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iPACIFIC 



ISLANDS 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

RIVERSIDE 



j5tewarhj handbook o/^Hie 





r> 



£-4. ' I ^^''^^ ^"^^•v'' 



B1JRNS PillLP 

• PACIFIC ISLAND ■ 

MAIL STEAMERS 



CALDWELLS 






FAMOUS WINE! 


\ 




The Champion Record Prize Winnezs 
of Austtalia in 

I9I5 — I9I6 — I9I7 — I9I8 

were awarded 




11 CHAMPION AND GOLD MEDALS 

42 Firsts — 23 Seconds — 18 Thirds &c 
1 Special For Most Successful Exhibitor 






V.O. [-^) SHERRY 

HAS BEEN AWARDED 

Champion Gold Medal of Austra ia 




I9I5 — I9I6 — I9I7 — I9I8 

A Record Never Before Attained In 

The Trade. 
For Export — 

Ports - Sherries - Muscats - Clarets - Hocks 
Burgundies &c. 

Caldwells Wines Ltd. o""!. ' -|?|R|r"- 

Branches-WaHliUN/Atl (VIC.) COROWA tlN.S.W. ) BRISBANE (Q'LaND) 

Vinevards-CORONA VINCYflRDS (COROWA) BUKKULLA VINE/ARDS 

(INVERELL) riANDflLSEA VINE/AHDS (COROWA). 



^^ 






ANTHONY HORDERNS' 

FOR EVERYTHING. 



You can buy everything through Anthony 
HoRDERNs' Mail Order Service with perfect 
confidence that your instructions will be 
interpreted by an expert staff. Further, there 
is Anthony Horderns' guarantee of complete 
satisfaction. 

We sell everything wanted to carry on the 
business of life — we are Family Drapers, Complete 
House Furnishers, Men's Outfitters, and our 
illustrated price lists place the enormous resources 
of Australia's Mammoth Store at your command. 
Write for copies of any list you need, they will 
be posted you free on request. 

We pay carriage to any sea port in the Pacific 
Islands on Family Drapery and Fashion Goods, 
Men's Wear, Footwear, Cutlery, Plate and 
Jewellery. 



Anthony Hordern & Sons 

Limited. 
ONLY UNIVERSAL PROVIDERS, 

Brickfield Hill, Sydney. 



111. 

I r IS IMPORTANT 

to emphasize the fact that 

GOOD STATIONERY AND GOOD PR'NTING 

contribute in no small degree 
to success in business, and no 
business house can afford to 
ignore the impression created 
by the use of the best in either 
of these essentials. 

The factories of 

W. E. Smith Ltd. Printing 

Bridge Street, ^^3117 Booklets, 

SYDNEY. Folders, Catalogues. 

T-o-T^ Office Stationery, 

are equipped for the BEST Embossing. 

Printing, Book-binding and Lithographic and 

Engraving in Australia. Commercial Work. 



Manufacturers of Filing Devices, Loose-leaf Ledgers, 
and all popular Office Furniture and Systems. 

A speciality made of High-class Commercial and 
Society Printing. 



W. E, SMITH Ltd 

High-class Stationers, Printers &, Systematists, 

BRIDGE STREET, 
SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Branches at Newcastle, Brisbane and London. 



The 



Australia n Drug Co. 

L incited 

WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS & MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS 

19 S 21 O'Corinell Street 
SYDNEY 



Factory : 
MYRTLE ST.. CHIPPENDALE 



Dental Depot : 
14 SPRING STREET 



London Offic = : 
50 LIME STREET, E.G. 

Cable Address : 
IHARBINGER. SYDNEY. 



Importers of 

Drugs 
Chemicals 
Patent Medicines 
Perfumery 
Toilet Articles 
Druggists' Sundries 
Dental Material 
Toilet Soaps 
Brushware 




IVlanufacturers of 

Pharmaceutical 

Preparations 

Baking Powder 

Flavoring Essences 

Fluid Magnesia 

Pomona Tonic Wine 

Toothache Cures 

Corn Cures 

Hair Restorers 

Cough Cures 

Lavender Water 

Cologne 

Assorted Perfumes 



We are prepared to manufacture any proprietary article 

required for Chemists or Storekeepers and put up under 

their ov\n name and address 



rou,»,?"To NOYES BROS . 

. . . for the following lines ... 

KEIGHLEY IMPERIAL ENGINES. 

Horizontal and Vertical Gas and Suction Gas, Horizontal 
Kerosene and Petrol Engines, Horizontal and Vertical Semi 
Diesel Engines. 

PRIESTIVIAN CRANES AND GRABS. 

for excavating, elevating and dredging mud, sand, rock, etc. 

MORRIS "2240" PULLEY BLOCKS. 

Triple Geared, Full British Ton Capacity tested 50% above 
that load, Machine Cut Gears, Forged Steel Plates. Also 
Overhead Cranes, Runways, Crab Winches and all Handling 

Machinery. 

ALLENS CELEBRATED TOOL STEELS. 

and Crushing Machinery. 

^LANCASHIRE" ELECTRIC MOTORS. 

Generators, Boosters, Motor Generators etc. 

HOPKINSON STEAM VALVES AND BOILER MOUNTINGS. 

Cast Iron Spigot and Faucet pipes and httings. 

AUSTRALIAN ROLLED METALS. 

" Propellor" Brand (Regd) Brass, Copper Manganese Bronze, 
Muntz Metal, Tobin Bronze. All Sections and sizes. 
Immediate Delivery. Standard Quality. 

GRAPHINE ANTI FRICTION METAL. 

in 6 Grades for all loads and speeds. " Austral " Chill Cast 
Phosphor Bronze Sticks and Bushes etc. 

AUSTRALIAN FOUNDRY METALS. 

"Austral" Brand (Regd) Antimony, Manganese Bronze, 
Phosphor Bronze, Copper and Tin. Tinman's Solder, Special 
Alloys, Sheet Metals in Brass, Copper, Aluminium, Muntz 
Metal, Nickel Silver, and also Brass & Copper Tubes & 
Wire. 



NOYES BROS. 



(SYDNEY) 
LTD. 



115 CLARENCE STREET, SYDNEY. 



Selling Agent: Charles E. Bernays, 125 Adelaide St., Brisbane 



VI. 




THE NAPIER 



LEURA BLUE MOUNTAINS 

N.S \A/.. AUSTRALIA 



MOUNTAIN RESORT 

Situated on the highest point of Leura 

Views unsurpassed on the Mountains 
Every Modern Comfort Electric Light throughout 

Hot Water Service Day and Night 

All Living Rooms and Bedrooms Heated by American Ideal Hot 
Water Radiation System 

Tennis Court Biiliard and Card Rooms 

Motor Garage 
Special Smoke Room for Gentlemen 

Special Accommodation for Children 

Private Sitting Rooms 



All Products from Napier Farm 



VII. 




M^aiirnpclenL Villa.. 

^HR HOME tliat st.aiids on tlie liorizoii of everlasting l)caiUy and charm, wliere tlie 
y hurricanes of time have not been al)le to arrest or destroy the ever-changing scenes 
of Nature's most lavislied wonders and amazement, wliere the air of purity and sky 
of metalio l)Iue decks and fringes the mountain tops and slnrnbering valleys of evergreen 
wonder, and mystical towers of art are pictures for ever majestic that inspire eacli chord 
of tlie heart. The villa is only 4 minutes walk from Railway, in Katoomba Street, and is 
away from the noise of passing and. shunting trains; only about 15 minutes' walk from 
the charms above depicted. The table is supplied with the best of everything — and in 
abundance ; bath — hot and cold water laid on : a roof garden, from which views of all 
parts of tlie mountains may be obtained ; verandah of 200 feet long, facing morning sun 
and lovely flower garden. Our own motor cars ply daily to all parts of the mountain!!. 

MOTOR GARAGES FREE TO VISITORS. TERMS, 30 • WEEK, 6- DAY. 



No need to write or book beforehand. Come straight to the villa. 

assured for over 200 jieople. 
TELEPHONE ; 

104 KATOOMBA. 



Accommodation is 



Mrs. GEORGE BIRNEY. 



Telephone S75 \A/m. St. 

Within 5 minutes tram from City. Hot Water vService. 



RESIDENTIAL CHAMBERS: 

WHITEHALL 



K I N G'S CROSS, 

DARLING HURST. 



RECKPTION ROOM.S AND PROMENADE ROOF. 



TERMS : 

Single Rooms, from * 
Double Rooms, from 



13 6 to 20. 
25-- to 30/. 



MISS LOCKETT, Proprietress. 



Vlil. 

CONTRACTORS TO THE FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS 

Scientific Apparatus, 1-^ 
Chemical Glass\vare, 1^' 
A Assay Requisites ^ 
iJ Pure Chemicals and \_ 
all Laboratory Requirements 





H. B. Selby & Co. Ltd. 

265 George Street, Sydney. 

AND 

443 Bourke Street. Melbourne. 



FOUNTAIN 


PENS 


WE CAN SUPPLY EVERY FAMOUS MAKE 
ALSO NEW NIBS AND SPARE PARTS 
THE- 

ONOTO Self Filling— Non Leaking for 17- 
WATERMAN ,. „ „ 18- 
CONKUN „ . „ 12 6 
SWAIN ,. .., 10 6 
INDEPENDENT ,. „ 8 6 
SWAN— Xon Self Filling— Unrivalled ",,12 6 



AVe carry the most extensive stock in Australia of Stationery, 
Books, Magazines, Fancy Goods, Pictures, Barometers and 
Aneroids, Draughtsmens' Fquipment, Field Glasses, &c. 



YOUR ORDERS ARE SOLICITED — SATISFACTION GUARAXTEED. 



SWAIN & CO. LTD., 

J23 PITT STREET, SYDNEY. N.S.W. 



TX. 



Olennie Preparatory School 



Toowoomba - - Queensland 



Dy\Y AND BOARDliNG SCHOOL FOR GIRLS 

Pupils received from 6 to 13 years of age 

Toowoomba has a very bracing climate, being 1,921 
feet above sea level 

The School House is built on hygienic lines, con- 
taining large airy rooms, sleeping verandah, and 
electric light, and hot and cold water 



PROSPECTUS ON APPL-ICAXION 

Miss SUTTON - - - Principal 



PAINTING MATERIALS. 

We Stock all PAINTING MATERIALS including PLATE 

and SHEET GLASS. 

Quotations will be forwarded with samples or patterns as 

required. 

It is essential to use quality paint near the sea-side. Send us 

j^our order and we will forward materials that will give you 

lontj service. 



Artistic Wallpapers and Pretty Friezes, with Instructions how to 

Decorate in the modern wa)'. 
Glaci«r Window Decorations in attractive designs. 
Leads and Oils, Varnishes, Brushware, Kalsomines, Damp Proof 

Paints, Anti-Corrosive and Anti-Fouling Paints. 
High-Grade Specially Prepared Paint, ready for immediate use. 
Bevelling, Silvering, Glazing, Leadlights, and Motor Car Screens. 



JAMES SANDY & CO. LTD.. 

326-328 George Street, SYDNEY. 

Branch: NEWCASTLE. 

Gi.\ss Dept.: ash ST., CITY. 
Works: BORONIA ST.. REDFERN. 



=— =STRATHFIELD=== 
PREPARATORY SCHOOL 

STRATHFIELD, SYDNEY, N.S.W., 
AUSTRALIA. 



DAY AND BOARDING SCHOOL FOR BOYS FROM 
7 TO 14 YEARS OF AGE. 



The aim ol the School is : — 

1. To develop strong Christian character. 

1. To provide an efficient preparation for the (ireat I'ubHc Schools. 

;i. To encourage a healthy interest in games and a good physique. 

The School lmildins;s are about seven miles from Sydne}', 
beautifulh' situated with spacious \)\a\ grounds. 

The boys have the Personal Supervision of the 
Headmaster, and may secure a Good Education in a Cultured 
Home. 

Pros})ectuses and all particulars on application lo 

F. F. WHKATOX, BA (Syd ) 

Kocrstz Famous Presses 



Over 14,000 in use. For WOOL, HAY. 

SKINS. &e. 
RECOGNISED AS ABSOLUTELY THE 

BEST ON THE MARKET. PRICES 

FOB., SYDNEY 

PRICE LIST FOR WOOL PRESSES 





Bosker Wool Press 


£10 










Little Wonder Wool Press 


20 










Selectors and Homestead 










Lessees' Press 


2<6 


10 







Conqueror Wool Press . . 


:}8 










= Squatters' Wool Press . . 


38 








*-.-«i'5' 


Koerstz Hay Press — Stationary 


33 








m 


Portable . . 


35 









Special Quotations for Presses suitable for Power. 

Write for Catalogue and Full Particulars. .^11 Work Guaranteed. 

C. KOERSTZ^ AUSTRALIA S PRESS BUILDER, 

Abattoirs Rd., Pyritiont, SYDNEY, N.S.W. 



HEAD FORT SCHOOL, 

K I L L A K A ======= 

Day and 

Boarding 

School for 

BOYS 




of ALL AGES 



I'alron : The Marquis of Headfort. 

Visitor: The Rev. Canon E. C. Berk, A.K.C. 



Personal references kindly permitted to : 
Sir Thomas Anderson-Stuart, Canon K. C. Berk, Dr. F. M. Blackwood, 
Professor Carslaw , Rev. L. Charlton, Profe.ssor David, K. J. I.oxton, Ksq.. 
K.C., Rev. L. J. McDonald, F. E. Penfold, Esq., and others. 

Headfort School is situated on the North Sydney Highlands in Hi acres 
of ground, adjoining a Government Reserve and overlooking miles of virgin 
bush and senii-mountainou.s country. 

Every Department of School Life carefully supervised. 

Pro-spectus on application to the Principal, 

The REV. R. T. WADE, B.A 



Coogee Boys' Preparatory School 

(N.S.W. Preparatory Sch. Ass'n. ) 

DAY and L.^_J BOARDING 




Day School 
School House 



Allison Rd. Randwick 
Warrawee, St. Marks Rd., Rdwk. 



Boys Irom 6 to 14 years thoroughly prepared for Entrance, and 
Entrance Scholarship Examinations to the Great Public 
Schools, the High Schools, and the Naval College. 

All Outdoor Pursuits in the healthiest seaside surroundings. 

ir. M. XIMMO, B.A. {Syd). 




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X. 




Cran brook School 

EDGECLIFF, SYDNEY. 



DAY AND BOARDING SCHOOL FOR BOYS 



Visitor : His Grace. The Archbishop of Sydney. 

Council: The Hon. Mr. Justice H.^rvey (President), Ven. 
Archdeacon D'Arcy Irvine, Rev. E. Howard Lea (Hon. Sec- 
retary), Rev. W. h- I/ANGi.ey, Hon. Mr. Justice Gordon, J. B. 
Clamp, Esq., R. R. Dang.\r, Esq., O. E. Friend, Esq., 3. Hordern, 
Esq., Dr. E- Ludowici, H. F. Maxwell, Esq. (Hon. Treasurer), 
Vero Read, Esq., Dr. H. S. Stacy, V. M. White, Esq. 

Headmaster : Rev. F. T. Perkins, M.A. 



CRANBROOK, formerly the State Government House, beauti- 
fully situated on Bellevue Hill, and at a little distance from the 
shores of Sydney Harbour, has been established as a Church of 
England School for boys, and will be conducted on the lines of 
the great English Public Schools. Cricket, football, tennis, swim- 
ming, boating will be provided. The School offers a sound religious 
education and a preparation for the University and other examina- 
tions in Classical, Commercial and Scientific subjects. Boys have 
the advantage of a well equipped Science Laboratory. Admission 
to Junior School at nine years of age upwards 

Fees (Inclusive) : — Boarders over 12 years 25 guineas per 
quarter ; under 12 years 22 guineas per quarter. 

Further particulars may be obtained from the Headmaster or 
from the SECRETARY at the School. 



XI. 

LAWSON. BLUE MOUNTAINS, new south wam-s. 

STRATFORD SCHOOL FOR 
GIRLS- 

The ideal school, pleasantly situated. Open air sleeping. Tennis, hasket ball, 
hockey, swimming. Own dairy, vej^etable garden, poultry. Girls coached for all 
Musical and University Examinations. Pleasant holidays arranged for pupils un- 
able to return home. Special attention given to little girls. Inclusive fees for 
yearly pupils. Prospectus on application to .Miss Wiles, Principal. Assistant 
University Graduate, Established over ten years. 



THE KING'S SCHOOL' 

Parramatta - - Ne^A^ South Wales 

The Old Historic School of Australia — Founded in 1831. 

Boarding and Day School. 

The S'chool provides a Classical, Mathematical, Scientfiic, 
and General Education of the highest order on moderate terms. 
The religious teaching is in accordance with the principles of 
the Church of England, or as may be desired by parents. 
There are classical and modern sides and every facility for 
preparation of boys for either a professional or mercantile career 

It is conducted on the House system of the great English 
Public Schools, each House having its own equipment and 
ample grounds, with resident Master and Matron. Old Govern- 
ment House (Parramatta) is . the Junior House, in which 
boys of between 8 and 12 reside. 

Headmaster : The Reverend J. A. PATTINSON, M.A., 
Cambridge, assisted by a Staff of Masters graduates of the 
English and Australian Universities. 

Particulars may be obtained from the Headmaster, or from 
Mr. G. S. Lewis, Clerk to the Council, Ocean House, Moore 
Street, Sydney. 



Tel. Wm. St. 637. 



MeNTEREY," 



65 Macleay Street, Potts Point, 
SYDNEY. 

BOARD AND RESIDENCE 

Beautiful Harbor Views ; 10 minutes from City ; Hot Water 
Service; Electric Light; Highly Recommended. 



XII 



Petersen, Boesen & Co. L^ 

Warehousemen 

Importers and Manufacturers. 

SYDNEY ana LONDON. 




WnRBH0USE ! 

eorner YORK & BARRAeK STS., SYDNEY. 





DEBAR TME N T S 






Manchesters 


Jackets 




Handkerchiefs 


Island Prints 


Hosiery 




Parachutes 


Lava Lavas 


Singlets 




Underclothing 


Linens 


Haberdashery 




Millinery 


Turkey Reds 


Perfumes 




Felt Hats 


FarnlBhinga 


Fancy Goods 




Straws 


Cotton Ruga 


Fancy 




Shirts 


Dresses 


Ribbons 




Mercery 


Silks 


Laces 




Clothing 


Costumes 


Gloves 




Woollens 


eLOTHING 


TO MEASURE 


A 


SPEeiHLITY. 


Cable Address-BOESEN. Sydney. — 


G.P.O. Box 271. Syd 



XIII. 



USE 

PARSONS' 
Specialities 




PARSONS' 



ROLLED OATS 

COARSE CUT OATMEAL 

SPLIT PEAS 

PEARL BARLEY 

PATENT GROATS 

MACARONI 

SPAGHETTI 

VERMICELLI 

CORN FLOUR 

TABLE JELLIES 

HIGH GRADE JAMS 

CUSTARD POWDERS 

SOLUBLE COCOA ESSENCE 

PASHA AND GALLEY COFFEE 

HAMEE CURRY 

PEPPER AND SPICES 

TABLE AND RATION RICE 

TAPIOCA 

HARICOT BEANS 

D.S.F. MUSTARD 



PARSONS' BROS. & CO. PROPRIETARY LTD., 

Sydney - Melbourne - Brisbane - Fremantle 



XII lA 



PATERSON. LilNG & BRUCE Ltd. 



Wholesale Importers & Warehousemen 



Iff s^ 




♦ '* ^ ' ^ 






[liii 



--& I -'* 



Our Stocks are extensive and well assorted 

with New and up-to-date Goods, in all classes 

of General Drapery and Ready-made Clothing 

suitable for Tropical Climate. 



Xlllr. 

FRESH SUPPLIES OF 

Australian Made Chocolates 

and 

Confectionery can always be 
obtained. 



CORRESPONDENCE INVITED 



W. W. WHITE ^ Co. Ltd 

Wholesale Confectioners 

42-46 COOPER STREET, SYDNEY, 
NEW SOUTH WALES. 



Proprietors of the celebrated 

LILYWHITE and SIGMET brands of 
stoeets. 



CABLE address: WHITCO, SYDNEY 



IVX. 



NEW SOUTH WALES RAILWAYS 

The Mother State of the Australian Commonwealth is all the year round 

the best place for the Tourist. 
Speedy Trains, Comfortable Accommodation and very Cheap Fares. 

NEW SOUTH WALES 

Winter or Summer is the best place for a Holiday. 



The Snowy Mountains, 
known as " The Aus- 
tralian Alps, " provide 
a round of pleasure 
throughout the year, 
embracing all the in- 
vigorating snow and ice 
sports of Switzerland. 



Hotel at M(. Kosciusko, 7,238 feet above Sea Level, Australia's Highest Mountain 

THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 

Attract Tourists from all parts of the Globe. Particularly famous 
for exhilarating properties of the atmosphere. All Beauty Spots 
reached after a few hour's comfortable trip from Sydney. 

^HE NORTHERN LINE 

Provides River Scenery, and excellent Fishing and Camping Grounds 





Some of the World's Best Trout Streams are in New South Wales 

■ J. S. SPURWAY, Secretary. 



XV 



BURNS PHILP LINE 

(UNDER COMMONWEALTH MAIL CONTRACT) 



Regular Services to Papua, New Britain, Solomon Islands, 
Lord Howe, Norfolk Island and New Hebrides 




SARIBA, PAPUA 

MODERN PASSENGER STEAMERS LOW FARES 

Every Convenience for Tourists and Travellers 
Trips from 4 weeks to 7 weeks Fares fron\ £7 to J£.36 



An ideal holiday ensuring rest and enjoyment. First-class 

cuisine, smooth seas, tropical scenery. Volcanic or coral 

islands, interesting native races, inv^olving a complete change 

and constant variety 



FOR ITLL I'ARTIcrr.ARS APPLY 



BURNS, PHILP & CO. LTD., 

BRIDGE STREET, SYDNEY. 



STE\A/ART'S 

Hand Book l Pacific Islands 



^ RELIABLE GUIDE TO ALL 
THE INHABITED ISLANDS OF 
THE PACIFIC OCEAN . . . . 



' TRADERS, TOURISTS and SETTLERS. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY of ISLAND WORKS. 



BV 

PERCY S. ALLEN 



McCARBON, STEWART & CO LTD, 

Pi inters and Publi»hei>, 
22-24-26 Goijlburn Street, Sydney, New South VVah : 
1919. 



Copyright 



xvn. 



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C7^ 



THE STOKE AT YOURHDR 

&^ ITS SERVICE <«^ 

IF the House of Farmer's, most notable of Australia's 
trading institutions, were in Suva or elsewhere just 
handy to your home, j'ou would rush the opportunity 
to buy direct from its spacious and well appointed 
salons, you would sa^', "Thank goodness, we are now 
in touch with a world famed store of a great pulsing 
metropolitan cit^/." But it doesn't matter where you are 
— in Fiji, the New Hebrides, Norfolk Island, Ocean 
Island, Papua, Solomon Islands, Somoa and the Tonga 
Group — you can still shop from Farmer's with as much 
advantage and certainty of satisfaction as if you were 
actually in Sydney. 

"FARMER'S" IS ALWAYS JUST OVER THE WAY- 

It is so simple. A wTritten word, and you promptly receive 
catalogues and all necessary information. The perfect 
system of the Mail Order Department makes the rest easy. 
You pay Sydney prices, you have all the lavish wealth of 
choice that Farmer's Australian clients exclusively enjoy, 
and the manegement puts all its splendid and elaborate 
organisation to work to make your satisfaction certain. 



CATALOGUES WILL TELL YOU EVERYTHING 
WRITE FOR ONE TO-DAY 

FARMER'S, Sydney, Australia. 



P R E F A C E . 

TN tlie following pat^es I have endeavoured to supply the reader with an 
■'■ accurate account of all the inhabited islands of the Pacific. While there 
are numerous hooks descriptive of parts of the Pacific, there is none dealinii, 
as this does, with the whole of the groups and -detached islands. That in the 
compilation of this work I have been largely indebted to the labour.-; of others, 
I am glad to acknowledge. I have drawn from the mine of material contained 
in various works written on the Pacific, supplementing it by facts gained 
from personal observation in the islands and bj- information obtained froiti 
official reports and other reliable sources. The descriptions have been brought 
up to date, and it is claimed that they omit no particular of interest to the 
general public, and that the work is more comprehensive and compact than 
any that has hitherto been published on the islands. Great care has been 
taken to secure accuracy, but in a subjrict so extensive it is impossible to avoid 
errors, and I will be glad to receive such corrections and information as may 
render future editions of the Handbook as perfect, authoritative, and complete 
as possible. I nmch regret that it ha.'^ not been possible to give the full details 
in this edition of the mandates over the former German-owned islands, these 
not being available in an official form at the time of printing. The principal 
features cf this year's edition are ihe Bibliography of works on the Pacific 
Lslands, the lists of business houses and residents in the islands, and the trade 
statistics. The demand for the Handbook ha? been so great that .all former 
editions — and there has been six since it was first published in 1907 — are 
practically out of print. This, naturally, is very gratifying to th.e Publishers 
and to myself. The Handbook is accordingly now to be published every year. 
.-^.11 business communications should be addressed to Me.ssrs. McCarron, 
Stewart & Co., Ltd., but all correspondence relating to the literary side should 
be sent to me. 

PRRCY S. AI,.l,KN. 
C/o McCarron, Stewart & Co., T.td., 

22, 24, 26 Goulburn Street, 

S3'dney, Au.stralia. 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE 



■'T^Hr'; Publishers desire specially to acknowledge the valuable services 
of Mr. Percy S. Allen, who is a recognised authority upon Island 
matters. There is no one. we believe, more competent^ to write of the 
wide Pacific as a whole, and we consider ourselves forttinate in having 
retained his services for the task. Ivspecially are we appreciative of the 
Bibliography which Mr. Allen has been at such pains to compile for this 
•edition. We commend Mr. Allen's work to the readers as the most authori- 
tative to date. 

MCCARRON, STEWART & CO., LTD. 



X!X. 



W.-W.Campbell&Co. 



L I M ITE D. 

Wholesale 
FURNITURE 

and 
FURNISHING 

Warehousemen. 



Our STOCKS arc the LARGEST and MOST 
ASSORTED in the COMMONWEALTH. 



249 CLARENCE STREET, 
SYDNEY. 



XX. 







McCappon, 
Stemapt & 
Co, Ltd. 




PUBLISHERS 
PRINTERS 
STATIONERS 
LITHOGRAPHERS 
ACCOUNT BOOK 
MAKERS &c. &c. 



WAX PAPER 



22-24-26 Goulburn St., 

Sydnet), 

AUSTRALIA. 



XXI. 



BEST FOR 
ANY CLIME 

EMPIRE 
COCOA 




AS GOOD IN 
SUMMER 

AS IN 
WINTER. __ 

The immense popularity of this Pure Soluble Cocoa in 
Australia is entirely due to merit. We did not expect to 
get the market with a Cocoa inferior to the pick of the 
imported— much less hold it. EMPIRE COCOA is Aust- 
ralia's standard Cocoa, and it is attractively packed and 
popularly priced. 

EVERYBODY LIKES IT All Stores Should Stock 
it for their Best Customers. 

SILVER 

STAR 

STARCH 

Is the kind that Australian 

grocers sell a ton of to a pound 

of any other make. There's a reason — it is a pure Rice 
Starch, unexcelled the World over. Well and attractively 
packed — " The Popular Package," 

Sole Manufacturers: 

ROBERT HARPER & ( o. Ltd 

Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane. Adelaide, Fremantle, 




INDEX 



Abaian 


24 


Caroline Islands Bibliography 355 


Abeniama 


24 


Cartaret Islands 


. . 229 


Admiralty Islands 


. . 229 


Chathams . . . . 2 


)l. 363 


Agana . . . . . 


71 


Chesterfield Islands . . 


21 


Alirno . . 


65 


Cliristnias Island 


.. 278 


Alofi 


. . 277 


Conflict Islands 


. . 187 


Ambon 


170 


Cook Islands . - 


38 


American Samoa 


1 36 


,, Bibliography 


. . 349 


Anchorite Islands 


. . 220 


Cnrnwallis 


200 


Angaur 


57 






Antipodes 


. . 292 


Danger Islands 


^8, 281 


Ants 


58. 59 


D'Entrerasteaux ''.roup 


. . 183 


Apia . . 


113 


Ducie . . 


. . 289 


Apclima 


113 


Duke of York Islands 


. . 223 


Aitutaki 


38, 42 


Dutch New Guinea .. 169, 332 


Aru Islands . . 


.. 170 


Raster Island 


. . 286 


Atni 


42 


Bibliography 


.. 361 


Auckland Islands 


. . 292 


Ebon . . 


65 


Austral Islands 


163, 354 


Efate 


6 


Aoba . . 


.1.4 


Eitape 


. . 220 


Acre . . 


4 


Elizabeth Island 


. . 289 


Amhrym 


•5 


EHice Islands . . . . 24, 


25, 356 


Aneityum 


7 


Enderby Islands 


58 


Aniwa . . 


8 


Enderburv Island 


74 


Ananuka 


24 


Epi ..■ .. 


5 


Arorae 


24 


Erromango 


.. 1. 6 


Aurora 


p 


Exchequer Islands 


. . 229 


Bab-el-Tliaob 
Baker Island . . 


57 
74 


Fakarava 
Fakfak 


160 
169 


Banks Islands. . 
Bass Islands . . 


!. 0, 339 

. . 289 


Fanning 
Fergusson Island 


24 

183 


Bellinghausen 
Bern . . 
BiblioKvapIiy . . 
Bi'-nie Island . . 
Bismarck Archipelaso 

][ Bibli 


. . 289 

24 

. . 322 

74 

223 

Trade 200 

^^graphy 332 


Fiji II 

„ Trade 293 

,, Biblioi;raphv . . . . 343 
Flint Island . . ' . . . . 289 

Fly River 173 

Fotuna . . . . . . 8 

French Frigate Atoll.. .. 290 

Friedrich Wilhelmshafen 220, 223 


Bora Bora 


157 








96 

292 

! . . "24 


I'riendlv Islands 


90 


Boscawen 
Bounty Islands 
Butaritari " . . 


Funafut i . . . . 25, 356 
Futuna .. .. 277 362 


Bouganville 

Buka 


244, 264 
24 4. 264 


Gambier Islands . . 1( 
fiardner Island 


il, 354 

74 






German New Guinea. . 


. 220 


Campbell Islands 


292 


' Gerrit Denys . . 


. 229 


Canton Island 


74 


Gilbert Islands 


24 


Caroline Island (Eastf 


rn Paci- 


Bibliography 


. 356 


fir) 


. . 280 


Gizo 


. 244 


Caroline Islands 


65 


Goodenough Island . . 


IS4 



XXTII. 

DRUGS, CHEMICALS, PATENT MEDICINES 
PROPRIETARY ARTICLES 
TOILET ARTICLES, PERFUMERY 
DRUGGISTS' SUNDRIES, &c. 

ON SALE 

Elliott Brothers, Ltd, 

Druggists and Sundrymen 

Manufacturers of 

Chemicals, Pharmaceutical Preparations, 
Pure Acids, Bismuth Smelters &r Refiners 



Head Offices and Warehouses: 

O'Conncll & Bligh Sts., Sydney 

\ ehemical Works and Laboratories : 

IRON COVE, ROZELLE, BALMAIN 





I N DEX 








Groene (or (jreeii) Islanc 


i'Ai;i'; 
1 . . 230 


Ma'.o . . 






PAC K 

4 


Guam . . 


.. 70 


Mangaia 




38 


41 


Haapai 


96 


M?.ngare\-a 






161 


Hall (ironp 


58 


Manihiki 




38, 


279 


Hawaii 


34 


Manna 




113, 


136 


,, Bibliography . . 


. . 357 


Marakei 






24 


Henderson Island 


. . 289 


Mare . . 






21 


Herbertshohe 


-'23, 224 


Marianne Islands 




70 


Hermit 


229 


J, 


Bibliogrt 


phy 


355 


Hervey Islands 


38 


]\Iaria Island 






289 


Hilc . . 


35 


Marovo 






244 


Hiw 


9 


Marqueen 






229 


Hoirnlu 


58 


MarQuesas Islands 




165 


Honolulu 


34 


^ J 


Bibliography 


353 


Howland Islan:! 


14 


Marshall Islands 




85 


Hiiahine 


157 


,, 


Bibliogr: 


phv 


355 


Hull Island . . 


74, 289 


Mary Island 






74 


Huon Islands. . 


21 


Maskeivne 
M?to 






5 
22 


Jaluit 


o5, 67 


Matty . . 






229 


Jarvis . . 


. . 289 


Maui 






34 


Toannet Island 


.. !82 


Mauke 




38 


, 41 


Tohnston Island 


. . 290 


Maupiliaa 
Merauke 






289 
169 


Kauai . . 


34 


Merelav 






9 


Kahoolawe 


34 


?.rKean Islan 


d 




74 


Kaewieng 


. . 226 


:\rokil . . 






59 


Kaiserin-Augusta River 


220, 234 


:Mortlo( ks 




5S, 


229 


Kilauea 


36 


^Midway 






283 


Kingsmill Group 


24 


JMisinia 






182 


Kermadec Group 


. . 29 1 


Mitiaro 






38 


Keppells 


96 


Molokai 






34 


Kure . . 


284 


Mota . . 






9 


Kuria . . 


24 


Mo tola va 






9 


Kusaie (Strong's) Islanc 


•56, 59 


Nassau 






281 


Laclrone Islands 


70 


Nauru . . 


30 


149, 


355 


Lanai . . 


34 


New Britain 






223 


Lauglilan Islands . . 


. L85 


Nev/ Caledonia ^ . • 




16 


Laysan 


. . 290 




Trade 




301 


Lifu 


21 


]] 


Bibhography 


341 


Lfisianskv 


. . 290 


New Gtiinea, 


Historical 


and 




Loh . '. 


9 




(jcneral 




168 


Ivopevi 


. . 5 




Bibliograpl 


V . . 


332 


Lord Howe Island 


27(», 363 




Dutch . . ' 




169 


Lord Howe's Group . . 


. . 241 


,, 


Papua 




170 


Louisiades 


. . 1X2 


,i 


German 




220 


I<oyalty Islands 


Ml, 20, 341 


New Hano. et 




223, 


229 


Low Archipelago 


. . 158 


New Helindes 


Trade 




1 
305 


Madang 


. . 220 


,, 


Bibliograj 


hv" 


339 


Maewo 


5 


New Ireland 




223 , 


225 


Maiana 


24 


Ngatik 




58 


, 59 


Ma jure 


65 


Nguna 






7 


Makatea 


161 


Niihau 






34 


Makin 


24 


Nine 






229 


Maiden 


282, 364 


Niuafoou 






96 


Malekula 


3 


Ninatoputabi 


1 




9(! 



XXV. 



Henry Disston & Sons 

Inc., (AUSTRALASIA) LTD. 
80 SUSSEX ST., SYDNEY, N.S.W. 



STOCK 



CIRCULAR & VERTICAL SAWS. BAND SAWS. FILES. 

CROSSCUT & PIT SAWS. MACHINE KNIVES. 

SAW SPINDLES. 



EMERY WHEELS 
GRINDERS. 

HACK BLADES 
and FRAMES. 




SAW 
QUMMERS. 

SAWMAKER'S 
TOOLS. 



We specialise in Saw Repairs of all kinds and 
will repair any make. 



INDEX 



Niue . . . . :38, 53 

Nonottti 

Norfolk Island 

,, Bibliography 

Norraanljy Island 
Noumea 

Nui 

Nuitao 

Nukahi\ a 

Nukinau 

N-jkufetau 

Nukvialofa 

Niikuleilei 

Nurakita 



Oaliii .. 
01)a . . 
Ocean Island 



Oeno . . 
Olosega 
Onotoa 
Ontong Ja\-a 

Paama 
Pago Pago 
Pakin . . 
Pahnerston 
Palmyra 
Papeete 
Papua . . 
Paumotu 
Pelew Islands 

Penrhyn 
Pentecost 
Phoenix Islands 
Pingelap 
Pitcaini Island 

Pleasant Iskuid 
Ponape 

Pines, Isle of , . 
Puka Puka 
Pnrdy Islands 



113, 

.'. 38, 

l;xs. 

Bioliographv 
3S, 



Bibliography 
149. 
56, TxS, 60 

3X. 



PAiiE 

349 

24 

266 

360 

183 

17 

2o 

25 

165 

24 

2o 

96 

25 



34 
4 

20 
284 
280 
130 

24 
241 



136 

58 
280 
280 
157 
168 
354 

56 

355 

270 

5 

74 

50 
284 
361 
355 
, 65 

20 
281 
220 



Rabaul 
Raiatea 
Rakahanga 
Rapa . . 
Rarotonga 
Rikitea ' 
Rimitara 
Rossel . . 
Rotumah 

,, Biblioeraphv 



220, 



38, 
!03, 



224 
157 
280 
354 
38 
161 
163 
KS2 
276 



Rnk 

Rurntn 

Saniarai . . 

Samoa 

,, (American) . . 
Trade 

,, Bibliography 
Sandwich (Port) 
Sandwich Ihlands 
Santa Cruz 
Santa Maria . . 
Santo . . 

Savage (Niue) Isi.mi! 
Savaii . . 

Scilly 

Sir Charles Hardy Island 

Starbuck 

vSt Aignan (IMisinia) . . 
St. John Island 
Society Islands 

Bibliography. . 
Solomon Islands 

,, Bibliography 

Sudest 
Surprise Island 

Suva 77 

Suwarrow . . . . 38. 

Swam's Island 
Sydney Island 



238, 



38 
113, 



PAGK 
5«i 

163^ 

181 
113 
13ft 
321 
345 
5 

34 

338 

9 

I, 4 

53 
119 
289 
230 
283 
182 
229 
154 
351 
238 
338 
182 

21 

sa 

278 

284 

74 



Tabiteuea 
Tafahi 
Tahiti . . 

,, P.ibliography 
Takutea 
Tauiana 
Tauna 
Tarawa 
Tegua . . 
Toga . . 
Tokelau 
Tone.a . . 

,, Trade . . 
Bibliography 
Tongoa 
Torres Islands 
Trade . . 

Troliriand Islands 
Tuamotu Group 
Tubuni 
Tulagi . . 
Tutuiia 

Uleai . . 
Uluthi 

Union Croup . . 
Upolu . . 



158, 
163, 



113 



113. 



24 

96 

.. 154 

. . 351 

38. 43 

24 

24 

9 

9 

24 

96 

. 315 

. 348 

7 

1. 9 

. 293 

. 185 

354 

354 

244 

136 



OS 

58 

24 

110 



X X \- 1 1 . 






■§— ^ "Sf 




■ct 


o 




S -a; >.^ 




■^ 


UJ 


UJ 

O 

X 


uired. 

ve Designs Fr 

ready to put to 

uahty, and ever 

ne for each bui 




i 

-o 
'5 


ll 


< 


;sign req 
nexpensi 
lumberec 
t-class q 
of each 1 




2 


z ^ 


1= 

O 


1 


^ 


s^- 






:j 




s 


-< 
o 

CO 


« o 1 oE 


"2 




z s- 

O i 


«=1 


i -■ re 


0) 




X s 


UJ 




up 




3 t 


X 




re 




(/3 B 


-< 


c3 


lU 


H- 


UJ 




t- 


^s 


u 


■H.OE- E-- 


s 







c75 5 < ^ O' 




<5-. 





INDEX xxviii. 




PA(!K 


|'A(;e 


Uvea (I.ovaltj) 


2) 


Vcstock . . . . . . 290 


Uvea(Wallis).. 


.. 277 


Vureas Bay . . . . . . 9 


Vailima 


.. 120 


\\-allis Isl.'uids . . . . 277 


^'aitupu 


. 25 


Bibliooraphv 362 


Vanikoro 


1 


Walpole Island . / .'. 21 


Vanua Lava . . 


9 


Washington Island . . . . 24 


Vanna I-evii . . 


.. 77 


Woodlark 186 


Vavau 


96, 104 




Vila 


6 


Yap 56, 57 



Bird's-eye view of Sydney Harbor 

Printed in colours ; sheet 30 x 40 inches; a lovely panoramic view of 
one of the world's most beautiful water ways 



2s. 6d. each 



Posted, 2s. 9d. 



Island "^ graphic detailed Romance of a life spent in the South Sea 

. . Islands by Thomas Trood, late British Vice-Consul at Apia, 

li6IIllDlSC6uCoS Samoa. Paper cover, 150 pages. Price 53., postpaid. 

McCarron, Stewart & Co. Ltd., 22-26 Gouibum St., Sydney. 

\^rdleys 

Eau de Cologne 

(MAI)I'; IX IvXCI.AXD SIXCH 177(M 

IS USED IN EVERY CORNER OF THE GLOBE 

Nowhere is it better appreciated than in tropical and sul)-lrt)pical 
c-limates 

Obtainaljlf from all warehouses, \'c-. in Australia and Xew Zealand 

YARDLEY & CO. LTD. 

PERF UM ERS 
8 New Bond Street, LONDON 

Australasian Repr sentative: 

CECIL SMITH, 26 Clarence Street, SYDNEY 



Index to Advertisements. 



Adams (William) & Co., Ltd. 1 37 
Allen (Samuel) & Sons. Bet. 34-35 

Australian Drug Co., Ltd. . IV. 

BankolN.S.W 371 

Bains White Ant Extermina- 
tor, Co., Ltd 155 

Bird (H. S.) & Co 369 

Broomfield (John) I,td. . . J7l 

Brunton & Co S7 

Bull (Henrv) & Co., Ltd. .. 148 

Burns. Philp & Co., Ltd. . . XV. 



Buzacott & Co., Ltd. 



Facing 20 



Calduells Wines, Ltd. .. I.. 

Callose (B.) & Sons.. Ltd. . . 368 

Campbell (W.W.) & Co.. Ltd. XIX. 

"Chelsea" .. .. .. VI. 

Coastal Farmers Co-opera- 
tive Society.. Ltd. . . 178 
Cranbrook School . . . . X. 

Cunningham (James) <^ Sons 87 

Dalgety & Co., Ltd 221 

Dangar, Gedye & Co. Facing 17 

Deemer (Mrs. A.) . . . . VI. 

Denver Bros. . . . . 227 

De Vine (Miss A.) .. .. 138 
Disston (Henry) & Sons, Inc. 

(Australasia^ I^td. . . XXV. 



Eckersley & Son 
Elliott Bros., T,td. 



156 
XXJII. 

. XVII. 
40 
172 
267 
111 
239 



Farmer & Co., Ltd 

Foggitt, Jones & Co., Ltd.. . 
Forsyth (A.) 8: Co., Ltd 
Forsyth. Pizzey and Gates, 
Ford (W. M.) Jnnr. 
Freeman (S.) & Son, Ltd. . . 

Gardiner (W.) & Co., Ltd. . . :i8-99 
Glennie Preparatory School IX. 
Gloria Light Co. of A'asia Fac. 16 
Goodall (T. M.) & Co., Ltd. . . 177 

Grimley, Ltd XXX. 

Guyatt & Co. . . 365 

Hampden Villa . . . . VII. 
Hardman Bros., Ltd. . . 93 

Harper (Robt.) & Co., Ltd. . . XXI. 
Henderson (T. W.) Ltd. . . 219 
HiUier (H.) Ltd. . . Facing 21 
Hordern (A.) & Sons, Ltd. . . II. 
Hooker, Chapman & Co. . . 155 
Hotel Svdnev . . Facing 34 
Ho\vard\ S. H .'46 

Ingall Parsons CHve c'^- Co., 81 

Jaeger's System Co., Ltd. . . 124 

King's Schccl . . . . XI. 

Xodak (Australasia), Ltd. .. 97 



I'age 
Las.setter (F.) & Co. Facing 35 

Lamb (G. N.)& Co 246 

Lever Bros., Ltd XX. 

Lockett (Miss) . . . . VII. 

Lubrano & Ferrari (Svdney) 365 
Ludowici (J. C.) & Son, Ltd. 222 



Major Bros & Co. 
" Monterey" . . 
Morgan & Co 
Morgan (Geo.) .*<: Co. 
:Mor.nn & Cato, Ltd.. 



162 
XI. 
135 

Ltd. . . 222 
Facing 182 



]\Iorri.son (E. D.) & Co., Ltd. 114 
Mouldings Ltd 81 

"Napier, The" .. .. V. 

Mettleton. Son Sc Co. . . 366 
Nicholson, W 100 

Osaka Shcsen Kaisha . . 228 

Oversea vSales Agency (Aust.) 245 

Parke, Davis & Co 171 

Parsons' Bros. & Co. Pty. XIII. 
Paterscn, Laing & Bruce . . XIIIa 

Paul and (^>ray. Ltd. . . 337 

Peapes & Co., Ltd 76 

Perfumeries, Ltd. . . . . 237 

Petersen, Bcesen & Co., Ltd. XII. 

Piggott, C. G 156 

Pincombe (Sydney), I^td. . . 112 

Oueens-iland Intelligence and 

Tourist Bureau ... .. 123 

Railways, N.S.W\ Gov'ment XIV. 
Reid (Robert) & Co. Bet. 34-35 

IX. 

XXVII. 

. VIII. 

III. 

Ltd. 124 

XXVIII. 

138 

147 

XI. 

370 

. . VIII. 

88 



Sandv (James) & Co., Ltd 
Saxton & Sons, Ltd. 
Selby (H. B.)& Co., Ltd. 
Smith fW. P.), Ltd.. . 
Smith, Copeland & Co 
Smith. Cecil . . 
Smyth (J. H.), Ltd. 
Stott and Underwood 
Stratford School 
Sutton ( T . ) ... 
Swain 8: Co., Ltd. . . 
Swallow and Ariell, Ltd. 

Tattersall's Hotel . . . . 75 

Tyrrell's Ltd. . . . . 353 

Union Assurance Societv, 368 
Union S.S. Co. oi N.Z. '. . 39 



Verev-Phillips 
Yose, Ltd. . . 



XXXI. 
240 



Westphal and Clark . . 94 

White (W. W.) & Co., Ltd. XIIIb 
Wills (George) & Co., Ltd.. . 268 
Woods (W.^Randle) . . 82 



XXX. 
HEADQUARTERS FOR CARRIAGE & SADDLERY GOODS 




IMPUKTERS 

and 

MANUFACTURERS 

OK 

Harness, 
Saddlery 

AND 

Cappiage 
IVlatemal, 

INCI-LDINC; 

Axles Springs 

Forgings Wheels 

Coach Colors and 
Varnishes 

Hickory Wheelstuff, 

Shafts, Poles, Bars 

and Bows 

Australian Hardwood 

Spokes Naves 

Felloes Shafts 

Poles and Rims 



Buggy Lamps and Mounts 
Leather Dashes 
and Rein Rails 

Whips, Hames. Chains, 
Buggy Saddles, Leather 

Everything required to make 
Saddles. Harness and Vehicles 



GRIMIEY UIVIITED, 263 to 267 Clarence Street SYDNEY 




When you are selecting your 

High-grade Tailoring 

THE NAME is the thing you must look for this 3'ear. If you 
take any chances on a "nameless product", the odds are 
against you from the start. During the pa.'it twelve months, 
the two well-known high-grade Tailoring businesses of 
B. PHIIvIvIPS, Quality Tailor, late Pitt Street, Sydney, and 
VEREY, Theatrical and Sporting Tailor, of King Street, Sydney, 
have amalgamated. You now get two names and two repu- 
tations in everything we make. 

Our Specialist Cutters give you INDIVIDUAL Treatment, as 
we always aim to give ".something different" For Men Who 



Care. 

OUR 



MAIL ORDER DEPARTMENT 



is no Fixrther away than the nearest pillar box. \\e shall 
be pleased to send Patterns and Self -Measurement Forms 
ANYWHERIv. Thev are simplicitv itself. 

VEREY-PHILLIPS 

131-133 KING ST. SYDNEY 



A New Page Announcing- an 
Old Trading Co m p any 

Who have been Manufacturers and Merchants, for 
over 30 Years, of the 

HIGHEST CLASS GOODS 

Used in the PLUMBING, GAS FITTING 
and MOTOR ENGINEERING TRADES 



J^obett (J, ^w'a/? & Co. 

LlSVllTE'D 

304 Pitt St., SYDNEY 



SELLERS OF BEST BRITISH GALVANISED CORRUGATED 
AND PLAIN IRON. GALVANISED GUTTERING, RIDGING 
AND DOWN PIPE, WROUGHT IRON TUBES AND 
FITTINGS. CAST IRON AND LEAD PIPES AND FITTINGS 
OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS. BRASS, COPPER AND 
ALUMINIUM TUBES. SHEETS AND RODS. MOTOR 
ENGINEERS REQUIREMENTS, PETROL COCKS AND 
UNIONS, GREASE CUPS AND LUBRICATORS. 

Sole Agents for the SCHEBLER CARBURETOR. 

TOOLS FOR ALL TRADES. BEST QUALITY GOODS AT 
MOST ATTRACTIVE PRICES. LISTS AND CATALOGUES 
SENT ANYWHERE. 

►•< 



Correspondence Invited. Prompt Replies 



GADBURY BROS. Ltd. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



BOURNVILLE COCOA and 
CADBURY'S CHOCOLATES 



J. S. FRY & SONS Ltd. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



FRYS BREAKFAST COCOA 
and FRY'S CHOCOLATES 



COMBINED AGENCY and Depot 
for Island Trade . . 



267 George Street, Sydney 



NEW HEBRIDES— British and French. 

(DUAL CONTROL.) 

THE New Hebrides, comprising about 30 inhabited islands varying 
greatly in size, and having g,n estimated area of 5,500 square miles, 
are situated, roughly speaking, between the 15th degree and 20th 
degree of south latitude, corresponding in that respect with the coast 
of North Queensland, from which they are separated by some 20 
degrees of longitude. Their most southerly point is only some five 
or six days' steam from Sydney. Being within the tropics, therefore, 
and in the midst of the Pacific Ocean, they are subject to the trade 
winds, and their climate is warm and humid, with a wet summer and 
a dry winter, the latter season being tolerably cool on the most southerly 
islands of the group. With soil of great fertility, the New Hebrides form a 
very valuable group. They were discovered in 1606 by Ouiros, who anchored 
in the large bay of St. Filip, in the northernmost island, now generally called 
Santo. Misled by its dimensions, he supposed it to be part of the great 
southern continent, the idea that filled the imaginations of all the earlv 
adventurers, and hence he called it " Tierra Australis del Espiritu Santo."' 
Notliing more was heard of the group till 1768, when Cook sailed on his first 
voyage to the South Seas to observe the transit of \'enus at Tahiti ; and two 
years after, Wallis and Cartaret had proceeded on a voyage of discoverv in 
the same ocean. About this time Bougainville ascertained that the land 
discovered by Quiros was not a continent, but a group of islands. He sailed 
through the passage that bears his name, between Malekula and Santo, 
and landed upon the island of Aoba, which he called Lepers' Island, having 
mistaken a skin disease with wliich the natives were afflicted for leprosj'. 
It was left for Captain Cook to give the group its present name, and to 
thoroughly explore the whole ground, on his second expedition in 1774, 
when he charted and named most of the islands, headlands, and straits. 
The French Government, in 1788, sent La Perouse to the islands, but he was 
shipwrecked on Vanikoro, the southernmost, of the Santa Cruz Group. In 
1789 Bligh sighted the Banks Islands, and in 1793 d'Entrecasteaux, sent in 
search of La Perouse, saw the islands of Santa Cruz. Aimmg the other early 
voyagers, who have left us interesting accounts, are Dumont, d'Urville, 
Belcher, Erskine and Markham. Then followed a sad period from which 
few islands in the Pacific escaped, in which the scum of the white race carried 
on their blood-stained trade in whaling products and sandalwood. The 
horrors of the labour traffic for the Queensland plantations were added, so 
that in a few decades the native race was so weakened that in many places 
its preservation seems hopeless. The only factor opposing these conditions 
was the Mission, which obtained a foothold in the islands under the Rev. 
John Williams, who was killed in 1839 by the natives of I'-rromanga. Hut 
A 



2 STKWAKT S HANI) DOOK 

till- rroU'slaiit missionaries, csperially the I'resUyteriaiis, would not be 
repulsed and slowly advanced northword. To-day the Presbyterian Mission 
occupies all the New Hebrides with the exception of Pentecost, Aoba and 
JIaewo. To the north lies the field f)f the Anglican (Melanesian) Mission, 
extending up to the Solomon Islands. In 1848 Roman Catholic missionaries- 
settled at Aneityum but soon gave up the station. In 1S87 they returned 
and spread all over the archipelago with the exception of the southern islands 
of the Banks group. The Church of Christ and otlur Protestant sects are 
now also represented. 

The ownership of the New Hebrifles was for many years a vexed question. 
It is unnecessary to recapitulate the story of our connection with the group, 
though we may remember with regret that for a short time, under the New 
Zealand Charter of 1840, it was part of a British colony. The group is now 
under the joint control of Britain and France. There have been many 
instances of peoples of the same race and language amalgamating under one 
Government, and there have been still more frequent cases of one nation 
overwhelming another and imposing its laws and customs on the subdued 
nation. But rarely have two nations of about equal strength and of diflferent 
blood come together amicably, and by voluntary agreement appointed a 
court to judge between the members of one or the other nationality according 
to the laws of both. Yet that is what the British and French have done in 
the New Hebrides. There the unwritten treaty between I'rance and Great 
Britain, known as the entente cordiale, has had the most tangible reshlts,. 
for it has changed a situation that well might have been a second Fashoda 
into one of the most friendly acts ever accomplished between once hostile 
nations. About the middle of last century British subjects began to settle 
in the different islands. Thcugh P'renchnaen claimed that the " dependencies " 
mentioned in Despointes's proclamation referred to the group, yet, in 1871, 
hardly any Frenchmen had settled there, wdiilst there whs a fairly large 
number of British traders and missionaries. Most of their trade, however, 
passed through Noumea, which strengthened the French argument that the 
islands were a natural adjunct to New Caledonia. The French settlers who 
went to the islands under the auspices of the New Hebrides Company had the 
benefit of practically freetrade with France, and their numbers soon surpassed 
those of the British, whom to-day they outnumber l>y mere than two to 
one. Then it was that the need for some authority or court to settle 
disputes began to be felt. Hitherto a passing gunl)oat was the only emblem 
of law or order seen in the group. 

In 1887 the Joint Naval Commission was brought into being. It con- 
sisted of two officers from a British and two from a French warship, presided 
over by the British and I'rench Commandants alternately. The duty of the 
commission was " to maintain order and protect the persons and goods of 
the subjects of the tw^o nations in the islands.'" But there was no civil law. 
Marriages between colonists in the i.slands were considered illegitimate, a 
contract could not be enforced, nor could one colonist proceed against another 
in respect of a non-criminal offence. Committees which were formed in the 
populous centres sought to provide a tribunal for the colonists, and marriages 
were celebrated " in the name of public morality."" 



OK, THE PACIFIC ISLANDS ."J 

In IS!).') an Arbitration Court, with a British and French judge, was 
tornied by the colonists themselves, and given the name of " Special Juris- 
diction of the Union of Colcnists."' This court, however, was not allowed to 
sit, the Joint Naval Commission having imposed its veto. Five years later 
both the British and F'rench settlers had the right to appeal to a court pre- 
sided over by a judge of their own nation, but there was still lacking a common 
tribunal to settle disputes arising amongst British, I'rench, or natives. There 
was no point at which the British and F'rench courts converged. They were 
parallel jurisdictions with no common debating ground. So, drawn together 
by the differences of their subjects, the British and French Governments 
established the Condominium Government, which came into existence 
otificially at Vila on December 2, 1907. In that year Great Britain and F'rance, 
to use the phrasing cf the preamble of the Convention between them, " being 
•desirous of modifying, as far as the New Hebrides are concerned, the con- 
vention of November 10, 1887, respecting the New Hebrides and the islands 
leeward of Tahiti, in order to secure the exercise of their paramount rights 
in the New Hebrides, and to assure for the future the better protection of 
life and property in the group "' agreed on certain articles. It will only be 
necessary to quote Article 1 as to status : — " The group of the New Hebrides, 
including the Banks and Torres islands, shall form a region of joint influence, 
in which the subjects and citizens of the two Signatory Powers shall enjoy 
equal rights of residence, personal protection and trade, each of the two Powers 
retaining jurisdiction over its subjects or citizens, and neither exercising a 
separate control over the group."" The above is the raisoii d'etre cf the Con- 
dominium of the two peoples, a unique experiment, which as a commercial 
specific, has not perhaps been as effective a remedy as it deserved to be, 
though the grcup and its lands have benefited from an agricultural view- 
point in remarkable development owing to the strenuous exertions of the mere 
or less sparse settlers of both nationalities. This has been and is a good deal 
retarded, especially in the island cf Efate, by insufficient labour, the natives 
showing no eagerness to recruit. The plantations as a whcle are accordingh' 
more or less undermanned. It is confidently believed, however, that con- 
ditions in this and other regards will soon change for the better, and the rich 
tracts of land, with a wonderfully prolific soil, will when more extensivelv 
cultivated ensure a permanent self-supporting revenue. 

The Joint Court was established according to the Convention, and, as 
its name implies, is an international tribunal composed c f three neutral 
magistrates (President, Public Pro.secutor and Registrar) and twc judges, 
one British and one French. Another neutral functionary under the title of 
■■ Advocate for the Natives," appointed by the two High Commissioners, assists 
and represents the natives before the Joint Court. An official interpreter- 
translator translates all the proceedings in both languages. The dual character 
of the Joint Court is clearly defined. As regards civil actions it decides 
definitely the landed property litigation in the archipelago and all litigation 
that may arise between natives on the one part and non-natives on the other. 
In criminal jurisdiction it judges all misdemeanours or crimes committed 
by natives with regard to non-natives, and, generally, breaches of the Con- 
vention and joint regulations derived therefrom ; the National Courts, British 



4 STKWAKT S HANI) BOOK 

;iiul I'reiuh, Ininti loiiipelciil to juduf ;ill other cases. The Johit Court^ 
therefore, is essentially a triljuiial of conciliation and arbitration. Its prin- 
cipal character is that of deterniininji definitely the matriculation of lands 
in confirmation, after due examination of the documents, the plans or titles 
of occupation of the colonists and natives, and .so granting to the interested 
parties an incontestible title to property. The judgments of the Joint Court 
are dcfimite and without appeal, and are executed, according to the case, 
by the British or French Administration. The precedure followed is 
generally that of the nation of the defendant or the accused. In re.^ard to 
the work of the Joint Court for 1018 it has been called upon to try ;}7 cases 
of breaches of the Convention of October 20, 1906, respecting the prohibition 
of the supply of alcohol to the natives. The fines inflicted have quadrupled 
as compared with 1917, but nothing seems to be effective in reducing this 
nefarious traffic with the New Hebrideans. It would seem to call for nuuli 
sterner action. 

The New Hebrides proper may be said to commence in the north from the 
largest island in the chain, viz., Santo, which is about 6.3 miles in length and 
:i2 miles in breadth. It is heavily wooded, has broad and fertile valleys, 
and is watered by numberless streams. St. I'ilip's Bay, on the north coast, 
is an extensive one, having a shore line of about 60 miles. On the west and 
in the interior the land rises to a height of several thousand feet. Santo Peak, 
in the south, has an elevation of 5,520 feet. Evidences of Spanish occupation 
liave from time to time been unearthed, and some curious ruins are said to 
exist near Cape Cumberland, the northern extremity of this island. There 
is a fair number of British and French settlers on the shore line and on Aore, 
a little island between the southern coast of Santo and Malo. The settlers 
are mostly located along the Segond Channel, at the southern extremity 
of Santo. A number of small islands hug the coast at the. southern end, and 
these are nearly all occupied. Santo is easily first in extent, soil and pro- 
ducts, and should have a big future. At present its production of cotton is 
amazing. Near Aore is Malo, also a very productive island, on which a num- 
ber of British and French planters are doing well. Santo has a numerous 
native population and a migratory one, for one will find Santo boys fairly 
well scattered over the group as far south as Vila. 

AMiile in Santo waters a call niust be made at the island of Aoba, 21 miles 
in length and eight or ten miles across at its greatest width, with a large 
native population. The people of Aoba are quite diflferent from those of 
the other islands — light coloured, often straight haired, with Mongolian 
features. They are good looking and intelligent and their habits show many 
Polynesian traits. Aoba (.sometimes spelt Oba and Omba), is, like its 
neighbours, volcanic in origin and of considerable elevation. It lies about 11 
miles to the east of Pentecost, which island is a good deal more closely 
related to it than to Maewo, though connection by canoe \Adth Aoba is more 
dangerous and Moewo is less than four miles a'*\'ay. Aoba was the scene of 
the murder, in October, 1906, of the Rev. C. C. Godden. 

The next largest island after Santo is Malekula, 46 miles in length and 
2;> miles in width, which is reached throughout the Bougainville Strait after 
leaving ^lalo, and is well settled bv white planters'; all in the vicinity of the 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLAXDS 5 

sea. The highest elevation is IMount Pinot, 2,925 feet, in the centre of the 
island. There are no large rivers but several streams of fair size. The 
island possesses some good harbours and bays, especially a fine landlocked 
bay called Port Sandwich, on the south coast. Bushman's Bay and Port 
Stanley, on the north-east coast, are also well sheltered. The interior of 
the island is not very well known yet and the inland tribes are somewhat 
truculent. Those on the coast, however, are quite friendly, thanks mainly 
to the efforts of the missionaries who have been labouring there for years. 
The continuous traffic also of steamers and sailing craft through the islands, 
and the occasional visits of British and Prench men-o"-war have also had a 
pacifying effect. There are 13 French planters in ^lalekula, all of whom are 
engaged in the copra industry. 

Pentecost is another fairly large island with a length of 28 miles, and a 
breadth of 7 or 8 miles. It has its share of settlers and as many as five 
Catholic missions. The population of Pentecost is divided into two distinct 
types, the people in the north resembling the inhabitants of Aoba, while 
those in the south are like those of Ambryni. Yet, in spite of the close 
relations with Ambrym the art of sculpture, so highly developed in the other 
island, is entirely lacking the south of Pentecost. In the- north the dress 
of the natives is similar to that of Aoba. The men do not wear the nambas, 
while the women have a small mat around the waist. The art of braiding is 
brought to great perfection here, the mats from Pentecost being surpassed 
only by those from Maewo. The carving of the clubs is the most elegant in 
the group. Maewo or Aurora, to the north of Penteco.st, has a length of 28-i 
miles and a breadth of 4 miles. 

Epi is from 2'y to 30 miles in length with a l)readth of 1 1 miles. Its 
highest peak is about 2,700 feet above sea level. There are some verj' fine 
plantations on the island. Paama and Lopevi, the latter a volcanic cone 
rising to a height of 5,000 feet, are islands to the north of Epi. 

Maskelyne Islands, fronting the south-east coast of Malekula, are a group 
of islets standing on extensive coral reefs upon which beche-de-mer is said to 
abound. There are only a few inhabitants. 

The volcanic island cf Ambrym, 24 miles by 17, was the scene of a great 
eruption as recently as 1913. At 8 p.m. on December (i of that year five 
craters, including the summit of the island, burst into activity. At 7 a.m. 
on Sunday morning the peak ilinnei emitted a stream of lava, which destroyed 
the mission hospital and Mr. Carmichael's fine plantation, fusing the trees, 
like so many matches. On the following night two new craters opened up 
and an upheaval of lava followed which prolonged the north-west of Dip 
Point into the sea, thus altering the configuration of the island, and laying 
waste thousands of cocoanut trees. The eruptions devastated evervthing in 
the stricken area. Hvmdreds of natives were rendered homeless but there was, 
fortunately, little loss of life. An earthquake of great intensity was ex- 
perienced at the same time. As showing the marvellous recuperative pro- 
perties of the island it may be mentioned that three Catholic missions, as 
well as several plantations, arc again established in the volcanic region as 
though nothing untoward had ever occurred. The volcano is still active. 



G STHWAKT S HAND H()(JK 

Efate or Sandwich Island, lying about midway in the chain of islands, 
is about 26 miles in length, by about 14 miles wide at its greatest breadth, 
and possesses two of the finest harbours in the group — Vila and Havannah. 
\'ila is the commercial centre of the group, and is the site of the British and 
French residencies and administrative offices of both Powers. On the 
right, as one enters the port, are the two emerald islets of " I'ila," 
where the natives live, and " Iririki " where the British Resident 
Commissioner (:\Ir. Merton King) has, on the highest point of the island, 
located his residence, commanding a perfect view of the port and main- 
land. The latter can be reached in a few minutes from his boat-house on 
liis daily attendances at the British Residency offices, opposite his dwelling 
and situated on a high and picturesque plateau, flying its British ensign from 
a tall flag-staff ; a sister one floating over Mr. King s own residence, except 
when he is absent in the Government steam yacht " Euphrosyne " on visits 
in the group. The prominent buildings dotted here and there on the hillsides 
above the business portion of the town make a pretty picture against their 
verdant background. Conspicuous amongst them is the French Residency 
w'ith its tricolour flying above it ; and the great Joint Court building, some 
160 feet in length, and surrounded like the Residency with charming gardens 
filled with vivid tropical blooms and many variegated crotons. The Catholic 
Cathedral, with its belfry on a slight declivity of the same plateau is then 
easily made out. Going a little higher, the residence of the President of the 
Joint Court, situated in extensive grounds, next arrests the eye. The 
residences of the British Judge, F'rench Judge and Public Prosecutor follow- 
on the left. Adjoining the President's house at its foot is the wireless station, 
with its two great pillars some 165 feet in height. Crowning all are the leading 
lights of the port, well defined in small vivid white lighthouses at intervening 
distances on the face of the hill. To the right, past the Registrar's dwelling 
on a rise (formerly the first Joint Court), leads one to the British plateau, 
where most of our British residents and officials have their residences. One 
finds there a well ordered and well kept settlement, flanked with the barracks 
of the native constabulary and an extensive exercise and football ground. 
The Presbyterian Church and Manse in its red-rocf are conspicuous in the 
landscape. Looking from the edge of the plateau, the Pafon ^lemorial 
Hospital can be clearly discerned on a tongue of land very healthily situated 
and isolated, and open to the S.E. trade winds. A little narrow guage 
tramway, some four miles in length, has been built to facilitate the transport 
of produce from Tagabe and INIele to Vila harbour. 

Erromanga, whose northernmost point is about 60 miles to the south-east 
of Efate, is 35 miles in length and 25 is breadth, its loftiest elevation being 
Traitor's Head (2,700 feet). It has no harbours, but in several of its bays 
good anchorage is to be found. Dillon's Bay, opening to the north-west 
(the principal mission settlement), is the chief. The island is well watered, 
and extremely fertile. Erromanga has been called " the martyr's isle " 
on account of the many missionaries who have laid down their lives there. 
At Dillon's Bay stands the Martyr's Memorial Church, with a tablet bearing 
the inscription : " Sacred to the memory of the missionaries who died on this 
island — John Williams and James Harris, killed at Dillon's Bay, November 



OF THE PACiriC ISLANDS i 

30, 1839; George N. Gordon and ICUen C. Gordon, killed May I'O, ISOl ; 
James Macnair, died July l(i, 1870; James W. Gordon, killed May 7, 1872 ; 
In the early days a good trade was done in sandalwood, but hardly a tree is 
left now. I'ormerly large quantities of oranges were grown on the islatid 
and exported to Australia for the benefit of tliE; Presbyterian Mission by the 
late Rev. Dr. Robertson, but owing to the tlien shipping difficulties and 
length of journey it was not a profitable enterprise. There is a sheep station 
on the island, owned by Mr. Martin, from which \ ila is supplied with 
mutton. 

Tanna, lying to the south of Ivrromanga, will, when its resources are 
developed, hold an important commercial position. Captain Cook, its 
discoverer, was much pleased with its appearance and impressed with its 
importance. The soil is exceedingh' fertile. Even the highest mountains 
are covered with the richest vegetation to their very summits. Cocoanuts. 
breadfruit and bananas are neither so plentiful nor so good as on some of the 
other islands, but sugar-cane , sweet potato, taro and yanas are not only plenti- 
ful, but superior in quality. The most interesting natviral object is the ever 
active volcano, the crater of which forms the top of a low mountain, about 
three miles inland from Port Resolution. Its elements are sometimes 
exceedingly troubled, causing a deep, long, rumbling noise, like the roar of a 
distant heavy thunder, followed by huge columns of lurid blaze and the casting 
up of burning stones into the air. There is, perhaps, not another volcano 
in the world so easily accessible, fcr in half an hour from the shore its foot mat 
be reached and in another half hour one is at the top. At the base of the 
mountain there are hot springs of sulphurous water. The highest peak on 
the island. Mount Merren, is between 4,000 and 5,000 feet high. Thanks to 
the efforts of the Rev. Dr. Nicholson excellent roads now traverse the island. 

Tongoa, the largest of the Shepherd Islands, which are the centre of the 
group, between Epi and Efate, has a circumference of eight miles, and rises 
to a height of 1,800 feet. Excellent roads have been made there at the 
instance of the resident missionary. 

Nguna, close to the north side of Ivfate, is six miles in length and four 
in breadth. 

Aneitvuni, the southernmost island of the group, is about 3") miles in 
circumference, its highest peak being about 3,000 feet. A small strip of 
alluvial land along the shore, where it is protected by a reef, with the 
lower part of the larger valleys, include most of the cultivated land, and 
contain the principal part of the population. The island is well watered, 
and the ingenuity of the natives is seen in nothing, perhaps, so nmch as in 
the system of irrigation by which they water their plantations of taro and sugar 
cane. There are swamps in different parts of the i.sland which are extremely 
valuable as taro grounds, but from being imperfectly drained are also pro- 
ductive of ague and fever. Cocoanuts, breadfruit, sugar-cane, bananas and 
taro are plentiful ; yams are produced only to a very limited extent, whereas 
on Tanna they are a staple article of food. The sweet potato, arrowroot, 
pineapples, custard apples, and Cape gooseberry, oranges, lemons and limes 
do well. In former days a brisk trade was carried on in sandalwood, which 
however, from its ruthless depletion is now scarce. There was also a whaling 



8 STEWART'S HAND liOOK 

station here once. Dr. Inglis, who kept a meteoroloyical register at his station 
at Ananie, on the north side of the island, records that the mean teniperatxire 
in the shade is 76 degrees, the highest for a period extending over many years 
being 79 degrees and the lowest 58 degrees. The island is said to have had 
at one period a population of 12,000, but this number is now reduced tf) 
several hundred. The Rev. Dr. Cunn, now of Sydney, was for many years 
the missionary in charge. 

Aniwa, a small, flat, reef-bound island, alxnit seven miles by two, lies 
to the north-east cf Tanna. It has no harbour. There is one opening in 
the coral belt, through which a boat can safely run to shore. The late Dr. 
Paton, the veterinary missionary of the New Hebrides, who began his work in 
Tanna in 1858, settled on Aniwa in November, 1866. 

Fotuna, lying between Tanna and Aneityum, has an area of four square 
miles, and a population slightly exceeding 300. It is of high elevation and 
Dr. Gunn, while missionary at Aneityum, made of it a capital sanatorium. 

Numerous small though fertile islands lie like dots everywhere, especially 
in the centre and northern parts of the group. 

The natives vary very considerably from island to island. In some places 
they are true Polynesians, tall, light-coloured, and with almost straight hair ; 
but the rest are dark-skinned and woolh'-haired people, who, although with- 
out the pronounced Papuan features, are undoubtedly of that stock. There 
are at least 20 quite distinct languages spoken in the group. At one time the 
New Hebrides formed the almost sole recruiting ground of the labour traffic, 
the natives being taken away in large numbers — often bjj^ force or fraud — 
to work on "the plantations of Queensland, Fiji, and New Caledonia. In 
most cases the only accomplishment they brought back was the facility of 
swearing in English. The population is approximately 65,000. 

The islands from a geological point of view, are composed of coral and 
volcanic rocks, in most instances mixed up together, but w-ith the former 
apparently predominating in extent. In sailing round the group one is 
struck with a certain difference between the aspect of the islands as seen from 
the east and as seen from the west. On the west and north sides the mountain 
ridges are to a larger extent " bald," or bare, except as regards grassj^ vege- 
tation, while on the east arboreal vegetation is more prevalent. This dif- 
ference is due to the action of the south-west trade winds, which, while making 
anchorage for shipping less secure on the east coast, carry with them copious 
supplies of moisture, and give rise to more luxuriant vegetation there. The 
group was visited by a severe hurricane on November 9, 1918, this being the 
first visitation of that nature that has occurred in that month within the 
memory of the oldest inhabitant. The northern islands, Epi especially, 
suffered most. Minerals are but little ascertained. Tanna has an almost 
inexhaustible supply of sulphur. Of the mammals there are only the pig, 
dog, a flying fox and the rat, of which the first two have probably been 
imported by the natives. There are but few birds, reptiles and amphibians, 
but the few species there are very prolific, so that we find swarms of lizards 
and snakes the latter all harmless but occasionally cf considerable size. 
Animal life in the sea is very rich, turtles and man}- kinds of fish and cetacea 
being plentiful. 



OF THE Pacific islands 9 

TORRES AND BANKS ISLANDS. 

The Torres and Banks groups are included with the New Hebrides under 
the dual control of France and England. 

The Torres Islands, which lie between Santa and the Santa Cruz group, 
consist of four inhabited islands (Toga, Loh, Tegua and Hiw), having no direct 
communication with Sydney. The natives have the reputation of being quiet 
and friendly, but have not had as much intercourse with the outside world 
as those in the other islands. It is doubtful whether any of this group will 
have the importance of its larger neighbours. 

The Banks group, lying south of the Torres, and about 100 miles to the 
northward of the New Hebrides proper, consists of Vanua Lava, about 16 
miles in length, Santa IMaria, almost the same size, and a number of smaller 
islands. At the exteme end of the group is a circular islet called Merelav 
(Star Peak) with a peak about 3,000 feet high. Star Peak well describes 
the scope of this island which is just the cone of a volcano, long dormant, 
rising steeply out of the sea. There are several shoulders which spreading 
at the base, make a star-like figure. Santa Maria, as the name suggests, 
owes Jts discovery to the Spaniards three hundred years ago. Volcanic in 
origin, there are two peaks in the north of the island, and between them lies 
an immense crater occupied by the only lake worthy of the name in Melanesia, 
being about five miles in length. The natives of Mota (Sugar Loaf Island) 
are very hospitable. Some eight miles to the north lies Motalava (Great Mota) 
which Bligh called Saddle Island. The group is memorable as having been 
discovered by Bligh during his passage to Timor in the open boat, in which 
he was set adrift by the mutineers on the " Bounty." Like the New Hebrides, 
the islands are of volcanic origin and extremely fertile. Vanua Lava is the ter- 
minal point of Burns, Philp & Co.'s steamers maintaining the Commonwealth 
mailservice through the New Hebrides, and contains a verj^ fine harbour m 
Port Patteson, which was discovered by the Bishop of New Zealand in 1857, 
and named after him. Vureas Bay is another good anchorage. There is on 
\'anua Lava a half extinct volcano whose activity shows principally in sul- 
phur springs, and there are large sulphur deposits which were at one time 
worked by a French company but the enterprise had to be abandoned. The 
natives of these islands as well as those of Santa Cruz and Torres, are a superior 
race to the New Hebrideans, being light in colour and of a fine physique. The 
Melanesian Mission has long been established in this group, and has made 
great headway. In course of time the Banks group will become of consider- 
able importance, both commercially and strategically. 

TRADE OF THE GROUP. 

The value of the exports from the New Hebrides for 1916, including cocoa, 
coffee, copra, cotton, maize and sandalwood, was £169,026, of which sum 
£43,o61 17s. 8d. was allocated to Sydney and £12.5,46+ 4s. to Noumea. This 
shows that the Archipelago is one of great possibilities, when such a result is 
obtained at a time of unheard of stress, and with the depletion the war has 
caused in the French and British population, when its paucity is considered 
and the fact that a number of the plantations are lying almost fallow for want 
of hands. The taxes are light and the dual Governments are averse from 



10 sti;\vart's iiaxh dook 

increasing llieni. Recourse has therefore to L-e had to the two nations in- 
terested for njjkeep, but the Archipelago is a sound asset and must come in 
time to the full plentitude of its own. At present copra is its principal 
export, though cottoii in the north may some day run it close. The exports 
of copra totalled in 191(5, 4,l()o,929 kilogranunes or 4,100 tons 6 cwt. 2 qrs, ; 
coffee, 20.3,018 kilos, of which 6,451 kilos went to Sydney ; cotton, l,740.67o 
kilos, including ll,2.'J0 to vSydney ; maize, 1,223,996 kilos, with .32.3,999 to 
Sydney ; sandalwood, 112,604 kilos, with 24,88o to Sydney, this collection of 
products totalling S,101,14S kilos, Noumea receiving 5,71.3,8.36 kilos and Syd- 
ney 2,.387,312 kilos. These are big figures for so comparatively few pro- 
<lucing i.slands at present, and with a more densely populated group a vastU' 
superior result w<mld of course be shown. The export of cocoa is on the increase, 
228,961 kilos being shipped to Noumea, but some is now exported to Australia. 
The export of coffee and copra from Efate diiring the past two or three years 
has been sensibly diminished l)y two diseases that attacked the trees — the 
first known as the '" liemileia vastatrix," that devastated the coffee plantations, 
which have now, however, been almost totally replaced by a new disease- 
resisting seed loiown as the " robusta." The cocoanut trees were attacked 
by a pernicious black beetle that has also been mostly stamped out and it is 
estimated that in another couple of years the yield of both products will be 
fully restored. 

.OFFICIALS. 

NATIONAL KSTABIJSHMKNTS. 

dreat Britain : — Resident Commissioner : ]\rerton King, C.M.G., with 
staff of four officials ; Judicial Commissioner, Higli Commissioner's Court : 
H. de Burgh O'Reilly ; Master of British Government Yacht, I.t. Cr. C. L. 
Barrett, R.N.R. 

France : — Resident Commissioner : I,. Miramende (on leave), J',. Lipp- 
mann (acting); Juge de Paix, J. Mabille ; Staff, Chancellor, L. Niellv, four 
Clerks, two Typists, one labour Inspector, Police Commandant (French 
section, M. Devambez), "Registrar-Notary, M. Rieu. 

Medical Service : — One Doctor, one Hospital Attendant (Regimental), 
three Nuns (Nurses). 

Public School : — One ^Mistress, one Attendant. 

Religious School for Boys : — Two Catholic Missionaries. 

Religicus School for Girls : — Nuns. 



CONDOMINIUINI ESTABLISHMENTS. 

Joint Court: — President, Count de Buena Esperanza (on leave) ; Dr. H. 
H. Goeman Borgesius (acting as President) ; British Judge, H. de Burgh 
O'Reilly ; French Judge, J. J. Mabille ; Public Prosecutor, vacant, Jules de 
Leener (acting) ; British Registrar (acting), H. Pieremont ; I'rench Registrar, 
(acting), E. Fourcade ; Interpreter-Translator to Joint Court, Wilson de 
Couteur : Registry Clerks, H. Pieremont, I-:. Fourcade, M. Coursin (on active 
service), J. Devambez, junior; and Bailiff. 

Con.stal>ulary : — British Commandant, Major Edwin Harrowell (on leave), 
V. E. Johnson (acting) ; French Commandant, M. Devambez, Senior. 

Cu.stoms : — Collector, H. H. I'ourcade ; Assistant Collector, W. L- Bell. 

Post Office, Telegraph and Treasury : — Postmaster and Treasurer, 
M. ilaj'et ; Clerk and Supervisor of Telephone lines, — Belloc ; Telephonist, 
^Sliss McCoy ; Operator. Radiotelegraph Station. M. Courtois. 



or THE PACIl-IC ISLANDS 1 I 

Medical : — Cdudominiviiu Medical Officer, Dr. Paidet. 

Port of Vila :— Health Officer (British), Dr. T. W. Hoggarth ; Health 
Officer (French), Dr. Paiilet : I,ight Keepers, F. Yager and L. Kettywane. 

Island .Services : — Government Agents : Lsland of Tanna, J. ^I. Nicol ; 
Island of Malekula, M. Rousselot ; Island of Santo, T. R. Salisbury (on active 
.service), Island of Aoba, vacant. 

Works Superintendent : — Kenneth Mackenzie. 



BRITISH MISSIONS • 

The Melanesia!! Mission (.Anglican) : — Island of l'e!itecost : Rev. C. 
Turner and Mrs. Turner, ^liss Hardacre and Miss Nellie ^\■;llian!S ; Island of 
Aoba : Rev. A. S. Webl) ; Banks Islands : Rev. R. Tempest, Rev. R. 
Hodg.son a!id Rev, R. Godfrey. 

The Presbyterian Mission : — Islands of Anietyum aiul Ivrromango : 
Rev. J. C. Rae ; Islands of Tanna and Aniwa : Rev. T. McMillan ; Island of 
Efate : Rev. Iv. M. K. Raff, Rev. Dr. T. W. Hoggarth (Medical Superinte^dent 
of the " John G. Paton " Jlemorial Hospital) ; Island of Xguua : Rev. P. 
Mih!e, Rev. W. V. Milne ; Island of Tongoa : Rev. O. Michelsen ; Island 
of Fpi : Rev. J. B. Weir; Island of Paama : Rev. M. Frater ; Lsland of 
Malekula : Rev. F. J. Paton, Rev. J. S. Jaffray. Rev. R. Boyd and Rev. Dr. 
Sandilands ; Island of Santo : Rev. l'\ G. Bowie, Rev. IC. Mackenzie (on active 
service) ; Malo : Rev. D. L. Paters'. u. 

The Church of Christ .—Island of -|oba : Mr. A. T. Wallen: : Island of 
Pentecost : Mr. F. G. I'ilmer. 

Seventh Day Adventists : — Lsland of Malekula: Jlr. and Mrs. A. J. 
Stewart and Mr.' and ilrs. N. Wiles. Atchin (off Malekula) : ]Mr. and Mi's. 
Ross James. 

Mission Hospitals : — Vila, Ivfate : "" The J dim (\. Paton Memorial " 
Hospital, The Rev. Dr. T. W. Hoggarth. ^ledical Superintendent : Wala. 
^lalekula : Rev. Dr. S. Saiidilaiiils, ^Medical Su]>erii!tendeut ; Hog Harbour, 
Santo : Rev. Dr. F,. ^Mackenzie, Medical Superintendent (closed during abseiice 
of Medical Superintendent on active service) ; Lenakel, Tanna : Rev. Dr. 
J. C. Nicholson, Medical Superintendent (closed during absence of. Medical 
Superientendent on active .service). N.B. — These hospitals are all supported 
by the Presbvterian Mission, the Vila and Tanna Hospitals receiving graiits 
in aid from the rtovernment. 



BRITISH RESIDENTS. 

Vila, Kfate :— Alcidc, ]., wife and c'lild, Barrett, C. I,., Bell. \V. L., 
r.rowns, R. L. P., wife and child, (ribbes. A., and wife, Henderscui, R. R., 
Hoggarth, Dr., W. T., wife and child, Hope, — ., Hunt, J., John.son, F. K., 
wife and two children. King, ]M., le Couteur, W., ^SlacCov, W., MacCoy, S., 
wife and two davighters, MacCoy, C, Martell, W.. :Mills, G. M., O'R'eilly, 
H. de B., and wife, Pieremont, H., wife and two children. Quintal, — .. 
wife and child, Raff, Rev. IC. and wife, Reid, R. A., Avife and two children. 
Russ, Mrs., and four children, vSeagoe, F. H., wife and two children, vSmithsou. 
C. H., wife and child, Stronije. R. St. C, wife anrl two children, S\\ vres. Miss. 
Turner, Miss, Wallace, I". IC., wife and daughter, Wat.s(,n, A., Whittle. J. 
\\'. S., Williamson, Miss, Yager, I""., and wife. 

Mele Ivfate : — MacCoy, C, wife, four children. Wrench, W. R. 

I'ndine Bav, ICfate : — Aiulersou, W., wife and child, Roche, L. C. I". 
Roche, G. H., Ross, C, and wife. 

Nguna : — Milne, Rev. P., Milne, Rev. W. \'., wife, three cliildren, I'.s.sher. 
N. G., wife, twf; children. 

Emaie : — I'loren^;, A. G., Johnson. T. 

Pentecost : — Cameron, C. C, I-'ilmer, I". G., wife, twfj children, Hardacre. 
iliss. Turner, Rev. C, wife and child, \\'illiains, Mi>s. 



12 STKWART S HAND BOOK 

Aoba : — Purely, G., vSpooner, p\, Waters, T. A., and wife, \\'ebb. Rev. C. 

Santo : — Axam, S. A., wife and two children, Bain, h. P., Barclay, D. R., 
wife and two children, Bowie, Rev. K. G., and wife, Bowie, W. A., Bramwell, J., 
Clapcott, R. O. D., Dalryniple, H. W., and wife, I'vsh, J. Iv., Hawkesby, J., 
wife and child. Hawker, Iv, wife and child, Kerr, D. H., and wife, Paterson, 
Rev. S. L., and wife, Salisbury, T. R. (on active service), Shepperd, Mrs. and 
Miss, Stephens, T. C, wife and five children, Thomas, A. vS., Thomas, H. (on 
active service), Watson, Mrs., Wat.son, R., Wat.son, J. W., Wells, Mrs., Wells, 
S., Wells, W. J., Wells, E. 

Banks Islands : — Aldington, — ., Collis, G., wife and child, Godfrey, 
Rev. R. Morris, F., Oelrich, C, Tempest, Rev. R., Whitford, F.. and family 
(eight children), Godfrey, Rev. R. 

Malekula : — Carrol, — ., Hanibi ; Corlettc, E. A. C, Port Stanley; 
F'leming, F. J., Bushman's Bay ; Hopcraft, y. B., Hambi ; I^ang, W., Tisman 
Bay ; McAfee, E., South West Bay ; Wright", J., Rano. 

Aoba : — Purdy, G., Ndui Ndui. 

Epi : — Ayton, W. J., Mapuna ; Baillon, D., Ringdove Bay ; Coverdale, 
H., Botlo ; Fletcher, R. G., Lamaru ; Eraser, A. D., Onela Wea Bay ; Neil 
Mrs., Sakau ; Reynolds, E., Ngala ; Roxbrough, H., Voambi : Sarginson, E., 
Burrumba ; Swallow, T., Bonkooia ; Zeitler, A., Zeitler, Ringdove Bay. 

Anibrym : — F'lorens, G. F., King, W. G., Nicols, A. , Collins, — . 

Aneityum : — Wilson, J. P., I'-reeman, H., Freeman, F. 

Tanna : — Carruthers, J. H.. White Sands ; Carruthers, Mrs., White Sands ; 
Robertson, A. E. , Lenakel ; Suggett, C, Lenakel ; Shinbsole, — ., \\'hite 
Sands, Rev. J. C. Rae. 

Erromanga : — Martin, S. O., Dillon Bay. 

There are also a number of persons of foreign nationality who are under 
the British legal system. They are : — United States of America : F. Cole- 
man (Aoba) and R. L. Cha.se (Vila, Efate) ; J. C. Berg (Ambrym), F. F. F. 
Bullring (Paama), — . Freeman, family, four members (Aneityum), H. Grube 
and wife, and W. Grube (Anibrym), R. Hoffmann (Aoba), and F'. O. Schmitz 
(Erromanga) ; Norway : Rev. J. O. Michelsen, wife and two children, and 
J. F. Newman, wife and two children (Tongoa). 

Mercantile Firms : — Burns, Philp, Ltd. (Mr. St. Clair Stronge, manager). 
New Hebrides Co-operative Association, de Bechade Estate, Ballande & Co., 
D. Gubbay, Newman Co. (Tongoa), Oceanic Rubber and Trading Co. (Banks 
Islands). 



FRENCH RESIDENTS. 

Efate Island : — French Commercial Houses in \'ila : Comptoirs Fran- 
cais des Nouvelles Hebrides Company (Manager, .Vlcide Anger, six clerks) ; 
Comptoirs Internisular Steamer, s.s. " St. Michel," "' Verdun," ketch 
(auxiliary) ; de Bechade Estate (Manager, F. vSchmidt, eight employees) ; 
Interinsular steamer, s.s. " Pervenche," auxiliary schooner " Snark," ; Co- 
operative Association (Manager, M. ]\Iy), and other Stores, ISIr. Cayrol, 
Mrs. Vincent, Mr. Boulerand. 

Hotels : — Mr. Ohlen, Mr. Goudard, ]Miss Volcy and Licensed Publicans. 

Butcher : — Mr. RoUand. 

Bakers :— Mr. Goudard, Miss \'olcy. 

Masons : — Messrs. Anglan, Baude. 

Builders and Carpenters : — Messrs. Courtois, (roudard. 

Laundries : — Widow RoUand and Nam. 

Saddler : — Mr. Dunis. 

Blacksmiths : — Comptoirs Francais Co., ]Mr. Agez. Mr. Devaux. 

Tailor : — Mr. Cayrol. 

Commission Agents : — Messrs. My and Coursin. 

Shipwrights : — Mr. Fricotte and Mr. Lecaime. 

Tinsmith : — Mr. Dilenseger. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 13 

Mele District : — I^icensed Publican : ^Irs. Vincent. Traders : Messrs. 
Galibert, Canstard de Narbonne. 

Havannah Harbour : — Cattle Breeders : Messrs. Agez. Jeannin-Kabar. 

Traders and Copra-makers in the North : — ^lessrs. Zeitler and Hagen, 
Widow Berger, :\Ir. Germain, ]Mr. Ess, ]Mr. Long, :\Ir. Carion, Fcssard Brothers, 
Douyere Brothers, Montaigne, Bressler, Camps, Calonne. 

Ship Carpenters :. .Mr. Ch. Lecaime, Alb. Griniand. 

Boat Builders and Carpenters : — Mr. Gardel, Mr. Denage. 

^lotor Engineers : — Messrs. Zeitler and Hagen. 



FRENCH PLANTERS. 

Vila : — Messrs. Colardeau, Rodin Brothers, de Barros, Lecaime, Lasser 
le Peltier, Courtois. French Xew Hebrides Company. 

Districts, neighbourhood of the Capital : — Messrs. Ro.ssi, Largeau, 
Milliard Brothers, Mr. de Preville, Catholic Mission, Maestraeci, de Greslau, 
Leconte, Delaplane, Mrs. Paris, Leemann, Hannequin, de Balmann. Sicard, 
Widow Klehm, Widow_Rosiers, Messrs. Frouin, Galibert, Mathieu, Houdie, 
J. Payet, Bladinieres, Mirabel, Clemenceau, de Bechade, Goudard, Estri- 
peaut, Bourdois, Kabar, Jeannin, Salvin, Mrs. Costant. 

Epi : — Messrs. Zeitler and Hagen, Naturel, Lancon, Ancelin, Patient, 
Caspar. 

Ambryni : — Lambreaux & Co. 

;\lalekula : — Messrs. Javelier, ^Merian, Widow Bernut, Carion, Gautier, 
H. Pesnel, R. Pesnel, Douyere, L. Theuil, Xatoly, Chevillard Brothers. 

Malo : — Messrs. Lachaize, Nicolas, Balen. 

Santo and Aore (Segond Channel) : — Messrs. Briault, Edouard Caillard, 
Edm. Caillard, D. Ratard, P. Ratard, Aug. Russet, Houchard, Cas.sin, Gane. 
H. Russet, Jacquier, de Messimy, Dedieu, Chanviere, J. Bernier, Chapuis, 
Wright, Blanchard, Stuart-Petersen, Petersen, Peyrolle, three Catholic 
Missions. 

Pentecost : — Messrs. Mayaud, (Tellier, Dupuy, Draghicevitz ; live 
Catholic Missions. 

Note. — Except in the cases where the same surnames are alike, but under 
different christian names, the same names recurring under different district 
headings or occupations are only one and the same person or persons, though 
duplicated, indicating that they have interests in different islands. This 
must be remembered when computing the total, which, of course, does not 
include the wives and families and dependents. 



THE TARIFF. 

The following is the tariff" of tlie Xew Hebrides condominium : — 

AD VALOREIM DT'TY. 

There shall be collected and paid upon all goods imported into the New 
Hebrides an import tax of o per cent, ad valorem save and except in the case 
of the articles hereinafter enumerated as being subject to a specific rate of 
duty or as being exempt from the payment of import duty : 

SPECIFIC DUTIh:S. 
The undermentioned articles shall be liable to the following rates of duty : 

Ales, beer, and porter, quarts of 1 14 centilitres, per dozen 

Ales, beer, and porter, pints of 'il centilitres, per dozen . . 

Ales, beer, and porter, lialf-pints of 2S..') centilitres or le.ss, per doz. 

Spirits of all kinds, the strength of which can be ascertained by 
Sykes' hydrometer, whether over or underproof, per proof or 
liquid gallon 10 10 



£ 


s. 


d. 








in 








(i 








:i 



14 



STEWART S IIAXI) BOOK 



Spirits and spirituous i-oiupounds the strength of which cannot In 
ascertained hy Sykcs" hydrometer, ad vah>rein 

Red and white wine (ordinaire), per litre 

Other wines in luilk, per htrc. . 

Other wines in bottles, cpiarts, per dozen . . 

Other wines in bctttles, pints, per df>zen 

Kerosene, per case of ."{(i litres 

Tobacco, per kilogrannne 

Cigars and cigarettes, per kilogrannue 

Dynamite and other exi)!osive'; used in lieu thereof, ])er kilo 
gramme . . 

Fuses, per coil of 24 feet . . . . 

Detonators, ad valorem 

Arms of precision, rifles and the like and amnumition for same, ad 
valorem 

Revolvers and amnmnition for same, ad valorem . . 

All other arms and amnumition of every kind, ad valorem 

(iramaphones, phonographs, and records thereof, ad valorem 

Lace, ad valorem 

Perfumery, ad valorem . . 

Coffee, raw, per 100 kilos net . . 

Cacao, raw, per 100 kilos net . . 

Vanilla (in the pod), per 100 kilos net 

Allspice (Pimento), per 100 kilos net 



d. 





•)(,.. 


,l 








<i,V 





H 


lo' 





U 


71 





.-, 


10 


(1 





1) 








\H 





!') 


2h 


(1 


4 


1) 








10 




00« 


b 




100 


'o 




10« 


/o 




000 


f, 




J 00 


(> 




lO'^ 






100 




1-2 





"o 


4 


3 


o 


52 








10 









RXIOIPTIOXS FRO:\r DUTY. 

The following articles shall be free from payment of import duty : — 

Agricultural implements and machinery (including all implements and 
machinery used solely for agricultural and horticultural purposes, together 
with carts, drays, lorries, and other vehicles that are used in the pursuit of 
agriculture). 

Animals, living. 

Boats and boat fittings (including whaleboats, skifTs, dinghies, and other 
craft that can be carried on the deck or davits of a ship, and that can be pro- 
pelled by sails or oars alone ; together Avith sails, rigging, anchors, chains, 
oars, rowlocks, masts, spars, rudders, and other articles and appliances used 
in the navigation or propulsion of such craft). 

Boilers and boiler plates. 

Books, periodicals and other printed, matter 'includaiu maps, atlases^ 
plans, charts and mu.'iic). 

Biscuits, .ships". 

Bricks. 

Cement. 

Coal. 

Coin. 

Drainpipes, eart hern ware. 

Drugs and uiedicines (exclusive of patent medicines). 

Engines, steam, oil, 6',:c. 

Flour. 

Iron and steel rails (including fish plates, switches, crossings, turntables*^ 
and parts thereof). 

Luggage, personal. 



OF THE PACII-K" isj.axds 15 

Machinery, elect r'cal, iinntng, sawing, sugar and coffee making, and 
component parts thereof. 

Manures and fertilisers. 

Medical appliances nnportcd by qualified medical officers for use in 
lio.spitals. 

^licroscopes. 

Plants, living (imported for purposes of cultivation subject to the pro- 
visions of Joint Regulation No. 7 of 1914). 

Seed and cereals for propagation, cultivation, and food purposes, in- 
cluding maize, beans, rice, wheat, barley, oats, millet and rye. 

Show cards, patterns, cut samples, and advertising material of no com- 
mercial value. 

Surgical instruments imj^nted by qualifieil medical officers for use in 
4iospitals. 

Uniforms, official. 

\'accine lymph and other auti-toxms. 

Vegetables, fresh, and fruit, fresh. 

Wire fencing. 

All articles imported or purchased out of bond for the use of { 1 ) The British 
or French administrations ; (2) The Condominium <TOvernment ; and (.3) 
British and French ships-i-f-war. 



STKWART S HANI) HOOK 



NEW CALEDONIA and the LOYALTY ISLANDS. 

(FRENCH) 

NKW CALKDONIA, which is distant 1,077 miles from vSydney, is about 
250 miles in length, with a uniform average l^readth of 35 miles^ 
and an average of 6,275 square miles, ranking, after New Zealand, 
as one of the largest islands in the Pacific. Captain Cook discovered and 
named the island in 1774. It was next visited and examined in detail by 
D'Entrecasteaux in 1791, who lost here his captain, Huon Kermadec. In 
1,S43 the F'rench hoisted their flag, but, owing to the pressure of the British 
(Government, this act was disavowed. A few years later the massacre of 
the survey officers of the " Alemene " led to reprisals, and Admiral Fevrier- 
Despointes formally took possession of the island in 1853. 

According to the story, an English vessel was at the Isle of Pines negotiat- 
ing with the inhabitants about a settlement just when the French Admiral 
appeared in that quarter, and he was accepted by the natives in preference 
to our countryman. It is about as probable that one party asked permission 
as that the other did. Neither nation has been in the habit of consulting the 
susceptibilities of savages. Whatever supposed arrangement was made with 
the reputed chiefs, it was soon clear enough that the two races would not 
get along well together. Interference with the women led to conllicts. In- 
justice, and even cruelty, excited the tribes at length to what was mere than 
a demonstration. War ensued between the warriors, armed with stone 
weapons, and Europeans, furnished with the most murderous appliances. 
After the last struggle, in 1878, peace w'as secured on the usual terms of wide- 
spread destruction, more than 1,000 natives being killed and large numbers 
sentenced to penal sers'itude. 

New Caledonia was first used as a penal settlement in 186-1, and after 
the Franco-German war a great many Communists were sent there. The 
transportation of convicts practically ceased in 1895. With the stoppage 
of transportation came a scarcity of labour ; a shrinkage of the expenditure 
of the central French authorities on the army and the administration ; a 
diminution of demand for supplies ; and a consequent loss all round. It is 
said that little attempt has been made to attract free settlers ; and that the 
conditions do net conduce to free settlement. The standing grievance is — 
as may be found also in a British Crown colony — too much officialdom. 
There is an army of officials. There is a big local debt, incurred for docks and 
for the small, happy-go-lucky railway to Dumbea, 16 kilometres from Noumea. 
The services rendered in return for the money expended are alleged to be bad. 
The communications through the island are inadequate. 

The island is mountainous, exhibiting two parallel ranges, whose highest 
altitude is 5,570 feet. It has numerous rivers, but ncne are cf any impc rtance 
for navigation. Much of the land is bare and arid-looking, or partially clothed 
with shrubs and pines. Fu the north only and on some of the mountain sides 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 17 

is there any extent of forest country. The climate is drier and cooler than 
that of any of the other Melanesian islands. The mean annual temperature 
is 72 degrees in the hot months (December to ^March), the thermometer not 
infrequently rising to 98 degrees. In the cool season (June to August) the 
mean is approximately 65 degrees, but the thermometer goes as low as 50 
degrees, and even lower. The annual rainfall in Noumea is 40 inches. The 
wettest months are January, February and March. Ivight inches in those 
months is not unusual. The prevailing wind is east-south-east to south- 
east trades, which l^low during two-thirds of the year. During the 
winter (June to August) the wind blows from other quarters. Strong at- 
mospheric disturbances are frequently experienced during the months of 
February and March, and cyclones occur cccasionallj-. When the garrison 
has a death rate of 28 per thousand, and troops, too, not given to much care 
of health, the locality must be justly considered salubrious. It would net be 
so healthful as Australia, which has its cleansing and purifying hot, dry winds, 
and its health-giving odours from eucalypti forests, as well as a population 
rather more observant of sanitary conditions, and, perhaps, the practice 
of the virtues. 

The natives are a well-made race, with frizzly hair, dark skins, and 
pronounced features, distinctly Papuan in origin. They are rapidly di- 
minishing in numbers. When the I'rench took possession the natives were 
estimated at 70,000 ; there are now about 20,000. The diminution has been 
caused by European diseases. The total white population, free and ex- 
convict, is about 20,000, with a1)out ;>0,000 natives, including Loyalty Is- 
landers, New Hebrideans, Solomon Islanders, Javanese, Tonkinese, and 
Japanese. 

The chief town, Noumea, the seat of Government, with a population of 
about 9,000, is situated on the shores of a fine land-locked harbovir, on the 
southern coast, shipping being accommodated at a stone wharf, 600 yards 
in length. The city is well laid out, with fine wide streets, many of which are 
planted with ornamental trees. The principal public buildings are the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral, Hotel de Ville, the hospital and a college. ^lany pleasant 
excursions may be made around Noumea, the roadways being kept in ad- 
mirable order. Noumea itself and its immediate surroundings offer sufficient 
material for the tourist for three or four days — a train excursion to Dumbea, 
motor drive to Paita, Boiiloupari, and other mining and agricultural centres. 
visits to the native village at St. Louis, drives to Anse Vata, the seaside after- 
noon rendezvous, rambles about town, strolls in the Place Feillet, Place 
Courbet, Square Olry, Place d' Amies, Boulevard Cassini. On certain even- 
ings the band organised by the local young men plays on the Place Feillet, 
opposite two of the leading hotels. Apropos of the language difficulty, visitors 
need have no fear. In all hotels and shops English is spoken by some of the 
employees. On the other hand, for those who wish to brush up their French, 
the opportunity is excellent. There is an excellent library and museum, 
where the studious may pass many pleasant and profitable hours. I'ishing, 
bathing, and hunting \\ill fill in the allotted time. There are thousands 
of deer which are not much appreciated by residents who have gone in for 
cultivating the land. Herds of them may be seen on the way to Bourail. 



18 stkwakt's iiaxi) hook 

l-"or the tourists wIki wish to extend their excursions l)ey()n(l tlie neighbour- 
hood of the capital it n'ay be mentioned that the island is 200 miles long, 
and that steamers are regularlj' plying along each coast. A considerable part 
of the coast navigation is made inside the coral reef which encircles the island. 
This trip would enable the tourist to realise the immense riches of this country 
so favoured by Nature. He would be al)le to visit coffee and cotton plan- 
tations, cattle runs, mines, orchards, vineyards, maize fields, and forests. 
The most characteristic tree is the Xiaouli, of which the common kind is 
known scientifically as ^Melaleuca viridiflora, and young Caledonians jokingly 
call themselves " Niaoulis." It resembles the eucalj'ptus, and the anti- 
.septic properties of the essence obtained from its leaves make it much es- 
teemed in therapeutics. If blossoms in January and June, and its wood, 
which is very hard, is largely used for post-and-rail fences in the bu.sh. 
Steamers leave the capital every few days for settlements alon;,; the coast. 
Right opposite Noumea is the pretty i.sland of Nou, which has been converted 
into a penitentiarj^. Noumea is connected with Australia by cable.* 



* Mr. J. D. I'itzgerald, of Sydney, in an article on New Caledonia in the 
Sydtu'v Mcniing Herald of Avigust 10, 1907, says of its capital : — " The town 
of Noumea does not strike the visitor at first glance. Wood and galvanised 
viron form the materials of its structures. There are exceptions, of course. 
The streets are narrow, though a town plan appears to have been designed, 
and, with the exception of the narrowness of its streets, Noumea might ea.sily 
be compared with a good-siz.ed country town in New South Wales or Queens- 
land. I would not go so far as to say, as a recent visitor said, that its nearest 
analogy is our own suburb of AA'aterloo ; but Noumea covdd not compare with 
towns like Rockhamption, Bundaberg, ^Maryborough or Townsville. In the 
centre of the town is an open space, part of which — the Place des Cocotiers 
(cocoa palms) — was formerly the scene of the musical soirees of the vaunted 
■convict band (with its bandmaster of sinister repute), now dispersed. A 
military exercise ground and a small garden occupy the rest of this central 
space. In the garden an excellent statue is erected to Admiral Olry, who 
put down the kanaka rebellion in 1 878. The bas-reliefs on the plinth of the 
pedestal, representing the submission of the defeated chiefs, are admiraby 
done. 

" The whole town was covered with confetti, the result of the carnival 
of the previous day to otir arrival, when the 14th July, the festival of the 
taking of the Bastille, was celebrated. There was an air of fatique pervading 
the place in the morning, but after l^reakfast (taken ordinarily at noon) the 
town woke up and went to the races at Magenta, a beautiful plain at the back 
of Noumea, over a steep hill which hems in the town, and towards some 
precipitous cliffs, which tower over another arm of the sea, where the white 
line of surf betrays the outer coral reef. The whole colony had turned out 
to see horses many of them Walers, ridden by Australian jockeys, compet- 
ing in the drand Prix (prize, £1000). 

■■ Here in the grand stand, was a microcosm of a Paris race meeting. 
Outside the barriers the natives show that they, too, are capable of the racing 
excitement. But inside the grand stand enclosure the bright uniforms and 
the swagger gait of the military, the tasteful dresses of the ladies — surely 
made or designed in Paris — the eagerness of the spectators, the chatter of 
voices, all speaking at once in true Continental fashion all make up a typically 
I'rench scene. But in moving through the groups, and in the process of 
introduction to the hospitable residents, you find that Noumea society — out- 
side the official classes — is more suburban of Sydney than of Paris. Mr. 
Gecrge Grifiith, in his " T'nknown Prison Land," has catalogued Noume 
as ■ a commercial dependency of .\ustralia." One soon finds that it {•■■ in 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 1& 

The mineral resources are very great. Indeed, the extent of the mineral 
wealth can only be conjectured. Chrome, cobalt and nickel abound. Anti- 
mony, mercury, cinnabar, silver, lead and copper have all been obtained, 
as well as coal of various kinds. Gold has been found in many places, but as 
}'et nowhere in quantity, except on the Diahot or Great River, whence in 
the early " seventies "' abovit £30,000 worth was won. The nickel deposits 
are of special value. Being without arsenic, the ore is much appreciated ; 
manganese is often associated. There have been erected two furnaces, one 
in Noumea for treating the poorer class of ore, and one on the east coast. 
Both furnaces turn out matte containing from 45 per cent, to 50 per cent. 
of nickel metal, which is shipped to Ivurope to be refined. There are very 
large deposits of chrome. One of the mines, the Tiebaghi, on the west coast, 
some 200 miles from Noumea, has already extracted considerably more than 
half a million tons of very rich ore, containing over 54 per cent, of sesquioxide, 

many other respects than commercial a dependency ot Sydney. Many of 
the young generation, you discover, have been educated in Sydney .schools 
and convents. Here you meet a Ouecnslander, there an Illawarra native, 
further on a Sj^dney man in business, and doing well. There are the u.sual 
number of the ubiquitous Ivnglish, Irish and Scotch, liut Australians liold 
their own. 

" Back from the races and into a fast launch, in which we make a trip 
to the lie Nou, the famous convict settlement, which lies on the left as you 
look out on the bay. The v.hite roofs and the cocoaiiut palms attract you. 
and the conical-shaped hill at the liack, guarding the prison village ; and 
beyond that the ominous outlines of the leper settlement, in which unspeak- 
able horrors are lying — as one hears in the town, ['■rom the bosom of the 
bay }'ou can measure the splendid attril>utes of the port. Here great navies 
and merchant fleets can ride safely at anchor, with deep water everywhere. 
The high mountainous peaks surrounding the bay recall memories of \\'el- 
lington (N.Z.), and in a modified way of Hongkong. This .should be a great 
port in the years to come, when the country is developed — under eitlier 
P'rench or British rule. 

" The excursion to He Xou was a mere adventure without hope of result. 
It was late in the evening ; there was no opportumit}- of securing the official 
open sesame, as all the public offices were closed for the holiday. There 
was nothing in the approach to indicate the horrors of the ccmvict regime. 
He Nou is a pretty place externally, with tropical trees and foliage and waving 
palms. The French flag was pervasive ; the effect of the palms and flam- 
boyants was peaceful and soothing. No suggestion of convict horrors was 
in view. Children ran to meet us at the wharf as we steered into the creek 
— a boy with long silken hair and angelic Reynolds face came to the steps 
and stared ; a kanaka ' ntm nou (nurse) in a bright scarlet dress, with a 
French child in her arms, and a troop of lusty boys — probably all pertaining 
to the ' administration ' — the authorities. We were welcomed at the 
' administration ' building, but informed with expressions of polite regret 
that it was too late. We were offered a view of the administrative building ; 
but the prisoners were all in their cells. There, in the white-roofed village, 
were the convicts. We might have indulged in gloomy reveries, with sombre 
guesses at the bidden horrors, but that that pha.se of the system had been 
exploded by Mr. Grifiith in his interesting book referred to above. Returning 
to the citv, the hospitalitv of the CJub took us ; and after one of the l)est 
dinners one could partake of anywhere sauced with a kindly hospitality, 
we spent the evening till late in conversing on subjects which interest Aus- 
tralians, vitally interesting a.s they are to the^e inhabitants of our nearest 
foreign neighbour wb.o dwell in this .social sulnirb of Sydney, tliis commercial 
dependency of Australia." 



20 



STKWAKT S HANI) IU)f)K 



and is still producint^ ciiDniious quantities. A second mine, at Unia, on the 
southern part of the island, owned by ^I. Rigoulet, is almost equally as rich. 

The valleys are usually fertile, anrl in many places agriculture is con- 
ducted with success. Farming centres appear where penitentiaries for con- 
ducts have been formed or missions established. The forests inland have, 
according to M. Ivcmire, no less than 168 varieties of timber. The land is 
divided into three domains— that of the State (in which gratuitous concessions 
may be made), that of the penal settlement (about 400 square miles), and that 
of the native reserve. The chief agricultural products are coffee, cotton, 
maize, tobacco, copra and rubber. Of the total area more than half of the 
land is mountainous or not cultivatable. Other products are preserved 
meats, hides, trocas shell, beclie-de-mer and sandalwood. 

In 1917 New Caledonia imported goods to the value of £17,947,849 francs 
(£717,913), while its exports totalled 19,852,393 francs (£794,095). The 
mineral export was valued at 13,097,358 francs (£523,894), or nearly two- 
thirds of the total value of all exports. The growth of the mineral industry 
may be gauged by the following figures, taken from Le Bulletin ou Com- 
merce, dealing with the exports. They are expres.sed in tons : — 

Year 

J 907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 

On the figures a falli*ng off in the production of minerals is suggested, 
nevertheless, the value of the minerals exported in 1917 was more than 
double that of 1907. Part of the explanation lies in the fact that less of the 
crude nickel is exported, and instead a growing qtiantity of nickel matte 
is sent away. The other part of the explanation is that the prices of metals 
rose enormously after the outbreak of war. In 1914 nickel was worth 30 
francs (£1 4s.) a ton in New Caledonia ; m 1917 it rose to 82 francs (£2 10s.). 
Chrome rose from 50 francs (£2) in 1914 to 75 francs (£3) in 1917. Nickel 
matte was 600 francs (£24) in 1914 ; in 1917 it brought 1,200 francs (£48) 
per ton in Noumea. 

The Isle of Pines, so called by Captain Cook, lies about 30 miles from 
the southern extremity of New Caledonia, and about 70 miles from Noumea, 
and is a raised coral island about 8 miles across. It was for many years used 
as a penitentiary, but in 1890 the convicts were removed. 

The I.oyalty Islands, a natural dependence of New Caledonia, form a 
small chain parallel to it, at a distance of about 30 miles from the east coast. 
They are all of coral formation, and are very fertile, while the climate is 
liealthy and pleasant. They consist of three principal islands, Uvea to the 



Nickel 


Chrome 


Nickel 
Matte 


101.707 


31,552 


— 


120,028 


46,309 


— 


82.028 


32,136 


— 


115.342 


28,244 


768 


120,0.59 


32,806 


2,993 


74.312 


51,516 


5,098 


93,190 


63,370 


5.893 


94,154 


71,471 


5,827 


48.576 


57,474 


5,529 


30.679 


74.115 


4,935 


32,018 


41.891 


6.318 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 21 

north, Lifu and Mare, with a population of about 11.000. Over 9,000 are on 
I^fu and Mare, and the remainder on Uvea. Uvea, about five miles in extent, 
is the smallest but most fertile island of the group. Lifu is the largest, 
about 33 miles m extent, and was the seat of the French administration 
of the group. It is one of the stations of the London Missionary Society, 
which introduced Christianity to the Loyalty group in 184L Mare is about 
22 miles in extent, north-west and south-east and 11 miles in width, with an 
elevation of about 300 feet. 

