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Full text of "Stephen Banks Leonard of Owego, Tioga County, New York"

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Tills work is litnilrd to 200 copies, 
each copy beiDg numbrred. 



No. 1^1 



Stephen Banks Leonard 

Owego, Tioga County, New York 



Prepared by his grandson 

WILLIAM ANDREW LEONARD. 

I 



Printed for Private Circulation. 
1909 



i 



PUBLIC LIBRAKY | 

TILDEW FOUNDATIONS 
^ 1932 L 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Stephen Banks Leonard 6 

The Leonard Coat of Arms 11 

John Lennard of Knole 17 

Samson Lennard 22 

Margaret Fienes 24 

Belhus 28 

Francis and Henry Lennard 48 

First Iron Forge Taunton 68 

First Leonard House 74 

Captain George Leonard 76 

Leonard House, Taunton 77 

Daniel Leonard 78 

City Hall, New York 108 

Esther Henrietta Sperry 138 

Esther H. S. Leonard 1 48 

William Boardman Leonard 1 73 

RiVERBEND 1 75 

Hermon C. Leonard . 1 79 



• • • . 




STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD, 
Owego. N. Y. 



FOREWORD. 



M 



i. 



FOREWORD. 

The material gathered together in this volume is 
the result of gleanings in many fields, separated by 
time and distance. It is entirely conglomerate, and 
cannot be presented in any very finished state. An 
expert genealogist will probably smile at the irreg- 
ularity of the method employed, and it is evidently 
open to criticism. lUit it is not a genealogy. What 
has been accumulated will, however, prove of imme- 
diate interest to those personally concerned, and they 
are generous and will be considerate. 

The arrangement following is after this plan — 
first, an outlined history of the family of Lennards 
from early days and some descriptions of the English 
homes of the clan ; then the history of the Colonial 
Leonards; then the more personal reminiscences of 
Stephen Banks Leonard, around whose life these papers 
will group themselves. Following this, is a sheaf of 
letters which will tell their own simple story; and 
then in conclusion the genealogical references and data 
which will be useful for any person who may desire 
to go more thoroughly into the genealogy of the family 
in its various departments. Some of the references 
and data made are valuable, and this contribution 
will be of service to those who are more skillful in 
such undertakings. 

With this explanation, this volume, which is not 
published, but privately printed, is sent forth to those 
who will sympathize with the endeavor. 

WILLL\M ANDREW LEONARD. 
Trinity Cathedral, Cleveland, Ohio, 1909. 




Arms — Or, on a fesse azure three fleurs-de-lis argent. 
Crest — Out of a ducal crown a wolf's head. Motto— Pour 
bien desirer. 



^ 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



LEONARD LINE. 

(English) 

John Lennard of Knole. Kent, and son of John, 
Born, 1479 ; died, 1556. Born, 1508 ; died. 1590. 

Samson Lennard, son of Lady Margaret Fienes, 



John ; lull Baron Dacre. 
Born, 1545; died, 1615. 

Sir Henry Lennard, son of 
Samson ; I'^th Baron 
Dacre. Born 1569, died 



Baroness Dacre. Sister 
of Gregory, 10th Baron 
Dacre. Died. lOlL 
Lady Chrisogona, daugh- 
ter of Sir Richard Baker, 
of Sissinghurst, Kent. 



Richard Lennard, son of 
Henry ; I'Uh Baron 
Dacre, seated at Chev- 
Died 1630. 



enmg. 



Lady Anne, daughter of 
Sir Arthur Throckmor- 
ton, of Paulers Perry, 
Northampton. 2d, Dor- 
othy, daughter of Dud- 
lev, Lord North. 
Henry, son of Richard and Lady Anne Throck- 
morton, emigrated to America, 1626. 
Thomas Leonard, of Pon- 
tipool, Wales, younger 
son of above andbrother 
of Francis, 14th Baron 
Dacre. 
James and Henry Leonard (and possibly another 
brother, John), sons of the above, came to America 
and settled in Massachusetts, first in Lynn, and later 
in Taunton. They established the first iron works in 
America, at Saugus, near Lynn. 



13 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



LEONARD LINE. 

(American) 



James Leonard, son of 
Thomas Leonard of Pon- 
tipool, Wales. Born in 
Great Britain. Came to 
America about 1645. 
Was not living in 1691. 

Captain James Leonard, 
Taunton, second son of 
the above. Born about 
1643. Died Nov. 1, 1726. 



Stephen Leonard, Taun- 
ton, son of Captain James 
Leonard. Was a Judge 
of the Court of Common 

Pleas. Born Dec 

Died 1743. 

Joshua Leonard of New 
Jersey, son of Stephen. 
Born .... Died in 1760. 

Silas Leonard, son of 
Joshua. Born at Par- 
sippany, N. J. in 1756. 
Died at Owego in 1832. 

Stephen Banks Leonard, 
son of Silas. Born in 
Wall Street, New York 



Margaret, was step-mother 
to all his children. 



Hannah, died Feb. 1674. 
2nd wife, Lydia Gulliver, 
dau. of Anthony Gulli- 
ver of Milton, died July 
24, 1705. He married 
3d wife, Rebecca, died 
April 3, 1738. 



Johanna Gregory, of 
Bridgeport, Conn. 



Esther Henrietta Sperry, 

of New Preston, Litch- 
field Co., Connecticut. 



14 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



City, April 15, 1793. 
Died in Owego, May 8, 
1876. 

William Boardman Leon- 
ard, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
son of Stephen B. 
Born June 17, 1820 at 
Owego, N. Y. Died 
July 1, lh93, at Owego. 
Married July G, 1847. 

William Andrew Leonard, 
Right Rev., D. D., 
Bishop of Ohio, son of 
William B. B o r n at 
Southport, Conn.. July 
15. 1848. Married April 
17, 1873. 

Lewis Hermon Leonard, 
2nd son of Wm. B. 
Leonard. Born, South- 
port, Conn.. August 13, 
1850. Married in 1871. 

William Boardman Leon- 
ard '2d ; son of Lewis H. 
Leonard. Born Brook- 
lyn, X. Y., August 14, 
1873. Married Novem- 
ber 16, 1898. 

William Boardman Leon- 
ard 3rd ; son of Wm. B. 
Leonard 2d. Born New 
Rochelle, N. Y., January 
13, 1908. 



Born Sept. 6, 1798. Died, 
Owego, April 19, 1879. 

Louisa Dimon, Bulkley. 
Born September 7, 1823. 
Died March 11, 1900. 



Sarah Louisa Sullivan. 
Born, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
November 19, 1850. 



Elizabeth DeWitt Robin- 
son. 



Alice Holden Howell, of 
New York. 



15 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



THE LENNARDS OF ENGLAND. 

ENGLISH ANCESTRY OF THE LEONARD 

FAMILY. 

BY O. B. LEONARD. PLAINFIELD, N. J. 

" This family was primarily of Saxon origin. The 
name is found some twelve hundred years ago among 
the " forest smiths " of Germany, and spelled Leonard, 
which is old German of the sixth century. After the 
Saxon invasion of England some of the Leonards, 
workmen in metals, left the Continent and settled 
in Kent County and Sussex, among the iron hills. 
In the course of time, as these mines proved unpro- 
ductive, great inducements were offered to laborers 
skilled in the business to remove to the western parts 
of England on the borders of Wales. The " Doomes- 
day-Book " of 1086 mentions the existence of iron 
works at this time in the counties of Somerset, Glou- 
cester, Hereford, and other counties adjacent to the 
Welsh country. It was from the iron-mining districts 
of Monmouthshire, in Wales, that the branch of the 
Leonard family came who settled in the New England 
colonies, between 1625-50, and continued in the vicinity 
of Boston the hereditary business of their ancestors. 

During the fourteenth century King Edward III. 
greatly encouraged the iron industry, and old Sussex 
and Kent became again the principal seat of the iron 

16 




JOHN LENNARD. 
Knole, Kent. 

1 4 7;>—i. >■•»]. 



STEPHEN BAXKS LEONARD. 

manufacture in Great Britain. It is to these counties 
that the Leonards trace back their pedigree to landed 
property holders and titled nobility. In fact, the fam- 
ily are said to have descended in two lines from 
Edward III. through his two sons, John of Gaunt, 
Duke of Lancaster, and his youngest son, Thomas 
Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester. 

The name is found spelled two ways — Leonard and 
Lennard — but the coats of arms borne by all of them 
were the same, and early members of the family used 
both forms of orthography. The title of rank was not 
brought into the family till the latter part of the six- 
teenth century, and then by Margaret Fynes, sister 
and heir of Gregory I' vnes. Lord Dae re. 

Among the first found on record of the Leonard 
name, who attained to noted distinction, and transmit- 
ted a valuable estate, was George Leonard, Esq., who 
lived in the time of Henry \T., a. d. 14*^2-G"3. He 
married Anna Bird, of the County of Middlesex, and 
was a man of property and influence in England. 
His son John had a vast heritage, owning the Manor 
of Chevening in Kent County during the reign of 
King Edward VI., in l^i'A. Samson Lennard, Esq., 
son and heir of John Lennard by Elizabeth Harman, 
his wife, was member of Parliament from Sussex in 
1614. and married Margaret, Baroness Dacre, daughter 
of Thomas, sister and heir of Gregory Fynes, Lord 
Dacre. She died a. d. 1611, and her son. Sir Henry 
Lennard. Knt.. was Lord Dacre in right of his mother. 
By Sir Henry's marriage to Chrysogona (daughter of 
Sir Richard Baker, of the County of Kent, and grand- 
daughter of Elizabeth, widow of George Barret, of Bel- 
hus, in Essex) was born a son, Richard, thirteenth 
Lord Dacre ; who married, for his first wife, Anne, 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

daughter of Sir Arthur Throckmorton, of Northamp- 
ton, and for his second wife, Dorothy, daughter of 
Dudley, Lord North. By his first wife were four 
children, among whom was Henry, the eldest son, who 
emigrated to America, and, not returning before his 
father's death, the title descended to his brother Francis, 
w^ho became fourteenth Lord Dacre, made Earl of Sur- 
rey, and was father of Thomas Lennard, who suc- 
ceeded to the title, and was created Earl of Sussex. 
Thomas married Lady Anne Palmer, alias Fitzroy, 
whose parents separated. She was adopted by King 
Charles IL as his natural daughter, and given the 
name of Fitzroy. Their second daughter, Lady Anne 
Lennard (by the death of eldest sister, Barbara, in 
1741), became sole heir to her father, and, as such. 
Baroness Dacre in her own right. She had three hus- 
bands : first, Richard Lennard Barret; second, Henry 
Roper, Lord Feynham ; third, Hon. Robert Moore. 
This Richard Lennard Barret was the son of Dacre 
Lennard and Lady Jane Chichester, which Dacre was 
the son of Richard Lennard, who took the surname of 
Barret in consideration of the Manor of Belhus, in 
the County of Essex, and was the grandson of Richard 
Lennard, Lord Dacre, by his second wife, Dorothy, 
daughter of Dudley, Lord North, above referred to. 
Lady Anne Lennard had a son by her first hus- 
band, Richard, known as Hon. Thomas Barrett Len- 
nard, of Belhus, who died 1786, and was the last 
member of the family name who retained the title. 
No legal issue of his name survived him, though his 
nephew, Charles Trevor Roper, Esq., became his suc- 
cessor to the peerage, who also died in 1794, without 
issue. But his only sister, Gertrude Roper, by grant 
of parliament, succeeded to the title as Baroness Dacre. 

18 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

She had previously married Mr. Thomas Brand, whose 
son, Thomas, on the death of his mother, in 1819, 
obtained the title and estate as Lord Dacre. 

Direct descendants of the Lennard family in this 
country (through Henry, who emigrated in 1626, or 
his relatives, who came in 1645-50), at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, considered the expediency 
of claiming the royal title in question, but the special 
individual of the Massachusetts family who was re- 
garded the rightful heir, preferred the independence of 
democratic liberty to bearing the honors of aristocratic 
nobility. 

The Leonard family of the United States, and 
Canada and other British Provinces in North America, 
are all descended from the English ancestry who made 
their first settlement in what is now Massachusetts, 
during the forepart of the seventeenth century, and 
just after the landing of the Pilgrims of the Mayflower. 

Within one hundred years thereafter the name of 
Leonard was found among the early settlers of all 
the New England Colonies ; in the Counties of Mon- 
mouth, Morris, Hunterdon, and other sections of New 
Jersey ; and, about the time of the American Revolu- 
tion many families of the Leonards emigrated to the 
British possessions, and to different States of the 
L'^nion both South and West." 



19 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



THE FOLLOWING NOTES WERE MADE 

BY THE LATE EDWIN SALTER 

OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Chart of the Lennard Family given in Banks' 
" Extinct and Dormant Baronages," is probably more 
reliable than the George Leonard chart, and it is much 
plainer. It names children of Samson and Margaret: 

Henry, eldest and heir; also Gregory, Thomas, 
John, Anna, Mary, Margaret and Elizabeth and who 
they married. 

Henry's son Richard, married Elizabeth Throck- 
morton (first wife) and Dorothy North (second wife). 

Note. — Morant's " Hist. Essex," gives name of Rich- 
ard's first wife as Anne instead of Elizabeth ; she was 
sister and co-heir of Sir Arthur Throckmorton. 

Richard had sons : 

Francis (heir) and Richard, Thomas, Henry by first 
wife. Of these last three this chart simply says 
" ob S. P." By second wife he had Richard of 1696 and 
Anne and Catherine. 



20 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



THE FIRST LEONARDS IN AMERICA. 

One or two writers have asserted that the Lennard 
(Lord Dacre) and Leonard families were distinct and 
base the assertion on the simple fact of difference in 
spelling. The foregoing extracts show they are the 
same family; additional proof could be added if nec- 
essary. A reference to the first appearance of the 
names of James and Henry Leonard in Plymouth 
Colony records show that the names were there given 
as Leonard, Lenard, Lenner, Lennard, etc. (See Vol. 
8, page 237, 273 and other pages and volumes.) 

The name shows Saxon origin and was spelled in 
the sixth century as now, Leonard. Contrary to what 
some have supposed, Leonhardt and Lenhardt are 
modern German. (See Ferguson on Surnames.) 

The Saxons came over into Kent in the fifth cen- 
tury and in the sixth century established their king 
in Essex. 

Among the oldest families of Saxon origin in 
Kent were the Leonards ; with the principal line the 
easier method of spelling the name, Lennard, was 
adopted, it is known as far back as the reign of Henry 
VL (1422-61), but members of the same family pre- 
served the ancient form '' Leonard." (See Fairbanks' 
" Arms," Hasted's '' Kent," Morant's " Essex," etc. 
etc., and also the spelling of the name in Plymouth 
Colony quoted hereafter). 

George Lennard lived in reign of Henry VI ; he 
married Anna Bird, daughter and heir of John Bird 
of County Middlesex. Their son 

21 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

John Lennard bought Chevening in the fourth year 
of the reign of Edward VL, 1551). He died March 
12th, 1591, leaving son and heir 

Samson Lennard, born about 1544 who married 
Margaret Fiennes, Baroness Dacre in her own right; 
she conveyed the baroncy to her husband. Sampson 
Lennard died, 1615, aged 71 years. His wife died, 
1611, aged 70 years. 

Note, — Hasted's " History of Kent," Vol. 1, pages 
108-111, notices estates of John Lennard of Chevening, 
" Custos Brevium " of Court of Common Pleas and 
says he purchased the manor of West Wickham for 
his second son Samuel, who was .knighted, 1553. West 
Wickham is in Kent near Sussex line. There is some 
seeming error in date here if this Samuel w^as brother 
of Samson. Probably this John was not the John 
who was father of Samson. 

Fine engravings of the costly tombs of John Len- 
nard, his son Samson and the residences of members 
of the family are given in Hasted's History of Kent. 

Thomas Lennard, fifteenth Lord Dacre, was created 
Duke of Sussex, 1674; the earldom became extinct, 
1715. 

Morant's " History of Essex County, England " 
(published 1768) in speaking of the Lennard family 
gives their descent from '' John Leonard or Lennard 
who died ]\Iarch 12, 1591, whose son and heir Sam- 
son Leonard executed writing March, 1599, about 
manor of Romford, formerly owned by Lord Dacre." 

Mrs. Margaret Leonard was granted permission to 
use the arms of the Lennard family with a slight 
change in it. She lived about time of Samson Leon- 
ard and his son Henry. 

Extensive iron works existed in western part of 

22 




SAMSON LENNARD. 
11th Baron Dacre. 

i.-»4r,— i(ji.-j. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Kent on Sussex line (in vicinities of Chevening and 
West Wickham seats of Lennards) briefly noticed in 
Hasted's " Hist. Kent." These works gradually died 
out, for reasons given in British Encyclopaedia and 
other works. Queen Elizabeth was one who urged 
persons acquainted with the iron business to go to 
Monmouthshire. This may account for Leonards of 
Kent and Sussex going to Monmouthshire to manage 
iron works. 

Notices of the Saxon Leonards may be found (per- 
haps) in " Liebmaches Grosses and Allgemeines Wap- 
penbrick " which the late edition of American Ency- 
clopaedia (article, Heraldry) pronounces the most im- 
portant work of modern times ; begun by Hefner and 
continued by others, in IGO parts, etc. 

From the admirable memorial of Solomon Leonard 
of Duxbury and Bridgewater, Mass., by Manning 
Leonard of Southbridge, Mass., the following state- 
ments are culled : 

** As to the name of Leonard it is very ancient, 
and has been known for several centuries both as a 
Christian and surname." An interesting article on in- 
dividual and family names was published in the " New 
England Historical and Genealogical Register " in 
1848, Vol. 2, page 162, written by the Rev. Mr. Coggs- 
well. D. D. He states that Leonard is one of the class 
of surnames that originated from the Christian name. 
The significance is " lion hearted " from Leo or 
Leon, and ard. The coat of arms is that of the family 
of Lennard, Lord Dacre, and the description is " Arms 
Or, on a fessegules (red, three fleur-de-lis of the first 
or field), crest, or, a wolf dog's head argent. Motto, 
" Pour Bein Desirer." 

As Mr. Salter has explained, the name was spelled 

23 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

both ways. Several towns and parishes bore this name. 
St. Leonard is a parish or watering place of England, 
in Sussex, 73 miles east of London. St. Leonard is 
an English parish in Devon ; there is also a parish in 
Scotland, County of Fife, same name; a village in 
France, and a town near Limoges. St. Leonhard is 
the name of several towns in Germany. In this 
country there is St. Leonard, a village in Calvert 
county; Leonard Town, St. Mary's County, both in 
Maryland ; Leonardville, Madison County, New York ; 
Leonardburg, Delaware County, Ohio ; Leonardville, 
Monmouth County, New Jersey. 

The earliest genealogical account of the Leonard 
family of this country w^as published by the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society, 1794, Vol. 3, page 173, by Rev. 
Perez Fobes. At that time it was said to be the most 
complete family genealogy ever printed in New Eng- 
land. Later, William R. Deane prepared a history 
of the Leonards published in the " Historical and 
Genealogical Register," Vol. 5, page 403, in 1851 and 
an Appendix, Vol. 7, page 71, 1853, in which is a full 
account of the first three generations of the family of 
James Leonard of Taunton, ^lass. Branches of this 
family were found in Springfield, Mass., in 1639 ; in 
Bridgewater, Mass, in 1637. From the latter branch, 
the Hon. John Hay, late Secretary of State, was a 
direct descendant through his mother, who was a 
Leonard ; he had a brother whose Christian name was 
Leonard, a captain in the regular army of the United 
States. The professional genealogist of the family was 
the late Elijah Clarke Leonard of New Bedford. He 
acquired more knowledge of the Taunton branch of 
the family than any other person living, or dead. He 
died in 1894, leaving, in manuscript form, a large 

24 




LADY MARGARET FIENES, 

Baroness Dacre. 

Died 1»J11. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

amount of historical material of great value, and it 
is profoundly to be hoped that these papers may be put 
in permanent printed form. 

Mr. Manning Leonard says " When in England 
in 1864, I visited Monmouthshire in the hope of find- 
ing some records of the family before their emigra- 
tion to this country. I found the old records of Ponty- 
pool had been very badly kept, and got no satisfac- 
tory information from them. Several persons bearing 
the name were living in the vicinity, and one good 
man by the name of John Leonard took me to the 
graveyard near the ancient Church of Trevethan. not 
far from the town, where I found inscriptions record- 
ing the deaths, at an early date, of those bearing the 
name of John and James Leonard." 

There are in England, a number of people bearing 
the name of Leonard, direct descendants from the 
ancient stock. Some of them dwelling on their ances- 
tral acres and manifesting a spirit of hospitality that 
is most engaging and pleasing, and a brief statement 
concerning these people with descriptions of their 
homes may not be amiss. Belhus. Hurstmonceux, 
Dacre Castle, and, Chelsea Church are therefore rap- 
idly sketched. 

Samson Lennard was the oldest son of John 
Lennard of Chevening, Kent, and Knolle ; Custos 
Brevium of the Comm.on Pleas, was born 1554, died 
1615. He was a somewhat prominent man in his 
day, being a member of several Parliaments, a sheriff 
for Kent, and he commanded a body of Light Horse 
when England was overthrow^n by the Spanish in- 
vasion in 1564-1565. He married Margaret Fynes, 
who was heir presumptive to the title and estates 
of her brother Gregory Fynes, Lord Dacre. Litiga- 

25 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

tion ensued concerning these estates, and finally 
Margaret's rights to her brother's considerable prop- 
erty were secured to her. In 1604 by direction of 
King James I. the Barony of Dacres descended to the 
said Margaret, and on her death the King made Sam- 
son Lennard, Lord Dacre. 

His son Sir Henry Lennard, was born March, 1569. 
He was a distinguished person in society, was knighted 
in 1596 for services in the expedition against Cadiz. 
He was a member of Parliament, an intimate friend 
of William, Earl of Pembroke and Sir Philip Sydney. 
He married Chrysogona, daughter of Sir Richard 
Baker of Kent. 

Thomas Lennard, Lord Dacre, oldest son of Fran- 
cis, was lord of the bed-chamber of Charles H. whose 
illegitimate daughter by the Duchess of Cleveland, he 
married. It was he who sold the mansion at Hurst- 
monceux, long the residence of the Dacres of the 
South. He was created Earl of Sussex by the King. 

The portraits of these people hang in the halls of 
Belhus at Aveley in Essex with a number of others. 
The Leonard papers, a collection of over four hun- 
dred letters and documents extending from the six- 
teenth to nearly the close of the eighteenth century, 
chronologically arranged, and illustrated by historical 
references, were prepared by the antiquarian of the 
family, the late Henry Barrett Lennard of Hampstead. 

It is a pleasure to be able to reproduce some of 
these portraits — photographs of which were made by 
Mr. Lennard and presented to me a few years since. 

Among the agreeable English experiences that I 
have enjoyed, were the friendly and cordial contact 
with Henry Barrett-Lennard and his son while in 
London in the summer of 1886 and in later years. One 

29 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

bright afternoon I found myself by invitation at his 
villa — No. 3 Well Walk — in the quiet suburban Hamp- 
stead. Not far away was the home of Keats ; and be- 
yond stretched the green rolling heath, to whose fresh- 
ness the Londoners come on Sundays and holidavs 
for recreation and fun. Mr. Barrett-Lennard was the 
antiquarian member of his family. With a degree of 
patience and zeal, not often seen in men of leisure, 
he had gathered together an extraordinary amount of 
material relating to his family. A cousin of Sir 
Thomas Barrett-Lennard of *' Belhus " he enjoyed the 
privilege of uninterrupted examination of all the col- 
lections at the ancient home, so that with greatest 
pleasure I examined his valuable papers, photographs, 
original manuscript, maps, genealogical tables, water- 
color illustrations, etc. He has spent much time and 
money in making this collection and few families 
possess a more elaborate and fuller set of archives. 
Neatly and handsomely bound and easily handled, the 
exhibition in his library room at Hampstead was a 
rare treat. 

In the hall is erected a dark rich staircase of black 
oak — taken from the only remaining house after the 
great London fire of 1666. On the old newel post 
stood erect, a carved wolf-dog head — the Leonard 
crest with its French motto '' Pour bien desirer." 

Through Mr. Lennard's courtesy an invitation was 
also secured for a visit to ** Belhus," the residence of 
Sir Thomas Barrett Lennard and the opportunity was 
appreciated and utilized. 

The day chosen for this pilgrimage stands out 
clear and delightful. Taking the morning train from 
London in a short run across a low, moorland coun- 
try, I alighted at Raynham station. What thoughts 

27 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

that name aroused as I wandered through the ancient 
graveyard and carefully studied the old stone church. 
'' Raynham Forge " was the name given by our Ameri- 
can progenitors to their iron works. Had they ever 
lived here? What associations could they have borne 
with them of this spot, across the great Atlantic 
wastes. They came from Wales in the north. Had 
they in boyhood days lived in this neighborhood, or 
at ''Belhus?" The earlier Leonards of Belhus, were 
landed proprietors through the entire country here- 
abouts and even now Sir Thomas holds title to at 
least 10000 acres of land. 

The simple lodge gate was opened by a little girl, 
and through the falling rain we drove. For at least a 
mile, with long views of meadows and forest trees, 
glimpses of cattle browsing and herds of deer feeding, 
till at length the broad, low, dark-brick walls of " Bel- 
hus " appeared across the intervening acres. The 
mansion is not impressive, but mellow with age it 
affects one kindly. Unpainted, two full stories in 
height, with turretted treatment of the roof, gables and 
oriels and square windows and doors. It covers much 
ground, encloses squares and courts and in ancient 
days, Avith the many retainers and the larger house- 
hold, must have been a bright and hospitable home. 
Of these latter qualities it certainly has lost no meas- 
ure, and cordial welcome was forthcoming. 

The spacious, though not lofty hallway — with its 
broad staircase — was adorned with impressive old 
portraits and ornamented with armor and bronzes. 
Into the library on the second floor I was ushered ; 
a spacious room richly and fully furnished, bright 
with scenes, paintings, portraits, books ; a choice col- 
lection of miniatures, and facing the broad meadow 

28 




X 

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CO 
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u 
►J 
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D 
X 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

that stretched off into a blue vista of distant trees and 
foliage. Here Sir Thomas and Lady Barrett-Lennard 
greeted me. I told them of my American home and 
life, of our history of our distant kinship and connec- 
tion with the same noble root, out of which they had 
originally sprung. Nothing could have exceeded their 
gentle interest in all that pertained to me and mine, 
and many were the questions we mutually asked and 
answered. Sir Thomas had been in the United States, 
when a younger man and he could more readily under- 
stand my localizations and descriptions. Sir Thomas 
has a fine breeding farm here and some of the best 
English horses are sold from his estate ; he has a kennel 
of fine dogs and hunting is pleasantly indulged in 
during the shooting season ; he has a house at Brigh- 
ton where the winters are passed, and an estate in Ire- 
land from whence he derives income. Lady Lennard 
is a daughter of the Rev. Mr. Wood, and her brother 
is the distinguished and honorable General Sir Evelyn 
Wood, K. C. B. The Revs. Dacre and St. Aubyn 
Lennard are younger brothers of Sir. Thomas. 

Just beyond the limits, lies the village of Aveley, in 
the county of Essex, and in the vault of the parish 
church lie the dead of many generations. The coffins 
are exposed to view and covered in blue, violet and 
purple velvets; and here within these same walls, have 
the Lennards and their descendants worshipped God 
from cycle to cycle and here they rest in peace. 
" Belhus " seems to have escaped the ravages of war 
and plunder. So many noble houses were despoiled in 
the days of trouble. But here remain the collections 
of each generation intact, — remarkable wealth of por- 
traits by famous masters ; apartments rich in ancient 
woodwork, tapestries and hangings ; a choice group 

29 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

of landscapes and marines, historic pictures and rare 
accumulations of bric-a-brac. Some very fine speci- 
mens of stained glass of the Dacre, Barrett and Len- 
nard arms and quarterings, and the rich family silver, 
chased and engraved with the familiar arms and crest. 
All these things gave me enthusiastic pleasure. Lady 
Lennard led me to one of Vandyke's portraits of King 
Charles I. and with much interest showed to me a 
golden locket containing a lock of the martyred mon- 
arch's hair, that had been found, tucked behind the 
carved frame, only a few years ago. A splendid por- 
trait of King Charles 11. and one of the Duchess of 
Cleveland by Sir Peter Lely were among the most 
valued of the set. By the Duchess of Cleveland, King 
Charles II. had one child, a daughter, and she married 
a Lennard, who was created Earl of Sussex. From 
these came the Lennards of this generation, Sir 
Thomas being the great great grandson of the Duchess 
of Cleveland and the King. 

The collection is so rich in old masters that a few 
years ago it was exhibited in London for the pleasure 
of the art loving public. 



30 



CHELSEA 



STEPHEN' BANKS LEOXARD. 



CHELSEA. 

Every Leonard who goes to London should make 
a visit to old Chelsea and its quaint venerable church. 
On the banks of the River Thames in a small park, 
stands a statue of Thomas Carlyle, who lived here. 
Just near, are the buildings once occupied by that 
noble, self-sacrificing man, Count Zinzendorf, founder 
of the Moravian Community; while still beyond, is 
the plain, unpretentious house where the eccentric, but 
remarkable genius and artist James Turner lived and 
died. Old Chelsea Church is worn and black with 
time; some ivy climbs about its lower walls, but it 
is dingy and crowded by shops and poor dwellings. 

A few venerable tombstones are in the yard about 
the church, a quaint sundial sticks out its monitory 
finger from the wall of the church tower, and the 
river glistens along its broad way towards London. 
The verger was trimming the vines as we entered the 
enclosure and readily opened a small side door, and 
we stood within the ancient chancel. Few, if any of 
the London churches present a more antiquated ap- 
pearance than old Chelsea's small, but curious and 
attractive parish edifice. It is treated with low, and 
very heavy masoned arches, and these intersect each 
other at certain points, giving the impression of a 
series of chapels opening into the central part. The 
w^oodwork of the pews, and chancel is dark and plain. 
The pulpit, looks out on a level with a low gallery 

33 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

at the west end, and the walls all about are adorned 
with quaint tombs and entablatures, memorializing the 
dead of far back generations. Two of these received 
from us careful examination. One, within the sanc- 
tuary space, bears testimony to the life and service 
of that great martyr statesman, Sir Thomas More. 
Here in this church he was wont to worship and here 
also to '' put on a choirman's surplice and thus attired, 
to go about the aisles in religious procession, singing 
the psalms and hymns " ^ ^= * ^ 

But over in the south aisle, is the most imposing 
monument in the building. It is a structure of mar- 
ble and alabaster, now yellow and dingy with age. 
Separated from the stone aisle (under whose pave- 
ments the dead are sleeping) by a finely worked iron 
railing, the noble effigies of Sir Gregory Dacre Len- 
nard, his wife and child are seen ; he clad in armor, 
and she in a braided gown and Elizabethan rufip, with 
hands folded as in prayer. Lord and Lady are peace- 
fully resting beneath the monumental canopy. Their 
armorial bearings in colors are pictured above the 
shrine and the inscription in Latin tells of their virtues 
and qualities.* 

It was with greatest interest that we studied this 
beautiful tomb and with profoundest reverence that 
we gazed upon the marble faces of this distinguished 
forbear of our race. How different the days of his 
life, and the memories of his times — how marvellous 
the changes wrought in men, institutions, nations, 
customs, religion and manners since these silent per- 
sonages walked the streets of ancient London town. 
But unchanged are the principles, the truths, the code, 

* Read Henry Kingsley's charming story " The Hillyars and 
the Burtons." 

34 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

that regulates everything that is noble, good, and 
true in humanity ; and the rewards of piety, honor and 
uprightness are still the same with us, as with those 
who dwelt in that elder day. 

Gregory's house in old Chelsea was once the house 
of Sir Thomas ^lore. There Queen Elizabeth dined 
with her royal subject on a Michaelmas day. (See 
" Families of Barrett and Lennard," page 210.) 

The Lennards of Dacre dwelt at times in the past 
in the old Hurstmonceux Castle and the following 
description of that ancient keep will be of interest. 
There were Dacres of the North and of the South, 
kinsmen having common interests in State and Church. 



35 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



ENGLAND 

Hurstmonceux Castle. 

"Six miles from Pevensy and twelve from East- 
bourne are the ruins of Hurstmonceux Castle, for 
merly a fortress of great magnificence and strength. 
Till 1777 it was the most perfect and regular castellated 
mansion in the kingdom ; but about that period the 
roof was taken down and the interior completely 
stript by the proprietor, the Rev. Mr. Hare, who em- 
ployed the materials thus obtained in the erection of 
some additional rooms in the modern mansion-house. 
The church contains some curious monuments of the 
family of Fiennes. Hurstmonceaux is now the prop- 
erty of H. M. Curteis, who manifests a praiseworthy 
zeal in the preservation of its ruins." (See Black's 
" Picturesque Tourist of England," page 19, edition of 
1867.) 

Hurstmonceux " was originally called Hurst, for 
its situation in the midst of the weald or forest. Soon 
after the Norman conquest it was the seat of a family 
who took for this place the name of DeHurst, which 
they retained for several generations, till one of them 
assumed the addition of Monceux, probably after his 
mother, who was heiress of a family settled at Comp- 
ton-Monceux in Hampshire. On the failure of male 
issure in his grandson, Maud, daughter and heir of 
the latter, carried this estate in marriage to Sir John 

36 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

de Fiennes, about the middle of the reign of Edward 
II. Their posterity made this place their principal 
residence. Sir Roger de Fiennes, who attended Henry 
V. in his expeditions to France, with a retinue of be- 
tween thirty and forty men at arms and archers and 
who was treasurer to the household of his successor, 
rebuilt the manor-house at Hurstmonceux and ob- 
tained a license to embattle and fortify it, and to en- 
large his park with 100 acres. His son having married 
Joan, daughter and sole heir of Lord Dacre was 37, 
Henry VI. invested with that title. In this family 
(Dacre), Hurstmonceux continued till the death of 
the last heir male, 37, Elizabeth, when his sister, 
Margaret, the wife of Samson Lennard Esq. suc- 
ceeded to this honor, and among other estates to this 
castle and manor. Their descendant Thomas, Lord 
Dacre, married a natural daughter of Charles II. by 
the Duchess of Cleveland and was in the 26th year 
of that monarch's reign created Earl of Sussex. 
Having launched into the expensive gaities of the court, 
and indulged too freely in deep play, his affairs be- 
came so embarrassed that shortly before his death he 
was obliged to sell his estate in Sussex, and among 
the rest Hurstmonceux, which was purchased in 1701 
for £38,215 by George Xaylor Esq. After an occu- 
pation of about a century by this family, the estate 
was sold by the late proprietor, Francis Hare Naylor, 
to Thomas Reed Kemp, Sr. M. P. for Lewes for 
£60,000. 

Hurstmonceux Castle stands in a low situation near 
the southern edge of the park and is one of the oldest 
brick buildings in the kingdom. The engravings and 
descriptions of Grose, who beheld this structure while 
entire, are calculated to excite a high idea of its mag- 

37 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

nificence; and the number of fine drawings of every 
part of it in the collection of the late Sir Wm. Bur- 
rell are sufficient, as Tennant remarks, to draw tears 
from every person of taste who considers the sad 
change in the noble pile. In form it is very nearly 
square, the north and south fronts being 206 feet and 
the east and west 214 feet long. The whole was sur- 
rounded by a deep moat, which has long been dry. The 
castle consisted of three courts, a larger and two smaller. 
The great gate house, in the south front, between two 
towers 84 feet high, leads into the most spacious of the 
courts, which is cloistered round. On the north side 
was the hall, which must have been extremely beautiful ; 
it is described as having most resembled those of the 
colleges of our universities which have not been 
modernized; the fire-place being in the middle, and 
the butteries at the lower end. At the upper or east 
end of this hall, were three handsome rooms, one 
within another, constituting the best apartment in 
the castle. Beyond them lay the chapel, some parlors 
for common use and rooms for the upper servants, 
forming the east front. On the west side of the hall 
was the grand staircase which occupied an area 40 feet 
square. The spacious kitchen beyond it, as well as 
the hall and chapel, reached in height to the upper 
story. The offices were ample and the oven in the bake 
house was 14 feet in diameter. The left side of 
the south front beyond the great gate house, consisted 
of a long waste room like a gallery, apparently in- 
tended for a stable in case of seige. Under the eastern 
corner tower in the same front was an octagonal 
room forming the prison, having in the middle a 
stone post with a strong iron chain. 

Above the best apartments was a suite of rooms 

38 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

in the same style and in every window of the dif- 
ferent galleries leading to the chambers on this floor 
was painted on glass the alnat or wolf-dog, the an- 
cient supporter of the arms of the families of Fiennes 
and Lennard. Many private winding staircases, cur- 
iously constructed in brick without any woodwork com- 
municated with these galleries. The walls are of great 
thickness, the whole having been entirely of brick ex- 
cepting the windows and door cases, the water tables 
and copings which were of stone. Such is the substance 
of Grose's description of this venerable edifice. The 
timber being then upon inspection decayed so as to 
render the repairs very expensive, the roof was taken 
down by the proprietor, Rev. Mr. Hare, and the in- 
terior so completely stripped, that nothing but the bare 
walls were left standing. The materials thus obtamed 
were employed in the erection of some additional 
rooms in the mansion house. From a survey taken 
12 Elizabeth, it appears that the moat which encom- 
passed the castle on the south, west and north sides 
as well as the pool on the east, which washed the 
wall on the east side had been drained for health's 
sake not long before. The same record informs us 
that the park was then three miles in circumference. 
(The third part lying in lawns and the residence being 
well set with great timber trees, most of beech and 
part of oak). The fallow deer were estimated at 200. 
There were four fish ponds abundantly stocked with 
carp, tench and other fish. This park is generally 
agreeably diversified, it is still found wooded with 
old trees, particularly beech, which are estimated some 
of the largest in the kingdom and well watered with 
clear streams. Most parts of it command a shady 
view over the adjacent rich level of Pevensey. The 

39 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

sea appears to the south, the hills toward Hastings 
on the east, while the majestic South Downs rise at 
some distance towards the west. The church situated 
near the park contains some curious monuments of 
the family of Fiennes." '' Beauties of England and 
Wales," by Frederick Shobert (Sussex County, page 
204-205). 



40 



DACRE CASTLE. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



DACRE CASTLE. 

Dacre Castle was occupied by the northern section 
of the Lennards. The road thither through Dacre 
to Pooley Bridge at the foot of Ulliswater brings one 
in four miles to Dacre Castle, formerly the residence 
of the famous border family of Dacre and is now con- 
verted into a farm house. 

The name is derived from the exploits of one of 
their ancestors, at the siege of Acre — the St. Jean 
d'Acre of modern times — in the Holy Land under Rich- 
ard Coeur de Leon. Another branch of this clan was 
settled at Gilsland in Cumberland. There are many 
ballads and traditions which still ' proclaim, Doug- 
las* or Dacre's conquering name." Bede says that a 
monastery once stood at Dacre and about 930 a con- 
gress was held here, at which King Athelstane, accom- 
panied by the King of Cumberland received homage 
from Constantine, King of Scotland." See Black's 
" Picturesque Tourist of England," page 332, edition 
1867. 



43 



MONMOUTH CASTLE. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



MONMOUTH CASTLE. 

" Monmouth Castle, formerly the baronial man- 
sion of the Dacres of the North. It is now the 
property of the Earl of Carlisle," page 265, ibid. 
" Gilsland Spa, a much frequented watering place, in 
the romantic vale of Irthing. Here Sir Walter Scott 
first met Miss Charpentier, afterwards Lady Scott." 
See Lockhardt's " Life of Scott," /^/(i— page 265. 

Accounts of Leonard Dacre in Froude's " History 
of England," Vols. 3, 4, 9. 10. 



47 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



This portrait of the lads Henry and James Leon- 
ard, hangs on the walls of Belhus. Mr. Henry Barrett 
Leonard informed me that the portrait came from 
Pontipool and was doubtless a picture of the younger 
sons who later emigrated to Massachusetts and there- 
fore the progenitors of the American Leonards. 



48 




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> 



COLONIAL LEONARDS. 



STEPHEN' BANKS LEONARD. 



COLONIAL LEONARDS. 

So many pedigrees are prepared for the genealogi- 
cal magazines or for private publication, bristling 
with figures and bewildering with multitudinous names, 
that they are unattractive to those who might be 
the most naturally interested in them, and undecipher- 
able to those not skilled in such literature. It is my 
endeavor not so much to prepare an exact table of 
family names and degrees as to put in readable shape 
many family facts, personal incidents and anecdotes, 
descriptions of places and people connected with the 
subject, and such other material as may prove not un- 
interesting to some of the younger members of the 
Leonard household. Therefore, there is much within 
the covers that must be necessarily scrappy and 
sketchy; but as everything is related to the subject, 
this method of preparation will at least preserve for 
the future, many facts that otherwise would have 
been lost. Upon the death of my grandparents, 
Stephen Banks Leonard and Esther Henrietta Leon- 
ard, I determined to undertake this compilation. It 
is intended to be a memorial of their virtues and 
qualities. But I could not make such a tribute com- 
plete or fully intelligent, without supplementing and 
adding thereto, the materials gathered with some ef- 
fort, relating to the family to which we belong; and 
so this work has quietly and pleasantly grown into 
its present shape, without any philosophy of arrange- 

51 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

ment and without the least pretension to scientfic 
planning. 

But while chronicling no extraordinary characters 
or historical prowess and fame for its heroes and 
heroines, it assuredly gives to us who are thankful 
for so decent and clean a descent, reason for a family 
pride and for a family love, based on the good founda- 
tion of an ancestry whose record is honorable, pure 
and righteous. 

By a careful examination of the valuable family 
tree printed in this volume it will be seen that the 
brothers Henry and James, who came from Ponty- 
pool in 1643 were distinctly identified with not only a 
respectable, but a titled and even distinguished pedi- 
gree. As the American branches that have descended 
from these two generations are already extended and 
diverse ; some springing up in Massachusetts at 
Taunton, New Bedford, Bridgewater and Springfield; 
some in New Jersey ; some in New York ; some in 
Illinois and a large following in Canada ; so the lateral 
extensions in England have been various and num- 
erous. Primogeniture in England, however, has re- 
served and retained to the descending oldest son, both 
landed estates and titles. In that way a family be- 
comes anchored and permanently settled. Younger 
sons in the church, in the army, in professional or 
private life, being obliged for the most part to main- 
tain their status by industry and eflFort, the disinte- 
gration is less likely to occur, as it does so easily with 
us. The necessity for making inroads into new fields, 
of meeting with competitors in the daily race, of 
building for oneself both fortune, fame and place, 
has been a primal cause for the lack and loss of local 
identity in American families and for the growth of 

52 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

separated developments in distant centers of our com- 
mon country. Those who in colonial days, received 
by letters patent from the crown, grants of land in 
this western w^orld, have in several instances, well 
known to us, been able to retain their integrity and 
autonomy, after the manner of ancestral English 
estates. But the great majority of Americans tracing 
unmistakably their pedigree back to the 16th and 17th 
centuries' emigrations, have with some labor, studied 
the imperfect history of their ancestors, and regarded 
with regret the breaking up into several strands and 
threads, the genealogical rope. Without doubt, these 
separated lines of Leonards, are sections and parts of 
a common household and fraternity. And this re- 
mark applies to all of our American families of repu- 
tation and good standing. Joel Munsell and Sons 
of Albany, who by their indefatigable industry and 
efforts, have done much to preserve the records of 
genealogy, maintain that those only have a claim 
to the name of American w-hose ancestors arrived in 
this land prior to the Revolutionary War. Papers of 
naturalization, or the civil rights of citizenship cannot 
make an American. The atmosphere, breeding, 
education and the assimilation of traits and transmit- 
ted culture, are essential to this inheritance. On 
this principle, the honorable Societies of the Cincin- 
natti, Sons of Colonial Wars, the New England, and 
St. Nicholas are founded, and it gives a local aristoc- 
racy of fact and feeling, that one may properly de- 
sire and cherish. A Knickerbocker, and a Virginian 
are such not by adoption ; but by the transmission of 
a local heritage and tradition, that have added pride, 
and stimulated virtue in the lives of those who rejoice 
in their natal progenitors. But the strange unrest, 

53 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the feverishness for reaping richer harvests of money 
in newer regions, the lack of contentedness, the want 
of local pride, are elements in our American life, 
that must always be considered, when such a theme 
as this is discussed or investigated. The changes of 
residence that one notes in our cities, is in marked 
contrast with the rooted foundations of mansions and 
homes in England. Business crowds out the family 
life. Men make money and want larger and costlier 
houses and it would be amusing, perhaps melancholy, 
to chronicle the number of moves, made in a single 
generation. It is reassuring however to find many 
who have been prospered, and have in middle life at- 
tained to comfortable competence and ease, returning 
to the old farm, buying it back, and restoring and 
preserving with affectionate interest, the ancient land- 
marks and habitat of the fathers. This spirit is grow- 
ing here, and in the warmth of its glow, we may hope 
for the regeneration of our earlier American life and 
love of place. 

The New Bedford and Taunton Leonards have 
been able to retain their relations with these cities 
and have always been, and are, valuable members of 
their boroughs. So in Springfield, so too in several of 
the New Jersey towns, descendants of the early set- 
tlers are now to be found, bearing the good name, and 
doing it credit, by steady and intelligent living among 
their townfolk and acquaintance. One of the pleas- 
antest facts of genealogical research is to be noted 
in the mutual recognition and acknowledgement of 
this family fealtyship. and the ready contribution of 
data, or information, towards any effort made for 
the perpetuation and preservation of family annals 
and history. And we may be much comforted, by 

54 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the knowledge that there is sufficient interest and 
pride, in more than one instance, to gather, collect 
and collate, names, ages, incidents and pedigrees of 
these separated branches. If by such endeavor, a 
pride of virtue and of reputable kinship, and of upright 
living, and continued maintenance of a noble and 
helpful generation, be sustained in those coming after 
us, the effort and labor will be more than rewarded 
and the end will certainly justify the means. 



55 



LEONARDS AND IRON WORKS IN 

ENGLAND 



STEPHEN' BANKS LEONARD. 



LEONARDS AND IRON WORKS IN 

ENGLAND. 

The earliest account we have of the identification 
of the later English Leonards with iron work is found 
in the State calendars. Richard Leonard, Lord Dacre, 
was son of Henry — he lived at Hurstmonceux in 1617. 
His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Arthur 
Throckmorton and grandson of Queen Elizabeth's 
famous minister. " On Dec. 16*?0. upon inquiry as 
to who had paid the contribution to the Palatinate, 
Lord Dacre said that he had done so ; and on March 
26, 16?6, there is execution of a grant to Richard 
Lord Dacre, Thomas Letsome and Nicholas Page of 
a privilege for making Steele for 14 years invented 
and perfected by Letsome, by the charge of Lord 
Dacre and assistance of Page being the first inventor 
thereof." In the Hurstmonceux household account 
book there is an incidental reference to a *' Steele 
forge " which was probably near that castle and 
possibly the scene of these attempts to become suc- 
cessful ironmasters. We know that there was an 
iron working on the estate nearly a hundred years 
earlier, in 15T4, as a return was made of the owners 
of iron works in the Counties of Surrey, Sussex and 
Kent; and amongst these there is this entry: "The 
Lord Dacres, 1 forge, 1 furnace in Buckholt in the 
hands of Jeffreys." See '' The Families of Barrett and 
Leonard," page 256. 

59 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

With an inherited inclination and taste for the iron 
industry it was natural that the first Leonard immi- 
grants to the American Colony should undertake this 
useful vocation, and we may look with some interest 
at the record of their endeavors in Massachusetts. 



60 



LEONARDS AND IRON WORKS IN 
MASSACHUSETTS COLONY 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



LEONARDS AND IRON WORKS IN 
MASSACHUSETTS COLONY. 

In 1651 there are entries in the Lynn account 
book of monies paid to James Leonard for work ren- 
dered. A brass furnace or foundry, and a refinery 
forge were established there as early as May 1645, and 
it was the first successful attempt, we are informed, 
to make " Barr Iron " in this country. The ore, how- 
ever, was taken from the bog, and was not of a very 
valuable character. These works were established by 
Adam Hawkes in 1630. Henry Leonard came to this 
country with his brother James, and they were skilled 
workmen in iron, and this name is the most noted in 
the annals of the New England iron industry. In 
1793 the Rev. Dr. Forbes prepared and published a 
book entitled " Topographical Description of Rayn- 
ham, with its History," in which he says, '' The cir- 
cumstances of a family attachment to the iron manu- 
facture is so well known as to render it a common 
observation in this part of the country " Where you 
can find iron works there you will find a Leonard." 
Henry and James Leonard are said to have learned 
their trade at Pontipool, Monmouthshire. They were 
forgemen. 

