 



254 ~ . — 

far from the standing clover «^/^^^^^^^^^^^^ to be disturbed until they 

swath. These bu-hes of cu^^^^^^^^^^^^ In the absence of the 

are ready to be hauled to the ^^^res^^^^^ ^^^ substituted, 

self-rake reaper, a moving ^^'^'^'^^^^^ team and machine, a 

If the buncher leaves the f'^^'J^^^^^^^^ and move the bunches, 

man should ^low the machine w^^^^^^^^^ harvesting the 

Serious shattering in the ^f']^^XlZo^^^^ or on damp days. 
crop in the evening or early - ^he^^^^^^ ^.^r huUer. This machine 
The clover is generally ^hre^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ be set rather close m order 
should contain two cylinders. Concaves musx ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

clover seed from the 
hulls. The seed being 
valuable, it is advised 
to spread canvas be- 
neath the machine to 
save the clover seed 
which shatters out in 
the threshing process. 
Where threshing is 
done on a barn floor 
canvas will not be 
required. 
^,^_ The seed should 

present of about the same g^^^^J^^ f , lifficult to remove in this 
^U be difficult to remove, ^ucldiorn^eea ^^^^^^^.^ ^^^^^^ 

way. It is a very troublesome weed «^«vj Thoroughly wet the 
of removing it from clover seed is J^ecornmena ^^ ^^^^^ .^ 

clover seed with water at about room temg^at^ e a^^ .^ ^^^ temperature 

the water for five -'-"t^,^; «;^"4^,"; Jhe/drained off and the moist seed 
of the water is low. The viater is t sawdust to one part 

thoroughly mixed -'^h sawd"st^i,:^""Vrorthre" minutes of thorough 
of seed by measure will be ^equi^ea ^ ^^^.^^^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^ 

fe T.v,,«or«' Rnlletin 495. 




A Clovek BrxcHEK ArrACHKO to a Mo.in. Machine.^ 



7^;;;;^oi U. S. Dept. -f A«HeuUure. Fro. Farmers' BuUetin 405. 



THE CLOVERS 



255 



one-fifteenth of an inch in diameter. The lower should be a No. 22 mesh 
wire screen. The buckhorn seeds with sawdust adhering will pass over the 
surface of the upper screen and be removed. The clover seed will pass 
through the openings and be retained by the lower screen, passing off at 
the edge, where it may be collected. The sawdust should be fine and will 
pass through the lower screen. In this way the separation is complete. 

Red Clover Troubles. — The principal enemies of red clover are insects, 
fungous diseases and weeds. Much is heard concerning clover sickness, 
but little is known relative to the nature of the malady. Failure to grow 












^.i^ 






1.-2*^ 



-t^ 



^^^h.- 



^^'^'■: 






^Jp*v„ ■ 



^*^^"m 



^\0.- 



■^H 



■J t. *.* 



>■- ■••'^. 



> ^^J 



-N-'- ♦ 



^«art: 



-i-^M^^' 



MS 



M. 



"■ j|f--.y^. 



Red Clover on Limed and Unlimed Land.^ 

continuous crops of clover may be due to any one of several causes. Soil 
acidity is probably the most common cause of clover failure. This, as 
previously stated, is overcome by the use of lime. One of the most common 
diseases of clover is anthracnose. In some sections nematodes have also 
been responsible for clover failure. These difficulties will be mentioned 
under special chapters covering plant diseases, insect enemies and weeds. 
Alsike Clover.— Is a perennial plant intermediate between red and 
white clover in size and appearance. It is adapted to ground that is too 
wet for red clover, and is also more tolerant of acidity. 

^Courtesy of The Macmnian Company. N. Y. From "Crops and Methods for SoU Improve- 
ment," by Agee. 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



THE CLOVERS 



257 



III 



256 _~ ^ .^ , 

hay of finer textures and '"^f J^^ ^f^^^^^^^^^ and not relished as 

clover, but lodges worse. The f«l?^f .\™'''^[^ j^ ^th red clover or with 
well b^ cattle. For this reason it ^? better to mix it ™^ consequently, 
passes. It matures about two weeks earh^J ^Tmayt gr^wn with early- 
does not fit into mixtures as well ^^^'21^2^^ P^\£^^ clover and red- 

*^^^ We Clover-White clover i:^^^;^^^^^^'-^^^^^ 
abundant solid, creeping ^'^^^^^ J! ^eflT^^^^^^^^^^ for pasture purposes 

all of the temperate zone. It >^,^ff ^'^"^^Tth in pastures and lawns. It 
and is frequently used ^ith blue grass bo^h in p ^^^^^ ^^^ 

seeds abundantly, often producing ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^,,. jt has long been 

SXfa^ h^rp"- %n=s\hen excluded from insects 

-nU^oClo^^^his clover is^^^^^^^^^^^ 

^srse-^i^xesii^^^^^^^^^^ 

sufficient size to be harvested for^ay ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ,{ 

Crimson Clover.— This is a winter <*" manuring and cover crop, 

mild .-inters. It is extensively used - ^ ^^^^^"^^^7,^,^^^^ crops such 
It may be seeded from May to Au^*, ^^^^^^^^^^ ,, cut iust as it comes in 
as standmg corn. It makes nay oi ^ g ^ ^ j^ ^^ ^re abundantly 

flower. The plant is ^^-^^^f^.^^^^J^tecome rather mature, the hairs 
supplied with- long hairs. J^ t"?^ ~„^J'd to livestock. It is never 
harden and cause serious trouble ^nen leu ^^^^^^ 

S^visable to teed ^^^X2^°S:S:JZ:'^<^^^-^^'-^'^^''^'^^^ 
S ?rr S'oTr ILi-s. ^^ *» ha, a„d seed crops a-e 

handled in about the same way «"~ "T'^ prominence in recent years, 
Sweet Clo«r.-Tl.is plant has come m» P" , Kecent 

,„d has been -«J|™'i.*'^r1nlIte tSit is destLd to become 
careful inquiries and »^vestigauo improvement, 

an important legume both f/^^j^J^f^^^ver but the white sweet clover 
There are several species of ^^eet clover conditions. It is adapted 
iMMoiu. alM) is ^^l-S:'^t^^:ZtrS.mL It is exceedingly 
to a wide range of both soil «^J^" . ^^^ conditions. It is a biennial. 

hardy and -f -^^-^I^^^^Sfwee^^^^^^^ ^iong roadways in many 

It is often spoken of as a roaasiue wcc , 



parts of nearly every state in the Union and the provinces of Canada. It 
seeds abundantly, the seed being similar to that of alfalfa. The plant 
also closely resembles alfalfa in its early stages of growth, although the 
blossoms and seed heads are quite different. 

It is deep rooted and the tops often attain a height of four to five feet. 
The composition of sweet clover is nearly the same as that of alfalfa. It 
is high in digestible protein and very nutritious as feed. Because of a 
peculiar odor and taste, animals seldom eat it at first. They soon acquire 
a taste for it and eat it with avidity and thrive on it. 

Sweet clover is especially valuable for soil improvement. Its greatest 
benefit will result by plowing it under the second season before it blooms. 
The seed should be sown at the rate of fifteen to twenty pounds of hulled 
seed, or at the rate of twenty-five to thirty pounds when hulls are present. 




Pasturing Sweet Clover in Kansas.* 

It may be seeded either in August or early in the spring. The methods of 
seeding are similar to those for red clover. 

Lespedeza or Japan Clover. — This is a small-growing summer annual, 
attaining a height of six to eighteen inches, depending on soil conditions. 
It is adapted especially to the cotton belt. It is to the South what white 
clover is in the North. It is especially adapted for grazing purposes, and a 
mixture of Bermuda grass and Lespedeza makes a good pasture for many 
parts of the South. It begins growth in the middle spring and reaches 
maturity in September or October. It may be distinguished from the 
yellow-flowered hop clovers which it closely resembles by its purple blos- 
soms, which do not appear until August or later, while the hop clovers bloom 
early. It seeds freely and perpetuates itself from year to year by self- 
seeding. 

Bur Clover.— This is a rather small-growing clover indigenous to 
Texas and California, and is closely related to alfalfa. It is of very little 
value for hay, and will give only one cutting. It serves best for winter 
and early spring grazing. It is especially valuable because it affords 



* Courtesy of Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. 

17 



-^"^ 









SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



THE CLOVERS 



257 



256 . , 

hay of finer textures and "^^fj^^J ^f^^^^^^^^^^ and not relished as 

clover, but lodges worse. The f^l^^^f ,\"^f .f "^f^ -^ ^jth red clover or with 
well by cattle. For this reason it is better to mix it wit ^ ^j 

passes. It matures about two weeks jar -r th^^^^^^^^^ ^^h early- 

does not fit into mixtures as well ^'^^^''^'Jl^^^MsL clover and red- 

'- ^T^sSranra^e ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

:i^sz::tf^^^r^-^^ - - -- . mi. 

tures. „^^ .^ ,_^^^ . „ low-erowing perennial, having 

White Clover.-White clover >« ^ low gro g^P.^^ ^^.^^ .^ ^^^^^^ 

abundant solid, creepmg ^^^-J^^J* ^Veil^^^^^^^^^^ for pasture purposes 
all of the temperate zone. It ^J ^sPemUy w l ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ j^ 

and is frequently used ^ith blue grass Dot p ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

seeds abundantly, often producing ^^-^J-^l^ ^.ev. It has long been 

"- t^o Clov^^his clover is «aHo wMt^ d^^^^^ ^.^nistSS 

•sufficient size to ^« harvested for^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^gi,„, ,f 

Crimson Clover.— 1 his is a winxei manuring and cover crop. 

„.ild winters. It is -te-vdy u^^^^^^^^ X Xe o^ in'other crops such 
It may be seeded from May to ^"Susi, eii . ^^^^^^ ^^ 

as standing corn. It makes hay oj f;g°«^^^^^^^^^^^ ^iJ, are abundantly 

flower. The plant is ^^-^^l^^.^^JJXb^^^^^^^^^ rather mature, the hairs 
supplied with long hairs. " "^^ j^^^^^^^^ to livestock. It is never 

harden and cause serious trouble when leu ^^^^^^ 

advisable to feed straw ^f ^^f J^^^^J^ch anSStines that frequently 
hay or straw causes hair balls m the stomacn ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^_.^ 

result in the death of the animals Both the hay 
handled in about the same way as red clover . ^^^^^^ ears. 

Sweet Clover.-This plant has come mto ?« ^^^^^^ 

and has been extensively discussed m the agnultu^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ 

careful inquiries and '"^ff ^^ forVitrp and for soil improvement, 
an important legume, both f« ^j^T^J^Y^K, ,>ut the white sweet clover 
There are several species of ^^^et Jlover j^ j^ ^^japted 

^Meliloius aM) is ^^iX'^^l^'^Ztl^n^^^^- It is exceedingly 
to a wide range of both soil ana c eonditions. It is a biennial. 

hardy and makes fair f ^^iJ^^jf^eS,^ 
It is often spoken of as a roadside weeu, a 



parts of nearly every state in the Union and the provinces of Canada. It 
seeds abundantly, the seed being similar to that of alfalfa. The plant 
also closely resembles alfalfa in its early stages of growth, although the 
blossoms and seed heads are quite different. 

It is deep rooted and the tops often attain a height of four to five feet. 
The composition of sweet clover is nearly the same as that of alfalfa. It 
is high in digestible protein and very nutritious as feed. Because of a 
peculiar odor and taste, animals seldom eat it at first. They soon acquire 
a taste for it and eat it with avidity and thrive on it. 

Sweet clover is especially valuable for soil improvement. Its greatest 
benefit will result by plowing it under the second season before it blooms. 
The seed should be sown at the rate of fifteen to twenty pounds of hulled 
seed, or at the rate of twenty-five to thirty pounds when hulls are present. 




Pasturing Sweet Clover in Kansas.* 

It may be seeded either in August or early in the spring. The methods of 
seeding arc similar to those for red clover. 

Lespedeza or Japan Clover. — This is a small-growing summer annual, 
attaining a height of six to eighteen inches, depending on soil conditions. 
It is adapted especially to the cotton belt. It is to the South what white 
clover is in the North. It is especially adapted for grazing purposes, and a 
mixture of Bermuda grass and Lespedeza makes a good pasture for many 
parts of the South. It begins growth in the middle spring and reaches 
maturity in September or October. It may be distinguished from the 
yellow-flowered hop clovers which it closely resembles by its purple blos- 
soms, which do not appear until August or later, while the hop clovers bloom 
early. It seeds freely and perpetuates itself from year to year by self- 
seeding. 

Bur Clover.— This is a rather small-growing clover indigenous to 
Texas and California, and is closely related to alfalfa. It is of very little 
value for hay, and will give only one cutting. It serves best for winter 
and early spring grazing. It is especially valuable because it affonls 



' Courtesy ot KaD9a.i Agricultural Experiment Station. 
17 



il 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



I 



258 .^ 

: . .u, conth for about two months before Bermuda grass and 

grazmg m the South lor aoout w „urpose. It makes a good 

ntViPr Slimmer grasses are available lor tms purpu&e. 

probably .,« '--^ -^tTfrn^ "r^Sne^to =achS, extent 

SS y ScomViXKita economic po^ibiUties and ^d samples 

r«r Lperimen. station fo. Wonna«on and a*->^^ ^^^^^,^^ ,^ 

, There are several species of hop clover ana ine i improvement, 

REFERENCES 

441 '^Lespedeza or Japan Clover. 

693. ''Bur Clover." . ^ 



CHAPTER 17 



Alfalfa 



Alfalfa is one of the oldest forage crops. Its history has been closely 
related to that of man throughout past ages. It was highly esteemed by 
the ancient Persians as the most important of forage crops, and followed 
their invasion by Xerxes into Greece, 490 B. C. During the early centu- 
ries of the Christian era it spread throughout the countries of Europe, and it 
was brought to North America by the early colonists. It was introduced 
into the Eastern colonies under the name of Luzerne. It found its way into 




Map of the United States and Canada Showing Acreage of 

Alfalfa. Figures = Acres.^ 

California and other Western states probably by way of South America, 
and brought with it the Spanish name of alfalfa. 

Alfalfa is characterized by its deep root system, on which are found 
nodules similar to those described under the clovers. The bacteria in 
these nodules enable the alfalfa to secure nitrogen directly from the air. 
Alfalfa plants are propagated only by seeds. They do not spread, as do 
some of the clovers and many of the grasses, by creeping stems and under- 
ground root stocks. Alfalfa is a perennial and under favorable conditions 
lives many years and attains a large size. The crowns of the plant become 

» Courtesy of The Macmillan Company, N. Y. From "Forage Plants and Their Culture," by 
Piper. 

(259) 



•"t.'*V.,.4|j 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ALFALFA 



261 



;i 



260 . ^ 

much branched and old plants frequently give rise to as many as 200 

^''"distribution of Alfalfa-This plant is grown as a -op - -ery^^^^^^^^ 
in the Union and most of the provmces of Canada. The map on tne 

^^%'T.nTciSc M^^^^^^ STdTpied to a warm, dry 

r ^. ^n SSrimeriKTs most extensively and successfully grown 

chmate. In North Ai^f"^;'";. , ii jn the western half of the United 

under the semi-and conditions that prevail m ine .^ ^^^^^^^ 

States. More than two-thirds of the h^Y ^°^" ''^ ^^ ^uces more 

Over one-half of that grown in Colorado is alfalfa. Kansas pr 

than Nebraska ai.d Neb-^^ -^^^^^^^ and forage 

production of altalta as compdit^u w ^ Aifoifr, has been culti- 

vated so long that strains dim extensively grown 

adapted to a wide range o^^clim^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^j, -^ ,he 

in North America J* J^^ „~ extremes in the humid regions, 

:nd r3;:ieirrroprcal or sub-tropical regions where the humidity 
is high and rainfa.!! abundant. ^ ^^^^dy 

It is adapted to a wide range o\ «« f ' f ^^est on soils of medium 
soils as well as upon heavy clays. I* ^^".•^"^^^'T^^'^tr a^^^ well supplied 
texture that are capable of ^f ^f J^^f ^^ ^^.^^^^^^^^^ underlaid 

S htrnf ";"iot ro^k^^r ding water. Neither will it thrive 

'"^ Essentials for Success.-In the western half of the United States there 
ordinary treatment, its growtn wouiu :^^;^„tion In the eastern 

half of the Lnited states wntit. „^^^«« ^f this rroD that must be carefully 
certain »-"««>47r ^^ ^a^g ^^.TlL weed,, .Wee o, 
^^S;^ «V-« «rpi, o, ■». a fa. ^^^^^^^^ 
8oil, thorough P'r'""T,°H™^"iS^;^S peaty of good seed. Added 
tXS^^Sa;;- "^e„Xi*^X?o, e/tU„|, ea„ i„ pasturing, 

«ntLTtte:fi:i:ntUl to .ue..^^^^^^^^^ 
larmera contemplating growing alfalfa 5«^^^°™f. *^ °'„ ^ this, such as the 
a small scale. There are 73''!|;:' ^S'„r„? "„°c"£d s^-il. 
practical expenence «°'"«1»°^ /'"^SSnd regional strains of alfaUa 



ness. Aside from the common or ordinary alfalfa, Turkestan, Arabian. 
Peruvian and Grimm are of some importance. The common or ordinary 
alfalfa is that generally grown in North America, Europe, Argentine and 
Australia. 

Turkestan alfalfa closely resembles ordinary alfalfa, and neither plant 
nor seed can be easily distinguished from it. It is thought to be a little 
more drought and cold resistant than ordinary alfalfa, but is inferior to the 
ordinary alfalfa for the eastern half of the United States. 

Arabian alfalfa may be recognized by its hairiness, large leaflets, rapid 
growth and short life. It begins growth and continues to grow at a some- 
what lower temperature than common alfalfa. 

Peruvian alfalfa may be recognized by its somewhat bluish appearance, 
coarse, erect stems and large leaflets. 

Grimm alfalfa, brought to this country from Germany, has been culti- 
vated here for a long time, and through elimination of the less hardy plants 
has become adapted to severe climatic conditions. It is, therefore, recom- 
mended for the Northern states. It is claimed to resist severe pasturing 
better than ordinary alfalfa, and is thought to be somewhat more drought 
resistant. The seed is higher priced than that of the ordinary alfalfa. 

Sources of Seed. — Best results are usually secured by the use of locally 
grown seed. In the eastern half of the country, very little seed is produced, 
and imported seed must be relied upon. It is, therefore, advisable to secure 
seed from approximately the same latitude or preferably somewhat north 
of the latitude in which it is to be used. Nebraska-grown seed is good for 
IlHnois, Indiana and Ohio. Kansas-grown seed is generally a little cheaper 
and will be good for Missouri and southern Illinois. Dakota seed will be 
higher priced, but should be used in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan. 

Alfalfa seed varies in purity, germination and price. It is, therefore, 
wise to secure samples from several sources before purchasing. These 
should be examined for impurities and tested for germination as a basis ^ 
for calculating which will be the cheapest. None but first-class seed, 
free from noxious weed seeds and showing good germination, should 

be used. 

A pound of alfalfa contains about 220,000 seeds. If evenly sown on 
an acre these would average over five seeds to the square foot. Alfalfa 
fields one year old rarely oontain more than twenty plants to the square 
foot, and older fields usually have less than ten. It is evident from this 
that a large percentage of the seeds sown fail to produce plants. It is very 
important that a full stand be secured on all parts of the field. Vacant 
spots give an opportunity for grass and weeds to start, and these encroach 

upon the alfalfa. 

The percentage of hard seeds in some lots runs very high and necessi- 
tates treating the seed to increase its germination. Hard seeds are treated 
with a mechanical device through which they are passed with much force, 
and the hard coats are weakened by striking against a hard, rough surface. 









SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ALFALFA OUT YIELDS 
OTHFK HAY CROPS 



ALFALFA 
RED CLOVER 

TIMOTHY 

BROME 
GRASS 



K 4 TONS t»ER ACRE] 




i$ 



w 



99 



262 

be detected by its having a much darker color and less l^^^r ^han tr^s 

commerci.1 fertile,, and lime are seldom needed '°"'«f »■ ^"^,;" *', 
ea*,„ hal, .he. are .,.,ue„tly "'XltS": S theS S*; 

able quantities of lime and the essen- 
tial mineral plant foods. For this 
reason, large crops cannot be main- 
tained except on fertile soils or soils 
that are well supplied with plant food 
and lime; 400 or 500 pounds of a fer- 
tilizer containing about 10 per cent of 
phosphoric acid and 6 to 8 per cent of 
potash should be applied at the time 
of seeding. If the *eld is continued 
in alfalfa for several years it should be 
top dressed with manure or commer- 
cial fertilizer every year or two. 
I There is no danger of getting the soi 

I __J too rich for alfalfa. Manure should 

* "Z 7r~Z hp used that is as free from weed and 

A..A...O^^HU>sarHKKH..CHOPs. ^^^^J^ ^ VOSsMe. Their intro- 
duction into the alfalfa should be guarded against, and the alfalfa culti- 
vated for weed destruction if necessary. ^^n^oves much lime 
Alfalfa has but little tolerance for soil acidity. .J* ^^™°^^'^"J,'''''hoSd 
frnm the soil and grows best on soils well supplied with lime, boils stiouia 
- bTTestVftiTy^efore seeding to alfa.^^^ 
nrovided wherever there is any indication of its need. It is immatena n 
Xt form this is applied. The finely pulverized raw limestone is fully 
n« pffective as equivalent amounts in any other torms. . 

Predication of Seed-Bed.-Alfalfa demands a finely pulverized, moist 
fairly^^c'^c^eeVbed, free of weeds. This ca. generally bej.^^ 
by devoting the land during the preceding year to an i^t^'-'ty'^fjl^f' 
such Is corn, potatoes or tomatoes. The preceding crop, if hberaUy 
r^anured wil Jbviate the necessity of applying manure directly for the 
Tnefit of Slfa This has the advantage of permitting weed and ^ass 
Ss L Lf m^^^^^^^^ to germinate and be destroy. The re^^^f^f^ 
of the manure will be sufficient to start the ^^^^^^f ..X^^^'^^^;,'!-^ 
can be secured by plowing late m the spnng and d'^king or ha^o^mg 
«t intervals of ten days or two weeks until the hrst nan oi ^"fe 
Lh treatment pulverizes the soil, compacts it, conserves soil moisture 



ALFALFA 



263 



and destroys weeds. It provides an ideal seed-bed on which alfalfa may 
be seeded. 

Time, Rate, Depth and Manner of Seeding. — Alfalfa may be seeded 
either in the spring or late summer. In the western half of the United 
States spring seeding predominates. In the eastern half, summer seeding 
is more certain. Seeding either very early in the spring or too late in the 
season should be avoided. A satisfactory stand is more certain v/hen the 
seeding is made on soil that is sufficiently warm to produce prompt germi- 
nation of the seed and rapid growth of the young plants. At 40 degrees 
north latitude spring seeding may be made during the last part of April 
or early May. Northward or at considerable elevations the date should be 
a little later, while southward or at low elevations it may be a little earlier. 
For latitude 40 degrees north, late summer seeding should generally be 
during the first half of August, northward it may be a little earlier, and 
southward considerably later depending on latitude. In any event there 
should be sufficient time for the alfalfa to become well established and 
make considerable growth before winter sets in. 

The rate of seeding varies greatly, but in the eastern half of the United 
States and Canada twenty to thirty pounds of seed per acre is advised. 
In the western half of the United States seeding generally ranges from ten 
to twenty pounds per acre. Where grown under the dry land system of 
farming, five to ten pounds of seed per acre often gives satisfactory results. 

The seed should be covered anywhere from one-half inch to two 
inches in depth, depending on character of soil and presence of moisture. 
The manner of seeding must be determined by local conditions and avail- 
able machinery. Alfalfa drills are advised when they are available. The 
most of the seed, however, is sown broadcast and covered with the harrow. 
Summer seeding is made without a nurse crop and spring seeding generally 
with a nurse crop. The principal nurse crops are winter wheat, rye, spring 
oats and barley. Barley is considered preferable to oats, and ^vinter rye 
seeded in the spring is considered best of all. The nurse crops should be 
seeded rather thinly in order to encourage the growth of the alfalfa. 

Inoculation. — West of the Missouri River the soil seldom needs 
inoculation for the successful growth of alfalfa. East of that, however, 
inoculation is generally necessary. Wherever sweet clover is not a common 
weed and wherever alfalfa has never been grown, it is always advisable to 
inoculate this crop. 

There are two general methods of inoculation: (1) by soil transfer, 
(2) by artificiiil cultures. Inoculation by soil transfer is simple, easy and, 
with reasonable precautions, generally successful. It consists in securing 
from a well-established field or from a field where sweet clover grows, soil 
from that portion of the root zone where nodules are most abundant. 
This is transferred to the new field and spread broadcast at the rate of 300 
to 500 pounds per acre, and thoroughly mixed with the soil by disking or 
harrowing. The inoculated soil should be spread on a cloudy day, or in 





J 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


■^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W>:^;i.;.-; ' 


^tgnnrai' 








- - jsn 


IHBV" ' ' 








■vS 


Vi^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 


^^^^^^■Pk^:. ^; 












Wu 




■-;i^,^0 




'•<" 


L>'9^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 


' '. n^^^^^^^^^K- 










^^^^^B 




■,--;■ ?<>-;> 


i^m^Fw^K^mmt 


ri^^ 


Aa^JI^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^I 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ll^,^^^^^^^ 


■■■i^^^^^^^^^^^^^k^^ajBU. 






- '^■WiWil lyiBftlMi WWWM 




^^^^^BK' 




..V-il*»ljM 


1 


1 


■■ 


■H 


■ 


■■■||HH|HIH':;-(<4;^'':J'Mu 


1 








^ 


1 


v 
























k 

























SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ALFALFA 



265 



264 ^ 

the morning or evening, and the field thoroughly disked and harrowed 

^^ ° When soil must be secured from a long distance the freight charges 
When soil musi u ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ amounts may 

cartage bags, etc ^^^ ^j^^^f/f^^f ^^, inoculation to develop. Certain 
be used and more ?n\<' aHowea j ^ ^ion of noxious weeds in this 

^"^'TaS^fsTt gt^ att- extensively, it is economical to first 
3a nLrof sUip of ak'lfa through the center of the field and thoroughly 








■?•■ ' • 


■, ^-% ■ ■ :..' ■ . .■..,t---^:--.-. ■/,'■ 




■ y. : ■ :^-:^- ■ '"• ^ ■''W.-^^. •■,.■> 






s 












^: • ... •■■;. •:■>■ 1 


1 4t'^ftLrATt8PAYSRfT^« FltfSt CUTT.A/G 


33 INCHES H^OV\. 


JM- GoSoeRt^t^^'S fRROA. 


.- J 



A Standing Field of Alfalfa.» 

w -f At the end of one year this will serve as a source of inoculation 
inoculate it. At the end oi one y eci fertilizer distributor may be 

for the entire field ^;;d a ^mtab^ ^t /.gie, to this strip, and 

used going back and {o^h across the neiaai g b ^^.^^ ^^^ 

miing the distributor from the soil of the s^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ 

Artificial cultures have '^^r^*!^^^^^^^^^^^^^ directions, they are 

from a number o sour^-^ By a efuj^yjol ^^^ g .j^ ^o 

fnXcln^XS^Jht^^^^^^ 

:^^^^i^-— ^^^ SrifacUlSh the maximum result. 

1 Courtesy of The Pennsylvania Farmer. 



After-Treatment.— The after-treatment of alfalfa is more important 
than in case of the clovers and grasses. Clipping the alfalfa at the close 
of its first season has been quite generally recommended, but is a doubtful 
practice so far as direct benefit to the alfalfa is concerned. If, however, 
weeds and grasses are abundant, or if the alfalfa was seeded early and is 
blooming rather freely, cHpping in the fall is advised. The clipping should 
be so timed as to prevent maturing of weed seeds. The alfalfa should be 
chpped rather high and the clippings left on the field for winter protection. 

Winter killing of alfalfa is most severe during the first winter and in 
severe climates or on soils subject to heaving. Winter protection by 
mulching or otherwise is advised. The more hardy varieties of alfalfa will 
stand a temperature twenty to thirty degrees below zero if the soil is rea- 
sonably dry. The chief trouble occurs as a result of the plants being heaved 
out of the soil by repeated freezing and thawing, generally toward the close 
of the winter. 

Disking and harrowing alfalfa fields have been frequently recom- 
mended for the purpose of killing weeds and grass, for loosening the soil and 
for splitting the crowns of the alfalfa plants. The improvement of soil and 
destruction of weeds is justifiable, but injury to the alfalfa plants should 
always be avoided. Under favorable conditions considerable injury may 
not prove serious, but in the eastern part of the country, injury to the 
crowns of the plants results in decay of the roots and shortens their life.- 
The ordinary disk is, therefore, not recommended. Suitable harrows and 
the spike-toothed alfalfa disk harrow may be used to good advantage. 
The spring-toothed harrow with the teeth brought to a sharp point is 
recommended. There is enough spring in the teeth so that they will pass 
around the crowns of the alfalfa plants without serious injury, and at the 
same time will uproot small weeds and grasses. 

Cultivation should take place just after cutting, and is generally not 
necessary during the first year of the alfalfa. 

Making Alfalfa Hay.— The time of cutting alfalfa should be carefully 
regulated in order not to injure it. If cut too early the second crop is slow 
in starting and the exposed crowns of the plants may be injured by hot, dry 
weather. Neither is it advisable to delay the cutting, for this will result 
in clipping off the new shoots that produce the new crop. Alfalfa should be 
cut for hay when the small shoots starting from the crown and which 
produce the next crop are one-half inch to one and one-half inches in length. 
At this time about one-tenth of the blossoms will usually be out. In the 
eastern part of North America leaf spot is quite common and spreads 
rapidly through the field as the plants approach the hay-making stage. If 
this trouble is very prevalent the leaves fall rapidly and harvesting should 
be hastened somewhat to prevent loss. A fair degree of maturity of the 
alfalfa makes the curing of hay easier than if cut when too succulent. In 
the western half of the United States there is very little difficulty in this 
respect. Weather conditions are more favorable and hay of good quality 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ALFALFA 



265 



264 

t^hTmorning or evening, and the fidT^oughly disked and harrowed 

^* ''when soil must be secured from a long distance the freight charges 
S a ^™w «p of ;Wf» through the center of the field and thoroughly 




A Standing Field of Alfalfa.' 



w •+ A Mho end of one year this will serve as a source of moculation 
inoculate It ^^ tjie end ot one > ^^.^.^^^ distributor may be 

for the entire field, and a suitaDie una ^^^ 

used going back and «'-t\^--^,*^;.Sri^ 

miing the distributor from the soil of the s^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

Artificial culture, h^^^^^^ Ty Lefu%t£^^ directioL, they are 
from a number of sources ijy ^ ^^^ accordmg to 

?ht^r™irur„Tir S SraeU^£h the u,»iu.u. result. 

1 Courtesy of The Pennsylvania Farmer. 



After-Treatment. — The after-treatment of alfalfa is more important 
than in case of the clovers and grasses. Clipping the alfalfa at the close 
of its first season has been quite generally recommended, but is a doubtful 
practice so far as direct benefit to the alfalfa is concerned. If, however, 
weeds and grasses are abundant, or if the alfalfa was seeded early and is 
blooming rather freely, clipping in the fall is advised. The clipping should 
be so timed as to prevent maturing of weed seeds. The alfalfa should be 
clipped rather high and the clippings left on the field for winter protection. 

Winter killing of alfalfa is most severe during the first winter and in 
severe climates or on soils subject to heaving. Winter protection by 
mulching or otherwise is advised. The more hardy varieties of alfalfa will 
stand a temperature twenty to thirty degrees below zero if the soil is rea- 
sonably dry. The chief trouble occurs as a result of the plants being heaved 
out of the soil by repeated freezing and thawing, generally toward the close 
of the winter. 

Disking and harrowing alfalfa fields have been frequently recom- 
mended for the purpose of killing weeds and grass, for loosening the soil and 
for splitting the crowns of the alfalfa plants. The improvement of soil and 
destruction of weeds is justifiable, but injury to the alfalfa plants should 
always be avoided. Under favorable conditions considerable injury may 
not prove serious, but in the eastern part of the country, injury to the 
crowns of the plants results in decay of the roots and shortens their life. 
The ordinary disk is, therefore, not recommended. Suitable harrows and 
the spike-toothed alfalfa disk harrow may be used to good advantage. 
The spring-toothed harrow with the teeth brought to a sharp point is 
recommended. There is enough spring in the teeth so that they will pass 
around the crowns of the alfalfa plants without serious injury, and at the 
same time will uproot small weeds and grasses. 

Cultivation should take place just after cutting, and is generally not 
necessary during the first year of the alfalfa. 

