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Full text of "Stephen Russell Mallory (late a senator from Florida) Memorial addresses, Sixtieth Congress, first session, Senate of the United States, May 2, 1908, House of representatives May, 3, 1908. Comp. under the direction of the Joint committee on printing"

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60th Congress! 
2d Session ( 



SENATE 



I Document 

I No. 762 



Stephen Russell Mallory 



(Late a Senator from Florida) 



MEMORIAL ADDRESSES 



Sixtieth Congress 
First Session 



SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES 
May 2, 1908 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
May 3, 1908 



Compiled under the direction of the Joint Committee on Printing 



WASHINGTON : : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : : 100<» 



I 



Death of Senator Stephen R. Mallory 



PROCEEDINGS IN THE SENATE 

Monday, January 0, igo8. 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, Chaplain of the vSenale. offered the 
following prayer: 

The people that sat in darkness saiv a great liqht; and to thtm 
'who sat in the recjwn and shadow of death tight is sprung up. 
* * * Unto you that jear my name shall the Sun of l\ight- 
eoiisness arise with healing in His wings. ''■' '■'■ * Repent ye, 
for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. 

Father of light. Father of lo\e, in the midst of darkness Thou 
wert pleased to reveal Thyself to all sorts and conditions of 
men — to all Thy children. The Sun of Righteousness arises 
with healing in His wings. From day to day and from year to 
year this world is coming nearer and nearer to its God. 

And here are we, Father. Thy servants are sent to do Thv 
will, to enter into Thy service, that ser\-ice which is perfect 
freedom, that Thy kingdom may come and Thv will may be 
done here on earth as in heaven. 

As the year begins. Father, as these Christmas solemnities 
go by, we come to Thee as so many children of tiie living Cod, 
asking Thee that we may be strong with Thy strength, that we 
may speak as His servants, that we may enter into Thv king 
dom. 

Hear us and answer us as Tin children. 

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed he Thy name. 'Thv 
kingdom come. Thy will l)e done on tarth as it is done in hea\en. 



6 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

Give us this day our daily bread. Forgive us our trespasses as 
we forgive those who trespass against us. Lead us not into 
temptation, but deliver us from evil. For Thine is the kingdom, 
the power, ;ind the glory, forever. Amen. 

Mr T.M.i.xriCRRo. Mr. President, it has become my ])ainful 
duty to announce to the Senate the death of my late colleague, 
the Hon. Stephen R. Mai.uorv. at his home in Pensacola, at 
12.48 o'clock on the morning of December 23 last. 

At some future day 1 will ask the Senate to set aside a tinu- 
to pay fitting tribute to his memory. I ask now the passage 
of the resolutions which I send to the desk. 

The \'ici:-President. The Senator from Florida asks for 
the adoption of resolutions, which will be read by the Secretary. 

The Secretarv read the resolutions is follows: 

l\fSol\vd, Thai ihi- .Si-nale has htard witli profound «)rro\v of the death 
of the Hon. Stephk.n Ri'ssiiLU Maulorv, late a Senator from the State of 
I-'lorida. 

kisohfd. That the Secretary communicate a cojiy of these resoUilions 
10 the House of Re])resentatives 

The X'lcic- President. The c|uestion is on agreeing to the 
resolutions submitted by the vSenator from Florida. 

The resolutions were unanimously agreed to. 

Mr. T.xliaferro. As a further mark of respect to the memory 
nf my deceased colleague, I move that the Senate now adjourn. 

The motion was unanimously agreed to. and (at 1 2 o'clock 
and 5 minutes p in.) the Senate adjourned until to-morrow, 
Tuesday, January 7, igo8, at u o'clock meridian. 

TuEsn.w, April 14. moS. 
Mr. T.xuiAFERRo Mr President. I desire to give notice that 
on Saturday. May 2, immediately after the routine morning 
business, I shall ask t he Senate to consider resolutions commemo- 



Proceedings in the Senate 7 

rative of the lives, character, and pubhc services of my late 
colleagues, Hon. Stephen R. Mallory and the Hoh.Wiluiam 
James Bryan. 

Saturday, May 2, igo8. 

The Chaplain. Rev^ Edward E. Hale, offered the following 
prayer : 

Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the jaithjul brctlircn: 

Wc do not cease to pray for you and to desire that ye might he 
filled with the spirit in all wisdom and understanding ; that ye 
might walk worthily of the Lord, hearing fruit in every good work 
and increasing in the knowledge of God, strengthened with aU 
power according to the might of His glory. 

Let us pray. 

Here is our prayer. Father, that what the apostle asked from 
Thee Thou wilt give to us to-day in this day's duty, in to-day's 
pleasure, in work, in thought, alone or together, that the Lord 
God will be with us to teach us. Father, Thy will; that we may 
walk worthy of this Christian vocation to which we are called; 
that it may not be in vain that Thou hast lifted this nation 
where it is, to be the messenger of Thy glad tidings to all men. 

To-day, Father, we go back into the past to recall memories 
of the lives of those who have served in this Chamber, and to 
Jook forward for the good of this people. May every lesson of 
the past be translated for us into duties for to-day, to-morrow, 
and every day. Oh, God, make this nation that happy people 
whose God is the Lord. We ask it, in Christ Jesus. 

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy 
kingdom come. Thy will he done, on earth as it is done in 
heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us oiTr 
trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us. And 
lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil, for Thine 
IS the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever. .Vmen. 



8 



Memorial Addresses: Steplii)i f\. Malhry 



Mr. TAUiAKiiKKi). Mr. I'resideiU, I ask for thf consideration 
of the resolutions I send to the desk. 

Tin- X'ice-PrEsidknt. The Senator from Florida submits 
resolutions, which will be read. 

The Secretary read the resolutions, as follows: 

Kisohid, That the Senate has heard with profound sorrow of the deaths 
of the honorables Stephen R. Mallory and William James Brya.n, late 
Senators from the State of Florida. 

Kitohiil, That as a mark of respect to the memcjry of tlie deceased .Sena- 
tors the business of the Senate be now susi>ended to enable their associates 
to pay pro|)er iriliute to their high characters and distinguished public 
services. 

Rcsolvrd, That the Secretary communicate a copy •>! these resolutions to 
the House of Representatives and transmit a copy thereof to the families 
of the deceased Senators. 

The X'icE-PrEsident. The question is on agreeinj? to the 
resolutions submitted by the Senator from Florida. 
The resolutions were unanimously agreed to. 



Address of Mi . Taliaferro, of Florida 



MEMORIAL ADDRESSES 



Address of Mr. Tauaferro, of Florida 

Mr. President: The late distinguished Senator. vStkphen R. 
M.^LLORY, of Florida, died at Pensacola, his home, on Monday 
morning, December 23, 1907. in the sixtieth year of his age. 
He was born in Columbia, S. C, November 2, 1848, but very 
soon thereafter was taken by his mother to Key West, Fla., 
where his boyhood days were spent. In the fall of 1864, when 
onlv 16 years old, he entered the Confederate army, but after a 
brief service, or in 1865, was transferred to the navy, serving as 
a midshipman on the Patrick Henry until the war ended. ' 

Soon after the surrender, or in November, i86s, he entered 
Georgetown College, District of Columbia, and graduated there- 
from in. June, 1869. The fortunes of the family having been 
sapped by the four years' struggle, he had to bend his efforts 
of bod\- and mind to the serious affairs of life, and, having 
made a fine record in college, he applied for and obtained a 
chair in his alma mater and taught there for two years. In 
June, 1904, this institution conferred upon him the degree of 
doctor of laws. The hours not filled by his duties at college 
were diligently spent in preparing himself for the practice of 
law. Later Jie remo\ed to New Orleans and, while still read- 
ing law, supported himself by teaching school. In 1873 he 
was admitted to the supreme court of Louisiana and in 1874 
removed to Pensacola and began jjractice. 

From his early life he took an active interest in govern- 
ment and politics, and especially in the herculean struggle 



lO Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

being made to free Florida from the eorrupt control of political 
adventurers. In 1876 he was elected, as a Democrat, Xo the 
lower house of »he Tlorida legislature; was elected to the State 
senate in 1880 and reelected in 1884, his services covering 
in all a period of ten years. His record was excellent in every 
way and inspired his people with such confidence in his integ- 
rity and ability that he was sent to represent his district in 
the Fifty-second and Fifty-third Congresses. 

In 1897 the Florida legislature balloted many days for many 
men for United States Senator in one of the most exciting con- 
tests of the history of the State, and finally elected Senator 
Mallory to succeed the Hon. Uilkinson Call. He was actually 
not a contestant for the place, but believed that the honor would 
go to one of the declared candidates then in the field. Indeed, 
it is said that he had no notice of any purpose to propose his 
name earlier than twenty-four hours before his election. 

Senator Mallory's career in this body shows him to have 
been a careful thinker and a conser\ative statesman. He was 
not opposed to reform, but first satisfied himself that a change 
was needed and that the new order would be better than the 
old. He thought that the basic ])rinciples of this Government 
were sound; his respect for the Constitution was profound, and 
his abiding faith was that through the study of the Constitution 
the broadest and best jjrincii^les of government could be 
learned hi his will he left a sum to Georgetown University 
to be invested and the proceeds used to provide medals to be 
awarded from time to time for the best essays upon the Con- 
stitution of the United States. 

Senator Mallory's mind was essentially judicial and his 
sense of justice true and corrc*ct. He was of the Catholic faith 
and loved his church, but I submitted a case to him once in 
which th<- church was largely interested. an<l, after giving it 



Address of Mr. Taliaferro, of Florida ii 

careful study and thought, he decided that the contention of 
the church, while possibly correct in equity, had no standing 
in the law. 

While he was grateful to those who had brought about his 
election to the Senate from the deadlock of the Florida legisla- 
ture in 1897 and loyal to the men who led in that contest, yet his 
gratitude and loyalty were not allowed to extend beyond the 
bounds of what a correct conscience told him was right. In 
his first term in this great deliberative body Senator Maulorv 
made an excellent record, and upon the strength of it had no 
opposition for a second term, his election by the legislature in 
April, 1903, being unaniiuous. 

I had known Senator Mallory as a lawyer in Florida, as a 
member of the legislature, and as a Representative in Congress, 
but my home was in Jacksonville and his in Pensacola, cities 
wide apart, and because of the infrequency of our meetings 
our acquaintance was only casual. In 1S99 1 came to the Sen- 
ate, and it was then that our real acquaintance began. The 
sturdy excellence of the man caused me to admire and esteem 
him, and I was soon glad to number him among my strong and 
steadfast friends. It is largely upon the intimacy with him 
here in this body that I base my views and judgment of his 
character. 

He was the soil of a distinguished man, but this did not sjioil 
him or cause him to seek prominence or adulation. He fought 
his own fight with a definiteness of purpose that was commend- 
able and showed the sterling stuff of wliich he was made. He 
attained, but the honors he won were worn witli touching mod 
esty. His career shows steadfastness of character and ]>uril\ 
of principle. His record here — in all his life, indeed — displays 
a patriotic and abiding faith in the principles of our Govern- 
ment, a correct sense of. justice, and a deep and generous syni- 



12 Memorial Addresses: Stephiti R. Mallory 

palliy fur those who struggle for the betteriiient of themselves 
and their children. He believed that the foundation of a wise 
and enduring Government was the education of its people, and 
if there was one cause more than another which appealed to 
his sympathy and enthusiasm it was education. 

Chiki-lahor legislation, compulsory education, the organiza- 
tion of the public school system of Florida, and the reorganiza- 
tion of school matters in lliis city all bear the impress of his 
zeal in behalf of thousands of children whom he could never 
know. But the children whose pitiful condition touched him 
most closely were those in the naval reser\'ation off Pensacola, 
in sight of his own home. There were 500 or more of these 
children, many of them descendants of workmen who were long 
ago induced to go there under the promise of homes in peaceful 
security. The State had no jurisdiction or control of this 
reservation, and therefore no power or authority to supply 
schools, and the children were growing up in comparative 
ignorance. The first congressional provision for their relief 
was introduced by Senator (then Representative) M.\llorv. 
Since then he worked untiringly in every Congress of which 
he was a Member for free school facilities for these children. 
In the Fiftv-ninth Congress he introduced a bill in the Senate 
for the establishment and maintenance of public schools on 
the naval reservation. iMiially, certain, because of his fast 
failing health, that he could not live long, he arranged for a 
place on the Committee on Naval Affairs (exchanging with his 
old friend, Senator Ulacklnini. who went to the Committee on 
the District of Columbia), one of his ])urposis Ix-ing to further 
the educational interests of the neglected children of the Pen- 
sacola Navy- Yard. 

Ivnlering the ]X)rtals of death, a soul whose life labors were 
dedicated even in part to the Ixttenuenl of the condition of 
little children nii-d have no fear. 



Address of Mr. Taliaferro, of Florida 13 

A friend of Senator Mallory, ~a friend of education, and 
especially of neglected children of the naval reservation, has 
suggested that no more enduring monument could be erected 
to his memorv, no more fitting tribute of love and veneration 
could be laid upon his grave, than for this great body to assume 
the work of providing the little neglected proteges of the nation 
with the educational advantages which should be assured to all. 

Senator Mallorv was the son of Stephen Russell Mallory, 
who was a Senator from the State of Florida in this body from 
1 85 1 to 1 86 1, when he-retired to follow the fortunes of his State, 
which had seceded from the Union to become a part of the 
Confederate States of America. The elder !\Iallory was secretary 
of the Confederate navy, which placed upon the seas the first 
fighting ironclad the world had ever seen — an ironclad which 
ended the era of the wooden vessel and revolutionized the naval 
architecture of the world. 

The elder Mallory was born in Trinidad on his father's vessel, 
sailing from Bridgeport, Conn., famed as the home of mariners 
and shipbuilders. The junior Mallory also was reared within 
the sound of the sea. Indeed, his early boyhood days were 
spent at Key West, an island in the sea, some miles distant 
from the mainland of I'-lorida. Reared in such an atmosphere 
and descended from the sturdy mariner folk of Connecticut, it 
is but natural that he should love the sea, its vast air of freedom, 
the grandeur of its storms, the music of its murmurs and its 
mysteries. The Spanish blood in his veins, a heritage from 
his mother, produced in him, as the strange chemistry of the 
Latin admixture usually produces, a perhaps more intense love 
of the beautiful in poetry and art and nature than the Anglo 
Saxon seems to hold, and especially in nature, which he looked 
upon as the open book — the ideal — of botli poetry and art. 

For many years preceding his death Senator Mallory had 
been an iqvalid. During mucii of that tinu> he was compelled to 



14 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

rest in a sitting posture. He bore his troubles silently and with- 
out complaint even to his most intimate friends. He has ap- 
peared in this body more than once with the tell-tale flush of 
fever on his face and suffering bodily pain to participate in some 
important debate or to advocate some measure of interest to 
the people of his State and the nation. Nor did he measure 
the sum of his duty by the interests of his State alone. 

When he came to die the Senate was sent a message — one of 
his last — requesting that there he no ofTicial funeral. He 
wished no pomp or display, but merely to be laid quietly away 
by his own people at his ow^n home with tlio simple service of the 
Catholic prayers for the dead. He asked, too, that there be no 
eulogy, but Father Fullerton, who conducted the funeral, felt 
"that a life so modest, so full of lessons for the living, war- 
ranted a disregard of part of this request at least." He said 
that Senator M.m.uirv "had died as he had lived, a courageous 
man, religious without pretense, and a faithful soldier of the 
cross. There was no complaining or repining in the long fight 
against sufferings which were a martyrdom. He showed us 
how to live, and when he could not longer show us that, he 
showed us how to die." 