The Huon Islands (four), in which Surprise Island is included, lying to 
the north-west of New Caledonia, also belong to France. They are oval-shaped 
coral islets perched on circular coral reefs enclosing lagoons of 10 to 13 miles 
across, and contain guano deposits, those on Surprise and Fabre Islands 
being the most valuable. They are leased by a company whose'headquarters 
are in Auckland. Surprise Island, which is the only one worked at present, 
was so named because of the astonishment of the fi.rst navigator who happened 
upon it. For it is only about 15 feet above the sea-level at it highest, while, 
were it not for the reefs which protect it from the Pacific roll, its tiny territory 
of three-quarters of a mile in length by one third across would be liable to 
engulfnient every time a more than usually active wave assailed it. F^rom 
Noumea it is distant about 300 miles, while from the extreme northern point 
of the west coast of New Caledonia it lies about 60 or 70 miles distant. \'essels 
going for guano may now, under an arrangement with the Noumean 
authorities, proceed direct to the islands, but are not allowed to land anything 
on the islands under extreme penalties. The population of the island consists 
of five Europeans and between 60 and 70 native labourers. The guano 
deposit at Surprise Island is a very ancient one, and has to be mined, after 
which it is put through the crushing machine, and automatically separated 
from the coral with which it is mixed. Then the phosphate, being now about 
45 to 50 per cent, pure, is shovelled into little cement bags, and loaded into 
the ship at the rate of about 250 or 300 tons a day. The i.sland abounds with 
mutton birds — one dare not walk about it at night without a lantern, so 
numerous are the holes made by these birds — while turtles are also in great 
numbers. About a dozen miles distant from Surprise Island is the little 
island of Fabre, and a few miles further on again lies Le Leizour. Both is- 
lands possess guano deposits, but of much more recent date than those of 
Surprise Island. Water is stored in underground tanks, as there are no springs 
on the islands, the water supply being dependable on the rain. 

The Chesterfield group, comprising about a dozen coral islets, al-so con- 
taining considerable deposits of guano, and situated 300 miles to the west of 
Surprise Island and its consorts, is leased by the same company from the 
F'rench Government. 

Walpole Island, situated about 150 miles east by south from Noumea, 
is approximately 22^ deg. south latitude, is a flat limestone rock which is 
some 250 feet high. It is a little over tw-o miles long, trending south-west 
and north-east. It contains huge deposits of guano and is leased by the 
Austral Guano Company, whose headquarters are in Auckland. There are 
several white men and about 50 natives working the deposits. The vege- 



•J2 STKWAKT S IIAN'I) I'.noK 

tation consists <>i short stubbly trees, inixeil with a dense undergrowth. 
It is the home of millions of sea birds. The auclioraye and moorings are on 
the south-east end of the island. 

^lato Island, .some 15 miles off the southern coast of New Caledonia, 
contains, it is said, masses of lithographic stone ()f excellent quality. 

PRINCIPAL BUSINESS CONCERNS. 

],. Uallande and I'ils (largest), Xve ('.. de Bechade. .\. Harrau ,S: Go.' 
-Madame Vve N. Hagen, I), (rubbj'.y, T. Maning, Societe Havraisc Cale- 
donniene, M. Berthelm, L. Johnston and P. Mourot, J. Dcffcrricre.. 

Chemists: — Iv \'entnl)on. Sommier, I'ruitet. 

Cotton (Winning : — R. (Tuenant, Lietart. 

Foundries : — Ciccr , Massou))re, ^lagnin. 

Commercial .Agents : — H. Brock, K. Thomas, P. IWmzon, H. Laubreaux, 
T, H. Johnston (Lloyds Agent). 

Alining P^nterprises : — Societe Le Nickel, Noumea (smelting works at 
Tliio), Les Hauts P'ourneaux (smelting works at Noumea), Societe Til)agbi 
(Chrome), Pagoumine, Societe Le Chrome, Noumea. 

.Shipping Compames : — Messageries Maritimes and T'nion Commercial 
Co. The latter has foiK steamers running, viz.. the " Saint Louis "' and 
" Saint Antoine "' from Noumea to .Sydney (monthly) ; " l",mu " runs to the 
west coa.st of New Caledonia fortnightly, and to Loyalty Lslands monthly, 
and the " Saint Pierre,"' which runs on the east coast, twice a month. The 
mail steamer " Pacificjue " maintains regular communication between Sydney 
and Noumea. 

Meat factories : — At Ouaco, owned by Societe d'Ouaco of Paris ; at 
Mueo, owned by the New Caledonian ^leat Packing Co., of .\ustralia ; at 
Bourail, owned l^y Pacific Packing Co., of Australia. 

Newspapers : — La France Ausfrale and Lc Bullet iv Jii Crmmevci (both 
pul;lished in Noumea). 

I/awyers : — ^L Bourdinat, M. Ijruii, ^I. vie \'erteuil, M. Ciuirand, ^I. 
Jeanson. 

Bank : — Banciue de VTndo-Chine (Nimmea). 

GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND CONSULS. 

Governor : — ~Si. Repi(|uet. 
Secretary-General : — M. Joulia 
Procureur-General : — 'SI. Cougoul. 
Acting British Consul : — T. 'ohnston. 
Belgian Consul : — -NI. P'velie. 
Norwegian Consxil : — M. Defferiere. 

THE TARIFF. 

.\n octroi duty of 5 per cent, ad valorem is levied on all merchandise 
entering the colony. The Customs tariff is based on that in fares in P'rance, 
but certain modifi(-ations are iutrcduced under a .'special local tariff. 

TABLE OF PILOTAGE FEES. 



















Miniuunii 




Toiiiir 


gl- 


Tariff 




1- Keg. 
aucs 


T(.u 




Snliiect 

tofiiriff 

Ton 


Ud to 


100 re.L 


istered tons 


exempt 






350 


101 ,, 


:50() 








0.40 


nearl' 


• 4d. . . 





301 .. 


SOC 








o.:ir> 




3.\d, .. 


.350 


SOI ,, 


l.aOO 


, 






0,.'5O 




:M. . . 


!t50 


K.iOl ,, 


2.500 


,. 






0.2.-, 




iMd. . . 


l.SOO 


2,r)01 „ 


4.000 








0.1':*, 




iM. . . 


2.750 


4,001 registered t( 


uis u])wards 






O.-Jl 






4,400 



OF TIIK VACiriC ISl.AXDS -•> 

The exeniplion does not apply to foreign vessels, which are classed as 
(up to :300 tons at -U) cents), but the fee must not be less than V^. The niini- 
niuni tonnage is provided in each category so that the vessel of superior 
tonnage sh.all not pav a rate inferior to those in '^he next lower grade. 

SHIPPING DUES. 

Port and Lightliouse Dues : — All vessels enteruig any port in Xew Cale- 
donia pay 0.40 francs (4d.) per ton register. 

Sanitary dues are O.lo francs (IJd.) per ton. 

Navigation or Coastal Dues : — Any foreign vessels proceeding to any 
port on the coast of New Caledonia pay 1.50 francs (Is. 2^-d.) per ton register. 

PRINCIPAL PORTS. CENTRES AND HARBOURS. 

Noumea : — (iood port, large wharf accommodation, de]>tli -S feet, 
fresh water supplied at two francs per ton. 

Thio (Ivast Coast) : — Open road.stead, vessels load out in the stream, 
ilost important nickel mining centre of the island ; smelting works ; pilot 
station. 

Poro (Ivast Coast) : — Good harbour ; nickel mining ; vessel loaded by 
lighters. 

Pam (North luid) : — (iood Port ; copper mimng. 

Paagouniene (West Coast) : — Open roadstead ; clir(-me mining on a very 
large scale. 

Teoudie (West Coast) : — Open roadstead ; nickel mining ; cable stalimi. 

Ouaco : — Ciood port on west coast ; meat preser\ ing works ; large cattle 
stations. 

Kone (West Coast) : — Nickel mining ; coffee plantation ; cattle rai.^ing. 

Pouemliout (West Coast) : — Meat preserving facton,-. 

ISourail (^^'c.st Crast) : — This is the largest town after Noumea. It is 
the largest agricultural centre in the colony. A meat fa'-tory has been 
established there. 

POPULATION. 

Population of New Caledonia: — Whites, l'.t.:Jl!»: Asiatic Immigrants, 
3.1' 14, Natives, 2S.07.5, Total, 50.()0:?. 

The population of Noumea is as follows: — Free Whites, ."),207. Penal 
l-;ienients, 1,24."), Troops, .S9H, Coloured and Natives, 1,9'JiJ. Total 8.<M>I. 



24 STKWAKT S II\N1» 1J(>(. 



GILBERT AND ELLICE ISLANDS COLONY. 

(BRITISH.) 

THIv Gilbert and I'Ulice Islands Colony comprises Ocean Island, uhic-h 
is now the headquarters of the administration as well as the head- 
quarters of the Pacific Phosphate Company, the islands of the 
Gilbert or Kingsmill group, the islands of the EHice group, the islands of the 
Union or Tokelau group, together with Fanning and \\'aslungton Islands. 
The above groups, which were formed into a British Protectorate in 1893, 
Avere incorporated into the Empire, and became a Colony by His Majesty's 
Orders in Council of 1915-1(5. The Colony is at present administered by a 
Resident Commissioner who is responsible to the High Commissioner for the 
Western Pacific. The High Commissioner — who is also Governor of the 
Crown Colony of Fiji — resides at Suva. 

The Gilbert Group is cut by the equator and the 175th meridan E., 
and embraces the islands of Butaritari, Little Makin, Marakei, Abaian, 
Tarawa, JIaiana, Abemama, Ananuka, Kuria, Nonouti, Tabiteuea, Beru, 
Nukinau (Byron Island), Onotoa, Tamana and Arorae, with a number of 
small islands or islets depending on them. Tarawa, the port of entry after 
Ocean Island, has a good anchorage inside the lagoon. Burns, Philp & Co., 
Ltd., have their headquarters there. A large wholesale and retail store, three 
large copra warehouses, European quarters, &c., have been erected, and the 
central hospital is also situated at Tarawa. Butaritari, which has fallen 
to second place of importance in the group, being no longer a port of entry, 
has for over 30 years been the headquarters of On Chong & Co. The group 
is one of the most remarkable of all the Pacific archipelagoes. The islands are 
so small — their total area being not more than 1 70 square miles — and the hard 
coral rock so covered with about eight feet of hard sand and a scant supply of 
soil so that scarcely anything can be grown but a little coarse taro, while the 
cocoanut and the pandanus are almost the only spontaneous plant products ; 
and yet some of these barren atolls are more densel}- populated than the most 
fertile islands in all Oceania. The natives, who number about 30,000, were 
less than 50 years ago notorious for their warlike spirit. To-day the race is 
nominally Christian, and on most of the islands all signs of heathenism have 
been abolished. In nearly every village there is a church and day school, 
a native pastor's house, and regular religious and educational work is carried 
on. Many of the people can read, write and cypher, and have some know- 
ledge of Scripture and geography. They are industrious fishermen and 
skilful canoe builders, and were formerly much sought after by recruiters for 
Queensland, Fiji and Hawaii plantations. Captain Byron discovered the 
easternmost island of the group in 1765. The northern islands were next 
discovered by Captains Gilbert and Marshall in 1788, and by the year 1824 
the whole group had become known. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 2o 

The ICllice Islands, which, like those of the Gilbert group, are purely 
coralline and of only a few feet elevation, were also annexed in 1892. They 
lie between 5| and 104 degrees latitude south, and comprise Nanoniea, Nana- 
maga, Nuitao, Nukuleilei, Vaitupu, Nui, Nukufetau, Funafuti and Nurakita 
(Sophia). Mendana in 1567 is supposed to have first sighted the EHice group, 
but authentic information only commences wdth Maurelle's discovery of 
Nanomea, the northernmost island, in 1781. Captain Peyter discovered 
Funafuti in the "Rebecca" in 1819. In later years Duperre, Chiamts- 
chenko and Wilkes completed the exploration. The islands have a popu- 
lation of a little over .■},000, a small number compared with the swarming 
population of the adjacent Gilbert Islands. The natives, a quiet peaceable 
folk, are all Christianised, the London Missionary Society having teachers 
stationed throughout the group. 

The principal crops gathered by the natives are the pandanus fruit and 
the cccoanut, which are the staff of life of the islanders. It is net necessary 
in this place to give account of the properties of the wonderful cocoanilt. 
Of the pandanus there are over 150 indigenous varieties recognised by the 
natives, each bearing a distinct name. The greater number are edible. 
Though in a lesser degree than the cocoanut, the uses of this tree are com- 
pendious. The fruit is an ingredient of many staple foods ; the timber 
provides beams and posts for buildings ; the root supplies a red dye for cos- 
tumes ; and the leaf is used for thatching, mats, and hats, being of greater 
durability than the cocoanut leaf. Beyond the two trees above mentioned 
there is little vegetation of an edible nature in the two groups, save the 
" Babai " (a species of taro), which is grown in yearly increasing quantities, 
and the breadfruit, which is less plentiful. But on Ocean Island are to be 
found the mummy-apple and the wild almond in great profusion ; the mango, 
the pineapple, and the guava ; the lime, the jack-fruit, the banana, and the 
sweet potato. The afluence of the natives of Ocean Island has, however, 
rendered them careless of the valuable crops with which they alone are 
privileged. In the Resident Commissioner's report for 1912-14 mention was 
made of the proposed experimental fertilisation of cocoanuts. The reports 
of experts received since lays stress on the need for growing leguminous 
plants, and manuring with fish manure. This advice is being followed. 

The waters of these islands teem with sharks, and, until the year 1900, 
the export of fins was second only to that of copra. This industry has fallen 
into comparative desuetude, but might be developed, together with the 
collection of beche-de-mer. A small variety of beche-de-mer is luiown to be 
plentiful in the lagoon islands of both groups. The natives, however, unless 
special considerations are followed, will not be at pains to search the seas 
and laboriously prepare the beche-de-mer while copra will procure them 
all the spare money they need. 

The natives, in particular the Gilbert Islanders, may be said to possess 
a talent for being fairly governed, says the Resident Commissioner in a recent 
report. Though endowed with much of that carelessness and forgetfulness 
which imperils the life of a primitive nation when brought into contact with 
civilisation, their old spirit of obedience to a ruling caste, so sternly enforced 
in former days by the kingly families, was fertile soil on which to sow the seed. 



2fi STI'.W AUT'S IIANli lidOK 

of iicwor order. Lack of thoujilit is couuterpcised Ijy revereiue of authority. 
They have adopted, and adapted themselves to, British rule with extraordinary 
faeility. In private life the influence of the once supreme families is far from 
extinct, for, though tractable, the islanders are tenaciou-sly conservative. 
But the moral sway of the old chiefs has a personal and inchoate, rather than 
a universal, value ; it is homely rather than political, and rarely comes into 
conflict with the aims of C.overnment. On the coming of civilisation in 
the perscms of the first beachcombers and traders, the native fell victim to 
the ancient peril that be.sets a folk at once eager and uneducated for western 
luxuries. Intemperance threatened the race. But the (roverninent, thanks 
to the judicious and willing aid of the native island cf^icials, more far-seeing 
than their fellows, has by simple yet effective temperance regulations been 
able tc check the flood of excess which was leading to extinction. No western 
intoxicant now reaches the native. The fermenting of cocoanut toddy is 
forbidden under penalty, but the nutritive value of fresh toddy for young 
children prevents a complete ban upon its collection. What drunkenness 
there is — and it is little — is caused by the secret consumption of fermented 
toddy ; what violent crimes there are — and there are few — are as a rule the 
outcome of clandestine drunkenness. The average native is sober, kindly, 
and peaceloving. The marriage laws are well devised and well enforced. 
Couples present themselves to the Bowi (Native Government in Council), 
who consider their qualifications and appoint a day. Marriage can only take 
place with their consent, the ceremony being performed by the Bowi and 
afterwards in a IMission Church if the couple so wills. It is impossible to pre- 
suppose a high order of continence in a folk of this nature and at this stage of 
development, bvit the stringencies of native-made law and the precepts of 
Christianity are strong weapons to enforce chastity, and marriage is well 
safeguarded. Although the reasonable influences of civilisation upon the 
native are on the whole excellent, they have the effect of slowly discouraging 
old native customs. In many cases this is undeniably good, since the old 
customs were often the enemies of decency, sanitation, and all that contri- 
buted to public well-being. But the effect has been bad upon native dress, 
and through that channel upon native stamina. The old method of lubri- 
cating the body (bare save for a " riri " or kilt of finely worked leaves) with 
cocoanut oil was the best possible protection from chill in this region of sudden 
rains. The cotton .smock for women and the cotton trousers and shirt for 
men, which in the mind of the people seem now so indespensable to professed 
Christianity, while reducing the endurance of the skin, render it the more 
susceptible to the chills which wet clothing engenders. The result is colds, 
pneumonia, influenza; eventually tuberculosis.. The Government is doing 
what it can by enforcing the use in all gaols of oil and the " riri,"" and by 
encouraging native costume at all public dances. 

There are over 200 miles of good road in the group, varying in breadth 
from 12 to 30 feet. All roads are made with " riburibu," a reef mud, which 
dries hard and smooth, forming a durable surface. Motor bicycles are kept 
by traders and missions, who find the conditions excellent. In the villages 
the natives are responsible for the cleanliness of their own road frontage. 
So keen is the popular desire for smartness that in one island it is an oft'ence 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 2i 

punishable under native law, by a fine of Is. to 5s., to pass by any leaf or 
refuse which may have fallen upon the fairway. Roads run without excep- 
tion the whole length of the Islands, on the lagoon side or, if there is no lagoon, 
above the western beaches. They existed in many cases before the hoisting 
of the flag, being the result of mission effort. Their cost of upkeep is nil. 
as they are made and mended by the natives during periods of communal 
work. 

Tubercular disease is common and takes a heavy toll of the native 
population. Elephantiasis has been introduced into the EHice Islands from 
the Samoan group, and is now common in all those islands. In the Gilberts 
but few cases are known, and it may be found possible to check, if not to stem, 
the northward course of this disease. Syphilis is prevalent throughout all 
the islands but is gradually being checked, the establishment of the hospital 
at Tarawa having been attended with good results. Some .35 known cases 
of leprosy exist in the Gilbert Islands. A central leper station has now been 
started on the Island of Tarawa. In these smaU islands sanitation is a 
comparatively easy matter, and the natives are cleanly in habits. The 
climate is remarkablj' good considering the limits of latitude within which 
the Protectorate lies. Though many of the islands are within a few miles 
-of the equator; cool breezes prevail and the heat is seldom intense. ^Malaria 
is unknown, but the stegomyia moscjuito is common throughout the islands 
and, with the single exception of Ocean Island, those pests form the most 
serious drawback to the comfort of Ufe. The common house fly is at times very 
trying, and probably takes a large share in the dissemination of dysentery, 
which disease is almost endemic in some islands. 

The rainfall shows considerable variation, the drought belt extending 
from about 1 degree north to 3 degrees south latitude, the greatest danger 
being just south of the equator. In the Island of Butaritari, which is '.i 
degrees north, the annual rainfall seldom falls below 150 inches and droughts 
are unknown, while around the Central and Southern Gilberts the yearly 
rainfall has been known to drop to 15 inches, caiising a grave set-back to the 
copra industr}^ It is held by the natives that periods of drought occur 
about every seven years. A severe drought occurred from 1915 to 1!»18, 
which broke only in May of the latter year. It was necessary for the Govern- 
ment to provide food for the natives of Arorae and Onotoa during 1917-18 
owing to the drought. The rainfall in the southern ElHce and Union groups 
is plentiful, but the most southerly of these islands are on the verge of the 
hurricane zone. The annual rainfall cm Ocean Island, which is here given for 
a period of eight years, may be taken as a fair indication of all these islands 
close to the equator, subject to periods of drought : — 1909, 19in. ; 1910, 28 in. ; 
1911, 141 in. ; 1912, 13(5 m. ; 191:?. 77 in. ; 1914, 154 in. ; 1915, 80 in. ; 191G, 
14 in. In January, 1914, a hurricane accompanied by a small tidal wave 
swept over the Union group, cau.sing much damage to cultivation and the 
loss of a few lives. The temperature is subject to but few variations, ranging 
between 78 degrees and 80 degrees as a general rule, and on rare occa.sions 
falling as low as 68 degrees or rising as high as 95 degrees. Sunstroke is 
ainknown. The climate is said to be beneficial tf Europeans suffering from 
asthma c r pulmonary trouble. 



2S STKWAKT'S HANI) BOOK 

Mission work is carrictl on l)y tlif London Missionary Society and the 
Catholic Mission of the Sacred Heart. Ihe hea(U)uarters of the Lf)n(lon 
Missionary Society are at the Island of I'.cru, in the Southern (Gilberts, and 
of the Catholic Missicm of the .Sacred Heart at the Island of Butaritari, in 
the Northern (iilberts. Mission education has done much for the moral 
and material welfare of the native. In raising the standard of intelligence 
and in disseminating the first principles of Western order, Western common- 
sense, it prepared his mind for the system of British (Tovernment. The march 
under British rule has, however, discovered a wider field of opportunity 
than heretofore existed for natives who could claim a particular education. 
But educational methods have not progressed with equal foot. The teaching 
though morally unquestionable, is deficient in utility. It is too general to 
carry weight. Although English and arithmetic are taught at the Mission 
schools, a native who speaks the one or shows mastery of the other is a rarity. 
The Ciovernment has inaugurated on Ocean Island and Tarawa a series of 
English night classes for native police, which, it is hoped, is the first step 
towards a system of education more in touch with the needs of these people. 
The establishment of a central Government school is now under consideration 

Until the outbreak of the war the Jaluit (resellschaft, established at 
Butaritari, in the Nortliern Gilberts, held a high place among the trading 
concerns. Tliough the part played by this firm on the importation of German 
and Austrian goods was preponderant it was not exclusive. The Jaluit 
Cresellschaft was closed down at the outbreak of war and the sale by other 
traders of goods manufactured in enemy countries has ceased. 

The exports of the Colony include the high grade phosphate of lime 
exported from Ocean Island, and copra from the remaining islands. Sharks' 
fins is also exported in small quantities. For the 3'ear ended June 30, Htl6, 
4,795 tons were exported as against 5,000 tons in the preceding twelve months, 
though the markets suffered a natural depression on account of the war. 
It is hoped that improved methods of cocoanut culture will increase the output. 
The export of phosphate from Ocean Island was also affected by the war. 
The total tonnage for 1914-15 was 153,000 tons ; for the period 1915-1(! the 
output was reduced to 128,000 tons. , The fall was caused in part by the 
difficulty of obtaining ships, but chiefly by the closure of the large German 
market. Within the delimited areas acquired by the Company on Ocean 
Island there is sufficient phosphate for many years to come, and, provided 
a market, there should be no retrogression in this important industry. 

The total revenue and expenditure for the last seven years is given below- 

£ s. d. 

1910-11 Revenue 

,, Fvxpenditure . . 

1911-12 Revenue 

,, Expenditure . . 

1912-13 Revenue . . . . . . 

,, Expenditure . . 

1913-14 Revenue 

,, Expenditure . . 
1914-15 Revenue 



. . 13,963 


5 


6 


. . 12.291 


5 


8 


. . 21,331 


5 





. 17,965 


9 





. 30,272 


16 


8 


17,952 


4 


10 


. 42,791 


6 


8 


. 21.615 


1 


(i 


. 16.120 


11 


'2 



£ 


s. d. 


23.522 


2 -) 


23.117 


4 11 


32,867 


If) 1 


24.142 


7 1 


2"),! (Hi 


1 10 



OF THE rACIMC ISLANDS 2t) 



1914-15 Ivxpciulilure 

1915-16 Revenue 

,, Expenditure . . 

1916-17 Revenue 

,, Expenditure . . 

The taxes levied in the Protectorate consist of : — (a) Import duties on 
beer, perfumery, wine, spirits, kerosene, tobacco, jewellery and clothing ; 
(b) A royalty, assessed on a tonnage basis, on the phosphate exported from 
Ocean Island ; (c) A capitation tax of £5 per annum on non-natives resident 
in the Protectorate ; {d) Licences for dogs, firearms, trading stations, trading 
vessels, trading boats, motor cars and cycles ; (e) A native land tax, collected 
in copra from each island according to ;ts wealth and population. In times 
of hardship caused by drought in the Central Gilberts or by hurricane in the 
Ellice and Union Islands, the land tax is reduced or remitted. 

Resident Commissioner, E. C. Eliot ; District Officers, S. F. Anderson, 
A. Grimble, G. H. K. Burge (on active .service) ; District Officer, S. Knox ; 
Senior Medical Officer, J. MacXaughton, M.D. ; Treasurer, W. T. Bentley ; 
Accountant, H. A. W. Moulder ; District Officer, Ellice Group, C. H. Gibson ; 
District Officer, Fanning Island, S. C. Methven ; Officer in Charge Wireless 
Station, C. R. Keyte ; Assistant, G. L- Tilford (on active service). 

OCEAN ISLAND. 

Ocean Island which, as before stated, is the headquarters of the adminis- 
trator of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, lies in latitude degrees 
52 minutes S., and longitude 169 degrees 35 minutes E-, is of coral formation, 
almost oval in shape, its circumference being six miles, and is distant some 
200 miles from the nearest of the Gilbert group. The British flag was hoisted 
in September, 1901. The Pacific Phosphate Company, which is an English 
company, work the phosphate deposits with which the island abounds. 
The climate is healthy and, though naturally hot, is usually tempered by 
refreshing sea breezes. The company employs a staff of about 60 white men, 
about 300 Japanese, and a large number of native labourers recruited from 
the other i.slands. The industry is surrounded by all the comforts and con- 
veniences of modern life, with splendid sewerage and fresh and salt water 
systems, electric light, refrigerators and ice-making plants, telephones, &;c. 
The domestic and living conditions are probably the most comfortable in the 
Pacific. There is an aboriginal population of some 400, a quiet folk who have 
benefited in a pecuniary way by the advent of the Phosphate Company. 

In March, 1916, the Ocean Island wireless station was completed and 
opened for traffic. The rates to, and through, Australia are high, as traffic 
is charged for on the international scale, being outside the Commonwealth 
wireless extension sj'stem. I'or this reason the station is little u.sed except 
for service messages. Urgent telegrams are now transmitted by the Pacific 
Phosphate Company to the neighbouring I.sland of Nauru to be trans- 
mitted by the Company's representative on that island at the cheap 
rates which obtain within the Commonwealth extension system. Telegrams 
of less urgency are sent l)y steamer to Nauru, as (>])portunity offers, to be 



;!0 STEWART S HAXn r.OOK 

forwarded from that station. It is hoped that this matter may eventually 
be adjusted in order tliat this colony may recover some part of the working 
expenses of the station. The erection and maintenance of this station forms 
a charge against the revenue of the colony. 

Mr. Thos. J. McMahon, F.R.C.S., writes thus of Ocean and Nauru 
Ii-'lrnd-. in The Sxdmy .l/rcY, of I-.uir'/y i'i>. 1!}19:— 

'■ Both Ocean ;ind Nauru Islands are so small in extent, so isolated, as 
to be mere specks of earth upon the wide l)osom of the great Pacific ; but they 
are Nature's store-houses of a very high-grade pliosphate of lime, a magic 
plant food and general fertiliser. By the magnitude of its operations this 
enterprise has given a significant value and importance to the Central Pacific, 
a little heeded, little known part of the globe ; but likely now, by tlie fortunes 
of war, to come into remarkable prominence. . . . Two thousand people, 
white, yellow and brown, were engaged in these industries before the war ; 
l)ut that number, b}- the exigencies of the war, has been reduced to a little 
o\ er one thousand. It is more than likely, however, that the pre-war demand 
for phosphate of lime will soon revive, and so necessitate the employment 
of many extra hands. There are hundreds of Japanese employed at Ocean 
Island, and hundreds of Chinese at Nauru, supplemented by hundreds of 
natives from the Gilbert and Kilice group, the ^Vlarshalls. and the Carolines, 
and small numbers of Ocean and Nauru islanders. Owing to the usual 
British indifference to proclaiming their enterprise, these Central Pacific 
industries have received but scant recognition and appreciation. It is a fact, 
nevertheless, that, if there were no other enterprise in the Pacific, this one 
alone would bring to the great seawaj' an importance absolutely its own and 
remarkable in its direct need to mankind. To the agricultural possibilities 
of Australia it has brought a new power, which has been tested to the complete 
satisfaction of the Commonwealth farmer. The bounteousness and wonders 
of Nature are shown in the composition of this magic product. For years — 
it is impossible to compute ho^v many — countless numbers and generations 
of sea birds were attracted to these two tiny islands, where there was neither 
man nrr animal to disturb them, and where there was that sviperabundance 
of fish usual to deep sea coral islands. The birds subsisted to repletion on 
the fish, and created vast deposits of guano, rich in phosphate, which, mingling 
with the coral rock, rich in lime, and by the powerful processes of Nature, 
assisted by periodic and alternate droughts, copious rains, and occasional 
and complete submergings by the sea waters, were assimilated in one potent 
chemical factor — phosphate of lime, a buff-coloured rock that contains the 
all-essential virtues of a prime fertiliser. To-da}' there is scarcely a bird to 
be seen on these islands ; but there remains a rich treasure handed over to 
the use and ingenuity of men. How many people will credit that in the silence, 
the vastness, of the little known Central Pacific two modern towns have been 
up-reared, two settlements of industrial activity, having every convenience 
and comfort of civilised life, and throbbing with the energies of a great modern 
enterprise. Day and night there are the crash and buzz of heavj' machinery, 
the clangour and din of many workshops, the beats of steam hammers, the 
roar of furnaces from smithies and foundries, the shrill Sirens of locomotives, 
the deafening rumble and rattle of phosphate-laden trucks rushing across 
over-head bridges or along busy railroads, bringing from the fields the precious 
phosphate rock to crushers, dryers, and enormous storing bins, there to be 
ready for prompt distribution to the very ends of the earth. Between 100,000 
and 200,000 tons of this valuable product are annually brought into the Com- 
monwealth. Striking features of the magnitude of the industries at both 
i.slands are the immense spider-like cantilever jetties fronting the settlements 
iDestriding the reef, and breasting to the full the open sea, sometimes turbulent, 
and the sudden changes of winds making the loading of steamers under such 
conditions a work of great skill and some difficulty. This loading is also 
interesting, and, when a steamer is standing by, goes on night and day without 



(JK THE PACTl'IC ISI.ANM)S ' 3E 

a break. An endless circle of surf-l)oats plies between the jetties and the 
steamer, each carrying large cane baskets capable of holding, per load, nearlv 
three tons of phosphate. The brats pass under the end of the jetties, aud 
from great shoots the phosphate is droppetl into the baskets in a most ex- 
peditious manner. Thus laden, they are tugged otf to the steamer by power- 
ful launches, the baskets hauled up, and capsized into the holds of chartered 
7,000 ton steamers. Natives, ghost-like in appearance from the fine dust 
that pervades the atmosphere, load the boats and trim the phosphate in the 
ships. At night, with the electric searchliglits thrown over the scene, the 
effect is phantom-like in the extreme. A very distinctive feature of these 
industries is the deep-sea moorings necessary on account of the absence of 
natural harbours, and pernntting of loading in all but the roughest weather. 
The moorings are remarkal)le, as they are the deepest, most extensive, and 
most costly in the world. The buoys, anchors, chains and cables are of 
gigantic size, designed and constructed for this unique system. It will be a 
.surprise to the reader to learn that on these two tiny i.slands there is a network 
of well-laid railroads, abovit a hundred miles in all. the lines traversing the 
intensely picturesque phosphate lields, weirdly conspicuous in the form of 
spectre-like and gaunt coral rock pinnacles that obstrude in thousands in the 
worked-out beds. Some of these pinnacles, church-steeple style, tower to 
heights of ."iO to '>0 feet. Thej' are weathered to an extraordinary degree of 
sharpness, having tips so fine as to appear needle-pointed" The phosphate 
is of two classes — rock and alluvial. The former is blasted out, while the 
latter can be removed with pick and shovel. ICvery detail is carried out iii 
a .systematic way. No sooner is the phosphate rock loosened than it is re- 
moved from the scene of mining and tossed into railway trucks running into 
the very heart of the fields, serpentine fashion, through and around the 
pinnacles of the worked-out areas, ('angs of men attend to trains of trucks 
as the stuff is loaded, and these are pushed on to distributing hoppers, great 
wooded towers which stand out prominently, dominating the fields, l-'rom 
the hoppers it is by a very expeditious patent of trap-doors dropped on to 
trucks, which come up and are pushed away and filled with remarkable 
celerity ; these trucks are then sent from the hills down steep inclines on the 
plan of loaded trucks descending as empty trucks ascend. Once on the main 
lines, at the junction of the declines, small but important-looking, puffing 
railway engines make fast to long trains of the loaded trucks, which have been 
shunted into place by a numl>er of natives ; and these trains are then backed 
into the great buildings where the drj-ers and crushers are at work. The 
phosphate rock is dumped into wet hoppers, and passed from them to the 
great crushers, where it is broken up into a size suitable for drying and shipping. 
T'rom the crushers the phosphate passes into the dryers, revolving cylinders 
in which the ph.osphatc comes into contact with hot air. All moisture is 
thus evaporated. After leaving the dryers, the jihosphatc is taken l)y ele- 
vators and conveyers and distril)uted to the storage bins, capable on both 
islands of holding maiiv thousands of tons. Another expeditious and usefut 
patent is attached to these bins in long rows of trap-doors or opening \alves, 
which fill up trucks by the mere pulling of a lever, the trucks are then shunted 
on to the jetties, and the phosphate passed through the jetty shoots into the 
surf boats below, as told before, and thence on to the steamers. To prevent 
stoppage of work in wet weather great areas roofed with galvanised iron are 
set apart, and here the workers can lilast, dig and truck without discomfort of 
aiiv khid. The industries stand unparalleled in the tropic world for the care, 
atfention to, and comfort <if the employees. A complete and successful 
domestic management ensures modern conveniences and comfort to the 
workers, irres])ective of status or colour, and free of all charges. The health 
and entertainment of all are assured by well-planned systems of sewerage, 
fresh and salt water in unstinted abundance, electric light, fresh focd supplies, 
refrigerators, and telephones connecting every office, workshop, and house. 
I'.very nook and corner of the settlements is lit up at night, giving the im- 
pression, when viewed from a few miles out at sea, of an approach to great 



32 STKWAKT'S IIAXJ) BOOK 

towns. There is a free daily distriljulion of ice, with weekly distrihution 
of viseful household comforts, sueh as soap, cordials, &C. — privileges perhaps 
unec|iialled in any industry in the liritish Ivmpire. The employees — white, 
yellow, and brown — have free houses, free messes, free public laundries. 
Married men are allowed free houses and e.xtra allowance for living. There 
are excellent free recreation and reading rooms, sports and tennis grounds, 
the company supplying reading matter and the implements for recreation 
and sport in billiard tables, tennis and cricket balls. There are free hospitals 
replete with operating rooms, dispensaries, furniture, and conducted so well 
as to be without compare in the Pacific Islands. There are both European 
and Japanese doctors, matrons, and native orderlies ; and the medical atten- 
tion and medicines are free. Tliere is a fish market, and the natives of the 
islands are encouraged to bring in big supplies of fish daily, to be passed on 
to the various messes, the married people generally employing their own 
individual fisherman, who for 10s. a month provides any cjuantity. In no 
Pacific industries are higher and fairer wages or more liberal and perfect living 
conditions offered. Annual bonuses are the rewards of steady work, and every 
employee gets a per cent, interest on wages left on deposit with the company, 
an incentive to thrift which makes the employees, as a body, one of the most 
independent in the world. ]Many have saved hundreds of pounds. Asiatic 
and native labourers are well housed, fed, paid, guarded in health, and worked 
under comfortable conditions and wise methods as to time and weather. 
On every hand there is evidence of the determination of the directorate of this 
enterprise to encourage the best efforts of its employees. As a result, it may 
claim to have a conspicuously long list of long-service employees. A notable 
fact IS that two out of every three leaving on expiration of terms of engage- 
ment apply for re-employment. The Japanese have their clubs, and give at 
intervals most interesting dramatic performances. They also have a Japanese 
inspector, who looks after their interests, comfort, and general welfare. They 
have their own hospital, fully equipped, and their own doctor and interpreter. 
The Chinese of Nauru have their tea-houses and places of amusement, and, 
though they come under a limited time of engagement since the outbreak of 
war, every one has signed on for a further period of employment. The native 
workers have commodious dormitories and messes, if single. The married 
men live in electric-lit, tiled-rocf, well-finished, cocl homes, and they have 
their dancing grounds for any festivity' or rendezvous. On both islands are 
elegant and complete stages for open-air entertainments, where high-class 
concerts and theatrical performances frequently take place to the benefit 
of patriotic funds, which have received some thousands of pounds. Although 
within touch of the equator, these islands are remarkably cool and salubrioiis 
in climate. The health of the communities has never suffered any epidemics, 
and is maintained by a rigidly strict supervision of water wells, drains, and 
all sanitation. (Tardens and pretty hedges beautify the homes, the walks, 
and the streets of the settlements. There is an air of comfort and cleanliness 
that is delightful, making the settlements seem ideal. The people are re- 
nowned for their hospitality to strangers, and life is made pleasant by many 
social funccions." 

TRADING CONCERNS. 

Ocean Island : — Pacific Phosphate Company (W. Cleeve Edwards, 
manager). The only store on the Island is owned by the company. 

Makin : — Kuni Kee. 

Butaritari : — On Chong & Co. (Manager, Wing Nam), Burns, Philp & Co. 
(R. Kdwards), Nanyo Boyeki Kaisha (South Sea Trading Co.) (M. Onodera, 
Manager). 

Marakei : — Mrs. Grant (British), Mrs. Revmond, Burns, Philp & Co. 
(A. McArthur). 

Abaian : — A. McD. Hitchfield (British), A. Thomas (Sweden), On Chong 
and Co., Burns, Philp & Co. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 33 

Tarawa : — Messrs. Burns, Philp & Co.'s Headquarters (F. H. Tarrant), 
Antoine Kaverro (Austria), On Chong & Co. (two stations), E. Meyer, Burns, 
Philp & Co. (C. Redfearn), G. Carter (British), Tom Redfearn (Half-caste). 

Maiaua : — B. Corrie (British), A. Milne (British), M. Sheay (Ireland). 

Abemama : — Messrs. Peter Yee, Wing & Co., Headquarters (Manager, Joe 
I-oon),' Burns, Philp .!<: Co. (J. H. Langlev). 

Kuria : — G. M. IMurdoch (British). 

Nonouti : — G. King (China), two stations. On Chong & Co. (Louis King), 
Burns, Philp & Co. (Charlie Redfearn). 

Tabiteuea : — Sarah Hicking (British), On Chong & Co. (J. Lanyon). 
Mee King (China), Kuni On (China). 

Onotoa : — G. King (China), Con Redfearn (British). 

Bern : — Bums, Philp & Co. (Tom Redfearn), Ah Kinji (China) Ah 
Kwong (China), L-M.S. (Private Store). 

Xukinau : — Burns, Philp & Co., leased from J. Smith (P. Gibbes), \V. Pav 
(China), A. Turner (Sweden). 

Tamana and Arorae : — No Traders allowed ashore by Natives. 

KI.LICR ISLANDS. 

Funafu.ti : — Samoan .Shipping and Trading Co. (Captain Allen, Manager), 
W. Webley (Resident). 

Viatupu : — H. Mitz (Half-caste). 

Nukufetau : — Burns, Philp & Co., Ltd., have leased part of the island 
from the natives and are erecting stores, copra sheds, &c. 

At all other islands of the group the natives trade with vessels direct. 

MISSIONARIES, cT^c 

The headquarters of the London Missionary Society in the Gilbert 
Islands are at Bern, the Missionaries in the group being the Revs. W. E. 
Goward, A. H. Arnold, and G. H. Eastman, and Miss Beatrice Simmonds. 
Miss Jolliffe is at Funafuti (EUice Islands). 

The headquarters of the Sacred Heart Mission are at Butaritari, and 
Bishop Leray is in charge, and there are about 30 Fathers, Brothers and Sister, 
throughout the group, mostly French German, Swiss and Belgian. Father 
Barcla}' is in charge of the ^Mission on Ocean Island. 

Tarawa Hospital : — Dr. MacNaughton in charge ; Matron Armstrong ; 
Native Medicai Practitioner, P. Sowani. 

Dr. Could is Medical Officer for the Pacific Phosphate Co. at Ocean Island. 



34 S'1'K\VART"S HANI) BOOK 



HAWAII or SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

(AMI'.RICAX.) 

LYINCt just within the northern tropic 2,100 miles from San l-"rancisco 
and some 4,000 miles from Sydney are the American-owned Hawaiian 
Islands. They were discovered by Captain Cook in 1778, and will 
always be connected with the name of the great navigator as the place of his 
murder by the natives, the scene of the tragedj' being on the west side of the 
Hawaii. It was Cook who named them the Sandwich Islands, after Lord 
Sandwich. 

There are eight inhabited islands, the largest being Hawaii, from which 
the group takes its name, with an area of 4,015 square miles. The second is 
Maui (928 square miles), and then comes Oahu (59S square miles), Kauai 
{547 miles), Molokai (261 square miles), Lanai (139 square miles), Xiihau 
(97 square miles), and Kahoolawe (69 square miles), or a total area of 6,449 
square miles. Outlying islands to the north-west which are properly con- 
sidered as in the group may have a combined area of six square miles. 

The islands were first brought under one control by King Kamehameha 
in 1795. Queen Liliukalani, who died in November, 1917, was the eighth 
and last Hawaiian to occupy the throne of Hawaii, being deposed in 1893. 
The monarchy was succeeded by the Republic of Hawaii (1893-1898). The 
islands are now the territory of the United States, annexed in 1898. Hawaii 
is a self-governing territory to a greater extent than other American terri- 
tories. The executive power is vested in a Governor who is appointed by the 
President, as is also the Territorial Secretary, but both of these officials must 
be citizens of the Territory. The other territorial officials are appointed by 
the Governor, with the approval of the Upper House of the Legislature. 
A law-making body consisting of a Senate of 15 members, and a House of 
30 members, elected by the people, meets biennially, and has power to formu- 
late any law not in conflict with the federal constitution. The Governor, 
has power of veto, but a two-thirds vote of both houses passes any measure 
over his veto. 

Hawaii is represented in Congress by one delegate, who has floor privileges 
in the House, but no vote. 

The Judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, four Circuit Courts ahd 
numerous District Courts. The Justices of the Supreme and Circuit Courts 
are appointed by the President, with the approval of the LTnited States Senate. 
These appointments are customarily made in accordance with recommenda- 
tions of the Governor or the local bar association. 

Honolulu, the capital and principal city, is situated on the island of 
Oahu, 2,020 miles from San Francisco. It has a population of about 75,000, 
exclusive of the United States militarv and naval forces, which now number 



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lUassettcr's 

(Established 99 Years) 

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Result: Absolute Satisfaction to every Island client. 



lUassetter's 

George Street, Sydney. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISF.ANOS 



35 



about 11,000 officers and men. All important trans-Pacific steamer lines 
meet at Honolulu, and most of the large houses doing business in the islands 
have headquarters in that city. 

Hilo, on the island of Hawaii, is the second citj' and a place of commercial 
importance. It is the principal port of the largest island of the group, and 
has a population of about 10,550. Wailuku, on the isand of Maui, is the 
country seat, Kahului, being the port of entry for shipping with a harbour 
protected by a breakwater. Across the island from Kahului is the beautiful 
old town of Lahaina, the ancient city of the Hawaiian Islands, a rendezvous 
for deep-sea game fishermen. I.ihue and Waimea, on the i.sland of Kauai, 
are the largest towns on the northern island. 

According to the Governor of Hawaii's report, June ."{O, litis, the esti- 
mated population of Hawaii is 256,180, exclusive of the American military 
forces, divided as follows : — 



J apanese 

Hawaiian 

Portuguese 

Chinese 

American 

British . . 

( jcrman 

R.us.sian 

Filipinos 

Part-Hawaiian 

Porto-Rican 

Spanish 

All -.thers 



Total 



106,800 
22,850 
24,250 
22,250 

30,400 



20,400 

16,100 

5,200 

2,270 

5,660 

256,180 



The Hawaiians are a stalwart race. They are generous, pleasure-loving, 
natural musicians and orators, usually well educated as compulsory education 
has been in vogue for nearly 50 years. They never were cannibals. They 
welcomed the earliest visitors gladly, and speedily embraced religion, when 
Ijrought to them by the American missionaries from New England in 1820. 
The Hawaiians were never savages. They have straight hair ; and, although 
the Caucasian race dominates, native blood is found in the highest social 
and business circles of the Islands. 

American and liiiropean pioneers in Hawaii, with trading ships and 
whalers, were followed by missionaries from New England. From these 
sources the present business and social leadership sprang. The same high 
standard of education and equipment which marked the early settlers has 
been reached by the succeeding generations. The leading American and 
Ivuropean Universities have been represented for more than a half century 
by graduates, in the professions and in business life. The native Hawaiians 
and those of part native blood are prominent in social and business life, 
and their hospitality is famous. Honolulu is a cosmopolitan city ; its harbour 
is visited frecpiently by war vessels of many nations. Increased means 
of communication and rapid growth of American-born population in recent 
years are making marked changes. In social customs and manner of living 



:>() STKWAR'I S HANI) r.OOK 

there is now little difference between HonoluU; and mainland American cities. 
A large military post always has its peculiar charm, but probably none under 
the Stars and Stripes has attained a greater development than the great forts 
and garrison posts that now protect the group. A large force of officers 
and men of all branches of the army and navy is permanently established 
in this " Malta of the Pacific." The officers with their families have added 
much to the social life and to the pleasure of many visitors to the Islands. 
Military dancer, with military bands in attendance, are a never-failing source 
of delight to both residents and visitors, and the always fascinating parades 
and drills are not less popular in Hawaii than on the mainland. The United 
States is completing a naval station at Pearl Harbour. 

Travel on all the islands is safe, comfortable and uniformly delightful. 
There are commercial railroads of high efficiency on the islands of Oahu, 
Maui and Hawaii. The island cf Oahu is belted two-thirds of its girth by a 
road with exclusively passenger trains each way daily ; a branch extends to 
the central plateau, the famous pineapple district, and the great Leilehua. 
military post, 22 miles from Honolulu. On Hawaii an up-to-date standard 
gauge road of 22 miles in length carries travellers in the most comfortable 
manner from Hilo to within nine miles of the volcano ; while another branch 
50 miles in length extends to the extreme eastern point of the island in the 
Hamakua district, and is one of the most scenic and attractive routes west of 
the Rockies. A narrow guage line on Maui furnishes good service from the 
seaport of Kahiilui to the country seat, Wailuku, and in the opposite direction 
tc Haikii. 

Kilauea, the world's greatest living volcano, is on the Island of Hawaii, 
about 225 miles south and east of Honolulu. There are several sailings a 
week by both coastal and deep-sea liners from Honolulu tc. Hilc. From 
Hilo to the Volcano House and Crater Hotel the distance is 31 miles. The 
trip is made up either by train tc Glen wood. 22 miles, and the last nine miles 
by automobile stage, or the entire distance may be covered over an excellent 
road by motor. A road seven miles in length, completed a few years ago 
goes from the hotels actually upcn the floor cf the main crater of the great* 
volcano, over which it is po.'^sible to drive to within a hundred feet cf the 
living fire-pit. The road winds through marvellously fascinating scenery, 
descending some 600 feet before finally reaching the old lava floor of the great 
crater. Between the Volcano House and Honuapo, the port for south-coast 
steamers, an ante, mail-stage service is maintained. The distance is 3H miles. 
It is possible to reach the volcano from one side cf the island and depart 
from the other side. For the past several years Kilauea has been more 
active than visual and has been visited by many thousands of tourists. At 
times it has been exceedingly spectacular in its display of natural pyrctechnics, 
though even in its periods of comparative quiet, this volcano may truly be 
considered one of the world's most av.'e-inspiring marvels. Under the allspices 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an observation station has been 
established en the brink of the fire-pit, where trained scientists are constr.ntly 
on duty studying the varied phenomena. Their reports have been of ex- 
treme value to scientists all over the world. Kilauea and the country sur- 
rounding it may be created a national park, the Xaticnial Congress having 



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OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



37 



passed a preliminary bill creating a Kilanea National Park, bringing it on 
an administrative par with Yellowstone, Yosemite and Glacier National 
Parks. The high crater of Mauna I,oa difficult of access, but scarcely less 
interesting than Kilauea. Haleakala, whose crater is more than 20 nules 
in circumference and 2,500 feet deep is the largest extinct volcano in the 
world. Its floor is dotted with cinder cones, which from the rim look like 
ant*hills, but in reality are 600 to 800 ieet high. The great crater is 10,000 
feet above the sea, and is most conveniently reached by a fairly good auto 
Toad to within eight miles of the summit, the remainder of the distance being 
uiade on horseback. The ascent is usually made during the daytime, reaching 
the summit before dark to r b.'^erve the colourful sunset eftects. A concrete 
Test house, impervious to wmd and weather, is located on the brink of the 
crater, and splendid sleeping and housing accomniodation are provided. 

The Commercial Pacific Cable Company has a line from Konclulu to 
San Francisco, also the Asiatic continent via Midway Island, Guam and 
the Philippines. The Federal Wireless Telegraph Company maintams a 
service between Honolulu and San I'^rancisco. The- Marccni Wireless Tele- 
graph Company, has two of the largest wireless stations in the world on the 
Island of Oahu, connecting Honolulu with the American mainland, and 
also stations situated in other parts of the Pacific. Each island of the group 
has its own telephone system reaching every district, while the separate 
islands are connected by a wireless telegraph system. 

The steamers ol the Oceanic S.S. CompauA' call at Horn lulu en route 
from Sydney to San Francisco, and Honolulu is also a port of call for the 
mail steamers going from Sydney and Auckland to Yanccuver. 

Imports from Honolulu from foreign countries, and shipments from the 
United States mainland for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918, were 
.51,801,204 dol. The exports for the same period amounted to 80,546, 60(1 dol. 
The bulk of the latter is contained in the foUov.-ing list : — 



Sugar-raw . 

Sugar-refined 

Friiits 

Rice 

Coffee 

Hides 

Others 



Total 



Imports from Japan 

Custom receipts 

Shipments from United .States mainland 

Imports from foreign countries . . 



S 

62,076,506 

2,033,014 

8,640,838 

84,813 

466,689 

398,719 

6,786,516 

80,487,542 

5 

3,672,468 

1.009,243 

45,004.156 

6.797.048 



38 STEWART i- HAND BOOK 



THE COOK ISLANDS. 

(DKP^;Nl)l•;NC^' of nicw zivai.and.) 

(Descriptions of Niue, Suwanovv, Penrhyn, Manihiki, Rakahanga, Puka- 
Puka, and Pahnerston Islands, also included within the boxinrlries of 
New Zealand, will be found elsewhere). 

MOvST of these islands, which lie scattered over a considerable space 
without any intimate connection with each ether, v. ere discovered 
by Captain Cook on his second voyage to the South Seas. Christianity 
was introduced from Tahiti, during 1821, by the Rev. John Williams and his 
valuable Tahitian lieutenant, Papeiha. 

The group, which is situated between the lOtli and 22nd parallels of south 
latitude and the 157tli and 160th meridans of west longitude, comprises 
eight islands, which .ire named as follows : — Rarotonga, Mangaia, Atiu, 
Mauke, Mitiaro, Aitutaki, Takutea. and Manuae (Hervey). Aitutaki, the 
most northerly island of the group, is situated in 18 degrees 54 minutes south 
latitude ; Mangaia, the most southerly, in 21 degrees 57 minutes south lati- 
tude ; Rarotonga, the most westerly, is in 160 degrees west longitude. In 
addition tc» the eight islands of the group, seven other islands — Niue (or 
Savage), Pahnerston, Penrhyn, Manihiki, Rakahanga, Danger (or Puka- 
puka), and Suwarrow — have been included within their boundaries, or, rather, 
those of New Zealand, for the whole of the islands mentioned now form part 
of that dominion's territory. They were annexed m 1900, and Colonel W. E- 
Gudgeon, C.M.G., was appointed Resident Commissioner, a post that Mr. 
Moss had previously held. Captain J. Eman Smith was appointed Resident 
Commissioner on Colonel Gudgeon's retirement in 1910, and was succeeded in 
1912 by Captain Northcroft who, in turn, was succeeded by Mr. I'\ W. Platts, 
L.L.r,. In 1903 Niue was placed under a separate administration. 

Rarotonga is, beyond all doubt, the most fertile and valuable of the Cook 
group, and is the finest in point of scenic attractions. It is a particularly 
good specimen of the volcanic order of islands, and the rugged grandeur 
of its mountain peaks, and the variety and luxuriance of its vegetation com- 
bine to present one of the most picturesque scenes that one could possibly 
find even in all the " summer isles " of the South Seas. Attaining, as it does,, 
a height of 8,000 feet, the island is well watered ; and a belt of rich alluvial 
soil, varying from one to three miles in width, extends all round from the 
mountains to the sea. The circumference of Rarotonga is over 20 miles, 
and it will thus be seen that the area available for cultivation is by no means 
inconsiderable. The land is at present not being utilised to anything like the 
full extent of its possibilities ; and it is becoming increasingly difficult to lease 
land, every acre of which belongs to the natives. The sale of native lands is 
prohibited. Avarua, on the north coast, is the principal village of the island 
and the seat of the Cook Islands administration, the Resident Commissioner 
being Mr. Platts. It is a port of call for the Union S.S. Company's Auckland 
steamers, which visit the group every four weeks, and for the Wellington 



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All New Zealand ports to and from Sydney via Cook Strait, weekly. 
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SOUTH SEA ISLAND SERVICES. 

Auckland to and from Rarotonga (Cook Islands) and Papeete, everv 
28 days. 

Auckland to and from Fiji, Friendly Islands, Samoa and Fiji, everv 
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Sydney to and from Fiji, Samoa, Friendly Islands and Fiji, evers- 
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The Company has constructed a FIRST-CLASS HOTEL AT SUVA. 
Tariff from 16/- per day, according to size and position of room. 

COASTAL SERVICES. 

Sailings almost daily between the principal New Zealand ports ; also 
regular and frequent services between ports on Tasmanian Coast. 

SYDNEY-NEW ZEALAND-SAN FRANCISCO SERVICE, 
via TAHITI. 

Regular sailings from Sydney to San Francisco via Wellington. 
Rarotonga and Tahiti, every 28 days. 

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Sailing every 28 days between Sydney and Vancouver, via Auckland, 
vSuva, Honolulu, and \'ictoria, in conjunction with the Canadian- 
Pacific Railway. The Grand Scenic Route — Rocky ^Mountains, Manitoba, 
(xreat I^akes, Niagara, St. Lawrence, Hudson River, &c. 

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SVDNEY OR BRISBANE 



OF THE PACIFIC ISI ANDS ' 41 

iind San I'rancisco mail steamers belonging to the same company. The 
early missionaries estimated the native population of Rarotonga at from 
6,000 tc 7,000 ; the population is now 2,913 natives and half-castes living as 
natives, and 163 whites and half-castes living as whites. There are various 
causes which have produced this decrease, such as severe epidemics, im- 
morality, intoxicating liquors (which it is now illegal to sell to the natives 
of the group), and the careless use of European clothing. A wireless station 
was opened in August, 1918, and it is proposed to link up the other islands 
which will thus share with Rarotonga the advantages of wireless communica- 
tion with the outside world. A public market has been established and a 
telephone system initiated. A cool store is being built. 

Mangaia is one of the largest islands of the group, being about 30 miles 
in circumference, and probably the least fertile. The soil is comparatively 
poor throughout' and the eastern side is a desert of basalt rock. The people, 
however, are among the most industrious of the Cook Islanders — p. fact that 
is probably due to the circumstances under which they live, for on this island 
the native food does not grow in the same profusion as at other places in the 
group, and men are compelled to cultivate in order that they may live. At 
a short distance inland from the shore there rises an almost perpendicular 
wall of dead coral, about 100 feet high, as if the reef of earlier days had been 
lifted bodily by some convulsion of nature. This " makatea," as it is called, 
runs right round the i.sland, and is perforated by numerous caves and crevices 
which in olden times were used as depositories for the dead, as well as for 
storage and other purposes. The top of the " makatea " averages about a 
mile in width, and is well adapted to the growth of the citrus family of fruits. 
The interior face of this coral rampart slopes down gradually into a basin of 
rich swamp land, containing extensive taro plantations, and from this the 
land rises again in a succession of low hills to a central plateau, about tioO 
feet high, known as the " Crcwn of Mangaia." These taro swamps still 
supply most of the food of the Mangaians, although for many years the tribes 
have lived in the villages of Oneroa, Tamarua, and Ivirua, on the coast. 
The interior cf the island, which contains some splendid valleys, is well 
watered by streams which filter through below the base of the " makatea " 
into the sea. The population, which in 1845 numbered 3,567, and in 1906 
was 1,523, is now 1,241, in addition to four whites. There are considerable 
areas of waste land awaiting cultivation, and the natives are becoming alive 
to the necessity of planting these with cocoanuts, &c. Citrus fruits are also 
growing in profusion, and it is estimated that with proper cultivation the out- 
put could be increased twenty-fold. Mangaia is said to produce the best 
cofifee in the group. The distance of the i.sland from Rarotonga is 1 IH miles. 

Mauke, or Perry Island, 150 miles from Rarotonga, is low and fiat, 
and a belt of iron wood skirting the island obscures to some extent the cocoanut 
palms, which are usually one of the most prominent and first-observed 
features in the landscape of a Pacific island. This ironwood was formerly 
found in large quantities, and was much sought after by traders. Mauke, 
like Mangaia, has a fringing reef, which, however, does not so readily lend 
itself to the process of crossing in canoes that obtains in ^langaia. A landing 
has to be effected on the edge of the reef itself, and one reaches dry land bv 



4 J ' STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

wading or l)cing carried through Iho shallow water, covering the depression 
in the coral Ijetween the outer edge and the shore. There is a landing at the 
northern side of the island also. Mauke also has its '" makatea "' or rai.sed 
coral area, but it merges almost imperceptibly into the volcanic formation of 
the centre, and the general level of the i.sland all over is about 00 feet above 
the sea. The island is small, its area being only about four square miles 
and a half ; but it is remarkably fertile, and, notwithstanding that it in 
common with the other islands of the group is very imperfectly planted, 
it exported in 191fi 86 tons of copra and 6,427 boxes cf oranges, an output 
that exceeds that of Atiu, which'is six or seven times its size. The native 
population is 480, and there are three whites. 

Atiu, which was discovered in 1777 by Captain Cook, duiing his tliird 
voyage, and entered by him in his charts as " Wateoo." is much like Mauke 
in appearance, having the same high fringing reef and the same dead coral 
formation over the greater part of its area. It is much larger, however, 
its area being about twenty-two square miles, and it has four times as much 
unused land as Rarotonga. All the usual island fruits grow well, but a fuller 
development of the resources of the island is retarded through the lack of 
proper facilities for shipping produce. xA.tiu is new being surveyed. Roads 
are being laid off. Better shipping facilities are promised. The cavernous 
formation which is so marked a feature of the " makatea " at ]Mangaia is 
also present in the coral-rock portion of Atiu, and must, no doubt, be found 
more or less in all islands that owe their existence in any degree to the up- 
heaval of a sea-worn coral reef. The late Ngamaru Ariki v/as practically 
King cf Atiu, although he had lived for some years in Rarotonga, and as 
such he exercised a measure of sovereignty over Mauke and Mitiaro, both of 
which were conquered by the Atiuans prior to the introduction of Christianity 
The population of the island is 752 natives and one v/hite, but this does not 
represent anything like the total of the Atiuan tribes. They are largely 
represented in the subordinate islands, as well as in Tahiti. The settlement at 
Atiu is some distance inland, on the flat summit of the low central hill to which 
the i.sland rises. Atiu is distant from Rarotonga 116 miles. 

Aitutaki, 140 miles from Rarotcnga, combines the features of the vo- 
canic island and the atoll. The island is almost surrounded by a barrier reef, 
which supports several fruitful islets, and on the south-east lies five miles 
distant from the land. On the western side it approaches much nearer, 
the entrance to the Avatapu Channel being about a mile from the wharf 
at Arutunga, the principal village on the island. At the northern point of the 
island the reef fringes the shore as in the other main i.slands of the Cook group, 
the barrier stage having not yet been reached. This i.sland approaches more 
closely to Rarotonga in the general appearance of fertility than any of the 
others, and it can also claim to possess a considerable degree of scenic attrac- 
tiveness. It rises somewhat abruptly on the western side to a height of 360 
feet, and slopes away gradually to the eastern coast. The area is about 
seven square miles. The lagoon on the Arutunga side of the island is shallow, 
and can only be used by vessels of a very small class ; but on the eastern side 
it is very much deeper, and freerer from coral patches, and there are se\eral 
places in the reef where, it is believed, a navigable channel might be formed. 



OF THE PACII'IC ISUANDS i'i 

The land at Aitutaki is divided among the people in .small secticns ; but 
though each family has quite enough land for its support, it has seldom more 
than an acre or two in any cne place, and the more remote sections are apt 
to be neglected. The population at present is 1,294, two-thirds of these 
living in the four settlements on the western side, and the remainder in the 
villages of Yaipae and Tautu on the east. There is a resident island nurse 
and a large Government school. There are eight white people on the island. 

Mitiaro is a small coral island lying about 40 miles to the north-east of 
Atiu, and an equal distance from Mauke. Its area is only about four square 
miles, and it nowhere rises higher than 50 feet above sea-level. It contains 
some good land, however, and is capable of producing 100 tons of copra 
annually. One peculiar object of interest and curiosity is a miniature 
lake in the centre of the inland. It is richly begirt with shrubs of evergreen, 
and its surface is generally so calm as to give it the appearance of a highly - 
polished mirror. The population according to the last returns was 236 and one 
wliite resident. 

Takutea is the small island in the Cook group, its area being about 400 
acres. It lies about 125 miles to the north-enst of Rarotonga, and close to the 
Island of Atiu. It belonged to the late Ngamaru Ariki, ami was by him pre- 
sented to his Majesty King IJdward fcr the benefit of his subjects in the group. 

Manuae and Te Au-o-Tu pre enclosed within one reef, and are kiicwn as 
the Hervey Isles — a name that is frequently applied to the Cook group as a 
whole. They contain approximately 500 acres and 800 acres respectively 
of good cocoanut land, and are leased by Messrs. Bates and Gruning for 
cocoanut planting. The islets form a dependency of Aitutaki, from which 
they are about 60 miles distant, and by which they were conquered in heathen 
times. By a recent decision of the Land Titles Court Te Au-o-Tu was awarded 
to the Arikis of Aitutaki and their clans, 71 owners who claimed the islands 
by right of conquest ; while in the case of Manuae an order was made in favour 
of the 8«) descendants of the conquered people, their claim having also been 
recognised as good. This partition of the islands ends a long-standing con- 
tention between the rival claimants, and the judgment is admitted to be an 
equitable one. The population is stated at 1,0. It was Captain Cook who 
named these the Hervey Islands, in honour of Captain Hervey, R.N., at that 
time the First Lord of the Admiralty. Their distance from Rarotonga is 
120 miles. 

\\'ith their great advantages of soil and climate these fertile islands 
of the Cook group are a splendid field of enterprise. l"or the growth of 
cocoanuts, coffee, bananas and other tropical fruits — but particularly bananas 
— no islands are better suited. The copra production is steadily growing, 
large quantities now being produced on Rarotonga, Aitutaki, Rakahanga, 
:\lanihiki, and Penrhyn. In 1916 1,120 tens of copra, valued at £28,000, 
were exported. For 1918 1,500 tons were exported. In round numb rs, 
94,000 cases of oranges (value, £16,000), 43,000 cases of bananas- (£12,000), 
and 36,000 cases of tomatoes (£5,000), were .shipped to New Zealand in 1916. 
Seven-eighths of all this fruit and produce, approximately worth £28,000 
•was grown by native planters. The fruit-export trade is capable of enormous 
expansion. In order to secure a steady increase in these products, and so to 



44 sticwakt's IIAXU r.OOK 

prepare for the expansion of trade coniinj^ after the war, an Ordinance retiniring 
all native planters to clear and plant their uncultivated lands has been passed. 
Inspectors have been appointed to see that the requirements of this planting 
Ordinance are duly carried out. As much loss has resulted from the bad 
carrying-qualities of the island orange and its susceptibility to fly and other 
blights, the question of obtaining the services of an expert, proVjably from 
I'lorida, IT.S.A. (where an orange similar to the Island orange is grown), 
to report on the fruit industry of these Islands, and to advise as to the best 
methods of orange cultivation, packing, transport, and marketing, is under 
consideration. 

The London Missionary Society are the pioneers in educational and 
missionary efforts in this part of the Pacific. In former times the Cook 
Islanders were a very warlike race, having a feud law very much like the 
Corsican vendetta. Tribesmen left numbers of their family legacies of hate 
that had to be carried out. But the efforts of the missionaries have long since 
brought about a new order cf things. The Christianising work began at 
Aitutaki in 1821, and in Rarotonga two years later ; and to-day the islanders 
are a quiet, industrious people. The Rev. John \^'illiams, " the Martyr of 
Hrromanga," was the first to preach the Gospel in these islands, and other 
famous missionaries subsequently laboured here. 

Almost every village of importance has its school. In Rarotonga there 
are four native schools, one at Arorangi with 148 scholars, one at Avarua with 
250 scholars, and one at Titikaveka with 30 pupils and another at Ngatangiia 
with 194 scholars. At Aitutaki the island next in importance to Raro- 
tonga, there is a large school at which 270 children are taught by native 
teachers. At Mauke a school has been opened with SO pupils, and at ilangaia 
a school is also to be opened. The administration intends as soon as possible 
to establish a school in each of the other islands of the group. In the mean- 
time the London Missionary Society is very considerately carrying on its 
schools in the outlying islands until the Government is in a position to take 
them o^-'^r. The teaching of English, with reading, writing, and arithmetic, 
up to the requirements of the fourth standard, and a practical training in 
agriculture, woodwork, &c., is the present aim. To overcome the great 
ditficulty of obtaining the necessary teachers for the smaller islands native 
pupil-teachers are now being trained at Rarotonga. As 90 per cent, of the 
native boys are destined to become planters, the formation of an agricultural 
class has been the first step in technical education. A class for instruction 
in woodwork and manual training has been established. A girls' class to 
teach home science is being arranged. Three places at St. Stephen's School. 
Auckland, for boys from these islands were offered for competition at the 
end of last year. The three successful students are now at St. Stephen's. 
The provision of other similar scholarships, to be held at some of the insti- 
tutions in New Zealand that provide higher education for Maori boys and 
girls, and of industrial scholarships by means of assisted apprenticeships 
in New Zealand (with attendance at a technical college) for boys who have 
passed tln-ough the Rarotonga technical school, is under consideration. 
It is satisfactory to note the real appreciation by the natives of the educational 
advantages offered to their children. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



45 



OFFICIALS. 



NRW ZEALAND. 

Minister for the Cook Islands, Hon. M. Pomare, M.D. ; Secretary, Mr. 
C. C. B. Jor-ian. 

Resident Commissioner, Chief Justice of High Court and Native Land 
Court. Mr. F. W. Platts, L.L.B. ; Deputy Resident Commissioner, Judge of 
Higli Court and Native Land Court, Mr. H. F. Ayson ; Registrar of Courts, 
Mr. S. Savage ; Collector of Ciistoms, Treasurer, &c., Mr. W. J. Stevenson ; 
.Surveyor and Engineer, Mr. H. M. Connal ; Chief Medical Oflicer, Dr. R. S. 
Trotter, :\LD. ; Assistant Medical Officer, Dr. E. IVfoore ; Nurse in Charge of 
Hospital, \'acant ; Headmasters : Avarua School, Mr. W. C. Smith, Aro- 
r.9ngi School, Mr. H. C. Bannerman, Takitumu School, Mr. C. M. Mills ; Fruit 
Inspector, Mr. H. C. Berridge ; Inspector of Police, Sereeant Blake ; Wireless 
Operator, Mr. Dall. 



T. Duncan, Mangaia 
J. Dyer, Atm 
Ton Ariki, Mitiaro 
W. Wilson, Penrhyn 



RESIDENT AGENTS. 

J. C. Cameron, Mauke 

W. Sanderson Cooper, Aitutaki 

H. Williams, Manihiki and Rakabanga 

H. B. Morris, Pukapuka 



(JIanager, R. 



TRADERS 

A. B. Donald, Limited (ilanager, E. 

^lathews) 
Bonar and Shearman 
Cook Islands Trading Co. (Manager, 

R.McKegg) 
J agger and Harvey (Manager, A. 

Anibridge 

EUROPEAN RESIDENT AT RAROTONGA, OTHER THAN OFFICIALS. 



AT RAROTONGA 

Ah Foo and Taripo 
W. H. Grove & Sons 

Forester 
J. Kohn & Co. 
E. H. Mitchell 
^^'m. Tavlor 



Amljridge, IMr«. (widow) 
Ambridge, A. (Manager, J agger and 

Harve}- 
Ambridge, Mrs. 
Bernadine, Rev. Father 
Black, Mrs. (widow) 
Brent, C. A., Clerk 
Brown, P., Planter 
Callender, — ., Clerk 
Callender, I\Irs. 

Estall, M., Foreman of Works 
Fox, A., Bookkeeper 
Fox, I\Irs. 
Fisher, H., Clerk 

Forester, R. ^Manager, Groves & .Son 
Forester, ]\Irs. 
Hosking, R. W, Storeman 
Hosking, I\Irs. 

James, Rev. H. B., Mis.sionary 
Jones, E., Planter 
Johnson Bros., Planters 
Kohn, J., Trader 
Kohn, Mrs. 

Macalister, W., Planner 
Mitchell. E. H., Trader 
Mitchell. Mrs. 



Matliews, I'.. (Manager, A. B. Donald 

Ltd.) 
Mathews, Mrs. 
Morell, Mrs. (widow) 
McKegg, R. (Manager, Cook Islands 

Trading Co., Ltd.) 
Russell, D. B., Plantation Manager 
Sisters of St. Joseph 
Shearman, Mrs., Boarding-house 

keeper 
Shearman, Thomas, ^Manager 
Shearman, H., Trader 
Taylor, W. G., Planter 
Taylor, Mrs. 
Taylor, Wm., Trader 
Taylor, A. W., Clerk 
Taylor, Mrs. 
Wat.son, T., Pl.mter 
Wicks, H., Missionary 
Wicks, Mrs. 
Wheeler, E., As.sistant I'oreman of 

Works 
Wheeler, Mrs. 

Williams, I., IMaster Mariner 
Williams, Mrs. 

Williams I'red., Master Mariner 
Willi.uns, Mrs. 
Wright, W. A. (Agent, U.S.S. Co.) 



4(y 



STIiWAK'r S HAND BOOK 



TRADE STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1917. 

The value < f the imports, £8(),0()1, shows an increase of £21.500 over the 
previous year. Of this increase, £18,000 was with New Zealand. Ivxports 
at £60,190 .show a decrea.se of £7,9.56 compared with the precedmg year. 
The increases in the value of the imports is due to the rise in the co.st of 
goods more than expansion of trade. The decline in the value of the exports 
was due solely to the shortage of .shipping. 

The copra crops for the year — 1,550 tons — was the second highest on 
record, being beaten only by the output of 1911, when 1,695 tons were ex- 
ported. Last year, owing to the want of shipping space, 850 tons were in 
store at the close of the season, Vmerica then being the only available 
market for this conmiodity. 

In regard to fruit, the banana output doubled itself in compari.^on with 
the year 1916. Dviring the period under review 75,000 cases and 5,000 kit> 
were exported, as against 41,000 cases the previous year. The orange crop 
dropped from 93.000 cases to 63,000 cases. The tomato industry, which 
promised so well three years ago, is rapidly on the decline, due largely to want 
of shipping facilities. Slow irregular steamers with which the trade must 
be content for the present are out of the question for the marketing of to» 
matoes. The crops for the present season promise to be very hea". y . Reports 
from all the islands indicate a large copra yield, and the banana and orange 
output will be good. The installation of " wireless " is of great assistance 
to the fruit trade, in ad\nsing arrival of steamers. 



VALUE OF EXPORTS FOR THK 

Article 

Fruit, Fresh — 

Bananas 

Lemons . . 

Oranges . . 

Pineapples 

Tomatoes 

Cucumbers 

Not Otherwise Enumerated 
Coffee, raw 



Copra 



YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 3 
Where exporteil 

New Zealand 



Cocoanuts 



Kumaras find Taro 
Ijmejuice 
Pearl-shell 
Potatoes 
Cotton-piece goods 



Tahiti 

New Zealand 
United States 
Tahiti 

New Zealand 
United States 

New Zealand 

United States 
New Zealand 
United States 



Total 



New Zealand . . 
United States of America 
Tahiti 



SUBTMARY. 



BER 31. 1917. 


Value 


Total 


£ 


£ 




22,125 




350 




11.025 




540 




2,520 




18 




10 


195 




120 




- 


3J5 


2,806 




13,610 




2.523 







18,939 


514 




900 






1.414 




250 




11 




2,600 




37 




36 




60,190 




£ 


40,401 


17, 


146 


•) 


643 



Total 



£60,190 



OF THE PACIFIC ISI.AXnS 



17 



SUMMARY. 



IMPORTS FOR Till-: YKAR 
Agricultural Produce n.o.e. . . 



Animals, living- 
Ducks 
I-'owls 
Horses 



ENDKD DECUMHHR ;{1. 11)17. 

New Zealand . . 1,037 

New South ^^'ales . . 2 



Sheep 
Apparel and Slops 



Arms, Ammunition and Kxplosives 
P>acon and Hams 
Baes and Sacks 



Bamboo for Hatmakint 
Beer and Stout 



Biscuits and Cabin-bread 



Boots and Shoes 

Buildinti Material, n.o.e. 

Putter and Cheese . . 
Carnages and parts of same 



United States 


55 




Tahiti 


1 


1,095 






New Zealand 


li 

It 

1 :{:{ 


3 

9 


Tahiti' 


10 


U3 


New Zealand 


23 
. 2,2(57 


23 


United Kingdom 


149 




New South Wales 


19 




Papua 


5 




I'nited State.*-- 


522 




Japan 


75 









3,o:i7 


New Zealand 


915 


101 
ISO 


United States 


326 








1.241 


Tahiti 




ISO 


New Zealand 




■2V> 


United State'- 


1 




Tahiti 


4 






.- 


58 


New Zealand 


. 4.530 




New South \\'ales 


4 




United .States 


95 




Tahiti 


113 








4,742 


New Zealand 


H93 




United Kingdom 


161 




United States 


509 




Tahiti 


30 









1,-593 


New Zealand 


505 




New South Wales 


1 




United .States 


235 









736 


New Zealand 


505 




New South Wales 


] 25 




United J^tates 


27 






._ — 


657 


New Zealand 


. 1,363 




United States 


8 




New Zealand 


31 




United States 


365 




Tah.iti 


13 





409 



■4S 



STF.WART S HAND BOOK 



Cniciiiatographs and liiro of films 



Cement 



Coal . . 
Confectionery 

Cordage and Twine 



Cotton Piece-goods 



Drapery, n.o.e. 
Drugs and Chemicals 

Earthenware and Glassware 
Fancy Goods and Toys 

Fish, Preserved 

Flour 



Fruit, Fresh, n.o.e. 
Furniture 





£ 


£ 


New Zealand 


126 




United Kingdom . 


5 




New South Wales. 


65 




Tahiti 


283 








479 


New Zealand 


475 




Tahiti 


1 


476 






New Zealand 


268 


107 


United States 


18 









286 


New Zealand 


585 




New South Wales. 


7 




United States 


194 




Tahiti 


21 


807 






New Zealand 


. 1,452 




New vSouth Wales. 


243 




United Kingdom . 


. 2,560 




Papua 


2 




United States 


. 1,807 




Tahiti 


70 








6,134 


New Zealand 


. 2,858 




United Kingdom . 


414 




United States 


173 




Tahiti 


49 


3.494 






New Zealand 


528 




United Kingdom . 


15 




New South Wales. 


12 




Victoria 


1 




United States 


83 




Tahiti 


1 


640 






New Zealand 


269 




United Kingdom . 


6 




United States 


73 


348 






New Zealand 


319 




United Kingdom. 


15 




New South Wales. 


25 




Papua 


4 




United States 


108 








471 


New Zealand 


638 




United States 


628 


1,266 


New Zealand 


. 3,657 


United States 


. 2,214 






. 


5.871 


United States 




141 


New Zealand 


'. 477 




United Kingdom . 


3 




New South Wales. 


12 




Papua 


7 




Ocean Island 


4 




United States 


20 





523 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



49 



Hardware, n.o.e. 



Hats 



Hosiery 



Hops . . 
Instruments, Musical 



Iron- 



Bar, Bolt, and Rod 
Galvanised Corrugated Sheet 
Pipes 

Wire 



Jewellery 



Machines— 
Klectric 



Printing 



Sewing 



^latches 



:Meats~ 

Frozen 

Potted and Preser\ ed 

Salted .. ,. 

^lilk, Preserved 



New Zealand 
United Kingdom 
New .South Wales 
Papua 

United States 
Tahiti 


f 

. . 1,615 

30 

30 

1 

446 

2 


New Zealand 
United Kingdom 
New South Wales 
United States 


167 

44 

1 

17 


New Zealand 
United Kingdom 

United .States 
J apan 


97 

125 

1 

25 

69 


New Zealand 
United States 


202 
14 



New Zealand 
New South Wales . 



172 



New Zealand 
United States 


60 

08 


New Zealand 
Tahiti 
United States 


203 

84 
16 


New Zealand 
New South Wales 


51 
244 


New Zealand 
New South Wales 


111 
42 


New Zealand 
New South Wales 
United States 
Papua 
Tahiti 


42 

14 

111 

4 

32 


New Zealand 

Sweden 


423 

183 


New Zealand 




United States 


'. 300 
12 



2,124 



229 



317 
25 

306 

46 
305 

383 
158 



303 



295 



1 53 



203 



606 

149 
.000 

728 



102 



r)0 



STEWART S HAND BOCK 



Nails . 



Oil- 



Kerosene and Benzine 



Other kinds 



Paints and Varnisli . 



Perfumery and Toilet Prenarations 



Photographic Good? 
Pro\(isions. n.o.e. 



Peanuts 
Rice 



Saddlery and Harness 
Seeds ind Plants 

Silks 



Soap . 



Specie (silver) 



Spirits- 
Brandy . . 
(reneva and din 





£ 


*) 


N'ew Zealand 


542 




N'ew South Wales. 


8 




Tnited States 


206 








im 


Ney^^ Zealand 


260 




United States 


693 




Tahiti 


112 




New South Wales. 


20 








1,058 


New Zealand 


220 




New South Wales. 


15 




United States 


53 




Tahiti 


2 


290 


New Zealand 


360 


New South Wales. 


32 




United States 


182 




Tahiti 


3 









577 


New Zealand 


38 




United Kingdom . 


11 




United States 


33 








82 


New Zealand 


. 1,682 


7» 


United Kingdom . 


23 




\'ictoria 


23 




United vStates 


252 




Tahiti 


2 






- 


1.982 


New Zealand 


628 


192 


New South Wales. 


6 




United States 


415 




Tahiti 


40 








1,089 


New Zealand 


75 




United States 


165 


240 


New Zealand 


72 


United Kingdom . 


14 




Queensland 


68 


154 


New Zealand 


203 


United Kingdom . 


56 




Japan 


93 






- 


352 


New Zealand 


. 1,857 




New South Wales. 


30 




United States 


7 


1.894 






New Zealand 


895 




Tahiti 


6 








901 


New Zealand 




11 


United States 


5 
23 





28 



OF THK PACiriC .'Sr.AXDS 



51 



Rum 

Methylated 

Perfumed 



Whisky .. 



Stationery and l^ooks 



Suyar . . 



Tea and Coffee 
Timber — 
Sawn 



Fruit-box 
Tobacco, Cigars & Cigarettes 



Tools 



Wines — 
Claret 



Other kinds 



Woodenware 



^Miscellaneous 



United Kmgdom . 




30 


New Zealand 




14 


United States 


.1 
2 




Tahiti 


lo 









22 


New Zealand 


2H0 




United States 


104 








364 


New Zealand 


718 




United Kingdom . 


2 




New South A\'ales. 


'. 18 




Fiji 


10 




United States 


H4 









812 


New Zealand 


. 3.504 




United States 


2 


3,.j06 
289 


New Zealand 




New Zealand 


U-22 




New South Wales. 


1 :{2 




United States 


305 




Tahiti 


1 


1.3G0 


New Zealand 


1.104 


10.863 


New South ^^■ales. 


31(» 




Tahiti 


11 









1.425 


New Zealand 


87 




United Kingdom . 


3.3 




Papua 


S 




United vStates 


162 









290 


New Zealand 


25 




Victoria 


7 




United States 


52 








84 


New Zealand 


25 




Victoria 


7 






■ 


32 


New Zealand 


158 




New South Wales. 


7 




I'nited States 


20 




Tahiti 


1 









186 


New Zealand 


375 




United Kingdom . 


52 




Queensland 


12 




United States 


11 




Tahiti 


23 





Total 



473 
80,061 



STEWART'S HAXD BOOK 



SUMMARY. 




£ 


New Zealand . . 


(il,931 


TTnited Kingdom 
New South Wales 




3,74H 
1,596 


\'ict(>ria 




38 


Queensland 




80 


Papua . . 

I'lji 

Ocean Island 




31 

11 

4 


I'nited States of America . . 




11.092 


Tahiti 




1,110 


J apan 

Sweden . . 




237 
183 



Total 



£80,061 



TOTAL ^■AIvUF; OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS FROM THE YEAR 1902 
TO DECEMBER 31, 1917. 



1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1017 



1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 



Imports. 






Ainoant 


Increase 


Decrease 


£ 


£ 


f 


27,623 






34,866 


7,263 




33,399 




l.'4S7 


36.993 


3,594 




41,437 


4,444 




50,756 


9,314 




. . 55,021 


4,265 




67,737 


12,716 




83,759 


16.058 




89,623 


5,828 




93.812 


4,189 




. 110,283 


16,421 




91,132 




19,151 


65,590 




25,542 


58,478 




7,112 


80,061 


21,500 




EXPORTS. 

Amount 


Increase 


Decrease 


£ 


f 


£ 


34,821 






34,740 




"81 


38,248 


3,508 




34.890 




3.358 


45,925 


11,035 




51,578 


5.653 




60,652 


9,024 




73,653 


13,001 




90.749 


17,096 




91,076 


327 




. . 101,708 


10,632 




109,926 


8.218 




77.512 




32.414 


63,057 




14,455 


68.146 


5.089 


. , 


60,190 


7.956 





TARIFF 

The New Zealand tariff is in force in the Cook Islands. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLAXD^; 53- 

NIUE or SAVAGE ISLAND. 

(DEPENDENCY OF NEW ZEALAND.) 

" Savage Island," the name given to the Island of Nine b}- Captain Cook> 
who discovered it in 1774, is a misnomer, and the natives themeslves are 
indignant that it should ever have been bestowed. As a matter cf fact the 
natives are quiet and peaceful and crimes of violence are extremely rare 
there. The conduct of the natives at the time of Captain Cook's arrival 
is put down to a fear cf disease, and it is a sad fact that subsequent events 
have proved that their fears were not groundless. It is the largest of the 
islands that have been annexed by New Zealand, having an area of 100 square 
miles and a circumference of 40 miles by road. It consists entirely of up- 
heaved coral, and is probably the resvilt cf a series of upheavals. In general 
formation it takes the shape of two terraces, the lower being 90 feet above 
sea-level, and the other about 220 feet. At Alofi the friugmg reef is broken 
by a narrow boat-passage, partly natixral and partly the result of improve- 
ments effected by H.M.S. "" Mildura " some years ago. In addition to the one 
at Alofi, there are landing places at Avatele and Tuapa. Although so rocky 
that it is for the most part unploughable, Nine is by no means unproductive. 
All the usual tropical fruits grow well. Large areas of the island are covered 
with forest, and it is estimated that there must be millions of feet of timber 
suitable for milling purposes, including ebony and other hard woods. A 
good deal of the timber, however, is situated in rocky country, and it is 
questionable if it would pay to cut it and bring it out. There are extensive 
caves, containing stalactites in great profusion grouped in all kinds of fan- 
tastic shapes. In consequence of the porous nature of the rock, there are no 
streams, and consequently fresh water is scarce. Concrete tanks have been 
constructed in the principal villages, and wayside tanks have been placed 
at intervals along the roads with a view to saving the young cocoanuts of 
which a tremendous number are used every year for drinking purposes. The 
principal industry cf the island is the manufacture of hats, but the trade has 
fallen off in late years. The natives are expert plaiters. but the material 
used — a kind of pandanus — is not the best for the purpose. It is proposed 
to import the genuine Panama leaf, and if this can be done the hat trade in 
. Niue will be developed immen.sely. The population cf Niue is about 4,000, 
exclusive of the men ot present absent in other islands. The Niueans are 
naturally of a roving disposition, and numbers of them go to Tonga, Samoa, 
IMalden I.4and, &'C. Many go under engagement as labourers, and return on 
the expiration of their term. During the war a number of Niueans enlisted 
for service with the Maori contingent. They had. however, on account of 
adverse weather conditions to be returned to their homes within a year or 
twc. but not without having first done valuable work on garrison duty in 
Egypt and afterwards on active service in I'rance. There is only one (Govern- 
ment school on the island so far. This is at Tufukia, near Alcfi. There are 
abcut 2.")0 pupils at present. The tune is fast coming when schools will have 
to be opened in other villages. Carpentry is taught at a small technical schoc .1 



54 



STFAVART S HAND BOOK 



run in connection with Tutukia. The white population numbprs about 20. 
Niue lies to the ?ast of the Tonga group, and 580 miles to the westward 
of Rarotonga, and 350 miles south-east of Samoa. 



TRADE STATISTICS. 

EXPORTS FOR 1917, ALL TO NIvW ZKALAXD. 



Brushware . . 
Copra 

Fungus 

Hats 

Other goods 



Qniiiitity 

10,087 lbs. 

309 tons . . 
16.234 lbs. 
1,848 dozen .. 



Value 

£ 

108 
7,634 

.336 
1,170 

152 

£9,400 



IMPORTS FOR 1917. 



Agricultural Produce 

Animals, Horses . . 

Apparel and Slops 

Bags and Sacks . . 

Bicycles 

Boots and shoes . . 

Butter and cheese 

Carriages . . 

Cement 

Confectionery 

Cordage 

Cotton Piece Goods 

Cotton, vSewin?:; 

Drapery 

Drugs 

Fancy Goods 

Fish, Preserved 

Flour 

Furniture 

Hardware 

Lace 

Matches 

Meats, Preserved and Sj: 

Jlilk, Preserved . . 

Oil, Kerosene 

Perfumery 

Rice 

Rugs 

Saddler}' and Harness 

Soap 

Stationery a«rl Books 

Sugar 

Tinware 

Tobacco 

Timber 

Miscellaneous 

Totals 



llc-d 



Prom 
X.Z. 


From 
A ustralia 


From 
Other 
places 


Total 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


92 


20 




112 


33 






33 


1,029 


10 




1.0.57 


304 






304 


141 






141 


149 






1.50 


l.i6 






156 


104 






104 


169 






169 


.-)1 






51 


9.'> 




8 


103 


1.701 


176 


no 


1.987 


87 




3 


90 


244 


3 


5 


252 


.■i62 


5 




567 


105 






105 


.•579 






379 


184 


70 




2.54 


56 


9 




65 


215 


11 




226 


89 




28 


117 


324 






324 


1,250 


3 




1.253 


86 






86 


257 


•) 




259 


107. 


11 




118 


90 


1 




91 


84 




3 


87 


100 






100 


439 


1 




440 


103 


4 




107 


114 


4 




118 


73 


1 




74 


611 


1.30 




741 


293 






293 


2.. 506 


50 


10 


2.566 



£12.382 £511 £186 £13,07!t 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 55 

The imports show an increase of £3,5()7, and the exports an increase of 
C227 on the figures for 1916. The inadequacy of the schooner service from 
New Zealand to Nine is the main obstacle to increased prosperity. Over 
.■}00 tons of copra remained ready for shipment in Niue at the end of the year 
while only 132 tons had been exported during the 12 months. The island has 
cjuite recovered from the 1915 hurricane, and as the natives are new com- 
pelled to keep their cocoanut plantations clean an increased yield may be 
expected. Hitherto the natives have allowed the bush to grow up round their 
trees, much to the deteriment of the crop. Eighty-five inches of rain fell 
during the year, which is about the average for the island. 



OFFICIALS AND EUROPEAN RESIDENTS. 

Resident Commissioner, Judge of High Court, Judge of Native Land 
Court, Collector of Customs and Postmaster, G. N. Morris ; Registrar of 
Courts, Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, J. P. McMahon-Box ; 
Chief Medical Officer, Dr. H. Barraclough ; Head Teacher, J. CM. Uvison ; 
Assistant Teacher, A. M. Cowan ; Officer in charge of Police, W. Avling. 

Rev. J. H. CuUen, 1..M.S. INIissionarv ; S. W. Carr, Seventh' Day Ad- 
ventist Mi.s.sion ; R. H. Head, retired trader ; R. D. Head, trader ; A. O. Head, 
trader ; F. Head trader ; A. G. Head, trader : H. W. Collins, trader ; J. W. 
English, trader ; E. V. Fitzgerald, trader, A. G. Godsmark, trader's assistant ; 
J. Jackson, trader's assistant ; E. J. Cunningham, planter. 



56 PTi^WART's HANI* BOOK 



THE PELEW and the CAROLINE ISLANDS. 

(I.ATE GliRMAN POSSUSSIONS, NOW OCCUPIED BY JAPAN.) 

THE Pelews and the Carolines, lying between the equator and the 
eleventh north parallel, and stretching across 30 degrees of longitude, 
consist of a chain of 652 islands, with a population of about 30,000 
a combinatif n of the black, brown and yellow races. 

These islands were discovered in 1527 by the Portuguese, and in 1686 
were annexed by Spain. After the failure of several missionary attempts 
in the 18th century, Spain took little active interest in the group until August, 
1885, when the German flag wa:- hoisted at Yap. The sharp dispute which 
followed was referred to the Pope as arbitrator, who decided in favour of 
Spain, but reserved to Germany special trade privileges. In 1889 with the 
Marianne or Ladrone Islands to the north (except Guam, which was ceded 
by Spain to the United States in 1898), the groups passed from Spanish to 
German possession, the purchase price paid by Germany being £840,000. 
In 1914, shortly after the outbreak of the war, Japan occupied the islands 
and is now administering them under mandate. 

The chief islands in the Carolines are Yap, Ponape and Kusaie (Strong's 
Island), all volcanic, well watered, and extremely fertile ; and in the Pelews, 
Bab-el-Thaob. P'or administrative purposes there are two divisions — the 
Eastern Carolines, capital Ponape ; and the Western Carolines and the Pelews, 
capital Yap. 

The climate is moist and equa1)le, the extreme range of the thermometer 
during three days being only 19 degrees, the mean temperature being 80J 
degrees. The trade wind blows for the greater part of the year, and there is 
a good rainfall. In common with most of the islands, the Carolines are 
occasionaly visited by hurricanes. In April, 1905, an exceptionally violent 
storm swept over Kusaie, Ponape, and other islands, wrecking most of the 
houses and boats and destroying practically all the plantations. Twenty 
people were killed and more than 300 injured. Again, in April, 1907, great 
havoc was played by a big storm, much distress being caused. 

Of all the islands in the Pacific, excepting only Easter Island, with its 
colossal images, the Carolines are the most interesting. Mr. Christian, 
with whose book, " The Care line Islands," the visitor should be provided, 
describes them as " an enchanted region of archaeology." Scattered through- 
out the group, notably at Ponape and I.,ele, a little island off Kusaie, are 
massive ruins — one of a strange water town, an ancient island Venice, — 
whose origin is as mysterious as that of the great stone figures on Easter 
Island. Hundreds of acres, in some localities, are covered by the remains of 
walls, canals and earthworks of the most stupendous character, built upon a 
general plan such as could only hav'e been conceived by men of power and 
intelligence, acquainted with mechanical appliances for raising enormous 
weights and transporting huge blocks of stone considerable distances, both 
by land and water. These works, which strike even civilised men with 



Ol'' THE PACIFIC ISLANDS • 57 

astonishment, conld only have been effected b}' the labour of thousands of 
men working in concert and under command, and they prove from their 
aspect and the evident intention of some of them, that their builders must 
have had at the time of their erection some form of settled government and 
system of religion. By whom and for what purpose they were built are 
questions to which no answer has yet been given. A careful inspection of 
the country and comparison with similar ruins, if such there be, in other 
countries, v/ill give the only prospect of solving the mystery. 

The natives have possessed from remote ti!nes the arts of pottery and 
weaving with the loom ; and traditions they repeat of their ancestors point 
to the conclusion that they must have been a people exceedingly numerous 
and powerful. 

Thirty-six minor groups are embraced in the archipelagc , the most im- 
portant of which, taken one by one from west to east, are : — • 

The Pelew group, lying on tlie western frontier, contains about 200 
islands, Bab-el-Thaob being the largest. The principal products are phos- 
phate, turtleshell, copra and beche-de-mer. The phosphate deposits on 
Angaur were discovered about 1905-6 by a German explorer and were worked 
by a Bremen Company. Breadfruit, bananas, sugarcane, lemons, oranges, 
cocoanuts, and other tropical trees and fruits are grown. Cattle, fowls and 
goats thrive, and fish abound on the coast. In olden times there was great 
commercial activity in the Western Carolines. The Yap and Pelew natives 
used to go on long voyages of trading and conquest. On Bab-el-Thaob, 
on the hillside, are some interesting lines of ancient fortifications. Alli- 
gators are found in some of the creeks, and a peculiar kind of horned frog 
in the valleys of the interior. 

The story of the wreck of tlie " Antelope " at the Pelews in 1783, and of 
the amiable Prince Lee Boo, who accompanied Captain Wilson to England, 
is a familiar one. The shipwrecked Ivnglishmen were treated for a period of 
four months with generous hospitality by the natives, and described theni as 
■■ delicate in their sentiment, friendly in their disposition ; in short, a people 
that do honour to the human race," but subsequent contact with ICuropeans 
has greatly diniinished their numbers, without in any way improving their 
condition, and instead of, as was then estimated, 40,000 to 50,000 gay and 
industrious inslanders, there are now but a few thousand apathetic and dis- 
couraged people. 

Three hundred miles north-east of the Pelews lies the Yap group, con- 
sisting of one main island, with the islands of Map and Ramung to the north, 
which are only separated from each other 1)y a narrow channel easily fordable 
at low tide, and half a dozen islets. Yap is surrounded by a coral reef, 35 
miles long and 5 broad. There are hardly any rivulets on the island, but 
inland are extensive swamps laid out in plantations of a water taro. The 
native population numbers about 8,000, in character peaceable and apathetic, 
but not particularly cordial to strangers, 'llie island is surrounded by a 
belt of cocoanut palms, about half a mile in thickness, and produces in great 
abundance sweet potatoes, various kinds of yam, giant taro, mummy apples, 
pine-apples, plantains, sugarcane, breadfruit, and the tropical almond. 
The principal timber tree is the voi with a leaf like that of a magnolia, and 



flS ■ STKWAKT'S IIANJ; BOOK 

in the wood resembling mahogany. There are numerous relics of a vanished 
civilisation, embankments and terraces, sites of ancient cultivation, and solid 
roads, neatly paved with regular stone blocks, ancient stone platforms and 
graves, and enormous council lodges of quaint design, with high gables and 
lofty carved pillars. The ruins of ancient stone fish-weirs fill the lagoon 
between the reef and the shore, making navigation a most difficult matter 
and calling forth many most unkind remarks from trading skippers. Yap 
i's one of the most beautiful of the Caroline Islands, having magnificent groves 
of bamboo, croton, cocoanut and areca palms. Huge green and yellow tree- 
lizards are found in the bush, and the nights are brilliant with fire-flies glitter- 
ing in and out of the woods like showers of golden sparks. There are few 
birds, however. Tomil harbour, on the east coast, is the chief port. The 
Dutch-German cable touches at Yap, which is accordingly in communication 
with the outside world. A wireless station has been established there. 

The Uluthi or Mackenzie group lies a little to the north-east of Yap, 
the chief trading-place being jNlokomok or Arrowroot Lsland. The natives 
have from ancient times been subject to Yap, and annually pay their tribute 
to the chiefs of that island. They are a peaceful and law-abiding people. 

The next islands of importance are Uleai. Raur is the trading depot 
of this group, which exports great quantities of copra, pearl-shell and beche- 
de-mer. 

The Hall and Hnderby groups were formerly only to be visited with great 
precautions, as the islands of Pulo-wat and Pulo-suk used to be nothing better 
than pirate strongholds. The natives have on several occasions cut off 
peaceful trading vessels and massacred their crews. 

The next group is Ruk, also called Hogolu, comprising about 70 islands 
of basalt and coral, lying in the middle of a lagoon, about 140 miles round. 
There is a large depth of water, and good anchorage for vessels of large draught. 
There is a large annual export of copra, pearlshell, turtleshell and beche-de- 
mer. Here from the grated root of the wild ginger an orange-coloured 
cosmetic (taik) is made in little cones, which are readih- exchanged all over 
the Caroline group. Ruk has a population of about 9,000, composed of two 
distinct races, the hill tribes being dark in colour, and those of the coast 
a light reddish-brown. The natives of Ruk, some of whom are wild and 
daring, and of the neighbouring groups of the Mortlocks have a curious 
custom of piercing the lower lobe of the ear-, loading it with heavy ornaments, 
and causing it to expand to an enormous size. 

The Mortkcks consist of three groups, Lukunor, Satoan, and Etal, 
containing in all 98 islands, with a population of about 2,000. 

The next group to the eastward is that of Ponape or Ascension, witli 
the neighbouring minor groups of Ant, Pakin, and Xgatik. The area of the 
island of Ponape is some 340 square miles. It is surrounded by a barrier 
reef, enclosing a lagoon about a mile and a half in breadth, in which are scat- 
tered 33 i.slets. The population is about 3,000, who are Christianised, though 
some of them retain many of their old heathen practices. Ponape contains 
very con.^iderable tracts of comparatively level or sloping lands, irrespective 
of the low valleys or flats along the sea coast. It is (Iwthed from the beach 
to the mountain tops with every kind of the most glorious tropical vegetation 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 59 

a< likewise forests of magnificent timber trees. There are many great streams 
in all directions, with cascades for the turning of mills, and in the valleys 
below of sufficient volume for the floatage of rafts and the navigation of 
large boats. The interior is altogether uninhabited, althoiigh covered with 
the ruins of a former civilisation. The island yields in abundance almost 
every valuable tropical product, but the principal articles of trade are pearl 
shell, tortoiseshell, beche-de-mer, copra, vegetable ivory and fungus. 

Ngatik or Raven's Islai.d lies about 30 miles to the south-west of Ponape. 
It is populated by the descendants of an American negro castaway, who with 
his native wife and children, and a few relations from Kiti, landed there about 
50 years ago. 

The Ants, which lie about 12 nules off the west coast of Fonape, are a 
cluster of thirteen small and two larger islets, disposed in the usual horse- 
shoe formation. On Kalap, the largest island, live a number of the Kit 
folk, engaged in collecting copra from the magnificent groves of cocoanuts 
that cover all these islands. 

The ]Mokil group consists of three low islands — Urak, Manton, and Kalap, 
the last-named containing the main settlement, which is embowered in palms 
and hibiscus, and presents a very pretty picture. Urak is one wild palm 
grove, full of pigs and wild fowl. The Mokil natives, who are Christianised, 
number about 200, and have a strong Mar.shall Island admixture, like their 
Pingelap neighbours, whose islands lie about (50 nriles southwards. 

The Pingelap group comprises three low coral islands lying close together, 
with a population of about 1,000. Most of the inhabitants live on the central 
island, which is neatly laid out in shady walks, skirting trim and well-kept 
plantations of bananas and various sorts of taro. 

Kusaie (Strong's Island), " the garden of Micronesia," is the headcjuarters 
of the American mission in the Western Pacific. Its population, once large, 
now numbers only a few hundred. The health and vigour of the folk have 
been sapped by terrible diseases, introduced by the brutal and lawless crews 
of visiting whalers, whom Dr. Rife, of the local mission, from some heart- 
rending medical experience, "" with perfect justice denounced as the vilest 
miscreants, the enemies of God and man. . . . The harbour of L,ele in 
days past was a great rendezvous for the New Bedford and New England 
whaleships. There the famous ' Bully ' Hayes, ' the modern buccaneer,' 
played fine pranks after losing his vessel on the reefs, half frightening the lives 
out of the peaceful Kusians by landing a number of fierce and warlike Ocean 
and Gilbert Islanders, who brewed large quantities of cocoanut toddy and set 
the whole place in a ferment with their carousals and mad orgies. Night 
after night they kept it up, alternatively drinking and fighting. Murdered 
men's bodies were picked up on the beacli every morning, and the poor 
natives of Lele fled in terror of their lives. Hayes at last brought the crazy 
mutineers back to their senses, and meditated settling on the island, when, 
greatly to the American missionaries" relief, a barque came in from Honolulu 
with the intelligence that a British man-o'-war was coming up fast in search 
of that dreadful sinner and reprobate, the aforesaid Hayes." Remarkable 
Cyclopean ruins are to be found at I.ele, which, according to the local traditions, 
were the work of a foreign race who arrived frc ni the north-west. Kusaie 



•60 stkwakt's hanu book 

is lofty, ;ui(l it has two secure harbours for the largest class of vessels. It is 
a very productive island. Besides all the tropical trees of Polynesia and 
various kinds of palms, it is covered with valuable timber trees from the shores 
to the summits cf the mountains. vSome of this wood, of a species yet little 
known to ICuropeans, is of the best quality for shipbuilding purposes, being 
perfectly straight and of the most convenient size, as well as being of great 
lengths ; added to this its durability is remarkable, and it cannot be attacked 
by the salt-water worm. For these reasons the contractors for the building 
of a dry-dock and wharves in Shanghai and other ports of China have obtained 
hence and from the neighbouring island of Ponape cargoes of piles, which 
have given great satisfaction to the engineers on those works. Kusaie 
is immensely valuable lor its timber alone ; but the land lies practically idle, 
for the natives do nothing more than is necessary to provide food, which, as 
it grows in a great measure spontaneously, is not a source of anxiety to them. 

Professor Macmillan Brown, of Christchurch, in an article in the Sydney 
Mo-.iius. Herald, in 1914, on the wonderful ruins cf Ponaoe, said : — 

" Most readers know something of Stonehenge and its circles of enormous 
stones. Some have heard of the neighbouring Avebury with its still greater 
moated circle of untooled blocks, or of the miles of monolithic avenue at 
Carnac, in Brittany. Still fewer have heard of Faster Island and its mega- 
Hthic platforms and huge stone busts, or of Tialmanaco, the unhistoried city 
of the Titans, on the Andes, 14,000 feet above the sea. It is only the student 
of the Pacific Ocean or of anthropology that knows anything of Metalanim, 
a megalithie city on the '^outh-eastern shore of Ponape, one of the most easterly 
islands of the Caroline Group. 

" Yet my visit to this architectural problem has impressed me as deeply 
as that of the megalithie structures of Peru. I'nlike these, it is not on moun- 
tain Dlateaus or naturally fortified heights. It is right on the sea ; and only at 
low tide is there any possibility of a land-force approaching it from the island ; 
and then only by wading across the shallow pools and lagoons of the reef, 
a perilous undertaking under an equatorial sun, as I found at the cost of many 
a blister, and the ultimate loss of roils of epidermis. But its streets are 
canals, along which even at fairly low tide, a canoe can find its way. The 
mangrove has taken possession of their borders ; and vet, as we paddle or 
pole along their watery miles glimpses of the enormous blocks that line them 
and make the breastwork of their island platforms, impress iis with their 
colossal proportions perhaps more than i*^ they had all stood up clear in the 
sunlight. 

" Christian's book on the Caroline Islands, following the monographs of 
Kubary cf tragic death, stirred scholars to puzzled thought over the origin 
and the builders of this sea-city of the giants. They gave a plan and exact 
measurements of its islands and walls and stones. They excavated one or 
two of the tombs, and found shell beads and shell-axes and shell-wristlets 
and breast-ornaments. But it threw no light on the problem : how could this 
great city of colossal stones have arisen like a dream out of the sea ? How 
could people who had no better than shell decorations and shell axes have 
quarried and transported and erected in their place these countless blocks 
that only the most moiiern appliances would seem able to manipulate ? How- 
could this megalithie Venice have sprung into being thousands of miles from 
all continents, all great centres of civilisation, and all great routes of traffic ? 

" A more recent visitor, a Dr. Hambruch, a member of a scientific ex- 
pedition from Hamburg, visited it some half-dozen years ago ; and in a short 
monograph he has given a corrected plan of the place, and revised measure- 
ments ; he has even gathered from the natives, through an interpreter new 
meanings for the old names of thi buildings, and the islands. But he has 



OF THE PACIFIC ISIAXDS (• 1 

•only added to our bewilderment. It is always perilous to venture on con- 
jecture based on local or even scientifically philological explanation of geo- 
praphical names ; but it becomes doubly perilous when the explanation is 
given in an unfamiliar language. His monograph has not led u.s' anv nearer 
to a solution of the mystery. It has rather added to the darkness of it by 
adding to our admiration for the builders of such colossal structures. 

" Easing their conjecture on four skulls, or, rather, calvaria, found by the 
former in one of the tombs, Kubary, and following him Christian, came to the 
conclusion that the builders belonged to the black race. They were either 
long or medium skulls ; and negro skulls are long. Instances are yiven of 
Micronesian skulls that are, some not quite so long and some of about the same 
length. Christian tries to strengthen this weak-kneed logic bv mentioning 
the occurrence of stone-buildings at Gaus'., in the Banko Group ; and by pro- 
fessing to find a wonderful similarity in root-words between Ponapean aiid the 
language of Ffate in the New Hebrides, and that of Mota in the Banks Group. 
He hamstrings the linguistic argument by giving plentiful illustraticms of the 
similarity of the Melanesian origin of this megalithic city without illustration 
or example. It is really Polynesian that is the keystone of the bridge that 
•connects Micronesian languages and Melanesian. 

" As for the skull measurement, it is always a slender foundation for 
conjecture as to the race of an individual or set of individuals, for in most 
races there is a mixture of long and short skulls, though in different proportions. 
But here it is fantastic, for there were only four calvaria, and these evidently 
varied in index from medium to long, as Micronesian skulls evidentlv vary, 
to judge from the examples given, and in Melanesia, as along the coast of New 
Guinea, long and short and medium heads are to be found in almost every 
village Though the skull of the negro is generally long, that of the negritto, 
or small negro, is short ; and, as far as I have been able to gather from my 
own personal observation, the primeval population of this western region of 
the Pacific from the Philippines to New Guinea, and from Xew Guinea to the 
Sovithern New Hebrides, was negritto, and over it was laid a stratum of taller 
humanity with longer heads. We shall have to find some sounder cases of 
conjecture than this if any of the darkness round this Pacific mvstcrv is to 
be dispelled 

" One of the nu st striking things about this great megalithic city is that 
it is a Venice. With Kubary and Christian, I agree, against L^arwin and Hale, 
that there is no evidence of subsidence here, of a land-citv sinking into the sea. 
The streets are as manifestly waterways as those of the Venice in the .\driatic ; 
the colossal breastworks on either .'^ide of them are all above lew tide ; the 
buildings have been erected on islands that have been plainlv laid on the reef 
by the hand of man. The reef is perhaps at its narrowest here ; but it is a 
level platform, the outer edge of which stands over oceanic depths. Right 
behind the great building there is a sheltered nook in a canal, where even 
at ebb tide a canoe could be launched into the wide ocean clear of reef and surf. 
Round about the city is a megalithic breakwater, vulnerable onlv at this point, 
yet easily guarded by a small cordon of soldiers or canoes. But in this haven- 
mouth have been dropped heaps of great stones, as if to blockade it against 
an invader by sea. 

" The clear meaning of this is that the founder of the city and its dynasty 
came o\-er the ocean and came from the east. For he made his capital on the 
€ast of the island, and he made it so that if enemies attacked him from land 
he could escape by sea in the direction whence he came. He was an oceanic 
man, and had no fear of the element on which he was bred. But he needed 
waterways that were free from the tyranny of storm and surf ; he needed to 
bring up his crafts of stone right alongside the i.slands he had made : and when 
his ideal city was built he wished to have calm waters in which he could 
exercise his fleets in war manoeuvres, or lead his stately processions of canoes 
from holy isle to holy isle, from temple to temple. 



62 STEWART'S HANI) BOOK 

" That he came from the east is confirmed l>y the threat importance 
attached to kava-making and kava-drinking in the two most temple-Hke 
building;?, Nan Tanach and Pan Katara. In front of the great steps that lead 
up to the central courtyard and its altar-tomb are huge basaltic cryst-ils 
pla< cd on end that are traditionally assigned to the making of kava. And 
the custom of kava-drinking undoubtedly comes from Polynesia ; it get* into 
I'iji, and as far north through Melanesia as the Santa Cruz group, though it 
also gets in Torres Straits as far as the Murray group, and in British New- 
Guinea west of the Ply River. It misses the Gilberts and the Marshalls ; 
for the piper mcthystica will not grow on the low coral islands. But it has 
got into Kusaie and Ponape, the easternmost of the Caroline Islands, and gets 
no further west, although the Riik group and Yap and the Pelews could 
easily grow the plant. The custom has continued to be of great importance 
in Ponape to this day. And, though there are two wild species of the areca 
palm growing on the island, betel-nut chewing has not reache 1 it ; in fact, 
it has never ■ f>me further east in the Carolines than Yap at their westernmost 
limit. 

■ .\nother revolution in the customs of Ponape points also to Poh-nesia 
as its source. In its social life mother-right is deeply rooted, as it is in the 
neighbouring ^Marshall I.slands. The community is divided into kins, and the 
man of one kin must seek his wife in another ; anything else is counted incest ; 
this is exogamy. But in Ponape, as in the Marshalls, and to a large extent 
all through the Carolines and Pelews, the children count themselves as of the 
kin of their mother ; the father's property goes to his .sister's children. But 
the chiefships in Ponape is patrilineal ; there are five chiefships in the island, 
including ^letalanim, and the .successor to them all comes from the children 
of the dead chief. If the dynasty that held sway in Ponape and built the 
mcgalithic \'enice had come from Melanesia or New Guinea, it could have 
fallen in with the mother-right of the people, and established matrilineal 
descent in the transmission of nile. Hereditary chiefship could have come 
from Polynesia alone, the realm of father-right. 

■' Nor were the Polynesians unacquainted with megalithic architecture. 
pA'idence of this we have enough in the fallen giant-circle above Apia, in the 
trilithon and the tombs of the kings in Tonga, in the truncated pyramid- 
temples of the Society group, in the megalithic hill-forts of Bass Island, and 
in the platforms of Easter Island. Though stone-platforms are erected 
in the Pelew Islands and in Yap for the great club-houses, and even for the 
ordinary houses, and though stone erections are occasionally to be found in 
ISIelanesia, they are all of small stones, they are not megalithic. The avenue 
of nioncliths seen by -\nson on Tinian and once existing also on Saipan in the 
Mariannes, was not of single stones but of concrete. 

"■ Prom these indications we find it easy to accept the hypothesis that the 
rulers who built this Ponapean Yenice came from Polynesia, or were at least 
of the Polynesian stock, a stock ab.solutely distinct from ]Melanesian and 
Micronesian. though it may have entered into the making of both. The solid 
walls indicate Japanese architects. But there are features in the architecture 
of this wonderful city that never came from the east, or from anywhere nearer 
than the continent of Asia. In the islands of the Pacific there are no buildings 
thnt make anything of the walls. In their houses, and even in their great 
community buildings, it is the roof that is all-important ; it is the roof that is 
huge, and that is decorated. The walls are, as a rule, merely pillars, with 
temporary or permanent mat or reed shutters. The only exception to this 
is the ilaori carved house, which has a large proportion of its carving and 
decoration on the w-alls ; but the exception may be due to the climate. This 
predominance of the roof is true of China, Siam, Burmah, and all Malaysia ; 
the Javanese exceptions, the pyramidal structures of Borobudur and Bram- 
panaiii, are Hindoo. We have to go again into the temperate zone in Asia 
before we fird walls predominate over the architecture of buildings. In 
Manchuria, and Korea, and Japan, but especially in the last, the Walls of 
public buildings receive as much attention as the roof. 



