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STENOGRAPHIC 
I WORD LI ST 



BUCKELEW U LEWIS 



NEW YORK 



Isaac Pitman ^Sons 

31 UNION SQUARE WEST 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



THE 

STENOGRAPHIC 
WORD LIST 



FOR 



LESSONS BASED ON THE 
ISAAC PITMAN SYSTEM 
OF PHONIC SHORTHAND 

BY 

SARAH F. BUCKELEW 

AND 

MARGARET VV. LEWIS 

OF Public School No. 49, Borough of Manhattan 
City of New York 



NEW YORK 

ISAAC PITxMAN & SONS 

The Phonographic Dept., 31 Union Square, West 



Copyright, 1904, by 
Sarah F. Buckelew and Margaret W. Lewis 



t t c , ct 
c t cc *■ c 
t c c t c c 



t c .t t * t ^ c , 

*■ t *■ ' V I * 



* « 

• « 
ff • 



t 1 fc t. *■ 
* * * * * » 






. «• * fc • 



Is 

>- 
?5 



CO 






kl 



3 






"What I desired and desire was not to teach the 
world any new art or science, for I know none, but 
to make more easy for the people at large the mastery 
of the points of commencement of all arts and sci- 
ences; ... to open the approaches to learning, 
which are the approaches to Immanity." 

Pestalozzi. 

In the educational world of to-day it is generally 
conceded that the study of Phonics should begin 
early in childhood. It is also well known that noth- 
ing equals this drill in Americanizing the tongue of 
the children and adults of other nationalities; for 
by this Phonic drill the ear is rendered acute to de- 
tect the elementary sounds of words, while the organs 
of speech become flexible and produce these sounds 
correctly. 

The lack of this early Phonic drill is the chief 
difficulty which confronts the beginner in Stenogra- 



448634 




Isaac Pithan & Sons. 

SHORTHAND & EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHERS, 
31 Union Square West, 

ne:w YORK, May 13, 1904, 



Kisaea Sarah P. Buckelew and Margaret W. Lewis, 
Public Sohool No. 49, 

237 E. 37th St., Kev/ York City. 

We have exaialned with care the shorthand con- 
tained in the "STENOGRAPHIC WORD LIST" given as a key to 
the correct pronunciation, and find that it is in ac- 
cordance with the twentieth century edition of the Isaac 
Pitman "Shorthand Instn'.tor." 8«- used in the Public 
Schools of New York. 

Wishing you evory success, we are, 

Yours yery truly. 



iV) 



ISAAC PITMAN & SONS. 



-^Vt^-m. ^tA-'— ^ 



INTRODUCTION. 

The following exercises have been prepared to aid 
students in Shorthand to spell and write according to 
sound. The words have been carefully selected from 
Buckelew and Lewis' "Phonic Word List," and in- 
clude the choicest and most frequently used mono- 
syllables of the English Language. 

The Shorthand Characters are from the pen of Dr. 
William Hope, President of the Harlem Commercial 
Institute, New York; of the Eastern Commercial 
Teachers' Association, and Dean of the National 
Association of Isaac Pitman Shorthand Teachers. 

He is a long acknowledged authority on Stenog- 
raphy, well known as a successful practitioner and 
instructor of Shorthand and all branches of a com- 
plete business education. 

Dr. Hope was a highly valued co-laborer with Sir 
Isaac Pitman, and he is the only person in the 
United States who holds a personal certificate grant- 
ed by that honored author of "The Isaac Pitman Sys- 
tem of Shorthand." This system, unequaled for 
brevity, legibility and a wide range of literature 
printed in Shorthand, is the standard upon which is 
based these lessons for all students who desire to 
obtain a thorough knowledge of Phonetic Shorthand. 



INTRODUCTION, 

Such students will surely form the habit of con- 
sulting a good dictionary, and strive to become thor- 
oughly familiar with accepted standards of correct 
pronunciation. As writers of shorthand, they should 
likewise be well acquainted with "Pitman's Shorthand 
Dictionary." 

The last edition of this invaluable book contains 
outlines for more than sixty thousand words and five 
thousand proper names. These outlines are recom- 
mended for general adoption, as the most facile that 
appear practicable. They conform fully to the rules 
and teachings of the "Isaac Pitman Shorthand In- 
structor," the ponular text-book of the system adopted 
for the public schools of Greater New York and other 
large cities. 



COXTEXTS. 

PAGE. 

Quotation from Pestalozzi 3 

The Pitman Letter 4 

Introduction 5 

Shorthand and Kindred Terms .... 9 

Directions for \\'ritin*i- Shortliaud .... 10 

Consonants — Explanations and Alphabet . . 11 

Joined Consonants 14 

Vowels and Diplithongs 16 

Sounds of A and Words 23 

Sounds of E and Words 31 

Sounds of I and Words 37 

Sounds of and Words 42 

Sounds of U and Words 47 

Diphthongs Oi, 0\v and Words . . . . 51 

Sentences. Grammalogues Explained ... 53 

Consonant Grammalogues 54 

Vowel Grammalogues 55 

Sentences — Using Grammalogues .... 56 

A Letter in Shorthand 57 

Circles and Loops 58 

Circle S Initial Words 60 

Loop St Words 65 

Sw, Str and Ses Words 67 

Stroke S or Z and Words 68 

Sentences — Using Circles and Loops ... 68 

Circle and Loop Grammalogues .... 70 

Words for Sliorthand Ecviow 71 

7 



CONTENTS 



The PI and Pr Hook Table . 

Double Consonants Explained 

PI Hook Words . . . 

Pr Hook Words . . . 

PI and Pr Graramalogues 

Sentences for Shorthand . 

Final Hook Consonant Table 

Final F or V Hook and Word 

Final N Hook and Words 

Sentences for Shorthand . 

Eeview — Hooked Consonants 

The -Tion Hook . . . 

Final Hook Grammalogues 

Additional Consonants and Words 

The Aspirate and Words . 

The Halving Principle, Table and 

Half-TA'ngth Grammalognes 

The Double-Length Principle and Words 

Vocalization of PI and Pr, and Words . 

W and Y Diphthongs, Table and Words 

Ith, Thee and Thr Words .... 

Dissyllabic Diphthongs, Table and Words 

Consonant Substitutes .... 

About Shorthand and Typewriting 

Proverbs and Quotations .... 



Words 



PAGE. 

T3 

73 

76 

78 

83 

84 

85 

8G 

89 

86 

95, 

96 

97 

98 

102 

105 

115 

116 

118 

120 

123 

124 

126 

127 

128 



SHORTHAND, STENOGRAPHY, PHONOGRA- 
PHY, PHONETICS OR PHONICS, PHO- 
NETIC SHORTHAND. 

Shorthand is the English word for any system of 
writing that enables us to put down words by fewer 
muscular movements than are necessary to write the 
same in ordinary script or longhand. 

StenogRxVphy — from Greek steno, short, narrow — 
and graphy, writing — is any system which uses ar- 
bitrary signs or symbols. 

Phonography. Any system which uses signs 
(generally brief) for the consonants and vowels, each 
character representing a sound. This term was used 
by Isaac I'itman to describe the system of which he 
was the inventor. In this system strokes and curves 
represent the consonants, dots and dashes the vowels. 

Phonetics or Phonics — from the Greek phone, 
sound — , spelling by sound. We speak of the science 
of Phonetics and the art of Phonography. 

This book is intended to teach Phonetic Shorthand. 
For this purpose the word, its phonic form, and its 
shorthand characters are given to make the learner 
familiar with the method of spelling and writing by 
sound. 



DIRECTIONS 

FOR WRITING SHORTHAND 

The beginner should always use a pen and ruled 
paper in writing exercises, and in all practice work. 
The experienced writer may use either pen or pencil. 

The pen should be held as for longhand ; the elbow 
should be bent outward, so that the shorthand stroke 
for B may be written with ease. The forearm^ not 
the wrist, should rest on the desk or book. 

To write accurately and neatly, should be the first 
aim, so that what has been written may be easily 
read by the writer and others. This accomj^lished, 
the student may practice for speed. 

Each principle should be thoroughly mastered be- 
fore imdertaking new work. "Make haste slowlv" 
is a good motto to observe. Practicing a half hour 
every day will give better results than j^racticing a 
half day once a week. 

"No such word as fail," and "Patience and perse- 
verance overcome all difficulties," are two excellent 
mottoes for all who are educating the eye, ear, hand 
and brain, and becoming acquainted with the Eng- 
lish language, bv the studv of Stenographv. 

10 



CONSONANTS. 

Thn first sixteen of the consonants are in pairs, a 
light and a heavy stroke, to represent a light and a 
heavy sound ; p, b ; t, d. 

The learner must pronounce the phonetic name of 
the shorthand letters as it is written ; ch, is chay, not 
see-aitch. In reading, the sound, not the name of the 
letter, should be given. 

HOW \VRITTKN 

Consonant strokes should be about one-sixth of an 
inch in length. 

Horizontal letters are written from left to right 
on the line. Perpendicular letters are written down- 
ward, resting on the line. Sloping letters are writ- 
ten do^ynward to the line, except Lay, Ray, Way, Yea, 
and Hay. These five letters are written with an up- 
stroke. 

All downward letters are written at an angle of 
lorty-five degrees, except ch, j, and downward h, 
which are written at an angle of sixty degrees. Up- 
ward r, w, and y are written at an angle of thirty 
degrees. 

The letter I, when standing alone, is written up- 
ward, and sh, when alone, is written downward. 

Care should be taken in forming the curved thick 
letters when standing alone. They should be thick 
in the middle and taper at the ends, except when 
joined to a thick letter, as t; to ^ in vague. 

Note that stroke s is the curve on the right side 
of small script letter s. L and r form the left and 
right sides of an arch. 

11 




Consonants 




Straight Strokes 



Xame 




Sio-n 


For 


As 


in 


Pee 


\ 


P 


nip 


pen 


Bee 


\ 

1 


B 


nib 


bin 


Tee 






T 


knit 


tin 


Dee 






D 


bed 


din 


Chay 


/ 


CH 


each 


chin 


Jay 


/ 


J 


edge 


jay 


Kay 




K 


lake 


key 


Gay 


~— 


G 


bag 


gay 




Sloping and 


IJpRiGnT Curves 


Name 


Sign 


For 


As 


in 


Ef 


V^ 


F 


safe 


fix 


Vee 


^ 

/ 


V 


save 


vex 


Ith 


( 


TH 


both 


thin 


Thee 


( 


TH 


with 


then 


Es 


) 


S 


hiss 


seal 


Zee 


) 


z 


his 


zeal 


Ish 


J 


SH 


dish 


she 


Zhee 


-> 


y 


ZH 


azure 


visio 



1-^ 



(CONSONANTS 





Horizontal Curves, Etc. 



Kamo Sii>-n 


For 


Em "■ -^ 


M 


En 


N 


I"g ^^ 


NG 


Lay (^^ 


L 


Ar, Uay"^ / 


' R 


Way <^ 


AV 


Yay ^ 


Y 



As in 



Hay, Aitcli 



^/ 



H 



seem 

seen 

long 

fall 

far 

away 

ayah 

hack 



mate 

note 

anger 

life 

rate 

wade 

yell 

head ' 



Additional Consonant Signs 



^ISI 



Name 

Kway C — 

Guay C— 

Wei ^ 

Whel C 

Ler (^ 

Rer "^ 

Emp, Emb ^ 

Whay (^ VVH 



For 

KAV 

GW 

WL 

WHL 

LR 

RR 

MP, MB 



As in 



13 



queen 

guava 

wail 

whale 

ruler 

parer 

tramp 

where 



equip 

gwan 

wool 

while 

paler 

darer 

ambush 

whisk 



JOINED CONSONANTS. 

The pen should not be lifted when joining conso- 
nants. The second stroke begins where the first ends, 
and so on. 

Consonants, except /, and sh, when joined are writ- 
ten in the same direction as when standing alone — 
down strokes downward, and up strokes upward; 
horizontal strokes from left to right. 

L and sli when joined to other consonants may be 
written upward or downward. 

Ch is written downward, r is written upward. 
When these letters stand alone ch slants from the per- 
pendicular, r, from the horizontal. When they are 
joined to other letters they are distinguished by the 
direction of the stroke. The amount of sloping is of 
little consequence. 

1. The first of two descending strokes should rest 
on the line ; bt, t-ch, ft, ch-p, p-th, ptk, jkd. 

2. When a straight stroke is doubled there should 
be no break between the two letters; pp, bb, ch-ch, 
td, dt, j-ch, kk, gg. 

3. The first of two ascending letters begins on the 
line ; wk, 11, Ir, rl, wr, yr, hr, Ip, yip. 

4. A horizontal letter followed by a descending 
stroke is written above the line, so that the down 
stroke may rest on the line ; kp, kd, kj, kf , nd, m-sh, 
m-th, ns, n-sh. 

5. A horizontal stroke followed by an ascending 
stroke is written on the line; mr, ml, kl, kr, kw, nr, 
nlj, mlr. 

14 



Exercises 



1. bd tp ft ch-p p-th ptk jkd 



2. pp bb kk t(l 



3. Ip 



Ir \vr , ^\K 



dt 



yi' 



gg eh-ch 



11 yip 



4. ki e;p k-ch m-ch ns nd n-sh 

n ^ V 7 ^ ^ y 

5. kl kr ml kw nrj inlt 
G. mm sli-sh 11 ss rr ff nn 



7. Im lin Ik 



S. pi Id If fl 

NT r\ 

0. sh-m sh-f sh-1 l-sh 



10. lb 
IJ. lb 



Vg 



1-g 



r-th iw 



I'V il 



Ir jM- li 



1- 



ng 



fl 
sh-th 
r-ch 



rp 



In 



dl 

v- 

sh-d 
rm 



tl 



\r 



nl 

sh-r 



rd 



rm rn 



Ir ' kr kr 



15 



THE LONG VOWELS. 

There are six simple long vowels in the English 
language as heard in the words, alms, ate, eve, all, 
ode, ooze. The order in which they are placed will 
be recalled by the words : "Pa, may we all go too ?" 

The first three long vowels are represented by a 
heavy dot, placed at the beginning, middle or end of 
a consonant. The last three are indicated by a heavy 
dash in the same three positions. 

Each vowel has its own place, at the beginning, 
middle or end of a consonant stroke. Those placed 
at the beginning are named first-place vowels ; at the 
middle, second-place vowels; at the end, ihircl-place 
vowels. 

The beginning of the consonant is always the posi- 
tion of a first-place vowel, whether the consonant be 
written upward or downward. 

The clots and dashes representing vowels must not 
touch the consonant strokes. A dash-vowel may be 
written at any angle that is distinct, but usually at 
a right angle. 

HOW READ. 

A vowel placed on the left of a perpendicular or 
sloping consonant, or above a horizontal consonant 
should always be read first. A vowel placed on the 
right of a perpendicular or sloping consonant, or 
after a horizontal consonant should be read last. 

THE SHORT VOWELS. 

There are six short vowels, represented by dots 
and dashes similar to these used by the long vowels 
but made light. They are named : at, et, it, ot, ut, 
oot. Their order may be remembered by the words: 
"That pen is not much good." 

IG 



Table of Vowels 



^.. 



^A. 



Naiiu> Sign 



Ah 
Eh 
Ee • 

Aw 

Oh - 
Oo - 

At 
Et 
It 

Ot 

Ut 
Got 



Description 

Tioni r Vmvols 
First phice lioavy dot. 
Second phic(5 lieavy dot. 
Thii'd phice heavy dot. 

First place heavy dash. 
Second phice heavy dash. 
Third ])hice heavy dash. 

Sliort Vowels 
First place light dot. 
Second ])lace light dot. 
Third place light dot. 