On the north face of the Confederate jiionument at I'ensacola 
there is a legend selected by Senator M.\i,i,ORV and chosen, jkt 
haps, because it was the lode star of his own life; 

'Tis nol in inott;ils In cniniiiand success. We'll flo mi>rv, .Siniiininius 
we'll deserve it. 

And I may add, Mr. President, that the success which my 
lamented colleague achieved he well deserx-ed. 



Address of Mr. Gallinger, of New Hampshire i^ 



Address of Mr. Gallinger, of New Hampshire 

Mr. President: A singularly conscientious and devoted 
public man of the very best American type has been lost to the 
Senate and the nation in the death of Stephen R. Mallory, of 
Florida. His splendid character was manifest in the very 
aspect of his face and form — in the refinement of his well- 
remembered features and the dignified and courteous bearing of 
the well-born, cultivated gentleman. He was a worthy heir 
to one of the historic names of the South, the second of his 
family to adorn this Chamber. This is a distinction rare in the 
annals of the Republic. Not often in our bustling, aggressive 
democracy are the public honors of a father transmitted to a 
son — nor were these honors in this instance merely transmitted 
as a matter of right, in the aristocratic Old World way, from 
the older to the younger M.\llory. Rather were they achieved 
anew by the younger man, in our good American way, by dint 
of sheer ability, ardent endeavor, and high personal deserving. 
Fortunate is he who inherits a distinguished name, but still 
more fortunate is he who, inheriting it, leaves that name all the 
more illustrious because of the manner in which he has borne 
it throughout his life and of honest and beneficent work in the 
service of his country. 

It was the fortune of Senator Mallory to have lived during 
the most stirring and dramatic period of our national career. 
These are the years spanned by the lives of the majority of the 
older men now in this Chamber. As a lad he saw the final 
intensifying of the sad and bitter estrangement between North 
and South, that consummate tragedy of America, the transform- 
ing of brethren into deadly enemies — a tragedy which we are 



i6 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

mourning still, but, fortunately, one which heals and fades so 
swiftly in these present years that to our children's children 
it will be a thing incredible. 

Young Mallorv not only saw this tragedy. Like tens of 
thousands of brave and ardent boys, South and North, he was 
himself a part of it — both witness and actor in its heroism, 
grief, and suffering. As a young officer of the Confederate 
navv Ik- hort- his share in tlu' fmal scenes of the drama, and it 
happened that his own role was of the most difficult and dis- 
couraging character. It is a matter of history that the little, 
improvised Confederate fleet was outmatched almost every- 
where by the over\vhelming resources of the Federal Navy, and 
that it was only the solitary commerce destroyers, free and 
far on the ocean, some of which never saw Confederate waters, 
that could make any headway against the tremendous mari- 
time ]K)wer of the North. Yet peculiarly hard and dishearten- 
ing as was the sen'ice of the Confederate navy in the work of 
home defense, it proved to young M.\ulory to be an admirable 
school of manly courage and endurance. What is more, it 
heli)ed to give him that unusual interest in and knowledge of 
the affairs of the sea which, strengthened by his long residence 
at a historic Southern seaport, made him so useful afterwards 
in House and Senate in the consideration of important matters 
of ocean trade and navigation. On all these things he spoke 
among us here with rare information and authority. 

But Senator M.m.i.okv was a well-rounded man. Nothing of 
concern to the nation or his State found him indifferent or 
forgetful. The great war had broken in upon his school years, 
as it broke in upon the student life of so many of the wisi-st 
and best men who have sat here and in the other House of 
Congress. Hut when there was opportunity he turned again 
resohitelv to his education and gathered an excellent e(|uip 



Address of Mr. Galiinger, of Xcw Hampshire 17 

ment in the law. His habit of mind was exact, logical, and 
fair. He would have made a great and able judge. Indeed, 
his temperament was naturally the broad and philosophical 
one of judge and arbiter rather than of sharp, uncompromising 
partisan advocate. But his honored name, the ripeness of his 
scholarship, and his notably attractive personality marked 
him out for an active political career. ,, The people of Florida 
were proud of his qualities of mind and heart, and proud of 
the distinction of being represented by a man like this at 
Washington. 

Senator Mallory in his later day and generation recalled 
some of the best traditions of those earlier and fortunate years 
before the slavery feud had rent North and South asunder. He 
was of a distinguished race, long identified with the most im- 
portant public ser\ace. The power of leadership and of states- 
manship were with such men a matter of instinctive habit and 
inheritance. They knew their people and were absolutely 
trusted by their people, and they held to lofty ideals of the 
obligations and the powers of government. Even those who 
differed with them never dreamed of doubting the sincerity of 
their logical conclusions and their disinterestedness of purpose. 

Senator Mallorv endeavored, in his long'and valuable public 
service here in Washington, to approach every public question 
with entire openness of mind. His manner of discussion was 
always candid and philosophical. He respected his honest 
adversaries and commanded respect from them. He was one 
of those rare public servants who could be both fair and firm — 
for beneath his kindliness and courtesv there was always mani- 
fest the bed rock of deep and strong individual conviction. 

Out of many years of pleasant associations with Senator M. Ma- 
lory in the general service of the Senate, I can not but recall 
especially the most faithful and considerate performance of his 
72901 — S. Doc. 762, 60-2 2 



1 8 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

duties a few years ago as a iiK'inl)i.T of iIk- Merchant Marine 
Commission. This was a difficult and thankless labor, involv- 
ing as it did much journeying and long and weary sessions in 
the heat of summer and the crowded year of a Presidential 
campaign. Senator Mauuory was not at that time in robust 
health. The additional duties of the work of the Conunission 
were sure to pro\'e a severe tax upon his physical strength and 
to rob him of a well-earned and needed leisure. Yet, instinc- 
tively recognizing that his own personal knowledge of maritime 
conditions made his presence and participation of tlie utmost 
value, he loyally undertook the task, traveling, studying, and 
laboring to the very limit of his ])hysical capacity, personally 
arranging for and presiding over several of the Commission's 
sessions of inquiry in the far South, and aiding materially in 
the final drawing up of the recommendations of the Commission 
to Congress. On every point where he could ct)nsistently agree 
with his Republican colleagues Senator Malu)RV fully and 
unhesitatingly agreed, just as on other points he firmly and 
courteously dilTered. 

But he made it his business to seek |x>ints of agreement 
rather than of disagreement, and if this <|uestion of our mer- 
chant marine, long sjich a contentious and almost hopeless ques- 
tion in the American Congress, is now, as I believe, somewhat 
further along toward a fair, friendly, and satisfactory solution, 
the credit for it must be held to be in a large measure due to 
the untiring industry, the breadth of temper, and the devoted 
|)atriotism of my good friend and keenly missed and wcll-re- 
memlx-red associate, the late Se'uator from Florida. 

But for the ill health which so unfortunately hampered the 
activities of his later years. Senator M.vulory would have left 
a far longer reconl of (H-rsonal achievement. Vet all of us who 
knew him here know m II how i;reat a contribution to the va^i 



Address of Mr. Gallingcr, of Xctx' Hampshire lo 

work of legislation was his conscientious service on his com- 
mittees and his close attention to the business of the Senate 
when he was not debarred by sheer lack of physical strength 
or by physical suffering. The keenness of his well-trained 
intellect drove right to the heart of a complex and baffling 
problem. Able as he was, earnest and devoted, he had that 
all-essential quality often lacking in men of really great abilit\' 
and high purpose, and that is that fine, strong, human talent 
for working harmoniously and effectively with his fellow-men. 

Such a public man as this — intellectual, learned, patriotic, 
high-souled, generous — is sure to inspire affection among all 
with whom he meets and works in the great and important 
responsibilities of the American Senate. We who knew Senator 
Mallory think of him to-day with admiration and gratitude — 
aye, but with something even wanner than that, more human 
and more enduring. He was distinguished as a Senator, and be 
was also lovable as a man. So it is with a grief deep and per- 
sonal, and not in any mere ceremonious way, that we meet here 
to-day to speak of him, to recall his ^•anished face and form, his 
gracious words and noble work, and lo do lionor to a dear and 
sainted memorv. 



20 



Memorial Addresses: Stephen A' Mn/lory 



Address of Mr. Daniel, of Virgdoa 

Mr. I'kksiuunt: Within the space of less than one year Sen- 
ators Morgan and Pettits, of Alabama, Latimkk, of vSoulh Car- 
olina, Proctor, of Vermont, Whyte, of Maryland, and both 
Mallory and Bryan, of Florida, have been removed from the 
scene of their labors by the Dmnipotent One who wills the com 
inj; and going of his creatures. 

These losses, in proportion to numbers, are greater than the 
average number killed in a great and fierce battle. 

They show that we walk in our dail>- ways as soldiers under 
fire, and none may tell who next will lie amongst the fallen. 
The oldest Senator and the youngest are enrolled amongst these 
dead, and neither youth nor age can wear a shield against the 
dart that struck ihem down. 

Morgan and Pettws were recently commemorated by tlieir 
colleagues in this body on the same day. At that time such an 
event was without precedent, but the precedent has been speed- 
ily repeated, and to-day our farewell tributes are bestowed upon 
Mauuory and Brya.n, wlio passed away in swift succession. 

Stephen Risselu Mai.lokv was an able man. a learned man, 
a patriotic and a good man. He made an excellent Senator, and 
of his useful service the records of the Senate bear witness. 

In his conduct and character he realized Dlackstone's ideal of a 
good citizen, for he "lived honesllv, Iniri nobody, and rendered 
to every man his due." 

He was punctilious in the discharge of every task. The whole 
Senate respected him highly, and by his intimates he was 
l)c1ovcd. 



Address of Mr. Daniel, of Virginia 21 

He was always modest and unobtrusive, neither provoking 
nor giving offense, and he had no enemy amongst his colleagues. 
He was as manl v as he was modest , and in debate was as firm and 
assertive as became the dignity of his personality and of the 
body to which he belonged. A certain refinement, both of ap- 
pearance, manner, and speech, indicated the instincts which 
make the character of the gentleman. The cleanness and clear- 
ness of his mind were illustrated whenever he spoke in argu- 
ment upon this floor. His positions were chosen with wisdom, 
his views were uttered with precision; whatever he thought 
was so succinctly and forcibh' expressed that none failed to 
understand his meaning or to be impressed by the force and 
earnestness of his nature. No man could ever question either 
the propriety or the integrity of his course, and his good name 
was as precious ointment. 

His father, Stephen Russell Mallory, was the fourth Senator 
of the new State of Florida, and ser\^ed ten years. Our late 
colleague was the fourteenth Senator elected by that State and 
ser^'ed an equal time. His father became secretary of the 
navv of the Confederate States, which when he assumed the office 
was onlv a name, but he made a navy. Little and makeshift 
as it was, it held its position on the James River as long as Lee 
held his lines on land, and, as war is a great teacher, its history 
and achievements will be studied, and those who study them 
will find a lesson taught which will appease an.xiety as to this 
countrv being ever overrun by an enemy in war. 

The younger ^L\LLORY was bom in 1848. He became the, 
bearer of arms in the Confederate army in the autumn of 1864, 
and was soon made a midshipman in the Confederate navy, and 
served on the Patrick Henry in the James River fleet until war 
speedily ended. It was at a time when, as Grant said, the 
Confederates had robbed the cradle and the grave for their 



22 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

recruits, and the dissolution of the Confederacy, of which their 
very presence was a sign, was soon fullilled. 

As the South dropped the sword it picked up the pruning 
hook, seized tlie plow handles, and opened anew its neglected 
books. The steps by which Maixoky advanced to fields of 
large usefulness and honor are indicated by his successive 
occupations. 

We find him at Georgetown College in iKf),s; a graduate of 
that institution in 1869; a professor of Latin and Greek in the 
scT\'ice of his alma mater; again a student, teaching himself 
the law; at New Orleans a practitioner of the supreme court of 
Ix>uisiana in 1873, and then, in 1874, settling down in his old 
hoiiu' in Pensacola beginning practice. 

It is in the legislatures of the States that many of our most 
distuiguishcd statesmen have learned something of the art of 
legislation. In 1875 he was in the house of representatives of 
Florida. He was elected to the state sfenate in 1880 and again 
in 1884. .V little later his capacities have so developed and have 
been so well rccognizetl bv his constituents that he is sent in 
succession for two terms to the Mouse of Re]iresentatives of the 
United States. In 1897 he was chosen to the United States 
Senate. When he died he was in the second term of a ripe ex- 
perience and of a scr\ice valuable in all its connections with 
the interests of his State and country. He had been a member 
of all tin- legislative bodies known to tiie administration of the 
governments of the State and of the United States, and in each 
of those bodies he had well performed his part and left a me 
inorial of his labors 

.\inongsl other measures with which Senator Mai.i.dkv was 
identified was one which he offered in the I'ifty ninlli Congress 
l(M)king to the enlarged iisifulness of the Public Heallli and 
Marine-Hospital Servii-e. He realized what we all know, that 



Address of Mr. Daniel, of Virgwia 23 

the pestilence which wasted at noonday is far more destructive 
and terrible to the human race than is battle, and that more 
perish from disease in war than by the bayonet, the bullet, and 
the sword. ^ 

Mr. Mallory was for years troubled by a physical ailment 
which was to him a source of constant impediment and suffer- 
ing. How patiently and unmurmuring he bore his burden all 
of us know. Christian by faith and by profession, his life was 
the best insignia of his devotion. A soldier of the cross and a 
bearer of the cross, he fought the good fight without display of 
banners, and he closed his life the real conqueror who had con- 
quered and subdued himself. 

He had scarce reached three score. To one of his simple 
Hfe, his strong ners^e, his prudent and well-ordered disposition, 
a score or more of years might have been reasonably anticipated 
as his portion; but it was not so ordered. 

The acclaims of the multitude, the conspicuous disj^lay of 
public honors, the dazzling badges of distinction, the resounding 
speech of eulogy, and the printed page; all these things which 
flatter the vanity and stiffen the pride of man have their place 
even in the just economy of life's ambitions, which 'urge on 
and measurably reward men in their best endeavors. 

Mallory had no burning ambition for these things. He 
lived on the work that was for him to do, and he bore to the 
grave that highest of earthly comforts that God has ever vouch- 
safed to the workers of His will — the calm repose of the spirit 
which holds itself in peace to all others and so goes its wa\- to 
that peace which passeth all understanding. 

Scarce had he died at his own home, on December 23, 1907, 
than a new name took its place by the appcjintmeiit by the gov- 
ernor of Florida on the Senate roll, and Willlam Jamks Bryan, 
with the freshness of youth, stepped into the Senate. Only 



24 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

seventy-three days was he here, and over thirty of them wen- 
spent in the weariness and aflliction of a mortal malady, of 
which he died on the 2 2d, day of March, 1908. 
Painfully did he illustrate the lines: 

Life can little more supply 

Than just to look about us and to die. 

He was a native of Florida and of a family notable in its 
private worth and in its honest and useful service. He was 
himself tall, slender, straight, and handsome, an athlete and a 
student, a graduate of Emory College, (ieorgia, and then of 
Washington and Lee University in X'irginia. .\ recognized 
orator and debater amongst the young men who were his fellow- 
students, u lawyer who was soon cliosen as solicitor in his 
community, a successful practitioner, with the beckoning re- 
wards and honors of his profession swifth- extended, no young 
man could have had a more auspicious or ])n)mising position 
amongst his people. 