The next iron enterprise in New England was located 
in the town or township of Taunton, in Bristol county, 
two miles from the city of Taunton. This enterprise 
was undertaken in 1652 by a company composed of 

63 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

citizens of Taunton, who employed Henry and James 
Leonard, and Ralph Russell as practical ironworkers. 
At a town meeting at Taunton, held October 21, 1652, 
" it was agreed and granted by the town to the said 
Henry and James Leonard, and Ralph Russell, free 
consent to come hither and join with certain of our 
inhabitants to set up a bloomery on Two-mile River." 
The works thus projected were put in operation in 
1653. The Leonards contributed by their skill as 
iron masters towards making this enterprise a suc- 
cess, and it long continued in a prosperous condition. 

Thomas Leonard and his brother James Leonard 
succeeded their father in the works, and the family 
name was connected with the Taunton forge for 
many generations. Thomas Leonard became manager 
and so continued until his death in 1713. Bar iron 
was made directly from the ore. The hammers and 
other heavy machinery for the Taunton bloomery 
came from abroad. The works made from twenty to 
thirty tons annually, averaging about $100 a ton of 
our currency. A few years ago the old buildings 
were demolished, and the foundation walls alone re- 
main of the ancient Taunton iron works of 224 years — 
the oldest successful iron manufactury in New 
England. 

The Taunton forge, says Perez Fobes in 1793, was 
situated on " the great road, and having been repaired 
from generation to generation, it is to this day still 
in employ," In William Reed Deane's " Genealogical 
Record of the Leonard Family," published in 1851, 
it is stated that " the old forge, though it has been re- 
modelled several times, has been in constant use for 
nearly two hundred years, and is now in the full tide 
of successful operation. It is owned by Theodore 

«4 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Dean, Esq. who is descended from the Leonards. 
The forge was at that time employed in the manufac- 
ture of anchors. In 1865 it was still so employed, 
with four forge fires, two hammers, and two water 
wheels, but about that time it ceased to be active 
and has since been dismantled and abandoned. 

About 1G68, Henry Leonard went to Rowley village, 
twenty-five miles northeast of Lynn, as stated by 
Newall, " and there established iron works." Lewis 
says that in 1GT4, Henry Leonard's sons, Nathaniel, 
Samuel and Thomas, contracted to carry on these 
works for the owners, whose names are given by 
Bishop as " John Ruck and others of Salem." The 
works did not prove to be profitable. After establish- 
ing the Rowley works, Henry Leonard went to New 
Jersey, *' and there again engaged in the iron manu- 
facture." At some time previous to his removal to 
New Jersey, he appears to have been connected with 
the establishment of iron works at Canton, about 
fourteen miles south of Boston. 

The Whittington iron works on Mill River, were 
built by James Leonard, senior " forgeman " in 1670. 
These works embraced *' a bloomerie with one hearth." 
Mr. Leonard's three sons, Joseph, Benjamin and 
Uriah, having served in the Taunton iron works at 
the " refining and bloomerie " trade, worked the forge. 
They also had a grist mill at the same place. This 
was the location of James Leonard's iron works. 
James Leonard died in 1691. The Whittington bloom- 
ery was continued by his sons and their successors 
for more than a hundred years. During the first 
fifty years it was supplied with bog ore mined in the 
vicinity of " Scadding's moire " and pond, and " along 
up Mill River to Winneconnet pond." 

65 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

In the years 1696 and 1697 the Chartley iron works 
were built on Stony brook, within the limits of Taun- 
ton North Purchase. '' The iron work and tools re- 
quired were made at the Taunton iron works. 
These works were built by Thomas and James Leon- 
ard, and embraced only a bloomery for the manufac- 
ture of bar-iron. They went into operation in 1698. 
In 1713 George Leonard became the sole owner of 
these works and greatly enlarged them." The above 
enterprise was the origin of the noted Leonard iron 
works of Norton, and one of the chief causes of the 
organization and incorporation of that town in 1711. 
Native bog was always used. 

The Hopewell iron works embracing a bloomery 
only, were built on Mill River in Taunton, in 1739 
and 1740, by Captain Zephaniah Leonard, to make 
bar iron from bog ore. The bloomery was succeeded 
by a rolling and slitting mill, erected by John Adam in 
1776 and 1777. In 1782 the property passed into the 
hands of Samuel Leonard and others, of Taunton. 
Russia and Swede iron, imported in bars, were rolled 
and converted into rods for the best of hammered 
nails, furnishing partial employment for many farmer 
nailers within an area of a dozen miles. Finally the 
business proving unprofitable, the works were 
abandoned. 



66 



TAUNTON AND LEONARDS 




FIRST IRON FORGE. 

Taunton. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



TAUNTON AND LEONARDS. 

In the completion of the hnes of the town of 
Taunton, it became necessary to secure and buy cer- 
tain land in the northeastern section of the place. 
This was historically known as the " North East 
Purchase." A full account of this colonial transaction 
was read before the Old Colony Historical Society, in 
1855 by Mortimer Blake, and published in 1885. The 
following extracts are of interest : 

The disposition of the North Purchase Lands. The 
records of the proprietors still extant give us all need- 
ful information, as all the extracts will show. 

Soon after the reception of their deed from Ply- 
mouth, ** Sept. IG. IGGS, the Proprietors of the North 
Purchase being met together, made choice of Thomas 
Leonard to be their clarke ; and the same day the said 
Purchasers or proprietors made choice of James Wal- 
ker, George Macy, William Harvey and Richard Will- 
iams to have inspection into affairs relating to said 
North Purchase, and together with the clarke to call 
the company together when they shall have occasion." 

These proprietors finally arranged for " highways, 
expenses and special grants." These were many. 
A gratuity of land was voted to each clerk for his 
services. To the first clerk, Thomas Leonard, was 
granted fifty acres. To his successor, Samuel Leon- 
ard, was given forty acres. To the next clerk, George 
Leonard, fifty-three acres. A '' Lott for the ministry " 
was early set apart. As the proprietors were not 

69 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

land speculators, they held a minister to be a needful 
member of their prospective settlements, and in all 
divisions of land, he or his lot was accounted as a 
shareholder. In the first division of land, 1684, a 
lot equal to the rest was ordered to be laid out 
" never to be alienated from the use of the ministry." 

As the Leonards were prominent in Taunton as 
iron-workers, we find early encouragements to their 
enterprises. As a help to Thomas and James Leonard 
" to set up an Iron Work or Forge at Stoney Brook," 
several proprietors offered, 6 December, 1695, and 
the whole company voted, 12 May, 1696, a gift of 
" such lands as their pond doth overflow." Their 
forge was, in 1698, called '' Chartley Iron Works " 
and was then in some effective operation. Many cur- 
ious exchanges in Taunton are recorded, and a num- 
ber of unsolvable problems are noted. Among them 
is the following which baffles the antiquarian: 

May 27, 1729, '' voted that the Handkerchief which 
was the return of the money which was sent to Eng- 
land should be sold, and that Mr. Ephraim Leonard 
should be paid £2 8s. and Left. Leonard be paid 16s 
and Mr, Edward Shove to be paid 16s. out of the 
money that said Handkerchief shall be sold for; and 
that the rest of the money should be left out to interest 
for the use of the Proprietors. Voted that Lieut. 
James Leonard and Maj. George Leonard shall have 
all the same Handkerchief, they giving good security 
for £23 16s. 4d to the clerk to be paid within one 
years' time, and they paying also the aforesaid sums 
of money which amounts to £4, to be paid within 
one years' time for their aforesaid trouble." 

Who has the Handkerchief? 

Having established their forge on the banks of 

70 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the Two-mile River, the wisdom and kindliness of 
the Leonards was made evident by the relationship 
which soon ripened into a close friendship with the 
Indian King Philip, head of the Pequot tribes; the 
result being that later on a contract was made be- 
tween the King and the Leonards, in which it was 
agreed that the Indians would guard and protect the 
rights and interests of this family in the future. This 
condition of things continued for many years. King 
Philip prevented the property and lives of the Leon- 
ards from being destroyed during the Indian upris- 
ings, and these kind services were reciprocated, and 
there are several interesting anecdotes relating to 
this situation. One is, that the niece of King Philip. 
a squaw named Betty, when both families of the Leon- 
ards were stricken with typhoid fever, gathered the 
herbs, prepared and administered the medicine, and 
nursed the sick ones back to health. She refused the 
wampum, and other recompense, but she did accept as 
a present, a pretty red cloak, and in it, she said, she 
wished to be buried. 

When the great Indian chief ordered Taunton and 
the vicinity to be burned, he stipulated that the 
Leonard farms must not be disturbed. At their 
forge, he had his tomahawks and arrowheads made. 
Later on, when King Philip was killed, his head was 
cut off and buried in the cellar of the Leonard house. 

In 1901 a re-union of the descendants of the Taun- 
ton Leonards was called in the city of Taunton. A 
large number met and formed an association, adopted 
a Constitution and By-laws, and prepared for the de- 
velopment of archives and publications which should 
bear upon the history- of the family. Already they 
have accumulated an unusual amount of material ; and 

71 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

having under their control the manuscript form, com- 
piled by the late Elisha C. Leonard of New Bedford, 
when that is published we shall feel that the records 
of the clan have been scientifically and thoroughly ar- 
ranged and perpetuated. The descendants of James 
and Henry Leonard, for a long period of years, dwelt 
in Taunton, they held positions of trust and local 
power, and were respected and regarded highly by 
those who knew them. In the Neck of Land burying- 
ground may be found to-day the graves and head- 
stones of many of these people. The Taunton Eve- 
ning News of July ^Oth, 1899 gives the following 
statement : " The grave of Thomas Leonard reminds 
of his service in the colonial days. He was the suc- 
cessor of Captain William Pole, as captain of the 
first local military company in Taunton, and was 
commissioned in 1685 ; having performed the duties 
of ensign from June Tth, 1667 ; he was commissioned 
major of the first Bristol regiment in 1T09, but still 
retained command of the first foot company in the 
Bristol regiment, it being called the ^lajors' Company. 
He died November 24, 1713, when he was succeeded 
by his brother, James Leonard the second, who com- 
manded the first foot company until his death, Novem- 
berl, 1726. James Leonard and his son were both 
captains, and both lived to be more than eighty years 
old. The latter had three sons and five daughters, 
two of the former were military officers, and all of 
them lived to the age of seventy. Stephen Leonard, 
son of James, was a Justice of the Peace, and a Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas. His oldest son, 
Major Zephaniah, married April 24, 1724, Hannah, 
daughter of John and Alice King of Raynham. 

Major Thomas Leonard was connected with the 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

military history of Taunton for forty-eight years. 
He was appointed Judge of the Quarter Session in 
1685, and continued upon the bench until his death. 
He was representative, selectman, member of the town 
council, clerk of the proprietory records, treasurer of 
the first iron works, merchant and physician. 

Lientenant and Captain, James Leonard the second, 
was an iron master. He was a representative and se- 
lectman. All of these early settlers, members of the 
first military company, were buried according to the 
law of Plymouth Colony enacted in 1G43, '* that when 
any the the military company should dye, or depart 
this life, the company upon warning, shall come to- 
gether with their arms, and inter the corpse as a 
soldier, and according to his place and qualitye." 

In this ancient burying-ground, there is a very re- 
markable epitaph carved upon a horizontal slab, seven 
by four, supported by six pillars ; there is a picture 
of a cofhn on the slab, and under the lines of this 
grotesque drawing are these words, " Parentibus octi- 
mus bene murentibus ;" surmounting the whole is 
'' Zephaniah Leonard, Esq. who died April 25th, 1766, 
in the G3rd year of his age, and Hannah his wife, who 
died ye same day, in the 62nd year of her age." This 
is the epitaph : 

" To dust and silence is much worth consigned, 
Sheds a sad gloom over vanities behind. 
Such are pursuits! proud impulse vainly soar, 
See here ! the wise, the virtuous are no more ! 

How mean ambition ! how contemptuous state ! 
How dim the tinsel glories of the great ! 
Even Leonards undistinguished fall, 
And death and hovering darkness hide us all." 

The old Leonard house which stood but a few 

73 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

rods from the village, was pulled down a few years 
since. A part of this house was probably built as 
early as 1670, although the vane upon it had inscribed, 
or cut in it, the year 1700. It had been occupied by 
the family down to the seventh generation, and the 
spot with modern buildings, is now owned and occu- 
pied by the eighth. At the time the old house was 
demolished, it was probably the oldest mansion in 
that section, if not in the country. The oldest build- 
ing in New Bedford is supposed to be the house lately 
occupied by the Leonard family in Norton, in which 
Mrs. Bowen dwelt. Through the courtesy of Cap- 
tain Hall, Secretary of the Old Colony Historical So- 
ciety, a piece of oak timber from this old house was 
sent to me, and I had it made into a number of 
canes, or walking sticks, for various members of the 
family, each stick bearing a sliver plate, giving the 
history of the wood. This house, in its first rude 
form was, with another, kept constantly guarded dur- 
ing King Philip's war. The old house at Norton, 
which was then a part of Taunton, was first occupied 
by Major George Leonard, third son of Thomas, 
about 1690. He was the owner of large tracts of land, 
and a progenitor of the Norton family. 

William R. Deane in his pamphlet on the Leon- 
ards, says that " this family as possessors of great 
wealth, and of the largest landed estate probably of 
any in New England, have lived here for 160 years." 
This property was inherited in 1850 by George Leon- 
ard Barnes, Esq. on the death of Mrs. Bowen. Of 
this branch of the family, one of the most distinguished 
was the Hon. Daniel Leonard, only son of Colonel 
Ephraim Leonard, born in Norton, now Mansfield, 
a graduate of Harvard College in 1760, and died in 

74 




FIRST HOME OF JAMES LEONARD, 
Taunton. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

London in June, 1S29, aged 89 years. His second 
wife was Sarah Hammock, whose grave and head- 
stone stands near the entrance door of Old Trinity 
Church, Newport, R. I. Mr. Deane speaks of him as 
follows : " He was bred to the law, and was before 
the Revolution a member of the General Court, an 
able political orator, and according to President Adams 
supported the Whig cause with great eloquence and 
energy." He was possessed of brilliant talents, and 
acquired great popularity, from which Governor 
Hutchinson was led to " exercise his blandishments 
upon him, and as he seldom failed when he applied 
them in all their force, the tempter prevailed " and 
Mr. Leonard became a Loyalist. In 1TT4 he was 
an addressor of Hutchinson, and was appointed a 
mandamus counsellor the same year. The Hon. Sam- 
uel Crocker of Taunton states that the tree is still 
standing in his garden where Governor Hutchinson, 
with his plausibility of manner, and fascinating de- 
meanor, had a long conversation with Daniel Leonard 
the result of which was a firm adherence by him to 
the side of the British. The house that he occupied 
is now standing near Taunton Green. Soon after his 
course had become known, several mobs collected on 
the Green uttering ferocious threats, and some were 
for submitting him to personal indignities, but as he 
had been much beloved by the people of Taunton, 
some of the leading Whigs interfered, and persuaded 
the people to abstain from any acts of violence. 
He sought an asylum in Bristol, then occupied by 
the British, believing confidently that his family 
would be safe, but his house was assailed in the night, 
and in it, the marks of bullets can still be detected. 
His family soon after joined him in Bristol. In 1776 

75 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

he accompanied the British to Halifax, and afterwards 
went to England to reside, where he received the ap- 
pointment of Chief Justice of Bermuda. After filling 
this office for many years, he again, in his last days, 
took up his residence in London. He left four 
grandchildren, the children of his daughter Sarah, 
who married John Stewart, Esq. a captain in the 
British army, and afterwards collector at the port of 
Bermuda. These grandchildren are now believed to 
be all living. The eldest, Duncan Stewart, on the 
death of an uncle who died childless, succeeded to 
an ancient lairdship in Scotland. The generous tem- 
per and afiable manners of Mr. Leonard, seemed to 
have fascinated those who were in his household, and 
most about him. A very worthy woman belonging 
to the family in Taunton, who was intrusted with 
the care of an infant daughter of his first wife, would 
never leave him. She went with his family in all 
their wanderings; first to Boston, then to Halifax, 
then to London, then Bermuda ; she came with them 
to the United States, and went back to the West 
Indies, and then to London, and died in their service. 
His deputy sheriff, followed his fortunes, and was 
killed in the battle of Germantown, then a major in 
the British service. A young gentleman educated at 
Harvard College and in his office, went with him to 
London, where he died. 

The letters signed " Massachusettensis" which were 
published in a paper in Boston, between December 
12, 1774, and April 3, 1775, were written by Daniel 
Leonard. They were answered under the signature 
of " Novanglus," by John Adams. Mr. xAdams says 
" week after week passed away, and these papers 
made a very visible impression on many minds ; no 



TG 




CAPTAIN GEORGE LEONARD. 
Taunton. Mass. 



'1 i in * 



W- 



"^■■^^■ 



-^ 



j! 



LEONARD HOUSE, 

Taunton, Mass. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

answer appeared, and indeed some who were capable, 
were too busy, and some too timorous." Mr. Adams 
himself, therefore, began to write, and continued every 
week in the Boston Gazette, till the 19th of April, 
1775. 

In the preface to the edition of *' ^Massachusettensis 
and Xovanglus," published in 1819, ]\Ir. Adams at- 
tributes these letters to Jonathan Sewall although at 
the time they were written he had supposed them to 
be the joint production of Sewall and Leonard. This 
volume, so prefaced by Mr. Adams, fixed upon the 
public mind generally, the impression that Sewall was 
the author; although in Taunton. Mr. Leonard's for- 
mer home, they were still considered as his production. 
Mr. Adams finally became satisfied that Leonard was 
the author, and the only one. The question, within a 
few months, having again been brought before the 
public, a well-known writer, L. ^L Sargent, has in 
the Boston Transcript, under the signature of '' Sigma " 
demonstrated beyond a doubt, that Daniel Leonard 
was the author of said letters. The principal evi- 
dence is the testimony of the Hon. W^ard Chipman, 
whose father had " personal knowledge " of the author- 
ship at the time. Mr. Chipman also states that Judge 
Leonard himself, in a letter written to him in answer 
to his inquiries on the subject, acknowledged that 
he was the author. The opinion that ^Ir. Sewall was 
the author, has been traced to no contemporary author- 
ity, but ]\Ir. Adams; and he had nothing but conjecture 
to support his assertion. '' The question now is of no 
i^reat importance, except in an historical point of view. 
Its value is derived from the fact of its having been 
the best defense of the measures of the King, the 
?>Iinistry and the Parliament, which appeared this 

77 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

side the water, and superior perhaps to any that ap- 
peared on the other side, with the exception of Doc- 
tor Johnson's ' Taxation no Tyranny.' " Yet the argu- 
ments, however plausible, subtle and refined, rested 
upon a frail foundation. 

Colonel Ephraim Leonard, the father of the Hon. 
Daniel Leonard, was a strong Whig, and opposed the 
course of his son. He lived till after the close of the 
Revolution, and at his death devised his large estate 
to such of his descendants as should take the oaths of 
naturalization and allegiance. This was done by 
Charles Leonard, only son of the Hon. Daniel. It 
was understood, however, that the brothers and sis- 
ters of Charles were to participate in the enjoyment 
of the property. (See John Fiske's posthumous essay, 
on Governor Hutchinson.) 

Stephen Leonard, son of Captain James Leonard, 
who had served many years as a forgeman in the 
old iron works, was a prominent man in Taunton af- 
fairs. He was town treasurer some years prior to his 
leaving in 1722 for New Jersey. He then sold his in- 
terests and land to Captain Zephania, his son and re- 
moved to that State where he became interested in 
iron works, and occupied leading official positions. 
See " History of Taunton,'' page 629. 



78 




DANIEL LEONARD. 

Taunton. Mass., 

Chief Justice of Bermuda. 



\ 



■4 



NEW JERSEY LEONARDS. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



NEW JERSEY LEONARDS. 

Let us now turn from New England to New Jer- 
sey and trace the development of the family in that 
section. Iron ore was found in quantities in the 
northern and central sections of the state and there- 
fore it lured and led the Leonards to take up their life 
and craft in a congenial neighborhood. The following 
data indicate the members of the clan who served 
civilly and in the army and is of utility in tracing 
pedigrees. 



81 



LEONARD FAMILY IN MORRIS CO., N. J. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



LEONARD FAMILY OF MORRIS CO. N. J. 

Stephen and Joshua Leonard. 

*' The founder of this family was Stephen Leonard, 
son of James Leonard, born 1643 by his second wife, 
Lydia Gulliver of Taunton, Mass. 

Stephen Leonard was born in Massachusetts, 1680. 
Before he left Bristol County, Mass, he sold consider- 
able estate and some of it he sold after settling in 
Morris. He was, while in Bristol County, a man of 
prominence. He settled about 1722-3 in what then 
was Hanmer, Hunterden County, but Hanmer is 
now Morris. After his decease, among other deeds 
recorded in Bristol County, was one from Henry 
Lott of Taunton to Judge Zephaniah Leonard (son 
of Stephen) who remained in Bristol County, who for 
£20 sold " 1-11 share in estate of his honored father 
Stephen Leonard which he left in Taunton, Rayn- 
ham or Bristol, etc, which fell to Mary Leonard, 
daughter of said Stephen as her portion which I pur- 
chased of her the said IMary and Samuel her husband 
as per deed March 4th 1741; dated May 24, 1744." 

From this deed of Henry Lott it seems that Mary 

Leonard had married a Samuel , name not 

ascertained. And the inference is that there were 
eleven children or ten children and the wife. (So says 
E. C. Leonard of New Bedford.) W. O. B. Leonard 
thinks Stephen died 1743, but he probably died be- 
fore that— before March 4, 1741. 

Stephen Leonard, founder of the family of Mor- 

85 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

ris (born 1680, died 1741 about), had wife, Mary, and 
children as ascertained : 

Zephaniah, born 1704, who remained at Taunton, 
was major in militia, judge, etc. 

Mary, who married Samuel . 

Joshua, a bloomer or master ironworker who lived 
in New Jersey and probably succeeded his father in 
business. 

Huldah, who married Philip Hall of Taunton, Mass., 
April 3, 1740. 

Rev. Silas, graduated Yale, 1736, ordained in Gor- 
ham. Conn. 

Paul, a resident of New Jersey. In 1724 Stephen 
Leonard was made judge of the Commission in Morris. 

O. B. Leonard of Plainfield says : 

" Silas was one of the younger members of the fam- 
ily and lived with his parents in the Colony of New 
Jersey. When he grew to manhood he became a 
clergyman and settled over a church in New York 
City. Joshua Leonard died without will and Paul 
Leonard administered to his estate. 

Major Zephaniah married, 1724, Hannah King and 
had fourteen children, of whom Joshua, born 1725, was 
known as captain and had a son Joshua, born 1760, 
who became a minister of the gospel, graduated at 
Brown University and settled at Ellington, Conn. 
In 1797 Rev. Joshua moved to Cazenovia, N. Y. and, 
1799, organized a Presbyterian church there. 

O. B. Leonard of Plainfield says: "Silas Leonard 
had a brother Paul, a minister, of New York ; also a 
brother Stephen and a Zephaniah of New Jersey, who 
was administrator, 1761, of Joshua Leonard, who died 
1764. They lived in Morris County. Paul had 
wife, Abigail, who died 1787, and David Leonard was 

86 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

administrator of his estate. Silas P. Leonard, son of 
Samuel, lived in Morris County, N. J., also Sarah 
Leonard, a great grandaughter of Thomas Leonard of 
Taunton, who married Rev. Eliah Byram, a preacher 
at Mendham, N. J., about 1760. There was an Enoch 
Leonard of same place who made a will 1757 and had 
wife, Elizabeth. 

Note. — It is said that Rev. Mr. Bvram was from 
Bridgewater, Mass. 



87 



LEONARDS OF NEW JERSEY IN THE 

REVOLUTION 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



LEONARD FAMILY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Revolutionary Period. 

The Monmouth Inquirer published (June 21st, 
1883) had a notice of the Leonard Family and made 
mention of the first members named in Monmouth Rec- 
ords. The following names may aid in cornpleting 
genealogy of descendants. 

Nathaniel Leonard was in the Continental army 
(Third N. J. Reg.) first, lieutenant, then captain-lieu- 
tenant, then captain. He was also captain in the New 
Jersey militia and wagon-master. Captain Leonard with 
his company were at Siege of Yorktown, Va. 1781. 
Record : Ensign in Captain Sharp's company, Third 
Battalion. February 9th, 1776; second lieutenant, Cap- 
tain Gordon's company, same battalion, November 
29, 1776; first lieutenant ditto October 1st, 1777; 
lieutenant Third Regiment; captain-lieutenant First 
Regiment, March 30th, 1780 ; captain Third Regiment, 
September 6th, 1781 ; discharged at the close of the 
war, captain also in the state militia. 

Privates in the Continenal Army : 

Azariah Leonard, Captain Holmes' company. 
Fourth Battalion; killed in action. March 21st, 1777. 
Also in state militia. 

Elijah Leonard, Captain Cox's company, Third 
Battalion. Also militia. 

James Leonard, John Leonard, Joshua Leonard 
(also in militia), Nathan Leonard, First N. J. Regi- 

91 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

ment. Samuel Leonard in Captain Mead's company, 
First Battalion ; also in Third Regiment ; also in 
militia. Stephen Leonard in Captain Morrison's com- 
pany, First Battalion ; also militia. 

William Leonard, Captain Van Anglein's company, 
First Battalion. 

Zephaniah Leonard, Third Battalion ; Captain Flan- 
nagan's company in Third Battalion ; Captain Cox's 
company, Third Regiment ; First Regiment, and drafted 
into Regiment of Sappers and Miners of Continental 
army. 



92 



STEPHEX BAXKS LEONARD. 



Soldiers (State Militia). 



Nathaniel Leonard, Captain, State militia and Con- 

tinal Army. 

Samuel Leonard, sergeant, Captain Waddell's 
company of First Regiment, Monmouth. 

Thomas Leonard, sergeant. First Regiment, Hun- 
terdon, Captain Tucker's company. 

Note. — Hunterdon then included the present 
county of Mercer, in which is Trenton, and adjoined 
Monmouth. 



Azariah Leonard, 
David Leonard, 
Elijah Leonard, 
James Leonard, 
James Leonard, 
John Leonard, 
John Leonard, 
John Leonard, 
Joshua Leonard, 
Nathaniel Leonard, 
Samuel Leonard, 
Samuel Leonard, 
Stephen Leonard, 
William Leonard, 



n Glocester 

n Morris 

in Morris 

in Morris 

in Sussex 

in Sussex 

in Sussex 

n IMorris 

n Morris 



m 
mi 
mi 
mi 



m 
m 
m 
m 



n Hunterdon m 



m 



litia, 
litia, 
litia, 
litia, 
militia, 
litia, 
litia, 
litia, 
litia, 
litia, 



militia, 



litia. 



private, 
private, 
private, 
private, 
private, 
private, 
private, 
private, 
private, 
private, 
private, 
private, 
private. 



in Morris 
in Morris 

in Morris militia, 

in Middlesex (2d Reg.) private. 
William Leonard, in Middlesex (3d Reg.) private. 

93 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

The following in militia but no county given, viz: 
Elias Leonard, Henry Leonard, Silas Leonard. 

The following members of the family it is sup- 
posed removed to New York. They were persons of 
good standing, property holders and probably con- 
nected w^ith or inclined to the Church of England. 
They probably left Monmouth about 1777 : 

Thomas Leonard, a prominent citizen of Freehold, 
Monmouth County. 

John Leonard and John Leonard Jr. of Upper Free- 
hold, Monmouth County. 

Joseph Leonard, John Leonard of Shrewsbury, 
Monmouth County. 

Samuel Leonard of Dover Township, Monmouth 
County. 

The first named, Thomas Leonard, after the war,, 
it is said went to St. Johns, New Brunswick. 



94 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



CONTINENTAL ARMY. 

The following Leonards are named — no county- 
given : Azariah, Elijah, James, John, Joshua, Nathans- 
Samuel, Stephen, William, Zephaniah. 

Note. — The last named, Zephaniah, was probably 
from the upper part of New Jersey as most of the 
officers were from there ; Nathanial Leonard was en- 
sign in his company. 

A writer in the *' Jerseyman " some years ago says : 

'* In the Revolutionary war the Leonards of Morris 
and Hunterdon were eminently patriotic, and filled 
various positions in the Continental army and State 
militia from Colonel down to private. Among those 
enlisted in the war were Nathaniel, David, Elias, Eli- 
jah, Henry, James, John, Joshua, Nathaniel, Samuel^ 
Silas and Stephen. While the Leonards of Morris 
were arrayed on the patriotic side, the principal mem- 
bers of the family in Monmouth joined the tories, 
and one, Thomas, was a major in the Royalist cause, 
and at close of the war in 1783, he and two others of 
the family settled on adjoining lots at St. John, N. B. 

'' Of the Leonard family of Morris, members went 
into other States and some who are supposed to have 
been descendants became distinguished in various 
positions. 

" This family has been noted from time immemorial 
for its connection with the iron business. It is possible 

95 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

that some of the capitalists who started iron works in 
Morris and Hunterdon a century to a century-and-a- 
half ago may have engaged Leonards to aid in super- 
intending their works. The first of the family who 
came to New Jersey, came about the year 1674 to aid 
in establishing the iron works in old Shrewsbury town- 
ship, Monmouth county — the first iron works estab- 
lished in New Jersey. 

" It is certain that members of the Leonard family 
were quite ancient settlers at Mendham. Benjamin 
Leonard of Mendham was married to Martha Haines 
of ye town of Morristown, March 8, 1750. Ephraim 
Leonard of Mendham was married to Hannah Hinds 
January 2nd, 1753 ; both by the pastor of the old First 
Presbyterian Church of Morristown." 

Quite a number of Leonard descendants are found 
in Canada, and of them Mr. Edwin Salter of Wash- 
ington, D. C. thus writes : 

" In the list of grantees of Parr Town, 1783, found 
in Mr. Lawrence's ' Foot Prints,' are found the names 
of Thomas Leonard, George Leonard and George 
Leonard, jr., and notices of them are found in pre- 
ceding pages of the book. On page 21, it is said that 
Hon. George Leonard was born at Plymouth, New 
England. 

*' The Leonards of N^ew England and New Jersey 
were of common origin. Among the Loyalists of New 
Jersey whose property was confiscated during the 
Revolution, were Thomas Leonard, a leading citizen 
of Freehold, Monmouth County, N. J., who is supposed 
to be the one named as number one among the grantees 
at Parr Town, and his son John. Joseph and John 
Leonard of Dover, all of the same county. On the side 
of those opposed to the Loyalists, between twenty and 

96 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

thirty are named as having enlisted during the war. 
The exact number is difficult to ascertain, as the same 
names sometimes occur in different military organiza- 
tions and it is uncertain whether they belong to the 
same or to different individuals." 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



LEONARDS OF MORRIS COUNTY. 

1740-1840. 

The Rev. O. B. Leonard of Plainfield, N. J., and a 
thorough genealogist has made valuable contributions 
to our efforts and with the foUov^ing facts that must 
prove very satisfactory to a large number of Leonards 
of New Jersey and their collateral relatives. 

" Stephen Leonard, of Taunton, Mass., as the first 
of this name, emigrated about 1723 to the mining dis- 
trict of Hanover township, or commonly known by the 
Indian name of Whippany. He died 1743 leaving in 
this colony two sons, Joshua and Paul Leonard, who 
succeeded their father in the iron business. His oldest 
son, Zephania, had always remained in Massachusetts 
engaged in the same pursuit. His son Silas pursued 
a course of intellectual training at Yale College, and 
after his graduation studied theology. In 1738 he was 
ordained by the Presbytery of East Jersey as pastor 
of the Presbyterian Church in Goshen, Orange county, 
New York, where he remained until his death in 1764, 
leaving wife Elizabeth with five sons and six daughters. 

Joshua Leonard, (son of Stephen, of Taunton), 
died 1760, leaving children Zephania, Paul, Silas, 
Stephen, Mary and Martha, of whose descendants 
only those of Silas and Martha can be definitely traced. 
His estate was administered by his brother Paul, who 
was appointed June 7, 1761. Silas (son of Joshua and 
Sarah), lived in the Whippany valley, of Hanover 

98 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

township and had sons Henry, Seth and Stephen 
Banks Leonard. This Stephen B. moved to New York 
state and became a member of Congress from the 
Owego district. His sons were William B. of Brook- 
lyn, X. Y., Hermon C, \V. Irving and George Leon- 
ard. This William B. was the father of two sons, 
Lewis H., who has William B. ; and Rev. William A. 
Leonard, D. D., formerly of Brooklyn, N. Y., and now 
rector of St. John's Episcopal Church at Washington, 
D. C. Martha Leonard (daughter of Joshua and 
Sarah), was born 1759 and married June 10, 1778, Ab- 
ner Condict, of Morris county. Martha (or " Patsy " 
as she was known), died February 18, 1829, aged 70 
years. Her husband died April 30, 1837 aged 87 years. 
Their children were Rhoda, born 1779; Rebecca, 1781. 
Silas Haines, 1784; Anna, 1786; Mary, 1789; Philip, 
1792 and Abner, 1796. 

** Paul Leonard (son of Stephen, of Taunton), soon 
after his father's death in 1743, settled on a farm in 
Alexandria township, Hunterdon county, where he 
died 1787, and David Leonard was appointed Septem- 
ber 26 of same year to administer his estate. His 
widow, Abigail Leonard, survived him ten years, be- 
queathing by will to one Joshua Leonard ' the property 
got by dower from the estate of Paul Leonard.' He 
had two sons, Adam and Daniel, both of whom lived on 
productive lands in the same township. Adam's sons 
were Peter and Adam, with grandsons through Peter, 
named Elias, Nelson and Adam ; and through Adam 
the grandsons were Peter, Benjamin, Curtis, Rensa- 
lear, William, Edmund P. and Nathaniel. Daniel's 
sons were John and Henry, with grandsons through 
John, named Wilson, Charles, John, Henry, Cornelius, 
William and Robert. 



99 ^ Q 1 T'i '^' O A 

D 'J 1 <J i o A 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

The long list of Leonards in Morris county settled 
there previous to the Revolutionary war, must have 
had an origin from several lines of the Massachusetts 
branch. It is not improbable that Ephraim Leonard 
of the Bridgewater, Mass., family, emigrated thither 
about 1740, and it may be he was one of the pro- 
genitors of the many hitherto detached and uncon- 
nected families of this name in the northern part of 
New Jersey. For about this date, 1735 to 1745, there 
were numerous others of the New England Leonards 
moving into the recently organized county of Morris, 
set of¥ from old Hunterdon 1738-9 and embracing at 
that time present Sussex and Warren counties. 

" Among the earliest of these untraced pioneer 
settlers was Enoch Leonard, of Mendham, who made 
a will September 16, 1757, in which he bequeaths to 
wife Elizabeth all his New England estate, clearly in- 
dicating the original birthplace of his ancestors. 

" From reliable records the following marriages are 
obtained of other Leonards whose genealogical chain 
is unlinked. Caleb Leonard, born 1725, of Roxiticus 
(aboriginal name for Mendham) was married January 
27, 1748, to Jemima Menthorne : March 8, 1750, Ben- 
jamin Leonard was married to Martha Haines of Mor- 
ristown ; Ephraim Leonard married January 2, 1753, 
Hannah Hinds, of Mendham, Jemima Leonard (Axtell) 
of Taunton, Mass., who had married in 1737 Henry 
Axtell, moved to the vicinity of Mendham in 1740 
and her father also, with his family emigrated the same 
year from Massachusetts. A few years later are found 
the names of Sarah Leonard married 1755, January 
2, to John Pitney in Morristown. February 24, 1756, 
Dorothea Leonard married Israel Aber. Hannah 
Leonard, in 1761, married Jesse Muir. and August 22, 

100 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

1764, Mary Leonard married Isaac Woodruff. A little 
later still, the records show that David Leonard mar- 
ried April 23, 1778, Phebe Lum, and Hannah Leonard, 
on the 24th day of May, 1778, married Matthias Lum. 
" Some of the descendants of Caleb (born 1725) 
and Jemima Leonard, of Mendham, Morris county, N. 
J., mentioned in the preceding paragraph, are here- 
with given. There were nine children: (1) Caleb 
Leonard, jr., born 1750, lived to be 100 years old, had 
sons Daniel, Joseph and Zenas, with grandson by 
Daniel, named William; by Joseph there were two 
grandsons, Zenas and David, and by Zenas there were 
three, Joseph, Isaac and Abijah. His daughters were 
Rhoda (Thomas), Mary (Adbertj and Sarah (Bell. 
(2) Isaac Leonard born March 18, 1T35, married 1773 
Jemima Parkhurst and about same time emigrated to 
Pigeon Creek, Washington county, Penn. Their chil- 
dren were ten in number and by two sons, Abner and 
Isaac, had the following grandsons: Son Abner born 
178T, married 1808 Elizabeth Betterman and had Hi- 
ram, married Elizabeth Patterson ; Aaron, married 
Caroline R. Chamberlain ; Levi, David married Mary 
S. Dustin and Rev. Isaac married Charlotte Chamber- 
lain ; son Isaac born 1790 had Benjamin, Abner and 
Isaac. The daughters of Isaac and Jemima Leonard 
were Eunice (Condict), Hannah (Cory), Jemima 
(Cary), Mary (Tuttle), Lydia (Clause j, Rhoda (Con- 
rad), and there were two boys died in childhood, David 
born 1776 and Silas born 1781. (3) Silas Leonard 
born 1755 had sons Caleb, Robert, Silas, Isaac, Abner 
and Stephen, and daughters Sarah (Pierce), Hannah 
(Carter), Jane, ^lary and Jemima. (4) Abner Leon- 
ard born 1757 had sons Caleb and Abner and daugh- 
ters Mary, Sarah, Euphemia, ^lehitable. (5) William 

101 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Leonard born 1760 had sons Benjamin and Jotham, 
and daughters Sarah J. (Graver) Nancy J. (Adbert), 
Jemima (Price and Mitchell), Amy, Elizabeth. Be- 
sides these five boys of Caleb and Jemima Leonard 
there were four girls, Rhoda, Jemima, Sarah and 
Hannah. Tradition reports two brothers of Caleb, Sr., 
viz : Jesse born about 1728, and William born about 
1730, the latter having sons Ziba, Amos and Lot, and 
grandsons by Lot named William, John and Lot. 
Most all of this above described family left Morris 
county before the beginning of this century and set- 
tled in Western Pennsvlvania. 

" The Leonard family is further represented in 
Morris county and adjoining territory by Samuel 
Leonard, born 1760, who married in 1783 Abigail Pier- 
son and had seven children, two boys and five girls. 
His two sons were Silas P. who had a son Silas H., 
of Rahway, and Samuel who married Sarah Hinds and 
had eleven children, among them six sons, Silas born 
1823 married Sarah Leeson and had eight children, 
Jacob married Margaret Jones and had nine children, 
Samuel married Anna L. Burnett, William married 
Sophia Logan, John married Jane Baker and Joseph 
married Martha J. Thomas. The five daughters were 
Abigail, born 1812 married George Baker, ^Mary Ann 
married J. Stammers. The five girls of Samuel and 
White ; Louisa married H. R. Wilson and Elizabeth 
mairried J. Stammers. The five girls of Samuel and 
Abigail were Betsey married Jesse Williams, Polly 
married Peter Dickerson, Joan married Ira !\Ioore, 
Nancy married Philip P. Gondict, and Ruth Leonard. 

" Another family on record is that of Elijah Leon- 
ard who it is said ' was a worker in iron at a forge 
in Morris county.' He was born about 1750 and mar- 

102 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

ried 1776 Joanna Tuttle, daughter of Col. Joseph 
Tuttle. They had six children, three daughters and 
three sons. (1) Jemima born 1777 married October 10, 
1793, David Tuttle and had ten children. (2) Sarah 
born 1779 married John Munson and had seven chil- 
dren. (3) Mary born 1783 married Elijah Hopping 
and had six children. (4) Joseph T. born 1786 married 
1808 Catherine C. Bergen and had Matilda. Elizabeth, 
James C. Ebenezer B. and George B. Leonard. (5) 
Samuel born 1788 married 1820 Sarah Roff and had 
William, Lydia, Levi, Isaac and Sarah Jane. (6) 
Stephen born 1790 married Sarah Cornell and had 
William born 1820, married first Phebe Sexton and 
had Sarah F. fSperry) and second marriage Delia F. 
Day and had William D., Charles F., Harriet S., 
(Thomas) and Warren : Charles born 1823, Elijah and 
George. 

" The few following detached links, complete the 
genealogical notes collected by the writer on this 
family in ^lorris county : John Leonard, married Mrs. 
Betsey (Hedges) Martin and lived on the southeastern 
border of the county. Their children were seven. 
Stephen married Sarah Hole ; Lockey or Rachel mar- 
ried Noah Wilcox ; Chloe married Jacob Bosworth ; 
Charles died young; Benjamin went to the lakes; 
Phebe married \\'illiam Brower, of Monmouth county; 
Betsey married Benjamin Sanford of Monmouth 
county. Then a record is found of Phebe Leonard 
daughter of David and Phebe, who married Jacob 
Hole. James Leonard married Mary Lacy. Sylvester 
Leonard, of Sussex countv, formerlv of Morris, died 
1795 intestate. 

The vicinity of Mendham in Morris county, N. J., 
where many of the Leonards settled, w^as one of the 



10 



o 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

most inviting places for the pioneers pushing to the 
fertile fields of the interior of the colony and settle- 
ments were made in that township as early as 1715-20. 
The country around furnished an industrious and 
growing population, with rich products of the soil, 
and abundance of magnetic iron ore, so that mining, 
manufacturing and farming interests greatly prospered 
and attracted new comers every year. One of the 
first original families was Ebenezer Byram born 1692, 
died 1753, the ancestor of Rev. Elijah Byram, of Bridge- 
water, Mass., who himself became the first pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church at Mendham in 1743. His 
wife was Sarah Leonard born 1729 in Taunton, Mass., 
daughter of Thomas and great granddaughter of 
Thomas, the oldest son of James Leonard, of Taunton. 
*' Of the hundred and fifty representatives of the 
Leonard family herein referred to, as once settled in 
Morris countv, but few descendants are now found 
living there. They are scattered through New York 
State, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Mis- 
souri and the far West." 



104 



SILAS LEONARD. 



STEPHEN' BAXKS LEONARD. 



SILAS LEONARD. 

These investigations, covering a wide space of time 
and territory-, bring us at last to our direct and nearer 
ancestor, Silas Leonard of Xevv Jersey. Let us at the 
risk of repetition connect him with his forefathers so 
that the line may be clearly indicated. Silas was the 
son of Joshua (died 1T60) ; he was the son of Stephen 
of Taunton (died 1T43) ; he was the son of Captain 
James, of Taunton (died 1726) ; he was second son of 
James Leonard (died 1G91) ; he was son of Thomas 
Leonard of Pontypool, Wales and he was younger son 
of Henry and grandson of Richard Leonard of Chev- 
ening the thirteenth Lord Dacre. 

Silas Leonard was born in New Jersey and his 
father's name was Joshua. His birthplace was either 
Parcippany or Whippany plains, both of which he fre- 
quently referred to in later life. His brothers and sis- 
ters were Stephen. Zephania and Paul. Marj^ and 
Martha. Paul was a clergyman and at one time settled 
in New York. I find that among the clergy of Trinity 
Parish, New York, such a name is recorded as as- 
sociated with its great work. He also had two sisters ; 
one, Martha, married Abner Condict in 1778, and 
from them, the New Jersey family of that name are 
descended. The other sister, Mary. I am informed 
married a gentleman of the name of Hurd. 

Silas Leonard lived with his widowed mother for 
nearly twenty years. When about eighteen years of 
age. he had a white swelling which was not only very 

107 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

painful, but so serious that the surgeon decided to am- 
putate the limb. A Rev. Dr. Green, who was pastor 
and friend, and somewhat of a medical student, hap- 
pened in just before the hour appointed for the opera- 
tion, and after examining the limb, confidently affirmed 
that he could save the foot and leg. This providential 
advice was at once accepted and thus a serious disaster 
was averted. The leg was always weak however, and 
through his long life gave evidence of the early trouble. 

His wife was Joanna Gregory and he married her 
in Bridgeport, Conn., at the home of her father, who 
was a shipping merchant of reputation. She was of 
a restless, nervous disposition and temperament and 
enjoyed constant travel and change of scene and occu- 
pation. She died at Owego, September 27, 1816, aged 
00 years. 

When a young man he was engaged in an extensive 
manufacture of leathern knee breeches in New York. 
He moved afterwards to Massachusetts and from 
thence to Towanda, Pa., and thence to Owego, Tioga 
County, N. Y. He had but one daughter and she died 
and was buried in Towanda. 

The New York residence of Silas Leonard was 
situated on Wall Street, midway between the East 
River and the Broadway of the town. Here upon this 
spot on a later day, (1813) arose a row of dwellings and 
stores, which, a few years after, were replaced by the 
present United States Custom House. Within a stone's 
throw of Silas Leonard's dwelling, and almost opposite, 
stood the then pretentious structure known as the City 
Hall. This served as the Municipal and Colonial 
Court House, the County Jail, and the Capitol of the 
Province. Many an interesting scene was enacted in 
that historical building, and many a notable personage 

108 




03 
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STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

of British, Colonial and Republican rank, paced its 
corridors and halls. There the first Federal Congress 
under the new Constitution, was received ; the building 
having been remodelled under the auspices of Major 
L'Enfant, (See " New York City, During the Ameri- 
can Revolution," printed by the Mercantile Library, 
Association, privately.) 

Let us try to reproduce and fancy the local outlook 
of those days. 

Looking down Wall Street the eye would rest upon 
a motley mixture of edifices — stores, residences and 
public offices, till the sparkling river cut off the vista 
at Murray's wharf edged on the farther shore by the 
green heights of Brooklyn. Passing up Wall Street, 
on the right near Broadway and a little back from the 
street, stood the stone steepled meeting house of the 
Presbyterian society. In 1844 this church was com- 
pletely taken down and removed, being re-erected 
where it now stands in \\'ashington Street, Jersey City. 
My father, William Boardman Leonard, occupied a 
banking office on this spot for a full decade at No. 10 
Wall Street as the senior partner of the house of 
Leonard, Sheldon and Company. At the head of 
Wall Street stood old Trinity Church in the midst of 
its graveyard. ^ 

" Separated from the sidewalk by a painted picket 
fence, the structure, one hundred and forty-eight feet 
long, by seventy-two in breadth, presented its semi- 
circular chancel to the street ; while at its western 
extremity, its simple pinnacled tower and steeple rose 
one hundred and seventy-five feet into the air. Within, 
this ancient edifice was ornamented beyond any other 
place of public worship in the city. The head of the 
chancel was adorned with an altar-piece and opposite 

109 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

to it, at the other end of the building was the organ. 
The tops of the pillars which supported the galleries 
were decked with the gilt busts of angels, winged. 
From the ceiling were suspended two glass branches 
and on the walls hung the arms of Governor Fletcher 
and some others of its principal benefactors." (Intro- 
duction to *' New York in the Revolution.") 

Within this old church doubtless our ancestor 
went, from time to time, for public worship, and here 
he would enjoy the beautiful liturgic service of the An- 
glican Communion, while he listened to the dis- 
courses of the Rev. Charles Inglis, rector, and after- 
wards Lord Bishop of Nova Scotia. 

In glancing over a list of the New York Loyalists — 
or those who refused to rebel against the crown — I 
find, among others, the names of James Leonard and 
Robert Leonard. (Page 129, '' New York in the 
American Revolution.") Whether these were connec- 
tions of our family I cannot positively state, though 
it is more than probable. In wandering through old 
Trinity graveyard some years since I came across an 
ancient headstone inscribed thus : " In memory of 
Jacob Leonard who departed this life July 20, 1813, 
aged 35 yrs., 5 mos. and 7 days."' This is a low 
scrolled sand stone and is near the Broadway line of 
the Trinity yard. This man, born in 1?78, may have 
been a cousin of Silas Leonard. 