First place light dash. 
Second place light dash. 
Third place light dash. 



X 



LI 



For 


As in 


a 


Pa 


a 


may 


e 


we 


a 


all 





go 





too 


a 


That 


e 


pen 


1 


is 





not 


u 


much 


u 


good 



V- -^ 



c r 



r )- 



L 



17 



Position of Vowels 



Before a Consonant 





After a Consonant 



\ 



2- 3 




Vowels between Two Consonants 



A. /TTn 




Long Vowels 

First place and second place long vowels are wiitten 
after the first consonant. 

Third place long vowels are wi-itten before the 
second consonant. 



z 3 



z 3 /i 




Short Vowels 

First place and third place short vowels take the 
same position as first and third place long vowels. 

Second place short vowels are written before the 
second consonant. 



18 



Rule roii Two Vowels. 
When two sin.iilo vowels, or a sin^^lo vowol nnd a 
(1i|ilitlHUi,i;-, coiiif lictwccii two ,-li-nkc (•oiisoiiiints, placf! 
racli. il' iinssililc. a,i;-ainst llir cniisdiiaiit, tn wliicli it 
belongs, as in such words as Louisa, diary, suet. 

POSITION OF WORDS 

Words are written ahove, on, or through the line, 
according as they have a first, second, or third ])laco 
vowel. See the Sliorthand Letter on page 5T. 
Suggestive Questions. 

What is meant by Shorthand? Stenography? 
Phonography? Phonetics, or Phonics? 

How are consonants represented in Shorthand? 
How are the horizontal letters written? The per- 
pendicular letters ? The sloping letters ? 

Which letters arc always written with an upstroke ? 
Which are sometimes written with an upstroke? At 
what angle are the downstrokes written? The up- 
strokes? How are I and sli written when standing 
alone? How are upward r and cli distinguished 
from each other? 

Give the rule for joining consonant letters. In 
what direction should they be written? How may 
I and sli be written when joined to other consonants ? 
Give the rule for joining two descending strokes; 
two ascending strokes. Give the rule for writing a 
horizontal stroke, followed by a descending stroke; 
for writing a horizontal, followed by an ascending 
stroke. 

Note. In the following pages, space can not be 
afforded for questions; the earnest student will find 
it profitable lo sup])lv this necessary omission. 

19 



DIPHTHONGS. 

Small acute angles are used to represent the diph- 
thongs or double vowels heard in the words ice, owl 
and boy; a very small semicircle stands for u in due ; 
and a very small right angle for the triphthong wi 
in wide. 

The signs for i, ow, and wi are written in the first, 
second or third place, as may be most convenient. 

The sign for oi is always written in the first place; 
and the sign for u in the third place. 

/ and wi at the beginning of words should be 
Joined to the first consonant, whenever convenient; 
as in ice, ivy, idle; wife, white, 

Ow and oi may be joined initially to upward 1; 
owl, oil. 

Ow and the diphthong u may be joined finally to 
a downstroke; bough, few. 

After the consonant n the diphthong u may be 
joined as in new; the diphthong ow, as in now; and 
the diphthong i as in nigh. 

Diphthong i must not be confused with the short 
or second sound of i; diphthong u with the short 
sound of u; ou and ow with the sound of o. 

UPWARD AND DOWNWARD L AND R. 

L. Initial L is generally written upward; lame, 
live. Final L is generally written upward; folly, 
fully. 

E. Initial R is generally written downward when 
preceded by a vowel, and upward when followed by 
a vowel ; rail, rang, read ; oar, arm, early. 

Final R is written downward when it is the final 
sound, and upward when it is followed by a vowel; 
jeer, jury ; car, carry ; tare, tarry. 

20 



DlPHTnONGS 



Name Si^n Description 

^:^ ^The V-like angle. 



For As in 



Ei 



Ow_ 

Oi_ 



js The A-like angle. 



^ 



IlL 



WL 



u 



tie IV 
isle^/j^ ^ 
time ^-^^ 
owl ( 

out a' 
cow -^^ 
boy \ 

foil r 



_The first-place angle. 
_Tlie third-place curve. 

Triphthong 
_The right angle. 

Examples 

mew ''-^ 

cure ^ 
wife v_ ^^ 
wide I ^1 
ivy "V: ^ 

new ^—^ —^ 
now ^-^ ^ — ^ 
nigh ^"""^ 

U r 1 



1 ice 

ow cow 
oi, oy boy 



u 



Wl 



you 



wife 



.^ 



bite 

bit 

tube 

tub 

rout ^1 

rot6/M 

)- 



sow 
sow 



"TV" 



< 



^ 



-<] \ )- v*^ 






<: 



Y \r- 



^ 



u 



V 



j!^i^ 



J^ 



j:x. 



SOUNDS OF A 

First Sound 

Long a as in mate, marked a 

ai in sail ay in may ei in feign 

au in gauge ea in great ey in they 

Second Sound 

Short a as in at, marked a 
ai in plaid ua in guaranty 

Third Sound 

Flat or Italian a as in arm, marked ii 

au in daimt ua in guard ea in heart 

Fourth Sound 
Broad or German a as in all, marked a 



au in 


cause 


eo in George 


in horn 


aw in 


paw 


oa in broad 

Fifth Sound 
a as in asli, marked a 


ou in sought 


staff 




pass task 


chant 


graft 




last gasp 


lance 



Sixth Sound 
a before r as in care, marked A 

ai in hair ei in their 

ea in bear e in where 

32 



AVoRDs Having the First Sound of A 
Second place heavy dot 

bay ba \ laid lad ^ 

bey ba N paid pad ^ 

day da I* raid rad ''^ 

fay fa ^ wade wad -^ 

gay gii _j_ weighed wad "^ 
hay ha /• shade shad 






aid ad 'I shake shak 

fade fad ^ ail al 

lade lad , '' I ale al 



t 



jay J a A vague vag 

lay la /^ age aj / 

may ma .^ gage gaj "y 

nay na ^_^ gauge gaj "7 

neigh na v — . cage kaj "7 

nee na v_^ P^ge paj X 

pay pa \ rage raj -^ 

ray ra -^ wage waj <^ 

re la ^ ache ak -^_ 

say sa )• bake bak \ 

way wa ^ cake kak -j — 

weigh wa <y^ lake lak (* 

yea ya '^' make mak 

they tha v! rake rak 

babe bab \^ take tak 



33 



/ 



bail 

bale 

dale 

fail 

gale 

jail 

male 

mail 

nail 

pail 

pale 

rail 

tail 

tale 

vail 

vale 

veil 

aim 

game 

came 

lame 

maim 

name 

tame 



Words Having the First Sound of A 
Second place heavy dot 

\/^ aue ao "^ 



bal 

bal 

dal 

fal 

gal 

jal 

mal 

mal 

nal 

pal 

pal 

ral 

tal 

tal 

val 

val 

val 

am 

gam 

kam 

lam 

mam 

nam 

tarn 






A~ 







ape ap 
cape kap 
nape nap 
tape tap 
shape shap 
ace as 
ate at 
eight at 
bate bat 
bait bat 
gate gat 
gait gat 
rate rat 
lave lav 
nave nav 
knave nav 
shave shav 
aitch ach 
faith fath 
bathe bath 
lathe lath 
eightJi atth 
range ranj 
change chanj. 



"X 



^< 



•I 



"n 









^ 






34 



Words Having 
First 




THE Second Sound of A 

place light dot 

lack lak • 

pack pak \ 

rack rak -^ 

wrack rak /^ 

tack tak 

yak yak 

shall shal 

am am 

dam dam 

damn dam 

jam jam 

jamb jam 

lamb lam 

ram ram 

yam yam 

sham sham 

an an 

Ann an 

gap gap 

cap kap 

lap lap 

map map 

nap nap • 

pap pap 






r\ 



25 



WOUDS HaVIiXG 

First 

rap rap 

wrap rap. 

tap tap 

chap chap 

at at 

bat bat 

i-at rat 

vat vat 

batch bach 

halt'h liach 

catch Ifaohi 

latch hich 

match inach 

patch paclj 

ash asli 

dasti dash 

gasli gash 



s 

> 

V 



THE Second Sound of A 
place light dot 

hash hash <y 

cash kash ^~Z) 

lash lash y 

mash mash ' J) 

gnash nash '^ 

rash rash -^ 

bang bang \-^ 

fang fang ^ 

gang gang 

hang hang 

pang pang 

bank baugk 

rank rangk 

tank tangk 
shank shangk 
thank thangk 

tack tak 



Stenographers place all words, having the sound 
of a in ask, under the second or short sound of a, as 



in the following words: 



caclie kaslL 
bath b 



ath V 
lath lath ^^ 



ask ask 

asp asp 
rajich ranch 



•}_ 



8fi 



Words Having the Third Soum» of A 
First place heavy dot 

baa ba \ 



bah ba \ 

fa fe C 

la hi C^ 

ma ma - — ■ 

• 

pa pa \ 

za za^ / 



shafi sha r^ ' 

laugh laf /TV. 

aam am ^— v. 

balm bam "V— 

calm kam 

palm pam 

launch lanch 'C 



This flat or Italian r/, when followed by r, is 
represented by the first place light dot, instead of 
the first place heavy dot. See pages 29 and 30 for 
examples of " Vowels before R." 



^ 



^ K ^ 



/^ 



Ji 



^A- 



^ 



^ 



^ 



-<1 l_ ^ ^ ^ 



tl 



o 



^ 



•^ 



^ 



(. ^ 



£L 



\ 



X ^_I 



xr V 



> <^ ^ 



^ 



^ 



r 



f 



27 



daw 

haw 

jaw 

caw 

law 

maw 

c;naw 

paw 

raw 

saw 

taw 

yaw 

cliaw 

sliaw 

pshaw 

thaw 

daub 

auk 

balk 

,i!;awk 

hawk 

calk 

talk 

chalk 



Words Having the Fourth Sound 
First place heavy dash 

r ~ 



of a 



da 
ha 

j^ 
ka 

la 

ma 

na 

pa 

ra 

sa 

ta 

ya 

cha 

sha 

sha 

tha 

dab 

ak 

bnk 

gak 

hak 

kak 

tak 

chak 



/- 

I 

C 






r 
J- 



Zi 



z: 



all al 

awl al 

ball bal 

bawl bal 

fall fal 

gall gal 

Gaul Gal 

call kal 

caul kal 

mall ma I 

maul mal 

Paul Pal 

pall pal 

tall tal 

yawl yal 

sliawl shal 

gaum gam 

malm mam 

shawm sham 

awn an 

aught at 

ought at 

bought bat 

ghaut gat 



^ 



V 



xn/ 



.<n/ 






n 



28 



Vowels before R 




baij V^ 

charj ^ 

garj 

erj >7 // 



VoWKI.S I5EF0RE R 



purge peij ^^^^ ^^^ '""' l'<'il 



verge verj 
ark aik 
are ark 




bark bark \y^ 

barque bark \y^ 

lark laik 

mark mark 

marque uiai'k 

park paik 

kirk kerlc 

lurk lerk 

clerk klerk 

cork kark 

fork t'ark 

- )' 



r\ 



twirl tAverl 

ai-m arm 

(arm fiu'iii 

form farm 

fii-m fei-m 

harp harp 

arch arch 

larch larch 

march march 

parch parch 

torch tarcli 

inch lurch 

march maich 

marsh marsh 



/^ 




) 



i 



rY 



i 4 



(• 



^ 



~L^ 



~y 



V 



30 



SOUNDS OF K 

First Sound 

Long c as in me, marked e 

oa in weak ey in key 

ei in seize i in pique 

eo in people ie in brief 

Second Sound 

Short e as in met, marked e 
a in any eo in leopard 

ai in said ie in friend 

ay in says ue in guess 

ea in dead n in l)nry 

ei in heifer 

Third Sound 

e before r as in lier, marked e 

e in ever i in bird 

e in fern i m sir 



31 



be 
bee 
Dee 
fee 
he 
gee 
key 

quay 
lee 
lea 
nie 
mi 

knee 
pea 
sea 
see 
si 
tea 
tee 
we 

wee 

ye 

.she 
the 



Words Havin 
Third 

\. 
\. 

I. 

/ 



be 

be 

Be 

fe 

he 

je 

ke 

ke 

le 

le 

me 

me 

lie 

pe 

se 

se 

se 

te 

le 

we 

we 

ye 

8h& 
the 



• 



). 



J 

K.* /rt/ 



G THE First Sound of "E 
place heavy dot 

thee the v* 

feed fed L, 

heed hed 

lead led 

read red 

reed red 

weed wed 

leaf lef 

lief lef 

meal mel 

sheaf shef 

thief thef 

league leg 

liege lej 

tige tej 

eke ek 

beak bek 

leak lek 

leek lek 

meek mek 

peak pek 

peek pek 

pique pek 

reek rek 



V 
\ 



32 



Words Havin 
Third 



o THE First Sound 
place heavy dot 



OF E 



wreak 

teak 

cheek 

sheik 

eel 

beal 

deal 

feel 

keel 

leal 

meal 

kneel 

peal 

peel 

reel 

teal 

teil 

teel 

veal 

zeal 

beam 

deem 

deme 

leam 



ream rem 

reim rem 

teem tem 

team tem 

theme them 

e'en en 

deep dep 

heap hep 

keep kep 

leap lep 

neap nep 

peep pep 

reap rep 

weep wep 

cheap chep 

sheep shep 

ear er 

ere er 

beer ber 

bier ber 

deer der 

dear der 

fear fer 

gear ger 




k 












33 



jeer 

leer 

mere 

near 

peer 

pier 

i-ear 

tear 

tier 

veer 

yeai- 

eat 

beet 

beat 

eve 

leave 

thieve 



Vv'uiiDS Having the First Sound of E 
Third place heavy dot 



jer 

ler 

mer 

ner 

per. 

per 

rec 

ter 

ter 

ver 

yer 

et 

bet 

bet 

ev 

lev 

thev 







ease ez 

each ech 

beech bech 

beach bech 

leech lech 

leach lech 

peach pech 

reach rech 

teach tech 

leash lesh 

Vz-.n^^.lieath heth 

teeth teth 

sheath sheth 

wreathe reth 

teethe teth 

sheathe sheth 

shield sheld 



.) 

./ 

•\ 

•K7 



f 



34 



Words Havixo the Second Sound of E 
Second place light dot 



ebb eb 

web web 

fed fed 

head hed 

lead led 

led led 

red red 

read red 

wed wed 

shed shed 

feoflf fef 

egg eg 

beg beg 

keg keg 

leg leg 

peg peg 

edge ej 

hedge hej 

kedge kej 

ledge lej 

tedge tej 

wedge wej 

deck dek 

neck nek 






^ 



■A 



) 



^ 



peck 

reck 

wreck 

tek 

check 

cheque 

ell 

dell 

bell 

belle 

fell 

knell 

pell 

tell 

yell 

shell 



pek 

rek 

rek 

tek 

chek 

chek 

el 

del 

bel 

bel 

fel 

nel 

pel 

tel 

yel 

shel 



/ 


dwell 


dwel 


</ 


em 


em 


/ 


gem 


jem 


r7 


them 


them 



en 
hep 
nep 
rep 



en 
hep 
nep 
rep 






K 



^rt/ 



C^/^ ( 



35 



Words B 


[AVmO THE 


Second Sound of 


'E 


1 


Second place light dot 




bet bet 

debt det 

get get 

jet jet 

etch ech. 