Added to these things were his happy marriage to Miss 
Allan, of Lexington, \'a., a daughter of ^ol. William Allan, a 
man who had won the honors of war as the chief of ordnance 
in Jackson's corps, and the honors of peace as a writer of his- 
tory and as a professor in Washington and Lee University. 

On Christmas day came to Brya.x a commission to the Senate 
of the United States. His bearing here fulfilled the expecta- 
tions of those who saw in him the making of a long, lionorable, 
and useful career. 

He heard his days Iwfore liini and the Iruinin-l of his life. 

Hut liiose days were nut to lie fiillilled. 

He had barely time to become acquainted with and on easy 
terms with liis associates when came the lingering sickness 
whidi alllieled him, and then the st)lenm repose of death. 



Address of Mr. Daniel, of Virginia 25 

The names of Mallory and Bryan will ever linger in tin- 
memories of those who knew them here. They will lon.<i; In- 
cherished in their vState and honored by them whom they hon- 
ored. They may remind us of the flickering and how soon ex- 
tinguished is the flame of life, but in the generous economy of 
that Providence which permits nothing to be lost, their lives 
intermingle with the meditations of tliose who come after them, 
repressing unworthy things, inspiring virtuous deeds and aspi- 
rations, and cheering the column of humanity as it moves in 
its successive generations of toil and conflict, of achievements 
and disappointments, of sickness and sorrow, and pain and 

death to — 

That one far off divine event 

To which the whole creation moves. 



26 Memorial Addresses: Stephm R. SUillory 



Address of Mr. Nelson, of Minnesota 

Mr. l'Ki:sini:.\T; \\c all know, cs]K'ciull\- iliost- wiio have been 
for a long time nieniljers of this or other legislative bodies, that 
the most effective work leading to material results in the way of 
legislation is not always accomplished by those who are regarded 
as great orators or great debaters, but rather by that other class 
of legislators who are not nmch given to debate or oratory. 
This class is made up of those men who do the hard and substan- 
tial work of the legislati\e bod)'. They are usually the men 
who are active participants in the work on committees and who 
prejjare and formulate legislative measures and who put them 
ill i)ractical and ■effective shape. To this class of industrious, 
unobtrusive, and quiet workers belonged our late colleague, 
Seiiatdr M.\i,i,oRV. I became intimately acquainted with him 
soon after he made his first appearance in the Senate, and during 
his entire service in this body we were associated on one of the 
most im|)ortaiit committees, and frequently during that time we 
were thrown together as members of iinportant subcommittees 
which had under consideration many important and far-reaching 
measures, and in such committee work 1 found him to \w one of 
the best -equijjped, one of the iiiosl iudiislrious, and one of the 
most efficient of Senators. 

He seemed to grasp intuitively, as it were, I he full impKirtance 
and scope of every important measure tliat was uiuler considVra- 
lion, and if the measure had come to the committee in a crude 
anfl imperfect form he alwavs seemed to know how to prime, 
correct, and imjirove it; and he never allowed a spirit of par 
tisanship to control or warp him to any extent. Senator 



Address of Mr. Nelson, of Minnesota 27 

Mallory was a most excellent lawyer, well grounded in the 
fundamental principles of constitutional and common law, and 
hence was always able to determine the true legal scope and 
constitutional validity of any pending bill or proposition. 

He was barely old enough to serve in the Confederate army 
and navy during the last two years of the civil war, and his 
army and naval service no doubt left its impress on his physical 
constitution, so that he was not as strong and rugged as he 
otherwise might have been if he had not been engaged in such 
service; but this ser\^ice, in connection with his legal training, 
seemed to have equipped him for the important duties of a leg- 
islator in a very high degree. And he was as loyal and faithful 
to the welfare of our entire country in all his public duties as 
though he had never at any time borne arms against her. 

While he may not have been regarded either as an orator or 
a great debater, nevertheless he would on occasions discuss im- 
portant measures in a clear, succinct, and instructive manner. 
He never spoke for the mere sake of making a speech. He was 
never given to posing as a legislator for mere show or to attract 
attention. To him the work of legislation was a serious matter 
and he was always serious and in earnest in respect to any propo- 
sition or measure that he had in charge or advocated. He was 
in no sense a radical, but rather inclined to be conser\'ative, 
prudent, and careful in all his legislative efforts. Whenever he 
spoke in this body he was always Hstened to and always gave 
the Senate valuable information and (kmonstrated that his 
judgment was sound and that he was i)ossessed of the true con- 
sen.'ative spirit. 

A legislative body comiwsed of men like .Senator Mai^i.ory 
would not be apt to make mistakes, but would move along safe 
and conservative lines and never drift into slipshod legislation 
and never pander to public clamor. He took a broad and 



28 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

national view rather than a mere local ^iew of great legislative 
problems, and never seemed to be a creature of, or tied down to, 
mere local environment. He was always a faithful attendant 
upon committees and upon the sessions of the Senate, and ne\er 
sought to shirk his duties and his work in any direction. I 
ser\-ed with him on important subcommittees when I knew his 
health was poor and that he was hardly in a condition to work, 
and yet he would stick to his task as faithfully and as thor 
oughly as though he were in the prime of life. He was a true 
son of the vSouth, typical of all that is bravest and best among 
the Southern people, and while his heart and his spirit were with 
his State and his people, his legislative vision extended to the 
entire count rv. whose welfare he had at heart as fully and to 3=; 
great an extent as any member of this body. 

His State never had a more earnest, a more hard-working, or 
a more faithful representative in this Senate. He was a most 
kind-hearted and lovable man, as companionable and as ready 
to form true and real friendships as any man with whom I have 
ever come in contact. As a member of the committee on which 
we were so long associated 1 miss him very much, and I know 
all his colleagues in this body feel his loss most keenly. 

The generation of men who participated in the great civil war 
are rapidly passing away, and in a few years more none of them 
will be left; but when they have finished their task and finally 
passed awav and finally surrendered to that inexorable fate that 
awaits us all, the verdict of history will be that they, both of 
the North and of the South, were big enough and great enough 
to unite and cooperate in the great and noble task of healing the 
woimds of the war and recementing the bonds of the I'nioii and 
of placing it upon a more pcnnanent and enduring basis than 
ever, and of zealously cooperating to extend, fortify, and perpet- 
uate the moral and industrial greatness of our common country ; 



Address of Mr. Nelson, of Minnesota 29 

and it will redound to his glory and be something that his de- 
scendants may look back to with pride that Senator Mallory 
was one of the prominent members of this class. 

In the latter years of his life he was in poor health ; but in the 
midst of his afflictions, and in spite of them, he struggled along 
bravely and heroically with his Senatorial duties, always aiming 
to do his share of the work and never complaining; but I have 
no doubt that in the midst of it he often felt like exclaiming in 
the language of Father Ryan : 

And I am restless still; 'twill soon be o'er; 

For down the west 
Life's sun is setting, and I see the shore 

Where I shall rest. 



30 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R Mallory 



Address of Mr. Cuy, of Georgia 

Mr. President: My first acquaintance with the late Senator 
Maluory began in March, 1897. We began pubhc life in the 
Senate at the same lime. He was elected to the United States 
Senate by the legislature of Florida for the term beginning 
March 4, 1897. I was elected by the legislature of Georgia 
for the term beginning the same time. We ser\-ed continuously 
together in the Senate for nearly eleven years, and about half of 
that time we were members of the Committee on Commerce, and 
I knew much of his serv'ices as a ])ublic man and Senator. We 
were warm personal friends, and I will not be accused of exag- 
geration when I say that Senator Maulory had the respect, the 
confidence, and esteem of every Member of the Senate with 
whom he ser\ed. He had held many positions of trust and 
honor in his own State before he was elected a member of this 
bodv. He had served in both branches of the legislature of 
Florida with honor and distinction, and had served two terms as 
a Member of the Lower House of Congress. Mr. Mallory was 
elected to the United States Senate when he was not a can- 
didate, and his serA-ices for the first term were so valuable and 
satisfactorv to his constituents that he was returned a second 
term without opposition. Had his life been s]iared he doubt- 
less would have been elected for a third term, for he constantly 
grew in popularity with the people of Florida. When Senator 
Mallory first came tothe Senate he was in wretched health, but, 
notwithstanding this fact, he was diligent, and attentive in the 
discharge of his public duties, and especially devoted to his work 
on the Commerce Commjttce, where he was so valuable in secur 
ing the necessary appropriations to develop the waterways and 



Address of Mr. Clay, oj Georgia 31 

protecl the coast of his State. All of his associates recognized 
him as a very valuable member of this body. 

He possessed an analytical mind, reached his conclusions 
slowlv, but when he formed an opinion his associates rarely 
questioned the soundness of his views. He was genial, lovable 
in all the relations of life, was modest, sincere, and hated every 
form of wrong and loved justice. His life was dominated by 
the highest moral purpose. His ideals were lofty. I am sure 
he lived for that which was noble, pure, and uplifting. He 
made one of the most valuable members of the Committee on 
Commerce. He took deep interest in the development of our 
waterwavs, and his opinions on any subject before that com- 
mittee always carried the greatest weight. He served on sub- 
committees in solving the most important problems before the 
Committee on Commerce, and he was diligent in his attendance 
and untiring in his efforts to faithfully discharge his duty. His 
intellect was of the highest order, grasping every phase of a 
subject, overlooking no detail, going to the core of the most 
complicated problems. In investigating public questions he 
was actuated bv the purest of motives. He sought to know 
the verv right of things. He was a man of positive convictions, 
and was ahvavs moved bv those convictions. Convince Senator 
M.\LLORY that a proposition was right and no power could move 
him from supporting the right. While positive and firm in 
supporting his views on public questions, he was kind and gen- 
tle, "tender as a woman and guileless as a child," and sincere 
and loving in his friendships. 

Florida lies adjacent to Georgia. The people of my vState 
have always been deeply interested in the growth and progress 
of our sister State. I knew of Senator Maulory as a public 
man before he became a member of the Senate, and of his high 
character and standing in Morida. His growth was a steady 
one. Each day he grew stronger in tin- confidence and affec- 



32 Memorial Addresses: Stephen A'. Mallory 

tioiis of his associates. During the eleven years that 1 served 
with him in the Senate I have never heard an unkind word 
spoken of hint. Both his friends and foes in political life in 
Florida recognized in him a man of ability, of sterling integrity, 
and the broadest patriotism. 

No man can gain and retain the public esteem and affections 
of the people of his State as he held them without having rare 
qualities of mind and heart. Partisan considerations and 
prejudices never warped his judgment, but with an even temper, 
an impartial mind, he was found where justice and equity 
prevailed. Everyone who knew him and watched his career 
pointed to him as an upright man, an able, conscientious, and 
honest public official. No one ever questioned his integrity, 
and his private life was without a blemish. , Few men pos- 
sessed and enjoyed the confidence of their associates as did 
Senator Mallory. The distinguished chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Commerce, representing with distinction and ability 
his State in the Senate for more than a quarter of a century, 
recognized Senator M.\llorv as one of the most valuable mem- 
bers of his committee. This high opinion of the deceased was 
entertained by every member of that committee. He loved 
his native State. He diligently studied to advance the interests 
of that State; but he not only loved Florida, but was devoted 
to the entire country. No one ever heard him speak dispar 
agingly of any section of his country. He recognized that tiie 
Republic was composed of States and that the Senator who 
assaulted any section of his country assaulted the Republic. 
He acted upon the theory that a Senator who was the enemy of 
any section was the enemy of his country. Sometimes we are 
swayed by partisan considerations and are inclined to criticise 
one section of the Republic in comparison with another Hut 
our dead friend loved Maine, Massachusetts, Florida, Georgia, 



Address of Mr. Clay, of Georgia ^3 

New York, V'irginia, and every State in the American Union. 
He had studied the history of his country. He had watched 
with pride the rapid progress we had made, and his statesman- 
ship was of the highest character, recognizing that it was the 
duty of a Senator not only to represent his own State, but to 
advance in every possible way the interests and welfare of the 
entire nation. 

His life is a lesson to the American youth. Although in 
wretched health, a constant sufferer, he struggled and tri- 
umphed over difficulties. He rose step by step in the estima- 
tion of the community where he lived and won one victory after 
another and at last honorably reached one of the highest places 
of public life, where his usefulness was recognized by the entire 
country. 

How did he achieve success? Why is his memory held in 
such high esteem by his countrymen and associates in this body? 
The answer can easilv be made. He led an honest, industrious 
life, was faithful in the discharge of every duty, and such a life 
is always properly rewarded. We can say to the American 
youth: "Follow in his footsteps — lead an honest, industrious 
life, be faithful in the discharge of every duty, and success will 
crown your efforts." 

Illustrious and sterling honesty will always be rewarded. 
Temporary success gained by undue advantage and dishonor- 
able conduct will always end in ruin and disgrace. The future 
of the Republic depends upon the education and training of the 
American youth. Most of the education and the training we 
acquire comes from contact with others. Education by asso- 
ciation and example is a powerful factor in forming character. 
Association with tin- intelligent, the industrious, and the good 
tends to elevate and build up. Association with those who lead 
an indolent, dishonest, and immoral life tends to corrupt and 
72901 — S. Doc. 762, 60-2 3 



34, Memorial Addresses: Stephen A'. Ma/lory 

degrade. A life of continued exhibition of high morals, puritv 
of st)ul, and Christian charily is a source of strength and eleva- 
tion to any community. The young men of a community 
respect, honor, and follow such a life. 

Senator M.\llory was not sensational. He possessed none 
of the arts of the demagogue. He was not a meteor in the 
political firmament. He never sought notoriety. He gradualh 
built himself up in tlie confidence and esteem of the Senate bv 
real, genuine worth. Ivach day he grew stronger and more 
useful. 

But, Mr. President , his work is finished, but his influence will 
never die. 

Ml President. 1 ha\e been a member of this body eleVen 
years, and the mortality of the Senate during that period has 
been remarkable. Senators who have been members of this 
body since March 4, 1897, will recall those of our number who 
have gone to the world beyond. The Senators who have died 
during this period are as follows: 

Alalvimu . — John T. Morgan, KdiniiiKl W Pettns. 

Conntaicut. — O. H. Plan. J. R Hawlcy 

Florida. — Stephen R. Maluorv. William J. Bryan. 

loua. — J. H. Gear. 

Marylatut. — Arthur 1*. Cmrnuin, William Finkmy Wliyte. 

Massachusetts. — George V. Hoar. 

Sfichigan. — James McMillan, Russi'll .A. .Mger. 

Minnesota. — Cushnian K Ilavis. 

Mississipfn. — Edward C. Walthall. 

Sew Jersey. — William J Sv«ell 

South Unhota. — James II. Kyle. 

Ohio. — Marcus A. Hanna 

(•rfi;oM. — John H. Mitchell. 

Pennsylvania. — Matthew S. Quay. 

South Carolina. — Joseph H Karle, A C Latimer. 

I ennessee. — William H Hale, Isham G. Harris 

Vermont — Redlield Prcn-lur, juslm S Morrill 



Address of Mr. Clay, of Georgia 35 

Four Senators who died after ceasing to be Senators were: 

Donelson Caffrey, of Louisiana; Stephen M. While, of California: Kdward 
O. Wolcott, of Colorado; George G. Vest, of Missouri. 