Walking quietly down Broadway, well lined and 
shaded with trees and ending in the attractive Bowling 
Green, the old-time citizen would pass on the right the 
Lutheran Church with a queer tower and steeple ; 
while just beyond it, on the North River side, ran 
the long building occupied by the vestry of Trinity 

110 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

parish as a school for boys. On the opposite side of 
Broadway stood another famous school kept by W. 
Elphistone, one of the most accomplished pedagogues 
of the city. Educational and religious advantages were 
not wanting in that day and in these schools with the 
old " Kings " now " Columbia " college, the youth of 
that generation were trained in letters. ** Between 
Beaver lane (which was opposite the Bowling Green), 
and the Lutheran Church, Broadway was generally 
occupied with private dwellings ; and the promenader, 
so far as we have been informed, met nothing of par- 
ticular moment. * The alley which led to the oyster- 
pasty' (Exchange alley) on his left, and Verlatten- 
berg or, as it was generally called Flatten Bawalk 
street (Exchange Place) on his right, as they still do, 
broke the monotony of the scene." ( *' New York in 
Revolution," page 17.) At the lower end of this main 
street opposite the green stood the residence of Sir 
Edward Pickering, while just beyond hung out the 
sign of the '' York Tavern " faced by its vis-a-vis the 
*' King's Arms " kept by ]\Irs. Steele. On the corner 
of the street and looking off to the western waters, and 
out upon the verdant park, arose a pretentious build- 
ing, rivaling the famous " Walton Mansion " in Queen 
street, now Franklin Square (See " Magazine of Ameri- 
can History," Vol. 2, page 3909). An elegant residence 
was the home of Captain Kennedy of the Royal Navy, 
whose hospitable doors received many a noble son of 
Britain and the colony. " Next above Mr. Watts 
residence was that of Robert R. Livingstone, a justice 
of the Supreme Court of the Colony, the father of 
Chancellor Livingstone." *' The fourth house in the 
dow, on the western side of the way, was that of the 
Van Cortlandt family," and these with the exception 

111 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

of the last mentioned are standing to-day and occu- 
pied by offices (See " New York in Revolution," page 
14-15). From the loveliness and quiet beauty of the 
twilight hour in that olden day when the setting sun 
had lightened up the bay, the green trees and the 
mansions of that attractive, fashionable center, ima- 
gine the quaint and picturesque vista of Dutch and 
English fronts, the odd church spires and the open 
gardens and grounds, that met the eye of him who 
stood at Bowling Green and looked up Broadway. 
Picture our gradnsire, tall, erect, clad in the col- 
onial garb, the silver buckled shoes and silken hose, 
the buff-tanned leathern breeches and vesting and 
the well-known open coat and ruffles and three- 
cornered hat! 

A little beyond this row of historic buildings 
stood the " City Arms Tavern " literally " the cradle 
of American liberty, in which even the patriotism of 
Fanueil Hall was rocked. In the large rooms on the 
second floor of that building, the belles and beaux of 
that day frequently met and amused themselves in 
* assemblies ;' while occasional concerts, lectures and 
exhibitions of different kinds found quarters in the 
same establishment " (ibid, page 16). Here on October 
31, 1765 " upwards of two hundred principal merchants 
of those who traded in Great Britain " held a council 
in the hall and decided not to import any more goods 
from England while the Stamp Act remained in 
operation. A " Committee of Correspondence " was 
nominated to bring about a union of the several col- 
onies. So here we have overt acts looking towards 
rebellion ; while the foundation was laid for the con- 
federation and union of thirteen states, by the New 
York merchants at the " City Arms Tavern." 

112 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

And there smiled the Bowling Green, " skirted by 
a double row of trees which extended up the slope of 
the street nearly as far as Beaver lane" (Morris St.). 
Th fence surrounding the grass plot was still broken 
in places, evidence of the violence of the mob in 
their opposition to the Stamp Act in 1765. But the 
object of greatest interest to the strolling citizen 
would be the fortifications at the water front, over 
whose guns floated proudly the colors of the royal 
monarch of England. " Fort George, with its three 
connecting bastion curtains, extended from the White- 
hall slip on the southeast, where the ferry-boat made 
its departure for Staten Island, over to the line of the 
present Battery on the northwest. Here at this south- 
ern extremity was a large pool or lake of water into 
which the tide rolled through the Whitehall slip. 
The fort, a rectangular stone work strengthened 
with bastions at its angles, was elevated on an arti- 
ficial mound, about fourteen feet in height, which 
had been thrown up ' at an enormous expense ;' and 
its gateway which fronted the Bowling Green, was 
defended by a raveling or covert-port which had been 
thrown out in front of the fort, toward the city. With- 
in the enclosure of the fort were the provincial gov- 
ernor's residence, a barrack which would accomodate 
two hundred men and two powder magazines, the 
latter of which from their dampness were entirely use- 
less ; and the glaces or counterscarp on its eastern 
southern fronts. As far eastward as Whitehall street 
and southward as far as Pearl street " stretched the 
beautiful and attractive gardens of the Governor, laid 
out in patterns of flowers and rich in vegetable pro- 
duction. The guns of the fort were one hundred and 
twenty in number, but the disposition of the defence 

113 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

was poor and almost useless. Within the enclosure 
was a military hospital, thus completing a somewhat 
extensive establishment in size and impressiveness. 
(Read the " Begum's Daughter.") And all this was 
pleasing in the eye of our ancestors whD dwelt in 
New York at this time. They were staunch Tories or 
Royalists and loved the King's service rather than 
possible success in a new and rebelling government. 
With satisfaction the red coats of England were 
viewed by the Leonards of that period, and with no 
pleasant vision did they glance upon the excited Re- 
publicans, as they hooted the soldiery or united in 
dragging from its pedestal the leaden figure of the 
King. And their names are found in the list of those 
who petitioned Governor Tryon in favor of the exist- 
ing rule. Sabine's record of the " Loyalists of the 
Revolution " gives biographical sketches of at least 
a half dozen of the Leonard name who plied either 
pen or sword in the cause of their King and gave 
their name to the well-known commercial street which 
intersects Broadway to the west. Amid such sur- 
roundings then as these just described in the old 
Dutch and English city, lived our great-grandsire 
Silas Leonard and here was born him whose name 
we love, whose memory we revere and whose ex- 
ample and character we thankfully cherish, our grand- 
father Stephen Banks Leonard. 

After his removal to Owego, Silas Leonard's 
health declined and his impaired sight left him al- 
most helpless. The death of his wife somewhat broke 
his spirit, and when his son Stephen married, he made 
his home with the young couple who were always 
solicitous for his comfort and ease. The following 
facts as to his appearance and character were given 

114 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

by my Grandmother Leonard, who was his devoted 
daughter-in-law. 

Silas Leonard was tall and of a commanding ap- 
pearance. His face was homely and plain and being 
blind he always wore a green silk shade over the eyes. 
His feeble health prevented attendance at the church 
services, and so his brother-in-law, General Anson 
Camp came to visit him every Sunday, and the eve- 
ning would be spent in repeating the morning's ser- 
mon ; this was the custom for many years till he died. 

Silas Leonard was a peculiar man, fond of storing 
all the scripture possible in his very retentive brain; 
an intensely pious soul and as the Hon. George Camp 
said: "He was a saintly man, and bore about him 
the very atmosphere of Heaven." Silas Leonard lived 
to a green old age, and dying in Owego, September 
29th, 1832, aged 76 years, was buried by the side of 
his wife in the family lot of the Presbyterian church- 
yard. Beside Stephen Banks, the following are the 
immediate relatives of our great-grandsire. 

Seth G., brother of Silas, lived at Havana, Seneca 
Lake, for several years and died at Beaver Dam, N. Y. 
Had two wives. By the first he had issue : 

Milton, Harry, Albert Stephen, Ann, Henrietta, 
Lucinda, Jeannette, Catherine. 

Milton lived in New Haven, Conn., married twice 
and died about 1875. His daughter Antoinette, mar- 
ried a Mr. Hotchkiss and they have one son and live 
in Oakland, California. His second daughter, Louise, 
married Hugh Nevin of Rochester, N. Y. and they live 
in East Liverpool, O. 

Ann married a Mr. Hazen,. lawyer, and had one 
son, with whom she lives in New Haven. 

115 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Henrietta married a Dr. Tompkins of Grass Valley, 
California. 

Lucinda married a Mr. Lewis of Rochester. 

Jeanette married a Mr. Fleming of Mariposa, Cali- 
fornia. 

Catherine married a Mr. Mosher of Horseheads of 
New York.. 

Seth G. married for his second wife a widow Jones, 
and had three daughters. Miranda who married Mr. 
Gano, editor at Watkins, N. Y. They had a daughter 
Antoinette who married. 

Estelle, who married a Mr. Ellis of Watkins, and 

Helen, who married in Watkins, N. Y. 



Milton, son of Silas, went to Marlborough for his 
health, and died there, unmarried. 

Harry C. son of Silas. He was in the hat manu- 
facturing business at Reading, N. Y. and acquired a 
good competence. Harry was a very active man, and 
with good business talens. Interested in military 
matters, he rose to the rank of brigadier-general of 
militia. Married his first wife young, and had three 
daughters. 

Celinda, married a Bogart and lives at Beaver 
Dam, Wis. 

Sarah Ann, married George Fox of Owego, and 
lives at Towanda. 

Matilda, married and lived in Pennsylvania. 

116 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Harry C. married a Miss Meisner of Watkins for his 
second wife, and had issue : 

Caroline, who married a Mr. Winters. 

Juliet. 

Mary, who married a Mr. Young. 

Silas, went into the Union Army of the last war, 
was wounded and died in the ambulance. 



117 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD 



OF 



OWEGO. N. Y. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



We are now ready to make record of the life and 
service of Stephen Banks Leonard, and it will be of 
interest to sketch with rapid hand, the home place 
where for years he lived. 

There are annals and accounts of that section of 
the Empire State to which access has been gained and 
from these we prepare this outline of the town of 
Owego in the county of Tioga. 



120 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



SKETCHES— OWEGO IN 1887. 

This town has retained much of its earlier and 
best vigor; though it has not increased as rapidly as 
its neighbors Elmira and Binghamton. It registers 
about 6000 inhabitants and is governed by a local 
President or Mayor. It is well furnished with 
schools and churches, has a fine court house and the 
river Susquehanna is at this point spanned by two 
substantial bridges. It has three railways contributing 
to its commercial facilities and is active in its manu- 
facturing and produce. Owego is well laid out, and 
its streets intersect at right angles, and are abundantly 
and beautifully shaded with luxuriant tree growths. 
Its homes are not grand or pretentious ; not much 
wealth is lavished upon them, but an unusual neat- 
ness and a good taste is displayed in their construction, 
coloring and surroundings of grass and shrubbery. 
The hills stand round about the village in close 
proximity, indeed, when one is high up upon their 
sides, it is quite possible to look directly down upon 
the brown roofs and into the red chimneys. Views 
from these overhanging hills are attractive and in- 
spiring. The town is like a rich green nest of leaves, 
with the white eggs of houses, showing clear and 
markedly by contrast ; the river winds its graceful way 
and seems like a long serpentine lake. The Pennsyl- 
vania hills are varigated in color; dark pines in 
patches ; yellow squares of grain fields ; bright verdure 
strips of oats, rich brown of buckwheat and meadows 

121 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

of succulent grass, make up a combination that is 
arresting and agreeable. It is indeed a pastoral land, 
and its sons and daughters love its quiet beauty, and 
rejoice when they return hither from their wander- 
ings. Owego has always had a good society for 
its boast, a number of educated and refined house- 
holds retain their allegiance still, through more than 
one generation, and a pleasant stimulation of the love 
for art, music, literature and social diversions has 
ever been maintained by winter and summer. It 
it not a place of resort though it offers attractions. 
But it seems more like a sweet home center where 
one finds rest and contentment. 

Indians of the Iroquois tribe dwelt by the river 
when the town of Owego was organized February, 
1791. Its geography covers all the territory between 
Cayuta and Owego creeks. The early settlers upon 
this " Boston purchase " were chiefly emigrants from 
New England and mostly from Berkshire county — in 
1788 there were three families resident, and in 1?'91 
these had increased to six. The names of Camp, Ely, 
Gaskill, Duel, Draper, Knox, McMaster, Wood, Web- 
ster and McQuigg are among the first recorded set- 
tlers. The last named had been captured by the 
Indians and was adopted by one of the Oneida chiefs. 
Gaskill was also one of these adopted captives ; he 
lived with them in their bark lodge, which was sit- 
uated almost on the spot now occupied by the residence 
of my father W. B. Leonard. Just near this spot also 
an Indian burial mound stood and beneath it, the 
remains of many dusky warriors were placed in 
sepulture. On the knoll beyond the Owego creek was 
an extensive Indian burial ground and curious and 
interesting relics have been turned up by the plough- 

122 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONx\RD. 

share. The original Indian name was Ah-wah-ga. 
Later in 1771 the map gives the name O-we-gy. " By 
our early settlers it was pronounced Owago, sound of 
a as in fate. Its meaning ' where the valley widens.' 
The narrows, above and below the river, and also 
upon the creek, render the name peculiarly significant 
as applied to this extended valley or basin ; the out- 
let to which, on all sides, is through narrow gorges 
or passes." (See " St. Nicholas " for March, 1854.) 



123 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

He was born in the city of New York, on April 
loth, 1793. His father's house stood on ground now 
occupied by the Custom House. It is impossible to 
ascertain how long our great-grandfather, Silas Leon- 
ard occupied this residence. But at the opening of 
the century it was burned and all the papers, records 
and books, with other contents were destroyed. This 
was Stephen's home through his early boyhood. 
Later, his father removed temporarily to Massachu- 
setts, then to Towanda, Pa. and then to Owego. 

Stephen B. Leonard was ten years old when the 
family removed from New York city to Owego. Three 
years later, in 1806, he entered Judge Stephen Mack's 
printing office as an apprentice to learn the printer's 
trade. Judge ^lack was publishing '* The American 
Farmer." His office was in the second story of his 
house in Front street. When the term of his appren- 
ticeship expired Mr. Leonard purchased an interest 
in the office and soon after went, in 1811, to Albany, 
to perfect himself as a job printer in the office of 
Solomon Southwick. 

Journalism then was to be his profession, and in 
this practical manner he prepared himself for the in- 
teresting vocation. In Albany he was associated in 
the office of the *' Daily Journal " with Thurlow 
Weed and the friendship there begun continued 
through many years. In 1813 Stephen returned to 
Owego and began his career. 

124 



STEPHEN" BANKS LEONARD. 

The time had now arrived for him to cut loose 
from subordinate places and to begin the battle of 
life for himself. I am inclined to believe that his at- 
tention had been directed to the village of Owego 
as a desirable location, first, from his belief that its 
future was assured and that his fortunes should be 
identified with its earlier growth ; and second, be- 
cause not only his parents but also several of his 
own people had already settled there and in adjacent 
parts. At any rate, we find him investing his earnings 
and savings in a good printing press, with parapher- 
nalia, and also in a horse and wagon. He started from 
Albany in the early summer of 1813 and with the 
press packed in his vehicle, drove through the woods 
and along the valleys across the state, till he reached 
Owego, his future home. It was not long before 
his plans were put into execution, his desires ful- 
filled and his hopes realized, for he was established 
in business with Judge Mack. From ''Gleanings from 
the Indian and Pioneers History of the Susquehanna 
Valley, " by C. P. Avery, published in 1851, I take 
the following — though some of the dates are incor- 
rect, the paper is of exceptional value : " Judge Stephen 
Mack was one of the proprietors and editors of the 
* American Farmer ' in 1802-03 in Owego. Before 
this it had been published by Daniel Cruger, Esq., 
the pioneer printer of the place. 

" Mr. Cruger was afterward a distinguished politician 
of the state and subsequently removed to Wheeling. 
W. Va. An early copy of the ' American Farmer ' is- 
sued by Judge Mack, is a good specimen of the typo- 
graphy of that period in its warm political disquisi- 
tions and racy paragraphs, it is but little behind those 
of modern date. One column of the first side is de- 

125 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

voted to poetry, and at the top are quaintly inscribed 
within a neat and tasteful vignette, the words ' Muses' 
Asylum.' Two other columns are devoted to anecdotes 
and to these also, an ornamental device is prefixed, 
in which is inscribed the word with its old-fashioned 
spelling ' Humour.' Altogether it is a carefully 
printed, and for the period in which it was published, 
a handsomely executed weekly and in the character 
of its politics, thoroughly Jefifersonian. Judge Mack 
was Justice of the Peace and wore the title of Esquire. 
Later he was First Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, of Broome County, by commission from Gov- 
ernor Tompkins. In all his official positions, Judge 
Mack brought to the discharge of his duties, unim- 
peached integrity of character and strong native 
powers of discrimination improved by a good educa- 
tion. Nor should his good traits of character socially 
be lost among the forgotten things of the past. 
Some yet live (1851), now aged gentlemen, who bear 
uniform witness to the generosity of his disposition ; 
his liberality to everyone in adversity, whom it was 
in his power to help ; and his marked amiability of 
character." 

It is certainly an evidence of the superior ability 
and talents of young Stephen B. Leonard, that 
he was able with as yet undeveloped powers, to im- 
press himself so favorably on this conspicuous citizen 
of Owego for whom he had once worked as appren- 
tice, as to lead to a business association with him. 
He became his partner in the editorship and ownership 
of the '' American Farmer " and subsequently bought 
him out, by a purchase not only of the establishment, 
but of the judge's '* good will " which Mr. Avery says 
" was in this case more than a good name, for there 

i:3G 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

were but few men in this vicinity, who equalled Mr. 
Mack in genuine popularity and esteem." He then 
goes on to say " Mr. Leonard added to the establish- 
ment a new press, types, etc., and gave it a new 
name, June 15th, 1814, by which it has been since, 
and is now designated '' The Owego Gazette " and 
continued to publish it for about twenty-two years 
successively until its sale to J. B. Shutlifife. Mr. Leon- 
ard gained local reputation, of course, through his 
ability as an editor and it led to promotion and pre- 
ferment at the hands of his neighbors. 

From his contact with Judge Mack and his labor 
as setting up the columns of the newspaper, and from 
steady proofreading he stored up large funds of use- 
ful and general knowledge and learning, and without 
doubt Stephen acquired in this school that easy fluency 
and attractive style of expression that afterwards 
characterized his writings and his public speeches as 
well as his extensive correspondence. 

From a clever historical article on old New York 
newspapers I have taken the following statements that 
have a value : 

" The Gazette was published on Tuesday, and 
as first established, had four pages of four columns 
each. The sheet was twenty-two inches long and 
nineteen inches wide. 

" On the 15th of June 1815, the date of the com- 
pletion of the first volume, Ebenezer Mack, a son of 
Judge Mack, entered into partnership with Mr. Leon- 
ard in the publication of the paper. Mr. Mack had 
been foreman of the Columbian office in New York city. 
The partnership lasted one year, when Mr. Leonard 
purchased his partner's interest. Mr. Mack subse- 
quently went to Ithaca and in 1817, in company with 

127 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

one Sheperd, he became proprietor of the Ithaca 
Journal. 

" When Mr. Leonard established the Gazette he 
removed the presses and material to the second story 
of a building owned by James Pumpelly and occupied 
as a store by John HoUenback. This store was after- 
ward converted into a dwelling house, which is now 
owned and occupied by James N. Eldridge, and is 
located on the north side of Front street, west of 
Paige street. This house stands on the same wall as 
originally built for the store. The postoffice was also 
located in the printing office, Mr. Leonard being at 
that time Postmaster, which office he held from March 
11, 1816, to May 15, 1820. He again held the office 
at a later period — from November 20, 1844, to April 
18, 1849. 

" In 1821, Charles Pumpelly built a small building 
on the bank of the river, one story high with a base- 
ment. It stood about twenty feet east of the present 
residence of William A. King. The basement was oc- 
cupied by Mr. Leonard and the entrance was on the 
west side of the building, which opened upon the 
road leading from Front street down to the river. 
The upper floor was for a time occupied as the County 
Clerk's office, Horatio Ross, Deputy County Clerk 
under Thomas Maxwell, being in charge of the office. 
The building was torn down by Mr. King in March, 
1877. 

" The paper was issued regularly every week, al- 
though they had sometimes to work nights, and oc- 
casionally on Sunday, to get it out on time. Mr. 
Leonard sometimes assisted in setting type. 

" At that time printer's rollers had not been in- 
vented. The ink was mixed upon a board and applied 

123 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

to the type by means of balls made of buckskin, 
stuffed with wool. 

" When Mr. Leonard first commenced the publica- 
tion of the Gazette he delivered the papers himself, 
establishing post routes and procuring subscribers. 
He afterward secured contracts for delivering the 
mail at various points in this section of the country 
by post-riders, as Judge Mack had also done while 
publishing the American Farmer. Mr. Leonard's routes 
extended from Owego to Binghamton, Norwich, Penn 
Yan, Bath and other points. The government paid for 
delivering the mails and the newspapers were delivered 
by the post-riders at the same time. 

** The Gazette was Democratic in politics and was 
published without opposition until 1828, the year that 
John Qunicy Adams was the Republican (or Whig) 
candidate for re-election to the Presidency, and An- 
drew Jackson the Democratic candidate. 

" One of the apprentices of Mr. Leonard was 
Daniel C. Gaskill, son of of Daniel Gaskill, of Gas- 
kill's Corners, was, in 1851, IMayor of Kenosha, Wis. 
He died in that city, March 14th, 1866. An apprentice 
in the Gazette office at a later period, under J. J. C. 
Cantaine, was William C. Tobey, who, during the 
Mexican War, gained considerable distinction as a 
writer to the New York Herald and other papers from 
Mexico, over the signature of ** John of York," He 
died in Harrisburg, Pa., August 2, 1854. Tobey was 
a son of Capt. John J. Tobey, of New York, who had 
charge of the construction of the Susquehanna, the first 
steamboat built in Owego, in 1835. 

In this connection the following article cut from 
a late issue of the Gazette is of interest: 

129 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

An Old Relic. 

" Through the politeness of General Isaac S. Catlin, 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., we received, week before last, a 
copy of the Owego Gazette, dated June, 1815, sixty 
years ago, then published by our now venerable and 
highly esteemed friend, Hon. S. B. Leonard, which 
paper had casually fallen into his possession. Accom- 
panying the paper was a note from the General, com- 
plimentary to the Gazette as it was at that early date, 
and the character it has subsequently sustained. As 
a relic of the olden time, we herewith give at length 
the editorial article alluded to by General Catlin. 



[From the Owego Gazette of June, 1815.] 

To the Public. 

'' We this week present our readers wdth the last 
number of the first volume of the ' Owego Gazette.' 
In thus closing the record of the year, it is with sin- 
cere pleasure that we render our acknowledgements 
for the encouragement we have received since the 
establishment of our paper. Considering the many dis- 
advantages under which the publication of the Gazette 
was commenced, its circulation has far exceeded our 
expectations — and the patronage we have received in 
very branch of our business, has at least equalled what 
we had reason to hope for. - 

" As the Gazette will no longer be under the sole 
management of its present conductor, he wishes to 
be as particular as sincere, in tendering thanks to his 
friends and the public, for the support they have given 
his individual efforts. He has formed a connection 
in business with ]\Ir. Ebenezer Mack, whose talents 



130 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

and experience will be united with his own continued 
exertions, to render this establishment meritorious of 
that respectable and extended patronage they hope 
to receive. 

** In pursuing his course thus far, the present editor 
flatters himself that he has not fallen much short in 
the accomplishment of that object which has con- 
stantly been his aim — to give general satisfaction to 
the honest, reasonable men of all parties. The senti- 
ments expressed in his motto, are those he still cherishes. 
If he has in any instance deviated therefrom, it has 
been the result of fortuitous circumstances — never of 
deliberate intention. To give an impartial detail of 
passing events — to support the principles of republi- 
can government — the rights and interests of his 
country, unconnected with party views — to inform, 
amuse, and instruct his readers — these are the duties 
he has endeavored to perform. How he has succeeded 
let the candid determine. 

'' The great important events that have transpired 
within the past few years, are as astonishing as un- 
expected. The recent revolutions on the European 
continent, surpass anything that ever preceded them. 
History when traced even to the most ancient periods, 
does not furnish a precedent. Future generations will 
pause with wonder over the page on which the trans- 
actions of the present year are recorded, and they will 
be handed down from posterity to posterity, as prod- 
igies to which the human mind cannot anticipate a 
parallel. 

" In our first numbers, we presented our readers 
with an account of Bonaparte's abdication of the throne 
of France, and of his banishment to the Island of Elba. 
In our last we are giving accounts of his exploits and 

131 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

transactions on the very throne from which he was 
driven — Yes ! in the short space of one year, we have 
beheld the monarch of a mighty empire hurled from 
his pinnacle of power, and consigned to a small island 
in a contracted sea, now again wielding the sceptre, 
voluntarily restored to his hands by the people who 
seemed, at least, to wink at his recent degradation ; 
and his late successor (too weak, indeed, for the ruler 
of such a people) compelled once more to seek safety 
in a land of strangers. 

'' The final result of these events it is impossible to 
foresee. Perhaps another scene of bloodshed will 
ensue, and the nations of Europe groan beneath a 
protracted contest to decide whether unhappy France 
shall be governed by a fool or a madman. How 
grateful, then, ought we as Americans, to feel for our 
superior blessings bestowed upon our country. While 
clouds of impending ruin hang over the inhabitants of 
the old World, America stands firm as a rock — which, 
though washed by the waves and pelted by the storm, 
cannot be shaken or removed. Blest with the return 
of an honorable peace, our land now smiles in the 
sun-beams of prosperity. — Its independence is more 
firmly established, and it now only remains for the 
united efforts of its citizens, to preserve and extend 
the many advantages it now enjoys. 

'' Such are among the important changes we have 
had to record since the establishment of the Gazette. — 
The editor has endeavored to do this without specu- 
lation or partiality, except when he thought the honor 
and interest of his country were involved — and this 
species of partiality, and this only, he hopes to evince 
so long as he is concerned in the management of a 
public journal. 

132 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

" The Gazette, and all matters connected with the 
printing establishment, will hereafter be conducted 
under the firm of Leonard & Mack. — This arrange- 
ment, therefore renders it necessary that those who are 
indebted to the present proprietor, for papers, adver- 
tisements, etc. should make immediate settlement of 
their accounts. 

" The public's humble servant, 

STEPHEN B. LEONARD." 



The editor writes the following leader to the above : 

The Gazette in 1815. 

*' General Isaac S. Catlin, of Brooklyn, has sent 
us a copy of the Owego Gazette, dated June 6. 1815, 
which was discovered in the Kings county jail by the 
keeper, Walter Thorn, while looking over a pile of 
musty papers. Gen Catlin, in his letter accompanying 
the paper, says; ' I have just been comparing the old 
with the young Gazette, and while I congratulate you 
as editor of the old, I cannot forbear an expression 
of admiration for the ability and enterprise displayed 
by the editor of the young, three score years ago.' 

" The number before us has an editorial signed by 
its editor, Hon. Stephen B. Leonard, in which he re- 
views the events of the year. Of this editorial Gen- 
eral Catlin continues : ' The article written by Mr. 
Leonard, then the accomplished young editor, review- 
ing the work of the Gazette during the first year of 
its life, gave promise of a career which has been realized 
in an honorable old age.' 

133 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

" News traveled slowly in those days. An account 
of the burning of the village of Cote Sans Dessein, on 
the Missouri, and the massacre of its inhabitants,, 
which occurred about the 3d of the previous April, 
is given, and latest news from London (April 10th) 
announces the arrival of the Duke of Wellington at 
Brussels. From Georgia comes accounts of troubles 
with United States troops and Creek Indians in that 
State and Alabama, and from Paris, under date of 
April 7th, details of a battle near Marseilles are given, 
in which Generals Chabort and Grouchy figured. 
There is also a copy of a letter from a New Orleans 
lady describing the ceremonies which took place in 
honor of General Jackson, after his gallant and suc- 
cessful defense of that city. Among the advertisements 
is a notice calling a meeting of Friendship Lodge, F. 
and A. M., to celebrate the anniversary of St. John 
on the 24th of June, signed by Joseph L. Lynde, Sec'y. 
'' The paper is but little more than one-quarter its 
present size, and considering its age, is in better con- 
dition than any other of the early newspapers we have 
ever seen." 



134 



STEPHEN BAXKS LEONARD. 

FROM " OWEGO GAZETTE." 

" The Owego Gazette in those days was the only 
paper published in Southern New York, and its 
subscribers were scattered about the unsettled coun- 
try, long distances apart. 

" When Stephen B. Leonard purchased the Gazette 
office, in 1813, he secured several mail routes. By 
this means he secured a free delivery of his papers 
with the mails. As a curiosity a copy of a post-rider's 
advertisement of a later period, which was printed in 
the Gazette of December 6, 1824, is here given : 



POST-RIDER'S NOTICE. 

*'ORRIN VERY, Post-Rider, informs his patrons in 
Newark, Berkshire, Caroline, and Candor, that his 
term for carrying the mail expires on the 1st of Jan- 
uary next — All persons indebted to him for papers are 
therefore hereby notified, that their respective accounts 
must be settled by that time — Grain will be received if 
delivered according to contract, otherwise the money 
will be expected. — Nov. 30. 

As soon as possible wagon roads were broken 
through the forests, generally along the Indian trails, 
and soon the primitive stage made its appearance. 

" Stephen B. Leonard established the first stage 
route from Owego to Bath, in 1816. It required two 
days to make the trip, the passengers staying over 
night at Elmira. This was considered a great under- 
taking in those days, and Mr. Leonard was highly 
complimented by the newspapers for his enterprise. 
The following is a copy of Mr. Leonard's advertise- 



135 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

ment, which was pubHshed in the Gazette, and which 
may be read with some interest at the present day: 



OWEGO & BATH 

MAIL ^^', t ^'^^' STAGE. 

and Horses. 

Twice a Week. 

*' This line runs regularly twice a week, between the 
villages of Owego and Bath. — Days of starting and 
arrival as follow : — Leave Owego on Mondays and 
Fridays, at 6 a. m., and breakfasting at Athens, arrive 
at Elmira at 6 p. m. Leave Elmira on Tuesdays and 
Saturdays, at 4 a. m., and breakfasting at Painted 
Post, arrive at Bath at 6 p. m. 

" Returning. — Leave Bath on ^Mondays and Fridays, 
at 4 a. m., and breakfasting at Painted Post, arrive at 
Elmira at 6 p. m. — Leave Elmira on Tuesdays and 
Saturdays, at 4 a. m., and breakfasting at Athens, ar- 
rive at Owego at G p. m. 

" This line of stages intersects the Xewburg and 
Builalo line at Owego — as also the Philadelphia — the 
Wilkes-Barre line, at Tioga Point — and the Geneva 
line at Bath, — at which latter place it also intersects 
a line leading directly to Angelica situate about 30 
miles from Olean, one of the places of embarkation on 
the Allegheny river, and about 18 miles from Oil 
Creek, the nearest place of embarkation, and which 
empties into the Allegheny at Olean ; at which place 
boats of any size are ahvays kept ready for travelers, 
for the purpose of descending the Ohio river. 

'' Persons travelling from New York, or from any 

136 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

of the Eastern States, to the S. \V. States, will find this 
the shortest, cheapest, and most expeditious route. 
The distance from Xew York, via Owego, Painted 
Post and Bath, to Angelica, is 316 miles, which is per- 
formed in about 5 days. 

'* Good teams and careful drivers will be kept on 
the route, and no pains spared to accomodate passen- 
gers. The Stage houses are good. 

"S. B. LEONARD. 
" March 30, 1819." 

" 1^ For seats in the above line, apply at E. S. Marsh's 
or Amos Martin's in Owego — at Saltmarsh's, Athens — 
at Davis's, Elmira — and at Barnard's, Bath." 



*' At a later period, Mr. Leonard had two coaches 
running between Owego and ?^Iontrose. In Decem- 
ber, 18*^3, he sold his lines to a stage company, 
which was then organized, and of which he became 
one of the proprietors. The route was extended to 
New York city, and became a strong opposition to the 
Newburg and Geneva line. This company was com- 
posed of Joseph L Roy, John Burnett, Zephania Luce, 
Abraham Bray, Gould Phinney, Silas Heminway, 
Stephen B. Leonard, Jacob Willsey, Augustus Morgan, 
Isaac Post, Ithimer ^lott, Miller Horton, A. P. Childs, 
and others. 

** The coaches were drawn by four horses, the 
horses being usually changed at the end of each twelve 
or eighteen miles. Nine passengers were carried inside 
each coach, and as many outside as could ride com- 
fortably — generally from three to six. 

'* It was about this time that there were two rival 



137 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

stage lines from Owego to Ithaca. One was conducted 
by Stephen B. Leonard, and the other by Lewis Man- 
ning, and the rivalry was so sharp that only fifty cents 
was charged each way for passengers. In some in- 
stances passengers were carried free of charge and a 
free breakfast was given to them, to prevent their 
going by the rival line. Mr. Leonard had a contract 
for carrying the mails, which gave him a great ad- 
vantage over his competitor, who was finally compelled 
to withdraw his stages from the line." 

But his own aggrandizement, and advancement 
was not the only object Stephen B. Leonard had in 
life. His was a public spirit. He was a progressive 
young man and his influence was felt by his townsmen 
and associates. He soon realized the importance of 
a good school for Owego and at once busied himself 
about its origination and incorporation. Into every- 
thing that could improve his adopted home, into 
schemes for its enlargement and development, he en- 
tered with zeal and enterprise. Consequently he 
secured postal facilities for the community to which 
the government readily gave its sanction, and put 
his capital into a through stage line between Owego 
and New York, purchasing an extensive plant, horses, 
stages, taverns, equipment, etc. To-day capitalists 
buy railroad stocks and bonds and project new lines 
of rails into new sections with stock companies and 
syndicates behind them. But then, when money and 
men were scarce, what brains and faith and enterprise 
it manifested, to originate and manage such a work. 

Mr. Leonard married Esther Henrietta Sperry, 
daughter of Jared and Esther (Bostwick) Sperry; she 
was born September 6, 1798, at New Milford, Conn., 

138 




ESTHER HENRIETTA SPERRY. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

and was married to Mr. Leonard, February 23, 1816. 
How could he help loving her. She has been de- 
scribed by those who were her contemporaries as 
of rare beauty, gracefulness and attractiveness. A 
panel portrait, now in her daughters possession, made 
when she was about eighteen and by some unknown 
artist, can hardly do her justice. But even her grand- 
children can recall the strength and sweetness, the 
dignity and gentleness of her look and countenance in 
old age, and it requires no stretch of imagination to 
rejuvenate and restore her beloved face to its original 
freshness and spirit when she became the wife of the 
young journalist. 

I find the following statement published in the 
Gazette : 

" She first came to Owego, at that time a mere 
hamlet in the wilderness, about the year 1806, a 
young girl about eight years of age, in company with 
her half brothers, William, Xathan, Anson and Her- 
mon Camp, and her and their mother, Esther Sperry. 
Here in Owego, the first named three brothers settled, 
engaged in business, established their home, and 
commenced that career of honest industry and 
unimpeachable integrity which distinguished them as 
a family and secured to each a fortune and a good name 
in this community. Soon afterward, the subject of 
this sketch returned in company with her brother 
Nathan to Connecticut, to attend school, completing 
her education in the then widely noted seminary kept 
by Miss Pierce, at Litchfield, one of her schoolmates 
being Catherine Beecher, sister of Rev. Henry Ward 
Beecher. After her school days were over, she came 
again to Owego to visit her brothers, where she formed 

139 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the acquaintance of the young editor and printer, 
Stephen B. Leonard, who had already estabHshed and 
was publishing the Owego Gazette, and to whom 
she became indeed a helpmeet. The young couple 
made their wedding tour in a carriage, to her an- 
cestral home in Connecticut, over the primitive roads 
which led across the hills through the wilderness which 
then intervened betw^een the valley of the Susquehanna 
and the Hudson river at Xewburgh." 

It would be impossible to adequately or sufficiently 
pay tribute to the career of quiet, patient, faithful 
work in the household done by our grandmother 
through the rapidly growing years of her husband's 
popular and public life. He Avas much away from 
his home on business for the government and for his 
constituency ; he was engrossed, entertained, elevated 
and stimulated by his experiences. But she remain- 
ing by her hearthstone, gently and obediently ful- 
filled her vocation, bringing up her children in God's 
fear, anxiously watching over and guarding them and 
content to do her duty in that sphere of life into 
which her Lord had called her and proud of her 
husband's successes and gladly willing to afiford him 
the comfort, advice and affection of her companionship. 
Her children and grandchildren " rise up to call her 
blessed " because they know full well of her virtues 
and character, and they recognize her hand and help 
in the directing and service she rendered to her con- 
sort. She was a woman of positive convictions on 
all subjects to which she gave her attention, a care- 
ful reader and especially a student in geography. 
Her knowledge of other lands and peoples, through 
investigation of books of travel and description, was 
quite remarkable. She was a thoughtful examiner of 

140 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

God's word, a ready analyst of character in others ; 
she had a warm heart and her love for her sons and 
daughters of two generations and of some of a third 
generation whom she was permitted to see was deep 
and earnest. But she was peculiarly a home mother, 
and if her children and her children's children retain 
her inpress, they will be directed still by principle and 
walk in a path of unswerving rectitude. She had a 
stern and indignant contempt for whatever was low, 
mean or selfish and her brilliant eyes would flash 
with spirit, when such qualities were exposed to her 
criticism. Her friends and neighbors held her in 
reverent respect to the day of her death. All regarded 
her with admiration, no one was familiar with her 
except her own family, but every one acquiesced in 
her judgment and bowed to her decisions, with a 
deference born of profoundest consciousness that she 
was good and just. 

Mrs. W. P. Bogardus of Blount Vernon, Ohio, 
gives the following account of the pedigree of her 
great-aunt, Esther Henrietta Sperry. 

" Gilead Sperry of Litchfield County, Conn., mar- 
ried Mercy Boardman of Xew Milford. Their son 
Jared, married the Widow Camp of New Preston. 
Their only child was Esther Henrietta, who married 
Stephen B. Leonard. 

" In the history of New Milford, I find that Mercy 
Boardman, born in February 1726, was married to 
Gilead Sperry. I do not find the date of marriage 
but in the church records I find the baptism of their 
children. Church records read thus : After June, 1748, 
Gilead Sperry and wife owned the covenant for the 
purpose of having their children baptized. 

" ^lercv Boardman was third daus^hter bv a second 

141 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

wife of Rev. Daniel Boardman, who was a graduate 
of Yale in 1709, and was ordained first pastor of the 
Church of Christ in New Milford in 1716. There is 
a record of his death which occured in August 1744. 

" The markings on many tombstones in the ceme- 
tery at IMerryall are recorded. Our ancestor's stone 
is marked : 

'* ' Gilead Sperry who departed this life April 14, 
1788, in ye 60th year of his age. Mrs. Mercy Sperry 
relict to Mr. Gilead Sperry departed this life, Octo. 
17th, 1795, in the seventieth year of her age.' This 
history of New ]\Iilford was compiled by Samuel 
Orcutt and published in Hartford in 1882. 

After his marriage !Mr. Leonard lived several years 
in a large house which had been occupied as a tavern 
by Ira Deforest and which stood at the northeast cor- 
ner of Front and Paige streets. When Arba Campbell 
purchased the property he moved the house back 
on the east side of Paige street where it remained until 
1900, when it was torn down and Lyman T. Stan- 
brough built a double house in its place. 

When Paige street was first opened as a public 
street from Front to Main street it was called Leon- 
ard street in honor of Mr. Leonard, and it was so 
called as late as 1837. 

Up to the year 1825 a square, commodious and com- 
fortable frame mansion stood under the trees, fronted 
by a green lawn, which stretched beyond the street to 
the precipitous river bank. The land later owned by 
Dr. Phelps was comprised in this estate, and the 
present street running back to the hills and the railroad 
was not cut through. The view up and down the 
Susquehanna from this point is one of the rarest in 

142 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the lovely valley, and the residents by that overlook 
are to be envied by the other denizens of the borough. 
To the north rise the high hills fringed with dark 
woods, and in full view, stretch down their cleared and 
cultivated sides a mile away, the lands that for many 
years belonged to our family. 

To the east and south the parallel ridges that run 
over into and separate the State of New York from 
Pennsylvania, make the natural limits and guardians 
of the picturesque valley through whose midst flows, 
in tortuous course, the clear waters of the Indian 
river, Susquehanna. Adown the stream the view was 
equally entrancing, the dark cypresslike pines and 
cedars forming a striking background. 

And here was our grandfather's home ; and from 
this hearthstone went forth the sons and daughters 
of our clan. Not far away stood the Avery home- 
stead; and the residences of the Platts, Hewitts and 
Pumpellys were at no great distance. This little vil- 
lage center was the desire and hope of its every in- 
habitant, and they of the olden day were proud of its 
culture and station, both intellectually and socially. 

While resident in the town itself, Mr. Leonard took 
the liveliest interest in its welfare and prosperity. 
He was the first to propose an academy, and headed 
the movement that made its success for so many 
years, a reality and factor for the good of young and 
old. He drove to New York and Albany and secured 
a well selected library, which he paid for out of his 
own funds. This is still in the possession of the town, 
and its list of volumes tell the story of its donor's 
liberality, and wisdom of selection. For many, many 
years he was a trustee and manager of this academy, 
and its standard of scholarship, both classical and 

143 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

general, has been maintained even down to the present 
day. 

My grandfather's home life was very beautiful, and 
exemplified his every characteristic of gentleness, 
suavity, and courtliness. Towards his wife and daugh- 
ters he was ever considerate and thoughtful; and his 
habitual gallantry- was a subject of remark by all who 
visited his family, or knew of his inner life in the home 
circle. 

During his public career, as has been stated, it 
was impossible that he should spend much time at 
Owego; consequently the entire direction of the 
household devolved upon our grandmother. Much 
labor and no little management was necessary to the 
accomplishment of this end. Cultivated and finished 
in her own education, she aimed at a high standard for 
her children. They studied classics, French, and 
music, when such privileges in a country village were 
not easy to be secured. A French teacher for several 
winter seasons was employed and lived as a member 
of the family, giving constant instruction to those who 
were there. To-day we can hardly appreciate the 
difficulty of acquiring such accomplishments in the 
past generation. No railroad communications; no 
telegraph ; limited postal facilities ; very circumscribed 
school privileges, save in the great cities of New York, 
Philadelphia, Boston ; these facts will perhaps throw 
light on the energy and determination which char- 
acterized ]\lrs. Leonard's endeavor in behalf of her 
children's cultivation and improvement. 

In addition to the home management, the general 
care and oversight of a farm, which had been acquired, 
devolved upon her ; the purchase of household and 
farm stuffs, and the economy of the entire place, be- 

144 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

came her duty because of her husband's long absence 
in public service. 

In the fall of '73, we had a delightful visit in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. from our much loved and respected grand- 
mother, at that time in her TTth year. I asked her 
many questions about her early life, and she has given 
me many facts and suggestions of great interest and 
value. She was born in the village of New Preston, 
Litchfield County, Conn. Her father was Jared 
Sperry, a well-to-do farmer, of no ordinary ability, 
and occupying a prominent social and influential 
position in the educated community where he dwelt. 
She was baptized in the parish church at New 
Milford by the Episcopal rector, and reared as a 
child in its ancient faith, and according to its beau- 
tiful and helpful methods and doctrines. Later in 
life, through circumstances, she became a Presby- 
terian, though always cherishing a tender reverence 
for the church of her childhood. Her mother was 
twice married : first to H. Camp, by whom she had 
quite a number of children, of whom the Hon. Hermon 
Camp of Trumansburg, N. Y. was one of the most 
prominent. He was a well-known advocate of the 
Temperance cause, having been associated with the 
Hon. Mr. Delavan of Albany, in the warfare against 
the liquor trade. He was for years identified with the 
African Colonization Society, and prominent in other 
philanthropic and public charities. General xAnson 
Camp of Owego, was another of this first set of chil- 
dren, well beloved and admired by all who knew 
him. The Camps of Owego are his children, as also 
the Storrs, and Elvs, and the Nobles of Madison, 
Wisconsin. 

By her marriage to Mr. Sperry, Mrs. Camp had 

145 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the one daughter, Esther Henrietta. She was very- 
attractive and the idol of her father, but he was taken 
away when she was but a child ; while her mother 
lived to a very advanced age. Mrs. Sperry was blind 
in her last years, and it is quite singular that Silas 
Leonard, our great-grandfather, and Mrs. Sperry, our 
great-grandmother, should both have been afflicted 
alike with blindness, and both together cared for by 
our loving and gentle grandmother until God removed 
them hence. Mrs. Sperry 's maiden name was 
Bostwick, and her nephew was the Rev. Dr. Nathaniel 
Wheaton, famous in the County of Litchfield, well 
known too, in New Orleans and Hartford, where for 
a number of years he was the learned, honored, ajid 
judicious President of Washington College, now Trin- 
ity College. The Rev. Dr. Beardsley in his " History 
of the Church in Connecticut " speaks very happily 
of Dr. Wheaton and makes some valuable references 
to his life. 

In this connection let me add that I remember well 
the pride my grandmother manifested when as a child 
she handed me a dilapidated, leather-bound copy of 
the published letters which Dr. Wheaton, her cousin 
and schoolmate, issued after his prolonged and ex- 
tended tour in Europe. The modern books of travel 
and incident have, like a tidal wave, swept away the 
vestiges of that modest little private publication, but 
the thoughts there contained, and the impressions left 
by this wise and good divine, would be valuable far 
beyond the trashy newspaper descriptions that flood 
our book stalls and libraries. 

When a lad I took the trouble to ride over the 
beautiful hills near New Preston that I might visit 
my grandmother's early home. The farm that was 

146 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

my great-grandfather's was then in the possession 
of his grandson, Mr. Horatio Sperry. Back from the 
roadway, upon a beautiful rising slope of green lawn, 
are the ruins of that commodious old homestead 
where my grandmother was born. The hospit- 
ably wide chimney and fire-place and hearth, still 
remain in their places, but everything else is gone. I 
found in the rubbish a quaint door latch which I 
seized on with the avidity of one who has discovered 
a treasure. Behind the house and quite conspicuous 
because of its immense size, is a great boulder, which 
made an admirable place for the child of long ago, to 
play, and which, by the aged woman, was cherished 
in memory, because of the sweet recollections it 
brought up. The view from my grandmother's birth- 
place is attractive : it is picturesque by reason of the 
prominent hills, that run down from the Berkshire 
range ; and it is beautiful because of the diversity of 
landscape which it presents. 

At the time of her death, the local press recorded 
the fact, and a full obituary was made by some loving 
hand in addition to a careful statement as to the facts 
of her life. The following was the conclusion of its 
tribute : " She died at her residence ' Gray Tower ' on 
April 10th, 1879, aged 80 years and 7 months. During 
most of this time her life has been spent in Owego. 

" Here have been reared her household gods. 
Here she has lived out her earnest, industrious, faith- 
ful and useful Christian life. Here she has exemplified 
practically, though unostentatiously, those virtues 
which go to form the faithful and devoted wife and 
mother, the earnest and sincere Christian, the pains- 
taking and helping neighbor and friend. Forty-nine 
years a member of the Presbyterian Church of Owego, 

147 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

she has always been found true and consistent to her 
duties therein. As a mother, she has been faithful to 
her trust, always instilling into the minds of her chil- 
dren the principles of honesty and integrity, and the 
habits of industry and self-reliance. In all the walks 
of life she has endeared herself to her friends and 
neighbors, and her death is greatly deplored here as 
a serious loss in our community. She has passed away 
full of honors and years, peacefully, hopefully, in the 
full enjoyment of the Christian faith. 

" So fades a summer cloud away, 

So sinks the gale when storms are o'er ; 

So gently shuts the eye of day, 
So dies a wave along the shore." 

Reference has already been made to the interest and 
regard our Grandmother Leonard had for the Rev. 
Dr. Wheaton, her distinguished cousin. The following 
statements were made concerning this good and holy 
priest at the semi-centennial of Christ Church, Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, of which he was the architect, 
builder, and first rector. Upon his death, his body was 
buried at Alarbledale, near New Preston, Conn. 

On December 23d, 1879, the fiftieth anniversary of 
the founding of Christ Church, Hartford, Conn., was 
celebrated under the supervision of Bishop Williams 
and the rector. Rev. W. H. Nichols, now Bishop of 
California. Bishop Clark of Rhode Island was the 
preacher and the following extracts from his sermon 
are of valued interest to us. The bishop said of Dr. 
Wheaton : 

" In the farewell sermon which I delivered here 
in 1855, I find these words : * Others linger near you, 

148 




ESTHER HENRIETTA SPERRY LEONARD. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

who once stood in this pulpit and before this altar 
broke to you the bread of life. One of your former 
pastors, still in full vigor of body and mind, is often 
seen within this chancel, always ready to render 
those services which are so acceptable to you all, and 
retaining the same interest in this church which once 
made him so useful as your rector. If you would see 
his monument look around you, for he was the archi- 
tect of the beautiful temple, in which he fashioned 
your souls to heaven.' It is only an act of justice to 
the memory of the late Dr. Wheaton, that I should 
copy from the records of a parish meeting, held on the 
8th of March, 1830, this testimonial without abbrevia- 
tion. * Among the many whose liberality has been 
great, whose zeal has been excellent, and whose ser- 
vices have been important, the rector of the parish 
stands conspicuous, whether we recur to the incipient 
idea of building, the provision of means, or to the de- 
sign and ornaments of the edifice, presenting to the 
scientific observer, utility, strength, and beauty in a 
chaste combination of Gothic walls, with more than 
Grecian elegance. May we not also hope by a just 
expression of our feelings on this occasion, a perpetual 
benefit will result to the parish? While the massive 
walls of our church shall endure and the records of 
our parish shall remain, though every eye that beheld 
the foundation of the building laid, shall be closed 
and every tongue that worshipped at its consecration 
shall be silent, one record will remind both minister 
and people who shall come after us, of the practical 
compatibility of serving at the altar without neglecting 
the useful and ornamental arts and sciences.' 