^ 
n 

C 


tenth tenth Ll^ 
length length /'^ 
elf elf 'r\^ 
delf delf V^ 
pelf pelf W 


fetch fech 


V 


shelf shelf 


y^^cA, 


wretch rech 


elk elk 


f 


bench bench 
wrench rench 


% 


elm elm , 
helm helm 


■C-^ 


mesh mesh 


■^- 


elve elv 


rx. 


death deth 


k 


delve delv 




depth depth 


shelve shelv 


ySrvcA. 



Lexicographers distinguish the Third Sound of E 
as heard in verb from the Second or Short sound iu 
bread. 

Stenographers claim that this difierence is not a 
modification of the sound of E, but is the sound of r 
heard in all words in which E is followed by that 
letter. 



err er 


■^ 


earth erth 


1 


fir fer 


S 


dearth derth 


K 


per per 


> 


berth berth 


VK 


erg erg 




birth berth 


M 


earl erl 


"V 


girth gerth 


-A 


perch perch 


N^ 


jiiirth merth 


•— ( 



36 



SOUNDS OF I 



First Sound 



Long i as in ice, marked i 

ai in aisle oi in choir 

ay in aye ui in guide 



ei in height 
eye in eye 
ie in pie 



ny in buy 

y in my 

ve in rve 



Skcoxu Sound 







Short i 


as 


in it. 


marked i 




a 


in 


village 






in 


women 


ai 


in 


captain 






oi in 


tortoise 


e 


in 


English 






u in 


l)usy 


ee 


in 


been 






ui in 


build 


ie 


in 


sieve 






y in 


hymn 



448634 



Words Having the First Sound 
Diphthong 1 

ride rid 

tide tid 

chide chid 

fife fif 

life hf 

knife nif 

dike dik 

like lik 

pike pik 

isle il 

aisle il 

guile gil 

chyle kil 

mile mil 

Nile Ml 

pile pil 

tile til 

vile vil 

dime dim 

chyme kim 

lime lim 

rime rim 

rhyme rim 

time tim 



by bi 


\v 


bye bi 


V 


buy bi 


V 

1 


dye di 


Iv 


die di 


\v 


fie fi 


u 


hie hi 


7v 


high hi 


?v 


lie li 


/^ 


lye li 


/^^ 


my mi 


'""^ 


nigh ni 


V 


pie pi 


\v 


rye ri 


^/v 


wry ri 


)v 


sigh si 


tie ti 


V 


vie vi 


^- 


shy shi 


i 

(v 


thigh thi 


thy thi 


gibe jib 


< 


eyed id 


< 


hide hid 



38 



thjme tim 

chime chim 

pipe pip 

ripe rip 

type tip 

wipe wip 

ire ir 

dire dir 

fire fir 

gyre jir 

lyi-e lir 

mire mir 

p}Te pir 

tire tir- 

Tyre Tir 



Words Having the Firbt Sound of I 
Diphthong I 



v\ 



V 1 



wire wir 

shire shir 

ice is 

eyes iz 

bite bit 

bight bit 

rite rit 

I'ight rit 

write rit 

Wright rit 

five fiv 

live liv 

lithe lith 

writhe rith 

ninth ninth 



') 



) 



^^ 






% 



rV 



Words Having the Second Sound of 1 
Third place light dot 



bib bib 

fib fib 

jib jib 

nib nib 

rib rib 

hid hid 




kid kid 

lid lid 

if if 

big big 

fig tig 

gig gig 



~1 



39 



Words Having 
Third 



Jig Jig 

pig pig 
rig rig 

midge mij 

ridge rij 

kick kik 

lick lik 

nick nik 

pick pik 

tick tik 

chick chik 

thick thik 

ill il 

bill bil 

fill fil 

gill gil 

nil nil 

Jill jil 

gill Jil 
kill kil 

kiln kil 

mill mil 

pill pil 

rill ril 






THE Second Sound of I 
place light dot 

till til 
chill chil 
thill thil 

dim dim 
limb lim 
limn lim 

rim rim 

vim vim 

dip dip 

hip hip 

lip lip 

nip nip 

pip pip 

rip rip 

tip tip 

chip chip 

ship ship 

it it 

bit bit 

writ rit 

live liv 

itch ich 

ditch dich 

hitch hich 



40 



Words Having the Second Sound of I 

light dot 



niche 
pitch 

rich 
witch 

dish 

tish 

wish 
myth 

pith 
withe 

filch 
milch 

inch 

finch 

linch 

lynch 

pinch 

winch 

chinch 

width 

fifth 
lymph 
nymph 

king 




11 



SOUNDS OF 

First Sound 

Long as in no, marked 5 

au in hautboy oa in boat 

eau in bean oe in lioe 

eo in Aeoman ou in «oul 

ew in sew ovv in ilow 

Second Sound 

Short as in ox, marked 6 

a in was ou in hough 

a in what ow in knowledge 



'j^'- 



Third Sound 

Long, slender o as in do, marked oT) 

oe in shoe 
00 ■ in woo 
ou in soup 



42 



WoHDs Having the First Sound 
Seooiul place heavy dash 



bow 


bo 


beau 


bo 


do 


do 


doe 


fk) 


dough 


do 


foe 


fo 


go 


go 


ho 


ho 


hoe 


ho 



low 

mow 

no 

know 

row 

roe 

so 

sow 

sew 

toe 

tow 

woe 

show 

shew 

though 



lo 

nio 

no 

no 

ro 

ro 

so 

so 

so 

to 

to 

wo 

sho 

sho 

tho 



X 

v 



X 



)- 



i- 



lobe lob 

robe rob 

ode od 

code kod 

load lod 

rode rod 

road rod 

toad tod 

loaf lof 

I'ogue rog 

vogue vog 

oak ok 

joke jok 

coke kok 

poke pok 

yoke yok 

bowl bol 

boll bol 

bole bol 

dole dol 

goal gol 

coal kol 

mole mol 

knoll nol 



OF 

AX 



A. 



43 



Words Having the 
Second place 



First Sound 
heavy dash 



OF 




fore for 

four for 

core kor 

corps koi- 

lore lor 

more raor 

pore por 

pour por 

wore wor 

yore yoi- 

chore chor 

shore shor 

boat bot 

goat got 

wrote rot 

rote rot 

vote vot 

mauve mov 

coach koch 

poach poch 

oath oth 

both both 

loathe loth 

pork pork 



44 



Words IIaviiVg the Second Sound of 
First light dash 



bob bob 
fob fob 
job job 
cob kob 
mob mob 
knob nob 
I'ob rob 
odd od 
hod hod 
cod kod 
pod pod 
rod rod 
wad wod 
shod shod 

off of 

bog bog 

dog dog 

fog fog 

hog hog 

jog jog 
cog kog 
log log 
dodge doj 
lodge loj 



I 



I 

rC 



i_ 









<7 



dock 

lock 

knock 

rock 

doll 

loll 

poll 

on 

hop 

mop 

knop 

pop 

dot 

got 

jot 

of 

was 

notch 

watch 

wash 

golf 

long 

wrong 

pomp 



dok 

lok 

nok 

rok 

dol 

lol 

pol 

on 

hop 

mop 

nop 

pop 

dot 

got 

jot 

ov 

woz 

noch 

woch 

wosh 

golf 

long 

rong 

pomp 



11 



t- 



/^(... 



'5rx 



45 



Words Having the 
Third place 




Third Sound of 
heavy dash 

doom dom I — J 



loom lorn 







46 



SOUNDS OF U 

First Sound 

Long u as in tune, marked u 
on in YOTi ui in juice 

eu in feud ieu in lieu 

ew in dew iew in view 

ue in blue eau in beauty 

Second Sound 

Short u as in us, marked ii 

in love oo in flood 

oe in does ou in touch 

Third Sound 

Short, slender, u as in full, marked u 

o in wolf 
00 in book 
ou in could 



47 



Words Having the First Souxd 
Diplithong U 



OF U 



you 
yew 
ewe 
(lew 
due 
few 
fugh 
hew 
hue 
Hugh 
cue 
queue 
lieu 
mew 
new 
knew 
gnu 
pew 
sue 
view 
cube 
tube 



u 
u 

IL 

(hi 

(lu 

fu 

in 

hu 

hu 

hu 

ku 

ku 

lu 

mu 

nu 

nu 

nu 

pu 

su 

vu 

kub 

tub 



t 
2. 






-<] 4. ^ 



feud fud 
hued hud 
Jude Jud 
fugue fug 
huge huj 
duke duk 

buhl bul 
mewl mul 
mule mul 

pule pul 

yule yul 
fume fum 
pume pun) 
dupe dup 
your ur 
cure kur 

lure lur 
pure pui- 

use us 

Ute Ut 
jute jut 
youth uth 



V 



48 



Words Having the Secoxd Sound of U 
Second light dash 



bub 


bub 


dub 


dub 


hub 


hub 


cub 


kub 


rub 


rub 


tub 


tub 


chub 


chub 


cud 


kud 


rudd 


rud 


thud 


thud 


hiff 


luf 


bug bug 
dug dug 
hug hug 



jug 

lug 

mug 

pug 

rug 

tug 

thug 

budge 

fudge 

judge 



jug 

lug 

mug 

pug 

rug 

tug 

thug 

buj 

juj 




}9 



WoRt)8 Havikg the Second Soukd of U 



but 

butt 

jut 

rul 

love 

shove 

Dutch 

much 

touch 

gush 

hush 

iiuish 

rush 

tush 

doth 

month 

gulch 

bunch 

hunch 

lunch 

munch 

punch 

bulb 



us 
but 
but 
jut 

lUt 

luv 
shuv 
Duch 
much 
tuch 
gush 
hush 
mush 
rush 
tush 
duth 
munth 
gulch 
bunch 
hunch 
lunch 
munch 
punch 
bulb 



Second light dash 



-) 



o-v \ 



I 






.(TL . 



^17 



\ J 

1 



-O 



gulf 

hung 

lung 



gulf 

hung 

lung 



rung rung 



/ 



^?A 



wrung 

tongue 

bulge 

lunge 

. bulk 

bunk 

junk 

monk 

punk 

chunk 

culm 

gulp 

pulp 

bump 

dump 

gump 

jump 

lump 

mump 

pump 



rung 

tung 

bulj 

lunj 

bulk 

bungk 

jungk 

mungk 

j)ungk 

ehungk 

kulm 

gulp 

pulp 

bump 

dump 

gump 

jump 

lump 

mump 

pump 



50 



Words Having the Third Sound of U 
Third light, clash 

ugh u / nook luik "—' 
good gud J (Tt _ rook ruk ^ 
hood hud <5^ took tuk I \ 



could kud ~^ (TV _ shook shuk J_a 

wood wud "^ bull bul ^Z' 

would wud ^^- 3 full ful *v 

should shud ^ /rr^ ^ hoop imp ^ d'^\ 

book buk ■' \ — ! put put \ ^ 

hook huk Z_! bush bush \ 

cook kuk L push push X 

look luk / 



Words Having the Sound of 01 
Diphthong 01 



boy boi \ boil boil \/^" 

buoy boi N coil koil 

hoy hoi / foil foil 

joy joi / moil moil 

coy koi ::^ — roil roil 

soy soi ) toil toil 

toy toi 1 coir koir 

oil oil /^ doit doit 



51 



Words Having the Sound of OU 
Diphthong OW 



ow 

bow 

bough 

dow 

dhow 
how 
cow 
mow 
now 
row 
vow 
thou 
loud 

novvd 

gouge 
bouk 

gowk 

owl 

dowl 



OU 

bou 

bou 

dou 

dou 

hou 

kou 

mou 

nou 

lOU 

vou 
thou 
loud 
noud 

gouj 

bouk 

gouk 

oul 

doul 



A 

V 



I 



'a /yt' A 



&v 



a 

~7 



V" 



tbul foul 

fowl foul 

jowl joul 

joule joul 

cowl kou I 

cowle koul 

OU)' OUl' 

hour OUl- 

giaour jour 

out out 

bout bout 

gout gout 

ouch ouch 

couch kouch 

pouch pouch 

vouch vouch 

zoutch zoucli 

mouth mouth 



'y^ 
^ 



tn^ 



/n/. 






"1 



mouth mouth J^ 



52 



SENTENCES 

To Be Written in Shorthand. 

1. Ma, may Madge bake cake? 

2. Eiith may take poor Joe home. 

3. Sarali bought pure milk. 

4. Nellie may feed eight sheep. 

5. Annie, we all like tea. 

G. lliish ! Watch Judge eat duck. 

7. Paul King saw Kay fall. 

8. Merry Harry ate peach pie. 
D. Pa, Dash sliook n li\(' ciilj. 

10. Huge Luke knew Cowboy Jack. 

11. See tall Tom catch fish! 

12. Minnie, show how vou lauiih. 

GEAMMALOGUES AND LOGOGRAMS. 

In Shorthand, frequently occurring words are ex- 
pressed by one of their letters written on. above, or 
througJi the line, according as their principal vowel 
is first place, second place, or third place. 

Such al)l)rcvi<iti()ns are called Grammalogues or 
letter-words, and the signs employed are named Logo- 
grams or word-letters. 

Exceptions. The words and and Jir ai'e not repre- 
sented by any of their letters. A short, sloping, light 
stroke, written upward toward the right, stands for 
and; he is represented by a short, vertical, heavy 
stroke, written on the line. 

53 



Consonant Grammalogues 



happy_ 
by, bn}L 
at 



X 



had. 



much_ 
large. 



lip. 
be_ 

it_ 



do. 



camcL 



give-ii. 



put 

to be. 
out 



/ 



whicli Z 



Written above the Line 
bait! J::= ^mo, in}L 



\" 



V 



different, 
each 



_vie. 



•^ 



_tliank-ed. 



C 



j.n, any. 



thy, though. 



c 



.owing. 



law. 



.saw 
can. 



j)r, high- 



_go, ago. 



Written on the Line 

if V^ liim, may. 



Jiave. 



<^ 



Jhink C. 



_no, know. 



lhing_ 



them, they L Lord 

) 



so, UfcL 



jivas. 



1 



vour. 



.iire . 



shi.il J 
_U8ual-ly J— 



_we, way, awa y (^ 
-ye, holy_^__d_. 



Written through the Line 

youtli C own 

^}^oung. 



see, use. 



-UsCj whose_^ \_year li::;^ 

.wish, she J our, hour ^^ 



-r 



^ 



.difference j liew, hue ^ 



5-1 



Grammalogues 



a 


of " 
nil ^ 
owe 


on_ 


I 


an 
ah • 


_0_ 
_oh_ 


1 
1 

< 



Vowels and DiriiTiiOiSrGS 

Written above the Line 
Dots Dashes Angles and Curves 

antl I, eye with 

ought — ay, aye what. 

/ 1 — r 

. awe why beyon d _ 

Written on the Line 
Dots Dashes iVngles and Curv^es 

eh « to \ hut ! shoul d ^ h o w a when c. 

the . two, toov^he I who_i^^ — you q would-^- 

RuLE ; And and shouhl are written with an upwartl 

stroke. 

Sentences 



To be written in Shorthand 

Why, what woukl you do with it ? 
0, I owe all of it to you. 
Ought he and I to go beyond you ? 
Aye : he should go when you and I go. 
Oh ! who came with you and Ned ? 
Ah ! but the two were on the boat, too. 
How much of the cake should I take '? 
You ought to take all of it, I think. 
0, my eye may show the awe I feel. 



Oi) 



SENTE.X CES — IJSI \U GKAMMALOG UES. 

7'o Be Written in Shorthand. 

1. Ma had a cake to give to baby Faith, and Pa had 
a tame jay in a cage to give to Ray. 

'i. Ann may give a pink badge to Rab, and she may 
pay the lad to catch fish in the bay. 

."). Paul sliall buy chalk, a ball, tape, and a shawl, 
and he shall take all to Madge Page. 