Making Alfalfa Hay.— The time of cutting alfalfa should be carefully 
regulated in order not to injure it. If cut too early the second crop is slow 
in starting and the exposed crowns of the plants may be injured by hot, dry 
weather. Neither is it advisable to delay the cutting, for this will result 
in clipping off the new shoots that produce the new crop. Alfalfa should be 
cut for hay when the small shoots starting from the crown and which 
produce the next crop are one-half inch to one and one-half inches in length. 
At this time about one-tenth of the blossoms wull usually be out. In the 
eastern part of North America leaf spot is quite common and spreads 
rapidly through the field as the plants approach the hay-making stage. If 
this trouble is very prevalent the leaves fall rapidly and harvesting should 
be hastened somewhat to prevent loss. A fair degree of maturity of the 
alfalfa makes the curing of hay easier than if cut when too succulent. In 
the western half of the United States there is very little difficulty in this 
respect. Weather conditions are more favorable and hay of good quality 



msm^^r. 



266 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ALFALFA 



267 



ii|! 



I 

1 



can be made with the minimum amount of labor. In the eastern half of 
the country rains are prevalent, especially at the time of the first cutting. 
This calls for special precautions and often necessitates extra labor and the 
use of canvas covers to secure hay without serious mjury. 

It is advised to cut in the evening and early mornmg, and follow the 
mower with the tedder before any of the leaves become dry The second 
teddering at right angles to the first is advised if the alfalfa is heavy. 
With favorable weather it may be possible to put the alfalfa in the wmdrow 
toward evening of the first day. One more day's exposure m the windrow 
under favorable conditions will generally cure it sufficiently to go directly 

to stack or mow. 
This reduces handling 
to the minimum and 
prevents loss by 
shattering. 

If weather condi- 
tions are threatening, 
it will be best to put 
into moderate-sized 
shocks at the close of 
the first day, and 
cover with canvas to 
protect from rains. 
It requires from three, 
to seven days to cure 
in the shock, depend- 
ing on weather condi- 
tions. 

A little more than 

two-fifths of alfalfa hay is leaves and about three-fifths stems. The 
leaves, however, contain fully three-fifths of the protein. It is, therefore, 
advisable to save the leaves as fully as possible. Do not rake or tedder 
alfalfa in the middle of the day if dry. This is sure to shatter the leaves 

and cause serious loss. , , , , j r 

Number of Cuttings and Yield.— Alfalfa is a remarkable hay and forage 
plant because of its long Ufe and the frequency with which it may be cut 
every year. The number of cuttings varies with the locahty and ranges 
from two or three cuttings in the provinces of Canada and the northern tier 
of states to as many as ten or eleven cuttings annually m the Imperial Valley 
in California. In the warmer portions of Texas seven or eight cuttings 
are not uncommon. In most parts of the country, a second crop may be 
harvested within from thirty to forty days after the first cutting. In warm 
regions where the growing season is long, cuttings during this season may 
be made about every five wrecks. 

1 Courtesy of The Pennsylvania Farmer. 




Cubing Alfalfa Hay in Shocks.* 



The yield is generally largest for the first cutting of the season and 
declines slightly for subsequent cuttings. Much, however, will depend 
upon rainfall and available moisture which influences the growth. 

Alfalfa yields about twice as much as red clover and, being richer in 
protein, produces about three times as much protein per acre. 

Other Uses of Alfalfa. — Alfalfa makes an excellent soiling crop and 
produces a succulent nitrogenous roughage, especially desirable for dairy 
cows. Since it may be cut three or more times each season it may be quite 
extensively used for this purpose. It, therefore, takes a very important 
place in a soiling sys- 



1 



ALFALFA BALANCES 

THE CORN RATION 

KANS. EXP.- 14 PIGS- 180 DAYS 



CORN & WATER 

IN DRY LOT 

180 DAYS 



CORN & ^ 
ALFALFA PASTURE 
80 DAYS 

CORN & 

ALFALFA HAY 

100 DAYS 



tem wherever it can 
be satisfactorily 
grown. 

The last cutting 
of alfalfa comes at 
about the right time 
to combine with corn 
for the making of en- 
silage. One load of 
alfalfa to every three 
or four loads of corn 
makes an excellent 
combination. Alfalfa 
is sometimes made 
into silage by itself, 
but makes a rather 
sour, slimy product. 

While alfalfa is 
not a pasture plant 
and is easily injured 
by pasturing, it may 
•be used especially for 

young stock and for swine. It makes a most excellent pasture for the 
latter, and where it is to be used for this purpose will carry about forty 
pigs and their dams per acre without being injured. It is generally 
thought advisable to divide the field into two or three parts, pasturing one 
part for a period, and then turning into another part. Frequently some 
hay may be harvested in addition to pasturing. 

Alfalfa makes a range for poultry and may also be fed to poultry and 
swine in the form of hay. 

Composition and Feeding Value. — The composition of alfalfa is given 
in Table VI in the Appendix. The nutritive ratio of alfalfa hay is 
about 1 to 4. Extensive experiments at a number of experiment stations 




KANS. BUL. 192 



Comparison of Hogs Fed on Corn and on Alfalfa.^ 



' Courtesy of The International Han'ester Company, Agricultural Extension Department, 
pamphlet "Livestock on Every Farm." 



From 



266 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ALFALFA 



267 



■i 



can be made with the minimum amount of labor. In the eastern half of 
the country rains are prevalent, especially at the time of the first cutting. 
This calls for special precautions and often necessitates extra labor and the 
use of canvas covers to secure hay without serious mjury. 

It is advised to cut in the evening and early mornmg, and follow the 
mower with the tedder before any of the leaves become dry The second 
teddering at right angles to the first is advised if the alfalfa, is heavy. 
With favorable weather it may be possible to put the alfalfa m the wmdrow 
toward evening of the first day. One more day's exposure m the wandrow 
under favorable conditions will generally cure it sufhciently to go directly 

to stack or mow. 
This reduces handling 
to the minimum and 
prevents loss by 
shattering. 

If weather condi- 
tions are threatening, 
it will be best to put 
into moderate-sized 
shocks at the close of 
the first day, and 
cover with canvas to 
protect from rains. 
It requires from three, 
to seven days to cure 
in the shock, depend- 
ing on weather condi- 
tions. 

A little more than 

two-fifths of alfalfa hay is leaves and about three-fifths stems. The 
leaves, however, contain fully three-fifths of the protein. It is, therefore, 
advisable to save the leaves as fully as possible. Do not rake or tedder 
alfalfa in the middle of the day if dry. This is sure to shatter the leaves 

and cause serious loss. ,11, ^ c 

Number of Cuttings and Yield.— Alfalfa is a remarkable hay and forage 
plant because of its long life and the frequency with which it may be cut 
everv vear. The number of cuttings varies with the locahty and ranges 
from two or three cuttings in the provinces of Canada and the northern tier 
of states to as many as ten or eleven cuttings annually m the Imperial Valley 
in California. In the warmer portions of Texas seven or €ight cuttings 
are not uncommon. In most parts of the country, a second crop may be 
harvested within from thirty to forty days after the first cuttmg. In warm 
regTonfwhr^^ the grownng season is long, cuttings durmg this season may 
be made about every five weeks. 

1 Courtesy of The Pennsylvania Farmer. 




Curing Alfalfa Hay in Shocks.^ 



The yield is generally largest for the first cutting of the season and 
declines shghtly for subsequent cuttings. Much, however, will depend 
upon rainfall and available moisture which influences the growth. 

Alfalfa yields about twice as much as red clover and, being richer in 
protein, produces about three times as much protein per acre. 

Other Uses of Alfalfa.— Alfalfa makes an excellent soiling crop and 
produces a succulent nitrogenous roughage, especially desirable for dairy 
cows. Since it may be cut three or more times each season it may be quite 
extensively used for this purpose. It, therefore, takes a very important 
place in a soiling sys- 



ALFALFA BALANCES 

THE CORN RATION 

KANS. EXP. -14 PIGS- 180 DAYS 



CORN & WATER 

IN DRY LOT 

180 DAYS 



CORN & 

ALFALFA PASTURE 

80 DAYS 

CORN & 

ALFALFA HAY 

100 DAYS 



tem wherever it can 
be satisfactorily 
grown. 

The last cutting 
of alfalfa comes at 
about the right time 
to combine with corn 
for the making of en- 
silage. One load of 
alfalfa to every three 
or four loads of corn 
makes an excellent 
combination. Alfalfa 
is sometimes made 
into silage by itself, 
but makes a rather 
sour, slimy product. 

While alfalfa is 
not a pasture plant 
and is easily injured 
by pasturing, it may 
he used especially for 

young stock and for swine. It makes a most excellent pasture for the 
latter, and where it is to be used for this purpose will carry about forty 
pigs and their dams per acre without being injured. It is generally 
thought advisable to divide the field into two or three parts, pasturing one 
part for a period, and then turning into another part. Frequently some 
hay may be harvested in addition to pasturing. 

Alfalfa makes a range for poultry and may also be fed to poultry and 
swine in the form of hay. 

Composition and Feeding Value. — The composition of alfalfa is given 
in Table VI in the Appendix. The nutritive ratio of alfalfa hay is 
about 1 to 4. Extensive experiments at a number of experiment stations 



KANS. BUL. 192 




Comparison of Hogs Fed on Corn and on Alfalfa. ^ 



' Courtesy of The International Han-ester Company. Apricultiiral Extension Department, 
pamphlet "Livestock on Every Farm." 



From 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



268 

have clearly demonstrated the high feeding value of alfalfa. Experiments 
S forty cows covering a period of two years at the New Jersey Expen- 
ment Station clearly demonstrated that eleven pounds of alfalfa hay we e 
eaual in feeding value to eight pounds of wheat bran Plenty of a falfa 
2 roughage miterially reduces the bills for the purchase of protem m 

"^''^hrhrylrSeedingly palatable and highly digestible and is eaten 
with avidity by all classes of livestock. When fed to horses the ration 
Sould be ifmited. Horses, if allowed to eat their fi»^g«^^'•^"y "J^r 
nearly twice as much as is necessary to provide the required protem of their 
ration. This results in unnecessary waste of feed. Alfalfa hay and corn 
make a good combination, since the corn tends to properly balance the 

'^ '""considerable alfalfa hay is made into alfalfa meal for shipment to the 
eastern markets and is quite extensively used in rations for dairy cattle 

and also for poultry. ^ n j 4. ^ +^ \r^r>\„a 

Irrigation of Alfalfa.— Alfalfa is exceptionally well adapted to irri^a- 
tion and a large portion of that grown in North America is irrigated. The 
amount of water to use will be determined chiefly by the character of the 
soil and rainfall of the region. It is a good practice to irrigate rather hber- 
ally and at rather remote intervals. Alfalfa is so deep-rooted that the soil 
should be thoroughly wet to the depth of three feet or more Ordinarily, 
one good irrigation should produce a full cutting of alfalfa. It is, therefore, 
customary to irrigate the fields immediately after the hay is removed and 
this irrigation should be sufficient to last until the next cutting, \\ith 
this system certain precautions are called for such as to prevent the scalding 
of the young and tender shoots that are just starting to grow at this tme. 
Where fields are deeply and rapidly flooded with water carrying much sedi- 
ment, a deposition on the young shoots frequently causes injury. It is 
advisable to irrigate carefully, providing for slow movement of the water 
across the fields without attaining any considerable depth at any point. 
Over-irrigation is to be avoided, since it not only wastes water, but often 
causes a rise in the ground-water table and brings alkali salts to the surface 

of the soil. ,. . , . . , 

Winter irrigation is practiced in some localities where the winters are 
mild and where water is abundant at this time of the year. The principal 
object is to conserve water which would otherwise go to waste. This is 
especially desirable where water is scarce in summer. Such winter irriga- 
tion will often result in one good crop that could otherwise not be secured. 
Seed Production.— The production of alfalfa seed in North America 
is confined chiefly to the semi-arid regions. East of the Missouri River 
the production of seed is small, except when drought prevails. It is 
estimated that about one-half of the seed used in North America is produced 
on irrigated lands in regions of dry summers. There is also a considerable 
amount produced on unirrigated semi-arid lands, and such seed is con- 



ALFALFA 



269 



sidered preferable for dry farming purposes. When produced on unirri- 
gated lands alfalfa is seeded very thinly. In some cases it is seeded in rows 
sufficiently far apart to permit of cultivation. Isolated plants that can 
branch abundantly and receive plenty of sunlight, seed more abundantly 
than when they are close together. When grown under irrigation, irriga- 
tion water is withheld during the period of seed formation. The presence 
of rains or the application of water stimulates the 
vegetative growth and reduces seed production. 
Usually the second crop is utilized for seed pro- 
duction, although in the extreme Northern states the 
first crop is necessarily used. There are various 
conditions that influence the yield of seed, such as 
thickness of stand, moisture supply, conditions favor- 
able to pollination, etc. Yields of as much as twenty 
bushels per acre have been reported, but eight bush- 
els are considered a good yield. Two to five bushels 
probably represent the average crop. 

Little is known relative to seed production east 
of the Missouri River, although numerous observa- 
tions have shown that plants frequently seed quite 
abundantly. In the corn belt it is quite possible 
that certain crops could be used for seed to good 
advantage. | The probable yield of seed is indicated 
if the crop has been in bloom for some time and 
considerable seed is set before new shoots appear. 
If dry weather prevails when these conditions are 
evident there is a fair chance of a crop of seed. 

The hope of securing varieties adapted to eastern conditions lies in the 
possibility of seed production in the various localities. 

The method of harvesting the seed of alfalfa is essentially the same as 
that for red clover. 

REFERENCES 

''The Book of Alfalfa." Coburn. 

"Alfalfa in America." Wing. 

"Clovers and How to Grow Them," pages 118-193, Shaw. 

Missouri Extension Service Circular 6. "Growing Alfalfa in Missouri." 

Delaware Expt. Station Bulletin 110. "Alfalfa." 

Wisconsin Expt. Station Bulletin 259. "Alfalfa Growing in Wisconsin." 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin 75. "Alfalfa Seed Production." 

Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

315. "Legume Inoculation." 

339. "Alfalfa." 

495.* "AlfklfaSeed Production." 




A Well-set Cluster 
OF Alfalfa Pods.^ 



^Courtesy of U. S. Dept of Agriculture. From Farmers' Bulletin 495. 



CHAPTER 18 

Meadows and Pastures 

Success with livestock is conditioned on the production of good grass. 
This may be in the form of meadows or pastures, but a combination of the 
two is generally desirable. In latitudes of long winters the importance of 
meadows may predominate, whereas in regions of short winters, pastures " 
may be the more important. With minor exceptions, meadows and 
pastures are the most economical source of the farm income. 

As a rule, the highest type of general agriculture includes the rearing 
of farm animals. They may be considered machines for the manufacturing 
of the roughage produced on the farm into more concentrated and valuable 
products, such as meat, milk, butter, wool, etc. These require more skill 
on the part of the farmer and give to him continuous employment. 

Extent, Value and Importance. — It is estimated that about thirty 
per cent of the improved land in the United States is pasture land. The 
largest area of land used for grazing is embodied in the extensive ranges 
l>dng in the western half of the United States. To this range land and the 
permanent pastures on farms may be added large deforested areas that are 
capable of producing pasture. The value of the products per acre from 
the grazed land is exceedingly low, but since the area is so large, the aggre- 
gate return is great. The return per acre from meadow land is also 
comparatively low, but much larger than that from pasture lands. No 
statistics are available by which to estimate the returns from pasture 
lands, although there are fairly accurate statistics for the meadows, as 
indicated in the chapter on ''Meadow and Pasture Grasses." 

Essential Qualities of Meadows and Pastures. — The essential qualities 
of meadow grasses are given in the chapter under that name. It is not so 
essential that meadows become permanent, except in case of wet land or 
land too rough or stony to be cultivated, and which for any reason cannot 

be pastured. 

It is generally important, however, that pastures be made as permanent 
as possible. This calls for a mixture of grasses that are either very long 
lived or that are capable of reproduction under pasture conditions. A 
good pasture should start growth early in the season and continue to produce 
until late in the fall. The grasses should be palatable, nutritious and present 
variety and give abundant growth. They should also form a continuous, 
compact turf that will withstand much tramping by animals. A variety 
of grasses that will provide for growth under both moist and dry soil 
conditions is also advantageous. The deep-rooted grasses and clovers 
can, therefore, be advantageously included with the shallow-rooted ones 

(270) 



MEADOWS AND PASTURES 



271 



Such as blue grass and white clover. The latter are more substantial, both 
in quality of grazing and in the character and durabihty of turf which they 
form. 

Advantages of Meadows and Pastures. — Where land is moderate to 
low in price and labor is costly, no feed will produce results with cattle and 
sheep as economically as good pasture. While a given area in meadow wall 
produce three times as much weight in hay as it will in pasture, yet there 
is about three times as much protein in a given weight of dry material in 
pasture grass as there is in the same material in hay. The increased energy 
value of the hay over that of an equal area of pasture will generally be 
offset by the increased labor required in harvesting and feeding the hay. 
Meadows require on an average one unit of man and horse labor per acre 
annually. This consists of ten hours work per year. The cultivated crops 



x.ki'^P-i ■-*-¥£?■. •-:>*:;.' 



■^•Sf- J-.tAU ii 



'■^^ 



m^. 



■'ymp 



Kii*!Slti»»!IM^(liP^*jfSi»S**^ 



-W*ft» 




Live Stock on Pasture. 

require from two to as high as fifteen or sometimes twenty units of labor 
per acre. 

Pastures, on the other hand, require no labor unless it be for the pur- 
pose of applying manure or fertilizers, or for improvement by re-seeding or 
cultivating. It is from the standpoint of labor that meadows and pastures 
are especially economical. When land values become exceptionally high, 
farmers may be justified in re'ducing the acreage of pasture and resorting 
to cultivated crops as a source of feed for livestock. This is an economical 
problem that must be determined by local conditions. 

Meadows and pastures make use of land which cannot be economically 
used for cultivated crops. This is especially true in the case of woodland 
pastures or pastures along streams that are irregular and subject to over- 
flow. Stony portions of farms are often utilized as meadows or pastures. 
Irregular comers, cut off by roads or streams, are more economically 
devoted to hay than to a cultivated crop requiring tillage. 

Soil and Climatic Requirements. — Most of the grasses and clovers 
succeed best in moist, cool climates and on soils that range from medium 
to heavy in texture. On the other hand, there are a few grasses and clovers 









CHAPTER 18 

Meadows and Pastures 

Success with livestock is conditioned on the production of good grass. 
This may be in the form of meadows or pastures, but a combination of the 
two is generally desirable. In latitudes of long winters the importance of 
meadows may predominate, whereas in regions of short winters, pastures 
may be the more important. With minor exceptions, meadows and 
pastures are the most economical source of the farm income. 

As a rule, the highest type of general agriculture includes the rearing 
of farm animals. They may be considered machines for the manufacturing 
of the roughage produced on the farm into more concentrated and valuable 
products, such as meat, milk, butter, wool, etc. These require more skill 
on the part of the farmer and give to him continuous employment. 

Extent, Value and Importance.— It is estimated that about thirty 
per cent of the improved land in the United States is pasture land. The 
largest area of land used for grazing is embodied in the extensive ranges 
l^dng in the western half of the United States. To this range land and the 
permanent pastures on farms may be added large deforested areas that are 
capable of producing pasture. The value of the products per acre from 
the grazed land is exceedingly low, but since the area is so large, the aggre- 
gate*^ return is great. The return per acre from meadow land is also 
comparatively low, but much larger than that from pasture lands. No 
statistics are available by which to estimate the returns from pasture 
lands, although there are fairly accurate statistics for the meadows, as 
indicated in the chapter on '^ Meadow and Pasture Grasses." 

Essential Qualities of Meadows and Pastures.— The essential qualities 
of meadow grasses are given in the chapter under that name. It is not so 
essential that meadows become permanent, except in case of wet land or 
land too rough or stony to be cultivated, and which for any reason cannot 

be pastured. 

It is generally important, however, that pastures be made as permanent 
as possible. This calls for a mixture of grasses that are either very long 
lived or that are capable of reproduction under pasture conditions. A 
good pasture should start growth early in the season and continue to produce 
until late in the fall. The grasses should be palatable, nutritious and present 
variety and give abundant growth. They should also form a continuous, 
compact turf that will withstand much tramping by animals. A variety 
of grasses that will provide for growth under both moist and dry soil 
conditions is also advantageous. The deep-rooted grasses and clovers 
can, therefore, be advantageously included with the shallow-rooted ones 

(270) 



MEADOWS AND PASTURES 



271 



Such as blue grass and white clover. The latter are more substantial, both 
in quality of grazing and in the character and durability of turf which they 
form. 

Advantages of Meadows and Pastures. — Where land is moderate to 
low in price and labor is costly, no feed will produce results with cattle and 
sheep as economically as good pasture. While a given area in meadow will 
produce three times as much weight in hay as it will in pasture, yet there 
is about three times as much protein in a given weight of dry material in 
pasture grass as there is in the same material in hay. The increased energy 
value of the hay over that of an equal area of pasture will generally be 
offset by the increased labor required in harvesting and feeding the hay. 
Meadows require on an average one unit of man and horse labor per acre 
annually. This consists of ten hours work per year. The cultivated crops 




Live Stock on Pasture. 

require from two to as high as fifteen or sometimes twenty units of labor 
per acre. 

Pastures, on the other hand, require no labor unless it be for the pur- 
pose of applying manure or fertilizers, or for improvement by re-seeding or 
cultivating. It is from the standpoint of labor that meadows and pastures 
are especially economical. When land values become exceptionally high, 
farmers may be justified in re'ducing the acreage of pasture and resorting 
to cultivated crops as a source of feed for livestock. This is an economical 
problem that must be determined by local conditions. 

Meadows and pastures make use of land which cannot be economically 
used for cultivated crops. This is especially true in the case of woodland 
pastures or pastures along streams that are irregular and subject to over- 
flow. Stony portions of farms are often utilized as meadows or pastures. 
Irregular corners, cut off by roads or streams, are more economically 
devoted to hay than to a cultivated crop requiring tillage. 

Soil and Climatic Requirements. — Most of the grasses and clovers 
succeed best in moist, cool climates and on soils that range from medium 
to heavy in texture. On the other hand, there are a few grasses and clovers 






- -'■■'^;»..V'. . 



'mmm. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



('•- ■■■%]■■■■' 
' " ::A, 



:^^^^ 



f*tr-.- 



' '^!^^m7ii^y(^:f^Wci^: "-. 









272 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



that succeed in regions of continuous high temperature. There are how 
ever no regions in the world within the tropics that are especially promi- 
nent for the production of meadows and pastures. These attain their 
greatest perfection m temperate climates with abundant and well-distrib- 
uted rainfall England and Scotland represent the ideal conditions for 
meadows and pastures. The range in variety of grasses and clovers makes 
possible meadows and pastures which are more or less successful in all 
foil f^ u ^"^T^- ^^ '°"''^^' '^''' ^'' considerable areas of sandy 
tidn'in E wl '"^ '^^™''' """*''"''' *^^* ^'^ impracticable of utiiiza^ 

Formation of Meadows and Pastures.-Since meadows and pastures 
are to remain for a considerable period of time, the necessity of thorough 
preparation for their establishment is more imperative than in cai of 
annual crops The successful orchardist goes to much expense Tn the 
preparation of land and the setting of trees for the orchard, realizing that 
orcharding is a long-time proposition. The same policy i applicable in 
case of permanent pastures or meadows. The shorter the perbd of L^^ 

L^l^TaShmLt ^^"^'^ " ^"^'' ''' ^^^ ^"^ '^ ''^ -P-- i-t^«e^ 
The first consideration is the adaptation of the land for meadow or 
pasture purposes. The value of the land and the possibility of its Sza- 
tion for other purposes should be considered. Consideration must also be 
given to the variety and character of grasses adapted to the soil and cTiSate 
and tha will meet the requirement of the livestock to be pastured No 
definite formula can be given, since conditions vary greatlv 

Preparation of Soil.-The preparation of the soil for cither meadows or 
pastures should begin at least a year in advance of the time of seeding 
There are two things essential to the establishment of grasps and clover!' 

tZ:^ r'" ^T.T^' ""^' " S««^ physical condition of the'S' 
rhis may be provided by growing an inter-tilled crop which s given 
thorough cultivation during the year preceding the seeding of grl^ 

Organic matter in the soil is decidedly helpful for both grasses and 
clovers, but not essential. In plowing for seeding grasses and dove^s 
manure and organic matter should not be turned under too deeDlv bS 
should be left as near the surface as possible. A thorou^ prepaS^^^^ 
the seed-bed is essential for both meadows and pastures iS meadoVs 
the soil should not only be thoroughly pulverized and made moist Tnd 
compact, but should also be level to facilitate cutting at a uniLm height 
The presenee of hummocks or depressions in a meadow me^ that some 
of the plants will be cut close to the crowns and others cut far above 

A moist, compact, finely-pulverized seed-bed is essential in Sures 
but It need not be necessarily level, since animals can graze with as r^uch 
satisfaction on uneven land. Sf'<"'e witn as much 

When seeding is to be made in August it is well to plow the land in 
the spring. An occasional disking or harrowing during ?he summt wS 



, ^ ; 'j».: 



■'^:*::^^ ,r':t,'r'. 






;^->4' 






M^'^^'. 






,»>^ 



^^^^r^*:.^- 











■^'^ 









1^*^- ■; 



v'.-;^ ■■■* 1. '■ ' 







m 



ShKKI' P.\STrHIX(J ON IIlLLY LaND.^ 

Land thiit is (oo r()ii«rh or sfcyp for plowing; can of ton l)e made profitable by using 

it for ^razini^ i)iirpo.ses. 

» Courtesy of " Tho V'wUl Illustratofr" X. V. 



COLOR PLATE 



«^- 



272 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



that succeed m regions of continuous high temperature. There are how- 
ever no regions in the world within the tropics that are especially proml 
nent for the production of meadows and pastures. These attain S 
greatest per ection m temperate climates with abundant and well-distS 
uted rainfall England and Scotland represent the ideal conditions for 
meadows and pastures. The range in variety of grasses and clovers makes 
possible meadows and pastures which are more or less successfulTn all 
parts of North America. Of course, there are considerable aSso sandy 
tS^inTrway" '™" "'*''"^' *'"* ''' "npracticable of utilS 

are ^oTm^^a! I^^^^7" ^^ Pastures.-Since meadows and pastures 
are to remain for a considerable period of time, the necessitv of thorough 

srZs" rlr '^^'fr''\ ^^.^^^^ ""^^^--^^-^ ul L ^ie S 

annual crops The successful orchardist goes to much expense in the 
preparation of land and the setting of trees for the orchard, rSng th.t 
orchardmg is a long-time proposition. The same policy i ajXible in 
case of permanent pastures or meadows. The shorter the period of l^e 
Lts^SthmL*^ ^^'"^^^ '' '^''' ''^ ^- -"^ ^ *^e exp^ense JustS 
The first consideration is the adaptation of the land for meadow or 
pasture purposes. The value of the land and the possibifity oHts S.a 
tion for other purposes should be considered. Consideration must a o be" 
given to the variety and character of grasses adapted to the soil and climate 
and that will meet the requirement of the livestock to be mst^red No 
definite formula can be given, since conditions vary greativ 

Preparation of Soil.-The preparation of the soil for oil Lr meadows or 
pastures should begin at least a year in advance of the time o seeding 
There are two things essential to the establishment of graces nnl Hotr!' 
namely, absence from weeds and a good physical coSiV "f theToi ' 
Ihis may be provided by growing an inter-tilled crop w lid I^^ 
thorough cultivation during the year preceding the seechngo grass 

Organic matter in the soil is decidedly helpfol for bifh grasis' and 
clovers, but not essential. In plowing for seeding grasses S^f, 

srbrieft""''^"^ "r" f «"'' -^^-^^^is'zrsi^z 

should be left as near the surface as possible. A thorough preparatfon of 
the seed-bed is essential for both meadows and pastures K meadow, 
the soil should not only be thoroughly pulverized and ^0^0,^.!; 
compact, but should also be level to'faciliLe TuSbg a^a uni o m h ight 
1 he presence o hummocks or depressions in a meadow me.a^ that son^^^ 
of the plants will be cut close to the cro^vns and others cut far above 
but uTT' T^*''*' fi"^.'>'-P"J---^d seed-bed is essentiaHn pastures 

When seeding is to be made in August it is well to i^low the land in 
the spring. An occasional disking or harrowing during irsummer tiS 






?^^i >■ 



^ *« 









:* If? 






#.?^ 



4^ -^ 



^%, 






/.^l* 



.>^ 






'Ktl^^^r 



• .-- f 



,^^ 




^p*^ 










W: fe 






l**,^: 






* j^^--*^. 






*lf."-V - 



' vv't 



f.a^ 



''\.^^^A 



•:>>v 



•^.* - 



'i;f 



hfl 




Sni:i:i» pA.sTriii.\(; on 1Iii.lv Land.^ 

Land tliat is too rough or stoop for plowiijn; c.-in ofton hv made i)rofitahIc by u.-mg 

it for grazing j)ur])osos. 



' ("oiirfcsy ,,f " T)w V'u'hl. I!Iusfr:.t«'<l." \. V 






f-yoi,'..-. ' 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



'2l<«>£ 






MEADOWS AND PASTURES 



273 



destroy the weeds, conserve moisture and provide a pulverized seed-bed 
for the grass. It is advisable to plow land for spring seeding of grass and 
clover the preceding year, or at least several weeks in advance of seeding 
time, in order that it may become thoroughly settled before seeding. 

Meadow and Pasture Seed Mixtures. — From the standpoint of both 
variety and total yield, mixtures give best results in both meadows and 
pastures. Experiments at several experiment stations report yields for 
mixtures of two or more grasses and clovers that exceed the yield of any of 
the varieties entering into the mixture when seeded alone under identical 
conditions. There are a few exceptions, namely, that of alfalfa which is 
cufc several times a year, and which generally gives best results when grown 
alone. The same has been found true with Italian rye grass. 

Mixtures yield better than pure cultures because: (1) the require- 
ments of the different plants entering into the mixtures are dissimilar and 
do not make them direct competitors for plant food; (2) the root habits 
being different, their distribution through the soil is more thorough; 
(3) the average yearly return is more nearly even through a long period of 
time; (4) variation in light requirements of different plants enable some 
species to do well in the shade of taller ones, thus increasing the quantity 
of herbage; and (5) legumes mixed with grasses increase the nitrogen 
supply for the latter. 

As before indicated, mixtures for mowing purposes should contain 
only plants that mature near the same time. This will generally confine 
the mixture to two or three species, although occasionally a larger number 
may be advantageously used. Timothy and red clover constitute the 
mixture most common and practical over a large region of the hay-produc- 
ing district of North America. Redtop and alsike clover are frequently 
included, especially where soils are wet and inclined to be sour. Alsike 
clover and redtop are occasionally used without the timothy and red 
clover. Orchard grass and alsike clover work well together, both as to 
character of growth and time of maturity. 

In pasture mixtures there is opportunity for a much greater variety 
and wider range as to time of maturity in the plants used. In North 
America, however, mixtures made up of a great number of clovers and 
grasses are rather unusual, although these seem to be the rule in pasture 
mixtures of England and Scotland. 

Soil and climatic conditions are so diverse that it is impossible to enu- 
merate all the mixtures suited to different conditions and localities for any 
extensive region or for different purposes. Prominence should be given, 
however, to those grasses that are best adapted to local conditions and best 
meet the needs. One or more species that will make quick growth and give 
early pasture should be included in such a mixture. The following general 
suggestions are offered: 

In regions adapted to Kentucky blue grass, add white clover, red clover 
and timothy. 

18 



274 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



MEADOWS AND PASTURES 



275 



On wet soils adapted to redtop, add white clover and alsike c over. 
On poor upland soils use redtop, Canada blue grass and white clover. 
Under certain conditions brome grass may be included. 

Where Bermuda grass thrives best, add Lespedeza clover, bur clover 

and Italian rye grass. • j • ui„ k„„»„oo 

In addition to the grasses mentioned, orchard grass is desirable, because 

it furnishes early pasture. . , ,. a „i«,r«^ 

If there is any doubt relative to the purity of the grass and clover 
seeds to be used, a sample should be submitted to the state experunent 
station for examination and test. One familiar with grass and clover seeds 
may make his own inspection by the use of a hand lens, and may also make 
his own germination test by the use of white blottmg paper moistened and 
placed in an ordinary dinner plate covered with another to retain moisture. 
One or two hundred seeds placed between the blotters and kept at favorable 
temperature will enable one to determine the percentage of germination 
Careful inspection every day or two should be made to keep the blotters 

continuously moist. ^ i .i. r « 

Seeding Grasses and Clovers.-A full crop of grass, whether for a 
meadow or pasture, necessitates a full stand of plants The fir^t essent.^ 
to this is the requisite number of viable seeds, well distributed on every 
part of the field. There are many factors that influence the stand besides 

the rate of seeding. , „, „„ 

Rates of seeding for the different grasses and clovers when used alone 
are given in the chapter on "Grasses and Clovers." A few species only 
enter into the average meadow mixture. As a rule, the ratio of the amount 
of seed for the different species entering into a meadow mixture will be a 
little larger than the amount when seeded alone. For example, timothy 
seeded at the rate of 15 pounds alone and red clover at the rate ot ij 
pounds, when seeded together would require on an average of about y 
pounds of timothy and 7 pounds of clover, making a total of 16 pounds as 
compared with one-half of the sum of the two individual rates, which would 

The depth of seeding has already been discussed under several of the 
species of grasses and clovers. The depth in case of mixtures should be 
regulated with even more accuracy than in seedmg one species only. It 
should meet as accurately as possible the needs of the leading grasses and 
clovers in the mixture. In special cases it may be found advantageous to 
drill the clovers and broadcast the smaller grass seeds, such as timothy, 
redtop and blue grass. The depth is also controlled largely by character 
of soil and weather conditions. In midsummer, when the soil is dry and the 
temperature high, seeds should be covered rather deeply. In the cool, 
moist portion of the year, very shallow covering is better. In no case can 
grass and clover seeds be covered more than two inches without suffering 
much loss. With the smaller grass seeds, one-half inch to an mch is 
generally sufficient. 