OF THIi PACIFIC ISLANDS f}.'} 

" The exceptional feature of the colossal structures of Metalauiin, as 
•contrasted with all other megalithic buildings and with all buildings in the 
Pacific, is the solid walls. They are from 10 to 15 feet thick. It may be urged 
that the material in which the architect had to work forced on him this form ; 
the stones lie had to build with are immense basaltic crystals ; I measured 
some more than 20 feet long and about two feet in diameter. Most of them 
are pentagonal ; but some are six-sided, others eight-sided, and many four- 
.sided. He has built them in layers that rini at right angles to each other ; 
one layer is across the wall, the next is lengthwise along the wall like '" headers 
and stringer.c." But some of the walls and platforms are only faced with these 
colossal crystals, the space between being filled in with small coral. In 
Nan Tanach the outside walls still rise in places to 30 feet after thousands 
of years of disintegration by the roots and branches of great trees. But it is 
evident that he deliberately adopted this method of architecture ; for, like the 
Inca and pre-Inca builders of Cuzco, he shaped his stones to the place they 
had to fill ; he broke his crystals into shorter lengths, and he used the chips and 
the .smaller lengths to fill the crevices. Nature had already shaped and tooled 
them in the basaltic cliffs and dykes of Chokach, away in the north. All he 
had to do was to quarry them out, probably by the aid of fire and steam and 
levers. But when they arrived on their rafts nt their destination he broke 
them and chipped them to suit his purpose, using the greater lengths to bind 
his walls together. 

" We may be sure that the architect had seen great buildings with solid 
walls. This mould he had in his mind, partly from stone structures, partlv 
from wooden. He often uses the great crystals as if they were gigantic beams 
such as we see in the tombs at Nikko and in the huge temples of Japan. In 
the foundations of the castles and palaces of that archipelago he could have 
seen enormous stones used in the same way without mortar. And what seems 
to point to a Japanese architect or architects is a projecting frieze on the top 
of the inner walls of Nan Tanach. exactly like those we see in the splendid 
mortuary buildings of Nikko ; it slopes out quite two feet beyond the wall. 

" There arc many signs in Micronesia that the existing penetration of 
this island world by J apanese traders is not the first in the history of the region. 
I was shown Japanese bronzes found deep in the coral below the forest on the 
highest point of Rota, in tlie Mariannes. The feudal society that the .Spanish 
destroyed in tliat archipelago had a close likeness to Japanese feudalism ; 
and it has been suggested that ' Chamorro ," the name of the people, is but a 
local form of ' .Samurai,' the name of the retainers of the Japanese nobles. 
Even Saipan may be a form of Japan ; for the people of the Carolines, who 
were largely recruited from Chamorro exiles, call the Japanese ' Re (people) 
Sepan.' Throughout the whole of Micronesia one can easily observe a ^Mongo- 
loid element in the faces and hair ; and especially is this observable in l^onape. 
The guide that Dr. Kersting, the Governor of ^licronesia, gave us in our ex- 
pedition to the ruins, Alipau, could have been taken for a Japanese : he had 
black lank hair, laterally projecting cheek bones, full eyelids with slits for the 
eyes to near through, and the Mongol fold over the tear duct. And he was a 
native of oMetalanim. But it is also to be said that the youth who led us 
through the waterways in his canoe was also a native of the place, and he had 
a fine Caucasian or J'luropean face and wav)' hair. Then into the languages 
of Micronesia, there enters a distinctly Turanian or agglutinative element ; 
there is a libera! use of the infix which separates the formative from the stem. 

" \\'hoever the architect or architects of the colossal city might Iv.-, the 
rulers had command of unlimited power. To quarry, raft, and haul up the 
inclined planes of earth or wood there would be required tens of tlioiisands 
of workmen. Christian .says the ruins cover ] I square miles. Ivven if this 
area was very much less, the colossal walls and breastworks wt.uld impress 
the imagination. Most of the stones were tons in weight ; some I saw could 
not have been much less than 30 tons. One I saw at least half the size of the 
largest in the fortress of Sacsahnaman, above Cuzco, in Peru ; and photo- 
graphs and pictures of that are always given to show the vast multitudes of 



64 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

labourers the Incas could coniiiiand. To explain the Iniilding of so titanic 
a city it is hard to helicve that the ruler had nothing but Ponape as it is to 
draw on. That island at its best could never have supported more than 
20,000 people, and of these not more than :.'0 per cent, would be able-bodied 
men. Of the able-bodied men of an empire not more tlian a fifth can be em- 
ployed in such a work of luxury and superfluity as the l)uildinj; of this city. 
The rest liave to raise food. This means that only S0(» would Ix- available 
for the task, and that is quite inadequate, as anyone who sails through the 
canals will testify. The empire he drew on must have been at least ten times 
as large as the oresent Ponape ; in other words, there must have been many 
larger and more populous islands under his sway. 

" To allow time for the subsidence of such territories we must throw the 
period of such an empire back some throusands of years, in fact into the pre- 
bronze era. Christian in excavating in the central tomb of Nan Tanacli 
found one piece of iron — a spear head. That probabl}' implies a burial in it 
at a much later period, just as the shell beads he found in such quantities 
imply a later invasion from Melanesia, the coast of New Guinea, or the west of 
the Carolines. And there is a tradition that Idikolkoi, a swarthy warrior 
from the south, defeated the last of the dynasty of Chau-te-l,eur, and estab- 
lished a dynasty of his own. Chau-te-I^eur is probably a dynastic name 
descriptive of the founder of the city, and is equivalent to Polynesian Hau- 
te-Roa, or the Tall King, a name that would aptly sit upon a Polynesian. 
Ivike most dynasties it would shrink in its later history into luxury and 
degenerancy, and the original empire had evidently shrunk into one-fifth of 
Pona.pe, and the kings had ceased tc be navigators, had ceased to command 
the sea. 

" If we presume the hypothesis of a Japanese or pre- Japanese architect 
from Japan to be correct, we may with safety place the building of this titanic 
Venice in the pre-bronze era. And in Japan the beginning of that era is at 
least 3,000 years old. 

■' So may we picture to ourselves in the megalithic period, just before 
bronze, a great insular empire in the east of the Carolines formed and ruled 
by bold navigators and warriors from the east, stimulated to megalithic 
achievements b}^ a new influx of men accustomed to quarry great stones and 
erect them into imposing structures. Then comes the picture of degeneracy 
and decay m this impres.sive capital by the sea. And coeval with it we may 
assume the evanishment cf the great islands that contributed the wealth and 
the muscle to build so colossal a Venice. The vast proportions of the city, 
its ambitioiis plan, its enormous blocks, and the gigantic struggle with the 
forces of Nature in the building of it are inexplicable without assuming such 
a buried empire and such a mighty pa.st." 



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or THE PACIFIC IS'^ANDS 65 



MARSHALL ISLANDS. 

^'ORMER GERMAN POSSESSIONS, NOW OCCUPIED HV JAPAN.) 

LYING to the north-west of the Gilberts, just above the equator, are the 
Marshall Islands which have an aggregate area of about 150 square 
miles and a population estimated at about 10,000 ; the most thickly 
inhabited islands being Ahrno, Majuro and Ailing-lablab. First seen by 
Saavedra in 1529 they came into the possession of Germany in 1885, and were, 
together vvith the Pelew, Caroline and Marianne groups occupied by Japan, 
on behalf of Greot Britain, toward the end of 1914, two months after the out- 
Ijreak of the war. 

The group consists of 4H atoll-lagoons, arranged in two parallel chains, 
rxmning in a north-west and south-west direction, that to the east being 
Vjiiown as Ratak (meaning "sunrise"), and that to the west as the Ralik 
("sunset"). The average distance between the chains is about 100 miles. 
The islands are among the best examples in the Pacific of the atoll formation, 
some of the lagoons being quite circular, having no passages in the reefs, 
the tides rising and falling through the coral. Kwatelene. the most consider- 
able in the group, is one of the largest atoll-lagoons in the world, stretching 
for nearly a hundred miles. The highest parts of tlie land do not exceed 
eight feet. In the southern and central islands of the group the rainfall is 
heavy, but in the northern islands long droughts occur. Consequently 
the southern islands are the most fertile and produce, besides cocoanuts 
in abundance, pandauus and breadfruit of .several kinds, bananas, paw-paws: 
and taro. In the northern islands breadfruit cannot be grown but in its place 
arrowroot flourishes. Fish of many varieties abound, but some species in 
the lagoons are poi.sonous, though, as is the case in other parts of the Pacific, 
the same fish caught outside might be quite wholesome. 

The Marshalls, particularly Ebon, were in the early days a great 
rendezvous for European whaling ships. I'<bon and Ponape, in the Carolines, 
were the half-way houses between the whaling grounds of the China Sea and 
New Zealand, where the ships refitted and obtained wood, water and pro- • 
vLsions, and tales are still told by the old men in the long, hot, moonlit nights, 
as they sit under the dark eaves 'of the pandanus thatch, of the orgies that 
went on in those wild times. Rightly or wTongly, the whalers are blamed for 
introduction of venereal disease common among the natives. The first 
trading vessels to visit the ]\larshalls were those of Messrs. R. Towns & Co., 
oi Sydney, and American ships with headquarters at San Francisco. In 
January, 1888. the Jaluit Company, a share company registered in Hamburg, 
with a capital of £75,000. took over the administration of the group, under an 
agreement' with the (German Go\ernment, with power to impose rates and 
taxes. The trade of the eroup was by this time largely in the hands of three 
firms — Messrs. Hernsheim & Co., of Hamburg, whose interests the Jaluit 
Company absorbed ; Henderson and Macfarlane, of Auckland ; and Crawford 

C 



66 5TEV/ART'S HAND BOOK 

and Co., of San Francisco. The American company were bought (mt, and the 
Auckland firm sold their interests in the trade to the Pacific Islands Company 
of Sydney, who soon found that it could not compete with the suli.sidised 
German firm. The Pacific Islands Company got £3")0 a yenr from the British 
Government for carrying mails, and nothing at all from the Australian (Govern- 
ment, while the Jaluit Company drew a large subvention from the (".crman 
Colonial Office. There could only be one end to this unequal struggle, and 
the Pacific Islands Company sold out to the Jaluit firm. The profits of the 
latter, whilst enjoying a monopoly of the trade, are said to have amounted 
in one year (1904) to £40,000. The policy of the Jaluit administration was 
naturally to draw trade away from the Australian ports, and no objection to 
this attempt was made, or could be made, so long as the " open door " was 
maintained. When it was evident that Australia was likely to lose the whole 
of the trade of these islands, Messrs Burns, Philp & Co. determined to make 
an effort to retain what trade Australia had with the Marshalls and to regain 
some of the lost ground. Burns, Philp & Co. had already one vessel trading 
in the Gilbert and Pvllice groups, and, under arrangement with the Common- 
wealth Government, they decided to increase their service by another steamer, 
and extend their operations to the Marshall group. They speedily acquired 
considerable standing in the Marshall Islands, and tlie Jaluit Company, 
to whom the group had been farmed out, became alarmed, and determined 
to shut out British trade as far as they were able. The tax levied on vessels 
trading in the German protectorate was £50 per voyage, and the first step of 
the Jaluit Company towards the exclusion of their opponents was to exact a 
license fee of £22.5 per month on every foreign vessel trading with the i.slands. 
True, the regulations stated that German vessels must pay the same, but the 
only German vessels allowed in the Marshalls were the company's own, 
so if they went through the farce of paying, it was merely an exhibition of 
the well-known process of transferring money from one pocket to another. 
This was the German idea of the open door ; Although the tax of £225 per 
month represented 15s. on every ton of cargo obtainable at the islands, it 
was foimd that the Australian steamers did not at once give up the trade, 
and the Jaluit Company, as administrators of the protectorate, promptly 
raised the tax to £450 a month, equal to 80s. a ton on the cargo of copra 
carried away. 

As a result of negotiations between Great Britain and Germany these 
obstacles to trading were removed, and the German Government terminated 
the agreement with the Jaluit Company concerning the administration of the 
islands, and on April 17, 1900, the administration, and especially the collection 
of revenue, was assumed by the German Government itself, which at once 
made a show of throwing the ports open to all nationalities. The Jaluit 
Company, however, received a subsidy of £7,000 per annum to maintain one 
small steamer running between Sydney and Hongkong, touching en route 
at the German owned islands. With the special freight concessions given by 
the large German lines, the (rerman l>usiness houses continued^ to hold a 
great advantage over outside competitors. 

The natives are in common with nearly all the island races, decreasing in 
numbers. Thev are good-looking, distinctly slit-eA-ed like Chinese, of a light 



OK THK PACIFIC ISLANDS 67 

copper colour, and of a kind disposition, with a natural bias toward hospitality 
and peace. \'isitations of epidemics, such as dengue fever and influenza, 
have claimed many \ictims. They are an intelligent and ingenious people 
and remarkably good sailors. Long voyages were made in their well-built 
outrigger canoes with large mat sails. It is recorded that about 50 years 
ago a flotilla of canoes filled with warriors set out for the Carolines and reached 
Pingelap, conquered that island and returned safely to their homes. At 
times these expeditions were overtaken by heavy weather and destroyed, 
whole fleets being lost. About 1857 the '" Morning Star," the ves.sel of the 
American Board of Missions, entered Ebon Ivagoon and established the first 
mission station in the group. The missionaries taught the people to read and 
write and all are now nominally Christians. Several curious customs prevail. 
The line of succession comes through the female. The chiefs in the past had 
many wives but unless the son was by a woman of one of the chief families 
paternity would confer no rights and the son would remain an ordinary- native. 
The chief families are the owners of all the land, the ordinary natives being 
merely tenants who pay as rent the copra produced during six months of 
the year, keeping the balance for themselves and to pay the (Government 
taxes. In olden days when deaths took place the bodies of ordinary natives 
were thrown into the sea, only those of chief birth having the privilege of 
burial ashore. 

The Jaluit lagoon, on an islet in which are the Government offices and 
the headquarters of the Jaluit Company, is a very fine one, about 40 miles 
long and 12 miles broad. There are four wide and easy passages, through 
which vessels of any size can pass and the anchorage is abundant and safe. 
Majuro Lagoon, deep and secure, was chosen as the especial rendevous 
for German stores, coal, &c., and for the repairs, &c. of w^arships had a naval 
engagement taken place in the Pacific during the war. 

The north-east trade winds prevail from December to July, and from 
July to November westerly winds and calms are usually experienced. Al- 
though not subject to typhoons like the CaroUnes, hurricanes occasionally 
visit the group, the last severe one occurring in June, 1905, when Jaluit, 
Ahrno, Majuro and one or two other islands were more or less devastated. 
Large numbers of Japanese have settled in the group, particularly at Jaluit, 
and many schools have been established by them. Several parties of chiefs 
and other important personages in the group have been taken on sight- 
seeing tours to Japan. 

Mr. T. J. McMahon. F.R.G.vS., in a recent article on the Marshall Islands, 
says : — 

" The Marshall Islanders are all quite civilised, and have many charming 
and interesting characteristics. Unfortunately, under tlieir late masters, 
the Germans, the}- were grossly and cruelly opposed^.and their numbers have 
dwindled to no more than about 10,000. They bitterly hate the C'.ermans. 
At present the only big industry of the islan<lers is copra fllaking. it is carefully 
sun-dried, and is reckoned the most oily and best class of copra in the Pacific. 
Since the coming of the Japanese, they have been encouraged to make Panama 
hats, and more of their beautiful mats for export, and which are made from the 



68 STEWART'S HAND BOC>K 

•cocoanut and pandamis palius. It is said over in the Marshalls, an.l as tlie 
native kings and chiefs understand, that should the Japane.se becotiie tlie 
owners, or have the protection of the Marshalls, several industries will begin 
under Japanese management — for instance, rope making from tlie cocoanut 
fibre, which there is no doubt, will be found the toughest and strongest of 
ropes, not easily- perished by water. Some of the chiefs are hoping that 
when the peace terms are settled, they will be allowed to come to Australia, 
as they are very anxious to enlist the sympathy of the Australian people in 
their behalf, to aid them in getting the (Government they particularly desire 
to nxle them. They are anxious to see Australian trade increase, and es- 
pecially that all their copra should come to Australian ports. Remarkably 
successful and progressive has been the Japanese administration of the 
Marshalls since 1914, when they took up occupation for the Allies. Most 
humane, too, has been the care of the natives, and it is quite a common sight, 
daj- and night, to see the Japanese hospital in Jaluit — the capital of the 
groups — ^hundreds of natives, men, women and children being attendo<l to, 
or awaiting treatment, the dociors and nurses all being highly qualified and 
Japanese. Another good result of Japanese energy, for such it can only be 
termed, is the new vigour and hope that has been encouraged in the natives, 
for they are showing a marked improvement in the planting and increa.se of 
crops of the cocoanut. The Japanese authorities haye issued wise regulations 
demanding that all waste lands be planted up. The natives were a*: first 
reluctant to obey, making the excuse that sufficient labour could not be 
found, but urged on by the administration, and in a kindly way, the results 
already have astonished the natives, and they seemed inclined to carry on tlie 
v,'ork realising that in six or .seven years the copra crop of the Marshalls 
will be just about double what it is now, and that means more comfort, 
pleasure, and wealth for kings, chiefs and people. There is no doubt that 
soon the Marshalls will be very prominent in Pacific affairs, for in reality 
they are the gateway of the Mid- Pacific, and are almost exactly to a mile, 
equidistant from Austraha, America and Japan. To Australians most 
particularly, does the future of the Central Pacilc concern, and the Austra- 
lian trade that is there now should on no account be allowed to fail, for failure 
means a prompt opening to some ether nation, for many are eager to secure 
a trade footing. The progress alone of Japanese trade in the Marshalls in 
the last four years is so startling in amount, showing keenness anfl deter- 
mination that, in another few years, it will be a rival too powerful to shift 
or even to permit competition. The Japanese are not illiberal in spirit, 
and are not in any way hindering Australian trade, but it can hardl}- be 
expected that they will lag in their efforts, because .Vustralia wants some of 
the trade, but is unambitious in her methods, imlifferent to the prospects 
of the Central Pacific. There is a great commercial future in the Marshall 
Islands, and the sooner Australians are interested in that future the better 
for Australia." 

With common-sense methods, undeniably Japanese in ideals, actions and 
thoroughness, the islanders are developing a charming new national character, 
three-parts Marshall and one part Japanese. Respect for their new Govern- 
ment has been effectively implanted in the people, and no native — man, 
woman or child — meets afi official without giving him the polite, low, graceful, 
svfeeping bow of Japan. No such common and offensive word as " Jap." 
is ever heard; the term Japanese is always used. The Marshall Islanders 
are taught to recognise in the Japane.se an honourable, capable and might}' 
nation. All trouble.some and detrimental influences likely to thwart Japanese 
ideals in this respect have been destroyed. The use of the German langua^?e 
is forbidden ; German schools are closed on all lagoons, except in Jaluit, and 
there the school is under the direct supervision of the administration. It is 
Japanese law in the Marshalls, not German, and those laws, with their regu- 
lations, are making a perfectly new set of conditions, stirring up the blood 
of a once indolent race of Pacific natives, ^^'aste lands are being quickly 
lestored to commercial value by the command that the copra trade must 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS t5<) 

increase forthwith in every lagoon. Japanese traders — smart, ckqjper little 
men, speaking Knglish fluently, already masters of the Marshall language, 
and having been trained in either England or America — are to be found in 
•every lagoon. They are keen, active traders, alive to every prospect of the 
Marshalls, friendly and kindly, and helpfiil to the natives, and, in their spare 
time, acting as schoolmasters, Japanese trade, springing up on every side, 
is adapted to local wants, and so increasing every hour of the day. There is 
a complete domestic and social upheaval in the Marshalls. The intluence of 
Japanese traders cannot be disputed. The people dress like the Japanese : their 
pretty manners are quite Japanese; they like Japanese food, and buv large 
quantities of Japanese tinned goods. Japanese biscuits, all of excellent 
qualit)' and attractively got up to please both the eye aTid the palate, are \ ery 
popular. Japanese schools, with Japanese schoolmasters and mistresses, 
have begun a style of modern education that is giving a most wonderful pro- 
spect, and the results that will follow promise to be sound, useful, and com- 
mercial. T!ie Marshall Islands boys and girls have a xery high average 
intelligence. The native schoolboy is a perfectly drilled Japane.se naAal 
cadet, looks smart in his uniform and cap, and thinks no end of himself and 
his Japanese officers. The native girl is becoming an adept in womanlv 
duties ; she quickly learns the little feminine accomplisliments characteristic 
of the Japanese girls, and is really a perfect little lady on Japanese lines. 
The Japanese, in short, in uplifting these natives, have done in four years, 
and with decided success, what the Germans neglected to do in iM 3-ears. 
Germans may make claim for the restoration of the ^tarshalls ; but wliat 
they have failed to do there and their treatment of the native people will be 
the greatest argument against them, backed up 1)y the particular wish of the 
people that German ownership shall never again be allowed to claim their 
lagoons, or German trade be permitted to enter them. If the Marshall 
Islands are to remain under the protection of the Japanese, in ten years' 
time they will form a New Japan. 



stkwart's hand book 



LADRONE, or MARIANNE ISLANDS. 

I.ATli GERMAN rOSSKSSIONS— WITH THIC liXCIvPTION OF CLAM 
OWNICD BY THP: T'NITKD STA/rivS. 

DISCOVERKD by :Magellan in lo21, and Christianised about 1662, 
the Ladrones (or Marianne Islands) came under Spanish rule, and by 
that power were, in 181H), excepting Guam, the largest of the group — 
which had been previously ceded to the United States — sold, with the Caro- 
hnes and the Pelews. to German}', who lost them in the war. Thev are 
mountainous, well watered and wooded ; among the trees are the breadfruit, 
banana and cocoanut ; and are fruitful in rice, maize, cotton and indigo. 

The group consists of 17 islands, which lie between 13 degrees and 21 
degrees N.. and have a total area of about 450 square miles. The climate 
is a healthy one, but the islands are occa.sionally visited bj' severe earth- 
cjuakes and typhoons. The rainy season occurs in midsummer with the south- 
west winds, Imt rain falls at intervals throughout the year, and droughts are 
rare. The thermometer varies between 70 degrees and 80 degrees I^ahr. 

A\'lien first known the islands are said to have had a population of 100,000. 
At the present time hardly one of the original race survives, the islands being 
peopled chiefly from the Philippines, with a few Caroline islanders and 
nvimerous half-breeds. The Chamorros, as the original inhabitants were 
termed, were in many ways a fine race. An ancient feudalism existed, the 
people being divided into nobles, priests and plebeians, and their religion 
was a sort of ancestor worship. They have left behind them some memorials 
of a civilisation which are certainly higher than that existing among the natives 
at the pre-sent day. 

The Island of Guam, the largest of the Marianne Islands, was ceded by 
Spain by Article 2 of the Treaty of Paris, of December U), 1898. It lies 
between latitudes 1.3.13 deg. and 13.39 deg. north, and longitudes 144.37 deg. 
and 144.58 deg. east. The estimated area of the island is 225 square miles. 
Its distance from Manila is 1,506 miles, and from San Francisco 5,044 miles. 
The inhabitants call themselves Chamorros, but the present generation is a 
mixed race with the Malay strain predominating. Their language, a Poly- 
nesian tongue, is also called Chamorro. About 10 per cent, speak English. 
Instruction in the English language is complusory in the public schools. 
The northern half of the island is a plateau from 400 to 600 feet in height 
and is. except where cleared for cultivation, heavily wooded. The southern 
half is much broken by hills from 1,200 to 1,300 feet in height. They are in 
general barren, but the valleys between them are very fertile, and several 
streams traverse this portion of the island. There are no perennial streams 
in the northern half of the island which is largely compo.sed of coralliferous 
limestone, the southern half of volcanic clays. The productions are cocoanuts. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 71 

<:orn, rice, tobacco, cocoa and tropical fruits. Only the dried meat of the 
-cocoanut (copra) is exported. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, 
the island exported 1,202 tons of this product, one third to Yokohama and 
the other two-thirds to San Francisco. The total population July 1, 1918, 
-exclusive of officers and enlisted men of the Navy and ]Marine Corps and their 
families, were 14,344, of whom 14,124 are cla.s.sed as " natives.' Of the foreign 
born population only 69 were Americans. The death rate per thousand was 
17.6, and the birth rate 47.2. The imports, exclusive of military and naval 
stores and supplies, were valued at £71,629 of which all but £16,488 was 
received from the United States or its possessions. The principal imports 
were lumber, rice, flour, tinned and fresh meats, canned provisions, auto- 
mobiles, kerosene and gasoline, liquors, tobacco, clothing and cotton goods. 
The reveniies of theinsular Government were £21,905 and expenditure £22, 152. 
For administrative purposes Guam is under the Navy Department, the whole 
island being termed a naval station. The Governor is a naval officer designated 
by the President The present Governor is Captain Roy C. Smith, of the 
United States Navy, who assumed office on May 30, 191 6. A marine barracks, 
naval hospital and station ship are maintained at Guam. The Commercial 
Pacific Cable Company maintains a cable station in Guam and cables from 
Manilla, Yokohama, Midway and Yap Islands are landed there. A high 
power radio station, constructed by the Navy Department, was opened for 
communication in November, 1917. The United States Department of 
Agriculture has an experiment station there, the special agent in charge 
being Mr. C. \V. Edwards. There are 4,000 head of cattle on the island, 
including 900 water buffaloes. The port of entry is Apra which is closed 
to foreign vessels except by permit from the United States Government. 
Apra is large and commodious but is entirely unimproved. During the fiscal 
vear ending June 30, 1918, 47 vessels of a total tonnage of 107,880 visited 
the port. 

The capital is Agana, in the north central part, on the western coast, 
its population being estimated at 9.000. 

The leading officials are as follow : — Capt.qin Roy. C. Smith, U.S. Navy 
■Governor .ind Commandant ; Captain John A. McCiee, U.S.N.R.F., Senior 
Aide ; Lieutenant-Commander Edwin I,. Jones, U.S.N., Health Officer ; 
Lieutenant-Commander Carroll Paul, U.S.N., Public ^^'orks Officer ; Major 
Ralph J. 3.1itchell, U.S.^I.C. Commander Officer of Mariners; Lieutenant 
■George A. Wilcox, U.S.N., vSupplj' and Disbursing Officer. 

The following description of the Marianne, or Ladrone Islands, from 
the pen of Mr. Gregor Sabian, was given in the New Guinea GovcnDiinit 

There are 17 islands in the Mariainie Ciroup. The majority of them are 
supposed to be of volcanic origin, as old craters are found on "^hem. Still, 
it may be that some of them are of coral formation, as coral has been found 
on the mountains 500 metres above sea level. The climate is tropical, damp, 
and healthy. Malarial iever is not to he dreade'l. 'I'he group was discovered 
b\- the fearless Portuguese navigator, Hernando Magellan, in 1521, and named 
the I^adrones. meaning " the thieves" (the natives having stolen a boat and 
some iron from his ships). The natives of later and more enlightened genera- 
tions naturally resented this name, hailing, as it does, from the time when 
■stone implements were still in vogue, and the idea of " property rights" w:isi 



72 STJCWAKT S HAND BOOK 

not developed. Nobody will blame us for this sensitiveness. The name was 
chantied (through the influence of a missionary, Sanvitores) to " Mariannes," 
after the .Spanish Queen, Maria Ana. vSpain had possession of the islands 
for close on 400 years, but through her unfortunate war with tlie United 
vStates in 1898, she lost the largest island, Guam, and shortly afterwards sold 
the remainder, together with the Caroline group, to Germany. 

Guam, with 14,344 inhabitants, and covering 514 square kilo-n'etres, 
i."5 the soutliernmost and the largest of tlie lot. Though lacking good harbours, 
— like the rest of the Mariannes —it has become important as a base for 
the United States Pacific P'leet. A considerable amount of money has been 
spent liere, especially on Agana, which has been made the seat of Government 
for the American portion. Agana is now quite a modern town with 9,000 
inhabitant?. Many of the buildings are from the time of the Spaniards, 
but the wide streets, illuminated with electricity or gas. the water supply, 
the hospitals and schools, the telephone system, are all due to American 
enterprise. I^ife in Agana is almost like that of a Ivuropean city. Concerts 
are regularly given by the military orchestra, two cinematograph theatres 
admit people at very reasonable prices, while various clubs, such, as the 
Military Club, the Civil Club, and the Natives' Club, gather into their folds 
the stragglers and those who like to spend an evening away from home. Beauti- 
ful promenades are made and tracks for fast motor cars lead to various places 
in the island. Baseball is the favourite sport, and is indulged in by Americans 
and natives alike. The American garrison adds considerably to the life and 
picturesque appearance of the place. 

The natives, the Chamorros, move about with more ea.se in Guam than 
is the case with tho.se living in the islands recenth^ held Ijv the Germans. 
The reason for this is that in Guam they associate more with the whites and 
are considered more on a par with them. The}' have excellent schools, even 
a high school. Natives attain to the highest positions, such as Judges, Police 
Magistrates, Custom Officials, &c., and no difference is made as to salary 
between Americans and natives. The connection with the United States is 
maintained through a regular monthly transport service, while the man- 
o'-war stationed at Guam often carries mails to and from IManila. Man}' of 
the natives have visited America, Japan and other places. Tho.se in (lOvern- 
ment employ are, at the expiration of two years' agreement entitled to such a 
trip by the war boat. 

The names of the Marianne Islands recently belonging to Germany 
are : — Rota, Agiguan, Tinian, Saipan, Medinilla, Anatahan, Sarignan, Gugnan, 
Alimagan, Pagan, Agrigan, AsongvSong, Mang and Urakas. Of these Saipan 
is the biggest, covering 181 square kilometres, and sustaining a population 
of approximately 2,r>00. The principal place is Saipan, and the seat of the 
German Administration was Garapan, with 2,000 inhabitar.ts. Here is to be 
.seen a school (founded by Bezirksamtmann Fritz), a fairlv big church, four 
stores, a native soap factory, a native bank, and beyond this nothing worth 
menticming. Half of the people in Saipan are Carolines, having been brought 
there as labourers in 1860 by an English captain named Johnson. The mail 
boat \-isits Saipan six times a j'ear, while regular Japanese cutters keep the 
island in regular touch with Guam and Japan. Another of the inhabited 
islands. Rota, has about 500 people. The export of copra from the Marianne 
Islands in 1912 — as far as my memory serves me-- was 870 tons from Guam. 
580 from Saipan, and ?)0S from the remainder of the group. Tobacco, coffee 
and cocoa are grown for local use only. 

The dread of the Mariannes are the typhoons, which almost yearly visit 
the islands, and at times with terrible effect. Earth tremors are occasionally 
felt. especially at Rota, but none are compared with those experienced in 
Rabaul. 

Tinian is only suited for cattle, goats, pigs, and fowls, of which a great 
number are running wild in the bush. The remainder of the islands are let 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 73 

to different f.rnis or persons, for the production of copra only. Birds' skins 
are also obtained. On Pagan there are two active volcanoes. 

The original inhabitants of the Marianne Islands, the Chaniorros, belonji 
to the Malay race. At the time of the discovery by Magellan they are said 
to have numbered about 100,000. Two hundred years later the Chanior- 
ros had, through diseases introduced by the Spaniards, and through wars 
against their oppressors, been reduced to biit 1,000 people. 

In Tinian are still to be .seen mighty stone columns, parts of the houses 
that sheltered them and whicli to this <lay bear witness to a — in some respects 
— high civilisation. The few survivors reUnquished their old customs or for- 
got them : even their language Tiecame a mixture of Spanish, and they adopted 
the Roman Catholic religion. 

And as with the language so with the Chamorro himself — he made room 
for the half-caste. In the veins of the present day Chamorro — numbering, 
all told, 15,000 — runs much Spanish blood. This might explain, too, that the 
natives of the Marianne Islands are further advanced in civilisation than the 
rest of the South Sea Islanders. They adopted European dress and customs 
long ago, and even fashioned their social life on the line of their white masters. 
It is to be hoped that in time they will adopt all that is good in the European 
rulture, and cut off that which they,.^re better without. 



74 STKWAKT'S HANr. BOOK 



PHOENIX ISLANDS. 

(HRITISH.) 

NORTH of Tokelau or Union Islands lie the scattered Phoenix group, 
which have been annexed by Great Britain. They are all of the 
usual type of lagoon island, and lie over the area between the parallels 
of degrees 50 minutes N. and 4 degrees 40 minutes S., and the meridians 
of 170 degrees 41 minutes and 176 degrees 42 minutes W., and comprise the 
following : — 

Mary or Canton Island, about 9 miles long and i\ wide covered with 
low scrub. It was at one time a guano station, and is now leased to the 
Samoan Shipping and Trading Company who have planted some cocoanuts. 

Enderbury, about 3 miles long and 1| wide^ 

Birnie, about 1 J- miles in extent ; leased to Samoan Shipping and Trading 
Company. 

Phcsnix, leased to the Samoan Shipping and Trading Company, is very 
fertile, with a fresh water lagoon in the centre. It is the haunt of thousands 
of birds and also abounds with rabbits. 

Gardner or Kemins, about 2^ miles in extent, with a large deep water 
lagoon. It is densely wooded and is leased to the Samoan Shipping and 
Trading Company. 

M'Kean, ij miles long and three-quarters of a mile wide. 

Hull and Sydney, with cocoanut plantations, both leased to Samoaa 
Shipping and Trading Company. 



Baker and Howland, situated just north of the line, are generally 
reckoned as part of the Phoenix group, although they do not properly belong 
thereto. The group was at one time the seat of operations of the Phoenix 
Guano Company, but the supply is now exhausted. I^ittle is produced 
besides copra. 



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OF THIC PACIFIC ISLANDS 77 



FIJI ISLANDS. 

{BRITISH.) 

FIJI,* or more correctly Viti, comprises between 200 and 250 islands* 
of which about 80 are inhabited, lying about 1 ,800 miles north-east 
of Sydney and 1,200 miles north of New Zealand. The total area 
of the group is 7,451 square miles, so that it is about equal to ^\ales in size. 
The principal island, Viti Levu (Great Fiji) claims roughly half ot this area, 
and \'anua Levu (Great Land) a quarter. The larger islands are mountainous, 
rising to heights of over 4 ,000 feet. Nearly all are clothed from base to summit 
in a mantle of verdant green, while the valleys are covered with magnificent 
tropical flora, rich and abundant in variety. It is an exceedingly well- 
watered country. The Rewa River, which drains the eastern part of Viti 
Le\ i;, is navigable for vessels of light draught for more than 50 miles. The 
other large rivers of Viti Levu are the Sigatoka^ Nadi and Ra, and, of Vanua 
Levu, the Dreketi, Labasa. Wai Levu and Wainunu. Besides these, almost 
every valley in the group has its brawling stream fed from an inexhaustible 
spring. Th^ group is rich in harbours. Kach island is surrounded with a 
barrier reef, through which numerous openings lead to safe anchorage, pro- 
tected by a natural breakwater. 

The following are the principal inhabited islands, with their area ap- 
proximately in square miles : 

Viti Levu 4,112; Vanua Levu, 2,4.'',2; Taviuni, 217; Kadavu, 124; 
Koro, 58 ; Gau, 45 ; Ovalau, 4:5 ; Moala, 28 ; Rabi, 28 ; Oamia, 26 ; Winua 
Balavu, 24; Vatu Lele, iS; Ono, 13; Beqa, 13; Yadua, 12; I/akeba, 12; 
Matuku, 11 ; Totoya, 11 ; Mago, 10 ; Cicia, 10 ; Nairai, 10 ; Laucala, 9 ; Kioa, 
9 ; Naitamba, 9 ; Kanacia, 8 ; Mokogai, 5 ; Batiki, 5 ; Yasawas and other 
isles, probably 90 ; total square miles, 7,451 ; total acres, 4,768,640. 

Tlie islands were discovered on March 5, 1643, by .Abel Jansen Tasuian, 
who. however, does not appear to have found anchorage. ^lore than a century 
later Captain Cook sighted the south-eastern part of the group. He was 
followed by Captain Bligh, who passed through the group in the " Bounty's " 
launch (1789), and Captain Wilson, of the ' Duff/' in 1797. It is possible that 
some of the navigators of the seventeenth century, who sailetl from South 
America and were never heard of again, may have visited the group, and 
during the eighteenth century there must have been occasional intercourse 
between the natives and the Spanish ; but the islands remained practically 
unknown until 1804, when a parly of escaped convicts from New South 



* A full description of the group is given in the " Cyclopedia of Fiji," 
edited by Percy S. Allen, and publish.ed in 1907, ty Messrs. McCarrou, Stewart 
and Co., of Sydney. 



78 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

Wales settled down atiiong the natives. These were followed by traders, 
until in ISSi) a small settlement of whites was established at I^evuka, which 
became the first white capital — a distinction of which Suva has deprived it 
since 1882. In 1855, the American (Government having pressed a claim for 
£9,000 against the chief Cakobau, which he was quite unable to meet, and the 
justice of which he never admitted, the leading chiefs offered to cede the islands 
to England, on condition that the claim should be satisfied. The Commis- 
sioners reported unfavourably, and the offer was refused (1861). In 1871 a 
Constitutional Government was established by the Europeans for the " King- 
dom of Fiji "' under Cakobau as king, but it broke down in 1873, owing to the 
opposition of the settlers in outlying districts, and in 1874 the chiefs formally 
offered to cede the islands to Great Britain, and sovereignity was proclaimed 
by Sir Hercules Robinson, G.C.M.G., Governor of New_ South Wales, on 
23rd September, 1874. A year later the administration was assumed by 
Sir Arthur Gordon, the first Governor. Under Letters Patent, dated 17th 
December, 1880, the island of Rotumah, lying between 12 degrees south 
latitude, was, on the petition of the chiefs, annexed to the colony of I'iji. 
Since cession to Great Britain the colony has made great progress. Its 
affairs are administered by a Governor and Executive Council. There is also 
a Legislative Council under the Presidency of the Governor, composed of 
10 officials, seven elected (European), two native members and one Indian 
member. In native matters the group is governed as far as possible in accord- 
ance with the usages of the people themselves. There is a graduated scale, 
which connects the humblest individual with the Governor. The first step 
up the ladder is the family council ; then the village coirneil ; ahd after that 
the district, and then the provincial council, and, finally, the " Bose Vaka- 
turaga," or assembly of great chiefs. The high chiefs of the provinces are 
styled " Roko Tui," an ancient native title. Their functions may be com- 
pared to those of the lord lieutenants of English countries. They administer 
and are responsible to the Government for their respective charges. Many 
of the posts are now filled by European officers, holding the appointments of 
District Commissioner; Under them are heads of districts, called " Bulis," 
who again preside over the " Turaga-ni-koro," or chiefs of the villages under 
their charge. These various component parts meet every six months in the 
provincial council, where they regulate their own internal affairs, levy rates 
for the payment of the police, district clerks and local officials generally, 
arrange for the making and maintenance of roads and all matters connected 
with the province. The proceedings are conducted with proper regularity, 
mainly due to the presence of a white official from the Native department, 
who keeps the meeting from wandering into the mazes of ultra-legislation. 

There is frequent steam communication with Sydney and Auckland, 
and Suva is also a port of call for the Canadian mail steamers, and is one of 
the Pacific cable stations. There is also a wireless station of considerable 
power, while there are four other stations which maintain inter-insular 
communication. A large amount of capital has been invested in tropical 
products, and business has steadily increased. 

The population of the group according to the estimate on December 31st, 
1917, was as follows : — 



Europeans 
Fijians . . 
Half-castes 
Indians 
Polynesians 
Chinese . . 
Others .. 



OF THE PACIFIC 1S:,ANDS ^9 



4,811 

91,013 

2,723 

61,153 

2,704 

890 

524 



163,818 

There has since been a considerable addition to the Indian and European 
population. For some years there was a decrease of a steady nature going 
on among the Fijians, but, of late, after a stationary period the number of 
I'"^jians has begun to increase. Where the figure for the Fijians in 1911 
stood at 87,096, at the end of 1917 it stood at 91,013, an increase of 3,917. 
This figure is all the more satisfactory as increase was solely during the last 
two or three years. 

The decrease in the previous years was due almost entirely to a high 
mortality amongst infants, the precise cause of which it was difiicult to specify. 
Amongst other persons advanced were the comparati\ ely weak maternal 
feeling of Fijian women, the introduction of new diseases, such as measles, 
whooping-cough, influenza, &c., with which the natives could not cope, 
and the disappearance of many of their old necessities and social customs 
which tended to ensure the close care of infant children. The advance of 
education and a higher standard of living account very largely for the increase 
in the birth rate. l''iji affords a world-famous example of the virulence 
which may be acquired by a disease when transplanted to a virgin soil. In 
1875 measles was accidental!}' introduced for the first time into the group by 
H.M.S. " Dido," and in a short time about 40,000 of the natives are believed to 
have perished. Heavy mortality was also caused by the influenza epidemic 
at the end of 1918. 

The Fijians are a well-made, stalwart race, differing in colour according 
to the situation in which they live. The mountaineers show the frizzled 
hair and dark colour of the Melanesian, while his neighbours on the coast 
betray a strong admixture of Malayo-I'olynesian blood. In character they 
have been described as full of contradictions, but perhaps the unfavourable 
opinion of them is due to the fact that they are incapable of feeling any en- 
during gratitude or lasting attachment. On the other hand, they are tract- 
able, docile, and hospitable. They have now all embraced Christianity. 
Having few wants, and blessed by Nature with the means of supplying them, 
they are not spurred on to exertion by the want of money, and they dislike 
prolonged and .sustained work ; but in their own fashion they are industrious. 
They are by nature intensely conservative, and slow to discard their own cus- 
toms in favour of those of civilised peoples, but the gradual use of European 
articles for which money must be procured has of late years led many of tliem 
to seek work on the plantations, and the supply of native labour is at all times 
equal to the demand. For clearing new groimd or .shipping cargo, they are 
by some settlers preferred to coolie or Polynesian labourers. 

The Government has aimed at disturbing their social and political 
organisation as little as possible, and has hitherto most successfully con- 



80 STEWART'S UAND BOOK 

trolled the people llirounh their chiefs. The native laws are administered 
by native agents under supervision of Kuropean officers, and, although native 
officials make mistakes, the people on the whole have shown themselves 
worth}' of being allowed a share in their own government. It would be im- 
possible, without incurring enormous expense, to replace the chiefs by white 
officials, and the experiment would be unsuccessful. The non-recognition 
by the, Government of the leading chiefs would not abate their influence in 
the least, and, in place of the loyal assistance they now render to the Govern- 
ment, they might become the foci for discontent and opposition. At the 
present time there is not a more law-abiding community in the world than 
these former savages ; and with greater attention to sanitary matters and the 
attainment of a higher moral standard, and the abolition of their primeval 
communism, it is hoped that the decrease in their numbers may Vje arrested. 

Certain changes in the habits and in the food of the people must, however, 
be effected. Kvery attention is being given by the Government to this end ; 
b!'t in dealing with the internal policy of the Vijian race tie festina len!e 
must be ever kept in view. 

The oldest established church in Fiji is the Methodist Mission, founded 
in 1835, by the Rev. D. Cargill and the Rev. W. Cross. Owing to an excellent 
system of organisation they have, with a small staff of liuropeans, so extended 
the sphere of their influence that there is not a single declared heathen in 
Fiji at the present time. There are churches or meeting-houses in nearly 
every village, the children are taught arithn:etic and reading, and writing in 
their own language. Besides the Scriptures and the grammar and dictionary, 
the mission has published seven or eight books in Fijian. The Roman 
Catholic Mission was founded in 1844. The missionaries belong to the Society 
of Mary, and are of French nationalit}'. The mission supports an orphanage 
for the children of Roman Catholic parents, and has established schools for 
European children both at Suva and L,evuka. The Church of Englandj 
founded in 1870, has churches in both Suva and Levuka. The incumbents of 
both places have established English schools for ]Melanesian immigrants. 
There is also a well-attended Presbyterian Church in Suva. Up to 1917 
the task of educating the native Fijian had fallen on the shoulders of the 
Methodist and Catholic Missions, with, the exception of a Government High 
School at Nasinu, near Suva, where the sons of chiefs are educated, and a 
high school at Lakeba, in the I<au Group, which is maintained by the natives 
of that group with a Government grant-in-aid. In 1916 a new Education 
Act was pasredi whereby all schools in the colony will receive Govermnent 
assistance provided they comply with certain conditions. In Suva there are 
boys and girls grammar schools, with board, for Europeans conducted under 
Government supervision, the expenses of which are provided by local rates 
and a Government grant. A boarding school for boys in connection with the 
grammar school was built in vSuva in 1917 at a cost of £10,000. There i.s a 
day and boarding scl.'ool in I»evuka under Government control for Europeans, 
and it is hoped to.e.stablish schools for European children in all the principal 
centres in the country. 

Fiji possesses , probably the mo.st healthy tropical climate in the workl. 
Malarial fever i.s. unknown. Experience has shown that; the climate is well 



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MENISCUS 



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The term indicates a lens 
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OK THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 83 

suited to Kuropean women and children, and, provided that newcomers 
use ordinary precautions against chills, there is no more danger of the ordinary 
tropical diseases than there is in New South Wales. The death rale among 
Kuropeans is exceptionally low. Although on the weather side the atmos- 
])here is humid and the vegetation prohise in growth, while on the lee side 
the weather is drier and the soil more or le.ss barren, there is no great corres- 
ponding difference in temperature. From observations made at Suva the 
absolute maximum and absolute minimum may be placed at almo.<it 90 and 
(53 degrees Fahr. respectively, and the daily mean- at 79 degrees, l-'ebruary 
and March are the hottest months with a mean of 8.'' degrees, and July and 
August the coolest. F'rom June to the end of October is the period of least 
Tain, the heavier, rains falling in the hot season, a great advantage from an 
agricultural point of view ; but the rainfall is vmcertain and variable, both as 
regards time and quantity. The total rainfall probably exceeds 100 inches. 
A drawback to the islands, much dreaded by the planters, are the hurricanes, 
which happily do not occur very frequently. 

The chief industries of the colony are the cultivation and manufacture 
of raw sugar, the making of copra, rvibber, the cultivation and exportation 
of green fruit, the manufacture of distilled spirit (a by-product from sugar), 
the export of the peanut (prized for its oil and in the manufacture of con- 
fectionery), pearlshell, trochas shell, turtleshell, and beche-de-mer, the growth 
and manufacture of tobacco, and the cultivation of rice. These are the main 
industries ; they by no means exhaust the list. Indian corn is grown in large 
<]uantities, and seems to thrive in any part of the group. Coffee grows well, 
both the Liberian and Arabian varieties, as does vanilla, which has realised 
^ood prices in the open market. Tea and cocoa have proved to be suited to 
the conditions. 

Rubber has proved to be a very profitable industry and .several plantations 
which have come into bearing during the past few years are yielding rich 
dividends. A large area is now being put under this profitable product. 

Suva is a very picturesque place, affording delightful glimpses of tropical 
vegetation and island life. It can be reached in about four days from Auck- 
land, and it is a matter for surprise that more Australians and New Zealanders 
do not visit it. Those who make the experiment find themselves in a new 
world. It is a fascinating experience when one sees for the first time the 
feathery fronds of the cocoanut palm outlined in brilliant sunshine against 
a sk}' of tropic blue. Still more exquisite is it to watch the wonderful grada- 
tions of colour exhibited bv the deep blue of the ocean, and the varying shades 
of turquoise and emerald among the coral reefs. The gardens on the hilly 
rises at the back of Suva are aflame \\ith*the scarlet hibiscus. There is a 
plenteous rainfall — it is on record that 26 J inches once fell in a single day ; 
— so that there is no lack of verdure and luxuriant vegetation. The bread- 
fruit tree — the chief dehght of the most romantic period in a boy's life — 
bananas, pineapple, yams, mummy apples and sago palms are all to be seen 
growing either within the boundaries of the town or within a short drive. 
The fore.shores — or beach, as it is usually termed in the island.s— is a fine parade 
named after her late Majesty Queen \'ictoria. It is lined on one .side by 
hotels and places of business and on the other by a row of rain trees (a species 



84 STEWART'S flAND BOOK 

of at-acia) \vh(>«e spreadiii.g 1. ranches offer a welcome protection from the sun's- 
rays, and under which comfortable seats invite f)ne to rest. There are several 
pleasant driving excursions that can be made during a day's stay at Suva, 
and comfortable cars can be hired at any time. 

There are two beautiful drives, each of which occupies an hour to au 
hour and a half. They can be taken separately or combined. One is the 
drive along the Waimanu Road,' passing the signal station. Ascending the 
hill through the Suva extension at the back of the town, the carriage passes 
the flagstaff for signalling the arrival of vessels ; and at this point is unfolded 
a view which, to quote frcm a description by Mr. T. W. Whit.son, it would be 
difficult to surpass. On one hand, the visitor locks down upon the Rewa 
River and its wide mouth, Laucala Bay ; on the other, upon the beautiful 
harbour of Suva, with its background of purple hills, the rugged spurs of 
which seem to speak of a mysterious life hidden in their fastnesses. Con- 
spciuous amongst them is a rock of large size and peculiar shape, to which 
has been given the name of Th-:; Giant's ThumVj " ; while close at hand lies 
the pretty little island of Nukulau, used as a quarantine station, and on which 
are the barracks occupied by the Indian coolies on their arrival from Cal- 
cutta. Half-concealed by a mystic haze is seen the island of Beqa, the home 
of the Firewalkers, a tribe possessing the secret of walking with impunity 
over hot stones. Descending the hill. Indian settlements are passed on either 
side of the road, the industrious settlers and their families all engaged in field 
labour, attending their rice crops or cultivating their banana patches. Reach- 
ing level ground, the carriage passes round the extreme point of the town 
and along the beach road, passing Government House, the Botanical Gardens, 
and Albert Park, with its tennis, cricket, hockey and football grounds, and 
so back to town. On the way the visitor cannot fail to be impressed by the 
beauty of the trees and shrubs that line the road, or are inclo.sed in the little 
holdings of the settlers. Noticeable amongst the former is the spreading 
mango tree, with its dense foliage of lance-shaped leaves, which make a favour-* 
able retreat for that noisy and impudent bird, the minah. Here and there 
is pas.sed a lofty tavola. the timber of which is largely used in making /«//>, 
or native drums. These, in the hands of a practised performer, are not un- 
musical, and can be heard at a great distance, calling the natives to church 
services or other gatherings. Everywhere is seen the coccanut palm with 
its graceful feathery head — a tree which provides the natives of the South 
Seas with food, drink, clothing, and furniture. 

The other short drive is along the Tamavua Road to its junction with 
the Rewa Road, where, turning to the left, the carriage passes under an avenue 
of shady Bois rwir trees (a Mauritius acacia), and further on passes the old 
Botanical Gardens and the picturesque site of the hospital and gaol. On 
this drive, as on the other, the visitor passes through the same sylvan scenen,-, 
and catches frequent glimpses of the harbour. Here and there a noble 
banyan tree woos the visitor to seek its refreshing shade. 

The most delightful excursion, if the visitor can spare the whole day, 
is to Nausori, on the Rewa River (12 miles). It can be made in the form 
of a drive to Nausori and back again by the same route ; but the more interest- 
ing way is to take the steam launcl;. and proceed up the river, to the Colonial 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 85 

Sugar Company's mills, arranging to be met with a carriage at the hotel at 
Nausori, thence to be driven back to Suva. The Revva is a noble river — 
the largest in Fiji — and navigable 50 miles from its mouth. The steamer 
pa.s.ses along the front of the town until it reaches Laucala l>ay, the outlet of 
the Rewa and other rivers — a beautiful sheet of water about two miles wide, 
and fringed with low banks of mangrove thicket. Here the vessel turns in a 
westerly direction, and for several hours pursues its Avay up the river, which 
winds in and out in its wayward course between banks of brilliant greenery, 
out of which stand prominently lines of cocoanut palms, fronting banana 
plantations and fields of waving sugar-cane. Every turn opens up a vista 
of new beauty. \'illage after village is passed, each with its group of gaily- 
dressed natives idling in the fore-ground. On one side is the Roman Catholic 
mission of Naililili. with its imposing pile of buildings ; on the other, higher 
up — Davuilevu — the picturesque mission settlement of the Methodists. 
On the river itself are fleets of barges carrying sugar from the mills ; canoes, 
cutters, and bamboo rafts laden with fruit, bound for Suva ; and native boats, 
the occupants of which are busy spearing fish. At Nausori, the Fijian head- 
quarters of the Colonial Sugar Company, visitors are made welcome bv the 
stafl", who do not grudge the time expended in showing the mills and explain- 
ing the interesting details of sugar- crushing. After a pleasant hour or two 
thus spent, the visitor crosses the river in a punt to Nausori, where he can 
lunch in comfort at the hotel, and where his car from Suva will be waiting. 
The return drive is over a good road, cut for portions of the way through 
native forest and bush, and here and there skirting native and Indian .settle- 
ments, but always in the midst of the rich and wonderful vegetation which 
is the striking feature of Fijian scenery. Here may be .«een in profusion, 
beside the ever-attracti\ e palm and the ornamental bread-fruit tree, orange 
and lemon trees, the pawpaw or nmnimy apple, the delicious granadilla, 
the luscious pineapple, and many other fruits ; wiii'e in close proximity to 
the native houses are patches of bananas, of taro or yams, and sago palms, 
r'erns abound everywliere. 

Apart from the driving excursions there is nmcli to be seen that is of 
interest to the visitor while strolling about the town or on the hillsides. Take 
a SL-at under a spreading tree on the \')ctoria Parade and watch the stream of 
passing people. See the young I'ijian as he walks along barefooted with a 
free, graceful stride and a carriage that a guardsman would envy, his sulii 
and singlet showing up the althletic symmetry of his body, his good-lmmoured, 
smiling face crowned by his magnificent hair. Fijians are intensely proud 
of their big heads of hair ; the higher it stands out the prouder they are. 
Then passes by a group of vSamoans — big, powerful fellows, tall and handsome, 
who, one thinks, woiild make fine soldiers, but whose principal work is taking 
in washing. Following them may be a number of Indian coolies and their 
womenkind — the men little slender fellows, who look as if they could be 
knocked over by a breath ; the women a blaze of colour and silver jewellery. 
Here comes a few Solomon Islander.s — smaller than the I-'ijians, but alert and 
workmanlike. Intermingled with all these are the white men, following their 
busines-i avocations, clad from head to foot in immaculate white drill ; whin. 
passing and repassing, in all kinds of vehicles and on foot, are seen the 



86 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

Ivuropean vvoinen doing their slioppiDg or making social calls. In contrast 
to these, passes by a group of prisoners in charge of a few of the armed con- 
stabulary, who look smart and soldierly in their uniforms — blue tunics and 
white sulus, vandyked round the edge. Of all occupations the native Fijian 
likes soldiering the best. He scorns dome.stic service, and labour in the fields 
he does not favour. Nature has provided the Fijian with all he requires in 
the way of sustenance, and he therefore does not see why he should work. 
•He leaves that to the Indian immigrants and to the naitives. of the Solomon 
Islands and other groups who pour into Fiji, and who between them all will 
swamp, in no great space of time, the native population altogether. 

In the town of vSxiva itself there are but few places of interest to visit. 
It possesses a good Town Hall — erected as a memorial to Queen Victoria — 
the upper floor being utilised as a Museum. In the hall is to be seen a roll of 
magi-ma<;i (sinnet, or cocoanut fibre rope) presented by the natives to the 
Administrator on the occasion of King Edward's coronation. It contains 
upwards of seven miles of rope in one length. Adjoining the Town Hall 
is the Carnegie Library. The Government oflSces — a light, airy structure 
built round an open space — the Pacific cable station, the Roman Catholic 
cathedral, the hospital, asylum lior the insane, and gaol are all worth inspection. 
The Botanical Gardens will repay a visit. Here may be seen a profusion of 
tropical and rare plants — the lotus lily, held in reverence by the Hindus ; 
the Fucharis lily, the large pure-white flower of which makes it a favourite 
for church decoration ; and many other foliage plants, both native and 
imported. Here, too, is to be seen the V'ia, a species of arum or lily, with 
its great over-arching leaves of variegated green and white ; and that noble 
and unique plant the " traveller's tree" the leaves spreading out from the 
palm-like trunk in the shape of a fan, with ribs six to eight feet long, each con- 
taining a reservoir of pure cold water, which is greatly availed of by thirsty 
travellers. The grounds of Government House, adjoining the Botanical 
Gardens, contain many rare plants and flowers. Nature has been lavish to 
Fiji in her bestowal of vegetable treasures, and a short stroll amongst the 
lanes on the hillside gives evidence of this at every step. Private gardens 
are hedged with " the king of plants," the hibiscus ; and the effect produced 
by the red, white, violet, and yellow varieties in lighting iip the green of the 
mass of other shrubs is magnificent. The walls and verandahs of the houses 
blaze with colours. Here is the rich golden hue of the allamanda ; there the 
jaismine, a mass of white and yellow bloom gUttering in the simlight and spread- 
ing its fragrance around ; to another wall a striking effect is given by the 
presence of a Bougainvillea, a glowing mass of purple bloom. Here a climbing 
lily, the showy Gloriosa sujyerba in all the pride of its scarlet and yellow ; 
there a beautiful aristolochia, with its trumpet-shaped flow^er, greenish- 
white on the tube and bronze on the lid ; shrubs innumerable, and chief 
amongst them crotons, the prettiest of all foliaged plants. Every variety of 
croton is here — broad-leaved and narrow-leaved — and every colour seems 
represented, the various shades of each passing from one to the other by 
imperceptible gradations. One variety shows leaves of a deep scarlet bordered 
with bright green ; another, deep green blotched with orange and carmine ; 
another with a ground colour of golden yellow, irregularly marked with bright 




Vel. T8ie 



J. CUNNINGHAM 



MARBLE and STONE 
WORKS 

STATUARY 
and 
MONUMENTAL 
SCULPTOR 




Manufacturer and Importer 

OF 

Granite Monuments, Marble 
Slabs and Paving, Church 

Fonts & Tablets, 

Marble 

Monuments 



MARGARET STREET, Wynyard Square, SYDNEY 

GRANITK Monuments, Headstones and Crosses, in Red, Grey, Blue 
(Scotch), Green, and Emerald Pearl. A Superior Selection always 

kept on view- 
Also in Italian and American Marble 
KERBINfi in Granite. Marble, Victorian Bluestone, and Freestone 
RAIIJN(;S, Cast and Wrought Iron, Plain and (;alvanised 
TILES, Black and White Marble (harden Vases and vStatuary 
In Memoriam Wreaths 
All Marble Lettering Engraved and Filled with Unperishable Lead 
ISLAND ORDERS are faithfully attended to and carefully packed 

for transit 



Sivalloiv &Anell 

Limited. 

. MELBOURNE. 

Manufacturers 

for Export of : — 

B ISCUITS 

High-class Fancy, Sweet and Plain. 

Wafer Goods 

EXTRA GRADE CABIN. 

CAKES 

All varieties in Sealed Tins. 

Plum Puddings. 

Canned Fruits. Jams, Honey. 

Canned and Compressed 
Vegetables, &c, 



NECESSITIES OF TROPICAL COUNTRIES UNDERSTOOD 
AND PROVIDED FOR IN PREPARATION AND PACKING. 



Correspondence Invited : full information 

returned. 



OF THK PACIFIC ISLANDS '8^ 

green. It is impossible to describe the colour effects of these magnificent 
leaves ; one can only gaze upon them entranced by their beauty. Growmg 
by the side of a church is a lagcrstroma, smothered with rcse-pink blossoms, 
exquisitely fringed at the edges ; while at the back door of another building 
is a handsome canna, deep yellow- and orange. At the .<!ide of a garden walk 
are massed groups of richly-coloured coleus, and everywhere are beautiful 
varieties of dracaenas and the sweet-smelling white gardenia. Acres of land 
are covered with fern and bracken, and growing amongst them, and also 
skirting the walls of the houses, is a weed' which is one of the marvels of the 
vegetable world. It has delicately-cut foliage, like a fern, and is starred over 
with little fluff}' balls of pink blo.s.som. As it is approached, it shrinks away 
as if frightened, and. touch it ever so lightly, its leaflets shrivel up and become 
bodily dejected, slowing expanding again of their own accord. As the chill 
of evening falls, it closes its leaves spontaneously and goes to sleep, opening 
them again to the first warmth of the morning sun. This wonderful weed is 
rightly called the sensitive plant {Mimosa sensiliva). Naturalists tell us that 
its sensitivene.ss serves as a protection against the destructiveness of insect 
larvae. 

Should the visitor chance to be in Suva on a Sunday he has a choice of 
places of worship. Of European churches, the largest is the Roman Catholic 
Cathedral — the Church of the vSacred Heart — with a seating capacity of about 
800. Next in size is the Holy Trinity Church (Anglican), which seats about 
250, and after that St. Andrew's Church (Presbyterian), which accommodates 
about 200. Of native churches by far the largest and most numerously 
attended is the Methodist ; then the Solomon Islanders' ; and the smallest 
the Samoan. The visitor will be interested in attending the native IMethodist 
Church at the Tamavua end of the town, the locality' of which he will easily 
find by the loud-sounding call of the Inli, and by following the stream of 
smartly-dressed natives, each carrying his Bible or hymn-book carefully 
wrapped up in cloth or paper. A gathering of native worshippers is an 
interesting and elevating sight. The men and women dressed in their best, 
the men mostly in white jackets and stdit:., displaying their various tastes 
in the diversity of their neckwear ; the women in their best toilets — silk and 
velvet and linen blouses and skirts, or wrappers, of all the colours in the rain- 
bow, pink predominating ; the men's hair smartly dressed and for the most 
part dyed a rich brown or yellow ; the women wearing picture-hats, or bare- 
headed — their hair ornamented with fronds of delicate ferns artistically 
woven or plaited together, along with the red leaves of the hibiscus or dracaena 
— a beautiful sight. One is struck by the reverent attitude of the congre- 
gation and the close attention paid to the preacher. Then the singing is a 
surprise. Natives, the men more especially, are gifted with rich musical 
voices — mostly baritone or bass — and all seem to possess a natural sense of 
harmony. They sing, too, with their whole heart ; and the effect of the deep 
bass, blending with and supporting the lighter tones in perfect tune, is highly 
impressive. 

Should the vi.sitor extend his stay in Suva, the time can be pleasantly 
spent in exploring the rivers that flow into the Upper Harbour ; in making 
an excursion bv steam launch to the Navua. the second largest river in the 



90 STnWART'S HAND ROOK 

group, aticl on which is situated the mill of the Vancouver-Fiji Suj^ar Com- 
pany ; or in visiting an interesting plantation at the other side of the harbour, 
where all kinds of tropical products are grown and experimented with. He 
should not fail to visit Ban, a small island near the mouth of the Rewa River — 
the former native capital of Fiji, and the very hub of all that is high- 
bred and aristocratic in native iMJian life. Here lived, died, and was buried, 
Cakobaii, the last of the great cannibal kings. The visitor can also arrange 
for an e.xcursion to the reef, and indulge in tlie amusement of reefing, either 
on foot or in a boat ; and he should not miss an opportunity of seeing a nieke- 
me/-e, the national dance of the iMJians. 



GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. 

Governor (and High Commissioner of the Western Pacific), Hon. Cecil 
Hunter Rodwell, C.M.G. ; Private vSecretary, Captain C. Dunstan ; Acting 
Colonial Secretary, R. S. D. Rankine ; .\ssistant Colonial Secretary, D. 
Stewart; Chief Clerk, F. J. Durman ; vSecretary for Native Affairs, K. J. 
Allardyce ; Assistant Secretary for Native Affairs, \'. G. Maxwell. Following 
are the Rokos (or District Chiefs) under this Department :—Tai I^evu, Joni 
Madrawiwi ; Cakaudrove, Joni Antonio Rabici ; Lan, Alivereti Finau ; 
Bua, Tevita Toganivalu ; Macuata, Penijimani ^'eli ; Kadavu, Kininavu- 
wai Nanovo ; Ra, Pope Epeli Seniloli. 

Chairman of the Native Lands Commission, Gerald V. ^Maxwell ; Native 
Lands Commissioner, R. Boyd. 

Receiver-General and Commissioner of Stamps, R. S. D. Rankine ; Chief 
Clerk to the Treasury, Harry B. Ching. 

Collectors of Customs: W. H. Brabant (Suva) ; F). J. March (I.evuka) ; 
J. M. Wilson (Lautoka). 

Harbour Master: Charles Wooley (vSuva) ; F. W. G. Twentyman 
(Levuka). 

Chief Auditor, V,. H. Morris ; Assistant Auditor, R. H. Kirkv.ood. 

Commissioner for Lands, Crown Surveyor and Conservator of I'orest f^, 
D. Blair ; Staff Surveyor, C. A. Holmes. 

Chief Justice and Judicial Commissioner for the Western Pacific, Sir 
Charles Davson, K.C. ; Registrar of the Supreme Court, Curator of Interstate 
Estates, Registrar-General and Registrar of Titles, and Public Trustee, Roger 
Greene. 

Attorney-General, A. K. Young, K.C; Crown Solicitor, ; 

Chief Police Magistrate, G. C. Alexander. 

First Grade District Commissioners : (Colo North) ; W. A. 

Scott (Lautoka), A. B. Fdwards (Re\\a), W. H. Rus.sell (Levuka), R. R. Kane 
<Ba), C. G. B. Francis (on leave for military service). • 

Inspector-General of Constabulary, F). A. Barnett, acting ; Inspectors 
of Constabulary: E. A. Barnett (Suva), A. Stanlake (Lautoka), C. li. Penne- 
father (Ba), R. F. Swinbourne (Suva), N. S. Chalmers (Suva), A. li. S. Howard 
(Labasa) ; Inspector-General of Prisons, E. A. Barnett. acting ; .Superin- 
tendent, Suva Goal, James Dalton. 

Chief Medical Officer, Dr. G. W. A. Lynch, Senior Medical Officer ; 
Resident Medical Officer, Colonial Ho-spital, Superintendent. Public Lunatic 
Asylum, Medical Officer, Suva Gaol, Dr. A. Montague ; Matron, Colonial 
Hospital, Suva, Nurse M. C. Anderson ; Lef er Asylum, Dr. F. Hall. 



or THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 91 

Superintendent of Schools, George Mackay, M.A. ; Headmaster, Suva 
Boys Grammar School, G. K. Johns, B.A.. B.Sc. ; First Assistant, Boys 
Grammar School, W. S. McNireu, B.A. ; Headmistress, vSuva Girls Grammar 
School. Mary ISIaben, M.A. ; Assistant Teacher, Girls Grammar School, M. F.. 
McPherson ; Headmaster, I,au School, D. W. Koodless, B.Sc. ; Headmaster^ 
Levuka School, D. Garner Jones ; Headmaster, Queen Victoria vSchool,. 
(vacant). 

Master of s.y. " Ranadi," Captain l\. F. \\'allack. 

Acting Commandant. Defence F'orce, Captain H. Hart Lewis. 

Colonial Postniastcr, Suva, H. P. St. Julian ; First Class Clerk, Alexander 
Gray ; Postmaster, Levuka, \V. M. Caldwell ; Postmaster, Lautoka, S. Yeates ;. 
Superintendent of Telegraphs and Telephones, C. C. F. Monckton ; Assistant 
Engineer, W. G. Covell ; Accountant. T. J. Davis; "Wireless Officer, W. 
Kearsley. 

Superintendent of Agriculture. Charles H Knowles, B.vSc. ; Inspector of 
Produce, J. \V. Philpott ; Government Entomologist, F\ P. Jepson. B.A. ; 
Agriculturahst Chemist, C. H. Wright, B.A. ; Agent-General of Immigration,. 
B. Malcolm Booth ; Immigration Department, G. B Crabbe ; Inspectors of 
Immigrants, G. R. Jordan, P. R. Backhouse. S. .\. Lord, H. F,. Disbrowe. 

Government Printer. Sebastian Bach ; Commi.ssioner of Works, W. A- 
Miller ; Deputy Commissioner of Works. W. C. Simmons ; District Engineer, 
George Paulin, B.Sc, B.G. ; Junior Engineer, I,. G. H. Major; Mechanical 
Engineer, A. A. Ragg ; .'Architect, M'orks Department, C. C. Ludolph ; District 
Engineer, Eastern District, J. F. Osliorn , District F'ngineer, Lautoka, Hubert 
Dvson. 



LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL. 

President, the Governor, Hon. C. H. Rodwell, C.M.G. 

NOMINATED MEMBERS. 

Colonial Secretary, ; Attorney-General, A. K. Young, K.C. ; 

Receiver-General, R. S. D. Rankine ; Chief Medical Officer, G. W. A."^ Lynch ; 
Commissioner of Lands, Dyson Blair ; Commissioner of ^^'orks, \A'. A. Miller ;. 
Superintendent of Agriculture, C. H. Knowles ; Colonial Postmaster, H. P. 
St. Julian; Secretary for Native Aflairs, K. J. .Mlardyce ; Agent-General 
for Immigration, R. M. Booth ; Registrar-General, Roger (rreene ; Badri- 
Mahraj. 

ELECTED MEMBERS. 

John M. Hcdstrom (Eastern Division), H. il. .Scott, K.C. (Suva). H. 
Marks, C.B.E. (Suva). R. Crompton. C.B.E. (Southern Divi.'--ion). I". C. Clap- 
cott (Northern Division), R. A. Harricks (Western Division). J. A. ^lackay 
(Vanualevu and Taviuni Division). 

NATIVE MEMBERS. 

Ratu Joni Madraiwiwi (Roko Tui Tailevu), Ratu Joni Antonio Kabici 
(Roko Tui Cakaudrove). 



■92 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

BUSINESS PLACES IN SdVA. 

(jeneral Menhants, Ijiiporters and lv\pt>rters : Henry Marks & Co., 
Morris, Hedstrom Ltd., Brown and Joske, Hums, Philp & Co., Ltd., A. M 
Brodziak Ltd. ; J. C. Collins Ltd., 

Drapers: — Walter Home & Co.. Ltd, John Clear}'. 

Grocery and Hardware :— Sturt, Oiiilvie .Sc Co. 

General Stores : — J. A. Mackey, J. Herrick. 

Watchmakers, Jewellers, Curios, &c. : — S. Levy. J. H. Butler, J. Collie. 

Timber Merchants: — Wishart & Sons, A. H. IMarlow. 

Auction Mart : — F. Py. Riemenschneider. 

People's Saleroom : — T. R. Anderson. 

Livery Stables : — Bayly & Co., C. Koster, Gunpat. 

Butchers : — Sunderland & Co. 

Engineering Works: — Fiji Sliipbuildmg Company, Agnew ^. Co., G. Bish. 

Boat Builders : — K. F.mberson, S. A. Griffin. 

Motor Repairs : — Suva Repair Works, W. G. Halstead. 

Tobacconist, Hairdresser, Curios: — F. H. Gardiner. 

Sailmaker : — W. F. McGowan. 

Bakery : — Co-operative Bakery. 

Photographic Studios : — Caine's Studios, U. E. de Mole. 

Refreshment Rooms : — Miss Bentley, Mrs. Porges, Crowder & Son, 
W. Croker. 

Aerated Waters : — W. Cuthbert's Soda \\'ater Factory, Crowder K' Son- 
Surveyors : — Robins and West. 
Saddler and Harness Maker: — J. R. \\'hite. 
Furniture Makers : — R. N. Ginn, Fiji Furniture Factory, 
Newspaper: — -Fi'i Herald and Timc^. 

Legal:— Wm. Scott & Co., R. Crompton. W. C. la T. Brough, E. A. 
Bartenay. 

Japanese Merchants: — Odate Lshiba.shi, Southern Pacific Trading 
Company. 

Chinese General Stcrekeepers : — Jang Hing Loong & Co., Sang on Tiy, 
Ming Ting, Kwong Sang & Co., Tong Sang. 



TRADE STATISTICS. 

NET REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE FOR 1917. 

Revenue (including Customs, £194,384 ; port and harbour dues, £12,8.SU ; 
native taxes. £16,130 ; Hcenses, excise, &c.., £35,205 ; court fees, &c., £43,442 ; 
post office £lfi,952), £335,064 13s. 5d. 

Expenditure (including charges on public debt, £23,294 ; Colonial 
Secretary's department, £12,849 ; legal, £20,817; constabulary, £14,263; 
medical, £20,640 ; hospitals and asylums, £12.677 ; post and telegraph Depart- 
ment. £25,784 ; Public Works, £54,482^ £322,332. 



Hardman Bros. 

BISCUIT MANUFACTURERS 

NEWTOWN SYDNEY 

Established 60 Years 



Contractors to the Army and Navy 



WE ARE WELL EQUIPPED FOR THE 

ISLAND TRADE 



PACIFIC CABIN 

IS ONE OF OUR LEADING LINES 



Write for Prices — Prompt Attention given to Enquiries 



Cable ADDRESS ' WESTLARK," SYDNEY. 

Westphal & Clark 

(f — =^ =^ ^=^ — "'-— — =^ 

Wine and Spirit Merchants 

SYDNEY, N.S.VV. 

AND AT 

St. Julien Vineyards, Hunter Rjver, N.S.W. 

WERE AWARDED 

5 GOLD MEDALS 21 TIRST PRIZES 

2 SILVER „ 16 SECOND ., 

AT 

Sydney, Brisbane and Adelaide Sliows, 1918 



Most Successful Exhibitors of Wine in 
Australia, 1918 



We are one of the Largest Wine Exporters in N.S.W 

Our Wines are exported in large quantities to all the 
Islands in the Pacific. Assorted case lots range 
from 30/-, 40/-, to 60/- per one dozen bottles 

Orders received direct or through Messrs. Burns, 
Philp & Co., Nelson & Robertson, W. 
Gardiner & Co., or W. S. Tait & Co 

Price Lists forwarded on application to our City office, 

ROYAL EXCHANGE CELLARS, 
PITT and BRIDGE STREETS, SYDNEY. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISr,ANDS 



96 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS FOR J 9 17. 



United Kingdom 
British Possessions. — 

Canada 

Hong Koug 

India 

New .South Wales 

New Zealand 

Queensland 

Samoa 

Straits Settlements 

Tasmania 

Tonga 

Victoria 
Other Brilisli 

Foreign Countries. — 

China 

F'rance 

Germany . . 

Hawaii 

Holland . . 

Italy 

Japan 

Norway 

Sw eden 

United States 

Walhs Island 
Other Foreign 

Totals.— 

United Kingdom 
British Possessions 
Foreign Countries 
P.ircels Post 



Total trade 





Imports 


Exports 


£ 


£ 


125,598 


7.645 


26,504 


183,895 




9,482 


2,616 




24,205 


— 




491,707 


416,263 




174,379 


1,011,419 




619 


• 




1,004 


472 




113 







733 


— 




248 


201 




32,477 


111,040 


1.394 


846 


402 






427 







278 


— 




8,792 


59 13 




121 


— 




91 


— 




21,786 


15,043 




219 


— 




2,445 


— 




68,575 


318,731 




703 


134 




567 


35 


125,598 


7,645 


762,865 


1,726,753 


104,406 


334,003 




18,539 


— 


£1,011,408 


£2,068,401 




£3,079,809 



The total value of the exports from Fiji for 1918 was £1,656,065. The 
-decrease was in sugar, inainly due to labour shortage. Sugar exports 
totalled £981,318 for 1918, the lowest for several years. In 1917 the total 
value stood at £1,485,040, while 1916 was the record year, the figures 
.standing at £1,729,658. Bananas showed a substantial decrease. The 
figures for 1916, 1917, and 1918 were £205,122, £169,718, and £132,877 
respectively. The falling off in 1917 was due entirely to the shipping 
strike in Australia, and last year to the epidemic and the strike. Thousands 
of pounds' worth of bananas simply rotted on the ground, and growers' 
losses were very heavy indeed. The bright feature is the increase in copra 
exports. In 1918 a total of 19,318 tons, worth £469,332, was exported, as 
against 15,368 tons, the previous largest total, worth £359,372, in 1917. 
Other exports, principally rubber, sici-shell and molasses, yielded £72,838 
for lOlS, as against £53,728 for 1917. 



96 STEWART'S HANI) ROOK 



TONGA or FRIENDLY ISLANDS, 

(I'NDICR IJRITISH rROTliCTIUX.) 

THB Tonga or rriendh' Islands, of which there are about 100, f:Tcat and 
small — manv of them, however, being mere coral banks, giving root- 
hold to a few palms — are situated about 400 miles to the south-west 
of the Samoan group, and 200 miles south-east of the nearest island of the 
I-'ijian gr(t>up. They are the nearest archipelago to New Zealand, being only 
1,100 miles distant from Auckland, and are divided into three niain groups^ 
known as the Tongatabu, Haapai, and Vavau, the most southerly being 
Tongatabu. The far outlying islands of Niuafoou, Tafahi (Boscawen) and 
Niuatoputabu (Keppels) are also included in the group, the people being Ton- 
gans, governed by chiefs holding authority from the Queen of Tonga. 
Niuafoou, which is about 13,000 acres in extent, is celebrated for two things — 
the enormous size of its cocoanuts, which are larger even than those of 
Rotumah, and therefore probably the largest in the world ; and as being the 
only habitat of the Malau {Megapodius Pritchardi), a bird remarkable for lay- 
ing an egg out of all proportion to its body. The island, which is very subject 
to earthquake shocks and volcanic disturbances, has in its centre a lake of 
considerable size. On one side the shcre slopes gradually until it become.'* 
almost level with the surface of the lake, and the tall and stately palm-trees 
grow right down to the water's edge, forming a marked contrast to the pre- 
cipitous cliffs towering almost perpendicularly (to .some 500 ft. or 600 ft.)- 
on the other side. It was in the middle of this lake that a volcano broke out 
in 1880. . There was another volcanic disturbance in 1912. 

The Tongan Islands was first discovered by Tasman in 1643, and were next 
visited by Captain Cook in 1773, and again in 1777, on which occasion he stayed 
three months. The population numbers about 23,000, with about 350- 
■Europeans. The epidemic of influenza, which scoured Polynesia in 1918, 
swept away nearly 1,000. 

Assuming that a visit be made to the group from New Zealand — that 
being much the nearest route, the run from Auckland taking only four-and-a- 
half days — ■■ the first land sighted," says a w-riter, who gives a good description 
of these islands, " is an outlier of the group called Pylstaart — an island lying 
some distance south of Tongatabu, and rising 700 feet above sea-level. It 
is said that in 1871 a vessel touched at this island rock and carried off some 
natives who were living there to South America. Since then the natives have 
been withdrawn from the island and placed out of harm's way on the island of 
Eua, which is the most southerly of the larger islands. Eua was at one time 
leased as a sheep run, but the tenant found it unsuitable, and now rears his 
flocks in the more congenial climate of New Zealand. Some eight hours or 
so from Pylstaart the low-lying island of Tongatabu is sighted. There are 
two entrances to the harbour of Nukualofa, the capital of Tonga — one from 
the north, the other from the east. By whichever approach the steamer 




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OF TilE PACIFIC ISLAXDS 101 

•enters, the points of interest are much the same — the intricate sinuosities 
of the coral reef, marked by the foam of the surf, and by the brilliant varie- 
gation of colour in the shoal water ; the unusual contour of the low-lying 
coral islands, \\'ith their beaches of yellow sand, or fringe of dashing breakers ; 
and the novel character of the vegetation, indicated in the distance by the 
feathery heads of the cocoanut palms silhouetted against the skj'. Nukualofa 
seen from the approaching steamer, is a strikingly pretty little town, white, 
bright, and cheerful with ample open spaces, green and restful to the eye. 
The visitor who sees it for the first time cannot fail to be impressed with the 
unusual character of its streets and roads— grassy lawns, bordered or dotted 
with such trees as we coax into flower in our hot-houses — dracaenas, crotons 
and other plants of brilliant foliage and shrubs bearing odd fruits or loaded 
with blossoms rich in colour and in fragrance. The most pestilent weed in 
Tonga is one of the marvels of the vegetable world. In some places, near the 
tomb of the late king for instance, it covers and chokes the sward ; but in 
wider and more shady places it forms a low undergrowth. It has delicately 
■cut foliage like a fern, and is starred over with little fluffy balls of pink 
blossom. Brush its leaves ever so lightly, and they shrivel up as with a blight ; 
and if you walk where it forms a turf, your footsteps are marked by the 
shrinking of its foliage. Its apparent blight, however, lasts only for a few 
minutes, and then it slowly expands and rises again to its exact position. 
As the chill of evening falls, it folds its little leaves and goes to sleep, opening 
them again to the first warmth of the morning sun. This is the sensitive 
plant {Mimosa sevaitivo). To a stranger the church-politics of Tonga are. a 
little perplexing. Besides the Roman Catholic Church, zealously adminis- 
tered by the Marist Brothers, there are two Wesleyau Churches, the old and 
the new, differing from each other in government, but little or not at all in 
creed and ritual. The old Wesleyan Church occupies the finest site in Tonga, 
the beautiful green knoll, so con.spicuous as one approaches the town bv .sea. 
The church retains its connection with the Methodist body in Australia, and 
its affairs are regulated by the Australian Conference. Beside the church 
on the hill is the grave of Captain Croker, of H.M.S. ' I'avourite,' who was 
killed in an attack made many years ago on a village inland from Nukualofa. 
Then there is the new Wesleyan Church, which some years ago seceded from 
the mother church, and is now known as the Tongan I'ree Church. Besides 
the royal chapel, within the palace grounds, there is a large oval building, 
in which the services of the Tongan I'ree Church are held. The architecture 
of a Tongan church has a distinct character of its own. The building has the 
oval shape of a native house, and, if it is thatched, as it generally is, presents 
a picturesque appearance. The interior, even more than the exterior, pos- 
sesses a distinctive local character. The roof, a lattice-work of cros.sed 
battens bent to follow the necessary curves, is supported on a scaffolding of 
beams, which in its turn is supported on two rows of .solid tree stems, running 
the full length of the building. No nails are u.sed in the construction of the 
frame-work, the parts being bound firmly together with variously coloured 
-sinnet, which on the larger .surfaces is wrought into tasteful geometrical 
fashions. Sometimes the Tongan Church is fitted up with pews, but quite as 
-o^ten there are no seats, the congregation squatting cross-legged on the floor — 



102 STHVVAKT'S HANI) Ii()(>K 

the men (jii the one side, the women on the other. Ihe yonng Tonj<an.s are well 
trained in church psahnody ; and if the opportunity offers itself, visitors will 
find it worth while to attend one of the native services. Of the public Ijuild- 
ings in Nukualofa those w-hich most challenge attention are the Royal Palace 
and Church, standing side by side within the sanae enclosure at the end of the 
wharf. The palace is an unostentatious balconied building, suggestive not 
so much of royalty as of successful trade. The church is a handsome wooden 
structure, and is beautifully fitted up inside with various New Zealand woods, 
the carvings on the pulpit and ro3-al dais being exceedingly pretty. The 
tomb of the late Prince \\'cllington stands near the church ; and the ' langi,' 
erected to the memory of the late King (jeorge, will be found further up, 
at the back of the town, near the Wesleyan college for girls. 

■' Tongatabu is an island of coral formation, and therefore presents no 
heights from which extensive views can be obtained. What will most interest 
the greatest number of visitors is the novel character of the vegetation, and 
the glimpses of native life and manners. Of these, a drive of a few hours will 
suflfice to give the visitor a fair idea. A favourite drive is that to Houma, a 
native town about eight miles from Nukualofa, the way lying through cocoa- 
nut plantations and native villages. The town of Houma is itself of interest, 
being still surrounded by the earthworks of the old fighting days. And then 
there are the' ' blow-holes,' through which, as the great combers roll in from 
the Pacific and break upon the reef, vast columns of water rise in fountains, 
to fall in magnificent showers of spray. A somewhat longer ride is that to 
jMua, some twelve miles distance from Nukiialofa where may be seen the 
wonderful and mysterious tombs of the old Tongan kings. These tombs, or 
' langis,' as they are called, are evidence of a power of mechanical contri\-ance 
quite beyond the present generation of Tongans. A langi is a four-square 
enclosure, some 50 by 30 feet in extent, enclosed by two tiers of large coral- 
blocks, laid end to end, accurately squared and fitting closely together. A 
corner block in one of these langis, which lies a little away in the bush to the 
left of the road as one drives from Nukualofa, measures, roughly, 21 feet by 
5 feet by 4 feet ; and probably there are other blocks as large, or larger. The 
interior space of a langi is a broad platform covered thick with fragments of 
coral brought from the beach, and now, from the neglect of years, overgrown 
with trees and ferns. Local authorities agree in considering these wonderful 
erections to be tombs of ancient Tongan kings, though to the ignorant 
eye they look like places of defence. On a fine day, with a cool sea-breeze 
blowing, the twelve miles' ride to Mua. through the village of Bea, will be 
found most interesting and delightful. The grassy road winds through 
avenues of lovely trees. I,ofty palms incline their graceful trunks at various 
angles and with curious curves, whilst the young cocoas, not yet at the fruit- 
bearing age, wave their enormous fronds in the wind — most graceful of all 
the trees that g'roAV. Next to the palm, and its rival in grace if not in grandeur, 
is the banana, plantations of which are ii^terspersed among the groves of 
cocoanut trees. Hedges of citron trees line the lanes through which you 
drive ; and orange trees dangle their fruit.s overhead as you pass beneath 
their branches ; whilst many strange nuts and fruits attract and perplex the 
attention. Nor is colour wanting, though it ip not perhaps so plentiful as 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 10."} 

one expects in a tropic wilderness. The yellow hibiscus, with the rich claret 
stain in the depth of its golden chalice, is a miracle of beauty — a more queenlv 
flower, perhaps, even than the magnificent crimson variety. Stretching fnnn 
tree to tree and binding stem to stem with its luxuriant vines, the convolvulus 
^rows rampant, expanding in the sunshine, a lovely bell the colour of the skv ; 
whilst every spot not appropriated by some other plant is filled with the 
handsome foliage and crimson flowers of the Indian shot. The scarlet pods 
of the chili are thick by the wayside, and occasionally one sees a patch of 
sugarcane, of dalo, or of yams, or the bursting pods of a group of cotton trees. 
■Occasionally the road opens upon a native village ; and amongst human 
haunts nothing more picturesque, more peaceful, or more beautiful can be 
seen than a Tongan village as it presents it.self for the first time to the attention 
of a passer-by ; a park-like space, with a short, soft sward, dotted with forest 
trees, which are knotted and gnarled by age into the shapes beloved of artists ; 
and here and there a pretty reed-built oval hut, half revealed, half concealed 
amongst its citron and orange trees — lighted up with the scarlet glow of a 
pomegranate, and perfumed with the heavy fragrance of white gardenias. 
Near to Mua, and within a mile of the langis are limestone i-aves, with a sub- 
terranean river, and a lake of fresh water of some extent and depth. Ancther 
object of interest well worth a visit is the Haanuinga, or Trilithon, like the 
langis, a mysterious relic of an older civilisation in Tonga. The Trilithon 
consists of two enormous upright blocks of stone, set like the jambs of a door- 
way, with another huge block laid across the top and curiously mortised into 
the two uprights. How these blocks were brought to the spot they now 
occupy, and what purpose they originally served, cannot now be even con- 
jectured. The Trilithon lies near the town of Kologa, on the eastern passage, 
and about sixteen miles from Nukualofa, from which it may be visited either 
on horseback or by boat. 

" On leaving Tongatabu the steamer makes for the middle group of the 
Tongan Islands, and anchors off Haapai in about twelve hours from Nukualofa. 
On its course north-east to Haapai the steamer passes the Namuka group, 
considerably to the west of which lies Falcon Island (15.'} feet), which was 
thrown up by volcanic eruption in 1885. On neariiig the Haapai group the 
two volcanic islands — Tofua* (1,800 feet) and Kao (3,030 feet) — may be seen to 
the left. From Tofua the Tongans get their best kava stones, and the black 
water-worn pebbles with which they cover the graves of their dead. The 
three chief islands of the Haapai group are L,efuka, I'ua, and Haano. It is 
in the offing of Pangai, a township on the west shore of Lefuka, that the 
steamer comes to anchor. Like Tongatabu, Lefuka, is low-lying and of coral 
formation, the reef shelving out for a considerable distance round the island, 
which is long, and so narrow that a walk of ten minutes takes one from the 
west shore to the east. There are a few good hf uses in the village. Here as 
in Nukualofa, the king has a palace, and being of Haapai birth, is said to 
prefer Pan^-^i to his capital. Lefuka, as regards fcrmation, vegetation, and 

* It was within sight of this island, in May, I 7S!», that the crew of H.M.S. 
*' Bounty " mutinied and set their connnander, Lieutenant Bligh, adrift 
in a launch. On landing at Tofua he was treacherou.sly attacked by the 
jiatives, and John Norton, his quartermaster, was killed. 



104 STKWAKT'S HAN'I) Br)OK 

native life, is a repetition of Tongatabu on a smaller scale. It was at the 
north-west point of Lefuka, on the 29th of November, 1806, that the ' Port 
an Prince ' came to anchor, for the last time in seven fathoms of water. 
Three days after the ship was seized by the natives and most of the crew 
inassacred. Amongst the few saved was William Mariner, who, becoming a 
favourite with the king, Finau, lived for some years amongst the natives 
like one of themselves, learned their language, familiarised himself with their 
customs, and on his return to England supplied material for a history of Tonga, 
which is, in its way, a classic. After being looted by the natives the ' Port 
au Prince ' was hauled in close to the shore and burned ; and relics of the 
unfortiinate vessel possilily remain still to be discovered at the nortli end of 
the island. 

" A run of eight hours brings the steamer to Vavau, the most northerly 
of the Tongan group. These islands are of volcanic origin, and consequently 
entirely different in appearance from Haapai and Tongatabu. The entrance 
to Vavau is surpassingly beautiful, resembling more the passage of an island 
sound than the approach to an island of the South Seas. After passing the 
outlying islands, the shore, for some miles is a succession of bold cliffs, wooded 
headlands, receding bays, and glistening beaches, with here and there open 
grassy plots, dotted with trees like an English shrubbery. The port of Vavau 
is completely landlocked, and as the water is deep the harbourage for vessels 
of all sizes is one of the finest in the world. The town of Neiafu, ideally 
perfect in situation — lying, as it does, on a green slope and plateau above 
the harbour — is really an orange grove, over which is scattered the native 
houses and churches. The houses of the white population are placed mostly 
on the slope that overhangs the harbour, and the whole is backed by the 
wooded hill of Olopeka, from ^vhich, by an easy ascent of not more than 
twenty minutes, a fine view may be obtained of the harbour and its shores." 

The following description of Tonga, written in 191.S, is from the pen of 
the late Rev. Dr. Watkin : — 

Vavau is one of the finest harbours in the world. As a native of Sydney 
I share my countrymen's admiration for Sydney Harbour. But owing to its 
rich tropical vegetation, its cocoanut palms, its orange trees laden with golden 
fruit fringing the water's edge, ^'avau has some attractions which vSydney 
lacks. The natural beauties of Sydney might be improved by a judicious 
planting of some of the headlands with vegetation not so sombre in hue as the 
indigenous trees are. Vavau is not a perfectly land-locked harbour. It is 
formed by three islands, and in addition to the main entrance there are two 
other entrances, one which can be txsed by small craft, the other by boats. 
Those who believe in the Anglo-Israel theory may add to their argument about 
Britain possessing the gateways of the world the fact that owing to Tonga 
being under British protection the luiipire will have in Vavau a most im- 
portant strategical point when the completed Panama Canal alters the political 
geograpl^3^of the, world. The voyager from Vavau to Nukualofa, via Haapai, 
has an opportunity of studying Tongan character in the htindreds of deck 
passengers, a noi.'^y, good-humoured crowd, who are happy on deck under 
conditions which would be ihtolerable to the average Australian. The I''nion 
Company must find Tongan deck passengers Very profitable. 

" Vavau has its splendid concrete wharf. Haapai is an open roadstead 
where the skill rf Tongans as navigators is" shown. The Tongan is almost 
amphibious. The distances which some of them have swiim when canoes or 
boats have been capsized far off from land are surprising, and would be beyond 



OF THE P.\CriIC ISLANDS 10,^ 

l^elicf but for the way in which they have been attested. Nukualofa, the 
capital, presents a pleasing appearance, when viewed in the earlj' morning 
from the steamers deck. Its aspect but for the tropical vegetation is dis- 
tinctly luiropean. The houses in view are not native in their construction. 
The canoe has been superseded by the boat. ^lany Tongans live in weather- 
l)oard cottages, and some in what may be called villas. They are iu>t as 
picturesque as the native homes. It is questionable whether they are 
healthier Tonga is under constitutional Oov'ernment. It lias its hereditary 
ruler, and a Parliament consisting of an equal number of hereditary chiefs and 
elected representatives. I was present at the opening and prorogation oi 
Parliament. It was a gala day in Nukualofa. The Kingdom of Tonga is 
without a parallel among the kingdoms of tlie world. It is without poverty, 
without a natioucil debt, without serious crime, and virtually possesses land 
nationalisation. To Shirley Baker, who in his time played many parts, 
missionary, doctor, politician, premier, deportee, Tonga owes no small debt 
of gratitude for the legislation which prevents an inch of Tongan soil being 
sold. In fact, there are some who whisper that one cause of the Ivuropean 
trader's wish for the extradition of Baker In" Sir ]. B. Thurston \\H& this 
legislation, which prevented them from becoming pos.sessed of land in the 
island kingdom. All the.laiid belongs to the people. It is not equally divided 
But every Tongan has land on which to erect his dwelling, and land for 
cultivation. The tropical climate and the fertile soil make the conditions of 
life easy. The burden of taxation is light. It is questionable whether there 
is a happier, more contented, and law-al:)iding people on our planet than the 
Tongans are. They are well-fed and well-dressed. Horses, buggies, phaetons 
abound. The Tongan maiden wears her gold necklet. There are few Toiig:in 
homes without a sewing machine. Tongan girls can make their own dresses 
after the patterns thej' copy from the fashion books. No Tongan boj' or girl 
is without education. Tliere are schools in every village, school being held 
three days a week. Higher education is provided for in Tubou College 
(Methodist) and the Government College. These Tongan lads and maidens 
are educated in- some respects up to matriculation standard, some of them 
near the mortar-board. The names of those who have won distinction 
are painted in letters of gold on the honour lists on the college walls. Brass 
bands are numerous, and perform very fairly. The singing of Tongan choirs 
is a surprise to visitors. Their singing is all sacred, and unaccompanied by 
any mu.sical instrument. There are thoughtful men in Tonga (not mis- 
sionaries) who question whether the higher education of the Tongan< is on 
the wisest lines. The value of education is to be judged by its usefulness in 
after life. If the educational curriculum in the colleges paid less attention 
to higher mathematics and more to the technical and the practical it would l>e 
more useful. The Tongan is not a lazy man. He is not ' born tired ' like 
the Saiiioan. He does not allow his women to drudge like his .Sanioan and 
IMaori kinsmen. No Tongan woman is a drudge either in the field or the home. 
But the Tongan can afford to be independent. Pie will build boats ; he can 
become a very fair carpenter ; but the roads which the (^.overnment is con- 
structing in Tongatabu are being made not by Tongans, but by Nine boys. 
The great scurce of a Tongan's prosperity is the ccjcoanut tree, from which 
he makes copra with great ease, and at little expenditure of labour. Bananas, 
pineapples, fungus (sent to China to enrich .soups), are all exported in large 
quantities. Tens of thousands of as fine oranges .as the world produces lie 
rotting under the trees for want of a market. There is no poverty in Tonga, 
but there is no wealth. The tribal or communal system which has prevailed 
from time immemorial is altogether opposed to any member of the tribe 
accumulating property. Tonga presents a most instructive les.sou to Socialists. 
There are to be seen exhibitions both of the strength and weakness of Socialism. 
A people without poverty, but a people also witliont individualism. However 
ready the Tongan may sliow liimself to be to utilise the inventions and dis- 
coveries of others, under the commuiii.sm which exists there the Tongan will 
not be the inventor or discoverer. Tliore is no place in Tongan Socialism 



l'H> STKWAUT'S hand HOf)K 

lor llie individual who will seek to rise above his fellows. To those whose 
ideal of life will he realised in short hours of labour, abundance of food, and 
' neither poverty nor riches,' Tonga will be ' Utopia.' But whether humanity 
at large will be content with that Utopia becoming world-wide is not a 
matter of speculation. Social and economical conditions must alter in 
civilised lands, but thev will not follow the I'olynesian pattern wlien the 
changes are effected. Ivxcept ior the richness and variety of Tongan vege- 
tation, Tongatabu does not present much attraction to the sightseer. There 
are no mountains and no running streams. There are the graves of the ancient 
kings, and the remarkable stone.s, like Druidical remains, which are not sup- 
posed to have been erected by the ancestors of the present Tongans. These 
stones, known as the Plaamonga, consist of two upright stones 16ft. high, 
oft. thick, 12ft. wide, and a horizontal stone, Kift. long, 4ft. !)in. wide, which 
is let into the two perpendicular ones. I have read statements to the effect 
that the stones could not have been found in Tonga, but must have been 
Ijrought from elsewhere. The Tongan tradition is that they were brought 
from Savage Island. But, as the stones are coral, they could have been ob- 
tained in Tonga. Tongatabu is an upheaved coral reef, covered with rich 
alluviimi. Like some of the Druidical remains in Europe, on the top of the 
horizontal stone there is a small basin, which in all probability was used in 
connection with the blood of human sacrifices. My month in Tonga wa.s 
educational in many ways. I think that Tonga is a splendid lesson as to the 
success of missionary effort, and is a proof that Christianity civilises. Those 
acquainted with the history of missions in the South Seas know that the 
London Missionary Society sent in their first mission vessel, the ' Duff,' 
a number of mechanics, who were semi-missionaries Some of these were 
landed on the Tongan (rroup. They attempted to civilise in order to Chris- 
tianise. Their mission in Tonga was a disastrous failure. The Tongans of 
those days were not ' friendly islanders.' Each group had its separate 
chieftain, and the islands were at war with each other. Some of the mis- 
.sionaries had to flee from Tonga, and find an asylum in Sydney. One of them 
abandoned Christianity, and became a heathen. The Methodist Mission, 
began in 1835. The Roman Catholics were some years later in the field. 
Now Tonga is a Christian land, with Custom Houses, Post Offices, Postage 
Stamps, Constitutional (kivernment, laws political and sanitary. They are 
a civilised people. They have a Supreme Court and Police Courts. Property 
is more secure, and life k more sacred in Nukualofa than they are in the Aus- 
tralian Commonwealth. They owe this to the successful efforts of Protestant 
and Romanist missions. T take the opportunity of expressing my admiration 
for the self-denial and successful work of the Marist Brothers in Polynesia. 
Some of their methods do not commend themselves to me. But the man 
who can stand in the Roman Catholic cemeteries of the .South Seas and not 
feel a thrill of respect and admiration for these French priests, who left their 
own land and gave a life-long service for the uplifting of the Polynesian 
peoples, is, I unhesitatingly write, not ' Christianlike.' ' If the Master praises, 
what are men ? ' " 



GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. 



CONSULAR REPRESENTATIVE. 

Mr. Islay McOwan, British Consul and Deputy Commissioner for the 
Western Pacific ; Mr. A. Masterton, Clerk to Consul. 

PRIVY COUNCIL OF TONGA. 
President, Her Majesty Queen Salote Tubou ; Premier, T. B. Tu'ivakano ; 
Chief Justice, H. C. Stronge ; Auditor-General, J. Darrell Wall ; Speaker of 
the A.ssembly, Finau Ulukalala ; Minister for Lands, V. Tugi ; Minister for 
Works, A. B. Wallace ; Trea.surer, W. (\. Bagnall ; Mini.'Jter for Police, J. 
Kaho ; Governor of Vavau. — . Veikune ; Governor of H.naoai, . 



or THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 107 



OTHER OFFICIALS. 



Chief Kuropean Clerk, Premier's Office, Nukualofa, Ci. vScott ; Treasurer, 
Nukualofa, W. (i. Ragnall ; Chief Postmaster and Collector of Customs, 
Nukualofa, J. M. Masterton ; Chief Surveyor, Nukualofa, A. B. Wallace; 
•Go\ernment Printer, Nukualofa, W. Tart ; Sub-Collector of Customs, Vavau, 
T. Cr. Rudlinj; ; Sub-Collector of Customs, Haapai, H. Bates ; Chief Police 
ilagistrate, Nukualofa, vS. Afu ; Staff Surveyor, Nukualofa, C. F. Heenan ; 
Staff Surveyor, Haapai, F. J. Fuller; Staff Surveyor. Vavau, \V. Pauton ; 
Draughtsman, Nukualofa. J. Bourne ; Chief Clerk of Customs, Nukualofa, 
R. Ct. Dennv ; Foreman of Works, J. I^^ger ; Clerk to Minister of Fands, 
Nukualofa, A. T. Gaffney ; Clerk to Chief Justice, Nukualofa, \\'. Palmer ; 
Foreman, (jovernment Prmtmg Office, U. A. Dobbie ; Harbourmaster, 
Vavau, W. Holford ; Harbourmaster, Haapai, F. Cunningham. 

BUSINESS COMMUNITY. 

NUKUALOFA. 

Burns, Philp &; Co., Ltd., Genera! Merchants and Copra 15uyers, and 
Wine and Spirit Merchants. Manager, B. H. Brush. 

D. H. and G. P. (German firm) in liquidation. .Actnig Liquidator, G. 
Scott ; accountant, W. Duncan. 

Lever Bros., Ltd., Copra Merchants. Manager, A. G. Slocombe. 

L. B. Levin, Merchant, Wine and .Spirit Merchant, Auctioneer and 
Commission Agent. 

W. Cocker, Merchant and Copra Buyer. 

A. Terry Day, Merch.ant and Copra Buyer. 

O. B. Krause & Co., Merchants and Copra Buyers. 

J. L. Yarntcn, Merchant and Copra Buver. 

W. T. Goodwin, Coach Factory .- 

A. Cowley, Planter. 

V. I,anz, Baker. , 

V. .Stuart, Coach and Buggy Builder. 

J. M. Clements, Cordial P^actory. 

W. I,. vSmith, I'resh Food and Ice Factory. 

R. G. M. Denny, Storekeeper, Dealer in Curios, &c. 

S. W. Briggs, Picture Sliow. 

T. Bowles, Contractor. 

W. Thoms. Boatbuilder. 

G. Jennings, P'isherman. 

F. Jones, Trader. 

B. G. Mills, Fngineer. 
H. H. Wright, 'Planter. 
F. Watkin, Planter. 

C. Tragordh, Sailmaker. 
A. Bover, Trader. 



W. Jeffs, Clerk. 



HAAPAI GROUP 



Burns, Philp ^: Co., Ltd., Merchants and Copra Buyers. ^Lmager, A. 
^Lvkenzie. 

Batty and Wall, Merchants and Copra Buyers. 

S. Chatfield, Merchant and Copra Buyer. 

Tindall and Ross. Merchants and Copra Buyers. Managers, J. B. 
Protheroe. 

K. George, Trader. 

W. Oswald, Trader. 

W. Flower, Trader, Nonuika. 

N. Sandys, Trader, Nomuk;'. 



lOS 



STEWAUTS HAND BOOK 



VAVAV. 

Tindall and Ross, Merchants and Copra Buyers, ^ran'^ger, (). Duncan. 

lUirns, I'hilp & Co. Manager, S. Stewart. 

J. l'\ Hutchison, Trader, Tuannku. 

B. I.yden, Trader. 

A. Knudson, Trader. 

O. vSundin, Trader. 

W. Knowles, Trader. 

A. Cameron, Accountant, Xeiafu. 



Thos. Parsons, Trader. 



XIT'ATOPUTABU. 



THE CHURCHES. 

ANGLICAN CHURCH. 

His Lordship the Rt. Rev. Bi.shop Willis. Assistant Bishop for Tonga, 
Nukualofa. 

Rev. Y. Sang Mark, Nukualofa. 



FREE CHURCH OF TONGA. 

Rev. ]. B. Watkin, Siiperintendent, Nukualofa. 
Rev. \V. Harkness, Haapai. 



WFvSLEVAN CHURCH. 

Rev. R. C. G. Page, Superintendent, Nukualofa. 

Rev. E. E. V. Collocott, Principal of College, Nukualofa. 

Rev. A. ^r. Saunders, Vavau. 

FRENCH MISSION (ROMAN CATHOLICS). 

His Lordship the Rt. Rev. Felix Blanc, S.M., Nukualofa. 
Rev. Father Thomas, S.M., Vavau. 
Rev. Father Duguerry, Nukualofa. 



LATTICR DAY vSAINTS (MORMON) IMISSION. 
Pastor Smith ; also several other FXiropean workers. 

SICVENTII DAY ADVENTISTS" MISSION. 
Pastor Thorpe, \'avau. 



CUSTOMS TARIFF, WHARFAGE DUES, &c. 

(As A.MEXDEI) BV TILE ACT OE AUOTST, I'M?.! 

PART I.— IMPORT DUTIES. 
(a) Specific. 



Beer, ale, porter, per gal. 
Benzine or gasolene, per gal. 
Caps (percussion), per !()(» 
Cider, per gal. . . 
Cigars and cigarettes, per 11). 



£ 


s. 


d 





1 


6 








4 








I 





1 





..0 


8 


a 



OF THE FAriFIC ISr.ANDS 



!01> 



Dj'naniite (lithofracteur), per lb. 
Dynamite caps and detonators, per 100 
Kerosene, 150 degrees test and over, per gal. . . 
Kerosene, under 150 degrees test, per gal. 
Kerosene, for industrial purposes only, per gol. 
Lead (shot and bullets), per cwt. 
Methylated Spirits, per gal. 
Opium, per lb. . . 
Powder (sporting), per lb. 

Palings, per 1 ,000 

Spirits (on all kinds of strength of which can be ascertained 1 

Syke's hydrometer to be over proof), per proof gal. 
Spirits (as above which are under proof), per liquid gal. 
Spirits (the strength of which cannot be ascertained by Syke 

hydrometer), per liquid gal. 

vShingles, per 1,000 

Timber, undressed, per 100 superficial feet . . 

Timber, dressed and surfaced, per 100 superficial Icet 

Tobacco, manufactured, per lb. 

Tobacco, unmanufactured, per lb. 

Wines, per gallon 

Wines, sparkling, per gal. 



£ 


s. 


d 





A 





.. 


4 





.. 





3 


.. 


I 


fi 


.. 





;{ 


.. 


5 





.. 


2 





1 








. . 


1 





. . 


■> 





bv 






.. 1 








. . 


17 





e's 






.. 


17 





.. 


2 





.. 


1 


6 


.. 


■> 





.. 


4 





.. 


2 





.. 


2 





.. 


8 






{h) Ad Vai.ore.m 25 Per Cent. 
Firearms. 

Jewellery, including watches, 
^^'ax A'e.stas. 



(r) Ad Valorem !2J Per Cent. 

Articles previously exported for repairs, on the value of the repairs. 

All other articles and goods not enumerated above and not appearing in 
the list of articles exempt from duty set forth in (d) of this Schedule. 



{d) IjsT OK Goods ICxempt from Duty. 

Bags and Sacks (new) for copra. 
Ballast (ship's, pig and scrap iron). 
Beche-de-mer. 
Books and periodicals. 
Coal. 
Coke. 
Coin. 

Fruit Cases and Shooks. 
Ice. 

I,ive stock, including domestic fowl of all kinds imported for breeding 
purposes cnly. 

Meat (fresh, frozen or preserved by cold process). 

Outside package'', in which goods are ordinarily contained. 

Passengers, luggage. 



PART 11.— EXPORT DUTIFS. 



Coin, gold and sil\ er 



Copra, per ton . . 
Mares, each 

Stallions and geldings, eacli 
Pigs (male and female). . 



£ 


■)IO 

-1' '< 
s. d 





15 


•> 





1 








Id o 



110 



STEWART S IIANJJ B(K)K 







WHARFAGE. 




;«) Genkrat, Rates 


£ 


s. d 


Baskets, each 







3 


Carboys, each . . 






. . 


3 


Carotells, each . . 









3 


Demijohns, each 









3 


Drums, each 









3 


Firkins, each 









3 


Half-chests, each 









3 


Kegs, each 









3 


Quarter sacks, each 









U 3 


Packages (not other specified 






Under five (5) cubic feet, each 


. . 


3 


If five (5) cubic feet, and imder ten, each 





4 


If ten (10) cubic feet or mere, for each ten cubic feet or portion 




thereof 




4 


Bags, each 








4 


Sacks, each 








4 


Barrels, each 








4 


Quarter casks, each 








4 


Kilderkins, each 






. . 


4 


Tubs, each 









4 


Octaves, each 











4 


Crates, each 








.. 


1> 


Hogsheads, eacl 











9 


Tierces, each 











!» 


Pipes each 











1 


Butts, each 








. . 


1 


Puncheons, eacl 











1 


Leaguers, each 











1 


Tanks, each 











2 6 



(b) vSpecial Rates. 
I/ive Stock — Horses, mules, asses and homed cattle, each , 

Sheep, pigs and goats . . 
Anchors, cables and chains, per cwt. . . 
Ballast for ships (other than iron), per ton . . 
Bananas, per bunch 
Bananas, per case . . . . . . . . ... 

Boilcrs(engine), per cwt. 

Bricks, tiles and slates, per 100 

Cotton, per bale 

Cotton, per bag . . 

Coals and coke in bulk, per ton 

Copra, per ton . . 

Candlenuts, per ton 

Fungus, per ton . . 

Pearlshell, shark fins, 1,eche-de-mer, per cwt. 

Cocoanuts, per 100 

Doors and pairs of sashes, each 

Engines (fire and steam), per cwt. 

Cocoanut fibre, per cwt. 

Galvanised iron (wire, sheet, bundle or case), per cwt. 

Gravestones, each parcel or package . . . . .• . " 

Hay and straw, per bale 

Iron in bar, rod, sheet, bundle, pig. tire wheels, wire pots, camp 

ovens, pipes, and rails, per cwt. . . 
Laths and palings per 100 









9 








4 








3 








6 








1 








2 








3 








3 








3 








4 








OJ 





1 


o" 





1 








1 











1 








1 








2 








•> 








1 








H 








6 








6 








U 








3 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



111 



Mouldings and architraves, per 100 running feet 

Oars, per dozen . . 

I^ead in any form, per cwt. 

Machinery, per cwt. 

Pianos and harmoniums, each. 

Shingles, per 1,000 

Spars, per running feet . . 

Staves and shooks, per 100 

Timber, per 100 superficial feet 

Yams, kumalas, potatoes, in bulk, per cwt. 

Carrots, onions, turnips, in bulk, per cwt. 

Posts and rails, per 100. . 

Hides and skins, each . . 



£ 


s. 


d. 








:j 








4 








li 








u 





2 


(j 








4 








0', 








3 








1.'. 








1 








3 





2 











1 



Copra, storage on, in C.overnment sheds, 3d. per ton per week or part of 
a week. 

Trucks, Is. each with a limit of one and a half tons burden. 

Raffles and art unions, 5 per cent, on value of the goods up to £20 ; mini- 
nuim charge, 2s. ; 2^ per cent, on value of goods over £20. 

Amusements and picture shows, £30 per annum for each district, or lOs. 
for each performance. 

Stallions, £1 per annum. 

Dogs, 2s. per annum. 

Passports — Any person over the age of 16 years, lOs. each. 

Any person under KJ years who is going to school, or voyaging with 
parents, 2s. each. 

(The Privy Council may remit the whole or any portion of the above 
cliarge on application being made in writing stating sufficient grounds for such 
remission.) 



W.M. FORD,j 



nr. 



Berry's Bay Established ,870. North Sydney 

BUILDER OF THE WELL KNOWN ISLAND VESSELS. 

Ship, Yacht, Launch and Boat Builder, and 
all kinds of Island Crafts. 

Also on hand a large assortment of Auxiliares, 
Cutters, Ketches and Whale Boats, all Suitable 
for the Island Trade. 



Prices Moderate, consistent with good work and material. 



Soliciting your inquiries, which will 
receive mv best attention. 



Oil Engines of any make can be installed. 

Pl.KASK MENTION THIS HA.MJ BOoK WIIK.V WRITINO. 




The 
X\ O YA. L standard 

Typewriter 

The ROYAL represents the latest development in modern 
Typewriter -manufacture. It is simple, strong— with a light 
touch' readily adjustable to the personality of the operator — 
and as a result of the up-to-date mechanical principles upon 
which it is constructed, it stands without equal for efficiency 
and economy. 

" COMPARE THE. WORK ': 

preferably that of a ROYAL that has had a few yedrs of hard 
wear and tear, with that of any other Standard machine of 
similar age. You will see one big reason why the ROYAL is 
being adopted by discriminating users the World over. 

Supplied under Contract to the N.S.W. State 
Government for the past six years. 

Supplied under Contract to the N.S.W. State 
Railways for the past seven years. 