I repeat, Mr. President, that Senator Mallory's growth was 
a steady one, the result of a modest, sincere, and studious life. 
In Washington, after laecoming a Member of Congress, he lived 
the same plain, temperate, economical life. His influence was 
not derived from social functions, but from work and worth. 
No scandal was ever connected with his name in either private 
or public life. He was not the representative of any trust, com- 
bine, or special interest, neither was he ever engaged in the 
advancement of his own schemes, using his office as a means to 
an end. He was a plain, straightforward, unassuming gentle- 
man, a sound thinker, a fearless advocate of what he believed 
to be right. Senator M.\llorv was a staunch friend of honest, 
clean, economical government. He sought in every possible 
wav to elevate the standard of our civilization, and by precept 
and example to prepare and qualify our young men for the 
highest possible standard of citizenship. He abhorred every 
form of hypocrisy and deceit. He left no doubt upon the 
minds of those who heard him as to the earnestness of his 
convictions. Those who differed with him knew he was both 
honest and sincere. He did" his own thinking, formed his own 
conclusions, and sought diligently to reach conclusions that were 
just and right. He believed that a Senator should be under no 
personal obligations to any power and that a Senator should do 
his own thinking. He formed high ideals and lived up to them. 
No man is perfect. Doubtless Senator Mallory had his faults; 
but if so, 1 was never able to discover them. 1 am glad that 
such a man lived, and 1 am sure his influence will never die. I 
most cheerfully place ujjon Ihe records of the Senate my tribute 
of affection and admiration for the nuniory of the deceased. 



36 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 



Address of Mr. Perkins, of Caufornia 

Mr. President: The South has been more tlian fortunale 
in the men she has sent to represent her in the Senate of the 
United Slates. They have been selected from among the ablest 
and best of her citizens, and have brought to this Chamber an 
influence for honest and conscientious endeavor that has com- 
ported with the high standards set by the greatest of those who 
have preceded us. We have recently had cause to mouni with 
her for great and irreparable losses which she has sustained. 
Some of the most distinguished Americans of this generation 
who have occupied seats here have been lost to us through 
death within a year, and among them arc numbered some 
of the .Souths greatest men. Of these is Stephen Ri'ssEui- 

M.M.I.OKV. 

My acquaintance with >Senator M.\li.orv began when he first 
became a member of this body in 1897. I was instantly 
attracted to him by reason of his honesty and sincerity, and 
soon my admiration was awakened through the recognition of 
those great powers which he possessed, but which his modesty 
prevented him from displaying, except on such occa.sions as 
s(Kcially demanded their exercise. But it was not long liefore 
his ability was fully recognized here, and he took a place among 
the foremost men of the Senate. I was associated with him 
on the committees of Naval Affairs and of Commerce, and there 
had the op[M)rtunity to learn his iKCuliar fitness for such matters 
as came before us. He was unusually well equipiK-d for the dis- 
cussion of such business as arose, by reason of his early experi- 
ence in maritime affairs which excited within him an interest 
that never flagge<l Me was the s<in of the secretary of the 



Address of Mr. Perkins, of California ^7 

navy of the Confederate States, and in his early youth he was 
appointed a midshipman in the Confederate navy, and though 
his service was short on account of the end of the war, he imbibed 
the spirit which naval training and following the sea gives, and 
which is one of til? most valuable possessions which a man 
can have. However short may have been a man's connection 
with a fighting sea force, there will inevitably be born within 
him an ambition to emulate the deeds of bravery and self- 
sacrifice which illuminate all maritime history. 

The men who sail the seas, whether in an armored vessel of 
a navy or on a merchantman or fishing schooner, have experi- 
ences which toughen the moral fiber, which cultivate self-reli- 
ance, which promote unselfishness, which cultivate generosity, 
and promote honesty in the dealings of man with man. And 
the traditions of the sea, which will always be of vital interest 
to one who has once been connected with it, transmit and per- 
petuate all these influences which make for courage, honesty, 
and sincerity. Senator Mallory came within these influences, 
and in him they contributed to the formation of that strong 
character which commanded the respect of all who knew him. 
His devotion to public duty was untiring, and no constituency 
has ever had a representative here whose interests were more 
carefully studied. He loved his native State with the ardor 
which characterizes the affection of all Southrons for the State 
of their birth. The glamor of romance and adventure which 
was cast over that fair land by the search by Ponce de Leon 
for the fountain of perpetual youth, and the name which he 
gave the unknown region when he saw it brilliant with the 
flowers of a Palm Sunday nearly four centuries ago, undoubt- 
edly have had their influence in strengthening the devotion 
which is felt for it by all who claim Florida for their native 
State or adopted home. That of Senator Malloky was sweet. 



38 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

simple, and sincere, as was his own character. Thai devotion 
accentuated his firm beHef in the doctrine of State rights, which 
more than once he ably expounded before this body, and his 
education in the law and his training in the courts made him 
a powerful champion of the principle that%the States are the 
possessors of every power not delegated to the Federal Govern- 
ment by the Constitution of I Ik- United States. 

Sciiator Mallory began his public career early, and has been 
conspicuous in State and national affairs ever since. After the 
war he attended Georgetown College, graduating in iJJGg. He 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in Louisiana in 1873, 
and in 1876 was elected to the lower house of the Florida legis- 
lature, from which he jmssed successively to the State senate, 
the House of Representatives of the National Congress, and in 
1897 to the Senate. His political career presents a record of 
clean, honest, efficient work, which gained for him the respect 
of all people and all parties. 

Those who knew him admired him for his sterling integrity 
and his genial companitnishii). He was always true to himself, 
to his convictions, ideals, and his conceptions of the best ])ublic 
good. His heart went out to all that was good and nolile in 
others, for he looked u])on the manifestations of high character 
as of inestimable \aliii- as I'vainpli-s 

I le once said- 

is the most |Kilent of i)receptors. The object lesson is the most impressive 
method of reaching the understanding and shaping the inclination of tlie 
young, and the oftener we can present to their plastic minds authentic 
illustrations of character which of it.self conquers adverse environment, 
rises to eminence by its innate merit, and wins the respect and crstccm of 
good men and women, the greater flie |irobability of our inspiring those 
who are to follow us with a /.ealous pur|Hisv to enmlate such virtue. 



Address of Mr. Perkins, of California 39 

This reveals his view of life, its duties, and its responsibilities, 
and we all know how closely he lived up to that high standard. 

In his work in Congress he had ever before him the examples 
of the great men who in years gone by made this body illustrious, 
and he strove to reach their high level of pure statesmanship. 
.\nd when he saw that tlie end of life was near he again exhibited 
that honest simplicity of character which endeared him to all 
who knew him. He wished that in the last duties which should 
be paid to him there should be that absence of even a suspicion 
of ostentation that had always characterized his acts in life. 
His wishes were respected, and he was quietly laid to rest by the 
friends he loved. 

As one by one of our colleagues fail to answer the roll call in 
the Senate and we realize that we will never again hear their 
eloquent or persuasive voices, may we not well ask ourselves the 
question — 

Oh why should the spirit of mortal be proud ? 
Like a fast -flitting meteor, a fast-flying cloud, 
A flash of the lightning, a break of the wave. 
He passes from life to his rest in the grave. 



40 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 



Address of Mk. Milton, of Florida 

Mr. President: I have not tlie gill dI language nor of elo- 
c|uence to fittingly portray the character and attainments of 
Florida's distinguished son, Stephen Ri'ssell Mallory, whose 
life, character, and public services we now pause from the cus- 
tomary duties of the Senate to commemorate a<^d commend. 

My reason for speaking on this occasion is not that I think I 
can do him justice, but these words of commendation, veneration, 
and eulogy, though weak and halting, come from a friend and 
are the onl\ tribute he can pay. As flattery to the living is 
unjust, so fulsome praise of the dead seems mockery; therefore 
I speak of him as I think and feel. 

More than twenty years ago I met Stephen Rissell Mal- 
LOKV, and so impressed was I with his worth, pure character, 
integrity of heart and mind, and nobility of soul that whether 
he was in the shade of temporary political defeat, or crowned 
with the laurels of success, I was always his friend, admirer, 
and political follower. His friendship was an lionor of which 
1 feel justly proud. 

Mr. Mallory was a true type of a southern gentleman and 
statesman, modest, courteous, wise. He was the worthy son of 
a great sire, and his life work was full and active, replete with 
Southern sentiment and instinct but of national breadth and 
force in its statesmanshi]). He was born November 2. 184S, 
as the war clouds were gathering over this great land. His 
father was a member of this body from 1851 to iSfii; there- 
fore he was reari'd lit the midst of liie activities and battles 
of intellectual arguments whieli i)reccded the conflict of giant 
brothers. 



Address of Mr. Milton, of Florida 41 

At the age of 16 he entered the Confederate army of \"ir- 
ginia, and later became a midshipman in the navy of the South, 
freely risking his life fighting in that titanic struggle for what 
he deemed to be right then and believed to be right to the day 
of his death, the sovereign rights of a sovereign State. 

At the close of the war he completed his education and began 
the jiractice of law. But his vState, like other Southern States 
after the war, was suffering from the rule of ignorance, vice, 
and robberv. Thinking it his duty to again ser\e his countrv, 
he entered heartily into the struggle of the people of Florida to 
redeem her government from negro and carpetbag domination, 
and in 1876 was elected a member of the Florida legislature. 
He was elected to the state senate in 1880 and returned again 
in 1884. In her legislative halls so ably did he serve the people 
that, feeling his abilities and usefulness should not be circum- 
scribed by state bounds, he was elected to the National House 
of Representatives, and served two terms. 

While here he so well represented the interest of Florida and 
so favorably impressed the citizenship of his State that in 
1897, when the most momentous and bitter strife among Florida 
Democrats was waged, the representatives of the people turned 
to Mallory as the only man who could properly represent them ; 
and although he was not a candidate for the honorable position, 
he was elected to the United States Senate and reelected in 
1905. 

Here for nearly eleven years he gave to the service of his 
country the benefit of his ripened intellect. At the age of ,s'>. 
while in the prime of life and the activity of his intellect, and 
and while he bade fair to still give years of service t« his country, 
he was mowed down liy the grim reaper. Death. 

As a .soldier he was brave and gallant, bearing cheerfully the 
hardships necessarily imposed by reason of his impoverished 



1^ 



Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 



country. He followed the Hag of the lost cause witii the same 
zeal, devotion, and self-sacrifice which characterized the hero 
soldiers of the Confederacy. 

As a citizen he was law-abiding, diligent in the discharge of 
his duties, and worked for the advancement of good govcm- 
iiient. He was modest and unassuming, but courageous and 
bold in the pursuit of and in the path of duty and never swayed 
by fleeting public opinion from the right, as he saw it. 

As a friend he was honest, loyal, and true. He trusted and 
could be trusted. His conversation was pure, chaste, and full 
of kindness. His ambitions were noble and his aims and aspira- 
tions high. He was such a friend that time and separation 
mattered not; his friend knew at all limes that he could be 
depended on and that he would only do what was right. 

He was a lawyer of wide information and knowledge of law. 
He was faithful to the interests of his clients, and he won the 
confidence of all b\ his high ideal of justice and right. His 
well-trained mind was analytical, his reasoning logical, and his 
conclusions just. He was an able lawyer, a credit to tlie bar, 
and an honor to his profession. 

As a Christian he was baptized and had an abiding faith in 
the wisdom, justice, love, and mercy of his Maker. He well 
performed his dutv to his neighbor and in his life exemplified 
the golden rule: 

Do unto others as you would they should do unto you. 

As a public man he was broad in his \news and had a ready 
grasp of national affairs. He was no demagogue, but at all 
limes a loyal advocate and an outspoken champion of the 
princi]iles for which he stood. No selfish ambition ever kept 
him silent or made him swer\'e from his duly to his people. His 
character and mind were well balanced, conservative, but lx>ld. 
If he had one trait of character that impressed one more than 



Address of My. Milto)i, of Floiida 43 

anotlier, it was his strict integrity. Mallory's honesty was 
known, admired, and esteemed throughout the length and 
breadth of Florida. 

A prince can male' a belted knight, 

A marquis, duke, and a' that, 

But an honest man's aboon his might 

Stephen RtJSSELL M.xllory was an honest man, the noblest 
work of God . 

As a citizen, a soldier, and a statesman he freely gave to 
Florida and the nation his best efforts. He was earnest, dili- 
gent, and faithful to every trust reposed in him. His spotless 
life and character without stain is his best monument, and to 
succeeding generations will illuminate the path to duty and 
to honor. 

And now that his life work is over, his body rests beneath the 
sod of his loved Florida. The Southern sun, which warmed his 
heart to love of his native State and filled it with patriotism, 
now with each returning springtime kisses into life and bloom 
the flowers that lovingly adorn his grave, and its too warm 
rays to them as tempered by the soft, balmy southern breezes 
from across the Mexic Sea, which he loved so well, and his 
slumber is soothed by the reciuiem of its rippling waves; for 
he is not dead, but sleepeth, his pure soul having risen, until 
resurrection's dawn, to rest on high in realms of eternal bliss 
with his Maker, for — 

Death's but a [)ath tliat must l)c trud. 
If man would ever pass to Ciod. 



PROCEEDINGS IN THE HOUSE 

Monday, January 6, igo8. 

MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE. 

The message announced that the .Senate had passed the 
following resolutions : 

Resolved, That the Senate has heard with i^rofound sorrow of the death 
of the Hon. Stephen Ri'Ssell M.allory, late a Senator from the State 
of Florida. 

Resolved, That the Secretary communicate a copy of these resolutions 
to the House of Representatives. 

Resolved, That as a further mark of respect to tlie memory of the deceased 
the Senate do now adjourn 

Mr. CLARK of Florida. Mr. Speaker, the House has just 
heard of the death of the distinguished senior Senator from 
Florida, the Hon. Stephen R. Mai.i.ory. At some future 
time the Florida delegation will ask the House to set apart a 
day in order that the Members may pay tribute to the dis- 
tinguished ]jiiblic services of this illustrious son of Florida. At 
the present time I offer the following resolution and move 
its adoption. 

The Clerk read as follows : 

Resolved, That the House has learned with profound sorrow of the death 
of Hon. Stephen R. M.-vllory, a Senator of the United States from the 
Slate of Florida. 

Resolved, That as a further mark of respect llie House now adjourn 

The resolutions were unanimousl)' agreed to. 

Accordingly (at 12 o'clock and 31 minutes j). m.j the House 

adjourned. 

45 



46 



Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 



Thursday, Af>ril 2j, 1008. 

The Speaker. I'eiuling the announcement, by unanimous 
consent, tiie gentleman from I'lorida [Mr. Sparkman] desires 
to make a request. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Speaker. I ask unanimous consent for 
the present consideration of the order which I send to the 
Clerk's desk. 

The Spkakkr. The gentleman from Florida [Mr. Spark- 
man] asks unanimous consent for the jiresent consideration of 
the order which the Clerk will rei)ort. 

The Clerk read as follows : 

Ordered, Tlial tlie Ilmise shall inccl al i .; iii. cm Sunday, May .1, which 
shall be set aside for memorial addresses on the life, character, and public 
services of Hon. S. R. M.xli.ory, late a I'nilcd States Senator frofn the 
State of Florida. 

The Speaker. Is there objection i" [.\fter a pause.) The 
Chair hears none. 

The <|ucstion is on agreeing [<y the order. 

The question was taken and the order was agreed to. 