The time of seeding is subject to considerable latitude, but there are 
two seasons of the year that generally give best results. - These are very 
early in the spring or rather late in the summer. These two seasons will be 
subject to sonie modification, depending upon weather conditions. It 
is wise to seed when the soil is in a good moisture condition so as to insure 
quick germination. As a rule, it is not advisable in case of summer seeding 
to seed just before a heavy rain. Such a rain compacts the soil and the 
hot weather that is likely to follow will form a crust that the small plants 
cannot penetrate. Seeds deposited in a dry soil may be germinated by a 
light shower followed by dry weather that will cause the small plants to 
perish. 

Grasses seeded in summer may be broadcasted on a well-prepared 
seed-bed immediately following the harrow. One additional harrowing 
will sift the seeds down into the soil and effect a satisfactory covering. If 
the soil is dry the first harrowing may be followed by the plank drag. This 
will mash the small clods, compact the soil, bring the moisture nearer 
the surface and germinate the seed. 

The manner of seeding depends largely on seasonal condition of the 
soil and character of grass-seed mixture. Grasses and clovers are generally 
sown broadcast. There are a number of forms of seeders. The grass-seed 
attachment to the grain drill predominates where fall seeding with wheat 
occurs. It is also extensively used where the drill is used for spring seeding 
of oats. The wheelbarrow seeder and the hand seeder are extensively used 
when seeded alone or on grain fields where drills are not employed. Slant- 
toothed spike harrows are most generally used for covering the seed when 
broadcasted in this way. Brush harrows are sometimes used when the 
seed is very small and the seed-bed very mellow. This avoids covering 
too deeply. In any case, implements should be used that do not tend to 
drag trash or soil and result in bunching the seed. Much seeding is done 
in the winter and very early spring which calls for no covering. In this 
case the seed is covered by the freezing and thawing of the soil and by rains 

and winds. 

Late fall and early spring seeding usually takes place with a nurse 
crop. In this way the cost of seed-bed preparation is charged chiefly to 
the grain. This is the cheapest possible way of seeding grass other than 
that of sowing it in the spring to be covered by the freezing and thawing and 
rains. The nature of the nurse crop is important. Moderately thin seeding 
and the use of early varieties generally favor a good catch of grass. 

Seeding without a nurse crop calls for especially well-prepared seed- 
bed and freedom from weeds. Such seeding generally does best in the late 

summer. 

Treatment of Meadows and Pastures. — Of all the farm crops, the 
meadows and pastures are probably the most neglected. Meadows 
usually receive more care and attention than pastures. The treatment 
accorded meadows will consist chiefly: (1) in the application of manures 









MEADOWS AND PASTURES 



277 







I 



» Courtesy of Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company, Richmond, Va. From V.- C. Fertilizer Crop 
Books. 

(276) 



and fertilizers, (2) re-seeding of the grasses and clovers in ease of failure, 
(3) cultivation to maintain a good physical condition of the soil, and (4) 
cutting of weeds when they become serious. 

The cultivation given to meadows, while rather unusual, will consist 
mainly in disking and harrowing. These operations will frequently be 
demanded wherever re-seeding is required and may be used for the 
destruction of weeds and the loosening of the soil. There are now on 
the market certain forms of spiked disks designed especially for this type 
of work. 

Cultivation is even more applicable to pastures than it is to meadows. 
Pastures are more permanent, or at least remain for a long series of years 
without being disturbed. Certain grasses frequently become sod-bound. 
As a result of close grazing, weeds also frequently become numerous. The 
tramping of the animals tends to compact the soil. Cultivation is benefi- 
cial for all of these difficulties. Harrowing spreads the droppings of the 
animals and affords a more effective distribution of the manure for the 
benefit of the grass*. 

Meadows should not be maintained for too long a period. Better 
results have been secured by plowing and re-seeding than to continue too 
long in consecutive crops of grass. In pastures the situation is much 
different. There are records of pastures forty and fifty years in grass 
without being disturbed. This applies, however, to those regions in which 
the soils and climate are especially adapted to the typical pasture grasses 
and clovers, such for example as Kentucky and Canada blue grass and 
white clover. Where pastures are prone to run out in a few years, it is 
better as a rule to re-seed. This, of course, applies only to lands that are 
capable of cultivation and devotion to other crops. 

Care of Meadows and Pastures. — The life of a meadow and the main- 
tenance of its productivity may be prolonged by exercising certain precau- 
tions in connection with its care and the harvesting of the crops. It is 
unwise to pasture animals or to haul manure onto a field when the soil is 
too wet. The more permanent the nature of the meadow the greater 
should be the care exercised. Meadows should go into the winter well 
protected by either sufficient second growth or proper mulching with ma- 
nure. It is, therefore, unwise to closely pasture the aftermath of meadows 
late in the season. In favorable years a moderate amount of pasturing 
will not be undesirable. If weeds occur in considerable numbers, late 
summer or fall clipping to prevent seeding is advised. 

Pastures should not be grazed too early in the spring. It is undesir- 
able: (1) from the standpoint of not giving the grass a sufficient start, and 
(2) through injury by tramping and compacting the soil when it is wet. 
It is also un^vise to pasture closely too late in the fall, since pastures, like 
meadows, should have winter protection. It is never wise to pasture too 
closely at any time of the year. Close pasturing reduces the vitality of the 
plants and their subsequent producing capacity. The packing of the soil 



hi 

f 



X" 






^■j^^l 




^H 




^H 




^^1 










^H 




^M 




^^^H 




^M 














^^^^H 




^H 








Kf; ,, A. , • .-..A, . <f*t, i-< »©?;•» t- -■ =^. J^'i- "^(^ '%'*'■ "-f ' 


^M 






1 


^^^HSLji;,^;' 


r -i - s" ■.■■,••'''0-. '^ - ?• '-^ V / ■ ■^' ,-.fc 




i '^ r t^'S-^-i^ :-^::i'|i .^^-;<f . .. 1 , •;._.,.,.; 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 








* ' Si 


ft ■ V\;^- ''*■■.,.-■ ^^♦•••■.■- 



h-1 



o 

I 



MEADOWS AND PASTURES 



277 



1 Courtesy of Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company, Richmond, Va. From V.- C. Fertilizer Crop 
Books. 

(276) 



and fertilizers, (2) re-seeding of the grasses and clovers in case of failure, 
(3) cultivation to maintain a good physical condition of the soil, and (4) 
cutting of weeds when they become serious. 

The cultivation given to meadows, while rather unusual, will consist 
mainly in disking and harrowing. These operations will frequently be 
demanded wherever re-seeding is required and may be used for the 
destruction of weeds and the loosening of the soil. There are now on 
the market certain forms of spiked disks designed especially for this type 
of work. 

Cultivation is even more applicable to pastures than it is to meadows. 
Pastures are more permanent, or at least remain for a long series of years 
without being disturbed. Certain grasses frequently become sod-bound. 
As a result of close grazing, weeds also frequently become numerous. The 
tramping of the animals tends to compact the soil. Cultivation is benefi- 
cial for all of these difficulties. Harrowing spreads the droppings of the 
animals and affords a more effective distribution of the manure for the 
benefit of the grass*. 

Meadows should not be maintained for too long a period. Better 
results have been secured by plowing and re-seeding than to continue too 
long in consecutive crops of grass. In pastures the situation is much 
different. There are records of pastures forty and fifty years in grass 
without being disturbed. This applies, however, to those regions in which 
the soils and climate are especially adapted to the typical pasture grasses 
and clovers, such for example as Kentucky and Canada blue grass and 
white clover. Where pastures are prone to run out in a few years, it is 
better as a rule to re-seed. This, of course, ap])lies only to lands that are 
capable of cultivation and devotion to other crops. 

Care of Meadows and Pastures. — The life of a meadow and the main- 
tenance of its productivity may be prolonged by exercising certain precau- 
tions in connection with its care and the harvesting of the crops. It is 
unwise to pasture animals or to haul manure onto a field when the soil is 
too wet. The more permanent the nature of the meadow the greater 
should be tlie care exercised. Meadows should go into the winter well 
protected by either sufficient second growth or proper mulching with ma- 
nure. It is, therefore, unwise to closely pasture the aftermath of meadows 
late in the season. In favorable years a moderate amount of pasturing 
will not be undesirable. If weeds occur in considerable numbers, late 
summer or fall clipping to prevent seeding is advised. 

Pastures should not be grazed too early in the spring. It is undesir- 
able: (1) from the standpoint of not giving the grass a sufficient start, and 
(2) through injury by tramping and compacting the soil when it is wet. 
It is also unwise to pasture closely too late in the fall, since pastures, like 
meadows, should have winter protection. It is never wise to pasture too 
closely at any time of the year. Close pasturing reduces the vitality of the 
plants and their subsequent producing capacity. The packing of the soil 



y 



INTENTIONAIT" SECOND EXPOSURE 



278 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



MEADOWS AND PASTURES 



279 



by animals under favorable conditions will be overcome m temperate 
climates by the freezing and thawing during the winter. 

In grasses the growth takes place at the base of the leaves and lower 
portions of the internodes, so that grazing does not destroy the plants 
unless the plants or portions thereof are injured below the pomt of 

^^^\he grazing capacity of a pasture will be determined by the care given 
to it and the manner in which it is grazed. Its grazing capacity should be 
fully utilized, and it is believed that the pasture will be mamtamed fully 
as well, and sometimes better, in this way than when not fully grazed. In 
pastures that are not fully utilized many weeds occur that go to seed and 
result in weedy pastures within a few years. No animals are better for 
destroying weeds than sheep, although all classes of livestock will eat most 
kinds of weeds when there is a shortage of grasses. There are few experi- 
ments in America on pastures and pasturing. 

Improvement of Meadows and Pastures.— ^^ An ounce of prevention 
is worth a pound of cure^^ applies especially to meadows and pastures. 
This is pretty thoroughly covered in the treatment and care of meadows 
and pastures discussed in the preceding topics. Brush pastures may be 
improved by removing the brush by clearing, by firing or by pasturing with 
goats The latter is perhaps the most economical method, provided gcats 
can be secured and disposed of without loss. This not only cleans the 
pastures, but utilizes the removed product in the form of brush, weeds, etc. 

Wet pastures may be improved by underdrainage. This not tnly 
encourages the growi^h of the more nutritious and better grasses and 
clovers, but protects the pasture against injury through tramping by 
animals when too wet. The expense of drainage for pasture land miist 

not be too great. u i ru n 

Manuring, Fertilizing and Liming.— Sour soils should be liberally 
limed when prepared ior meadows or pastures. Meadows that are to be 
continued for several years may be top-dressed with lime to good advan- 
tage and pastures may be top-dressed at intervals of six to ten years. The 
benefits from liming will be determined chiefly by the acidity of the soil 
and the proportion of clovers that enter into the meadow and pasture 

mixtures. * 

Barnyard and stable manure is advantageously used in the establish- 
ment of meadows and pastures. It is often advisable to apply the manure 
to the crop preceding the one in which the grass is seeded. On the other 
hand, meadows that are to remain for several years may be advantageously 
top-dressed with light applications of manure, greatly to the benefit of the 
grass. Such top-dressing has been found profitable wherever manure is 
available, or may be purchased at low cost. The better sod resulting is 
also beneficial to the crops which are to follow the meadow. 

It is unusual to apply manure to pastures once established, since the 
droppings of the animals, if properly distributed, go far towards meeting 



the needs of the soil. In all probability the manure can be more advan- 
tageously used on the meadows and other crops. 

Experiments at several of the state experiment stations have demon- 
strated that moderate amounts of complete commercial fertilizers can be 
economically used on meadows. The more perfect the stand of grass, the 
larger the increased yields resulting from such treatment. While the com- 
position of the fertilizer will differ somewhat for different soils and grasses, 
that for the grasses proper should contain about equal percentages of the 




Good Pasture Land.i 

three fertilizing constituents. Nitrogen is essential in increasing vegetative 
growth. A home-made mixture consisting of 150 pounds per acre each of 
nitrate of soda and acid phosphate, and 50 pounds of muriate of potash, is 
recommended. This should be applied broadcast very early in the springs 
just as the grass is beginning to start. 

Since nitrogen is so expensive, clovers should be used in both meadows 
and pastures for the benefit of the grasses. They also increase the protein 
content of both the hay and grazed product. 

Utilizing Aftermath. — The amount of aftermath or second growth on 
meadows depends on the nature of the grasses, the time of cutting the first 

1 Courtesy of The Macmillan Company, N. Y. 



■( 






278 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



MEADOWS AND PASTURES 



279 



< 1 



by animals under favorable conditions will be overcome m temperate 
climates by the freezing and thawing during the winter. 

In grasses the growth takes place at the base of the leaves and lower 
portions of the internodes, so that grazing does not destroy the plants 
unless the plants or portions thereof are injured below the pomt of 

growth. , , . 1 1 XL 

The grazing capacity of a pasture will be determmed by the care given 
to it and the manner in which it is grazed. Its grazing capacity should be 
fully utilized, and it is believed that the pasture will be maintained fully 
as well and sometimes better, in this way than when not fully grazed. In 
pastures that are not fully utilized many weeds occur that go to seed and 
result in weedy pastures within a few years. No animals are better for 
destroying weeds than sheep, although all classes of livestock will eat most 
kinds of weeds when there is a shortage of grasses. There are few experi- 
ments in America on pastures and pasturing. 

Improvement of Meadows and Pastures.— ^' An ounce of prevention 
is worth a pound of cure'^ applies especially to meadows and pastures. 
This is pretty thoroughly covered in the treatment and care of meadows 
and pastures discussed in the preceding topics. Brush pastures may be 
improved by removing the brush by clearing, by firing or by pasturmg with 
goats. The latter is perhaps the most economical method, provided gcats 
can be secured and disposed of without loss. This not only cleans the 
pastures, but utilizes the removed product in the form of brush, weeds, etc. 
Wet pastures may be improved by underdrainage. This not cnly 
encourages the growth of the more nutritious and better grasses and 
clovers, but protects the pasture against injury through tramping Vy 
animals when too wet. The expense of drainage for pasture land must 

not be too great. 

Manuring, Fertilizing and Liming.— Sour soils should be liberally 
limed when prepared for meadows or pastures. Meadows that are to be 
continued for several years may be top-dressed with lime to good advan- 
tage, and pastures may be top-dressed at intervals of six to ten years. The 
benefits from liming will be determined chiefly by the acidity of the soil 
and the proportion of clovers that enter into the meadow and pasture 

mixtures. 

Barnyard and stable manure is advantageously used in the establish- 
ment of meadows and pastures. It is often advisable to apply the manure 
to the crop preceding the one in which the grass is seeded. On the other 
hand, meadows that are to remain for several years may be advantageously 
top-dressed with light applications of manure, greatly to the benefit of the 
grass. Such top-dressing has been found profitable wherever manure is 
available, or may be purchased at low cost. The better sod resulting is 
also beneficial to the crops which are to follow the meadow. 

It is unusual to apply manure to pastures once established, since the 
droppings of the animals, if properly distributed, go far towards meeting 



the needs of the soil. In all probability the manure can be more advan- 
tageously used on the meadows and other crops. 

Experiments at several of the state experiment stations have demon- 
strated that moderate amounts of complete commercial fertilizers can be 
economically used on meadows. The more perfect the stand of grass, the 
larger the increased yields resulting from such treatment. While the com- 
position of the fertilizer will differ somewhat for different soils and grasses, 
that for the grasses proi)er should contain about equal percentages of the 




Good Pasture Land.» 

three fertilizing constituents. Nitrogen is essential in increasing vegetative 
growth. A home-made mixture consisting of 150 pounds per acre each of 
nitrate of soda and acid phosphate, and 50 pounds of muriate of potash, is 
recommended. This should be applied broadcast very early in the spring 
just as the grass is beginning to start. 

Since nitrogen is so expensive, clovers should be used in both meadows 
and pastures for the benefit of the grasses. They also increase the protein 
content of both the hay and grazed product. 

UtUizing Aftennath.— The amount of aftermath or second growth on 
meadows depends on the nature of the grasses, the time of cutting the first 

* Courtesy of The Macmillan Company, N. Y. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



280 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



crop and the weather conditions which prevail. With early cutting of the 
first crop and favorable subsequent weather conditions, the second crop 
may be as large and well worth harvesting for hay. Certain precautions 
in this connection are necessary, namely, not cutting so late as to prevent 
further growth for winter protection. There is no objection to pasturing 
the aftermath if not pastured too closely and if the character of grasses is 
such as not to be seriously injured by the tramping of animals. The future 
life and use of the pasture will be a factor in this connection. 

Capacity of Pastures. — The capacity of pastures varies all the way 
from fifty acres to the animal unit in case of the range pastures of the West 
to one acre per animal unit on first-class pastures in humid regions. The 
capacity is also measured by the length of grazing season, and this is depend- 
ent chiefly upon latitude and elevation. It is also influenced by the nature 
of the pasture grasses, some prolonging their growth into the cooler portion 
of the year. Experiments show that more product is secured as hay than 
can be secured when the same grasses are pastured. This has been deter- 
mined by comparing the relative yield of cuttings at short intervals with 
cutting once at maturity. Such experiments have given nearly three times 
as much dry matter in the form of hay as was secured in frequent cuttings. 
The protein content of the new growth was much higher and aggregated 
nearly as much in frequent cuttings as in the matured product. 

Pasture experiments in Missouri showed average daily gains of 1.65 
and 1.85 pounds for yearlings and two-year-old steers respectively during 
the summer season. At the usual charge for pasturage in that state, the 
estimated cost per hundred pounds of live weight was $1.60 and $1.90 
respectively. Pasture experiments in Virginia covering several years gave 
gains in live weight of 150 pounds per acre annually. This was on average 
blue grass pasture in that state. The average pasture in the humid region 
should produce 150 pounds live weight in cattle per acre annually. 

Composition and Palatability of Pasture Grass and Hay. — The com- 
position of various kinds of grasses and hay is given in Table VI in 
the Appendix. The composition of grass mixtures will be determined by 
the relative portions of the species entering into it, and also by the stage of 
growth when harvested, and the conditions under which grown. Nitro- 
genous fertilizers have been found to somewhat increase the protein content 
of the grasses. 

The palatability and digestibility of grasses as grazed are doubtless 
much greater than those for mature hay. The labor required for harvesting 
the hay is also saved. 

Temporary Pastures. — Temporary pastures are generally provided to 
meet early needs and are designed for short periods. They consist of 
annual plants, of which there are many species. These will be determined 
by soil and climatic adaptation and the character of animals to be grazed. 
Oats, sorghum and red clover make a good combination. Oats make rapid 
growth during the early part of the season, while sorghum grows more 



MEADOWS AND PASTURES 



281 



rapidly with the approach of warm weather. As these two crops are becom- 
ing exhausted, the clover takes their place. This mixture is suited to spring 
seeding and can be pastured from the latter part of June to the close of the 
season. Another mixture consists of spring wheat, barley and oats, using 
about one-third of the usual sowing of each. These may be pastured as 
soon as they attain sufficient size to afford a good supply of pasturage. 
Another mixture frequently used consists of rye, winter wheat and winter 
vetch sown in the fall. This will afford pasture in the spring earlier than 
the spring-sown grains, and if seeded fairly early may furnish some winter 
pasture. In pasturing the annual crops, waste by tramping may be pre- 
vented by restricting the area grazed by means of hurdles or temporary 
fences. Such pastures require knowledge relative to the date crops must 
be sown to afford pasture when needed. In this respect it resembles the 
provision for soiling crops which are to be cut and fed from day to day. 

REFERENCES 

"Meadows and Pastures." Wing. 

"Forage and Fiber Crops." Hunt, pages 1-274. 

"Farm Grasses." Spillman. 

Pennsylvania E,xpi. Station Bulletin 101. "Meadows and Pastures." 



V 



ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS 



283 



CHAPTER 19 

Miscellaneous Annual Hay and forage Crops 

Of the miscellaneous annual hay and forage crops the legumes take 
first place. They are important both from the standpoint of high feeding 
value and of the benefit derived from them by the soil. In regions adapted 
to alfalfa or the clovers, annual legumes find a minor place, chiefly as substi- 
tutes when for any reason the clovers fail. 

Cowpeas and soy beans are by far the most important annual legumes. 
The former are especially adapted to the cotton belt, while the latter may be 
grown wherever corn is successfully raised. For northern latitudes, Canada 
field peas and winter vetch are hardy and promising. 

Of the non-legumes, the millets and sorghums rank first as annual 

hay and forage crops. 

COWPEAS 

The cowpea is a warm-weather crop, and is the best annual legume 
for the entire cotton belt. It is suited for the production of both hay and 
seed. It is seldom grown above 40 degrees north latitude, and in the 
northern limits of its production only early-maturing varieties should be 
used. There are more than sixty varieties of cowpeas, differing greatly in 
size, character of growth, color of seeds and time of maturity. Only a few 
of them are extensively grown. 

Varieties. — Whippoorwill is the best known and most extensively 
grown variety. It is of medium maturity and well adapted for making hay. 
It may be recognized by seed which has a mottled chocolate on a buff or 
reddish ground color. It makes a vigorous growth, quite erect and 
produces a large amount of vine. It can be handled readily by machinery. 

Iron is also a well-known variety, and is especially valuable because it 
is practically immune to root knot and wilt, diseases which cause much 
trouble with cowpeas in many parts of the cotton belt. 

New Era is one of the earliest of the cowpea varieties and is adapted 
to the southern portion of the corn belt. Its habit of growth is erect with 
few prostrate branches, thus making it easy to cut with machinery. It 
produces a heavy crop of small seed, characterized by innumerable minute 
blue specks on a gray ground color. Because of the small seed, less quan- 
tity is required for seeding. 

Unknown or Wonderful is one of the most vigorous and largest growing 
varieties and is late in maturing. It is quite erect and is handled readily 
by machinery, either for hay or grain production. The seed is large and of 
a light clay color. It is not adapted north of North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee, except in a few localities at the lower altitudes. 

(282) 



Clay is the most variable of any of the varieties, and the name is given 
commercially to any cowpeas having buff-colored seeds, except the Iron. 
For this reason there are doutbless many varieties that masquerade under 
this name. This variety is vigorous, but of a trailing habit. It fruits 
sparingly and is consequently rather unpopular either for seed or hay 
purposes. . It is especially valuable for pasturing and for soil improvement. 

Groit is very similar to New Era, but makes a slightly larger growth 
and fruits more heavily. 

Black is a variety characterized by its large black seeds that do not 
;decay rapidly after ripening, even after lying on the warm, moist earth. 



^" -^r' 


. 




*"'•'»'- 




^->' A. 


-■ ■-., >v ■ 


•^>^.^:' 


■t^"'<' ^ 




V ^ <- •^ 


















*■--- o 


^^ 


tm 


*w» '.-^•■^ 


l». -;»*»-^-^ 


%::'-^' 


-^1- ;^ 




'.^ ' 


\>^' '-' 


' ■ " '^. * ■.' 




<.^t^' 






-/>■:' 


.^.-^v 

' V 


U-:: 


■^--: 


-•* ■ „ *■■■ ■>»». 


■%.V»v-'% 


' >-' 


^ « 


*-•• ; ':i 






—*•»■■ i. 


m^^- 










'^■xm ■ 


*^^' 


'■■x-./: 


."•.•^... ^ 


>•■,-..' 


**/'*■-. 


>.:-^5r: 








-f^ 




^. 


-^-K^ 


' ■■»- ;■■■ 


...■'■■ -r ■ ■> 




1* 


^* 


^'^ 




s ■ 




"<>"..' 


W^:^ ■ 


"^^^ 


^^ 


V^^ 




•f .«. 


' -m 




»% -'^ 


* jjj^*** 


:*"--.•■ 



■j>iM»L 



:*<V««*' 



-^: ::^ ''^•: 






Field op Iron Cowpeas Planted in One-fifth-rod Rows and 

Cultivated Three Times. ^ 

It is especially adapted to the sanay, coastal plain soils of Virginia and North 
Carolina. It is also popular in the sugar-cane section of Louisiana. 

Time, Manner, Rate and Depth of Seeding.— Cowpeas should not be 
seeded until the soil is thoroughly warm. In most localities the date of 
seeding will be one or two weeks later than the best time for planting com. 
The plants are tender and are injured by the slightest frost. 

In the cotton belt, the time of seeding should be regulated so that 
when harvested for hay, the proper stage of maturity will occur when the 
weather conditions are favorable for hay making. This will usually be 
sometime in September. \ 

The seed-bed for cowpeas should be prepared the same as for corn. 
The planting may be in drills or by broadcasting. When growTi for seed 
it is genera lly best to plant in drills not less than thirty inches apart and 

1 From Farmers' Bulletin 318, U. S. Dept. of / griculture. 



.'■^^1^' 



ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS 



283 



CHAPTER 19 

Miscellaneous Annual Hay and forage Crops 

Of the miscellaneous annual hay and forage crops the legumes take 
first place. They are important both from the standpoint of high feeding 
value and of the benefit derived from them by the soil. In regions adapted 
to alfalfa or the clovers, annual legumes find a minor place, chiefly as substi- 
tutes when for any reason the clovers fail. 

Cowpeas and soy beans are by far the most important annual legumes. 
The former are especially adapted to the cotton belt, while the latter may be 
grown wherever corn is successfully raised. For northern latitudes, Canada 
field peas and winter vetch are hardy and promising. 

Of the non-legumes, the millets and sorghums rank first as annual 

hay and forage crops. 

COWPEAS 

The cowpea is a w\arm-weather crop, and is the best annual legume 
for the entire cotton belt. It is suited for the production of both ha,y and 
seed. It is seldom grown above 40 degrees north latitude, and in the 
northern limits of its production only early-maturing varieties should be 
used. There are more than sixty varieties of cowpeas, differing greatly in 
size, character of gro^\i:h, color of seeds and time of maturity. Only a few 
of them are extensively grown. 

Varieties. — Whippoorwill is the best known and most extensively 
grown variety. It is of medium maturity and well adapted for making hay. 
It may be recognized by seed which has a mottled chocolate on a buff or 
reddish ground color. It makes a vigorous growth, quite erect and 
produces a large amount of vine. It can be handled readily by machinery. 

Iron is also a well-known variety, and is especially valuable because it 
is practically immune to root knot and wilt, diseases which cause much 
trouble with cowpeas in many parts of the cotton belt. 

New Era is one of the earliest of the cowpea varieties and is adapted 
to the southern portion of the corn belt. Its habit of growth is erect with 
few prostrate branches, thus making it easy to cut with machinery. It 
produces a heavy crop of small seed, characterized by innumerable minute 
blue specks on a gray ground color. Because of the small seed, less quan- 
tity is required for seeding. 

Unknown or Wonderful is one of the most vigorous and largest growing 
varieties and is late in maturing. It is quite erect and is handled readily 
by machinery, either for hay or grain production. The seed is large and of 
a light clay color. It is not adapted north of North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee, except in a few localities at the lower altitudes. 

(282) 



Clay is the most variable of any of the varieties, and the name is given 
commercially to any cowpeas having buff-colored seeds, except the Iron. 
For this reason there are doutbless many varieties that masquerade under 
this name. This variety is vigorous, but of a trailing habit. It fruits 
sparingly and is consequently rather unpopular either for seed or hay 
purposes. . It is especially valuable for pasturing and for soil improvement. 

Groit is very similar to New Era, but makes a slightly larger growth 
and fruits more heavily. 

Black is a variety characterized by its large black seeds that do not 
;decay rapidly after ripening, even after lying on the warm, moist earth. 




Field op Iron Cowpeas Planted in One-fifth-rod Rows and 

Cultivated Three Times. ^ 

It is especially adapted to the sanay, coastal plain soils of Virginia and North 
Carolina. It is also popular in the sugar-cane section of Louisiana. 

Time, Manner, Rate and Depth of Seeding.— Cowpeas should not be 
seeded until the soil is thoroughly warm. In most localities the date of 
seeding will be one or two weeks later than the best time for planting corn. 
The plants are tender and are injured by the slightest frost. 

In the cotton belt, the time of seeding should be regulated so that 
when harvested for hay, the proper stage of maturity will occur when the 
weather conditions are favorable for hay making. This will usually be 
sometime in September. x 

The seed-bed for cowpeas should be prepared the same as for corn. 
The planting may be in drills or by broadcasting. When grown for seed 
it is genera lly best to plant in drills not less than thirty inches apart and 

iFrom Farmers' Bulletin 318, U. S. Dept. of /griculture. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



:m 



:h.^f'^'J: 



284 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS 



285 



cultivate the same as for corn. Good results, however, have been secured 
by seeding with the ordinary grain drill, which, of course, permits of no 
cultivation. When seed is costly, the saving of seed by drillmg m rows 
thirty inches or more apart may offset the labor of cultivation. ^When 
grown chiefly for hay, broadcasting or drilling in rows close together is best. 

The rate of seeding varies from one to eight pecks per acre, depending 
on the manner of seeding, the character of seed and the purpose for which 
grown When seeded with the wheat drill, with all of the holes open, one 
bushel of seed per acre will give good results for hay and still provide for 
fair yields of seed. Small seed requires less in planting than large, and less 
seed is required for seed production than when grown for forage. 

The depth of seeding will depend on the character and condition of the 
soil. It may vary from one to four inches. The looser the soil or the drier 
the' seed-bed, the deeper should be the planting. The cowpea is really a 
bean and, like all beans, should not be planted too deeply. 

Cowpea seed usually costs from $2 to $3 per bushel. 

Seeding with Other Crops.— There are two principal advantages in 
seeding cowpeas with otlier crops, namely, the production of a better 
balanced ration when used as forage, and the increased facility with which 
the crop may be harvested and cured when supported by upright growing 

The best crops to seed with cowpeas are corn, sorghum and millet. 
These are all similar to the cowpea in soil and climatic requirements. It 
is never wise to seed cowpeas with oats, as the one requires warm weather 
and the other cool w^eather for best results. 

The upright growing varieties of cowpeas may be grown with corn, 
preferably by planting both corn and peas in rows at the same time. By 
selecting the proper variety with reference to habit of growth and time of 
maturity, the cowpeas may be harvested at the same time with a corn 
harvester and used for making ensilage. 

In the southern portion of the corn belt and in the cotton belt cowpeas 
are frequently drilled between the corn rows after the last cultivation. The 
pods are gathered for the peas and the vines turned under for the benefit 
of the soil. When planted with corn, the cowpeas should be four or five 
inches apart in the row and the corn about twelve inches apart. Best 
results are secured by using a cowpea attachment to the corn planter. 

When grown for hay, seeding with sorghum or millet gives best results. 
Sorghum is generally preferable to millet, because it has a somewhat 
longer growing season and makes a more palatable hay. Best results are 
secured by mixing the seed at the rate of two bushels of peas to one bushel 
of sorghum and seeding with a wheat drill at the rate of one and one-half 
bushels per acre. The large varieties of millet may be used with the early 
maturing varieties of cowpeas. 

Fertilizers, Tillage and Rotation.— Cowpeas respond to moderate 
applications of phosphorus and potash, but do not need nitrogen. 



When planted in drills suflaciently far apart to enable cultivation 
cowpeas do best when given frequent, shallow and lev^el cultivation. The 
earth should not be thrown on the foliage and tillage should cease as soon 
as the vines begin to run. 

Cowpeas are adapted to short rotations. They may frequently follow 
an early-maturing crop, such as wheat, oats and early potatoes, thus 
providing two crops from the land in one season. A rotation of wheat or 
oats and cowpeas is giving excellent results in portions of Tennessee 
Arkansas and Missouri. ' 

Time and Method of Harvesting.— For hay purposes cowpeas should 
be cut when the first pods begin to ripen. A large growth of vines is some- 
what diflacult to cure. The cut vines should lie in the swath for one day. 
They should then be placed in windrows where they may remain until 
fully cured. If weather conditions are not most favorable the vines, after 
remaining one or two days in the windrow, should be put into tall, narrow 
cocks and left to cure for a week or more. If rains threaten, canvas covers 
are advised. 

The leaves are the most palatable and nutritious portion of the forage, 
and every effort should be made to prevent their loss. When so dry that 
no moisture appears on the stems when tightly twisted in the hands, the 
hay may be put into stack or mow. 

Harvesting for seed is most cheaply done by machinery. The crop 
should be cut with the mowing machine or self-rake reaper when half or 
more of the pods are ripe. When thoroughly dry they may be threshed with 
the ordinary threshing machine by removing the concaves and running the 
cylinder at a low speed to prevent breaking the peas. Better results are 
secured by using a regular cowpea threshing machine. 