4. Sarah and Mary saw Neal feed the sheep, the 

lamb, the deer and a tame ape at the beach. 

5. Belle may have given the red shell, the egg, the 

peach, and the bell to Earl, an hour ago. 

6. Emma and Ida saw the shy babe, Daisy, fall on 

the thick ice by the large elm, in the park. 

7. Harry King ate a ripe peach, and Mary, ISTellie, 

Jim, Jack, and Zida each ate a ripe pear. 

8. Pa bought a big load of hay, and a bag of seed 

at the mill on the road to the seashore. 

9. A year ago, Dannie and Rol)l)ie each had a red 

top, a ball, watch, a big dog, a goat, and a bell. 

10. Poor Ruth had a large rag doll and a pink cup, 

and Sadie had a cake and a pie in the booth. 

11. Fannie, 3'ou and Rob may take Luke and Guy to 

view the big ship in the bay, if you wish. 

12. Madge, you may look at the ladybug on the leaf, 

and you may also show it to Minnie. 

13. The tall young lad, Hugh, and poor Bob have a 

book, a rake, a hoe, a hook, and a new dime. 

14. Now teach bnby Laura to say, "meow" to the 

kittv, " bow-wow " to the dog, and "moo-moo" 
to the cow. 

15. Joy and Phebe took the lame boy Zaudok to the 

Zoo to see a bear, an elk, a vak, and an owl. 
56 



I_ 



\ 




^ 



^ 



-% 



1 



^ A. 



-25s_ 



iH 



y X 



) 



T 



Ji^ 



^ 



L 



-r 



<^ X 



J^ 



:^ y^ 



^ 



-^ 



\ 

• 


X 


• 
• 


~S^ 




^ 




z: . 6 


1 


\ 


^■^ '>>- 


■^ 


. rh . 


\ 


. \ 



— V 



J^ 



_x. 



M: 



J^ 



\ 




-7 



^ 



^ 



^ 



-t 



.-r 



~r 



-^<^ 



.^^ 



L 



./ 



■^ 



\ 



^ 



\ 



J2<^ 



,.^ 



V 



/\ 



4=- 



c 



rzn 



57 



C'lIJCVLES S. SW AXD SES. LOOPS ST AXD 

STR. 

With the shorthand signs given in the alphabet of 
consonants and vowels, the Avords of the English lan- 
guage can be written much more speedily than with 
ordinary script. Much greater rapidity, however, is 
obtained for reporting and other purposes, by using 
various forms of contraction and principles of ab- 
breviation. These must be thoroughly learned, if a 
writer desires to be able to keep pace Avith a ready 
speaker. 

Among the most frequently used consonants of the 
language is /5', with its heavy sound Z. This letter 
is represented, not only by a stroke, but also by a 
small circle, named Iss, Avhich is made one-fourth the 
length of the stroke consonant. It is used initially, 
linally and medially. It forms an easy method of 
joining one consonant with another. 

Kule I. Circle S is written initially or linally on 
the right side of straight downstrokes; on the upper 
side of A' and g aud all straight upstrokes; on 
the inside of curves; and on the outside of angles. 

Eule II. Circle S is always read first when at the 
beginning of a word outline, and last when at the 
end. 

Rule III. All voAvels are written and read to the 
stroke consonant, never to circle 8. 

58 



ClKCLES AND LoOl'S. 

Note. Tlic three rules for circle S apply also 
to writiug and reading the following circles and 
loops. 

Circle Sw, named Sway. A circle double the size 
of circle S, used initially only, and representing the 
double consonantal sound sw heard in swarm, sweet, 
swim. 

Circle Ss or Zs, named Ses. A double circle 
used finally or medially. It represents the sound of 
seSj scz, zes, zez as in passes, pauses, necessity. 

Circle Ses includes the second place short vowel. 
When other vowels are in the word they must be 
written within the circle, as in exhaust, exist. 

S may be added to circle Ses by continuing the 
curve of the circle to the opposite side of the stroke 
to wliich it is attached, thus forming another small 
circle as in success. 

Loop St, named Stee, represents the closely blend- 
ed consonant sounds st initial, and st or zd final, 
heard in post, taste, massed, caused. 

This loop is a small loop, one-half the length of a 
stroke consonant. S may be added to it as for circle 
Ses; as in posts, masts. When a vowel occurs be- 
tween s and t, use circle s and stroke t, not loop Stee. 

Loop Str, named Ster, is loop St enlarged and 
lengthened. It is made two-thirds the length of the 
stroke to Avliieli it is attached. It is generally used 
finally, but in a few words it is employed medially; 
as in masterpiece, registering, upholsterer. It is 
never used initially. It takes a final s in the same 
manner as Ses and Stee, by continuing the curve of 
the loop across the stroke to form a circle. 

59 



Circles and Loops 





Table of 


Circles and Loops 








Sign 


Name 


For 


As in 


Circle 


S 


o 


Iss 


s or z 


spade 


Loop 


St 





Stee 


st or zd 


stage 


Circle 


Sw 


O 


Sway 


sw 


sweep 


Loop 


Ster 


O 


Ster 


ster 


master 


Circle 


Ss 


o 


Ses 
Note 


ses 


passes 



Sw is used initially only. 

Ster and Ses are used medially or finally. 

Iss and Stee are used initially, medially or finally. 

Circle Ss stands for ses, sez, zes or zez. 

Circle S Initial 



slay sla 

sleigh sla 

spade spad 

safe saf 

sage sag 

sake sak 

slake slak 

snake snak 

spake spak 

sail sal 

snail snal 



V- 






r 

r 



scale skal 

same sam 

sane san 

seine san 

scape skap 

save sav 

slave slav 

scathe skath 

spathe spath 

scare skar 

snare snar 



ci_. 



GO 



rii{(LE S Initial 



spare 

sliib 



spai- 
slab C\ 




small 
sawn 



OiRci.K S Initial 



sky ski a slow slo 6^ 

sly sli 6 snow sno *5— ^ 

spy spi ^v soak sok '^ — 



V, 



sighed sid v I smoke sinok 

spike spik \ v soul sol 6 

smile smil 6 v^^ , sewn son *^-^ 



slime slim 6 soap sop /\ 

sign sin ^— ^ scope skoj) • \ 

sire sir v\ soar sor ' * 

spire spir J^-^ snore snor « ^ 

sight sit vi .sloth sloth ^ 

scythe sith vV sob sob ^X 

slid slid b] sod sod I 

skill skil ^P^ sol sol ^o 

skim skim Q — -—-^ sons; soni!- '^^^ 

slim slim 6 solve solv ^6 v 

skip skip V spool spol \/~ 



snip snip N soon son 

sit sit .1 soup sop 

sieve siv vL sloop slop ^ /^ p 

smith smith ( soot sot «l 

sling sling ^"^^ sooth soth > 

singe sinj ^/ smooth smoth ( 

silk silk 6 soothe soth v 



62 



CirvCLE S Initial 




g;3 



sun 

son 

siicli 

slush 

sung 

slung 

sponge 

sulk 

sunk 

skunk 

spunk 
slunk 
sculp 
stulp 
sump 

slump 

soot 

soil 

spoil 

scow 

scowl 

sour 

scour 

slouch 



sun <u^ 

sun <2^L^ 
such 7 
slush ^^ 
sung <5j^ 
slung 6^ 
spunj \y 
sulk ^ 
suno;k 
skungk 
spungk \^^ 
slungk 
skulp 

stulp t\ 'r\ 

sump (^~N^ 
slump C^ 

sut I 

soil -7^ 

spoil \^ 
skou 
skoul 




A 



Q- 



sour '3~~>| 
skour *^~^ 
slouch ^^ 



basG 

raise 

neighs 

hipse 

thanks 

pahns 

psahiis 



gauze 



Circle S Final and Medial 
bas \? 



raz 
naz 






hips ^^ 
thangks 
pamz \^ 
samz (T-^ 



gaz 



false 


fals 


cheese 


chez 


seei's 


serz 


purse 


pers 


nice 


nis 


this 


this 


phiz 


fiz 


lynx 


lino-l 


snows 


snoz 


oaths 


othz 







c 

y^ 



tongs 

sluice 

youths 

A'iews 



tongz \^ 

SIOS (T^N 

uthz (^ 

YUZ (^. 




c 



bask bask 

chasm kasm 

spasm spazm 

casks kasks 

masks masks 

rasps rasps <'^\q 

gasps gasps '■ \o 

desks desks i—o 

risks risks y^ ^ 

schism sizm ^^-^ 

Hsps lisps /No 

mosque mosk 



wasps 

tusks 

musty 

chosen 

oxen 

visit 

tasty 

music 

unsafe 

dismay 



wasps 

tusks 

musti 

chozn 

oksen 

vizit 

tasti 

musik 

unsaf 

disma 




-Q ^ 



Hu 



l^ 



Gl 



Loop St Initial 



staid 
stage 
stake 
steak 
stale 
staiD 
stare 
stair 
state 
stave 

stab 

stag 
stack 

star 
starch 

stall 
stalk 

staff 

steed 

steal 

steel 

steam 

steep 

steer 



stad 

stag 

stak 

stak 

stal 

stan 

star 

star 

stat 

stav 

stab 

stag 

stak 

star 

starch 

stal 

stak 

staf 

sted 

stel 

stel 

stem 

step 

ster 



•/ 



r 






r 



°^ 



stead 

stem 

step 

stet 

stir 

stile 

style 

stiff 

stitch 

sting 

stone 

store 

storm 

stove 

stock 

stop 

stool 

stoop 

stub 

stuff 

stung 

stood 

sticks 

stoves 



sted 

stem 

step 

stet 

stir 

stil 

stil 

stif 

stich 

sting 

ston 

stor 

storm 

stov 

stok 

stop 

stol 

stop 

stub 

stuf 

stung 

stud 

stiks 

stovs 



i 



£~\ 



\ 



\ 

f 

r 
\ 



I 



65 



baste 
paste 
taste 
waste 
fast 
cast 
mast 
vast 
least 
yeast 
jest 
rest 
west 
zest 
chest 
next 
vexed 
wrist 
wist 
xyst 
schist 
twist 
toast 
cost 



Loop St Final and Medial 
bast 



past 

tast 

wast 

fast 

kast 

mast 

vast 

lest 

yest 

jest 

rest 

west 

zest 

chest 

nekst 

vekst 

rist 

wist 

zist 

shist 

twist 

tost 

kost 



b 



^ 



/ 



/ 



J 

I-- 

V 



V 



Q 



just just /^ 

dust dust 

burst burst 

durst durst 

worst wurst 

moist moist ^ 

tastes tasts 

feasts fests 

guests gests 

posts posts 

rusts rusts 

joists joists 

(Zd) ) 

dazed dazd 

raised razd 

^seized sezd 

caused kazd 

fused fuzd 
noised noizd 
roused rouzd 

(St medial) £P ^ 
vestry vestre t^' 

jesting jesting X_^ 

testing testing |)r^^ 



4- 
X 

I 



-r 



^ 



A 



QQ, 



Circle Sw, Loop Str, Circle Ses 



swage 

swathe 

suave 

swear 

swag 

swarm 

swarth 

sweep 

sweet 

suite 

swedge 

swell 

sweat 

swii'l 

swine 

swim 

switch 

swinge 

swish 

swing 

swore 

swan 

swoon 

swung 



swath * v 
swav vl 'vl 
swar M 

SAvao; ^ 

swarm ' ^ — - 
swarth 'CV^ 



swep 

swet 

swet 

swej 

swel 

swet 

swerl 

swin 

swim 

swich 



.P 



P. 



swinj 
swish 

swing Q_y 

swor ^^^ 

swon Cl_y 

swon Q-^ 
swung Q^ 



(Loop 8tr) 
master-ster 
pastor-ster 
faster-ster 
waster-stcr 
posters-sters 
<lu!^ters-sters 
coaster-ster 
lobster-ster 
masterpiece 
(Circle Ses) 

faces-sez 
masses-sez 
vases-sez 
cases-sez 
laces-sez 
mosses-sez 
thesis-sis 
exist-zist 
necessity 
races-sez 
recess-sess 
paces-sez 
possess-zess 

67 



J? 

6. 






^ 



^ 



USE STEOKE N 01? Z. 

When it is tJio only consonant in a word, and in 
derivatives from such words: saw, sawmill. 

When a word begins with the sound of z: zeal, 
zero. 

When initial 5 is followed by two vowels, or when 
final s is preceded by two vowels ; Siam, chaos. 

When a word begins with a vowel followed by s 
or ends with a vowel preceded by s: aside, also, daisy. 

When a word begins with s followed by a vowel 
and another s or z; sauce, seize, season. 

Note. — When a word ends with s preceded by a 
vowel and another s, either a stroke or a circle may 
be used; recess, disuse. 

SENTENCES USING CIECLES AND LOOPS. 

1. The day is sunny and the roads are dusty, so 
Susie and Stella Eice are sighing because they must 
stay indoors to-day and sew rags. 

2. Elsie Lomas, Zoe Mills, Bess Sidney and Sophie 
Davis also, have come to the apiary in Siento. They 
like the noisy buzzing of the fussy, busy bees. 

3. Silas Madison was on the steep, stony south 
bank with James Lee and Sam Smith, two hours ago, 
and saw six joyous boys .swimming in Zigzag Bay. 

4. Did you see Ulysses Sampson? He tosses his 
huge ball faster and faster in the games, and Seth 
Shirley shows as much skill in catching it each time. 

5. Amos Scottie sells eggs, milk and cheese in the 
city and takes pay in books, toys, bags, swings, which 
he sells in his new big store at Lodiz. 

68 



Stroke S 



say 
ace 

as 

saw 

see 

ease 

ice 
sigh 

is 

so 
sue 
use 
use 

as 

soy 

sow 

zax 

zee 

zeal 

zinc 

zoo 

zero 

ooze 

acid 



)• 
•) 
■) .° 

r 

X 

.) 

V) V) 

.) o 

)- 

)- 
). 

y 



sa 

as 

az 

sa 

se 

ez 

is 

si 

iz 

so 

su 

uz 

uz 

us 

soi 

so 

zaks 

ze 

zel 

zingk 

zo /^ 

zero l^ 

oz *-/ 

asid / 



ask 

asp 

espy 

essay 

usage 

daisy 

season 

disuse 

busy 

also 

says 

sauce 

cease 

seize 

sighs 

sizz 

sues 

souse 

suet 

Siam 

chaos 

osmose 

zigzag 

joyous 



ask 

asp 

espi 

essa 

uzaj 

daze 



■1_ 
1 



sezn 

disus 

bizi 

also 

sez 

sas 

ses 

sez 

siz 

siz 

suz 

sous 

suet 

Siam 

kaos 

osmos 



i 



• /> 



' ^ 



Zigzag 
joins 



1^ 



i 



r 



GU 



Circle and Loop Grammalogues 



1. Written above the Line 

o . O ^-g, 

as as IS. myself .. 

has. ^ . . . . . has his thyself ^ 

, O . ^T^ , '^^ 

as has ••.••• most . . ^ because . 

' CJ / 

as his those. . .^ mistake ^^ — 

* ' • ■ • ■ • « • . - 

2. Written on the Line 

is o this (o subject y 

his o must ^-^ liimself ^-^ 

his is O next ^^ Saviour C_ 

is as O yes <^ several v_ 

is his O house <^ respected ^\ 

first ^ expect \ yesterday ^ 

us so / special \ something <r^^.^^ 

was / respect /^ themselves O 

3. Written through the Line 

see ). . . . whose ) speak . ^. 



use (noun) ...)... thus 4 youths Q ■ 

use (verb) } these 4 •• itself, f. 



2. 