Mr. Clark of Florida. Mr. Speaker, I ask imanimotis eon 
sent for tlie preseni consideration of the order which 1 send to 
the Clerk's desk. 

The Speaker. The Clerk will report. 

The Clerk read as follows: 

(>rdered, That Sunday, May ,^, at the conclusion of the addresses on 
the life, character, etc., of the late Stephen R. Mallory shall Iw set apart 
for titcniorial .addresses on the life, character, and public services of. Hon. 
William I. Hryan, late I'nilcd States Senator 



I'he Speaker. Is there objection.^ [.\ftcr a pause.] 
Chair hears none. 

The <|uestion is on agreeing to the order. 

The i|Uestion was taken, and the order was agreed to. 



The 



Proceedings in the House 47 

Sunday, May j, igoS. 
The House met at i 2 o'clock m. and was called to order \)\ 
the Clerk, Hon. Alexander McDowell, who caused the follow- 
ing communication from the Speaker to he read : 

Speaker's Room. House of Representatives, 

II ashinqlon, P. C, May J, 190S. 
1 hereby designate Hon. John Dalzell, cif Pennsylvania, to act as 
Speaker pro tempore f<ir tliis day. 

Joseph Cj. C.\nnon, 

S pea In). 

The Chaplain, Rev. Henry X. Couden, D. D., offered the 
following prayer: 

We bless Thee, our Father in Heaven, for the imtnutability of 
Thv character, that Thou art the same yesterday, to-day, and 
forever; that we are Thy children; that we may rely implicitly 
upon Thine infinite wisdom, power, and goodness, and that 
whatsoever Thou dost order for us is better than anything we 
could desire for ourselves. "Blessed is the man that walketh 
not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of 
sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful. But his delight 
is in the law of the Tord ; and in His law doth he meditate day 
and night. And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of 
water, that bringeth forth his fruit in his season; his leaf also 
shall not wither; and whatsoever he doeth shall prosper." 

We thank Thee, our Father, for the great and the true, the 
wise and the pure, the strong and the brave of every age, who 
comprehended the light which shone out of the darkness and 
the meaning of life, caught its spirit, and gave themselves in a 
faithful service to Thee and to mankind. We are gathered here 
to-day to pay a tribute of love and resi)ect to two such men- 
men in whom their fellows reposed confidence and trust, who 
never deceived, never betrayed that confidence. Init lived jmre. 



4« 



Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 



noble, exemplary lives, and wrought a good work for mankind. 
Grant that their lives may be an inspiration to us and to those 
who shall come after us. And bless, we pray Thee, those who 
were near and dear to them in life, and comfort them with the 
blessed thought that they shall meet again in a land where love 
shall find its full fruition in the hearts of the true and the pure. 
And so may our lives be ordered that we shall he counted 
worthy in the day of our departure. And Thine be the praise 
through Jesus Christ our Lord Amen! 

Mr. Sparkm.w. Mr. Speaker, I ask that the special order of 
the day be read. 

The Speaker pro tempore. The Clerk will read. 

The Clerk read as follows : 

On motion of Mr. Sparknian, by unanimous consent, 

"Ordered, That the House shall meet at u m. on Sunday, May 3, whicli 
shall be set aside for memorial addresses on the life, character, and public 
services of Hon. S. R. MalwJRV, late a-Unitetl States Senator from the 
State of Florida." (Order adopted in the House April jj, 1908.) 

On motion of Mr. Clark of Florida, by unanimous consent, 

"Ordered, That Sunday, .May 3, at the conclusion of the addresses on 
the life, character, etc., of the late Stephen R. Mallory, shall Ik: set 
apart for memorial addres.ses on the life, char.icter, and public services 
of Hon. William J. Bryan, late I'niled States Senalur " 'Order adopted 
in the House April 23, 1908.) 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Speaker, I ask tinaniinous consent 
that all those who may address the House to-dav have pennis- 
sion to revise and extend their remarks in the Rf.C(IRI). 

The Speaker pro tempore. The gentleman from Florida 
[Mr Sparkman] asks unanimous consent that all Memlx-rs ad 
dressing the House to-day may have leave to extend tluir 
remarks in the Record Is iln-re cbjection.' 

riuR- was no objceliciii 



Proceedings in the House /^g 

Sunday, May 3, 1908. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent for 
the consideration and adoption of the resolution which I send 
to the Clerk's desk. 

The Speaker pro tempore. The gentleman from Florida 
[Mr. Sparkman] submits the following resolution, which the 
Clerk will report. 

The Clerk read as follows ; 

Resolved, That in accordance with the order of the day, an opportunity 
be given for tributes to the memory of Hon. StbphE-N R. M-\LLORy, late a 
United Slates Senator from the State of Florida. 

Resolved, That as a particular mark of respect to the memory of the 
deceased and in recognition of his distinguished public career, the Hquse, 
at the conclusion of the exercises of this day, shall stand adjourned. 

Resolved, That the Clerk communicate these resolutions to the Senate. 

Resolved, That the Clerk send a copy of these resolutions to the family 
of the deceased. 

The Speaker pro tempore. The question is on agreeing 
to the resolutions. * 

The question was taken, and the resolutions were unani- 
mously agreed to. 

72901 — S. Doc. 762, 60-2 4 



50 



Alemoridl Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 



MEMORIAL ADDRESSES 



Address of Mr. Sparkhan, of Florida 



Mr. Si'UAKiiK: We are assembled on lliis occasion to ])erforni 
one of those sad duties thai have become so frequent here during 
the past few years, that of paying tribute to the Ufe and char- 
acter of some Member of this body or of that at the other end 
of the Capitol, who has answered the summons from on high, 
to which all must give heed and from which none can turn 
away. All alike— the rich and the poor, the powerful and the 
weak, the sovereign and the subject — must obey that summons. 
No station so high as to be above its reach, none so low as to 
lie beneath the compass of its sound. How frequently, in this 
body, are we reminded of this sad truth. How often at each 
session do wc pause in Iho ijroceediags here to commemorate 
the life and ser\'ices of some one who, in advance of us, has 
answered the call to go hence. 

I am not one of those, Mr. Speaker, who regard ser\'ices such 
as these an idle waste of time. On the contrary, I think we 
can not use more profitably I lie brief period necessary to pay 
loving tribute to those honored by the people with commissions 
to serve them in the National Legislature, and who have gone 
down before the grim rea])er in the midst of their duties and 
ere lluir work here has been ilone. 

Tnu'. we can not. if we would, bring the dead back to life by 
aught we might say here, no more than the flower dropped upon 
till 1 :i>.l.ii iir the high jiealing aiilluni above llie bier can lift tin- 



Address of Mr. Sparkman, o} Florida 51 

coffin lid and restore to those wlio remain behind the departed 
friend or companion. But they all ser\'e a purpose in life. 
Thev soften the gloom of the death chamber and make lighter 
the burden of bereavement. Touching, as these simple acts 
do, the more delicate cords of our nature, they make us better 
and purer, and strengthen the bonds of sympathy that link all 
human hearts together. 

Then, too, the country at large derives a benefit in other ways 
from such proceedings as these. By them we not only stimu- 
late patriotism, broaden our political horizon, and temper the 
asperities engendered by party strife, but, by spreading upon 
the records here the history of an honored and illustrious career, 
to be read from one end of the land to the other, we kindle the 
ambition of the young in every walk of life and stimulate them 
to nobler effort and grander achievement. 

No one has ever accomplished aught in any field of endeavor 
without having been inspired thereto by some one, and few lives 
are so barren of results as not to furnish a stimulus to still more 
worthy action by those who may come under their influence. 
A gifted poet has said; 

There's never a rose in all the world 

But makes some green spray sweeter; 
There's never a wind in all the sky 

But makes .some bird's wing fleeter; 
There's never a star but brings to Heaven 

Some silver radiance tender, 
And never a rosy cloud but helps 

To crown the sunset splendor; 
No robin but may thrill some heart, 

His dawnlike gladness voicing. 
God gives us all some small, sweet way 

To set the world. rejoicing. 



52 Mcinonal Addressas: Stephen A". Mallory 

And in that gein-ladcn potni, Lucile, Owen Meredith gives 
utterance to the same truth in the following lines: 

No stream from its source Hows seaward, hinv lowly scjever its course. 

But what some land is gladdened; no star ever rose 

And set without influence somewhere; no life 

Can be pure in its purpose and strong in its strife 

And ;ill life not be stronger and purer thereby 

And, sir, if influences for good may flow from humble sources, 
how much greater results may come from the cqntemi^ation of 
the life and character of one such as we an- assembled here to 
commemorate. 

I can not, perhaps, do better, Mr. Speaker, than to quote a 
short paragraph from the address by the deceased himself. 
Eulogizing the life and character of the late James Montraville 
Moody in the Senate a little more than five years ago. Senator 
Maluory used this language: 

Mr. President, it is a natural imi)ulse that prompts those who, by associa- 
tion or observation, have learned the intrinsic merit of one who has closed 
a life of usefulness to pay such tribute as can l)e conveyed by our inade- 
quate powers of expression to the memory of such a career. When Death 
has placed his imprimatur on the last chapter of our little earthly life story, 
and what we have done for good or ill has thereby lieconic fixed forever, a 
part of our irrevocable and unamendable record, it is eminently proper 
that not tmly those who have the incentive of jK-rstmal affection, but that 
those who in the casual intercourse of a strenuous existence have had 
occasion to note exceptional and shining traits in the character and career 
of one who has passed away forever, should also put in as iicrmancnt a 
shape as possible the results of their observation. This impulse ouglu to 
have, and generally does have, with the thoughtful a higher and nobler 
inspiration than that which evolved the maxim of the ancients which 
enjoined nought but good when speaking of the dead, lixamplc is the 
most potent of preceptors. The object-lesson is the most impressive 
method of reaching the understanding and shaping the inclination of the 
young, and the oftener we can present to their plastic minds authentic 
illustrations of character which of itself omquers adverse environment, 



Address of Mr. Sparkman, of Florida 53 

rises to eminence by its innate merit and wins the respect and esteem of 
good men and women, the greater the probability of our inspiring those 
who are to follow us with a zealous purpose of emulating such virtue. 

Senator Mallory's life is one well worthy of being studied. 
While he had not reached its allotted span nor passed much 
hevond its meridian, he had trodden the pathway of duty and 
had lived long, if life be counted by achievement rather than 
by the flight of years. Although springing from an honored 
and distinguished parentage, he had, by reason of adverse condi- 
tions, been compelled to start well down in the humbler walks 
of life; but, by his own unaided efforts, had climbed, one at a 
time, the steep heights of success until he had reached the goal 
of his ambition, the highest point, save one, that may be touched 
in the field of political endeavor; and that, too, without a stain 
upon his life or a blot upon his character. How much, then, 
may we, whether young or old, learn from a career so filled 
with bright achievement. 

Stephen Russell Mallory was born on November 2, 1848, 
in Columbia, S. C, where his parents were sojourning tem- 
porarily, their home being in Key West, Fla., from which city 
they subsequently moved to Pensacola. He sprang from Eng- 
lish and Irish stock on his father's side, his paternal grand- 
mother having been a Miss Russell and a cousin of Lord Russell, 
of England, and from Spanish lineage on his mother's side — 
she having been a Miss Moreno, a lady distinguished for her 
many quaUties, both of mind and heart. His father was a 
man of marked ability, and, elected to the United States Senate 
from Florida in 1851 , ser\'ed the people in that high position until 
his State seceded, in i86i,whenhe resigned from the Senate, 
becoming afterwards secretary of the navy in the cabinet of 
Jefferson Davis, there likewise discharging his duties with dis- 
tinction until the star of the Southern Confederacy "went down 
forever in smoke and blood." 



1^4 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Malloiy 

Nor (lid the son escajx' tin.- luirdships and perils of that blood- 
iest of conflicts. Being tiicn at school in Richmond, the Con- 
federate capital, and where his father's official jxisition had 
required him to reside, the son, at the call of what he conceived 
to be the voice of duty, entered Lee's army at the age of 15 
years, later being transferred to the navy, in which he ser\'ed 
as a midshipman on the I'ntrick Henry until the surrender of 
Lee at Appomattox, when he returned to Pensacola. But only 
for a brief period did he remain there at this lime, for we soon 
find him at Georgetown University, in this city, from which he 
graduated in due time, with distinction. Being without finan- 
cial means, his father's fortune having been dissipated, as so 
many fortunes were in that disastrous war, he became a pro- 
fessor of classic languages in the university from which he had 
graduated, teaching there for two years', when he removed to 
New Orleans and began the study of law, supporting himself 
the while by teaching school. Admitted to the bar in Louisiana, 
he returned to Florida in 1874, where he commenced the prac 
tiee of his profession, in which he to<ik at once a commanding 
position, and that, too, at a bar ever noted for the ability, 
learning, and high standing of its members. 

But he was not permitted long to follow without interruption 
the profession he had chosen. The people of his county, indeed 
of the State, had a use for his ser\'ices in the political field. In 
1876, a period in Florida as well as over the entire South when 
partisan feeling ran high, he was elected to the lower house of 
the Florida legislature, where his talents and high character at 
once jilaced him in the front rank of Florida's public men. a 
l>osition he ever afterwards retained. 

Fleeted to the state senate in i88<j, he was reelected in 1884, 
;dl the while continuing the practice of law, except when engaged 
in the performance of hisolTicial duties. In i8i>o he wa-^ I'lnird 



Address of Mr. Sparkman, of Florida 55 

to the Fifty-second Congress and reelected to the F^ifty-third, 
serving the people with that fidelity and conscientious regard for 
duty which characterized him throughout his entire life. Prom 
his seat in this body he retired to private life at the end of the 
Fifty-third Congress, broken in health but not in spirit, still 
with the determination to give the best that was within him to 
the world in which he lived. His retirement, however, was not 
to be for long, for in 1897 he was elected to the United States 
Senate, and reelected without opposition in 1903, serving well' 
the State whose commission he bore until death laid its hand 
upon him on December 23, 1907. 

This, Mr. Speaker, is but an outline of a remarkable career, 
but from it, even if we knew no more, we might easily fill the 
space within. I have only touched the more prominent eleva- 
tions along his jiathway, but from these resting places we can 
easily discern the difficulties of the course he trod, and picture 
to ourselves his struggles to surmount them, until finally he 
reached the goal of his ambition, the highest point for which he 
strove. 

A soldier at 15 under the greatest chieftain of the South in 
one of the most gigantic struggles the world has ever witnessed; 
a civil war veteran at 17 ; a graduate and professor in one of the 
first colleges of the country at the age of 21 ; a lawyer with a 
large practice in the city where his childhood had been spent at 
26; a member of the lower house of the legislature of his State 
at 28 ; twice a state senator between then and his thirty-sixth 
vear; twice a Congressman ere he had reached the age of 45, 
and then with broken health ten years in the greatest lawmak- 
ing body in the world; finally, after years of physical suffering, 
yielding to the ravages of disease and falling under its pitiless 
assaults, but with earthly honors thick upon him; these show 
not only a remarkable career, but indicate the traits whicli gave 



56 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

success — commanding talents, honorable anibilion, singleness ol 
purpose, energy in the discharge of duty, unyielding determina 
tion, and a well-rounded character. 