Feeding Value and Utilization.— Well-cured cowpea hay is superior 
to red clover and nearly equal to alfalfa hay. It is very high in digestible 
protein. Experiments relative to its feeding value show that one and one- 
quarter tons of chopped cowi>ea hay is equal to one ton of wheat bran. It 
is a satisfactory roughage for work stock and for beef and milk production. 

SOY BEANS 

Soy beans are adapted to the same soil and climatic conditions as corn. 
They are most important in the region lying between the best clover and 
cowpea regions. This is represented by Delaware, Maryland, West Vir- 
ginia, Virginia, Tennessee and the southern portion of the corn belt. They 
do well on soils too poor for good corn production, but are not so well 
adapted to poor soils as the cowpea. They stand drought well. 

Varieties.— There are several hundred varieties of soy beans, but only 
about fifteen are handled by seedsmen. The most important of these are 
described in the accompanying tabulation. The selection of a variety 
should be based upon time of maturity as related to the length of season 
for growth and the purpose for which grown. For seed production, good 



*-**i>- 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



286 

seed producers should be selected, and for hay and ensilage the leafy 

Se corn planter may be used, the rows narrowed to three feet if possible 
Leading Varieties of Soy Beans ^d their Chabacteristics. 



Vamett. 



Mammoth. 



Holly brook. 



Haberlandt. 



Medium Yellow 

or 
Mongol. 



Color 

OF 

Seed. 



Yellow. 



Number 
OF Seeds 
PER Lb. 



Time 

OF 

Maturity. 



Purpose 
TO Which 
Adapted. 



Yellow. 



2100 



2100 



Late, 

120 to 150 
days. 



Medium, 
110 to 130 
days. 



Yellow. 



Guelph or 

or 
Medium Green. 

Ito San. 



2400 



Medium-early, 
100 to 120 
days. 



Roughage and 
grain for 
entire South. 

Principally 
for seed. 
South. 



Habits of Growth. 



Yellow, with 3500 
pale hilum. 



Green. 



2600 



Medium-early, 
100 to 120 
days. 



Principally 
for seed. 
South. 



Large and bushy; 3 to 5 feet high.. Will 
not mature seed north of Virginia and 
Kentucky. 

Three feet or less; coarse; poor for hay. 
Not so valuable as Mammoth. 



Stocky; seldom more than 30 inches tall. 



Forage. 



Y'cUow, with 
pale hilum. 



3200 



Early, 
90 to 100 
days. 



Wilson. 



Peking. 



Black, 
yellow germ. 



2400 



Early, 
90 to 110 
days. 



Principally 
for seed. 
North. 



Erect; bushy; 2\ to 3 feet. 



Medium-early, 
100 to 120 
days. 



Black, C300 

yellow germ. 



Sable. 



Black. 



Medium, 
110 to 130 
days. 



Hay and seed. 
North. 



Hay and seed. 



Coarse; not satisfactory for hay; stout and 
bushy; U to 2 feet. Seed shatters easily. 



Bushy, with slender stems; 2 to 2 J feet. 
Much grown in North. 



Tall, slender; 3 to 4 feet. Excellent for 
hay. 



Hay and seed. 



Hay and silage. 



Bushy with slender, leafy stems; 2^ to 3 
feet. Shatters very httle. 



and the seed drilled two inches apart in the row. This should require not 
Ire than one-half bushel per acre. The drill will accomplish the same 
3t if every fifth drill hoe is used and the planting is made in rows for 

'"**STng should not take place until danger of frost is past In the 
Centra s Is it is safe to seed as late as July 1st and ^^^her south seedmg 
mav take place later. Soy beans are adapted to seeding with corn to be 
used as enSfage, in which case varieties should be used that mature abou 
the same W as the corn with which planted. This mixture is also well 
adapteTfor hogs and they may be turned into the field as soon as the corn 
reaches the roast ing-ear stage. 



ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS 



287 



Inoculation, Tillage and Fertilizers.— On land which has not before 
grown soy beans it is advisable to inoculate, either by soil transfer or by 
artificial cultures. Whenj^n in rows, inoculated soil may be put into the 
fertilizing box and distriljfflfd with the beans at time of planting. This 
reduces the amount of soil required and gives perfect inoculation. The 
precautions pertaining to inoculated soils and artificial cultures are the same 
as those given for alfalfa. 

The fertilizers for soy beans are the same as for cowpeas.' 
When planted in rows far enough apart to permit of cultivation 
cultivation should begin early and be sufficiently frequent to keep down all 
weeds and maintain a soil mulch. Soil should not be thrown on the plants 
when they are wet. Cultivation should cease when the plants come into 
bloom. 

Time and Method of Harvesting.— Beans grown for hay may be cut 
with the mowing machine and cured in the same manner as cowpeas. For 
this purpose it is best to cut when the leaves first begin to turn yellow and 
the best developed pods begin to ripen. When harvested for seed it is best 
to wait until the leaves have fallen and at least half of the pods have turned 
brown. If much value is attached to the straw, harvesting for seed may 
take place a little earlier. The method of threshing is the same as that for 
cowpeas. 

When grown with corn for silage purposes, the beans should be a Httle 
more mature than when harvested for hay. 

Composition, Feeding Value and Utilization.— Well-cured soy bean 
hay is superior to clover hay and equal to alfalfa. It is more palatable than 
cowpea hay. Whether used for hay, grain, ^traw or ensilage, it is very 
valuable as a feed for nearly all kinds of livestock. It is especially valuable 
in all kinds of rations where high protein content is desired. The whole 
plant is high in protein and the beans are very high in both protein and fat. 

Vetches.— The hairy vetch is a winter annual and is important as a 
forage and soil improvement crop in the United States and Canada. It 
belongs to the same family of plants as cowpeas and soy beans. It is best 
adapted to a cool, moist climate and succeeds best in the northern half of 
the United States and southern portion of Canada. Although it may be 
seeded any time during the summer, it does best when seeded in the late 
summer or autumn. It generally blossoms in May and matures seeds in 
June or July. 

It is valuable as a winter cover crop. The plant has a reclining habit. 
It is, therefore, best to seed rye and vetch together. About twenty-five 
pounds of vetch and one-half bushel of rye per acre makes a suitable mix- 
ture. The crop may be turned under early in the spring for the benefit of 
the soil, or pastured or cut green for soihng purposes, or made into hay. 

Canada Field Peas.— This term is used for field peas regardless of 
their variety. The plant is adapted to a cool, moist climate and succeeds 
best when seeded early in the spring. When used for haying or soihng 



288 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



purposes, it is best to seed it with oats. The oats support the peas and 
faciUtate the harvesting of the crop. 

The amount of seed to use will vary with the size of the pea and the 
character of the soil. It will vary from two bushels per acre in case of small 




! i 



Hairy Vetch and Rye Growing Together.* 

seed to three and one-half bushels of the large seed. When seeded with oats, 
two bushels of peas and one bushel of oats per acre is about the right pro- 
portion. 

On light soils peas may be sown broadcast and plowed under to a 
depth of three to four inches. Peas should not be buried so deeply on stiff 
clays. Best results will be secured by drilling the seed with a grain drill. 
Some of the peas will be broken in passing through the drill, but the loss 

iFrom Farmers' Bulletin 515, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS 



289 



will not be serious. When oats and peas are drilled together, it is best 
to drill the peas first, after which the oats may be drilled at right angles 
to the peas and not so deeply. Since the oats come up more promptly 
than the peas, some advocate deferring drilling the oats until three or four 
days after drilling the peas. 

Harvesting.— Peas are ordinarily cut with a mowing machine when the 
first pods are full grown but not yet filled. At this time they make an 
excellent quality of hay. They are cured in the same manner as clover or 
timothy. Care should be taken to prevent loss of leaves by shattering 
and injury from rain. 

Other Annual Legumes.— The Velvet Bean is a rank growing vine 
requiring seven to eight months to mature seeds, and is especially adapted 
as a cover crop in Florida and along the Gulf Coast. 

The Beggar Weed is also well adapted to the extreme South and is 
utilized both as forage and for cover crop purposes. It is adapted to light, 
sandy soils, and when seeded thickly, can be converted into hay or silage! 
It grows six to ten feet high and is relished by all kinds of livestock. 

Sorghum. — The non-saccharine sorghums were discussed under the 
head of Kaffir corn. The sweet sorghums, of which there are a number of 
varieties, are utilized for forage purposes as well as for the manufacture of 
molasses. The sweet sorghums are not so drought resistant as the non- 
saccharine sorghums, and a small acreage may be advantageously grown on 
many livestock farms east of the semi-arid region. 

The season of growth is similar to that of com and the plant demands 
the same kind of soil and methods of treatment. When used for hay, it 
should be seeded thickly either by broadcasting or by drilling with a wheat 
drill, using 70 to 100 pounds of seed per acre. 

The Early Amber is considered the best variety for general purposes. 

Sorghum should be cut for hay when the seeds turn black. It may be 
cut with a mowing machine the same as any hay crop. Best results are 
secured by putting it into large shocks and allowing it to remain until 
thoroughly cured. If cut too early or stacked before the weather becomes 
quite cool, it is likely to sour and make a poor quality of hay. 

Millet.— There are three common varieties of millet: German, Hun- 
garian and common millet. The common millet is drought resistant and 
grows well on rather poor soil. It matures in from two to three months. 
It makes a good quality of hay and can be fed with less loss than the coarser 
varieties. 

The German variety is the largest and latest maturing variety. It 
will outyield common millet, but is not so drought resistant. 

Hungarian millet is about midway between the common and German 
millet as regards time of maturity, drought resistance and yield. Its tend- 
ency to produce a volunteer growth has brought it somewhat into disfavor. 

The millets may be seeded any time after the soil is thoroughly warm. 
In latitude 40 degrees north, German millet should be seeded the last week 
It 






A 



k 

m 



ty 



288 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



purposes, it is best to seed it with oats. The oats support the peas and 
facihtate the harvesting of the crop. 

The amount of seed to use will vary with the size of the pea and the 
character of the soil. It will vary from two bushels per acre in case of small 



ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS 



289 




Hairy Vetch and Rye Growing Together.* 

seed to three and one-half bushels of the large seed. When seeded with oats, 
two bushels of peas and one bushel of oats per acre is about the right pro- 
portion. 

On light soils peas may be sown broadcast and plowed under to a 
depth of three to four inches. Peas should not be buried so deeply on stiff 
clays. Best results will be secured by drilling the seed with a grain drill. 
Some of the peas will be broken in passing through the drill, but the loss 

» From Farmers' Bulletin 515, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



will not be serious. When oats and peas are drilled together, it is best 
to drill the peas first, after which the oats may be drilled at right angles 
to the peas and not so deeply. Since the oats come up more promptly 
than the peas, some advocate deferring drilling the oats until three or four 
days after drilling the peas. 

Harvesting.— Peas are ordinarily cut with a mowing machine when the 
first pods are full grown but not yet filled. At this time they make an 
excellent quality of hay. They are cured in the same manner as clover or 
timothy. Care should be taken to prevent loss of leaves by shattering 
and injury from rain. 

Other Annual Legumes.— The Velvet Bean is a rank growing vine 
requiring seven to eight months to mature seeds, and is especially adapted 
as a cover crop in Florida and along the Gulf Coast. 

The Beggar Weed is also well adapted to the extreme South and is 
utilized both as forage and for cover crop purposes. It is adapted to light, 
sandy soils, and when seeded thickly, can be converted into hay or silage! 
It grows six to ten feet high and is relished by all kinds of livestock. 

Sorghum.— The non-saccharine sorghums w^ere discussed under the 
head of Kaffir corn. The sweet sorghums, of which there are a number of 
varieties, are utilized for forage purposes as well as for the manufacture of 
molasses. The sweet sorghums are not so drought resistant as the non- 
saccharine sorghums, and a small acreage may be advantageously grown on 
many livestock farms east of the semi-arid region. 

The season of growth is similar to that of com and the plant demands 
the same kind of soil and methods of treatment. When used for hay, it 
should be seeded thickly either by broadcasting or by drilling with a wheat 
drill, using 70 to 100 pounds of seed per acre. 

The Early Amber is considered the best variety for general purposes. 

Sorghum should be cut for hay when the seeds turn black. It may be 
cut with a mowing machine the same as any hay crop. Best results are 
secured by putting it into large shocks and allowing it to remain until 
thoroughly cured. If cut too early or stacked before the weather becomes 
quite cool, it is likely to sour and make a poor quality of hay. 

Millet.— There are three common varieties of millet: German, Hun- 
garian and common millet. The common millet is drought resistant and 
grows well on rather poor soil. It matures in from two to three months. 
It makes a good quality of hay and can be fed with less loss than the coarser 
varieties. 

The German variety is the largest and latest maturing variety. It 
will outyield common millet, but is not so drought resistant. 

Hungarian millet is about midway between the common and German 
millet as regards time of maturity, drought resistance and yield. Its tend- 
ency to produce a volunteer growth has brought it somewhat into disfavor. 

The millets may be seeded any time after the soil is thoroughly warm. 
In latitude 40 degrees north, German millet should be seeded the last week 

19 



j 



n 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



i 



290 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



in May or the first week in June. Hungarian millet may be seeded two 
or three weeks later, while common millet will frequently produce a crop 
when seeded as late as the middle of July. 

Millet is used chiefly as a catch crop for hay. It is well adapted for 
this purpose and may be substituted where a catch of clover or timothy 
fails. It is also excellent to fill in where areas of corn have failed. 

The preparation of the seed-bed should begin as early in the spring as 
conditions will permit. This gives an opportunity to rid the soil of weeds 
by occasional harrowing prior to seeding. Millet is seeded broadcast at 
the rate of one peck per acre when grown for seed, and one-half bushel per 




Millet Makes an Excellent Catch Crop and is Profitable Either for Hay 

Purposes or for Seed Production. 

acre when grown for hay. Three pecks of seed is advised by some for hay. 
This results in smaller plants with a finer quality of hay. 

Where extensively grown for seed, millet should be harvested with the 
self-binder when the seed is in the stiff dough stage. The after-treatment is 
similar to that for wheat and oats. The best quality of hay is secured by 
cutting before the seeds begin to ripen. The seeds act as a diuretic to ani- 
mals and it is not safe to feed too much of it to horses. Hay that is to be 
used for horses should be harvested before seeds form. 

Rape. — Rape belongs to the same family of plants as cabbage and 
turnips. There are two varieties, annual and biennial. The latter bears 
seed in the second year. The best known variety of biennial is the Dwarf 
Essex. This gives best results for soiling and pasture purposes. Cattle 
and sheep are fond of rape. It is especially fine for hog pasture. 






H 

< 

a 
o 
1^ 

CO 

o 
OS 

O 

» 

o 



ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS 



tS 

^ 






H 

CO 






O 

Si 



H ^ W 

« s as 
o K 5 






h 

O BS 

H 0« W 

tj o 5 

o ^< 






1 



s 

B 



a 

o 






^ a 

0.2 



a S 
3.1 



S? «« ™! 

- a 



-22 

Oya 
T) oa 

MM 

S3 . 



a 

^ sT 



^ e3 V> 



a—* 

JiM fc4 

"J 3 



43 •- 



38 



w o 
« *** o 

OS . «« 

^"5 3 

. O c« 



s a-3a 



<" 2 i 
k-^ o p. 



a 



CO 



n3ja 



■«3 



•2^ 



^ 



<ujd o 

- §-2 

(U o 3 

g o S 
Pu S c ^ 



^ 00 



ei5 0) 
O 



3 



^ 



I 

eS b (3 
O O o 



I— 1 o^,«i. 



»- o 
I- 52 



I 

-c) 

O 






o 



o 



o 

CO 



s 



o 









.a 



•9 

a 

a 



5 



-■ 9 Sr »; 






cSSfS 



a. a 
<; so 






'-' d <u 

a d a « 






6 

a s) 



bO 



O4 

CQ 



3.2 



^ 8 

|aJ 



a 



1-9 

1j 

s d 

as V 
^ bO 
H C8-T3 



Si 



o 
"3 



Rl 



a 



a . 

■ - ho 



. . > 

0) 



O) 






o 
"CO 



o 






-3 w- 

3|§g| 



O 



a 



-H!a 



0) 

a 






3 

a 

o 

3 



00 

o 



a 

o 



3 

05 

o 
o 

3 

a 

a 

en 



o 
u 



! 3 



CO a 



CO 



o 

o 



I 

o 
o 

3 

0) 



, ft) ^^ 

-mo 



las 

^.2.2 

d o; O) 

.a a 

d . . 
02 ^ O 



4> 

> 
O 






d 






a 



CO 



M 
bO 
3 
O 

•T3 



a 

d 

bO 
O 

2 bO 
FT e9 



I 

o 



1 rs *» 



I 
U 



CO 



o 

03 



291 



■a =• 

d "a) 
2 ---^ 

aia 

CO 6£'-" 



jd 



^ 



C=9^ 



5 s*^ g 






U bC 

e d 

.20 
■^ bO 



3. 

a 

a- 
«« -, - 

CO og U) 






3 

4 

S3 

I '4 a 

I GO 3 



m 



&M So •< 



d 
«« u 



d a 

o3 o 3 

^.2 3 
9 d ® 



I 
I 
I 

1 

CO a; 



O 

a; 
O 



I 









IS 



h2 



3 

J a 

ajja 



3 



i ^1 

i 35 
I 4,— 
I a <a 

02 O 






1^ 



5 






S 9 






290 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



in May or the first week in June. Hungarian millet may be seeded two 
or three weeks later, while conmion millet will frequently produce a crop 
when seeded as late as the middle of July. 

Millet is used chiefly as a catch crop for hay. It is well adapted for 
this purpose and may be substituted where a catch of clover or timothy 
fails. It is also excellent to fill in where areas of corn have failed. 

The preparation of the seed-bed should begin as early in the spring as 
conditions will permit. This gives an opportunity to rid the soil of weeds 
by occasional harrowing prior to seeding. Millet is seeded broadcast at 
the rate of one peck per acre when grown for seed, and one-half bushel per 




Millet Makes an Excellent Catch Crop and is Profitable Either for Hay 

Purposes or for Seed Production. 

acre when grown for hay. Three pocks of seed is advised by some for hay. 
This results in smaller plants with a finer quality of hay. 

Where extensively grown for seed, millet should be harvested with the 
self-binder when the seed is in the stiff dough stage. The after-treatment is 
similar to that for wheat and oats. The best quality of hay is secured by 
cutting before the seeds })egin to ripen. The seeds act as a diuretic to ani- 
mals and it is not safe to feed too much of it to horses. Hay that is to be 
used for horses should be harvested before seeds form. 

Rape. — Rape belongs to the same family of plants as cabbage and 
turnips. There are two varieties, annual and biennial. The latter bears 
seed in the second year. The best known variety of biennial is the Dwarf 
Essex. This gives best results for soiling and pasture purposes. Cattle 
and sheep are fond of rape. It is especially fine for hog pasture. 






g 

00 
< 

a 
o 

o 
« 

O 

o 

% 

o 



ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS 



291 



•J 



> 

o 



CIS 

2* 

■*» 
S 

a 






a 

9* 



I 



m 



e9 

1 






El 

|C0 



C3 
0-T3 

fl s 

■-J3 



H ^ &3 

to 9? 0! 

O K S 






tn 



a-2 

.-(MO 



o OS 

. w • 

H ft< M 

?: OS 

& Q o 

o "<i 



-22 

es'v 

f) 09 
«-I^H ft 









35 

sS 
J5 c8'+3 



^ ft 

ft-O e9 

ca — 



►.2 

Vm OQ 

U3 *** o 
. O eU 



a sj 

c3«S bO 

•^d.a 

^ O OQ 

-S3.2 

l-H 03 t. 



o •- a> . 






2 

O; O 

t-3 o ft 






3 

CO 



o 



£•§ 
d '^ 

^d 



^ 



0} o 



-3 §.2 

(DOS 

^_d-0 

t. *- o 
g O M 

£ wig fc 

P-< CO C ? 



d 

bC d 

.2 2 
So 



^ O 



■** d 

« «4 

rn a> 

dj3 
s d 

cS 0) 

.^ to 

r*^ d O 



I 

eS 

o 



Q 5 



ei *i a 
£ o o d 
^§.2g 

Q s^ a 



-a 
o 



«^ 3 w t r! ^ 



I 

O 



Q § 



o 
c4 



o 
c5 



o 



O 

o 

eo 



8 



o 

CM 






o 



J3 



CM 



■3 

d 

d 

a 



J3 

eo 



-3 



o a> 

•c a 

CQ OQ 
V 

o * 
d o 



a> 



-So 3 

b o ft 



3 
ft 

o 
o 

a 

CO 

d 
o 



a 

o 

CM 



rn 

a 
a 

♦a 



ft . 
•Cbo 

>'-a 

(V, O 

a c8 

o aj 

ft ^ 

a 

-d-a 
> d 



I a 
I ft 
I ^ 

I 3 

a 
•-^ 

a 

cA 

CO 



o 



js a 

' O 



=3 rt P 






Q^.sJ 



I 

o 
o 

e<3 



02 ft 



O 






■ 

CI 



o 

o 



§^ aa^ 



50 



S 2 

-^ d 



o 
u 

§ s 

C» ft 



> 
o 



d 
*3 



o^ 



:?: 



o 

CO 



jd 

bC 

o 



d 
d 

-d 

bO 

ii 
O 
en 

£ « 
PT «« 



I 

-a 

O 



G i 



CO 



d "S 

d -.d 

CO bci-t 






d.d 

-< 00 



sf 






>. i d 

~ a 2 
-^- 

ac^Bo 



a 



"is 

1:9 O 

-I 



■111 



iaa 

ie.a.a 

d &> a; 

.a a 

d . - 
5 s ^ • 

>Sj3 >» a 






I 



I 3=3 
I ^ ^ 

5 ft I, 
CO K bC 



I 



s . 

'■S & 

f <^ 3 
I CO 3 



0)"** *» 

a^3 



a. 
o 
a 

O 



1 



r 



• PM V Cl ^ 

^(^ So 



u 

d 
CQ 



I 



d 

"-9 5*» 

►J O 






SB . 

^.2 3 

S d 

gja 

CO ft**3 



o 



a 

I 



3 

o 

■is 



DO .• 

^ C9 
O 4* 

i ".5J 

35 

a c9 

02 o 



1 



ft 

o 

O 



3 



-d a«« 

oj 0) op 
>>T c d 



^ 3 2'o 



bC 



d 

►-9^ 

1-3 o 



a 

d 
-d _ 



_ a 



eg 



>W 






INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



292 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



This plant is best adapted to cool, moist climates and does best in the 
Northern states and Canada. South of latitude 38 degrees it is best to sow 
it in the fall. This allows it to make most of its growth during the cooler 
part of the year. North of this, rape should be seeded in the spring so that 
it may make most of its growth before hot weather. 

Three to six pounds of seed per acre are required. It may be either 
broadcasted or seeded with a drill on a well prepared seed-bed. 

Rape is usually ready to pasture in six or eight weeks after seeding. 
If not pastured too closely, it continues to grow until freezing weather. 




Making Hogs of Themselves.* 
Rape makes an excellent late fall and early spring pasture for growing hogs. 

Care must be taken in pasturing cattle and sheep in rape. They should be 
allowed on the rape only a short period at a time, until they become accus- 
tomed to it. Very bad cases of bloat may result if this caution is unheeded. 
The preceding tabulation taken from '* Wallace's Farmer'' summarizes 
the requirements for catch crops when used for pasture and hay. It gives 
the approximate requirements for average corn-belt conditions, but is 
subject to modifications as regards time of seeding and amount of seed, 
depending on climatic conditions. 

^ Courtesy of Dept. of Animal Husbandry, Pennsylvania State College. 












ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS 



293 



REFERENCES 

"Soiling Crops and the Silo." Shaw. 

"Forage Crops for the South." Tracy. 

"Forage Crops." Voorhees. 

"Forage Plants and Their Culture." Piper. 

Michigan Expt. Station Circular 27. "Hairy Vetch." 

Mississippi Expt. Station Bulletin 172. "Forage Crops." 

Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

458. "Best Two Sweet Sorghums for Forage." 

515. "Vetches." 

529. "Vetch Growing in the South Atlantic States." 

599. "Pasture and Grain Crops for Hogs in the Pacific Northwest. 

605. "Soudan Grass as a Forage Crop." 

677. "Growing Hay in the South for Market.' 

686. "Uses of Sorghum Grain.'* 

690. "The Field Pea as a Forage Crop." 



}t 



292 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ANNUAL HAY AND FORAGE CROPS 



293 



This plant is best adapted to cool, moist climates and does best in the 
Northern states and Canada. South of latitude 38 degrees it is best to sow 
it in the fall. This allows it to make most of its growth during the cooler 
part of the year. North of this, rape should be seeded in the spring so that 
it may make most of its growth before hot weather. 

Three to six pounds of seed per acre are required. It may be either 
broadcasted or seeded with a drill on a well prepared seed-bed. 

Rape is usually ready to pasture in six or eight weeks after seeding. 
If not pastured too closely, it continues to grow until freezing weather. 




Making Hogs of Themselves.^ 
Rape makes an excellent late fall and early spring pasture for growing hogs. 

Care must be taken in pasturing cattle and sheep in rape. They should be 
allowed on the rape only a short period at a time, until they become accus- 
tomed to it. Very bad cases of bloat may result if this caution is unheeded. 
The preceding tabulation taken from ^^ Wallace's Farmer" summarizes 
the requirements for catch crops when used for pasture and hay. It gives 
the approximate requirements for average corn-belt conditions, but is 
subject to modifications as regards time of seeding and amount of seed, 
depending on climatic conditions. 

* Courtesy of Dept. of Animal Husbandry, Pennsylvania State College. 



REFERENCES 

"Soiling Crops and the Silo." Shaw. 

"Forage Crops for the South." Tracy. 

"Forage Crops." Voorhees. 

"Forage Plants and Their Culture." Piper. 

Michigan Expt. Station Circular 27. "Hairy Vetch." 

Mississippi Expt. Station Bulletin 172. "Forage Crops." 

Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 

458. "Best Two Sweet Sorghums for Forage." 

515. "Vetches." 

529. "Vetch Growing in the South Atlantic States." 

599. "Pasture and Grain Crops for Hogs in the Pacific Northwest. 

605. "Soudan Grass as a Forage Crop." 

677. "Growing Hay in the South for Market." 

686. "Uses of Sorghum Grain." 

690. "The Field Pea as a Forage Crop." 





[NTEN 



i^'tXlA ' * 


k,- 


1 


[a: 






^^ 









*y r^ftW; 



SECOND EXPOSURE 



ANNUAL LEGUMES 



295 



CHAPTER 20 

Annual Legumes, Grown Principally for Seeds 

The annual legumes most grown in North America for seed are the 
white or navy bean, the common pea and the peanut. They are used 
extensively as food for man. In addition to these, cowpeas and soy beans 
are grown for seed, some of which is used for human food, some for stock 
food, but still more for seeding purposes. 

The production of crimson clover, vetch and castor bean for their seed 
is of minor importance in North America. 

Field Bean. — Is extensively grown under field conditions for the pro- 
duction of dried beans. These become the baked beans of New England 
fame. According to the census of 1910 the production in the United States 
was 11,250,000 bushels of 60 pounds from 803,000 acres. Michigan, Cali- 
fornia and New York lead in bean production. During the same year 
Canada grew about 1,000,000 bushels from 50,000 acres. 

Field beans do best in a cool, moist climate. They are not adapted to 
conditions south of 40 degrees north latitude. Field beans are adapted to 
loamy soils of a calcareous nature, but may be grown fairly well on clay 
loams and silt loams when well supplied with organic matter. The under- 
drainage must be good and cultural methods such as will produce a fine, 
mellow seed-bed. 

Time, Rate, Manner and Depth of Seeding.— Beans are tender plants 
and seeding, therefore, should be deferred until danger from frost is past. 
This makes it convenient to plant them immediately after planting corn. 

They give best results when planted in rows far enough apart to permit 
horse cultivation. The beans may be drilled or planted in hills. Drilling 
usually gives best results, distributing the seed from three to six inches 
apart in the row. With rows thirty inches apart about one-half bushel of 
seed per acre will be required. 

Great care must be taken not to plant too deeply. The habit of growth 
is such that the plant cannot reach the surface if planted deeply. An inch 
and one-half to two inches is the maximum depth on any except sandy 
soils. On sandy soils they may be three inches deep. 

The beans should be thoroughly and frequently cultivated during 
their early stages of growth to destroy weeds and conserve soil moisture. 
They should not be cultivated when dew is on the plants. This precaution 
must be taken to guard against certain diseases, the spores of which may 
be in the soil. Disturbing the plants while they are wet tends to scatter 
the spores and spread the disease. 

(294) 



Harvesting. — The ripe beans are harvested with a bean harvester. 
This implement cuts two rows at a time, leaving the vines in a single 
windrow. If the vines are practically dead when harvested they may be 
placed at once in small piles, and later built into large cocks around poles 
five feet or more in height. 

Threshing and Cleaning. — Beans grown commercially are threshed 
with a machine especially adapted to the purpose. It is operated in a 
manner similar to the ordinary threshing machine. If only a few beans 




Harvesting Field Beans with a Harvester. * 

are grown an ordinary threshing machine may be used. All except four 
teeth should be removed from the concaves and the speed of the machine 
should be such as not to break the beans. Most satisfactory results will be 
secured by having all the beans uniformly dry. 

Beans fresh from the thresher generally contain fragments of straw, 
stones and particles of earth which must be removed before being placed 
upon the market. This calls for the use of a special cleaning machine, 
which removes most of the foreign matter. After this the remaining 
broken and discolored seeds must be removed by hand, 

* Courtesy of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bulletin 89. 



I 



■''i'< r J'fii'-j'iXC"'-' ^ 






7 .,fr*ii.. .r*''-^'* 



296 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ANNUAL LEGUMES 



297 



Yield. — Variations in weights of measured bushels range from fifty- 
seven to sixty-five pounds. The standard weight is sixty pounds. Beans 
yield all the way from five to thirty-five bushels per acre. There is usually 
no profit in a ten-bushel crop. According to the last census the average 
yield per acre was fourteen bushels. 

Field Peas. — The Canada field peas, described in the preceding chap- 
ter, are extensively grown in Canada and a few of the Northern states for 
the dried peas. These are adapted to a wide range of uses as feed for 
Uvestock. They also furnish the supply of seed for all localities where the 
crop is grown for forage purposes. 

Peas are very high in protein and are especially adapted as feed for 
young stock and for the production of milk and butter. When given with 
oats and bran to cows in milk, they may constitute from one-third to one- 
half of the concentrates fed. 

When harvested for seed, the vines are cut with a mowing machine 
to which special guards are attached for lifting them from the ground. 
There is also a device attached to the rear of the cutting bar, which leaves 
the vines in a swath far enough from the standing peas to enable the team 
and machine to work without tramping the peas. It is customary to cut 
when two-thirds of the pods are yellow. 

When dry the peas should be stacked under cover or threshed immedi- 
ately with a pea huller or with an ordinary threshing machine in the same 
manner as described for field beans. 

The legal weight of field peas is sixty pounds to the bushel. They are 
quite prolific and under favorable conditions will yield forty bushels to the 
acre. At Guelph, Ontario, eight varieties during eleven years gave an 
average yield of 31.5 bushels per acre. Four varieties at Ottawa averaged 
34.4 bushels for five years, while six varieties grown for five years in three 
other localities averaged 40, 41 and 41.2 bushels respectively per acre. 

The most suitable varieties to grow depend somewhat on soil and 
climatic conditions. Three good all-around varieties are Prussian Green, 
Canadian Beauty and White Marrowfat. 

Cowpeas. — The seed of cowpeas has been very little used as feed, 
because the price has been too high to justify its use in this way. The 
introduction of suitable harvesting and threshing machinery should make it 
possible to produce grain of the more prolific varieties at prices that' will 
put it in reach for feeding purposes. At present practically air of 
cowpea seed is used for seeding purposes, the price ranging from $2 to 

$4 per bushel. 

The dried shelled peas contain 26 per cent of protein, 1.5 per cent of 
fat and 63 per cent of nitrogen free extract. A comparatively low rainfall 
is favorable to seed production. Continuous wet weather causes a develop- 
ment of vines at the expense of seed. At one of the southern experiment 
stations during a series of five years, the yield of peas with a yearly rainfall 
of 62 inches was only 12 bushels per acre, whereas, with only 22 inches of 



rainfall, the yield was 28 bushels per acre. The yield of hay in both cases 
was practically the same. 

The methods of seeding and harvesting for seed production are treated 
m the foregoing chapter. 

Soy Beans. — The growing of soy beans for grain to be used as feed is 
profitable if the yield is sixteen bushels or more per acre. The seed is very 
rich in oil and protein and occupies the same place in concentrates as 
cottonseed meal and oil meal. The seed should be ground before being fed. 
Some of the varieties with highest fat content are being utilized for the 
manufacture of oil. This is used as a substitute for linseed oil in the manu- 
facture of paints. The best varieties under proper cultivation yield from 




Soy Beans, Bradford County, Pennsylvania.^ 

This annual legume is excellent for both forage and seed production. May be 

grown nearly as far north as dent corn. 

thirty to forty bushels of seed to the acre, Hollybrook, Mammoth and 
Haberlandt are three especially good varieties for seed production. Tall 
varieties that bear pods some distance from the ground are most desirable 
and most easily harvested. 