Write us for ROYAL T,iterature. 

SY£)NEY PINCOMBE, LTD. 

Royal Agents for Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands 
5 HAMILTON STREET, SYDNEY. 

WE SPECIALISE IN TYPEWRITER .AN'D OFFICE SUPPLIES. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 1 13 



SAMOA OR NAVIGATORS ISLANDS. 

The 17 1st meridian divides the former possession of (lermany (now ad- 
ministered under mandate by New Zealand) and those of the United 
States ; the islands to the east (Tutiiila, Manua, &c.), belong to the 
I'nited States, and those to the west (Savaii, Upolu, &c.) are British. 

THK Samoa or Navigators' Islands lie between 13 degrees 30 minutes and 
14 degrees 20 minutes south latitude, and between 109 degrees and 
173 degrees vyest longitude, and are, therefore, thoroughly tropical. 
They comprise Savaii, Apolima, ^Nlanono, Upolu, Tutuila (Pago Pago),' Aunna, 
Manua, Ofu, and Olosenga. 

The islands, which lie pretty near that mysterious line of longitude, 
where a ship suddenly sails out of one day into the day before, are distant 
some 2,500 miles from Sydney, the journey occupying about 12 days via I'iji, 
and are one of the groups that have been built up by volcanic forces, aided 
by the work of the coral polyp. Pago Pago, one of the ports of call of the 
American mail steamers, and the site of the American naval depot, is in 
Tutuila. Almost entirely landlocked, Pago Pago affords the best anchorage 
and, in addition, is one of the prettiest spots in the South Seas. If, when tlie 
islands were parcelled out between the two Powers, Germany obtained no har- 
bour to compare to this, she was in t)ther respects the more fortunate, for 
no island in the Pacific exceeds Upolu for richness and fertility, and that is 
saying a great deal. 

Apia, the capital of Samoa, is situated on Upolu, and it is the home of 
most of the white population. The bay of Apia is shaped like a half-moon, 
having Mulinuu Point for the western and Matautu Point for the eastern horn 
of the crescent, the distance of the chord from horn to horn, if one may use 
tliat expression, being about two miles. Right and left from the respective 
horns of the crescent the reef stretches towards the middle point of the chord, 
a sheer submarine wall of coral, 1ml leaving in the middle, opposite the 
point where the river enters the bay, a wedge-shaped space of water deep 
enough to harbour the largest vessels. In ordinary weather the bay gives as 
secure a harbourage as a inere roadstead can give, but in anything like hur- 
ricane weather the danger of all kinds to shipping is considerable. 

Very little is. known of the early history of the Samoan I.slands. The 
earliest notice we have of them is the visit of the Dutch " Three Shij) I'.x- 
jK'dition " under Roggewein, in 1722. The I'rench explorers followed: 
P.ougainville in 1768, and I,a Perouse in 17>S7. During the visit of the latter 
at the small village of Asu, in Tutuila, a boat's crew of the Frenchmen and 
M. de Langle, one cf the officers, wore massacred while on shore. In 17!U 
the British war vessel " Pandora " visited the islands. In 1830 the London 
Missionary Society established a mis.sion in one of the Samoan Islands, and 
followed that up by exten.sive operations in all the islands. The United States 
exploring expedition, under the command of Uieutenant Charles Wilkes. 



E. D. MORRISON & CO. 



LIMITED -- 



257a George Street, SYDNEY 



Direct Importers of the following: ^ 

Western Road Graders, Plows, Wheeled 
Sc5ops, Drag Scrapers, Buck Scrapers, 
Ox Shovels, Road Drags, Elevating 
Graders. Dump Wagons, Dump Cars, 
Side Tipping Trucks, Rock Crushers. 

Roberts Valveless Marine Motors, 4, 8, 
16 h.p. 

Arrow Cutboard and Inboard Motors. 

The Witte & Ottawa Stationary Kerosene 
Engines, from i^ h.p. 

The Shaw Motor Attachment for Bicycles. 

The X-ray Gas Generators, Hollow Wire 
Lighting Outhts, Table Lamps, 300 c.p., 
The TInilite Lantern, 300 c.p. 

" Nikoteen " Insecticide — a well-known 
Remedy on Plantations — kills all pests, 
does not injure foliage 



Full information upon application. 
Stocks always on hand for immediate shipment. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 1 1 o 

United States Navy, made the first scientific investigations in the islands, in 
1839. This expedition, composed of six vessels, was equipped for the parti- 
cular purpose of surveying and exploring the unfrequented islands of the 
South Seas. A staff of competent civilian scientists was on board, and the 
ships (all naval vessels) were prepared for accurate survey work. The sur- 
veys then made of the Samoan Islands, though necessarily hurried ones, are 
the basis of our charts to-day. As early as 1850 England, (lerniany, and the 
United States were represented by commercial agents in Apia. During the 
next 20 years British, Germans and Americans established stations, acquired 
land, and developed intimate relations with the natives. 

In 1872 Commander Richard \V. Meade, United Stales Navy, com- 
manding the U.S.S. " Narragansett," visited Pago Pago, and made an agree- 
ment with Mauga, the highest chief of Tutuila, in which Mauga expressed his 
desire for the friendship and protection of the United States, and granted to 
the United vStates the exclusive privilege of establishing a naval station in 
Pago Pago Harbour. Commander Meade made this treaty on his own re- 
sponsibility. In May, 1872, President Grant communicated this agreement 
to the Senate, saying that he would not hesitate to recommend its approval, 
but for the protection to which it seemed to pledge the Ignited States, which 
was not in accord with the foreign policy of the Government. The Senate 
took no action on the agreement. Naval officers have long recognised the 
strategic value of Pago Pago, with its magnificent harbour, and its situation 
at the crossroads of the Pacific trade routes from North America to Australia, 
and from Panama and South America to the Orient, and that a coaling station 
at this point would be of inestimable value to the United States. 

In 1873, in response to a public demand for more information about the 
Samoan Islands, the American Department of State sent Col. A. B. Stein- 
berger as special agent to the Samoan Islands to report upon their condition, 
which report was .submitted in the latter part of the year 1873, and tran.s- 
mitted to Congress in April, 1874. Steinberger was sent back to Samoa a 
second time, carrving a letter from the President and some presents to the 
chiefs of Samoa, his official relations with the United States being severed 
when the letter and the presents were delivered. Steinberger formed a 
government for Samoa, of which he became premier (practically '" dictator."'). 
It was said, and probably with cause, that Steinberger had promi.sed the 
Samoans the protection of the United States. The American State Depart- 
ment, in an.swer to a resolution in the Hou.se of Representatives, March 2S, 
1876, transmitted all the correspondence in Steinberger \s case to Congress, 
and repudiated any agreement which Steinberger might liavc made with 
Samoa as without authority. 

In 1876 Steinberger's Government fell into difiicultics with the foreign 
Governments at Apia, particularly that of Great Britain, and he was deported 
in the gunboat " Barracouta." The Government of Steinberger collapsed 
after his deportation. 

In 1877 the chiefs of all Samoa sent Mamea as ambassa<lor to the United 
States to conclude a treaty, hoping at least to obtam the protection of the 
United States. He was un.successful in this particular object, as the people 
of the United States were not readv to assume such .serious obligations. In 



11() STKWART S HAM) HOOK 

January, 1S7S, Maiiiea concluded a treaty of friendship and commerce at 
Washington, the first treaty ever entered into by Samoa, and which contained 
formal definition of the relations of the United States to the Samoan Group : 
" Naval vessels of the United States shall have the privilege of entering and 
using the port of Pago Pago and establishing therein and on the shores thereof 
a station for coal and other naval supplies for their naval and commercial 
marine, and the Samoan Government will hereafter neither exercise nor 
authorise any jurisdiction within said port adverse to such rights of the United 
States or restrictive thereof." The fifth article provided that should any 
<lifference arise between Samoa and another Government at peace with the 
United States, " the Government of the latter will employ its good offices 
for the purpose of adjusting those differences upon a satisfactory and solid 
foundation." 

The United States here made its first departure from its policy of avoid- 
ing entanglements with foreign Governments, which entanglements, as a 
matter of fact, came very quickly. The treaty was ratified by both the United 
vStates and Samoa during the year 1878. 

In 1870 treaties were concluded V>etween Germany and Samoa and 
between Great Britain and Samoa, by which Germany was granted a coaling 
station at Saluafata, Upolu, and Great Britain was granted one at a place 
to be later determined. The treaties were otherwise much similar to the one 
concluded with the United States. 

In 1885 Dr. Stuebul, the German consul general, took possession of all the 
land within the municipality of Apia, in the name of his Government, which 
action was the cause of much disorder. In conformity with the American treaty 
with vSamoa, " to employ its good offices," proposals were made to Germany 
and Ivngland for them to authorise their diplomatic representatives in Wash- 
ington to consult with the Secretary of State with a view to the establishment 
of order. A conference w-as held at ^^'ashington in June and July, 1887. 
which was adjourned until autumn in order to allow the foreign ministers- 
to con.sult with their home Governments, it being understood that in the 
meantmae the status quo would be preserved. Almost immediately after 
the adjournment, the German Government, through its representatives 
in vSamoa, declared war on the Samoan King, Malietoa, who was dethroned 
and deported ; Tamasese was declared to be king, with Brandeis, a German, 
as adviser. This action of German}', declared to be a lack of consideration 
of the Ignited States, aroused adverse feelings in that country. 

In September, 1888, many of the Samoan people revolted against Ta- 
masese, and chose Mataafa as king, and a war ensued. The Germans in 
Samoa deported Tamasese. The feeling in the United States against Ger- 
many was accentuated. Five hundred thousand dollars were appropriated 
by Congress for the protection of the interests of the United States. Tlie 
American squadron in Samoa was reinforced. 

On March 15 1889, there were gathered in the harbour of Apia, the 
American ships " Trenton " (the flagship of Rear-Admiral Kimberly), " Van- 
dalia," and " Nipsic " ! the British ship " Calliope " ; the German ships 
" Adler," " ICber," and " Olga." A hurricane developed on that day, and 
by the eveiiing of ilarch 16 only one of those seven vessels remained afloat — 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 117 

the '■ Calliope." which by her superior power and bj- magnificent seamanship, 
was enabled to put to sea in the face of the hurricane. This frightful di.saster 
did much to bring about a settlement of Samoan affairs. 

On June 14, 1889, the Berlin general act was concluded, and was later 
agreed to by vSamoa. This act, after declaring the independence and neutrality 
of the Samoan Islands, and stipulating for the provisional recognition of 
Malietoa I^aupepa as king, provided for the establishment of a Government. 
The principal feature of the Government was a .supreme ccurt, the chief 
justice to be appointed by the three Powers, or, failing agreement, by the King 
of Norway and Sweden. A municipal government for Apia was provided, 
and also a land commission, to settle the very troublesome questions of titles 
to lands. 

From the Samoan standpoint the new Government was not a success 
from the start, caused in some degree by the dilatory methods of the first 
chief justice. The strained relations between the German residents and the 
Briti.sh and American residents of Upolu continued. The Mataafa party 
was never reconciled to the recognition of Malietoa Laupepa as King. War 
broke out in 1^3, Mataafa rebelling against the authority of King Malietoa,. 
and niany lives were sacrificed. Mataafa, with 12 of his chiefs, was deported 
to the Marshall Islands, the three Powers concurring and sharing in the expense 
of maintenance. The Mataafa followers still maintained an organisation, 
however, and were ready to rebel again when opportunity offered. 

In 1898 King Malietoa died. By agreement among the Powers, made 
before the death of Malietoa, Mataafa was brought back to Samoa very shortly 
after Malietoa's death occurred, he having signed an agreement to abide by 
the law of Samoa and not to engage in hostilities against the Government. 
The Berlin general act had made provision that the successor to the king 
should be selected by the Samoans according to their customs, and, failing 
a selection, that the chief justice of Samoa should decide as to which claimant 
should be king, this deci.sion to be final. The method of selecting a king wa.s- 
net set forth. The Samoans could not come to any agreement as to the suc- 
cessor of Malietoa ; there was no provision in Samoan customs that the majority 
should rule. The followers of Malietoa Tanu and of Mataafa. the rival 
claimant, w-ere armed and ready for war. After some months of this uncer- 
tainty, the decision was referred to the chief Justice, who decided in favour 
of Malietoa Tanu. Mataafa proclaimed himself King, and opened hostilities 
abetted more or less openly by the Germans, who refused to recognise Malietoa. 
Mataafa gained the ascendancy and the consuls of the three Powers reccgnised 
a temporary provisional government under Mataafa. This steps was taken 
by the consuls to avoid further bloodshed. 

The United .States flag.ship " Philadelphia," Rear Admiral Albert Kautz 
in command, arrived at Apia in March, 1899. At a conference between officers 
commanding the naval vessels of the three Powers, and the consuls, it was 
decided that Mataafa must withdraw from Apia and cease hostilities, and that 
Malietoa Tanu was legally the king. — The German consul general and the 
officer conunanding the (lerman cruiser " Falke " dissented, and openly 
opposed by proclamation the orders issued by Admiral Kautz. In the 



118 STlvWAKTS HANI) HOOK 

hostilities which ensued Mataafa's forces and villages were shelled by the 
American and British men-of-war. 

On April 1, 1899, a force of marines and sailors from those vessels was 
ambushed near Apia while attempting to destroy some native villages, and 
two American officers, one British olficer, two American sailors, and one 
British sailor were killed and five men were wounded. Other casualties 
among the combined forces took place, sentinels being killed by the natives. 

When this news reached home the three Powers decided to send a com- 
mission of three men, one from each I'ower, to Samoa to take over the (Govern- 
ment temporarily and restore peace. The American commissioner was Mr. 
Bartlett Tripp. The commission arrived at Apia on May 13, 1899, and 
immediately .set about restoring order. The hostile Samoan armies laid down 
their guns, the commission agreeing to purchase all guns turned in. Both 
Malietoa Tanu and Mataafa agreed to abide by the decisions of the com- 
mission. At the request of the commission Malietoa resigned the kingship, 
and it was decided that there should be no king until the Powers made some 
further agreement. A successful provisional government was formed and 
peace was restored. The three Powers then decided that the only way to 
govern the Samoan Islands was to divide them among the Powers — Great 
Britain, Germany, and the United States. Great Britain and Germany made 
a separate agreement, by which Great Britain renounced all rights over the 
islands in favour, of Germany as regards Savaii and Upolu, and in favour of 
the United States as regards Tutuila and other islands, upon Germany sur- 
rendering to Great Britain her rights in regard to Choiseul, Ysabel, and also 
the Shortland Islands, in the Solomon Group. The announcement that Great 
Britain had agreed to forego her claims and make this arrangement was a great 
surprise to Samoa and the Australasian colonies. 

On August 30, 1914, Colonel Logan, on behalf of the New Zealand Gov- 
ernment took possession of German Samoa for His Majesty the King. As 
the flag was slowly hoisted to the top of the staff above the offices of the Ger- 
man administration, and fluttered out on the south-east trade wind, to the 
booming of the guns of the " Psyche," the scene was a memorable one. The 
troops, on the word of the officer commanding the Kxpedition, came to the 
salute, the band played the National Anthem, and three cheers were 
given for His Majesty. Then followed the reading of the proclamation in 
the presence of a large assemblage of Europeans and Samoans, the officers of 
the Expedition, the naval officers, and the leading chiefs of Samoa, after which 
the troops, with the band of the Fifth Regiment playing a lively tune, marched 
back to quarters. For the first time in the history of the P^mpire a British 
Dominion Overseas had sent an invading force across the ocean, and had 
captured a foreign territory. The six ships of war forming the expedition, 
and the two transports, steaming in line ahead, across the waters and between 
the islands of the Southern Pacific, made an imposing spectacle, and, 
eventually, the appearance of such a formidable and totally unexpected force 
off Upolu in the early dawn, and, later, off the port of Apia, was a great 
surprise to the Germans, the British, and the natives. The " Psyche " 
(Captain Marshall) steamed on ahead, and, under a flag of truce, entered the 
inner harbour, which was thoroughly swept for mines by two of the little 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 119' 

steamboats. She promptly landed an offuer, with a demand from the Ad- 
miral for the surrender cf the Islands within half an hour, he having an 
overwhelming force at his disposal. In the temporary absence of the Gover- 
nor from Apia, this demand was made to his deputy, who intimated that 
in the absence of the Governor he cculd not approve of the surrender, but that 
no resistance to the landing of an armed force would be made. The Governor, 
who had previously been apprised of the arrival of the force, had, it was stated, 
gone to a meeting ^^ith some of the high chiefs. The position of affair.s 
having been ascertained, a signal was made to the troopships, which at once 
steamed to their allotted anchorages and promptly connnenced the dis- 
embarkation of the troops. The landing of the advance party was accom- 
plished with celerit}-. livery bridge, and road, and entrance to an exit from 
the town was quickly guarded. Eventually the disembarkation of the whole 
force with guns, rifles, ammunition, camp equipment, provisions, and a com- 
plete wireless outfit was effected with remarkable dispatch, without the loss of 
a single life, and with no greater accident than a broken leg. In a few minutes 
after the landing of the covering party, the (rerman flag, that for fourteen 
years had flown over these islands, had been hauled down, and in a little 
while Colonel Logan and his staff had installed themselves in the offices of 
the late Government. The pest oflSce, the customs house, the telephone 
exchange, and other public buildings and property were quickly seized, and 
the oflicials of the ( Tovernment, one after another, were brought before Colonel 
Logan, and put on parole. Colonel Logan had gone quickly and effectively 
to work, and in a very brief space of time had established a British Military 
Government over German Samoa. Such, in brief outline, is an account of 
the capture and occupancy of German Samoa by the New Zealand Expedi- 
tionary Force. It is pleasant to think that Samoa was taken without blood- 
shed. 

Savaii''' is the largest i.sland, being somewhere about 150 miles in cir- 
cumference, with a height approaching 4,000 feet. It is, nevertheless, the 
least fitted tc suppc rt a large population, having been so recently subject to 
volcanic action that much of its surface is absolutely sterile. In spite of a 
considerable rainfall, it possesses only a single river, owing to the porous nature 
ot the vesicular lava, which offers a large extent of heated surface, so as to 
evaporate the greater part cf the moisture, while the remainder sinks down 
and appears as springs near the coast. The narrow belt cf fertile soil, which 
in places extends between the mountains and the sea is, however, exceedingly 
beautiful, being covered with a luxuriant vegetation. 

LTpclu is the middle island of the group, on which Apia, the capital, is 
situated. It is forty-five miles long by about fourteen broad, but is of less 
regular shape than Savaii, and contains about 580 square miles. The channel 
that separates it from Savaii is about eight miles broad. A chain of moun- 



* " Savaii disputes witli Hawaii the honour of being the original home 
of the Polynesian race, nnd of being the traditicma! Hawaiki whence the 
ancestors of the ^Maoris of New Zealand migrated to the great southern islands. 
Both names — Savaii and Hawaii-pwould be pronounced Hawaiki by a Maori, 
but the word may only have a general meaning, like tlie word ' home " in 
English." 



12') STK\V.\kT"N HAND HOOK 

tains runs through its ct-ntre from east to west, wliose slopes are interspersed 
with rich valleys, gradually trending towards the shore, with belts of 
level land several miles in width and many in length. Nearly the whole of 
these mountains, valleys and flat lands are covered with forests of evergreen 
trees or with neatly laid-out plantations ; the scenery being frequently en- 
livened by cascades leaping and bounding down the mountain sides, where 
they stand out plainly to view amidst the verdure by which they are sur- 
rounded. The highest mountain is at the east-end, in the district of Atua, 
and is named Fao. The views in the neighbourhood of Saluafata especially 
are very beautiful and varied. In addition to the constant interchange of 
hill and dale, of rocks and valleys, the scene is at times varied by large patches 
of a small plant, somewhat resembling heath, of a light green colour, which 
the visitor often mistakes for green sward. 

Apia is a picturesquely situated little town, and presents many sights 
of interest to the visitor. Ikying behind a fringe of cocoanut palms, which 
afford a grateful shade, it stretches in a straggling line along the beach for a 
distance of about a mile. The Government offices, hotels, and stores all lie 
along the beach. Scattered here and there are private dwellings, principally 
along the Tivoli Road, a delightful avenue that leads up to Stevenson's 
old home. Some of the dwellings are exceedingly pretty in design, and are 
for the most part built in bungalow style. .About a mile from the beach is 
the hospital, quite an up-to-date building that was presented to the people 
of Samoa by the late Herr Kunst, who also purchased " Vailima," .some 
time after vStevenson's death. " Vailima " is the official residence of His 
Kxcellency the Administrator. Other strd^ing buildings are the IMarket 
Hall, the Court House, the Tivoli Hotel, the Roman Catholic Cathedral, 
the Public School, the London Missionary Society's buildings, the Alcazar, 
a place of public entertainment wdiich owes its origin to jMr. H. J. floors, 
and the American and British Consulates. A wireless station is erected 
at Tafaigata, at the back of Apia. The tower is about 'MM feet in 
height. As one saunters along the roads leading away from the beach 
he passes numerous thatch-roofed habitations of the natives, who 
are a mild-mannered hospitable people. Every house is as open as 
the day, and the stranger, be he poor or princely, is welcome therein. 
Two favourite picnicing spots within easy distance of the town are 
Papasea (sliding rock) and Lanatao. The former affords never-ending amuse- 
ment to young and old alike, and is one of the spots every tourist visits. It 
is a wide rock that has been worn wonderfully smooth by the water that has 
been falling over it through the ages, • and exciting as is the experience of 
" shooting the chute " it is nothing to the thrill which shooting this rock 
occasions. At the bottom of the waterfall is a crystal pool, and it is into this 
that one has to make his slide. Ivuropean parties ate invariably accompanied 
by some Samoan belles. One of the latter will place herself in position on 
top of the rock. The woman or man desirous of making the .slide will then 
sit behind her, and the next moment both are .shooting over the rock. It is a 
mad whirling moment. Then there is a splash, and both are in the pool. 
Lanatao affords a picture surprisingly grhnd and beatitiful. It is a lake 
some three miles in circumference, formed in a crater at the top of a mountain 



OF TKK PACIFIC ISI.AXnS 12t 

over 2,000 ft. above the sea level, and surrounded by some of the most gorge<;iis- 
tropical vegetation in the South Seas. 

The Samoans are the most attractive people in the Pacific. Of large 
stature, well formed, with good disposition, and pleasing features and maimers, 
they conunend themselves to the good opinions of all who meet them. They 
are of courtly manner, in no sense obsequious, and the charms of the women 
have led many a wanderer to stay in these delectable isles for the remainder 
of his life. They are the true Polynesians, probably the finest physical 
specimens cf the race. In appearance they are of a light reddish-brown or 
copper colour, ereCT. in bearing and handsome in features. The face has many 
of the distinctive marks of the liuropean. The nose is straight, the chin 
firm and strong, the cheek bones rather prominent, and the forehead high. 
The hair is black and soft — sometimes wavy. There is nothing about them 
to suggest the negro. The men are tall, proud in bearing, muscular in hmbs 
and torso, rarely corpulent, very active, of great endurance — withal, a very 
handsome race of men. The women, fit mothers for a race of strong men, 
are often noticeably beautiful in features. In girlhood and early woman- 
hood they have beautiful figures, but, like other natives of the tropics, 
they do not retain a gcod figure long. They are graceful, light-hearted, 
and merry ; their eyes are soft and dark, with an expression of gentleness 
on the open countenance that is altogether pleasing. 

The Samoan does not like work much. For this trait he has been severely 
criticised, but the critics do not take into consideration his life and environ- 
ment. His wants are few ; the climate demands that little clothing be worn ; 
Nature is prodigal of her favours ; and the heat of the day is not conducive 
to exertion. It is customary for the Samoans to rise at daylight and do the 
hardest work of the day before the sun is high. Their food is easily produced ; 
breadfruit requires no cultivation ; bananas, taro, and yams require little 
beyond the planting ; pigs and chickens are raised to a considerable extent, 
but are generally reservefl for food at feasts, not for ordinary daily, use. 
The men and women fish on the reefs, and the men go out to sea in canoes for 
sharks, bonitas, or smaller fish. There are certain fish which the women 
catch, and these are to be found under stones on the reef ; the women also 
collect clams and other .shellfish. ]Men spear the fish from canoes, or while 
standing on the reef, and they also use the hook and line in deep water, by 
day and by night. This kind of labour the Samoan likes. He will row or 
paddle in his boat foi hours at a time with no fatigue, but it is not easy to 
induce him to do a day's work in the towns. There are, however, notable 
exceptions to this rule, and when there is a proper incentive the Samoan is 
C'tpable of the hardest kind of work. There is no desire to amass wealth. 
By the simple communistic system under which the Samoans live, each person 
contributes the profits of his industry to the family fund, and there is no 
incentive for one person to work harder than his fellow labourer ; the drone 
fairs as well in the good things of life as the worker. Energy and ambition 
must be manifested in the head of the family in order to produce any increase 
in prosperity. 

The Samoans are greatly attached to religious observances. It may be 
said that all Samoans arc Christians, and. tl'.ough many pf them are not 



122 STKWAKT'S HANI) HOOK 

■clmrch members, all go to cliunli. Tliere are family prayers in the morning 
and evening in every Samoaii liome, and Sunday is very religicmsly observed 
as a day of rest. 

The missionary societies represented are, the I^ondon Missionary Society 
and the Methodist Missionary Society of Australasia (Wesleyan), Protestant ; 
the Societe de Marie, Roman Catholic ; the Church of Latter-Day Saints 
Mission, Mormon ; and the Seventh Day Adventists. All Samoan Churches 
belong to one of these societies. The London ^Missionary .Society has the 
greatest number of adherents. With the exception of the Mormon mi.s.sion, 
whose adherents are comparatively few. the missions in Samoa are self-sup- 
porting. The vSamoans contribute large sums to religious enterprises, and 
many Samoans are sent as missionaries to other South Sea islands. 

The people are generous and hospitable to a remarkable degree. Any 
stranger is given a cordial welcome in any house, given food and sleeping 
accommodation, and no question is asked about compensation. There are 
so few foreigners in the islands that this admirable trait has not been stamped 
out by imposition or abuse of confidence. Prostitution, in the accepted sense 
of the term, is unknown, though illicit intercourse is not infrequent. The 
child born out of wedlock labours under no disadvantages, and an erring 
girl is soon forgiven by her family and by the community. There is no poly- 
gamy. The art of falsehood is practised in Samoa, but open, bare-faced 
perjury in the courts is rare. In criminal trials the alibi is practically un- 
known. Petty theft is uncommon, and foreigners find the locks and bolts 
on their houses growing rusty through disuse. The women marry young, 
and large families are the rule. The large infant mortality has prevented the 
over-population of the i.slands in past years, supplemented by an occa.sional 
■epidemic of measles or other contagious diseases. vSamoans seldom emigrate 
to other countries. 

The dress of the people consists of a " lavalava " or loin cloth, and in the 
case of women, of a waist or upper garment of some kind, scmetimes of a long, 
loose gown. The men consider it undignified to appear without a shirt or 
coat or both on occasions of ceremony, such as attending church, visiting 
foreigners or receiving distinguished guests, but on ordinary occasions they 
wear no clothing but the " lavalava." The women wear only the " lavalava "' 
in their own homes, or where other Samoans niay see them, but it is usually 
considered inmiodest for them to expose the bust in the presence of foreigners, 
■except when unmarried girls take part in some Samoan ceremony such as 
dancing the siva, the national dance. On ceremonial occasions the men and 
women revert to the old national garb by wearing their fine mats or tapas as 
clothing. 

Tattooing is universally practised. A young man is not supposed to meet 
other men on equal terms until he has been tattooed. The tattooing is per- 
formed by skilled operators, on special occasions which are marked by feasting 
and the giving of presents. The tatooing extends from a line above the hip 
bones nearly to the knees, and the pattern is nearly the same for everyone ; 
from a little distance it looks as if the colour were laid on uniformly and 
solidly. The missionaries at first attempted to abolish the practice, and laws 
-were made against it, but to no avail. The custom will doubtless disappear 



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OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 125 

in the course of time, as there is little to reconiiuend it. The operation is 
painful and the young man is usually laid up fcr several days following the 
tatooing, which, in itself, takes three or four days. The women are not in- 
variably tatooed but usually have numerous small designs tatooed on 
the knees and the back of the hands. 

The fauna, like that of most of these volcanic groups is exceedinglv 
limited, 'i'here is an indigenous rat of small size, and four species of snakes. 
.\niong the birds, which comprise pigeons, doves, duck, plovers, h.erons and 
rails, is one most remarkable species — Didiinculus etri<iirositis — a ground 
pigeon of metallic greenish black colour, with a beak of extraordinary shape, 
which forms a link between the living African treroninae and the extinct dodo. 
It is now only found on the Island of Upolu, where it is very rare, and will 
probably soon become extinct. Wild pigs are abundant and wild cattle are 
not unknown. 

The fruits common to all islands — cocoanuts, oranges, pineapples, 
bananas, guavas, mangoes, mummy apples, (S:c. — grow to perfection in Samoa ; 
cocoa and rubber being largely grown with satisfactory results ; and attention 
is being devoted to the cultivation of vanilla, coffee, cinnamon, and nutmegs, 
all of which are apparently well suited. Chinese labour has been introduced. 

The Samoan vegetables are chiefly the breadfruit, taro and yam. Uananas 
are used as a vegetable. There are practically no other vegetables in common 
use. The taro ( Caladiitm Colocasia) is common in tropical countries. It is a 
succulent plant with edible, starchy, tuberous root-stock. The leaves are 
large and heart-shaped. The plant is cultivated, but requires little care. 
There are several varieties, one variety growing best in wet places and another 
variety growing best on newly cleared land and on the hillsides. When the 
taro is mature it is dug ; the tops of the root-stocks are cut off ami at once 
replanted ; they take root and mature in less than a year. Taro is cooked in 
many ways, usually roasted or boiled, but is never made into "" poi,"" as in 
Hawaii. It has a large percentage of carbohydrates, of which starch is the 
most important, and a low percentage of fat, protein, and crude fibre. It 
furnishes an abundance of nutritious food, which alternates with breadfruit 
in the diet of the Samoan. Europeans soon cultivate a taste for breadfruit, 
yam and taro. The yam (Dioscorea) (Samoan " ufi ") is another tuber very 
common in the tropics. There are many varieties in Samoa, each with a 
distinctive name. The yam grows to a much larger size than the taro. It is 
more difficult to cultivate ; therefore it is not grown nearly so exten.sively 
as is taro, although the soil is suitaljle for its growth, and it is well liked by the 
natives. In planting the yam, the earth nmst be loosened to a con.siderable 
extent around the roots, and a heap of earth made for each plant, whereas, 
in planting the taro, the native pulls up a few weeds, makes a hole in the ground 
with a stick, inserts the tops cut from the taro root, and nothing more is done 
until the taro is ripe and is pulled up or dug from the earth. Many vegetables 
of the temperate zone thrive in Samoa, l)ut there are few truck gardeners in 
the islands. The following vegetables have been grown with success : To- 
matoes, lettuce, radishes, beets, carrots, parsley, sweet corn, eggplant, onions, 
beans, watermelcm, and sweet potatoes. In British Samoa, where Chinamen 
may dwell, there are a few truck gardens, .\rrowroot ("masoa") is indi- 



12(i stkwakt's HANI) hook 

gcnous, but is .seldom cultivated. It is used for puddings or fancy dishes. 
Kava {Pipef Meihisticum) (Samoan, " ava ") is a shrub grown extensively 
throughout Samoa for its root, from whicli the national beverage of the same 
name is made. The drink is an emulsion of the powdered kava root and 
water, prepared and served with .some ceremony. It is not an intoxicant 
unless consumed as a strong decoction and in large quantities, when, strangely 
enough, without effecting the heail it produces unsteadiness in the legs. The 
drug has no injurious effects unless drunk in large quantities. 

The islands are rarely effected by hurricanes, the one in March, 1889, 
being the last of any consequence to occur. Earthquakes are fairly frequent, 
but not generally severe. One occurred in June, 1917. Kvidences of vol- 
canic activity are abundant. In 18G7 a submarine volcano came suddenly 
into eruption near Olosenga, vomiting forth rocks and mud to the height of 
2,000 feet, killing the fish and discolouring the sea for miles around, and in 
1905 the volcano on Savaii again became active. There are two seasons, 
the hot and rainy (January, I'-ebruary and March), and the dry season, the 
latter being the best time for visiting the group. The thermometer seldom 
registers over 82 degrees and seldom below 72 degrees, except high upon the 
hills. In spite, however, of its tropical climate the nights are cool. The 
influenza epidemic at the end of 1918 had disastrous effects in Samoa, being 
responsible for the deaths of no fewer than 8,000 people. 

The story of the influenza scourge in Samoa at the end of 1918 is thus told 
bv the Apia correspondent of the Sydney Daily Telegraph : — 

■ I'larly in Xovemter wireless news reached Apia of the dreadfid Spanish 
influenza then already as far west as California, and every effort should have 
been made to maintain a strict quarantine in Apia. On November 7 the 
' Talune " arrived, and was immediately admitted to pratique, although she 
had many cases on board. She was permitted to land several sufferers, two 
of whom soon died. There were no restrictions, and people went off and came 
ashore as they chose. During the day, however, word was sent ashore to 
the waiting passengers that they were not to come on beard until the last 
moment, as most of the ship's servants were too ill to care for them. This 
shows the helpless, imbecile state of affairs in this port. A\'ithin a week's 
time the infection had tra\ ersed I'polu, and was established on Savaii, and 
within one month's time over 8,000 persons out of a total of 41,000 had 
perished. Just over 3,000 or more are slowly and dangerously convalescing, 
so the list is not yet complete. As at one time SO or 90 per cent, of the people 
were h'ing helpless, many died from starvation, who might probably have 
recovered, for even when rice, milk, and other items were sent out and de- 
livered, the survivors were too weak to prepare and apportion the food. One 
day the funerals in Apia niambcred 71. and probaljly out of this small town 
and its environs nearly 700 were buried. The New Zealand troopers, with 
their motor lorries, did wonderful service, day after day, gathering in the 
dead, who were simply lifted out of their houses as they lay in their sleeping 
mats. The mats were wrapped around them, and they were deposited in 
one great pit at Vainiea, after it was found impossible to gather labourers to dig 
individual graves. There were no mourners or ceremony ; as fast as the dif- 
ferent lorries came the bodies were placed in the pit by heroic workers, who 
were many of them quite unfit, and who had constantly to quit as thej' became 
infected themselves. Captains Richard.son, Smith, Cotton, and others 
deserve special mention, but not more so, indeed, than the brave rank and 
file, w^ho were faithful to their dreadful task, which was carried on in silence 
for there were none to wail for the departing. Most of the great chiefs of 



OF THE PACIFIC ISIAXDS 127 

Samoa are buried, as well as most of the mission teachers, and .Iti per cent, 
of the Government officials ; and deaths still continue. Of those who passed 
away probably 6(5 per cent, were adult males. A good many women also 
went, and some children, though the latter were largely immune. We have 
now thousands of widows and orphans, and some of us think that the (iovern- 
ment of New Zealand, whose officials careles.sly allowed this infection to get 
ashore, ought to prc;v:de for these surplus children in some substantial way. 
The rainy season is now about to commence, food is scarce, and there are few 
workers to provide it. Rice and sugar are needed, together with some milk 
and arrowroot for the delicate ones. Many natives are expressing their 
high dissatisfaction with the conduct of affairs here, and they iustly draw 
comparisons with the comfortable state of affairs at Pago Pago, where sen- 
sible quarantine regulations kept their port clean. Nearly !00 of the black 
boys employed on the D.H. and P.G. plantation died, and of the whites and 
half-castes, a goodly number passed out. Two vessels now in harbour are 
being worked by blackboys commandeered from the German plantations. 
Over 7,000 tons of copra has to be handled within the next four months, 
and it cannot be figured out just how this is to be done with the help we may 
expect. The copra crops, as well as the cacao, are not affected, and promise 
well, but we have no labourers to handle them in full. !Most of the cacao 
plantations, whicli three or four years ago were devastated by the canker, 
were replanted, and are rapidly coming forward, and the beetle which wrought 
such havoc amongst the cocoamit trees has nearly disappeared, the result 
of stringent regulations and of the work of parasites. On December 2 an 
Australian warship arrived, bringing several doctors and an efficient and 
experienced nursing staff from Australia, and as .«oon as this welcome con- 
tingent was landed arrangements were made for their distribution throughout 
those districts which were then most afflicted. Owing to the break-down 
of the inner-i.sland fleet of motor-cutters, for lack of crews to handle them, 
it was no easy job to put these capable and willing workers quickly in touch 
with the .sick and dying natives, and since their departure from Apia little 
has been heard of their operations, for the island boats are not yet freely 
operating. On the copra stations there has been a considerable call for rite, 
sugar, milk, arrowroot, and for some meats. Of course, .some of the stores 
were sold out, but gradually abundant supplies are being forwarded. Amongst 
the natives there is still a fair supply of cash, and administrative and private 
assistance has not been lacking, but the cash will soon be done, and it is 
questionable if the convalescing weak natives wiH be able to work their food 
plantations or cut copra to supply their necessities. Many thousands are 
now recovering, but are still weak and unable tc help themselves. The feeling 
against those who were responsible for the introducticii of this plague is 
intense, and the high .state of efficiency displayed by the Pago Pago Adminis- 
tration is held up as showing what might and ought to have been done in 
Apia." 



TRADE STATISTICS. 



Since it has been administered by New Zealand, Samoa has been very 
prosperous. What Samoa needs most is a wharf and basin at Apia, where 
ships can load and discharge in any weather. At present it is an open road- 
stead. With new harbour works the saving in the cost of lighterage should 
provide sufficient interest and sinking fund for a loan which would construct 
the required accommodation. Also the saving of damage to cargoes due to 
lighterage would be very large. The country wants opening up by roads al.so. 
The trade of Samoa increased in 1917 by over £200,000 as compared with 



128 



STEWART'S HAND HOOK 



1910. Tile figures for 1918 wcuicl l:avc been a record for the island but for 
the epidemic. The following table shows the value of imports and exports, 
and the total trade of Samoa, exclusive of specie and military stores, from 
1910 to 1912, and from 1914 to 1917, the figures for 1913 not being available: — 







Imports 


Kxports 


Total Trade 


1917 


. £317,778 


£320,444 


£638,217 


19K) .. 




180,340 


235,415 


415,755 


1915 .. 




267,091 


262,389 


499,480 


1914 .. 




236,239 


220,519 


456,758 


1912 . . 




249,720 


252,224 


501,944 


1911 .. 




203,312 


219,494 


422,806 


1910 .. 




173,118 


176,688 


349,806 



The following is a return of the total values of imports and exports 
for the calendar year 1917 (exclusive of mihtary stores). 



United Kingdom . 
Australia 
New Zealand 
Tonga 

Fiji 

Ellice Islands 

Union Islands 

Canada 

India 

Ceylon 

Malay States 

U.S.A. 

American Saii.oa 

Swain's Island 

Hawaii 

Philippine Isia-.ius. 

France 

Holland 

Sweden 

China 

Japan 

Total 



Impoi-ts 


Exports 


£ 


£ 


3,393 


— 


94,082 


43,492 


. . *103,432 . 


25,122 


548 


34 


4,958 


3 


1 


648 


13 


— 


307 


2,799 


30 


— 


72 


— 


98 


— 


107,685 


247.606 


29 


554 


__ 


178 


2 232 


8 


'. '. "'"25 


. 


131 


— 


113 


— 


18 


— 


358 


— 


268 


— . 


. . £317,773 


! £320,444 



Details of the items of imports and exports are as follow 

Imports. 



Reer 

Spirits 

Still Wine . . 

SparkUng Wine 

Tobacco and Snuff . 

Cigars 

Cigarettes . . 



86,219 Its. 
11,454 „ 
21,944 „ 

6,805 Kg. 

681 „ 
3,468 „ 



£ 

892 
1,874 

518 
24 

988 

257 
1,629 



iMchi.les Specie. £10.001) 



Of THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



120 







£ 


Provisions . . 




101,798 


Apparel and Drapery 




65.782 


Machinery . . 




4,027 


Hardware . . 




17,647 


Timber 




10.742 


Other goods 


Exports. 


106,769 
£317,773 




. 


£ 


Copra 


8.992 tons 


230,971 


Cacao 


1,207 „ 


69,549 


Kava 


2,060 lbs. 


39 


Rubber 


70 tons 


14.087 


Pineapples, preserved 


8,360 doz. 


1,777 


Papain 


2,881 lbs. 


1 .385 


Hides 


1,287 


1.003 


Other exports 




1 ,633 




£320,444 



(For Later Trade Returns see Index.) 



POPULATION. 

In an official return, dated September ."U), 1018, the native population 
ritish Samoa, appear? thus : — 



of British Samoa, appear? 

Upolu . . 

Manono and Apoien:a 

Savaii . . 



22,161 

1 ,033 

14,156 



37.350 



These figures have been considerably modilicd, as a consequence of the 
wave of pneumonic plague which swept through ^^■estern Samoa with devas- 
tating effect. Exact figures relating to the number of deaths are not yet 
available, but the official returns are sufBciently complete to point to a 
mortality of not les^^ than 8,000, or 20 per cent, of the total population. 



LIST OF OFFICIALS. 



Tate, Acting Admiuistrator, 
Director of Agriculture, 



Office of Adnuni-trator : — Colonel R. W 
Cap*ain M'. A. (r. Penlington, Secretary. 

Agriiiilture Departnieiif : — Mr. H. P. Ritchi 
Mr. Codd, Inspector. 

Chinese Department : —Captain R. J. Carter, Chinese Commissioner, 
Mr. J . E. Kerslake, Assistant Chinese Commissioner, Mr. R. Tattersall, Clerk. 

Customs and Taxation Department :- -Mr. J. H. Robertson, Collector 
of Customs and Taxes, r^Ir. T. O. W. Brebner, Deputv Collector of Customs 
and Taxes, IMr. I'\ I.. :\IcFall, Tidewaiter, Mr. Ulberg, Clerk, Mr. E. M. 
Street, Clerk, Mr. C. l-elix, Ck'rk. 

Education Department : — Mr. !<;. W. Beaglehole, Director of Education, 
Mr. Rendle, Schoolmaster, Miss V.'hitmore, Schoolmistress. 

Ju.stice Department :— Mr. C. Roberts, District Judge. Mr. E. W. White, 
Assistant Judge and Crown Prosecutor, Mr. V. H. Salter, Registrar of Court, 
Mr. W. Martin, Clerk of Court. 

Lands and Works Department :— Mr. N. H. Macdonald, Chief Surveyor 
and Commissioner of I-and and Works, ^Ir. D. Dobson, C.E., Engineer and 
vSurveyor, Captain ^^^ T. Beck. D.S.O., Comptroller of Stores, Mr. W. J. 
Hulek, Clerk and Assvstant Storekeeper, Mr. P. Warner, Head Foreman, 
Mr. T. Westerlund, Head Carpenter. 

E 



130 STEWART'S HANI^ BOOK 

Land and Title Commission : — Mr. R. Williams, President, Mr. N. H. 
Macdonald, Deputy President, His Honor, Judge Roberts, Mr. P\ E. vSyddall, 
20 Samoan Commissioners, Mr. H. Jowett, vSecretary, Asiata Niko, Native 
Secretary and Interpreter. 

Medical Department : — v^urgeon-Ceneral S. Skerman, Principal Medical 
Officer, Captain F. L. Atkinson, N.Z.M.C, vSenior Medical Officer, Captain 
R. E. Paterson, N.Z.M.C, Medical Officer, Dr. W. R. W. James, Medical 
Officer, Mr. J. A. Nicol, Hospital vSecretary and Steward, Sergeant Man.sley, 
Dispen.ser, Miss O. Hall, Matron, Miss Pater.son, Sister, Miss I. Dette, Mater- 
nity Nurse. 

Native Department : — Captain Cotton, Secretary Native Affairs and 
Judge of the Native Court, Mr. H. Jowett, Registrar, and Secretary to L. and 
T. Commission. 

Police and Pensions Department : — Captain Gillespie. Commissioner of 
Police, Mr. H. Bennett, Tn.spector, Mr. D, H. McKenzie, Chief Clerk, Mr. S. 
Young, Clerk. 

Port and Marine Department : — Lieutenant J . Allen, Harbourmaster^ 
Captain I'. Lewer, Pilot. 

Postal Department : — Mr. F. Auld, Postmaster, Mr. H. Riddell, Cluet 
Clerk, Mr. L. C. Mclsaac, Lineman. 

Treasury : — Mr. A. Loibl, Financial Secretary, Mr. F. Foss, Accountant. 

Savaii : — Mr. R. Williams, Deputy Administrator, Mr. H. J. EHerby, 
Secretary to Deputy Commissioner, Savaii. 



PRINCIPAL RESIDENTS AND THEIR OCCUPATIONS. 

Allen, Lieutenant J., Harbourmaster, Apia. 

Allen, E. F., Merchant and Ship Owner (S.S. & T. Co.), Funafuti, EUice Isles. 

AUom, C. v., Manager (B.P. & Co.), Apia. 

Annesley, A. G., Cocoa Buyer, Commission Agent, Apia. 

Andrew, T. Merchant, Apia. 

Atkinson, Captain F. L-, vSenior Medical Officer, Apia. 

Auld, F., Post Master, Apia. 

Beaglehole, E. W., Director of Education, Apia. 

Beck, Captain W. T., D.S.O., Public Works Department, Apia. 

Bennett, H., Police Department, Apia. 

Bethani, A. (H.J.M.), Apia. 

Betham, Mont., Storekeeper, Vaimea. 

Boteler. P., Manager (J.R. & Co.), Apia. 

Brebner, T. O. W., Customs Department, Apia. 

Brighouse, T. W., Trader (J.R. & Co.), Samatau. 

Brolly, C. S., Merchant. 

Churchward, G., Merchant, Apia. 

Cobcroft, A. R., Planter, Apia. 

Cook, J., Trader (H.J.M.), Fasitoouta. 

Cotton, Captain, H. C, Secretary, Native Affairs. 

Croudace, R. D., Accountant (J.R. & Co.), Apia. 

Curry, J. E., Trader, Sogi. 

Dean, C. C, Merchant, Apia. 

Dexter. W. C, Merchant. 

Easthope, R. (B.P. & Co.), Apia. 

Eccles, J. M., Accountant (A.N. & S.), Apia. 

Elliott, P. C, Proprietor Central Hotel, Apia. 

Fabricius, R., Merchant, Apia. 

F'^abricius, P. C, Junr., Merchant, Apia. 

For.sell, S. H., Joint Manager (U.R. & CE. Ltd.), Aleisa. 

Fo.ss, F., Accountant, Government Treasury, Apia. 

Franzen, F., Dentist, Apia. 

Gascoigne, J., Engineer, Apia. 



OF. THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 131 

Cxlen, A. S., Accountant (J.R. & Co.), Apia. 

Godinet, l^., Wheelwright. 

Godinet, J., Blacksmith, Apia. 

Griffin, H. S.. :\Ianager, I,.M.S. Press, :\Ialua, rpolii. 

Haubold, F. R., Trailer, Apia. 

Hellesoe, C, Baker and Merchant, Apia. 

Helle.soe, Ch., Saddler, Apia. 

Hellesoe, J., Trader (H.J.M.), vSasaai, Savaii. 

Hetherington, I. C, Director (H.J.M.), Apia. 

Huch, K., ^Merchant, Malua. 

Hulek, J. F. A., Accountant, Public V.'orks Department, Apia. 

James, Dr. W. R. W., Medical Officer, Apia. 

Jessop, B. T., Clerk (B.P. & Co.), Apia. 

Johansson, N., Merchant, Apia. 

Johnston, J., Storekeeper, Apia. 

Jones, H. vS., Fngineer (A.N. & S.). Apia. 

Keeling, A. D., Manager, Bank of N.Z., Apia. 

Kerslake, J. H., Chinese Department, Apia. 

King, A. A., Lotopa. 

Landells, W. J., Blacksmith, Salelavalu. 

Laurensen, \\'., Carpenter. VaimoFo. 

Lewer, Captain F., Pilot, Apia. 

Loibl, A , Government I'Mnancial Secretary, Apia. 

Macdonald, X. H., Government Surveyor, Apia. 

Mackay, B., Bank of N.Z., Apia. 

Mackenzie, G. Hay-, Manager, U.S.S. Co., Apia. 

Martin, W., Clerk of Court, Apia. 

Mclsaac, Linesman, Postal Department, Apia. 

McFarland, A. (B.P. & Co.), Apia. 

]\IcFall, F. I,., Tidewaiter, Customs Department, Apia. 

ileredith, S. H., Merchant, Apia. 

Milford, H., Carpenter, Apia. 

Mitchell, Mason, American Consul, Apia. 

Moors, H. J., Merchant. 

Morlev, H., Joint Manager (U.K. & Civ.), Tanuni:ipua. 

Mulqueen, E., Clerk, U.S.S. Co., Apia. 

Nicol, A. J., Secretary and Steward, Hospital, Ajjia. 

XichoU, W. J., Clerk'(B.P. & Co.). 

Ott, R. F., Plantation Manager, Saleimoa. 

Parkimson, A. J., Trader, lyeulumoega. 

Paterson, Captain R. Iv, Medical Officer, Apia. 

Pattrick, P. E., MiHtary Liquidator. 

Paul, P., Builder, Apia. 

Pundt, D., Trader (S. H.M.I, Mulifanua. 

Railey, L., Baker and Storekeeper, Apia. 

Reed,' H., Chas., ManageT " Alcazar." (H.J.M.), Apia. 

Rendle, C. A., School Teacher, Government School. 

Riddell, E., Chief Clerk, Post Office. 

Ritchie, H. P., Agricultural Department. 

Roberts, C, District Judge, Apia. 

Robertson, J. H., Collector of Customs, .Vpia. 

Salter, Captain, F. H., Registrar of Court, Apia. 

Schafer, W., I^ngineer (H.J.M.), Apia. 

Schulenburg, J. T., Clerk, Military Liquidations, Apia. 

Scott, G. A., Plantation Manager, Papaseea. 

Smith, A., Accountant, Apia. 

Smyth, A. G.. Manager (A.X. & S.), Apia. 

St'owers, J as., Carpenter, Apia 

Stowers, Jos., Carpenter, Apia. 

Stowers, L, vStorckeeper, ^Magia. 



1^9,, STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

Stowers, A., Carpenter, Magia. 

Street, E. M., Customs Department, Apia. 

Swann, W. J., Chemist, Apia. 

Syddall, H. A.. Merchant, Apia. 

Syddall, F. E., Merchant, Apia. 

Tattersall, A. J., Photographer, Apia. 

Tattersall, R., Clerk, Chinese Department, Apia. 

Ulberg, H., Customs Department. 

Ulberg, P. C, Wheelwright, Apia. 

Verlaet, V., Trader, (A.N. & S.), Aleipata. 

Walker, A., Bank of N.Z., Apia. 

Warner, P., P'oreman," Public V.'orks Department, Apia 

Waterhouse, H. D., Accountant (Andrew and Syddall). 

Westbrook, G. E- L-, Merchant, Apia. 

White, E., Assistant Judge, Apia. 

Williams, R., Deputy Administrator for Savaii. 

Williams, A., Tinsmith, Apia. 



CHIEF BUSINESS HOUSES. 

G. E. L. Westbrook, British, General Merchandise. 

Andrew and Syddall, British, General Merchandise. 

W. C. Dean, British, General Merchandise. 

J. Johnston, British, General Merchandise. 

F. Syddall, British, General Merchandise. 

S. H. Meredith, British, General Merchandise. 

John Ah Mu, British, General Merchandise. 

M. Betham, British, General Merchandise. 

H. J. IMoor?, American, General Merchandise. 

Burns, Philp & Co., British, General Merchandise. 

Churchward and Ah Sue, British, General Merchandise. 

C. Brolly, British, General Merchandi.'^e. 

C. Dexter, American, General Merchandise. 

P. Fabricius, Dane, General Merchandise. 

C. Hellesoe, Swede, General Merchandise. 

A. Nelson & Son, Swede, General Merchandise. 

H. Johanssen, Swede, General Merchandise. 

P. Hoflich, German, Aerated Water and Cordials. 

J. Railey, British, Bakery. 

F. Franzen, Dentist. 

W. J. Swann, British, Druggist and Drugs. 

Chas. Hellesoe, British, Shoe Maker and Saddler. 

Apia Blacksmith Ltd., British, Carriages and Blacksmith. 

John Ah Mu, British, Carriages and Blacksmith. 

A. J. Tattersall, Briti.sh, Photocrapher. 

A. vStowers, British, Builder and Contractor. 

J. E. Curry, British, Boat Builder and Contractor. 

H. Milford, British, Boat Builder and Contractor. 

John Rothchild & Co., American, General Merchandise. 

Samoan Times Printing Office. 



MISSIONARIES. 

LONDON MISSIONARY vSOCIETY. 

The Rev. A. H. Hough, Malua. 
The Rev. P. Cane, Savaii. 
The Rev. F. P. Joseland, Apia. 

The Rev. J. W. Sibree, Miss E. IMoore, Mr. H. S. Griffin, (L.M.S.' Printing 
Office). 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 133 



METHODIST. 

The Rev. George S. Shinkfield, B.A., Piula College. 
The Rev. Norman fi. Graham, vSavaii. 
Rev. F. W. MuUer, Apia. 



ROMAN CATHOLIC. 

Revs. J. Darnand f pro- vicar), E. Meyer, J. Dumas, B. Briand, S. Guya- 
vach, A. Pesenaii, — . Chouvier, A. Goupillaud, N. Hubertz, P. Meinadier, 
all of Apia; Revs. J- B. Doumeizel, C. Mennel, A. Gaucher ; Brothers' School 
at Apia, aad several Marist Sisters' vSchools. 



LATTliR DAY SAINTS. 
Elders W. A. Keith, Ray G. Wood, C. M. Perrin, and five others. 



CUSTOMS TARIFF. 



A. — Import Dutiks.. 

1. Ale, porter and beer of every description, 2kl. per litre. 

2. Spirits of every description, 3s. per litre. 

3. Still wines ot every description, 6d. per litre. 

4. Sparkling wines, 50 per cent, ad valorem. 

5. L,eaf, smoking and chewing tobacco, snuff, 3s. per Kilo (gross weight). 

6. Cigarettes, 9s. per Kilo (gross weight). 

7. Cigars, 7s. 6d. per Kilo (gross weight). 

8. Fire-arms, I6s. each. | 

9. Gunpowder and explosives, provided the latter are not imported for 
agricultural purposes, 4s. per Kilo. 

10. All other articles not expressly declared Fkee, 12} per cent, ad 
valorem. 

B. — Ilcp.-^RT Duties. 

1. Copra, 10s. a ton. 

2. Cocoa. 40s. a ton. 

3. Rubber, Hd. a lb. 

4. Extracts from any of the products .set out under No. 1, 2 and 3 of tin's 
heading. Rate to be fixed in conformity with rate on raw material used. 

C. — Duty Free Are : — 

1. Articles that are washed ashore, and "Average" Goods, provided 
such articles are re-exported. 

2. All articles imported by the Government, the Imperial Navy, the 
Imperial Postal Authorities, and the Samoan Observatory, for the use of the 
respective importers ; likewise, all articles intended for the building, the main- 
tenance, and the working of the wireless stations, no matter whether the said 
stations are carried on by the Enipire itself, or by the private contractors on 
behalf of the Empire. 

3. AH goods imported by christian missions and ecclesiastical societies, 
hospital and health resorts, provided suCli goods are directly used for the 
purpose of religion, teacliing, and the care of the sick. 

4. Physical (relating to physics), astronomical, chemical, mathematical, 
optical, and similar instruments used for scientific purposes. 

5. Medical instruments and apparatus, medicines and bandages. 

C>. Ships sailing to the colony under their own power, and marine engines 
of all kinds. 



134 STEWART S HAND BOOK 

7. Agricultural machinery and the necessarj- replacement parts, agri- 
oviltural implements, material for field railways, and explosives for agricultural 
purposes. 

8. So-called Chinese tobacco, i.e., tobacco rendered useless by chemical 
processes for consumption iJ^' whites and natives, subject to the condition 
that the selling price of such is only slightly higher than cost price. The .selling 
price .shall be fixed from time to time by the Customs. 

!). Breeding cattle of every description. 

10. Seed.s and young plants. 

11. Manures, disinfectants, and preventives for tree-diseases, rats, and 
the like. 

12. A\'rapping and packing materials for the exportation of Home pro- 
ducts. 

13. Coins and pieces of money that are permitted to be circulated in the 
colony. 

14. Household articles, clothing and linen that have been imported for 
the use of immigrants. Such free importation is limited to the four months 
following the arrival of the said immigrants in the colony. 

15. Clothes, linen, a small quantity of articles of consumption, and the 
like, that travellers carry for their own use and as personal luggage. 

16. Fresh meat and vegetables, fresh fish, fruit and ice. 

17. Mineral waters and filters. 

18. Puff advertising matter, samples of no commercial value being parts 
of articles .subject to " ad valorem" diity. 

19. Printed books, completely printed or .vritten paper, maps, printed 
music, and material for instruction. 

20. Coffins, tomb-stones and decorations for graves. 

21. Samoan products of the neighbouring islands, intended for trans- 
mission. 



LICENSES AND TAXES. 



1. GKNERAL PERSONAL TAX. 
For all male persons not natives (whites, foreigners), and those 
regarded as sucn, over the age of 18 3-ears and resident in 
the colony for more than six months, per year . . . . . . £1 5s. 



2. SPECIAL TAXES LEVIED YEARLY. 

On boats plying for passenger traffic . . . . . . 10s. 

On lighters and other boats used for trading . . . . . . . . £1 

On houses (excluding Samoan houses of natives), and on land and 

buildings used for bu.siness purposes . . . . . . - . 1 p.c 

On every goods shed, store or other place from which is sold 
annually : — 

Class" 1 .—More than £10,000, with I per cent, added on 

the amount over £10,000 . . .'. .. .. .. £50 

Class 2.— Not less than £5,000, and not more than £10,000 £40 
Class a. — Not less than £2,500, and not more than £5,000 £25 

Cla.ss 4.— Under £2,-500 .. £15 

On ever}' copra .shed, not taxetl in foregoing classes 1-4- .. .. £2 10s. 



3. OCCASIONAL TAXES. 
Butcher (without license), on their sales . . . . . . . . 3 p.c. 

For shows {Merry-go-round, circus, theatre. Cinematograph), 

&c., of the takings. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 p.c. 



OB THE PACIFIC ISI,ANDS 



135 



4. LICENSES. 
No person shall carry on as the owner or manager any of the under- 
mentioned professions or occupations without a license, for 
which the follo\\ing tax must be paid in advance yearlj- — 

A. — For thk Eusixrrs or. 

Hotel 

Brewery and Distillery . 

Mineral Water Factory . 

Ice Factory 

Printing Office . . 

Butchery 

Bakery . . 

Every other trade or industry not •specially taxed 

B. — For Practising as 

Dentist 

Solicitor . . 

Doctor . . 

Surveyor 

Auctioneer and Commission Agent 

Process Agent . . 

Photographer 

Government official or private employee with total income of 

Class I.— Over £1,500 

Class 2.— Over £1,000, and not exceeding £1,500 
Class 3.— Over £600, and not exceeding £1,000 
Class 4. — Over £400, and not exceeding £600 
Class 5.— Over £200, and not exceeding £400 

Non-Resident commercial traveller, commission agent or buyer 

(For one visit of not more than three months duration the tax shall 
be half of the full tax of £25.) Commercial traveller without 
samples for each stay, but not more than £25 for any financial 
year 



£40 




£16 




£15 




£10 


- 


£5 




£2 


10s 


£2 


10s 


£1 




£12 


10s 


£12 


10s 


£10 




£10 




£7 


10s 


£6 


5s 


£2 


10s 


£20 




£10 




£5 




£2 




£1 




£25 





£12 10s. 



MORGAN & CO. 

19 Bridge Street 
SYDNEY 



. Island Merchants . 
Connnnission Agents 



G.PO. BOX 1039 



l.'JH STEWART'S HAND BOOK 



AMERICAN SAMOA. 



THK islands of American Samoa, from east to west, are : — Rose Island 
(a coral atoll, uninhabited, and practically of no value), Manua, 
Olosega, Ofu, Tutuila and Aunuu. The islands of Manua, Olosega 
and Ofu are generally known as the Manua group. The population of the 
group, including whites, is 7,550. 

The seat of Government is at the naval station in Pago Pago Bay, on 
the Island of Tutuila. American Samoa is divided into three general ad- 
ministrative divisions, Eastern JDistrict of Tutuila, Western District of Tutuila, 
and Manua District, these corresponding to the Samoan political divisions 
which have existed from early days. Each district is administered by a 
native district governor appointed by the governor. The districts are divided 
into counties, each administered by a county chief. These are also very 
ancient political divi-sions, each ruled b)- one high chief. The count}' chiefs 
are appointed by the governor, but the selection is limited, as the office is 
usually given to the chief whose name entitles him to it by Samoan custom — • 
an hereditary position which is held during good behaviour. District gover- 
nors are chosen from the rank of county chiefs. Each village is controlled 
by a village chief, " pulenuu," elected annually and appointed by the governor 
if the selection is approved. The village councils are composed of the 
" matais " (heads of families) in each village, and each is presided over by the 
village chief, except on occasions of the election of the village chief when the 
village magistrate presides. The suffrage is restricted to the " inatais," 
in accordance with the vSamoan custom, whereby the family, not the individual, 
is the unit of society. The district governor, county chiefs, the village chiefs 
have each a policeman, who acts as messenger, and assists in keeping order. 
Laws are enacted by the governor. A board of health enacts health regula- 
tions, which have the force of laws when approved by the governor. The 
board of health is composed of two naval medical officers and two non-medical 
members. The annual fono (general meeting) is held the latter part of each 
year, to which all parts of the islands send delegates. The people are notified 
in advance and have preliminary district meetings in which are discussed 
matters to be presented at the annual fono and in which petitions are pre- 
pared. At the fono matters of general interest are discussed, new laws or 
changes in existing laws are recommended and information is asked and given 
regarding all matters connected with the administration of the Government. 

The Island of Tutuila, of irregular shape, is about 18 miles long and firom 
five to six miles wide in the Avidest part. It is estimated that it contains 77 
square miles of land. A mountain ridge extends nearly the whole length of 
the island, with spurs on each side, and with indentations of deep valleys. 
The aspect is extremely rugged, but more so in the eastern than in the western 
part. There is very little level land except at the foot of the mountains 
along the coast, and with the exception of a broad fertile plain in the south- 



FERRODOR 
PAINT 




F E RRO DOR 

IS acknowledged the best paint for anti-corrosion. 
For resisting the ravages of sea air, sun and rain 
it is particularly adapted, and for these reasons 
is used by the various Australian Government 
Departments and shipping companies on iron and 
other roofs near the salt water. The durability 
of all iron and steel work is to a great extent 
dependent on the first coat of paint, and Fcrrodor 
is the best that money can buy for this purpose. 



Packed in 7 lbs., 14 lbs., 28 lbs., S6 lbs. and 1 cwt. 
packages. 

PRICKS AND FITU, PARTICULARS ON APPLICATION TO 

WM. ADAMS ^ CO. Ltd. 

175 Clarence St., SYDNEY. 

— AND AT — 

MELBOURNE, BRISBANE, ADELAIDE ^ PERTH 



VISITORS TO SYDNEY FROM OVERSEA SHOULD NOT FAIL 
TO SECURE ACCOMMODATION IN MANLY. 



AS A HOME 



Montague House is Unrivalled 

Delightfully situated, 2 minutes from surf — close 
to all attractions. This high-class establishment 
occupies the best position, Good Views, Every 
Convenience. Drawing, Billiard and Lounge 
Rooms, Rlegant Appointments, 



TERMS ON APPLICATION. 



Montague House, flSHBURNER STREET 

Miss H. De Yiqe Proprietress 

J. H. SMYTH LTD. 

Post£i.^e St£i.mi> I>ea.lex*s 

SO cast]l.e:re:agh[ sTRSEsrr 
S YONE Y 

THE BEST HOUSE SOUTH OF THE EQUATOR FOR 

STAMPS OF ALL KINDS, ALBUMS AND OTHER 

PHILATELIC REQUISITES 



LOWEST PRICES CONSISTENT WITH QUALITY 



WE MAKE A SPECIALITY OF PACIFIC ISLAND 
STAMPS FOR WHICH WE PAY HIGHEST PRICES 

If you have any for disposal send them to us for 

inspection and we shall let you know what they 

are worth to us. If not satisfactory, the stamps 

will be returned at our expense 



References: COMMONWEALTH BANK, SYDNEY 
Cable and Telegraphic Address": ''"iSTAMPOLOGY,''' SYDNEY 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 139 

western part of the island. On this plain are several villages of importance 
and extensive cultivations of cocoanut trees. The north side is bold and 
precipitous, with a few level spaces here and there, barely large enough to 
support a village. The mountains are wooded to the top, the whole island 
being a mass of tropical vegetation, extremely beautiful to the eye of the 
traveller. Pago Pago Bay, the safest and best harbour in thfe South Seas, 
has its entrance to the southward and nearly cuts the island in twain. It is 
formed in the crater of an immense volcano, the south side broken away and 
open to the sea. About a mile from the harbour mouth it turns .sharply to 
the westward, giving the harbour the appearance of the foot of a stocking, 
with the United States naval station situated in the instep, facing north 
and entirely sheltered from seaward. The sea can not be seen from ships 
at anchor inside the harbour, the ships lying quietly in smooth water during 
the heaviest gales. High mountains encompass the harbour, villages nestling 
comfortably on the narrow strip of level land along the shore. Pago Pago, the 
most important village of the island, is at the extreme toe of the stocking, 
to follow the simile. Fagatogo lies behind the naval station. Aua, Lepua and 
other small villages are on the north side. The harbour is well buoyed and 
lighted and may be safely entered by the largest vessels by night or day. 
Other harbours of importance, with villages of the same names, are Leone 
and Fagaitua, on the south side, and Fagasa and Masefau on the north side ; 
but, with the exception of Leone, these harbours are of little value. In the 
centre of the island rises Matafao Peak, 2,133 feet in height, sharp, narrow 
and symmetrical. Mount Alava, 1,608 feet, and Mount Pioa, 1,650 feet in 
height, mark the mountain chain to the northward and eastward of Pago 
Pago Bay. Mount Tuaolo (or Olotele), 1,480 feet, is the highest mountain 
•of the western part of the island. 

Manua, 60 miles east of Tutuila, 14 square miles in area, is cone-shaped, 
the centre being about 2,000 feet in height. Its southern and eastern coasts 
rise rapidly from the sea. The principal village, Tau, is on the west coast, 
on an open roadstead. Near Tau is the village of Faleasao, on a small bay, 
giving an excellent anchorage during the south-east trade winds. 

Olosega is 3| iniles from Manua, to the westward. There are two small 
villages on this island. Ofu is separated from Olosega by a narrow passage, 
easily forded. It has only one village. Both of these islands are rugged and 
mountainous, but there is enough land to support the small population. 
The combined area of the two islands is 1.7 square miles. 

The climate is sub-tropical. The south-east winds blow strongly from 
April until November ; during the other months of the year the winds are 
variable, frequently from the west and north-west, with occasional gales. 
Hurricanes are of rare occurrence, but the' disaster in Apia during the one in 
March, 1889, keeps the possibility of another such hurricane always in mind. 
The rainy season extends from December to March. I'ebruary shows the 
greatest average rainfall ; July the least. The average yearly rainfall for 12 
years in Pago Pago has been 179.02 inches. The year 1908 shows the greatest 
rainfall, 284.4 inches, and the year 1905 the least, 130,05 inches. The tem- 
perature is highest during the summer months, December to February ; 
coolest during the winter months, June to August. December shows the 



140 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

highest average temperature for 12 years, 81.9 degrees F., and June the lowest 
average temperature, 78.7 degrees. The highest temperature is about 88 
degrees and the lowest is about 70 degrees. In the harbour of Pago Pago 
there is much rain, one mountain on the eastern side of the bay being called 
the "Rainmaker" from its habit of precipitating the moisture out of every 
passing cloud. 

This climate, where there is so little variation of temperature from day to 
day, affects people from temperate zones according to their temperamental 
adaptability to tropical conditions. Those persons who abstain from over- 
indulgence in intoxicants, and who do not attempt too great physical or mental 
activities during the middle of the day, can remain here for many years with 
little or no harmful effects. Others, who attempt the same strenuous methods 
of living to which, they are accustomed in colder climates, soon complain of 
increasing irritability and forgetfulness, with more or less physical break- 
down. Such persons are likely to find a return to a temperate climate ad- 
visible after about two years. 

There are no public lands in American Samoa. When the American 
flag was raised, there were no crown lands in these islands, and all of the land 
was owned by individual proprietors. The land required by the United States 
Government for its naval station, about 40 acres, was acquired by purchase 
or by condemnation proceedings, where full compensation was given. Nearly 
all the land is owned by natives, but a few small tracts are owned by foreigners, 
the titles having been established before the land commission during the 
Government under the Berlin general act, betw^een 1890 and 1899. The 
amount of arable lands is small. There is but one white planter in American 
Samoa at present, Mr. E. W. Gurr. His plantation is a freehold in a valley 
on the north side of the island. He has planted cocoanut trees, rubber, 
cacao, and a small amount of coffee. An ex-enlisted man of the navy holds 
a small leasehold of about 140 acres, partly planted in cocoanuts and bananas. 
The Mormon mission holds 360 acres of land in the western district under a 
lease of 40 years, acquired in 1902, and it has expended considerable sums of 
money in clearing and planting the land with cocoanuts. 

The soil is a rich mould upon the slopes and even upon the precipitous 
mountain sides, wliile the valleys and level tracts are a deep alluvial deposit 
of the same, the whole a decomposition of vegetable matter, with only a 
slight proportion of decomposed lava. This, being impregated wath iron, 
makes a vigorous tillable loam. So rapid is the growth and decay of vegetable 
matter, and so long has it been accumulating, that the interstices of broken 
lava upon abrupt decli\'ities are filled with soil, which is again protected from 
heavy washes by trees and shrubbery. Lava beds descend to the sea in many 
places, with black and forbidding faces. The "iron-bound coast" extends 
for several miles east of Leone Bay, tke edge of a great lava bed, against 
which the sea roars unceasingly. The sea has cut tunnels in the lava, break- 
ing through the crust many yards inland ; the air compressed within the 
tunnels or chambers by the surges of the sea forces the imprisoned water 
high into the air through those inland " blowholes" ^vith a geyser-like effect 
On a stormy day the sight is a magnificent one. The hills and valleys are 



OF THE PACIFIC 'SLAN'D? 141 

rocky, but the volcanic rock is still disintegrating. Many land-slides occur 
during the wet season from this cause. 

Copra is practically the only export from American Samoa. It is shipped 
to foreign countries where oil is extracted from it ; the oil is in great demand 
in the manufacture of cocoanut butters of various kinds, soaps, and for other 
purposes. The copra of American Samoa is sun dried and of excellent quality. 
Since the raising of the American flag the Government has encouraged the 
natives to plant more cocoanuts, to dry their copra thoroughly, and to bring 
in only the best quality of copra, cut from ripe nuts, and excellent results have 
followed. 

It is said that there are over fJOO varieties of fish found in Samoan waters, 
some of which are edible and some poisonous. Dr. David Starr Jordan, of 
Stanford University, California, visited Samoa in 1902 and made a report on 
fishes in Samoa, which has been publivshed in a large valume, with numerous 
plates. Edible fish are not plentiful, and the natives do not engage in fishing 
as a commercial pursuit. One foreigner, a Japanese, is catching and selling 
fish on a small scale, but his catch is usually sold to the natives at high prices. 
Crabs and crayfish are found on t.ie reefs, the village of Nuuuli being noted 
for the number of these crustaceans caught in the vicinity. Palolo is a 
remarkable species of marine worm which has its home in the coral barrier 
reef and which comes to the surface of the water on the night of the last 
quarter of the moon in October. If the last quarter of the moon is early 
in October the palolo does not come until the last quarter of the November 
moon. The natives know when to expect the palolo and know where to find 
it ; they consider it a great delicacy. 

The Samoans suffer from a number of tropical and epidemic diseases. 
Among these are measles, dysentery (bacillary), tuberculosis, which has been 
increasing since the epidemic of measles of 1911 ; filariasis and its sequellae, 
among which is elephantiasis ; dengue, yaws, affecting chiefly the children ; 
Samoan conjunctivitis, with occasional resulting blindness when improperly 
treated ; and almost universal infections with intestinal parasites, including 
uncinariasis (hookworm), ascariasis (round worms), and trichocephaliasis 
(whip worm). Measles is a serious disease and has been the cause of many 
deaths in the epidemics of 1893 and 1911. White residents suffer very little 
from many of these diseases, because of greater cleanliness and because flies 
and mosquitoes are more carefully excluded from their houses. Many serious 
diseases are unknown in American Samoa, as, for example, lepro.sy, smallpox, 
yellow fever, cholera, plague, malaria and tropical dysentery. Venereal 
diseases, except gonorrhea, are unknown. The latter disease occasionally 
appears, but careful segregation of all known cases until cured, combined with 
the tracing back of infections, has kept this scourge of the most civilised 
countries down to a minimum. The entire medical work is in charge of navy 
medical officers, there being no civil practitioners in American Samoa. A 
member of the hospital corps is a qualified dentist and does all the necessary 
dental work. The health officer of American Samoa has the care of tha 
Samoan sick and this work is performed at the hospital. This consists of a 
central administration building, three very large oval Samoan houses, three 
smaller round Samoan houses, and necessary outbuildings or latrines, baths 



142 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

and look houses. The patients live in the Sanioan houses to which they are 
aeeustomed and whicli offer many sanitary advantages over foreign-built 
liouses. While at the hospital the patients are given instructions as to the 
proper sanitation of the homes. The sanitary inspector (a naval hospital 
steward), two other members of the hospital corps, three Samoans enlisted 
in the naval service to learn to care for the sick, and a Samoan nurse are 
on duty at this hospital. 

About ;)0 miles of public roads have been constructed since the estab- 
lishment of the Government. The roads follow the shore line in many parts 
of the islands, and some of them have presented many difficulties in their 
construction. The standard width of the road is eight feet, but this is ex- 
ceeded in most roads. All bridges are eight feet wide. The roads are of 
the simplest possible construction ; coral, sand, or volcanic ash have been 
used to surface the roads where practicable. The construction work has been 
done by natives, the villages furnishing half of the labour free. A foreman 
employed by the civil government has laid out the roads and has had charge 
of the work. At one period a competent civil engineer was employed to 
lay out the roads, and his work was of great value. The roads were originally 
intended for pedestrians only, as until late years there -were very few horses 
on the islands. Carts were only introduced in 1911, there being only a few 
carts and motor cars on the island at Tutuila at the present time. The roads 
will naturally be improved as the demand for good roads is felt by the natives. 
Bridges are built of Australian hardwood, jarrah and blackbutt having given 
good service. Fir or oregon pine is much cheaper, but this wood rots very 
cjuickly. Cement tiles lor cross drains is manufactured by civil prisoners 
and furnished at cost. The captain of the yard is superintendent of roads, 
being in charge of the construction and cleaning of all roads. 

There are several general stores in American Samoa, most of which are 
located in Pago Pago Harbour. 

Tutuila is connected with the outside world by a highh-powered United 
States Government wireless station which is open to the public for com- 
munication purposes. 



MISSIONARIES. 



LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 
The Rev. C. J. Kinnersley, at Leone. 

ROMAN CATHOLICS. 

Rev. E. Bellwald, Pago Pago. 

Rev. T. Estibal, Leone. 

Brothers and Marist Sisters Schools at Pago Paso and I^eone. 



LATTER DAY v'^AINTS. 
Elders V. G. Woolley, C. J. Sharp and A. D. Madson. 



OF THE PACIKIC I?SI,AXDS 

CUSTOM DUTIES. 



143 



GENERAL DUTIES. 

On all goods, not specified under the head specific duties or free list an 
ad valorem duty of 10 per cent. 



vSPECIFIC DUTIES. 

Tobacco, snuff , &c , per lb. 

Cigars, per thousand 

Cigarettes, per thousand . . 

Brandy, whisky, gin, and all spirituous beverages, per gallon. . 

Bay rum or bay water of first proof, per gallon — 

(Spirits of greater strength than that of first proof, and all imita- 
tions of brandy, spirits of wine, &c., are subject to the highest 
rate of duty.) 
Champagne and sparkling wines : — 

One pint to one cjuart, per dozen 

One-half pint to one pint, per dozen 

One-half pint, per dozen 

In bottles of more than one quart, on the quantity m excess of 
one quart, per gallon 
Still wines (ginger wine or cordial) and vermcuth in casks or packages 

containing 14 per cent, absolute alcohol, per gallon . . 
Still wines containing more than 14 per cent, absolute alcohol, per 

gallon . . 
Still wines in bottles, per case of one dozen bottles, one pint to one 

quart, per case 
Still wines in cjuantities in excess — 5 cents per pint or fractional part. 

(Any wines, ginger cordial, or vermouth of more than 24 per cent, 
of alcohol to be cla.ssed as spirits, and duty to be paid accord- 
ingly. The percentage of alcohol m wines and fruit juices 
shall be determined in such manner as the commandant shall 
prescribe.) 
Ale, porter and beer, per gallon . . 

Ale, porter and beer, other than in bottles or jugs, per gallon . . 
I\Ialt extract : 

Fluid, in casks, per gallon . . 

Solid or condensed, ad valorem 

In bottles or jugs, per gallon 
Cherry juice or prune juice or prune wine, &c., containing no alcohol, 

or not more than 14 per cent, of alcohol, per gallon 

Above 14 per cent, alcohol, per gallon 

Above 24 per cent, alcohol, to be classed as spirits. 
Ginger ale, ginger beer, lemonade, soda water, and all mineral water, 

&c., containing no alcohol, in bottles containing a-pint, per dozen 

One and a half pints, per dozen 

More than one and a half pints, per gallon . . 
Jewellery, precious stones, or pearls, set or strung, ad valorem 
Diamonds or preciotis stones, cut but not set, ad valorem 
Imitations not exceeding an inch in dimensions, or engraved or 

mounted, ad valorem 
Pearls in natural state, not strung or set, ad valorem .. 
Perfumery, &c., containing alcohol, per gallon . . 
I-'ireamis, ammunition, &c., governed as per '' Arms Ordnance."" 
Opium and preparations. &c., containing opium, strictly prohibited. 



$0.25 
3.00 
1.00 
2.50 
2.50 



3.00 

1.50 

.75 

1.00 
.40 
.60 

1.20 



.25 

.20 



.20 



40 



.40 





.40 




.60 




.12 




.20 




.10 


60 


O 
<> 


10 


/o 


20 


o/ 
/o 


10 


% 


2 


50 



144 STEWART'S HAND 3(30K 

I-MiKH LIST. 

Fresh beef, mutton, poultry and game ; fresh fish ; fresh vegetables ; 
fresh fruits ; ice ; Hve animals and birds ; seeds, plants, bulbs, and cuttings 
wearing apparel ; articles of personal adornment ; toilet articles, &c., of persons 
arriving, for their own use and not for sale ; printed bocks, magazines, and 
newspapers. 

The importation and sale of the following articles is allowed by permission 
of the conmiandaut : Spirituous liquors, medicines and drugs, stallions, 
firearms and ammunition. 



The names of the commandants and governors of American Samoa 
with their terms of office are as follow : — 

Commander B. F. Tilley, U.S. Navy, Commandant, February 17, 1900, 
to November 27, 1901. 

Captain U. Sebree, U.S. Navy, Commandant, November 27, 1901, tc 
December 16, 1902. 

Lieutenant-Commander H. Minett, U.S. Navy, Acting Commandant, 
December 16, 1902, to May 5, 1903. 

Commander E. B. Underwood, U.S. Navy, Commandant, May 5, 1903, to 
January 30, 1905. 

Commander C. B. T. Mocre, U.S. Navy, Governor, January 30, 1905, to 
May 21, 1908. 

Captain J. P. Parker, U.S. Navy, Governor, May 21, 1908, to November 
10, 1910. 

Commander W. M. Crose, U.S. Navy, Governor, November 10, 1910, to 
March 14, 1913. 

Lieutenant N. W. Post, U.S. Navy, Acting Governor, March 14, 1913, 
to July 14, 1913. 

Commander C. D. Stearns, U.S. Navy, Governor, July 14, 1913, to October 
2, 1914. 

Lieutenant N. W. Post, U.S. Navy, Acting Governor, October 2, 1914, 
to December 6, 1914. 

Lieutenant C. A. Woodruff, U.S. Navy, Acting Governor, December 6, 
1914, to March 1, 1915. 

Commander John M. Poyer, U.S. Navy, retired. Governor, appointed 
March 1, 1915, tc 



Mr. T. W. Heney, writing of Pago Pago, in a series of articles descriptive 
of the tour of the Australian Imperial Press Delegation, says : — 

" To almost anyone Pago Pago is a joy. After several days at sea, when 
one grows tired of the august monotony of sea and sky, and the company of 
people too well known, it is a pleasure to go ashore in the real tropics, where 
tha little yellow beaches are backed by cocoanut palms and banana planta- 
tions, amongst which are the huts and churches of the natives, where the water 
is a living blue and of astonishing transparency in the shallows, where natives 
in their old time outrigger boats or in the craft of the Europeans bring fruit 
and flowers for sale, where the bills stand up round the little bay all a riot 
of tropic vegetation to their crowns. The people are of a fine dignity and 
courtesy. Thev bow as one meets them on the roads, they murmur ' good 
morning,' and the children say ' Talofa ' shyly. They all walk splendidly 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 145 

erect, bareheaded, often clad, the men only in a sulu or waist-cloth hanging 
to the knees, heavily tatooed underneath ; the women in white and ample 
gowns. They offer their fruits or mats or shells or baskets or necklaces ; 
if you wish to buy, it is simple, and if you do not, they accept your negation 
with politeness and without importunity. It is a pleasure to lean on the ship's 
rail and watch the Samoan put his own copra aboard for sale in San Francisco ; 
he works with such energy, such animation, as if he liked it, with shouts and 
friskings, and you will see a youngster show off by insisting on shouldering 
two bags of copra instead of one, or having his bag pitched clean oft" the heap 
on to his waiting shoulder. Then he will walk slow and erect as in a pro- 
cession till he reaches the cargo net, when he wall just give a heave of the 
shoulder and the bag will fly into the middle of the heap. Certainly no 
wharfies I have ever seen in white man's lands work anything like this. 

■' You leave the steamer, and, casting a long glance round the hills, the 
lovely bay, the native villages on the farther shore, the official residences, 
the avenues of palm, and the ample lawns, take your way into the town 
which is one long street beside the water. In a native house with a roof 
that comes nearly down to the ground some youngsters are dancing the 
native dances for the ship's passengers. The Samoan girl in the middle 
of the floor slowly advances and retreats, the music is the maddening endless 
lap of a mat or drum, some assistants clap hands or sing in the native language. 
Beside the path are the people's houses and the bush groves all about. It is a 
tropic bush, the tall cocoanut palms high overhead, and below the many- 
coloured hibiscus, the frangipanni still showing its waxed flowers with their 
heavy scent, bread fruit trees with the young green fruit as big as mandarins, 
great bushes of red, yellow, and green crotons such as we grow in pots in Aus- 
tralian hot-houses, acalyphas with all their glow of coloured leaves, all this 
and much more growing at one's side as one walks the narrow path. At one 
end of the town are churches, for the Samoan is a religious person ; at the other 
the residence of the Governor. 

" Pago Pago, on Tutuila Island, is the finest harbour in Samoa. It has 
been for a generation the headquarters of American naval and island policy 
in the Pacific. The Americans are entitled to credit for what they have done 
there. They have made a naval base, a port, a town, without destroying 
the island race they found there. As soon as our ship passed into the port 
waters her bar was locked. No one may offer the natives liquor, nor may 
they buy or make it. There is no bar in Pago Pago. The native race is pure. 
The American immigration laws permit little if any foreign settlement, and 
even in the townships where the white troops and white men live there is not 
a noticeable number of half-castes. Of Samoan children there are many, 
and they are beautiful youngsters, boys and girls alike. The intertribal 
wars have ceased, and now the native race increa.ses from 5,000 at occupation 
to 7,000 in 1012. The Government collects, ships, and sells their copra, which 
is practically the only product of the .soil suitable for export, and as the price 
of copra has on the whole been on the increase, the yield to the native has 
grown from year to year. Though like all Pacific races, they do not love 
work, they do work, and work hard when it has to be done. They made 
their own roads under Government superintendence, and the Government, 
with the mission authorities, teaches their children, looks after their health, 
and paternally guides them in the way they should go. I repeat, as far as 
any casual visitor to Pago Pago can .see or learn, the American experiment 
has been a blessing to the Samoans and an honour to America. The native 
race increases steadily, there is no fringe or diseased or degraded half-castes, 
there is no eating cancer of our shameful diseases. Di.sease there is, and 
poverty and crime, no doubt, for the Samoan is human ; but America has not 
taken away his land, his freedom, or his native system, and thrust upon him 
grog and venereal disease, turned his women into prostitutes, and condemned 
his whole breed to death in misery and shame. All honour to those far- 
sighted and humane American administrators who have made it possible 
for any honest visitor to say these things. 



14() STEWART'S HANI) HOOK 

■■ Cni^tain I'oystT, U.S.N, (retired), who is the present Governor of the 
islands that form American Samoa, came aboard the steamer before we left 
to return calls paid by most of the Australian Press Delegation. He left a 
congressional report on the American colony, published in 1912, which Y^ears 
out the witness of our own eyes whilst ashore. It seems that there is not 
uuich scope for white settlement in the group, though no doubt in this rich 
volcanic soil covered with a vegetation that rots in four years into humus, 
there is room for new forms of production. They are too far away from large 
centres to be able to do much with fruit ; sugar and coffee have their enemies, 
so that copra remains their staple. Hut rubber, sisal, and other niaterial.s 
may follow, for when the native population increases, the labour proljlem 
vanishes in air ; and where a .soil of richness, abundant sunshine, and rain 
together promise splendid returns in semi-tropical products, we may expect 
that the energy and the resourcefulness of American development has not 
said the last word. \\'lien the copra of American Samoa is sold to Lever's 
the trade balance is heavily Australian ; when the copra goes to San F'rancisco 
the balance is .American. The laws of the colony are few and simple, binding 
white man and Samoan alike. The organisation is largely based upon the 
old Samoan custom of chiefs and sub-chiefs (responsible now to the American 
Governor), and of annual meetings, a function like a witenagemote of our 
Anglo-Saxon forefathers. The unit of the State is the family. There is a 
native police of stalwart armed men in distinguishing red turbans and red 
embroidered sulus. The white population is practically the staff of American 
officials and a few others. There are quite a number of American ladies and 
children, who all look well. 

" One does not wish to labour the history of this fine port which American 
wisdom long ago chose as its island base, and has prudently, humanely, and 
consistentlj' developed ever since. But it does remain in my view a success- 
ful and an honourable experiment. I look at a pamphlet which proclaims 
that a further stage of our journey is ' the melting place of the Pacific,' mean- 
ing that all the Pacific races meet and fuse in one another. Well, Page Pago 
is net that. It is Samoan of the Samoans. It is the home of a healthy, 
virile race, that will keep its place in the sun by its own right hand, and thanks 
to a succession cf wise and kindly administrators can look the whole world 
in the face. No Australian will ever regret lus visit to Pago Pago. And no 
American need ever deter any honest observer from going there. The 
Americans may have been fortunate in selecting a comparatively small i.sland 
as the scene of their work, they certainly have profited by the labours of the 
London Missionary Society, they may have had a tractable lot of native people 
to manage. Again they may have had to work against all the open and hidden 
obstacles to the white man's mission in tropic lands. They have, as far as 
one can see, dealt justly, mercifully, and wisely with their native wards in 
American Samoa, and the Australian, as he remembers his own cruel record 
with his own native race, must pay to America the tribute of his sincere 
admiration." 



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HENRY BULL & GO. LTD 

Importers and Warehousemen, 

YORK, MARKET AND CLARENCE STREETS, 
Si "S" 13 ISr E3 7E" - 



Departments 

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FLANNELS 

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CALICOES 

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Departmenis 







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FLANNEL AND BLANKET MILL. 
LIVERPOOL, N.S.W. 

We a,re also Manufacturers of 

Ladies' Underclothing, Blouses, Costumes, Skirts, 

Mantles, Millinery and Men's Shirts, 

Work Rooms : 387 KENT STREET, SYDNEY. 



Our Representative makes regular and freijuent visits to Fiji, Tonga and 
Samoa, and will gladly place our samples before prospective bnjers. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISI.AXDS 149 

NAURU (OR PLEASANT) ISLAND. 

(BRiTIvSH MANDATU.) 

NAURU (or Pleasant) Island, one of the former German possessions 
lies a few miles south of the equator and about 160 miles north-west 
of Ocean Island. It is an upraised atoll of circular form about three 
and a half miles in diameter, the highest elevation being about 250 feet. In 
1916 there were 1,284 natives on the island as against 1,310 in 1912. A few 
of these were employed by the Pacific Phosphate Company, but the main 
source of labour consists of recruits from the Caroline Islands (of whom there 
were 450 in 1916), and Chinese mechanics and coolies numbering about 300. 
There are 75 white inhabitants, including the missionaries of the Sacred 
Heart and American Board of Missions. The commercial value of the island 
lies mainly in the vast deposits of phosphates extending over some 4,500 
acres. These are worked by the Pacific Phosphate Company by virtue of 
their agreement with the Jaluit Company. The phosphate is conveyed on 
light railways to the dryers and is then shipped from the jetties in cargo boats 
to the steamers which, in fine weather, are made fast to the buoys close to 
the edge of the reef. Since their arrival a dozen years ago the activities of the 
company have entirely changed the economic conditions of the natives who 
lived formerly remote from civilisation. New wants have arisen. Money is 
needed to satisfy them ; and the Nauruans, who have always shown themselves 
adverse to any sustained labour, have established a considerable trade with 
the Chinese and Caroline Island employees of the company in pigs, ducks, 
fowls, fish and nuts. The interior of the island consists of undulating forest 
land. A small lagoon about a mile inland is the centre of a specially fertile 
section of cocoaniit palms and the coast belt is one continuous grove. The 
production of copra is from 300 to 400 tons a year but should average at least 
500 tons annually in ordinary seasons if suitable drying arrangements were 
made and the natives could be induced to thin out the palms. Though Nauru 
was surrendered to H.M.A.S. "Melbourne," in September, 1914, and was 
included with the rest cf the German New Guinea possessions on the capitula- 
tion of Herbertshohe, it was not until November 6 of that year that it was 
effectively occupied by troops from Rabaul brought by the s.s " Messina." 
In accordance with the terms of the capitulation local laws and customs were 
continued as far as practicable, and a civil administration was established 
on January 1, 1915. The outstanding feature of Nauru is the wireless station 
of 60 kilowatt power which was erected by the Germans to link up the island 
with their other Pacific possessions and Tsingtau. It was opened in December, 
1913, and though partially dismantled toward the end of 1914 it was restored 
directly afterwards and is now controlled by the naval authorities. A good 
road has been made round the island, wide enough to permit motor cars to 
pass one another. The rainfall varies greatly as will be seen by the following 
figures covering a five-year pericKl : 1912, 110 in. ; 1913, 65 in. ; 1914, 106 in. ; 
1915, 78 in. ; 1916, 18.33 in. The highest shade temperature reading in 1916 
was 99.5 deg. Fahr., and the lowest 68 deg. The rudiments of education are 



J 50 STKWAKTS HANI) B()f)K 

imparted by the schools of the Sacred Heart Mission and the American JJoard 
of Missions. About two-thirds of the native population are Protestants and 
one-third Catholic. Thirty police are maintained, recruited chiefly from the 
Gilbert Islands. A telephone installation on the Island links up the Ivuropean 
settlement with the (Government and wirele.ss stations. 

The imports for lOKi totalled 1.34, 548 as at;ainst £40,447 in IfH.^, the 
following being the details : — 

Trade goofls 

Provisions 

Hardware , . 

Coal 

Timber 

Oil 

Sundries . . 

£40,447 . . £34,548 

The exports for 1915 and 1!H6 were as folows : — 1915, phosphates- 
85,808 tons ; copra, 328 tons ; 1916, phosphates, 105,012 tons, copra, 277 tons. 

In trade goods the Japanese, and in tools and general hardware the 
-Americans, supply most of the requirements. In the past much of the 
machinery was imported from Germany direct. German coinage has been 
ivithdrawn from circulation. 

The population figures are as follow : — 



1915 


1910 


£10,507 


E9,520 


12,880 


9,377 


9,003 


9,771 


3,199 


2,783 


3,031 


1.449 


1,152 


929 


015 


713 





1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


Europeans 


109 


90 


105 


90 


Chinese 


553 


400 


397 


278 


Caroline Islanders 


495 


493 


343 


449 


Nauruans 


. . 1,332 


1.272 


1.287 


j,284 



.\dmiuistrat«ir : — Mr. C. p.. W. vSmith-Rewse. 



Mr. A. W. U. Tocke, uriting in the Melbourne Ar°us in March. 1919, 
saj'S cf. Nauru : — 

" Nauru might be described as the richest place in the world for its size 
so great is its potential wealth. It was in pre-war times a rather important 
outpost of the German I^nipire, possessing one of the most powerful wireless 
stations in the Pacific. In September, 1914, it was captured by a small body 
of sailors from H.M.A.S. ' Melbourne,' who destroyed the wireless plant and 
took prisoner the whole German colony, numbering 30 men. The island lies 
about one degree south of the eciuator, and its distance from Sydney is a little 
over 2,000 miles in a straight line, touching San Cristoval Island, in the 
vSolomon group. Physically and ethnographically, Nauru is typical of 
most of the coral islands of the Pacific, but it is of special value and interest 
to Australia on account of its immense deposits of phosphate guano, from 
which our most valuable fertilisers are manufactured. The island, which is 
about five miles long and three wide, is practically one vast phosphate field 
containing, at a rough estimate, sufficient material to supply the requirements 
of this country for a hundred years or so. These deposits are remarkable, 
not only in point of quantity, but also in quality, for Naiiruaii guano contains 
phosphoric acid equivalent to at least 80 per cent, of triba.sic phosphate of 



OF TUP. PACIFIC iSI ANDS 151 

liiiip, and less than 2 per cent, of oxide of iron and alumina condjined. In 
its natural state this phosphate is hard as stone, and quite odoiirless. It is 
blasted out of the ground, "and then broken up and dried in the sun or in large 
artificial dryers, for the purpose of extracting the latent moisture When 
sufficiently dry it is shipped in bulk. For the four years ending June, 1918, 
the total amount of phosphate guano imported from Nauru into Australia 
amounted to 147,0<iO tons, valued at £381,910; but it must be remembered 
that during this period shipments were greath' restricted through the scarcity 
of tonnage and other adverse ci'-cumstances ari.sing out of the war. Under 
normal conditions 100,000 tons could be imported annually without difficulty. 
The island, being surrounded by an unbroken crral reef, offers no protection to 
ships, and the cost of constructing an artificial breakwater here would be 
prohibitive, owing to the great depth of the surrounding sea. But safe 
moorings are provided for vessels calling at Nauru by a chain of large buoys 
which iiave been laid at a little distance from the shore. The principal 
settlement on the island is Yangor, which a few years ago was a primitive 
village of native huts. It is now a flourishing little town, lit by electricity, 
its dwellings furnished with the comforts of civilisation, and its factories 
fitted with costly machinery. The principal industry of Nauru is the mining 
of pho.sphate ; there is a small local trade in native goods and copra, but the 
island is too small to be of any commercial value apart from its great wealth 
of phosphate. Nearly everywhere the surface of the island is hard and rough 
with broken (-oral and the jagged tops of coral pinnacles, which stan<l from 
10 feet to 20 feet high when the intervening phosphate has been removed. 
The age of these phosphate deposits cannot be computed with certainty, 
but it is safe to assume that for hundreds of years this island, owing to its 
isolated position, was the home of myriads of sea birds, which nested there 
undisturbed bv the presence of man. The droppings of these birds gradually 
permeated the coral rock, which, m the course of centuries, was transformed 
by the secret alchemy of Nature into pure phosphate of lime of the rarest 
quality. Owing to the stony and ungenerous soil agriculture is unknown 
on Nauru, which strikes one as a strange paradox considering that this place 
yields such great quantities of the richest material for fertilising the fields 
and gardens of the outside world. The island is also subject to long periods 
of drought, during which cviltivation must came to a standstill, as irrigation 
is impossible. Cocoanut and pandanus, the staple food-bearing trees, seem 
largely .self-grown, and take their chance of survival until the rain brings them 
a renewed lease of life. Yet in spite of such adverse conditions a few varieties 
of indigenous flora thrive here in amazing vitality — such as the cocoanut, 
pandanus, wild almond, and a large umbrageous tree of which there are some 
fine specimens. How these plants survive the hnig droughts is explained by 
the fact that a considerable quantity of rainwater percolates the coral 'strata 
of the i.sland and lodges in subterranean caves and hollows which are acces- 
sible to the powerful roots of the trees. These underground reservoirs are 
also tapped by w ater holes at which the natives fill their tiny buckets cf cocoa- 
nut shell. Thus through the wonderful economy of Nature life is maintained, 
and the island preserves its verdure during years of protracted drought. 
"When the drought breaks it generally breaks with a vengeance. Torrential 
rains fall, and sometimes for weeks fierce storms beat upon the island with 
hardly any intermis.sion. There is a striking dearth of wild life on the island 
due principally to the lack of fresh water, for the places where it is naturally 
conserved are difficult of access, and significant of the inhospitableness of 
the phu-e is the entire absence of the crow, that hardy and resourceful forager 
which ranges the world. But though animal life is so scarce on land, the 
surrounding sea abounds in fish, which forms the jirmcipal food of the islanders, 
whose skill in fishing it would be difficult to match in any other part of the 
world. Often forced in days gone by to depend for their very existence 
on the fish they could catch, their energies of mind and body, inspired by 
stern neces.sitv, have been for generations almost solely devoted to the task 
of getting their food from the sea, ,so that by a long course of hereditary 



!52 STKWAKT'S UA.\'I> BOOK 

training tliey have become a woinlerfii! race ot flsliennen, almost as much at 
home in the water as on land. I'efore the advent of the white man they 
made their hooks and lines out of the rough anrl scanty material obtainable 
on the island, which they fashioned to their needs with remarkable skill 
and ingenuity, making their hooks out of bone and pearl-shell ground to the 
required size and shape with infinite care and patience, and their lines from 
the fibre of the cocoanut Ir.isk, teased into strands and twisted as fine as the 
thinnest twine. These ]Drimiti\e appliances are still made ;md preferred by 
some to the imported articles of European manufacture. The homely sight 
of cooking is rarely noticed here. Uncooked food seems more to the native 
taste, or, perhaps, is eaten simply to save trouble, and these people are wont 
to satisfy their hunger like brutes. Raw fish is a common article of 'diet. 
A hungry fisherman will pick up a live fish and devour its flesh, tearing away 
the skin and scales with his teeth. Yet it must be said to their credit that 
these islanders, who not so long ago were cannibals, have not retained the 
worst traits of the savage, and in some respects show a fair amount of ad- 
vancement. The national costume of these islands for both sexes and all 
ages consists of a single garn:ent — a ridi, or kilt made of strips of vegetable 
fibre, vi'hich hangs from the hips to a httle above the knees. But the civilisa- 
tion of the white man has burdened the brown man with useless and hideous 
garments that point a moral and illustrate a fallacy. Nature, so to speak, 
clothes the dark-skinned people of the tropics at their birth ; their bare brown 
limbs have not the appearance of nakedness, so that in an equatorial climate 
Eitropean garments are both unnecessary and unsuitable. Being, as a riile, 
physically well proportioned, the islander in native dress — or, rather, undress 
— is generally a rather picturesque sort of person, but a w-ild darkie in dirty 
dungarees, flaming red jersey, boots, and a black hat, is a sight that moves 
one almost to tears. The imported kanaka labourers have abandoned the 
fashion of their ancestors for garments of cloth. The ridi is worn only by 
the natives of the island, who sometimes affect European garb on Sundays 
and special occasions." 



Mr, Thomas J. McMahon, F.R.G.S., in an interesting article m the 

Svdnev M.nl of April, 1919, says: — 

" The Naur'.ians are a very hand.some race, tall and well formed. The 
women are accounted the best-figured in the Pacific Islands. Some are indeed 
veritable giantesses. The islanders are noted for their pleasant manners, 
and will always give the most friendly greeting to strangers. They are also 
noted for their hospitality, and will invite vi.sitors to their huts to partake of 
food. The natives are very fond of sport — that, no doubt, being one reason 
why they are so active and muscular. The popular sport is the decoying 
and catcliing of frigate birds. As every male owns a bicycle, so he owns from 
one to 100 frigate birds, and these he keeps tethered with long fishing-lines 
on to great frames or roosts. The birds are mopy-looking creatures, with 
voracious appetites. A native will sit for hours a few yards away from his 
birds, and toss hunks of fish at them, which they catch with the utmost 
dexterity. Just before feed-time the native Avill come along and stir up his 
birds to sonie exercise. He will prod and shoo them, and they require a lot 
of stirring before they will move ; but once on the wing they wheel and circle 
in the air, the fishing lines preventing escape. Very tame birds are allowed 
their libertj-, and they go for long flights out to sea, getting abundance of 
food in chasing down fish-catching birds and causing them to disgorge their 
supplies of newly-caught fish. Great rivalry exists between villages as to 
the number of birds that are owned, and on certain gala days crow^ds from 
every village will come along to some chosen rendezvous carrying the big 
roosts covered with birds. There is much dancing and rejoicing, and, it 
might be said, betting as to the day's sport. The rendezvous is some open 
spot on the coast. The roosts are set up an equal distance apart, and the 
decoy birds are let loo.se. They act witli wonderful sagacity in soaring aloft 



or THK PACIFIC ISLANDS 153 

and getting in touch with wild birds. Perhaps one or two wild birds will be 
all that can be seen previous to the flight of the decoj-s ; yet in half an hour 
the air will be literally dark with them. '1 hen it is interesting to see the de- 
coys enticing the untamed down to the roosts. It really seems as if the cun- 
ning birds are fully aware tliat bets are being made on their efforts, for they 
will even use what looks like force to compel birds to come to the roosts, 
where the moment they rest o sn;art young native standing under the roost 
frame seizes the leg of the bird and tethers it. When the day's sport is over, 
and a count is made, congratulations arc showered en the winniiig village, 
followed by dancing, singing and feasting. The victorious villagers have the 
right to boast for twelve months of their superior dexterit}-, and, like .''ome 
good 'sports,' thej' can blow their own tnmipets with singidar success. 
These people have a ruling or high-caste class, with a king, several chiefs and 
chief women, who still have a great deal of influence, though the natives 
are not the slaves they were 50 years ago. The present king, Oweida bv name 
is descended from a long line of kings, and is a delightful and intelligent old 
chap. On festive occasions he appears in top hat, frock coat, well-creased 
grey trousers, ironed collar, smart tie, black boots with brown laces, and a 
gold-top walking-stick. At most times he is to be seen riding about the island 
on his bicycle, to which a Red Cross flag is attached. He is a staunch sup- 
porter of the Red Cross, and every native hut has a Red Cross badge in the 
window or a flag on the roof. Nauru, although so close to the ICquator, 
has a mild and healthy climate, and tliis is certainly a factor in the energy 
displayed by the white people in the number of social entertainments that are 
given, such as dramatic performances, fancy dress dances, cricket and tennis 
matches, fetes and concerts. This energy has during the war resulted in 
thousands of pounds I'cing collected for patriotic purposes. The wife of the 
Administrator is the leader of all social and patriotic alTairs, and she is a very 
popular lady. A most interesting person to meet, and one who has lived 
on the island for over 4.5 years, is Mr. Krnest Milner Hindmarsh Stephen. 
When a child of six years he was wrecked on Nauru, and it m;\s not untd he 
came to manhood that his father, a captain in the British navy, found liin) 
after many years of search. Mr. Stephen is a self-educated man, and, despite 
his sad isolation, is a well-read man. He is engaged on a book which will 
tell the story cf his strange life. He is an authority en the history' and people 
of Nauru, and speaks the language -luently. For many years he was a trader, 
hnt is now living retired. Nauru is certainly a valuable island ; Imt the 
generally-accepted estimates of its value are absurd and fanciful. A it^\ facts 
\\all contradict some errors extant. The quality of the phosphate is not of 
quite the same high grade as that of Ocean Island, the quantitj- is not in- 
exhaustible, or worth untold millions, and there is not room on the island for 
half-a-dozen companies. An insuperable difficulty to even one more company 
would be the impossibility of securing a safe mooring area in the uncertain 
sea which surrounds Nauru. The island, if of limited value, is nevertheless 
of great use to the world, and this use could not be more fairh-, more freelv 
distributed to the world than under the progressive advantages of British 
administration ; and no countr}' will benefit by British ad'.ninistration in 
the Pacific more than Australia, ^^'hen Australian administration can be 
made progressive and safe, then will it Ije the time for Australia to assume 
the responsibilities to which by every law of close relationship she is most 
naturallv entitled to undertake." 



154 STEWART S HAND ROOK 



SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

(FRlvNCH.) 

THK Society Islands, eleven in number, lie between the parallels of 10 
and 18 south latitude and the meridians of 148 and 154 west, and were 
so called in honour of the Royal Society, by which learned body a 
British scientific mission was sent out under the command of Captain Cook to 
observe the transit of Venus over the sun's disc in the year 1769 at the island 
of Tahiti, or Otaheite, as it was formerly styled. The islands, which are 
divided by a wide channel into two groups — the Leeward and the Windward 
— were first reported as a discovery by Wallis in 1767. There can, however, 
be no doubt that they had been visited by Spaniards before that time. 
The statement so often made that they were seen by Oueircs (or Quiros) 
in 1606 is certainly incorrect. Oueiros passed through the Tuamotu group 
iiOO miles to the eastward of Tahiti, and a misreading of an entry in his log 
caused it to be said that he had seen Tahiti. The group is among the most 
beautiful and picturesque in the world, and was one of the earliest posts of 
the London Missionary Society, who began work there in 1796. 

Tahiti is by far the most considerable island, its circumference being 
variously estimated at from 110 to 130 miles. It has a population of some 
thing like 11,000, of whom about a tenth are French, British, and other 
Europeans ; there are also a number of Chinese. It is formed by two distinct 
mountains of great elevation, which are connected by a long narrow isthmus of 
about three miles in width. Consisting as it does of volcanic ridges, of in- 
exhaustible fertility, and valleys watered by abundant streams, this island is 
of much commercial value, its delightful climate bringing to maturity all 
the products of the tropics, which are nowhere to be found in greater fulness 
and perfection. Every traveller has extolled the beauty of Tahiti and the 
title " Paradise of the Pacific is well bestowed. Captain Cook speaks thus 
of it : " Perhaps there is scarcely a spot in the universe that affords a more 
luxuriant prospect than the south-east part of Otaheite. The hills are high 
and steep, and in many places craggy ; but they are covered to the very summit 
with trees and shrubs, in such a manner that the spectator can scarcely help 
thinking that the very rocks possess the property of producing and supporting 
their verdant clothing. The flat land which bounds those hills towards the 
sea, and the interjacent valleys also teem with various productions, which 
grow with the most exuberant vigour, and at once fill the mind of the beholder 
v>4th the idea that no place upon earth can outdo this in the strength and 
beauty of vegetation. 

The natives are a fine and handsome people but civilisation and liquor 
have sadly deteriorated the race, " surpassing all others in physical beauty, 
that excited Cook s admiration. Of late years the population has been station- 
ary, neither increasing nor decreasing. A number of Tahitians served at 
the front with the French colonial contingents. 



Sydney Warehouse J^s. Brisbane Warehouse 

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Rejiistei-ed owners .if \;^^r Hnyuirios Solicitcil. 

The Bull's Headiind H.C. \ X Prompt attention to 

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MANLFACTURKUS Ol 



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Bank of N.S.W. " PIGS " SyoNEr. City 779 

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FRUIT AND PRODUCE MERCHANT, 
Fruit Exchange, Bathurst St, Sydney. 

Exporters to all parts of the world of ail 
Australian Products. Importers and Ex- 
porters of all kinds of Island Produce. 
Copra, Shell etc., etc. We have represented 
the leading producers and shippers for over 
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returns. Liberal advances made against 
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REFERRNCES :— Bank of New South Wales, Sydney. Bank of New South Wales, London. 
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OF THE PACIFIC ISI,AXr!S 137 

Papeete, the capital (with a population of about 3,600), is a gay little city 
and the emporium of trade of the Eastern Pacific, and is in communication 
with Auckland and San Francisco by means of steamers sailing every few 
weeks. The town was bombarded in September, 1914, by the German cruisers 
" Scharnhorst " and " Gneisenau," and considerable damage was done. 
The French gunboat " Zelee " and the steamer " Walkure " which were in the 
harbour at the time, were sunk. 

The other Windward Islands are Mehetia, an extinct volcano, which forms 
the eastern limit of the group, and Moorea, also volcanic, but of larger size 
and very fertile, the population of the latter being 1,500. . 

The principal I^eeward Islands, whose population totals about (5,000, 
are Huahine, Raiatea, and Borabora, all mountainous and rugged. The 
first named has a capital harbour. Raiatea rises to a height of 3,385 feet, 
and is well watered and exceedingly fertile, while Borabora also has a fine 
harbour, and its shapely cone, though only 2,380 feet high, renders it a striking 
object from the sea. 

The climate is pleasant and agreeable. Though situated so far within the 
tropics the thermometer in summer ranges between 75 and 85 degrees, seldom 
exceeding the latter temperature, as the trade winds from the surrounding 
ocean moderate the heat. 

There are two cocoanut plantations of about 14,000 trees each and many 
smaller ones. Two sugar-mills each provide irom 200 to 300 tons of sugar 
per annum, not quite enough to supply the local demand. There are hundreds 
of vanilla plantations, almost all in the hands oi natives, and in this connection 
it must not be forgotten that Tahiti produ'x--- nearly half of all the vanilla 
grown in the world, though it is not of .so v,ilii:i I It- a quality as that of Reunion, 
Seychelles, or Riexico. 

Tahiti and the other islands under the ; .encl> flag, of which it is the 
centre, are steadily prospering, as is pro\c'cl l,>\ the increase in the imports 
and exports wliich for the years mentioned li;ive been as follows, the figures 
Tepresentin;j francs : — 

Inniorts Kxports 

1907 3,331,000 6,961,000 

1908 3,868,000 7,013,000 

1909 4,613,000 9,664,000 

1910 5,659.000 11,690,000 
1916 7,121,348 10,481,651 

Apart from oranges and cocoanuts, of \vh)> ii lurge quantities are shipped, 
the principal products are copra, mother-of-pearl shell, vanilla, beche-dt-mer, 
cotton, fungus, and phosphates. 



Governor, Monsieur G. Julien. 

Consuls: British, H. A. Richards; American, J. A. l,ayton ; Swedi.sh, 
L. Sigogue ; Nor»vegian, L. Brault ; Chilian, E. Touze. 

Principal Hu.siness Firms: S. R. Maxwell & Co., Ltd., of Auckland, 
A, B. Donald, Ltd., of Auckland, Compngnie Navale de I'Oceanie, of Paris, 
Comptoir Francaise, of Paris, Raoulx et Fils et Cie; also the Compagnie 
Francaise des Phosphates de I'Oceanie, of Pans, who work the deposits of 
phosphate rock on Makatea Island, and who have an ofHce at Papeete. The 
last-named firm also carries stocks of Australian coal for bunkering vessels. 



158 stkwakt's iiaxi) hook 



LOW ARCHIPELAGO, or TUAMOTU GROUP, 
and the GAMBIER ISLANDS. 

(FRKNCH.) 

IN no part of the Pacific are atolls so thickly congregated, in none are they 
so varied in size from the greatest to the least, and in none is navigation 
so beset with perils as in the Tuaniotus. This name is commonly spelt 
differently ; it is correct as we have given it. The name by which the group 
was originally known to the Tahitians was Poumotu, literally " pillar islands," 
from the fact that to the native mind they appeared as pillars rising almost 
perpendicularly from the depths of the ocean. The word was mispronouncetl 
by Europeans as Paumotu, which means " conquered " cr " destroyed '" 
islands, in consequence of which a deputation of the natives in 1851 requested 
the French authorities at Tahiti to change the name to Tuamotu, literally 
■' islands out of view, below the horizon, or distant islands," which request 
was acceded to, and therefore Tuamotu has been the official designation since 
1852, and it is that by which the group is universally known in P^aster'ii 
Polynesia. This extraordinary collection of islands, called the " Low (or 
Dangerous) Archipelago," extends over 16 degrees of longitude, and consists 
of four groups, containing altogether 78 atolls, without taking into considera- 
tion the detached Lslands to the south-east. They are all of them of similar 
character, and exliibit very great sameness in their features. When they are 
seen at a distance, which cannot be great on account of their lowness, the 
aspect is one of surpassing beauty, if the dry part of the island, or belt, is 
sufficiently covered v/ith trees ; but much of this beauty is dispelled on a nearer 
approach, as the vegetation is usually found to be scanty and wiry. The 
archipelago, like the adjoining groups of the Marquesas and Society Islands, 
is under I'rench control. The population is about 3,850, of whom about 
30 are Europeans. 