It was my good fortune, Mr. Speaker, to know Senator 
Mallury intimately, and particularly after he had been hon- 
ored with a seat in the Senate. I have seen him in private and 
public life, have met him in the social circle, accompanied him 
in political campaigns, observed him in the performance of his 
official duties at the other end of this Capitol, and know full 
well the cjualifications he possessed for the work demanded of 
him and the fidclit\ with which he served those who had 
intrusted their interests to his keeping. But if I were asked to 
specify the leading trait in his character, I would unhesitatinglv 
say that it was his high sense of honor. No political or other 
exigency could make him swerve from what he conceived to be 
the path of right. 

The voice of the tempter is heard in all the walks of life. 
With no less frequency, perhaps, is it whispered in the ear of 
him engagetl in civil strife, and the temptation to sacrifice con- 
victions to political exigency is sometimes great, but fortunate 
is that constituency represented by one who. willi an honest 
heart and a clear head, will, seeing the right, dare to do it in 
the face of the probable disapproval of that public on whom he 
relies for support. 

That t rail the subject of this sketch possessed in a high degree. 
Mistakes he may have made now and then in the support of 
men and measures. Who lias not made them? Hut if such 
there were, they were of the head and not of the heart. And 
in saying that, Mr. Speaker. I have perhaps said all that is nec- 
essary to be said of Stephen R. M.xllokv. For he who pos- 
sesses this characteristic can ever l)e trusted by those he si-r\es. 
In the life of such a man, the conditions being given, friend and 



Address of Mr. Sparknuni, uj Florida 57 

foe alike will know what his action will be. With the star of 
right to guide him, he ever moves on a straight line to the end 
of the way. 

Another characteristic of Senator Mallory's, which, after all, 
is but one of the many aspects of a high sense of honor, was his 
fidelity to his State and the people he represented. He ever 
had their interest before him and never lost an opportunity to 
serve them when able to do so. I have referred, Mr. Speaker, 
to the condition of his health. Indeed, he entered the Senate 
in 1897 an invalid and never afterwards did he regain his accus- 
tomed vigor. Often, to appearances, near death's door, he 
remained at his post of duty, except when compelled to absent 
himself on account of the severity of the disease from which 
he suffered. Going in and out of the Senate Chamber, but a 
shadow of his once strong and robust physique, though his body 
might be racked by pain and weakened !)>• fever, he never failed 
to respond to the request of a constituent, no matter how hum- 
ble or obscure, when able to leave his bed. Frequently 1 have 
seen him in the vSenate Chamber with a high fever participating 
in the deliberations of that body, or at the departments serving 
some friend or constituent, when prudence and a proper regard 
for his waning health and strength should have kept him in his 
room. 

But his sense of duty was such as to cause him to disregard 
his phvsical condition as long as an obligation claimed by a 
constituent or imposed by his official position remained undis 
charged. With him duty was first, everything else, including 
health and physical comfort, secondary. Knowing of his ill 
health and the drain wliicli disease and suffering had made 
upon his strength, 1 have wondered at his ability to perform so 
well his official duties. I'.esides attending to his correspondence 
and departmental work, he kept well up with the proceedings 



58 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallorv 

of the Senate — often engaging in the discussions of thai body. 
Ill fact, there was scarcely a great measure before the Senate 
while he was a member there upon which he did not speak and 
whieh was not rendered more lucid by his utterances. 

Senator Malloky, while a partisan, was not a bitter one, 
and although his arguments were presented with force, his kind- 
ness of heart was such that his language left nothing to rankle 
in the heart of an adversary. While standing firmly by his con- 
victions, he was magnanimous and liberal to all. He was not 
quick to take offense, and never intentionally wounded the 
sensibilities of another. He was always in earnest — never a 
iriller — but regarding every subject at all worthy of his con- 
sideration as meriting his best efTorl lie conducted the discus- 
sions in which he engaged upon a high plane. 

Such in part, Mr. Speaker, were the leading characteristics of 
S. R. Malujky. But he is gone. As the last eventful days of 
1907 were slipping away into the centuries that have passed his 
spirit laid aside its wasted abode of flesh and took its flight to 
the God who gave it. But though with us no more, his memory 
still lingers in our hearts. Indeed, such a life is never lost in 
death nor buried in the grave, but passes out upwn the years to 
cheer mankind as the centuries go by. The world is better for 
his having lived in it, and rich indeed is the heritage of those he 
left behind or who may come after him. Of him it may be truly 
said he left 

I'ocilpriiils (111 Ihc s;iii(ls nf liiuc. 
I^ootprints llial iktIi;ii>s andllicr. 

Sailing o'er life's s<iliMiin main, 
A fiirlom and slii|>wrcckcd hrotluT 

Seeing, shall lake heart again 



Address of Mr. Paytie, of Neiv York 59 



Address of Mr. Payne, of New York 

Mr. Speaker: My first acquaintance with Stephen K. 
Mallory began in December, 1891, when he entered the Fifty- 
second Congress as a Representative from the southern district 
of Florida. He came here when his party was in the full flush 
of victory. The McKinley tariff act became a law on the 6th 
of October, 1890, and the election was held only a month later, 
before the act had gotten into full operation. Its various pro- 
visions were magnified by the imaginations of the people and 
there was a universal feeling and apprehension that prices on all 
commodities would be enormously high under its operations. 
1 remember well seeing large placards in the stores announcing 
that certain goods would be sold at a certain price and that now 
was the time to buy, because on the next invoice they would be 
compelled to advance the price 25 per cent because of the opera 
tions of the McKinley law. There was no partisanship either 
in the display of these placards, because the>- were seen as fre- 
quently in stores owned by RepubUcans as those of the opposition 
party. The result was an overwhelming Democratic majority 
in the House of Representatives, elected in the fall of 1890; and 
in 1892 his party came into full power in both the executive and 
legislative branches of the Government. 

Here was a great opportunity for a newly elected Member. 
Mr. Mallorv was fresh from service in both houses of the Florida 
legislature. He had a mind well ^;rained in statecraft. Vet 
being a new member he was largely overshadowed by many of 
the old-time leaders in his party, and with his naturally modest 
and retiring disposition did" not bring himself so much to the 
front as he would have done under nthcr circumstances. I got 



6o Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

to know him well during his service here in the House, although 
we were not on the same committee in any instance. He was of 
gentlemanly disposition, of friendly nature, a man of warm 
friendship, and always courteous in his bearing and intercourse 
with his fellow Members. 

He was defeated for renomination in 1894 by the present 
popular and able Representative from that district, the Hon. 
Stephen M. Sparkman. The success of Mr. Sparkman was a 
tribute to his wide popularity in the district. But it is a great 
tribute to the character of Mr. Maluorv that though defeated 
for Congress in 1894 he was elected to the Senate in 1896 for the 
term commencing March 4, 1897. He at once took high rank in 
that body as a patient, persistent, hard-working Senator, a man 
who looked for results and not for oratorical display. He did 
not bring himself into the lime light, but was content to work 
out quietly his plans, with the result of unusual success. lU 
was reelected to the Senate in 1902, having been renominated by 
a vote in the primaries without opposition. His fatal illness 
overlook him in November last, and the subsequent days of his 
life marked his character for industry and devotion to duty 
His last speech was delivered in this city on the Sunday evening 
before his sickness, and the last article from his pen was com- 
pleted only a few hours before he was stricken with his fatal 
malady. He fully realized the condition of his health some time 
before his death, as he declined to be a candidate for reelection 
to the Senate and also declined any position of chairmanship of 
a committee in the Senate. His last request showed the sim- 
plicity of his life; he desired that no committee Ix.- appointed to 
attend upon his funeral and that the services be of the simplest 
character. 

It is a remarkable fact in the career of Mr. Mallory that he 
enlisted in the Confederate army at the age of 15 vears and 



Address of Mi . Payne, of New York 6i 

became a midshipman in the Confederate navy in the spring of 
1865. He retired as a veteran of the war at the age of 17 years. 
Mr. Mallory's devotion at this early age to the Confederate 
cause is but a fair example of the fealty of the men of the South 
during those sad and bloody years of fratricidal strife. In 
common with millions of his countrymen he believed the cause 
of the South was right, although this belief is now generally 
conceded to have been a mistaken one as to the question of 
whether the United States was a nation or simply a confederacy; 
yet all are willing to concede the general good faith of those 
adopting the latter view who risked their lives in their vain 
endeavor to sustain it. Now everywhere their valor is recog- 
nized. The heroism which sent boys at 15, or even younger, 
into the field side by side with old men, tottering on the verge 
of the grave, showed a sturdy determination and valor never 
surpassed in history. However we may differ on other ques- 
tions relating to the war of the sixties, none of us can forget 
that these men were Americans, and well illustrated the fighting 
blood shed on every field from Lexington to San Juan Hill. 



62 Memorial Addresses: Stephen K. MalLory 



Address of Mr. De Armond, of Missouri 

Mr. Speaker: On occasions likt ihis we are impressed with a 
sense of the narrowness of the round of life — a rejoicing over 
the advent into existence in this world, a buffeting of its billows 
and a braving of its storms, an enduring of its trials and a sharing 
of its joys and triumphs for a brief period, and then scenes like 
this, where the sur\4vors gather to pay tribute to those who arc 
gone. 

The subject of our memorial remarks had quite a remarkable 
career. Into few lives is there crowded so much of iiistory as 
may be written about the man of whom we speak to-da\ . .\ 
soldier, a sailor, a legislator in each branch of the legislature of 
his State, a Member of this House of Representatives, and a 
member of the Senate of the United States, and yet death 
readied liim before old age iiad come, and when he had but by 
little passed his meridian. Into few lives is crowded so much 
of work and of glory. To but few is it given to render so much 
of public ser\'ice. 

I came to Congress at the time Senator .M.\i.l<>kv entered this 
House. I served with him in the Fifty-second and Fiftv-third 
Congressi'S, and in lliat time came lo know liiiii <|uite well. As 
others have remarked, lie was modest and unostentatious in the 
discharge of his duties. His effort seemed to be to find the right 
side of questions and to adhere to the right as he saw it. 

The devotion of his State to him and the signal manner in 
which it honored him is evidence of itself that he served the 
people of that State, both in his Congressional district and 
ifti r«:ir<K in (he State at large, faithfullv and well. 



Address of Mr. De Armond, of Missouri 63 

It is a comparatively rare thing for son to succeed father, 
directly or remotely, in the membership of this House. It is 
still rare for son to follow father in membership at the other 
end of this Capitol. It is a notable fact that the service of the 
son in the Senate in this instance is about equal in length of 
years to the Senatorial service of the father a generation earlier. 

What an amount of history was made in the period during 
which this young man was upon the boards as an actor in life. 
In that time was our great civil war, one of the mighty con- 
flicts not only of modern times but of all time, and he was an 
actor in the scenes, both upon land and upon sea. The events 
of that war were so tremendous, the results of it are so far- 
reaching that even those of us who may have given the most 
thought to the subject perhaps but feebly comprehend the full 
significance of what then happened, and what has resulted and 
what will result from what then happened. 

In another respect the career of Senator Mallory is some- 
what remarkable, because in the death chain his name is linked 
forever with the name of his successor. It is surely an ex- 
traordinary and perhaps an unprecedented event that upon the 
same day, in the same Chamber, tributes are paid to the 
memory of a departed Senator and to the memory of another 
departed Senator who followed him, his immediate successor 
in the Senate and in death. With what audacity does Death 
tread upon the heels of Life! How fleeting is earthly existence, 
and how rapidly are the scenes shifted ! 

The vacancy in the Senate made by Senator M.vllory's death 
was filled by the appointment of young Mr. Bryan. He came 
here in the flush and strength of young manhood, and yet in a 
few weeks mourning friends followed him to his last resting 
place, as mourning friends had followed his predecessor to the 
tomb; and to-day in this Chamber tribute will be paid to his 



64 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

memory, as well as to llie memory of the Senator who preceded 
him in office and in death. 

Senator Mallory's abilities were of a solid, substantial, and 
accomplishing kind, if I may use the expression. A modest 
man, he never sought display and never attempted it. His pur- 
poses were high, and tht'' means by which he tried to accomplish 
them were worthy of the entls in view. His aim was to serve 
faithfully those who intrusted him with public duties and their 
interests in this Capitol and elsewhere, and without exaggera- 
tion and without favor or partiality we may well say his 
ser\'ices were faithful and efficient. 

It is often a matter of curious study as to who accomplishes 
most in a given forum in this life and what means are the best 
for the accomplishment of desired results. Perhaps each can 
accomplish best the task set before him by his own methods 
and in his own ways, by the employment of his talents in the 
ways that are natural for him, because the natural ways of each 
of us are better for each than the superior ways of others which 
we might try to copy or follow. 

This man, not gifted with extraordinary brilliancy, not 
possessed of display talents, used faithfully and persistently, 
honestly and courageously the substantial talents which were 
given him; and the faithful use of these is what results in the 
attainment of the desirable things of life. Brilliancy dazzles 
momentarily, startles, perhaps gratifies, but steady work, steady 
persistence in the pursuit of an object, steady aim in the ac- 
complishment of what is laid out for accomplishment — that is 
what produces results, that is what in the main makes the 
world better, advances a good cause, and retards that which 
is bad. 

Some are of the opinion that ser\'ices and exercises such as 
these are merely formal and ought to be dispensed with I am 



Address of Mr. D'e Armorid, of Missouri 65 

not of that mind. I believe that it is worth while for us in this 
everyday, plodding life of ours to throw in a dash of sentiment 
where we can. Life is an extraordinary mingUng of tragedy 
and comedy, the most wonderful thing of which we can con- 
ceive, the one wonderful thing of which we have experience 
from our entrance into it until our departure from it. It is 
entirely fitting that those associated with a worthy man in his 
life and in his work when he is gone should turn aside from 
their everyday performances to pay a tribute of respect to his 
memory, a tribute that may be paid honestly because it is 
richly merited. Of course the departed is neither benefited nor 
injured by what we say here, nor by our failure to say any- 
thing. He is gone beyond the realm of temporal things. Tem- 
poral voices no longer reach his ear, temporal concerns no 
longer command his attention. It is rather for us and for 
those who follow' after us ; it is rather in the example and effect 
upon humanity in general, that exercises like these have their 
meaning and use. 

It is no idle ceremony to pay tribute to the memory of such 
a man as Senator Mallory; an honest, sincere, worthy man, 
honored far beyond the average of American citizenship; nota- 
ble by the honors heaped upon him, and by his conduct so 
worthy of them. In him we have lost a friend and coadjutor 
in the work of good government; and in our several ways and 
with our varying lights, blinded sometimes and warped by our 
prejudices, in the main, I like to believe, we seek good govern- 
ment and its good results. One who battled with us and who 
wrought by our side, one who was a helper and a friend, is 
gone; and in a comparatively short lime — for life is fleeting, 
and soon the longest life ends — we who are yet in the flesh 
shall have performed our part in life, well or ill, and also shall 
have gone hence. 

72901 — S. D<ic. 762, 60-2 5 



66 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

May it be our good fortune when the lime comes for kind, 
loving friends to say something concerning us, to have such 
records that they may honestly speak well of us, as we this 
day may honestly speak well of him to whose memory we would 
pay the tribute of abiding reverence. 



Address of Mr. Lawrence, of Massachusetts 67 



Address or Mr. Lawrence, of Massachusetts 

Mr. Speaker; It is not my purpose at this time to speak at 
length of the Ufe, character, and services of Senator Mallory. 
That privilege belongs properly to those who knew him longer 
and more intimately than I did. I do desire, however, to pay a 
brief tribute to one whose whole career was characterized by a 
splendid integrity and an absolute fidelity. When he passed 
away a great loss came to his State and section, but more than 
that, Mr. Speaker, a great loss came to his country. The sorrow 
felt by his friends, neighbors, and associates was shared by 
those who lived in more distant parts of our land and who 
admired and respected this brave and useful man. 