The methods for harvesting and threshing are given in the preceding 
chapter. The threshed beans should be thoroughly dried when stored. 
Otherwise they are likely to heat and spoil. They should be carefully 
watched when first stored and at once spread out to dry if there are signs of 
heating. 

Soy bean seed is especially exempt from weevils. 

* Courtesy of Department of Agricultural Extension, Pennsylvania State College. 












296 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ANNUAL LEGUMES 



297 



Yield. — Variations in weights of measured bushels range from fifty- 
seven to sixty-five pounds. The standard weight is sixty pounds. Beans 
yield all the way from five to thirty-five bushels per acre. There is usually 
no profit in a ten-bushel crop. According to the last census the average 
yield per acre was fourteen bushels. 

Field Peas. — The Canada field peas, described in the preceding chap- 
ter, are extensively grown in Canada and a few of the Northern states for 
the dried peas. These are adapted to a wide range of uses as feed for 
livestock. They also furnish the supply of seed for all localities where the 
crop is grown for forage purposes. 

Peas are very high in protein and are especially adapted as feed for 
young stock and for the production of milk and butter. When given with 
oats and bran to cows in milk, they may constitute from one-third to one- 
half of the concentrates fed. 

When harvested for seed, the vines are cut with a mowing machine 
to which special guards are attached for lifting them from the ground. 
There is also a device attached to the rear of the cutting bar, which leaves 
the vines in a swath far enough from the standing peas to enable the team 
and machine to work without tramping the peas. It is customary to cut 
when two-thirds of the pods are yellow. 

When dry the peas should be stacked under cover or threshed immedi- 
ately with a pea huller or with an ordinary threshing machine in the same 
manner as described for field beans. 

The legal weight of field peas is sixty pounds to the bushel. They are 
quite prolific and under favorable conditions will yield forty bushels to the 
acre. At Guelph, Ontario, eight varieties during eleven years gave an 
average yield of 31.5 bushels per acre. Four varieties at Ottawa averaged 
34.4 bushels for five years, while six varieties grown for five years in three 
other localities averaged 40, 41 and 41.2 bushels respectively per acre. 

The most suitable varieties to grow depend somewhat on soil and 
climatic conditions. Three good all-around varieties are Prussian Green, 
Canadian Beauty and White Marrowfat. 

Cowpeas. — The seed of cowpeas has been very little used as feed, 
because the price has been too high to justify its use in this way. The 
introduction of suitable harvesting and threshing machinery should make it 
possible to produce grain of the more prolific varieties at prices that' will 
put it in reach for feeding purposes. At present practically air of 
cowpea seed is used for seeding purposes, the price ranging from $2 to 

$4 per bushel. 

The dried shelled peas contain 26 per cent of protein, 1.5 per cent of 
fat and 63 per cent of nitrogen free extract. A comparatively low rainfall 
is favorable to seed production. Continuous wet weather causes a develop- 
ment of vines at the expense of seed. At one of the southern experiment 
stations during a series of five years, the yield of peas with a yearly rainfall 
of 62 inches was only 12 bushels per acre, whereas, with only 22 inches of 



rainfall, the yield was 28 bushels per acre. The yield of hay in both cases 
was practically the same. 

The methods of seeding and harvesting for seed production are treated 
m the foregoing chapter. 

Soy Beans. — The growing of soy beans for grain to be used as feed is 
profitable if the yield is sixteen bushels or more per acre. The seed is very 
rich in oil and protein and occupies the same place in concentrates as 
cottonseed meal and oil meal. The seed should be ground before being fed. 
Some of the varieties with highest fat content are being utilized for the 
manufacture of oil. This is used as a substitute for Hnseed oil in the manu- 
facture of paints. The best varieties under proper cultivation yield from 




Soy Beans, Bradford County, Pennsylvania.^ 

This annual legume is excellent for both forage and seed production. May be 

grown nearly as far north as dent corn. 

thirty to forty bushels of seed to the acre, Hollybrook, Mammoth and 
Haberlandt are three especially good varieties for seed production. Tall 
varieties that bear pods some distance from the ground are most desirable 
and most easily harvested. 

The methods for harvesting and threshing are given in the preceding 
chapter. The threshed beans should be thoroughly dried when stored. 
Otherwise they are likely to heat and spoil. They should be carefully 
watched when first stored and at once spread out to dry if there are signs of 
heating. 

Soy bean seed is especially exempt from weevils. 

* Courtesy of Department of Agricultural Extension, Pennsylvania State College. 



II 

if 



I* 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 






'^^':}m^ 



r/ff '??(*«*' »,f«,v ■: '■>,': %Y", ';:•■ ' ' 



298 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ANNUAL LEGUMES 



299 



Castor Bean.— There are two classes of castor beans, one a perennial, 
bushy plant with large seeds; the other a small seeded variety which yields 
oil of superior quality. The plant grows within a wide range of climate, 
from- the tropics to the north temperate zone. In Florida it is a perennial 
plant growing from fifteen to thirty feet high. Further north, it becomes 
an annual, matures seed in a short season and grows only four or five feet 

The castor bean thrives in sandy soils and its culture is simple. The 
seeds germinate with difficulty and it is advised to place them in hot water 
twenty-four hours before planting. 

It is customary to plant them in hills two inches deep, eight to ten 
beans to a hill. They are afterwards thinned to one or two plants per hill. 
The rows should be five or six feet apart and the plants from two to three 
feet apart in the North, and from five to six feet apart in the South, where 

the plant grows more 
luxuriantly. They 
require about the same 
tillage as corn. 

Planting should be 
done as early in the 
spring as possible, but 
must escape injury 
from frost. 

As soon as the pods 
begin to open the fruit 
branches should be re-; 
moved. This process 
must be repeated at 
least once a week as 
soon as seeds ripen. The branches are spread out to dry on the floor of a 
suitable building. 

In the United States most of the castor beans are produced in Kansas, 
Oklahoma, California, Oregon and Wisconsin. 

The chief use of the beans is for the manufacture of castor oil. This 
oil is one of the best lubricants for machinery and is used in the manufac- 
ture of many articles. * ^ 

Vetch. — Common vetch and hairy vetch are the two most important 
varieties of vetches. Common vetch seed is produced in large quantities 
in the United States only in parts of Oregon. Hairy vetch has a wider 
range of growth, but is grown mostly for forage, most of the seed being 
imported from Russia. Both of these varieties seed freely wherever grown 
and the prevailing high price of the seed ($5 to $8 per bushel) should induce 
farmers to grow more of it for seed purposes. Yields ranging from twenty 
to twenty-five bushels per acre have been reported for common vetch, the 
average estimated yield being ten bushels. Hairy vetch is somewhat less 




Crimson Clover, a Good Winter Cover Crop Where 

Winters are Mild. 

Well suited to the lighter soils in the Coastal Plain Region 

south of Philadelphia. 



prolific, but yields ranging from two and one-half to twenty-one bushels 
per acre have been reported by different experiment stations, the average 
yield being seven and one-half bushels. 

The method of harvesting for seed is similar to that of cowpeas. It 
is threshed with the ordinary threshing machine. 

Crimson Clover. — The chief demand for seed of crimson clover is for 
seeding purposes. The seed is larger than that of red clover, one pound 
containing 125,000 to 150,000. The weight is sixty pounds to the bushel. 
It yields better than red clover, averaging about six bushels to the acre. 
Most of the seed is produced in Delaware and nearby states. 

Crimson clover should be harvested for seed as soon as perfectly ripe. 
The seeds shatter badly. For this reason it should be cut promptly, 
preferably in the morning or evening when the plants are damp. The 
mowing machine with a clover buncher or the self-rake reaper are best 
adapted for harvesting the crop. If the clover becomes wet the seeds 
sprout, causing serious loss. For this reason threshing should promptly 
follow the harvest. 

Fresh seed is shiny and of a pinkish color. Seed two years old loses 
its bright color, becoming dark brown. It is then worthless for seeding 
purposes. 

The cultural methods for crimson clover are given in the preceding 



chapter. 



PEANUTS 



During the last decade there has been a great increase in the production 
and use of peanuts in the United States. Their annual commercial value 
in the United States, according to the last census, was $18,272,000. The 
states leading in production are North Carolina, Virginia, Georgia and 
Florida, three-fourths of the marketable nuts being produced in these 
states. They are valued for forage as well as for a money crop, having a 
feeding value equal to that of clover hay. Peanut products, such as peanut 
butter, oil and meal, also have a market value. The peanut kernel has a 
high percentage of fat. After the oil has been extracted the meal is noted 
for its high percentage of protein. Being nitrogen gathering Uke other 
legumes, they are valued as a soil improvement crop. 

In parts of the South where corn is not a successful crop, its place is 
being taken by the peanut, the entire plant being fed. It also enters use- 
fully into the cropping system, on the cotton and tobacco lands of the 
Southern states. In parts of the South where the cotton-boll weevil is 
troublesome, peanuts are more advantageously cultivated than cotton. 

Soil and Climatic Conditions.— A light, loamy, sandy soil is best suited 
to peanuts. A dark soil will produce the forage crop satisfactorily, but is 
apt to discolor the nuts for market purposes. Heavier soils may be used 
for forage purposes, but if grown for nuts, a loose soil is necessary, owing 
to the fact that the nuts must burrow into the soil in order to develop. 



298 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ANNUAL LEGUMES 



299 



Castor Bean.— There are two classes of castor beans, one a perennial, 
bushy plant with large seeds; the other a small seeded variety which yields 
oil of superior quality. The plant grows within a wide range of climate, 
from- the tropics to the north temperate zone. In Florida it is a perennial 
plant growing from fifteen to thirty feet high. Further north, it becomes 
an annual, matures seed in a short season and grows only four or five feet 

The castor bean thrives in sandy soils and its culture is simple. The 
seeds germinate with difficulty and it is advised to place them in hot water 
twenty-four hours before planting. 

It is customary to plant them in hills two inches deep, eight to ten 
beans to a hill. They are afterwards thinned to one or two plants per hill. 
The rows should be five or six feet apart and the plants from two to three 
feet apart in the North, and from five to six feet apart in the South, where 

the plant grows more 
luxuriantly. They 
require about the same 
tillage as corn. 

Planting should be 
done as early in the 
sirring as possible, but 
must escape injury 
from frost. 

As soon as the pods 
begin to open the fruit 
branches should be re- 
moved. This process 
must be repeated at 
least once a week as 
soon as seeds ripen. The branches are spread out to dry on the floor of a 
suitable building. 

In the United States most of the castor beans are produced in Kansas, 
Oklahoma, Cahfornia, Oregon and Wisconsin. 

The chief use of the beans is for the manufacture of castor oil. This 
oil is one of the best lubricants for machinery and is used in the manufac- 
ture of many articles. 

Vetch. — Common vetch and hairy vetch are the two most important 
varieties of vetches. Common vetch seed is produced in large quantities 
in the United States only in parts of Oregon. Hairy vetch has a wider 
range of growth, but is grown mostly for forage, most of the seed being 
imported from Russia. Both of these varieties seed freely wherever grown 
and the prevailing high price of the seed ($5 to $8 per bushel) should induce 
farmers to grow more of it for seed purposes. Yields ranging from twenty 
to twenty-five bushels per acre have been reported for common vetch, the 
average estimated yield being ten bushels. Hairy vetch is somewhat less 




Crimson Clover, a Good Winter Cover Crop Where 

Winters are Mild. 

Well suited to the lighter soils in the Coastal Plain Region 

south of Philadelphia. 



prolific, but yields ranging from two and one-half to twenty-one bushels 
per acre have been reported by different experiment stations, the average 
yield being seven and one-half bushels. 

The method of harvesting for seed is similar to that of cowpeas. It 
is threshed with the ordinary threshing machine. 

Crimson Clover. — The chief demand for seed of crimson clover is for 
seeding purposes. The seed is larger than that of red clover, one pound 
containing 125,000 to 150,000. The weight is sixty pounds to the bushel. 
It yields better than red clover, averaging about six bushels to the acre. 
Most of the seed is produced in Delaware and nearby states. 

Crimson clover should be harvested for seed as soon as perfectly ripe. 
The seeds shatter badly. For this reason it should be cut promptly, 
preferably in the morning or evening when the plants are damp. The 
mowing machine with a clover buncher or the self-rake reaper are best 
adapted for harvesting the crop. If the clover becomes wet the seeds 
sprout, causing serious loss. For this reason threshing should promptly 
follow the harvest. 

Fresh seed is shiny and of a pinkish color. Seed two years old loses 
its bright color, becoming dark brown. It is then worthless for seeding 
purposes. 

The cultural methods for crimson clover are given in the preceding 



M 



chapter. 



PEANUTS 



During the last decade there has been a great increase in the production 
and use of peanuts in the United States. Their annual commercial value 
in the United States, according to the last census, was $18,272,000. The 
states leading in production are North Carolina, Virginia, Georgia and 
Florida, three-fourths of the marketable nuts being produced in these 
states. They are valued for forage as well as for a money crop, having a 
feeding value equal to that of clover hay. Peanut products, such as peanut 
butter, oil and meal, also have a market value. The peanut kernel has a 
high percentage of fat. After the oil has been extracted the meal is noted 
for its high percentage of protein. Being nitrogen gathering like other 
legumes, they are valued as a soil improvement crop. 

In parts of the South where corn is not a successful crop, its place is 
being taken by the peanut, the entire plant being fed. It also enters use- 
fully into the cropping system, on the cotton and tobacco lands of the 
Southern states. In parts of the South where the cotton-boll weevil is 
troublesome, peanuts are more advantageously cultivated than cotton. 

Soil and Climatic Conditions.— A light, loamy, sandy soil is best suited 
to peanuts. A dark soil will produce the forage crop satisfactorily, but is 
apt to discolor the nuts for market purposes. Heavier soils may be used 
for forage purposes, but if grown for nuts, a loose soil is necessary, owing 
to the fact that the nuts must burrow into the soil in order to develop. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



rt?3«r^';-^- 



I 




ANNUAL LEGUMES 



301 



A Peanut Plant. ^ 



1 Farmere* Bulletin 431, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

(300) 



A compact soil does not facilitate this very necessary process. The peanut 
is more susceptible to frost than the bean plant. It requires a long season 
without frost in order to develop nuts. The small Spanish peanuts require 
about 115 days to mature and the large varieties need a still longer period. 
For this reason they are most successfully grown in the frost-free regions, 
such as the South Atlantic and Gulf states and westward into California. 
When grown for forage, however, a wider range of climate is possible, 
peanuts being successfully grow^n as far north as Maryland and Delaware. 

Fertilizers and Lime Required. — Soils that are adapted to peanuts 
will not require much commercial fertilizer, although the peanut responds 
readily to a moderate use of it. On river bottom lands no fertilizer will be 
needed, but in hillside regions applications of fertilizers and lime are advis- 
able. Practically the same fertilizer that is suitable for potatoes U suitable 
for peanuts. The peanut responds well to the application of manure, but 
the manure should be applied to the crop preceding the peanuts. For this 
reason, peanuts should follow a cultivated crop if possible. This also aids 
materially in freeing the peanuts from weeds. Too much manure causes a 
heavy growth of tops to the detriment of the pods. If t he forage is fed and 
returned to the land in the form of manure, the peanut is not an exhaustive 
crop, but if the entire crop is removed it soon robs the soil of fertility. 

Peanuts also require an abundance of lime in the soil. Soils that show 
any indications of sourness should receive from 600 to 1000 pounds of lime 
(preferably fresh burned) to the acre. This treatment should be given at 
least every five years. The sorrel weed is an indication of a sour soil. 

The fertilizer may be distributed in the row to be planted and thor- 
oughly mixed with the soil. Lime should not be applied at the same time, 
but some time previous, either during the fall before or just after plowing. 

Time, Rate, Depth and Manner of Planting. — Peanuts should be 
planted as soon as the ground is thoroughly warm and all danger from 
frost is over. This insures quick germination. The larger varieties must 
be planted somewhat earlier than the Spanish variety, as more time is 
needed to mature. 

The soil is prepared much the same as that for potatoes. The peanuts 
are planted in furrows about three feet apart. The nuts may be dropped 
by hand or a one-horse peanut planter may be used. The running varieties 
should be planted from twelve to sixteen inches apart in the row but the 
])unch varieties somewhat closer, from nine to twelve inches apart. The 
richer the soil, the greater should be the distance between plants, in order 
to allow for growth. 

Only one seed in a place is necessary, but in order to insure a good yield, 
two seeds are preferable. Two pecks of shelled peanuts are generally 
sufficient to plant an acre, while two bushels of the Spanish peanut in the 
pod are required. 

Peanuts should be covered from three-quarters of an inch to two inches 
deep, depending upon character of soil. Light, sandy soils require a deeper 




ANNUAL LEGUMES 



301 



A Peanut Plant. ^ 



1 Farmers* Bulletin 431. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 
(300) 



A compact soil does not facilitate this very necessary process. The peanut 
is more susceptible to frost than the bean plant. It requires a long season 
without frost in order to develop nuts. The small Spanish peanuts require 
al)out 115 days to mature and the large varieties need a still longer period. 
For this reason they are most successfully grown in the frost-free regions, 
such as the South Atlantic and Gulf states and westward into California. 
When grown for forage, however, a wider range of climate is possible, 
peanuts Ix ing successfully grow^n as far north as Maryland and Delaware. 

Fertilizers and Lime Required. — Soils that are adapted to peanuts 
will not require much commercial fertilizer, although the peanut responds 
readily to a moderate use of it. On river bottom lands no f( rtilizer will be 
needed, but in hillside regions applications of fertilizers and lime are advis- 
able. Practically the same fertilizer that is suitable for potatoes i^ suitable 
for peanuts. The peanut responds well to the application of manure, but 
the manure should bo applied to the crop preceding the peanuts. For this 
reason, peanui^s should follow a cultivated crop if possible. This also aids 
materially in freeing the peanuts from weeds. Too much manure causes a 
heavy growth of tops to the detriment of the pods. If the forage is fed and 
returned to the land in the form of manure, the peanut is not an exhaustive 
crop, but if the entire crop is removed it soon robs the soil of fertility. 

Peanuts also require an abundance of lime in the soil. Soils that show 
any indications of sourness should receive from 600 to 1000 pounds of lime 
(preferably fn^sh burned) to the acre. This treatment should be given at 
l(Mist every five years. The sorrel weed is an indication of a soux soil. 

The fertilizer may be distributed in the row to be planted and thor- 
oughly mix(»d with the soil. Lime should not be applied at the same time, 
})ut some time previous, either during the fall before or just after plowing. 

Time, Rate, Depth and Manner of Planting. — Peanuts should be 
planted as soon as tlu^ ground is thoroughly warm and all danger from 
frost is over. This insures quick germination. The larger varieties must 
be planted somewhat earlier than the Spanish variety, as more time is 
needed to mature. 

The soil is prepared much the same as that for potatoes. The peanuts 
are planted in furrows about three feet apart. The nuts may be dropped 
by hand or a one-horse peanut planter may be used. The running varieties 
should be planted from twelve to sixteen inches apart in the row but the 
bunch varieties somewhat closer, from nine to twelve inches apart. The 
richer the soil, the greater should be the distance between plants, in order 
to allow for growth. 

Only one seed in a place is necessary, but in order to insure a good yield, 
two seeds are preferable. Two pecks of shelled peanuts are generally 
sufficient to plant an acre, while two bushels of the Spanish peanut in the 
pod are required. 

Peanuts should be covered from three-quarters of an inch to two inches 
deep, depending upon character of soil. Light, sandy soils require a deeper 






INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



302 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ll 



planting, while on heavy soils from three-quarters to one and one-quarter 

inches is sufficient. 

Seed Selection and Preparation.— Selecting a good grade of seed is 
just as important in peanut culture as it is with corn or any other crop. 
Seed should be selected only from mature plants and from those producing 
the largest number of pods. It must be properly cured and kept thoroughly 
dry during the winter. It is not safe to use seed older than the preceding 

crop. 

Seed from the large pod varieties should always be shelled before 
planting. Shelled seed is surer and more rapid of germination than seed in 
the pod, and insures a better stand. Machine-planted seed must be shelled. 

The small or Spanish varieties may be planted in the pod with but 
little disadvantage. Some growers make a practice of soaking the pods for 
a fe\y hours before planting in order to soften them and hasten germination. 
Soaked seed must be planted at once, however, or it becomes useless. 
Shelled seed should not be soaked. 

Preparing the large varieties for seed entails much work, as they must 
be shelled by hand. The smaller varieties, however, are usually shelled by 
machinery, although some loss is experienced by this process. 

Varieties.— Peanuts are divided into large-podded and small-podded 
varieties, according to their size. The Virginia bunch and the Virginia 
runner are the two most grown large varieties. These varieties are the 
most used when roasted and sold for human consiunption. They have 
about the same weight per bushel. 

The Spanish peanut is much used for forage and for shelled purposes. 
Its range of growth is wider than that of the Virginia variety. 

Other varieties are the African, the Tennessee Red and the Valencia. 

They are all small varieties. 

Cultivation, Harvesting and Curing.- Peanuts should be cultivated 
in much the same manner as beans, corn or similar crops. Cultivation 
should begin as soon as the crop is up and continue until the vines spread 
over the ground. The soil should be kept loose and free from weeds. Pea- 
nut pods have the peculiar habit of burrowing in the ground when they 
begin to form. For this reason the dirt should be worked towards the vines 
in the last cultivation and the vines should not be disturbed after the 
process of burrowing begins. 

The same implements may be used as for cultivating com and beans. 
A one-horse weeder is the general form of cultivator used. 

Harvesting should occur just before frost, as frost will injure the forage 
as well as the peanuts. Peanuts may be plowed from the ground with a 
common turning plow, but the use of a potato-digging machine is a much 
better method. The initial expense of such a machine is about $75, but it 
lasts many years and does the work much more efficiently than it can be 
done otherwise. If dug by plow the soil must be shaken from the roots by 
hand, whereas the machine shakes off the soil as it digs. 



/^ 



ANNUAL LEGUMES 



303 



A few hours after harvesting the peanuts should be stacked about a 
pole. These poles should be driven firmly into the ground and pieces 
nailed at right angles to them just above the ground in order to keep the 
vines from the ground as much as possible. The stacks should be small 
and conical and stacked as loosely as possible so that air will pass through. 
It is not advisable to store peanuts in the barn until thoroughly cured. 
Then the forage part may be stored after the nuts are picked. 

The nuts should not be picked from the vines until they are thoroughly 
dry and solid, else they will shrivel and become unfit for market purposes. 




Harvesting and Curing Peanuts.^ 

On the other hand, picking should not be delayed too late in the season on 
account of ravages from crows and mice. 

Hand-picked peanuts command the highest price, but owing to the 
dusty, irksome labor involved, picking machines are coming into general 
favor. There are two kinds on the market: one is a cylinder type used 
mostly for Spanish peanuts; the other machine drags the vines over a 
horizontal wire mesh, thus removing the nuts without breaking them. 

Peanuts must be kept continually dry or they become discolored. 
After picking they are usually covered with dust and kept in a dry, well- 
ventilated place until stored in bags ready for market. 

1 Courtesy of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Farmerg' Bulletin 431. 



li 






302 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



planting, while on heavy soils from three-quarters to one and one-quarter 

inches is sufficient. 

Seed Selection and Preparation.— Selecting a good grade of seed is 
just as important in peanut culture as it is with corn or any other crop. 
Seed should be selected only from mature plants and from those producing 
the largest number of pods. It must be properly cured and kept thoroughly 
dry during the winter. It is not safe to use seed older than the preceding 

crop. 

Seed from the large pod varieties should always be shelled before 
planting. Shelled seed is surer and more rapid of germination than seed in 
the pod, and insures a better stand. Machine-planted seed must be shelled. 

The small or Spanish varieties may be planted in the pod with but 
little disadvantage. Some growers make a practice of soaking the pods for 
a fe\y hours before planting in order to soften them and hasten germination. 
Soaked seed must be planted at once, however, or it becomes useless. 
Shelled seed should not be soaked. 

Preparing the large varieties for seed entails much work, as they must 
be shelled by hand. The smaller varieties, however, are usually shelled by 
machinery, although some loss is experienced by this process. 

Varieties.— Peanuts are divided into large-podded and small-podded 
varieties, according to their size. The Virginia bunch and the Virginia 
runner are the two most grown large varieties. These varieties are the 
most used when roasted and sold for human consumption. They have 
about the same weight per bushel. 

The Spanish peanut is much used for forage and for shelled purposes. 
Its range of growth is wider than that of the Virginia variety. 

Other varieties are the African, the Tennessee Red and the Valencia. 
They are all small varieties. 

Cultivation, Harvesting and Curing.- Peanuts should be cultivated 
in much the same manner as beans, corn or similar crops. Cultivation 
should begin as soon as the crop is up and continue until the vines spread 
over the ground. The soil should be kept loose and free from weeds. Pea- 
nut pods have the peculiar habit of burrowing in the ground when they 
begin to form. For this reason the dirt should be worked towards the vines 
in the last cultivation and the vines should not be disturbed after the 
process of burrowing begins. 

The same implements may be used as for cultivating corn and beans. 
A one-horse weeder is the general form of cultivator used. 

Harvesting should occur just before frost, as frost will injure the forage 
as well as the peanuts. Peanuts may be plowed from the ground with a 
common turning plow, but the use of a potato-digging machine is a much 
better method. The initial expense of such a machine is about $75, but it 
lasts many years and does the work much more efficiently than it can be 
done otherwise. If dug by plow the soil must be shaken from the roots by 
hand, whereas the machine shakes off the soil as it digs. 



ANNUAL LEGUMES 



303 



A few hours after harvesting the peanuts should be stacked about a 
pole. These poles should be driven firmly into the ground and pieces 
nailed at right angles to them just above the ground in order to keep the 
vines from the ground as much as possible. The stacks should be small 
and conical and stacked as loosely as possible so that air will pass through. 
It is not advisable to store peanuts in the barn until thoroughly cured. 
Then the forage part may be stored after the nuts are picked. 

The nuts should not be picked from the vines until they are thoroughly 
dry and solid, else they will shrivel and become unfit for market purposes. 




Harvesting and Curing Peanuts. ^ 

On the other hand, picking should not be delayed too late in the season on 
account of ravages from crows and mice. 

Hand-picked peanuts command the highest price, but owing to the 
dusty, irksome labor involved, picking machines are coming into general 
favor. There are two kinds on the market: one is a cylinder type used 
mostly for Spanish peanuts; the other machine drags the vines over a 
horizontal wire mesh, thus removing the nuts without breaking them. 

Peanuts must be kept continually dry or they become discolored. 
After picking they are usually covered with dust and kept in a dry, well- 
ventilated place until i^tored in bags ready for market. 

1 Courtesy of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Farmerg* Bulletin 431. 



^■y'Ji^:^k 



304 SUCCESSFUL FAR MING 

Preparing for Market.— Threshed peanuts contain much tra^h, neces- 
sitating a thorough cleaning before marketing. This can be done on a 
smal^scale by the grower, but if large quantities are involved, the process 
Lmore economically done in a cleaning factory, which is equipped with all 
npppssarv fanning and grading machinery. , , , 

ySd .-Anlveraie yield of peanuts is about thirty-four bushels an 
acre although it is quite possible on fertile soil and by expert methods 
to increase this to sixty bushels an acre, with from one to two tons of 
Srage Peanut forage is worth from $8 to $10 per ton. Sixty bushels of 
nuts are worth from $40 to $60, according to quality. Estimating upon 
thTs basis, allowing an expendHure of from $12 to «25 P- acre to ^ow the 
croD the grower would realize a profit of from $36 to $45 per acre. 
This' is a conservative estimate and, all conditions being favorable, might 
be much larger. 

REFERENCES 

''The Peanut." Jones. 

"The Peanut and Its Culture. Roper. 

-Peas and Pea Culture." Sevey. „ 

Canadian Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin 2j2. lield ^eans. 

Fanners' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

315. ''Legume Inoculation. 

318. ''Cowpeas." 

372. "Soy Beans." 

431. ''Peanuts." „ 

561. " Bean Growing in Western States. 

579 '^ITtUization of Crimson Clover. ^^ 

646 "Crimson Clover Seed Production. 



CHAPTER 21 

Roots and Tubers for Forage 

In the United States roots and tubers are grown principally as vege- 
tables or for sugar production, but in Canada they are quite extensively 
grown for forage purposes. In such root crops as the beet, turnip, parsnip 
and carrot, the edible part is really an enlargement of the upper portion of 
the root and the lower portion of the stem merged together. Roots, such 
as cassava and chufa, are enlargements of the roots. 

According to the last census Canada produced nearly 200,000 acres of 
root crops, while those grown in the United States for forage purposes 




Root Crops, 1909-1910. Figures = Acres. ^ 

aggregated only about 15,000 acres. Mangels, rutabagas, turnips, beets, 
carrots and cabbage are best adapted to cool, moist climates. Of these the 
rutabaga and turnip may be successfully grown further south than the 
others. The accompanying map gives the acreage of root crops in the 
United States and Canada by states and provinces according to the liitest 

census figures. 

Relation to Other Crops.— The economy in growing root crops for 
forage purposes depends chiefly on whether or not other succulent crops 
suited to feeding livestock can be more cheaply produced. It also depends 
on the relative yields of the different crops. 

> Courtesy of The Macmillan Company, N. Y. From " Forage Plants and their Cult'-- " ' " ^'^^"^ 
.,, (305) 



m 



m 



\i 






306 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ROOTS AND TUBERS FOR FORAGE 



307 



The longer the winter period, the greater the need for succulent food 
for livestock during the stabling period. For this reason there is more 
need of such foods in the northern part of the United States and in Canada 
than farther south where the season for plant growth is longer. Many of 
the root crops are adapted to a short growing season where corn cannot be 

successfully grown. 

Numerous experiments on the relative cost of producing com and roots 
show that corn is the cheaper source of feed wherever it can be successfully 




A Load or Mangels, Note Size and Character of Roots.^ 

grown. The root crops require more labor than corn in culture, harvesting 
and feeding. Less of the work can be done by labor-saving machinery. 
It is for this reason chiefly that they are the more expensive source of suc- 
culent food. Roots have the advantage in that they may be grown in 
small quantities for small numbers of livestock when it would not be 
practicable to have a silo. They also fit well into crop rotations and the 
tillage required by them leaves the soil in excellent condition for crops that 

follow. .1. J r 

Utilization and Feeding Value.— The root crops are best utilized for 

dairy cattle, especially during the winter period. The various roots differ 

considerably in their percentage of dry matter and feeding value. Sugar 

1 Courtesy of Webb Publishing Company. St. Paul, Minn. From "Field Crops." by Wilson and 
Warburton. 



beets rank first, as they have about 20 per cent of dry matter, three-quarters 
of which is sugar. Mangels, rutabagas and turnips frequently have no 
more than 10 to 12 per cent of dry matter, not more than one-half of which 
is sugar. 

Some of the flat-topped turnips that grow principally on the surface 
of the ground may be grown for pasturage and are readily eaten by sheep. 

The dry matter in roots is slightly lower in feeding value, pound for 
pound, than that in cereals. It is about equal in digestibility to the dry mat- 
ter in cereals. 

The jdeld of some of the more important root crops, as grown at a 
number of experiment stations, is as follows: mangels, average yield in 
tons per acre during five years in five localities, 31; rutabagas, same locali- 
ties and same number of years, 26.5 tons per acre; carrots, same localities 
and same number of years, 23.6 tons per acre; sugar beets, same localities, 
average five years in two of them and three years in other three, 20.6 
tons per acre; turnips, three localities average of five years, 21.3 tons 
per acre. 

The cultural methods of most of the crops, brief description of which 
will follow, are given in the chapter on ''Vegetables and Their Require- 
ments.'' 

Sugar-Beets. — While sugar-beets have a high feeding value they are 
not extensively grown as forage because the ^ yield is generally much less 
than can be secured from mangels and rutabagas. The by-products of the 
sugar factories in the form of beet pulp is quite extensively used as roughage 
for livestock. For cultural methods of beets see not only the chapter above 
referred to, but also the chapter on "Sugar Crops.'' 

Mangels. — Mangels differ quite materially from sugar-beets in form, 
color and size. Sugar-beets grow mostly in the ground, are tapering in 
form, and both the skin and flesh are white. Mangels average four times as 
large, are more cylindrical in form, and a considerable portion of the root 
grows above ground. The flesh of the mangel is usually reddish or yellow, 
while the skin may be white, red, golden, purplish or even black. Mangels 
are planted in rows twenty-eight to thirty-six inches apart. The rate of 
seeding ranges from six to eight pounds of seed per acre. The seed should 
be covered about one inch deep and as soon as the plants are well established 
they should be thinned by use of a hoe to little groups of plants at intervals 
of twelve inches. These should be thinned later by hand to one plant to 
each place. They should be cultivated to destroy weeds and maintain a 
good soil mulch. They are generally harvested by plowing a furrow on one 
side of the row, and are pulled by hand. On account of their large size they 
require much cutting before being fed. They may be stored in root cellars 
or in pits, and call for a low, uniform temperature and fair ventilation during 
the storage period. 