" At the time when this church was built, ecclesias- 
tical architecture in our country was at a very low 

149 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

ebb. There were a few seemly and some stately 
edifices scattered here and there over the land, copied 
for the most part from English models of the Sir 
Christopher Wren school, but there was not a pure 
and unadulterated specimen of Gothic to be seen any- 
where. American architects, or those who called 
themselves by this name, were inflicting upon the 
church copies of the temple of Bacchus, with baccha- 
nalian adornments ; modified Puritan meeting-houses, 
buildings that were sometimes mistaken for banks ; 
mixtures of pseudo-Gothic, Ionic, Egyptian and native, 
at the sight of which we still continue to groan. 
Some of these edifices have been deliberately removed 
or converted to other uses, and others have been de- 
stroyed by a timely conflagration. In our day churches 
have been erected which far surpass this building 
in splendid grandeur of design, but none of them are 
as far in advance of Christ Church, Hartford, as this 
was of all others that existed at the date of its con- 
secration. The interior arrangements and decorations 
were not, in the beginning, altogether in harmony with 
the general style of the building; but to-day we have 
the satisfaction of feeling that this reproach is re- 
moved, and though there are many fond memories lin- 
gering around the old enclosure, which went by the 
name of a chancel, with its lowly altar, more ambitious 
reading-desk, and still more elevated pulpit, all sur- 
mounted at first by a somewhat thin transparency of 
the Transfiguration, and afterwards by a stained win- 
dow of which we shall say but little, we cannot help 
acknowledging that the interior of this church is now 
for the first time in keeping with the rich and sym- 
metrical exterior, and if good Dr. WTieaton were with 
us to-day, I can imagine the satisfaction with which 

150 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

he would regard what you have now done to carry out 
and complete his original design. 

" The Rev. Nathaniel Sheldon Wheaton, who had 
acted as his assistant, became the rector of Christ 
Church in 1821, and continued to serve the parish in 
that capacity for the ensuing ten years. I have al- 
ready alluded to the fact that the church, whose con- 
secration we commemorate, was designed and erected 
under his supervision ; a work for which he prepared 
himself, by a careful study of ecclesiastical architec- 
ture in foreign lands. Every detail of the work came 
under his personal supervision, and it must have been 
a joyful day to him when ' The top-stone was laid with 
shoutings.' His devotion to this good work did not, 
however, cause him at all to neglect the other duties of 
his ministry. One who knew him well has borne 
witness ' to the earnestness, the uniform devotion to 
duty, and the singleness of purpose which distin- 
guished Dr. Wheaton's life. His preaching was plain, 
logical and practical ; aiming rather to convince the 
heart and judgment, than to captivate the imagination. 
In all his intercourse with his parishioners, he showed 
himself a most unselfish man. The poor especially, 
ever found his sympathy alike to their sufiferings and 
their relief; if the alms of the parish failed to furnish 
the means, his private resources were ready and 
prompt to supply the deficiency.' In 1831 Dr. Wheaton 
resigned the rectorship, having been elected to the 
presidency of Trinity College, an institution for which 
he had done much, in helping to place it on a sure and 
substantial basis. The beautiful grounds around the 
college, which he did so much to adorn, have passed 
into other hands, and the trees which he planted are 
leveled to the earth, but, in the new and grander struc- 

151 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

ture and more magnificent surroundings, of which 
the college now has possession, Dr. Wheaton's name 
will be always remembered as one of its earliest presi- 
dents and most efifective benefactors." 

To return to the sketch of Stephen B. Leonard's 
life will be to follow him into active and energetic 
lines of work. On principle he was a strong advocate 
and supporter of Free Masonry. He -was one of the 
founders of the lodge in Owego. During the Morgan 
difficulty there was a radical and intense spirit of 
opposition aroused in Owego and for a number of 
years the lodge was not permitted. Mr. Leonard has 
been seen in the midst of an enraged and excited 
crowd, maintaining his position and masonic principles 
even at the risk of personal violence. It was there- 
fore meet that in a later and more quiet day he should 
be the master and representative of Free Alasonry in 
Tioga. His conviction of the honorable and historic 
value of Free Masonry appears in a speech and it gains 
for itself interest and strength because of its enuncia- 
tion near the close of his long and useful life. It is 
taken from the Owego Gazette of August 26th, 1875. 

THE MASONIC REUNION AT OWEGO. 

" The third annual reunion, of the Masonic frater- 
nity was held at Hiawatha Grove on Thursday of last 
week. Owing to the showers in the morning, the at- 
tendance was not quite as large as it would have been 
otherwise, yet the reunion was a successful one in 
ever}'- respect, there being fully nine hundred persons 
present during the day. 

" Soon afterward, the crowd in the dancing hall 

152 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

was called to order by Captain E. B. Gere, who nom- 
inated the venerable P. ^I. Hon. S. B. Leonard, of 
Owego, as President. 

" Mr. Leonard, on taking the stand, returned his 
thanks for the demonstration of respect that had been 
shown him — said that it was altogether unexpected, 
and that he found himself laboring under an embar- 
rassment which he could not if he would, and would 
not if he could, conceal. He then expressed his grati- 
fication at the favorable auspices under which they 
were assembled — a lovely atmosphere around them — a 
brilliant sun over them — a sweet and gentle breeze 
fanning them — and a landscape not easily to be 
met with elsewhere, in front of them — that both nature 
and art seemed combined to render their brief stay on 
the shore of the celebrated Hiawatha all that could be 
asked for or desired. He remarked that to be called 
to preside over the deliberations of so numerous, so 
respectable and so intellectual a body of Companions 
and Brethren of the mystic tie, he could not but con- 
sider as highly complimentary, and to say that he 
did not feel honored by it, would be as unjust to him- 
self as it would be disrespectful to them — assuring the 
audience that he duly appreciated his position, and only 
regretted the distrust which he could not help enter- 
taining, of his ability to discharge the duties which 
their kindness had imposed, in a becoming and satis- 
factory manner. Mr. Leonard then remarked that the 
Order to which they belonged was truly a noble one, 
worthy their best love and profoundest veneration, as 
well on account of its antiquity, as for the purity of 
its principles and moral worth. That no institution, 
save that of the Gospel, was ever established on a better 
principle or more solid foundation, nor were ever more 

153 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

excellent rules and useful maxims laid down than 
are inculcated in the several Masonic lectures ; that it 
was not claimed to be a religious institution, but that 
it was claimed that it had religion and morality for its 
foundation ; that without such foundation it could 
never have withstood the test of time, of criticism, and 
vindictive persecution with which it has had to con- 
tend for so many thousand years. IMr. Leonard said 
that he enrolled his name among its members more 
than 40 years ago, in his early manhood, and that al- 
though his sun was now far, very far, advanced to- 
wards the western horizon, with a view to its final 
setting, he was free to say that his love and sym- 
pathies for the Order were as strong at that moment 
as they were on the day of his initiation. And why, 
inquired the speaker, why should they not be? Why 
not hold in high veneration an institution that can 
boast for its patrons the great and the good of every 
age and of every country? — an institution upon whose 
altar a Washington, a Franklin, a LaFayette, an 
Adams, a Jefferson, a Madison, a Monroe, a Clinton, 
a Jackson, a Webster, a Clay, a Lincoln, and an in- 
numerable host of other philanthropists, statesmen, 
philosophers and divines, throughout the civilized 
world, had paid their devotions. These have long since 
gone to their last account; their work has passed the 
inspection of the Grand Overseer's square — their bodies 
have mingled with their native element, beneath the 
green sods of the valley, and their spirits, we trust, are 
in that Grand Lodge above where all is peace and har- 
mony and love, and where God himself is the Grand 
Master. Let us, my Companions and Brethren, en- 
deavor to imitate their example — let us maintain the 
dignity of our profession on every occasion ; let our 

154 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

intercourse with each other be marked by courtesy 
and kindness ; let us try as far as may be, to smooth 
each other's rugged path of life ; let there be no con- 
tention among us save that noble contention, or rather 
emulation, of, who can best work or best agree — in 
short, let us practice out of the lodge those glorious 
principles and duties which are taught in it, and by 
amiable, discreet and virtuous conduct, convince man- 
kind of its good effects, so that, in the language of 
the Masonic Ritualist, when one may be said to be 
a member of it. the world may know that he is one to 
whom the troubled heart may pour out its sorrows, 
to whom distress may prefer its suit, whose hand is 
guided by justice, and whose heart is expanded by 
benevolence." 

As an evidence of the esteem and gratitude of his 
brother Masons, Mr. Leonard was made the recipient 
of a handsome piece of silver presented to him at a 
public gathering on the evening of January 9th, 1860. 
His grateful acknowledgement is herewith inserted. 

THE MASONIC SUPPER— 

Mr. Leonard's Speech. 

The following report of the admirable speech of the 
Hon. Stephen B. Leonard, at the Masonic supper, on 
Monday evening the 9th inst., in response to the hand- 
some presentation of plate, made in behalf of the fra- 
ternity, by the Rev. John J. Pearce, will be read with 
interest bv the members and friends of the Order: 



" Kind Sir and Brother; — Laboring, as I am at this 
moment, under the pressure of emotions which I have 

155 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

not the power to control, I have no language to express 
as I could desire, my gratitude to the members of 
Friendship Lodge for this unexpected demonstration 
of their favor and esteem. If my heart could speak, 
it might relieve me from some of the palpitations which 
now agitate and swell my bosom. Sir, the uniform 
courtesy and kindness which I have received at the 
hands of these Brethren, during the years which have 
passed, have laid me under a weight of obligations 
which I have long since entertained but a faint hope 
of ever being able to cancel; and now, under the trans- 
actions of this evening, the last glimmering of even 
that hope has been altogether extinguished. I feel 
that I am bankrupt indeed, — insolvent beyond the pos- 
sibility of resuscitation. But, sir, I wish to say to 
those kind hearted Brethren, thro' you, that although 
insolvent, I shall never avail myself of the statute of 
limitations, — I shall never repudiate the debt. I will 
remember it and acknowledge it. and acknowledge it 
and remember it, as long as this heart shall pulsate and 
reason holds its empire. 

" You have kindly alluded to my long identity with 
and devotion to the Masonic Order. In this you have 
done me no more than justice. It is more than forty 
years since I became a member of that ancient and 
time-honored institution. I am proud to say that I 
love it. I love it for its antiquity, — I love it for its 
universality, — I love it for the purity of its principles, — 
I love it because it has religion and morality for its 
foundation. — I love it because it is the friend of the 
poor and the needy, — the almoner of the widow and 
the orphan, — I love it because I think it makes men 
better, — better husbands, better fathers, better citizens, 
better Christians, — I love it because it has always been 

156 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

loved by the great and the good, of every age and ever^^ 
nation. My attachments to it commenced in the 
springtime of life, — they have grown with my growth, 
and strengthened with my strength, and are not in the 
least abated now that I am in the sear of autumn. 

"' It is, however, painful, sir. when memory carries 
me back to the period when first initiated into this 
Lodge, to reflect that all, or nearly all, of those who 
were then its members, have been called to their last 
account. Their mortal remains have long since reposed 
quietly beneath the green sods of the valley. The 
gentle breezes of many summers have fanned, and the 
rude blasts of as many winters have swept over their 
last resting place ; but I hope and trust that their 
spirits are with God in Heaven. It is painful too, in 
another respect, — it reminds me of the many years that 
have intervened, and in accents clear and unmistak- 
able, — in language not to be misunderstood, says to 
me, your days too are begining to be numbered. But 
my Brethren, I will not dwell longer on the dark side 
of the picture. This world has many charms, — we are 
favored with many blessings. We ought to thank our 
Supreme Grand Master for what he has done and is 
doing for us, — that he has prolonged our lives, pre- 
served our healths, and conferred upon us so many 
comforts ; — that he has cast our lines in pleasant places, 
— that we live in a land of religion, liberty and law, 
where every man has the right of sitting under his own 
vine and his own fig tree, where there are none to mo- 
lest or make him afraid. We ought to thank Him for 
the privilege of meeting here this evening, in so goodly 
numbers, surrounded by so many we love, and all 
under circumstances so favorable. 

" I have alluded. Brethren, to the many of my 

157 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

early friends who have passed away, but I thank God 
that their places have been supplied with others equally 
worthy. With you I have enjoyed many years of 
uninterrupted social intercourse, — friendship and broth- 
erly affection have always prevailed. Through your 
confidence and kindness, for more than one-quarter of 
the forty years alluded to, I have had the honor of 
presiding over your deliberations. Pending that period, 
many questions and matters have come up for discus- 
sion and adjudication, involving nice discriminations 
of constitutional and masonic law, and it would be 
unreasonable, perhaps, to suppose, that in all of them 
I have ruled rightfully, — it is rather to be inferred that 
in some of them at least, I have come to wrong con- 
clusions. If this be so, my Brethren, I know you will 
believe me when I say, that they have been errors of 
the head and not of the heart, — and it is equally due 
to you and to truth to say, that in all these cases of 
trial and embarrassment, you have always held up 
my hands, — you have done all that a reasonable man 
could ask or expect of reasonable men. For this, my 
Brethren, I thank you. I thank you for all that you 
have done for me in the past, — I thank you from the 
bottom of a grateful heart for what you have done for 
me this evening, — for this substantial testimonial of 
your friendship and regard. With me it is now price- 
less. I value it for its intrinsic worth, — but I value it 
still more as the free-will offering of those whose good 
opinion I always have and always shall be proud of 
deser\'ing. I will preserve it as long as I live, and 
when I am called away I will tell my children to pre- 
serve and regard it as a token of respect paid to their 
departed father by the generous hearted Brethren of 
Friendship Lodge. 

158 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

" Brethren, the official ties which have bound us 
together having been severed, as age and its accom- 
panying infirmities shall increase upon me, it is more 
than probable that our meetings and greetings will 
be fewer and further betw-een than they have hitherto 
been, — but you may rest assured that whether with 
you or absent from you, you will ever have my sym- 
pathies and my prayers for your prosperity and happi- 
ness. And now my Brethren, in closing, permit me 
to express the hope that during the residue of the 
days of our several allotments, we may so live that 
when we shall arrive at the end of the journey of life, 
and these bodies, one after another shall be consigned 
to the narrow house, earth to earth, dust to dust, ashes 
to ashes, — we shall all be prepared for a happy en- 
trance into that other mansion, — the house not made 
with hands, eternal in the Heavens. That this may 
be the happy lot of all of us, collectively and individ- 
ually, may God grant for his Son's sake." 

With such associations and veneration for this 
order, it was eminently fitting that after the words of 
committal from the prayer book were read over his 
grave at his burial ; the solemn and beautiful ritual 
for the dead used by the Free Masons, should have 
been performed by his lodge — so that with prayer 
and benediction — the symbolic evergreen was cast 
into the open grave — the white lambskin was laid upon 
his coffin and his body and soul commended unto the 
God w^ho gave them. 

After continued residence in the town proper, 
Stephen entered upon a line of calling for which it 
is difficult to find good reason. He was neither fitted 
for nor adapted to the farmer's life. His tastes were 

159 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

literary and his experience had trained him for less 
arduous physical endeavors. He had loaned money 
to men needing pecuniary aid ; he had taken mort- 
gages upon farm lands and I am constrained to think 
that these properties coming into his possession led 
him to enter upon the agricultural projects which for 
some years occupied his time and tested his endurance. 
My Grandfather Leonard had owned three farms 
in and about Owego. One was on the Pennsylvania 
line and long since was sold; another was just beyond 
the village and a portion of it was later on owned 
by George Sidney Camp. This was a part of his dairy 
farm and commands a glorious outlook. The last 
farm owned by Stephen B. Leonard was large and 
valuable. About one mile north of Owego it lay and 
reached along the river bank and back to the top of 
the western ridge. It was almost entirely kept under 
cultivation and yielded a ready increase of fruits and 
crops. This farm was known as " The Locusts." 
The roadway running through its length, being edged 
with a sweet scented and picturesque line of sugar- 
locust trees was a favorite stopping place for the 
many friends who were accustomed in fair summer 
weather to drive from the town. The young people 
who would come out for music and fun were heartily 
welcomed, and served to add to the life of the place. 
There have been two houses on the property as our 
residences. The first was destroyed years ago. It 
was low in the roof — extended over considerable 
ground — had wings, and additions, porches and piaz- 
zas and looked out upon a radiant old-fashioned 
garden on two sides. Its rooms were comfortable and 
spacious, and many a happy hour was passed beneath 
its eaves. What a garret it possessed, or rather, the 

160 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

children owned it. Full of boxes and trunks and bags 
and odds and ends. We stored the butternuts and 
hickory nuts away in the dark corners ; we tricked our- 
selves out in old-fashioned garments, dragged out of 
their ancient hiding places ; theatres, circuses, house- 
keeping, games and all kinds of entertainment were 
born of that old garret. There were boxes of valuable 
books too — law and congressional chiefly, and files of 
papers and packages of letters with interesting auto- 
graphs of distinguished men. franking them to my 
grandfather when he was absent from the Federal City 
at Washington. I remember too a wonderful old fire- 
board that imprinted its coloring indelibly on my mem- 
ory. It represented the original Capitol ; the low dome 
and the two wings of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives as completed by Latrobe ; and cavorting on 
the pavement before the edifice a dandified horseman 
lifting his hat to some gaily attired ladies in an open 
barouche. At the Corcoran Art Gallery in Washington 
is a huge canvas, badly painted, but of great value, 
showing an interior view of the House of Representa- 
tives at a night session. The key that accompanies 
it, gives the names of many of our earlier eminent 
statesmen, their faces showing strikingly beneath the 
yellow blaze of hundreds of candles from the central 
chandelier and the side brackets. What a contrast 
between the buildings and the men of that time and 
ours ! In our possession is a chart of that smaller 
and earlier House of Congress when Stephen B. Leon- 
ard, my grandfather, was a member of its body. What 
glorious names are those that appear upon its face, 
the elder Wise, and John Ouincy Adams, and James 
K. Polk, and Bailey Paton, and Franklin Pierce, and 
C. C. Cambrelling, and Lewis Cass, and Sam Houston, 

161 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

and Alexander Stevens and a score of great and con- 
spicuous gentlemen. It was indeed an honor to have 
been the friend and associate of such men, and we well 
know" how gracefully and courtesously our grandsire 
moved among his colleagues, knowing them, and appre- 
ciated and regarded wnth approbation by all. In the 
orchard beyond this original cottage was an apple 
cellar — one of the old-fashioned kind, built against a 
side slope — simply a roof frame of timbers ; covered 
with soil and greenest grass and entered from its 
lower gable front. Within, it was furnished with bins 
and ample shelves for fruit and vegetables. How cool, 
and dark and damp it was. How pungent and aro- 
matic was the odor from the glorious apples and what 
a joy and refreshment to feel that one could go to it 
without let or hindrance. John Burroughs would 
have loved that old apple cellar, and the children's 
hearts always w^armed towards it. The cottage was 
removed because of its age and inconvenience and a 
new residence was built farther to the east and nearer 
the river bank. It still remains, though occupied by 
strangers, as the farm was sold some years agb. 
The new house was attractive and furnished hospitable 
accommodations for children and grandchildren. 

As my grandparents grew older, the toil and discom- 
fort and cares of a large farm became altogether too bur- 
densome, and therefore, about 18T0, the place was sold 
and " Gray Tower,'' in the town proper, was purchased 
as a permanent residence. Here the family found a 
most acceptable home for winter and summer, and 
here the elders lived in peace and contentment, sur- 
rounded by friends and relatives and acquaintances of 
many years, esteemed and loved by all ; and here when 
God called them, they passed out into the higher life 

163 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

and the land that is beautiful, to the Eternal Home of 
many mansions. These foregoing items are of inter- 
est only to the direct descendants and immediate kins- 
people of my beloved grandparents and I am sure that 
they will recall many incidents and facts, and revive 
affectionate and tender reminiscences of the days of 
auld lang syne. 

Mr. Leonard's vital interest and activity in the 
welfare of the town soon became known in the county 
and the state. His paper found its way into settle- 
ments and small hamlets and into larger towns, and 
his editorial sentiments made impress on a con- 
stituency then rapidly forming. He always used his 
pen in upholding what was honorable and manly ; he 
denounced trickery and dishonesty in politics; he 
maintained the old-time doctrine of state rights, and 
was a faithful follower of the tenets of Jefferson. 
Party feeling was strong in those days and the Jack- 
son campaign was one of the most notable in our polit- 
ical history. Mr. Leonard advocated the maintenance 
of those measures that ultimately carried General An- 
drew Jackson into the Executive Mansion at Wash- 
ington. The town of Owego was ready to recognize 
the ability and the integrity of its earnest citizen, and 
this found expression in the determination of his 
neighbors, that such a man should represent them 
in the halls of Congress. Accepting the nomination of 
his party, he quickly persuaded the district he was 
willings to serve, and he was enthusiastically elected a 
member of the Congress of the United States. Pre- 
paring himself for his duties he took his seat, and with 
scrupulous care and attention, fulfilled the obligations 
laid upon him. His first term brought him to the 
Capitol, during the closing years of Andrew Jackson's 

163 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

presidency and it afforded him opportunity to know- 
personally that rugged and unique statesman, for 
whom he entertained a high regard and esteem, till the 
end of his life. Having represented his constituents 
acceptably, Mr. Leonard entered the lists a second 
time for another term and was once more chosen to 
the honor. Martin Van Buren was now President, and 
Mr. Leonard's duties steadily increased. He was 
placed on important committees and was at one time 
on a joint committee w^ith Daniel Webster. 

A third time his friends urged upon him the con- 
gressional obligation, but for reasons best known to 
himself, he declined the nomination in favor of his 
friend and neighbor. Judge Strong of Owego, w^ho was 
at once elected. During his Washington life, Mr. 
Leonard lived in a house near the present National 
Hotel, at wdiich several of his colleagues also were 
sheltered. The letters which follow were written 
mostly during his congressional service. They are 
purely personal and beyond some slight references 
to men and measures, are domestic and of pleasant 
value to his descendants, but they illustrate the uni- 
form dignity, suavity and courtesy of the writer. 
He was always the type of a high bred gentleman. 
Tall and graceful in carriage, his pleasant voice, bright 
countenance and benignant manners, w^ere remarked 
by all who knew him. Incapable of a mean or dis- 
honorable act, his daily conduct was moved by the doc- 
trine of Christ. He was a Christian and a member of 
the Presbyterian Society in Owego. 

After retiring from public life in Washington, Mr. 
Leonard took up the plainer duties of life at home. 
He held offices of a less conspicuous character and 

164 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

never again aspired to congressional advancement. 
For a few years he engaged in local mercantile busi- 
ness and then undertook farming the land he owned — 
but in this latter line of duty he was neither expert or 
successful. His affection for children and grandchil- 
dren was beautiful, and his happiness was assured 
when his house was filled with those he loved. 
Universally respected and revered by his kinsfolk and 
acquaintances, he died in Owego full of honors, be- 
loved by all, and in the confidence of an assured hope 
of a joyous Ressurrection at the last Day. He was 
a kind parent, a valuable citizen, a patriot, a states- 
man, a Christian gentleman. 

From a local editorial is taken the following gen- 
eral estimate of Mr. Leonard's life and character: 

'* He retained during the latter years of his life the 
calm dignity and pleasant reserve of a man of con- 
science and of firm convictions. His ever refined char- 
acter and manhood seems to us as we look back on it 
like polished marble, so pure and solid did it strike 
us as being in all the essential elements which make 
up the honest, high-minded citizen, the Christian hus- 
band and father, and true gentleman. The lesson of 
his life, the important one for us to remember, and 
which should be inculcated in the minds of the rising 
generation, is that habits of industry, perseverance, 
self-reliance, patience, joined with the Christian's 
faith and hope will meet sure reward and win the 
approving smile of Heaven. His pleasant, ever kindly 
greetings, we shall miss — his example remains for 
us to appreciate and follow on to the triumphs re- 
served for such as he. His life was lengthened out 
beyond the limit fixed by the Psalmist, and it affords a 
source of true inspiration and should teach us to cul- 

165 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

tivate with renewed ardor the manly virtues of 
patriotism and disinterestedness for, — 

" Only the actions of the just, 

Smell sweet and blossom in the dust." 

From still another journal these words are culled : 

OBITUARY. 

STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

" We announce herewith the death of our esteemed 
and venerable citizen, the Hon. Stephen B. Leonard, 
which occurred at his late residence in Owego, on the 
morning of the 8th instant, at the ripe age of eighty- 
three years, preceded by what at the time was con- 
sidered as only a slight indisposition. His long career 
was not an uneventful one considered in the light of 
the early settlement and growth of this section of the 
State and what he really was, and we therefore group 
the leading facts of his life, which we deem full of 
instruction and admonition. And in many respects we 
have regarded him in these latter years as a link in 
the chain which binds us to that which may be aptly 
termed our ancient regime — the early days of this 
Republic — since he was a representative of the people 
in the National Legislature, and filled other offices of 
honor and trust, cotemporaneously with Webster, Clay 
and Calhoun, and at a time when men of their mould 
led in the councils of the nation ; and it may be truth- 
fully said that many of the austere virtues which the 
men of that age practiced, he practiced and exemplified 
in his daily walk and conversation, down even to his 
latest hour. 

166 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

" He represented this district in Congress for 
two terms, and was a leading man in the Democratic 
party until, by reason of his age, he gradually with- 
drew to the quiet of his home for that rest which his 
active and laborious life had richly earned." 

In an obituary notice of ^^r. Leonard, published at 
the time of his death in the Gazette, Hiram A. Beebe, 
the editor of the paper, wrote the following just trib- 
ute to Mr. Leonard's character and worth: 

" We think we may safely say that ^Ir. Leonard 
was the oldest printer and newspaper editor in the 
state, and no person who knew him will dispute the 
assertion that a more perfect gentleman never lived. 
Intelligent and well informed upon all subjects of 
public interest, polite, and agreeable in his manners, 
with strong predelictions for the right, yet never offen- 
sive in the utterance of his views, he was a model of 
courtesy and gentlemanly bearing, and was very justly 
held in the highest estimation by his fellow citizens 
down to the very time of his death. . . Often hon- 
ored with high official positions, he never betrayed a 
public trust, nor, in all his life, forfeited his claim 
to a most unqualified confidence in his integrity of 
character." 

In the centennial history of Tioga County Mr. 
Warner says of Mr. Leonard : 

" Mr. Leonard was held in high estimation by his 
associates in Congress, and even his political op- 
ponents, after the strife and turmoil of the campaign 
were over, bore testimony to his worth and integrity. 

167 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

The lives and labors of such men as Mr. Leonard 
are those elements which make the choicest treasure 
of our country. Their influence remains and is felt 
long after the lives themselves are ended. A century 
hence the name of Mr. Leonard will be recalled as 
that of a man who helped to educate and elevate the 
people of his day and give wise direction to the public 
affairs of county, state and nation." 

The children of Stephen B. and Esther Henrietta 
(Sperr}^) Leonard were as follows: 

1. William Boardman Leonard, born June 17, 
1820, at Owego. Married Louisa Dimon Bulkley, of 
Southport, Conn., July 6, 1847. He died July 2, 1893, 
at Owego, and she March 11, 1900, in Brooklyn. 

2. Hermon Camp Leonard, born January 31, 1823, 
at Owego. 

3. George Stephen Leonard, born April 9, 1827, at 
Owego. Married Harriet A. Leach, daughter of Caleb 
Leach, Jr., April 15, 1856. She died at Owego, Jan- 
nary 1, 1874, and he March 20, 1907. 

4. Henrietta Leonard, born May 20, 1830, at 
Owego. Married Oliver Bulkley, June 28, 1854. 

5. Emily Caroline Leonard, born at Owego. 

6. Washington Irving Leonard, born March 12» 
1835, at Owego. Died at Owego, May 17, 1874. 

7. Laura Ann Leonard, born at Owego. 

168 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

At the time of my grandfather's death the follow- 
ing beautiful letter and affectionate tribute appeared 
in the New York Tribune, from the hand of the hon- 
orable and venerable Thurlow Weed : 

LIFE-LONG FRIENDSHIPS. 

A Letter From Thurlow Weed. 

Death of Two Old Friends — the Rev. W. B. Sprague 
and the Hon. S. B. Leonard — Early Newspapers. 

" To the Editor of the Tribune. 

*' Sir: In our youthful days, and until the maturity 
of years, time passes in forming and extending ac- 
quaintances and friendships more or less endearing 
and enduring. In this respect I have been among 
the most favored and fortunate. In my long expe- 
rience, the poetical idea that *' friendship is but a 
name for man's illusion given " has been most em- 
phatically disproved. The great charm of youth and 
the greatest solace of old age are found in the friend- 
ships formed when life was young, its hopes buoy- 
ant, and its affections fresh — friendships which ex- 
isted without a jar until the day of final separation 
came. But to those who are spared beyond the time 
ordinarily allotted to man there comes a season 
when what constituted their highest enjoyment proves 
their greatest sorrow. Time in its relentless prog- 
ress severs link by link the ties which bound us in 
affection and sympathy to earth. One by one those 
whom we loved and honored drop away, until before 
w^e are 80, instead of meeting loved ones in the do- 
mestic circle or grasping friendly hands upon the 
sidewalk, we must follow their remains to the ceme- 

169 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

teries, cheered, however, with the bright hope that 
they are '' waiting and watching for us at the beautiful 
gate " which opens into a better world. 

" This train of reflection was suggested by informa- 
tion received this morning of the departure to their 
final rest and reward of two venerable and valued 
friends. The Rev. Dr. William B. Sprague and the 
Hon. Stephen B. Leonard, a venerable printer and 
editor, who died on Sunday, at his residence in 
Owego, Tioga County, in his 84th year. Mr. Leon- 
ard established The Owego Gazette in 1820, and con- 
ducted it for more than 30 years with marked ability 
and devoted patriotism. He was twice during that 
period elected to Congress, serving creditably and 
usefully there as he did in other positions of trust and 
responsibility. My acquaintance with ^Ir. Leonard 
dates back to 1814, when we were both journeymen 
printers. He established himself at Owego two years 
after I broke ground editorially at Norwich, a neigh- 
boring village. Though seeing each other less fre- 
quently than would have been pleasant, we have al- 
ways been friends. The venerable Lewis H. Redfield 
of Syracuse is the oldest surviving editor in our State. 
Next in seniority comes the venerable John F. Hub- 
bard of Norwich. Mr. Redfield established The Onon- 
daga Valley Gazette in 1816. a year before Mr. Hub- 
bard established The Norwich Journal, and two years 
before I launched the Chenango Agriculturist." 
New York, May 9, 18:6. 

T. \V. 



170 



WILLIAM BOARDMAN LEONARD 




WILLIAM BOARDMAN LEONARD. 
Brooklyn. N. Y. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



WILLIAM BOARDMAN LEONARD. 

William Boardman Leonard, eldest son of Stephen 
B. and E. H. Leonard, born at Owego, June 17, 1820, 
and died at Owego, July 1, 1893, at his summer home 
Riverbend. His early boyhood was spent in Owego, 
and he received his excellent education in the local 
schools. He was named for the late Judge William 
W. Boardman of New Haven, Conn., who was a first 
cousin of our grandmother, Esther Henrietta Sperry, 
her grandmother having been Mercy Boardman of New 
Milford, Conn. 

When about sixteen years of age, he went to 
Trumansburg, N. Y., and lived in the family of his 
uncle, Hermon Camp, and at one time with his 
cousin, Albert Stone. He was employed as a clerk in 
Hermon Camp's business establishment. Reaching 
his majority, he went to New York, and there secured 
employment as a salesman, and later on formed a 
partnership with Benjamin Pomeroy, and was engaged 
in the wholesale dry goods trade. He married Louisa 
Dimon Bulkley at Southport, Conn., in 1847. She 
was the daughter of Andrew and Sallie D. Bulkley. 
Benjamin Pomeroy married her sister Josephine and 
lived in Southport although continuing his business 
operations in the city of New York. On the dissolu- 
tion of the firm of Leonard and Pomeroy, William 
B. entered the firm of Hurlburt, Sweetser & Co., and 
later, after partnership connection with the Van Val- 
kenbergs, Avas associated with Harvey Farrington for 
a few years in the wholesale grocery and coflfee trade. 
Later, he founded the commission house of Leonard, 

173 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Rhoades & Grosvenor and thereafter founded the bank- 
ing house of Leonard, Sheldon & Foster. This firm, 
changed its title to Leonard, Sheldon & Co., and their 
office was at 10 Wall Street, where they were success- 
ful dealers in finance. He retired from business in the 
eighties, although he retained silent interest in the 
house for a few years. 

After his marriage Mr. Leonard made his home in 
the city of Brooklyn. He soon became identified with 
the local and religious interests of the community, 
and very early was elected a vestryman in the Church 
of the Holy Trinity under the rectorship of Dr. 
William H. Lewis. He continued in the position of 
vestryman and warden during the rectorates of Rev. 
Dr. Littlejohn and the Rev. Dr. Charles H. Hall, 
serying the church in its conventions, and on its 
boards' of charity. He filled many positions of honor 
and^trust with scrupulous fidelity. He was director 
in a number of institutions. President of of the Homeo- 
pathic Hospital, President of the King's County Bank, 
President of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to 
Children and other like establishments. He was one 
of the first Board of Trustees which built the great 
Brooklyn Bridge and his name with those of his col- 
leagues is to be seen on the bronze tablet placed high 
on the stone towers that support the structure. He 
was a member of several of the local clubs, interested 
in music, and the President of the Apollo Club. A 
man of handsome and attractive personal appearance, 
very courteous and graceful in manner, conspicuous 
for his kindly genialty, and universally beloved. 
Twenty years previous to his death he purchased his 
summer home at '' Riverbend," Owego, N. Y. whither 

174 



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STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

he went with great delight every season. The house 
was located upon lands near to his birthplace and 
nothing could exceed his ailection for this spot. 
Although solicited to enter upon a public political 
career, he seemed to have but little taste for such 
vocation, having twice declined the nomination for 
the mayoralty of the city of Brooklyn. He was chair- 
man of the Electoral College at the time of the Han- 
cock campaign. He was buried in the family plot in 
Greenwood cemetery, Brooklyn, and a few years later 
the body of his wife was laid by his side. A bronze 
tablet commemorating his life and character, is to 
be found on the walls of the Church of the Holy 
Trinity. Brooklyn. 

The Owego Gazette after giving an appreciative 
memorial sketch of Mr. Leonard's death, closed its 
editorial with these words : 

" The news of the death of Mr. Leonard produced 
a saddening effect upon our community. He was 
a man of many friendships and many friends in Owego. 
Endowed with a moral character of the highest type ; 
possessed of and exemplifying most generous and noble 
impulses, with a heart one of the kindest and most 
generous; public spirited to the greatest degree of 
generosity — he merited and received the love and es- 
teem of his old friends in this his birthplace and home 
of his earlier days. 

'' His funeral was held in St. Paul's church of 
Owego, on the 3d instant, and his remains interred 
in Greew^ood cemetery, Brooklyn, on the 4th instant. 



175 



HERMON CAMP LEONARD 




HERMON C. LEONARD. 

Portland. Oregon. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



HERMON CAMP LEONARD. 

The long and useful life of Hermon C. Leonard, 
second son of Stephen B., has been so replete with in- 
cident and adventure, that the autobiographical ac- 
count he has written at our request, is herewith 
inserted. He says : 

I have commenced this, recalling some of the 
past events in my life, and writing up the same, 
from memory alone. 

I take for my starting point, the date when I left 
the home of my parents when nearly 18 years of age, 
to serve an apprenticeship with my Uncle Hermon 
Camp in his mercantile business in Trumansburg, 
N. Y. 

I was still in the service of my uncle in Trumans- 
burg when a circumstance occurred which changed 
my whole career. A gentleman, a merchant of Talla- 
hassee, Florida, came there on his annual visit to 
his relatives, and in a casual conversation, he asked 
me if I would like to go to Florida, as he was author- 
ized by a firm to engage a young man from the North, 
and I said at once I would go if I could prevail on 
my uncle to cancel my obligations to him for the last 
year, which he did. I spent about two years in the 
service of Betton & McGinnis, a prominent firm of 
merchants and exporters of cotton, and resided with 
the family of a member of the firm ; and then I returned 
to the North, taking a small schooner plying between 
St. !Marks, the port of Tallahassee, and New Orleans, 
thence by steamer up the Mississippi and Ohio rivers 

179 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

to Cincinnatti, thence to Pittsburg, thence by stages 
over the Baltimore and Ohio turnpike to Cumberland, 
and rail to New York. This was about the time 
(1848-49) the excitement was arousing over the 
discovery of gold in California. The rush was com- 
mencing, and I caught the fever, and would have left 
but was dissuaded by entreaties from home and my 
brother William, who persuaded me to take a position 
in a large wholesale grocery house in Broad St. — 
Wood & Sheldon — with whom I remained until Novem- 
ber 1849 when they closed their business. This " let 
me out " and the '' California fever " came over me 
again in full force, and late in November of that year 
(1849) I left New York on board the steamer " Cres- 
cent City " for Chagres (no Panama Railroad then) 
from thence, up the Chagres river to the head of 
canoe navigation. Five passengers with myself char- 
tered a large native canoe and with baggage were 
poled, paddled, and pulled by three natives to Gor- 
gona, head of navigation. From there to Panama on 
mule back, our baggage on the heads and backs of 
natives, we sailed from Panama on board the steamer 
*' California " for San Francisco touching at every port 
of importance between those points, arriving in San 
Francisco on the night of the 31st day of December 
1849, just in time to enroll us among the Pioneers of 
'49. As there was only one steamer per month, our 
arrival was quite an event, and the next morning when 
we disembarked, all San Francisco seemed to be upon 
the beach to greet us. No docks there then. I met 
on the first day after landing several of my old ac- 
quaintances from the East who had preceded me, and 
I felt quite at home. My friend. John Green of New 
York, who left the employ of Pomeroy & Leonard 

180 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

as a salesman, and had embarked from New York in 
a sailing vessel around Cape Horn had reached there 
after a very long voyage (nearly six months) was en- 
gaged in business and had been for some months. 
Within two months after I reached San Francisco I 
found that Mr. Green had become inbued with the idea 
that Oregon would be a better field in which to cast 
our fortunes and I agreed with him. We bought out 
his partner's interest in San Francisco, packed up 
their stock and shipped it on board a bark bound for 
Oregon, on which he sailed with further additions to 
the stock which we purchased in San Francisco, and 
landed at Astoria in February '50 and started in busi- 
ness there under the firm name of Leonard & Green. 
I remained in San Francisco awaiting the arrival of 
a steamship the '* Sarah Sands " coming around Cape 
Horn with goods consigned to me from New York, 
principally from Pomeroy & Leonard, and to fill orders 
Green might send me from Oregon for our Astoria 
trade. 

I went to Oregon in June '50 and found him well 
established there in business, occupying a storehouse 
built by and formerly occupied by the old English 
Hudson Bay Company years before, they having aban- 
doned that post. Our trade was principally with 
Indians then still very numerous. We remained in 
Astoria between two and three years, when we began 
to realize the fact that it would never prove to be a 
leading business place in the future of Oregon, al- 
though, situated as it is, at the mouth of the great 
Columbia, and with a fine harbor for shipping. The 
Columbia being navigable to Portland, on the Willa- 
mette, 120 miles above, and that much nearer to the 
great and productive region, it would be the city of 

181 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the future. About that time Green's brother Henry D. 
and my brother Irving arrived. We installed them in 
charge of our interests at Astoria dividing our profits 
there with them, and then established our business as 
a general wholesale house in Portland. I went to 
New York immediately ; my first trip there from this 
coast, to purchase goods. 

At Portland we secured a position for our business 
on Front Street, with a landing dock for vessels, 
the only dock in Portland at that time. Now how 
changed — miles of connected docks on both sides, 
flanked by capacious warehouses for the accomoda- 
tion of the large commercial trade that has grown up. 
About the time we were fullv established, the Pacific 
Mail Company put on a weekly line of steamers be- 
tween San Francisco and Portland and appointed our 
firm their agents. Our success in our mercantile 
career was very satisfactory. I soon went down to 
San Francisco and purchased the bark *' Metropolis " 
which we placed on the San Francisco route for 
transporting lumber and produce, etc., as a freighter 
for ourselves and the public generally. We after- 
wards opened up a business with the Sandwich Islands, 
despatching her with cargoes of lumber to Honolulu. 
About the time she had accomplished her third trip, 
we received rather unfavorable news as to the lumber 
trade in the islands from our agents there. Just 
then I noticed an advertisement in a San Francisco 
paper of a bark that would sail in a few days for 
Australia touching at Honolulu, and so decided to 
take the steamer leaving for San Francisco the next 
day, by which I could reach there in time to take 
passage for Honolulu and could reach there two 
weeks sooner than our bark would, giving plenty of 

132 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

time to size up our Honolulu affairs. So I sailed 
away for that port on the " Lucky Star " and reached 
there before our bark came in from Portland. I found 
out in the meantime that the lumber dealers had com- 
bined to force the sale of our next coming cargo of 
lumber to a very low figure and of course divide the 
profit. I had an invoice of the cargo she was loading 
when I left, and it happened to be just such lumber 
as was not in the market and was greatly in demand. 
It was almost entirely composed of inch boards and 
other light lumber which would retail from their 
yards at $35.00 to $40.00 per thousand feet. Their 
best offer to me was about $16.00 per thousand and 
in the meantime before my bark showed herself off 
the harbor I had made up my mind what to do and 
acted upon it. I had taken an option to lease in 
a central location, a lot enclosed by a high fence 
with a vacant warehouse upon it, just such a place 
as I wanted for the storage and sale of produce from 
Oregon, such as flour, oats, baled hay, etc., which 
we generally shipped as part cargoes, and to store 
sugar and such products of the islands as we brought 
back to Portland. So you see I was prepared. On 
the day my bark sailed into the harbor, I had my 
last interview with the lumber dealers. We did not 
come to terms and on the next day all the trucks 
available in Honolulu were busy hauling the cargo of 
the *' ISIetropolis " to my place of business for which 
I had closed the lease. I secured the services of 
a very nice young American who was born there, 
and who could speak the Hawaiian language in dealing 
with the natives. There was a rush at once for the 
lumber among the Kanakas at $35.00 per thousand feet 
and they carried it off on their backs and hand carts 

183 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

for a few days about as fast as the draymen could haul 
it from the wharf. 

I was now fairly established in business in Hono- 
lulu for an indefinite time as a branch of the firm of 
Leonard & Green. The bark " Metropolis " was 
despatched back to Oregon, with what freight I had 
secured for her return, principally sugar. I kept 
steadily at it while I remained there — one year-and-a- 
half. 

In the meantime a small brigantine sailed into 
Honolulu and was sold. The purchaser intending to 
place her in the Oregon trade had bought about one 
hundred tons of sugar (about one-half her capacity) 
for her first trip, and not being able to procure enough 
for a full freight, began to think poorly of his ven- 
ture. He offered to sell the vessel and the sugar for 
a fair price and I bought him out and fitted her out 
with a crew and freight and sent her to Oregon, 
with an order for her return cargo of lumber, etc. etc. 
So then, I had two vessels in my service which I kept 
running until my Honolulu business was closed out. 
I sold both my vessels there. After my career there, 
which was spent very pleasantly and profitably I re- 
turned to Portland taking passage on the bark " Live 
Yankee " for San Francisco and proceeded to Port- 
land again. 

My first voyage to China was on the ** Metropolis.'* 
This was in 1855 when Green and myself conceived 
the plan of making a venture to Hong Kong with a 
shipment of lumber and ship-spars (on deck), and I 
went with her as supercargo, arriging safely at Hong 
Kong and making sale of my cargo with which I had 
to proceed to a port about one hundred miles from 
Hong Kong for delivery. There I placed my bark 

184 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

in dry dock to re-copper, and returned to Hong Kong. 
After investing the proceeds from the sale of lumber in 
such Chinese merchandise as I thought best for Port- 
land, I sailed home, making a very satisfactory venture. 

In my cargo to China in the *' Metropolis '' I carried 
over three hundred barrels of Oregon flour; this was 
the first Oregon flour that had ever been sent to China 
for a market, and was the only export of flour to a 
foreign country made from Portland. In the year 
1907, 1,434,153 barrels were exported showing quite an 
increase in flour exportation. 

During this period we closed our old concern at 
Astoria, and Irving and Henry Green came to Port- 
land to assist with their services in our business here. 
We had purchased a block of ground on which we had 
erected a nice bachelor's home where we four lived 
very comfortably. This block we paid $1200 for and 
kept it until the date of the closing up of the firm of 
Leonard & Green ; at that time Green and myself di- 
vided the ownership of it, each taking a one-half. I 
sold my one-half a few years since for $55,000. The 
estate of Green (his heirs) still own theirs, and it is 
worth to-day at least $100,000. (I merely mention this 
to give an idea of the advance of values in real estate 
in Portland. 

Some months before closing out our business, 
Leonard & Green applied to the Territorial Govern- 
ment and to the City Council for a Gas Franchise. 
We obtained it ; at that time there were but two gas 
works on this coast, one at San Francisco and one in 
Sacramento, Cal. After obtaining our franchise, we 
started on the erection of our gas works. Mr. Green 
went east to purchase the necessary machinery and 

185 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

our works were completed and gas turned on and the 
city lighted with gas in 1859. Before the completion 
of the works, we realized that we would require a 
small vessel to ply between Portland and the coal 
mines at Naniamo on A'ancouver Island to transport 
our coal for gas from there, and hearing that one was 
for sale at Victoria that would answer the purpose, I 
went there and purchased the brig ^' Orbit " taking 
her to Nanaimo for a cargo of coal, loaded and brought 
her to Portland. Early in the spring of 1860 we found 
she was of no further use to us as a coal carrier, as 
coal of better quality for gas, at a less price, was 
being brought to Portland ; and to get rid of her, think- 
ing she would bring a readier sale in San Francisco, 
we loaded her with lumber and away I sailed for San 
Francisco, sold my cargo, but, was not able to find so 
readily a purchaser for the vessel. After trying for 
a week or more to sell her, I learned of a party of 
two, who were looking for an opportunity for ship- 
ment to Nicholaski on the Amoor river with a passage 
for themselves and also, about fifty tons of freight for 
Hakodada, Japan. Both being quite out of the way 
places, then, Hakodada, being directly on the route, 
and this making nearly a full freight for my little 
brig I closed with them, and wrote to Portland that 
within five days I would be on my way. I reached 
Siberia after a very favorable voyage. My vessel 
was the first that anchored in the Amoor in the 
spring of 1860, as the ice had but just left the 
river and this was about the middle of June. There 
was a scarcity of many necessary articles in that 
Russian port after their long winter, and my little 
vessel's advent was hailed with delight by the Rus- 
sians. Having some freight space left after having 

186 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

discharged my Japan merchandise at Hakodada, I 
purchased there for my own account and received on 
consignment from others merchandise enough to fill 
my vessel, all of which was in good demand and found 
quick sale. After my brig was discharged I sailed for 
home, touching at Hakodada to close up my business 
there. I purchased a few goods to bring over with 
me more as novelties than anything else) as there was 
not at that date even a bcgiuuiiig of Japanese trade 
thought of. I did bring over with me on my return 
the very first specimen of what is nozv going on on a 
large scale, a real live Japanese native, the first one ever 
seen in Portland. His name was Suzukie Kinzo, a 
young man about twenty years of age. 