70 



X 



"WORDS TO BE WRITTEN IN SHORTHAND. 



barge 


march 


widest 


vouch 


bulge 


space 


chalk 


tongue 


check 


spice 


guest 


force 


causes 


fence 


yeast 


swage 


voice 


lustre 


azure 


usage 


lance 


white 


rhymes 


whisk 


leave 


wades 


yells 


sneeze 


nymph 


wails 


stage 


sweep 


duster 


. pause 


steep 


quick 


thuiiil) 


basque 


aches 


quill 


wrest 


juicy 


thence 


gongs 


waste 


chase 


sense 


charge 


swims 


chasm 


salve 


lamps 


scorch 


lapse 


storm 


guava 


niece 


length 


sauce 


guess 


caste 


while 


nicest 


berth 


casks 


yelps 


earth 


sights 


aisle 


youth 


swoon 


dodge 


lanced 


dupes 


swarm 


dames 


share 


badges 


shame 


teams 


wasps 


mouse 


starch 


rouse 


whips 


parks 


laugh 


puzzle 


bough 


psalm 


noise 


vague 


stitch 


wages 


nicer 


bench 


twice 


boyish 


twist 


beach 


swing 


gnash 


lances 


guile 


swamp 


douse 


rages 


dollar 


range 


dozen 


match 


booms 


lawyer 


bases 


marsh 


pulse 


catch 


passed 
71 


sixth 


palms 



Double Consonants 




rl 



chl 




kl 



pr 




cJtr 



kr 



i\ 



The l^EL Hook Series 



The Per Hook Series 



Name Sign Letters 


As in 


Name Si^n 


Letters 


As in 


Pel \ pi 


play 


Per 'X 


pr 


prow 


Bel \ bl 


blay 


Ber \ 


br 


brow 


Tel f tl 


total 


Ter 


tr 


try 


Del f (11 


fiddle 


Der 1 


dr 


dry 


Chel / chl 


satchel Cher / 


chr 


archer 


Jel / jl 


agile 


Jer / 


.)!• 


major 


Kel c^ kl 


clad 


Ker < — 


kr 


crow 


Gel c_ gl 


glad 


Gei- c— 


OT 


grow 




Curves 






Fel CL^ fl 


flag 


Fer ^-^ 


tr 


fray 


Vel C ^ vl 
Thel CO thl 


evil 


Ver e '^ 


vr 


ever 


Ethel 


Ther 


thr 


ether 


Thel C thl 




•Ther ( ') 


thr 


either 


Shel D shl 


bushel 


Sher J 


shr 


usher 






Zher J 


zhr 


measure 


Mel Cr\ ml 


camel 


Mer <r-^ 


mr 


murmur 


Nel Cl^ nl 


final 


Ner <i_^ 


nr 


dinner 


— 




. Ngker 


C-^ 


{ngkr 


banker 






Ngger 

72 


<L^ 


Inggr 


finger 



DOUBLE CONSONANTS. 

THE L AND 11 HOOKS, 

The liquids I and /• often unite closely and blend 
with other consonants forming one sound : as in play, 
pray, blow, brow, flow, fry, glee, grow. These con- 
sonantal diphthongs are represented by an initial 
hook, written at the beginning of the single conson- 
ants, forming two series of double consonants, which 
are considered ami named as syllables; as per, ber, 
pel, bel, not pee-ar, bee-ar, pee-el, bee-el. Those 
formed by prefixing the L hook arc classed as the PI 
Series ; those with the R hook as the Pr Series. 

Vocalization. Vowels are written and read to the 
double consonants as for the single consonants. 

Stuaiuiit Letteks. The hook prefixed to the 
straight downstrokcs turns toward the right for I 
and toward the left for r. This may be illustrated 
by raising the index finger of each hand and bending 
it to indicate the hook. A hooked piece of wire or 
cardboard will also serve for illustration. Held in a 
Horizontal, slanting and vertical position the fingers, 
wire or cardboard may be employed to show each of 
the hooked straight consonants. When writing these 
double consonants turn to the left for /, and toward 
the right for /•. Notice that the I hook is on the up- 
per side, and the r hook on the under side of the h 
and g strokes. 

Curved Letters. A small hook written inside of 
a curved letter at the beginning, stands for r. 

A curve cannot be hooked on two sides, so a Uirge 

73 



hook twice the size of the r hook is used to add I to 
/, V, th, sh, m, and n. 

Ng and E. Ng when hooked for r does not repre- 
sent ngr, heeause this sound occurs in but few words ; 
these shoukl be written in full; as singer, wringer. 
JV^ when hooked is employed for nghr and nggr; as in 
lanher and finger, 

Reading. In reading hooked forms always read 
the stem before the hook; as pi, pr, not Ip, rp. A 
vowel preceding a hooked form is read first. When 
the vowel is written after the stem, read the double 
consonant first. The stem and hook should be pro- 
nounced in one breath. 

Prefixing S to Hooked Letters. Circle s is 
written inside of the hook for all letters of the Pel 
series. 

S is prefixed to straight letters hooked for r, by 
closing the hook, thus making a small circle. This 
circle need not be mistaken for circle s, because it is 
always on the r hook or left side of the vertical and 
sloping strokes, and on the under side of h and g. 
Circle s is written for s, inside of the r hook of curved 
letters; it is also used when the circle and hook 
occur medially or finally, except when following a 
straight stroke in the same direction. 

After T or D. When s follows t or d the circle is 
written on the right side of these letters; as in disa- 
gree, disgrace, tasker. 

Sw AND St, The large circle sw and the loop st 

may be prefixed, to strokes hooked for r, by closing 

the hook as when .s is prefixed to r. 

74 



Letters Not Hooked. The stroke consonants s, 
z, El, Ar, Ray, w, y. It, are not hooked for I or r. The 
curve zli and ny are hooked for r, making zlir and 
nykr or nygr. 

Note. Upward E when hooked is used for w or y. 
See "Consonant Alphabet." 

EIGHT extra signs. 

1. Ar hooked initially for fr. 

2. Ar thickened and hooked initially for vr. 

3. S hooked initially for thr. 

4. Z hooked initially for the-r. 

5. Ar with double-sized initial hook for fi. 

(i. Fl thickened becomes vl. 

7. and 8. S and Z with double-sized hook stand 
for till and the-1 respectively. 

When any of these four double consonants of the 
PI series is preceded by a consonant, the extra sign 
may be used ; rifle, cavil, Bethel. 

When any of the four double consonants belonging 
to the Pr Series is preceded by a vowel, the regular 
form is used; offer, affray, either, ever. When fol- 
lowed by a vowel the extra sign is employed; fro, 
three, fray. 

Wlien joined to a consonant either the regular or 
the extra sign may be used as may be most conven- 
ient ; frog, tlirob, Friday, favor. 



75 



The Pl Hook 



clay 

play 

plague 

blame 

claim 

blare 

place 

blaze 

glaze 

black 

plaque 

clap 
glass 

class 
clash 
plash 
clang 
blank 
clank 
plank 

claw 
clause 

glee 

plea 



kla 

pla 

plag 

blam 

klani 

blar 

plas 

blaz 

glaz 

blak 

plak 

klap 

glas 

klas 

klash 

plash 

klang 

blangk 

klangk 

plangk 

kla 

klaz 

gle 

pie 




^ 



V 



v_ 


r 


C O 


c 


3 


^—^ 


\ ^ 


c 


<- 
1 

r O 



plead 
bleak 

clique 

gleam 
clear 

please 

bless 

plead 

pledge 

ply 

clime 

climb 

blight 

blithe 

click 

clip 

bliss 

clinch 

cling 

blow 

glow 

globe 

cloak 

close 



V 



TiiK Vl Hook 



close 

clothe 

clock 

cloth 

bloom 




kloiui ^ 



77 



The Pr Hook 




78 



TiiK Pi; Hook 




79 



TlIK 1*K TTOOK 




])ron,o; 

throng 

l)iew 

drew 

grew 

crew 

true 

threw 

tlirough 

shi'ew 

slirewd 

l)rooni 

groojn 

droop 

group 

crouj) 

troop 

troupe 

ci'ulse 

cruse 

truce 

cruise 

bruise 

truth 



prong 
throng 2.^^ 
l)ro N^^ 

dro 1- 

gro <^ — i 

kro c — i 

tro 

thro 

thro 

shro 

shrod 



I 



brom 



gi-onv 



1. 




80 



The Vn Hook 



shrub 


slirub 


drug 


drug 


shrug 


shrug 


drudge 


druj 


grudge 


giuj 


truck 


truk 


drum 


drum 


crurab 


krum 


thjujii 


thrum 


crutch 


kruch 


brush 


brush 


brush 


thrush 


biusque 


brusk 


l>rook 


bruk 


troy 


troi 


broil 


broil 


brow 


brou 


prow- 


prou 


crowd 


kroud 


pioud 


proud 


growl 


groul 


grouse 


grous 


crouch 


krouch 


drouth 


drouth 




Spr Hook 



spray 

stray 

scrape 

strange 

scrag 

scrap 

strap 

scratch 

sprang 

straw 

scrawl 

sprawl 

streak 

scream 

stream 

screech 

spread 

stress 

sti-etch 

strength 

spry 

scribe 

strike 

stripe 



spr a 

stra 

skrap 

stranj 

skrag 

skrap 

strap 

skrach 

sprang 

stra 

skrawl 

spral 

strek 

skrem 

strem 




I r 



skrech ,/ 

spred ^ 

stres \ 

strech 

stren 

spii 

skrib ^^ 

strik \_ 

strip 



ength L/ 



1 



V 



sprig 
strick 
scrim 
scrip 
strip 
spring 
strmg 
scringe 
springe 
strow 
strode 
stroke 
scroll 
stroll 
strop 
strong 
screw 
sprew 
strew 
spruce 
scrub 
scrunch 
sprung- 
strung 



sprig 

strik 

skrim 

skrip 

strip 

spring 

string 

skrinj 

sprinj 

stro 

strod 

strok 

skrol 

strol 

strop 

strong 

skro 

spro 

stro 

spr-os 

skrub 

skrunch 



sprung 
strung 



1 



88 



Pl Grammalogles 



I. Written above the Line 
apply at all 



call 



2. VV^ritten on the Line 
able \ deliver-ed I cqual-ly c 

glory <. delivery I glorify-ied 

o. Written through the Line 
till . r . belief, believe-d ...SL^.- ...evil, .. (^ 

Pr Grammalogues 



more. 
nor_ 



L Written above the Line 

Scripture 



.Doctor. 



1 



.remark-GtL 



oven 



^ 



. larger. 



7 



X!hristian-ity. 



Jiberty_ 



\ 



for ^ 
from ^ 



dear 
care 
near 
chair 

sure_ 
true_ 



1 



7 
3. 



2. Written on the Line 
Mr, mere ^~n .r-x 
their, there ) ) 
they are ) 

pleasure J 

member 'X 

remember-ed \ 

W^ritten throuo'h the Line 
numbei'-ed 



^ 






.principal-ly. 






very 
ever 
every 
other V 
truth 1 
strength ] 

durin.^- | 



howevei' 



cheer. 



-y2 — threw, through-^) ') — principle 

83 



^ 



SENTEATCES. 

TO BE WRITTEN IX SHOKTHAXD. 

Blanche Blake bought six bushels of large apples 
for two dollars, and Belle Black bought eight bushels 
of pears for four dollars. 

Ethel and Eliza Clyde are in Florida with Mabel 
Oakley. The people are pleased with them because 
they make candy for the boys' picnic. 

Claude Blair and Clare Clark are in the same 
class. They like ])lay too well to study lessons. 

The clock struck three. Bruce Jeffryes and Tracey 
Glover took their books home, ate some cake and an 
apple, and were at the ball match in time to play 
the game. 

Crows troiible the farmers, who make scarecrows 
to keep the pests away from their farms. The crows 
caw and caw, and fly away. 

Farmer Brewster has thirty large cherry trees. In 
summer, he sells the cherries to city grocers. In the 
fall he sells peaches, apples and pears to the same 
people. To other grocers he sells milk, eggs, butter, 
cheese and other produce from his farm. 

Frank Granger and his brother Fred broke off 
branches from the tree that grew by the brook. They 
crossed the strong bridge over the creek and saw three 
French boys on the road to Granby. All took a long 
trip through the woods to the lake to fish, sail and 
swim until sunset. 

"Home, home ! Sweet, sweet home ! 
Be it ever so humble. 
There's no place like home.'" 

—J. H. Payne. 
8-i 



Final Hook Consonants 





F AND V Hook N Hook 

Name Sii^n Letters As in Name Sign Letters As in 



Pef \. 

Bef V) 

Tef I 

Def I 

Chef / 

Jef / 

Kef —3 

Gev -^ 

Ref y 

Wef o^ 

Yef y 

Hef y 

Fen C 
Yen L 
Thin L 
Then C 
Sen ) 
Zen ) 



bf 
tf 
df 
ehf 

jf 

kf 

gv 
rf 
wf 

yf 

hf 

fn 

vn 

thn 

thn 

sn 



puff Pen \ 

buff Ben N 

tough Ten J 

deaf Den J 

chaff Chen J 

Jeff Jen J 

cuff Ken — ; 

Gen — 

Ren 



gave 
roof 



woof Wen 



pn 
bn 
tn 
dn 
chn 

j» 
kn 

gn 

in 

wn 



yaff Yen cr yn 

hoof Hen <s^ hn 

N Hook Curves 

fine Shen cJ shn 

vine Zhen <J zhn 

thigh Men '— ^ mn 

thy Nen ^- — ' nn 

assign Ingen >— ^ ngn 

zone Len f In 
85 



pun 

bun 

twine 

dine 

chain 

Jane 

cane 

gain 

run 

won 

yawn 

hone 

shine 

moon 
noon 
Bingen 
fallen 



THE FINAL F OK V HOOK. 

A small final hook named "Pef/' written on the 
circle s or right hand side of straight downstrokes, 
on the npper side of A; and g and upstrokes, repre- 
sents the final sound of F or V. 

The F or Y hooks cannot he added to curves. Cir- 
cle s may he added to this F or V hook ; it must he 
written inside the hook, and so that the hook may 
be clearly seen. Circle Ses and loops Stee and Ster 
are too large to he written inside of the n and / 
hooks. For this reason, nsez, nst, nster require the 
stroke u with the large circle or loop, when follomng 
a curved consonant: as in lances, fences, monster. 

The F or V hook may be used medially when it 
makes an easy and clear joining with the following 
stroke. 

When a final vowel follows a final f ov v sound use 
stroke / or v and not the hook. 

PEOVEEBS. 

No pains, no gains. No cross, no crown. 
He that would thrive, must rise at five. 
He that hath thriven may lie till seven. 
Small service is true service while it lasts. 

SENTENCES. 

Nathan Brown and John Green are full of grief. 
They drove fast to catch the half-past five train for 
Penn Grrove; they ran into an old stone fence and 
upset their team and their plans. 

86 



F OK V Hooks 



wait* 


waf 


t^'* 


cliafe 


chaf 


/• 


gave 


gav 


— i 
• 


cave 


kav 


• 


pave 
rave 


pav 

rav 




wave 


wav 


c^. 


waive 


wav 


^ 


brave 


brav 


X 


grave 


grav 


• 


crave 
chaff 


krav 
chaf 


-y- 


calf 


kaf 


• 


cough 


kaf 


-> 
1 

r 


trough 


traf 


beef 


bef 


\- 


(leaf 


(lef 


I. 


reef 


ref 


^' 


chief 


chef 


/. 


brief 


bref 


\. 


grief 


gref 


(V 


breve 


brev 


X. 



sleeve slev 6 V. 