Turnips and Rutabagas. — There are a great variety of turnips. Ruta- 
bagas or Swedes are but a few of the large growing varieties that are espe- 



!': .. 



ix 



-hwrnm^. 



306 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



ROOTS AND TUBERS FOR FORAGE 



307 



The longer the winter period, the greater the need for succulent food 
for livestock during the stabling period. For this reason there is more 
need of such foods in the northern part of the United States and in Canada 
than farther south where the season for plant growth is longer. Many of 
the root crops are adapted to a short growing season where corn cannot be 

successfully grown. 

Numerous experiments on the relative cost of producing com and roots 
show that corn is the cheaper source of feed wherever it can be successfully 




A Load of Mangels, Note Size and Character of Roots.^ 

grown. The root crops require more labor than corn in culture, harvesting 
and feeding. Less of the work can be done by labor-saving machinery. 
It is for this reason chiefly that they are the more expensive source of suc- 
culent food. Roots have the advantage in that they may be grown in 
small quantities for small numbers of livestock when it would not be 
practicable to have a silo. They also fit well into crop rotations and the 
tillage required by them leaves the soil in excellent condition for crops that 

follow. M. 1 r 

Utilization and Feeding Value.— The root crops are best utilized for 
dairy cattle, especially during the winter period. The various roots differ 
considerably in their percentage of dry matter and feeding value. Sugar 

1 Courtesy of Webb Publishing Company, St. Paul, Minn. From "Field Crops." by Wilson and 
Warburton. 



beets rank first, as they have about 20 per cent of dry matter, three-quarters 
of which is sugar. Mangels, rutabagas and turnips frequently have no 
more than 10 to 12 per cent of dry matter, not more than one-half of which 
is sugar. 

Some of the flat-topped turnips that grow principally on the surface 
of the ground may be grown for pasturage and are readily eaten by sheep. 

The dry matter in roots is slightly lower in feeding value, pound for 
pound, than that in cereals. It is about equal in digestibility to the dry mat- 
ter in cereals. 

The yield of some of the more important root crops, as grown at a 
number of experiment stations, is as follows: mangels, average yield in 
tons per acre during five years in five localities, 31; rutabagas, same locali- 
ties and same number of years, 26.5 tons per acre; carrots, same localities 
and same number of years, 23.6 tons per acre; sugar beets, same localities, 
average five years in two of them and three years in other three, 20.6 
tons per acre; turnips, three localities average of five years, 21.3 tons 
per acre. 

The cultural methods of most of the crops, brief description of which 
will follow, are given in the chapter on "Vegetables and Their Require- 
ments." 

Sugar-Beets. — While sugar-beets have a high feeding value they are 
not extensively grown as forage because the ^ yield is generally much less 
than can be secured from mangels and rutabagas. The by-products of the 
sugar factories in the form of beet pulp is quite extensively used as roughage 
for livestock. For cultural methods of beets see not only the chapter above 
referred to, but also the chapter on "Sugar Crops.'' 

Mangels. — Mangels differ quite materially from sugar-beets in form, 
color and size. Sugar-beets grow mostly in the ground, are tapering in 
form, and both the skin and flesh are white. Mangels average four times as 
large, are more cylindrical in form, and a considerable portion of the root 
grows above ground. The flesh of the mangel is usually reddish or yellow, 
while the skin may be white, red, golden, purplish or even black. Mangels 
are planted in rows twenty-eight to thirty-six inches apart. The rate of 
seeding ranges from six to eight pounds of seed per acre. The seed should 
be covered about one inch deep and as soon as the plants are well established 
they should be thinned by use of a hoe to little groups of plants at intervals 
of twelve inches. These should be thinned later by hand to one plant to 
each place. They should be cultivated to destroy weeds and maintain a 
good soil mulch. They are generally harvested by plowing a furrow on one 
side of the row, and are pulled by hand. On account of their large size they 
require much cutting before being fed. They may be stored in root cellars 
or in pits, and call for a low, uniform temperature and fair ventilation during 
the storage period. 

Turnips and Rutabagas. — There are a great variety of turnips. Ruta- 
bagas or Swedes are but a few of the large growing varieties that are espe- 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



308 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



cially adapted for forage purposes because of the large yields they 
give. From two to three pounds of turnip seed and four to five pounds of 
rutabaga seed per acre are required. The seed may be either drilled or 
broadcasted, although in case of rutabages drilling is decidedly preferable. 
The preparation of the ground, planting and method of tillage is very simi- 
lar to that given mangels. As turnips make their growth in two or three 
months, they may be seeded late in the summer and yet matme before 
frost. Rutabagas require more time for maturity and should be sown in 

May or June. 

Turnips do not keep well and should be fed in the fall and early winter. 
Rutabagas, on the other hand, keep through the winter without difficulty. 
The methods of storage are similar to those for rutabages. 

Carrots. — This crop is less extensively used for forage purposes, chiefly 
because it yields less abundantly than rutabagas and mangels. It makes 



l/£A/77iJirO/? 




.•.'•'.'.'•.«.•*■; 



b^:cl?^[ 



*• •• /^n^^* . •« •. .• •• 



Cross Section of an Easily Constructed Pit for Roots. ^ 



an excellent quality of feed and calls for about the same soil conditions and 
cultural methods as the other root crops. The roots are much smaller and 
consequently there should be more of them in a given area. From four to 
six pounds of seed per acre are required. It should be drilled in rows, and 
the plants should ultimately stand two or three inches apart in the row. 

Parsnip. — This crop requires a rich, fertile soil, and demands the same 
cultural methods as the carrot. The roots of the parsnip may be dug late 
in the fall and stored or allowed to remain where grown and dug as required 
for use. Whether they are allowed to remain in the field will be determined 
largely by winter conditions and the possibilities of digging them in the 
winter time. Wlien used as human food, the freezing of the roots improves 

their flavor. 

Cabbage. — While this crop is grown chiefly for human consumption, 
in some sections of the country it is extensively grown for forage purposes. 
The usual method of storing cabbage is to dig a trench about eighteen inches 

1 From Farmers* Bulletin 465, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



ROOTS AND TUBERS FOR FORAGE 



309 



deep and three feet wide in which the cabbage is set with the heads close 
together and the roots bedded in soil. As cold weather approaches they are 
covered with straw and a few inches of earth. Slight freezing does not 
injure them, but they should not be subjected to alternate freezing and 
thawing. They should be well ventilated while in storage. Cabbage 
makes a good roughage for dairy cows and young stock. 

Kale. — Thousand-Head 3d kale is the variety best adapted for forage 
purposes because of its large, rank growth and heavy yield. It somewhat 
resembles cabbage and makes a succulent forage which can be fed from 
October until April in regions where the winter is mild. It is best fed fresh 
or allowed to wilt, but should not be cut more than four or five days before 
feeding; neither should it be fed while frozen. 

The methods of growing are similar to those for cabbage, the plants 
being grown in a seed-bed and transplanted in the field early in the spring. 

Cabbage and any of the root crops that tend to give a peculiar taste 
to milk should always be fed soon after the milking period and never for 
several hours just prior to it. This precaution in feeding is said to obviate 
the disagreeable flavor which is frequently imparted to the milk. 

Artichokes. — This crop, of which there are several varieties, belongs 
to the sunflower family, and both the tops and tubers are relished by 
livestock. They are cultivated much after the manner of potatoes, although 
planted somewhat farther apart. Yields of 200 to 500 bushels of tubers 
per acre have been reported. 

Artichokes are valuable as forage, chiefly for hogs, which may be 
turned into the fields and allowed to harvest the crop themselves. The 
tubers keep in the ground all winter and usually enough of them are left 
by the hogs to produce a new crop for next year. 

Cassava. — This plant is a native of the tropics and is adapted to Florida 
and the Gulf Coast portion of the states bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. 
It is a large growing, bushy plant attaining a height of four to ten feet and 
produces horizontal, fleshy roots or tubers three to five feet long and from 
one to two and one-half inches in diameter. While it will grow on quite 
a variety of soils, it can be economically produced only on loose, sandy soils 
which will enable the easy harvesting of the roots'. On fertile soils and with 
good cultural methods, yields of five to ten tons per acre of roots are 
reported. The roots are very high in starch and sugar content and make 
an excellent food for all kinds of livestock. The crop is quite extensively 
used in the manufacture of starch. 

Cassava is propagated by means of portions of the roots or stems which 
are stored in the dry during the winter. The roots or seed canes are cut 
into pieces of the desired length and planted in the spring after danger of 
frost is past. They are usually planted four feet apart each way and cov- 
ered with a few inches of moist earth. 

Chtifa. — This is a sedge-like plant with creeping root stocks which 
produce great numbers of edible tubers. These are small, sweet and 



■«<»'. nfl'i 












SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



:i I 
1^ I 



310 

ranging ^om 50 to 300 ^-^l^^^Z^^Mylr apart to permit 
by planting ^^^^ ^f ^^^^/^^^^^^ about the same as for potatoes, 
cultivation. The rate «* P^^ j^ ,^ ^^ its edible roots in the tropics, 

Taro.— Thi plant, commoui^ g o+„tp. «= seen in the large-leaved, 
is more famiUar to persons in the United S^^^^^^^^^ g ^^^ 

ornamental plant sometimes called ^J^lf f^^^^^^^^^ for its growth 

'^''■?:„'S-Tw/ StlLrrtmbles the fro and is similar in ita 
Youha.— IMS piara ™;»i' ^ j favorable conditions 

rrhrstK^^.^^1 »«Mt oti^^I? t.e ifa^e^tln, ol ti.is 
crop and the one preceding. 

REFERENCES 

Farmers' BuUetins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 
^^'"^ 309. '' Root Crops " Pages 7 to 15 „ 
465. ''Methods of Storing Root Crops. 



1^ 



CHAPTER 22 
The Potato 

By Alva Agee 
Director, Agricultural Extension^ Rutgers College, N. J. 

The potato is one of the world^s most important products for human 
food. The United States have been producing between 350,000,000 and 
400,000,000 bushels, and Canada between 70,000,000 and 85,000,000 bushels 
annually. Adaptability to this crop gives high value to land near good 
markets, and good transportation facihties have made the crop profitable 




The Potato Crop.* 

in sections of the country that must ship their products long distances. 
The Southern states, growing their crop in the cool months of the spring, 
supply Northern markets during the summer, and in the fall scores of 
millions of bushels are sent southward from the Northern states. The crop 
is important not only for the reason that it produces a large amount of 
human food per acre, but on account of the reward it offers to the grower's 
skill. The limit to production per acre is unknown, but it is a conservative 
statement that the present average yield in this country could be doubled. 

* From Farmers' Bulletin 365, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

(311) 






f .' •• I 
11. 

i 






■'/*'„• 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



310 

frequently used as human food or Past- f^^^^^^^^^ ^^J^Jft Is^tpagat'd 

by plan ing th^;f;;4^^/;fJtLg is about the same as for potatoes, 
cultivation. The rate «* P^^ ^ ^^^ -^^ .^ible roots in the tropics, 

Tare— Thi plant, commouij g a+„tps is seen in the arge-leaved, 
is more familiar to persons m the Unitf St^^^^^^^ seen m t g^^^^ ^^^ 

ornamental plant sometimes called f ^Pf^f^^J^^ for its growth 

may be used as a forage for livestock. . j^ 

\ouHa-Thi. plant '^'y.^^^'^^^jTr rvo^bHlitions 

crop and the one preceding. 

REFERENCES 

Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: 
^^''^'' 309. '' Root Crops" Pages 7 to 15 „ 
465. ''Methods of Storing Root Crops. 



M 



CHAPTER 22 



The Potato 



By Alva Agee 
Directory Agricultural Extension j Rutgers College, N, J. 

The potato is one of the world^s most important products for human 
food. The United States have been producing bi^twecn 350,000,000 and 
400,000,000 bushels, and Canada between 70,000,000 and 85,000,000 bushels 
annually. Adaptabihty to this crop gives high value to land near good 
markets, and good transportation facihties have made the crop profitable 




The Potato Crop.^ 

in sections of the country that must ship their products long distances. 
The Southern states, growing their crop in the cool months of the spring, 
supply Northern markets during the summer, and in the fall scores of 
millions of bushels are sent southward from the Northern states. The crop 
is important not only for the reason that it produces a large amount of 
human food per acre, but on account of the reward it offers to the grower's 
skill. The limit to production per acre is unknown, but it is a conservative 
statement that the present average yield in this country could be doubled. 

» From Farmers' Bulletin 365, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

(311) 



312 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



The Soil.— The potato is a tuber developing below the surface of the 
ground and displacing soil particles as it grows. Therefore, a mellow soil is 
essential. The best potato lands are naturally loose, but somewhat heavy 
soils have been brought into profitable production by the free use of organic 
matter from sods and cover crops. A good potato soil is retentive of 
moisture, and rotted organic matter in it serves as the best insurance 
against drought. Some light, sandy soils of the seaboard states are put 
into productive condition by means of cover crops and manure which give 
them body and excellent physical condition. Soils naturally too compact 
for the potato may be made loose, friable and retentive of moisture by the 

same means. 

Crop Rotation.— The history of potato production in other countries 
as well as our own teaches clearly that this crop should be grown in rota- 
tion with others and that when the crop rotation is shorter than four years 
there is great danger of ultimate failure. The practice of growing potatoes 
year after year on the same land, using a winter cover crop, or of using a 
rotation of two years only, may prevail for a number of years in a region 
peculiarly adapted to the crop, but it is only a matter of time until yields 
will be badly cut by disease and lack of vegetable matter in the soil. One 
excellent crop rotation is clover, corn, potatoes and grain, followed by 
clover. The manure is put on the field for corn, and both it and the sod 
are thoroughly rotted for the potato the following year. Another rotation 
of some reputation is clover, potatoes and wheat. The clover sod rots 
more readily than a grass sod and feeds the potato and at the same time 
keeps the soil mellow. A fresh-turned grass sod does not favor this crop. 
When it is necessary to fellow grass with potatoes the sod should be broken 
in the fall, and if there is danger of undue leaching, a winter cover crop of 
rye or wheat should be grown. 

Soil Preparation.— A deep soil holds moisture better than a shallow 
one, and our more productive potato lands have been made and are kept 
deep by proper plowing. A shallow soil should be deepened gradually, 
and the best part of the sod never should be thrown into the bottom of the 
furrow. A breaking-plow having a short, straight mold-board is to be 
preferred for all land that is at all deficient in humus, as it is essential that 
some organic matter be in the surfac? soil. The time of plowing is a local 
question. Wherever leaching is not to be feared and early planting is 
practiced, fall plowing is advised. When land is broken in the fall or very 
early in the spring, it is less subject to summer drought than late-plowed 
ground. We should bear in mind all the time that a supply of moisture is a 
big consideration and in the preparation of the ground that should be 
kept chiefly in view. The use of a heavily weighted, sharp, disk harrow on 
sod land before it is broken does much to hasten decay after the plowing 
and to insure prime physical condition. It is easy to do harm by tramping 
plowed land with horses in the spring, and disking before plowing reduces 
the amount of required preparation after the plowing. 



THE POTATO 



313 



The Seed. — The potato thrives in a relatively cold climate and loses 
vigor when grown during midsummer in warm latitudes. The best seed is 
obtained from our northernmost states, grown in midsummer, or from more 
southern states when grown in the cool months of autumn. As a rule, the 
northern seed is preferred, partly because it is in abundant supply. 

Successful growers prefer potatoes of marketable size for planting. 
The tubers are enlarged underground stems, and their vitality may be 
measured by that of the vines which produce them. A small potato, known 
as a second, may have been set late by a vine of strong vitality which 
produced also a big crop of merchantable tubers. In that case the small 
potato makes fairly good seed, and would be just as desirable as a section 
of a large potato if it did not put out any more sprouts than the cut portion 
of a large tuber. On the other hand, many seconds are small because the 
vines producing them lacked in vitaUty. Experience has taught that 
growers depending upon seconds soon have a large percentage of plants 
that lack full productive power. Potato yields in the warmer latitudes of 
the Northern states ars kept low by the use of home-grown seed which 
necessarily has had vitahty impaired. 

The amount of seed per acre depends somewhat upon variety, but 
relatively heavy seeding is profitable. The grower wants sufficient foliage 
to cover and shade the soil thoroughly, and ordinarily, that requires the 
use of thirteen or fourteen bushels of seed per acre. The seed piece should 
be a block of potato sufficiently large to average two eyes to the piece. The 
size of the seed piece is important in insuring a good stand, and the cutting 
should be related more to size of the piece than to number of eyes. In some 
instances there will be only one bud which may produce two or three good 
stalks, and in other cases a seed piece of right size may have three eyes. 
Close cutting and any skimping of the amount of seed result in loss under 
ordinary conditions, however successful they may be in a very fine and 
fertile soil having the right amount of moisture immediately after planting. 

Fertilization. — Large areas of sandy loams are planted with potatoes 
because they have right physical condition and partly because they mature 
a crop early in the season. Sandy soils are badly deficient in potash, and it 
has come about that most growers think of the potato as a plant requiring 
unusually heavy applications of potash. Manufacturers of fertilizers have 
fostered this idea, but the results of careful experiments have shown within 
recent years that phosphoric acid should be the controlling element in the 
potato fertiHzer, just as it is in the fertilizer for corn and most other staple 
crops. In normal soils of great natural strength no commercial fertilizer 
may be used, but when need first develops, phosphoric acid is the require- 
ment. This occurs even where clover and stable manure are freely used. 
Commercial growers, as a rule, make no use of stable manure direct to 
potatoes, as it furnishes ideal conditions for the development of disease, 
and especially of the scab. In the case of naturally fertile land the manure 
applied for corn and the legumes in the rotation may furnish the most of 



^''£iiJ£iilil&:Mj£iS£J 



P^iife^^iS' 




The Condition op Seed Potatoes Depends on Character of Storage. 

1— Stored in cool place. 2— Stored in warm place, tubera 

shrunken and vitality impaired. 



THE POTATO 



315 



the needed nitrogen, and the decay of the vegetable matter may free all of 
the potash required, but we now have relatively small areas in which 
phosphorus does not add materially to crop yields. As potato production 
continues, a need of nitrogen develops, and as has been said, potash is a 
requirement for most sandy soils. A lack of fertility may be met by use of 
a fertilizer containing 3 per cent of nitrogen, 10 per cent of phosphoric acid 
and 5 or 6 per cent potash excepting, naturally, areas where the percentage 
of nitrogen must be increased. The amount of fertilizer used per acre 
varies greatly. Some growers in the seaboard states apply one ton of a 
high-grade complete fertilizer per acre, and many growers on naturally 




A Potato Planter. ^ 

fertile soil in the Central states use none at all. It is a common practice 
to apply all of the fertilizer in the row, and when the amount is in excess 
of 1000 pounds per acre, there is danger of injury to the plants as they start 

growth 

Lime is not applied to land immediately before potatoes are planted, 
as it favors the development of potato scab. Acid soils are more free from 
this disease than alkaline ones, but clover demands lime and is needed in a 
rotation with potatoes. The best practice is to use finely pulverized 
limestone rather than burned lime and to make the application immediately 
after the potato crop in the rotation. 

The Planting. — As the potato thrives best in cold latitudes the planting 
should be made as early as possible in the spring in the Southern states and 

1 From Farmers* Bulletin 365, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



i^l 



(314) 










The Condition op Seed Potatoes Depends on Character of Storage. 

1— Stored in cool place. 2— Stored in warm place, tubers 

shrunken and vitality impaired. 



THE POTATO 



315 



the needed nitrogen, and the decay of the vegetable matter may free all of 
the potash required, but we now have relatively small areas in which 
phosphorus does not add materially to crop yields. As potato production 
continues, a need of nitrogen develops, and as has been said, potash is a 
requirement for most sandy soils. A lack of fertility may be met by use of 
a fertilizer containing 3 per cent of nitrogen, 10 per cent of phosphoric acid 
and 5 or 6 per cent potash excepting, naturally, areas where the percentage 
of nitrogen must be increased. The amount of fertilizer used per acre 
varies greatly. Some growers in the seaboard states apply one ton of a 
high-grade complete fertilizer per acre, and many growers on naturally 




A Potato Planter.^ 

fertile soil in the Central states use none at all. It is a common practice 
to apply all of the fertilizer in the row, and when the amount is in excess 
of 1000 pounds per acre, there is danger of injury to the plants as they start 
growth 

Lime is not applied to land immediately before potatoes are planted, 
as it favors the development of potato scab. Acid soils are more free from 
this disease than alkaline ones, but clover demands lime and is needed in a 
rotation with potatoes. The best practice is to use finely pulverized 
limestone rather than burned lime and to make the appHcation immediately 
after the potato crop in the rotation. 

The Planting. — As the potato thrives best in cold latitudes the planting 
should be made as early as possible in the spring in the Southern states and 

1 From Farmers' Bulletin 365, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



(314) 



mi 



t'',-' 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



mai&^smf^.: 



316 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



the southern tier of the Northern states. The only exception is in the case 
of midsummer planting with the aim of securing a crop in the fall. Farther 
north the planting may be later in the spring, although the tendency in 
recent years has been away from June planting. 

The depth of planting depends upon the character of the soil and the 
variety. Where an early crop is wanted, the planting is shallow, but for a 
main crop in loose soils the depth should be at least three inches below the 

dead level of the surface. 

A planter does more satisfactory work than can be done by hand, 
dropping the seed in a more direct line. The width between rows may vary 
from thirty to thirty-five inches and the distance between the seed pieces 
in the roW should be sufficient to require about fourteen bushels of seed per 
acre. This is a surer rule than any fixed number of inches, as much depends 

upon the cutting. 

Cultivation.— A soil that is sufficiently retentive of moisture for the 
potato usually inclines to become more compact than is desired. The 
preparation of the soil and the planting compacts some of the ground 
beneath the surface. A few days after the planting is finished it is good 
practice to give a very deep and close cultivation, the shovels being guided 
by the furrows made in covering. Later the weeder or harrow should be 
used to level the ground and kill all weeds so that the potato plants will 
come up in a fresh, clean soil. Close and deep tillage should be given when 
all the plants are above ground, and later the cultivation should be more 
shallow so that the roots of the plants will not be unduly disturbed. Level 
culture enables the grower to keep the maximum amount of moisture in 
the soil, but dependence upon mechanical diggers has led practical growers 
to ridge the rows and, when the growing is on a large scale, this is the only 
practical method of controlling grass and weeds. Cultivation should 
continue until the vines fill the middles, and the last cultivation should be 
given by a light one-horse cultivator that will slip under fallen vines. The 
early cultivation should keep the soil loose and later cultivation should 
keep the surface well mulched with loose earth and should prevent any 

growth of weeds. 

Diseases. — The number of virulent potato diseases is increasing in 
this country, and the grower should study the latest bulletins from his state 
experiment station. He will be informed regarding the formalin treatment 
for the seed before planting, that gives control of some diseases. All 
potato seed should be given this treatment, which consists of soaking the 
seed for two hours in a solution of formaldehyde made by diluting one pint 
of 40 per cent formaldehyde in 30 gallons of water. This should be done 
before the seed is cut and under no circumstances should scabby seed be 
planted without this treatment. 

Close examination of the seed pieces when cutting is an aid. Mechani- 
cal cutters are not advised and partly for this reason. All tubers showing 
discoloration of any sort should be rejected. 



THE POTATO 



317 



Spraying with Bordeaux mixture increases the yield of potatoes 
through stimulation, and is profitable, except in case of very highly fer- 
tilized soil, even when no blight prevails. The early blight which is 
prevalent in the southern tier of our Northern states is not well controlled 
by spraying, but in cooler latitudes where the late blight prevails spraying 
should never be omitted. Directions for making the Bordeaux mixture and 
applying it are furnished by the experiment stations. The only point to be 
emphasized here is that the spraying should be thoroughly done, insuring a 
perfect coating of the plants, and that is possible only by use of strong pres- 
sure and two nozzles to the row when the plants have reached some size. 

Insect Pests. — For white grubs and wire-worms, which may render a 
potato crop unmarketable, there is no remedy. There is no soil treatment 
that will kill these pests. The grower should know the life history of these 
insects and plan his rotation as far as possible for their control. Examina- 
tion will show whether a soil is infested or not at planting time, and pota- 
toes should not be planted where serious injury is sure to come. 

The potato beetle is easily controlled by use of arsenical poisons and 
these should be on the plants when the larvae of the potato beetle are hatch- 
ing. Two pounds of Paris green or four pounds of arsenate of lead in fifty 
gallons of Bordeaux will prevent injury by this insect. 

The flea-beetle does great injury not only by impairing the vitality of 
the plant, but by opening the way for disease attacks. Control is very 
difficult. The Bordeaux mixture repels for twenty-four to forty-eight 
hours and to that extent is a help. 

Harvesting the Crop. — ^An early crop of potatoes when dug for market 
in hot weather must have careful handling. All cut and bruised tubers 
should be discarded. If there is reason for not marketing promptly, the 
crop is safer in the ground than out of it, although excessive wet weather 
may cause rot. Later varieties, dug usually in the fall when nights are 
cool, will bear placing in large bulk. 

The best diggers elevate the soil of the row with the tubers and, having 
sifted the soil back, drop the tubers on top of the fresh surface. Such 
diggers are relatively expensive and small growers use low-priced diggers 
that do fairly good work. When good seed is planted in highly fertilized soil 
the percentage of seconds may be so small that little grading is required, 
but it never pays to send to market any tubers below merchantable grade. 

REFERENCES 

"The Potato." Eraser. 

"Potatoes for Profit." Van Ornam. 

"The Potato." Grubb and Gilford. 

"Potatoes: How to Grow and Show Them." Pink. 

South Dakota Expt. Station Bulletin 155. "Selection of Seed Potatoes." 

Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Ap-iculture: 

365. "Farm Management m Northern Potato Sections." 
386. "Potato Culture on Irrigated Farms of the West." 
407. "The Potato as a Truck Crop." 
533. "Good Seed Potatoes and How to Produce Them." 



! 



i! 



1 



SUGAR CROPS 



319 



The countries leading in the production of both beet and cane sugar in 
1914 are as follows: 



CHAPTER 23 

SUGAR CROPS (CANE, BEET AND MAPLE SUGAR. AND SORGHUM) 

By W. H. Darst 

Asdstant Professor of Agronomy, The Pennsylvania State College 

The world's sugar supply is manufactured from two plan^, namely, 
the sugar-beet {Beta vulgaris) and the sugar-cane {Saccharum offianarum). 
The amount of sugar secured from the maple tree is msignificant. 

SUGAR-BEETS 

The development of the sugar-beet industry dates back to March 18, 
1811 when the French Emperor dictated a note to his Minister of the 
Interior, instructing him to see that 90,000 acres of beets were planted 
He then appropriated 1,000,000 francs with which to establish schools of 
instruction, and to be given in bonuses to those who erected factories^ 
Even though sugar-beet was an unknown crop, the farmers were compelled 
to glow them. At the end of two years France was producing 7,700 000 
nonnds of sugar By 1836 the production of sugar in France amounted to 
S 000 tonr At thi^ time Germany observed that sugar-beets m France 
had revolutionized French agriculture. By growing beets in the rotation 
the yield of all the cereals was increased to an even greater extent than where 
tS were grown, as in England. Up to this time Germany had not been 
able to induce her farmers to grow beets of thei^r own accord Germany 
then adopted the French plan of governmental aid to establish the industry. 
Other European countries soon followed the same plan, with the result that 
today one-half of the worid's supply of sugar is derived from European 

'"^""Theloilowing table gives the total worid's production of beet and cane 
sugar compared: 



World's Production. 



Cane sugar 

Beet sugar 

Total production 

(318) 



Short Tons. 



1911-12. 



1912-13. 



10,253,000 
7,072,000 

17,325,000 



10,699,000 
8,365,000 

19,064,000 



1913-14. 



11,118,000 
9,765,000 

20,883,000 



Beet Sugar. 



Country. 



Germany 

Russia 

Austria-Hungary 

France 

United States. . . 
Italy 



Short Tons. 



2,886,000 

2,031,000 

1,858,000 

861,000 

733,000 

337,000 



Cane Sugar. 



Country. 



Cuba 

British India 

Java 

Hawaii 

Porto Rico 

United States (Louisiana and 
Texas) 



Short Tons. 



2,909,000 

2,534,000 

1,591,000 

612,000 

364,000 

300,000 



The development of the sugar-beet industry in the United States is cf 
comparatively recent date. It was not until 1906 that the production of 



xv. 

BU. 

PER 

ACRE 



Showing How Germany Has Increased the Yield of Wheat.Rye, Barley and Oats av. 

PER 
ACRE 



by Planting Fields to Sugar Beets and Other Hoed Crop8;One Year in Four. 



PER CENT 

INCREASE 

1879-1909 




1879 I8S0 1811 1882 1883 1184 1885 I88S 1887 1888 1883 USO 1831 1892 KS3 1834 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 I9C2 1903 1904 1905 I90( 1917 (901 i9BS 

COMBINED 1909 HARVEST OF /united states « 88.944.000 acres. 1.947.065.000 bushels 

WHEAT. RYE BARLEY AND OATS \cermany . 34^78536 acres, u73.00o.ooo bushels. 

Agricultural Progress in the United States and Germany. 

sugar from beets exceeded that from sugar-cane. At present the produc- 
tion of beet sugar has more than doubled that of cane sugar in the United 
States. (See above table,) 






320 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



SUGAR CROPS 



321 



The leading states in the production of beet sugar, in the order of their • 
production, are: Colorado, California, Michigan, Utah, Idaho and Ohio. 

In the past and even at present, many farmers think beet culture 
injures the soil. This, with the high cost of extracting the sugar from the 
beet has made progress in beet culture in this country very slow. 

Results obtained in Germany and other European countries, when 
beets are introduced into the rotation, suggest' that the farmers of the 
United States, having the proper conditions for production, would do well 
to introduce them into their rotations. European farmers do not find the 
beet crop in itself highly profitable, but the extra cultivation and fertiliza- 
tion necessary to grow them, has greatly increased the yields of all other 

crops, in the rotation, especially the cereals. , . ,. , 

For the most part the profit is made indirectly 
from the beet crop. The preceding chart from the 
loose-leaf service of the United States Sugar Manu- 
facturers' Association compares the average yields 
of cereals in Germany, a beet-raising country, with 
those of the same crops in the United States, where 
very few beets or roots are grown. 

Adaptation. — The soil and climatic conditions 
are very important factors in growing beets with 
high sugar content. They are not as widely 
adapted as other farm crops commonly grown in 
this country. Plenty of moisture and sunshine, 
particularly during early growth, are essential to 
the production of beets with high sugar content. 
Ideal conditions are found most commonly in the 
irrigated districts of the Rocky Mountains and the 
Pacific Coast, although many Northern states 

have favorable conditions for sugar-beet growing. 

Sugar-beets require deep, well-drained soils. They do best on 

rich loam or sandy loam and are not adapted to clays, muck or peaty 

soils. " 

Preparation of Land.— The root of the sugar-beet grows entirely or 
mostly underground, the smaller roots often reaching a depth of four to 
six feet. For this reason, a deep soil and a deeply prepared seed-bed are 
necessary. Beet ground should be plowed eight to twelve inches deep, and 
where possible a sul)soiler may be used with good results. Fall plowing is 
advised where conditions will permit. It is very important that the seed- 
bed be well prepared. The land should be worked often enough to secure 
a fine, firm, moist seed-bed. It is necessary to obtain a soil free from weeds 
or weed-seeds. Beets grow slowly at first, and if weeds are allowed to start, 
considerable hand labor will be required to eradicate them. Beets should 
never be grown in continuous culture. The rotation will depend on the 

» Courtesy of California Agricultural College. 




Sugar-Beet.1 



crops common to the region where grown. A three, four or five-year rota- 
tion, including a legume crop, should be used when growing beets. 

Fertilization. — Barnyard manure and high-grade fertilizer are used with 
profit on beets. The manure should be well rotted when applied, so as to 
lessen the chances of weed-seed. High-grade fertilizers, select^ed to meet 
the needs of the soil, should be used. 

In European countries beets are fertilized very heavily. This produces 
a large tonnage of beets and the residual effect of the fertilizer is taken up 
by the crops that follow. (See chapter on ''Fertilizers.'') 

Seeding and Cultivation. — The beet plant produces seed in balls or 
capsules containing one to five seeds. It. is impossible, therefore, to regu- 
late the rate of seeding so as to get a satisfactory distribution of plants in 
the row. The seed is drilled rather thickly, and when the plants are large 
enough, they are thinned to the required distance in the row. The seed 
is ordinarily sown with a beet drill, which sows several rows at a time. The 
distance between rows varies from twenty to twenty-eight inches. To 
insure a full stand of plants, about twenty pounds of seed are sown to the 
acre. In irrigated sections, beets are often sown in double rows one foot 
apart and twenty-four to twenty-eight inches between each pair of rows. 
Beet-seed should be sown early in May or after the ground warms up. 
Cultivation should begin as soon as the rows can be followed and continued 
at intervals of six to ten days, until the tops nearly meet between the rows. 
A special beet cultivator is used that will cultivate several rows at a time. 