The day I sailed for home Mr. Rice, the first 
American Consul there, with whom I was well ac- 
quainted as he frequently invited me to his house to 
dine, spoke to me, about Kinzo, who was and had been 
I might say, a ward of the Consul and was in his 
household, where I saw him as he waited upon the table 
etc. etc., and I had taken quite an interest in him. He 
was fine looking, and polite ; he spoke English then 
fluently, this I had remarked and, Mr. Rice stated that 
during his residence there of nearly one year he had 
not seen his equal amongst the natives. He said that 
Kinzo walked into his office a few months before, and 
wished to see the American Consul and Mr. Rice gave 
him an audience. He came with his two swords on 
his person, which was then a distinction of rank and 
honor in Japan ; he seemed somewhat excited and pos- 
sibly in trouble. Said he was an entire stranger and 
had not an acquaintance there ; that he was a native 
of Tokio, the capital of Japan, the residence of the 
Emperor, and in fact confessed himself a political 

187 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

refugee, having been quietly smuggled on board a 
small Japanese junk bound for Hakodada, and he 
voluntarily threw himself into the arms of the Ameri- 
can Consul for protection. About this time Japan 
was in the throes of a revolution. The Reform party 
to which Kinzo was allied was temporarily on the 
losing side, and he amoungst many others, had to 
flee to save their lives. Mr. Rice kindly sympathized 
with him and gave him refuge. His being properly 
under the Consul's protection saved him from arrest 
and extradition back to Tokio. Mr. Rice said Kinzo 
came that morning to him to intercede with me to 
take him on my vessel ; he was frightened and tremb- 
ling; said he had received anonymous letters from 
some of the friends he had made there, giving him 
warning that he would very soon be arrested. Mr. 
Rice said he had learned that a very strict watch 
was being kept upon him. and gave it as his opinion 
that the only way of his escape, to save his life, would 
be in my taking him with me on the '* Orbit." I 
said without hesitation. " I will do it but you know 
my vessel is closely watched by the harbor police 
and z^'ill be until I am outside the ** harbor.'' His 
clerk, Mr. Pitts, was with us, a young American who 
had been there about two years and acquired quite a 
facility in speaking Japanese. Colonel Rice said " Mr. 
Pitts has a plan which would work." Mr. Pitts then 
said : " I will take Kinzo in my boat, with my dog and 
gun, to-morrow morning about nine o'clock, and will 
make it so the harbor police can see us : this I have 
been in the habit of doing once a week, going down 
the straits to a little bay about ten miles below to 
shoot ducks. The police are all acquainted with me 
and accustomed to see me, with Kinzo and know 

188 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

what I am about. You will leave the harbor at the 
first ebb tide about 2 P. M., — you will have but little 
wind in the straits in the afternoon, and about ten 
miles beloW; on the starboard side I will run out from 
behind the headland with Kinzo, come alongside and 
will make my boat fast, then you can square away 
again on your course. I will remain until dusk sets 
in, then I will take my boat and will start back and 
will get the usual sea breeze and sail into the harbor 
after dark." I said, " Pitts your plan is all right " and 
it worked to a charm. We said good-bye to Pitts and 
were soon clear of the Straits of Matsnai and the little 
" Orbit " once more pointed her prow toward Oregon, 
7,000 miles away. We took the extreme northerly 
passage, skirting along the southern shores of Kam- 
schatska and the Aleutian Islands for better easterly 
currents and more favorable winds, making a fine pas- 
sage to Victoria without going out of our way at all, 
as we made the coast a little north of the Straits of 
Juan De Fuca. I had decided to run in to Victoria 
and take a cargo of coal to Portland as I had no freight 
to speak of. Sold what few Japanese goods I had, 
loaded with coal, then to Portland, after a very 
pleasant and profitable voyage and Kinzo was the 
happiest man on board. The first day out he got the 
mate to shear the top knot off his head as he said he 
was tired of that custom. 

Kinzo was at once installed in our bachelor house- 
hold and made " manager " of the establishment. We 
afterwards gave him a position in our gas works, which 
duty he faithfully fulfilled a portion of each year. He 
was an industrious and hard student, at his studies 
half the night and won first prizes in his class fre- 
quently in the High School here and as the old lady 

189 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

said about her daughter " she was a ' carniverous reader * 
of all the books she could get ahold of." — So was 
Kinzo. 

Coming back to myself: After reaching home I 
found everything going along satisfactorily. I then 
loaded the " Orbit " again for San Francisco and went 
with her determined to sell her before I returned but 
was disappointed in not finding a purchaser. With a 
full cargo on our own account, I sailed at once for 
Hong Kong, sold about half the cargo on arrival, and 
by the advice of a business firm there retained the bal- 
ance on board. This firm took half an interest in fill- 
ing her up with a venture for Saigon in Southern China. 

A large fleet of French war vessels had just pre- 
ceded my arrival ; they had passed Hong Kong com- 
ing down from Peiko in North China, where with an 
allied force of the British navy they had been for 
some time fighting the Chinese. My unsold portion 
of the Oregon freight being suitable for ship supplies 
the joint venture the firm made with me was selected 
with the belief that the fleet would soon be short and 
they were in a poor port to replenish. I found it as we 
predicted and soon sold out my whole cargo. My inten- 
tion then was to fill the vessel with Saigon rice on my 
own account and return to Hong Kong, as rice was 
scarce and high when I left, but the fighting going on 
then (on the river a few miles above the city) had 
completely stopped the coming in of rice and I could 
not buy a pound. But there was one China firm there, 
which had a cargo they wished to ship to Macao, about 
forty miles south of Hong Kong, which I secured at 
a good rate of freight and delivered safe in Macao 
(pronounced ^lakow). This was about the middle of 
May 1862. 

190 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

After closing up my business the next morning 
my captain asked me, " Well, Mr. Leonard, what will 
we do next? " I said we will run over to Hong Kong 
to-day. I was thinking last night, said he, " that if we 
could find a suitable cargo in Hong Kong for the Rus- 
sians at Nicholaofsky and be the first to get there this 
spring as we were last spring, we could do well." 
" That's just what I was thinking of too," said I, '* and 
if I cannot sell the * Orbit * there, its what we will 
do." We then went over to Hong Kong but finding 
no purchaser for my brig, lost no time in filling her 
for another trip to the Amoor, filling her with goods 
for Xicholavsky. After getting some consignments 
from my friends in Hong Kong, on which profits were 
to be divided equally in consideration for my freighting 
and commissions, I was ofT as soon as possible, ^lade 
a good run to Xicholavsky, Siberia, arriving there 
in June 1863. The little " Orbit " being the first vessel 
to reach there after the river was free from ice, as 
she was the year before, my cargo found a ready sale 
at good profit. I soon left, sailing for Hakodada and 
secured a full cargo (on freight) for Shanghai, China. 
There sold my vessel to the agent of an American firm 
just then established in business in Yokahama, Japan. 
After closing up my business in Shanghai, after a 
week's stay, I took passage on the English steamer 
'* Ly. E. Moon " for Hong Kong. Immediately after 
I sold the *' Orbit " she left for her new home port and 
was with a number of other vessels lying at Woosung 
at the mouth of the river at anchor waiting for the 
weather to clear before starting out to run over to 
Japan. Our steamer on her way out to sea, sailed 
close by her. Her captain and crew (so long with me) 
were on deck to give a parting salute which passed 

191 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

between us. A few days after reaching Hong Kong, 
an American bark came in from Woosing partially- 
dismasted and her captain told me the following day 
he and the " Orbit " went out in company, and when 
both were fairly out in the Yellow Sea. a typhoon 
struck them with which they had a hard battle ; his 
ship was partially dismasted but he reached Hong 
Kong. He said that he watched the brig from time 
to time as they were near together, and as far as he 
could see she rode out all right making " better 
weather " than he did, but alas, this was the last 
authentic news that ever came back to me or to any 
one, of her fate. The captain, (Sherman) his wife, 
who went with him on his last voyage, the crew 
of six men, cook and boy, all went down. About a 
month after I reached Portland a bark arrived from 
Japan bringing me the sad news that she never reached 
her destination. 

As soon as my business was closed in China I took 
passage for San Francisco in a ship belonging to the 
firm of A. A. Low & Co.. New York, Captain Charles 
Low, and had a fine trip. Reached Portland once 
more, thus ending my cruising on the Pacific. I found 
all my interests going along satisfactorily under the 
management of John and Henry Green and my brother 
Irving and Kinzo. 

Shortly after this we purchased the franchise of 
the Portland Water Company, which had been given 
to a party a short time previous ; they had made a 
small start, having laid but a few blocks of three-inch 
wooden pipe, bored out by hand and furnishing a sup- 
ply for a small portion of the town, taking their power 
from a steam saw mill. I soon started for New York 
and purchased about six hundred tons of cast-iron 

192 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

pipe suitable for both gas and water distribution, 
also pumping engines and more gas machinery, char- 
tered the bark " Julia Cobb '' and started her fully 
laden for a voyage around Cape Horn. She arrived 
all right in Portland. Then our work commenced in 
earnest, building a pumping station on the river above 
the city, and our first reserv^oir for city water and the 
laying of gas and water mains. Previous to this, we 
had entirely closed out our mercantile business and 
were devoting our entire energies and labor in keep- 
ing up our supply of both water and gas with the in- 
creasing demands upon them by the growth of the 
City of Portland. It became necessary for me to visit 
the East yearly for the purpose of purchasing the ma- 
chinery, pipe and supplies requisite to keep pace with 
the demands. 

I now must resume the story of Kinzo, the young 
Japanese I brought over in the year 1860. He had 
faithfully remained with us in our employ for nearly 
eight years. I was starting for Xew York in the 
winter of '66 via the Panama route, when he came to 
me and said he would like to go with me as far as 
San Francisco. He was then not very well and as a 
trip might benefit him, I told him to get ready and 
go, he to stay there a few days and return next steamer. 
A few days after I sailed for Panama, he met on the 
street in San Francisco four or five young Japs, old 
friends of his. Thev recog-nized each other and thev 
exchanged the history of their lives since they had 
parted. They were the personal suite of Count Ito 
of Japan, on the way with him to Washington. They 
rushed of? to their hotel and told the Count of their 
discovery. He sent them to Kinzo to invite him to 
call and see him ; he went, and Count Ito asked him 

193 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

to dine. He, Kinzo, next day returned the compli- 
ment with a dinner to the Count. There was in 
charge of the Count a party of about thirty young 
Japs, whom he was taking to the East to place in 
suitable schools to prepare them for a collegiate educa- 
tion, all young men of good families and no doubt 
many of them to-day, if living, are among the leading 
statesmen of Japan. 

I knew nothing of these incidents until I returned 
the next spring when Kinzo related the facts (as 
written above). Shortly after this a telegram came to 
our office from Mr. C. W. Brooks, Japanese Consul, 
at San Francisco, saying to Kinzo, " Count Ito has 
returned from Washington, goes to Japan next 
steamer, wishes you to join him, return to Japan 
where a government appointment awaits you." He 
handed it to me to read. I asked him " who is this 
Count Ito?" he replied ''He is the greatest man in 
Japan next to the Mikado, in fact the Premier." I 
asked him "are you not afraid to return there?" He 
said " No not at all. I liad a long talk with the 
Count when I met him in San Francisco and my 
country is all right now ; the Reform Party which I 
joined before I left there, went under at first and I 
was forced to flee to Hakodada when I met you and 
you saved my life; had it not been for you, I would 
have been arrested in Hakodada and taken back and 
that would have been the last." I said " Kinzo you 
have asked my advice ; we will hate to part with you, 
but this is another great turning point in your life. Get 
readv, take the next steamer and report yourself to 
Count Ito. and return with him." He did so. He 
wrote me on arriving there that the Count received 
him cordially, and then said ** we sail in two days. 

194 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Mr. Kinzo take this check on the bank for $1000, my 
other young men have been doing the same, and each 
one investing the amount in the way I wish you to 
do; find out from them what they would have bought 
and shipped on board our steamer and purchase such 
things as they have overlooked in the way of goods, 
particularly mechanics' tools, farming implements and 
everything that we can not manufacture in our country 
that will be useful to us." He wrote me all this before 
sailing away. Again he wrote me before he left bid- 
ding me an affectionate farewell and departed for his 
home, after an absence of nearly eight years. He 
wrote me frequently, and about one year after he had 
reached home announced that he would pass through 
San Francisco on the next coming steamer from 
Japan, as he was on his way to England with the 
first Ambassador's suite to the Court of St. James in 
the capacity of Secretary to the Embassy, (the first 
minister sent from Japan) and hoped I could meet 
him there, but I could not meet him. The following 
year, however, I went to England and the day after 
I reached London, called at the Minister's residence 
in Kensington Park Gardens, and Kinzo was over- 
ioved to meet me. The Minister himself was absent 
traveling on the continent and Kinzo was in full 
management. He was very kind and polite to me while 
there, and paid me many attentions while in London. 
Two years after I was in London again and found 
him still in the same position under a new Ambassa- 
dor. He told me then that he had asked his govern- 
ment to accept his resignation as his health was not 
very good. They declined that, but gave him the 
privilege of leaving London to visit Japan hoping that 
he would regain his health and resume his position, 

195 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

this he accepted and was soon to leave for home via 
the East India route ; he remained at home about a 
year; about then he wrote me from Japan, saying he 
would again pass through San Francisco on the fol- 
lowing steamer, this time, as Secretary to the new 
Ambassador to Washington. I happened to have 
business calling me to San Francisco at that time and 
on the evening the steamer was due, about nine 
o'clock I was sitting in the Palace Hotel with a friend 
of mine, Mr. Bloomfield, who had lived in Portland 
and was the constructing engineer in the building of 
our gas works and knew Kinzo. Just then a genteel 
young Japanese came into the hotel. I called Bloom- 
field's attention to him. My friend said he was at- 
tached to the Japanese consulate. I said I presumed 
he has met Kinzo and very likely knows him. I 
stepped over to speak with him (as he was in the 
Custom House) asked him if the expected steamer 
had been signaled and saying I had a Japanese friend 
on board ; I was expecting a Mr. Kinzo. As soon as 
I spoke he looked at me a moment and said ** Suzukie 
Kinzo?" "Yes," I replied "that is his name. I 
brought him over to Portland from Japan and he lived 
with me eight years before he went back to Japan 
and I am hoping to meet him as soon as he gets 
ashore." He looked me in the eye a few seconds and 
said " I am sorry to have to say to you sir, you will 
never see him again. The steamer has arrived, and 
is at her dock ; our mail by her has been received an 
hour ago. INIr. Kinzo died in Tokio five days before 
she left that port." To say that this was a shock to 
me can hardly express my feelings, because I had 
formed a warm attachment for him. I have no doubt 
that had his life been spared his next promotion would 

196 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

have been as Japanese Minister to our Government. 
His career in life was most interesting and one with 
which I was very much identified. 

In the year 1876 we sold our water works property 
to the City of Portland and in the year of 1892 closed 
the sale of our gas works to the present gas company 
of this city. This also closed up the partnership of 
the old firm of Leonard & Green which was first 
formed in 1850 and we both retired from active busi- 
ness, and turned our attention to our private affairs. 

George Stephen, third son of Stephen B. and Esther 
Henrietta Leonard, lived in Owego and trained for 
literary pursuits. He was an exceptionally bright 
and intelligent gentleman, gifted with rare literary 
ability. One who appreciated him writes thus : 

" He possessed a well-trained memory and kept well 
informed on the leading events of the day. He had 
many friends who enjoyed spending a social hour with 
him listening to his apt quotations in prose and 
poetry. For many years he was High Priest of New 
Jerusalem Chapter of Owego, and when he retired the 
chapter presented him with an elegant jewel. — From 
Owego Times. 

He was for a time vestryman of St. Paul's Episco- 
pal church. In private conversation the treasure of 
his choice store of thoughts was manifest in language 
so simple and words well chosen and softly modulated 
voice, that held, especially in recitation, his listeners 
strict attention. Very familiar with the Bible, he 
could quote readily from its pages. His ear was 
wonderful for languages or music and he became pro- 
ficient in French with ]\Ions. Sancit, who taught in 
his father's family. His voice was a sweet tenor. His 

197 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

marriage was a benediction to his life for he was most 
happy with his congenial, refined wife. 

He passed away at the same time that the poet, 
T. B. Aldrich died, which one city paper commented 
on, as they were friends. Gentle, refined and honest, 
could more be asked for a simple quiet life, with hope 
and trust in his Savior." 

William Andrew Leonard, son of William B. and 
Louisa D., born in Southport, Conn., July 15, 1848. 
Educated at the Polytechnic School, Brooklyn ; James 
Bett's School, Stamford, Conn. ; Phillip's Academy, 
Andover, Mass. ; St. Stephen's College, Annadale, N. 
Y. Graduated at Berkeley Divinity School, Middle- 
town, Conn., May 1871. Ordained deacon by the 
Right Rev. John Williams, Bishop of Connecticut, in 
Middleton, Conn., May 30, 1871. Ordained priest 
by same bishop in St. John's Church, Stamford, Conn., 
July 21, 1872. Consecrated fourth bishop of Ohio in 
St. Thomas' Church, N. Y., October 12, 1889. Mar- 
ried April 17, 1873 to Sarah Louisa, daughter of 
Thomas and Phoebe Saxton Sullivan of Brooklyn, N. 
Y. He was chaplain of the Twenty-third Regiment, 
N. G. S. N. Y. ; curate of Holy Trinity Church, Brook- 
lyn, 1871-1872 ; rector of Church of the Redeemer, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 1872-1880; rector of St. John's Parish, 
Washington, D. C, 1880-1889; chaplain of the Ohio 
Society in New York ; chaplain of Sons of Colonial 
Wars, Ohio. The Cathedral Church is Trinity of 
Cleveland, Ohio. Residence, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Lewis Harmon Leonard, son of William B. and 
Louisa D., born at Southport, Conn., August 13, 1850. 
married in Brooklyn. N. Y., January 10, 1871 to 

198 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Elizabeth De Witt Robinson, daughter of Jeremiah 
Potter Robinson. Issue, 

Esther Henrietta, married John G. Underbill of 
Montclair, X. J. 

Josephine Bulkley, married Charles S. Towle of Ma- 
maroneck, N. Y. 

William Boardman Jr., married Alice H. Howell of 
New York. 

Mabel, married Henry T. Dumbell of Xew York. 

Lewis H., was educated in the schools of Brook- 
lyn, and at Eagleswood Military Academy, Perth Am- 
boy, N. J. Entered his father's banking house ; and 
later established a business of his own, the ^^'all Street 
Stores, in warehousing and docks, in Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Successful in this, he was admitted to interests m the 
warehouse and salt business of J. P. Robinson & Co. 
of New York and continued in that firm until its dis- 
solution, in 189T. He made his permanent home at 
Owego, Tioga County, N. Y., and has developed an 
important and attractive stock farm. He is engaged 
especially, in raising the Brown Swiss cattle. 

Louisa Bulkley Leonard, daughter of William B. 
and Louisa D. Leonard, born in Brooklyn, X. Y., 
March 'i. 1853, married John A'an X'ostrand of Brook- 
lyn, in 18TG. Issue, John James \^an X^ostrand, who 
died in Brooklyn, February 5, 1906. Her present home 
is 192 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, X. Y. 

William Boardman Leonard second, son of Lewis 

199 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

H. and Elizabeth D., born in Brooklyn, N. Y., August 
14, 1873. Partly educated in the Yale Sheffield Scien- 
tific School and the Stevens School of Technology. By 
profession a civil engineer, engaged in subway work 
in New York, and in the New York & New Haven 
Railroad Company. Married Alice Holden Howell of 
New York, November 16, 1898. Issue Elizabeth De- 
Witt, born January 12, 1904. 

William Boardman Leonard third, born in New 
Rochelle, N. Y., January 13, 1908. 



200 



LETTERS OF 
STEPHEN B. LEONARD 

AND 

OTHERS. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



LETTERS OF 
STEPHEN B. LEONARD 

AND 

OTHERS. 



*S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, December 5, 1835. 
My dear Henrietta, 

You will forgive me for so long a delay. Distance, 
new objects and associations, and change of society, 
affect others I believe, very differently from what 
they do me. Altho' I always make up my mind to as 
far as possible conform to circumstances, and when 
" among Romans to do as Romans do " yet I must 
confess I cannot enjoy myself when absent from wife, 
children and friends as many appear to do with whom 
I am now associated. \\'hen I go back to my own 
dear home, and in imagination listen to the prattle of 
those darling little ones, and participate in the kind and 
affectionate embrace of her and them, who are all 
dearer to me than life, I say when I do this, and then 
contemplate the distance in time and space that sepa- 

*The initials S. B. L. and E. H. L. refer to Stephen B. 
Leonard and his wife, Esther Henrietta. W. B. L. to their 
son, William Boardman. 

203 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

rates me from the reality I cannot in spite of myself, 
but sink into a kind of gloom, from which it requires 
considerable of an effort to extricate myself. But, 
my dear wife, do not from what I am saying, imagine 
me depressed in spirits or unhappy. I should ex- 
tremely regret to contribute to your anxiety by con- 
veying an idea of this kind. 

We had a tolerably good journey to this place, 
stopping over the Sabbath at Newburgh, and spending 
some four or five days in the City of New York. Tell 
Uncle Gregory that I saw his friends in Newburgh 
and that they made particular inquiries respecting 
himself and Aunt Celinda. In New York I had the 
pleasure of spending some time with Cousin Laura 
Ann and Mr. Ely. They were both in good health. 
Cousin Laura is pleasantly situated at Dr. Rois, by 
whom and his lady I was treated with much polite- 
ness and attention. Laura had made considerable 
calculations upon going on to Washington with us, and 
appeared somewhat disappointed. It would have been 
very gratifying to me could she have done so. William 
stood the journey very well. The journey from New 
York to Washington is quite agreeable. The whole 
route is performed by steam, by water, and a part 
on railroad. The cars that run from Baltimore to 
this city, will accommodate an immense number of 
passengers, and it is astonishing to witness the ex- 
tent of patronage which the company receives. The 
cars are so constructed that from forty to fifty are 
seated in the same apartment. You would suppose, 
in looking around, that you were in the midst of 
some public convention. Several cars of this descrip- 
tion go in the same train, and are hurried along 
at the rate of some fifteen or eighteen miles the 

204 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

hour. The spectacle is truly novel and interesting, 
and I could but anticipate the time when a similar ex- 
hibition will be presented along our sequestered val- 
leys. The period is not far distant. The completion 
of the New York and Erie Railroad will be one of the 
proudest eras in the history of our state and country. 

It seems a great while since I have seen you. Why 
have you not written? I have not heard a syllable 
from Owego since we left. Do make your arrange- 
ments so as to drop me a few^ lines several times a 
week. Hermon and George promised to let me hear 
from them. Tell them it would afford me very great 
pleasure to receive a letter from them as often as 
they can find leisure to write. The evening will be 
a good season for them to confer this favor upon their 
father. Have you sleighing? There is not, and has 
not been this season, a particle of snow here. 

It is now Sunday afternoon. I have just returned 
from church. Dr. Comstock preached. William has 
also just returned. He went to another church in 
order to see General Jackson. He is highly pleased 
with his appearance. By the bye, I forgot to tell you 
that I had made my bow to all the great men of the 
city, commencing w4th the General of course. The 
President, exalted as my opinion always has been of 
him, exceeded my expectations altogether. He is in 
fine health, is a gentleman of great dignity of person 
and manners, and evidences strong intellectual powers. 
He is very sociable, unaffected and interesting in con- 
versation, and is purely republican in all he says and 
does. Congress convenes to-morrow. Probably noth- 
ing more will be done than to organize the two 
Houses. The ^lessage will not be delivered until 
Tuesday at twelve o'clock. The French question gives 

205 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

rise to great speculations among the knowing ones. 
Some think that war is inevitable. The Message is 
looked for with the deepest interest. It is impossible 
to tell what will be the result of our difficulties with 
that country. I am confident it is the wish of our 
government to avoid zvar, if it can be done consistently 
with our rights and national character. We shall 
be able to form an opinion as to the determination 
of this government when we get the Message. That 
document will probably go to the city of New York 
from here, in less time than it has ever vet been 
carried. Relays of horses are now on the road, and 
every arrangement made to give it a speedy passage. 

A very sudden death occurred this morning in 
this city. One of the senators from Connecticut, a 
Mr. Smith, went to bed in his usual health at eleven 
last night, and at one, was in the world of spirits. 
His lady had come on with him. How suddenly have 
her joys been turned into sorrow. Yesterday she was at 
the Capitol with her husband, apparently full of enjoy- 
ment ; to-morrow, she deposits his earthly remains in 
the narrozv Jiousel How unstable are all things here 
below, and how emphatically true it is that in the 
midst of life we are in death. 

I feel great anxiety to hear from Owego. How is 
Mrs. Ely? The last letters received when I was in 
New York, represented her as being worse. Write 
me particularly respecting every thing that you think 
will be interesting. Is there anything connected with 
my business that wants explanation? If so, what? 

I have not determined whether William will remain 
with me through the winter or not. If nothing should 
present for him to do, probably I shall have him re- 
turn. A few days will determine. I do not regret his 

206 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

coming on with me, even though I do not get him into 
business, as what he has seen will be of great service 
to him. Should he return it will be best for Hermon 
to go to Trumansburgh this winter, and William to 
the Academy in Owego. Tell Hermon and George 
that I am calculating on their making great improve- 
ments. And now, my dear Henrietta, let me again 
say to you, that you must write me immediately and 
write me often. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. L. 

P. S. Tell Mr. Shurtleff that I have not received 
his paper since I left. I want him to forward it. 

P. S. Tell Brother Anson and Cousin Henry to 
write me. Give my best respects to them, as also to 
Mrs. Camp, Julia, Abby, George, Francis, Charlotte, 
etc., etc., and to Mr. and Mrs. Clisbe, 

Yours, 

S. B. L. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Dec. 10, 1835. 
Dear Wife : 

I am greatly disappointed this morning in not re- 
ceiving a letter from you. I had somehow or other 
got it into my head that last evening's mail would 
bring me some tidings from home — but nothing has 
come. You don't know how anxious I am to hear from 
you. It is now about a month since I left, and I 

207 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

have not had a scratch of a pen from my family. I 
know your time is almost wholly engrossed in the cares 
of the family, but I want you to have your pen and 
paper in your room, and every day if possible, devote 
a moment to telling me how you are. Don't fail. 

Nothing particular has occurred since I wrote you. 
I mentioned, I believe, the sudden death of Mr. Smith, 
the senator from Connecticut. He was buried yester- 
day, under all the rites and ceremonies usual on such 
occasions. The President and Vice-President together 
with all the heads of Departments, and the members 
of both Houses of Congress, were in attendance. The 
procession from the Capitol to the grave was very 
imposing, extending all of a mile in length. Some two 
hundred hacks were in requisition. I cannot say, 
however, that the proceedings taken all together, 
struck me favorably. The whole is a mere matter of 
form, and not calculated to inspire one with the proper 
sensations. I suppose the expense attending such a 
funeral will not fall short of $2000. This is borne by 
the government. The hacks are all entitled to $4.00 
each, and there are a great many persons who offi- 
ciated in the ceremony. 

* I have got William into business. He is one of the 
messengers. His employment is rather a pleasant one, 
and I think his situation will be an advantage to him. 
He boards with me at a very good house. Our mess 
at present consists of about twelve persons ; two 
senators and two representatives from Maine, three 
from Connecticut and the residue from our own state. 

Give my respects to all inquiring friends, and love 

* He means to say that he secured a position as Page in the 
Senate for his eldest son, William Boardman Leonard. In his 
time the Page was denominated a Messenger. 

208 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

to the family. Kiss the little ones for me. I think 
of them much, and hearing from you and them often 
will afford me the greatest happiness. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LEONARD. 
Mrs. H. Leonard. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Dec. 16, 1835. 
Dear Wife : 

Your kind favor of the 9th inst. has this moment 
been handed me. and I wish to tell you how much 
joy its perusal gave me. Never did I break a seal 
with more interest, for I had not heard a syllable from 
you since we left home. I am rejoiced to hear that 
you are all in health. I have written you twice since 
my arrival here, which letters it seems you had not 
received, at the date of yours. Ere this, they have 
probably come to hand. In them you will see I have 
put my commands upon you (gently, of course) to 
let me hear from you often. I hope you will gratify 
me in this particular. 

My own health, as also that of William, is very 
good. You say you have had sleighing almost ever 
since we left. Here there is not a flake of snow. The 
weather, however, at this moment, is very cold. Wind 
as cutting as any that we have at the North. I hope 
you will manage to keep yourself and the little ones 
around you, comfortable through this inclement sea- 
son. Be assured I think of you and them very often. 

209 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

I am glad to hear that Mrs. Ely is better. Laura 
Ann promised to write me, but has not, and I have 
felt very anxious about Julia. 

I am glad to hear that Brother Anson calls upon 
you frequently, he is very kind. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LEONARD. 
Mrs. H. Leonard. 

P. S. Masters Hermon and George I think it was 
the understanding that you were occasionally to favor 
me with a letter. It would gratify me much if you 
would do so. 

Your father, 

S. B. L. 



The following letter of William B. Leonard to his 
mother, gives his impressions of President Andrew 
Jackson, Henry Clay, and of the Washington City ot 
that day. 

W. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Dec. 19, 1835. 
My dear Mother: 

Your kind and affectionate favor of the 9th inst. 
arrived here a few days ago since, and I must confess 
I never received a letter from any one that gave me 
such a heartfelt gratification. Coming from the affec- 
tionate source that it did, and breathing such a kind 
and loving expression of sentiment, while reading it 
my feelings were truly indescribable. We have had a 
long and tedious journey to overcome, and that we 

210 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

have arrived safe at its termination, as you say, ought 
to make us thankful to Him under whose kind care 
and watchfulness we have been preserved. Mother, 
in my previous letter I described to you our journey 
down ; I will now relate to you some of the things 
that are to be seen in Washington. The city itself 
is not interestinc: in the least ; it covers a considerable 
extent of ground, but it is very much scattered. The 
Potomac runs probably a half-a-mile from the city. The 
public matters are all that give life and animation to 
the place. If it were not for these, it would not do 
as much business as Owego. The land roundabout 
is miserable, and therefore agriculture is very low. 
There are a number of very fine buildings here, but 
they all belong to the government. The Capitol, in 
which Congress assembles, is said to be one of the 
best buildings in the world. It is situated on an 
elevated spot at one end of the city, and the Presi- 
dent's or, Big White House, as it is called, at the 
other. In one wing of the Capitol is the Senate Cham- 
ber, in the other is the House of Representatives. In 
the centre is a spacious rotunda, which is decorated 
on every side with some of the finest specimens of 
painting and sculpture. In this building is transacted 
the great and important affairs of the nation. Here 
are assembled the representatives of every state in the 
Union, who come to provide and make laws for their 
countrv. Since I wrote vou last I have seen the Presi- 
dent, the heads of the Departments, and many other 
distinguished individuals such as Van Buren, Clay, 
Webster, etc. The President looks extremely well. 
If you have ever seen his portrait you know exactly 
how he appears, as it is a fac-simile of him. His hair 
is perfectly white and stands upright. He is tall and 

211 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

his appearance is commanding. He walks with a firm, 
elastic step, and is quite polite and affable. I have 
no doubt, mother, but that you would be pleased with 
him. If you are a thorough going Administration 
man, as you say, I know you would. It was my 
good luck last evening to hear Henry Clay address 
an assembly, and I do say it exceeded anything I ever 
heard. He is a most perfect orator, his language is 
chaste. His figure tall and commanding, and his voice 
full and round. It was at a meeting of the American 
Colonization Society that I heard him, assembled at 
the Capitol. A number of other gentlemen addressed 
the Chair also, upon the same subject, and while I 
would not by any means detract from the merits of 
their efforts, I cannot but say that the broad and ex- 
pansive views of the subject taken by Mr. Clay por- 
trayed in his bold and vivid manner, put them far in 
the back-ground. 

I have succeeded in getting into business, but it 
is very different from what I expected. The compensa- 
tion is only twelve shillings per day, which is con- 
siderable less than I was aware of when at home. 
I have to pay $5.00 a week for my board, which will 
make it not much of an object. Father's board is 
$10.00. Washing costs seventy-five cents a dozen, 
and everything else is in proportion. The weather 
here is very near as cold as at the North, and much 
more unpleasant, changing every day. There has been 
no snow of any consequence. There have been a num- 
ber of deaths within the last week, three members have 
gone to another world. Accept our highest affection 
and regard. 

W. B. LEONARD. 



E. H. Leonard. 



212 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Dec. 31, 1835. 
Dear Henrietta : 

Your affectionate favor of the 15th inst. is now be- 
fore me. 

I rejoice to hear that Airs. Ely is recovering, for 
I have felt considerably anxious respecting her. I 
gave your respects to the Rev. Dr. Comstock, as you 
requested. He appeared much pleased to hear from 
you. You will be sorry to learn that he lost his elec- 
tion as chaplain. It was a close run, his opponent 
succeeding by a majority of one vote only, and that 
after five ballotings. 

After William returns if you think it best for 
Hermon to go out to his uncle's, at Trumansburgh 
and go to school this winter, I should be pleased to 
have it so. Do as you think best. I want them both 
to be kept as close to their studies as possible. Has 
Jacob taken any wood to Uncle Gregory? If he has 
not I wish he would. How is Mr. Joseph Pumpelly? 
I heard he was dangerously sick. 

Give my respects to Brother Anson, Cousin Henry, 
and the rest of the family, and believe me 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LEONARD. 



213 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO HIS SON HERMON. 

Washington, Jan. 9, 1836. 
My dear Son : 

I believe I have received two letters from you since 
I have been in this city, but have not done myself the 
privilege of giving you a single line in return, until 
this moment. You will pardon me. As I am now at 
my table in the House, whilst there is an animated 
and somewhat confused discussion going on, and as 
the hour of adjournment is at hand, I must be very 
brief, reserving until a more favorable opportunity, 
the pleasure of giving you a long letter. 

I am happy to learn that you constantly attend 
school. Do you, my son, improve your time and op- 
portunities as you ought? To the fullest extent of 
your abilities? When as you retire at night, and be- 
fore going to sleep, you take a retrospect of your con- 
duct through the day (and it would be very well, my 
son, to make a practice of doing this every night), do 
you find nothing to chide yourself for? Have you 
discharged all your duties to your mother, and little 
brothers and sisters? Have you devoted all the time 
you ought to your books, and have you made all the 
progress in your studies that you should have made? 
Has your deportment, and zvhole conduct been such as 
you can fully approve? I do not put these interro- 
gations, my dear son, with a view to embarrass you. 
Were I convinced that they could all be truly an- 
swered in the affirmative, I should feel that I was a 
happy father indeed. Let me indulge in the hope, 
however, that you come nearly up to this standard, 
and that you will exert yourself to come quite up to it. 

Your last letter arrived here after William had 

214 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

left. I read it with much satisfaction. You are not 
quite particular enough in your orthography, and you 
do not take pains enough in your hand-writing. You 
had better practice in writing a little more, and you 
must be particularly careful to spell correctly. What 
studies are you now attending to? How do you like 
the teachers, and how are the prospects of the Acad- 
emy? Write me often. Give my love to your mother 
and the children. 

From your affectionate father, 

S. B. LEONARD. 
H. C. Leonard. 



TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Friday Eve., Jan. 9, '36. 
Dear Wife : 

I thank you for affording me the pleasure of read- 
ing three communications from your hand in such 
quick succession. Be assured there is nothing so 
gratifying to me as to get letters from home. Your 
description of the scene presented on Christmas Eve, 
was very interesting to me, and produced very agree- 
able sensations. I can readily imagine how everything 
appeared. The evening far spent, you at the table 
writing, and the stockings of the darling little ones 
suspended on forks around the fire-place, in anticipa- 
tion of a Christmas present. The morning scene too — 
As soon as the day peeped and the little ones had 
awoke from their slumbers, to see them scampering 
for their stockings to ascertain what Santa Claus had 

215 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

done for them. Well these things seem childish to 
talk about, but after all, they oftentimes constitute 
some of the happiest moments of our lives. 

Tell little George that I am most indebted to him 
for his letter, his New Year's address, and his acrostic. 
Tell him, that I indulge the hope that he is a very- 
good boy, and that he is improving rapidly. I am 
glad to hear that Henrietta and little Emily are so 
well. I shall bring them a present when I come home. 
I flatter myself that William is now with you. He 
must have had a tedious journey. It is a long and 
tiresome road to travel, especially at this inclement 
time of the year. I received a letter from him when 
at Baltimore, Harrisburg and Bloomsburgh. It 
was very gratifying thus to hear of his progress. 

I was called upon to-day by Mr. Baldwin, formerly 
of the Academy. He spends a few weeks here. You 
say Mr. Pumpelly is better. I rejoice to hear it. His 
death would have been a great loss to our village. Mr. 
Ely, it appears has visited Owego. How is Julia? 
Did Laura Ann accompany Mr. E.? Brother Anson's 
health you said was not very good. What is the mat- 
ter with him? How is Mrs. Camp's health, and the 
rest of the family? I forgot in my last to inquire 
about uncle and aunt. How are they? Has Jacob 
drawn them any wood? How is mother's health? 
Is Patty Tyler with you yet? If she is, I meant 
to have told William to make her a New Year's 
present. Jared Sperry wrote me to-day. Flora is to 
be married this winter. Did not say to whom. Mat- 
ters look a little squally with respect to our difficulties 
with France. Our minister has returned to this 
country, arrived here to-day. We shall havo a special 
Message from the President very shortly. The desire 

216 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

of our government is to remain at peace, but she may 
be compelled in vindication of her honor and her rights 
to resort to arms. I am in hopes, however, that we 
shall be able to avoid a war. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LEONARD. 



TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Jan. 19, 1836. 
Dear Wife : 

William's letter dated the 7th, and George's dated 
the 8th came to hand this morning, having been some 
nine or ten days on the way. This rate of travelling 
does not compare with that of W^illiam on his way 
home. I think it very probable that the recent fall 
of snow, of which Hermon speaks in a postscript to 
George's letter, has been the reason of so tardy a 
movement. Yesterday morning (Sunday), for the 
first time, the earth here was covered with snow, and 
in the course of the day I saw two or three jumpers, 
of the most rude construction, dashing through the 
streets. Before night, however, the sport was over, 
the snow having entirely disappeared. 

To-day we had a Special ^lessage from the Presi- 
dent, on the subject of our French affairs. The docu- 
ments which accompanied it being, in part, the cor- 
respondence between our minister and the French 
government, places the posture of our affairs in a 
worse light than I supposed, and from present appear- 
ances it would not be surprising if a war should be 

217 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the issue. The Message is all, and nothing more, than 
it should be. It does not recommend war, but it plainly 
indicates that a compliance with the terms required 
by France (as an inducement for her to conform to 
the terms of the treaty, and to pay the money which 
she owes us) can never be condescended to by this 
government. And in this he is perfectly right, and 
to this, will the great body of American people re- 
spond. The conduct of France is outrageous, it is 
dishonorable and insulting, in the highest degree. I 
have never yet believed we should have a war, and 
am still in hopes it may be avoided, but if France 
persists in the course she appears to have marked out, 
I do not see how hostilities are to be avoided. Con- 
gress will no doubt make an appropriation to put 
our country in an immediate state of defense, and all 
importations of French goods will, probably, be im- 
mediately prohibited. 

Yours affectionately, 



S. B. L,. 



Mrs. E. H. Leonard. 



TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Jan. 24th, '36. 
My dear Wife: 

We have now very good sleighing here, and the 
weather is cold. It will probably continue but a 
short time, however, as it is no uncommon thing to 
have two or three changes in the course of twenty- 
four hours. I learn by your last letter that you have 
recently had an unusual fall of snow. On the whole 

21S 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

I should think you have a very hard winter. Hay, 
I think will be a scarce article, and grain, you say, is 
alreadv hio^h. 

You can say to William that things remain the 
same as when he was here. I occupy the same room, 
and our mess is the same. ^Ir. Doubleday has been 
confined to his room for several days. I am fearful 
he will have a regular course of fever. 

Yours truly, 

'S. B. LEONARD. 

Mrs. H. L. 



TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Tuesday evening, Feb. 5, 1836. 
Mr. dear Wife : 

I am going this evening to take supper with Gov- 
ernor Cass,'"^ and expect the carriage at the door any 
minute. I have only time, therefore, to acknowledge 
the receipt of your kind favor of 29th ultimo, cover- 
ing a line also from little George, which came to hand 
this morning. I feel grateful for the expressions of 
tenderness and affection which it bears to me, and trust 
that I duly appreciate the sincerity with which it is 
uttered, and the worth of her who utters it. 

Accept my thanks and believe me. 

Yours truly, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

Mrs. H. Leonard. 

Love to the familv. 

* General Lewis Cass. 

219 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

Washington, Feb. 5, 1836. 
My dear son : 

It appears you have one of the most tremendous 
winters that has been known for many years. Should 
the immense body of snow that is on the ground, 
go off rapidly either hy rain or a hot sun, it is greatly 
to be apprehended that the consequences along the 
valley would be terribly alarming and disastrous. 

There has nothing new transpired here. The same 
round of discussion at the House. Abolition as usual, 
coming in every day for a share of the people's time, 
and the people's money. It has become to myself, and 
I believe to a great majority of the members a very 
stale and a very disgusting subject. 

You ask me if I occupy the same room that I did 
when you were with me ; I do, and the mess remains 
the same. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

To W. B. L. 



TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Feb. 13, 1836. 
My dear Wife: 

I have permitted some five or six days to pass with- 
out writing you, for which omission I very much chide 
myself, as it has not been in accordance with a reso- 
lution I had formed. You will pardon me for the 

220 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

omission, as I know you will not ascribe my negli- 
gence to thoughtlessness, or a want of regard. No — 
I am satisfied you will not do this. When I shall 
merit such a rebuke, I shall cease to respect myself, 
and be wholly unworthy her whom I now address. 

I am happy to learn that you and the family are in 
good health. The winter it seems, holds out with un- 
relenting severity. It cannot but cause great distress 
among the poor and destitute, and their sufferings 
I think must make strong appeals to the mercy and 
charity of those who are beyond want. 

Old Air. Billings you say, has left us. Well, his 
has been rather a rough yoyage, and I hope his barque 
is finally moored in a better hayen than it ever yet 
has found. 

William writes a yery good letter, and I am grat- 
ified in the belief that he is resolyed to make a proper 
disposition of his time and opportunities. Hermon 
and George, I trust, are no less sensible (particularly 
Hermon) of the importance of turning their present 
advantages to the best account. Perhaps a more 
propitious time may never present for laying founda- 
tions for future respectability and usefulness in the 
world. 

I have had two letters from Brother Hermon 
since I have been here, and yesterday I received one 
from Albert H. Stone of Trumansburgh. They are 
all well. 

Believe me, yours truly, 

S. B. 'LEONARD. 



221 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Feb. 18, 1836. 
My dear Wife : 

I just take pen to say to you that I dropped a 
line to William yesterday, and with it forwarded a 
few numbers of the Penny Magazine. I am not much 
acquainted with the character of the work, but am in- 
clined to believe it valuable for juvenile readers. 

You have no doubt been gratified to learn that the 
difficulties between this country and France, have 
been amicably adjusted. Such is the fact, and of 
course the war apprehensions may be now dissipated. 

The boys may say to Mrs. Avery that Charles called 
upon me this evening. He is very well. His father 
is expected here in a few days. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. L. 

Mrs. H. L. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Feb. 22, 1836. 
Dear Wife : 

Your favor of the 17th inst. arrived this morning. 
I should think you were a little depressed in spirits 
and gloomy when you wrote. Were you not? Well, 
if you were I should not be surprised. Such a winter 
as you have is enough to discourage any one. I was 
astonished to know that the snow had been on a level 
with our yard fence. It is a burying up, indeed. 



ooo 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Should it go off with a rain, great damage to the low- 
lands along the creeks and river is to be apprehended. 
It is probable, however, it will dissolve gradually. 

AVe have had three days rest. The House ad- 
journed on Friday until Tuesday. To-day, Monday, 
the weather has been delightful, and would seem to 
have given life and animation to the whole popula- 
tion of the city. There has been more display of 
fashion and beauty, in the streets this afternoon, than 
all the rest I have seen since the commencement of the 
session. What has given additional interest to the 
scene, probably, is the fact of its being Washington's 
Birthday. 

I thank the darling little children for the love re- 
membered to me. I think of them very often. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. L. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Feb. 27, 1836. 
Dear Wife : 

We have to-day quite a heavy snow-storm, and 
I should think the quantity now on the ground, upon 
the level, exceeds twelve inches. Such a depth here, 
especially at this season, is quite a novelty. As I 
have heretofore remarked to you, however, the Wash- 
ington climate is very changeable, and it would not 
be at all surprising if to-morrow should bring with 
it a warm and genial sun. Such was the state of the 
weather no longer ago than yesterday. It was quite 

223 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

warm, and there was every indication of a rapid ad- 
vance of vegetation — to-day, the earth is clad in snow, 
and everything wearing the appearance of a northern 
winter. With all these changes, however, health gen- 
erally prevails, and for myself I think the climate pre- 
ferable to our own. 

There has nothing of interest transpired here lately. 
Everything goes on as usual. It is impossible to make 
any calculations as to the length of the session, 
though it is not likely it will close before about the 
middle of June or first of July. I should think not 
before the last named period. It is a large and diffi- 
cult body to transact business in, and everything goes 
very slow. 

Yours truly, 

S. B. L. 
Mrs. E. H. Leonard. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Feb. 29, 1836. 
Dear Wife : 

This is Sunday evening, and I have been in my 
room all day. Should have attended church had I 
felt like going out. Some of our family, I presume, 
have been listening to Mr. W^hite. Well he is in 
truth a very valuable man, and I hope he may long 
be continued with us. We hear much of the ability 
of this preacher, and the eloquence of that, but 
I confess there are few that I have been so fortunate 

224 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

as to fall in with that compare with our own good 
pastor. 

Remember me to the family, and accept the re- 
newed assurance of my affectionate regard. 

Yours truly, 

S. B. L. 
Mrs. H. Leonard. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

On March 10th, 1836. he writes to his wife : 

The House adjourned over yesterday in order to 
afford such of the members as had a desire to do so, 
an opportunity of witnessing the launch of a fine ves- 
sel of war, built at the navy yard, near this city. 
The day was clear, and the scene novel and grand, 
beyond description. The spectators must have 
amounted to some thousands. 

What a winter you have ! Rapid as the flight of 
time is — and wrong as it would seem to be, to desire 
its more speedy exit, yet I think you cannot but 
anticipate with anxiety, the period when your streams 
may once more be unloosened from their icy fetters — 
when you may see the face of the earth again, and 
when*the rays of a genial sun may again warm and 
animate you. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

Mrs. H. Leonard. 



225 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, March 26, 1836. 
Dear Wife : 

You will conclude, I think, that we have become 
very industrious, when I tell you that I am now writ- 
ing by candle-light, at the House, which has been in 
session since eleven o'clock this morning. This is the 
first time the hall has been lit up this season, and 
I wish you w^ere here to witness its splendid appear- 
ance. There must be some 150 or 200 tapers emitting 
their bright effulgence, giving to the interior of this 
magnificent edifice, an appearance which it is beyond 
my power to describe. The business before the 
House, and which excites so much interest, is the con- 
tested election of the State of North Carolina. We 
are desirous of settling the question to-night, if 
possible. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. L. 

E. H. Leonard. 



S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

Washington, March 30, 1836. 
My dear Son : « 

Your kind favor of the 23rd, inst. arrived by yes- 
terday's mail. The gratification which the marginal 
note on the newspaper afforded me was of short 
duration, as I now learn that your little brother Irving 
has had another attack, and is again prostrate. Dear 

226 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

little fellow, I fear that disease has really marked him 
for its own, and that all our hopes and expectations 
have got to be blasted. I am sure you will do every- 
thing in your power to relieve your dear mother. 
The fore part of the winter I heard much of her good 
health, but I am fearful her labors and anxieties will 
be too much for her. 

I was much pleased with your description of the 
hour of midnight in your last letter, and could but 
realize most sensibly the scene which you so happily 
portray, as presenting at, and about the same time 
of your writing. The doors having closed after the 
respective members of the family, as they had retired 
to their chambers, your mother just fallen into a 
quiet slumber — the stillness of night undisturbed save 
by the faint ticking of the clock, denoting the flight 
of time, and you, by the side of your little sick brother, 
engaged in dropping a line to your father. It was an 
interesting moment, and my mind has dwelt upon it 
much, as I have perused and re-perused your letter. 

There is nothing very interesting doing here at 
present. On Saturday night, or rather Sunday morn- 
ing, we had a confused as well as disgraceful scene 
at the House. The subject was the North Carolina 
contested election. In the course of the discussion 
Wise and Peyton, who you know sit at my left, were, 
as usual, very vindictive, and Bynam of North Caro- 
lina, taking a bold stand against them, a very heated 
debate sprung up suddenly between Wise and Bynam, 
in which very improper and insulting language was 
exchanged. The Speaker called to order immediately, 
but for a moment things looked very bad. Had they 
not been prevented, a second more would have brought 
them to blows. You know they have both fought two 

227 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

or three duels already. I supposed this difficulty 
would certainly end in one, but am happy to learn it 
has been all compromised. The scene was a disgrace- 
ful one, and I should not allude to it but for the fact 
that you know the parties. I think I would not say 
much respecting it. 

Your affectionate father, 

S. B. L. 
To Wm. B. L. 



S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

House of Representatives, 
Washington, April 2, 1836. 
My dear Son : 

Your favor of the 27th inst. has just come to hand. 
I am happy to learn that little Irving is considered 
better. 

It seems your winter begins to give back. It must 
be a matter of felicitation, I think, to everybody. 