In the fall of 1864 he was but a boy of 15 years, yet he enlisted 
in the Confederate service and fought for the cause in which he 
believed until the war was over. He then taught school and 
studied law. He had, however, hardly entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession when he was elected to the lower house of 
the Florida legislature, and for ten years was a member of that 
body and of the state senate. So satisfactory was his record 
there that his constituents sent him to Washington as a Member 
of the House of Representatives. He had been a United States 
Senator since 1897. 

Practically his whole life, therefore, was given to the public 
service. He had the entire confidence of the people of Florida, 
and in return he gave them the best that was in him. He was 
an intense patriot. He loved his Southland, and during the 
days of civil strife showed that he was willing, if need be, to die 
for its people. His military record was marked by fidelity and 
fearlessness. When the war came to an end he showed like 



68 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

fearlessness in confronting the distressing difficulties which fol- 
lowed it. From that hour he devoted hiinself with all his might 
not alone to bettering local conditions, but to the welfare of the 
whole country. And how eagerly have those associated with 
him in public life testified to the signal ability with which he 
discharged his duties. 

Senator Mai^lory was brave, courteous, kindly, the very soul 
of honor; in a word, he was a true Southern gentleman. I have 
listened with great interest to the affectionate and eloquent 
tributes which have been paid to him to-day, and I was espe- 
cially touched by the reference made by my friend [Mr. Spark- 
man] to the pluck and determination shown by Senator Mallory 
hi pressing steadfastly on with his work in spite of ill health. 
There was something very thrilling in that recital of daily battle 
with disease by one who "though his body might be racked by 
pain and weakened by fever, never failed to respond to the 
recjuest of a constituent, no matter how humble or obscure." I 
think we do not always realize how much of heroism there is in 
such a life. It calls for a finer courage than that shown upon 
the battlefield. Companionship with a man who carries cheer- 
fulness with him and goes on with his work in spite of physical 
ills is inspiring. It drives away melancholy, and makes the 
world a better place to live in. I have also been impressed by 
the many references to his rugged honesty. In these days, when 
there have been revelations of dishonor in public and private 
life which have shocked and alarmed us, it is indeed uplifting to 
contem))late the life of a man whose record is without stain. 

Mr. Speaker, a strong man has gone; a life of rare usefulness 
is ended ; the record is made up. As the years pass by, it will Ik- 
realized more and more clearly how great is our loss. A noble 
constituency which he ser\'ed so devotedly and unselfishly can 
Iw dejxiided upon to see to it that such sinice is ever gratefully 
remembered. 



Address of Mr. Brantley, oj Georgia 69 



Address of Mr. Brantley, of Georgu 

Mr. Speaker : The friends and admirers of Stephen Russell 
Mallory, late a Senator from the State of Florida, received a 
great shock on December 23 last when the news of his death at 
his home in Pensacola, Fla., was flashed across the wires. 

That shock settled into a deep and profound sorrow as we here 
and elsewhere came to a full realization of the great loss we had 
sustained. 

The hearts of countless numbers became and are filled with 
mourning because of his passing away. This House, of which 
he was twice an honored Member, took fitting and proper action 
on his death when notice of same was recdved, and meets to-day 
to permit its Members to pay a last final tribute to his memory. 
Some, more gifted in speech and beautiful thought, will sing his 
praises and sound his virtues in grander and more harmonious 
tones than others less gifted can do, but the heart of each will 
be in his song and each sorig will be a song of love, for Senator 
Mallory was beloved by all who knew him. 

So far as he is concerned, our exercises this day are vain and 
futile. He has solved the mystery of life and of death and is 
bevond the reach of our words. We can not contribute to his 
happiness or his glory; nor can we, by our most affectionate 
thoughts or tenderest words, provoke the faintest sign of recog- 
nition from him. He has passed from our midst and the things 
that are earthly concern him no more. 

As he could not in Ufe by taking thought add a single cubit to 
his stature, so w^e to-day by taking thought can not add to the 
stature of manhood and of fame that he for himself carved out of 
the life that was given him to live. 



■JO Memorial Addresses: Stephen K. Mallory 

VVc pav honor therefore to his memory with no thought save 
that of paying honor where honor is due; and in truth by that 
which we do we but honor ourselves. 

It has been truly written that it is not all of life to live nor 
all of death to die. We know the former; we believe the latter. 
We need not enter the realm of speculation nor invoke our re-' 
ligious faith to know that it is not all of life to live. Poor indeed 
would be the Ufu that at its closing could point to no other 
achievement than that of mere existence, and poorer still would 
be our great country if the lives that have made it glorious had 
been pitifully empty and useless lives. But it is not all of life 
to live, when that living has been filled with mighty deeds and 
crowned with works of beneficence, for such a life in the hearts 
and minds of those who knew it lives on and on. 

The grave marks the ending of the physical life, but there is 
no ending there of memory, and a man's works live after him. 
I'hc influence of a good and useful life furnishes hope and cour- 
age and is an inspiration to nobler and better things. This 
influence for neither its beginning nor its ending takes any note 
of the hour when the life that gave it birth passes from time 
into eternity. It was such a life that Senator Maludry lived, 
and it is because of it that now, when his physical life is ended, 
we meet to utter words of love and praise about him. The 
short sketch of him that appears in our directory but faintly 
reveals the busy and useful life he lived. It shows, however, 
that he was called to many positions of honor and trust, and 
those who knew him know that he was faitiiful and tme in every 
instance. Before he was 16 years of age he Ix'came a volunteer 
in the Confederate anny to do battle for his beloved Southland, 
and from that hour until his last expiring breath he was loyal 
to the noblest and best traditions of the people he loved and the 
people who loved him. 



Address of Mr. Brantley, of Georgia 71 

One by one the old soldiers of the South, who, after the 
"bloody conflict," were called to the patriotic service of a re- 
united country, are passing away. 

The roll call on the other side of the river is lengthening, while 
here it is growing shorter and shorter. One of the last to leave 
us and to swell the great majority on the other side was Senator 

M.^LLORY. 

We grieve and lament his departure, while hosannas of joy 
welcomed his answering "present" to the roll call over there. 
No better or more efficient or more loyal service to the Stars and 
Stripes has been rendered here than has come from these old 
soldiers of the South, and among them all there has not been 
one more patriotic nor one more consecrated to duty than 
Senator ]\L\llory. He was a scholarly man, and his mind was 
a great "storehouse of learning. He was fitted by nature, by 
inheritance, and by training for the great work of statesmanship. 
His people recognized this, and for almost half of the fifty-nine 
years he lived he was engaged in the arduous and exacting work 
of making laws. He served in both branches of his state legis- 
lature, and he served in both branches of the Congress of the 
United States. He knew the science of government as but few 
men learn it, and the Constitution was the chart and guide to 
which he clung at all times and in all cases. He leaned to the 
school of strict constructionists, and he ever questioned the exer- 
cise of any jDower by Congress plain warrant for which could 
not be found in the written delegation of power. The sover- 
eign State found in him a stanch defender, and no knightlier 
blade was ever drawn in defense of a just cause than that 
drawn by him in defense of what he believed to be the reserved 
power of the States. So gentle, however, was he in thought, 
and so polished and persuasive in phrase and word, that no 
opponent met him but to admire and be disarmed. Whatever 



72 



Miiiioiial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 



the result of the conllicl. it left no fei'linj; (if (.nniitv or rt-Miii 
ment. 

Senator Malloky was not merely a student and defender of 
the Constitution, but he was a man of action and of deeds. He 
was a man of theories, but he put his theories into practice. 
The improvement of the harbors and the waterways of his State 
and country greatly interested him, and the results in this direc- 
tion that he accomplished speaks a greater eulogy of his achieve- 
ments than can any feeble words of mine. He was much con- 
cerned for the protection of the South from the invasion of yel- 
low fever, and our present quarantine law is largely the result 
of his labors. 

He was a stanch believer in the future of his State and of the 
South. He ever had before him not only their present great- 
ness, but their greater possibilities, and whatever of law, what- 
ever of speech, whatever of precept that lay within liis power 
to induce the realization of these possibilities was ever at the 
ser\'ice of his people. In all this he was neither sectional nor 
partisan. He was simply true to those who first re|X)se(l their 
trust in him, for truly his labors were not confined to his own 
section. He was a man of broad and national views and loved 
his whole country, and he ser\'ed it all and served it well. 

So clean was he in his methods and so u])rightly did he walk 
in this body that he jjossessed the confidence and esteem of 
both sides; and as it was here, so it was in the upper House. 
He was the friend of all his associates and all his associates 
were his friends. He was by instinct a gentleman, and his cour- 
tesy was as unfailing as the atmosphere of honestv in which he 
lived. He was of kind and sympathetic disixisition, and while 
he knew law and statesmanship and government he als<i knew 
|>eople. He never los^ sight of (lie individual, and was ever 
readv to i-xtend a helping hand to the nei-dy and distressed. 



Address oj Mr. Brantley, oj ijeorgia 73 

While sick and suffering for many years before his death, no 
murmur of complaint came from his lips, but he was ever, in 
sickness, as in health, the generous friend and the ready sym- 
pathizer. He gave aid and sympathy, but he sought neither 
for himself. 

Quiet and unobtrusive, one had to know him to thoroughh 
appreciate him, but once knowing him his personality was im- 
pressive, and those who knew him did not forget him. 

But few who have served in this body knew the city of Wash- 
ington so well as he. He was here as a student and here as a 
teacher long prior to his advent into political life. This Capital 
City of the nation lost a friend when his life went out — a friend 
who not onlv knew and understood its needs, Ijut who was pow- 
erful to aid. There are many in this city, as elsewhere, who 
have cause to remember his broad and catholic spirit, who 
know his work for and interest in the boys and girls of the 
country, and who know of his zealous efforts in the cause of 
education — a cause near and dear to him throughout his public 
career. His influence was ever on the side of the weak and 
helpless, and he left no stone unturned to carry education, to 
carrv aid and sustenance to the dependent children of the land. 
In his death education has lost a friend, virtue and morality a 
stanch adherent, and his country a devoted, loyal son. In 
every walk of life, wherever he was known, his death is de- 
plored; but while we deplore it, we, at the same time, rejoice 
that he was permitted to live and that we were permitted to 
know him. 



74 Memorial Addresses: Stephen A'. Mallory^ 



Address of Mr. Lamb, of Virginia 

Mr. Chairman: The Stale of I-'lorida has been unforlunate 
in losing two senators within a short space of time. Indeed, 
the grim monster has played sad havoc in botli Houses since 
this session of Congress began. 

We are constantly reminded that we have here nn continued 
city and that death is no respecter of persons. 

In the death of Stephen Russell Mallory the Stale of 
Florida has lost a usefnl citizen, the Senate of the United States 
a valuable and distinguished member, and his colleagues in Ixjth 
Houses a warm hearted and genial friend, whose splendid traits 
of character endeared him to all who enjoyed the pleasure of 
his acquaintance and friendship. 

For several years I was thrown with him at the same table 
and in his room at the hotel where we both lived, and am there- 
fore as well fitted to speak of his life and character as any 
Member of Congress outside of his own delegation. 

I loved to hear him talk, and found inspiration and instruc- 
tion in communion with Iiim. We had much in common. We 
were both soldiers in the civil war — he in the Navy, I iu the 
cavalry service. Being the elder of the two, I was longer in 
the service, for he entered at 15 years of age and was a veteran 
of that war at 17. 

He often told me of riding around the defenses of Richmond 
when a mere lad of 13 years. He seemed to love esery foot 
of ground around that historic and lovely city, and he knew 
many of the leading families of the place, who exhibited a 
fortitude and courage during four long years that has never 
been surpassed, if eijualed, by any jK'ople in all the tide of 
time. 



Address of Mr. Lamh, of Virginia 7c 

It is no wonder that after entering the Confederate army as 
a private, he subsequently entered the navy as a midshipman, 
for his distinguished father, of the same name, was the secre- 
tary of the Confederate navy during the four years of the war 
between the States. He had been a distinguished Member of 
the United States Senate and chairman of the Committee on 
Naval Affairs, and also a member of the Committee on Claims. 
He refused the appointment of minister to Spain in 1888. He 
also declined to serv^e as chief justice of the admiralty court of 
Florida when that State seceded from the Union. Jefferson 
Davis appointed him secretary of the navy, which he accepted 
and held until the close of the war. It was here that he mani- 
fested the wisdom of the choice of the Confederate president, 
for he succeeded in organizing a navy where none had previ- 
ously existed. In proof of the wisdom of this choice and the 
work performed I quote a monograph by Major Gorgas. He 
says : 

We liegan, in April, 186 1, without an arsenal, laboratory, or powder 
mill of any capacity, and with no foundry or rolling mill except at Rich- 
mond, and before the close of 1863, within a little over two years, we sup- 
plied them. During the harassments of war, while holding our own in the 
iield defiantly and successfully against a powerful enemy — crippled by a 
depreciated currency — throttled with a blockade that deprived us of 
nearly all means of getting material or workmen, unable to use slave labor, 
with which we were abundantly suppUed, except in the most unskilled 
department of production; hampered by want of transportation, even of 
the commonest supplies of food; with no stock on hand even of articles 
such as steel, copper, leather, or iron, which we must have to build up our 
establishments — against all these obstacles, in spite of all these deficiencies, 
we persevered at home as determinedly as did our troops in the field against 
a more tangible opposition, and in that short period created almost literally 
out of the ground foundries and rolling mills at Selma, Richmond, Atlanta, 
and Macon; smelting works at Petersburg; chemical works at Charlotte, 
N. C: a powder mill far superior to any in the United States and unsur- 



■jd Memorial Addresses: ^lepluii R. Mallory 

passed by any across the ocean, and a chain of arsenals, ariiionrs, ^iml 
lalioratories equal in their capacity and improvements to the tiest of those 
in the I'nited Slates, stretching link by link from \'irginia to Alabama. 

The inheritance from and the example set by such a father 
must have contributed largely to the development of the char- 
acter and the forming of the life of our late friend and col- 
league. 

In 1865 young Mallory matriculated in Georgetown College, 
was graduated, and for soiue time filled the chair of classical 
languages. While teaching school in Mew Orleans in 1870 he 
read law and was admitted to practice by the supreme court. 
In 1876 he was elected to the Florida legislature. In 1880 he 
was elected to the lower House of Congress and reelected two 
years later. He was elected United States Senator in 1897 and 
reelected in 1902 for the term expiring March, 1909. 

He died in December last at the age of 59 years, leaving a 
splendid record and an untarnished name. He literally died 
with his harness on, resisting lo the last the fatal disease that 
had been preying on his constitution for years. He delivered 
a speech to the Knights of Columbus the Sunday night liefore 
he was taken very ill. 

A few hours before he was stricken he compiled an article 
for the Christmas edition of one of his State papers. 

His was the simple life in many respects. In evidence of this 
his last request was that no Congressional delegation Ik- ap- 
pointed to attend his fimeral and that the ceremonies Ix- of the 
simplest character. 