The isles are of that peculiar form of \yhich the origin has so long been an 
enigma to geologists — that is to say, they consist of coral belts, frequently 
not more than a mile wide, or even less, of a circular, oval, or sometimes 
triangular form, enclosing in the majority of cases a central lagoon, with an 
entrance on the side opposite to the direction of the prevailing trade wind. 
These passages are in some instances navigable for vessels of large tonnage ; 
in others they consist of a mere depression in the .surface of the reef sufficient 
to enable the natives to paddle their fishing canoes in and out of the lagoon at 
high tide. 

" The lagoons themselves are generally shallow, though in some places : 
they exhibit vast hollows with an apparent depth cf 50 or more fathoms. 
Their appearance is most extraordinary and beautiful ; the water, from the 
absence of the debris of streams or of any kind of alluvium (from the fact of 
the land being entirely composed qf coral rock and gravel), exhibits so sur- 
prising a transparency that an object of the size of a man's hand ma}' m calm 



OF THE lACIFIC ISL.ANDS 150 

weather be distinctly seen at a depth of 10 fathoms. The aspect of the bottom 
is that of a wilderness of marine vegetation of the most wonderful forms, and 
gorgeous colours, seeming in some places to be spread over the surface of 
sloping hills, in otliers to be growing out from the sides of tall pillars or towers, 
pierced with vast caves, in which the refracted beams of the sunshine cause 
the water to glow with the colours of the opal, and the innumerable species of 
zoophytes clinging to the rocks to glisten like gems, while between the huge 
caverned masses are wide spaces floored with sand, perfectly level, and white 
as snow, upon which the great green mounds, covered with coral trees, throw 
fantastic shadows, so that in leaning over the side of a canoe and contemplating 
these so remarkable appearances one cannot escape being reminded of the 
fabled grove of Aladdin." Amongst all this are to be seen great multitudes 
of fishes, of the most extraordinary shape and hues, gold and purple, and 
violet and scarlet, jet black, mottled, and every shade of green. In some 
of the enclosed lagoons all the fish at times are poisonous, the reason for which 
is unknown.* 

Of all the islands of the South Pacific, with the exception of San Pablo 
of Magalhaens (no douVjt the same to which Cook gave the name of " Palmers- 
ton "), the Tuamotus was first known to European navigators. The earliest 
discovered was San Miguel Archangel, seen by Quiros in 1 606. Others were 
visited by Le Maire, Schouten and Roggewein. Attention was first attracted 
to the pearl deposits by the shell which was obtained from thence by the 
natives of Tahiti and used by them for all manner cf domestic purposes. 
The trade in pearlshell of the group is more than a hundred years old, for, 
when the brig " Favourite," of Port Jackson, rescued Mariner at Tonga, in 
1810, she had on board a part cargo of pearLshell which had been procured 
in the Low Archipelago. The pearlshell fishery has been for years past con- 
trolled by legislation, certain banks being opened each year, and only for 
four to six months in each year, the object lieing to i^ive each area not less than 
two years" rest. Supervision is also exercised by the Government to prevent 
the fishing of small shell and to ensure the meat of the oyster being thrown 
overboard into -deep water, so that the ova may not be destroyed. The 500 
or 600 tons of shell raised each diving season probably does not represent 

* l"<ven in the lagoon, where certain shell-fish seem to sicken, others it is 
notorious, prosper exceedingly, and make the riches of these islands. Irishes, 
too, abound ; the lagoon is a closed fish-pond, such as might rejoice the fancy 
of an abbot ; sharks swarm there, isnd chiefly round the passages to feast upon 
this plenty, and you would suppose that man b.ad only to prepare his angle. 
Alas ! it is not so. Of these painted fish that come in hordes anmud one's 
boat, some bear poisonous spines, and others are poisonous if eaten. The 
stranger must refrain, or take his chance of painful and dangerous sickness. 
The native on his own isle is a safe guide ; transplant him to the next and he 
is as helpless as yourself. I'^or it is a question both of time and place. A 
fish caught in a lagoon may be deadly ; the same fish caught the same day at 
sea, and only a few hundred yards without the passage, will be wholesome 
eating ; in a neighbouring i.sle perhaps the case will be reversed ; and perhaps 
a fortnight later you will be able to eat them indifferently from within or 
without. According to the natives these bewildering vicissitudes are ruled 
by the movement of the heavenly bodies. . . . White men explain these 
changes by the pha.ses of the coral. 



160 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

half the existing shell, so there is not the slightest fear of the banks being 
exhausted ; in fact, if the Government did not restrict the diving operations 
to a few months per year more than a thousand tons could easily be fished 
in twelve months, which would, however, have the effect of glutting the Lon- 
don market for "black-edged Tahiti" shells. London, by the way, is the 
market to which all the Tuamotu shell is sent and it is sold there at the regular 
auction sales held every month throughout the year. 

The islands of this group are usually not more than 30 feet above the level 
of high water — frequently much less, — covered with a vegetation, stunted and 
wiry, consisting chiefly of pandanus (screw palm), with patches of cocoanut. 
The majority of the islands are as yet incapable of any cultivation, except 
chiefly for the growth of the cocoanut, consisting as they do almost entirely 
of coral gravel, with very little soil.* 

The Tuamotu group is administered from Tahiti. The administrator 
visits the islands at intervals in an auxiliary schooner owned by the Govern- 
ment. The local affairs at each island are controlled by a chief and a district 
council. 

The Tuamotuan race seems in a fair way to survive, the births for some 
years past having exceeded the deaths ; the most recent figures available 
giving for fifteen of the islands for one year the compensable-ratio of fifty 
births to thirtv-two deaths. Long habits of hardship and activity doubtless 

• ; [ 

* " The atoll is an uncomfortable home. There are some, and these 
probably ancient, where a deep soil has formed, and the most valuable fruit 
trees prosper. I have walked in one with equal admiration and surprise 
through a forest of huge breadfruits, eating bananas and stumbling among 
taro as I went. This was the atoll of Namorik, in the Marshall group, and 
stands alone in my experience. To give the opposite extreme, which is 
yet for more near the average, I will describe the soil and productions of 
Fakarava. The surface of that narrow strip is for the most part of broken 
coral limestone, like volcanic clinkers, and excruciating to the naked foot ; 
in some atolls T believe, not in Fakarava, it gives a fine metallic ring when 
struck. Here and there you come upon a bank of sand, exceedingly fine and 
white, and these parts are the least productive. The plants (s'.ich as they 
are) spring from and love the broken coral, whence they grow with that won- 
derful verdancy that makes the beauty of the atoll from the sea. The cocoa- 
palm in particular luxuriates in that stern ' solum,' striking down his roots to 
the brackish, percolated water, and bearing his green head in the wind with 
every evidence of health and plea.sure. The pandanus comes next in import- 
ance, being also a food tree, and he, too, does bravely. A green bush called 
• miki ' runs everywhere ; occasionally a purao is seen ; and there are several 
useless weeds. According to M. Cuzent, the whole number of plants on an 
atoll such as Fakarava will scarce exceed, even if it reaches to, one score. 
Not a blade of grass appears ; not a grain of humus, save when a sack or two 
has been imported to make the semblance of a garden ; such gardens as bloom 
in cities on the window-sill. . . . The land crab may be seen scuttling 
to his hole, and at night the rats besiege the houses and the artificial gardens. 
The crab is good eating ; possibly so is the rat ; I have not tried. Pandanus 
fruit is niade, in the (Gilberts, into an agreeable sweetmeat, such as a man niay 
trifle with at the end of a long dinner ; for a substantial meal I have no use 
for it. The rest of the food supph', in a destitute atoll such as Fakarava, can 
be summed up in the favourite jest of the Archipelago — cocoanut beef.steak, 
cocoanut green, cocoanut ripe, cocoanut germinated ; cocoanut to eat and 
cocoanut to drink ; cocoanut raw and cooked ; cocoanut hot and cold — such 
is the bill of fare." — Steven.-.on. 



OK THE PACIFIC ISLANDS J61 

explain tlie contrast with the figures of the adjoining Marquesas group. The 
Tuaniotuan besides displays a certain concern of health and the rudiments 
of a sanitary discipline. 

The archipelago is divided between two main religions, Catholic and 
Mormon. The natives prepare considerable quantities of copra, the only 
other article of export being pearlshell. 

Makatea Island, 120 miles north-east from Tahiti, which is of upheaved 
coral formation 350 feet in height, contains some immense deposits of phos- 
phate rock, and is now being worked by a conipan}^ registered in Paris called 
the Compaguie Francaise des Phosphates de 1' Oceanic, the shareholders of 
which are French and British. Already many thousand tons have been 
exported and several hundred workmen are employed. The quality is high 
grade, from 83 per cent, to 85 per cent, of tricalcie phosphate of lime. The 
development of this industry has benefited Tahiti and will continue to do so 
in view of the mone)' spent in paying wages and salaries and purchasing 
supplies. 

Gambier Islands * or IMangareva, literally '" a branch removed from its 
parent stock" now produces but little pearlshell. The inhabitants are poor 
and decadent, diseases introduced by the white man and insanitary' modes 
of living have reduced their vitality. Hardly a tree but the cocoanut is to 
be seen, and that furnishes the main food of the inhabitants. The group 
only contains some 40,000 acres. A party of Mormons first attempted the 
civilisation of the people. They were driven ofi by some French Catholic 
missionaries, who arrived in 1834. Possession was taken by France in 1843. 
The Gambier Group consists of ten islands, only four of -which are inhabited 
— Mangareva, Taravai, Akamaru and Aukena. Rikitea, on the island of 
Mangareva, is the principal port and the residence of the gendarme, who looks 
after the administration of the group ; but in the highest matters which may 
arise for consideration, the Government at Papeete has jurisdiction. The 
islands have the appearance of the tops of submerged mountains. Those of 
the island of Mangareva have considerable height. The tops of some of them 
are pyramidal in shape, of the same contour as that of the Matterhorn. On 
one side, that towards the sea, the declivities are sharp and nearly perpen- 
dicular. They are barren and rocky and without trees. All the islands are 
surrounded by reefs, and it requires delicate navigation and a good light to 
enter that of Rikitea. Rikitea is a pretty village, extending about a mile 
along the shore, a beautifully shaded street, lined mostly \\^th bread fruit 
trees upon which the inhabitants depend for food. Mixed with them are large 
orange trees, and some coffee, and^rising high above these are cocoanut trees 
with their broad spreading feathery palms. On a slight elevation at one end 
of the street is the large Catholic church with its two square towers. Some 
members of an exploring expedition in 1905 gave a glowing description, 
telling of golden candlesticks and altar and reading desk as composed most 
entirely of pearls of great value. There is a fine display of pearl ornamenta- 



* Captain Wilson,, the discoverer of the interesting Pelew Islanders, and 
who brought one of them, Prince Lee Boo, to London, was the first to observe 
'these islands, which he named Gambier, after the patron of Ihe South Sea 
Mission, with which he was connected in 1797. 

!•■ 



162 >TK\VART'S H^NH li.-OK 

tion, such as roses and leaves made out of shell, but no gems of value are 
scattered about. vSuch may have been donated to the church, but they are 
doubtless kept in a safe place when not sold to defray the expenses of the 
church. On the hill near by is the remains of a convent, which in the time of 
the great Catholic missionary prosperity had native nuns, and in a near by 
island was a monastery for the men. At that time there were a large number 
of inhabitants compared with those of to-day, there now being only a few 
hundred. Many have died of tuberculosis, and these who remain are thin 
and sickly in appearance and have not that smiling jolly look characteristic 
of most of the inhabitants of Polynesia. The slopes which back the town 
are covered with a thin reed-like grass, whose stalk is thicker than that of 
ordinary straw. It is gathered and dried, and cut in lengths of about two 
feet and tied in bundles and sent to the other islands, the natives using it 
to make fine hats and fans. The pearl fishing has gone down of late years. 
Few cocoanuts are grown, and consequently the resources of these islands 
are very limited. 



MERCHANTS, 



ATTENTION! 



MAJOR BROS. i& Co. 

EXCHANGE CORNER, SYDNEY. 

Manufacturers of IPA.IN'TS of every description for 
LAND or SEA. 

Factories: -SNAILS BAY and JOHNSTONES BAY, N.S.W. 

Cable: " CASTLESMAN SYDNEY" 

CONTRACTORS TO NAVY AND GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS 
THROUGHOUT AUSTRALASIA. 

WE PURCHASE ALL CLASSES OF WHITE AND COLOURED 

EARTHS. 



OF TKE PACIFIC I5I.AN7?S 16:5 



TUBUAI, or AUSTRAL ISLANDS and RAPA. 

(FRENCH.) 

THESE islands lie southward of the Society Islands and L,ow Archipe- 
ago, and are seldom visited, even by the French to whom they have 
belonged since 1881. Raivavae, the easternmost island is 10 miles 
long, surrounded by a reef extending nearly one mile from the land, covered 
on its southern and eastern parts with wooded islets. Tubuai, the next 
island westward, is about five miles in extent and very fertile. The other 
islands are Rurutu and Rimitara. The climate is very healthy. The popu- 
lation does not exceed 1,000 ; it was at one time much larger, but of late has 
apparently been stationary. The natives export copra, sponges and arrow- 
root, and supplies of pigs, fowls, vegetables, and fruit may be obtained in 
limited quantities by voyagers. Beautiful in appearance these islands are 
less fertile than the Tahitian group, while the sombre foliage of the iron-wood 
trees contrasts with the livelier vegetation elsewhere. 

Rapa, or Oparo, is an outlier to the south-east — a very picturesque 
island, some 20 miles in circumference, wdth remarkable needle-like peaks, 
2,000 feet high. Ahurei harbour lies on the eastern side of the island, and is the 
site of the chief village of the French Residenc)^ There is another fine 
harbour on the south-west side, almost landlocked. Coal, or rather lignite, 
exists. There is only a small population. 

Professor Macmillan Brown, writing in the Christchurch Press in August, 
1917, of Rapa, which he had visited a few months before, says : — 

The men of Rapa are born sailors, and for generations have manned the 
schooners and steamers of French Oceania. The whole crew of the little 
steamer I voyaged on consisted of Rapa men. And, as in all those islands 
away to the south, the males greatly outnumber the other sex. And this is 
a provision of nature much needed ; for, as in the Marquesas Islands, there is 
no barrier reef, though there are patches of coral in the harbour ; and to catch 
the fi.sh which, along with the poi or taro-paste, forms the staple of their food, 
they have to venture out in the long whaleboats that have replaced their 
frail canoes into seas as wild as those around the coasts of New Zealand. It 
is little wonder that the French find them the best of sailors. It is farther 
south than Easter island, which, like it, has no reef ; but the two islands 
differ in formation — Easter Island has no harbour and practically no bays, 
whereas Rapa has, besides its almost land-locked deep fiord, more than a 
dozen deep bays, and it is this broken coast line that makes sailors ; the often 
placid waters of their bays tempt the people from early childhood to trust 
themselves to sailing craft, and by the time they reach manhood fear of the 
sea, even in its moods, has passed away. Without sheltered inlets, Easter 
Islanders have never become sailors, although their ancestors must have 
reached this Pito te Henna or end of the world, as they call it, over thousands 
of miles of the roughest of oceans. Rapa since ever it was discovered by 
Vancouver in 1791, has been the resort of whalers and trading craft to fill the 
gaps in the crews. But the mischief was that, in calling here, as in most of 
the other islands of the Pacific, European ships left the seeds of epidemics 
that swept out the bulk of the inhabitants. Vancouver estimated the number 



164 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

of the inhabitants of this little dot on the map at 1,500; the Tahitian mis- 
sionary, Davies, estimated it at 2,000 when, in 1826, he brought back the two 
Rapa men who had been carried off to Tahiti on a luiropcan ship, and there 
converted. And the people talked of a time when every bay swarmed with 
inhabitants, and had to fight with every other bay for the sustenance which 
was too scanty for their thousands. Unfortunately the schooner that left the 
Rapa converts left also a European epidemic which reduced their numbers 
and retarded their abandonment of tlieir old gods ; added to tliis calamity, 
three white men landed afterwards and taught them how to distil alcohol 
from the root of the dracaena, an art that is now beginning to decimate the 
Tuamotuans. The inhabitants were soon reduced to a thousand. And when 
Moerenhout -arrived in 18.34 there were only three hundred. Diseases from 
the visits of whalers and the operations of Peruvian slavers continued to 
reduce their numbers. In the nineties they were only three hundred, and when 
the last census was taken m 1911 they were 183. The decay has evidently 
been arrested, and to-day there are 220 with large numbers of their men away 
on ships all over the Pacific Ocean. They have so increased that they are 
even thinking of re-colonising one of the numerous bays that have been .so 
long without an inhabitant. A Tokclau islander who had been kidnapped 
in 1870 by a French cruiser and dumped down on the little island with Rapa 
islanders, who had also been kidnapped, boasted to me that he had fifty-two 
children and grandchildren ; his haunt swarmed w'ith children, as the old man 
pointed out with pride ; with his Tam o' Shanter on and his light skin, he 
reminded me of many an old fisherman I had seen in the Highlands of Scot- 
land. The Rapa people are, as a rule, darker than the Austral Islanders, 
and the children, who were in shoals everywhere, had more negroid faces 
than any I have seen in Polynesia, but many of the men and women evidently 
grow out of this negroidism and get the often-brown, wavy hair, the fine faces, 
the stalwart forms, and the stout legs of the true Polynesian ; some of the 
women I saw must have been six-footers. There is little disease amongst 
them, and I anticipate from the manifest fertility of the race that before many 
generations have passed every valley and bay will have its village, and the 
little island will again have its thousands of inhabitants. And now that they 
are all devoted to their new religion and kept in peace by French authority, 
the disproportion between the supplies of food and the numbers to be fed 
will fail to lead, as it did before, to everlasting war between the valleys for the 
possession of available land. ; the ancient fort that crowns every pass will not 
be needed ; in fact, the demand for Rapa sailors will always keep the food 
find the population abreast. 



OP THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 165 



THE MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 

U'K.KNCH.) 

THE mountainous INIarquesas Islands are of volcanic origin, and, like 
all of the volcanic islands of the Pacific, are extremely picturesque 
and fertile. They lie north of the Tuamotu or Low Archipelago, 
and about 900 miles from Tahiti, and consist of nine chief islands, of which 
seven are inhabited, with a total area of some 480 square miles. The sove- 
reignty of the group was ceded to France by a treaty with Admiral Du 
Petit Thouars in May, 1842, and a military colony was established in Tai- 
o-hae Bay, at Nukahiva, but the result was in no way commensurate with the 
expense of the establishment, and this, after the experiment had lasted 
17 years, was abandoned in 1859. 

In their general appearance and the outline of their coasts the Marquesas 
resemble the Samoan group. The interior is steep and hilly, most of the 
islands being about 3,000 feet in height. They are unlike other islands 
in the Pacific in that their coasts, with one exception, are not fringed by coral 
reefs. The climate is salubrious, giving rise to little sickness, either amongst 
the natives or strangers. None of the volcanoes are active, but there are 
thermal and mineral springs. 

The port — the mart, the civil and religious capital — is Tai-o-liae, and 
lies strung along the beach of a precipitous green bay in Nukahiva. " Along 
the beach the town shows a thin pile of houses, mostly white, and all en- 
sconced in the foliage of an avenue of green puraos ; a pier gives access from 
the sea across the belt of breakers ; to the eastward there stands, on a pro- 
jecting bushy hill, the old port, which is now the calaboose or prison ; eastward 
still, alone in a garden, the Residence flies the colours of France." The white 
population consists of a handful of persons of varying nationality, mostly 
French officials. 

The island of Nukahiva, famous for the magnificent cascades which pour 
over its sea-cliffs, is 17 miles long from east to west, and 10 miles broad, 
and offers great resources for cultivation, for its valleys are broad, well watered, 
and pqssess rich soil. It has been frequently vi.sited and described, and 
its inhabitants are perhaps the best known of any of the archipelago. 

Hiva-oa, another exceedingly fertile island, is about 21 miles long and 
seven miles in its average breadth. The other islands are of but small com- 
mercial importance, there being but little level ground, so that the area for 
cultivation is much restricted. 

The natives are said to surpass all other vSouth Sea islanders in physical 
beauty ; the men are well proportioned and have fine, regular features, while 
many of the women are fair and handsome. But, although the French have 
long since put an end to civil warfare and cannibalism, the ^Marquesans are 
dying off with appalling rapidity, European vices and customs having done 



166 STKWAKr':^ HAND POOK 

their work. In 1850 the islands were estimated to contain .")(»,()()() inhabi- 
tants — now their are less than '.i, ')()() ! The natives behold with dismay the 
approaching extinction of their race, and have grown so despondent that they, 
never an industrious race, have now ceased altogether from production. 

" The thought of death," wrote Robert Louis Steven.son, who spent 
several months in these islands, " is uppermost in the mind of the Marque.san. 
It would be strange if it were otherwise. The race is perhaps the handsomest 
extant. Six feet is about the middle height of males ; they are strongly 
nmscled, free from fat, swift in action, graceful in repo.se ; and the women, 
though fatter and duller, are still comely animals. To judge by the eye, 
there is no race more viable ; and yet death reaps them with both hands. 
\\hen Bishop Dordillon first came to Tai-o-hae he reckoned the inhabitants at 
many thousands ; he was but newly dead, and in the same bay Stanislao 
Moanatini counted on his fingers eight residual natives. Or take the valley 
of Hapaa, known to readers of ' Herman Melville ' under the grotesque mis- 
spelling of ' Hapar.' The tribe of Hapaa is said to have numbered some 400, 
when the smallpox came and reduced them by one-fourth. Six months later 
a woman developed tubercular consumption. The disease spread like a fire 
about the valley, and in less than a year two survivors, a man and a woman, 
fled from this new-created solitude. \Mien I first heard this story the date 
staggered me ; but I am now inclined to think it possible. Early in the )'ear 
of my visit, for example, or late the year before, a first case of phthisis ap- 
peared in a household of 17 persons, and by the month of August, when the 
tale was told me, one soul survived, and that was a boy who had been absent 
at his schooling. And depopulation works both waj's, the doors of death being 
set wide open and the door of birth almost closed. Thus in the half-year 
ending 1888 there were twelve deaths and but one birth in the district of the 
Hatiheu. Seven or eight ijiore deaths were to be looked for in the ordinary 
course ; and M. Aussel, the observant gendarme knew of but one likely birth. 
At this rate it is no matter of surprise if the population in that part should 
have declined in 40 years from 6,000 to less than 400, which are the estimated 
figures. And the rate of decline nnist have been accelerated towards the end." 
Opium; bad spirits, and disea.se are largely responsible for the decrease. The 
use of opium, which was introduced by Chinese plantation labourers had a 
very injurious effect on the natives, many of whom became opium eaters, 
but the French authorities stopped its importation some 15 years ago. 
Leprosy, also introduced by the Chinese, is widely spread throughout the 
group. 

" The Marquesan, among the most l)ackward and barbarous of islanders, 
is yet the most commodiou.sly lodged. The grass huts of Hawaii, the birdcage 
houses of Tahiti, or the open shed with the crazy \'enetian blinds of the polite 
Samoan — none of these can be compared with the marquesan paepae-hae 
or dwelling platform. The paepae is an oblong terrace, built, without cement, 
of black volcanic stone, from 20 to 50 feet in length, raised from 4 to 8 feet 
from the earth, and accessible by a broad stair. Along the back of this 
and coming to about half its. width runs the open front of the house, like a 
covered gallery ; the interior sometimes neat and almost elegant in its bare- 
ness, the sleeping-place divided off by an endlong coaming ; some bright 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 167 

raiiiieut perhaps hanging from a nail, and a lamp and a sewing machine, 
the only marks of civilisation. On the outside, at one end of the terrace, 
burns the cooking-fire under a shed ; at the other there is, perhaps, a pen of 
pigs ; the remainder is the evening lounge and al fresco banquet-hall of the 
inhabitants. To some houses water is brought down the mountain in bamboo 
pipes, perforated for the sake of s\veetness. 

" The great majority of Polynesians are excellently mannered ; but the 
Marquesan stands apart, annoying and attractive, wild, shy, and refined. 
If you make him a present he affects to forget it, and it must be offered to him 
again at his going ; a pretty formality I have found nowhere else. A hint 
will get rid of any one or any number ; they are so fiercelj' proud and modest ; 
while many of the more lovable but blunter islanders crowd upon a stranger, 
and can be no more driven off than flies. A slight or an insult the Marquesan 
never seems to forget. . . . With people so nice and so touchy it was 
scarce to be supposed that our company of greenhorns should not blunder 
into offences. . . . Hoka, on one of Ins visits, fell suddenly into a brood- 
ing silence, and presently after left the ship with cold formality. When he 
took me back into favour, he adroitly and pointedly explained the nature of 
my offence. I had asked him to sell cocoanuts ; and in Hoka's view articles 
of food were things that a gentleman should give, not sell ; or at least that 
he should not sell to any friend. 

" The Marquesas and Society Islands being the most easterly grc ups of 
non-coralline islands in the Pacific, it is interesting to note the extreme po- 
verty of their animal life. Indigenous terrestrial mammals are quite un- 
known ; neither are there any snakes, and only one lizard. Birds are much 
less numerous than in the more western islands, no less than twenty-five 
genera of the Fiji and Samoan groups being wanting, and there is only one new 
form to supply their place — a peculiar fruit pigeon, which inhabits the western 
part of Nukahiva. Insects also are extremely scarce. This striking di- 
minution of the forms of life indicates that the islands must have been peopled 
by emigration from the west, and do not contain the relics of an ancient 
continental fauna, as is sometimes supposed ; for in that case there would be 
no reason why the remainder of genera and species of birds, reptiles, and 
insects should regularly decrease from west to east, as they undoubtedly do." 



168 JJTEWAR'l b HAND BOOK 



NEW GUINEA. 

PAPUA OR BRITISH NEW GUINEA, DUTCH NEW GUINEA, AND 

(LATE) GERMAN NEW GUINEA ARE DEALT WITH 

IN SEPARATE CHAPTERS. 

NE\\' GUINEA is the largest island in the world excepting Greenland, 
possessing every variety of climate, rich in minerals, and capable of 
supplying all tropical products. The western half belongs to Holland, 
the north-eastern part belonged to Germany, but is now occupied by the 
Australian military forces, while the south-eastern portion forms a territory 
of the Australian Commonwealth. 

Discovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, it was nominally 
annexed by Torres in 1606 as a Spanish colony. In 1793 the Briti.sh East 
India Company annexed New Guinea, but failed to effectively occupy the 
territory. In 1828 the Dutch Government officialh' proclaimed possession 
over the western portion, as far as the l-41st meridian of east longitude. The 
remainder of the island remained untouched, except for various exploring 
expeditions, until 1883, when the Qvieensland Government annexed the vacant 
territorv, only to have their action repudiated by the Home Government of 
the day, who scoffed at the suggestion that Germany or any other power 
contemplated the acquirement of the country. A united and vigorous 
protest from the Australian colonies, however^ finally induced a change cf 
policy, when, 18 months later, it became evident that Germany really had 
designs upon it. About the end of 1884 Germany annexed the northern 
portion of the then unallotted territorj- — and in due course also the islands 
known as the Bismarck Archipelago — and Great Britain assumed control of 
the remainder (together with the D'Entrecasteaux, Trobriand, Louisiade, 
and other islands) under a guarantee from the Australian States to provide 
an amount sufficient to cover its cost of administration. The British portion 
— Papua, as it is now officially designated — was placed under Commonwealth 
control on September 1, 1906.. 

New Guinea is, in parts, extremeh- fertile, and affords in its plains and 
valleys vinlimited possibilities for development of tropical agriculture, and 
as settlement extends so ^vill discoveries of its mineral deposits be made. 
The territory has a large population. There are, however, large tracts that 
are quite uninhabited, and the population is nowhere dense. The natives 
are intelligent, though indolent, and, like most native races, well suited to 
agriculture and kindred pursuits. Generally speaking they are small framed 
and active and hardy. 

There is no dominant language, the number of tongues even is unknown, 
and no living man can make himself understood throughout New Guinea. 
The extent to which this difference of language exists may be gathered from 
the statement made to me that within 1.") miles from Yule Island, in Hall 



OF THE PACIFIC ISI.AXDP 169 

Sound, six languages are spoken," to quote from a report from Mr. Atlee 
Hunt . " These are not merely dialects of one main tongue, but entirely 
■different languages, having perhaps some principles of construction in 
common, but whose words vary so widely that it is impossible for a 
man knowing but one of them to comprehend what is said to him 
by any of the others. . . . There is no general organisation of the 
natives into tribes owing- allegiance to one chief. The people reside in 
villages, which vary in size from a collection of half a dozen houses to a fair- 
sized township with over 1,000 inhabitants. These villages are in most cases 
quite independent of each other, though temporary alliances, in times past, 
for warlike purposes, and now, for hunting, fishing, and in some localities, 
for trading expeditions, are not unusual. Even in the villages there is, 
as a rule, no one person acknowledged as leader in all matters — one man may 
be the fighting chief, another the hunting chief, another the controller of 
dances, and so on. It is altogether a mistake to regard the natives of New 
Guinea as amongst the lowest classes of savages. It is true that the practice 
of cannibalism formerly prevailed extensively, and it is believed to exist 
still among the tribes who yet remain beyond the sphere of Government 
influence, but against that must be set their permanent villages, the high- 
degree of excellence attained in house-building, their skill in boat-construction 
and navigation, the culture of gardens— as their large well-kept fruit and 
vegetable plots are called — the possession of a just and minute system of 
laws as to ownership and property generally, the intense family affections, 
the care for the aged and infirm, their abstinence from all forms of intoxicating 
liquors, to say nothing of many other attributes the possession of which 
shows that they are far from being the hapelessly irreclaimable barbarians 
they were formerly believed to be. It is at least doubtful whether they have 
any defined religion. A belief in sorcery is general, and legends, which 
siiggest controlling influences on the part of certain spirits, mostly evil, 
and some of which, perhaps, indicate the belief in a life beyond the grave, 
are not uncommon, but, so far as is known, there is no general conception 
of one beneficient all-powerful Deity." 

DUTCH NEW GUINEA. 

Dutch New Guinea, which includes the whole of the island west of the 
14lst meridian, has an ar^a of about 150,000 square miles, and a native 
population estimated at about 200,000. As far back as 1829 a settlement 
was established but it was abandoned in 1836, because most of the garrison 
died of fever. For more than half a century nothing was done by the 
Dutch in the way of colonisation until in 1898 settlements were founded 
at ]\Ianokwari, on the northern, and at Fakfak, on the western coast. In 
1902 another settlement was founded at Merauke, on the high banks of the 
navigable Merauke River, not far from the British boundary, and only a 
day's steam from Thursday Island. 

Since 1907 sj'stematic exploration work has been carried out by the 
Dutch Government over the whole area of the territory by parties of the 
Colonial Army. With great difficulties the explorating detachments pene- 
trated through swamps and virginal forests into the inner parts of the central 



170 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

range, the Nassau Mountains, whose snow-covered summits of over 1;'),000 
feet were ascended. Out of this work resulted a practically complete map of 
the whole country. At the same time the country was wholly taken in 
administration. Besides this sy.stematic exploration there have been 
numerous scientific expedition.s. Dr. Wichmann led an expedition in 190:5. 
In 1907, and again in 1909, extensive exploration was done by Dr. Lorentz. 
In 1910 an expedition, organised by the British Ornithologists Union pene- 
trated some distance into the interior. In the party there were 12 Europeans 
— Mr. Walter Goodfellow, the leader, Dr. WoUaston, Mr. Shortridge, Captain 
Rawling, Dr. Marshall, Mr. Stalker (who died a few days after the landing), 
and six officials lent by the Dutch Government, besides 10 mountaineering 
Gurkhas, 60 native soldiers, and 80 convicts. They landed in January, 
and after extraordinary difficulties in crossing a country which resembled a 
network of river, swamp and delta, they reached the mountains at the head 
of the Mimika River. One of the many interesting discoveries made bj' the 
expedition was that of a race of pygmies, described by Mr. Goodfellow as a 
"merry little people, but exceedingly shy." In 1910-11 Dr. Max Moszkow- 
ski led an expedition, and there was another in 1912-13 under the command 
of Captain Herderschee. 

Dutch New Guinea is divided into three divisions. The Northern 
Division is administered from Ternate (one of the northern Moluccas). The 
Administrator (Resident) is Mr. L. Tip ; the official in charge at Manokwarr 
(termed the Assistant Resident) is Mr. E. E. W. G. Schroder. Further 
officials are settled at Sorong (western end), Bosnik (Schouten Islands), 
Seroei (Japon), Wakde (N.E. Coast), Demta (N.E. Coast), and HoUandia 
(Humboldt Bay). 

The Western and Southern Divisions are administered from Ambon, 
which is one of the southern Moluccas. The Administrator (Resident), is 
Mr. N. J. van den Brandhof ; the official in charge (Assistant Resident) in 
the Western Division at Fakfak is Mr. J. Seyne Kok. Further officials are 
settled at Babo (McCluer Baj'), Kokas (idem), Inawatan or Bira (idem). 
Kaimana (South Coast), and Misool (island off the West Coast). The ofiicial 
in charge (Assistant Resident) in the Southern Division at Merauke is ^Ir. 
H. M. I/ublink Weddik, further officials being .settled at Koembe and Okaba. 

The An.1 Islands, off the west coast, are a separate division of the Resi- 
dency of Ambon, the official in charge being IMr. W. E. C. Veen, at Dobo. 

Trade is rapidly increasing, especially the export of such products as 
copra, damar (resin), shells (mo tlier-o' -pearl), and skins of paradise birds 
out of the Northern and \^'estern Division. Steamers of the Royal Packet 
Company call regularly at the above-mentioned and some other places. 

PAPUA, OR BRITISH NEW GUINEA. 

Papua, as British New Guinea has been officially designated since it 
v/as taken over b}' the Commonwealth, has an area of 90,000 square miles 
and a native population of about 250,000. The European population on 
June 30, 1918, was estimated at 962, as against 1,036 in 1917. Apart from 
the Government officials and missionaries, they are engaged m four main 
industries — mining, trading, agriculture, and timber-getting. 



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OF THE PACIFIC ISLANCS 173 

The Territory was taken over in 1884 as a protectorate, and was then 
placed under the management cf a special commissioner ; but on the colonies 
of Queensland, New South \\ ales and \'ictoria undertaking to guarantee 
the sum necessary to cover the cost of administration, which was further 
secured by the British New Guinea (Queensland) *\ct of 1887, the Queen's 
sovereignity was formerly proclaimed in 1888, and the Territorv- was con- 
stituted as a colony. 

The financial responsibility was undertaken by the whole of Australia 
in 1901. Negotiations were then entered into between the Imperial 
authorities and the Commonwealth with a view of placing British New 
Guinea under Federal control, and this transfer was finally effected by the 
Papuan Act (Commonwealth) of November 16, 190.J, which came into force 
by proclamation on September 1, 1906. The Federal Act, accepting the 
control of British New Guinea and altering the name thereof to the 
" Territory of Papua," also embodies a Constitution for the Territory. This 
provides that the Executive Government shall be administered by a Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, with an Executive Council, composed of not more than 
six officers of the Territory, to advise and assist him. The Act also creates 
a Legislative Council, which shall consist of the Lieutenant-Governor and the 
members of the Executive Council, together with such non-official members 
as the Governor-General appoints under the seal of the Commonwealth. The 
Legislative Council is empowered to make Ordinances for the peace, order 
and good government of the Territory. No Act of the Commonwealth 
Parliament has force unless it is expressly stated so in such Act. 

From east to west, Papua extends for upwards of 800 miles, and its 
greatest width north and south is about 200 miles. The total coast-line of 
the Territory has been computed at 3,664 statute miles — 1,728 on the main- 
land, and 1,936 on the islands. With the exception of the low coral islands 
of the Trobriand Group, and a few others of small dimensions, the islands 
are mountainous, and principally of volcanic formation, the highest being 
Goodenough Island, 8,000 feet. The eastern end of the Territory is also 
mountainous ; and, as the mountains extend westward, they rise and coalesce 
to form a large central chain, which attains its greatest altitudes in the Owen 
Stanley Range, the highest points of which are Mount Victoria (13,200 feet), 
Mount Scratchley, the Wharton Range, the Mount Albert Edward, the latter 
approximately the same height as Mount Victoria. The western end of the 
Territory is for nearly 300 miles generally low and swampy for some distance 
along the coast. 

The whole Territory is remarkably well watered by large and permanent 
rivers, most ot which are navigable by small vessels and steam launches for 
many miles inland. These natural highways, together with many excellent 
harbours will prove of great value in the economic development of the 
Territory. The largest rivers flow into the Gulf of Papua. The three most 
important waterways are the Fly, the Turama, and the Piirari. The Fly 
spreads out its head branches over a large area in the centre of the island, 
and drains considerable portions of the three different territories comprising 
New Guinea. Its course is about 620 males from the sea to the Australian- 
German boundary. The influence of the tide is felt for 200 miles up the river. 



174 STEWART';? HAND BOOK 

It is navigable b}' a steam launch for over "jOO miles. The 'I'urama and 
Purari Rivers come second in point of size, and seem to have their sources 
in the great ranges of the far interior. The Purari is navigable by steam 
launch for 120 miles. The Vailala, Tauri, and Lakekamu ri.se in undeter- 
mined mountains in the central range. The Angabunga (St. Joseph) River 
has its origin in the western spurs of Mount Albert lidward, the Vanapa in 
the Owen Stanley and Wharton Ranges, and the Brown in the Owen vStanley 
Range. On the north-east coast, four large rivers open into the sea between 
Cape Nelson and the Australian-German boundary. These are proceeding 
northwards, the Musa, Kumusi, Mambare, and Gira. Each of them pursues 
a course from the central main range north-east towards the coast. The 
Gira, rising in the eastern spurs of Mount Albert Ivdward, has its outlet in 
what was formerly German New Guinea. 

Broadly regarded, the year is divided into two seasons, viz., that of the 
south-east trades, extending from May to November, and the north-west 
monsoon from December to April. The changes of season are always marked 
by a period during which the winds are light and variable, and frequent 
thunderstorms take place ; the period lasting for about six weeks. As a rule 
the south-east wind begins to blow about nine o'clock in the morning, and 
increases gradually in force during the day, lessening in strength again soon 
after sunset, although occasionally it blows throughout the night. On the 
coast at times the force of the south-east wind when at its height is con- 
siderable, but inland it is light and refreshing. The north-west monsoon, 
unlike the south-east trades, does not blow continuously. Sudden squalls, 
often accompanied with rain, are not infrequent. The .south-east is the 
drier of the two seasons ; in some districts (notably that of the coast-line 
between Hall Sound and Hood Peninsvda) it is conspicuously so. 

One factor greatly in favour of agricultural enterprise in Papua arises 
from the fact that it is outside the range of hurricanes that occasionally 
ravage the southern part of the Western Pacific and North Queensland. 
The planter, therefore, runs no risk of having the fruits of his labours and Lis 
outlay of capital lost by such visitations. The misconception as to the 
unhealthiness of the climate for Europeans is fast dying out. Settlers and 
officials who have lived almost continuously in the Territory for the last 
fifteen or twenty years enjoy excellent health. White people may success- 
fully avoid .serious illness and live comfortably and healthily if reasonable 
precautions are taken. The highest recorded shade temperature on the main- 
land has never exceeded 100 degrees. 

By reason of its physical features and varieties of soils at varying ele- 
vations, the Territory is capable of successfully producing almost even,' 
valuable agricultural product grown in the tropics. The principal plantation 
industries entered upon so far are cocoanuts, rtibber and sisal hemp. Coffee, 
cotton, vanilla, kapok, cocoa, tapioca, cinnamon, tea and tobacco are grown 
here and there but not commercially. I^eases of land can be obtained on 
liberal conditions for any period up to 99 years. For leases of 30 years 
the rent charged for the whole term is at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum on 
the unimproved value. If a lease is for more than 30 years the rent payable 
is determined at 5 per cent, per annum on the unimproved value, but no 



OF TUB PAriFIC ISLANDS 1 75 

rent is payable for the first period of 10 years. The unimproved value of 
the land, however, is to be appraised every 20 years during the currency of 
the lease and the rent determined accordingly. The rainfall varies a good 
deal. There is a dry belt about Port Moresby, and on a part of the north- 
east coast, but in other places it goes up to 250 in. or more. It is, unfortu- 
nately, not always evenly distributed. In many parts there are long dry 
spells which occasionally develop into droughts. 

There is in Papua a wealth of indigenous plants of economic value that 
it would be difficult to equal in any other country. Besides its sandalw'ood 
and other forest timbers, these include sugarcane, rubber — both tree (Ficus 
rigo) and vine, of good quality — cocoanuts, wild nutmegs, tobacco, ginger, 
bamboos, areca palms, fibres, bananas, breadfruit, edible nuts, fruits and 
vegetables of various kinds, and large forests of sago palms. The word 
" sago " is said to be derived from a Papuan word, sagu or sago, signifying 
food, and is given by the natives to the two palms (Sagus laevis and Sagus 
rumphii), from both of which the well-known sago of commerce is produced. 
The trees are found growing along the low-lying river banks and in swampy 
country, principally in the Western, Gulf and Mambare Divisions, and it is 
somewhat surprising that this storehouse of Nature has not already been 
exploited by European companies, as the trees can be cut on the river 
banks and floated to a central depot. 

The mineral development of the Territory is believed to be only in its 
initial stages. Until the inland regions are thoroughly prospected, the 
diversity, extent and richness of its minerals must remain largely a matter 
of conjecture. The list of minerals of economic importance so far discovered 
are — gold, copper, silver, tin, lead, zinc, cinnabar, iron, osmiridium, gypsum, 
manganese, sulphur, and graphite. The only precious stones so far discovered 
are the topaz and beryl both obtained in the upper reaches of the Fly River. 
Coal has also been found, as well as oil. With regard to the latter the de- 
velopments have, so far, not been up to expectations. Dr. Wade and his stafT 
commenced boring in 1915, but there had been some previous boring, begun 
under the supervision of the Mines Department, about 1912. In the course 
of a statement made in the Commonwealth House of Representatives 
regarding the progress of oil-boring operations in Papua, the Minister for 
Home and Territories said that so far seven bores had been sunk to depths 
ranging from 242 feet to 1,800 feet, and a rig had been erected for an eighth 
bore. Oil was struck in No. I bore at 224 feet ; in No. 2 bore gas only had 
been found ; in No. 3 bore there was a little oil at 320 feet ; in No. 4 bore there 
was gas only ; in No. 5 bore there was a small production of oil ; in No. 6 
bore a little oil was struck at 182 feet and 295 feet ; and in No. 7 bore oil was 
struck at 185 feet, with a flow of 20 gallons per day, but this was shut of? 
to permit furth.er testing at greater depths. Large quantities of gas were 
met with at 1,100 feet. The boring plants used on the first five bores, added 
Mr. Glynn, were found to be quite unsuited for anj' depths over 300 feet, 
as the strata largely consi.sted of .soft mud under considerable pressure, 
which filled the bore holes as fast as they were sunk. The bores consequently 
became choked and were abandoned. Bore No. 5 was redrilled, and the 
oil horizon was isolated bj- cementing, and there was a small production 



17(5 STKWART'S llAXIt BOOK 

— 100 gallons weekly, (Hininishing to eight gallons weekly. In \iew of the 
nuiil difficulty work was also suspended in No. 6 bore, while work was stepped 
in No. 7 bore owing to all efforts to get the 4 in. casing deeper than 1,760 feet 
having ended persistently in failure. The total expenditure since the com- 
mencement of operations to the date mentioned, said Mr. Glynn, in con- 
clusion, had been £96,150. This covered all outlay of every kind. The result 
of this expenditiire was that about 2,000 gallons of oil had been produced. 
Considerable new plant had been purchased, and it was now on the field 
about to be put into operation for the first time. Geological preliminary 
examinations had been made over about 2,000 square miles. More intensive 
geological examinations had been conducted over 400 square miles. Com- 
plete surveys, including mapping, had been effected over about 100 square 
miles. These examinations had furnished valuable data for future operations 
It was recently announced that the Government had arrived at an agreement 
with the Imperial authorities that each Government should contribute 
£50,000 towards the cost of testing and exploitation of the \'ailala fields 
upon a greater scale than has hitherto been proposed. 

The date of the first discovery of gold in New Guinea is probably as old, 
if not older, than the discover j' of the royal metal in Australia. In the 
" Narrative of the Voyage of the Rattlesnake," published in 1852, the follow- 
ing passage occurs : — " That gold exists in the Western and Northern portions 
of New Guinea has long been known ; that it exists also on the South-eastern 
shores of that great island is equally true, as a specimen of pottery procured 
at Redscur Bay contained a few laminar grains of that precious metal." 
It was not, however, until 1878, as a result of seme discoveries made by the 
late Dr. Lawes and Mr. Goldie, that a party of miners left Australia in the 
" Colonist " to search systematically for the metal in New Guinea. The 
region chosen for investigation was inland from Port Moresby, on the water- 
sheds of the Laloki and Goldie Rivers, but the result was singularly un- 
successful, as " not a grain of gold was discovered." Ten years later the first 
field was discovered on the islands of the Louisiade Archipelago. 

The known extent of the auriferous areas is almost coterminous with 
the country so far explored. Gold has been discovered on the upper reaches 
of the Fly River, in the extreme north-west of the Territory, along the upper 
reaches of the Lakekamu River, and at Milne Bay, Woodlark Island, and the 
Louisiade Archipelago, in the extreme south-east. It is a notable fact that 
ill all the rivers flowing north and south from the main range, gold in greater 
or lesser quantities has been found ; and it is therefore conjectured that the 
whole of this mountainous area, stretching through the Territory for a distance 
of 700 miles, is more or less auriferous. The most unusual feature in con- 
nection with the gcldfields on the mainland is the fact that up to the present 
or until lately, no auriferous reef or lode has been found. All the payable 
auriferous areas so far discovered are north of the Owen Stanley Range. The 
greater portion of this region has been more or less prospected, as w-ell as the 
islands lying east of the mainland. There is, however, a very large area of 
virgin country on the western slopes and foothills of the main range that has 
been barely explored. The total estimated gold yield of Papua from 1888 
to June, 1916, was 398,717 oz., valued at £1,436,249. 



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OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 179 

A number of pearling luggers are licensed at Daru, in the ^^■estern 
Division, to engage in the pearl fishing industry. In the south-east of the 
Territory the black-lip shell is found. Quantities of beche-de-mer are also 
. exported to China from Papua. 

The fauna of New GuiHea is closely akin to that of Australia, owing to 
the land connection via Torres Straits that existed during recent geological 
periods, the distinguishing characteristic being the mar,supial group and the 
egg-laying mammels. The indigenous animals appear to be comprised in 
the echidna, the tree-kangaroo, various kinds of wallab}-, the cuscus (phalnugei ) 
dingo or wild dog, flying fox, field rats, and flying squirrels. None of the wild 
animals of Asia are to be found in New Guinea, nor are there any represen- 
tatives of the monkey type. The wild pig is verj- plentiful and widely dis- 
tributed. The large e.stuary crocodile is plentiful in the large rivers. The 
loggerhead, hawksbill. and green turtle are fairly numerous along the coasts, 
and fresh- water tortoises are found inland. The snake family is well repre- 
sented, both in venomous and non-venomous varieties. For the ornithologist 
there are few countries more interesting. The most characteristic group is 
composed of the numerous varieties of the birds of paradise, which are found 
nowhere else except in New Guinea and the surrounding islands. The scrub 
turkey [megapodidae) is characteristic of Australia and New Guinea. Their 
eggs are hatched in huge communal mounds of earth and rubbish, more after 
the manner of reptiles than birds. The largest bird, the cassowary, belongs 
to the same family as the Australian enm. The goura-pigeon is a bird of 
striking beauty. The white and grey-crested variety is found on the north- 
east coast, and the grey-crested on the southern littoral. The body is as 
large as that of a well-grown domestic foAvl. The frigate-bird is frequently 
seen along the coasts, gracefully floating through the air on its wide-spread 
pinions. The hornbill is found, and the whirr of their wings, as a flock pas.ses 
overhead in ungainly flight, is almost deafening. Amongst the smaller birds 
there are pigeons, doves, kingfishers, cockatoos, and parrots in almost endless 
variety . 

While many of th.e species of vegetation of New Guinea are beUeved 
to be endemic, it is known that the indigenous flora is very largely blended 
with the Australian forms, such as the eucalyptus, and with Sundaic (or 
Malayan) and Polynesian types. The necessity and urgency of a systematic 
classification of the Territory's rich and varied flora becomes more apparent 
as its agricultural industries develop and timber forests are exploited. Papua 
is known to be rich in indigenous economic plants ; how rich one is unable to 
say until a proper botanical classification discloses the full list. Again, 
the utilisation of the magnificent timber resources is handicapped by the fact 
that the native names of the various timber-trees convey no information to 
the people of the Commonwealth and other countries, although, perhaps, 
many of these species, if properly naftied, would be at once recognised as 
well-known and thoroughly-tested timbers of commerce, for which large 
orders could be obtained. 

The natives in the settled districts, where development is taking place, 
no longer manvrfacture warlike weapons and have given up those they pos- 
sessed. Life and property in these districts are practically as secure as in 



180 STEWART'S HANI,' P.OOK 

Australia. >*".» while settlers have in any way been molested for years. 
The majority of the natives are of a dark bronze colour. They, however, 
range from a dark brown (almost black) to a light or yellowish brown. The 
darkest people are to be found in the Gulf Division and along the estuary 
of the Fly River. In the eastern portion of the Territory the lightest- 
coloured skins are to be found. Albinism is not uncommon. In the Western 
and Gulf Divisions, as far as Cape ro.ssession, the coastal tribes are, generally 
speaking, taller in stature and larger-boned than those further east, with 
narrow heads and high foreheads, often prominent noses of a Semitic cast, 
and rather weak receding chins. In the Western and Gulf Divisions com- 
munal houses are found in most villages. On the estuary of the Fly River 
a great number of families will live each in a different stall of a great com- 
munal dwelhng, sometimes 520 feet long and 30 feet wide. Generally speak- 
ing, the native architecture, is of a high standard for such a primitive people. 
The islanders in the east of the Territory excel in carving ; their shields, war- 
like weapons, lime-spoons, canoes, and oars are often beautifully carved, 
and constitute a triumph of savage art. From the Dutch boundary to Hall 
Sound the principal weapon is the bow and arrow. The spear is the principal 
weapon of attack and defence in other parts of the Territory. The stone club 
is used in all parts, unless where stones are not obtainable. In the D'Entre- 
casteaux Group of Islands the sling is used. A belief in ghosts or spirits 
appears to be universal. In almost everj' village there is a sorcerer, who 
propitiates or exerci.ses the evil spirits with incantation or offerings. The 
cult of totems is in vogue in the islands and in the north-east of the mainland. 
Polygamy seems to be allowed by native custom everywhere, but it is not 
largely practised, the great "majority of the men having only one wife. The 
practice of eating human flesh, formerly in vogue in certain parts, has been 
entirely stopped in all the .settled districts. In parts of the Western Division 
kava is drunk, but no fermented liquors are manufactured by the natives, 
and the use of European liquors is strictly prohibited. The chewing of betel- 
nut is practised everywhere, except where kava is made. 

To the tourist Papua offers a rich and varied field of unique interest. 
If the desire of Australians is to see primitive native races, magnificent scenery, 
and a tropical country possessing conditions in every way dissimilar to those 
obtaining in Australia, they have only to spend a month or .six weeks in visiting 
their own Territory and their own subjects. With suitable accommodation 
and services for tourists, and a direct and up-to-date service, Papua should be 
one of the most popular tourist resorts in the Pacific, enabling the people of 
Australia to escape the cold winter months and visit the tropics during the 
continuance of the cool and healthy south-east trade winds, which blow- from 
the South Pacific from April to November. Within a day's journey of Port 
Moresby, altitudes of 2,000 feet can be attained, where the climate is cool 
and bracing, and where magnificent views of large stretches of country, 
dotted with mountains, streams, villages, and native gardens are laid out like 
a vast panorama, special places of interest being Rona Falls in the canyon of 
the Laloki \' alley, and the tree houses of the Ikeri villages. 

The picturesque island and town of Samarai, situated at the extreme 
south-east of the mainland, forms a most convenient base for excursions- 



OF THE PACIFIC ISI,AND3 18 

to the many islands and places of interest in the neighboTirhood. To the 
yachtsman the attractions of the island world to the east of the mainland 
are perhaps unsurpassed in any part of the globe. The scenery is always 
beautiful, in many instances grand and majestic. In a cruise through the 
islands a fascinating panorama of novelty and beauty unfolds itself before 
one's gaze. Tiny islets, crowned with palms, and clad to the water's edge 
in robes of emerald green, dot the horizon, and contrast strangely with some 
giant peak, grim and weather-scarred, that springs sheer out of the watery 
depths. In other places mighty cliffs, hidden by walls of foliage, shut out 
the view, and usher the traveller into some land-locked harbour, where he 
can drop anchor on a shingly beach, and explore the hidden recesses of the 
primeval forest, or visit the peaceful villages of its interesting inhabitants. 
To the mountain-climber the more inaccessible central main range offers 
great attractions, but expeditions of this nature require at present a longer 
stay, the engagement of guides and carriers, and more elaborate arrange- 
ments. On the north-east coast, in the neighbourhood of Cape Nelson, the 
high, bold headlands and deep indentations, forming small land-locked bays, 
have been compared to the famous fiords of Norway ; while inland little- 
known mountain chains and smoking craters invite the more venturesome 
to explore their secret recesses. To the ethnologist, botanist, and naturalist 
the Territory is of absorbing interest. Few tropical countries present finer 
fields that up to the present have remained almost untouched. 

The following table sho^^•s the progress made by the Territory during 
the period- named : — 



White population 

Native labourers engaged during 

the year 
Area under lease (in acres) 
t Areas of plantations (in acres) 
Gold yield (in ozs.) 

Territorial revenue 
Territorial expenditure 
Value of imports 
Value of exports 

ISLANDS OF BRITISH NEW GUINEA. 

TliL- islands of British New Guinea are numerous, and in some instances 
of considerable size, but, with the exception of Samarai, which is the com- 
mercial centre of New Guinea, and \\'oodlark, where several mining companies 
are carrying on operations, are of no great importance. The principal islands 
are : — 

SAMARAI. 

Samarai, which is situated in China Straits, three miles from the east 
end of the mainland of New Guinea, is the hub of the Louisiade, Trobriand, 





TEAR ENDED— 






June 30, 


June 30, 


June 30. 


June 30, 


June 30 


1907 


1910 


1916 


191" 


1918 


G90 


879 


992 


1,036 


962 


2.000 


7,5.50 


6,686 


7,892 


7,059 


70,512 


363,425 


228.013 






1,467 


10,053 


44,959 


47,319 


— 


16,103 


16,151 


10,030 


9,677 


11,067 


€ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


21,813 


34.822 


*49,3ll 


63,568 


72.594 


45,33.') 


64,873 


77,912 


83,740 


103,176 


87,776 


120,290 


223,040 


271,640 


283,792 


63,756 


101.470 


125,428 


156,535 


220,600 



"E.Kclusive of £30,000 receiver! from Common wealth toward expen.«e.<. 

t These firpa-i are un(]ev.-,-tateil. There are really over 57.000 ncr&« under cultivation. 



i82 STEWART'S HANB BOOK 

D'lvntrecasleaii.x, and Woodlark groups, Milne 15ay and nortli-cast coast 
traffic and commerce, as well as the port of transhipment for miners proceeding 
to various mainland points of the New Guinea goldfields. It is distant some 
250 miles from Port Moresby and was originally named Dinner Island by 
Captain Moresby, who discovered it in 1873. The island is only 59 acres in 
extent, and a pathway has been constructed right round it — a romantic 
lovers' walk, at the edge of the sea, and shaded by tall palms. After sunset 
it is the proper thing to take a constitutional round the island, the circuit 
<jccupying less than half an hour. The two or three Government buildings, 
three hotels, half-dozen stores, and local branch of the Batik of New South 
Wales face the beach. One of the three wireless stations in Papua is located 
here, the others being at Port Moresby and at ^^ oodlark. The curfew bell 
is an institution at Samarai. It is sounded at 9 o'clock each night, when 
all natives nmst leave the streets and wharves and go to, and remain at, 
their homes until daylight. 

THE LOUISIADKS. 

Sudest is a long and somewhat narrow island, about 50 miles in length 
and 15 miles at its greatest breadth. It is the largest in the Louisiade Archi- 
pelago, formed of a succes.sion of irregular hills and mountains, w'hich cul- 
minate in Mount Rattlesnake, over 3,000 feet above the sea. These moun- 
tains are covered with dense forest and vegetation, and the lower regions 
with beautiful grass. Gold has been found in nearly all the watercourses. 
When the rush was at its height, in 1889, some hundreds of diggers were at 
work, and the island is in consequence completely explored. There is still 
a little alluvial mining carried on. 

Rossel Island, which is situated about Ifi miles to the east of Sudest, 
i« 21 miles in length, possesses a most irregular and tortuous coastline, fringed 
by a barrier coral reef, terminating in the east in Rossel Spit, rendered famous 
by its oft-told tale of shipwreck and danger. It is clothed with dense tropical 
vegetation, the interior of the island being composed of rugged and precipi- 
tous hills, culminating in Mount Rossel. It shows traces of gold. 

Joannet is an oblong island, about 26 miles north of Sudest, containing 
an area of about 25 square miles. It is well watered, and there are numerous 
indications of gold. 

St. Aignan (Misima) is a fore.st-clad island of about 25 miles in length, 
and varying from one to nine miles in breadth, with an area of something like 
150 square miles. Its highest peak is Mount Lakia f3,500 feet). It has no 
protecting reef, and the natives are not expert fishermen as are the other 
inhabitants of the Louisiades. Gold has been found in various parts. The 
gold mining leases of Misima are situated inland about four miles from 
Bagan-ia, in the vicinity of Mount Sisa and Umuna. ^'"ery little work was 
done at Misima until the latter part of 1914, when several options were taken 
up. It is, perhaps, the most important mining area in the Territory at present. 
The Block 10 Misima Gold IMining Company have done a considerable amount 
of development, together with having treated a fairly large quantity of 
valuable ore. At the end of 1917, the mam drainage tunnel had been driven 
for <>20 feet. There had also been 497 feet of rising, 19 feet of winzing, 200 



OF THE PACIFIC ISI.AXDS IS3 

feet of tunnelling, and 401 feet of prospecting done during that year. The 
excav'ation for the No. 2 mill had been completed and a 88 h.p. gas engine 
installed, together with various other appliances necessary. Several buildings 
had been erected for various purposes. There were at the time 21 white men 
employed by the company, and 460 indentured and casual labourers. The 
reserve on this property up to the end of January, 1918, was estimated at 
125,250 tons, assaying 38s. per ton. A total of 14,618 tons of ore was crushed, 
from which 11,647 tons were cyanided for a return of £13,852 3s. 9d., and 133 
tons of slimes for £145. The total slimes on hand was estimated at 1,616 
tons, assaying 14s. (id. per ton. As regards alluvial gold on the island, there 
was a decided increase. There are nine Europeans working alluvial 
with, approximately, 75 indentured and casual labourers. A total of 630 
ozs. of gold, valued at £1,750 were won last year, as against 450 ozs. and £1,575 
the previous year. 

D'ENTRECASTKAUX GROUP. 

Normanby Island is about 45 miles in length, and from 12 to 15 miles 
at its greatest breadth, comprising an area of about 400 square miles, with a 
range of mountains, whose highest peak is about 3,500 feet above sea-level. 
Possessing no barrier reef, and but few traces of shore reef, it is surrounded 
by deep water, and there are but few safe anchorages along its shores. The 
island is densely clothed with timber and luxuriant vegetation. The natives, 
who are numerous, are expert agriculturists. Traces of gold and tin have 
been found. 

Fergusson Island, which, like Normanby, has no barrier reef, is very 
irregular in its conformation, with numerous bays and headlands, and is about 
40 miles long and about 24 miles across at its greatest breadth. The physical 
features of the island are of a mountainous character, rugged, precipitous, and 
irregular, with Mount Kilkerran in the east, attaining an altitude of about 
6,000 feet ; the Maybole Range in the north-west, wlio.se peaks reach a height 
of 5,000 feet, and an extensive range, varying in altitudes of from 3,500 feet 
to 4,000 feet, terminating in Cape Mourilyan, in the south-west. Generally 
very fertile, the soil consists of a brown and rich chocolate-coloured volcanic 
mould containing pumice stone. Extensive cultivated areas mark the 
agricultural operations of the natives. These plantations, which are carefully 
husbanded, are divided into sections by the gathering together of the surf a y- 
pumice stones, and these sections are again subdivided into squares, having 
their corners defined by a planted yam and their centres by a stout pole. 
8 feet or 10 feet long, which supports the curved ends of four reeds, whoso 
bases are placed in the ground near each yam, so that the yam vine may creep 
along the reed to the central pole. This very clever arrangement produce? 
a graceful and picturesque effect. Their cultivated products consist chiefly 
of yams, taro, bananas, breadfruit, and sugarcane. The existence of craters, 
saline lakes, and thermal springs are lasting records of the seismic origin of 
the island. . . . There are some boiling springs and a lake about a mile 
and a half from the shores of tlie south end of Seymour Bay. During ihe 
dry season this lake covers an area of about 10 acres, which is apparently 
largely increased by heavy rain. Shallow, and tasting strongly of alum. 



1S4 STEWAkT'S 11 -VXD BOOK 

tl'.e waters of tlie lake are brown in colour. 'i'w(j small creeks of fresh and 
hot saline water rlischargc into the lake. Pure crystalline- sulphur is ob- 
served deposited from dense fumes issuing through small fissures in the side 
of a hill skirting the lake. The hill is remarkable for its seismic features. 
At one place small subterranean chambers containing boiling liquid exist ; 
at other parts of its surface the order is varied by springs of boiling water 
issuing from the midst of numerous small vents actively discharging sul- 
phurous vapour, while another section is occupied by a vent about 10 feet 
in diameter containing a seething mass of nmd and water, which is sometimes 
thrown out with great force when violently agitated. . . As a health 

resort Seymour Bay, with its strong springs, sulphurous fumes and landscape 
beauties, may probably be much frequented in the future. 

Goodenongh Island is separated from the western end of l'ergus.son Island 
by Moresby Straits. A mountain range, extending through almost the whole 
length of the island, cidminates in two rugged peaks of from (5,000 to 7,000 
feet in height. This range is flanked by a rather extensive plain of about 
seven or eight miles broad, denuded of its once beautiful virgin forest mantle, 
and now studded with numerous native plantations, for which its rich soil 
so well adapts it. Part of the mountain slopes have also been cleared of its 
forest and is now occupied with terraced gardens, planted with yams in small 
moiuids. lyimestone caves exist on the mountain spurs. Deposits of gold 
have been found in several of the creeks. Mr. T). Jenness, of the Oxford 
University, spent a year there recently on an anthropological expedition. 
Much information was collected relating to native rites and ceremonies, and 
an attempt was made to get into touch with the inner life of the people. 
The then resident Methodist missionary, the Rev. A. Ballantyne, co-operated 
with the expedition, and his knowledge of the language was of very great 
assistance. The ^Methodist J^iission station has exercised a very beneficial 
influence over the coastal region. ^Magical practices enter largely into the 
lives of the Papuans — a common thing among primitive peoples. In this 
instance the magic is clearly divisible into two classes — black magic and white 
magic. The white magic has to do with practices relating to the welfare of 
gardens, controlling the rain and sunshine, protection against foes, and gener- 
ally the prosperity of the comnmnity. Almost every variety of white magic 
has its special exponent, who is an established and recognised member of the 
community. Black magic, however, is only practiced in secret, and is prac- 
tically restricted to that form of sorcery which relates to .sickness and death. 
Any kind of sudden, luiaccountable illness is immediateh' attributed to the 
black sorcerer, who is frequently localised in a neighbouring village. But 
times have changed. In the old days a sorcerer, when thus discovered, 
would probably have received very short shrift, but now fear of the Govern- 
ment usually induces aggrieved natives to lay an information with the visiting 
magistrate, and leave the settlement of the dispute with him. This is, at 
least, one notable instance of the adoption of civilised methods. In both 
black and white magic magical stones and other charms are largely employed. 
In the interior of Go'odenough Island is a large rock, covered with paintings 
in black and white, which is regarded with veneration and awe because of its 
supposed niystical powers over the yam crops. This rock, as Mr. Jenness 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLAXPS 185 

Has remarked, is extremely interesting, liecause no other like it is known in 
Papua, and the nearest parallel of any kind comes from Central Australia. 

Dobu, a beautifully-situated and exceedingly fertile islet, between 
Normanby and Fergusson Islands, was originally the headquarters of the 
Methodist Mission. The head station has, however, since been removed to 
the little island of Ubuia, off the north-west coast of Normanby Island. 
The district training institution, the high school for girls and the district 
orphanage are also situated at Ubuia, and near by is the mission plantation. 

A\'elle (Sauaroa) Island, lying to the east of I'ergusson Island, is low-lying, 
of volcanic origin, containing an area of about 25 square miles, whose phy.sical 
features in no place exceed a height of probaljly 300 feet above the sea. 

lau(;hlax islands. 

The natives of the Laughlan group of i.slands (or Lachlan, as the names 
sometimes spelt), of which there are seven, lying some 40 miles to the eastfoi 
Woodlark, may nuniber about 250. The islands occupy an area in the form 
of a crescent, with the concave aspect opening to westward. The largest, 
Wabomat or Utani, is geographically in latitude 9 degrees 17 minutes S., 
and longitude about 153 degrees 37 minutes E. The lagoon of this atoll, 
which is from 7 to 12 fathoms in depth, is picturesque and interesting, as 
well as secure for anchorage. The island posses'^es a plentiful supply of fresh 
water. 

The L,aughlans, which are but coral and sand, grow nothing but cocoa- 
nuts. At low water it is practicable to walk from one island to all the others, 
with one or two exceptions. On Budelum Island the natives have a small 
patch or two of sweet potatoes, and a few banana plants, which, in most 
years, are utter failures, so that they have to content themselves as a rule 
with a diet of cocoanuts and fish supplemented now and again with a small 
amount of sago and yams that they may bring from Woodlark in their canoes, 
with which island, so long as the weather is favourable, they are in coiastant 
communication. Often they visit the east-end of Woodlark, where they have 
gardens, and there they remain for months at a time. There is general!}' a 
heavy sea running between the two islands. A trader has a trading station 
on one of these islands, IJugalun, to whom the natives sell their copra. 

TROBRIAND ISLANDS. 

The Trobriand group — which comprises the islands of Kiriwina, Kitava, 
\"akuta, Kaileuna and others — lies about 30 miles north of D'luitrecasteaux 
Islands. They are coral islands. Some of them arise abruptly from the 
shore to a height of from two to three hundred feet, forming coral cliffs, 
crowned with large trees. Others are only just above the water. The 
inhabitants are said to be of a higher type than those of the rest of New- 
Guinea. They are more like Polynesians than Melanesians both in appear- 
ance and disposition. They are very friendly and hospitable. They are 
skilled in carving, they are almost the only natives in New (aiinea who do it. 
They carve their lime sticks, .some of which are truly works of art. They also 
make wooden bowls, some of them very large, and inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 



1S6 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

Very few of them leave the islands to work as labourers on plantations. 
They are very industrious compared with other natives. A low idea of 
morality obtains, and there was at one time a high percentage of venereal 
disease, but this has been greatly reduced through the labours of Dr. Bellamy 
who was stationed on the inlands for 14 yeArs. A year was spent in the 
Trobriands in 1917-18 by Dr. Malinowski who was engaged in ethnological 
research. The soil on the top of the coral is very rich. The families, have 
each a large garden which is marked off for them. They raise mostly yams, 
upon which, with taro and fish, they live. The yams are much used on 
distant plantations to feed the labourers as they are considered a more 
healthy diet than rice. The Trobriands of late years have cultivated yams 
for export, which they bring in small quantities to the traders, who pay them 
generally with trade tobacco, a stick of which will pay for 30 lb. or 40 lb. of 
. yams. They have little use for our money, and prefer tobacco or calico or 
knives or axes. Another of their industries is the collecting of beche-de-mer. 
In the lagoons of the Trobriands the pearl oyster is found. The shells are 
small and delicate and have the scientific name of Mavgaritfieravnlgaris. They 
are the same in which pearls are found in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, 
Ceylon, East Africa, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, Australia and Japan. 
The pearling in the Trobriands is regulated by law. The natives fish for the 
pearls, which are sold to* licensed buyers, who pay £50 a year for their license. 
In one year the export of shells from Papua, most of which came from these 
islands amounted to £2,442, and the export of pearls was £9,605. There are 
some cocoanut plantations. There is an island on which about six hundred 
acres of cocoanuts have been planted. The trees, which are at present from 
six to eight years old, are in gcod condition. 

WOODLARK IvSLAND. 

Woodlark Island (or Murua, as it is called by the natives) was at one time 
the chief goldfield of New Guinea. The island, which lies to the north of the 
Louisiade Archipelago, is about 38 miles in length, from east to west, the 
position of Guasopa anchorage, on the southern aspect of the eastern end of 
the island, being in latitude 9 degrees 10 minutes S., and longitude 152 degrees 
55 minutes E. A succession of hills and valleys corrugate the whole island. 
The tangle of tropical growth, scrub, trees, vines, parasites and rattans, 
interlaced, mingled and confused in dense, impenetrable mass (except with 
an axe), makes it hard to believe that this beautiful island has been fully 
prospected, biit it has been covered by the miners from end to end. The palmy 
days of mining have passed for Woodlark. Where there were hundreds of men 
on the island once, there are now only a score or two. It is considered, 
however, that this depression may be only temporary, and that there will 
probably be a revival when more capital is offering. The native inhabitants 
are of the Melanesian type, like nearly all the natives of the islands and of the 
eastern coast, but there is an admixture of Papuan blood, and they are 
possessed of activity and intelligence. Food, which consists of game, taro, 
and sweet potatoes, is abundant. One of the three wireless stations in Papua 
is situated on Woodlark. 



OF XITE PACIFIC ISLAND? 187 

CONFLICT GROUP. 

Thi.s group is, roughly, 70 miles distant from .Samarai, and on one of tlie 
islands called Panassesa, the most systematic attempt at cocoanut planting 
in the whole of New Guinea has been made. The yield is very satisfactory, 
being in some cases well ov^er half a ton to the acre. A lease of the islands 
is held by the Pacific and Papua Produce Co., Ltd. 

TRADE STATISTICS. 

The territorial revenue for 1916-17 (that is, the revenue without the 
subsidy) stands very much higher than ever before, and shows an increase of 
more than £14,000 over the previous year — £63,568, as compared with 
£48,898. L'nfortunately, however, these figures are not so good as they look, 
for last year's return shows an extra month (that is, thirteen months instead 
of twelve) for Samarai and Woodlark, and a deduction of £2,600 must be 
made on this account ; further, out of the total of £63,568 a sum of nearly 
£4,500 is due to increased duty and excise on tobacco. Thus £7,100 should 
be deducted from this total, leaving a remainder of £56,468, or £7,000 more 
than last year. Imports are returned at £271,640 for the tw^elve months — 
much the highest amount on. record, and nearly £50,000 more than the pre- 
vious year. But part of this £271,640 — it is impossible to say how much — 
must be attributed to the rise in prices — a factor which also enters into the 
question of territorial revenue so far as it is derived from ad valorem duties. 
Exports were also the highest on record — £156,535, as compared with £125,428 
for the previous year, which is the next highest. The.se returns are also for 
twelve months. There was a tailing off in gold, but copra and rubber nearly 
doubled. 
Comparative ST.\TnMKXT of Import.s for Five Yk\rs Ended June 30, 1917. 



Ale, spirits, and beverages 
Tobacco and manufactures 

thereof 
Agricultural products and 

groceries 
Textiles, felts, and furs, and 

manufactures thereof, 

and attire 
Metals and machinery 
Oils, paints and varnishes 
Earthenv.'are, cement, 

china, glass and stone 
Dn.igs and chemicals 
Wood, wicker and cane . . 
Jeneller}' and fancy goods 
Leather and Rubber 
Paper and stationery 
Miscellaneous 
Government stores 



III previous yoiirs the value of (iovenimeiit Stores was split u|) aiuonpst tlic 
various Divisions. 



1912-13 


1913-14 


1914-15 


1915-16 


1916-17 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


6,888 


7,389 


6,588 


6,989 


7,791 


12,577 


14,321 


14,628 


15,435 


15,132 


72,447 


59,294 


73,765 


77,230 


83,873 


32,897 


24,992 


21,144 


29,571 


37,296 


27,368 


36,723 


23,589 


27,742 


35,200 


6,579 


8,783 


7,616 


11,823 


1 1 ,924 


2,5.52 


2,457 


3,129 


1,541 


4,135 


2,484 


3,660 


3,962 


4,854 


8,973 


12,418 


11,354 


7,183 


5.750 


1,933 


2.858 


2,404 


2,028 


2.751 


4,563 


4,046 


5,580 


3,113 


4.780 


4.474 


3,079 


2,912 


3,583 


3,553 


2.993 
15.407 


32,130 


32,235 
212,134 


31.727 


31,021 


* 38, 036 


218,323 


202,055 


223,040 


271.640 



188 



STEWART'S HAND BOOK 



C0MPARA.TIVE Statement ok Ivxpouts for Five Years Ended June ;>0, 

1'J17. 





1912-13 


1913-14 


1914-15 


1915-lG 


1916- 


17 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 




£ 


Bark . . 










567 tons 


4,423 


Beche-de-nier 


1,871 


2,8.57 


3,853 


3,229 


41 tons 


2,521 


Copper ore . . 


18.997 


19,733 


5,607 


9,971 


1,322 tons 


14,050 


Copra 


16,912 


26,063 


12,693 


19,051 


2,096 tons 


40,882 


Gold* 








37,904 


9,677 ozs. 


32,839 


Gold ore and 














concentrates 


62,332 


47,233 


50,889 


5,345 


2 14, Ions 


5,149 


Grain . . 






79 


502 


3 tons 


33 


Hemp 


3,039 


3,633 


1,269 


11,999 


326 tons 


1 1 ,463 


Natural His- 














tory speci- 














mens 


610 


284 


236 


200 




312 


Pearls 


9,284- 


4,602 


6,113 


1,000 


4,596 cwts. 


2,400 


Rubber 


517 


1,536 


1,501 


14,846 


85 tons 


26,682 


Sanda 1 \v d 


74 


85 


1,363 


1,416 


25 tons 


633 


Pearl shell . . 


8,512 


11,212 


4,292 








Trochas shell 








6,770 


307 tons 


8,050 


Turtle shell . . 


330 


52'' 




90 






Shell N.R.I... 








' 302 


11 tons 


303 


Timber . t 


340 


365 


623 


168 


52,855 sq. ft. 


438 


Miscellaneous 


5,198 


5,010 


5,836 


4,106 




3,409 


Articles re-ex- 














ported 








8,529 




2,948 



Totals 



128,016 123,140 94,354 125,428 



156,535 



ANNUAL REPORT. 

In his annual report for the year 1917-18 the Lieutenant-Governor 
(Judge Murray) says : — The local revenue (that is, the revenue without the 
Conmionwealth subsidy) amounted in 1917-18 to £102,594, showing an increase 
of £9,000 over the previous year and of £23,000 over the year before. Strictly 
speaking, however, a sum of £6,881 should be deducted from the £102,594 
in respect of " Appropriation of former years," as compared ^\^th deductions 
of onlv £649 and £413 for the previous years ; but, on the other hand, the 
£93,568 contains the revenue of an extra month (13 months mstead of 12) for 
Samarai and Woodlark, and a deduction of £2,600 must be made on this 
account. So the increase for the year is reaUy something over £5,000. The 
imports are £12,000 in excess of the previous year (£283,792, as compared with 
£271,640), and £60,000 in excess of 1915-16 (£223,040). But it is quite 
impossible to say how much of this must be attributed to a rise in prices. 
This consideration also enters into the question of the territorial revenue so 
far as it is derived from ad valorem duties. Thus, though the increase in 
revenue is both gratifying and welcome, neither this, nor the increase in im- 
ports, can be relied upon as being permanent ; nor is either of them of muth 
real value under the peculiar circumstances of the time, as a test of prosperity 
or progress. For it is clear that, if prices sunk suddenly to the level at which 

Up to 1914-15 inclusive the figures are for Gold auil Gold Ore aud Concentrates combined. 



OK THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 189 

they stood before the war, both imports and revenue for the next year (1918. 
19) would probably decline very considerably. Exports on the other hand 
-are a much more reliable test, for the prices of our exports have, as a rule, 
not increased to any extent, and some have even decreased ; and if this test 
is applied, the result is really remarkably satisfactory, for the exports appear 
at £220,599 as compared with £156,535 for the year 1916-17 and £125,428 
for 1915-1(5. That is to say, in two years they have nearly doubled. It 
might be thought that this phenomenal increase was due to the sudden 
development of a rich mineral field, but this is not so, for the export of copper 
has increased but little, and that of gold has actually diminished. It is partly 
-accounted for, no doubt, by accidental pieces of good fortune, such as, e.g., 
the increase in the production of pearls (which, however, does not nearly make 
up for the decrease in the production of gold), but it is chiefly due to an advance 
in copra and rubber production, the former of which is this year nearly three 
times, and the latter more than four times, as great as two years ago. The 
export of both gold and copper this year is less than in 1916-17, but there are 
reliable indications that in a year or two the export of both minerals will be 
very considerable. The decrease in the case of copper this year was due to 
lack of shipping facilities. 

PUBLIC WORKS. 

As in previous years, the construction of public works was hampered by 
cost of material. The Port Moresby wharf was continued under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Bnlliant, the officer selected for that purpose by the Common- 
wealth Government. Mr. Brilliant resigned on account of ill-health, and left 
Port Moresby in November, 1917. Both Mr. Brilliant and the Director of 
Public Works advised that the work should for the present be suspended, 
and this has been done. Attempts were made during the remainder of the 
year to obtain an expert from Australia to report, and to advise as to future 
action, but from a variety of causes the expert was unable to visit Port Moresby 
until after the expiration of the year under review. A further attempt, 
unfortunately unsuccessful, was made during this year to connect the road 
at Sapphire Creek with the highlands of the Sogeri district. At present the 
road from Sapphire Creek to Sogeri climbs the steep sides of Hombron Bluff — 
an ascent of 1,500 feet in a distance of two and a half miles — and, though 
passable for pack animals, could never be made suitable for vehicles or for 
motor traffic ; and the problem is to find a route along which a road could 
be constructed, which in time might be made fit to carry motors. The 
intention is that the read overseer, Mr. Williams, who is at present engaged 
on a new road which is being constructed from Kapa Kapa to the Kemp 
Welch, should make another attempt some time in 1918-19. 

MINING. 

A new alluvial field has been reported on the IMoni or Upper Musa, and 
has attracted a few miners. The value and extent of the field are quite un- 
certain ; unfortunately, it is difficult of access, being at least five or .six days' 
journey from the coast. Unless this field proves a success, it looks almost 
as if alluvial mining in Papua must soon come to an end. The fortunes of 



1!K) STHWAKT'S HAND HOOK 

Woodlark ran very low this year, U>r the Kuluiiiadau mine, u]j(>n which the 
island principally depends, went into liquidation. On the other hand, the 
prospects of the Block 10 Misinia Gold Mining Company are favourable 
and it seems probable that exentually Misima may turn out more gold than 
the rest of the Territory put together. The value of the gold exported from 
the Territory this year (£32,03 1) is less than in any previous year since 1900-1. 
The export of copper ore was rather less than last year, but rather more than, 
the year before ; had shipping facilities been available, the quantity would 
certainly have been very much greater. The Laloki mine is being seriously 
examined, and if the results are favourable, very considerable development 
ma}^ be expected. 

AGRICULTURE. 

The nvmiber of acres stated as under cultivation (57, 593 acres) is probably 
correct, but it is not absolutely certain, as the returns have been coming in 
rather irregularly of late. On the other hand the total for last year (which 
is given as 47,319) is understated ; the increase for this year is probably about 
4,000, certainly not so much as 10,000 acres. It is hardly likely that there 
will be any further development worth speaking of until shipping facilities 
are much improved. The stable products are still copra, rubber, and hemp. 
Unfortunately, the cultivation of tobacco has been abandoned ; it was not 
fonntl possible to commend the tobacco to the Papuan taste. 

GOVERNMENT PLANTATIONS. 

The Government plantation at Orangerie Bay, generally known as 
Baibara, produced a small amount of copra this year. The amount was 
verj' small indeed ; but, considering that the first nuts were only brought 
there in January, 1912, it is satisfactory that a start should be made so soon. 
There are 400 or 500 acres on the frontage of this plantation which are pro- 
bably as good as any in Papua ; the rest of the area (about 800 acres) is of 
fair average quality. The small island of Nari also produced some copra ; 
these nuts are a year younger than the oldest at Baibara. This growth is 
quite exceptional, and will probably not continue ; that is to say, .some of the 
palms which are bearing well this year may bear very little or not at all next 
year or the year after. The plantations at the various stations are increased 
froin time to time as occasion offers, but the conditions are cften not very 
favourable, for cf course the site of the station is determined by other con- 
siderations. The plantation at Buna, about 100 acres of cocoanuts, seems 
likely to turn out the best of them, with the exception perhaps of Kokoda, 
where 100 acres have been planted with rubber. A '^ew of these rubber trees 
are eight to ten 3-ears old ; the rest were planted quite recently. 

NATIVE PLANTATIONvS. 

Under the .X'ative Regulations, the natives may be compelled to plant 
a certain number of cocoanuts and " other useful fruits and trees." This 
regulation is enforced wherever conditions are suitable, but, unfortunately, 
it is found almost impossible to induce natives to preserve the proper interval, 
which for cocoanuts is 30 feet, and furthermore a great number of the trees die 



OP THK PACIFIC ISLANDS l&l 

from drought and other causes. Prom a return which has recently been com- 
piled, it appears that there are over 250,000 growing cocoanuts which have been 
planted under the regulation in the last two years, and about 500,000 whicli 
have been planted in the last five years. The increase in the number of cocoa- 
nuts must eventually bring about an increase m the export of copra, though 
it must be remembered that, when cocoanuts are plentiful, an enormous 
number are used for food. In Kokoda district, which is not suitable to cocoa- 
nut planting, 8,000 rubber seeds and plants have been distributed this year 
among the natives of the neighbourmg villages. The results seem to be 
satisfactory except in one village, where, it is reported, a dry .spell came and 
a lot died. 

INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS OF NATIVES. 

An interesting feature in connection with Papuan development has been 
the extent to which natives of the Territory have come by degrees to take a 
greater and more important part in ]t. Of course the whole of the develop- 
ment is dependent on the natives, for without them there would be no labour 
but I am referring rather to the really remarkable way in which these natives — 
ravages of the stone age all of them, not much more than a generation ago — 
have adapted themselves to the civilisation that has been so suddenly thrust 
upon them, and have made themselves fit to discharge the various duties of 
their new life. When the Territory was annexed, there was not a native in 
any regular employment under the Government. Even the boat's crew in 
Port Moresby was manned by coloured men imported from Queensland, who 
were paid £8 a month each, and afterwards £14 a month. " It was considered 
risky," says Sir William MacGregor, " to man the boat with Papuans, though 
the London Missionary Society must often have had crews mainly composed 
of natives. ... A very modest vote was proposed by me for native 
employees in submitting the first estimates of expenditure, but this was struck 
out as an absurdity." So the iirst nucleus of an armed constabulary was 
formed by a dozen Solomon Islanders with two Fiji N.C.O.'s, for it was con- 
sidered doubtful whether the Papuan could be trusted. By degrees vSir 
William's policy of employing natives wherever possible was successful in 
dissipating this doubt and distrust, and at the end of his term of office about 
one-fifth of the total expenditure was disbursed for native services. At the 
present time nearly all the oil launches in the Territory are run by natives, 
many of the sailing boats are sailed by them, they build boats and houses, 
they are beginning to find employment as clerks, and, it will be seen from 
Dr- Strong's very interesting report, they can be taught such delicate work as 
skin grafting ; indeed, the medical officer at Samarai even has a native whom 
he entrusts with the administration of anaesthetics when he has to perform 
an operation. And it must be remembered that very few of these " boys" 
have had any regular training ; some, no doubt, have learned their trade 
at a mission, but the greater part have picked it up from watching a white 
man — for instance, the native who administers anaesthetics learned in this 
way. It must be remembered that it does not often happen that a white 
man wants to teach a native his trade, and, even if he wants to, he rarely has 
the necessary patience ; but in any case there is the difficulty arising from 



lO'i STEWART'S HAXl) BOOR 

Ihe difference of language — a difiiciilly which is all the greater from the fact 
that so many of us cherish in cur hearts a secret conviction that any one, 
wherever bcrn, can understand English if he really tries, provided that the 
English is spoken in a very loud tone, and (some of us appear to think) 
is pleutifull)' garnished with adjectives. Fortunately, it is probable that the 
(iovernnicnt will be able shortly to do something to assist in the education 
of the native, both primary and technical. Hitherto this work, which is 
really the duty cf the (Government, has been discharged solely by the various 
missions. The iieccssary funds will be raised by native taxation, a Bill for 
which lias already passed, though it has not yet come into operation. It 
would seem necessary that eventually the artisans and skiUcd workmen 
generally should come from the natives, for I do not think that it can be ex- 
pected that Papua will ever be a " white man's counrty " in the sense that 
white men will marry and settle down and make their homes here. Thus I 
do not think that we shall ever have a resident population of European 
artisans and mechanics, and the only alternative to the European is the 
Papuan. 

VOCABULARIES. 

As is generally known, the languages of the Territory are classified as 
Papuan and Melauesian. Roughly speaking, the Melanesian languages are 
found in nearly all the islands of the east and south-east, on the south coast 
as far west as Cape Possession, and on the north-east cca.st as far north as 
Cape Nelson ; they do not as a rule extend far into the interior. Mr. Ray, 
who is the accepted authority ou this subject, distinguishes as Melano-Papuan 
some of the languages spoken en the islands ; these, he says, " in many respects 
agree with the Melanesian languages, but also contain numerous divergencies 
from the usual type." Such, for instance, are the languages of Wocdlark, 
Misima and Sud Est. In the rest of the Territory Papuan languages are 
spoken. These differ completely from the Melanesian, and, very often, frcm 
one another. There is said to be some likeness between the Papuan languages 
and the Australian, but nc genealogical connection has been established 
between them ; nor has any greater success hitherto attended the attempt to 
connect Papuan languages with those of Halmahera or the Andaman Islands. 
The Papuan and Australian languages meet, as might be expected, in Torres 
Straits. There are two languages in the Straits, an eastern and a western ; 
the latter is Australian, the former, which is called Miriam, resembles in its 
grammatical formations some of the Papuan languages. To the east it is 
possible that Papuan languages may once have extended as far as the Solo- 
mons, for there are languages there, on Savo and Vella Lavella, which not 
only differ in vocabulary from the ordinary Melanesian, but which also shows 
traces of Papuan construction ; and these facts may be taken as evidence of 
the existence, in these islands, of a pre-Melanesian language of Papuan type. 
(See Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits, vol. 3., p. 522). It has been 
part of the ordinary duty of officers on out-stations to collect vocabularies of 
the languages with which they come in contact, and a selection cf these 
vocabularies wa.s, up to the year 1914-15, published in the annual report. 
The practice was then discontinued on accovmt of the scarcity of paper. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



193 



The vocabularies have been found useful by students of the languages of the 
Pacific, and it is hoped that we may be able to collect and publish many more 
of them. A short comparative vocabulary is given of the language spoken 
at Lake Murray (annual report 1916-17, p. 49), and the language spoken by 
the Marind-Anim at Merauke, in Dutch New Guinea. For the Marind-Anim 
words, I am indebted to the Resident of Amboina. (See an article by Mr. 
Ray, in Man for Marc-h, 1918, p. 44, deahng with points of resemblance 
between these languages). 



EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

His Excellency Col. J. H. P. Murray, C.M.G., Lieutenant-Governor 
and the Hens. Herbert William Champion (Government Secretary), Charles 
Edward Herbert (Deputy Chief Judicial Officer), Bertram William Bramell 
(Commissioner for Native Affairs), and Robert William Turner Kendrick 
(Treasurer). 

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL. 

Official members :— His Excellency Col. J. H. P. Murray, C.M.G., Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, and the Hons. William Champion (Government Secretary), 
Charles Edward Herbert (Deputy Chief Judicial Officer), Bertram William 
Bramell (Commissioner for Native Affairs), Robert \\'illiam Turner Kend- 
rick (Treasurer). 

Non-Olficial members : — The Hons. William John Little, John Gustb 
Nelsson, and Robert Frederick Whitten. 



PERMANENT OFFICERS IN THE PAPUAN SERVICE. 



Armit, L. P. B. 
Ashton, L. E. 
Atkm.son, O. J. 

Baker, E. G. 

Baker, G. H. M. 

Baldie, J. W. 

Bastard, E. M. 

Bates, A. J. 
*Bell, L. L. 

Bellamy, R. L. 

Bensted, J.T. (Govt. 
Agent. Sydney.) 

Biar, J. 
*Blackwood, E. D. 

Blyth, A. L. 

Boag, F. L. 

Bock, W. A. 

Boileau, J. G. 

Bramell, B. W. 

Bros.sey, L. V. 
*Brown, L. N. 
*Buchanan, R. 

Bulk, F. 
♦Burrows, S. D. 
♦Button, K. A. 

Bvrne, T. P. M. 



Cardevv, H. C. 

Catt, H. E. 

Cawley, F. R. 

Champion, H. W. 
*Chinnery, E. W. P. 

Chapman, S. I. 

Christie, G. 

Connellv, L. G. G. 
*Crane, W. J. 
*Cridland, A. E. 

Davies, N. F. 
*Dick, R. L. 

Fitzgerald, J. P. 
^Fleming, J., Miss 

Flint, L. A. 
*Giblin, W. E. 

Gibson, A. 

Graham, A. S. 

Grahamslaw, T. G. E. 

Greenland, S. A. 

Grist, R. W. 

*Hanunerslev, F. I. Miss 

Hardv, H. W. 
♦Harris, E. C. 



*Hart, C. F. 
Healy, M. T. 
Herbert, C. E. 
Hisjginson, C. B. 
HiJl, C. F. 
Humphries, W. R. 
Hunter, A. J. 
Huntington, H. \V. 

*Imlay, G. M. 
♦Irving, J. H. 

James, E. A. 

♦Keelau, J. F. 
Keppie, W. 
Kendrick, R. W. T. 

♦I/atimer, R. 
Lyons, A. P. 
MacAlj^ine, A. M. 
McCristal, T. R. 
MacDonald, J. 
Materua, Teina 

♦McNeill, N. 
Mears. E. W. T 



H. 



194 



STEWART'S HAND BOOK 



Murray, G. H. 
Murray, H. L. 
Murray, J. H. P.,C.M.G- 

(I/ieut.-C Governor) 

Muscutt, C. R. 

*Reiitoul, A. C. 

Oldham, E. R. 

O'Malley, J. T. 

Parker, H. 

*Pinney, C. R. 

Pratt, A. R. 



Rogerson, H. W. 
Ross, H. A. 
*RusseH, H. F. S 

Smith, F. T. 
♦Smith, M. S. C. 
Smith, S. 
Smith, W. R. 
Speedie, C. S. 
Stanley, E. R. 
Strong, W. M. 
Symons, A. H. 



♦Thompson, W. H. H. 
Turnbull. O. M. 



Waldron, G. C. H. 

Walker, A. C. 
*\Vilkins, E. B.M., Miss 

Woodward, R. A. 
*Wnth, C. T. 



Zimmer, G. F. W 



TEMPORARY OFFICERS IN THE SERVICE. 



Barnes, W. A. 

Campbell, J. N. D. 

Grahamshaw, J. 
Grimshaw, O. 

Haviland, C. V. 
Headon, F. 

Izod, H. 



Johnson, A. 

Leitch, H. 
Lomax, A. 

Neyland, J. W. 

Russell, Miss M. 
Rosser, W. E. 

Sutton, J. H. 



vSwinnerton, F. 

Taaffe, J. 

Vivian, R. A. 

West, A. 
Wright, J. 



OFFICIALS. 

I^ieutenant-Governor and Staff : — Murray, J. H. P., Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor and Chief Judicial Officer ; Murray, H. E-, Official Secretary and Navi- 
gating " Elevala " ; Keppie, W., Mechanic and Engineer, " Elevala " ; 
Ashton, L. E., Cadet Clerk, Government House ; Rahu, — ., Caretaker, 
Government House. 

Judicial (Central Court) : — Herbert, C. E., Deputy Chief Judicial Officer ; 
Bates, A. J., Registrar and Curator of Int. Est., Curator in In.sanity. 

Government Secretarv's Department: — Champion, H. W., Government 
Secretary; Baldie, J. W.', Chief Clerk; Berge, F. J., Clerk;, Hart, C. F., 
Clerk; Bulk, F., Engineer, Launch " Mimietonka " ; Connelly, L. G. G., 
R.M. Buna and I,and Buyer ; Cridland, A. E., Clerk ; Humphries, W. R., 
Acting A.R.M., Kairuku ; Grimshaw, O., Clerk, Samarai ; Latimer, R., 
Clerk," R.M.'s Office, CD. ; Rakatani-Keke, Interpreter,R.M.'s Office, CD. ; 
Anicete, Pedro Regioni, Interpreter, R.M.'s Office, CD. ; Rosser, W. E., 
Clerk (Temporary) ; Miss V. .Vshton, Clerk (Temporary), G.S.D. ; Miss L. 
Baldwin, Clerk and Typiste ; Hitchcox, E. P., Temporary Clerk, R.M.'s 
Office, Samarai. 

Resi.ient Magistrates :— Lyons, A. P., W.D. ; O'Mallev, J. T., CD.; 
Armit, L. P. B., Lakekamu, K.D. (acting R.M., loma) ; Higgin.son, C.B., 
E.D. ; Symons, A.H., S.E.D. ; MacdonneU,^F., N.E.D.. Cape Nelson ; Wuth, 
CT., Kumusi (acting) ; Massey-Baker, G. H., Gulf. 

Assistant Resident Magistrates : — Burrows, S. D., E.D. ; Cardew, H. C, 
Acting R.M., W.D. ; MacAlpine, A. M., E.D. ; Bellamy, R. L., Tro- 
briands (also G.M.O.) ; Brown, L. N., A.R.M., Port Moresby ; Crane, W. J.^ 
acting A.R.M., Abau ; Campbell, J. N. D., acting at I,osiiia ; Chinnery' 



* Denotes absence oil active service. 



OF THK PACIFIC ISLANDS 195 

E. W. P.. Delta (acting P..M., Delta); Bastard, E. M., E.D. ; Flirt, L. A., 
W.D. ; Oldham. E., R.M., Mambare ; Huntinqton. H. W. H., A.R.IM. ; Skelbv, 
R. C, A.R.M. ; Blyth, A. I,., acting R.^L, Kuniusi. 

Constabulary : — Thompson, W. H. H., H.O.O., Port :\[ore.sby ; Atkinson, 
O. J., European Constable, P.M. 

Gaols :— Stanley, J. B., P-igo ; Healy, M. T., Head Gaoler, P.M., and 
Sanitary Supervisor ; Headon, F., Gaoler, Samarai, and AVarraut Officer of 
Armed Constabulary. 

Patrol Officers :— Hears, E. ; Mu.scutt, C. R. (A.R.M., Nepa) ; Grist, 
R. W., actint; Headquarters Officer of A.C. ; Zimmer, G. F. W., Cawley, 

F. R., Murray, H. I., Neyland, J. W. (Temporary'), Barnes, \V. A. (Tem- 
porary), MrPartland, J. fTemporar}'), Roberts, M. I. (Temporary), Patrol 
Officers ; Waldron, J. C. H., Engineer, Patrol Officer. 

Treasury Department : — Kendrick, R. W. T., Treasurer ; Fitzgerald, 
J. P., Accountant and Collector, P.M., acting C.C, Trea.sury ; Imlay, N. G., 
acting Boarding Inspector, Clerk, P.M. ; Walker, A. C, Postmaster, Port 
Moresby ; Hunter, A., Post Office, P.M., Postal Assistant ; Hill, C. F., Chief 
Clerk, Customs, Samarai ; Bro.ssey, L. V., Clerk, Port Moresby, Accountant ;. 
Irviny. J. H., Clerk, Port Moresby ; Ru.ssell, H. F. S., Clerk, Treasury, P.M. ; 
McCristal, T. W. (Collector Customs, Daru ; Byrne, T., Chief Clerk, Samarai ; 
Smith, S., Treasury and Customs, Samarai, acting C.C. ; James, E. A., 
Examiner, Treasury and Customs, Port Moresby ; Munt, G. T-, Receiver of 
Mails, Bagoaia, Misima ; Chester, E., Receiver of Mails, Imili ; Grahamslaw, 
T., Cadet' Clerk, Post Offi.ce, P.M. ; Boileau, John, Telephone JNIechanic and 
Postal A.ssistant, Port Moresby ; Broadbent, Thos, Clerk, Treasury and 
Customs, also Sanitary Inspector ; Grant, E., Clerk, Treasury, Port Moresby ; 
Westbrook, R. F., Clerk, Treasury, Port Moresby ; Apktenian, W. J., Cleirk,. 
Port Moresby ; Ouinton, H., Clerk, Port Moresby ; Swinnerton, F. P., Record 
Clerk, Treasury ; Howell, J., Temporary Clerk. 

Government Store : — Ross, H. A., Government Storekeeper ; Chapman, 
S., Clerk ; Teina Materua, Native Clerk ; Gavera, Native Clerk ; Graham, 
W. E., Cadet Clerk ; Christie, G., Storeman ; Holt, F. V., Clerk (Temporary) ; 
Vivian, R. A., Assistant Government Storekeeper (Temporary) ; Dugdale, 
R., Temporary Assistant. 

vSub-Collectors : — Harris, E. C, Samarai, Port Moresby ; Davies, F. N.^ 
Bon^gai, Samarai ; Button, A. K., Daru. 

Lauds, Survey and Mines Department : — Smith, Hon. vStaniforth, Comr. 
for Lands ; Smith, W. R., Chief Government Surveyor ; Pinney. C. R., 
Draughtsman ; Turnbull, G. W., Draughtsman ; Hardy, H. W., Clerk ; Pratt, 
A. E.", Staff Surveyor ; Blackwood, E. D., Staff Surveyor ; North, 1<\ J., Staff 
Surveyor ; McNeill, N., Assistant Surveyor ; Stanley, E. R., Government 
Geologist ; Mitchell, J. G., Clerk ; Havilan'd, C, Staff Surveyor (Temporary) ; 
Zimmer, J. T., Agricultural Expert; O'Reilly, H. Shelton, Draughtsman; 
Miller, A., Clerk (Temporary) ; Lowell, A. R., Clerk (Temporary). 

Agriculture : — Johnston, A., Manager, K.W.R. Plantation ; Johnston^ 
J. R., Assistant, K.W.R. Plantation; Catt, H. E., Manager, Orangerie Bay 
Plantation ; Loma.K, A. W. (Temporary), Assistant Manager, Orangerie Bay 
Plantation ; Speedie, C. S., Manager of Laloki Gardens ; Reid, L. G. S., 
Assistant; Stanley, J. B., Manager, Rigo ; Barton, C. W., Temporary As- 
sistant, Orangerie Bay Plantation ; Hind, H., Temporary Assistant, Orangerie 
Bay Plantation. 

Printing Office: — ^Baker E. G., Government Printer; Bock, W. A., 
Compositor (acting Government Printer) ; Gibson, Alfred, Compositor. 

Native Affairs Department: — Bramell, B. W. B., Commissioner; Bell, 
L. L-, Chief Inspector ; Greenland, S. A., Clerk and Inspector ; Leonard, 
C. A., Temporary Clerk. 

Public Works Department : — vSmith, W. R., Acting Director ; ^MacDonald. 
J., Superintentlent : Rcntoal, A. C, Clerk; Boden, E., Overseer, P.W.D. ; 



196 stkwart's hand book 



Jones, H., Horse Driver ; Neilsen, A., Carpenter ; Williams, V. A., Road 
Engineer ; Hay, I., Teniporary Road Overseer; Deegan, M. F., Temporary 
Clerk. 

Artisans :— Brodie, D., Shipwright ; Smith, T. P., Boatbuilder ; Dick, 
R. L., Plumber ; Switzer, W., Sailmaker ; Eiar, I., Carpenter ; Gofton, G., 
Native Ganger, Wharf ; Biars, S., (Government Carpenter ; Mellor, W., Horse- 




Dr. 

briands ; Taafe — ., G.M.O., Woodlark ; Harse, — ., G.M.O., Samarai ; O'Reilly, 
Dr., Port Moresby. 

Port Moresby European Hospital : — Wilkins, Miss E., Matron ; Hammers- 
ley, F., Acting Nurse, P.M. Hospital ; Baldwin, — ■., Acting Matron, Port 
Moresby. 

Samarai European Hospital : — Fleming, Nurse, Matron ; Miss A. 
Bodsworth, Temporary Assistant ; Miss Bodsworth, Nurse, Probationer. 

Native Hospital, Woodlark : — Miss R. Symons. Nurse. 

Agent for the Government of Papua in Sydney : — Bensted, J. T , Challis 
House, Martin Place 



BANKS. 

The Bank of New South Wales has branches at Port Moresby (manager, 
F. Allen) and at Samarai (manager, T. B. Heath). The Commonwealth 
Bank is also represented. 

WIRELESS STATIONS. 

There are wireless stations at Port Moresby, Samarai and Woodlark 
Island, the last named being one of high power. 



CHIEF BUSINESS HOUSES. 



DARU. 



Papuan Industries, Ltd., vStorekeepers, Planters, &c. 
— . Maidment. 



PORT MORESBY. 

Burns, Philp & Co., Storekeepers, Shipowners. 

Whitten Bros., Ltd., Storekeepers, Shipowners and Planters. 

B.N.G.D. Co., Ltd., Storekeepers, Shipowners and Planters. 

C. R. Baldwin, Ltd., Storekeepers and Shipowners. 

J. F. Puxley, baker. 

Papuan Courier, newspaper. 



SAMARAI. 



Burns, Philp & Co. 
Whitten Bros., Ltd. 
B.N.G.D. Co., Ltd. 
J. Clunn & Sons, Storekeepers. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 107 

WOODLARK ISI^AND. 



Whitten Bros., Ltd. 

Nelsson arii^l Shedrlen, Storekeepers and Planters. 



There are three hotels in Samarai ; two in Port Moresby. 



MISSIONS. 



CHURCH OF ENGLAND. 
Headquarters at Dogura on the north-west coast. 

Bishop of New Guinea, the Right Rev. Gerald Sharp, D.D., and Rev.'s 
F. Raymond Elder (Enio), James Fisher (Wamgera), vStephen Gill (Boiania), 
John Hunt (Menapai), Robert Leek (Port Moresby), M. E- Warren (Samarai), 
Percy Shaw (Dogura), Samuel TonUmson (Mukawa), A. C. F'lint (Ambasi), 
A. P. Jennings (Uiako), and Peter Ra,utamara (Taupota). 
^ Laymen : P'rancis Buchanan, Norman F'ettell and Henry Holland. 

Ladies : Alice Cottingham (Dogura), Maud Forman (Dogura), Maud 
Hullet (Dogura), Maud Nowland (Ganuganuana), Laura Oliver (Taupota), 
Mrs. Maud Shaw (Dogura), Mrs. Tomlinson (Mukawa), Ida Percy (Dogura), 
Mrs. Edith Fisher (Wamgera), Ethel Slade (Dogura), Esme Strover (Samarai), 
M. Russell (Ganuganuana). 



METHODIST. 

Headquarters at Ubuia, off the north-west coast of Normanby Island. 

The Rev.'s. Matthew K. Gilmour (chairman of district), (at Ubuia), 
Arthur H. Scrivin (Dobu), George H. Shepherd (Ubuia), R03' S. Taylor 
(Woodlark), Alfred W. Guy (Bunama), Allan M. Davis (Kiriwina), J. Ron^dd 
Andrews (Mi.sima), W^iliiam Green (Bwaidoga), and Ernest G. Hall. 

LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

The Rev.'s B. T. Butcher (Aird Hill), J. B. Clark (Port Moresby), C. F. 
Rich (Fife Bay), H. M. Dauncev (Delena), E. B. Riley (Darn), R. L-' Turner, 
M.A. (Vatorata), Caleb Beharel'l (Hida), W. J. V. Saville (Mailu), E. Pryce 
Jones (Moru), H. P. vSchlencker (Orokolo), and C. W. .4bel (Kwato). 



ROMAN CATHOLIC. 

The list of the Roman Catholic missionaries is not available. 



LIST OF RESIDENTS. 



Port Moresby District — Central Division. 

Adrian. John James, store manager. Port Moresby. 

Anderson, Ralph, miner, Port ]\Ioresby. 

Armit, Lionel Peroy Barton, Civil >Scrvant, Port Moresby, 

Armit, :\Irs. Port Moresby. 

Armit, Reginald Edgar I<ees, shop assistant, Port Moresby] 



198 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

Atkinson, IvHzabeth, I'ort Moresby. 

Atkinson, Oliver John, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Baker, Kdward, Oeorge, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Baldie, James Webster, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Baldie, Katherine, Christie, Port Moresby. 

Bates, Alfred Josiali, civil servant, Port More.sby. 

Bates, Beatrice Annie, Port Moresby. 

Bell, Leslie Livingstone, civil servant, I'ort Moresby. 

Betlmne, Albert Hdward, ininer, Tupuselei. 

Bellamy, Raynor Laming, doctor, Port Moresby. 

Bethune, Albert Edward, miner, Tupuselei. 

Biar, John, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Blyth, Alfred, miner, Port Moresby. 

Bock, Walter Alfred, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Boileau, John George, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Boileau, Mrs. Port Moresby. 

Bolton, Jack, carpenter, Port Moresby. 

Booth, John, clerk. Port Moresby. 

Bomgren, Carl Rnc, wharfinger, Port ]\Ioresby. 

Bomgren, Rose Alice, Port Moresby. 

Bowes, T. K., plantation as.sistant. Port Moresby. 

Brien, J. F,., civi' servant. Port More-sb}'. 

Brien, Mrs., Port Moresby. 

Bramell, Bertram William, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Brossey, Louis \'ictor, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Brodie, David, carpenter, Port Moresby. 

Bruce, Ellen, Port Moresby. 

Bruce, William Cunningham, planter, Port Moresby. 

Budds, Margaret, Port Moresby. 

Budds, Samuel, blacksmith, Port Moresby. 

Bulk, Frederick, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Burns, Annie Prudence, Port Moresby. 

Burns, Arthur John, accountant. Port Moresby. 

Butterworth, George Botolph, contractor. Port Moresby. 

Cahill, Dome, store assistant, Port Moresby. 

Cahill, Patrick, carpenter, Port Moresby. 

Campbell, John Norman Douglas, Port Moresby. 

Chalmers, Campbell William, manager, Bomana. 

Champion, Florence, Port Moresby. 

Champion, Herbert \^'illiam, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Champion, John Edward, miner, Port Moresby. 

Champion, Thomas, grocer, Port Moresby. 

Charlton, Cecil William, carpenter. Port Moresby. 

Charpentier, Pro,sper Norman, miner, Port Moresby. 

Chester, Edwin, clerk. Port Moresby. 

Christie, Alexander, miner, Sapphire Creek. 

Christie, George, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Christie, William, engineer. Port Moresby. 

Clark, Re^'. J. B., missioner. Port Moresby. 

Clark, Mrs. A., Port Moresby. 

Cox, A. J., wireless operator, Port Moresby. 

Cox, Mrs. Port Moresby. 

Coote, Phillip, manager. Port Moresby. 

Coote, Mrs. Port INIoresby. 

Cruickshank, Frank, planter. Port Moresby. 

Danby, Joseph Arthur Charles, miner, Tupuselei. 

Davies, Norman F'rederick, civil servant, Port IMoresby. 

Davies, Anme Monica, Port ^Moresby. 

Deane, H. M., Port IMoresby. 

Dick, J. C, overseer, Kanosia. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANlja 1.99 

Dillon, A. II., clerk, Port Moresby. 

Dillon, Mrs. Port Moresby. 

Dilitn, — ., clerk, Port Moresby. 

Dihm, Mrs., Port IMoresby. 

Doyle, Andrew, planter, Laloki. 

Drewe, Leslie Arthur, clerk, Port Moresby. 

Farr, Charles George, civil servant, Port ]Morefiby. 

Fidler, W. H., mechanic. Port Moresb)^ 

Fidler, Mrs., Port Motesby. 

Fitzgerald, James Paul, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Fowler, Jean, Port Moresby. 

Garrod, Robert George, baker. Port Moresby. 

Gibson, Alfred, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Gordon, Robert, Motorist, Port Moresby. 

Graham, Allan Stewart, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Grahamslaw, Annie, Port Moresby. 

Grahamslaw, James, plumber. Port Moresby. 

Grayson, Harry, machinist. Port MorevSby. 

Greenaway, Alfred, Planter. 

Greenaway, Alfred, planter. 

Greenland, Stanley Arthur, clerk, Por^t Moresby. 

Greenland, Mrs., Port Moresbj'. 

Gregory, Mrs. Port Moresby. 

Griffiths, Jo,seph, overseer, Bcmana. 

Griffiths, Naomi, Boinana. 

Grist, Richard Walter, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Haigh, Florence May, Port Moresby. 

Hardy, Herbert William, civil servant. Port Moresby 

Harmont, Edward Montague, driver. Port Moresby. 

Hart, William John, Port Moresby. 

Hart, Kmily Adeline, Port Moresby. 

Hartley, John \\^illiam, fisherman. Port Moresby. 

Healy, Agnes Maud, Port Moresby. 

Healy, Michael Thomas, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Hedges, H., engineer. Port Moresby. 

Hedges, Mrs., Port Moresbj^. 

Herbert, Charles Edward, judge, Port Moresby. 

Herbert, Mrs. Port Moresby. 

Hickman, E-. wireless. Port Moresby. 

Hilda, ■ — ., accountant. Port Moresby. 

Hides, Horace Herbert, labourer. Port Moresb)'. 

Hodges, John Demster, seaman, Port Moresby. 

Hunter, Annie, Port Moresl)y. 

Hunter, Alex. James, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Hunter, Robert, planter, Hitau. 

Huntington, Henry William, Hemsworth, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Irish, Robert Eastbourne, overseer, Katea. 

Jackson, Charles Frederick, clerk. Port Moresby. 

Jackson, William, accountant, Port Moresby. 

James, Ernest Alfred, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Jewell, Arthur, planter. Port Moresby. 

Kendrick, May, Port IMore.sby. 

Kendrick, Percy Charles, auctioneer, Kanosia. 

Kendrick, Robert William Turner, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

King, Henry Charles, carpenter, Port Moresby. 

King, Mina, Port More.sby. 

Kirby, Walter John, clerk. Port Moresby. 

Lamont, William, miner. Port Moresby. 

Lawson, Arthur Norman, mission, Bisiatabu. 

L,awson, Ivmd, Bisiatabu. 



200 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

Leek, Rev. Robert, priest, Pert Moresby. 

Leek, Oliver, Port Moresby. 

I,ee, Allan Lewis, dentist, Port Moresby. 

Leigh, Emily Mary Weldhani, Port Moresby. 

Leigh, Percival Henry, engineer, Port Moresby. 

Leonard, Cyril Ambrose, clerk. Port Moresby. 

Lever, Ivthelinda Catherine, Port Moresby. 

Lever, Percival Gecrge, engineer, Port Moresby. 

Little, William John, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Long, Stanley Wimble, engineer, Fairfax Harbour. 

Long, Alice Louisa, Port Moresby. 

Loudon, George Archibald, mine manager. Port Moresby. 

Loudon, Winifred, Port Moresby. 

Lowell, A., clerk. Port Moresby. 

MacDonald, John, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

MacDonald, Minnie, Port Moresby. 

McCrann, Thomas, Port Moresby. 

McPartland, J. M., civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Marshall, Eliza Eddy, Port Moresby. 