To-day, the weather here is very much changed. 
It seems quite like summer. The sun shines in merid- 
ian splendour, and the ear is charmed with the melody 
of the feathered songsters, as they carol from their 
little wire-prisons. 

You ask me whether I have rented the farmhouse. 
I have not. I do not exactly like the idea of letting 
Mr. K. have it, but do not know that we can do better. 
I fear he will trouble us with respect to paying the 
rent. If Mr. K. will satisfy you that he will pay the 
rent punctually, I shall not object. He had better pay 
it quarterly. We shall perhaps want some work. The 

228 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

manure had better, principally, be put upon the lot 
above the barn, and that lot sowed with oats and 
seeded. It has been ploughed long enough. I suppose 
the winter closed in before the meadow above the 
house was all ploughed up ; that, of course, will have 
to be finished. On that lot you will put corn, and 
pumpkins. You will have to buy at least three-quar- 
ters of a ton of plaster perhaps a ton. The lot on the 
left side of the road, back side of the swamp, had also 
best be plastered. It will make good pasture the fore 
part of the season, and will not prevent breaking it 
up in the fall if we think best. There is a piece of that 
lot, you know, at the lower end, which has never been 
seeded down, and if you can muster rails enough, I 
don't know but you had best run a fence round it, 
and have it ready to put to buckwheat. If Jacob gets 
back from down the river, in season, let all the logs be 
cut up and piled, or drawn ofT, that is possible. The 
lot next Mr. Tyler, where potatoes were put last year, 
had best be put to potatoes again. There is a strip 
of land between the fence and the ditch, on the front 
side of the swamp, that had best also be plastered. It 
is uncertain whether the lot will be wanted this sea- 
son for the railroad. We shall learn, in time to plough 
it if necessary. I think you had better get your plaster 
up to the barn before the road breaks up. 

I am very fearful you will be troubled to plough 
with the oxen, but hope not. It would be well to get 
out the manure as early as possible. 

Remember me to your mother and the family, and 
believe me, 

Your affectionate father, 

S. B. L. 

W. B. Leonard. 

229 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

Washington, April 12, 1836. 
Dear William : 

It seems your exhibition passed off to your satis- 
faction. I am very glad to hear it. Hope yourself 
and brothers acquitted yourselves creditably. You 
did not inform me whether your Mama was in 
attendance. 

I had the pleasure this morning of receiving a 
letter from Col. McCormick. He informed me that 
the steamboat was to start down the river on the next 
Monday. I hope she may succeed well. 

What luck do you have in making collections? 
Probably not very good. I will send you some money 
to buy plaster. You will want enough to put on at 
least ten acres. Ask your Uncle Anson how much 
you must buy. I presume not less than a ton. The 
whole back lot — the lower orchard — and the meadows 
on the left of the road must be sowed. 

Did you see my letter in the Ithaca Journal, on the 
subject of slavery? The printer made several bad 
errors, which I very much regret. Some words are 
wholly omitted, and others inserted that ought not 
to have been. Such as dissolved for disrobed, granted 
for guaranteed, etc. etc. These errors very much de- 
teriorate from the merits of the letter. 

I mention in my letter to Hermon that he must 
tell your Mama that Flora Sperry was married to a 
Mr. Turrill. They have commenced keeping house in 
the building in which your mother was born. They will 
visit Owego this fall. How is Mrs. Camp's family? 
Remember me to them — also to uncle and aunt. 

Yours truly, S. B. L. 

W. B. Leonard. 

230 



STEPHEN BAXKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Monday Mor. 

April 18, 1836. 
My dear Wife : 

Your kind favor of the 11th inst. has just come to 
hand. Little Irving it seems is pretty well restored, 
and little Emily has now become the subject of anx- 
iety. Your afflictions are certainly very great, and 
I rejoice that you bear up under them so well. Such 
continued watching, labor, and solicitude must be 
very wearing to the constitution. I shall feel very 
anxious with regard to this dear little daughter, and 
hope you will see that some one of the boys drop 
me a line each day until her case be decided. 

I learn by your letter that the river is very high. 
It is certainly a matter of much felicitation that the 
ice has gone out without doing the damage that was 
anticipated. The weather is warm here. The fields 
are quite green, and our tables begin to be furnished 
with vegetables. 

I have heard nothing since your last, relative to 
Brother Anson's health. You remarked at that time 
that his cough continued bad, and that you had con- 
siderable anxiety about him. How is he now? 

As I remarked to you day before yesterday, it is 
uncertain at what time Congres will adjourn. Many 
think the fore part of June. I should not be surprised 
if it should be the latter part. There is a great deal 
to do, and in any decision that may be made as to the 
adjournment, there will no doubt much business re- 
main unfinished. 

I am happy to learn that the boys are attentive to 
you, and do all they can to assist in your labors. 

Yours affectionately, S. B. L. 

231 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

Washington, April 29, 1836. 
Dear William : 

I have the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt 
of your favor of 23rd, inst. brought by last evening's 
mail. Dear little Emily, it seems, is no better. 
Darling child ! I had anticipated great pleasure in 
meeting her Avith the rest of the family on my return 
home, and I hope God will yet grant me that privi- 
lege. Your dear mother has a very trying time of 
it, and I trust you will do everything in your power to 
relieve her. 

The Erie railroad bill has passed. You may ask 
Mr. James Pumpelly whether it will be best to do 
anything with the lot through which it is to pass on 
our farm. I think you might get a crop off before they 
will want it. 

I sent by the mail some little books to the little 
girls and George, and also a few numbers of the 
magazine. I shall forward more numbers to-morrow. 

S. B. L. 

In a letter of ]\Iay 5, 1836, he writes to his son, 
W. B. L. " Another of our members died on Sunday 
of apoplexy. This makes four since the commence- 
ment of the session. The one to whom I refer is 
Governor Planning of South Carolina. He was a 
gentleman of fine talents and great merit. 



232 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

Washington, May 10, '36. 
Dear Son : 

The communication between us is now certainly 
very expeditious, being but from four to four-and-a- 
half days. 

I am glad you are satisfied with your ox trade, 
and that you have a team upon which you can rely. 
The back lot, by ^Ir. Tyler's you say you shall put to 
corn instead of oats; I approve of it. I would suggest, 
however, the policy of putting potatoes upon that part 
of it next the swamp. Some portion of it you know, 
is rather rough, and besides I think the birds will be 
troublesome, it being so immediately in the vicinity 
of the swamp. I hope you have seen to plaster- 
ing the grass land as I suggested. The spot of 
ground at the lower end of lot upon the left-hand 
side of the road, opposite Mr. Tyler's (I mean back- 
side swamp), ought to be ploughed early. I want 
it ploughed up into the side hill above the large roots, 
where we sawed the pine wood. There are also a 
few trees that want girdling. Have it made as mellow 
as possible. It must be ploughed twice or three times 
to effect that object. In order to bring the land to, 
thoroughly, I think it might be as well to put pota- 
toes upon it, or buckwheat, just as yourself and Jacob 
think best. 

Xathan Burrows left here yesterday morning. 
Charles and Stella Avery are now in town. 

Your affectionate father, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

Wm. B. Leonard. 



23 



Q 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, May 20, 1836. 
Dear Wife : 

I had the pleasure of meeting with Cousin Henry 
W. Camp yesterday, and called with him this morning 
upon the President. Mr. Franklin Slosson of New 
York, is also here. Henry will leave for Port De- 
posit this evening. 

There seems to be much doubt as to the real state 
of things on the Mexican border. Reports reached 
here yesterday, that General Houston had obtained 
a decided victory over the tyrant Santa Anna, and that 
the latter was taken prisoner. This information came 
in such a way, and from such a source, as to be fully 
accredited by the President and Secretary of War, 
as also by many gentlemen who reside in that region, 
but who are at present, in this city. It is now, how- 
ever, ascertained to be in a great measure, incorrect. 
That there has been a partial engagement, and that 
the Texans were most successful, there is no doubt; 
but that General Santa Anna was taken prisoner, is 
without foundation. Although this is a contest in 
which we, as a nation, have nothing to do, yet as 
friends of freedom and humanity, and as the enemies 
of tyranny and oppression, every generous sympathy 
of our nature cannot but be enlisted in the cause of a 
brave and persecuted people, struggling for their lives 
and for their liberty. 

The Florida campaign among the Indians has been 
suspended until the hot weather shall have passed. 
It has been rather an unfortunate expedition, having 
cost much money, and nothing been accomplished. 
General Scott was the commander, a man of much 

234 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

military science, but not calculated for Indian war- 
fare. 

We have just received intelligence that a war has 
broken out on the Georgia and Alabama borders, by the 
Creek Indians. They are a very numerous and warlike 
tribe, and it is said they have already murdered a 
great number of the inhabitants, regardless of age, 
sex or condition. A bill passed our House yesterday, 
appropriating half-a-milUon of dollars for the defense 
of these frontiers. What reason have we to be thank- 
ful that we are so remote from those scenes of death 
and desolation. 

I am unable to be definite as to time of adjourn- 
ment. I fear it will not be much before the first of 
July. 

Your affectionate husband. 

S. B. LEONARD. 

H. L. Leonard. 



S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

Washington, May 23, 1836. 
Dear William : 

The renewed and warm expressions of regard 
which your letter bears, imparts consolations which 
none but a doting parent can duly appreciate, and sen- 
sible that however much of veneration and love you 
may cherish, that they are fully reciprocated on my 
part. I indulge the pleasing hope that these mutual at- 
tachments will continue to strengthen and increase as 
we go down the vale of time, and that when the period 
shall arrive which compels to a separation you will be 
cheered with the consolation of having discharged all 

235 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the duties of a faithful and obedient ^ow and / of a 
kind and affectionate father. 

In a letter which I wrote your mother yesterday, 
I informed her that Cousin Henry Camp had been 
here. He left yesterday, was here but one day. I 
also mentioned to your mother that the news of the 
victory of General Houston over the Mexican Gen- 
eral Santa Anna, had been contradicted and was sup- 
posed to be untrue. To-day the report is confirmed, 
and there is very little doubt that there has been a 
great victory achieved by the brave Texans, and that 
Santa Anna is a prisoner. 

Your affectionate father, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

W. B. Leonard. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, May 25, 1836. 
Dear Wife : 

I had the pleasure of receiving your favor of the 
19th inst. by this morning's mail. Be assured, that 
with you, I begin to count the days when, life and 
health permitting, I shall have the privilege of em- 
bracing those who are so near and dear to me. You 
say you have fixed upon the time of my return at 
about one month from the date of your letter. I wish 
I could indulge the hope of meeting your calculations, 
but am constrained to say there is no prospect of our 
adjourning before the 2oth of June. 

Your affectionate husband, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

Mrs. H. Leonard. 

236 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

Washington, June 4, 1836. 
Dear William : 

I send you by this day's mail an address delivered 
by Governor Lewis Cass, a few weeks ago, before the 
American Historical Society, in this city. I had the 
gratification to hear it. It was delivered in the Capitol 
before a very numerous audience. You will find it 
well worth perusing. 

Your affectionate father, 

S. B. LEONARD. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, June 13, 1836. 
My dear W'Uq : 

I am pained to hear of the loss which Mrs. Camp, 
Cousin Henry and Mr. Clizbe have sustained in the 
destruction of their valuable furnace. It was a noble 
establishment, and its accommodations and benefit 
to the surrounding country began to be universally 
felt and acknowledged. It is a discouraging blow to 
our ardent, enterprising, and public-spirited nephew, 
but his good sense, and laudable ambition, will enable 
him to rise above it, and I have no doubt that in- 
stead of sinking under his misfortune, we shall see 
him calling still more of his energies into action, and 
that in due time, a new and more valuable establish- 
ment will be reared upon the ruins of the old. 

I am pleased to learn that the farm looks so prom- 



23 



r» 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

ising. Hope that William and Jacob will see that the 
hoeing of the corn is not neglected. It is all important 
that it should be attended to in season. It would be 
well for them to plaster it after it is weeded out. 

I trust they will not insist upon the railroad (the 
Eriej passing where they have struck their stakes. 
I shall write ^Ir. Pumpelly upon the subject, as also 
Mr. Ruggles. I am sure it is equally well, if not 
better, to have the road pass on the back of the swamp. 
I hope nothing final will be fixed upon until my re- 
turn. Ask William if he knows young Mr. Smith, the 
engineer. His father has spent the winter with me, 
and he wrote his son a few days since on this sub- 
ject. Judge Wright, the chief engineer, Mr. Ellett, 
who first explored the route, and Mr. Ruggles and Mr. 
King all said that undoubtedly the line would pass 
the back of our swamp on our farm. AA^illiam had 
better see Mr. Smith if he comes into the village, and 
if ]\Ir. Ruggles should happen there, I wish by all 
means, for him to be seen, and informed that I feel 
a deep interest in the matter, and that I shall take 
it as a great favor if he would give his attention to 
the subject. 

It is uncertain whether Congress adjourn on the 
27th inst. or the week after. The session will not 
continue after the 4th, and I think it probable it will 
end on the 27th. 

The Rev. Mr. White is now here, I attended church 
with him to-day. He leaves for home at two in the 
morning; will probably reach about a week from to- 
day, or from Tuesday. 

Your affectionate husband, 

S. B. L. 

Mrs. H. Leonard. 

238 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

Washington, June 14, 1836. 
Dear Son : 

I received yours of the 9th to-day, am sorry to 
learn that they are running the railroad line through 
our farm so contrary to our wishes. I do not think 
they will persist in it. There can be no doubt that 
the public interest will be better served, by running 
on the back of the swamp, and such was the opinion 
of Major Wright, ^Ir. Ellett, ^Ir. Ruggles and Mr. 
King. Mr. Ellett was in this city yesterday, and 
repeated what he had often said before. I have written 
Mr. Ruggles upon the subject. ^Ir. James Pumpelly, 
I understand, is absent. It is his wish, as well as 
ours, to have the line run along the back of the swamp. 
I am in hopes there will nothing be done before my 
return. I mentioned in a letter to your mother yes- 
terday, that Mr. Smith, the engineer, had been written 
to by his father upon the subject. If you become 
acquainted with Mr. S. you wull, of course, talk with 
him in relation to it. 

Give my love to your mother and the children. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. L. 



239 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, June 17, 1836. 
My dear Wife : 

I only take pen to say to you that Congress will 
adjourn on the Fourth of July, as resolutions to that 
effect have passed both Houses. I suppose time will 
drag very heavy from this time forward to that period, 
I am sure it will with me, especially if the weather 
continues as warm as it is to-day, and I expect we 
have nothing else to expect. 

A diiel was fought yesterday morning a few miles 
out of the city, between two. of our members. General 
Bynam, of North Carolina, and Mr. Jenifer of Mary- 
land. William, I think, will recollect them, especially 
General Bynam. He is the same who had difficulty 
with Mr. Wise a few weeks since. Notwithstanding, 
however, that the}^ are both considered good shots, and 
that six fires were exchanged, neither party had his 
skin broke, or his buffoji cut, and consequently the doc- 
tor, cabinet-maker, and tailor were cheated out of a 
job. This duelling system is disgraceful and degrad- 
ing, and ought to be frowned upon by every one who 
regards either the laws of God, or of his country. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

Mrs. H. Leonard. 



240 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

House of Representatives, 
June 24th, 1836. 
My dear Wife : 

Between daylight and dark, and before the candles 
are lighted up, I take pen to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of 18th inst. You gave me a long and 
good letter, and I have read it several times to-day 
with much pleasure. You must pardon me for the 
brief one I give in reply. 

Be assured I shall not neglect to attend to your 
memorandum on my return through New York. I 
shall consult Cousin Julia as you suggest. The Fourth 
of July is near at hand, and I never anticipated its 
approach with more pleasure. 

You heard of the late duel between Mr. Jenifer 
and General Bynam. Its result was not fatal. Not 
so, however, with one that took place last evening. 
Two midshipmen, between the age of nineteen and 
twenty, one of them the nephew of Chief Justice 
Taney, and the other the son of a respectable gentle- 
man of this city, went out to murder each other in the 
same '' honorable " wav, and at the second fire the 
first named fell, and expired in a few moments. His 
mother was attending a party at Governor Cass' when 
the melancholy intelligence was communicated to her. 
How heartrending it must have been to her. As re- 
marked in my last letter, this duelling practice is out- 
rageously wicked, and ought to be frowned upon by 
every one who reverences the laws of his God and of 
his country. Yours truly, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

Mrs. H. Leonard. 

241 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

Washington, June 30, 1836. 
Dear Son : 

It is now ten at night and the House is still in ses- 
sion. The bill making appropriations for carrying into 
efifect certain Indian Treaties, is now undergoing a very 
animated discussion. Mr. John Quincy Adams has 
just taken his seat, and Baldzvin of Virginia, whom 
you will recollect, is now on the floor. I think it more 
than probable that we shall be up all night. These 
things are not quite so pleasant, but they cannot be 
avoided. The session closes on Monday, and however 
industrious we may be, and however many hours we 
may labor, there will no doubt, much important busi- 
ness remain unacted upon. 

I am happy to learn that the family are in tolerable 
health. I must confess I have at times given up ever 
again seeing my dear little children, but in their 
restoration God has given me additional evidence of 
His goodness, and laid me under still greater obliga- 
tions for the many and continued favors I have ever 
been receiving at His hands. 

I am glad to learn that business is brisk at Owego, 
and that the engineers are engaged in their work on 
the great Erie Railroad. No doubt there will be con- 
siderable excitement on the subject of its location 
through the village. 

I feel anxious to set my face to the North, and 
shall do so shortly. In a few days I hope to be with 
you. Good-night. 

Your afifectionate father, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

242 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO JUDGE STRONG OF OWEGO. 

Washington, Jan. 17, 1840. 
Dear Friend : 

Your kind and very acceptable favors of the 25th 
ultimo, and 5th inst. arrived in due course of time and 
are now both before me. I thank you for them, and 
trust that it is unnecessary for me to say that I am 
always happy in hearing from you, and that you can- 
not confer a greater favor, now that I am absent from 

" IVifc, children, and friends " 
than by occasionally dropping me a line, as you may 
have leisure and inclination. 

I have nothing interesting to communicate. You 
are advised of all that is passing here, through the 
medium of the press, in advance of any communica- 
tion I could make, as the public journals containing 
each day's proceedings of Congress, are mailed and 
sent off each night after adjournment. In truth, how- 
ever, there is very little doing, of a business nature, 
and I am fearful there will not be much accomplished 
this session. 

The Jersey question, you perceive, has at length 
gone to the Committee on Elections, where it ought 
to have gone three weeks ago. I think we shall have 
a report on the subject in a very short time, as the 
evidence must be nearly all on hand. The committee 
are, however, authorized to send for persons and 
papers. 

I had learned a few days before the receipt of 
your letter, that the Abolitionists were moving in 
our county. Some one, I don't know who, forwarded 
me a printed circular, calling a convention at the 
Baptist Church, on the 10th inst. That day has 

243 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

passed, and I suppose those of our citizens who at- 
tended, were favored with all the light upon this dark 
subject that could be made to flow from a garret down 
to a ! Well, as you say, I am not without ap- 
prehension as to the consequences that may ulti- 
mately grow out of these reckless movements, if per- 
sisted in, — and yet it does seem impossible that the 
intelligent, liberal minded, and discriminating portion 
of the people of the countr^^ can, or will, to any con- 
siderable extent, be led away by the misconceived 
doctrines of those perhaps honest, but at any rate 
overheated and misguided men. I am unwilling to 
come to such a conclusion. 

I shall take an early opportunity to ascertain 
whether the pamphlets you desire can be obtained, 
and if obtained will forward them to you at my earliest 
convenience. 

Did I mention to you that I made some inquiries of 
General McKay of North Carolina, about your sister? 
She yet remains a widow and he says it is understood 
that it is her intention always to do so. He speaks 
in the highest terms of her, and although the allu- 
sion to your lamented brother was painful, as asso- 
ciated with the recollection of his premature death, 
yet I was gratified at the manner in which he spoke 
of him. In adverting to his capacity, his promise, and 
his moral worth, no one could go further. He placed 
him in the front rank of the most talented men of 
the State. But in the language of the poet, 



"Why further seek his merits to disclose? 



>» 



It is only calculated to increase the anguish of those 
who knew him best, and loved him most, and to tear 
open a wound which perhaps had but partially healed. 



244 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

The cup of bliss, from which he was taking most 
copious libations was, in an unfortunate hour, dashed 
to pieces. His morning sun, which rose in splendor, 
and seemed to beckon onward, went down before it 
was noon. The cherished hopes, the bright prospects 
and fond anticipations, of wife, of parent, of brother, 
were blasted in a moment, for the deadly spoiler 
came, — the poisoned arrow went home to its victim, 
— and the spirit took its flight *' to God who gave it." 
— And now, 

" it matters not, 



To whom related, or by whom begot, 

A heap of dust alone remains of thee, 

' Tis all thou art, and all the great shall be." 

Pardon me, my dear friend, for thus alluding to an 
event, which I know has caused your generous heart 
to ache, and which has wrung from you many a 
tear. I am chided by the reflection that I have done 
wrong, but you will forgive. 

I have not been in the Senate Chamber to-day, 
but understand the Independent Treasury Bill has 
been under discussion. It is the same as that passed 
by that body at the last Congress with some very 
immaterial exception, such as relates to the compen- 
sations of the officers, etc. It will no doubt pass 
that branch of the Legislature very soon. What its 
fate will be in the House it is impossible now to say, 
but I think there is very little question as to the pas- 
sage of the law before the session closes. 

We had scarcely got rid of the perplexing Jersey 
case, before we were made to encounter a still more 
embarrassing obstacle to the progress of business. 
We are now in the midst of another Abolition discus- 
sion, and at the moment of writing you, the elements 

245 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

around me are in perfect commotion. Little Stanley 
of North Carolina, certainly one of the most contemp- 
tible and disagreeable *' things " in human shape that 
I ever met with, is now holding forth, and has been 
for more than an hour, ranting and raving like a 
mad bull. I think it quite probable that several days 
will have to pass off before any calm, considerate and 
efficient action on the part of the House can be had 
upon the subject. 

The melancholy intelligence of the burning of the 
steamboat, near New Haven, will have reached you. 
Report says that about 160 passengers were destroyed! 
How appalling the thought! One cannot dwell upon 
it without shuddering. Oh, what a moment of shriek- 
ing and despair to the unfortunate victims ! No eye 
to pity, and no arm to save ! God be merciful, we pray 
Thee, to their dear departed spirits. 

The weather is very cold. Sleighing tolerably good. 
Write me often. My best respects to Mrs. Strong, 
and to all my dear nieces. 

Yours truly, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

S. Strong, Esq. 



S. B. L. TO HIS SON WILLIAM. 

Washington, March 6, 1837. 
Mv dear Son : 

You will be surprised at receiving a letter from 
me, dated in this city, at so late a period. It was 
my intention to have left for home on Saturday im- 

246 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

mediately after the inauguration but a few moments 
before the time of starting the cars, I received some 
letters from Elmira, relating to business of importance 
here, which rendered it necessary for me to stay over 
until tomorrow. It was with great reluctance that I 
made up my mind to do so, as I had written that I 
should leave on that day, and at what time I might be 
expected. 

There are some members in town yet. but I think 
by to-morrow they will have pretty much dispersed. 

The Inauguration ceremony was grand and im- 
posing. I presume there were not less than twenty 
thousand persons present, among whom were many 
foreigners of distinction. The day was fine, anima- 
tion beamed in every eye, and good nature dwelt upon 
every countenance. The militayy, with their splendid 
equipage, — the music, which was of the first order, — 
the arrav of carriages and horsemen. — the midtitudc on 
foot, — the iDiportaucc of the occasion, all, everything, con- 
spired to give novelty and interest to the scene. The 
President-elect, Mr. Van Bnrcn, accompanied by his 
venerable and venerated predecessor, rode in the new 
phaeton, recently presented by the citizens of New 
York to Gen Jackson. You have doubtless seen a 
description of it. It is built wholly of timber taken 
from the old frigate. Constitution, — has not a particle 
of paint upon it, but is polished in the highest manner. 
The timber is live oak, the grain and shades of which 
appear to fine advantage. It is said to have cost 
$1300.00. On this occasion it was drawn by four 
beautiful white horses. 

The Inauguration ceremony took place in the East 
portico of the Capitol. As the President and Ex-presi- 
dent alighted from the carriage and ascended the steps, 

247 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the loud and reiterated huzzas fell on the ear on every 
side. The address of Mr. Van Buren was evidently 
well received. He appeared extremely well, evidenc- 
ing a due sense of the importance of the station to 
which he had been elevated, and of the responsibilities 
which he was about to assume. At the close of the 
address. General Jackson arose, uncovered, and bowed 
to the multitude, whose eager and deep anxiety to get 
another look at their much loved old chieftain, was 
now gratified. No sooner did his manly but time 
worn form present to their view, than an involun- 
tary burst of acclamation rent the air. It was tfie last 
interview, a thousand interesting associations rushed 
upon the mind, and as he receded and was lost in the 
crowd, my feelings for the moment were quite over- 
come. He is very feeble, and I am fearful is not long 
for this world. He starts for the Hermitage to-mor- 
row. Surely he will carry with him into retirement 
the love and the gratitude of the great body of his 
fellow citizens. 

Remember me to your uncle and aunt, as also to 
the rest of the family. 

In haste, your affectionate father, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

W. B. Leonard. 



MRS. E. H. L. TO S. B. L. 

Owego, May 29, 1840. 
My dear Husband : 

It has been some time since I gave myself the 
pleasure of writing you. My eyes have been weak, 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

and indeed I have suffered from debility generally. 
I am entirely free from pains, and it seems quite un- 
accountable to me what produces this weakness. I 
have received two letters from you recently, the one 
which contained your description of your visit to 
Mount Vernon, was very interesting to us. I assure 
you I am glad you have been, it will be a source of 
gratification when in the future, you recur to the time 
you have spent in Washington. You say, you wish 
I could have been there too. It would have been 
very pleasant. I think I should prefer a visit to that 
place before any other. 

You speak of having been out of health with a 
cold. I am sorrv to hear that colds affect vou so 
much of late, it used to be otherwise. I hope you are 
not troubled with a cough. 

Mrs. Johnson, wife of \Villiam Johnson, died this 
morning of the consumption brought on by a severe 
cold taken last winter. She was in the prime of life 
and has left three little children. They have met with 
a great loss, Mr. J. has been much afflicted. 

Our family are still continued in health. Hermon 
stays at the farm altogether. I have had the garden 
made, but not as good as if you were at home ; but 
I think we shall have excellent vegetables. I have 
lately been over to the farm, I think the crops look 
very well except the wheat on the top of the hill. 
The orchard looked beautiful, as it was in full bloom, 
I do not think, however, that our cattle look very well, 
for the keeping they have had ; eight sheep died during 
the course of the winter. 

You say you shall not probably be home before 
July, well that will soon be here. And I can say with 
sincerity, as little Irving did the other evening when 

249 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

I was putting him to bed " I hope the Lord will keep 
father alive so he can come home again." This is 
only one of his sensible remarks. 

Brother Harry has written you the result of the 
Hollenback business, so I need not mention it again. 

I have not had a letter from since the death 

of his wife. He does not ask whether his mother is 
dead or alive. It is strange indeed, I think he com- 
mits a great sin, and I hope he will see it himself be- 
fore long. 

I hope I may be enabled to pursue a proper course, 
and be kept in the path of duty, and sufifer rather than 
do wrong. We have had very fine weather, but to- 
day it is rather sour and disagreeable. 

I hear that our corn was all in bv the 22nd. I 
hope we shall have a better crop than we did last year. 

Write me again soon, 

Yours most aflfectionately, 

HENRIETTA LEONARD. 

S. B. Leonard. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, May 29, 1840. 
My dear Wife : 

I have just had the satisfaction of reading your 
kind letter of 24th inst. How gratifying it is thus 
to hold communion with those we hold most dear, — 
those allied to us by the strongest ties that bind us 
to earth. But my dear Henrietta, I am pained to 
hear of your continued weak state of health. Are you 

250 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

not neglecting means within your reach which might 
give you relief? If you are, do not neglect them 
any longer. Consult the physician, and see if he can- 
not prescribe something. Perhaps some strengthening 
wine bitters would be of service, and do you ride 
enough? I wish you would omit nothing that promises 
to benefit you. 

My sympathies were not a little touched at your 
repetition of the expression of my dear little Irving, 
that he '' hoped the Lord would keep father alive so 
he can come home again." Darling little fellow, — God 
grant that I may not be deprived of that privilege. 
I look forward to that happy moment with deep 
solicitude. It is yet uncertain when Congress will 
adjourn, but the prospect is that the session will be 
somewhat protracted. You must not be disappointed 
if it should hold on till sometime in July, perhaps as 
late as the middle of that month. 

The Independent Treasury Bill, as you are already 
advised, has at length been taken up, and is now under 
consideration in the House. It will be the subject 
of much debate, and with the mass of other business 
now on the calendar, must necessarily prolong our 
sitting to something near the time mentioned. I ob- 
serve by the Advertiser of last week that our village 
was to be ornamented with a " Log Cabin." Has it 
been erected? " 

Yours truly, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

Mrs. H. Leonard. 



2.51 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



New York, June 24, 1840. 
Dear Sir : 

On behalf of a Convention of the Democratic 
Republican Electors of the City of New York, we 
respectfully invite you to participate with them in 
their commemoration of the approaching Aniversary 
of American Independence. The arrangements which 
they have made, contemplate the delivery of an oration 
by the Hon, Samuel Young, with other appropriate 
exercises incidental thereto. The celebration will take 
place at the Methodist Episcopal Church in Greene 
Street, between Broome and Spring Streets ; and the 
exercises will commence at three o'clock in the after- 
noon, precisely. 

The Committee will be in attendance at the Com- 
mittee Room in Tammany Hall, from half past one 
to half past two o'clock, to receive their guests, at 
which time they will proceed with them to the church. 

With great respect. 

Your obedient servants, 

SAMUEL P. WANDELL, 
CHAS. HUNTER, 
NELSON J. WATERBURY. 
Hon. Stephen B. Leonard. 



252 



STEPHEX BANKS LEONARD. 

The following letters relate to William B. Leon- 
ard's stay in Albany. He held a post in the bank, 
and then through the kind offices of the Hon. Thomas 
Farrington, State Treasurer, he secured an office in 
the Register's Department of the State. After this 
he made his way to New York, and entered into a 
business career, which eventuated in his ultimate 
success. 



W. B. L. TO S. B. L. 

Incorporated Banking Department, 
Compt'rs Office, Albany, 

September 20, 1840. 
Dear Father: 

Mr. Fay leaves for Owego this afternoon. I thought 
I would avail myself of the opportunity and drop you 
a few lines. Since I last wrote you, there has been 
much done and said in the city on the subject of 
retaining Whigs in the various public offices under 
the patronage of the State. I believe I told you in 
my last, of the action had at the \\'ard meetings ; 
well, last week the Democratic Central Committee 
passed resolutions expressive of disapprobation in re- 
taining Whigs in place, and at the same time appointed 
a committee to wait on the Comptroller and Treasurer 
and ascertain their views on the matter. I understand 
the Comptroller has expressed a willingness to accede 
to the request of the Democrats. One thing is certain, 
Farrington must remove the present Deputy, or he 
will be ousted himself. 

I am yet retained here, but the business of this 

253 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

office is nearly wound up, the banks are about supplied 
with the full amount of their circulation. I may have 
work a week or so longer, and may not, I will write 
you again, however, before leaving the city. It is 
impossible to tell who Mr. F. will appoint, but I think 
John F. Bacon or ]\Ir. Fay stand the best chance; 
if it should be the latter I think I shall have the clerk- 
ship, I do not believe Farrington will appoint Fay 
and neglect me, for you know the expression was as 
strong in my favor as in his, and I do not believe as 
much action would have been had, were I not an ap- 
plicant ; of course you know how that stands. On 
the other hand if ]\Ir. Bacon should be the man, I 
should then have some hopes of a place. You know 
Mr. B. is one of the chief Registers of this Depart- 
ment and I think I could have his influence for his 
place, in case he should get the Deputyship in the 
Treasurer's Office. I had a talk with Mr. Bacon on 
the subject a day or two since, and he seems quite 
favorable : he wants the Deputyship, and he thinks 
Farrington is inclined to favor me from a conversation 
he had with him while the matter was in agitation 
last winter. I shall prefer a Register berth to the 
other; Mr. Bacon's salary is v$900. I cannot tell what 
will be done but I shall do what I can for myself, I 
shall find out Farrington's views soon and will write 
you. ^Ir. Fay can give an idea of matters and things 
here ; he has been getting him a wife and you will 
probably see her, they are to be married to-day at 
noon. His lady I am very intimate with, and if you see 
her you will find her a fine young lady. 

I think if there is no prospect of doing anything here 
that I shall go and see some of my Connecticut friends 
before I return, and shall try to get into some business. 

254 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Hermon seems inclined to leave Trumansburg this 
fall, I think he had better stay until spring at least. 
The Democrats in Tioga I should judge, were laboring 
under a species of insanity ; they are cutting their own 
throats ; I see you do not take any part in the trouble, 
I think that the most prudent course. 

Your afifectionate son, 

WILLIAM B. LEONARD. 



S. B. L. TO HIS NIECE DOLLY M. SPERRY 

Washington, Jan. 19, 1841. 
My dear Niece : 

I avail myself of a moment to thank you for your 
very acceptable favor of the 11th inst. just come to 
hand. A long time had intervened since I had seen 
a line from your pen and the evidence now furnished 
of your remembrance and kind regard, inspires me 
with a sense of obligation which I have not language 
to express. It is unnecessary to say that I am happy 
in hearing from you, and to learn that the family are 
well. Accept my unfeigned acknowledgements, dear 
girl, for the affectionate manner in which you are 
pleased to speak of your aunt and myself ; and rest 
assured that the friendship you cherish towards us, 
is most cordially reciprocated. 

Of our recent visit at your uncle's in New York, 
to which you allude, I will only say that it was ren- 
dered as agreeable to us as the kindliest of treatment 
cotdd render it. Everything was done, by that in- 
teresting family, to make our stay with them pleasant, 
and whilst I felicitate myself upon the value of their 

255 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

acquaintance, I shall ever hold in grateful remem- 
brance their kind attentions on that occasion. With 
your uncle, I had had the pleasure of a partial acquain- 
tance before. He is a gentleman for whom I entertain 
a very high regard. Your aunt combines a large share 
of those qualities which constitute true excellence, 
and which renders her sex interesting and valuable — 
and as to Cousin Lucy Caroline, is she not a most 
promising and lovely girl? To me, she certainly ap- 
pears so, and I think I am not mistaken. I hope there 
is great good in store for her, and that as she ripens 
to maturity, she may so conduct, as not only to meet 
the anxious desires of her parents and friends, but also 
secure to herself a character for virtue and useful- 
ness, that shall be deemed worthy of imitation in all 
after time. IMake my kind regards to her, and to all 
the family when you write them. 

Your Aunt Henrietta had a very fatiguing journey 
home from New York, but I believe her health is 
much improved. Exercise, change of climate, etc., 
etc., has no doubt been beneficial to her. 

You must make up your mind to come again to 
Owego, and remain with us some time. What say 
you to it? 

Remember me kindlv to vour mother. Tell Flora 
that I love her as much as ever, and want to see her. 
Give my respects to her husband. 

Write we as often as you have leisure, and believe 
me 

Your affectionate uncle, 

S. B. LEOXARD. 
Miss Dolly ^L Sperry. 

P. S. ]\Iake my kind regards to your Grandfather 
Averill. 

256 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington. Februaty 14, '41. 
My dear Wife : 

I have your favor of the Tth inst. and you may 
be assured I am happy in its receipt, not having had 
a scrap from your pen since *2?nd. of last month, when 
you wrote me respecting the bill forgery. I almost 
began to think that you had forgotten me. No. / zvill 
take that back, I know your affection and worth, too 
well, to justify for a moment such a thought; but de- 
pend upon it the time has appeared long to me. 

I am gratified to learn that you have had a visit 
from Hermon and Henrietta, and that you enjoyed it 
so well. Wish I could have been home to have enjoyed 
it with you. 

Have you received a draft on New York bank from 
me yet? 

Affectionately yours, 

'S. B. LEONARD. 

Mrs. H. L. 



S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Washington, Feb. 15, 1841. 
My dear Wife : 

The enclosed communication from Cousin Dolly 
has just reached me. I had also a letter from her 
by the same mail. Is she not a most excellent, warm- 
hearted, affectionate girl? Surely, she is so. I have 
written her once or twice this winter, and intend 

257 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

writing her again before I leave. The time for leaving 
draws near. Two weeks from next Thursday brings 
the session to a close, and already some of the mem- 
bers are beginning to pack their books and clothes, 
with a view to their journey home. Well, although 
there is great uncertainty involved in the question 
whether all will ever reach their places of destination, 
yet there is a satisfaction in the anticipation of so 
soon meeting and embracing those we love, that can- 
not be described, and that no one can realize except 
from experience. 

You say that Hermon partakes largely of your 
affections. I know he does, and that is just what was 
to have been expected from one so capable as your- 
self of judging and properly estimating true merit. 
Hermon is an uncommon boy, and aside from the ties 
of consanguinity, is entitled to our warmest affections, 
on account of his many virtues and manly, noble 
bearing. But, my dear Henrietta, we cannot, neither 
have we, any desire to distinguish. We are pecu- 
liarly blest in all the pledges of our affection which 
have been given us. Our children are all sensible, kind- 
hearted, and affectionate, and I have no doubt will 
ever be happy in contributing to our happiness. This 
is a consolation, and I trust will continue to be a con- 
solation under whatever circumstances the vicissitudes 
of fortune may place us. And here permit me to say, 
and I do it without a design to Hatter, for of that I 
should be incapable, in this case, that for whatever 
amount of good qualities our sons and daughters may 
now or hereafter be distinguished, I shall ever be dis- 
posed to assign to you a great deal more than an equal 
share of the credit. They have most abundant cause 
to rejoice in such a mother, and / in such a wife 

258 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

I am agreeably disappointed in regard to the Berk- 
shire family, as I had no idea of your being able to save 
any of the yoiuig members at this inclement season. 
Love to all. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LEONARD. 
Mrs. H. Leonard. 



S. B. L. TO HIS SON GEORGE 

Washington, Feb. 18, 1841. 
Dear George : 

I received your kind, acceptable, and very interest- 
ing letter of 7th inst. in due course of mail, and I 
am sure if you could be sensible of the gratification 
which it afforded me, and the pleasure which I al- 
ways derive from your communications, the intervals 
would not be suffered to be so long. But, as remarked 
by me not long since, perhaps your time has been 
much occupied in attending to your business and your 
studies, and if so, certainly I ought not to complain. 
You say that you think you have improved some this 
winter. I am glad to hear it, and I hope you will con- 
tinue to progress forward in the pursuit of knowledge, 
to the extent of your energies. Let nothing swerve 
you, — be resolute, — be determined, and rest assured you 
will overcome obstacles which at first may seem in- 
surmountable, and ultimately accomplish that for 
yourself which no one can accomplish for you, — and 
which under the blessing of God may place you high 
among the virtuous, the enlightened, and useful men 
of our country. These distinctions, my son, distinc- 

259 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

tions certainly worthy of a laudable ambition, can 
never be attained to but by dint of application, and 
steadiness of purpose. If within your reach, why not 
aspire to them? The prize is a splendid one, — make 
the effort in good earnest, and if you are successful 
great will be the triumph ; and if unfortunately you 
never reach the summit, such may be your approxi- 
mation to it as to yield to yourself and friends the 
highest consolation. 

To your inquiry about the President-elect, I must 
say in all candor, that I was greatly disappointed in 
him. I had always imagined General Harrison to be 
a tall, fine figure, with good eye, and fine person ; not 
as possessing much mind, but of, perhaps, peculiarly 
prepossessing manners. I was mistaken in all but 
one of the opinions I had formed. He is short and 
spare, somewhat bent in body, and is altogether the 
reverse of being prepossessing. I had an introduction 
to him yesterday. He left for Virginia this morning, 
and will return about the first of the coming month. 

I am glad you have examined '* Knickerbocker " 
and that you approve of the work, as I have sub- 
scribed for it. As for myself, I have not read it enough 
to give an opinion as to its merits. 

You speak of the new Cabinet. It has already been 
formed by Gen. H. and is constituted as follows: 
Mr. Webster, Secretary of State ; Mr. Badger, of North 
Carolina, Secretary of the Xavy ; Mr. Ewing of Ohio, 
Secretary of the Treasury; Mr. Granger of our State, 
P. M. General ; and Mr. Crittenden of Kentucky, At- 
torney General ; Mr. John Bell of Tennessee, Secretary 
of War. 

Your affectionate father, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

260 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



MR. A. AVERILL TO S. B. L. 

New York, February 24, 1841. 
Hon S. B. Leonard, 

Dear Sir : 

Yonr esteemed favor of loth inst. was duly re- 
ceived. We were all glad to hear from Mrs. Leonard. 
I was fearful that unpleasant weather together with 
bad roads, would render the journey a fatiguing one, 
as you intimate it was. 

In reference to the new Cabinet, I think well of 
the two first names you mention, viz, Messrs. Web- 
ster and Ewing, the reputation of the others is well 
spoken of. I hope the new administration will prove 
on trial to be quite as acceptable to the country, as 
the one now about to retire, and I earnestly hope the 
affairs of State will be conducted in such way as to 
secure the peace and welfare of the nation. 

I have had some thoughts of attending the In- 
auguration at Washington the 4th proximo, but there 
appears to be a prospect of a regular jam upon the 
occasion; besides, most persons who will go will at 
least get the credit of " office seeking " and I believe 
I shall conclude to remain at home. My son, Joseph 
Otis, is quite anxious to have me go and take him, 
but it will be quite as well for him to avail himself of 
some future occasion of this kind, if his life is pro- 
longed. I have had a surgical operation performed 
upon his left eye, which has been successful in entirely 
removing the turn, or squinting of the eye, which is 
now perfectly straight, and his appearance is altered 
greatly for the better. His right eye is a little turned 

261 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

but we shall not have the surgeon's instruments used 
upon it at present. This is a recent discovery, and 
the number of operations of the kind in this country, 
are but few. I have heard of six or seven only, and all 
have proved successful. Dr. I. Kearney Rodgers was 
the surgeon who operated on Otis. 

From the experiences I have had in being absent 
from my own family, which, with one exception when 
I spent a winter in South Carolina, have been but a 
few days at a time, I can sympathize with you in your 
anticipations of returning to the comforts and enjoy- 
ments of " home " surrounded with " wife, children, 
and friends." 

Should you return by way of this city I shall be 
very glad to have you make our house your home. 
In speaking of this, when your letter was read at 77 
Amity St., Mrs. Averill united with me in the wish 
above expressed. 

I send an " Express " of this morning under cover 
to you, containing the European advices brought by 
the Steamer Britannia. Business in this city is rather 
quiet, the re-suspension of the banks (or many of 
them), south of us, has a very unfavorable influence 
on the exchanges of the Country, and a depressing ef- 
fect upon business generally. 

Mrs. Averill with her mother, together with Lucy 
Caroline and Joseph Otis Averill, unite with me in 
kind regards to you, and also to your family when you 
see them. 

Very truly and respectfully yours, 

AUGUSTIN AVERILL. 



263 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

During his residence in Washington, Mr. Leonard 
lived with Mr. and Mrs. Wimsatt. Their house was 
on Pennsylvania Avenue, opposite the present Botan- 
ical Gardens, about 4th and 5th Street, on the east 
side. He made an impression upon these excellent 
people, reflected in their letters, and they are of quaint 
interest. 



MR. J. WIMSATT TO S. B. L. 

Washington, January 24, 1842. 
My dear, hut neglected friend : 

Instead of being at church, holding communion, as 
I undoubtedly ought to be (this being Sunday), with 
our God, I have, after a long silence, just taken up 
my pen to write to you ; though I feel that the friendly 
relations, heretofore existing between us, have been 
neglected and the letter which I am about to reply 
to, has remained unanswered so long, and in this 
way our thread of intercourse so widely sundered, 
I know not where to commence, or how attempt a re- 
union of parts. Perhaps, however, the first duty I 
have to perform is to acknowledge the receipt of your 
very friendly and most acceptable favor of the 22nd 
of last May, just above alluded to; and the second to 
beg forgiveness for my gross neglect in not answering it 
sooner; and thirdly, to endeavor to make amends for 
past neglect. But before I proceed further, permit me 
to assure you that although my conduct is evidence 
to the contrar}', my neglect has proceeded from no 
want of friendship, respect, or esteem ; for within the 
whole scope of my remembrance. I know of no one 
who possesses so much of either, nor one in whom I 

263 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

have, or imagine I have discovered a soul so perfectly 
congenial to any one, as yourself. It is on this account 
I venture the use of this, to some less ardent, effeminate 
language. 

I rejoice that you found your family well, and sin- 
cerely hope they, as well as yourself, will continue so. 
You say you hope to be forgiven for your remissness 
in writing. Upon this score, although a letter from 
you is, and always will be most acceptable, I am per- 
fectly willing to square accounts and pass receipts 
with a view to the commencement of a new account, 
for I think I have taken overpay. This is the only 
way I see of getting off. 

You say you have but a moment to write in, and 
that on that account you postpone writing more, to 
another time. This I hold you to. The pleasure and 
satisfaction you promise yourself in your agricultural 
pursuits, I begrudge, without participation. Agricul- 
ture has always been to me a favorite pursuit, though 
I have not had opportunities of full indulgence. 

In allusion to the " Extra Session " you say you 
wish to be informed how my house fills up, and that 
you suppose Washington begins to assume its wonted 
animation. As that Session has been past so long, 
my reply to this part of your letter will have reference 
to the scenes and persons of the present regular 
session. 

As to my house, you are aware the business was 
one for which nature and inclination never intended 
me. I always loathed it, and accordingly soon after 
the close of the Extra Session, I sold out my estab- 
lishment, and am now settling up my concerns with 
a view to embark in something new, and would be 
obliged to you for your advice on this point. 

264 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Though I had meditated this step for some time 
previous, I received a powerful impulse toward it 
from the fact of having the luck of getting into my 
house at the Extra Session, some of the most ill-bred, 
vulgar, coarse, ungenteel, and badly disposed people 
I ever had acquaintance or ever saw. They were so 
bad I was compelled to dismiss some of them from 
the house in a peremptory and summary manner. But 
what made it worse, they were of the Genus Honorable. 

Washington has now its wonted animation. It has 
its usual number of swarms of gay. giddy, human but- 
terflies ; its dandies, its office-seekers, and its letter 
writers. 

The good-humored, witty, and laughable Gov. Rey- 
nolds is here with his amiable wife, whom he takes 
about as much as usual, but poor creature ! she is 
more than two-thirds of her time in a sick-bed. 

The smart, shrewd, intelligent and useful Mrs. 
Brewster is here, with her nondescript husband. 

The good old Col. Debeny is here in good health, 
and is as amiable as ever but is the same unwavering 
'' Whig " he always was. I called on him last night. 

Mr. Doig is here but I have not seen him. That 
noble hearted \^irginian *' Craig " is not here. His dis- 
trict is represented by a " Whig." It will never be 
represented better or more faithfully than by him, 
though it may perhaps be more ably. 

The great statue of Washington, by Greenough, 
ordered by Congress, is up, in the rotunda of the Capi- 
tol. It is a masterly production, but it is sitting instead 
of standing, and in regard to habiliments, is unfaithful 
to history, which, in such cases, I deem important. 
Its only covering is a loose robe, hung loosely over the 

265 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

right shoulder and hanging down over the abdomen 
and legs, leaving the entire bust uncovered. 

Our friend, " Jane C." — " the lovely Jane," was well 
when I last saw her, and single, and as lovely as ever. 
She is now on a visit to a friend in Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Your requests in regard to her were attended to. 

Your requests in regard to the settlement of your 
library account were attended to instanter, and all is 
right in regard thereto. I imagine I am acquainted 
with Mrs. Leonard, and therefore take the liberty of 
presenting to her, through you, my best respects and 
those of my wife, who requests me to say also, that 
an opportunity to pay her a visit would afford her 
great pleasure ; and I assure you it would afford me 
no less to pay you both a visit, but we are so wide 
apart I dare not hope I shall ever enjoy that pleasure. 

Your sincere friend, 

JOSEPH WIMSATT. 

To the Hon. Stephen B. Leonard. 

P. S. The bad style of this letter may be in some 
measure attributed to my being unwell, and the mental 
machinerv out of order on that account. 



J. WIMSATT TO S. B. L. 

Washington, Sept. 1st, 1842. 
My dear Friend : 

Your most acceptable letter of 1st of July last 
was regularly received and immediately handed me by 
our mutual friend, " Col. E. Debeny " to whom it was 

266 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

enclosed, and the only apology I have to offer you for 
not answering it sooner is, that wishing to give you a 
positive and definite reply to that one of its interroga- 
tions which relates to my removal from Washington, 
and not being able to do so until after the transpiration 
of recent circumstances, I could not answer it satis- 
factorily at that time, and therefore deferred until now 
in order that I might do so. 