I 



weave wev 

deaf def 

chef shef 

clef kief --r 

dive div ^ ^ 

hive hiv <^ 

drive driv 

tiff tif L 

cliff klif 

dove dov 

cove kov 



L 



I- 



rove rov -^ 






wove wov 

clove klov 

drove drov 

grove grov 

doffs dofs 

trough trof 

I'oofs rofs ^^ 

woof wof 

proof prof 



h 



1^' ou \ Hooks 



bull" l)uf \) 
cuff kiiC -^ 
iniifis milt's 



I 



putt's j)ut's \s 

lutls lut's ^ 

rough iiil' Xf 

tougli tut' u 

grutt' glut' «^ 

bluH" blut' ^ 

tluti" tlut' 

doves (luvz b 

gloves gluvz 



strife strif (^^ 

strive striv l v 

strove sti'ov i 
z'dvi 




scart 
dwart 
sert 
suit 
tuit 
carve karv 
serve serv 
swerve swerv 



zait' V^ 

slvaif 9 /J 

dwarf ly^ 
serf 



serf 
terf 






^ 




\> 




THE FINAL N HOOK. 

The N hook, named Pen, is a small final hook 
added to all letters, whether single, hooked, circled 
or looped, to represent the sound of final n. 

No vowel can be placed to or read after the 71 
hook. 

The n hook is written on the left hand or r side of 
straight downstrokes (opposite the circle s side) ; on 
the under side of h and y and straight upstrokes; 
and on the inside of curves. 

Circle S, Ses, Stee and Ster may be added to the 
n hook by changing the hook into a small or a large 
circle, or into a small or a large loop; as in pains, 
trances, glanced, punster. 

In the n hook at the end of curves, circle s or z, 
can be written, but not Ses, Stee or Ster. 

The n hook may be used medially when it will 
make a good joining with the following letters ; as in 
finish, ransom. 

Between two consonants a small circle stands for 
s and cannot represent ns, which requires the hook 
and the circle. 

The stroke u and not the hook must be used when 
a final vowel that is sounded follows n; as in many, 
funny. 

After a curved consonant the stroke n and circle 
s must be used for anse, ense, inse, ance, ence, and 
ince. Exception : When I follows another consonant, 
— as in l)alance, — use the hook and circle. 

8hn when written upward and In when written 
dowmward should never stand alone. They would be 
mistaken for sJir and irl respectively. 

89 



The N Hook 



bane 

deign 

feign 

fain 

fane 

gain 

jean 

cane 

lane 

lain 

mane 

main 

pain 

pane 

rain 

rein 

reioii 

vain 

vane 

wain 

wane 

chain 



ban 

dan 

fan 

foil 

fon 

gan 

jan 

kan 

Ian 

Ian 

man 

man 

pan 

pan 

ran 

ran 

ran 

van 

van 

wan 

wan 

chan 



J- 









brain 
di'ain 



gram 



crane 

train 

ban 

fan. 

khan 

man 

pan 

ran 

tan 

van 

than 

clan 

plan 

bran 

dawn 

fawn 

faiin 

lawn 

pawn 



bian 

dran 

gran 

kran 

tian 

ban 

fan 

kan 

man 

pan 

ran 

tan 

van 

than 

klan 

plan 

bran 

dan 

fan 

flm 

Ian 

pan 



3- 



^ • -> 

1. 



J' 

s 

'. 3 



J' 



J' 

c 
c 



90 



bean 

dean 

keen 

lean 

lien 

mean 

mien 

mesne 

ween 

wean 

glean 

clean 

green 

den 

fen 

hen 

ken 

men 

pen 

wren 

ten 



ben 

den 

ken 

len 

len 

men 

men 

men 

wen 

wen 

glen 

klen 

gren 

den 

fen 

hen 

ken 

men 

pen 

ren 

ten 



J. 

D 

n 



J • 



The N Hook 

dine din 

fine fin 

line lin 

mine min 

nine nin 

pine pin 

vine vin 

wine win 

twine twin 

thine thin 

shine shin 

brine brin 

bin bin 

pin pin 

tin tin 

win win 

chin chin 

shin shin 

thin thin 



grm grin 



J 



c 



V 



V 



6 

J. 
V 



J. 

/ 
J 



bone bon >> 



91 



moan 

mown 

known 

tone 

zone 

slione 

shown 

drone 

groan 

grown 

crone 

prone 

throne 

thrown 

gone 

wan 

yon 

boon 

coon 

loon 

moon 

noon 

prune 

tune 



mon 

nion 

non 

ton 

zon 

shon 

shon 

dron 

gron 

gron 

kron 

pron 

thron 

thron 

gon 

won 

yon 

bon 

kon 

Ion 

mon 

non 

pron 

tun 



J. 



y 






L 



The N Hook 

bun 

dun 

fun 

gun 

none 

nun 

pun 

run 

tun 

ton 

won 

one 

shun 

down 

gown 

noun 

town 

clown 

brown 

drown 

frown 

crown 

join 

coin 

9-3 



J- 



J- 



bun 

dun 

fun 

gun 

nun 

nun 

pun 

run 

tun 

tun 

wun 

wun 

shun <Vn 

doun J A 

goun ^ 

noun ^—^ 

A 

toun J^ 
kloun 
broun '^z 
droun ]^ 

froun ^^A 
kroun c — ^ 
join {/ 

koin ^ ^ 



A 



bairn 

cairn 

tairn 

barn 

darn 

tarn 

yarn 

born 

corn 

lorn 

morn 

thorn 

earn 

urn 

burn 

fern 

learn 

turn 

yearn 

churn 

borne 

mourn 



barn 

karn 

tarn 

barn 

darn 

tarn 

yarn 

barn 

karn 

larn 

niarn 

tharn 

ern 

ern 

bern 

fern 

lorn 

tern 

yern 

chern 

born 

morn 



Tmi; N Hook and Xs 



l 



y 



V- 



o 



v^ 



x^ 



manse 

dance 

lance 

chance 

glance 

prance 

trance 

dense 

fence 

sense 

tense 

thence 

mince 

rinse 

since 

wince 

pi'ince 

dunce 

once 

ounce 

bounce 

Hounce 
93 



J 



J- 



^ 



prms 

duns 

wuns 

ouns 

bouns 

tlouns 



]> 

^ 






splay spla x 

splayed splad ^ ^. 

splash splash ^ 

splice splis \o 



Spl Hook, Etc. 

spliced splist ^^ 

splotch sploch N 

splunge splunj ^-Ly 

splurge splurj \j>/ 



Grammalogues 



hish./^ 



while 



(7 



. Above the Line 
0, oh, owe -. 



tell I 

whether C/ 
well, will 



\ 



to-day 

to-morrow ^—^y, 
yesterday <^ 
Sunday ^^' 
Monday " \' 
Tuesday ^ 
Wednesday <y^' 
Thursday cT 
Friday _ ' ^. 
Saturday V\ 



impoi'tant 

2. On the Line 
Saviour v_ 
themselves \D 
phonography V;> 

Time Wokds 

seasons J^^p 

minutes 

hourly ^ 

daily 

weekly 

monthly 

yearly 

century 

January l_^ 

February 



importance 
significance 



improve-d ^ 
improvement 
improvements 




September ^ — ^ 

October /\, 

November ^~"V 

December 1 — ^ 



94 



EK\ li:\V.— L. i;. \ AXI> F TTOOKS 

A HOOK MAY BK ADDED TO ALL 

.Straight stroke consonants and to some curved for "].'' 
Straiglit stroke consonants and to some curved for "r." 
Consonant strokes, whether straight or curved for '"n." 
Straight stroke consonants only, for "/ or v." 

Name Position 

The 1 hook Initial, medial or final. 

The r hook Initial, medial or final. 

The n hook Final or medial, only. 

The f or v hook Final or medial, only. 
(Fl, vL ihl. ilic-L fr. rr. thr. fhc-r. have two forms.) 

Whex S is Prefixed to Hook 

1 — the circle must be shown within the hook, 
r — close the hook, thus making it a circle. 

Whex S is Added to Hook 

n — straight strokes — change the hook into a circle, 
n — curved strokes — write the circle within the hook, 
f or V — write the circle inside of the hook. 
Stee, Str and Ses can not he used with n or f hooks. 

Letters Xot Hooked for 

1— S, Z, Zh, Xg, Lay, El, Ray. Ar, Way, Yay. Hay. 
r — S, Z, Lay, El, Ray, Ar, Way, Yay, Hay. 
n — (All consonants may be hooked for n.) 
f or V — All curved stroke consonants. 

Sentences for Shorthand 

Last summer Andrew Sherman read three books 
of travel. At Christmas, he gave them to !Milton 
Fletcher, to place in the village librarv in Stratton. 

95 



THE -TIOX HOOK. 
Rules for Writing -tion. 

The termination -tion, spelled tian, cian, sian, Gion, 
shion, is shown by a large final hook. When it fol- 
lows a curved letter it is written in the curve like the 
final 11 hook. It may be written on either side of a 
straight consonant. When it follows a simple 
straight consonant the hook is written opposite the 
last vowel. 

After a straight letter which has an initial hook, 
circle or loop, or which springs from a curve, the 
-Tion hook is written on the opposite side to keep the 
letter straight; as in attrition, repletion. 

After t, d, or j, not beginning with a hook, circle 
or loop, the -Tion hook is written on the right of the 
stroke without respect to the vowel. 

The -Tion hook may be used medially when it 
makes a good joining with the following letter; na- 
tionally, fashionable. 

When two distinct vowels occur immediately be- 
fore -Tion hook, write stroke sli and the n hook; as 
in tuition, situation, valuation. 

After circle s or ns, -Tion is shown by continuing 
the circle to the opposite side of the stroke forming 
a back hook; as in transition, possession. This may 
also be used medially. Circle S may be added by 
writing the circle within the -Tion hook; as in 
rations, stations. 

The back -Tion hook is vocalized by writing the 
third place vowel within or at the end of the hook, 
and the second place vowel outside of the hook; 
position ; posession. 

96 



GUAMMALOGUES AND CONTRACTIONS 



Final Hook Gkammalogues 

1. Written above tlie Line 
Iiappen___^ ofteii__::l approve 



2. Written on the Line 

upo n ^^ opinio n v, j> never. 

hnftn Ns lieaven L^ above N) 

fionn vl 2;eneral iL. iidvantaffe L — 



nnp ,y^ ofncriilly </ which haVC — C— 

3. Wi'itten through tlie Line 
flown I .within L difficult | 



nven ( i-eligion — ^ tliliiculty _J 

-TiON Hook Contractions 



.seetion_£=r^__inforniation_^;:r_ subscription ^»— 9- 

nntion -^^ D destruction J resurrection^ 

session c) publication \ _transiJi-ession^ 

objection V t ransniissionJrr^representation 



^^ 






V^ 



or 



Additional Double Consonants 



Name Si<Mi Letters As in 



Kway 


r 




kw 


quick 


Gway 
Wei 


r" 




gw 
wl 


guano 
will 


Whel 


(T 




whl 


whale 


Whay 
Ler 


r 




wh 
Ir 


whei'c 
feeler 


Rer 


^ 




ri' 


darer 


Emp 


^-^ 




m}) 


damp 


Einb 


^^ 




mb 


embalm 


Empr 


<r^\ 




mpr 


scamper 


Embr 


<j-v 


Notes 


mbr 


iMmbei- 



1. In id and ichl the hook is read first; as In will, 
whale. 

2. The sti'oke and not the hook is used when a 
vowel pi'ecedes «? or wh; as in awhile. 

3. The remaining double consonants are vocalized 
in the same manner as the single consonants. 

4. Ler and Rer are used for the terminations ler 
and rer only. Separate letters are written when other 
vowels occur; as in failure juror; or when a voXvel 
follows; as in raillery, gallery, orrery. 

5. The double consonant Emp is hooked for nvpr 

and nihr. 

98 



Additioxal Double Consonants 



quako 

quail 

quaff 
quack 
qualm 
(juawk 
queeu 
que(3r 
quest 

quell 

queueh 

choir 

quire 

quid 
quick 

quill 
quince 

quip 
quitch 

quiz 

quoth 

quirk 

quoif 

quoin 



kwak C_ — 
kwal Y 
kwaf C — :^ 
kwak C 



kwani c 
kwak <^ 
kwen C 
kwer 

kwest c ^ 

c 

kwel 

kwench^ ^ 

C 
kwir 



guan 

Guelph 

guib 



guano 





skwal 
skwani 



skwar 
skwal ' / 



skwa 
skwak I 



I 



skwek ^- 



skwel J^ 
skwez ^ — 



A 



skwelch e_/V 
skwib ^ S » 
skwid .1 

skwil \r 

e ^ • 

skwinch / 

e 

skwerni V- 



skwir 



^ 



skwab \ 

^ — , 

skwad ^ I 
skwosh 



Additional Double Consonajs'ts 



(wl) 

wail wal 

wale wal 

wall wal 

waul wal 

weal wel 

weald weld 

wealth welth 

weld weld 

well wel 

wile wil 

will wil 

wool will 

wolf Wlllf 

woold wiild 

(whl) C~ 

whale hwal 

wheal hwel 

wheel hwel 

whelk hwelk 

whelm hwelm 

whelp hwelp 

while hwil 

whilst hwilst 



n 

n 

r 
r 




(wh) 
where hwar 
whey hwa 
whack hwak 
wheeze hwez 
whence liwens 
whine Invin 
whift' hwif 
whig hwig 
whim hwim 
whin hwin 
whip liwip 
whir hwer 
whirl hwerl 
whisk hwisk 
whisp hmsp 
whist hwist 
whiz hwiz 
wharf hwarf 
wliarves hwarvz 
whap hwojD 
whop hwop 
whoii hwerl 
whort hwert 



100 



Additional Double Consonants 



damp 

gamp 

camp 

lamp 

samp 

vamp 

champ 

scamp 

clamp 

cramp 

tramp 

stamp 

hemp 

imp 

gimp 

limp 

skimp 

crimp 



damp 

gamp 

kamp 

lamp 

samp 

vamp 

champ 

skamp 

klamp 

kramp 

tramp 

stamp 

hemp 

imp 

gimp 

limp 

skimp 

krimp 









. L ^ 



):•- 



primp 

shrimp 

scrimp 

pomp 

romp 

swamp 

bump 

dump 

hump 

jump 

lump 

pump 

thump 

clump 

plump 

trump 

stump 

mumps 



101 




z ^ ^ 



1^' 



A 



THE ASPIRATE. 

Foi;r signs are used to represent the Aspirate: 
the downward stroke, the upward stroke, the tick 
and the dot. 

1. The Downward Stroke, called Aitch, is used 
when h is the only consonant in the word ; when it is 
followed by I- or g; or when it makes the best joining. 

2. The Upicard Stroke, called Hay, is generally 
used when h is followed by a downstroke, a straight 
upstroke, the curves n and g, or by a circle, loop or 
hook. 

3. Tick H, written downward, is used initially, 
and is always read first. It is prefixed to the stroke 
signs for s, m, I and r. The word, smaller^ will aid 
in remembering these letters. The tick may be pre- 
fixed to any double consonant with which it will 
make an easy, clear joining. 

4. Dot H is placed before the vowel to be aspirated. 
It may also be used instead of stroke h, to shorten 
an outline. 

SENTENCES. 

Helen Hope took her new harp to the Hilltop 
House to play some old songs for Hannah Hall, who 
gave her a box of honey in the comb, to carry home 
to her sick brother. 

Harris Hatch paid no heed to the advice of his 

cousin Henry. He rode his horse too fast on the 

way to Hawksville, and fell off into a heap of snow. 

He struck his head on a huge lump of ice. How he 

did howl for help ! No harm came to the old horse, 

and Harris soon got well. 