His taste was cultivated to a degree. In many years of 
association with him I never heard fall from his lips an unkind 
or hastv word. He suffered much. 1 have been in his room 
when he was racked with pain, but never heard a murmur or a 
word of complaint. He possessed patience for the small sor- 



Address of Mr. Lamb, of Virginia yj 

rows of life, as he had shown courage for the great disappoint- 
ments that came to him and those he loved in his early youth. 
He appeared to me as a link between the old time and the 
new when together we discussed the issues of 1865 and the 
characters of the men who figured in the civil and military 
life of that stormy time. He knew many of the leading men 
and officers. He had judged them from the view point of 
youth, and these impressions wore off with his student life. 
He knew only what he had gathered from history of the trials 
and hardships and sufferings of the rank and file of the Con- 
federate army. History has not yet told and will never fully 
portray the heroic sacrifices and unquenchable spirit of the 
men and officers of the Southern army. 

In addition to the simple life and patience that marked the 
character of our deceased colleague I was often struck with the 
correctness of his judgment and his strong sense of justice. 
He was fair to his opponents in debate, and rarely, if ever, did 
he lose his equanimity of temper. 

He was a safe counselor. He was sincere and frank always. 
It might be said of him "That he was a man that would swear 
to his own hurt and change not." If he possessed some of the 
weaknesses that attach to our frail natures, I did not observe 
them. 

Inheritance, association, and education combined to make of 
Senator Mallory a model character. That these together fitted 
him in an eminent degree for the responsible duties of a legis- 
lator the public records of Congress, running through more than 
a decade, will amply show. 

That he was warm-hearted and affectionate was clearly shown 
by the manner in which he often spoke of his family and kindred. 

I often thought that his simple and somewhat' exclusive life 
was possibly the result of self-imposed sacrifices for the good 



7^ Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

of others. This world has many such lives. The period in 
which our colleague lived and was reared and educated produced 
such characters. Sacrifice was the lot of all. It was necessary. 
Besides, it was contagious. It was in the air and filled I he- 
hearts and molded the lives of men and women. 

The youths who drank in this spirit every day and watched 
it make heroes of beardless youths and angels of mercy of 
women raised in the lap of luxury, could but drink at the foun- 
tain of waters of sacrifice that flowed in blecdinj^ wounds around 
the beleaguered city, and spent its force in the hospitals where 
diseased and mutilated humanity appealed for aid and sym- 
pathy. 

The records of Congress in both Houses will hand down to 
future generations the public life and services of our colleague. 
Mad he been blessed with robust health there is no calculating 
the greater e.xtciit of his achievements. Had his party been 
in the majority he would undoubtedlv have been one of its 
al)kst leaders. 

Those who knew him best will long regret his untimely end. 
particularly the men in both Houses nearing the "three score 
and ten." who look upon a Member of 59 as vet young and 
active. 

Another trait of character stood out prominently in Senator 
M.\Li.<)Rv's life. It was the virtue of gentleness, the crowning 
grace of great and good ini-n. 

He possessed this in an eminent degree It lul()e<l no doubt 
to endear him to a loyal and devoted constituency. It I>()uik1 
him as with hoops of steel to those who knew him best and 
loved him most. It will keep green his memory in their minds 
and hearts when the scenes in which he figured shall have 
faded and the public acts in which he participated become, as it 
were, ancient history. 



Address of Mr. Waldo, of New York j^ 



Address of Mr. Waldo, of New York 

Mr. Speaker: While I had known of vSenator Mai.i.orv and 
of his distinguished life and services for many years, my personal 
acquaintance only started from the year iqo6, when I first came 
to Congress. His whole life, as has been stated here perhaps 
many times, was practically spent in the service of the public, 
commencing with service as a soldier at the age of 15. There 
are few men who have passed through personally so much of 
the history of this country as did Senator Mai^uorv and yet 
have died comparatively young. He was not, from all that I 
have read or heard or have known of him, a man of exceptional 
brilliancy in any way. He was a simple, plain, unostentatious 
.\merican citizen who was devoted to whatever duty came 
before him. When I first met him I was particularly impressed 
with this characteristic — a man of such distinguished services 
in almost all branches of the public service and yet as unassum- 
ing and modest as a schoolboy. He seemed to be an example 
of the kind of modest, hard, simple, plain work upon which the 
very life of our great Republic was founded. It is such men as 
Senator Mallorv that carry on the work of this country and of 
the world. They ask for no reward except the knowledge that 
their work has been well done. If anything can justify or does 
well justify such ceremonies as these, it is the calling to our 
minds and to the minds of those who come after us that such 
attention to duties, without the desire or the seeking for ap- 
plause, the attending to whatever comes before us at the 
moment, is the one thing that is worth while in this life. It is 
the one thing upon which the stabilitv of human affairs depend. 



8o Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 



Address of Mr. Sulzer, of New York 

Mr. Speaker: On this sad and solemn occasion we meet to 
pay a most desen-ed tribute to the memory of a good and 
worthy man — Stephen Russell Mallory — late a Senator in 
the Congress of the United States from the grand old Common- 
wealth of Florida. 

It is fitting for us to pause for a short space of time to con- 
template the march of grim death that within the past year has 
deprived us of seven distinguished Senators, who have passed 
away to their eternal reward. What a commentary on the un- 
certainly of this frail and transitory life. They were all great 
men and faithful public servants. The mortality in the .Senate 
has, I believe, been greater during the past few months than in 
anv other like time in all the h...iory of our country. 

Call the roll of the illustrious dead. Morgan and Pettus, 
the grand old men of Alabama; the genial Latimer, of South 
Carolina; the stately William Pinkney Whvte, of Maryland; 
Keufield Proctor, the sturdy oak of \'ermont; and Mallory 
and Bryan, the popular idols of the land of sunshine. They 
were men upon whose like we shall seldom look again. Their 
places can not be taken. They leave a void which can never 
be filled. The death of these noble men is an irreparable loss 
to their States and a misfortune to the country they served so 
faithfully and so well. All dead within a year! All friends; 
and all gone to their eternal reward and final rest. TIkv were 
all mv friends. I knew them will I served in Congress with 
them all. 1 was a friend of eacli. I grieve witli ihos^' who 
grieve, I mourn with those who mouni. 



Address of Mr. Sulzer, of New York 8 1 

Thev were all true men, all honest men, all great men, all loyal 
friends, heroically serving their country and working for the 
good of mankind in the vineyard of the people. How sad it all 
is to lose such friends: 

Friend after friend departs; 

Who hath not lost a friend? 
There is no union here of hearts 

That finds not here an end. 

■■ Mr. Speaker, the career of Stephen Russell Mallory is a 
ni'i interesting one. It teaches a lesson we should all learn. 
He crowded much in the active years of his instructive life. He 
was a worker, a plodder, and he made progress and history. He 
was born on the 2d da\' of November, 1848, in Pensacola, Fla., 
of distinguished parents. He was the worthy son of an illus- 
trious sire. The father made history; so did the son. That 
story is a part of the annals of our country. Every youth in the 
land should read it. 

At the age of 15, in 1863, ybung Mallory entered the Con- 
federate army as a private, and subsequently served with dis- 
tinction as a midshipman in the Southern navy. The great con- 
flict over, he entered Georgetown College, in the District of Co- 
lumbia, in November, 1865, and graduated with high honors in 
June, 1869. He taught a class at the college until July, 1871; 
then was admitted to the bar by the supreme court of Louisiana, 
at New Orleans, in 1873; subsequently, in 1874, he removed to 
Pensacola, Fla., a:id began practicing law; was elected to the 
lower house of the legislature in 1876; was elected to the senate 
of Florida in 1880, and reelected in 1884. 

He was elected to the Fifty-second Congress and ri'elected to 

the F'ifty-third from the First District of I'lorida, and then- -the 

crowning glory of his career — the legislature of Florida elected 

him to the United States Senate for the term beginning March 

72901 — S. Doc. 762, 60-2 6 



82 Memorial Addresses: Stephen R. Mallory 

4, 1S97, and he was unanimously rctkcled in 1903. He received 
the degree of doctor of laws from Georgetown University in June, 
1904; and, had he lived, his term of service in the Senate would 
not have expirwl imtil Maicli ;,, im<"). Hut in the midst of his 
arduous labors came the inexorable call of the dread messenger 
of death. 

In the month of November, igo?, he suffered a general break- 
down as the sec|uence of an illness of some ten years' duration. 
On December 16 he announced that because of the condition of 
his health he would not be a candidate again for reelection to the 
United .Stales Senate, and shortly thereafter, on the 23d day of 
-last December, he died, in the fifty-ninth year of his life, re- 
spected and honored and loved and mourned b\ all who knew 
iiim. But he left us a priceless legacy — 

One of the few, tlic ininmrtal names, 
That were not horn In die. 

Senator M.xli.okv, Mr. Si)eaker, was a Democrat of the old 
school, true to the teachings of the fathers. He had no pre- 
tense. He did not know what it was to be untrue to himself 
or false to any man. He was a man of the simjjle life, of 
courteous wavs, and of genial manners. He was a quiet man, 
without display or ostentation. He cared naught for the pomp 
and circumstance of the world. He had a gentle manner, a 
lovable disjiosition, a magnanimous mind, a kindly character, 
and was hospitahly personified. He had clear ideas of life, 
fixed views of things, well-defmed iirinciples, nmch detcnnina- 
tion, great force of character, and the love for his native S<iuth- 
land was the inspiration of his life. 

He was broad minded in his views, tolerant of the o])inions of 

-others, and he believed in the greatest liberty for the individual 

consistent with the liberty of every other individual. He was 

farseeing and sagacious, a wisi- ctmnselor, a true friend, and a 



Address of Mr. Sulzer, of Xew York <S3 

safe guide. He was the foe of every special privilege and fought 
the good fight, in Congress and out of Congress, for equal rights 
to all. 

He had a great mind, a good heart, a genial nature, and a 
kindly word for all. He was a student, a lawyer, a soldier, and 
a statesman. He was a cultivated gentleman without fear and 
without reproach. For years he suffered much, but he bore the 
ills and pains of mortal disease with Job-like, patience. Amid 
all his suffering he worked on with a smile on his pallid face 
and a fortitude that commanded the admiration of all. He did 
his dutv to the last. He died in the sers-ice of his country. 

He knew that death was near, yet he had no fear. Beneath 
his calm exterior there beat an unconquerable heart that never 
quailed, that never doubted, that never failed, that never mur- 
mured, and that never complained. He welcomed the final 
summons, and when it came he bade farewell to earthly things, 
and in his quiet way, so characteristic of his earthly life, he 
quietlv journeyed to that undiscovered country from whose 
bourne no traveler returns. 

Sleep sweetly, lender heart, in peace I 

Sleep, holy spirit, blessed soul. 
While the stars burn, the moons increase. 

And the great ages onward roll. 



S4 Memorial Addresses: Stephen K. Mn/lory 



Address of Mr. Clark, of Florida 

Mr. Si'Kakivk: It may not he gi-iicrally known that. allliou>;li 
Florida was admitted into the Union of States on the ,?d day 
of May, 1845, this is the first time since she became a member 
of the Federal I'liion that a .Senator from F'lorida or a Rep- 
resentative from that State has died during his tenure of office. 
The first to die while engaged in active scr\-ice was Senator 
Sticimien Ri'SSELL M.m.i.dkv. onl\- to be followed in a few weeks 
h\ liis successor, William Jamks Hkvan. F'or nearly sixty- 
three years of F'lorida's history as an American Stale the liand 
of death was never laid u]K)ii a single one of her reiiresenla- 
tives here in either House 1 1 seems a strange dispensation 
of Providence, and one tlial 1 shall not undertake to fathom, 
that almost within the inoiilh after Senator Mali.okv had fm 
ished his labors and gone across the river the young Senator 
a])])ointed to succeed him should also be called from his 
labors here. 

I was asked, Mr. Speaker, a few days ago by a gentleman, 
what was the distinguishing characteristic of Senator Mallury? 
I answere<l without hesitation, and I think that would be the 
answer given by all the i)eople of Florida, that his most 
distinguished characteristic was his sterling, rugged^ uncom- 
promising honesty under an\- and all circumstances. As has 
been said by gentlemen who have paid tribute to him to-day, 
he did not rank in that class of American statesmen known for 
tiieir great brilliancy, known for their gifts of magnificent 
oratory, but he was painstaking, he was careful, lie was loyal, 
he was true, and he was honest. 



Address of Mr. Clark, of Florida 85 

No step in his life, whether as private citizen, whether as a 
practitioner at the bar, whether as a member of the Florida 
legislature, a Member of this House, or a member of the Senate, 
was ever taken except with the purest of motives and the most 
patriotic of purposes. I knew Mr. M.xllorv personally for 
nearly a quarter of a century. I have gone with him over the 
State of Florida in political campaigns. I have known him 
well during all that time and, although we have had in the State 
of Florida at times fierce factional differences, the opponents of 
Senator M.\llory always knew that he would never stoop to 
anything that was improper or unfair to achieve an advantage. 
The people of the State of Florida, I think, loved Mr. Mallory 
probably with an intenser affection than anv other of her sons. 
People who bitterly opposed him in the field of politics admired, 
honored, and respected him. I think I can sav, too, Mr. 
Speaker, for him something that is exceedinglv rare in American 
politics. Having been a Member of this House for two terms, as 
has already been mentioned, he was a candidate for a third 
term, and having been defeated by the present occupant of the 
chair [Mr. Sparkman], he retired to his home at Pensacola and 
assumed his position as a quiet citizen, taking up his work as a 
lawyer and lending every possible aid in the upbuilding of the 
city and State he loved so well. 

In 1897 there was a fierce Senatorial conflict before the legis- 
lature of Florida. Mr. Mallory was not a candidate. The 
contest was between others. After this contest had dragged 
its weary, and bitter lengths for some weeks and it seemed im- 
possible that either of the contestants could be elected, some 
gentlemen who were not supporters of either of the two promi- 
nent candidates got together and it was suggested that they 
send for Mr. Mallory. 



86 Memorial Aildressi's: Sti'phiti K. M a/lory 

They ttlegraphcd iur liiin. and he came to Tallahassee. I 
remember how he looked when he arrived. The dread disease 
wliicli eventually carriid liini off was llun upon him. Pale and 
emaciated, he was hardly recognizable by the friends who had 
known him in the \ears before. 

He had a conference that night with the gentleman who had 
sent for him, and the next day, without the expenditure of a 
dollar, without a promise of any character, he was elected to 
the United States vSenate. In 1904, without the expenditure of 
a cent, he was unanimously renominated, and in 1905, without 
an opponent, and without the expenditure of a dollar, he was 
unanimously reelected as a Senator. 

I believe it is generalh" conceded among the people of the 
State of Florida that if his health had improved he would have 
been returned for the third time to the Senate, with practically 
no opposition. 

Mr. M.M.LoKv's lifi- will always be an inspiration to the youth 
of Florida. It (i»i;ht to be an ins]Mration to the youth of this 
whole country. What he was he had car\'ed out for himself, 
because as has been so well stated, he was left in his early 
vouth to strike out for himself, without money and without aid. 

He has never Ix'cn "found wanting" in any jwsition of honor 
or trust to which his fellow-citizens have called him. Modest, 
imassuming, and generous, he was a model citizen; honest, sin- 
cere, and patriotic, he was a faithful public ser\ant; candid, 
kind, and unselfish, he was a genuine friend. He despised 
hvpocrisv. He would spurn success sicured at the sacrifice 
of honor. He never comprised with wrong or winked at fraud. 
The Senate may have had abler memlicrs, but no man who ever 
sat in that august body was more thoroughly consecrated to the 
cause of right than was our dead Senator — Stufmiun Russeu, 
M.M.i.i>Ky. 

o 



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