I regret the correctness of your conjecture respect- 
ing the non-receipt of the letter which you inform me 
you wrote me and forwarded to me by private con- 
vevance on the 1st of Februarv last. 

In consequence of this failure I had much anxiety 
and many painful misgivings respecting you. I 
thought the chain of friendly correspondence between 
us was irreparably broken — I thought you neglected 
me. I am most happy that the breach was temporary 
and that you have forged a new link to repair it. 
When I inform you that these feelings and emotions 
are from the heart and that, at this time, I am con- 
vinced I know no other gentleman towards whom I 
could experience similar ones, even if a similar occa- 
sion were presented, you will be able to make proper 
deductions in regard to my opinion of you. 

You exclaim '' how gratifying it is to be able thus 
to commune w^ith our friends !" The expression of this 
sentiment, when it is done with the sincerity with 
which I am sure you were inspired at the time you 
wrote it, opens one of the bright and glowing pages 
of a warm and generous heart, and enables one to 
read what all admire. It is a sentiment I most sin- 
cerely reciprocate with the addition that, for this alone 
the organization of civil society is worthy of being 
preserved. 

267 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

I am glad to see you are so happily situated in the 
enjoyment of all the material comforts and blessings 
which this world affords, and wish you a long con- 
tinuance of that state. 

You are right in supposing the boarding-house 
business was not congenial to my feelings. So far 
from its being congenial, I loathed it. I did not 
choose it ; my wife w^as engaged in it when, and before, 
I married her, and I merely continued for a while 
because she wished me to do so. I do not, however, 
regret having done so, as it has been the means of 
my gaining some valuable friends. 

You inquire who our mess comprised at the last 
Extra Session of Congress. It was made up of Judge 
Ruggles oi ]^Iaine, ^Ir. Doig of your State, Judge Brew- 
ster also of your State, Col. Debeny of North Caro- 
lina, Gov. Reynolds of Illinois, Mr. W. and lady of 
Tennessee. Mr. X. and lady of Tennessee, and ^Ir. 
Caldwell of North Carolina. In addition to these we 
had some transient boarders, but those to whom I 
allude when I spoke of the great annoyance I expe- 
rienced during that session, were exclusively the four 
from Tennessee, for although some one or two of 
the others were not as pleasant as they might have 
been, yet I considered some one, or all, of the Ten- 
nesseans were the prime cause. Mrs. \\\ was, with- 
out exception, the most vulgar, coarse, ungenteel, 
mischievous and outrageous woman I ever saw who 
pretended to move in genteel society. She was so 
much so that / was not only compelled to dismiss 
her and her husband from my house, but she became 
so well known here that they could not get board in 
the place, and her husband was at last compelled to 
send her home without him. At least that is com- 

268 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

mon report, and as the facts of the case corroborate 
the statement, I believe the whole to be true. 

When I received your letter I obeyed its com- 
mands in regard to Miss Jane, and I think she said 
you had promised her a beau, and told me to remind 
you of the promise. She is yet living and as pretty 
as ever, though single. She is at this time in Penn- 
sylvania on a visit. 

I have determined to remove from this place to 
that part of the State of Georgia commonly called the 
Cherokee country, and if no accident happens to pre- 
vent it, I shall get off about three or four weeks from 
this time. But as I shall upon my arrival, be almost 
an entire stranger, and having no time to lose in es- 
tablishing my social and political relations, I have 
thought proper to take with me facilities to this end 
in the form of introductory letters. In furtherance 
of this plan, I request that you will please forward 
to me here, letters of introduction to such distin- 
guished gentlemen of Georgia as you may be ac- 
quainted with, and which your own social and political 
relations may permit. Your compliance will greatly 
add to the number and weight of the many obligations 
I am already under to you. 

After reminding you that with such means as 
these, a person may do, towards such an object, in 
a few months what, without them, would require 
years of labor to accomplish, I deem further apology 
for this request unnecessary. I have already re- 
ceived a number of very valuable letters of the sort 
alluded to, from some of the most distinguished men 
of the nation, and hope to add yours to the number. 

If propriety would allow I would name as two 
of the men to whom it would be my advantage to be 

269 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

introduced, the present Governor (Charles I. McDon- 
ald) and ex-Gov. Wilson Lampkin. But in this respect 
I must leave you at liberty. 

I have seen no reason for changing my political 
opinions. On the contrary I am strengthened and con- 
firmed in the opinion that the Democratic are the true 
doctrines for the country and have the satisfaction to 
believe they will again soon prevail. I must say no 
more on the subject of politics for the field is so wide, 
and I think and feel so much on the subject that if I 
should embark in it I should exhaust your patience. 

My family are enjoying health. We have been 
living privately since the adjournment of the Extra 
Session of Congress. But our old friend Col. Debeny 
has been with us until dav before vesterdav, since 
about three months ago. The old man was uncom- 
fortable where he was, and as he is a man for whom 
I entertain the highest sentiments of respect, I gave 
him a room and board in my house. 

I shall first locate in Campbell County (Georgia, 
near Campbelton P. O.), and immediately after being 
settled, will let you hear from me with the view and 
hope of preserving an unbroken chain of correspon- 
dence between us to the end of our lives. 

Mrs. Wimsatt and little Sally join me in an ex- 
pression of respect and regard toward your lady and 
self. You ask what business I expect to follow. I 
have not fully determined. The practice of law at 
this moment seems to ofTer the strongest inducements, 
but if, after looking around, I perceive anything more 
promising, I shall embrace it. 

Upon reflection it seems to me that as you have 
been known so long in public life, you are sufficiently 
known to admit of your writing a letter to Governor 

270 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

McDonald of the kind I want, whether you are per- 
sonally acquainted with him or not. I have one to 
him from a member of Congress who never saw him. 

Very respectfully, 

Your sincere friend, 

JOSEPH WIMSATT. 



W. B. L. TO S. B. L. 

Albany, July 20th, 1843. 
Dear Father : 

I received a letter from Hermon, shortlv after he 
returned from Owego, he seemed much pleased with 
his visit, and I presume you were as much pleased. 
Hermon is a fine young man and will eventually suc- 
ceed. I have just learned that ]\Ir. Farrington leaves 
for Owego to-morrow morning, and I could not let the 
opportunity pass, although I have not much time now 
to write. 

I called upon Mr. Averill while in the city and 
was much pleased with him, he is a pleasant and 
sociable man, and I enjoyed an hour's chit-chat with 
him very much. He inquired very particularly after 
mother and yourself and wished to be remembered to 
you. I did not have the pleasure of seeing Mrs. or 
Miss A. they were quite indisposed and confined to 
their rooms. Mr. A. invited me to dine with him, 
but under the circumstances I thought best to de- 
cline. I had anticipated going to New Haven but 
my time would not permit, had I gone there I should 
have called upon Judge Boardman ; I may possibly 
go there before the season closes. You say times 

271 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

are hard and money very scarce in the country, well, 
in the city it is just the reverse, money is very plenty, 
and the banks advertise to loan money at 5%. I 
am surprised that they reject country securities, but 
such is the fact. 

I saw Alvah Archibold in New York, he was try- 
ing to effect a loan, and Farrington went down to 
assist him, but I am told it was no go. I said nothing 
to Mr. Averill on the subject of a loan, no good op- 
portunity occurred, I feel doubtful as to the result 
but cannot tell, nor did I say anything in regard to a 
situation with him for either Hermon or myself, while 
there ; but after I had been home a few days I thought 
I would drop him a line on the subject of a situation 
for myself. He answered my letters very readily and 
politely, saying that he did not then know of a 
vacancy, that good situations were not easily obtained, 
but if he could do anything to assist me it would be 
done cheerfully. I am aware that Hermon thought 
of making application there, but as it was probable 
that I should soon be out of employment, I thought I 
would make the trial ; well it has resulted as I 
expected. 

When in New York I had a conversation with 
Mr. Daniel S. Dickinson, the Lieutenant Governor, 
on the subject, and he said he would see Mr. Flagg 
about it. I have not moved in the matter as yet, 
nor indeed can I do anything that would avail much ; 
they are split up here among the leading men. and 
there is no safety in approaching any of them ; it is 
Young & Floyd, and Bouch, Marcy & Croswell, one 
party is called the Barn-burners, the other Conserva- 
tives. I have spoken to Mr. Farrington on the subject, 
and he told me he would see Mr. Flagg. The fact 

272 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

is, I am sick of this political crouching, hanging 
around and begging favors of men, and asking for 
and accepting anything in the way of office. This 
post I now hold, I do not think anything extra, the 
compensation as near as I can ascertain will be but 
$600, and this is small. Flagg is so very anxious to 
be noted for his frugality in State's expenses, that 
he frequently strains the point too far. The banks are 
getting their circulations pretty well up, and two or 
three weeks at furthest will do the business ; how 
much force will then be required I cannot tell, prob- 
ably not more than Mr. Flagg has already promised, 
time alone will tell. 

I hardly know what to do; whether to push for 
New York when I am through here, or come back into 
the country. I do not know whether a situation 
could be had with Frederick or not. What think 
you? Did Frederick say anything on the subject? 
One thing is they cannot do better. 

I shall write again very soon and give you a sketch 
of my visit to Catskill Mountain House, etc. 

Yours affectionately, 

W. B. LEONARD. 



W. B. L. TO S. B. L. 

Albany, Oct. 11th, 1843. 
Dear Father and Mother : 

I have been putting off writing to you for some 
days with the idea that I might be able to communi- 

273 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

cate something definite as to my future " modus op- 
erandi " and even now I cannot tell positively what 
I shall do. You may be assured that the first intelli- 
gence I had of Hermon's leaving us and going South, 
completely took me by surprise, and at the same time, 
with unpleasant forebodings ; but I could only hope 
for the best, and as you remarked in your letter, leave 
the rest to God. I had left Albany, having finished 
my duties as Bank Register, and was going to New 
York. On the steamboat I came across Mr. Stone 
and wife who were on their way to the city, and 
they first intimated to that Hermon was about going 
South. I remained until Hermon arrived in the city 
which was Tuesday morning, and I stayed with him 
until Friday morning last, when he started in com- 
pany with Mr. Hopkins who procured him the place 
where he was going. I am intimately acquainted with 
Mr. Hopkins and have been for many years, he is one 
of the finest and best young men I have ever fallen 
in with, and he will be a true friend to Hermon. I 
also became acquainted while in the city with a num- 
ber of Florida merchants, a fine lot of men ; their 
universal expression was that Messrs. Bitton & Mc- 
Ginnis, the house in which Hermon was engaged, 
was one of the best in Florida, that they were high- 
minded honorable young men, and of the first re- 
spectability. I think Hermon has been very fortunate 
in getting so good a place, and if he has his health 
will do well. Tallahassee is a fine place and a delight- 
ful climate. Hermon concluded to go by land as 
Hopkins wanted to go that way, and he thought he 
could see more of the country, and be safer in the 
passage, at this season of the year the weather is 
generally rough. I remained in the city and saw 

274 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Hermon safely off, and although parting from him 
with much regret, yet I could not but think that it 
would be all for the best ; he went off in good spirits 
and I presume this morning is in Tallahassee. Good- 
bye, Hermon ! 

Well now, as Col. Johnson says, let me talk about 
myself. As I said before, I have finished my duties 
as Register, and have been through these two weeks, 
hanging on, uncertain what to do. I found it impos- 
sible to do anything more in this office, and gave it up 
as a bad job. I have been waiting to see what Farring- 
ton would do, and have not said much to him till yester- 
day, when I had a long talk with him. Notwithstand- 
ing all that has ben done and said here in regard to 
his retaining Mr. W'illard, he urges as reason, what 
you already know, and added further that had I been 
in the office as long as Mr. Fay that he would have 
appointed me his deputy. I was not expecting to 
hear this, and of course thanked him very much; this 
has resulted as I supposed it would. This matter is 
finally settled, and I do not know that I regret the 
result. ]\Iy views in regard to these political subor- 
dinate stations have very much changed. In the 
first place they are very uncertain, and a person after 
holding them for a length of time, becomes perfectly 
dependent on them and unfitted for any other busi- 
ness ; his energies are gone, and he never advances 
out of the sphere he first commenced in, and never 
lays up anything. There are a number of instances 
in the building, where men have grown gray in their 
stations, now having large families, and not worth 
a cent, and never have been ; regular automatons, 
having their regular duties and never advancing one 
peg; to sum the whole matter up, in order to hold 

275 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

a place here a man must be a cringing sycophant. 
While in New York last week I had the offer of a 
situation in a wholesale house, and a very good one 
too, and I am about inclined to take up with it. I 
think the chances of future success are better in New 
York for a young man without capital than in any 
other place ; for there, unlike the country, a man's 
knowledge of business, his habits and business ac- 
quaintances, is his capital and generally available, and 
if I go to the city I know I shall succeed. 

Yours affectionately, 

W. B. L. 



W. B. L. TO S. B. L. 



New York, Nov. 18, 1843. 
Dear Father: 

I have learned this moment that Mr. George 
Pumpilly leaves for Owego to-morrow, and as the 
saving of 18^4 cents postage is rather material, I 
thought I would improve this opportunity. I dropped 
you a few lines (whether you were able to read it 
or not is a matter of some uncertainty) by Mr. Hub- 
bard, and had expected to have written you by O. 
Gregory, but I did not see him previous to his leav- 
ing. These frequent opportunities of holding con- 
verse with each other by letter are very pleasant, 
especially when they come so cheap. 

My health continues very good, and thus far am 

276 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

pleased with my situation ; I could not have got a 
more desirable one in the city. 

A day or two since, I received the first letter 
frm Brother Hermon, and you may be assured that 
I read it with joy, it is herewith enclosed, I thought 
you would be glad to see it ; it is a good letter, and 
I am compelled to admit that my younger brothers 
surpass their elder in writing letters. Hermon seems 
well pleased with his situation, and with Tallahassee. 
I am satisfied that the house he is with is the best 
in Florida. If Hermon's health and life should be 
spared, I think he will do well where he is ; and that 
it will, is our mutual prayer. 

As I have written you before, it is still my deter- 
mination if nothing happens to be at home sometime 
in December, and I had expected to have spent some 
time with you, at least four or six weeks, but in a 
conversation with Mr. Penniman a day or two since, 
he told me they wished me to spend some time trav- 
elling and making acquaintances for their benefit. 
My route will be through some of the southern 
counties in this State, and a few of the northern 
counties in Pennsylvania. He said that I had better 
hire a horse and carriage, or cutter, and make my 
way along independent of stages. Do you not think 
this is putting me ahead pretty fast? Partners, and the 
most experienced and oldest clerks in the different 
houses usually do the travelling; but more of this 
when I see vou. 

Yours affectionately, 

W. B. LEONARD. 



277 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



W. B. L. TO G. S. L. 

Dear Brother George : 

Your very good, finely written letter of the 12th 
came duly to hand, and I read it with pleasure, and 
showed it with feelings of fraternal pride to my 
friends in the store. I was glad to hear from you, 
and I hope that you will continue to v/rite. My dear 
brother I do not wish to flatter you, but your style of 
writing indicates an older head, and what can you 
not achieve if you try. You have got talent, and it 
only needs exertion and application on your part, 
and time will repay you ; oh, I hope you will im- 
prove your time and you will never regret it. You 
spoke as if you would like a residence in the city; 
I hardly think you would prefer it to a life in the 
country, but abandon the idea (if you ever had it) 
of being a merchant, you never can succeed in that 
business ; it takes capital and many other requisites 
for a man to succeed, and there is not one in one 
hundred that are successful : but you can rise as a 
professional man, and I do hope you will keep your 
eye on it. I hope you will not permit Fred Fay to 
outdo you, I know you will not do that: I believe 
he is in the office of N. W. Davis. 

Well, the Whigs have got possession of old Tioga, 
this is too bad, but the Democrats are alone to blame 
for it. " Romans conquered Rome." 

Write me occasionally and send me papers. 
Your affectionate brother, 

WILLIAM. 



278 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

W. B. L. TO HIS PARENTS. 

New York. May 11th, 1844. 
Dear Parents : 

You must begin to think by this time that I have 
forgotten you, or at least that I have dropped my 
correspondence with you entirely ; but it is not so, 
but since the opening of the spring business I have 
hardly had time to come to niy meals. Mr. DeWitt, 
the bearer of this came to the store yesterday and 
I avail myself of his kind offer to carry this to you. 
The first thing I will tell you is that Cousin Maria 
and Sister Henrietta arrived in the city last Friday 
morning, and remained during Friday, and left for 
Connecticut, Saturda}' morning in the six o'clock boat. 
As soon as I learned that they were in town I went 
down to the boat, and got them oflF as quickly as 
possible, and I can assure you they were glad enough 
to step once more on terra firma. I spent most of 
the day with them, and showed them many of the 
wonders of Gotham ; to Sister H. they were entirely 
new, Cousin M. had been here before. Henrietta 
seemed delighted with everything she saw, and 
nothing but the night could keep her from walking 
around ; in the evening I went with them to the 
museum, and that closed the adventures of the day. 
H. seemed to enjoy herself very much, and I am glad 
she came on to the city, I think it will be of advantage 
to her. I took them to the National Academy of 
Design, a very fine collection of paintings, to Castle 
Garden, the Batter\% the Tabernacle Church, and at- 
tended an anniversary of the Foreign Missionary 
Society, etc., etc. I made her stay as agreeable as 
possible and I think she was much pleased with her 

279 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

visit. They remained the day with me at my board- 
ing house (the Croton Hotel) and I saw them off 
in the morning on board the boat. I furnished H. 
with money sufficient to return by^ way of the railroad, 
if they should conclude to do so; this riding on a 
slow dragging canal boat is imposing too much on 
good nature. Henrietta said she had enough of boat- 
ing. I gave her a very nice silk shawl, and a few other 
notions that I thought would be of use to her; she 
will probably write you from some old rock in Con- 
necticut. A few days since I got a letter from 
Brother H. he is very well and in good spirits; it 
is very gratifying for me to get a letter from him, for 
it is very interesting; he certainly writes a fine letter, 
we should all be very glad to have him with us once 
more. 

Well, as to myself. I have had as much business 
as I could attend to comfortably, and have been un- 
usually successful in my operations, I might say 
astonishingly so. My trip last winter was of great 
advantage to me, and if I continue to have as good 
luck for two or three years to come, I can do well here. 
It is true I am making no more than a living now, 
but I am laying out a work that will tell by and by. 
I have sold this spring myself, and mostly to new 
customers, nearly $25,000.00. It is not certain that 
I shall be home this summer, but I shall if possible; 
our firm want me to go through the Western States, 
if I do I shall come out that way ; if I go it will be 
about the middle of June, I shall write you again be- 
fore that. I sent you by Mr. J. M. Ely a silk shawl, 
and by Mrs. Clizby a mull dress, which you have 
probably received. Mrs. C. and Charlotte were in the 
city some days, but I could not be with them much 

2S0 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Nothing new of importance, as the election ap- 
proaches the prospects of our party look more doubt- 
ful ; Henry Clay I fear, will be the next President, the 
Democrats will not unite upon Van Buren, I am satis- 
fied he is not popular with the rank and file of the 
Democracy. Give my love to all the family. 

Your aflFectionate son. 

W. B. LEONARD. 



W. B. L. TO HIS PARENTS. 

New York, Mav 18, 1844. 
Dear Parents : 

I wrote you a hasty scrawl by Mr. DeWitt, and 
I have a moment this afternoon to write you a few lines 
which I shall send by F. E. Piatt who leaves the city 
to-morrow for Owego. In the first place I will tell 
yoa that I am in my room. No. 3, on the fourth floor 
of the Croton Hotel; I have just returned from church 
(the Tabernacle) and have heard some fine singing 
and a very impressive discourse from the Rev. Dr. 
Andrews. Since I have been here I have attended that 
church more than any other, I presume you have been 
in it; it is very large, capable of holding 4000 people. 
I have had splendid success in selling goods so far, 
much greater than my best anticipations, and it has 
given me a fine standing in the house in which I am 
engaged ; I had a letter from Hermon a few days since, 
he seems in good spirits and pleased with his prospects. 
I hope he may succeed, but as you say it is running 
some risk. God grant that his health and life may be 

281 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

spared him, he says he shall come North this summer 
if it should become sickly, and not without; and I sup- 
pose he is as safe there as he would be here, for when 
there is no contagion prevalent, the climate of Florida 
is safe for any one. 

George Camp is now in town stopping at the Astor 
House, he will be here about a week ; he was in the 
store yesterday with Judge Noble of Unadilla; it 
seems he has deferred his coming to the city to live 
until next spring. 

To-day the weather is delightful, and Broadway is 
radiant with beauty of fashion. I wish you were here 
to walk with me I think you would enjoy it. I hope 
to hear from you often as the private opportunities 
occur, and they are quite frequent at this season of 
the year. 

Your affectionate son, 

WILLIAM. 



232 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



Athens, Pa. June 22, 1844. 
Dear Sir: 

The undersigned respectfully request that you 
should be present and address a Democratic Mass 
Meeting at this place, on the second proximo. Know- 
ing you are personally acquainted with Col. Polk, our 
Candidate for the Presidency, and believing it will be 
compatible with your sense of duty to subserve to the 
promotion of Democratic principles, hope you will 
comply with this invitation. 

Very respectfully yours, 

GUY JAGER, 
C. H. HERRICK. 
H. C. BAIRD, 
C. MATHEWSOX, 
J. WHITAKER. 
Committee of Invitations. 
Hon. S. B. Leonard, Owego, X. Y. 



283 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO E. H. L. 

Owego, July 21, 1846. 
My dear Wife : 

Oftentimes as I have been written to by your- 
self from this village, this is the first time since v^e 
were married that I have had the opportunity of ad- 
dressing you from here myself, by letter. Does this 
not show most conclusively that you are a lady 
of very domesticated habits and that you have 
always been very much devoted to the interests of 
family and home? Well, I am happy in having this 
opportunity, and in the reflection that you are now 
enjoying a short respite from the cares and responsi- 
bilities which for such a series of years have con- 
tinually devolved upon you. 

It is now Sunday afternoon, and Emily and my- 
self have just returned from the Presbyterian Church, 
where we have been listening to an excellent sermon 
bv the Rev. Mr. Williston, of whom vou have fre- 
quently heard. I recollect to have seen him in my 
boyhood, and was surprised after such a lapse of time 
to see him retain such a great amount of his facul- 
ties, mental and physical. He looks a littk antiquated, 
but his style of preaching is not so, and uniting as 
he does, with good person a good voice, and clear 
distinct enunciation, he makes himself interesting far 
beyond what you would suppose one of his advanced 
age would be able to do. He must now be at least 
eighty years old. I don't know how long he is to 
remain here, possibly but for a few Sabbaths. 

We have gotten along so far very well, consider- 
ing the breach that your absence makes in our circle. 
Our workmen left the day after you did, Emily and 

284 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Laura have gone regularly to school, Harriet Hun- 
tington has been spending tjie last week with Hen- 
rietta, she left last evening. They seem to have en- 
joyed themselves very much. 

I think you must have had a pleasaut time in 
going down, as the weather was so cool and com- 
fortable. We wait with anxiety to hear from you, and 
hope to have that anxiety gratified by the mail of this 
evening. Perhaps that will be too soon, — we will 
say Tuesday next. Don't give yourself any uneasiness 
about home, but enjoy yourself as much as possible. 
Be not in too much of a hurry about returning, if 
you can make your stay pleasant. I hope the boys 
will find it not interfering with their business, to 
spend a little time with you. You ought to call upon 
Mrs. Bosworth and Caroline Boardman (that was). 
Mrs. Averill, of course. I suppose you are stopping 
with Cousin Julia Ely. 

Nothing of interest has transpired here since you 
left. Frequent inquiries are made after you, and I 
believe almost everybody knows you are absent. To- 
day, during intermission, I fell in with the Misses 
May McCormick, Josephine, and Parmenter. The 
latter said she had had a letter from Miss Andrus 
of Ithaca, on Friday, in which she mentioned seeing 
you when in that village on your way to the city. 

I have not been to the farm since you left, but 
shall go over next week. Again I say, write often. 
Give my best love to my good boys, and believe me, 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. L. 

Mrs. H. Leonard. 



285 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



E. H. L. TO HER SON HERMON. 

Sunday evening, Dec. 9th, 1849. 
My dear Hermon : 

Last evening's mail brought a letter from you for- 
warded from Chagres. I will not attempt to tell you 
how glad we were to hear from you, and to learn that 
you had enjoyed so comfortable and prosperous a 
passage thus far, but the hardest of the undertaking 
is yet before you. The crossing of the Isthmus must 
be no small job. I have tried to imagine how you will 
feel while passing this desolate region ; I think you 
must have looked like the Crusaders going to Pales- 
tine. The contrast must have been severe, after hav- 
ing so pleasant a berth as you had in the city. 

Your letter being in the form of a journal, made 
it very interesting ; your view of the W. I. Islands 
must have been very interesting, you have certainly 
seen considerable of this planet, for one of your age. 
We shall be very anxious until we hear of your safe 
arrival in San Francisco, and I fear you will find hard 
fare when you get there, by all accounts ; it seems 
there is a great rush to the *' land of gold." 

I think the Isthmus must have thickly populated 
when the passengers from both sides were passing 
over. How much I think of you, and try to imagine 
how you are situated. The mind is ever on the alert, 
however inactive the body may be, I have had some 
evidence of this lately. I have been prostrated by a 
severe hurt which I received by falling backwards out 
of our wagon fa dangerous fall it was) about three 
weeks since, but I am now nearly recovered, so as to 

286 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

be about the house, for which I have the greatest 
reason to be thankful to God for His merciful pre- 
servation. I thought at first, I never should recover. 
We are now all well, and have got settled in the old 
corner house, for the winter. ^Ir. George Curtis lives 
on the farm and pays rent. The two younger children 
are going to school, I have no news to tell you. The 
weather has been very good for this season of the 
year. William says he shall come up this month, 
perhaps Henrietta will return with him. The girls 
all deserve praise for their attention to me in my sick- 
ness, and for the efficient manner they managed 
business matters. I will not occupy more of this 
sheet, but leave room for father and the others. 
Hermon, write often, tell us all about yourself and 
how vou fare. You have mv most sincere and ardent 
wishes for your health and prosperity. 

From your affectionate mother, 

E. H. LEONARD. 



S. B. L. TO HIS SON HERMON. 

My dear Son : 

I avail myself of a part of your mother's sheet to 
drop you a few lines. As you are already advised, 
your letter from Chagres arrived in due course of 
mail, Saturday night's train brought it to hand, and 
our little family gathered round each other in deep 
solicitude to hear it read. Be assured, dear Hermon, 
it was a welcome visitor. The days and the hours 

287 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

since you took your departure, have been watched 
and counted with great particularity, and although 
the distance between us has been widening with steam 
velocity, yet the imagination has kept pace with your 
speed, and there has scarcely an hour passed but 
what some of us have been with you. 

Well, my dear son, I have nothing new to say. It 
is sufficient to know that you carry with you the fond 
regard and warmest affections of a doting family. 
Everything that conduces to your weal or woe, will 
always partake of their whole sympathies, and their 
prayers for your safety and happiness will neither be 
few or far between. 

When you wrote, you had just anchored off 
Chagres ; of course we had much anxiety with regard 
to your getting across the Isthmus, but we were re- 
lieved on receiving a letter from William this morn- 
ing, in which he says that a gentleman who crossed 
with you, had returned to the city and told him of 
your safe arrival at Panama, and that you had gone 
on board the steamer. Thus far you seem to have 
been fortunate, and we ought to feel thankful to a 
kind Providence for it. 

And now, Hermon, one of my greatest consola- 
tions is, that I know you have not gone upon this 
enterprise under the delusion that thousands have 
gone, expecting at once to fill your pockets with gold. 
You go as a business man, to see what can be done, 
and as I remarked at the last inters'iew we had, I 
hope that after a satisfactory experiment has been 
made, and you will find that your reasonable expecta- 
tions are not to be realized, you will not from any 
notions of ambition or fallen pride, be deterred from 
returning to New York, where you have many friends 

288 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

and can do well. I hope, however, that you will be 
successful, and that vou will never have cause to 
regret the undertaking. Be very careful of your 
health, and of every exposure of \'our person. You 
will no doubt, have to encounter many difficulties and 
privations, they are incident to such an enterprise, but 
you must not get discouraged. If you meet with dis- 
appointments you must bring all your stoicism into 
action, bear them and be of good cheer. Few get 
through this world without more or less of them. 

San Francisco seems to be destined to be a great 
business place. A paper printed there is now before 
me, dated about eight weeks ago. I see that pro- 
visions are now at high prices, but they no doubt, 
fluctuate, up one week and down another, as ship- 
ments arrive. That there will be great competition 
at that place is a matter of course, indeed it is almost 
a city already, at least in transient population. 

We are trudging along in the usual way at Owego. 
Considerable building has been done and great cal- 
culations are making for spring operations. Our 
trade is about middling, we probably get our share. 
The health of the family is excellent. Your mother 
is pretty well restored from her recent fall. We reside 
in the village, shall probably go on to the farm again 
in the spring. 

We are now flattering ourselves that you will 
arrive at San Francisco by the 15th or 20th of the pres- 
ent month. Hope you will have had as pleasant a pas- 
sage on the Pacific as upon the Atlantic. In looking 
back over the blue waters that you have passed, 
Owego must appear like a very small spot. But you 
will not forget it, for you know there are those here, 
wdio love you as they love themselves. 

2S9 



STEPHEN BANKS LEQ-NARD. 

We shall write you frequently, advising you of 
what we think will be interesting. The family all 
join in kind wishes for your welfare and happiness. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LEONARD. 
Mr. H. C. Leonard. 



HENRIETTA L. TO HER BROTHER 

HERMON. 

Brooklyn, X. Y., Saturday, June 31st, 1850. 
Mr dear Brother: 

William gave us the information this evening that 
we could write you by a gentleman who was going 
directly to California ; we therefore avail ourselves of 
the opportunity although it is rather late, and you 
know my ideas arc scarce after Jiitw o'clock. We now 
have such blue, rainy weather; the rainy season has 
become quite as fashionable as with you ; I have now 
been here about two months and have had very few 
pleasant days. I was up in Connecticut, two weeks, 
visiting New Milford cousins. We were very glad 
to get your letter, as we always expect one every 
steamer, and as the postage is now reduced to twenty- 
five cents. I think 1 shall write more frequently, as 
mv notes are hardly value received for forty cents. 
Well, New York is the same busy, noisy place as 
when you left it ; they never leave well enough alone, 
but are taking down buildings and putting up again, 
and paving Broadway with Russ pavement, making 
the stages turn oflF every other street. I suppose you 

290 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

are aware that we have moved to 46 Sidney Place, 
like it much although it is not as nice a house as the 
other, but we find even one block nearer the ferry, quite 
an object. 

There have been quite a number of Owego ladies 
down this spring, Miss A. Huntington is here now, 
F. Piatt and herself are soon to be married; Miss 
Jane Lewis of Binghamton and F. Drake of Ithaca are 
married; don't know that I can tell you any more news 
in that line at present. Miss Ann Parminter, Fred- 
erica Hewitt, F. Piatt, and several others were here 
at the same time ; stopped at the Astor Hotel. We all 
agree with you in thinking Miss Parminter very 
pretty. By the by, did you ever receive a letter from 
me with a line enclosed from said young lady, if so, 
please condescend to reply ; also heard Lewis Bulk- 
ley complaining that you did not answer his letter; 
he was here last evening, sends his best regards to 
you. Willie has just climbed upon the table, got 
my pen and marked Bill Lellian in the corner ; you can't 
imagine how he has grown and talks everything; wish 
we could get his daguerrotype to send you, but it is 
so cloudy to-day that I hardly think we could succeed. 
I send you " Squints through an Opera Glass," think 
they are quite interesting if you can imagine the per- 
sons. While I was up in Connecticut, George was 
here, he remained a few days; he is trying to get the 
office of mail agent, don't know whether he will suc- 
ceed. Since I have been here, have been out to amuse- 
ments several times ; went over to Xiblo's Theater the 
other evening, saw the play " Romance and Reality," 
think there is some reality in coming over to Brooklyn 
after twelve o'clock. 

Well this is Saturday, the first of June but not 

291 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

very warm, g-entlemen go by with their overcoats and 
umbrellas. Saw some strawberries at Taylor's saloon 
at six shillings a basket, and green at that. We had 
a good dinner yesterday; bill of fare — green peas, 
asparagus, etc., new potatoes are also in market. 

But I nearly forgot to tell you of my visit to New 
Haven. Walter Sperry was going there on business, 
and gave me an invitation which I accepted ; stopped 
at the Tontine ; it is a lovely city ; went over the col- 
lege buildings ; it was vacation and the halls were very 
silent; the library, which is the most extensive in 
the United States is an interesting place in which to 
spend a short time. The legislature was in session, 
I went in to see the assembled wisdom of Connecticut; 
must say I never saw more Yankee specimens, the 
representatives being mostly all school-masters; and 
it was quite amusing to see them when not in session, 
strutting over the green with their long-tailed coats 
and umbrellas. Did not remain there but one day, \ ] 
and of course it rained, as it was Quaker week. 

Had a long letter from mother yesterday, says we 
must come home soon, we shall probably go next 
week, Willie Andrew and all ; but we shall miss you 
so much this summer. Can you not have some busi- 
ness to come home for, this summer? If not, come 
without it, as it is too bad to stay any longer; it 
seems like an age since you left us. 

Louisa and Willie are well. Louisa would write, 
but says she thinks I have written everything, and 
William is going to write. Please excuse this ill 
looking affair, but Willie is around and it is like 
writing in a hornet's nest. Last news from home they 
were all well. Now, Herm. dear, do write soon, I 

292 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

mean in short particular metre, as you owe me two 
letters. 

The other morning William and Louisa called me 
to get up and see the Panama steamer come in as 
we heard the signal, so I rose in great haste and 
scrambled on top of the house, but I could not see 
it, but got a good airing which was first rate. Hope you 
have not heard anything of the mysterious *' knock- 
ings " in San Francisco, you are probably too sensible 
to believe in them. 

This afternoon I am going over to the city to see 
the " Crescent City '' sail, something I never saw ; this 
letter will go in it. As it is now almost time I must 
close. If there is anything you wish, please let us 
know, it will be a pleasure to send it. 

All send love, write soon. 

Your affectionate sister, 

HENRIETTA. 



May 1850. After a winter in town. 

" Our family moved back to Locust Cottage on 
first of April, and feel very happy in the old domicile. 
I have not yet been able to sell the Camp farm, still, 
however, live in hopes. Intend to dispose of it this 
summer or fall at some price, if among the number 
of possibilities." S. B. L. 

293 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO D. S. DICKINSON. 

Owego, Nov. 21, 1852. 
Hon. Daniel S. Dickinson, 

Dear Sir : — I have been highly gratified in perusing, 
as published in the Gazette of last week, the letter 
of the late Daniel Webster to yourself, written about 
the time of his retiring from the U. S. Senate. I 
am glad you have seen proper to give publicity to this 
communication. Indeed as the personal friend of 
the deceased, you could not consistently have done 
otherwise. It was due, as well to the memory of the 
distinguished individual who penned it, as to him to 
whom it was addressed. It is in every respect, highly 
creditable to both. To the former as it does honor to 
his head and heart, showing that although distin- 
guished for his partisan predilections and tenacity 
of opinion, yet that he possessed magnanimity of soul 
and spirit worthy his exalted character and world- 
wide fame, and that he was capable of soaring above 
minor considerations to do honor where honor was 
due, and to bestow praise where it was merited, even 
though it were upon a political opponent, and potent 
rival. For one, I am free to say, that I venerate his 
memory more than I ever did, and I believe that 
publication of that letter will, under all the circum- 
stances, tend to do away prejudices that had been 
long and honestly entertained in regard to that indi- 
vidual, which nothing else could so effectually have 
done, and place him upon the page of history in a 
truer and fairer light then he could or would have 
otherwise been placed. It was Mr. Webster's fortune 
through life to have many true and warm-hearted 
friends, and many decided and implacable enemies ; 

294 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

and some of the latter acts of his life go to show (and 
that to which this notice refers may be considered 
as one of them) that perhaps he had far fewer friends 
than he was worthy of. But be this as it may, he 
has gone down to the grave with honor enough, and 
it may in great truth be said, that one of the brightest 
stars, not only of the American constellation, but of 
the world, has gone out. 

To you, my dear Sir, the letter of Mr. Webster can 
be considered in no other light, either by friend or 
foe, than as complimentar}- in a high degree. Not 
that auy testimony from any quarter, in regard to the 
praiseworthy and noble part you have acted in the 
trying scenes through which you have passed in the 
councils of the country, was necessary to establish 
the fact, or to entitle you to a high place in the regard 
and affection of the people, for all this had been con- 
ceded by a large portion of the enlightened and liberal 
of the American public ; but to that other portion 
(thank God they are not very numerous or formidable) 
of jealous and unprincipled demagogues, whose mal- 
evolence you have for years had to encounter, and 
whose missiles have been hurled at you without stint; 
to that portion I say, this endorsement of that la- 
mented statesman, is a rebuke that is withering in 
the extreme. I have witnessed its effect upon some 
in this region, and while doing so could hardly re- 
strain myself from exclaiming " Shame, where is thy 
blush?" Yes, my dear Sir, I repeat that I am glad 
you have been pleased to take the course you have in 
this matter. It was due to yourself that you should 
do so. It was a high compliment from a high place, 
and what makes it the more valuable, is that every- 
body knoivs if zi'as ivcll deserved. 

295 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

I have not had time to write you since the election, 
to mingle my congratulations with yours on the great 
triumph which the Democracy have achieved. Is it 
not a great one indeed? For one I rejoice in it with 
all my heart. Another result might have been pro- 
duced, but as I remarked to you in July last when 
I had the pleasure of being with you, perhaps it is 
all for the best. Your position before the American 
people at this time is good, never better. I have so 
considered it ever since the Baltimore Convention. 
The future is open before you, and I am confident your 
star is rising. Great judgment and prudence are 
necessary, and I am happy in a conviction that you 
are adequate to a proper exercise of both. Only look 
well to it. Of one thing rest assured, that in me you 
will find one who will ever rejoice in your prosperity. 

A great deal of speculation is now indulged in 
with respect to the new cabinet. You, probably, can 
form some opinion as to what selection will be made. 
If you desire a position it seems to me you are en- 
titled to your choice. I have heard your name men- 
tioned in connection with the State Department, also 
as Minister to the Court of St. James. Whatever 
wish you may have in regard to the matter I hope may 
be gratified. 

Yours truly, 

S. B. LEONARD. 



296 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



D. L. DICKINSON TO SENATOR BRIGHT. 

Binghamton, March 1, 1853. 
Dear Gov. : 

Allow me to acquaint you with, and crave your 
kind offices in behalf of the bearer hereof, Hermon 
C. Leonard, of Astoria, Oregon. Mr. L. is a son of 
a valued friend of mine, the Hon. Stephen B. Leonard, 
of Owego — many years an efficient Democratic editor 
— a former distinguished member of Congress, and 
now, as at all other times, a true and unflinching 
National Democrat, in season and out of season. 

The son, too, though now of Oregon, was raised 
here and honors his parentage. He is a candidate for 
Deputy Postmaster at Astoria, and any aid you can 
render him through General Lane, or otherwise, will 
be duly appreciated and thankfully acknowledged by 
myself and numerous other friends, both of him and 
his father. I commend him warmly to your favor, 
and beg you will present him to General Lane, and 
such other eminent friend, as, amid your great press of 
public duties, you may find it convenient. 

Sincerely yours, 

D. L. DICKINSON. 

Hon, Jesse D. Bright, 

U. S. Senate. 



297 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

E. H. L. TO HER SON HERMON. 

Owego, July 15th. 
My dear Hermon : 

I really feel that I have done very wrong in omit- 
ting to v^^rite you for so long a time. I know you have 
been advised of the passing events here, as the girls 
have written you often, but that is no excuse for me, 
I feel it my duty to write you frequently. It is of 
no avail for me to tell you how much we think and 
talk about you, and how much we miss you at this 
season especially, when we were accustomed to greet 
your arrival with so much joy. 

But this is a world of change, perhaps there has 
been as little in our family for the two past years, as 
any other. We are all yet alive, and enjoying very 
good health. This is a pleasant time with us now, 
rendered so by the arrival of William and Louisa and 
the dear little children: they brought a nurse. They 
calculate to stay here three or four weeks. Henrietta 
and Emily are all the children we have at home this 
summer, Irving is here with George Sperry, and 
Laura is in Southport with Mrs. Bulkley, by special 
invitation, attending school and taking music lessons. 
You can hardly imagine what a smart little fellow 
Willie is, he wears pantaloons buttoned to a waist, 
with short sleeves; he looks cunning enough, he talks 
so rationally and with the prettiest accent I ever heard 
from a child ; he says his prayers, bids all good-night 
with a kiss, and goes to bed in a dark room. They shut 
him up once a day to get a nap, but he is so full of 
play that he makes a horse of the pillows, and rides. 
Lewis Hermon is a fine little boy too. Irving wrote 
me a few days ago. says he is very busy, has no time 

298 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

to answer your letter, which we forwarded to him. 

The weather is delightful, the country looks finely, 
the harvest is drawing nigh. William says a gen- 
tleman called on him some days ago, I believe he is 
a mail agent, who came direct from your place. He 
said you were in good health, and doing well. This 
is good news and rejoices our hearts, and revives our 
spirits. 

William and Louisa are going to Trumansburg to- 
morrow, they leave the children here. We have heard 
that Lewis Bulkley is coming up to spend a few days. 
Our garden looks very well, we have plenty of rasp- 
berries from our own bushes, apples are not plenty 
this year. * * * * 

My letter has been laid aside for a few days. I 
have been very busy, and as there was no steamer to 
sail, I have rested awhile. William and Louisa have 
returned, have had a very pleasant visit, were much 
gratified with Uncle H's polite treatment: he sent me 
some cucumbers, and raspberries from his bountiful 
garden, besides a bouquet of rare flowers as large as 
you ever saw. 

Saturday. To-day Lewis Bulkley and his mother 
arrived, a visit from Mrs. B. quite unexpected, but 
happy to see them : we contrive to stow them away 
comfortably, and all goes off pleasantly. * * * * 

Mondav — ^Iv letter is a week old now. I intended 
to have sent it on Saturday, but am glad now that 
I did not, for this day's mail brought me yours of 
June 7th, also two to William ; we held a rejoicing 
over them, it had been a long time since we had seen 
a line from your hand. Oh, it is gratifying to hear 
that you are so comfortably situated, and your health 
so good. Those great salmon that you speak of, 

299 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

astonish us entirely. William is pleased with the 
business letters, says you have done well to remit to 
them all you owed, so soon. 

George Huntington is in S. F. he took a daguerreo- 
type and letter for you, have you received them? 
Your specimen of gold is very fine, much obliged to 
you, but we don't know what to do with it. 

Our people are waiting for this letter so I must 
close. All the family send love in abundance. 
From your affectionate mother, 

E. H. LEONARD. 



As has been evident from the perusal of this his- 
tory Mr. Leonard was a life-long Democrat. He was 
a patriot, and an earnest advocate of purity and probity 
in public men and measures. His grief at the pos- 
sibility of the disruption of the L'nited States is in- 
dicated in the letter herewith inserted, and throughout 
the war for the L'nion. his heart was sore troubled. 
He was a firm Union Democrat, and his hopes and 
prayers were constant for a cessation of hostilities, 
and a restoration of public peace. Although he had 
many dear friends in the South, yet his determined 
opposition to secession was never shaken or modified. 



S. B. L. TO THOS. PEARSALL. 

Owego, Jan. 10. 1861. 
Thomas Pearsall, Esqr.. Montgomery. Alabama. 

Dear Sir: — On my return home this evening, after 
some two weeks sojourn in Broome Co., where I 

300 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

have been attending to a little unfinished business con- 
nected with the U. S. Census. I find your very ac- 
ceptable favor of the 29th ultimo. It has been so 
long- a time since I have seen anything from your 
pen, you may be assured I feel much gratified in re- 
ceiving this kind token of your remembrance and 
regard. Accept my thanks. 

I have noticed with much attention what you say 
in relation to the critical and truly alarming condition 
of our beloved country, and fully sympathize with, 
and endorse the views you entertain and express. It 
is indeed a dark period in the history of our nation, 
and no reflecting mind can contemplate the future 
without the most gloomy forebodings. We are at this 
moment in the midst of a revolution, and civil war 
seems inevitable. Indeed from the last accounts we 
have reason to apprehend that blood has already been 
shed. Should this prove to be true, and should the 
other slave holding States follow South Carolina in 
the secession movement, which there is every indica- 
tion they will do, the Union will not only be destroyed, 
but it requires no stretch of the imagination to see, 
looking but a little way into the future, this once 
glorious Confederacy, which cost a seven years war 
and so much blood and treasure, broken into fragments 
and under the rule of a corrupt, military despotism. 
Who but must shudder at such a thought, and yet, 
judging from the history of republics that have gone 
before us, is if a visionary one? God grant that in this 
case it may not prove so. 

I have long since entertained doubts as to whether 
our system of government is calculated to be the most 
permanent system. Although most congenial with our 
natures and notions of equality, than any other, and 

301 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

when administered in its purity best calculated no 
doubt, to secure general happiness, yet where there is 
so much unrestrained liberty, designing, corrupt 
demagogues will ever be found ready to take advantage 
of it, and if necessary to their selfish ends, undermine 
the pillars of its foundation. We live to-day to wit- 
ness the truth of this assumption. Our present degra- 
dation, and the threatening clouds which now darken 
our political horizon, are the effects precisely of these 
causes. There was no necessity for the crisis which 
we are now compelled to witness. If ever a nation 
was blest with all the elements necessary to true great- 
ness, it was ours. Independent at home, respected 
abroad, her commerce flourishing, her internal re- 
sources abundant, her people prosperous and happy. 
What a glorious career in prospect before her. But 
now how changed, and how humiliating the reflection 
that this change has been brought about by a com- 
bination of such miserable and corrupt influences. 

You have very properly classed these influences 
under four distinct heads, either of which is entitled 
to a share of the credit, or discredit, of bringing upon 
us the evils by which we are now surrounded. Cor- 
ruption and intrigue are continually being developed 
among men in high places, as well in the Democrat 
as the Republican ranks. Peculation and fraud is the 
order of the day, and I must confess I have lost all 
confidence in political professions. The time was 
when, as you very truly say, to be a Democrat some- 
thing more was required than mere demagogism ; 
but that time seems to have passed by. Integrity 
and worth are no longer a passport to public favor. 

I cannot but sympathize with Mr. Buchanan in this 
his hour of responsibility and trial. In the first place he 

302 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

was very unfortunate in the selection of his confi- 
dential advisers, and I think it is to them, or some 
of them, that he can ascribe many of the troubles he 
has had to encounter. I believe Cobb to be a perfect 
demagogue, and that he and Floyd and Thompson have 
been concocting secession ever since they have been 
members of the Cabinet; willing to see the President 
bafifled in every^ measure he proposed, and now willing 
to leave their several departments when in a most dis- 
graced and embarrassed condition. Mr. Buchanan 
has had a great deal to encounter. Many difficult, very 
difficult questions have arisen, and in disposing of 
them he has had to contend against far more bitter 
hostility at the hands of prominent Democrats than 
from his political opponents. I do not know how you 
have felt, but for myself I have not approved, in any 
shape, of the course pursued by Douglas. I think he 
has done more than any other individual to place the 
Democratic party where it is. His aspirations for 
the White House, and his determination to reach it, 
at all hazards, not only defeated us in the late cam- 
paign, but ruined our prospects for the future. I be- 
lieve but for him we might have united upon Dickin- 
son, or some other man. and have been triumphant. 
It was madness in our delegates when they said that 
not a single vote could be relied upon from the South, 
it was madness, I say, to persist in his nomination, 
because in order to elect, every one knew that it was 
indispensable that we should have at least a portion, 
if not the whole of that vote. Douglas' war upon Mr. 
Buchanan was the means of breaking up the Demo- 
cratic party. The rank and file in all the counties in 
every State lost confidence in their leaders, the uni- 
versal sentiment was that the party was down, and 

303 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

notwithstanding all was done that could be to get out 
the vote, thousands did not go to the polls, and many 
others who did, voted the Republican ticket. As for 
myself I was satisfied from the first that there was 
no prospect of success, and therefore took no part in 
the contest beyond giving a silent vote. These things, 
however, are among the bygones, and are of no con- 
sequence beyond the contemplation of the possibility 
and perhaps probability that it may be the last time 
we ma}^ be called to the discharge of the duty of 
electing a President of the United States. 