103 





TuE As 


['IRATE 




(Downward II) 


(Upward H) 


hay 


ha /. 
hag Z. 


hang hang d'^^""^ 


hag 


hank 


hangk d^'^"'^ 


hah 


ha / 


iiash 


hash <7 


hack 


hak Z_ 


hasp 


hasp ^3 \ 


ha-ha 
haw 


ha-ha a{ 
ha V- 


hatch 
haunch 


hach ^5:/ 
hanch <^ / 


hawk 


liak Z- 


hawed 


had c<^ 


hie 


hi /v 


head 


hed ^ 


hoe 
hoax 


ho ^^ 
hoks /!— 


heap 
heartli 


hep '^^ ^ 
harth ^ ^ 


hog 


hog ZZ 


heath 


heth (^ 
hev ^^ 


who 


ho / ;? 


heave 


hew 


hu Z 


hedge 


hej 0-7 


hue 


hu A 


hen 


hen c5"^^^ 


hug 


hug 2i^ 


hence 


hens cf^"^^ 


hook 


huk 7 ' 


hewn 


hun c^"^ 


hoy 


hoi /- 
Hu ^ 


hide 


hid <1 


Hugh 


hitch 


hich cr/ 


soho 


soho d" 

11 /^ 9 
koher ' / 

haser o^^ 


hinge 


hinj <<^ 


cohere 
hawser 


hip 
hive 


hip ^^ 

hiv ^ 


mohair 


mohar 'z^ 


hod 


hod <^ 


unhook 


unhuk ^/ 1 


hone 


hon c5^ 



103 



The Aspirate 

hood hud c^ helve helv /'v. 

hoof hof <r^> hem hem 



hoop hup <5"^ her her 

whoop hop c^\ hire hh 



hope hop <^^ hiss his •) 

hove hov 6\ horse hars ^^ 

hub hub c5^ hole hoi >^ 

huff huf <5<^ whole hoi '^'' 

huge huj cCv home horn >^-^ 

hush hush (^ horn harn ' o 

husk husk c5'<^ hose hoz "V 

(Tick H) whom horn >— ^ 

hail hal /^^ hulk hulk /^, 

liair har •^ humph humf 

haze haz •) hurl herl 

y A 

hark hark ^> — howl houl /''" 

harm harm ■ v— s hymn him ^ — ^' 

harp harp ^\^ huzza huzza v 

harsh harsh j (Dot H) ^,, 

hall hal A~ halve hav 

hear her ^ halves liavs '\o 

health helth /^ hath hath ( ( 

helm helm /--^^ handy hande ^. 

help help /''^ happiest happiest ' ^ 

104 



THE HALVING rUlNCU'LE 

Light consonant strokes are made half their usual 
length to indicate the addition of t. Heavy conso- 
nont strokes are made half their usual length to in- 
dicate the addition of d. 

Consonants with final hooks, when halved, add 
cither t or d; as fount, found; mount, mound. 

When a consonant precedes or follows, a halved 
letter adds eitlier ^ or cZ; rei)eated, beautiful. 

The four letters m, n, I and downward r are halved 
for t; as in met, net, let, art. They are halved and 
thickened to add cZ; as in made, need, old, hard. 

COM AND -ING 

The prefix com or con is expressed by a light dot 
written before the first consonant. 

The suffix -ing is generally shown by the stroke 
Ing, and -iiigs by the stroke Ing and circle s ; facing, 
facings; evening, evenings. 

When it is inconvenient to use the Ing stroke, 
-ing is expressed by placing a light dot at the end 
of the word, and -ings is shown by a light dash; 
hoping, tying, morning, mornings. 

QUOTATIONS 

TO BE WRITTEN IN SHORTHAND 

Lost time can never be found again. 
A green and sunny glade amid the woods. 
Eise with the lark, and with the lark to bed. 
■ The clear, bright light of the old moon. 
They also serve who only stand and wait. 
Pride is as loud a beggar as want. 

105 







I 


(Jot. 


rsONANTI 


3 
VND 


D 






Ialyed 


FOR T . 




Name 


Sign, 


For 


As in 


Name 


Si^n 


For 


As in 


Pet 


X 


pt 


pat 


Fet 


t:- 


ft 


foot 


Bed 


N 


bd 


bad 


Ved 


Vl 


vd 


void 


Tet 


1- 


tt 


tight 


Thet 


(• 


tht 


thought 


Ded 


1- 


dd 


died 


Thed 


c- 


thd 


that 


Chet 


/. 


cht 


chat 


Set 


)• 


St 


east 


Jed 


/ 


jd 


jade 


Zed 


) 


zd 


zed 


Ket 


... 


kt 


cat 


Shet 


J. 


sht 


shot 


Ged 


_ 


gd 


good 


Zhed 


J. 


zhd 


treasured 


Wet 


u: 


wt 


wit 


Rayt 


■^ 


rt 


dart 


Yet 


<^ 


yt 


yet 


Hayt 


<^' 


ht 


height 


Light Half Curves 


Heavy Half Curves 


Met 


^ 


mt 


mate 


Med 


'TS 


md 


made 


]^et 


v--* 


nt 


neat 


Ned 


■^ 


nd 


ueed 


Let 


r 


It 


bolt 


Led 


c 


Id 


bold 


Art 


^ 


rt 


hart 


Ard 


^ 


rd 


hard 


N* 


\ 


, 


1 


/■ /• 




_ o^ 


<^ 






r 


^ ^ 


<s:_ 




)• 


> 

\' 


J. 


J 


^ ^ 


O 


^ r 






1 


/• 


/ 


# 


— o^ 


r^ 


•"-^ 


•^ 


k 


(-■ (; 



106 



TiiK IIalmncx Principle 



fate 


fat 


c 


feet 


fet 


O 


hale 


hat 


^ 


peat 


pet 


\« 


pUitc 


plat 


^ 


heat 


het 


(T* 


skate 


skat 


• 


cheat 


chet 


/. 


slate 


slat 


^ 


sheet 


shet 


J 

• 


freight 


frat 


-T 


treat 


tret 


1. 


crate 


krat 


• 


fleet 


flet 


O 


pi'ate 


prat 


-< 


pleat 


plet 


^« 


strait 


strat 


V 


sleet 


slet 


r- 


trait 


trat 


1« 


wheat 


hwet 


c^. 


fot 


fat 


C 


street 


stret 


1. 


hat 


hat 


(T 


wet 


wet 


i^ 


cat 


kat 


• 


whet 


hwet 


Cy< 


pat 


pat 




fret 


fret 


"^ 


chat 


chat 


/• 


threat 


thret 


> 


flat 


flat 


e: 


fight 


fit 


^^ 


plat 


plat 


< 


height 


hit 


cTv' 


plait 


plat 


^ 


kite 


kit 


V 


slat 


slat 


^ 


tight 


tit 


Iv 


sprat 


spi-at 


^ 


flight 


flit 


e^^ 


fought 


I'at 


c 


plight 


plit 


<xV 


caught 


kat 


( 


slight 


slit 


c^ 


taught 


tat 


r 


fright 


frit 


^v 


Taught 


frat 




spright 
107 


sprit 


OyV 



The IIalvinc; Principle 



trite 


trit 


1v 


hit 


hit 


(T 


wit 


wit 


(y^- 


flit 


flit 


e 


twit 


twit 


iy. 


whit 


hwit 


c/- 


coat 


kot 


( 


float 


flot 


e- 


throat 


throt 


v 


cot 


kot 


/ 


yacht 


yot 




shot 


shot 


J- 


spot 


spot 


< 


slot 


slot 


C. 


trot 


trot 


r 


hoot 


hot 


€^ 


shoot 


shot 


J 


chute 


shot 


J 


cute 


kut 


r\ 


flute 


flut 


e- 


fruit 


ti-ot 


^^ 


hut 


hut 


^^ 


shout 


shout J 

A 


trout 


trout 


1a 



blade 


blad 


V 


glade 


glad 


• 


braid 


brad 


'V 


grade 


grad 


• 


bad 


bad 


N. 


glad 


glad 




broad 


brad 


'\ 


bead 


bed 


\« 


deed 


ded 


1. 


bleed 


bled 


'v- 


breed 


bred 


<x* 


greed 


gred 


^. 


dead 


ded 


1. 


bread 


bred 


% 


dread 


dred 


r 


bi'ide 


bi-id 


'V/ 


guide 


gid 


■^ 


glide 


glid 


V 


bid 


bid 


\ 


bode 


bod 


V 


goad 


god 


T 


brood 


brod 


'^^ 


bud 


bud 


V 


blood 


blud 


V 



108 



The Halving Prlvciple 



(It) 

late lat 

lit lit 

lot lot 

lute hit 

loot lot 

slit slit 

(mt) 

mat mat 

mate mat 

meat met 

mete met 

mite mit 

mitt mit 

moat mot 

mote mot 

mute mut 

smite smit 

smote smot 

(nt) 

gnat nat 

■naught nat 

nought nat 

neat net 



r- 

C 



V 



net net ^ 

night nit >^. 

knight nit ^^ 

knit nit --^. 

note not ^ 

knot not /^-^ 

nut nut ^ 

newt nut ^-^ 

knout nout '^ ;. 

(md) /-^ 

made mad ^ 

maid mad t^ 

mead mod '^ 

• 

meed med ■^ 

• 

mad mad ^ 

mid mid ^ 

mode mod -t^ 

mood mod —s 

mud mud ^ 

(nd) w 

need ned ^ 

kneed ned "^ 

node nod >*- 

nod nod .*^ 



109 



The Halving Principle 



L 



4ift aft act akt *~ 

haft haft ^r packed pakt >— 

raft raft ^ tact takt L 

waft waft <^ bract brakt \- 

shaft shaft -^-^ tract trakt L 

draft draft *' strict strikt L 

graft graft r^ duct dukt 

craft kraft r^ apt apt 

left left (^ rapt rapt 

weft weft ^ wrapped rapt 

theft theft \_ kept kept 

cleft kleft s^ wept wept 

gift gift -i slept slept 

lift lift r^ crept krept 

rift rift -^^ swept swept 

sift sift ^ crypt kript 

swift swift Q, script skript 

drift drift X- dipped dipt l^ 

thrift thrift / hast hast ^ 

oft oft ' haste hast *'' 

loft loft C^ hist hist -1 

soft soft hissed hist .; 

tuft tuft ^~ host host "-* 

puffed j)uft ^^ hoaxed hokst /% 

110 



r 



9 



cr 




The Halving Principle 



hailed 

bald 

scald 

field 

waeld 

yield 

held 

weld 

mild 

wild 

gild 

guild 

willed 

old 

bold 

fold 

hold 

mold 

mould 

rolled 

soled 

tolled 

wold 

scold 



huld 

bald 

skald 

feld 

weld 

yeld 

held 

weld 

mild 

wild 

gild 

gild 

wild 

old 

bold 

fold 

hold 

mold 

mold 

rold 

soled 

told 

wold 

skold 



V 



V 



111 





T] 

fant 


[IE Halving 


Princip 


'LE 

pint 




faint 


Ci 


pint 


^^ 


quaint 


kwant 


^ 


hint 


hint 


^■ 


saint 


sant 


<ii^ 


lint 


lint 


r- 


plaint plant 


\' 


mint 


mint 


/'-i. 


ant 


ant 


^^ 


tint 


tint 


4. 


chant 


chant 


y 


squint 


skwint 


^ 


scant 


skant 


9-7 


stint 


stint 


^. 


plant plant 


s 


flint 


flint 


C- 


slant 


slant 


c 


glint glint 


C-, 


grant 


grant 


«-r) 


splint 


splint 


'^- 


aunt 


ant 


• 


print 


print 


'^• 


daunt 


dant 


J- 


font 


font 


C 


haunt 


hant 


< < 


hunt 


hunt 


^. 


jaunt jant 


y* 


wont 


wunt 


\ 


flaunt 


flant 


CT 


stunt 


stunt 


t~ 


bent 


bent 


'S 


blunt 


blunt 


S' 


lent 


lent 


r? 


brunt 


brunt 


'V 


meant 


ment 


'Ti 


front 


frunt 




pent 


pent 


V 


grunt 


grunt 


1 


rent 


rent 


-^ 


joint joint 


jr 

■^ 


cent 


sent 


Q> 


point 


point 


<> 


tent 


tent 


J- 


count 


kount 


y\ 


vent 


vent 


VS 


fount 


fount 


<^^ 


blent 


blent 


^• 


mount 


mount 


A 



113 



The Halving Principle 



and 


and 


"' 


kind 


kind 


—3 


band 


band 


S 


mind 


mind 




hand 


band 


o 


rind 


rind 


^ 


sand 


sand 


i/ 


wind 


wind 


^v 


stand 


stand 


S' 


. blind 


blind 


%^ 


bland 


bland 


s 


grind 


grind 


V 


gland gland 


^ 


bond 


Ijond 


X 

s 


brand 


brand 


•s 


fond 


fond 


C 


gj'and 


grand 


e-9 


pond 


pond 




strand 


strand 


r 


wand 


wond 


\ 


fiend 


fend 


c^- 


blonde^ 


blond 


< 


end 


end 


ex 


frond 


frond 


^ 


bend 


bend 


S 


fund 


fund 


cr 


lend 


lend 


r 


bound 


bound 


V 


mend 


mend 


^ 


found 


found 


k." 


rend 


rend 


^ 


hound 


hound 


<^ 


tend 


tend 


\- 


mound 


mound 




wend 


wend 


(^ 


pound pound 


\>A 


spend 


spend 


% 


round 


round 


-^ 


blend 


blend 


S»' 


sound 


sound 


A 


friend 


frend 


^' 


wound 


wound 


< 


trend 


trend 


3- 


drowned 


dround 


Oa 


bind 


bind 


V 


crowned 


kround 


A 


find 


find 


O^ 


ground 


ground 





113 



lieart 

mart 

part 

tart 

chart 

smart 

start 

sort 

sorts 

snort 

quart 

thwart 

dirt 

girt 

liurt 

shirt 

skii't 

blurt 

spui-t 

squirt 

fort 

court 

port 

sport 



The Halving Principle 



I 



liart 

mart 

part 

tart 

chart 

smart 

start 

sart 

sorts 'o^ o^ 

snart ^^-^ 

kwart '^ — ^ 

thwart ^/^ 

(lert l^ 



t 



O^ 0-' 



^ 

^ 



geit 

hert 

shert 

skert 

blert 

spert 

skwert 

fort 

kort 

port 

sport X^ 



/ 






bard bard 

liard hard 

card kard 

hird lard 

iiard uard 
l)aard pard 

sard sard 
chard chai-d 

cord kard 
chord kard 
beard berd 

bird berd 

gird gerd 

herd herd 
heard herd 

curd kerd 

surd serd 
sherd sherd -r^ 
board bord ^**C^ 

ford ford ^^ 
gourd gord 
hoard hord 
horde hord 
sword sord 






-s 

/J 






114 



TlAr-F-TjEN'OTH Consonant GnAMMALOGUES 



God. 



God's_ 

not 

art 



met- 



liamL 

tliat_ 
sent_ 
eart_ 



varcL 



1 . Written above tlu? Line 

J ^ 

don't want 



.do not- 



~^ 



liad not. 
cannot _ 



_thona"lit. 



.according- 



Q^ 



according t(L. 



gentleman. 
.liappened— 



J 



^ 



particnlar. 



f\ 



ii: 



light- 
.after . 
.quite 
.short 



.guard . 
.chiUL- 



-tried 



.might- 
x'alletL 



r 



^ 



J) 



/> 





•. 