Marshall, Rhodes Edward, storeman. Port Moresby. 

Marshall, G. A., plantation manager, Kanosia. 

Marshall, Mrs., 'Kanosia. 

Miller, Thomas James, overseer, lavarere. 

Mitchell, Alexander Murray, ironmonger. Port Moresby. 

Munro, PCUen ^'lolet. Port Moresby. 

Munro, Robert Smith, contractor. Port Moresby. 

Murray, Hubert Leonard, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Murray, John Hubert Plunkett, Lieut. -Governor, Port Moresby. 

Murray, Pauline Anna, Port Moresby. 

Mustard, Archibald, miner. Port Moresby. 

Mustard, Nellie, Port Moresby. 

Nelson, John, trader. Port Moresby. 

Noller, Elizabeth Jane, Port Moresby. 

NoUer, Eniil August, plumber. Port Moresby. 

O'Malley, James Thomas, civil servant. Port Moresbj'. 

O'Reilly-Shelton, J., draughtsman, Port Moresby. 

O'Reilly-Shelton, Mrs., Port Moresby. 

O'Reilly, Bertram Charles Noble, doctor, Port Moresby. 

Osborne, Percy Rawlings, mine manager, Laloki. 

Osborne, Jessie, Port Moresby. 

Parker, Henry, Port Moresby. 

Pechotsch, Adalbert Raimund, assay er, Port Moresby. 

Penrose, George, miner. Port Moresby. 

Percy, Harold AA'illiam, seaman, Manu-Manu. 

Pettitt, Frances, cierk, Port Moresby. 

Phillips, William Henry Alexander, accountant, Port Moresby. 

Pope, Sterling, trader, Motu-Motn. 

Pratt, Alfred F^rnest, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Pratt, I\Iary Isabella, Sogen. 

Pratt, Nora Amy, Sogeri. 

Priddle, Charles, mine manager. Port Moresby. 

Priddle, Eva A'iolet, Port Moresby. 

Puley, James Faj'crs, baker. Port Moresby. 

Quinn, William Vincent, plantation over.seer, Kanosia. 

Reid, Walter Mark, manager. Port Moresby. 

Richards, Herbert Victor, store manager. Port Moresby. 

Rogerson, Herbert William, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Ross, Eric Sutherland, overseer, Koitakinumu. 

Ross, Hugh Alexander, civil servant, Port ^Moresby. 

Rosser, Henry Nicol, civil servant, Port Moresby. 



OF THE PACIFIC, ISLANDS 201 

Rosser, Violet May, Port Moresby. 

Rosser, Wilfrid Ernest, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Ryan, Bridget Mary, Port Moresby. 

Ryan, Timothy Denis, hotelkeeper. Port More.sby. 

Sarich, Elizabeth Ann, Port Moresby. 

Sarich, Matte, Carrier, Port Moresby. 

Saunders, Joseph, miner. Port Moresby. 

Sefton, Ruth Isabel, Koitakinumu. 

Sefton, Thomas Leslie, plantation overseer, Koitakinumu. 

Simpson, William Arthur, planter, lavarere. 

Skelly, Edgar Clarence, manager, Port Moresby. 

Skinner Shelton Brock, carpenter. Port Moresby. 

Smith, Frederick Thomas, boat builder, Port Moresby. 

Smith, Mehnda May, Port IMoresby. 

Smith, Wilham Robert, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

vSmith, Mrs., Port Moresby. 

Spears, Alexander, carpenter. Port Moresby. 

Speedie, Charles Sheridan, Hambron Bluff. 

Speedie, Mrs. , Port Moresby. 

Stanley, Evan Richards, government geologist, Port Moresby. 

Stanley, Helen Mary Benson, Port Moresby. 

Stewart, George, Napa Napa. 

Stewart, Selina, Napa Napa. 

Strong, Dr. Walter Marsh, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Stubbs, Clifford Cameron, carpenter, Port Moresby. 

vSwain, Harry William, master mariner, Port Moresby. 

Swain, Mrs., Port Moresby. 

Tapp, — ., ofticer in charge wireless, Port Moresby. 

Tapp, Mrs., Port Moresby. 

Turnbull, (iilbert Munro, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

Villiers, Andrew, contractor, Port Moresby. 

Vivian, Reginald, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Waldron, Joseph Charles Herbert, engineer. Port Moresby. 

Wales, Hector Rankin, manager. 

Walker, Alfred Cnrwen, civil servant, Port Moresby. 

Walsh, Michael Thomas, storeman. Port Moresby. 

Walsh, Richard, manager. Port Moresby. 

Ward, Ernest Trevor, Itikinumi. 

West, Albert, civil servant. Port Moresby. 

West, Beatrice, Port Moresby. 

Whitbourne, Archibald, manager, lavarere. 

Williams, Henry, overseer, Lealea. 

Williams, vSeVmour Williams. 

Wills, Samuel Alfred, accountant. Port Mcresijy. 

Wisdell, William, wharfinger, Port Moresby. 

Wood, Percy James, store manager. Port Moresby. 

Wright, Constance, Sapphire Creek. 

Wnght, Joseph, labourer. Sapphire Creek. 

Wythes, Gustavus, miner, Port Moresby. 

Rico District— Central Division. 
Eeharell, Rev. C, missionary. Hula. 
Beharell, :Mrs. M. N., missionary, Hula. 
Cawley, Frank Reginald, civil servant. 
English, A. C, trader, Barodobo, Rigo. 
English, Mrs., Barodobo, Rigo. 

Johnston, A., plantation manager, Gobaragere, K.W. River. 
Johnston, Mrs., Gobaragere, K.W. River. 
Martin, G. G., planter, Ivaloura, Rigo. 



202 STEWART'S H\NP BOOK 

Miller, J., trader, Maulci, Rigo. 

Nevitt, T., plantation manager, Tavai. 

Pollard, A., plantation assistant, Tavai. 

Robertson, \V., plantation assistant, Kokibagu. 

Sinclair, Allan, McGregor, Tavai. 

Stanley, J. B., retired, Maopa. 

Taylor, carpenter, Kokibagn. 

Turner, Rev. R. L-, missionary, V'atorata. 

Turner, Mrs. R. E., missionary, \'atorata. 

Walsh, W., trader, Paramana, Maopa. 



Mekeo District — ^Centr.\t, Division. 

Allora, Madeline, INIekeo. 

Anderson, Eric, planter, Mekeo. 

Badams, Joe, planters assistant, Mekeo. 

Baker, John R., Mekeo. 

Balusson, Rosalie, Mekeo. 

Batard, Claudine, Mekeo. 

Bray, Joseph, trader, Mekeo. 

Buchanan, William, trader, Mekeo. 

Caron, Albert, missionary, Mekeo. 

Carrol, Catherine, Mekeo. 

Chabot, Joseph, mis.sionary, Mekeo. 

Chatolher, Valentine, missionary, Mekeo. 

ColUns, Edgar, plantation overseer, Mekeo. 

Collins, Gordon, Mekeo. 

de Boismenu, Alain Guynot, missionary, Mekeo. 

de Moor, Peter, missionary, ]SIekeo. 

Desnoos, Gustave, missionary, Mekeo. 

Duflot, Helene, Mekeo. 

Evans, Edmund, sawmill manager, Mekeo. 

Eschleman, — . 

Fox, Mary, Mekeo. 

Gildea, John Alec, Mekeo. 

Gleeson, Margaret, Mekeo. 

Gors, Arthur M., Mekeo. 

Gors, Otto Charles. Mekeo. 

Guilbeaud, Ernest, missionary, Mekeo. 

Heffernan, Honora, ^Nlekeo. 

Henkelman, John Adrian, missionary, Mekeo. 

Jones, Mary, Mekeo. 

Kelly, Mary, Mekeo. 

Koopman, Gertrude, Mekeo. 

Little, Wilham J., civd servant, Kairuku. 

Masselin, Albortine, Mekeo. 

McTavish. John, Mekeo. 

Neyland, F., civil servant, Kairuku. 

O'Connor, Eric, Mekeo. 

Paret, Julie, Mekeo. 

Poupeney, Joseph, missionary, Mekeo. 

Priem, Adrian, missionary, Mekeo. 

Roger, Albyn A., plantation as.sistant, Mekeo. 

Septvants, Angele, Mekeo. 

Simon, Jeanne, Mekeo. 

Suramy, Francme, Mekeo. 

Svpanson, Herbert James, miner, Mekeo. 

Thomas, Marie, Mekeo. 

Wetherall, Pearson T., planter, Mekeo. 

Williams Alfred A., planter, Mekeo. 



OK THE PACII-IC IStAXDS 2U3 



SaMARAI — I^ASTERN DIVISION . 

Abel, Rev. Charles William, missionary. 

Abel, Beatrice Kmma. 

Armstrong, Walter, store assistant. 

Anderson, Christian Oalf, mariner. 

Anderson, Jessie. 

Anderson, Neil, driver. 

Angel, William, store assi.stant. 

Aumnller, George Edward, store manager. 

Bosworth, Amy. 

Blenc-owe, James L,eslie Howard, plantation managei. 

Blencowe, Mrs. 

Blencowe, Francis William, recruiter. 

Blencowe, Sydney, overseer. 

Blytt, Haakon, trader. 

Belfield, James Walter, miner. 

Bernier, Frederick Alphonse, manager. 

Bernier, \"irginie Hellen. 

Bunting, Frederick William, overseer. 

Bunting, Arthur Herbert, planter. 

Bunting, I'Ula Florence. 

Bunting, Robert Maurice, planter. 

Beck, William Grundt, mariner. 

Butler, Albert Edward, recruiter. 

Burton, Charles, wharfinger. 

Burton, Alva. 

Brabson, Florence. 

Ballantyne, James, shipwright. 

Ballantyne, Mecta. 

Brophy, Michael, carpenter. 

Carlow, Reginald, overseer. 

Cariow, Alice. 

Chenoweth, Lilian May. 

Cox, Percy, manager. 

Clark, Lawrence Edward, manager. 

Catt, Henry Edwin, manager. 

Catt, Margaret. 

Clay, Edwin, manager. 

Cloberty, Peter, civil servant, Samarai. 

Chesser, John, miner. 

Connelly, Lincoln Grant Gartrolle, civil servant. 

Clunn, Colin, manager. 

Clunn, Rose. I 

Clunn, John, plantation manager. 

Campbell, Duncan, shipwright. 

Campbell, ]Maria. 

Cooper, (jeorge, clerk. 

Cooper, Mrs. 

Cottingham, Alice Maud, mission worker, Dogura. 

Da}^, Cecil, overseer. 

Driver, James Henry, (■t)ntractor. 

Donovan, Henry ^Morgan Serle, planter. 

Dalleii, Arthur Ciifton, recruiter. 

Edenborough, Henry James, clerk. 

Edenborongh, Alice. 

Evenett, Frederick, recruiter. 

Edwards, John, miner. 

KUis, Bartholomew, shipwright. 

Eichhorn, Albert l<'rederick, planter. 

Eichhorn, G.eorge Charles, planter. 



STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

Eichhorn, Marv I'.Uon. 

Paris, I'mlenck Norman, manager. 

inctciier, Henrv, miner. 

rietcher, Reginald Keith, civil servant, Samara.. 

Fletcher, Mrs., Samarai. 

Forman. Maud Eveline, miss.sion Nvorker, Dogura. 

Forester, Londen Edgar, planter. 

Frame, Edward James, accountant. 

FredmarOeorge Harold, civil servant, Samarai. 

Oarlick, Alice May. 

Garlick, James l^ynden, storeman. 

Garstang, Harrie Ernest, civd servant. 

Grav, John, planter. 

Grimshaw, Osborne, civd servant. 

Grmishaw, Beatrice Ethel, authoress. 

Gilmour, Rev. Matthew Kerr, m.s.sionary. 

Gilmour, Nora Ldian. 

Gibb, Janet Catherine. 

Gotten, Flora. 

Green, William, missionary. 

Green, Ellen, missionary. 

Harrison, Edward WilUam, manager. 

Harrison, George Fernley, manager. 

Harse, Dr. Walter, physician. 

Harse, Florence Mary. 

Headon, Frederick, civd servant. 

Heath, — . 

Henderson, Laurence, hotelkeeper. 

Flenderson, Elizabeth. 

Higgmson, Charles Bingham, civd servant 

Higgmson, Ivv Laura, civd servant. 

Hullett, Nellie Georgma Aston. 

Inman, Emma. 

Inman, Maud. 

Inman, Olive. 

Izod, Horace, civil service. 

Izod, Norman, engineer. 

Tansen, Hans, over.seer. 

Johns, Robert Richard, carpenter. 

Johns, Caroline. . 

Keogh, Thomas, blacksmith. 

Keogh, Catherine. 

Kruger, Frederick Wagner, planter. 

Lev/in, Eva. 

Lomax, Archibald, overseer. 

Leslie, Christiana Maria. 

Leetch, Honora Kathleen. 

Matley, Elpeth Macdonald. 

Matley, James WiUiam. 

Moody, Frederick Owen. 

Morgan, William, planter. 

Meredyth, — ., manager. 

Moxon, Francis Henry, retired. 

Miller, George Harold, clerk. 

Miller, Ruby Enialine. 

MacAlpine, Alexander, civil servant. 

McDonald, Isla Kerr. 

Mahony, Frank Patrick, planter. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 205 



Jklaliony, Klizabeth. 

^larks, Florence. 

Nowland, Maud, mission worker. 

Nicholson, Charles Borchard, sailmaker, 

Niccol, John Hunter, manager. 

Newland, Walter John, seaman. 

Newton, William James, miner. 

O'Connor, Stanley, manager. 

Oliver, L,aura. 

Patching, Cecelia Sarah. 

Patching, William Benjamin, auctioneer. 

Parkin, Margaret Evelyn. 

Pell, James, manager. 

Percy, Ida May, mission worker, Dogura. 

Piatt, Charles Herbert, recruiter. 

Piatt, Sarah Maria. 

Poole, Victor, civil servant. 

Rich, Rev. Charles Fry, missionary. 

Rich, Caroline Florence. 

Rowe, William Flenry, miner. 

Robertson, Colin Campbell, missionary. 

Sharp Gerald, Anglican bishon. 

Shepherd, George H , missionarj'. 

Smith, I^., overseer. 

Solomon, Klia, planter. 

Slade, Fthel, mission worker, Dogura. 

Sloan, Joseph, miner, Samarai. 

vStork, Alick, recruiter. 

Sheddon, William, planter. 

Smith, Sydney, civil servant. 

Smith, Eva. 

Shaw, Rev. Percy Charles, missionary. 

Shaw, IMaud. 

Scriven, Margaret. 

Scriven, Arthur Henry, missionary. 

Strover, Esme, mission worker. 

Turner, Charles Owen, recruiter, Samarai. 

Turner, Ellen. 

Tooth, Ernest, vSeptimas, surveyor. 

Tooth, Alice Maud. 

Topal, Henry J., civil servant, Samarai. 

Taylor, Joseph, missionary. 

Walke, Percy, clerk, Samarai. 

Wallace, James Buckle, miner. 

V.'allace, Joseph William, trader. 

Warrer, M. E. missionary. 

\^'hitehead, James Henry, mis.sionary. 

Whitten, Robert Frederick, merchant. 

Wilkes, James Richard Adara, manager. 

Williams, William Thomas, miner. 

Willock, William Joseph, clerk, Sainarai. 

Wilson, James Herbert, miner. 

Winlerbottom, Flonor Etta. 

Wisdell, Charles, storeman. 

Wisdell, F;Uzabeth Louisa. 

Wright, Mr.«. 

Wright, William Henry, manager. 

Young, Kate. 

Young, William George, carpenter. 



206 STEWART' vS HAND BOOK 

WooDi.ARK Island — Kultjmadau Division. 

Aitken, Peter, engine driver. 

Aitken, Margaret. 

Anderson, William Forbes, planter. 

Anderson, Hannah Moir. 

Anderson , M and . 

Arbouin, Charles, trader. 

Broadbent, Ivniest, civil servant. 

Clancy, Arthur, miner. 

Cnrtin, James, miner. 

Dalgreen, Hansgard Charles, recruiter. 

Drewe, Douglas Edgar, store keeper. 

Ede, Richard Henry, planter. 

Ede, Isidore, planter. 

Ede, Rachel Emma. 

Evans, John, nnner. 

Evenett, Arthur Ernest, carpenter. 

Flower, Alfred Edward, miner. 

Grant, Edwin, civil servant. 

Greentree, Paul Preston, miner. 

Greentree, Maud Alethea. 

Hay, James P'rancis, miner. 

Hughes, William Herbert, planter. 

Ilott, John, miner. 

Jones, George Henry, miner. 

Johannessen, Einar, recruiter. 

Keegan, William, miner. 

Koig, John, miner. 

Jones, Edward Morris, miner. 

Mears, Edwin William Jones, civil servant. 

Morley, Henry Ethelbert, miner. 

Monnington, Frederick, miner. 

McLeish, John, miner. 

MacKreth, Reginald, miner. 

MacFarlane, John, miner. 

Nelson, John Cooper, recruiter. 

Nelsson, John Gusth,, storekeeper. 

Nels.son, Edith. 

O'Dell, William, hotelkeeper. 

O'Dell, Mary Ann. 

O'Dell, Florence Annie. 

Osborne, Eric Edward, planter, Rossel Island. 

Osborne, Clarice, Rossel Island. 

Robertson, James, miner. 

Reynolds, Arthur, engine driver. 

Rochfort, Francis Augustine, miner. 

Symons, Alexander Henry, civil servant. 

Sheret, David, miner. 

Sinclair, Allan, miner. 

Taylor, Roy S., mi.ssionary. 

Thompson, William Henry, miner. 

Thompson, Mary Ann. 

Taaffe, John, medical practitioner. 

Taaffe, Ellen. 

Tweed, Thomas, miner. 

Watkms, George, miner. 

Whitehead, Charles, recruiter. 

Walton, George William, planter. 



OF THF PACIFIC I3I,ANDS 207 

Misi.MA Island — South-Eastkrn Division. 

Ariotti, Severine, miner, Misima. 

Anderson, John, miner. 

Andrews, J. Ronald, missionar}'. 

Boyd, Robert, miner, Misima. 

Boyd, Isabel, Misima. 

Carlow, James, miner, Misima. 

Coleman, Alfred, planter, ^Mambaro. 

Coppard, Charles John, miner, Misima. 

Craig, T. E., planter, Sudest, Misima. 

Franklin, Louis Charles, miner, Misima. 

Grant, Alexander, miner, Mi.sima. 

Hamilton, Charles Edward, miner, Misima. 

Hamilton, Rebecca Agnes, Misima. 

Hartley, ^lary Ellen, 5lisima. 

Hartley, Lionel Cecil George, miner, Misima, 

Hurley, Francis Cecil, miner, Misima. 

Loust, Sophia Amelia, Tilisima. 

Loust, Arthur Richmond, engineer, IMisima. 

Hunt, George James, storekeeper, Misima. 

Neill, Thomas, engineer, ]Misima. 

Patterson, Raynard, mine manager, Misinin. 

Rolf, Alfred, miner, IMisima. 

vSlater, George, miner, Misima. 

Smith, John, miner, Misima. 

Walker, William Gilbert Ross, carpenter, Misima. 

Wills, Thomas, miner, Mi.sima. 



Trobriand Islands — -South-eastern Division. 

Auerl)ach, Edward Aubrey, planter. 
Auerbach, Theodore .\ubrey, planter. 
Campbell, ]\Iurdo Norman, planter. 
Davies, Allan M., missionary. 
Hancock, William Robert, trader. 
Pearce, Florence Jane. 
Priest, William Joseph, fisher. 
Pnsk, Ethel Marv. 



Cape Nelson — North-Eastern Division. 



Elder, Frank Raymond, priest. 
Fisher, James Edward John, priest. 
Hooper, George vStanley, trader. 
MacDonnell, Frank, civil servant. 
MacDonnell, Edelle Earienne. 
Prosser, Sydney Walter, recruiter. 
Walker, George Sydney, recruiter. 



AbAU — E-A.STERN DIVISION. 

Bastard, Edwin Montague, civil .servant, Abau. 

Bastard, Mrs. 

Broomfield, John jVngle, planter, Abau. 

Clark, Frank Leslie, planter, Abau. 

Cotter, Michael, planter, Abau. 

Cowley, Campbell, planter, Abau. 



208 STEWART'S HAND bOOK 

Crewe, Matthew, luiucr, Abau. 

Fletcher, John, miner, Abau. 

Holm, Melgo, planter, Abau. 

Horn, Florence FJiza, Abau. 

Malinverni, Joseph, miner, Abau. 

Metcalf, Charles Tasman, planter, Abau. 

Miller, James, trader, Abau. 

Nelson, Charles, miner, Abau. 

Preston, James, miner. 

Reid, Leslie John S., planter, Abau. 

Savdle, Frances, Mailu. 

Saville, William James, missionary, Mailu. 

Watson, Stephen, plantation manager, Abau. 

Weekley, Fred, miner, Abau. 

' KoKODA District — Kumusi Division. 

Berriman, Richard, miner, Yodda. 
Fowler, James Grant, civil servant. 
Lawrence, Wilfred James, miner, Yodda. 
Newman, Alexander, civil servant, Kokoda. 
Parkes, William, mmer, Yodda. 



Buna District — Kumusi Division. 

Bondeson, Peter, miner. 

Blyth, Alex, Listen, civil servant. 

Blyth, Mrs. 

Gibbs, Harry Martin, miner, Buna Bay. 

Holland, Henry, missionary. Buna Bay. 

Kelly, Patrick, plantation manager, Buna Bay. 

Gates, Ernest Thomas, storekeeper. Buna Bay. 

Gates, Florence, Buna Bay. 

Spiller, Hobart, recruiter. Buna Bay. 

Vieusseux, Francis Eric, recruiter. Buna Bay. 



loMA — Mambare Division. 



Davies, David, miner, loma. 
Elliott, Robert, miner, loma. 
Lassen, Peter Theodor, miner, loma. 
Oldham, Eric Ryton, civil servant. 
Park, William, miner, loma. 



Daru — Western Division. 

Beach, Hiigh Perc}^ overseer. 

Boag, Frank Leigh, doctor. 

Cowling, John, planter. 

Flint, Aclin Leopold, civil servant. 

Freshwater. James Bruce, plantation manager. 

Freshwater, Nellie. 

Harman, Daniel Coulter, store manager. 

Harman, Alice. 

LufT, I^eonard, recruiter. 

Lyons, Arthur Power, civil servant.. 

McCristal, Thomas Robert, civil servant, 

Maidment, Walter Austin, storekeeper. 

Maidment, Ellen. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISr<ANDS 209 



Osborne, Herbert Court, trader. 

Palmer, Theodore Reeves, plantation manager. 

Pothier, I^ouis, trader. 

Reynolds, Harold Peter, recruiter. 

Riley, Edward Raxter, missionary. 

Riley, Jessie Marion. 

Sutton, Joseph Henry, civil servant. 



VATr,AT,A River Area, 

Field, William Willcock, painter. 

Fanning, Joseph Patrick, overseer. 

Gilbert, Henry, carpenter. 

I,angford, Walter Gilbert, raining engineer. 

Lett, Lewis, planter. 

Lett, Bertha Mary. 

MacDonald, Donald, planter. 

Treloar. Robert Leslie, accountant. 

Wade, Arthur, oilfield director. 



Kkre.ma — GUI.F Division (excluding Vailala River Area). 

Baker, Godfrey, Hugh May, civil servant, Kerema. 

Baker, Thomas Christian, mariner, Kxikipi. 

Currie, William, trader, Kukipi. 

Gunder.sen, Ludvig, mariner, Kukipi. 

Jones, Fdwin Pryce, missionary, Moru. 

Jones, Hugh, trader, Kukipi. 

Jones. Minnie Ellis, Moru. 

Miles, Arthur William, recruiter, Kerema. 

Schlencker, Henry Percy, missionary, Orokolo. 

Schlencker, Mary Elizabeth Sarah. Orokolo. 



I.AKEKAMU GOLDFIEI-D — NEPA. 



Arnold, George, miner. 

Butler, John, miner. 

Chariton, Findlay, miner. 

Drjscoll, Edward, miner. 

Gillespie, Andrew, miner. 

Murphy, John, miner. 

Murray, Thomas, miner. 

Murray, William, miner. 

Muscutt, Charles R., civil servant. 

Neil, Michael, miner. 

Reilly, John, miner. 

Robertson, Gordon MacMillan, miner. 

Rowe, William, storeman. 

Smith, Stanley, F'rancis, miner. 

Smith, Michael, miner. 



KiKORi — DELTA Division. 



Dean, William John, master' mariner. 
Johnstone, Harold, civil servant. 
Murray, George Hugh, civil servant. 
Williams, Arthur Den.sil, planter. 
Williams, Claude Roubel, planter. 
Woodward, Ronald Austin, civil servant. 



210 STlvWAKT'S HANI) ROOK 

CUSTOMS TARIFF. 



DIVISION I.— AL,E, SPIRITS AND BEVERAGHS. 

Ale and other beer, porter, cider and perry, spirituous : — In bottle* 

aod in bulk, per gallon .. .. .. .. .. .. Is. 6d. 

Ale and other beer, porter, cider and perry, non-spirituous, per gallon Is. 
Spirits, t and spirituous liquors, n.e.i. : — 

(a) When not exceeding the strength of proof , per gallon .. 17s. 

(b) When exceeding the strength of proof per proof gallon .. 17s. 
Perfumed spirits and bay rum, per gallon . . . . . . . . 17s. 

Spirituous preparations, viz. : - Essences, fruit and other ethers, 

aromas and flavours, fluid extracts, sarsaparilla, tinctures, 
medicines, infusions, toilet preparations, limejuice and other 
fruit juices and fruit syrups, containing : — 

(a) Not more than 25 per cent, of proof spirit, per gallon 

(b) More than 25 per cent., but not more than 50 per cent, of 

proof spirit, per gallon 

(c) More than 50 per cent., but not more than 75 per cent, of 

proof spirit, per gallon 
{(i) More than 75 per cent, of proof spirit, but not over proof, 

per gallon 
(e) Overproof to be charged as spirituous liquors under 
Item .3 (b). 
Non-spirituous ethereal fruit es.sences and artificial fruit essences, 

ethers, aromas and flavours, ad valorem . . 
Wine, sparkling J, per gallon 
Wine, n.e.i. (including medicated and vermouth) : — § 

(a) Containing not more than 40 per cent, of proof spirit, per 

gallon 

(b) Containing more than 40 per cent, of proof spirit, per 

gallon 
{c) Australian, per gallon . . . . . . . . . . "is. 

I^imejuice and other fruit juices and fruit syrups, non-spirituous, per 

gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Is. 

Table waters (aerated and mineral), and preparations, n.e.i. packed 
for household use for the production thereof ; including spark- 
let bulbs, preparations, n.e.i. for compounding non-alcoholic 
beverages, per dozen pints. . .. .. .. .. .. Is. 

\\'ood naptha, methyl alcohol, and acetone, per gallon ; . . . . 2s. 



DIVISIQN II.— TOBACCO AND MANUFACTURES THEREOF. 



4s. 


3d. 


8s. 


6d. 


12s. 


9d, 


1 7s. 




10% 




1.5s. 




10s. 




17s.. 





Tobacco — 

(rt) Unm£vnufactured, n.e.i., per pound .. .. .. 3s. 6d, 

(b) Unmanufactured, but entered to be locally manufactured 
(to bp paid at time of removal to the factory) into : — 

1. Tobacco or cigarettes, per pound . . .. .. Is. 

2. Cigars, per pound . . . . . . . . . . 2s. 6d. 

* Six rtpateil qHftrts or twelve reputed pints, or twenty-fonr reputed half-piuts to be charged 
as one gallon. 

t Spirits in cases of two gallons and under, to be charged as two gallons ; over two gallons, 
and not exceeding t|iree gallons, as three gallons; over three gallons, and not exceeding f<Mir 
gallons, as four gallops; pnd so on, provided that small bottles or phials of liquor intended for 
samples or other special purposes only, may be entered at actiipl measurement. 

t Three magnunis, six reputed quarts, twelve reputed pints, or twenty- four reputed half-pints 
to he charged as onie gallon. 

§ Six reputed quarts, twelve reputed pints, or twenty-four reputed half-pints to be charged as 
one gallon. ' 



OF THK PACIFIC ISLANDS 



^11 



(c) Manufactured, n.e.i. including the weight of tags, labels 

and other attachments, per pound .. .. .. 3s. 6d. 

(if) Trade, on which twenty-nine (29) sticks or figs weigh in 
the aggregate not less than one ( 1 ) pound avoirdupois : — 

1. Entirely grown and manufactured in Australia, 

per pound . . . . . . . . . . . • 2s. 3d. 

2. Made in Australia from imported leaf, per pound 2s. 6d. 

3. N.E.I., per pound . . . . . . . . . . 3s. 

Cigars, including the weight of bands or ribbons, per poimd . . . . 8s. 

Cigarettes, including the weight of cards and mouth-pieces con- 
tained in inside packages, per pound .. .. .. .. 8s. 



DIVISION III.— AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND GROCERIES. 



Animals, living .. 

Bacon and hams, partly or wholly cured, per pound .. 

Biscuits, viz. : — 

(a) Cabin, Pilot and similar bread 
{b) N.E.I., per pound 

Blue, laundry, per pound 

Butter, including Kutterine and margarine when coloured and 
marked as prescribed, per pound . . 

Cakes, including puddings other than meat puddings, per pound 

Candles, tapers and night lights, per pound 

Capers, ad valorem 

Cheese, per pound 

Chutney, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Cocoanuts and copra 

CofTee and chicory, including coffee and milk, per pound 

Confectionery, n.e.i. including cocoa, cocoa and milk, chocolatfe, 
bon-bons, and mixed packets of confectionery containiidg 
trinkets (gross weights) ; sugar candy ; medicated coufet- 
tionery ; cachous ; crystallised or candied fruits ; confec- 
tionery, ornamental ; cocoa beans, .shells and nibs ; cocoa butter 
caramel ; caramel paste, and caramel butter, per pound 

Eggs in shell, ad valorem 

Egg contents, dry, ad valorem . . 

Pats, including axle and other greases, lard and tallow, ad valorem . 

Fish, viz. : — 

(a) Fresh, salted, smoked, dried, or preserved by cold procfess 

(b) Potted and concentrated, including extracts of ahd 

caviare, ad valorem . . . . . . .... 

(c) Preserved in tins or other airtight vessels, includir.g the 

weight of liquid contents, ad valorem 

Flour 

Foods, animal, n.e.i., ad valorem 

Foods, infant and invalid, n.e.i., ad valorem . . 

Fruits, viz. : — 

(a) Dried, including preserved ginger (not in liquid), per 
pound . . . . . . . . . . 

(6) Preserved in liquid, or partly preserved or pulped, includ- 
ing preserved ginger, n.e.i., per dozen pints 
{c) N.E.I. .. "" 



Free 
Id. 

Free 
Id. 
Id. 

2d. 
2d. 
Id. 
10% 
Id. 

^" /o 

Free 

2d. 



2d. 

5% 

^% 
100/ 

Free 

10% 

10% 
Free 

10% 
lOo^. 



Id. 



Is. 
Free 



21: 



STEWART S HAND BOOK 



Oiiiger, other than preserved, per pound 
Grain and pulse, viz. : — 

(.-/) Not prepared or manufactured 

(b) Prepared and manufactured, n.e.i., ad valorem . 
Honey, per pound 
Hops, per pound . . 
Insects — Bees and other 
Isijiglass, per pound 

j ams and jellies, including calves' feet but not meat jellies, per pound 
Linseed and linseed meal, ad valorem. . 
Liquorice, ad valorem . . 
Macaroni, per pound 
Malt, per bushel . . 
Matches and Vestas, ad valorem 
Meats, poultry and game, viz. : — 

[a) Potted or concentrated, including extracts of, and meat 

jellies, per pound 

(b) Preserved with or without vegetables in tins or other 

airtight vessels, including weight of liquid contents 

[c) Soups . . 

(d) N.K.I. . . 

Milk, including cream, ad valorem 

Mustard, per lb. . . 

Nuts, edible, n.e.i., per pound . . 

Oilmen's stores, n.e.i., being groceries, including culinary ancl 

flavouring essences non-spirituous, soap dyes, and condition 
foods, n.e.i., food for birds in packages for retail sale ; goods put 
up for household use not elsewhere dutiable at a higher rate, ad 
valorem 

Pickles, ad valorem 

Rice, including rice meal and rice flour, per ton 

Sago, per lb. 

Salt, viz. : — 

(a) Table preparations thereof, per ton 

{b) N.E.I. per ton . . 

vSauces, ad valorem 

vSeeds (garden), bulbs, flowers, plants, shrubs and trees 

Seed, n.e.i., ad valorem . . 

Soap, viz. : — 

(a) Toilet, fancy or medicated, ad valorem 

(b) N.E.I. ; also soap substitutes and compound detergents 

for washing and cleansing purposes, not including 

.saponaceous disinfectants, per pound 
Spices, per pound 

Starch, including starch flour, per lb. . . 
Straw, ad valorem 
Sugar, per cwt. . . 

S3'rup (golden), molasses and treacle, per cwt. 
Tapioca, per pound 
Tea, per pound . . 
Vegetables, viz. : — 

(a) Dried, dry-salted, comprevSsed or powdered, including 

dried herbs, ad valorem . . 

(b) Preserved in liquid, or part-preserved or pulped, ad 

valorem 

(c) N.E.I. 

Vermicelli, per pound 

Waxes, ad valorem 



Id. 

Free 
10% 

Id. 

Id. 
Free 

Id. 

Id. 

10% 
10% 

Id. 

6d. 
10% 



2d. 

Free 
Free 
Free 
10% 

Id. 

2d. 



10% 

10% 

10s. 

Id. 

10s. 
10s. 
10% 
Free 

10% 

10% 







Id. 








Id. 








Id. 








• 5% 








2s. 


4d 






2s. 








Id. 








2d. 





10% 

10% 

Free 

Id. 

10% 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



213 



DIVISION IV.— TEXTIIvES, FELTS AND FURS AND MANUFACTURES 
THEREOF, AND ATTIRE. 



Apparel and attire, n.e.i. for the human body, partly or wholly made 

up, including materials out into shape therefor, ad valorem 
Artificial plants, flowers, fruits, leaves and grains of ail kinds and 

materials, ad valorem 
Bags and sacks, viz. :-- 

{a} For exporting produce 

(^) N.E.I, and other jute good,«, ad valorem .. 
Bedding, including mattresses, other than wire, and pillows, ad 

valorem 
Blankets, including blanketing, rugs and rugging, ad valorem 
Canvas and duck, ad valorem . . 
Carpets, floor covering and carriage mats of any textile material 

except coir, ad valorem 
Coir mats, matting and fenders, ad valorem . . 
Cotton, viz. : — 

{n) Unmanufactured 

(b) Waste, ad valorem . . 

(c) N.E.I., ad valorem . . 
Curt.iins and blinds, ad valorem 
Diving dresses and parts thereof 

Drapery, n.e.i., including all materials composed v.holly or in part 
of cotton, silk, linen, wool or other woven fabric, ad valorem . . 

Feathers, dressed or undressed, including feathers made up into 
trimmings ; also natural birds and wings, ad valorem . . 

Felt and manufactures thereof, n.e.i., ad valorem. 

Furs and skins, ad valorem 

Hair, natural or imitation, ad valorem 

Hats, caps and bonnets, including trimmings thereon, ad valorem 

Hessian and Brattice Cloth, ad valorem 

Nets and netting, n.e.i., ad valorem 

Parasols, sunshades and umbrellas, ad valorem 

Sewing and embroidery silks and twists, ad valorem . 

Tarpaulins, tents and sails, ad valorem 

Wool, ad valorem 



10% 

Free 
10% 



10% 
10% 
10% 

10% 
10% 

Free 
5% 
10% 
10% 
Free 

10% 

10% 

r.o/ 
•' '<) 

5% 

10% 

10% 

10% 

10% 

10% 

10% 

10% 



DIVISION v.— METALS AND MACHINERY. 



Amtimnition, ad valorem 

Anchors . . 

Arms bearing the Britisli or other approved testmark, ad valorem 

Guns or rifles which do not bear the British or other approved test 

mark, or such barrels imported separately, each . . 
Axes and hatchets, ad valorem . . 
Bedsteads, including wire mattresses . . 
Bolts, nuts, rivets and wa.sliers, n.e.i., ad valorem 
Brass, viz. : — Angle, bar, blocks, pipes, plates, rods, scrap, studs 

strips, tees and tubes 
Brassware, n.e.i., ad valorem . . 
Cash registers, adding and computing machines, and all attach 

ments, ad valorem . . 
Chains and cables 
Copper, viz. : — Angle, bar, blocks, matte, pipes, plates, rods, scrap 

sheet, strips, tee and tubes 
Copper Manxifactures, n.e.i., ad valorem 



^" /o 
Free 
10% 

£5 
10% 
Free 
10% 

Free 

10% 

10% 
Free 

Free 
10% 



214 



STEWART'S HAND BOOK 



Crucibles, ad valorem 

Cutlery, ad valorem 

Uownpipe, guttering, ridging and stump-caps, ad valorem . . 

Electrical appliances and materials, ad valorem 

Fencing materials, including standards, pillars, and patent steel 

droppers of all lengths for fei:cing ; patent wedgers for droppers 

and standards 
Fire engines and extinguishers, hand . . 
Gas generating plant, including lamps, glasses and fittings, a( 

valorem 
HoUoware, ad valorem . . 
Implements and tools, n.e.i., and parts thereof, viz. :— 

(a) Agricultural, Horticultural and Viticultund 

(b) Mining 

(c) N.K.I., ad valorem . . 

Iron, viz. : — Angle, bar, billets, blooms, hoop, ingots, loop?, pipe 

(and fittings), rod, slabs and tee . . 
Iron, plate or sheet, galvanised, corrugated and plain 
I<amps, lanterns and lampware, ad valorem . . 
Lead and manufactures thereof, n.e.i., per cwt. 
Machinery, including engines, boilers and parts thereof, viz. : — 

(a) Agricultural, horticidtural and viticultural 

(h) Mining 

(f ) Printing 

(if) Refrigerating 

{e) Sawmilling 

(/) Telegraph (including aerial and telephone) 

(?) n.eTi. .. ^ 

Machines, sewing 
Metals and ores, viz. : — 

(a) Manufactures thereof, n.e.i., ad valorem .. 

(b) Unmanufactured, n.e.i. 

Metals for ceiling and lining houses, and decorations of any material 

for same, ad valorem 
Nails, screws and tacks . . 
Plated-ware, ad valorem 
Pumps of e^'ery description, ad valorem 
Rails, iron and waggons for running thereon, including fish plates, 

fish bolts, tie plates and rods, switches, points, crossings and 

inter-sections, and all articles for fastening rails to sleepers 
Stoves and ovens, ad valorem . . 

Tanks 

Tin and tinware, ad valorem 

Typev,-riters, ad valorem 

Weighing machines, including weigli-bridges, scales, spring balances 

and weights, ad valorem . . 
Wire, viz. :■ — 

(-7) Barbed 

(h) Netting 

(c) N.E.I., ad valorem .. 
Zinc and mnnufactures thereof, and zinc shavings 



10% 
10% 
10% 



Free 
Free 

10% 
10% 

I'ree 
I-'ree 
100/ 

Free 
Free 
10°/ 
23. 4d. 

Free 
Free 
Free 
Free 
Free 
Free 
Free 
Free 

10% 
Free 



!0% 
Free 

10°;, 
10°;, 



Free 
10% 
Free 
10% 
10% 

10% 

Free 
Free 
10% 
Free 



DIVISION VI.—OILS, PAINTS AND VARNISHES. 



Driers, ad valorem . . <* . 

Oils, viz. : — 

(;i) Benzine, benzoline, crude petroleum, gasoline, naptha, 
petrol, residual oil, engine distillate, kerosene below 
150 degrees test and other liquid fuel 



oOA 



Free 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



215 



(/)) Kerosene, n.e.i., per gallon . . 

[c) Castor, salad, and other oils used as medicines, ad 

valorem 

(d) N.E.I.. per gallon 

Polishes and metal powders, including dressings, inks, stains and 

pastes for leather, furniture, floors and metal goods, ad 
valorem 
Paints and colours, including kalsomine and whiting, viz. : — 
(rt) Ground in Oil 

CO N.E.I 

Putty, ad valorem . . .... 

Terebine and turpentine, per gallon 
Varnish, per gallon 



3d. 

10% 
6d. 



10% 

Free 
Free 

•^ /o 
Is. 
Is. 



DIVISION VII.— EARTHENWARE, CEMENT, CHINA, GLASS 
AND STONE. 



Beads, ad valorem 

Bottles, ad valorem 

Bricks, ad valorem 

Cement, including fibro cement 

China, parian and porcelain ware, ad valorem . . 

Crucibles, ad valorem 

Earthenware, brownware and stoneware, n.e.i., ad valorem 

Glass, ad valorem 

Glassware, ad valorem . . 

Grindstones and fittings, ad valorem . . 

Marble and stone, unwrought, ad valorem 

Pipes, drain and water, ad valorem 

Slates and slate pencils for schools 

Slate, wrought, n.e.i., and un\\rought, ad valorem 

Files, ad valorem. . 



10% 
10% 
10% 
Free 
10% 
10% 
10% 
10% 
10% 

^" /O 

O 'r, 

10"/ 
Free 

5% 
10% 



DIVISION VIII.— DRUGS AND CHEMICALS. 



Acetic acid, extract or essence of vinegar : — 

(■») Vinegar, standard (as prescribed by Departmental By- 
laws), the product of malt or grain or fruit juice by 
alcholic and acetic fermentation, containing not more 
than 6 per centum of absolute acetic acid, per gallon 



(h) Vinegar, not the product of malt or grain or fru 

per gallon 
(c) Solutions, extracts or essences containing more 
per centum of absolute acetic acid, for even,- e 
per centum or part thereof, per gallon 

Acids, n.e.i., ad valorem. . 

Boiler fluid, ad valorem . . 

Camphor, ad valorem 

Carbonate and bi-carbonate of soda, ad valorem 

Carbonic acid gas, ad valorem . . 

Cyanide of Potassium and cyanide of sodium . . 

Dips and washes for animals, ad valorem 

Disinfectants, ad valorem 

Drugs, chemicals and medicines, n.e.i., ad valorem 

Glycerine and petroleum jelly, ad valorem 



t juice, 

than 6 
Ntra 10 



fid. 
Is. 



3d. 
10% 

5% 
10% 
10% 

5% 
Free 

50/ 

10% 
10% 



.iin stivWaut's hand book 

Insei^ticides, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% 

Perfumery, including all toilet preparations non-spirituous, ad 

valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% 

Sulpliur, ad valorem . . . . . . . . 10% 

Tartaric arid, cream of tartar, and citric acid, ad valorem 10% 



DIVISION IX.— WOOD. WICKKR AND CANE. 



Bamboo, cane and wickerware . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Doors, windows and sashes . . . . . . . . . . . . I'ree 

Furniture, n.e.i., including any article of wood or partly of wood, 
wholly or partly made up or finished, or used in any building 

or premises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Handles, viz. : . . 

(7.) For tools and implements exempt from duty .. .. Free 

(?>) N.E.I. , ad valorem 10% 

Oars and sculls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Timber, dressed or undressed . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Woodenware, n.e.i., including all articles made wholly or in part of 

wood, ad valorem . . . . . . . , . . 10% 



DIVISION X.— JEWFXLERY AND FANCY GOODS. 



Bullion and coin ; gold and silver bar, ingot and sheet .. .. Free 
Chronometers, clocks and w^atches, including pedometers and 

pocket counters and the like, ad valorem . . . . . . . . 10% 

Curios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

FancA' goods, including articles used for ornamen*^al purposes, or 

partly for use and partly for ornament, ad valorem . . . . 10% 

Fisning appliances, ad valorem . . .. .. .. .. .. 10% 

Game?, outdoor and indoor, articles used for, ad valorem .. .. 10% 

Glasses, opera, field and marine, including telescopes, microscopes 

and similar glasses, ad valorem .. .. .. .. .. 10% 

Instruments, musical and talking machines and parts thereof, ad 

valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% 

Jewels and jewellery, including cameos, intaglios, and all precious 

stones, ad valorem . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 10% 

Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Spectacles, and other reading glasses, ad valorem .. .. .. 10% 

Toys, ad val..irem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% 



DIVISION XL— LEATHER AND RUBBER. 



Belting, viz. : — Leather, rubber, canvas and composition .. .. Free 



Boots, shoes and other footwear of any mater 

ad valorem . . 
Harness and saddlery, ad valorem 
Hose, rubber and other, ad valorem 
Leather, ad valorem 



al, and parts thereof. 



100' 
10% 
10% 
10% 



OF THE PACIMC ISLANDS 21" 

Leather manufactures, n.e.i., and articles, n.e.i., of which leather 

forms a part, ad valorem .. .. .. .. .. .. 10% 

Rubber, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% 

Rubber manufactures, n.e.i., and articles, n.e.i., of which rubber 

forms a part, including ruberoid, ad valorem .. .. .. 10% 



DIVISION XII.— P.\PER AND STATIONERY. 



Books, reading ; periodicals and newspapers . . . . . . . . Free 

Charts, maps and plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Emery paper ; emery cloth ; flint paper ; flint cloth ; glass and sand 

paper, ad valorem .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10°,', 

Globes, geographical, topographical and astronomical . . . . Free 

Ink, in liquid or powder form, ad valorem . . .... . . 10",' 

Kindergarten materials as prescribed by ]~)epartmental By-laws . . Free 
Paper, viz. : — • 

{a) Bags, per cwt. .. .. .. ., .. .. 2s. 

(b) Brown and wrapping, per cwt. . . . . . . . . 2s. 

(.") Cigarette, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . 10% 

(d) Fan c), ad valorem .. .. .. .. .. .. 10% 

(e) Music . . . . Free 

(/) Photographic of all kinds, including postcards, ad valorem lO^^ 
ig) Printing Free 

Stationery, viz. : — Bill files and letter clips ; cardboard boxes ; 
mounts for pictures ; date cases and cards ; albums, including 
birth, scrap, motto and character ; cards and booklets, including 
printers', visiting, menu, programme, wedding, funeral, Xmas, 
Easter, New Year and birthday ; scraps ; transfers ; ink 
bottles ; ink-wells ; ink-stan:ls ; pens and pencils ; penholders ; 
pen-nibs and rulers ; paper-knives ; blotters ; blotting cases and 
pads ; sealing and bottling wax ; book markers ; writing desks 
(not being furniture) ; wiiting cases ; stationery cases ; paper 
binders ; card hangers ; pen racks ; bookbinders' staples, and 
confetti paper, ad valorem. . .. .. .. .. .. 10% 

Stationery, n.e.i., ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% 



DI VISIO N XIII .— M ISCEI.L ANEOUS. 



Advertising matter, for free distribution when not dutiable at a 

specific rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F'rce 

Antiques, collections of, for public institutions, imported under 

Departmental By-laws .. .. .. .. .. .. Free 

Articles imported by or being the property of the Commonwealth 

or of the Territory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Articles not included under any other heading of the tariff, ad 

valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50/^ 

Asbestos millboards, asbestos yarn and asbestos cloth, proofed and 
improofed, cotton and other packings, cord, pipe and boiler 
covering, and asbestos mattres8es for boilers .. .. .. F^re^e 

Ballast for ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F'ree 

Beche-de-mer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Boats and vessels, viz. : — 

(a) Whaleboats .. .. .. .. .. .. .. F'ree 

{!>) Steam and oil ve.ssels . . . . . . . . . . I'ree 



10% 

10°,', 

10% 

10% 
Free 

10% 

5% 

10% 

Free 

10% 

Id. 



218 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

(c) Marine, mining and similar dredges . . . . . . Free 

(d Vessels, n.e.i. . . . . . . . . . . . . I-'ree 

Bones and manutactures thereof, ad valorem. . .. .. .. 10% 

Boxes, cases and trunks of wood, leather or metal, including bags, 
baskets, purses and wallets, fancy, hand, jewel, trinket, sport- 
ing, travelling, picnio, toilet, dressing, glove, handkerchief, 
collar and work ; satchels, vajiscs and companions, ad valorem 10% 

Brooms, carpet sweepers, whisks and mops, ad valorem 

Brushware, ad valorem . . 

Cameras, including mounted lenses, and accessories, n.e.i., ad 
valorem 

Cinematographs, bioscopes, magic and optical lanterns and the like, 
and accessories, n.e.i., ad valorem 

Coal and coke 

Copying apparatus for duplicating typewriting, and the like, ad 
valorem 

Cork and manufactures thereof, ad valorem . . 

F,xplosives, viz. : — 

(rt) Fireworks, ad valorem 

(h) n.e;.i. 

Fibre, ad valorem 

Glue, per lb. 

Goods brought back to Papua by the person who was owner at the 
time of exportation, or the legal representative of such owner, 
after exportation, without drawback having been obtained 
thereon, subject to the provisions of Section 141 of The Cus- 
toms Ordinance of IflOO .. .. .. .. .. .. I'ree 

Goods which have been passed by the' Customs and subsequently 
sent out of the Territory for repairs, which, in the opinion of 
the Treasurer, cannot be reasonably done in the Territory, may, 
upon reintroduction, under Departmental By-laws, be per- 
mitted upon payment of duty on the dutiable value only of 
any repairs or additions to the goods 

Horns and hoofs, and manufactures thereof, ad. valorem . . . . 10% 

Ice and water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Incense, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% 

Instruments, appliances and apparatus, viz. : — 

(a) Ophthalmic, ad valorem . . . . . . • . . . 10% 

(b) Scientific, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . 10% 

{(■) Surgical, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . 10% 

{d) Veterinary, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . 10% 

(e) N.E.I., ad valorem 10% 

Kapok, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% 

Lime, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% 

Manures ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Mercury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Mica, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10°o 

National history specimens, models and wall diagrams for illustra- 
tion of natural histor}' . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Nicotine, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o^q 

Oakum and tov/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Outside packages in which goods are ordinarily imported, when 
containing such goods, or similar packages for u.se in exporting 
Papuan produce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Packing for boilers and engines, n.e.i. . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Passengers' personal effects, including v.earing apparel and all 
articles of personal adornment or use, bona-fide the property of 
a passenger, and which have been in use by such pas.senger 
prior to importation, and any other articles conforming to the 
foregoing conditions : — Passengers' furniture or household 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 21^ 

goods which liave been in use by such passenger for at least one 
year, not exceeding £50 in value for each adult passenger (two 
members of a family being children, may be reckoned as one 

adult) .. .' '. - Free 

Photograph frames, stands for pictures, and picture frames on 
pictures or otherwise, pictures, photographs, prints, photo- 
gravures, and the like, ad valorem . . . . . . . . 10% 

Photographic materials, n.e.i., including dry plates and negatives, 

ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% 

Pictorial ilhistrations and casts and models for teaching purposes 
when imported by and for the use of schools or public institu- 
tions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free 

Pipes, smoking, cigar and cigarette holders and accessories, ad 

valorem .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10% 

Pitch, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . , . . . 5% 

Resin, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% 

Rope (fibre), cordage and twine, ad valorem . . . . . . . . 10% 

Rope, wire, ad valorem . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 10% 

Ship chandlery, not otherwise dutiable at a higher rate, ad valorem 10% 
Sponges, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% 

Tar Free 

Thermit and other welding compounds, ad valorem . . . . . . 5°^ 

Tusks of animals, ad valorem . . . . . . . . . . . . 5°,', 

Vehicles of every description .... . . . . Free 



WHY WALK ? 

RE-BUILT BIKES 
£A JL5 JL6 JCI JLS 

Famous New Worker cycles ^g/io/- £'io/io £12/10- 
Barf^aiiis in second-liantl cycles, £^, £\, ^5, £6. 

EACH :\IACHIXI': ITLLY (U'ARAXTFICD 

Cycle and motor cycle accessories, tyres and tubes 

stocked. Guns, rifles, revolvers and ammunition. 

Repairs to all weapons 

ORDl'RS BY :MAIL rUOMl'TI.V A'l'Tl-XI)]'!) '!'< ) 

T. W. HENDERSON LTD. 

Agents for Zenith, Norton. Singer and J. A. P. Motor Cycles 

40 PARK STREET SYDNEY. 



520 STEVVAKT S IIAN]> BOOK 



(Late) GERMAN NEW GUINEA AND 
BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO. 

ADMINISTIJRKD BV AUSTRALIA UXDICR MANDATE. 



ALL the former German I'rotectorate of New Guinea, south of the equator, 
is now administered by Australia under mandate. This includes 
German New Guinea and the adjoining islands of New Britain and 
New Ireland, and small adjacent islands, the Admiralty and the Hermit 
Groups, and Buka and Bougainville in the Solomons. This territory is ad- 
ministered by Brigadier-General G. J. Johnston, C.B., C.M.G., with a 
military staff to assist him. 

Kaiser Wilhelm's I^and, the name given to the German territory on the 
mainland of German New Guinea, has an area of 72,000 square miles with a 
native population of perhaps rather more than 100,000, though estimates 
vary considerably, some putting the figures as high as 250,000. Racially 
the natives may be classed as Papuans and Melanesians— Papuans in the 
interior, and Melanesians on the coast. Kaiser Wilhelm's Land was, when 
under German control, divided into three administrative districts, with 
headquarters respectively at Eitape, near the Dutch border, I'riedrich Wil- 
helmshafen (now called Madang), in Astrolabe Bay, and at IMorohe, near the 
British boundary. Like the rest of the Protectorate Kaiser Wilhelm's Land 
was governed from Rabaul, in New Britain. Friedrich Wilhelmshafen 
(Madang), was the old capital of the whole Protectorate. It possesses an 
excellent harbour, with a bold narrow entrance, widening out inside to provide 
ample and safe anchorage for a large number of vessels. The German New 
Guinea Company has been estabhshed here for some years, and has substantial 
wharves, coal sheds, and buildings in connection with its plantations. I'rom 
1885 to 1899 the territory was under the control and development of the New 
Guinea Company. The first settlement was formed at Finschhafen, which 
is situated close to the south-eastern border. Out stations were formed at 
Konstantine and Halzfeldt Harbours. The general features of Kaiser Wil- 
helm's Land closely resemble those of Papua. The principal rivers are the 
Kaiserin Augusta and the Ramu which flow into the sea on the north coast 
a few miles from one another, and the Markham, which flows into Astrolabe 
Bay. The Kaiserin Augusta, which is navigable for about 300 miles, rises 
in Dutch territory. The coast line is very little broken and there are few 
good harbours.' The European population is abovit 300, and the area under 
cultivation in 1914 was 16,800 acres, mostly planted with cocoanuts There 
are three missionary societies at work — the Neuei^dettelsaur Mission 
(Lutheran), Rheinische Mission (Lutheran Calvanistic), and the Catholic 
Mission. 



algely^Company 

LIMITED 

SYDNEY 

CAPITAL AUTHORISED - - £5,000,000 

FULLY SUBSCRIBED - - 4,500,000 

PAID UP ..... 1,500,000 

RESERVE FUND .... 800,000 

Invite Consignments of 

COPRA. TROCAS SHELL 

And other Lsland Produce. 



This Company has for many years past been handling 
very large quantities of Island Produce, and being in 
close touch with consumers in all parts of the world, 
we can offer to growers and traders splendid oppor- 
tunities for the disposal of their consignments. 



LIBERAL ADVANCES PROMPT RETURNS 
BEST RESULTS 



GEORGE MORGAN & CO. LTD. 

211 Clarence St. 5YDNEY. 

Indent Merchants 



AND 



Commercial Agents. 

Undertake Agencies for purchase and shipping 
Merchandise or sale of Island produce. 

WRITE US FOR FULLER INFORMATION. 



O N A L L 

Sole and Harness Leathers 

and Leather Belting this Trade Mark 




IS THE SEAL. OF QUALITY 

We have specialised in the production of High-Grade Leather 
and Beltins; for 60 ^'ears. 

J. C. LUDOWICI a? SON LTD., 

Tanners and Curriers, Leather Belt Makers, 

Pioneer Works 

117 YORK STREET, SYDNEY. 



OF THK PACIFIC ISLANPJ^ 223 

THE BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO.— NEW BRITAIN. 

The large and valuable islands of New Britain, New Ireland, New Han- 
over, and the numerous smaller ones, surrounding them — the Admiralty, 
Matty, Exchequer, Hermit, Anchorite, French, Gerrit Denys, Sir Charles 
Hardy, St. John, St. Matthias, and Squally Islands, and innumerable others 
of little or no importance — are comprised in the collective term of the Bis- 
marck Archipelago. The aggregate area of these islands is about 20,000 
square miles. The German protectorate over the archipelago was proclaimet^ 
in November, 1884, and the principal i.slands renamed. New Britain being 
called Neu Pommern (New Pomerania) ; New Ireland (Neu Mecklenburg) ; 
and the Duke of York Islands (Neu Lauenburg). The climate in most of the 
ports is, of course, hot and tropical. The severity of the fevers has been 
abated in the centres of white populations by the drastic and consistent 
sanitary methods instituted by Colonel Strangman, of the Au.stralian ^Military 
Administration. It is quite possible very shortly the terrors of the fever 
will be combated so as not to prevent increase of white population. 

New Britain, the chief island, is from 350 to 400 miles in length, the north- 
eastern end terminating in the Gazelle Peninsula, where the evidences of 
volcanic activity are most marked. The island is very mountainous, some 
peaks reaching an elevation of 6,500 feet. It is clothed with a rich vegetation 
and is well watered. The natives are said to number 50,000. There are 
several hundred Europeans exclusive of the occupj^ing force, and a number of 
Chinese and Japanese. A mountain chain traverses the entire length of the 
island. The highest peak is the Father, which is about 7,500 feet high and an 
active volcano. The white settlement in this land of lovely scenery and 
great fertility began before the year 1875, when the first Methodist mis- 
sionaries landed there. Early in the eighties there was a British Resident in 
New Britain, and the colonists hoped that k protectorate would be pro- 
claimed. But, for reasons that only the inertia of the Colonial Office can 
explain, the German Government was a few' j^ears later allowed, without 
protest, to include this and the adjacent islands in the New Guinea protector- 
ate. 

In the first instance, as before stated, the capital of German New Guinea 
was at Freidrich Wilhelmshafen, on the north-east coast of German New 
Guinea, where were situated the headquarters of the powerful New Guinea 
Company, which appeared at that time to have the same objects as the Ea.st 
India Company had in India — that is, to develop the coimtry and almost 
dictate the goverance of it. Later on, however, their headquarters were 
.shifted to Herbertshohe, in Blanche Bay, New Britain. This remained the 
capital until about 1900, when it was decided to erect an entirely new capital 
city. For this purpo.se a harbour at the head of Blanche Bay, about ten 
miles from Herbertshohe, was selected. This had been christened by the 
English "Simpson's Harbour," but was afterwards Germanised and known 
as SimpsonMiafen. On the spot the Germans mapped out an entirely new 
township, nuicli in the same way as we in Australia sele("ted a site for and 
mapped out the Federal city at Canberra. This new township was named 
Rabaul, that being the name of a small native village on the foreshores of 



224 STEWART'S H.'VND BOOK 

the harbour. Rabaul to day is a beautiful town indeed, having nicely laid 
out streets, all in squares, and bordered by lovely topical trees and shrubs, 
with numerous hedges, nicely clipped. All the streets are kept spotlessly 
clean by gangs of native boys under the control of the authorities. Very 
pretty roads leading out of Rabaul are the Namanula and the Kokopo Roads. 
From parts of the latter avenue some splendid tropical scenery is encountered, 
especially toward the health resort of Toma, some few miles out of Rabaul, 
Prior to the establishment of the new capital of Rabaul, the only settlement 
bn the harbour was at a small island at the entrance, called Matupi, where the 
firm of Hernsheim & Co, established a coaling station for the German Ad- 
miralty. The site of Rabaul was evidently selected more for strategic reasons 
than for any other purpose, because the spot where the township now stands 
was originally a huge swamp, hemmed in by hills which shut out the health- 
giving sea breeze. Considerable difficulty was experienced at the start in 
inducing settlement at Rabaul, on account of it being so unhealthy ; but, 
with that thoroughness for which German administration was noted, they set 
to work to drain the land and fill in the flat swampy foreshores. Special 
inducements were offered firms to transfer their businesses from Herbertshohe 
to the new capital, and those who showed themselves laggard in taking ad- 
vantage of the opportunities offered soon found that a little judicious pressure 
had the desired effect. At the present time there is a substantial jetty 
erected, centrally situated to the town, and extending far enough into the 
harbour as to provide sufficient depth and space for a couple of steamers 
to lie on either side of it. Substantial sheds were erected, and the whole 
building leased to the Norddeutscher I,loyd Company, for whom, it was given 
out, it had been erected to provide berthage for their monthly steamers 
running from Hong Kong to Australia. A wide and well-graded road was 
run from the jetty through the township, thence winding upwards to the top 
of the hills which encircle and protect the township. The general development 
of the township has proceeded purely upon commercial lines. The Common- 
wealth Bank has a branch in Rabaul for the convenience of the naval and 
military forces, the manager being Major Butler. The bungalows in the 
town are very pretty and well built, being nearly all encircled by pretty 
gardens and bright green trees. These buildings are occupied by the naval 
and military administrative authorities, and there are also a number of stores 
kept by Germans and others. The principal stores are kept by the New 
Guinea Company, Hernsheim & Co., the H.S.A.G. Co., the Mioko Company, 
and Mr. S. A. Whiteman. Burns, Philp & Co., Ltd., also have a 
branch establishment at Rabaul, their manager being Mr. Dupain. Most 
of the companies doing trade in Rabaul have cocoanut plantation interests, 
which product is, of course, the mainstay of all these islands, including New 
Ireland. Splendid cocoa is grown in New Britain and finds a ready sale in 
Australia. Laudable missionary work on a large scale is carried out by the 
Catholic Mission, the Methodist Mission, and other smaller religious organisa- 
tions. 

The first casualties of the Australian Expeditionary Force occurred on 
September 11, 1914, at New Britain. A naval contingent of 50 men of the 
Australian Naval Reserve was landed at Herbertshohe, under the command 



OF THE TACIFIC lSI.ANn3 225 

of Coiiimaiider Beresford, who had with him Lieut. -Commander Charles 
Elvvell and Lieutenant Bovven. The party left the warships in the early- 
dawn and hailed the wharf as they approached. They were informed by the 
Germans assembled there that no resistance would be offered. After the men 
had "fallen in" on the foreshore, they proceeded along the road through 
heavily timbered country towards the wireless station, four miles inland, 
with the intention of placinf; it out of action. Although Commander Beres- 
ford had been assured that no resistance was intended, he, like a careful sol- 
dier, decided to run no risks. Fearing treachery, he took everj' precaution, 
against any possible surprise. His action was thoroughly justified by events 
which quickly happened, for the landing party had not proceeded more than 
a mile or two when they found themselves ambushed. The country on each 
side of the road was covered with dense tropical vegetation, and from both 
sides volleys were poured into the advancing contingent. The Germans, 
it was discovered, had entrenched themselves at right angles to the road, 
which had also been mined, though the landing party had already rendered 
these useless by cutting the electric wires. The Germans had also stationed 
armed natives in the trees, and these men kept up an irregular fire, which was 
extremely harassing. Commander Beresford' s men, however, behaved with 
exemplary coolness. First thej^ returned the fire in volleys. Then they 
charged the trenches. The enemy stood their ground and continued to pour 
in volleys of rifle shot, and as a result a number of the Australian Force fell. 
It was during this advance that Lieutenant-Commander C. B. Elwell and Dr. 
Brian C. A. Pockley (Army Medical Corps), and two sailors, \V. Williams and 
John Courtney, lost their lives while several others were wounded. A day 
or two after the German Governor (Dr. Haber) surrendered. On Sep- 
tember 12 the British flag was formally hoisted and a proclamation issued by 
the late General Holmes, who was in command of the Australian Expeditionary 
Force, declaring that " from and after this date the island of New Britain 
and its dependencies are held in military occupation in the name of His 
Majesty the King." 

NFAV IRELAND. 

New Ireland is a long and very narrow island between 200 and 300 miles 
in length, and not more than 15 in width. Down its centre runs a range of 
mountains, which attain an elevation of 6,500 feet, and are of necessity 
extremely riigged and precipitous. They are thickly wpoded to the summit, 
and only the lower spurs are inhabited. The climate, products, and inhabi- 
tants, numbering about 28,000, resemble those of New Britain. Taro is the 
chief plant grown by the natives ; also cocoanuts, as well as bananas and sweet 
potatoes. In 1879 a certain Marquis de Ray promoted a scheme lor the 
colonisation of New Ireland, which resulted in a miserable failure. The pros 
pectus issued by De Ray, " the founder and director of New France, the free 
colony in Oceania," after describing in glowing terms the fertility of New 
Ireland — with '" a climate equal to the south of France" and "continually 
cooled by the breezes of the great Pacific Ocean," the land '' easy of cultivation 
and possessing a really prodigious fertility lending itself to the products of 
both zones" — set forth that "' in order to give to that country a greater 

H 



226 STEWART'S HANI) BOOK 

agricultural and (.oniniercial development, the Marf|uis ulYered to assign a 
property of 20 hectares of land, with a house with four rooms, well built of 
wood, stone, or bricks, to every family of agriculturists who would establish 
themselves there for the price of 1,800 francs in gold, the price to include 
the transport of the family to the colony, with rations equal to those of the 
sailors, and provisions for six months after arrival." For those who had no 
means equal to this condition, the following inducements for colonising " New 
France" were h.eld out : — "Everyone willing to give his services as agri- 
cultural labourer for the duration of five years will be put into possession of a 
house with four rooms, with 20 hectares of land, with payment of 250 francs 
for single men and women, of 125 francs for children, and of 1,000 francs 
for families consisting of not less than five persons," the Administration 
providing for passage and provisions and lodging during the five years. 
^Married women, and children under twelve years of age, were exempt from the 
obligation of labour ; '' good conduct and morality " were promised the reward 
of " greater pecuniary remuneration " ; and the document winds up by stating, 
" the dominating religion is the Catholic one ; however, there is plenty of 
freedom of conscience." As iuight be expected such an attractive prospect 
v/as only too welcome to the improverished vignerons and labourers of 
Northern Italy, and intending colonists to the number of nearly 300 left 
in the steamer " India," which started from Barcelona on July 9, 1880. On 
the voyage out the immigrants do not appear to have suffered any hardships, 
other than those incidental to such voyages ; but, after their arrival in New- 
Ireland, in October,, 1880, partly owing to the severity of the climate, but 
more especially to the wretchedly bad condition of the provisions shipped, 
many deaths occurred — in all, a total of 48. After they had stayed four 
months on the island, and a large quantity of the provisions had been thrown 
awaj- as unfit for consumption, it was found that the supply of food was verj' 
deficient, the heat excessive, no preparations had been made in the shape ot 
dwellings, and altogether the most utter maladministration of the aflfairs 
of the little colony seems to have existed ; so much so, that the immigrants 
appealed to the "humanity" of the captain of the "India" — which was 
still used as a boarding-house — to land them at some port in New South Wales, 
but specifying Sydney, as being the residence of the Chief of the Colony, 
M. Prevost. The " India," with the immigrants on board, left Port Breton, 
New Ireland, on February 20, 1881, but, through stress of weather, want of 
provisions, and other causes, was obliged to put in at Noumea, where the ship 
was condemned by the Harbour Board as unseaworthy, and ordered to be 
sold. Efforts were made to induce the immigrants to remain in that colony, 
but without success, the majority settling on tlie northern rivers of New J^outh 
Wales. 

The principal town is a go-ahead little place at the north-west extreniity 
of the island called Kaewieng. the European population of which numbers 
about 100. This town, like Rabaul, is very nicely laid out and well kept. 
The local Government Resident (called the District Officer) is housed in a 
beautiful bungalow with magnificent approaches — surrounded by extensive 
gardens and grounds. The town also boasts an ice works and a number of 
stores. Most of the concerns that do business in Rabaiil have a branch at 



DEMER GOODS are GOODS of QUALITY 



Reliability is the great Characteristic of all Denyer 
Goods. Quality is ne\er sacrificed. 

SOME DENYER SPECIALITIES 



The DENYER patent 
Spring Head Crutch 

as supplied to the Red 
Cross, combines lightness 
with strength and elimin- 
ates jarring. 

35/- per pair. 

ARTIFICIAL 
LIMBS 

Sole Agents in Australia 
for A. A. Marks. New 
York. Limbs also made 
in our own factory with 
Marks Patent Fittings and 
Feet. 




THE DENYER 
ELASTIC TRUSS 

removes every excuse for 
courting trouble by not 
wearing a safe guard 
when ruptured. It har 
no hard steel band to 
chafe and irritate, gives 
perfect support with ab- 
solute comfort and safety. 
20/- S'gle, 27/6 D'ble. 



SEND FOR FREE TRUSS PAMPHLET. 

VETERINARY INSTRUMENTS 

Denyer Eclipse 




The Denyer 
Mouth Gag 

Our latest im- 
proved Model com- 
plete with four 
plates — 

60/ 



Emasculator 

The very latest in- 
strument, three crusljes. 
Failure i m p o ssi b 1 e. 
Every instrument test- 
ed and guaranteed — 

50/ 



We have ihe right instrument for the right purpose. 
WRITE FOR FREE VETERINARY CATALOG 



DENYER BROS.. 

281 GEORGE STREET, SYDNEY, 



Makers of Trusses, Abdominal 
Belts and Artificial Limbs 




^&es!m. S£l€S@M ItASSIt^ 

ActMTs FOR Australasia AMERrCAN TRADING CO.-'OF AUSTRALIA 



(Osaka Mercantile Steamship Company Limited) 



CABLE ADDRESS I AMTRACO 



CftRGO SERVICE 

Between— JAPAN, HONG KONG, MANILA, 

RABAUL, SYDNEY, MELBOURNE, 

BRISBANE, TOWNSVILLE. 

TRANSHIPMENT CARGO ACCEPTED FOR PACIFIC COASTAL 
PORTS AND EUROPE. 



FOR FULL PARTICULARS APPLY TO: 

American Trading Oompany of Australia 

MANAGI G AGENTS 

HEAD OFFICE : 40 KING STREET, SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES 



MELBOURNE— Collins House, Collins Street. 

ADELAIDE, S.A —Charles Street. 

PERTH, W.A.— Surrey Chamb rs, St. George's Terrace. 

BRISBANE, QLD Creek Street 

TOWNSVILLE QLD.— Samuel Allen and Sons, Ltd. 

AUCKLAND, N.Z. Robert Millar & Co. 

CHRISTCHURCH, N.Z. J. M Heywood & Co. 

DUNEDIN, N Z — Neill & Co. 

WELLINGTON, N.Z — Candale & Scott. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISI.ANBS 229 

Kaewieng also. The only other European town is Naniatanai, on the south- 
•east coast. There are numerous plantations around the coast the principal 
product, of course, being copra. 

OTHER IvSLANDS. 

New Hanover is a mountainous, well-watered, fertile island, about 40 
miles by 20 in area, its products and inhabitants being similar to those of 
New Britain and New Irelend. 

The Admiralty Islands consist of one large island, about 60 miles in length 
by 20 in average breadth, with mountains rising to a height of 3,000 feet, 
and numerous smaller islands, distant about 180 miles north-east of German 
New Guinea. The group was first visited by Cartaret in 1707, but no Euro- 
peans appear to have actually landed until the visit of the " Challenger " 
m 1875. The people are Papuans of the u.sual type. The chief town is 
Lorengau, on the north-east coast of the largest island. The native poptilation 
of the group is about 4,000. Cocoanuts are the chief products and there are 
valuable pearl and other shell fisheries. 

St. John Island rises to an elevation of 1,300 feet, is well wooded, and its 
inhabitants are of a friendly disposition. 

Gerrit Denys Islands (four) are about 10 miles in extent, and very 
populous. 

Purdy Islands are well wooded with cocoanut and areca pahiir,. Rich 
deposits of lime exist. 

Anchorite Islands, five or six low islands, thickly covered with cocoanuts, 
are inhabited by a race somewhat resembling the Chinese in features, being of 
light colour, with long, straight, black hair, which they wear closely rolled 
on the top of the head. 

The Exchequer Islands consist of upwards of 50 ]ow, flat, wooded i.slets, 
inhabited by about 800 natives, of dark copper colour. 

Hermit Islands, numbering 17, are densely wooded and have 400 or 500 
inhabitants. Cocoanuts are cultivated. 

Matty Island is about six miles square, low, and densely wooded. The 
natives are a fine race of light colour, and are said to be friendly. 

There are numerous other islands within the former German sphere 
that are not embraced in the Bismarck Archipelago. Some of these, forming 
part of what were the German Solomon Islands, are : — 

jNIarqueen or Mortlock Islands, lying on a coral reef about seven miles 
in diameter, in 4 degrees 5li minutes S., longitude 157 degrees 2J minutes E. 
They consist of 13 low, wooded islets, with about 50 inhabitants, very friendlv, 
and speaking the same language as the Ontong Java islanders. They subsist 
on fish and cocoanuts. 

Cartaret or Nine Islands are situated in latitude 4 degrees 43 minutes S., 
longitude 155 degrees 17 minutes E. The inhabitants originally came from 
Buka, with which they still keep up comnur.iication, and are friendly and 
intelligent. Many of them speak Ivnglish. 



230 



STEWART'S HAN'lJ BOOK 



Sir Charles Ilardv Island, lyin.u alnnit I'S miles north-west of Buka, 
is tliicklv wooded with cocoanut palms, &c., and well inhabited. 

Grocne or Green Islands lie about two miles off the N.W. side of Sir 
Charles Hardy Island, and all inhabited and well wooded. 



OFFICALS. 

The various Government departments in Kabaul are at present managed 
by Military Officers, who arc changed from time to time. The Headquarters 
Staff of the Administration i'^ as follows : — 

Administrator ami General Officer Commanding A.X. and M.R.F. : 
Brigadier- General G. J. Johnston, C.B., C.M.G. ; Military' Secretary : Captain 
H. D. Preston ; Staff" Captain : Captain R. W. Jones, M.C., M.M. ; Aide-de- 
Camp : Lieutenant F. G. R. Peterson. 



TRADE STATISTICS. 

Statement or Exports for Twelve Months Fnded June 30, 1918. 

Article Total.s 

£ s. 
Copra 427,904 9 



Shell 

Rubber 

Cocoa Beans . . 

Arrowroot 

I vory Nuts 

Trepang 

Mace and Nutmeg 

Tortoise Shell 

Mangrove B.ark 



20,593 12 

3,034 11 

9.797 9 

1 ,200 fi 

ISO 

1,003 10 

24 1 

.5 12 

9 19 



d. 

10 
3 
G 

9 

3 
4 

10 




£463,753 12 9 



St.atement of Imports for Tweive Months Ended June 30, 1918. 

Article Totals 

Groceries 

Boots and Drapery . . 

Hardware and Machinery 

Tobacco 

Cigars . . 

Cigarettes 

Wines and vSpirits 

Beer 

Drugs and Medicines . . 

Oils and Kerosene 

Photo Goods . . 

Stationery 

Livestock 

Opium . .» 

Sundries 

£318,909 8 



£ 


s. 


d. 


106,868 


5 





63.516 


15 


5 


44,820 


13 





19,033 


11 


1 


1,699 


•> 


10 


2,739 


1 


1> 


8,471 


5 


11 


10,878 


19 


4 


5,904 


2 


1 


20.299 


13 


6 


836 





8 


1,920 


1 


8 


246 


6 


2 


1.112 








30.563 


•1 


10 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



231 



■Customs Revenue for Twelve Months Knded June 30, 1918. 

Article Totals 



Import Duty 

Export Duty . . 

Royalty 

Wharfage, Berthage and Harbour Dues 

Storage 

Overtime 

Clearance 

Rent 

Kxchange 
Interest 



£ 


s. 


d. 


41,694 


19 


7 


23,892 


S 


9 


1,357 


12 


3 


tl,509 


14 





131 


5 


G 


83 


2 


6 


21 


17 





50 


13 


4 


377 


12 


9 


91 


10 


7 



AMENDED CUSTOMS TARIFF. 



£69,216 16 3 



IMPORT DUTIES. 



Aitiole 
1. Cigars 



Tin-iff 
£1 per 1,000 



Deiiuetious 



2. Cigarettes 10s. per 1,000 

3. Tobacco and all 
unspecified tobac- 
co manufactures 1/6 per lb. 



4. (a) Spirits, 
strong spirituous 
liquors & essences 
containing alcohol 

(b) vSweet mnes, 
port, sherry, &c. 

(c) Champagne 

5. A ] 1 other un- 
specified wines 
(;'.('.. hock, claret, 
&c.) 

6. Beer of all kinds 

7 . Cider and all 
other fruit wines 

8. Opium 

9. All other goods 
not mentioned in 
free list 

10. Laurel kerosene 

11. Axes and knives 



9/- per gai 

5/9 per gal. 
5/9 per gal. 



3/- per gal. 
1/- per gal. 

1.^3 per gal. 
50/- pef 11^ 



10O{, ad val. 
10% ad val. 
1/3 free 2/3 
10% ad val. 
unless .solely 
for plantation 
use. 



(3) If in cases, 
20°,', from gross 
weight 



(4, 5, 6, 7 & 8) 5 
per cent deduct- 
tion on all bot- 
tled liquors 
where quantity 
is 100 bottles or 
more 



(1 and 2) broken 
boxes and smaller 
quantities pro. rata. 



(4b &c.) If price ex- 
ceeds £1 3s. per 
gallon, tariff is 25 
per cent, ad valorem 



If price exceeds 14s. 
per gallon, tariff is 
20 per cent, ad 
valorem 



Uncooked. £2 per lb. 



232 



STEWART'S HAND BO.'>K 



1. Copra 



2. Trepang-Class A 

B 

C 

3. Tortoiseshell (in 
pieces) 

4. Tortoises hell 
(genuine whole) 

5. Mother of Pearl 
shell 

ia) Two flat shells 
together (gold 
Lips) 

{b) All other o f 
Mother of P e a r 1 
shell, i.e. Trochas. 
Burgos and Black 
Lips 

6. Birds of Para- 
dise. Portions & 
feathers of one 
bird 

7. Crown Pigeons. 
Portions and 
feathers of one 
bird 

8. Cassowary o r 
Emu feathers 

9. Heron feathers 



EXPORT DUTIES. • 

2/3/- per ton 5% allowance 
on gross weight 
if in bags 

£5 per ton 

£2 lOs. per ton 

£1 lOs. per ton 
2/6 per lb. 
10/- each 



£.") per ton & 
£1 Royalty 



( 1 , 2 & 5) any weight 
at pro rata rates. 

CI. A-Teat fish 

CI. B-Black. red and 

red spotted 

CI. C-All oilier fish 



£1 per ton 8: 
£1 Royalty 



£1 each 



.") '- each 

12/6 per lb. 
£2.5 per lb. 



FREE GOOD.S. 



1. Everything imported by or for the Government. 

2. Everything imported by or for the Navy or Postal Authorities. 

3. Everything imported by missions for use in their religious service ; by 

hospitals for medical purposes ; and by schools for educational purposes. 

4. Spirits for scientific purposes. 

5. Scientific chemical, mathematical and optical instruments. 

6. Medical instruments, appliances and drugs. 

7. Methylated spirits (not for consumption). 

8. Automobiles, carriages, transport waggons and water craft. 

9. Machinery (all parts). 

10. Chemicals, oils, petrol, ropes, canvas, rails water pipes, tanks, copper 

plates, corrugated iron, coal and timber if used for niachinery. 

11. Tools and implements brought in by artisans. 

12. Hou.sehold goods, requisites and oersonal effects of settlers and colonists. 

13. Rice, salt beef, dried and salted fish. 

14. Cattle for breeding or transport, .seeds, guano, live plants, disinfectant, 

feed for cattle, harness (all descriptions) wire and wire netting. 

15. Agricultural machinery and implements. 

16. Hand luggage of Europeans (Japanese inc.), travellers (commercial). 

17. Clothes, underwear, travelling necessities, camera, small supply of plates, 

few provisions, 8zc., as carried by tourists. 

18. Personal wearing apparel, must have been worn (not imported for sale), 
clothes. 

19. I^niforms for Government Officials. 



OF THK PACIFIC ISLANDS 233 

20. Packing cases and all material used for packing. 

21. Printed matter, books, labels, advertisements, &c. 

22. Tombstones, coffins and ornamental work for tombs. 

23. Coin and paper money for local circulation. 

24. Samples. 

25. Pictures (with or without frame-) and statues. 

26. Water filters. 

27. Timber, stone, corrugated gal. iron, cement, ready made houses and all 
building material. 

28. Ice. 

29. Mineral water (not sweet aerated waters). 



A writer in the Sydney Moniing Herald says : — 

" The popular idea is that what is known as (German New Guinea is an 
immensely valiiable asset ; that it has illimitable resources, and is a more 
important possession than British Papixa. Having spent some months 
in exploring the interior of this formerly Teuton land, I gleaned a good deal 
of information which may serve to shed some light on the question as to 
whether this new acquisition can be turned to useful account. Its geograp- 
hical importance cannot be gainsaid, but that its resources are as rich and 
varied as those of British Papua is a debatable point. Certainly, in the com- 
paratively short period in which it was held b)' Germany, a sound system 
of administration was laid down. I may say at once that the agricultural 
po.ssibilities are limited. It is '"difficult" country, mountainous, in places 
covered with a dense undergrowth and the soil is of poor quality, generally 
speaking. Along the Markham and Kaiserin .-Vugusta rivers there are valleys 
in which the soil is rich and deep. T'nder a popular system of cultivation 
lucerne and maize could be very profitably produced, while the slopes of the 
eminences and flats further inland are very suitable for successful tobacco, 
sisal hemp, and citrus culture. But tJie area of good agricultural soil is very 
restricted. The lighter character of .soils, of which sand forms. the 
largest proportion, is evidently eminently adapted to profitable copra and 
rubber culture — the plantations display a vigorous growth, and first-rate 
results have been secured. The area covered by plantations is said to be, 
approximately, 25,000 acres. A document found in the bureau at Rabaul 
gave the area as 50,000 acres ; but this is taken to be the quantitj' of land 
applied for, as well as that already planted with trees. Old prospectors 
describe Northern New Guinea as " low grade" in gold and copper. IVIr. C. 
Priddle, who prospected a wide extent of country, could find nothing payable, 
and he retraced his steps back to British territory, where there is a larger area 
of gold-bearing country of a much higher grade. There is nothing in " Ger- 
man New Guinea" approaching in richness the Mi.sima and Woodlark Island 
fields in the British section. The Germans discovered payable copper lodeij, 
but the assay value is under 10 per cent. ; while at Port ]Moresby, 20 miles 
from the port, there is a splendid deposit of copper, assaying up to 20 per cent, 
and averaging 12 per cent. Comparatively little gold has lieen taken out 
by the Germans, the total outturn being" £360,000, as again.st £1,400,000 
secured in British Papua. According to a report issued by the German 
Minint; Department several years ago, the Augusta and Markhani Rivers 
present opportunities for successful dredging enterprises — gold was discovered 
in the creeks and riviilets which flow into both rivers. Tin is known to exist, 
but not in payable quantity. Northern New Guinea is \aluable, if only 
for its timber," was a remark I heard on the ship as we approached Rabaul. 
This caused me to make inquiries on the subject. Mr. IT. Lance, who re- 
presented an American S5'ndicate, travelled extensively in the interior. He 
told me that he found fine belts of samlalwood, cedar, and other hardwood 



2:54 STRWAKT'S HAN?:) BOOK 

1)11 tlie Bismarck Archipelago. I was shown a pile of logs 70 feet long withouL 
a knot, and as straight as a surveyor's line. These were being sent to Aus- 
tralia. There is abundant soft wood, such as is in demand for paper manu- 
facture. On one of the rivers I saw a few eucalypts of fine grf)wth. ?ir. 
Lance estimated the value of the commercial timber at £20,()6(>,000. The 
climate and flics, to sa}' nothing of liability to flevastating diseases, render 
Papua — British and Northern— imsuitable for the breeding and rearing of 
stock — horses, sheep, and cattle. In the future, when the timber has been 
killed and the undergrowth swept away by fires, the losses by deaths will be 
greatly reduced, but the intense humidity of the atmosphere is a barrier that 
cannot be overcome. The Germans tried to breed horses, but they were a 
very poor class— weedy and ill-shaped, with bone of poor quality. The flies 
pla_v havoc with sheep, especially breeding ewes, and they attack cows, too. 
Dairying is not at all likely to prove a successful enterprise. Coal was found 
as far back as 1892 in Northern Papua, and the Germans were developing 
a seam when the Australians entered into possession of the country, but the 
value of the coal measures has yet to be determined. The German miUtary 
authorities regarded the discovery of coal as of supreme importance, becau.se 
it gave them a possible supply for all requirements in the Pacific. The 
natives are lazy and harmless on the coast, but in the interior they are for the 
most part wild and savage in character. One notices quite a number of types, 
some of them, though smaller in stature, strongly resembling in appearance 
the African negro. A native inspector told me that at least a score of difTerent 
languages were spoken in the territory, and over 50 dialects. IMany of the 
interior natives are cannibals, and all are of idle habits. The Germans were 
very firm with the natives, and consequently they had no ' native difficulty.' " 

Another writer in the same journal, describing a trip up the Kaiserin 
Augusta River, says : — 

" In a steady deluge of rain, which had commenced some 24 hours before, 
we steamed into the mouth of this little-known Amazon of the South Seas, 
the Kaiserin Augusta River. We were bound from Kitape, our most western 
outpost, and had on board a mixed detachment of white and native troops. 
The former we picked up at Eitape, the laiter we brought with us from 
Frederick Wilbelmshafen, better known up here as Madang. We were bound 
for the police station at Angoram, some fiO miles from the mouth of the river, 
which post had been evacuated by the German police master and his native 
police. For the last 50 miles or so to the west of the river we had only a 
small scale chart, A\hich informed us, rather cynically one might imagine, 
that this particular stretch of coast was unsurveyed. Since the dense rain 
obliged us to hug the coast lest we should miss the river mouth, navigating 
was altogether a rather jumpy affair. About 4 p.m., when we were at least 
20 miles from the entrance, the deep blue of the surrounding ocean was 
suddenly changed in a clean-cut line, which came straight out from the land, 
to a muddy brown. sSo sharply was this line defined that had we not known 
there was a -'arge river near we should have imagined we had struck shoal 
water. Very soon w^e began to feel the efTects of the current, which here ran 
out at some three and a half knots. Vast tree trunks, that would have 
knocked a hole clean through a small craft, and jungle refuse of all descriptions 
swept by every few minutes. At last we found the entrance, and, making 
between outh'ing reefs on either hand, steamed slowdy up stream, keeping 
close to one of the densely jungle-covered banks. Here was a tree which 
appeared to be covered with gigantic arum lilies, that as we pas.sed rose up 
in the air with a great fluttering and proclaimed themselves white herons. 
Big blue pigeons with reddish breasts constanth' flew from tree to tree with 
a discordant screech. \\'hite cockatoos, with yellow breasts, would burst 
from the greenery, followed by small clouds of tiny parrots, all green, red and 
gold. Our progress now was a mere crawl, and the strength of the coffee- 
coloured current was plainlv visible in the wash set up along the banks. 



OF XHK PACIFIC ISLANDS 235 

All the flotsam and jetsam of the forest seemed borne on the river surface, 
keeping our steersman busy avoiding logs as big as cathedral spires. The 
river everywhere appeared to be deep, even to right up against the banks. 
Indeed even beyon-^ Angnram the ' Australia ' would have httle difficult}' 
in navigating. Towards 2 a.m. we reached tlie German mission station, 
where we anchored. Morning broke on a very different world. In place of 
the drear}- rain, the entire jungle sparkled where the raindrops caught the sun, 
which drew^ oiit a perfume so warm and strong as to be at moments almost 
overpowering. The gaudy-plumaged birds appeared like animated jewels, 
and butterflies, which until then we had not seen, fluttered everywhere. 
There was hardly a sign of human habitation, even at the mission. The Ger- 
man police master had surrendered and been accommodated on one of the 
destroyers. There had been a .slump in mission work, for as .soon as the war 
broke out most of the native boys took to the bush. ^Many of them started 
little wars on their own account, and were not over particular whether their 
victims were white or black. They are not very formidable enemies, as they 
are armed only with spears and bows and arrows, yet a bamboo spear thrown 
by a muscular arm has penetrative powers. We left the mission soon after 
daybreak and pushed on up river tov.'ards Angoram. Soon the river broadened 
out into a sort of lake, broken up into numerous low-lying, grass-covered 
islets, but leaving a broad channel between. From here onwards the banks 
of the river were low and covered with grass half as high again as a man. The 
white troops got rather a shock when they first saw their future quarters. 
At F,itape they had been comfortably housed in spacious bimgalows, sur- 
rounded by loaded fruit trees and all the flowers of the tropics. But here and 
there was just an ordinary New Guinea native house, without furniture of 
any description, dumped down on a bit of a hill, and surrounded by tapioca 
trees, with an occasional sickly-looking palm standing up doleful and depressed 
against the skyline. True, there was .some sort of a kitchen garden, which 
provided sweet corn, a species of cucumber, a little beetroot, and a few tur- 
nips, while yams were plentiful and bananas grew in isolated patches. Tinned 
beef or fish and hard tack is monotonous and tasteless. When we discovered 
that' the forest simply abounded with pigeons, which were dehcate eating, 
out diet very soon nnderv.ent a change. Not a day passes but someone 
■wanders down one of t}ie inniuuerable forest paths, gun in hand, to return 
with a stiff neck (from staring into the tree tops) and generally a bunch of 
pigeons. The king bird of the whole forest, however, is the wild bush turkey, 
called by the natives ' korrea.' To get these birds one has to take a native 
guide and walk some 13 miles along hardly discernible tracks through the 
jungle. On such an expedition three of us started a day or two ago. We 
tramped through dense jungle, "with here and there grass half as liigh again 
as a man. The natives travelled at a pace which soon had the perspiration 
streaming from their bodies, in spite of the fact that in the thick imdergrowth 
and shade of the forest was comparatively cool. There were trees whose roots 
extended some 40 or 50 feet out of the ground, and grew upwards in straight 
but converging hues until lost in the trunk itself ; trees whose base was 
formed in three, and sometimes four, synnnetrical diagonal-shaped slabs 
like the angle irons one sees supporting the beams in a ship ; trees that grew 
straight up out of the earth as round and free from foliage as a barber's pole : 
trees covered I'v natural ropes or lianas far more intricate than the rigging 
of an old-fashif)ned frigate ; and trees with distorted and amazing nightmare 
shapes. After two hours' haril morclimg, during which time we crossed three 
fresh- water creeks and splashed through innumerable pools, we reached a 
clearing with a deserted kanaka's hut. Leaving all unnecessary gear at the 
hut, we .separated, each white man taking a native boy. These birds are 
ground feeders, and onlv oet on the wing and perch in the trees when dis- 
turbed. It is the business of the hunter to disturb them, for on the ground 
they are entirely safe, but once in a tree they .seem to take no notice of any 
noi.se beneath them. Within lialf an hour we put up a bird. My bov 
whispered, ' Korrea, .sir, korrea ! " and, l)eckoning me to follow him, plunged 



23fi STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

off the track into apparently impenetrable hush. We seemed If) make 
enough noise to scare all the korreas in New Guinea. Suddenly the boy 
stopped, and, pointing upwards again, whispered, ' Korrea, sir ! shoot 'im ! ' 
I looked overhead, and there he was. All shades of blue, deepening to a bronze 
red, showed on his breast, and he had a crest composed of the most delicate 
blue-grey and white feathers. This was the only bird I shot that day. The 
others also got just one apiece, and the three averaged 10 lb. weight. On 
another day two of us went out again to a different place, and succeeded in 
getting four korreas, two cassowaries, and one wallaby. Cassowary meat is 
much like beef, but not to be compared with the wild pigeon, korrea, or par- 
rots. The garrison here has plenty of time on its hands. Besides shooting, 
several men have constructed butterfly nets out of mosquito curtains." 

A writer in The Sydney Moynins; Ho aid of May 7, 1919, stated : — 
" Australia's posses.sion of the territories embraced under the compre- 
hensive term of German New Guinea maj' not be of much material advantage 
to us after all. It may simply mean that while we shall have the shell of 
administration, the kernel of trade will again go to Germany herself and to 
Japan. Kverything points that way at the moment. German influence and 
German intrigue dre very much in evidence in the Pacific to-day. The trade 
we have built up so indefatigably in the islands generally is in many directions 
slipping away. It is a trade we had come to regard as our heritage. Our 
island commerce has always been of the greatest importance to us, and m- 
dustrial developments are year by year enhancing its worth. Yet our hold 
is here and there being loo.scned. Little by little before the war the foreigner 
got a footing. Gennany was for the time being removed from the field, but 
her activity in the Pacific has not by any means ceased, and the sooner this 
fact IS realised the better, for we are living rather in a fool's paradise as far 
as the islands are concerned. \\'e may find that nothing biit a change of 
name and of admini.stration of this territory will be the outcome of all our 
sacrifices, and that the real substance of these possessions will in the future 
be as much German as ever they were in the past, except that Japan U-ill 
have a large share. If that should prove to be the case, w'here will be the fruits 
of our victory ? The trade of the Mar.shalls has practically gone, and since 
Japan has occupied this group she has made it and the Carolines, which she 
also holds, the base for widespread and intense activity. And now there 
seems every probability of the trade of German New Guinea, connuered at 
the cost of precious Australian lives, being wrested from us as \\ell. The 
German merchants and planters, who have enjoyed extraordinary privileges in 
New Guinea Since the occupation by Australia^ troops, have just given notice 
that the agreements that they had with Australian vessels to carry their 
goods and produce \\all be cancelled, the evident intention being to cut off, 
as far as possible, all trade with Australia in favour of direct services with 
Europe and the East. It has been publicly announced that the Osaka 
Shosen Kaisha will establish a monthly service between Japan and Rabaul. 
whilst it is reported that the Dutch steamers now running between PloUand, 
Java, and Dui.<h New Guinea are only awaiting the signing of peace in order 
to extend to Rabaul to load accunmlations of copra whose probable destina- 
tion ^\ill be Hamburg, via Rotterdam. It may be explained that, upon the 
military occupation, the Commonwealth Government arranged for an Aus- 
tralian service of steamers to keep up necessary conmmnication with their 
troops, taking up reinforcements and stores, and incidentally benefiting the 
German planters and merchants by .supplymg them with goods and bringing 
away their produce. In this w^ay the necessities of the military occupation 
have been at the same, time a source of profit to the German merchants there. 
Neither Australia nor the British islands in the Pacific have had any oppor- 
tunit}' during the war, or since it terminated, of sending any copra shipments 
to Europe ; but are' still 'without any other market than vSan Francisco, where 
the ruling price is sometliing like £12 a ton less than that quoted in Europe- 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



237 



By thus allowing the Germans to get in early with prompt regular com- 
munications from Rabaul direct to Europe and the East, the German mer- 
chants and traders will benefit tremendously in comparison with AustraUa 
and the Pacific islands. Not only will they have the great advantage in dis- 
posing of their own produce, but these direct services will materially draw 
consignments from the other Pacific islands to Rabaul which will thus become 
quite an important place in largely dominating the trade of the south-western 
Pacific to the benefit of other competitors. Australians were the pioneers of 
this trade. A. regular steam service was inaugurated in 1897 between Aus- 
tralia and these territories. It carried on till 190.5, when the heavily sub- 
sidised N.D.I<. line, with the active assistance of the German Administration, 
pushed out its Australian rival. From that day until the British occupation, 
nine years later, the trade was held as a close preserve for the- German lines 
It seems now that the re-established Australian service will, for a second time, 
be squeezed out by more advantageously situated competitors. It is very 
hard to say yet whether German intrigue will succeed in this bold e^ort to 
again take over entire possession of the trade of the northern part of New 
Guinea, or whether Great Britain and Australia will yet wake up to the position, 
and prevent Germany from gaining the a.'^cendancy again. It is hardly 
possible to close down a business suddenly, and remove steamers from an 
establislied trade without serious loss, whilst to continue running them 
mereh' with the mails and outward cargoes of stores for the troops, withoxit 
any return cargo, would undoubtedly mean that vessels runuinu under Aus- 
trahan conditions of manning, would be very heavily handicapped." 




238 STEWARTS HAND BOOK 



THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 

(BRITISH.) 

THE Solomon Group consists of a double row of islands, all volcanic, 
and mountainous, extending south-eastward from the Bismarck 
• Archipelago for a distance of about 900 miles. It comprises seven 
large islands and many small ones, those in the north-eastern row being 
Bougainville, Choiseul, Ysabel and Malaita, and in the south-western New 
Georgia, Guadalcanal and San Cristoval, of which the largest is Bougainville, 
about 140 miles long and 35 broad. 

With the exception of New Guinea, the Solomon Islands was the first 
important group in the South Pacific known to Europeans. Long even before 
the coasts of Australia were visited by the Dutch explorers, the Solomons 
had been discovered and again lost. In November, 1567, two Spanish ships, 
under the command of Alvaro de Mendana, sailed from Peru, for the discovery 
of a southern continent. In February, 1568, the ships arrived at Ysabel, 
in the Solomons, Mendana having bestowed the christian name of his wife 
upon his new discovery. The ships remained m the group until August, 
during which time Mendana visited and named most of the islands of the 
Southern Solomons, the names being still accepted, and returned to Peru, 
after incredible sufferings, in June, 1569' So impressed was Mendana with 
the possibilities of the Islands that he is said to have given them the name of 
the Islands of Solomon, in the hope that his countrymen, believing them to be 
the source from which King Solomon obtained the gold for his temple, might 
he induced to colonise them. It was not until 1595, by which time the 
Invincible Armada had come and gone, that ^Mendana again sailed from Peru, 
with a commission to colonise the Solomon Islands. He was equipped with 
€verytliing necessary for the planting of a new colony, including a large number 
of colonists and their wives. Mendana' s own wife. Donna Ysabel de Barreto, 
and her three brothers, were of the party. His chief pilot, or navigating 
officer, as he would now be called, was Pedro Fernandez de Quiros. The 
ships failed to find the Solomon Islands, but in September, 1595, arrived at 
the largest island of the Santa Cruz Group. One of the ships disappeared in a 
squall off the volcano of Tmakula the day before Mendana arrived at Santa 
Cruz. A settlement was formed in the bay, to w-hich Mendana gave the name 
of Graciosa Bay, on the north coast of the island. Dissensions and insubor- 
dination among the members of the colony, sickness and conflicts with the 
natives, speedily put an end to any prospect of success that a settlement in 
such a place could ever have presented, and on October 18 Mendana died, 
the same day Quiros left Graaosa Bay with the survivors of the settlers, and 
sailed for two days in a south-westerly direction in search of the Island of 
San Cristoval, in the Solomon Group, which had been visited by Mendana 
during his first voyage. The distance from Graciosa Bay to the south-east 



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Mixed Spices 
Self-Raising Flour 
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SYDNEY 

Established 1872. ^ wi^k. ■ - 



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Shipping and Export Grocers. 

Union Street, 

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SYDNEY, N.S.W. 



ISLAND ORDER SPECIALISTS. 



GOODS paeKED 

TO ORDER AND 

SHIPPED FREE 

ON BOARD, SYDNEY. 



CORRESPONDENCE INVITED. 



REFERENCE: 

English, Scottish and Australian Bank Limited, Sydney. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 241 

end of San Cristoval is but two hundred miles in a westerly direction, and 
Ouiros must have all but sighted it. Either the wind must have been very- 
light or the weather thick, for the land is high, and visible for a considerable 
chstance. No land appearing, the course was changed to north-west, with the 
object of steering for :Manilla. Even then the slrips must for days have been 
almost in sight of the Solomon Group, for which they had been seeking, 
but the chance was lost, and the Solomons disappeared for two hundred years 
from the knowledge of Europeans, until they had at last come to be regarded 
as mythical. Quiros reached Manila with the remnants of the expedition in 
February, 1596, but did not arrive back m South America until 1597. The 
subsequent expedition of Quiros for the discovery of the Antarctic Continent 
was not commenced until 1605. Luis Vaes de Torres was his second in com- 
mand. During this voyage Quires discovered the islands of Taumako, in 
the Duff Group, near Santa Cruz, and eventually, m ]May, 1606, arrived at 
the most northerly island of the group now known as the New Hebrides, 
upon which he bestowed the name of Austrialia del Espintu Santo. A 
settlement was formed in the large bay at the north end of the island, named 
by Quiros the Bay of St. Philip and St. James. The estabhshment of a town 
was projected, to be called the New Jerusalem, and to the river which runs 
into the bay was given the name of the Jordan. On June 8, 1606, the ships 
left the bay with the object of continuing their discoveries. It came on to 
blow from the south-east, but the ship, under the command of Torres, was 
able to regain the anchorage. Quiro's ship, after endeavouring to make 
Santa Cruz, sailed for Mexico, where she arrived in 1607. Torres, after waiting 
some days for the return of Quiros, continued his voyage to the westward, 
and, after discovering certain bays and islands on the south coast of New 
Guinea, and sailing between Australia and New Guinea through the Straits 
to which his name has been subsequently given, arrived at Manila in 1607. 

With the second voyage of Quiros the liistory cf Spanish discovery m 
the Pacific must be considered to have come to an end. . In 1616 the ships 
of Le Maire and Scheuten sighted a group of low islands, which may have 
been the same group as was afterwards seen and named by Tasiuan in 1643. 
Tasman gave to the islands seen by him the name of Ongtong Java from their 
resemblance to an island or islands of that name near Batavia. The name of 
Ongtong Java is new apphed to the group more generally known as the Lord 
Howe's Group, while the small group known as Nukumanu or the Tasman 
Group, lies about 30 miles further north. The line of demarcation betw-een 
Great Britain and Germany passes between the two. In 1767 Captain 
Carteret rediscovered the Santa Cruz Group of Mendana and Quiros, and 
saiUng thence to the north-west, discovered Gower Island and the north-west 
coast of Malaita. In 1768 Bougainville, in the French ships " Boudeuse " 
and " Etoile," m the course of a voyage round the world, after visiting the 
New HebrideSi and the south-east end of New Guinea, sailed to the N.N.E., 
and passed through Bougainville vStraits. He named the island to the east 
of the Straits after thr Due de Choiseul, while the large island on the w^est side 
of the Straits retains his own name. After passing the Straits and partially 
surveying them, he continued his voyage of discovery towards Batavia. In 
the following year, 1769, M. de Surville sighted the north coast of Choiseul, 



242 STEWART'S HAXD BOOK 

and, sailing to the south-east, he anchored in a harbour at tlie north-west end 
of Ysabel Island, to which he gave the name of Port Praslin. He came into 
unfortunate conflict with the natives. In 1781 Maurelle, the Spaniard, in 
the ship " Princessa," passed in the night the very dangerous reef lying to the 
south of the Lord Howe's Group. To this, on account of the sound of the 
breakers upon it he gave the very appropriate name of lil Roncader, the 
Snorer. In 1788 Lieutenant Shortland, in command of the transports " Alex- 
ander " and "Friendship," two of the vessels of Governor Phillip's fleet, 
sailed from Botany Bay for Canton. On July .31 he sighted the south coast 
of San Cristoval, and, sailing along south of Guadalcanal, he named Cape 
Henslow and Cape Hunter, and also the most conspicuous and highest moun- 
tain on the island, to which he gave the name of Mount Lammas. Continmng 
his voyage to the north-west, he named the ctuious solitary rock off the south 
end of Narovo Island the Eddystone, and, after discovering and naming the 
island now known as Treasury Island, continued through the Bougainville 
Straits, which he named vShortland Straits, not knowing at the time that they 
had already been discovered by Bouga nville. 

About this time the French frigates " Astrolabe " and '" Boussole," under 
the command of La Perouse, were engaged on a voyage of scientific discovery 
in the Pacific. Having left Brest in 1785, the ships, after cruising in the North 
and South Pacific, arrived at Botany Bay in January, 1788. In F^ebruary the 
ships left to continue their discoveries, and from that tune no news of their 
fate was known for nearly forty years. The mystery surrounding the loss of 
the ships at the island cf Vanikoro, and the eventual death of all the survivors, 
was eventually made known by Captain Peter Dillon, of the East India 
Company's ship " Research," in 1827. In 1791 Admiral Hunter, R.N., 
on a voyage from Sydney to Batavia in the hired transport " Waaksamheyd," 
discovered Sikiana, or Stewart's Islands and the Bradley Reefs, and m the 
same year Captain Edwards, in the " Pandora," passed between the islands 
of Vanikoro and Utupua, and discovered Cherry and Mitre Islands. In the 
same year, 1791, the French Government sent the ships " Recherche" and 
' Esperance," under the command of General D'Entrecasteaux, to search 
for the missing ships of La Perouse. In 1792 the ships visited the island of 
Narovo and Treasury Island, and in 1703 called at Santa Cruz. In 1801 the 
Lslands of Rennell and Bellona were discovered by Captain Butler in the British 
ship " Walpole." D'Urville visited the Solomons m 1828 and again in 1838. 
By this time the visits of trading vessels to the Solomons in quest of beche- 
de-mer and tortoise-shell had become frequent. Whalers were also in the 
habit of calling for the purpose of " refreshing" their crews, to the general 
demoralisation of the natives, especially at such places as Treasury Island and 
San Cristoval. 

In 1845 the French Mission of the Society of Mary landed on the south 
coast of San Cristoval, the party consisting of six fathers and five lay brothers, 
under the direction of Bishop Epalle. Before finally deciding upon forming 
their settlement on San Cristoval Bishop Epalle decided to visit Ysabel, of 
which island Dumont D'Urville, who had visited it seven years before, had 
given a favourable account. Leaving San Cristoval on December 6, the party 
arrived at Thousand Ships Bay, at the south end of Ysabel, on December 12. 



OF TEE PACIFIC ISr,ANDS 243 

Bishop Epalle was murdered by the natives on December 16, and the party 
returned to San Cristoval, where the headquarters of the ^Mission were eventu- 
ally established at Makira Bay. The Mission was finally abandoned in 1847, 
but not until after the murder of three more of the party by the natives, and 
the death of another from malarial fever. After a lapse of fifty years the 
IMission has been again established. 

The first visit of Bishop Selwyn, the elder, in connection with the Mela- 
nesian Mission, occurred about 1850. In 1851, Benjamin Boyd, an enter- 
prismg capitalist of New South Wales, visited San Cristoval and Guadalcanal 
m his yacht the " Wanderer," his object being to form an independent govern- 
ment under his own control. Incautiously landing almost alone on the south 
coast of Guadalcanal, at a place since known as Wanderer Bay, he was 
murdered by the natives. In 1858 the Austrian frigate " Novara," in the 
course of a voyage of exploration round the world, visited Sikiana, and in 
1859 H.M.S. "Cordelia" visited Vanikoro, in consequence of the murder 
of three white men by natives of that island. P'rom that time up to about 
1870 the Solomons were occasionally visited by British ships of war ; and the 
Melanesian Mission vessel, at that time under the control of Bishop Patteson, 
made an annual visit, removing boys to be educated, first to New Zealand, 
and from 1867 to Norfolk Island. In 1871 Bishop Patteson was murdered 
by the natives of one of the islands of the Santa Cruz Group, and in 1875 
Commodore Goodenough, of H.M.S. " Pearl," was murdered at Carlisle Bay, 
Santa Cruz. As early as 1860, and even before, there had been white men 
living ashore in the Solomons, who traded with vessels from Sydney, and 
shortly after this date the recruiting of natives to work upon the plantations 
in Queensland and Fiji was begun. Recruiting for Queensland, having 
been suspended for a time about 1884-85, was again reopened, but ceased 
altogether about 1903, after which most of the natives who had been working 
in Queensland were repatriated. Recruiting for Fiji continued until the end 
of 1910, but has now happily ceased. 

Between the years 1860 and 1893 the number of resident white traders 
gradually increased, until at the time of the proclamation of the British 
Protectorate over the Southern Solomon Islands the number of white residents 
approached fifty. The whole of the trade of' the group was carried on from 
Sydney, by means of small saihng vessels. The Melanesian Mission, then 
under the direction of Bishop Selwyn, the younger, had landed resident 
missionaries at San Cristoval, Malaita and Florida. These spent a part of the 
year only in the Solomons, and the remainder at Norfolk Island. One or two 
British men-o'-war visited the group annually to enquire into trouble arising 
in connection with the labour trade or into murders of white men committed 
by natives. Punishment for outrages was administered to the natives by 
force of arms, and in a few cases where natives or white men were remov ed to 
Fiji for trial before the High Commissioner's Court it is not believed that in 
one single instance was a conviction ever recorded, in consequence of the 
impossibility of securing the attendance of the necessary witnesses. This, 
then, was the condition prevailing in the Solomons when the British Pro- 
tectorate was declared. 



244 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

111 1893 a British Protectorate was declared over the islands of the 
Southern Solomons, comprising the islands of Guadalcanal, Savo, Malaita, 
San Cristoval, the New Georgia group and its dependencies, and also over 
the Island of Treasury, at the southern entrance of the Bougainville vStraits. 
The northern islands of the Solomon Group, viz., Ysabel, Choiseul, the islands 
in Bougainville Straits, and the Island of Bougainville itself, fell to Germany. 
In 1898 and 1899 the islands of the Santa Cruz Group, including Utupua, 
Tucopia, Vanikoro, the remote islands of Cherry and Mitre, Sikiana, and the 
islands of Rennell and Bellona were added to the Protectorate, and in 1900 
the Northern Solomons, viz., Ysabel, Choiseul, the islands in the Bougain- 
ville Straits, south and south-east of the main island of Bougainville, and the 
atoll group of Ongtong Java, or Lord Howe's Group, were transferred by 
treaty from Germany to Great Britain. Thus, with the exception of Bougain- 
ville and Buka, the Solomon Islands became all British. Bougainville and 
Buka, which have a native population of about 16,000 are part of the late 
German New Guinea possessions. Bougainvile has an area of about 35(> 
square miles, the principal harbour being Kieta, on the east coast. There 
are a couple of ether good harbours on the north-east coast. There is a very 
good harbour on the west coast of Buka, called Carola Hafen. 

The British Solomon Islands Protectorate thus extends in a north- 
westerly and south-easterly direction from Bougainville Straits to Mitre 
Island for a distance of nine hundred miles, and north and south from I,ord 
Howe's Group to Rennell Island for a distance of about four hundred and 
thirty miles. It lies between the parallels of 5 deg. south and 12 deg. 30 min. 
south, and the meridians of 155 deg. and 170 deg. of east longitude. It is well 
out of the region of hurricanes, which cause so much damage in Fiji and other 
groups further south. The total area of the British Solomon Group is about 
11,000 square nautical miles. The three largest islands, viz., Guadalcanal, 
Malaita, and Ysabel, each contain about 2,000 square nautical miles. If 
another 200 square nautical miles were added for the Santa Cruz Group, and 
adjacent islands, the total area of the Protectorate will amount at a moderate 
computation to about 9,500,000 acres, or an area nearly twice as large as Fiji. 
The distance from the seat of Government at Tulagi to Sydney is about 
1,750 miles. A British Resident Commissioner was first appointed in 1890, 
at which time the resident white population amounted to fifty, all males. 
Four of these were missionaries connected with the Church of England 
Melanesia!! Mission, and the remainder were engaged in trading or in employ- 
ments connected with trading. Thirty-tliree were British subjects. Planting 
operations by white men had at that time scarcely been commenced, the total 
ar^a under cultivation by white men, entirely in cocoanuts, not exceeding one 
hundred acres in all. It was, however, already recognised that the Solomons 
were eminently suited for extensive cultivation of the cocoanut palm. 

The Resident Commissioner established himself on the Island of Tulagi, 
off the south coast of Florida, in 1897, and m 1899 a second Government 
station was established at Gizo, m the New Georgia Group. A third Govern- 
ment station was established at Shortland Island, in the Bougainville Straits, 
m 1906, and a fourth at Auki, on the island of Malaita, in 1909. In 1910 a 
fifth Government station was formed in the Marovo L,agoon. The seat of 



CbeO 




«mca $al{$ Jlseiicy 

Cimlfea 



Importers, Exporters & Buying Agents. 



170 Clarence Street, 
SYDNEY, 

AUSTRALIA. 



9 Commerce Street, 

AUCKLAND, 

NEW ZEALAND. 



SOME OF THE LINES 

WE EXPORT TO THE ISLANDS 

Sugar 

Groceries 

Wines 

Lager 

Soft Goods 

Salmon 

Canvas 

Duck 

Flour 

Sel-f-Raising Flour 

Leather Goods 

Produce 



SOME OF THE LINES 

WE IMPORT FROM THE ISLANDS 

Trocas Shells 
Pearl Shells 

Tortoise Shells 

Ivory Nuts 

Sandalwood 

Coffee Beans 

Hemp 

Grain 

&c. 