The thinning of the plants should be done about the time the fifth 
leaf is formed. Thinning is done by first blocking or bunching with a hoe. 
This consists of cutting out the plants in the row, leaving small bunches 
eight to ten inches apart. After blocking, further thinning is necessary, 
leaving but one plant in each bunch. The blocking and thinning, hoeing, 
pulling and topping of the beets are done by hand labor. On the larger beet 
farms this work is generally done by foreigners under contract. 

Harvesting. — Beets should be harvested before danger of frost in the 
fall; if not worked up immediately, the roots should be protected from 
freezing. Harvesting consists of lifting, pulling, topping, piling and hauling 
away the roots. Lifting is done by a special implement that loosens the 
roots in the soil. The pulling, topping and piling are done by hand. In 
topping, the leaves are sometimes simply twisted off. A much better 
method of topping, from the standpoint of the manufacturer, is to remove 
the tops with a sharp knife at the lowest leaf scar on the root. The part 
of the beet that grows above ground is not desirable. The sugar content 
of this part is low, and there is a high percentage of minerals that may 
crystallize the sugar at the wrong time in the process of manufactiu'e. 

Seed Production. — The sugar-beet is a biennial, producing seed the 
second year. Almost all of the seed used in this country is imported. When 
grown for seed, only beets with high sugar content should be saved. This 
selection is based on the percentage of sugar as determined in a small sample 



2] 



320 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



SUGAR CROPS 



321 



The leading states in the production of beet sugar, in the order of their 

production, are: Colorado, California, Michigan, Utah, Idaho and Ohio. 

In the past and even at present, many farmers think beet culture 

injures the soil. This, with the high cost of extracting the sugar from the 

beet, has made progress in beet culture in this country very slow.^ 

Results obtained in Germany and other European countries, when 
beets are introduced into the rotation, suggest* that the farmers of the 
United States, having the proper conditions for production, would do well 
to introduce them into their rotations. European farmers do not find the 
beet crop in itself highly profitable, but the extra cultivation and fertiliza- 
tion necessary to grow them, has greatly increased the yields of all other 
crops, in the rotation, especially the cereals. 

For the most part the profit is made indirectly 
from the beet crop. The preceding chart from the 
loose-leaf service of the United States Sugar Manu- 
facturers' Association compares the average yields 
of cereals in Germany, a beet-raising country, with 
those of the same crops in the United States, where 
very few beets or roots are grown. 

^ Adaptation.— The soil and climatic conditions 
are very important factors in growing beets with 
high sugar content. They are not as widely 
adapted as other farm crops commonly grown in 
this country. Plenty of moisture and sunshine, 
l)articularly during early growth, are essential to 
the production of beets with high sugar content. 
Ideal conditions are found most commonly in the 
irrigatcKl districts of the Rocky Mountains and the 
Pacific Coast, although many Northern states 
have favorable conditions for sugar-beet growing. 

Sugar-beets require deep, well-drained soils. They do best on 
rich loam or sandy loam and are not adapted to clays, muck or peaty 

soils. 

Preparation of Land.— The root of the sugar-beet grows entirely or 
mostly underground, the smaller roots often reaching a depth of four to 
six feet. For this reason, a deep soil and a deeply prepared seed-bed are 
necessary. Beet ground should be plowed eight to twelve inches deep, and 
where possible a su])soiler may l^e used with good results. Fall plowing is 
advised where conditions will permit. It is very im]K)rtant that the seed- 
bed be well prepared. The land should ])e worked often enough to secure 
a fine, firm, moist seed-bed. It is necessary to obtain a soil free from weeds 
or weed-seeds. Beets grow slowly at first, and if weeds are allowed to start, 
considerable hand labor will be required to eradicate them. Beets should 
never be grown in continuous culture. The rotation will depend on the 

1 Courtesy of California Agricultural College. 




Sugar-Beet.1 



crops common to the region where grown. A three, four or five-year rota- 
tion, including a legume crop, should be used when growing beets. 

Fertilization. — Barnyard manure and high-grade fertilizer are used with 
profit on beets. The manure should be well rotted when applied, so as to 
lessen the chances of weed-seed. High-grade fertilizers, selected to meet 
the needs of the soil, should be used. 

In European countries beets are fertilized very heavily. This produces 
a large tonnage of beets and the residual effect of the fertilizer is taken up 
by the crops that follow. (See chapter on ''Fertilizers.'') 

Seeding and Cultivation. — The beet plant produces seed in balls or 
capsules containing one to five seeds. It is impossible, therefore, to regu- 
late the rate of seeding so as to get a satisfactory distribution of plants in 
the row. The seed is drilled rather thickly, and when the plants are large 
enough, they are thinned to the required distance in the row. The seed 
is ordinarily sown with a beet drill, which sows several rows at a time. The 
distance between rows varies from twenty to twenty-eight inches. To 
insure a full stand of plants, about twenty pounds of seed are sown to the 
acre. In irrigated sections, beets are often sown in double rows one foot 
apart and twenty-four to twenty-eight inches between each pair of rows. 
Beet-seed should be sown early in May or after the ground warms up. 
Cultivation should begin as soon as the rows can be followed and continued 
at intervals of six to ten days, until the tops nearly meet between the rows. 
A special beet cultivator is used that will cultivate several rows at a time. 

The thinning of the plants should be done about the time the fifth 
leaf is formed. Thinning is done by first blocking or bunching with a hoe. 
This consists of cutting out the plants in the row, leaving small bunches 
eight to ten inches apart. After blocking, further thinning is necessary, 
leaving but one plant in each bunch. The blocking and thinning, hoeing, 
pulling and topping of the beets are done by hand labor. On the larger beet 
farms this work is generally done by foreigners under contract. 

Harvesting. — Beets should be harvested before danger of frost in the 
fall; if not worked up immediately, the roots should be protected from 
freezing. Harvesting consists of lifting, pulling, topping, piling and hauling 
away the roots. Lifting is done by a special implement that loosens the 
roots in the soil. The pulling, topping and piling are done by hand. In 
topping, the leaves are sometimes simply twisted oil. A much better 
method of topping, from the standpoint of the manufacturer, is to remove 
the tops with a sharp knife at the lowest leaf scar on the root. The part 
of the beet that grows above ground is not desirable. The sugar content 
of this part is low, and there is a high percentage of minerals that may 
crystallize the sugar at the wrong time in the process of manufacture. 

Seed Production. — The sugar-beet is a biennial, producing seed the 
second year. Almost all of the seed used in this country is imported. When 
grown for seed, only beets with high sugar content should be saved. This 
selection is based on the percentage of sugar as determined in a small sample 



21 






INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 












322 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



SUGAR CROPS 



323 



taken out of the side of the root with a trier. The hole made by the trier 
is filled with charcoal or clay to prevent rotting. The selected beets are 
stored over winter in sand, in a dry cellar or pit. The next spring these 
roots are planted in rows to produce seed. From three to five plants will 
produce a pound of seed. , 

Manufacture of Beet Sugar.— At the factory the beets are washed in 
sluiceways, then sHced into long strips called '^cosettes'' The juice is 




A Good Stand and Vigorous Growth of Sugar-Beets.* 

removed by applying hot water to the sliced l)ects, leaving a product known 
as beet pulp. This juice is purified by adding small quantities of lime. The 
lime combines with the foreign matter and is filtered out. The purified 
juice is then placed in vacuum pans and boiled until the sugar crystallizes. 
The sugar is removed by placing the product in a large centrifugal machine, 
Uned with fine sieves. The whirling motion drives off the molasses through 
the sieves, and the sugar is retained. The sugar is then dried and is ready 

1 U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, P. I. Bulletin 238. 



for market. The molasses, to which is added a little fresh juice, is again 
boiled in vacuum pans until the remaining sugar crystallizes. The sugar 
is separated out as before, the product being known as second sugar. The 
molasses, after the second boihng, is sold as stock feed. 

By-Products of Beet Farming.— Beet tops left on the field after harvest- 
ing may be cured as forage to be fed to Uvestock. If not fed, they should 
be spread evenly over the ground and plowed under as a fertilizer. 

Beet pulp, a by-product of the sugar factory, is an excellent substitute 
for corn silage. Wet beet pulp contains about 90 per cent of water and 10 
per cent of solids, which compares favorably with mangels as a feed. Many 
factories dry the pulp. Dried pulp makes a better feed, in that it remains 
in better condition for a longer time and is worth about eight times as much 
as the wet pulp. 

Beet molasses, another by-product, is not palatable when fed alone; 
but when mixed with dried pulp, chopped hay or straw, has considerable 
feeding value. 

CANE SUGAR 
Sugar-cane has been cultivated for many centuries in the tropical and 
semi-tropical portions of the world. According to the best authorities, 
sugar-cane appears to have originated in India. From there it was taken 
to China and pther parts of the Old World, where it has been extensively 
cultivated from time immemorial. After the discovery of the New World 
sugar-cane was introduced first in San Domingo, then into Mexico, Marti- 
nique, Guadaloupe, Cuba, the Guianas and the warmer states of South 
America. 

The State of Louisiana produces almost all of the cane sugar produced 
in the United States. Texas and Florida produce some. Sugar-cane was 
first introduced into Louisiana in 1751, but sugar was not manufactured 
from it until about 1792. 

Description and Mode of Reproduction. — Sugar-cane is a perennial 
grass, growing from eight to fifteen feet tall. The stalks are thick and 
heavy, being filled with a sweet, juicy pith. The flowers are borne in 
silky-like panicles. Seed is never formed in this country, and is not 
abundantly produced in Egypt or India. Cane in its wild and native 
state reproduces vegetatively more often than by seeds. 

The stalk of cane is divided into joints or nodes and internodes. At 
each joint is a bud which under proper conditions develops into a stalk. 
Around each bud, on the stalk, are semi-transparent dots which develop 
into roots that feed the bud when planted. 

Soils. — Sugar-cane requires a large quantity of water during the grow- 
ing season; consequently, it grows best on soils well supplied with humus 
and having a high water-holding capacity. Well-drained alluvial bottoms 
and muck soils are very good soils for sugar-cane. The more fertile clay 
uplands produce cane higher in sugar, but do not supply the required amount 
of water for large yields. 



■,-:i>"*>; 










322 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



taken out of the side of the root with a trier. The hole made by the trier 
is filled with charcoal or clay to prevent rotting. The selected beets are 
stored over winter in sand, in a dry cellar or pit. The next spring these 
roots are planted in rows to produce seed. From three to five plants will 

produce a pound of seed. . 

Manufacture of Beet Sugar.— At the factory the beets are washed m 
sluiceways, then sUced into long strips called "cosettes^' The juice is 




A Good Stand and Vigorous Growth of Sugar-Beets.* 

removed by applying hot water to the sliced bec.^ts, leaving a product known 
as beet pulp. This juice is purified by adding small quantities of Hme. The 
lime combines with the foreign matter and is filtered out. The purified 
juice is then placed in vacuum pans and boiled until the sugar crystalhzes. 
The sugar is removed by placing the product in a large centrifugal machme, 
lined with fine sieves. The whirling motion drives off the molasses through 
the sieves, and the sugar is retained. The sugar is then dried and is ready 

1 U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, P. I. Bulletin 238. 



SUGAR CROPS 



323 



for market. The molasses, to which is added a little fresh juice, is again 
boiled in vacuum pans until the remaining sugar crystallizes. The sugar 
is separated out as before, the product being known as second sugar. The 
molasses, after the second boihng, is sold as stock feed. 

By-Products of Beet Farming.— Beet tops left on the field after harvest- 
ing may be cured as forage to be fed to Hvestock. If not fed, they should 
be spread evenly over the ground and plowed under as a fertilizer. 

Beet pulp, a by-product of the sugar factory, is an excellent substitute 
for corn silage. Wet beet pulp contains about 90 per cent of water and 10 
per cent of solids, which compares favorably with mangels as a feed. Many 
factories dry the pulp. Dried pulp makes a better feed, in that it remains 
in better condition for a longer time and is worth about eight times as much 
as the wet pulp. 

Beet molasses, another by-product, is not palatable when fed alone; 
but when mixed with dried pulp, chopped hay or straw, has considerable 
feeding value. 

CANE SUGAR 
Sugar-cane has been cultivated for many centuries in the tropical and 
semi-tropical portions of the world. According to the best authorities, 
sugar-cane appears to have originated in India. From there it was taken 
to China and pther parts of the Old World, where it has been extensively 
cultivated from time immemorial. After the discovery of the New World 
sugar-cane was introduced first in San Domingo, then into Mexico, Marti- 
nique, Guadaloupe, Cuba, the Guianas and the warmer states of South 
America. 

The State of Louisiana produces almost all of the cane sugar produced 
in the Unit(^d States. Texas and Florida produce some. Sugar-cane was 
first introduced into Louisiana in 1751, but sugar was not manufactured 
from it until about 1792. 

Description and Mode of Reproduction. — Sugar-cane is a perennial 
grass, growing from eight to fifteen feet tall. The stalks are thick and 
heavy, being filled ^\^th a sweet, juicy pith. The flowers are borne in 
silky-like panicles. Seed is never formed in this country, and is not 
abundantly produced in Eg^'^pt or India. Cane in its wild and native 
state reproduces vegetatively more often than by seeds. 

The stalk of cane is divided into joints or nodes and internodes. At 
each joint is a bud which under proper conditions develops into a stalk. 
Around each bud, on the stalk, are semi-transparent dots which develop 
into roots that feed the bud when planted. 

Soils. — Sugar-cane requires a large quantity of water during the grow- 
ing season; consequently, it grows best on soils well supplied with humus 
and having a high water-holding capacity. Well-drained alluvial bottoms 
and muck soils are very good soils for sugar-cane. The more fertile clay 
uplands produce cane higher in sugar, but do not supply the required amount 
of water for large yields. 



324 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



Sugar-cane is adapted to tropical or semi-tropical latitudes, the two 
predominating essentials to growth being warmth and moisture A mean 
annual temperature of 70° F. and a minimum annual ramfall of about 60 
inches are essential to the successful growth of sugar-cane. One of the 
difficulties in growing sugar-cana is in the control of water. In Louisiana 
as much as five to seven inches of water mgiy fall during one ram. .ihe 
problem then, is to get rid of the excess water before it damages the crop. 
Good tile drainage is necessary on most of these sugar plantations. If for 
any reasons, tile drainage is not possible, it is then necessary to depend on 

surface drainage. 

There are times when irrigation is necessary. The ideal sugar-cane 
plantation should be equipped with underdrainage as well as irrigation 
ditches. In Louisiana, scarcely a year passes that irrigation water cannot 
be used at some time. Irrigation may be used to help prepare the seed-bed, 
as well as to supply water when needed for the growing crop. 

Varieties of Cane.— Many varieties of cultivated cane are grown 
in this country. These have been and are being introduced from 
various parts of the world. The Louisiana Agricultural Experiment 
Station has arranged the varieties into groups and then under classes as 

follows : 

Class one— white, green and yellow canes. 

Class two — striped canes. 

Class three — solid colors other than class one. 

In the Louisiana Bulletin No. 129, the variety known as D.74, a light- 
colored cane, is recommended very highly. It is very high in sugar and 
outyields by 20 per cent the green or ribbon canes. , . ^, , 

Rotation and Preparation of the Land.— It is not desirable to grow 
sugar-cane continuously. A common rotation is two years cane and one of 
corn and cowpeas. The cowpeas are sown in the corn to be plowed down 
for the benefit of the cane crop which follows. The plowing is generally 
done in the fall of the year. The land must be plowed very deep, the 
deeper the better, up to twenty to twenty-four inches. Traction plows are 
quite generally used, as the work is too heavy for horses. On small plan- 
tations, heavy mules and disk plows are used to break the soil. 

After the land is plowed it is bedded with a two-horse mold-board plow. 
This gives surface drainage between each two rows of cane. When ready 
to plant, the rows are opened with a double mold-board plow. Two or 
more running stalks are deposited in this furrow and covered by a disk 

cultivator. .. , ,.„ix- • U4. 

It has been demonstrated in Louisiana that fall planting gives best 

results when winter freezing is not too severe and when the seed-bed is 
properly prepared and drained. Planting may take place any time from 
the middle of September to the first of April. ^ .u ru i 

Fertilizers.— Cane is a rank-growing plant and demands the liberal 
use of fertilizers. Since most of the potash and phosphoric acid removed 



SUGAR CROPS 



325 



by the crop is returned in the ash and the waste from sugar factories, as 
explained later, nitrogen is the only element of fertility that need be pur- 
chased in large quantities. The humus of the soil must be kept up by the 
application of barnyard manure and by plowing down legumes. When 
nitrogen is used as a fertilizer it should })e applied in the organic form. The 
nitrogen in cottonseed meal becomes available more slowly than in nitrate 
of soda, hence this carrier is better adapted to the long-growing season 
required for sugar-cane. 

Cultivation. — Sugar-cane is cultivated frequently to keep down weeds 
and to insure rapid growth by conserving the moisture. Considerable 
hand hoeing is necessary as the cane rows can be cultivated only one way. 
The disk is a favorable type of cultivator; however, the tooth or shovel 
types are also used. 

Harvesting. — The sugar in the plant increases up to a certain stage of 
ripeness. While the maximum amount of sugar can be determined only 
by chemical means, the grower learns to determine the proper stage quite 
accurately by the appearance of the stalks and inflorescence or flower 
cluster. For economy of production, it is desirable to continue the grinding 
of cane over as long a period as possible. The season may be extended by 
planting at different times and by using varieties that vary in time of matu- 
rity on different types of soil. 

In Louisiana the harvesting begins the first of November. The cane 
is cut by hand and is a very slow process. The plant is first stripped with 
the back of the cane knife, then topped and cut close to the ground. The 
stalks are thrown in piles for loading. As the caneg begin to lose sugar 
rapidly in twenty-four hours after cutting, they are usually hauled immedi- 
ately to the mill. 

Cane Sugar Manufacture. — At the factory the stalks are first shredded. 
The juice is then pressed out by running this shredded material through 
three sets of heavy steel rollers. After passing through the first set of 
rollers, the pressed material is sprayed with hot juice, then passed through 
the second set of rollers. In turn, this material is sprayed with hot water 
and again pressed. In this way from 90 to 95 per cent of the juice is 
removed. The pressed material is used as fuel and is converted into the 
heat and power necessary to operate the mill. 

The juice is heated and purified by adding milk of lime. The 
lime combines with the impurities and is filtered out. The purified 
juice is then concentrated by boiling in vacuum pans and is finally 
crystallized. 

The principal by-products of the sugar-cane factories are the impurities 
combined with lime, the different grades of syrup an^ molasses and the 
ashes from the pressed cane. 

Since the impurities taken out in combination with lime contain a 
large part of the phosphorus and potash removed by the crop, this product 
with the ashes is returned to the soil as a fertilizer. 




SUGAR CROPS 



327 



Iz; 

< 

O 
I 

Pi 

< 

o 

P 

&^ 
o 



' Courtesy of 'S^rginia-Carolina Chemioal CompaQy, Riohmoad, Va. From V.-0. Fertiluer Crop 
Books. 

(326) 



MAPLE SUGAR 

The making of maple sugar, like every other farming industry, has 
changed greatly within the last fifty years. In this country maple sugar 
has become more and more a luxury, and less a necessity, owing to the 
low price of cane and beet sugar. 

The maple sugar production of the United States during the year 1909 
was 14,060,206 pounds, valued at $1,380,492. The following states lead 
in the production of maple sugar: Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania and 
New Hampshire. 

Sugar is made from the saps of several varieties of maple trees. The 
two most important are the Rock Maple {Acer saccharinum) and the Red 
Maple {Acer ruhrum). Ideal sugar weather occurs in the late winter or 
early spring when the days are warm and sunny and the nights cold and 
frosty. This weather starts a rapid flow of sap in the tree. The tree is 
then tapped and the sap collected in covered buckets made for the purpose. 
The sap as it comes from the tree is colorless and contains on the average 
about three per cent of sugar. 

Sugar Making. — In the process of sugar making, the sap is first boiled 
down in evaporators; then boiled to a much greater density in concen- 
trating pans. 

In making maple syrup the sap is boiled until the temperature reaches 
about 219° F. ; in making sugar, the temperature must reach 234° to 245° F. 
Th3 boiling of maple sap for syrup must be done over a hot fire. Boiling 
over is prevented by adding cream or skim milk from time to time. While 
the thermometer is used to determine the amount of boiling necessary, 
an experienced individual can tell simply by the way the syrup boils. 

The brown syrupy fluid is then cooled, during which it must be stirred 
vigorously until graining begins. The soft mass is then poured into molds. 

SORGHUM 

Sugar from sorghum has never been manufactured on a commercial 
scale, although it has been made in small quantities and in an experimental 
way. The difficulty in making sugar from sorghum lies chiefly in the fact 
that there is only a very short period in the life of the plant when it is 
possible to crystallize sugar from its juices. The period is so short and the 
possibihties of detecting the right period are so difficult that it makes 
sugar making from this plant impracticable. 

The plant is quite extensively used, however, in the manufacture of 
molasses or syrup. It is best known as sorghum molasses, and is used for 
cooking purposes more extensively than for the table. 

The requirements and cultural methods for sorghum are given in the 
chapter on "Annual Forage Plants." AVhen used for molasses the crop 
should be planted in drills and given thorough cultivation. The plants 
should be about six inches apart in the row. 

There are many varieties of sorghum, but the Early Amber is the only 



r^:.^ti 









■mmm:^ 




SUGAR CROPS 



327 



o 

I 

< 

o 

o 
•J 



^ * Courtesy of Virgmia-Carolina Chemical Company, Richmond, Va. Prom V.-C. Fertiliaer Crop 
Books. 

(326) 



MAPLE SUGAR 

The making of maple sugar, like every other farming industry, has 
changed greatly within the last fifty years. In this country maple sugar 
has become more and more a luxury, and less a necessity, owing to the 
low price of cane and beet sugar. 

The maple sugar production of the United States during the year 1909 
was 14,060,206 pounds, valued at $1,380,492. The following states lead 
in the production of maple sugar: Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania and 
New Hampshire. 

Sugar is made from the saps of several varieties of maple trees. The 
two most important are the Rock Maple {Acer saccharinum) and the Red 
Maple (Acer rubrum). Ideal sugar weather occurs in the late winter or 
early spring when the days are warm and sunny and the nights cold and 
frosty. This weather starts a rapid flow of sap in the tree. The tree is 
then tapped and the sap collected in covered buckets made for the purpose. 
The sap as it comes from the tree is colorless and contains on the average 
about three per cent of sugar. 

Sugar Making. — In the process of sugar making, the sap is first boiled 
down in evaporators; then boiled to a much greater density in concen- 
trating ])ans. 

In making maple syrup the sap is boiled until the temperature reaches 
about 219° F. ; in making sugar, the temperature must reach 234° to 245° F. 
Tha boiling of maple sap for syrup must be done over a hot fire. Boiling 
over is prevented by adding cream or skim milk from time to time. While 
the thermometer is used to determine the amount of boiling necessary, 
an experienced individual can tell simply by the way the syrup boils. 

The brown syrupy fluid is then cooled, during which it must be stirred 
vigorously until graining begins. The soft mass is then poured into molds. 

SORGHUM 

Sugar from sorghum has never been manufactured on a commercial 
scale, although it has been made in small quantities and in an experimental 
way. The difl&culty in making sugar from sorghum lies chiefly in the fact 
that there is only a very short period in the life of the plant when it is 
possible to crystallize sugar from its juices. The period is so short and the 
possibilities of detecting the right period are so diflftcult that it makes 
sugar making from this plant impracticable. 

The plant is quite extensively used, however, in the manufacture of 
molasses or syrup. It is best known as sorghum molasses, and is used for 
cooking purposes more extensively than for the table. 

The requirements and cultural methods for sorghum are given in the 
chapter on ** Annual Forage Plants." ^Yhen used for molasses the crop 
should be planted in drills and given thorough cultivation. The plants 
should be about six inches apart in the row. 

There are many varieties of sorghum, but the Early Amber is the only 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 



jtMaittmam 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



328 

early variety given any particular preference. There is much uncertainty 
as to the quality of molasses that will be secured, and it does not seem to 
depend either upon the variety used or the method of making. Experiments 
indicate that there are frequently impurities in the jmce which interfere 
with the making of a good quality of molasses. 

In general, the best quality of molasses is secured in the northern 
region of production and in seasons of comparatively low rainfall and 
abundant sunshine. It is essential that the canes be harvested at the right 
stage of maturity and that there be uniformity in maturity. Carelessness 
in the selection of seed and the manner of planting often give rise to canes 
varying greatly in maturity at harvest time. It is very important to have 
all the canes about the same height and of the same maturity. This facili- 
tates the removal of the seed heads and is more likely to produce good 

molasses. 

REFERENCES 

"American Sugar Industry." Myrick. 

" Cane and Beet Sugar Industry." Martineau. ^ . a a » 

Utah ExDt Station BuUetin 136. " Production of Sugar Beet Seed. . ^ ,. „ 

fT«lW of Apiculture BuUetin238. "Sugar Beets: Preventable Losses in Culture." 

S: I De^pi of CS^ Plant Industry, Bulletin 260. "American Beet 

Sugar Industry." ^ . • ,. 

Farmers' Bulletins, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture: ,, 

516. ''Sugar Beet Growing Under Humid Conditions. 

567. ''Sugar Beet Growing Under Irrigation." ^^ 

568. "Production of Maple Syrup and Sugar. 



CHAPTER 24 



Cotton Production 

By Prof. E. F. Cauthen 
Associate in Agriculturey Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station 

• 

Cotton, the second most valuable crop produced in the United States 
and the first most valuable export, is grown in that part of the country 
lying south of 36 degrees north latitude and east of western Texas. This 
section is known as the '' Cotton Belt." The climate and soil are peculiarly 
adapted to its growth. The warm, moist spring and hot, humid summer 
favor the growth of the plant and its fruit; the dry, warm autumn matures 
and opens the bolls and permits the picking of the cotton. 

Species. — The genus {Gossypium hirsutum) includes the common 
long and short staple varieties grown in the United States. The length 
of lint varies from one-half inch to one and a half inches. 

Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) grows on the narrow Sea 
Islands along the coast of South Carolina and in some of the interior 
counties of south Georgia and north-central Florida. It makes the long- 
est, finest and most valuable of all cotton fibers. Sea Island cotton may 
be distinguished from the ordinary upland cotton by: (1) its long, slender 
bolls bearing usually three locks, (2) deeply lobed leaves, (3) yellowish 
flowers with a red spot on each petal, and (4) many black seeds almost 
necked, with long slender, silky fiber. Its fiber may be two inches long, 
and is separated from the seed by the roller-gin, which does not cut the 
fiber from the seed, but pushes the se^d out of the fiber. This cotton is 
used in the manufacture of fine fabric and laces and in the finer grades of 
spool cotton thread. 

Characteristics of the Plant.— Cotton is a tap-root plant. In loose 
soils this root penetrates to considerable depth, even into the subsoil. 
When the subsoil is hard, poorly drained or near the surface, the tap-root 
is forced aside and the plant becomes dwarfed. Most lateral roots branch 
from the tap-root near the surface and feed shallow, hence the need of 
shallow cultivation. 

On fertile soil cotton may grow five or six feet high. From its nodes 
spring two kinds of branches, vegetative and fruit-bearing. The lowest 
branches or vegetative ones are often called base limbs; they may bear 
short fruit-limbs. As the top of the plant is approached, the branches 
shorten, giving it a conical shape. The bolls of cotton are borne only on 
fruit-limbs. 

Some varieties, like Russell and Triumph, produce bolls from one and 

(329) 



m' 



330 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



one-half to two inches in diameter, and require from 60 to 70 to make one 
pound of seed cotton; others, like King and Toole, having smaller bolls, 
require from 100 to 120 to make a pound. 

Some varieties are much more easily picked than others. If the parts 
of the boll open wide, the locks of cotton are easily picked out by hand or 
blown out by wind or beaten out by rain; but if the parts of the boll do 
not open wide, the locks may cling to the burs and suffer less damage from 

wind and rain. • u • -i-i. 

Cotton fiber varies in length from three-quarters of an inch in the 
upland varieties to two inches in Sea Island cotton, and may be likened to a 

long, slender, flattened tube 
with two-thirds of its length 
shghtly curled. It is this 
curled condition of a fiber that 
makes it valuable, for with- 
out it the fiber could not ba 
spun into thread. 

Seed. — The number of 
seed in a boll varies from 
tw?nty-five to fifty. The size 
of seed in some varieties is 
larger than in others. Some 
varieties have green seed, some 
gray and still others have 
blackish or necked seed. In 
the upland varieties most seed 
are covered with a short fuzz. 
A bushel of seed weighs 33f 
pounds. 

Varieties of Upland Cot- 
ton Grouped. — The cotton 
plant is a native of the tropics; 
but under theinfluenceof man, 
its growth has been extended 
far into the temperate zones and its habit changed from a biennial to 
an annual. Climate, soil, selection and cultivation have wrought many 
changes in the plant. The true and so-called varieties now number 

several hundred. . x i? • 

To facilitate the study of so many varieties, a system of grouping, 
worked out by the Alabama Experiment Station, is followed. According 
to form of plant, size of boll, time of maturing and other characteristics, 
they are classified into six groups: cluster, semi-cluster, Peterkin, King, 
big-boll and long-staple upland. There is no striking demarcation between 
any two groups, but a gradual blending of the characters of one mto the 
next group. 




A Good Cotton Plant Showing Good Base 
Limbs; Variety, Cook. 






COTTON PRODUCTION 



331 



Cluster Group. — The distinguishing characteristics of the cluster 
group are the one or two long base limbs near the ground and above them 
the many short fruit-limbs that bear the bolls in clusters of two or three. 
The plants are usually tall, slender and bend over under the weight of the 
green bolls; the bolls of most varieties are small, pointed and difficult to pick. 

The leading varieties of the cluster group are Jackson and Dillon. 
The Dillon variety is important where cotton wilt {Neocosmospora vadnr 
fecta) exists, because of its considerable immunity to this disease. 

Semi-Cluster Group. — This group somewhat resembles the cluster 
group, except that its fruit-limbs are longer and the bolls do not grow in 
clusters. Its varieties have medium to large bolls and large, white, fuzzy 
seed. 

Two well-known varieties of this group are Hawkins and Poulnot. 
Bolls of both are medium size, shghtly pointed and easily picked. One 
hundred pounds of seed cotton yields about thirty-four pounds of lint. 

Peterkin Group. — The fruit and vegetative branches of the varieties 
of this group are long and nearly straight; its leaves are small and have 
rather sharp-pointed lobes; its bolls are medium to small in size; its seed 
is small and many of them are without much fuzz. A striking character- 
istic of the members of this group is the high percentage of lint that they 
yield — often as high as 40 per cent. 

Some of the well-known varieties of this group are Peterkin, Toole, 
Layton and Dixie. Layton and Peterkin are very much alike, except that 
Layton does not have as many necked seed and is probably more uniform in 
type. Toole and a selection from it called Covington Toole, resemble 
both King and Peterkin groups. Toole has small bolls, is early and very 
productive. Some selections from Covington Toole are fairly immune to 
cotton wilt and are extensively grown in sections affected by this disease. 
Dixie is a variety that is being bred up by the United States Department 
of Agriculture to resist cotton wilt. 

King Group. — This group embraces the earliest varieties. The plants 
do not grow large; the leaves and bolJs are usually small. Its base limbs 
are often wanting, and its fruit limbs are usually long and crooked. A 
distinguishing mark of the group is the red spot on the inner side of the 
petals of many plants. Most varieties drop the locks of cotton on the 
ground when they are rained on or blown by hard wind. 

The leading varieties are King, Simpkins, Bank Account, Broadwell, 
etc. On the northern border of the cotton belt these varieties are well 
adapted because of their earliness. 

Big-Boll Group. — This group is marked by the size of its bolls. When 
seventy or less will yield a pound of seed cotton, the bolls are considered 
large and classed as a big-boll variety. Some varieties have long limbs; 
others have short ones, giving the plant a semi-cluster appearance. As a 
general rule, all big-boll varieties have rank stalks, large, heavy foliage and 
mature their fruit late. 



330 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



one-half to two inches in diameter, and require from 60 to 70 to make one 
pound of seed cotton; others, like King and Toole, havmg smaller bolls, 
require from 100 to 120 to make a pound. 

Some varieties are much more easily picked than others. If the parts 
of the boll open wide, the locks of cotton are easily picked out by hand or 
blown out by wind or beaten out by rain; but if the parts of the boll do 
not open wide, the locks may cling to the burs and suffer less damage from 

wind and rain. • u • 4.1. 

Cotton fiber varies in length from three-quarters of an mch m the 
upland varieties to two inches in Sea Island cotton, and may be likened to a 

long, slender, flattened tube 
with two-thirds of its length 
shghtly curled. It is this 
curled condition of a fiber that 
makes it valuable, for with- 
out it the fiber could not ba 
spun into thread. 

Seed. — The number of 
seed in a boll varies from 
tw?nty-five to fifty. The size 
of seed in some varieties is 
larger than in others. Some 
varieties have green seed, some 
gray and still others have 
blackisli or necked seed. In 
the upland varieties most seed 
are covered with a short fuzz. 
A bushel of seed weighs 33f 
pounds. 