\. Written on the 


]Jne 






yet 


<f 


meet, meeting- 


f-\ 


trade 


1 


let 


r 


amount 


r-^ 


toward 


1 


did 


\ 


may not 


^-^ 


did not 


J 


cold 


c- 


wait, weight 


tX 


told 


r 


gold 


C 


able to 


^ 


till it 


r 


third 


) 


build, building 


^ 


under 


V. 


word 


^ 


went, won't 


c^ 


could 




send 


ft-/ 


account 


5 


nature 




great 


?- 


equalled 


^ 


spirit 


f\ 


good 


— 


somewhat 


<r> 


cared 


c- 


goods 


-X) 


gentlemen 


J 


secret 


cj- 


if it 


•^ 


opportunity 


f\ 


Avithout 


c 



THE DOUBLE-LENGTH PEINCTPLE. 

Curved consonants are made twice their usual 
length to indicate the addition of tr, dr or tltr; letter^ 
order, father. 

Straight consonants hooked finally or which fol- 
low another stroke, add only tr or dr when made 
double-length; j^ainter, rector, wonder, nectar. 

In a few common words a letter may be doubled 
for the addition of iure; feature, future, signature, 
picture. 

The double-length principle does not apply to ini- 
tial straight strokes, unless they end with a hook or 
the circle ns; as, batter, dodder, platter, crater, glider, 
bather, which require the hook tr, dr or tlir, and not 
the doubling of the initial consonant. 

When the double-length principle is used for the 
present tense of a verb, the past tense should be writ- 
ten according to the halving principle; tender, ten- 
dered; pamper, pampered. 

The double consonant mp or mh is doubled for 
mpr, mbr; jumper, chamber. Ng. is doubled for 
nghr or nggr; shrinkcr, longer. 

The hooked consonants nipr, mhr, ngl'v, nggr are 
generally used for verbs, because they are easily 
halved for the past tense; canker, cankered. 

When the double-length is used for the verb, the 
half-length is used for the past tense; slander, slan- 
dered. 

The final consonants tr, dr and thr, are not 
doubled when followed bv a vowel ; wintrv, sundrv, 
feathery. 



116 



TiiK Double-Length Principle 




psalter 

further 

builders \/ t 

grunters 

fliitters 

boarders 

shutters 

founders 

thunders 

features 

hiughter 

shrinker 

hamper 

hampered 

lumber 

lumbered 

canker ~ 

cankered 

finger 

fingered 

tampered 

wintered 

flattery 

psaltery 



^^ 




cy^ 



n. 



117 



VOCALIZATION OF PL AND PE. 

When it is necessary to denote a vowel sound be- 
tween two consonants of the PI or Pr series, a small 
circle is placed before or above the consonant stroke 
to represent a long dot vowel, and after or under the 
consonant stroke for a short dot vowel. 

When it is not convenient to oljsorve this rule, the 
circle may be written on either side of the stroke for 
either a long or short vowel; regard, engineer. 

A stroke vowel or diphthong is struck through the 
consonant sign ; school, tincture. Single stroke words 
thus vocalized are halved for either t or d; court, 
gird. 

The first place dash vowels and diphthongs are 
written at the beginning of the consonant stroke. 
Third place dash vowels and diphthongs may be writ- 
ten at the end of the primary letter. 

It is seldom necessary to vocalize the pi and pr 
series for an unaccented vowel ; but when the vowel is 
accented the consonant mav be vocalized. 



SENTENCES. 

The kind German nurse took care of the little blind 
girl on the journey to Northwood. The child was 
glad to see her father and mother. When her brother 
Norman came home from school he led her into the 
garden and helped her to pick some Narcissus blos- 
soms. She was charmed with their sweet odor. Be- 
fore it was dark, a sharp northeasterly wind began 
to Ijlow, and the children went back to the house 
for shelter. 

118 



VOCAM/ATION OF Pl AND Pr 




verb ;^ 
vers d 
skol 

iiarth S 
chikl 



curl kerl 

tuil ferl 

curse kers '=-^ 

verse vers 

curve kerv ^-t-^ 

curt kert ch- 

cluirch chercli 



V 



•1° 



V 



^ 






churl clierl 

foi'ge iarj 

coarse koi'S 

course kors 

bold bold 

cold kold 

gold gold 

told told 

court kort cf- 

record rekord 

regard regard 

veneer vener 

fixture tikstur 

torture tortur ''-^^ 

culture kultur 

figures figurz v~on 

nurture nertur "^^ 




119 



W AND Y DIPHTHONGS. 

W or Y followed by any simple vowel forms a 
diphthong, which is represented by a small semi- 
circle written in the same position as the simple 
vowel. The right and left halves of the circle are 
used for the iv diphthongs ; the upper and lower halves 
stand for the y diphthongs. The semi-circles may be 
made heavy or light according as the vowel is long 
or short, although in practice it is seldom necessary 
to make this distinction. 

The right semicircle, representing ivaw or wo, may 
be prefixed to a stroke consonant when it is conven- 
ient ; as in water, watcher, washer. 

The left semicircle is prefixed to downward I, and 
the right semicircle to k, g, m, mp, to represent w 
only; William, Wilson; wake, wig, woman, wampum. 

The w sign is always read first, therefore when a 
vowel precedes v) the stroke w must be written, and 
not the w diphthong sign ; awake, award, aware. 

SENTENCES. 

William Zwingle is the youngest boy in the class 
in the Ward School, 3-et he won the yearly premium 
for best woodwork. 

As Zachariah Young went to gather seaweed, he 
met twelve Zouaves a few yards beyond the railway 
station. 

The farmer sold twenty pounds of lamb's wool to a 
youth for two new folio volumes of pictures. 



130 



W AND Y DirilTIIONGS 



W with Long Vowels 
%vah I waw 



weh 



< ) 



woh 



wee tl-,woo 



W with Short Vowels 



Heavy Signs 

Long Vowels 

aw 
-oh 

-00 



wa 



we 



AVI c 



wo 

' wu 
? woo 



wake 

wag 

wax 

walk 

week 

wig 

war 

ward 

warm 

warn 

warp 

woke 



Y with Long Vowels 



ah 
eh 

ee 



yah^ 
yeh ^ 
vee V 



yaw 
'^ yoh 
/^yoo 



Light Signs 



Short Vowels 



wak 

wag 

waks 

wak 

wek 

■wig 

war 

ward 

warm 

warn 

warp 

wok 



a 
e 
i 



Y with Short Vowels 



O 
-U 
-00 



Examples 



^ 



ye - 



JO 
-yu 




work werk 

worm werm 

'twas 'twoz 

wordy werde 

thwack thwak 

twinge twinj "^ 

.woman wuman >--^' 

zouave zwav ^ 

twenty twenti Li^ 

alien alyen C^ 

folio folyo ky^ 

yearly yerle "y^ 



121 



Ith and Thee Words 





To be 


written in 


Shorthand 






Initial Ith or 


tk soft 




thank 


thieve 


thin 


thought 


thwack 


thatch 


theft 


think 


thud 


thwart 


thaw 


thick 


thing 


thug 


thesis 


thief 


thigh 


thong 


thumb 


theses 


theme 


thill 


thorn 


thump 


thistle 




Final 1th or 


th soft 




faith 


teeth 


length 


width 


cloth 


wraith 


sheath 


earth 


fifth 


broth 


eighth 


wreath 


dearth 


filth 


froth 


hath 


death 


berth 


tilth 


ti'oth 


hearth 


saith 


birth 


plinth 


ruth 


wroth 


breath 


girth 


sixth 


booth 


swath 


health 


mirth 


oath 


tooth 


north 


wealth 


worth 


both 


truth 


swarth 


breadth 


ninth 


loath 


youth 


warmth 


stealth 


kith 


sloth 


sleuth 


bath 


tenth 


myth 


(juoth 


doth 


lath 


seventh 


pitli 


growth 


month 


path 


depth 


frith 


forth 


mouth 


wrath 


twelfth 


smith 


fourth 


south 


heath 


strength 


withe 
122 


moth 


drouth 





Initial Thee or 


th hard 




they 


the 


then 


thine 


those 


than 


thee 


thence 


this 


thus 


that 


them 


thy 


though 


thou 




Final Thee or 


th hard 




bathe 


swathe 


teethe 


scythe 


clothe 


hithe 


sheathe 


lithe 


writhe 


soothe 


scathe 


breathe 


tithe 


with 


smoothe 


spathe 


wreathe 


blithe 
Ther (th ; 


loathe 
soft) 


mouth 


third 


thread 


thrift 


throb 


thrust 


thirst 


threat 


throe 


throng 


anther 


thirty 


thresh 


thi'ow 


threw 


author 


thrash 


thrice 


throne 


through 


ether 


thrall 


thrive 


throat 


thrum 


heather 


three 


thrill 


throve 
Ther (th 1] 


thrush 
lard) 


panthei" 


their 


bather 


farther 


leather 


weather 


there 


bother 


gather 


other 


wither 


theirs 


brother 


hither 


rather 


whether 


thereby 


eithei" 


lather 


tither 


whither 



Sentence for SnouTHAND 
They thought that the thieves then thrust those 
thirty-three thistles through the thin thatch thereby 
to thwart the throng. 

123 



DISSYLLABIC DIPHTHONGS. 

Diphthong, according to the dictionaries, signifies 
the union of two vowel sounds in one syllable, as ou 
in out. Diphthongs are called proper, if both vowels 
are sounded; improper, when only one is vocalized. 

In Shorthand the word is used somewhat different- 
ly. The silent letter of an improper diphthong is 
disregarded, and the remaining vowel is treated as a 
simple vowel: thus, only o of the oa in boat is recog- 
nized and represented by an appropriate sign. 

The name, diphthong, is reserved to distinguish 
the four doul)le vowel sounds, i, ou\. oi, and w (i and 
u standing for ei and iu respectively) These four 
diphthongs are called monosyllabic or one-syllabled 
diphtliongs, l)ecause they are uttered in one syllable. 

In some words, a long vowel is followed by a short 
vowel, which is sounded but not accented, as: ea in 
real; oc in poet; id in fluid. Such vowel combina- 
tions are known in Shorthand as dissyllabic or two- 
syllabled diphthongs. They are represented by two 
small angles- — one open above to the right, the other 
open downward to the left. These signs are written 
in the places of the heavy dot and dash vowels, and 
•may be used for any long vowel, followed by any 
imaccented short vowel. 

When the short vowel is accented, as in lion, piazza, 
poetic, dewy, the dissyllabic diphthong must not be 
used. A sign of the yah series may be employed, or 
the separate vowels must be written; — as in the ex- 
amples given on the next page. 

12-1 



The Dissyllabic DipnTnoNGs 



ah 





T 


ic ISix Loiiij Vowels 






• 




• 




«■ 








eh 


ee 


• aw 




oh 


00 



ah-i 



^ 



Dissyllabic Diphthongs 

V 



eh-i 



^ 



ee-i 



^ aw-i 



oh-i 



^ 



oo-i 



^ 



>-f 



Examples 

(ah-i) deity | (oo-i) 

soltaist^6 ^=3 seer fluid 

solfaing'6L^__^ real ^( jewel 

(eh-i) museum 

gayety n. (aw-i) 

laity r^ \ . flawy ^ 
clayey c___ drawer i^ 
mayor "^^^"^(oh-i) 
sayest J shower 
payer ^^^ stoics 
clayish ^ poets 
payable \ poetry 
(ee-i) blower 

theoiy 



Si 




^<3ruel 
gruel 
ruins 
doing 
wooer 
shoer 



^ 



(yah) 

lazier ^ "^ 
pianos 



^' 



^ ^ gluey 



reality 
meteor 
lineal- 
ly ^period V<^ 
sep. vow.) 
drawee ' • 
bower 



.-/ 



.•7 



snowy <^_^ 
ideals f'^^ mowers ""^^^"^ 



Lewis 

cruet 

druid 

bluish 

truant 



('^ poetic 

^1 trial T 
U piety ^_ 

Lj; diadem 1^ 



125 



COXSOX A X T S I TiSTT'l'I ' TES 

TlitTL' aru no .■-ubslitiitef? for b, i], g, \\, 



(0 

gh in laugh 
ph in splioro 

(i) 

g in gem 
ge in surgeon 
gi in region 
de in grandeur 
dg in edge 
di in soldier 
d\i in verdure 
ch in spinaeh 

(k) 
c in candy 
ch in chord 
cu in hiscuit 
gh in hough 
qu in conquer 
que in oblique 
eque in saeque 
quet in liouquet 

c in cent 

sc in scene 

sell in schism 

ps in psalm 



(t) 

d in forced g 

til in thyme s 

plith in phthisic si 
(v) 

f in of zi 
ph in Stephen 

(y) f^P 

i in onion che 

ia in valiant ci 

(z) ci 

c in suffice ci 

s in is ch 

X in Xerxes chs 

cz in czar psh 

tz in tzar s 

(ng) sch 

n in ink sci 

n in conch se 

n in anger si 

ngue in tongue ss 

(ch) ssi 

te in righteous ti 

ti in fustian ti 

tu in mixture ti 

teh in match xi 

12G 



I, m, n, p, r, 

(zh) 
in rouge 
in treasure 
in fusion 
in azure 
in glazier 



(sh) 



m ocean 
in luncheon 
in social 
in gracious 
in ancient 
in chaise 
in fuchsia 
in pshaw 
in sugar 
in schist 
in conscious 
in nauseous 
in pension 
in issue 
in passion 
in martial 
in nation 
in cautious 
in noxious 



ABOUT SHORTHAND AND TYPK\'/RITING , 



X ^ 



4 



.-A 



^ 



\ 



_. I 



c -r - 



J 



.2<v_ 



.O- 



^ 



_L-1. 



i^ 



J^ 



^V^ 



(>r "^ . . 



N^ 



U^ 



^ 



-^}— ^ 



-^ r. 



■^ 



fl 



Ji^ 



Jl_ 



\^ 



^ 



/ 



^ 



Jk. 



V 



^_ 



J? 



13^ 
^ 



J) 



::> c 



j^ 



ri 



J? 



--4 



- «^- I- > 



V. 



L 



U^ 



^ 



.o- 



^ . c r — 



/ 



.Q.5, 



r 



_L 



A- 



■?■ ^ 



.IL 



-3- 






.^-^ 



/7 



j^ 



> 



'^ 



L^ 



O- 



- <\' ^ \ 



1^1. 



^ X 



/ 



^ 



' 'W 



^ 



"^ 



^. - \ ^ U 



:::z 



y- 



V. 



'^ r- 



_!i ^- 



L 






f / !■ 



i; 



n 



<■ o 



N^ 



r^. 



^ ^ 



- ~r 



^ 



^ 



J) 



C 



:^a 



^ 



. / -o- 



^-^=--4- 



^ r -i) ^ 



137 



Write the following Proverbs and Quotations, care- 
fully, accurately and in your very best style of short- 
hand; show them to your teacher and when correct, 
practice writing them often for speed. 

rROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS. 

Every good might be better; 

Every better might be best. 
Rome was not built in a day. 
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. 

THE GLADNESS OF NATURE. 

There's a dance of leaves in that aspen bower; 
There's a titter of winds in that beechen tree; 
There's a smile on the fruit and a smile on the flower. 
And a laugh from the brook that runs to the sea. 

— Bryant. 

SONGS OF FREEDOM. 

Let music swell the breeze. 
And ring from all the trees, 

Sweet freedom's song; 
Let mortal tongues awake, 
Let all that breathe partake. 
Let rocks their silence break — 

The sound prolong. 

— S. F. Smith. 

Then conquer we must, when our cause it is Just, 
And this be our motto — "In God is our trust" ; 
And the Star-spangled Banner in triumph shall wave, 
O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave. 

— Francis Key. 
138 



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