TRADERS art' iinited to write or cabk' their emiuiries 

\vhi(ii we guarantee to attend to promptly. 

ONE REASON why Merchants and 'Iraders slioukl get 

our quotations before buying elsewhere is that we are 

Manufacturers' Agents, therefore our prices arc lower 

than others at all times. 

Cable Address: 'OSAGEN," Sydney or Auckland. 



248 



STKVVAUT S n.XSlj BOOK 



metrical and theniiomctrical readings, have been taken at the (k>vernnient 
station at Tulag), and a record is supphed monthly to the Commonwealth 
Meteorological Office in Melbonrne, and to London, the figures for liJlo and 
li)l() being as follows : — 







1915 






1918 






Baro- 


Thermometer 


Tiaiu 


Baro- 


Therm 


ometer 


Rain 




meter 


Miix. 


Mill. 


meter 


Max. 


Jlin. 


January . . 


. 29.981 


91. 


75.3 


10.78 


29.890 


89.8 


77.2 


24.61 


P'ebruary 


. 29.919 


89.3 


76.1 


11.66 


29.945 


89.9 


77. 


19.84 


March 


. 30.069 


92.9 


77.4 


3.18 


29.936 


89. 


77.4 


16.07 


April 


. 30.058 


91.3 


76.9 


2.49 


29.983 


88.7 


77.7 


17.89 


May 


. 30.065 


88.5 


77.3 


1.07 


30.010 


87.7 


77.7 


14.82 


June 


. 29.896 


88.7 


76.9 


. 2.58 


30.045 


86.2 


78. 


8.16 


July 


. 30.018 


86.5 


77.9 


1.73 


30.034 


85.8 


78.3 


7.24 


August 


. 30,025 


86.5 


77.4 


6.06 


30.070 


85.5 


77.6 


9.18 


September 


. 29.986 


86.7 


78. 


4.35 


29.956 


85.7 


77.8 


14.62 


October . . 


. 29.882 


87.6 


78. 


3.96 


30.009 


87.9 


76.4 


5.71 


November 


. 29.985 


88.5 


77.8 


5.48 


29.978 


88. 


71.9 


13.88 


December 


. 29.947 


90.3 


77.2 


9.63 


29.866 


88.3 


75.2 


J6.61 



FAUNA AND FLORA. 

The only large land mammals which occur in the Solomons are the native 
pig and wild dog. These certainly existed before the discovery of the group 
by Europeans. In the mountains of Guadalcanal the wild dogs are said to 
hunt in packs, and to have run down and killed men. On the same island 
two species of gigantic bush rats of closely allied species are found, one being 
arboreal m its habits. In size they are as large as rabbits. Another smaller 
species of rat peculiar to Guadalcanal is known, and the small rat of the 
Pacific swarms everywhere in the neighbourhood of trading stations. The 
marsupial Cuscus (Cuscus Orientalis) occurs tliroughout the Solomons, 
except perhaps on San Cristoval, but is not known from the Santa Cruz Group. 
Bats, both of the insectivorous and frugivorous kind abound, many species 
being peculiar to the Solomons. Whales, both sperm, sulphur-belly, and fin- 
back, visit the group at their appointed seasons, and blackfish and porpoises 
abound. The teeth of the latter are highly prized as currency by the natives. 
At certain seasons of the year the natives of parts of Malaita organise hunting 
parties, and drive the porpoises into shallow water, where they smother them- 
selves in the mud. As many as four hundred have been known to have been 
taken at a single drive. The dugong is frequently met with. 

Birds are plentiful, and some of them are of great beauty, although the 
Birds of Paradise of the Papuan region do not extend their range so far as the 
Solomons. Cockatoos, parrots, lories, and the lovely little pigmy parrots of 
the genus Nasiterna abound. Kingfishers of about ten species are known, 
the largest and most conspicuous being the beautiful Halcyon saurophaga. 
Ducks occur on the large rivers. Eagles, ospreys, hawks, and buzzards, 
as well as numerous species of the smaller short-winged hawks, are common. 
There is a crow on Guadalcanal and Ysabel, and the horn-bill occurs com- 
monly, except at San Cristoval. The large fruit-eating pigeons_[are the birds 



CF THK PACIFIC JSI.AXDS 24& 

most commonly met with. The)' resort in thousands to the small islets off 
the coast of the larger islands and to the mangroves to breed and roost. 
From Gaudalcanal comes that extremely rare long-tailed pigeon, Turacaena 
crassirostns, which has not been met with elsewhere. Mention must also 
be made of the megapode, a bird allied to the brush turkey of Australia. 

Crocodiles are common, generally frequenting the sea coasts and man- 
grove swamps. They are shy, but cases, are frequenth' heard of men and 
women having been taken by them. A dog or pig appears to be the most 
irresistible attraction. The large monitor lizards, which reach a 'ength of 
four feet, are great enemies to keepers of poultry, as they have an insatiable 
craving for eggs. The smaller lizards and geckos are always in evidence. 
Many species of snakes abound, some vepomcus, but accidents from snake bite 
are almost unknown. The bush at night resounds with the call of frogs, but 
they are not in evidence unless sought for. The rivers of Guadalcanal and 
other islands are frequented by a gigantic bull frog (Rana Guppyi). Speci- 
mens of this creature have been taken which were two and a half pounds in 
weight. The sea abounds with turtles, both green and the hawksbill, the 
latter being the species from which the tortciseshell of commerce is procured. 

The lepidopterous insects of the Solomons are numerous, and many 
fine species occur, the most remarkable, both for size and beauty, being the 
large ornithoptera, or bird- winged butterflies, O. Victoriae, and O. D'Urvil- 
leana. White ants are most destructive to all soft wood timbers and to most 
foreign hard woods. There are, however, some kinds of native timber, 
especially Afzelia bijuga, locally known as " vuvula," the vesi of Fiji, the 
Guettarda speciosa, locally " bo," the bua-bua of Fiji, which appear to be 
absolutely impervioiis to their attack. 

Mosquitoes are abundant. The culex, identical with the I'lji species, is 
the most common. Unfortunately the genus anopheles, the bite of which 
is the cause of malaria, also cccurs, but for one of the latter at least twenty 
culex would be observed. Malarial fever is consequently common. All new 
arrivals must be prepared, sooner or later, to pass through a course of malarial 
fever, but the methods of combating this disease are now so well known that 
with intelligent precautions its after-effects can be to a great extent guarded 
against. 

No systematic attempt has been made since Dr. Guppy published hi.s 
tentative list in 1887 to compile a catalogue of the indigenous flora of the 
Solomons. Many additions have been made since Guppy' s list was published, 
and have been submitted for identification and record. The group is especi- 
ally rich in palms, and some interesting new species have been described, but a 
skilled botanist would find an almost virgin field to work upon. So far as is 
known, the kauri pme of New Zealand, or perhaps a closely allied species, 
occurs only on the island of ^'anikoro, but a quantity of valuable timbers 
are known to exist, for which a market locally or elsewhere will eventually 
be discovered. The natives are acquainted with the use of numerous plants 
and trees for various purposes. Among others they use an orchid for pro- 
ducing the yellow plaiting fibre with which the spears and clubs are decorated, 
and a native indigo for dyeing their bark clctli. 



250 



STEWART'S HANP BOOK 



To the ordinary tourist or globe-trotter the Protectorate offers few- 
attractions. For the trained and intensive cbserver, however, there are many 
problems of interest awaiting solution. 

l>RODUCTS. 

vSince the establishment of the British Gcvernment in the Protectorate 
the formation of cocoanut plantations has proceeded, and continues at an 
ever-increasing rate. The trees are as a rule planted on the quincunx system, 
at a distance apart of tliirty-three feet. This system of planting gives about 
fifty trees to the acre. Any closer system of planting, however it may suit 
elsewhere, not being considered adapted to the vigorous growth and size to 
which the trees attain in the Solomons. The quantity of copra exported 
during the last nine years is as follows : — 



1908-9 

1909-10 

1910-11 

1911-12 

1912-13 

1913-14 

1914-15 

1915-16 

1916-17 

1917-18 



Tons 

.3,262 
3,486 
4,030 
3,587 
4,195 
5,805 
5,344 
5,932 
5,928 
6,520 



Value 

£ 
36,238 
48,200 
69,000 
55,953 
73,637 

113,229 
75,398 
80,69i 
90.812 

130,400 



This is, of course, partly the produce of trees owned by natives, as many of 
the plantations owned by white men have not yet come into bearing. The 
quantity of copra exported m future may be expected to show a progressive 
increase m each succeeding year. Bananas have only figured in the list of 
exDorts of recent years, and the export could rapidly increase if there were 
better and more frequent communication between the Solomons and Sydney, 
lor the Solomons are capable of producing a good quality of banana. Every- 
thing tropical flourishes in the Solomons. It has been proved that rtibber, 
sugar-cane and cotton thrive excellently, but little except experimentally 
has been done yet with them. As far as cotton is concerned the present 
labour conditions are not conducive to its profitable cultivation. The closing 
of the market for ivory nuts when the war broke out was a serious blow to 
the Protectorate, but there is now every possibihty of the recovery of the 
market. Trochas and niother-o' -pearl shell are items of export. Many 
plantations have herds grazing among the /cocoanuts, and on many plantations 
bullock teams are worked. Sheep have net done well, but pigs thrive and 
prove a source of profit to breeders. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



251 



FOREIGN TRADE. 
Statement showing value of imports and exports of the Protectorate. 



Year 



1905- 
1906- 
1907- 
1908- 
1909- 
1910- 
1911- 
1912- 
1913- 
1914- 
1915- 
1916- 
1917- 



1906 
1907 
190S 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 



Imports 


Exports 


£ 


f 


40,971 


49,954 


41,848 


50,275 


49,249 


41,694 


57,337 


50,147 


59,300 


57,441 


103,147 


88,890 


129,829 


86,905 


131,622 


109,647 


162,964 


148,364 


131,552 


86,674 


135,929 


102,652 


149,260 


110,640 


154,743 


149,743 



Almost the whole of the import and export trade is with Svdnev. Pre- 
vious to the Federation of the Australian Colonies, Sydney, from the fact of its 
being practically a free-trade port, had an undoubted advantage in trade 
with the islands of the Western Pacific, and in his annual report for the year 
1900-1901 the Resident Commissioner remarked as follows : — " Sydney must 
continue to be for many years to come the base of the Pacific Island trade. 
Melbourne is geographically too remote, Auckland is not such a good market, 
either for buying or selling. Whether under the new Federal Tariff, which 
will place them upon the same footing as Sydney, Brisbane, or another of 
the Queensland ports, which are, of course, much nearer to the islands than 
Sydney, will be able to capture a share of the Solomon Island trade, remains 
to be proved. Certain it is that they have not been able to compete with 
Sydney hitherto." 

The above remarks were written 18 years ago, and although now, for some 
years, under the terms of the subsidy paid to Messrs. Burns, Philp and Com- 
pany by the Commonwealth Government, their steamers are forced to call 
at Brisbane on their way from Sydney to the Solomons and again on the return 
voyage, no trade whatever, either import or export, is done w-fth Brisbane, 
and the whole of the import and export trade of the Protectorate continues 
to be conducted from Sydney. The unnecessary call at Brisbane in fact 
entails a delay of 24 hours in communications between Sydney and the 
Solomons. No saving of time is effected by landing the mails at Brisbane 
to go overland to Sydney by train, and on many occasions the steamer arrives 
in Sydney before the mails. At present Burns, Philp and Company's steamer 
leaves Sydney for the Solomons, via Brisbane, every seven weeks. One of 
Burns, Philp and Company's steamers now call at Tulagi about every three 
months on her way to and from Ocean Island and Sydney, to replenish her 
coal bunkers. Situated, as they are, on the shortest route between Sydnev 
and Japan, the Philippme Islands and Hongkong, there is no reason why 
steamers bound from Sydue)' to those places should net eventually call at the 



252 



STEWART'S ll.K'Sl) BOOK 



Solomons. Many vessels often make use of the route through Bougainville 
Straits on their voyages between Sydney and Hongkong, in preference to the 
more intricate navigation of the Torres Straits and the Kastern Archipelago. 

REVENUlv AND EXPENDITURE. 



Year 


Bevenui; 


Exiiemlitui 




£ 


£ 


1905-1906 


2. 378 


2,341 


1006-1907 


4,618 


3,295 


1907-1908 


7,430 


6,483 


1908-1909 


10,603 


13,257 


1909-1910 


11.356 


8.456 


1910-1911 


14.130 


9,493 


1912-1913 


15,432 


15,571 


1913-1914 


24,520 


18,565 


1914-1915 


23,646 


23,122 


1915-1916 


22,006 


26,425 


1916-1917 


27.834 


23,358 


1917-1918 


31,697 


25,000 



UAND. 

Land is leased by the Government, both for itself and on behalf of the 
natives, for plantation purposes at the following rates : 3d. per acre p. a. 
first five years ; 6d. p. a. for second five years ; 3.s. from 11th to 20th year ; 
■6s. 21st to 33rd year ; thereafter 5 per cent, on unimproved value. 



POPULATION. 

The natives cf the Protectorate are believed to amount in number to 
150,000, but the estimate is only a tentative one, and it is impossible to arrive 
at prtsent at any accurate idea cf their number. By far the most densely 
populated island is ]\Ialaita. The population of this island alone may amount 
to anything between 50,000 and 100,000. The natives of the vSolomon Group, 
of Santa Cruz, and Vanikoro are Melauesians, but many types are met with, 
and with practice it is almost possible to name at sight the island from w-hich 
any native comes. The natives cf the islands in the Bougainville Straits 
are intensely black, and the natives of the New Georgia Group and Choiseul 
almost as dark. Coming to Ysabel, Malaita, Guadalcanal, San Cristova), 
and Santa Cruz, a lighter colour is met with, but the types and shades of colour 
vary on almost evtr>' island. It is thcught that among some of them there 
may be a certain element of Polynesian admixture. At Ongtong Java, 
Sikiana, Rennell, Bellona, the Reef Islands, near Santa Cruz, and at Tucopia 
the natives are of almost purely Polynesian race. Among a native population 
presenting such differences of type it is not surprising that much diversity 
in the languages spoken is observed. Not only are different languages spoken 
on each island, but even on the same island. At least 40 different languages or 
dialects are known to occur, and the list is by no means complete. 

The white population is estimated at 600 and there are in addition some 
50 Chinese. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 253 

LABOUR. 

The only labourers at present available for employment upon plantations 
and trading vessels are the natives of the Protectorate itself. Up to about 
the year 1903, when recruiting for employment upon plantations in Queens- 
land ceased, there was an annual drain of about one thousand labourers for 
this purpose, and, as not more than two-thirds of these recruited ever re- 
turned, there was a serious less to the Protectorate from this cause. Recruit- 
ing for employment in Fiji continued until the end of 1910, but has now 
ceased. The number of indentured labourers employed in the Protectorate 
is approximately 5,500. At the present rate of progress of planting 
operations in the Protectorate it appears that foreign labour of some sort will 
before long be required to supplement the local supply. Housing accom- 
modation, medical attendance, clothing, and rations are in all cases provided 
free by the employer. 



CIVIL LIST. 



Headquarters Staff Stationed at the Seat of Government, at Tulagi. 



Resident Commissioner, Charles ^^'orklnan ; Chief Magistrate and 
Legal Adviser to Government, Isaac Grainger Bates ; Treasurer, 
Collector of Customs, Cliief Postmaster, Registrar of Shipping, ^c, 

Richard Russell Pugh ; Government Medical Officer, ; Matron, 

Government Hospital, Sister Beavan ; As.sistant Nurse (vacant) ; 
.Acting Officer in Charge Armed Native Constabulary, E. N. Turner ; 
Sub-Inspector, Armed Native Constabulary, H. W. P. Newall ; Crown 
Surveyor, S. G. C. Knibbs ; Assistant Surveyor, A. H. Wilson; Inspector 

of Labourers, ; Assistant Inspector of Labourers, ; 

Accountant and First Clerk, Treasury, W. F. Wyatt ; Clerk and 
Boarding Officer, Treasurv and Customs, C. E. J. Wilson ; Second Clerk and 
Boarding Officer, Treasury and Customs, C. F. Swift ; Postmaster, Tulagi, 
R. W. Jackson ; Government Storekeeper, Overseer and Gaoler. R. Gray ; 
Cadet, H. D. Curry ; Cadet, C. G. Norris,; Cadet (on active service in Europe), 
C. C. Francis ; District Officer (on active service in Europe), R. Brcdhurst- 
Hill ; Acting-Operator in Charge, Tulagi Wireless Station, A. E. Osborne ; 
ISIechanic, W'orks Department, J. vS. Mutch. 

GOVERNMENT STEAMER " BELAMA." 
Master, P. M. Poole ; Chief Engineer, J- S. Ross : Mate, A. E. Ellis. 

DISTRICT STATIONS. 
Gi/o. 
District Officer, 8zc., J. C. Barley. 

Mai.atta. 
Acting District Officer, W. R. Bell (R. Brodhurst-Hill, on leave). 

Shot<tlaxj>s. 
District Officer and Government Medical Officer, N. Crichlow, M.D. 

YSAnRn. 
District Officer, N. S. Hcffernan. 

Aoi.a. 
Acting District Officer, C. G. Norris. 



251 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

MISSIONS. 

The following are the Missionary bodies wc rking in the fironp \\ilh the 
names and addresses of the principal :— 

MKLANKSIAN MISvSlON (CHURCH OF ivNC,J,AND). 
Bishop cf Melanesia (headquarters at Norfolk Island) ; Revs. Charles 
E. T'ox, John Steward, Rudolph vSprott, R. J. vSimmons, Walter Sage, 
Alfred Mason, H. Nind, Clement Marau, Hugo Toke, Mr. George Warren, 
Mr. D. K. Graves, Nur.se Sanders, Misses Kdith vSunderland, Ida C. Wench,. 
Emilv France, Gwendoline Child. 



ROMAN CATHOLIC (Society of Mary). 

Bishop Apostolic (headnuarters at Rua Sura) ; Feather Strock, Vicar 
Apostolic at Poperag ; F-athers J. M. Aubin, Moreau, Bouillon, Bertm, Gratin, 
Boirwand, Boudard, Charvin, Babanou, Halbrachs and others, and ten Marist 
Sisters. 



METHODIST MISSION. 

The Rev. John F\ Goldie (chairman of district) at Roviana ; the Rev. 
Reginald C. Nicholson, at Vella Lavella ; the Rev. Vincent le C. Binet, at 
Chciseul ; Misses McMillan, Stanford, Mansfield, Neale and Olds. 



SOT'TK SEA EVANGELICAL MISSION. 
Miss F. Young, Dr. Northcote Deck, Mr. Norman Deck, Mr. Lees, Misses 
Deck, Dring, ^^'atcrson, and others. 



SEVENTH DAY ADVF:;NTISTS. 

Pastor and Mrs. G. F. Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Tutty, Mr. and Mrs. Nicholson, 
and others. ' 



CURRENCY, 8ze. 



Coins, current with relative value : Ah British coins at their sterling value. 

Legal tender currency : The same as in England. Notes of value 5s., 
10s., £l"and £5 are issued by the local Currency Conmiissioners and negotiable 
within the Group. 

Currency in which accounts are kept : British sterling. 

Rates of exchange : No fixed rates between Protectorate and Common- 
wealth of Australia. (Exchange on Money Orders about \ per cent.). Ex- 
change is calculated upon rates to and from N.S.W. and other parts of the 
world. 

Banks : Nil. The banks of Sydney are used by settlers. Burns, Philp 
and Co., Ltd., who have stations throughout the Protectorate, act as banking 
agents and are local agents of the Commoii wealth Savings Bank. 

Weights and' Measures : Imperi U. 



PRINCIPAL FIRMS. 

Burns, Philp & Co., Ltd (H. R. Humphries, Manager), Makambo. 
Burns, Pliilp & Co., Ltd. (S. Kemp, Manager), Gizo. 
Burns, Philp & Co., Ltd. (F. M. Street, Manager), Falsi. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 255 

Lever's Pacific Plantations Limited, James S. Symington (Manager at 
<"Tavutu), G. A. Smith (Lnn^a), A. G. Brain (Kookoom), G. Klotz (Tenaru), 
O. J. O'Brien (Ilu), A. Green (Ruavatu), L- Buffett (Aola), M. S. Williamson 
{Kavikau), C. A. Jones (Matironia), C. Bui^ett (Bio), C. Quintal (Three Sisters), 
F. B. Godson (Pepesala), P\ J. Thomson (Kaylan), M. B. Perkins (West Bayl, 
H. Macpherson (Somata), A. S. (ireen (Fai-ami), D. Carrigan (Banika), 
H. F. Green (Ufa), J. U. Williams (Loavie), W. R. Sprod (Rendova). F. J. 
Pearce (Loga), J. Sim (Arundel), R. G. Johnson (Pauru), W. Klotz (Villa), 
L. J. Pinnock (vStanmore), C. B. Nicholson (Karikana), N. W. GuUiver (Lady 
Lever). 

The Solomon Islands Development Co., Ltd.,Shortland Islands Planta- 
i:ions Ltd., and Choiseul Plantations, Ltd. (Burns Philp & Co., Ltd., Managing 
Agents), A'S'alter Lucas (SydnejO, General Manager ; A. M. Turnbull, In- 
spector (Faisi). Estate Managers : A. Jewell (Berande and Tetere), C. Hart 
(Tetipari), J. Gibson (Manning Straits and Lutee), P. G. Jackson (Shortland 
Islands), G. Sandwell (Arigua), H. Stormonth (Teopasino), E). F. Blake 
(Baniu), T. E. Ebery (Soraken and Kunua). 

The Malayta Company, Limited (A. H. Abbott, Inspector ; J. V. Barnard, 
acting Manager), Aola. Plantation Overseers : Yandina (F. C. Mittelheuscr), 
Sephola (G. Lang), Talina (W. Upton), Manaba (D. Cunningham), Bannani 
(N. MacCrimmon), Su'u (J. Y. Dulhunty), Marau (J. Johnson). 

Gibson Islands Limited (J.J. Huddy, Manager), Rere, Guadalcanal. 

Mamara Plantations Limited (L. Schroder, Manager), Mamara. Guadal- 
canal. 

Donia Plantations Limited (J. Svensen, Manager), Domma Guadalcanal. 

Lavora Plantations Limited (F". Sugatti, Manager), Lavoro, Guadalcanal. 

X'nion Planting and Trading Co., Ltd. (J. K. Sinclair, Manager), Liapari, 
■Yella la Yella. 

The Ruruvai Syndicate (L. F. Gill, Manager), Rurnvai, Yella la Yella. 

Hamilton and Choiseul Bay Co., Ltd. (Wm. Hamilton, Manager), Choiseul. 

Fred. Green, Storekeeper, Trader and Planter, Simbo. 

Hollis Bros., Engineers and Manufacturers Agents, Tulagi. 

Norman Wheatley, Storekeeper, Trader and Planter, Lambeti, via Gizo. 

The Gizo Solomons Plant. Prop., Ltd. (E. Espie, Manager), Gizo. 

Avisten and Markham, Traders and Planters, Marovc. 

H. A. Markham, Lord Howe. 

J. Stephen, Trader and planter, Marovo Lagoon. 

Calton Younger, Trader and Planter, Makeela, Russell Islands. 

The Solomon Lslands Rubber Co., Ltd. (S. Darhngton, Manager), Y.sabel. 

The Fatura Is. Dev. Co., Ltd. (O. G. Meredith, Manager), Ysabel Island- 

Clift and Clift, Planters (Geoffry Clift, Manager), Fera," Ysabel Island. 

The Fulakora Plantations Ltd., Planters and Traders (C. Bignell, Mana- 
ger), Ysabel Island. 

Hivo Plantations Ltd., Planters (F. C. Xauffmann, Manager), Ysabel 
Island. 

Gatere Plantations Ltd., Planters (John Schroder, Manager), Ysabel 
Lsland. 

Emu Harbour Plantations, Ltd., Planters and Traders (A. W. Musgrave, 
^lanagfr;, Vt^Ua Lavdla 

Gorringe Bros., Planters (J. Lewis, IManager), Ysabel Island. 

J . M. E. Clift, Planter, Guadalcanal. 

R. C. I.aj'cock, Planter, Trader and Storekeeper, Tulagi, l^alcsuna and 
Ysabel. 

T. Elkington, Hotelkeeper, Tulagi. 

Richard Gaskell, Shipwriglit, Sandfly Passage. 

Corrv and Stirling, Planters, Gaudalcanal. 



250 



STFAVART'S hand Bf)OK 



LIST OF RESIDENTS OTHER THAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS 



Aljbotl, A. Iledley, plantation in- 
spector. 

Abbott, Mrs. 

Anrlre.son, A. N., trader. 

Aubin, I'athcr J., missionary. 

Adams, Tolm Edward, engineer. 

Austin, Arthur, A., planter. 

Appleby, John, clerk. 

Applebv, Mrs. 

Ashley, Stephen C, plantation 
manager 

Ashley, Mrs. 

Ashton, N. C, storekeepei 

Anderson, R. H-, overseer 

Atkinson, Samuel, planter 

Austen, E. J. C. planter. 



Barnett 
Bourne, 
Bignell, 
Bignell, 
Buffett. 

mana 
Buffett, 
Buffett, 
Buffett, 
Buffett, 
Buffett, 
Buffett, 

ger 



Alec, recruiter 
Rev. E., missionary 
Charles R., planter 
Mrs. 
Charles H., plantation 

Charles C, planter 

Henry \\'., seaman 

Mrs. 

Clifford, trader 

Cameron, trader 

Lindsav, plantation mana- 



Buckley, W. J., mariner 

Brain, A. C, plantation manager 

Brain, Mrs. 

Buffett, Chve, plantation manager 

Barnard, J. V., accountant 

Bouillon, Father P. J., missionary 

Bertin, Father J. W., missionary 

Bonnard, J. A. H., clerk 

Boirwand, Father E., missionary 

Boudard, Father J. M., missionary 

Browne, C. J., seaman 

Benson, Robert J-, plantation 

overseer 
Bence, W. A., plantation overseer 
Bove, S., trader 
Buffett, Steele, trader 
Browne, de Courcy, plantation 

manager 
Browne, Mrs. de Courcy 
Burton, A. V., clerk 
Beardslev, A., engineer 
Beck, Harold, planter 
Beck, Charles Percy, planter 
Binskin, Joseph, planter 
Binskin, Mrs. 
Bartels, J as., overseer 
B artels, Mrs. 
Beck, Wm., stockman 



Binct, Rev. \'incent le II. C.,. 
missionary 

Cunningham, I)., plantation mana- 
ger 

Cunningham, Mrs. 

Clift, Geoffrey, planter 

Chi.sholm, V. J., clerk 

Cameron, Sydney D., accountant 

Child, Mi.ss G., mi.ssionary 

Clennett, Henry, recruiter 

Collins, Richard, plantation assist- 
ant 

Corry, Harold C, planter 

Croniar, J., recruiter 

Cruickshank, J. C, trader 

Cruickshank, Mrs. 

Cronan, Christian, missionary 

Cronan, Mrs. 

Charvin, Father, missionary 

Conpry, Sister May, Marist Sister 

Cabaete (Samanti y Cabaete), plan- 
tation overseer 

Conasse, Sister Mary N., Marist 
. Sister 

Cant, Arthur, overseer 

Clift, J. M., planter 

Clift, G. E. 

Carrigan, Daniel, planter and mana- 
ger 

Cheaseman, J. H., plantation over- 
seer 

Darlington, J., plantation manager 
Darhngton, Mrs. 
Dickinson, J. H., planter 
Davies, Robert, planter 
De Hayr, C, plantation overseer 
De Hayr, Mrs. 
Dykes, Sydney, clerk 
Deck, Dr. John N., missionary 
Deck, Norman, missionary 
Deck, Miss Winifred 
Deck, Miss Constance, missionary 
Dulhunty, H. V., plantation mana- 
ger 
Dulhunty, Mrs. 
Deveza, A. R., overseer 
Dring, Miss Isabella, missionary 
Dakers, Robert H., planter 
Dakers, Mrs, 

Elkington, Thomas, hotelkeeper 
Elkington, Mrs. 
Ivllis, Albert, seaman 
FUlis, Jack, sailmaker 
Espie, Joseph James, plantation 
manager 



CF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



257 



Espie, ilrs. 

Kvans, C. W. M.. planter 

Farley, G., recruiter 
France, Miss Emily, missionary 
Furrell, C. G., plantation assistant 
Frood, John K., plantation over- 
seer 
Fraser, George, engineer 
Farrer, J., seaman 

Graton, Father H., missionary 

Grimes, Miss F. 

Graves, D. E-, lay missionary 

Gillan, ^^'iUiam, recruiter 

Gaskell, Richard, planter and 
trader 

Gaskell, Mrs. 

Glover. J as., engineer 

Gesell, Albert, engineer 

Graham, Andrew B., seaman 

Gibson, William, planter ■ 

Griffiths, M. H. B., overseer 

Guerin_, Sister M. B., Marist Sister 

Graham, Andrew B. seaman 

Gogoll, John Austin, plantation 
overseer 

Goldie, R.ev. John l-"., missionary 

Goldie, Mrs. J. F. 

Green, FYed, trader 

Gulliver, N. W., plantation mana- 
ger 

Gulliver, Mrs. 

Gib.son, James, plantation manager 

Gibson, Mrs. James 

Gill, Leslie, plantation manager 

Godson, F. Bruce, manager 

Godson, Mrs. 

Green, Horace E., plantation mana- 
ger 

Green, Alan vStanley, plantation 
manager 

Green, Mrs. Amy 

Green, Alfred, plantation manager 

Heritage, Wilfred, assistant mana- 
ger 

Heritage, Mrs. 

Hall, Harry, recruiter 

Harding. John Fletcher, plantation 
manager 

Harding, Mrs. 

Harding, Isaac Robert, engineer 

Humphries, Herbert R., store 
manager 

Hines, Ernest, carpenter 

Hay, John Hope F., storeman 

Holhs, S. L. R., engineer 

Hoi lis Douglas, engineer 

HiTsson, P. S., bookkeeper 

I 



HermouLtt, Sister H., Marist Sister 
Halbrachs, Father, missionary 
Hermouet, Sister ]\I., Marist Si.ster 
Hollobon, F., planter 
Hayes, John G., plantation mana- 
ger 
Hasselgren, F'rank, .seaman 
Hawkes, Samuel, plantation over- 
seer 
Harrington, S. J., carpenter 
Hamilton, \\'illiam, planter 
Hamilton, Gavin, seaman 
Hansen, Hans P., seaman 
Huddy, James J., planter 
Hart, Clarence Edward, plantation 
manager 

Jacobsen, H., trader 
Johnston, Wallace, clerk 
Johnson, John A., overseer 
Jones, Charles A., plantation mana- 
ger 
Johnson, Rupert Glynn, plantation 

manager 
Jones, Griffiths Francis, missionarj- 
Jones, Mrs. 

Jack.son, P. G., plantation manager 
Jascheke, Carl, Catholic missionary 
Jewell, A., plantation manager. 

Knapp, Percy, engineer 
Kaufmann, F. C, planter 
Kaufman, Mrs. 
Kettlewell, Miss M., clerk 
Keen, Leslie, overseer 
Klotz, George, plantation manager 
Klotz, Mrs. 

Knight, F., plantation manager 
Keeble, Frank, overseer 
Keeble, Mrs. 

Klotz, William, plantation manager 
Klotz, Mrs. 

Kemp, S., store manager 
Kenny, Henry C, plantation mana- 
ger 

Laycock, Reginald C, storekeeper 

Laycock, Mrs. 

Lawson, James Charles, recruiter 

Lippman, Henry, engmeer 

Lyndon, V. C, trader 

Lewis, John R., plantation manager 

Laurent, Sister Marie, Marist Sister 

Leon, Sister Mary, ^Marist Sister 

Lees, Charles H., mi.ssionary 

Long, George, overseer 

Lang, Gaston, overseer 

Mathews, Jack, station manager 
Mumford, Geort^e, planter 



258 



STEWART S HAND BOOK 



Meredith, Owen G., planter 

McCrimmon, Neil, plantation mana- 
ger 

McCrimnion (Dr.), T,ily (wife of 
above) 

McMahon, Lome C, store assistant 

Marcroft, Rnssel S., bookkeeper 

Mutch, James, carpenter 

Markham, Harold H., trader and 
planter 

Mason, Rev. A., missionary 

Mumford, George, planter 

Margand, Sister, Marist Sister 

Moreau, Father S., missionary 

Mn.sgrave, A. \V., plantation mana- 
ger 

McRachran, John, planter 

McEachran, Mrs. 

McMillan, Mis.^ R. \\\, Methodist 
missionary sister 

McKerlie, Robert, planter 

Mackenzie, R. L-, plantation mana- 
oer 

Macken:-:ie, Mrs. 

Maunder, S. R., missionary 

Maunder, Mrs. 

McKinnon, D., plantation manager 

Martin, R., planter 

Mansfield, Miss G., Methodist mis- 
sionary, sister 

McPherson, Horace, plantation 
manager 

Maxwell, Charles, overseer 

Mittelheuser, F. C, plantation 
manager 

Mittelheuser, Mrs. 

Munson, R., plantation overseer 

Munson, R^. J., plantation overseer 

Munson, Mrs. 

Monckton, R. P., planter 

Monckton, Mrs. 

Neale, Miss, Methodist missionary 

sister 
Newman, John, seaman 
Neilson, G., master mariner 
Nicholls, Harry, wireless engineer 
Noemi, Sister Mary, Marist Sister 
Nicholson, Cecil B., plantation 

manager 
Nicholson, Mrs. C. P.. 
Nicholson, Rev., missionary 
NichoLson, Mrs. 

Owen, Charles, seaman 

Olsen, A. D., planter 

Olsen, Mrs. 

O'Brien, Percy J., plantation 

m.nnager 
Oldridge, W. H., missionary 



(Jien, Julius, planter 
Oien, Mrs. 

Olds, Miss, Methodist missionary 
.sister 

Parry, W., seaman 

Parish, Miss, mis.sionary 

Perry, V,. C, planter 

Pearce, I'. J., plantation manager 

Pearce, Mrs. 

Pinnock, I^eonard, plantation 

manager 
Pinnock, Mrs. 

Perkins, M. B., plantation manager 
Perkins, Mrs. 
PauLson, Victor, seaman 
Pomroy, George H., plantation 

manager 
Pomroy, Mrs. 
Pavesv, Father, missicnarv 
Pybns, R. H., trader, &c. ' 

Quintal, Charles, piantation mana- 
ger 
Quintal, Macey, overseer 

Ross, Thomas, seaman 

Redw(vod, Alec. 

Risby, James, planter 

Risby, 'Mrs. 

Richards, Dwyer G., Marist 

Brothers 
Raucaz, Father, mis.sionary 
Rochette, Sister M., Marist Sister 
Rutledgo, Miss H. 
Robinson — Mason, S. B., trader 
Runcie, Gordon F., accountant 
Reed, J. R., plantation overseer 
Reed, INIrs. 

Stanford, ]Miss, jNIethodist mis- 
sionary sister 

Symington, James, company mana- 
ger 

Symington, Mrs. 

Swanson, C. F., master mariner 

Schroder, John, planter 

Schroder, Mrs. 

Schroder, Niels Peter, master 
mariner 

Smith, William, storeman 

Smith, G. A., plantation manager 

Smith, Mrs. 
' Stirling, William, engineer 

vSnell, William G., seaman 

Sincock, Harold R., seaman 

Sim, Henry R., planter 

Sprott, Rev. R., missionar}- 

Svensen, Jack, plantation manager 

Svensen, I\Irs. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



259 



Scott, John, siockman 

Scott, Mrs. 

Stirling, Robert A., trader 

Sugatti, Frederick W., plantation 
manager 

vSini, J as., plantation manager 

Sim, Mrs. 

Schultz, Ernest Victor, sailmaker 

Statham, Geoffrey, planter 

Statham, Mrs. 

Sinclair, James, plantation overseer 

Scott, Hugh M., planter 

Scott, Mrs. 

Smith, Norman T., clerk 

Street, F. M., store manager 

Sprod, William, R., plantation 
manager 

vSprod, Mrs. 

Stephen, J., planter 

Stephen, Mrs. 

Smclair, J. K., manager 

Sanders, Nurse, Melanesian mission 
sister 

Sunderland, Miss, Melanesian mis- 
sion sister 

Tait, Walter, trader 
Teytard, Father, missionary 
Threlfall, William, trader 
Tabb, James, overseer 
Tutty, Robert Henry, missionary 
Tutty, Mrs. 

Thomson, F. J., plantation manager 
Thomson, ]\Irs. 
Thompson, Henr}-, planter 
Tofte, — ., overseer 
TurnbuU, A. M., plantation in- 
spector 



Upton, ^\'., plantation assistant 
Vider, Claude, planter 

Wood, Charles, master mariner 

Waterston, Miss Clara, missionary 

Wilks, Clayton, A. W., overseer 

Wilks, IVIrs. 

W'ard, John I,., master mariner 

W atson, J ames, overseer 

Wench, Miss, missionary 

White, Edward, trader 

Williamson, M. S., plantation 
manager 

Williamson, Mrs. 

West, George Henry, mis.sionary 

Wheatley, Norman, planter and 
trader 

Will, Charles Gordon, plantation 
manager 

Will, :Mrs. 

Wilmot, William, trader 

Wickham, Harry, planter 

Wickham, Charles W., planter 

Wheatley, IMiss Lena 

Wood, Gordon McDonald, plan- 
tation overseer 

White, Edward William, trader 

Williams, I.E., plantation manager 

W'illiams, ]Mrs. 

W^heeler, G. H., storeman 

Wache, Father, missionary 



Yule, W. R., engineer 
Younger, Riccalton, planter 
Younger, Mrs. 



CUSTOMS TARIFF. 

£ s. d. 

Ale, beer, porter, cider, perry, hop, ginger or other beers, quarts, 

per dozen .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 020 

Ale, beer, porter, cider, perry, hop, ginger or other beers, pints, 

per dozen .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 010 

Ale, beer, porter, cider, perry, hop, ginger or other beers, half pints 

or smaller quantities, per dozen . . . . . . . . . . 6 

Ale, beer, porter, cider, pcrrj', hop, ginger or other beers, in wood or 

jar, per gallon .. .. .. .... .. .. 010 

Boats, launches and yachts, punts and lighters imported in any 
vessel, or which have been put out of any vessel ofT the coast of 
the Protectorate and are subsequently brought into tlie Pro- 
tectorate, 10 per cent., ad valorem 

Benzine and other similar oils, per gallon .. .. ..■ .. 003 

Building materials not otherwise enumerated, including nails, 
paints, bricks, bolts and nuts, doors, sashes,- shutters, iron 
(black), mouldings, architraves, shingles, expanded steel, tiles, 
slates itc, 10 per cent, ad valorem 



260 STEWART'S HANI) BOOK 

Cartridges and cartridge cases, rifle and revolver, 100 per rent. 

ad valorem 
Cartridges and cartriflgc cases, sporting. 10 per cent, ad valorem 
Cigarettes, including wrappers, per 1,000 .. .. .. .. ]2 ti 

Cigars, including wrappers, per pound . . . . . . . . .j 

Dynamite, lithofracteur, blasting-powder, and similar explo.sive.s, 

including ingredients for making such goods, per pound .. 10 

Fuse, 10 per cent, ad valorem 
Iron, galvanised, plain or corrugated slieets, per ton . . . . 2 

Kerosene, of 100 degrees or over, closed flash test, per g'allon .. 3 

Kerosene, tinder 100 degrees, clo.sed flash test .. .. .. 

Oils of all kinds, not otherwise enumerated, except for medicinal 

use, in bulk, per gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 

Oils in bottle, 10 per cent, ad valorem 

Powder, sporting, per pound .. .. .. .. .. .. 006 

Trifles and revolvers, not otherwise enumerated, each .. .. 10 

Spirits of all kinds imported into the Protectorate, the strength of 
which can be ascertained by Sikes' hydrometer, and is ever 
proof, per proof gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 

Spirits of all kinds imported mto the Protectorate, the strength of 
which can be ascertained by Sikes' hydrometer, and is under- 
proof, per liquid gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 

Spirits and .spirituous compounds, imless otherwi.se enumerated, 
and scented waters imported into the Protectorate, the 
.strength of which cannot be ascertameii by Sikes' hydrometer, 
per Hquid gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 

Case spirits- — reputed contents of two, three, four, or more 
gallons shall be charged — - 

Two gallons and under, as two gallons ; over two gallons 
and not exceeding three gallons, as three gallons ; 
over three gallons and not exceeding four gallons, 
as four gallons ; and so on for any greater quantity 
contained in any case. 
Spirit, methylated, per gallon . . . . .... 

Tobacco, stick, cake or leaf, per pound 

Tobacco, cut, per pound 

Timber, dressed or surfaced over two inches wide, not otherwise 

enumerated, per 100 superficial feet . . . . . . . . 2 

Timber, undressed, over two inches wide, not otherwise enume- 
rated, per 100 superficial feet .. .. .. .. .. 16 

The duty on timber to be computed en a thickness of one inch, 
and to be in proportion for any greater thickness. Any 
thickness under one inch to be reckoned as one inch. 
Wines — 

Bordeaux (claret) and hock, in bulk, per gallon . . . . . . 3 

Au,stralian, New Zealand, or South African, in bulk, per gallon. . 3 
Bordeaux (claret) and hock, in bottle, for six reputed quarts or 
twelve reputed pints or twenty-four reputed half-pints or 
smaller quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Australian, New Zealand, and South African, in bottle, for six 
reputed quarts or twelve reputed pints or twenty-fonr 
reputed half-pints or smaller quantities . . . . . . 3 

Other kinds in bulk, per gallon .. .. .. .. .. 030 

Other kinds, including Vermouth, for six reputed quarts or 
twelve reputed pints or twenty-four reputed half-pints or 
smaller quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Sparkling, for six reputed quarts or twelve reputed pints or 

twenty-four reputed half-pints or smaller quantities . . 6 






2 








1 


6 





3 






OK THE rAcinic ISr,ANDS 261 

GENERAL DUTY. 

On all articles net specified or not included in the list of articles 
exempted from duty under Schedule B hereof, an ad valorem 
duty of 10 per cent. 

LIST OF ARTICLES EXEMPT FROM DITTY. 

Anchors and chains, black iron and galvanised. 

Animals, hving. 

Arms and accoutrements for any recognised Rifle Club or public insti- 
tution. 

Articles imported solely for the use of British ships of war. 

Articles imported by the \\'estern Pacific High Commission for official 
use. 

Bags and sacks for exporting produce. 

Ballast, ships. 

Biscuits, hard and plain. 

Books and periodicals and music (printed). 

Casks and tanks. 

Cement. 

Coal and coke. 

Coin of the Realm. 

Cyhnders for importing ammonia or other gas. 

Dental instruments and appliances other than furniture. 

Diving appai;atus and gear and parts therecf. 

Drugs and medicinal .sub.stances, including patent and prcprietarj' 
medicines unless prohibited by the High Commi.ssioner under section 77 (3) 
of the Solomons (Customs) Regulation, 1907, chemical and drysalteries (except 
those containing spirits cr opium) and tinctures of the British Pliurmacopoeia, 
except those containing opium, chemicals and appliances for .surgical and 
medicinal pvirposes and actually used as .such. 

Earthenware drain pipes. 

Flour and sharps. 

Furniture, church and school and all accessories bona-fido mipcrted for 
church, religious or educational purposes. 

Garden .seeds and plants. 

Guano. 

Lsiand produce imported for re-export. 

Luggage personal as may be from tiine to time permitted by the High 
Commissioner under section 77 (6) of the SoJomons (Customs) Regulation, 
1917. 

Machines and implements, agricultural and component parts thereof 
which the High Commissioner may from time to time specify, including ploughs, 
sowers, harrows, scarifiers, cultivators, hoes, digging forks, scythes, spades, 
stump extractors, earth scoops and draining tools, Demerara shares, shovels, 
rakes, bottoming tools, sickles, and handles for the above implements, ancl 
machines made of wood and not fitted, and also including evaporating machines 
for fruit, copra, tea, cocoa and like products, fibre cleaning, ginning, spinning, 
and weaving machines, shellers and mills, corn-crackers, coffee pulpers, hullers 
and polishers, winnowing machines, scutchers, presses for baling produce, 
oil presses, and handles made of wood and not fitted to the impiements or 
machines. 

Macliincry and component parts thereof which the High Commissioner 
may from time to time specify, including electrical, refrigerating, mining, 
sawing, steam engines and boilers and oil engines, gas engines and hot air 
engines. 

Manures and fertilizers. 

Meat, including fish, poultry or game, fresh or chilled, 

]\Ieats, including fish, poultrj' or game, preserved or salt, in tins or other 
containers of not less than three pounds, gross weight. 



262 



STEWART S HAND BOOK 



Medals and decorations, for any recognised Rifle Club or public institution. 

Organs and harnionuuns, bona fide imported for (imrrh, religious or 
educational purjioscs. 

Packages, empty, used and returned. 

Packages, inside and outside, of wood, tin, glass, paper, or other material, 
in which are contained only articles liable to a specific rate of duty or articles 
exempt from duty or both and in which such articles are ordinarily and actually 
contained. 

Pictures, pliotogr;iphs, works of art. 

Printing machinery, type, and lithographic appliances, and component 
parts thereof. 

Pyrethrum roseum. 

Rails, iron and steel, sleepers, fish plates, switches, crossings, turntables 
and parts thereof and bolts and nuts imported with and l)elonging to same. 

Rice. 

Show cards, patterns and cut samples and advertising matter of no 
commercial value. 

vSpraying compounds. 

Surgical instruments and appliances other than furniture. 

Tobacco stalks 

Vegetables, fresh and green fruit. 

Veterinary instruments and appliances other than furniture. 

Uniforms for any recognised Rifle Club or public institutr.n. 



LICENSES PAYABLE UNDER KING'S REGULATION, NO. 6. OF 1916 

SCHEDUI.E A. 



(i) Auctioneer, year . . 

(ii) Commission agent, year. . 

(iii) Dentist, year 

(iv) Hawker, year 

,, half-year . . 

(v) Insurance company or ageuc)-, year 

(vi) Surveyor, year . . 



£ s. 


d. 


10 





5 





5 





1 





12 





5 





5 






SCHEDULE B. 

(i) Keeping store, year 

l:alf-year 
(ii) Dealing in wines, .spirits, and beers, year (Retail) 
,, ,, half-year 

,, ,, (Wholesale Liquor) 

(iii) Dealing m firearms, ammunition, and explosives, year 
(iv) Employing or using vessel for trading to, from, or within Pro- 
tectorate : — 

Not exceeding 25 tons tonnage measurement, year 

,, ,, half-year 

Exceeding 25 tons measurement, for every additional 
ton, year 

,, ,, ,, half-year 

(v) Employing ves.sel for recruiting labour in, or returning labour 
to the Protectorate : — 

For every ton of tonnage measurement, year 

., ,, ,. half-year . . 

Provided that the license fee payable in respect of any one 
vessel under either sub-head (iv) or sub-head (v) shall not 
exceed, year 

,, ., ,, half-vear . . 



10 

6 

10 

6 

20 

5 



5 

3 

10 

6 



1 
12 



150 
80 



OF THK PACIFIC ISLANDS 263 

Describing a cruise in the Solomon Islands a writer in the Melbourne Age 
says : — 

" No more delightful trip could be chosen by the tourist than the short 
run across the Pacific from Austraha to the Solomon Islands, to be followed 
by a 15 or 16 days' cruise among the islands themselves. The traveller will, 
from an aspect socially, politically or merely beauty loving, find an endless 
source of interest. These jewels of the Pacific were the discovery of that 
brave and picus navigator Mendana, who as far back as 1586 scoured the un- 
charted Pacific hoping to find the great south continent — the Atlantis of 
poets, philosophers and navigators of the middle ages. His difficulties were 
almost insiirmountable, and when the cloud-topped ridges of the Solomons 
were sighted it seemed almost in direct answer to a prayer, for his men were 
almost in open mutiny, water was very short, and his ships all needed repairs ; 
and though he was shortly to find that his elusive goal was not yet won, still 
he found promise of e.'^cellent shelter in the lake-like reaches of water between 
the land masses, and from the wealth and beauty of the vegetation covering 
the terraced mountain sides he argued well for supplies of fresh food and water. 
Ysabel, the first island touched at, was named after Mendana' s wife, and a 
thank.sgiving service was heid to the Virgin and to the ship's patron saint 
before the company landed to make the acquaintance of the savages, gathered 
a wondering crowd to gaze on the mysterious winged visitor to their secluded 
waters, for though good seamen the Solomon Islander had not used a sail of 
any kind, and the Spanish guileons filled him with awe. Mendana's visit 
was not destined to be fortunate here, for many fives were lost tlirough the 
treachery of the natives, and their attitude, combined with increasing forces, 
drove the navigator to seek a more friendly anchorage. To encourage the 
remainder of his disheartened men he asserted a belief that within the ravines 
of these remote ranges would be found the mines from which King Solomon 
had drawn his fabulous stores of gold, and so gave the name to the group. 
Leaving Ysabel, he stood for the curving coast lines of Gaudalcanar, and 
engaged the ships' companies from time to time in prayer for a miracle or 
other manifestation of Divine guidance ; from noon on one day till noon on 
the next the prayers' were made continuous, the chaplain kneeling in humility 
and penance as the several bodies came and went. Rising almost exhausted 
after his fast, this devout man glanced skyward, and suddenly there appeared, 
right over the mast head, a brilliant and beautiful star, brilhantly conspicuous 
in the full glare of noonday — an answer to their prayers. The course was 
altered, and, steering by the star, the harbour, still bearing the name given 
by those pious mariners — St. Cnstoval — was entered, and as the ships cast 
anchor the star fell and sank into the sea. Mendana visited many other 
islands of the group — was able to make charts, repair his ships, get excellent 
supply of water, and make many explorations which sent him awav filled 
with enthusiasm for the immediate colonisation of lus discovery, but, like 
many of the ardent men of his age, he was in this doomed to sad disappoint- 
ment, for during the next century the vSolomons had almost been forgotten till 
the Dutch and French of a later time — De Ouiros, Bougainville, Torres, and 
possibly Houtman — touched on the same shores. None of these later men 
had the poetic instinct of poor Mendana, nor have they left any such pic- 
turesque records, full as his are of that half-pagan devoticn to his mother 
church, which gives colouring to the historj' of the Christianising of Europe. 
A.part from' this train of historic reflection there is, for the present-day tra- 
veller, all the charms of those curving contours of coasts, the terraced hill- 
sides covered with a dense jungle, huge specimens of teak and banyan, with 
many other lofty forest trees, making a twilight for the growth of a secondary 
tier of palms, crotons, and climbers, while beneath these again is a lower 
tier of ferns, a.sbidestras, arums, baby palms, not yet freed from their parent 
nut. while ever}' trunk, fallen log and exposed soil is thicklv covered with an 
eoiphytic or parasitic growth. I^eautiful clusters of richly coloured orchids, 
lavender, yellow, pink and white, make the air heav}- with their fraerauce 



2rt'l STKWART'S liAN-J) BOOK 

while clumps of exquisitely tinted Italsani.s are crushed beneath the feet. 
Almost as it was four centuries earlier the forest growth of the vSolomons- 
remains to-day, for comparatively little has been done in the way of any 
general occupation and settlement. The recent enormous growth of the copra 
industry, and the attention given by English and Australian investors to its 
further development, v.-j]] proV)ably lead to many changes." 



Of Buka and Bougainville, Mr. T. J. Mc.Mahon, I'.R.Ci.S., writes thus in 

the Sydney Mail : — 

" Reading Pacific Lsland history, the scrambles over the tierman Solo- 
mons are not now to be wondered at. The first scramble or sharing of the 
whole Solomons was very decidedly in favour of Germany, and it is puzzling 
that she did net succeed in gaining the wliote of the rich and wonderful group 
of islands. That was in 1886, when Bougainville, Buka, Choiseuj, Ysabel, and 
the sShortland Islands were German. A glance at the map of the Solonions 
will suffice to prove how little was left under British protection. In 1899 
there came another agreement between the two nations, and, while Germany 
handed back most of the biggest islands of the Solomon Group, .she did so for 
concessions that were infinitely, at the time, of greater value to Germany, and, 
as now can be seen, net merely for the exten.sion of trade, but for strategical 
purposes. No matter what Germany has done in the Pacific, a little research 
into her efforts reveals that the great plans ot the future, with its vast German 
colonial empire in the Pacific, influenced every move and dictated every 
diplomatic ambition. Germany's ambitions in the Pacific really advertised 
the islands of that sea, and men began to awaken to the wonderful fact that 
they were of some value. It was in the arranging of the affairs of the Solo- 
mons in 1886 that Australian statesmen took alarm, particularly Sir (then Mr.) 
George Reid. To-day the British and German Solomons are under the ad- 
ministration of the British', and it concerns Australians most of ail that everj- 
possible endeavour should be made to keep the vSolomons so united. These 
-islands are showing an amazing development. British, German and Aus- 
tralian capital have all played their part. Travelling along the western 
coasts of the " German " vSolomons, especially Bougainville, one sees endless 
evidence of progress in the many cocoanut and rubber plantations. Under 
the admirable Australian admimstration, \\'ith headquarters at Kieta, this 
progress has not been m the least stayed, and a sharp reminder of this was 
given the writer when, in his small sailing vessel, he called into one of the 
least-known bays many miles from Kieta, on the northern side, and what 
might really be called a part full of savages who had had little opportunity 
at any time of coming into touch ^vith white men. It was hardly daybreak 
when, with the object of getting some wild duck and also of having a morning 
dip in the nice, cool, clear water cf a very prett}' river, truly tropical in its 
splendid palms and vines and gloriously bright flowers, I was standing with 
head under the focussing cloth, intent upon taking a delightful picture of the 
river, the sun throwing bright rays right along the river bed, when a voice 
suddenly said : ' Good morning : Where did you come from ? And may 
I ask who you are ? ' There in the khaki uniform of an Australian soldier 
stood a tall young naan, who, after the formalities of introduction were over, 
told me he was the draftsman of an Australian military survey party under 
Captain J . Hunt, which had been out for several months busily engaged m 
mapping out and surveying plantation areas for German applicants. .\ 
visit to the camp just on the top of the river-bank was most interesting, 
though it had a deserted appearance, for Captain Hunt and his stafi and most 
of the native boys employed were some three miles away surveying. It 
WIS then 6 o'aock in the morning — a remarkable evidence of the fact that 
work is not neglected by these conscientious Australians though far away in 
the wilds of the Solomons, where a stranger, another white man, was never 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 265 

expected in aiw reasonable circumstances. Australians when put to the test 
have all the grit and mettle that make for true men ; and true men were the 
members of the Australian military survey part}^ in one of the most lonely 
and most isolated parts of the world, with food supplies run out to mostly 
native products, with no knowledge whatever for months of the outside world, 
no nev. s of the war, no letters from home ; but ^^^th some comforts — a few 
books and a wheez}- gramoplione. a delightful old thing, fviU o£ cheermess in 
spite of its wheeziness, and which scratched and screamed out favourite tunes, 
bringing back happy remembrances of home and those loved ones in far-off 
A.ustralia. God laless the nian who invented the gramophone, for he has 
eased the pain of many lonely lives, bringing up visions of happy scenes in 
days gone by, and reviving tender memories m the breasts of exiles. Though 
oftentimes depressed by the tortures of tropical fevers, to which ever3-one 
in this camp of surveyors was more or less subject, these Australians were the 
merriest lot imaginable, and were carrying on their ionely and arduous work 
in admirable style. The natives of Bougainville stand out as having some 
very weird and unusual customs. Even now, among the wilder tribes, can- 
nibalism IS common — not for the pleasure of eating human flesh as a dainty, 
though, as has been so long thought, but rather to carry out some idea of 
gaining a brave spirit, or of propitiating some evil one for some crime com- 
mitted or some moral irregularity. Imagination with the Bougainville 
natives goes a very long way, and it has been found that the powers of witch- 
craft or sorcery can succeed even m causing death. It is not known to scien- 
tific research, so far, of any certain deadly poisons to be got anywhere in the 
vSolomons — at any rate, b}- the natives — and yet poisons, or supposed poisons, 
play an amazing part in this sorcery ; and, until the firm administration of 
Captain Hunter, deaths, especially among the women, were very numerous, 
resulting m a big loss to the population. The most extraordinary idea 
remains with these natives that no one but the young and the very old die 
natural deaths, and consequently a man or woman has only to get sick in some 
slight way when instantly the idea takes hold that a poison is at work, and 
that there is no hope of a continuation of life ; and so the man or woman dies 
from fright and imagination. Captain Hunter, with the wonderful influence 
he has by his reputation with the most savage natives who have come under 
his methods of firmness, combated this silly state of over-imagination, and 
they knew he had only tc' hear of any tribal function in which sorcerj^ and, of 
course, poison were taking a prominent part, and he vetoed the function very 
promptly, with the result that the natives quickly came to recognise the ' big- 
fella Government-maE ' was angry at such doings, and it did not do to annoy 
Captain Hunter, who had a skilful way of punishing natives witliout killing 
or ill-using them. IJttle is really known of the German vSclomons ; the group 
has alwaj's been off the beaten tracks, and, though many Australian com- 
panies have during the German time taken up lan.1 and gone on extensively 
with the cultivation of tlif cocoanut, the world at large has heard little of this. 
Joined, it is hoped, for ail future time to the rest of the Solomons, the whole 
group will without doubt make ore of the richest island territories of the 
South Pacific." 



266 STEWART'S HAND BOCK 



DETACHED ISLANDS. 



NORFOLK ISLAND. 

(Territory of the Commonwealth.) 

NORFOLK ISLAND, which is a Territory of tlie Commonwealth of 
Australia, is situated 930 miles east-north-east of Sydney, and mid- 
way between New Zealand and New Caledonia. Its total area is 
8,528 acres, being abovit five miles long and three miles wide. It was dis- 
covered by Captain Cook in 1774, and was subsequently used as a penal 
settlement. The convicts, who had brought the island to a high state of 
cultivation, were removed in 1855, and the British Government handed it 
over to the Pitcairn Islanders — the descendants of the " Bounty " mutineers. 
On July 1, 1914, the Island was taken over as a Territory of the Common- 
wealth. The Minister for Home and Territories is responsible for its ad- 
ministration through the Administrator (Mr. M. V. Murphy). The population 
is about 883 (including 114 Melanesians). Most of the industries are con- 
nected with the land, which is extremely fertile. Fruits are particularly 
plentiful, especially oranges, lemons, passion-fruit, bananas, &c. The waters 
surrounding the I.sland abound with fish of various kinds. The climate is 
very mild, the temperature ranging from 50 degrees to 83 degrees, with an 
average of 68 degrees. The annual rainfall is 55 inches. The island, which is 
most picturesque, is an ideal tourist resort, and is becoming very popular with 
visitors from Australia. Messrs. Bums, Philp & Company's steamers call 
regularly, en route to the New Hebrides Islands. The island is in close com- 
munication with the outside world by means of the Pacific cable. The head- 
quarters of the Melanesian Mission of the Church of England are established 
here under the Bishop of Melanesia. The Methodists and Seventh Day 
Adventists are also represented. There is a steam service to and from Sydney 
about every eight weeks but no regular communication yet v.ith New Zealand, 
excepting twice a year by the missionary yacht " Southern Cross." The 
official home of the commandants in the convict times is delightfully situated 
on the south side of the island on the rise behind Emily Bay. It is now 
occupied by the Administrator. For the years (1917-18) the imports were 
£12,786 and the exports were £6,460. 



OFFICIALS AND RESIDENTS. 

Administrator and Chief Magistrate, M. V. Murphy ; Secretary to the 
Administrator, C. V. Murphy ; Registrar of the Magistrates Court, Collector 



TELEPHONES: Warehouse. Guy 3423-4- Tannery J 1347. BOX 26 Haymarket . 

FORSYTH, PIZZEY & GATES 

LIMITED. 

LEATHER AND GRINDERY MERCHANTS. 



516 KENT STREET, 

SYDNEY. 



We supply every description 
of Leather for Boot Manu- 
facturers, Saddlers and Bag 
Manufacturers. 



WE SOLICIT YOUR INQUIRIES. 



Large Stocks of Grindery 
and Shoe Findinss held. 



George (Ums^Co.Dd. 

Indentors, Importers and Merchants, 

» 

60-6S i^ot^:k: ST:E^-E:ET, 



We Handle . . . 

Galvanised Iron 
Fencing Wires 
Oils and Hardware 
Lumber 
Groceries 
Heavy Chemicals 
Canned Foodstuffs 
Jute Goods 
Paper 

Electrical Goods 
Ail Lines of Japanese and 
Calcutta Goods 



Agencies . . . 

Hoyle's Prints Ltd., Manchester. 
McKesson & Bobbins Inc., New 
York (Drugs, Chemicals, &c.) 
Whitmore's Lubricating 

Compounds 
"Monogram" and " Portola " 

Lubricating Oils 
^' Liberty " Magnetos 

(The Original Bosch) 
Sawyer's Plate Polish 
' ' Maisie ' ' Chocolates 
" Culmino " and 
" Transcendite " Steam Jointing 
Bendigo Pottery 

And Numerous Others. 



Australian Offices 


Oversea Agents 


33 Grenfell St., Adelaide 


London : 


(Head Office) 


George Wills and Sons Ltd. 


Port Pirie 


3 Chapel St., Whitecross St 




London, E.C. 


Wallaroo 


New York : 


Murray St., Perth 


George Wills and Sons Ltd., 


Fremantle 


61 Broadway 


Kalgoorlie 


San Francisco : 


480 Collins St., Melbourne 


George Wills and Sons Ltd., 


Queen St., Brisbane 


230 California St. 



Correspondents and Connections throughout the World. 



OF THK rACIFIC ISLANDS 



>69 



of Customs, aud Registrar of Lo.nds, F. Stephenson, J.I'. ; Postmaster, Charles 
Rossiter ; Acting Chief Pohce Officer, Constable S. C. Werner ; Government 
Medical Officer, Dr. Alex. S. Paton, J. P. ; Public School — Principal Teacher, 
A. Passmore. 

Tne following is a list of the leading residents : — 

Clergymen : Rev. H. N. Drummond, Warden of S. Barnabas, Melanesian 
Mission; Rev. A. R. Martin, CE. Chaplain; Rev. J. R. Smith, Methodist 
Minister ; Mr. Ferris, Seventh Day Adventist Elder. Business Men : K. C. 
Co.\-, Officer in Charge, Cable Station ; Thomas Adams, Lemon Factory ; 
E. H. Chandler, L,emon Factory. Storekeepers : Joseph Jenkins, Manager, 
N.I. Trading Co. ; C. C. R. Nobbs ; Sullivan and "Cliristian ; M. F. Howard 
Christian, Manager, N.I. Clothing Club. Boardins House Keepers : Miss 
Rossiter, Charles Rossiter, Mrs. Allen Christian, Mrs. Herbert Bailey, Thomas 
Adams, Edwin Christian (charges from 25s. to 30s. per week). Butchers : 
G. H. Christian, Charles Rossiter. 



THE TARIFF. 

Under the Act by \vhich Norfolk Island v.'as transferred as a Territory 
to the Commonwealth on July 1, 191J-, the Customs duties which were pre- 
A'iously levied on goods sent to Australia from the island are now removed, 
and articles produced or manufactured on the island are admitted to the 
Conmionwealth dutv free. There is, however, a local Customs tariff at the 
island, the imports being as follows : — 



Spirits, per gallon proof 

Wine, still, per gallon liquid 

Wine, sparkling, per gallon liquid 

Beer, in wood, per gallon liquid . . 

Beer, in bottle, per gallon liquid . . 

Tobacco, manufactured or unmanufactured, Australian leaf, per lb. 

Tobacco, manufactured or unmanufactured, other leaf, per lb. 

Cigars and cigarettes, per lb, 

Tea, per lb. . . 

Coft'ee, per lb. 

Chicory, per lb. 

Oil, kerosene, naphtha, and ga.solinc. per gallon. . 

Sugar, per cwt. 

Molasses, per cwt. . . 

Opium, per lb. 

Biscuits, except the biscuits called " cabin bread,'' per lb. 

Candles, per lb. 

Confectionery, per lb. 

Dried fruits, per lb. . . 

Jams, jellies, and preserves, per lo. 



s. 


d. 


14 





5 





10 








6 





9 


1 





2 





:i 








3 





3 





3 





3 


;$ 





2 





20 































270 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

LORD HOWE ISLAND. 

(iNCiA'DKi) Within the Boundaries of New South Wales.) 

THIS island lies 4:{(i miles north-east from Sydne)', and 300 miles from 
Port Macquarie, the nearest port of the Australian continent, and 
nearly 600 miles from Norfolk Island. 
It was discovered on February 17, 1788, by Lieutenant H. L,. Ball, of 
H.M.S. " Supply," while on his way from Port Jackson to found a settlement 
at Norfolk Island. It is of volcanic origin and crescent shaped, about seven 
miles in length and from one-half to one and tbree-cjuarters in width, con- 
taining about 3,220 acres. It is of great beauty throughout and covered with 
a dense and most luxuriant vegetation, but, from the peculiar bouldery 
character of the formation of the major part of its floor, it has scarcely more 
than 300 acres suitable for agriculture. The soil of these few acres is ex- 
tremely rich and will produce almost any snl)-tropical vegetation. The 
flora of the island is in great variety, forming in all directions the most pictures- 
que of shady forests ; the prevalence, however, of palms (of the genus Keniia 
of Blunie) and of banyans {Ficus columvaris of Moore) form perhaps, its most 
remarkable feature. Single trees of the latter in many instances cover acres 
of ground, while the palms, countless in number, run up to 50, 60 and 70 feet, 
all of which, added to the colour of the water and the mountain islet, and 
cliff scenery, give to the little isolated spot an unmistakable charm. Mount 
Gower is 2,840 feet, with grey-black basaltic cliffs on its southern side 2,000 
feet and upwards sheer to the ocean, while Mount Lidgbird, which is prac- 
tically inaccessible, is 2,500 feet. The climate is peculiarly equa])le. Frosts 
are unknown, while in sunmier the thermometer seldom ri.ses above 80 degrees. 
Rain is abundant and frequent. The natural beauties of the island render it 
most attractive to visitors. Fish are very plentifiil, and good sport can con- 
sequently be had. A two-monthly steam service is in existence, under con- 
tract to the Government, but it is hoped that more frequent communication 
will shortly be arranged. Visitors will find accommodation at the island. 

No lands have been sold, and the people pay no rent, occupying the land 
upon sufferance only — the Government reserving the right of resuming 
whenever they may see fit. The population is about 120. 

By reason of its being east of the 154th meridian of east longitude, the 
limit of the jurisdiction of the Governor of New South Wales, it is specifically 
mentioned as a dependency of New South Wales, in the Constitution Acts 
and the Governors' instructions. It is included in the King Division of the 
Sydney electorate. 

lyord Howe Island is the home of the beautiful Kentia palms, the seeds 
from which are collected and shipped to Sydney, whence between 4,000 and 
5,000 bushels are in normal times exported annually to all parts of the world. 
In July, 1912, a Royal Commission was appointed to inquire into the control 
of the Kentia palm seed trade, and as a result of the report, the Govemor-in- 
Council appointed a Board of Control for the island's affairs. The present 
Board of Control consists of Messrs. J. C. I,. I-'itzpatrick, Treasurer (chairman), 
IC. B. Harkness (Under Secretary of the Department of the Chief Secretary), 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 271 

and J. H. Maiden (Director of the Botanic Gardens), Mr. G. J. Greathead (of 
the Chief Secretary's Department) being the Secretary-. The Board has taken 
charge of the island affairs, and manage and control the Kentia palm seed 
industry. The office of the Board is at the Chief Secretary's Office, Sydney. 
There is at the island a local advisorj^ council consisting of Messrs. W. S. 
Thompson, H. T. Wilson and J. F. Digman. 

The Postmaster and Forest Ranger is Mr. Campbell Stevens, and the 
Schoolmaster, Mr. G. M. Kirbv. 



An account of Lord Howe Island, written bj^ one of the New South. 'Wales 
school inspectors appeared recently in the N.S.W. School Magazive : — 

" From the landing place one can get a view of the island as a whole,'' 
he writes. " Away to the south, two or three miles distant, tov.er two giant 
mountains, which form the grandest and most striking feature of the island. 
They rise straight out of the water and from their steepness appear to be 
inaccessible. Mount Lidgbird, the nearer of the two, is 2,500 feet high, and 
tapers up to a point. The other, INIount Gower, is several hundred feet higher, 
being 2,840 feet above sea-level ; its top is somewhat flattened. The two are 
separated by a narrow hollow, called Frskine Valle}% or more commonly, 
' Between the Hills,' at the top of w-hich a sharp ridge called the Saddle runs 
from one mountain to the other. These twin mountains form the widest part 
of the island, and occupy more than one-third of its length. Either of them 
is much bigger and more imposing than the famed Gibraltar. Other hills, 
less in height, rise in different parts of the island. One is Mount Lookout 
or Transit Hill, so named because a party of surveyors was sent there from 
Sydney to observe the transit of Venus across the face of the sun in December, 
1882. Full preparations were made, and everything went well until tiie last 
moment, when, unfortunately, the sun was hidden b}- a cloud. The concrete 
platform which formed a foundation for the instruments still remains, and a 
Norfolk Island pine, planted at the summit of the hill, forms a conspicuous 
landmark which can be seen from almost even.' part of the i.sland. At the 
north end of the island is a group of steep hiUs, the most remarkable of which 
is Mount Fliza, shaped like one half of a volcanic cone cat down through the 
middle. All the hills are of basalt, a volcanic rock, which ages ago surged up 
from below in a molten state. Altogether, the hills occupy three-fourths of 
the island, leaving only a small area St for cultivation. From end to end the 
i.sland measures nearly .seven miles ; the width varies from less than half a 
mile to a mile and a half ; the area is 3,220 acres, or about five square miles. 
The tops of the hills afford splendid vie-.vs of the island and its shore- line on 
both sides, also of neighbouring islets and Ball's Pyramid. It is shaped like 
a crescent or a boomerang. A<>ro.ss the hollow of the boomerang stretches a 
coral reef, enclosing a shallov.' lagoon from a mile to three-quarters of a mile 
in width.. The waves of the open sea break upon the reef in a line of wliite 
surf, with an uncea.sing sound, like a gentle murnuir in calm weather, but 
swelling to a mighty roar when strong winds chafe the sea. Quite different 
i.s the lapping of the lagoon wavelets upon the silver^' beach which stretches 
in a beautiful sweep of two or three miles along the side of the island. The 
beach is formed of coral sand, and is strewn with myriads of shells, sea-eggs, 
bits of sponge, and fragments of coral, washed in from the reef and the lagoon. 
Some parts of the shore are lined with coral sandstone, a hard rock formed 
out of sand. The soil in the lowest lands is generally of coral sand, which is 
fertile only where it is enriched by large quantities of decayed vegetation. On 
the lower slopes of the hills and in some of the hollows the soil, being of de- 
composed basalt, is exceedingly rich. No milder or more agreeable climate 
could we wished for than that of I<ord Howe Island. It is never very hot, 



272 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

and ne\er cold. The suniiner lias no scorching winds, and t!ie winter no 
frosts. The temperature very seldom rises above 8? degrees or 82 degrees 
or falls below .10 degrees. The island lies right in the way of the broad ocean 
stream of tropical water which flows southward along the east of Australia. 
Coral which cannot live in cold water is found further south here than any- 
where else in the world. There is a plentiful rainfall well distributed through- 
oiat the year. In the pure atmosphere, the scenery of mountain and forest, 
sea and shore stands out in crystal clearness, undimmed by smoke or dust or 
haze. Occasionally, however, the top of Mount Gower, and more rarely 
Mount Lidgbird, wears a .soft crown of mist. So healthy is the i.sland that 
.'^ickness is almost unknown, except when an epidemic of measles or chicken- 
pox is introduced by passengers from the mainland. There is no doctor or 
chemist, and little need for any. The island enjoys perpetual spring, and the 
islanders enjoy perpetual youth. The island is richly clotlied with trees and 
undergrowth — even on the slopes and tops of the mountains. No part is 
bare, except the perpendicular or overhanging precipices of Mount Gower 
and Mount Lidgbird. But the plant life is quite different from that of Aus- 
tralia. There are no gum-trees or wattles, but plenty of palms and banyans. 
The palms of the island are not like the palms of other lands ; they are not 
cocoanut palms or date palms, or cabbage palms. They are called Kentia 
palms. You mav have seen small palms growing in flower-pots, and used 
for decoration. These are all Kentia palms ; no other trees in tlie world 
are so suitable for this purpose. The seed from which they are grown can be 
obtained nowhere else but at I^ord Howe Island. There are four kinds of 
the Kentia palm : — The thatch palm, or Kentia Forsteriana, the curly palm, 
or Kentia Belmoreana, the umbrella palm, or Kentia Canterburiana, and the 
dwarf mountain palm, or Kentia Moorei. Only the seeds of the first two are 
exported. The thatch palm is so called because its fronds were used by 
the islanders in the early days to thatch their houses. It grows only on the 
low ground. The curly palm, which gets its name from the shape of its 
fronds, is the most abundant, for it spreads from the foot of the hills up the 
slopes to a height of several hundred feet. The umbrella nalm is a very grace- 
ful tree, and has much larger seed than the others ; it grows onlv on the upper 
parts of Mount (iowcr and Mount Lidgbird. Tlie dwarf palm is confined to 
the top of "Mount Gower ; its seeds are the smallest. The banyan of Lord 
IJowe Island is related to the banyan of India, but is a taller and more graceful 
tree. It has some resentblance to the native fig-trees of Australia. Its 
method of propagation is very peculiar. It seldom grows up from the ground 
like other trees. The seed lodges in the fork or crevice of another tree, at a 
height of .30 or 40 feet or more, germinates there, and sends its roots down till 
they reach the ground and enter the soil. These roots then grow and form a 
big trunk. The branches spread out horizontally and send down roots which 
hang in the air like thin ropes, till they reach the ground, and in their turn 
become trunks. This process continues until the tree spreads over a space 
almost as large as an ordinary school playground, with scores of trunks a 
few feet apart, all linked together at the top by large horizontal branches. 
The tree continues to spread and form new trunks, even after the original 
stem has decayed and disappeared. The smaller branches grow upwards 
.ind spread out their twigs and leaves to the air. The pandanus is another 
strange tree. Prom the lower end of its trunk, which is often 10 feet or more 
above the ground, the roots spread out in the form of a tent. Its fruit has 
some resemblance to the bread-fruit. There are other trees in great variety. 
The undergrowth is often dense. As you try to force your way through it, 
you are likely to be caught by the long supple stem of a vine, which twists 
round your neck or leg, or any part of your body, and holds you fast. The 
islanders playfully call this vine the Policeman. The ferns are abundant on 
the tops and higher slopps of the two mountains. Mosses a foot high, beautiful 
orchids, the glorious wedding lily, and many other wild flowers are found, 
but generally these prefer the mountain heights and can only be seen after 
hard climlung. Many kinds of subtropical plants have been introduced 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS l'73 

into the island and cultivated for food ; the orange, guava, passion fruit, 
banana, and other fruits ; niai7e, sweet potatoes, ordinary potatoes (called 
Irish potatoes by the islanders), tomatoes, and onions. All the ordinal}- 
garden flowers flo-arish. The animals of I,ord IJowe Island, as well as its 
plants, are unlike those of Australia. There are no kangaroos, or opossums ; 
no snakes, no frogs, or vermin. There are no native mammals of any kind. 
But the island abounds in birds ; not parrots or cockatoos, as we have in 
Australia, but mutton-birds and boatswain birds, and other seabirds in 
thousands. The nests of the mutton-birds are just deep holes in the s.and, 
looking like a rabbit warren. The ilesh of these birds is said, to resemble 
mutton in appearance and flavour ; their eggs, too, are valuable for food. 
The boatswain bird has a long pink plume in its tail. One of the most chann- 
ing l>irds in the noods is a small do^"e, very daint}' in form, hut plain incolour, 
except the neck, which is of a glossy green ; it utters a low plainti\c note, and 
is so tame that it will come quite close to you. Indeed, an extreme tameness 
is characteristic of the birds on the island. You can easily get near enough 
to them to hit them with a switch if you are so inclined. If you keep still, 
the mutton-birds will flock around you and crawl over you, though not in a 
friendly spirit, for they arc very apt to bite. vSome of the birds shov.- great 
curiosity. If you should throw a stone at one of the birds of the island, it 
does not fly away, but comes nearer to see v/hat is happening. The ordinary 
domestic animals have been introduced— horses, cows, pigs and goats, but 
I did not see any sheep. K abbits were liberated on a small island in the lagoon, 
and flourished there for a time, but have disappeared. Their place is taken 
by a flock of goats. Pigs have taken to the hills, and run wild there. A 
better breed of pigs is kept in st3^es and reared for export to Sydney, or for 
local consumption. Fowls and ducks are pletitiful. It is said that the fowls 
at one homestead took to the woods and l^red there in a wild state. The saine 
thing happened in the ca.se of the domestic cat. It is curious that in this 
island the wild things are so tame, and the tame creatures so readily take to 
the wild life of the woods. Even the garden flowers encroach upon the forest. 
Fish are very plentiful, and of many kinds — salmon, blue fish, tre\ally, king •■ 
fish, cod, garfish, and so on. They are easy to catch. A man in an hour or two 
will catch ."iO or 40 large fish, weighing several pounds each. Lord Howe 
Island's history is not ancient. F'or thousands of years this lovely green isle 
lay there in the wide ocean in utter loneliness. No human being, white or 
black, had ever set foot upon it, or beheld its beauty, its noble mountains, 
its reef and lagoon, its .shells and coral strand. Generation after generation 
of birds and fishes, of palms and banyans, liad come and lived their lives there 
and pa.ssed away. In other parts of the world great cities grew up and 
flourished, wars were waged, mighty empires arose and fell, men invented 
ships and traversed the ocean hither and thither, and yet this lonely spot 
remained outside it all. At last, on February 17, 178S, the spell was ])roken. 
A small ship came over the eastern horizon, and the island was born to the 
world. It was H.M.S. " Supply,' sent by Governor Phillip with a party of 
convicts and soldiers who were to found a new .settlement at Norfolk Island 
under Lieutenant King. The ship was commanded by Lieutenant Henry 
Lidgbird Ball, who made his discovei-y on the tlur 1 day out, and named the 
i.sland after Admiral Lord Howe, then h'irst I.ord of the Admiralty. The 
north point of the island he named Phillip Head, and the south point King 
Head. One of his own names, Lidgbird, is gi^•etl to the second higiiest 
mountain, and the highest pointed rock rising out of the sea to the south 
is now called Ball's Pyramid. \\"ithout delaying his mission he continued his 
voyage to Nv)rfolk Island, but on his return he had leisure to ex;nnine his new 
found land, to take soundings, and to make a chart. Along the beach the 
sailors found aluindance of fine turtle, which gave an agreeable change of 
diet. It was this circumstance that led to the i.sland being visited a second 
time by the ' Supply." Governor Phillip, e\er elert for the good of his 
infant colony, sent the ship to look for more turtle, as an addition to the scant 
food supply, and especially for the benefit of those who were sick with .scurvy. 



274 STF^WART'S HAND BOOK 

But little or no turtle could be found, either then or on subsecjuent visits made 
for the same purpose. Lieutenant Ball, with his ship the ' Supply,' did much 
service for New South Wales. Among other things he made a thorough 
survey of Port Jackson, and one of the headlands of the harbour bears his 
name. After five years he returned to Kngland, and in time rose to the rank 
of Admiral. The newly-discovered Lord Howe Island was for a long time 
thought to be of little value. But when the whaling industry sprang up the 
place became a resort of whalers, and ships sometimes called there on their 
way between Sydney and Norfolk Island. In 1833 a few people settled there 
to grow fresh food for the whalers, and in 1835 a surveyor, Mr. H. J. W^hite, 
was sent to report upon the island. Some years later a company was formed 
to supply provisions to whaling ships, but tlie enterpri.se did not prove profit- 
able and was abandoned. Some of the employees of the company, however, 
remained with their families and became the nucleus of permanent settle- 
ment. One member of the company, Dr. Foulis, who resided three years on 
the island has left a permanent mark there. The doctor bird was named after 
him in this way. .\ little girl of two or three years, born on the island, fancy-' 
ing a rese:nblance between the brown plumage of the bird and the doctor's 
brown suit with its long frock coat, used to call the bird ' the doctor bird.' 
The name was playfully adopted by the residents, and in time became general. 
This story was told me by the one who invented the name, now a lady of 70 
years, with many descendants living on the island. In 1851, when the con- 
vict problem was causing some trouble' the authorities in New South ^^'ales 
and Victori.a cast longing eyes upon Lord Howe Island as a safe place for the 
worst class of convicts. Captain Denham was sent in II.^M.S. ' Herald ' 
to report on the island, and information v/as obtained from Dr. I'oulis, who 
was then in Sydney. Though all reports were favourable, yet nothing 
further was done, and the island thus had a lucky escape. The population has 
steadily increased. But for nianj^ years there was no regular intercourse 
between the island and the mainland. The inhabitants were left to their 
own resources. They built houses for themselves out of the island timber, 
and thatched them with palm fronds, made clearings in the woods, and grev,- 
food for themselves — corn and fruit and vegetables, pigs and poultry. The 
sea yielded abundance of li.sh. ^Materials for clothing and other needs were 
obtained from whaling vessels, mainlj' by barter, some of these ships being 
fitted out with all kinds of goods like a general store. But it often hanpeneil 
that for months together the i.slanders were left wholly to themselves. In 
these circumstances the%', like Robinson Crusoe, showed much ingenuity 
in providing for their own wants. One man, for instance, made a plough out 
of a banyan tree, produced sugar by boiling the juice of sorghum plants, 
made a grindstone out of the coral sandstone, and, being fond of music, even 
fashioned a violin for himself, supplying materials for the strings, it is said, 
b3' killing the household cat. As the island grew in importance attempts 
were made to work up a regular trade with Sydney by exporting onions and 
other local products, but this movement met with little success. The island 
is not adapted for production on a large scale. An industry sprang up, 
however, that v>'as peculiar to the island — the trade in palm seeds. For a 
long time the palms of Lord Howe Lsland were thought to be of the same kind 
as the cabbage palms of Australia, and were commonh' called cabbage palms. 
Tt was found, however, that they formed a distinct order, and that the young 
palms were better suited for decorative purposes than any others in the 
world. A demand for them arose and the islanders began to collect the seeds 
and sell them to agents on the mainland. But, not knowing the market value 
of the seed, they .sold it at a low price which gave but a poor return for their 
labour. I/ater, when it was discovered that the seed which bad been selling 
for ten shillings a bushel was really worth three pounds a bushel or more, 
they decided to combine and form a compan}- with the help of seed merchants 
in Sydney. The higher price brought an increase of prosperity and for some 
years all went well. .\t length the Government of New South ^^■ales ap- 
pointed a Commissioner to make a full investigation into the affairs of the 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 275 

island, and especially into the palm-seed in'lustry. On his reeonimendatiou 
the company was brought to an end, and the island was put under tlie manage- 
ment of a Board of Control. The Board manage the seed business, an<l return 
the profits to the islanders, nobody else receiving an^' share. Under this 
arrangement, the island has prospered more than ever. It was fortunate that 
in the whole course of the island's history, the land remained the sole property 
of the Crown. People were allowed to settle there, to make homes for them- 
selves, and culti\ ate the land, but they had no title. They did not own a 
foot of ground, nor on the other hand were they required to pav any rent. 
^^arious attempts had been made by enterprising persons in Sydney, on the 
lookout for \vays of makinc a fortune, either to buy the land or to acriuire 
long leases of it ; but these attempts were always thwarted. Thus the island 
was saved from exploitation, and the Government has a free hand in managing 
the island for the welfare of its inhabitants. In few parts of the world does such 
a favourable condition exist. A notable feature in the history of the island 
is the absence of crime. A magistrate used to visit the island periodically, 
I)ut there were ne\er any prisoners for him to tr3^ Yet, strange to say, 
there is a gaol. The magistrate had a notion that without such an institution, 
the outward and visible signs of legal authority were not complete, and so 
persuaded the Government of the day to send out the timbers for a g.aol. 
rbe islanders hold a different view, looked upon the gaol as an insult, and 
refused to land it. The steamer was obliged to bring it back to Sydney, 
whence it was again sent out with a gang of men to land and erect it. The 
people accepted the situation with good humour ; the gaol was set up on one 
side of the recreation park, but from that day to this has never been used for 
it? own special purpose. It is found to be a convenient nlace to keep cricket- 
ing material. 



THURSDAY ISLAND. 

(Included within Boundaries of Queensland.) 

Torres Straits and Thur.sday Island have been geographically important 
ever since Ivuiz Yaez De Torres proved that Australia was an island. Captain 
Cook practically made the discovery a second time, as the records of the 
discovery of Torres had lain unknown for nearly loO years until discovered 
by Dalrymple, while Manila was in the occupation of the British, and it is 
doubtful if Cook had any definite knowledge of them. Towards the end of the 
eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century this neighbourhood 
was visited by various explorers, and here in 1790 the " Pandora," endeavour- 
ing to pass the straits, became a total wreck. After an unsatisfactory attempt 
to establish a station at Somerset on the Australian mainland of Cape York, 
beginning in 1863, the extensive discoveries of pearlshell beds led to the 
Government settlement being transferred to Thursday Island, which has 
since permanently established itself, not only as the head centre of the pearl- 
shelling industry, but also as a general commercial centre. The pearl.shelling 
industry, however, overshadows all others. Apart from it Thursday Island 
has an importance as a coaling station for ocean-going steamers, and on the 
I.sland are well garrisoned fortifications. A huge reservoir has been con- 
structed on the island for its water supply. Many regard Thursday Island as 
geographically, ethnologically, and climatically part rather of New Guinea 
than Au.stralia. As a place where the island races of the Pacific are meeting 



27fi STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

aud mixing, Thursday Island is a place of interest to the tra\ellcr. It is 
situated about .'50 miles north-west of Cape York. There are numerous 

islands surrounding it, which include : — Prince of Wales Island, Hammond^ 
Horn, Wednesday and Friday Islands. The population is about 2,800, of 
whom about 500 are whites. The others comprise Japanese, mainlaind 
aboriginals. South Sea I.slanders, Torres Straits Islanders, Papuans, Malays, 
Phillipinos and others. 



Resident Police Magistrate and Warden, G. F. L. Foxton ; District Regis- 
trar. Immigration Agent, dsc, C. J. Handley ; Shipping Master. R. Y. Holmes ; 
Shipping Inspector, Captain MacDonald ; Clerk of MMnicipal Council, T. I<' 
Robin.son ; Postmaster, P. IMcCaul. 

Busine.ss Places: — Storeleepers, Burns, Philp, Ltd., Papuan Industries 
Ltd., We.stern Briti.sh New Guinea Trading Co., Hodels Ltd., Mrs. B. Thomas^ 
G. Sing, and several Chinese and Japanese establishments : Chemists and 
Druggists, J. TurnbuU, J. A. Wilson ; Bookseller. O. Watson ; Butchers, Torres 
Straits Fre.sh Food and Ice Co, ; Pearl Buyers. T. J. Farqiihar, H. L. Mowlis, 
Y. B. vSaranealis ; Photographa , O. Watson; Auctioneers, Bowden and Mac- 
kenzie, J. Hennessy. 

Churches: — Chutch ot England, Bishop of Carpentaria (Right Rev. H 
Newton), Rev. T. W. Slade ; Roman Catholic Mission, Father Bach. 



ROTUMAH 

^BRITISH.) 



The Island of Rotumah, situated in 12 degrees 30 minutes south latitude. 
177 degrees 10 minutes east longitvide, was discovered by the Pandora, in 
1 793, when searching for the mutineers of the " Bount}'." Lying to the north- 
west from two to four miles from the shore, are three small islets, Hattana, 
Hofiua and Waya. Of these only the last named is inhabited, and it contains 
but one small village. In 1879 the three principal Rotumah chiefs ofEc-red 
the islands to Great Britain, and they were annexed on May 13, 1881. The 
population was found at the census of 1903 to number 2,230, of whom two- 
thirds are Wesleyans, and the remainder Roman Catholics. The principal 
island is seven miles long by three miles broad and contains about 9,000 
acres. The staple export is copra, of which from 1,200 to 1,500 tons are 
shipped annually. 

The distance of Rotumah from Suva, the seat of Government, the in- 
frcquency of intercommunication, and the fact that the natives differ entirely 
from Fijians in language and in polity, necessitate a government on other 
lines than that of the colon}' generally. A European Commissioner resides 
on the island, and is under the Governor, the chief executive and judicial 
authority in Rotumah. The Commissioner's Court, except in capital cases, 
takes the place of the Supreme Court of Fiji. There are two native stipen- 
diary magistrates, who have jvirisdiction in minor cases. The island is divided 
into seven districts, over each of which a chief, appointed by the Governor, 



^be Hustralian Bank of Commerce 

ILimiteb* 



DIRECTORS : 

MARK' .SHELDON, ESy.. 

Chairman 

of Ualtiju Bros, of 
Sydney, Ltd., Merchants). 

HERHEHT U. LYSAGHT, 
E.>i(j. 

(of Jolui Lysiight Ltd.. 
Ironmasters. Bri.stol. 
Wolverhampton. New- 
jiort. Loudon, England 
iiud Sydney, N.S. W.) 

(iEORGE J. SLY, E.SI... 

LL.D. 

(of .Sly it Riissrll, Soli- 
(■itoi>, -viliic\). 




DIRECTORS: 

HuN. F. .lAGO SMITH, 

M.L.C. 

Piistoralist, " Haw- 
thorne.' Rathurst. 

UEORUE F. TODMAK, 
Esy. 

of W. V. & H. 0. Will.s 
(Australia) Ltd. and 
Britisli Tobaeyo Co" 

( -Vustraliaj Ltd. 

FRAXK N". VAKWUUD, 

Esq., E.G-Ka. 

(of Yarwood. Vane &Co. 
Public .\ccountant.s, 

Sydner. 



-9 '"^Misl.^ 
'i'lie Head i imei;, Syduco 

(Jknkkal Ma.\.u;er: C. M. C. SHANNON. 

HEAD OFFICE: 
George and King Streets, Sydney, New South Wales 

with 148 Branches and Agencies in New South Wales, 
Queensland and Victoria. 

THE BANK is prepared to transact every description of Banking business, including : — 

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FIXED DEPOSITS received for peiiods of .six iiu)ntlis and iipwards, at rate,*; (<i 
interest ascertainable on application. 

ADVANCES MADE on approved L,anded or other Securities, and against Ship- 
ments of Hides, Talk)\v, Wool, AVheat and all kinds of marketable produce. 

STRONGROOM ACCOMMODATION is provided for the safe keeping of Debentures, 
Deeds and \'aluables Iodised by Customers of the Bank. 

CABLE AND TELEGRAPHIC remittances made to all parts of the World. 

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OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 27T 

rules. The framinj^ of local laws is entrusted to the Rotuinah Regulation 
Board (consisting of tlie Resident Commissioner, the chiefs, and magistrates). 
Their enactments are subject to the approval of the Legislative Council of 
P'iji. The post of Resident Commissioner has now beevi amalgamated with 
that of Provincial Officer, and a hospital has been estabhshed on the island 
Resident Commissioner : — Dr. Hush MacDonakl. 



WALLIS ISLAND, 

. . (FRLvNCH.) 

North of Tong;i. is the small W allis (Uvea) Island, which has belonged to 
Trance sime 1886, and which is now designated as a "colony." The in- 
habitants, who have been Christianised by French missionaries, number 
about 4,500. They are much like the Samoans and probably originally came 
from there, as the distance between the two places is not more than 300 
miles. There are three mission stations, a seminary for priests, and a convent 
there. The town of the King, Matautu, the seminary at Lano, the mission 
at Mua, and the magnificent lakes are the chief points of interest. These 
lakes are contained in the crater of a great extinct volcano ; the water level 
in them rises and falls with the tides of the ocean, suggesting that there must 
be some .subterranean connection between the shaft of the once burning 
mountain and the expanse of sea which surrounds it. The island is encircled 
by a reef which is divided from the mountainous mainland by a circular lagoon 
into which there is one entrance flanked by two islands. The roads are 
excellent. There is a French Resident, and the islands are in regular com- 
munication with Noumea. Copra is practically the only product. 

Traders : — Julian Erial, Wing Chong Wah & Co., Wong Ouong. 



FUTUNA OR HOORNE ISLANDS 

(Futuna and Alofi) 

(FRI'.NCII.) 

These two small islands, which lie sonie 300 miles to the north-east of 
Fiji and 126 miles to the south-west of Wallis Island, and have about 1,500^ 
inhabitants, were annexed by France in 1888, and were, with Wallis Island, 
declared a French colony in September, 1917. They both contain extensive 
groves of cocoanuts and bread-truU. Futuna is about 8i miles long and 5 
miles broad, the highest point being I'.-'iOO feet. Alofi, about 6 miles long and 
3 wide, lies a few miles to the south-east of Futuna. -A Roman Catholic 
mission is established on both islands. Hurricanes are occa.sionally ex- 
perienced. One in 1890 did cimsiderable damage, and another, in December^ 
1904, devastated both islands and caused the wreck of the schooner 



278 STnWAKT'S HAND BOOK 

■■ Meilora," owned by Mr. Ilennings and Ca])laiii Kaad, vvhiili at the time was 
lyina; in Sigave Bay. In April, 1907, Futuna was again swept by a hurricane, 
which demolished the Roman Catholic church and greatly damaged the cocoa- 
,nut plantations. 

Trader : — ■ — Petersen. 



SUWARROW. 

(DEPi'NDUNCY ov :M';\v ZHALAND.) 

Suw-arrow Island, lying 530 miles from Rarotonga, and about 500 miles 
east of Apia, has one of the best harbours in the Pacific#^^t is a coral atoll 
of triangular form, 50 miles in circumference, the ree^ having an average 
width of half a mile across, enclosing a land-locked lagoon twelve miles by 
eight, which forms an excellent harbour. The entrance is half a mile wide 
and the accommodation permits of ships riding in safety in all weathers. As 
the depth of water in the passage is only 20 feet it is, however, impossible for 
large steamers to enter. It is out of the track of hurricanes, uninhabited, 
but capable by its fertility of supporting a small population. As a depot of 
the collection of trade from the various islands it should in time be very 
valuable. A portion of one of the reef islets, known as Anchorage Island, is 
vested in the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty as a reserve for naval 
purposes. Suwarrow is at present leased as a cocoanut plantation. 

" One of the islets on the reef of the Suwarrow lagoon," savs a visitor, 
" abounds with sea birds. The small terns lie so thick that the visitor must 
walk with the greatest care lest he crush the eggs or little ones, or kill the 
sitting hen, Avho boldly eyes him and pecks and tights in defence of her nest 
or young, ^\'hen the birds rise they darken the sky as with a cloud. The 
cock birds go fishing during the day, and return at night with the spoil for 
the sustenance of their mates and families." 



CHRISTMAS ISLAND. 

(BRITISH.) 

Christmas Island, lying three degrees north of the line, is one of the 
largest lagoon islands in the Pacific. In circuit it exceeds 100 miles. The 
lagoon in the centre is comparatively shallow and contains pearlshell. The 
island was treeless and uninhabited when taken up many years ago by Messrs. 
Hender.son and Macfarlane, who planted some cocoanut trees. It was then 
leased from the British Government by Lever's Pacific Plantations Limited, 
who planted some 60,000 cocoanut trees in 1904-5, and then transferred their 
interests to the Central Pacific Cocoanut Plantations Limited, registered in 
London, of which Emmanuel Rougier is managing director. It was the 
scene of the wreck of the steamer " Aeon" some years ago. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 279 

This island is one of Cook's discoveries. He sighted it on Cliristuias 
Day, 1777, and remained till January 2 of the following year, observing an 
eclipse and catching turtle, of which he tells us he succeeded in getting :$00, 
^Yeighing from 90 lb. to 100 lb. each. 



PENRHYN ISLAND. 

(DEPKNDENCY OF NEW ZEALAND.) 

Penrhyn, a good specimen of the pure atoll, lies about 300 miles north- 
east of Manihiki. It is merely a ring of coral, about 48 miles in circuit, sup- 
porting a number of low islands, from 200 to 300 yards across, and enclosing 
a lagoon of 90 square miles in area, of which 24 square miles are more or less 
covered witli pearlshell. There are three passages into the lagoon, the prin- 
cipal one having a depth of 18 feet at low water, and there is sufficient wharf 
accommodation at Onioka for the small class of vessel that visits the island. 
The other village at Penrhyn, Te Tautua, is some 10 miles distant. The 
pearlshell industry used at one time to be a rather important one, but the 
production of pearlshell and copra have both fallen off. Here, and in the 
other islands of the group, the medical department of the Administration has 
greatly improved the public health. There is a leper station on one of the 
i.slands in the lagoon. There were in 1916 312 natives en the island and 
three whites. 



MANIHIKI ISLAND. 

(DEPENDENCY OF Xl'AV ZEALAND.) 

Manihiki is also an atoll, but, unlike Penrhyn, is has no opening through 
the reef into the lagoon, and when the natives wish to visit the neighbouring 
island of Rakahanga their boats have to be carried across the narrow strip 
of land separating the lagoon from the sea. The island consists of about 
two square miles of land, encircling a lagoon of some six miles in diameter. A 
good deal of pearlshell has been obtained from Manihiki, but a few years ago 
it was found necessary to close the lagoon, as the shell-beds had been fished 
almost to the point of exhaustion. The natives of this island have some 
reputation for their skill in the manufacture of hats. Walking-sticks, 
paddles, &c., inlaid with pearlshell, are also manufactured. A fair quantity 
of copra is produced. The native teachers of the London IMi.ssionary Society 
look after the education of the children of the island. The total population, 
which in 1852 numbered 1,200, is approximately 113. Distance from Raro- 
tonga, 650 miles. 



-SO STKWAKT S llASli BOOK 

CAROLINE ISLAND 

(liRITISH.) 

Kastward of renrhyn about 400 miles lies an atoll kuo«n as Caroline or 
Thornton Island, very low. It produces cocoanuts, and is surrounded by 
many islets with guano deposits. It was in the " seventies" sold by Captain' 
lirothers, of Tahiti, to Messrs. Holder Brothers, of London, and is now held 
under a 99 years' lease from the British Government, dating from 1902, by 
S. R. Maxwell & Co., Ltd., of Auckland and Tahiti, who hold a similar lease 
of Flint and Vostok Islands. Over 18,000 cocoanut trees have been planted. 



PALMERSTON ISLAND 

(de;pi'NI)Ukcv oi- nkw zi-aland.) 

Palmerston is an atoll, with a land area of one square mile, lying to the 
north-west of Raratonga, some 273 miles distant. The reef carries a number 
of small islets, which are in the occupation of the descendents of the late 
^^■illianl Masters, who settled there about 1862. One of these, John jSIasters, 
acts as Resident Agent, and he with six other members of the family con- 
stitute the Island Council. The lagoon, which is about eight miles in dia- 
meter, does not carry pearlshell at present, but it is hoped that spawn may be 
successfully introduced from other islands. The planting of the land is being 
v^ell looked after by the Masters family. The popidation is 100. The 
island was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774, on his second voyage, though 
it is said by some authorities to be the " San Pablo" of Magellan, the first 
island discovered in the vSouth Seas. On Captain Cook's third and last voyage 
the great navigator landed there to get fodder for his perishing cattle. I^ater 
on the mutineers of the " Bounty " touched at the i.sland, but did not care to 
make it their home after their plc:isant experiences at Tahiti. 



RAKAHANGA ISLAND 

(dependp;ncy of nkw Zealand.) 

This island lies about 25 miles to the north of Manihiki and (170 nnles 
from Rarotonga. It is not so large as its neighbour, and the lagoon does not 
contain any pearlshell, but otherwise the two islands are very much alike. 
They are owned and inhabited by the same people, and what has been said 
•concerning Manihiki is true, for the most people, of Rakahanga also. The 
population is under 400. 



OF THK PACIPIC ISLANDS 281 

DANGER ISLANDS (Puka-Puka) and NASSAU 

(DKPENDKXCirvS OF Xl'.W Zlv.M.AXD.) 

'The Danger Islands, consistiug'of three small atolls and surrounding reefs, 
comprised within the limits of 10 degrees 48 minutes and 10 degrees oU minutes 
south, distant 700 miles from Rarotonga, were so called by Commodore 
Byron, from their unsafe aspect, although to voyagers acquainted with them 
they present no dangers whatever. They lie out of the track of the hurri- 
canes, and a vessel may stand off and on, making fast to the reef with a kedge 
during the day if necessary, for nine months of the year, in a horseshoe bioht 
on the lee s;de of the land. The islands, Puka-puka (the northernmost), 
Koko, and Katoe, are about 20 feet high and well wooded. At one time thev 
were thickly populated ; the number cf inhabitants is now under 500. Manv 
years ago slaving ships frcm the coast of Peru carried off a great number. 
They are of a light copper hue and plea.«ing countenance ; they never practised 
tatooing or any kind of disfigurement. They have not, and, it is said, never 
did have, any weapons of war. Crimes of violence seem to have never been 
known among them. They are a people simple, contented, honest, and per- 
fectly amiable ; very ingenious in the manufacture of their clothing and 
implements, and very ready and anxious to learn frcm strangers whatever is 
useful. 

The products of the islands are cocoanuts, pearlshell and beche-de-mer. 
The cocoanut groves are verj^ luxuriant. The lagoon abounds with beche- 
de-mer of good quality, and very large and fine pearl oysters exist in it, but 
are at great depths and not plentiful. 

Scattered among th" cocoanut groves are many toniano trees. The wood 
is like Spanish mahogany, very valuable for shipbuilding, as also for orna- 
mental work. From the seeds, which are of the size of a billiard ball, is ex- 
tracted a green oil, known in the Indian seas as " woondel." It is used for 
many purposes, but is principally famous for its medicinal properties. From 
the stem exudes an odorous gum, used by the Polj-nesians as a perfume. 
There are other kinds of valuable timber upon these and the neighbouring 
i.s|ets, including '" milo " and " tainu " woods of fine grain and great dura- 
bility, especially adapted for the timbers of boats and small vessels ; also a 
species called " to," which attains a great size, and is highly prized by such 
European carpenters as are acquainted with it for the purpose of cabinet work 
and ornamental furniture. There is al.so an extensive growth of pandanus or 
screw palm. 

To the south-east of these islands, about 40 miles distant, lies Nassau, 
a ctmple of miles in length, placed in 1 1 degrees :J2 nnnutes south, 165 degrees 
24 minutes west. Nassau has deep water all round, and no lagoon, but a 
secure landing on the lee side, and no outlying dangers. It is covered with 
valuable timber. Turtle resort to it in extraordinary numbers. In the year 
1870 a small colony of Manihiki and Samoa natives was established here by 
the agents of Messrs. Oodcffroy ; but the I'ranco-C'Terman war having curtailed 
their operations and compelled them to lay up or dispose of their vessels 
on the Sainoan station, they neglected to visit these people, who, becoming 



282 stfavart's hand book 

weary of their lonely life, after about two years took the opportunity of a 
passing vessel to (juit their solitary abode. They had planted cotton which 
has now run wild all over the place. The soil being very rich. At present 
Nassau i.s leased to the vSamoan Shipping and Trading Co. for cocoanut plant- 
ing. 



MALDEN ISLAND, 

(BRITISH.) 

Maiden Lsland, about 150 miles to the north-north-east of vStarbuck, 
is about 12 miles in length and 6 in breadth, its greatest height above the sea 
being about 15 feet. It produces a considerable quantity of guano, the 
deposits being worked by Messrs. Grice, Sumner & Co., of Melbourne. On the 
i.sland are the remains of some large niorais — ancient sepulchral buildings. 
On the central ridge are more than a hundred platforms of cruciform shape, 
built of coral slabs, three feet high, and filled in with a compact mass of coral 
shells and stones. There are also a number of shelter places or huts formed by 
three coral blocks, with a fourth on the top. More than 30 wells were also 
found cut in the coral rock from six to nine feet deep, and a number of shallow 
graves containing human" bones much decayed, and shell ornaments. The 
climate is healthy and dry. The mean temperature ranges from 70 degrees 
to 93 degrees Fahr. The annual rainfall is about 84^ inches, March to June 
being the wettest season. 

Mr. Leslie, who resided on the island for 14 months, thus describes it : — 
" In the centre of the island is a small lake of about two uules in circumference, 
and almost surrounded by quick-sands. In some places the water is only a 
few feet deep, but in other parts it is of immense depth. The lake rises and 
falls with the tides. The only vegetation on the island consists of three cocoa- 
nut palms and a dozen small trees, which are situated at the northern end. 
Occasionally, one sees a few blades of grass, but it is such miserable stuff that 
even the wild goats will net eat it. There are about 60 or 70 wild pigs and 
goats on the island, the descendants of animals turned loose some years ago. 
It is a mystery how these animals find enough food to keep them alive. The 
island swarms with rats and wild cats, the latter being very savage. One of 
the strange and interesting features of Maiden Island is a number of large 
square areas, raised some three feet above the ordinary surface, and supported 
by blocks of wrought coral, and each having in its centre what may be taken 
for an altar or tomb. These are the only traces of a former people who 
inhabited the island long before it was visited by white men. The only pro- 
duct of any commercial value is guano. There are immense deposits, the rights 
for working which are held by a Melbourne firm. The employees of the firm 
are the sole inhabitants of the island, and their duty is to collect the guano, 
and prepare it for shipment. There are only seven white men on the island. 
Working under these are about 100 natives, recruited chiefly from Aitutaki 
and Nine. Both the white men and the natives sign an agreement to work at 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLAND? 28S 

Maiden for a term of one year, at the end of wliicli time they are taken home 
in the ships trading to the island. The inhabitants are well cared for by the 
company. They live in wooden houses, which are very roomy and comfort- 
able. Everything required for their use is imported. The food consists of 
tinned meats, vegetables, and fruits. The only change which can be got is 
fish, of which there are enormous quantities in the sea round the island, 
but even fish, after a while, becomes distasteful. Life at Maiden is not life 
at all ; it is merely an existence, and a terrible dreary, monotonous existence 
at that. There is not a green blade of grass, let alone a green tree to refresh 
the eye on this flat pancake of an island. Work commences at five o'clock 
in the morning, and stops at five o'clock in the afternoon. Sunday is a dav of 
rest. The guano is scraped up by the natives into flat heaps, and is dried in 
the hot sun, after which it is bagged up. The bags of guano are stacked up on 
small trolleys, running on light rails to the wharf, six miles away. About 
three or four vessels, as a rule, call during the year. 

The Victorian barque "John Murray" was wrecked at Maiden Island 
last vear. 



STARBUCK ISLAND. 

(BRITISH.) 

Starbuck Island, in latitude 5 degrees 38 minutes south, longitude 155 
degrees 55 minutes west, discovered by Byron in 1825, is a low, bare, coral 
rock, four miles long and less than two in width, devoid of vegetation. It 
was at one time covered with guano, but the deposits have now been practically 
worked out. A small opening, which alTords a boat passage for landing in 
fair weather, has been blown out of the reef opposite the ruins of the Guano 
company's old buildings, at the north-western point of the island. 



MIDWAY ISLANDS. 

(AMKRICAN.) 

Midway Islands, which are in communication with Honolulu and Guam 
by the cable of the Commercial Pacific Company, are two little islands 
to the north-west of Hawaii, surrounded by a circular coral reef, 18 miles in 
circumference. They were discovered by Captain Brookes, of the " Gam- 
bia," in 1859. Nature has formed a gateway in this reef on the westei'n side 
through which vessels drawing 18 feet may safely pass into the deep harbour 
beyond. The Japanese had been almost the only visitors to the islands for 
ages, their chief object in going there being to kill sea birds for their feathers. 
The traffic has now been stopped. The United States Governmer.t has taken 
possession of the islands. Captain Walker, his wife, and the crew of the 



.284 STK wart's hand hook 

■■ Wandering Minstrel," wrecked there in 1887, ii\ed on the sandy wastes for 
14 months. Up to the time of their rescue they had been subsisting on fish 
and birds' eggs. 

Kure or Ocean I.sland (whirli must not be confused with the Ocean Ishind 
of phosphate fame} is an atoll 14 miles in circumference lying .")0 miles west 
of the Midway Islands. It was the scene of the wreck of the " Saginaw " 
jn 1870. and of the " Dimotlar Castle" in 1886. 



SWAIN'S ISLAND, 

vSwain's Island, in 11 degrees 5 minutes south and 170 degrees 5.5 minutes 
"west, is of coral formation, about tluree miles long and one mile broad. The 
island lies close to the Union group, and was taken up about 50 years ago 
bv Mr. Eli Jennings, an American, who settled upon it with his wife, the 
daughter of a Sanioan chief. The island is planted with cocoanuts, which 
give a handsome yield. The population numbers about 100. The Jennings 
have made numerous roads tlirough their little domain and built a church, 
and a native missionan,' teaches the numerous children by whom they are 
surrounded. 



PITCAIRN ISLAND 

(BRITISH.) 

Pitcairn Island is an isolated, mountainous island Wing about 100 miles 
to the south-east of the C'ambier group, about two m.iles in length and less 
than a mile in width, with a fine climate and a fertile volcanic soil. It was 
here, in 1790, that the mutineers of the "' Bounty" settled. Their descen- 
dants were removed in 1855 to Korfolk Island, but tv.-o j'ears later several 
families returned. They have since increased to about 1^0. The Pitcairn 
Islanders are degenerating and in all probability will continue to do so, inter- 
marriage having had an injurious ef1ect»upon tliem morally and physically. 
There is no comumnication with the outside world e\'cept by passing ships 
and the occasional visits of British men-o'-war. Some years ago the islanders 
unanimously adopted the tenets of belief held by the Seventh Day Adventists, 
which body has a missionary there. 



A description of the conditions on Pitcairn -was given recently by a 
writer in the Melbourne .1 )<,» , who stated : — 

" Pitcairn is truly a delightful land to live in. It is situated about 25 
decrees south of the Kquator, and the climate is perfect. There are no ex- 
tremes of temperature, and it is thereby a very healthy place, and is not sub- 
jected to the diseases that are prevalent in most of the islands of the tropics. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 285 

The island is of volcanic formation, and appears like several peaks or a range 
•of mountains standing up out of the sea. The highest point is about 1.000 
feet above sea level, and the coastline is very rugged and precipitous. The 
i.sland is about six miles long, and three across in the widest part. The 
village, called .\damstown, is situated on the north side. There are 33 houses, 
built of weather-boards, with thatched roofs, within a radius of less than a 
mile. For their water supply the people depeuil on a spring in a valley about 
300 feet above the village. The water is brought down in open ' flues,' made 
from palm trunks, for half a mile, and run into a large vat, from which house- 
holds draw their supplies. The island produces an abundance of food in 
return for •. ery little laViour. The sweet potato and the bulb taro are the 
principal crops. Then there are water taro, yam manioca, and arrowroot 
as the root crops. Pumpkins, water-melons, and rock-melons grow to per- 
fection, and the French-bean and cow-pea do well. There are nine clifferent 
kinds of banana and some of the finest oranges that the world can produce. 
I wish that vve could send you some. Then there are pineapple, passion fruit, 
custard apples, snow fruit, mango, alligator pears, and breadfruit. 

The island is of historic interest as the oldest Briti.sh colony in the 
southern hemisphere after Sydney and Norfolk Island. The mutineers of 
the ' Bounty,' from whom the present inhabitants are descended, settled there 
in 1790. The island was uninhabited when they reached it, but they were not 
the first to dwell on it. Stone axes, stone pillars, and figures like those of 
F'aster I.sland, and skeletons, with pearl mus.sels placed beneath their heads, 
have been found on Pitcairn. Like the mystery of Easter Island, the problem 
of how (it njay be long before the keels of Magellan's ships furrowed the waters 
of the Pacific) these people came to inhabit this speck of land so lost in the 
blue imm_en,sites of ocean that it had but one species of land bird, a small tree 
creeper, when it was rediscovered, will perhaps never be solved. \\'hv they 
vanished from the island is another mystery to which there is no key. The 
second colonisation was due to the presence on the " Bountj' " of a book 
describing the voyage of H.M.S. .sloop " Swallow " in the Pacific under Phillip 
Carteret. In 1767 Carteret visited Pitcairn, which he named after the mid- 
shipman who first sighted it. To escape the long arm of the English law, 
which did, in fact, afterwards reach out to Tahiti and pluck thence some of 
their fellow-mutineers, Fletcher Christian and eight others sailed to Pitcairn 
in the ' Bounty' in 1790, taking with them six Polyne.sian men and a dozen 
women. They ran the ' Bounty ' ashore, and burnt her, and their retreat 
remained unknown to the outside world for 18 5'ears. In 1808 the American 
whaler ' Topaz ' touched at Pitcairn, and her captain was, to his intense 
surprise, hailed in Engli.sh by some youths in a canoe, the half-caste sons of 
the mutineers. Of the mutineers them.selves but one remained, Alexander 
Smith, who took, for some oKscure reason, the name of John Adams. Indeed, 
of the 15 men who landed on Pitcairn in 1790 all but Adams were dead in 
1800, and with one exception they died a violent death. " Imnk and the 
devil had done for the rest," as the pirate's song in " Treasure Island" r>.ins. 
Their " drink," by the way, was a spirit, said to resemble whisky, which a 
Scot named McCoy contrived to extract from the root of the tea-tree. The 
dangerous .secret seems to have died with IMcCoj-. 