Well, my dear Sir, I have scribbled over my sheet 
without scarcely knowing what I have written. You 
will pardon all indiscretions and error. It does no 
good in the present state of our national aflfairs to 
criminate or incriminate. All we can do is to pray 
our Heavenly Father to interfere His blessed influence 
in this our hour of darkness and peril, and secure us 
from that destruction that seems to be impending. 

I have nothing to communicate in relation to local 
matters here. Things are moving on in the usual 
monotonous wav. 

Mrs. L and my daughters desire to be remembered 
in great kindness to yourself and family. 

Yours truly, 

S. B. LEONARD. 



Mr. Leonard was a life-long: friend and ardent ad- 
mirer of Governor Horatio Seymour, and this cor- 
respondence indicates the high esteem in which he 
held Mr. S. 



304 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

GOV. H. SEYMOUR TO S. B. L. 

Utica, Nov. 25, 1862. 
My dear Sir : 

I am very much obliged to you for your letter 
of congratulation. The result of the late election 
shows that the power of the country is going into 
conservative hands. If we are prudent, patriotic, and 
firm, we shall save our Union. We must unite the 
great Central States in our line of policy. There are 
no feuds between the States lying along the Ohio and 
the Potomac. The war was originated by the pas- 
sions and prejudices of the Gulf Stream States, and 
the North Eastern States. All that is necessary to 
save our country is a decided movement of the great 
populous central region to put down sectional ex- 
tremes. 

I hope I shall have the pleasure of seeing you at 
Albany this winter. 

Truly yours, 

HORATIO SEYMOUR. 

Hon. S. B. Leonard. 



S. B. L. TO GOV. SEYMOUR. 

Owego, Nov. 30, 1862. 
Dear Governor: 

Having a moment before the mail closes, I will 
avail myself of it to add another to the thousand and 
one congratulations which you have no doubt re- 
ceived since the late election. Well, my dear Sir, I 

305 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

hope you will not suffer your patience to become ex- 
hausted by these inflictions, for such a glorious result 
is worthy of all congratulation. Every one who loves 
his country, and is desirous of seeing it rescued from 
the misrule under which it is now struggling, cannot 
but rejoice. As for myself I am free to say, that 
during a somewhat protracted life, and having, of 
course, been a participant in a great many political 
conflicts, I have never witnessed one which involved 
so many important considerations. It is indeed a 
great and glorious triumph over corruption, mal-ad- 
ministraiion, and reckless fanatacism; a combination of 
evil influences which for the past two years have been 
driving our country to inevitable ruin. Thanks for 
that *' sober, second thought " of the people which, 
through the ballot box has spoken in such thunder 
tones of condemnation to our opponents that it could 
not be mistaken, and that cannot be misunderstood. 
And what a rebuke to those who from motives of 
self aggrandizement, or revenge, or both, apostatized 
from their principles and their party, and became the 
apologists and advocates of those whom they had 
always condemned and denounced. What a witherinj^ 
rebuke ! 

I was much gratified at the calm, dignified and 
courteous manner in which, during the campaign, 
you alluded to the personal attacks made upon you by 
Dickinson and Tremain. The course you pursued 
must be as creditable to yourself, as the contempla- 
tion of it now must be humiliating and mortifying 
to them. They have received the reward of their 
apostacv, and we will leave them " alone in their 
glory." ' 

In closing permit me to express the desire, and 

306 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

the hope that that desire will be gratified, that after 
the next Presidential election, we may have the 
pleasure of meeting and greeting you at the White 
House in Washington. 

In much haste, I subscribe myself, 
Your obedient servant, 

S. B. LEONARD. 
Hon. Horatio Seymour. 



Nothing could be simpler, or more modest than 
the following account of my grandfather's remem- 
brances of his ancestry, and his own career. They are 
a model of courtly epistolary style, not much followed 
in these days of dictation and stenography. 

I print them both, even though they contain largely 
the same information. 



S. B. L. TO W. A. L. 

March 14, 1872. 
My dear Grandson : 

Your sister and her Aunt Laura, on their return 
from New York a few days since, informed me that 
you expressed a wish that I would furnish you with 
what information I possessed concerning the early 
history and ancestral relations of the family whose 
name we bear. 

Most certainly nothing would afford me more 
pleasure than to aid you in the researches you are 

307 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

so zealously making, touching this matter, for your 
object is highly commendable, and in the furtherance 
and success of which you have my warmest sym- 
pathies. I regret, however, in being compelled to say 
that I do not think I can be of any essential service. 

Many years ago, as early, I think, as 1805, my 
father's house on Wall Street in New York was de- 
stroyed by fire, and with it all the old books and rec- 
ords of the family. I was quite young at the time, too 
young to think much upon the subject, and during 
the many years that have intervened, embracing a 
period of three-fourths of a century, with all the 
vicissitudes and changes connected therewith, my 
mind has become oblivious to what if now possessed, 
I should consider of inestimable value. But so it is, 
and as all, or nearly all who were acquainted with 
our family at that early day have gone to their last 
account, there is no one to consult upon the subject. 

As I have always understood, two brothers came 
to this country from England — one of them settled in 
New Jersey, and the other in Massachusetts. We 
sprang from the New Jersey stock. My grandfather's 
name I think was Joshua. He had four sons and two 
daughters ; one of the latter, Polly, married a Hurd, 
and the other a Condit, both in the neighborhood of 
Morristown, New Jersey. The son's names were 
Zephaniah, Paul, Silas and Stephen. These of course 
are long since dead. 

My Father, Silas Leonard, was born in the town 
of Whippany or Parcipany. N. J. He married Anna 
Ruthetta Gregory, an only daughter of Seth Gregory, 
a merchant and extensive dealer in cattle, which he 
used to ship in great quantities. My father had four 
sons and one daughter — the latter died when very 

308 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

young. The son's names were Seth, Gregory, Stephen 
Banks, Silas Milton, and Harry Campbell. Milton 
died while on a visit to Berkshire County (Mass.), 
in 1819. HsLvry died at Friendsville, Susquehanna 
County (Pa), in 1840 and Seth died at Watkins, Schuy- 
ler County, N. Y., in 1865. 

Of the history of him who now addresses you, 
little need be said. Suffice that he was born in Wall 
Street, City of New York, on the loth of April, 1793. 
At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to the print- 
ing business. After attaining to his majority he 
worked as a journeyman, some two or three years 
in the cities of New York and Albany; and in the 
summer of 1814, established himself in the printing 
business in the village of Owego, Tioga County, in 
which he continued twenty-two years. 

In 1835 he was elected a representative in Congress 
for two years, and was again re-elected in 1838. He 
held the office of Postmaster under two administra- 
tions, and at various times discharged the duties of 
supervisor of his town. All of which taken in con- 
nection with his frequent appointments as Delegate to 
County, Senatorial and State conventions, has made 
somewhat of an active political career from early life 
up to the present time. 

But my dear grandson, these all belong to the 
things that are past, are of no no consequence now. 
The friends of my youth have passed away, and I 
stand, figuratively speaking, like the girdled oak in 
the forest, stript of its foliage, shorn of all the in- 
fluence and power which my positions once secured 
to me. My sun is fast declining to the western hori- 
zon, with a view to its final setting. Yours is just 
rising. God grant that it may grow brighter and 

309 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

brighter — that your life and health may long be pre- 
served, and that you may ultimately attain to a posi- 
tion of usefulness worthy your highest ambition, and 
that will reflect honor upon yourself and family. 

Affectionately yours, 

S. B. LEONARD. 
Rev. William A. Leonard. 



S. B. L. TO W. A. L. 

Owego, Dec. 15, 1872. 
Dear William : 

Your kind and very welcome note of Friday, was 
duly received and is now before me. I need not say 
I was glad to see something from your pen, so as to 
learn that your health was improving. We had been 
advised by your father that you had been suflFering 
considerably from a throat difficulty: hope that by 
this time you have fully recovered. I am happy in 
being able to say that we are all in usual health at 
home. 

I perceive that you are still persistent in your effort 
to trace out, as far as possible, the genealogy of our 
family. This is certainly very commendable on your 
part, and entitles you to many thanks. But after all 
it is somewhat questionable whether it is worth the 
labor to which it will subject you. The trouble is, 
it is so difficult at this day. to get at the facts required. 
I very much regret that I find myself unable to render 
you the assistance you desire. I think I once stated 
to you that when I was quite young, say ten or 

310 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

twelve years of age, my father's house was destroyed 
by fire, together with most of its contents, embracing 
of course all the family records. If it had been at- 
tended to at the time, many of those records might 
have been re-recorded from memory, and thus have 
been of use to us now; but as it was neglected then, 
and now so many years have intervened, and all or 
nearly all have long since gone to their last account, 
who knew anything of the transactions of that early 
day, we have no one to inquire of, or any date on 
which to rely. 

Do you recollect of having seen a periodical, pub- 
lished several years ago, entitled the New Englander, 
which contained a somewhat lengthened article on the 
genealogy of the Leonard family? It traced our his- 
tory back to an early period, and though not very 
connected, brought it down to the date of that publica- 
tion, embracing my name in connection therewith. 
We had the pamphlet here, but it is now missing. 
Perhaps your father may have it. If you could find 
it, it would be serviceable to you in your researches. 

From the nature of my calling, being a printer by 
profession, I was thrown into the arena of politics 
at an early period of my life, and have been more or 
less identified with them to the present time — holding 
many minor positions as the years have rolled on, 
such as Postmaster, Supervisor, Delegate to State, 
Congressional, Senatorial, County Conventions, etc., 
etc. But my dear grandson, as I once said to you, 
these are all among the bygones and I think they had 
better be left among the bygones, not being worth a 
thought or rehearsal. From what has been written, 
however, and the researches you have made, perhaps 
you may be able to glean some facts that will give 

311 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

interest to your own family record, and it is with 
this idea in view that I approve of the course you 
have taken. 

Please say to dear Sarah that you have received 
a letter from me, in which I extend much love to 
her, and kind regards to her father and mother. 

Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LEONARD. 
Rev. W. A. Leonard. 

P. S. I send you a copy of the " Saint Nicholas," 
thinking you might be pleased in reading the early 
history of the Susquehanna Valley. 



THURLOW WEED TO S. B. L. 

New York, Dec. 27, 1873. 
Dear Old Friend : 

I have to thank you for a very interesting letter. 
It stirs up recollections of the long past, recollections 
in which the joys and sorrows of life are mingled. 
Although an invalid of more than five years, I have 
much, very much, to be thankful for. You, too, have 
enjoyed length of days, and are, I infer from your 
letter, in comfortable health. 

The Owego Gazette and its editor were well en- 
titled to remembrance, but in the article you saw I 
endeavored to enumerate the newspapers of 1812. I 
went to work for Mr. Southwick in February, 1815, 
where I used to hear the old journeymen talk of your- 
self, Samuel H. Davis, and others with whom they 

312 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

had been associated. Of all the journeymen printers 
in Albany at that day, John O. Cole and yourself, only 
survive. I have copies of the Albany Register, and 
Albany Gazette, published in 1813. They are queer 
looking little sheets ; I have also a copy of the Dic- 
tionary of the Bible, printed by H. C. Southwick, on 
which I w^orked at press, saving a copy, sheet by sheet 
as the signatures were worked off, and getting them 
bound by Mr. Van Vechten, who occupied the lower 
floor of the Register office. 

If anything should call you to New York it would 
afford me great pleasure to see you. Mr. Redfield, 
who established the Register in Onondaga Valley in 
1814, was here two months ago. 

Very truly yours, 

THURLOW WEED. 

To S. B. L. 



The following letters breathe the appreciative 
spirit. They indicate the estimate in which the Father 
and Mother held the Son, and are tender as well as 
loving. 

S. B. L. TO W. B. L. 

Owego, September, 7, 1874. 
Dear William : 

I am made happy in the receipt of your very ac- 
ceptable letter of 28th ultimo, now before me, fur- 
nishing as it does another testimonial of your kind 
regard and filial affection, for which please accept my 
heartfelt thanks. Most assuredly my dear son, I 

313 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

needed no additional evidence of the deep interest you 
have always taken in everything which pertained to 
my own happiness and that of the family. Your 
whole life bears record on this point, which admits 
of no question. I feel that I am peculiarly blessed 
in all my children, and to yourself and to Hermon, 
and that other much loved one, whose remains we 
so recently followed to the grave, I feel under special 
obligations. God grant there is much happiness in 
store for all of you in this world, and in that which 
is to come, Life Everlasting. 

I have nothing in particular to communicate. We 
are all in good health. Your mother and Lottie made 
but a brief visit to Watkins, but they enjoyed it 
much. Mr. Gano and his family extended to them 
all the attention that could be desired. 

The weather here is delightful, and has been for 
several weeks past, though we are suffering some for 
want of rain. Business is dull and money scarce, as 
is the case, I believe, in almost every place through- 
out the country. 

Among the amusements of the place, the excur- 
sions upon the river are most prominent. We have 
in all, four steamboats, the Owego. the Success, the 
Dora, and another not yet named, recently got up. 
The Owego has done well, and her trips to the Big 
Island are now being regularly made two or three 
times times a week. 

The Beecher-Tilton scandal continues to be much 
discussed, though becoming somewhat stale. Of 
course there is much diversity of opinion. As for my- 
self, I yet think Beecher will be sustained. It can- 
not be denied that he has acted very unwisely, said 
many foolish things, and in various ways made him- 

314 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

self appear ridiculous, — yet I am unwilling to believe 
him guilty of the crime alleged. Between ourselves 
I am free to say that I have no confidence in the state- 
ments of either Moulton or Tilton. Taking the whole 
thing together, it is a nasty, disgraceful concern, and 
the sooner it can be disposed of, the better. 

It is some weeks since we have heard from Her- 
mon. We yesterday, put under the ground the re- 
mains of another of our old and most respectable 
citizens, David Maker. He died very suddenly, aged 
77 years. The funeral was numerously attended. 
Two other aged citizens have passed away during the 
last ten days. Doctor Cady of Nichols, and Mr. 
Mills of Barton, former sheriff of this county; you 
knew him. Both of them died very suddenly. Whose 
turn will be next? 

Please let me hear from you frequently. 
Yours affectionately, 

S. B. LONARD. 

Mr. W. B. L . 



Another specimen of graceful letter writing is 
herewith added. It is Chesterfieldian in its rhythm, 
and in its courteous address. 

S. B. L. TO SARAH L. LEONARD. 

Owego, Jan. 26, '76. 
My dear Granddaughter: 

Your very acceptable favor of the 6th inst. came 
duly to hand, and I severely chide myself for suffer- 
ing so long a time to intervene before acknowledging 
its receipt. It is now too late, however, to attempt an 

315 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

apology, and I must therefore be content with throw- 
ing myself upon your kind indulgence for pardon. 

I trust it is altogether unnecessary, my dear Sarah, 
for me to say that the perusal of your letter afforded^ 
me indescribable pleasure. To be thus kindly and 
affectionately remembered by one for whom I enter- 
tain so high a regard, awakens many of the finer 
sympathies of my heart, and calls for an expression 
of thanks which I have not language to utter. I can 
only say that I duly appreciate my obligations, and 
hope I may be so fortunate as to retain, as long as I 
live, those favorable impressions which you now seem 
to cherish in my favor. 

I have nothing new or interesting, my dear, to 
communicate. Everything is quite dull here, as I 
suppose it is in every other country village ; and the 
social circle was never at a lower ebb, on account of 
the absence of so many young ladies and gentlemen 
from town. I presume, however, that matters will 
brighten up again after a few weeks. You can well 
imagine how lonesome it is at our house, as Laura 
and George are both in your city, leaving only your 
grandmother, Emily and myself at home. 

To-day I suppose, and about this hour, an alli- 
ance is being consummated between Louisa and Mr. 
Van Nostrand. We all, of course, feel a deep interest 
in the event, and indulge the hope that it will prove 
to be the commencement of a long and happy career. 

Remember me in great kindness to your dear 
father and mother, and accept for yourself and hus- 
band, an assurance of my affectionate regard. 

Yours truly, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

Mrs. W. A. Leonard. 

316 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

S. B. L. TO W. B. L. 



Owego, April 20, '76. 
Dear William : 

Your kind favor of loth inst, was duly received, 
and is now before me. Thank you for it. It had been 
a long time since I had received anything direct from 
your pen, and I sometimes wondered at your seeming 
remissness, but a moment's reflection satisfied me 
that I ought not to be surprised. I knew that your 
business cares and family responsibilities occupied 
nearly all your time, and besides you had frequently 
written other members of the family, whose letters 
I of course, had access to. I need not say that we 
are always happy to hear from you. 

My health for a week or two past, has not been 
very good. I am able, however, to keep about, have 
a good appetite and sleep well nights, — but I feel a 
sort of general debility, which affects my whole sys- 
tem. In addition to this, my articulation is somewhat 
affected, the cause of which we cannot account for, 
and I have some apprehension as to my ever recover- 
ing from it. It is, perhaps, a rational conclusion that 
it is a partial giving away of one of the faculties with 
which nature has blessed me, and which I have been 
permitted to retain and enjoy for the prolonged period 
of 83 years. This is a good old age, and it is naturally 
to be expected that some of the old machinery will 
begin to fail. Indeed in view of the frailty of our 
nature it is '' Strange that harp of thousands strings 
should keep in tune so long." 

We had a letter from Hermon last evening, dated 
about ten days ago in Southern California. His 

317 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

health was much improved, and he was going to take 
steamer in a few days for San Francisco. 

The death of Joseph De Witt was very sudden. 
He, with three or four other gentlemen, were on their 
way to Nichols, to attend a Masonic funeral. They 
had got a short distance below the bridge (being in 
a hack) when the cigar which Joseph was holding 
in his mouth, was seen to fall, his head fell back, and 
he ceased to breathe, without uttering a word. What 
a commentary upon the uncertainty of human life, 
and what an admonition it affords to all to be ready 
to go at a moment's warning. Verily our breath is 
in our nostrils. 

Business here is very dull. Weather cloudy and 
cold. Farmers have not commenced doing anything, 
indeed there is a good deal of frost yet in the ground. 

The marriage between Frederick Piatt and Mrs. 
Charles Piatt is coming off at the time of this writing 

Milton Leonard and his wife are now with us. 
Came up from New Haven last evening. Milton is 
seeing to some business connected witli his first wife's 
father's estate. 

Yours truly, 

S. B. LEONARD. 

P. S. 1 don't know that you can read this letter 
at all. It is written with a miserable pen, and part 
of it in the dark. I want you to tear it up when you 
get through with it. 

o. B. L. 



318 



STEPHEN" BAXKS LEONARD. 

E. H. L. TO W. B. L. 

Home, January 27, '78. 
Dear Son William : 

It is with much pleasure that I am able to write 
you again. I am feeling nearly well again, have 
gained fast within a week. I was very ill for a few days, 
I feared I had the pneumonia. But a kind Providence 
has permitted me to recover in a measure. I feel, and 
trust, that I am thankful for this great blessing. As 
old as I am, I never enjoyed life any more than I do 
now. Why should I not? I have all the comforts of 
life that can be enjoyed rationally. Beside, I have 
what money can not buy, the love and dutiful kind- 
ness of all my children, this I can say sincerely, and 
am most happy to say it. This morning from letter 
received, I hear that your wife is sick, also Louise and 
Nurse both out of health. What is the matter, have 
they bad colds? I hope they are not dangerously ill. 
If you get sick, go to bed, and you will gain time by 
it. If I had done it last year it would have been better 
for me. I will tell you of an old-fashioned remedy I 
tried the other day. Laura commenced in the morn- 
ing roasting onions in the ashes and applying them 
to my throat and chest all day, changing several times; 
they were applied hot, in thin bags, not very much 
done, chopped to make it a poultice. I never found 
anything that seemed to do so much good. I think 
when Louisa has those attacks she has frequently, it 
might do her much good. 

We enjoy Hermon's company exceedingly, he 
spends all the long evenings at home. How remark- 
able it is to have had him for two winters in succes- 

319 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

sion, he has gone to church with the girls to-day. The 
weather is truly delightful. The ice crop will prob- 
ably be short, the river is as clear as in June. 

Please give much love to all the sick, and all the 
well ones of your family, — to Will and Sarah, Lewis 
and Lizzie, and all. 

Yours most affectionately, 

E. H. LEONARD. 



320 



ADDENDA 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



ADDENDA. 

Mr. Edwin Salter of New Jersey, a true genealogist, 
and for a number of years a clerk in the Government 
Departments at Washington, furnished me with much 
material regarding the New Jersey Leonards. Some 
of it is of general use and some of it bears directly 
on our branch of the clan. It seems wise to print it 
in full, as it may be of service to some seeker after 
genealogical facts. Mr. Salter was descended from 
the Leonards. 

In regard to Henry Leonard and family, see Gen- 
ealogical Register, viz, 1849, page 240 ; 1851, page 
254; 1851, page 405; 1853, page 88; 1853, page 71-2; 
Vol. 15, page 146. See also Vol. 25, page 290. 



REFERENCES TO CONSULT. 

Thomas Leonard of New Jersey — Mac Lean's His- 
tory of the College of New Jersey — Vol. I, page 47, 
91, 104, 105, 146, 258, 316. And Morse's American 
Gazetteer. 

Thomas Leonard — History of Elizabeth, N. J., by 
the Rev. Mr. Hatfield., page 56 and 80. 

Samuel Leonard — Contributor to East Jersey His- 
tory by Whitehead, page 53, note. 

By turning to " Burries Index to American Gen- 
ealogies " page 150, under head of Leonard, a full ar- 
rangement of authorities on the subject is given. I 
transcribe them here, viz — 

323 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

" Adams History Fairhaven, Vt., 426-30. 
Ammidown's Mem. and Southbridge, Mass., Fams., 

46, 7. 
Blake Gen. 55, 6. 

Caverly's History, Pittsford, Vt. 713-4. 
Clark's History Norton, Mass., 86, 7. 
Davis' Landmarks, Plymouth, Mass., 171-2. 
Deane's Leonard, Gen., 1851. 
Fruman's History Cape Cod, Mass., 1; 611. 
Hough's History Lewis County, N. Y., 151-1. 
Massachusetts History, Loe Coll., 1st series 11 ; 

173-4. 
Mitchell's History Bridgewater, Mass., 235-8. 
Morris and Flint Gen., 54-5. 
New England History General Register, Vol. 403- 

13; 11, 269-71. 

Paige's History Hardwicke, Mass., 413-4. 

Pompey, N. Y., Reunion, 329-32. 

Savages General Diet. Ill; 78-80. 

Spooner Mem., W. Spooner 191-9. 

Sprague's History, N. Y., 122-3. 

Temple's Hist. Whately, Mass., new edition, 245. 

Thayer's Early Settlers. New England, 160-1; 279- 

310. 
Vinton's Giles Gen. 1854; 279-310. 
Walker, Gen., 31. 
Winsor's History Duxbury, Mass., 275. 

Much can be found in the New Jersey Historical 
collections; and in lists of Revolutionary soldiers 
from New Jersey ; and in History of Princeton 
College, N. J., and of " The Log College," N. J. 

As bearing upon the Leonards of New Jersey the 
following is a list of wills that could be examined 

324 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

by their descendants and of value. They are printed 
here simply for preservation. 

" Leonard " wills in office of Secretary of State, 
Trenton, N, J., between years 1704 and 1750. 

Will of John Leonard, of , 

dated February 8, 1711. Proved May 2, 1712. Wife 
Elizabeth. Daughters Sarah and Anne. Sons John, 
Henry, Samuel and Christopher. Cousin Henry Leon- 
ard of Monmouth County. Wife Elizabeth, Execu- 
trix. 

Will of Nathaniel Leonard, of Trenton, Hunter- 
don County, dated Sept. 11, 1727. Proved December 
20, 1727. Wife Anne. Daughters Mary and Anne. 
Sons Samuel, Thomas, Nathaniel, Maurice. Cousin 
Christopher. Executors, — Brother Thomas Leonard, 
James Leonard and Daniel Howell. 

Will of Henry Leonard, of Shrewsbury, Monmouth 
County. Dated April 17, 1730. Proved February 11, 
1739. Wife Lydia. Daughters Mary, Sarah, Susan- 
nah, Margaret, Elizabeth, and Parthenia Cook. Sons 
Henry, Thomas. Executors, — Brother Samuel, 
brother-in-law Thomas Morford and sons Samuel and 
Thomas. 

Will of Samuel Leonard of Shrewsbury, Monmouth 
County. Dated November 14, 1742. Proved February 
16, 1742. Wife Elizabeth. Daughters not named. 
Sons Joseph and Thomas. John Eatton and Joseph 
Wardell, Executors. 

Will of Thomas Leonard of Princeton, Somerset 
County (now Mercer Co.), dated December 6, 1755, 
proved November 23, 1759 (Liber 10, page 1). Wife 
Abigail Doughty (second wife). ** Susannah " name of 
first wife. Brothers Henry (deceased), John (de- 
ceased), James (deceased), and Samuel. Sister's 

325 



STEPHEN Bx\NKS LEONARD. 

name not mentioned. Nephews Samuel, Thomas and 
Henry, sons of brother Henry, and niece Sarah Tin- 
dall, daughter of brother Henry. Nephew John, son of 
brother John. Nephews Whitehead, and John his 
brother (an infant under 21 years), James, Thomas 
and Daniel, sons of brother James. Niece Sarah, 
daughter of brother James. Lucy, Charity and Mary 
Leonard, daughters of nephew Whitehead Leonard. 
Charity and Pamelia Leonard, daughters of nephew 
Thomas. Thomas Leonard son of nephew Thomas. 
Thomas Leonard son of nephew John Leonard. Ex- 
ecutors — Nephew Thomas Leonard, son of brother 
James, (deceased), and friend John Berrien. 

Will of Enoch Leonard, of ^Mendham, Morris 
County. Dated Sept. 16, 1757, proved October 18, 
1757 (Liber F, page 260). Wife Elizabeth. No chil- 
dren mentioned. Grandson John Arnold. Robert Ar- 
nold, Executor. 

Will of Samuel Leonard, of Perth Amboy, Middle- 
sex County. Dated April 2, 1754, proved February 
13, 1758 (Liber F, page 489). Wife Ann. Daughters 
Mary Berrien (eldest), Sarah Billop, Rachel Sarjant, 
Elizabeth Goelct and Ann Lawrence. Sons-in-law 
John Lawrence, Francis Gpelet, Samuel Sarjant, John 
Berrien. Executors — Sons-in-law John Lawrence, 
Samuel Sarjant, John Berrien. 

Will of Ann Leonard (widow), of Perth Amboy, 
Middlesex County. Dated August 31, 1758, proved 
June 13, 1761 (Liber H, page 9). Daughters Rachel 
Sarjant, Sarah Billop, widow of Thomas Billop (de- 
ceased), Elizabeth Goelet. Sister Mary Farrington. 
Father-in-law Benjamin Griffith. Son-in-law John 
Berrien. Granddaughter Elizabeth Lawrence. Ex- 
ecutor — Son-in-law John Berrien. 

326 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Will of Henry Leonard, of Essex County. Dated 
November 4, 1759, proved November 2, 1761 (Liber H, 
page 39). Wife Eupheme Arabella Leonard. Sons 
Robert Morris Leonard and Henry Leonard. Daugh- 
ter Susanna Leonard. Sister Sarah Leonard. Brothers 
Samuel and Thomas. Brother-in-law Samuel Cook. 
Executors — Wife Eupheme, brothers Samuel and 
Thomas, brother-in-law Samuel Cook, and Courtland 
Skinner. 

Will of Nathaniel Leonard, of Middletown, Mon- 
mouth County. Dated December 13, 1763, proved 
December 29, 1763 (Liber H, page 527). Wife Deliv- 
erance. Sons John, Nathaniel, Joseph and Thomas. 
Executors — Sons John, Nathaniel and Joseph, and 
friend Andrew Bowne. 

Will of Nathaniel Leonard, of Middletown, Mon- 
mouth County. Dated February 25, 1774, proved 
March 18, 1774 (Liber L, page 113). Wife Catherine, 
Brothers Thomas, Joseph and John. Executors — 
Brother Joseph and Cousin Andrew Bowne. 

Will of Henry Leonard, Jr., of Cape May County, 
also of the County of New Hanover, North Carolina. 
Dated April 11, 1759, proved October 4, 1760 (Liber 
10, page 161). To his father, Henry Leonard, all his 
lands, etc., both at Cape May and North Carolina. 
No executor mentioned. 

Will of John Leonard, of Cape May County. 
Dated February 10, 1771, proved October 24, 1771 
(Liber 16, page 19). Wife Anne. Brothers Henry 
and Samuel. Cousins (in " Carolina ") Samuel, John, 
Henry and Jacob Leonard and John Robinson. Sister 
Sarah Robinson. Brother Samuel's daughter Jane 
Ludham. Executrix — Wife Anne. 



327 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



ENGLISH LINE. 

The following is the reputed early English line 
prior to Sampson Lennard. Compiled by Richard S. 
Lansing of Rochester, N. Y. 
Lady Joan of Beufort. Sir Ranulf Neville, K. G., 



Died November 13,1440. 

Sir Edward Neville, K. G., 
Baron of Bergavenny. 
Summoned to Parlia- 
ment as Baron Berg- 
avennv 1450 to 1472. 



Sir George Neville, second 
Baron Bergavenny. 



Sir George Neville, third 
Baron Abergavenny, J. 
B. K. G. 

Lady Mary Neville. 



first Earl of Westmore- 
land. 

Lady Elizabeth B e a u - 
champ, only child of 
Richard Beauchamp, 
Earl of Worcester, and 
Isabel de Spencer, 
granddaughter of Will- 
iam, fourth son of 
Thomas, Earl of War- 
wick, K. G. 

Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Hugh Fenne, Knight, 
Sub-Treasurer of Eng- 
land. She died Septem- 
ber 28, 1485. 

Mary, daughter of Edward 
Stafford, Duke of Buck- 



ingham. 



Sir Thomas Fienes, ninth 
Baron Dacre, who was 
executed in 1541 and his 
honors forfeited, but re- 
stored to his son as 
tenth Baron Dacre. 
Sampson Lennard, who 
became eleventh Baron 
Dacre. 
See " The Families of Barrett and Lennard," by 
Thomas Barrett-Lennard, printed 1908. 

329 



Lady Margaret Fienes, 
Baroness Dacre. 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



STAFFORD LINE. 



Hugh de Stafford, second 
Earl of Stafford. Died 
1386. 



Lady Margaret Stafford. 



Lady Phillippa Neville. 



Hon. Thomas Dacre. 



Lady Joane Dacre, Bar- 
oness Dacre. 



Lady Phillippa de Beau- 
champ, daughter of 
Henry, third Earl of 
Warwick, one of the 
original Knights of the 



Garter. 
1369. 



She died in 



Sir Ralph Neville, K. G., 
fourth Baron Neville, of 
Reby ; Earl Marshall of 
England. Created in 
1399, Earl of Westmore- 
land. 

Thomas de Dacre, sixth 
Baron Dacre of Gillis- 
land. Died 1457. 

Elizabeth, daughter of 
Richard Bowes, Esq. 

Sir Richard Fienes, Baron 
Fienes, who in right of 
his wife was summoned 
to Parliament as Lord 
Dacre of the South, sev- 
enth Baron. 



330 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 



FIENES LINE. 



Hon. John Fienes, eldest 
son of Sir Richard 
Fines. Died before his 
father. His son suc- 
ceeded as eighth Baron 
Dacre. 

Sir Thomas Fienes, eighth 
Baron Dacre. Died 1534. 

Hon. Thomas Fienes, eld- 
est son of the eighth 
Baron Dacre. Died be- 
fore his father. His son 
succeeded as ninth 
Baron Dacre. 

Sir Thomas Fienes, ninth 
Baron Dacre. Sir 
Thomas was executed 
in 1541 and his honors 
forfeited. (See page 7, 
ante.) 

Lady Margaret Fienes, 
Baron Dacre, sister of 
Gregory, who was re- 
stored in blood and 
honors as tenth Baron 
Dacre. Died 1641. 



Lady Anne, daughter of 
Sir Humphrey Bouchier, 
Lord Berner. 



Lady Mary, daughter of 
Sir George Neville, 
Lord Abergavenny. 



Sampson Lennard, who 
became eleventh Baron 
Dacre in 1604. Son of 
John Lennard of Che- 
vening, Kent, and Eliza- 
beth Harmon of Cray- 
ford, Kent. 



331 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

In the Xew York Tribune of September 25, 1904, 
is a picture of a monument which has been designed 
to commemorate the establishment of the iron indus- 
try in this country, to be erected in Taunton. The 
model prepared by the sculptor, Charles Neihous, is 
quite attractive. The artist has attempted to typify 
the secret of the Leonard family success in three fig- 
ures, although they are only a small part of the 
statuary which surround the tall over-shadowing shaft. 
One figure is that of an old man, seated and bowed 
but still powerful ; before him stands a youth listen- 
ing, in his hand is the hammer, and he seems to be 
only waiting for a word from the old man, to wield 
it. The son is thus preparing to take up his father's 
business. Near the youth, also stands his mother, 
ready to encourage him in his chosen work. On the 
other side of the pedestal, are groups, illustrating 
miners digging out ore; foundrymen pouring the 
molten metal from the crucible, and smiths fashion- 
ing the metal into wrought bars. The figures will be 
of bronze, the shaft will be of granite to reach a 
height of eighty feet. 

In connection with the meeting of the Leonard 
family in 1901, the following genealogical table was 
compiled, and it will be of value, of course, to many 
beyond our immediate household. 

The descendants of Henry (1) Leonard, brother 
of James (1), who after residing in Taunton a few 
years, left for New Jersey, and was one of the first 
to set up an iron-works in that State. 

He was the progenitor of a numerous posterity. 
He left six children, Samuel (2), Nathaniel (2), 
Thomas (2), Henry (2), Sarah (2), and Mary (2) 
Leonard. 

333 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

The children of James (1) Leonard and his wife, 
Margaret Martin: Thomas (2), James (2), Abigail (2), 
who married John Kingsley of Milton, Rebecca (2), 
who married Isaac Chapman of Barnstable, Joseph 
(2), Benjamin (2), Hannah (2), who married Isaac 
Dean, and Uriah (2) Leonard. 

The children of Thomas (2) Leonard, and his 
wife, Mary Watson: James (3), Mary (3), who mar- 
ried Joseph Tisdale, Thomas (3), John (3), George 
(3), Samuel (3), Elkanah (3), Phebe (3), and Eliza- 
beth Leonard, who married Jonathan Williams. 

The children of James (2) Leonard: James (1), 
Eunice (3), who married Richard Burt, Prudence (3), 
who married Samuel Lewis of Barnstable, and their 
descendants; Hannah (3), who married John Crane; 
James (3), Lydia (3), who married William Britton ; 
Stephen (3), Abigail (3), who married Dr. Ezra Dean; 
Seth (3), Abigail (3), who married Henry Hodges, and 
Elizabeth (3), Leonard who married Captain Joseph 
Hall. 

The children of Rebacca (2) Leonard; James (1), 
who married Isaac Chapman: Lydia (3), John (3), 
James (3), Abigail (3), Hannah (3), Isaac (3), Ralph 

(3), and Rebecca (3) Chapman, who married and 

their descendants. 

The children of Joseph ('2) Leonard, James (1) 
and his wife Mary Blake: Experience (3), who mar- 
ried Samuel Hodges, Mehitable (3), who married ; 

Edward (3), William (3), and Silence (3) Leonard, 
who married . 

The children of Benjamin (2) Leonard, James (1) : 

Sarah (3), who married Eddy; Benjamin (3), 

Jerusha (3), Hannah (3). Joseph (3). and Henry (3) 
Leonard. 

334 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Of the children of Hannah (2) Leonard, James (1), 
who married Isaac Dean; Alice (3), who married John 
King; Abigail (3), who married Thomas Terry, and 
their descendants; Hannah (3) who married Nathan- 
iel Hodges; Nathaniel (3), Abiah (3), who married 
Benjamin Hodges; Deborah (3), who married James 
Allen; and their descendants; Jonathan (3), and De- 
borah (3) Dean, who married William Stone, and 
their descendants. 

The children of Alice (3) Dean, Hannah (2) Leon- 
ard, James (1), who married John King: Philip (4), 
whose daughter married Captain George Williams, 
John (4), Josiah (4), David (4), Jonathan (4), Ben- 
jamin (4), Hannah (4), and Abigail (4) King. 

The children of Hannah (3) Dean, Hannah (2) 
Leonard, James (1), who married Nathanial Hodges: 
Jonathan (4), John (4), Hannah (4), who married 
Timothy Bryant and their descendants. 

Abiah (4), who married Jonathan Follett, and 
their descendants: Rebecca (4), who married Seth 
Tisdale, and their descendants; Phebe (4), who mar- 
ried John Cobb; Mehitable (4), who married Thomas 
Morey, and Remember (4) Hodges, who married 
Stephen Wood, and their descendants. 

The children of Abiah (3) Dean Hannah (2) Leon- 
ard, James (1), who married Benjamin Hodges: 
Abigail (3), who married Beach Cutter, Abiah (4), 
who married Nehemiah King; Anna (4), who mar- 
ried Dr. John Wild of Norton; Benjamin (4), Rachel 
(4), who married Record Franklin, and Ephraim 
Hodges, and their descendants. 

The children of Uriah (2) Leonard, James (1) : 
Uriah (3), James (3), Seth (3), Jonathan (3), William 

335 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

(3), and Margaret Leonard and her husband and their 
descendants. 

The children of ]\Iary (3) Leonard,, Thomas (3), 
James (1), who married Tisdale : Joseph (4), Elkanah 
(4), Mary (4), who married a Winslow; Hannah (4), 
who married WilHam Hodges; Sarah (4), who mar- 
ried Thomas Reed, and their descendants ; and Abigail 
(4) Tisdale, who married William Hayward, and 
their descendants. 

The children of Mary (4) Tisdale, Mary Leonard 
(3), Tisdale, Thomas (2), James (1), who married 
a Winslow: Oliver (5), Joseph (5), Ruth (5), Mary 
(5), who married Constant Eddy; and Job (5) W^ins- 
low, and their descendants. 

The children of Hannah (4) Tisdale, Mary Leon- 
ard (3) Tisdale, Thomas {2) James (1), who married 
William Hodges: George (5), Abigail (5), who mar- 
ried Thomas Cook, Job (5), Elijah (5), Abijah (5), 
and Mary (5) Hodges, who married William Chandler. 

The children of Abijah (5) Hodges. Hannah (4), 
Tisdale, Mary (3), Leonard Tisdale, Thomas James 
Leonard, who married Jerusha (4) Leonard : James 
(3), James (2), James (1): Mary (6), who married 
Joseph Tisdale; Abijah (6), Jerusha (6), who married 
John Godfrey, son of General George Godfrey, Samuel 
(6), James (6), who married Joanna Tillinghast and 
had Charlotte (7), who married Gov. Marcus Morton, 
James L (7), David Cobb (7), Eleanor, and 2d by 
wife Sarah Cobb (7), William Grey and Frances 
Hodges and their descendants. 

The children of Thomas (3) Leonard, Thomas (2), 
James (1): Thomas (4), who married Sarah Walker, 
and their children: Mary (^K Sarah (5), mother of the 

336 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

wife of Hon. Josiah Dean; Hannah (5) ; Gamaliel (5), 
Paul (5), Caroline (5), and Phebe (5) Leonard, and 
their descendants. 

The children of John Leonard, Thomas (2), James 
(1), who married ^lary King: Thomas (4), John (4), 
Philip (4), and Josiah (4), Leonard. 

The descendants of the three sons and two daugh- 
ters of Major George (3) Leonard, Thomas (2), 
James (1), of Norton. 

The children of Samuel (3) Leonard, Thomas (2), 
James (1) : Bethla (4), who married David Howard, 
Abiah (4), who married Benjamin King, Hazadiah (4), 
who married Rev. John Wales, Katherine (4), who 
married John Allyn, Phebe (4), who married John 
King, Deacon Elijah (4), and of his son. Rev. Elijah 
(4), Sophia (4), who married Elijah Dean; George 
(4) and Abiel Leonard. 

The children of Elkanah (3) Leonard, Thomas (2), 
James (1) and his wife Charity Hodges: Elkanah (4), 
Joseph (4), Rebecca (4), who married Jabez Perkins 
of Norwich; Abiah (4), who married John Nelson of 
Middleboro; Simeon (4), Jemima (4), who married 
Jacob Perkins; Zebulon, Timothy, Henry (4), Thomas 
(4), and Charity (4), who married Ezra Lothrop. 

The children of Elizabeth Leonard, Thomas (2), 
James (1), who married Jonathan Williams: Mercy 
(4), who married Seth Dean; Abigail (4), who married 
Peter Hay ward; Elizabeth (4), who married David 
AVilliams; Abiah (4), who married Abial Macomber 
and Mehitable Williams, who married Abial Williams. 

The children of Eunice (3) Leonard, James (1), 
James (1), who married Richard Burt: Abiel (4), Mary 
(4), Richard (4), Joseph (4), Ebenezer (4), John (4), 

337 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Ephraim (4), and Abigail (4), Burt, who married 

Tisdale, and their descendants. 

The descendants of Prudence (3) Leonard, James 
(2), James (1), who married Samuel Lewis of Barn- 
stable. 

The children of Hannah (3) Leonard, James (2), 
James (1), who married John Crane; Henry (4), Ger- 
shom (4), Ziphora (4), Tabatha (4), and John (4) 
Crane. 

And the descendants of Ziphora (4) Crane, who 
married Ephraim Allen; Hannah (5), Rebecca (5), 
Benjamin (5), Samuel (5), Ephraim (5), Ziphora (5), 
and Tabatha (5) Allen. 

And the descendants of Tabatha (4) Crane, who 
married Ebenezer Pratt, Silas (5), Tabatha (5), who 
married Lient Ebenezer Porter. Ebenezer (5), Abner 
(5), Hermah (5), who married Samuel Bate, Stephen 
(5), Rebecca (5), who married Stephen Paine, Jr., 
Sherebiah (5), Reliance (5), who married Ebenezer 
Hovey, and Molly (5), who married Zachariah Bick- 
nell. 

The children of James (3) Leonard. James (2), 
James (1) ; James (4). Lydia (4), who married Thomas 
Cobb, and of the children of James (4), Leonard, 
James (3), James (2), James (1), Lydia (5), who mar- 
ried Robert Crosman. Phebe (5), who married Wiiliam 
Drake: Mehitable (5), who married Andrew Hodges; 
Abijah (5), Rufus (5), Abiathar (5), Col. Nathaniel 
(5), and Lieut. James (5), Leonard. 

The children of Phebe (4) Leonard, James (3), 
James (2), James (1), who married William Drake: 
Isaac (5), William (o), Perez (5), Phebe (5), who 

338 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

married Simeon Crosman ; ApoUus (5), and George 
(5), A Drake. 

The children of Mehitable (4) Leonard, James (3), 
James (2), James (1), who married Andrew Hodges: 
Sibyl (5), who married Rufus Clapp, and their de- 
sendants ; Mehitable (5), who married Ebenezer Hall, 
and their children; Sarah (6), Hall, who married John 
D. Gilmore (6); Ebenezer (6), Leonard (6), Rufus 
(6), Lodicia (6), who married Oren S. Dean, Andrew 
H. (6), and Almira (6), who married Jonathan Hunt, 
and their descendants. 

Zilpha (5) Hodges who married Luther Short and 
their children, Luther L. (6), and Zilpha (6), who 
married Simeon H. Lane. 

The children of Lydia (4) Leonard, James (3), 
James (2), James (1), who married Thomas Cobb: 
Gen. David Cobb, Jonathan (5), Sally (5), who mar- 
ried Robert Treat Paine, and Hannah (5), who mar- 
ried Rev. Josiah Crocker. 

The children of Stephen (3) Leonard, James (1), 
Huldah (4), Mary (4), Paul (4), Joshua (4), Rev. 
Silas (4), and Major Zepaniah (4), Leonard, and the 
children of Major Zepaniah Leonard: Captain Joshua 
(5), Mary (5), Silence (5), who married Elijah Loth- 
rop, Anna (5), who married Ebenezer Stetson, Zepa- 
niah (5), Abigail (5), who married Captain Josiah 
Crocker, Apolus (5), and Samuel (5) Leonard. 

The children of Abigail (3) Leonard, James (2), 
James (1), who married Dr. Ezra Dean: Ezra, Thea- 
dora (4), who married Richard Godfrey, Abigail (4), 
who married Caleb Walker, Bethia (4), who married 
Ephraim French, Nehemiah (4), James (4), Solomon 
(4), Stephen (4), Seth (4), Elkanah (4), George (4), 

339 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Prudence (4), who married first Haywood, second 
Robert Grossman, and Esther (4) Dean. 

The descendants of Seth (3) Leonard, James (2), 
James (1), who married Dorcas White: Nicholas (4), 
Edmund (4), Simeon (4), Solomon (4), Sarah (4), 
who married Prince Sears ; Bethia (4) who married 
Stanly Carter, and Hannah (4) who married Gabriel 
Fecto. 

The children of Sarah (3) Leonard, James (2), 
James (1), who married Henry Hodges: Josah (4), 
Sarah (4), who married Col. George AMUiams, Elipha- 
let (4), Henry, Lydia (4), who married Gen. George 
Godfrey, Elizabeth (4), who married Paul Eddy, 
Abigail (4) who married John Harvey, and James (4) 
Hodges, and their descendants. 

The children of Elizabeth (3) Leonard, James (2), 
James (1), who married Joseph Hall: Joseph (4), 
and Susanna (4), Hall, who married Job Tisdale, and 
their children; of Susanna (4), who married Job Tis- 
dale: Perez (5), Mary (5), who married Captain David 
Leonard, Elizabeth (5), who married Nathaniel Dean, 
Josias (5), Llannah (5), who married Captain Zebulon 
Field, Sarah (5), and Anna (5), Tisdale, and their 
descendants. 

The descendants of Susanna (3) Kingsley, Abigail 
Leonard (2) Kingsley, James (1), who married 
Thomas William Hack. 

The descendants of Abigail (3) Kingsley, Abigail 
Leonard (2) Kingsley, James (1), who married 
Thomas Snell. 

The children of Mary (3) Kingsley, Abigail 
(Leonard) (2) Kingsley, Mary, who married Ensign 
Thomas Dean: Thomas (4), Josiah (4), Elijah (4), 

340 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

Mary (4), Seth (4), Mercy (4), who married Robert 
King of Rehoboth, Rebecca (4), who married Daniel 
King, Keziah (4), who married Edmund Andros, and 
the descendants of John (3) Stephen (3), Samuel (3), 
and Elizabeth (3) Dean and her husband. 

The children of Experience (3), Leonard, Joseph 
(2), James (1), who married Samuel Hodges: Lydia 
(4), who married Thomas Winchell, Silence (4), 
who married Ephraim Turner, Experience (4), who 
married Joseph Cook, and Samuel (4) Hodges. 

The descendants of Edward (3), William (3), sons 
of Joseph (2), Leonard, James (1). 

The descendants of Jerusha (3), who married 
Nicholas Smith and of Joseph (3), children of Ben- 
jamin (2), James (1) Leonard. 

The children of Joseph (3) Leonard, Benjamin (2), 
James (1) : Benjamin (4), who married Bethia Drake, 
Mary (4), who married Lieut William Thayer, Han- 
nah (4), Levi (4), Sylvester (4), and Peleg (4) 
Leonard. 

The children of Benjamin (4) Leonard, Joseph (3), 
Benjamin (2), James (1), and his wife Bethia Drake: 
Benjamin (5), Hannah (5), who married Joseph Bood- 
rey, Wealthy (5), who married Joseph Frazier, Abigail 
(5), who married Abiathar Macomber, Zilpha (5), who 
married Abijah Wilbor, Lydia (5), who married Asa- 
hel Eddy, Berthia (5), who married Oliver Reed, 
Mercy (5), who married Timothy Eddy, Abiah (5), 
who married Richard Williams, Joseph (5), Stephen 
(5), and Elijah (5) Leonard. 

The children of Uriah (3) Leonard, Uriah (2), 
James (1), and his wife Abigail Stone: Mehitable (4), 
who married John Harvey, Abial (4), Elizabeth (4), 
who married Meshach Wilbur. 

341 



STEPHEN BANKS LEONARD. 

The children of James (3), Seth (3), Jonathan (3), 
William (3), and Margaret (3), children of Uriah (2), 
James (1) Leonard, and the children of Margaret (3), 
who married Josiah White: Josiah (4), Margaret (4), 
who married Benjamin Woodcock, Jonathan (4), 
Abigail (4), who married Joseph Woodcock, Jacob 
(4), Sarah (4), who married a Morton, Elizabeth (4), 
who married Thomas Wilson, John (4), and Nathan 
(4) White. 



342 




- y. . ,. - 



.snosi.