Varieties of Upland Cot- 
ton Grouped. — The cotton 
plant is a native of the tropics; 
but under theinfluenceof man, 
its growth has been extended 
far into the temperate zones and its habit changed from a biennial to 
an annual Climate, soil, selection and cultivation have wrought many 
changes in the plant. The true and so-called varieties now number 

several hundred. 

To facilitate the study of so many varieties, a system of grouping, 
worked out by the Alabama Experiment Station, is followed. According 
to form of plant, size of boll, time of maturing and other characteristics, 
they are classified into six groups: cluster, semi-cluster, Peterkin, King, 
big-boll and long-staple upland. There is no striking demarcation between 
any two groups, but a gradual blending of the characters of one into the 
next group. 




A Good Cotton Plant Showing Good Base 
Limbs; Variety, Cook. 



COTTON PRODUCTION 



331 



Cluster Group. — The distinguishing characteristics of the cluster 
group are the one or two long base limbs near the ground and above them 
the many short fruit-limbs that bear the bolls in clusters of two or three. 
The plants are usually tall, slender and bend over under the weight of the 
green bolls; the bolls of most varieties are small, pointed and difficult to pick. 

The leading varieties of the cluster group are Jackson and Dillon. 
The Dillon variety is important where cotton wilt (Neocosmospora vasinr 
feda) exists, because of its considerable immunity to this disease. 

Semi-Cluster Group. — This group somewhat resembles the cluster 
group, except that its fruit-limbs are longer and the bolls do not grow in 
clusters. Its varieties have medium to large bolls and large, white, fuzzy 
seed. 

Two well-known varieties of this group are Hawkins and Poulnot. 
Bolls of both are medium size, slightly pointed and easily picked. One 
hundred pounds of seed cotton yields about thirty-four pounds of lint. 

Peterkin Group. — The fruit and vegetative branches of the varieties 
of this group are long and nearly straight; its leaves are small and have 
rather sharp-pointed lobes; its bolls are medium to small in size; its seed 
is small and many of them are without much fuzz. A striking character- 
istic of the members of this group is the high percentage of lint that they 
yield — often as high as 40 per cent. 

Some of the well-known varieties of this group are Peterkin, Toole, 
Layton and Dixie. Layton and Peterkin are ver}^ much alike, except that 
Layton does not have as many necked seed and is probably more uniform in 
type. Toole and a selection from it called Covington Toole, resemble 
both King and Peterkin groups. Toole has small bolls, is early and very 
productive. Some selections from Covington Toole are fairly immune to 
cotton wilt and are extensively grown in sections affected by this disease. 
Dixie is a variety that is being bred up by the United States Department 
of Agriculture to resist cotton wilt. 

King Group. — This group embraces the earliest varieties. The plants 
do not grow large; the leaves and bolls are usually vsmall. Its base limbs 
are often wanting, and its fruit limbs are usually long and crooked. A 
distinguishing mark of the group is the red spot on the inner side of the 
petals of many plants. Most varieties drop the locks of cotton on the 
ground when they are rained on or blown by hard wind. 

The leading varieties are King, Simpkins, Bank Account, Broadwell, 
etc. On the northern border of the cotton belt these varieties are well 
adapted because of their earliness. 

Big-Boll Group. — This group is marked by the size of its bolls. When 
seventy or less will yield a pound of seed cotton, the bolls are considered 
large and classed as a big-boll variety. Some varieties have long limbs; 
others have short ones, giving the plant a semi-cluster appearance. As a 
general rule, all big-boll varieties have rank stalks, large, heavy foliage and 
mature their fruit late. 



^m% 



332 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



COTTON PRODUCTION 



333 



Some of the widely grown big-boll varieties are Triumph, Cleveland, 
Truitt, Russell, etc. Triumph originated in Texas and is grown extensively 
there. It shows considerable storm resistance, has big bolls, is easy to 
pick and yields well under boll-weevil conditions. Cleveland has mediimi 
size bolls and is medimn early, but it lacks storm resistance. Russell is 
late in maturing, has many large green seed and turns out a low percentage 

of lint. 

Cook Improved is a leading variety whose bolls are scarcely large 
enough to belong to the big-boll group. The type of plant is variable. 
This variety yields a high percentage of lint, is early and easily picked and 
has stood at the top in yield of seed cotton in many experiments. However, 
it has two faults — a tendency to boll-rot (Anthracnose) , and a lack of storm 

resistance. 

Long-Staple Upland Group. — The chief characteristic of this group is 
the length of its fiber, which measures from IJ to 1| inches long. Most 
long staple varieties are late and, therefore, are not suited for that part of 
the country infested with boll-weevils. The percentage of lint is lower 
than the other upland varieties, but it commands a premium of three or 
four cents a pound. Some of the better known long-staple varieties are 
Webber, Griffin and Allen Long-Staple. 

Desired Qualities of a Variety.— By careful selection, the type of plant 
or yield of seed cotton of any common variety may be greatly improved in a 

few years. 

Some of the desirable qualities of a variety are : 

(1) Large yield of lint. 

(2) Medium to large size bolls that are easy to pick. 

(3) Plants that are true to type and healthy. 

(4) Medium earliness with some storm resistance. 

Selection. — Field selection is the one method most frequently employed 
to improve a variety of cotton. It consists in sending a picker, who is 
famifiar with the points to be improved, ahead of the other pickers to select 
the best plants and to pick the well-matured bolls on them. In this way a 
few hundred pounds of well-selected seed cotton is gathered and then 
carefully ginned. The next year the selected seeds are planted in a well- 
prepared and fertilized field away from the other varieties for a seed patch. 
From the seed patch selection is made in the same way as the year before 
in the field. By repeating this operation for several years a variety may 
be greatly improved. However, no variety will continue pure if the seeds 
are handled at the public gins in the usual careless way. 

Soils Adapted to Cotton. — Cotton is grown on all types of soil from the 
light sandy to the heavy clays, from the badly eroded hills to the rich 
alluvial bottoms. However, in this wide range of soils are planted many 
acres that would yield a better income if they were planted in some other 
crop. It is the low yield of the poorly adapted acres that makes cotton an: 
unprofitable crop on so many farms. 



The type of soil influences the earliness of the cotton plants. As a 
general rule, cotton grown on light, sandy soil makes a rapid growth and 
matures the fruit early — s, decided advantage where boll-weevils exist; 
while that on heavy clay soil may grow until frost stops it, if the season is 
favorable. Light soils are not naturally productive, but by the use of 500 
to 1000 pounds of complete commercial fertilizer per acre, the yield is 
increased from one-third of a bale to one or two bales an acre. 

Special T3rpes of Soil. — Of the different types of soil, the heavier 
members of the Orangeburg series are the best adapted to cotton culture. 




Cotton Grown by Single Stalk Method.* 

They are marked by a reddish-brown to gray color and open structure soil 
with a friable, sandy-clay subsoil. 

The Greenville series is very much like the Orangeburg in its adapta- 
tion to cotton. 

The Norfolk soils are not so productive; but when there is an abim- 
dance of humus and a liberal supply of commercial fertilizer, they will 
produce a heavy early crop of cotton. 

The Houston series east of the Mississippi and the Victorian west, 
with good cultivation and proper seasons, produce above an average crop. 
However, the cotton plants often suffer from rust. 

In the Piedmont regions are located the Cecil soils. Where there is 
not a deficiency of humus, these soils are productive, but the plant grows 

1 From p. I. Bulletin 270. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 






332 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



COTTON PRODUCTION 



333 



Some of the widely grown big-boll varieties are Triumph, Cleveland, 
Truitt, Russell, etc. Triumph originated in Texas and is grown extensively 
there. It shows considerable storm resistance, has big bolls, is easy to 
pick and yields well under boll-weevil conditions. Cleveland has medium 
size bolls and is medium early, but it lacks storm resistance. Russell is 
late in maturing, has many large green seed and turns out a low percentage 

of lint. 

Cook Improved is a leading variety whose bolls are scarcely large 
enough to belong to the big-boll group. The type of plant is variable. 
This variety yields a high percentage of lint, is early and easily picked and 
has stood at the top in yield of seed cotton in many experiments. However, 
it has two faults— a tendency to boll-rot {Anthracnose) , and a lack of storm 

resistance. 

Long-Staple Upland Group. — The chief characteristic of this group is 
the length of its fiber, which measures from 1| to Ij inches long. Most 
long staple varieties are late and, therefore, are not suited for that part of 
the country infested with boll-weevils. The percentage of lint is lower 
than the other upland varieties, but it commands a premium of three or 
four cents a pound. Some of the better known long-staple varieties are 
Webber, Griffin and Allen Long-Staple. 

Desired Qualities of a Variety. — By careful selection, the type of plant 
or >deld of seed cotton of any common variety may be greatly improved in a 

few years. 

Some of the desirable qualities of a variety are : 

(1) Large yield of lint. 

(2) Medium to large size bolls that are easy to pick. 

(3) Plants that are true to type and healthy. 

(4) Medium earliness with some storm resistance. 

Selection. — Field selection is the one method most frequently employed 
to improve a variety of cotton. It consists in sending a picker, who is 
familiar with the points to be improved, ahead of the other pickers to select 
the best plants and to pick the well-matured bolls on them. In this way a 
few hundred pounds of well-selected seed cotton is gathered and then 
carefully ginned. The next year the selected seeds are planted in a well- 
prepared and fertilized field away from the other varieties for a seed patch. 
From the seed patch selection is made in the same way as the year before 
in the field. By repeating this operation for several years a variety may 
be greatly improved. However, no variety will continue pure if the seeds 
are handled at the public gins in the usual careless way. 

Soils Adapted to Cotton. — Cotton is grown on all types of soil from the 
light sandy to the heavy clays, from the badly eroded hills to the rich 
alluvial bottoms. However, in this wide range of soils are planted many 
acres that would yield a better income if they were planted in some other 
crop. It is the low yield of the poorly adapted acres that makes cotton an' 
unprofitable crop on so many farms. 



The type of soil influences the earliness of the cotton plants. As a 
general rule, cotton grown on light, sandy soil makes a rapid growth and 
matures the fruit early — a decided advantage where boll-weevils exist; 
while that on heavy clay soil may grow until frost stops it, if the season is 
favorable. Light soils are not naturally productive, but by the use of 500 
to 1000 pounds of complete commercial fertiUzer per acre, the yield is 
increased from one-third of a bale to one or two bales an acre. 

Special Types of Soil. — Of the different types of soil, the heavier 
members of the Orangeburg series are the best adapted to cotton culture. 




Cotton Grown by Single Stalk Method.* 

They are marked by a reddish-brown to gray color and open structure soil 
with a friable, sandy-clay subsoil. 

The Greenville series is very much like the Orangeburg in its adapta- 
tion to cotton. 

The Norfolk soils are not so productive ; but when there is an abun- 
dance of humus and a liberal supply of commercial fertilizer, they will 
produce a heavy early crop of cotton. 

The Houston series east of the Mississippi and the Victorian west, 
with good cultivation and proper seasons, produce above an average crop. 
However, the cotton plants often suffer from rust. 

In the Piedmont regions are located the Cecil soils. Where there is 
not a deficiency of humus, these soils are productive, but the plant grows 

1 From p. I. Bulletin 270. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSURE 






334 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



fall — a condition favorable to 



slowly in the spring and late in the 
boll-weevils. 

Along the rivers and smaller streams are strips of alluvial land called 
bottoms. They are usually fertile, well watered and produce a rank growth 
of plants that do not make fruit in proportion to their size. On such land, 
hay or corn is a more profitable crop. 

FERTILIZER AND CULTIVATION 
Plant Food Removed by Cotton.— There is probably no cultivated 
crop that draws so lightly upon the fertility of the soil as cotton. The 
average crop per acre in the United States is slightly less than 600 pounds 
seed cotton yielding 200 pounds lint. This amount of lint removes from 
the land only. 42 pound nitrogen, .15 pound phosphoric acid and 1.32 pounds 
potash. When both seed and lint are removed, the loss is 13 pounds nitro- 
gen, 4.74 pounds phosphoric acid and 5.70 pounds potash. The roots, 
stems, leaves and burs contain about as much nitrogen and phosphoric 
acid, and about three times as much potash, as the seed cotton. These 
parts of the plants are seldom removed from the field. 

Need of Humus. — In the cotton belt the amount of humus in the soil 
is small. The warm, moist conditions that prevail during a large part of 
the year favor rapid nitrification; and the heavy winter and spring rains 
rapidly leach out the soluble plant-food. As a general practice, cotton 
follows cotton year after year and receives clean cultivation and furnishes 
little organic matter to replenish the humus. There is needed on every 
farm some system of crop rotation in which one crop is plowed under to 

renew the humus. 

■ Need of Nitrogen.— The small size of the cotton plants over large 
areas is evidence of the deficiency of nitrogen in the soil. In many fields 
the plants are large enough to make only two or three bolls. To make a 
profitable crop they should be two or three feet high, full of fruit and have 
a rich black color during the growing season. The only lands that do not 
need a supply of nitrogen are the rich bottoms or those that have received 
a heavy crop of clover or some other legume for soil improvement. 

The chief sources of nitrogen in commercial fertilizer are cottonseed 
meal, which also furnishes some phosphoric acid and potash, nitrate of 
soda, tankage and calcium cyanamid. If quick results are desired, as in 
the case of a side application to a growing crop, some soluble form like 

nitrate of soda is used. 

Need of Phosphoric Acid.— The need of phosphoric acid is almost 
universal. Most fertilizer experiments show an increased yield whenever it 
is used. The only soils that do not show an increased yield from its use 
are the rich alluvial lands and Houston and Victoria clays. A liberal 
application of acid phosphate on heavy clay soil often hastens the maturing 
of a crop of bolls that would not ripen and open before frost. When a 
crop of 200 or 300 pounds lint cotton is expected, it is usual to 



COTTON PRODUCTION 



335 



apply 150 or 200 pounds acid phosphate either before planting or as 
a side dressing. 

Need of Potash. — Loose, sandy soils and the Houston clays show an 
increased yield when kainit or some other potash fertilizer is used; but 
most red clay and some silty soils do not seem to need artificial potash to 
make an average crop. The red clay soils, as a rule, have a great deal of 
potash, but it is slowly available. 

When used alone, an excess of potash tends to delay the maturity of 
the fruit. When used in connection with other materials making a complete 
fertilizer, the tendency to lateness is obviated. Some soils subject to cotton 
rust are greatly improved by the use of 150 to 200 pounds kainit or 35 to 
50 pounds of muriate of potash per acre. 

Commercial Fertilizers Profitable. — Commercial fertilizers usually 
pay a good profit, when the season is favorable and they are intelligently 
used. Lands that formerly produced a half a bale of cotton, now by the 
use of $8 or $10 worth of high-grade commercial fertilizer adapted to the 
needs of the land, produce a bale per acre without much additional expense. 
There is a strong tendency all over the cotton belt to increase the amount 
of fertilizer and especially the amount of nitrogen. Many farmers are 
using 400 to 600 pounds of a formula that analyzes 5 per cent phosphoric 
acid, 4 per cent ammonia and 3 per cent potash for sandy soils and the 
same Avith less potash for the clay soils. 

Three-Year Rotation Suggested. — The long practice of planting 
cotton continuously on the same land has destroyed nearly all the humus 
in the soil. To increase the humus and to maintain soil fertility in the 
cotton states, the following three-year rotation is recommended: 

First year. — Cotton, following in the fall with crimson clover or some 
other winter cover crop. 

Second year. — Corn with cowpeas sowed or drilled between the rows 
at the last cultivation. 

Third year. — Oats or wheat followed by cowpeas sowed broadcast 
for hay or soil improvement. 

Preparation of Land. — The only preparation a great deal of the cotton 
land receives before planting is one plowing, which consists in throwing 
up beds or ridges on which the seed is planted. Many farmers are begin- 
ning to recognize the need of better preparation and are plowing the land 
flat and then bedding it before planting. 

Much of the plowing is done with a one-horse plow to a depth of four 
or five inches. However, the lands that are producing a bale of cotton 
to the acre are plowed with a team to a depth of six or eight inches. Sub- 
soiling, as a special operation, is not recommended, but deeper plowing is 
proving beneficial in many parts of the cotton belt. 

Time of Plowing. — Late fall or winter plowing is commendable for 
heavy soils and those that have a great deal of litter on them, if such lands 
are not subject to severe erosion. Light, sandy soils are liable to winter 



336 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



leaching if plowed early. All fall-plowed lands, especially if they are 
sandy or subject to erosion, should have some winter cover crop like crimson 
clover or grain so that their roots may take up the plant food as fast as it 
becomes available and prevent washing of the surface. In the early spring 
the cover crop is plowed under in the final preparation for planting. In a 
large measure the date of the first plowing should bo governed by the labor 
on hand, the amount of litter and stiffness of soil. 

Seed-Bed.— Land that was plowed broadcast in the winter or early 
spring is marked off in rows by a furrow that receives the fertilizer. Where 
cotton follows cotton without any previous plowing, as is too often the 
practice in a large part of the cotton belt, a furrow with a middle-buster 
is run in the row of old stalks or in the middle of the previous rows, and the 



,". '\ 









TuBNiNG Under Crimson Clover for Cotton. 

fertilizer is distributed in this open furrow with a one-horse machine that 
has a shovel-plow to mix soil and fertilizer together. By throwing over 
the fertilizer four or five furrows with a turning plow, a bed or ridge is 
formed four or five inches high and two feet wide. When no fertilizer is 
used, many farmers omit even the center furrow and "list" or bed without 
running the center furrow as a preparation for the row. 

Planting.— Just before planting a drag or spring-tooth harrow is 
drawn across the beds or lengthwise to smooth them down and freshen the 
surface. On well-drained land some farmers are discarding the high beds 
and planting on a level surface. In the western" part of the cotton belt, 
where the rainfall is below twenty-two inches, much planting is done in a 
water-furrow made with a two-horse lister. 

In the southern part of the cotton belt, planting begins in March and is 
usually completed in the northern part of the cotton belt by the end of May. 



• ^ 



COTTON PRODUCTION 



337 



Most of the crop is planted in April. Where boll weevils are present, 
planting should be made as soon as the danger from frost is past. 

The seeds are sown or dropped in a shallow furrow and covered one or 
two inches deep in sqU. If the soil is dry the seed should be planted deeper 
and the soil sHghtly packed on the seed. When the seed is drilled, one-half 
to one bushel of seed is required to plant an acre; when planted in hills, 
one or two pecks are required. If the land is rough, the planting should be 
thicker to secure a stand without replanting. 

Tillage. — Prompt germination is desirable. If a rain packs the surface 
or a crust forms before the seed comes up, the surface should be stirred with 
a spike-tooth harrow or weeder to help the young plants to break through 
the crust. The harrow or weeder may be drawn across the rows after the 
plants come up to destroy small weeds and to cultivate the cotton plants. 
When the cotton begins to show its true leaves, it should be cultivated with 
a scrape or turner, which leaves the plants on a narrow ridge. The cotton 
is then thinned to one plant in a hill about one foot apart on poor land and 
about one and one-half to two feet apart on fertile land. Soon after 
thinning a little soil should be pushed up round the young plants. This 
may be done with a small scrape, sweep or spring-tooth cultivator. 

Flat, shallow, frequent cultivation should be given the growing crop 
until about the first^of August, when it may cease, unless the crop is very 

late. 

HARVESTING AND MARKETING 

Picking. — Cotton is picked by hand. A picker hangs a bag over his 
shoulder, picks the cotton out of the open bolls and drops it in his bag. 
He picks 150 to 200 pounds seed cotton a day and receives from forty to 
seventy-five cents per hundred pounds. 

Picking begins in the latter part of August or early in September and 
ends about the first of December. When labor is scarce, the time of harvest 
may be prolonged until midwinter. Cotton should be picked out as fast 
as it opens to prevent damage from storms or rotting of fiber. 

Picking is an expensive operation because it has to be done by hand. 
However, it does not require much skill and much of it is done by the cheap- 
est of labor— women and children. Many cotton picking machines have 
been invented, but none of them have proven successful. They damage the 
plant and gather much trash with the cotton. 

Cotton should not be picked when it is wet, nor should locks fallen 
on the ground and badly stained be picked up and mixed with the white 
cotton. The damaged cotton should be placed in a separate bale. If 
cotton is picked when it is slightly wet, it should be dried before ginning, 
as damp cotton cannot be ginned without injury to the fiber. 

Ginning.— When 1200 or 1500 pounds of seed cotton have been picked, 
it is usually hauled to a public ginnery. A suction pipe draws the seed 
cotton into a screen where a great deal of the dirt and trash is blown out, 
and then drops it into a feeder. The feeder picks up locks or small wads 

22 



336 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



COTTON PRODUCTION 



337 



leaching if plowed early. All fall-plowed lands, especially if they are 
sandy or subject to erosion, should have some winter cover crop like crimson 
clover or grain so that their roots may take up the plant food as fast as it 
becomes available and prevent washing of the surface. In the early spring 
the cover crop is plowed under in the final preparation for planting. In a 
large measure the date of the first plowing should be governed by the labor 
on hand, the amount of litter and stiffness of soil. 

Seed-Bed.— Land that was plowed broadcast in the winter or early 
spring is marked ofif in rows by a furrow that receives the fertilizer. Where 
cotton follows cotton without any previous plowing, as is too often the 
practice in a large part of the cotton belt, a furrow with a middle-buster 
is run in the row of old stalks or in the middle of the previous rows, and the 




Turning Under Crimson Clover for Cotton. 

fertilizer is distributed in this open furrow with a one-horse machine that 
has a shovel-plow to mix soil and fertilizer together. By tlirowing over 
the fertilizer four or five furrows with a turning plow, a bed or ridge is 
formed four or five inches high and two feet wide. When no fertilizer is 
used, many farmers omit even the center furrow and ''list'' or bed without 
running the center furrow as a preparation for the row. 

Planting.— Just before planting a drag or spring-tooth harrow is 
drawn across the beds or lengthwise to smooth them down and freshen the 
surface. On well-drained land some farmers are discarding the high beds 
and planting on a level surface. In the western part of the cotton belt, 
where the rainfall is below twenty-two inches, much planting is done in a 
water-furrow made with a two-horse lister. 

In the southern part of the cotton belt, planting begins in March and is 
usually completed in the northern part of the cotton belt by the end of May. 



Most of the crop is planted in April. Where boll weevils are present, 
planting should be made as soon as the danger from frost is past. 

The seeds are sown or dropped in a shallow furrow and covered one or 
two inches deep in soil. If the soil is dry the seed should be planted deeper 
and the soil sUghtly packed on the seed. When the seed is drilled, one-half 
to one bushel of seed is required to plant an acre; when planted in hills, 
one or two pecks are required. If the land is rough, the planting should be 
thicker to secure a stand without replanting. 

Tillage. — Prompt germination is desirable. If a rain packs the surface 
or a crust forms before the seed comes up, the surface should be stirred with 
a spike-tooth harrow or weeder to help the young plants to break through 
the crust. The harrow or weeder may be drawn across the rows after the 
plants come up to destroy small w^eds and to cultivate the cotton plants. 
When the cotton begins to show its true leaves, it should be cultivated with 
a scrape or turner, which leaves the plants on a narrow ridge. The cotton 
is then thinned to one plant in a hill about one foot apart on poor land and 
about one and one-half to two feet apart on fertile land. Soon after 
thinning a little soil should be pushed up round the young plants. This 
may be done with a small scrape, sweep or spring-tooth cultivator. 

Flat, shallow, frequent cultivation should be given the growing crop 
until about the first_^of August, when it may cease, unless the crop is very 

late. 

HARVESTING AND MARKETING 

Picking.— Cotton is picked by hand. A picker hangs a bag oyer his 
shoulder, picks the cotton out of the open bolls and drops it in his bag. 
He picks 150 to 200 pounds seed cotton a day and receives from forty to 
seventy-five cents per hundred pounds. 

Picking begins in the latter part of August or early in September and 
ends about the first of December. When labor is scarce, the time of harvest 
may be prolonged until midwinter, (votton should be picked out as fast 
as it opens to prevent damage from storms or rotting of fiber. 

Picking is an expensive operation l:)ecause it has to be done by hand. 
However, it does not require nmch skill and nmch of it is done by the cheap- 
est of labor— women and children. Many cotton picking machines have 
been invented, but none of them have proven successful. They damage the 
plant and gather much trash with the cotton. 

Cotton should not be picked when it is wet, nor should locks fallen 
on the ground and badly stained be picked up and mixed with the white 
cotton. The damaged cotton should be placed in a separate bale. If 
cotton is picked when it is slightly wet, it should be dried before ginning, 
as damp cotton cannot be ginned without injury to the fiber. 

Ginning.— When 1200 or 1500 pounds of seed cotton have been picked, 
it is usually hauled to a pubhc ginnery. A suction pipe draws the seed 
cotton into a screen where a great deal of the dirt and trash is blown out, 
and then drops it into a feeder. The feeder picks up locks or small wads 

22 



i 






SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



338 

of cotton and drops them into the gin-breast, where they form a revolving 
roll of seed cotton. On the under side of this roll are many small circular 
saws rapidly revolving in opposite directions and cuttmg the lint cfl the 
sS A rapidly revolving brush takes the lint off the saws and drms it 
into a condenser. The lint is then dropped into a large box and packed 
into a bale of cotton, which is now ready for the market ^f y^^ete' 

Cotton Seed.— The seed is usually sold to a cottonseed-oil mill. Ihe 
short hnt or fuzz is cut of! the seed and is called "linters." The seed is 
then run through a mill that takes off the hulls, which are used for cattle 
food; the kernels, or meats as they are_called, are ground and cooked, after 




A Field of Cotton. 



which they arc put in a powerful press that removes the crude oil and leaves 

'" 'theSe dlls refined an<l from it are obtained: (1) "summer white 
oil " which is used in the manufacture of a compound of lard; (2) stearin, 
iTn making solid oils, etc.; and (3) a -^^ue that is used u^^^^^^^ 
soan On the dry western stock ranches, a great deal of the yellow cake is 
?ed to cattle and sheep in the ^^^nter; the cake is ground, forming what is 
known as cottonseed meal, and is used as stock feed and comme ma^ 
fertUizer. Recent experiments show that specially prepared meal mixed 
with wheat flour makes an excellent nutritious bread. . ^ ., , ^ 

Not many decades ago, cottonseed was a waste P'-^duct on the farm 
but now the commercial value of the seed equals one-seventh the value of 
the lint. 






■■;■«'*,« 



r ■ y.y' 



COTTON PRODUCTION 



339 



On an average 1500 pouncTs of seed cotton make a 500-pound bale and 
1000 pounds of seed. When the seed passes through an oil -mill, it pro- 
duces about 150 pounds crude oil, 337 pounds meal, 500 pounds hulls and 
13 pounds linters. 

Storing. — ^After the cotton is ginned, the bales may be marketed at 
once, or stored on the farm or in a public warehouse. The bales of cotton 
are often left lying about the ginhouse or homes, exposed to the weather. 
As a result of the weather, their covering becomes badly damaged and the 
lint tinged with a bluish color, and the buyer 'Mocks*' them to cover the 
damage. 

Bales of cotton should be stored under a shed on timber to prevent 
their touching the damp ground and absorbing moisture. In many markets 
are large public warehouses where cotton can be weighed, stored and 
insured at a small cost per bale. 

Before selling a bale, a sample of lint is drawn from each covered side 
and placed together as a sample of the bale. The buyer judges its grade 
and makes a bid. The price is based on the grade and the demand for that 
grade of cotton in the markets. Most farmers do not know the grade of 
their cotton, as it takes expert knowledge to classify cotton correctly. 
They accept the highest price bid on the cotton as the top of the market 
for that grade. Where a large number of bales are offered in the market, 
often an expert grader is employed to classify the cotton, which method^ 
usually gives satisfaction to seller and buyer. 

When a foreign or domestic mill wishes a quantity of a given grade, an 
order is placed with an agent, and this agent goes to the warehouses or 
dealers and buys the grades desired. If the bales have to be shipped far, 
they are sent to the compress, where .the size is greatly reduced by a 
powerful press and thereby the cost of transportation is reduced. 

Grades of Cotton. — The grades of cotton depend mainly on (1) color 
of fiber, (2) amount of trash, and (3) quality of ginning. A high grade 
requires that the fiber be white, with a slightly creamy tinge, strong and 
free from trash or dirt. When the cotton shows a yellowish or bluish tinge, 
the fiber usually is not strong; immaturity or exposure to the weather are 
the usual causes for this condition. To get a high grade, the farmer should 
pick the cotton from only the fully opened and matured bolls, and pick 
it free from trash and dirt. 

There are seven primary grades in the commercial classification of lint 
cotton. They are named in the order of value: (1) ''fair,*' (2) '' middling 
fair,'' (3) '^good middling," (4) '^middling," (5) '^low middling," (6) 
''good ordinary," (7) ''ordinary." The half grades, which lie between the 
primary grades are named by prefixing the word "strict" to the name of 
the next lower grade, as "strict good middling," which is a half grade better 
than "good middling." The telegraphic dispatches from the cotton 
exchanges quote prices on "middling," and the prices of better and lower 
grades are calculated on the basis of "middling." 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING 



338 

of cotton and drops them into the gin-breast, where they form a revolving 
roll of seed cotton. On the under side of this roll are many small circular 
saws rapidly revolving in opposite directions and cuttmg the lint cff the 
seed. A rapidly revolving brush takes the lint off the saws and drives it 
into a condenser. The lint is then dropped into a large box and packed 
into a bale of cotton, which is now ready for the market or warehouse. 

Cotton Seed.— The seed is usually sold to a cottonseed-oil mill, liie 
short lint or fuzz is cut cff the seed and is called "linters." The seed is 
then run through a mill that takes off the hulls, which are used for cattle 
food; the kernels, or meats as they are called, are ground and cooked, alter 




A Field of Cotton. 



which they are put in a pow(>rful press that removes the crude oil and leaves 

" ''''"'AetJudedUs refined and from it are olrtained: (1) "summer white 
oil " which is used in the manufacture of a compound of lard; (2) stearin, 
used in making solid oils, etc.; and (3) a residue that is used in makmg 
soap On the dry western stock ranches, a great deal of the yellow cake is 
fed to cattle and sheep in the winter; the cake is ground, forming what is 
known as cottonseed meal, and is used as stock feed and commercial 
fertilizer. Recent experiments show that specially prepared meal mixed 
with wheat flour makes an excellent nutritious bread. 

Not many decades ago, cottonseed was a waste Product on the farin 
but now the commercial value of the seed equals one-seventh the value of 
the lint. 



COTTON PRODUCTION 



330 



On an average 1500 pouncts of seed cotton make a SOO-pound bale and 
1000 pounds of seed. When the seed passes through an oil -mill, it pro- 
duces about 150 pounds crude oil, 337 pounds meal, 500 pounds hulls and 
13 pounds linters. 

Storing. — After the cotton is ginned, the bales may be marketed at 
once, or stored on the farm or in a public warehouse. The bales of cotton 
are often left lying about the ginhouse or homes, exposed to the v\'eather. 
As a result of the weather, their covering becomes badly damaged and the 
lint tinged with a bluish color, and the buyer *' docks'' them to cover the 
damage. 

Bales of cotton should be stored under a shed on timber to prevent 
their touching the damp ground and absorbing moisture. In many markets 
are large public warehouses where cotton can be weighed, stored and 
insured at a small cost per bale. 

Before seUing a bale, a sample of lint is drawTi from each covered side 
and placed together as a sample of the bale. The buyer judges its grade 
and makes a bid. The price is based on the grade and the demand for that 
grade of cotton in the markets. Most farmers do not know the grade of 
their cotton, as it takes expert knowledge to classify cotton correctly. 
They accept the highest price bid on the cotton as the top of the market 
for that grade. Where a large number of bales are offered in the market, 
often an expert grader is employed to classify the cotton, which method^ 
usually gives satisfaction to seller and buyer. 

When a foreign or domestic mill wishes a quantity of a given grade, an 
order is placed with an agent, and this agent goes to the warehouses or 
dealers and buys the grades desired. If the bales have to be shipped far, 
they are sent to the compress, where .the size is greatly reduced by a 
powerful press and thereby the cost of transportation is reduced. 

Grades of Cotton. — The grades of cotton depend mainly on (1) color 
of fiber, (2) amount of trash, and (3) quality of ginning. A high grade 
requires that the fiber be white, with a slightly creamy tinge, strong and 
free from trash or dirt. When the cotton shows a yellowish or bluish tinge, 
the fiber usually is not strong; immaturity or exposure to the weather are 
the usual causes for this condition. To get a high grade, the farmer should 
pick the cotton from only the fully opened and matured bolls, and pick 
it free from trash and dirt. 

There are seven primary grades in the commercial classification of lint 
cotton. They are named in the order of value: (1) ''fair,'' (2) ''middUng 
fair," (3) ''good middling," (4) "middhng," (5) "low middhng," (6) 
"good ordinary," (7) "ordinary." The half grades, which lie between the 
primary grades are named by prefixing the word "strict" to the name of 
the next lower grade, as "strict good middling," which is a half grade better 
than "good middling." The telegraphic dispatches from the cotton 
exchanges quote prices on "middling," and the prices of better and lower 
grades are calculated