Towards the middle of the 19th century Pitcairn became almost a regular 
place of call for many vessels of the immense fleet of American whalers which 
overran the South Pacific. In 1844, for instance. 40 whalers, of which ^!'. 



288 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

were American, touched at Pitcairn. and the inhabitants did a brisk trade in 
vegetables and other fresh provisions. In the gohlen days of 1 840, too, 
Pitcairn came into closer touch with Austraha than it has ever been before or 
since. Austraha's age of gold had not yet begun, and there was a " ru.sh " 
across the Pacific to California. In 1849 eight ves.sels on this run called at 
Pitcairn. One story of this period has come down to us. A child fell over- 
board Vihile a vessel bound from San Francisco to Australia was lying off the 
island. George Adams, a son of the patriarch, sprang into the water and 
saved the youngster. The grateful father, a successful di;7;ger, prcs.sed a bag 
of gold upon the rescuer, but the islander refused it, saying : " Why. I ha\e 
done nothing but my duty." 

Nor were these long-lost Briti.sh subjects altogether forgottgn in their 
isolation by the authorities. Fears that their numbers were growing too 
large for the restricted space offered by their little island led to two attempts 
to drag them away from Pitcairn. In 1831 the " Lucy Anne " was sent from 
Sydney and moved the whole population, men, women and children, to Tahiti. 
The islanders do not appear to have been anxious for the change, but they 
resigned themselves to the will of the British Government. But neither the 
climate nor the morals of Tahiti suited them. Disease carried off 17 of them 
in a few months, and in 1832 they all went back to Pitcairn. Again in 1856 
Sir Wilham Denison, then Governor of New South ^^■ales, sent the "' Moray- 
shire," which removed all the inhabitants, then 194, to Norfolk Island, the 
one-time " Hell of the Pacific," which had been left enipt}' by the removal 
of the convicts. Norfolk Island suited the Pitcairners far better than Tahiti, 
but some of them soon grew homesick. In 1858 two families of Youngs per- 
suaded a passing ship to take them back to Pitcairn, much to the annoyance 
of vSir William Denison. Others followed, and the descendants of the original 
Pitcairners are now divided between these two lonely islands, over 3.000 
miles apart. Those on Norfolk Island are citizens of the Commonwealth, 
while Pitcairn is under the jurisdiction of the High Commissioner for the 
Western Pacific. It is governed by an elective body of seven, which chooses 
its own chairman. A remarkable fact mentioned by R. T. Simons, in a 
report issued in 1905, is that the Pitcairn Islanders still speak amongst them- 
selves a patois derived in the main from the language of the Tahitian women, 
whom the mutineers took to the island, though most of them also speak 
English fairly well. 



EASTER ISLAND 

[DKPFNDKNCY OF ClIIIJ. 



Faster Island, which possesses special interest on account of its wonder- 
ful ruins and colossal shore images, is remarkably isolated, being more than 
2,000 miles from Chili, to which country it belongs, and separated from the 
easternmost of the Polynesian archipelagoes by more than 1,000 miles of 
open sea. The island is 12 miles in length, by about five in width, and was 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 287 

discovered by Roggeveen in 1722, and subsequently visited by Cook and La 
Perouse whose accounts with those of later visitors have invested it with great 
interest. Triangular in shape, it has at each corner a volcanic peak, of 
which one rises to a height of 1,800 feet. The soil is mostly decomposing 
lava, and indeed the whole surface of the island is considered to be of recent 
volcanic origin. There is nothing of the tropical luxuriance that we associate 
with South Sea islands about liaster Island. It has no cocoanvit palms, no 
breadfruit tree, and no masses of tangled vegetation. It lies indeed beyond 
the tropics, for it is to the south of the tropic of Capricorn, but it does not even 
show that luxuriance of vegetation found at such a place as Norfolk Island. 
Trees it has none ; there are a few bushes, but most of the surface is covered 
only with grass. The remnants of the native population which still linger 
there cultivate bananas in specially prepared and artiRcially sheltered hollows, 
and grow sugar-cane and sweet potatoes. The greater part of the island is 
given up to the cattle and sheep of a Chilian company, and the only regular 
comnmnication with the outside vvorld is the yearly visit of a schooner front 
Chili. 

Such is Easter" Island to-day, one of the most out-of-the-way corners of 
the habitable globe. But its real interest belongs to its past, not to its present, 
and no area of equal size in the world furnishes such diiificult yet fascinating 
problems. Whoever can solve the mysteries of Kaster Island will be able to 
throw a flood of light on the early history of the Pacific and of the lands 
around it. When Roggeveen readied the island on the day from which it 
takes its name — Easter Sunday, 1722 — it had a populaticm estimated by him 
at between 2,000 and 3,000. 'The natives now number 28.", and in addition 
there are about 50 Chileans employed by the aforementioned company. The 
island had great terraces, built up of great stones, huge images carved out of 
stxme, and scattered by hundreds, nay thousands, over the island, strange 
rock carvings, and most wonderful perhaps of all, a .system of writing which 
appears to have been somewhat akin to the Egyptian hieroglyphics. Some 
of these things, and more particularh- the great stone .statues, forced them- 
selves on the attention of everyone of the few navigators who have visited 
Easter Island since the days of Roggeveen, Gonzalez, Cook, La Perouse, and 
others, but only within the last few years has much scientific study been given 
to the island. And by that time most of the old customs and the old tradi- 
tions of the people had passed away. Small-pox and other epidemics have 
thinned out the population, and in 1<S().3 came a worse scourge. Peruvian 
slavers, v>lio carried off about hali the people, to toil and die in exile, working 
the guano deposits of the Chincha Islands. This included most of those who 
knew the secret of the native writing, and the more active and vigorous of 
the male population. I'-'haps even more complete a break with the past 
was caused by the conversion of the natives who were left to Christianity, 
which began in 1864. But in the years 1914 and 1915, two English scientific 
explorers, Mr. and Mrs. Scoresby Routledge, spent 16 months on Easter Island. 
They not only made a careful study of the monuments, but gathered together 
what they could of the native traditions. Much light was thrown on the 
problems of Easter Island by a paper which Mrs. Routledge read before the 
Hoyal Geographical Society recentlj'-, and by the discussion which followed. 



288 STEWART'S HAND BOCK 

The great .stf)ne statues are, of nnirse, the most striking feature f f I-^asler 
Island. Most, but not all, cf these stand on the remarkable stone terraces 
which line the coasts of the island to the numljer of about 200 in all. Many 
of the more remarkaljle of the statues, and other relics, however, are ni, longer 
there, but are in the nmseunis of Uurope. The large.st of these terrac;-s, 
the " ahu," consist of a wall about 300 feet long, and from 8 feet to 14 feet 
high, flanked on the landward side by a paved slope. These walls are built 
of great slabs of storie, fitted together without mortar, and bear a very striking 
resemblance to the wonderful Inca or pre-Tnca stone walls whi<'h the Spaniards 
found in Cuzco and elsewhere when they captured Peru. I'nder these 
" terraces " lie the bones of the dead, and on a platform on top of the central 
part of the wall stood the images, now all cast down, looking inward over the 
island. Some of the images were 30 feet in height, indeed, the tallest was 
33 feet, but from 12 feet to 18 feet or 20 feet was the more u.sual height. 
They represent the upper half of the human bod}', and have been carved out 
of a volcanic rock. On the heads of the statues were " crowns" about five 
feet high, and carved out of a different stone, a red volcanic ash found in a 
different part of the island. The statues were carved out of the solid rock 
on the slopes of an extinct volcano called Rano Raraku. In these " quarries " 
there are still about 150 statues in various stages of completion. Some have 
evidently been abandoned owing to a flaw in the stone, others were perhaps 
not intended to be moved. The largest is 68 feet high, as against 33 feet 
for the largest found away from the quarry. The tools with which the woirk 
was done, made of obsidian or volcanic glass, are still about the quarry. 
Traces of three roads leading away from the mountain have been found : 
along these the statues were apparently taken from the quarries to the places 
where they were to be set up. One of the roads is six miles long, and images 
Jiave been set up at every few hundred yards along it. How these huge 
statues were moved frcni nlace to place and set up remains a mystery. It has 
been conjectured that these* remarkable statues and terraces were the work 
not of the ancestors of the present inhabitants, but of some vanished race ; 
but Mr. and Mrs. Routledge incline to the idea that the statues were the work 
of the ancestors of the present Easter Lslanders, and that the making of them 
was only abandoned in recent times. A remarkable thing about the present 
population is that it is by no means uniform in type. In colour the people 
range from a "sallow white" to a deep brown. Some are distinctly Mela- 
nesian in type, others are Polynesian. There is a tradition amongst the 
inhabitants that their ancestors found an earlier race than when they landed^ 
and the divergences of physical type favour this idea. vSo the mystery cf 
this strange island, which seems, in spite of its isolation and remoteness, to 
have been inhabited for ages, and b}' more than one race, still awaits a solution. 
The decaying remnants of its native people are far outnumbered by the 
giant statues of old-time kings or gods, carved no man knows when or by 
whom, and they have lost for ever the secrets of the advances in civilisatiotv 
made by tho.se who went before them. 



OF THE FACIKIC IStANDS 289 



OTHER ISLANDS. 



There are numerous other small islands scattered throughout Polynesia, 
which, as they possess no features of interest, require onh' a brief reference. 
Some of these are : — 

Palmyra, a cocoanut island, north of the line, formerly owned by Mr. 
W'underburg, of Honolulu, and now the property of Judge Cooper, of Hono- 
lulu ; and Jarvis, a guano island, a few miles south of the line. 

Lying to the north-east of the Cook group are three islands, formerly 
in the occupation of S. Maxwell & Co., Ltd., of Auckland, under lease from 
the French Government, viz., Scilly, Maupihaa, and BelUnghausen. The 
two former produce copra and pearlshell ; Bellinghausen has very few cocoa- 
nut trees and is uninhabited. Scilh' Island is an atoll discovered by Wallis 
in 1767. Maupihaa, also discovered by Wallis in the same year, and surveyed 
by Lieutenant de Vaisseau Lavenir, of the PYench Navy, in 1893, consists of 
many low islands on a reef surrounding a lagoon and occupying a space 10 
miles long north and south and four :niles wide. It was here that the German 
raider '"See Adler," which was stranded and abandoned in Augu.st, 1917, 
left her captured crews marooned for some months. Bellinghausen, dis- 
covered by Kotzlene in 1824, is also an atoll. They are now leased to the 
Comptoirs Francais d' Oceanic. 

Ducie Island, lying about 850 miles west of Easter Island ; Elizabeth or 
Henderson Island, about 2 J miles in width, and 190 miles west of Ducie Island ; 
and Oeno Island, about (55 miles north-west by north from Pitcairn, are 
British possessions. 

The four tiny Bass Isles lie 40 miles east by south of Rapa, whence they 
are visible in fine weather. The south-east rock (346 feet) is the highest in 
the group. They are uninhabited. 

The Hull, Maria or Sands Islands (four) lie between the Austral and 
Cook groiips, and are also uninhabited. 

Flint Island (British), situated in latitude 11 degrees 25 minutes S.. 
longitude 151 degrees 48 minutes W., is about 13 feet high, three miles lu 
length by half a mile broad ; and is fringed by a coral reef, through which a 
boat pa.ssage has been blasted. It is held under a 99 years' lease from the 
British Government by S. Maxwell & Co., Ltd., and contains about 26,000 

J 



'.290 STKWAKT S HANI) HOOK 

cocoamU litti^s, most of which were plaiiU-d l)y the original holders, John T. 
Arundel & Co. The present production is about 200 tons of copra per annum. 
A white manager and 25 natives carry on the work of the island, which is 
visited from Tahiti three f»r four times a year. 

Vostock is a low, sandy, wooded islet in latitude 10 degrees ~) minutes 
S., longitude 152 degrees 23 minutes W. It was discovered by Bellinghausen 
in 1820, has been annexed by Great Britain, .-ind has also been leased by S. 
Maxwell & Co., Ltd. 

Laysan Island, about 800 miles west of Honolulu, about three miles long 
and one-and-a-half wide, its highest point above the sea not exceeding 30 
feet, and with a small lagoon in the centre, belongs to the United States. 
It teems with bird life, and was in 1903-4 visited by an expedition under Dr. 
Charles H. Gilbert, who, in his account of it, says : — " Small as the island is 
it furnishes an asyUini for millions of birds. Their combined cries and 
minstrelsy made such a deafening chorus that if we wished to converse we 
found it necessary to shout to one another. So dense is the bird life that the 
various species have economised space by building their nests one above 
another, and the similarity of these tiers of nests to the flats in tall apartment 
houses, is quite marked. Nesting room is at a premium, every available 
inch on the island being occupied by some species. A curious thing is that 
these birds seem to understand that certain sections are allotted to them 
by inherited custom." 

Lisiansky Island, lying 113 miles west by south from Laysan Island, 
is a coral island about three miles in circumference. Birds and turtle 
abound. 

Necker Island, annexed to Hawaii in 1895, lies in latitude 23 degrees 
35^ minutes N. and 164 degrees 40 minutes W. It is a rocky island about a 
mile long with some prehistoric remains. 

French Frigate Atoll, 90 miles west of Necker Island, is also an outlier 
of the Hawaiian Group. It has been the scene of several wrecks. 

Johnston or Cornwallis Island lies in latitude 10 degrees 44 minutes N., 
and longitude 169 degrees 32 minutes W. and teems with sea birds. It, also, 
has been annexed by Hawaii. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 291 



OUTLYING ISLANDS OF NEW ZEALAND 



THE CHATHAMS. 

The outh'ing group of the Chatham Islands, lying between the parallels 
of 43 degrees 30 minutes and 44 degrees 30 minutes south latitude, and the 
meridians of 17o degrees 40 minutes and 177 degrees 15 minutes west longi- 
tude, 480 statute miles east-south-east from Wellington, and 536 miles east- 
ward of L,yttelton, consists of two principal islands and several unimportant 
islets. They were discovered by Lieutenant Broughton and named by him in 
honour of the Earl of Chatham. The largest island (Chatham Island) con- 
tains about 222,490 acres, of which an irregularly shaped lake or lagoon 
absorbs 45,9(10 acres. About one-quarter of the surface of the land is covered 
with forest, the rest with fern or grass. The hills nowhere rise to a great 
height. Pitt Island is the next in size ; the area is 15,330 acres. The greater 
portion of both islands is used for grazing sheep. Wireless communication 
has been established between the islands and New Zealand. 



KERMADEC GROUP. 

The Kermadec (iroup of islands is situated between 29 degrees 10 minutes 
and 31 degrees 30 minutes south latitude, and between 177 degrees 45 minutes 
and 179 degrees west longitude. The)^ are named the Raoulor Sunday Island, 
Macavilay Island, Curtis Islands, and L'Esperance or French Rock. The 
principal island, Sunday, is GOO miles distant from Auckland, and lies a little 
more than half-way to Tonga, but 100 miles to the eastward of the direct 
steam roiite to that place. It is 300 miles eastward of the steam route to 
Fiji, and 150 miles westward of the steam route from Auckland to I-larotonga. 
]Macaulay Island (named after the father of Lord Macaulay) and Curtis Islands 
were discovered in May, 1788, l)y 1/ieutenant Watts, in the " I'enrhyn," a 
transport ship. The remainder of the group was discovered in 1793, by 
Admiral Bruni d' Rntrecasteaux. The admiral gave the name of " Ker- 
madec" to the whole group of islands, after the captain of his consort "^hip 
" Esperauce," and the name of the admiral's ship "La Recherche" was 
given to the largest island. The name so given was not continued, but that 
of " Raoul " has taken its place, which would appear to have been given after 
tlie sailing-master of the "La Recherche." whose name was Joseph Raoul. 
The name of " Sunday " may have been attached to the island from the fact 
that it \v'as discovered on a Sunday. The i.slands are volcanic, and in two of 
them signs of activity arc still to be seen. The rainfall is plentiful, but not 
excessive. The climate is mild and equable, and slightly warmer than 
the north of New Zealand. The following are the areas of the islands and 



292 STEWART'S HAND BOOK 

islets of the Rroup : Sunday Island, 7,200 acres ; Herald group of islets, ^5 
acres; Macaulay Island, 7<)4 acres; Curtis Islands, 128 acres and 19 acres; 
I^'Esperarce, 12 acres ; total, 8,208 acres. Sunday Island is 20 miles in 
circumference, roughly triangular in shape, and at the highest point 1,723 
feet above sea-level. It is rugged and broken over a very large extent of 
its surface, and, except in a few places, covered with forest. The soil everj-- 
where on the island is very rich, being formed by the decompo.sition of a 
black-coloured pnniiceous tuff and a black andesitic lava, with which is closely 
mixed a fine vegetable uiould. The great luxuriance and richness of the 
vegetation bear witness to the excellence of the soil, which is everywhere — 
except where destroyed by eruptions, and ou the steep clifis — the same rich 
loam. Want of water is one of the drawbacks. Three of the four lakes on 
the island are fresh, but so difficult of approach as to be practically useless. 



AUCKLAND ISLANDS. 

The Auckland Islands were discovered on August IS, 180(i. l>y Captai'- 
Abraham Bristcw, in the ship " Ocean." The discoverer named the group 
after Lord Auckland, again visited the i.slands in 1807, and then took formal 
possession of them. They lie about 200 miles south of Bluff Harboiu, their' 
accepted position being given at latitude oO degrees 32 minutes south, and 
longitude 166 degrees 13 mini;tes east. They have several good harbours. Port 
Ross, at the north end of the principal island, v,-as described by the eminent 
French commander I)' Urville as one of the best harbours of refuge in the known 
world. At the southern end of the island there is a through passage extending 
from the east to the west coast. It has been variously named Adams Strait 
and Carnley Harbour, and forms a splendid sheet cf water. The largest of the 
islands is about 27 miles long by about 15 miles broad, and is very moun- 
tainous, the h.ighest part being about 2,000 ft. above the sea. Tlie west coast 
is bold and precipitous, but the east coast has several inlets. The wood on 
the island is, owing to the strong prevailing wind, scrubby in character. The 
New Zealand Government maintains at this island a depot of provisions and 
clothing for the use of shipwrecked mariners. 



CAMPBELL, ANTIPODES AND BOUNTY ISLANDS. 

Campbell Island was discovered in 1810 by Frederick llazelburgli» 
master of the brig " Perseverance," owned by Mr. Robert Campbell, of Syd- 
ney. It is mountainous, and of a circumference of about 30 miles. There 
are several good harbours. 

The Antipodes, an isolated group, consisting of several detached rocky 
islands lying nearly north and south over a space of four to five miles ; accepted 
position, 49 degrees 41 minutes 15 seconds south, and longitude 178 degrees 
43 minutes east. 

The Bounty Islands, a little cluster of islets, !3 in number and without 
verdure, discovered in 1788 by Captain Bligh, R.N., of H.^M.S. " Bounty." 
Po.sition verified bj' ob.servation, 47 degrees 43 minutes south, longitude 17!> 
degrees, 0\ minutes east. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



J93 



AUSTRALIA'S TRADE WITH 
THE ISLANDS, I9I6-I7. 



FIJI. 



Imports of Fijian Origin. 





Quantity 


Valuk 

£ 
43,619 


■Copra, cwt. 


37,013 


Fruits, Fresh- 






Bananas, cntl. 


386,017 


198.323 


Citrus, cntl. . . 


278 


350 


Pineapples, cntl. 


4 


5 


Xiits — Edible 




.",82 


Hides — Cattle and Horse No. 


4,206 


5,845 


Sugar — 






Produce of Cane, cwt. 


908,869 


830,704 


Molassses, cwt. 


211,412 


16,345 


All other Articles . . 




* 12,005 


Total Imports of Produce or Manufacture 




of Fiji 




1,107,578 



Tota! Imports Direct from Fiji without 
regard to Country of origin 



1,112,446 



Exports" thereto. 








gu-VNTlTV 


\"ALrE 


x:lASvS 1.— Foodstuffs oi Animal Origin. 




£• 


Butter, lb 


38,3.'>0 


2,952 


Fish 




464 


Meats- 






Preserved in Tins, lb. 


54,581 


2.444 


Other 




1,287 


Milk and Cream, Preserved, &c., lb. 


MI.Ol'I 


3,894 


Other Animal Foodstuflfs . . 




396 


Total, Class I. 




11,437 



luclmles Rubber. Cnnle. ii6,(iiil. 



294 



STEWART'S HAND BOOK 



CLASS II.— Foodstuffs oi Vegetable Origin, 
and Salt. 

Biscuits, lb 

Confectionery, u.e.i., lb. 
Fruits — 

Fresh, cntl. 

Dried and Preserved 
Grain and Pulse — 

T'^nprepared 

Prepared — 

Bran, Pollard, &c., cntl. 
Flour, cntl. 
Rice, cntl. 
Other 
J am and Jellies, lb. 
Salt, csvt." . . 

Table Preparations of 
Spices, It). 

Curr}- Powders 
vSugar — Cane, cwt. . . 
Vegetables — 

Potatoes, cwt. 

Onions, cwt. 
Other Vegetable I'oodstur' 

Total, Class II. 

CLASS III. — Beverages (Non-alcoholic, &c.) 

CLASS IV. — Spirits and Alcoholic Liquors, &c 
Ale and Porter, Cider and Perry, gal. 
Spirits, gal. . . 
Wine, gal. 

Total. Class IV 

CLASS v.— Tobacco and Preparations thereof, lb. 

CLASS VI.— Live Animals. 

Horses, No. 
Other animals 

Total, Class VI 

CLASS VII — Animal Substances, &c . . 

CLASS VIII. — Vegetable Substances and Fibres 

CLASS IX. — Apparel, Textiles, and Manu- 
factured Fibres. 

Apparel — 

Boots and Shoes, and Minor Articles for 

Hats and Caps, &c. 

Otiier Articles of Apparel 
Textiles 

Piece Goods- 
Canvas, &c. 
Cotton and Liuen 

Silk, &c 

Velvets, &c. 



Quantity 


Value 




£ 


436,163 


30,679 


60,054 


2,660 


1,415 


1.487 




1,186 


•- 


760 


106,334 


37,135 


43.977 


25,621 


12,041 


7,778 




836 


99,297 


1,9.59 


12,111 


2,648 




74 


7,336 


459 




627 


"" 48 


73 


9,466 


3,881 


5,316 


1,930 




1.863 



• • 


121,556 


•• 


5,925 


23,793 

17,014 

4,599 


3,236 

11,699 

1,902 


•• 


' 16,837 


71,S73 


10.152 


223 


5,814 
1,689 


•• 


7,503 




169 


•• 


1,703 



5.906 

1,285 

18,193 



1,46S 

1<^.I67 

597 

1,534 



OF THE ■PACiriC ISLANDS 



295 



Woollens . . 

Other Textiles 

Manufactured Fibres 
Bags and Sacks 
Cordage and Twines, &c. 

Total Class IX. 

CI^ASS X.— Oils, Fats, and Waxes. 

Oils- 
Benzine, Benzoline, and Gasoline, gal. 

Castor, gal. 

Cocoanut, cwt. 

Kerosene, gal. 

I/inseed, gal. 

Lubricating (Mineral), and Mineral, n.e.i., sal. 

Other .." .. 

Tallow, cwt. . . . . . . . . . . ■ 

Other Fats and Waxes 

Total, Class X. 

CLASS XL— Paints and Varnishes 

CLASS XII.— Stones and Minerals used In- 
dustrially. 

Coal, ton 

Other Stones, &c. . . 

Total, Class XII 



CLASS XIII.- 

Oxold 

Silver 

Bronze 



Specie. 



yu.\XT]TY 


V.\Lvi; 




£ 




i.2:u 




5,542 




4.:}03 




7,467 




fi5,693 


5,41 r 


451 


872 


175 


349 


957 


5.414 


407 


7,544 


1.480 


.'1,211 


1.794 




755 




1,202 




7,221 



I7,()7S 



2,273 



30 9i:i 
539 

31,462 



200 



Total, Class XIII 

CLASS XIV.— Metals (Unmanufactured) and 
Ores 

CLASS X\'. — Metals, partly Manufactured 

CLASS XVI.— Machinery, and Other Manu- 
factures of Metal. 

Machines and Machinery — 

Fngines . . . . . . • 

Implements and ^Machinery, Agricultural, 

&c. 

Other Machines and Machinery 
Metal Manufactures — 
Bolts and nuts 

Cutlery 

Iron and Steel — 

Plate and Sheet, Galvanised, cwt. 
Not Galvanised, cwt. 



4,402 
1,227 



200 



3,035 
4,681 



3 1 3 

1 .S(>3 
10,745 

2,50ti 
1,003 

8,0t)9 
1 ,902 



296 



STEWART'S HANi> BOOK 



Lamps and Lampware 

Nails, cvvt. 

Pipes and Tubes (Iron and Steel) 

Rails, Fishplates, &c. 

Tools of Trade . . 

Wire — Barbed, cwt. . . 

Other 
Wire Netting . . 
Other Metal Manufactures 

Total, Class XVI. 



QlANTITN' 


\'Ai,rE 




£ 




453 


i,328 


2,226 




1,723 




2,856 




1,809 


93 


122 




517 




67 




25,159 



61,333 



CLASS XVII— Indiarubber and Leather, and 
Manufactures thereof, &c. 

Belting 

Indiarubber, &c. 

Leather 

Leather Manufactures, n.c.i. 

Total, Class XVII 

CLASS XVIII.— Wood and Wicker, Raw and 
Manufactured. 

Furniture 

Timber, Undressed (including Logs), sup. ft. 
Other Timber, Wood and Wicker and Manu- 
factures 

Total, Class XVIII 

CI<ASS XIX. — Earthenware, Cements, Stone- 
ware, and Glassware. 

Cement, cvvt. 
Karthenware, &c. . . 

Total, Class XIX 

CLASS XX.— Paper and Stationery. 

Paper 

Stationery — Books, &c 

Other 

Total, Class XX. 

CLASS XXI. — Jewellery, Timepieces, and 
Fancy Goods 

CLASS XXII.— Optical, Surgical, and Scientific 
Instruments 



843,451 



12,821 



1,394 
1,649 
1,687 
3,365 



8,095 



2,01.> 

8.4.55 

2,209 
12,679 



2,234 
3,113 

5,347 



3,2.30 
1,006 
4,1.30 

8,. 366 



2,863 



2,033 



CLASS 



Medicines 



XXIII.— Drugs, 
Fertilisers. 



Chemicals and 



1,314 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



297 



Calcium, Carbide of, cwt. . . 

Fertilisers, cwt. 

Other Drugs and Chemicals 

Total, Class XXIII. 



Ot-'ANTITY 

372 
15,839 



Value 

£ 

420 
9,213 
4,290 

15,237 



CLASS XXIV.— Miscellaneous. 

Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives 

Electrical Materials 

Musical Instruments 

Matches and Vestas 

Soap, lb 

Vehicles- 
Bicycles, &c., and Parts 
Other and Parts 

Vessels Transferred Abroad, No. . . 

All Other Articles 

Total, Class XXIV. 

Australian Produce 
Other Produce 

Total 



110,735 



382 

803 

492 

2,032 

2,093 

210 
7,197 

6,457 

19,666 

261,481 
163,975 

425,456 



PAPUA. 



Imports of Papnan Origin. 



Coffee, lb 

Copra, cwt. . . 

Fish, cwt. 

Gold- 
Bullion, oz. 
Ore, cwt. 

Indiarubber and Manufactures 

Ores — Other than Gold, cwt. 

Timber, Wood and Wicker 

All other Articles . . 



Total Imports of Produce or Manufactures of 
Papua 

Total Imports direct from Papua without 
regard to Country of origin 



Quantity 


Value 




£ 


12,810 


15,650 


14 


70 


6,724 


22,768 


4,332 


4,691 




18,084 


28,746 


*1.'-),718 




365 




t21,l53 



98,499 



100,008 



* Copper. 



t Iiicluiles Flax iiiid }Iem|> Fibre, flLSSS. 



29S 



STEWART'S HAND BOOK 



Exports thereto. 



CLAvSS I— Foodstuffs of Animal Origin. 

Butter, 11) 

Cheese, lb. 
Fish 
Meats — 

Bacon and Hams, Hi 

Tinned, lb. 

Other . . 
Milk — Preserved, &c., lb. 
Other Animal Foodstuffs 

Total, Class I 

CTvASS II.— Foodstuffs of Vegetable Origin. 

Biscuits, lb. 

Fruit^All Kinds 

Grain and Pulse 

Potatoes, cwt. 

Sugar, cwt. 

Other Vegetable Foodstufis 

Total Class II 

CLASvS IV.— Alcoholic Liquors . . 

CLASS v.— Tobacco 

CLASS VI. -Live Animals. 

Sheep, No. . . 

Other 

Total, Class VI 

CLASS rx. -Apparel, Textiles, &c. 

Apparel — 

Boots and Shoes, &c. . . 
All Other Apparel 

Textiles- 
Piece Goods 
Other Textiles 

Manufactured Fibres 

Total, Cla,ss IX. . . 

CLASS X.— Oils, Fats, and Waxes 

CLASS XII.— Stones and Minerals used In- 
dustrially. 

Coal, ton 

Other Minerals, &c. 

Total, Class XII. 

CLASS XVI. Machinery, and Other Manu- 
factures of Metal. 

Machines and Machinery . . 



Otantitn 


\'ai.ue 




£ 


38,595 
5,900 


3,080 
315 

6,607 


33,036 
90,213 

51, 985 


1,834 
4,640 
2,224 
1,792 
139 


•• 


20,631 


J60,922 

ij5i 
1,608 


3,267 
1,379 
18,464 
845 
1 ,673 
2,004 




27,632 




4,708 




10,879 


499 


923 
856 




1,779 




1 ,389 
5,839 




7,208 
1 ,854 
3,300 


. . 


19,590 




9,154 


4,062 


2,536 
136 




2,672 



8,789 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



299 



Manufactures of Metal — . . 

Cutlery 

Galvanised Iron, cwt. 

Tools of Trade 

Other 

Total, Class XVI. 

CLASS XVIII. —Wood and Wicker, Raw and 
Manufactured. 

Timber 

Other Wood and Wicker . . 

Total, Class XVIII 

Other Articles, including Classes too small to be 
specifically enumerated 

Australian Produce 
Other Produce . . ' . . 

Total 



Quantity 


Value 




£ 


434 


845 
2,510 
1,515 

7,975 


.- 


21,694 




6,028 
2,043 



8,971 



24,837 

50,920 
92,627 

152,547 



BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO 

(Neu Pommern). 

Imports oi Bismarck Archipelago Origin. 

Note. — The Imports from Bismarck Archipelaiio were small, and are 
not shown in detail. In 1912 thev amounted to £50; in 1913 to £1,398 
(Copra); in 1914-15 to £27,266 (Copra, £26,677); in 1915-16 to £80,117 
(Copra, £68.190; Cocoa Beans, £6,282) ; and in 1916-17 to £102,153 (Copra, 
£78,136; Cocoa Beans, £8,777; Rubber, Crude, £7,086). 



Exports thereto. 



Butter, lb 

Fish — Preserved (iu Tinsl, lb. 
Meats — 

Racon and Hams, lb. 

Preserved 

N.E.I. , cwt. . . 
Biscuits, lb. 
C.rain— Flour, cntl. 
Ale, Beer, &c., gal. 
Spirits, gal. . . 



Quantity 


\'.\I.T-H 
£ 
1 ,828 
11,100 


22,192 
455,233 


39,277 

S4 


2,211 

16,430 

283 


479,763 

3,473 

54,311 

6,385 


5,470 
2,050 
9,689 
4,313 



300 



STE \V A RT' t> B A XD BOC K 





Quantity 


Value 
e 

18,720- 


Tol.iarco — Manufactured, lb. 


254,530 


Apparel, Textiles, and Manufactured Fibres — 






Apparel 




13,800 


Textiles — 






Cotton Piece (ioods 




26,013 


Other 




6,610 


Manufactured I'Mbres 




5,526 


Oils and Greases — 






Kerosene, gal. 


71,340 


4,920 


Other 




5,299 


Faint." and Colours 




1 ,302 


Coal, ton 


186 


144 


Specie — Cold 






Machines and Machinery . . 




2a 16 


Iron — Galvanised Plate and Sheet, cwt. 


(!89 


1,200 


Tools of Trade 




1,713 


Metal, Manufactures of — 






N.E.I 




11,864 


Timber — 






Dressed, sup. ft. 


29,551 


304 


Undre.ssed, sup. ft. 


187,860 


2,024 


Other 






Wicker Wood, &c., iVTanufactures of 




466 


Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives 




1,394 


Boats 




266 


Oilmen's Store'^ 




1,388 


Soap, lb 


139,095 


2,067 


All other Article-^ . . 




*98,153 


Australian Produce 


71,909 


Other Produce 




187,156 



Total 



259,065 



HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 



Imports of Hawaiian Origin. 

Note. — The Imports of Hawaiian Islands origin were small, and are not 
shown in detail. In 1912 they amounted to £591 ; in 1913, to £760 ; and in 
1914-15 to £703; in 1915-16 to £1,811 ; and in 1916-17 to £636. 



Esports thereto. 



Butter, lb 

Meats — 

Mutton and Lamb. P'rozen, lb 
Other 



Otaxtitv 


Value 


6,696 


542 



Rice, £26,654; Silver Specie, £25,131. 



OK THK PACIFIC ISLANT>S 



301 



Other . . 
Onions, cwt. 
Coal, ton 
Fertilisers, cwl. 
All other Articles 



Australian Pro'liue 
Other Produce 

Total 



OUANTITV 


Value 


6,530 
21,096 
10,009 


£ 

*4 ,358 
2,697 

13,518 
5,154 
6,199 




31.654 
814 



32,468 



NEW CALEDONIA. 

Import? oi New Caledonian Origin. 



Bones, cwt. 

Copra, cwt. . . 

Indiarubber and Manufactures 

IMaize, cntl. 

Ores- 
Chrome, cwt. . . 

Skins- 
Hides, No. 
Sheep, No. 
Other, No 

Wool, lb 

All other Articles . . 

Total Imports of Produie or I\[auufactures 
of New Caledonia 

Total Imports direct from New Caledonia 
without regard to Country of origin 



( lANT.l V 


V.M.rK 




u 


2,017 


709 


800 


1,020 




2 


3,739 


1,291 


() 


I 


17.493 


20,291 


351 


69 




880 


6.077 


335 




1 0,340 



30,938 



34,759 



Exports thereto. 






CLASS I. - Foodstuffs oi Animal Origin. 




£ 


Butter and Substitutes, lb. 


32,368 


2,703 


Cheese, lb. . . 


30,905 


1,318 


Fish- 






Preserved, lb. . . 


39,822 


1,113 


Other 




76 


Meats — 






Bacon and Hams, lb. . . 


7,467 


488 


Preserved in Tins, &c., lb. . . 


4,063 


261 


Other . . . . 




105 


Other Foodstuffs of Animal Origin 




2,736 


Total, Class I 




8,800 



t Includes Tallow (iinretineci). £4,747. 



302 STKWART'S KAND Br-OK 





QvAsri'ty 


Value 


CLASS 11— Foodstuffs of Vegetable Origin, 




£ 


and Salt. 






Biscnits, lb. 


135,545 


2,211 


Confectionery, lb. . . 


24,654 


993 


Fruits- 






Fresh — 






Applies, cntl. 


311 


363 


Other, cntl. 


129 


139 


Other frui'.s 




376 


Grain and Pulse — 






I'nprepared — 






Maize, cntl. 




, , 


Oats, cntl. 


48 


18 


Wheat, cntl. 


171 


73 


Other, cntl. 


13 


7 


Prepared — 






Bran, Pollard, and Sharps, cntl. 


4,267 


852 


Flour, cntl. 


70,656 


42,052 


Rice, cntl. 


19,221 


10,727 


Others Prepared 




35 


Legumes — 






Beans and Peas, cntl. 


26 


49 


Peas, Split, cntl 


308 


429 


Hops, lb. . . . . - 


3,153 


162 


Jams and Jellies, lb. 


60,920 


1,202 


Salt— 






N.K.I. , cwt 


11,739 


2,056 


Table Preparations 




39 


Sugar, Produce of Cane, cwt. 


872 


689 


Vegetables, n.e.i. 




170 


Onions, cwt. 


3^353 


1,186 


Potatoes, cwt. 


13,640 


5,188 


Other Foodstuffs of Vegetable Origin 


• • 


397 


Total, Cla.ss II 


69,413 



CLASS III. — Beverages (Non-alcoholic) and 
Substances used in making. 

Tea, lb 53,518 2,915 

Other Beverages, &c , . . . . 33 

Total, Class I JI .. 2,948 



CLAvSS IV. — Spirits, Alcoholic Liquors, &c. 

Ale and Beer, gal 9,552 1,382 

Spirits- 
Gin, gal. 836 471 

Whisky, gal 1.583 1,389 

Other Spirits, gal 23,882 2,074 

Wine, gal. . . 3,019 761 

Total, Cla.ss IV . . 6,077 

CLASS \ . — Tobacco and Preparations thereof . . 7,359 



v^F THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



303 



CLAvSS VI. — Animals, Living. 

Horses, No. 

Sheep, No. . . 

Other 



Total, Class VI 

Cl.ASvS VIII. — Vegetable Substances and Fibres 



QVAXTITV 


Value 




f 


12 


"i20 




93 




213 



1,481 



CLASS IX.— Apparel, Textiles, and Manu- 
factured Fibres. 

Apparel, n.e.i. 

Boots and Shoes 

Hats and Caps 

Piece Goods — Cotton and Linen 

Other Textiles 

liags and Sacks 

Cordage and Twine - 

Metal, cwt. 

Other . . 



Total, Class IX. . . 

CLASS X.-Oils, Fats, and Waxes 

Lard, lb 

Naphtha, gal. 
Oils (bulk)— 

Castor, gal. 

Kerosene, gal. 

Linseed, gal. 

Lubricating, gal. 

Turpentine, gal. 

Other . . 
Other Oils, Fats, &c. 

To<^al, Class X 

CLASS XI. -Paints and Varnishes 



CLASS XII. — Stones and Materials used In- 
dustrially. 

Coal, ton . . . . . . . • 

Coke, ton 

Other Stones and Minerals 

Total, Clas.? XII. 

CLAvSS XIII. Specie. 

Gold 

Silv^er 



90 



100 



6,448 
6,845 
1,356 
10,771 
3,099 
5,613 

472 

2,367 

36,970 



Total, Class XIII. 



5,092 


746 


86,776 


5,908 


2,169 


434 


15,816 


1 ,351 


1 ,465 


241 




3,866 




260 




12,811 




932 


22,124 


16,667 


23,421 


33,137 




75 


• . 


49,879 




200 




200 



Iik-UkIpiI ill Oils (bulk), Ottier. 



'MH 



STEWART'S HAND BOOK 



Quantity 



Valup. 
£ 



CLASSKS XI\'. and XV. -Metals, partly Manu- 
factured, Unmanufactured, and Ores 



6,139 



CLASS XVT. — Machinery, and Other Manu- 






factuies of Metal. 






Agricultural Implements . . 




60 


Machines and Machinery . . . . . . . . 




3,386 


Metal, Manufactures of — 






Cutlery 




332 


Iron and Steel — (^ialvanised Plate, cwt. 


i,"2C6 


2,3S5 


Nails, cwt. 


1,048 


2,059 


Pipes and Tubes, Iron and Steel 




754 


Printers' Materials 




4 


Tools of Trade 




965 


^^'ire— 






Barbed, cwt. 


66 


117 


N.E.I 




38^ 


Other Manufactures of Metal 




*16,179 



Total, Class XVI 

CI^ASS XVII. — Indiarubber, Leather, and Manu- 
factures thereof, &c. 

I,eather, n.e.i. 

I^eather and Rubber Manufactures, &c... 

Total, Class XVII 

CLASS XVIII.— Wood and Wicker, Raw and 

Manufactured- 
Furniture 
Timber — 

Undressed, sup. ft. 

Other 

Wood and Wicker Manufactures . . 

Total Class XVIII 

CI,ASS XIX.— Earthenware, Cements, China, 
Glass and Stoneware . . 

CLASS XX.-Paper and Stationery. 

Paper — 

Bags, cwt. 

Printing 

Other 

Stationer}' 

Total, Class XX. 

CLASS XXL— Jewellery, Timepieces, and Fancy 
Goods 



25,030 



293 



26,626 



1,743 
2,662 

4,405 



612 

300 

3 

932 

1 ,847 
3,109 



1,048 

280 
.344 

727 

2,399 



660 



Includes Tinned Plates, £7Mo. 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



305 



CLAvSS XXII. — Optical, Surgical, anu Scientific- 
Instruments 

CLASS XX III. -Drugs, Chemicals, and Fer- 
tilisers 

Miscellaneous. 
Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives 
Boats 

Candles, lb. 
Ivlectriral Materials 
Instruments, Musical 
Matches and Vestas, gross of boxes 
Oilmen's .Stores 
Soap, lb. 
Vehicles 

All other Articles, including Classes too small 
for specific enumeration 

Australian Produce 
Other Produce 

Total 



Quantity 


Value 




£ 


•• 


1,230 


•• 


1,591 




2,043 




341 


h',752 


225 




223 




34 


4,232 


606 




218 


27400 


2,114 




740 




2,612 




154,368 




99,877 



254,245 



NEW HEBRIDES. 

Imports of New Hebrides Origin. 





Quantity 


V.^I.UE 
e 


Collee, lb 

Copra, cwt. . . 

Fruits, Fresh — Bananas, cntl. 

Grain — Maize, cntl. 

All other Articles 


39,713 

120 

15 

10,852 


377 

136 

10 

3,767 

2,432 


Total Imports of Produce or Manufactures 
New Hebrides 




6,722 


Total Imports direct from New Hebrides 
without regard to Country of origin 




7,249 



Exports thereto. 



Butter, lb 

Fish, Pre.«erved in Tins, lb. 
Meats, Preserved in Tins, lb. 
Biscuits, lb. 
Grain and PuLse — 

Flour, cntl. 

Rice, cntl. 



Quantity 


Value 
£ 


10,31'3 
75,659 
10,644 

194,868 


SHI 
1.972 

570 
2,449 


4,820 
8,470 


2,924 
.5,111 



300 



STEWARTS HAKD BOOK 



Sugar, cut. . . 
Ale and Beer, j^al. . . 
Tobacco, Matiufactvired, lb. 
Apparel, Textiles, and Manufactured Fibres- 
Apparel 

Textiles — 

Cotton and Linen Piece Goods 
Other 

Manufactured Fibres 
Oii8 (in Hulk)— 

Kero.sene, gal. 

Other, gal. 
Specie — 

Cold 

Silver, &c 

Iron — Gal- anised Sheet, cvvt. 
Metal M.-^.nufactiires, and Machinery 
Timber - 

Dressed, sup. ft. 

Undressed, sup. ft. 
Wood, Maniifactures of 
Arms, Ammunition, &c. 
Boats, Launches, &c. 
Ail other Articles . . 

Australian Produce 
Other Produce 

Total 



Quantity 


Value 




V 


936 

4,612 

52,144 


1 ,093 

706 

3,417 


. . 


5,636 


.. 


4,981 
2,. 34 6 
2,254 


28,680 
17, .580 


2,189 
1,656 


229 


3,114 

381 

5,225 


30,881 
71,214 


357 

891 
576 
563 
451 
16,339 




24,939 
41,123 



66,062 



PACIFIC ISLANDS (British and Foreign). 

(Including those Islands shown separately.) 



Imports of Pacific Islands Origin. 

CLASS II.— Foodstuffs of Vegetable Origin. 

Fruits, Fresh — 

Bananas, cntl. 

Other 

Grain and Pulse- 
Maize, cntl. 
Other 

Cocoanuts, Whole, cwt. 

Sugar Molasses, &c., cvvt. 

Other Vegetable Foodstuffs 

Total, Class II 

CLASS III. —Beverages and Substances used in 
making. 

Cocoa Beans, lb. . . 

Coffee, Raw and Kiln Dried, lb. . . 



386,617 


£ 
198,739 

448 


15,094 

2,427 
1,120,281 


5,248 

.153 

1,238 

847,049 

5,320 




1,058,195 


936,052 
50,901 


32,499 
794 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



307 



Other 



Total, Class 111. 



Quantity 



Value 
£ 
2,514 

35,837 



CLASS VII.— Animal Substances. 

Plides and Skins — 

Cattle, No 

Other 

Wool, Creasy, lb. . . 
Other Animal Substances.. 

Total, Class VII. 



23.213 


27, SOI 




3,349 


34,282 


l,5;»l 




838 



31.G39 



CLASS VIII.- Vegetable Substances. 

Copra, cwt. . . 

Linseed, cntl. 

Other Vegetable Substances 

Total, Cla.ss VIII 

CLASS X.— Oils, Fats, and Waxes 

CLASS XI\'.— Metals, Unmanufactured, and 
Ores 



23 1 ,094 



258,458 

! ,273 

259,731 

5,372 



CLASS XVII. — Indiarubber and Leather. 

Iiidiarubber, Crude 
Leather 

Total, C1.1SS XVII 

CLASS XVIII.— Wood and Wicker 



24,530 

2^ ,530 
256 



CLASS XXIII.— Drugs. Chemicals 


and 


Fer- 






tilisers. 










Fertilisers — 










Guano, cwt. 






263,861 


30,090 


Rock Phospliates, cwt. 






2,602,861 


296,431 


Other, cwt. 










Other 








i,'l09 



Total, Class XXIII 

All Other Articles, including Classes too small 
for Specific Enumeration 

Total Imports of Produce or Manufactures 
of Pacific Islands 

Total Imports Direct from Pacific Islands 
without regard to Country of origin . . 



327,6.30 



23,089 



1,766,.345 



1,795,904 



308 



STEWART S HAK1> BOOK 



Exports thereto. 







Quantity 


Value 
£ 


CLAS.'^ I .—Foodstuffs ol: Animal Origin. 




Riitter, 11) 




155,037 


12,377 


Cheese, lb. . . 




54,649 


2,695 


Ke;gs, in Shell, doz. 




2,558 


198 


Fish- 








Preserved in Tins, 11). 




.. 1,027,537 


27,538 


Other 






1,092 


Honev, lb. . . 




3,451 


1.39 


Isinglass, lb. 




1,091 


128 


Meats, Poulty and Game — 








Bncon and Hams, lb... 




97,282 


5,596 


Fresh and Smoked, lb. 




13,795 


486 


Preserved by Cold Process — 






Eeel". lb 




268,372 


5,829 


Mutton and Lamb, 


lb. '.'. '.'. 


91,023 


2,184 


Other 






330 


Potted or Concentrated 






620 


Preserved in Tins, lb. . . 




592,218 


26,272 


Other 






349 


Milk and Cream — Preserved, 


&c.,'ib. '.'. 


355,401 


12,431 


Other .Animal Foodstuffs . . 






11 



Total, Class I 

CLASS II.— Foodstuffs of Vegetable 

and Salt. 
Biscuits, lb. 
Confectionery, lb. . . 
Fodders- — 

Hay and Chaff, cwt. . . 
Other, cwt. 
Fruits — 

Dried, lb. 
I'resh — 

Apples, cntl. 
Other, cntl. 
Fruits and Vegetables (in Liquid) 
Grain and Pul.se, Unprepared — 
Oats, cntl. 

Wheat, cntl 

Other, cntl 

Prepared — 

Bran, Pollard and Sharps, cntl 
Flour (Wheaten), cntl. . . 
Oatmeal, lb. 
Rice, Cleaned, cntl. 
Other, Prepared . . 
Legumes — 

Beans and Peas, cntl. 

Peas, Split, cntl 

Plops,, lb. 

Jams and jellies, lb. 

Mustard, lb. 

Nuts, Edible, lb 

Pickles and Sauces 



Origin 



98,275 



3,739,806 
134,062 


61,765 

5,821 


1,872 
779 


454 
262 


58,270 


1,727 


1,389 
916 


1,405 
1,043 
4,266 


770 

519 

1,646 


266 
241 

626 


111,487 

150.774 

83,306 

1.38,132 


38,209 
89,819 

910 
82.238 

331 


318 
381 

4,892 

380,604 

3,685 

10,359 


479 
529 
298 

7,862 
326 
232 

1 ,593 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



Salt- 
Rock, cwt. 

other, cwt. 

Table Preparations (pkgs.) .. 
Spices — 

Currv Powders, Manufactured 

Groiind, N.K.I. , lb. . . 

T'nground, N.K.I., lb. 
Sugar, cwt. . . 

Golden Syrup and Molasses, cwt. 
Vegetables — 

Dried or Concentrated 

Onions, cwt. 

Potatoes, cut. 

Other, including fresh, cntl. 
Vinegar, gal. 
Other Vegetable Foodstuffs 

Total, Class TI. . . 



QU.VNTITY 


V.\LUE 




£ 


1,229 


637 


2o',;i77 


4,596 




302 




832 


3,466 


256 


5,800 


333 


6,853 


7,620 


22S 


272 




848 


17,223 


6,667 


30,470 


12,282 


655 


■ 581 


3,449 


51t> 




827 



337,271 



CLr.VSS III.— Beverages (non- Alcoholic), &c. 

Aerated and Mineral Waters 

Cocoa and Chocolate, lb. . . 

Coffee, raw and kiln dried, lb. 

Coffee and Chicory, roasted and ground, and 

liquid form, lb. 
Liniejuice and other Fruit juices, gal 

Tea, lb ". 

Wine, Unfennented (Grape), gal. 

Total, Class III 

CL-ASS IV.— Spirits, Alcoholic Liquors, &c. 
Ale, T?eer, Porter, Cider and Perry, gal. . . 
Spirits — (Beverages), gal. .. 
Spirits (other than r.everages)— 

Denaturated, gal. 

Otlier, gal. 
Wine, Fermented, gal. 

Total, Class TV. . . 

CLASS v.— Tobacco and Preparations thereof. 

Tobacco — 

Manufactured, lb. 

Unmanufactured, lb. .. 
Cigars, lb. . . 
Cigarettes, lb. 

Total, Cla.ss V 

CLASS VI.— Live Animals. 

Cattle, No 

Horses, No. 
Pigs, No. 
Poultry, No. 







1,232 




6^769 


797 




8,543 


406 


in 








25,770 


1 ,565 




2,646 


676 




178,177 


10,581 




22 


8 



124,400 
52,650 

5,331 

518 

21,486 



678,448 

7,563 
24,103 



15,26.5 



20,187 
24,2.3» 

615 
1,IS2 
7,211 

53,43a 



52,725 

3,624 
9,224 

65,573 



115 


2,390 


248 


.6,267 


13 


92 


438 


187 



:{ I (» 



STEWART'S HAND BOOR 



^Sheep, No. 
Other 



CI.ASvS 



Total, Class VI 

VII.— Animal Substances, not 
stuffs 



Food- 



Cl.AvSS VIII. -Vegetable Substances and Fibres 

Corks and Rungs . . 

Fibres 

Plants, Trees and Bulbs 

Re.sin, rwt. 

Seeds. 

Starch, lb 

Yarns 

Other Veiretable Sub.stances 



Ot ANTITV 


\'.\r IK 




f 


1,203 


2,501 




96 




11,533 




709 




272 




1,780 




124 


2-2() 


253 




2,632 


37.;^08 


769 




679 




29 



Total, Class VIII. 

CI.-ASS IX.— Apparel, Textiles, 

factiu-ed Fibres. 
Apparel and Attire 

Minor Articles for 
Boots, Shoes, and Slippers — 

I^eather 

Rubber 

Other 

Hats, Caps, and Bonnets — 

Felt Hats 

Other 

Triininings and Ornaments 

Und)rcllas, &c. 

Blankets and Blanketing . . 

Cosies, Cu.shions, &c. 

Floorcloths 

Piece Goods — 

Canvas and Duck 

Cotton and Linen 

Silk, or containing Silk 

Velvets 

Woollens 

Other . . . . . . 

Rugs and Rugging 
Sewing vSilks 

Tents, Tarpaulins, and Sails 
Bags and Sacks — 

Corn and Flour, doz... 

Ore, doz. 

Second-hand, doz. 

Other 

Cordage and Twines — 

Metal, cwt. 

Other 

Other Apparel, &c. 

Total. Class IX. . . 



and Manu- 



6,538 





48,544 




1,056 




17,301 




551 




506 




!,352 




3,336 




1,353 




1,658 




3,626 




5,448 




671 




4,653 




88,516 




2,424 




3,853 




2,797 




2,323 




1,017 




3.690 




1,694 


32,381 


10.994 


1 ,523 


331 


12,662 


3,322 




3,304 


273 


1,230 




14,971 




592 



231,113 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS 



311 



CLASv? X.—Oils, Fats, and Waxes. 

Oreases, including Axle, cwt. 

Lard and Refined Animal Fats, lb. 

Oils (in \'essel,s not exreeding one gallon) 

Oils (in Bulk)— 

Benzine, Benzoline, Gasoline, and ^lineral 
Naphtha, gal. 

Castor, gal. 

Cocoanut, cwt. 

Kerosene, gal. 

Linseed, gal. 

Lubricating (Mineral), gal. 

Solar and Residual, gal. 

Turpentine, gal. 

Other, gal. . . 
Tallow, unref ned, cwt. 
Other Fats and Waxes 

Total, Cla.ss X. . . 



Quantity 


Value 




£ 


1 .443 


1,266 


.S2,753 


1 ,305 




44.^ 


135,637 


J0,04!t 


6,«o3 


1,106 


363 


1,000 


2o9,.541 


18,188 


21,087 


4,412 


74,1.38 


6.0.18 


108,681 


1 ,405 


2,23 J 


416 


12,286 


2,238 


2 


4 




33 



47,923 



CLASS XT. — Paints and Varnishes. 

Paints and Colours — 

Dry Colours, N.E.I., cwt. 

Dr3,' White Lead, cwt. 

Ground in I/iquid, cwt. 

Prepared for T'se, cwt. 

Ships' Anti-fonling Coinposition, rw 

Other 

Varnishes, gal. 



276 


444 


204 


665 


1,507 


3,529 


683 


1,642 


38 


05 




298 


i ,233 


460 



Total. Class XI. 



,133 



CLASS XII. — Stones and Minerals used In- 
dustrially. 

Coal, Ion 

Coke, ton 

Stone, including Marble and Slate 

Other 



10,234 


73,008 


25,056 


35,436 




593 




34 



Total, Class XII. 



109,071 



CLASS XIII.— Specie. 

Gold 

Silver 

Bronze 

Total, Class XIII. 



5,370 

35,102 

17 

40,579 



CLAvSS XIV. --Metals, Unmanufactured, and 
Ores 



S,001 



CLASS XV.— Metals, partly Manufactured 



9,733 



312 



STEWART'S HANI) BOOK 



OfANTITY 



Value 
£ 



CLAvSS 



XVI.— Machinery and other 
factures of Metals. 



Manu- 



Engines — 

Gas and Oil 

Other 

Implements and Machinery, Agricultural — 

Ploughs and Harrows 

Other 

Machinery and Appliances, Electrical 

Machinery, Mining 

Sewing Machines 

IVpewriters 

Weighing Machines 

Other Machinery 

Manufactures of Metals — 

Axles and Springs 

Bolts and Nuts 

Cutlery 

Iron and Steel — 

Girders, 15 earns, cwt. 
Plate and Sheet- 
Galvanised, cwt. 
Plain, cwt. . . 
Lamps and Lampware 
Lead — Sheet and Piping, cwt. 
Nails — 

Horseshoe, cwt. 

Other, cwt. 
Netting, Wire 
Pipes and Tubes — • 

Cast Iron 

Iron and Steel 
Platedware 

Rails, Fish-Plates, &c. 
- Tools of Trade 
Wire 

Rarbed, cwt. . . 

Iron and Steel, cwt. . . 

Other 

■Other Metal Manufactures 

Total, Class XVI. 





2,243 




26 




1,270 




1,152 




4,755 




77 




1,597 




641 




431 




13,283 




1,398 




3,918 




6,487 


950 


872 


7,762 


14,045 


3,869 


5,206 




2,327 


330 


562 


34 


142 


3,771 


7,562 




654 




1,248 




2,123 




472 




3,281 




7,375 


433 


658 


341 


039 




916 




53,566 



138,926 



CLASS XVII. — Indiarubber, Leather, and Manu- 
factures thereof, &p. 

Indiarubber and Manufactures thereof . . 
Uelting — 

Composition 

Leather 
Leather 

Leather Manufactures, N.E.I. 
Minor Articles for Leatherware 



4,262 

1,001 
1 ,396 
3,695 
7.700 



Total Class XVII. 



18,269 



OF THE PACIFIC ISLAN*»S 



315 



OUAXTITY 



CIvASS X VIII. —Wood and Wicker, Raw and 
Manufactured. 

Furniture and Minor Articles for 
Timber- - 

Architraves, &c., lin. ft. 

Dressed, other, sup. ft. 

Logs, not sawn 

New Zealand Pine, Undressed 

I'ndressed, other, sup. ft. 

Other Timber 
Wicker, Bamboo, or Cane.. 
Wood Manufactures -~ 

Doors 

Other . . 

Total, "Class XVin. 



Value 
£ 



5,854 



12,210 

]7o,lfi8 

6,092 

58,095 

,696,044 


110 

2.209 

56 

952 

18,447 




249 




287 
5,824 



33,619 



CLASvS XIX. — Earthenware, Cements, 
Glass and Stoneware. 

Bricks and Tiles 

Cement (Portland), cwt. . . 

China, Parian and Porcelain Ware 

Earthenware, &c. . . 

Glass and Glassware 

Lime, cwt. . . 

Plaster of Paris, cwt. 

Total, Class XIX. 

Cl.-lSS XX.— Paper and Stationery. 

Paper 
Stationery — 

Pooks (printed) 

Other Stationery 

Total, Class XX. 



China, 









1 ,005 






" 39, .591 


7,329 

383 

2,065 

2,464 






1 ,440 


211 






36,753 


1.682 



15,139 



6.142 

2,771 
11,423 

20,336 



CLASS XXI. —Jewellery, Timepieces and Fancy 
Goods. 

Fancy (joods 
Jewellery 
Pipes, Smoking 
Timepieces . . 

• Total, Class XXI. 

CLASS XXII —Optical. Surgical and Scientific 
Instruments. 

Kim-niatographs and Iwlni^ 
Photographic Goods 
Scientific Instruments 
Surgical and Dental 
Talking Machines . . 



4,105 
2,090 
1,897 
1,125 

9,217 



J ,253 
1 ..593 
400 
1.014 
1.442 



314 



STEWART'S HAND BOOK 



Other 



Total, Class XXII. 



Quantity 



Value 
£ 

6,275 



CI.ASS XX I II. —Drugs, Chemicals 


and 


Fer- 




tilisers. 








Pharmaceutical Products — 








Insecticides 








Medicines 








Other 








Calcium, Carbide of, cwt. . . 






649 


Perfumery 








Sodas, cwt. . . 






2J64 


Other Industrial Chemicals 








Fertilisers — 






. 


Ammonia -Sulphate, cwt. 






3,047 


-Superphosphates, cwt. 






5,790 


Other Fertilisers, cwt. 






22,207 



Total, Class XXIII. 

CLASS XXIV.— Miscellaneous. 

Arms 

Cartridges 

Explosives 

Bags, Baskets, Boxes, &c. 

Blacking 

Blue, Laundry, lb. 

Boats, Launches and Vachts 

Brushware 

Candles, lb. 

Electrical Materials 
Instruments, Musical 
Matches and Vestas — 

Wax, gross of boxes . . 

AVood and other, gross of boxes 
Oilmen's Stores 
Packings — Asbestos, &c. . . 
Personal Effects 
Pitch and Tar, cwt. 
Soan — 

^Toilet, lb 

Other, lb 

Vehicles — 

Bicycles, &c. . . 

Motor Cars 

Vehicles and Parts, Other 
Vessels Transferred. Abroad, No. . . 
All other Articles .. .... 

Total, Class XXIV. 

Australian Produce 
Other Produce 



1,251 
5,707 
6,042 
754 
1,608 
1,258 
1,249 

2,804 

1,404 

11,118 

33.195 







406 






1,531 






3,461 






2,011 






995 


:-;8 


167 • 


1.186 
3. 856 
2,651 


17 


611 


.587 
1,878 
1 ,340 


6,168 


1.726 


44,728 


5,732 




4,608 




1 ,608 




923 


2,294 


830 


28.522 


1.311 


767,233 


10,823 




1.945 


, , 


2,182 




" 7,603 


1 


200 




6,086 



65,4.59 

693.832 
689,653 



Grand Total 



1,383,485 



OF TH?" FaCIFIC Isr,AN]iS 



315 



TRADE OF TONGA. 



The following is the statement of the value of imports (exclusive of South 
Sea Island produce imported for exportation) imported into the* Kingdom at 
Nukualofa, Haapai, and ^'avau, the three onh' ports of entrj' in Tonga, for 
the year ended December 31, 1917 : — 

NUKUAI.OFA. 



Bacon and hams 

Bags 

Beer, ale and porter, in bottle 

Biscuits, fancy or mixed and plain 

Boots and shoes 

Books 

Boxes and trunks . . 

Butter 

Cartridges . . 

Cement 

Cigars and cigarettes 

Confectionery, comfits and succades 

Cordage and rope . . 

Drapery 

Drugs 

Uarthenware 

Fireworks and fuse 

Fish --dried, preserved, and salt. . 

Fruits, dried and preserved 

Flour 

Furniture 

Galvanised Iron 

Galvanised Manufactures 

Glass, crockery, and chinaware . . 

Hardware . . 

Iron — -bars, rods, plates, sheets and 1 

Ironmongery 

1 ewellerv 

i.ard ' . . 

Leatherware, all kinds 

Lanterns and lamps 

Lfines— fishing, lead, clothes, and similar lines 

Live stock . . 

Machinery . . 

Matches 

Meats 

ISIusical instruments 

Oils, kerosene 

Oils, other . . 





£ 


s. d. 




211 


15 6 




769 


19 4 




461 


16 




1,710 


16 5 




oon 


10 




147 


5 11 




15 


13 




676 


18 (> 




165 


5 3 




58 


J7 




217 


4 9 




320 


14 5 




651 


11 11 




. . 24,500 


7 10 




519 


4 4 




126 


15 4 




10 


12 6 




2,344 


19 




216 


7 2 




4,058 


4 




389 


10 




582 


14 8 




178 


4 8 




166 


1 5 




3,466 


13 9 




22 


1 9 




288 


6 6 




67 


8 5 




27 


13 6 




879 


3 2 




66 


18 7 




117 


14 9 




252 


1 10 




31() 


7 11 




714 


4 9 




9.266 


5 9 




182 


1 




1.872 


S 10 




140 


5 4 



Stewart s Handbook 



Value. 



t S. 



Paints and putty 

Perfumery . . 

Pickles and oilstor 

Powcler. sporting 

Printing material 

Produce 

Rice 

Sewing machines 

Ship chandlery 

Soap 

Spirits 

Spirits — methylated and benzine 

Starch 

Stationery . . 

Sugar 

Tea . . 

Timber, dressed 

Timber, rough 

Tobacco 

Turpentine, toys and fancy goods 

Vegetables and green fruit 

Vehicles 

Waters, aerated or mineral 

Wines, Australian and claret, in bulk or 

Wines, sparkling 

Wooden ware 



bottle 



26o 


J 5 


7 


16H 


12 


5 


313 


17 


3 


60 


5 





26 


13 





1 ,502 


17 


4 


71 


1 


9 


84 


10 


11 


S2 


Jl 


1 


1 .325 


3 


7 


785 


17 


9 


280 


1 


4 


27 


13 


8 


722 


9 


1 


2,230 


17 





116 


4 


1 


917 


1 


5 


578 


7 





339 


8 


7 


739 


10 


6 


79 


2 





721 


7 


6 


79 


13 


1 


170 


17 


10 


41 


12 





42 


3 


10 



Total * 



£68,656 18 4 



HAAPAI. 



Articles. 



Bacon and hams 

Bags 

Beer, ale and porter, in brittle 

Biscuits, plain 

Boots and shoes 

Books 

Benzine 

Butter 

Cartridges . . 

Cement 

Cigars and cigarettes 

Coal 

Coke 

Confectionery, comfits, and succades 

Cordage and rope . . 

Drapery 

Drugs 

Fish — dried, preserved, and salt. . 

Flour . . .... 

Furniture . . 



'Exclusive of Specie to tlie value of £14,000. 



£ s. 


d. 


105 10 


4 


694 1 


9 


106 12 


3 


392 4 


10 


84 4 


3 


7 19 


8 


78 13 


9 


143 7 


9 


5 14 


11 


56 18 


5 


20 13 


6 


2 8 


11 


5 





108 6 





636 17 


9 


8.858 13 


1 


190 7 


5 


1.343 1 





1 ,638 6 





39 15 


9 



OF THE Pacific Islands 



317 



Articles. 

Galvanised manufactures. . 

Glass, crockery, and chinaware 

Hardware . . 

Iron — bars, rods, plates, sheets and bun 

Kava 

Lanterns and Lamps 

I,ard 

Leatherware, all kinds 

Lime 

Live stock . . 

Machinerj- . . 

Matches 

Meats 

Musical instrujnents 

Oils, kerosene 

Oils, other . . 

Paints and putty . . 

Paper — wrapping and printing 

Perfumery . . 

Pickles and oil store? 

Produce 

Rice 

Sewing machines . . 

Ship chandlery 

Seeds 

Soap 

Spirits 

Spirits, methylated 

Starch 

Stationery . . 

Sugar 

Timber, dressed 

Timber, rough 

Tobacco 

Toys and fancy goods 

Vegetables and green fruit 

Wines, Avistralian and claret, in bulk or 

Wines, other kinds, in bulk or bottle 

Woodenware 



dies 



bottle 



£ 


s. 


d. 


266 


1 


s 


63 


•> 


1 


896 


13 


3 


7 


15 


7 


351 


11 


10 


14 


8 


2 


54 


15 


1 


178 


9 


8 


23 


4 


7 





1(1 





157 


7 


1 


171 


19 


7 


2,678 


13 


2 


85 


2 


11 


996 


14 


9 


193 


8 


8 


203 


15 


4 


29 


13 


6 


54 


9 


10 


836 


s 


3 


160 


9 


3 


28 


9 


1 


32 


/ 


1 


290 


9 


4 


4 


9 


7 


633 


5 


1 


190 


7 





1 


•> 





3 


4 


5 


216 


8 





718 


11 


8 


232 


19 


11 


354 





4 


247 


2 


9 


371 


1 


2 


44 


4 


6 


9 


14 


ti 


39 


13 





81 


15 


2 



Total 



£25,437 13 10 



VAVAU. 



Articles. 

Bacon hams and cheese 

Bags 

Basket and brushware 

Beer, ale, and porter 

Biscuits 

Boots and shoes 

Books 





S. 


d. 


184 


17 


li 


397 


2 


(> 


16 


17 


4 


30 


\:\ 





421 


1 


11 


104 


!t 


9 


o 


U 






"Exclusive of Specie to the value of £34,000. 



;{is 



Stewart's Hanjjbook 



lUittcr 

Cartridges . . 

Cement 

Cigars and cigarettes 

Clocks .\ 

Confectionery, comfits and succades 

Cordage and rope . . 

Doors and sashes . . 

Drapery 

Drugs 

Fish — dried, preserved, and salt 

Fruits 

Fishing material 

Flour " 

Furniture . . 

Galvanised Iron 

Galvanised manufactures 

Glass, crockery, and chinaware 

Hardware . . 

Iron — bars, rods, plates, sheets, and bundles 

Ironmongery 

Jewellery 

Lanterns and lamps 

Lard 

Leatherware, all kinds 

Live stock . . 

Machinery . . 

Matches 

Meats 

Oils, kerosene 

Oils, other . . 

Paints and putty . . 

Paper, wrapping . . 

Perfumery . . 

Pickles and oilstores 

Pipes, tobacco 

Plants and seeds 

Produce 

Rice 

Ship chandlery 

Soap 

Spirits 

Starch 

Stationery . . 

Sugar . . 

Timber, dressed 

Timber, rough 

Tobacco 

Toys and fancy goods 

Vegetables . . 

Waters, aerated or mineral 

Wines, Australian and claret, in bulk or bottle 

Woodenware 



Total * 



£ 

283 

29 

44 

80 

7 

77 

4H4 

lo 

7,035 

148 

1,162 

46 

61 

1,505 

23 

108 

118 

69 

342 

7 

136 

2 

20 

51 

58 

67 

11 

71 

2.187 

889 

184 

186 

43 

71 

740 

5 

3 

165 

48 

20 

721 

69 

18 

136 

706 

159 

110 

172 

147 

101 

19 

32 

42 



s. 


d. 


6 





9 


9 


15 





9 


4 


10 





13 


7 


7 


6 


3 


8 


17 





5 


10 


14 


7 


19 


3 


17 


3 


16 


6 


8 


6 


9 


11 


1 





9 


8 


15 


10 


16 


4 


1 


6 


5 


3 


10 





14 


5 


18 


6 


14 








6 





10 


16 


2 





10 


15 


8 


17 


7 


12 


3 


8 


4 


5 


3 


15 


9 


10 


4 


16 


4 


12 


10 


2 


1 


8 


11 


1 


7 


11 


6 


19 


7 


14 


11 


2 


4 


13 


5 


4 


4 


6 





7 


10 


1 





1 





1 


5 



£20,195 11 9 



•Exclusive of Specie to tiie value of £3,20(i. 



OF THE Pacific Islands 



31!) 



IMPORTvS INTO THE KINGDOM ACCORDING TO COUXTRIHS' 
■ WHERE GOODS WERE PRODUCED OR MANUFACTl'RIvD. 



Wiieuce luipoi-teil. 


Nukualof 


I. 


Haapai. 




Vavau. 






£ S. 


d. 


£ S. 


d. 


£ s. 


d. 


New Zealand 


33,861 10 


6 


13,263 8 


10 


12,405 16 


10 


Australia 


28,388 13 


8 


8,535 11 


8 


6.441 7 


1 


Great Britain 


788 5 


2 


444 14 


8 






Fiji 


3.238 12 


2 


1,789 15 


2 


1,231 13 


8 


United States of America 


2,134 13 


6 


1,404 3 


6 


114 !t 


K 


Samoa 


192 15 


11 






I 15 





Japan 


52 7 


5 










Nine . . . . . . 










9 


6 


Total 


£68,656 18 


4 


£25,437 13 


10 


£20,195 11 


9 



RESUME OF TOTAL IMPORTS. 



Wlieuce Iniporteil. 

New Zealand 

Australia 

England 

America 

Fiji . . 

Samoa 

J apan . . 

Nine 



Total 


Value. 


£ 


S. 


d. 


59,530 


16 


2 


43,365 


12 


5 


1,232 


19 


10 


3,653 


6 


8 


6,260 


1 





194 


10 


11 


52 


7 


5 





9 


6 



Total 



£114,290 3 II 



TOTAL, VALUE OF IMPORTS WITH DUTY COLLECTED THEREON, 
EXCLUSIVE OF SOUTH SEA ISLAND PRODUCE IMPORTED 
FOR EXPORTATION. 



Nukualofa 
Haapai . . 
Vavau . . 



Total 



Value of Articles 

importeii iuto tlie 

Kiugdoin. 

£ s. d. 

68,656 18 4 

25,437 13 10 

20,195 11 9 


Total Amount 
of Dutv 
Collecteil. 

£ s. d. 
8,464 18 1 
3,323 18 4 
2,657 14 8 


£114,290 3 11 


£14,446 11 1 



320 



Articles. 

Bottles 

Copra 

Cocoatiuts 

Fruit 

I'uiigus 

Hides 

Kiimalas 

Live stock 

Skins 

Sundries 

Yams 



Stewart's Handbook 
RESUME Ol' TOTAI, I'XPOR'I'S- 

yuiuititj. 



i; 



d. 



3.34 sacks 

6,250 tons 5 ewt. 2 qr 

2 bags 
342 cases 

15 tons 

4 bundles 

111 kits, 1 case 

77 horses, 11 pigs 

3 bundles 

302 packages . . 

16 kits, 3 cases 



IS lb 



115 10 

12-'. 333 

10 

52 13 4 

851 12 2 

18 

16 10 

576 

5 

•1.46<» 9 6 

4 13 











Total 



£125,442 18 



TOTAL VALUE OF EXPORTS WITH THE FEES COLLECTED 

THEREON. 



Nukualota 

Haapai 

Vavau 



Total 



Value. 








Pees 




f 


s. 


d. 




£ s. 


d. 


69,477 


11 


3 




747 10 


8 


41.739 


9 


10 




519 14 





14,225 


16 


11 




78 2 


9 


£125,442 


18 





£1 


,345 7 


5 




(The India Rubber, Gutta Percha, & Telegraph 
Works Co., Ltd.) 

For "All-British" Products 



INDIA RUBBER, GUTTA PERCHA, 
TELEGRAPH and ELECTRICAL GOODS 

The great Rubber works at Silvertowii, London, provide 
employment for more than 4,000 British workpeople. 
The name Silvertown signifies reliable British quality 
and is famous throughout the world. 

Specialities : 

CM A. Cables and wires for Electric Light, 'telephone 
and Power systems, 

Dynamos and motors for all classes of service. 

Switchboards, Primary Batteries, Insulators, India 
Rubber and Gutta Percha goods for Domestic, 
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OK THE Pacific Islands 321 



TRADE OF SAMOA FOR I9I8. 



A statistical report upon the trade and commerce of the Temtorvy of 
Samoa, under British mihtary occupation, was received just as this edition 
was going to press, and too late to include in the chapter dealing with Samoa. 
It comprises a printed statement, giving the full details of the trade during 
1917, and a supplementary statement of the export trade during 1918, the 
import trade statistics for last year not being yet available. 

The trading relations of the former German colony arc principally with 
tile United States, Au.stralia, and New Zealand. The fol]o^\'ing table shows the 
value of the imports from and exports to the three countries during 1917, and 
of the exports in 1918, with the value of the total trade : — 



ITnited States 

Australia . . 
New Zealand 

Total trade 317,773 320,444 306,640 

Of the exports in 1918, nearly 83 per cent, were to the United States, 
12 per cent, to Australia, and 5J- per cent, to New Zealand. The total trade 
in 1917 was distributed as follows : — United vStates, .55J per cent. ; Australia, 
2U per cent. ; New Zealand, 20 per cent. ; while 34 per cent, of the imports 
were derived from the United States, 29-J- per cent, from Australia, and 32?> 
per cent, from New Zealand. 

The principal produce of the territory is copra, cocoa and rubber, other 
commodities representing, by value, only one or two per cent, of the total. 
The distribution of the exports during the past two years was as follows, the 
figures for 1917 being given in parentheses : — 

Copra :— United States, 9,370 tons, £246,576 (8,597 tons, £221,518); 
New Zealand, —(395 tons, £9,453). 

Cocoa :— Austraha, 494 tons, £33,267 (495 tons, £30,782) ; New Zealand, 
209 tons, £15,338 (241 tons, £12,971); United States America, 92 tons, 

£5,564 (422 tons, £22,997) ; Canada, (49 tens, £2,799) ; totals, 795 ton.s 

£54,169 (1,207 tons, £69, .549). 

Rubber :— Australia, 28,801 lb., £2,1.-2 (136,110 lb., £12,094); New 

Zealand, 7,238 lb. £603 (8,692 lb., £6.50); Canada, 1.323 lb., £95 ( ); 

United States .America, (11,626 lb., £!,343. I'ctal.s, 37,362 lb., £2.850 

(156,428 lb.}, £14,087). 





1917. 




1918. 


Imports 


. E 


X ports. 


Exports. 


£ 




£ 


£ 


107.665 




247,606 


253,75!) 


94,082 




43.492 


35,899 


103,432 




25.122 


16,887 



322 Stewart's Handbook 



Bibliography of Works on the 
Pacific Islands. 



It is hoped that tlie accompanying list of works ilealing with tlie Islamls, while not exliaus- 
tive. may be of some service. The li^t will be extended in the next edition. I huil hoped to make 
a complete catalogue at the outset but was prevented from iloiug so in time tor tlds edition on 
account of other duties and of the restrictions imposed in consequence nf the influenza epideni c iu 
Sydney, whicli included the closing of the libraries uliile I was in tlie midst of the work. Nearly 
all of tlie publications mentioned are iu tlie MitchsU Library (Sydney) which undoubtedly has 
the auest collection of Islmd literature in the world, tllancing throngh the li>t in print I 
notice omissions of some important works, but it is too late, as I write, to search for tiie particulars 
cf them for this edition, which lias already been too long delayed in order to intlnde this feature. I 
shall be glad if authors, librarians, collectors, or publisher.'* will be good enough to supply me witli 
particulars of works omitted and of new works; sending, if possible, in the case of new books or 
pamphlets a copy of the work in order that it may be examined, for it is not proposed to include 
every publication in the list regardless of its value. There must be some merit or some special 
feature of interest to secure the inclusion of a work. 1 hope in time, with tlie co operation of those 
interested in the subject, to make this a really valuable Bihliogra|)hy. Where a work deals in a 
general way with the Pacific or deals with a number of groups I have put it under the heading of 
"General." Where a book deals with one group wholly or mainly it will be found under "New 
Guinea," " New Hebrides." or as the case may be. The sjstem I liave aiiopted may not. perhaps, 
be approved by library authorities. I only claim that it was the easiest way and that it is simple. 
The main thing is that a start has been made in the production of an Island Bitdiography, and, as 
far as I know, it is the first that embraces the whole Pacific : just as the Handb' ok itself is. 

PE CY S. ALLEN. 
Cjo. McCarron, Slemiit .f- Co. Ltd.. 

aoulhnrii Slri-ef. Sydrieti. May 1919. 



GENERAL. 



Abbott, J. H. M. Peeps at Many Lands ; The South Seas (Norfolk Island, 

New Hebrides and the Solomons), London : A. and C. Black, 1908. 
Alazard, P. Ildefonse. E.ssai de Bibliographie Picpncienne ; Missions de 

rOceanie Orientale. 1912. 
Alcan, Eugene. Les Cannibales et leur temps ; vSouvenirs de la campagne 

de I'Oceanie. Paris, 1887. 
Alesander, James W. The Islands of the Pacific, from the Old to the New. 

New York: American Tract Society, 1908. 
Allen, Percy S. Cyclopedia of Fiji (editor). Svdney, McCarron, Stewart 

and Co., 1907." 
. Cyclopedia of Samoa, Tonga, Tahiti and the Cook Islands 

(editor). Sydney: McCarron, Stewart' 5: Co., 1907. 
"vStewart's" Handbook of the Pacific (pnbli.shed regularly 

since 1907). Sydney : McCarron, Stewart & Co. 

-The Pacific Islands ; New Zealand's Commercial Interests 



'Reprint of series of articles in V.Z. Herald). Auckland : M'ilson 
and Horton, 1908. 



OF TTiK Pacific Islands 323 

[Annexation.] Annexation or Protectorate of Islands Adjacent to Australia ; 
Resolutions of public meetings and of municipal bodies in favour of the 
movement, and protesting against the transportation of foreign convicts 
to the Islands. Victorian Parliamentary Paper, 188.'5 (supplementary to 
paper presented to Parliament in November, 1888). 
AragO, Jacques. Deux Oceans (containing accounts of Tahiti and the 

Marquesas). Paris : Librairie Theatrale, 18.">4. 
Armstrong, E. S. The History of the Melanesian Mission. London, 1900. 
"A Roving Printer" (John D.Jones). I,ife and Adventure in the South 

Pacific. I,ondon : Sampson Low, Son & Co., 1861. 
Australian, An. The Australian Crisis, or Ought New Guinea and the "Western 

Pacific Islands to be Annexed. London : W. H. Allen & Co., 1883. 
Awdry. Frances. In the Isles of the Sea ; the storv of oO vears in Melanesia. 

London, 1902. ' ' ■ 

Aylmer (Captain) Fenton. A Cruise in the Pacific, from the Log of a Naval 
Officer; edited bv Captain Fenton Avlmer. London: Hurst and Blaokett, 
1S60. 
Ballantyne, R. M. The Cannibal Islands, or Captain Cook's Adventures 

in the South Seas. London : J. Nisbet & Co. — 
Baudouin, A. L'Aventure de Port Breton et la Colonie libre dite Nouvelle 

T^rance. Paris: M. Dreyfous, 1883. 
Bayly (Captain), George. Sea Life Sixty Years Ago, a record of adventures 
which led up to the discovery of the relics of the long-missing expedition 
commanded bv tlie Comte de la Perou.se. London : Kegan Paul, 
Trench & Co., 1885. 
Becke, Louis. By Eeef and Palm. London : Unwin, 1894, 1898, and 
other later editions. 

His Native Wife. Sydney : A. Melrose, 1895. 

,, London: Unwin, 1896. 

■■ Ebbing of the Tide. London : Unwin, 1896. 

Pacific Tales. London : Unwin, 1897. 

Wild I^ife in Southern Seas. London : Unwin, 1897. 

Rodman the Boatsteerer. London : Unwin, 1898. 

— — Ridan the Devil. London : Unwin, 1899. 

-Edward Barry. London : Unwin, 1900. 

-Tom Wallis. London : Religious Tract Society, 1900. 

-By Rock and Pool. London : Unwin, 1901. 

-Te.s.sa, the Trader's Wife. London : Unwin, 1901. 

-Yorke the Adventurer. London: Unwin, 1901. 

-Breachley, Black vSheep. London : 1902. 

-Strangle Adventure of James Shervinton. London: Unwin, 

1902. 
-The Jalasco Brig. London : A. Treherne & Co., 1902. 
-Helen Adair. London : Unwin, 1903. 
-Chinkies Flat. London : Unwin, 1904. 
-Under Tropic Skies. London : Unwin, 1904. 
-Notes from Mv South Sea I«og. London : Werner, Laurie, 

1905. 
-Tom Oerrard, 1905. 

Adventures of a Supercargo, 1906. 

— The Call of the South. I.ondon : Milne, 1908. 
— The Pearl Divers of Roncador Reef. London : Clarke & Co., 
1908. 
'Neath Austral Skies. London : Milne, 1909. 
-Adventures of Louis Blake. London : Werner Laurie, 1909. 



BuUv Hayes, Buccaneer (edited by Bertram Steve»s). Syd- 
ney : N.S.W. i'nokstall Co., 1913. 
Becke, LOU^, and Jetferj% Walter. ^Mystery of the I^aughlin Islands. Lon- 
don, 1896. 
_ Tile JIutineer. London: Unwin, 1898. 



324 vStrvvakt's Handhook 

Becke, Louis, and Jeffery, Walter. .The Mutineer. Sydney : Reprinted l)y 

Angus and Robert.son, — . 

A First Fleet F'ainilv. I^ondon : ITnwin, 

1896. 



The Tapu of Bandt-rali (tales). London, 

1901. 
Beechey (Captain), F. W. Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific aud Beering's 

Strait . in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28. Two vols. London, 

18:U. 
Bellingshausen, F. Dual Kxploration of the Southern Frozen Ocean, and 

Voyage round the world during the years 1819, 1820 and 1821 performed 

in the sloops Vostoka, and Mirnom, under the command of Captain 

Bellingshausen, commanding the sloop Vostoka. In Ru.ssian. St. 

Petersburg, 1831. 
Bennett, Frederick Debell. Narrative of a Whaling Voyage round the ('.lobe 

from the Year 18o3 to 1836, comprising sketches of Polynesia, &c. 

Two vols. London : Richard Bentley, 1840. 
Bligh, William. The Mutiny on board H.M.S. Bounty, and the ."subsequent 

voyage of a part of the Crew in the ship's boat from Tofoa to Timor. 

London : The Bankside Press, — . 

-A Voyage to the South Sea including an account of the Mutinv. 

Dublin: H. Fitzpatrick, 1822. 

— — —Dangerous Voyage, with an appendix containing an account 

of Otaheite. Dublin: Grai.sberry and Campbell, 1817. 

— - — ■ Voyage (same as above). Dublin: W. De A'eaux, 1818. 

■ Voyage (same as above). London : John Arliss, 1818. 

— Vovaee (same as above). London : Q. and \V. B. Whittaker, 

i8rs. 

-Voyage, to which is added an account of the snfTerings and 



fate of the remainder of the crew of the ship. Dublin : R. Napper, 1824. 
[Boyd, Benjamin]. See Webster's I,ast Cruise of the \^'andere^. 
Bray, John Samuel. Illustrations of Ethnology, with description of specimens 

from New Guinaa, Admiralty Islands, New Ireland, Duke of York Lsland, 

New Britain, Solomon Islands, New Hebrides, vSamoan Lslands, New 

Caledonia, Fiji, &c. Sydney, 1S87. 
Bridge, Cyprian. Crxii.ses in Melanesia, Micronesia and V.'esteni Polynesia 

in 1882, 1883 and 1884, and Visits to New Guinea and the Loui.siadcs 

in 1884 and ISS.'j. Paper in Ro5'al Geographical Society's Journal, 1886. 
Brown (Professor) J. Macmillan. Migrations of the Polynesians, according 

to the evidence of their language. N.Z. Institute Transactions, Iflll. 
Brown (Rev. Dr.) George. George Brown, D.D., Pioneer-Missionary and 

Explorer, an Autobiography ; a narrative of 48 years' residence and 

travel in Samoa, New Britain, New Zealand, New Guinea, and the 

Solomon Islands. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1908. 
— . Melanesians and Polynesians ; their life histories 

described and compared. London : Macmillans, 1910. 
Brunet, Marcel. La Breche Maritime Allemande dans 1' Empire Colonial 

.A^nglais. Paris, 1912. 
[Bully Hayes]. See Reeves' Brown Men and ^^'omen ; Cooper's Coral I^ands 

and The Islands of the Pacific; and Becke's works. 
Burnett, Frank. Through Tropic Seas. London: F. Griffiths, 1910. 
— — Through Polvnesia and Papua. London : G. Bell & Sons, 

Ltd., 1911. 
Burney, (Captain) James. A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the 

South Sea or Pacific Ocean. London, 1803. 
[Burns, Philp Co.]. All about Burns, Philp and Compan}', Limited. 

(With brief descriptions of those parts of the Pacific to which their 

steamers trade). Sydney,, 1903. 
Burton (Rev.) J. W. The Coll of the Pacific. London, 1912. 



OF THE Pacific Isr,ANDS 325 

Byron's Voyage (by an anonymous author). A voyage round the world in 
H.M.S. Dolphin, commanded by the Honorable Commodore Byron, 
together with an account of seven islands lately discovered in the South 
Seas. By an officer on board the said ship. London, 1767. 

Caillot, A. C. Eugene. Les Polynesiens Orientaux an contact de la civilisa- 
tion. Paris, 1909. 

—Histoire de la Polynesie Orientale. Paris, 1910. 

Campbell, John. Maritime Discovery and Christian Missions (in the South 
Seas). I,oudon : John Snow, 1840. 

Cauvin, Ch. Memoire sur les Races de 1' Oceanic. Paris, 1882. 

Cheever (Rev.), Henry T. The Island World of the Pacific. New York : 
Harper and Brothers, 1851 ; lyondon : Nelson & Sons, 1852. 

Cheradame, Andre. La Colonisation et les Colonies A llemandes. Paris, 190.5. 

Cheyne, Andrew. Islands in the Western Pacific Ocean, together with 
Productions, Manners and Customs of the Natives and Vocabularies 
of their various Languages. London : J. W. Potter, 1852. 

Churchill, William, The Polynesian Wanderings ; tracks of the migration 
deduced from an examination of the proto-Sanioan content of Efate 
and other languages of Melanesia. Washington : Carnegie Institute, 
1911. 

Churchward, Vv. B. nlackbirding in the South Pacific. London, 1888. 

Codrington (Dr.) R. H. The Melanesians ; studies in their Anthropology 
and Folklore. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891. 

Coliingridge, George. The Discovery of Australia ; a Critical, Documentary 
and Historic Investigation Concerning the Priority of Discovery in 
Australasia by Europeans before the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook 
in the Endeavour in the year 1770. Sydney, 1895. 

Colwell (Rev.), James. A Century in the Pacific. Sydney : Methodi.st 
Book Depot, 1915. 

Cook (Captain), James. Vovages Round the World; the first performed 
in the vears 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771; the .second in 1772, 1773, 1774, 
1775; the third and last in 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779 and 1780. Varioiis 
editions. 

Coombe, Florence. Islands of Enchantment ; manv-sided Melanesia. Lon- 
don : Macmillan & Co., 1911. 

Cooper. K. Stonehewer. Coral Lands. London : R. Bentley & Son, 1880 
(in two vols.) ; 1882 (one vol.). 

The Islands of the Pacific. Revised edition of the 

above. London : R. Bentley & .Son, 1888. 

Coote, Walter. The Western Pacific, a description of the groups of islands 
to the north and east of the Australian Continent. London : vSamp.son 
Low, ^larston, Searle and Rivington, 1883. 

[Coral Reefs.] The Atoll of Funafuti ; Borings into a coral reef and the 
results, being the report of the Coral Reef Conmiittee of the Royal 
Society. London : Royal Society, 1904. 

Coulter (Dr.), John. .Ulventures on the Western Coast of South America 
(including a narrative of incidents about the Kingsmill Islands, New 
Ireland, New Britain, New Guinea, and other islands). Two vols. 
London : Longman,- Brown, Green and Longmans, 1847. 

Adventures in the Pacific. Dublin : W. Currv & Co., 

1845. 

Cousins, George. From Island to Island in the South sSeas, or the Work of 

a ^lissinnary Ship. London, 1893. 
-Storv of the South Seas, written for Younsj People. Lon- 
don, 1894. 

Cumming (Miss) C. F. Gordon. A Lady's Cruise in a French Man-of-War. 
London : W. Blackwood & vSons, 1882. (For other works see under 
F'iji, Hawaii, &c.) 
Dahlgren, E. W. l/cs Relations Commerciales et Maritimes entre La 
France et les cotes de I'Ocean Pacifique. Paris, 1909. 



326 Stewart s Handbock 

Dalrymple, Alexander. An Account of the Discoveries made in tlie South 

r.'icific Ocean, previoiis to 1764. lyOndon, 1707. 
Davin, Albert. SO.OOO Millcs dans 1' Ocean Pacifique. Pans, 1886. 
Demav, Charles. Ilistoirc de la Colonisation Allcmande. Paris, I8.S9. 
Deschanel, Paul. l<a Politique I'rancaise en Oceanic a propos du Canal de 

Panama. Paris, 1884. 
Les Interots l'"rancais dans I'ocean Pacifique. Paris, 

18SS. 
Dewar, J. Gumming. Voyage of the Nyanza, being the record of a three 

years cruise in a schooner yacht in the Atlantic and Pacific. I,ondon : 

W. Blackwood, 1892. 
Dinecn, T. B. Directory and (luide to .South Pacific Islands. vSvdney : 

T. B. Dincen, 1905.' 
Dra,ke del Castillo, E. Flore de la Polynesie Francaise. Paris, 189.'}. 
Elkington, E. Way. The Savage South Seas, painted by Norman H. 

Hardv, described bv E. V.'av Flkington. London : A. and C. Black, 

1907.' 
Ellis (Rev.), William. Polynesian Researches During a Residence of Nearly 

Six Years in the Soiith Sea Islands. London : Fisher, .Son and Tackson, 

1829 (two vols.), 18.32 (four vols.), 1836 (four vols.) ; H. G. Eohn, 1859 

(four vols.) ; New York : J. and J. Harper, 1833 (four vols.). 

— A Vindication of the South Sea Missions, &'c. London, 

1831. 
Enock, C. Reginald. The Secret of the Pacific ; description of the origin 

of the earl)- civilisations of America, the Toltecs, Aztecs, Mayas, 

Incas, and their predecessors, and of the possibilities of Asiatic influence 

thereon. London : Fisher Unwin, 1912. 
Erskine, Captain J. B. Journal of a Cruise Among the Islands of the Western 

Pacific, including the Feejees and others inhabited by the Polynesian 

Negro races. London: Murray, 1853. 
[Fanning]. Voyages Round the World, with Selected .Sketches of \'oyages 

to the South Seas. . . . With information relating to important 

late discoveries between the vears 1792 and 1832. By Eclmund Fanning. 

New York, 1833. 
Festetics de Tolna (Count), Rodoiphe. Chez les Cannibales; Hviit ans de 

croisiere dans I'Ocean Pacifique a bord du Yacht Le Tolna. Paris, 

1903. 
— \'ers I'ecueil de Minicoy ; apres Iluit 

ans dans I'Ocean Pacifique et Indien a bord dii Yacht I,e Tolna. 

Paris, 1904. 
Findlay, Alexander G. A Directory for the Navigation of the Pacific Ocean, 

with descriptions of its coasts, islands, &c. In two parts. By Alexander 

G. Findlay, F.R.G.S. London, 1851. 

South Pacific. Fifth edition, 1884. 

Finsch, 0. Sudseearbeiten. Hamburg, 1914. For other works see under 

New Guinea, &c. 
Fletcher, C. Brunsdon. The New Pacific ; British Policy and German Aims, 

with a preface bv Viscount Bryce and a foreword by the Right Hon. 

W. M. Plughes. 'London: Macmillan & Co., 1917. 
The Problem of the Pacific, with preface by Sir 

W^illiam MacGregor. London, 1919. 
Foley, A. E. Ouatre Annees en Oceanic. Paris, 1886. 
Fox, Frank. Probdems of the Pacific. London, 1912. 
Fornander, Abraham. An account of the Polynesian race, its origin and 

migrations, and the ancient history of the Hawaiian people. London, 
1878. 
Francis, B. Isles of the Pacific, or Sketches from the South Seas. London : 

Casscll & Co., 1882. 
Gaggin, John. Anions the IVIan Faters. London : T. I'isher I'nwin, 
1900. 



OF THE Pacti'tc Tsi,ands 327 

Gandin, A. De la Possibilile d'nne Vaste colonisation dans rOceanie. Paris ' 

1 SfiS. 
Gamier, .Jules. Oceanic ; les iles des Pins, Loyalty, et Tahiti. Paris, 1871. 
Migrations Poh'nesiennes, leur origine, lent itineraire, leur 

etendue. Btilletin de la Societe de Geographie, 1S70. 
Geil, William Ed^ar. Ocean and Isle. J.Ielbourne : W. T. Pater 8: Co., Ht02. 
[German Colonial OfEcel. Die Deutschen vSchutzgebiete in Afrika und der 

Sudsee, li»<)l)-10; Berlin, 1911. 
[German Interests] German Interests m the South Sea. Abstracts of Official 

Corresnondence (White Book) presented to the Reichstag, 1884 and 1885. 

London : \\'vman and Sons, IXSo. , 

Gill (Rev.), W. Wyatt. Gems from the Coral Lslands or Incidents of Contrast 

between Savage and Christian Life in the Soutii vSea Islands. London, 

1 S.'->6. 
Jottings from the Pacific. London : Reheions 

Tract Society, 1885. 
The South Pacific and New Guinea, past and present, 

with notes on the Hervey Group, and illustrations, songs and various 

myths. Sydney : Government Printer, 1892. 
[Godeifroy & Co.]. See H. Stonehewer Cooper's Coral Lands and The Lslands 

of the Pacific ; Sterndale's Memorandum. &c. 
[Goodenough i. Memoir and Journal of Commodore Goodenough, R.N., 

C.B., C.M.G., during his last command as senior officer of the Australian 

Station, 1873-1875 ; edited by his widow. London: H. S. King, 1876. 
Grey (Sir), George. German Colonization; a review of recent Anglo-German 

negotiations and the Samoan situation. Auckland : H. Brett, 1889. 
Grimshaw, Beatrice. In the Strange vSouth Seas. London : Hutchinson 

and Co., 1907. 

Three Wonderful Nations— Tonga, Samoa, Fiji. 

Published by Union Steamship Co. 

For other works see under New Guinea, &c. 

Groote, P. de. Nouvelle France ; Colonie Libre de Port Breton. Paris : 

Societe Generale de Librairie Catholique, 1880. 
Guillemard, F. H. H. The Cruise of the Marchesa to Kamschatka and 

New Guinea. Two vols. London : John Murray, 1886. 
Guppy (Dr.), H. B. Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific. London, 

1903. 
Hall, Douglas B., and Osborne, Lord Albert. Sun.shine and Surf ; a year's 

wanderings in tlie vScmth Seas. London : A. and C. Black, 1901. 
Hawkesworth (Dv.), John. An account of the voyages undertaken for making 

discoveries in the vSouthern Hemisphere, and performed by Commodore 

Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret and Captain Cook, drawn from 

the journals which were kept bj' the several commanders and from the 

papers of ]. Banks. London, 1773. 
Hernsheim, Franz. Sudsee-Hrinnerungen, (1875-1880). Berlin, 188.3. 
Hood, T. H. Notes of a cruise in H.M.S. Fawn in the Western Pacific 

in 1862. Kdinburgh : F.duionston and Douglas, bSC)."}. 
How, F, D. Bishop John Selwyn ; a Memoir. London, 1899. 
Indra, K. R. Sudseefahrten : Schilderungen einer Reise nacli den I^idschi- 

Inseln, vSamoa and Tonga. Berlin, 1903. 
Johnson, Kartin. Through the South Seas with Jack London. London : 

T. ^^'enler I,aurie, 1913. 
Jouan, Henri. A Propos du Peuplement de la Polynesie. Cherbourg, 

1884. 
King (Rev), Jose??h. Ten Decades, the Australian Centenary Story of the 

London MissiiMiary Society. London, 1894. 
Kramer (Professor), Augustin. Hawaii, Ostmikronesien und Samoa. Stutt- 
gart : Verlag von Strecker and Schroder, 1906. 
Ueber den J'.au der Korallenriffe und die 

Planktonvertheilung an den Samoanischen K listen. Leip'^ifj, 1897. 



328 Stewart's Handbook 

Kruijt, Alb. C. lU't Animisme lu deu ImUschcii AicIhikI. 's-r,ravenhaji;e : 

l!tO(i. I Deals with New (iuinea and other islands.] 
LaJarse, John. Kcmini.scenccs of the Sonth Sca.'^. I,ondon : (".rant Riehards, 

l!»!i. 
Lambert (Rev.), John C. Missicnarv Heroe.*-' in Oceania. London : Seeley 

and Co., lino. 
Lament, E. H. Wild I,ifo Anions.^ the Pacific Islanders. London : Hurst 

and Blackett, iSfiT. 
Lang 'Rev. Dr.), J. D. Origin and Migrations of the Polynesian Nation. 

Sydney and Melbourne : Geo. R.obert.son, 1877. 
[La Perousei. See Captain (\. Bayly'.s Sea I,ife Sixty Years Ago : also " La 

Pcrou.se." by Professor P'rnest vScott (of Melbourne), published in Sydney, 

1912 ; and \'oyage de La Perouse (Paris, 1798, and other editions). 
Lemire, Ch. I<es Intercts francais dans le Pacifique. Paris : Berger- 

Levrault, 1904. 
Lenwood (Rev.), F. Pastels from the Pacific. London, 1918. 
Lesson (Dr.), A. Les Polynesiens, leur origine. leurs migrations, leur 

langage. Pnris, 1880-84. 
London, Charmian Kittredge (Mrs. Jack London). Voyaging in V/ild Seas, 

a narrative of the voyage of the Snark in tlie years 1907-1909. Lon- 
don : 'Mills and Boon, 1915. 
London, Jack. Cmiss of the vSnark London: I91.S. 
[London Missionary Society.] A Register of :Missionaries and Deputations 

from 1790 to 1877, compiled by John Owen Whitehouse. London, 1877. 
History of London Missionary Society, 1795-1895 ; 

by Richard Lovett. I,ondon : Henry Frowde, 1899. 
Maclver, Henry Ronald. Rivals for supremacy in the Pacific. vSvdney : 

Gib'bs, Shallard & Co., 1885. 
Mackellar. C. D. Scented Isles and Coral Ciardens. London : John Murrav, 

1912. 
"Marin, Aylic " (Edward Petit). En Oceanic. Paris, 1888. 
Markham (Commander), Albert Hastings. The Cruise of the "Rosario" 

Amongst the New Hebrides and Santa Cruz Islands, exposing the recent 

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.■{3fi STIvWART'S Hanubook 

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Bilder aus der Sudsee), 1904. 



OF THE Pacific Ist.axd.s .'J37 

[Scratchley, Sir Peterj. See Kinloch Cooke. 

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— — The Ways of the %South Sea Savage, being 

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."JSS Stewart's Handbook 

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SOLOMON ISLANDS AND SANTA CRUZ GROUP. 



Abbott, J. H. M. The Solomons (in his South Seas in Peeps at Many Lands 

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OF THE Pacific Islands 339 

Rannie, Douglas. SciomoiT^ and Santa Cruz (in liis Adventures Among 

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Coleridge Patteson), 1874. 



NEW HEBRIDES AND BANKS ISLANDS. 



Abbott, J. H. M. ' New Hebrides (in liis South Seas in Peeps at Many Lands 
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Awdry, Frances. New Hebrides and Banks Islands (in Irt Iv. The Isles of 
the Sea), 1902. 

Boiirge. Georges. Les Nouvelles Hebrides de 1606 a 1906. Paris: A. 
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Brunet, Auguste. Le Regime International des Nouvelles Hebrides. Paris : 
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Burton (Rev.), J. W. New Hebrides (in liis Call of the Pacific), 1912. 

Campbell, F. A. A Year in the New Hebrides. Loyalty Islands and New 
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340 Stewart's Handbook ^ 

Codrington (Dr.), R. H. New Hebrides and Banks Islands (in his The Mela- 
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Cook, Auguste. Ktudes Coloniales ; I,es Nouvelles Hebrides. Bordeaux r 
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Cooke, C. Kinloch. France and the New Hebrides. Nineteenth Century,. 
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I Convention]. Convention between the United Kingdom and France con- 
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Coombe, Florence, New Hebrides and Banks and Torres Islands (in her 
I.'^lands of I^nchantment), 1911. 

Coote, Walter. New Hebrides, Banks and Torres I.slands (in his Western 
Pacific), 1883. 

Daville (Dr.), Ernest. La Colonisation Francaise aux Nouvelles Hebrides. 
Paris : Librairie Africaine et Coloniale, 189.5. 

Dewar, J. Cumraing. New Hebrides (in his Voyage of the Nyanza), 1892. 

Elkington, E. Way. The New Hebrides (in his Savage South Seas), 1907. 

Ei-skine, Captain J. B. New Hebrides (in his Western Pacific), 1853. 

Festetics de Tolna (Count) Rodolphe. New Hebrides (in his Chez Ics Can- 
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Gaggin, John. Malicolo (in his Among the Man Katers), 1900. 

Gill (Rev.), William. New Hebrides (in his Gems from the Coral Island.^),. 
18,50. 

Goodenough, Commodore. New Hebrides (in Memoir and Journal of Com- 
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Grimshaw, Beatrice. New Hebrides (in her F'rom Fiji to the Cannibal Is- 
lands). London: Geo. Bell and Sons, 1907. 

Gunn (Dr.), William. The Gospel in Futuna, with chapters on the islands 
of the New Hebrides, the people, their customs, rehgious beliefs, &c. 
London, 1913. ^ . 

Hagen (Dr.\ Bernard. Etudes sur les Nouvelles Hebrides (extrait dvi Bulle- 
tin de la vSociete de Geographic de I'Kst). Nancy, 1893. 

Hope, James L. A. New Hebrides (in his In Quest of Coolies). London : 
H. S. King & Co., 1872. 

Imhaus, E. H. Les Nouvelles Hebrides. Paris : Berger Levrault et Cie, 1890. 

Inglis (Rev.), John. In the New Hebrides. Reminiscences of Mi.ssionary life 
and work, especially on the Island of Aneitvum, from 18.50 till 1877. 
London, 1887. 

Jacomb, Edward. France and England in the New Hebrides ; the Anglo- 
I'rench Condominium. Melbourne : George Robertson & Co., 1914. 

Lamb (Dr.), Robert. Saints and Savages ; the vStory of Five Years in the 
New Hebrides. Melbourne : George Robertson & Co., 1908. 

Le Chartier, H. I,a Nouvelle Caledonie et Les Nouvelles Hebrides. Paris : 
Jouvet, 1885. 

London, Charmian. New Hebrides (in her Voyaging in Wild Seas), 1915. 

London, Jack. New Hebrides (in his Cruise of the Snark), 1913. 

Markham (Commander), A. H. New Hebrides (in his Cruise of the Rosario), 
1873. 

Moncelon, Leon. Les Canaques de la Nouvelle Caledonie ct des Nouvelles 
Hebrides. Paris, 1886. 

Moresby (Captain), John. New Hebrides (in his Discoveries in New Guinea, 
&c.), 1876. 

[New Hebrides Company]. Description of the New Hebrides, sliowing tlie 
advantages from the formation of a settlement on one of the Islands for 
cultivating the spices and many ether articles of commerce indigenous 
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Palmer (Captain), G. New Hebrides (in his Kidnapping in the South Seas),. 
1871. 



OF THE Pacific Islands 341 

Paton (Rev,), Frank H. L. Triumph of the Gospel in the New Hebrides. 

London, — . 
— — ■ Ne\v Hebrides (in his The Kingdom in the 

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Paton, Rev, J. G. John G. Paton, D.D., Missionary' of the New Hebrides. 

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John G. Paton. Later Years and FareweP, a Sequel to John G. 

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Paton. London, 1910. 
Paton (Rev.), James, The Story of John G. Paton, told for Young Folks; 

or 30 Years Among the South Sea Cannibals. lyondon, 1899. 
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the New Hebrides. London : Hodder and Stoughton, 1894. 
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1908. 
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name of the New Hebrides, showing the advantages to be derived bv 

an establishment for the purpose of trading to those parts, addressed 

to the merchants and others of Great Britain. London : C. Armand, 

1839. 
Rannie, Douglas. New Hebrides (in his Adventures Among South Sea 

Cannibals), 1912. 
Rivers, W. H. R. Banks Islands, Tcrres Islands and New Hebrides (in his 

History of Me.lanesian Society), 1914. 
Robertson (Rev.), H, A. Frromanga, the Martyr Isle. London : Hodder 

and Stoughton. 
Russell, Rev. M. New Hebrides (in his Polynesia), 1853. 
Smith (Senator), Staniforth. Australia and the New Hebrides. Reprint of 

articles in Sydney " Daily Telegraph" in June, 1904. 
Speiser (Dr.), Felix. New Hebrides and Banks Islands (in his Two Years with 

the Natives in the We.stern Pacific), 1913. 
Thomas, Julian. New Hebrides (in his Cannibals and Convicts), 1886. 
[Wattl. Agnes C. P. Watt ; twenty-five years mission life on Tanna , bio- 
graphical sketch and introduction by the Rev. T. Watt I,eggatt. London, 

1896. 
Wawn, W. T. New Hebrides (in his South Sea Islanders), 1893. 
Wood, C. F. New Hebrides (in his Yachting Cruise in the South Seas), 1875. 
Yonge, Charlotte Mary. New Hebrides and Banks Islands (in her Life of 

John Coleridge Patteson), 1874. 



NEW CALEDONIA AND THE LOYALTY ISLANDS. 



Alcan, Eugene. New Caledonia (in his Les Cannibales). Paris, 1887. 
Anderson, J. W. Notes of Travel in I'iji and New Caledonia. London : 

EHissen & Co.. 1880. 
Balliere, Achille. La deportation de 1871 ; Souvenirs d'lin evade de Noumea 

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G. Charpentier, 1889. 
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1854. 



34i2 Stkwart's Handbook 

Burton (Rev,), J. W. New Cak'doiiia and I^ovalty Islands (in his Call o: the 

Pacific), li)12. 
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un \'itux Colonial. Pcrigueux, I !)02. 
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Daville (Dr.), Ernest. Guide pratique du colon en Nouvelle Caledonie. 

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Delignon, Lucien. I,es Alienations de terres et la Colonisation libre agricole 

en Nouvelle Caledonie. Paris, 1898. 
Deslongchamps, Eugene. Documents sur la Geologie de la Nouvjelle Cale- 
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the Nyanza), 1892. 
Dun, W. S. Bibliography of Papers and Reports relating to the Geology 

and Mineral Resources of New Caledonia. (In the Mineral Resources 

of New Caledonia, by F. Danvers Power.) 
Erskine, Captain J. B. New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands (in his Western 

Pacific), 1853. 
Gallet, Gustave. Notice sur la Nouvelle Caledonie. Noumea : Government 

Printer, 1884. 
Garnier, Jules. La Nouvelle Caledonie. Paris, 1873. 
Gauharou, Leon. Geographie de la Nouvelle Caledonie et dependances. 

Noumea : Government Printer, 1882. 
Gill (Rev.), William. New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands (in his Gems from 

the Coral Islands), 1850. 
Griffith, George. In an ITnknown Prison Land, an Account of Convicts and 

Colonists in New Caledonia. London : Hutchinson & Co., 1901. 
Hope, J. L. A. Ivoyalty Islands (in his In Quest of Coolies), 1872. 
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caises (cne chapter on New Caledonia and dependencies). Marseilles, 

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Voyage a pied en Nouvelle Caledonie et description des 

Nouvelles Hebrides. Paris: Challamd Aine, 1884. 
Marcel, Gabriel. I<a Nouvelle Caledonie, P^xtrait du Journal des I^cononiistes, 

1873. Paris, 1873. 
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Librairie Africaine et Coloniale, 1897. 
Moncelon, Leon. Les Canac^ues de la Nouvelle Caledonie et des Nouvelles 

Hebrides. Paris, 1886. 
Montrouzier, Le Pere Notice Historique, I^thnographique et Physique sur 

la Nouvelle Caledonie. Paris, 1860. 
Norman (Captain), C. B. New Caledonia (in Colonial P'rance), 1886. 
Patouillet, Jules. Trois Ans en Nouvelle Caledonie. Paris, 1872. 
Pelatan, Louis. I/es Mines de la Nouvelle Caledonie. Paris, 1892. 
Power, Frederick Danvers, The Mineral Resources of New Caledonia. 

London : Institution of Mining and Metallurgy', 1900. 
Riviere, Henri. Souvenirs de la Nouvelle Caledonie. Paris, 1881. 
Rochas (Dr. ), Victor. La Nouvelle Caledonie. Paris, 1862. 



OF THE Pacific Islands 343 

Saint-Yves, G. New Caledonia (in his L'Oceanie), 1896. 

Sarasin (Dr.), Fritz and Roux (Dr.), Jean. Forschungen in Neu Caledonian 

und auf den Loyalty Inseln ; recherches scientifiques en Nouvelle Cale- 

dcnie et aux lies Loyalty. Wiesbaden, 191.3. 
Sebert, H. Notice sur les bois de la Nouvelle Caledonie. Paris, — . 
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E. Lachaud. 1872. 
Thomas, Julian (The Vagabond): New Caledonia (in his Cannibals and 

Convicts), 1886. 
[Transportation!. Notice sur la Transportation a la Guyane Francaisc et 

a la Nouvelle Caledonie, pendant les annecs 1868, 1869 et 1870. Paris, 

1874. 
Vallee, Leon. Nou-\'elle Caledonie et Dependances. Paris : Lil>rairie C. 

Klincksieck, 1883. 
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Wragge, Clement. New Caledonia (in his Romance of the South vSeas), 1906. 



FIJI. 



Adams, Emma H. Jottings from the Pacific ; Life and Incidents in the 
I'ijian and Samoan Islands. Oakland, Cal. : Pacific Press Co., 1890. 

Allen, Percy S. Cyclopedia of Fiji (editor). Sydney : McCarron, Stewart 
and Co., Ltd., 'l907. 

[American Claimsl. See appendix later editions of Williams and Calvert's 
I'iji and the I'ijians. 

Anderson, J. W. Notes of Travel in Fiji and New Caledonia. London : 
Ellissen & Co., 1880. 

Arthur, WilUam. What is Fiji. London : Hamilton, Adams & Co., 18o9. 

Aylmer (Captain), Fenton. Fiji (in his Cruise in the Pacific), 1860. 

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OF TPiE Pacific Islands 34;> 

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SAMOA. 



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OF THE Pacific Islands 347 

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348 SxKWART's Handbook 

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OF THK Pacific Islands 340 

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